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The use of projective techniques in consumer attitude research Khoo, Suat Choo 1968

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THE USE OF P R O J E C T I V E TECHNIQUES I N CONSUMER ATTITUDE  RESEARCH  by KHOO SUAT CHOO B.A.  (Hons.), U n i v e r s i t y o f S i n g a p o r e , 1966  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED  I N P A R T I A L FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS in  ADMINISTRATION  the Faculty of  Commerce  and B u s i n e s s  Administration  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g required standard  to the  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1968  In of  the requirements  University shall I  presenting this  f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t  of B r i t i s h Columbia,  make i t f r e e l y  f u r t h e r agree  of  this  thesis i n partial  the  t h a t the  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  that permission f o r extensive  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes  H e a d o f my  I agree  fulfilment  may  be  g r a n t e d by  i s understood  t h a t copying or p u b l i s h i n g of t h i s  for  g a i n s h a l l n o t be  written  permission. -  Department of The  C O H H £ £ & £  University  V a n c o u v e r 8, Date  allowed  3-1  of B r i t i s h  Canada kfrJL  f'Hg  ^ _  Columbia,  study.  copying  D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  financial  Library  without  the It thesis  ABSTRACT  The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o examine some p r o j e c t i v e techniques attitudes.  t h a t can be used to study  The measurement  consumer  of a t t i t u d e s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g  but p e r p l e x i n g one, mainly because o f t h e i r a b s t r a c t nature.  Many i n s t r u m e n t s  have been used, n o t a b l y the  d i r e c t method o f q u e s t i o n i n g and the s c a l i n g These are based upon two important  techniques.  assumptions:  (1) t h a t  the i n d i v i d u a l i s aware of h i s a t t i t u d e s , and can v e r b a l i z e them and (2)  t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i s w i l l i n g  these a t t i t u d e s t o an i n t e r v i e w e r who Researchers  to r e v e a l  i s a total  stranger.  have r e c o g n i z e d the weaknesses of these  assumptions and have turned to more i n d i r e c t  approaches.  The u s e f u l n e s s of p r o j e c t i v e methodology i n consumer i n t e r v i e w i n g i s u n d e n i a b l e .  T h e i r more s u b t l e ,  i n d i r e c t , u n s t r u c t u r e d and f l e x i b l e approach overcomes some of the weaknesses found  i n the more d i r e c t methods.  But these t e c h n i q u e s have some l i m i t a t i o n s which have been s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d .  The v a l i d i t y  and  scientific  v a l u e of these t o o l s are s u b j e c t e d t o g r e a t c o n t r o v e r s y . Yet, i t i s not enough to l i s t necessary  t h e i r shortcomings.  to s p e l l out what they are i n v a l i d  It i s  f o r and  More r e s e a r c h has t o be done e s p e c i a l l y i n comparing  why.  the responses  d e r i v e d from  these methods which  thos  o b t a i n e d from o t h e r t o o l s , on the same s u b j e c t of i n q u i r y and under s i m i l a r The  circumstances.  author has r e l i e d  d a t a i n the study.  Any  s o l e l y on  empirical testing  secondary of  these  t e c h n i q u e s c a l l s f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of e x p e r i e n c e and behavior.  skill  i n psychology  and  consumer  T A B L E OF  CONTENTS  CHAPTER I  PAGE  THE  PROBLEM  AND  ITS SETTING  IntiTOClUCtlOri© PUJTpOSG  Of  S tj*ruc t u i r e II  of  of  S t u d y © oooooooo©©*oooooooooooooooo2 the  the  ©o« 3  Study  Study*  © o o © o © o o o o © o o o o o o © © o o o o o o * 4  H I S T O R I C A L D E V E L O P M E N T OF  PROJECTIVE T E C H N I Q U E S . 6 .  Introduction. Meaning Origin  of Projective  Use  .  .  6 8  Techniques...  and Development o f  Projective  SUrtim 3. J*ry O  1 3  Techniques  of Projective  Consumer  III  1  © © o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o d o o o o o l  thlG  Limitations  «,  Techniques i n 1 4  Research...  0 0 0 « 0 0 0 0 © © 0 0 0 0 0 © © © 0 0 © 0 © © 0 © 0 0 0 © © © 0 0 © © © O o l 7  A T T I T U D E S AND  1 8  T H E I R MEASUREMENT  I n t JTOdUC t i O n o © © • o e o o « o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o e o o o o o o o » «  Definition  Usefulness  Techniques  Consumer  Studies  to Marketers.... 2 3  Between A t t i t u d e s  and B e h a v i o r . . . . 2 6  that  c a n be Used  A t t i tUde  Limitations  2 0  of Attitudes  of Attitude  Relationship  Me a S U r e  1 9  of "Attitudes"  Characteristics  13  to  S o o o o . o o o o o o o o o o o o . o o o o o o o o o . o 2 8  of these Techniques i n  R e s e a r c h . a . . . . . o . . . 0 . 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 . .  3 2  V  CHAPTER  PAGE Summary o  IV  39  TYPES OF P R O J E C T I V E TECHNIQUES  40  Introduction.  40  Word A s s o c i a t i o n Rorschach  Test  42  Ink Blot Test  44  Thematic Apperception Test Sentence Completion  .46  Test......  49  P i c t u r e F r u s t r a t i o n Test....' ]RO JL*3  P I ciy U*1C[  50  o * o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o e o « o f 5 2  Common C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Projective  Techniques  Summary V  ...53  »  ............55  P R O J E C T I V E TECHNIQUES I N CONSUMER ATTITUDE RESEARCH I n tiroduic t i o n • The  56  © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © © 0  Marketing Applications  of Projective  T e c h n i que s . . .  .......56  Word A s s o c i a t i o n Rorschach  SS  Test........  ...56  I n k B l o t T e s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59  Thematic Apperception Test  60  Sentence Completion  64  Test  Picture Frustration Test........ R o l e Playing©  0 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Advantages o f Using P r o j e c t i v e Techniques C o n d i t i o n s Under Which Techniques  ....67 72 75  Projective  S h o u l d be Used  80  vi CHAPTER  PAGE Summary  VI  ...<><>  .  87  PROBLEMS I N THE A P P L I C A T I O N OF P R O J E C T I V E TECHWlQUfcjSooeooeoe«ooo*oeoeooeeoooo«oeeeoee««o33  Introduction.  .  88  Design of the Tests  89  Administrative  93  SctmpIS  Sd.Z6«  Problems  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * 0  Interpretation of the Results  ..97  Standardization Ethical  100  Probiems.o.o.........................102  Reliability  and V a l i d i t y  Relevance i n Marketing Research Summary VII  95  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  «.  103 .....105 107 ....108  BIBLIOGRAPHY•ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo113  ACKNOWLE DGEMENT  The a u t h o r i s g r e a t l y i n d e b t e d Dr. F r e d e r i c k  Webster of the F a c u l t y  to  o f Commerce  and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r h i s g u i d a n c e , encouragement and patience  during  the preparation  She i s a l s o v e r y Kelly draft.  of this  thesis.  g r a t e f u l t o Dr. Robert  f o r h i s h e l p f u l comments o f t h e p r e l i m i n a r y  „ CHAPTER THE  PROBLEM AND  I ITS  SETTING  Introduction The  increasing pressure  wide v a r i e t y of products  and  o f c o m p e t i t i o n and  substitutes available to  c o n s u m e r s , make c o n s u m e r o r i e n t e d f i r m s r e a l i z e c o n s u m e r s ' whims and  f a n c i e s are not  manufacturer t r i e s desperately its  and  other  In the past,  d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s b u t m a r k e t e r s came t o  b u t by  a multitude  not  o n l y by  of consumer b e h a v i o r , fields  researchers  e s p e c i a l l y psychology,  They seek i n f o r m a t i o n n o t  the Each  in studies  economic realize  economic reasons  o f o t h e r f a c t o r s as w e l l .  a t t e m p t t o o b t a i n a more c o m p l e t e and  that  ignored.  were c h i e f l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h  t h a t the consumer i s m o t i v a t e d  try  t o be  to o u t w i t the  quest f o r the consumers' d o l l a r .  o f consumer b e h a v i o r  the  In  an  comprehensive p i c t u r e  have t u r n e d  s o c i o l o g y and  t o many anthropology.  o n l y on e x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s b u t  t o probe deeper i n t o the p e r s o n a l i t y of the  consumers  t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on more c o m p l e x v a r i a b l e s s u c h opinions, attitudes,  traits,  e m o t i o n s and  group of marketers devote t h e i r  motives.  as A  a t t e n t i o n t o what i s  termed " m o t i v a t i o n r e s e a r c h " , which i n essence,  studies  2 t h a t which does.  m o t i v a t e s t h e c o n s u m e r t o b e h a v e t h e way h e  These r e s e a r c h e r s found  t h a t t o o l s then used t o  s t u d y consumer b e h a v i o r were i n a d e q u a t e task.  Thus t h e y have d e v e l o p e d  supplement the e x i s t i n g  particular to  other instruments to  o f t h e Study  of this  set of tools  s t u d y i s t o examine a  t h a t c a n be used  by a r e s e a r c h e r  o b t a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f consumer  These t o o l s , used of  purpose  individuals.  projective from  attitudes.  termed p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , were  by c l i n i c a l  a complex  ones.  Purpose The  f o r such  first  p s y c h o l o g i s t s t o study the p e r s o n a l i t y L a w r e n c e K. F r a n k  techniques  1  who c o i n e d t h e t e r m  pointed out that they  originated  p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t e c h n i q u e s o f dream a n a l y s i s and f r e e  a s s o c i a t i o n on one h a n d , a n d f r o m  Gesalt psychology  on  2 the other. Although are s t i l l  t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s have been u s e d and  c u r r e n t l y used  others are s t i l l  b y some m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h e r s ,  skeptical of their usefulness.  E v e n more  •'"Lawrence K. F r a n k , " P r o j e c t i v e M e t h o d s f o r t h e Study o f P e r s o n a l i t y " , J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 8 , 1939, pp. 389-413. 2 G e s a l t psychology emphasized the whole persona l i t y o f a n i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r t h a n t h e sum o f i t s p a r t s , i . e . , no s i n g l e t r a i t o r mechanism m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n i s o l a t i o n from the r e s t o f the p e r s o n a l i t y s t r u c t u r e ; e q u a l l y no s i n g l e t r e a t m e n t o f a p e r s o n ' s f a n t a s i e s , n o r h i s r e s p o n s e s t o a p r o j e c t i o n s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d i n isolation. P h i l i p E. V e r n o n , P e r s o n a l i t y T e s t A s s e s m e n t , (Metheun and Co., L t d , London, 1 9 5 3 ) , pp. 170-171.  3 important validity  are t h e i r of  doubts  on t h e r e l i a b i l i t y  these techniques.  and m a r k e t i n g  literature  Both the  on p r o j e c t i v e  c o n f l i c t i n g viewpoints not  only  research,  of  even the meaning  which the term p r o j e c t i v e subjected  to  techniques  the  contain  in  consumer  term p r o j e c t i o n is derived,  from is  controversy.  characteristics  they  psychological  on t h e i r v a l u e  techniques  The a i m t h e a u t h o r  projective  and  t o examine  and a s s u m p t i o n s  techniques  of  some o f  to analyse  (2)  that w i l l  the  (1)  t h e more  and t o i l l u s t r a t e h o w ,  s h o u l d b e u s e d and  and l i m i t a t i o n s  is  why,  some o f  be e n c o u n t e r e d  popular  and  the  in using  when  problems these  techniques. Limitations This projective  of  the  Study  study examines o n l y  techniques  s i x of  t h a t have been d e v e l o p e d .  have been s e l e c t e d because they  better  projective  than these  The s t u d y h e r e It  does not r e l a t e  methods  cited  for  Market  consumer  obtained  strategies that  surveys using  a  consumer  attitudes.  research.  through  these  company  these techniques  t o i l l u s t r a t e how and t o w h a t e x t e n t t h e s e  can be u s e d t o measure  there  potentially  measuring  the i n f o r m a t i o n  by  Perhaps  d e a l s o n l y w i t h consumer  with the marketing  may f o r m u l a t e .  surveys.  techniques which are  techniques  These  are c u r r e n t l y used  m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h e r s i n consumer are other  t h e many  attitudes.  are  methods  Some o f  the  4 o t h e r methods o f m e a s u r i n g discussed.  a t t i t u d e s w i l l be  briefly  I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o compare and c o n t r a s t  the advantages  and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f a l l t h e s e methods  with p r o j e c t i v e techniques. w i l l be b r i e f l y mentioned.  Some o f the c h i e f Since p r o j e c t i v e  limitations  techniques  were employed by m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h e r s m a i n l y because o f the i n a d e q u a c y  o f t h e d i r e c t method o f q u e s t i o n i n g , the  l a t t e r w i l l be examined i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . R e s e a r c h on t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s was solely on secondary d a t a .  The  carried  out  a u t h o r f e l t t h a t t o use  these techniques i n f i e l d survey or i n l a b o r a t o r y e x p e r i ments one would have t o be t h r o r o u g h l y f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s e tools.  M o r e o v e r , the a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e  d a t a g a t h e r e d demands a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f knowledge and some e x p e r i e n c e w i t h consumer r e s e a r c h and  clinical  psychology. S t r u c t u r e of the The  Study  i n v e s t i g a t i o n b e g i n s by d e f i n i n g and  explaining  the meaning o f t h e term, p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , and t r a c e s i t s o r i g i n and development i n c l i n i c a l  then  psychology  and i n consumer r e s e a r c h . Chapter I I I d e a l s w i t h the a r e a i n which t o o l s a r e t o be u s e d .  Many d e f i n i t i o n s o f a t t i t u d e s a r e  found i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . w i l l be examined.  these  Some o f t h e more p e r t i n e n t ones  From t h e s e some c o n c l u s i o n s on  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be drawn.  their  The v a l u e o f a t t i t u d e  5  studies  to a marketer  n o t be i g n o r e d . attitudes  in  the f i e l d  features  enable  techniques  but  consumer  attitude  be m e n t i o n e d .  t o have  In  V the  them w i l l  of u s i n g  Like  task  (study of  are  to  and  attitudes)  of  consumer  surveys  be i n c l u d e d .  be  research these  instruments.  Some p r o b l e m s  are analyzed  The s t u d y e n d s w i t h a summary r e s e a r c h t h a t has been  done.  How  carried  Some o f  of  t h a t m i g h t be e n c o u n t e r e d  and  to a t t i t u d e research  these techniques w i l l  a l l methods  are not p e r f e c t  this  i s necessary tests  IV  their  Although  what t h e s e  c a n be a p p l i e d  Illustrations  companies u s i n g  have  research.  t o be u s e d a r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r .  p r o j e c t i v e methods  advantages  these  administered.  the Chapter  techniques  be shown.  a p i c t u r e of  studying  Some o f  it  should  In Chapter  be e x a m i n e d .  i s a somewhat d e s c r i p t i v e o n e , one  that  some o f  are d i s c u s s e d .  and a s s u m p t i o n s w i l l  how t h e y c a n b e  the  of  question  a r e o t h e r means o f  these weaknesses w i l l  the p r o j e c t i v e  chapter  there  s h o u l d n o t be o v e r l o o k e d ,  limitations Some o f  That  i s an i m p o r t a n t  will  by  the  emphasized. techniques and  limitations  i n Chapter  VI.  and some c o n c l u s i o n s on  the  6  CHAPTER I I H I S T O R I C A L DEVELOPMENT OF  P R O J E C T I V E TECHNIQUES  Introduction The  purpose of  then e x p l a i n the and as  (2)  t h i s c h a p t e r i s (1)  meaning of the  t o examine the  An  s h a l l be The  be  defined  or n e g a t i v e l y  discussed  as  attitudes  be  from the  are  t o w a r d g o o d s and By  should  We  way  towards a given 1  i n greater  detail  concerned here with  object,  The  term  i n Chapter I I I . buyer:-;  and  consumers*  services.  of a p r e l i m i n a r y  cognizant  tool  a predisposition  term consumer r e f e r s t o b o t h the  user of products.  techniques,  development of t h i s  event, s i t u a t i o n , person or group of persons. attitude  and  research.  " a t t i t u d e " may  t o behave p o s i t i v e l y  phrase p r o j e c t i v e  o r i g i n and  i t r e l a t e s t o consumer  to define  t h a t the  observation,  the  term p r o j e c t i v e i s  word p r o j e c t i o n , d e f i n e d  as  the  process  reader derived of  attributing  to another person the  same f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s ,  w i s h e s , and  e m o t i o n s t h a t one  of o n e s e l f .  has  More  L e s l i e A. B e l d o , "An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A t t i t u d e R e s e a r c h and Management D e c i s i o n " , G e o r g e L. B a k e r , J r . ( E d . ) , E f f e c t i v e M a r k e t i n g C o o r d i n a t i o n . P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e 44tb N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e M a r k e t i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , J u n e , 1961. A m e r i c a n M a r k e t i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s , pp. 583-EB4. x  7  specifically, c a n be as  o f t h e word p r o j e c t i o n by p s y c h o l o g i s t s  t r a c e d b a c k t o the works o f Sigmund F r e u d  1895o  tests  use  C u r r e n t l y the  term  t h a t h a v e b e e n and  psychology.  T h e s e c a n be  are  refers still  to a s p e c i f i c used i n  grouped i n t o  the  as  early  group  of  clinical following  categories: 1.  A s s o c i a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , where t h e s u b j e c t i s a s k e d t o r e s p o n d t o some s t i m u l u s p r e s e n t e d b y the examiner w i t h the f i r s t word, image, or p r e c e p t t h a t o c c u r s t o him, e.g., word a s s o c i a t i o n , Rorschach i n k b l o t t e s t , c l o u d pictures.  2.  C o n s t r u c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , where t h e s u b j e c t i s a s k e d t o c r e a t e o r c o n s t r u c t a p r o d u c t such as a s t o r y o r p i c t u r e , e.g., t h e m a t i c a p p e r c e p t i o n t e s t , Blacky pictures.  3.  C o m p l e t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , where t h e i n t e r v i e w e e i s p r o v i d e d w i t h some t y p e o f i n c o m p l e t e p r o d u c t and r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e i t i n any way he w i s h e s , e . g . , s e n t e n c e t e s t , p i c t u r e f r u s t r a t i o n study.  4.  C h o i c e o r d e r i n g t e c h n i q u e s , where the respondent m e r e l y c h o o s e s f r o m a number o f a l t e r n a t i v e s t h e i t e m s o r a r r a n g e m e n t t h a t b e s t f i t s some c r i t e r i o n , e.g., S z o n d i t e s t , p i c t u r e a r r a n g e ment t e s t .  5.  E x p r e s s i v e techniques, which r e q u i r e the respondent t o combine or i n c o r p o r a t e s t i m u l i i n t o some k i n d o f n o v e l p r o d u c t i o n , e . g . , p l a y t e c h n i q u e , d r a w i n g and p a i n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s , p s y c h o d r a m a and r o l e p l a y i n g .  2 A number o f ways o f g r o u p i n g p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s have been s u g g e s t e d . ( C a m p e l l , 1951; F r a n k , 1939; H e l e n , 1 9 4 5 ) . The a b o v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s t a k e n f r o m G a r d n e r L i n d s e y , P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s and C r o s s C u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h , (New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , I n c . , 1961), pp. 51-95.  8 S i n c e W o r l d War  I I a number o f t h e s e  b e e n employed by m a r k e t i n g conventional  researchers  t e s t s have  to supplement  m e t h o d s commonly u s e d t o o b t a i n  the  information  3  on  consumers. However, t h e s e  earlier  techniques  i n a d e q u a t e i n f u r t h e r i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g motivation  and  attitudes.  of  in  use  understanding  be  consumer  Consequently, i t i s f e l t  t h i s w r i t e r t h a t g r e a t e r emphasis should d e v e l o p m e n t and  proved to  be  placed  of p r o j e c t i v e techniques  by  by on  the  marketers  consumers.  Meaning of P r o j e c t i v e Techniques Fundamentally, the the  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f an  In other words, the to  ambiguous s t i m u l u s  makes no  incomplete  sense.  sentence,  asked to f i l l  s t r a t i o n on  For  an  "Buying appliances  from a  Hopefully  project his real motivation  concerning  a given  interprets  the  r e v e a l i n g , one  topic.  As  can  being  presume t h a t t h i s  s u c h a demonc a u s e him  As  to  and/or a t t i t u d e  a w a r e o f w h a t he  technique  will  Frank  is  than  suggests:  These methods r e f e r t o the d i r e c t method q u e s t i o n i n g and t h e s t a t i s t i c a l - m e t h o d s .  and  allow  g r e a t e r degree of p r o j e c t i o n of h i s i n n e r tendencies -would d i r e c t m e t h o d s .  an  catalogue...",  the i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s  stimulus, without  of  subject i s given  the p a r t of the respondent w i l l  unconsciously  interviewer  s t i m u l u s w h i c h i n and  example, the  i n the r e s t .  involve  t o a respondent,-  i n d i v i d u a l i s a s k e d by  c o n s t r u c t meaning from a g i v e n  itself  and  p r o j e c t i v e techniques  of  a  9 We c a n a p p r o a c h t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l and i n d u c e h i m t o r e v e a l h i s way of o r g a n i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e by g i v i n g him a f i e l d (objects, materials, experiences) with r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e s t r u c t u r e and c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n i n g s o t h a t the p e r s o n a l i t y can p r o j e c t upon t h a t p l a s t i c f i e l d h i s way o f s e e i n g l i f e , h i s m e a n i n g s , s i g n i f i c a n c e s , p a t t e r n s , and e s p e c i a l l y h i s f e e l i n g s . T h u s , we c a n e l i c i t a p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y ' s p r i v a t e w o r l d b e c a u s e he h a s t o o r g a n i z e t h e f i e l d , i n t e r p r e t t h e m a t e r i a l and react e f f e c t i v e l y to i t . It  follows  two  important but  are  disguised  not  revealed  withholding  distinctive characteristics. First,  i n t h a t the r e a l t o the  vital  fore allowing true  subject  the  subject  purpose of  so  information  a t t i t u d e s and  unstructured  t h e n , t h a t p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s have  as  the  the  stimuli.  part  m o u t h by  of the  In other  may  limiting The  process of  the  rather  scope of the  testing i s almost  to h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s no  attempt  words i n the  on  subject's  responses.  success of these techniques l i e s  in  the  " p r o j e c t i o n " , from w h i c h the word p r o j e c t i v e  techniques i s derived. relation  to put  there-  his  r e s p o n d i n an  words, there  interviewer  reveal  Secondly, the  subject  from  interviewer,  to unconsciously  u n l i m i t e d number o f w a y s , a c c o r d i n g of  testing i s  t o p r e v e n t him  from the  motivation.  i n t h a t the  the  they  The  concept of  "projection" in  to p r o j e c t i v e techniques i s widely  l o o s e l y used.  Various  connative  m e a n i n g s h a v e become a s s o c i a t e d  with  and  this  and  often  dennotative  term;  a c a t c h - a l l q u a l i t y i n many a t t e m p t s t o d e f i n e  there  is  projection  L a w r e n c e K. F r a n k , " P r o j e c t i v e M e t h o d s f o r t h e S t u d y o f P e r s o n a l i t y " , J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 8, 1939, pp. 402-403.  10 a n d many d i f f i c u l t i e s  and d i s a g r e e m e n t s .  In t r a d i t i o n a l an i n d i v i d u a l  p s y c h o l o g y , p r o j e c t i o n o c c u r s when  confronted with unacceptable impulses or  a t t r i b u t e s w i t h i n h i m s e l f , defends reduces  against these  c o n f l i c t o r a v o i d s a n x i e t y ) by d i s p l a c i n g  i n t o t h e o u t e r w o r l d upon a n o t h e r p e r s o n . if  (i,e.  To  them  illustrate,  we h a t e a n o t h e r p e r s o n , e g , a p a r e n t , s i b l i n g ,  or wife  0  whom we s h o u l d i n f a c t l o v e , t h i s  i s likely  he  t o come  into  s h a r p c o n f l i c t w i t h o u r ego o r superego.  We may t r y t o  repress our hatred but i t i s s t i l l  T h e r e f o r e , we  try  there.  t o convince ourselves through p r o j e c t i o n  hates us. justifies  Our h a t r e d becomes h i s h a t r e d . our hatred.  H i s hate now  We c a n r e l e a s e o u r t e n s i o n b y  h a t i n g w h i c h we c o u l d n o t d o s o b e f o r e . unconscious  t h a t he  This process i s  as w e l l as p a t h o l o g i c a l and i s termed  classic  projection.  