UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A critical analysis of the water legislation of the province of British Columbia Shelley, Melvin Jack 1957

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A C R I T I C A L A N A L Y S I S OF THE WATER L E G I S L A T I O N OF THE PROVINCE  OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  by MELVIN JACK SHELLEY B . A . S c , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 19$$  A THESIS SUBMITTED  I N P A R T I A L FULFILMENT.OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS  ADMINISTRATION  i n the F a c u l t y of .COMMERCE AND BUSINESS  ADMINISTRATION  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s , a s c o n f o r m i n g required  to. t h e  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l , 19^7  ABSTRACT Water i s a key n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e i n our' way of l i f e . W i t h o u t water such m i r a c l e s o f human achievement as t h e b u i l d i n g o f g r e a t c i t i e s and t h e spanning of t h e c o n t i n ent  w i t h r a i l r o a d s and automobile highways would n o t have  been p o s s i b l e .  Such a key n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e must be  p r o t e c t e d and c o n t r o l l e d b y adequate l e g i s l a t i o n which w i l l p r e v e n t i t s waste, undue consumption, misuse o r contamination.  W i t h t h i s v i e w i n mind the w r i t e r has c r i t i -  c a l l y a n a l y s e d t h e l e g i s l a t i o n g o v e r n i n g water  distribution  and s e w a g e - d i s p o s a l c o n t r o l i n B r i t i s h Columbia by comparing  i t w i t h t h a t i n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f  A m e r i c a , and I t a l y . To a c h i e v e t h i s c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s , t h e w r i t e r has used two e x c e l l e n t r e f e r e n c e s on which t o base h i s recommendations  i n the form o f d e s i r a b l e p r i n c i p l e s f o r t h e  e x i s t i n g B r i t i s h Columbia water l e g i s l a t i o n . These two r e f e r e n c e s a r e e n t i t l e d , " D e s i r a b l e P r i n c i p l e s of S t a t e W a t e r L e g i s l a t i o n , " and "Suggested S t a t e Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t , " and a r e p u b l i s h e d by t h e N a t i o n a l R e c l a m a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , respectively. As a r e s u l t o f the: c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s p f t h e e x i s t i n g B r i t i s h Columbia w a t e r s u p p l y and d i s t r i b u t i o n  legislation,  it  isfelt  Diversion  that  the  Columbia A c t R e s p e c t i n g the  and Use o f W a t e r h a s b o t h sound  foundations superior  the B r i t i s h  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  p r o c e d u r e , and i s f a r  t o any o f t h e s i m i l a r p i e c e s  other  provinces  legislative  pf l e g i s l a t i o n of  i n Canada. The w r i t e r  also f e e l s  that  the A c t r a n k s h i g h  i n comparison w i t h t h e water a c t s o f  comparable western  states  there  i n the United  States.  However,  a r e c e r t a i n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r improvement  that  h a v e b e e n made f o r t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w a t e r s u p p l y and distribution 1.  That  controlling, waters,  legislation.  Briefly,  these  are. a s f o l l o w s :  some p r o v i s i o n be made f o r t h e a c q u i r i n g ,  and e x e r c i s i n g o f r i g h t s t o t h e u s e o f g r o u n d  i n c l u d i n g b o t h d e f i n i t e underground  percolating 2.  s t r e a m s and  waters.  That  some p r o v i s i o n be made f o r a n  to have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  of r e c a p t u r i n g  appropriator  and r e - u s i n g  return  w a t e r w h i c h r e s u l t s f r o m h i s d e v e l o p m e n t when he i s d i l i g e n t and  u s e s f o r e s i g h t i n h i s attempt n o t t o i n f r i n g e upon  pre-  existing rights. 3- T h a t of any  some p r o v i s i o n b e made f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n  salvaged.water foreseeable !|_. T h a t  and d e v e l o p e d w a t e r i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r  shortage  of our n a t u r a l water  resources.  some- p r o v i s i o n be made f o r t h e r o t a t i o n  i n use o f water i n the event water f o r domestic  o r other  o f an u n e x p e c t e d purposes.  shortage of  3>. T h a t some p r o v i s i o n b e made f o r t h e e x c h a n g e o f water- so t h a t a p p r o p r i a t o r s a n o t h e r so l o n g with respect  may e x c h a n g e w a t e r w i t h one  as t h e . r i g h t s o f o t h e r s  to either quantity  are not  o r q u a l i t y o f t h e w a t e r , and  so b r i n g a b o u t a more e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n appropriators  who a r e a l r e a d y  terms of t h e i r  impaired  entitled  separate a p p r o p r i a t i v e  of water b y  t o d i v e r t under rights.  6. T h a t some p r o v i s i o n b e made f o r - t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n of i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l w a t e r s w i t h t h e use o f a d o c t r i n e o f reciprocity. As  a r e s u l t o f t h e c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the e x i s t i n g  B r i t i s h Columbia w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n , i t is felt  that, i n the past,  among s e v e r a l a g e n c i e s ,  the a u t h o r i t y has been  a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h gave r i s e  c o n t r o l and a l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n . p a s s e d A c t ( M a r c h 195>6) t o C o n t r o l of the P r o v i n c e coordinated  the P o l l u t i o n o f Waters  It i sdifficult  with those i n other provinces because of i t s recent  to l a x  However, t h e r e c e n t l y -  i s an e x c e l l e n t beginning'  control.  divided  of e f f e c t i v e ,  t o compare t h i s A c t  or i n the United  enactment. B r i e f l y ,  States  the w r i t e r would  s u g g e s t the- f o l l o w i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s : 1. T h a t some d e f i n i t e and e x a c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b e adopted i n s e t t i n g the q u a l i t y standards of b e n e f i c i a l u s e s f o r r e c e i v i n g w a t e r s , and t h a t inserted  t h e s e s t a n d a r d s be  i n the P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t .  2 . That the b e n e f i c i a l uses o f the r e c e i v i n g water be e v a l u a t e d , and t h a t d i s c h a r g e s i n t o the r e c e i v i n g water be c o n t r o l l e d so as t o p r o t e c t as many o f t h e b e n e f i t s as possible. 3. That some p r o v i s i o n be made f o r s e t t i n g up r e g i o n a l boards,  i n whose hands w i l l be t h e p r i m a r y  control.  Ij.. That t h e P r o v i n c i a l P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l Board be g i v e n power t o h o l d an i n q u i r y , and f o r t h a t purpose i t be g i v e n a l l the powers and j u r i s d i c t i o n of a J u s t i c e o f t h e Peace under t h e "Summary C o n v i c t i o n s A c t . " 5>. That the Board be g i v e n t h e power t o r e q u i r e the keeping  of r e c o r d s and making of r e p o r t s , and t o e n t e r on  property a t reasonable and  times f o r purposes o f i n s p e c t i o n  investigation. 6. That one member of the Board be e x p e r i e n c e d i n  the f i e l d  of m u n i c i p a l government and one be e x p e r i e n c e d  i n the f i e l d  of i n d u s t r i a l  activities.  In presenting the  this  t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t it  freely  the L i b r a r y s h a l l  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r extensive  make  I further  copying of t h i s  t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . stood that financial  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s gain  I t i s underthesis f o r  s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Faculty  o f Commerce and B u s i n e s s  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a . Date  MftRCH  21,  1157  Administration  Columbia,  written  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The w r i t e r would l i k e to- acknowledgeMr. R. Bowering>. D i r e c t o r , D i v i s i o n of P u b l i c H e a l t h E n g i n e e r i n g , Department o f H e a l t h and Welfare, Parliament Buildings., V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n ' of t h i s  thesis,  as w e l l as a l l others who have so f r e e l y s u p p l i e d accessory i n f o r m a t i o n . The w r i t e r i s a l s o indebted t o h i s wife,,. Mary Ann,  f o r h e r perseverance  i n the p r o o f - r e a d i n g  of the t h e s i s and h e r moral support g i v e n the e n t i r e time of w r i t i n g .  throughout  iv  CONTENTS CHAPTER •I. II. III.  Page  INTRODUCTION  1  E X I S T I N G WATER L E G I S L A T I O N ACROSS CANADA . .  $  THE NEED FOR ADEQUATE WATER L E G I S L A T I O N  8  PART I I . IV.  . .  WATER-SUPPLY L E G I S L A T I O N  LOCATION, CONSUMPTION AND FLOOD CONTROL OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA'S NATURAL WATER RESOURCES  V.  VI.  10  HISTORY AND GROWTH OF WATER L E G I S L A T I O N I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  12+  Early  1$  Legislation  W a t e r A c t , 1909  16  W a t e r A c t , 1911+  18  DESIRABLE GENERAL P R I N C I P L E S OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA WATER L E G I S L A T I O N  21  Purpose o f L e g i s l a t i o n  22  .  Scope o f L e g i s l a t i o n Procedure f o r A c q u i s i t i o n  23 o f Water  Rights  23  Procedure f o r D e t e r m i n a t i o n and Adjudication  o f Water R i g h t s  Machinery f o r the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Water R i g h t s  21+ of 2$  CHAPTER  Page 25>  Ownership of Water  2^  In I t s N a t u r a l Environment Reduced  t o P r i v a t e C o n t r o l and  Possession  28 32  The C o m p t r o l l e r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of A v a i l a b l e Supplies  Water36  .  W a t e r s on t h e S u r f a c e Waters Under  of the Earth  the Surface  . .  of the E a r t h .  37 38  Water R i g h t D o c t r i n e s S u r f a c e Waters i n Water Courses Diffused  36  38  . . .  Surface Waters  2+.0  S u r f a c e W a t e r s i n L a k e s o r Ponds  . . . l+l  S p r i n g Waters Waste Waters  J+2  Ground W a t e r s  ij.3  A p p r o p r i a t i o n of Waters  . . . . . . . .  \\$  Unappropriated Waters Appropriable  l\$  Ground Water  J4.8  Return. Water S a l v a g e d W a t e r and D e v e l o p e d W a t e r s Reservation Priority  o f Water  . . . .  of A p p r o p r i a t i v e Right  5>45>6  Loss of Water R i g h t Limit  f>l 5>3  . .  of A p p r o p r i a t i v e R i g h t  .  . . . . .  £6  CHAPTER  Page Abandonment o f W a t e r R i g h t Forfeiture  £8  . . . . . .  of Water R i g h t  $9  R o t a t i o n i n Use o f Water  60  Exchange of Water  62  T r a n s f e r of Water R i g h t s  63  A p p r o p r i a t i o n o f Waters Between Provinces  . . .2.  .  . ,  Appropriation of I n t e r n a t i o n a l  65> Waters  PART I I I . WATER-POLLUTION CONTROL VI.  LEGISLATION  WATER POLLUTION DEFINED  lk  VII.  THE WATER-POLLUTION CONTROL PROBLEM .  IX.  HISTORY AND GROWTH OF WATER-POLLUTION CONTROL L E G I S L A T I O N  •-.  83  . .  83 83  Legislation  1892 . . . . . . .  Sanitary Regulations, H e a l t h A c t , 1893  Greater  1896 . . . . . . .  .  .  .  . •  86 89  V a n c o u v e r S e w e r a g e and D r a i n a g e  D i s t r i c t A c t , 19^6 Sanitary Regulations  1936  8£ Q$  S a n i t a r y Regulations., S e w e r a g e A c t , 1910  76  I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA-.  General Early  70  .  .  89  Governing Watersheds, T:  P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t , 19^6  92 92  vii CHAPTER  Page  X. E X I S T I N G L E G I S L A T I O N  ON WATER-POLLUTION  CONTROL I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA TODAY . . . .  9£  X I . DESIRABLE GENERAL P R I N C I P L E S OP B R I T I S H COLUMBIA WATER-POLLUTION CONTROL LEGISLATION Water-pollution  ,  99  Control Policy  99  Standards o f Water Q u a l i t y  100  . . . . . . . .  Permit System of W a t e r - p o l l u t i o n Enforcement of W a t e r - p o l l u t i o n  Control.  Control 103  Legislation A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Agency Planning  f o r F u t u r e Developments  PART I V . XII. XIII.  103  IOI4. 107  . . . .  CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS  CONCLUSION  100  RECOMMENDATIONS  112, 118  BIBLIOGRAPHY • , APPENDICES I.  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on B a s i c Water Use and  P r o v i n c i a l Water C o n t r o l A g e n c i e s i n  Canada. II.  Doctrines  C o m p l e t e d Sample Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  .  123  Summary o f B a s i c W a t e r U s e D o c t r i n e s a n d P r o v i n c i a l Water C o n t r o l A g e n c i e s i n Canada  126  viii APPENDICES III.-  Page  Summary o f B a s i c W a t e r U s e D o c t r i n e s and S t a t e Water C o n t r o l Agencies i n the. United  IV.  States o f America  Map I l l u s t r a t i n g  British  Streamflow Y i e l d V.  Map I l l u s t r a t i n g  Columbia's  and Regime-  .. .. . .. . .  F a c i l i t i e s - and-  Flood C o n t r o l Areas An A c t Respecting ' W a t e r , R.S.B.C. VII.  .  t h e D i v e r s i o n a n d Use- o f  (192+8),  chapter  the Boundary Between  C o l u m b i a and t h e U n i t e d  361. ,. .  131+  British  States o f 13 6  America An A c t t o C o n t r o l the P o l l u t i o n o f Waters o f t h e P r o v i n c e , B.C. S t a t u t e s chapter IX.-  132  T a b u l a t i o n of the P r i n c i p a l Waters F l o w i n g Across  VIII.  130  B r i t i s h Columbia's Water  Consumption, Storage  VI.  128  . . . . . . . . .  3.6  . . .  (191+8).,  '  138.  R e p o r t on W a t e r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T o d a y b y R. B o w e r i n g , Director, Division  of P u b l i c  Health  Engineering X.  ll+O  Suggested S t a t e Water P o l l u t i o n Act by United Service  States Public  Control  Health 15>9  L I S T OP TABLES  AND  ILLUSTRATIONS Page TABLE  I.  Classification  of A v a i l a b l e Water 35>  Supplies FIGURE  1.  P o l l u t i o n Trends i n United Municipal  TABLE  79  Sewage  I I . Governmental P o l l u t i o n Authorities  APPENDIX I I . and  States  Control  in British  Columbia  Summary o f B a s i c W a t e r U s e P r o v i n c i a l Water C o n t r o l  . .  97  Doctrines Agencies 127  i n Canada APPENDIX I I I . Summary o f B a s i c W a t e r U s e Doctrines  and State- W a t e r  Agencies i n the United America APPENDIX IV.  Map  Map  States  of 129  . . . Illustrating  Streamflow Y i e l d APPENDIX V.  Control  B r i t i s h Columbia's  and Regime  Illustrating  . . . . . .  131  B r i t i s h Columbia's  Water Consumption, Storage F a c i l i t i e s and  Flood  APPENDIX V I I . T a b u l a t i o n Flowing  Across  of the P r i n c i p a l  Waters  t h e Boundary Between  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e U n i t e d of America  133  C o n t r o l Areas  States 137  X  Page FIGURE 2 .  Map  Illustrating  Type and L o c a t i o n o f  British  C o l u m b i a Sewage D i s p o s a l  Systems  .  II4.6  PART  I,  GENERAL  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Prom t h e p r o d u c t s o f our l a n d , our f o r e s t s , o u r m i n e s and o i l f i e l d s , we h a v e r a i s e d g r e a t c i t i e s and s p a n n e d a c o n t i n e n t w i t h r a i l r o a d s and a u t o m o b i l e h i g h w a y s . B u t w i t h o u t one k e y r e s o u r c e , w a t e r , none of t h e s e m i r a c l e s o f human a c h i e v e m e n t w o u l d h a v e been p o s s i b l e . 1 The  above q u o t a t i o n e m p h a s i z e s  w a t e r I n o u r way o f l i f e . be p r o t e c t e d  t h e importance of  - Such a k e y n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e must  and c o n t r o l l e d b y a d e q u a t e  legislation  which  w i l l p r e v e n t i t s w a s t e , undue c o n s u m p t i o n , m i s u s e o r contamination. will  I t i s w i t h t h i s v i e w i n mind  attempt t o analyse c r i t i c a l l y  that the w r i t e r  the l e g i s l a t i o n governing  w a t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n and s e w a g e - d i s p o s a l c o n t r o l i n B r i t i s h Columbia by comparing i t w i t h t h a t i n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , and I t a l y . The U n i t e d i s o n because  S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a was c h o s e n f o r a compar-  i t has s i m i l a r customs  similar geologic  and r e l i g i o n s  as w e l l as  s t r u c t u r e i n some o f t h e f o r t y - e i g h t  s p e c i f i c a l l y the P a c i f i c  Northwest  states.  I t a l y was  states, chosen  -'-President's W a t e r R e s o u r c e s P o l i c y C o m m i s s i o n , G e n e r a l R e p o r t , V o l . 1, T e n R i v e r s i n A m e r i c a ' s F u t u r e , V o l . 2, W a t e r R e s o u r c e s Law, V o l . 3, r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s sumn m a r i z e d •Tn~" XWater P o l i c y f o r t h e A m e r i c a n P e o p l e , " J o u r n a l A m e r i c a n W a t e r W o r k s A s s o c i a t i o n , V o l . 1+3, No. 2 ( F e b r u a r y , 1 9 5 D , p. 9 1 . 1  2  mainly: . . . because of i t s l o n g i r r i g a t i o n h i s t o r y , , i t s background of Roman law and customs which have been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s h a p i n g the laws of many modern c o u n t r i e s , and because t h i s c o u n t r y possesses a simple and complete system of water l a w s . ^ I t i s hoped t h a t t h e I t a l i a n l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e an i n t e r e s t i n g and i n f o r m a t i v e b a s i s f o r comparison. The w r i t e r experienced d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g m a t e r i a l regarding I t a l y ' s w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n , and f o r t h a t r e a s o n o n l y I t a l y ' s water s u p p l y and d i s t r i b u t i o n l a t i o n w i l l be used i n the comparison w i t h B r i t i s h  legisColumbia's  water l e g i s l a t i o n . I t i s thought t h a t by u s i n g t h e s e c o u n t r i e s as a comparison, and i n some cases as a c o n t r a s t , t h e i m p o r t a n c e of  a complete system of water laws c o v e r e d by adequate  l e g i s l a t i o n can be s t r e s s e d , f o r t h e demand on our w a t e r r e s o u r c e i s an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g one. The w r i t e r w i l l e v a l u a t e t h e B r i t i s h Columbia w a t e r l e g i s l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l w i t h the d e s i r e of b r i n g i n g f o r t h d e s i r a b l e p r i n c i p l e s i n water l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h may o r may n o t a l r e a d y . b e i n an e x i s t i n g provincial act. his  Throughout the e n t i r e t h e s i s , the w r i t e r i n  a n a l y s i s has r e f e r r e d t o v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of e x i s t i n g  Dante A. Caponera, Water Laws i n I t a l y . Food and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Development Paper No. 22, Ag r i c u l t u r e (Rome: Food and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1 9 ^ 3 ) , p. i i .  3 l e g i s l a t i o n i n the other provinces, the United A m e r i c a and I t a l y . Suggested  S t a t e s of  I n p a r t i c u l a r , the w r i t e r f e e l s that the  S t a t e W a t e r P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t and t h e D e s i r a b l e  P r i n c i p l e s o f S t a t e Water L e g i s l a t i o n are e x c e l l e n t bases w h i c h to,make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  on  i n the form of p r i n c i p l e s f o r  t h e e x i s t i n g B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w a t e r l e g i s l a t i o n . 'An a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o i m p r o v e t h e e x i s t i n g manner. detail  Both pieces  legislation i n this  o f l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o i n  later. Because  of the b r e a d t h of t h e t o p i c , t h e w r i t e r  concern himself the problems  will  i n Part I I of t h i s t h e s i s w i t h only a few of  c o n c e r n i n g t h e a c q u i r i n g , c o n t r o l l i n g , - and  e x e r c i s i n g of r i g h t s t o t h e use of water. a l a r g e , r e l a t e d group  of problems  These  represent  a r o u n d w h i c h most o f t h e  water law i n B r i t i s h Columbia has developed.  Those  parts  o f t h e w a t e r l a w d e a l i n g w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and i n t e r n a l management o f i m p r o v e m e n t d i s t r i c t s , munities,  and w a t e r u s e r s '  r e g u l a t i o n of p u b l i c - u t i l i t y water companies,  u a t i o n of water r i g h t s , rights-of-way structures, river s p e c i a l problems because  comval-  f o r d i t c h e s and  c o n t r o l i n a i d o f n a v i g a t i o n , and o t h e r w i l l n o t be c o n s i d e r e d  i n this  thesis  t h e s e a r e s p e c i a l i z e d t o p i c s and t h e w r i t e r d o e s n o t  f e e l competent  t o handle  them.  Part I I I of t h i s t h e s i s w i l l  deal w i t h the problem of  p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l w i t h t h e same b b - j e c t i y e s i n v i e w a s w e r e  discussed  a b o v e . The  writer will  c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n i n a few will  d e a l w i t h such m a t t e r s  s t a n d a r d s , use trative  o f t h e more i m p o r t a n t  pollution-  areas,  as p o l i c y m a k i n g , s e t t i n g  agencies  and  of  of p e r m i t s , enforcement of l e g i s l a t i o n ,  adminis-  and p l a n n i n g f o r f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t s . P a r t  of the t h e s i s w i l l p r e s e n t to  d i s c u s s the e x i s t i n g  the w r i t e r ' s c o n c l u s i o n w i t h  t h e e x i s t i n g w a t e r l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e P r o v i n c e and  regard  will  a l s o o u t l i n e t h e recommendations f o r improvement t h a t i t i s felt  s h o u l d be Any  made.  s t u d y o f w a t e r l e g i s l a t i o n may  very shortly  a f t e r p u b l i c a t i o n due  m e n t s t o w a t e r c o d e s and  are developed  under c u l t i v a t i o n , time  and  of  date  t o t h e c o n t i n u a l amend-  and  new  in this field.  areas  As  t h e g o v e r n m e n t m u s t spend more and  s t u d y on t h e w a t e r s u p p l y , i t s u s e Hence, the l e g i s l a t i o n g o v e r n i n g  w i l l be  ever-changing  and  attempted  t o use  more  contamin-  w a t e r i n Canada  f o r many y e a r s t o come, and  a l t h o u g h the w r i t e r has  new  of land brought  ation.  sources  out  the g r e a t i n t e r e s t which i s b e i n g  shown b y many g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s industries  be  t h e most  therefore, recent  of i n f o r m a t i o n wherever p o s s i b l e , i t i s e v i d e n t  the content  o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be  only a l i m i t e d  time.  IV  that  currently applicable f o r  CHAPTER I I E X I S T I N G WATER L E G I S L A T I O N ACROSS CANADA By  and l a r g e , w a t e r i s p l e n t i f u l  i n e a s t e r n Canada.  However, i n t h e w e s t e r n p r o v i n c e s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f British  C o l u m b i a , w a t e r i s s c a r c e , and t h i s p r o v i d e s f o r a  l i m i t i n g f a c t o r f o r the p r o d u c t i v i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h i s  of the s o i l .  same c o n d i t i o n e x i s t s  apparently not improving over the years. understandable, that i s v e r y complex of  and h a s b e e n more f u l l y  Manitoba.  I t i s therefore  developed than that  I n the course of i n q u i r i e s  a c t s o f one s o r t o r  B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, Ontario passed the Ontario B i l l  was a v a i l a b l e f o r Quebec. I s l a n d , and N e w f o u n d l a n d  No  h a v e no w a t e r r i g h t s  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t  as O n t a r i o do h a v e w a t e r - p o w e r  It  information  New B r u n s w i c k , P r i n c e E d w a r d legislation,  b u t N o v a S c o t i a d o e s h a v e some m i n o r l e g i s l a t i o n  c o v e r one p h a s e  and  No. 1+98. i n May o f  19^6 t o s e t up a W a t e r R e s o u r c e s C o m m i s s i o n .  line.  from  w i t h i n v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s i t was f o u n d t h a t t h e  f o l l o w i n g p r o v i n c e s have water r i g h t s another:  and i s  the water law of t h e western p r o v i n c e s  the eastern provinces.  officials  In parts  along t h i s  some p r o v i n c e s s u c h  r e g u l a t i o n acts which  o f w a t e r u s e and w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n  will  control.  i s apparent t h a t t h e e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s have n o t had t o  6 worry about water legislation  scarcity  a s y e t , and f o r t h i s r e a s o n  their  i s e i t h e r very l a x or missing altogether.  However, t h e s i t u a t i o n i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t w i t h r e g a r d to p o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n . a department  W h i l e a l l p r o v i n c e s have  o f h e a l t h w h i c h c o v e r s one p h a s e  p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , v e r y f e w h a v e any k i n d pollution-control legislation.  of water-  of s p e c i f i c  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , New B r u n s -  w i c k , and Quebec h a v e a P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l B o a r d and M a n i t o b a has  a S a n i t a r y C o n t r o l Commission.  Resources  The New B r u n s w i c k W a t e r  and P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l B.o.ard was s e t up i n 19^6 t o  s t u d y t h e s i t u a t i o n and make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s .  The r e m a i n d e r  o f t h e p r o v i n c e s h a v e no s p e c i f i c p o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l lation.  legis-  The P r o v i n c e o f P r i n c e E d w a r d I s l a n d , f o r e x a m p l e ,  i s not f a c e d w i t h a w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n problem because cally  a l l i t s streams a r e t i d a l ,  disposed of by discharge d i r e c t l y in fact,  and t h e r e f o r e  practi-  sewage I s  into the harbours.  It i s ,  i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e r e are- o n l y two m u n i c i -  palities,  C h a r l o t t e t o w n and S u m m e r s i d e , w h i c h h a v e  waterworks  systems. These f a c t s p l u s o t h e r s have been t a b u l a t e d i n Appendix  I I of t h i s  t h e s i s , "Summary o f B a s i c W a t e r U s e  D o c t r i n e s and P r o v i n c i a l W a t e r C o n t r o l A g e n c i e s i n C a n a d a . " The w r i t e r h a s a l s o i n c l u d e d  a copy o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  was p r e p a r e d t o g a t h e r t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t i n e n t , t o this;-' tabulation  ( r e f e r t o Appendix  I ) . W i t h e a c h one o f t h e s e  which  7  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was s e n t addressed envelope. i n Appendix I . that  a sample  completed  c o p y and' a s e l f -  A copy o f t h e former i s a l s o d i s p l a y e d  At t h i s p o i n t the w r i t e r would  i n t h e c a s e o f some p r o v i n c e s  like  he e x p e r i e n c e d  i n o b t a i n i n g the- d e s i r a b l e a n s w e r s  t o say difficulty  t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and  so i n some c a s e s he h a s h a d t o i n t e r p r e t t h e r e p l i e s  broadly.  I n t h e c a s e o f one p r o v i n c e , the' q u e s t i o n n a i r e was n o t returned blank  and t h e w r i t e r h a s h a d t o l e a v e - t h e t a b u l a t i o n  i n some p o r t i o n s , r e l y i n g u p o n o t h e r  to complete the remaining  correspondence  portions.  I n order t o o b t a i n f u r t h e r background of water l e g i s l a t i o n ,  on t h e p r o b l e m  the w r i t e r has i n c l u d e d i n Appendix I I I  a copy o f a s i m i l a r t a b u l a t i o n as r e f e r r e d t o - a b o v e f o r t h e United  States of America.  The r e a d e r  i s asked' t o r e f e r t o  A p p e n d i x I I I , "Summary o f B a s i c W a t e r U s e D o c t r i n e s Water C o n t r o l Agencies i n the U n i t e d w r i t e r has modelled Appendix mentioned the United respect.  and S t a t e  States of America."  The  I I i n the. same- f o r m as t h e a b o v e -  t a b u l a t i o n so t h a t the. two c o u n t r i e s , C a n a d a and S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , m i g h t b e compared i n t h i s  CHAPTER I I I THE NEED FOR ADEQUATE WATER L E G I S L A T I O N It  i s thus apparent t h a t the need f o r adequate  water l e g i s l a t i o n but  I s great, not only i n B r i t i s h  a l s o a c r o s s Canada.  Columbia,  Most o f t h e C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e s  t h i s need and a r e a t t e m p t i n g  feel  to correct the situation.  This i s e x e m p l i f i e d by the recent passage of acts I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , O n t a r i o , New B r u n s w i c k , and Quebec d e a l i n g w i t h p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l and w a t e r r i g h t s . province, lation  Manitoba, recognizes  t h e need f o r adequate  and i s s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r i n g a p r o p o s a l  existing  One legis-  to revise the  a c t s so a s t o h a v e them c o n t a i n o n l y t h e i m p o r t a n t  p r i n c i p l e s and t o t r a n s f e r t o r e g u l a t i o n s most o f t h e procedures,  such as methods o f making a p p l i c a t i o n s , p r e s -  c r i b i n g f o r m s o f l i c e n s e s , and f i x i n g Such a r e v i s i o n w i l l  of fees  shorten the enabling  only the p r i n c i p l e s d i r e c t l y  or r e n t a l s .  a c t and so p r e s e n t  involved i n the water  legis-  lation. B r i t i s h Columbia i s another province recent  which has taken  s t r i d e s t o improve i t s e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n  o b t a i n b e t t e r c o n t r o l over i t s water resources.  so a s t o  The w r i t e r  i s r e f e r r i n g i n t h i s i n s t a n c e t o the recent passage of "An  A c t t o C o n t r o l the P o l l u t i o n of Waters of the Province." 8  Thus, t h e need i s b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d , b u t t h e r e s u l t i n g legislation will made c o g n i z a n t  o n l y become e f f e c t i v e  of these v e r y necessary  i f the p u b l i c i s r e v i s i o n s and  a c t s , and t h e r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s o f t h e a c t s a r e f u l l y implemented.  new  PART I I . WATER-SUPPLY L E G I S L A T I O N  CHAPTER I V LOCATION, CONSUMPTION AND FLOOD CONTROL OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA'S NATURAL WATER RESOURCES Before the writer  attempts t o o u t l i n e the h i s t o r y  of B r i t i s h Columbia's water  legislation,  i t w i l l be  n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e t h e r e a d e r some i d e a o f t h e e x t e n t o f this  P r o v i n c e ' s w a t e r r e s o u r c e s and t h e i r  consumption..  To do t h i s , two maps h a v e b e e n s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e r e c e n t l y p u b l i s h e d , " B r i t i s h Columbia A t l a s of Resources." a t l a s i s an e x c e l l e n t  c o m p i l a t i o n o f f a c t u a l d a t a on a l l  of t h e P r o v i n c e ' s r e s o u r c e s . If the reader i s interested  I t i s unique i n North America.  inaa d i s t r i b u t i o n of the land  p r e s e n t l y under i r r i g a t i o n and-the p r e s e n t water  This  irrigation  s t o r a g e h e may r e f e r t o Map Number 22 o f t h e A t l a s .  The A t l a s a l s o c o n t a i n s many o t h e r maps w h i c h c o n c e r n t h e l o c a t i o n o f h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power p l a n t s , d e v e l o p e d and p o t e n t i a l h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power, a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n , l o c a t i o n o f h y d r o m e t r i c s t a t i o n s and g l a c i a l w h i c h might be c o n s i d e r e d r e l a t e d The m a j o r Pacific  to this  geology,  discussion.  source of B r i t i s h Columbia's water i s t h e  O c e a n . - I f .one l o o k s a t t h i s p r o v i n c e ' s h y d r o l o g i c 10  cycle,  he w i l l  see that the 'water-bearing cloud  form-  a t i o n s , w h i c h h a v e r e c e i v e d t h e i r m o i s t u r e f r o m t h e Ocean, move e a s t w a r d b e c a u s e o f p r e v a i l i n g w i n d s , and d e p o s i t t h e i r m o i s t u r e on t h e h i g h c o a s t a l m o u n t a i n s .  Some o f  t h i s m o i s t u r e i s p u s h e d u p w a r d s t o c o l d e r r e g i o n s b y the. C o a s t Range, and t h e r e s u l t i n g  snow o r r a i n i s d e p o s i t e d  m a i n l y on t h e w e s t s i d e o f t h e m o u n t a i n s . Is  a b l e t o r e t u r n t o t h e o c e a n b y means o f t h e s t r e a m s .  T h i s s u r f a c e w a t e r , as i t i s c a l l e d , f o r m s of  Some o f t h e w a t e r  water f o r the P r o v i n c e .  the main supply  B r i t i s h Columbia  i s particularly  f o r t u n a t e i n h a v i n g so much o f i t s w a t e r a v a i l a b l e b y gravity feed. this-respect  T h i s P r o v i n c e h a s been s a i d t o be unique i n Map Number 8,  ( r e f e r t o Appendix the In  IV) w i l l  "Strearaflow Y i e l d  and Regime,"  g i v e t h e r e a d e r an e s t i m a t e o f  e x t e n t o f t h e s u r f a c e w a t e r , as w e l l a s i t s h a r d n e s s , the v a r i o u s areas o f the P r o v i n c e .  cularly  asked t o note t h e s m a l l graphs  The r e a d e r i s p a r t i of stream f l o w  measurement t a k e n a t t h e v a r i o u s g a u g i n g s t a t i o n s the  Province.  throughout  The Keremeos C r e e k S t a t i o n g r a p h ( s e e area has l e s s than  0.05>  Appendix  I V ) shows t h a t t h i s  thousand  cubic feet-per-second stream f l o w f o r over  eight  3  The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s . C o n f e r e n c e , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A t l a s o f R e s o u r c e s ( V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e , 195>6), p . 17'. ^•R. B o w e r i n g , " E x i s t i n g and P r o b a b l e F u t u r e D e v e l o p ments i n - t h e M u n i c i p a l Water S u p p l y F i e l d W i t h i n t h e P r o v i n c e , " T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e N i n t h B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e , ( V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e , 193>6), p. 2 3 1 .  12 m o n t h s o f t h e a v e r a g e y e a r , w h i l e t h e F r a s e r R i v e r Hope 75> t h o u s a n d  S t a t i o n g r a p h shows a l o w o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y feet-per-second year.  s t r e a m f l o w f o r two m o n t h s o f t h e  cubic  average  T h i s p o i n t s up t h e l a c k o f s u r f a c e w a t e r i n t h e  S o u t h e r n Okanagan V a l l e y . t h a t t h i s map  In this  Map  a l s o be k e p t i n m i n d  does n o t i l l u s t r a t e t h e u n d e r g r o u n d  of water which p r o v i d e Province.  I t should  a small supply of water to the  s e n s e , t h e map  Number 3 3 ,  sources  has l i m i t e d  "Water Consumption,"  use.  (see Appendix  V)  o f t h e A t l a s g i v e s an e x c e l l e n t p i c t u r e o f t h e w a t e r c o n sumption of the P r o v i n c e , the storage a v a i l a b l e , and t h e f l o o d taken.  f a c i l i t i e s currently  c o n t r o l measures t h a t have been  The p e r c a p i t a c o n s u m p t i o n o f w a t e r f o r t h e . P r o v i n c e  as a w h o l e v a r i e s b e t w e e n . 2 2 and 333  c o n s u m i n g b e t w e e n 100  most o f t h e c i t i e s p e r c a p i t a p e r day. forming  a rising  R i g h t s , B.C. shortage  and 200  gallons  t r e n d w h i c h as y e t h a s n o t p o s e d  Mr. W..A. Lands  with  T h i s c o n s u m p t i v e r a t e a p p e a r s t o be  problem f o r the Province's resources.  