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Personnel management information systems Morrison, Keith Ian 1968

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PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS b y KEITH IAN MORRISON B.A.Sc., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 5 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION in the ."Faculty of COMMERCE AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION We accept th i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. A p r i l 1 9 6 8 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced deg ree a t t he U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I ag ree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y pu rposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f 3US/A/£SS AW/A/ZSTRAT/OAS The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia Vancouve r 8, Canada Date i A B S T R A C T In May of 1967, Dr. L. P. .Moore of the Faculty of Com-merce and Business Administration at UBC received a grant from the I n s t i t u t e of In d u s t r i a l Relation^, i n order to undertake a research study into the "Development of an Integrated Data Bank f o r Manpower Management and Research." In part, he stated that " I t would appear that much of the data obtained on •employee record form may be made suitable f o r com-puter storage, r e t r i e v a l and analysis. In addition, much of t h i s data i s usable i n multiple areas of analysis and research." This thesis, "Personnel Management Information Systems" cl o s e l y p a r a l l e l s the work of Dr. Moore, as the writer worked fo r him during the summer of 1967 i n the capacity of a research assistant. The content of the thesis to a very large extent represents the work done fo r Dr. Moore, and i s an attempt to lay much of the groundwork i n what l s eventually to become a more detailed and comprehensive study. The main problems dealt with i n t h i s thesis are f o u r f o l d . The i n i t i a l problem was to ascertain the basic functions of the personnel department i n terms of procedures, records and forms employed, information flows etc. and to determine if these func-tions could be c e n t r a l l y integrated through the use of a manpo- / wer data bank. A further area examined.was.the f e a s i b i l i t y or p r a c t i c a b i l i t y , i n terms of advantages and l i m i t a t i o n s , inherent i i i n the concept c f computerizing personnel records'. Th3 t h i r d problem i n v o l v e d d e f i n i t i o n of some of the procedures and methods which are p r e r e q u i s i t e to the i n s t a l l a t i o n of a man-power data ban*;. The f o u r t h problem was met i n a s c e r t a i n i n g the extent to which such i n s t a l l a t i o n s are p r e s e n t l y employed by c o r p o r a t i o n s . As the concept of personnel management in f o r m a t i o n sys-tems i s r e l a t i v e l y new, l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e from the l i t e r a t u r e . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n therefore was c a r r i e d out through the f o l l o w i n g procedures: personal i n t e r v i e w s w i t h f i r m s i n Vancouver; correspondence w i t h l a r g e Canadian and U.S. Corporations and the United States government; a review of recent p e r i o d i c a l s covering the Personnel f u n c t i o n ; and from o c c a s i o n a l papers covering t h i s aspect of computer a p p l i -c a t i o n s . Several conclusions were reached as a r e s u l t of t h i s study. In view of the many forms, procedures and voluminous amounts of data, i t was concluded t h a t the personnel depart-ment f u n c t i o n s can and should be adapted to computerization through the c r e a t i o n of a manpower data bank. The u n l i m i t e d p o t e n t i a l of such a system i s obvious i n l i g h t of the many f u n c t i o n s i t can perform. There may be disadvantages f o r cer t a i n f i r m s to implement a system of t h i s nature, but on the whole the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The systems a n a l y s i s approach to the problem of determining procedures to take i n implementing the system was Judged the best technique i i i to follow. At the present time, computerized personnel records are "being employed by many large corporations, with varying de-grees of success. Many systems were i n i t i a l l y designed with a l i m i t e d purpose In mind and do not resemble the integrated manpower data bank as presented i n t h i s thesis. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE 1 INTRODUCTION 1 II PRESENT EXTENT OP UTILIZATION OE PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT .INFORMATION SYSTEMS 6 Information Gathered from Personal Interviews 6 Mailed Responses 10 Results of Surveys 20 Other EDP Techniques 24 III. THE PERSONNEL FUNCTION AND THE SYSTEMS ' ANALYSIS APPROACH 30 Introduction 30 Functions of the Personnel Department . 32 Administrative Factors 36 The Systems Analysis Approach 39 IV DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODEL - INPUT 44 Data Determinants 44 Coding Procedures 47 Data Storage and Information Flows 50 V THE MODEL OUTPUT. - REPORTING, RESEARCH, '64 AND ANALYSIS PROGRAMS Introduction 64 Subroutines to U t i l i z e Data 65 Output and the Personnel Functions 69 VI ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS INHERENT ?6 • IN THE PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM CONCEPT Introduction 76 Advantages of the PMIS 77 Limitations of EDP i n the Personnel Department 92 VII THE FUTURE FOR SD? IN PERSONNEL WORK 97 Technological Factors 97 E f f e c t upon Management 98 VIII CONCLUSIONS 105 V BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX 0 APPENDIX D APPENDIX E APPENDIX ? Personnel Management Information System -• Information Flows (included i n pocket i n rear) P o s s i b l e Data f o r the Manpower Data Bank Manpower Data Bank Codes Some Examples of Input Card. Layout Examples of Types c f Manpower Records Employed Examples of Types of Tioutine Report-i n g and Research and A n a l y s i s Sub-r o u t i n e s PAGE 1 0 8 1 1 4 115 1 1 8 1 26 1 2 7 1 29 v i LIST OP FIGURES FIGUSE PAGE 1 The Systems A n a l y s i s Procedure 40 2 A C e n t r a l i z e d Real-Time Data 52 Pr o c e s s i n g System 3 PMIS R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and Information Flows 56 4 Updating the Master F i l e 59 5 PMIS Output 61 6 A Subroutine Procedure i n D e c i s i o n 67 _ T a b l e Form 7 A S k i l l s Inventory Procedure 73 C H A P T E R I . INTRODUCTION The personnel system may be conceptualized as that por-t i o n of the c o r p o r a t i o n which i s d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h the in f o r m a t i o n , d e c i s i o n s , and a c t i o n s necessary to ensure the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the r i g h t people at the r i g h t time and place to operate, maintain and support the f u n c t i o n s of the c o r p o r a t i o n i n a maximally e f f e c t i v e manner. In other words, i t s primary go a l i s to provide and maintain an a p p r o p r i a t e l y s k i l l e d work-ing f o r c e . The achievement of t h i s goal r e q u i r e s t h a t the f i r m maintain t i m e l y , meaningful, and comprehensive data per-t a i n i n g to i t s employees. • Since the advent of the computer, many f u n c t i o n a l areas of the f i r m have begun to look to ED? ( E l e c t r o n i c Data Process-ing) as a source of new and b e t t e r methods to conduct t h e i r day to.day operations. The personnel department i s no exception. I t has been said t h a t : "Many companies have used the computer to develop extensive personnel records f o r s p e c i f i c purposes. In most companies, the f i r s t a p p l i c a t i o n of EDP to personnel work i s u s u a l l y merely an extension of some record-keepIng system that has fo r m e r l y been handled manually. But v/ith growing exper-ience i n the use of the computer wholly new approaches are developed, broadly expanding the scope of data a v a i l a b l e f o r b e t t e r personnel d e c i s i o n s . " This i n v e s t i g a t i o n Into the use of EDP f o r personnel 2 work was prompted by the b e l i e f that at the present time, even though EDP has been implemented on a piece-meal basis i n the personnel departments of many firms, there was a general lack of information available on the subject. This f a c t , along with the apparent lack of integration of personnel functions i n e x i s t i n g personnel EDP applications indicated that t h i s area should be studied i n d e t a i l . Some ex i s t i n g systems are discussed i n the following chapter and as such document the premises of t h i s paragraph* The purpose of thi s thesis therefore i s to present a comprehensive picture of how a computerized personnel system should be considered f o r implementation into corporate a c t i v -i t i e s . In essence, by speaking of an integrated system, an attempt i s made i n t h i s paper to consider the many personnel functions using computer f a c i l i t i e s as a common f o c a l point. The l i m i t a t i o n s of the scope of t h i s work must be con-sidered. This paper, i n attempting'to present a "proper" computerized personnel system, i s i n r e a l i t y describing an " i d e a l i s t i c " system. The many constraints on the average corporation, (e.g. economic resources and manpower a v a i l a b i l i t y are two) i n r e a l i t y may pr o h i b i t complete implementation of the system. Nevertheless such an I d e a l i s t i c system w i l l s t i l l h i g h l i g h t many of the achievable goals of EDP personnel a p p l i -cations. As computer applications are r e l a t i v e l y new, they have 3 brought w i t h them a new vocabulary. Some of these new terms are defined as f e l l o w s : 1« Data bank - a c o l l e c t i o n of f a c t s , numbers l e t t e r s , and symbols., or f a c t s that r e f e r to or describe an o b j e c t , Idea, c o n d i t i o n , s i t u a t i o n , or other f a c t o r s , placed upon computer storage media such as magnetic tape, drum, or d i s c , and made a c c e s s i b l e to the com-puter's c o n t r o l devices through v a r i o u s Input/output procedures. 2. ESP - E l e c t r o n i c data p r o c e s s i n g . Data processing I s any oper a t i o n or combination of operations on data . 1 to achieve a d e s i r e d r e s u l t . 3. Hardware - a c o l l o q u i a l i s m a p p l i e d to the mechanical, e l e c t r i c a l , and e l e c t r o n i c f e a t u r e s of a data process-i n g system. 4. R e a l time - the processing of data d e r i v e d from a p a r t i c u l a r o p e r a t i o n i n a s u f f i c i e n t l y r a p i d manner t h a t the r e s u l t s of the processing are a v a i l a b l e i n time to i n f l u e n c e the contin u i n g o p e r a t i o n . 3. Software - the programs and r o u t i n e s used to extend the c a p a b i l i t i e s of computers, In computer and pro-grammer language, a l s o a l l documents associated w i t h a computer such as manuals and c i r c u i t diagrams. 4 6. Subroutine - a subset of a computer routine, usually a' short sequence of instructions designed to solve a specified part of a problem. 7. System - consists of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of per-sonnel, equipment, forms, records, information flows and other f a c i l i t i e s Involved i n accomplishing certain objectives of an organization. 8. Time Sharing - multiple use of a single central pro-cessor where r e s u l t s are generally received in' r e a l time. The user inte r r e a c t s with the computer. Various procedures were employed i n gathering informa-t i o n f o r the content of this t h e s i s . I n i t i a l l y , interviews-were held with Vancouver firms, and while many displayed an Interest i n the topic only three were able to o f f e r assistance. These were: MacMillan Bloedel Ltd., Eatons of Canada, and International Business Machines. Letters were sent to many firms i n Eastern Canada and the United States i n q u i r i n g Into t h e i r use of EDP i n the personnel function. In addition, correspondence with the United States Government's C i v i l Service proved very f r u i t f u l . Personnel and management pe r i o d i c a l s were examined closely f o r comments cn EDP and per-sonnel. Prom an examination of the various duties of the personnel department a model was devised to explain the informa-t i o n flows within the .pe.r,'s.Qnael network... Prom these sources "; ;j ' • ,i i; p, ^  I: ' ^  •' 1' the integrated Personnel Management Information System (PMIS) was devised. .5 In this thesis, the i n i t i a l analysis of Chapter II examines the present state of the art , looking at those cor-porations and other organizations which at the present timo employ EDP procedures for improved manpower management. •Chapter III examines the manpower management functions througi: the systems analysis approach, looking at the interdependencies and information flows. Chapter IV deals with the development of input Information for the model, while Chapter V deals with the output elements of the system, the routine reports and research and analysis procedures which may be employed to u t i l i z e the manpower data available. The advantages and l im-itations inherent in personnel management information systems are dealt with in Chapter VI. Chapter VII considers some of the future developments which have been foreseen for computers in general and personnel EDP applications in part icular . Chapter VIII summarizes the ma3or findings of the paper and suggests areas for future endeavour in this f i e l d . 1 Richard T. Bueschel, "How EDP Is Improving the Personnel Function, 1 1 Personnel (Sept-Oct 1964) p., 60. 6 C H A P T E R II ' P R E S E N T EXTENT 0 3 ? UTILIZATION OP PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS The content, of the following three chapters indicates some goals to which Personnel Management Information Systems (PMIS) designers may s t r i v e . However, i n practice many of these goals are not presently being attained. This chapter i s intended to examine the extent to which EDP i s used i n per-sonnel, departments at the present time, and to comment on some of t h e i r applications. The data f o r t h i s chapter was gathered, from personal interviews, written correspondence, and a review of some p e r i o d i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . - . I . INFORMATION GATHERED FROM PERSONAL INTERVIEWS Forest P roquet s Comp any A l o c a l large f o r e s t products company has lust recently (1967) implemented an EDP system to aid t h e i r personnel depart-ment. As i t presently e x i s t s , i t contains data only on s a l -aried personnel. Using the proper systems analysis approach the company determined that i t wanted the system to aid i t s employee appraisal procedure and. to produce various personnel s t a t i s t i c s , and at the same, time become a S k i l l Inventory to aid i n the employee searc-h^i'o f i l l jb-b4.vacancies and f o r man-power planning. • Working";backwards.v the 'planners then designed the input information to meet these output needs. This f i r m found that f o r the proper success of the S k i l l s Inventory, both job p o s i t i o n and employee c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s had to be considered simultaneously so that future "matches" would have grounds f o r .comparison. The analysts discovered that data bank develop-ment and coding f o r the s k i l l s inventory presented serious problems but these were overcome. This firm has taken the i n i t i a l steps to become oriented toward the t o t a l Management Information System concept, and the ED? application to i t s personnel department i s a small but nevertheless important part. The Vancouver o f f i c e of a large nation-wide r e t a i l i n g concern, Eaton's of Canada i s at the present time implementing an Improved EDP system for t h e i r personnel department. Like the f o r e s t products company, t h i s firm has recently acquired an IBM Systems 360 computer which as a consequence allows f o r an Increased workload from the user departments. The r e t a i l f irm was thus expanding i t s employee f i l e to include more com-prehensive data on i t s personnel. While the designers were attempting to be comprehensive, they have apparently designed i t to be u t i l i z e d mainly for p a y r o l l work and to keep a record of the employees' sales a c t i v i t i e s . Erom the f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n Indicating the type of input data required on each employee i t does not appear that t h i s system could r e a d i l y adapt to employ many of the subroutines of Chapter V. Training, testing, pre-vious employment and special s k i l l s , data are not Included i n the fi3.es, although provision i s made for wage and performance 8 review data, S i m i l a r l y , almost a l l o f the computer" output r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y to p a y r o l l considerations and very l i t t l e -deals with personnel matters as such. Since much o f the work involved l / i the design of t h e i r model was supposedly done f o r i t s personnel department, the firm could have included much mere data In order to gain a better understanding of th e i r employees. Even though t h i s large r e t a i l i n g firm has several large d i v i s i o n s coast-to-coast, the personnel p a y r o l l systems were designed on a d i v i s i o n a l basis, rather than centralized through the company's Toronto head o f f i c e . This may prove costly i n the future i f the company at some point wishes to obtain the advantages of standardized procedures on a national basis, with the head o f f i c e c e n t r a l i z i n g t h i s function. .Business Systems Company The Vancouver d i v i s i o n of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l computer and business machines and systems company, IBM, aided i n the study. This firm has i n operation a p a r t i a l l y integrated personnel data system whereby information on each employee i s c e n t r a l l y stored at the firm's Canadian Head O f f i c e i n Toronto. Informa-t i o n stored i n the system includes data a r i s i n g from the selec-t i o n process, employment history with .the 'firm, records of the education or t r a i n i n g completed while 'with the company, and educational background to name a few. At the time of writing the p r i n c i p a l use of t h i s system was f o r the recording and con-t r o l of changes i n information about i n d i v i d u a l employees, and Q i n producing various summarized reports. Many other uses are possible since the data sheet i s properly designed to allow for new-output .reports to be .implemented as required. In f a c t the scope of the system w i l l be broadened i n the future. Personnel research at the present time Is li m i t e d to the use of a continuing employee opinion survey program. The re s u l t s of t h i s program are used to a s s i s t t h e i r organizational planning procedures* This work i s completely independent from the Personnel Data system but requires computer f a c i l i t i e s to analyze the r e s u l t e . Through the f a c i l i t i e s of the Personnel Data System, t h i s firm i s involved i n a continuing evaluation of the v a l i d -1 Ity of i t s personnel selection and placement operation. This EDP personnel system i s integrated with the p a y r o l l f a c i l i t i e s to a certa i n degree. Computer printouts of the Employee Pro-f i l e are produced and f i l e d in the head o f f i c e while copies are sent to the appropriate d i v i s i o n s . An updated and com-plete f i l e i s held on the employee at a l l times. Vfhile the corporation i s decentralised geographically i t at the present time does not employ terminals f o r personnel work, pr e f e r r i n g at t h i s time to communicate throiigh the mails. These aforementioned-; firms represent companies within the Vancouver area who have completely or p a r t i a l l y employed EDP f o r use i n t h e i r personnel departments. In t o t a l , eight l o c a l companies were interviewed,, and while a l l firms employed 10 EDP i n some aspect of company operations, generally sales or p a y r o l l , only these three firiai' had i n s t a l l e d or -were i n s t a l l -ing personnel EDP systems. Two of the other companies were givin g some thought to i t , but at the present time p r i o r i t y •was being given to other aspects. The other three firms con-sidered themselves too small to advantageously employ EDP pro-cedures f o r t h e i r personnel work. Attention turns now to those companies and organization, which were contacted by mail f o r information regarding the status cf t h e i r personnel information systems. •II MAILED RESPONSES Automobile Manufacturing Company A. large Canadian automobile manufacturing company, Ford of. Canada, has computerized t h e i r personnel records without reference to outside data other than some reference to i t s parent U.S. company. Per many years It had used card type tabulating equipment to provide such items as s e n i o r i t y l i s t s , group insurance r e g i s t e r s , personnel rosters etc. It was not found practicable with the card equipment at Its disposal to provide Information such as t u r n o v e r . s t a t i s t i c s , personnel s e l e c t i o n data, etc. at the'present time. The firm i s at an embryo stage as f a r as the computerization of i t s personnel records i s concerned, and do not expect the new system to be operational u n t i l l a t e 1968. For the' company, the b a s i c o b j e c t i v e vas to f a c i l i t a t e the day to day record keeping i n a l a r g e I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s a c t i v i t y . The manpower planning and development c a p a b i l i t y of t h e i r system was r e c e i v i n g considerable thought and was i n -tended e v e n t u a l l y to be an important t o o l f o r personnel planning. Many questions put to t h i s f i r m could not be answered "because .at that time i t was i n a p e r i o d of change and the system o b j e c t i v e s were not yet c l a r i f i e d . However- the reasons f o r the changeover were l i s t e d as f o l l o w s ; . 1 . the d e s i r a b i l i t y of producing f o r management use per-sonnel data, i n greater d e t a i l , , more r e a d i l y than was c u r r e n t l y p o s s i b l e through the manual and machine methods. 2. the p a y r o l l system f o r both s a l a r i e d and h o u r l y per-sonnel had been c e n t r a l i z e d f o r a number of years and was now computerized. Using t h i s as a base and ex-panding the tape f i l e w i t h a l i m i t e d amount of a d d i -t i o n a l data i t was assumed the d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n could be secured. 3. as a company they had standard personnel procedures '•'applicable to all-company l o c a t i o n s , and t h i s enhanced the d e s i r a b i l i t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g c e n t r a l i z e d personnel records. 