J o s e p h Z u b i n , L e o n h a r d D. E v r o n a n d F l o r e n c e S c h u m e r , An E x p e r i m e n t a l A p p r o a c h t o P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e , (New Y o r k ! J o h n W i l e y a n d S o n s , I n c . , 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 3-4. g To F r e u d t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l c o n s i s t s e s s e n t i a l l y o f t h r e e p a r t s - i d , ego, and s u p e r e g o . The i d i s t h e p r i m a r y , instin±ive. a n d u n c o n s c i o u s a s p e c t . The e g o i s t h e c o n s c i o u s r a t i o n a l p a r t , a n d a c t s a s a b u f f e r t o t h e ego. I t does t h e t h i n k i n g , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g , r e a s o n i n g , and remembering, i n o r d e r t o s a t i s f y t h e i d . I n s t e a d o f o p e r a t i n g on t h e p l e a s u r e p r i n c i p l e as t h e i d , o r t h e r e a l i t y p r i n c i p l e as t h e ego, t h e superego o p e r a t e s on t h e principle of perfection. I t s main f u n c t i o n s a r e t o c r i t i c i z e and j u d g e , t h e t h o u g h t s and a c t i o n s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t o i n h i b i t the impulses of the i d that v i o l a t e the i n t e r n a l s t a n d a r d s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t o g u i d e t h e ego t o w a r d a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d o f b e h a v i o r . }  11 Projection techniques subject  when he  own n e e d s , the  artist his  is  given of  sense used  process  of  perception  the  of  basis  and  asked  example,  a story  an  and f e e l i n g s  so  many o f  felt  of  the  t o be  the  It  is  that  this  projective  a n o r m a l one  qualities  of  For  his  or p a i n t i n g  personality.  of  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  stimuli  and k n o w l e d g e .  is  state  by which a  of  his  Such a p r o c e s s inner  a process  i n n e r emotions  a reflection  individual's  be  projective  do so b y m a k i n g u s e  constructing  which i s  techniques.  will  feelings  may p r o j e c t h i s  work i s  to  in  an a m b i g u o u s  it,  emotions,  assumption  the  the  seems more l i k e l y  t o make s e n s e o u t  in  in  influences  outer  world.  where  his This  7 process  has  been  Normal  termed g e n e r a l i z e d projection  abnormal  projection,  not  to  have  include  differs  projection. i n many ways f r o m  both i n degree defensive,  and i n k i n d .  unconscious,  It  does  unacceptable  or  anxiety  avoidance components. As K e r l i n g e r p o i n t s o u t , T h i s i d e a o f p r o j e c t i o n has been broadened to i n c l u d e not only unacceptable impulses but a l s o v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , n e e d s , w i s h e s as w e l l as i m p u l s e s and m o t i v e s . Some e x p e r i m e n t s  strate include  the  basic  have  mechanism o f  an e x p e r i m e n t  by S e a r s  been  c a r r i e d out  projection. where  to  One o f  a group of  demonthese  fraternity  7 G a r d n e r L x n d s e y , Op., c i t . . p p .  25-31.  g Fred N. K e r l i n g e r , Foundation of Behavioral R e s e a r c h ; E d u c a t i o n a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l I n q u i r y , (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , Winston, I n c . , 1966), p . 525.  12 men  were asked t o r a t e  p o s s e s s i o n of made:  (1)  that  to project  the  traits  largest  t h o s e who  A  the  His to  amount o f  was  b a s e d on  p r o v i d e the  but  the  and  interpretation following  true  in the  criteria:  o t h e r s was  the  t a k e n as  used trait. trait  the  projection.  criterion  and  others' insight.  r e s u l t s were i n the  expected  w e r e more s t i n g y  t h a n a v e r a g e and  fact, rated  average, than d i d  recognized  of  score i n a  was  (2)  would occur  of  i n s i g h t i n t o the on  personalities,  other individuals  Agreement between s e l f  T h o s e who  of  average score i n a t t r i b u t i o n of the  The  projection  acknowledgement  the  e s t i m a t e of h i s  the  a s s u m p t i o n s were  projection The  o t h e r s on  would use  i n t h e i r own  measure of 3.  Two  s u b j e c t ' s a v e r a g e r a t i n g by  as 2.  •9  individuals  lacked insight.  data collected 1.  the  traits.  themselves from the  undesirable that  certain  t h e m s e l v e s and  ratings  direction. who  others higher i n  t h o s e who  this characteristic.  were e q u a l l y Sears  lacked stinginess stingy  concluded, ^ x <  " . . . w h e t h e r i t was a c o n s c i o u s o r u n c o n s c i o u s p r o c e s s , i t c a n be s a i d t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f p r o j e c t i o n have appeared i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n a way t h a t was p r e d i c t a b l e f r o m t h e p r e s e n t r e d e f i n i t i o n of that p r o c e s s . "  R.R. Sears, "Experimental S t u d i e s of P r o j e c t i o n ; I . A t t r i b u t i o n of T r a i t s . " In S i l v a n s Tomkins, Contemporary Psychopathology,(Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1943), pp. 5 6 1 - 5 7 1 . I b i d . , p.  576  13 O r i g i n and Development o f P r o j e c t i v e Many w o u l d p r e t a t i o n o f Dreams" projective  agree  Techniques  t h a t i t was F r e u d *s "The I n t e r -  ( 1 9 0 0 ) , t h a t marked t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f  techniques.  I n t h i s volume he d e v e l o p e d  t e c h n i q u e r . o f dream a n a l y s i s and i n c l u d e d  the statement o f  a g e n e r a l theory t h a t has p r o v i d e d the background which  e m e r g e d many o t h e r p r o j e c t i v e  techniques.  from  1 1  Each o f t h e s e p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s were s e p a r a t e l y by d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s  a new  at different  developed  times.  I t was L a w r e n c e K. F r a n k who r e c o g n i z e d t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s of t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s and p r o v i d e d a l a b e l  f o r them.  I t i s  12 undoubtedly  hisinfluential  paper  " p r o j e c t i v e h y p o t h e s i s " which  i n 1939  containing h i s  "unlashed a t o r r e n t of r e s e a r c h , 13  t e s t c o n s t r u c t i o n and c l i n i c a l suggested  speculation."  He  t h a t t h e name " p r o j e c t i v e m e t h o d s " b e a p p l i e d t o  the v a r i o u s t e s t s  t h a t were a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e ,  word a s s o c i a t i o n , Rorschach  (e.g.,  i n k b l o t , TAT, s e n t e n c e  completion)  and d r e w a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r v a l u e i n t h e s t u d y o f p e r s o n 14 a l i t y , f o ri t involves: F r e u d r e f e r r e d t o dream i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as " t h e r o y a l road t o the unconscious." S i g m u n d F r e u d , "The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f D r e a m s , " i n J . S t r a t c h e y ( E d . ) , The C o m p l e t e P s y c h o l o g i c a l W o r k s o f S i g m u n d F r e u d , V o l s . 4 & 5, ( L o n d o n : Hogarth, 1953). O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d i n 1900. 12 F r a n k , op_. c i t . ,  pp. 389-413.  13 Z u b i n , E r o n , S c h u m e r , op_. c i t . , 14  Frank, op. c i t . ,  p. 403.  p . 3.  14  ...the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a stimulus s i t u a t i o n d e s i g n e d o r c h o s e n b e c a u s e i t w i l l mean t o t h e s u b j e c t n o t what t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r has a r b i t r a r i l y d e c i d e d i t s h o u l d mean as i n m o s t p s y c h o l o g i c a l experiments using standardized s t i m u l i i n order t o be o b j e c t i v e , b u t r a t h e r i t must mean t o t h e p e r s o n a l i t y who g i v e s i t o r i m p o s e s u p o n i t , h i s p r i v a t e i d i o s y n c r a t i c m e a n i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  Frank's received  by  ideas  clinical  and  p s y c h o l o g i s t s , as  workers, p s y c h i a t r i s t s , pologists.  The  as  against  a revolt  from  the  as  psychoanalysts  the  more r i g i d  tradition.  that of Binet,  T h u r s t o n e , which emphasized repeatability,  efficiency,  intelligence,  social  motivations,  and  are  values.  w e l l equipped  Use  The  a strong  with  these  W o r l d War  research.  oriented.  war  buyer's market. became t h e  post The  guiding  in popularity  tests that These r e f e r  developed to  such and  specification.  standardized  the  area  measurement  l u r e and  policy  emotions,  t o d a y most  clinics  instruments.  i n Consumer has  been  Research a  significant  F i r m s became more  seller's  familiar  of  were  promise of p r o j e c t i v e  I I , there  change i n m a r k e t i n g The  anthro-  rose  exact  of P r o j e c t i v e Techniques Since  social  a t t i t u d e s , a p t i t u d e s , but  i n d e a l i n g with  provided  as  Terman, T h o r n d i k e ,  and  unsuccessful  techniques  well  careful quantification,  T h e s e were s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e of  enthusiastically  and  p r o j e c t i v e techniques  psychometric  instruments  c o n c e p t s were  consumer-  market changed i n t o a  phrase  "the  of marketing  consumer i s  programs.  king"  15  E a r l i e r s t u d i e s o f consumer b e h a v i o r f o c u s e d on s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and demographic v a r i a b l e s , such as income, age, s e x , e d u c a t i o n , f a m i l y s t a t u s , e t c .  Such c e n s u s - t y p e  d a t a have been t h e backbone o f market a n a l y s i s f o r s e v e r a l years.  Attempts t o understand buying behavior c o n s i s t e d  m a i n l y o f t r y i n g t o f i n d c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e v a r i a b l e s and s a l e s .  B u t t h e m a r k e t e r needs t o know more.  I t i s i m p e r a t i v e f o r him n o t o n l y t o know t h e answers t o q u e s t i o n s l i k e "who", "where", "what", "how many", and "when", b u t a l s o "why".  Today t h e t r e n d has s h i f t e d  mere "nose c o u n t i n g " t o t h e s t u d y o f u n c o n s c i o u s in  search of s i g n i f i c a n t a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s ,  and e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s .  from  reaction  predispositions,  The t r a d i t i o n a l t o o l s t h a t were  a b l e t o h a n d l e t h e more t a n g i b l e and r a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f consumer b e h a v i o r were i n a d e q u a t e t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e new concepts.  M a r k e t r e s e a r c h e r s have t h e r e f o r e t u r n e d t o  other f i e l d s , e s p e c i a l l y the b e h a v i o r a l sciences. The need t o u n d e r s t a n d consumer b e h a v i o r has l e a d t o t h e development o f what has been termed " m o t i v a t i o n research."  There i s n o t h i n g m y s t e r i o u s about t h e term.  I t i s s i m p l y an a t t e m p t t o dredge up o u t o f t h e more o r l e s s h i d d e n d e p t h s o f human n a t u r e and human p e r s o n a l i t y , i f p o s s i b l e , some p r a c t i c a l h i n t s on how t o s e l l a p r o d u c t more r e a d i l y and a g r e e a b l y . are  people  F o r example, i f we  t r y i n g t o s e l l c a r s we s h o u l d t r y t o f i n d o u t what an  a u t o m o b i l e means t o t h e consumer. purchase a c a r ?  Why does he t r y t o  I s i t merely f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  purposes?  16 Some a u t h o r s h a v e u s e d t h i s only t o the psychological  term r a t h e r l o o s e l y  t e c h n i q u e s t h a t have been used  t o s t u d y consumer m o t i v a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s , example, p r o j e c t i v e  to refer  including f o r  t e c h n i q u e s , depth i n t e r v i e w i n g , and  focused group i n t e r v i e w i n g .  These endeavor t o e l i c i t  i n f o r m a t i o n from the respondents i n d i r e c t l y t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l methods o f o b t a i n i n g  i n contrast  information.  But m o t i v a t i o n r e s e a r c h i s a w i d e r c o n c e p t and c o v e r s n o t o n l y t h e s e i n d i r e c t methods b u t o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s as w e l l that are available  and n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d  consumer  motivation. Many o f t h e p r o j e c t i v e  t e c h n i q u e s were  ated i n t o marketing r e s e a r c h d u r i n g t h e 1940's. have been employed i n a t t i t u d i n a l  and o p i n i o n  incorporThey  studies,  company b r a n d i m a g e , b r a n d name s t u d i e s , a n d c o n s u m e r motivation studies.  They have been u s e d f o r t h o s e  consumer  p r o d u c t s t h a t a r e s i m i l a r i n q u a l i t y , p e r f o r m a n c e , and p r i c e , notably f o r products l i k e  automobiles,  soaps,  d e t e r g e n t s , c i g a r e t t e s , f o o d p r o d u c t s and s u n d r i e s . These t e s t s have h e l p e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o why p e o p l e b e h a v e a s t h e y d o , a n d how b e s t t h e y c a n be p u r s u a d e d t o behave d i f f e r e n t l y . h a v e made i t p o s s i b l e  These  methods  t o probe i n t o t h e minds o f t h e  consumer and t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h t h e y would n o t have r e v e a l e d even under t h e most s u b t l e d i r e c t of  questioning.  method  17  Summary The d e v e l o p m e n t o f p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s field  o f p s y c h o l o g y and consumer r e s e a r c h  i n the  was t h e r e s u l t  o f t h e need t o f i n d b e t t e r i n s t r u m e n t s  t o deal with the  more c o m p l e x p r o b l e m s t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s  became a w a r e o f .  The c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g i s t f o u n d l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e u s e o f standardized  and r i g i d  t e s t s i n understanding  p e r s o n a l i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l . realized  that  researcher  t h e sjtrati&t&Ga&rattcfe-.di-r.ect- .-rasytQdfec&ad  s e v e r a l weaknesses i n s t u d y i n g realized  The m a r k e t i n g  the  consumer b e h a v i o r .  t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f human b e i n g s  a n d the. .need t o  a p p r o a c h them i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f more and l e s s r i g i d  and s t r u c t u r e d  tools.  Both  subtle  18  CHAPTER I I I ATTITUDES AND THEIR MEASUREMENT Introduction The  justification  solve a research the  strengths  might r e l a t e research but  of the technique  problem should  be c o n c e r n e d w i t h  and weaknesses o f t h a t t e c h n i q u e  i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r another.  as they  toward products  One  f o r one p r o b l e m  T h u s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e  task a t hand, t h a t o f measuring consumers'  This  both  t o the s p e c i f i c problem i n q u e s t i o n .  method m i g h t be a p p r o p r i a t e  r e l e v a n t and  used t o  and t h e t e c h n i q u e s  attitudes  t o be u s e d , i s  necessary. chapter  various definitions  begins  b y e x a m i n i n g some o f t h e  o f " a t t i t u d e s " i n an a t t e m p t t o  come t o some c o n c l u s i o n s  on t h e i r meaning and c h a r a c t e r -  istics. Secondly, the question attitude  of the usefulness of  studies t o a marketer w i l l  techniques  be t r e a t e d .  Various  have been used t o measure a t t i t u d e s , b u t these  h a v e some l i m i t a t i o n s when u s e d i n c o n s u m e r Some o f t h e s e  weaknesses w i l l  be b r i e f l y  research.  discussed  here.  19 D e f i n i t i o n s of P s y c h o l o g i s t s and a wide v a r i e t y Allport  to the i n t r i n s i c  Katz  and  their  ambiguity i n the  s t u d i e d , b u t t o the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the aims  investigators. Y e t , even  1  i f r e s e a r c h e r s s e t o u t w i t h t h e same  they are l i k e l y  of a t t i t u d e s . thing  ascribed  suggest t h a t the apparent c o n f u s i o n of  material  aim,  s o c i o l o g i s t s have  o f meaning t o the term a t t i t u d e *  m e a n i n g i s n o t due  of the  "Attitudes"  t o come o u t w i t h t h e i r  T h i s i s because  Perhaps  one  concepts  a t t i t u d e s a r e n o t some-  t a n g i b l e , n o r c a n t h e y be d i r e c t l y  e a s i l y measured.  own  observed  or  can u n d e r s t a n d what i s  meant by t h e t e r m a t t i t u d e by e x a m i n i n g  some  definitions  of v a r i o u s authors. 2 1.  The  classical  definition  i s :  abstractions,  i n f e r e n c e s from observable b e h a v i o r , v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n s , and o t h e r symptoms o f b e h a v i o r in readiness. 3 2.  Weschler  and B e r n b e r g  l o o k upon a t t i t u d e s  as:  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t of the dynamic D. K a t z and F.H. A l l p o r t , (Syracuse: Craftsman P r e s s , 1931).  Student  Attitudes,  2 L e s l i e A. B e l d o , "An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A t t i t u d e R e s e a r c h and Management D e c i s i o n " , G e o r g e L . B a k e r , J r . (Ed.), E f f e c t i v e Marketing Coordination. Proceedings o f t h e 44t£ N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e A m e r i c a n M a r k e t i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , American Marketing A s s o c i a t i o n , Chicago, J u n e , 1 9 6 1 , p. 5 8 6 . 3 I r v i n g W e s c h l e r and Raymond B e r n b e r g , " I n d i r e c t Methods o f A t t i t u d e Measurement," I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f O p i n i o n and A t t i t u d e R e s e a r c h , V o l . 14, 1 9 5 0 , p p 2 0 2 - 2 2 5 .  20 p r o c e s s e s w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l , which r e s u l t s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of h i s p e r c e p t i o n of any g i v e n s i t u a t i o n and are m a n i f e s t e d i n h i s response, 3.  Krech, C r u t c h f i e l d , and B a l l a c h e y f e e l  that  4 a t t i t u d e s are:  e n d u r i n g systems of p o s i t i v e  or n e g a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s , e m o t i o n a l  feelings  and t e n d e n c i e s , t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l a c q u i r e s with r e s p e c t to s o c i a l 4,  objects.  L e s l i e Beldo's d e f i n i t i o n i s : ~ *  predisposition  to behave p o s i t i v e l y , n e g a t i v e l y , or almost i n d i f f e r e n t l y towards a g i v e n o b j e c t ,  event,  person or group of p e r s o n s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of A t t i t u d e s From these d e f i n i t i o n s s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c#  " a t t i t u d e s " emerge.  important Firstly,  cannot be observed d i r e c t l y , i . e . , they must be from v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n s or o v e r t b e h a v i o r .  they inferred  The weight  or  h e i g h t of a person can be d i r e c t l y measured, and a p r e c i s e q u a n t i t a t i v e answer can be o b t a i n e d .  On the o t h e r hand,  h i s a t t i t u d e s towards an o b j e c t can o n l y be measured through i n f e r e n c e s drawn from h i s responses towards i t ,  David Krech, R i c h a r d S. C r u t c h f i e l d , and Egerton L. B a l l a c h e y , I n d i v i d u a l i n S o c i e t y : A Textbook of S o c i a l Psychology, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., I n c . , 1962,  P- 139.  5Beldo,  op_. c i t . , p.  586.  21  either  through overt behavior  cigarettes) will the  or verbal  cause c a n c e r " ) . main f a c t o r s  ( e . g . , he b u y s L u c k y  statements  This aspect of attitudes  w h i c h makes i t d i f f i c u l t  good i n s t r u m e n t s f o r m e a s u r i n g Secondly, attitudes cal  components o r s t a t e s  reactions  (e.g., "smoking  t o the environment.  t o develop  them. psychologi-  determine the i n d i v i d u a l ' s This implies  that  would have t o determine whether t h e s u b j e c t ' s to  s p e c i f i c objects  Very often  of  factors.^  interrelated  Thirdly, object usually  and be  over a period  t h e outcome o f s e v e r a l  attitudes  o r some  i ti s the r e s u l t of a  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e s  develop gradually  multiple  t o w a r d s an  o f t i m e and a r e 7  incidents.  Once f o r m e d  seem t o r e s i s t c h a n g e , a n d a r e r a t h e r  enduring.  one  reaction  i s caused by h i s a t t i t u d e s  other f a c t o r s .  cigarettes  i s one o f  are not the only  that  What i s more i m p o r t a n t i s t h a t  stable  they can  c h a n g e d b y new p e r c e p t i o n s a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s .  because a t t i t u d e s studies  are not s t a t i c  or fixed that  a r e v a l u a b l e f r o m two v i e w p o i n t s .  prevailing  attitude  made t o c h a n g e i t . t h e n i t s h o u l d be  Strike  i s unfavorable  It i s  attitude  First,  i f the  t h e n a t t e m p t s c a n be  I f the e x i s t i n g attitude  i s favorable  reinforced.  g logical  M u z a f e r S h e r i f and H a d l e y C a n t r i l , Review, V o l . 52, 1945, pp. 300-304.  The P s y c h o -  7 Of c o u r s e t h e r e c a n be e x c e p t i o n s ~ t o t h i s r u l e . F o r e x a m p l e , a woman may d e v e l o p a h a t r e d f o r a n e l e c t r i c c u t t i n g k n i f e i f h e r son c u t s h i s hand w h i l s t p l a y i n g withiit.  22 Fourthly, important  has  of  1.  c o g n i t i v e component  2.  a f f e c t i v e component  3.  behavioral  c o g n i t i v e component o f a t t i t u d e  an  object.  For  understanding example, take  and  it.  The  pleases  it.  last  like  a  individual he  makes  that  the  engine  longer,  has  great-  i . e . , the  attitude i s  the  i n d i v i d u a l ' s motiva-  object.  The  s i g h t of  I t arouses a l l s o r t s of pleasant  the assoc-  dreamso  and The  disposition  behavioral  component r e p r e s e n t s  to a c t towards the  behavioral  attitude.  believes  a f f e c t i v e component o f the  t i o n s o r f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s an  the  object  etc.  emotional aspect of i t ,  all  He  t o most c a r s , i t w i l l  er d e p r e c i a t i o n value,  iations  an  more i m p o r t a n t s t i l l ,  e v a l u a t i v e j u d g e m e n t s on superior  includes  t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l  t y p e o f c a r - t h e M u s t a n g . The  knows a l l a b o u t i t ,  car  three  component  k n o w l e d g e , and  particular  is  of  components;  The beliefs,  a t t i t u d e s a r e made up  The  readiness  associated  i n d i v i d u a l goes out  p a m p h l e t s , c a t e g o r i e s , e t c . , on hours a t the  dealer's  a c t u a l l y purchase the These t h r e e . independent but  object.  are  the  pre-  This  includes  with  the  o f h i s way  to  read  the Mustang.  He  spends  store j u s t admiring  i t o r he  may  car. components are not  i n t e r d e p e n d e n t and  separate  or  incorporated  in  23  some s o r t o f a s y s t e m , e . g . , individual ings  and  a b o u t an  object  the  c o g n i t i o n of  i s i n f l u e n c e d by  an  his  a c t i o n tendencies toward that o b j e c t  change i n h i s c o g n i t i o n s  about the  object  p r o d u c e c h a n g e s i n h i s f e e l i n g s and  and  will  action  feela  tend  to  tendencies  toward i t . ^ Thus, the  t a n g i b l e nature of a t t i t u d e s ,  the  many i n t e r - d e p e n d e n t p a r t s w h i c h compose them and  the  i n n u m e r a b l e number o f f a c t o r s w h i c h c a n  influence  t h e m , make i t i n t e r e s t i n g b u t  change or  extremely d i f f i c u l t  to  study. U s e f u l n e s s of A t t i t u d e Studies Three types of i n f o r m a t i o n from a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s  are  to  Marketers  t h a t can  of i n t e r e s t to  1.  the  d i r e c t i o n of the a t t i t u d e .  2.  the  i n t e n s i t y of  3.  the m o t i v e s u n d e r l y i n g  be  obtained;  marketers:  the a t t i t u d e . the a t t i t u d e .  E v e r y m a r k e t e r i s a n x i o u s t o know w h e t h e r product i s l i k e d attempt to f i n d is  the  that  basic  o r d i s l i k e d by out  aim  s a l e s can  be  the  consumers.  The  d i r e c t i o n of consumers' a t t i t u d e s  o f most a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s . u s e d as  r e a c t i o n to a product.  pp.  the  his  a reflector  of the  One  can  argue  market's  However, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have  K r e c h , C r u t c h f i e l d , and 139-140.  Ballachey,  op_. c i t . .  24 the p r o d u c t p r e - t e s t e d even b e f o r e i t i s c o m m e r c i a l i z e d . A f i r m has  to conduct  people w i l l starts  consumer s u r v e y s t o l e a r n  a c c e p t or r e j e c t i t ' s product even b e f o r e i t  t o p r o d u c e and Very  sell  i t i n the  the d i r e c t i o n of the a t t i t u d e  ther i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the i n t e n s i t y w h a t e x t e n t do c o n s u m e r s l i k e Knowing the d i r e c t i o n does n o t  tell  s t u d i e s the motives  or d i s l i k e  One three broad direction  and  the a t t i t u d e s ,  the of  product. attitudes  i t .  