g a l l o n s p e r day,  a serious  g e n e r a l l y q u i t e adequate  Ker, Deputy  water  C o m p t r o l l e r of Water  S e r v i c e , f e e l s t h a t t h e r e I s no  present  o f w a t e r and t h a t t h e m a i n p r o b l e m t h a t must be  overcome i s t h e h i g h c o s t o f "... ^ I b i d . , p-.  g e t t i n g i t on t h e l a n d . " ^  67.'  ^W.A. K e r , " E x i s t i n g and P r o b a b l e F u t u r e Developments in-Water Supply f o r I r r i g a t i o n W i t h i n the P r o v i n c e , " Trans a c t i o n s of the N i n t h B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources. C o n f e r e n c e ( V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e , 1 9 ^ 6 ) , p. 236. -  13 However, i f p r o p e r r e g u l a t i o n i s n o t encouraged,  such  d e v e l o p m e n t s as h o u s e h o l d a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g  without  units  r e c i r c u l a t i o n pumps and new h y d r o - e l e c t r i c p o w e r w i l l provide are  a serious  l i m i t e d by climate  slower increase  plants  d r a i n on t h e w a t e r r e s o u r c e s ,  which  and t o p o g r a p h y . T h e r e w i l l b e  a  i n t h e number  of s e r v i c e s  t o be  installed 7  and  an i n c r e a s e  give  a greater  facilities  i n t h e u n i t r e s i d e n t i a l use of w a t e r , n e t d r a i n on t h e s u p p l y .  must t h e r e f o r e  be b u i l t ,  c o n t r o l s y s t e m must b e d e v e l o p e d . provide- f o r the l a t t e r Province's discussed  More  to  storage  and a p r o p e r f l o o d The l e g i s l a t i o n t o  two a s p e c t s o f c o n t r o l o f t h e  l i m i t e d n a t u r a l water resources w i l l i n this thesis.  B a s i c a l l y , the w r i t e r w i l l  concerned w i t h water l e g i s l a t i o n d e a l i n g use  water, whether there  or  a business corporation  n o t be  with  be  the r i g h t to  be a h o u s e h o l d e r , a m u n i c i p a l i t y , involved  with  this right.  R o s s H a n s o n and H e r b e r t E. H u d s o n , J r . . , " T r e n d s i n R e s i d e n t i a l W a t e r U s e , " J o u r n a l A m e r i c a n W a t e r. W o r k s A s s o c i a t i o n , V o l . 1+8, No. 11 (November, 1956), p. 1358.-  CHAPTER V HISTORY AND  GROWTH OP WATER LEGISLATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  In order t h a t the present act r e s p e c t i n g the d i v e r s i o n and use of water i n the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia be f u l l y understood, i t i s f i r s t , necessary  to  look b r i e f l y at the h i s t o r y of the P r o v i n c i a l water legislation. The present water system i s based on fundamental p r i n c i p l e s which were e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l y i n the h i s t o r y of the colony.  Fundamentally, the p r i n c i p l e s a s s e r t t h a t water  i n the streams i s a p u b l i c asset and t h a t no p r e s c r i p t i v e or r i p a r i a n r i g h t should be p e r m i t t e d to i n t e r f e r e w i t h i t s Q  b e n e f i c i a l use,  the main o b j e c t i v e of the l e g i s l a t i o n  b e i n g to do " ... the g r e a t e s t good f o r the g r e a t e s t number;"^ °J.C. MacDonald, "Water L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia,." J o u r n a l American Water Works A s s o c i a t i o n , V o l . 1+0, No. 2 (February, 191+8), p. 159. .A. McLean, " H i s t o r i c Development of Water L e g i s l a t i o n - i n B r i t i s h - C o l u m b i a , " T r a n s a c t i o n s of the E i g h t h B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference" ( V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 1 9 5 5 ) , P- 21+711+  1$ Early  Legislation In l85>9, a year a f t e r the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the colony  of B r i t i s h Columbia,  the "Gold F i e l d s A c t " was passed  r e q u i r i n g that a l l persons who h e l d any c l a i m , d i t c h , or water p r i v i l e g e November 1 ,  on October 2 7 , 1 8 ^ 9 must, on or b e f o r e  l 8 ^ 9 , r e g i s t e r that c l a i m at the o f f i c e of the  Gold Commissioner i f they d e s i r e d an e x c l u s i v e d i t c h or water privilege. ^  The Gold Commissioner was a u t h o r i z e d t o grant  1  the r i g h t to d i v e r t and use the water from any creek f o r an annual f e e ; t h i s r i g h t had to exceed  a term of f i v e y e a r s .  Thus, e a r l y r e g u l a t i o n s show that water was assumed t o be the p r o p e r t y of the Crown and t h a t , f o r a f e e , the i n d i v i d u a l could a c q u i r e a r i g h t of use. A land ordinance passed  i n l865> p e r m i t t e d every  person l i v i n g on and c u l t i v a t i n g lands to d i v e r t any unoccupied  water from a stream upon obtaining; the w r i t t e n  a u t h o r i t y of t h e s t i p e n d i a r y m a g i s t r a t e of the d i s t r i c t .  1 1  These above-mentioned laws d e a l t w i t h the use of - water f o r mining and I r r i g a t i o n .  Community s u p p l i e s of water were  granted by a s p e c i a l a c t of the l e g i s l a t u r e , as f o r example, the V i c t o r i a water supply. under-these 1 Q  11  12  However, the r i g h t s granted  a c t s , except those g i v e n f o r water works, were  G o l d ' F i e l d s Act of l 8 £ 9 , Sec. V I (August. . 3 1 , 1 8 ^ 9 ) . M a c D o n a l d , op_. c i t . , p. 1 6 0 .  12 '' •Ibid.  16  made contingent  on b e n e f i c i a l use w i t h i n a reasonable  time.  In order that the use of water f o r purposes not provided  f o r i n the Gold F i e l d s and Land Acts be  the Water P r i v i l e g e s Act of 1 8 9 2 was passed.  covered,  In t h i s act  a d e f i n i t e d e c l a r a t i o n was made t h a t water belonged to the Crown.  To combine the v a r i o u s water p r o v i s i o n s i n the  Gold F i e l d s and Land A c t s and the Water P r i v i l e g e s A c t , t h e Water Clauses act  covered  C o n s o l i d a t i o n Act of 1&97 was passed.  the procedure necessary  t o secure  This  water r i g h t s ,  both to i n d i v i d u a l s and t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r p u b l i c water supplies. I t s t a t e d that no r e c o r d made i n f a v o r of a m u n i c i p a l i t y f o r a water works system should lapse or become v o i d by reason of non-use. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s were given the a u t h o r i t y to. e x p r o p r i a t e a l l lands and water records necessary f o r the o p e r a t i o n of a system.13 Water Act, 1909 Because the water r i g h t s were recorded  i n the books  of o f f i c i a l s s c a t t e r e d throughout the .Province, a great of c o n f u s i o n r e s u l t e d .  To attempt to e l i m i n a t e t h i s  deal  con-  f u s i o n and l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n , the l e g i s l a t u r e brought down the f i r s t  s o - c a l l e d Water Act of the P r o v i n c e . A por-  t i o n of i t s preamble reads as f o l l o w s : And. whereas i n the past r e c o r d s of t h e r i g h t t o d i v e r t and use water had been h o n e s t l y but i m p e r f e c t l y made, r e s u l t i n g i n c o n f u s i o n and l i t i g a t i o n , and whereas i t is. d e s i r a b l e t h a t the r i g h t s of e x i s t i n g 1 3  I b i d . , p. 16.1.  17 users under former r e c o r d should be properlyd e c l a r e d , and whereas i t i s d e s i r a b l e and expedient t h a t the law r e l a t i n g to the acquis i t i o n and use of water f o r a l l purposes should be amended, and c o n s o l i d a t e d , and the r i g h t to acquire and use water be brought under one u n i form system, t h e r e f o r e H i s Majesty by and w i t h the advice and consent of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia enacts as f o l l o w s : . ...14 The act s e t up a Water Commissioner the waters In the Province  t o have- c o n t r o l of a l l  and p r o v i d e d  f o r the s e t t i n g  up of a t r i b u n a l , c a l l e d the Board of I n v e s t i g a t i o n , which would hear claims of water users, decide.upon p r i o r i t i e s of claims  and would  i s s u e , i n l i e u of the r e c o r d , a l i c e n s e  which set out a l l p a r t i c u l a r s d e f i n i t e l y and During the t e n years work, about  8,000  that the Board was  accurately.  engaged  i n this  orders were i s s u e d , s i x of which were  appealed to the c o u r t s , the Board being  sustained'in  three  of the s e app e a l s . ^ C.S. Kinney of S a l t Lake C i t y , who voluminous t r e a t i s e i n 1912  published  a  on water and I r r i g a t i o n r i g h t s  c o v e r i n g n e a r l y the whole c i v i l i z e d world, made t h i s comment on the B r i t i s h Columbia Water Act of  1909:  The Water Law i s d r a s t i c and covers the subject of the t i t l e to and the use of waters i n i t s most minute d e t a i l s . In f a c t , we c o n s i d e r i t one of the most e f f e c t i v e s t a t u t o r y laws upon the s u b j e c t i n e x i s t e n c e , and undoubtedly i t w i l l stand the. t e s t  ^ W a t e r A c t , 1909,  B.C.  S t a t . , c. J4.8.  ^MacDohald, cp_. ext., p.  162.  18  of both time and a l l the l i t i g a t i o n , under the Canadian form of government, that may be brought against i t . l " Water Act, 1911+ T h i s act r e q u i r e d claims  that r i p a r i a n proprietors f i l e  w i t h the Board of I n v e s t i g a t i o n b e f o r e  so that the Board might evaluate  their  a c e r t a i n date  the c l a i m and i s s u e a  l i c e n s e i n i t s p l a c e , i f i t saw f i t .  A f t e r t h a t date the  r i p a r i a n owners had no r i g h t s except the common r i g h t to use water f o r domestic purposes.  T h i s a c t a l s o l a i d down  f o u r t e e n purposes f o r which l i c e n s e s c o u l d be Issued and the precedence of uses a p p l y i n g  to l i c e n s e s of equal s e n i o r i t y :  domestic, water works, m i n e r a l steam, f l u m i n g ,  t r a d i n g , i r r i g a t i o n a l , mining,  h y d r a u l i c k i n g , miscellaneous,  power, c l e a r 17  ing  streams, storage,  conveying, and lowering  the  same time, f o r m a t i o n  of v a r i o u s  water.  types of community  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , which were s i m i l a r t o p u b l i c u t i l i t y was p r o v i d e d  for.  At  districts,  An example of t h i s type of o r g a n i z a t i o n i s  the water-users' community, some of which are s t i l l i n existence. 1  However, the Act of 19li+ was so i n v o l v e d because the d u t i e s of the l i c e n s e e s and the f u n c t i o n s of the o f f i c i a l s were so p r e c i s e l y set down, t h a t i t was found d i f f i c u l t to administer.-•This 16  r i g i d i t y was somewhat r e l i e v e d as more and  C.S. Kinney, Kinney on I r r i g a t i o n and Water (San F r a n c i s c o : Bender-Moss, 1912). 17 MacDonald, l o c . c i t .  Rights  19  more engineers entered  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  of improvement d i s t r i c t s was  The  set out i n 1920.  P u b l i c U t i l i t i e s Commission was  organization In 1939  the  set up to perform the  r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s of the Board of I n v e s t i g a t i o n . Further  s e c t i o n s concerning  mainly improvement  d i s t r i c t s were added to the Act i n 19M+and  and  again i n 19f?l  195>3 i n order that the l e g i s l a t i o n be more complete  regarding  these types of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , with powers l i m i t e d  to the o b j e c t s f o r which they were formed. present  (see Appendix VI) has  The  Q£ s e c t i o n s , a g r e a t  t i o n from the w e l l over 2 , 0 0 0 " s e c t i o n Water Act The  Act  of  at reduc1909-  revenue, c o l l e c t e d from water r e n t a l s , mainly from power  companies, pays f o u r times the cost of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n provides  a s u b s t a n t i a l sum  f o r the  surveying  and  of water  18  resources.  The  whole of B r i t i s h Columbia's water acts  have c a r r i e d out the purposes of c o n t r o l l i n g and water so as to give the b e s t use  regulating  of the water to the l a r g e s t  number of people. A f t e r l o o k i n g at the h i s t o r y of the water l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia and  examining the Water Act of B r i t i s h  Columbia, one  r e a l i z e s t h a t the problem of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l  has been l e f t  almost e n t i r e l y to the l e g i s l a t i o n known as  the H e a l t h A c t .  The  sole reference  i n the Water Act i s as follows.:  to p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l  Every p e r s o n i s g u i l t y of an o f f e n c e a g a i n s t t h i s A c t and l i a b l e , on summary c o n v i c t i o n , t o a p e n a l t y n o t e x c e e d i n g two hundred and f i f t y d o l l a r s and, i n d e f a u l t o f payment, t o i m p r i s o n ment not e x c e e d i n g t w e l v e months, who does any of the f o l l o w i n g : ...Puts i n t o any stream any sawdust^- t i m b e r , t a i l i n g s , g r a v e l , r e f u s e , carcass, or other t h i n g o r substance a f t e r h a v i n g been ordered by t h e E n g i n e e r or Water R e c o r d e r n o t t o do so: .... 19 Thus, i n o r d e r t h a t one o b t a i n a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f the o b j e c t i v e s of the p r e s e n t day l e g i s l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g , p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o study the h i s t o r y of the p o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The w r i t e r has d i s c u s s e d t h i s h i s t o r y i n  Chapter I X of t h i s  thesis.  Water A c t , R.S.B..C. (l9ij-8), c. 3 6 1 , s e c . 3 7 ( k ) .  CHAPTER y i DESIRABLE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA WATER LEGISLATION The  w r i t e r w i l l now attempt t o analyze the e x i s t -  i n g B r i t i s h Columbia Water Act and t o c r i t i c i z e  i t in  r e l a t i o n , f i r s t l y , to a set of d e s i r a b l e water p r i n c i p l e s as set down by a committee appointed by the N a t i o n a l Reclamation A s s o c i a t i o n , r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s t h e s i s as the Committee;  20  and, secondly, t o the a c t i v e  I t a l i a n l e g i s l a t i o n as set out by an I t a l i a n  consulting  21  engineer.  20A committee was appointed pursuant to R e s o l u t i o n No. 1 3 , e n t i t l e d "Committee t o Prepare Uniform Water Code f o r C o n s i d e r a t i o n of the West," adopted at the E l e v e n t h Annual Convention of the N a t i o n a l Reclamation A s s o c i a t i o n , h e l d on October ll). t o 1 6 , 191+2, at Denver, C o l o r a d o . The committee f e l t that i t s purpose could best be achieved by p r e p a r i n g a set o f p r i n c i p l e s t o serve as the b a s i s f o r d e s i r a b l e s t a t e water l e g i s l a t i o n , r a t h e r than t o prepare an a c t u a l proposed l e g i s l a t i v e act. The committee's p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t was presented at the 19i+3 convention of the A s s o c i a t i o n and the f i n a l r e p o r t was presented at the 19J+6 convention. ^ T h e "Water Laws i n I t a l y " i s a paper prepared by Dante A. Caponera, a c o n s u l t a n t on water laws f o r the Land and Water Use Branch of the A g r i c u l t u r e D i v i s i o n of the' Food and Ag r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n of the United N a t i o n s . T h i s paper was p r i n t e d i n February f 19$3, and i t s aim was to present i n concise form the e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s of I t a l y ' s water l e g i s l a t i o n , which i s considered to be simple and y e t complete. 0  21  22 Purpose of L e g i s l a t i o n The purpose of the water l e g i s l a t i o n should be t o make the best use of the P r o v i n c e ' s n a t u r a l water r e s o u r c e s In the b e s t i n t e r e s t of the p u b l i c , and to r e c o g n i z e t h a t 22 the use o f water i s a p u b l i c p r i v i l e g e .  These f a c t s ,  while not e x p r e s s l y s t a t e d i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Water Act, are i n h e r e n t along w i t h the f a c t t h a t one must o b t a i n a r i g h t b e f o r e d i v e r t i n g or making use of water. I t has been s a i d t h a t I t a l y possesses yet  complete system of water laws.  a simple and  Caponera has a s s e r t e d  i n h i s paper on I t a l i a n water laws t h a t : As e a r l y as 1$$6 the m a g i s t r a t e o f u n c u l t i vated l a n d of the Republic of Venice enacted laws d e c l a r i n g a l l water, whether f o r major or minor use, [was] to be p u b l i c . 2 3 F u r t h e r , i t i s s t a t e d t h a t i t has always been r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i t i s necessary  t o o b t a i n a c o n c e s s i o n f o r each d i v e r -  s i o n and use of water.  Thus, i n comparison, i t i s f e l t  that  because B r i t i s h Columbia's water l e g i s l a t i o n has embodied the same two b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s , t h a t water i s a p u b l i c asset and t h a t a c o n c e s s i o n i s f i r s t necessary  before  ^Wells Hutchins and o t h e r s , D e s i r a b l e P r i n c i p l e s of S t a t e Water L e g i s l a t i o n , F i n a l Report of Committee Appointed Pursuant to R e s o l u t i o n No. 1 3 , 11th Annual Conv e n t i o n , 191+2 (Washington: N a t i o n a l Reclamation A s s o c i a t i o n , 191+6), p. 3 . 23 "' ^Dante A.. Caponera, Water Laws i n I t a l y , Food and A g r i c u l t u r e . O r g a n i z a t i o n of the U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Development Paper No. 22, A g r i c u l t u r e (Rome,: Food and' "^Agriculture O r g a n i z a t i o n of the U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1 9 ^ 3 ) , p . 1 .  23 d i v e r t i n g or making use of water, i t too is. founded on s o l i d , w e l l - p r o v e n , b a s i c e s s e n t i a l s of water l e g i s l a t i o n . Scope of L e g i s l a t i o n ' As s t a t e d by the f i n a l r e p o r t  of the committee  appointed to prepare a uniform water code f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the west, the h y p o t h e t i c a l "model" s t a t e should have a b r e a d t h of scope which p r o v i d e s  the  ... (a) e x c l u s i v e procedure f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n , a f t e r the e f f e c t i v e date of the enactment, of a l l r i g h t s t o the use of water; (b) procedure f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n and a d j u d i c a t i o n of r i g h t s t h e r e a f t e r acquired, and of unadjudicated r i g h t s t h e r e t o f o r e a c q u i r e d ; and (c) machinery f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a l l water r i g h t s , r e g a r d l e s s of date of a c q u i s i t i o n , and f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of water to the h o l d e r s of water rights.21+ The water code must t h e r e f o r e and j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n s .  i n c l u d e both  administrative  At the same time, as an e q u i t a b l e  d e c i s i o n , i t must a l s o be remembered that any e x i s t i n g water r i g h t s must be p r o t e c t e d  by the water code.  (a) Procedure f o r A c q u i s i t i o n of Water R i g h t s .  Section  s i x of the B r i t i s h Columbia Water A c t , which deals w i t h the procedure to acquire  a water l i c e n s e , s t a t e s t h a t  every  person a p p l y i n g f o r a l i c e n s e must f o l l o w a s e t procedure and must supply Water R i g h t s may  any i n f o r m a t i o n require.  t h a t the Comptroller  I f any other  licensee, riparian  owner or a p p l i c a n t f o r a l i c e n s e c o n s i d e r s ^ H u t c h i n s , op. c i t . , p. 1+.  of  that h i s r i g h t s  2k might be p r e j u d i c e d by the g r a n t i n g of a l i c e n s e , he may file  an o b j e c t i o n w i t h the C o m p t r o l l e r .  By s e c t i o n seven of  the A c t , the Deputy M i n i s t e r of F i s h e r i e s , Deputy General, file  Attorney-  or the Deputy M i n i s t e r pf A g r i c u l t u r e might a l s o  an o b j e c t i o n w i t h i n a , c e r t a i n p e r i o d of time.  a p p l i c a n t i s s u c c e s s f u l , he i s granted  a conditional license,  which may c o n t a i n such terms as the Comptroller' may proper.  I f the  consider  In g e n e r a l , t h i s l i c e n s e a u t h o r i z e s the construc-  t i o n of works or t h e ' d i v e r s i o n and use of water f o r a c e r t a i n purpose, and w i t h i n a s t i p u l a t e d p e r i o d of time. When t h i s time e x p i r e s or when the works are completed, the C o m p t r o l l e r may i s s u e a f i n a l l i c e n s e , which w i l l  a u t h o r i z e the d i v e r -  s i o n and use of the q u a n t i t y of water t h a t the C o m p t r o l l e r f i n d s has been used b e n e f i c i a l l y f o r the purpose  specified  (section nine). (fr) Procedure f o r D e t e r m i n a t i o n Water R i g h t s .  and A d j u d i c a t i o n of  S e c t i o n t e n of the Water Act g i v e s the pro-  cedure f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n which have been acquired  and a d j u d i c a t i o n of r i g h t s  on the same stream. T h i s s e c t i o n  s t a t e s t h a t r i g h t s s h a l l have precedence a c c o r d i n g t o the priorities  of. the dates  on which the r i g h t s were  acquired.  In the event that r i g h t s should have been a c q u i r e d on the same date, then the Act s e t s down a schedule and  the' p r i o r i t y of each.  of purposes  Any rights, that were given on  the same, day from the same purpose are to have  equal  2^  precedence i n the  eyes of the law.  I t has p r e v i o u s l y been  mentioned i n t h i s t h e s i s that the Water Act that r i p a r i a n p r o p r i e t o r s f i l e of I n v e s t i g a t i o n b e f o r e c o u l d evaluate  fit.  owners were to have no use  t h e i r claims w i t h the  issue a license i n i t s  A f t e r t h i s date, the r i p a r i a n r i g h t s except the common r i g h t  water f o r domestic purposes  to s e c t i o n 2$  Water R i g h t s ,  of the Water Act,  a Deputy Comptroller  such engineers,  water r e c o r d e r s ,  vants as might be n e c e s s a r y may and  36A provide  f o r any  F o r e s t s , but  of "model ability  and  c l e r k s , and  appointed.  ser-  Sections  36  be n e c e s s a r y  not  the M i n i s t e r of Lands  and  seem that the present  Water Act  standards as mentioned on page 2 3 . f o r ' the 11  of  a l s o to the•Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l .  I t would t h e r e f o r e meets the  Rights.  a Comptroller  officers, be  of Water  of Water R i g h t s ,  appeals that may  only to the SOurt of-Appeal and  to  (see page 1 8 ) .  (c) Machinery f o r the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n According  Board  a c e r t a i n date so t h a t the Board  t h e i r c l a i m and  p l a c e , i f i t saw  of 19lij- r e q u i r e d  legislation.  I t i s f u r t h e r f e l t t h a t the d e s i r -  of such standards i s obvious, and  they w i l l not be  scope  discussed  f o r that  reason  f u r t h e r at t h i s time.  Ownership of Water In I t s N a t u r a l Environment. In i t s n a t u r a l ment, whether on or under the  environ-  s u r f a c e of the ground, water  26  should-be the p r o p e r t y of the p u b l i c .  I t should never be i.  subject to p r i v a t e ownership-in i t s n a t u r a l  environment;  however,'private r i g h t s of use, or water rights,- may  be  granted.^ • I t i s to be noted that the b a s i c rule-'which governs waters In I t a l y i s :  •  ... t h a t a l l ' w a t e r , whether surface- or underground, which i s u s e f u l to the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , such as f o r navigation, diversion f o r drinking, i r r i g a t i o n , r e c l a m a t i o n and power p r o d u c t i o n purposes, belongs to the S t a t e . 2 6  The I t a l i a n l e g i s l a t i o n even goes so f a r as to p r o v i d e that the- State owns the r i v e r banks and embankments and i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r maintenance operations..  and f o r f l o o d  control  The State or l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s c o n s t r u c t and  maintain the works,  and r e c o g n i z e the r i g h t to d i v e r t  p u b l i c waters from watercourses only a f t e r the issuance of a governmental g r a n t .  Such uses of water as f o r the  e x t r a c t i o n of sand and g r a v e l are a l s o under the same governmental  control.  2 7  S e c t i o n three of the B r i t i s h Columbia Water Act states  that:  The p r o p e r t y i n and the r i g h t to the use and f l o w of a l l the water at any time i n any stream - i n the Province are f o r a l l purposes vested i n the 2  %bld.  ?6  Caponera, pp. c i t . , p. 3.. 2  7  Ibid.  27  Crown i n the r i g h t of the P r o v i n c e , except only i n so f a r as p r i v a t e r i g h t s t h e r e i n have been ••established.' under s p e c i a l ..Acts or under l i c e n c e s i s s u e d under t h i s or some former Act. No r i g h t to d i v e r t or use water may be acquired by p r e s c r i p t i o n . The  l i c e n s e e must use  and  time stated  the water b e n e f i c i a l l y f o r the purpose  on the l i c e n s e .  m a i n t a i n the works.  He  must also' c o n s t r u c t  This f a c t appears to. be  done by the  the  s t a t e must c o n s t r u c t  not  o n l y give the  f u n c t i o n , but  state.  state g r e a t e r  I t would' seem that I f  c o n t r o l - over t h i s p u b l i c  a l s o i t would be p o s s i b l e t o have access to  that would otherwise'not be  and  expansion of  projects  undertaken by p r i v a t e  However, the- s t a t e would be  more- a d m i n i s t r a t i v e it  that  and m a i n t a i n the works\ i t would  more c a p i t a l f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n  prise.  and  in direct  contrast, with the I t a l i a n , l e g i s l a t i o n which r e q u i r e s a l l works be  ft  enter-  assuming a great many  duties, i n exchange.  appears that the p r i n c i p l e that the  B a s i c a l l y then, state should  own  the water i n I t s n a t u r a l environment i s not u n r e a l i s t i c . The  B r i t i s h Columbia- water l e g i s l a t i o n seems to f i t t h i s  requirement but  I t does diff.er from the I t a l i a n  i n that t h e - s t a t e the works.  The  does not n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s t r u c t  l a t e r on,  in constructing  28  and  w r i t e r f e e l s that because of b a s i c  between the l e g i s l a t i o n of the two discussed  legislation  differences  c o u n t r i e s , which w i l l  the present method of p r i v a t e  and m a i n t a i n i n g  maintain  the works with, the  W a t e r Act, R.S.B.C. ( I 9 i | 8 ) ,  c. 3 6 1 ,  sec.  be  enterprise state  3.  c o n t r o l l i n g by p e r i o d i c i n s p e c t i o n , has  proved to be  satis-  factory. Reduced to P r i v a t e C o n t r o l  and  Possession.  The  Committee f e e l s t h a t : ... when water i n a water supply i s l a w f u l l y reduced to p r i v a t e c o n t r o l and p o s s e s s i o n by p h y s i c a l means, i n the e x e r c i s e and under the terms of a v a l i d water r i g h t , p u b l i c ownership ceases and p r i v a t e ownership Csic] b e g i n s . Such water becomes and remains the p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y of the h o l d e r of the water r i g h t , subject to the l a w f u l e x e r c i s e of the r i g h t . 2 9 However,_ I t should be remembered  that:  ... such water does not lose i t s c h a r a c t e r as the p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y of the w a t e r - r i g h t h o l d e r s o l e l y by reason of i t s b e i n g stored i n a r e s e r v o i r located i n a n a t u r a l channel, or stored i n the ground, or conveyed i n any n a t u r a l channel o r i n any underground stratum; and the water r i g h t i s not subject to abandonment or f o r f e i t u r e s o l e l y by reason of any such c o n t r o l i n the proper e x e r c i s e of a water r i g h t . In many such cases the water n e c e s s a r i l y i s commingled with other water; p r i v a t e ownership then i m p l i e s the r i g h t to withdraw an e q u i v a l e n t quant i t y l e s s such deductions as are n e c e s s i t a t e d by natural losses.30 I t a l i a n w a t e r • l e g i s l a t i o n meets these requirements as i t p r o v i d e s f o r two  distinct  categories  p r i v a t e water and p u b l i c w a t e r . ^ the  l e g i s l a t i o n i f i t springs  p r i v a t e ownership. 29  H u  t chins  and  Ibid. 31  Water i s p r i v a t e under flows on land  However, when the 'loc. c i t .  C.aponera, op.  c i t , p. J4..  of water:  under  water acquires  a  29  character  of common i n t e r e s t i t is- deemed p u b l i c and  o f f i c i a l l y be so d e c l a r e d .  may  P u b l i c water may be "defined  as: .... s p r i n g s , watercourses, and l a k e s , even i f a r t i f i c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d or i n c r e a s e d , which have or acquire a tendency to be of p u b l i c use, whether because* of t h e i r l e n g t h , width, or t h e i r r e l a t i o n ship to the h y d r a u l i c system of' which they may be a part.32 Although, the d i v i s i o n of the l e g i s l a t i o n to handle the two c a t e g o r i e s must c e r t a i n l y r e s u l t  i n many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  problems, i t Is c e r t a i n t h a t i t should  r e s u l t i n close  c o n t r o l of the n a t u r a l water r e s o u r c e s . Italy's" code i n t h i s r e s p e c t the  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s described  Note: t h a t  seems to f i t i d e a l l y into.' above.  The d i v i s i o n •  between p r i v a t e waters and p u b l i c waters seems a." n a t u r a l one,' but a'problem would a r i s e i n d e c i d i n g j u s t when a p r i v a t e water became a p u b l i c water. The d e f i n i t i o n of p u b l i c water as given  above i s c e r t a i n l y l o o s e l y written•.  The B r i t i s h Columbia Water Act appears to show no d i s t i n c t i o n between p r i v a t e and p u b l i c waters, except by s p e c i a l a c t s . according  Rather-, the act c l a s s i f i e s waters  to the purposes f o r which they are- used. These  purposes are c l a s s i f i e d  as f o l l o w s : conveying, domestic,  f 1 tuning.,. .hydraulic-king, i n d u s t r i a l , i r r i g a t i o n , improvement,  m i n e r a l - t r a d ing,  land  mining,- power, r i v e r -  30  improvement,  and storage. . The d e f i n i t i o n  of these v a r i o u s  c l a s s e s i s so worded to i n c l u d e a l l the known p o s s i b l e uses of water that have a r i s e n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e to date. Even i f atomic power p r o d u c t i o n were to come to- B r i t i s h Columbia>  i t would be covered by the d e f i n i t i o n  of power  purpose:  " ... the use of water i n the p r o d u c t i o n of 33  e l e c t r i c i t y or other power-."  Similarly,  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s have been widely  a l l other  1  worded.  I t would appear that the- B r i t i s h Columbia l e g i s l a t i o n does a much more m e t i c u l o u s job of c l a s s i f y i n g waters,than does the I t a l i a n l e g i s l a t i o n . whether- t h i s f i n i t e  The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as to  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s necessary. According  to the g e n e r a l laws of the C i v i l Code governing p r i v a t e waters i n I t a l y , the landowner has the r i g h t  to use the  waters on h i s p r o p e r t y without the n e c e s s i t y of a government grant. ^ 3  This f a c t  of the water law.  would seem t o s i m p l i f y the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n In e f f e c t , b o t h c o u n t r i e s p r o v i d e f o r the.  c o n t r o l of the same waters.  That i s , i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  each of the above-mentioned uses could be- broken down to that f o r t h e . p r i v a t e and that f o r the p u b l i c , b o t h covered by l i c e n s e s ; whereas, i n I t a l y , the p r i v a t e uses and p u b l i c uses would both be broken down Into water f o r power, storage, • •. W a t e r A c t , R.S.B.C. (19J+8.), c 33  ^ C a p o n e r a , ojo. c i t . , p. |+.  3 6 l , , sec. 2 .  31  et c e t e r a , the- p u b l i c uses, b e i n g the only ones-for which i t would be necessary to have'a government  grant.  A, great percentage of water l i c e n s e s today i n B r i t i s h Columbia are f o r what would be c l a s s i f i e d as p r i v a t e water under the I t a l i a n l e g i s l a t i o n .  I f t h i s system could be  used i t would be p o s s i b l e t o r i d o u r s e l v e s of a great d e a l of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which has t o do w i t h these types of water. However, a c e r t a i n amount of c o n t r o l would be l o s t same time. But we must not l o s e s i g h t of the f a c t  at the that i t  would be impossible to change- the b a s i c .concept of the l e g i s l a t i o n at' t h i s date, which i s what would be. necessary. 1  F u r t h e r , t h i s p r o v i n c e appears to-be coming to a p o i n t where i t w i l l be- d i f f i c u l t  to o b t a i n a pure water supply, and,  t h e r e f o r e , i t w i l l probably be- advantageous i n the f u t u r e to have a great degree of c o n t r o l over the p r i v a t e water users. In summary, i t is. wise p o l i c y t o have the ownership of water vested i n the s t a t e . This i s i n f u l l  agreement  w i t h the views expressed by the Committee r e f e r r e d to •earlier.  The w r i t e r f e e l s that the B r i t i s h Columbia l e g i s -  l a t i o n has a long-run advantage over the I t a l i a n  legislation  i n that the P r o v i n c e ' s governmental a u t h o r i t i e s have  control  over p r i v a t e water, while the I t a l i a n a u t h o r i t i e s do not. I t appears that. B r i t i s h -Columbia i s prepared i n t h i s r e s p e c t f o r any f u t u r e shortages that may  arise-.  I t Is f o r the  reason that this. Province concerning  does not, have separate  legislation  p r i v a t e arid p u b l i c waters, except under s p e c i a l  a c t s , that the w r i t e r has p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d that i t . would be very d i f f i c u l t  to. have the- Province  construct  and  main-  t a i n the works on only p u b l i c waters as is- done i n I t a l y . To. attempt to have t h i s separate l e g i s l a t i o n now  would mean  b a s i c changes i n the • fundamental concepts, pf the- A c t . i s not recommended, f o r the reasons The  This  discussed.  ComptrollerS e c t i o n s l i l i to 5>8 i n the Committee's r e p o r t  the f u n c t i o n s and  duties; of what i t terms the  set  out  "State  3f? Engineer".  The  State Engineer has  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s of the  s t a t e t h a t r e l a t e to  c o n t r o l of publicly-owned waters, and determination,  and  s u p e r v i s i o n over the the  to the a c q u i s i t i o n ,  e x e r c i s e of the r i g h t s of use  of these  waters. In r e l a t i o n to the- I t a l i a n l e g i s l a t i o n - , I t appears that the M i n i s t e r of P u b l i c Works holds, a comparable p o s i t i o n with l i k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . the Superior  Council i n granting  t e c h n i c a l s t a f f of the "Province 3  He  seeks the' advice- of  applications', and  C i v i l Engineering  O f f i c e -of the  c a r r y out the: a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l s .-^ ^ H u t c h i n s , o p . c i t . , pp.  ^ C a p o n e r a , op.  c i t . , p.  5 and .6. 8.  the  33 The  B r i t i s h Columbia l e g i s l a t i o n provides that  M i n i s t e r o f L a n d s and F o r e s t s a p p o i n t s whose d u t i e s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e described  above.  The  the  a Water' C o m p t r o l l e r  of the State Engineer,  C o m p t r o l l e r has wide powers w i t h  regard  to  the a p p l i c a t i o n s presented  to him f o r a water  He  may  amend i t ' i n any  it  i n whole or i n p a r t , r e q u i r e - a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n ,  r e f u s e an a p p l i c a t i o n ,  determine  t h e p r e c e d e n c e and  r e q u i r e the for  any p u r p o s e as he  s e e s f i t , and  license.  respect., g r a n t  appurtenancy of the  a p p l i c a n t to.