4 . the volume i n v o l v e d - approximately 4 , 0 0 0 s a l a r i e d and 11 ,000 hourly employees made i t economically 12 desirable to computerize. This firm concluded that: "the mechanization of our personnel records i s intended to take advantage of improved machine methods to elim-inate as much c l e r i c a l work as possible. I t i s not intended to reduce employees to a number where they lose t h e i r i d e n t i t y as i n d i v i d u a l s . We expect the system to be a better set of tools and provide manage-ment with information on t h e i r employees so that a better Job can be done for both the company and the i n d i v i d u a l . " d In the United States, considerable work has been done by at l e a s t several large organizations i n the development and operation of personnel management Information systems. Con-sideration at t h i s point i s given to some of these systems, then the r e s u l t s of three surveys undertaken i n the USA to determine the extent of EDP applications to personnel work are examined, concluding with an examination of how computerized personnel systems are being employed by agencies other than corporations to aid the Job seekers to meet the employee seekers. NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA.) the -organization responsible f o r the United States space f l i g h t program, has established a computerized Personnel Management Information System (P.KIS).. PMIS was established to provide NASA with a means f o r making special studies, f o r general management purposes, and to a s s i s t the agency i n responding to e x t e r n a l r e p o r t i n g requirements. E s s e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n about eacli NASA employee was gathered together, and channelled Into an agency-wide data base u t i l i z i n g EDP techinques. NASA f e l t t h a t they needed some c e n t r a l i z e d source of personnel, informa-t i o n s i n c e t h e i r management a c t i v i t i e s were d e c e n t r a l i z e d , w i t h both a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c a r r y i n g out per-sonnel operations delegated to the f i e l d i n s t a l l a t i o n l e v e l , ?MIS provided them w i t h the t o o l to c e n t r a l i z e and co n s o l i d a t e data on approximately 36,000 employees l o c a t e d i n ten l a r g e r e s e a r c h centers and a few smaller I n s t a l l a t i o n s w i t h i n the USA. Personnel operations of t h i s type of concern d i f f e r e d from those of a p r i v a t e company. One major d i f f e r e n c e was t h a t the e n t i r e p u b l i c system must operate w i t h i n a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i s e d code of laws and r e g u l a t i o n s designed to insure i n t e g r i t y and merit w i t h i n governmental u n i t s . P r o f i t mot-i v e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e p r i v a t e systems were replaced by broader concerns f o r the p u b l i c h e a l t h , w e l f a r e , and s e c u r i t y w i t h i n an economic frame of reference. I t was t h e i r hope th a t the PMI3 could b e t t e r a i d t h e i r personnel departments to a t t a i n these g o a l s . At the f i e l d i n s t a l l a t i o n l e v e l , a per-sonnel r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from John E. Kennedy Space Center, NASA, had t h i s to say: "This Center has maintained and u t i l i z e d a comprehensive data banlr. of personnel i n f o r m a t i o n since 1962. This has been a production oriented .ADP system which was designed to el i m i n a t e the need f o r manual p r e p a r a t i o n of personnel t r a n s a c t i o n s and the p r e p a r a t i o n of both 14 routine arid special reports f o r management and control purpose. • The various p a y r o l l change notices made necessary by promotions, wlthin-grade or quality step increases, and pay adjustments as a r e s u l t of Congre-ssional action are examples of the former. Inputs to various national surveys such as those performed by the Los Alamos S c i e n t i f i c Laboratory and the Sandia Corporation, along with a multitude of reports on d i s -t r i b u t i o n of personnel by occupational grouping, grade tenure,: sex, or some combination of these required by regulation, statute or executive order are examples of the l a t t e r 11 -> In addition, NASA attempted to use the system widely to a s s i s t i n the development of personnel compensation e s t i -mates and projections i n support of budget requests and C i v i l Service manpower c e i l i n g adjustments. The system presently i n use was apparently also designed to provide quick response to frequent requests f o r special demograph!cal studies r e l a t -ing to the occupational character and physical makeup of t h e i r work force. To date however, NASA has not u t i l i z e d the system to aid i n manpower analyses other than as a base f o r providing standard reports regarding the current occupational structure of the labour force. I t was contemplating incorporation of a record of t r a i n i n g provided to government personnel which i t was Loped would a s s i s t greatly i n the execution of surveys of tra i n i n g requirements and serve as a base f o r comparing t r a i n -ing l e v e l s and needs between organizations. 'MSA also wiEhed to do some research on health studies, and i n 'the future attempt more esoteric studies of stress In r e l a t i o n to occupation and s p e c i f i c tasks performed under extremes of pressure. As ad-vanced as the PHIS program was, I t was obvious that at the time of writing the men involved i n i t s operation were not s a t i s f i e d •15 that.it had reached i t s f u l l potential. U .Jt.___Ci vi 1 S er y i c eCcjsmi ssion Perhaps one of the most ambitious programs yet developed by any organisation to aid management in Its personnel opera-tions i s the U.S. Government's C i v i l Service Commission pro-gram known as the Executive Assignment System (EAS). It was established: "to ensure that the Federal Government w i l l continue to have sufficient numbers of top quality career executives to meet any future need; to encourage the development of a Federal executive staff com-mitted to the overall purposes of government, rather than to one agency or program; to give outstanding executives expanded opportunities tot.use their talents throughout the government " J A discussion of the advantages of the system ensues in Chapter VI. In essence, the EAS is a government-wide executive staffing program, made possible with the assistance of high speed data processing equipment to perform the c l e r i c a l opera-tions. It was developed with the aid of the companies and Federal Agencies (e.g. NASA) that already had implemented executive development and selection programs, and was imple-mented November 196?. At the time of writing the Executive Assignment System was restricted to the approximately 5000 upper positions (called grades G8 15 , 1'7, and 18) of the Exec-utive Branch of the U . S . C i v i l Service, and refers to the p.ojitlons within the Branch, At the same time, tha Executive 16 Inventory r e f e r s to people, approximating 25,000 Federal executives i n grades GS 15 to iS. The Executive Inventory i s the prime source of employees selected to f i l l positions i n the Executive Assignment System. The EAS was thus prim-a r i l y designed to aid i n the selection process through a pro-cedure i d e n t i c a l to the S k i l l s Inventory approach to be d i s -cussed l a t e r . In f i l l i n g career posts, agencies would have to consider a l l well q u a l i f i e d personnel i n the Executive Inventory, not only those available under i n t e r n a l agency merit promotion programs. The f i r s t step i n f i l l i n g a p o s i t i o n i n tho- EAS i n -volved the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and recording of the s p e c i f i c qua-l i f i c a t i o n s requirements of the p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n . This was done by the management o f f i c i a l d i r e c t l y responsible f o r the performance of the employee holding the position. In •searching for candidates f o r the p o s i t i o n , the computer would, use t h i s description as a guide. Following the Exec-utive Inventory search process, a computer printout l i s t e d a preliminary report of those persons who best met the basic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the p o s i t i o n to be f i l l e d . The human eva-l u a t i o n process began at t h i s point, and narrowed down the f i e l d further u n t i l the most q u a l i f i e d candidate was assigned to the p o s i t i o n i n question. The Inventory Record was the document that had to be f i l l e d out by a l l employees i n the Executive Inventory. I t 17 was an exhaustive set of questions which gave the personnel decision makers much information i n t h e i r search to choose the r i g h i man. I t was prepared with a great deal of e f f o r t by the C i v i l Service Commission and w i l l undoubtedly enable the EAS personnel researchers much leeway i n the future to conduct prodigious amounts of research. At the present time i t i s designed to serve these major purposes: 1. executive manpower planning ~ much more could now be done to exactly determine the executive manpower needs of the Federal C i v i l Service. 2. executive search and selection - as described pre-. viously f o r the Executive Inventory. However i t offered new f a c i l i t i e s to provide f o r outside re-cruitment to f i l l career assignments. 3- executive t r a i n i n g and development -• required f o r the specialized type of work performed by government employees, t r a i n i n g needs could be better pinpointed. 4. special recognition - the CSC assumed that top government executives had earned wider public recogni-t i o n than they had received, thus the EAS would bring attention to the achievements of ;the;lr long term executives by iii'gif-.i^ghting rtHSir' contributions. 5. the future - the EAS was the f i r s t step i n building the model of the personnel system f o r the top l e v e l s 18 of f e d e r a l and c i v i l service , In spite of a l l that t h i s system accomplished, the following aspects were being considered; a. the extension of the EAS to positions not covered i n the i n i t i a l stages. b. the addition of f l e x i b i l i t i e s i n assignments of executives within and among agencies to provide even greater executive mobility into the upper c i v i l service. ( In conclusion, the Executive Assignment System appeared to be more advanced than the systems of other organizations considered. While i t did not appear to be integrated with the p a y r o l l aspects i t nevertheless provided a f i r m base which the average personnel department would be wise to emulate. Ujbm;ties Two papers have given a b r i e f Indication of how two large U.S. u t i l i t i e s have employed EDP to integrate t h e i r per-6, 7 sonnel and p a y r o l l records. One, a gas company, had been running an integrated personnel-payroll system since mid-1 9 6 5 , designed to reduce duplication of e f f o r t i n t h e i r p a y r o l l and personnel operations, • A centralized I n d u s t r i a l F.elations Department coordinated the a c t i v i t i e s of the two departments. The other firm, an e l e c t r i c u t i l i t y , r e a l i z e d as well 19 the, similarity and common requirements of both the payroll and personnel departments. A survey indicated that the areas of overlap were many and thus the two functions were united. While both these companies had "integrated" their per-sonnel and payroll functions, i t was obvious from an examina-tion of their papers that both were u t i l i s i n g their EDP sys-tems mainly for payroll purposes. The information carried i n the data bank on each employee was certainly not designed to meet the requirements of the system described in the pre-vious chapters, yet they were considered here as they seem to be quite representative' of the general use of computer applications to the personnel-payroll concept, U.S. Navy On the other hand, the Office of Naval Research, of the United States .Navy attempted to construct a futur i s t i c model 8 of the Navy Personnel System. In attempting to apply the techniques of Operations Research to the analysis of the Sys-tem, they devised a quantitative model which permits the e s t i -mation of Personnel System effectiveness under alternate pro-grams of personnel action. The nature of the- personnel problems for the Navy were i n general unlike those of the average corporation, owing to the transient condition of employment and l o g i s t i c a l factors involved. The determination of numerical coefficients for 20 t h e i r model required much research work to be done on t h e i r personnel variables. EDP procedures were thus employed to aid the researches i n t h i s work. The r e s u l t i n g product, the model, by necessity very complex, was primarily directed to-ward increasing the effectiveness of the naval personnel sys-tem. If such a model could be devised f o r the Navy Person-nel System, and serve i t s purpose accordingly, then I t would Indicate to the personnel departments of large corporations a goal that they may some day wish to achieve as t h e i r own PMIS systems become more sophisticated. I l l RESULTS OP SURVEYS Three d i f f e r e n t surveys were recently carried out i n the United States to determine the extent to which personnel departments are u t i l i s i n g EDP procedures, and these are exam-ined at t h i s time. The f i r s t survey considered here i s one 9 mentioned by E l i z a b e t h Lanham which concerned, a study of some manufacturing and. non-manufacturing firms i n the United 10 States. A second survey by R. T. Bueschel covered 89 firms engaged i n a wide variety of i n d u s t r i e s . A t h i r d sur-11 vey by Dickmann Indicated how research companies u t i l i z e d various storage media f o r t h e i r personnel f i l e s . These sur-veys are considered, i n turn, Lanham Re-port • The survey referred to by Elizabeth Lanham considered 333 companies and revealed the.extent of EDP u t i l i s a t i o n as v e i l as some of the procedures, practices, problems and ad-vantages reported by the responding firms. The problems and advantages are considered i n the following chapter,, Of the 333 firms which reported, 254 u t i l i z e d SDP pro-cedures i n one or more phases of t h e i r operation. Of these 254 firms, 142 used EDP f o r personnel reports and records, 97 were planning or considering i t s use, and the remaining 94 indicated there were no plans at a l l f o r EDP i n t h e i r personnel departments. Lanham also considered: reasons f o r u t i l i z a -t i o n ; administrative arrangements required; personnel require-ments f o r the EDP-Personnel Department~complex; an examination of the types of output records produced; and cost aspects. She also found t h a t : "by f a r the greatest use of EDP was f o r p a y r o l l data ... most of these p a y r o l l records and reports being kept on the basis of Individual employees, jobs departments, devisions and o v e r a l l company c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n order to provide the d e t a i l *^ required f o r e f f e c t i v e p a y r o l l administration." 1^ Lanham concluded that the gap between the number of personnel i n s t a l l a t i o n s and company EDP i n s t a l l a t i o n s would be narrowed i n the future as the benefits of EDP systems became known to personnel administration. Bueschel Survey ' The second, survey considered here i s that of R. T. Buesch It vas carried out to f i l l a need that he thought existed in assessing the current (1966) use cf data processing by per-sonnel departments and was designed to determine actual and potential applications of EDI. He found that personnel de-partments most often apply EDP to the personnel functions li s t e d here in most to least order of frequency of use: em-ployee records; compensation, including fringe benefits and wage and salary analysis; s k i l l s inventories (discussed pre-viously); labour relations; and employment. In addition, he found that the responding companies made limited use cf EDP in training, testing medical records, and motivational planning. Considering economic aspects of EDP installations, Bueschel found that very few personnel departments had any real idea of the costs of their EDP a c t i v i t i e s , or their pre-EDP personnel a c t i v i t i e s , and thus could not objectively de-termine i f savings were made. The major advantages in d i -cated by the survey are considered, in a: following chapter. Some firms {20%) indicated that in the future they would be considering real-time systems, while an equal percentage planned to include Personnel as a part of their overall company information system. Surprisingly, in only 5 per cent of the cases were the payroll and personnel systems integrated or com-bined in the same f i l e , although 7 5 ^ of the firms f e l t It was desirable to combine the Information of these functions. One of his findings can be related to the comments of Chapter IV £j concerning the a c t u a l data to be held w i t h i n the data bank. I t i s mentioned at t h a t time that the l i s t of conceivable data I n -put i s open-ended and that each i n d i v i d u a l f i r m must determine i t s own needs, Bueschel found that key items i n the model considered p r e v i o u s l y such as " t e r m i n a t i o n code" and "reason' f o r h i r e code" were only recorded by one per cent of the f i r m s . Under these circumstances 99 per cent of the f i r m s would be unable to carry out employee t e r m i n a t i o n a n a l y s l s l In summaryBueschel's survey i n d i c a t e d that much i s yet to be done before the complete i n t e g r a t e d personnel manage-ment in f o r m a t i o n system proposed i n the e a r l i e r chapters i s r e a l i z e d by a s i g n i f i c a n t number of o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Pickmann Survey The t h i r d survey was that considered by Bickmann and h i s a s s o c i a t e s ; "to determine the approach s c i e n t i f i c and engineering o r g a n i z a t i o n s are t a k i n g to automate personnel r e c o r d s , the nature of such systems, the degree of success, which has been encountered, and the e f f o r t s made to=? ward developing a s t r u c t u r e of t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s . " -5 The survey I n d i c a t e d t h a t most of the d i f f e r e n c e s among f i r m s ' u t i l i z a t i o n of v a r i o u s storage media 1 appeared to be a f u n c t i o n of the s i z e of the o r g a n i z a t i o n as measured by the number of p r o f e s s i o n a l employees. The r e s u l t s of t h i s survey i n d i c a t e d t h a t an a c t u a l need 24 for the automation of personnel ;records was f i r s t seen as a firm approached 5 0 0 professional employees. As the firm grew, in size the need became more obvious. At the level of 1 0 0 0 employees automation was used to simplify c l e r i c a l tasks for each area of personnel, but these automated subsystems were not integrated into one working record system. For the firm size of 2 0 0 0 employees or more there was a trend to integrate several automated subsystems of personnel data. Of the res-ponding firms 6 5 per cent were engaged in some activity related to the development or uti l i z a t i o n of s k i l l s information. It was mentioned that organizations having useful s k i l l s inven-tories found i t necessary to develop a s k i l l s l i s t i n g tailored to their particular organization. IV OTHER EDP TECHNIQUES Attention now turns to another concept made possible by EDP applications. Instead of the Internal s k i l l s search dis-cussed previously, consideration w i l l be given to the external s k i l l s search. In effect this involves a discussion of how EDP techniques are being applied to aid companies in their con-tinual search for new employees. The workings of two agencies dedicated to these purposes, the National Manpower Register (JM) and the College Placement Council (CPO), both United States organizations, are discussed at this point. 25 National Manpower Register The National Manpower Register was formed i n 1 9 5 5 , and consists of a nation-wide a f f i l i a t i o n of employment consultants s p e c i a l i z i n g i n professional placement. NMR and. i t s a f f i l i -ates are a l l ti e d into a modern sophisticated computerized i n -formation r e t r i e v a l system. I t was designed i n i t i a l l y to aid i n the placement of engineers, s c i e n t i s t s , and computer pro-f e s s i o n a l s . The system operates as follows. An applicant submits M s resume to NMR, which prepares a standard one page form which, i s duplicated f o r each a f f i l i a t e . An analyst codes the q u a l i -f i c a t i o n s f o r entry into the computer, a r e a l time system op-erated by General E l e c t r i c . One page hard copies are f i l e d numerically at NMR headquarters. When an employer asks f o r a s p e c i f i c search to be made, the NMR or a f f i l i a t e counsellor queries the computer d i r e c t l y from the console located In each o f f i c e . The computer then searches i t s memory, attempting to f i n d the applicant whose q u a l i f i c a t i o n s best match those desired by' the employer. Seconds l a t e r i t w i l l type out the i n t e r n a l ( i . e . NMR assigned) r e g i s t r a t i o n numbers of applicants who f i l l the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The hard copy f i l e i s then received by NMR or a f f i l i a t e counsellors to evaluate each com-puter match and determine i f any special i n s t r u c t i o n s from the applicant e x i s t . The employer receives the hard copy.resume and i f further interested w i l l contact the applicant d i r e c t l y . The employers benefit "by having a much larger pool of q u a l i f i e d 26 personnel to choose from, the applicants benefit by having a free service which efficiently distributes their qualifications to a l l areas of the country they are interested in working in. In summary, the National Manpower Register greatly f a c i l i t a t e s communications between employers and potential employees. College Placement Coun_cll The College Placement Council is a non-profit associa-• tion of colleges, universities, and employers which has i t s headquarters at Lehigh University in Pennsylvania. It i s a nation-wide service for the placement of alumni of the more than 1000 participating colleges and universities. It became operational In February 1966 using a medium-sized computer with time sharing capabilities. The students registering with CPC pay a ten dollar fee and the five thousand Industrial employers who are members of CPC may make enquiries of the f i l e for a nominal charge. The mechanics of the CPC system are very similar to those described for the NMR. At the time of writ-ing, the CPC was in Its embryo stage and i t was not known i f i t had been successful or not. One major disadvantage was that the top students generally obtained employment through campus interviews and did not.have.;to rely on CPC f a c i l i t i e s , thus the less qualified students were the ones who may u t i l i z e the CPC. .If this were true, a reduction in quality could discourage em-ployers from making active use of the f i l e s . The CPC planned at the time of writing to extend their services to teacher 27 14 placement and l a t e r student (summer) placement. The p o t e n t i a l f o r such national employment pools is' tremendous. This approach, e s p e c i a l l y i f used by the Federal government and p r o v i n c i a l or state agencies, could accelerate the mobility of the nation's labour force. Such a scheme has been studied i n a report to the President's Committee on Man-15 power (U.S.A.). Their general proposals considered the need f o r better information flows between job openings and job seekers, through the creation of new agencies to achieve these ends. EDP procedures similar to the NMR or CPC are es s e n t i a l i f such programs are to be carried out* Summary This chapter has attempted to present a reasonable p i c -ture of the present state of the art of EDP applications to the personnel area and related f i e l d s . I t must be concluded that on the whole most firms were not u t i l i z i n g ED? f a c i l i t i e s to t h e i r f u l l p o t e n t i a l . Firms appeared to be planning only f o r present, immediate needs, and were not concerning them-selves with the integrated approach suggested i n previous chap-ters. There was an obvious gap between the Personnel Manage-ment Information System concept and the personnel EDP systems which exist i n p r a c t i c e . 28 1 As an observation, i t i s estimated that t h i s firm has one of the most rigorous selection procedures used by any corporation today. i • 2 Quoted i n a l e t t e r from a personnel executive of the auto-mobile company concerned. 3 Quoted i n a l e t t e r from a NASA personnel executive at the John P. Kennedy Space Center. 4 John W. Macy J r . , "The Executive Assignment System," CJ.jyjLl Service Journal, ( Cctober-December, 1 9 6 6 ) p. 2 . "~ 5 Ibid p. 4. 6 . . . . E. D. Meyers, Integrated Personnel Record Keeping Systems Columbus and Southern..Ohioi E l e c t r i c Company, a paper presented at the National Conference of E l e c t r i c and Gas U t i l i t y Accountants, New Orleans, La., May 1 9 6 6 . 7 D. L. Simmons, E.D.P. Integration ..of Personnel-Payroll Records at Tennessee Gas, a paper presented at the National Conference of E l e c t r i c and Gas U t i l i t y Accountants, New Orleans, La., May 1965.. 8 R. H. Gaylord, et a l , Operational Analyses of the Naval  Personnel System: Part I_ Development of a Personnel Sys-tern Model A report by "the American I n s t i t u t e f o r Research f o r the O f f i c e of Naval Research, United States Government, December 1959-9 E l i z a b e t h Lanham, "EDP i n the Personnel Department," Personnel (March-April 1 9 5 7 ) p. 1.6. 10 ' .- , . ' f r - , " R. T. Bueschel, "EDP^and^ersonnieW''.Management B u l l e t i n 8 6 , American Management •Assoc'iation s'Personnel D i v i s i o n , 196*6*". R. A. Dickmann et a l , Information Ret r i e v a l i n the Personnel Department, ( S i l v e r Spring, Maryland~" The Johns Hopkins University, A p r i l 1 9 6 4 ) po 12 Lanham, op_ c i _ t , p. 2 1 . 13 Dickm&nn, op_ c i t , p. 2 . 14 Bueschel; o£ c i t , p. 9 . 