He  obtainable i s useful there w i l l  be  four c r i t e r i a useful  i . e . , whyycon-  studies reveal  and  the  the  motives  a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s  to the marketer.  For almost  a host of a t t i t u d e s . for selecting  the marketing  must  product.  that attitude  Not  fur-  and, t h e r e f o r e ,  i n t e n s i t y of the a t t i t u d e s t o them.  with  seeks  f a c t o r s v a l u a b l e to the r e s e a r c h e r -  and  upon which  t o improve  a particular  can conclude  that give rise  product  intensity  the a t t i t u d e s  behind  satisfied  of the a t t i t u d e , i . e . ,  or d i s l i k e  and  t h e r e s e a r c h e r how  know t h e r e a s o n s b e h i n d  sumers l i k e  market.  o f t e n the i n v e s t i g a t o r i s not  i n f o r m a t i o n on  to  whether  Maloney  the types of  plan should focus.  any lists  attitudes  These a r e :  1. I m p o r t a n c e o f a t t i t u d e t y p e . 2. C o m p a t i b i l i t y w i t h p r o d u c t i n b a s i c m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g y . 3. P r e s e n t c o n s u m e r a w a r e n e s s and k n o w l e d g e o f t h e product. g 4..' U n i q u e n e s s o f a t t i t u d e t y p e i n p r o d u c t a r e a . _  J o h n C. M a l o n e y , " M a r k e t i n g D e c i s i o n s and A t t i t u d e R e s e a r c h , " George L. B a k e r , . J r . ( E d . ) , E f f e c t i v e M a r k e t i n g C o o r d i n a t i o n . P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e 44& N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e of the A m e r i c a n M a r k e t i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , A m e r i c a n Market A s s o c i a t i o n , Chicago: J u n e 1 9 6 1 , p. 595.  25  The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e number o f  the a t t i t u d e type r e f e r s  p e o p l e who u s e t h e a t t i t u d e  type i n d e c i s i o n  m a k i n g and t h e w e i g h t g i v e n t o i t b y b u y e r s their  e v a l u a t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s .  t h e number o f  people  t h e more i m p o r t a n t  is  when m a k i n g  Obviously,  and t h e h e a v i e r the a t t i t u d e  to  the  the weight  type to the  higher given  investi-  gation. R e s e a r c h may i n d i c a t e t h a t p r o d u c t i s the most i m p o r t a n t  the p r i c e of  the  s i n g l e a t t i t u d e , but  if  t h e p r o d u c t i s a " p r e s t i g e " i t e m , p r i c e w o u l d n o t be a variable  that  program.  the f i r m would emphasize i n i t s  Hence, i t  to look for  promotional  w o u l d b e more d e s i r a b l e f o r  the second most i m p o r t a n t  type of  the  firm  consumer  attitude. It  was n o t e d e a r l i e r t h a t one o f  components of knowledge, object.  attitudes is  understanding  This property  knowledge i s l a c k i n g , first  the  important  the c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r ,  and b e l i e f s o f  i.e,  a particular  i s often overlooked.  If  this  i n c o r r e c t , or d i s t o r t e d then  j o b w o u l d be t o p r o v i d e  the  the b a s i c f a c t s  of  the  the  product. It  i s not  s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d  a r e a p t t o t u r n up t h e potentially marketing  important  same b a s i c for  a t t i t u d e t y p e s as  a product c l a s s .  s t r a t e g y emphasis i s  the p r o d u c t ,  t h a t many s t u d i e s  If  being  the  the d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s of  the i n v e s t i g a t o r should search f o r  some-  26  t h i n g d i f f e r e n t from the  competitors.  As  Thedore L e v i t t  10 remarks: Eight d i f f e r e n t motivation research studies h a v e come t o e i g h t c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t a l i g h t , f r e s h as a d a i s y , o u t - d o o r s y a p p r o a c h m i g h t be j u s t f i n e f o r m e n t h o l c i g a r e t t e s . The f i r s t t h i n g we know i s t h a t there are e i g h t brands of menthol c i g a r e t t e s w i t h e i g h t l i g h t green packages to e i g h t a i r y f a i r y o u t - d o o r s y a d v e r t i s i n g themes. The up  marketer w i l l with  c e r t a i n l y be  b e t t e r o f f i f he  s o m e t h i n g more u n i q u e .  Relationship So  B e t w e e n A t t i t u d e s and  f a r we  individual will  will  not  buy  and  buy  i f he  almost a l l firms  i s some  buying behavior,  a p r o d u c t i f he  d i s l i k e s i t . Since  i s to maximize p r o f i t s  l i k e s i t or the  s t u d i e s w o u l d be  of  product w i l l  little  s h i p b e t w e e n a t t i t u d e and been done i n t h i s one  by  find  area.  value  i n the  behavior. First  G e o r g e B r o w n w h e r e an  out  the  of  sell.  i f there  long  of run,  main  i s no  relation-  Some r e s e a r c h these studies  i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  seven c l a s s e s  he  Attitude  r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e f e r e n c e  housewives of  i.e.,  objective  b e c a u s e p r o f i t s depend upon s a l e s , t h e i r  i n t e r e s t i s whether the  by  Behavior  have assumed t h a t t h e r e  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a t t i t u d e s and an  comes  of household  has  include made t o  and  purchases  products.  1 1  Ibid.,pp.607-608. "'"'"'George H. B r o w n , "Why P e o p l e Buy P a r t i c u l a r B r a n d s , " i n R o b e r t F e r b e r and Hugh G. W a l e s , M o t i v a t i o n and M a r k e t B e h a v i o r , (Homewood: R i c h a r d D. I r w i n , I n c . ,  27  Through of  i n t e r v i e w s a n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , two  d a t a were c o l l e c t e d  existing  sets  and a n a l y z e d f o r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e :  l e v e l s of p r e f e r e n c e f o r the brands of these  p r o d u c t s on t h e C h i c a g o m a r k e t  and p u r c h a s e s o f t h e s e  p r o d u c t s by a p a n e l o f C h i c a g o h o u s e w i v e s week p e r i o d .  The  results revealed  during a three  that there i s a  and c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e x i s t i n g  levels  direct  of  p r e f e r e n c e f o r brands of seven c l a s s e s of household p r o d u c t s and  their relative  p u r c h a s e by  housewives.  S t u d i e s done b y K a t o n a and h i s a s s o c i a t e s indicate related  that both i n i t i a l  and f i n a l  attitudes  are  t o f r e q u e n c y o f p u r c h a s e o f d u r a b l e goods  during  12 the  year.  Through  individuals, attitudes,  i t was  r e p e a t e d i n t e r v i e w s o f t h e same possible  the f a c t o r s  e f f e c t s o f changes  t o observe the changes  l e a d i n g t o such changes,  on i n d i v i d u a l b u y i n g b e h a v i o r .  data collected revealed that i n i t i a l changes of  i n a t t i t u d e s are r e l a t e d  durable It  are  The  a t t i t u d e s and  t o subsequent  the  later  purchases  goods. w o u l d be  directly related  attitude  and  in  too o p t i m i s t i c  t o say t h a t  to buying behavior, i . e . , a  towards a product w i l l  attitudes favorable  automatically lead  to  1 9 5 8 ) , p p . 2 7 7 - 2 9 2 . A d a p t e d f r o m an a r t i c l e b y Seymour B a n k s , M a n a g e r o f M e d i a P l a n n i n g and R e s e a r c h , L e o B u r n e t t Co., "The R e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n P r e f e r e n c e a n d P u r c h a s e o f B r a n d s , " J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g , V o l . 1 4 , ( O c t . 1 9 5 0 ) p D * L 4 5 - 1 5 7„ 12 George K a t o n a , " A t t i t u d e Change: I n s t a b i l i t y R e s p o n s e and A c q u i s i t i o n o f E x p e r i e n c e , " P s y c h o l o g y Monograph, V o l . 72, 1 9 5 8 .  of  28  its  purchase  will  o r an u n f a v o r a b l e  mean d e f i n i t e l y  attitude  toward  a t t i t u d e towards a  that there w i l l  be no p u r c h a s e .  buying behavior.  of  t h e p r o d u c t , i t s u s e f u l n e s s t o t h e consumer,  of  the product,  that although  F o r example, income,  are variables buy a p r o d u c t .  to  another  product  unfavorable  toward  substitutes  toward  a product  does  i t seems t o  o f i t being bought,  which  whether  B u t one c a n c o n c l u d e  lead t o i t s purchase,  indicate a high probability  availability  t h a t can determine  a favorable attitude  not n e c e s s a r i l y  An  a p r o d u c t i s o n l y one o f t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s  of  a consumer w i l l  product  relative  t h e consumer has an  attitude. Technigues to  t h a t c a n be U s e d  Measure A t t i t u d e s  We c a n s e e t h a t " a t t i t u d e s " h a v e c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r istics  which  make t h e i r m e a s u r e m e n t d i f f i c u l t .  author  feels  that p r o j e c t i v e techniques  c a n overcome  some o f t h e w e a k n e s s e s o f o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s consumer a t t i t u d e s .  Before  other tools  will  techniques  t o e x a m i n e some o f t h e  t h a t c a n be u s e d t o s t u d y a t t i t u d e s .  the focus of t h i s jective  i n studying  these p r o j e c t i v e  are d i s c u s s e d , i t i s necessary  The  investigation  Since  i s on t h e u s e o f p r o -  t e c h n i q u e s , t h e d i s c u s s i o n on t h e o t h e r m e t h o d s  be b r i e f .  29  One way o f c l a s s i f y i n g  t h e methods t h a t c a n  b e u s e d t o m e a s u r e a t t i t u d e s w o u l d be b y t h e t y p e o f procedure used t o o b t a i n  information.  As  Donald 13  Campbell suggests there  are four  Approach 1. u n d i s g u i s e d structured  such  groups.  Type o f I n s t r u m e n t -  Attitude  scales  2. n o n - d i s g u i s e d non-structured  Open-end questionnaires Unstructured interviews  3. d i s g u i s e d unstructured  Projective  4. d i s g u i s e d structured  Error choice  techniques technique  An a t t i t u d e s c a l e c o n s i s t s o f a s e t o f s t a t e ments o r i t e m s t o w h i c h a p e r s o n r e s p o n d s . of responses provides attitude.  a way o f i n f e r r i n g  The  pattern  about h i s  T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l ways o f c o n s t r u c t i n g  attitude  scales.  Two  o f t h e more w e l l known  formal  14 s c a l e s a r e t h e T h u r s t o n e and L i k e r t s c a l e s . A Thurstone scale i s constructed l a r g e number  of judges assign  scale values  statements i n d i c a t i n g the extent  by h a v i n g  a  to attitude  t o which the items  D o n a l d T. C a m p b e l l , "The I n d i r e c t A s s e s s m e n t of S o c i a l A t t i t u d e s , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , V o l . 47, 1950, p . 1 5 . 14 technique,  O t h e r s i n c l u d e t h e Guttman s c a l e , C o r n e l l q u a s i - s c a l e s and s e m a n t i c d i f f e r e n t i a l .  30  r e p r e s e n t a pro o r con  position.  By p r o v i d i n g  information, a scale value i s assigned  this  to each  To m e a s u r e t h e a t t i t u d e s o f an i n d i v i d u a l , he  item. is  to place a plus s i g n i n f r o n t of a l l statements agrees value  with.  His attitude  o f t h e i t e m s he h a s  developed  asked  by L i k e r t .  to express  statements  their  selected.  the o b j e c t i n q u e s t i o n . cate whether they undecided, responses  are weighted  the experimenter  5,4,3,2,and 1  f o r f a v o r a b l e items  and  unfavorable  Through the use  items.  they  r e v e r s i n g the  to  indi-  are  or s t r o n g l y disapprove. to obtain a t o t a l  of  to r e l a t e  For each statement  above c a t e g o r i e s are s c o r e d  are  a l a r g e number  s t r o n g l y approve, approve,  disapprove,  attitudes  A l a r g e number o f j u d g e s  a t t i t u d e s on  c o n s i d e r e d by  he  score i s the median s c a l e  A d i f f e r e n t approach to the s c a l i n g of was  asked  These  score.  The  respectively  scoring for  of item  analysis ^ 1  15 L.L. Thurstone, "Theory of A t t i t u d e Measurem e n t , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , V o l . 36, 1 9 2 9 , pp. 2 2 - 2 4 1 . 16 I t e m a n a l y s i s i s a way o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h a t t i t u d e i t e m s d i s c r i m i n a t e among i n d i v i d u a l s who d i f f e r i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d an object. The d i s c r i m i n a t i n g p o w e r o f an i t e m i s m e a s u r e d b y c o m p u t i n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n i t e m s c o r e s and t o t a l scores. Items which c o r r e l a t e most h i g h l y w i t h t o t a l s c o r e s a r e r e l a t e d as t h e most d i s c r i m i n a t i n g items. See K r e c h , C r u t c h f i e l d , and B a l l a c h e y , o p . c i t . , p. 1 7 8 .  31  the  most d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  form  items are r e t a i n e d  i n the f i n a l  of the scale. The  scores yielded  by a L i k e r t s c a l e  c a n be  interpreted  only  score  r e l a t i v e t o the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f scores o f  falls  other people. The type  The s c o r e does n o t have a b s o l u t e second  questions,  unstructured  projective The he  third  variety,  seeks  consist  the r i g h t answers. techniques  An a t t e m p t  systematic bias The r e s p o n s e s  i s lacking.  task  To t h e r e s p o n d e n t  o f an a c h i e v e m e n t o r  i n the performance are n o t taken  the systematic  errors  himself  i s n o t aware a r e s t u d i e d .  i n which  response of  i s made t o d i a g n o s e  Rather,  from t h e  are unstructured.  The v o l u n t a r y  s i t u a t i o n i s similar to that  techniques.  Four.  tests differ  p a r t i c i p a t e i n an o b j e c t i v e  the  task.  i n Chapter  they  projective  from  and o p e n -  of the projective  i n detail  techniques i n that  test.  the essay  categories.  the  ability  assignments  disguised-structured  respondents  include  group o f t e s t s , the d i s g u i s e d -  be d i s c u s s e d  The  of tests  meaning.  where t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s p o n s e i s n o t  to predetermined  The  These w i l l  category  autobiographical  ended i n t e r v i e w s restricted  i n t e r m s o f where t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s  o f an  attitudes objective  a t t h e i r face  o f which  value.  the respondent  An e x a m p l e o f t h i s 17  type o f t e s t i s the e r r o r  Choice;  choice  technique.  i n whxch  K» R. Hammond, " M e a s u r i n g A t t i t u d e s b y E r r o r An I n d i r e c t M e t h o d , " J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l a n d  32  the respondent i s presented f o r answers. minable. items  with  I n some i n s t a n c e s  a l t e r n a t i v e choices the truth i s undeter-  The s u b j e c t i s t h u s f o r c e d t o e r r o r .  i n error choice  The  t e s t s a r e such t h a t the c o r r e c t  answers a r e n o t r e a d i l y apparent.  A t t i t u d e b i a s on  the p a r t o f t h e s u b j e c t i s r e v e a l e d by s y s t e m a t i c in  errors  one d i r e c t i o n a s o p p o s e d t o r a n d o m e r r o r s . L i m i t a t i o n s of these i n Consumer  Techniques  Research  One c a n s e e f r o m t h e p r e c e e d i n g there  a r e many t e c h n i q u e s  attitudes.  section that  t h a t c a n be u s e d t o measure  The u s e f u l n e s s  o f e a c h m e t h o d d e p e n d s on  the purpose o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r .  I n consumer a t t i t u d e 18  research  they have s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s .  attitude  s c a l e s a r e c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h measurement o f  valence. the  A valence  Most  o f an a t t i t u d e component r e f e r s t o  degree o f t h e p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e  aspects  of the  c o g n i t i v e f e e l i n g o r a c t i o n t e n d e n c y components o f an 19 attitude  system,  i . e . , the degree o f f a v o r a b i l i t y o r  unfavorability with respect Although  to the object of the attitude.  t h i s kind of information i s u s e f u l t o a marketer  D i s c u s s i o n on t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s w i l l be v e r y b r i e f , s e r v i n g o n l y a s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i n a d e q u a c y of t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s i n consumer r e s e a r c h . 19 p. 179.  Krech,  C r u t c h f i e l d , and B a l l a c h e y ,  op_. c i t . ,  33  it  d o e s n o t o f f e r h i m a n y i d e a s on w h a t s t r a t e g i e s t o  adopt i n order unfavorable  t o change t h e a t t i t u d e s i f they a r e  o r t o r e i n f o r c e them i f t h e y  The  researcher  the  a t t i t u d e s and t h u s  over  underlying  c a n h a v e no i n f l u e n c e o r c o n t r o l  them. The  include yield  d o e s n o t know t h e r e a s o n s  are favorable.  non-disguised,  the essay  a rich  type  source  non-structured  tests  which  q u e s t i o n , open-end i n t e r v i e w s ,  o f i n f o r m a t i o n on a t t i t u d e s , b u t  p r o b l e m s a r i s e i n t h e s c o r i n g , a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data. One o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e d i s g u i s e d structured it  t e s t s over  the f i r s t  two c a t e g o r i e s i s t h a t  i s d i s g u i s e d , i . e . , t h e r e s p o n d e n t s do n o t know t h e  real  p u r p o s e o f t h e t e s t s o r how t h e i r  interpreted. answers.  answers w i l l  be  This reduces the tendency f o r stereotype  However u n l i k e t h e p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s  t e s t s are s t r u c t u r e d , thus reducing  these  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  . . . . . 2 0 spontaniety of expression. I n t e r e s t i n p r o j e c t i v e techniques  developed  c h i e f l y because o f the inadequacy of the d i r e c t  method  of q u e s t i o n i n g i n o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from  consumers.  It  whether  i s important  this  criticism  The l a t e r on.  t o examine i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l  a g a i n s t t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l method i s v a l i d .  weakness o f t h i s f a c t o r w i l l  be e x p l a i n e d  34  The u s u a l a p p r o a c h e s questioning 1.  o f t h e d i r e c t method o f  include:  Yes-No  Question  Do y o u smoke? ( Y e s o r No) Do y o u go t o t h e m o v i e s o f t e n ? 2,  Multiple  Choice  What do y o u t h i n k o f t h e p r i c e o f t h e new c a r p u r o u t b y company X? Very reasonable F a i r l y reasonable....... F a i r l y unreasonable..... Very unreasonable 3.  Ranking I n b u y i n g a p a i r o f s h o e s w h i c h one o f t h e s e f a c t o r s i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t t o you p e r s o n a l l y ? And o f t h o s e l e f t , w h i c h i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t ? ( P r o c e e d u n t i l a l l i t e m s have been ranked) color shape style............  4.  Open-ended Why  b r a n d name....... quality . price............  Question  do y o u b u y m e a t a t s t o r e X?  The d i r e c t m e t h o d o f q u e s t i o n i n g makes assumptions.  F i r s t , i t assumes t h a t t h e  knows t h e a n s w e r s .  T h i s i s n o t always  i n s t a n c e s , consumers a r e unable t h e y do n o t know. and many p e o p l e  certain  respondent  true.  I n some  t o answer s i m p l y because  Much o f b u y i n g b e h a v i o r i s u n c o n s c i o u s  s e l d o m do much c o n s c i o u s t h i n k i n g  why t h e y do w h a t t h e y do a n d t h e y may  t h e r e f o r e be  about unable  35  to  readily  produce  much i n way o f e x p l a i n i n g o n t h e 21  s p u r o f t h e moment, t h e i r b u y x n g b e h a v i o r . are  Attitudes  l e a r n e d and once t h e y have been a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h  experience, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  f o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o  d e t e r m i n e how h e a c q u i r e d them.  In fact,  may n o t b e c o n s c i o u s l y a w a r e o f h i s own  an i n d i v i d u a l  attitudes.  V e r y o f t e n t h e consumer i s a s k e d , " I f t h i s p r o d u c t were a v a i l a b l e would y o u buy i t ? " confronted with "Yes,"  A  respondent  s u c h a q u e s t i o n w i l l be l i k e l y  a l t h o u g h he h a s n o i d e a w h e t h e r  not i f the s i t u a t i o n  should a r i s e .  tosay,  he w o u l d  Answering  new  buy o r  i nthe  a f f i r m a t i v e d o e s n o t i n a n y way c o m m i t h i m b e c a u s e  he  m i g h t n e v e r have t o f a c e t h e s i t u a t i o n i n r e a l i t y . F u r t h e r m o r e , he f e e l s he i s m a k i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w e r happy by s a y i n g ,  "Yes."  He m i g h t  feel  obligated  so e s p e c i a l l y i f t h e i n t e r v i e w e r has l e f t  t o do  him a f r e e  sample. E v e n i f t h e s u b j e c t w e r e a w a r e a t one t i m e of  the factors  difficulty view. of the or  t h a t shaped  i n recalling  h i s a t t i t u d e s , he m i g h t  have  them a t t h e t i m e o f t h e i n t e r -  O f t e n h i s d e c i s i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d by a whole h o s t  interrelated  f a c t o r s o f v a r y i n g i m p o r t a n c e , and  r e s p o n d e n t m i g h t be u n a b l e  t o remember a l l o f them  s o m e t i m e s some o f t h e i m p o r t a n t  ones.  21 J o s e p h Newman, M o t i v a t i o n R e s e a r c h m Advert i s i n g and M a r k e t i n g , ( B o s t o n : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 402.  36  Perhaps approach are  t h e c h i e f weakness o f t h e d i r e c t  i s that i t overlooks the inconsistencies  a p t t o o c c u r between a respondent's i n w a r d  and h i s o u t w a r d he i s w i l l i n g  speech  that  thoughts  and a c t i o n , i . e . i t assumes  t o r e v e a l i n f o r m a t i o n when a s k e d .  that  This i s  t r u e i n c e r t a i n c a s e s , s u c h a s t h e q u e s t i o n s , "Do y o u l i k e to  d r i v e ? " o r "What do y o u t h i n k o f t h e new v a c u u m  c l e a n e r o f X company?"  To q u e s t i o n s l i k e  these the  consumer g i v e s h i s f r a n k and h o n e s t o p i n i o n and does n o t attempt t o hide h i s r e a l  attitude.  a r e a s i n w h i c h he i s l e s s w i l l i n g  B u t t h e r e a r e some or unwilling  to discuss.  23 As E n g e l a n d W a l e s p u t i t : When a r e s p o n d e n t p e e c e i v e s a q u e s t i o n as p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y t h r e a t e n i n g , h i s r e s p o n s e may be d i s t o r t e d , p e r h a p s t o w a r d s a s t e r e o t y p e d o r normative response. He may b e r e l u c t a n t t o v e n t u r e f a r f r o m w h a t he c o n s i d e r s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y n e u t r a l r e p l y , and w i l l r e a c t by o u t r i g h t l y i n g , p a r t i a l concealment of f a c t s or d e n i a l of true f e e l i n g s . The feelings social  consumer might n o t want t o admit h i s r e a l  and a t t i t u d e s on c e r t a i n i s s u e s b e c a u s e o f  disapproval or r i d i c u l e .  C o n s e q u e n t l y he g i v e s  stereotyped responses that use c l i c h e s which are commonly a c c e p t a b l e b u t d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t his  attitudes. —  These areas w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r  Four.  23 J a m e s E n g e l a n d H.G. W a l e s , " S p o k e n v e r s u s P i c t u r e d Q u e s t i o n s on Taboo T o p i c s , " J o u r n a l o f A d v e r t i s i n g R e s e a r c h , I I , ( 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 11-17.  37  Several  examples can  be  cited  as  A number o f p e o p l e i n a l a r g e c i t y w e r e and  asked s e v e r a l questions.  question,  "Do  company?" Yet,  you  interviewed  Among t h e s e was  the  b o r r o w money f r o m a p e r s o n a l  A l l those interviewed  a l l of  illustrations.  them w e r e l i s t e d  answered  i n the  loan  negatively.  records  of a  local  24 company as h a v i n g r e c e n t l y b o r r o w e d money. S o m e t i m e s t h e r e s p o n d e n t may a n s w e r i n g b e c a u s e he t o the  questions.  feels that  He  tries  how  he  would r a t e  the  there  to give  thinks i s technically correct.  hesitate in are  the  For  I f he  but  p r i c e o f a new  really  would not the  t h a t of f r i e n d s or thinks  consider  interviewer  always the  mouthiis The of  given  For  the  answer which  cars.  ranking  research  method,  f o u n d on  the  method the  list  there  respondent's subject from.  f a c t o r which most i n f l u e n c e d h i s p u r c h a s e of a be  told  reasonable.  a l i m i t e d number o f v a r i a b l e s t o c h o o s e  shoes might not  he  m i g h t have  danger of p u t t i n g words i n the  example, i n the  own  price i s unreasonable  conventional  by  reflect his  some a u t h o r i t y on  price i s  he  car brought out  b u y i n g i t a l t h o u g h he  t h a t the  In using is  t h a t the  answers  example, i f asked  a c e r t a i n company, h i s a n s w e r m i g h t n o t opinion  "right"  supplied  pair  and  he  L o u i s C h e s k i n and L. B. Ward, " I n d i r e c t Approach t o Market R e a c t i o n , " Harvard B u s i n e s s Review, V o l . 2 6 , ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 4 8 ) , pp. 5 7 2 - 5 8 0 .  38  is  forced  t o choose  unrealistic  one o f t h e v a r i a b l e s .  t o put people's reactions i n t o  c a t e g o r i e s f o r immediate an a d d i t i o n a l and  purchase a c t i o n s . give a reason.  