- g i v e s e c u r i t y i n any  as.  license-,  amount  and  issue conditional  or  37 f i n a l l i c e n s e s . o n any  t e r m s t h a t he may  F u r t h e r , t h e C o m p t r o l l e r has t h a t any - e n g i n e e r  the  act  i s . empowered to. do; he h a s ,the p o w e r t o cancellation,  and  of r i g h t s u n d e r e x i s t i n g l i c e n s e s , and  appoint water b a i l i f f s is  proper.  a u t h o r i t y t o do any  a u t h o r i z e the e x t e n s i o n , suspension, apportionment,  consider  w h e n e v e r he  sees f i t .  a l s o empowered t o make a l l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ,  The  he  may  Comptroller  surveys,  and  s t u d i e s t h a t are r e q u i r e d , f o r the proper performance of .his functions,.  As does, t h e S t a t e E n g i n e e r ,  any member o f h i s s t a f f may  the C o m p t r o l l e r or  e n t e r u p o n p u b l i c l a n d s of  the  Crown -or p r i v a t e " l a n d s f o r any p u r p o s e i n v o l v e d i n the' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e W a t e r Act.. to  these  are mentioned i n the  c o d e - a s was 3 7  D u t i e s t h a t , are  similar  s e c t i o n of the "model" w a t e r  p r e v i o u s l y eite'd.  W a t e r A c t , R.S.B..C. (19i{.8), c. 361,  sec.  8..  31+ It  i s to .be noted, that the Comptroller  d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers.  I t would be d i f f i c u l t  head of a department i n a l i n e  and  i z a t i o n without such a u t h o r i t y . are c o n s t a n t l y be  i n check.  The  wide  to envisage  By n e c e s s i t y , these powers  Act  cancelling a license.  imagine a more j u s t way  s t a t e s that there must  appeals to the Comptroller, and  of  the  I t would be d i f f i c u l t  to  to v e r i f y or c o r r e c t a 'decision  of an o f f i c i a l of the government.  Forests,  the  s t a f f type of organ-  an appeal to the Court of Appeal from every order  Comptroller  for  has  F u r t h e r , the Act  M i n i s t e r of Lands  the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l  d e c i s i o n s of the engineer and  the Comptroller.  measures are also mentioned i n the  provides  and  against Such c o n t r o l  "model" s t a t u t e r e f e r r e d  to above. It  is felt  that the p r o v i s i o n s of the Water Act  B r i t i s h . Columbia r e g a r d i n g agree very w e l l w i t h t h a t can be  the Comptroller suggested by  checked by  of Water-Rights  the Committee..  seen t h a t , although the Comptroller  c r e t i o n a r y a u t h o r i t y or power, he  has  i s constantly  The  his  being  Comptroller  the a u t h o r i t y or r i g h t needed to c a r r y out the  It  wide d i s -  the c o n t r o l l i n g p r o v i s i o n s i n the A c t .  Act i s very good i n t h i s r e s p e c t .  of  Thus,  the  has. a l l  duties  of  p o s i t i o n , as w e l l as commensurate a c c o u n t a b i l i t y i f h i s  d u t i e s are not  c a r r i e d out  i n a proper and  just fashion.  3^ TABLE I. CLASSIFICATION OF AVAILABLE WATER SUPPLIES'"" .(a) Waters f l o w i n g i n well-defined channels. ( i ) Surface waters i n watercourses  ( i i ) Diffused . waters.  (a) Waters on the surface of the earth.  (iii)  (b) Waters f l o w i n g through l a k e s , ponds, or marshes, which constitute Integral parts of a stream system.  surface  Surface waters i n l a k e s or ponds .(where the evidence f a i l s to- i n d i c a t e connection with a stream system).  (Iv) S p r i n g waters. (v) Waste waters.  (b) Waters under the surface of the e arth.  ) ) ) )  ( i ) Ground waters  (a) Waters f l o w i n g i n defined subterranean channels. (b) D i f f u s e d percolating waters.  "Source: W e l l s A. Hutchins, S e l e c t e d Problems i n the Law of Water Rights i n the West, United S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , M i s c e l l a n e o u s P u b l i c a t i o n No. J4.I8 (Washington: U n i t e d S t a t e s , Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 19^2), p. 1'.  36 Classification  of A v a i l a b l e Water S u p p l i e s ,  B e f o r e t h e s u b j e c t o f a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f w a t e r c a n bei n t e l l i g e n t l y d i s c u s s e d , i t w i l l be f i r s t necessary t o p r e s e n t t o t h e r e a d e r t h e common c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a v a i l able water  s u p p l i e s , as w e l l as t h e p r i n c i p l e s o r d o c t r i n e s  t h a t may g o v e r n t h e u s e o f w a t e r . s i m p l e and y e t c o m p r e h e n s i v e  Table I i l l u s t r a t e s  a  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a v a i l a b l e  w a t e r s u p p l i e s , w h i c h w i l l be adopted f o r u s e i n t h i s thesis  ( s e e T a b l e I , page  35).  The  s u p p l i e s shown a r e c l a s s i f i e d  a v a i l a b l e water  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r o r i g i n as f o l l o w s : (a) W a t e r s on t h e S u r f a c e o f t h e E a r t h (i)  Surface Waters i n Watercourses.  may b e d e f i n e d as " ... a d e f i n i t e channel w i t h a d e f i n i t e the  underflow."  A watercourse  stream i n a d e f i n i t e  s o u r c e o f s u p p l y , and . ( i t )  includes  Waters w h i c h flow, t h r o u g h l a k e s , ponds,  and m a r s h e s w h i c h a r e art i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a s t r e a m are  also included  i n this classification.  The f l o w i n a  watercourse i s f e d from t r i b u t a r y channels, d i f f u s e d f a c e w a t e r s , and u n d e r g r o u n d (II) waters  sur-  sources.  D i f f u s e d Surface Waters.  a r e " ... t h o s e w h i c h  system  Diffused surface  o c c u r on t h e s u r f a c e i n p l a c e s  - - • M i l o B. W i l l i a m s , W a t e r Laws i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , A g r i c u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t P a p e r No. 2 "(Washington-: P o o d and . ' A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d - N a t i o n s , 1950), p . 1. ' ' 3 8  37  o t h e r t h a n i n w a t e r c o u r s e s , l a k e s , o r ponds."  39  Such  w a t e r may a c t u a l l y o r i g i n a t e f r o m a n y s o u r c e and may meander a c r o s s b r o a d a r e a s , o r o c c a s i o n a l l y appear i n d e p r e s s i o n s o r c h a n n e l s , or'may s t a n d i n b o g s o r m a r s h e s . (iii)  Surface Waters  i n l a k e s o r p o n d s where  no c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a s t r e a m s y s t e m i s e v i d e n t . (iv)  S p r i n g Waters. These waters are those w h i c h  o r i g i n a t e from underground  s o u r c e s b r e a k i n g o u t upon t h e  s u r f a c e o f t h e e a r t h through, n a t u r a l openings i n t h e ground. These a r e t o be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h w e l l s , w h i c h a r e a r t i f i c i a l means o f g a i n i n g a c c e s s t o g r o u n d (v)  Waste Waters.  waters.^  Such w a t e r s a r e m a i n l y w a t e r s  w h i c h "... a f t e r h a v i n g b e e n d i v e r t e d f r o m s o u r c e s o f supply f o r u s e , escape from c o n t r o l i n t h e course of d i s t r i b u t i o n or from i r r i g a t e d soii."^  lands after  a p p l i c a t i o n to, t h e  1  (b) W a t e r s U n d e r t h e S u r f a c e o f the- E a r t h (i) divided  into  Ground W a t e r s .  T h e s e w a t e r s may b e  (a) waters f l o w i n g i n d e f i n i t e  sub-  subterranean  s t r e a m s and ( b ) w a t e r s f l o w i n g t h r o u g h t h e l a y e r s o f t h e soil  other than i n d e f i n i t e  s u b t e r r a n e a n c h a n n e l s - , more  commonly c a l l e d . p e r c o l a t i n g w a t e r s . 3 9  Ibld-  ^°Ibid. ^Ibid, ^Ibid.  38  Water-Right The  Doctrines water-right  d o c t r i n e s v a r y a c c o r d i n g to the  class  of water as f o l l o w s : (a) Surface Waters i n Watercourses. Two: oppo.site conflicting principles  govern the use  ;of w a t e r — t h e r i p a r i a n d o c t r i n e and appropriation f o r b e n e f i c i a l  and  of t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  the d o c t r i n e of  prior  use.  (I) R i p a r i a n D o c t r i n e .  According  to t h i s  d o c t r i n e , the owner of land which i s contiguous to a stream has  certain rights  virtue  of such land  i n the f l o w of the water, s o l e l y ownership.  The  by  owner:  ... has the r i g h t to take from the stream whatever q u a n t i t y of water i s r e q u i r e d f o r domestic purposes and the watering of domestic animals; and the r i g h t to use water therefrom for- i r r i g a t i o n purposes, p r o v i d e d such use i s reasonable in- r e l a t i o n to the needs of a l l o t h e r owners of land r i p a r i a n to the same source of supply.4-3 The  r i p a r i a n r i g h t , then, i s a c t u a l l y p a r t of the  and not i s not  an easement of the r i p a r i a n l a n d . created by use  estate  Thus, the  or destroyed by non-use, but Riparian rights  right  i t can  be  l o s t by  adverse p o s s e s s i o n .  be  claimed  i f the l a n d l i e s w i t h i n the- watershed of the  stream or body of water to which i t i s The England.  can  contiguous.  r i p a r i a n d o c t r i n e i s "part of the common law Consequently, i n the western s t a t e s and  ^ Ibid., 3  only  p.  8.  of  i n Canada,  39 which- a d o p t e d t h e common l a w , t h i s of  the l o c a l law.  d o c t r i n e - became a p a r t  I t i s predominant  i n the e a s t e r n s t a t e s ,  but i t has never been r e c o g n i z e d i n A r i z o n a , C o l o r a d o , I d a h o , M o n t a n a , N e v a d a , New M e x i c o , U t a h , and Wyoming and h a s b.ecome a l e g a l f i c t i o n i n O r e g o n . ^  In general,  g r e a t e r ' c o n t r o l i s b e i n g e x e r c i s e d b y t h o s e a r e a s w h i c h do recognize this  doctrine.  This' i s evidenced by the f a c t  t h a t most a r e a s w i l l  d e d i c a t e t o p u b l i c use waters t o  which p r i v a t e r i g h t s  have n o t been a t t a c h e d .  of  t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a W a t e r .Act c l e a r l y (ii) Appropriation Doctrine.  on s p e c i f i c to  states this  This doctrine  fact.  i s based  s t a t u t e s and i s n o t a j u d i c i a l r u l e . A c c o r d i n g  t h i s doctrine the f i r s t  acquires a p r i o r i t y right subsequent u s e r . junior  Section three  Each  user of water from a stream t o c o n t i n u e t h e use over  subsequent  user's right  each  i s then  t o a l l t h o s e e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e and s e n i o r t o a l l  those e s t a b l i s h e d  after.  F u r t h e r , t h e l a n d need n o t be  • c o n t i g u o u s t o t h e s t r e a m , as i s n e c e s s a r y f o r a v a l i d riparian  right.  Thus, t h e a p p r o p r i a t i v e r i g h t  may h e  a c q u i r e d f o r u s e on a n y l a n d w i t h i n t h e w a t e r s h e d a n d , u n d e r certain  limitations  different  stream.  f o r u s e , on],land i n t h e w a t e r s h e d The r i g h t  water I s used b e n e f i c i a l l y ;  I s v a l i d o n l y a s l o n g as t h e i t c a n be l o s t t h r o u g h v o l u n t a r y  abandonment, t h r o u g h f o r f e i t u r e .. ^ - f e b l d . , - p . Hj..  of a  f o r non-use o v e r . a p e r i o d o f  time set by- s t a t u t e , and of  through adverse use  on the  part  others T h i s d o c t r i n e grew from the miners' customs which  were enacted i n t o law.  I t i s the d o c t r i n e that e x i s t s  e x c l u s i v e l y f o r ground and  s u r f a c e waters i n two  i n Canada (.Alberta and Manitoba) and nine United  provinces  s t a t e s i n the  S t a t e s of America, e i g h t of which are western  s t a t e s (see Appendices I I and  III).  As was  mentioned  p r e v i o u s l y , B r i t i s h Columbia d i d at one- time recognizer i p a r i a n d o c t r i n e ; however, today, the Province O n l y the  the  recognizes  a p p r o p r i a t i o n d o c t r i n e f o r ' a l l surface waters, no  l e g i s l a t i o n being  i n existence  f o r the c o n t r o l of ground  waters. . (b) D i f f u s e d . Surf ac e Water s. • I t can.be g e n e r a l l y s a i d that r i p a r i a n r i g h t s are'not-attached surface waters.  I t has  to diffus.ed  also'i-been held- t h a t , i n the  absence  of a s p e c i a l s t a t u t e , appr.opriative- r i g h t s do not a t t a c h 1+6 . . to such waters, i n the U n i t e d States- of America. However, the w r i t e r has been unable to f i n d i n f o r m a t i o n now  any  a v a i l a b l e t h a t presents  reputable  source of  any p r i n c i p l e  governing the r i g h t s of owner's of land on.-which such waters occur as. against  the claims  ^ I b i d . , p.  9.  ^ l b i d ,, p.  12.  6  of a p p r o p r i a t o r s  from .streams  to which the d i f f u s e d water would flow i f not i n t e r f e r e d with.  The  B r i t i s h Columbia Water' Act r e c o g n i z e s  only  the  a p p r o p r i a t i o n doctrine- f o r t h i s c l a s s of water. (c)  Surface Waters i n Lakes or Ponds.  the r i g h t s to the use where there  Generally,  of surface waters i n l a k e s or ponds.,  appears to be no  stream system, a r e - s u b j e c t  Connection w i t h a  to the law  surface-  of watercourses  i . e . , r i p a r i a n or a p p r o p r i a t i o n doctrine:, or b o t h .  7  In  the  case where a lake- i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a stream system, the r i g h t s to the lake should be  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h those of  the e n t i r e stream system, while those p e r t a i n i n g to a separate lake should  form a separate group of p r i o r i t i e s .  B r i t i s h Columbia's l e g i s l a t i o n ' s t a t e s t h a t a stream, as 2+8 defined  i n the Water A c t ,  includes lakes,  and  thus i t  appears that p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n water.  (The w r i t e r w i l l d e f i n e  a pond as b e i n g  of  a small  lake.) (d) Spring Waters. In g e n e r a l , source- of a watercourse are  s p r i n g s that form  subject to e i t h e r t h e r i p a r i a n  or a p p r o p r i a t i o n d o c t r i n e , as are: watercourses. reasonable that a landowner should i n springs.which feed ^ I b i d . . , p.  have no  It i s  exclusive r i g h t s  a d e f i n i t e stream- j u s t because  lij..  ^ W a t e r Act, R.S.B.C. (192+8), c. 3 6 l , sec. 8  the  2.  the  s p r i n g water comes n a t u r a l l y to the surface Springs  that do not  of h i s  c o n t r i b u t e to- the  land.  supply  watercourse o r d i n a r i l y b e l o n g to the owner of the  of a  land  upon which they r i s e . The  B r i t i s h Columbia Water Act makes every s p r i n g  subject  to l i c e n s i n g .  f o r the  simple reason that a spring' i s simply ground water  which has -.come to the  This seems l o g i c a l to- the  s u r f a c e , and  writer  the landowner's r i g h t  to the use  of the  s p r i n g should be no: g r e a t e r than h i s r i g h t  to the use  of ground water feeding' the  s p r i n g . Even though  cases have a r i s e n where a neighbour has  taken out  on a s p r i n g on h i s neighbour's p r o p e r t y ,  and has  deprived  the  l a t t e r of the sole use  of the  a license thereby  s p r i n g because  he f a i l e d to. have a l i c e n s e on i t , the w r i t e r f e e l s that the Water Act  i s j u s t and  sound i n t h i s r e s p e c t . As  explained  p r e v i o u s l y , adequate p r o v i s i o n has been made- f o r the  filing  of o b j e c t i o n s to the g r a n t i n g of a l i c e n s e . (e) Waste Waters.  The- a p p r o p r i a t i o n d o c t r i n e  . . . . .  H  a p p l i e s to t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . a t i o n , waste- water may returned  to the  be  usually  •  0  That i s , w i t h i n  appropriated  before  stream from which i t was  limit-  i t has  originally  diverted.  However, i t must be kept i n mind t h a t the o r i g i n a l user- Is under no . o b l i g a t i o n to continue the waste. ^Williams, %bid.  loo. c i t .  The  British  provision f o r this discussed  later  C o l u m b i a W a t e r A c t makes no classification,  i n this  thesis.  Columbia water l e g i s l a t i o n  (f) divided  and t h i s f a c t  It is felt  The- c o u r t s  w i l l be  that  i s lacking i n this  Ground W a t e r s .  direct  the B r i t i s h  respect.  a p p e a r t o have  t h e s e w a t e r s as f o l l o w s : (i)  D e f i n i t e Underground  underflow of a stream i s a p a r t therefore surface  l o g i c a l t o apply  and s u b s u r f a c e  Streams.  Since the  o f the stream,  i t is  t h e same r u l e s t o b o t h t h e  portions  o f t h e stream.  Thus, b o t h  Si the  riparian  and a p p r o p r i a t i o n  (ii) three  principal  he  There  doctrines  i n this  applicable Ownership.  subdivision.  The owner i s t h e  the water  supply  of other  the  same w a t e r - b e a r i n g  s t r a t a without  ing  injury, regardless  of the l e n g t h  leaves  a p p e a r t o be  owner o f p e r c o l a t i n g ' w a t e r s under- h i s l a n d , and  may e x h a u s t  users  are used.  P e r c o l a t i n g Waters.  Absolute absolute  doctrines  have b e e n b e n e f i c i a l l y u s i n g  lands  liability  the water.  principle  i s a modification  ^ Ib.id. , p. 1  12."  ^ I b i d . , pp. 12-' 14,2  the Other  This  doctrine  of- t h e w r i t e r .  t o Reasonable Use.  o f t h e one f i r s t  over  f o r result-  Of t i m e t h a t  a l o t t o be d e s i r e d , i n t h e e s t i m a t i o n Ownership S u b j e c t  lying  stated.  This Under  t h i s d o c t r i n e , the owner' must only use: water on h i s land to the extent  t h a t the use i s reasonable  needs of other outside  overlying' lands.  i n r e l a t i o n to the  One cannot export  of the b a s i n i n which i t was  water  found as t h i s i s not  termed a ' b e n e f i c i a l use. This doctrine- i s much b e t t e r than the f i r s t mentioned as i t g i v e s more p r o t e c t i o n to the neighbour who has no desire- to use water just, f o r the sake of u s i n g i t , but i s w i l l i n g to cooperate and share the water •available.  Why  should  the t h r i f t y neighbour s u f f e r because  of the waste of the unreasonable neighbour? Appropriation. subject to a p p r o p r i a t i o n . but  A l l p e r c o l a t i n g waters are  T h i s d o c t r i n e i s growing i n use,,  i t s growth has been slow due t o d i f f i c u l t y i n i d e n t i f y -  i n g p e r c o l a t i n g waters and e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r  origin,  boundaries, d e s t i n a t i o n , , q u a n t i t y , and r a t e o f f l o w . However, because of the development these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s reasonably, continue  to grow and should  of techniques  to determine  this doctrine  should  e v e n t u a l l y be, i n the w r i t e r ' s  o p i n i o n , the one t h a t w i l l govern "the r e g u l a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia*-s p e r c o l a t i n g waters because of i t s e q u i t a b l e and just b a s i s . B r i t i s h Columbia has at -present  no l e g i s l a t i o n govern-  i n g the use of ground waters (see Appendix I I ) . w i l l be d i s c u s s e d Waters.."  This f a c t  i n d e t a i l under "The A p p r o p r i a t i o n of  \1>  • A p p r o p r i a t i o n o f Waters The w r i t e r w i l l now p r o c e e d w i t h 'a d i s c u s s i o n of m a t t e r s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n of c e r t a i n w a t e r s . (a) U n a p p r o p r i a t e d  Waters.  The Committee s t a t e s i n  i t s r e p o r t t h a t a l l w a t e r s t o ' w h i c h water r i g h t s have n o t been a t t a c h e d are u n a p p r o p r i a t e d  waters and' as such are  53 subject t o appropriation.  This i s d e f i n i t e l y a desirable  p r i n c i p l e i n water- l e g i s l a t i o n ' .  I t i s b'asic and must appear  i n t h e w a t e r l e g i s l a t i o n i n o r d e r t o a l l o w f o r adequate -control o f a l l water-. . S e c t i o n 3 8 of the B r i t i s h Columbia Water A c t i s concerned w i t h t h e r i g h t t o use what i s termed "unrecorded" water.  T h i s s e c t i o n g i v e s a p e r s o n t h e r i g h t t o use.  unrecorded water f o r d o m e s t i c purposes o r for- p r o s p e c t i n g -  f o r m i n e r a l s , b u t , i n t h e event of p r o s e c u t i o n , i t i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e u s e r to'prove  t h a t , the w a t e r i s  unrecorded. (b) A p p r o p r i a b l e Ground Water.  I t i s understandable  t h a t t h e Committee should make a f i r m stand on t h i s p o i n t . -  I t f e e l s t h a t any u n a p p r o p r i a t e d  ground water' may be  a p p r o p r i a t e d i f i t i s capable'' of d i v e r s i o n w i t h a r e a s o n a b l e  53  W e l l s A. H u t c h i n s and o t h e r s , D e s i r a b l e P r i n c i p l e s of S t a t e Water L e g i s l a t i o n , F i n a l Report o f Committee Appointed Pursuant t o R e s o l u t i o n No. 13, 1 1 t h Annual Conv e n t i o n , 192+2 (Washington: N a t i o n a l R e c l a m a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 192+6), p. .8.  and economical l i f t ,  and t h a t any d i v e r s i o n of ground  water made otherwise i s not lawful..  I t also  states  that no permit t o 'appropriate water from a ground water supply should be- issued u n l e s s the subterranean waterb e a r i n g f o r m a t i o n has the c a p a c i t y to- y i e l d t h e water by  5k  .  means of .such a l i f t . . The B r i t i s h Columbia Water A c t c l e a r l y covers only s u r f a c e water, and seems t o ignore the underground of water.  source  T h i s would appear to be- a very grave shortcomingdd  of the A c t . ^  A person would be able t o lower the water  t a b l e by drawing on a ground water supply and thus d e p r i v e a neighbour drawing on the same water-bearing f o r m a t i o n o f his  share of the water.  The former could not be p r o s e c u t e d  under t h i s A c t , but p o s s i b l y could be p r o s e c u t e d under Common Law.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , a l a r g e amount of the water used  f o r domestic purposes i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s obtained from these underground  sources, and i t i s t h e r e f o r e d i f f i c u l t to-  s.ee why these sources have not been adequately r e g u l a t e d i n the p a s t .  I t i s realized  that many c o u n t r i e s i n the world  today r e l y s o l e l y on surface water because of the f a c t the  that  g e o l o g i c formations of the country do not lend themselves ^Ibid.  55A s i m i l a r view was h e l d b y R.C. Farrow acting- as chairman of a committe e on Problems of the Water Resources of B r i t i s h Columbia. R.C. Farrow,. ''The Problems of Administ r a t i v e . C o n t r o l of.Water," T r a n s a c t i o n s of t h e T h i r d B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference ( V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources. Conferenee, 1950) , pp. 3 8 - 3 9 .  to the r e t a i n i n g that  o f water,. M a l a y a b e i n g " an- example,  these countries  the w r i t e r ' f a i l s  regulate-,  to: see why  upon b o t h s u r f a c e  provides that  and g r o u n d w a t e r h a s n o t m o d i f i e d i t s  may  classification  as has b e e n p r e v i o u s l y  a l l w a t e r , whether c a n be  b.e p r i v a t e  or p u b l i c .  s u m p t i o n when t h e r e  of water. stated,  surface- o r underground,  r e g u l a t e d by the State i f  Is used f o r p r i v a t e p u r p o s e s .  s u c h as f o r n a v i g a t i o n  free  latter  legislation,  b e l o n g s t o the- State- and the water  surface water; but,  a p r o v i n c e w h i c h i s dependent  regulations to include t h i s Italian  solely  and  Underground  waters  S e v e r a l uses of public- waters,  and w a t e r f o r human and  animal con-  a r e no f i x e d . d i v e r s i o n p l a n t s ,  to. e v e r y o n e ; however, u s e s i n v o l v i n g ' r e a l  are  diversions  56 must be r e c o g n i z e d  or g r a n t e d by  r e g u l a t i o n s found i n the I t a l i a n u n d e r g r o u n d w a t e r s may  be  the government. legislation  summarized  (1) .Any l a n d o w n e r may freely and  on h i s l a n d  use u n d e r g r o u n d  f o r domestic purposes  and p r e c a u t i o n  relating  e s t a b l i s h e d by  to  as f o l l o w s :  s u p p l y i n g w a t e r t o a n i m a l s ) i f he  tances  The  (watering  observes the  water gardens dis-  law.  ( i i ) Whoever d i s c o v e r s u n d e r g r o u n d w a t e r must make i t known t o the- C i v i l (iii) public,  grants  If this  Engineering  discovered  are r e q u i r e d  • ^^Capohera,- op. c i t . ,  Office.  water  for certain pv 3 • '  i s declared uses, these being  1+8 t h e same as f o r s u r f a c e w a t e r . p u b l i c , t h e l a n d o w n e r may  I f the water i s not  use i t f r e e l y  declared  a f t e r he h a s  com-  pensated the d i s c o v e r e r , the compensation b e i n g based  '  the i n c u r r e d  expenses  '  .  '  and t h e - i n c r e a s e i n t h e l a n d  Thus, the I t a l i a n l e g i s l a t i o n  on  value..  i s peculiarly  57  different  f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s , b u t i t i s a t the- same, time: much more  comprehensive. (c) R e t u r n Water.  I t seems l o g i c a l  that water  has been d i v e r t e d from a w a t e r s u p p l y but w h i c h  which  escapes  from the works f o r i t s conveyance o r f r o m the s u r f a c e  of  t h e s o i l t o w h i c h i t h a s b e e n a p p l i e d , i s w a t e r t h a t may re-used.  be  I f t h i s water has n o t passed the b o u n d a r i e s of  the p r o j e c t ' i n connection w i t h which the o r i g i n a l  appropria-  t i o n i s made, o r has' n o t e n t e r e d a w a t e r s u p p l y , t h e appropriation should imply the r i g h t  original  to i t s re-use, without  the n e c e s s i t y of a s p e c i f i c m e n t i o n i n g of the f a c t .  However,  r e t u r n water t h a t has p a s s e d the b o u n d a r i e s of the p r o j e c t or has  entered a water  s u p p l y s h o u l d not. b e  entitled  to  58 re-use without f u r t h e r  appropriation.  The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a W a t e r A c t i s r e a s o n a b l y c l e a r as t o t h e u s e o f r e t u r n w a t e r , a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t as s u c h .  The  r e - u s e o f w a t e r t h a t h a s n o t gone o u t s i d e the.-  57 - " I b i d , , pp.  19-20..  ^' Hutchins, l o c . c i t . 8  mentioned  lj-9 boundaries of the t r a c t  that has the r i g h t s i s considered  59 acceptable  without question.  The A c t i m p l i e s t h a t  return  w a t e r w h i c h h a s gone- o u t s i d e - t h e  boundaries of the t r a c t  c o n c e r n e d becomes u n a p p r o p r i a t e d  w a t e r and i s t h e r e f o r e  subject  to appropriation.  However, t h e A c t d e f i n i t e l y  h o t a n t i c i p a t e the- a p p e a r a n c e that the A c t should  provide  of r e t u r n water.  same d a t e o f p r i o r i t y . .  measuring the q u a n t i t y of appearance. and p l a c e  appropriation,  The- d i f f i c u l t y  with  comes i n a c t u a l l y  o f r e t u r n w a t e r and i t s t i m e and p l a c e  H o w e v e r , t h e w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t t h e method  of recapture  so. c i r c u m v e n t t h i s against  o f the-  include the appropriation of  r e t u r n w a t e r ' when m a k i n g h i s o r i g i n a l the  It is felt  that the appropriator  o r i g i n a l f l o w may e x p l i c i t l y  does  c o u l d be s t a t e d i n g e n e r a l  difficulty.  the Act to divert  As l o n g  t e r m s and  as i t is-' an  any w a t e r t h a t  offense  is. not used  60 beneficially,  the i n c l u s i o n of a clause  to subject  w a t e r t o a p p r o p r i a t i o n would n o t be h a z a r d o u s . i t must b e remembered t h a t the  original priority,  However,  s u c h an a p p r o p r i a t i o n ,  should  be p e r m i s s i b l e  return  only  carrying I n case  t h e r e t u r n .water, a t t h e t i m e t h a t t h e amendment was t o be made t o t h e o r i g i n a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n , h a d n o t y e t e n t e r e d a water supply  and h a d n o t b e e n a p p r o p r i a t e d  In viewing regarding-return  the proposed  by  others.  amendment t o t h e W a t e r A c t  w a t e r , the- f o l l o w i n g c i t a t i o n f r o m t h e  ^ W a t e r A c t , R.S.B.C. (19i|.8), c. 3 6 1 , 9  60 l b i d . , s e c . 37 (n)  s e c . I+,  50  Committee's  r e p o r t should be  considered:  Return water, the a p p r o p r i a t i o n of which i s e x p l i c i t l y i n c l u d e d i n the a p p r o p r i a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l flow, may be recaptured e i t h e r b e f o r e or a f t e r i t s entrance i n t o a, water supply; or i t may be allowed to augment a water supply in.exchange with other a p p r o p r i a t o r s f o r e q u i v a l e n t q u a n t i t i e s (adjusted f o r stream gains and l o s s e s ) to be d i v e r t e d by the o r i g i n a l a p p r o p r i a t o r upstream. The r e t u r n water may be allowed to- accumulate i n s u b s t a n t i a l q u a n t i t i e s i n a water supply p r i o r to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of works to r e c o v e r and re-usei t , provided the a p p r o p r i a t o r e x e r c i s e s reasonable d i l i g e n c e i n i d e n t i f y i n g the r e t u r n water and i n p e r f e c t i n g h i s r i g h t to i t s recapture and re-use. He should be allowed a reasonable p e r i o d , say f i v e ( 5 ) y e a r s , a f t e r the appearance of the r e t u r n water i n the water supply i n q u a n t i t i e s , capable of reasonable i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , w i t h i n which to b e g i n the f u r t h e r steps necessary to p e r f e c t h i s r i g h t to the r e t u r n water i n i t i a t e d with h i s a p p r o p r i a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l flow. In a l l .such cases, the burden of p r o v i n g the e x i s t e n c e , l o c a t i o n , and-quantity of r e t u r n water, and the e x e r c i s e of reasonable diligence i n i d e n t i f y i n g i t a f t e r i t s appearance i n s u b s t a n t i a l q u a n t i t i e s , i s upon the o r i g i n a l appropriator. 6 l ;;  The problems that w i l l be i n v o l v e d are complex.-  The  State  of Colorado i s s a i d to be the only s t a t e i n which the ' 62 ownership of r e t u r n waters has been l i t i g a t e d .  The  w r i t e r has not been able to f i n d any of the p r o v i n c e s i n Canada which has t h i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l subject mentioned In i t s water l e g i s l a t i o n . T h i s amendment to the B r i t i s h Columbia Water Act would be d e s i r a b l e i n order- that the. a p p r o p r i a t o r have the opportunity  of r e c a p t u r i n g and r e - u s i n g r e t u r n water which  But c h i n s , op_. c i t . , p. 9. "Williams, op_. . c i t . , ' p .  25.  51  r e s u l t s from h i s development when he i s d i l i g e n t and uses f o r e s i g h t  i n h i s attempt not to i n f r i n g e upon pre-  existing rights.  F u r t h e r , t h i s amendment would p r o t e c t  the a p p r o p r i a t o r who has put the water t o use under h i s own a p p r o p r i a t i v e r i g h t s without n o t i c e of a p r i o r v a l i d claim.  Thus, the- a p p r o p r i a t o r of the o r i g i n a l f l o w would  not be able t o c l a i m the r e t u r n water as an a f t e r t h o u g h t . 1  (d) Salvaged Water and Developed Water. The Committee f e e l s that, both salvaged water and developed  water should  be subject t o a p p r o p r i a t i o n , salvaged water b e i n g the p o r t i o n o f water i n the water- supply which, under n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s , i s u s u a l l y l o s t , b u t which, by means of artificial  d e v i c e s , i s recovered and made a v a i l a b l e for-  b e n e f i c i a l use; and developed by means of a r t i f i c i a l  water being the water which,  works, i s added t o a water supply or  i s otherwise made available- f o r b e n e f i c i a l use, b u t which  63 in  i t s n a t u r a l s t a t e does not augment a water  supply.  I t f e e l s t h a t the ohe who. i s responsible- f o r the a r t i f i c i a l work that r e s u l t s In the e x i s t e n c e of t h i s water should have the e x c l u s i v e r i g h t t o a p p r o p r i a t e t h i s water- w i t h i n a reasonable time a f t e r i t s appearance i n reasonably i d e n t i f i e d q u a n t i t i e s , two years b e i n g the time as reasonable. ^ Hutchins, op. c i t . , p. 1,  6k ^ I b i d . , p. 9.  suggested  52  The salvaged  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Water Act does not d e a l w i t h  or developed  water,, t h e t h o u g h t  presumably  t h a t such  c l o s e r e g u l a t i o n of our w a t e r r e s o u r c e s  necessary  at t h i s time.  quite t r u e , but i n the Act resources  that t h i s type  when s u c h  o f c l a u s e m i g h t be  s h o u l d be  a c l a u s e o r c l a u s e s were  so s t a t e d as t o c o v e r t h e  points:  a p p r o p r i a t i o n of salvaged  w a t e r i s s u p e r i o r t o any  inserted  or  o t h e r c l a i m of r i g h t  i s not  t o be  developed  t o use  such  rights  subject to r e g u l a t i o n accord-  to.priority. (ii)  The  salvaged  o r d e v e l o p e d ' w a t e r becomes  s u b j e c t to g e n e r a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n i f the does n o t f i l e  s a y , two  right  one  responsible f o r  an a p p l i c a t i o n - f o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n w i t h i n ,  years. (iii)  Subject t o the  above-mentioned  of a p p r o p r i a t i o n , , developed  a w a t e r s u p p l y becomes a new and  water  following  even i f i t e n t e r s a water s u p p l y t o w h i c h  h a v e a t t a c h e d ; and  It  inserted  ' ( i ) The  ing  writer feels that this i s  i r i p p r e p a r a t i o n f o r s u c h t i m e when t h e  and  or they  water,  i s not  a p p e a r more s c a r c e t h a n t h e y a r e a t p r e s e n t .  If it  The  being  similarly,  salvaged  and  preferential  w a t e r t h a t , does n o t independent,  or developed  water  supply,  water t h a t enters  w a t e r s u p p l y becomes an i n s e p a r a b l e p a r t o f t h a t  enter  a  supply.  £3  (iv) source,  and  The  a p p r o p r i a t o r must p r o v e t h e  q u a n t i t y of the  salvaged  and  nature,  developed  water  65 as w e l l as h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r ' i t s e x i s t e n c e . Thus, a s e c t i o n of the A c t d e v e l o p e d w a t e r m i g h t w e l l be when t h e w a t e r s u p p l y Reservation The  may  to Cover salvaged  i n s e r t e d f o r the  become more  the  scarce.  C o m m i t t e e s u g g e s t s t h a t i t s h o u l d be  appropriation.  in  future  of Water  to withdraw c e r t a i n unappropriated  a b l e t o be  and  possible  waters from f u r t h e r  I t a l s o f e e l s that these waters should  released from withdrawal  upon a p u b l i s h e d  a r e a i n which the water supply  Is l o c a t e d .  a p p l i c a t i o n s may  State Engineer f o r the  a p p r o p r i a t i o n of t h a t water.  determine which of the  a hearing  a p p l i c a t i o n s on f i l e  m o s t c o n d u c i v e t o t h e p u b l i c good  filed  ...,"  and  notice  Once  the water i s r e l e a s e d ,  suggested t h a t the S t a t e E n g i n e e r h o l d  be  be  with  the It is  to  w i l l be  "  ...  on t h i s  basis  66: priority  of C l a i m  The  should  be  assigned.-  B r i t i s h Columbia Water Act  g i v e s the  G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l t h e power' t o " ... o r any  p a r t of the  unrecorded water of the  t a k e n or, used or a c q u i r e d _____ Ibid.  66  I b i d . , p«.  reserve  10.  ...  " f o r any  Lieutenantthe  whole  stream from  p u r p o s e t h a t he  being may  see f i t .  S i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n i s made i n the Act f o r a  p u b l i c a t i o n of n o t i c e of r e s e r v a t i o n as w e l l as of of r e s e r v a t i o n , f i l i n g and  of a p p l i c a t i o n f o r  release  appropriation,  the b a s i s of determining the p r i o r i t y of c l a i m . I t i s  on t h i s l a t t e r p o i n t that the Act d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y from the "Water Code."  The  Act  s t a t e s that p r i o r i t y i s g i v e n  first  on the b a s i s of the date of a p p l i c a t i o n , whereas the  "model  s t a t u t e s t r e s s e s p r i o r i t y on the b a s i s  the  water.  