15 Ponald Schon, The Role of the Government i n Technclogjxal. F o r e c a s t i n g , A Report to the P r e s i d e n t ' s Commitee on Manpower, January 1 9 6 6 . p. 6 . C H A P T E R III THE PERSONNEL FUNCTION AND THE SYSTEMS ANALYSIS APPROACH I INTRODUCTION Yoder has said that: "As labour management becomes professional, the f i e l d of employment rela t i o n s h i p s w i l l take on more of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an applied science or a r t , similar - to such other applied sciences as engineering, educa-t i o n or medicine. As an applied science, the f i e l d w i l l accept, use and apply the theory and p r i n c i p l e s of the basic d i s c i p l i n e s and sciences, ^In addition i t w i l l develop p r i n c i p l e s of i t s own." Perhaps at no time has there been an opportunity to advance the f i e l d of personnel work more than at the present time. This i s made'possible by the new r o l e being played by Elec-tronic-Data Processing (EDP) procedures and equipment, by ut-i l i z i n g the computer to manipulate large amounts of data and perform research and analysis programs that were u n t i l now v i r t u a l l y impossible. This chapter deals with the practices and procedures which are involved with the establishment of a computerized manpower data bank, the Personnel Management Information System, I t w i l l concentrate on the development of an integrated model by considering the various functions of the personnel department i n the context of an integrated whole 31 rather than a variety of unrelated sub-functions. For the purpose of the construction of an integrated model, a major assumption requires that the principal features of an employees' status can be described in a basic single record. If this basic record can be maintained in a current and accurate condition, and i f proper documentation can be pro-duced in automated forms for the changes which occur, then reports in great variety may be obtained as by-products of;' the automatic record keeping process. Records must necessarily start with the individual, for information about groups of staff organized to achieve an end i s based on what i s known about them as individuals. 'The data bank should attempt tc hold as much data on the employee as i s conceivably and ethic-a l l y possible, for i t must be realized that much future work (in terms of output) w i l l probably be done which w i l l u t i l i z e programs not conceived of at the present time. An,Important limitation to the development of a man-power data bank model must be considered. The literature i s unanimous on two points: f i r s t l y , the model should be designed "backwards," i.e. the output desired from the model determines what information i s to be placed in the data bank, the informa-tion input i s in theory at least not supposed to determine out-put; secondly each firm must design i t s own model to accom-plish i t s own ends, i t cannot "borrow" other models and expect them to meet their own needs. Consequently the model pre-sented here must remain a generalized concept and thus much of the discussion w i l l he open ended to allow f o r the s p e c i f i c requirements of i n d i v i d u a l firms. However, i t i s hoped that even i n l i g h t of t h i s l i m i t a t i o n , adequate information w i l l he presented to aid the personnel manager i n h i s future plans f o r an EDP a p p l i c a t i o n to his function, " I I : FUNCTIONS OE THE PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT' At t h i s point some consideration i s given to the separate functions of the personnel department. As much of thi s i s r e -p e t i t i v e of what i s found i n the l i t e r a t u r e only a general re-2 view-of these functions i s considered here. A-personnel system model has been prepared attempting to indicate some of these functions and the i r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s within the t o t a l personnel department environment.(see App. A), The major, operations of the personnel department may be summarised as fellows: 1. 'Recruitment - the purpose of recuitment i s to match the requirements of the s t a f f i n g schedule and to u t i l i z e e f f e c t i v e means of a t t r a c t i n g needed manpower i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers to permit adequate selection of an e f f i c i e n t workforce. Related closely to the r e -c r u i t i n g function i s that of manpower planning pro-je c t i n g manpower needs to the future which l s neces-sary i f the r e c r u i t e r s are to hire for the future needs of the corporation. 33 2. Selection, Placement and Induction - the selection! process may be complicated or simple, depending upon! corporate policies. It could include such procedures as: preliminary screening; review of application blank; reference check; aptitude and psychological testing; physical examination; and employment inter-views. If the candidate i s found to be suitable, •'! placement procedures follow to place the employee in that type of employment for which he is best suited'; Induction procedures attempt to acclimatize the app-licant to his new environment, to create a favourable impression and attitude and establish a sense of belonging. 3. Employee Evaluation - the employee evaluation process involves the use of ratings as an objective indicator of the employees' achievements and value-to the firm. It brings an awareness of the differences among employees, and determines their weak and" strong points. It is related to the training procedures to be discussed later. 4. Promotions, Transfers, and Separations - these represent the means employed to change the size of the firm's work force. Promotions^may be basedvupon a b i l i t y , merit, o r seniority, and are a morale creating device, providing a logical training for advancement. . Transfers involve lat e r a l shifts in employment, and generally do not com-prise any appreciable Increase in responsibilities and 34 duties. Separations nay be voluntary or involuntary, depending upon the circumstances of termination, and involve a reduction i n tho work force. 5. Wage and Salary Administration - th i s i s a complex procedure which comprises: job analyses which y i e l d job descriptions; the relationship between the various jobs which y i e l d s a job structure with, an Inherent wage or salary scale structure; a mechanism to compare out-side wage and salary data with that of the firm. Wage and salary administration i s closely related, to p a y r o l l and performance appraisal procedures, and Involves con-si d e r a t i o n of the many determining factors for remu-neration. 6. Health and Safety - t h i s includes such duties as: creating and maintaining i n t e r e s t i n safety aspects of the employees' work; reviewing accident records; carrying out surveys and inspections of procedures and equipment; determining and applying remedies to reduce the l i k e l i h o o d of future accidents; applying safety programs; and keeping a close watch on the employees' state of health. 7. Training - tra i n i n g i s related to the employee evalua-t i o n procedures which may determine employee t r a i n i n g needs. Training programs may exist at a l l l e v e l s f o r a l l types of employees fo r many s p e c i f i c purposes. This 35 could include: job t r a i n i n g , either supervisory, voca-t i o n a l , executive, or technical; induction and orienta-t i o n programs; and other special courses. The t r a i n -ing group must ensure that only those employees are t r a i l e d who are lacking i n q u a l i t i e s which the tr a i n i n g program o f f e r s , thus there exists the problem of selec-t i o n and content of t r a i n i n g program to match po t e n t i a l trainees' needs. S. Record Keeping and. S t a t i s t i c a l Reporting - record keeping and. reporting are necessary functions of the personnel department, and relate.to the information flows e s s e n t i a l to carry out the main work of the per-sonnel department. Reports are always required' by the various departments of the firm, other firms requesting-information, by government agencies, and f o r a host of ether needs. S t a t i s t i c s cannot be generated unless f a c t u a l information i s held on record by the personnel department. Meaningful s t a t i s t i c s r e s u l t i n a greater understanding of the effectiveness of procedures carried out by the personnel department. It has been suggested that: "•While the personnel or i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s departments of most business organizations maintain extensive f i l e s of various types of employee data, such as app l i c a t i o n forms, test r e s u l t s , turnover records, absentee records and supervisory appraisal records, very l i t t l e e f f o r t i s made to integrate t h i s data f o r administrative e f f i -ciency, much l e s s for a n a l y t i c a l or research usefullness. I t would appear that much of the data obtained on 36 employee record forms may be suitable f o r computer storage, r e t r i e v a l , and analyses. In addition, much of th i s data i s usable i n multiple areas of analysis and research." J This chapter and the following two chapters represent an attempt to achieve these ends, i n l i g h t of the several key personnel functions. Before examining the actual content of the manpower data bank model, consideration w i l l be given to some of the important concepts which must be considered p r i o r td the establishment of a Personnel Management Information System. ' I l l ADMINISTRATIVE FACTORS To enhance the success of the Personnel Management ! ] Information System, certain administrative adjustments have to be made. Methods and format of o r i g i n a t i n g information have to be made uniform. Local managers have to be per-suaded that they are not l o s i n g control of t h e i r r e a l jobs, although they w i l l be l e s s concerned about routine work. New arrangements have to be made to ensure that a smooth flow of action w i l l follow a firm timetable. Staff have to be: helped to accept the change of duties and sometimes of l o c a t i o n . ?Jille sums i t up by stating that: " . . . A sound working partnership has to be achieved between a l l departments i n the organization and the computer department' to achieve' these objectives, and parochial boundaries must be broken down i n the pro-cess: knowing how to manipulate the computer hard- 4 ware and write programs i s only part of the story." 37 Envi ro nra. e n t 'Jhe environment in which the organization exists "will determine to a f a i r degree the extent to "which effort is put into the creation and operation of the model. The more important the nature of the employee's function i s , and the more scarce his s k i l l s , the more the firm may he willing to. Install an EDP application within the personnel area. For example, a firm employing largely university trained technical personnel may wish to know more about their employee variable than the contracting firm which employs labourers and crafts-Bien. Government policies and requests for information may indicate to a certain extent the types of data output required, and thus enhance the effectiveness of an EDP application for ' reporting purposes. If the firm i s large, i t w i l l probably be requested to supply salary and other personnel data to research firms and other organizations, and w i l l undoubtedly be continually besieged by special requests for information on a variety of personnel matters. The legal environment may play a large role in determining certain data needs for such government agencies as the Workman's Compensation Board (safety reports) and Canada Manpower (National Manpower planning needs). Increased competition in s tight labour market may require the firm to u t i l i z e new and better proced-ures to keep existing employees and attract an adequate supply of qualified applicants. 38 Coverage Organizational and technical factors must be considered In the design of the Personnel Management Information System. The exact coverage of the number or types of employees to be included -in the manpower data bank must be determined. Some firms have computerized data on only t h e i r salaried employees and omitted hourly paid employees. The PMIS may be centralized i n the firm's head o f f i c e , or the branches may design and operate t h e i r own systems with guidance from the head o f f i c e . The coverage of the various personnel functions within the manpower data bank must be determined; a f u l l y integrated sys-tem would by d e f i n i t i o n include a l l the personnel functions, but In c e r t a i n corporations i t may not be possible or even advantageous to do i t . Language Problem Technically speaking, the language problem i s important i f many of the EDP programs are to succeed. I f possible, i n -formation should be stored so that i t can be retrieved regards l e s s of the viewpoint of terminology employed. This may be solved by developing a vocabulary consisting of a complete set of terms used to describe a l l indiv i d u a l s i n the system. Again i t must be emphasized that these considerations must be dealt with each firm i n d i v i d u a l l y based upon i t s own needs. The greater the number of factors considered, the larger the data i n storage, the greater w i l l he the problems of coding, storage, and subsequent r e t r i e v a l . As the system becomes more sophis-t i c a t e d , the greater the costs are; t h i s economic l i m i t a t i o n Is i n essence one of the primary f a c t o r s . •IV. THE SYSTEMS ANALYSIS APPROACH " . The personnel system may be regarded as a u n i f i e d e n t i t y which should be designed to take f u l l advantage of equipment c a p a b i l i t i e s and new management science techniques as a b e t t e r means of a t t a i n i n g t h e i r goals. Under t h i s approach the per-sonnel system i s viewed as a whole r a t h e r than as a department composed of i n d i v i d u a l , u n r e l a t e d operations. The procedure g e n e r a l l y employed to a s c e r t a i n the needs and b e n e f i t s of t h i s concept i s known as the systems a n a l y s i s approach. A general d e s c r i p t i o n of the systems a n a l y s i s techniques i s i n d i c a t e d i n Figure 1. This study r e q u i r e s three major phases. F i r s t , i t i s necessary to acquire an understanding of the present system. Second the r e s u l t s t h a t are d e s i r e d from the system must be determined. F i n a l l y , equipment must be s e l e c t e d and procedures devised to e f f i c i e n t l y a t t a i n those r e s u l t s . The o b j e c t i v e s of systems study and design are to develop new procedures c r improve e x i s t i n g procedures so as to increase the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of operations and, i f p o s s i b l e , to b r i n g about g r e a t e r economy. 40 PP&/WVAZY &T&P3 /. £J?P/iV£ GQJ£Cr/V£S CP STU&Y g. iisnrtft/m- <$CQ&£ OP sntoy 3. P.^SPAPS ?Mf£- SCt/££>i/L£ AMD Of'-' STUDY GdW£R}ftfca<?l? AA'& 4/tftYZ£ FACTS. AGGUr <°<?<tc>tF/vr SYSTEM i/S/f</G Wtf/Q'JS '&CrfA//Q(/cS j>ruay - PHASE 2. £>£P/A>£ N£W SYSTEM P£Q<//#£M£M7S OfttSAMZArOft? CMAPTS SYST£M P^OrV CHAW'S \ PACGPAM ficcv/cmP7s CEOS/ON TABIDS PA(6C£0tJ#£ Ai A AVALS /#r£PV/£L>YS 0&J£CT/V£?Sj AVPi/TSj Ol/TPtPTSi A?£SoffiC£S L&'GAL Aspscrs , ACCO(/rtf/A/e P£&m£M£MS GC&eOfLVrJG OA'ZAMiZAT/OA/ CXAffT.? \ SYSTEM Plow.- OJ4PT3 PPOSPtAAf PLCiV Ct&WTS POP; MS CMMTQ £Qi/fPM£A(T SSTC'P PPQC£0VP£ AfAtfUALS II /MPLZPtTMr A/£"IV SYSTEM cejscrn'ss ACP/SI/£&? PPOSLeM .A/?£AS ? smioAT/m' „ /W£> COST ? 1 M'fi PQ/.LCW UP ! FIGURE 1 THE SYSTEMS ANALYSIS PROCEDURE (From A r n o l d , I n t r o d u c t i o n to Data P r o c e s s i n g , p. 2 9 3 ) 41 I n i t i a l Stage I n i t i a l a c t i o n s and procedures taken f o l l o w the systems a n a l y s i s approach once an ED? i n s t a l l a t i o n has been approved f o r the personnel department (or even, i f i t i s being con-s i d e r e d ) . Once the aims and o b j e c t i v e s of the personnel de-partment have been c l a r i f i e d , the records and procedures r e -quired to a t t a i n them must be determined. A l l p o t e n t i a l user departments must be i n v o l v e d i n t h i s procedure to avoid the i l l - w i l l and confusion of an "us-them': a t t i t u d e . The f i n i s h e d product must r e f l e c t the p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s of a.ll i n v o l v e d . However at t h i s stage i t i s the systems ana-l y s t , g e n e r a l l y r e p o r t i n g to an ED? manager, who sets the pace and ensures e f f e c t i v e methods are followed throughout the study. ,. . At t h i s stage c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s given to what the per-sonnel f u n c t i o n s ought to be doing as a u n i f i e d department and what records and i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d to do i t . Prom the o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s , or the d e s i r e d output, the planning team can work "backwards" to e s t a b l i s h what i n f o r m a t i o n should be fed i n and how i t must be processed to reach the d e s i r e d o b j e c t i v e s . Many records are of course e s s e n t i a l . Por example the employee must be p a i d , thus wage and s a l a r y i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d , the f i r m must be able to f o l l o w the employee's progress, thus e v a l u a t i o n and job h i s t o r y data I s e s s e n t i a l . 42 However d u r i n g the c o u r s e of the d a t a and r e c o r d a c c u m u l a t i o n , d a t a does n o t have to be d u p l i c a t e d . The b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f i n t e g r a t e d d a t a p r o c e s s i n g i s t h a t I r r e s p e c t i v e o f the number o f p u r p o s e s f o r w h i c h i t w i l l be u s e d , a f a c t i s o n l y r e c o r d e d o n c e . D e s i g n i n g New Sys tem Once the b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the sys tem have been de^-t e r m i n e d , the sys tems a n a l y s t t u r n s h i s a t t e n t i o n to the s p e -c i f i c d e t a i l s o f the p e r s o n n e l s y s t e m . The a n a l y s t c o n c e r n s h i m s e l f w i t h the d y n a m i c s o f t he PMIS o p e r a t i o n , d e s i g n i n g t he d a t a i n p u t and o u t p u t f l o w s , and the d a t a bank i t s e l f f o r maximum e f f i c i e n c y so the sys tem can be e a s i l y m a n i p u l a t e d to p r o d u c e e a s y - t o - u s e p r i n t - o u t s and a n a l y s e s , y e t be s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e to h a n d l e c o n t i n g e n c i e s as t h e y a r i s e 0 i n the f u t u r e . E a c h s t e p must be p a r t i c u l a r i z e d so t h a t the programmer w i l l u n d e r s t a n d how to t r a n s l a t e the sys tems a n a l y s t s recommenda-t i o n s i n t o mach ine l a n g u a g e . The p e r s o n n e l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s h o u l d be c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d to ensu re t h a t a l l p r o c e d u r e s a r e p r e c i s e l y s p e l l e d o u t . D e f i n i t i o n s have to be p r e c i s e ; who a u t h o r i z e s t h e s e payments? how o f f e n does X happen? what u s e r d e p a r t m e n t s r e c e i v e t h i s p r i n t o u t ? e t c . , e v e r y t h i n g must be q u e s t i o n e d . Summary S i n c e the a n a l y s i s o f t h i s t h e s i s d e a l s w i t h an 43 imaginary system, i t is not constrained by the economic con-siderations or other limiting factors which would r e s t r i c t the r e a l - l i f e firm. To a certain extent this model i s s i -milar to the i d e a l i s t i c "friotionless" models so often called upon by engineers to describe their ideas in a world of "unfrictionless" reality. Having considered .some of the factors and problem areas met by practioners in the world of EDP applications to personnel work, the examination now turns to the components of the Personnel Management Informa-tion System. 1 Dale To der, et s i . Handbook of _Per. sonnel Management- and labour Relations, (Toronto: McGran H i l l Book Company."1958), p. 1-29- " ' • . 2 For a detailed description of the functions of the personnel department, as well as references for this topic, see Yoder e t a l , Ibid. 3 These were the words, used by Dr. L. P. Moore of the Faculty o f Commerce and Business Administration of the University of Brit i s h Columbia in his request for a grant-in-aid of . research to study the topic of Personnel Management Informa-t i o n Systems. 4 Edgar Wllle, ;TJie_ J^ojgjou^ (London: In s t i t u t e™ o f Per sonn'el'.Tlanag ement, 1 9 6 6 ) , p.8. 0 H A r T E P. IV DEVELOPMENT OP THE MODEL - INPUT The discussion of this chapter attempts to show how the various functions of the personnel department may be i n -ter r e l a t e d or integrated into one manpower data bank. The manpower data bank model must contain cer t a i n elements: • i t must have data; the data must be coded; the information must be stored on some medium; means must e x i s t to store and re-trieve the information as desired; information flows must be c l e a r l y delineated; means must exist to control the qual i t y of the input data as well as update obsolete data; and f i n a l l y the whole Personnel Management Information System must be p e r i o d i c a l l y reviewed to ensure that i t adapts to meet new and changing needs. These elements are considered i n f u r -ther d e t a i l now. I DATA DETERMINANTS The information which i s held i n the data bank i s the key feature of any EDP personnel applic a t i o n . E s s e n t i a l l y the data to be included i s determined i n two stages. 4 5 Comprehensive L i s t i n g I n i t i a l l y , a l l the f a c t s which may he known about an i n d i v i d u a l , an a l l - i n c l u s i v e l i s t , i e prepared. The most minute i n p u t may turn out to be e s s e n t i a l to some output r e -quirement. I t should be kept i n mind that once a f a c t i s deposited, procedures must e x i s t to keep i t updated. Such an i n i t i a l l i s t i n c l u d e s a l l data p r e s e n t l y hald manually, but c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s a l s o given to p o s s i b l e f u t u r e requirements, w i t h viewpoints coming from a l l l e v e l s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . An example of such an i n i t i a l comprehensive l i s t of p o s s i b l e i n g r e d i e n t s of a data bank i s attached i n Appendix. B. An I n d i v i d u a l f i r m would undoubtedly wish to add to t h i s l i s t t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r data, but such a l i s t i s adequate f o r the purpose of t h i s work. S i e v i n g Process , The second stage i s a s i e v i n g process, whereby an attempt i s made to r e l a t e the p o s s i b l e input considered i n the f i r s t stage w i t h the system output needs determined by the systems a n a l y s i s procedure. In choosing the appropriate data the f o l l o w i n g questions should be answered: who are the p o t e n t i a l users of the f a c t s ? what are the reasons f o r h o l d i n g the i n -formation -• i s i t current t r a n s a c t i o n data or standing re f e r e n c e data? and f i n a l l y what are the main uses c f the f a c t s ? The exhaustive l i s t of f a c t s prepared i n the i n i t i a l stage i s trimmed, by the systems planning group to exclude d e t a i l s which are superfluous to the i n d i v i d u a l f i r m ' s needs. Data which i s u s e f u l to one f i r m may not he u s e f u l to another f i r m . As the concept d e a l t w i t h here I s that of an i n t e g r a t e d data hank, the model would be expected to contain at l e a s t a minimal.amount of i n f o r m a t i o n on each of the key personnel areas considered i n the previous chapter. The s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s taken by s p e c i f i c companies i n order to ca r r y out s i m i l a r pro-cedures would n e c e s s a r i l y be more complex as they have set p o l i c i e s and procedures to use as g u i d e l i n e s . • For any inpu t data fed i n t o the computer,- endless, per-mutations of output are p o s s i b l e . W i l l e adds: " I t I s not necessary to ask, 'can the computer do t h i s or that f o r us.' Feed i n the b a s i c f a c t s : the com-puter can do i t . There i s no magic about i t . But i n d e f i n i n g needs spare a thought f o r the complexity of the program and the expense of keeping the record up to date." The f a c t t h a t an i n t e g r a t e d model has been designed means that c e r t a i n types of data must be kept w i t h i n the data bank. The data c o l l e c t e d f o r t h i s model r e f l e c t s the needs of the out-put to be described i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter. However, c e r -t a i n types of Information are not appropriate f o r computeriza-t i o n , owing to the volume of words r e q u i r e d to describe the s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n . For example, n a r r a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s of job i n t e r e s t s and previous job r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may be at the present time best l e f t on manual forms. 