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The use of projective techniques in consumer attitude research Khoo, Suat Choo 1968

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THE USE OF PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES IN CONSUMER ATTITUDE RESEARCH by KHOO SUAT CHOO B.A. ( H o n s . ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f S i n g a p o r e , 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION i n t h e F a c u l t y o f Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1 9 6 8 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p urposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i s h i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . -Department o f C O H H £ £ & £ ^ _ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver 8, Canada Date 3-1 kfrJL f'Hg  ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s thesis i s to examine some pro j e c t i v e techniques that can be used to study consumer a t t i t u d e s . The measurement of attitudes i s an i n t e r e s t i n g but perplexing one, mainly because of t h e i r abstract nature. Many instruments have been used, notably the d i r e c t method of questioning and the s c a l i n g techniques. These are based upon two important assumptions: (1) that the i n d i v i d u a l i s aware of his attitudes, and can verbalize them and (2) that the i n d i v i d u a l i s w i l l i n g to reveal these attitudes to an interviewer who i s a t o t a l stranger. Researchers have recognized the weaknesses of these assumptions and have turned to more i n d i r e c t approaches. The usefulness of pr o j e c t i v e methodology i n consumer interviewing i s undeniable. Their more subtle, i n d i r e c t , unstructured and f l e x i b l e approach overcomes some of the weaknesses found i n the more d i r e c t methods. But these techniques have some l i m i t a t i o n s which have been severely c r i t i c i z e d . The v a l i d i t y and s c i e n t i f i c value of these tools are subjected to great controversy. Yet, i t i s not enough to l i s t t h e i r shortcomings. I t i s necessary to s p e l l out what they are i n v a l i d f o r and why. More research has to be done e s p e c i a l l y i n comparing the responses derived from these methods which thos obtained from other t o o l s , on the same subject of inquiry and under s i m i l a r circumstances. The author has r e l i e d s o l e l y on secondary data i n the study. Any empirical te s t i n g of these techniques c a l l s f o r a considerable amount of experience and s k i l l i n psychology and consumer behavior. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I THE PROBLEM AND I T S SETTING «, 1 I n t i T O C l U C t l O r i © © © o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o d o o o o o l PUJTpOSG O f t h l G S t u d y © o o o o o o o o © © * o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 2 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y © o « 3 S tj*ruc t u i r e o f t h e S t u d y * © o o © o © o o o o © o o o o o o © © o o o o o o * 4 I I H I S T O R I C A L DEVELOPMENT OF PROJECTIVE T E C H N I Q U E S . 6 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . 6 M e a n i n g o f P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s . . . 8 O r i g i n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t o f P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s 1 3 U s e o f P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s i n C o n s u m e r R e s e a r c h . . . 1 4 SUrtim 3. J*ry O 0 0 0 « 0 0 0 0 © © 0 0 0 0 0 © © © 0 0 © 0 © © 0 © 0 0 0 © © © 0 0 © © © O o l 7 I I I ATTITUDES AND THEIR MEASUREMENT 1 8 I n t JTOdUC t i O n o © © • o e o o « o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o e o o o o o o o » « 13 D e f i n i t i o n o f " A t t i t u d e s " 1 9 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f A t t i t u d e s 2 0 U s e f u l n e s s o f A t t i t u d e S t u d i e s t o M a r k e t e r s . . . . 2 3 R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n A t t i t u d e s a n d B e h a v i o r . . . . 2 6 T e c h n i q u e s t h a t c a n be U s e d t o Me a S U r e A t t i t U d e S o o o o . o o o o o o o o o o o o . o o o o o o o o o . o 2 8 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s e T e c h n i q u e s i n Consumer R e s e a r c h . a . . . . . o . . . 0 . 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 . . 3 2 V CHAPTER PAGE Summary o 39 IV TYPES OF PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES 40 I n t r o d u c t i o n . 40 Word A s s o c i a t i o n T e s t 42 Ro r s c h a c h Ink B l o t T e s t 44 Thematic A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t .46 Sentence C o m p l e t i o n T e s t . . . . . . 49 P i c t u r e F r u s t r a t i o n T e s t . . . . ' 50 ]RO JL*3 P I ciy U*1C[ o * o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o e o « o f 5 2 Common C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s ...53 Summary » ............55 V PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES IN CONSUMER ATTITUDE RESEARCH 5 6 I n tiroduic t i o n • © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 0 SS The M a r k e t i n g A p p l i c a t i o n s o f P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i que s... .......56 Word A s s o c i a t i o n T e s t . . . . . . . . ...56 Ro r s c h a c h Ink B l o t T e s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Them a t i c A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t 60 Sentence C o m p l e t i o n T e s t 64 P i c t u r e F r u s t r a t i o n T e s t . . . . . . . . ....67 R o l e Playing© 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Advantages o f U s i n g P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s 75 C o n d i t i o n s Under Which P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s S h o u l d be Used 80 v i CHAPTER PAGE Summary ...<><> . 87 VI PROBLEMS IN THE APPLICATION OF PROJECTIVE T E C H W l Q U f c j S o o e o o e o e « o o o * o e o e o o e e o o o o « o e e e o e e « « o 3 3 I n t r o d u c t i o n . . 88 D e s i g n o f t h e T e s t s 89 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Problems 93 SctmpIS S d . Z 6 « 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 95 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e R e s u l t s ..97 S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n 100 E t h i c a l P r o b i e m s . o . o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 2 R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y «. 103 R e l e v a n c e i n M a r k e t i n g R e s e a r c h .....105 Summary 107 V I I SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ....108 BIBLIOGRAPHY•ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo113 ACKNOWLE DGEMENT The a u t h o r i s g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d t o Dr. F r e d e r i c k Webster o f t h e F a c u l t y o f Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r h i s g u i d a n c e , encouragement and p a t i e n c e d u r i n g t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . She i s a l s o v e r y g r a t e f u l t o Dr. R o b e r t K e l l y f o r h i s h e l p f u l comments o f the p r e l i m i n a r y d r a f t . „ CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING I n t r o d u c t i o n The i n c r e a s i n g p r e s s u r e o f c o m p e t i t i o n and the wide v a r i e t y o f p r o d u c t s and s u b s t i t u t e s a v a i l a b l e t o consumers, make consumer o r i e n t e d f i r m s r e a l i z e t h a t t h e consumers' whims and f a n c i e s a r e n o t t o be i g n o r e d . Each m a n u f a c t u r e r t r i e s d e s p e r a t e l y t o o u t w i t t h e o t h e r i n i t s q u e s t f o r t h e consumers' d o l l a r . I n t h e p a s t , s t u d i e s o f consumer b e h a v i o r were c h i e f l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h economic and demographic v a r i a b l e s b u t m a r k e t e r s came t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e consumer i s m o t i v a t e d n o t o n l y by economic r e a s o n s b u t by a m u l t i t u d e o f o t h e r f a c t o r s as w e l l . I n an a t t e m p t t o o b t a i n a more c o m p l e t e and c o m p r ehensive p i c t u r e o f consumer b e h a v i o r , r e s e a r c h e r s have t u r n e d t o many f i e l d s e s p e c i a l l y p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y and a n t h r o p o l o g y . They seek i n f o r m a t i o n n o t o n l y on e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s b u t t r y t o probe deeper i n t o t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e consumers t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on more complex v a r i a b l e s such as o p i n i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , t r a i t s , e m otions and m o t i v e s . A group o f m a r k e t e r s d e v o t e t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o what i s termed " m o t i v a t i o n r e s e a r c h " , w h i c h i n e s s e n c e , s t u d i e s 2 t h a t w h i c h m o t i v a t e s the consumer t o behave t h e way he does. These r e s e a r c h e r s f o u n d t h a t t o o l s t h e n u s e d t o s t u d y consumer b e h a v i o r were i n a d e q u a t e f o r such a complex t a s k . Thus t h e y have d e v e l o p e d o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s t o supplement the e x i s t i n g ones. Purpose o f t h e Study The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o examine a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f t o o l s t h a t can be used by a r e s e a r c h e r t o o b t a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f consumer a t t i t u d e s . These t o o l s , termed p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , were f i r s t u s e d by c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s t o s t u d y t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s . Lawrence K. F r a n k who c o i n e d t h e term p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s 1 p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e y o r i g i n a t e d f r om p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t e c h n i q u e s o f dream a n a l y s i s and f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n on one hand, and from G e s a l t p s y c h o l o g y on 2 t h e o t h e r . A l t h o u g h t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s have been used and a r e s t i l l c u r r e n t l y u s e d by some m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h e r s , o t h e r s a r e s t i l l s k e p t i c a l o f t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s . Even more •'"Lawrence K. F r a n k , " P r o j e c t i v e Methods f o r t h e St u d y o f P e r s o n a l i t y " , J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 8 , 1939, pp. 389-413. 2 G e s a l t p s y c h o l o g y emphasized t h e whole p e r s o n -a l i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r t h a n t h e sum o f i t s p a r t s , i . e . , no s i n g l e t r a i t o r mechanism m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n i s o l a t i o n f r om t h e r e s t o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e ; e q u a l l y no s i n g l e t r e a t m e n t o f a p e r s o n ' s f a n t a s i e s , n o r h i s r e s p o n s e s t o a p r o j e c t i o n s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n i s o l a t i o n . P h i l i p E. Vernon, P e r s o n a l i t y T e s t Assesment, (Metheun and Co., L t d , London, 1 9 5 3 ) , pp. 170-171. 3 i m p o r t a n t a r e t h e i r d o u b t s on t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s . B o t h t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l and m a r k e t i n g l i t e r a t u r e on p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s c o n t a i n c o n f l i c t i n g v i e w p o i n t s n o t o n l y on t h e i r v a l u e i n consumer r e s e a r c h , even t h e mean ing o f t h e te rm p r o j e c t i o n f r o m w h i c h t h e t e r m p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s i s d e r i v e d , i s s u b j e c t e d t o c o n t r o v e r s y . The a im t h e a u t h o r i s t o examine (1) t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a s s u m p t i o n s o f some o f t h e more p o p u l a r p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s and t o i l l u s t r a t e how, why, and when t h e y s h o u l d be u s e d and (2) t o a n a l y s e some o f t h e p r o b l e m s and l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t w i l l be e n c o u n t e r e d i n u s i n g t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e s o n l y s i x o f t h e many p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s t h a t have been d e v e l o p e d . These have been s e l e c t e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e c u r r e n t l y u s e d by m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h e r s i n consumer s u r v e y s . P e r h a p s t h e r e a r e o t h e r p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h a r e p o t e n t i a l l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s f o r m e a s u r i n g consumer a t t i t u d e s . The s t u d y h e r e d e a l s o n l y w i t h consumer r e s e a r c h . I t does n o t r e l a t e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e s e methods w i t h t h e m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t a company may f o r m u l a t e . M a r k e t s u r v e y s u s i n g t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s a r e c i t e d t o i l l u s t r a t e how and t o what e x t e n t t h e s e methods c a n be u s e d t o measure consumer a t t i t u d e s . Some o f t h e 4 other methods of measuring a t t i t u d e s w i l l be b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d . I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o compare and c o n t r a s t the advantages and disadvantages of a l l these methods w i t h p r o j e c t i v e techniques. Some of the c h i e f l i m i t a t i o n s w i l l be b r i e f l y mentioned. Since p r o j e c t i v e techniques were employed by marketing r e s e a r c h e r s mainly because of the inadequacy of the d i r e c t method of q u e s t i o n i n g , the l a t t e r w i l l be examined i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . Research on these techniques was c a r r i e d out solely on secondary data. The author f e l t t h a t to use these techniques i n f i e l d survey or i n l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i -ments one would have to be t h r o r o u g h l y f a m i l i a r w i t h these t o o l s . Moreover, the a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data gathered demands a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of knowledge and some experience w i t h consumer r e s e a r c h and c l i n i c a l psychology. S t r u c t u r e of the Study The i n v e s t i g a t i o n begins by d e f i n i n g and e x p l a i n i n g the meaning of the term, p r o j e c t i v e techniques, and then t r a c e s i t s o r i g i n and development i n c l i n i c a l psychology and i n consumer r e s e a r c h . Chapter I I I deals w i t h the area i n which these t o o l s are to be used. Many d e f i n i t i o n s of a t t i t u d e s are found i n the l i t e r a t u r e . Some of the more p e r t i n e n t ones w i l l be examined. From these some c o n c l u s i o n s on t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be drawn. The value of a t t i t u d e 5 s t u d i e s t o a m a r k e t e r i s an i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n t h a t s h o u l d n o t be i g n o r e d . T h a t t h e r e a r e o t h e r means o f s t u d y i n g a t t i t u d e s s h o u l d n o t be o v e r l o o k e d , b u t some o f t h e s e have l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e f i e l d o f consumer a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h . Some o f t h e s e w e a k n e s s e s w i l l be m e n t i o n e d . I n C h a p t e r IV t h e p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s a r e d i s c u s s e d . Some o f t h e i r f e a t u r e s and a s s u m p t i o n s w i l l be e x a m i n e d . A l t h o u g h t h i s c h a p t e r i s a somewhat d e s c r i p t i v e o n e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e n a b l e one t o have a p i c t u r e o f what t h e s e t e s t s a r e and how t h e y c a n be a d m i n i s t e r e d . I n t h e C h a p t e r V t h e t a s k ( s t u d y o f a t t i t u d e s ) and t h e t e c h n i q u e s t o be u s e d a r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r . How p r o j e c t i v e methods c a n be a p p l i e d t o a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h w i l l be shown. I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f consumer s u r v e y s c a r r i e d by c o m p a n i e s u s i n g them w i l l be i n c l u d e d . Some o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f u s i n g t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s w i l l be e m p h a s i z e d . L i k e a l l methods o f r e s e a r c h t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s a r e n o t p e r f e c t i n s t r u m e n t s . Some p r o b l e m s and l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t m i g h t be e n c o u n t e r e d a r e a n a l y z e d i n C h a p t e r V I . The s t u d y ends w i t h a summary and some c o n c l u s i o n s on t h e r e s e a r c h t h a t has been d o n e . 6 CHAPTER I I HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES I n t r o d u c t i o n The p u rpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s (1) t o d e f i n e and t h e n e x p l a i n t h e meaning o f t h e p h r a s e p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , and (2) t o examine t h e o r i g i n and development o f t h i s t o o l as i t r e l a t e s t o consumer r e s e a r c h . An " a t t i t u d e " may be d e f i n e d as a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o behave p o s i t i v e l y o r n e g a t i v e l y towards a g i v e n o b j e c t , 1 e v e n t , s i t u a t i o n , p e r s o n o r group o f p e r s o n s . The term a t t i t u d e s h a l l be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r I I I . The t e rm consumer r e f e r s t o b o t h t h e buyer:-; and u s e r o f p r o d u c t s . We a r e c o n c e r n e d h e r e w i t h consumers* a t t i t u d e s toward goods and s e r v i c e s . By way o f a p r e l i m i n a r y o b s e r v a t i o n , t h e r e a d e r s h o u l d be c o g n i z a n t t h a t t h e term p r o j e c t i v e i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e word p r o j e c t i o n , d e f i n e d as t h e p r o c e s s o f a t t r i b u t i n g t o a n o t h e r p e r s o n t h e same f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s , w i s h e s , and e m o t i o n s t h a t one has o f o n e s e l f . More x L e s l i e A. B e l d o , "An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A t t i t u d e R e s e a r c h and Management D e c i s i o n " , George L. B a k e r , J r . ( E d . ) , E f f e c t i v e M a r k e t i n g C o o r d i n a t i o n . P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e 44tb  N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e M a r k e t i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , J u n e , 1961. A m e r i c a n M a r k e t i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s , pp. 583-EB4. 7 s p e c i f i c a l l y , use o f t h e word p r o j e c t i o n by p s y c h o l o g i s t s can be t r a c e d back t o the works o f Sigmund F r e u d as e a r l y as 1895o C u r r e n t l y the term r e f e r s t o a s p e c i f i c group o f t e s t s t h a t have been and a r e s t i l l used i n c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g y . These can be grouped i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : 1. A s s o c i a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , where the s u b j e c t i s asked t o r e s p o n d t o some s t i m u l u s p r e s e n t e d by t h e examiner w i t h t h e f i r s t word, image, or p r e c e p t t h a t o c c u r s t o him, e.g., word a s s o c i a t i o n , R o r s c h a c h i n k b l o t t e s t , c l o u d p i c t u r e s . 2. C o n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , where the s u b j e c t i s asked t o c r e a t e o r c o n s t r u c t a p r o d u c t such as a s t o r y o r p i c t u r e , e.g., t h e m a t i c a p p e r c e p t i o n t e s t , B l a c k y p i c t u r e s . 3. C o m p l e t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , where t h e i n t e r v i e w e e i s p r o v i d e d w i t h some t y p e of i n c o m p l e t e p r o d u c t and r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e i t i n any way he w i s h e s , e.g., s e n t e n c e t e s t , p i c t u r e f r u s t r a t i o n s t u d y . 4. C h o i c e o r d e r i n g t e c h n i q u e s , where the r e s p o n d e n t m e r e l y chooses from a number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s t h e i t e m s o r arrangement t h a t b e s t f i t s some c r i t e r i o n , e.g., S z o n d i t e s t , p i c t u r e a r r a n g e -ment t e s t . 5. E x p r e s s i v e t e c h n i q u e s , w h i c h r e q u i r e t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o combine o r i n c o r p o r a t e s t i m u l i i n t o some k i n d o f n o v e l p r o d u c t i o n , e.g., p l a y t e c h n i q u e , d r a w i n g and p a i n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s , psychodrama and r o l e p l a y i n g . 2 A number o f ways o f g r o u p i n g p r o j e c t i v e t e c h -n i q u e s have been s u g g e s t e d . ( C a m p e l l , 1951; F r a n k , 1939; H e l e n , 1945). The above c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s t a k e n from Gardner L i n d s e y , P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s and C r o s s C u l t u r a l  R e s e a r c h , (New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , I n c . , 1961), pp. 51-95. 8 S i n c e W o r l d War I I a number o f t h e s e t e s t s have been employed by m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h e r s t o supplement t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l methods commonly used t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n 3 on consumers. However, t h e s e e a r l i e r t e c h n i q u e s p r o v e d t o be i n a d e q u a t e i n f u r t h e r i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f consumer m o t i v a t i o n and a t t i t u d e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s f e l t by t h i s w r i t e r t h a t g r e a t e r emphasis s h o u l d be p l a c e d on t h e development and use o f p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s by m a r k e t e r s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g consumers. Meaning o f P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s F u n d a m e n t a l l y , t h e p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s i n v o l v e t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an ambiguous s t i m u l u s t o a respondent,-I n o t h e r words, t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s a s k ed by an i n t e r v i e w e r t o c o n s t r u c t meaning from a g i v e n s t i m u l u s w h i c h i n and o f i t s e l f makes no s e n s e . F o r example, the s u b j e c t i s g i v e n an i n c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e , " B u y i n g a p p l i a n c e s f r o m a c a t a l o g u e . . . " , and a s k ed t o f i l l i n t h e r e s t . H o p e f u l l y such a demon-s t r a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t w i l l c a u se him t o u n c o n s c i o u s l y p r o j e c t h i s r e a l m o t i v a t i o n and/or a t t i t u d e c o n c e r n i n g a g i v e n t o p i c . As t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s and i n t e r p r e t s t h e s t i m u l u s , w i t h o u t b e i n g aware o f what he i s r e v e a l i n g , one can presume t h a t t h i s t e c h n i q u e w i l l a l l o w a g r e a t e r degree o f p r o j e c t i o n o f h i s i n n e r t e n d e n c i e s t h a n -would d i r e c t methods. As F r a n k s u g g e s t s : These methods r e f e r t o the d i r e c t method o f q u e s t i o n i n g and t h e s t a t i s t i c a l - m e t h o d s . 9 We can a pproach t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l and i n d u c e him t o r e v e a l h i s way o f o r g a n i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e by g i v i n g him a f i e l d ( o b j e c t s , m a t e r i a l s , e x p e r i e n c e s ) w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e s t r u c t u r e and c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n i n g so t h a t t h e p e r s o n a l i t y can p r o j e c t upon t h a t p l a s t i c f i e l d h i s way o f s e e i n g l i f e , h i s meanings, s i g n i f i c a n c e s , p a t t e r n s , and e s p e c i a l l y h i s f e e l i n g s . Thus, we can e l i c i t a p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y ' s p r i v a t e w o r l d because he has t o o r g a n i z e t h e f i e l d , i n t e r p r e t t h e m a t e r i a l and r e a c t e f f e c t i v e l y t o i t . I t f o l l o w s t h e n , t h a t p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s have two i m p o r t a n t b u t d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F i r s t , t h e y a r e d i s g u i s e d i n t h a t the r e a l p urpose o f t h e t e s t i n g i s n o t r e v e a l e d t o t h e s u b j e c t so as t o p r e v e n t him f r o m w i t h h o l d i n g v i t a l i n f o r m a t i o n f r om th e i n t e r v i e w e r , t h e r e -f o r e a l l o w i n g t h e s u b j e c t t o u n c o n s c i o u s l y r e v e a l h i s t r u e a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , th e t e s t i n g i s u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t h a t t h e s u b j e c t may r e s p o n d i n an a l m o s t u n l i m i t e d number o f ways, a c c o r d i n g t o h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s t i m u l i . I n o t h e r words, t h e r e i s no a t t e m p t on t h e p a r t o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r t o p u t words i n t h e s u b j e c t ' s mouth by l i m i t i n g t h e scope o f t h e r e s p o n s e s . The s u c c e s s o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s l i e s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f " p r o j e c t i o n " , f r om w h i c h th e word p r o j e c t i v e  t e c h n i q u e s i s d e r i v e d . The c o n c e p t o f " p r o j e c t i o n " i n r e l a t i o n t o p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s i s w i d e l y and o f t e n r a t h e r l o o s e l y u s e d . V a r i o u s c o n n a t i v e and d e n n o t a t i v e meanings have become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s term; t h e r e i s a c a t c h - a l l q u a l i t y i n many a t t e m p t s t o d e f i n e p r o j e c t i o n Lawrence K. F r a n k , " P r o j e c t i v e Methods f o r t h e S t u d y o f P e r s o n a l i t y " , J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 8, 1939, pp. 402-403. 10 and many d i f f i c u l t i e s and d i s a g r e e m e n t s . I n t r a d i t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y , p r o j e c t i o n o c c u r s when an i n d i v i d u a l c o n f r o n t e d w i t h u n a c c e p t a b l e i m p u l s e s o r a t t r i b u t e s w i t h i n h i m s e l f , d e f e n d s a g a i n s t t h e s e ( i , e . he r e d u c e s c o n f l i c t o r a v o i d s a n x i e t y ) by d i s p l a c i n g them i n t o t h e o u t e r w o r l d upon a n o t h e r p e r s o n . To i l l u s t r a t e , i f we h a t e a n o t h e r p e r s o n , e 0 g , a p a r e n t , s i b l i n g , o r w i f e whom we s h o u l d i n f a c t l o v e , t h i s i s l i k e l y t o come i n t o s h a r p c o n f l i c t w i t h our ego o r superego. We may t r y t o r e p r e s s our h a t r e d b u t i t i s s t i l l t h e r e . T h e r e f o r e , we t r y t o c o n v i n c e o u r s e l v e s t h r o u g h p r o j e c t i o n t h a t he h a t e s u s . Our h a t r e d becomes h i s h a t r e d . H i s hate now j u s t i f i e s our h a t r e d . We can r e l e a s e o ur t e n s i o n by h a t i n g w h i c h we c o u l d n o t do so b e f o r e . T h i s p r o c e s s i s u n c o n s c i o u s as w e l l as p a t h o l o g i c a l and i s termed c l a s s i c  p r o j e c t i o n . J o s e p h Z u b i n , L e o n h a r d D. E v r o n and F l o r e n c e Schumer, An E x p e r i m e n t a l Approach t o P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e , (New Y o r k ! John W i l e y and Sons, I n c . , 1 9 6 5 ) , pp. 3-4. g To F r e u d t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y o f t h r e e p a r t s - i d , ego, and supere g o . The i d i s t h e p r i m a r y , instin±ive.