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Performance as a function of ability : Motivation and emotion Seck, Hong-Chee 1968

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PERFORMANCE AS A FUNCTION OF ABILITY, MOTIVATION AND EMOTION by SECK HONG-CHEE B.Sc. (Hons. App. Chem.), U n i v e r s i t y o f Singapore A THESIS IN COMMERCE SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH J u l y 1968 COLUMBIA In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . F a c u l t y o f Graduate S t u d i e s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date J u l y 2, 1968 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s t h e s i s and my t r a i n i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia have been a s s i s t e d f i n a n c i a l l y by the Government o f Canada under the Colombo P l a n . A d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e generously g i v e n by Dr. Noel A. H a l l and Dr. Vance F. M i t c h e l l are a p p r e c i a t e d and remembered, and I would l i k e t o extend my s i n c e r e thanks t o them. I am g r a t e f u l t o Dr. L e s l i e Wong, who, although not a member o f my t h e s i s committee, g r e a t l y encouraged me throughout the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s study. F i n a l l y , s i n c e r e thanks are a l s o due to Miss Thora C l a r k s o n f o r t y p i n g the manuscript, and Mr. Wong Ming Leung f o r drawing the graphs and diagrams. T h e i r e x p e r t i s e and e f f i c i e n c y have made the task o f p r e p a r i n g the f i n a l manuscript very much e a s i e r . ABSTRACT In order to understand b e t t e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l and environmental v a r i a b l e s as determinants of performance, the p r e s e n t study i n v e s t i g a t e d r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e i n the b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s on m o t i v a t i o n , emotion, a b i l i t y and performance. Maier's performance formula and Vroom's m o t i v a t i o n e q u a t i o n were analyzed and r e - i n t e r p r e t e d , u s i n g the concepts of v e c t o r and s c a l a r q u a n t i t i e s and t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n human l i m i t a t i o n s . I t was demonstrated t h e o r e t i c a l l y t h a t Maier's performance formula does not account f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t performance c o u l d decrease when a s u b j e c t i s h i g h l y m otivated, although Young, M c C l e l l a n d and o t h e r s have found t h a t t h i s i s p o s s i b l e e m p i r i c a l l y . Emotion was p o s t u l a t e d to be the cause of t h i s phenomenon. Based on the theory o f emotion as advanced by Leeper, Duffy and Young, and the theory o f a c t i v a t i o n as formulated by Malmo, Hebb, S c h l o s b e r g and L i n d s l e y , emotion was p o s t u l a t e d as a p o s s i b l e moderator i n f l u e n c i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o t i v a t i o n and performance. B e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n work performance was assumed to be an i n v e r t e d U-shaped f u n c t i o n o f emotion a r o u s a l . The m o t i v a t i o n v a r i a b l e i n the performance formula was based on the c o g n i t i v e theory o f m o t i v a t i o n as p o s t u l a t e d by i i i Tolman and Lewis and subsequently m o d i f i e d by Vroom and Lawler and P o r t e r . However, the concept of a r e c i p r o c a t i n g c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between performance and reward and the concept o f a " m u l t i p l e - d i s c o u n t " f o r the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between valence and expectancy were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the c o g n i t i v e theory of m o t i v a t i o n . By u s i n g q u a l i t a t i v e i n t e r a c t i v e t e s t s and h y p o t h e t i c a l v a l u e s f o r the v a r i a b l e s , the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between expectancy and valence i n determining m o t i v a t i o n was found t o be a l g e b r a i c m u l t i p l i c a t i v e and the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p among m o t i v a t i o n components toward v a r i o u s i n c e n t i v e components were found t o be v e c t o r a d d i t i v e . F u r t h e r , the a l g e b r a i c m u l t i p l i c a t i v e o p e r a t o r was found to be most a p p r o p r i a t e to d e s c r i b e the i n t e r a c t i o n among a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n and b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y as determinants of performance. I t was concluded t h a t the t h e o r e t i c a l formula c o u l d be o p e r a t i o n a l ! z e d and t h a t i t c o u l d h e l p managers to understand b e t t e r the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between b e h a v i o r a l and economic v a r i a b l e s so t h a t s c a r c e economic res o u r c e s c o u l d be more e f f i c i e n t l y u t i l i z e d . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . i ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . 1 1.1 Statement of Problem 2 1.2 Methodology and L i m i t a t i o n s . 3 1.3 D e f i n i t i o n s . 8 1.4 Summary of Chapters 10 2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND . . . 12 2.1 The Stimulus-Response Behavior Theory of M o t i v a t i o n 12 2.2 The C o g n i t i v e Theory o f M o t i v a t i o n 14 2.3 A Review of I n d u s t r i a l B e h a v i o r a l Science L i t e r a t u r e 16 2.4 Some U n d e r l y i n g T h e o r e t i c a l Concepts . . . . 19 3 AN INTERPRETATION OF MAIER'S PERFORMANCE FORMULA AND VROOM'S MOTIVATION EQUATION 22 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 22 3.2 Concept o f A b i l i t y 23 3.3 Concept o f M o t i v a t i o n 24 3.4 L i m i t a t i o n s o f Vroom's M o t i v a t i o n E q u a t i o n 26 3.5 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Maier's Performance Formula 29 4 THE DERIVATION OF THE "MULTIPLE-DISCOUNT" COGNITIVE MOTIVATION FUNCTION . . 33 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . 33 4.2 A t t i t u d e as an A c t i o n Governing System . . 34 V CHAPTER Page 4 (cont'd) 4.3 Valence, Expectancy and S a t i s f a c t i o n as Components o f A t t i t u d e . 3 7 (a) Concept of Valence . 37 (b) Concept of Expectancy 40 (c) Concept of S a t i s f a c t i o n 43 4.4 The " M u l t i p l e - D i s c o u n t " Concept o f M o t i v a t i o n - The I n t e r a c t i o n o f B a s i c Valence and Expectancy 44 4.5 The H y p o t h e t i c a l I n t e r a c t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p s among V a r i a b l e s 46 4.6 The M u l t i p l e - D i s c o u n t C o g n i t i v e M o t i v a t i o n F u n c t i o n 51 4.7 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the M u l t i p l e - D i s c o u n t C o g n i t i v e M o t i v a t i o n F u n c t i o n 53 4.8 The General M u l t i p l e - D i s c o u n t M o t i v a t i o n F u n c t i o n 56 5 BEHAVIORAL EFFICIENCY AS A FUNCTION OF EMOTION . . . 59 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 59 5.2 Emotion as an Organized or D i s o r g a n i z e d Response . . . . . . . . 61 5.3 The M o t i v a t i o n a l Nature o f Emotion 64 5.4 The I n f l u e n c e o f Emotion on Performance . . 66 5.5 T h e o r e t i c a l Assumptions on the R e l a t i o n -s h i p between Emotion and B e h a v i o r a l E f f i c i e n c y . . . . . . 69 5.6 D e r i v a t i o n o f the B e h a v i o r a l E f f i c i e n c y F u n c t i o n 73 5.7 T e s t i n g o f the B e h a v i o r a l E f f i c i e n c y F u n c t i o n 75 5.8 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f b value . . . . . . . . . 80 6 PERFORMANCE AS A FUNCTION OF ABILITY, MOTIVATION AND EMOTION 6.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 82 6.2 R e l a t i o n s h i p between M o t i v a t i o n and Performance 82 v i CHAPTER Page 6 (cont'd) 6.3 Emotion as a Moderator between M o t i v a t i o n and Performance 86 6.4 I n t e r a c t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p between M o t i v a t i o n and B e h a v i o r a l E f f i c i e n c y . . 88 6.5 I n t e r a c t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p between A b i l i t y and B e h a v i o r a l E f f i c i e n c y 89 6.6 D e r i v a t i o n o f the Performance Formula . . 91 7 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 95 7.1 O p e r a t i o n a l i t y of the Performance Formula 95 7.2 I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Performance Formula . 104 (a) Moderating I n f l u e n c e o f A b i l i t y . . . 110 (b) Moderating I n f l u e n c e o f B e h a v i o r a l E f f i c i e n c y 112 7.3 C o n c l u s i o n 115 BIBLIOGRAPHY 121 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION The importance of performance e f f e c t i v e n e s s of managerial and non-managerial personnel to the success of a business o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a w e l l accepted f a c t . A b i l i t y "and mot i v a t i o n as determinants of performance were recognized by Mace (1935), V i t e l e s (1953), Maier (1955) and other i n d u s t r i a l b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n t i s t s . Maier (1955) suggested t h a t : Performance = A b i l i t y x M o t i v a t i o n From e m p i r i c a l research s t u d i e s , evidence t h a t performance = ^ ( A b i l i t y x Motivation) has been found w i t h airmen (French, 1957; Fleishman, 1958), d e l i v e r y s e r v i c e s u p e r v i s o r s (Vroom, 1960), c i v i l s e r v i c e middle managers (Lawler, 1966), and w i t h department sto r e lower l e v e l managers ( M i t c h e l l , 1967). According to M i t c h e l l , " i t appears i n c r e a s i n g l y t h a t the m u l t i -p l i c a t i v e model has some general v a l i d i t y " ( M i t c h e l l , 1967, p.77). In the same study where a b i l i t i e s and r o l e perceptions were the two moderators used to t e s t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between mo t i v a t i o n and performance, M i t c h e l l suggested t h a t there might be other moderators present. The present w r i t e r submits t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n to a b i l i t y and r o l e p e r c e p t i o n , emotion might a l s o be considered as a moderator i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between mo t i v a t i o n and performance. 2 1.1 Statement o f Problem The i n f l u e n c e o f emotion on performance has been r e c o g n i z e d by the a c t i v a t i o n t h e o r i s t s f o r a long time. To the p r e s e n t w r i t e r ' s knowledge, no attempt has been made by i n d u s t r i a l b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n t i s t s to use q u a n t i t a t i v e methods to c o n s i d e r e x p l i c i t l y emotion as a determinant o f performance. The aim o f t h i s t h e s i s i s to formulate a q u a n t i t a t i v e model of performance as a f u n c t i o n o f a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n and emotion based on e x i s t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge and r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s . The c o n t r i b u t i o n s of t h i s t h e s i s a r e : (a) The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the concepts o f s c a l a r and v e c t o r q u a n t i t i e s as an a n a l y t i c a l t o o l to study psycho-l o g i c a l h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s . (b) The expansion of the c u r r e n t C o g n i t i v e Theory of M o t i v a t i o n by (i ) i n c o r p o r a t i n g i n t o i t the concept of r e c i p r o c a t i n g c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between performance and reward; ( i i ) i n t r o d u c i n g the " m u l t i p l e - d i s c o u n t " concept f o r the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between b a s i c valence and expectancy w i t h r e f e r e n c e to i n c e n t i v e s to determine m o t i v a t i o n . (c) The d e r i v a t i o n of a mathematical f u n c t i o n t o " f i t " the i n v e r t e d U-shaped curve o f b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y as a f u n c t i o n of a person's emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 3 and l e v e l of emotion a r o u s a l , (d) The p o s t u l a t i o n of an i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a b i l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n w i t h emotion i n determining performance. 1 . 2 Methodology and L i m i t a t i o n s In the present attempt to formulate performance as a f u n c t i o n of a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n and emotion, the method employed i s a q u a n t i t a t i v e one based on c e r t a i n assumptions. This t h e s i s assumes t h a t : (a) the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p among h y p o t h e t i c a l constructs l i k e a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n and emotion, and a l s o the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s and observable v a r i a b l e s , such as reward and performance, can be represented by the use of appropriate mathematical  operators such as a d d i t i o n and m u l t i p l i c a t i o n and the use of appropriate mathematical r u l e s ; and (b) p s y c h o l o g i c a l h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s such as a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n and emotion can be measured i n d i r e c t l y . In p h y s i c a l sciences the d e f i n i t i o n of p h y s i c a l q u a n t i t i e s , such as force and v e l o c i t y , i s , at r o o t , a s p e c i f i c a t i o n of measuring and c a l c u l a t i n g operations l e a d i n g u l t i m a t e l y to a number w i t h a u n i t . O p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s i n v o l v e two steps: 4 f i r s t , t h e c h o i c e o f a s t a n d a r d ; a n d s e c o n d , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p r o c e d u r e s f o r o b t a i n i n g m u l t i p l e s o r s u b m u l t i p l e s o f t h e s t a n d a r d , t h a t i s , f o r o b t a i n i n g u n i t s o f t h e q u a n t i t y . O n c e a s t a n d a r d i s c h o s e n a n d u n i t s h a v e b e e n d e t e r m i n e d , a d i r e c t c o m p a r i s o n o f a q u a n t i t y t o b e m e a s u r e d w i t h t h e s t a n d a r d c a n b e m a d e . A n i d e a l s t a n d a r d h a s t w o p r i m e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : i t i s a c c e s s i b l e a n d i t i s i n v a r i a b l e , h a v i n g a s s u m e d t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e m e a s u r e m e n t . I n t h e p a s t , g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s w a s p l a c e d f i r s t o n a c c e s s i b i l i t y , b u t a s t e c h n i q u e s o f m e a s u r e m e n t i m p r o v e d , t h e n e e d f o r g r e a t e r i n v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e s t a n d a r d s g r e w . T h e f a m i l i a r y a r d , f o o t , a n d i n c h , f o r e x a m p l e , a r e d e s c e n d e d d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e h u m a n a r m , f o o t a n d u p p e r t h u m b . T o d a y , s u c h r o u g h m e a s u r e s o f l e n g t h a r e n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y , a n d a m u c h l e s s v a r i a b l e s t a n d a r d m u s t b e u s e d , e v e n a t t h e e x p e n s e o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y . P s y c h o l o g i c a l h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s , j u s t a s a n y o t h e r c o n s t r u c t , a r e i n t a n g i b l e q u a n t i t i e s . A s a r e s u l t , t h e p r o b l e m s o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f m e a s u r e m e n t , e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f u n i t s , a n d t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y , i n v a r i a b i l i t y a n d v a l i d i t y o f a s t a n d a r d o f m e a s u r e m e n t p o s e s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s i n a n y a t t e m p t t o q u a n t i f y h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s a c c u r a t e l y a n d o b j e c t i v e l y . I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a n i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p s y c h o l o g i c a l h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s c a n b e o p e r a t i o n a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e r u l e s o f m a t h e m a t i c a l 5 o p e r a t i o n has i n h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s . F i r s t , one cannot be a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n t h a t mathematical o p e r a t o r s such as m u l t i -p l i c a t i o n and a d d i t i o n e x a c t l y " f i t " the nature of i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c u l a r h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s . Second, one cannot s e t up an o b j e c t i v e standard o f measurement f o r the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s . One of the b e t t e r methods a v a i l a b l e f o r measuring the h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s i s the " i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s " method as shown i n the f o l l o w i n g diagram. A - f -* (X) - f B The diagram r e p r e s e n t s a simple case o f an i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e (X) not d i r e c t l y o b s e rvable but f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d (f) t o antecedent event (A) and to the consequent event (B), both A and B being d i r e c t l y o b s e r v a b l e . I t i s assumed t h a t when an i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e i s thus s e c u r e l y anchored to observable v a r i a b l e s , the dynamic i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the unobservable h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s and the observable ones can be determined f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y . In a complex case where there are s e v e r a l antecedent o b s e r v a b l e s , s e v e r a l i n t e r -vening v a r i a b l e s , and s e v e r a l consequent o b s e r v a b l e s , the l i m i t a t i o n s of employing t h i s r e f i n e d method of measuring and st u d y i n g the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s themselves, and between the h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s and the antecedent and consequent o b s e r v a b l e s , become i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent. As H u l l p o i n t e d out: 6 Despite the great value of l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s or i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s i n s c i e n t i f i c theory, t h e i r use i s attended w i t h c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s and even hazards. At bottom t h i s i s because the presence and amount of such h y p o t h e t i c a l f a c t o r s must always be determined i n d i r e c t l y . ( H u l l , 1943, p.22) Use of the concepts of v e c t o r and s c a l a r q u a n t i t i e s i s very b a s i c i n the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s . By borrowing these concepts from the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s , the present w r i t e r introduces i n t o the f i e l d of b e h a v i o r a l science an a n a l y t i c a l t o o l to study h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s or v a r i a b l e s such as a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n , emotion, p e r c e p t i o n , and s a t i s f a c t i o n and environmental v a r i a b l e s such as reward and performance. The use of t h i s methodology i n b e h a v i o r a l science may help to d e f i n e h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s more c l e a r l y and p r e c i s e l y and may f a c i l i t a t e the a n a l y s i s of i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among them. The b u i l d i n g blocks of p h y s i c a l sciences are the p h y s i c a l q u a n t i t i e s i n terms of which p h y s i c a l laws are expressed. These, are c l a s s i f i e d i n t o vector q u a n t i t i e s and s c a l a r q u a n t i t i e s on the b a s i s of t h e i r magnitude and d i r e c t i o n . Vectors are q u a n t i t i e s t h a t have both magnitude and d i r e c t i o n and they combine according to c e r t a i n r u l e s such as vector a d d i t i o n and v e c t o r m u l t i p l i c a t i o n . P h y s i c a l q u a n t i t i e s which are vectors are f o r c e , v e l o c i t y , displacement, a c c e l e r a t i o n , e l e c t r i c a l f i e l d i n d u c t i o n , and magnetic i n d u c t i o n . S c a l a r s are q u a n t i t i e s t h a t can be completely s p e c i f i e d by a number and u n i t and t h e r e f o r e have magnitude onl y . Some p h y s i c a l q u a n t i t i e s 7 t h a t are s c a l a r s are mass, l e n g t h , time, d e n s i t y , energy and temperature. S c a l a r s can be manipulated by the r u l e s of o r d i n a r y a l g e b r a . The w r i t e r assumes t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l q u a n t i t i e s or h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s such as a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n , emotion, p e r c e p t i o n , expectancy or s a t i s f a c t i o n can be d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f d i r e c t i o n and magnitude. For example, s a t i s f a c t i o n can be c o n s i d e r e d a v e c t o r q u a n t i t y because i t has d i r e c t i o n ( p o s i t i v e / i n d i f f e r e n c e or negative) and magnitude ( i n t e n s i t y ) . Expectancy can be c o n s i d e r e d a s c a l a r q u a n t i t y because i t has o n l y magnitude which ranges from zero (absolute u n c e r t a i n t y ) to one (absolute c e r t a i n t y ) . The o b j e c t o f expectancy such as reward can be c o n s i d e r e d a v e c t o r q u a n t i t y having d i r e c t i o n ( p o s i t i v e , i n d i f f e r e n c e or negative) and magnitude ( i n t e n s i t y ) . I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t v a r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s e x i s t i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of q u a n t i t a t i v e methods to determine the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between reward as an antecedent observable v a r i a b l e , p e r c e p t i o n , expectancy, s a t i s f a c t i o n , v a l e n c e , a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n and emotion as i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s , and performance as a consequent observable v a r i a b l e . I n t r o d u c t i o n of the concepts o f v e c t o r and s c a l a r q u a n t i t i e s as an a n a l y t i c a l t o o l does not e l i m i n a t e these l i m i t a t i o n s but i s done i n an attempt to i n t e r p r e t the d e f i n i t i o n s and i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between p s y c h o l o g i c a l h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s more c l e a r l y and p r e c i s e l y . 8 1.3. D e f i n i t i o n s The meaning of "psyche" i s "the mind". T r a d i t i o n a l l y , p s y c h o l o g i s t s d i v i d e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l or mental processes f u n c t i o n a l l y i n t o those of c o g n i t i o n , a f f e c t i o n and conation. Such a d i v i s i o n of mental processes i s commonly found i n b e h a v i o r a l science l i t e r a t u r e . Other p s y c h o l o g i c a l h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s are u s u a l l y d e r i v e d from these major f u n c t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s . Only b r i e f d e f i n i t i o n s of the important terms used i n t h i s t h e s i s are given i n t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter. Expansion of these concepts w i l l be found i n subsequent chapters as they are discussed. C o g n i t i o n i s what one t h i n k s , b e l i e v e s and a n t i c i p a t e s (Krech, C r u t c h f i e l d and B a l l a c h y , 1962, p.68) - a s c a l a r q u a n t i t y . A f f e c t i o n i s the t o t a l i t y of f e e l i n g s and emotions w i t h reference to pleasantness-unpleasantness q u a l i t y as d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the c o g n i t i v e and conative p a r t s of the mind (modified from Harriman, 1966, p.6) - a vector q u a n t i t y . Conation i s t h a t p a r t of the mind which i n c l u d e s impulses, motives, wishes, d r i v e s , and a p p e t i t e s as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e parts' of the mind (Harriman, 1966, p. 38) - a vector q u a n t i t y . P e r c e p t i o n i s the primary and b a s i c form of c o g n i t i o n (Young, 1961, p.298). To perceive i s to observe or communicate through the senses, such as to see, hear, touch, t a s t e , smell and to sense i n t e r n a l l y some percepts (objects f o r perception) - a s c a l a r q u a n t i t y . Expectancy i s an a t t i t u d i n a l measure of one's antecedent c o g n i t i o n toward an o b j e c t - a s c a l a r q u a n t i t y . S a t i s f a c t i o n i s an a t t i t u d i n a l measure of one's p o s t e r i o r a f f e c t i o n toward an o b j e c t - a vector q u a n t i t y . Valence i s an a t t i t u d i n a l measure of one's antecedent conation toward an o b j e c t - a vector q u a n t i t y . Goal i s the t a n g i b l e or i n t a n g i b l e (abstract) o b j e c t f o r which purposive a c t i v i t y was i n i t i a t e d and s u s t a i n e d - a vector q u a n t i t y . I n c e n t i v e i s the reward-performance stimulus o f f e r e d by the i n s t i t u t i o n to a person whose acceptance of i t becomes h i s goal and would i n i t i a t e and s u s t a i n a behavior sequence - a v e c t o r q u a n t i t y . Performance i s the mental and/or p h y s i c a l work done by a person i n the job s i t u a t i o n - a vector q u a n t i t y . Reward i s the m a t e r i a l and/or non-material compensation a person r e c e i v e s from others f o r h i s performance i n the job s i t u a t i o n - a v e c t o r q u a n t i t y . 