47 .II CODING PROCEDURES D e f i n i t i o n Codes are defined as a system of characters and r u l e s f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n a language that can be under-stood and handled by a computer. Coding i s a system of w r i t -i n g i n which numbers or l e t t e r s . , or a combination of bcth> are used a r b i t r a r i l y to condense and c l a s s i f y data. Since coding i s an a b b r e v i a t i n g device, i t minimizes the work required i n r e c o r d i n g and r e w r i t i n g data. I t w i l l not only standardize the output data, but i t makes data gathering e a s i e r and con-serves storage space w i t h i n the system. In a d d i t i o n , codes provide a convenient means of i d e n t i f y i n g and d i s t i n g u i s h i n g data f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n purpose. G e n e r a l l y , when coding procedures are employed, the use of explanatory t a b l e s on separate storage media w i t h i n the data p r o c e s s i n g system i s a l s o considered. F o l l o w i n g t h i s approach data can be stored i n the employee's record as codes but p r i n t e d on documents i n a l p h a b e t i c form f o r e a s i e r r e c o g n i t i o n . An overabundance of codes on form p r i n t o u t s would g e n e r a l l y render the forms l e s s readable and thus l e s s u s e f u l . 2 While there are many commonly used coding procedures the most s u i t a b l e method employed i n personnel EDP a p p l i c a t i o n s i s known as sequence coding, whereby a l i s t of items to be code 48 Is a r b i t r a r i l y assigned numbers from one up. u n t i l the l i s t i s exhausted.. There does not have to be any p a r t i c u l a r order to the l i s t , but once code numbers have been assigned to an item they cannot be changed. Proper codirig procedures g r e a t l y ease the workload on the computer and are very adaptable to personnel EDP a p p l i c a -t i o n s . In f a c t , because personnel work on the computer'mainly i n v o l v e s the storage and r e t r i e v a l of large, amounts., .of data, . coding procedures are e s s e n t i a l . The r o l e of the personnel department i s e s s e n t i a l at t h i s stage. As p a r t of the systems a n a l y s i s approach o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I I , he must define i n p l a i n E n g l i s h how he wants to subdivide s t a f f and f a c t s about them. I t i s a simple pro-cedure to a t t a c h numbers to these f a c t s once the breakdown has been determined.. The number of c a t e g o r i e s acceptable f o r coding l s of course dependent upon the volume and types of data computer-i z e d on the manpower data bank. An i n d i v i d u a l f i r m having I t s own p e c u l i a r data requirements w i l l a l s o r e q u i r e i t s own cod-i n g procedures. However there i s a l a r g e number of codable f a c t s which are common to'most o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and these are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Appendix G,. >,'. ,; ;• Of. p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t y i n the",coding procedure i s the. p r e v i o u s l y mentioned language problem -'of job and s k i l l s codes. This i s perhaps the most complex aspect of the manpower data 49 bank model, and i s considered s h o r t l y i n the d i s c u s s i o n of the S k i l l s Inventory. • " Code Categories The v a r i o u s codes may be categorized as f o l l o w s : 1. general i n f o r m a t i o n codes: f a c t s are l i s t e d i n nume-r i c a l order such as p r o v i n c e s , area or d i v i s i o n of employment e t c . 2. job and s k i l l s codes: are used to describe job p o s i -t i o n s ; they g e n e r a l l y are represented by the company's own d e s c r i p t i o n of p o s i t i o n s . However t a b l e s of job d e s c r i p t i o n s have been prepared by the F e d e r a l govern-ments' (Canadian and U.S.) and these codes should be 3 adaptable to most f i r m s . This concept i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the S k i l l s Inventory. 3. nature of a c t i o n codes: describe the nature of a c t i o n used to change the employee's s t a t u s e t c . Examples here Include reasons to describe t r a n s f e r s , promotions, and separations. 4. c o n d i t i o n codes: i n d i c a t e whether or not c e r t a i n con-d i t i o n s are met g e n e r a l l y i n answer to a question. For example "yes" and "no" i n d i c a t e whether ce r t a i n - condi-t i o n s e x i s t . Also i n c l u d e d here could be.cod.es used to describe the c o n d i t i o n of employment - temporary, 50 p a r t - t i m e o r f u l l - t i m e , e t c . 5. remark codes: r e l a t e to document o u t p u t , and a r e m a i n l y used i n n o t i f i c a t i o n r e p o r t s to management. An exam-p l e o f t h i s would be "Employee E v a l u a t i o n Due when a computer s e a r c h of the f i l e s has i n d i c a t e d t h a t a c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n e x i s t s t h a t a c e r t a i n r e p o r t must be i s s u e d . The c o d i n g system p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x -.0 has been c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h e above c a t e g o r i e s . I l l DATA STORAGE AND INFORMATION FLOWS D a t a p r o c e s s i n g systems make a comprehensive p e r s o n n e l d a t a system f e a s i b l e . Once the a p p r o p r i a t e d a t a has been chosen and the p r o p e r codes employed, the d a t a i s placed, i n some s t o r a g e medium. However s i n c e the v a r i o u s d a t a p r o c e s s -ing, systems v a r y i n s i z e , c o m p l e x i t y , speed, and c o s t , t h e r e a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y s e v e r a l - t y p e s o f s t o r a g e media. The major t y p e s of s t o r a g e f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e punched c a r d s , magnetic t a p e , random a c c e s s f i l e s (drum o r d i s c s t o r a g e ) and. t a p e / random a c c e s s f i l e c o m b i n a t i o n . A. D a t a P r o c e s s i n g System An example of a c e n t r a l i z e d d a t a p r o c e s s i n g system i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 2. I t c o n s i s t s o f a c e n t r a l i z e d , d a t a 51 processor which contains the employee's data (i.e. the man-power data bank). Connected vo this system through various communication links are the divisional terminals which provide for the transmission and receipt of personnel transactions as they occur. The system illustrated-in Figure 2 u t i l i z e s six-basic devices: the printer, direct access storage, sequential (tape) storage, a central processor, a transmission control, and a divisional operating terminal. Through the use of direct access storage, personnel transactions can be processed rapidly, providing fully-updated and accurate records as they are re-quired. The sequential storage i s employed to log personnel transactions as they occur, and can thus provide an audit t r a i l and h i s t o r i c a l data for reports and analyses. The transmis-sion control i s the connection link between the central process-ing system and the divisional operating terminals. It allows multiple division operating terminals to communicate simultan-eously with the central data processing system and verifies the accuracy of a l l data transmitted to and from the system. The divisional operating terminals are the communication link for the handling of personnel information at each division location and consists of a control unit, a card reader, a printer-key board and a printing card punch. This discussion has con-sidered a system which.is currently as "sophisticated" as modern technology w i l l allow, and is also known as a real-time system. TERMINAL S£QVmVAL £>7VI3(QN 0 TERMINAL TAANSM/S3/CM CO/VT&.0L, PMStON C CO MMUMCA T/CN A>MNTER oinecr ACCESS FIGURE 2 A CENTRALIZED REAL-TIME DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM . (Prom IBM Manual E 2 0 - 0 2 7 3 - 0 , p. 7 ) 5 3 Input and.Storage Media At the present time, the. most common means of transfer-ring information from report form to computer storage Is ac-complished through the use of punched cards. A l l trans-actions originating at the divis ional level and affecting per-sonnel records are entered into the control unit as punched cards. There are various procedures employed to transfer the 4 data from the punched card to the computer storage. As explained ear l ier , the data is generally held on se-quential or random access media. Magnetic tape is known as a sequential record since a l l records on the tape must be read in sequence before the desired record i s reached. In more recent storage devices such as disc storage, a random access device, the designated information can be reached direct ly with-out scanning a l l ox the other records ahead of i t in sequence. Thus random access devices have an important advantage over sequencing devices, especially i f a "real-time" application i s being considered. These are technical considerations and need not be considered further here. However in la t ter parts.of this chapter some diagrams w i l l be employed to describe compu- .. ter procedures and these w i l l show the manpower information being held on "Master Files" and w i l l be designated as magnetic tapes. The general design of the information f ie lds of the punched card input is shown in Appendix D. It indicates how positions for various coded and uncodod information are 54 a l l o c a t e d to cer t a i n cards. Where possible, the cards are designed so that the various source departments have a mini-mum number of d i f f e r e n t source ci>rd.s i n "which to originate data on the ^employee. For example an evaluation card or a medical .card may be designed to serve a s p e c i f i c purpose f o r the source departments, and for administrative e f f i c i e n c y would represent the only forms used f o r these purposes. Each card however must have "key" numbers to indicate i t s sequence with respect to the other cards, and to i d e n t i f y the employee involved... The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number i n t h i s example i s the employee's s o c i a l security number. The information punched on these cards f o r any employee represents the t o t a l "com-puterized" information which Is held on him. The sum of a l l the information pertaining to a l l the employees, along with the p r a c t i c e s and procedures involved, represents the Personnel Management Information System. Consideration now turns to some of the information flows which are necessary to ensure the smooth operation of a man-power data bank, and attention i s focused cn the i n t e r a c t i o n of the several departments involved. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Plows k mechanism must exis t to ensure that the proper pro-cedures are employed i n the operation of the Personnel Manage-ment Information System. An example of a procedure to follow Is i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 3, showing the relationships between 55 four; main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y centres. The personnel department i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the nen-p a y r o l i aspects of the employee v a r i a b l e discussed e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter. This i n v o l v e s the c o o r d i n a t i o n of a l l employee a c t i v i t i e s and i n f o r m a t i o n flows w i t h i n the company. The personnel department i s concerned that computer r e p o r t s are d i s t r i b u t e d to the proper r e c e i v e r s , ensures the flow of up-dated and new data to the manpower data bank, and s u p p l i e s p r e r e q u i s i t e data to the p a y r o l l department so t h a t the em-ployees are p r o p e r l y p a i d . However, under the PMIS system, a new o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a n a l y s i s and r e s e a r c h a r i s e s as many of the personnel department employees are f r e e d of time-consuming r o u t i n e t a s k s . The p a y r o l l department r e c e i v e s wage and s a l a r y admin-0 i s t r a t i o n data from the personnel department, I n c l u d i n g wage r a t e s , pension p l a n s , insurance schemes, bond purchase p l a n s , e t c . , and a p p l i e s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n to the c a l c u l a t i o n of wages. I t a l s o r e c e i v e s time and attendance data from the operating departments, which matched w i t h wage r a t e data y i e l d s the em-ployee's pay. This data i s . sent to the EDP department where the automated equipment c a l c u l a t e s wages and p r i n t s cheques. The Input-Output-:;Goiitrol Centre-, u s u a l l y p a r t of the personnel department and s t a f f e d by personnel people, c o o r d i -nates a l l a c t i v i t i e s between the EDP i n s t a l l a t i o n and the pay-r o l l and personnel departments. The Centre checks input data 56 /©?50AW£/ D£PAPTMHNT - /&Lt/Q£S WA'C7.'Q//.S Pm$omF£L /WD PAY DATA tmvr PFPGPTS or.' EMPLOYES QMS/QMS £TC. .PBPO ATS TO £XT£P/VAL OPGAN/ZATtOiVS PSPSG.WSL PSPO^TS P/}YPOi.£. 'O£0A/?TM£Wr P#OC£$S£S r<n?£ sogers Souses aacvM&vxs SM&U-r-OUTPUT C&A'TPOL C&*JT(ZZ> 1 M0OT - CP£CK3 (A/PUT POPMS - COOPPMATSS coMsarsPt /icr/VfTiSS ~ eusopes TV.'AT curpcrr GG£S TQ P&2PJ3? 2.<PG4r/i3AS £MM.OY£E PAY ~m' p&cprs re> £M/ZOY££S GOi/'r PcPOGTS p/tmou. fit£Poprs carper I &ATA PJ?OC£S8H-!& '&£PAfitTAm*ir - l/P&ATSS TAPcS - PPZPAPGS PbCT'A^ P(£POtfTS - Orp&q p>£Q</£STE AU. ££P COTPUT FIGURE 3 PMIS RESPONSIBILITY AMD INFORMATION FLOWS 57 for format and completeness before the information reaches the EDP department. It also receives a l l computer output and en-sures that i t i s sent to the proper user departments. The Data Processing Department i s responsible for the operation and maintenance of a l l computer f a c i l i t i e s and f i l e s . This area calculates the payroll (and prints cheques), updates a l l the f i l e s with new information as received, and prepares automatically the routine reports required by the personnel and payroll departments. The EDP department represents the phys-i c a l location of the manpower data bank. The computer pro-grammers are located in this department should, either the per-sonnel or payroll departments originate a request for a special report or new service. Forms Required In order to carry out the numerous day-to-day routine tasks of the personnel department, a.large information flow i s required. While i t has been common practice in the past to have a multitude of reports and forms to assist this informa-tion flow, new procedures are required i f the firm i s to imple-5 ment a personnel management information data bank. Previ-ously, forms and documents, were designed to be placed in many physically, separate flies!,''thus data often >?ould be duplicated. However, in the EDP application, forms are designed with the manpower data bank in mind, as indicated-in a previous 58 s e c t i o n . Data does not have to be d u p l i c a t e d except f o r the key aura her ( u s u a l l y . s o c i a l insurance number) and name,. Forms may be organized' so that the employee or o r i g i n a t i n g source of data may use codes on the o r i g i n a t i n g document, While i t i s not f e a s i b l e at t h i s time -to present a l a r g e l i s t of new data forms that could be emp3.oyed, i t must be appreciated that such a procedure should e l i m i n a t e much paper-work, organise data flows more e f f i c i e n t l y , and reduce o v e r a l l data r e q u i r e -ments. As before, i f the forms employed are a c t u a l computer cards, a great d e a l of i n e f f i c i e n c y may be e l i m i n a t e d . Some of the types of forms are l i s t e d i n Appendix E. Each form should r e l a t e to a data p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the manpower data bank, e i t h e r to update or change o l d i n f o r m a t i o n , or to place new data i n t o i t . ° The proper design of the forms i s a major f a c t o r i n the increased e f f i c i e n c y r e s u l t i n g from the EDP a p p l i c a t i o n to the personnel department. EDP Flowsheets W i t h i n the EDP department i t s e l f , c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be given to some of the procedures r e q u i r e d to keep the Master F i l e ( c o n t a i n i n g a l l the data on a l l the employees and assumed here to be magnetic tape) i n an updated c o n d i t i o n and to make use of the i n f o r m a t i o n held w i t h i n the manpower data bank. Fi g u r e s 4 and 5 i l l u s t r a t e these procedures. F i g u r e 4 i l l u s t r a t e s an example of a procedure which P£P?£-o/Y/Y££. COO/A/G ppoceoc/ps COOPO OAT* sA/££T GOMPOT£P MAS T£CA? P£CO&OS COOB C O £ ? £ £ > c=fVA/V(Z£ SYMBOLS ^/ST//VG OP DOCUMENTS P>C//V<ZH'£0 <2AP(OS T/AfE. A/VO pty/zoix. T/M/E. AMD ' 4TT£A ' (T+A) coMPorep eo/r '&A/L ££>/FS COMPUTE/? COPlp/pcT PA/t. £0/TS ccppecr <££/AA/G£S p/££ fcUA/VGPS\ ( P/LEi J— CO*t&£C7-PA/C £0/7S MASTPfl V00ATE 7VA TO MAST&R ^/l£ AA//> A*£PG£5 CPA*GES MEMOS AA/£> nA £/&Z>P?£>S <ZO0£ I ccP^?£<r r/OA/s , Ic/POAre PSP/OPI ( S O U P C £ • t7A/pUBL/SH£D OS- GOVT . ^7fttv C^ nft- J 59 could be employed to update the i n t e g r a t e d p e r s o n n e l - p a y r o l l ' Master P i l e . The updat ing procedure can be c a r r i e d out i n p e r i o d i c a l ( u s u a l l y weekly) a d d i t i o n s to two f i l e s , the Changes P i l e and the T&A (Time and Attendance) P i l e . - New personne l . data and co r r ec t ed data from the p rev ious Master are coded, . keypunched, and t r a n s f e r r e d to the Changes P i l e . A computer e d i t of the 'Changes P i l e l o o k s f o r s p e c i f i c e r r o r s the computer i s programmed to d i s c o v e r . A l l e r r o r s are l i s t e d , c o r r e c t e d , repunched and put onto a C o r r e c t i o n s P i l e which i s j o ined w i t h the Changes P i l e to produce a co r rec t ed Changes P i l e . While t h i s procedure i s being c a r r i e d out the weekly Time and' Attendance cards from p a y r o l l are going through a s im-i l a r p rocess . The e d i t i n g and c o r r e c t i n g procedure produces the co r r ec t ed Time and Attendance P i l e . A t t h i s time the Changes P i l e and the Time and Attendance P i l e are merged w i t h the Master P i l e from the p rev ious updat ing p e r i o d . This adds .T&A data onto the Master and completes a l l changes which were p r e v i o u s l y on the co r r ec t ed Changes P i l e . The product of t h i s step i s a new updated Master F i l e , as w e l l as a F i l e of F a i l u r e s from the T&A. updat ing procedure . The updated Master P i l e (the manpower data bank) i s the source of a l l output r epo r t s as i t con ta ins a l l the computer ized data a v a i l a b l e on the employee workfo rce . The f a i l u r e s o f the T&A upda t ing procedure can be cor rec ted f o r the nes t upda t ing p e r i o d . 6 0 This updating procedure represents a batch process whereby changes and a d d i t i o n s to the Master F i l e are.made . p e r i o d i c a l l y i n a lump batch. Under the r e a l time system described e a r l i e r however,.these changes .could be made w i t h i n the data- bank as they occur, and thus at any i n s t a n t the Master F i l e would be updated. Figure 5 i n d i c a t e s procedures c a r r i e d out on an updated Master F i l e . I n i t i a l l y three procedures may be c a r r i e d out: c a l c u l a t i o n of wages and s a l a r i e s f o r the previous p e r i o d ; a d d i t i o n s to the Separations F i l e of data on employees who have l e f t the f i r m f o r v a r i o u s reasons; and an A c t i o n s F i l e which l i s t s a l l a c t i o n s taken by the computer a u t o m a t i c a l l y such as automatic pre-programmed pay i n c r e a s e s ; s t a t u s con-v e r s i o n s from c o n d i t i o n a l to permanent, e t c . F o l l o w i n g these programs the Master F i l e may be put through a N o t i f i c a t i o n Program. This program i n a c t u a l i t y represents the "-watchdog" aspect of the Personnel Management Information System. The N o t i f i c a t i o n Program w i l l automatic-a l l y produce memos to n o t i f y management to take a c t i o n s on such aspects of personnel work as job e v a l u a t i o n s which may be due, placement followup procedures, due promotions, e t c . The f o l -lowing chapter deals w i t h these ideas i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l . At t h i s p o i n t the fu!3.y updated Master F i l e may be a n a l -yzed to y i e l d the research and a n a l y s i s Information on the em-ployee v a r i a b l e which makes the concept of the PMIS worthwhile. FIGURE 5 PMIS OUTPUT' (Source: Unpublished U.S. Government Manual) 62 Standard programs.to yield routine reports are run at this time, as well as the required research and analysis programs to determine the pertinent employee data relationships. An Infinite number of programs can be run on the one basic Mas-ter P i l e . Any special requests from internal or external sources can be quickly answered i f f a c i l i t i e s and personnel exist to write the subroutines necessary. Summary This chapter has attempted to illus t r a t e how the input information into the manpower data bank is derived, coded, and deposited. It has shown how the systems approach i s employed to determine the key variables and the most efficient procedures to acquire optimum results. The basic fundamentals of such a program have been discussed here,- rather than the specific details of an actual system with i t s inherent intricacies. Each firm must of necessity design a system to meet i t s own needs. Some ideas have been presented here in the hope that they w i l l aid in this process. At this point attention turns to an analysis of some of the uses to which the data held within the Personnel Manage-ment. Information System may be ut i l i z e d . 63 ' Edgar W i l l e , The •Computer i n Tersonnel Work, (London: I n s t i t u t e of Personnel Management, 1 9 6 6 ) , p.8. 2 For a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of coding procedures see A r n o l d , e t a l . , I n t r o d u c t i o n to Data P r o c e s s i n g . (New York: Jolm Wiley and Sons Inc.~ 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 5 2 . This book i s known as the D i c t i o n a r y of Occupational  T i t l e s and i s a United States' Government p u b l i c a t i o n . 4 See A r n o l d , p_p_ c i t , p. 2 0 5 . 5 See Yoder at a l . Handbook of Personnel Management and  Labour R e l a t i o n s (Toronto: McGraw H i l l Book Co., T958") P 1 -29. 6 For an exhaustive l i s t of forms see Yoder, pj> c i t , p. 2 2 * 1 . 