} and u n c o n s c i o u s a s p e c t . The ego i s t h e c o n s c i o u s r a t i o n a l p a r t , and a c t s as a b u f f e r t o t h e ego. I t does t h e t h i n k i n g , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , r e a s o n -i n g , and remembering, i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y t h e i d . I n s t e a d o f o p e r a t i n g on t h e p l e a s u r e p r i n c i p l e as t h e i d , o r the r e a l i t y p r i n c i p l e as the ego, t h e superego o p e r a t e s on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p e r f e c t i o n . I t s main f u n c t i o n s a r e t o c r i t i c i z e and j u d g e , t h e t h o u g h t s and a c t i o n s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t o i n h i b i t t h e i m p u l s e s o f t h e i d t h a t v i o l a t e the i n t e r n a l s t a n d a r d s o f the i n d i v i d u a l and t o g u i d e t h e ego toward a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d o f b e h a v i o r . 11 P r o j e c t i o n i n the sense used i n p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s seems more l i k e l y t o be a p r o c e s s by which a s u b j e c t when he i s g i v e n an ambiguous s t i m u l i and asked to make sense out o f i t , w i l l do so by making use o f h i s own n e e d s , e m o t i o n s , f e e l i n g s and knowledge . F o r example , i n the p r o c e s s o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a s t o r y o r p a i n t i n g an a r t i s t may p r o j e c t h i s i n n e r emot ions and f e e l i n g s so t h a t h i s work i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . I t i s t h i s a s sumpt ion which i s the b a s i s o f many o f the p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . Such a p r o c e s s i s f e l t t o be a normal one where the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n n e r s t a t e o f q u a l i t i e s i n f l u e n c e s h i s p e r c e p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the o u t e r w o r l d . T h i s 7 p r o c e s s has been termed g e n e r a l i z e d p r o j e c t i o n . Normal p r o j e c t i o n d i f f e r s i n many ways from abnormal p r o j e c t i o n , b o t h i n degree and i n k i n d . I t does n o t have to i n c l u d e d e f e n s i v e , u n c o n s c i o u s , u n a c c e p t a b l e or a n x i e t y a v o i d a n c e components . As K e r l i n g e r p o i n t s o u t , T h i s i d e a o f p r o j e c t i o n has been broadened t o i n c l u d e n o t o n l y u n a c c e p t a b l e i m p u l s e s b u t a l s o v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , n e e d s , wishes as w e l l as i m p u l s e s and m o t i v e s . Some e x p e r i m e n t s have been c a r r i e d out to demon-s t r a t e the b a s i c mechanism o f p r o j e c t i o n . One o f these i n c l u d e an e x p e r i m e n t by S e a r s where a group o f f r a t e r n i t y 7 G a r d n e r L x n d s e y , Op., c i t . . p p . 25-31. g F r e d N . K e r l i n g e r , F o u n d a t i o n o f B e h a v i o r a l  R e s e a r c h ; E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n q u i r y , (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , W i n s t o n , I n c . , 1966) , p . 525. 12 men were asked t o r a t e t h e m s e l v e s and o t h e r s on t h e •9 p o s s e s s i o n o f c e r t a i n t r a i t s . Two a s s u m p t i o n s were made: (1) t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s would use p r o j e c t i o n t o p r o j e c t t h e m s e l v e s from the acknowledgement o f u n d e s i r a b l e t r a i t s i n t h e i r own p e r s o n a l i t i e s , and (2) t h a t t h e l a r g e s t amount o f p r o j e c t i o n would o c c u r i n t h o s e who l a c k e d i n s i g h t . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d was based on t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1. A s u b j e c t ' s average r a t i n g by o t h e r s was used as t h e e s t i m a t e o f h i s t r u e s c o r e i n a t r a i t . 2. H i s a verage s c o r e i n a t t r i b u t i o n o f t h e t r a i t t o the o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s was t a k e n as t h e measure o f p r o j e c t i o n . 3. Agreement between s e l f and o t h e r s ' r a t i n g s p r o v i d e t h e c r i t e r i o n o f i n s i g h t . The r e s u l t s were i n t h e e x p e c t e d d i r e c t i o n . Those who were more s t i n g y t h a n average and who l a c k e d i n s i g h t i n t o t h e f a c t , r a t e d o t h e r s h i g h e r i n s t i n g i n e s s on t h e a v e r a g e , t h a n d i d t h o s e who were e q u a l l y s t i n g y b u t r e c o g n i z e d t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . S e a r s c o n c l u d e d , x < ^ "...whether i t was a c o n s c i o u s o r u n c o n s c i o u s p r o c e s s , i t can be s a i d t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f p r o j e c t i o n have appeared i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n a way t h a t was p r e d i c t a b l e from the p r e s e n t r e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h a t p r o c e s s . " R.R. S e a r s , " E x p e r i m e n t a l S t u d i e s o f P r o j e c t i o n ; I . A t t r i b u t i o n o f T r a i t s . " I n S i l v a n s Tomkins, Contemporary  P s y c h o p a t h o l o g y , ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 3 ) , pp. 561-571. I b i d . , p. 576 13 O r i g i n and Development o f P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s Many would agree t h a t i t was F r e u d *s "The I n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f Dreams" ( 1 9 0 0 ) , t h a t marked t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . I n t h i s volume he d e v e l o p e d a new te c h n i q u e r . o f dream a n a l y s i s and i n c l u d e d t h e s t a t e m e n t o f a g e n e r a l t h e o r y t h a t has p r o v i d e d t h e ba c k g r o u n d from w h i c h emerged many o t h e r p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . 1 1 Each o f t h e s e p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s were d e v e l o p e d s e p a r a t e l y by d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s . I t was Lawrence K. F r a n k who r e c o g n i z e d t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s o f t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s and p r o v i d e d a l a b e l f o r them. I t i s 12 u n d o u b t e d l y h i s i n f l u e n t i a l paper i n 1939 c o n t a i n i n g h i s " p r o j e c t i v e h y p o t h e s i s " w h i c h " u n l a s h e d a t o r r e n t o f r e s e a r c h , 13 t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n and c l i n i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n . " He s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e name " p r o j e c t i v e methods" be a p p l i e d t o t h e v a r i o u s t e s t s t h a t were a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e , ( e . g . , word a s s o c i a t i o n , R o r s c h a c h i n k b l o t , TAT, s e n t e n c e c o m p l e t i o n ) and drew a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r v a l u e i n t h e s t u d y o f p e r s o n -14 a l i t y , f o r i t i n v o l v e s : F r e u d r e f e r r e d t o dream i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as " t h e r o y a l r o a d t o t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . " Sigmund F r e u d , "The I n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f Dreams," i n J . S t r a t c h e y ( E d . ) , The Complete  P s y c h o l o g i c a l Works o f Sigmund F r e u d , V o l s . 4 & 5, (London: H o g a r t h , 1953). O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1900. 12 F r a n k , op_. c i t . , pp. 389-413. 13 Z u b i n , E r o n , Schumer, op_. c i t . , p. 3. 14 F r a n k , op. c i t . , p. 403. 1 4 ...the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a s t i m u l u s s i t u a t i o n d e s i g n e d or chosen because i t w i l l mean t o the s u b j e c t not what the experimenter has a r b i t r a r i l y -d e c i d e d i t s h o u l d mean as i n most p s y c h o l o g i c a l experiments u s i n g s t a n d a r d i z e d s t i m u l i i n o r d e r t o be o b j e c t i v e , but r a t h e r i t must mean t o the p e r s o n a l i t y who g i v e s i t or imposes upon i t , h i s p r i v a t e i d i o s y n c r a t i c meaning and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Frank's i d e a s and concepts were e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y r e c e i v e d by c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s , as w e l l as s o c i a l workers, p s y c h i a t r i s t s , p s y c h o a n a l y s t s and a n t h r o -p o l o g i s t s . The p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s r o s e i n p o p u l a r i t y as a r e v o l t a g a i n s t the more r i g i d t e s t s t h a t developed from the p s y chometric t r a d i t i o n . These r e f e r t o such i n s t r u m e n t s as t h a t of B i n e t , Terman, T h o r n d i k e , and T hurstone, which emphasized c a r e f u l q u a n t i f i c a t i o n , r e p e a t a b i l i t y , e f f i c i e n c y , and e x a c t s p e c i f i c a t i o n . These were s u c c e s s f u l i n the s t a n d a r d i z e d measurement of i n t e l l i g e n c e , s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s , a p t i t u d e s , but were u n s u c c e s s f u l i n d e a l i n g with the area of emotions, m o t i v a t i o n s , and v a l u e s . The promise of p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s p r o v i d e d a s t r o n g l u r e and today most c l i n i c s are w e l l equipped with these i n s t r u m e n t s . Use of P r o j e c t i v e Techniques i n Consumer Research S i n c e World War I I , t h e r e has been a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n marketing r e s e a r c h . Firms became more consumer-o r i e n t e d . The p o s t war s e l l e r ' s market changed i n t o a buyer's market. The f a m i l i a r phrase "the consumer i s k i n g " became the g u i d i n g p o l i c y of marketing programs. 15 E a r l i e r s t u d i e s of consumer behavior focused on socio-economic and demographic v a r i a b l e s , such as income, age, sex, edu c a t i o n , f a m i l y s t a t u s , e t c . Such census-type data have been the backbone of market a n a l y s i s f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . Attempts t o understand buying behavior c o n s i s t e d mainly of t r y i n g t o f i n d c o r r e l a t i o n s between these v a r i a b l e s and s a l e s . But the marketer needs t o know more. I t i s i m p e r a t i v e f o r him not only t o know the answers to questions l i k e "who", "where", "what", "how many", and "when", but a l s o "why". Today the tr e n d has s h i f t e d from mere "nose c o u n t i n g " to the study of unconscious r e a c t i o n i n search of s i g n i f i c a n t a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s , p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s , and emotional r e a c t i o n s . The t r a d i t i o n a l t o o l s t h a t were able to handle the more t a n g i b l e and r a t i o n a l aspects of consumer behavior were inadequate to d e a l w i t h these new concepts. Market r e s e a r c h e r s have t h e r e f o r e turned to other f i e l d s , e s p e c i a l l y the b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n c e s . The need to understand consumer behavior has lea d to the development of what has been termed " m o t i v a t i o n r e s e a r c h . " There i s noth i n g mysterious about the term. I t i s simply an attempt t o dredge up out of the more or l e s s hidden depths of human nature and human p e r s o n a l i t y , i f p o s s i b l e , some p r a c t i c a l h i n t s on how t o s e l l people a product more r e a d i l y and agreeably. For example, i f we are t r y i n g to s e l l c a rs we should t r y t o f i n d out what an automobile means to the consumer. Why does he t r y to purchase a car? I s i t merely f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n purposes? 16 Some a u t h o r s have u s e d t h i s term r a t h e r l o o s e l y t o r e f e r o n l y t o the p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s t h a t have been used t o s t u d y consumer m o t i v a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s , i n c l u d i n g f o r example, p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , d e p t h i n t e r v i e w i n g , and f o c u s e d group i n t e r v i e w i n g . These endeavor t o e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n f r om t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i r e c t l y i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l methods o f o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . But m o t i v a t i o n r e s e a r c h i s a w i d e r c o n c e p t and c o v e r s n o t o n l y t h e s e i n d i r e c t methods b u t o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s as w e l l t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e and n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d consumer m o t i v a t i o n . Many o f t h e p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s were i n c o r p o r -a t e d i n t o m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h d u r i n g t h e 1940's. They have been employed i n a t t i t u d i n a l and o p i n i o n s t u d i e s , company b r a n d image, b r a n d name s t u d i e s , and consumer m o t i v a t i o n s t u d i e s . They have been used f o r t h o s e consumer p r o d u c t s t h a t a r e s i m i l a r i n q u a l i t y , p e r f o r m a n c e , and p r i c e , n o t a b l y f o r p r o d u c t s l i k e a u t o m o b i l e s , s o a p s , d e t e r g e n t s , c i g a r e t t e s , f o o d p r o d u c t s and s u n d r i e s . These t e s t s have h e l p e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o why p e o p l e behave as th e y do, and how b e s t t h e y can be pursuaded t o behave d i f f e r e n t l y . These methods have made i t p o s s i b l e t o probe i n t o t h e minds o f t h e consumer and t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h t h e y would n o t have r e v e a l e d even under the most s u b t l e d i r e c t method o f q u e s t i o n i n g . 17 Summary The development o f p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e f i e l d o f p s y c h o l o g y and consumer r e s e a r c h was the r e s u l t o f t h e need t o f i n d b e t t e r i n s t r u m e n t s t o d e a l w i t h the more complex problems t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s became aware o f . The c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t f o u n d l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e use o f s t a n d a r d i z e d and r i g i d t e s t s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l . The m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h e r r e a l i z e d t h a t the sjtrati&t&Ga&rattcfe-.di-r.ect- .-rasytQdfec&ad s e v e r a l weaknesses i n s t u d y i n g consumer b e h a v i o r . Both r e a l i z e d t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f human b e i n g s and the. .need t o ap p r o a c h them i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h t h e use o f more s u b t l e and l e s s r i g i d and s t r u c t u r e d t o o l s . 18 CHAPTER I I I ATTITUDES AND THEIR MEASUREMENT I n t r o d u c t i o n The j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t e c h n i q u e used t o s o l v e a r e s e a r c h p r o blem s h o u l d be c o n c e r n e d w i t h b o t h th e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f t h a t t e c h n i q u e as t h e y m i g h t r e l a t e t o t h e s p e c i f i c p r o b lem i n q u e s t i o n . One r e s e a r c h method m i g h t be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r one problem b u t i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a n o t h e r . Thus an a n a l y s i s o f t h e t a s k a t hand, t h a t o f m e a s u r i n g consumers' a t t i t u d e s t o ward p r o d u c t s and t h e t e c h n i q u e s t o be u s e d , i s r e l e v a n t and n e c e s s a r y . T h i s c h a p t e r b e g i n s by e x a m i n i n g some o f t h e v a r i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s o f " a t t i t u d e s " i n an a t t e m p t t o come t o some c o n c l u s i o n s on t h e i r meaning and c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s . S e c o n d l y , t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s t o a m a r k e t e r w i l l be t r e a t e d . V a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s have been used t o measure a t t i t u d e s , b u t t h e s e have some l i m i t a t i o n s when used i n consumer r e s e a r c h . Some o f t h e s e weaknesses w i l l be b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d h e r e . 19 D e f i n i t i o n s o f " A t t i t u d e s " P s y c h o l o g i s t s and s o c i o l o g i s t s have a s c r i b e d a wide v a r i e t y o f meaning t o t h e term a t t i t u d e * K a t z and A l l p o r t s u g g e s t t h a t t h e a p p a r e n t c o n f u s i o n o f t h e i r meaning i s n o t due t o t h e i n t r i n s i c a m b i g u i t y i n the m a t e r i a l s t u d i e d , b u t t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e aims o f the i n v e s t i g a t o r s . 1 Y e t , even i f r e s e a r c h e r s s e t o u t w i t h t h e same aim, t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o come o u t w i t h t h e i r own c o n c e p t s o f a t t i t u d e s . T h i s i s because a t t i t u d e s a r e n o t some-t h i n g t a n g i b l e , n o r can t h e y be d i r e c t l y o b s e r v e d o r e a s i l y measured. Perhaps one can u n d e r s t a n d what i s meant by t h e term a t t i t u d e by e x a m i n i n g some d e f i n i t i o n s o f v a r i o u s a u t h o r s . 2 1. The c l a s s i c a l d e f i n i t i o n i s : a b s t r a c t i o n s , i n f e r e n c e s f rom o b s e r v a b l e b e h a v i o r , v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n s , and o t h e r symptoms o f b e h a v i o r i n r e a d i n e s s . 3 2. W e s c h l e r and B e r n b e r g l o o k upon a t t i t u d e s a s : t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t o f t h e dynamic D. K a t z and F.H. A l l p o r t , S t u d e n t A t t i t u d e s , ( S y r a c u s e : C r a f t s m a n P r e s s , 1 9 3 1 ) . 2 L e s l i e A. B e l d o , "An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A t t i t u d e R e s e a r c h and Management D e c i s i o n " , George L. B a k e r , J r . ( E d . ) , E f f e c t i v e M a r k e t i n g C o o r d i n a t i o n . P r o c e e d i n g s  o f t h e 44t£ N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e A m e r i c a n M a r k e t i n g  A s s o c i a t i o n , A m e r i c a n M a r k e t i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , J u n e , 1961, p. 586. 3 I r v i n g W e s c h l e r and Raymond B e r n b e r g , " I n d i r e c t Methods o f A t t i t u d e Measurement," I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l  o f O p i n i o n and A t t i t u d e R e s e a r c h , V o l . 14, 1950, pp202-225. 20 processes within the i n d i v i d u a l , which r e s u l t s i n the organization of h i s perception of any given s i t u a t i o n and are manifested i n h i s response, 3. Krech, C r u t c h f i e l d , and Ballachey f e e l that 4 a t t i t u d e s are: enduring systems of p o s i t i v e or negative evaluations, emotional f e e l i n g s and tendencies, that the i n d i v i d u a l acquires with respect to s o c i a l objects. 4, L e s l i e Beldo's d e f i n i t i o n is:~* p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to behave p o s i t i v e l y , negatively, or almost i n d i f f e r e n t l y towards a given object, event, person or group of persons. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Attitudes From these d e f i n i t i o n s several important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c# " a t t i t u d e s " emerge. F i r s t l y , they cannot be observed d i r e c t l y , i . e . , they must be i n f e r r e d from verbal expressions or overt behavior. The weight or height of a person can be d i r e c t l y measured, and a precise quantitative answer can be obtained. On the other hand, h i s a t t i t u d e s towards an object can only be measured through inferences drawn from his responses towards i t , David Krech, Richard S. C r u t c h f i e l d , and Egerton L. Ballachey, Individual i n Society: A Textbook of S o c i a l  Psychology, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1962, P- 139. 5 Beldo, op_. c i t . , p. 586. 21 e i t h e r t h r o u g h o v e r t b e h a v i o r ( e . g . , he buys Lu c k y S t r i k e c i g a r e t t e s ) o r v e r b a l s t a t e m e n t s ( e . g . , "smoking c i g a r e t t e s w i l l c ause c a n c e r " ) . T h i s a s p e c t o f a t t i t u d e s i s one o f th e main f a c t o r s w h i c h makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o d e v e l o p good i n s t r u m e n t s f o r m e a s u r i n g them. S e c o n d l y , a t t i t u d e s a r e n o t t h e o n l y p s y c h o l o g i -c a l components o r s t a t e s t h a t d e t e r m i n e t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e a c t i o n s t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t one would have t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e s u b j e c t ' s r e a c t i o n t o s p e c i f i c o b j e c t s i s caused by h i s a t t i t u d e s o r some o t h e r f a c t o r s . V e r y o f t e n i t i s t h e r e s u l t o f a m u l t i p l e o f i n t e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s . ^ T h i r d l y , an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e s towards an o b j e c t d e v e l o p g r a d u a l l y o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e and a r e 7 u s u a l l y t h e outcome o f s e v e r a l i n c i d e n t s . Once formed a t t i t u d e s seem t o r e s i s t change, and a r e r a t h e r s t a b l e and e n d u r i n g . What i s more i m p o r t a n t i s t h a t t h e y can be changed by new p e r c e p t i o n s and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s . I t i s because a t t i t u d e s a r e n o t s t a t i c o r f i x e d t h a t a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s a r e v a l u a b l e f r o m two v i e w p o i n t s . F i r s t , i f t h e p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e i s u n f a v o r a b l e t h e n a t t e m p t s can be made t o change i t . I f t h e e x i s t i n g a t t i t u d e i s f a v o r a b l e t h e n i t s h o u l d be r e i n f o r c e d . g M u z a f e r S h e r i f and H a d l e y C a n t r i l , The P s y c h o -l o g i c a l Review, V o l . 52, 1945, pp. 300-304. 7 Of c o u r s e t h e r e can be e x c e p t i o n s ~ t o t h i s r u l e . F o r example, a woman may d e v e l o p a h a t r e d f o r an e l e c t r i c c u t t i n g k n i f e i f h e r son c u t s h i s hand w h i l s t p l a y i n g w i t h i i t . 22 F o u r t h l y , a t t i t u d e s a r e made up o f t h r e e i m p o r t a n t components; 1. c o g n i t i v e component 2. a f f e c t i v e component 3. b e h a v i o r a l component The c o g n i t i v e component o f a t t i t u d e i n c l u d e s b e l i e f s , knowledge, and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l has o f an o b j e c t . F o r example, t a k e an o b j e c t l i k e a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f c a r - t h e Mustang. The i n d i v i d u a l knows a l l about i t , and more i m p o r t a n t s t i l l , he makes e v a l u a t i v e judgements on i t . He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e e n g i n e i s s u p e r i o r t o most c a r s , i t w i l l l a s t l o n g e r , has g r e a t -e r d e p r e c i a t i o n v a l u e , e t c . The a f f e c t i v e component o f t h e a t t i t u d e i s t h e e m o t i o n a l a s p e c t o f i t , i . e . , t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s m o t i v a -t i o n s o r f e e l i n g s towards an o b j e c t . The s i g h t o f the c a r p l e a s e s i t . I t a r o u s e s a l l s o r t s o f p l e a s a n t a s s o c -i a t i o n s and dreamso The b e h a v i o r a l component r e p r e s e n t s the p r e -d i s p o s i t i o n t o a c t towards th e o b j e c t . T h i s i n c l u d e s a l l t h e b e h a v i o r a l r e a d i n e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a t t i t u d e . The i n d i v i d u a l goes o u t of h i s way t o r e a d p a m p h l e t s , c a t e g o r i e s , e t c . , on the Mustang. He spends h o u r s a t the d e a l e r ' s s t o r e j u s t a d m i r i n g i t o r he may a c t u a l l y p u r c h a s e th e c a r . These t h r e e components a r e n o t s e p a r a t e o r . i n d e p e n d e n t b u t a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n 23 some s o r t o f a s y s t e m , e.g., t h e c o g n i t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l about an o b j e c t i s i n f l u e n c e d by h i s f e e l -i n g s and a c t i o n t e n d e n c i e s toward t h a t o b j e c t and a change i n h i s c o g n i t i o n s about t h e o b j e c t w i l l t e n d t o p roduce changes i n h i s f e e l i n g s and a c t i o n t e n d e n c i e s toward i t . ^ Thus, t h e t a n g i b l e n a t u r e o f a t t i t u d e s , t h e many i n t e r - d e p e n d e n t p a r t s w h i c h compose them and t h e i n n u m e r a b l e number o f f a c t o r s w h i c h can change o r i n f l u e n c e them, make i t i n t e r e s t i n g b u t e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o s t u d y . U s e f u l n e s s o f A t t i t u d e S t u d i e s t o M a r k e t e r s Three t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t can be o b t a i n e d ; f r o m a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s a r e o f i n t e r e s t t o m a r k e t e r s : 1. t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e a t t i t u d e . 2. t h e i n t e n s i t y o f the a t t i t u d e . 3. t h e m o t i v e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e a t t i t u d e . E v e r y m a r k e t e r i s a n x i o u s t o know whether h i s p r o d u c t i s l i k e d o r d i s l i k e d by t h e consumers. The a t t e m p t t o f i n d o u t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f consumers' a t t i t u d e s i s t h e b a s i c aim o f most a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s . One can argue t h a t s a l e s can be u s e d as a r e f l e c t o r o f t h e m a r k e t ' s r e a c t i o n t o a p r o d u c t . However, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have K r e c h , C r u t c h f i e l d , and B a l l a c h e y , op_. c i t . . pp. 139-140. 24 t h e p r o d u c t p r e - t e s t e d even b e f o r e i t i s c o m m e r c i a l i z e d . A f i r m has t o c o n d u c t consumer s u r v e y s t o l e a r n whether p e o p l e w i l l a c c e p t o r r e j e c t i t ' s p r o d u c t even b e f o r e i t s t a r t s t o produce and s e l l i t i n the market. V e r y o f t e n the i n v e s t i g a t o r i s n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n on the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e a t t i t u d e and seeks f u r -t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the i n t e n s i t y o f t h e a t t i t u d e , i . e . , t o what e x t e n t do consumers l i k e o r d i s l i k e t h e p r o d u c t . Knowing th e d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n s i t y o f a t t i t u d e s does n o t t e l l the r e s e a r c h e r how t o improve i t . He must know t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h e a t t i t u d e s and, t h e r e f o r e , s t u d i e s t h e m o t i v e s b e h i n d t h e a t t i t u d e s , i . e . , whyycon-sumers l i k e o r d i s l i k e a p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t . One can c o n c l u d e t h a t a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s r e v e a l t h r e e b r o a d f a c t o r s v a l u a b l e t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r - the d i r e c t i o n and i n t e n s i t y o f t h e a t t i t u d e s and t h e m o t i v e s t h a t g i v e r i s e t o them. Not a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s o b t a i n a b l e i s u s e f u l t o t h e m a r k e t e r . F o r a l m o s t any p r o d u c t t h e r e w i l l be a h o s t o f a t t i t u d e s . Maloney l i s t s f o u r c r i t e r i a u s e f u l f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e t y p e s o f a t t i t u d e s upon wh i c h t h e m a r k e t i n g p l a n s h o u l d f o c u s . These a r e : 1. Importance o f a t t i t u d e t y p e . 2. C o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h p r o d u c t i n b a s i c m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g y . 3. P r e s e n t consumer awareness and knowledge o f t h e p r o d u c t . g 4..' U n i q u e n e s s o f a t t i t u d e t y p e i n p r o d u c t a r e a . _ John C. Maloney, " M a r k e t i n g D e c i s i o n s and A t t i t u d e R e s e a r c h , " George L. B a k e r , . J r . ( E d . ) , E f f e c t i v e M a r k e t i n g  C o o r d i n a t i o n . P r o c e e d i n g s o f the 44& N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e  of t h e A m e r i c a n M a r k e t i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , A m e r i c a n M a r k e t A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o : June 1961, p. 595. 