10 A b i l i t y i s one's performance p o t e n t i a l - a s c a l a r q u a n t i t y . M o t i v a t i o n i s the combination of forces which i n i t i a t e , d i r e c t and s u s t a i n behavior toward a goal ( L i n d s l e y , 1957, p.48) - a ve c t o r q u a n t i t y . Emotion i s a mental s t a t e r e l a t e d to some t a n g i b l e or i n t a n g i b l e e x t e r n a l o b j e c t , and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f e e l i n g s of various i n t e n s i t i e s and accompanied by v i s c e r a l r e a c t i o n s and motor expressions of various i n t e n s i t i e s which may or may not be apparent - a vector q u a n t i t y . 1.4 Summary of Chapters The t h e o r e t i c a l background of t h i s t h e s i s i s b r i e f l y d i scussed i n chapter two. Chapter three i s an attempt to use the concepts of vector and s c a l a r q u a n t i t i e s to i n t e r p r e t Maier's (1955) performance formula and Vroom's (1964) m o t i v a t i o n equation. In chapter four the concept of a r e c i p r o c a t i n g contrac-t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between performance and reward i n an i n c e n t i v e package and the concept of " m u l t i p l e - d i s c o u n t " are introduced i n t o the c o g n i t i v e theory of m o t i v a t i o n . The concepts of emotion as an organized or d i s o r g a n i z e d response and of emotion being m o t i v a t i o n a l i n nature are reviewed i n chapter f i v e . From the experimental evidence of 11 the a c t i v a t i o n t h e o r i s t s , i t i s found t h a t emotion a r o u s a l i n f l u e n c e s a person's b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n work performance and t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between emotion a r o u s a l and b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i s an i n v e r t e d U-shaped curve. A mathematical f u n c t i o n i s d e r i v e d to " f i t " the curve. The s i x t h chapter i s an attempt to i n c l u d e emotion as a p o s s i b l e moderator which i n f l u e n c e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o t i v a t i o n and performance. The performance formula as a f u n c t i o n o f a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n and emotion i s d e r i v e d . The l a s t chapter i s concerned w i t h the o p e r a t i o n a l i t y of the v a r i a b l e s i n the performance formula and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the performance formula to management. 12 Chapter 2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Mace (1935) and V i t e l e s (1953) suggested t h a t a person's "ca p a c i t y to work" and " w i l l to work" j o i n t l y determine h i s l e v e l of performance. Maier (1955) hypothesized t h a t performance depends on both a b i l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n and t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between them can be expressed by the f o l l o w i n g formula: Performance = A b i l i t y x M o t i v a t i o n L i k e w i s e , Gagne and Fleishman (1959) proposed e x p l i c i t l y t h a t m o t i v a t i o n does not add to s k i l l but r a t h e r m u l t i p l i e s w i t h i t . Maier's performance formula excludes the r o l e of emotion as a determinant of performance which i s w e l l recognized by the a c t i v a t i o n t h e o r i s t . A l s o , both groups of q u a n t i t a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n t h e o r i e s , namely, the stimulus-response behavior theory and the c o g n i t i v e theory do not take the r e l a t i o n s h i p between emotion and m o t i v a t i o n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . (See Table 2-1 and Table 2-2). 2.1 The Stimulus-Response Behavior Theory of M o t i v a t i o n The S-R behavior theory g e n e r a l l y views the purpose of molar behavior of an organism as adaptive f o r s u r v i v a l . According to H u l l , Since the p u b l i c a t i o n by.Charles Darwin of TABLE 2-1 STIMULUS-RESPONSE BEHAVIOR THEORY OF MOTIVATION Year T h e o r i s t Context Determinants o f impulse to a c t i o n The impulse to a c t i o n 1918 Woodworth 19 4 3 H u l l 1952 H u l l 1956 Spence General b e h a v i o r D r i v e , Mechanism D r i v e x H a b i t Maze beh a v i o r Maze beh a v i o r Maze beh a v i o r Skinner box beha v i o r D r i v e R e a c t i o n p o t e n t i a l D r i v e x Stimulus t r a c e x I n c e n t i v e R e a c t i o n x H a b i t p o t e n t i a l (Drive + I n c e n t i v e ) x H a b i t E x c i t o r y p o t e n t i a l the O r i g i n of Species i t has been necessary to t h i n k of organisms against a background of organic e v o l u t i o n and to consider both organismic s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n i n terms of s u r v i v a l . ( H u l l , 1943, p.17) By i n t e g r a t i n g Cannon's (1932) "homeostasis" concept i n t o the S-R behavior theory, H u l l (1943) a p p l i e d Cannon's e q u i l i b r a t i o n p r i n c i p l e to support the "adaptation f o r s u r v i v a l " concept of the S-R behavior theory. R e j e c t i n g the i n s t i n c t theory of m o t i v a t i o n , the S-R p s y c h o l o g i s t s maintain t h a t the r e a c t i o n of an organism to environmental s t i m u l a t i o n s i s learned. Hence, the p r i n c i p l e of l e a r n i n g becomes the c e n t r a l i s s u e i n the S-R behavior theory. H u l l i n h i s r e v i s e d theory formulated the f o l l o w i n g p o s t u l a t e : The r e a c t i o n p o t e n t i a l ( CE ) of a b i t of learned behavior at any given stage of l e a r n i n g , where c o n d i t i o n s are constant throughout l e a r n i n g and response-evocation, i s determined (1) by the d r i v e (D) o p e r a t i n g during the l e a r n i n g process m u l t i p l i e d (2) by the dynamism of the s i g n a l i n g stimulus t r a c e (V-_) , (3) by the i n c e n t i v e reinforcement (K), and (4) by the h a b i t s t r e n g t h P o s t u l a t e V I I I . The C o n s t i t u t i o n of Reaction P o t e n t i a l ( 0E_). ( s V ' i - e . / = D x V, x K x ( H u l l , 1952, p.7) Spence (1956) r e l a t i o n s h i p of some (1952) fo r m u l a t i o n . r e v i s e d the concept and the i n t e r a c t i v e of the h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s i n H u l l ' s To Spence, E x c i t o r y P o t e n t i a l CE_ = (D+K) x CH_ 2.2 The C o g n i t i v e Theory of M o t i v a t i o n Advocates of c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s view molar behavior of an organism as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y goal-seeking. Tolman ass e r t e d t h a t an adequate d e s c r i p t i o n of what an animal i s doing always makes reference to some end (goal) towards which or away from which the animal is- , at the time, moving (Tolman, 1925, pp. 37-38). One of the i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s i n Tolman's theory i s "strength of demand f o r goa l o b j e c t " which i s i n f l u e n c e d by the organism's s t a t e of p h y s i o l o g i c a l d r i v e or d i s e q u i l i b r i u m and the type of i n c e n t i v e t h a t i s expected. Lewin, studying human behavior, r e f e r r e d to the same i n f l u e n c e on behavior as "valence" of the goal f o r the organism, i t s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s r e s u l t i n g from the momentary s t a t e of need (tg) and the character of the goal o b j e c t (G) (Lewin, 1938, p.107). "Expectancy" i s the other important i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e i n the c o g n i t i v e theory of m o t i v a t i o n . Both Tolman (1932) and • Lewin (1938) h e l d t h a t the tendency of an organism to perform one p a r t i c u l a r response r a t h e r than another at a choice p o i n t would depend a l s o on i t s "knowledge" or " c o g n i t i v e e x p e c t a t i o ns" of means-end r e l a t i o n s . To Tolman, an organism's c o g n i t i v e expectations i n a given stimulus s i t u a t i o n r e f e r to the organism' b e l i e f t h a t one response would lead on to the demanded goal TABLE 2-2 COGNITIVE THEORY OF MOTIVATION Year T h e o r i s t 1932 1944 1955 1958 1964 1967 Tolman Lewin, et a l , Rotter A t k i n s o n 19 62 Edwards Vroom P o r t e r & Lawler Context Maze behavior L e v e l of a s p i -r a t i o n , d e c i s i o n making S o c i a l l e a r n i n g and behavior Achievement-o r i e n t e d behavior Economic d e c i s i o n s Determinants of impulse to a c t i o n Expectancy of Goal, Demand f o r Goal Potency x Valence Expectancy, Reinforcement Value Expectancy x (Motive x Incentive) S u b j e c t i v e P r o b a b i l i t y x U t i l i t y V oluntary choice Expectancy x Valence Managerial performance Efforts-Reward P r o b a b i l i t y x Value of Reward The impulse to  a c t i o n Performance v e c t o r Force Behavior p o t e n t i a l Tendency (or Motivation) S u b j e c t i v e l y -expected U t i l i t y Force to perform E f f o r t 16 o b j e c t and another would not (Tolman, 1932, pp.164-203). Lewin represented the organism's expectations as the perceived path connecting some immediate r e g i o n i n the l i f e space w i t h a more d i s t a n t goal r e g i o n . The Lewinian concept of potency i s eq u i v a l e n t to Tolman's s t r e n g t h of expectancy (Lewin et a l . , 1944, p.358). D i f f e r e n t l a b e l s f o r the same concepts, "valence" and "expectancy", or the expansions of these concepts, have been used subsequently by other authors. (See Table 2-2). 2.3 A Review of I n d u s t r i a l B e h a v i o r a l Science L i t e r a t u r e Both the S-R behavior theory and the c o g n i t i v e theory t r e a t m o t i v a t i o n w i t h i n a broader framework than those s t u d i e s on s p e c i f i c personal v a r i a b l e s such as needs (Maslow, 1954) , the a f f i l i a t i o n motive (Mayo, 1945; Schachter, 1959), the achievement motive (McClelland, 1953), the money motive (Whyte, 1955), the competence motive (White, 1959), or those s t u d i e s on such s p e c i f i c environmental v a r i a b l e s as job content (Davis, 1957), s u p e r v i s i o n ( L i k e r t , 1961), or the o r g a n i z a t i o n ( A r g y r i s , 1957). Dunnette and Kirchn e r r e c e n t l y remarked t h a t : So f a r , however, we have handled m o t i v a t i o n i n a r a t h e r c a v a l i e r way - as i f simple l i s t i n g of human wants and d e s i r e s might be s u f f i c i e n t f o r completely understanding human m o t i v a t i o n a l processes. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , understanding m o t i v a t i o n i s not ne a r l y so easy. The m o t i v a t i o n of employees i n i n d u s t r y i s one of the most important but one of the l e a s t understood areas of i n d u s t r i a l psychology today. (Dunnette and K i r c h n e r , 1965, p.124). 17 A review of i n d u s t r i a l b e h a v i o r a l science l i t e r a t u r e shows th a t there i s no lack of t h e o r i e s , conceptual models and e m p i r i c a l research on m o t i v a t i o n . The d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s i n t o s p e c i f i c areas of m o t i v a t i o n mentioned e a r l i e r are important c o n t r i b u t i o n s but they o f t e n lead one to see the trees and miss the f o r e s t i n one's attempt to understand the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n , emotion and performance as a process. The f o l l o w i n g remark made r e c e n t l y by N e v i t t Sanford perhaps i n d i c a t e s what i s seemingly l a c k i n g : ... the accent today i s on the production of knowledge r a t h e r than on i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n . There are few attempts at s y s t e m i z a t i o n of the s o r t t h a t would put p a r t i c u l a r f a c t s i n p e r s p e c t i v e to show t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . More than t h a t , there seem to be few attempts to organize knowledge i n such a way t h a t i t s relevance to p r a c t i c e or to p o l i c y becomes apparent. ( N e v i t t Sanford, 1965, p.193) Vroom (1964) updated important i n d u s t r i a l research s t u d i e s on work and m o t i v a t i o n and introduced the c o g n i t i v e theory of m o t i v a t i o n i n t o i n d u s t r i a l psychology. He p o s t u l a t e d the nature of the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the personal v a r i a b l e s and environmental v a r i a b l e s i n the determination of the f o r c e on a person to perform an act. Lawler and P o r t e r (1967) and P o r t e r and Lawler (196 8) have expanded Vroom's c o n t r i b u t i o n i n a more d e t a i l e d model of v a r i a b l e s which helps to determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between value of reward, the p r o b a b i l i t y of e f f o r t l e a d i n g to reward, e f f o r t , a b i l i t y , r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s , performance, reward, and s a t i s f a c t i o n . Figure 2-1 A Theoretical Model of Individual Job Behavior Job-Related Enviroment Communication Goal 1 Goal Seeking Reinforcement $• B a r g a i n i n g n c e n t i v e R e c i p r o c a t i o n Reward Performance Response to I n c e n t i v e Person P a s t E x p e r i e n c e Jt imulus P e r c e p t i o n S a t i s f a c t i o n T Ranking / M o t i v a t i o n A l t e r n a t i v e s Expectancy A t t i t u d e Behavior Non-Job-Related Enviroment N o n - j o b - r e l a t e d S t i m u l u s Market S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n s - F a m i l y , Church U n i o n , C l u b , e t c . C u l t u r e Other N o n - j o b - r e l a t e d I n f l u e n c e s Non-j o b - r e l a t e d Response N o n - j o b - r e l a t e d G o a l Seeking 19 2.4 Some Underlying T h e o r e t i c a l Concepts The t h e o r e t i c a l concept i n t h i s t h e s i s and the conceptual diagram formulated to show the r e l a t i o n s h i p between performance, a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n , emotion and other personal and environmental v a r i a b l e s are p r i n c i p a l l y extensions of the work of Maier, Vroom, P o r t e r and Lawler, and M i t c h e l l . The conceptual diagram (see Figure 2-1) i s an attempt: (a) . to i n c o r p o r a t e "emotion" as a v a r i a b l e i n t o the c o g n i t i v e theory w i t h i n the S-O-R framework; (b) to show the l i n k between some personal and environmental v a r i a b l e s ; and (c) to show the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l l y recognized concepts: (1) A person i s subjected to (a) e x t e r n a l stimulus from both h i s j o b - r e l a t e d environment and non-j o b - r e l a t e d environment through h i s p e r c e p t i o n , and (b) i n t e r n a l stimulus from h i s valence (conation) and emotion and s a t i s f a c t i o n ( a f f e c t i o n ) . (2) A person's a b i l i t y , p e r c e p t i o n , emotion, a t t i t u d e and m o t i v a t i o n are i n f l u e n c e d by h i s past experience. (3) A person's pe r c e p t i o n of the e x t e r n a l stimulus o b j e c t at a p o i n t of time i n f l u e n c e s h i s expectancy ( c o g n i t i o n ) , valence ( c o n a t i o n ) , s a t i s f a c t i o n and emotion ( a f f e c t i o n ) and v i c e v e r s a . The way a person behaves i n a s i t u a t i o n (time-space considered) depends mainly on (a) h i s a b i l i t y , h i s c o g n i t i v e s t a t e , c o n a t i v e s t a t e and a f f e c t i v e s t a t e ; and (b) the i n c e n t i v e i n the environment as p e r c e i v e d by him, both p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s and environmental v a r i a b l e s v a r y i n g from time to time. Every person e x h i b i t s two p r i n c i p a l types of pu r p o s i v e molar behavior — adaptive f o r s u r v i v a l (S-R behavior theory) and g o a l seeking ( c o g n i t i v e theory) — both of which have an i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . Any d i f f e r e n c e between the person's g o a l and the i n c e n t i v e o f f e r e d by the i n s t i t u t i o n r e s u l t s i n a b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p which may or may not l e a d to a compromise between the person and the i n s t i t u t i o n . Reward and performance are the two r e c i p r o c a t i n g outcomes of an i n c e n t i v e . A p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t r a c t , and sometimes a w r i t t e n c o n t r a c t , i s the mutual commitment between the person and the i n s t i t u t i o n based on a person's acceptance of the i n c e n t i v e and the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s acceptance 21 o f h i s s e r v i c e . (8) A person's job performance depends p a r t l y on h i s job b ehavior which i s determined i n l a r g e measure by the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n and emotion. (9) Job s a t i s f a c t i o n i s the p o s t e r i o r a t t i t u d e c l o s e l y a f f e c t e d by the amount of reward a person r e c e i v e s from o t h e r s f o r h i s job performance t h a t i s p e r c e i v e d as e q u i t a b l e by the r e c i p i e n t . S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p a s t performance and reward i n f l u e n c e s a person's contemporaneous p e r c e p t i o n s , e x p e c t a n c i e s and v a l e n c e s . (10) A person's job performance i n f l u e n c e s the i n c e n t i v e s t h a t w i l l be o f f e r e d to him i n the f u t u r e . Chapter 3 AN INTERPRETATION OF MAIER'S PERFORMANCE FORMULA AND VROOM'S MOTIVATION EQUATION 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a b i l i t y and moti-v a t i o n .to determine performance was p o s t u l a t e d by Maier. What a man i s capable of doing and what he a c t u a l l y does are not n e c e s s a r i l y the same. The term a b i l i t y r e f e r s to a person's p o t e n t i a l performance, whereas the term performance r e f e r s to what a a c t u a l l y does under given c o n d i t i o n s . How a man performs on a job depends both on h i s a b i l i t y and h i s w i l l i n g n e s s or m o t i v a t i o n . We may express the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these f a c t o r s by the f o l l o w i n g formula: Performance = A b i l i t y x M o t i v a t i o n (Maier, 1955, p.203) The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of Maier's formula are of great s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the management of human resources i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y when one of the main f a c t o r s i n the s e l e c t i o n , placement and compensation of an employee i s h i s a b i l i t y . Maier's formula can be i n t e r p r e t e d q u a n t i t a t i v e l y as a l i m i t or n o n - l i m i t a l g e b r a i c f u n c t i o n . I i s more r e a l i s t i c to everyday experience to assume tha t there are l i m i t s i n a person's a b i l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n , and hence h i l e v e l of performance i s a l s o r e s t r i c t e d by these l i m i t s . 23 In o r d e r to i n t e r p r e t Maier's performance formula q u a n t i t a t i v e l y , i t i s necessary to understand the two main terms i n the formula, A b i l i t y and M o t i v a t i o n , i n the l i g h t of the q u a n t i t a t i v e methodology employed i n the p r e s e n t study and to a nalyze these two terms by u s i n g the concepts of v e c t o r and s c a l a r q u a n t i t i e s . 3.2 Concept o f A b i l i t y A b i l i t y i s d e f i n e d as a person's performance p o t e n t i a l . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t a b i l i t y marks the upper l i m i t of a person's performance c a p a b i l i t y . Over.a s h o r t p e r i o d o f time, a b i l i t y i s a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e or c o n s t a n t i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and r e l a t i v e l y independent o f s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . I t i s c o n s i d e r e d a s c a l a r q u a n t i t y because i t has o n l y magnitude. A b i l i t y can be d i v i d e d a r b i t r a r i l y i n t o two p r i n c i p a l k i n d s : (a) mental a b i l i t y ; (b) non-mental a b i l i t y . Mental a b i l i t y or i n t e l l i g e n c e r e f e r s t o the degree or e x t e n t to which an i n d i v i d u a l i s a b l e to l e a r n new t h i n g s r a p i d l y and s o l v e problems c o r r e c t l y . The t h r e e main f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e a person's mental a b i l i t y are: (a) N a t i v e p o t e n t i a l f o r l e a r n i n g - a h y p o t h e s i z e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the b r a i n s t r u c t u r e which serves to f a c i l i t a t e and l i m i t the development of what i s a c t u a l l y m a n i f e s t e d i n i n t e l l i g e n c e . 24 (b) M o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n - r e f e r s to one's i n t e n t i o n i n l e a r n i n g ( d i r e c t i o n ) and one's a s p i r a t i o n l e v e l i n l e a r n i n g (magnitude). (c) Environmental stimulus p o t e n t i a l - r e f e r s to one's edu c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , experience, and s o c i a l environment. Together, these three f a c t o r s help to determine a person's l e v e l of mental a b i l i t y . Non-mental a b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e psychomotor a b i l i t y , a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y , musical a b i l i t y , a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y (Kuch, 1963, pp.377-382). A b i l i t y i n the present context r e f e r s to the t a s k - r e l e v a n t mental and non-mental a b i l i t i e s a person possesses or has acquired. 