64 C H A P T E R V THE MODEL OUTPUT: REPORTING, RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS PROGRAMS I INTRODUCTION ' At the end of the preceding chapter i t was concluded that since a l l the p e r t i n e n t manpower data was updated and r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e on Master F i l e , h eretofore p r a c t i c a l l y im-p o s s i b l e work could now be c a r r i e d out examining the employee v a r i a b l e . This chapter deals mainly w i t h the programs and procedures which would be u t i l i z e d to o b t a i n meaningful and tim e l y i n f o r m a t i o n from the manpower data bank. While this'.chapter f o l l o w s the chapter d e s c r i b i n g data bank i n p u t , i n i t i a l comments should be kept i n mind t h a t the complete model i s pr o p e r l y derived i n reverse. Thus t h i s s e c t i o n may represent the systems a n a l y s i s approach i n tha t here, In d e f i n i n g PMIS output, i n essence i n v o l v e s d e f i n i n g the goals of the system. Nevertheless, computer output n a t u r a l l y f o l l o w s computer input once the system has been designed, and i s t herefore being considered i n t h i s order. Generally speaking, the u t i l i z a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n held w i t h i n the data bank i s l i m i t e d by the f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : the i n f o r m a t i o n content of the data bank; the t o t a l number of • 65 p o s s i b l e combinations of t h i s data; the imagination and f o r e -s i g h t of the personnel department i n determining i t s needs. This d i s c u s s i o n cannot be expected to i n c l u d e a l l the p o t e n t i a l uses to which the data could conceivably be put, yet nevertheless some of the major, more obvious programs w i l l be examined. In many cases the f i r m may wish to t e s t and v e r i f y , i f p o s s i b l e , many of the time-honoured t r a d i t i o n a l concepts widely held w i t h r e s p e c t to the employee v a r i a b l e . P r o p e r l y designed t e s t s , and means of work and a t t i t u d e measurement, etc. may shed new l i g h t on o l d ideas. Through computer-aided resea r c h , meaningful data on the labour fo r c e may be found to shed l i g h t on the types of people best s u i t e d f o r p a r t i c u l a r jobs. Some of the q u a l i t i e s of people who f i n d job s a t i s -f a c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the lower l e v e l jobs, may be determined. Research may be done on the advantages and disadvantages of l e i s u r e time and i t s e f f e c t on the work f o r c e . In a rapidly-changing world, i t may be found t h a t r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d to help f i r m s help not only themselves but also, employees and the government to adapt to the many problems f a c i n g them today. However, such re s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s programs r e q u i r e the manip-u l a t i o n of l a r g e amounts of data,.and.prior . to the advent of the computer, these procedures were almost impossible. I I SUBROUTINES TO U T I L I Z E DATA Once the data has been placed i n the manpower data bank, there e x i s t many procedures i n which i t can be manipulated to 66 y i e l d pertinent information. ' The desired information may vary from request to request, thus a mechanism must exis t whereby the data held can be retrieved to s u i t certain pur-poses. This i s accomplished through the use of mini-programs commonly called subroutines. Each subroutine may have an assigned number or code name and be stored within the o v e r a l l program. At the beginning of each run the computer i s pro-grammed to execute the desired subroutines and w i l l therefore y i e l d certain output. A Subroutine Example Within each subroutine, questions are asked of the main data bank and answers are received. By asking d i f f e r e n t com-binations of questions of the available data, various purposes can be served. The essence of a subroutine procedure i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 6 , t h i s type being i n the form of a decision table. This decision table represents a subroutine which could be employed i n an a i r l i n e s reservation, system. The questions asked of the data are indicated as conditions 1-5, the actions possible to take are considered from 1 to 6 at the botton of the table. A v e r t i c a l column of s a t i s f i e d conditions and subsequent actions i s c a l l e d a r u l e , and i n the example there are eight rules. Y indicates that a condition i s s a t i s f i e d and N indicates that i t Is not, while X shows the actions to be taken. This subroutine works as follows, f o r example: 67 / 3 4 5 6 V 8 % o 1 / 3 4 5 P/A>ST CLASS A£QU£ST f TGV#/sr REQUEST P f/RSr CLASS GPE/V ? 70L/PI/ST OPEAV • ACT£t>A/ATE CLASS ACCEPTABLE ? Y Y 1 Y A/ Y Y Y Y Y /V N Y N Y N Y N N N Y Y A/ Y Y N ! ! / 2 3 4 5 6 /SSOE rmsr CLASS TICKET /SSC/a TQC/P/.S7' 77Ctt£r SC/s. / PP&sf pc AVAILABLE SCf&. / A~£?GM TC AVAILABLE PLACE ON roupt/sr mir^sr PLACE O/V p/psr CLASS WA/r CLST l X X X X X X X X X X X X X X SYMBOLS! PC P/AST CLASS TC rct/st/sr CLASS Y YES - ccwon/ON SAT/SP/ED M A/O - COA/O/T/GV fi/OT SAT/SP/BQ X ACT/ON TD ££ TAKEN FIGURE 6 •A SUBROUTINE PROCEDURE IN DECISION TABLE FORM (From A r n o l d , I n t r o d u c t i o n to Data P r o c e s s i n g , p. 300) 1. r u l e 1 - f o r a F i r s t Class (FC) request and. when a FC i s open, then a FO t i c k e t i s issued and 1 i s subtracted from the number of FC seats a v a i l a b l e . 2. r u l e 3 - f o r a FC request, but n e i t h e r FC nor t o u r i s t Class (TC) a v a i l a b l e , but any a l t e r n a t e c l a s s accept-a b l e , then the request i s placed on the FC and TC w a i t i n g l i s t s . 3 . r u l e 6 - f o r a TC request, when a TO not a v a i l a b l e but FC i s and the passenger w i l l accept an a l t e r n a t e c l a s s then a FC t i c k e t i s issued and 1 i s subtracted from FC a v a i l a b l e . D e c i s i o n t a b l e s s i m i l a r to these are employed to describe subroutines w i t h i n the PMIS. They represent a c l e a r and con-c i s e way of r e p r e s e n t i n g a method of a n a l y s i s w i t h i n the sub-r o u t i n e . In some cases program f l o w c h a r t s are employed but on the whole they r e q u i r e more space and are harder to f o l l o w . 1 Other Subroutines A l i s t of some f e a s i b l e subroutines which could be em-ployed to carry out v a r i o u s r e p o r t i n g and research and a n a l y s i s f u n c t i o n s i s shown i n Appendix F. This l i s t i s c e r t a i n l y not exhaustive and many more programs could, conceivably be added to i t as various needs a r i s e f o r the i n d i v i d u a l f i r m . In seine cases s e v e r a l subroutines could be employed simultaneously to y i e l d a s i n g l e r e p o r t . 69 The subroutines are g e n e r a l l y s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e a f t e r the reference name used f o r each subroutine i s . a short d e s c r i p -t i o n of i t s use. When used w i t h the o r g a n i s a t i o n chart (also i n Appendix'6), the t a b l e i n d i c a t e s the probable r e c i p i e n t of the output r e p o r t . In a d d i t i o n , an i n d i c a t i o n i s given Of the type of data r e q u i r e d to be i n the manpower data bank i f the program i s to be run. Some data may have to come from other f i l e s , f o r example turnover a n a l y s i s would have to be done em-p l o y i n g the Separations P i l e . Most of the programs i l l u s -t r a t e d are e i t h e r the r o u t i n e r e p o r t i n g or simple r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s v a r i e t y . Much of the more in v o l v e d and complex r e -search s t u d i e s which could conceivably be done are beyond the scope of t h i s paper. The inherent advantages of such programs, which can produce l a r g e amounts of d e s i r e d r e p o r t s and stud i e s w i t h a modicum of c l e r i c a l l a b o u r , should become obvious at t h i s p o i n t . I l l . OUTPUT AND THE PERSONNEL FUNCTIONS In a previous chapter a t t e n t i o n was given to some of the f u n c t i o n s of the personnel department. It. i s p e r t i n e n t at this p o i n t to i n d i c a t e how some of these f u n c t i o n s are i n t e g r a t e d or r e l a t e d to the manpower data bank. R e c r u i t i n g The computer may be used as an a i d to the r e c r u i t i n g f u n c t i o n . Owing to the l a r g e number of a p p l i c a t i o n s u s u a l l y 70 dealt with by the average large firm, an EDP system adapts r e a d i l y to advantageous use by the r e c r u i t e r . I f information flows can be centralized and smoothed to permit rapid communi-cation, then f a s t n o t i f i c a t i o n of d i s p o s i t i o n of a p p l i c a t i o n , posting of actions taken, and preparation of reports can be systemized and automated. Proper use of EDP procedures would permit provision of means to r e t r i e v e resumes on applicants possessing s p e c i f i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . As time passed and such a system remained i n operation, comprehensive records could be obtained for the analysis of r e c r u i t i n g programs and a c t i v i t i e s . I t should be t e c h n i c a l l y possible to have a l l the necessary data of applicants on one f i l e and then to transfer t h i s i n -formation to the employee Master P i l e i f they are engaged i n employment. Research based on current employees judged to be better than average may o f f e r ideas to the r e c r u i t e r on what charac-t e r i s t i c s of the applicants who may best f i t i n with the company,-i . e . may aid the r e c r u i t e r to become more s e l e c t i v e . Training I f the firm has a d e f i n i t e t r a i n i n g program and can iden-t i f y i t s t r a i n i n g needs r e l a t i v e to the o v e r a l l organization, then the manpower data bank can be employed to help to ensure that a l l employees receive adequate t r a i n i n g r e l a t i v e to t h e i r positions. Generally, a l l t r a i n i n g data i s put on computer cards and t r a n s f e r r e d to the Master P i l e . At the end of a c e r t a i n p e r i o d or as desired, complete t r a i n i n g r e c o r d outputs can be de r i v e d from the data bank. These records may incl u d e a monthly recap of t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , surveys of costs of t r a i n i n g programs, and a complete l i s t i n g of employees t r a i n e d and the type of programs o f f e r e d . As more and more t r a i n i n g data becomes a v a i l a b l e the f i r m • w i l l be b e t t e r able to analyze t h e i r program to p i n p o i n t areas of maximum b e n e f i t from t h e i r t r a i n i n g programs. The t r a i n i n g area o f f e r s a good source of reduced costs by adapting to EDP equipment and procedures. Wage and Sa l a r y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Many of the other personnel department f u n c t i o n s b e n e f i from i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the 'PMIS. Por Wage and Sal a r y Admin-i s t r a t i o n the b e n e f i t s are obvious: the data generated by the computer I s up-to-date p r e r e q u i s i t e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the proper analyses and comparisons to be done,. The Heal t h and Safety r e c o r d s , which can be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the PMIS, f a c i l i t a t e com prehensive and meaningful r e p o r t w r i t i n g , as w e l l as f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s on h e a l t h and safety programs. The reams of s t a t i s t t i c s and general i n f o r m a t i o n permitted by the EDP a p p l i c a t i o n a l l o w the personnel people to spend l e s s time doing r o u t i n e work and. more time managing manpower. The S k i l l s Inventory J Perhaps the most u s e f u l EDP t o o l yet employed f o r 72 manpower management i s that of the S k i l l s Inventory. However, while experience has shown i t to be one of the most d i f f i c u l t , aspects to computerize, i t i s nevertheless one of the mos*; important segments of PMIS output. In essence, the S k i l l s Inventory i s designed to f i n d the1, r i g h t person f o r the r i g h t job, p r o v i d i n g a l l l e v e l s of manage-ment w i t h a t o o l f o r more e f f e c t i v e job placement and manpower pla n n i n g . Analyses of the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of a l l employees can be performed In a matter of minutes. The purpose of t h i s d i s -cussion i s to i n d i c a t e b r i e f l y how the d e s i r e d output i s 2 obtained i n r e l a t i o n to the S k i l l s Inventory i n p u t . The l a r g e s t s i n g l e d i f f i c u l t y i n the design of the S k i l l s Inventory system i s the language problem - the s k i l l t e r m i n o l -ogy must be p r e c i s e and b r i e f so that computer techniques can be used i n searching records f o r s k i l l s or combinations of s k i l l s . However once the proper data has been gathered and a p p r o p r i a t e l y coded, updating procedures are e a s i l y employed to ensure that ensuing s k i l l s and. experience gained by the em-ployee are incorporated i n t o the f i l e . The second p a r t of the S k i l l s Inventory approach occurs when the manpower data bank Master P i l e , which i n c l u d e s the . S k i l l s Inventory data, i s searched, f o r the desired s k i l l s . A. search request, may be entered Into the system i n punched card form, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 7. When the system l o c a t e s a match i n s k i l l s , the i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d i n the search i s 13 /A/Pi/T CAPOS SV/US I.WBNTORY SEARCH Cs££.£T££Mfl£QY££ Sf>L. PR/AT P£$</£ST SK'U. C£SOOJ/3T/OfiJ P/l£ MAiVreMANC£ CAPO OAT A PPOC£SS/NG SVS TGfrfS *£tC£PTtOfifS *0£4£7£ £tfP. SK/l/S • VPPAfiTD WllS FIGURE 7 A SKILLS INVENTORY PROCEDURE (From IBM Manual E 2 0 ~ 0 0 j 5 5 ' 0, p. 2 0 ) 74 stored f o r printout. The S k i l l s Description P i l e i s u t i l i z e d to explain, in', the printouts, vhe codes which were I n i t i a l l y employed, when coding the employee's s k i l l s . Management should decide what s k i l l s are important and how the inventory w i l l he used. Most s k i l l s inventories were designed i n i t i a l l y f o r job placement purposes. "However, i n recent years they have been used to an increasing extent to evaluate the manpower.capabilities of a company, i n manpower and product planning, and r e t r a i n i n g planning. I t i s obvious that only that data which i s recorded can be r e t r i e v e d . An attempt should be made therefore, to anticipate the amount of d e t a i l that may be desired In the future and to include t h i s from the beginning. The system should also be f l e x i b l y de-signed so that as new experience i s gained i n i t s use, addi-t i o n a l data can be incorporated with a minimum of e f f o r t , and Search and updating techniques can be improved. I f the s k i l l Inventory Is implemented as part of the integrated manpower data bank, then promotion aspects may be Included as an added benefit i f competency at each s k i l l i s included. Other Personnel Uses of the Computer Discussion up to t h i s point has considered how EDP tech niques can be u t i l i z e d as an aid to the personnel department through data stored within the manpower data bank. However, other procedures exist whereby the personnel department i s aided by EDP methods. .75 An example of t h i s i s the use of outside data on employee v a r i a b l e s : r e s u l t s of t e s t s , wage and s a l a r y data, sickness and absenteeism, and accidents e t c . These " o u t s i d e " variables-may be s t a t i s t i c a l l y compared to the f i r m ' s own v a r i a b l e s using e x i s t i n g r e g r e s s i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n c a p a b i l i t i e s of the computer. C e r t a i n t e s t s such as m o t i v a t i o n a l and morale surveys, where the employee remains anonymous and thus are not i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the Master P i l e , g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e the s i f t i n g and. s o r t -i n g of voluminous amounts of data. Again the computer can r e a d i l y be employed to a i d i n t h i s procedure. Summary This chapter has d e a l t w i t h some of the u s e f u l outputs •which can be obtained from the Personnel Management Information System. Again i t must be pointed out t h a t a pr o d i g i o u s amount of computer output i s p o s s i b l e from a p r o p e r l y designed system, and t h a t each f i r m must determine i t s own needs. 1 Por a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of f l o w c h a r t i n g p r i n c i p l e s see Arn o l d , et a l . I n t r o d u c t i o n to Data P r o c e s s i n g "(New York: John Wiley and Sons Y n c ~ 1966] 2 A comprehensive d e s c r i p t i o n of a S k i l l s Inventory procedure i s given i n IBM manual E20-0035-0, Personnel S k i l l s Inventory. 76 C II A P T E R VI ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS INHERENT ' IN THE PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM CONCEPT I INTRODUCTION "The dual function of the personnel department concerns: people as an organization to achieve a communal end; and people as people with i n d i v i d u a l needs.- Accom-p l i s h i n g these objectives or functions requires keep-ing a. number of records and having a r^ady f a c i l i t y to analyze them i n a variety of ways." "Facts are indeed the l i f e b l o o d of the personnel depart-ment, but quite c l e a r l y , record, keeping i s not i t s primary function. It i s merely a necessary t o o l . Yet how often the department finds i t s e l f employing an army of clerks to do nothing but maintain and aggregate records about s t a f f as in d i v i d u a l s and as groups; how often the fundamental jobs f a i l to get tackled because of the sheer weight of recording work. . We must therefore look to the computer to help the personnel department ant to take over much of the record keeping, to analyze the records In a f a r more comprehensive manner and to ensure that the data about the personnel f i e l d of the business i s integrated, with a l l the other elements to provide the raw material of decision making." Chapter 3 and Chapter. 4 considered some of the s p e c i f i c actions which were required i n order to e s t a b l i s h a PMIS. These actions had to be considered i n l i g h t of the environment of the economic system: that labour costs are r i s i n g ; that there i s increased competition f o r q u a l i f i e d employees; " •- ':/ 7 7 that automation i s introducing new personnel problems; that improved communication, and transportation, f a c i l i t i e s havs., along with other f a c t o r s , ..greatly contributed to the increased mobility of employees; that old-fashioned techniques may be becoming inadequate i n l i g h t of the preceding f a c t o r s . The preceding comments lend themselves n a t u r a l l y to a discussion of some of the advantages and l i m i t a t i o n s inherent i n the basic concept of the personnel management information system. I t must be kept i n mind that many of the "advantages" and " l i m i t a t i o n s " p_er se_ may not be applicable or acceptable i n every given s i t u a t i o n . In other words the objectives and management methods of various firms are d i f f e r e n t and thus what may be advantageous to one company may not be to another. II ADVANTAGES OP THE PMIS There are numerous advantages offered i n the personnel management information system. The.following discussion I n i t i a l l y centres on various general advantages, and will, be followed by advantages to the functional areas of personnel administration. Computer Cha r a c t e r i s t i c s An examination of some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a com-puter may be h e l p f u l i n setting a proper frame of reference. The computer cannot think, i t must be instructed i n the clearest 78 possible terms. I t i s not a "Big Brother" c o n t r o l l i n g people, but ra\her simply evaluates the facts which are presented to i t , a r r i v i n g at i t s answers by applying a series of questions to a wide range of data. The computer demands uniformity of input, thus forcing the users to r a t i o n a l i z e t h e i r methods, to make the i r documentation and procedures more self-consistent. Computer usage i s suggestive of the systems analysis approach, requiring users to examine the whole range of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s ; how and why things are done; who does them; on what time scale and so f o r t h . A complete organization and methods re-view i s involved so that a consistent and uniform flow of data may be available f o r the computer to process. In t h i s pro-cedure, not only are records being mechanized, but the computer Is being harnessed to y i e l d a more sophisticated business l i f e . General Advantages The decentralized or geographically dispersed firm could obtain much benefit from the PMIS, as i t w i l l bring the company closer together. However, some means of communication must be employed; the use of terminal outlets i s the most e f f i c i e n t but also the moot expensive. The size of the company, at the present time an import-ant f a c t o r due to the high costs associated with computers, i s becoming l e s s important as many firms, through time-sharing f a c i l i t i e s may u t i l i z e the same computer. Size however i s a factor, apart from the cost aspect, as i t i s apparent that . 79 many of the advantages of EDP would not be realized by a firm employing a small number of employees. It i s "generally assumed that companies with large work forces w i l l derive larger benefits as a l l the employees cannot possibly be known by any single administrator. The nature of the company's business may also be a factor. A large multi-plant firm with several sizeable government contracts may create new positions or c a l l for large labour cutbacks as contracts are received and completed. Large numbers of employees would have to be shifted among various plants to balance the needs of the firm. In these computer reports and procedures could substantially aid the decision-maker in the determination of those employees who are to be la i d off, rehired, or moved to a new location. How does the individual fare when his personal data i s fed into a computer, does he become a faceless number? Ex-perience has shown the contrary, that the employee benefits, and measures are generally taken to " s e l l " the employee on these benefits before such a system is Implemented. In gene-r a l , l i t t l e more information Is held on the employee when the records become computerized than when they were kept manually (with the exception of extra data gathered for the s k i l l s i n -ventory). The only major difference between the old and new systems i s the physical medium on which the data i s held and the fact that a l l this data i s centrally stored. Instead of cards or forms the storage medium becomes computer disc or magnetic taps. The major advantage resulting from computer-ization i s that now much more can be done with the employees' data than was previously the case. Employees are told that t l e i r chances for promotion are. more f a i r and equitable under such a system, as they are now automatically considered for any opening which may develop any-where within the firm. Within this " s k i l l s inventory" con-cept, the employees are assured that the employer has a thorough knowledge of what he can do, and thus hopefully w i l l be l e f t with the impression that the company cares more about him as an individual. One extra advantage accrues to the em-ployee by having his statistics placed on the computer: he receives an annual printout of his employee f i l e , and can up-date this or make any changes he sees f i t , return i t for re-coding or correction, and he assured that the company has pro-per and correct information on him. Such procedures were never done when using manual personnel systems. The role of the Individual manager may be changed to a degree with the advent of a personnel management information system. Chapter V highlighted the extent to which the computer can assist the manager in his day to day decisions through the notification type reports which give him prior warning of actions to be taken in the future regarding employees. The numerous government reports required can become much easier once the computer is programmed to produce the required information on demand. The amount of information made available to the manager, as-long as i t does not become excessively voluminous, 81 is a great aid to communication within the organization, in that the key men are .made more aware of what i s going on. EDP and Bp okke ening One major advantage of EDP in the personnel department is the effect on the "bookkeeping aspect of personnel records. Employees who were being underutilized by processing large amounts of data manually are now freed to concentrate their efforts on other aspects of personnel work, to become more knowledgeable about information held in the f i l e s rather than concentrating efforts on the completeness of the information or the physical location of the f i l e . Duplication of informa-tion held on records throughout the firm i s eliminated i f the various functions of the personnel system are integrated with -the payroll system.. The f i l e s are stored in a single loca-tion and are available to any request for information anywhere in the firm as. the need arises. A clear mechanism exists to change and correct f i l e s to keep them properly updated as a result of the i n i t i a l systems analysis of the personnel functions. Special requests can be answered in a fraction of the time i t takes to complete a similar procedure manually: for example a firm of 10,000 employees may wish-to determine the names.of employees with over five years experience who have taken outside courses In management training, a very time con-suming job under manual conditions but requiring very l i t t l e computer time. One obvious c l e r i c a l advantage i s r e f l e c t e d by the mul-t i t u d e o f uses ( u t i l i z i n g innumerable subroutines) t h a t can • be o b t a i n e d from the s i n g l e p e r s o n r e l f i l e , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Chapter V. At the prese n t time, i t i s a f a i r l y safe estimate t h a t f o r companies not employing EDP, much of the i n f o r m a t i o n h e l d on p e r s o n n e l f i l e s i s not u t i l i z e d simply because the c l e r i c a l l a b o u r r e q u i r e d to perform these f u n c t i o n s i s excess-i v e . The p r e c e d i n g comments i l l u s t r a t e two a t t r i b u t e s o f f e r e d by p e r s o n n e l management i n f o r m a t i o n systems: i n c r e a s e d f l e x -i b i l i t y and scope. F l e x i b i l i t y i s i n c r e a s e d , f o r once the 'system i s designed to meet broad o b j e c t i v e s i t p r o v i d e s a sound base to o f f e r management p r a c t i c a l l y any i n f o r m a t i o n i t may need i n the f u t u r e , p r o v i d i n g of course t h a t the system was designed w i t h the p r e r e q u i s i t e data i n i t i a l l y i n s t a l l e d i n the data bank. Scope i s s i m i l a r l y i n c r e a s e d . The personnel depart-ment i s ab l e to a f f o r d the f i r m f a r more p e r s o n n e l s e r v i c e s and i t s e l f l e a r n more about t h e i r manpower v a r i a b l e s than prev-i o u s l y was the case. R e s u l t s of Surveys Dr. E l i z a b e t h Lanham has considered many asp e c t s of com-3 p u t e r i z e d p e r s o n n e l systems. The survey she r e f e r r e d to found s e v e r a l reasons why pe r s o n n e l departments employ EDP procedures: to expedite r e c o r d and r e p o r t p r e p a r a t i o n by 83 providing f a c t s quickly, the. r e s u l t being improved quality and timeliress of data; to provide f o r rapid and accurate c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n and r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of data; to es t a b l i s h systematic and e f f i c i e n t procedures; to provide more comprehensive data; to improve o v e r a l l control; to permit cross comparisons of interdepartmental data; to reduce costs; and to improve long range planning. The cost aspect should be examined i n greater d e t a i l . The cost centers f o r EDP i n s t a l l a t i o n s generally are: machine system; programming; man-hours on machines ( i . e . EDP personnel); and selection and designing costs. Dr. Lanham found that one-half of the firms surveyed experienced cost reductions, a few found costs higher, while others found costs approximately the same. On the other hand, R. T. Bueschel commented that "the benefit of data processing i n Personnel seems to be l a r g e l y 4 intangible values, not d i r e c t d o l l a r savings." He argues that few personnel departments have r e a l l y a clear idea of t h e i r costs, either before or afte r EDP i n s t a l l a t i o n i s made. I r r e -gardless of either side of t h i s argument, i t should be kept i n mind that cost comparisons may be an unacceptable c r i t e r i o n i n the evaluation of EDP f o r the personnel department. The increased f l e x i b i l i t y and scope offered by the EDP i n s t a l l a t i o n include services that did not exis t p r i o r to the i n s t a l l a t i o n , consequently the post-EDP advantages are d i f f i c u l t to rel a t e i n do l l a r terms to services which did not ex i s t previously. 