2 5 The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e a t t i t u d e t y p e r e f e r s t o t h e number o f p e o p l e who u s e t h e a t t i t u d e t y p e i n d e c i s i o n m a k i n g and t h e w e i g h t g i v e n t o i t by b u y e r s when mak ing t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s . O b v i o u s l y , t h e h i g h e r t h e number o f p e o p l e and t h e h e a v i e r t h e w e i g h t g i v e n t h e more i m p o r t a n t i s t h e a t t i t u d e t y p e t o t h e i n v e s t i -g a t i o n . R e s e a r c h may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p r i c e o f t h e p r o d u c t i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e a t t i t u d e , b u t i f t h e p r o d u c t i s a " p r e s t i g e " i t e m , p r i c e w o u l d n o t be a v a r i a b l e t h a t t h e f i r m w o u l d e m p h a s i z e i n i t s p r o m o t i o n a l p r o g r a m . H e n c e , i t w o u l d be more d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e f i r m t o l o o k f o r t h e s e c o n d most i m p o r t a n t t y p e o f consumer a t t i t u d e . I t was n o t e d e a r l i e r t h a t one o f t h e i m p o r t a n t components o f a t t i t u d e s i s t h e c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r , i . e , t h e k n o w l e d g e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and b e l i e f s o f a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t . T h i s p r o p e r t y i s o f t e n o v e r l o o k e d . I f t h i s k n o w l e d g e i s l a c k i n g , i n c o r r e c t , o r d i s t o r t e d t h e n t h e f i r s t j o b w o u l d be t o p r o v i d e t h e b a s i c f a c t s o f t h e p r o d u c t . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t many s t u d i e s a r e a p t t o t u r n up t h e same b a s i c a t t i t u d e t y p e s as b e i n g p o t e n t i a l l y i m p o r t a n t f o r a p r o d u c t c l a s s . I f t h e m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g y e m p h a s i s i s t h e d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p r o d u c t , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r s h o u l d s e a r c h f o r some-26 t h i n g d i f f e r e n t from th e c o m p e t i t o r s . As Thedore L e v i t t 10 r e m a r k s : E i g h t d i f f e r e n t m o t i v a t i o n r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have come t o e i g h t c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t a l i g h t , f r e s h as a d a i s y , o u t - d o o r s y a p p r o a c h m i g h t be j u s t f i n e f o r m e n t h o l c i g a r e t t e s . The f i r s t t h i n g we know i s t h a t t h e r e a r e e i g h t b r a n d s of m e n t h o l c i g a r -e t t e s w i t h e i g h t l i g h t g r een packages t o e i g h t a i r y f a i r y o u t - d o o r s y a d v e r t i s i n g themes. The m a r k e t e r w i l l c e r t a i n l y be b e t t e r o f f i f he comes up w i t h s omething more u n i q u e . R e l a t i o n s h i p Between A t t i t u d e s and B e h a v i o r So f a r we have assumed t h a t t h e r e i s some r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s and b u y i n g b e h a v i o r , i . e . , an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l buy a p r o d u c t i f he l i k e s i t o r he w i l l n o t buy i f he d i s l i k e s i t . S i n c e t h e o b j e c t i v e o f a l m o s t a l l f i r m s i s t o maximize p r o f i t s i n t h e l o n g r u n , and b ecause p r o f i t s depend upon s a l e s , t h e i r main i n t e r e s t i s whether the p r o d u c t w i l l s e l l . A t t i t u d e s t u d i e s would be o f l i t t l e v a l u e i f t h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n -s h i p between a t t i t u d e and b e h a v i o r . Some r e s e a r c h has been done i n t h i s a r e a . F i r s t o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i n c l u d e one by George Brown where an i n v e s t i g a t i o n was made t o f i n d o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e f e r e n c e and p u r c h a s e s by h o usewives o f seven c l a s s e s o f h o u s e h o l d p r o d u c t s . 1 1 I b i d . , p p . 6 0 7 - 6 0 8 . "'"'"'George H. Brown, "Why P e o p l e Buy P a r t i c u l a r B r a n d s , " i n R o b e r t F e r b e r and Hugh G. Wales, M o t i v a t i o n  and M a r k e t B e h a v i o r , (Homewood: R i c h a r d D. I r w i n , I n c . , 27 Through i n t e r v i e w s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , two s e t s o f d a t a were c o l l e c t e d and a n a l y z e d f o r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e : e x i s t i n g l e v e l s o f p r e f e r e n c e f o r the b r a n d s o f t h e s e p r o d u c t s on t h e C h i c a g o market and p u r c h a s e s o f t h e s e p r o d u c t s by a p a n e l o f C h i c a g o housewives d u r i n g a t h r e e week p e r i o d . The r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e i s a d i r e c t and c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e x i s t i n g l e v e l s o f p r e f e r e n c e f o r b r a n d s o f seven c l a s s e s o f h o u s e h o l d p r o d u c t s and t h e i r r e l a t i v e p u r c h a s e by h o u s e w i v e s . S t u d i e s done by K a t o n a and h i s a s s o c i a t e s i n d i c a t e t h a t b o t h i n i t i a l and f i n a l a t t i t u d e s a r e r e l a t e d t o f r e q u e n c y o f p u r c h a s e o f d u r a b l e goods d u r i n g 12 the y e a r . Through r e p e a t e d i n t e r v i e w s o f t h e same i n d i v i d u a l s , i t was p o s s i b l e t o o b s e r v e t h e changes i n a t t i t u d e s , t h e f a c t o r s l e a d i n g t o such changes, and t h e e f f e c t s o f changes on i n d i v i d u a l b u y i n g b e h a v i o r . The d a t a c o l l e c t e d r e v e a l e d t h a t i n i t i a l a t t i t u d e s and l a t e r changes i n a t t i t u d e s a r e r e l a t e d t o subsequent p u r c h a s e s of d u r a b l e goods. I t would be t o o o p t i m i s t i c t o say t h a t a t t i t u d e s a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o b u y i n g b e h a v i o r , i . e . , a f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e towards a p r o d u c t w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y l e a d t o 1 9 5 8 ) , p p . 277-292. Adapted from an a r t i c l e by Seymour Banks, Manager of Media P l a n n i n g and R e s e a r c h , Leo B u r n e t t Co., "The R e l a t i o n s h i p s between P r e f e r e n c e and P u r c h a s e o f B r a n d s , " J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g , V o l . 1 4 , ( O c t . 1950 )pD*L45-15 7„ 12 George K a t o n a , " A t t i t u d e Change: I n s t a b i l i t y o f Response and A c q u i s i t i o n o f E x p e r i e n c e , " P s y c h o l o g y  Monograph, V o l . 72, 1958. 2 8 i t s p u r c h a s e o r an u n f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e t owards a p r o d u c t w i l l mean d e f i n i t e l y t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no p u r c h a s e . An a t t i t u d e t oward a p r o d u c t i s o n l y one o f t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s of b u y i n g b e h a v i o r . F o r example, income, a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o d u c t , i t s u s e f u l n e s s t o t h e consumer, s u b s t i t u t e s o f t h e p r o d u c t , a r e v a r i a b l e s t h a t can d e t e r m i n e whether a consumer w i l l buy a p r o d u c t . But one can c o n c l u d e t h a t a l t h o u g h a f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e toward a p r o d u c t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d t o i t s p u r c h a s e , i t seems t o i n d i c a t e a h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y o f i t b e i n g bought, r e l a t i v e t o a n o t h e r p r o d u c t toward which t h e consumer has an u n f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e . T e c h n i g u e s t h a t can be Used  t o Measure A t t i t u d e s We can see t h a t " a t t i t u d e s " have c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s w h i c h make t h e i r measurement d i f f i c u l t . The a u t h o r f e e l s t h a t p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s can overcome some o f t h e weaknesses o f o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s i n s t u d y i n g consumer a t t i t u d e s . B e f o r e t h e s e p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s a r e d i s c u s s e d , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine some o f t h e o t h e r t o o l s t h a t can be used t o s t u d y a t t i t u d e s . S i n c e t h e f o c u s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s on t h e use o f p r o -j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , t h e d i s c u s s i o n on the o t h e r methods w i l l be b r i e f . 29 One way o f c l a s s i f y i n g t h e methods t h a t can be used t o measure a t t i t u d e s would be by t h e t y p e o f p r o c e d u r e u s e d t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n . As Donald 13 C a m p b e l l s u g g e s t s t h e r e a r e f o u r such g r o u p s . Approach 1. u n d i s g u i s e d -s t r u c t u r e d 2. n o n - d i s g u i s e d -n o n - s t r u c t u r e d 3. d i s g u i s e d -u n s t r u c t u r e d 4. d i s g u i s e d -s t r u c t u r e d Type o f I n s t r u m e n t A t t i t u d e s c a l e s Open-end q u e s t i o n n a i r e s U n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s P r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s E r r o r c h o i c e t e c h n i q u e An a t t i t u d e s c a l e c o n s i s t s o f a s e t o f s t a t e -ments o r i t e m s t o w h i c h a p e r s o n r e s p o n d s . The p a t t e r n o f r e s p o n s e s p r o v i d e s a way o f i n f e r r i n g about h i s a t t i t u d e . There a r e s e v e r a l ways o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a t t i t u d e s c a l e s . Two o f t h e more w e l l known f o r m a l 14 s c a l e s a r e the T h u r s t o n e and L i k e r t s c a l e s . A T h u r s t o n e s c a l e i s c o n s t r u c t e d by h a v i n g a l a r g e number o f j u d g e s a s s i g n s c a l e v a l u e s t o a t t i t u d e s t a t e m e n t s i n d i c a t i n g the e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e i t e m s D o nald T. C a m p b e l l , "The I n d i r e c t Assessment o f S o c i a l A t t i t u d e s , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , V o l . 47, 1950, p. 15. 14 O t h e r s i n c l u d e t h e Guttman s c a l e , C o r n e l l t e c h n i q u e , q u a s i - s c a l e s and s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l . 30 r e p r e s e n t a p r o o r con p o s i t i o n . By p r o v i d i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , a s c a l e v a l u e i s a s s i g n e d t o each i t e m . To measure the a t t i t u d e s o f an i n d i v i d u a l , he i s asked t o p l a c e a p l u s s i g n i n f r o n t o f a l l s t a t e m e n t s he a g r e e s w i t h . H i s a t t i t u d e s c o r e i s t h e median s c a l e v a l u e o f t h e i t e m s he has s e l e c t e d . A d i f f e r e n t a pproach t o t h e s c a l i n g o f a t t i t u d e s was d e v e l o p e d by L i k e r t . A l a r g e number o f j u d g e s a r e asked t o e x p r e s s t h e i r a t t i t u d e s on a l a r g e number o f s t a t e m e n t s c o n s i d e r e d by t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t o r e l a t e t o the o b j e c t i n q u e s t i o n . F o r each s t a t e m e n t t h e y i n d i -c a t e whether t h e y s t r o n g l y a p p r o v e , a p p r o v e , a r e u n d e c i d e d , d i s a p p r o v e , o r s t r o n g l y d i s a p p r o v e . These r e s p o n s e s a r e w e i g h t e d t o o b t a i n a t o t a l s c o r e . The above c a t e g o r i e s a r e s c o r e d 5,4,3,2,and 1 r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r f a v o r a b l e i t e m s and r e v e r s i n g the s c o r i n g f o r u n f a v o r a b l e i t e m s . Through th e use o f i t e m a n a l y s i s 1 ^ 15 L.L. T h u r s t o n e , "Theory o f A t t i t u d e Measure-ment," P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , V o l . 36, 1929, pp. 22-241. 16 Item a n a l y s i s i s a way o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d egree t o w h i c h a t t i t u d e i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e among i n d i v i d u a l s who d i f f e r i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward an o b j e c t . The d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power o f an i t e m i s measured by c omputing t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between i t e m s c o r e s and t o t a l s c o r e s . Items w h i c h c o r r e l a t e most h i g h l y w i t h t o t a l s c o r e s a r e r e l a t e d as t h e most d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i t e m s . See K r e c h , C r u t c h f i e l d , and B a l l a c h e y , o p . c i t . , p. 178. 31 the most d i s c r i m i n a t i n g items are r e t a i n e d i n the f i n a l form o f the s c a l e . The s c o r e s y i e l d e d by a L i k e r t s c a l e can be i n t e r p r e t e d o n l y i n terms o f where the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s c o r e f a l l s r e l a t i v e t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s c o r e s o f ot h e r p e o p l e . The score does not have a b s o l u t e meaning. The second c a t e g o r y of t e s t s i n c l u d e the essay type q u e s t i o n s , a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l assignments and open-ended i n t e r v i e w s where the i n d i v i d u a l ' s response i s not r e s t r i c t e d to predetermined c a t e g o r i e s . The t h i r d group o f t e s t s , the d i s g u i s e d -u n s t r u c t u r e d v a r i e t y , c o n s i s t of the p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . These w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n Chapter Four. The d i s g u i s e d - s t r u c t u r e d t e s t s d i f f e r from the p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s i n t h a t they are u n s t r u c t u r e d . The respondents p a r t i c i p a t e i n an o b j e c t i v e task i n which he seeks the r i g h t answers. The v o l u n t a r y response of the p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s i s l a c k i n g . To the respondent the s i t u a t i o n i s s i m i l a r to t h a t of an achievement or a b i l i t y t e s t . An attempt i s made to diagnose a t t i t u d e s from s y s t e m a t i c b i a s i n the performance o f an o b j e c t i v e t a s k . The responses are not taken a t t h e i r f a c e v a l u e . Rather, the s y s t e m a t i c e r r o r s of which the respondent h i m s e l f i s not aware are s t u d i e d . An example of t h i s 17 type o f t e s t i s the e r r o r c h o i c e t e c h n i q u e . i n whxch K» R. Hammond, "Measuring A t t i t u d e s by E r r o r Choice; An I n d i r e c t Method," J o u r n a l of Abnormal and 32 t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a l t e r n a t i v e c h o i c e s f o r answers. I n some i n s t a n c e s t h e t r u t h i s u n d e t e r -m i n a b l e . The s u b j e c t i s t h u s f o r c e d t o e r r o r . The i t e m s i n e r r o r c h o i c e t e s t s a r e such t h a t t h e c o r r e c t answers a r e n o t r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t . A t t i t u d e b i a s on th e p a r t o f t h e s u b j e c t i s r e v e a l e d by s y s t e m a t i c e r r o r s i n one d i r e c t i o n as opposed t o random e r r o r s . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s e T e c h n i q u e s  i n Consumer R e s e a r c h One can see from t h e p r e c e e d i n g s e c t i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e many t e c h n i q u e s t h a t can be used t o measure a t t i t u d e s . The u s e f u l n e s s o f each method depends on the p u rpose o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . I n consumer a t t i t u d e 18 r e s e a r c h t h e y have s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s . Most a t t i t u d e s c a l e s a r e c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h measurement o f v a l e n c e . A v a l e n c e o f an a t t i t u d e component r e f e r s t o th e degree o f t h e p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e c o g n i t i v e f e e l i n g o r a c t i o n t e n d e n c y components o f an 19 a t t i t u d e s y s t e m , i . e . , t h e degree o f f a v o r a b i l i t y o r u n f a v o r a b i l i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e o b j e c t o f t h e a t t i t u d e . A l t h o u g h t h i s k i n d o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s u s e f u l t o a m a r k e t e r D i s c u s s i o n on t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s w i l l be v e r y b r i e f , s e r v i n g o n l y as an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s i n consumer r e s e a r c h . 19 K r e c h , C r u t c h f i e l d , and B a l l a c h e y , op_. c i t . , p. 179. 33 i t does n o t o f f e r him any i d e a s on what s t r a t e g i e s t o adopt i n o r d e r t o change t h e a t t i t u d e s i f t h e y a r e u n f a v o r a b l e o r t o r e i n f o r c e them i f t h e y a r e f a v o r a b l e . The r e s e a r c h e r does n o t know t h e r e a s o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e a t t i t u d e s and t h u s can have no i n f l u e n c e o r c o n t r o l o v e r them. The n o n - d i s g u i s e d , n o n - s t r u c t u r e d t e s t s w h i c h i n c l u d e t h e e s s a y t y p e q u e s t i o n , open-end i n t e r v i e w s , y i e l d a r i c h s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n on a t t i t u d e s , b u t problems a r i s e i n the s c o r i n g , a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a . One o f t h e advantages o f t h e d i s g u i s e d -s t r u c t u r e d t e s t s o v e r the f i r s t two c a t e g o r i e s i s t h a t i t i s d i s g u i s e d , i . e . , t h e r e s p o n d e n t s do n o t know t h e r e a l purpose o f t h e t e s t s o r how t h e i r answers w i l l be i n t e r p r e t e d . T h i s r e d u c e s the tendency f o r s t e r e o t y p e answers. However u n l i k e t h e p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s t h e s e t e s t s a r e s t r u c t u r e d , t h u s r e d u c i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s . . . . . 2 0 s p o n t a n i e t y o f e x p r e s s i o n . I n t e r e s t i n p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s d e v e l o p e d c h i e f l y because o f t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f t h e d i r e c t method o f q u e s t i o n i n g i n o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f rom consumers. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o examine i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l whether t h i s c r i t i c i s m a g a i n s t the c o n v e n t i o n a l method i s v a l i d . The weakness o f t h i s f a c t o r w i l l be e x p l a i n e d l a t e r on. 34 The u s u a l approaches o f t h e d i r e c t method o f q u e s t i o n i n g i n c l u d e : 1 . Yes-No Q u e s t i o n Do you smoke? (Yes o r No) Do you go t o t h e movies o f t e n ? 2 , M u l t i p l e C h o i c e What do you t h i n k o f t h e p r i c e o f t h e new c a r pur o u t by company X? Ve r y r e a s o n a b l e F a i r l y r e a s o n a b l e . . . . . . . F a i r l y u n r e a s o n a b l e . . . . . V e r y u n r e a s o n a b l e 3. R a n k i n g I n b u y i n g a p a i r o f shoes w h i c h one o f t h e s e f a c t o r s i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t t o you p e r s o n a l l y ? And o f t h o s e l e f t , w h i c h i s the most i m p o r t a n t ? ( P r o c e e d u n t i l a l l i t e m s have been r a n k e d ) c o l o r b r a n d name....... shape q u a l i t y . s t y l e . . . . . . . . . . . . p r i c e . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Open-ended Q u e s t i o n Why do you buy meat a t s t o r e X? The d i r e c t method o f q u e s t i o n i n g makes c e r t a i n a s s u m p t i o n s . F i r s t , i t assumes t h a t the r e s p o n d e n t knows t h e answers. T h i s i s n o t always t r u e . I n some i n s t a n c e s , consumers a r e u n a b l e t o answer s i m p l y because t h e y do n o t know. Much o f b u y i n g b e h a v i o r i s u n c o n s c i o u s and many p e o p l e seldom do much c o n s c i o u s t h i n k i n g about why t h e y do what t h e y do and t h e y may t h e r e f o r e be u n a b l e 35 t o r e a d i l y produce much i n way o f e x p l a i n i n g on t h e 21 s p u r o f t h e moment, t h e i r buyxng b e h a v i o r . A t t i t u d e s a r e l e a r n e d and once t h e y have been a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o d e t e r m i n e how he a c q u i r e d them. I n f a c t , an i n d i v i d u a l may n o t be c o n s c i o u s l y aware o f h i s own a t t i t u d e s . V e r y o f t e n t h e consumer i s a s k e d , " I f t h i s new p r o d u c t were a v a i l a b l e would you buy i t ? " A r e s p o n d e n t c o n f r o n t e d w i t h such a q u e s t i o n w i l l be l i k e l y t o s a y , "Yes," a l t h o u g h he has no i d e a whether he would buy o r n o t i f t h e s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d a r i s e . A n s w e r i n g i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e does n o t i n any way commit him because he m i g h t n e v e r have t o f a c e t h e s i t u a t i o n i n r e a l i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , he f e e l s he i s making the i n t e r v i e w e r happy by s a y i n g , "Yes." He m i g h t f e e l o b l i g a t e d t o do so e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r has l e f t him a f r e e sample. Even i f the s u b j e c t were aware a t one t i m e o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t shaped h i s a t t i t u d e s , he m i g h t have d i f f i c u l t y i n r e c a l l i n g them a t t h e time o f the i n t e r -v i e w . O f t e n h i s d e c i s i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d by a whole h o s t o f i n t e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s o f v a r y i n g i m p o r t a n c e , and the r e s p o n d e n t m i g h t be u n a b l e t o remember a l l o f them o r sometimes some o f the i m p o r t a n t ones. 21 J o s e p h Newman, M o t i v a t i o n R e s e a r c h m A d v e r -t i s i n g and M a r k e t i n g , ( B o s t o n : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957), p. 402. 36 Perhaps t h e c h i e f weakness o f t h e d i r e c t a p p r o a c h i s t h a t i t o v e r l o o k s t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s t h a t a r e a p t t o o c c u r between a r e s p o n d e n t ' s i n w a r d t h o u g h t s and h i s outward speech and a c t i o n , i . e . i t assumes t h a t he i s w i l l i n g t o r e v e a l i n f o r m a t i o n when a s k e d . T h i s i s t r u e i n c e r t a i n c a s e s , such as t h e q u e s t i o n s , "Do you l i k e t o d r i v e ? " o r "What do you t h i n k o f the new vacuum c l e a n e r o f X company?" To q u e s t i o n s l i k e t h e s e the consumer g i v e s h i s f r a n k and h o n e s t o p i n i o n and does n o t a t t e m p t t o h i d e h i s r e a l a t t i t u d e . But t h e r e a r e some a r e a s i n whi c h he i s l e s s w i l l i n g o r u n w i l l i n g t o d i s c u s s . 23 As E n g e l and Wales p u t i t : When a r e s p o n d e n t p e e c e i v e s a q u e s t i o n as p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y t h r e a t e n i n g , h i s r e s p o n s e may be d i s t o r t e d , perhaps towards a s t e r e o t y p e d o r n o r m a t i v e r e s p o n s e . He may be r e l u c t a n t t o v e n t u r e f a r from what he c o n s i d e r s a p s y c h o -l o g i c a l l y n e u t r a l r e p l y , and w i l l r e a c t by o u t r i g h t l y i n g , p a r t i a l c o n c e a l m e n t o f f a c t s o r d e n i a l o f t r u e f e e l i n g s . The consumer m i g h t n o t want t o adm i t h i s r e a l f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s on c e r t a i n i s s u e s because o f s o c i a l d i s a p p r o v a l o r r i d i c u l e . C o n s e q u e n t l y he g i v e s s t e r e o t y p e d r e s p o n s e s t h a t use c l i c h e s w h i c h a r e commonly a c c e p t a b l e b u t do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t h i s a t t i t u d e s . — These a r e a s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r . 23 James E n g e l and H.G. Wales, "Spoken v e r s u s P i c t u r e d Q u e s t i o n s on Taboo T o p i c s , " J o u r n a l o f A d v e r -t i s i n g R e s e a r c h , I I , ( 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 11-17. 37 S e v e r a l examples can be c i t e d as i l l u s t r a t i o n s . A number o f p e o p l e i n a l a r g e c i t y were i n t e r v i e w e d and a s k ed s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s . Among t h e s e was t h e q u e s t i o n , "Do you borrow money f r o m a p e r s o n a l l o a n company?" A l l t h o s e i n t e r v i e w e d answered n e g a t i v e l y . Y e t , a l l o f them were l i s t e d i n t h e r e c o r d s o f a l o c a l 24 company as h a v i n g r e c e n t l y borrowed money. Sometimes the r e s p o n d e n t may h e s i t a t e i n a n s w e r i n g because he f e e l s t h a t t h e r e a r e " r i g h t " answers t o the q u e s t i o n s . He t r i e s t o g i v e t h e answer w h i c h he t h i n k s i s t e c h n i c a l l y c o r r e c t . F o r example, i f asked how he would r a t e the p r i c e o f a new c a r b r o u g h t o u t by a c e r t a i n company, h i s answer m i g h t n o t r e f l e c t h i s own o p i n i o n b u t t h a t o f f r i e n d s o r some a u t h o r i t y on c a r s . I f he r e a l l y t h i n k s t h a t t h e p r i c e i s u n r e a s o n a b l e he would n o t c o n s i d e r b u y i n g i t a l t h o u g h he m i g h t have t o l d t h e i n t e r v i e w e r t h a t t h e p r i c e i s r e a s o n a b l e . I n u s i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s e a r c h method, t h e r e i s a l w a y s t h e danger o f p u t t i n g words i n t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s mouthi- F o r example, i n t h e r a n k i n g method t h e s u b j e c t i s g i v e n a l i m i t e d number o f v a r i a b l e s t o choose f r o m . The f a c t o r w h i c h most i n f l u e n c e d h i s p u r c h a s e o f a p a i r o f shoes m i g h t n o t be f o u n d on t h e l i s t s u p p l i e d and he L o u i s C h e s k i n and L. B. Ward, " I n d i r e c t A p p roach t o M a r k e t R e a c t i o n , " H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s Review, V o l . 2 6 , ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 4 8 ) , pp. 5 7 2 - 5 8 0 . 38 i s f o r c e d t o choose one o f the v a r i a b l e s . I t i s o f t e n u n r e a l i s t i c t o p u t p e o p l e ' s r e a c t i o n s i n t o n e a t c a t e g o r i e s f o r immediate punch c a r d c o d i n g . Sometimes an a d d i t i o n a l " o t h e r s " i t e m i s added t o t h e l i s t g i v e n and t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s asked t o s p e c i f y p r e c i s e l y what he means by " o t h e r s . " Even so t h i s method i s f a u l t y because i t assumes t h a t he has c o n s c i o u s r e a s o n s f o r h i s p u r c h a s e a c t i o n s . He may make up some s i n c e he has t o g i v e a r e a s o n . I t i s n e v e r c l e a r whether the b u y e r ' s p l a n s a r e r e a l o r m e r e l y c r e a t e d d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w . I n t h e m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e t y p e o f q u e s t i o n the r e s p o n d e n t may f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e v a r i o u s shades o f o p i n i o n s . I f he were a s k e d whether he t h i n k s t h e q u a l i t y o f a p r o d u c t i s " v e r y good," " q u i t e good", o r " f a i r l y good", o r " f a i r l y p o o r " , he mi g h t have d i f f i c u l t y d e c i d i n g w h i c h o f t h e s e i n d i c a t e h i s t r u e f e e l i n g s . The a l t e r n a t i v e s p r e s e n t e d t o the r e s p o n d e n t may be t o o many and t h e r e s p o n d e n t may be to o c o n f u s e d . There i s a te n d e n c y f o r him t o a v o i d e xtremes i n h i s r e p l i e s . T h i s may cause a b i a s i n the r e p l i e s . P e rhaps t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f W e s c h l e r and B e r n -b e r g a d e q u a t e l y sums up t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e d i r e c t method: I r v i n g R. W e s c h l e r and Raymond B e r n b e r g , " I n d i r e c t Methods o f A t t i t u d e Measurement," I n t e r n a t i o n a l  J o u r n a l o f O p i n i o n and A t t i t u d e R e s e a r c h , Vol""! 14 (1950) pp. 209-225. 