In t h i s case, i t seems that the  of the use  latter basis for  determining p r i o r i t y i s a more reasonable and basis.  of  equitable  However, the Act, i n s e c t i o n k l ( 6 ) , goes on f u r t h e r  to s t a t e that water l i c e n s e s may  be  i s s u e d to d i v e r t  use water f o r domestic purposes or land poses from any subsection  and  improvement pur-  stream to which a r e s e r v a t i o n a p p l i e s . T h i s  does tend to ease the problem of determining  p r i o r i t y , but  i t i s f e l t that the statement made by  "Water Code" i s a much more comprehensive and  the  equitable  statement f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r case. However, i t must  be  r e a l i z e d that f o r the l a t t e r b a s i s a c o n f l i c t i o n w i l l a r i s e where two  a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r s i m i l a r uses a r i s e .  Then i t  seems reasonable t h a t time of a p p l i c a t i o n should be  the  deciding f a c t o r .  P r i o r i t y of A p p r o p r i a t i v e .  .  Generally, 6 7  Right  the p r i o r i t y of a r i g h t determines whethe  W a t e r Act, R.S..B.C. ( I 9 k 8 ) , c. 361,  sec. k l ( l )  55 or not i t s h o l d e r is, e n t i t l e d to- d i v e r t water at a time when the water supply i s not s u f f i c i e n t r i g h t s t h a t are attached to i t .  to s a t i s f y a l l the  The Committee i s most  d e f i n i t e i n i t s statement t h a t p r i o r i t y i s t o be based s o l e l y upon the time of a c c r u a l of the r i g h t ' a n d i s not to be governed by the c h a r a c t e r of the use of the water or"by the f a c t that the r i g h t r e l a t e s t o d i r e c t f l o w or to  .68  storage.  In the event of C o n f l i c t i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s ,  their  order of s u p e r i o r i t y should be as f o l l o w s : ' domestic and m u n i c i p a l uses (highest r a n k ) ; i r r i g a t i o n and s t o c k - w a t e r i n g uses; w a t e r p o w e r use; mining use, and manufacturing and i n d u s t r i a l uses that are not i m p l i e d i n an a p p r o p r i a t i o n f o r m u n i c i p a l use:; and a l l other us'es, without p r e f e r e n c e  69 as among themselves. The w r i t e r f e e l s that the B r i t i s h Columbia Water Act i s even more r e a l i s t i c that precedence  i n t h i s question.  The A c t • s t a t e s  s h a l l be a c c o r d i n g to the p r i o r i t y dates,  but that i n the event of a c o n f l i c t , the r i g h t s s h a l l rank i n law a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e purposes as f o l l o w s : domestic purposes  (highest r a n k ) , waterworks purpose,  m i n e r a l - t r a d i n g purpose, i r r i g a t i o n purpose, mining purpose, i n d u s t r i a l purpose, power purpose, hydraulic-king purpose, storage 68 purpose, c o n s e r v a t i o n purpose, f l u m i n g purpose, Hutchins, op. c i t . , p. 11,  69  ;  '  . I b i d . , p. 23 .  c o n v e y i n g p u r p o s e , and l a n d rank).  improvement purpose  (lowest  I n t h e e v e n t t h a t two a p p l i c a t i o n s h a v e t h e same  d a t e and a r e f o r t h e same p u r p o s e , , t h e n t h e y a r e t o h a v e 70  equal precedence.  I t appears t h a t t h i s b a s i s f o r e s t a b l i s h -  i n g p r i o r i t y f o r l i c e n s e s o n t h e same s t r e a m i s much more clear-cut by  and c o n c i s e  t h a n t h e one t h a t h a s b e e n s e t o u t  t h e C o m m i t t e e i n t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l .water c o d e .  d e f i n i t e l y b e l i e v e s that the B r i t i s h is  superior The  there  i n this  The w r i t e r  ''.Columbia W a t e r A c t  respect.  I t a l i a n water l e g i s l a t i o n provides  that  "... when  a r e many a p p l i c a t i o n s , t h e a p p l i c a t i o n i s s e l e c t e d  which, by i t s e l f o r i n connection  with  other  applications,  shows t h e b e s t u t i l i z a t i o n f r o m t h e h y d r a u l i c p o i n t  of view  71  and  satisfies  other  p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s , . " . Thus, i t appears  .that t h e I t a l i a n l e g i s l a t i o n  also considers  not only the  date of a p p l i c a t i o n b u t also t h e purposes f o rwhich the water i s t o be u t i l i z e d . Loss- o f W a t e r  Right  (a) L i m i t .of A p p r o p r i a t i v e that p u b l i c i n t e r e s t requires a t i o n s i m p o s e d Upon t h e e x t e n t and  its-exercise. 7  Right.  obvious  t h a t t h e r e be c e r t a i n l i m i t of the a p p r o p r i a t i v e  right  The C o m m i t t e e a g r e e s w i t h t h i s and f e e l s  ° W a t e r A c t , R.S.B.C. ( 1 9 k 8 ) ,  71  I t i s quite  C a p o n e r a , op. c i t . , p . 8 .  c. 3 6 1 , s e c . 1 0 .  57 that the use of water must be " ... reasonable, b e n e f i c i a l , 72  and economical."  By use: of water, the Committee r e f e r s  t o d i v e r s i o n , storage, and conveyance as w e l l as u t i l i z a t i o n of the water.  It" f u r t h e r s t a t e s that i r r e s p e c t i v e of the  c a p a c i t y of works or of means of use, no  appropriation  should be allowed which would exceed the q u a n t i t y reasonably necessary f o r such use. S e c t i o n 3 7 ( n ) of the B r i t i s h Columbia Water-Act makes i t an o f f e n s e t o d i v e r t  any water' which i s not used  73  beneficially. water.  T h i s s e c t i o n appears to. cover the waste, o f  I t must be remembered that a use of water which  s u b s t a n t i a l l y exceeds the average water requirement f o r s i m i l a r , uses i n the community, i s not n e c e s s a r i l y w a s t e f u l because of that f a c t  alone.  The w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t water  use could be said t o be w a s t e f u l i f (a) i t i s not reasonably adapted to the s o i l and topography, (b) i t does not f u r t h e r the p r a c t i c a l use of the l a n d ,  (c) i t i s applied, to land i n  such excess that i t r e s u l t s i n i n j u r y t o the l a n d , and (d) the excess water does not enter a water supply so as not to be a v a i l a b l e f o r other a p p r o p r i a t o r s .  I t i s the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Water Rights Branch of the Department. of Lands and F o r e s t s of B r i t i s h Columbia to prove that water i s being wasted or not being, used b e n e f i c i a l l y . Although the H u t c h i n s , op-., .bit.., p. 12. 7 2  73  Water A c t , R.S.B.C. (191+8), c. 3 6 1 , sec. 37 (n)  58  Water it  A c t does n o t d e f i n e w a s t e f u l u s e o f w a t e r  does i m p l y  i t s p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g waste  " b e n e f i c i a l use." will  depend The  Italy,  the  use  Thus, the l e n g t h of l i f e  Italian  l e g i s l a t i o n has  to B r i t i s h  the users  and d i v e r s i o n  such p r o t e c t i v e  there  a Clause which  i s some-  w a t e r may  clause.  lose the r i g h t  welfare. ^"  I t therefore  7  clauses  are n e c e s s a r y f o r the  to way  appears  that  effective  of the water resources' of a c o u n t r y , e s p e c i a l l y i f  (b) r i g h t s may  Abandonment be  lost  o f an a n n u a l s h o r t a g e o f w a t e r .  o f Water  i n t e n t , -and l o s s may c a n be  ally  the r i g h t  abandons  Right.  through'voluntary  a water r i g h t  right.  right  of t h e water i f i t Is u s e d i n a  i s the p o s s i b i l i t y  implies  of the  C o l u m b i a ' s b e n e f i c i a l use  of p u b l i c  detrimental to p u b l i c  control  i n the p h r a s e  upon b e n e f i c i a l u s e b e i n g ' made- o f t h e : w a t e r .  what c o m p a r a b l e In  specifically,  lost  Appropriative  abandonment, w h i c h  t a k e p l a c e - I m m e d i a t e l y . Thus,,  i f the h o l d e r b o t h  and  (a)  intention-  (b) a c t u a l l y r e l i n q u i s h e s  Non-use i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d  the  to-be a f a c t o r i n :  75 abandonment. proof  The Committee  feels  that  o f abandonment l i e s , on' t h e p a r t y  the burden of  a s s e r t i n g the  ab andohment. S e c t i o n 19  • . of the B r i t i s h  with this p r i n c i p l e ; stringent  75  Columbia Water-Act  however, i n one  as t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l  code-.  Caponera,  op. c i t . , p .  Hutchins,  op_. c i t . , p .  l5 26,  sense i t i s n o t Under  agrees as  the A c t , n o t i c e  of  abandonment must be f i l e d w i t h the Comptroller i n order  t h a t the r i g h t s be e f f e c t i v e l y abandoned.  I t i s more s t r i n g -  ent i n the sense that i t s t a t e s t h a t abandonment does not have the -effect of r e l i e v i n g the past owner of the r i g h t  of  any l i a b i l i t y f o r any damage: r e s u l t i n g from any d e f e c t , VA  insufficiency,  or f a i l u r e - of the works.  Such a c l a u s e i s  necessary to p r o t e c t the p u b l i c from the c a r e l e s s n e ss of owners of r i g h t s .  The  q u e s t i o n as. to who  should have the  burden of p r o o f of abandonment might be  argued.  The writer'  f e e l s that the rule- could be r e v e r s e d .  In. view of the:  e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g p u b l i c need f o r the proper u t i l i z a t i o n of water, the w r i t e r f e e l s that the one who  has  ceased h i s use  of water should have the burden of p r o v i n g that he has abandoned the water r i g h t . have to be  not  T h i s q u e s t i o n i s \ one which w i l l  answered i n the f u t u r e i f f o r f e i t u r e becomes  dependent upon abandonment i n f a c t . (c) F o r f e i t u r e of Water Right. r i g h t s may  a l s o be l o s t through f o r f e i t u r e f o r non-use over  a p e r i o d of y e a r s , t h i s p e r i o d being 77 by the- Committee. either  A p p r o p r i a t i v e water  The  suggested  as three years  i n t e n t i o n of the h o l d e r of a r i g h t  to r e t a i n or to r e l i n q u i s h h i s r i g h t i s not a f a c t o r 7 6 w a t e r A c t , R.S.B..C. (191+8), c. 361,. sec. 1 9 ( 2 ) . 7 7  H u t chins , op_. c i t , , p . 27 .  60  i n i t s . l o s s through f o r f e i t u r e , ^  The Committee  7  definitely  f e e l s t h a t non-use and time- are the only e s s e n t i a l elements. The B r i t i s h Columbia Water Act c l e a r l y agrees w i t h S e c t i o n 18., s u b s e c t i o n 2 ( a )  these very p r e c i s e statements.  of the Act p r o v i d e s t h a t i f the l i c e n s e e f a i l s b e n e f i c i a l use of the water f o r t h r e e  to. make  successive  years,  then the r i g h t s are c a n c e l l e d or f o r f e i t e d e i t h e r i n whole or In p a r t , depending upon the l i c e n s e form. such a c t i o n i s sent t o a l l p a r t i e s concerned. clause, i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary are to be used e f f e c t i v e l y .  Notice of This type of  I f the a v a i l a b l e water' s u p p l i e s  I f the p a r t y h o l d i n g the r i g h t  i s not u s i n g the water, why should  the p a r t y who can make use  of the water not be g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x e r c i s e h i s r i g h t s as an i n d i v i d u a l ? Once again, the. I t a l i a n l e g i s l a t i o n agrees very b o t h with the Water A c t and the h y p o t h e t i c a l code.  closely  As a  matter of f a c t , the p e r i o d of non-use for- a l l three water codes i s e x a c t l y the same, three  years!  79  R o t a t i o n i n Use of Water The to  Committee recommends' that a p p r o p r i a t o r s be allowed  r o t a t e i n the use of combined q u a n t i t i e s o f water which  they are e n t i t l e d t o d i v e r t .  The. system of r o t a t i o n which '  7ft  W i l l i a m s , op, . c i t . , , p.. . 2 6 . 79caponera,  op_. c i t . , . p. 1$.  61  is  t o be  carried  out s h o u l d not a f f e c t  several parties. be  imposed  the p r i o r i t i e s  of the  I t i s also suggested that a r o t a t i o n  on a p p r o p r i a t o r s , w i t h o u t t h e i r  80  system  consent, i f  .  necessary. The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a W a t e r A c t d o e s n o t p r o v i d e f o r a r o t a t i o n o f w a t e r s u p p l i e s ' , The w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t s u c h a r o t a t i o n scheme m i g h t b e u s e d v e r y e f f e c t i v e l y i n some o f t h e a r e a s i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a where a t  certain  t i m e s o f t h e y e a r t h e w a t e r becomes t o o s c a r c e t o be into portions,  since- t h e y would be  continuous use.  divided  top small f o r e f f i c i e n t  The.writer r e a l i z e s that  such a p r o p o s a l  p r e s u p p o s e s t h a t t h e h o l d e r o f a r i g h t has b e e n g r a n t e d a r i g h t w h i c h was the  too s m a l l f o r h i s a c t u a l needs,  f a c t that the p r i o r  as w e l l  a p p r o p r i a t o r s w i l l be w i l l i n g  as  to give  up t h e i r r i g h t to. a c e r t a i n p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e w a t e r -which, i s legally  t h e i r s i n the time of s c a r c i t y .  clause w i l l  d e f i n i t e l y be  dependent  The use- of s u c h a  upon the  relative  n e c e s s i t y t o have a d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e water r a t h e r have a s o l e u s e r . to  F o r example,  water f o r domestic purposes.  s h o u l d he be d e n i e d t h e u s e the  p r i n c i p l e of r o t a t i o n ,  one g e t some; w a t e r .  than  the i n d i v i d u a l has the  right  U n d e r no c i r c u m s t a n c e s  of water f o r t h i s p u r p o s e .  With  i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o l e t e v e r y -  Thus, t h i s r o t a t i o n c l a u s e c o u l d  be  brought i n t o the Act w i t h a view t o f u t u r e emergencies.  Rn o u  H u t c h i n s , op_. c i t . , p p .  16  and  17.  Such  a clause i s not to be confused with s e c t i o n V~> of the Act which allows the C o m p t r o l l e r t o a p p o r t i o n the r i g h t s under a l i c e n s e among the owners of the s e v e r a l p a r c e l s comprising' the lands to which the l i c e n s e i s appurtenant, p r o v i d i n g  that  no l i c e n s e e ' s r i g h t s w i l l be i n j u r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d thereby. Excbange- of Water The Committee  a l s o recommends that a program of'  exchange be introduced i n water' l e g i s l a t i o n p r i a t o r s may  so t h a t appro-  exchange water w i t h one another so long as the  r i g h t s o f others are not impaired.with r e s p e c t to e i t h e r q u a n t i t y or q u a l i t y of the' water. a p p r o p r i a t o r may  Under such a scheme an  d e l i v e r e i t h e r n a t u r a l or s t o r e d water  i n t o a d i t c h or conduit f o r the use of any other' a p p r o p r i a t o r i n exchange f o r an e q u i v a l e n t q u a n t i t y of water which the l a t t e r i s e n t i t l e d to d i v e r t from the water supply at the time the exchanged water i s taken by the former. by the Committee  It is felt  that such a system of exchange, i f p r o p e r l y  i n s t i t u t e d , heed not change the- p r i o r i t i e s of the p a r t i e s  82  to- the p l a n . The Water Act of B r i t i s h Columbia does not appear t o recognize or p r o v i d e f o r such an exchange program.  The  Act could authorize' the owners of storage r i g h t s , whose lands are so s i t u a t e d that they cannot be i r r i g a t e d from such  8]_ V-ater- A c t , R.S.B.C. (191+8) , c.  82  '  Hut c h i n s , op_. c i t . , pp.  17-18.  361,  sec. l£.  63 r e s e r v o i r s without pumping,•to  d e l i v e r the stored water to  lands of others which can be reached by g r a v i t y from the r e s e r v o i r s , .in exchange f o r water-to- which the l a t t e r lands are e n t i t l e d under d i r e c t - f l o w r i g h t s ; t h i s s u b s t i t u t e  supply!  to be. d i v e r t e d upstream f o r use on the lands of the r e s e r v o i r owners.  A c t u a l l y , t h i s system of exchange  i s widely p r a c t i c e d  83 i n an important a g r i c u l t u r a l a r e a i n n o r t h e a s t e r n Colorado. The w r i t e r sees no- reason why could not be i n s t i t u t e d  such a system of exchanges  i n B r i t i s h Columbia..  I t would  cer-  t a i n l y b r i n g about a more- e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of the water which the p a r t i c i p a n t s In the- plan- are a l r e a d y e n t i t l e d to d i v e r t under the terms of t h e i r  separate a p p r o p r i a t i v e  rights.  T r a n s f e r of Water B i g h t s The Committee suggests that the water r i g h t  shoul'd be  appurtenant to the land upon which i t i s used and that i t . should remain so as- long as the r i g h t i s -exercised by the h o l d e r under the terms of the water r i g h t .  Thus, the water  r i g h t may pass w i t h a .conveyance- of the' land by deed> or mortgage.  lease,  The Committee f u r t h e r suggests that the water  r i g h t be a- separable appurtenance; that I s , i t may  be  s e p a r a t e l y conveyed, whether or not the land t o which i t i s appurtenant, i s conveyed ^ W i l l i a m s , loc-. c i t .  8k  W e l l s A. Hut c h i n s , i n h i s  '  Hut chins,, op-, c i t . , p . 1 8 .  t e x t on water r i g h t s law i n the west of the U n i t e d  States,  states that: It. i s w e l l s e t t l e d that a w a t e r - r i g h t may pass w i t h land as an appurtenance t h e r e t o , or as a p a r c e l t h e r e o f , hut not n e c e s s a r i l y so; and whether a w a t e r - r i g h t passes as an appurtenance i n v o l v e s two q u e s t i o n s , v i z : (a) Whether the w a t e r - r i g h t i s an appurtenance, and (b) whether, b e i n g such, i t i s intended to pass:. Both of these, are q u e s t i o n s of f a c t i n each case.85 The B r i t i s h Columbia Water Act meets the' above- • mentioned  s p e c i f i c a t i o n very n i c e l y .  Section' ll+ °£ "the- Act-  gives- the C o m p t r o l l e r the r i g h t to t r a n s f e r , i n whole or i n p a r t , the r i g h t s " under any l i c e n s e on any terms that he f e e l proper..  It. i s noted that the C o m p t r o l l e r i s s u e s a new  l i c e n s e , and he may new  may  determine i t s appurtenancy.  Thus, the  owner of the r i g h t w i l l e n t e r a new rank i n the p r i o r i t y  s c a l e f o r ' t h e reason t h a t r i g h t s s h a l l have precedence i n law according to the p r i o r i t y of the .date on the l i c e n s e , as- has been stated above. The new  owner may then get a water r i g h t  which has a lower p r i o r i t y than the o r i g i n a l r i g h t , due to.^ the d i f f e r e n c e i n the lieens.e dates. I t must, be kept i n mind t h a t the r i g h t i s not a u t o m a t i c a l l y t r a n s f e r r e d upon the s a l e of l a n d , but the l i c e n s e e must apply f o r i t s t r a n s f e r . Thus, the Water Act makes the water r i g h t an appurtenancy t o the land upon which the water i s used. agreement  w i t h the p b i i c i e s s  This i s i n  of most of the western  Wells A. Hutchins,. S e l e c t e d Problems i n the Law of Water R i g h t s i n the. West,, U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , M i s c e l l a n e o u s P u b l i c a t i o n No. i | l 8 . (Washington: United States Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 191+2) , p. 385.  65 states.  86  However, i t i s noted i n some s t a t e s t h a t t h i s  appurtenancy a p p l i e s only t o water appropriated purposes, and i n other f o r a l l purposes. the former.  for irrigation  s t a t e s It' a p p l i e s to water  appropriated  The Kev/' Mexico s t a t u t e i s an example, o f  I n c o n t r a s t , the Wyoming s t a t u t e does not make  the water r i g h t an 'appurtenance, b u t p r o v i d e s to use d i r e c t flow  that the r i g h t  is: attached' to- the land and may not be 8  detached from i t without l o s s o f p r i o r i t y .  7  The B r i t i s h  Columbia s t a t u t e does not s i n g l e o u t any s p e c i a l purpose, but r a t h e r makes any r i g h t t r a n s f e r a b l e on a p p l i c a t i o n . The w r i t e r f e e l s that not  such a clause b e n e f i t s a l l concerned and  only a p r i v i l e g e d few. I t i s t o be noted that,, under e x c e p t i o n a l  i n the U n i t e d  circumstances.  S t a t e s , the t i t l e t o water r i g h t s has passed  88 by p a r o l .  The w r i t e r has- been unable to^ o b t a i n  as- t o whether there Appropriation The  information  are any Canadian cases on t h i s p o i n t .  of Waters Between  Provinces  w r i t e r b e l i e v e s that the use of i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l  streams w i l l g i v e r i s e t o many problems as the p r o v i n c e s continue t o develop t h e i r n a t u r a l water r e s o u r c e s . 8 6  The'  Ibid.  .8.7 'ibid. ft ft  Watts v. Spencer, 5 l Oreg. 262',. 94 Pac. 39  (1908)  problem w i l l 'arise •because of the f a c t that the use of water  o f ' i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l streams i s subject not o n l y t o  c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s of i n d i v i d u a l u s e r s , but a l s o t o c o n f l i c t s between the i n t e r e s t s of the p r o v i n c e s themselves, which i n some cases i n v o l v e c o n f l i c t i n g t h e o r i e s of water law. A f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t i o n e n t e r s the p i c t u r e when the l a c k of adequate l e g i s l a t i o n i s i n v e s t i g a t e d . T h i s same problem has a r i s e n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s of America and mainly as a r e s u l t o f . t h e above-mentioned culties.  diffi-  The problem of the- use of i n t e r s t a t e streams has  been p a r t i a l l y  solved by the making o f adjustments on some 89  streams through the use of Interstate: compacts. C o n s t i t u t i o n of the- U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  Under the  such -compacts must.be  r a t i f i e d by each of the s t a t e s and consented to- by Congress. I t i s noted t h a t , i n the western s t a t e s , the- water are concerned mainly w i t h the d i v i s i o n of a v a i l a b l e f o r i r r i g a t i o n and o t h e r water  compacts water  supply purposes; w h i l e , in.  the e a s t e r n s t a t e s , the compacts have d e a l t mainly w i t h water, p o l l u t i o n and the establishment of standards and 90  abatement procedures.  Another means of d e c i d i n g c o n t r o -  versies,, o f c o u r s e , i s through the c o u r t s .  Many U n i t e d  States Supreme Court cases have g i v e n r i s e t o s e v e r a l b a s i c 89 • • "  ,  .Williams, op_. c i t . , p. 2 5 . i c h a r d Haz'en and others,. "Basic-Water Use D o c t r i n e s and State--Water-Control Agencies, J o u r n a l American Water Works A s s o c i a t i o n , V o l . k 2 , . No. 8 (August, 1 9 5 0 ) , p. 7 5 9 -  d o c t r i n e s which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  later.  that these d o c t r i n e s w i l l be .some h e l p water l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the Province-, cases have, f a c t s which may f u t u r e B r i t i s h Columbia  The  writer feels  i n deciding  as many of the  desirable court  e q u a l l y be found i n p o s s i b l e  cases.  tJpon c o n s u l t i n g w i t h the Vancouver o f f i c e of the F e d e r a l Water Resources D i v i s i o n of E n g i n e e r i n g  and Water  Resources Branch of the F e d e r a l Department of Northern Affairs there  and  N a t i o n a l . Resources, the- w r i t e r was  told, t h a t  is: no f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n to. Cover the use  p r o v i n c i a l waters.  I t appears that any  have-he en s e t t l e d e i t h e r by m u t u a l i t y cerned o r by the  courts.  disputes  of I n t e r i n the  past  of the provinces. con-  C e r t a i n l y , the B r i t i s h  Columbia  Water Act w i l l not cover the us.e o f i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l waters because of the f a c t t h a t , according  to. the B r i t i s h North  America Act of I 8 6 7 , the f e d e r a l government i s given power of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n waters.  The The  the  and r e g u l a t i o n of i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l  same holds- true f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l waters.  problem- of d e c i d i n g under whose j u r i s d i c t i o n  d e s i r a b l e water l e g i s l a t i o n should t r a i n e d lawyer.  l i e i s the problem of a  I t i s because of.the w r i t e r ' s  i n c a p a c i t y In t h i s f i e l d  that he w i l l only  p r i n c i p l e s ' t h a t i t i s f e l t w i l l be l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the. Province.-,  and  admitted  suggest  the  d e s i r a b l e i n water w i l l not decide  governing body f o r these p r i n c i p l e s .  However, the  the writer  68 w i l l present United the  at t h i s time the d o c t r i n e s  as- evolved  States Supreme Court as w e l l as the  i n the  suggestions-  of  "model" Water Code Committee. In an examination of the- c o n t r o v e r s i e s  United  decided by  S t a t e s Supreme Court, i t i s noted that the Court  adopted and  C o n s i s t e n t l y a p p l i e d the p r i n c i p l e  of an  the has  equit-  able -apportionment to each s t a t e of b e n e f i t s , from the use- of the  stream. ^ 9  recognize  the  The  problem Is n o t ' d i f f i c u l t i f b o t h  states  a p p r o p r i a t i o n d o c t r i n e , as t h i s d o c t r i n e  be used f o r determining the  controversy.  The  has been r e j e c t e d as a b a s i s f o r settlement between s t a t e s i n which the  riparian of a  will doctrine  controversy  a p p r o p r i a t i o n d o c t r i n e i s not  92 i n force-. •  However, where one  doctrine  the other  and  apportioned  s t a t e f o l l o w s the  the' riparian,,- the b e n e f i t s have been  to each s t a t e and  t h e . r i g h t s have been a l l o c a t e d  to each state- i n accordance w i t h its' own I t i s to be noted t h a t p r i o r i t y cases r e g a r d l e s s  appropriation  system of water law.  of r i g h t governed i n a l l these  of the l o c a t i o n of the  s t a t e line-.  The  w r i t e r f e e l s that a problem might,be encountered i n the case: of underground water s u p p l i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i f a boundary l i n e d i v i d e s a g r i c u l t u r a l land o v e r l y i n g a .common body of a v a i l a b l e  91  Hutchins, i b i d . , pp.  93 i l l l a m s , l o c . .cit.. Ibid.  k07-kl0  ^  69 ground water.  The w r i t e r a l s o f e e l s t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s  evolved by the Supreme- Court s e r i o u s l y considered  of the U n i t e d  States  should be  f o r - B r i t i s h Columbia's water l e g i s l a t i o n .  F u r t h e r , i t i s thought that p r o v i s i o n should be made to handle .ground waters and surface waters i n the same manner, regardl e s s of the p o s i t i o n of the boundary  line. 9l+  The  Committee suggests a d o c t r i n e of r e c i p r o c i t y  when water i s a p p r o p r i a t e d  across p r o v i n c i a l l i n e s .  That i s ,  B r i t i s h Columbia would, allow an a p p r o p r i a t i o n of water which was- to be d i v e r t e d w i t h i n the Province  and- conveyed, in.  whole or i n p a r t , across the P r o v i n c i a l l i n e f o r us.e i n A l b e r t a , provided  that Alberta's- laws would allow the  r e c i p r o c a l r i g h t t o B r i t i s h Columbia.  T h i s p r i n c i p l e of  r e c i p r o c i t y could a l s o operate -equally w e l l between n a t i o n s . Such an a u t h o r i z a t i o n could extend t o not only but  inter-provincial  a l s o i n t r a - p r o ' v i n c i a l water's-. I t is'obvious- that, such-  water r i g h t s should be subject, to some form of r e g u l a t i o n , perhaps by the P r o v i n c i a l Water Comptroller;  and the success  of such a p r o p o s a l would be e n t i r e l y dependent upon the mutual consent and c o o p e r a t i o n  of the p r o v i n c e s  or n a t i o n s  concerned.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to. note, that s e v e r a l s t a t e s , n o t a b l y 9^Wolls A. Hut c h i n s and o t h e r s , D e s i r a b l e P r i n c i p l e s of State Water L e g i s l a t i o n , F i n a l Report of Committee .Appointed Pursuant t o R e s o l u t i o n No. 13, 11th Annual Convent i o n , 191+2 (Washington: N a t i o n a l Reclamation A s s o c i a t i o n , 191+6), p . l£.  California-., 'Idaho,- Nevada,' Oregon, Washington, and A r i z o n a w i l l grant p e r m i s s i o n  f o r appropriations  only i f r e c i p r o c i t y exists..  across  Such a d o c t r i n e  state  lines  could w e l l be  used i n B r i t i s h Columbia's water l e g i s l a t i o n t o act between the. Province  and other p r o v i n c e s ,  territories,  and s t a t e s i n  an attempt t o s o l v e the problems "encountered when streams cross boundary l i n e s and when p o r t i o n s o f i r r i g a b l e v a l l e y s extend beyond B r i t i s h Columbia. The able  d o c t r i n e o f r e c i p r o c i t y i s p r e f e r r e d t o the e q u i t -  apportionment of b e n e f i t s ' d o c t r i n e , as promulgated by  the United  States Supreme Court.  The p r e f e r e n c e  a r i s e s as a.  r e s u l t of a d e s i r e f e l t by the w r i t e r to encourage cooperation  between p r o v i n c e s  voluntary  r a t h e r than court a c t i o n , which  the w r i t e r b e l i e v e s would be necessary under the l a t t e r d o c t r i n e f o r an apportionment of b e n e f i t s t h a t would appear e q u i t a b l e t o the p r o v i n c e s Appropriation  concerned.  of I n t e r n a t i o n a l Waters:  Although these, waters have ,been p a r t i a l l y "above, they w i l l now be discussed of t h e i r increasing' importance.  discussed  i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l because The i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s  f o r j u r i s d i c t i o n and c o n t r o l of such i n t e r n a t i o n a l waters as 95 W e l l s A. Hut c h i n s , Selected Problems i n the Law, of Water Rights i n ..the West, U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , M i s c e l l a n e o u s P u b l i c a t i o n No-. kl8- (Washington: United States: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 191+2), pp. k03-k0k.  71  t h e C o l u m b i a R i v e r a r e . c o n t a i n e d i n the- " T r e a t y b e t w e e n His Majesty  and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f .America r e l a t i n g t o  B o u n d a r y W a t e r s , and q u e s t i o n s a r i s i n g  along the boundary  b e t w e e n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and C a n a d a , " s i g n e d 11,  January part,  1909.  Article  I I of the Treaty  that:  'Vr  . •  at. W a s h i n g t o n , states, i n ,: .  E a c h ... r e s e r v e s . ... e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n and c o n t r o l o v e r t h e u s e and' d i v e r s i o n . . . o f . a l l w a t e r s on i t s own s i d e . . . b u t . . . 'any i n t e r f e r e n c e : . w i t h o r d i v e r s i o n from t h e i r n a t u r a l channel resulting i n any i n j u r y . . . . s h a l l g i v e r i s e t o t h e same r i g h t s •and e n t i t l e ... t o 'fee same l e g a l r e m e d i e s as; i f ; ' s u c h i n j u r y t o o k p l a c e i n , t h e c o u n t r y where such d i v e r s i o n s o r ' i n t e r f e r e n c e o c c u r s ..... • / n e i t h e r . . • . • s u r r e n d e r any r i g h t , w h i c h i t may h a v e , t o o b j e c t t o any i n t e r - ' f e r e n c e w i t h o r d i v e r s i o n s " o f ••. . . p r o d u c t i v e o f m a t e r i a l i n j u r y t o t h e n a v i g a t i o n i n t e r e s t s on i t s own s i d e ... 97 , The  Parliament  o f Canada gave, the p o w e r o f j u r i s d i c t i o n to.  the Exchequer Court  o f Canada.  The T r e a t y  I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n t o .handle  s e t s up':.an  the administrative^  I n 1 9 5 5 t h e P a r l i a m e n t o f C a n a d a .enacted the.  details.  " I n t e r n a t i o n a l R i v e r s Improvements A c t " w h i c h d e f i n e d an international river  and a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r ' i m p r o v e m e n t ,  and made i t n e c e s s a r y government b e f o r e  t o obtain, a permit from  the f e d e r a l  any i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r i m p r o v e m e n t  Could  98 be-made.  7  By t h i s  a c t , Parliament has given p r e c i s i o n t o  - G e n e r a l A.G.-L..-: M c N a u g h t o n , " P r o b l e m s o f D e v e l o p m e n t o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l R i v e r s oh t h e P a c i f i c W a t e r s h e d o f C a n a d a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , " The E n g i n e e r i n g J o u r n a l , , V o l . 3 9 (November,, 1 9 5 6 ) , p . ±l\3%7~ • ' • 9 7  lbid. Ibid.  powers over' water which flows from w i t h i n Canada t o without Canada, s a i d powers being  o r i g i n a l l y g i v e n t o the f e d e r a l  government .under the terms of the- B r i t i s h North America A c t . I t w i l l be noted that the b a s i c concept of i n t e r n a t i o n a l water law i n r i v e r s f l o w i n g  across  a boundary i s i n  sharp c o n t r a s t to the r i p a r i a n law, under which a person on the banks of a stream has the r i g h t t o have i t s water come to him "undiminished and u n d e f i l e d " and a l s o the o b l i g a t i o n to permit i t to pass downstream i n l i k e volume of f l o w and freedom from p o l l u t i o n .  F o r a t a b u l a t i o n , of the p r i n c i p a l  i n t e r n a t i o n a l waters concerning i s referred to Appendix  B r i t i s h Columbia, the reader  VII where the w r i t e r has reproduced  a p o r t i o n of a t a b l e presented i n General McNaughton's essay. Any  of the recommendations' made- f o r the r e g u l a t i o n of  i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l waters can be e q u a l l y w e l l a p p l i e d to the case- of i n t e r n a t i o n a l waters, as has been p r e v i o u s l y mentioned.  The w r i t e r i s , t h e r e f o r e , of the o p i n i o n that the  doctrine  of r e c i p r o c i t y should  e x i s t i n g water  a l s o be introduced  i n t o the  l e g i s l a t i o n i n the case of i n t e r n a t i o n a l waters.  T h i s d o c t r i n e has been recommended i n an attempt to encourage the- v o l u n t a r y accepting  c o o p e r a t i o n 'of the P r o v i n c i a l government i n  the- recommendations of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o i n t  Commission,, f o r i t i s f e l t  t h a t , even though the f e d e r a l  governments of Canada and the U n i t e d  States might concur on  such a recommendation, i t would be- d i f f i c u l t  to enforce the  73  decision  without  t h i s v o l u n t a r y cooperation of the P r o v i n c i a l  99  government  i n whose h a n d s  p r o v i n c i a l waters.  i s t h e r i g h t t o use: and  The p r o b l e m h a s b e e n f u r t h e r  control  complicated  b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d o c t r i n e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h o s e  -  o f the- S t a t e s o f W a s h i n g t o n , I d a h o , and M o n t a n a d i f f e r i n some c a s e s . Washington, f o r i n s t a n c e , s t i l l has a large number o f r i p a r i a n r i g h t s  w h i c h have- n e v e r . b e e n a d j u d i c a t e d  . 100  on;  w h e r e a s , t h e r i p a r i a n r i g h t i s - no l o n g e r r e c o g n i z e d i n  this Province. t o be a c c e p t e d . '  T h u s , i n many c a s e s , The w r i t e r  a compromise  f e e l s , however,  may have,  t h a t the i n s e r t i o n  of t h e d o c t r i n e o f r e c i p r o c i t y i n t o t h e e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n on i n t e r n a t i o n a l  waters w i l l  d e f i n i t e l y improve i t s  effectiveness.  9 % a r r o w , op. c i t . , p . 3 5 . 1 0 Q  Ibld.,  p. 36..  PART  III.  WATER-POLLUTION CONTROL L E G I S L A T I O N  CHAPTER V I I WATER POLLUTION DEFINED P o l l u t i o n r e s u l t s from the d i s p o s a l o f waste products by man and from some n a t u r a l phenomena which are o f t e n a s s i s t e d by man's a c t i v i t i e s .  