In  the buyer's  or merely created during the i n t e r v i e w .  the m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e type o f q u e s t i o n the  shades  thinks  He may make u p some s i n c e he h a s  i t difficult  of opinions.  to d i s t i n g u i s h the  I f he w e r e a s k e d  whether  t h e q u a l i t y o f a p r o d u c t i s "very good,"  " q u i t e good", o r " f a i r l y might have d i f f i c u l t y his  what  Even so t h i s method i s f a u l t y  I t i s never c l e a r whether  r e s p o n d e n t may f i n d various  given  i t assumes t h a t he h a s c o n s c i o u s r e a s o n s f o r  plans are r e a l  he  punch c a r d c o d i n g . Sometimes  the respondent i s asked t o s p e c i f y p r e c i s e l y  because  to  neat  " o t h e r s " i t e m i s added t o t h e l i s t  he means b y " o t h e r s . "  his  I t i s often  true feelings.  good", o r " f a i r l y  p o o r " , he  d e c i d i n g which of these  indicate  The a l t e r n a t i v e s p r e s e n t e d t o t h e  r e s p o n d e n t may b e t o o many a n d t h e r e s p o n d e n t may b e too  confused.  extremes  There  i s a tendency f o r him t o avoid  i n hisreplies.  T h i s may c a u s e a b i a s i n t h e  replies. Perhaps  the observation o f Weschler  b e r g a d e q u a t e l y sums u p t h e l i m i t a t i o n s  and B e r n -  of the d i r e c t  method:  I r v i n g R. W e s c h l e r a n d Raymond B e r n b e r g , " I n d i r e c t Methods o f A t t i t u d e Measurement," I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f O p i n i o n a n d A t t i t u d e R e s e a r c h , Vol""! 14 ( 1 9 5 0 ) pp. 209-225.  39  There i s a s t e a d i l y growing b e l i e f t h a t we h a v e d e v e l o p e d d i r e d t q u e s t i o n i n g t o almost the l i m i t o f perfection,, The r e s i d u a l d e f i c i e n c y seems i n h e r e n t i n t h e v e r y m e t h o d . A f t e r a l l a magnifying g l a s s cannot perform t h e s e r v i c e o f an e l e c t r o n - m i c r o s c o p e e v e n i f one c o n s t a n t l y p o l i s h e s t h e l e n s and g o e s on improving the l i g h t i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  Summary  Attitudes o f w h i c h make t h e i r  have s e v e r a l  measurement d i f f i c u l t .  are v a l u a b l e t o a marketer. that  c a n be u s e d  attitudes. research  weaknesses.  There  a r e many  some  Yet studies techniques  t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on c o n s u m e r  T h e s e h a v e some l i m i t a t i o n s  i s concerned.  projective  characteristics,  techniques  The n e x t  chapter  where deals  consumer with  w h i c h o v e r c o m e some o f t h e s e  40  CHAPTER I V TYPES OF P R O J E C T I V E TECHNIQUES Introduction The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o d i s c u s s t h e more i m p o r t a n t techniqueso  tests  that constitute  A s i t was n o t e d  a number o f ways o f g r o u p i n g t e s t s i n each group w i l l familiar  the p r o j e c t i v e  i n Chapter these  tests."'"  be d i s c u s s e d .  and p o p u l a r methods used  Two t h e r e a r e  Only  Not a l l the t h e more  i n consumer r e s e a r c h  2 will  be s e l e c t e d .  The f o l l o w i n g  Categories of the Tests Association  techniques  tests w i l l  T e s t s t o be  be i n c l u d e d :  Discussed  Word A s s o c i a t i o n t e s t Rorschach  ink blot  test  Construction techniques  Thematic apperception  Completion  Sentence completion Picture frustration Role p l a y i n g Psychodrama  techniques  Expressive techniques  For each t e s t eristics  t h e more i m p o r t a n t a n d d i s t i n c t i v e  and t h e method o f a d m i n i s t r a t i n g w i l l  test  test study  charact-  3 be examined.  As i n C h a p t e r Two, t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f G a r d n e r L i n d s e y w i l l be a d o p t e d . 2 t e s t which  The o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s t h e R o r s c h a c h i n k b l o t has r a r e l y been used i n consumer r e s e a r c h .  41  The interpreting  reader w i l l  note that t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s  the d a t a , i . e . , the s c o r i n g ,  tabulating  c o d i n g has been e x c l u d e d from the d i s c u s s i o n . comments w i l l  be g i v e n .  c o m p l i c a t e d and  Firstly,  s e c o n d l y , because  w r i t t e n on t h e a c t u a l d e t a i l s the  because  Only  much o f t h e  of analysing  a f r a m e w o r k f o r a n a l y s i n g and  Any  and  scoring  the  chapter w i l l  the from  attempt to develop  s c o r i n g the data cannot  done w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o a s p e c i f i c The  brief  literature  p e r s o n a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l , which i s d i f f e r e n t thesis.  and  i t i s too  d a t a a r e b a s e d on a p u r p o s e , t h a t o f s t u d y i n g  that of the focus of t h i s  of  be  purpose.  c o n c l u d e w i t h a summary o f  important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these techniques.  For  details refer  t o any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  J o h n E. B e l l , P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s , ( N e w G r e e n and Co., I n c . , 1948)  books:  Y o r k : Longmans,  H a r o l d A n d e r s o n and G l a d y s A n d e r s o n , ( E d . ) , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s and O t h e r D e v i c e s f o r U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e D y n a m i c s o f Human B e h a v i o r , ( N e w Y o r k : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1951) G a r d n e r L i n d s e y , P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s and C r o s s C u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h , ( N e w Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1961)  42  Word A s s o c i a t i o n T e s t Originally  known a s t h e f r e e  the word a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t i s techniques clinical  one o f  and was f i r s t u s e d i n  a p p l i c a t i o n of  association test,  the o l d e s t  the l a b o r a t o r y .  t h i s m e t h o d was  the  Carl Jung, contributed  s y s t e m a t i c development  of  The t e s t c o n s i s t s o f  The  stimulated  l a r g e l y b y t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l movement. psychiatrist,  projective  A well  significantly  a list  of  carefully  i s asked to r e p l y  as q u i c k l y  of  lists  of  common n e u t r a l  that  associations In  This  c o n s i s t s of  words chosen because they  same a s s o c i a t i o n f o r  revealed  are  (1910).  there  people  of  100  evoke  Studies between  and n o r m a l  the r e p l i e s  One  of  a list  in general.  disordered  the a n a l y s i s of  that  tend to  were marked d i f f e r e n c e s  of mentally  Many  are i n e x i s t e n c e .  t h e e a r l i e s t and m o s t w e l l known o n e s i s  K e n t and R o s a n o f  the  s t i m u l u s words  each as  p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e f i r s t w o r d t h a t comes t o m i n d . different  to 4  t h e word a s s o c i a t i o n .  s e l e c t e d w o r d s r e a d a l o u d one a t a t i m e and a f t e r word t h e r e s p o n d e n t  known  three  people. factors  studied: 1.  The c o n t e n t o f  2.  The t i m e _  the  responses.  l a p s e between the  stimulus  and  response.  J u n g d e v e l o p e d t h e word a s s o c i a t i o n t e c h n i q u e , w h i c h had been u s e d f o r the s t u d y of n o r m a l c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e and f o r p s y c h i a t r i c r e s e a r c h , and u s e d i t t o i d e n t i f y important areas of unconscious c o n f l i c t .  43  3.  The  r e a c t i o n and  the behavior of the  A content analysis i s carried s t i m u l u s w o r d s and  the responses  response.  out i n which  are grouped i n terms of  the p a r t i c u l a r motives or p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes reflect .  or w i t h which  t h e y seem t o be  associated.  In 5  these f a c t o r s are a l s o taken i n t o  a.  repetition  b.  misunderstanding or whispered  c.  multi-word The  r e c o r d i n g of the time l a p s e between  stop watch.  An  a n a l y s i s of the time i t takes f o r the  t h e same r e s p o n s e  and h i s a b i l i t y  q u i c k l y d u r i n g a second  o f a s s o c i a t i o n and  e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n t o each lapse i s s l i g h t l y  less  to give  test,  reveals  the e x t e n t of h i s  symbol.  The  normal  than three seconds.  t h a t some e m o t i o n a l f a c t o r h a s b e e n t a p p e d .  time  I f the  i n t e r v i e w e e t a k e s more t h a n t h r e e s e c o n d s t h i s  means  On  other hand, too q u i c k a r e p l y suggests t h a t the trying  the  c a n be done w i t h an o r d i n a r y  to give a response  stability  replies  responses  the response  respondent  consideration:  of the s t i m u l u s words  s t i m u l u s and  is  they  .  addition,  his  the  the respondent  t o c o v e r up h i s d i s t u r b a n c e . Finally,  the b e h a v i o r of the respondent  the t e s t i s observed. laughing, looking Bell,  Shifting  around  i n one's  during chair,  away, f l u s h i n g , c o u g h i n g , c a t c h i n g  op_. c i t . , p.  18  44  one's b r e a t h , that  movement o f t h e h a n d s , e t c . , may  the subject The  i s under emotional  stress.  t e s t t h a t has been d i s c u s s e d  to the free a s s o c i a t i o n  e.g., choice  Association  or color.  Word A s s o c i a t i o n  of the t e s t , subject's  m e a n i n g , o r an  Another v a r i a t i o n i s the Successive  where t h e p e r s o n i n t e r v i e w e d  t o s a y a s many w o r d s a s he c a n a s l o n g t o come t o h i m . bringing  This  i s asked  as they  i s an e m p t y i n g p r o c e s s  continue  often  unique r e s u l t s . To  and  comes  i s l i m i t e d o r c o n t r o l l e d a n d he i s a s k e d t o g i v e  adjective  help  i n t h e a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  the r e s u l t s , subjects  their  that  t e s t where t h e  a word o f s i m i l a r meaning o r o p p o s i t e  of  a word, a  thing  T h e r e a r e many m o d i f i c a t i o n s  the Controlled  above r e f e r s  t e s t where, g i v e n  respondent i s asked t o say the f i r s t i n t o mind.  indicate  associations  a r e sometimes asked t o c l a r i f y  or the stimulus  the respondent asked t o r e c a l l  they gave  words a r e p r e s e n t e d the associations  previously. Rorschach Ink B l o t The  Test  R o r s c h a c h i n k b l o t t e s t , named a f t e r i t s  o r i g i n a t o r , Hermann R o r s c h a c h , i s one o f t h e b e s t known g  Y e t t h i s need n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be t r u e . A p e r s o n who s h i f t s a r o u n d i n h i s c h a i r , o r moves h i s h a n d a b o u t f r e q u e n t l y m i g h t do s o o u t o f h a b i t o r b e c a u s e he i s n e r v o u s a n d s h y a n d n o t b e c a u s e t h e g i v e n word has aroused him.  45  yet  l e a s t understood of the p r o j e c t i v e  The  subject i s presented  with  techniques.  a s e r i e s of t e n cards 7  on w h i c h a r e p r i n t e d b i - s y m m e t r i c a l which are black  and w h i t e  What m i g h t t h e b l o t b e ?  What d o e s i t make h i m t h i n k o f ?  Because t h e cards  shapes o r f i g u r e s which a r e r e l a t i v e l y  unstructured perceived the  and a r e t h e r e f o r e s u s c e p t i b l e o f b e i n g  and i n t e r p r e t e d i n v a r i o u s ways, t h e y  s u b j e c t t o "see  1 1  He may t u r n t h e c a r d s  anyway he l i k e s .  subject a r r i v e s a t the responses. behavior  during  or blocks  The c a r d s a r e o u t how t h e  The r e s p o n d e n t ' s  t h e t e s t , w h e t h e r he l a u g h s ,  i n h i s speech, e t c . are noted.  fidgets  In analysing  i n t e r p r e t i n g the responses the examiner a.  compel  i n them w h a t he i m p o s e s on t h e m .  t h e n gone t h r o u g h a s e c o n d t i m e t o f i n d  and  some o f  a n d some c o l o r e d , a n d he i s  a s k e d t o r e p o r t w h a t he s e e s .  present  blots,  considers:  the l o c a t i o n of the responses - t h i s r e f e r s to the  part of the b l o t which the subject  assoc-  i a t e s w i t h each r e s p o n s e , i . e . , does t h e i n d i v i d u a l response p e r t a i n t o t h e whole to a large d e t a i l , b.  the determinants  t o some t i n y  blot,  detail.  of the responses - includes g  form, c o l o r , shading,  movements, i . e . , w h i c h  7 These b l o t s l o o k l i k e t h e s o r t t h a t m i g h t be produced by f o l d i n g a s h e e t o f paper over a drop o f i n k . Q  A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s n o movement i n t h e b l o t i t s e l f , t h e s u b j e c t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e b l o t as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a moving o b j e c t i s s c o r e d . Further  46  determinants  or combination  of determinants  does t h e respondent u s e . c.  the content of the responses. a n i m a l f o r m s , human f o r m s , A massive  Various one  scoring  people  life,  objects.  gives rules f o r  the responses  systems have been adopted. among  No  given. single  clinical  F o r example, s e e i n g a preponderance  human movement o v e r two  from  has gained e x c l u s i v e acceptance  psychologists.  or inanimate  array of literature  interpreting personalities  These m i g h t be  a n i m a l movement i n t h e b l o t s  of  (e.,g.,  d a n c i n g ) , may i n d i c a t e r i c h n e s s o f i n n e r  i m a g i n a t i o n and c r - e a t i v e n e s s .  I t s h o u l d be  e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t s h o u l d be i n t e r r e l a t e d with other information of the subject d e r i v e d from  o u t s i d e sources such as o t h e r t e s t s ,  v i e w s , and case  histories.  Thematic The  inter-  Thematic  Apperception  Test  A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t was i n t r o d u c e d  b y M o r g a n a n d M u r r a y a b o u t 25 y e a r s a g o a s one o f t h e methods used  f o rinvestigating  t h e f a n t a s y o f normal  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s a r e made w i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , e . g . , human movement a n d a n i m a l movements a n d a b s t r a c t o r n a t u r a l movement a r e s e p a r a t e l y r e c o r d e d . 9 George H o r s e l y S m i t h , M o t i v a t i o n Research i n A d v e r t i s i n g and M a r k e t i n g , ( N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l B B o o k Co., I n c . , 1954),pp. 149-150.  47  individuals. tried  From t h e d a t a  to build  collected,  the authors  a t h e o r e t i c a l framework o f p e r s o n a l i t y ,  however, t h e c l i n i c a l  use of the t e s t o u t s t r i p p e d i t s  research application. The printed  full  t e s t c o n s i s t s o f twenty cards  p i c t u r e s (not l i n e drawings) s e l e c t e d  magazines, i l l u s t r a t i o n s , art  sources.  from  p a i n t i n g s , d r a w i n g s and o t h e r  The r e s p o n d e n t i s a s k e d t o make u p a  s t o r y around each p i c t u r e and t o t e l l is,  on w h i c h a r e  what t h e s i t u a t i o n  what e v e n t s were t h a t l e d up t o i t and what t h e o u t -  come w i l l  be, then d e s c r i b e  the c h a r a c t e r s .  t h e f e e l i n g s and t h o u g h t s o f  The e x a m i n e r r e c o r d s  t h e s t o r y as  a c c u r a t e l y a s p o s s i b l e , p r o m p t i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t i f he fails  t o i n c l u d e some o f t h e r e q u i r e d a s p e c t s  picture.  The t e s t c a n b e g i v e n  o r a l responses recorded  of the  i n d i v i d u a l l y with the  o r i t c a n be a d m i n i s t e r e d i n  g r o u p s w i t h s u b j e c t s w r i t i n g down t h e i r  stories.  T h i s p r o c e d u r e u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s two one-hour sessions.  Ten c a r d s  a r e used during each  session.  There a r e f o u r o v e r l a p p i n g  sets of cards  those  f o r men o v e r f o u r t e e n  and  f o r boys, f o r g i r l s ,  those  f o r women o v e r f o u r t e e n y e a r s .  p i c t u r e s i n each o f these  available years  Most o f t h e  sets contain a character  with  " ^ A c t u a l l y n i n e t e e n o f t h e c a r d s c o n t a i n vague p i c t u r e s i n b l a c k a n d w h i t e a n d one i s b l a n k . I n the case of t h e blank card, the subject i s i n s t r u c t e d t o i m a g i n e some p i c t u r e o n t h e c a r d , d e s c r i b e i t , t h e n t e l l a s t o r y about i t .  48  whom t h e s u b j e c t c a n i d e n t i f y . it  Next t o the  Rorschach,  i s t h e most w i d e l y used o f a l l p r o j e c t i v e  yet there i s s t i l l interpretation out:  very l i t t l e  of the t e s t .  techniques,  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n the  As Gardner L i n d s e y p o i n t s  1 1  . . . . a s u s e d c l i n i c a l l y , TAT" s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has n o t t y p i c a l l y r e s t e d upon a s e t o f o b j e c t i v e scores f o r specified v a r i a b l e s . Much more c u s t o m a r y h a s b e e n t h e u s e o f t h e s t o r i e s a s an a d d i t i o n a l b e h a v i o r a l d a t a w h i c h c o u l d be examined i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the case. The o r i g i n a l m e t h o d o f a n a l y s i s p r o p o s e d M u r r a y d e p e n d e d u p o n an i n i t i a l hero  press  i n each s t o r y , as w e l l  i s a s s u m e d t h a t t h e r e i s some k i n d o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p  t h e s t o r y and t h o s e  Although  use  little  or expressed  by t h e hero  that e x i s t with the story  t h i s m e t h o d o f s c o r i n g TAT  the most p o p u l a r is  as t h e  ( e n v i r o n m e n t a l f o r c e s ) t h a t a c t e d upon t h e h e r o .  between the t e n d e n c i e s f e l t in  of a  f i g u r e i n e a c h s t o r y a n d t h e n an a n a l y s i s o f n e e d s  d i s p l a y e d by t h e hero  It  identification  by  s t o r i e s i s one o f  o f t h e v a r i o u s schemes a v a i l a b l e ,  r e s t r i c t i o n upon t h e i n t e r p r e t e r  any system  1 1  o f c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s he  L i n d s e y , op_. c i t . , p . 6 8 .  teller.  and he  wishes.  there may  49  Sentence The indicates,  sentence  Completion  Test  c o m p l e t i o n t e s t , a s t h e name  i s a t e s t whereby t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s  presented with a series of incomplete sentences, open a t t h e e n d , t o be c o m p l e t e d words. is  These statements  asked  t o complete  generally  b y h i m i n one o r more  c o n t a i n i n c o m p l e t e i d e a s a n d he  the sentences  as r a p i d l y  as p o s s i b l e  12 with  the f i r s t  example: 1.  w o r d s t h a t come t o h i s m i n d .  For  I l i k e t o s h o p i n a n A.G. s u p e r m a r k e t because. I think that food prices are  2. 3.  The t h i n g t h a t b o t h e r s me m o s t a b o u t f o o d s h o p p i n g i n an A.G. s t o r e i s In  t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f such  sentences, the  r e s e a r c h e r d e l i b e r a t e l y v a r i e s t h e i d e a s p r e s e n t e d so that the subject w i l l sentences related to  which  n o t be aware o f t h e s p e c i f i c  are inserted  t o the problem.  t o obtain data  directly  Moreover, the phrases  have  be so c o n s t r u c t e d n o t t o g i v e any c l u e s as t o what  m i g h t be t h e e x p e c t e d designed  answer.  The s e n t e n c e s  c a n be  t o a s s e s s a l a r g e number o f r e l a t i v e l y  variables or a single  independent  variable.  However, t h e r e i s no p r e s s u r e f o r immediate associations.  50  The s e n t e n c e c o m p l e t i o n t e s t i s t h e b e s t of  t h e c o m p l e t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a n d one o f t h e m o s t w i d e l y  used p r o j e c t i v e modifications in  known  scoring  techniques.  of i t that  H o w e v e r , t h e r e a r e s o many  there i s l i t t l e  and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  standardization  and v e r y l i t t l e  o f norms t h a t m i g h t a i d t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h of making i n f e r e n c e s  from p a r t i c u l a r t e s t  The P i c t u r e F r u s t r a t i o n  i n t h e way  the problem protocols.  13  Test  Devised by Saul Rosenweig, the p i c t u r e f r u s t r a tion  s t u d y , o r more c o r r e c t l y r e f e r r e d  Association consists  Study f o r A s s e s s i n g Reactions t o F r u s t r a t i o n s ,  o f 24 c a r t o o n - l i k e  pictures  s h o w i n g two p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s intercourse. frustrating  with  each  i n a mildly  s i t u a t i o n o f common o c c u r e n c e ;  frustrating  the other  something which e i t h e r gives  circumstances or c a l l s person.  picture  i n some f o r m o f s o c i a l  One o f them i s i n v o l v e d  person i s saying  frustrated  t o as the P i c t u r e  attention  The s p e e c h b a l l o o n  rise  to the  to the  f o r the frustrated  p e r s o n i s l e f t b l a n k and t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s asked t o in  the f i r s t  appropriate  thought that f o r the  fill  o c c u r s t o h i m w h i c h w o u l d be  character.  The c h i e f e x c e p t i o n i s t h e R o t t e r I n c o m p l e t e S e n t e n c e T e s t w h i c h i s r e l a t i v e l y w e l l s t a n d a r d i z e d and i s a c c o m p a n i e d by r e l a t i v e l y a d e q u a t e norms f o r c e r t a i n categories of people. See G a r d n e r L i n d s e y , op_. c i t . . p. 7 8 .  51  The f r u s t r a t i n g s i t u a t i o n s a r e o f many 1.  Ego b l o c k i n g inpersonal,  types:  - some o b s t r u c t i o n , p e r s o n a l impedes, d i s a p p o i n t s ,  otherwise thwarts the character 2.  Super-ego b l o c k i n g  or  deprives  or  directly.  - the character  i sinsulted,  accused, o r o t h e r w i s e d i s c r i m i n a t e d by another character. The i n s t r u m e n t i s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e number o f v a r i a b l e s t h a t d e s c r i b e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mode o f d e a l i n g  scores  for a  the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  with  frustration.  14  The p i c t u r e f r u s t r a t i o n t e s t i s b a s e d on t h e assumption that the subject frustrated  1. 2.  character  identifies himself  with the  i n each p i c t u r e and p r o j e c t s h i s  Each response i s scored f o r : d i r e c t i o n of response (extra p u n i t i v e , i n t r o - p u n i t i v e , or i m p u n i t i v e ) . t y p e o r mode o f r e s p o n s e ( o b s t a c l e d o m i n a n t , n e e d p e r s i s t e n c e , ego d e f e n s i v e ) .  C o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e two c a t e g o r i e s l e a d t o n i n e d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t o w h i c h each r e s p o n s e c a n be a s s i g n e d , e.g., e x t r a - p u n i t i v e - n e e d p e r s i s t e n c e , i m p u n i t i v e o b s t a c l e dominant. By t o t a l l i n g t h e number o f r e s p o n s e s one c a n o b t a i n a n o v e r - a l l s c o r e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y f o r t h e s u b j e c t t o e m p l o y e a c h mode o f r e s p o n s e . The p i c t u r e a s s o c i a t i o n s t a n d s midway i n d e s i g n b e t w e e n t h e w o r d a s s o c i a t i o n a n d t h e TAT. L i k e t h e w o r d a s s o c i a t i o n , t h i s t e s t i s designed t o reveal the f i r s t a s s o c i a t i o n , a l t h o u g h h e r e t h e s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l i s more c o m p l e x a n d t h e r e s p o n s e s more c o m p l e x a n d s t r u c t u r e d .  52  own b i a s the  i n t h e a n s w e r given»  facial  features  To p e r m i t s u c h  projection  and o t h e r e x p r e s s i o n s o f p e r s o n a l i t y 15  of  the pictured  characters Role  This  are purposely Playing  i s an a c t i o n t e c h n i q u e i n w h i c h t h e  respondent i s asked t o p l a y He h a s t o p u t h i m s e l f  or  the r o l e of another  i n the l a t t e r ' s  i m a g i n e how h e w o u l d r e a c t situation.  I t requires  the subject  technique;.;is  personal  there  t o a c t o u t i n a more  of personally  relevant  of view, the a p p l i c a t i o n  l i m i t e d b y i t s demands o n t h e t i m e ,  a c t i o n and p r o p e r t i e s .  subject's  and t r y t o  interaction.  From t h e p r a c t i c a l p o i n t this  place  person.  i f h e w e r e u n d e r t h e same  l e s s p u b l i c s e t t i n g some k i n d  drama o r p e r s o n a l  of  omitted.  Interpretation of the  r e s p o n s e i s u s u a l l y c o m p l e t e l y q u a l i t a t i v e and  i s little  i n t h e way o f o b j e c t i v e  guideposts f o r the  investigator.  There i s a l s o a l a c k o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n  administration  and r e c o r d i n g .  R e s e a r c h e r s who h a v e made  use  of this  t e c h n i q u e have m o d i f i e d  the  subject  a c t u a l l y a c t t h e r o l e , he i s a s k e d t o u s e h i s  imagination  i t .  R a t h e r than have  and t o r e s p o n d v e r b a l l y .  " ^ R e c e n t r e s e a r c h b y E n g e l and Wales i n d i c a t e t h a t b e t t e r p r o j e c t i o n i s obtained by u s i n g s t i c k p i c t u r e s i n s t e a d o f f u l l y c l o t h e d ones and by u s i n g a v e r y s k e t c h l i k e treatment f o r background m a t e r i a l s ( c a r s , books, shelves,etc ). This w i l l reduce the b i a s d e r i v e d from s u g g e s t i n g a s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g by t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l circumstances surrounding the figures i n the cartoons.  53  Common C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s Having discussed of each t e s t ,  t h i s chapter  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f these  some o f t h e i m p o r t a n t will  conclude with  in  research  their  approach  Unlike the conventional  method o f q u e s t i o n i n g  more s u b t l e .  tests that  so f a r i s t h e i r i n d i r e c t  obtaining information.  some common  techniques.  One s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f a l l t h e s e have been d i s c u s s e d  features  these  techniques  The r e s p o n d e n t s a r e n o t a s k e d  are  directly  a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s any s u b j e c t  rather information i s e l i c i t e d i n d i r e c t way. at t h e i r  Similarly,  face value  matter,  i n a round-about o r  the responses are n o t taken  but the a t t i t u d e s of the respondents  are deduced from the r e p l i e s g i v e n .  There i s a l a c k  o f a w a r e n e s s on t h e p a r t o f t h e s u b j e c t a s t o t h e p u r p o s e of the t e s t . not  the s p e c i f i c purpose o f the t e s t i s  apparent, the respondents are unable t o attempt t o  .. c r e a t e an  Since  the desired impressions  intelligent  instruments  s u b j e c t who i s f a m i l i a r w i t h  might suspect  H o w e v e r , he w i l l will  the general  n o t be a b l e  to  I n some c a s e s these  goal of the examiner.  t o g u e s s how h i s a n s w e r s  be i n t e r p r e t e d . P r o j e c t i v e techniques  i.e.,  o r answers.  they  allow the individual  the s i t u a t i o n  according  a r e f r e e and u n s t r u c t u r e d , to manipulate or react  t o h i s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  54  of "The is  the  situation.  As  Lawrence Frank p o i n t s  essential feature that  of  a projective  i t evokes from the  ways o f e x p r e s s i v e  subject  out,  technique  what i s i n  o f h i s p r i v a t e w o r l d and  various  personality  16 process."  The  restricted the  as  i n some o f  interviewee  selected  responses are the  i s forced  o f ways o f r e s p o n d i n g a r e by  his psychological  the  unlimited.  The the  s e n s i t i v e to the  t h e y may  a t t i t u d e s of  i s easy to perceive  the  a n s w e r s and  I t i s hoped t h a t in explaining material  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n he  a  number  individual language  and  the  subject  implicit thoughts,  Intuitively, to  hide  l y i n g or d i s t o r t -  to stereotyped r e p l i e s . will  s i g h t of  discloses  the  t r y i n g i n e v e r y way  resorting  loses  of  unconscious  individual.  w h a t seems t o be  t h a t he  the  uncover p r i v a t e  the  one  One  h i s r e a l a t t i t u d e s i n c e r t a i n a r e a s by ing  methods where  Theoretically,  l a t e n t a s p e c t s of p e r s o n a l i t y .  f e e l i n g s and  or  make-up.  assumptions i s that  it  conventional  r e s t r i c t i o n s of  These t e s t s are or  limited  to choose h i s answer from  range of c h o i c e s .  i s bound o n l y  not  an  become s o  absorbed  objective  bit  the  fact that  h i s wishes, fears  of  in  his  and  aspirations.  Study of p. 4 7 .  L a w r e n c e K. F r a n k , " P r o j e c t i v e M e t h o d s f o r t h e P e r s o n a l i t y , " J o u r n a l of Psychology, V I I I (1939),  55  The are  no  are  asked  they  respondents  r i g h t  or  to  think  wrong  use  are  there more  are  feel  the  that  there  questions.  i m a g i n a t i o n and  do  there not  are  give  requirements, w i l l  the  meet  individual  meet  non-projective  projective  to  to  They  the  replies  appropriate.  that  techniques  made  answers  their  Although techniques  are  a l l  these  techniques  vast  these  projective c r i t e r i a  that  majority  of  requirements  meet  and one  or  projective than  w i l l  non-  were  developed  measures.  Summary  Although a  t  different  purposes them to  a  d i s t i n c t i v e class  psychological with  the  tests.  by  o r i g i n a l l y ,  some  form  times  projective  of  different there  application  following i n  own,  This  characteristics The  i s  features  their  tests.  techniques  of  running which  and  some  of  w i l l  research.  for  different  through bind  different  chapter  chapter  consumer  people  was  most  them  from only  of  together  other concerned  the  more  popular  deal  with  their  5 6  CHAPTER V P R O J E C T I V E TECHNIQUES I N CONSUMER ATTITUDE RESEARCH Introduction H a v i n g e x a m i n e d some o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a t t i t u d e s as w e l l as o f each s e l e c t e d we now t u r n  will  How e a c h t e s t c a n b e u s e d t o o b t a i n  from t h e consumer w i l l  be g i v e n  carried  b e shown.  these techniques.  advantages of using  Some o f t h e  t h e s e t o o l s as compared t o t h e d i r e c t  method o f q u e s t i o n i n g  will  be a n a l y s e d .  one s h o u l d n o t f o r g e t  techniques are b u i l t  that  under a l l c o n d i t i o n s .  situations will The  be i n v e s t i g a t e d  Thus,  they  They a r e n o t  Some o f t h e s e  i n this  chapter.  Marketing Applications of Projective  Word A s s o c i a t i o n  projective  on c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s .  work b e t t e r u n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . appropriate  Illustrations  o f a c t u a l consumer s u r v e y s t h a t have been  out using  Yet  technique,  t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e t e s t s i n consumer  attitude research. information  projective  Test.  mation i t r e v e a l s ,  Technigues  Because o f t h e l i m i t e d  infor-  t h e word a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t i s n o t t h e  p r i n c i p a l method u s e d i n most m a r k e t i n g s u r v e y s .  I t i s  57  u s e f u l as a p r e l i m i n a r y p r o b i n g s u p p l e m e n t e d by valid  "Here i s a l i s t  The  u s u a l a p p r o a c h w o u l d be the respondent  I want you mind.  the word  might say  'hot' you  might say  word l i s t  and  for  the  carefully:  t o say  t h a t comes t o y o u r  you  simple  of words which I w i l l  at a time.  any  reached.  The  interviewer to instruct  be  before  word a s s o c i a t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y  easy to a d m i n i s t e r .  one  t h a t must  other research techniques  c o n c l u s i o n s c a n be The  tool  read  aloud  the f i r s t  word  For example, i f I 'cold' or f o r  say 'book'  'read'."  u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f a number o f  crucial  w o r d s p l a c e d a t r a n d o m among some r e l a t i v e l y n e u t r a l words.  T h e s e w o r d s s h o u l d n o t be  or o b t r u s i v e . inflections,  I t i s important  t o use  different  and  to note  carefully  significant  the s u b j e c t ' s r e a c t i o n  detail. To  illustrate,  Home S e w i n g S t u d y find  1  i n t h e Donahue S a l e s  t h e word a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t  Corporation was  o u t c o n s u m e r r e a c t i o n s t o a number o f w o r d s  phrases and  intellectualized  e m p h a s i s o r m a n n e r i s m s when t h e  words are r e a d in  not  too  such  as  zippers, buttons,  used  to  and  snaps, making a d r e s s ,  Talon zippers. If  t h e same w o r d p r o d u c e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e number  J o s e p h Wo Newman, M o t i v a t i o n R e s e a r c h and M a r k e t i n g Management,(Boston: Harvard Business S c h o o l , 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 4 2 6 .  58  of  " h e s i t a t i o n s " among v a r i o u s  a l s o among s t i l l responses",  it  others  is  that i t  commercially unpromising  is usually since  it  regarded  is  interviewed  a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f  likely  many " h e s i t a t i o n s " b u t  persons  word.  few,  if  any,  a word  or  evokes  "no r e s p o n s e s " ,  as a word w o r t h y  a "charged"  "no  i s a dangerously But i f  and  of  it  consideration  word.  2 In  a second study,  conducted a survey chemicals  Social  on c o n s u m e r  and d e t e r g e n t s .  words by t h e i n t e r v i e w e r  Research  attitudes  family,  babies,  sudsy,  detergents,  respond  homemaker,  scrub,  Spic-and-Span.  From  valuable  results.  trained  analysts,  Yet t h i s  tool  it  s c a n t y t o be r e l i a b l e .  Not knowing the  subject's  n a l frame  one c o u l d i n t e r p r e t  whether  of r e f e r e n c e ,  may b e d i f f i c u l t  I b i d . , p.  426  the  has  evokes i s  too  inter-  the data  t o say w i t h  the c o n c l u s i o n s reached about 2  the  together,  been c r i t i c i z e d because the i n f o r m a t i o n  many ways and i t  soiled,  means.  and s t u d i e d b y c o m p e t e n t l y  t h e y may p r o d u c e  the  some c u e s a s  When s e v e r a l t e s t r e s u l t s a r e b r o u g h t tabulated  given  Examples of  was p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n  t o what a g i v e n word  soaps,  were  with instructions to  towels,  responses given i t  towards  The r e s p o n d e n t s  w i t h t h e f i r s t w o r d t h a t came t o m i n d . words used were:  Inc.  in  certainty  subject's  59  a t t i t u d e s from s i n g l e word r e s p o n s e s were c o r r e c t . Moreover, t h i s t e s t i s q u i t e well-known and most s u b j e c t s a r e aware t h a t t h e examiner i s i n t e r e s t e d i n k n o w l i n g h i s a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h t h e g i v e n words, so t h a t t h e y c o u l d , i f t h e y were u n c o o p e r a t i v e , s t e r e o t y p e d answers.  resort to  T h i s can happen q u i t e e a s i l y i f  the t e s t i s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o o s l o w l y . A n o t h e r problem i s i n j u d g i n g t h e e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n s of the respondents d u r i n g the t e s t .  I t calls  f o r competence and f l a i r i n j u d g i n g human r e a c t i o n s . The word a s s o c i a t i o n has been s u c c e s s f u l l y used i n s t u d y i n g consumers' t o b r a n d names, company names, a d v e r t i s i n g s l o g a n s and themes.  I t i s certainly a  u s e f u l and handy d e v i c e f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r , b u t i t s h o u l d be u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s i f v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s on consumer a t t i t u d e s a r e t o be drawn. R o r s c h a c h I n k B l o t T e s t . The R o r s c h a c h i n k b l o t t e s t has n o t , t o t h e a u t h o r ' s knowledge, been used v e r y o f t e n i n 3  consumer a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h .  T h i s i s due c h i e f l y t o t h e  f a c t t h a t t h i s t e c h n i q u e . s i s n o t f l e x i b l e and can o n l y be used i n i t s s t a n d a r d i z e d form.  U n l i k e the other p r o j e c t i v e  t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h can be m o d i f i e d , t h e o r i g i n a l form o f t h e The R o r s c h a c h i n k b l o t t e s t has been i n c l u d e d here t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t not a l l p r o j e c t i v e techniques a r e s u i t a b l e f o r consumer r e s e a r c h , a l t h o u g h t h e y m i g h t be p o p u l a r t o o l s among c l i n i c i a n s .  60  ink blots adapted  have  obtained the  on t h e  has  been  use  of  out  consumer  of  and t h u s  attitudes.  is  It  the  data  useless  information  and n o t  his the  difficult  o r i g i n a l form of  the  attitudes study  to  ink  of  design blots  purpose.  visualize  how t h e  It  is  not  difficult  to  T h e m a t i c A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t c a n be  consumer r e s e a r c h .  Instead  originally  developed  researcher  can s u b s t i t u t e  research  is  the  is  appropriate in  Thematic Apperception T e s t .  in  reveals  individual not  much o f  technique  Moreover, i t  an e x p e r i m e n t u s i n g this  the  c a n n o t be r e a d i l y -  that  this  marketing researcher. personality  it  research problem.  pointed  through the  or f e e l i n g s ,  for  Thus  t o meet any s p e c i f i c It  to  t o be u s e d .  of  by M u r r a y  using  the  and M o r g a n ,  with  those  used  pictures the  marketing  pertinent  to  his  study. An a p p l i c a t i o n o f  this  technique  was  carried  4 out by S o c i a l R e s e a r c h I n c . showed  an open h i g h w a y  Hands were ometer to  shown on t h e  r e a d i n g 70 m i l e s  put h i m s e l f  things  as  came t o  4  into his  Newman,  that mind.  One o f  seen from  steering  position  op_. c i t . ,  is pp.  the  wheel  per h o u r .  It  the  pictures driver's  with  the  used seat.  speed-  The c o n s u m e r w s a  and t o  assumed 72-155.  asked  s a y what k i n d  that  the  of  respondent  61  will  i d e n t i f y himself with  and w i l l  p r o j e c t h i s own  responses.  Respondents  the c h a r a c t e r s i n the  attitudes told  and f e e l i n g s i n t h e  s t o r i e s o f how  go f a s t on an o p e n r o a d , b u t i t was doing i t .  Among o t h e r f i n d i n g s ,  contradictory attitudes interpreted and f e a r .  else  the p i c t u r e brought  toward speed.  Responses  out  were  speed.  i l l u s t r a t i o n s u s e d i n t h i s method a r e  pictures, not cartoons. portray w i l l  Thus t h e s i t u a t i o n  l o o k more r e a l i s t i c .  they  full  attempt  I t i s easier for  respondent t o put h i m s e l f i n the p l a c e of the  c h a r a c t e r s i n the  picture.  An i n t e r e s t i n g  a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e TAT  use i n s t u d y i n g consumers' The  a l s o someone  to  W h i l e speed i s wrong, a c a r s h o u l d n e v e r t h e l e s s  The  the  f u n i t was  t o mean t h a t s p e e d i n v o l v e d b o t h p l e a s u r e  be c a p a b l e o f h i g h  to  pictures  r e a c t i o n s t o an a d v e r t i s e m e n t . ^  i n v e s t i g a t o r s were i n t e r e s t e d  attitudes  to a well-known  fragrance,  "Naomi."  The  was i t s  t o know t h e c o n s u m e r  p a i n t i n g by G a u g i n f o r a painting featured  new  two S o u t h  Seas g  girls. of  F o u r p i c t u r e s w e r e shown t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t s .  them t h e c r i t i c a l  picture,  " N a o m i , " and  the  One  second  G e o r g e H, S m i t h , M o t i v a t i o n R e s e a r c h i n A d v e r t i s i n g a n d M a r k e t i n g , ( N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., 1 9 5 4 ) , pp. 170-172. g  chosen  The s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f 50 women c a r e f u l l y t o r e p r e s e n t the d e s i r e d p o p u l a t i o n .  62  picture,  "Naomi-2" r e p r e s e n t e d  a young American  girl  7  clasping flowers.  The f o l l o w i n g  instructions  were  given; "I'd Use  l i k e y o u t o make u p a s t o r y a b o u t e a c h your  imagination.  moods, a n d s o o n .  What a r e t h e i r  picture.  feelings,  Y o u h a v e a s much t i m e  as you  need." The  s t o r i e s r e v e a l e d t h e women's  t o w a r d s t h e two p i c t u r e s . created  images o f heavy-set  The f i r s t  attitudes  p i c t u r e (Naomi)  n a t i v e women a l w a y s  housework c h o r e s , unglamorous, and u n r o m a n t i c . imagined be  doing Respondents  t h a t women who p r e f e r r e d " N a o m i " p e r f u m e w o u l d  older, fairly  heavy, and d a r k - s k i n n e d .  t h e y d i d n o t want t o i d e n t i f y  themselves  Obviously, with this  type  o f woman. The and  romantic  identify  second p i c t u r e (Naomi-2) a r o u s e d associations.  themselves  symbolized  youth,  data c o l l e c t e d ,  pleasant  The women w e r e e a g e r t o  with the g i r l  romance, beauty,  and t h e f r a g r a n c e etc.  which  In l i g h t of the  t h e d e c i s i o n was made n o t t o u s e t h e  G a u g i n p a i n t i n g t o a d v e r t i s e t h e new p e r f u m e . In TAT Yet,  comparison t o the other p r o j e c t i v e  techniques,  p r o v i d e s more m a t e r i a l f o r t h e e x a m i n e r t o w o r k o n . t h i s c a n be a weakness o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t .  called  Analysis  Two o t h e r p i c t u r e s s y m b o l i z i n g a f r a g r a n c e "White G l o v e " were i n c l u d e d as c o n t r o l s .  63  of the d a t a c o u l d be Marketing researchers  time consuming and  difficult.  have n o t d e v e l o p e d any  s c o r i n g system f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g the d a t a . conclusions  drawn r e l y h e a v i l y on the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the  objective  Thus  the  subjective  examiner.  A l t h o u g h p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s o p e r a t e on p r i n c i p l e of an u n s t r u c t u r e d  the  t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n , the  s u b j e c t s have t o be g u i d e d i n t h e i r s t o r y - t e l l i n g i f t h e y g are t o p r o v i d e has  m a t e r i a l r e l e v a n t t o the s i t u a t i o n .  This  t o be c a r r i e d out c a r e f u l l y t o a v o i d p u t t i n g words  i n t o the r e s p o n d e n t ' s mouth. Perhaps one  o f the main weaknesses o f  this  t e c h n i q u e i s t h a t the r e s p o n s e s r e s t upon the complex l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s , so t h a t f o r the s u b j e c t , who  because  o f e d u c a t i o n or i n t e l l i g e n c e f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t  to  m a n i p u l a t e v e r b a l s y m b o l s , the t e s t i s r e l a t i v e l y inappropriate. g  The problem o f the t e s t d e s i g n w i l l be b r o u g h t again i n Chapter S i x . 9 . . . Gardner L m d s e y , P r o i e c t i v e T e c h n i g u e s and C r o s s - C u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h , (New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C r o f t s , I n c . , 1961), p. 73.  up  64  Sentence  Completion  Test.  The s e n t e n c e  completion i s  t h e b e s t known o f t h e c o m p l e t i o n t e c h n i q u e s .  I t i s  f a v o r e d b y many i n v e s t i g a t o r s b e c a u s e o f i t s f l e x i b i l i t y . It  c a n be a d a p t e d  relevant  fairly  easily  i n order t o evoke  to a particular variable.  people have v e r b a l  inertia.  consumer a t t i t u d e s toward sentences  c a n be  I t assumes t h a t  They w i l l  o n c e one c a n g e t them s t a r t e d .  responses  usually  some  talk  F o r example, t o study  coffee,  these  incomplete  used: ^ 1  Powdered c o f f e e . . . . . The  nicest coffee  Coffee that She  i s quickly  made...................  was ashamed o f t h e c o f f e e  she had j u s t  served because. The  t h i n g I e n j o y most about c o f f e e  P e o p l e who n e v e r  drink  coffee  On t h e o t h e r hand., i f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i s concerned chores  about housewives'  i n general,  What I l i k e  a t t i t u d e s toward  the f o l l o w i n g sentences  b e s t about l o o k i n g  domestic  c a n be  given:  a f t e r a house  is Women who go o u t t o w o r k Housework.  •  ^ H a r r y Henry, M o t i v a t i o n Research: I t s P r a c t i c e s and U s e s f o r A d v e r t i s i n g . M a r k e t i n g a n d O t h e r B u s i n e s s P u r p o s e s , ( N e w Y o r k : F r e d e r i c k Ungar P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1958) pp. 59-60. x  65  Tinned foods S l a v i n g o v e r a h o t s t o v e . ...... <,....«....... . Women who u s e l a b o r - s a v i n g d e v i c e s LOOkinCJ  The  elf  11  teiT  cl f cLrnily©  •  QOOOOOQOOOOOOOOOOOOOO  assumption u n d e r l y i n g  the use o f t h i s  method i s t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s so c o n c e r n e d w i t h  getting  an a n s w e r t h a t he c a n n o t b e t o o c o n c e r n e d w i t h w h a t he is  s a y i n g a n d t h a t h i s u n c o n s c i o u s m i n d h a s a much  g r e a t e r chance might f i n d  i t difficult  and b e c a u s e are  of expressing i t s e l f .  down.  The r e s p o n d e n t  t o complete  the given phrases  he i s s o e a g e r t o s a y s o m e t h i n g , h i s d e f e n s e s But i t i s n o t always p o s s i b l e  to conceal  from t h e r e s p o n d e n t s j u s t what i s b e i n g sought. A n intelligent  s u b j e c t would be a b l e t o s p o t t h e " t r a p "  and c o u l d p r o d u c e  ar a t i o n a l i z e d  answer.  Since the test i s r e l a t i v e l y  simple to design  and t o a d m i n i s t e r , i t h a s b e e n u s e d i n many m a r k e t i n g surveys.  I t was one o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s e m p l o y e d b y  S o c i a l Research I n c . i n a survey e n t i t l e d ,  "Automobiles-  12 What t h e y Mean t o A m e r i c a n s , "J,.: of  In this  i n c o m p l e t e s e n t e n c e s were u s e d .  this  test revealed  women t o t h e s e n t e n c e s t e m , Ibid_5_,  12  a number  Among o t h e r f i n d i n g s ,  t h a t men a n d women h a d d i f f e r e n t i d e a s  and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a u t o m o b i l e s .  1 1  study  p.  The r e p l i e s f r o m t h e  "When y o u g e t a c a r . . . . . . "  60.  Newman, op_. c i t . , p. 2 4 6 .  66  included: ......you c a n ' t w a i t t i l l ......you c o u l d  you take a r i d e .  go f o r a r i d e .  take r i d e s i n i t . The  men r e s p o n d e d •  t o t h e same s t e m  as f o l l o w s :  y o u t a k e good c a r e o f i t . I w a n t t o make d a r n s u r e i t h a s a g o o d c o a t o f wax. check  To  a n o t h e r s e n t e n c e stem,  women's r e s p o n s e s  The  the engine. "A c a r o f y o u r own  included:  ......is  a pleasant convenience.  ......is  fine  t o have.  . . . . . . i s nice  t o have.  men's r e s p o n s e s t o t h e same s e n t e n c e s t e m I would ......is ......oh,  a good  thing.  absolutely a necessity. r e a c h e d f r o m t h e a b o v e f i n d i n g s was  t h a t a n a u t o m o b i l e t o a woman was s o m e t h i n g that pride car.  pride  nature.  t o u s e and  o f o w n e r s h i p was r e f l e c t e d b y b e i n g s e e n i n F o r men, t h e a u t o m o b i l e was s o m e t h i n g  should protect The  included:  take care o f .  A conclusion  the  " the  and f o r which  t h e y s h o u l d be  which  responsible.  t h e y h a d i n t h e i r c a r was o f a d i f f e r e n t They t o o k p r i d e i n k e e p i n g t h e i r  they  c a r i n good  67  condition. Like  the  word a s s o c i a t i o n  completion t e s t i s a simple yet marketing researcher. i n s t r u m e n t t o use  i n the  making the It  TAT  the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  e f f o r t involved  responses.  But  one  policy formulations.  the  b e e n one  of  the  the of  analysing  s h o u l d remember t h a t  the  s u f f i c i e n t to b u i l d  result  important  supplemented  The  picture  by  frustration test techniques  individual administration  In both cases, each s u b j e c t and  on  the  outside  is  is  presented  page a r e  the  instructions:  "Each of One  easier.  researchers.  a test leaflet  following  data  most p o p u l a r p r o j e c t i v e  B o t h g r o u p and  with  the  well.  among m a r k e t i n g  practical.  of r e p l i e s ,  i n c o l l e c t i n g and  Picture F r u s t r a t i o n Test. has  attitudes  r e l a t i v e economy  I t s h o u l d be  the  better  advantage compared t o  t h i s instrument i s not  o t h e r m e t h o d s as  a  respondent's f i e l d  a further  sentence  device for  s t u d y of consumer  or Rorschach because of  t i m e and  of  has  useful  I t seems t o be  because i t narrows the therefore  t e s t , the  the  following contains  two  p e r s o n i s a l w a y s shown s a y i n g  another.  You  are  asked to w r i t e  o r more  people.  c e r t a i n words i n the  empty  to  space  T h e s e f i n d i n g s w i l l be v a l u a b l e t o a c a r m a n u f a c t u r e r i n m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s on t h e d e s i g n o f c a r s , or to the d e a l e r i n p l a n n i n g m a r k e t i n g s t r a t e g i e s .  68  the f i r s t  w o r d s t h a t come t o mind„  Avoid being 14  humorous.  Work a s q u i c k l y a s y o u c a n . "  In i n d i v i d u a l  administration the subject i s  asked t o r e a d h i s answers o u t l o u d and t h e examiner notes other responses, e.g., a s a r c a s t i c  tone o f v o i c e  w h i c h may h e l p i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s o f the responses. A l t h o u g h t h e t e s t was o r i g i n a l l y around  a frustrating  have t o be s o .  i t does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  I n s t e a d r e s p o n d e n t s may b e a s k e d t o  r e s o l v e a problem. consumer a t t i t u d e s The  situation  designed  T h i s t e c h n i q u e was u s e d towards  t o study  automobile i n s u r a n c e . ^ 1  r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e shown some c a r t o o n s , t w o o f w h i c h  were : 1.  A woman a n d a man, w i t h t h e woman s a y i n g , " H e r e ' s an a d v e r t i s e m e n t t h a t s a y s y o u c a n s a v e a s much a s 40 p e r c e n t o n y o u r a u t o i n s u r a n c e .  