39 There i s a s t e a d i l y growing b e l i e f t h a t we have developed d i r e d t q u e s t i o n i n g to almost the l i m i t o f pe r f e c t i o n , , The r e s i d u a l d e f i c i e n c y seems i n h e r e n t i n the v e r y method. A f t e r a l l a ma g n i f y i n g g l a s s cannot perform the s e r v i c e of an e l e c t r o n - m i c r o s c o p e even i f one c o n s t a n t l y p o l i s h e s the l e n s and goes on improving the l i g h t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Summary A t t i t u d e s have s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , some of which make t h e i r measurement d i f f i c u l t . Y et s t u d i e s are v a l u a b l e t o a marketer. There are many techn i q u e s t h a t can be used t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on consumer a t t i t u d e s . These have some l i m i t a t i o n s where consumer r e s e a r c h i s concerned. The next c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s which overcome some of these weaknesses. 4 0 CHAPTER IV TYPES OF PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES I n t r o d u c t i o n The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d i s c u s s the more i m p o r t a n t t e s t s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e the p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s o As i t was n o t e d i n C h a p t e r Two t h e r e a r e a number o f ways o f g r o u p i n g t h e s e tests."'" Not a l l the t e s t s i n each group w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . O n l y t h e more f a m i l i a r and p o p u l a r methods used i n consumer r e s e a r c h 2 w i l l be s e l e c t e d . The f o l l o w i n g t e s t s w i l l be i n c l u d e d : C a t e g o r i e s o f t h e T e s t s T e s t s t o be D i s c u s s e d A s s o c i a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s Word A s s o c i a t i o n t e s t R o r s c h a c h i n k b l o t t e s t C o n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s T h e m a t i c a p p e r c e p t i o n t e s t C o m p l e t i o n t e c h n i q u e s Sentence c o m p l e t i o n t e s t P i c t u r e f r u s t r a t i o n s t u d y E x p r e s s i v e t e c h n i q u e s R o l e p l a y i n g Psychodrama F o r each t e s t the more i m p o r t a n t and d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t -3 e r i s t i c s and t h e method o f a d m i n i s t r a t i n g w i l l be examined. As i n C h a p t e r Two, t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f Gardner L i n d s e y w i l l be ad o p t e d . 2 The o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s t h e R o r s c h a c h i n k b l o t t e s t w h i c h has r a r e l y been used i n consumer r e s e a r c h . 41 The r e a d e r w i l l n o t e t h a t t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e d a t a , i . e . , t h e s c o r i n g , t a b u l a t i n g and c o d i n g has been e x c l u d e d from the d i s c u s s i o n . O n l y b r i e f comments w i l l be g i v e n . F i r s t l y , because i t i s t o o c o m p l i c a t e d and s e c o n d l y , because much o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n on t h e a c t u a l d e t a i l s o f a n a l y s i n g and s c o r i n g the d a t a a r e based on a p u r p o s e , t h a t o f s t u d y i n g t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , w h i c h i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f t h e f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s . Any a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p a framework f o r a n a l y s i n g and s c o r i n g t h e d a t a c a n n o t be done w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o a s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e . The c h a p t e r w i l l c o n c l u d e w i t h a summary o f the i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s . F o r d e t a i l s r e f e r t o any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g b ooks: J o h n E. B e l l , P r o j e c t i v e Techniques,(New Y o r k : Longmans, Green and Co., I n c . , 1948) H a r o l d Anderson and G l a d y s A n d e r s o n , ( E d . ) , An I n t r o d u c t i o n  t o P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s and O t h e r D e v i c e s f o r Under-s t a n d i n g t h e Dynamics o f Human Behavior,(New Y o r k : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1951) Gardner L i n d s e y , P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s and C r o s s C u l t u r a l  Research,(New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1961) 42 Word A s s o c i a t i o n T e s t O r i g i n a l l y known as t h e f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t , t h e word a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t i s one o f t h e o l d e s t p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s and was f i r s t u s e d i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y . The c l i n i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s method was s t i m u l a t e d l a r g e l y by t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l movement. A w e l l known p s y c h i a t r i s t , C a r l J u n g , c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o 4 t h e s y s t e m a t i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e word a s s o c i a t i o n . The t e s t c o n s i s t s o f a l i s t o f c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d words r e a d a l o u d one a t a t i m e and a f t e r e a c h word t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s a s k e d t o r e p l y as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e f i r s t word t h a t comes t o m i n d . Many d i f f e r e n t l i s t s o f s t i m u l u s words a r e i n e x i s t e n c e . One o f t h e e a r l i e s t and most w e l l known ones i s t h a t o f K e n t and R o s a n o f ( 1 9 1 0 ) . T h i s c o n s i s t s o f a l i s t o f 100 common n e u t r a l words c h o s e n b e c a u s e t h e y t e n d t o evoke t h e same a s s o c i a t i o n f o r p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l . S t u d i e s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e were marked d i f f e r e n c e s be tween a s s o c i a t i o n s o f m e n t a l l y d i s o r d e r e d and n o r m a l p e o p l e . I n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e p l i e s t h r e e f a c t o r s a r e s t u d i e d : 1 . The c o n t e n t o f t h e r e s p o n s e s . 2 . The t i m e l a p s e be tween t h e s t i m u l u s and r e s p o n s e . _ J u n g d e v e l o p e d t h e word a s s o c i a t i o n t e c h n i q u e , w h i c h had been u s e d f o r t h e s t u d y o f n o r m a l c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e and f o r p s y c h i a t r i c r e s e a r c h , and u s e d i t t o i d e n t i f y i m p o r t a n t a r e a s o f u n c o n s c i o u s c o n f l i c t . 43 3. The r e a c t i o n and t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e r e s p o n s e . A c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s i s c a r r i e d o u t i n w h i c h t h e s t i m u l u s words and t h e r e s p o n s e s a r e grouped i n terms o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r m o t i v e s o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s t h e y r e f l e c t o r w i t h w h i c h t h e y seem t o be a s s o c i a t e d . I n . . 5 a d d i t i o n , t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e a l s o t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n : a. r e p e t i t i o n o f the s t i m u l u s words b. m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o r w h i s p e r e d r e p l i e s c. m u l t i - w o r d r e s p o n s e s The r e c o r d i n g o f t h e time l a p s e between th e s t i m u l u s and t h e r e s p o n s e can be done w i t h an o r d i n a r y s t o p w a tch. An a n a l y s i s o f t h e time i t t a k e s f o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o g i v e a r e s p o n s e and h i s a b i l i t y t o g i v e t h e same r e s p o n s e q u i c k l y d u r i n g a second t e s t , r e v e a l s h i s s t a b i l i t y o f a s s o c i a t i o n and t h e e x t e n t o f h i s e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n t o each symbol. The n o r m a l time l a p s e i s s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n t h r e e s e c o n d s . I f t h e i n t e r v i e w e e t a k e s more t h a n t h r e e seconds t h i s means t h a t some e m o t i o n a l f a c t o r has been t a p p e d . On t h e o t h e r hand, t o o q u i c k a r e p l y s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s t r y i n g t o c o v e r up h i s d i s t u r b a n c e . F i n a l l y , the b e h a v i o r o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t d u r i n g the t e s t i s o b s e r v e d . S h i f t i n g around i n one's c h a i r , l a u g h i n g , l o o k i n g away, f l u s h i n g , c o u g h i n g , c a t c h i n g B e l l , op_. c i t . , p. 18 44 one's b r e a t h , movement o f t h e hands, e t c . , may i n d i c a t e t h a t the s u b j e c t i s under e m o t i o n a l s t r e s s . The t e s t t h a t has been d i s c u s s e d above r e f e r s t o t h e f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t where, g i v e n a word, a r e s p o n d e n t i s a s k e d t o say t h e f i r s t t h i n g t h a t comes i n t o mind. There a r e many m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e t e s t , e.g., t h e C o n t r o l l e d A s s o c i a t i o n t e s t where the s u b j e c t ' s c h o i c e i s l i m i t e d o r c o n t r o l l e d and he i s asked t o g i v e a word o f s i m i l a r meaning o r o p p o s i t e meaning, o r an a d j e c t i v e o r c o l o r . A n o t h e r v a r i a t i o n i s t h e S u c c e s s i v e Word A s s o c i a t i o n where the p e r s o n i n t e r v i e w e d i s asked t o say as many words as he can as l o n g as t h e y c o n t i n u e t o come t o him. T h i s i s an em p t y i n g p r o c e s s o f t e n b r i n g i n g u n i q u e r e s u l t s . To h e l p i n the a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e r e s u l t s , s u b j e c t s a r e sometimes asked t o c l a r i f y t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s o r t h e s t i m u l u s words a r e p r e s e n t e d and t h e r e s p o n d e n t asked t o r e c a l l t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s t h e y gave p r e v i o u s l y . R o r s c h a c h I n k B l o t T e s t The R o r s c h a c h i n k b l o t t e s t , named a f t e r i t s o r i g i n a t o r , Hermann R o r s c h a c h , i s one o f t h e b e s t known g Y e t t h i s need n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be t r u e . A p e r s o n who s h i f t s around i n h i s c h a i r , o r moves h i s hand about f r e q u e n t l y m i g h t do so o u t o f h a b i t o r because he i s n e r v o u s and shy and n o t because t h e g i v e n word has a r o u s e d him. 45 y e t l e a s t u n d e r s t o o d o f t h e p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . The s u b j e c t i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a s e r i e s o f t e n c a r d s 7 on w h i c h a r e p r i n t e d b i - s y m m e t r i c a l b l o t s , some o f wh i c h a r e b l a c k and w h i t e and some c o l o r e d , and he i s asked t o r e p o r t what he s e e s . What m i g h t t h e b l o t be? What does i t make him t h i n k o f ? Because t h e c a r d s p r e s e n t shapes o r f i g u r e s w h i c h a r e r e l a t i v e l y u n s t r u c t u r e d and a r e t h e r e f o r e s u s c e p t i b l e o f b e i n g p e r c e i v e d and i n t e r p r e t e d i n v a r i o u s ways, t h e y compel t h e s u b j e c t t o "see 1 1 i n them what he imposes on them. He may t u r n t h e c a r d s anyway he l i k e s . The c a r d s a r e the n gone t h r o u g h a second t i m e t o f i n d o u t how t h e s u b j e c t a r r i v e s a t t h e r e s p o n s e s . The r e s p o n d e n t ' s b e h a v i o r d u r i n g t h e t e s t , whether he l a u g h s , f i d g e t s o r b l o c k s i n h i s speech, e t c . a r e n o t e d . I n a n a l y s i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e r e s p o n s e s t h e examiner c o n s i d e r s : a. t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e s - t h i s r e f e r s t o the p a r t o f t h e b l o t w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t a s s o c -i a t e s w i t h each r e s p o n s e , i . e . , does t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e p e r t a i n t o t h e whole b l o t , t o a l a r g e d e t a i l , t o some t i n y d e t a i l . b. the d e t e r m i n a n t s o f t h e r e s p o n s e s - i n c l u d e s g f o r m , c o l o r , s h a d i n g , movements, i . e . , w h i c h 7 These b l o t s l o o k l i k e t h e s o r t t h a t m i g h t be produced by f o l d i n g a s h e e t o f paper o v e r a drop o f i n k . Q A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s no movement i n the b l o t i t s e l f , t h e s u b j e c t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e b l o t as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a moving o b j e c t i s s c o r e d . F u r t h e r 46 d e t e r m i n a n t s o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f d e t e r m i n a n t s does t h e r e s p o n d e n t u s e . c. t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e r e s p o n s e s . These m i g h t be a n i m a l f o r m s , human f o r m s , o r i n a n i m a t e o b j e c t s . A m a s s i v e a r r a y o f l i t e r a t u r e g i v e s r u l e s f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g p e r s o n a l i t i e s f r om t h e r e s p o n s e s g i v e n . V a r i o u s s c o r i n g systems have been a d o p t e d . No s i n g l e one has g a i n e d e x c l u s i v e a c c e p t a n c e among c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s . F o r example, s e e i n g a prep o n d e r a n c e o f human movement o v e r a n i m a l movement i n t h e b l o t s (e.,g., two p e o p l e d a n c i n g ) , may i n d i c a t e r i c h n e s s o f i n n e r l i f e , i m a g i n a t i o n and c r - e a t i v e n e s s . I t s h o u l d be emphasized t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f the t e s t s h o u l d be i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t d e r i v e d from o u t s i d e s o u r c e s such as o t h e r t e s t s , i n t e r -v i e w s , and c a s e h i s t o r i e s . T h e m a t i c A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t The T h e m a t i c A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t was i n t r o d u c e d by Morgan and Murray about 25 y e a r s ago as one o f t h e methods used f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e f a n t a s y o f normal d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s a r e made w i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , e.g., human movement and a n i m a l movements and a b s t r a c t o r n a t u r a l movement a r e s e p a r a t e l y r e c o r d e d . 9 George H o r s e l y S m i t h , M o t i v a t i o n R e s e a r c h i n  A d v e r t i s i n g and Ma r k e t i n g , ( N e w Y o r k : McGraw-HillBBook Co., I n c . , 1954),pp. 149-150. 47 i n d i v i d u a l s . From t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d , the a u t h o r s t r i e d t o b u i l d a t h e o r e t i c a l framework o f p e r s o n a l i t y , however, t h e c l i n i c a l use o f t h e t e s t o u t s t r i p p e d i t s r e s e a r c h a p p l i c a t i o n . The t e s t c o n s i s t s o f twenty c a r d s on wh i c h a r e p r i n t e d f u l l p i c t u r e s ( n o t l i n e d r a w i n g s ) s e l e c t e d from m a g a z i n e s , i l l u s t r a t i o n s , p a i n t i n g s , d r a w i n g s and o t h e r a r t s o u r c e s . The r e s p o n d e n t i s a s k e d t o make up a s t o r y around each p i c t u r e and t o t e l l what t h e s i t u a t i o n i s , what e v e n t s were t h a t l e d up t o i t and what t h e o u t -come w i l l be, then d e s c r i b e t h e f e e l i n g s and t h o u g h t s o f the c h a r a c t e r s . The examiner r e c o r d s t h e s t o r y as a c c u r a t e l y as p o s s i b l e , p r o m p t i n g the r e s p o n d e n t i f he f a i l s t o i n c l u d e some o f t h e r e q u i r e d a s p e c t s o f t h e p i c t u r e . The t e s t can be g i v e n i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h t h e o r a l r e s p o n s e s r e c o r d e d o r i t can be a d m i n i s t e r e d i n groups w i t h s u b j e c t s w r i t i n g down t h e i r s t o r i e s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s two one-hour s e s s i o n s . Ten c a r d s a r e u s e d d u r i n g each s e s s i o n . There a r e f o u r o v e r l a p p i n g s e t s o f c a r d s a v a i l a b l e -t h o s e f o r b o y s , f o r g i r l s , f o r men o v e r f o u r t e e n y e a r s and t h o s e f o r women o v e r f o u r t e e n y e a r s . Most o f t h e p i c t u r e s i n each o f t h e s e s e t s c o n t a i n a c h a r a c t e r w i t h " ^ A c t u a l l y n i n e t e e n o f t h e c a r d s c o n t a i n vague p i c t u r e s i n b l a c k and w h i t e and one i s b l a n k . I n the ca s e o f t h e b l a n k c a r d , the s u b j e c t i s i n s t r u c t e d t o i m a g i n e some p i c t u r e on t h e c a r d , d e s c r i b e i t , t h e n t e l l a s t o r y about i t . 48 whom the s u b j e c t can i d e n t i f y . Next t o t h e R o r s c h a c h , i t i s t h e most w i d e l y used o f a l l p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , y e t t h e r e i s s t i l l v e r y l i t t l e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the t e s t . As Gardner L i n d s e y p o i n t s o u t : 1 1 ....as u s e d c l i n i c a l l y , TAT" s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has n o t t y p i c a l l y r e s t e d upon a s e t o f o b j e c t i v e s c o r e s f o r s p e c i f i e d v a r i a b l e s . Much more cus t o m a r y has been the use o f t h e s t o r i e s as an a d d i t i o n a l b e h a v i o r a l d a t a w h i c h c o u l d be examined i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n -i n g t h e c a s e . The o r i g i n a l method o f a n a l y s i s p r o p o s e d by Murray depended upon an i n i t i a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a h e r o f i g u r e i n each s t o r y and t h e n an a n a l y s i s o f needs d i s p l a y e d by t h e h e r o i n each s t o r y , as w e l l as t h e p r e s s ( e n v i r o n m e n t a l f o r c e s ) t h a t a c t e d upon t h e h e r o . I t i s assumed t h a t t h e r e i s some k i n d o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e t e n d e n c i e s f e l t o r e x p r e s s e d by t h e h e r o i n t h e s t o r y and t h o s e t h a t e x i s t w i t h t h e s t o r y t e l l e r . A l t h o u g h t h i s method o f s c o r i n g TAT s t o r i e s i s one o f the most p o p u l a r o f t h e v a r i o u s schemes a v a i l a b l e , t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e s t r i c t i o n upon t h e i n t e r p r e t e r and he may use any system o f c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s he w i s h e s . 1 1 L i n d s e y , op_. c i t . , p. 68. 49 Sentence C o m p l e t i o n T e s t The s e n t e n c e c o m p l e t i o n t e s t , as t h e name i n d i c a t e s , i s a t e s t whereby t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a s e r i e s o f i n c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e s , g e n e r a l l y open a t t h e end, t o be c o m p l e t e d by him i n one o r more words. These s t a t e m e n t s c o n t a i n i n c o m p l e t e i d e a s and he i s a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e s e n t e n c e s as r a p i d l y as p o s s i b l e 1 2 w i t h the f i r s t words t h a t come t o h i s mind. F o r example: 1 . I l i k e t o shop i n an A.G. sup e r m a r k e t b e c a u s e . 2 . I t h i n k t h a t f o o d p r i c e s a r e 3. The t h i n g t h a t b o t h e r s me most about f o o d s h o p p i n g i n an A.G. s t o r e i s I n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f such s e n t e n c e s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r d e l i b e r a t e l y v a r i e s t h e i d e a s p r e s e n t e d so t h a t t h e s u b j e c t w i l l n o t be aware o f t h e s p e c i f i c s e n t e n c e s w h i c h a r e i n s e r t e d t o o b t a i n d a t a d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the pr o b l e m . M o r e o v e r , the p h r a s e s have t o be so c o n s t r u c t e d n o t t o g i v e any c l u e s as t o what m i g h t be the e x p e c t e d answer. The s e n t e n c e s can be d e s i g n e d t o assess a l a r g e number o f r e l a t i v e l y i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s o r a s i n g l e v a r i a b l e . However, t h e r e i s no p r e s s u r e f o r immediate a s s o c i a t i o n s . 50 The s e n t e n c e c o m p l e t i o n t e s t i s the b e s t known o f t h e c o m p l e t i o n t e c h n i q u e s and one o f t h e most w i d e l y u sed p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . However, t h e r e a r e so many m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f i t t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n s c o r i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and v e r y l i t t l e i n t h e way o f norms t h a t m i g h t a i d the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h t h e problem 1 3 o f making i n f e r e n c e s from p a r t i c u l a r t e s t p r o t o c o l s . The P i c t u r e F r u s t r a t i o n T e s t D e v i s e d by S a u l Rosenweig, t h e p i c t u r e f r u s t r a -t i o n s t u d y , o r more c o r r e c t l y r e f e r r e d t o as t h e P i c t u r e A s s o c i a t i o n Study f o r A s s e s s i n g R e a c t i o n s t o F r u s t r a t i o n s , c o n s i s t s o f 24 c a r t o o n - l i k e p i c t u r e s w i t h each p i c t u r e showing two p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s i n some form o f s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e . One o f them i s i n v o l v e d i n a m i l d l y f r u s t r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n o f common o c c u r e n c e ; the o t h e r p e r s o n i s s a y i n g something w h i c h e i t h e r g i v e s r i s e t o t h e f r u s t r a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e s o r c a l l s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f r u s t r a t e d p e r s o n . The speech b a l l o o n f o r t h e f r u s t r a t e d p e r s o n i s l e f t b l a n k and t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s asked t o f i l l i n t h e f i r s t t h o u g h t t h a t o c c u r s t o him w h i c h would be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r . The c h i e f e x c e p t i o n i s the R o t t e r I n c o m p l e t e Sentence T e s t w h i c h i s r e l a t i v e l y w e l l s t a n d a r d i z e d and i s accompanied by r e l a t i v e l y adequate norms f o r c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s o f p e o p l e . See Gardner L i n d s e y , op_. c i t . . p. 78. 5 1 The f r u s t r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n s a r e o f many t y p e s : 1. Ego b l o c k i n g - some o b s t r u c t i o n , p e r s o n a l o r i n p e r s o n a l , impedes, d i s a p p o i n t s , d e p r i v e s o r o t h e r w i s e t h w a r t s t h e c h a r a c t e r d i r e c t l y . 2 . Super-ego b l o c k i n g - t h e c h a r a c t e r i s i n s u l t e d , a c c u s e d , o r o t h e r w i s e d i s c r i m i n a t e d by a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r . The i n s t r u m e n t i s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e s c o r e s f o r a number o f v a r i a b l e s t h a t d e s c r i b e t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s 1 4 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mode o f d e a l i n g w i t h f r u s t r a t i o n . The p i c t u r e f r u s t r a t i o n t e s t i s based on the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e s u b j e c t i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h t h e f r u s t r a t e d c h a r a c t e r i n each p i c t u r e and p r o j e c t s h i s Each r e s p o n s e i s s c o r e d f o r : 1. d i r e c t i o n o f r e s p o n s e ( e x t r a p u n i t i v e , i n t r o - p u n i t i v e , o r i m p u n i t i v e ) . 2 . t y p e o r mode o f r e s p o n s e ( o b s t a c l e dominant, need p e r s i s t e n c e , ego d e f e n s i v e ) . C o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e two c a t e g o r i e s l e a d t o n i n e d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t o w h i c h each r e s p o n s e can be a s s i g n e d , e.g., e x t r a - p u n i t i v e - n e e d p e r s i s t e n c e , i m p u n i t i v e -o b s t a c l e dominant. By t o t a l l i n g t h e number o f r e s p o n s e s one can o b t a i n an o v e r - a l l s c o r e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y f o r t h e s u b j e c t t o employ each mode o f r e s p o n s e . The p i c t u r e a s s o c i a t i o n s t a n d s midway i n d e s i g n between t h e word a s s o c i a t i o n and t h e TAT. L i k e t h e word a s s o c i a t i o n , t h i s t e s t i s d e s i g n e d t o r e v e a l t h e f i r s t a s s o c i a t i o n , a l t h o u g h h e r e t h e s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l i s more complex and t h e r e s p o n s e s more complex and s t r u c t u r e d . 52 own b i a s i n t h e answer given» To p e r m i t such p r o j e c t i o n t h e f a c i a l f e a t u r e s and o t h e r e x p r e s s i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y 15 o f t h e p i c t u r e d c h a r a c t e r s a r e p u r p o s e l y o m i t t e d . R o l e P l a y i n g T h i s i s an a c t i o n t e c h n i q u e i n w h i c h t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s asked t o p l a y t h e r o l e o f a n o t h e r p e r s o n . He has t o p u t h i m s e l f i n the l a t t e r ' s p l a c e and t r y t o i m a g i n e how he would r e a c t i f he were under the same s i t u a t i o n . I t r e q u i r e s the s u b j e c t t o a c t o u t i n a more or l e s s p u b l i c s e t t i n g some k i n d o f p e r s o n a l l y r e l e v a n t drama o r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n . From t h e p r a c t i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w , the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s technique;.;is l i m i t e d by i t s demands on t h e t i m e , p e r s o n a l a c t i o n and p r o p e r t i e s . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t ' s r e s p o n s e i s u s u a l l y c o m p l e t e l y q u a l i t a t i v e and t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n t h e way o f o b j e c t i v e g u i d e p o s t s f o r the i n v e s t i g a t o r . There i s a l s o a l a c k o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and r e c o r d i n g . R e s e a r c h e r s who have made use o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e have m o d i f i e d i t . R a t h e r t h a n have the s u b j e c t a c t u a l l y a c t the r o l e , he i s asked t o use h i s i m a g i n a t i o n and t o r e s p o n d v e r b a l l y . "^Recent r e s e a r c h by E n g e l and Wales i n d i c a t e t h a t b e t t e r p r o j e c t i o n i s o b t a i n e d by u s i n g s t i c k p i c t u r e s i n s t e a d o f f u l l y c l o t h e d ones and by u s i n g a v e r y s k e t c h -l i k e t r e a t m e n t f o r background m a t e r i a l s ( c a r s , b ooks, s h e l v e s , e t c ). T h i s w i l l r e d u c e the b i a s d e r i v e d f r om s u g g e s t i n g a s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g by t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e f i g u r e s i n t h e c a r t o o n s . 53 Common C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s H a v i n g d i s c u s s e d some o f the i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s o f each t e s t , t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l c o n c l u d e w i t h some common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s . One s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f a l l t h e s e t e s t s t h a t have been d i s c u s s e d so f a r i s t h e i r i n d i r e c t a pproach i n o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . U n l i k e t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s e a r c h method o f q u e s t i o n i n g t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s a r e more s u b t l e . The r e s p o n d e n t s a r e n o t asked d i r e c t l y t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s towards any s u b j e c t m a t t e r , r a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n i s e l i c i t e d i n a rou n d - a b o u t o r i n d i r e c t way. S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e s p o n s e s a r e n o t t a k e n a t t h e i r f a c e v a l u e b u t the a t t i t u d e s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e deduced f r o m the r e p l i e s g i v e n . There i s a l a c k o f awareness on t h e p a r t o f t h e s u b j e c t as t o t h e purpose o f t h e t e s t . S i n c e t h e s p e c i f i c p urpose o f t h e t e s t i s n o t a p p a r e n t , t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e u n a b l e t o a t t e m p t t o .. c r e a t e t h e d e s i r e d i m p r e s s i o n s o r answers. I n some c a s e s an i n t e l l i g e n t s u b j e c t who i s f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s m i g h t s u s p e c t t h e g e n e r a l g o a l o f t h e ex a m i n e r . However, he w i l l n o t be a b l e t o guess how h i s answers w i l l be i n t e r p r e t e d . P r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s a r e f r e e and u n s t r u c t u r e d , i . e . , t h e y a l l o w t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o m a n i p u l a t e o r r e a c t t o t he s i t u a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 54 o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . As Lawrence Frank p o i n t s o u t , "The e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e o f a p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e i s t h a t i t evokes f r o m th e s u b j e c t what i s i n v a r i o u s ways o f e x p r e s s i v e o f h i s p r i v a t e w o r l d and p e r s o n a l i t y 16 p r o c e s s . " The r e s p o n s e s a r e n o t l i m i t e d o r r e s t r i c t e d as i n some of t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l methods where the i n t e r v i e w e e i s f o r c e d t o choose h i s answer from a s e l e c t e d range o f c h o i c e s . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , the number of ways o f r e s p o n d i n g a r e u n l i m i t e d . The i n d i v i d u a l i s bound o n l y by t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s o f the language and h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l make-up. These t e s t s a r e s e n s i t i v e t o t h e u n c o n s c i o u s o r l a t e n t a s p e c t s of p e r s o n a l i t y . One o f t h e i m p l i c i t a s s u m p t i o n s i s t h a t t h e y may u n c o v e r p r i v a t e t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s o f the i n d i v i d u a l . I n t u i t i v e l y , i t i s e a s y t o p e r c e i v e one t r y i n g i n e v e r y way t o h i d e h i s r e a l a t t i t u d e s i n c e r t a i n a r e a s by l y i n g o r d i s t o r t -i n g the answers and r e s o r t i n g t o s t e r e o t y p e d r e p l i e s . I t i s hoped t h a t t h e s u b j e c t w i l l become so a b s orbed i n e x p l a i n i n g what seems t o be an o b j e c t i v e b i t o f m a t e r i a l t h a t he l o s e s s i g h t o f the f a c t t h a t i n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n he d i s c l o s e s h i s w i s h e s , f e a r s and a s p i r a t i o n s . Lawrence K. F r a n k , " P r o j e c t i v e Methods f o r t h e S tudy o f P e r s o n a l i t y , " J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , V I I I ( 1 9 3 9 ) , p. 47. 55 T h e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e m a d e t o f e e l t h a t t h e r e a r e n o r i g h t o r w r o n g a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s . T h e y a r e a s k e d t o u s e t h e i r i m a g i n a t i o n a n d g i v e t h e r e p l i e s t h e y t h i n k a r e a p p r o p r i a t e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s t h a t d o n o t m e e t a l l t h e s e c r i t e r i a a n d t h e r e a r e n o n - p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s t h a t m e e t o n e o r m o r e r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s w i l l m e e t t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a n w i l l n o n -p r o j e c t i v e m e a s u r e s . S u m m a r y A l t h o u g h p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s w e r e d e v e l o p e d a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s b y d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e a n d f o r d i f f e r e n t p u r p o s e s o r i g i n a l l y , t h e r e i s r u n n i n g t h r o u g h m o s t o f t h e m s o m e d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s w h i c h b i n d t h e m t o g e t h e r t o f o r m a c l a s s o f t h e i r o w n , d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s . T h i s c h a p t e r w a s o n l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s o m e o f t h e m o r e p o p u l a r t e s t s . T h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i n c o n s u m e r r e s e a r c h . 5 6 CHAPTER V PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES I N CONSUMER ATTITUDE RESEARCH I n t r o d u c t i o n H a v i n g examined some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a t t i t u d e s as w e l l as o f each s e l e c t e d p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e , we now t u r n t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e t e s t s i n consumer a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h . How each t e s t can be u s e d t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e consumer w i l l be shown. I l l u s t r a t i o n s w i l l be g i v e n o f a c t u a l consumer s u r v e y s t h a t have been c a r r i e d o u t u s i n g t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s . Some o f t h e advantages o f u s i n g t h e s e t o o l s as compared t o t h e d i r e c t method o f q u e s t i o n i n g w i l l be a n a l y s e d . Y e t one s h o u l d n o t f o r g e t t h a t p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s a r e b u i l t on c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s . Thus, t h e y work b e t t e r under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . They a r e n o t a p p r o p r i a t e under a l l c o n d i t i o n s . Some o f t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The M a r k e t i n g A p p l i c a t i o n s o f  P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i g u e s Word A s s o c i a t i o n T e s t . Because o f the l i m i t e d i n f o r -m a t i o n i t r e v e a l s , t h e word a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t i s n o t t h e p r i n c i p a l method used i n most m a r k e t i n g s u r v e y s . I t i s 57 u s e f u l as a p r e l i m i n a r y p r o b i n g t o o l t h a t must be supplemented by o t h e r r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s b e f o r e any v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s can be r e a c h e d . The word a s s o c i a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e and e a s y t o a d m i n i s t e r . The u s u a l approach would be f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w e r t o i n s t r u c t t h e r e s p o n d e n t c a r e f u l l y : "Here i s a l i s t o f words w h i c h I w i l l r e a d a l o u d one a t a t i m e . I want you t o say t h e f i r s t word t h a t comes t o y o u r mind. F o r example, i f I say t h e word 'hot' you might say ' c o l d ' o r f o r 'book' you m i g h t say ' r e a d ' . " The word l i s t u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f a number o f c r u c i a l words p l a c e d a t random among some r e l a t i v e l y n e u t r a l words. These words s h o u l d n o t be t o o i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d o r o b t r u s i v e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t n o t t o use d i f f e r e n t i n f l e c t i o n s , emphasis o r mannerisms when t h e s i g n i f i c a n t words a r e r e a d and t o n o t e c a r e f u l l y t h e s u b j e c t ' s r e a c t i o n i n d e t a i l . To i l l u s t r a t e , i n t h e Donahue S a l e s C o r p o r a t i o n Home Sewing S t u d y 1 t h e word a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t was used t o f i n d o u t consumer r e a c t i o n s t o a number o f words and p h r a s e s such as z i p p e r s , b u t t o n s , snaps, making a d r e s s , and T a l o n z i p p e r s . I f t h e same word p r o d u c e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e number J o s e p h Wo Newman, M o t i v a t i o n R e s e a r c h and  M a r k e t i n g Management,(Boston: H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s S c h o o l , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 426. 5 8 o f " h e s i t a t i o n s " among v a r i o u s p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d and a l s o among s t i l l o t h e r s a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f "no r e s p o n s e s " , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t i t i s a d a n g e r o u s l y o r c o m m e r c i a l l y u n p r o m i s i n g w o r d . B u t i f a word e v o k e s many " h e s i t a t i o n s " b u t f e w , i f a n y , "no r e s p o n s e s " , i t i s u s u a l l y r e g a r d e d as a word w o r t h y o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c e i t i s a " c h a r g e d " w o r d . 2 I n a s e c o n d s t u d y , S o c i a l R e s e a r c h I n c . c o n d u c t e d a s u r v e y on consumer a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s s o a p s , c h e m i c a l s and d e t e r g e n t s . The r e s p o n d e n t s were g i v e n words by t h e i n t e r v i e w e r w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s t o r e s p o n d w i t h t h e f i r s t word t h a t came t o m i n d . E x a m p l e s o f t h e words u s e d w e r e : t o w e l s , s u d s y , homemaker, s c r u b , s o i l e d , f a m i l y , b a b i e s , d e t e r g e n t s , S p i c - a n d - S p a n . From t h e r e s p o n s e s g i v e n i t was p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n some c u e s as t o what a g i v e n word means . When s e v e r a l t e s t r e s u l t s a r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r , t a b u l a t e d and s t u d i e d by c o m p e t e n t l y t r a i n e d a n a l y s t s , t h e y may p r o d u c e v a l u a b l e r e s u l t s . Y e t t h i s t o o l has b e e n c r i t i c i z e d b e c a u s e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i t e v o k e s i s t o o s c a n t y t o be r e l i a b l e . No t k n o w i n g t h e s u b j e c t ' s i n t e r -n a l f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e , one c o u l d i n t e r p r e t t h e d a t a i n many ways and i t may be d i f f i c u l t t o s a y w i t h c e r t a i n t y w h e t h e r t h e c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t ' s 2 I b i d . , p. 426 59 a t t i t u d e s from s i n g l e word responses were c o r r e c t . Moreover, t h i s t e s t i s q u i t e well-known and most s u b j e c t s are aware t h a t the examiner i s i n t e r e s t e d i n knowling h i s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the given words, so t h a t they c o u l d , i f they were uncooperative, r e s o r t to stereotyped answers. This can happen q u i t e e a s i l y i f the t e s t i s administered too s l o w l y . Another problem i s i n judging the emotional r e a c t i o n s of the respondents d u r i n g the t e s t . I t c a l l s f o r competence and f l a i r i n judging human r e a c t i o n s . The word a s s o c i a t i o n has been s u c c e s s f u l l y used i n s t u d y i n g consumers' to brand names, company names, a d v e r t i s i n g slogans and themes. I t i s c e r t a i n l y a u s e f u l and handy device f o r the r e s e a r c h e r , but i t should be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h other techniques i f v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s on consumer a t t i t u d e s are to be drawn. Rorschach Ink B l o t Test. The Rorschach i n k b l o t t e s t has not, to the author's knowledge, been used very o f t e n i n 3 consumer a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h . This i s due c h i e f l y to the f a c t t h a t t h i s technique.sis not f l e x i b l e and can only be used i n i t s s t a n d a r d i z e d form. U n l i k e the other p r o j e c t i v e techniques which can be m o d i f i e d , the o r i g i n a l form of the The Rorschach i n k b l o t t e s t has been i n c l u d e d here to i l l u s t r a t e t h a t not a l l p r o j e c t i v e techniques are s u i t a b l e f o r consumer r e s e a r c h , although they might be popular t o o l s among c l i n i c i a n s . 60 i n k b l o t s have to be u s e d . Thus i t cannot be r e a d i l y -adapted to meet any s p e c i f i c r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m . I t has been p o i n t e d out t h a t much o f the d a t a o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h the use o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s u s e l e s s to the m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h e r . I t r e v e a l s i n f o r m a t i o n on the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l and n o t h i s a t t i t u d e s o r f e e l i n g s , and thus i s n o t a p p r o p r i a t e i n the s t u d y o f consumer a t t i t u d e s . M o r e o v e r , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e s i g n an e x p e r i m e n t u s i n g the o r i g i n a l form o f the i n k b l o t s f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . T h e m a t i c A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t . I t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o v i s u a l i z e how the T h e m a t i c A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t can be used i n consumer r e s e a r c h . I n s t e a d o f u s i n g the p i c t u r e s o r i g i n a l l y d e v e l o p e d by Murray and Morgan , the m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h e r can s u b s t i t u t e w i t h those p e r t i n e n t to h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d y . An a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e was c a r r i e d 4 out by S o c i a l R e s e a r c h I n c . One o f the p i c t u r e s used showed an open highway as seen from the d r i v e r ' s s e a t . Hands were shown on the s t e e r i n g wheel w i t h the s p e e d -ometer r e a d i n g 70 m i l e s per h o u r . The consumer w a s asked t o p u t h i m s e l f i n t o t h a t p o s i t i o n and to say what k i n d o f t h i n g s came t o h i s m i n d . I t i s assumed t h a t the r e s p o n d e n t 4 Newman, op_. c i t . , p p . 72-155. 61 w i l l i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f w i t h the c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e p i c t u r e s and w i l l p r o j e c t h i s own a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s i n the r e s p o n s e s . Respondents t o l d s t o r i e s o f how f u n i t was t o go f a s t on an open r o a d , b u t i t was a l s o someone e l s e d o i n g i t . Among o t h e r f i n d i n g s , the p i c t u r e b r o u g h t o u t c o n t r a d i c t o r y a t t i t u d e s t oward speed. Responses were i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t speed i n v o l v e d b o t h p l e a s u r e and f e a r . W h i l e speed i s wrong, a c a r s h o u l d n e v e r t h e l e s s be c a p a b l e o f h i g h speed. The i l l u s t r a t i o n s u s e d i n t h i s method a r e f u l l p i c t u r e s , n o t c a r t o o n s . Thus t h e s i t u a t i o n t h e y a t t e m p t t o p o r t r a y w i l l l o o k more r e a l i s t i c . I t i s e a s i e r f o r th e r e s p o n d e n t t o p u t h i m s e l f i n the p l a c e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e p i c t u r e . An i n t e r e s t i n g a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e TAT was i t s use i n s t u d y i n g consumers' r e a c t i o n s t o an a d v e r t i s e m e n t . ^ The i n v e s t i g a t o r s were i n t e r e s t e d t o know the consumer a t t i t u d e s t o a w e l l - k n o w n p a i n t i n g by Gaugin f o r a new f r a g r a n c e , "Naomi." The p a i n t i n g f e a t u r e d two South Seas g g i r l s . F o ur p i c t u r e s were shown t o the r e s p o n d e n t s . One of them t h e c r i t i c a l p i c t u r e , "Naomi," and t h e second George H, S m i t h , M o t i v a t i o n R e s e a r c h i n A d v e r -t i s i n g and M a r k e t i n g , ( N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., 1 9 5 4 ) , pp. 170-172. g The sample c o n s i s t e d o f 50 women c a r e f u l l y c h o s en t o r e p r e s e n t t h e d e s i r e d p o p u l a t i o n . 62 p i c t u r e , "Naomi-2" r e p r e s e n t e d a young A m e r i c a n g i r l 7 c l a s p i n g f l o w e r s . The f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n ; " I ' d l i k e you t o make up a s t o r y about each p i c t u r e . Use y o u r i m a g i n a t i o n . What a r e t h e i r f e e l i n g s , moods, and so on. You have as much t i m e as you need." The s t o r i e s r e v e a l e d t h e women's a t t i t u d e s t o wards the two p i c t u r e s . The f i r s t p i c t u r e (Naomi) c r e a t e d images o f h e a v y - s e t n a t i v e women alwa y s d o i n g housework c h o r e s , unglamorous, and u n r o m a n t i c . Respondents i m a g i n e d t h a t women who p r e f e r r e d "Naomi" perfume would be o l d e r , f a i r l y heavy, and d a r k - s k i n n e d . O b v i o u s l y , t h e y d i d n o t want t o i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h i s t y p e o f woman. The second p i c t u r e (Naomi-2) a r o u s e d p l e a s a n t and r o m a n t i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . The women were eager t o i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e g i r l and the f r a g r a n c e w h i c h s y m b o l i z e d y o u t h , romance, b e a u t y , e t c . I n l i g h t o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d , t he d e c i s i o n was made n o t t o use t h e Gaugin p a i n t i n g t o a d v e r t i s e t h e new perfume. I n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e o t h e r p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , TAT p r o v i d e s more m a t e r i a l f o r the examiner t o work on. Y e t , t h i s can be a weakness o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t . A n a l y s i s Two o t h e r p i c t u r e s s y m b o l i z i n g a f r a g r a n c e c a l l e d "White G l o v e " were i n c l u d e d as c o n t r o l s . 63 of the data could be time consuming and d i f f i c u l t . Marketing r e s e a r c h e r s have not developed any o b j e c t i v e s c o r i n g system f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g the data. Thus the c o n c l u s i o n s drawn r e l y h e a v i l y on the s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the examiner. Although p r o j e c t i v e techniques operate on the p r i n c i p l e of an u n s t r u c t u r e d t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n , the s u b j e c t s have to be guided i n t h e i r s t o r y - t e l l i n g i f they g are to provide m a t e r i a l r e l e v a n t to the s i t u a t i o n . This has to be c a r r i e d out c a r e f u l l y to avoid p u t t i n g words i n t o the respondent's mouth. Perhaps one of the main weaknesses of t h i s technique i s t h a t the responses r e s t upon the complex l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s , so t h a t f o r the s u b j e c t , who because of education or i n t e l l i g e n c e f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t to manipulate v e r b a l symbols, the t e s t i s r e l a t i v e l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e . g The problem of the t e s t design w i l l be brought up again i n Chapter S i x . 9 . . . Gardner Lmdsey, P r o i e c t i v e Technigues and C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Research, (New York: Appleton-Century-C r o f t s , I n c . , 1961), p. 73. 64 Sentence C o m p l e t i o n T e s t . The s e n t e n c e c o m p l e t i o n i s t h e b e s t known o f the c o m p l e t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . I t i s f a v o r e d by many i n v e s t i g a t o r s because o f i t s f l e x i b i l i t y . I t c an be a d a p t e d f a i r l y e a s i l y i n o r d e r t o evoke r e s p o n s e s r e l e v a n t t o a p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e . I t assumes t h a t some p e o p l e have v e r b a l i n e r t i a . They w i l l u s u a l l y t a l k once one can g e t them s t a r t e d . F o r example, t o s t u d y consumer a t t i t u d e s t oward c o f f e e , t h e s e i n c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e s can be u s e d : 1 ^ Powdered c o f f e e . . . . . The n i c e s t c o f f e e C o f f e e t h a t i s q u i c k l y made................... She was ashamed o f t h e c o f f e e she had j u s t s e r v e d b e c a u s e . The t h i n g I e n j o y most about c o f f e e P e o p l e who n e v e r d r i n k c o f f e e On t h e o t h e r hand., i f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i s c o n c e r n e d about h o u s e w i v e s ' a t t i t u d e s toward d o m e s t i c c h o r e s i n g e n e r a l , t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e s can be g i v e n : What I l i k e b e s t about l o o k i n g a f t e r a house i s Women who go o u t t o work Housework. • x ^ H a r r y Henry, M o t i v a t i o n R e s e a r c h : I t s P r a c t i c e s  and Uses f o r A d v e r t i s i n g . M a r k e t i n g and Ot h e r B u s i n e s s  Purposes,(New Y o r k : F r e d e r i c k Ungar P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1958) pp. 59-60. 65 T i n n e d f o o d s S l a v i n g o v e r a h o t s t o v e . ...... <,....«....... . Women who use l a b o r - s a v i n g d e v i c e s 11 L O O k i n C J e l f t e i T cl f cLrnily© • Q O O O O OQOOOOOOOOOOOOOO The a s s u m p t i o n u n d e r l y i n g the use o f t h i s method i s t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s so c o n c e r n e d w i t h g e t t i n g an answer t h a t he c a n n o t be t o o c o n c e r n e d w i t h what he i s s a y i n g and t h a t h i s u n c o n s c i o u s mind has a much g r e a t e r chance o f e x p r e s s i n g i t s e l f . The r e s p o n d e n t m i g h t f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o c o m p l e t e t h e g i v e n p h r a s e s and because he i s so eager t o say s o m e t h i n g , h i s d e f e n s e s ar e down. But i t i s n o t always p o s s i b l e t o c o n c e a l from t h e r e s p o n d e n t s j u s t what i s b e i n g s o u g h t . An i n t e l l i g e n t s u b j e c t would be a b l e t o s p o t t h e " t r a p " and c o u l d produce a r a t i o n a l i z e d answer. S i n c e t h e t e s t i s r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e t o d e s i g n and t o a d m i n i s t e r , i t has been used i n many m a r k e t i n g s u r v e y s . I t was one o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s employed by S o c i a l R e s e a r c h I n c . i n a s u r v e y e n t i t l e d , " A u t o m o b i l e s -12 What t h e y Mean t o A m e r i c a n s , "J,.: I n t h i s s t u d y a number of i n c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e s were u s e d . Among o t h e r f i n d i n g s , t h i s t e s t r e v e a l e d t h a t men and women had d i f f e r e n t i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s t oward a u t o m o b i l e s . The r e p l i e s f r o m t h e women t o t h e s e n t e n c e stem, "When you g e t a c a r . . . . . . " 1 1 I b i d _ 5 _ , p. 60. 12 Newman, op_. c i t . , p. 246. 66 i n c l u d e d : ......you c a n ' t w a i t t i l l you t a k e a r i d e . ......you c o u l d go f o r a r i d e . t a k e r i d e s i n i t . The men r e s p o n d e d t o t h e same stem as f o l l o w s : • you t a k e good c a r e o f i t . I want t o make d a r n s u r e i t has a good c o a t o f wax. check t h e e n g i n e . To a n o t h e r s e n t e n c e stem, "A c a r o f y o u r own " t h e women's r e s p o n s e s i n c l u d e d : . . . . . . i s a p l e a s a n t c o n v e n i e n c e . . . . . . . i s f i n e t o have. . . . . . . i s n i c e t o have. The men's r e s p o n s e s t o the same s e n t e n c e stem i n c l u d e d : I would t a k e c a r e o f . . . . . . . i s a good t h i n g . ......oh, a b s o l u t e l y a n e c e s s i t y . A c o n c l u s i o n r e a c h e d from the above f i n d i n g s was t h a t an a u t o m o b i l e t o a woman was something t o use and t h a t p r i d e o f o w n e r s h i p was r e f l e c t e d by b e i n g seen i n the c a r . F o r men, t h e a u t o m o b i l e was something w h i c h t h e y s h o u l d p r o t e c t and f o r whi c h t h e y s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e . The p r i d e t h e y had i n t h e i r c a r was o f a d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e . They t o o k p r i d e i n k e e p i n g t h e i r c a r i n good 67 c o n d i t i o n . L i k e t h e word a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t , t h e s e n t e n c e c o m p l e t i o n t e s t i s a s i m p l e y e t u s e f u l d e v i c e f o r the m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h e r . I t seems t o be a b e t t e r i n s t r u m e n t t o use i n t h e s t u d y o f consumer a t t i t u d e s because i t n arrows t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s f i e l d o f r e p l i e s , t h e r e f o r e making the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the d a t a e a s i e r . I t has a f u r t h e r advantage compared t o t h e TAT o r R o r s c h a c h because o f t h e r e l a t i v e economy o f t i m e and e f f o r t i n v o l v e d i n c o l l e c t i n g and a n a l y s i n g t h e r e s p o n s e s . But one s h o u l d remember t h a t t h e r e s u l t o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o b u i l d i m p o r t a n t p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n s . I t s h o u l d be supplemented by o t h e r methods as w e l l . P i c t u r e F r u s t r a t i o n T e s t . The p i c t u r e f r u s t r a t i o n t e s t has been one o f t h e most p o p u l a r p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s among m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h e r s . Both group and i n d i v i d u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s p r a c t i c a l . I n b o t h c a s e s , each s u b j e c t i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h a t e s t l e a f l e t and on t h e o u t s i d e page a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s : "Each o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n t a i n s two o r more p e o p l e . One p e r s o n i s always shown s a y i n g c e r t a i n words t o a n o t h e r . You a r e asked t o w r i t e i n the empty space These f i n d i n g s w i l l be v a l u a b l e t o a c a r m a n u f a c t u r e r i n making d e c i s i o n s on t h e d e s i g n of c a r s , o r t o t h e d e a l e r i n p l a n n i n g m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g i e s . 68 t h e f i r s t words t h a t come t o mind„ A v o i d b e i n g 14 humorous. Work as q u i c k l y as you c a n . " I n i n d i v i d u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h e s u b j e c t i s asked t o r e a d h i s answers o u t l o u d and t h e examiner n o t e s o t h e r r e s p o n s e s , e.g., a s a r c a s t i c tone o f v o i c e w h i c h may h e l p i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f th e r e s p o n s e s . A l t h o u g h t h e t e s t was o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d around a f r u s t r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n i t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y have t o be s o . I n s t e a d r e s p o n d e n t s may be asked t o r e s o l v e a p r o b l e m . T h i s t e c h n i q u e was used t o s t u d y consumer a t t i t u d e s towards a u t o m o b i l e i n s u r a n c e . 1 ^ The r e s p o n d e n t s were shown some c a r t o o n s , two o f whi c h were : 1. A woman and a man, w i t h t h e woman s a y i n g , " H e r e ' s an a d v e r t i s e m e n t t h a t s a ys you can save as much as 40 p e r c e n t on y o u r a u t o i n s u r a n c e . Do you t h i n k we ought t o l o o k i n t o i t when o u r s e x p i r e s n e x t month?" The man's b a l l o o n i s l e f t b l a n k . 2. Two men, w i t h one s a y i n g , "Yes, t h a t company's a u t o i n s u r a n c e i s n o t e x p e n s i v e as some, b u t S a u l Rosenweig, "The P i c t u r e A s s o c i a t i o n Method and I t s A p p l i c a t i o n i n a Study o f R e a c t i o n s t o F r u s t r a t i o n s , " J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y , V o l . 14,No. 1, (September, 1 9 4 5 ) , p. 7. S m i t h , op. c i t . , p p . 170-172. 69 w h a t k i n d o f s a t i s f a c t i o n do t h e y g i v e y o u i f y o u h a d an a c c i d e n t . The s e c o n d ' m a n ' s b a l l o o n i s l e f t b l a n k . The i n t e r v i e w e e s w e r e a s k e d t o i m a g i n e w h a t t h e s e c o n d p e r s o n m i g h t r e p l y . Some o f t h e r e p l i e s t o t h e f i r s t c a r t o o n w e r e : 1. I ' l l l o o k i n t o i t - o f c o u r s e , w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n . 2. I f we c a n s a v e 40 p e r c e n t , we h a d b e t t e r l o o k i n t o i t . 3. I w o u l d be s u s p i c i o u s o f t h a t a n d 40 p e r c e n t o f f i s q u i t e a b i t . 