Of the three g e n e r a l media,  land, a i r , and water, provided  by nature artd used by man  to c a r r y away the wastes of h i s l i f e  and works, water,  when p o l l u t e d , has c o n s t i t u t e d the g r e a t e s t  danger to man-  kind . The  American Public- H e a l t h A s s o c i a t i o n d e f i n e s the  p o l l u t i o n of water as: .... the i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o i t of substances of such c h a r a c t e r and i n such q u a n t i t y as to render the body of water o b j e c t i o n a b l e i n appearance o r t o cause i t to g i v e o f f o b j e c t i o n a b l e odors.101 I t f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t contamination of water i s a r e s u l t of the i n t r o d u c t i o n into- i t of b a c t e r i a or other substances that tend t o render i t u n s u i t a b l e  f o r domestic use. Water  p o l l u t i o n may come- from three- major sources: sewage, mining-waste, and i n d u s t r i a l waste. noted t h a t , while i n one stream a g i v e n with-certain  municipal I t should be  amount of waste  a t t r i b u t e s w i l l cause severe damage t o p u b l i c  T , A . J . Leach, " P r a c t i c a l Problems o f Water P o l lution., T r a n s a c t i o n s of the S i x t h B r i t i s h . Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference ( V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h Columbia. N a t u r a l Resources Conference,- 195>3) , p. 170. 1 0 1  7k  75 h e a l t h and t o w i l d l i f e , may cause no a p p r e c i a b l e  the same' amount i n a l a r g e r stream trouble.  CHAPTER V I I I THE WATER-POLLUTION CONTROL PROBLEM In order to have e f f e c t i v e use of e x i s t i n g ' water supplies,  we  should .be concerned  the q u a l i t y of water. must be list  w i t h matters  affecting  R e a l i s t i c w a t e r - q u a l i t y standards  set which w i l l c o n t r o l p o l l u t i o n .  of b e n e f i c i a l uses has been suggested  The  following  t o d e f i n e water 102  q u a l i t y i n order of d e c r e a s i n g 1.  P u b l i c Water  2. P i s h  Supply  Propagation  3. R e c r e a t i o n and k.  importance:  Bathing  I n d u s t r i a l Water  5>. A g r i c u l t u r a l  Supply  Hse  6 . Wat er Power 7.  Navigation  8 . D i s p o s a l of Sewage and I n d u s t r i a l Wastes I t must be remembered that  the q u a l i t y standard  should be  set f o r a l i m i t i n g flow i n a p a r t i c u l a r stream and riot be phrased  should  i n vague, i n d e f i n i t e terms.  The- problem of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i s not. a new and,- due to the tremendous r a t e 1 Q 2  Ibid.,  p.  178. 76  one,  of p o p u l a t i o n growth i n  77 c e r t a i n p o r t i o n s of the world has become acute. 1955  A'report  f o r the U n i t e d  of s t a t e s In 1 9 5 5  to-day, the need f o r c o n t r o l  on s t a t e water l e g i s l a t i o n f o r  States of America shows t h a t a number  enacted  pollution-control legislation.  Montana created a State Water P o l l u t i o n C o u n c i l ; Maine Oklahoma enacted  laws to permit  as to p e r m i s s i b l e p o l l u t i o n and  and  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of waters to p r o v i d e  necessary  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery f o r t h i s program. North C a r o l i n a removed o b s t a c l e s to m u n i c i p a l f i n a n c i n g of sewage treatment works, and  also authorized  s p e c i a l tax r e l i e f f o r i n d u s t r i a l  sewage treatment f a c i l i t i e s .  New  Hampshire l i k e w i s e extended  tax r e l i e f f o r i n d u s t r i a l sewage treatment f a c i l i t i e s . s t a t e s , such as Colorado,  Other  Texas, and Washington, have a l s o 103  taken a c t i o n to strengthen The U n i t e d ing  t h e i r p o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l laws.  States Department of Commerce, re-cogniz-  the growing need f o r l e g i s l a t i v e c o n t r o l i n r a d i o a c t i v e 6l,  of  the N a t i o n a l Bureau of Standards e n t i t l e d , " R e g u l a t i o n  of  waste d i s p o s a l , has r e c e n t l y r e l e a s e d Handbook No.  R a d i a t i o n Exposure by L e g i s l a t i v e Means-."-'-^  I t deals  with the- problem of atomic r a d i a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to i t s T h e C o u n c i l of State Governments, State Water L e g i s l a t i o n , 1 9 5 5 , A Report Prepared by the C o u n c i l of State Governments (Chicago: The C o u n c i l of State Governments, December, 1 9 5 5 ) ? P- 3 . 3  " ' " ^ " L e g i s l a t i v e C o n t r o l In R a d i o a c t i v e Waste D i s p o s a l , " Water and Sewage Works, V o l . 1 0 2 , No. 12 (December, 1956),  p.  51+1.  possible  c o n t r o l by  contains t e c h n i c a l  state  or m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t i e s  standards, g u i d e s , and  and  g e n e r a l inform-  a t i o n necessary to achieve suggested requirements-. handbook i s a v a i l a b l e from the  Superintendent of Documents,  Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington 2 5 , per  D.C.  for  S t a t e s of America- has law.  the F e d e r a l Government of the "United passed a new  stream p o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l  T h i s permanent w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n  control  statute  the f e d e r a l government l a s t - r e s o r t powers to take interstate  stream p o l l u t o r i n t o court  procedure of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s establishes  "  $0.25  copy. Very r e c e n t l y ,  the  The  and  hearings.  a Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l  Public Health Service, -  has  after a  an  prescribed The  law.,  which  A d v i s o r y Board under  "teeth"  and  yet  does  not  106  sacrifice  state c o n t r o l .  Thus, the  f e d e r a l government  the U n i t e d S t a t e s of America has- taken a c t i o n c o n t r o l problem, which the a trend  gives  to i n c r e a s i n g  on the  Public Health Service 107 growth (see F i g u r e l ) .  of  pollution  feels  has  - - - ? P o l l u t l o n B i l l Now Law - A i d I n c l u d e d , " Engineeri n g News-Record ( J u l y 5 , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 2 8 . 1 0  Record  n  1 0 6 » A Commendable P o l l u t i o n Law," C J u i y 1 2 , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 1 2 8 .  E n g i n e e r i n g News-  ....... ..-.1P..7"PHS.Draws New Picture, of P o l l u t i o n Problems," E n g i n e e r i n g News-Record (September' 2 2 , 1 9 5 5 ) , p. 2 9 .  79 POLLUTION  oi—I—I—i  1920 25  TRENDS -  •  •'  30 35 40 45  1  1  MUNICIPAL  SEWAGE  i  50 1955 60 65 70  75 80 1985  PHS Draws New Picture of Pollution Problems  FIGURE 1 POLLUTION TRENDS I N UNITED' STATES MUNICIPAL. SEWAGE""  "• P h o t o s t a t i s c o p y t a k e n f r o m , "PHS D r a w s New. P i c t u r e o f P o l l u t i o n P r o b l e m s , " E n g i n e e r i n g News-Record! ( S e p t e m b e r 2 2 , 19p5), p . 2 9 .  80  S i m i l a r l y , the p r o b l e m of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i s i n g more i m p o r t a n t i n 1955,  and more O b v i o u s i n C a n a d a . F o r  Alberta resisted  M a n i t o b a and  attempts  by  the s i s t e r  example,  provinces,  S a s k a t c h e w a n , t o g e t her- t o j o i n i n an  p r o v i n c i a l w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n board  grow-  inter-  w i t h wide powers. Sask-  atchewan-had o b j e c t e d i n p a r t i c u l a r ' t o p o l l u t i o n i n the North Saskatchewan R i v e r .  A p p a r e n t l y , w a t e r as- f a r as  m i l e s d o w n s t r e a m f r o m E d m o n t o n had become so at t i m e s  t h a t i t was  the c i t y  of P r i n c e A l b e r t d e s p i t e f i l t r a t i o n  The  p o l l u t i o n was  being  caused m a i n l y by  the time, A l b e r t a promised  conferences  the  t h a t she w o u l d t a k e  processes.  the  developing  "booming" around Edmonton.  other provinces  a l l necessary  c o n t r o l - p o l l u t i o n i n the f u t u r e , but a l l o w any  unpalatable  hot usable f o r d r i n k i n g purposes i n  p e t r o c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r y w h i c h was At  kOO  in  measures t o  t h a t she  would  not  other government t o I n s t i g a t e - 'action t h r o u g h  pollution-* c o n t r o l board  which might jeopardize- the  a  expansion  108  of her  industrial plants.  As f a r as the- w r i t e r - knows a t  t h i s time,., a p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l b o a r d up.  However, i t i s noted  has  not y e t been set  t h a t t h e t h r e e p r o v i n c e s do h a v e  a P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s Water Board which r e g u l a t e s provincial  streams i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h f e d e r a l  " A l b e r t a R e s i s t s A t t e m p t s to Force C o n t r o l , " E n g i n e e r i n g News-Record (August 11, 1 0 8  interauthorities.  Pollution 1955), P-83.  .81  The powers of t h i s Board are not known to- the w r i t e r . A more l o c a l example for  of the c o n t e n t i o u s problem  p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l o f our streams i s the v e r y r e c e n t  c r i t i c i s m by Richmond  o f the Greater Vancouver Sewerage-  and Drainage D i s t r i c t A c t , assented t o on .March 2 , 1 9 5 6 , and r e p e a l i n g the Vancouver and D i s t r i c t s J o i n t  Sewerage  arid Drainage A c t , but g i v i n g the same powers t o the newlyestablished board. dumping at  Richmond  i s arguing that the p l a n of  sewage from Vancouver and Burnaby on marshland  the extreme w e s t e r l y boundary of Richmond  i s " ... a  109  v i o l a t i o n of m u n i c i p a l autonomy . ..." to  The p l a n r e f e r r e d  i s known as "Plan A" and was recommended on September 1 6 ,  1953,  i n a r e p o r t by a board of engineers s e t up under a  r e s o l u t i o n of the Vancouver and D i s t r i c t s J o i n t and Drainage Bo'ard on A p r i l 2 0 , 1 9 5 ° • "^"^  Sewerage  I t i s noted t h a t  the  present G r e a t e r Vancouver Sewerage  and Drainage; D i s t r i c t  Act  allows Vancouver and Burnaby t o e x p r o p r i a t e land  out-  side t h e i r b o u n d a r i e s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n of sewerage and drainage f a c i l i t i e s .  This problem has not y e t been s o l v e d .  Thus, the problem of w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i s v e r y r e a l i n the Province and i s becoming more- important 1(  p.  ^News item i n the Vancouver Sun, October 1 0 , 1 9 5 6 ,  18.  C h a r l e s Gilman.Hyde, John O l i v e r , A.M. R'awn .(Chairman), Sewerage and Drainage of the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area,. B r i t i s h Columbia, A Report to the Chairman and Members of the Vancouver and D i s t r i c t s J o i n t Sewerage and Drainage Board (Vancouver: Vancouver and D i s t r i c t s J o i n t Sewerage and Drainage Board, 1 9 5 3 ) , pp. l 5 l - l 5 6 , and p. 2k7. 1 1 0  :  82  every day. the  Adequate l e g i s l a t i o n must be set out t o s a t i s f y  i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r g r e a t e r c o n t r o l of the  of our n a t u r a l water r e s o u r c e s . cuss the h i s t o r y  The w r i t e r w i l l now  and growth of the e x i s t i n g  dis-  legislation in  B r i t i s h Columbia b e f o r e attempting to recommend in existing  pollution  l e g i s l a t i o n and p r o p o s a l s f o r f u t u r e  improvements legislation.  \  CHAPTER IX HISTORY AND. GROWTH OP WATER "POLLUTION CONTROL LEGISLATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA General It the  i s on r e c o r d here i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t among  e a r l y H a i d a I n d i a n s , the p e n a l t y f o r the p o l l u t i o n of  a stream was death.  And i n Egypt, the E g y p t i a n b e l i e v e d  t h a t one of the worst s i n s t h a t he would have to answer f o r in  the next l i f e was s p i t t i n g i n the p u b l i c  fountain.  Although the p e n a l t y f o r stream p o l l u t i o n was death i n the former i n s t a n c e and m i s e r y i n the "ever-'after" i n the l a t t e r i n s t a n c e , I t does tend to p o i n t  out the f a c t that there  have always been a few who have r e a l i z e d the importance of water to t h e i r way of l i f e  and have taken r i g i d  enforce p r o t e c t i o n of the p u r i t y of t h e i r water Early  steps to supplies.  Legislation The f i r s t  l e g i s l a t i o n i n the h i s t o r y of B r i t i s h  Columbia was a c t u a l l y f o r the Colony o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  and was e n t i t l e d "An Ordinance- f o r promoting the P u b l i c H e a l t h i n the Colony of B r i t i s h Columbia "Health Ordinance, l 8 6 . 9 " ) . to  (short  title,  T h i s ordinance was assented  ort F e b r u a r y 2 3 , 1 8 6 9 and i t s preamble 83  read as f o l l o w s :  8k Whereas i t i s necessary t o adopt measures w i t h the object of p r e v e n t i n g or guarding a g a i n s t the o r i g i n , r i s e , or p r o g r e s s , of endemic, epidemic, or contagious d i s e a s e s , and to p r o t e c t the h e a l t h of the I n h a b i t a n t s of t h i s Colony, and f o r t h i s purpose to grant to the Governor i n C o u n c i l -extraordinary powers to be used when urgent o c c a s i o n demands; Be i t enacted by the -Governor of B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h the advice and consent of the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l t h e r e o f , as f o l l o w s : .... I l l T h i s ordinance  gave the Governor i n C o u n c i l the r i g h t  to mark out c e r t a i n p o r t i o n s of the Colony as H e a l t h D i s t r i c t s and  to d e f i n e the d u t i e s and  L o c a l Boards of H e a l t h appointed i n a l l matters  j u r i s d i c t i o n of the  i n these D i s t r i c t s by  him  concerning:  . . . d r a i n s , sewers, p r i v i e s , p i g s t i e s , s l a u g h t e r houses, unwholesome food, diseased c a t t l e , noxious or o f f e n s i v e t r a d e s or b u s i n e s s , epidemic, endemic, or contagious diseases or d i s o r d e r s , and f o r the summary abatement of any nuisance, or i n j u r y to p u b l i c h e a l t h l i k e l y to a r i s e therefrom .... ^2 I f any H e a l t h O f f i c e r or any Member of the L o c a l Board of H e a l t h was  obstructed or any n o t i c e was  down, i n j u r e d , or defaced, a f i n e not exceeding  destroyed, p u l l e d  the o f f e n d e r was  punishable  one hundred d o l l a r s on the  by  first  offense and two hundred d o l l a r s on the second o f f e n s e (section VII). Chapter 55  of the C o n s o l i d a t e d A c t s , 1 8 8 8 , changed  the- ordinance-.into an act and  thus put i t i n a more  H e a l t h Ordinance-, 1 8 6 9 , B.C. 5  "Ibid., section 1(b).  Ordinances  1868-1869.  intelligible  form.  T h i s A c t was c i t e d  a s "An A c t f o r  p r o m o t i n g t h e P u b l i c H e a l t h " or. " H e a l t h A c t " , to  the short  title.  113  according  S a n i t a r y R e g u l a t i o n s , 1892 Due t o t h e t h r e a t e n e d contagious for  disease  i n v a s i o n o f i n f e c t i o u s and  and i n o r d e r t o make b e t t e r p r o v i s i o n  the observance of s a n i t a r y laws, the " S a n i t a r y  R e g u l a t i o n s , 1892", were s e t up.  The r e g u l a t i o n s p r o v i d e d  t h a t a l l w e l l s w h i c h were i n u s e , whether t h e y were p r i v a t e o r p u b l i c , were t o be c l e a n e d  o u t on o r b e f o r e  o f M a r c h and O c t o b e r o f e a c h y e a r  the l ^ t h  (section 3(8))- Further,  i t was e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t no p r i v y - v a u l t ,  cesspool, or  r e s e r v o i r i n t o which a p r i v y , w a t e r - c l o s e t , s t a b l e , o r s i n k was d r a i n e d establishments for  approval  c o u l d be b u i l t u n t i l t h e d e t a i l s of t h e  had been submitted  (section 3(8).  1 1  ^  -  p r o t e c t i o n m e a s u r e s Were c i t e d ,  to a duly q u a l i f i e d  Various  other water  a l l o f w h i c h were  doctor  pollution  enforce-  able by the Board of H e a l t h under the t h r e a t of a p e n a l t y not  t o e x c e e d one h u n d r e d d o l l a r s f o r a n o f f e n s e .  H e a l t h A c t , 1893 The  H e a l t h A c t o f 1893 s e t up "The P r o v i n c i a l B o a r d  o f H e a l t h " c o n s i s t i n g o f n o t more t h a n f i v e members, one t o 113' -. -•  H e a l t h Act., B.C.' C o n s o l i d a t e d A c t s , 188.8, c. 55^ _ S a n i t a r y R e g u l a t i o n s , 1892, S e s s i o n a l Papers of the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1893, T h i r d S e s s i o n , S i x t h P a r l i a m e n t , p . 2671 1  86 be the S e c r e t a r y of the Board appointed by the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l .  The Board p u b l i s h e d s a n i t a r y l i t e r -  ature and had the power t o make r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the 115 p r e v e n t i o n and m i t i g a t i o n of d i s e a s e .  According to  s e c t i o n 27 of t h i s A c t , the Board had t o approve any p l a n s r e l a t i n g to proposed p u b l i c water s u p p l i e s or systems of S e c t i o n 28 made i t p o s s i b l e f o r the Board t o  sewerage.  f o r c e the m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s t o appoint O f f i c e r i f i t saw f i t .  a Medical Health  T h i s A c t c o n t a i n e d 106  sections  and formed the backbone of our present H e a l t h A c t . Sanitary Regulations, The  1896  1896,"  "Sanitary Regulations,  recommended by the  P r o v i n c i a l Board of H e a l t h , repealed the S a n i t a r y Regul a t i o n s of 1892.  They were- made- by the v i r t u e of the-  "Health A c t " and the " H e a l t h Act,  1893,"  and they s e t out  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l s of the' L o c a l Boards of H e a l t h , H e a l t h O f f i c e r s , and the S a n i t a r y I n s p e c t o r s so appointed. S e c t i o n s 18 t o 2% i n c l u s i v e of these r e g u l a t i o n s were concerned w i t h the water supply, e i t h e r p r i v a t e o r pub l i e . "^"^ S e c t i o n 21 made i t p o s s i b l e f o r the Board t o compel a householder  t o abandon-his use- of any w e l l , s p r i n g , or  other source of water and t o connect • ^ H e a l t h Act,  116 .  1893,  to the p u b l i c water  B.C. S t a t .  Sanitary Regulations,  , 1896.,  (1893),  c  1$.  N  the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1897, Seventh Parliament, pp. v i i i - i x .  S e s s i o n a l Papers o f Third Session,  87 mains.  W e l l s had t o be dug a c e r t a i n d i s t a n c e from any  source of contamination, and i t was made u n l a w f u l to contaminate or p e r c o l a t e i n t o any source of water'used f o r d r i n k i n g and d r i n k i n g purposes.  These r e g u l a t i o n s d e a l t  s p e c i f i c a l l y with the p o l l u t i o n of streams i n s e c t i o n 1_ |5 where- i t i s s t a t e d  that:  No s o l i d r e f u s e or waste matter of any k i n d s h a l l be d e p o s i t e d i n any stream so as to o b s t r u c t i t s f l o w , or put i n t o any stream or lake so as t o p o l l u t e i t s waters, and no s o l i d or l i q u i d sewage matter from e i t h e r p u b l i c or private- sewers s h a l l be d i s c h a r g e d i n t o any stream or l a k e , but i f i t can be proved that the best means have been adopted to p u r i f y the sewage, etc., b e f o r e i t e n t e r s the stream or lake-, no o f f e n c e i s committed, that i s u n l e s s the L o c a l Board has n o t i f i e d the o f f e n d i n g p a r t i e s that the means adopted are i n s u f f i c i e n t ; nor s h a l l any poisonous, noxious or p o l l u t i n g l i q u i d proceeding from any other source be passed i n t o any stream or lake u n l e s s the b e s t means have been f i r s t adopted to p u r i f y the same.H? N o t i c e that i f what was considered as the b e s t means of p u r i f i c a t i o n at the time was employed, then i t was p o s s i b l e to  d i s c h a r g e the e f f l u e n t  i n t o a stream, creek, or l a k e .  T h i s s e c t i o n of these r e g u l a t i o n s seems to be the f i r s t l e g i s l a t i o n which s p e c i f i c a l l y d e a l s w i t h the p o l l u t i o n of  streams. Chapter 91 of the Revised S t a t e s of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  1897,  r e v i s e d the H e a l t h Act, 1893,  Chapter 55 of the C o n s o l i d a t e d A c t of 1888. H e a l t h Act of 1893  and r e p e a l e d This l e f t the  as the governing l e g i s l a t i o n .  Ibid.-, s e c t i o n 1+5-.  88  In was  1903,  passed.  stated  "An Act to Prevent .Water-courses  I t contained c l a u s e s which were s i m i l a r to t h a t  i n section 3 7 ,  s u b s e c t i o n (k) of the p r e s e n t Water  (see page 2 0 of t h i s t h e s i s ) .  Act  In the f o l l o w i n g year,  "An Act r e s p e c t i n g S a n i t a r y Drainage S e c t i o n two  Obstruction"  Companies" was  passed.  of t h i s act s t a t e d that p l a n s of works t h a t were  to be c o n s t r u c t e d by  s a n i t a r y drainage companies must be 118  submitted to the P r o v i n c i a l Board Thus, the Board of  of H e a l t h was  of H e a l t h f o r a p p r o v a l .  able to c o n t r o l the  construction  sewerage systems as developed by drainage companies. On June 2 2 , 1 9 0 ^ ,  " R e g u l a t i o n s Governing  the Con-  s t r u c t i o n , Equipment and Management o f Slaughter-houses" was  approved  title  by the Lieutenant-Governor  i n Council.  i m p l i e s , these r e g u l a t i o n s were not concerned  the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l of waters  and  As.the with  consequently there are  no s e c t i o n s i n them which concern t h i s matter.  The  writer  does f e e l , however, t h a t p o s s i b l y t h i s would have been an a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e to attempt' to c o n t r o l the wastes from slaughter-houses,;.  I t w i l l be  shown t h a t l a t e r on the  r e g u l a t i o n s were r e p e a l e d by the " S a n i t a r y R e g u l a t i o n s , 119  1917  which do attempt  Stat.  U n s a n i t a r y Drainage Companies Act, (February 1 0 , 190k), c. 16.  to r e g u l a t e t h i s  matter. 190k«  B.C.  ^ ^ R e g u l a t i o n s Governing the C o n s t r u c t i o n , Equipment and Management o f Slaughter-houses, ( 1 9 0 5 ) , B.C. Gazette, J u l y 6 , 1 9 0 5 , pp. I k 7 3 - l k 7 k .  89 Sewerage Act,  1910  The H e a l t h Act was 1897  amended s e v e r a l times from r e v i s e d by Chapter 98  up to the time when i t was  the Revised  Statutes  of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1911.  these amendments d e a l t s p e c i f i c a l l y with  of  None of  water-pollution  c o n t r o l so there i s no heed to mention them here. However, some- mention should be made of the "Sewerage Act, 1910"'. S e c t i o n three of the Act could  set up  s t a t e d t h a t the  a Sewerage D i s t r i c t  Lieutenant-Governor  i f he r e c e i v e d a p e t i t i o n  from a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e number of owners of p r o p e r t y  i n the  120 district.  The  Commissioners of the d i s t r i c t  I n s i s t upon proper plumbing and  could  sewer connections.  This  act attempted to c o n t r o l stream p o l l u t i o n i n d i s t r i c t municipalities. Greater  Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t A c t , 195>6 L a t e r , i n 1911+, the "Vancouver and D i s t r i c t s J o i n t  Sewerage'and Drainage A c t " was  passed which e s t a b l i s h e d a  sewerage and drainage board of the same name w i t h powers to c o n s t r u c t , m a i n t a i n ,  and  operate sewers and 121  and without the sewerage d i s t r i c t .  This Act  drains within repealed  the " B u r r a r d - P e n i n s u l a J o i n t Sewerage A c t , " B.C. S t a t u t e s , 120 Sewerage Act, 1910, B.C. S t a t . (March 10, 1910), c. k3. 121 ........ -Vancouver and D i s t r i c t s J o i n t Sewerage and Drainage A c t , B.,C. S t a t . (March k, 191k) , c. 79. l  90  1913» this  C h a p t e r 7, b u t  i t a c t u a l l y gave t h e  newly-named b o a r d .  The  same p o w e r s t o  Vancouver- and D i s t r i c t s  Joint  S e w e r a g e and D r a i n a g e A c t h a s b e e n amended s e v e r a l since i t s f i r s t  passage but  the  sequence t o . t h e t e x t of t h i s i n 19i|-8 and 1956  no  when t h i s A c t was  amendments are- o f no  thesis.  amendments h a d  times  The  A c t was  revised 2,  b e e n made up t o M a r c h  r e p e a l e d by  the Greater  Vancouver  Sewerage and D r a i n a g e D i s t r i c t A c t . T h i s l a t t e r A c t a b l i s h e s a C o r p o r a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g of the C i t y of the C o r p o r a t i o n  of the D i s t r i c t  s i t y Endowment L a n d s .  est-  Vancouver,  the  Univer-  The- A c t g i v e s t h e C o r p o r a t i o n  b r o a d p o w e r t o e x p r o p r i a t e any without  of B u r n a b y and  con-  land w i t h i n i t s area  the or  i t s a r e a f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n and  a t i o n o f s e w e r a g e and  drainage  of the Lieutenant-Governor  f a c i l i t i e s w i t h the  oper-  consent  i n C o u n c i l a f t e r n o t i c e has  been 122  g i v e n t o the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n w h i c h the B a s i c a l l y , then, and D i s t r i c t s repealed.  this- Act  i s very  s i m i l a r to the  l a t t e r A c t , i t attempts  p o l l u t i o n only i n d i r e c t l y  o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t  on M a r c h 6 , 122  Act,. B..C.  to c o n t r o l  by g i v i n g the C o r p o r a t i o n  power t o e x p r o p r i a t e l a n d n e c e s s a r y  Act, Revised  Vancouver  J o i n t S e w e r a g e and D r a i n a g e A c t w h i c h i t  L i k e the  One  land i s located.  f o r sewerage works.  amendments t o t h e  S t a t u t e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1911, 19l5-  T h i s Amendment A c t  stated that  . G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r Sewerage and Stat. (1956),  c. 5 9 ,  sec.  the.  .257"  Drainage  Health  was  passed  mineral District  t r a d e r s must have a l i c e n s e and  t h a t a m u n i c i p a l i t y must  change or a l t e r i t s water works system i f d i r e c t e d t o the Board of H e a l t h .  Hence, the Board was  able- to  by  get  b e t t e r c o n t r o l over the p u r i t y of p u b l i c water systems. And  f u r t h e r , when a m u n i c i p a l i t y was  construction,  a l t e r a t i o n or e x t e n s i o n  or sewerage d i s p o s a l system, i t had s p e c i f i c a t i o n s approved by had  to be  contemplating of a p u b l i c  the sewerage  to have, the p l a n s  the Board, and  this  and  approval  r e c e i v e d b e f o r e a. by-law vote f o r r a i s i n g money 123  could be h e l d . amendments up by and  There were no. f u r t h e r to the  chapter 1 0 2  of the B r i t i s h Columbia S t a t u t e s  Columbia S t a t u t e s ,  to the  1936  R e v i s i o n of the  chapter I l k . Since  The  H e a l t h Act was  of B r i t i s h Columbia S t a t u t e s  there have been no The respecting repealed  t h a t time there  of 1914-8 and  1896,  "Sanitary Regulations, c o n t a i n the  chapter  since  and  then  the' R e g u l a t i o n s  H e a l t h Act Amendment Act, 1915), c 30.  1905,  were  1 9 1 7 ' " These  same s e c t i o n  the p o l l u t i o n of streams which was (March 6 ,  have  concern  r e v i s e d by  slaughter-houses approved June 2 2 ,  mentioned r e g u l a t i o n s  1 2 3  British  amendments.  Sanitary Regulations,  by the  Act," 192k,  of  amendments to the Act which s p e c i f i c a l l y  pollution control. lkl  time of r e v i s i o n of the " H e a l t h  f o r that matter up  been no  significant  latter-  regarding  f i r s t passed i n the 19l5,  B.C..Stat.  1896."^^"  Sanitary Regulations, to t h i s  No amendments h a v e b e e n made  s e c t i o n since i t s f i r s t passage.  Thus,  although  t h e r e g u l a t i o n s a r e i n need o f r e v i s i o n , t h e y a r e ' s t i l l i n effect. Sanitary Regulations The  Governing Watersheds,  "Sanitary Regulations  G o v e r n i n g W a t e r s h e d s " were  o r i g i n a l l y p a s s e d i n 1918. and t h e l a t e s t 1936. any  These r e g u l a t i o n s a p p l y  1936  amendment was i n  t o every person  w a t e r s h e d a r e a above a m u n i c i p a l  entering'  intake, reservoir, or  dam and c a l l f o r W a t e r s h e d S a n i t a r y I n s p e c t o r s appointed by the Municipal. C o u n c i l , subject of t h e P r o v i n c i a l B o a r d o f H e a l t h .  t o be  to the  approval  Essentially the  r e g u l a t i o n s a t t e m p t t o p r e v e n t anyone who i s a c a r r i e r o f a communicable d i s e a s e  from entering  onto the watershed  a r e a , w h e t h e r he b e t h e e m p l o y e e o f a company a u t h o r i z e d  125 to- w o r k i n t h e w a t e r s h e d a r e a o r a t r a n s i e n t c a m p e r . I t i s understood that these r e g u l a t i o n s are also s t u d y f o r amendment a t t h e p r e s e n t  under  time.  P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t , 195>6 T h u s , i t c a n be s e e n t h a t up t o t h i s t i m e , t h e l e g i s l a t i o n regarding 1 2  w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l has been  ^S'anitary Regulations,  1917,  ( J u l y 31,  1917)  66. I n s a n i t a r y Regulations ( O c t o b e r 13, 1926') .  governing Watersheds,  sec. 1926,  93 more o f a p r e v e n t i v e The most r e c e n t cited and this  nature  r a t h e r than of a c o n t r o l nature.  water-pollution control legislation i s  as t h e " P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t " ( s e e A p p e n d i x  was a s s e n t e d  t o on M a r c h 2,  19^6.  VIII)  The p r e a m b l e o f  a c t s t a t e s as f o l l o w s : W h e r e a s i t i s deemed i n t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t t o m a i n t a i n and e n s u r e t h e p u r i t y o f a l l w a t e r s o f t h e P r o v i n c e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p u b l i c h e a l t h and t h e p u b l i c e n j o y m e n t t h e r e o f , t h e p r o p a g a t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n o f w i l d l i f e , b i r d s , game, and o t h e r a q u a t i c - l i f e , and the i n d u s t r i a l development of t h e P r o v i n c e : And w h e r e i t i s deemed e x p e d i e n t t o r e q u i r e t h e u s e o f a l l known a v a i l a b l e and r e a s o n a b l e m e t h o d s b y i n d u s t r i e s and o t h e r s t o p r e v e n t and c o n t r o l t h e p o l l u t i o n of the waters of the P r o v i n c e : Now, t h e r e f o r e , H e r M a j e s t y , b y and w i t h t h e a d v i c e and c o n s e n t o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y o f the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , e n a c t s as f o l l o w s : The p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e A c t a p p l y  designated and  t o any a r e a t h a t i s  by Order o f the Lieutenant-Governor  i n Council  i t s e t s up a P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l B o a r d w i t h t h e p o w e r  to determine the q u a l i t i e s  and p r o p e r t i e s o f w a t e r w h i c h  s h a l l c o n s t i t u t e a p o l l u t e d c o n d i t i o n , t o c o n d u c t t e s t s and surveys,  t o examine- a l l e x i s t i n g  sewage.disposal,  and p r o p o s e d means o f  and t o p r e s c r i b e s t a n d a r d s  regarding the  q u a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r o f t h e e f f l u e n t w h i c h may b e d i s - ' c h a r g e d i n t o any o f t h e w a t e r s w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . The Act- g i v e s t h e B o a r d t h e p o w e r t o impose a p e n a l t y n o t P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t , B.C.  S t a t . ( 1 9 5 6 ) , c.  36.  91+ exceeding two hundred d o l l a r s i f a person contravenes any order of the Board or n e g l e c t s to do a n y t h i n g r e q u i r e d to be done by the Board. specifically  F u r t h e r , s e c t i o n seven of the Act  states:  No person s h a l l d i s c h a r g e sewage or other waste m a t e r i a l s i n t o the waters of the area or areas under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Board without the p e r m i s s i o n of the Board. Such p e r m i s s i o n may be i n the form of a permit, which may prescribe- the degree of treatment of the e f f l u e n t as w e l l as the l o c a t i o n of the p o i n t of d i s c h a r g e i n t o the waters of the a r e a and the manner of the d i s c h a r g e as a C o n d i t i o n of the p e r m i s s i o n . 127 Since t h i s i s a new  a c t , p r o v i s i o n has been made i n i t . s o  that the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l might make any r e g u l a t i o n s which are not i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the s p i r i t of the Act and which he may  deem are n e c e s s a r y .  of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s i s i n charge of the  The M i n i s t e r  administration  of the A c t , the funds f o r which are to come out of the C o n s o l i d a t e d Revenue Fund. T h i s i s the f i r s t Act to attempt s p e c i f i c a l l y to c o n t r o l the p o l l u t i o n of the waters of the P r o v i n c e . Undoubtedly, t h e r e w i l l be s e v e r a l amendment a c t s to it  i n the near f u t u r e ; however, i t i s a p r o g r e s s i v e step  i n the r i g h t  direction.  The w r i t e r w i l l now  summarize the e x i s t i n g  legis-  l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to. w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l i n B r i t i s h Columbia-today, i n c l u d i n g the P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t , 195>6. 127 'ibid.,  sec. 7.  CHAPTER I X E X I S T I N G L E G I S L A T I O N ON WATER"POLLUTION CONTROL I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA TODAY The w r i t e r ' w i l l h e r e r e f e r t o a n e x c e l l e n t  report  s u b m i t t e d b y Mr. R. B.owering, D i r e c t o r , D i v i s i o n o f P u b l i c H e a l t h E n g i n e e r i n g , D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e t o the  P o l l u t i o n Panel at the s i x t h B r i t i s h Columbia  Resources Conference.  A t y p e w r i t t e n copy o f t h i s  Natural report,  " P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Today.," i s e n c l o s e d in  this thesis  to  b r i n g t h e m a t e r i a l up to- d a t e so t h a t , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t  to  the content of t h i s There  cial  (see Appendix I X ) .  The w r i t e r h a s a t t e m p t e d  thesis.  a r e s e v e r a l p i e b e s o f b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n -  legislation existing  i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the  c o n t r o l of p o l l u t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l w a t e r s . A l t h o u g h a l l t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n was e n a c t e d w i t h a d e f i n i t e  objective  i n m i n d , t h e r e was no l e g i s l a t i o n on the- s t a t u t e  books  which d e a l s w i t h p o l l u t i o n i n a l l I t s aspects i n a broad 1 ?fi  or  g e n e r a l way,  u n t i l the Provincial  Legislature  r e c e n t l y p a s s e d t h e " P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t " ( s e e Appen-  dix., .viii.) 1 __8 R. B o w e r i n g , " P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a - Tod a y , " T r a n s a c t i o n s - o f t h e S i x t h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e ( V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s C o n f e r e n c e . , 1953) P- l 8 k .  95  The of the  reader, Is asked to r e f e r  to Table I I f o r  government a g e n c i e s w h i c h have l e g i s l a t i o n  with water-pollution g i v e s them an It  control  authority  to  pollution.  The  on  the  the  the  e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n has  w r i t e r f e e l s that  the  s e p a r a t e government a g e n c i e s , "  interests  to  w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s and i n g l e g i s rat of c o n t r o l section  i o n has  has  consider,  As  can b e  dealing  action ...  come a b o u t a t d i f f e r e n t further  each  sometimes c o o p e r a t i n g 129 the  seen f r o m the  w i t h the  l e g i s l a t i o n , the  T h i s has  the  rather  exist-  been even less- e f f e c t i v e i n the  of t h i s t h e s i s  Province.  that  sometimes not  of p o l l u t i o n .  pollution control  fact  i n nature,  was  w i t h , i t s own  of  existing legislation  Because- o f t h e  by  had  p r e v e n t i o n of c e r t a i n t y p e s  than c o n t r o l l i n g . out  dealing  l e g i s l a t i o n which  appears t o have been l a r g e l y p r e v e n t i v e  carried  list  act.  i s apparent that  considerable effect  and  a  history  interest  stages i n the reduced the  matter  previous  of  i n the  waterproblem  growth of  effectiveness  the of  such proposed c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n . The i f he  reader i s referred  wishes to  s c r u t i n i z e the  to Appendix IX effectiveness  of t h i s , t h e s i s of the  u a l p i e c e s o f l e g i s l a t i o n shown i n T a b l e I I d e a l i n g p o l l u t i o n -control.  