3.3 Concept of M o t i v a t i o n " M o t i v a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y d e f i n e d as the combination of f o r c e s which i n i t i a t e , d i r e c t and s u s t a i n behavior toward a g o a l " (Lindsley,1957, p.48). By d e f i n i t i o n , m o t i v a t i o n i s a combined for c e toward a g o a l . Hence m o t i v a t i o n i s considered a v e c t o r q u a n t i t y having both d i r e c t i o n and magnitude. The d i r e c t i o n of m o t i v a t i o n , at any p o i n t of time, i s a person's "b e h a v i o r a l i n t e n t i o n " (Locke, Byran, Kendall, 1968, pp.104-121) or "preference among outcomes or s t a t e s of nature" (Vroom, 1964, p.15). For any p a i r of outcomes x or y, a person e i t h e r p r e f e r s x to y, p r e f e r s y to x, or i s i n d i f f e r e n t to x or y. The magnitude o f m o t i v a t i o n r e f e r s to the i n t e n s i t y (or strength) o f a person's p r e f e r e n c e (or a t t r a c t i o n ) toward an outcome; i t i s a l s o r e f e r r e d to as an i n d i v i d u a l ' s performance g o a l o r a s p i r a t i o n l e v e l (Locke, Byran, K e n d a l l , 1968). Both d i r e c t i o n and magnitude of m o t i v a t i o n are dynamic f a c t o r s depending on the c h o i c e of the person a t the p o i n t o f time i n a g i v e n environment. Hence m o t i v a t i o n i s a r e l a t i v e l y dynamic p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e and i t i s r e l a t i v e l y dependent on s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . Q u a n t i t a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n t h e o r i e s , both the S-R behavior theory and the c o g n i t i v e theory, assume t h a t m o t i v a t i o n i s a m o n o t o n i c a l l y i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n o f some h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s . Vroom proposed t h a t : The f o r c e on a person to perform an a c t i s a m o n o t o n i c a l l y i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n of the a l g e b r a i c sum of the products of the valences of a l l outcomes and the s t r e n g t h of h i s e x p e c t a n c i e s t h a t the a c t w i l l be f o l l o w e d by the attainment o f these outcomes. We can express t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n i n the form o f the f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n : 2 ( E i j V j } ( i = n + 1 ... m) f i > 0; i A j = $,§ i s the n u l l s e t where F. = the f o r c e to perform a c t i l . = the s t r e n g t h o f the expectancy (0 * E * 1) V. = the valence of outcome j J (Vroom, 1964, p.18) 26 3.4 L i m i t a t i o n s of Vroom's M o t i v a t i o n E q u a t i o n The concepts of v e c t o r and s c a l a r q u a n t i t i e s are used to i n t e r p r e t Vroom's equation. Use o f the a l g e b r a i c m u l t i p l i -c a t i o n o p e r a t o r f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n between expectancy and va l e n c e to determine a component f o r c e o f m o t i v a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d o p e r a t i o n a l l y v a l i d because expectancy i s c o n s i d e r e d a s c a l a r q u a n t i t y and v a l e n c e i s c o n s i d e r e d a v e c t o r q u a n t i t y . However, Vroom's assumption t h a t the a l g e b r a i c sum of component f o r c e s (EV) i s equal to the r e s u l t a n t f o r c e (F) i s c o n s i d e r e d o p e r a t i o n a l l y i n v a l i d . S ince f o r c e i s a v e c t o r q u a n t i t y , t h e o r e t i c a l l y , one must use the v e c t o r a d d i t i o n o p e r a t o r r a t h e r than the a l e g e b r a i c a d d i t i o n o p e r a t o r i n the summation of the component f o r c e s to r e s o l v e the r e s u l t a n t f o r c e . However, i f one assumes t h a t a person's valence operates i n e i t h e r p e r p e n d i c u l a r ( i n d i f f e r e n c e ) or i n d i a g o n a l l y o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s , then, o p e r a t i o n a l l y , there i s no d i f f e r e n c e between a l g e b r a i c and v e c t o r a d d i t i o n although t h e o r e t i c a l l y i t i s i n c o r r e c t . A l s o , such an assumption i s an o v e r - s i m p l i f i e d model of the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s and environmental v a r i a b l e s . A more r e a l i s t i c model of i n t e r a c t i o n between a person and h i s environment i s u s u a l l y more complex. Co n s i d e r the case of a person who i s employed by a c e r t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n . For the reward t h a t he r e c e i v e s , he i s o b l i g e d , and o f t e n under p r e s s u r e from h i s s u p e r i o r , to u t i l i z e h i s a b i l i t y and energy, toward 27 i n s t i t u t i o n a l g o a l s . However, h i s p e r s o n a l goals and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l g o a l s may or may not be the same. The range of p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r s o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l g o a ls can be r e p r e s e n t e d d i a g r a m m a t i c a l l y as f o l l o w s : O r d i n a l s c a l e T o t a l l y opposing P a r t i a l l y opposing N e u t r a l Compatible I d e n t i c a l T h i s range of i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be r e p r e s e n t e d by v e c t o r diagram where the magnitude and d i r e c t i o n of the f o r c e s a c t i n g on the person are d e f i n e d by the l e n g t h and d i r e c t i o n of the arrows. (a) T o t a l l y opposing p e r s o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l g o a l s . P e r s o n a l g o a l ^. I n s t i t u t i o n a l _y g o a l (b) P a r t i a l l y opposing p e r s o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l goals, I n s t i t u t i o n a l g o a l P e r s o n a l g o a l (c) N e u t r a l p e r s o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l g o a l s . I n s t i t u t i o n a l g o a l (d) P e r s o n a l g o a l * Compatible p e r s o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l g o a l s . I n s t i t u t i o n a l g o a l P e r s o n a l g o a l (e) I d e n t i c a l p e r s o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l g o a l s . I n s t i t u t i o n a l g o a l * P e r s o n a l g o a l Vroom's a l g e b r a i c e q u a t i o n holds o p e r a t i o n a l l y but not t h e o r e t i c a l l y i f a l l human i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be completely d e f i n e d by v e c t o r diagrams (a), (b) and ( c ) . Only v e c t o r a d d i t i o n can r e s o l v e the whole range of i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e p r e s e n t e d by v e c t o r diagrams ( a ) , (b), ( c ) , (d) and (e). Vroom does not mention t h a t m o t i v a t i o n i s f i n i t e i n magnitude, which i s f u l l y r e c o g n i z e d by M i t c h e l l (1967, p.15). 29 A person has l i m i t e d or f i n i t e energy and r e s o u r c e s ( s c a l a r q u a n t i t i e s ) and hence the e f f o r t (which i s a f o r c e ) a person can e x e r t toward a p a r t i c u l a r task or g o a l by expending h i s energy and r e s o u r c e s i s a l s o f i n i t e . 3.5 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Maier's Performance Formula The i m p l i c a t i o n o f Maier's formula i s t h a t m o t i v a t i o n does not add to a b i l i t y but r a t h e r m u l t i p l i e s w i t h i t to determine the l e v e l o f performance of a person. S i n c e a b i l i t y i s c o n s i d e r e d a s c a l a r q u a n t i t y and marks the upper l i m i t o f one's performance c a p a b i l i t y , the extent to which a person's a b i l i t y i s u t i l i z e d depends on the magnitude of h i s m o t i v a t i o n , and the d i r e c t i o n towards which h i s a b i l i t y i s b e i n g u t i l i z e d ( f o r company's o b j e c t i v e s or a g a i n s t company's o b j e c t i v e s ) depends on the d i r e c t i o n of h i s m o t i v a t i o n . For example, the o r g a n i z i n g a b i l i t y of a worker can be u t i l i z e d to o r g a n i z e s t r i k e s and sabotage or to o r g a n i z e production,depending on the d i r e c t i o n of h i s m o t i v a t i o n . The h i g h e r h i s l e v e l o f o r g a n i z i n g a b i l i t y , the g r e a t e r the harm or good he can do. Moreover, the d i r e c t i o n of h i s m o t i v a t i o n , be i t p o s i t i v e , n e g a t i v e , or n e u t r a l , i s r e l a t i v e t o h i s frame of r e f e r e n c e , which, however, i s not f i x e d because a person's s c a l e o f v a l u e s and needs i s changeable w i t h time and space. Hence the d i r e c t i o n o f m o t i v a t i o n changes wi t h the changing values and needs of a person i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . A r b i t r a r i l y , p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n r e f e r s to the d i r e c t i o n of m o t i v a t i o n toward the Figure 3-1 Hypothetical Performance Curve of C and D + Performance Ability A c = A D h Til Motivation 1 • / ! +y Mc M A _ + Motivation Ability A c - A D - Performance Figure 3-2 Hypothetical Performance Curve of E and F + Performance Abi l i ty A E Ability A F - M o t i v a t i o n M E s M F M A | _ + Mot ivat ion Ability A F Ability A E - Performance 31 company's o b j e c t i v e . The m u l t i p l i c a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a b i l i t y and mo t i v a t i o n to determine performance can be i n t e r p r e t e d mathematically as an a l g e b r a i c equation. Performance = A b i l i t y x M o t i v a t i o n P = A x M Over a short p e r i o d of time, A can be considered a constant and hence P becomes a monotonically i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n of M. The gr a d i e n t of the l i n e a r a l g e b r a i c equation represents the a b i l i t y of the person. D i f f e r e n t persons w i t h d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of a b i l i t y w i l l have d i f f e r e n t performance g r a d i e n t s ; and d i f f e r e n t persons who have i d e n t i c a l a b i l i t y w i l l have the same performance g r a d i e n t . I t i s assumed i n the h y p o t h e t i c a l performance curves i n Figures 3-1 and 3-2 t h a t l e v e l of performance i s a l i n e a r i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n of l e v e l of m o t i v a t i o n and t h a t i t reaches an upper l i m i t when the a b i l i t y of a person i s f u l l y u t i l i z e d . F i gure 3-1 shows the l e v e l s of performance P c and P D of two persons, C and D, who have i d e n t i c a l a b i l i t i e s A c = A Q but d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of p o s i t i v e m o t i v a t i o n , M c and MQ. Figure 3-2 shows the l e v e l s of performance P„ and P^ of two persons, E and F, who have d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of a b i l i t i e s , A„ and A„, hi r but the same l e v e l of p o s i t i v e m o t i v a t i o n , M„ = M„. When the hi h a b i l i t y of a person i s f u l l y u t i l i z e d , or the l i m i t of performance p o t e n t i a l i s reached, increases i n the l e v e l of 32 m o t i v a t i o n w i l l not i n c r e a s e the l e v e l o f performance. When t a s k - r e l e v a n t a b i l i t y A of a person i s very low, or the g r a d i e n t o f the f u n c t i o n P = A x M approaches zero, then a very l a r g e increment i n m o t i v a t i o n w i l l cause o n l y a s m a l l increment i n performance. When A = 0, t h a t i s , when a person has no t a s k - r e l e v a n t a b i l i t y a t a l l , performance w i l l be zero no matter how l a r g e i s h i s m o t i v a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , a person may have hi g h t a s k - r e l e v a n t a b i l i t y but low m o t i v a t i o n ; h i s l e v e l o f performance w i l l a l s o be low. When he has no m o t i v a t i o n t o work a t a l l , h i s performance i s equal to zero. Maier's formula does not allow f o r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the performance l e v e l o f a person can decrease as h i s moti-v a t i o n l e v e l i n c r e a s e s . However, experiments w i t h human and animal s u b j e c t s show t h a t performance decreases when these s u b j e c t s are h i g h l y motivated. An attempt w i l l be made i n chapter s i x to account f o r t h i s shortcoming i n Maier's performance formula. 33 Chapter 4 THE DERIVATION OF THE "MULTIPLE-DISCOUNT" COGNITIVE MOTIVATION FUNCTION 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n This chapter extends the d i s c u s s i o n of some conceptual issues of the c o g n i t i v e theory of m o t i v a t i o n i n i t i a t e d i n the previous chapter. The concept of a l g e b r a i c a d d i t i o n assumed by Vroom and other c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i s t s i s replaced by the concept of vector a d d i t i o n i n the present d i s c u s s i o n . The simple model of i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between personal v a r i a b l e s and environmental v a r i a b l e s where there are only three p o s s i b l e d i r e c t i o n s ( p o s i t i v e , n e u t r a l , and negative) assumed by Vroom, however, i s adopted. An example of n e u t r a l d i r e c t i o n of m o t i v a t i o n from the company's p o i n t of view i s the case where an employee u t i l i z e s h i s energy and o r g a n i z i n g a b i l i t y to manage h i s f a m i l y and make i t a happy one. As a r e s u l t of adopting t h i s simple model of an i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , o p e r a t i o n a l l y , there i s no d i f f e r e n c e between Vroom's m o t i v a t i o n f u n c t i o n and the m o t i v a t i o n f u n c t i o n formulated i n t h i s chapter. However, there i s a t h o r e t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between the two m o t i v a t i o n f u n c t i o n s . The aim of t h i s chapter i s to d e r i v e a q u a n t i t a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n f u n c t i o n based on the concept of " m u l t i p l e - d i s c o u n t " and the concept of r e c i p r o c a t i n g c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between 34 reward and performance i n an i n c e n t i v e package. The w r i t e r recognizes t h a t the concept of " m u l t i p l e - d i s c o u n t " i s not e n t i r e l y a novel concept as Tolman (1932), Lewin (1938), Peak (1955), R o t t e r (1955), Vroom (1964), Dunnette (1967), Lawler and P o r t e r (1967) have formulated s i m i l a r ideas. I t i s the method by which the concept i s organized and formulated i n t o a mathematical f u n c t i o n t h a t i s new. Vroom (1964) and P o r t e r and Lawler (1967) do not e x p l i c i t l y d i s t i n g u i s h reward and performance as the two r e c i p r o c a t i n g outcomes of an i n c e n t i v e . The mo t i v a t i o n f u n c t i o n d e r i v e d by the w r i t e r takes i n t o account t h a t there i s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t r a c t and sometimes a w r i t t e n c o n t r a c t of mutual commitment between the person (offeree) and the i n s t i t u t i o n ( o f f e r o r ) when the o f f e r e e accepts the i n c e n t i v e o f f e r e d to him and the o f f e r o r has accepted h i s s e r v i c e s . As "business e n t e r p r i s e i s a f o c a l p o i n t f o r the r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s , c o n f l i c t i n g expectations and c o n f l i c t i n g needs" ( H a l l , 1967, p . l - l ), the k i n d of r e l a t i o n s h i p between the o f f e r e e and the o f f e r o r i n an i n d u s t r i a l s i t u a t i o n i s assumed to be one i n which the o f f e r e e attempts to o b t a i n at l e a s t what he considers an e q u i t a b l e r e t u r n i n exchange f o r h i s s e r v i c e s . The same i s true f o r the o f f e r o r . 4.2 A t t i t u d e as an A c t i o n Governing System The d e r i v a t i o n of the " m u l t i p l e - d i s c o u n t " c o g n i t i v e 35 m o t i v a t i o n f u n c t i o n i s based on the assumption t h a t a person's m o t i v a t i o n toward or away from the i n c e n t i v e depends on h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the i n c e n t i v e i n h i s past experience and h i s present valence and expectancy. S a t i s f a c t i o n , valence and expectancy are components of a person's a t t i t u d e . A t t i t u d e i s g e n e r a l l y used as a broad p s y c h o l o g i c a l concept to denote the o r g a n i z a t i o n of p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes which governs a person's a c t i o n . N.ewcomb defines a t t i t u d e as "... the i n d i v i d u a l ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n of p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes, as i n f e r r e d from h i s behavior, w i t h respect to some aspect of the world which he d i s t i n g u i s h e s from other aspects". (Newcomb, 1964). The concept of a t t i t u d e i s defined more e x p l i c i t l y as "an enduring system of p o s i t i v e or negative e v a l u a t i o n s , emotional f e e l i n g s , and pro or con a c t i o n tendencies w i t h respect to some s o c i a l o b j e c t " by Krech, C r u t c h f i e l d . and B a l l a c h y (1962, p.177). Krech et a l . emphasize t h a t an a t t i t u d e as a system c o n s i s t s of three i n t e r r e l a t e d components, namely, c o g n i t i v e component, f e e l i n g component and a c t i o n tendency component. In i n d u s t r i a l psychology, Lawler and P o r t e r (1967) and P o r t e r and Lawler (1968) s p e c i f i c a l l y p o i n t out that the p r o b a b i l i t y of e f f o r t l e a d i n g to reward (expectancy), s u b j e c t i v e value of rewards (valence) and job s a t i s f a c t i o n ( s a t i s f a c t i o n ) are components of job a t t i t u d e s . For purposes of t h i s t h e s i s the above t r i p a r t i t e d i v i s i o n of a t t i t u d e s has been adopted, a d i v i s i o n s i m i l a r to the 36 t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n a l d i v i s i o n of t o t a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes i n t o those of c o g n i t i o n , a f f e c t i o n and conation used by McDougall (1908), Tolman (1932), Young (1943) and others. The w r i t e r i s mindful of the c r i t i c i s m of such f u n c t i o n a l d i v i s i o n s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes by the a c t i v a t i o n t h e o r i s t s such as Duffy (1941) , Leeper (1948) and Bindra (1959) who argued t h a t such a d i v i s i o n i s i n v a l i d . According to Leeper, Too commonly we have adopted, f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes, a f a u l t y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s which was s t a r t e d back i n the l a t e 1700's - a d i v i s i o n of p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes i n t o those of c o g n i t i o n , a f f e c t i o n , and conation. The view adopted by Young, Munn, and the others i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t same view, t h a t matters of f e e l i n g or emotion (or, a f f e c t i o n ) are fundamentally d i f f e r e n t from matters of s t r i v i n g or m o t i v a t i o n (or, c o n a t i o n ) . But i t i s time t h a t psychology i s s u e d a d e c l a r a t i o n of independence from t h i s antique t r a d i t i o n , and i t i s time t h a t t h i s d e c l a r a t i o n of independence took the form, not merely of change of words, but a l s o of a r e j e c t i o n of the f a l s e dichotomy between a f f e c t i o n and conation which t h a t eighteenth-century view contained. (Leeper, 1948, p.19) Instead of t r e a t i n g m o t i v a t i o n (conation) and emotion ( a f f e c t i o n ) as a s i n g l e f u n c t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l process l a b e l l e d as a c t i v a t i o n , m o t i v a t i o n (conation) and emotion ( a f f e c t i o n ) are considered i n the present a n a l y s i s as two separate p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes which are h i g h l y i n t e r a c t i v e and are aroused simultaneously to determine a person's behavior i n a given s i t u a t i o n . The concept of emotion and the i n t e r -a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o t i v a t i o n and emotion w i l l be discussed i n chapter f i v e and chapter s i x r e s p e c t i v e l y . 37 The remainder o f t h i s chapter w i l l focus on a d i s c u s s i o n of v a l e n c e , expectancy and s a t i s f a c t i o n as separate components o f a t t i t u d e s and how these i n t e r a c t t o produce m o t i v a t i o n . One must r e c o g n i z e t h a t the name c o g n i t i v e theory o f m o t i v a t i o n i t s e l f i m p l i e s the assumptions t h a t a person i s r a t i o n a l and possesses knowledge of the s i t u a t i o n i n making h i s d e c i s i o n a t a c h o i c e p o i n t . 4.3 Valence, Expectancy and S a t i s f a c t i o n as Components of A t t i t u d e (a) Concept of Valence Valence (V) i s a person's antecedent hedonic o r i e n t a t i o n towards a p a r t i c u l a r outcome or i n c e n t i v e . I t i s a dynamic p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e and r e l a t i v e l y dependent on s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . Valence i s co n s i d e r e d a v e c t o r q u a n t i t y having both d i r e c t i o n ( p o s i t i v e , n e u t r a l or negative) and magnitude ( i n t e n s i t y , s t r e n g t h of a t t r a c t i o n , or a s p i r a t i o n l e v e l ) . C o n c e p t u a l l y , valence i s d i v i d e d i n t o b a s i c valence and i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l e n c e . B a s i c valence (V_.) r e f e r s to a l l those i n n e r s t r i v i n g ____________ J-J c o n d i t i o n s v a r i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d as needs, wants, wishes, d e s i r e s , i n t e r e s t s , v a l u e s and the l i k e . C o n c e p t u a l l y , b a s i c valence becomes i n s t r u m e n t a l valence when i t has been d i s c o u n t e d by one's expectancy e v a l u a t i o n or s u b j e c t i v e p r o b a b i l i s t i c e s t i m a t i o n o f the degree to which the i n c e n t i v e i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s a t i s f y i n g h i s b a s i c valence (V ). 38 Some of the s o c i a l wants mentioned by Krech et a l . (1962) are a f f i l i a t i o n wants, a c q u i s i t i v e want, p r e s t i g e want, power want, a l t r u i s t i c want and c u r i o s i t y want. Maslow (1954) suggests th a t the human needs, namely, p h y s i o l o g i c a l need, s a f e t y need, s o c i a l need, ego need, and s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t need are r e l a t e d to one another i n a developmental way and i n an ascending h i e r a r c h y . I t i s these wants, needs, and other i n n e r s t r i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h a t form the b a s i s of m o t i v a t i o n i n a person. Instrumental valence (Vj) i s a person's antecedent hedonic o r i e n t a t i o n toward an i n c e n t i v e (or o b j e c t , event, c o n d i t i o n ) i n the environment because he perceives t h a t the attainment of the i n c e n t i v e i s i n s t r u m e n t a l to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of h i s b a s i c valence ( V D ) . Hence the d i r e c t i o n and magnitude of i n s t r u m e n t a l valence (Vj) depends on (a) the d i r e c t i o n and magnitude of b a s i c valence (V_.) and (b) the degree the person expects t h a t the i n c e n t i v e w i l l be i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s a t i s f y i n g h i s b a s i c valence. As pointed out e a r l i e r i n the chapter, there i s a r e c i p r o c a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between a n t i c i p a t e d reward and a n t i c i p a t e d performance i n a job i n c e n t i v e package as s t i p u l a t e d i n the employment c o n t r a c t . Reward i s defi n e d as the m a t e r i a l and non-material compensation given by the o f f e r o r to the o f f e r e e f o r h i s performance. For a p a r t i c u l a r i n c e n t i v e (I.) w i t h r e c i p r o c a t i n g outcomes of a n t i c i p a t e d reward (R^) and. a n t i c i p a t e d performance (P^) , the o f f e r e e ' s i n s t r u m e n t a l valence f o r the i n c e n t i v e (V_ ) i s i assumed to be a f u n c t i o n of the vector sum of (V_, ) and i (V p ). i V I . ={l ( VR. + VP.) l J l l where f T = Instrumental valence f u n c t i o n ; V-, = Instrumental valence f o r the a n t i c i p a t e d 1 m a t e r i a l and non-material reward (R.); l Vp = Instrumental valence f o r the work i t s e l f l i n the a n t i c i p a t e d performance (P^) i r r e s p e c t i v e of the m a t e r i a l and non-material rewards to be r e c e i v e d from others. To be more exact, V_ = V_ + V_ K . K . K . I l l where V_ = Instrumental valence f o r the m a t e r i a l 1 rewards l i k e pay, f r i n g e b e n e f i t s , promotion; V_ = Instrumental valence f o r the non-material X\ « 1 rewards l i k e p r a i s e f o r doing good work, increased r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , permissive s u p e r v i s i o n . The i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between V and V i s 1 1 assumed to be vector a d d i t i v e . The o f f e r e e may have zero or n e u t r a l i n s t r u m e n t a l valence f o r the performance (V p = 0 ) . 40 But i f h i s i n s t r u m e n t a l valence f o r the reward i s p o s i t i v e , (V_ > 0), the v e c t o r sum o f h i s i n s t r u m e n t a l valence f o r the R. 1 i n c e n t i v e o f f e r e d to him i s l i k e l y to be p o s i t i v e (V_ > 0). i I f the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between V and V i s assumed 1 1 to be v e c t o r m u l t i p l i c a t i v e , then, V_ f o r the above case w i l l i be zero, which i s c o n t r a r y to everyday ex p e r i e n c e . A person may have p o s i t i v e i n s t r u m e n t a l valence f o r both and i f both reward and the work i t s e l f are a t t r a c t i v e t o him. To prevent conceptual c o n f u s i o n , a person's b a s i c valence (V_.) i s a r b i t r a r i l y d i v i d e d i n t o two k i n d s , namely, b a s i c v alence f o r reward (V_, ) and b a s i c valence f o r performance - R ' (V_, ), both of which can be c o n s i d e r e d as a person's c h a r a c t e r -P i s t i c s i n d i c a t i n g h i s hedonic o r i e n t a t i o n toward c e r t a i n kinds o f reward and c e r t a i n kinds of work. (b) Concept o f Expectancy Expectancy i s an antecedent a t t i t u d e i n d i c a t i n g the degree to which one s u b j e c t i v e l y b e l i e v e s a c e r t a i n outcome to be probable due to h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n . I t i s c o n s i d e r e d a s c a l a r q u a n t i t y having magnitude ranging from zero (absolute u n c e r t a i n t y ) to one (absolute c e r t a i n t y ) . Expectancy i s a r e l a t i v e l y dynamic p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e h i g h l y dependent on one's p e r c e p t i o n s of the s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . Three d i f f e r e n t kinds of expectancy are d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n d i c a t i n g t h a t there are at l e a s t three kinds of c o g n i t i v e FIGURE 4-1. CONCEPTUAL DIAGRAM OF MULTIPLE DISCOUNT COGNITIVE MOTIVATION FUNCTION B a s i c V a l e n c e - B a s i s o f M o t i v a t i o n 42 e x p e c t a t i o n s of means-end r e l a t i o n s h i p s (see F i g u r e 4-1). For a p a r t i c u l a r i n c e n t i v e (1^) w i t h r e c i p r o c a t i n g out-comes o f a n t i c i p a t e d reward (R^) and a n t i c i p a t e d performance E R = the degree the o f f e r e e s u b j e c t i v e l y b e l i e v e s i" * " B R t h a t the attainment of the a n t i c i p a t e d reward (R^) i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s a t i s f y i n g h i s b a s i c v a l e nce f o r reward (V D ); BR Ep = the degree the o f f e r e e s u b j e c t i v e l y b e l i e v e s i " * B P t h a t the a n t i c i p a t e d performance (P^) i t s e l f i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s a t i s f y i n g h i s b a s i c valence f o r performance (V D ); B P The above expectancy i s a measure o f the k i n d o f reward and the k i n d o f work the o f f e r e e wants or d e s i r e s . I t i s the o f f e r e e ' s e x p e c t a t i o n o f i n c e n t i v e - b a s i c valence r e l a t i o n s h i p . E n = the degree the o f f e r e e s u b j e c t i v e l y b e l i e v e s R or t r u s t s t h a t the o f f e r o r w i l l compensate him w i t h the a n t i c i p a t e d reward f o r h i s a n t i c i p a t e d performance; E_ = the degree the o f f e r e e s u b j e c t i v e l y b e l i e v e s P or t r u s t s t h a t the o f f e r o r w i l l r e a l l y g i v e him the k i n d o f work to perform t h a t he a n t i c i p a t e d . 