4. I d o n ' t b e l i e v e t h e r e ' s s u c h a company - c a n ' t b e a r e l i a b l e o n e . I t i s n o t d i f f i c u l t t o come t o some c o n c l u s i o n s on t h e r e a c t i o n s o f c o n s u m e r s t o a p r i c e a p p e a l i n a u t o i n s u r a n c e . The g r e a t s t r e n g t h o f t h i s m e t h o d l i e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t p e o p l e a r e p r e p a r e d t o p u t i n t o t h e m o u t h o f a t h i r d p e r s o n w h a t t h e y m i g h t h e s i t a t e t o a d m i t on t h e i r own a c c o u n t . The i n t e r v i e w e e i s a s k e d t o i m a g i n e how t h e p e r s o n i n t h e c a r t o o n w i l l r e a c t . A s he d o e s t h i s he w i l l u n c o n s c i o u s l y i n j e c t h i s own f e e l i n g s a n d a t t i t u d e s i n t o t h e p i c t u r e . R e s p o n d e n t s seem t o e n j o y w o r k i n g w i t h c a r t o o n s a n d i t i s e a s i e r t o e n l i s t t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n . P i c t o r i a l m e t h o d s p r e s e n t a p r o b l e m more c l e a r l y a n d e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n v e r b a l t e c h n i q u e s . The p i c t u r e s a r e j u s t r o u g h 70 s k e t c h e s and can be adapted t o meet the needs o f t h e m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h e r s . A l l s o r t s o f s i t u a t i o n s can be r e p r e s e n t e d , e.g., a scene showing two h o u s e w i v e s , a husband and w i f e , o r a p u r c h a s e r and s h opkeeper. Not o n l y i s t h e d r a w i n g f l e x i b l e b u t t h e w o r d i n g o f t h e c a r t o o n can a l s o be d e s i g n e d t o f o c u s on w h a t e v e r a s p e c t i s r e q u i r e d . To f i n d consumer a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a p a r t i c u l a r b r a n d o f cake mix, a c a r t o o n can be p r e s e n t e d showing two h o u s e w i v e s s i t t i n g o v e r a t a b l e w i t h one s a y i n g , "Would you l i k e a p i e c e o f X p i e ? " , ( X b e i n g a b r a n d name). A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h i s scene c o u l d show a salesman and a h o u s e w i f e w i t h t h e f o r m e r s a y i n g , " S o r r y , we a r e o u t o f X p i e . Do you want a n o t h e r t y p e i n s t e a d ? " To i l l u s t r a t e , a m i l k company f e l t t h a t the p e o p l e o f a c e r t a i n c i t y had an u n f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e toward i t s company. The s a l e s f o r c e r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t compete s u c c e s s f u l l y because t h e i r m i l k was t h o u g h t t o be low i n b u t t e r f a t and u n c l e a n . The p r e s i d e n t was p l a n n i n g a major change i n company p o l i c y . He was n o t c e r t a i n t h a t t h e u n f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e e x i s t e d and how i t . m i g h t i n f l u e n c e t h e new p o l i c y . A s u r v e y was c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e th e a t t i t u d e o f t h e p e o p l e towards t h e m i l k company and the p i c t u r e f r u s t r a t i o n t e s t was one o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s employed. One o f t h e p i c t u r e s M a r t i n Zober, "Some P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s A p p l i e d t o M a r k e t i n g R e s e a r c h , " J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g , V o l . 20, ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 5 6 ) , pp. 262-268. 71 used was a scene where two women were t a l k i n g over the backyard f e n c e . The f i r s t woman i s s a y i n g , "Mrs. Jones has j u s t changed m i l k companies. Are you going t o change, t o o ? " Another scene shows two women i n a g r o c e r y s t o r e . One i s pushing a c a r t and the oth e r i s bending over a l a r g e r e f r i g e r a t e d c a se. The f i r s t woman says, "Would you get me a b o t t l e of m i l k w h i l e you are bending down -any brand - t h e y ' r e a l l the same." In both c a r t o o n s , the b a l l o o n f o r the second person was l e f t b l a n k . The responses:' i n d i c a t e d t h a t the m i l k company d i d n ot have an u n f a v o r a b l e r e p u t a t i o n i n the minds of the responde n t s . A t y p i c a l response was, " A l l m i l k i s pro c e s s e d under the same s t a t e laws so one i s n ' t much b e t t e r than the o t h e r . " On the b a s i s of t h i s f i n d i n g the company launched a new p r i c i n g p o l i c y and has been v e r y s u c c e s s f u l with i t . Although i t has many advantages, one of the drawbacks o f u s i n g the p i c t u r e f r u s t r a t i o n t e s t i s i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the d a t a . I t i s not c l e a r whether the responses r e p r e s e n t : a. what the s u b j e c t would do i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n , b. what he t h i n k s he ought t o do, or c. what he f e e l s l i k e d o i ng but would not actually„do„ I t has been observed t h a t the c a r t o o n responses take the form of a "symbolic c o n v e r s a t i o n " between the person i n t e r v i e w e d and the p r i n c i p a l s u b j e c t i n the c a r t o o n . T h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n o f t e n seems u n r e l a t e d to 72 what t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s a c t u a l b e h a v i o r m i g h t be i f t h e • 17 s t i m u l u s o c c u r e d i n r e a l i t y . The c a r t o o n method s h a r e s t h e same problem as t h e TAT i n t h a t time and e f f o r t s h o u l d be d e v o t e d t o p r e p a r i n g a p r e c i s e and a c c u r a t e p i c t o r i a l s t i m u l i , s p e c i f i c a l l y o r i e n t e d toward t h e d e s i r e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e problem i n v o l v e d may o u t w e i g h t h e v a l u e o f t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s and e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n may be o b s e r v e d a t l e s s e x p e n d i t u r e , t i m e , 18 and money w i t h v e r b a l open-ended q u e s t i o n s . R o l e P l a y i n g . A l t h o u g h r o l e p l a y i n g i s a s e p a r a t e t e s t o f i t s own, t h e p r o c e s s o c c u r s i n most o f t h e p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , e.g., TAT, p i c t u r e f r u s t r a t i o n , s t o r y c o m p l e t i o n . The r e s p o n d e n t i s asked t o p u t h i m s e l f i n t h e p l a c e o f a t h i r d p e r s o n and t o l o o k a t t h e s i t u a t i o n f r o m t h e i m p e r s o n a l p o i n t o f v i e w . T h i s w i l l draw h i s a t t e n t i o n away from t h e i d e a t h a t the i n v e s t i g a t o r i s a c t u a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s . One o f t h e e a r l i e s t (and c e r t a i n l y b e s t known) examples comes from an e n q u i r y c a r r i e d o u t by Mason H a i r e James F. E n g e l , "A Study o f a S e l e c t e d P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e i n Consumer R e s e a r c h , " U n p u b l i s h e d PhD. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , ( 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 219. I b i d . , p. 222. 7 3 a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a i n 1949. A c o n v e n t i o n a l s u r v e y o f a t t i t u d e s toward N e s c a f e r e v e a l e d t h a t most o f the consumers d i s l i k e d 20 i n s t a n t c o f f e e B The b u l k o f t h e r e s p o n s e s f e l l i n t o t h e g e n e r a l a r e a - " I don't l i k e t he f l a v o r . " H a i r e s u s p e c t e d t h i s t o be a s t e r e o t y p e d answer so he used an i n d i r e c t a p p r o a c h t o g e t b e h i n d the f a c a d e . Two s h o p p i n g l i s t s c o n t a i n i n g seven i t e m s each and i d e n t i c a l i n a l l r e s p e c t s e x c e p t t h a t one i n c l u d e d t h e i t e m , " N e s c a f e c o f f e e ( d r i p g r i n d ) " , were g i v e n t o a sample o f housewives w i t h the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s : "Read t h e s h o p p i n g l i s t b elow. T r y t o p r o j e c t y o u r s e l f i n t o t he s i t u a t i o n as f a r as p o s s i b l e u n t i l you can more or l e s s c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e woman who bought t h e g r o c e r i e s . Then, w r i t e a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f h e r p e r s o n a l i t y and c h a r a c t e r . " About h a l f the housewives who were shown t h e sh o p p i n g l i s t w i t h t h e N e s c a f e i t e m d e s c r i b e d t h e woman as l a z y , a s p e n d t h r i f t , a poor w i f e o r as f a i l i n g t o p l a n h o u s e h o l d p u r c h a s e s w e l l . From t h e s e f i n d i n g s a l o n e i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o t e l l w h i c h i t e m s on t h e l i s t were c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s i d e a . The r e s u l t s o f the second l i s t , (one c o n t a i n i n g t h e M a x w e l l House c o f f e e ) , showed t h a t Mason H a i r e , " P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s i n M a r k e t -i n g R e s e a r c h , " J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g , V o l . 14, ( A p r i l 1950) pp. 649-656. 20 T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d e d t h e q u e s t i o n s , "Do you use i n s t a n t c o f f e e ? ( I f no, what do you d i s l i k e about i t ? " 74 no one described the woman with t h i s shopping l i s t as lazy and only 12 percent described her as f a i l i n g to plan household purchases. I t can be concluded that i t was the presence of the Nescafe item on the l i s t which lead to these unfavorable connations and hence a great deal can be deduced through t h i s p rojective technique;; about housewives' attitudes toward Nescafe. Those who rejected i n s t a n t coffee i n the o r i g i n a l question blamed i t s f l a v o r , but t h e i r d i s l i k e was due to t h e i r fear of being seen by one's s e l f and others i n the r o l e they projected onto the Nescafe woman i n the d e s c r i p t i o n . When asked d i r e c t l y i t i s d i f f i c u l t to say, "I don't use Nescafe because people w i l l think I am a lazy and not a good wife." Yet, we know from these data the f e e l i n g 21 regarding laziness and t h r i f t l e s s n e s s was there. The r o l e playing technique i s a valuable device for studying att i t u d e s i f one can be c e r t a i n that the respondent does i n f a c t project h i s atti t u d e s i n t o the pi c t u r e . I t i s possible that some answers r e f l e c t the subject's opinions of how the t h i r d person might behave. Studies should be c a r r i e d out to determine the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of t h i s instrument. 21 Smith, op_. c i t . 101. 75 Advantages o f U s i n g P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s We have seen how p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s can be used inv consumer r e s e a r c h and f o r each t e s t some o f the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses were p o i n t e d o u t . I n t h i s s e c t i o n some advantages common t o a l l t h e p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . A l t h o u g h i n some p l a c e s t h i s w i l l be a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e p r e c e e d i n g s e c t i o n , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o g i v e a more c o h e s i v e p i c t u r e o f t h i s t o o l i n consumer r e s e a r c h . One o f the most v a l u a b l e assets:;-of'; thee p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e i s t h a t i t i s " d i s g u i s e d " , i . e . , i t c o n c e a l s f r o m t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h e i n t e n t o f t h e measurements. The r e l u c t a n c e t o r e v e a l t r u t h f u l and a c c u r a t e answers i s a s e r i o u s p r o blem i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s t h a t m i g h t t h r e a t e n the e x t e r n a l image o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t . He m i g h t t r y t o guess t h e answers t h a t he b e l i e v e s he i s supposed t o g i v e r a t h e r t h a n admit h i s i g n o r a n c e o r r e v e a l h i s p r i v a t e f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s . He c o u l d f a b r i c a t e h i s r e s p o n s e s a c c o r d i n g t o what he t h i n k s i s e x p e c t e d o f him o u t o f t h e goodness o f h i s h e a r t t o p l e a s e t h e i n t e r v i e w e r . I f he i s unaware o f t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h e q u e s t i o n he i s l e s s l i k e l y t o d e l i b e r a t e l y c r e a t e t h e i m p r e s s i o n he t h i n k s f i t . F o r example, i n t h e word a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s where t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s m e r e l y g i v e n a l i s t o f words and asked t o say the f i r s t word o r o p p o s i t e word t h a t comes t o h i s mind, i t i s d i f f i c u l t 76 f o r him t o know the i n t e n t i o n s behind the q u e s t i o n s . An important f e a t u r e of these t e s t s i s t h a t they are more impersonal than the c o n v e n t i o n a l survey methods. Very o f t e n the respondent i s n o t d i r e c t l y asked f o r h i s o p i n i o n . Rather he i s put i n the p o s i t i o n of a t h i r d person and asked t o s o l v e h i s problems. The t h e o r y of p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s assumes t h a t i n the p r o c e s s of r e s p o n d i n g i n terms of o t h e r people he w i l l u n c o n s c i o u s l y p r o j e c t or i n j e c t h i s own f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s i n the p i c t u r e which he would be more l i k e l y t o deny or d i s t o r t i n d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g . I f the purpose of the survey i s to measure brand l o y a l t y , respondents c o u l d be asked d i r e c t l y what they would do i f f a c e d w i t h t h i s s i t u a t i o n : A t a supermarket they see two brands of the same p r o d u c t . One of these i s the u s u a l brand which they can buy a t the r e g u l a r p r i c e . The o t h e r brand which they have never t r i e d i s a t h a l f i t s u s u a l p r i c e . Which brand would they choose? Such d i r e c t form of q u e s t i o n i n g c o u l d produce u n r e a l i s t i c answers, f o r housewives d i s l i k e to r e v e a l how p r i c e c o n s c i o u s they are and some might say they would d e f i n i t e l y choose t h e i r u s u a l brand. Another b e t t e r way of t a c k l i n g the problem would be to use the TAT to e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n : 77 Respondents c o u l d be shown a d r a w i n g o f a woman s h o p p i n g i n the s u p e r m a r k e t , f a c i n g a row o f s h e l v e s . On one o f them i s p l a c e d t h e two b r a n d s o f t h e p r o d u c t and she i s a s k e d , "What i s the woman i n t h e p i c t u r e l i k e l y t o do? What do you t h i n k she s h o u l d d o ? " I t i s assumed t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t w i l l i d e n t i f y h e r s e l f w i t h t h e p e r s o n i n the p i c t u r e and i n t h e p r o c e s s o f g i v i n g h e r o p i n i o n on the l a t t e r ' s r e a c t i o n she would r e v e a l h e r s e l f . A n o t h e r advantage o f p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s i s t h a t t h e y have a g r e a t e r a b i l i t y o f s e c u r i n g e x p r e s s i o n s o f a t t i t u d e s i n a more n a t u r a l f o r m . They o f f e r t h e s u b j e c t t h e w i d e s t l a t i t u d e i n c h o i c e o f r e s p o n s e o r for m o f e x p r e s s i o n . The c o n v e n t i o n a l s u r v e y s o f f e r t h e consumer a r e s t r i c t e d s e l e c t i o n o f ways o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . The extreme example o f t h i s would be " y e s " o r "no" t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n and answer as compared t o t i e TAT where t h e r e a d e r i s asked t o make up a s t o r y based on t h e p i c t u r e s p r e s e n t e d t o him. But t h e p r o f u s i o n and r i c h n e s s o f the r e s p o n s e d a t a t h e y e l i c i t c r e a t e s s e r i o u s problems i n a n a l y s i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s method i s more i n f o r m a l t h a n t h a t o f the d i r e c t t e c h n i q u e . T h i s may l e a d t o r e p l i e s w h i c h a r e more c o n v e r s a t i o n a l and u n r e l a t e d t o t h e t o p i c . 7 8 The use of p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s i n consumer r e s e a r c h takes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n an important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of human beings which the c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s o v e r l o o k . Temporary f o r g e t f u l n e s s i s o c curence. F o r g e t f u l n e s s a p p l i e s t o t h i n g s we have l e a r n e d through e x p e r i e n c e . U s i n g the d i r e c t approach a survey was conducted to f i n d out what items the people 2 2 used f o r making sandwiches. About 1 7 p e r c e n t mentioned l i v e r sausages among an a r r a y of p r o d u c t s . Yet s t u d i e s of a c t u a l purchases i n the same g e o g r a p h i c a l area r e v e a l e d t h a t more than 8 0 p e r c e n t of a l l f a m i l i e s a c t u a l l y bought the p r o d u c t . I t cannot be i n f e r r e d t h a t t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y i s due t o the f a c t t h a t the usage of t h i s p r o d u c t i n the household a r e a i s unimportant because a c t u a l consumer purchases showed t h a t not o n l y d i d the m a j o r i t y of the respondents buy the item but they bought i t r e g u l a r l y as w e l l . Subsequent r e s e a r c h through i n d i r e c t methods r e v e a l e d t h a t f o r g e t f u l n e s s was the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the d i s c r e p a n c y . In surveys u s i n g p r o j e c t i v e methods, the answers do not depend so much on the respondent's memory and power of r e c a l l b u t on t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r moment. 2 2 D i e t z Leonhard, - P r o i e c t i v e Techniques i n  B u s i n e s s R e s e a r c h i ( B o s t o n : World P u b l i s h i n g House, 1 9 5 5 ) , pp. 2 7 - 2 8 . 79 Some t e s t s l i k e t h e Rosenweig's F r u s t r a t i o n T e s t , T h e m a t i c A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t , have an a d d i t i o n a l advantage o v e r t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s e a r c h t o o l s i n t h a t t h e y p r e s e n t t h e consumer w i t h p i c t o r i a l s t i m u l i as w e l l as v e r b a l s t i m u l i . F o r some t y p e s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , p i c t u r e a s s o c i a t i o n would y i e l d more v a l i d r e s u l t s t h a n v e r b a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i n c e t h e y a r e more c o n c r e t e , v i v i d and s p e c i f i c t h a n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g v e r b a l s t i m u l i . 23 I n a s u r v e y w h i c h a t t e m p t e d t o measure t h e a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s , s a t i s f a c t i o n s and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s o f t o u r i s t s v i s i t i n g H a w a i i , p i c t u r e c a r d s were shown t o r e s p o n d e n t s . T h i s method produc e d r e s p o n s e s t h a t were more m e a n i n g f u l and w i t h l e s s d i f f i c u l t y t h a n i f p u r e l y v e r b a l s t i m u l i had been u s e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , r e s p o n d e n t s f o u n d t h i s method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n more i n t e r e s t i n g and e n j o y a b l e . The p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s a r e i n t h e form o f games o r r e p o r t s on how f i c t i t i o u s p e r s o n s m i g h t r e a c t o r o t h e r such d e v i c e s which g e t s t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o i n v o l v e h i m s e l f and t o abandon t h e r o l e o f t h e o p i n i o n -g i v e r . He does n o t f e e l on t h e s p o t and t h e r e f o r e may f i n d t h e t a s k l e s s s e r i o u s and f o r m a l and w i l l be more w i l l i n g t o c o o p e r a t e . M a r t i n G r o s s a c k , U n d e r s t a n d i n g Consumer  B e h a v i o r , ( B o s t o n : The C h r i s t o p h e r P u b l i s h i n g House, 19 6 4 ) , pp. 193-220. 80 C o n d i t i o n s Under Which  P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s S h o u l d be Used L i k e a l l t e c h n i q u e s , one s h o u l d n o t f o r g e t t h a t t h e p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s a r e b u i l t on c e r t a i n a s s u m p t i o n s . Hence t h e y work b e t t e r under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . The a d vantages o f u s i n g p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s i n consumer r e s e a r c h a r e v a l i d under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s . Here a r e some o f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s and an a n a l y s i s o f them. P r o j e c t i v e methods a r e o f t e n i n a d e q u a t e by t h e m s e l v e s t o r e s o l v e r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m s . V e r y o f t e n t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f more than one method i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e a m e a n i n g f u l b a s i s upon w h i c h t h e r e s p o n s e s can be a n a l y s e d . T r a d i t i o n a l methods o f q u e s t i o n i n g a r e more s u i t a b l e f o r p r o c u r i n g c o n s c i o u s i n f o r m a t i o n w h i l e newer p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s a r e d e s i g n e d t o probe below t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y . Hence, t r a d i t i o n a l methods and p s y c h o l o g i c a l methods s h o u l d be v i e w e d as 24 complementary t o each o t h e r . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h each i s u s e d w i l l depend on the p r o blem a t hand. When p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s are n o t employed as t h e p r i n c i p a l a p p r o a c h i n s u r v e y s , t h e y a r e u s e f u l f o r p r e - t e s t i n g p u r p o s e s t o p r o v i d e v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l f o r f o r m u l a t i n g h y p o t h e s e s w i t h g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n and f o r p h r a s i n g James F. E n g e l , " M o t i v a t i o n R e s e a r c h - Magic o r Menace," M i c h i g a n B u s i n e s s Review, V o l . X I I I (March, 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 28-32. 81 q u e s t i o n s more m e a n i n g f u l l y . I n some c a s e s t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r has a c h o i c e o f s e v e r a l t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h a r e more o r l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e s u r v e y . These a r e s i t u a t i o n s where p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s o r d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g w i l l e l i c i t e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same answer. I n v i e w o f t h e lo w e r c o s t s o f admin-i s t r a t i o n and t h e more s i m p l e and e a s i e r t a s k s o f a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the l a t t e r , t h e i n v e s -t i g a t o r w i l l be l e s s i n c l i n e d t o use t h e more i n d i r e c t method o f a p p r o a c h . P r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s s h o u l d be employed i n a r e a s where t h e r e i s a tendency f o r the r e s p o n d e n t s t o h o l d back t h e i r answers. The a b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s o f a p e r s o n t o d i s c u s s h i s a t t i t u d e s toward c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s 2 3 v a r i e s w i d e l y on a c o n t i m u o u s s s e a l e a a s i i l i L u s t r a^ e d b b e i f c t g w o I 2 3 4 Sector I Sector H Sector BL P o s i t i o n s , l and 4 a r e t h e two e x t r e m e s . P o s i t i o n 1 i s the p o l a r r e g i o n o f e a s i l y o b t a i n e d d a t a . The degree o f s o c i a l c o n f l i c t p r e s e n t i n the a t t i t u d e i n f o r m a t i o n i n c r e a s e s s t e a d i l y a c r o s s the s c a l e t o p o s i t i o n 4 , the p o s i t i o n o f maximum s o c i a l c o n f l i c t . 2 5 James F. E n g e l , "A Study o f a S e l e c t e d P r o j e c -t i v e T e c h n i q u e i n Consumer R e s e a r c h , " U n p u b l i s h e d PhD. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s ( 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 1 3 . 82 I n s e c t o r 1 t h e d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s r e s p o n s e t o a d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i s s l i g h t . W i t h i n t h i s s e c t i o n we f i n d m a t e r i a l where the s u b j e c t i s w i l l i n g t o d e s c r i b e and make p u b l i c , f o r example, t o q u e s t i o n s such a s , "Do you l i k e w a t c h i n g T.V.?" o r "Do you p r e f e r t e a o r c o f f e e ? " t h e r e s p o n d e n t w i l l answer w i t h l i t t l e h e s i t a t i o n . I n s e c t o r 3, t h e b a r r i e r t o r e s p o n s e i s much g r e a t e r . , When v e r b a l q u e s t i o n s a r e d i r e c t e d a t him he w i l l n o t r e v e a l h i s a t t i t u d i n a l s e t because t h e r e i s c o n f l i c t between t h i s and t h e demand of t h e q u e s t i o n . F e a r o f s e l f - d e p r e c i a t i o n i n c r e a s e s s n x i e i t y ,a>nd:i.ety and d e f e n s i v e n e s s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t and he p r o d u c e s answers t h a t a r e s t e r e o t y p e d , d i s t o r t e d and vague. I t i s h e r e t h a t t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s e a r c h methods become i n a d e q u a t e and p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s a r e n e c e s s a r y t o e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n . S e c t o r 2 i s t h e m i d d l e p o s i t i o n between the two e x t r e m e s . A l t h o u g h t h e s k e t c h shows the s c a l e d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t o r s , t h e r e i s no c l e a r - c u t d i v i s i o n among them, i . e . , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o i n d i c a t e p r e c i s e l y where each s e c t o r b e g i n s and ends. They form a s c a l e , as t h e y go f rom s e c t o r 1 t o s e c t o r 3, and i t becomes more d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n t r u t h f u l i n f o r m a t i o n from th e consumers. The c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s e a r c h t o o l s have t o be supplemented by p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . One s h o u l d b e a r i n mind t h a t u s e f u l m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h g e t t i n g s u f f i c i e n t l y below 83 t h e s u r f a c e t o do t h e n e c e s s a r y j o b . One can d i f f e r -e n t i a t e between t h r e e l e v e l s o f awareness o f a human mind. There a r e two l a y e r s o f t h e c o n s c i o u s mind around a l a y e r o f u n c o n s c i o u s o r s u b c o n s c i o u s . I n i n v e s t i g a t i n g p e o p l e ' s o p i n i o n s , a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n s we need t o d e a l o n l y w i t h t h e o u t e r l a y e r s . The t h i r d and i n n e r m o s t l a y e r c o n s i s t s o f n o n - v e r b a l and n o n - r a t i o n a l e m o t i o n s , w h i c h can o n l y be and need o n l y be i n v a d e d by the p s y c h i a t r i s t . These l e v e l s o f awareness a r e i l l u s t r a t e d 27 b e low: U n c o n s c i o u s ; s u b c o n s c i o u s ; N o n - v e r b a l , n o n - r a t i o n a l e m o t i o n s . Top o f t h e mind, c o n s c i o u s . C o n c e p t s , f e e l i n g s , e m o t i o n s w h i c h can be v e r b a l i z e d . Top o f t h e mind, c o n s c i o u s . R a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s , b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s , e x i s t i n g i n v e r b a l f o r m . I n t h e o u t e r l a y e r we may f i n d many r a t i o n a l -i z a t i o n s w h i c h a l r e a d y e x i s t i n v e r b a l f o r m . W i t h i n t h e s e s e c t o r s a r e t o p i c s on w h i c h t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s w i l l i n g and a b l e t o r e v e a l h i s a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s and b e l i e f s . F o r example, p r e f e r e n c e o f women f o r one o f t h e L e o n h a r d , op_. c i t . , p. 44. 2 7 I b i d . , p. 43. two d i f f e r e n t b r a n d s o f m a r g a r i n e s . Even a t t h i s l e v e l t h e r e a r e problems f o r the r e s e a r c h e r . As Smit h comments: "...consumers' l a c k o f t r a i n i n g i n i n t r o -s p e c t i n g may make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r them t o g i v e c o m p l e t e i n f o r m a t i o n . . . . . • t h e y may o f t e n l a c k t h e r i g h t word o r t h e r i g h t c o n c e p t s t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s The t h i r d a r e a i s beyond the a r e a o f awareness. I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r the i n v e s t i g a t o r t o p e n e t r a t e i n t o t h i s l e v e l . To do t h i s s u c c e s s f u l l y i t would be n e c e s s a r y f o r him t o be a t r a i n e d p s y c h i a t r i s t . M o r e o v e r , i t would r e v e a l d a t a t h a t m i g h t be i n t e r e s t i n g b u t u s e l e s s t o t h e m a r k e t e r . I t would be d i f f i c u l t t o see j u s t what a c i g a r e t t e m a n u f a c t u r e r c o u l d make use of t h e f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n : "The c e r e m o n i a l n a t u r e o f smoking i s u s u a l l y e x p l a i n e d as a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f , or r e g r e s s i o n t o , i n f a n t i l e forms o f a u t o - e r o t i c i s m 2 9 ( e . g . , t h u m b - s u c k i n g ) . " I t i s t h e second l a y e r w h i c h i s o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r o f consumer a t t i t u d e s . Here t h e m a t e r i a l i s n o t l i k e l y t o be r e a d i l y f o r t h c o m i n g t h r o u g h d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g b u t can be u n c o v e r e d t h r o u g h an i n d i r e c t a p p r o a c h . The a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v e s o f the 28 S m i t h , op_. c i t . , p. 19. 