The  w r i t e r has  t a k e n the  l2Q B o w e r i n g , op.  c i t . , p.  l85>.  individwith  l i b e r t y of-  97 TABLE I I . GOVERNMENTAL POLLUTION "CONTROL. AUTHORITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA""Government Agency MUNICIPAL L o c a l Boards of H e a l t h PROVINCIAL H e a l t h Branch Department o f H e a l t h and Welfare Water R i g h t s Branch, Department of Lands and F o r e s t s Park S e r v i c e , Department of Lands and F o r e s t s F i s h e r i e s Department Game Commission,. A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s Department Department of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s FEDERAL Department of F i s h e r i e s Department o f Resources and Development N a t i o n a l Harbours Board Department of Transport Department of Public- Works  Legislative Authority' "Health A c t " of B.C. S a n i t a r y R e g u l a t i o n s of B.C. " M u n i c i p a l A c t " ( S e c t i o n 58) " H e a l t h A c t " of B.C. S a n i t a r y R e g u l a t i o n s of B.C. S a n i t a r y R e g u l a t i o n s Governi n g Watersheds "Water A c t " of B.C. Park R e g u l a t i o n s Use f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n Use f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n ( F i s h e r i e s A c t and M i g r a t o r y B i r d s Regul a t i o n s Act) "Pollution-control Act" "Fisheries A c t " "Migratory Bird's R e g u l a t i o n Act" N a t i o n a l Harbours Board By-laws. "Navigable Waters Protection Act" "Canada Shipping A c t " "Navigable Waters Prot ect i o n Act" "Navigable Waters P r o t e c ' t i o n Act" :  L o c a l Port A u t h o r i t i e s , Department of Transport  "Taken from Table I , "Government Agencies Having' P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A u t h o r i t y , " of R. Bowering, " P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l i n B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a Today," T r a n s a c t i o n s of the S i x t h B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference ( V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 1 9 5 3 ) , p. l 8 k . Table I has been amended and brought up t o date. 1  '""The p e r t i n e n t s e c t i o n s of l e g i s l a t i o n , as l i s t e d i n Table I I , are g i v e n i n Appendix IX.  amending t h i s s e c t i o n o f Mr. Bowering s 1  b r i n g the r e p o r t  report  so as t o  i n l i n e w i t h the p r e s e n t l y e x i s t i n g  legislation.  I t Is f e l t  that t h i s r e p o r t w i l l give the  reader a very  c l e a r p i c t u r e of problem of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l  as i t e x i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia today and the e f f e c t i v e ness of the e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n concerning  this  subject,  as w e l l as s e v e r a l examples of p o l l u t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia today.  The r e p o r t i s recommended  r e a d i n g f o r the reader b e f o r e  as p r e l i m i n a r y  the w r i t e r d i s c u s s e s the  problem of attempting to s e t f o r t h d e s i r a b l e p r i n c i p l e s of w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n  control l e g i s l a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h  Columbia.  CHAPTER X I DESIRABLE GENERAL PRINCIPLES' OP B R I T I S H COLUMBIA WATER-POLLUTION CONTROL L E G I S L A T I O N Water-pollution Control Obviously,  Policy  the f i r s t  step i n b r i n g i n g about t h e  w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l program i s t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of a pollution-control policy.  Such a p o l i c y  statement i s  made i n t h e p r e a m b l e o f t h e r e c e n t l y p a s s e d c o n t r o l A c t ( s e e p a g e 93) .  Pollution-  A more e l a b o r a t e - and d e t a i l e d  s t a t e m e n t o f p o l i c y m i g h t b e as f o l l o w s : Whereas t h e p o l l u t i o n o f t h e w a t e r s o f t h i s S t a t e [ [ P r o v i n c e ] c o n s t i t u t e s a menace t o p u b l i c h e a l t h and w e l f a r e , c r e a t e s p u b l i c n u i s a n c e s , i s h a r m f u l t o w i l d l i f e , f i s h and a q u a t i c l i f e , and I m p a i r s domestic, a g r i c u l t u r a l , i n d u s t r i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and o t h e r l e g i t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a l u s e s o f w a t e r , and w h e r e a s t h e p r o b l e m o f w a t e r p o l l u t i o n I n t h i s S t a t e [Pr o v i n c e ] i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o b l e m of water p o l l u t i o n i n a d j o i n i n g S t a t e s [Provinces] and c o u n t r i e s , i t i s h e r e b y d e c l a r e d t o b e t h e p u b l i c p o l i c y of t h i s State. [Province] t o Conserve t h e w a t e r s o f t h e S t a t e [ P r o v i n c e ] and t o p r o t e c t , m a i n t a i n and improve- t h e q u a l i t y t h e r e o f f o r p u b l i c water s u p p l i e s , f o r the propagation of w i l d l i f e , f i s h and a q u a t i c l i f e , and f o r d o m e s t i c a g r i c u l t u r a l , i n d u s t r i a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l and o t h e r - l e g i t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a l u s e s ; to- p r o v i d e t h a t nov:vaste b e d i s c h a r g e d i n t o any w a t e r s o f t h e S t a t e [ P r o v i n c e ] without f i r s t b e i n g g i v e n t h e degree of treatment necessary t o protect the l e g i t i m a t e b e n e f i c i a l u s e s o f s u c h waters;- t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e p r e v e n t i o n , , a b a t e m e n t and c o n t r o l o f new o r e x i s t i n g w a t e r  99  100 p o l l u t i o n ; and t o cooperate with other agencies of the S t a t e [ P r o v i n c e ] , agencies of other S t a t e s [Provinces] and the F e d e r a l Government i n c a r r y i n g out these o b i e c t i v e s . 130 The  e x c e l l e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n from which t h i s p o l i c y  statement  has been quoted has been i n c l u d e d i n p a r t i n Appendix X of" t h i s t h e s i s , "Suggested S t a t e Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act."  The w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t , although t h i s p i e c e of l e g i s -  l a t i o n has been suggested it  can be advantageously  f o r the s t a t e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , a p p l i e d t o the p r o v i n c e s  i n Canada  where the same problem has not y e t become as s e r i o u s . The Suggested Act deals only w i t h the g e n e r a l problem of waterp o l l u t i o n control,, and t h e r e f o r e i t can e q u a l l y be a p p l i e d to the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia a f t e r a v e r y few minorChanges i n i t s terminology.  I t i s f o r t h i s reason  that the  w r i t e r w i l l make constant r e f e r e n c e s t o this, proposed  legis-  l a t i o n i n the l a t e r pages of t h i s t h e s i s when attempting t o evaluate British  the r e c e n t l y - p a s s e d P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t of Columbia.  Standards of Water Q u a l i t y The next  l o g i c a l step a f t e r s e t t i n g up the p o l i c y i s  to c l a s s i f y the- waters of the P r o v i n c e . Such standards  as  were shown on page 76 under, "The W a t e r - P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l 130 .- :-• P u b l i c - H e a l t h S e r v i c e , Suggested S t a t e Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t and E x p l a n a t o r y Statement, An Invest i g a t i o n Prepared by the F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y A g e n c y of the D i v i s i o n of Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l of the P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , P u b l i c a t i o n No. k 9 (Washington: P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , October, 1 9 ^ 0 ) , p. 7.  Problem" must of n e c e s s i t y be a c t i o n i s to be  taken.  and  must have to be to be  the  without  to which the p a r t i c u l a r body of water  degree of q u a l i t y which that body  s u i t a b l e f o r that use,  very d i f f i c u l t .  The  enforcement i s going  B r i t i s h Columbia P o l l u t i o n -  c o n t r o l Act makes no mention of the dards; r a t h e r ,  i f proper- enforcement  I t seems reasonable that  a d e t e r m i n a t i o n of use i s to be put  set up  s e t t i n g of such  stan-  the P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l Board i s g i v e n broad  powers to determine the  q u a l i t y which s h a l l c o n s t i t u t e  a  131  polluted condition.  The  writer f e e l s that  set. such standards arid c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as has suggested and  so give' the reader of the Act  what s h a l l -constitute a a p o l l u t e d  the Act been  could  previously  an i d e a of j u s t  c o n d i t i o n without, h a v i n g  to wait on the favour of the Board.  I t Is i n t e r e s t i n g to  note that the C a l i f o r n i a State Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l does set such standards'- f o r d i s c h a r g e of Los The  Angeles sewage.  Board's concept of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l c a l l s f o r  uation  of b e n e f i c i a l uses of r e c e i v i n g waters and  of discharges to p r o t e c t I t does not permit, the  as many of the- b e n e f i t s  s t a t e to t e l l d i s c h a r g e r s  achieve the q u a l i t y d e s i r e d , but d i s c h a r g e - s h o u l d meet. -1 -5-1 J  sec. k(a) .  132  This  evalcontrol  as  possible.  how  to  only what requirements concept has- been  - -  P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t , B.C.  Stat.  Board  the  criticized  (1956),  c  36,  132  Record  " P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l S t i m u l a t e d , " E n g i n e e r i n g News(May 2 k , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 1 2 k .  102  by f i s h i n g  i n t e r e s t s and c i t i e s  a l o n g t h e b e a c h who  t h a t t h e w a t e r s s h o u l d be k e p t a t t h e h i g h e s t  feel  'beneficial  133 use"' q u a l i t y  standard.  I t i s noted that this' concept -,  Q  j  has not y e t been put t o a thorough t e s t . t r a t i o n of the C a l i f o r n i a r e g i o n a l boards  and  The  adminis-  s e t - u p i n v o l v e s a number o f  a state board.  The  primary control i s  i n the- h a n d s o f t h e f o r m e r , t h e s t a t e b o a r d o n l y s t e p p i n g i n when t h e r e g i o n a l b o a r d ' s r u l i n g i s a p p e a l e d . w r i t e r recommends t h a t adopt  the B r i t i s h Columbia  The  legislation  s u c h a d e f i n i t e .and. p o s i t i v e n a t u r e as h a s b e e n g i v e n  to the C a l i f o r n i a  legislation.  S u c h an a p p r o a c h istratively difficult  s h o u l d n o t make the- p r o c e s s a d m i n -  or time consuming.  I t i s true  that  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s - o n c e made a r e h a r d t o change and t e n d t o "135  create vested i n t e r e s t s .  However, the w r i t e r f e e l s  s u c h a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f w a t e r s as- w e l l as q u a l i t y s h o u l d be  inserted  Suggested  A c t a u t h o r i z e s t h e agency  s e t up  i n t o the Act.  that  standards  I t i s noted that w h i l e the to c l a s s i f y waters  and  standards f o r q u a l i t y i n these c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , i t  does n o t make i t m a n d a t o r y f o r t h e a g e n c y t o do s o . ^ ^ " N e w P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l F o r m u l a , " E n g i n e e r i n g NewsR e c o r d (May 1 0 , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 2 8 . 3  1 3 3  135  1 3 6  P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l S t i m u l a t e d , " op. C i t . , p .  '  '  . P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , op_. c i t . , p . Ibid.,  p.  16.  5-  12k.  103 Permit System of W a t e r - P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l The B r i t i s h Columbia P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t , as has been p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, r e q u i r e s t h a t any p e r s o n must o b t a i n a permit from the Board b e f o r e he may d i s c h a r g e  137  any wastes i n waters under the Board's j u r i s d i c t i o n . The P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e f e e l s that t h i s i s p o t e n t i a l l y one.of the most e f f e c t i v e techniques f o r c o n t r o l of water  138  pollution.  The reason f o r the permit system's b e i n g so  e f f e c t i v e i s that by i t s means the Board i s able to e i t h e r prohibit  d i s c h a r g e s e n t i r e l y or to f o r c e t h e i r treatment  to the p o i n t where l e g i t i m a t e water' uses are protected.' The Board i s thus able t o c o n t r o l not only new d i s c h a r g e s but a l s o e x i s t i n g d i s c h a r g e s , as was mentioned' p r e v i o u s l y on page 93 Act."  under a d i s c u s s i o n of the " P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l  The w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t the Act should be  adequate  i n r e s p e c t to the q u e s t i o n of p r o h i b i t i o n , the permit system of c o n t r o l b e i n g v e r y e f f e c t i v e . Enforcement of W a t e r - P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l L e g i s l a t i o n The Act p r o v i d e s f o r adequate enforcement, i n the o p i n i o n of the w r i t e r .  I t i s made u n l a w f u l t o cause  any  p o l l u t i o n of the waters under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Board as w e l l as to v i o l a t e any order i s s u e d by the Board, 1 3 7  sec. 7.  P o 1 l u t i on- c ont r o 1 . , A c t , B.C.  138  Stat.  (19^6),  . .  P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , op_. c i t . . , p.  5-  c.  36,  i n c l u d i n g d i s c h a r g i n g e f f l u e n t which f a i l s to meet the 139  r e q u i r e d standards.  J7  I t i s presumed t h a t the Board has  a system of m o n i t o r i n g the r e c e i v i n g water so as t o be sure that the requirements  are met. The w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t such a  system should be p r o v i d e d f o r i n the A c t .  The A c t i m p l i e s  t h a t , i f an appeal to an order i s not made t o the LieutenantGovernor w i t h i n t h i r t y days from the date o f the order, the order i s f i n a l and b i n d i n g i n a court o f l a w . ^ 1  g e n e r a l l y understood  I t Is  that the c o u r t s w i l l not i n t e r f e r e  with  d e c i s i o n s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d i e s u n l e s s i t i s a " q u e s t i o n of  law." Thus, the enforcement i s c l e a r and d e c i s i v e .  F u r t h e r , a c t i o n w i l l take p l a c e r e l a t i v e l y q u i c k l y as the appeal must be made to the Lieutenant-Governor  i n Council  who can make a f i n a l and b i n d i n g d e c i s i o n . The A c t f u r t h e r i m p l i e s that a permit may be revoked, i f the c o n d i t i o n s on the permit  denied, or m o d i f i e d  are not complied  with.^""'"  Thus, the P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t seems to be very  powerful  In the area of enforcement. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Agency Once the l e g i s l a t i o n has been decided upon, the agency o r agencies designated.  to a d m i n i s t e r such a program must be  The B r i t i s h Columbia P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l Act  " ^ P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t , B.C. S t a t . ( 1 9 5 6 ) , c. 36/, sec . 5• I b i d . , sec. 6 . lkl I b i d . , s e c . 7.  l k Q  10$ places  the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n under the M i n i s t e r of  Affairs. ^1  P r e v i o u s l y , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  2  c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n was due  to the f a c t  concern other  be  of p o l l u t i o n -  d i v i d e d amongst s e v e r a l  .The  agency which administers  writer,  therefore, should  i n t e r e s t s and  a f f e c t e d groups i n a d d i t i o n to h e a l t h  consider-  ations . I t must have been w i t h t h i s thought i n mind t h a t lkk L e g i s l a t u r e set up  a P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l Board.  Lieutenant-Governor has  office.  The  various  The  t h e i r terms of  Board s h a l l c o n s i s t of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  of  departments of the P r o v i n c i a l Government and  haps some c i t i z e n s from outside  administrator, provided  I f the  Lieutenant-  t h a t the Board i s to C o n s i s t of a s i n g l e  then t h i s a d m i n i s t r a t o r  w i t h an a d v i s o r y  board p l u s  per-  the government so that a l l  a f f e c t e d i n t e r e s t s are represented. Governor decides  the  the power to determine the number  of members t h a t s h a l l s i t on the Board and  council.  should  obviously  be  Possibly a p r o v i n c i a l  s e v e r a l r e g i o n a l boards each c o n s i s t i n g of  representatives  of i n d u s t r y , a g r i c u l t u r e , water,  sewerage agencies can be set up Ik2- I b i d . , sec. 11.  and  i f the l o a d becomes  too  U+3 R. Bowering, op. sec. 3 •  l k l |  c i t . , p.  P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t , B.C.  l8k. Stat.  3  control  such a program  c o n s t i t u t e d so as to take i n t o account the  views of the  agencies,-^  that the problems' of w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n  i n t e r e s t s than h e a l t h .  f e e l s that any  Municipal  (19^6), c.  36,  106  heavy f o r a s i n g l e a d m i n i s t r a t o r . i n mind, however, that the to the f u l l  supervisory  I t should  agency should  not be  kept  subjected  c o n t r o l of the Department of Muni-  c i p a l A f f a i r s which operates i n a' f i e l d narrower than the w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n The  always be  which i s  comparatively  c o n t r o l agency.  Suggested State Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act  states  that where the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l agency i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n an e x i s t i n g department, as i s the the  agency should be p l a c e d  The  reason f o r t h i s  department has  Columbia,  i n the h e a l t h department.  statement i s simple.  major p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and water-pollution  case i n B r i t i s h  Health  i s the  an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the  c o n t r o l program; and  presumably the  t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l and f a c i l i t i e s  be used f o r w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n  active  c o n t r o l work.  health  which  I f the  may  health  department i s a l r e a d y c a r r y i n g on work to do w i t h p o l l u t i o n •control, a d u p l i c a t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l facilities  can be  avoided.  the w r i t e r challenges  and  I t i s f o r these reasons that,  the p l a c i n g of the. w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n  c o n t r o l agency under the Department of M u n i c i p a l  Affairs.  I t i s a l s o f e l t by the w r i t e r that the Board would be more e f f e c t i v e i f i t were g i v e n a l l the powers to c a r r y out i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  administrative The  Board does  not-have, t h e - q u a s i - j u d i c i a l powers t h a t , f o r i n s t a n c e , lJ  +^Public H e a l t h  S e r v i c e , op_. c i t . , p.  k.  the  Comptroller has under s e c t i o n 26 of the Water A c t . C o m p t r o l l e r , Deputy C o m p t r o l l e r , Engineer,  The  or Water Recorder  have the power to h o l d an i n q u i r y and f o r such purposes have the powers and j u r i s d i c t i o n of a J u s t i c e of the Peace under the "Summary C o n v i c t i o n s A c t " . ^~  I t i s thus f e l t by the  w r i t e r t h a t the Board should have a u t h o r i t y or powers which are commensurate w i t h i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . recommends, f o r t h i s reason,  The w r i t e r  that the Board be g i v e n the  power t o : ... h o l d h e a r i n g s , subpoena witnesses, e n f o r c e I t s subpoenas, a d m i n i s t e r oaths, ... r e q u i r e the keepi n g o f r e c o r d s and the making of r e p o r t s , and enter on p r o p e r t y at reasonable times f o r purposes of i n s p e c t i o n and i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t i s noted  t h a t the- Board a l r e a d y has the power to examine  p l a n s and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r sewage or other wastes lk8 d i s p o s a l works. P l a n n i n g for- F u t u r e Developments The up  existing water-pollution control l e g i s l a t i o n ,  t o the passage of the P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t , had n o t  d e a l t with the problem as a whole.  T h i s r e c e n t Act does  attempt to. handle the o v e r - a l l s i t u a t i o n without r e p e a l i n g l k 6  ^  W a t e r A c t , R.S.B.C. (.191+8), c. 361, sec. 26. 7  P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , op. c i t . , p . 6.  P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t , B.C. S t a t . (19^6), c. 36, sec. l+(d) . l k 8  108  or r e d u c i n g  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the piece-meal p a t t e r n  that has p r e v i o u s l y been set.. P o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l should be  considered  i n the  and development of a l l our r i v e r b a s i n programs. been suggested t h a t a ten-year  p e r i o d should be  which to accomplish a reasonable  planning  I t has set w i t h i n  program f o r c l e a n i n g up lii-9  the U n i t e d  States'- p o l l u t e d waters.  The w r i t e r f e e l s  that such a p e r i o d i s not unreasonable when r e l a t e d to B r i t i s h Columbia's p o l l u t e d waters and f o r ' t h a t reason should be  set as the o u t s i d e  l i m i t to g a i n the  cooperative  e f f o r t s of p r i v a t e I n d u s t r i e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , provinces,  op.  and  the F e d e r a l Government to t h a t  end.  "'•^President's Water Resources P o l i c y Commission, c i t . , p. 108.  PART IV. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS  CHAPTER X I I CONCLUSION As a r e s u l t  of t h i s c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the e x i s t i n g  B r i t i s h Columbia water supply and d i s t r i b u t i o n  legislation,  the w r i t e r f e e l s that the B r i t i s h Columbia Water Act has both sound l e g i s l a t i v e foundations  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  procedure, and i s f a r s u p e r i o r to- any of the s i m i l a r of l e g i s l a t i o n o f the other p r o v i n c e s  i n Canada.  pieces  The w r i t e r  a l s o f e e l s that the Act ranks h i g h i n comparison w i t h the water acts of comparable western s t a t e s of the U n i t e d  States.  However, there are some v e r y d e f i n i t e improvements t h a t the w r i t e r would l i k e t o recommend f o r t h i s A c t . These recommendations have been t a b u l a t e d i n the s e c t i o n immediately following this  conclusion.  The w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t the B r i t i s h Columbia p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n has been v e r y l a x and i n d e c i s i v e i n the past.  Up u n t i l the P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l Act of 19f>6, the  a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n have been d i v i d e d amongst v a r i o u s government agencies,  a d i v i s i o n which has l e d to o v e r - l a p p i n g i n some  i n s t a n c e s and a g e n e r a l l a c k of c o o r d i n a t i o n i n the- overa l l picture.  It is difficult  recently-passed  to analyse  c r i t i c a l l y the  P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t (assented 109  t o on  March 2, 19^6)  when the Act has  Thus, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  r e a l l y not been proved.  to g i v e a f a i r comparison w i t h ,  say,  the C a l i f o r n i a A c t , which has been i n e x i s t e n c e f o r a longer p e r i o d of time'. to  However, the w r i t e r has  attempted  look ahead and f o r e s e e problems that might a r i s e under  this legislation.  F u r t h e r , the w r i t e r has  attempted to  compare t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n with the suggested s t a t e p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s of America.  As  a r e s u l t , the w r i t e r f e e l s t h a t An Act to C o n t r o l the P o l l u t i o n of Waters of the P r o v i n c e ,  or the  Pollution-  c o n t r o l A c t , as i t i s known under i t s s h o r t - t i t l e , i s a very good b a s i c s t a r t on the ever-growing; problem of p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l of the Province's waters. w r i t e r f e e l s that i t should be i s only the b e g i n n i n g ,  recognized  so to speak, and  However, the  t h a t t h i s Act  t h a t there  are  c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e recommendations that can be made f o r i t s improvement.  These recommendations have been t a b u l a t e d  along w i t h those made f o r the Water A c t . suggestions may  Many of the  f o r improvement of the P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l Act  a l r e a d y be- i n the minds of i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s i n  V i c t o r i a , and may  a l r e a d y be  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the proposed  amendment a c t s which w i l l undoubtedly come b e f o r e  a future  s e s s i o n of the L e g i s l a t u r e . Some of the recommendations presented  in this thesis  f o r b o t h of the above-mentioned aets have, been made- i n an  Ill attempt t o provide- f o r the f u t u r e .  I n most cases,  l a t i o n i s enacted o n l y a f t e r c o n d i t i o n s l e g i s l a t i o n i s a necessity. the w r i t e r has  are  legis-  such that  I t i s f o r t h i s reason that  attempted to f o r e s e e c e r t a i n f u t u r e problems  which c o n c e i v a b l y  could  l e g i s l a t i o n i n order  a r i s e , and  adequate  to prepare f o r these s i t u a t i o n s . S u c h  problems, as, f o r example, w i l l  a r i s e from the  development of atomic f i s s i o n and wastes, must be  thus p r o v i d e  solved  increasing  the r e s u l t i n g r a d i o a c t i v e  i n advance because of the  severity  of t h e i r p o s s i b l e e f f e c t on mankind. The w r i t e r has  d e a l t w i t h the  e x i s t i n g water l e g i s -  l a t i o n i n the P r o v i n c e under two main s e c t i o n s : the watersupply  l e g i s l a t i o n and  lation. two  the w a t e r - p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l l e g i s -  H o w e v e r , the reader i s not. to f e e l that these  are  e n t i r e l y separate problems; r a t h e r , the reader must  t h i n k of a c y c l e i n which the W a t e r A c t c o n t r o l s thewater supply  and  the P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t controls, the  p o l l u t i o n of that water supply, b o t h A c t s f o c u s i n g on prime o b j e c t i v e , the h i g h e s t under the  q u a l i t y water supply  e x i s t i n g Circumstances.  one  possible  CHAPTER  XIII  RECOMMENDATION'S  Based doing  on t h e f i n d i n g s  a critical  i n the Province  analysis  and c o n c l u s i o n s  developed i n  of the e x i s t i n g water  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  legislation  the f o l l o w i n g are  recommended: For.the  British  1. T h a t  some p r o v i s i o n b e made f o r t h e a c q u i r i n g ,  Controlling, waters.  and' e x e r c i s i n g  'Such l e g i s l a t i o n  underground would  Columbia Water A c t  o f r i g h t s t o the use o f ground  should  encompass b o t h d e f i n i t e  s t r e a m s and p e r c o l a t i n g  recommend t h a t  waters.  the appropriation  The w r i t e r  doctrine  i n b o t h of t h e s e s u b - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s because and  equitability  mean t h a t  of t h i s d o c t r i n e .  a l l surface  w i l l be r e g u l a t e d  Such  and g r o u n d w a t e r s  be a d o p t e d  of the f a i r n e s s  an a d o p t i o n w i l l of the Province  e x c l u s i v e l y by the p r i o r  appropriation  f o r b e n e f i c i a l use d o c t r i n e .  2. T h a t some p r o v i s i o n b e made f o r an t o have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  of r e c a p t u r i n g  and r e - u s i n g  water which r e s u l t s from h i s development gent  and u s e s f o r e s i g h t  appropriator return  when he I s d i l i -  i n h i s attempt n o t t o i n f r i n g e  112  113 upon p r e - e x i s t i n g r i g h t s . water should; be p r o v i d e d o r i g i n a l flow.  The  The  appropriation  f o r i n the  appropriator  of the  return  a p p r o p r i a t i o n of  should be  the  allowed f i v e  years a f t e r the time that the r e t u r n water appears i n reasonably i d e n t i f i a b l e q u a n t i t i e s i n the water i n which to e x e r c i s e h i s r i g h t . e x i s t e n c e , q u a n t i t y , and appropriator.  The  The  supply,  burden of proof  l o c a t i o n should  l i e on the  w r i t e r recommends t h a t the  of original  citation  given  on page £0 of t h i s t h e s i s be used f o r the form of the proposed amendment. 3. That some p r o v i s i o n be made f o r the of salvaged  water and  any f o r e s e e a b l e  appropriation  developed water i n p r e p a r a t i o n  for  f u t u r e shortage of our n a t u r a l water  Such a p r o v i s i o n should be  resources.  s t a t e d so as to i n c l u d e the  follow-  ing points: ( i ) .Appropriation  of salvaged  i s s u p e r i o r to any  other  or developed water c l a i m and  i s not  be- s u b j e c t to r e g u l a t i o n a c c o r d i n g  to p r i o r i t y ,  ( i i ) Salvaged or developed water-becomes to g e n e r a l  appropriation  i f the  s i b l e f o r i t does not f i l e a p p r o p r i a t i o n w i t h i n two (iii)  Subject  to the  and  subject  one- respon-  an a p p l i c a t i o n f o r  years,  above-mentioned p r e f e r e n t i a l  r i g h t of a p p r o p r i a t i o n , does not  to  developed water that  enter a water- supply becomes a  independent water supply,, and  new  similarly,  Ilk  salvaged  or developed water t h a t enters  a  water supply becomes an i n s e p a r a b l e p a r t of it. ( i v ) T h e onus of proof of the nature,  source,  q u a n t i t y , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the e x i s tence  of salvaged  the o r i g i n a l  and  developed water i s on  appropriator'.  k. That some p r o v i s i o n be made f o r the r o t a t i o n i n use  of water i n the event of an unexpected shortage  f o r domestic or o t h e r purposes.  of water  Such a p r o v i s i o n w i l l  allow  everyone- to o b t a i n some water f o r domestic purposes r a t h e r than have a s o l e user i n the event of a f u t u r e emergency. 5>. That some p r o v i s i o n be made f o r the exchange o f water so t h a t a p p r o p r i a t o r s may  exchange water w i t h  another so long as the r i g h t s of o t h e r s are not  one  impaired  w i t h r e s p e c t to- e i t h e r q u a n t i t y or q u a l i t y of the water, and by  so b r i n g about a more e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of water a p p r o p r i a t o r s who  are a l r e a d y e n t i t l e d  to d i v e r t under  terms of t h e i r separate: a p p r o p r i a t i v e r i g h t s .  Such a  p r o p o s a l w i l l allow an a p p r o p r i a t o r to d e l i v e r e i t h e r n a t u r a l or s t o r e d water i n t o a d i t c h o r conduit f o r the use  of any  other a p p r o p r i a t o r i n exchange f o r an  equivalent  q u a n t i t y of water which the l a t t e r i s e n t i t l e d to d i v e r t from the water supply  at the time the exchanged water i s  taken by the former.  However, the p r i o r i t i e s of  the  115  p a r t i e s t o t h e p l a n must n o t h e For 1.  changed.  P r o v i n c i a l o r F e d e r a l Water L e g i s l a t i o n  i5o  T h a t some p r o v i s i o n b e made f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n  o f w a t e r s b e t w e e n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and b o t h A l b e r t a and the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . '  I t i s recommended t h a t  l e g i s l a t i o n adopt the d o c t r i n e o f r e c i p r o c i t y  such  whereby  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d a l l o w an a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f w a t e r w h i c h i s t o be d i v e r t e d w i t h i n t h e P r o v i n c e i n whole o r i n p a r t , a c r o s s  and c o n v e y e d ,  the P r o v i n c i a l l i n e f o r use  in,  say A l b e r t a , provided  that Alberta's  the  r e c i p r o c a l right- t o B r i t i s h Columbia.  laws would  allow  Such a p r o v i s i o n  w o u l d s o l v e p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r i s e f r o m the- u s e o f w a t e r o n portions of i r r i g a b l e v a l l e y s l y i n g outside  the- b o u n d a r i e s  of t h e P r o v i n c e . 2.  T h a t a s i m i l a r p r o v i s i o n b e made f o r t h e a p p r o p r i a -  t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l w a t e r s b e t w e e n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and the States  o f W a s h i n g t o n , I d a h o , and M o n t a n a ,  as w e l l a s  b e t w e e n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e T e r r i t o r y o f A l a s k a . For 1.  the B r i t i s h Columbia P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l Act T h a t some d e f i n i t e  and p o s i t i v e a p p r o a c h b e a d o p t e d  i n - s e t t i n g the- q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s f o r r e c e i v i n g w a t e r s and i5o  upon by  The l e v e l o f t h e r e g u l a t o r y b o d y t o be Parliament.  decided  116 t h a t these Act. to  The  standards be  I n s e r t e d i n the  The f o l l o w i n g l i s t  Pollution-control  of b e n e f i c i a l uses i s recommended  d e f i n e water q u a l i t y i n order of d e c r e a s i n g  importance:  1.  P u b l i c Water  Supply  2.  Pish  3.  "Recreation and  k.  I n d u s t r i a l Water  5-  Agricultural  6.  Water Power  7.  Navigation  8.  D i s p o s a l of Sewage and I n d u s t r i a l Wastes.  Propagation Bathing Supply  Use  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e agency should be g i v e n the power to  change or modify the above l i s t i n g ,  subject to the h o l d i n g  of. a p u b l i c h e a r i n g open to. a l l r e s i d e n t s of the  areas  affected. 2. as l i s t e d  That the b e n e f i c i a l uses of the r e c e i v i n g water above be evaluated and  that d i s c h a r g e s i n t o  the  r e c e i v i n g water be c o n t r o l l e d so as to p r o t e c t as many of the b e n e f i t s as p o s s i b l e .  The end r e s u l t o n l y should  stipulated  and not the method of a c h i e v i n g i t . An  monitoring  system should be i n s e r t e d i n t o the  3. That ing be  some d e f i n i t e  be  adequate  Act.  and p r e c i s e system of  monitor-  the r e c e i v i n g water be p r o v i d e d f o r i n the Act so as to sure t h a t the requirements  each p a r t i c u l a r - area are  met.  of the q u a l i t y standards f o r  117 k.  T h a t some p r o v i s i o n be  r e g i o n a l boards, The  made f o r t h e  i n whose h a n d s w i l l be  s e t t i n g up  the primary  P r o v i n c i a l P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l Board should  5.  control.  only enter  p i c t u r e once t h e r e g i o n a l b o a r d ' s d e c i s i o n h a s  been  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e power t o c a r r y o u t  bilities.  T h a t i s , t h e B o a r d s h o u l d be  h o l d a n i n q u i r y and p o w e r s and  the  appealed.  