43 The above expectancy i s a measure of the t r u s t an o f f e r e e has t h a t the o f f e r o r w i l l honour the agreement. I t i s the o f f e r e e ' s e x p e c t a t i o n o f the o f f e r o r - o f f e r e e r e l a t i o n s h i p . Ep = the degree the o f f e r e e s u b j e c t i v e l y i i b e l i e v e s t h a t the a n t i c i p a t e d reward (R^) w i l l depend on h i s a n t i c i p a t e d performance (P^); The above expectancy i s a measure of the o f f e r e e ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f the form o f compensation. I t i s the o f f e r e e ' s e x p e c t a t i o n o f performance-reward r e l a t i o n s h i p . Since 0 - E - 1 f o r each of the f i v e e x p e c t a n c i e s , the e f f e c t of m u l t i p l y i n g expectancy and b a s i c v a l ence i s one of d i s c o u n t i n g the value of b a s i c v a l e n c e . (c) Concept o f S a t i s f a c t i o n S a t i s f a c t i o n i s a p o s t e r i o r a t t i t u d e i n d i c a t i n g one's f e e l i n g or a f f e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n toward h i s performance, toward the m a t e r i a l and non-material rewards r e c e i v e d , and the ex t e n t to which these f u l f i l h i s b a s i c valence ( V D ) . B S a t i s f a c t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d a v e c t o r q u a n t i t y having d i r e c t i o n ( p o s i t i v e , n e u t r a l or negative) and magnitude ( i n t e n s i t y ) . I t i s a r e l a t i v e l y t r a n s i e n t p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e and h i g h l y dependent on s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s because one's performance i s judged by o t h e r s , and the m a t e r i a l and non-m a t e r i a l rewards one r e c e i v e s are g i v e n by o t h e r s . Both of 44 these events are l a r g e l y o u t s i d e the person's c o n t r o l . The o f f e r e e ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p a s t performance and p a s t reward w i l l i n f l u e n c e h i s p r e s e n t b a s i c valence and expectancy. 4.4 The " M u l t i p l e - D i s c o u n t " Concept o f M o t i v a t i o n -The I n t e r a c t i o n o f B a s i c Valence and Expectancy I t i s g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t man i s a wanting animal. The magnitude of human wants or b a s i c valences b e f o r e i t has been d i s c o u n t e d by one's expectancy can be very l a r g e or h i g h . Both s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n and magnitude o f b a s i c valence - needs, wants, wishes, d e s i r e s , i n t e r e s t s , values - vary from person to person due to i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The m u l t i p l e - d i s c o u n t concept of m o t i v a t i o n assumes t h a t a normal and r a t i o n a l person w i l l e v a l u a t e both h i m s e l f and the environment i n making d e c i s i o n s and i n h i s normal b e h a v i o r . T h i s t h e s i s i s concerned w i t h the o f f e r e e ' s e v a l u a t i o n of the o f f e r o r and the o f f e r o r ' s i n c e n t i v e with r e f e r e n c e to h i s b a s i c v a l e n c e . I t i s assumed t h a t the o f f e r e e has a l r e a d y made a r e a l i s t i c s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n or m u l t i p l e d i s c o u n t o f h i s b a s i c valence w i t h r e f e r e n c e to h i s mental and non-mental a b i l i t y , the amount o f energy and r e s o u r c e s he possesses, and probably w i t h r e f e r e n c e to h i s other p e r s o n a l q u a l i t i e s . In other words, i t i s assumed t h a t a normal person's b a s i c valence ( d i r e c t i o n and magnitude) i s a r e a l i s t i c one because he knows h i s s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. For example, an u n r e a l i s t i c b a s i c valence w i l l be the case o f a h i g h s c h o o l drop-out wanting to be an u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r . One o f the probable reasons i s th a t he has not made s u f f i c i e n t discount i n h i s e v a l u a t i o n of h i s own a b i l i t y . The m u l t i p l e - d i s c o u n t concept of m o t i v a t i o n considers b a s i c valence (a personal v a r i a b l e ) and i n c e n t i v e (an enviro n -mental v a r i a b l e ) as the fundamental components of m o t i v a t i o n . B a s i c valence and i n c e n t i v e (reward and performance) are l i n k e d by c o g n i t i v e paths of means-end expectancy. The means-end r e l a t i o n s h i p s between these personal v a r i a b l e s and environmental v a r i a b l e s are shown i n Figure 4-1, which i s a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of Figure 2-1 i n chapter two. The path concept comes from: (a) the goal-path theory of m o t i v a t i o n s t a t e d by Georgopoulos, Mahoney and Jones (1957); Vroom (1964); and Lawler and P o r t e r (1967); (b) Lewin's (19 38) concept of an organism's perceived path connecting some immediate region i n the l i f e space w i t h a more d i s t a n t goal o b j e c t ; (c) Tolman's (1932) concept of an organism's c o g n i t i v e expectations or c o g n i t i v e map of means-end r e l a t i o n s . According to t h i s path concept, the person i s motivated to do things t h a t he perceives as having a high p r o b a b i l i t y of le a d i n g to an outcome that i s i n s t r u m e n t a l to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of h i s b a s i c valence. 4 6 The o f f e r e e ' s b a s i c valence i s c o n s i d e r e d the b a s i s o f  m o t i v a t i o n and the i n c e n t i v e o f f e r e d to him i s c o n s i d e r e d the c o n d i t i o n o f m o t i v a t i o n . T h i s i s because a behavior sequence becomes o p e r a t i v e , i f and o n l y i f , the o f f e r e e has the b a s i c valence f o r t h a t i n c e n t i v e , without which i t becomes v a l u e l e s s and u n a t t r a c t i v e to him, no matter how h i g h l y v a l u a b l e and a t t r a c t i v e i t i s to the o f f e r o r . The o f f e r e e ' s m o t i v a t i o n toward an i n c e n t i v e i s assumed to be a f u n c t i o n of h i s b a s i c valence and h i s expectancy. The q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of m o t i v a t i o n r e q u i r e s an a p p r o p r i a t e mathematical r u l e t h a t i s o p e r a t i o n a l l y v a l i d and b e h a v i o r a l l y r a t i o n a l to r e p r e s e n t the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between b a s i c valence and expectancy. 4 . 5 The H y p o t h e t i c a l I n t e r a c t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p s among V a r i a b l e s The process of s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f an i n c e n t i v e can be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a m u l t i p l e - d i s c o u n t o p e r a t i o n i f i t i s assumed t h a t the mental process of e v a l u a t i o n can be r e p r e s e n t e d o p e r a t i o n a l l y by a p p r o p r i a t e mathematical r u l e s . The l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s assumption are noted i n chapter one. A p p l y i n g the concepts of v e c t o r and s c a l a r q u a n t i t i e s , then v a l e n c e , reward, performance and m o t i v a t i o n are c o n s i d e r e d as v e c t o r q u a n t i t i e s having d i r e c t i o n ( p o s i t i v e , n e u t r a l , negative) and magnitude ( i n t e n s i t y , a s p i r a t i o n l e v e l , s t r e n g t h FIGURE 4-2 2x2 TEST OF INTERACTIVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BASIC VALENCE AND EXPECTANCY H B a s i c V a l e n c e (a) H "] L 1 (b) T H | H 1 (c ) L I L 1 (d ) L 1 H r H E x p e c t a n c y FIGURE 4-3 H = Higl L = Low 2x2 TEST OF INTERACTIVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ( M R ) and ( M p ) ' i i H la ) H T 0 1 (b) H 1 H 1 M o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d R eward ( MR.> l (c) (d) 0 o T o 1 0 1 H 1 0 H H = High 0 = Zero M o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d P e r f o r m a n c e (M_ ) 48 o f a t t r a c t i o n ) where both d i r e c t i o n and magnitude are r e l a t i v e depending on the r e s p e c t i v e frame o f r e f e r e n c e and the standard s c a l e o f measurement t h a t are chosen. Expectancy i s c o n s i d e r e d a s c a l a r q u a n t i t y having magnitude ranging from zero (absolute u n c e r t a i n t y ) to one (absolute c e r t a i n t y ) . The mathematical r u l e f o r the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between (1) expectancy and valence i s assumed to be a l g e b r a i c m u l t i p l i c a t i v e ; (2) m o t i v a t i o n toward reward and m o t i v a t i o n toward performance i s assumed to be v e c t o r a d d i t i v e . A 2x2 i n t e r a c t i v e t e s t i s designed to v e r i f y the v a l i d i t y of assumptions (1) and (2). I n t e r a c t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p between B a s i c Valence and Expectancy The r a t i o n a l e f o r assuming t h a t expectancy i n t e r a c t s m u l t i p l i c a t i v e l y w i t h b a s i c valence to determine the a t t r a c t i v e -ness of the i n c e n t i v e to the o f f e r e e i s as f o l l o w s (see F i g u r e 4-2): (a) I f the o f f e r e e has h i g h b a s i c v a l ence f o r the i n c e n t i v e but low expectancy of a t t a i n i n g i t from the o f f e r o r , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the o f f e r e e w i l l be weakly a t t r a c t e d by the i n c e n t i v e . (b) I f the o f f e r e e has high b a s i c valence f o r the 50 I n t e r a c t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p b etween M o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d Reward and M o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d P e r f o r m a n c e The r a t i o n a l e f o r a s s u m i n g a v e c t o r a d d i t i v e i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e o f f e r e e ' s m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d a n t i c i p a t e d r e w a r d (M R ) and m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d a n t i c i p a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e (Mp ). i i t o d e t e r m i n e h i s m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d s t h e i n c e n t i v e (M^ ) i s as i f o l l o w s (see F i g u r e 4 - 3 ) : (a) I f t h e o f f e r e e has h i g h p o s i t i v e m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d t h e a n t i c i p a t e d r e w a r d and z e r o m o t i v a t i o n o r i n d i f f e r e n c e t o w a r d t h e a n t i c i p a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t h i s m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d t h e i n c e n t i v e w i l l be p o s i t i v e . (b) I f t h e o f f e r e e has h i g h p o s i t i v e m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d b o t h a n t i c i p a t e d r e w a r d and a n t i c i p a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t h i s m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d t h e i n c e n t i v e w i l l be h i g h . (c) I f t h e o f f e r e e has z e r o m o t i v a t i o n o r i s i n d i f f e r e n t t o w a r d t h e a n t i c i p a t e d r e w a r d and a n t i c i p a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h i s m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d t h e i n c e n t i v e w i l l be z e r o . (d) I f t h e o f f e r e e has z e r o m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d t h e a n t i c i p a t e d r e w a r d and h i g h p o s i t i v e m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d t h e a n t i c i p a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t h i s m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d t h e i n c e n t i v e w i l l be p o s i t i v e . 5 0 I n t e r a c t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p b etween M o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d Reward and M o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d P e r f o r m a n c e The r a t i o n a l e f o r a s s u m i n g a v e c t o r a d d i t i v e i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e o f f e r e e ' s m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d a n t i c i p a t e d r e w a r d (M R ) and m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d a n t i c i p a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e (Mp ) i i t o d e t e r m i n e h i s m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d s t h e i n c e n t i v e (M^ ) i s as i f o l l o w s (see F i g u r e 4 - 3 ) : (a) I f t h e o f f e r e e has h i g h p o s i t i v e m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d t h e a n t i c i p a t e d r e w a r d and z e r o m o t i v a t i o n o r i n d i f f e r e n c e t o w a r d t h e a n t i c i p a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t h i s m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d t h e i n c e n t i v e w i l l be p o s i t i v e . (b) I f t h e o f f e r e e has h i g h p o s i t i v e m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d b o t h a n t i c i p a t e d r e w a r d and a n t i c i p a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t h i s m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d t h e i n c e n t i v e w i l l be h i g h . (c) I f t h e o f f e r e e has z e r o m o t i v a t i o n o r i s i n d i f f e r e n t t o w a r d t h e a n t i c i p a t e d r e w a r d and a n t i c i p a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h i s m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d t h e i n c e n t i v e w i l l be z e r o . (d) I f t h e o f f e r e e has z e r o m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d t h e a n t i c i p a t e d r e w a r d and h i g h p o s i t i v e m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d t h e a n t i c i p a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t h i s m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d t h e i n c e n t i v e w i l l be p o s i t i v e . 52 compensate him w i t h the a n t i c i p a t e d reward f o r h i s a n t i c i p a t e d performance; (2) (Mp ) i s a monotonically i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n of i the vector sum of the a l g e b r a i c products of: (a) h i s b a s i c valence f o r performance (V_, ) , B P (b) h i s expectancy t h a t the a n t i c i p a t e d performance (P^) i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s a t i s f y i n g h i s (V_, ) , B P (c) h i s expectancy t h a t the a n t i c i p a t e d reward (R^) w i l l depend on h i s a n t i c i p a t e d performance (P^), (d) h i s expectancy that the o f f e r o r w i l l r e a l l y give him the k i n d of tasks he a n t i c i p a t e d performing. The proposed m o t i v a t i o n f u n c t i o n can be expressed o p e r a t i o n a l l y i n the f o l l o w i n g equation: M I . =L ( MR. + Mp.) 1 J 1 1 f r R / . I ( V ( V V B ] ( V M L - T R 1 BR R 1=1 + > «VBP,(EP>VR ) ( E P . + R . ) ( V ^—• P l Bp i i P _ i = l (4-1) ' 52 compensate him w i t h the a n t i c i p a t e d reward f o r h i s a n t i c i p a t e d performance; (2) (M ) i s a m o n o t o n i c a l l y i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n o f the v e c t o r sum of the a l g e b r a i c products o f : (a) h i s b a s i c v a l ence f o r performance (V_ ), B P (b) h i s expectancy t h a t the a n t i c i p a t e d performance (P.) i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n (c) h i s expectancy t h a t the a n t i c i p a t e d reward (R^) w i l l depend on h i s a n t i c i p a t e d performance (P^)/ (d) h i s expectancy t h a t the o f f e r o r w i l l r e a l l y g i v e him the k i n d of tasks he a n t i c i p a t e d p erforming. P. • 1 s a t i s f y i n g h i s (V_, ) , The proposed m o t i v a t i o n f u n c t i o n can be expressed o p e r a t i o n a l l y i n the f o l l o w i n g e quation: M =T (M + M ) I. /M v R. P. ; I V l 1 P + i = l P . +R. 1 1 (4-1) 54 other words/ the o f f e r e e i s expected to do P d i s c r e t e tasks i n h i s j ob, f o r which he i s expected to r e c e i v e R d i s c r e t e rewards as compensation from the i n s t i t u t i o n . The s t r e n g t h of h i s m o t i v a t i o n toward the i n c e n t i v e (M_ ) i s a f u n c t i o n o f the i v e c t o r sum of h i s m o t i v a t i o n toward the a n t i c i p a t e d rewards "(M ) and h i s m o t i v a t i o n toward the a n t i c i p a t e d performance R . 1 (Mp ). Both (M R ) and (M p ) are d e r i v e d from (V_,) by an i i i e v a l u a t i o n process i n the form of a m u l t i p l e - d i s c o u n t o p e r a t i o n by h i s expectancy or e x p e c t a t i o n o f means-end r e l a t i o n s h i p s . M o t i v a t i o n Toward Reward The magnitude o f the o f f e r e e ' s m o t i v a t i o n toward the a n t i c i p a t e d rewards (M ) depends on h i s b a s i c valence f o r K . 1 reward (V ) a t t h a t p o i n t of time, the degree he s u b j e c t i v e l y BR b e l i e v e s t h a t the a n t i c i p a t e d reward (R^) i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s a t i s f y i n g h i s b a s i c valence f o r reward (V ), and the degree BR to which he b e l i e v e s t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l compensate him w i t h the a n t i c i p a t e d reward (R^) f o r h i s a n t i c i p a t e d performance (P^). The i m p l i c a t i o n of an a l g e b r a i c m u l t i p l i c a t i v e i n t e r -a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h a t i f one or more of the three v a r i a b l e s - ( E n ), (E_ .j ), (V_, ) - i s zero i n v a l u e , the o f f e r e e ' s R i R i V BR magnitude of m o t i v a t i o n toward the a n t i c i p a t e d reward (R^) w i l l be zero i n v a l u e , t h a t i s , M =0. Since expectancy has R . l magnitude ra n g i n g from zero (absolute u n c e r t a i n t y ) to one (absolute c e r t a i n t y ) , the magnitude of M - V . A l s o , the K . D 1 R 54 o t h e r words/ the o f f e r e e i s expected to do P d i s c r e t e tasks i n h i s j ob, f o r which he i s expected to r e c e i v e R d i s c r e t e rewards as compensation from the i n s t i t u t i o n . The s t r e n g t h o f h i s m o t i v a t i o n toward the i n c e n t i v e (M ) i s a f u n c t i o n o f the i v e c t o r sum o f h i s m o t i v a t i o n toward the a n t i c i p a t e d rewards (M R ) and h i s m o t i v a t i o n toward the a n t i c i p a t e d performance i (Mp ). Both (M R ) and (M p ) are d e r i v e d from (Vg) by an i i i e v a l u a t i o n process i n the form of a m u l t i p l e - d i s c o u n t o p e r a t i o n by h i s expectancy or e x p e c t a t i o n o f means-end r e l a t i o n s h i p s . M o t i v a t i o n Toward Reward The magnitude o f the o f f e r e e ' s m o t i v a t i o n toward the a n t i c i p a t e d rewards (M ) depends on h i s b a s i c v a l ence f o r ~ — K . 1 reward (V f i ) a t t h a t p o i n t o f time, the degree he s u b j e c t i v e l y R b e l i e v e s t h a t the a n t i c i p a t e d reward (R^) i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s a t i s f y i n g h i s b a s i c valence f o r reward (V D ), and the degree BR to which he b e l i e v e s t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l compensate him wi t h the a n t i c i p a t e d reward (R^) f o r h i s a n t i c i p a t e d performance (P^). The i m p l i c a t i o n of an a l g e b r a i c m u l t i p l i c a t i v e i n t e r -a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h a t i f one or more o f the three v a r i a b l e s - (E_. ), (E_. ), (V_.) - i s zero i n v a l u e , the o f f e r e e ' s R i i B_ BR magnitude o f m o t i v a t i o n toward the a n t i c i p a t e d reward (R^) w i l l be zero i n v a l u e , t h a t i s , M = 0. Since expectancy has R . 1 magnitude ranging from zero (absolute u n c e r t a i n t y ) to one (absolute c e r t a i n t y ) , the magnitude of M - V . A l s o , the R. B 1 R 56 e x p e c t a n c y i s c o n s i d e r e d a s c a l a r q u a n t i t y . 4.8 The G e n e r a l M u l t i p l e - D i s c o u n t M o t i v a t i o n F u n c t i o n T h e r e may be o t h e r e x p e c t a n c i e s t h a t have n o t b e e n c o n s i d e r e d i n f o r m u l a t i n g t h e p r e s e n t m u l t i p l e - d i s c o u n t c o g n i t i v e m o t i v a t i o n f u n c t i o n . Hence a g e n e r a l and f l e x i b l e m o d el i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t w i l l a l l o w t h e i n c l u s i o n o f o t h e r e x p e c t a n c i e s n o t i d e n t i f i e d in t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s . The p r e s e n t d i s t i n c t i o n between m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d t h e r e w a r d and m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d t h e p e r f o r m a n c e i s more o f a c o n c e p t u a l e m p h a s i s t h a n an o p e r a t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y . The i n c e n t i v e (I) comes i n a s i n g l e p a c k a g e e i t h e r i m p l i c i t l y i n t h e f o r m o f a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t r a c t , o r e x p l i c i t l y i n t h e f o r m o f a w r i t t e n employment c o n t r a c t i n w h i c h t h e P d i s c r e t e t a s k s t h e employee i s e x p e c t e d t o p e r f o r m and t h e R d i s c r e t e r e w a r d s he a n t i c i p a t e s t o r e c e i v e f o r h i s a n t i c i p a t e d p e r f o r m a n c e a r e m u t u a l l y r e c o g n i z e d by t h e two p a r t i e s t o t h e c o n t r a c t . A l s o , an e m p l o y e e ' s j o b b e h a v i o r , w h i c h i n f l u e n c e s h i s j o b p e r f o r m a n c e , i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e t o t a l o r c o m b i n e d i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e P d i s c r e t e t a s k s he p e r f o r m s and t h e R d i s c r e t e r e w a r d s he r e c e i v e s i n h i s j o b . I n r e a l i t y , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n c e n t i v e , r e w a r d and p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e employment c o n t r a c t and i n t h e j o b s i t u a t i o n i s I = P + R. A l s o , t h e d i v i s i o n o f b a s i c v a l e n c e f o r t h e i n c e n t i v e (V_, ) i n t o b a s i c v a l e n c e f o r r e w a r d ( V D ) and b a s i c v a l e n c e B I B R f o r p e r f o r m a n c e (V ) i s a r b i t r a r y and o p e r a t i o n a l l y u n n e c e s s a r y . 56 expectancy i s c o n s i d e r e d a s c a l a r q u a n t i t y . 4.8 The General M u l t i p l e - D i s c o u n t M o t i v a t i o n F u n c t i o n There may be o t h e r e x p e c t a n c i e s t h a t have not been c o n s i d e r e d i n f o r m u l a t i n g the p r e s e n t m u l t i p l e - d i s c o u n t c o g n i t i v e m o t i v a t i o n f u n c t i o n . Hence a g e n e r a l and f l e x i b l e model i s necessary t h a t w i l l a l l o w the i n c l u s i o n of o t h e r e x p e c t a n c i e s not i d e n t i f i e d i n the p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s . The p r e s e n t d i s t i n c t i o n between m o t i v a t i o n toward the reward and m o t i v a t i o n toward the performance i s more o f a c o n c e p t u a l emphasis than an o p e r a t i o n a l n e c e s s i t y . The i n c e n t i v e (I) comes i n a s i n g l e package e i t h e r i m p l i c i t l y i n the form of a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t r a c t , or e x p l i c i t l y i n the form of a w r i t t e n employment c o n t r a c t i n which the P d i s c r e t e tasks the employee i s expected to perform and the R d i s c r e t e rewards he a n t i c i p a t e s to r e c e i v e f o r h i s a n t i c i p a t e d performance are mutually r e c o g n i z e d by the two p a r t i e s to the c o n t r a c t . A l s o , an employee's job b e h a v i o r , which i n f l u e n c e s h i s job performance, i s determined by the t o t a l or combined i n f l u e n c e s o f the P d i s c r e t e tasks he performs and the R d i s c r e t e rewards he r e c e i v e s i n h i s job. In r e a l i t y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n c e n t i v e , reward and performance i n the employment c o n t r a c t and i n the job s i t u a t i o n i s I = P + R. A l s o , the d i v i s i o n of b a s i c v a l ence f o r the i n c e n t i v e (V D ) i n t o b a s i c v a l ence f o r reward (V 0 ) and b a s i c valence B I BR f o r performance (V ) i s a r b i t r a r y and o p e r a t i o n a l l y unnecessary. A more g e n e r a l , f l e x i b l e , and o p e r a t i o n a l model of the m u l t i p l e -d i s c o u n t c o g n i t i v e m o t i v a t i o n f u n c t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : I M - / J . - L O ^ E ..E E >(V )] J 1 = 1 1 (4-2) where M = g e n e r a l i n d i c a t o r o f a person's m o t i v a t i o n i n h i s job; = m o t i v a t i o n f u n c t i o n ; yV > 0 I = the number of d i s c r e t e i n c e n t i v e components i n the employment c o n t r a c t which c o n s i s t s o f P d i s c r e t e tasks the o f f e r e e expects t o perform and R d i s c r e t e rewards he expects to r e c e i v e from the o f f e r o r f o r h i s a n t i c i p a t e d performance as s t i p u l a t e d i n the job c o n t r a c t : I = P + R. V_ = o f f e r e e ' s b a s i c valences f o r the I job B I . . i n c e n t i v e components; = expectancy of the means-end r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r i n c e n t i v e component 1^ 0 - E^ - 1. n = number of d i s c r e t e e x pectancies of means-end r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r i n c e n t i v e component 1^ p e r c e i v e d by the o f f e r e e . For each o f the R rewards and P performances the o f f e r e e may p e r c e i v e n ex p e c t a n c i e s of means 58 end r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; I 2 = v e c t o r a d d i t i o n o f the a l g e b r a i c products of i = l e x p e c t a n c i e s and b a s i c valences f o r the I i n c e n t i v e components. There i s no conc e p t u a l and o p e r a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e between equ a t i o n (4-1) and equ a t i o n (4-2) because I R P I = R + P, and t h e r e f o r e , 2 = 2 + 2 • i = l i = l i = l The m u l t i p l e - d i s c o u n t c o g n i t i v e m o t i v a t i o n f u n c t i o n i s d e r i v e d from an o v e r - s i m p l i f i e d model of human b e h a v i o r . T h i s simple model i s p r e f e r r e d to a more r e a l i s t i c but more comp l i -cated model because i t s s i m p l i c i t y makes e m p i r i c a l t e s t i n g o f the m o t i v a t i o n f u n c t i o n e a s i e r . I t i s a s a c r i f i c e o f r e a l i t y f o r t e s t a b i l i t y . T h i s m o t i v a t i o n f u n c t i o n w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the performance formula i n chapter s i x of t h i s t h e s i s . 