Do y o u  t h i n k we o u g h t t o l o o k i n t o i t when o u r s e x p i r e s n e x t month?" left 2.  The man's b a l l o o n i s  blank.  Two men, w i t h one s a y i n g ,  "Yes,  t h a t company's  a u t o i n s u r a n c e i s n o t e x p e n s i v e a s some, b u t S a u l R o s e n w e i g , "The P i c t u r e A s s o c i a t i o n Method and I t s A p p l i c a t i o n i n a Study o f R e a c t i o n s t o F r u s t r a t i o n s , " J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y , V o l . 14,No. 1, ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 4 5 ) , p . 7. S m i t h , op. c i t . , p p .  170-172.  69  what k i n d if  y o u had an a c c i d e n t .  balloon The  of satisfaction  interviewees  i s left were  person might r e p l y . cartoon  do The  they  give  you  second'man's  blank.  asked  to imagine  what  Some o f t h e r e p l i e s  the  second  to the  first  were:  1.  I ' l l look  2.  I f we  into  i t - of course,  c a n s a v e 40  percent,  we  with reservation. had b e t t e r  look  into i t . 3.  I would off  4.  suspicious of that  It  a n d 40  percent  i s quite a b i t .  I don't b e l i e v e there's be  on  be  a reliable  such  a company  -  can't  one.  i s not d i f f i c u l t  t o come t o some  conclusions  the r e a c t i o n s o f consumers t o a p r i c e appeal  i n auto  insurance. The fact a  that people  third  own  great  person  account.  person  what  i n the cartoon inject  lies  i n the  t h e mouth  might h e s i t a t e t o admit  will  i s asked  react.  h i s own  of  on  t o imagine  their  how  As he does t h i s  he  f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s  the will  into  picture. seem  t o enjoy  i t i s easier to enlist  methods than  they  method  to put into  interviewee  Respondents and  of this  are prepared  The  unconsciously the  strength  present  verbal  their  a p r o b l e m more  techniques.  The  working  with  cooperation.  clearly  and  cartoons Pictorial  effectively  pictures are just  rough  70  sketches  and  marketing  can  be  a d a p t e d t o meet t h e n e e d s o f  researchers.  represented, h u s b a n d and  e.g.,  A l l s o r t s of s i t u a t i o n s can  a s c e n e s h o w i n g two  w i f e , or a purchaser  and  o n l y i s the drawing f l e x i b l e but cartoon is  can  a l s o be  required.  To  designed  find  saying,  "Would y o u  b r a n d name).  we  are out To  like  a piece  Alternatively,  s a l e s m a n and  of X p i e .  Do  illustrate,  t o w a r d i t s company.  was  could not  He and  was how  not  on w h a t e v e r  you  can  this  scene c o u l d former  one  low  saying,"Sorry, instead?"  that  an u n f a v o r a b l e  the  attitude  sales force reported  i n b u t t e r f a t and  planning  that  unclean.  a m a j o r c h a n g e i n company  c e r t a i n t h a t the u n f a v o r a b l e  t h e m i l k company and techniques  the  policy.  One  milk The policy.  attitude existed A survey people  picture frustration  employed.  a  show a  want a n o t h e r type  i t . m i g h t i n f l u e n c e t h e new  of the  presented  of X pie?",( X being  conducted t o determine the a t t i t u d e of the  one  be  a m i l k company f e l t  The  aspect  a  compete s u c c e s s f u l l y because t h e i r  t h o u g h t t o be  p r e s i d e n t was  the  over a t a b l e with  a housewife w i t h the  p e o p l e o f a c e r t a i n c i t y had  they  the wording of  a cartoon  a Not  consumer a t t i t u d e s toward  housewives s i t t i n g  be  housewives,  shopkeeper.  to focus  p a r t i c u l a r brand of cake mix, s h o w i n g two  the  of the  test  was  towards was  pictures  M a r t i n Z o b e r , "Some P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s A p p l i e d to Marketing Research," Journal of Marketing, V o l . 20, ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 5 6 ) , pp. 2 6 2 - 2 6 8 .  71  used  was a s c e n e  where two women were t a l k i n g  backyard  fence.  has  changed m i l k  just  too?" One  The f i r s t  Another  i s pushing  large  a cart  refrigerated  woman i s s a y i n g , " M r s . J o n e s  companies.  scene  Are you going  and t h e o t h e r The f i r s t  you  g e t me a b o t t l e  of milk  any  brand  a l l t h e same."  balloon  f o r t h e second  responses:' i n d i c a t e d unfavorable A  typical  On  person  laws  policy  interpretation  finding  In both  and h a s b e e n v e r y  cartoons, the  blank.  The  i s processed  under t h e the other."  of the data.  a new  s u c c e s s f u l with i t .  i t h a s many a d v a n t a g e s , frustration  one o f t h e test  I t i s not clear  i s i n the  whether t h e  represent: what t h e s u b j e c t w o u l d  b.  what he t h i n k s he o u g h t  c.  what he f e e l s It  like  o f a "symbolic  do i n a s i m i l a r  doing  has been observed  t h e form  situation,  t o do, o r b u t w o u l d n o t actually„do„  that the cartoon  responses  c o n v e r s a t i o n " between t h e  i n t e r v i e w e d and t h e p r i n c i p a l  cartoon.  down -  t h e company l a u n c h e d  a.  person  you a r e bending  much b e t t e r t h a n  drawbacks o f u s i n g t h e p i c t u r e  take  "Would  company d i d n o t h a v e a n  was, " A l l m i l k  s o one i s n ' t  Although  responses  over a  woman s a y s ,  was l e f t  that the milk  the basis of this  pricing  while  i s bending  store.  r e p u t a t i o n i n t h e minds o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s .  response  same s t a t e  t o change,  shows two women i n a g r o c e r y  case.  - they're  over the  subject i n the  T h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n o f t e n seems u n r e l a t e d t o  72  what t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s stimulus occured  a c t u a l b e h a v i o r m i g h t be i f t h e  • 17 in reality.  The c a r t o o n m e t h o d s h a r e s t h e same  problem  as t h e TAT i n t h a t t i m e and e f f o r t s h o u l d b e d e v o t e d p r e p a r i n g a p r e c i s e and a c c u r a t e p i c t o r i a l specifically It  oriented  i s possible  toward  to  stimuli,  the d e s i r e d subject matter.  t h a t the problem  i n v o l v e d may  outweigh  t h e v a l u e o f t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s and e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n may b e o b s e r v e d  at less expenditure, time, 18  and money w i t h v e r b a l o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s . Role P l a y i n g . Although r o l e of  playing i s a separate  test  i t s own, t h e p r o c e s s o c c u r s i n m o s t o f t h e p r o j e c t i v e  t e c h n i q u e s , e . g . , TAT, p i c t u r e f r u s t r a t i o n , completion.  The r e s p o n d e n t  the place o f a t h i r d from  person  i s asked  story  to put himself i n  and t o l o o k a t t h e s i t u a t i o n  the impersonal point of view.  This w i l l  draw h i s  a t t e n t i o n away f r o m  the i d e a t h a t the i n v e s t i g a t o r i s  actually  i n h i s a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s .  interested  One o f t h e e a r l i e s t e x a m p l e s comes f r o m  (and c e r t a i n l y b e s t  an e n q u i r y c a r r i e d  known)  o u t by Mason H a i r e  J a m e s F. E n g e l , "A S t u d y o f a S e l e c t e d P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e i n Consumer R e s e a r c h , " U n p u b l i s h e d PhD. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , ( 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 2 1 9 . Ibid.,  p. 2 2 2 .  73  at the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a A conventional Nescafe revealed  i n 1949.  survey o f a t t i t u d e s toward  t h a t most o f t h e consumers  disliked  20 instant coffee the  general  The b u l k  B  area  suspected t h i s  of the responses f e l l  - " I don't l i k e  t o be a s t e r e o t y p e d  i n d i r e c t approach t o g e t behind Two s h o p p i n g l i s t s and  identical  the  item,  "Nescafe c o f f e e  Haire  a n s w e r s o he u s e d a n  the facade.  containing  i n a l l respects  sample o f housewives w i t h  seven items  each  e x c e p t t h a t one i n c l u d e d  ( d r i p g r i n d ) " , were g i v e n  to a  the following i n s t r u c t i o n s :  "Read t h e s h o p p i n g l i s t b e l o w . into  the f l a v o r . "  into  Try to project  t h e s i t u a t i o n as f a r as p o s s i b l e u n t i l  yourself  y o u c a n more  o r l e s s c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e woman who b o u g h t t h e g r o c e r i e s . Then, w r i t e a b r i e f  d e s c r i p t i o n o f h e r p e r s o n a l i t y and  character." A b o u t h a l f t h e h o u s e w i v e s who w e r e shown t h e shopping l i s t as  with  the Nescafe item  l a z y , a s p e n d t h r i f t , a poor w i f e  plan household purchases w e l l . it  i snot possible to t e l l  contributing (one  to this  containing  idea.  described  t h e woman  o r as f a i l i n g t o  From t h e s e f i n d i n g s  w h i c h i t e m s on t h e l i s t  alone were  The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e c o n d  t h e M a x w e l l H o u s e c o f f e e ) , showed  list,  that  Mason H a i r e , " P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s i n M a r k e t R e s e a r c h , " J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g , V o l . 14, ( A p r i l 1950) 649-656. 20 This questionnaire included the questions, "Do y o u u s e i n s t a n t c o f f e e ? ( I f n o , w h a t do y o u d i s l i k e about i t ? "  ing pp.  74  no one d e s c r i b e d the woman w i t h t h i s shopping l i s t as l a z y and o n l y 12 p e r c e n t d e s c r i b e d her as f a i l i n g t o p l a n household purchases.  I t can be concluded t h a t i t  was the presence o f the Nescafe i t e m on the l i s t  which  l e a d t o these u n f a v o r a b l e c o n n a t i o n s and hence a g r e a t d e a l can be deduced about housewives'  through t h i s p r o j e c t i v e technique;;  a t t i t u d e s toward N e s c a f e .  Those who  r e j e c t e d i n s t a n t c o f f e e i n the o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n blamed its  f l a v o r , b u t t h e i r d i s l i k e was due t o t h e i r f e a r o f  b e i n g seen by one's s e l f and o t h e r s i n the r o l e  they  p r o j e c t e d onto t h e Nescafe woman i n the d e s c r i p t i o n . When asked d i r e c t l y i t i s d i f f i c u l t Nescafe because a good w i f e . "  people w i l l  t o say, " I don't use  t h i n k I am a l a z y and n o t  Y e t , we know from these d a t a the f e e l i n g 21  r e g a r d i n g l a z i n e s s and t h r i f t l e s s n e s s was t h e r e . The r o l e p l a y i n g t e c h n i q u e i s a v a l u a b l e d e v i c e for  s t u d y i n g a t t i t u d e s i f one can be c e r t a i n t h a t the  respondent does i n f a c t p r o j e c t h i s a t t i t u d e s i n t o the picture.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some answers r e f l e c t the  s u b j e c t ' s o p i n i o n s o f how the t h i r d person might behave. S t u d i e s should be c a r r i e d o u t t o determine and r e l i a b i l i t y  21  of t h i s instrument.  Smith, op_. c i t .  101.  the v a l i d i t y  75  Advantages o f Using P r o j e c t i v e Techniques We h a v e s e e n how p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s c a n b e u s e d inv c o n s u m e r r e s e a r c h strengths section  and weaknesses were p o i n t e d  this will  In this  be d i s c u s s e d .  A l t h o u g h i n some  be n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r  to give  t o o l i n consumer  One o f t h e m o s t v a l u a b l e projective  a more c o h e s i v e research. assets:;-of'; t h e e  technique i s that i t i s "disguised", i . e . ,  conceals  from the i n d i v i d u a l the i n t e n t of the  measurements. accurate  places  be a r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e p r e c e e d i n g s e c t i o n , i t  picture of this  it  out.  some a d v a n t a g e s common t o a l l t h e p r o j e c t i v e  techniques w i l l  will  a n d f o r e a c h t e s t some o f t h e  The r e l u c t a n c e  answers i s a s e r i o u s  that might threaten  to reveal  t r u t h f u l and  problem i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s  t h e e x t e r n a l image o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t .  He m i g h t t r y t o g u e s s t h e a n s w e r s t h a t he b e l i e v e s he i s supposed t o g i v e r a t h e r  than admit h i s ignorance or  r e v e a l h i s p r i v a t e f e e l i n g s and a t t i t u d e s . f a b r i c a t e h i s responses according  He  could  t o w h a t he t h i n k s i s  expected o f him o u t o f t h e goodness o f h i s h e a r t t o please  the interviewer.  behind the question create  I f he i s u n a w a r e o f t h e r e a s o n s  he i s l e s s l i k e l y  the impression  he t h i n k s f i t .  to deliberately F o r example, i n the  word a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t s where t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s m e r e l y given  a list  or opposite  o f words and a s k e d t o s a y t h e f i r s t  word  w o r d t h a t comes t o h i s m i n d , i t i s d i f f i c u l t  76  for  him  t o know t h e i n t e n t i o n s b e h i n d An  they  asked  Very  of a t h i r d  problems.  The  than  the respondent Rather  person  he  feelings  will and  he  and  more l i k e l y  respondents  At  of the  this  The  asked  they  One  form  choose  they  their  the problem  assumes other  or i n j e c t w h i c h he  his  own  would  be  i n direct questioning.  directly  see  two  loyalty,  what t h e y w o u l d  do  brands  would  of  a t the r e g u l a r  is  price. they  choose?  to r e v e a l  some m i g h t  usual brand. w o u l d be  price.  tried  of q u e s t i o n i n g c o u l d produce  a r e and  the  of these i s the u s u a l  answers, f o r housewives d i s l i k e conscious  i n terms of  which they have never  i t s usual  Which b r a n d Such d i r e c t  techniques  i n the p i c t u r e  t h e y c a n buy  other brand  at half  i n the  situation:  same p r o d u c t . which  directly  s u r v e y i s t o measure b r a n d  a supermarket  brand  i s that  to solve h i s  unconsciously project  c o u l d be  faced with  i s put  asked  t o deny or d i s t o r t  the purpose  i s not  theory of p r o j e c t i v e  attitudes  tests  the c o n v e n t i o n a l survey  i n the p r o c e s s of r e s p o n d i n g  people  if  often  for his opinion.  position  If  f e a t u r e of these  a r e more i m p e r s o n a l  methods.  that  important  the q u e s t i o n s .  to use  say  Another t h e TAT  how  unrealistic price  they would  better  way  of  definitely tackling  to e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n :  77  R e s p o n d e n t s c o u l d b e shown a d r a w i n g o f a woman s h o p p i n g i n t h e s u p e r m a r k e t , a row o f s h e l v e s . the  facing  On one o f them i s p l a c e d  two b r a n d s o f t h e p r o d u c t and she i s  a s k e d , "What i s t h e woman i n t h e p i c t u r e likely  t o do?  What do y o u t h i n k s h e  should do?" It  i s assumed t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t w i l l  with  identify  herself  t h e p e r s o n i n t h e p i c t u r e and i n t h e p r o c e s s o f  giving her opinion  on t h e l a t t e r ' s r e a c t i o n s h e w o u l d  reveal herself. Another advantage o f p r o j e c t i v e techniques i s t h a t they have a g r e a t e r  ability  of securing  expressions  o f a t t i t u d e s i n a more n a t u r a l f o r m .  They o f f e r t h e  subject  o f response or  the widest  l a t i t u d e i n choice  form o f expression. consumer a r e s t r i c t e d  The c o n v e n t i o n a l  s e l e c t i o n o f ways o f e x p r e s s i n g  their  attitudes.  "yes"  o r "no" t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n  The e x t r e m e example o f t h i s w o u l d be  t o t i e TAT w h e r e t h e r e a d e r  data and  they e l i c i t creates  t o him.  and r i c h n e s s  of the response  s e r i o u s problems i n a n a l y s i n g  i n t e r p r e t i n g the information.  informal lead  the profusion  and answer as compared  i s a s k e d t o make u p a s t o r y  b a s e d on t h e p i c t u r e s p r e s e n t e d But  surveys o f f e r the  T h i s m e t h o d i s more  than t h a t o f the d i r e c t technique.  T h i s may  t o r e p l i e s w h i c h a r e more c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a n d  unrelated  to the topic.  7 8  The research  use  takes  characteristic research is  into  was  c o n s i d e r a t i o n an which  overlook.  experience.  conducted  Using  to f i n d  i n consumer  important the c o n v e n t i o n a l  Temporary  Forgetfulness applies  through  a survey  techniques  o f human b e i n g s  techniques  occurence.  learned  of p r o j e c t i v e  forgetfulness  t o t h i n g s we  the d i r e c t  o u t what i t e m s  have  approach the  people  2 2  used  f o r making  liver  sausages  of a c t u a l  bought the  actual  i s due  of  through  be  t o the f a c t  projective  s o much on on  that  that  buy  as w e l l .  because the  they  Subsequent r e s e a r c h forgetfulness In  m e t h o d s , t h e a n s w e r s do n o t  and  this  only did  the i t e m but  methods r e v e a l e d t h a t  attitudes  this  the usage of  showed t h a t n o t  the respondent's  their  actually  inferred  the e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the d i s c r e p a n c y .  using  Yet studies  area i s unimportant  the r e s p o n d e n t s  indirect  mentioned  same g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a r e v e a l e d  I t cannot  consumer p u r c h a s e s  bought i t r e g u l a r l y  but  i n the  i n the household  majority  was  array of products.  8 0 percent of a l l f a m i l i e s  product.  discrepancy product  among an  purchases  t h a t more t h a n  About 1 7 p e r c e n t  sandwiches.  memory and feelings  surveys depend  power o f  at that  recall  particular  moment.  2 2  Business 1 9 5 5 ) ,  pp.  D i e t z Leonhard, -Proiective Techniques i n R e s e a r c h i ( B o s t o n : World P u b l i s h i n g House, 2 7 - 2 8 .  79  Some t e s t s T e s t , Thematic  like  the Rosenweig's  Frustration  A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t , h a v e an  additional  advantage over the c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s e a r c h t o o l s i n t h a t t h e y p r e s e n t t h e consumer w i t h p i c t o r i a l well  as v e r b a l  stimuli.  F o r some t y p e s o f  p i c t u r e a s s o c i a t i o n would y i e l d verbal association and  specific  stimuli  as  investigation,  more v a l i d r e s u l t s  than  s i n c e t h e y a r e more c o n c r e t e , v i v i d  than the corresponding v e r b a l  stimuli.  23 In a survey feelings, visiting  which  attempted  satisfactions  t o measure t h e  and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s  attitudes, of  H a w a i i , p i c t u r e c a r d s w e r e shown t o r e s p o n d e n t s .  T h i s method produced  r e s p o n s e s t h a t w e r e more m e a n i n g f u l  and w i t h l e s s d i f f i c u l t y had been u s e d .  than i f p u r e l y v e r b a l  Furthermore, respondents found  m e t h o d o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n more i n t e r e s t i n g The  projective  games o r r e p o r t s on how  i n v o l v e h i m s e l f and  find  He  the t a s k l e s s  willing  this  techniques are i n the form fictitious  persons might  t o abandon t h e r o l e  does n o t f e e l  stimuli  and e n j o y a b l e .  or o t h e r such d e v i c e s which gets the respondent  giver.  tourists  on t h e s p o t and  s e r i o u s and  of the  react to  opinion-  therefore  f o r m a l and w i l l  of  be  may more  to cooperate.  M a r t i n G r o s s a c k , U n d e r s t a n d i n g Consumer B e h a v i o r , ( B o s t o n : The C h r i s t o p h e r P u b l i s h i n g H o u s e , 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 193-220.  80  C o n d i t i o n s Under Which  the  P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s S h o u l d be  Used  Like a l l techniques,  not  p r o j e c t i v e techniques  one  should  are b u i l t  forget  on c e r t a i n a s s u m p t i o n s .  Hence t h e y work b e t t e r u n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . advantages of u s i n g research  p r o j e c t i v e techniques  are v a l i d under these  some o f t h e s e  c o n d i t i o n s and  themselves to r e s o l v e research the u t i l i z a t i o n to provide can  be  problems.  Very  method i s  often  responses  T r a d i t i o n a l methods of q u e s t i o n i n g  more s u i t a b l e f o r p r o c u r i n g  conscious  newer p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e c h n i q u e s  m e t h o d s and  by  necessary  a m e a n i n g f u l b a s i s upon w h i c h the  surface  are  them.  often inadequate  o f more t h a n one  analysed.  below the  Here  a n a l y s i s of  P r o j e c t i v e methods are  The  i n consumer  conditions.  an  that  of the  information  are designed  personality.  to  Hence,  p s y c h o l o g i c a l methods s h o u l d  be  are  while  probe traditional  viewed  as  24 complementary to each o t h e r . i s used w i l l projective  d e p e n d on  techniques  approach i n surveys, purposes to provide  the  extent  to which  problem a t hand.  are not they  The  e m p l o y e d as  the  each  When principal  are u s e f u l f o r p r e - t e s t i n g  valuable material for  h y p o t h e s e s w i t h g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n and  for  formulating phrasing  J a m e s F. E n g e l , " M o t i v a t i o n R e s e a r c h - M a g i c o r Menace," M i c h i g a n B u s i n e s s Review, V o l . X I I I (March, 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 2 8 - 3 2 .  81  questions  more  meaningfully.  I n some c a s e s t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r h a s a of for  several techniques the survey.  techniques the  analysis tigator  or direct  questioning  will  elicit  I n view o f the lower c o s t s  a n d t h e more s i m p l e  be l e s s i n c l i n e d  essentially o f admin-  and e a s i e r t a s k s o f  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r , will  appropriate  These a r e s i t u a t i o n s where p r o j e c t i v e  same a n s w e r .  istration  w h i c h a r e more o r l e s s  choice  the inves-  t o u s e t h e more  indirect  method o f a p p r o a c h . Projective a r e a s where t h e r e h o l d back t h e i r  techniques  should  be e m p l o y e d i n  i s a tendency f o r the respondents t o  answers.  The a b i l i t y  and w i l l i n g n e s s o f  a person t o d i s c u s s h i s a t t i t u d e s toward c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s 23  varies widely  on a  contimuousssealeaasiiliLustra^edbbeifctgwo 2  I  3  Sector I  Sector H  P o s i t i o n s , l and 4 a r e t h e two e x t r e m e s . polar region social  of easily  conflict  increases position  present  steadily  obtained  data.  4  Sector BL P o s i t i o n 1 i s the The d e g r e e o f  i n the a t t i t u d e information  across  o f maximum s o c i a l  the s c a l e t o p o s i t i o n 4,  the  conflict.  25  J a m e s F. E n g e l , "A S t u d y o f a S e l e c t e d t i v e T e c h n i q u e i n Consumer R e s e a r c h , " U n p u b l i s h e d T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s ( 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 13.  ProjecPhD.  82  In s e c t o r 1 the d i s t o r t i o n of the response to a d i r e c t question s e c t i o n we  f i n d m a t e r i a l where the  to describe such as,  i s slight.  and  "Do  respondent's Within  subject i s w i l l i n g  make p u b l i c , f o r e x a m p l e , t o  you  questions  l i k e w a t c h i n g T . V . ? " o r "Do  t e a or c o f f e e ? " the respondent w i l l  this  you  prefer  answer w i t h  little  hesitation. I n s e c t o r 3,  t h e b a r r i e r t o r e s p o n s e i s much  greater.  , When v e r b a l q u e s t i o n s  are d i r e c t e d a t him  will  reveal his attitudinal  s e t because there  not  c o n f l i c t between t h i s Fear of  t h a t are  o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t and  stereotyped,  t h a t the c o n v e n t i o n a l  d i s t o r t e d and research  extremes.  i n t o three  sectors, there  among t h e m , i . e . , i t i s n o t  sketch  i s no  they  go  difficult consumers.  The  s u p p l e m e n t e d by One research  he  produces  vague.  answers  I t i s here  to e l i c i t  shows t h e  information.  truthful  conventional projective  should  the  scale divided  clear-cut division  ends.  They f o r m a s c a l e ,  f r o m s e c t o r 1 t o s e c t o r 3, to obtain  and  s n x i e i t y ,a>nd:i.ety  possible to i n d i c a t e p r e c i s e l y  w h e r e e a c h s e c t o r b e g i n s and as  question.  2 i s the middle p o s i t i o n between Although the  is  m e t h o d s become i n a d e q u a t e  p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s are necessary Sector  two  t h e demand o f t h e  self-depreciation increases  defensiveness  and  and  he  and  information research  i t becomes more from  the  t o o l s have t o  be  techniques.  bear i n mind t h a t u s e f u l m a r k e t i n g  i s concerned with g e t t i n g s u f f i c i e n t l y  below  83  the  s u r f a c e t o do t h e n e c e s s a r y  job.  One c a n d i f f e r -  e n t i a t e b e t w e e n t h r e e l e v e l s o f a w a r e n e s s o f a human mind.  T h e r e a r e two l a y e r s o f t h e c o n s c i o u s mind  a layer of unconscious people's  or subconscious.  around  In investigating  o p i n i o n s , a t t i t u d e s a n d m o t i v a t i o n s we n e e d t o  deal only with the outer layers. layer c o n s i s t s of non-verbal  The t h i r d  and n o n - r a t i o n a l  w h i c h c a n o n l y be and need o n l y be i n v a d e d psychiatrist.  