That the P r o v i n c i a l P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l Board  given f u l l  of  be  i t s responsi-  g i v e n the power t o  f o r t h a t purpose- s h o u l d be  j u r i s d i c t i o n of a J u s t i c e of the  g i v e n a l l the  Peace u n d e r  the  "Summary C o n v i c t i o n s Act-." 6.  That the  P r o v i n c i a l P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l Board  g i v e n the power t o r e q u i r e t h e k e e p i n g o f r e p o r t s , and be able times 7.  of records  empowered t o e n t e r on p r o p e r t y  f o r p u r p o s e s o f i n s p e c t i o n and T h a t one  c o n t r o l B o a r d be g o v e r n m e n t and activities.  one  be- e x p e r i e n c e d  E i t h e r or b o t h  f r o m i n t e r e s t e d g r o u p s and, ment e m p l o y e e s .  i n the f i e l d  and  making  at  reason-  investigation.  member o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l  experienced  be  of  Pollutionmunicipal  i n the- f i e l d  o f t h e s e members may  of  industrial be  t h e r e f o r e , need n o t be  selected govern-  118  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A. BOOKS Kinney, C.S. Kinney on I r r i g a t i o n and Water R i g h t s . San F r a n c i s c o : Bender-Moss, 1 9 1 2 .  B.  PUBLICATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT,. LEARNED SOCIETIES, AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS  Bowering, R.. " E x i s t i n g and Probable F u t u r e Developments In •the M u n i c i p a l Water S u p p l y - F i e l d - W i t h i n the P r o v i n c e , " Transactions-- of the - N i n t h B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, pp. 2 2 8 - 2 3 1 . V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 1 9 5 6 . Bowering, R. - " P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l i n B r i t i s h Columbia Today," T r a n s a c t i o n s of the S i x t h B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, pp. 1 8 3 - 1 9 9 . V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 1 9 5 3 . B r i t i s h Columbia.Natural Resources Conference, The. B r i t i s h Columbia A t l a s of Resources. V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 1 9 5 6 . Caponera, Dante A. Water Laws i n I t a l y . Food and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Development Paper No. 2 2 , A g r i c u l t u r e . Rome: Food and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n of the U n i t e d N a t i o n s , 1 9 5 3 . C o u n c i l . o f State Governments, The.. S t a t e Water L e g i s l a t i o n , 19$$. A Report Prepared by the C o u n c i l of State Governments. Chicago: The C o u n c i l o f State Governments, December, 19$$. Farrow, R.C- "The Problems of . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C o n t r o l of Water," T r a n s a c t i o n s of the- T h i r d B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, pp. 3 k - k r . Victoria: The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 1950.  Farrow, R.C. "The Problem of P o l l u t i o n as i t A f f e c t s Other Uses... of Water," T r a n s a c t i o n s of the T h i r d B r i t i s h Columbia N a t i o n a l Resources Conference, pp. 62-65. V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 1 9 5 0 .  119 Gold F i e l d s A c t of 1 8 5 9 (August 31, 1 8 5 9 ) . G r e a t e r Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage D i s t r i c t A c t , B.C. S t a t . ( 1 9 5 6 ) , c. 5 9 . H e a l t h A c t , B.C. C o n s o l i d a t e d A c t s , 1 8 8 8 , c. 5 5 H e a l t h A c t , 1893, B.C. S t a t .  (1893), c. l 5 .  H e a l t h A c t .Amendment A c t , 1 9 l 5 , B.C. S t a t . , 1917T7 c  (March 6,  30.  H e a l t h Ordinance, 1 8 6 9 , B. C. Ordinances- 1 8 . 6 8 - I 8 6 9 . H u t c h i n s , W e l l s A. S e l e c t e d Problems i n the Law of Water R i g h t s i n the West. U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , M i s c e l l a n e o u s P u b l i c a t i o n Wo. kl8.. Washington: U n i t e d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 19k2. Hut c h i n a , W e l l s A-., and o t h e r s . D e s i r a b l e P r i n c i p l e s of S t a t e Water L e g i s l a t i o n . F i n a l Report of Committee Appointed Pursuant to R e s o l u t i o n No. 1 3 , 1 1 t h Annual Convention, 1 9 k 2 . Washington: N a t i o n a l Reclamation Association. Hyde, C h a r l e s Gilman, John O l i v e r and A. M. Rawn (Chairman). Sewerage and Drainage of the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area,. B r i t i s h Columbia. A Report to the Chairman and Members of the Vancouver and D i s t r i c t s J o i n t Sewerage and Drainage Board. Vancouver: Vancouver and D i s t r i c t s J o i n t Sewerage and Drainage Board, September 1 6 , . 1 9 5 3 ' . Ker, W.A. " E x i s t i n g and Probable F u t u r e Developments i n Water.Supply f o r I r r i g a t i o n W i t h i n the P r o v i n c e , " T r a n s a c t i o n s of the N i n t h B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, pp. 232-236. V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 1 9 5 6 . L a r k i n , - P . A. "Summary o f P o l l u t i o n P a n e l , " T r a n s a c t i o n s of- the S i x t h B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference,. pp. 1 9 9 - 2 0 1 . Victoria: The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 1 9 5 3 ;  Leach, T.A.J. " P r a c t i c a l Problems of Water P o l l u t i o n , " T r a n s a c t i o n s of the S i x t h B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, pp. 169-183• V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 1 9 5 3 .  120  MacLean, H. A l a n . " H i s t o r i c Development of Water L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. ," - Transactions' of the E i g h t h B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, pp. 21+3-21+7. " V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference-, 1955. Pollution-control Act,  B.C.  Stat. ( 1 9 5 6 ) ,  c. 3 6 .  P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e . Suggested State Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act and E x p l a n a t o r y Statement. An I n v e s t i g a t i o n Prepared by the F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y Agency of the D i v i s i o n of Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l of the P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , P u b l i c a t i o n No.. 1+9. Washington: Public- H e a l t h S e r v i c e , October, 1 9 5 0 . P u r c e l l , P.R. "How. the L i v e s of I n d i v i d u a l s and of the P u b l i c Are A f f e c t e d by the Degree of Development of the Water Resources of the P r o v i n c e , " T r a n s a c t i o n s of the E i g h t h B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference', pp. 21+7-255. V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 1955. Purcell,-P.R. "Progress and P o l l u t i o n , " T r a n s a c t i o n s of the S i x t h B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Res purees Conference,. pp. 1 6 2 - 1 6 9 . Victoria: The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference.,. 1 9 5 3 . R e g u l a t i o n s Governing the C o n s t r u c t i o n , Equipment and Management of Slaughter-houses, C l 9 0 5 ) , B.C. Gazette, J u l y 6 , 1 9 0 5 7 pp. 11+73 and ll)-7l+. S a n i t a r y Drainage Companies A c t , 1901+, B.C. (February 1 0 , 1901+) , c. 1 6 .  Stat.  S a n i t a r y Regulation's, 1 8 9 2 , Se-ssional Papers of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 & 9 3 , T h i r d S e s s i o n , S i x t h Parliament, pp. 265-268. S a n i t a r y R e g u l a t i o n s , 1 8 9 6 , S e s s i o n a l Papers of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 8 9 7 , T h i r d S e s s i o n , Seventh Parliament, pp. v i i i - i x . S a n i t a r y R e g u l a t i o n s , 1917,  (July 3 1 ,  S a n i t a r y R e g u l a t i o n s governing 13,  1  9  2  6  )  1917).  Watersheds, 1926,- (October  #  Sewerage Act, 1910,  B.C.  S t a t . (March 10,1910), c. 1+3.  Sewerage and Drainage of the G r e a t e r Vancouver Area, B r i t i s h Columbia.  121  S p e c i a l A d v i s o r y Committee on Water Pollution-. N a t i o n a l • .-. Resources Committee, Water P o l l u t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Washington: United S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ,  1939.  Vancouver and D i s t r i c t s J o i n t Sewerage and Drainage A c t , B.C.- S t a t . (March k, 1 9 1 k ) , c. 7 9 . Water A c t , 1 9 0 9 , B.C. S t a t . , c. k 8 . Water A c t , R.S.B.C. ( I 9 k 8 ) ,  c. 3 6 - 1 .  Watts v. Spencer, 5 l Oreg. 2 6 2 , 9 k Pac. 3 9  (1908).  Williams., M i l o B. Water Laws i n the U n i t e d States of America. A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Paper No. 2 , . Washington: Food and A g r i c u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n of theU n i t e d Nations, 1 9 5 0 .  C.  PERIODICALS  "A Commendable P o l l u t i o n Law," E n g i n e e r i n g (July 1 2 , 1 9 5 6 ) , 1 2 8 .  News-Record "  Aandahl, F r e d G. "The- Nation's Water Resources," J o u r n a l American Water Works A s s o c i a t i o n , V o l . k 8 , No"! 8" (August, 1 9 ^ 6 ) , 931-91+X ~ " A l b e r t a R e s i s t s Attempts to Force P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l , " E n g i n e e r i n g News-Record ( A p r i l 1 1 , 1 9 5 5 ) , 8 3 . Bergen, Stephen W., and o t h e r s . " S t a t e Water Resources L e g i s l a t i o n i n 1 9 5 5 , " Panel D i s c u s s i o n , J o u r n a l American Water Works A s s o c i a t i o n , V o l . k-7, No. 9 (September,  1955),  8k5-857•  Hanson, Ross, and Herbert E. Hudson, J r . "Trends i n R e s i d e n t i a l Water Use," J o u r n a l American Water Works A s s o c i a t i o n , V o l . k 8 , No. 1 1 (November., 1 9 5 6 ) , 13k7-1358.  Hazen, R i c h a r d , and o t h e r s . " B a s i c Water Use D o c t r i n e s and State Water C o n t r o l Agencies," J o u r n a l American Water Works A s s o c i a t i o n , V o l . k 2 , No. 8 (August,. 1 9 5 0 ) , 7^773.  122  " L e g i s l a t i v e C o n t r o l i n R a d i o a c t i v e Waste D i s p o s a l , " Water and Sewage Works, V o l . 1 0 3 , No. 1 2 (December 1956).,"TI+1.  MacDonald., J.C. . "Water L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia," J o u r n a l American Water Works A s s o c i a t i o n , V o l . 1+0, No. 2 (February, 191+8.), 159-16"!+"! Mc Naught on-, General A.G.L. "Problems of Development of I n t e r n a t i o n a l R i v e r s on the P a c i f i c Watershed of Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , " The E n g i n e e r i n g J o u r n a l , V o l . 3 9 (November, 1 9 5 6 ) , 11+93-1^03. "New  P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Formula," E n g i n e e r i n g News-Record (May 1 0 , 1956),. 28.  " P o l l u t i o n B a t t l e , " E n g i n e e r i n g News-Record 28.  " P o l l u t i o n B i l l Now Record ( J u l y 5 ,  (June ll+, 1 9 5 6 ) ,  Law - A i d I n c l u d e d , " E n g i n e e r i n g News1956), 28.  " P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l S t i m u l a t e d , " E n g i n e e r i n g News-Record (May  "PHS  2k,  1956),  12k.  Draws New P i c t u r e of P o l l u t i o n Problems," E n g i n e e r i n g News-Record (September 2 2 , 1 9 5 5 ) , 29 and 3 0 .  P r e s i d e n t ' s Water Resources P o l i c y Commission. "A Water P o l i c y f o r the .American People," J o u r n a l American Water Works-Association, V o l . i+3, No. 2 (February, 1951),  91-112.  " S t a t e s Should' C o n t r o l P o l l u t i o n , " E n g i n e e r i n g News-Record (June 2 , 1 9 5 5 ) , 1 8 0 .  D.  NEWSPAPERS  The  Vancouver Sun,  October 5 ,  The  Vancouver Snn,  October 1 0 ,  1956. 1956.  APPENDIX  I.  (a) Q u e s t i o n n a i r e on B a s i c Water Us D o c t r i n e s and P r o v i n c i a l Water C o n t r o l Agencies i n Canada. (b) Completed Sample  Questionnaire.  APPENDIX  Vernon, B. C., August 6, 1956.  Dear I would a p p r e c i a t e i t i f you would complete the f o l l o w i n g form and r e t u r n i t t o me. I p l a n t o use t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n connection with my t h e s i s about which I have p r e v i o u s l y corresponded w i t h you. Enclosed i s a sample completed form. :  Province B a s i c Law Surface Water_ Ground Water Province A u t h o r i t i e s S u r f a c e Water Ground Water Dams, D i v e r s i o n Works, etc._ Q u a l i t y and Treatment - P u b l i c S u p p l i e s  Q u a l i t y and Treatment - I n d u s t r i a l D r i n k i n g Water  Stream P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Sewage D i s p o s a l - T e c h n i c a l I n d u s t r i a l Wastes - Technical^ Interprovincial Activities Notes  Thank you very much f o r your  cooperation. Yours very  truly,  Melvin J . Shelley,  \ \  I (A).  APPENDIX  COMPLETED SAMPLE FORM  S t a te  S t a t e of Washington!  ;  B a s i c Law S u r f a c e Water/ Ground Water  A p p r o p r i a t i o n Doctrine. Reasonable Use Rule  State Authorities S u r f a c e Water  State Supervisor  of H y d r a u l i c s  Ground "Water  State Supervisor of Hydraulics  Dams, D i v e r s i o n Works, e t c . S t a t e S u p e r v i s o r  of H y d r a u l i c s  Q u a l i t y and Treatment" - P u b l i c S u p p l i e s Department of H e a l t h Q u a l i t y and Treatment - I n d u s t r i a l D r i n k i n g Water Department of H e a l t h  (1)  Stream P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Commission . Sewage D i s p o s a l - T e c h n i c a l P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Commission ;  I n d u s t r i a l Wastes - T e c h n i c a l P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Commission' Interstate A c t i v i t i e s Notes  (1)  None  S m a l l e r i n d u s t r i a l s u p p l i e s are under s u p e r v i s i o n of l o c a l h e a l t h departments.  1(B).  126  APPENDIX  II.  Summary of B a s i c Water Use D o c t r i n e s and P r o v i n c i a l Water C o n t r o l Agencies i n C ariad a.  Tabulated from the r e t u r n s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a copy of which is- i l l u s t r a t e d i n Appendix I .  127  APPENDIX I I I . Summary of Basic: Water Use D o c t r i n e s and State-Water C o n t r o l Agencies In the U n i t e d S t a t e s of America.*  "Pamphlet e n t i t l e d "Summary of B a s i c Water Use D o c t r i n e s and State Water C o n t r o l Agencies," of R i c h a r d H'azen and others, " B a s i c Water Use Doctrines-and S t a t e Water. C o n t r o l Agencies," J o u r n a l American Water Works A s s o c i a t i o n . V o l . ii2, no. 8 (August, 1950), pp. 762-773-  129  13.0  APPENDIX  IV.  Map- I l l u s t r a t i n g B r i t i s h Columbia's Streamflow Y i e l d and Regime*  *Map No. 8 of-the B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, B j r i t i s h Colombia A t l a s of Resources, ( V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 19i?b;, p. 1 8 .  131  13?  APPENDIX V. Map I l l u s t r a t i n g B r i t i s h Columbia's Water Consumption, Storage F a c i l i t i e s and F l o o d C o n t r o l Areas.'""  """Map No.. 33 of the.. B r i t i s h . Columbia. N a t u r a l Resources Conference, B r i t i s h Columbia A t l a s of Resources ( V i c t o r i a : The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 1956),. p. 68.  133  APPENDIX  VI.  An A c t r e s p e c t i n g the D i v e r s i o n and Use of Water, R.S.B.C. (l9kQ), chapter 361  135  APPENDIX  VII.  T a b u l a t i o n of the P r i n c i p a l Waters F l o w i n g Across the Boundary Between B r i t i s h Columbia and the U n i t e d S t a t e s of America.""'  "'"Adopted from Table I, " P a c i f i c Watershed of N o r t h America. The P r i n c i p a l Waters F l o w i n g Across the Boundary Between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , " of General A.G.L. McNaughtort, "Problems of Development of I n t e r n a t i o n a l R i v e r s ' on- the' P a c i f i c Watershed of Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , " The E n g i n e e r i n g Journal', Volume 3 9 (November, 1956),  lk96T  P a c i f i c Watershed cf N o r t h America.. The P r i n c i p a l Waters Plowing the Boundary Between Canada and .United S t a t e s .  Section of Watershed,  River of • Tributary  1 2 3 4  Flathead Kootenay Kootenay Pend Southern boundary d'Oreilie of B r i t i s h Colunr_ Columbia 5 b i a with States 6 Kettle of Mont aria.,..Idaho River and Washington 7 K e t t l e R.  Montana Montana B. C. B.C. Wash  B.C. Wash.  Wash. B.C.  ,R... Okanagan SImilkaraeen Skagit .  B.C. B.C. B.C. B.C.  Wash. Wash. Wash. Wash., ,  1  Unuk  B.C.  Alaska  2  Stikine  B.C.  Alaska  3  Whiting  B.C.  Alaska  k  Taku(f)  B. C. B.C.  Alaska Alaska  9  .10 11  Streams In o r d e r south t o n o r t h  B.C. B.C. - Idaho Wash. B.C.  8 Kettle  Western boundary of B r i t i s h Columb i a with Alaska Panhandle  D i r e c t i o n of Plow Prom To  4 3  5 5 6  7  Crossing Boundary at/near  Elev. above M.S.L. Min. Feet C.F.S.  F l a t h e a d , B.C. Newgate, B.C. Port H i l l , . Idaho. Nelway., B.C. T r a i l , B.C.  3970 65 2309 "994 1743 1,380 1720 . 2,500 1292 21,200 lk66 60(b)  Midway, B.C., Grand Porks .£>. O .  Cascade, B.C. Osoyoos, B.C Keremeos,B.C. . . .  Revillagigedo I s . Wrahgell, Alaska Admiralty Is., Alaska , Juneau, A l a s k a Dry Bay  5 A l s e c .. . "Terminal year i s 1948 u n l e s s otherwise noted. (a) Records g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g I c e f r e e p e r i o d s o n l y . (b) Minimum recorded a t Cascade, B.C. (c) D i s c h a r g e r e c o r d s from Okanagan P a l l s , , B.C. (d) Discharge r e c o r d s from Nighthawk, Wash. (e) Maximum r e c o r d e d i n 1950.  1890 913  1180 1583  Across  Plow(Recorded) Mean Annual Max. C.P.S. e.p.s.  14,600 98,200  125,000 171,000 548,600 , 35,000  300(1) 5o ( i )  Period of Record .Years*  1  20 18 30 36 .  10, 19  1,002 340 1,487 661  .20 34 (c) 20 (d) 22  l,200(j) 28,000(j)  i5o(i)  40 ( i ) 1020 250(1)  1000 Acre-feet  1,030 846(a) 9,570 6,925 • 14,560 10 „54o 25,580 18,520 90,.560 65,560 2,692 1,949  1,38k lk • 21,000 2,680 470 120 38,100 2,054 81 ! 10. 200 (e) 913  k.6  Mean Annual  34,600  2,200(j)  2  11,000(a)  U,700(1)  (H)  ;  (f) Route o f d i v e r s i o n o f Yukon R i v e r through A t l i n Lake -proposed b y F r o b i s h e r . (g) •»««• (h) Terminal y e a r 1954. ( i ) E l e v a t i o n s estimated from I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary Commission , Reports. . " ( j ) A n n u a l r u n - o f f s estimated on the b a s i s o f drainage a r e a and discharge, p e r square m i l e . /  APPENDIX VIII.. An Act to C o n t r o l the P o l l u t i o n of Waters of the P r o v i n c e , B.C. Statute (191+8) , chapter 36.  A P P E N D I X ~W\ 1956  CHAP. 3 6  POLLUTION-CONTROL.  CHAPTER 36. An Act to control the Pollution.of Waters of the Province. [Assented to 2nd March, 1956.] P'tamble.  W  H E R E A S it is deemed in the public interest to maintain and ensure the purity of all waters of the Province consistent with public health and the public enjoyment thereof, the propagation and protection of wildlife, birds, game, and other aquatic life, and the industrial development of the Province: And whereas it is deemed expedient to require the use of all known available and reasonable methods by industries and others to prevent and control the pollution of the waters of the Province: Now, therefore, Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of British Columbia, enacts as follows:—  Short title.  1. This Act may be cited as the " Pollution-control Act."  Interpretation.  2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires:— " Board " means the Pollution-control Board established under this Act: " Effluent" means anything flowing in or out of a drain, sewer, sewage-disposal system or works: " Minister " means the Minister of Municipal Affairs: " Municipality " means a village, town, city, or district municipality constituted under any Act, as well as an improvement district, a dyking, sewerage, and drainage district, and any special district constituted under any Act: " Pollution " means anything done, or any result or condition existing, created, or likely to be created, affecting land or water which, in the opinion of the Board, is detrimental to health, sanitation, or the public interest: ' 139  CHAP. 3 6  POLLUTION-CONTROL.  4-5  ELIZ.  2  " Prescribed " means prescribed by this Act or the regulations: " Waters" includes all streams, lakes, ponds, inland waters, salt waters, watercourses, and all other surface and ground waters within the jurisdiction of the Province: " Works " includes drains, ditches, sewers, intercepting sewers, sewage treatment and disposal plants and works, pumping-stations, and other works necessary thereto, and outlets for carrying off, treating, and disposing of drainage and sewage, and any other and all works, structures, lands, and conveniences included and necessary to the completion of a sewerage or drainage system. Pollution-control Board.  Procedure.  Powers and duties of Board.  3. (1) There shall be a board to be known as the " Pollution-control Board," which shall consist of a Chairman and such other members as the Lieutenant-Governor in Council may from time to time determine. (2) The members shall be appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council for such term or terms as the Lieutenant-Governor in Council may determine. (3) The Board may determine its own procedure and may elect an Acting-Chairman in the absence of the Chairman. 4. The Board shall have the following powers and duties:— (a) To determine what qualities and properties of water shall constitute a polluted condition: (b) To prescribe standards regarding the quality and character of the effluent which may be discharged into any of the waters within the area or areas under the jurisdiction of the Board: (c) To conduct tests and surveys to determine the extent of pollution of any waters within the area or areas under the jurisdiction of the Board: (d) To examine into all existing or proposed means for the disposal * of sewage or other waste materials, or both, and to approve the plans and specifications for such works as are deemed necessary to prevent pollution of the waters of the area or areas: (c) To notify all persons who discharge effluent into the said waters when the effluent fails to meet the prescribed standards: (/) To order any person after six months from date of notification, or such longer period as may be determined by the Board, to increase the degree of treatment of the effluent or to alter the manner or point of discharge of the effluent being discharged by such person to bring the effluent up to the prescribed standards: (g) To order any person who fails to comply with an order issued under clause (/) to cease discharging effluent into any waters in the area as and from a day and time specified in the order.  1956  POLLUTION-CONTROL.  CHAP. 3 6  Penalty.  5. Every person is guilty of an offence against this Act and liable, on summary conviction, to a penalty not exceeding two hundred and fifty dollars and, in default of payment, to imprisonment not exceeding twelve months who wilfully contravenes any provision of this Act or any order of the Board, or neglects to do any act or thing required to be done by the Board under this Act or under any order of the Board.  Appeal to Lieut.Governor in Council.  6. An appeal from any order, determination, or decision of the Board shall lie to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, whose decision thereon shall be final and binding. Such appeal must be made within thirty days from the date of any order, determination, or decision of the Board.  Prohibition.  7. No person shall discharge sewage or other waste materials into the waters of the area or areas under the jurisdiction of the Board without the permission of the Board. Such permission may be in the form of a permit, which may prescribe the degree of treatment of the effluent as well as the location of the point of discharge into the waters Of the area . and the manner of the discharge as a condition of the permission.  Engineers, etc., of Department of Health and Welfare.  8. There may be made available to the Board by the Health Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare such engineers, inspectors, technicians, officers, clerks, and employees as are necessary for the administration of this Act. "  Remuneration of Board.  9. The members of the Board shall be paid such remuneration as may be fixed by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council and such actual expenses as may be incurred by them in the discharge of their duties;  Expenses of • administration.  10. Any moneys required for the administration of this Act or for the carrying-out of the provisions of this Act shall, in the absence of any vote of the Legislative Assembly available therefor, be paid out of the Consolidated Revenue Fund. '.  admin?stra tfon " h  ed w  h  1  1  T  h  e  M i n i s t e r  s h a 1 1 b  e  charged with the administration of this  Act. Application.  '  '  ^2. Notwithstanding the provisions of any other Act, the provisions of this Act shall apply to:— (a) All the areas of land, contained within the boundaries of a municipality, draining, by natural or artificial means, into the Fraser River or its tributaries from the Village of Hope to the Strait of Georgia, or into Boundary Bay, or into the area of the Strait of Georgia contained within a line drawn from the International Boundary-line at longitude 123° 15' to Halfmoon Bay, or into Burrard Inlet: (b) Any area designated by Order of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. 141  POLLUTION-CONTROL.  4-5 ELIZ. 2  13. The provisions of this Act shall not be deemed contrary to the provisions of the " Health Act," the " Municipal Act," or the " Water Act," but shall be considered an extension of such Acts for the public interest. 14. For the purpose of carrying into effect the provisions of this Act according to their true intent or of supplying any deficiency therein, the Lieutenant-Governor in Council may make such regulations not inconsistent with the spirit of this Act as are deemed necessary or advisable.  VICTORIA, B.C. Printed by H O N MCDIARMID, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty 1956  •-14.0  APPENDIX IX. Report on Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l i n B r i t i s h Columbia Today by R. Boweririg, D i r e c t o r , D i v i s i o n of Public Health Engineering.  Copy of R. Bowering, " P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l In B r i t i s h Columbia Today," T r a n s a c t i o n s of the S i x t h ' B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference ( V i c t o r i a : • The B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conference, 195>3), pp. 1 8 3 - 1 9 0 . The a r t i c l e has been amended by the w r i t e r w i t h the perm i s s i o n o f the author by adding the r e c e n t l y passed l e g i s l a t i o n so as t o b r i n g the a r t i c l e up t o date.'  POLLUTION CONTROL IN BRITISH COLUMBIA TODAY R. Bowering D i r e c t o r , D i v i s i o n of P u b l i c H e a l t h Dept. of H e a l t h  Engineering,  and Welfare  EXISTING LEGISLATION There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e l e g i s l a t i o n on the- s t a t u t e books of b o t h the F e d e r a l Government and the P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r the C o n t r o l of p o l l u t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I n the case of the "Health A c t " of B r i t i s h Columbia, there has been l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the c o n t r o l of p o l l u t i o n - s i n c e the l870's and the " F e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s A c t " has e q u a l l y long termed standing. A l l l e g i s l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g that r e f e r r i n g to p o l l u t i o n , i s enacted w i t h some d e f i n i t e object i n view. The l e g i s l a t i o n now e x i s t i n g has been enacted g i v i n g v a r i o u s government agencies a u t h o r i t y to enforce p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l requirements i n order t o achieve d e f i n i t e o b j e c t i v e s . I n the case of the " H e a l t h Act" the o b j e c t i v e i s the prevent i o n of nuisances and the p r o t e c t i o n of the p u b l i c h e a l t h . In the Case of the " F i s h e r i e s A c t , " the o b j e c t i v e i s the p r e v e n t i o n o f p o l l u t i o n that would harm commercial and sport f i s h e r i e s r e s o u r c e s . There- i s no l e g i s l a t i o n on the s t a t u t e books which deals w i t h p o l l u t i o n i n a l l i t s aspects i n a broad org e n e r a l way. The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of government agencies which have l e g i s l a t i o n d e a l i n g with p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l and the l e g i s l a t i o n which g i v e s an a u t h o r i t y to a c t : TABLE I Government-Agencies Having P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Government Agency MUNICIPAL L o c a l Boards of H e a l t h  Authority  Legislative Authority "Health A c t " of B.C. Sanitary Regulations B.C.  of  (Cont'd, on page l k 2 )  Ik2 TABLE I (Continued) Government Agency PROVINCIAL H e a l t h Branch Department of H e a l t h and Welfare Water R i g h t s Branch, Department of Lands and Forests . Park S e r v i c e , Department of Land and F o r e s t s . F i s h e r i e s Department. Game- Commission, A t t o r n e y General's Department. FEDERAL Department o f F i s h e r i e s ' . Department of Resources and Development N a t i o n a l Harbours Board. Department of T r a n s p o r t . Department of P u b l i c Works. L o c a l Port A u t h o r i t i e s , •• -. .Department, .of- Transport-. .  Legislative Authority " M u n i c i p a l A c t " ( S e c t i o n -58). " H e a l t h A c t " of B.C. S a n i t a r y Regulations-. Watershed R e g u l a t i o n s "Water A c t . " Park R e g u l a t i o n s . Use F e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n . Use F e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n (Fisheries Act). (Migratory Birds' Regulations A c t ) . " F i s h e r i e s Act." "Migratory B i r d s Regulations Act." N a t i o n a l Harbours Board By-laws. "Navigable Waters Protection Act." "Canada S h i p p i n g A c t . " "Navigable Waters Protection Act,"  The p e r t i n e n t s e c t i o n s of l e g i s l a t i o n , as l i s t e d i n Table I , are g i v e n i n Appendix'A, page 153. EFFECTIVENESS OF PRESENT LEGISLATION C o n s i d e r i n g the o b j e c t i v e s f o r which they have been enacted, the v a r i o u s items of l e g i s l a t i o n have- had c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t on the p r e v e n t i o n and c o n t r o l of c e r t a i n types of p o l l u t i o n . However, s i n c e the c o n t r o l has been -carried out by separate government agencies, each w i t h i t s own i n t e r e s t to c o n s i d e r , sometimes c o - o p e r a t i n g w i t h other agencies and sometimes not, the e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n probably has not been as e f f e c t i v e i n c o n t r o l l i n g ' p o l l u t i o n i n a l l i t s aspects as i t might have been.  11+3 Moreover, the i n t e r e s t of the v a r i o u s agencies i n p o l l u t i o n has become apparent at d i f f e r e n t stages of the growth of the p r o v i n c e . The f i r s t department to take an i n t e r e s t in. p o l l u t i o n , and the one t h a t p r o b a b l y has done most work on p o l l u t i o n i s the P r o v i n c i a l H e a l t h Department. L e g i s l a t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h p o l l u t i o n has been i n e f f e c t since the l870's. The reason f o r t h i s i s q u i t e c l e a r , since even from the p r o v i n c e ' s e a r l i e s t days, an occurrence of an outbreak of disease t r a c e a b l e to p o l l u t e d d r i n k i n g water would be cause f o r g e n e r a l alarm. Also the nuisance caused by the d i s p o s a l of f i s h o f f a l i n t o some o f the r i v e r s and bays from e a r l y - d a y f i s h canneries caused a clamour f o r a c t i o n on the p a r t of the H e a l t h Department b e f o r e the t u r n of the century. T h i s nuisance has now been abated by the i n d u s t r y as f i s h o f f a l i s now u t i l i z e d i n the manufacture of v a l u a b l e by-products. In the case o f some of the agencies whose e n t r y i n t o the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p i c t u r e i s more r e c e n t , the Immediate e f f e c t s of p o l l u t i o n were not so apparent. F o r example, the l o s s of a spawning stream f o r s p o r t s f i s h i n the e a r l y days of the province would not cause any g e n e r a l alarm i n a province so b o u n t i f u l l y p r o v i d e d w i t h sport f i s h i n g streams. However, as the p o l l u t i o n load b u i l d s up, owing to the g r e a t e r h a b i t a t i o n and g r e a t e r i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of the p r o v i n c e , and as the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s , i n c r e a s i n g the demand f o r sport f i s h , the accumulative small l o s s e s due to p o l l u t i o n become g r e a t e r and assume more importance. I t i s probable that the i n t e r e s t s of the agencies which have come i n t o the p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l p i c t u r e at a l a t e r date w i l l become g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r as time goes by. A l s o , I t Is probable that persons and c o r p o r a t i o n s not now i n t e r e s t e d In p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l w i l l f i n d that they have a l a t e n t i n t e r e s t which w i l l develop at seme time i n the f u t u r e . EFFECTIVENESS OF LEGISLATION UNDER THE "HEALTH ACT','. The "Health Act" was enacted w i t h the s o l e objecti n view of p r o t e c t i n g the p u b l i c h e a l t h , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to the c o n t r o l of the communicable d i s e a s e s . Since there have been no major and v e r y few, minor outbreaks o f disease i n the p r o v i n c e caused by p o l l u t i o n i n recent y e a r s , i t may be s a i d that the present l e g i s l a t i o n has been e f f e c t i v e i n accomplishing i t s main o b j e c t . Among the hazards t o p u b l i c h e a l t h that may be caused by p o l l u t i o n are the f o l l o w i n g :  =  1. P o l l u t i o n of domestic water s u p p l i e s w i t h sewage. 2. P o l l u t i o n of domestic water s u p p l i e s by i n d u s t r i a l waste having t o x i c m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t . 3. Contamination of s h e l l f i s h growing areas, k i Contamination of b a t h i n g p l a c e s . 5 . Contamination of c e r t a i n a g r i c u l t u r a l products such as l e a f y v e g e t a b l e s by the use of contaminated water f o r s p r i n k l e r I r r i g a t i o n . 6. Impairment of a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s .  Of the above the f i r s t i s the most important. P o l l u t i o n of a p u b l i c water supply may be- caused by a v e r y minimal p o l l u t i o n such as the d e p o s i t of e x c r e t a from one person on a watershed or i t may be p o l l u t i o n of a l a r g e stream from a sewerage system. As a means of c o n t r o l of t h i s type of p o l l u t i o n f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of domestic water s u p p l i e s , s e v e r a l methods of c o n t r o l are used, i n c l u d i n g the following: 1. Approval of p l a n s of p u b l i c water systems and• i n s p e c t i o n of p u b l i c water supply systems f o r s a n i t a r y hazards.. 2. Approval of p l a n s f o r sewerage systems. 3. Approval of p l a n s of private'sewage d i s p o s a l systems u s u a l l y on l o c a l H e a l t h Department l e v e l . k. S e t t i n g up of watershed areas i n s p e c i f i c cases, where f e a s i b l e , which permits l o c a l water authori t y or l o c a l h e a l t h a u t h o r i t y to demand e x t r a o r d i n a r y standards of s a n i t a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g medical t e s t i n g of a l l persons e n t e r i n g watersheds. 