84 Dr. Lanham reported some advantages recorded by the larger firms employing EDP f o r personnel work. Among these advantages were: improved p a y r o l l accounting; speeded up handling of personnel information; l e s s expensive and more accurate personnel records and reports; uniformity of data input; and better managerial decisions on personnel matters. U. S. C i v i l Service Commission Program The C i v i l Service Commission's (USA) Executive Assign-ment System, considered i n the previous chapter, has reported many advantages offered by. this system. I t was designed i n part, to enable the C i v i l Service Commission (CSC) to make better forecasts of manpower needs and supplies, thus making possible more and better executive manpower planning. By cen-t r a l i z i n g a l l the data of top Federal employees i n Washington i t i s hoped that widened opportunity f o r growth and. advancement w i l l e x i s t f o r executives located i n r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d areas who w i l l thus receive consideration f o r jobs i n other agencies as they a r i s e . The United States federal government i s not a "status quo" organization. I t must have up to date information on employees i n the event of a new agency being created, an older agency being reorganized, or where mobilization may be necessary. In the words of President Johnson: "This new system w i l l t e l l us whom we need and where they are. I t w i l l provide us with 85 the f l e x i b i l i t y to bring the r i g h t talent to the r i g h t job at the r i g h t time.1' 5 Under .the Executive Assignment System, the government . benefits through more e f f i c i e n t use of i t s top management; the public servants benefit from increased opportunities f o r t h e i r career development and increased s a t i s f a c t i o n ; the c i t i -zens benefit from better administered programs which provide them f u l l value f o r t h e i r tax d o l l a r . By employing EBP methods, the US Government has brought modern manpower methods to the task of l o c a t i n g , developing, and u t i l i z i n g the best executive talent available f o r the key posts throughout the executive branch. One major environmental f a c t o r indicated to the CSC a need f o r better manpower management techniques: the demand f o r good executives was increasing sharply, exceeding the supply, thus new and better procedures were required. The preceding comments i l l u s t r a t e some of the reasoning behind the. C i v i l Service Commission's move to employ ED? f o r their top manage-ment, and c e r t a i n l y much of t h i s reasoning can be applied to the average corporation. Advantages to Various Personnel Functions Discussion at t h i s point turns to the advantages offered i n the PMIS to the various basic functions of the personnel department: records and administration; s t a f f i n g and 86 r e c r u i t i n g ; t r a i n i n g ; wage and salary administrationj man-power planning, and c o l l e c t i v e bargaining. Personnel Records and Administration. . Personnel records and administration are the obvious points to begin con-sideration of a personnel management information system. Com-put e r i z i n g basic records, f o r a l l functions, r e s u l t s i n more timely and s i g n i f i c a n t information being produced, while at the same time reducing c l e r i c a l labour. Quality of input informa-t i o n i s controlled by the personnel department to ensure acc-uracy and completeness. The information held i n the data bank i s updated as changes occur through the use of properly de-signed input forms, as described previously. The input i n -formation i s recorded once, and a l l output reports are derived from the one Master P i l e . The many b u i l t - i n checks on the information help to ensure accuracy of data r e s u l t s . S t a f f i n g and Recruiting. The s t a f f i n g and r e c r u i t i n g functions are greatly assisted by the manpower data bank. S t a f f i n g has to a certain degree been considered i n the d i s -cussion of the program of the U.S. C i v i l Service Commission. The decision to get the r i g h t man into the r i g h t p o s i t i o n cannot be made hurriedly, but must be rapid. Old methods apparently are Inadequate i n large companies, where the process generally includes a review, of the college specialty and a l l f i l e f o l d e r s before interviews are carried out. when automated selection techniques are employed however, areas of i n t e r e s t and f i e l d s 87 of specialization are isolated. Much c l e r i c a l work i s saved as the employee's data have been coded for a b i l i t i e s and areas of proficiency. The " s k i l l s search" of the manpower data bank i s com-prehensive and quickly presents a l i s t of suitably qualified candidates. If this resulting l i s t i s too long or too short, the constraints on the search can be Increased or relaxed. This selection procedure better coincides with talents and pre-vious interests of the individual, thus fewer training and job familiarization requirements have to be met. The s k i l l s printout report also has certain other advan-tages to the manager: in an examination of the workforce for special job assignments; in the preparation of proposals for projects he has a good idea of his available manpower; in the reorganization of operations; in career counselling; and 7 f i n a l l y in just plain knowing his people. • The concept of the s k i l l s Inventory Is synonymous with the following: promotion from within; efficient use of talent; fast and easy location of v i t a l l y needed or unusual s k i l l s ; and concerned management. The inventory program aids management in Identifying talent, developing talent, and pinpointing hiring needs. A system of this nature puts an onus on personnel management to ensure that f i l e s are continu-al l y updated. 88 •Companies which may best make use of s k i l l s inventories are characterized by: complex operations requiring a wide range of managerial, technical and administrative s k i l l s ; those.whose divisions are geographically dispersed; and those companies whose contracting work would require that they be able to. show to customers and clients that they have the neces-sary s k i l l s and managerial and technical capabilities to do the , , 8 job. A properly designed s k i l l s inventory program, coupled to modern staffing techniques results in a Job vacancy in one area being immediatly known in other company divisions so that good, employees are not l a i d off or f a i l to find employment in one area when the company can use their s k i l l s in another area. Related to the staffing considerations l s the recruiting function, another aspect of personnel work which i s adaptable to EDP procedures. "In diversified, decentralised companies with many geo-graphically distant and semi-autonomous components, striking the right balance between coordinated and independent recruiting i s a necessity. Where re- . cruiting has been uncoordinated i t has not been uncommon to find two adjacent and relatedgcomponents simultaneously recruiting the same man." As a result of uncoordinated recruiting efforts, many companies have found themselves in the curious position of unknowingly being in competition with themselves. Central-ized computerized recruiting procedures are a major answer to this problem i f a system has been properly designed to meet 8 9 the needs of the r e c r u i t i n g teams. The heavy volume of employment enquiries means over-sized paper problems, due i n part to resumes which arrive i n massive quantities during the r e c r u i t i n g season. Prompt response to these applications i s essential for proper re-c r u i t i n g as well as f o r public r e l a t i o n s . . At the same time i t i s v i r t u a l l y impossible f o r a small s t a f f to keep updated on every a p p l i c a t i o n f i l e . However at the same time i t Is es s e n t i a l that the existing current analysis of r e c r u i t i n g a c t i v i t y at any one point i n time be known i n order to plan further a c t i v i t y . A. properly designed computerized r e c r u i t i n g system affords the following: n o t i f i c a t i o n to applicants of their status; personnel department awareness of the aggregate s k i l l s of the applicants; paper work and thus worry reduced to allow the r e c r u i t i n g team to function more smoothly. Training. Firms have found i t advantageous to automate t h e i r t r a i n i n g records. ^ A great deal of time may be spent by the t r a i n i n g department c o l l e c t i n g and reducing data, typing completion notices, f i l i n g , compiling s t a t i s t i c s , and writing routine reports and special "immediate" reports. These func-tions are necessary, but may become large and disorganized. Integration cf the t r a i n i n g function into the Personnel Management Information System brings obvious advantages. 90 Special reports and data can be provided more accurately and easier. As more and more tra i n i n g and pertinent job data i s stored i n the data bank the training department i s better able to evaluate i t s training programs through research and analysis programs which were.previously impossible. Wage and Salary Administration. As mentioned before, the p a y r o l l function i s generally the f i r s t stage of the PMIS to. be implemented f o r firms using the computer. The advan-tages of t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n are obvious. Wage and Salary Administration i s closely related to the pa y r o l l function, and can also derive much use from EDP procedures. As the PMIS i s integrated with the p a y r o l l function the data bank contains much relevant information f o r use by Wage and Salary Administration people. Also, for analysis purposes, external salary survey data can be "read" into the computer so that the fi r m can better evaluate i t s competitive p o s i t i o n and assess the strengths and weaknesses of i t s own programs. I f the wage l e v e l s are lower than average, the firm may lose good men to higher paying companies; i f on the other hand I t i s paying wages much higher than average, the excess represents an unnecessary expense. In.effect, the computer w i l l aid the firm i n optimizing i t s wage and salary schedule. Wage and salary data may be simulated i n order to obtain a p r o j e c t i o n of thi s portion of the corporation's expenses at a future point i n time. The impact and poten t i a l cost of a 91 general salary increase can be predicted beforehand, and thus may be related d i r e c t l y to the assessment of c o l l e c t i v e bar-gaining implications of alternate proposals. While the average firm w i l l welcome outside wage and salary data, i t nevertheless w i l l occasionally be called upon to provide data to other sources. Computer procedures may be able to accomplish this much more e f f i c i e n t l y f o r the wage and. salary administration department. Manpower Planning. The manpower data bank i s a useful tool i n manpower planning, i n that i t aids i n the determina-12 t i o n of future manpower requirements. U t i l i z i n g EDP, the manpower planning function may be closely t i e d i n with the other long range planning a c t i v i t i e s of the corporation, thus allowing corporate planners to ensure that an adequate supply of s k i l l e d manpower w i l l exist to meet future needs. Integration of the Personnel Functions. Much of the reference l i t e r a t u r e u t i l i z e d f o r thi s chapter has explained how various aspects of the personnel function can be adapted for computerization. However, very l i t t l e i f any l i t e r a t u r e exists to explain how a l l the separate functions can be i n t e -grated through a common data bank to optimize personnel opera-tions. While t h i s would, seem to be a natural consequence, there was no evidence that any firm has automated a l l aspects of the personnel function. This p o i n t i s mentioned here because i t i s f e l t t h a t i f c e r t a i n b e n e f i t s accrue to p a r t i a l u t i l i z a t i o n of computer f a c i l i t i e s , then l a r g e b e n e f i t s r<-;ould r e s u l t i f a l l f u n c t i o n s were computerized w i t h i n an i n t e g r a t e d , f u l l y coordinated sys-tem. To a- l a r g e extent the model of Chapter IV d e a l t w i t h the i n t e g r a t e d system concept, i n d i c a t i n g nevertheless how com-ponent p a r t s of the whole could be considered separately. I l l LIMITATIONS OP EDP IN THE PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT Some of the concepts i n v o l v e d i n the previous considera-t i o n of personnel management in f o r m a t i o n systems are somewhat l i m i t e d . The f o l l o w i n g comments are intended to i l l u s t r a t e some of these l i m i t a t i o n s . Company C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s When computer time i s at a premium owing to a l a c k of adequate f a c i l i t i e s , as o f t e n i s the case, the personnel depart ment i s u s u a l l y given a low p r i o r i t y p o s i t i o n when t h i s scarce computer up-time i s being a l l o c a t e d . This may be explained by an e a r l i e r comment that the personnel department has d i f f i -c u l t y i n j u s t i f y i n g i n economic terms a PMIS, whereas advan-tages to other areas of corporate operations may be more ob-v i o u s l y related, to d o l l a r savings. There are c e r t a i n types of companies to which adaptation to computerized personnel systems would be of l i t t l e r e a l advantage. Small, c e n t r a l i z e d companies are a case i n p o i n t , 9 3 where the manager generally knows a l l his employees and i s i n day to day contact with them. Record keeping f a c i l i t i e s i n such circumstances are kept centralized and simple. Other personnel functions such as p a y r o l l , t r a i n i n g , manpower plan-ning and r e c r u i t i n g may be greatly s i m p l i f i e d to serve t h e i r narrow purposes. Companies which exist only on a seasonal basis, or employ a proportionally large number of temporary (part-time) workers would f i n d l i t t l e advantage to such a sys-tem. In general, the type of firms most advantageously em-ploying EDP are large corporations or research and development firms where the employee i s the key resource. E l i z a b e t h Lanham l i s t e d some problems encountered by-firms who have implemented computerized personnel data banks. Some firms had d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining accuracy i n the input information due to improperly designed, checking procedures. Another problem was the d i f f i c u l t y encountered by firms who improperly foresaw th e i r requirements with respect to records 1 -3 and reports and planning i n advance fo r them. Other pro-blem areas included the actual changeover from manual records to the EDP system, and the coordination required between the personnel department and the computing center. Programming, designing records and reports, and t a i l o r i n g EDP equipment to f i t personnel department needs were also l i s t e d . These considerations l i s t e d above have i n general Indi-cated a problem common to any EDP i n s t a l l a t i o n ; that of the need f o r q u a l i f i e d personnel to design and implement the system 94 It may prove more advantageous for firms to turn to outride specialists in the f i e l d rather than attempt to implement such a system using their own personnel. The firm's personnel may take longer and do an incomplete or inadequate job in compari-son to the specialists who would realize the problems at the outset, not after the job has been completed. Robert Martin has considered some of the prerequisite procedures for the proper implementation of the s k i l l s 14 register. One limitation appears to be that quantity of work (as measured by years of experience) does not truly repre-sent quality of work. Tests may be given to the employees to measure aptitude and intelligence but tests cannot effec-tively measure dedication, loyalty, energy and drive etc. Language may be a problem; the different viewpoints of termi-nology may cause a breakdown in the employee search. The employee who fancies himself as a custodial engineer but who is classified by the coding analyst as a janitor may be over-looked when a request i s made for a floor sweeper. These prob lems again may be overcome i f skilled personnel design and im-plement the system. Summary This chapter has attempted to examine the main advantage and limitations of personnel management information systems. It must be concluded that i f the characteristics of the firm 95 warrant i t , the advantages to he gained f a r outweigh the d i s -advantages. The computer can be an indispensable aid i f the personnel department i s being called upon by management to contribute d i r e c t l y to the company's p r o f i t a b i l i t y , and i f i t s a c t i v i t i e s are being judged by objective comparisons between predetermined objectives and measured r e s u l t s . " I f the personnel manager wants to be progressive, rather than f o r the status quo, he can, at the present, do l i t t l e better than by l i v i n g d a i l y with the computer, i n the performance of his own detailed tasks." These comments must be kept i n mind i n the l i g h t of the f a c t that the f u l l implications of the computer are not known at the present time. Future technological developments w i l l undoubtedly change the role or the concept of the computer i n r e l a t i o n to personnel work, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y f a c i l i t a t i n g the use of EDP by the personnel department. Edgar W i l l e , The Computer In P e r s o n n e l Work, (London: I n s t i t u t e of Personnel Management, 1966") p. 1 1 . 2 Ibid p 12 3 E l i z a b e t h Lanham, "ELP i n the Personnel Department," Personnel (March-April 1967) p.17. 4 R. T. Bueschel, "EDP and Personnel," Management Bui 1etin 8 6 , American Management Association, Personnel D i v i s i o n , T96TT, p. 6 . 96 5 John W. Macy J r . "The Executive Assignment System" C i v i l Service Jpurnal (October-December 1966) p.3. 6 Richard A. Kaumeyer, "Automated S k i l l s R e t r i e v a l : One Company's Program" Personnel (Jan-Feb 1967) p. 16. 7 Ibid p. 20 . 8 J. T. Wolcott, "How to Develop a S k i l l s Inventory," Personnel. ( May-June 1964) p. 5 5 . 9 R. H. Hawk and G. A. Bassett, "EDP: A Management Recruit-ing Tool," Administrative Management (August 1965) p. 22 . 10 Walter B. Wentz, "Time to Automate Your Training Records?" . Personnel(November-December i 960 ) p. 7 4 . 11 R. T. Bueschel, "How EDP i s Improving the Personnel Func-tio n , " Personnel. (Sept-Oct 1964) p.61. 12 R. T. Bueschel, A.MA B u l l e t i n 8 6 . op. c i t . p. 11 . 1 3 Lanham, op_. c i t . p. 21. 14 Robert Martin. " S k i l l s Inventories," Pe^o^nejL^qurnal, (January 1967). p. 28 . 1 5 Wille, op_. c i t . p. 28 . 97 C H A P T E R V I I THE FUTURE FOR EDP IN PERSONNEL WORK Discussion up to t h i s point lias centered upon the design of e x i s t i n g personnel management information systems and t h e i r inherent advantages. However the -world of computers i s pre-sently i n an era of extremely rapid growth, i n both technical hardware and software applications employed. The implications f o r the future are unlimited. This chapter i s presented to give the reader some idea of what the future may hold i n store f o r personnel management. Technologically speaking, computers of today are i n the so-called Third Computer Generation.. Each "generation" repre-sents a l e v e l of increased sophi s t i c a t i o n of computer hardware and software. Much l i t e r a t u r e exists on the present a b i l i t i e s of various computer systems consequently they -will not be dealt with here. The fourth generation of computers represents the next-step In so p h i s t i c a t i o n . I t should be characterized by a s i g -n i f i c a n t s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of systems and programming analysis, increased r e l i a b i l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y , and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . ' I TECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS 98 I t w i l l extend the v i t a l decision making process to include top management planning and decisioi.