and  innermost  emotions,  by the  These l e v e l s o f a w a r e n e s s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d  27 below: Unconscious; subconscious; Non-verbal, non-rational emotions.  Top o f t h e m i n d , c o n s c i o u s . Concepts, f e e l i n g s , e m o t i o n s w h i c h c a n be v e r b a l i z e d .  Top o f t h e m i n d , c o n s c i o u s . Rationalizations, beliefs, attitudes, existing i n v e r b a l form. I n t h e o u t e r l a y e r we may f i n d many i z a t i o n s which a l r e a d y e x i s t i n v e r b a l form. these  rationalWithin  s e c t o r s a r e t o p i c s on w h i c h t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s  willing beliefs.  and a b l e  to reveal h i sattitudes,  F o r example, p r e f e r e n c e  L e o n h a r d , op_. c i t . , 27 I b i d . , p. 43.  f e e l i n g s and  o f women f o r one o f t h e  p. 44.  two d i f f e r e n t b r a n d s there a r e problems comments:  of margarines.  f o r the researcher.  "...consumers'  level  As Smith  lack of training  s p e c t i n g may make i t d i f f i c u l t complete  Even a t t h i s  i n intro-  f o r them t o g i v e  i n f o r m a t i o n . . . . . • t h e y may o f t e n  lack the  r i g h t word o r t h e r i g h t c o n c e p t s t o e x p r e s s themselves The It  third  a r e a i s beyond  the a r e a o f awareness.  i s not necessary f o r the i n v e s t i g a t o r  into  this  level.  To do t h i s  s u c c e s s f u l l y i t w o u l d be  n e c e s s a r y f o r h i m t o be a t r a i n e d Moreover,  to penetrate  psychiatrist.  i t w o u l d r e v e a l d a t a t h a t m i g h t be i n t e r e s t i n g  but useless to the marketer.  I t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o  s e e j u s t w h a t a c i g a r e t t e m a n u f a c t u r e r c o u l d make u s e of  the following  information:  of  smoking  or  regression to, infantile  "The c e r e m o n i a l n a t u r e  i s usually explained  as a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f ,  forms o f a u t o - e r o t i c i s m  2 9  (e.g.,  thumb-sucking)." It  to  i s t h e second  the investigator  material  l a y e r which i s of i n t e r e s t  o f consumer a t t i t u d e s .  i snot likely  t o be r e a d i l y f o r t h c o m i n g t h r o u g h  d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g b u t c a n be u n c o v e r e d indirect  approach.  S m i t h , op_. c i t . , p . 19. Henry,  t h r o u g h an  The a t t i t u d e s a n d m o t i v e s o f t h e  28 29  Here t h e  op_. c i t . , p . 2 7,  85  subject are u s u a l l y concealed behind alizations  and  intellectual  d i s c u s s i o n and  For example, the d e s i r e t o impress a b i g g e r T.V. t o buy  s e t may  a mask o f  half-truths.  one's n e i g h b o r s  be m a s k e d b e h i n d  a s e t b e c a u s e t h e o l d one  ration-  had  an  insistence  a flicker,  s m o k i n g c i g a r s i n o r d e r t o f e e l more m a s c u l i n e i n g one  or, yet  smokes b e c a u s e o f t h e p l e a s a n t a r o m a , o r ,  a c e r t a i n newspaper i n o r d e r t o f e e l behind  with  the r a t i o n a l  like  sayread  a b i g shot,  t o r e a d i t b e c a u s e i t c o n t a i n s more  30 news.  I t i s here  very useful concepts,  and  and  that projective techniques  essential  f e e l i n g s around which  the l a y e r s of s e l f The  t o uncover  the  become  emotions,  consumers have e r e c t e d  rationalization.  c o n d i t i o n s under which  c a n be u s e d m o s t e f f i c i e n t l y  projective  methods  i s s u m m a r i z e d b y W.  G.  31 Coblmer:  He  h o l d s t h a t p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s c a n be  w i t h good e f f e c t a t t h e v e r y p o i n t where d i r e c t i n g i s weakest. 1.  lists  R e s p o n d e n t s who They  2.  He  have  question-  cases:  'unstable'  attitudes.  shift.  R e s p o n d e n t s who their  f o u r such  used  are undecided  a t t i t u d e s or unable  Smith,  op_. c i t . ,  pp.  about,  to express  unaware them.  18-23.  31 W. G. C o b l i n e r , "On t h e P l a c e o f P r o j e c t i v e T e s t s i n O p i n i o n and A t t i t u d e S u r v e y s , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f O p i n i o n and A t t i t u d e R e s e a r c h . V o l . V, ( W i n t e r 1 9 5 1 ) , pp. 480-490.  of  86  3.  R e s p o n d e n t s who unwilling  f o r some r e a s o n  or other  to d i s c l o s e c e r t a i n of  a t t i t u d e s although  they  are  their  seem c o o p e r a t i v e  otherwise, 4.  R e s p o n d e n t s who  intentionally  or  i n d i c a t e a t t i t u d e s t h a t t h e y may  unintentionally not  actually  possess. The e x t e n t on in  reliability  the type  business  o f t h e d a t a d e p e n d t o some  of respondents  selected.  r e s e a r c h work b e s t w i t h t h e b r o a d  middle-majority  consumers.  Nonr-responses o r  n a s w e r s m i g h t come f r o m u n i m a g i n a t i v e w i t h no people  higher education. may  be  o p i n i o n s r a t h e r than who  q u e s t i o n i n g may is  seeking.  The  t o see  or  people  through  to obtain t h e i r feelings  those  of a t h i r d  of  educated  person.  have been s u b j e c t e d t o t h i s be  group useless  people  more h i g h l y  the ones most l i k e l y  i n t e r v i e w e r ' s attempts  respondents  Projections  the and  Also  type  of  a b l e t o guess what the i n t e r v i e w e r  Some may  w i t h h o l d i n f o r m a t i o n or  deliberately  32 mislead  the In  to and  rely  examiner. r e s e a r c h o f any  on more t h a n  one  kind i t i s usually  method o r t e c h n i q u e  a n a l y s i n g d a t a , no m a t t e r  technique applies  m i g h t be  t o the use 32  how  reliable  f o r the purpose.  This  46.  collecting  or v a l i d  the  principle  of p r o j e c t i v e techniques,  L e o n h a r d , op_. c i t . , p.  of  necessary  too.  One  87  s h o u l d n o t make t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t s  the basis f o r  final decisions. Summary Despite  the scepticism of projective  among some r e s e a r c h e r s , t h e s e  instruments  b y some f i r m s i n t h e i r c o n s u m e r s u r v e y s . with these obtaining to  t o o l s have i n most c a s e s the information desired.  overcome  But  Experiences  been s u c c e s s f u l i n They have been  able  like  of questioning.  a l l instruments, they  under c e r t a i n circumstances.  s h o u l d be u s e d  Where t h e d i r e c t  method  be u s e d , t h a t i s p r e f e r r e d t o t h e p r o j e c t i v e  because o f the lower administering  method,  c o s t s and l e s s d i f f i c u l t y i n  t h e t e s t s and i n a n a l y s i n g t h e d a t a .  Projective and  have been u s e d  some o f t h e i n h e r e n t w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e  c o n v e n t i o n a l method  can  techniques  techniques  have t h e i r  weaknesses  t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s f a c e d w i t h many p r o b l e m s when  working the next  w i t h them. chapter.  These p r o b l e m s w i l l be e x a m i n e d i n  88  CHAPTER  VI  PROBLEMS IN THE OF  APPLICATION  P R O J E C T I V E TECHNIQUES  Introduction In  the p r e v i o u s chapter  i t was  observed  t h e r e a r e a number o f s i g n i f i c a n t a d v a n t a g e s o p e n t h e m a r k e t r e s e a r c h e r when u s i n g p r o j e c t i v e H o w e v e r , no  technique  problem areas. discuss  The  the nature  projective  have been i d e n t i f i e d  a r e i t e m i z e d as of the  by  follows:  1.  design  2.  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems.  3.  sample  4.  interpretation  tests.  size. of the  results.  standardization.  6.  ethical  7.  reliability  problems. and  validity.  S o l u t i o n s have n o t been found  them and,  i s to  techniques.  t h i s w r i t e r and  problems.  and/or  of the problem a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  Several problem areas  5.  to  techniques.  i s f r e e from l i m i t a t i o n s  purpose of t h i s chapter  that  f o r a l l these  Nevertheless, i t i s important i f t h e y c a n n o t be  be made t o m i n i m i z e  their  to  recognize  e l i m i n a t e d , attempts  effects.  should  8 9  Design of the Tests An techniques  important  characteristic of projective  i s t h a t they  are unstructured,  i . e . , an  i n d i v i d u a l c a n i n t e r p r e t t h e ambiguous s t i m u l i i n any way t h a t i s m o s t m e a n i n g f u l psychology  these  motivations  In c l i n i c a l  t e s t s a r e u s e f u l i n f i n d i n g o u t what•  a r e a t work i n t h e break-down o f an a d j u s t e d  personality. individual's etc.  t o him.  They g i v e a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p i c t u r e o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y , h i s emotional  needs,  I n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n an u n s t r u c t u r e d  test  conflicts, design  would enable the respondent t o r e v e a l the v a r i o u s of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . the r e s e a r c h e r  I n consumer's a t t i t u d e r e s e a r c h ,  i s concerned with a narrower f i e l d .  o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n one a s p e c t t o w a r d s some s p e c i f i c these  t e s t s should  dom a n d s p o n t a n e i t y in  s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d  the  aspect  o f consumer's of marketing.  be s o d e s i g n e d  area  same t i m e ,  restrict  He i s  personalities, Although  as t o encourage f r e e -  of expression,  there  are  t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f d a t a .  research  aspects  so t h a t the focus w i l l  disadvantages The t e s t  be on t h e  that the i n v e s t i g a t o r i s interested i n , a t s u f f i c i e n t l y unstructured  the respondent's answers.  so as n o t t o  F o r example, i n the  word a s s o c i a t i o n t e s t , r a t h e r than use t h e f r e e a s s o c i a t i o n f o r m , t h e r e s p o n d e n t c o u l d be g i v e n  the c o n t r o l l e d form.  I n t h e TAT t h e s u b j e c t c a n be g u i d e d  by the i n t e r v i e w e r  to  f o c u s h i s a t t e n t i o n on a f e w s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a s .  In  90  clinical  psychology the c l i e n t w i l l  p i c t u r e s and a s k e d t o t e l l  a s t o r y b a s e d on h i s own  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s t i m u l i . research the respondent w i l l g i v e n more d e t a i l e d  be p r e s e n t e d t h e  I n consumer  attitude  be shown a p i c t u r e b u t  instructions.  Together with other  d e v i c e s t h e TAT was u s e d i n a s u r v e y c a r r i e d Social  R e s e a r c h I n c . on c o n s u m e r a t t i t u d e s  automobiles.  towards  One o f t h e p i c t u r e s showed a c a r w i t h  1  an o p e n h o o d , b e s i d e t h e r o a d and a man engine.  o u t by  looking a t the  The r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e n o t o n l y t o g i v e a s h o r t  s t o r y a b o u t w h a t was g o i n g o n , how t h i n g s would  i t h a p p e n e d , and  how  t u r n o u t , b u t were a l s o asked t o i n c l u d e  w h a t k i n d o f p e o p l e w e r e i n t h e c a r and w h a t k i n d o f c a r t h e y were  driving. The s e c o n d p r o b l e m i n d e s i g n i n g t h e s e t e s t s i s  in  k e e p i n g them d i s g u i s e d .  their  specific  p u r p o s e may be a p p a r e n t .  ways o f c o n s t r u c t i n g disguised, in  2  addition,  I f no p r e c a u t i o n i s t a k e n  the t e s t s  a fictitious  There  a r e two  so t h a t t h e i r purpose i s  p u r p o s e may b e a s c r i b e d  a neutral or unrelated  and  s t i m u l i may be  included  J o s e p h W. Newman, " A u t o m o b i l e s - W h a t T h e y Mean t o A m e r i c a n s , " M o t i v a t i o n R e s e a r c h a n d M a r k e t i n g Management, (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1967), pp.228-230.  2 C l a i r e S e l i t z , M a r i e s J a h o d a , M o r t o n Deutsch and S t u a r t W. C o o k , R e s e a r c h M e t h o d s i n S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s , (New Y o r k : H o l t - R i n e h a r t , I n c . , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 2 8 6 .  91  in  addition  t o the  stimuli relevant  to the  investigator's  objective. I n consumer s u r v e y s i t i s d i f f i c u l t respondents from r e a l i z i n g the projective with  too  how  h i s responses are  example, i n u s i n g  serious  g o i n g t o be  the  picture  subject  The  The  reply.  interviewee  The  i n - s t o r e b u y i n g , but be  easier  does not  "Oh,  interpreted.  may  guess t h a t  appliance  h e r e comes i n the  the  he  his  has  no  idea  as  Moreover, the i f he  t o how  subject  i s not  may  asked  explicitly  he  says w i l l  interpreted.  be  there i s a danger t h a t  m i g h t t r y t o seek f o r what t h e y f e e l In c o n s t r u c t i n g  direction, 3  the  i . e . , i t does not Ibid.,  p.  287.  lead  i s the  reveal  the  though  respondents  these p r o j e c t i v e  s t i m u l i does not  responses  find i t  a t t i t u d e s , even 3  important that  wife's  towards  f e e l i n g s and  answer.  the  interviewer  t o t a l k a b o u t h i s own  Thirdly,  could  i n knowing h i s a t t i t u d e s  to express himself  knows t h a t w h a t he  know  For  i n an  respondent i s asked to f i l l  either interested  will  wife  used  obvious.  f r u s t r a t i o n t e s t one  h u s b a n d i s shown s a y i n g ,  salesman."  quite  interpreted.  shown a d r a w i n g o f a h u s b a n d and  store.  is  i f the  be  the  the  t h e y h a v e t o be  o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s whose p u r p o s e s may t h i s i s not  be  r e a l purpose of  t e s t s because very o f t e n  But  to keep  correct  tests i t i s bias  in  respondent to  one feel  92  that there  i s an " e x p e c t e d " o r " r i g h t " a n s w e r .  The r i s k  of doing t h i s occurs e s p e c i a l l y i n the v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s 4  given  to the subjects  avoiding as  One way o f  t h i s w o u l d b e t o make t h e s t i m u l i  possible.  profusion in  by the i n t e r v i e w e r .  On t h e o t h e r  hand, i t w i l l  o f responses which w i l l  analysing,  as ambiguous  bring forth a  raise difficult  problems  i n t e r p r e t a t i n g , and s t a n d a r d i z i n g t h e  r e s p o n s e s t o a r r i v e a t any v a l i d  conclusions.  Before a p r o j e c t i v e t e s t i s used i t should tested  t o see t h a t i t i s s a t i s f a c t o r y i n producing the  type of information being  be  studied.  that i s r e l a t e d to the s i t u a t i o n  F o r example, before  the picture  frustra-  t i o n o r TAT t e s t s a r e d e s i g n e d , a s e r i e s o f d e p t h interviews^  should  is  t o develop problem areas about which  can  possible  be c r e a t e d .  again are  be t e s t e d  be c o n d u c t e d i n t h e f i e l d  After designing  In designing consultation with  being  pictures  the t e s t s , they  t o make s u r e t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e s  r e l a t e d to the subject  should elicited  studied.  these t e s t s there  should  be  someohe who h a s t r a i n i n g i n t h e u s e o f  these t e s t s , perhaps a c l i n i c a l This  so t h a t i t  will  psychologist  be f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d  or social  i n the next  section. 5  These c o u l d take t h e form o f v e r y i n f o r m a l , u n s t r u c t u r e d , p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s where t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e a s k e d t o g i v e t h e i r o p i n i o n s on v a r i o u s t o p i c s t h a t m i g h t be r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o b l e m .  93  psychologist.  Once t h e  c a r e f u l l y designed, the can  be  d o n e by  intelligence,  an  p r o j e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s have been a c t u a l implementation i n the  ordinary  interviewer with  a l o t o f common s e n s e and  field  ordinary  a disarming  and g  tactful It and  p e r s o n a l i t y , i f he  i s only  design  of the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the  enlist  the  clinical by  i n the  an  tools.  as  The  in  merely records  of  responses of a personal  the  handled  the responses  the  subjects. and  a f f e c t the  involved  as  influence  These t e s t s are  conducted  various  aspects of  answers of the  the  of i n s t r u c t i o n s , expressions modify the  degree to which the  sex,  answers of  i n v e s t i g a t i o n was  admin-  can  t o n e of ones v o i c e ,  ment, e t c . , can  i n the  interviewer  example, the  the  be  Problems  difficulties  interview  i n t e r v i e w e r may  An  to  these  a c t u a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n can  of these t e s t s i s the  phrasing  analysis  possible.  One  the  the  data that i t i s necessary  Administrative  istration  t e s t s and  a i d of a person t r a i n e d to handle  i n t e r v i e w e r who  verbatim  i s carefully instructed.  subjects.  For  appearance, a t t i t u d e , of  encourage-  interviewees.  c a r r i e d out  e x a m i n e r , as  an  to  p a r t and  ascertain parcel  of  R o b e r t F e r b e r and Hugh G. W a l e s , M o t i v a t i o n and M a r k e t B e h a v i o r , (Homewood: R i c h a r d D. I r w i n , I n c . , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 137.  94  the  total  stimulus situation  might i n f l u e n c e  i n a projective technique, 7 the p r o d u c t i o n s of the s u b j e c t . The g  s u b j e c t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d and  asked t o draw a p i c t u r e  g r o u p was and  i n t e r v i e w e d by  t h e s e c o n d b y one who  results the  t h e Human F i g u r e D r a w i n g  revealed  of a person.  The  t h e e x a m i n e r who  had  was  drawings c o n t a i n e d mustaches  therefore, figure  a mustache  group  8.88  words,  percent of  w h e r e a s o n l y 1.66  such a mustache.  per-  I t seems,  t h a t the presence of a mustache i n the male  t o the male examiner h a v i n g a mustache. this  Drawing  investigation  suggests that the  t e s t m i g h t p e r h a p s n o t be  In other  Figure  a projective device i n  sense t h a t the e x p r e s s i v e b e h a v i o r i s s o l e l y  mined  The  d r a w i n g b y f e m a l e s u b j e c t s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y ..  related  the  first  a clean-shaven male.  that i n the f i r s t  c e n t o f t h e second group had  test  by f a c t o r s w i t h i n  the subject h e r s e l f , but  t h a t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s do i n f l u e n c e This could  possibly  deter-  the  rather results.  apply to the other p r o j e c t i v e 9  t e c h n i q u e s , and  i s a f a c t o r worthy of  exploration.  7 G e r a l d Y a g o d and W i l l i a n W o l f s o n , " E x a m i n e r I n f l u e n c e on P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s and R e s p o n s e s " , J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 2 0 , ( 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 389. g This i s another P r o j e c t i v e Technique. For d e t a i l s of t h i s t e c h n i q u e see: Gardner L i n d s e y , P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s and C r o s s - C u l t u r a l R e s e a r c h , (New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1 9 6 1 ) , p p . 91-93. g Other experiments showing the i n f l u e n c e of the e x a m i n e r on t h e r e s p o n d e n t i n c l u d e , i d e n t i t y o f t h e e x a m i n e r (Baughman, 1951; K e n n y and B i j o u , 1953; L o r d , 1 9 5 0 )  95  I t has  been argued t h a t i t t a k e s months i f n o t  years  of long probing  using  these  cliento in  techniques  psychiatric  can  to a s c e r t a i n the p e r s o n a l i t y of  Market i n t e r v i e w s are  l e n g t h and  o r on  interviews for a trained analyst  g e n e r a l l y not  training  the doorstep  one  and  at best  c o n d u c t e d by  are administered  a t the u n d e r l y i n g  researcher the  are not  been p o i n t e d  out,  n a r r o w e r and  more s p e c i f i c  and  Sample Much h a s  in  the  but  area  there  i n the  parlor How  he  his  a t t i t u d e s of  should  remember,  psychologist  identical.  scope of the  p e r i o d of time to accomplish  research  One  o b j e c t i v e of the c l i n i c a l  marketing  with  X <  consumers i n such a s i t u a t i o n ?  and  anyone  hours  to a d i s t r a c t e d housewife. ^  expect to get  however, the  o n l y a few  latter may  of consumer  As  and  i t has  i s much  require a  shorter  task.  Size  been w r i t t e n about sampling is still  the  in  marketing  some c o n t r o v e r s y e s p e c i a l l y  research.  Many c r i t i c i s m s h a v e b e e n made a g a i n s t  the  w h e t h e r he i s o f t h e same s e x o r o f d i f f e r e n t s e x t h a n t h e r e s p o n d e n t , ( C l a r k , 1952; C u r t i s and W o l f , 1 9 5 1 ) ; w h e t h e r he i s s u p p o r t i v e , h o s t i l e o r n e u t r a l t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t ( B e l l a k , 1944; L o r d , 1 9 5 0 ) . ^ N . D . Rothwell, "Motivation Research R e v i s i t e d , " J o u r n a l o f M a r k e t i n g , V o l . XX,No. 2 . , ( O c t o b e r 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 1 5 2 . X  96  reliability  and c o n c l u s i o n s o f consumer s u r v e y s  of t h e sample s i z e . conducting  Because o f t h e h i g h c o s t s o f  the surveys  has been n e c e s s a r y  because  and o f i n t e r p r e t i n g  the data, i t  t o work on s m a l l s a m p l e s and  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s h a v e t o b e made on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e data.  I t i s t r u e t h a t i n any type  of survey  p r o c e d u r e makes t h e f i n d i n g s l e s s r e l i a b l e Each i n d i v i d u a l w i l l  scientifically.  have a u n i q u e p e r s o n a l i t y o f h i s  own a n d t h e a t t i t u d e s , m o t i v a t i o n s small  such a  and f e e l i n g s o f a  s e c t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n may n o t b e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of the u n i v e r s e . How l a r g e , t h e n , m u s t t h e s a m p l e b e b e f o r e one can  make r e a s o n a b l y  valid  There i s no a b s o l u t e the  conclusions regarding  "good" sample whether i t r e f e r s t o  s i z e o r t o t h e method  of selecting  Sample s i z e depends on t h r e e  respondents.  factors:  1.  the objectives of the research,  2.  the accuracy  3.  t h e amount o f money a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e r e s e a r c h . ^  o f measurement  F o r many q u e s t i o n s rough measurements can  findings.  relating  are satisfactory  d e s i r e d , and  t o consumer a t t i t u d e s and g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n  make n o d i f f e r e n c e i n t e r m s o f w h a t a c t i o n s m i g h t be  taken  on t h e b a s i s o f f i n d i n g s .  or f e a s i b l e  Even i f i t were  t o u s e a l a r g e sample, i t would be  Newman, op_. c i t . , p . 4 4 9 .  practical difficult  97  o r a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e t o measure consumer b e h a v i o r precise accuracy.  Often  these  s t u d i e s have been  p r i m a r i l y e x p l o r a t o r y ahdhhave m e r e l y e n a b l e d researcher  to i d e n t i f y  e q u a l , a l a r g e r sample  g i v e a more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p i c t u r e o f t h e a s m a l l e r one.  However, the  of the i n f o r m a t i o n It  in  incremental  and  the  obtained.  one  must d e c i d e  w h i c h we  w h i c h f a c t o r s a r e more  are w i l l i n g  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of The  exceed  t h e n becomes a q u e s t i o n o f one's o b j e c t i v e s  a survey;  important  will  population  c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n u s i n g a l a r g e r s a m p l e may value  the  significant variables.  Other things being  than w i l l  with  most d i f f i c u l t  to  sacrifice.  Results  task i n the a p p l i c a t i o n  of  P r o j e c t i v e T e c h n i q u e s i n consumer a t t i t u d e s r e s e a r c h in  the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s .  r e s p o n s e s c a n n o t be c a n n o t be  taken  i n t e r p r e t e d d i r e c t l y b u t m u s t be i n t e r p r e t e d  when r e s p o n s e s a r e  literally  or should  l a t e n t or hidden  r e s p o n s e s may  of the  be  one  T h i s poses s e v e r a l problems.  studied, should  read  behind  i . e . , some u n u s u a l  taken  o f "a t e m p o r a r y  that  the  affective  f a c t o r s i n the immediate  subjects might generate  any  response.  there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y  a product  t h e y be  them t o r e c o v e r  s i g n i f i c a n c e s of the  Secondly,  state",  the  a t t h e i r face v a l u e , i . e . , they  s y m b o l i c a l l y or i n d i r e c t l y . First,  Most of  is  emotions or motives  past not  98  ordinarily  characteristic  o f these  persons  b u t w h i c h may  12 influence er  t e s t responses.  i s trying  sewing,  t o s t u d y women's a t t i t u d e s  a woman who h a s j u s t  a b o u t t h e way i t t u r n e d toward She  F o r example, i f the i n t e r v i e w -  home s e w i n g ,  sewn a f r o c k b u t i s u n h a p p y  o u t w o u l d show a n e g a t i v e  although  m i g h t be u n c o n s c i o u s  attitude.  