59 Chapter 5 BEHAVIORAL EFFICIENCY AS A FUNCTION OF EMOTION 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n One of the probable reasons why i n d u s t r i a l b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n t i s t s do not e x p l i c i t l y consider emotion as a determinant of performance may l i e i n the f a c t t h a t there i s a lack of common agreement as to the concept of emotion. U n l i k e moti-v a t i o n , which i s g e n e r a l l y h e l d to have been d e r i v e d from a person's needs, wants, i n t e r e s t s , v a l u e s , and other b a s i c valences, and which i n i t i a t e s , d i r e c t s and s u s t a i n s behavior toward or away from some o b j e c t , "emotion i s v i r t u a l l y i mpossible to d e f i n e ... except i n terms of c o n f l i c t i n g t h e o r i e s " ( E n g l i s h and E n g l i s h , 1958). Brown and Farber i n the t h e o r e t i c a l paper on emotion remarked t h a t : ... no genuine order can be discerned w i t h i n t h i s f i e l d . Instead, examination of c u r r e n t treatments of emotion r e v e a l s a discouraging s t a t e of con-f u s i o n and u n c e r t a i n t y . S u b s t a n t i a l advances have been made i n recent years w i t h respect to t h e o r i e s of l e a r n i n g and m o t i v a t i o n , but the phenomena of emotion have not, as a r u l e , been considered i n these formulations and remain a tangle of u n r e l a t e d f a c t s . (Brown and Farber, 1951, p.465) According to Young: At b e s t , the d e f i n i t i o n of emotion presents a d i f f i c u l t problem. No s i n g l e d e f i n i t i o n has proved acceptable to a l l p s y c h o l o g i s t s . . . The d i f f i c u l t y seems to be t h a t no s i n g l e c r i t e r i o n has been found t h a t c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s emotional and non-emotional s t a t e s . (Young, 1961, pp.350-351) R e a l i z i n g the confusion t h a t surrounds the concept of emotion, the present a n a l y s i s w i l l consider only those aspects of the concept of emotion t h a t have gained general acceptance by p s y c h o l o g i s t s and are supported by e m p i r i c a l research s t u d i e s . The conceptual i s s u e s reviewed i n t h i s chapter are: (a) whether emotion i s an organized or d i s o r g a n i z e d response; (b) whether emotion i s m o t i v a t i o n a l i n nature. This chapter a l s o reviews the f i n d i n g s of the e x p e r i m e n t a l l y o r i e n t a t e d a c t i v a t i o n t h e o r i s t s whose i n v e s t i g a t i o n s centered mainly on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y and l e v e l of emotion a r o u s a l by the use of various p h y s i o l o g i c a l measures such as s k i n conductance, b r a i n wave p a t t e r n , muscular t e n s i o n , c a r d i a c r a t e , r e s p i r a t o r y p a t t e r n , e t c e t e r a . T h e i r s t u d i e s i n c l u d e p h y s i o l o g i c a l d e p r i v a t i o n s , such as food and water, which are t r a d i t i o n a l l y considered as l e a d i n g to m o t i v a t i o n a l a r o u s a l or a c t i v a t i o n . The v a r i o u s experiments c a r r i e d out by the a c t i v a t i o n t h e o r i s t s w i l l not be reviewed here. Only the general conclusions i n f e r r e d from the r e s u l t s of t h e i r experiments w i l l be examined. While the existence of emotions such as a n x i e t y , f e a r , 61 j o y , f e e l i n g s of confidence and assurance and other human emotions i s accepted as a f a c t of experience, there i s much confusion about the fundamental concept of emotion. The e s t a b l i s h e d view i s tha t the words commonly used to desc r i b e emotional s t a t e s - upset, d i s r u p t i o n , emotional turbulence, d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , emotional o u t b u r s t , d i s t u r b a n c e , e t c . -suggest t h a t emotions are useless and t h a t one would be b e t t e r o f f without them. Leeper (1948) argued against t h i s e s t a b l i s h e d view i n an important and provocative paper, A M o t i v a t i o n a l  Theory of Emotion to Replace 'Emotion as Disorganized Response', which i n s t i g a t e d a s e r i e s of d i s c u s s i o n s on the concept of emotion by Duffy (194 8), Webb (1948), Young (1949), Waters and Blackwood (1949) and others. 5.2 Emotion as an Organized or Disorganized Response Leeper attacked the e s t a b l i s h e d viewpoint which considers emotion to be a d i s o r g a n i z e d and d i s o r g a n i z i n g response - a concept found i n the widely used textbooks by Munn; S h a f f e r , Gilmer and Schoen; Young; Boring; L a n g f i e l d and Weld; Dockeray; and Woodworth. Among the d e f i n i t i o n s of emotion quoted by Leeper i s one given by S h a f f e r , et a l . who defines emotion as "a d i s o r g a n i z e d response, l a r g e l y v i s c e r a l , r e s u l t i n g from the la c k of an e f f e c t i v e adjustment" (Sh a f f e r , Gilmer, and Schoen, 1940, p.505). None of the above w r i t e r s , Leeper noted, had attempted to give a d e f i n i t i o n of the key terms 'disorganized' and ' d i s o r g a n i z i n g ' and thus sloppy t h i n k i n g r e s u l t e d . According to Leeper: ... a system i s 'organized' when one p a r t of i t i s f u n c t i o n i n g harmoniously w i t h other p a r t s . Something i s 'organized' when the pa r t s f i t , or d o v e t a i l , or are congruous w i t h one another. And on the other hand, something i s 'disorganized' when the subordinate p a r t s operate at cross purposes w i t h each other. Something has an 'organizing' i n f l u e n c e i n a system when i t tends to produce order or cooperation or harmony between d i f f e r e n t subordinate p a r t s or subordinate a c t i v i t i e s . (Leeper, 1948, p.12) In terms of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , Leeper a s s e r t e d t h a t emotion produced o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the person v i s c e r a l l y , b e h a v i o r a l l y , and i n conscious experience, r a t h e r than d i s -o r g a n i z a t i o n . He pointed out th a t a f o o t b a l l coach t y p i c a l l y put i n considerable e f f o r t to get h i s men emotionally aroused (or even angry.'). Leeper argued t h a t a person i n anger was d e f i n i t e l y organized f o r attack b e h a v i o r a l l y , h i s v i s c e r a l processes were organized f o r the vigorous a c t i o n r e q u i r e d i n a b i o l o g i c a l emergency and h i s conscious experience was organized along w i t h the b a s i c determination. He h e l d that d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n seen i n intense emotion d i d not give the clue to the general i n f l u e n c e of emotion because, as i n physiology, extremes could not be taken as evidence of normal e f f e c t s . Leeper's concept of emotion as organized response r e c e i v e d general support from Duffy (1948), Webb (1948) , Young 63 (1949) , Waters and Blackwood (1949). Duffy sympathized w i t h Leeper's o v e r a l l viewpoint but f e l t t h a t the l a t t e r d i d not go f a r enough i n t h a t he only attacked one d e f i n i t i o n of emotion - t h a t of emotion as d i s o r g a n i z e d response. She f e l t t h a t other d e f i n i t i o n s of emotion were e q u a l l y unacceptable. Young (1949) i n Emotion as Disorganized Response - A  Reply to P r o f e s s o r Leeper agreed w i t h Leeper i n emphasizing the importance of the organized components of emotional behavior. He pointed out t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n were simply d i f f e r e n t ways of viewing and i n t e r p r e t i n g one and the same event. Even the most completely d i s o r g a n i z e d emotional process, when looked at. from another p o i n t of view, was found to c o n t a i n i n t e g r a t e d components of response. Young i n s i s t e d t h a t there was no r e a l antagonism between the two views of emotional behavior. In h i s l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n on "Emotional O r g a n i z a t i o n and D i s o r g a n i z a t i o n " , Young (1961) asserted t h a t : Some p s y c h o l o g i s t s , e.g., Leeper . (1948), have objected to d e f i n i n g emotion as a d i s o r g a n i z e d and d i s o r g a n i z i n g response. But I b e l i e v e t h a t i f i t were not f o r the f a c t of d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , p s y c h o l o g i s t s could dispense w i t h the concept of emotion e n t i r e l y . . . . I t i s because d i s -o r g a n i z a t i o n e x i s t s as a f a c t of nature, and f o r no other reason, t h a t we need the concept of emotional disturbance. (Young, 1961, p.355) In s p i t e of t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s , Leeper, Young and others agreed t h a t emotion e x i s t e d i n various degrees of i n t e n s i t y . 64 E m o t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d an o r g a n i z e d and o r g a n i z i n g p r o c e s s when t h e i n t e n s i t y o f e m o t i o n i s m o d e r a t e . When t h e i n t e n s i t y o f e m o t i o n i s h i g h , i t i s c o n s i d e r e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y a d i s o r g a n i z i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s . 5.3 The M o t i v a t i o n a l N a t u r e o f E m o t i o n W h i l e t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e - d e t e r m i n i s t i c m o t i v a t i o n t h e o r i e s , n a m e l y , t h e S-R b e h a v i o r t h e o r y and t h e c o g n i t i v e t h e o r y , e x c l u d e e m o t i o n as a m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r i n t h e i r f o r m u l a e (see T a b l e 2-1 and T a b l e 2 - 2 ) , most q u a l i t a t i v e - m e n t a l i s t i c p s y c h o l o g i s t s r e c o g n i z e d t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l q u a l i t y o f e m o t i o n . M c D o u g a l l (1908) i s one o f t h e e a r l y q u a l i t a t i v e -m e n t a l i s t i c p s y c h o l o g i s t s who i n t e g r a t e d e m o t i o n i n t o m o t i -v a t i o n t h e o r y i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n on p u r p o s i v e and c o g n i t i v e b e h a v i o r . More r e c e n t l y , L e e p e r (1948) , Young (1955) , and Ruch (1963) e x p l i c i t l y p o i n t e d o u t t h a t e m o t i o n i s m o t i v a t i o n a l i n n a t u r e . L e e p e r (1948) s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s e r t e d t h a t e m o t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s were one o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l means o f m o t i v a t i o n i n t h e h i g h e r a n i m a l s and t h a t t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f e m o t i o n b e l o n g e d t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f m o t i v a t i o n . He r e a s o n e d : Our f a c t u a l k n owledge s a y s t h a t i f y o u c a n a r o u s e a n g e r i n a p e r s o n y o u c a n i n c r e a s e t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t h i s b e h a v i o r w i l l be d i r e c t e d and s u s t a i n e d i n a c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n . I f y o u c a n a r o u s e sympathy and f r i e n d l i n e s s , y o u w i l l i n c r e a s e t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t h i s b e h a v i o r w i l l be d i r e c t e d and e n e r g i z e d i n a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n . The s t r o n g e r 65 the emotional process aroused (short of extremes t h a t w i l l perhaps run i n t o q u a l i t a t i v e d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s ) , the more c e r t a i n l y w i l l h i s behavior be governed i n a way c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s emotional r e a c t i o n . This i s a p r i n c i p l e which permits p r e d i c t i o n and c o n t r o l of human behavior and conscious experience . . . I f t h i s l i n e of argument i s sound, i t means th a t emotional processes operate p r i m a r i l y as motives. I t means th a t they are processes which arouse, s u s t a i n , and d i r e c t a c t i v i t y I (Leeper, 1948, p.17). Young pointed out th a t both m o t i v a t i o n a l and a f f e c t i v e processes are hedonic processes and t h a t a f f e c t has d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n s i t y . Young asserted t h a t : According to the hedonic theory, m o t i v a t i o n l i e s  i n the a f f e c t i v e processes. As human beings we are aware of f e e l i n g s of d e l i g h t and d i s t r e s s , of anger, a n x i e t y , embarrassment, et c e t e r a , and we repeatedly i n t e r p r e t our a c t i o n s and the a c t i o n s of others i n terms of conscious f e e l i n g . (Young, 1955, p.193). Hence Young went one step f u r t h e r than Leeper 1s contention t h a t emotional processes are one of the fundamental means of m o t i v a t i o n i n higher animals. He i n s i s t e d : A f f e c t i v e processes as primary motives arouse behavior; they s u s t a i n or terminate an a c t i v i t y i n progress; they r e g u l a t e and organize behavior according to the hedonic p r i n c i p l e ; and they lead to the a c q u i s i t i o n of motives, s t a b l e d i s p o s i t i o n s to a c t , and value systems (Young, 1955, p.194). Recent textbooks by Heyns (1958), Ruch (1963), H i l g a r d and A t k i n s o n (1967) support the concept t h a t emotion i s moti-66 v a t i o n a l i n nature. For example, Ruch s t a t e d that emotions l i k e other motives might serve to d i r e c t behavior e i t h e r toward some de s i r e d o b j e c t or c o n d i t i o n or away from some obj e c t or s i t u a t i o n t h a t i s unpleasant (Ruch, 1963, p.173). 5.4 The Influence of Emotion on Performance The i n f l u e n c e of emotion on performance i s a w e l l recognized f a c t . The emotional h e a l t h or mental h e a l t h of employees has long been one of the concerns of management (Levinson, 1964). McGregor e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d t h a t a person's behavior, whether he i s t h i n k i n g , a n a l y z i n g , reasoning, or i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h o t h e r s , i s always i n f l u e n c e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y by emotional f a c t o r s , some conscious and some unconscious. The more important the problem or iss u e under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s f o r the person, the greater the i n f l u e n c e of emotional f a c t o r s on h i s responses. McGregor f u r t h e r pointed out tha t others cannot e l i m i n a t e these i n f l u e n c e s by the g i v i n g of orders or the making of requests, nor can the person e l i m i n a t e them by the conscious w i l f u l e f f o r t to do so because the emotional and r a t i o n a l aspects of man are i n e x t r i c a b l y i n t e r -woven and only to a very s l i g h t degree separable (McGregor, 1964, pp.218-219) . There are s u b s t a n t i a l research s t u d i e s on the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y and the l e v e l of emotion a r o u s a l i n the l i t e r a t u r e of a c t i v a t i o n t h e o r i e s . The study of a c t i v a t i o n i s cons i d e r a b l y broader than emotion because i t O p t i m a l l e v e l c o u c _ I n c r e a s i n g a l e r t ? ^ . I n c r e a s i n g l i . n e s s , i n t e r e s t . >v e m o t i o n a l _» p o s i t i v e , / \. d i s t u r b a n c e s , _ o e m o t i o n / \ ^ a n x i e t y o Level Deep / s l e e p / — P o i n t o f w a k i n g Level of Arousal Function FIGURE 5-1. HYPOTHETICAL "INVERTED U-SHAPED" RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL E F F I C I E N C Y OR LEVEL OF CUE FUNCTION AND LEVEL. OF AROUSAL. R e p r o d u c e d f r o m Hebb ( 1 9 5 5 , F i g . 2) 68 i n c l u d e s w i t h i n i t s scope areas t r a d i t i o n a l l y considered m o t i v a t i o n a l . The consensus of evidence from these research s t u d i e s shows tha t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y and emotion a r o u s a l i s an i n v e r t e d U-shaped f u n c t i o n . (Freeman, 1931, 1933, 1938, 1940; Duffy, 1932, 1951; Courts, 1939, 1942; St a u f f a c h e r , 1937; Schlosberg, 1954; Duffy and Lacy, 1946; Schlosberg and Stanley , 1953; Malmo, 1957, 1958, 1959; Bartoshuk, 1955; Belanger & Tetreau, 1961; S u r w i l l o , 1956; Stennett, 1957). A c t i v a t i o n t h e o r i s t s such as Duffy, Schlosberg, Hebb and Malmo s t r e s s e d that emotion aro u s a l can be i n d i c a t e d by a v a r i e t y of measures and tha t emotion a r o u s a l or a c t i v a t i o n i s a continuum, va r y i n g from deep sleep to h i g h l y e x c i t e d s t a t e s and t h a t b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i s a c u r v i l i n e a r f u n c t i o n of a c t i v a t i o n or a r o u s a l , being at i t s peak when ar o u s a l has reached intermediate magnitude (See Figure 5-1). Malmo remarked: ... the r e l a t i o n between a c t i v a t i o n and b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y (cue f u n c t i o n or l e v e l of performance) i s described by an i n v e r t e d U curve. That i s from low a c t i v a t i o n up to a p o i n t t h a t i s optimal f o r a given f u n c t i o n , l e v e l of performance r i s e s monotonically w i t h i n c r e a s i n g a c t i v a t i o n l e v e l , but beyond t h i s optimal p o i n t the r e l a t i o n becomes non-monotonic: f u r t h e r increase i n a c t i v a t i o n beyond t h i s p o i n t produces a f a l l i n performance l e v e l , t h i s f a l l being d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the amount of the increase i n l e v e l of a c t i v a t i o n (Malmo, 1959, p.368). Malmo (1958) pointed out one major d i f f e r e n c e between 69 the m o t i v a t i o n ( d r i v e ) t h e o r i s t s and the a c t i v a t i o n t h e o r i s t s r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between behavior and a r o u s a l ; the former u s u a l l y assume a monotonic f u n c t i o n w h i l e the l a t t e r s t r o n g l y s t r e s s an i n v e r t e d U-shaped f u n c t i o n . 5.5 T h e o r e t i c a l Assumptions on the R e l a t i o n s h i p between Emotion and B e h a v i o r a l E f f i c i e n c y The e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s of the a c t i v a t i o n t h e o r i s t s seem . to support the concept t h a t emotion can be an o r g a n i z i n g as w e l l as a d i s o r g a n i z i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s . From everyday e x p e r i e n c e , one o f t e n f i n d s t h a t the same emotion can f a c i l i t a t e or i n h i b i t performance depending on the i n t e n s i t y o f emotion a r o u s a l . For example, a m i l d s t a t e of a n x i e t y and f e a r may make a person perform more e f f i c i e n t l y , but an i n t e n s e s t a t e of a n x i e t y and f e a r may i n h i b i t h i s performance. S i m i l a r l y , a f e e l i n g of c o n f i d e n c e may f a c i l i t a t e performance but a f e e l i n g of o v e r - c o n f i d e n c e may impair performance. The e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s of the a c t i v a t i o n t h e o r i s t s c i t e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n can be c o n s i d e r e d as t e n t a t i v e evidence to support the assumption t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y and emotion a r o u s a l i s an i n v e r t e d U-shaped f u n c t i o n . T h i s assumption probably holds f o r many kin d s of emotion but may not h o l d f o r a l l kinds o f emotion. I t i s reasonable to assume t h a t human behavior i s governed p r i n c i p a l l y by the i n t e r a c t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l 70 p r o c e s s e s , one.being the emotional process which can cause o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n a person. The term "emotional p r o c e s s " i m p l i e s t h a t emotion, as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t , i s dynamic and v a r i e s i n d i r e c t i o n and magnitude with time under changing environmental c o n d i t i o n s . The d i r e c t i o n and magnitude of emotion at a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t o f time i s termed "emotion a r o u s a l " or a " s t a t e o f emotion". And the meaning of "psyche" i s , as p o i n t e d out i n chapter one, "the mind". Hence, b r o a d l y , emotion i s a mental s t a t e r e l a t e d to some t a n g i b l e or i n t a n g i b l e e x t e r n a l o b j e c t , and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f e e l i n g s of v a r i o u s i n t e n s i t i e s and accompanied by v i s c e r a l r e a c t i o n s and motor e x p r e s s i o n s o f v a r i o u s i n t e n s i t i e s which may or may not be apparent. There are l i m i t a t i o n s and shortcomings i n u s i n g the concept of " o r g a n i z a t i o n " as a conc e p t u a l t o o l to d e s c r i b e a person's s t a t e of mind when the mind i t s e l f , u n l i k e the b r a i n , i s an i n t a n g i b l e or a b s t r a c t o b j e c t . The terms "non-or g a n i z e d " , "organized" and " d i s o r g a n i z e d " are concepts of arrangement of t a n g i b l e p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s . In the absence of a b e t t e r c o n c e p t u a l t o o l , the concept.of o r g a n i z a t i o n as d e f i n e d by Leeper (1948) has been adopted. B e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n work performance i s assumed to be the consequence of a person's s t a t e o f mental o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t i s d e f i n e d as the r a t i o of a person's a c t u a l performance to h i s p o t e n t i a l performance. In other words, i t i s a comparison FIGURE 5 - 2 . BEHAVIORAL E F F I C I E N C Y AS A FUNCTION OF EMOTION AROUSAL WITH STATE OF MENTAL ORGANIZATION AS • INTERVENING VARIABLE B e h a v i o r a l E f f i c i e n c y H i g h E f f i c i e n c y M o d e r a t e E f f i c i e n c y Low E f f i c i e n c y e=0 E m o t i o n A r o u s a l (e) e = l Non- O r g a n i z i n g H i g h l y D i s o r g a n i z i n g D i s -o r g a n i z e d O r g a n i z e d o r g a n i z e d 72 between the a c t u a l work done by a person and the maximum work of which he i s capable. The value of b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y ranges from zero to one. I t i s assumed t h a t a person's l e v e l o f emotion a r o u s a l (e) i n f l u e n c e s h i s s t a t e o f mental o r g a n i z a t i o n which i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e s h i s b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n work performance (B e) s i n c e i t i s assumed e a r l i e r t h a t mental or p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r ocesses c o o r d i n a t e and govern a person's b e h a v i o r . Emotion a r o u s a l such as anger and work performance such as r a t e of output are o b s e r v a b l e s . S t a t e o f mental or p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s the unobservable i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e t h a t i s anchored between the two observables and e x p l a i n s the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between them (See F i g u r e 5-2). By using an a r b i t r a r y u n i t y s c a l e , the l e v e l of emotion a r o u s a l ranges from zero when a person i s i n deep s l e e p to one when he i s h i g h l y aroused ( i . e . , 0 - e - 1). A person's mind i s assumed to be r e l a x e d and non-organized f o r g o a l - d i r e c t e d b ehavior when he i s i n deep s l e e p and hence h i s b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n work performance i s zero ( i . e . , B^ = 0 when e = 0 ) . As h i s l e v e l of emotion a r o u s a l i n c r e a s e s from zero, c o n c e p t u a l l y , h i s mental s t a t e becomes more o r g a n i z e d s i n c e emotion i s assumed to be an o r g a n i z e d and o r g a n i z i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l process when the l e v e l of emotion a r o u s a l i s low. As a r e s u l t , h i s b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n work performance a l s o i n c r e a s e s ( i . e . , B e > 0 when e > 0 ) . A person's mental o r g a n i z a t i o n , and hence h i s b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y . , reaches an o p t i m a l s t a t e a t a c e r t a i n i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l o f emotion a r o u s a l which v a r i e s i n a person from s i t u a t i o n to s i t u a t i o n . When the l e v e l of emotion a r o u s a l i n c r e a s e s beyond t h i s o p t i m a l p o i n t , the i n f l u e n c e of emotion as a d i s o r g a n i z e d and d i s o r g a n i z i n g process becomes predominant When a person i s h i g h l y aroused e m o t i o n a l l y , h i s mind i s assumed to be d i s o r g a n i z e d . Hence at t h i s stage h i s b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n work performance becomes zero ( i . e . , _ e = 0 when e = 1). Since i t i s assumed t h a t b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i s a f u n c t i o n o f l e v e l o f emotion a r o u s a l w i t h the s t a t e o f mental o r g a n i z a t i o n as i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e , i t f o l l o w s t h a t a p e r s o n 1 b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y must be equal or l e s s than h i s l e v e l o f emotion a r o u s a l (B e f o r a l l value o f e) . e 5.6 D e r i v a t i o n o f the B e h a v i o r a l E f f i c i e n c y F u n c t i o n Source The i n v e r t e d U-shaped b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y f u n c t i o n d e r i v e d from emotion i s a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the p r o j e c t i l e e q u a t i o n i n p h y s i c a l mechanics. h = v t - hgt2 (5-1) where h = h e i g h t o f p r o j e c t i o n o f a p a r t i c l e a t time t ; v = i n i t i a l v e l o c i t y g = g r a v i t a t i o n a l a c c e l e r a t i o n Requirements M o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s e quation i s necessary to meet the f o l l o w i n g requirements: (a) to reduce the number of v a r i a b l e s ; (b) t o i n c r e a s e the f l e x i b i l i t y o f the f u n c t i o n ( i . e . , t o i n c l u d e a wider range of p o s s i b l e outcomes); (c) t o s a t i s f y the c o n d i t i o n s o f the f o l l o w i n g t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions: B - e f o r a l l value o f e; e B = 0 when e = 0 and e = 1; e B > 0 when 0. < e < 1; e • where b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y 0 - B - 1 2 e emotion a r o u s a l . 