29 Henry, op_. c i t . , p. 2 7, 85 s u b j e c t a r e u s u a l l y c o n c e a l e d b e h i n d a mask o f r a t i o n -a l i z a t i o n s and i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c u s s i o n and h a l f - t r u t h s . F o r example, t h e d e s i r e t o i m p r e s s one's n e i g h b o r s w i t h a b i g g e r T.V. s e t may be masked b e h i n d an i n s i s t e n c e t o buy a s e t because t h e o l d one had a f l i c k e r , o r , smoking c i g a r s i n o r d e r t o f e e l more m a s c u l i n e y e t s a y -i n g one smokes because o f t h e p l e a s a n t aroma, o r , r e a d a c e r t a i n newspaper i n o r d e r t o f e e l l i k e a b i g s h o t , b e h i n d the r a t i o n a l t o r e a d i t because i t c o n t a i n s more 30 news. I t i s h e r e t h a t p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s become v e r y u s e f u l and e s s e n t i a l t o u n c o v e r the e m o t i o n s , c o n c e p t s , and f e e l i n g s around w h i c h consumers have e r e c t e d t h e l a y e r s o f s e l f r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . The c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h p r o j e c t i v e methods can be used most e f f i c i e n t l y i s summarized by W. G. 31 C o b l m e r : He h o l d s t h a t p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s can be used w i t h good e f f e c t a t t h e v e r y p o i n t where d i r e c t q u e s t i o n -i n g i s w e a k e st. He l i s t s f o u r such c a s e s : 1. Respondents who have ' u n s t a b l e ' a t t i t u d e s . They s h i f t . 2. Respondents who a r e u n d e c i d e d a b o u t , unaware o f t h e i r a t t i t u d e s o r u n a b l e t o e x p r e s s them. S m i t h , op_. c i t . , pp. 18-23. 31 W. G. C o b l i n e r , "On the P l a c e o f P r o j e c t i v e T e s t s i n O p i n i o n and A t t i t u d e S u r v e y s , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l  J o u r n a l o f O p i n i o n and A t t i t u d e R e s e a r c h . V o l . V, ( W i n t e r 1 9 5 1 ) , pp. 480-490. 86 3. Respondents who f o r some r e a s o n o r o t h e r a r e u n w i l l i n g t o d i s c l o s e c e r t a i n o f t h e i r a t t i t u d e s a l t h o u g h t h e y seem c o o p e r a t i v e o t h e r w i s e , 4. Respondents who i n t e n t i o n a l l y o r u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y i n d i c a t e a t t i t u d e s t h a t t h e y may n o t a c t u a l l y p o s s e s s . The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e d a t a depend t o some e x t e n t on t h e t y p e o f r e s p o n d e n t s s e l e c t e d . P r o j e c t i o n s i n b u s i n e s s r e s e a r c h work b e s t w i t h t h e b r o a d group of m i d d l e - m a j o r i t y consumers. Nonr-responses o r u s e l e s s naswers m i g h t come from u n i m a g i n a t i v e p e o p l e o r p e o p l e w i t h no h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . The more h i g h l y e d u c a t e d p e o p l e may be t h e ones most l i k e l y t o see t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r v i e w e r ' s a t t e m p t s t o o b t a i n t h e i r f e e l i n g s and o p i n i o n s r a t h e r t h a n t h o s e o f a t h i r d p e r s o n . A l s o r e s p o n d e n t s who have been s u b j e c t e d t o t h i s t y p e o f q u e s t i o n i n g may be a b l e t o guess what the i n t e r v i e w e r i s s e e k i n g . Some may w i t h h o l d i n f o r m a t i o n o r d e l i b e r a t e l y 32 m i s l e a d t h e e x a m i n e r . I n r e s e a r c h o f any k i n d i t i s u s u a l l y n e c e s s a r y t o r e l y on more th a n one method o r t e c h n i q u e o f c o l l e c t i n g and a n a l y s i n g d a t a , no m a t t e r how r e l i a b l e o r v a l i d t h e t e c h n i q u e m i g h t be f o r t h e p u r p o s e . T h i s p r i n c i p l e a p p l i e s t o t h e use o f p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , t o o . One 32 L e o n h a r d , op_. c i t . , p. 46. 87 s h o u l d n o t make t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t s t h e b a s i s f o r f i n a l d e c i s i o n s . Summary D e s p i t e t h e s c e p t i c i s m o f p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s among some r e s e a r c h e r s , t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s have been used by some f i r m s i n t h e i r consumer s u r v e y s . E x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e s e t o o l s have i n most c a s e s been s u c c e s s f u l i n o b t a i n i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n d e s i r e d . They have been a b l e t o overcome some o f t h e i n h e r e n t weaknesses o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l method o f q u e s t i o n i n g . But l i k e a l l i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e y s h o u l d be used under c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Where the d i r e c t method can be u s e d , t h a t i s p r e f e r r e d t o t h e p r o j e c t i v e method, because o f t h e l o w e r c o s t s and l e s s d i f f i c u l t y i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g the t e s t s and i n a n a l y s i n g t h e d a t a . P r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s have t h e i r weaknesses and t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s f a c e d w i t h many problems when w o r k i n g w i t h them. These problems w i l l be examined i n the n e x t c h a p t e r . 88 CHAPTER V I PROBLEMS IN THE APPLICATION OF PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES I n t r o d u c t i o n I n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e r e a r e a number o f s i g n i f i c a n t a d vantages open t o t h e market r e s e a r c h e r when u s i n g p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . However, no t e c h n i q u e i s f r e e f r o m l i m i t a t i o n s and/or p r o b l e m a r e a s . The purpose o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d i s c u s s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e problem a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . S e v e r a l p r o b l e m a r e a s have been i d e n t i f i e d by t h i s w r i t e r and a r e i t e m i z e d as f o l l o w s : 1. d e s i g n o f t h e t e s t s . 2. a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o b l e m s . 3. sample s i z e . 4 . i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s . 5. s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . 6. e t h i c a l p r o b l e m s . 7 . r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y . S o l u t i o n s have n o t been found f o r a l l t h e s e p r o b l e m s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e them and, i f t h e y c a n n o t be e l i m i n a t e d , a t t e m p t s s h o u l d be made t o m i n i m i z e t h e i r e f f e c t s . 8 9 D e s i g n o f t h e T e s t s An i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s i s t h a t t h e y a r e u n s t r u c t u r e d , i . e . , an i n d i v i d u a l can i n t e r p r e t t h e ambiguous s t i m u l i i n any way t h a t i s most m e a n i n g f u l t o him. I n c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g y t h e s e t e s t s a r e u s e f u l i n f i n d i n g o u t what• m o t i v a t i o n s a r e a t work i n t h e break-down o f an a d j u s t e d p e r s o n a l i t y . They g i v e a comprehensive p i c t u r e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y , h i s e m o t i o n a l needs, c o n f l i c t s , e t c . I n such a s i t u a t i o n an u n s t r u c t u r e d t e s t d e s i g n would e n a b l e t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o r e v e a l t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . I n consumer's a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h , t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h a n a r r o w e r f i e l d . He i s o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n one a s p e c t o f consumer's p e r s o n a l i t i e s , t o wards some s p e c i f i c a s p e c t o f m a r k e t i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e s e t e s t s s h o u l d be so d e s i g n e d as t o encourage f r e e -dom and s p o n t a n e i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n , t h e r e a r e d i s a d v a n t a g e s i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f d a t a . The t e s t s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d so t h a t t h e f o c u s w i l l be on t h e r e s e a r c h a r e a t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i s i n t e r e s t e d i n , a t the same t i m e , s u f f i c i e n t l y u n s t r u c t u r e d so as n o t t o r e s t r i c t t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s answers. F o r example, i n t h e word a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t , r a t h e r t h a n use the f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n f o r m , the r e s p o n d e n t c o u l d be g i v e n the c o n t r o l l e d f orm. I n t h e TAT t h e s u b j e c t can be g u i d e d by the i n t e r v i e w e r t o f o c u s h i s a t t e n t i o n on a few s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a s . I n 90 c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g y t h e c l i e n t w i l l be p r e s e n t e d t h e p i c t u r e s and asked t o t e l l a s t o r y based on h i s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s t i m u l i . I n consumer a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h t h e r e s p o n d e n t w i l l be shown a p i c t u r e b u t g i v e n more d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s . T o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r d e v i c e s t h e TAT was used i n a s u r v e y c a r r i e d o u t by S o c i a l R e s e a r c h I n c . on consumer a t t i t u d e s t owards a u t o m o b i l e s . 1 One o f t h e p i c t u r e s showed a c a r w i t h an open hood, b e s i d e t h e r o a d and a man l o o k i n g a t t h e e n g i n e . The r e s p o n d e n t s were n o t o n l y t o g i v e a s h o r t s t o r y about what was g o i n g on, how i t happened, and how t h i n g s would t u r n o u t , b u t were a l s o asked t o i n c l u d e what k i n d o f p e o p l e were i n the c a r and what k i n d o f c a r t h e y were d r i v i n g . The second problem i n d e s i g n i n g t h e s e t e s t s i s i n k e e p i n g them d i s g u i s e d . I f no p r e c a u t i o n i s t a k e n t h e i r s p e c i f i c p u r pose may be a p p a r e n t . There a r e two ways o f c o n s t r u c t i n g the t e s t s so t h a t t h e i r purpose i s 2 d i s g u i s e d , a f i c t i t i o u s p urpose may be a s c r i b e d and i n a d d i t i o n , a n e u t r a l o r u n r e l a t e d s t i m u l i may be i n c l u d e d J o s e p h W. Newman, "Automobiles-What They Mean t o A m e r i c a n s , " M o t i v a t i o n R e s e a r c h and M a r k e t i n g Management, ( B o s t o n : H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s S c h o o l , 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 2 2 8 - 2 3 0 . 2 C l a i r e S e l i t z , M a r i e s J a h o d a , Morton Deutsch and S t u a r t W. Cook, R e s e a r c h Methods i n S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s , (New Y o r k : H o l t - R i n e h a r t , I n c . , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 286. 91 i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s t i m u l i r e l e v a n t t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s o b j e c t i v e . I n consumer s u r v e y s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o keep the r e s p o n d e n t s from r e a l i z i n g t h e r e a l purpose o f t h e p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s because v e r y o f t e n t h e y have t o be u sed w i t h o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s whose p u r p o s e s may be q u i t e o b v i o u s . But t h i s i s n o t t o o s e r i o u s i f t h e s u b j e c t does n o t know how h i s r e s p o n s e s a r e g o i n g t o be i n t e r p r e t e d . F o r example, i n u s i n g t h e p i c t u r e f r u s t r a t i o n t e s t one c o u l d be shown a d r a w i n g o f a husband and w i f e i n an a p p l i a n c e s t o r e . The husband i s shown s a y i n g , "Oh, h e r e comes the s a l e s m a n . " The r e s p o n d e n t i s asked t o f i l l i n t h e w i f e ' s r e p l y . The i n t e r v i e w e e may guess t h a t the i n t e r v i e w e r i s e i t h e r i n t e r e s t e d i n knowing h i s a t t i t u d e s towards i n - s t o r e b u y i n g , b u t he has no i d e a as t o how h i s r e s p o n s e s w i l l be i n t e r p r e t e d . Moreover, the s u b j e c t may f i n d i t e a s i e r t o e x p r e s s h i m s e l f i f he i s n o t a s k e d e x p l i c i t l y t o t a l k about h i s own f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s , even though 3 he knows t h a t what he says w i l l be i n t e r p r e t e d . T h i r d l y , t h e r e i s a danger t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s m i g h t t r y t o seek f o r what t h e y f e e l i s t h e c o r r e c t answer. I n c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e s e p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e s t i m u l i does n o t r e v e a l b i a s i n one d i r e c t i o n , i . e . , i t does n o t l e a d the r e s p o n d e n t t o f e e l 3 I b i d . , p. 287. 92 t h a t t h e r e i s an " e x p e c t e d " o r " r i g h t " answer. The r i s k o f d o i n g t h i s o c c u r s e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s 4 g i v e n t o t h e s u b j e c t s by t h e i n t e r v i e w e r . One way o f a v o i d i n g t h i s would be t o make the s t i m u l i as ambiguous as p o s s i b l e . On t h e o t h e r hand, i t w i l l b r i n g f o r t h a p r o f u s i o n o f r e s p o n s e s w h i c h w i l l r a i s e d i f f i c u l t problems i n a n a l y s i n g , i n t e r p r e t a t i n g , and s t a n d a r d i z i n g t h e r e s p o n s e s t o a r r i v e a t any v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s . B e f o r e a p r o j e c t i v e t e s t i s used i t s h o u l d be t e s t e d t o see t h a t i t i s s a t i s f a c t o r y i n p r o d u c i n g t h e t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s r e l a t e d t o t h e s i t u a t i o n b e i n g s t u d i e d . F o r example, b e f o r e t h e p i c t u r e f r u s t r a -t i o n o r TAT t e s t s a r e d e s i g n e d , a s e r i e s o f d e p t h i n t e r v i e w s ^ s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d i n the f i e l d so t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p p roblem a r e a s about w h i c h p i c t u r e s can be c r e a t e d . A f t e r d e s i g n i n g the t e s t s , t h e y s h o u l d a g a i n be t e s t e d t o make s u r e t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e s e l i c i t e d a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e s u b j e c t b e i n g s t u d i e d . I n d e s i g n i n g t h e s e t e s t s t h e r e s h o u l d be c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h someohe who has t r a i n i n g i n t h e use o f t h e s e t e s t s , perhaps a c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t o r s o c i a l T h i s w i l l be f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n . 5 These c o u l d t a k e t h e form o f v e r y i n f o r m a l , u n s t r u c t u r e d , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s where t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e a s k ed t o g i v e t h e i r o p i n i o n s on v a r i o u s t o p i c s t h a t m i g h t be r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o b l e m . 93 p s y c h o l o g i s t . Once the p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s have been c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d , t h e a c t u a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n t h e f i e l d can be done by an o r d i n a r y i n t e r v i e w e r w i t h o r d i n a r y i n t e l l i g e n c e , a l o t o f common sense and a d i s a r m i n g and g t a c t f u l p e r s o n a l i t y , i f he i s c a r e f u l l y i n s t r u c t e d . I t i s o n l y i n t h e d e s i g n o f t h e t e s t s and t h e a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e n l i s t t h e a i d o f a p e r s o n t r a i n e d t o h a n d l e t h e s e c l i n i c a l t o o l s . The a c t u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n can be h a n d l e d by an i n t e r v i e w e r who m e r e l y r e c o r d s t h e r e s p o n s e s as v e r b a t i m as p o s s i b l e . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Problems One o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e admin-i s t r a t i o n o f t h e s e t e s t s i s t h e i n t e r v i e w e r can i n f l u e n c e t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e s u b j e c t s . These t e s t s a r e c o n d u c t e d i n a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w and v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f an i n t e r v i e w e r may a f f e c t t h e answers o f t h e s u b j e c t s . F o r example, t h e t one o f ones v o i c e , s e x , a p p e a r a n c e , a t t i t u d e , t h e p h r a s i n g o f i n s t r u c t i o n s , e x p r e s s i o n s o f e n c o u r a g e -ment, e t c . , can m o d i f y th e answers o f i n t e r v i e w e e s . An i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c a r r i e d o u t t o a s c e r t a i n t h e degree t o w h i c h th e e x a m i n e r , as p a r t and p a r c e l o f R o b e r t F e r b e r and Hugh G. Wales, M o t i v a t i o n  and M a r k e t B e h a v i o r , (Homewood: R i c h a r d D. I r w i n , I n c . , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 137. 94 t h e t o t a l s t i m u l u s s i t u a t i o n i n a p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e , 7 m i g h t i n f l u e n c e t h e p r o d u c t i o n s o f t h e s u b j e c t . The g s u b j e c t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d the Human F i g u r e Drawing t e s t and a sked t o draw a p i c t u r e o f a p e r s o n . The f i r s t g roup was i n t e r v i e w e d by t h e examiner who had a mustache and t h e second by one who was a c l e a n - s h a v e n male. The r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d t h a t i n t h e f i r s t group 8.88 p e r c e n t o f th e d r a w i n g s c o n t a i n e d mustaches whereas o n l y 1.66 p e r -c e n t o f t h e second group had such a mustache. I t seems, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the p r e s e n c e o f a mustache i n t h e male f i g u r e d r a w i n g by f e m a l e s u b j e c t s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y .. r e l a t e d t o the male examiner h a v i n g a mustache. I n o t h e r words, t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e F i g u r e Drawing t e s t m i g h t perhaps n o t be a p r o j e c t i v e d e v i c e i n th e sense t h a t t h e e x p r e s s i v e b e h a v i o r i s s o l e l y d e t e r -mined by f a c t o r s w i t h i n t h e s u b j e c t h e r s e l f , b u t r a t h e r t h a t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s do i n f l u e n c e t h e r e s u l t s . T h i s c o u l d p o s s i b l y a p p l y t o t h e o t h e r p r o j e c t i v e 9 t e c h n i q u e s , and i s a f a c t o r w o r t h y o f e x p l o r a t i o n . 7 G e r a l d Yagod and W i l l i a n W o l f s o n , "Examiner I n f l u e n c e on P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s and Responses", J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 20,(1964),p. 389. g T h i s i s a n o t h e r P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e . F o r d e t a i l s o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e see: Gardner L i n d s e y , P r o j e c t i v e  T e c h n i q u e s and C r o s s - C u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h , (New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1961), pp. 91-93. g O t h e r e x p e r i m e n t s showing t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e examiner on t h e r e s p o n d e n t i n c l u d e , i d e n t i t y o f t h e examiner (Baughman, 1951; Kenny and B i j o u , 1953; Lord,1950) 95 I t has been argued t h a t i t t a k e s months i f n o t y e a r s o f l o n g p r o b i n g i n t e r v i e w s f o r a t r a i n e d a n a l y s t u s i n g t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s t o a s c e r t a i n the p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e c l i e n t o M a r k e t i n t e r v i e w s a r e a t b e s t o n l y a few h o u r s i n l e n g t h and g e n e r a l l y n o t c o n d u c t e d by anyone w i t h p s y c h i a t r i c t r a i n i n g and a r e a d m i n i s t e r e d i n the p a r l o r o r on t h e d o o r s t e p t o a d i s t r a c t e d h o u s e w i f e . X < ^ How can one e x p e c t t o g e t a t t h e u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e s o f consumers i n such a s i t u a t i o n ? One s h o u l d remember, however, the o b j e c t i v e o f t h e c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t and and m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h e r a r e n o t i d e n t i c a l . As i t has been p o i n t e d o u t , t h e scope o f t h e l a t t e r i s much n a r r o w e r and more s p e c i f i c and he may r e q u i r e a s h o r t e r p e r i o d o f t i m e t o a c c o m p l i s h h i s t a s k . Sample S i z e Much has been w r i t t e n about s a m p l i n g i n m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h b u t t h e r e i s s t i l l some c o n t r o v e r s y e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e a r e a o f consumer r e s e a r c h . Many c r i t i c i s m s have been made a g a i n s t the whether he i s o f t h e same sex or o f d i f f e r e n t sex than t h e r e s p o n d e n t , ( C l a r k , 1952; C u r t i s and W olf, 1951); whether he i s s u p p o r t i v e , h o s t i l e o r n e u t r a l t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t ( B e l l a k , 1944; L o r d , 1950). X ^ N . D . R o t h w e l l , " M o t i v a t i o n R e s e a r c h R e v i s i t e d , " J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g , V o l . XX,No. 2 . , ( O c t o b e r 1955),p.152. 96 r e l i a b i l i t y and c o n c l u s i o n s o f consumer s u r v e y s because o f t h e sample s i z e . Because o f t h e h i g h c o s t s o f c o n d u c t i n g t h e s u r v e y s and o f i n t e r p r e t i n g the d a t a , i t has been n e c e s s a r y t o work on s m a l l samples and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s have t o be made on t h e r e s u l t s o f the d a t a . I t i s t r u e t h a t i n any t y p e o f s u r v e y such a p r o c e d u r e makes the f i n d i n g s l e s s r e l i a b l e s c i e n t i f i c a l l y . Each i n d i v i d u a l w i l l have a u n i q u e p e r s o n a l i t y o f h i s own and t h e a t t i t u d e s , m o t i v a t i o n s and f e e l i n g s o f a s m a l l s e c t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n may n o t be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e u n i v e r s e . How l a r g e , t h e n , must t h e sample be b e f o r e one can make r e a s o n a b l y v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g f i n d i n g s . There i s no a b s o l u t e "good" sample whether i t r e f e r s t o the s i z e o r t o t h e method o f s e l e c t i n g r e s p o n d e n t s . Sample s i z e depends on t h r e e f a c t o r s : 1. t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e r e s e a r c h , 2. t h e a c c u r a c y o f measurement d e s i r e d , and 3. t h e amount o f money a v a i l a b l e f o r the r e s e a r c h . ^ F o r many q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o consumer a t t i t u d e s rough measurements a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y and g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n can make no d i f f e r e n c e i n terms o f what a c t i o n s m ight be t a k e n on t h e b a s i s o f f i n d i n g s . Even i f i t were p r a c t i c a l o r f e a s i b l e t o use a l a r g e sample, i t would be d i f f i c u l t Newman, op_. c i t . , p. 449. 97 o r a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o measure consumer b e h a v i o r w i t h p r e c i s e a c c u r a c y . O f t e n t h e s e s t u d i e s have been p r i m a r i l y e x p l o r a t o r y ahdhhave m e r e l y e n a b l e d the r e s e a r c h e r t o i d e n t i f y s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s . O ther t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l , a l a r g e r sample w i l l g i v e a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p i c t u r e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t h a n w i l l a s m a l l e r one. However, the i n c r e m e n t a l c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n u s i n g a l a r g e r sample may exceed t h e v a l u e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d . I t t h e n becomes a q u e s t i o n o f one's o b j e c t i v e s i n a s u r v e y ; one must d e c i d e w h i c h f a c t o r s a r e more i m p o r t a n t and w h i c h we a r e w i l l i n g t o s a c r i f i c e . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f R e s u l t s The most d i f f i c u l t t a s k i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s i n consumer a t t i t u d e s r e s e a r c h i s i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s . Most o f the r e s p o n s e s c a n n o t be t a k e n a t t h e i r f a c e v a l u e , i . e . , t h e y c a n n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d d i r e c t l y b u t must be i n t e r p r e t e d s y m b o l i c a l l y o r i n d i r e c t l y . T h i s poses s e v e r a l p r o b l e m s . F i r s t , when r e s p o n s e s a r e s t u d i e d , s h o u l d t h e y be t a k e n l i t e r a l l y o r s h o u l d one r e a d b e h i n d them t o r e c o v e r any l a t e n t o r h i d d e n s i g n i f i c a n c e s o f the r e s p o n s e . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the r e s p o n s e s may be a p r o d u c t o f "a t emporary a f f e c t i v e s t a t e " , i . e . , some u n u s u a l f a c t o r s i n t h e immediate p a s t o f t h e s u b j e c t s m i g h t g e n e r a t e emotions o r m o t i v e s n o t 98 o r d i n a r i l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s e p e r s o n s b u t w h i c h may 12 i n f l u e n c e t e s t r e s p o n s e s . F o r example, i f the i n t e r v i e w -e r i s t r y i n g t o s t u d y women's a t t i t u d e s towards home sew i n g , a woman who has j u s t sewn a f r o c k b u t i s unhappy about the way i t t u r n e d o u t would show a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward home s e w i n g , a l t h o u g h n o r m a l l y she e n j o y s d o i n g i t . She m i g h t be u n c o n s c i o u s o f t h i s temporary change o f a t t i t u d e . I f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r i s n o t t o l d a n y t h i n g about the i n c i d e n t he w i l l assume t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e s a r e 13 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f h e r u s u a l s t a t e . I t has been n o t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t m i g h t m e r e l y r e c a l l and make use o f the c o n t e n t s o f a movie he has seen o r a book he has r e a d . I t i s argued t h a t the answers may n o t be a r e f l e c -t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s own a t t i t u d e s . On t h e o t h e r hand, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s t h e s u b j e c t h a s , he s e l e c t s c e r t a i n ones t o remember and t o make use o f . Thus t h e s e s e l e c t i o n s do have some p e r s o n a l meanings. The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n u s i n g t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s i s s u b j e c t i v e i n n a t u r e f o r i t 12 L i n d s e y , op_. c i t . , p. 163. 