-making, with the r e s u l t i n g benefit of sharpening the v i t a l elements of the organization. On-line computer terminals, i n l i m i t e d usage today, should become commonplace devices to handle much of the computers work through d i r e c t input and r e t r i e v a l procedures. Many e x i s t i n g computer applications w i l l undoubtedly be outmoded by future improvements. One case i n point i s the d i r e c t document reading procedures which may render obsolete the personnel required to keypunch cards f o r input to the com-puter. II EFFECT UPON MANAGEMENT The personnel manager of the future should operate i n a t o t a l l y new environment as a r e s u l t of the EDP procedures he w i l l employ. Hopefully, his new environment has been aptly described i n Chapters I I I , IV and V of t h i s thesis. For ex-ample, Bueschel estimates that future applications w i l l expand 2 the system to handle regular employment applicants. Also planned are: report generators f o r analysis of salary curves; analysis of s k i l l s within the firm; manpower planning studies, and many other personnel reports. Technological improvements should allow continuous up-dating and recording of the employee's place of work and better u t i l i z a t i o n of the work force i n d a i l y operations. These 99 improvements should be f e l t i n better attendance and work sta-t i o n records. In employment, complete information should exist on the whereabouts and status of a l l applicants being considered f o r employment. Data w i l l be gathered to provide es s e n t i a l i n -formation useful i n planning and advertising programs, out of town r e c r u i t i n g , and budget programs. Strategic information should be e a s i l y gathered and analyzed on: what motivated employees to j o i n the firm; the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s they possess; the s k i l l s hardest to f i n d and hence what t r a i n i n g i s required. This information should be. available to r e c r u i t e r s on a r e a l -time r e t r i e v a l basis. When the l i n e manager needs f i l e information on an em-ployee he w i l l d i a l the computer and through a code state the type of information he desires. Clerks w i l l be able to d e l i v e r the printouts within minutes. Such communications can be con-trolled, through the use of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n numbers, thus elimlnat ing any indiscriminate use of the f a c i l i t i e s by unauthorized personnel. The p r i n t e r may be stored i n the personnel depart-ment f o r security reasons as well as economy. Through the use of the EDP network, forward planning by personnel departments w i l l be accelerated, because personnel managers w i l l have more information and opportunity to p a r t i -cipate In top management decisions that a f f e c t the future planning of the corporation. Personnel managers of the future 100 w i l l have to adapt to the changes inherent i n the PMIS, and w i l l be better managers i f they can. The concept of tho company may a l t e r i n the future, as a r e s u l t of EDP practices and procedures. Many companies may ' accept the f a c t of the t o t a l business information system; the board of d i r e c t o r s siay decree that a l l aspects of the corporate entity be included. If so, the personnel department would f i n d that i t Is to be included i n the EDP operation. The major benefit of such a p o l i c y would be that the personnel department would not have to compete as a low p r i o r i t y department f o r com-puter time, as adequate f a c i l i t i e s and personnel would he a l -located to: i t . E l i z a b e t h Lanham has reported that although many organi-zations do at the present time have EDP equipment and trained EDP s p e c i a l i s t s and are u t i l i z i n g both i n a number of phases of t h e i r operations, many have s t i l l not implemented EDP i n the i r personnel department. ^ She concluded that there was much evidence to indicate that there was an increasing aware-ness of the advantages of the computer i n personnel work and consequently the future w i l l see many more firms using i t . For those companies presently using computers i n the personnel department, future use may expand along two l i n e s : the number of personnel functions computerized and the types of employees Included i n the manpower data bank. An e a r l i e r chapter indicated that not a l l areas of the personnel were 101 computerized, that there was a s o - c a l l e d h i e r a r c h y of p r i o r i t y i n computerizing the var i o u s f u n c t i o n s . S t i l l . o t h e r comments i n d i c a t e d that: f o r any given f i r m or group, not a l l employees were i n i t i a l l y considered, i . e . i n i t i a l l y some f i r m s computer-i z e d only the data on i t s upper management and t e c h n i c a l people. In the f u t u r e I t t h e r e f o r e would he expected that the computer f a c i l i t i e s f o r personnel use w i l l be expanded to i n c l u d e a l l f u n c t i o n a l personnel areas, and also a l l employees w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . As these s o p h i s t i c a t e d techniques are implemented, the average f i r m would be expected to become l e s s and l e s s d e c e n t r a l -i z e d i n i t s personnel f u n c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y f o r other corporate f u n c t i o n s the role of the computer i s al s o expected to l e a d to a trend towards c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of f u n c t i o n s . This aspect could conceivably mark the entrance i n t o a new era of management con-cepts and become the t a r g e t of much new work by students of management o r g a n i z a t i o n and philosophy. The f u t u r e success of the PMIS concept depends to a l a r g e extent upon the environment provided by both top management and 4 s o c i e t y . S o c i e t y must r e a l i z e the b e n e f i t s and not become un n e c e s s a r i l y preoccupied w i t h the " B i g Brother" f e a r . For management, high l e v e l competency i n systems design and computer programming w i l l be r e q u i r e d , as w e l l as a w i l l i n g n e s s to change l o c a l ways f o r company good. Long term heavy Investment I s al s o r e q u i r e d . As system s o p h i s t i c a t i o n Increases, r i g o r o u s 102 analysis of top management functions coupled with business research w i l l be necessitated. Many of the concepts embodied in the PMIS discussion may eventually "be utilized to society's advantage in organiza-tions external to the firm in the future. One writer envi-sions the need for a sort of "Federal Reserve" system between firms to aid one company seeking employees while other firms 5 are going through a labour force reduction. If information was centralized the companies would benefit, the employees would benefit, and the nation's manpower resources could be better u t i l i z e d . Schon proposes a similar scheme whereby large employers In key di s t r i c t s would be a major source of input information for "technological forecasting" or "national manpower planning." ^ Bueschel has foreseen for the future the need of a new • 7 type of firm known as a Personnel U t i l i t y . The Personnel U t i l i t i e s would offer personnel services to the corporations in packages that might be time-shared, among the personnel depart-ments of several companies. Access would be gained through terminal devices located In offices of remotely located users. The Personnel U t i l i t y would offer special services such as the ava i l a b i l i t y of a highly skilled wage and salary analyst. The concept of the Personnel U t i l i t y i s greatly enhanced upon an examination of the advantages of defraying the costs over a large number of companies. It is cheaper to buy certain 103 computer services- outside the company since the development and computer costs are spread over a wider base. The data processing s t a f f could also be shared. Bueschel concluded that " i t i s reasonable to predict that time shared u t i l i t i e s w i l l o f f e r personnel applications packages within the next several years." As of 1968, the exposure of EDP to the personnel i s s t i l l recent, but the trend i s toward a strong e f f o r t to make up f o r l o s t time. These trends w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n future developments that w i l l undoubtedly be unheard of today. Pro-jections suggest applications that w i l l f a c i l i t a t e better f o r -ward planning and closer t i e s with the t o t a l company system. These are the changes of the future. 1 Edward A. Tomeski, "Personnel and Software: Third Generation EDP Dilemmas," Administrative Management-(March 1967) p. 16. 2 R. T. Bueschel, "EDP and Personnel," Management B u l l e t i n 86, American Management Association, Personnel D i v i s i o n , "l96T~~p.8. 3 E l i z a b e t h Lanham, "EDP i n the. Personnel Department," personnel (March-April 1967} , p. 2 2 . 4 • Tomeski, op_ cjlt p. 17 . 5 Richard A. Kaumeyer, "Automated S k i l l s R e t r i e v a l : One Company1s Program," Personnel (Jan-Eeb 1967) p. 2 0 . 104 Donald Schon, '^^J.AsM-ilLj^e^^ye.r^^ 'IfiZScastlng;11 A.Report to the President 1's Committee on Man~ power, January 1966 p. 8. 105 C H A P I E E VIII CONCLUSIONS This thesis has attempted to present a generalized, com-prehensive picture of a l l aspects of Personnel Management In-formation Systems. I t has examined t h e i r content at the pre-sent, proposed an i d e a l i s t i c model, and looked toward the future. At the present time, the majority of firms examined have not u t i l i z e d . EDP i n t h e i r personnel departments to the f u l l e s t extent. However i t must be kept i n mind that the corporation must deal with the hard economic f a c t s of computer applications, a constraint that was "relaxed" to a c e r t a i n de-gree i n t h i s presentation. The model presented e a r l i e r was obviously i d e a l i s t i c , but nevertheless I t represents certain goals to which the or-ganization computerizing its . personnel functions might s t r i v e . The systems analysis approach plays a very large role i n the optimum design of the PMIS, as It represents a thorough and systematic approach to the analysis and solution of the problems to be faced. The p o t e n t i a l uses'to be gained from the man-power data bank are almost unlimited, providing the prerequi-s i t e information has been "deposited" i n i t . 106 The advantages and limitations of computerized personnel system were discussed in some detail. In general, at the pre-sent time, i t was concluded that for a properly designed sys-tem, the advantages far outweigh the disadvantages, thus pro-viding incentive for further work in this area. The future for personnel Information systems appears to be very bright. The model presented in this thesis pro-bably represents only the i n i t i a l stages of ultra-sophisticated systems to come. The technology of computer systems i s changing so rapidly that i t i s not possible to estimate some of the f a c i l i t i e s which w i l l be available in ten to twenty years from now, yet the PMIS i s of course closely related to technological (and thus economical) developments. Much more work remains to be done in this area by students In the personnel f i e l d . More work can be done on meaningful research procedures to make better use of the manpower data bank and thus gain more knowledge of employees' characteristics. While i t was i n i t i a l l y hoped to simulate a model of the PMIS on the computer, i t was found that the many complexities of the personnel function, along with a prohibitive amount of pro-gramming work, made this nearly Impossible. It may be worth-while at some point however to "borrow" the manpower f i l e s and policies of a small firm and attempt a model for them. Work is also needed i n the examination of the potential abuses of such systems i f they are not adequately safeguarded from those 107 who would misuse them. Good d e c i s i o n s r e q u i r e t i m e l y , meaningful and appro-p r i a t e i n f o r m a t i o n . The personnel management Information system provides a fl o w of i n f o r m a t i o n to s a t i s f y management's needs. I t i s a base f o r systematic management, an o r d e r l y approach to the performance of the management r o l e . The sys-tem f a c i l i t a t e s the ex e r c i s e of judgement, but does not repla c e i t , since judgement and i n t u i t i o n remain s i g n i f i c a n t elements i n the d e c i s i o n process. 108 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 109 A. BOOKS Ar n o l d , Robert R., Harold C. H i l l and Aylmer V. N i c h o l s . I n t r o d u c t i o n to Data P r o c e s s i n g . 'New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1"96BT 326 pp. Durham, W i l l i a m . Personnel Records. Forms and Procedures. London: The I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y , T9ETT 85 pp. Luck, T. J.- Personnel A u d i t and A p p r a i s a l . New York: McGraw H i l l , 1955. 405 p p . • Toedt, T.A. , e_t a l . Managing Manpower i n the I n d u s t r i a l Environment. Dubuque, Iowa: W.C. Brown P u b l i s h e r s , T9S2T 376" pp. Yoder, B a l e , e_t a l . Handbook of Personnel Management and Labor R e l a t i o n s . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company" f958. B a i l e s , Stephen M. "Fundamental Aspects of E s t a b l i s h i n g A S k i l l s Inventory," Personnel Journ a l (1962) p. 226-230. Bueschel, R, T. "How EDP i s Improving the Personnel Function," Personnel, (Sept-Oct 1964) p. 59-64,.' Esser, N.J. "The Computer - A. Challenge to the Personnel Function," Personnel J o u r n a l , (June 1965) 292-94. Hawk, R. H., and B a s s e t t , G. A. "EDP: A Management R e c r u i t -i n g Tool," A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Management, (August 1965) , p. 22-24. Eecker, Joseph, and Robert M. Hayes. Information Storage ,^Theories. New York: and R e t r i e v a l : Tools, Blements John Wiley and Sons, I96F! 4~£ B. PERIODICALS 110 Kaumeyer, Richard A. "Automated S k i l l s R e t r i e v a l , " P ersonnel. (Jan-Feb 1 9 6 ? ) , p.16 - 2 0 . Lanham, E l i z a b e t h . "EDP.in the Personnel Department," Personnel. (March-April 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 16-22." Macy, John W. "The Executive Assignment • System'," C i v i l S e rvice J o u r n a l , (Oct - Dec 1 9 6 6 ) , p.1-7 . M a r t i n , Robert A. " S k i l l s I n v e n t o r i e s , " • Personnel J o u r n a l , (January 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 2 8 - 3 0 . Rabourn, Owen N. James H. S c h i l z , and Charles ¥. Holland. "A S u c c e s s f u l S e l e c t i o n Technique," Personnel J o u r n a l ( A p r i l 1967)., p. 211-13-Rosenbaum, Bernard L. "The Manpower Inventory - A. Power-f u l Tool," Personnel J o u r n a l (Feb.- 1967) p.8 5 - 8 7 . Tomeski, Edward A. "Personnel and Software: Third Generation EDP Dilemmas," Ad min i s t r a t i ve Manag ement, (March 1967), p. '16-18. . = ."•' Wentz, W. B. "Time to Automate Your T r a i n i n g Records?" Personnel, (Nov-Dec 1 9 6 0 ) , p. 7 4 - 7 8 . Wolcott, J . T. "How to Develop a S k i l l s Inventory," Personnel. (May-June 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 5 4 - 5 8 . PUBLICATIONS OF GOVERNMENTS, LEARNED SOCIETIES, AND OTHERS Bueschel, R. T. "EDP and Personnel," Management B u l l e t i n e 8 6 . Personnel D i v i s i o n , American Management"Association, 1966. Dickmann, Robert A., Olinda E l l i o t t , and L e s l i e A Hubbard "Information R e t r i e v a l i n the Personnel Department" The Johns Hopkins U n i v e r s i t y , Maryland. Gaylord, Richard H., A l f r e d J . F a r i n a , P a u l Spector. "Opera-t i o n a l Analyses of the Naval Personnel System: P a r t I. Development of a Personnel System Model" F i n a l Report, American I n s t i t u t e f o r Research, (December 1959) ~ 111 • Gaylord, Richard H. and.W.-J. Knets. "Operational Analyses ' of the Naval Personnel System: Part I I . " F i n a l Report . . American Inst i t u t e f o r Research, ( 1 9 6 1 ) . Giesler, E. B. "Manpower Planning: An Emerging Staff •Function," Management B u l l e t i n 101, . Personnel • D i v i s i o n , American Management Association, 1967-Gorham, William. "An application of a network Flow Model to Personnel Planning" U.S. A i r Force Project Rand, Rand Corporation, June i 9 6 0 . " Gorham, William. "Some A n a l y t i c a l Techniques f o r Personnel Planning," U.S. A i r Force Project Rand, Rand Corpo-r a t i o n , May 1960 . ~ National I n d u s t r i a l Conference Board. "Forms and Records i n Personnel Administration, No.175." New York: National I n d u s t r i a l Conference Board, i 9 6 0 . Wille, Edgar. "The Computer i n Personnel Work." London: The I n s t i t u t e of Personnel Management, 1966 . D, UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Bowman, Raymond T. "A Federal S t a t i s t i c a l Data Center: Interpretation of the Idea and the Cr i t i c i s m s I t Has Evoked" (paper presented at the Fourth Annual Conference of the Council of Social Science Data Archives at the University of C a l i f o r n i a at Los •Angeles - June 15 , 1967-Executive Assignment System, "Executive Inventory Record" Bureau of Executive Manpower, United States C i v i l Service Commission, May 1967 . Executive Assignment System, "The Executive Inventory" Bureau of Executive Manpower, United States C i v i l Service Commission, May 1 9 6 7 . Drexel, Charles A. "Highlights of P a y r o l l Accounting on EDP," (paper presented to National Conference of Gas and E l e c t r i c U t i l i t y Accountants, C i n c i n n a t i , Ohio, A p r i l 1964). Farr, U. J. "EDP Record Keeping f o r Employee T h r i f t Plan - Unit Method" (paper presented to National Confer-ence of Gas and E l e c t r i c U t i l i t y Accounts, Cin-c i n n a t i , Ohio, A p r i l 1964). 112 Johnson, Robert L. ''Systematic Management - A Discussion of Systems Use.in Management." (paper prepared f o r 1.96? Management Conference Maschinefabrik Oerlikon at Stanford Research I n s t i t u t e , Menlo Park, C a l i f o r n i a . IBM Data Processing Application Manual E 2 0 - 0 0 3 5 - 0 , "Personnel S k i l l s Inventory" IBM, White Plains, New York, 1967 . IBM Data Processing Application Manual E - 2 0 - 0 2 7 3 - 0 , "Cen-t r a l i z e d Personnel Records for Hourly Employees" IBM, White P l a i n s , New York, 1967 . IBM Data Processing Application Manual E 2 0 - 0 1 9 3 - 0 , "Personnel Data System," IBM, White P l a i n s , New York, 1967 . IBM Data Processing Application Manual E 2 0 - 8 0 3 2 , "General Information Manual - Personnel Records," IBM, White P l a i n s , New York, 1967 . Meyers, Eugene D., "Integrated Personnel Record Keeping Systems - Columbus and Southern Ohio E l e c t r i c Company," (paper presented at National Conference of E l e c t r i c and Gas U t i l i t y Accountants, New Orleans, May 2 - 4 , 1 9 6 6 ) . National Aeronautics and Space Administration. "Data Pro-cessing Manual - Personnel Management Information System" NASA, Washington DC, 1967 . Simmons, Douglas L. "EDP Integration of Personnel-Payroll Records at Tennessee Gas," (paper presented at National Conference of Electric"and^Gas U t i l i t y Accountants, New Orleans, May 2 - 4 , 1 9 6 6 ) . M 3 A P P E N D I X APPENDIX A PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT .INFORMATION SYSTEMS c l o s e d i n p o c k e t o f t h e 115 APPENDIX B POSSIBLE DATA FOR THE MANPOWER DATA BANK 1.. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Data P u l l name Mr./Mrs./Miss Maiden Name Address Telephone number Date of B i r t h Age Soc i a l Security Number Employee Number Nat i o n a l i t y R a c i a l Origin Birthplace Marital Status Dependents next of kin emergency n o t i f i c a t i o n r e l i g i o n nickname name of spouse name of supervisor c i t i z e n s h i p colour eyes colour hair-r e l a t i v e s i n company-friends i n company when available 2. Education Data Elementary School Secondary School Technical School Vocational School University undergrad Master Degree Doctorate Grade average Year of graduation Apprenticeship Correspondence Courses Professional bodies m i l i t a r y t r a i n i n g night school courses company courses self-improvement a c t i v i t y publications languages spoken s e c r e t a r i a l computer systems f i r s t aid teaching. Job Experience Previous employers P o s i t i o n when l e f t Wtige when l e f t Date Started Date Terminated Reason for Termination Category ( f u l l time etc.) Company d i v i s i o n Immediate Supervisor name. address pos i t i o n phone No. r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s nature of job references w i l l i n g to travel, p o s i t i o n desired P a y r o l l Employee number Occupation Absentee record Trade Union Salary/Wage Tax code Pension plan Loans Expense Account Exempt Status Overtime Status Group Insurance Medical Plan Bank Accounts Seniority l e v e l Vacation allowance, community service sales bonus land purchase stock option p r o f i t sharing Job History and Appraisal jobs held rate of pay - beginning - ending s e n i o r i t y place of employment work schedule time i n p o s i t i o n outstanding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s time under appraiser supervisor comments a b i l i t y character conduct accuracy l o y a l t y cooperation honesty sobriety rehire 1 1 ? Termination Reason for termination Date of. termination Employee rating Remarks length of service .7. Medical General health height weight job limitations d i s a b i l i t i e s date of last medical date of this medical diseases BCHTS No. X-ray report-MSA accidents - when - where - why - whose fault? 8. Testing I.Q. psychological attitude aptitude manipulation Interviewer's impression Off-Job Activities Service clubs professional clubs union work hobbies Community church children's groups sports 10. Other business managers driver's employee telephone approval licence suggestions employee grievances indoctrination procedure tuition refund due APPENDIX C MANPOWER DATA BANK CODES Types of Record Adjustment - Action Code 1; salary change 2. addition to p a y r o l l 3. occupation change 4. l o c a t i o n change 5. termination 6. other 7. marriage 8. address Type of Separation 1. voluntary 3. mutual 2. dismissal : .4. other M a r i t a l Status/Sex 1. male, single 6. female- single 2. male, married 7. female married 3. male, widowed 8. female widowed 4. male, separated 9. female separated 5. male, divorced 10. female divorced Absence, Reason 1. no reason 2. i l l n e s s 3. i l l n e s s i n family 4. death i n family C i t i z e n Status 5. jury duty 6. personal business 7. transportation 8. other 1. born i n Canada 2. naturalized Canadian 3. 4. non-citizen applied f o r statu 119 6. Education 1. eleni. school credits 2. elem. school graduate 3. sec, school credits 4. sec. school graduate 5. 6. 7. 8. college or college or college or college or unl'v. univ. univ. univ. credits bachelor master doctor Employment Reason (Nature) 1. replacement 2. addition 3. temporary 4. f u l l time 5. part-time 6. special assignment 7. special consultant 8. summer student 8. Handicaps 1. o i . 3. 4. 5. no d i s a b i l i t y partially blind totally blind partially deaf totally deaf 6. single hand or arm 7. both hands or arms 8. single foot or leg 9. both feet or legs 10. general illn e s s Occupation Some companies use the code l a i d out in the U.S. Government Publication "Dictionary of Occupational Titles" -while many firms feel that their own code i s more advantageous. Occupation Status Reason 1. new employee 2. re-employed 3. returned from military service 4. temporary 5. transferred - promotion 6. transferred - demotion 7. transferred - personal reason 8. transferred - d i s a b i l i t y 9. other 120 1 1 . Special Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s 1. no special q u a l i f i c a t i o n 6. hands: small 2 . large stature 7 . action: quick 3 . medium stature 8 . - acute hearing 4 . small stature 9 . acute sight 5 . hands: large 1 0 . unusual dexterity 1 2 . Termination Reasons 1 . wages discontent 1 1 . to further education 2 . opportunity elsewhere 1 2 . trouble with supervisor 3 . working conditions 1 3 . marriage 4 . personal (family) 1 4 . to reside elsewhere 5 . health 1 5 . discharged 6 . unsatisfactory work 1 6 . layed off 7 . company rule 1 7 , retirement 8 . m i l i t a r y service 1 8 . deceased' 9 . d i s l i k e of work 1 9 . d i s l i k e of l o c a l i t y 1 0 . pregnancy Wage Base 1. hourly 3 . semi monthly 2 . weekly 4 . monthly Wage Change Reason •. probation rate 5 . promotion 2 . q u a l i f y i n g rate 6 . demotion 3 . s e n i o r i t y 7 . cost of l i v i n g 4 . merit 8 . general. 1 5 , Reporting I n s t a l l a t i o n may wish to use say a 4 d i g i t number. abed ab - province or area cd •• plant level. 121 16. M i n o r i t y Group Code 1. North American Indian 2. Negro 3 . O r i e n t a l 4. Spanish American 5- none of these 6. no response or unknown 17. P r o v i n c e s 1. A l b e r t a 2. B r i t i s h Columbia 3 . Manitoba 4. New Brunswick 5. Newfoundland 6. Nova S c o t i a 7 . Ontario 8. P r i n c e Edward Island. 9 . Quebec 10. Saskatchewan 18. Answer to Questions 1. noncommittal 3 . no 2. yes 19. L a y o f f 1. temporary job 3 . l a c k of work 2. change of methods 20. Discharged 1. misconduct 4. poor a t t i t u d e 2. inadequate performance. disobedience 3 . intemperance 21. E x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s at school 1. c l a s s or student 5^  drama government 6. j o u r n a l i s m 2. a t h l e t i c s 7 . s p e c i a l clubs 3- committees 4. debating 122 22. P r o m o t a b l l i t y code 1. poor 4. good 2. f a i r 5. e x c e l l e n t 3. average 23. I n d o c t r i n a t i o n p r o c e d u r e 1. company p o l i c i e s 2. s a f e t y 3. b e n e f i t s a v a i l a b l e 4. j ob d e s c r i p t i o n 24. A r e a o f r e s i d e n c y a t t e m p t code here - s i m i l a r to Z i p Code f o r the p r o v i n c e as a whole i n o r d e r to p i n p o i n t a r e a t h a t p e r s o n l i v e s i n . - may w i s h t o do i t by p o l i t i c a l b o u n d a r i e s . 