0 - e - 1 Procedure of M o d i f i c a t i o n D i v i d e e quation (5-1) by v, _ = t _ (-3)t 2 v ^ K2v'^ (5-2) S u b s t i t u t e the f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n (5-2) B f o r -e v, e f o r t , a f o r 22, b f o r 2. 75 E q u a t i o n (5-2) becomes B„ =| B (e - ae b) (5-3) where e = l e v e l of emotion a r o u s a l ; B e = b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n work performance; B g = b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y f u n c t i o n ; a, b = emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a person; 5.7 T e s t i n g o f the B e h a v i o r a l E f f i c i e n c y F u n c t i o n The aims of the t e s t s a re: (1) to show the e f f e c t o f v a r i a t i o n o f a on b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y f o r con s t a n t value o f b ; (2) to show the e f f e c t o f v a r i a t i o n o f b on b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y f o r a = 1 ; (3) to determine the v a l i d value o f b f o r s a t i s f y i n g the c o n d i t i o n s : B e e f o r a l l value o f B e = 0 when e = 0 and e B e > 0 when 0 < e < 1 where 0 4 B 4 1 e 0 ^ e ^ 1 76 (1) E f f e c t of constant value of b and v a r i a b l e value of a The values of B deriv e d from the f u n c t i o n e B =T_ (e - ae ) f o r values o f : e j B (i ) b = 2, a = 0-3, 0'5, 0-8, 1-0, 1-2, 1.5, 2-0; ( i i ) b = 5, a = 0'3, 0-5, 0-8, 1'0, 1-2, 1-5, 2-0; are t a b u l a t e d i n Table 5-1 and p l o t t e d i n Graph 5-1. Graph 5-1 shows th a t f o r values of b = 2 and b = 5, the only curves that " f i t " or s a t i s f y the c o n d i t i o n s of the t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions t h a t f o r : 1 B 1 e 1 4 e 4 1 B e f o r a l l value of e e B = 0 when e = 0 and e = 1 e B > 0 when 0 < e < 1 e i s the value of a = 1. Hence only the value of a = 1 i s v a l i d and a l l other values of a are i n v a l i d f o r the h y p o t h e t i c a l b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y equation, which thus becomes: B e = f B ( e ~ e b )  e ; e (5-4) 77 TABLE 5-1 Values of B f o r b = 2 e a e 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 '0. 3 0 .097 .188 . 273 . 352 .425 .492 .533 .608 .657 .70 0. 5 0 .095 .180 . 255 .320 .375 .420 .455 .480 .495 0.50 0. 8 0 .092 .168 .228 . 272 . 300 .312 .308 .288 .252 0.20 1. 0 0 .090 .160 .210 .240 .250 .240 .210 .160 .090 0 1. 2 0 .088 .152 .192 . 208 . 200 .168 .112 .032 -0 .072 -0.2 1. 5 0 .085 .140 .165 .160 .125 .060 -0.035 -0.16 -0 . 315 -0.5 2. 0 0 . 800 0.120 0.120 .080 0 -0.12 -0.28 -0. 48 -0 .720 -1.0 Values of B f o r b = 5 e e a 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.3 0 0.1 . 199 .299 . 397 .491 .577 .649 . 702 .723 0.7 0.5 0 . 0.1. .199 .298 . 395 .484 .561 .614 .636 .60 0.5 0.8 0 0.1 .199 .297 . 392 .476 .540 .560 .520 . 430 0.2 1.0 0 0.1 .199 .296 . 389 . 469 .522 .523 .472 .310 0 1.2 0 0.1 .199 .295 . 387 .463 .507 .494 .407 .193 -0.2 1.5 0 0.1 .199 .294 . 385 .453 .483 .442 .308 .0145 -0.5 2.0 0 0.1 .199 .292 . 379 . 437 .444 . 356 .144 -0.180 -1.0 GRAPH 5 - 1 . EFFECTS OF VARIATION OF a 78 (2) E f f e c t o f v a r i a t i o n o f b value The values o f B d e r i v e d from the f u n c t i o n e B e =tQ (e - e b) f o r valu e s o f b = 1-5, 2-0, 2-5, 3-0, 5, 9, 20 e are t a b u l a t e d i n Table 5-2 and p l o t t e d i n Graph 5-2. The graph shows t h a t (i) a person w i t h h i g h b value has h i g h e r l e v e l of b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y ( v e r t i c a l e f f e c t ) than a person with low b v a l u e ; ( i i ) a person w i t h high b value i s l e s s s u s c e p t i b l e t o mental d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ( h o r i z o n t a l e f f e c t ) at h i g h l e v e l o f emotion a r o u s a l than a person w i t h low b val u e . Hence b value r e p r e s e n t s a person's emotional c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s . (3) L i m i t s o f v a l i d value o f b / b From the f u n c t i o n B =/_, (e - e ) e / B J e and value of 0 - e - 1 when b 1, B -> 0 f o r a l l value o f e; e when b < 1, B < ,0 f o r a l l value o f 0 < e < 1 e when b ^ oo , B ->• e f o r a l l value o f 0 < e < 1. The o n l y v a l i d range of b value which f i t s the t h e o r e t i c a l assumption t h a t : B - e f o r a l l value o f e e B = 0 when e = 0 and e = 1 e B > 0 when 0 < e < 1 e i s the value o f 1 < b < °°. In oth e r words, b can be any 79 TABLE 5-2 Values of B f o r a = 1 e e b 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.5 0 .068 .111 .136 .149 .147 .135 .111 .084 .649 0 2.0 0 .090 . 160 .210 . 240 .250 .240 . 210 .160 .090 0 2.5 0 .096 .182 .258 .299 . 323 .321 .290 .228 .132 0 3.0 0 . 099 .192 . 273 .336 . 375 .384 .356 .288 .171 0 5.0 0 0.1 .199 .296 .389 .469 .522 .523 .472 .310 0 9.0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 .395 . 484 .533 .582 .532 .370 0 20 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.799 .779 0 GRAPH 5-2. EFFECTS OF VARIATION OF b 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 L e v e l of Emotion A r o u s a l (e) p o s i t i v e f i n i t e number g r e a t e r t h a n one. The b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y f u n c t i o n B = y B (e - e°) w i l l be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o M a i e r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e f o r m u l a as a p o s s i b l e m o d e r a t o r b e t w e e n m o t i v a t i o n and p e r f o r m a n c e i n c h a p t e r s i x . 5.8 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f b V a l u e S i m i l a r t o t h e c o n c e p t o f " d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n " u s e d by t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t s i s t h e c o n c e p t o f " e m o t i o n a l d i s " o r d e r " o r t h e more w i d e l y u s e d c o n c e p t o f " m e n t a l d i s o r d e r " by t h e c l i n i c a l p s y c h i a t r i s t s . A c c o r d i n g t o M i n e r , i n a g e n e r a l s e n s e t h e two t e r m s r e f e r t o t h e same t h i n g . A p e r s o n s u f f e r i n g f r o m e m o t i o n a l o r m e n t a l i l l n e s s s u c h as p s y c h o s i s o r n e u r o s i s c a n be c o n s i d e r e d t o have low b v a l u e . M i n e r n o t e d t h a t : The b o r d e r l i n e b e t w e e n e m o t i o n a l h e a l t h and i l l n e s s i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h . . . . I n p s y c h o s i s , t h e p e r s o n i s bound up i n h i s e m o t i o n s and t h e p r o c e s s o f d e f e n d i n g a g a i n s t them t h a t r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t o t h e demands o f t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d becomes m i n i m a l o r i s t o t a l l y l o s t . E m o t i o n i s e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h o v e r p o w e r i n g i n t e n s i t y , and e q u a l l y d r a s t i c d e f e n s i v e p r o c e s s e s a r e m o b i l i z e d . T h e s e d e f e n s e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s t h r o u g h b e h a v i o r (or s p e e c h ) o r t h r o u g h p e r c e p t i o n s and b e l i e f s . T h a t i s , a l t h o u g h p h y s i c a l symptoms p r e c i p i t a t e d by e m o t i o n may e x i s t i n p s y c h o s i s , t h e y a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t a l o n e t o d e f i n e t h e d i s o r d e r . D i s t o r t e d i d e a s o r p e r c e p t i o n s a r e , however, a l w a y s p r e s e n t , and t h e d e g r e e o f commit-ment t o them i s l i k e l y t o be s t r o n g . I n t e r p r e - . t a t i o n s w h i c h a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h r e a l i t y a r e n o t r e g a r d e d by t h e p e r s o n s i m p l y as p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The i n d i v i d u a l moves t o a s t a t e o f c e r t a i n t y w i t h o u t any a t t e m p t t o c h e c k on t h e v a l i d i t y o f what were mere h y p o t h e s e s o n l y moments b e f o r e . The d e f e n s e s become t o t a l l y i n f l e x i b l e . As a r e s u l t , t h e s e d i s t o r t e d t h o u g h t s and p e r c e p t i o n s may on o c c a s i o n m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s i n b i z a r r e 81 behavior and speech. (Miner, 1963, pp.40-48) A person w i t h such emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l l i k e l y e x h i b i t d i s o r g a n i z e d response at a low l e v e l of emotion a r o u s a l . I t f o l l o w s t h a t h i s b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n work performance w i l l probably be very low. Neurosis i s a l e s s severe form of mental d i s o r d e r . Such a person does not lose contact w i t h the r e a l i t i e s of the e n v i r o n -ment. He can be considered as having a higher b value than a person having psychosis. Miner s a i d : In neurosis . . . t h i s break w i t h r e a l i t y does not occur; the i n d i v i d u a l does not l o s e h i m s e l f e n t i r e l y to the processes of emotion and defense. Instead, he adopts methods f o r warding o f f emotion which are g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the demands of s o c i a l convention and the need f o r s u r v i v a l . (Miner, 1963, pp.48-49) A r a t i o n a l person w i t h high emotional s t a b i l i t y i s considered to have high b value. His mental s t a t e i s h i g h l y organized even at a high l e v e l of emotion a r o u s a l and hence he has a high l e v e l of b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n work performance. Chapter 6 PERFORMANCE AS A FUNCTION OF ABILITY, MOTIVATION AND EMOTION 6.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n This chapter i s an extension of the q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i i n chapter three of performance as a f u n c t i o n of a b i l i t y and mot i v a t i o n . Emotion i s e x p l i c i t l y considered as a moderator which i n f l u e n c e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o t i v a t i o n and performance. In chapters four and f i v e , m o t i v a t i o n and emotion were t r e a t e d as two separate and n o n - i n t e r a c t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes. In t h i s chapter these two v a r i a b l e s are considered as simultaneous and h i g h l y i n t e r a c t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes which together help to a c t i v a t e behavior. A person's work performance i s assumed to be the a l g e b r a i c product of h i s a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n and b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y where b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i s assumed to be a f u n c t i o n of a person's emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and h i s emotion aro u s a l at a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t of time. 6.2 R e l a t i o n s h i p between M o t i v a t i o n and Performance The e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s of French (1957), Fleishman (1958) Vroom (1960), Lawler (1966), and M i t c h e l l (1967) support the assumption t h a t a b i l i t y , as a moderator, i n t e r a c t s m u l t i p l i -c a t i v e l y w i t h m o t i v a t i o n to help determine performance. Since m o t i v a t i o n i s a dynamic personal v a r i a b l e and a b i l i t y i s a more or l e s s constant personal v a r i a b l e over a short p e r i o d of time, performance w i l l vary w i t h the v a r i a t i o n i n m o t i v a t i o n . The c o g n i t i v e theory of m o t i v a t i o n assumed t h a t moti-v a t i o n i s a monotonically i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n of expectancy and valence. I f the c o g n i t i v e m o t i v a t i o n f u n c t i o n i s s u b s t i t u t e d i n t o Maier's performance formula, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , performance w i l l i n c rease monotonically as m o t i v a t i o n increases mono-t o n i c a l l y s i n c e a b i l i t y i s considered a constant. When a person i s i n t e n s e l y motivated, t h e o r e t i c a l l y , h i s l e v e l of performance must be very high and there should not be any lowering i n the l e v e l of performance. However, there i s evidence to show t h a t t h i s i s not e m p i r i c a l l y t r u e . According to Young (See Figure 6-1): Experiments w i t h human and animal subjects have shown th a t the l e v e l of performance v a r i e s w i t h the degree of m o t i v a t i o n . For any task there i s optimal degree, or l e v e l , of m o t i v a t i o n , i.e.> a degree of m o t i v a t i o n t h a t y i e l d s the maximal output . . . But when the degree of m o t i v a t i o n i s above a c r i t i c a l l e v e l , there i s disturbance of performance and lowered e f f i c i e n c y . The subject i s over motivated. (Young, 1961, pp.2-3) The p o s s i b i l i t y of decreases i n performance under high l e v e l s of m o t i v a t i o n a l s o i s recognized by Yerkes and Dodson (1908), P a t r i c k (1934), B i r c h (1945), M c C l e l l a n d (1951), and Vroom (1964). There are two p o s s i b l e explanations to account f o r the phenomenon of an i n v e r t e d U-shaped f u n c t i o n f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between performance and m o t i v a t i o n . The f i r s t e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t t h e r e are other moderators which have not been taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h a t i n t e r a c t with m o t i v a t i o n to h e l p determine performance. The second e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t the components of m o t i v a t i o n may produce other s i d e - e f f e c t s , b e s i d e s m o t i v a t i o n a l e f f e c t which w i l l reduce an organism's e f f i c i e n c y i n performance. M c C l e l l a n d (1951) g i v e s the f i r s t e x p l a n a t i o n , w h i l e Vroom (1964) r e c o g n i z e s t h a t two e x p l a n a t i o n s are p o s s i b l e . M c C l e l l a n d reasons t h a t : ... as a motive i n c r e a s e s i n i n t e n s i t y i t f i r s t l eads to an i n c r e a s e i n the e f f i c i e n c y o f i n s t r u m e n t a l a c t i v i t y and then to a decrease. Thus i t would appear t h a t as f a r as adjustment i s concerned there i s a c e r t a i n optimum l e v e l of motive i n t e n s i t y , a l e v e l of " c r e a t i v e a n x i e t y " , which leads to maximum pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g e f f i c i e n c y . Too l i t t l e m o t i v a t i o n leads to sl u g g i s h n e s s and i n e r t i a , too much to d i s r u p t i o n and defense a g a i n s t a n x i e t y . The t h e o r e t i c a l problems s t i l l unsolved are the d i s c o v e r y o f what t h i s area o f optimum i n t e n s i t y i s and why hi g h e r i n t e n s i t i e s l e a d to i n e f f i c i e n c y . ( M c C l e l l a n d , 1951, p.485) Vroom e x p l a i n s t h a t a h i g h l y motivated person may at t e n d o n l y t o those cues which he expects to be u s e f u l i n the attainment o f h i s g o a l s . I f the task i s a no v e l or d i f f i c u l t one, h i s i n t e n s e m o t i v a t i o n may l e a d to h i s i g n o r i n g r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g to Vroom, i s based on the assumption made by Tolman (1948) t h a t a hig h l e v e l of m o t i v a t i o n i s accompanied by a "narrowing o f c o g n i t i v e f i e l d " 86 (Vroom, 1964, p.207). The other e x p l a n a t i o n given by Vroom i s : ... the s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t a high l e v e l of m o t i v a t i o n to a t t a i n a goal tends to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n x i e t y , or some other strong emotional s t a t e which i n tu r n impairs performance. The idea t h a t high l e v e l s of mo t i v a t i o n tend to be accompanied by anxie t y i s not i n t u i t i v e l y unreasonable. (Vroom, 1964, p.207) Both Mc C l e l l a n d and Vroom suggest t h a t m o t i v a t i o n i s as s o c i a t e d w i t h emotion. While M c C l e l l a n d sees the p o s s i b i l i t y of " c r e a t i v e a n x i e t y " , Vroom considers t h a t emotion w i l l "impair performance". 6.3 Emotion as a Moderator between M o t i v a t i o n and Performance In t h i s chapter emotion i s considered e x p l i c i t l y as a moderator t h a t i n f l u e n c e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o t i v a t i o n and performance. Emotion may i n t e r a c t w i t h m o t i v a t i o n i n two ways. F i r s t , emotion as a hedonic process may i n f l u e n c e the d i r e c t i o n and magnitude of m o t i v a t i o n . Second, emotion may have " o r g a n i z i n g " (or f a c i l i t a t i n g ) and " d i s o r g a n i z i n g " (or d i s r u p t i n g ) e f f e c t s on a person's pe r c e p t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n and h i s r a t i o n a l i t y i n decision-making or s e l e c t i o n of choice. Since emotion and m o t i v a t i o n are hedonic processes and both of them i n i t i a t e , d i r e c t and s u s t a i n behavior toward or away from some t a n g i b l e or i n t a n g i b l e o b j e c t , emotion and mo t i v a t i o n can be considered as two i n t e r r e l a t e d , simultaneous and h i g h l y i n t e r a c t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes. I t i s assumed Figure 6 2 Hypothetical Performance Curves A b i l i t y L e v e l o f f Performance F i g u r e 6r2 (a) M=0 L e v e l o f M o t i v a t i o n M=l L e v e l of/f Performance B e h a v i o r a l E f f i c i e n c y F i g u r e 6-2(b) e=0 L e v e l of Emotion e=l L e v e l o f f 1 Performance B e h a v i o r a l E f f i c i e n c y F i g u r e 6-2(c) M=0 L e v e l of M o t i v a t i o n M=l 88 i n the pr e s e n t a n a l y s i s t h a t motivated b e h a v i o r i s a s s o c i a t e d , t i n g e d or accompanied with emotion i n a l l i t s stages. Emotion i s c o n s i d e r e d a v e c t o r q u a n t i t y . However, i t i s a b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n work performance (a f u n c t i o n of a person's emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and emotion arousal) t h a t i s co n s i d e r e d i n the performance formula. B e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i s c o n s i d e r e d a s c a l a r q u a n t i t y having magnitude ranging from zero to one. 6.4 I n t e r a c t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p between M o t i v a t i o n and B e h a v i o r a l E f f i c i e n c y The r a t i o n a l e i s as f o l l o w s f o r assuming t h a t b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n t e r a c t s m u l t i p l i c a t i v e l y w i t h m o t i v a t i o n t o help determine performance: (a) Maier's h y p o t h e t i c a l performance curve i s a mo n o t o n i c a l l y i n c r e a s i n g f u c t i o n o f m o t i v a t i o n s i n c e a b i l i t y i s c o n s i d e r e d a constant and marks the upper l i m i t o f a person's performance c a p a b i l i t y . A person's m o t i v a t i o n toward an i n c e n t i v e i s f i n i t e and i s c o n s i d e r e d maximum (M=l) when a l l h i s e f f o r t i s d i r e c t e d toward t h a t p a r t i c u l a r i n c e n t i v e . (See F i g u r e 6-2a). (b) The e m p i r i c a l b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y curve i s an i n v e r t e d U-shaped f u n c t i o n o f emotion a r o u s a l . Since b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i s assumed to be a 89 f u n c t i o n of a person's emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and emotional a r o u s a l , i t i s assumed B -e i n the e h y p o t h e t i c a l b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y curve. (See Figure 6-2b). (c) The e m p i r i c a l performance curve i s an i n v e r t e d U-shaped f u n c t i o n of m o t i v a t i o n . This assumes tha t the h y p o t h e t i c a l performance curve i s an i n v e r t e d U-shaped f u n c t i o n of m o t i v a t i o n but t h a t the l e v e l of performance i s r e s t r i c t e d by the person's a b i l i t y and emotion a r o u s a l . (See Figure 6-2c). The i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o t i v a t i o n and b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i s a l g e b r a i c because m o t i v a t i o n i s considered a vector q u a n t i t y and b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i s considered a s c a l a r q u a n t i t y . In the f o r m u l a t i o n above, since (c) i s assumed to be a f u n c t i o n of (a) and (b), only the a l g e b r a i c m u l t i p l i c a t i o n operator i s l i k e l y to s a t i s f y or " f i t " the assumption. A l g e b r a i c a d d i t i o n of (a) and (b) w i l l r e s u l t i n a monotonically i n c r e a s i n g performance f u n c t i o n which does not " f i t " or s a t i s f y the assumption (c) th a t performance i s an i n v e r t e d U-shaped f u n c t i o n of m o t i v a t i o n . 6.5 I n t e r a c t i v e R e l a t i o n s h i p between A b i l i t y and B e h a v i o r a l E f f i c i e n c y The r a t i o n a l e f o r assuming th a t the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n -FIGURE 6-3 2x2 TEST OF INTERACTIVE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A B I L I T Y AND BEHAVIORAL E F F I C I E N C Y H A b i l i t y (A) (o) H j L i (b) H j H 1 (c) " 7 1 7 " l (d) L ] H H = High L = Low B e h a v i o r a l E f f i c i e n c y (B ) 91 s h i p b e t w e e n a b i l i t y and b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i s a l g e b r a i c m u l t i p l i c a t i v e i s as f o l l o w s . (See F i g u r e 5 - 3 ) . (a) I f a p e r s o n has h i g h a b i l i t y b u t low b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t h i s p e r f o r m a n c e w i l l be m o d e r a t e . (b) I f a p e r s o n has h i g h a b i l i t y and h i g h b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t h i s p e r f o r m a n c e w i l l be v e r y h i g h . (c) I f a p e r s o n has low a b i l i t y and low b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t h i s p e r f o r m a n c e w i l l be v e r y low. (d) I f a p e r s o n has low a b i l i t y b u t h i g h b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t h i s p e r f o r m a n c e w i l l be m o d e r a t e . S i n c e b o t h a b i l i t y and b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y a r e c o n s i d e r e d s c a l a r q u a n t i t i e s , t h e i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n them c a n be r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e a l g e b r a i c o p e r a t o r . The 2x2 t e s t o f an i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween a b i l i t y and b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n d i c a t e s t h a t o n l y t h e a l g e b r a i c m u l t i -p l i c a t i o n o p e r a t o r seems t o s a t i s f y a s s u m p t i o n s ( a ) , ( b ) , ( c ) , and ( d ) . A l g e b r a i c a d d i t i o n o p e r a t o r seems t o s a t i s f y a s s u m p t i o n s (b) and (c) o n l y . 