5>. Constant sampling and t e s t i n g of l o c a l water s u p p l i e s , 6. A u t h o r i t y f o r p r e v e n t i o n of p o l l u t i o n by any waste, p r o v i d e d that such p o l l u t i o n would be a h e a l t h hazard. The " H e a l t h A c t " makes i t mandatory that a l l p l a n s and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of p u b l i c sewerage systems be submitted and approved by the M i n i s t e r of H e a l t h b e f o r e c o n s t r u c t i o n may commence. Where money i s to be borrowed by bylaw, the bylaw cannot be submitted to the e l e c t o r s u n t i l such approval has been obtained. The M i n i s t e r of.Healthfcas the r i g h t to demand a l t e r a t i o n s i n p l a n s if', i t i s deemed necessary. A l s o the M i n i s t e r has the r i g h t to demand improved sewage d i s p o s a l f a c i l i t i e s i f i t i s deemed necessary. T h i s l e g i s l a t i o n has had the e f f e c t of p r o v i d i n g b e t t e r sewerage systems i n the p r o v i n c e than would have been the case o t h e r wise. About $3% of the people of B r i t i s h Columbia are served by p u b l i c sewerage systems. Most of the sewage i s discharged i n the raw s t a t e . The d e c i s i o n by the Department of H e a l t h as to the degree of treatment r e q u i r e d has been  mad.e i n the l i g h t of each s p e c i a l circumstance. Sewagetreatment has not "been r e q u i r e d i n most cases, p a r t i c u l a r l y where .the sewage was to be d i s c h a r g e d i n t o sea water or i n t o t i d a l e s t u a r i e s . A l s o , sewage treatment has not been r e q u i r e d on some of the larger- r i v e r s such as the Columbia. Table I I g i v e s a l i s t of the sewered communities i n the p r o v i n c e and the type of treatment, i f any. A l s o the accompanying map""" shows diagrammatic a l l y the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of sewage discharged throughout the p r o v i n c e . A study of the above-mentioned t a b l e and map w i l l , show t h a t most of the sewage i n B r i t i s h Columbia.is not treated. Some of the a p p r o v a l s f o r discharge of raw sewage were.given i n the e a r l i e r days of the p r o v i n c e b e f o r e the e f f e c t s of sewage upon s h e l l f i s h - g r o w i n g areas and b a t h i n g p l a c e s were as apparent as they a r e today. In no case does the p r e s e n t method o f sewage d i s p o s a l i n j u r i o u s l y a f f e c t a p u b l i c water supply system. Some sewage has been p e r m i t t e d to d i s c h a r g e raw i n t o r i v e r s s u i t a b l e f o r water supply where d i l u t i o n and n a t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e c o v e r y are good. Although none o f these are known to. have l e d to a d i s e a s e outbreak, because of the growth of towns w i t h i n c r e a s i n g loads of sewage and because of l a r g e demands of water f o r i r r i g a t i o n , domestic use. and o t h e r uses, some of these p l a c e s w i l l have t o b u i l d sewage treatment p l a n t s In the near f u t u r e . In a d d i t i o n , some of the p l a c e s now h a v i n g primary treatment o n l y w i l l have- to p r o v i d e secondary treatment a s w e l l . In some cases the p r e s e n t means of sewage d i s p o s a l has l e d to the abandonment of b a t h i n g p l a c e s and s h e l l f i s h producing areas i n o r d e r to p r o t e c t the p u b l i c h e a l t h . In these: l a t t e r i n s t a n c e s , of course, another r e s o u r c e has been l o s t because of p o l l u t i o n . About 1+7% of the p o p u l a t i o n of B.C. are not served b y sewers. T h i s means that the c o n t r o l of p r i v a t e sewage d i s p o s a l systems such as s e p t i c tanks and p r i v i e s is. extremely important. P o l l u t i o n from p r i v a t e sewage d i s p o s a l systems i s not u s u a l l y l a r g e In q u a n t i t y and usua l l y does not a f f e c t the q u a l i t y of water from the p o i n t of view o f water uses o t h e r than f o r domestic water supplies.. The P r o v i n c i a l H e a l t h Department provides, p l a n s of s e p t i c tank sewage d i s p o s a l systems to l o c a l h e a l t h a u t h o r i t i e s . C o n t r o l of these I s i n the l o c a l Boards of Health. '""The w r i t e r has a l s o enclosed i n t h i s Appendix f o r the b e n e f i t of the reader a p h o t o s t a t i c , copy of the o r i g i n a l map which was i n c l u d e d w i t h t h i s a r t i c l e .  Ik6  147 In many cases hazards are present from the use o f s e p t i c tanks i n urbanized areas where, because of s o i l c o n d i t i o n s , s e p t i c tank e f f l u e n t , cannot r e a d i l y be absorbed i n t o the s o i l and nuisances i n r o a d s i d e d i t c h e s e x i s t . These nuisances do. not p l a y an important p a r t i n the spread of d i s e a s e , but they do a f f e c t a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . There i s no l e g i s l a t i o n now i n force- t h a t makes i t mandatory f o r such urbanized areas t o p r o v i d e adequate sewage systems f o r thems elve. s. In s h o r t , the H e a l t h Department l e g i s l a t i o n has been e f f e c t i v e i n the -control of communicable diseases t h a t could be caused by p o l l u t i o n . I t has had c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t i n p r e s e r v i n g a e s t h e t i c values b u t i t has not been p o s s i b l e to preserve- a l l a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s . I n some cases the p u b l i c h e a l t h has had t o be p r o t e c t e d by c a n c e l l i n g the use of waters f o r other purposes. EFFECTIVENESS OF LEGISLATION UNDER THE "FISHERIES ACT." The " F i s h e r i e s A c t " i s a F e d e r a l s t a t u t e enacted f o r the purpose o f p r o t e c t i n g b o t h the commercial and s p o r t f i s h r e s o u r c e s of Canada. I n B r i t i s h Columbia the. F e d e r a l Department of F i s h e r i e s i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r o t e c t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n of marine and anadromous f i s h e s . The B.C. Game Commission i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p e r p e t u a t i o n of nont i d a l sport f i s h e r i e s and the P r o v i n c i a l F i s h e r i e s Department r e g u l a t e s n o n - t i d a l commercial f i s h e r i e s and marine shellfish fisheries. The g e n e r a l p r o v i s i o n of the " F i s h e r i e s A c t " w i t h r e s p e c t to p o l l u t i o n s t a t e s t h a t i t i s u n l a w f u l to p o l l u t e water w i t h substances which are: d e l e terious to f i s h . The types of p o l l u t i o n which have g i v e n cause f o r most concern t o f i s h e r i e s agencies a c t i v e i n B.C. a r e as follows: 1. E x c e s s i v e q u a n t i t i e s of organic e f f l u e n t s , which i n t h e i r decom p o s i t i o n remove so much oxygen from the water t h a t f i s h and other- ••.aquatic l i f e can no l o n g e r survive. 2. I n d u s t r i a l wastes c o n t a i n i n g substances which e i t h e r k i l l f i s h or the food upon which they f e e d . 3. C e r t a i n e f f l u e n t s such as mine t a i l i n g s , sawdust, cannery d i s c h a r g e s or o i l wastes which may k i l l f i s h d i r e c t l y by i n t e r f e r r i n g w i t h t h e i r r e s p i r a t i o n , or i n d i r e c t l y by s i l t i n g up the stream bottom and thus p r e v e n t i n g the growth of food organisms and the s u c c e s s f u l spawning of f i s h .  Ik8 The- F e d e r a l Department of F i s h e r i e s and the B.C. Game Commission have had c o n s i d e r a b l e success i n p r e v e n t i n g the p o l l u t i o n of lakes and s t r e a m s , e s p e c i a l l y where the p o l l u t i n g agency was approached e a r l y i n the development stages of a proposed p r o j e c t . But i n many i n s t a n c e s p o l l u t i o n has occurred because of ignorance of water u s e r s or because the economy of a p r o j e c t would have been p r e c a r i o u s i f adequate p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l measures were i n c o r porated i n the o r i g i n a l p l a n s . C o r r e c t i o n of these l o n g standing- abuses i s d i f f i c u l t and i n many cases i n v o l v e s unreasonable demands on the p o l l u t e r and i n consequence of these d i f f i c u l t i e s attempts to cure these s i t u a t i o n s have met w i t h l i m i t e d success. For p o l l u t i o n problems an ounce of p r e v e n t i o n i n the e a r l y stages Is as e f f e c t i v e and f a r cheaper than a pound of c o r r e c t i o n l a t e r on. Recent amendments to the "Water A c t " which have enabled F i s h e r i e s - agencies to keep abreast of a l l proposed water uses, i n t h e i r i n i t i a l stages have- p r o v i d e d an, extremely v a l u a b l e t o o l f o r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l . EFFECTIVENESS OF LEGISLATION UNDER THE BIRDS REGULATION ACT"  "MIGRATORY  The "Migratory B i r d s R e g u l a t i o n A c t " p r o v i d e s f o r the p r o t e c t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y o f " m i g r a t o r y water-fowl. However, the h a b i t s of m i g r a t o r y b i r d s i n g e n e r a l i s such t h a t enforcement of the A c t has many d i f f i c u l t i e s . In consequence there are few p r o s e c u t i o n s under the r e g u l a t i o n s and they have-.doubtful v a l u e , as f a r as r e a l i z i n g t h e i r o b j e c t i v e i s concerned. F o r t u n a t e l y , m i g r a t o r y water-fowl commonly i n h a b i t the same waters as v a l u a b l e s p o r t or commercial f i s h e s , and t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n i s a t l e a s t part i a l l y achieved by enforcement by f i s h e r i e s agencies of the p r o v i s i o n s of the " F i s h e r i e s A c t / " EFFECTIVENESS OF PARK REGULATIONS C e r t a i n P r o v i n c i a l Parks R e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n to p r e v e n t i o n of p u b l i c h e a l t h hazards and eyesores i n park areas-. . These r e g u l a t i o n s have been enforced w i t h success and are probably adequate to prevent abuse of park p r i v i leges. These r e g u l a t i o n s do not p r o v i d e f o r - p r o t e c t i o n of f i s h , f o w l or game animals i n parks.EFFECTIVENESS OF LEGISLATION UNDER THE  "WATER.ACT"  Under the "Water A c t , " the C o m p t r o l l e r of Water R i g h t s may i s s u e a stop order to a water l i c e n s e e where the l i c e n s e e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a p o l l u t i o n which i s d e t r i m e n t a l to the use of the water by other l i c e n s e e s , or where i t i s d e t r i m e n t a l to the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . This, c o n t r o l  lij-9 has n o t been used e x t e n s i v e l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h thee x c e p t i o n of the c o n t r o l of d i s c h a r g e of sawdust i n t o streams. I t could be used w i t h good e f f e c t i n s i t u a t i o n s where p o l l u t i o n problems had reached an impasse. Some persons b e l i e v e t h a t the "Water A c t " should beamended to permit the C o m p t r o l l e r o f Water R i g h t s to l i c e n c e persons t o discharge c e r t a i n types of p o l l u t a n t s i n t o water. Other people f e e l t h a t t h i s g r a n t i n g o f persons a r i g h t to p o l l u t e water by l i c e n c e would he worse than the p r e s e n t method of a l l o w i n g some types of p o l l u t a n t s to d i s c h a r g e i n t o streams by s u f f e r a n c e and t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l y i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the government's r i g h t to request abatement -of the p o l l u t i o n a t some l a t e r date; EFFECTIVENESS OF LEGISLATION UNDER THE "POLLUTION-CONTROL ACT"* Since t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n was only assented to on March 2 , 1956, i t i s impossible t o s t a t e i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s - ; r a t h e r the w r i t e r w i l l d i s c u s s i t s p o s s i b l e e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The main purpose of t h i s A c t , as s t a t e d i n i t s p r e amble, i s t-O: m a i n t a i n and ensure the p u r i t y of a l l waters of the Province by f o r c i n g i n d u s t r i e s and o t h e r s to use a l l known a v a i l a b l e and reasonable methods f o r the p r e v e n t i o n and c o n t r o l o f p o l l u t i o n of these waters. The A c t sets up a P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l Board c o n s i s t i n g o f a chairman and any number o f members,, a l l . t o be appointed by the L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n C o u n c i l . The Board i s t o be g i v e n broad powers. These' powers i n c l u d e the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the q u a l i t i e s and p r o p e r t i e s of water that c o n s t i t u t e a p o l l u t e d c o n d i t i o n ; the s e t t i n g of q u a l i t y standards f o r e f f l u e n t t o be d i s charged,, and the s e r v i n g o f n o t i f i c a t i o n to v i o l a t o r s of such v i o l a t i o n ; the. conduct of t e s t s and surveys t o d e t e r mine the extent of p o l l u t i o n ; the: examination of e x i s t i n g works; and the approval o f p l a n s and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l works.. The Board may order any v i o l a t o r to i n c r e a s e . t h e degree o f treatment a f t e r f i r s t s e r v i n g n o t i f i c a t i o n of v i o l a t i o n , and i f n o - a c t i o n i s taken, the Board may order the v i o l a t o r to cease d i s c h a r g i n g the. e f f l u e n t i n t o any waters i n the a r e a . As u s u a l , i n order to enforce t h e i r r e g u l a t i o n s , the A c t imposes a p e n a l t y not exceeding two: hundred d o l l a r s f o r anyone contravening any p r o v i s i o n o f the A c t .  This- i n s e r t has been made by the w r i t e r i n t o t h i s r e p o r t so as to b r i n g i t up to date with the r e c e n t passage of the " P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t , 1956-.. 11  T h i s Act p r o v i d e s f o r . appeals to: any of the Board's d e c i s i o n s to he made d i r e c t l y to the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l whose d e c i s i o n is. to be b i n d i n g . The Act. f u r t h e r p r o v i d e s t h a t a person must r e c e i v e a permit to d i s c h a r g e sewage or other waste m a t e r i a l s into- any of the waters under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Board. F i n a l l y , the p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s Act are to apply to any area designated by Order of the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l . :  I t appears t h a t this: Act should be very e f f e c t i v e i n c o n t r o l l i n g p o l l u t i o n of . B r i t i s h Columbia waters. It i s noted t h a t the A c t does not c o n t r a d i c t p r o v i s i o n s of the "Health A c t , " " M u n i c i p a l A c t " or the "Water: A c t , " but r a t h e r i s to be c o n s i d e r e d an e x t e n s i o n of these A c t s f o r the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . This Act then adds to the e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n and i n e f f e c t makes i t much more, e f f e c t i v e . The Lieutenant-Governor In C o u n c i l may b r i n g about any r e g u l a t i o n s that he may deem necessary f o r c a r r y i n g out the p r o v i s i o n s or f o r s u p p l y i n g any d e f i c i e n c y i n the A c t . Thus, the " P o l l u t i o n - c o n t r o l A c t " seems to be v e r y p r o g r e s s i v e and i t appears to have s u f f i c i e n t " t e e t h , " to make I t v e r y e f f e c t i v e i n c o n t r o l l i n g the e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g . p o l l u t i o n of the waters of the Province. POLLUTION FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTE This, paper w i l l not d e a l i n any d e t a i l w i t h p o l l u t i o n caused by i n d u s t r i a l wastes. However, there are a number of Instances where- p o l l u t i o n from i n d u s t r i a l wastes, a f f e c t i n g the p u b l i c h e a l t h , f i s h e r i e s and other i n t e r e s t s have been C o r r e c t e d . EXAMPLES OF POLLUTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA There are a number of examples, of p o l l u t i o n i n Some o f these are- of p u b l i c h e a l t h s i g n i f i c a n c e some of them are of s i g n i f i c a n c e to other water uses. f o l l o w i n g are- some examples: 1.  B.C. and The  Of p u b l i c h e a l t h s i g n i f i c a n c e : In any Inhabited area, some minimal p o l l u t i o n of streams w i l l occur i n s p i t e of a l l methods of p o l l u t i o n control. The s t o o l of one typhoid c a r r i e r deposi t e d i n u o r near- a stream can contaminate the stream w i t h typhoid b a c t e r i a that may cause an outbreak of typhoid i n persons u s i n g the water a t a p o i n t downstream, even though to a l l appearances the water i s good. There are s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s on r e c o r d where t h i s has occurred. The r e s e r v i n g of watersheds f o r s a n i t a r y purposes such as has been done i n the Case of the G r e a t e r Vancouver Water D i s t r i c t  15J1 Watershed, i s .done t o prevent t h i s type of contamination. This: o b v i o u s l y cannot be done f o r a l l watersheds and as a r e s u l t i t i s impossible- to c o n t r o l t h i s type of contamination. As an a l t e r n a t i v e , p u b l i c water s u p p l i e s taken from surface sources should be g i v e n some b a c t e r i c i d a l treatment. An example: where- watershed s a n i t a t i o n c o n t r o l i s not p r a c t i c a l i s f o r the supply of the water at Kamloops. Here the water i s taken from the- South Thompson R i v e r , where p r e v e n t i o n of a l l contamination i s i m p o s s i b l e . Here the p u b l i c water supply i s c h l o r i n a t e d as a b a c t e r i c i d a l treatment. 2.  Another example of p o l l u t i o n of p u b l i c h e a l t h importance which i s a l s o of f i s h e r i e s importance i s the d i s c h a r g e of sewage i n t o o y s t e r - p r o d u c i n g areas. I t i s i l l e g a l t o take s h e l l f i s h from Vancouver harbour, frmm V i c t o r i a harbour, and from NanaimO. harbour, and from p o r t i o n s of Ladysmith harbour because, of sewage contamination. T h i s , of course, has l e s s e n e d a f i s h e r i e s resource f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the p u b l i c h e a l t h .  3.  Another example of p o l l u t i o n which i s of p u b l i c h e a l t h s i g n i f i c a n c e - and a l s o of s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h r e g a r d to r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , i s the p o l l u t i o n of b a t h i n g areas by sewage. P o r t i o n s of Nanaimo harbour, V i c t o r i a harbour, and s e v e r a l others which were once: used f o r b a t h i n g cannot now be used.- The contamination of the beaches i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver area i s becoming more '•and more a problem. In these i n s t a n c e s , the p u b l i c h e a l t h has been p r o t e c t e d by the abandonment of a r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t y .  k.  Another example of p o l l u t i o n i s one that a f f e c t s fisheries. In the lower F r a s e r V a l l e y there are a number of food p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s which d i s c h a r g e f a i r l y l a r g e volumes of i n d u s t r i a l wastes i n t o small streams. In s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s t h i s waste has caused a s e r i o u s d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the value of these streams, f o r spawning of sport and commercial f i s h . In these p a r t i c u l a r cases t h e r e i s no hazard to the p u b l i c h e a l t h except f o r some d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the a e s t h e t i c v a l u e of the stream.  5>.  In a t l e a s t one case i n the Kootenay d i s t r i c t , the d i s c h a r g e of mine t a i l i n g s i n t o a stream causes some i n j u r y to a h y d r o - e l e c t r i c p l a n t . In t h i s i n s t a n c e the p o l l u t i o n i s of no p u b l i c  1*2  h e a l t h . s i g n i f i c a n c e : but i t i s of s i g n i f i c a n c e to. a u s e r of water f o r power purposes. 6.  In another case i n the Kootenay d i s t r i c t the o c c a s i o n a l d i s c h a r g e of mine t a i l i n g s i n t o a stream i s a hazard to a public- water; supply. While these t a i l i n g s dp not cause any communicable disease-, they do i n j u r e the: p o t a b i l i t y of the water.  CONCLUSION The p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l l e g i s l a t i o n i n f o r c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia today has had some e f f e c t i n c o n t r o l l i n g p o l l u t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y when the o b j e c t i v e s of such l e g i s l a t i o n are Considered. However, i t has. not d e a l t w i t h the p o l l u t i o n problem as a whole. I t i s f e l t that the c o n t r o l of p o l l u t i o n ' i s s t i l l i n a p r e v e n t i v e stage i n B r i t i s h Columb i a today,, and that there i s s t i l l time f o r -effective measures to be taken to a v o i d h a v i n g p o l l u t i o n become a major problem In B r i t i s h Columbia as i t has become inr'some of the- States.and Provinces i n North America.  153  APPENDIX  "A"  STREAM POLLUTION.IN BRITISH COLUMBIA The f o l l o w i n g i s the known l e g i s l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g p o l l u t i o n which i s now i n e f f e c t . PROVINCIAL LEGISLATION The Water A c t — S e c t i o n 3 7 . Every person i s g u i l t y o f an o f f e n c e a g a i n s t t h i s Act and. i s l i a b l e , on summary conviction,, to a p e n a l t y not exceeding $ 2 5 0 . 0 0 and, i n d e f a u l t of payment, to imprisonment not exceeding .12 months, who does any of the f o l l o w i n g : (k) Puts i n t o any stream any sawdust, timber, t a i l i n g s , g r a v e l , r e f u s e , c a r c a s s , or other t h i n g or substance a f t e r having ^been ordered, by the engi n e e r or water r e c o r d e r not t o do so. Health A c t — S e c t i o n s 2k-27, i n c l u s i v e , deal with plans of sewage d i s p o s a l works> c e r t i f i c a t e s of a p p r o v a l and necessary a l t e r a t i o n s to sewerage systems. The p o r t i o n which d e a l s mainly with stream p o l l u t i o n i s contained i n S e c t i o n 2 5 and reads as f o l l o w s : No common sewer o r system of sewerage s h a l l be e s t a b l i s h e d or continued u n l e s s t h e r e i s maintained i n Connection t h e r e w i t h a system of sewage p u r i f i c a t i o n and d i s p o s a l which removes and avoids the menace to the p u b l i c h e a l t h , and the M i n i s t e r may c a l l f o r , and any M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l , person, or c o r p o r a t i o n s h a l l , when requested, f u r n i s h as soon as may be-, such i n f o r m a t i o n and data i n r e l a t i o n to such matters under t h e i r c o n t r o l as the. M i n i s t e r may deem necessary. The p e n a l t y f o r the v i o l a t i o n of t h i s S e c t i o n i s cont a i n e d i n S e c t i o n I l k . Any person who v i o l a t e s any other p r o v i s i o n of t h i s Act s h a l l , u n l e s s I t i s otherwise especi a l l y p r o v i d e d , be l i a b l e f o r every such o f f e n c e to a p e n a l t y not exceeding $ 1 0 0 . 0 0 or to. imprisonment, w i t h or without hard l a b o u r f o r a term not exceeding s i x months, or to. both f i n e and imprisonment, i n the. d i s c r e t i o n of the convicting Justice. The S a n i t a r y R e g u l a t i o n s were: i s s u e d under a u t h o r i t y of the " H e a l t h A c t . " S e c t i o n 66 of these r e g u l a t i o n s reads  as follows-: No s o l i d refuse- or waste matter o f any k i n d s h a l l be deposited i n any stream so as to o b s t r u c t the f l o w o r put i n t o any stream or lake so as to p o l l u t e i t s waters, and no s o l i d or l i q u i d sewage matter from a p u b l i c or private- sewer s h a l l be d i s charged i n t o any stream or l a k e , b u t I f i t can be proved t h a t the b e s t means have been adopted to p u r i f y the sewage, etc.,. b e f o r e i t e n t e r s the stream or l a k e , noooffence- i s committed, but i s unles;s the l o c a l Board has n o t i f i e d the o f f e n d i n g p a r t i e s t h a t the means adopted are I n s u f f i c i e n t ; nor s h a l l any poisonous, noxious, or p o l l u t i n g l i q u i d p r o c e e d i n g from any other source be passed i n t o any stream or l a k e u n l e s s the b e s t means have been f i r s t adopted to p u r i f y the same. The p e n a l t y f o r the- v i o l a t i o n of these r e g u l a t i o n s i s the same as f o r the v i o l a t i o n of the " H e a l t h A c t . " The " H e a l t h A c t " a l s o s p e c i f i e s t h a t s p e c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the p r e v e n t i o n of p o l l u t i o n may be d e v i s e d . Power f o r the e x e r c i s e of t h i s a u t h o r i t y i s noted i n S e c t i o n 6 of the " H e a l t h Act-." I t reads as f o l l o w s : The L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l may make and i s s u e such g e n e r a l rules,, orders and r e g u l a t i o n s as he deems necessary f o r the p r e v e n t i o n , treatment, m i t i g a t i o n and suppression of d i s e a s e , and may from time to time a l t e r o r r e p e a l any such r u l e s , orders and r e g u l a t i o n s and substitute, new r u l e s , - o r d e r s , and r e g u l a t i o n s ; and the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r - i n C o u n c i l may by'the r u l e s , orders and r e g u l a t i o n s p r o v i d e f o r and r e g u l a t e ( l 8 ) the p r e v e n t i o n of the p o l l u t i o n , d e f i l e m e n t , d i s c o l o u r a t i o n or f o u l i n g of a l l l a k e s , streams, p o o l s , s p r i n g s and waters-. FEDERAL LEGISLATION F i s h e r i e s . A c t — S e c t i o n 3 3 ( l ) : No one' s h a l l throw overboard s o l i d s , c o a l ashes, stones, or other p r e j u d i c i a l or d e l e t e r i o u s - substances i n any r i v e r , harbour or roadstead, or i n any water where f i s h i n g is. c a r r i e d on or leave o r d e p o s i t or cause to be thrown, l e f t or d e p o s i t e d , on the shore, beach or bank of any water or Upon the beach between h i g h or low water mark, remains or o f f a l of f i s h , or of marine animals, o r leave decayed or decaying f i s h i n any net o r o t h e r f i s h i n g apparatus. Such remains; o r o f f a l may be- b u r i e d ashore above h i g h water mark.  155  (2) No person s h a l l cause or knowingly permit to pass I n t o , or put or knowingly permit to .be p u t , l i m e , Chemical substances or drugs, poisonous matter, dead or decaying f i s h , or remnants t h e r e o f , m i l l r u b b i s h or sawdust or o t h e r d e l e t e r i o u s , substance- or t h i n g , whether the same i s of a l i k e c h a r a c t e r to the substances named i n t h i s sect i o n or not,, i n any water frequented by f i s h , or that f l o w s i n t o such water, nor on i c e over e i t h e r such waters. (3) Nor person engaging i n l o g g i n g , lumbering, l a n d c l e a r i n g or other o p e r a t i o n s , s h a l l put or knowingly permit to be put, any s l a s h , stumps or other d e b r i s i n t o any water frequented by f i s h or t h a t flows Into such water, or on the i c e over e i t h e r such water, or at a p l a c e from which i t i s l i k e l y to be c a r r i e d i n t o e i t h e r such water. The p e n a l t y f o r the v i o l a t i o n of t h i s A c t i s cont a i n e d i n S e c t i o n 66. Except as h e r e i n otherwise p r o v i d e d , everyone who v i o l a t e s , o r prepares to v i o l a t e any p r o v i s i o n of t h i s Act or any R e g u l a t i o n s made, hereunder, s h a l l be l i a b l e to a p e n a l t y of n o t more than $1,000 In c o s t s , and, i n d e f a u l t of payment, to imprisonment f o r a term not exceeding 12 months or both. M i g r a t o r y B i r d s R e g u l a t i o n s — S e c t i o n k9. No person s h a l l knowingly p l a c e , cause to be p l a c e d or i n any manner permit the f l o w or entrance of o i l , , o i l wastes or substances harmful t o m i g r a t o r y water-fowl i n t o or upon waters f r e q u e n t e d by m i g r a t o r y water-fowl or waters f l o w i n g i n t o such waters or the- Ice c o v e r i n g e i t h e r of such waters. The p e n a l t y f o r the v i o l a t i o n of t h i s r e g u l a t i o n i s contained i n S e c t i o n 12 o f the A c t . I t reads as f o l l o w s : Every person who v i o l a t e s any p r o v i s i o n of the Act or any r e g u l a t i o n s h a l l , f o r each o f f e n c e , be l i a b l e upon summary C o n v i c t i o n of not more than $300,00' and not l e s s than $10.00 or to Imprisonment f o r a term not exceeding s i x months or to- b o t h f i n e and imprisonment. N a t i o n a l Harbours Board Bylaw. The- R e g u l a t i o n s governing the harbours of H a l i f a x , S t . John, C h i e h p u t i m l , Que., Three R i v e r s , M o n t r e a l , C h u r c h i l l and Vancouver, were made under Bylaw by the Board.  156  S e c t i o n 3(2)  of Bylaw A-1  reads  as f o l l o w s :  Nothing s h a l l he thrown, drained o r d i s c h a r g e d ' i n t o the water, allowed t o come i n contact w i t h the- water, or d e p o s i t e d i n the water w i t h i n the l i m i t s of the harbour which may i n any manner (a) damage- v e s s e l s or p r o p e r t y ; (b) cause any nuisance, or danger t o h e a l t h o r endanger l i f e or h e a l t h ; Provided, however., t h a t b a l l a s t or r u b b i s h may be p l a c e d , l e f t or disposed of at such p l a c e s i n the harbour as may be assigned by the Board. The p e n a l t y f o r the v i o l a t i o n of t h i s bylaw i s cont a i n e d i n S e c t i o n 1 0 7 • Penalty—'Every p e r s o n g u i l t y of an o f f e n c e a g a i n s t t h i s bylaw s h a l l be l i a b l e , upon summary c o n v i c t i o n , to the p e n a l t y not. exceeding $500.00 or imprisonment f o r a p e r i o d not exceeding s i x t y days or, i n d e f a u l t of payment of a p e c u n i a r y p e n a l t y and of the c o s t s of " c o n v i c t i o n to imprisonment f o r a p e r i o d not exceeding t h i r t y days. Navigable Waters P r o t e c t i o n A c t . S e c t i o n 19--NoOwner or tenant of any sawmill or any workmen t h e r e i n or other person s h a l l throw or cause to be thrown or s u f f e r or permit to be thrown any sawdust, edgings, s l a b s , bark or r u b b i s h of any d e s c r i p t i o n , whatsoever i n t o any r i v e r , stream or other waters, any p a r t of which i s n a v i g a b l e or which flows i n t o any n a v i g a b l e waters. S e c t i o n 20—No person s h a l l throw or d e p o s i t or cause or permit to be thrown or d e p o s i t e d any stone,, g r a v e l , e a r t h , cinders,, ashes or other m a t e r i a l or r u b b i s h l i a b l e to s i n k to the bottom i n any n a v i g a b l e t i d a l waters i n Canada where there are not at l e a s t twelve fathoms of water at extreme low t i d e . S e c t i o n 21--No persons s h a l l throw or d e p o s i t , or cause or permit to be thrown or d e p o s i t e d any stone, g r a v e l , earth,, ashes or other m a t e r i a l or r u b b i s h l i a b l e to s i n k t o the bottom i n any navigable- n o n - t i d a l waters i n Canada .where there are not at a l l times at l e a s t three fathoms of water. S e c t i o n 22--The s e v e r a l f i s h e r y o f f i c e r s s h a l l , from time to time examine and r e p o r t on the -condition of such rivers., streams .and waters and prosecute a l l personsv i o l a t i n g the p r o v i s i o n s - of the three la.st p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s ; and f o r e n f o r c i n g the s a i d p r o v i s i o n s , such o f f i c e r s s h a l l have and e x e r c i s e a l l the power c o n f e r r e d upon them f o r l i k e purposes by the F i s h e r i e s A c t .  157 S e c t i o n 23--The Governor i n C o u n c i l , when i t i s shown to h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n that the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t would not be i n j u r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d thereby, may,, from time to time, by p r o c l a m a t i o n p u b l i s h e d i n the Canada G a z e t t e , d e c l a r e any of such r i v e r s , streams or waters or p a r t or p a r t s t h e r e o f , •exempted i n whole or i n p a r t from the o p e r a t i o n from the s a i d three s e c t i o n s , and may, from time to time, revoke such proclamations. The p e n a l t y f o r the v i o l a t i o n of S e c t i o n 19 p r o v i d e s on summary c o n v i c t i o n , f o r a f i r s t o f f e n c e , to a p e n a l t y of not l e s s than $ 2 0 . 0 0 and for- each subsequent o f f e n c e , to a p e n a l t y of not l e s s than $ 5 0 . 0 0 . F o r v i o l a t i o n of S e c t i o n s 2 0 and 2 1 the p e n a l t y , on summary c o n v i c t i o n , i s a f i n e not exceeding $ 3 0 0 . 0 0 , and not l e s s than $ 2 0 . 0 0 • Canada S h i p p i n g A c t . S e c t i o n s of the r e g u l a t i o n s f o r the government of p u b l i c harbours i n Canada under a u t h o r i t y of t h i s Act r e f e r to p o l l u t i o n . These are as f o l l o w s : S e c t i o n 51^-No timber, saw l o g s , l o g ends, p i l e s , -edgings, s l a b s , rine.s, b a r k s , c h i p s , sawdust, m i l l r e f u s e , f i s h r e f u s e or r e f u s e or r u b b i s h of any d e s c r i p t i o n , k i n d or n a t u r e , not governed by S e c t i o n k8 above, s h a l l be unladen, d i s c h a r g e d , d e p o s i t e d , l a i d , cast or emptied out or thrown or l a i d to go a d r i f t from any v e s s e l s or i n any manner, or by any person from any wharf or from any p a r t of the beach or shore, i n t o any p a r t of the harbour, or upon the beach or shore t h e r e o f below h i g h watermark, under the p e n a l t y f o r v i o l a t i o n h e r e i n a f t e r p r o v i d e d , to be made by the person having the charge of a v e s s e l o r the works from which any such matter as a f o r e s a i d s h a l l have been so d i s c h a r g e d , unladen, d e p o s i t e d , l a i d , c a s t , or emptied out, thrown or allowed to go a d r i f t , or by any other- person or persons v i o l a t i n g t h i s r e g u l a t i o n . S e c t i o n 5 2 — N o o i l , o i l or a c i d p o l l u t e d water, o i l sludge, or any other form of o i l alone or i n combination w i t h any other substance; or any inflammable o r dangerous substances s h a l l be allowed to d r a i n or be pumped, thrown or d i s c h a r g e d i n any manner from any v e s s e l , o i l tank, o i l r e f i n e r y , or other r e c e p t a c l e , i n t o the waters of any p o r t or harbour- i n Canada, and any person i n charge of or owning any v e s s e l , manufactury, works, tanks, o r o t h e r premises v i o l a t i n g the p r o v i s i o n s of this, r e g u l a t i o n s h a l l be l i a b l e t o a p e n a l t y f o r v i o l a t i o n hereinafter provided.  158  S e c t i o n 5k----None of the m a t e r i a l s or matters mentioned i n S e c t i o n s k8> 5 l and $2. above s h a l l be d e p o s i t e d on the i c e w i t h i n the l i m i t s Of any harbour. The p e n a l t y f o r the v i o l a t i o n of any of these s e c t i o n s i s the i m p o s i t i o n of a f i n e not exceeding $ 1 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 . I f any such v i o l a t i o n continues f o r more than 2 k hours, every a d d i t i o n a l 2 k hours d u r i n g which i t may continue, s h a l l be .deemed to be an a d d i t i o n a l offence and s u b j e c t t o an a d d i t i o n a l penalty.  APPENDIX X Suggested State Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act by^United S t a t e s P u b l i c Health. Service"""  Relevant p o r t i o n s o f Suggested State Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act and Explanatory Statement. An I n v e s t i g a t i o n Prepared by the F e d e r a l S e c u r i t y Agency of the D i v i s i o n of Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l of the P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , October, 19*0), p p . 7-23.  160  CONTENTS 161  Suggested State Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l Act  l6l  Statement of P o l i c y Definitions C r e a t i o n and  •  ••  -—  O r g a n i z a t i o n of Board; Meetings; 162  Employees ( A l t e r n a t e Section) C r e a t i o n and Agency and  l6l  Organization  of 165  A d v i s o r y Board; Meetings, Employees  Powers and Duties  167  Prohibitions  169  Classification  of Waters; Standards of Water Q u a l i t y  Proceedings before: Board Hearings -Inspections  170  -  --  1  and  Re-cords  169  172  •  I n v e s t i g a t i o n s : Maintenance of ---  Penalties; Injunctions  172  .- — :  172  —  Review  17k  C o n f l i c t i n g Laws  E x i s t i n g R i g h t s and Remedies Preserved  '  176 176  Severability Short T i t l e  176  •  176  --  The "Suggested State Water P o l l u t i o n C o n t r o l A c t " has been endorsed by the C o u n c i l of State Governments and recommended to the S t a t e s i n the C o u n c i l ' s "Suggested S t a t e L e g i s l a t i o n ; Program f o r 1 9 5 l i s s u e d i n November, n  19-50..  . . . .  161 SUGGESTED STATE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ACT ( T i t l e . I t should conform to State requiremen