13 T h i s i s n o t s o l i ^ a m a t t e r o f b e l i e f ; t h e r e i s e x c e l l e n t e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e c o - v a r i a t i o n o f Projective t e c h n i q u e s r e s p o n s e s w i t h a v a r i e t y o f s p e c i a l s t a t e s . ( C l a r k , 1 9 5 2 ; C r a n d a l e , 1 9 5 1 ; L i n d s e y and Herman, 1955; L o r d , 1955; P a t t i e , 1 9 5 4 ; S a n f o r d , 1 9 3 7 ; S h i p l e y and V e r o f f , 1952; S i n g e r , M e l t z o f f and Goldman,1952). 99 depends h e a v i l y on t h e p e r s o n a l judgement o f t h e a n a l y s t . As such i t p r o v i d e s a g r e a t leeway f o r t h e p r o j e c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e i n t e r p r e t e r h i m s e l f . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e d a t a i s h a n d l e d by someone a d e q u a t e l y t r a i n e d and s k i l l f u l enough t o e v a l u a t e t h e d a t a . He must be t h o r o u g h l y f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s e t e s t s and s h o u l d have c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s i g h t and e x p e r i e n c e w i t h them b e f o r e he a t t e m p t s t o draw any c o n c l u s i o n s . A t t e m p t s s h o u l d be made t o c r o s s - c h e c k t h e r e s u l t s a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f t h e s u r v e y . A number o f i n t e r v i e w e r s r a t h e r t h a n one o r two s h o u l d be u s e d . A t l e a s t two r e s e a r c h a n a l y s t s s h o u l d i n t e r p r e t t h e d a t a s e p a r a t e l y and t h e n compare t h e r e s u l t s . One s h o u l d be v e r y c a r e f u l b e f o r e making any g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s f r om the r e s u l t s o f p a r t i c u l a r s u r v e y s on consumer a t t i t u d e s u s i n g p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . These r e s p o n s e s a r e drawn from a sample, a t a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e , p l a c e , and under a u n i q u e s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s and t h e r e s u l t s may n o t be a p p l i c a b l e under a n o t h e r s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s . I n t e r p r e t e r s o f t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e use o f p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s i n consumer a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h s h o u l d b e a r i n mind t h a t " a t t i t u d e s " c a n n o t be measured p r e c i s e l y , i . e . , i t i s a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o g i v e a m e a n i n g f u l number o r f i g u r e t o something t h a t i s an a b s t r a c t i o n o r i n f e r e n c e f rom v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n s o r o b s e r v a b l e b e h a v i o r . What the i n v e s t i g a t o r i s i n t e r e s t e d 1 0 0 i n i s t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e a t t i t u d e and, most i m p o r t a n t , t h e m o t i v e s u n d e r l y i n g t h e a t t i t u d e s . P e r h a p s he may want t o know the i n t e n s i t y o f t h e a t t i t u d e a l t h o u g h n o t a d e f i n i t e and p r e c i s e f i g u r e such as t h e number o f d e g r e e s o f l i k i n g o r d i s l i k i n g , b u t a r e l a t i v e measure-ment o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e a t t i t u d e . The s c a l i n g methods perhaps would s e r v e as a b e t t e r t o o l t o o b t a i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n Many p s y c h o l o g i s t s would agree t h a t one o f t h e g r e a t e s t d e f i c i e n c i e s o f p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s i s the l a c k o f n o r m a t i v e d a t a , i . e . , t h e r e s h o u l d be some o b j e c t i v e norms f o r v a r i o u s g r o u p s , c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o age, s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a , s t a t u s , s e x , e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s , e t d . S i n c e t h e r e a r e no s t a n d a r d s f o r the i n t e r p r e t e r t o depend upon, t h e r e i s l i t t l e o b j e c t i v i t y i n s c o r i n g , a n a l y s i n g and c o n s i s t e n t i n t e r p r e t i n g . " of of t h e r e s u l t s . E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e d a t a depends a g r e a t d e a l on the s k i l l and c l i n i c a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e e x a m i n e r . T h i s r e s t r i c t s the use o f t h e p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s t o t h o s e who a r e p r o p e r l y q u a l i f i e d . I t a l s o means t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t e r s may n o t be c o m p a r a b l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i m p l i e s t h a t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . / , of. the r e s u l t s c i s f . o f t e n . - a s ^ u n s t r u c t u r e d 1 4 f o r t h e examiner as t h e s t i m u l i a r e f o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t . 101 and i s s u b j e c t t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b i a s , p e r c e p t i o n s and i d i o s y n c r a s i e s o f t h e a n a l y s t . The u s u a l . s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s o f m e n t a l t e s t s have n o t been s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e d t o p r o j e c t i v e methods. As H e l e n S a r g e n t o b s e r v e s , i t i s the c o n f i g -u r a t i o n o f f a c t o r s p r e s e n t r a t h e r than t h e i n d e p e n d e n t q u a n t i t y o f each f a c t o r t h a t d e s c r i b e s t h e p e r s o n a l i t y . Broad e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t s r a t h e r t h a n s t a t i s t i c a l r e l i a b l e norms i s the n e c e s s a r y p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r u s i n g t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s . 1 ^ These i n s t r u m e n t s a r e n o t a d e q u a t e l y s t a n d a r d -i z e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o b o t h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s c o r i n g . As A n a s t a s i has no t e d , " T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t even s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p h r a s i n g o f v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s and i n examiner - s u b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s can a p p r e c i a b l y a l t e r p e r f o r m a n c e on c e r t a i n p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s . ""^ Anne A n a s t a s i , P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t i n g , (New Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n Company, 1954), p. 623. 15 H e l e n S a r g e n t , " P r o j e c t i v e Methods; T h e i r O r i g i n s , T h eory, and A p p l i c a t i o n i n P e r s o n a l i t y R e s e a r c h , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , V o l . 42, No. 5, (May 1 9 4 5 ) , p. 275. 16 A n a s t a s i , op. c i t . , p. 623. 102 E t h i c a l Problems I n many i n s t a n c e s , p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s have been a b l e t o probe below th e s u r f a c e and t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h t h e r e s p o n d e n t would n o t expose t o the p u b l i c . T h i s r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n whether the i n v e s t i -g a t o r has the r i g h t t o i n v e s t i g a t e o t h e r p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e s and t o r e c e i v e them i n o r d e r t o g e t a t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . One s h o u l d n o t f o r g e t t h a t t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s were d e v e l o p e d t o s t u d y p e r s o n a l i t y . C l i n i c i a n s . "• 1 used i t f o r t h e purpose o f h e l p i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h h i s e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . Even though the i n d i v i d u a l may n o t u n d e r s t a n d o r know t h e purpose b e h i n d t h e s e when t h e y a r e used on him, he t r u s t s t h e c l i n i c i a n and knows t h a t he has h i s i n t e r e s t a t h e a r t . T h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e when the m a r k e t i n g i n v e s t i g a t o r u s e s t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s t o g e t a t a t t i t u d e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e u n w i l l i n g t o i n d u l g e t h e i r o p i n i o n s and a t t i t u d e s t h r o u g h t h e use o f more d i r e c t t e c h n i q u e s . Does he have t h e r i g h t t o 17 p r y i n t o t h e p r i v a t e w o r l d o f t h e s u b j e c t t h r o u g h such d i s g u i s e d methods t h a t t h e l a t t e r i s unaware o f what i s g o i n g on? F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e e t h i c a l i s s u e s i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l s e e , I r v i n g R. W e s c h l e r , "Problems i n t h e Use o f I n d i r e c t Methods o f A t t i t u d e Measurement," P u b l i c O p i n i o n Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 15, ( S p r i n g 1951), p pp. 133-138. 103 R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y The r e l i a b i l i t y o f a t e s t r e f e r s t o i t s c o n s i s t e n c y i n measurement. A t e s t o r m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e 18 i s r e l i a b l e i f i t g i v e s the same r e s u l t s when a p p l i e d 19 a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s o r when a p p l i e d by d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s . T n e v a l i d i t y o f a t e s t can be d e f i n e d as the e x t e n t t o w h i c h a t e s t measures what i t has been d e s i g n e d t o measure. A thermometer i s s a i d t o be r e l i a b l e i f i t c o n s i s t e n t l y and a c c u r a t e l y g i v e s the same measurement f o r t he same s e t o f c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s v a l i d i f i t measures t e m p e r a t u r e and n o t some o t h e r f a c t o r l i k e b l o o d p r e s s u r e . A p r o j e c t i v e t e s t u sed t o s t u d y a t t i t u d e s can be s a i d t o be r e l i a b l e i f i t g i v e s s i m i l a r r e s u l t s when r e p e a t e d under t h e same c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s s a i d t o be v a l i d i f i t does i n f a c t measure a t t i t u d e s . There i s a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n t r o v e r s y on t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . C r i t i c s m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e s e t e s t s do n o t meet the s t a n d a r d s o f r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y s e t a s i d e f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l 18 By t h e same r e s u l t s we do n o t mean 100 p e r c e n t c o n s i s t e n c y . S i n c e chance e r r o r s a r e always p r e s e n t i n any t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n , a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f 1.00 i s n o t p o s s i b l e . 19 S t e u a r t R i c e r e p o r t e d t h a t the a t t i t u d e s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s , ( w h o were s o c i a l w o r k e r s engaged i n i n t e r -v i e w i n g homeless men a p p l y i n g f o r f r e e l o d g i n g ) a f f e c t e d t h e i r b e h a v i o r i n f i l l i n g o u t the forms a l t h o u g h a s t a n d -a r d i z e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was u s e d . See S.H. B r i t t , "Four H a z a r d s o f M o t i v a t i o n R e s e a r c h and How t o A v o i d Them," P r i n t e r s ' I n k , V o l . 2, (June 1 9 5 5 ) , pp. 40-48. 104 t e s t s . The l a c k o f an o b j e c t i v e system o f s c o r i n g , t h e need f o r s t a n d a r d i z e d methods o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s a r e some o f th e f a c t o r s t h a t make i t n e c e s s a r y f o r the t e s t t o be h a n d l e d by a s k i l l e d and w e l l - t r a i n e d c l i n i c i a n . Some p s y c h o l o g i s t s a r e s k e p t i c a l o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e t e s t s . Many have t r i e d t o p o i n t t o t h e weaknesses o f t h e s e methods by u s i n g c h e c k s t h a t have 20 t r a d i t i o n a l l y been used on o t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s . B e s i d e s t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f u s i n g t h e s e t o o l s t o measure t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and a c c u r a c y o f any p s y c h o l -o g i c a l t e s t , some p r o p o n e n t s o f p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s have p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e y s h o u l d n o t be u s e d i n t e s t i n g p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s ; a t l e a s t , n o t w i t h o u t some modi-f i c a t i o n s . As i t has been p o i n t e d o u t , " p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s have been d e v e l o p e d f r o m a c l i m a t e o f o p i n i o n so r a d i c a l and d i f f e r e n t f r om t h a t w h i c h made p o s s i b l e o t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y assessment p r o c e d u r e t h a t t h e i r v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y can n e v e r be e s t a b l i s h e d i n The u s u a l c h e c k s p r o p o s e d t o t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y have been: 1, s p l i t - h a l f t e c h n i q u e . 2, c o r r e l a t i o n e i t h e r between r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e same t e s t o r between a l t e r n a t e f o r m s , 3, c o m p a r i s o n s between j u d g e s and i n t e r p r e t e r s . The methods f r e q u e n t l y used f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g v a l i d i t y a r e : 1. c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h o t h e r c r i t e r i a . 2. i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . 3. p r e d i c t i v e s u c c e s s . F o r d e t a i l s see H e l e n S a r g e n t , op_. c i t . , pp. 257-283. 105 t h e same ways. R e l e v a n c e i n M a r k e t i n g R e s e a r c h I n t h e f i e l d o f m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h a g a i n t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s on t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . Some have s t r o n g l y a t t a c h e d th e use o f t h e s e methods i n m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h by d r a w i n g our a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t some p s y c h o l o g i s t s them-s e l v e s a r e s t i l l s k e p t i c a l o f u s i n g t h e s e t e s t s . They c i t e many e x p e r i m e n t s t h a t have been c o n d u c t e d and have been documented i n t h e s c i e n t i f i c l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s have s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s , even f o r d i a g n o s t i c p u r p o s e s . F o r example, t h e y have c i t e d f a i l u r e s i n t h e use o f t h e R o r s c h a c h i n k b l o t t e s t f o r s e l e c t i n g s u c c e s s f u l t r a i n e e p i l o t s , f o r p r e d i c t i n g w h i c h c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s would g r a d u a t e and pass the l i c e n s i n g , and f o r p r e d i c t i n g w h i c h m e n t a l p a t i e n t s would 22 c o n t i n u e t o undergo t r e a t m e n t . L.E. A b t , "A Theory o f P r o j e c t i v e P s y c h o l o g y , " P r o j e c t i v e P s y c h o l o g y , Lawrence E. A b t and L e p o l d B e l l a k ( E d . ) , (New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. Knopf, I n c . , 1950), p. 221. 22 F o r example see Z u b i n , " F a i l u r e s o f the Ror-schach T e c h n i q u e s , " J o u r n a l o f P r o j e c t i v e s , V o l . 18, (September 1954), pp. 303-315; W.H. H o l i z m a n and S.B. S e l l s , " P r e d i c i t i o n and F l y i n g S u c c e s s by C l i n i c a l A n a l y s i s o f T e s t P r o t o c o l s , " J o u r n a l o f Abnormal and  S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 49, ( O c t o b e r 1954), pp. 485-490. 106 But o t h e r m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h e r s have o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e s e f a i l u r e s have l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e i n m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h . F o r example, t h e q u e s t i o n of v a l i d i t y o f any i n s t r u m e n t must t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e purpose io w h i c h i t i s p u t , i . e . t h e c o r r e c t q u e s t i o n i s n o t t o a s k , " I s t h i s t e c h n i q u e v a l i d ? " b u t " I s t h i s t e c h n i q u e v a l i d f o r s t u d y i n g consumer a t t i t u d e s ? " Many of t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r i m e n t s i n t h e use o f p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s r e f e r t o t h e i r f a i l u r e t o p r e d i c t b e h a v i o r . I n u s i n g t h e s e t e s t s a m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h e r s h o u l d c o n -s i d e r whether t h e s e t e s t s e n a b l e him t o o b t a i n t h e t y p e o f d a t a he i s l o o k i n g f o r and whether i t w i l l do so as w e l l o r b e t t e r t h a n any a l t e r n a t i v e method. Many o f t h e s e t e s t s have been m o d i f i e d and s i m p l i f i e d t o a g r e a t e x t e n t by m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h e r s , and t h e purpose i n u s i n g t h e s e t o o l s has been l e s s a m b i t i o u s t h a n t h a t o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t s . M oreover, t h e y have n o t been t h e s o l e b a s i s o f o b t a i n i n g d a t a i n any s u r v e y . They a r e o f t e n u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s . More r e s e a r c h has t o be done b e f o r e one can j u s t i f y one's c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . By r e s e a r c h i s meant more t h a n j u s t c i t i n g f a i l u r e s o f t h e s e t e s t s i n t h e f i e l d o f p s y c h o l o g y . E x p e r i m e n t s have t o be c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e f i e l d o f m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h i t s e l f . 107 Summary T h i s c h a p t e r has e n d e a v o r e d t o b r i n g o u t some o f t h e w e a k n e s s e s o f p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . Many o f t h e p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d i n u s i n g t h e t e s t s s tem f r o m i t s e x t r e m e f l e x i b i l i t y i n t e r m s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o r d e s i g n o f t h e t e s t and t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d . P e r h a p s t h e most s e r i o u s p r o b l e m i s i n t h e s u b j e c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e a n a l y s i s and t h e l a c k o f a s y s t e m a t i c method o f p r o c e d u r e f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i n g t h e r e s u l t s . C o n c l u s i o n s drawn depend v e r y h e a v i l y on t h e s k i l l , e x p e r i e n c e and judgement o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . The r e s e a r c h e r s h o u l d t a k e t h e p r e c a u t i o n o f c a r e f u l l y p r e - t e s t i n g t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s b e f o r e he makes u s e o f them. M o r e o v e r , he s h o u l d t r y t o v a l i d a t e h i s r e s u l t s by c r o s s - c h e c k i n g them w i t h o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s . 108 CHAPTER V I I SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS P r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s r e f e r t o a group o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s t h a t o r i g i n a t e d as a r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e r i g i d framework w h i c h grew up around m e n t a l t e s t i n g . The t e s t s t h a t were examined were the word a s s o c i a t i o n , R o r s c h a c h i n k b l o t , TAT, p i c t u r e f r u s t r a t i o n and r o l e p l a y i n g t e c h n i q u e s . A l t h o u g h F r a n k d i d n o t d e v e l o p t h e s e t o o l s h i m s e l f , h i s g r e a t emphasis on t h e i r use i n the s t u d y o f p e r s o n a l i t y a r o u s e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f a t t e n t i o n and i n t e r e s t among p s y c h o l o g i s t s , e s p e c i a l l y c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s . A l m o s t any t e c h n i q u e can be c a l l e d a p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e i f i t i n v o l v e s t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an ambiguous s t i m u l u s t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t , who i s asked t o c o n s t r u c t some meaning from i t . The purpose o f t h e s e t e s t s i s n o t r e v e a l e d t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t and t h e y appear i n t h e form o f games o r problems t o be s o l v e d . I t i s assumed t h a t t h i s w i l l draw t h e s u b j e c t ' s a t t e n t i o n away f r o m t h e i d e a t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i s i n t e r e s t e d i n f i n d i n g o u t h i s a t t i t u d e s o r f e e l i n g s . H o p e f u l l y , t h e r e s p o n d e n t w i l l u n c o n s c i o u s l y p r o j e c t h i s own f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v e s i n t o the p i c t u r e . 109 The s u c c e s s o f t h e s e methods l i e s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f p r o j e c t i o n . I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e i d e a o f p r o -j e c t i o n as i t r e l a t e s t o p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s has been broadened t o i n c l u d e n o t o n l y t h e F r e u d i a n c o n c e p t - t h e e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f i m p u l s e s u n a c c e p t a b l e t o a g e n c i e s l i k e t h e ego and superego - b u t a l s o t o c o n s c i o u s , u n r e p r e s s e d , a c c e p t a b l e o r even a d m i r a b l e t r a i t s , a t t i t u d e s , m o t i v e s and v a l u e s . P r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s have f o u n d t h e i r way i n many f i e l d s b e s i d e s c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g y , e.g. c o u n s e l -l i n g , t h e r a p y , s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and m a r k e t i n g . These t e c h n i q u e s were i n t r o d u c e d i n consumer r e s e a r c h s h o r t l y a f t e r W orld War I I , when i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s e a r c h methods were n o t adequate t o d e a l w i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g complex problems on consumer b e h a v i o r . A group o f r e s e a r c h e r s t u r n e d t o o t h e r f i e l d s e s p e c i a l l y t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and were engaged i n m o t i v a t i o n r e s e a r c h . More and more r e s e a r c h e r s were a t t r a c t e d t o i t f o r i t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h more glamorous and s o p h i s t i c a t e d t o o l s . Y e t , t h e r e were o t h e r s who s t i l l c l u n g t o the t r a d i t i o n a l methods, u n c o n v i n c e d o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s . They p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e s e methods were t o o s u b j e c t i v e i n n a t u r e and d i d n o t meet s t a t i s t i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c t e s t s r e a d i l y and e a s i l y . Much o f t h e c r i t i c i s m s a r o s e because t o o much was e x p e c t e d o f t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s . I t 110 s h o u l d be emphasized t h a t t h e y a r e o n l y one o f t h e s e v e r a l t o o l s t h a t a r e used i n consumer r e s e a r c h . They were d e v e l o p e d n o t so much t o r e p l a c e e x i s t i n g t e c h n i q u e s , b u t t o supplement them. B r i t t u r g e s the use o f t h e " d o u b l e -b a r r e l l e d t e c h n i q u e . " 1 T h i s i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f q u a n t i -t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e methods. B o t h a r e needed t o g e t as c o m p l e t e a p i c t u r e as p o s s i b l e t o t h e 'why 1 o f consumer b e h a v i o r . Each r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e o t h e r does n o t , and each s e r v e s as a c r o s s - c h e c k on the o t h e r . M a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h e r s who have been i n n o v a t i v e enough t o use t h e s e t o o l s i n consumer s u r v e y s have f o u n d them e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l , i f n o t n e c e s s a r y , f o r some p r o b l e m s . The s t u d y o f a t t i t u d e s i s one example. To o b t a i n consumers* a t t i t u d e s on a l m o s t a n y t h i n g i s a d e l i c a t e m a t t e r , e s p e c i a l l y i f i t i n v o l v e s p e r s o n a l o r s o c i a l c o n n o t a t i o n s . Not many p e o p l e l i k e t h e i d e a o f a s t r a n g e r t r y i n g t o p r y i n t o t h e i r t h o u g h t s . Y e t t h e r e seems no o t h e r way o f g e t t i n g a t them e x c e p t by a s k i n g 2 t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . There a r e two ways of o b t a i n i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . S t e u a r t B r i t t , "Why I t ' s B e s t t o Use 'Combi-n a t i o n ' R e s e a r c h , " P r i n t e r s ' I n k , V o l . 249,(October 1954), pp. 60-66. 2 One c o u l d come t o some c o n c l u s i o n s about an i n d i v i d u a l s ' a t t i t u d e s towards a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t by o b s e r v i n g h i s b e h a v i o r towards i t . T h i s means, however, t h a t one would have t o o b s e r v e him f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h o f t i m e w h i c h i s i m p r a c t i c a l . I l l ( 1 ) By assuming t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w e e w i l l c o o p e r a t e and ask him d i r e c t l y . But t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i s n e v e r c e r t a i n whether he has h i s f u l l c o o p e r a t i o n , f o r he may be o u t -w a r d l y c o o p e r a t i v e , b u t i n f a c t r e s o r t s t o c l i c h e s o r d i s t o r t s t h e answers. (2) To a pproach th e s u b j e c t i n d i r e c t l y and t o g e t him t o r e v e a l t h e a t t i t u d e s u n c o n s c i o u s l y . P r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s have s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h seem c a p a b l e o f a c h i e v i n g t h i s aim. These i n s t r u m e n t s l i e somewhere between the two extreme a p p r o a c h e s . One f i n d s t h e r i g i d , s t r u c t u r e d , s t a n d a r d i z e d and c o n v e n t i o n a l methods wh i c h a r e e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d i n o b t a i n i n g c e r t a i n t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m consumers, on one hand, and on the o t h e r t h e r e i s t h e v e r y i n f o r m a l , t o t a l l y u n s t r u c t u r e d , open-ended, i n t e r v i e w s , w h i c h r e v e a l i n t e r e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n b u t much o f w h i c h i s i r r e l e v a n t . P r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s a r e by no means p e r f e c t i n s t r u m e n t s . There a r e s t i l l many problems t h a t have t o be overcome o r a t l e a s t m i n i m i z e d . More e m p i r i c a l work s h o u l d be c a r r i e d out i n the a r e a o f t e s t d e s i g n t o e n a b l e t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o d e v e l o p and m o d i f y th e t e s t s so t h a t t h e y a r e s a t i s f a c t o r y i n e l i c i t i n g the t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s r e l a t e d t o the s i t u a t i o n b e i n g s t u d i e d . A n o t h e r a r e a t h a t needs e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i s i n t h e o b j e c t i v e s c o r i n g , a n a l y s i n g and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e s . Y e t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e t any r u l e s 112 o f thumb because no two s i t u a t i o n s a r e i d e n t i c a l . M o r e o v e r , i n d e a l i n g w i t h consumer b e h a v i o r we a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h a complex and dynamic phenomena. W e s c h l e r comments on the f u t u r e and i t i s w o r t h n o t i n g : " I n d i r e c t methods o f a t t i t u d e measurement have e s t a b l i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s as u s e f u l and p r o v o c a t i v e t o o l s , b u t t h e i r s t a t u s and development depend upon the t y p e o f r e s e a r c h w h i c h w i l l s t r e s s methodology r a t h e r t h a n o r i g i n a l i t y , and s c i e n t i f i c t e c h n i q u e 3 r a t h e r t h a n i n g e n u i t y o f d e s i g n . " I r v i n g R. W e s c h l e r , "Problems i n t h e Use o f I n d i r e c t Methods o f A t t i t u d e Measurement," P u b l i c  O p i n i o n Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 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