6.6 D e r i v a t i o n o f t h e P e r f o r m a n c e F o r m u l a M a i e r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e f o r m u l a w i t h t h e . i n c l u s i o n o f b e h a v i o r a l 92 e f f i c i e n c y as a moderator between m o t i v a t i o n and performance becomes: Performance = j-(Ability x M o t i v a t i o n x B e h a v i o r a l E f f i c i e n c y ) P = T - ( A x M x B ) From p r e v i o u s d e r i v a t i o n s , M and = / M I S ( E l E 2 . . . E n ) ( V B i ) B e = f ^ ( e - e ) (6-1) (4-2) (5-4) I f the M f u n c t i o n and B f u n c t i o n are s u b s t i t u t e d i n t o equation e (6-1), the performance formula becomes: f - f A \i ( E l E i - - - V ( V B (6-2) where h P = Work performance. Performance f u n c t i o n . A = J o b - r e l e v a n t a b i l i t i e s . I = The number o f d i s c r e t e i n c e n t i v e components i n a job c o n t r a c t which c o n s i s t s of P d i s c r e t e tasks the o f f e r e e expects to perform and R d i s c r e t e rewards he expects to r e c e i v e from the o f f e r o r f o r h i s a n t i c i -pated performance, as s t i p u l a t e d i n the job c o n t r a c t ; I = P + R. Offeree's b a s i c valences f o r the I job i n c e n t i v e components; Expectancy of means-end r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r i n c e n t i v e component 1^ 0 - E^ - 1. Number of d i s c r e t e expectancies of means-end r e l a t i o n s h i p s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r . i n c e n t i v e component 1^ perceived by the o f f e r e e . For each of the R rewards and P performances the o f f e r e e may perceive n expectancies of means-end r e l a t i o n s h i p Vector a d d i t i o n of a l g e b r a i c products of expectancies and b a s i c valences f o r the I i n c e n t i v e components. Offeree's emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; 1 < B < c o . Offeree's emotion a r o u s a l at a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t of time; 0 - e - 1. Figure 7-1 Theoretical Diagram of Performance Formula Valences for Job Incentives ( V B T > Means-end Expectancies (Ej •• Ej--E n ) Abilities (A) Motivation (Mj) t Job Incentives (I) Performance \ . Rewards 7 (P) (R) Behavioral Efficiency (BE) Emotional Level of Characteristics Emotion (b) Arousal (e) Chapter 7 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 7.1 O p e r a t i o n a l ! t y of the Performance Formula The v a r i a b l e s of the performance formula and t h e i r i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p are r e p r e s e n t e d d i a g r a m m a t i c a l l y i n F i g u r e (7-1). T h i s c o n c e p t u a l diagram i s the o p e r a t i o n a l form o f the c o n c e p t u a l diagram of job behavior i n F i g u r e (2-1). I t i s an expansion o f the t h e o r e t i c a l model o f job performance advanced by Lawler and P o r t e r (1967). The absence of r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s as a moderator i n the p r e s e n t c o n c e p t u a l diagram does not mean the w r i t e r c o n s i d e r s r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s unimportant or i n v a l i d as a moderator between m o t i v a t i o n and performance. Rather, i t i s because the i n c l u s i o n o f r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s i n t o the p r e s e n t model may complicate the study of the probable i n f l u e n c e of emotion as a probable moderator between m o t i v a t i o n and performance. In a more complete model, r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s should be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n as a moderator of m o t i v a t i o n . D e v i s i n g v a l i d and r e l i a b l e measures of the v a r i a b l e s i n the performance formula i s fundamental i n t e s t i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l soundness of the h y p o t h e s i z e d i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n -s h i p . The i n h e r e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s i n d e v i s i n g methods to measure these v a r i a b l e s o b j e c t i v e l y and p r e c i s e l y are mentioned i n chapter one. For each of the v a r i a b l e s i n the 96 performance formula, there i s no s i n g l e standard c r i t e r i o n , s i n g l e standard s c a l e or s i n g l e completely s a t i s f a c t o r y method o f measurement. The o p t i m a l method of measurement depends on the nature of the v a r i a b l e s and the types of r e s e a r c h used such as (a) c o n t r o l l e d l a b o r a t o r y r e s e a r c h ; (b) n o n - c o n t r o l l e d f i e l d r e s e a r c h ; (c) survey r e s e a r c h ; and (d) ex post f a c t o r e s e a r c h . The d e f i n i t i o n , nature and some of the methods of measurement o f the v a r i a b l e s i n the performance formula are b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d below. Performance (P) i s the work done by a person i n the job s i t u a t i o n . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to measure o b j e c t i v e l y and p r e c i s e l y the work done by a person i n h i s job. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y true o f mental work and work t h a t r e q u i r e s team e f f o r t . S u b j e c t i v e methods such as s e l f - r a t i n g and pan e l r a t i n g o f "how w e l l he • i s performing i n h i s job" can be used. P h y s i c a l work done such as r a t e o f output, amount o f s a l e s e t c e t e r a are some of the more o b j e c t i v e methods of measuring performance. A b i l i t y (A) i s a person's performance p o t e n t i a l . T h i s term embraces a number of sl o w l y changing or long term p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as i n t e l l i g e n c e , manual s k i l l s , p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , e t c . A b i l i t i e s can be developed and m o d i f i e d , but t y p i c a l l y , they do not change very much over the s h o r t run. Methods of measuring a b i l i t y depend upon the s p e c i f i c a b i l i t y one wants to measure. Some of the many a v a i l a b l e methods of measuring a b i l i t y are (1) I.Q. T e s t ; (2) G h i s e l l i S e l f -\ D e s c r i p t i o n Inventory; (3) D i s c r e t e t e s t s of s p e c i f i c motor a b i l i t i e s such as the Minnesota Peg-Board T e s t ; (4) Panel ( s u p e r v i s o r ) Ratings; (5) Thurstone Mental A b i l i t i e s T e s t ; (6) Thurstone Temperament Schedule. C o n c e p t u a l l y , a b i l i t y i s c o n s i d e r e d a s c a l a r q u a n t i t y having only magnitude which marks the upper l i m i t o f a person's performance c a p a b i l i t y . Job i n c e n t i v e s (I) r e f e r to the P d i s c r e t e d i f f e r e n t tasks (P^) an employee i s expected to perform and the R d i s c r e t e d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l and non-material rewards (R.) he l expects to r e c e i v e from the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r h i s a n t i c i p a t e d performance as s t i p u l a t e d i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l or w r i t t e n job c o n t r a c t . Job i n c e n t i v e components (or i n c e n t i v e s ) are c o n s i d e r e d as the c o n d i t i o n s of m o t i v a t i o n . The f i v e major job i n c e n t i v e s (1^) i d e n t i f i e d by Vroom (1964) are wages, promotion o p p o r t u n i t i e s , the s o c i a l work group, work content and s u p e r v i s i o n . Valences f o r job i n c e n t i v e s (V D ) are made up o f I (1) the employee's antecedent hedonic o r i e n t a t i o n towards the work i t s e l f f o r the P d i s c r e t e d i f f e r e n t tasks (P.) he l expects to perform i r r e s p e c t i v e of the m a t e r i a l and non-m a t e r i a l rewards, and (2) the employee's antecedent hedonic o r i e n t a t i o n toward the R d i s c r e t e d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l and n on-material rewards (R.) l he expects to r e c e i v e from others ( i n s t i t u t i o n ) f o r h i s a n t i c i p a t e d performance. 98 Valence (V) i s considered the b a s i s of m o t i v a t i o n . I t i s a very dynamic personal v a r i a b l e , the d i r e c t i o n and magnitude' of which i s l i k e l y to f l u c t u a t e over a wide range of job i n c e n t i v e components. With respect to a p a r t i c u l a r job i n c e n t i v e component, however, i t s mean value may remain more or l e s s constant or change only g r a d u a l l y over a long p e r i o d of time. Some of the a v a i l a b l e methods of measuring an employee's valence f o r job i n c e n t i v e s are as f o l l o w s : (1) I n d i v i d u a l ranking of R d i s c r e t e p o t e n t i a l rewards and P d i s c r e t e p o t e n t i a l tasks i n the job c o n t r a c t . (2) I n d i v i d u a l r a t i n g of the absolute values of the R d i s c r e t e p o t e n t i a l rewards and P d i s c r e t e p o t e n t i a l tasks i n the job c o n t r a c t . (3) A d m i n i s t e r i n g some s o r t of p r o j e c t i v e device, such as the TAT, i n which the i n v e s t i g a t o r would i n f e r the values from the responses from the s u b j e c t s . (4) P r o v i d i n g the person w i t h an a c t u a l choice of two or more rewards and two or more d i f f e r e n t kinds of tasks to perform. (5) I n d i v i d u a l ranking or r a t i n g the l i s t of needs suggested by Maslow (1954) as o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d by P o r t e r (1961). Expectancy ( E ) i s an antecedent a t t i t u d e i n d i c a t i n g the degree one s u b j e c t i v e l y b e l i e v e s a c e r t a i n outcome to be probable due to h i s p e r c e p t i o n of i t s means-end r e l a t i o n s h i p . 99 For a p a r t i c u l a r i n c e n t i v e component (reward or performance) i f the person perceives n d i s c r e t e means-end r e l a t i o n s h i p s , then there w i l l be. n expectancies f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r i n c e n t i v e component. For the I d i s c r e t e d i f f e r e n t i n c e n t i v e s i n the c o n t r a c t , t h e o r e t i c a l l y , there w i l l be (nl) d i s c r e t e expec-t a n c i e s of means-end r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Expectancy i s considered a s c a l a r q u a n t i t y having magnitude ranging from zero (absolute u n c e r t a i n t y ) to one (absolute c e r t a i n t y ) . Expectancy i s a r e l a t i v e l y dynamic personal v a r i a b l e h i g h l y dependent on one's perceptions of the means-end r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Expectancy i s a person's s u b j e c t i v e p r o b a b i l i t y which may be, and u s u a l l y i s , d i f f e r e n t from the a c t u a l p r o b a b i l i t i e s . To measure t h i s v a r i a b l e , the i n v e s t i g a t o r must ob t a i n an e s t i m a t i o n from the person hi m s e l f concerning h i s s u b j e c t i v e expectancies toward the job i n c e n t i v e s and the i n s t i t u t i o n . M o t i v a t i o n (M^) i s the combination of forces d e r i v e d from a person's valences f o r the job i n c e n t i v e s and h i s expectancies of means-end r e l a t i o n s h i p s , which i n i t i a t e , d i r e c t and s u s t a i n behavior toward or away from the job i n c e n t i v e s . M o t i v a t i o n i s considered a vector q u a n t i t y . I t i s a derived personal v a r i a b l e which i s h i g h l y dynamic and i n f l u e n c e d by both personal and environmental f a c t o r s . Lawler and P o r t e r (1967) t h e o r i z e t h a t an expression of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s m o t i v a t i o n to perform h i s job can be found i n the amount of e f f o r t and energy he expends i n j o b - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s . In non-p s y c h o l o g i c a l terms, m o t i v a t i o n or e f f o r t r e f e r s to how hard 100 an i n d i v i d u a l t r i e s to perform a task. E f f o r t can be measured by (1) s e l f - r a t i n g ; (2) pane l ( s u p e r v i s o r s ) r a t i n g . M i t c h e l l (1967) d e v i s e d a s e l f - r a t i n g p e r c e n t i l e measure of the e f f o r t and energy a person put i n h i s job r e l a t i v e t o others around him a t h i s l e v e l o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Emotion (e) i s a mental s t a t e r e l a t e d to some t a n g i b l e or i n t a n g i b l e e x t e r n a l o b j e c t , and i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f e e l i n g s o f v a r i o u s i n t e n s i t i e s and accompanied by v i s c e r a l r e a c t i o n s and motor e x p r e s s i o n s , which may or may not be apparent. A person's l e v e l o f emotion a r o u s a l , at a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t o f time, ranges from zero (deep sleep) to one ( h i g h l y e x c i t e d ) r l e a d i n g to v a r i o u s degrees of or g a n i z e d and d i s o r g a n i z e d responses which i n f l u e n c e h i s b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y (B g) i n work performance. Emotion i s a r e l a t i v e l y dynamic p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e and i s h i g h l y dependent on s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . Over a p e r i o d o f twenty-four hours, there i s a wide range of f l u c t u a t i o n i n the l e v e l o f emotion a r o u s a l i n a person ranging from deep1 s l e e p to a moderate and sometimes high l e v e l o f a r o u s a l . However, d u r i n g the i n t e r v a l s o f a persons's working hours i n a job s i t u a t i o n , i t can be assumed t h a t h i s l e v e l o f emotion a r o u s a l i s moderate and i s r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e u n l e s s some abnormal s i t u a t i o n a l i n c i d e n t s occur which s t r o n g l y d i s t u r b him. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the l e v e l s o f emotion a r o u s a l can come from (a) p h y s i c a l responses and (b) v i s c e r a l o r p h y s i o -101 l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s . Some of the p h y s i c a l responses which i n d i c a t e l e v e l s of emotion a r o u s a l are f a c i a l e xpression (Jenness, 1932; Kanner, 1931; Land's, 1929; Coleman, 1949; F i e l d s , 1953); v o c a l expression (Ruch, 1963, pp.175-177); g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (Peters and M e r r i f i e l d , 1958); and patterns of overt behavior l i k e d e s t r u c t i o n , approach, avoidance, r e t r e a t or f l i g h t , stopping of response (Ruch, 1963, pp.177-178). Of a l l the i n d i c a t o r s of emotion a r o u s a l , the most o b j e c t i v e l y measured are the i n t e r n a l p h y s i o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . Whereas awareness of emotion ar o u s a l may be suppressed by the i n d i v i d u a l , v i s c e r a l responses are not u s u a l l y s ubject to vol u n t a r y c o n t r o l . The measurement of p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes i s the most s e n s i t i v e and o b j e c t i v e method of studying emotion a r o u s a l and i s the source of most experimental data under l a b o r a t o r y c o n d i t i o n s . Some of the p h y s i o l o g i c a l emotional i n d i c a t o r s are g a l v a n i c s k i n response-GSR ( E l l s o n , 1952; Schlosberg, 1954; Malmo, 1958; Cooper, 1959; Lykken, 1960); b r a i n p o t e n t i a l or electroencephalogram - EEG ( L i n d s l e y , 1950, 1957, 1958, 1960; Lansing, 1957; Hebb, 1955); heart r a t e (Malmo, 1959, Belanger and Tetreau, 1961; Ducharme and Belanger, 1961); muscular t e n s i o n and tremor (Duffy, 1951, 1957; A r n o l d , 1950; Stennett, 1957). Other emotional i n d i c a t o r s mentioned by H i l g a r d and Atk i n s o n (1967, pp.165-166) are p u p i l l a r y response, s a l i v a r y s e c r e t i o n , pilomotor response, r e s p i r a t i o n , blood d i s t r i b u t i o n , and blood composition. However, the u t i l i t y of some of these t e s t s f o r measuring emotion ar o u s a l i n an i n d u s t r i a l 102 s i t u a t i o n may be l i m i t e d because of the inconvenience o f some of these t e s t s and the a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f the instruments. A l s o , the use of such p h y s i o l o g i c a l t e s t s i n an i n d u s t r i a l s i t u a t i o n may d i s t u r b a person's performance because a s i g n i f i c a n t environmental v a r i a b l e i s added which may i n t r o d u c e unwarranted experimental e r r o r i n t o the measurement. T h i s poses a formidable problem i n o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g the performance formula. In order to a v o i d i n t r o d u c i n g a d d i t i o n a l environmental v a r i a b l e s which may make the i n v e s t i g a t i o n a b i a s e d one, a composite measure of p h y s i c a l responses may be used composed of elements such as f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n , v o c a l e x p r e s s i o n , or g r a p h i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and o f p a t t e r n s o f o v e r t behavior such as d e s t r u c t i o n , approach, avoidance or sto p p i n g o f response. The v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f these two composite measures can be s u b j e c t e d to c o r r e l a t i o n t e s t . Emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (b) o f a person i s a measure of h i s emotional s t a b i l i t y i n d i c a t i n g the l e v e l o f b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y a person can a t t a i n when e m o t i o n a l l y aroused a f t e r which h i s responses become i n c r e a s i n g l y d i s o r g a n i z e d w i t h i n c r e a s e i n the l e v e l s o f emotion a r o u s a l e. In oth e r words, i t i s a measure of a person's s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to d i s o r g a n i z e d response by emotion a r o u s a l . C o n c e p t u a l l y , a person w i t h a low b va l u e i s more s u s c e p t i b l e to d i s o r g a n i z e d response than a person with a hi g h b value a t the same l e v e l of emotion a r o u s a l . I t i s a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e i n d i c a t i n g 103 a person's emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t i s suggested t h a t an employee's b value may be measured by (1) s e l f - r a t i n g s ; (2) p a n e l ( s u p e r v i s o r ) r a t i n g s ; (3) p r o j e c t i v e d e v i c e s ; (4) the f o r c e d c h o i c e a d j e c t i v a l s c a l e method; and (5) h i s p a s t r e c o r d of emotional h e a l t h . B e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y . i n work performance ( B Q) i s the r a t i o o f a person's a c t u a l performance to h i s p o t e n t i a l performance a t a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . For purposes of e m p i r i c a l t e s t i n g i t i s a measure of a person's a c t u a l job performance i n comparison w i t h h i s b e s t job performance recorded f o r the same task under s i m i l a r environmental c o n d i t i o n s . I f the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of h i s output i n h i s job performance can be o b j e c t i v e l y measured, (B e) can be e s t a b l i s h e d as a performance r a t i o . Otherwise, s u b j e c t i v e methods such as s e l f - r a t i n g and p a n e l ( s u p e r v i s o r s ) r a t i n g can be used to d e r i v e the value of b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n work performance. B e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i s c o n s i d e r e d a s c a l a r q u a n t i t y having magnitude ranging from zero to one. The above d i s c u s s i o n of the v a r i a b l e s i n the performance formula suggests t h a t these v a r i a b l e s can be measured w i t h i n e xperimental l i m i t a t i o n s and hence the t h e o r e t i c a l soundness of the h y p o t h e s i z e d i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between these v a r i a b l e s can be t e s t e d e m p i r i c a l l y . The d e t a i l e d f o r m u l a t i o n of r e l a t i v e l y simple but v a l i d and r e l i a b l e methods of measuring these v a r i a b l e s i n an i n d u s t r i a l s e t t i n g i s not w i t h i n the scope of t h i s a n a l y s i s . 104 7.2 I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Performance Formula I f the p r e c e d i n g t h e o r e t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n , d e r i v e d from p s y c h o l o g i c a l h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s , i s to be meaningful to p r a c t i c i n g managers, i t must be demonstrated t h a t i t can h e l p to e x p l a i n some of the economic problems f a c e d i n managing o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In other words, the u s e f u l n e s s of the performance formula l i e s i n i t s a b i l i t y to help managers understand the f u n c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p among .some of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s and some of the economic v a r i a b l e s . However, i t would be p r e t e n t i o u s to suggest t h a t the t h e o r e t i c a l performance formula developed i n the p r e s e n t study w i l l h e l p managers s o l v e t h e i r problems. On the b e h a v i o r a l l e v e l , the performance formula i n d i c a t e s t h a t a person's l e v e l of performance w i l l be h i g h o n l y i f a l l the three c o n s t r u c t s - a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n and b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y - are h i g h . The assumed a l g e b r a i c m u l t i p l i c a t i v e i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among these three c o n s t r u c t s i n the performance formula i m p l i e s t h a t i f one or more of these v a r i a b l e s i s low i n v a l u e , the performance of the. person w i l l a l s o be low. Performance and reward are two very important v a r i a b l e s i n the economic a c t i v i t i e s o f a business e n t e r p r i s e . The a n t i c i p a t e d performances and rewards s t i p u l a t e d i n an i n d i v i d u a l employment c o n t r a c t or c o l l e c t i v e agreement between company and trade union on b e h a l f of i t s members employed by the e n t e r p r i s e 105 r e f l e c t the c u l m i n a t i o n of the b a r g a i n i n g and n e g o t i a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s through which the mutual needs and c o n f l i c t i n g demands of the p a r t i e s are compromised and r e s o l v e d . In an i n d u s t r i a l s i t u a t i o n , performance and reward are u l t i m a t e l y expressed p r i m a r i l y i n monetary terms. The s h a r e h o l d e r s expect from the performance of the managerial and non-managerial employees of the f i r m a " f a i r r a t e of r e t u r n " commensurate wit h the r i s k s i n v o l v e d , a l t e r n a t e investment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and the p o t e n t i a l f o r f u t u r e e a r n i n g s . On the other hand, the managerial and non-managerial employees expect from the f i r m " f a i r monetary and non-monetary rewards" commensurate wit h performance c o n t r i b u t e d , the demands of the job and the l e v e l of s a l a r y or wages p a i d f o r comparative s k i l l s or a b i l i t i e s i n other firms i n the same i n d u s t r y or d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i e s . A more g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the performance formula to management should i n c l u d e those p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as s c h o o l s , p u b l i c h o s p i t a l s and m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s where p r o f i t i s not the g o a l . An o r g a n i z a t i o n u s u a l l y has more than one g o a l and d i f f e r e n t types o f o r g a n i -z a t i o n s have d i f f e r e n t kinds of g o a l s . However, one common g o a l i n a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s the e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of s c a r c e economic reso u r c e s which i n c l u d e human r e s o u r c e s . The monetary reward r e c e i v e d by the managerial and non-managerial employees i s the c o s t of labour to the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The aggregate performances of the. employees are i n s t r u m e n t a l to the o r g a n i -z a t