normally  of this  she e n j o y s  has been noted  anything  about  state. that there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y  that the respondent might merely the contents  doing i t .  assume t h a t t h e r e s p o n s e s a r e 13  representative of her usual It  attitude  temporary change o f  I f the interviewer i snot told  t h e i n c i d e n t he w i l l  read.  t o w a r d s home  recall  a n d make u s e o f  o f a movie he h a s seen o r a book he h a s  I t i s argued  t h a t t h e a n s w e r s may n o t b e a r e f l e c -  t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s own a t t i t u d e s .  On t h e o t h e r  hand, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s t h e s u b j e c t has, make u s e o f .  he s e l e c t s c e r t a i n Thus t h e s e  o n e s t o remember a n d t o  s e l e c t i o n s do h a v e some p e r s o n a l  meanings. The using  these 12  interpretation techniques  Lindsey,  of the results  obtained i n  i s subjective i n nature  for i t  op_. c i t . , p . 1 6 3 .  13 This i s n o t s o l i ^ a matter o f b e l i e f ; there i s e x c e l l e n t e m p i r i c a l evidence demonstrating the c o - v a r i a t i o n o f Projective t e c h n i q u e s r e s p o n s e s w i t h a v a r i e t y o f s p e c i a l s t a t e s . ( C l a r k , 1 9 5 2 ; Crandale,1951; L i n d s e y and Herman, 1 9 5 5 ; L o r d , 1 9 5 5 ; P a t t i e , 1 9 5 4 ; S a n f o r d , 1 9 3 7 ; S h i p l e y and V e r o f f , 1952; S i n g e r , M e l t z o f f and Goldman,1952).  99  d e p e n d s h e a v i l y on As  such  the p e r s o n a l judgement of the a n a l y s t .  i t p r o v i d e s a g r e a t l e e w a y f o r t h e p r o j e c t i o n on  the p a r t of the i n t e r p r e t e r h i m s e l f . t h a t the data i s handled and  skillful  thoroughly  someone a d e q u a t e l y  enough t o e v a l u a t e the d a t a .  f a m i l i a r with these  c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s i g h t and attempts  by  t o d r a w any  made t o c r o s s - c h e c k the survey.  I t i s essential  t e s t s and  experience  conclusions.  must  should  have  Attempts should  the r e s u l t s at v a r i o u s stages  At  l e a s t two  should  i n t e r p r e t t h e d a t a s e p a r a t e l y and  one  research analysts then  compare  s h o u l d be v e r y c a r e f u l b e f o r e m a k i n g  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s from the r e s u l t s of p a r t i c u l a r on c o n s u m e r a t t i t u d e s u s i n g p r o j e c t i v e These responses  under a unique s e t of  t h e r e s u l t s may  n o t be  any  surveys  techniques.  a r e drawn from a sample, a t a  t i m e , p l a c e , and  particular  circumstances  a p p l i c a b l e under another  set  circumstances. I n t e r p r e t e r s of the data obtained  use  of  results. One  of  he  be  A number o f i n t e r v i e w e r s r a t h e r t h a n  s h o u l d be u s e d .  and  be  w i t h them b e f o r e  o r two  the  He  trained  of p r o j e c t i v e techniques  through  i n consumer a t t i t u d e  s h o u l d b e a r i n m i n d t h a t " a t t i t u d e s " c a n n o t be  the research  measured  precisely,  i . e . , i t i s almost  impossible to give  meaningful  number o r f i g u r e t o s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s an  a b s t r a c t i o n or i n f e r e n c e from v e r b a l expressions observable  behavior.  a  or  What t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i s i n t e r e s t e d  100  in  i s the  d i r e c t i o n of the  the motives u n d e r l y i n g w a n t t o know t h e not  a definite  the  attitudes.  intensity  and  degrees of l i k i n g ment o f t h e  a t t i t u d e and,  of the  or d i s l i k i n g ,  attitude  s t r e n g t h of the  but  may  although t h e number  a relative  attitude. as  important,  P e r h a p s he  p r e c i s e f i g u r e s u c h as  methods perhaps would s e r v e this  most  The  of  measure-  scaling  a better tool  to  obtain  information.  Standardization Many p s y c h o l o g i s t s w o u l d a g r e e t h a t one  of  the  g r e a t e s t d e f i c i e n c i e s of p r o j e c t i v e techniques  the  l a c k of normative data,  o b j e c t i v e norms f o r v a r i o u s t o age,  socio-economic data,  levels,  etd.  interpreter in  Since  there  deal  results. on  the  and  Evaluation skill  and  s t a t u s , sex,  are  no  This  of the  restricts  techniques  t o t h o s e who  some  according  educational  standards f o r is little  data  the  objectivity  are  depends a  experience  the use  by  of  great  the  of the p r o j e c t i v e  properly  means t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d comparable.  be  c o n s i s t e n t i n t e r p r e t i n g . " o f of  clinical  examiner.  should  groups, c l a s s i f i e d  t o depend upon, t h e r e  scoring, analysing  the  i . e . , there  is  qualified.  I t also  different interpreters  may  n o t be  the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . / , of. t h e r e s u l t s c i s f . o f t e n . - a s ^ u n s t r u c t u r e d  for  the  e x a m i n e r as  the  Furthermore, i t implies  stimuli  are f o r the  that  respondent.  14  101  and  i s subject  to the t h e o r e t i c a l b i a s , perceptions  and  idiosyncrasies of the analyst. The u s u a l . s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n  procedures of mental  t e s t s have n o t been s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e d methods.  As H e l e n S a r g e n t o b s e r v e s , i t i s t h e c o n f i g -  uration of factors present rather quantity  than the independent  of each f a c t o r t h a t d e s c r i b e s  Broad experience of the p s y c h o l o g i s t s statistical for  using  to projective  reliable  these  the personality. rather  norms i s t h e n e c e s s a r y  than prerequisite  procedures. ^ 1  These i n s t r u m e n t s a r e n o t a d e q u a t e l y ized with As  respect  Anastasi  t o b o t h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s c o r i n g .  has noted,"There i s evidence t h a t  subtle d i f f e r e n c e s i n the phrasing and  i n examiner - subject  alter  standard-  even  of verbal i n s t r u c t i o n s  r e l a t i o n s h i p s can  appreciably  p e r f o r m a n c e on c e r t a i n p r o j e c t i v e t e s t s . ""^  Anne A n a s t a s i , P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t i n g , (New Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n Company, 1 9 5 4 ) , p . 6 2 3 . 15 Helen Sargent, " P r o j e c t i v e Methods; Their O r i g i n s , T h e o r y , and A p p l i c a t i o n i n P e r s o n a l i t y R e s e a r c h , " P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , V o l . 4 2 , No. 5, (May 1 9 4 5 ) , p . 2 7 5 . 16  Anastasi,  op. c i t . , p. 623.  102  Ethical  Problems  I n many i n s t a n c e s , p r o j e c t i v e  techniques  b e e n a b l e t o p r o b e b e l o w t h e s u r f a c e and i n f o r m a t i o n which public.  This raises  g a t o r has  attitudes.  would not expose t o  the q u e s t i o n whether the  i t f o r the purpose  h i s emotional problems. not understand  they are used  people's  should not f o r g e t that these to study p e r s o n a l i t y .  on h i m ,  he  Even though the  o f more d i r e c t  . "• 1  trusts  behind  the c l i n i c i a n  techniques.  t h e s e when and  knows  T h i s i s not the  i n v e s t i g a t o r uses  o p i n i o n s and  with  individual  these  t o g e t a t a t t i t u d e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who to indulge their  techniques  of h e l p i n g the i n d i v i d u a l  t h a t he h a s h i s i n t e r e s t a t h e a r t . when t h e m a r k e t i n g  their  Clinicians  o r know t h e p u r p o s e  attitudes  the  investi-  t o r e c e i v e them i n o r d e r t o g e t a t  One  were d e v e l o p e d  may  to obtain  the r i g h t t o i n v e s t i g a t e o t h e r  a t t i t u d e s and  used  the respondent  have  case  techniques are  through  unwilling the  Does he h a v e t h e r i g h t  use to  17 pry i n t o the p r i v a t e world of the s u b j e c t d i s g u i s e d methods t h a t the l a t t e r going  through  such  i s unaware of what i s  on?  For a d i s c u s s i o n of these e t h i c a l i s s u e s i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l s e e , I r v i n g R. W e s c h l e r , " P r o b l e m s i n t h e Use o f I n d i r e c t M e t h o d s o f A t t i t u d e M e a s u r e m e n t , " P u b l i c O p i n i o n Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 15, ( S p r i n g 1 9 5 1 ) , p pp. 133-138.  103  Reliability The  reliability  and V a l i d i t y  of a test refers  c o n s i s t e n c y i n measurement.  to i t s  A t e s t or measuring  device  18 is  reliable  i f i t g i v e s t h e same r e s u l t s  when a p p l i e d 19  at  d i f f e r e n t times T  n  e  o r when a p p l i e d b y d i f f e r e n t  validity  persons.  o f a t e s t c a n be d e f i n e d a s t h e  e x t e n t t o w h i c h a t e s t measures what i t h a s been to  measure.  consistently for  A thermometer i s s a i d  t o be r e l i a b l e  I t i svalid  a n d n o t some o t h e r f a c t o r  said  repeated valid  t o be r e l i a b l e  i f i t measures  l i k e blood  A p r o j e c t i v e t e s t used t o study be  i f i t  a n d a c c u r a t e l y g i v e s t h e same m e a s u r e m e n t  t h e same s e t o f c o n d i t i o n s .  temperature  designed  pressure.  a t t i t u d e s can  i fi t gives similar results  u n d e r t h e same c o n d i t i o n s .  i f i t does i n f a c t measure  I t i s said  when  t o be  attitudes.  T h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n t r o v e r s y on t h e reliability  and v a l i d i t y  C r i t i c s maintain of r e l i a b i l i t y  of projective  t h a t these  and v a l i d i t y  techniques.  t e s t s do n o t m e e t t h e s t a n d a r d s s e t aside f o r psychological  18 By t h e same r e s u l t s we do n o t mean 100 p e r c e n t consistency. S i n c e chance e r r o r s a r e always present i n any t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n , a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t o f 1.00 is not possible. 19 Steuart Rice reported that the a t t i t u d e s of the i n t e r v i e w e r s , ( w h o were s o c i a l w o r k e r s engaged i n i n t e r v i e w i n g h o m e l e s s men a p p l y i n g f o r f r e e l o d g i n g ) a f f e c t e d t h e i r b e h a v i o r i n f i l l i n g o u t the forms although a standa r d i z e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was u s e d . S e e S.H. B r i t t , " F o u r H a z a r d s o f M o t i v a t i o n R e s e a r c h a n d How t o A v o i d Them," P r i n t e r s ' I n k , V o l . 2, ( J u n e 1 9 5 5 ) , p p . 4 0 - 4 8 .  104  tests. the  The l a c k  need f o r s t a n d a r d i z e d  analysis the  o f an o b j e c t i v e  methods o f  administration,  a n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s a r e some o f  factors  t h a t make i t n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e t e s t t o b e  handled by a s k i l l e d psychologists validity  system o f s c o r i n g ,  and w e l l - t r a i n e d  clinician.  Some  a r e s k e p t i c a l o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and  of these t e s t s .  Many h a v e t r i e d  weaknesses o f t h e s e methods by u s i n g  to point  checks that  to the  have 20  t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n u s e d on o t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y Besides the disadvantages of using t o measure t h e r e l i a b i l i t y ogical  projective fications.  out that  these  and a c c u r a c y o f any  t e s t , some p r o p o n e n t s o f p r o j e c t i v e  have p o i n t e d  tests.  psychol-  techniques  t h e y s h o u l d n o t be u s e d i n t e s t i n g  t e c h n i q u e s ; a t l e a s t , n o t w i t h o u t some m o d i As i t h a s been p o i n t e d  out,  "projective  t e c h n i q u e s have been d e v e l o p e d from a c l i m a t e so r a d i c a l a n d d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t w h i c h made other personality validity  tools  assessment procedure that  and r e l i a b i l i t y The u s u a l  of  opinion  possible  their  c a n n e v e r be e s t a b l i s h e d i n  checks proposed t o t e s t  reliability  have been: 1, s p l i t - h a l f t e c h n i q u e . 2, c o r r e l a t i o n e i t h e r b e t w e e n r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e same t e s t o r between a l t e r n a t e forms, 3, c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n j u d g e s a n d i n t e r p r e t e r s . The m e t h o d s f r e q u e n t l y u s e d f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g v a l i d i t y a r e : 1. c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h o t h e r c r i t e r i a . 2. i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . 3. p r e d i c t i v e s u c c e s s . For  d e t a i l s s e e H e l e n S a r g e n t , op_. c i t . , p p . 2 5 7 - 2 8 3 .  105  the  same w a y s .  Relevance i n Marketing Research In are of the  the f i e l d  of marketing research again there  d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s on t h e r e l i a b i l i t y projective  techniques.  and v a l i d i t y  Some h a v e s t r o n g l y a t t a c h e d  u s e o f t h e s e methods i n m a r k e t i n g r e s e a r c h by d r a w i n g  o u r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t some p s y c h o l o g i s t s  them-  selves are s t i l l  They  skeptical  of using these t e s t s .  c i t e many e x p e r i m e n t s t h a t h a v e b e e n c o n d u c t e d a n d h a v e been documented i n t h e s c i e n t i f i c  l i t e r a t u r e which  t h a t these t e c h n i q u e s have s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s , d i a g n o s t i c purposes. failures  they have  i n the use of the Rorschach i n k b l o t  selecting clinical  F o r example,  successful  trainee pilots,  p s y c h o l o g i s t s would  licensing,  indicate  even f o r  cited test f o r  f o rpredicting  which  g r a d u a t e and pass t h e  and f o r p r e d i c t i n g w h i c h m e n t a l p a t i e n t s  would  22 c o n t i n u e t o undergo  treatment.  L . E . A b t , "A T h e o r y o f P r o j e c t i v e P s y c h o l o g y , " P r o j e c t i v e P s y c h o l o g y , L a w r e n c e E. A b t a n d L e p o l d B e l l a k ( E d . ) , (New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , I n c . , 1 9 5 0 ) , p. 2 2 1 . 22 For example see Z u b i n , " F a i l u r e s o f t h e Rorschach T e c h n i q u e s , " J o u r n a l o f P r o j e c t i v e s , V o l . 18, ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 5 4 ) , p p . 3 0 3 - 3 1 5 ; W.H. H o l i z m a n a n d S.B. S e l l s , " P r e d i c i t i o n and F l y i n g S u c c e s s by C l i n i c a l A n a l y s i s o f T e s t P r o t o c o l s , " J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , V o l . 49, ( O c t o b e r 1954), pp. 485-490.  106  But  other marketing  r e s e a r c h e r s have  t h a t these f a i l u r e s have l i t t l e  relevance  observed  i n marketing  research.  For example, the q u e s t i o n of v a l i d i t y  o f any  instrument  m u s t t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e p u r p o s e io  which i t i s put, i . e . the c o r r e c t question i s not to ask,  "Is this  valid  technique  v a l i d ? " but "Is t h i s  f o r s t u d y i n g consumer a t t i t u d e s ? "  unsuccessful experiments techniques In  refer  u s i n g these  to their  t e s t s enable  Many o f t h e projective  to predict behavior. researcher should  or b e t t e r than  Many o f t h e s e simplified  any a l t e r n a t i v e  t o a g r e a t e x t e n t by m a r k e t i n g  ambitious  than  do  method.  t e s t s have been m o d i f i e d  the purpose i n u s i n g these  con-  him t o o b t a i n the  o f d a t a he i s l o o k i n g f o r and w h e t h e r i t w i l l  so as w e l l  and  failure  tests a marketing  s i d e r whether these type  i n the use of  technique  and  researchers,  t o o l s has been  t h a t of the p s y c h o l o g i s t s .  less  Moreover,  they have n o t been the s o l e b a s i s o f o b t a i n i n g d a t a i n any s u r v e y . other  They a r e o f t e n u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h  techniques. M o r e r e s e a r c h h a s t o be done b e f o r e  justify  one's c r i t i c i s m s  of these more t h a n field  projective  techniques.  just citing  of psychology.  out i n the f i e l d  of the r e l i a b i l i t y  failures  and  validity  By r e s e a r c h i s m e a n t of these  Experiments  of marketing  one c a n  tests i n the  have t o be  research  carried  itself.  107  Summary T h i s c h a p t e r has endeavored of  the weaknesses of  the problems its  extreme  design of  the  involved  in using  flexibility in  the  collected.  projective  to bring  techniques.  a s y s t e m a t i c method  terms of  the  of  of  of  structure of  the is  or data  in  t h e a n a l y s i s and t h e l a c k  procedure  for  of  interpretating  the r e s u l t s .  C o n c l u s i o n s drawn depend v e r y  on t h e  e x p e r i e n c e and j u d g e m e n t o f  skill,  Many  the most s e r i o u s problem  subjective nature  some  the t e s t s stem from  t e s t and t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  Perhaps  out  heavily  the  investigator. The r e s e a r c h e r carefully use of  pre-testing  them.  should  take the p r e c a u t i o n  these instruments  Moreover,  he s h o u l d  try  before  he makes  to v a l i d a t e  r e s u l t s b y c r o s s - c h e c k i n g them w i t h o t h e r  of  his  techniques.  108  CHAPTER V I I SUMMARY AND  Projective psychological  CONCLUSIONS  t e c h n i q u e s r e f e r t o a group o f  tests that  originated  as a r e v o l t  the  rigid  framework w h i c h grew up around m e n t a l  The  t e s t s t h a t were examined were t h e word  R o r s c h a c h i n k b l o t , TAT, p i c t u r e  against testing.  association,  f r u s t r a t i o n and r o l e  playing techniques. Although Frank d i d not develop these himself, of  h i s g r e a t emphasis  personality  tools  on t h e i r u s e i n t h e s t u d y  aroused a considerable  and i n t e r e s t among p s y c h o l o g i s t s ,  amount o f a t t e n t i o n  especially  clinical  psychologists. A l m o s t any t e c h n i q u e c a n be c a l l e d a p r o j e c t i v e technique i f i t involves ambiguous s t i m u l u s construct  some m e a n i n g f r o m i t .  this will  away f r o m t h e i d e a in the  The p u r p o s e  that  t o be s o l v e d .  draw t h e s u b j e c t ' s  respondent w i l l unconsciously project attitudes  appear It i s  attention  the investigator i s interested  f i n d i n g out h i s attitudes or f e e l i n g s .  feelings,  of these  t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t and t h e y  t h e f o r m o f games o r p r o b l e m s  assumed t h a t  o f an  t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t , who i s a s k e d t o  tests i s not revealed in  the presentation  Hopefully, h i s own  and m o t i v e s i n t o t h e p i c t u r e .  109  The s u c c e s s of p r o j e c t i o n . jection  o f t h e s e methods l i e s  I t i s recognized  as i t r e l a t e s  i n the  that the idea of pro-  to p r o j e c t i v e techniques  broadened t o i n c l u d e not o n l y the Freudian e x t e r n a l i z a t i o n of impulses like  process  unacceptable  has been  concept - the  to  agencies  t h e ego and s u p e r e g o - b u t a l s o t o c o n s c i o u s ,  unrepressed,  acceptable  or even admirable  traits,  attitudes,  m o t i v e s and v a l u e s . Projective many f i e l d s b e s i d e s ling,  therapy,  techniques  techniques clinical  social  h a v e f o u n d t h e i r way i n  psychology,  e.g. c o u n s e l -  s c i e n c e s and m a r k e t i n g .  These  were i n t r o d u c e d i n consumer r e s e a r c h  a f t e r W o r l d War  I I , when i t was r e a l i z e d  shortly  that the  c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s e a r c h methods were n o t a d e q u a t e t o d e a l with  t h e i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x p r o b l e m s on c o n s u m e r  A group of researchers turned the  social  research. for  to other f i e l d s  behavior.  especially  s c i e n c e s and w e r e e n g a g e d i n m o t i v a t i o n More a n d more r e s e a r c h e r s w e r e a t t r a c t e d  to i t  i t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h more g l a m o r o u s a n d  sophisticated clung  tools.  Y e t , t h e r e w e r e o t h e r s who  still  t o the t r a d i t i o n a l methods, unconvinced o f the  validity  of these  psychological instruments.  They  p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e s e methods were t o o s u b j e c t i v e i n nature readily  and d i d n o t meet s t a t i s t i c a l and e a s i l y .  and s c i e n t i f i c  Much o f t h e c r i t i c i s m s  b e c a u s e t o o much was e x p e c t e d  of these  tests  arose  techniques.  It  110  s h o u l d be  e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e y a r e o n l y one  t o o l s t h a t are used i n consumer r e s e a r c h . developed to  not  barrelled tative  B r i t t u r g e s the use  technique."  and  the  Marketing enough t o use found  these  The  o b t a i n consumers* d e l i c a t e matter,  useful,  especially  the  o t h e r way  respondents.  of  1  provides  each serves  as  Not  have  i f not necessary,  o f a t t i t u d e s i s one  social connotations.  seems no  get  have been i n n o v a t i v e  a t t i t u d e s on a l m o s t  a stranger trying  "double-  of q u a n t i -  t o o l s i n consumer s u r v e y s  study  but  other.  r e s e a r c h e r s who  them e x t r e m e l y  problems.  'why  Each r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e  i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e o t h e r d o e s n o t , and on  of the  Both are needed t o  a s c o m p l e t e a p i c t u r e as p o s s i b l e t o t h e consumer b e h a v i o r .  techniques,  This i s a combination  1  q u a l i t a t i v e methods.  a cross-check  They were  so much t o r e p l a c e e x i s t i n g  s u p p l e m e n t them.  of the s e v e r a l  f o r some  example.  anything i s a  i f i t involves personal  many p e o p l e  to pry i n t o t h e i r  To  like  the i d e a  thoughts.  o f g e t t i n g a t them e x c e p t  Yet by  or of there  asking  2  There are  two  ways o f o b t a i n i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n .  S t e u a r t B r i t t , "Why I t ' s B e s t t o Use 'Combin a t i o n ' R e s e a r c h , " P r i n t e r s ' I n k , V o l . 2 4 9 , ( O c t o b e r 1954),  p p . 60-66. 2  One c o u l d come t o some c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t an i n d i v i d u a l s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s a p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t by o b s e r v i n g h i s b e h a v i o r t o w a r d s i t . T h i s means, h o w e v e r , t h a t one w o u l d h a v e t o o b s e r v e h i m f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h of time which i s i m p r a c t i c a l .  Ill  (1)  By  ask  him  assuming t h a t the directly.  w h e t h e r he  has  But  distorts  the  indirectly  the  his f u l l  wardly cooperative,  but  unconsciously.  i n v e s t i g a t o r i s never c e r t a i n f o r he  may  be  To  him  approach the  to r e v e a l the  P r o j e c t i v e techniques  These i n s t r u m e n t s  extreme approaches. standardized limited  and  attitudes  have  several  One  f i n d s the  rigid,  the very  h a n d , and  on  extremely  information  the  other  informal, t o t a l l y unstructured,  there  t o be  There are  be  t o enable the tests  is  so  a r e by  no  means p e r f e c t  many p r o b l e m s t h a t h a v e  i n the  area  More e m p i r i c a l of  test  i n v e s t i g a t o r t o d e v e l o p and  t h a t they are  studied.  i n the  of the  still  c a r r i e d out  type of i n f o r m a t i o n being  techniques  overcome or a t l e a s t m i n i m i z e d .  work s h o u l d  but  irrelevant.  Projective instruments.  is  open-ended,  i n t e r v i e w s , which r e v e a l i n t e r e s t i n g information much o f w h i c h i s  two  structured,  methods w h i c h are  i n o b t a i n i n g c e r t a i n types of one  this  l i e somewhere b e t w e e n t h e  conventional  f r o m c o n s u m e r s , on  out-  subject  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h seem c a p a b l e o f a c h i e v i n g aim.  and  i n f a c t r e s o r t s to c l i c h e s or (2)  to get  w i l l cooperate  cooperation,  answers.  and  interviewee  modify  the  satisfactory in eliciting  the  t h a t i s r e l a t e d to the  Another area  t h a t needs  objective scoring, analysing  responses.  Yet  design  i t is difficult  situation  experimentation and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o s e t any  rules  112  of  thumb b e c a u s e no  two  Moreover, i n d e a l i n g concerned with  with  the  identical.  c o n s u m e r b e h a v i o r we  a c o m p l e x and  W e s c h l e r comments on noting:  s i t u a t i o n s are  d y n a m i c phenomena.  future  and  i t i s worth  " I n d i r e c t methods o f a t t i t u d e measurement  have e s t a b l i s h e d  t h e m s e l v e s as u s e f u l and  t o o l s , but  status  the  are  their  type of r e s e a r c h  and  development depend upon  which w i l l  rather  than o r i g i n a l i t y ,  rather  than i n g e n u i t y  of  and  provocative  s t r e s s methodology  scientific 3 design."  technique  I r v i n g R. W e s c h l e r , " P r o b l e m s i n t h e Use I n d i r e c t Methods of A t t i t u d e Measurement," P u b l i c O p i n i o n Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 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