25. Cause o f a c c i d e n t a. F a u l t y environment 1. hazardous arrangement 2. u n s a f e m a t e r i a l and equipment b. Human element 1. p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 3. i l l u m i n a t i o n 4. v e n t i l a t i o n 5. moving machinery 2. knowledge and s k i l l 3. a t t i t u d e s 26. Job f a c t o r s f o r wages 1. m e n t a l e f f o r t r e q u i r e d 2. s k i l l s r e q u i r e d 3. p h y s i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s 4. r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 5. w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s 27. I n d u c t i o n P r o c e d u r e C h e c k l i s t 1. g e n e r a l work of department 2. company o p e r a t i o n s 3. e x p l a n a t i o n o f job employee g o i n g to 123 4 . •what is expected 5. how w i l l he he rated 6 . safety - Injuries 7. salary information .8. hours of work 9. vacation 1 0 . lines of progression for future promotions 11 . location of major f a c i l i t i e s 1 2 . questions? 13. who to go to with questions 1 4 ; introduction to trainer 15. medical appointment 1 6 . OPP book signed 17. Income Tax form 1 8 . patent form 19. staff club 2 0 . credit union 21 . map, fact card, etc. 2 2 . welfare plan 23. retirement plan 2 4 . introduction to working associates. 28. Fringe Benefits 1. extra payment for time worked 2. payments for time not worked 3. payments for employee security 4. nonproduction awards and bonuses 5. payment for employee services each of above can be categorized further i f need be. 2 9 . Expense Account Items 1. 2 . 3. food travel lodging 4 . 5. 6 . entertainment equipment contingencies 30. Languages Spoken 1. 2 . English French German Russian Spanish Italian Slovak 8 . Japanese • • 9 . Chinese I. 0 . Hebrew II. African dialects 1 2 . other Asian languages 13. Portuguese 1 4 . Other 1 2 4 Type 03? Job 1. labourer 2. production line 3. skilled worker (craftsman) 4. supervisor 5. staff.specialist 6. executive 7. technical (professional) 8. other Testing here i t would be desirable for each individual company to code the specific types of testing methods i t employs, leaving room for new testing methods not yet developed. Grievance Reasons 1. wages 2. supervision 3. seniority 4. layoffs + promotion 5- disciplinary 6. safety 7. health 8. collective bargaining Grievance stages 1. f i r s t line supervisor 2. plant manager or general foreman 3. employees group representative 4. third party intervention 5. arbitration Training Programs 1. job training 2. supervisory 3. apprenticeship 4. induction 5. sales 6. presupervisory 7. executive development 8. general education '•25 3 6 . Professional Associations 1 . professional engineer 8. operations research 2 . various Engineer societies 9 . forestry 3 . law 1 0 , agriculture 4 . accounting. 1 1 . sc ient i f ic 5 . industr ia l relations 1 2 . medical science 6 . marketing 13. CMA 7 . finance 1 4 . AMA 3 7 . Treatment Required for 1 . ambulance 2 . dressing 3 . examination 4. home v i s i t 5. hospital Accident 6. operation 7 . redressing 8. special 9 . transfusion 1 0 . X-ray 1 26 PAYA CAAO A/O-SCOAi. MSO.QANCE PUM0£P MP ms M/SS caoE PAM£ M/OSLE SVWAMS. 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St'C'LiS COP£S JC3 £jXAT£y>7 CO£>£ SAIAMY PATS SPAcg 30-43 44-4S So &'S2 53-57 SB-62 !<SS- 7«E 73-77 78-SO APPENDIX D S O f f i EXAMPLES OF INPUT CARD LAYOUT A P P E N D I X E E X A M P L E S O E ' T Y P E S O E M A N P O W E R R E C O R D S E M P L O Y E D Job A n a l y s i s and d e s c r i p t i o n - job d e s c r i p t i o n and s p e c i f i c a t i o n - employee s p e c i f i c a t i o n r job breakdown sheet Recruitment - s t a f f i n g schedules - a p p l i c a n t appointments - a p p l i c a t i o n and r e g i s t r a t i o n forms S e l e c t i o n and Placement - I n t e r v i e w e r s check l i s t - employment h i s t o r y form - education h i s t o r y T r a i n i n g - employee t r a i n i n g record - t r a i n i n g timetable - request f o r t u i t i o n refund Wage and S a l a r y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n » a p p l i c a t i o n f o r s a l a r y increase - change of r a t e n o t i c e - job e v a l u a t i o n schedule Personnel R a t i n g - r a t i n g s c a l es - employee r a t i n g record 128 7 . Promotion, t r a n s f e r and leave - request f o r t r a n s f e r - n o t i c e of t r a n s f e r - n o t i c e of promotion 8. Employee s e r v i c e s - a p p l i c a t i o n f o r b e n e f i t a s s o c i a t i o n - request f o r group l i f e insurance - a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r deductions 9. H e a l t h and Safety - attendance record - accident r e p o r t - s i c k n e s s , i l l n e s s r e p o r t s 10. D i s c i p l i n e and separation - stop or t e r m i n a t i o n n o t i c e - n o t i c e of d i s m i s s a l - e x i t i n t e r v i e w 11. Morale measurement and maintenance - grievance r e p o r t - o p i n i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e - suggestion blanks 12. C o l l e c t i v e Bargaining - n o t i c e of a r b i t r a t i o n - c o l l e c t i v e agreement (source: Yoder p. 2 2 - 6 ) APPENDIX P EXAMPLES OP TYPES OP ROUTINE REPORTING AND RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS SUBROUTINES 130 VP /A/0VSTP/AL. A>£LATtONS -c T VP PPQOUCTtOn/ & ETC. r VP P/MAKCE EOP> /.MmGER-pspsczva. \ PEIAJOWS WAGE AA/O SACAW AQM/M' J SELECTrOrt PLAceMExr PVOUC PEiAT/OfifS p MANfO&Efi PLPJMMG AftO jig A^ST J S TATariuW QWIS/OIYAL MAtfA&SPS PU0/JC PECATIO.VS PEPSOMA/El. Acaou/vr/m n: ETC. TECHNICAL. u PECATZMS •CQUKSSUP® -GP/EWWCSS T SAFETY //WfCE 5£l£Cr/oN PLACEMENT OQ/&/TATtO/* <3? £VALUAT/aV w T7M&<£EP/N6 APPENDIX E ORGANIZATION CHART RELATING TO TABLE ON THE FOLLOWING PAGES No. NAME DESCRIPTION RECEIVER DATA REQUIRED THE COMPUTER REFERENCE NAME USED TO DES- . CRIBE THE PRO-GRAM Type (I) • i i ) (351) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) company - action form RECEIVER company - research OF OUTPUT company - special requests CODED.ON. company - routine reporting PRECEDING government other i n t e r n a l computer procedures. ORGANIZA-TION CHART 1 I1APP YBIRTRU AY 2 MEDICHECK , 3 RETIRE 4 RATINGDUE 5 APPLICSTATUS (i ) employees l i s t e d with birthdays i n near future (i) l i s t s employees whose annual medical check due (i) • l i s t s employees whose r e -tirement date imminent (l) n o t i f i c a t i o n that employee r a t i n g due at spec i f i e d date (i) n o t i f i e s applicants of appl i c a t i o n status R, S name, address, b i r t h date Name, date, date of l a s t medical V,Q,P,N name, birthdace r e -other super tirement oode, date Q,0,N Name, date, date of l a s t review Q, a p p l l - name, address, a p p l i cant cation status 6 ABSENTGEOG ( i l ) analysis of absenteeism I, (H) mandays absent, geo-by geographic area graphic l o c a t i o n , t o t a l employees i n th i s l o c a t i o n . No. ' NAME 7 ABSENTDATE ( i l ) 8 TERMINATION ( i i ) 9 TESTCHECK ( i i ) 10 SKILLCHECK ( l i ) 11 MARITAL-ABSENT (I1) 12 ABSENT-REASON ( i i ) DESCRIPTION analysis of absentee rates by time period analysis of termina-tions by reason a program which would attempt to show quantita-t i v e l y the r e s u l t s of com pany te s t i n g procedures on s e l e c t i o n rates examines employee inven-tory f o r special s k i l l s required looks at absentee rates by marital status looks at absentee rates by re son given 13 SALAHY-ELUCATION (II) 14 SALARY-EXPERIENCE ( i l ) 15 LATE-REASON ( i l ) attempts to correlate annual wage rates with degree of education the c o r r e l a t i o n of an-nual wage rates with experience looks at lateness i n r e -porting to work by reason RECEIVER I, (H) E,I,0,T I T I I I I I DATA REQUIRED mandays absent period involved termination code date l e f t work ratings test scores job codes s k i l l codes marital status man-days absent reason-for-absentee-ism code, mandays absent education code salary l e v e l experience i n years salary l e v e l reason f o r lateness code hours l o s t NO. NAME DESCRIPTION RECEIVER DATA REQUIRED 16 SICKNESS (iv) 1? QUALIFY (iii) 18 SALARY-CHECK (iii) 19 COMMUNITY' (ill) 20 SENIORITY-LIST (iv) 2.1 CLUB-25 (iv) 22 EMPLOYEE-LIST (iv) 23 MALESTATUS (iv) 24: FEMSTATUS looks at sickness reports R by reason s k i l l - s e a r c h of employee roster to f i n d the man best f i t t i n g prerequisites H complete salary d i s t r i b u - G, I tion f o r a l l employees i n the company a l i s t i n g of a l l employees F, I, V and how they contribute to community a f f a i r s l i s t i n g of a l l employees M, N, 0 by s e n i o r i t y and d i v i s i o n etc. i n order of seniority l i s t s a l l employees who F, V have greater than 25 years s e n i o r i t y alphabetical l i s t of a l l employees by age and sex and by occupation groups d i s t r i b u t i o n of males by age and marital status, veteran status same as 23 (iv) 0, P, M, I 0 C .0 c M M sickness code No. people sick s k i l l s code s k i l l s desired s a l a r i e s No. i n each range (coded! code f o r extra-a c t i v i t i e s name, se n i o r i t y dates, occupation name, occupation s e n i o r i t y date name, emp. No. age sex, occupation age range - coded marital status-coded veteran status-ceded age range - coded marital statu? veteran .status No. NAME DESCRIPTION 25 NEWSTATUS (iv) l i s t s status changes . f o r a given period 26 TERM-PERIOD (iv) l i s t of terminations . f o r the period 27 TRANSFERS (iv) l i s t of transfers f o r . the period 28 ABSENTEES (iv) l i s t of absentee during . the period 29 MERIT-REPORT (iv) l i s t of merit ratings of , •. a l l employees 30 SUGGESTION (iv) l i s t s employee suggestion . f o r period along with remuneration paid (iv) 31 EDUCATION-SUMMARY(iv) an o v e r a l l look at the . l e v e l of education i n whole fi r m 32 EMPLOYEE (iv) complete his t o r y and data . . on the employee 33 ANNUAL (iv) annual alphabetical 11st-. ing of a l l employees by address and telephone No. RECEIVER DATA REQUIRED 0 M name No. old p o s i t i o n U new p o s i t i o n date of chang e T, Q, 0, I name, old p o s i t i o n date l e f t reason (code) 0, M, H name, old p o s i t i o n l o c a t i o n , new posi -tion &1 l o c a t i o n , reason 0, T name, l o s t days reasons 0, M, G annual merit rating name, No. 0, M name, No., suggestion remuneration estimated $ saving 1 education code occupation l e v e l s 0, HQ PILE, a l l available data M, N, 0 name, nos., address telephone No. No. . NAME 34 NEW-EMPLOYEE 35 ACCIDENT 36 TRAINING 37 HOSPITAL 38 PENSION 39 SAVINGS-BOND 40 EXEMPT 41 TRAIN-RECORD 42 AGE-ADD DESCRIPTION (iv) l i s t s a l l new accessions . for the period (iv) l i s t s accidents, aid . .. required, people i n -volved during the period (iv) l i s t s t r a i n i n g programs _ undertaken during the period by p a r t i c i p a n t and typ e (iv) group h o s p i t a l payments - made per period (iv) pension payments made . per period (iv) savings bonds purchased' . per period (iv) l i s t s a l l employees by . exempt status (iv) l i s t s recent t r a i n i n g . programs undertaken by a l l employees ( v i i ) updates age of a l l . employees RECEIVER DATA REQUIRED 0, M, H name, occupation date started R, 0, M name, No., occupation days on job, accident type (code) aid rq'd (code), l o s t time date of accident • 0, U, E name, date of t r a i n -ing, type of t r a i n i n g length of course l o c a t i o n of program P P P, 0 name, No. exempt status U, E name, tra i n i n g progs (code), date taken, r e s u l t s of course b - none age, date birthdate No. ' NAME DESCRIPTION RECEIVER DATA. REQUIRED 43 UPDATE 44 DEADEILE 45 SIMULATE 46 REJECT 47 INDUCTION (vii) updating of master f i l e with new data (vii) to put date af employees •who have l e f t the company on a separate tape ( i i ) given the model of the . company simulate personnel operation (iv) l e t t e r to applicant to . t e l l him his a p p l i c a t i o n was rejected (i) a procedure sent to the supervisor on the induc-t i o n procedure to be f o l -lowed for new employee 48 APPLIC-INVENTORY (iii) printout of suitable . applicants when positions .become available 49 JOB-STANDARDS (Hi) printout of prerequisite ' . q u a l i t i e s desired f o r each p o s i t i o n 50 TRAINING-NEEDS (iii) looks at employees a b i l i -l i t i e s and compares them to the job he holds to determine t r a i n i n g needs none none Q, H, applicant relevant new data employees who have l e f t f irm turnover rates accession rates termination rates promotions, trans-f e r s , job codes reason (code?) name appropriate induction procedure supervisor new job Q, H name, address, phone No., type of work suited f or U, Q, ¥, G job names job resp (code) 0, U, E, M employee strengths job requirements ov 0» No. NAME DESCRIPTION RECEIVER DATA REQUIRED 51 SALARY 52 FRINGE . 53 PAYCHEQUE 54 EXPENSE-ACCT, 55 TUITION 56 ACCIDENT-YEAR 57 DISABILITY 58 LANGUAGE (lv) monthly l i s t i n g of s a l - .0, P, G .  aries and wages paid to a l l employees, on cumulative basis (iv) monthly l i s t i n g of costs due to fringe benefits f o r the period, also cumulative fo r the various fringe benefits, using l a s t 12 months figures (iv) c a l c u l a t i o n of paycheque . from accumulated data employee, P, G (lv) monthly l i s t i n g of a l l P, M expense acct. charges (iv) yearly l i s t i n g of a l l pay- ?, U, E . out to employees as t u i t i o n charges ( i i ) yearly l i s t i n g of a l l I, R, E . accidents by categories and costs ( i l ) l i s t s a l l employees by R, E, U . certain d i s a b i l i t i e s ( i i ) . examines a l l employees In I . firm with a b i l i t y to speak other languages name , No-. , period salary paid, salary paid to date name, Nos., hours worked, pay rates : fringe benefits deductions name, Nos. expense acct. charges name, Nos., course mark cost accident (code) associated costs name, No., p o s i t i o n d i s a b i l i t y (code) name, No., job loc a t i o n languages spoken NAME DESCRIPTION RECEIVER 59 MANHOURS 60 MANPOWER 61 TURNOVER ( i i ) t o t a l value of sales & B M.N prod, f o r the period vs. t o t a l manhours worked to get productivity ( i i ) to forecast manpower needs C, I ... given cer t a i n information about future operations (iv) a 12 month moving summary H I 0 of turnover s t a t i s t i c s 62 SOURCE - (11) 63 RESPONSIBILITY ( i l ) 64 ATTITUDE 65 GRIEVANCE 66 SCHEDULE evaluation of applications H, I see where applications coming from, checks e f f i -ciency of r e c r u i t i n g proc. r e s p o n s i b i l i t y l e v e l s of I t o t a l work force of the firm by no. of people at each l e v e l (iii) an attitude survey of the I, C whole company . . . l i s t of grievances per T I E period by code, action taken, and l e v e l at which I t was settled (lv) or (1) use the computer 0 , N .• to schedule s h i f t work planning DATA REQUIRED sales stats prod stats manhours worked many variables accession, departures transfers, reasons date l e f t . resp. l e v e l s (code) no. people at each l e v e l attitude 3urve,v firm grievance (code) action taken l e v e l settled at jobs to be done, men to do them, times av a i l a b l e , union rule No. NAME DESCRIPTION RECEIVER 67 OPENING 68 COMPETITORS 69 SAEETY 70 . STABILITY 71 ACCIDENT-PRONE 72 TRAIN-COSTS 73 MAINTENANCE (iv) l i s t of a l l jobs coming . Q, H, I open i n the next follow-ing period ( i i ) analyses and research out- I, G . put of data available on competitive salary l e v e l s ( i i ) looks at plant l e v e l by I, R . designated areas to see where accidents occur ( i i ) looks at c y c l i c a l nature I . of the s t a b i l i t y of the labour force to predict demand f o r labour ( i l ) looks at records of those I, R •. with many accidents to y i e l d data f o r possible c o r r e l a t i o n (iii) looks at costs associated U, E, I . with various t r a i n i n g plans to help p o l i c y formulation (iv) printout of a l l mainten- M, N . . nance charges (labour) f o r the period . DATA REQUIRED job openings type man required wage data area of source accident l o c a t i o n terminations date l e f t name no. of accidents type of accidents t r a i n i n g prog, no. of trainees, c per trainee, cost program d a i l y wage sheet cost of lab per hr loc a t i o n of charge NAME DESCRIPTION 74 RECRUIT 75 REFERENCE' 76 RATECHANGE 77 LAYOFF 78 FIRST-AID 79 PROFIT-SHARE 80 PROF-ASSOC. (iv) central l i s t i n g of a l l manpower needs by the d i v i s i o n s (iv) printout requesting . reference check (iv) to n o t i f y employee and . supervisor of new Job rate (I) l i s t s most vulnerable . . employees In case of l a y o f f (iv) routine c a l l s at f i r s t . aid station and d i s p o s i -t i o n (II) l i s t s employee p a r t i c i p a . . . .. ti o n i n the p r o f i t shar-ing program (in.) l i s t s employees belong-ing i n various prof, assoc. by group a mem-ber of RECEIVER DATA REQUIRED I , H positions open, quali-f i c a t i o n s , l o c a t i o n ; s t a r t i n g salary, date open references on appl card name, prev. cd. address, supervisor P , employee G 0, M se n i o r i t y date p o s i t i o n type of injury (code) d i s p o s i t i o n (code) date G & won i n share name occupation F, G name occupation prof, assoc. /A//T/AL PEPSOA/A/EZ. PoPtASS COD/A/G ' PPOCEOUPE CODED OAT'A S/JEE-T OOA/POTEP MAS TEA* PECoPOS COA/TAOL. . COOE J copPBC T-/OMS COOEO OATA 3/^EET PC/A/CU C/-/AA/CSE OATA COMPUTER \ ^"AA/GE ACT/OA/S SYMBOLS. Z./ST/A/G OE CPAAASES /=A/£ EE>/T^ DOCUMENTS /=><SA/C:/-/£D CAAOS T/AfE AA/a ATTEA/OAA/CE CAPES PPOA* PAYPOt-L T/ME AND ' 4TTEA/0M fT+A) f^/LE OP TS-A /?A/L E&/TS COMPUTEP ' CLEP/CAL \OP>EQAT/OA/ L/S 7-//V& Cif= T+A P4/L EO/TS COPp/EZT P=A/t-EO/7S COP&ECT-PA/C EO/TS A/ASTEP C/PPATE A£>0S 7~+A TO A/A STEP &/CE AA/D A/EPGES CPAAtSES MEP/C& AA//> OA/AjA7tPE0 T?A AfSZ!P/E>5 \coAPE<:r/OA£s i /=OP A/£xr lUPDATE P£P/O0\ F/GURE. rf L/£>0AT/ry<S 77 ^ T MASTER /=-/L£-(SOUPCE.t/A/tUBL/SHED OS. <ft$uAC ) — — TT BASIC CORPORA TE GOALS REDUCED TO SPECIFIC PLANS FOR THE FUTURE: MANPOWER FOP7ECAST/N& FUTURE' MANPOWER NEEDS TES T/A/G AND TRAINING PPOGFZAM DETERpflNA TtON OF HEEDS WHICH CAN 0E MET 3Y PRESENT EMPLOYEES WIDE VARIETY OF SKILLS LABOUR FOPCE RECRUITING PROGRAM STAFF/NO PROGRAM MANPOWER MEEDS WH/CP MUST EE MET'PROM SOURCES EXTERNAL TO THE COMPANY RECRUITING POUCY SHORT TEAM AND LONG TERM A/AN POWER AVAILABILITY ECONOMIC CONDITIONS BASIC DATA OF APPL/CANTS SOUPCLF ACT/VAT ION APPLICANTS Pop POSITIONS 1 INDUCTION CHECKLIST SELECTION S TANDARDS PROCESSING OF APPLiCAT/ONS PEPSOVA/EL /NTERVIFW3 PPEUM TESTS MEDICAL , £"72:. NOTIFY' REPORT TO WORK JOB STANDARDS '• PREREQU/S7E QUANTES DETERMINED BY POSITIONS HELD TESTS) MTERV/EWS AND OBSERVATIONS DETERMINE S/X/LLSj /ATE/RESTS, APTITUDE AB/L/TY NYD PERSONALITY POSSESSED 3Y EMPLOYEES--77/E SX'LLS INVENTORY COMPANY TRAINING POLICY EVALUATION FRAMES OP F? LSFE~PIENC& COMPARISON PROCEDURES TRA/NiNG NEEDS D/SPLAY ED TRAINING NEEDS DE TERM/NA T/ON PROCEDURES ACTUAL TPPlN/NG RROG/RAM • TYPE EMPLOYEE TRAINED • METPOP CP TRAINING > COURSES TAUGHT POST- TRAINING EVALU^T/ON OUTPUT /REPORTS TO MANAGEMENT ANALYSIS, EVALUATION OP OUTPUT REPORTS EMPLO YEE . TRAINING PECOPD INDUCTION PROCEDURE CHANGE OF STATUS PROCEDURES EMPLOYEE EVALUA T/ON TRANSFER L NO ACTIONS TAKEN : REASONS EYIT INTERVIEW PPOMO T/ON j SALARY i INCREASE CNANGE IN JOB STRUCTURE REASONS) DETAILS REASONS) DETAILS TURNOVER ANALYSIS r NOTIFY: ACCEPTABLE FOR EMPLOYMENT j NO WORK CUPPENTLY A VAIL ABLE PLACEMENT JOB ANALYSIS ANAL YS/S CF ALL JOSS YIE LOS UOB ST#uc7UA£r AND JOB /A/YENTOPY LEGAL ENVIRONMENT COMPANY WA&E POLICIES DETAILED MANPOWER /NVENTORY -EMPLOYEES /N PRESENT POS/T/ONS WITP ASSIGNED STATUS NOT/FfCATON QF' REJECTED APPLICATIONS DOCUMENTS S TO RED COOING AND KE YPUNCP } VFR/FY/N6 ERROR? - CPECK/NO RPOCEDUPES OF SELECTED DATA RELEVANT ALL DATA AND DOCUMENTS EMPLOYED BY THE PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT PE'LE" WANT DATA NEEDS DETERMINED IN TEGRA TED FUNC T/ONS OF THE PERSONNEL. DEPARTMENT AS ABOVE' SYSTEMS A/VALYS/S APPROACH TO. DEF/NE" NEEDS, PROCEDURES iSYSTEM TO ADJUST \ PAY RATES WEIGHTING OF PEMC/NEFATION PA C TOPS EMPLOYEE RATING PROCEDURE WAGE AND SALARY AD MINIS TP AT ION PROCESS WASS ANDSALAPY STRUCTURE LISTING OF EMPLOYEES WAGES j POSITIONS ETC PAYROLL DEPARTMENT 3ASIC SALARY DATA FROM /P PERT OUTSIDE WAGS'AMD SALARY DATA PAYROLL DATA /NCLUDING EMPLOYEE BENEFITS 1 ROUTINE INFORMATION • HOURS WORKED • SICKNESS ' VACATIONS • ETC SPEC/AL REQUESTS • EXPENSE 4CCTS. PL// 71 ON ETC REFUND* SUPERVISORY VEPlhICA TION EMPLOYEE' REMUNERATION t j ACCIDENT MEDICAL CARE FEQU/&ED ANALYSIS OF ACCIDENT ACCIDENT &£PORT SELECTION OF REMEDY APPLICATION OF REMEDY ANAL YS/S OP ALL PER OPTS CONCL US/ON S PMIS MANPOWER DATA SANK - RELEVANT DATA STORED ON P/AGNET/C TAPE OR P?ANDOM ACCESS DEVICES OUTRUT P>F?OCEDUR<ES -SUBR O U 7 IMPS ACCIDENT PREVENTION • PROGPAM . PHILOSOPHY' > ORGANIZATION - COMMUNICATION SAFETY TALK • A7CILES • PROCEDURES - PENALTIES -INCLUDED IN INDUCTION PROGRAM R>M/S OUTRUT -ROUTINE REPORT/NG -RESEARCH AND ANALYS/S SPPC/AL REQUESTS APPFND/X A PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT INFORM AT/ON SYSTEMS -INFORMATION PLOWS K. MORRISOH COMM 549 NOVEMBER ,/S>67 VANCOUVER BC BAS/C CORPORATE GOALS GOALS REDUCED TO SPEC/F/C PLANS FOR THE FUTURE MANPOWER RORECAST/A/& FUTURE: MANPOWER NEEDS TES T/A/G TRAINING AMD PROGRAM DETERMllMA T/ON OP MEEDS WHICH CAN BE MET 0Y PRESENT EMPLOYEES WIDE VARIETY OF SK/LLS LABOUR FORCE RECRU/T/NG PROGRAM STAFF/NO PROGRAM MANPOWER NFEOS WH/CR MUST BE MET PROM SOURCES EKTEPNAL TO TPS COMPANY PECRU/T/NG " POUCY SHORT TERM AND LONG TERM A/AN POWER AVAICABILFTY ECONOMIC CONDI TIONS 3AS/C DATA OP APPLICANTS SOURCE-ACTIVATION APPLICANTS .R>R POSITIONS _ INDUCTION CHECKLIST SELECT/ON S TANDAPDS PROCESS/NO OF APPLICATIONS PERSONNEL /NTEPV/EWS PRELIM TESTS MEDICAL , ETC. NOTIFY' PEPOPT TO WOPK JOB STANDARDS : PREREQU/SlTE QUALITIES DETERMINED BY POSITIONS RELO TESTS) INTERVIEWS AND OBSERVATIONS DE TERM INE SAT/LLSj /NTERESTS, APT/TUDE AB/L/TY AND PfPS OA/ALITY POSSESSED 8Y EMPLOYEES* TNE SKILLS INVENTORY X COMPANY TP A ININQ POLICY COMPARISON PROCEDURES EVALUATION FRAMES OP REFERENCE' TRA/N/RG NEEDS DISPLAYED TRAINING NEEDS OE TEPM/NA TION RROCEDURES \ ACTUAL. TRAlR/TVO PROGRAM ' TYPE EMPLOYEE TRAINED ' R1ETPOD CP TRAINING ' COURSES TAUGHT POST- TRA/NING EVALUATION OUTPUT REPORTS TO MANAGEMENT ANALYSIS, EVALUATION OF OUTPUT REPORTS EMPLOYEE TRAINING RECORD INDUCTION PROCEDURE NOTIFY: ACCEPTABLE FOP EMPLOYMENT j NO WOPK CURRENTLY AVAILABLE PLACEMENT JL CHANGE OF STATUS PPOCEOUPES EMPLOYEE EVALUATION TERM IMA TION NO ACTIONS TAKEN! REASONS TRANSFER EY IT INTERVIEW PROMOT/ON REASONS, DETAILS SALARY INCREASE REASONS) DETA/LS TURNOVER ANALYSIS ANAL YS/S OF ALL JOES YlfCOS UOB STPUCTUPE AND JOB /NVENTOPY DETAILED MANPOWER INVENTORY -EMPLOYEES IN PRESENT POSITIONS WITH ASSIGNED STATUS NOT/F/CATION OF' REJECTED APPLICATIONS DOCUMENTS S TOPED COOING AND RE YRUNCR } VERIFYING EPROP - CRECK/NG PROCEDURES OP SELECTED , RELEVANT DATA ALL DATA AND DOCUMENTS EMPLOYED BY THE PERSONA/EL DEPARTMENT RELEVANT DATA NEEDS DETERM/NEO INTEGRATED FUNCT/ONS OP THE PERSONNEL. DEPAP TANENT AS ABOVE' SYSTEMS ANALYSIS APPRO ACN TO DEFINE NEEDS, PROCEDURES LEGAL E/VV/RONMENT COMPANY WAGE POL/C/ES SYSTEM TO ADJUST PAr PATES WE/6PT/A/G OE REMUNERATION FACTORS EMPLOYEE RATING PROCEDURE WA6E AA/O SAL/tRY' ADMIM/S TPA T/ON PPiOCESS C RANGE /N JOB STRUCTURE T I WAGE AND SALARY STRUCTURE L/ST/N& OF EMPLOYEES WAGES , POS/T/O/VS ETC PAYROLL DEPARTMENT -BASIC SALARY DATA FROM /R PERT OUTSIDE IVAGE AND SALARY DATA PAYROLL DATA INCLUDING EMPLOYEE BENEFITS ROUTINE INFORMATION ' ROUPS WORKED - S/CKNESS • VACATIONS ' ETC SPEC/AL REQUES TS ' EXPENSE 4CC7S. ' TL/IVGN RERJNDS • ETC SUPERVISORY \>£G/PICA TION EMPLOYEE-REMUNERATION ACC/DENT MED/CAL CARE REOU/RED j ANALYSIS OF 1 ACCIDENT ACCIDENT REPORT SELECT/ON OF REMEDY APRUCAT/ON OP REMEDY ANAL YS/S OF ALL REPORTS CONCLUSIONS PMIS MANPOWER DATA BANK - RELEVANT DATA STORED ON MAGNET/C TAPE OR RANDOM ACCESS DEVICES OUTPUT PROCEDURES ~ S UBP O U TINES ACQ'DENT PREVENT/ON ' PPOOPAM . PR/LO SOPPY • OPGAN/ZATION • COMMUN/CAT/ON SAFETY TALK • PULES • PROCEDURES • PENALTIES •INCLUDED IP /NDUCT/ON PROGRAM RAi/S OUTPUT -ROUTINE RERORT/A/G -RESEARCH AND ANAL YS/S SREC/AL REQUESTS APPEND/X A PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS -INFORMATION FLO INS K. MORRISON COMM. 549 NOVEMBER ,1-967 VANCOUVER BC 

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