i o n ' s output of goods and s e r v i c e s . Hence, rewards and Figure 7-2 Relationship Between Performance, Motivation and Reward M o t i v a t i o n (M) M o t i v a t i o n C o n s t r a i n t M o t i v a t i o n C o n s t r a i n t Performance (p) or Revenue Product o f Labour Reward (r) or Cost of Labour Jtf>—H 1 1 1 ! \ 1 1 \ A p 4 5 A?34 A P 2 3 A?12 A P 0 1 A r 0 i A r 1 2 A r 2 3 A r 3 4 A r 4 5 Incremental Performance Incremental Reward or o r Margxnal Revenue Product of Labour M a r g i n a l Cost of Labour 107 performances are r e l a t e d to the e f f i c i e n t use of sc a r c e economic reso u r c e s which i s e s s e n t i a l f o r the v i a b i l i t y of an o r g a n i z a t i o n . R e l a t i o n s h i p between Reward, M o t i v a t i o n and Performance I t i s assumed t h a t the l i n k between reward and p e r f o r -mance i s the m o t i v a t i o n of the employee (see F i g u r e 7-2) . The b e h a v i o r a l e x p r e s s i o n of m o t i v a t i o n i s the amount o f e f f o r t a person puts i n t o h i s work performance. I t i s assumed t h a t an employee i s motivated to work i n h i s p r e s e n t job because he has c e r t a i n needs or valences and.he s u b j e c t i v e l y b e l i e v e s t h a t the i n c e n t i v e s o f f e r e d to him by the i n s t i t u t i o n are i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s a t i s f y i n g h i s needs. I t . i s f u r t h e r assumed t h a t m o t i v a t i o n (M) i s a n e g a t i v e l y a c c e l e r a t e d m o n o t o n i c a l l y i n c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n of reward (r) because o f d i m i n i s h i n g  u t i l i t y of i n c r e m e n t a l reward (Ar), and t h a t performance i s an i n v e r t e d U-shaped f u n c t i o n of m o t i v a t i o n because of the c o n s t r a i n t s imposed on the person by h i s a b i l i t y and b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n work performance. Reward, m o t i v a t i o n and performance are a l l f i n i t e q u a n t i t i e s . The amount of reward the o r g a n i z a t i o n can o f f e r to i t s employees i s l i m i t e d or c o n s t r a i n e d by the amount of r e s o u r c e s i t possesses and other i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c t o r s w i t h i n the i n t e r n a l environment and i n the broader e x t e r n a l environment. On the ot h e r hand, the maximum amount o f e f f o r t an employee can expend i n h i s work i s l i m i t e d by the amount o f time, energy and 108 o t h e r r e s o u r c e s he p o s s e s s e s . The p e r f o r m a n c e f u n c t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e i s n o t o n l y c o n s t r a i n e d by t h e m o t i -v a t i o n o f t h e e m p l o y e e , b u t a l s o by h i s a b i l i t y and h i s b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n work p e r f o r m a n c e . T h e s e a r e some o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s w i t h i n w h i c h t h e manager must o p e r a t e . i s c o n s i d e r e d as an a n t e c e d e n t a t t i t u d e , i s t h e a c t i o n p h a s e o f a b e h a v i o r s e q u e n c e . U n l e s s an employee i s a b s e n t f r o m work f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s , t h e v e r y f a c t t h a t he p u t s i n e f f o r t i n h i s t a s k i n a j o b s i t u a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t he i s m o t i v a t e d t o work. The two m a i n c o n c e r n s o f management on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tween p e r f o r m a n c e , m o t i v a t i o n and r e w a r d s h o u l d be: (a) w h e t h e r t h e r e w a r d (r) o f f e r e d t o t h e employee o r t h e c o s t o f l a b o u r has a r o u s e d i n him t h e l e v e l o f m o t i v a t i o n (M) t h a t w i l l p r o d u c e a l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e (p) o r r e v e n u e p r o d u c t o f l a b o u r s u c h t h a t p > r i n m o n e t a r y t e r m s ; c o s t o f l a b o u r , o f f e r e d t o t h e employee c a n a r o u s e i n him an i n c r e m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n (AM) w h i c h w i l l p r o d u c e an i n c r e m e n t a l p e r f o r m a n c e ( A p ) , o r m a r g i n a l r e v e n u e p r o d u c t o f l a b o u r , s u c h C o n c e p t u a l l y , m o t i v a t i o n o r e f f o r t , u n l i k e v a l e n c e w h i c h (b) w h e t h e r t h e i n c r e m e n t a l r e w a r d ( A r ) , o r m a r g i n a l 1 i n m o n e t a r y t e r m s , where c o n c e p t u a l l y , Ap. _ AM Ar Ar x AM T h e o r e t i c a l l y , i n c r e m e n t a l o r m a r g i n a l r e w a r d s h o u l d be Figure 7-3 Moderating Influence of Ability on Performance M o t i v a t i o n (M) Incremental Performance or M a r g i n a l Revenue Product of Labour Incremental Reward or M a r g i n a l Cost o f Labour 110 o f f e r e d u n t i l i t i s equal to i n c r e m e n t a l or m a r g i n a l performance i n monetary terms, t h a t i s , Ap = Ar (see F i g u r e 7-2). A t t h i s l e v e l o f reward ( r ) , t h e o r e t i c a l l y , the monetary value of (p - r - 0) i s maximum. I t i s not worthwhile e c o n o m i c a l l y t o o f f e r a d d i t i o n a l reward to the employee beyond the optimum p o i n t at Ap = Ar when (p - r - 0) i s maximum because f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s i n r w i l l decrease (p - r - 0 ) . F i g u r e 7-2 a l s o shows t h a t i t may be unwise i n some cases to b r i n g f o r t h maximum performance from the employee by o f f e r i n g him a d d i t i o n a l monetary rewards because i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t p < r . (a) I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the Moderating I n f l u e n c e of A b i l i t y on Performance Assume t h a t two employees X and Y are motivated to the same e x t e n t by the same reward ( i . e . , M = M^) and t h a t they have the same b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n work performance ( i . e . , B = B ) r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r own a b i l i t i e s . However, X e Y the t a s k - r e l e v a n t a b i l i t i e s o f employee X are twice t h a t of employee Y ( i . e . , A^ = A y ) . Since a b i l i t y i s c o n s i d e r e d a co n s t a n t i n the performance formula, A becomes the g r a d i e n t o f the performance f u n c t i o n . In t h i s example, the performance g r a d i e n t o f X i s twice t h a t o f Y (see F i g u r e 7-3). The hypo-t h e t i c a l performance curves show t h a t : (a) i t i s p r o f i t a b l e to employ X s i n c e p > r f o r a c e r t a i n range of values o f r because of h i s h i g h t a s k - r e l e v a n t a b i l i t i e s . Employee X should be o f f e r e d reward r ^ when (p - r - 0) i s o f a maximum beyond which f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e i n r w i l l decrease (p - r - 0 ) ; (b) i t i s u n p r o f i t a b l e t o employ Y s i n c e p < r f o r a l l v a l u e s o f r because of h i s low t a s k - r e l e v a n t a b i l i t i e s . Management can e i t h e r d e v i s e means to develop the t a s k - r e l e v a n t a b i l i t i e s o f employee Y or terminate h i s s e r v i c e s . Since a b i l i t y marks the upper l i m i t o f a person's performance c a p a b i l i t y , i n the long run, the performance of the f i r m w i l l improve i f , and onl y i f , the t a s k - r e l e v a n t a b i l i t i e s o f the managerial and non-managerial employees are r a i s e d . However, the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f employee t r a i n i n g programs w i l l not immediately r a i s e the l e v e l o f a b i l i t i e s of the employees as one common f e a t u r e o f a l l a b i l i t i e s i s t h a t they are r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e , long term c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the person. A b i l i t i e s can be developed and m o d i f i e d , but t y p i c a l l y , they do not change very much over the s h o r t run. Some of the p r a c t i c a l problems f a c i n g the b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n t i s t and manager i n t h e i r attempt to measure a b i l i t i e s are as f o l l o w s : (1) What a b i l i t i e s are r e l e v a n t and c o n t r i b u t i n g to performance f o r a p a r t i c u l a r job. 112 (2) What combinations o f a b i l i t i e s are r e q u i r e d f o r d i f f e r e n t kinds o f job s . P) What are the v a l i d and r e l i a b l e methods of measuring these a b i l i t i e s . The l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n and proper t o o l s f o r measuring j o b - r e l e v a n t a b i l i t i e s makes demarcation o f the a b i l i t y c o n s t r a i n t s i n the performance formula d i f f i c u l t and i n a c c u r a t e . A t the pr e s e n t time, the measurement o f j o b - r e l e v a n t a b i l i t i e s t h a t seems b e s t s u i t e d to e v a l u a t i n g the hy p o t h e s i z e d performance formula appears to be the o v e r a l l e stimates p r o v i d e d by p a n e l ( s u p e r v i s o r y ) r a t i n g . However, these are of l i t t l e u t i l i t y i n p e r s o n n e l s e l e c t i o n programs. Much more r e s e a r c h i s needed t o i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c t a s k - r e l e v a n t a b i l i t i e s and means f o r t h e i r e f f e c t i v e , v a l i d , o p e r a t i o n a l measurement i n the context o f work. (b) I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Moderating I n f l u e n c e o f B e h a v i o r a l E f f i c i e n c y Assume t h a t two employees X and Y are motivated t o the same ext e n t by the same reward ( i . e . , M = M ) and t h a t they have the same j o b - r e l e v a n t a b i l i t y ( i . e . , A = A Assume a l s o t h a t the emotional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or b value of employee X are h i g h e r w h i l e the b value o f employee Y i s low. The performance formula i n d i c a t e s t h a t a person w i t h h i g h b value w i l l have high b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n work performance w h i l e Figure 7 4 Moderating Influence of Behavioral Efficiency on Performance B e h a v i o r a l E f f i c i e n c y M o t i v a t i o n (Ml Performance (p) or Revenue Product of Labour r l r 2 r 3 r4 r 5 P 5 P 4 P , ° Employee X I P 1 " 2 AP/f 5 A ? 3 4 A?23 A?12 ^ 0 _j j_ 01 A P 0 1 A?12 A P 2 3 A r 3 4 A r 4 5 P-3 P T P n 0 3 1 2 *1 Employee Y .{—-j A p 2 3 A P l 2 - A p 0 1 A r 0 1 A r 1 2 A r 2 3 A r 3 4 . A r 4 5 i n c r e m e n t a l Performa nee or M a r g i n a l Revenue Product o f Labour Incremental Reward or M a r g i n a l Cost of Labour Reward (r) or Cost of Labour a p e r s o n w i t h low b v a l u e w i l l have low b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y . S i n c e M = and A = A , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r m a n c e betweer X x X Y e m ployee X and employee Y i s c a u s e d by t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n work p e r f o r m a n c e , i . e . , B > B e X e Y T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l p e r f o r m a n c e c u r v e s i n F i g u r e 7-4. I n r e a l i t y , t h e b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y c o n s t r a i n t on p e r f o r m a n c e i s c a u s e d by e m o t i o n w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d as an o r g a n i z i n g p r o c e s s when t h e i n t e n s i t y o f e m o t i o n a r o u s a l i s low and a d i s o r g a n i z i n g p r o c e s s when t h e i n t e n s i t y o f e m o t i o n a r o u s a l i s h i g h . The p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s o n l y e v a l u a t e s t h e i n t e n s i t y f a c t o r o f e m o t i o n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a p e r s o n ' s e m o t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or' h i s c a p a c i t y t o w i t h s t a n d o r cope w i t h e m o t i o n a r o u s a l . I t i s assumed t h a t some p e o p l e c a n h a n d l e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e n s i t y o f e m o t i o n a r o u s a l , s u c h as a n x i e t y , w i t h o u t r e s o r t i n g t o d e f e n s i v e maneuvers o r a l l o w i n g e m o t i o n t o d i s r u p t n o r m a l b e h a v i o r . O t h e r s seem t o be a f f e c t e d a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y and r e a c t i n d r a s t i c ways t o t h e s l i g h t e s t t i n g e o f f e a r . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e i n v e r t e d U - s h a p e d b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y f u n c t i o n a r e o f l i m i t e d u t i l i t y t o management. F i r s t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o measure t h e i n t e n s i t y o f a p e r s o n ' s e m o t i o n a l a r o u s a l i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n and h i s e m o t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S e c o n d , t h e r e a r e o t h e r p e r t i n e n t f a c t o r s s u c h a s : (1) t h e k i n d o f e m o t i o n b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d , (2) t h e f r e q u e n c y and d u r a t i o n o f e x p o s u r e t o a p a r t i c u l a r s t i m u l u s , w h i c h t h e w r i t e r b e l i e v e s has i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e s on a p e r s o n ' s b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y b u t w h i c h has n o t b e e n t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o d e v i s i n g r e l e v a n t and v a l i d m e a s u r e s o f e v a l u e and b v a l u e a r e e s s e n t i a l b e f o r e t h i s h y p o -t h e t i c a l b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y f u n c t i o n c a n be v e r i f i e d . A l s o , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e and b v a l u e s , on t h e one h and, and t h e o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t a r e o m i t t e d f r o m t h e p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s , on t h e o t h e r , must be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a more c o m p l e t e s t u d y o f b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i n work p e r f o r m a n c e and i t s m o d e r a t i n g i n f l u e n c e on m o t i v a t i o n . 7.3 C o n c l u s i o n The p r e s e n t p o s t u l a t i o n t h a t e m o t i o n may be a p r o b a b l e m o d e r a t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween m o t i v a t i o n and p e r f o r m a n c e d e r i v e s s u p p o r t f r o m t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n s and t e n t a t i v e e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e r e v i e w e d i n r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e l i t e r a t u r e . A t t h e t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l , t h e c o n c e p t a d v a n c e d by L e e p e r , D u f f y and Young t h a t e m o t i o n i s a p s y c h o -l o g i c a l p r o c e s s t h a t c a n c a u s e o r g a n i z a t i o n o r d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n a p e r s o n ' s r e s p o n s e t o s t i m u l a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t e m o t i o n may be an added m o d e r a t i n g v a r i a b l e i n M a i e r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e 116 formula. A t the e m p i r i c a l l e v e l , e x p e r i m e n t a l f i n d i n g s of the a c t i v a t i o n t h e o r i s t s such as Malmo, Hebb and S chlosberg p o i n t out t h a t b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y i s an i n v e r t e d U-shaped f u n c t i o n o f emotion a r o u s a l , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t emotion can moderate the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e f f o r t and job performance. The p r e s e n t study has suggested t h a t : (a) i t i s reasonable to p o s t u l a t e emotion as a moderator o f m o t i v a t i o n ; and (b) e m p i r i c a l t e s t s should be designed and conducted to v e r i f y the p o s t u l a t i o n . A s i g n i f i c a n t aspect o f the p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s i s the use o f mathematical o p e r a t o r s such as the v e c t o r a d d i t i v e o p e r a t o r and the a l g e b r a i c m u l t i p l i c a t i v e o p e r a t o r to r e p r e s e n t the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l and environmental v a r i a b l e s . The c h o i c e of an o p e r a t o r i s important s i n c e an o p e r a t o r w i l l i n d i c a t e whether an i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s dynamic or s t a t i c . An a l g e b r a i c m u l t i p l i c a t i v e o p e r a t o r i m p l i e s t h a t the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s dynamic, w h i l e an a d d i t i v e o p e r a t o r i m p l i e s t h a t i t i s s t a t i c . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l and environmental v a r i a b l e s can be c o n s i d e r e d as an i n t e r a c t i v e system made up o f sub-systems. The use of m u l t i p l i c a t i v e o p e r a t o r s to r e p r e s e n t the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p among the v a r i a b l e s or sub-systems i m p l i e s t h a t the i n t e r a c t i o n between them i s h i g h l y 117 d y n a m i c and t h a t t h e e f f e c t i s w i d e s p r e a d . Changes i n one v a r i a b l e o r s u b - s y s t e m a f f e c t t h e w h o l e s y s t e m . F o r example, u s e o f t h e a l g e b r a i c m u l t i p l i c a t i v e o p e r a t o r t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p among p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s , s u c h as a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n and b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y t o h e l p d e t e r m i n e a p e r s o n ' s j o b p e r f o r m a n c e , i m p l i e s t h a t t h e s e p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s as an i n t e r - r e l a t e d s y s t e m a r e h i g h l y d y n a m i c and i n t e r a c t i v e . The d y n a m i c and w i d e s p r e a d e f f e c t on t h e s y s t e m as a w h o l e c a u s e d by t h e change o f one v a r i a b l e i s e x a c t l y what t h e m u l t i -p l i c a t i v e o p e r a t o r s i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e f o r m u l a h a v e i m p l i e d . T h a t i s , when one o r more o f t h e v a r i a b l e s i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e f o r m u l a has a low v a l u e , p e r f o r m a n c e w i l l h a v e a low v a l u e . The use o f t h e v e c t o r a d d i t i v e o p e r a t o r t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween v a l e n c e s i m p l i e s t h a t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b etween t h e v a l e n c e s f o r i n c e n t i v e components i s v e r y low. The f i v e i m p o r t a n t i n c e n t i v e components o u t l i n e d by Vroom a r e (1) s u p e r v i s i o n , (2) work g r o u p , (3) j o b c o n t e n t , (4) wages, and (5) p r o m o t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , use o f t h e v e c t o r a d d i t i v e o p e r a t o r t o d e s c r i b e t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i m p l i e s t h a t i f a p e r s o n ' s v a l e n c e f o r s u p e r v i s i o n i s low, b u t h i s v a l e n c e s f o r o t h e r i n c e n t i v e components a r e h i g h , h i s v a l e n c e f o r t h e i n c e n t i v e s y s t e m as a w h o l e w i l l s t i l l be f a i r l y h i g h . I n o t h e r w o r d s , v a l e n c e as a s u b - s y s t e m i s a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e phenomenon. T h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e o r no i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween t h e component v a l e n c e s . Hence, c h a n g e s i n one p a r t o f t h e s y s t e m 118 do not a f f e c t other p a r t s o f the system. The above e x p l a n a t i o n a l s o a p p l i e s to use of the v e c t o r a d d i t i v e o p e r a t o r to r e p r e s e n t the i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between components of m o t i v a t i o n . The p r e c e d i n g a n a l y s i s seems to imply a h i g h i n t e r a c t i o n among p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s as sub-systems but l i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the sub-systems themselves. However, t h i s f i n d i n g i s not d e f i n i t i v e . For example, i n an i n d u s t r i a l b a r g a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n , i t i s found f r e q u e n t l y t h a t disagreement between the p a r t i e s over one of the i n c e n t i v e components can l e a d to r e j e c t i o n of the whole i n c e n t i v e package. I f the v e c t o r a d d i t i v e o p e r a t o r r e p r e s e n t s the r e a l i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i n the valence or m o t i v a t i o n sub-system, then t h i s phenomenon should not occur. Some of the p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the o c c a s i o n a l occurrence of such phenomena are as f o l l o w s : (a) The o v e r - s i m p l i f i e d model of human behavior used f o r the d e r i v a t i o n of the performance formula does not adequately d e s c r i b e the whole range of human i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . (b) The i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among valence components or m o t i v a t i o n components of the i n c e n t i v e system are more complicated than the v e c t o r a d d i t i o n o p e r a t o r can r e p r e s e n t and imply. Perhaps ot h e r mathematical f u n c t i o n s w i l l b e t t e r " f i t " these types of i n t e r a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . 119 The d e r i v a t i o n o f the b e h a v i o r a l e f f i c i e n c y f u n c t i o n i s an example where an e x p o n e n t i a l f u n c t i o n i s used i n s t e a d o f the m u l t i p l i c a t i v e or a d d i t i v e o p e r a t o r . (c) There are other p e r s o n a l or environmental v a r i a b l e s t h a t can a c t as moderators of m o t i v a t i o n . M i t c h e l l goes a step f u r t h e r and p o s t u l a t e s t h a t some p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s may behave as moderators when i n s t i g a t e d by c e r t a i n environmental v a r i a b l e s but may not behave as moderators when these un-i d e n t i f i e d environmental v a r i a b l e s are absent. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s necessary t o know which e x p l a n a t i o n i s the c o r r e c t one to t h i s complex problem. One of the f i n d i n g s o f the pr e s e n t study i s the l a c k o f understanding o f the nature or i n t r i n s i c p r o p e r t i e s of s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l v a r i a b l e s and environmental v a r i a b l e s d e s p i t e the voluminous amount o f l i t e r a t u r e i n b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e . A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n or knowledge on s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l and environmental v a r i a b l e s i s e s s e n t i a l i n order t h a t the i n t e r -a c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among these v a r i a b l e s can be p o s t u l a t e d q u a l i t a t i v e l y and -formulated i n t o q u a n t i t a t i v e h y p o t h e t i c a l f u n c t i o n s . . I nformation i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l t h a t w i l l a i d i n d e s i g n i n g r e l e v a n t and v a l i d measures of the v a r i a b l e s so t h a t the h y p o t h e t i c a l q u a n t i t a t i v e f u n c t i o n can be o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d and v e r i f i e d . 120 F i n a l l y , the p r e s e n t study i n d i c a t e s a need f o r g r e a t e r i n t e g r a t i o n between b e h a v i o r a l t h e o r i e s and economic t h e o r i e s . G r e a t e r i n t e g r a t i o n between these two d i s c i p l i n e s i s d e s i r a b l e because i n r e a l i t y b e h a v i o r a l v a r i a b l e s and economic v a r i a b l e s are i n t e r - r e l a t e d , a s has been demonstrated i n the e a r l i e r p a r t o f t h i s c h a pter. F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h or i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n may p r o v i d e knowledge u s e f u l t o p r a c t i c i n g managers i n t h e i r attempt to u t i l i z e s c a r c e economic res o u r c e s more e f f i c i e n t l y . BIBLIOGRAPHY A r g y r i s , G. P e r s o n a l i t y and o r g a n i z a t i o n . New York: Harper and Row, 1957. Bartoshunk, A.K. Electromyographic g r a d i e n t s as i n d i c a n t s of m o t i v a t i o n . Canadian J o u r n a l o f Psychology, 1955, 9, 215-230. Belanger, D. and Te t r e a u , B. I n f l u e n c e o f i r r e l e v a n t m o t i v a t i o n on behavior and h e a r t r a t e o f the r a t . Canadian J o u r n a l o f Psychology, 1961, 15 , 6 -14. B i n d r a , D. M o t i v a t i o n : A s y s t e m a t i c r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . New York: Ronald P r e s s , 1959. B i r c h , H.G. The r o l e o f m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s i n i n s i g h t f u l p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . 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