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The role of technology as a determinant of industrial work group behavior Hatchett, Sydney John 1966-12-31

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THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY AS A. DETERMINANT OF INDUSTRIAL WORK GROUP BEHAVIOR by SYDNEY JOHN HATCHETT B.Sc. , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION i n the Fa c u l t y of Commerce and Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the req u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1966 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x  t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f m y D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n  c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t m y w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e ^e^> *lf7 /J^£ ABSTRACT T h i s i s a s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t i n g employee b e h a v i o r w i t h i n t h e work group as s t r u c t u r e d by t h e t e c h n o l o g y u t i l i z e d i n t h e work p r o c e s s . W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t f a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n t h e form o f t e c h n o l o g y i n f l u e n c e work group b e h a v i o r , a s i n c e r e a t t e m p t i s made t o r e v e a l t h e f r e q u e n c y and t y p e o f b e h a v i o r t h a t may be a t t r i b u t e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n a l f o r m . I t i s assumed t h a t a p l a n t has s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f t e c h n o l o g y , t h a t i s , t h e t e c h n o l o g y i s s e t ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e q u e s t i o n i s what b e h a v i o r w i l l r e s u l t from a s p e c i f i c t e c h n o l o g y , g i v e n a c e r t a i n mix o f v a r i a b l e s ? The o b j e c t o f t h i s s t u d y b a s e d on S a y l e s ' B e h a v i o r o f I n d u s t r i a l  Work Groups, W a l k e r and G u e s t ' s The Man on t h e Assembly. L i n e , and B l a u n e r ' s A l i e n a t i o n and Freedom i s t h r e e f o l d : , . 1. To i n v e s t i g a t e t h e d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c  t e r i s t i c s on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r . The t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c  t e r i s t i c s deemed m e a n i n g f u l a r e t h e form o f t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g y b i n d i n g t h e g r o u p , t h e form o f c o n v e r s i o n t e c h n o l o g y i n v o l v e d i n p r o d u c t m a n u f a c t u r e , and t h e number o f c y c l e s p e r hour p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e group. The t e c h n o  l o g i c a l l y dependent f a c t o r s e x p r e s s e d i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r a r e t h e degree o f g r i e v a n c e and p r e s s u r e a c t i v i t y , t h e number o f u n p l a n n e d spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e group i n u n i o n a c t i v i t i e s , t h e amount o f v o l u n t a r y t u r n o v e r , and t h e degree o f a b s e n t e e i s m . 2. To i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on t h e b e h a v i o r a l consequences o f t h e t e c h n o l o g y . The b e h a v i o r a l c o n s e  quences o f t h e t e c h n o l o g y a r e t h e i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r t e c h n o l o g i c a l f o r m and may i n f l u e n c e t h e u l t i m a t e b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n . They a r e : a t t e n t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e j o b , f r e q u e n c y o f b r e a k i v i n t h e j o b r o u t i n e , m o b i l i t y o f w o r k e r s i n t h e g r o u p , work s t a n d a r d s i n v o l v  i n g judgment, t h e degree o f c o n v e r s a t i o n , group s t a t u s , ' and group c o h e s i v e - n e s s . 3. To i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e b e h a v i o r a l consequences o f t h e t e c h n o l o g y on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r . The method o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t h r o u g h t h e d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d v a r i a b l e s as r e c o r d e d on a p r e d e t e r m i n e d s c a l e . The d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e t h e n supplemented by d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n ob t a i n e d from an i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e w i t h f i r s t l e v e l s u p e r v i s o r s and o t h e r l e v e l s o f management. The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e methods o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e body o f t h e t h e s i s . The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d a r e as f o l l o w s : 1. No d i r e c t t r e n d r e l a t i o n s h i p i s f o u n d between t h e degree o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and t h e degree o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r . On t h e w h o l e , a c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e t e c h n o l o  g i c a l f orm and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r as d e s c r i b e d by B l a u n e r i n A l i e n a t i o n and Freedom i s d i s c e r n a b l e ; however, t h e r e a r e many e x c e p t i o n s . 2. The degree o f t h e b e h a v i o r a l consequences o f t h e t e c h n o l o g y such as a t t e n t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e j o b , f r e q u e n c y o f b r e a k i n t h e j o b r o u t i n e , m o b i l i t y o f w o r k e r s i n t h e g r o u p , work s t a n d a r d s i n v o l v i n g j u d g  ment , and t h e degree o f v e r b a l c o m m u nication a r e f o u n d t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e form o f t e c h n o l o g y . However, no r e l a t i o n s h i p was f ound between t h e degree o f s t a t u s o r c o h e s i o n and t e c h n o l o g i c a l f o r m . 3. The b e h a v i o r a l consequences o f t h e t e c h n o l o g y such as a t t e n  t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e j o b , f r e q u e n c y o f b r e a k i n t h e j o b r o u t i n e , m o b i l i t y o f w o r k e r s i n t h e g r o u p , and work s t a n d a r d s i n v o l v i n g judgment p l a y an im-V portant r o l e i n explaining work group behavior. In-group communication, and group cohesiveness have l i t t l e influence on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y relevant behavior. i i "The technology of modern i n d u s t r y and commerce i s the most s i n g l e important determinant of who does what kind of work, when, and i n what manner." Robert Dubin The World of Work Englewood C l i f f s , N.J. P r e n t i c e H a l l I n c., p.169 TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT . . . . . . . . . v i CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION . . . . 1 I I HYPOTHESES CONCERNING THE DIRECT INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGY ON ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR . 11 I I I METHODOLOGY 20 IV RESULTS OF TESTING HYPOTHESES CONCERNING THE DIRECT INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGY ON ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR 30 V A DISCUSSION OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE TECHNOLOGY ON THE BEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE TECHNOLOGY 74 A. Technic a l Behavior 74 B. Frequency of Verbal I n t e r a c t i o n 86 C. Group Status 94 D. Group Cohesiveness 100 E. Summary 103 VI HYPOTHESES CONCERNING THE EFFECTS OF BEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE TECHNOLOGY ON ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR 105 VII RESULTS OF TESTING HYPOTHESES CONCERNING THE EFFECTS OF BEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE TECHNOLOGY ON ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR 110 A. Te c h n i c a l Behavior B. Frequency of Verbal I n t e r a c t i o n 110 122 CHAPTER PAGE C. Group Status . . . . . . . . . . . 128 D. Group Cohesiveness 138 E. Summary 141 V I I I CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . 155 APPENDIX A • • • 156 APPENDIX B 158 L I S T OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I A TABLE OF GROUP S I Z E FOR THE STUDY SAMPLE . . . . . 32 I I THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESSION OF THE INDUSTRIAL WORK GROUPS AS DETERMINED BY THE STUDY METHOD . . . . 3 3 - 3 5 I I I THE DEGREE OF GRIEVANCE AND PRESSURE A C T I V I T Y ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY . . . . . . 42 IV THE DEGREE OF UNPLANNED SPONTANEOUS OUTBURSTS ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY 43 V THE DEGREE OF PARTICIPATION OF UNION GROUPS IN UNION A C T I V I T I E S AS ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY 44 V I THE DEGREE OF TURNOVER ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY 45 V I I THE DEGREE OF ABSENTEEISM ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY 46 V I I I THE DEGREE OF MANAGEMENT'S EVALUATION OF THE GROUP AS SATISFACTORY EMPLOYEES ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY 47 I X THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE ATTENTION REQUIREMENTS OF THE JOB FUNCTION 76 X THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE FREQUENCY OF BREAK IN THE JOB ROUTINE 77 X I THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE MOBILITY OF WORKERS I N THE GROUP 78 X I I THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON WORK STANDARDS INVOLVING JUDGMENT 79 X I I I THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE CONVERSATION PER MAN WITHIN THE GROUP 87 X I V THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON CONVERSATION OUTSIDE THE GROUP 88 TABLE PAGE XV THE DEGREE OF VISUAL RESTRICTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 X V I THE DEGREE OF NOISE L E V E L ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY . . . 90 X V I I THE POSITION ON THE PROMOTIONAL LADDER ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY . . . . . . 96 X V I I I THE DEGREE OF SENIORITY ASSOCIATED WITH A GIVEN TECHNOLOGY 97 X I X THE DEGREE OF EXCLUSIVENESS OF TASK ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY 98 XX THE LENGTH OF LEARNING TIME TO PERFORM A FUNCTION ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY 99 X X I THE DEGREE OF GROUP COHESIVENESS AS DESCRIBED BY MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY 101 X X I I THE RELATIONSHIP OF AVERAGE GROUP S I Z E TO GROUP COHESIVENESS FOR A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY . . . 102 X X I I I A TABLE COMPARING ATTENTION REQUIREMENTS OF THE JOB WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR. . . I l l X X I V A TABLE COMPARING THE FREQUENCY OF BREAK I N THE JOB ROUTINE WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY. RELEVANT BEHAVIOR 112 XXV A TABLE COMPARING THE MOBILITY OF WORKERS I N THE GROUP WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR 113 X X V I A TABLE COMPARING WORK STANDARDS INVOLVING JUDGMENT WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR 114 X X V I I A TABLE COMPARING THE DEGREE OF VERBAL COMMUNICATION WITHIN THE GROUP WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR 124 TABLE PAGE X X V I I I A TABLE COMPARING GROUP POSITION ON THE PROMOTIONAL LADDER WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 X X I X A TABLE COMPARING SENIORITY WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR 130 XXX A TABLE COMPARING EXCLUSIVENESS OF TASK WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR 131 X X X I A TABLE COMPARING LENGTH OF LEARNING TIME TO PERFORM A FUNCTION WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR . . . . . . . 132 X X X I I A TABLE COMPARING GROUP COHESIVENESS WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR 140 L I S T OF E X H I B I T S E X H I B I T PAGE I THE PERCEIVED RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PLANT TECHNOLOGY AND THE RESULTING BEHAVIOR OF A GROUP 7 I I ORGANIZATION OF THE INVESTIGATED VARIABLES . . . . 8 I I I S A Y L E S ' FACTORS OF INTER AND INTRA GROUP COMPARISON . . . . . . . . . 12 I V S A Y L E S ' GROUP TYPES AND CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIOR . . . 1 3 - 1 4 V A FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESSION OF THE GROUPS STUDIED 37 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT In our economic era i t has been s a i d that the u t i l i z a t i o n of human resources i s of prime importance i n i n d u s t r y and that an o r g a n i z a t i o n without i t s people i s analogous to an animal v o i d of i t s l i f e b l o o d . . Therefore, i t i s t o the people i n a l l p o s i t i o n s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y t h a t I am indebted. I o f f e r my s i n c e r e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r co-operation and a s s i s t a n c e . Outside of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework, my g r a t i t u d e i s extended t o the members of p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and unions who enhanced my study. A l s o , I cannot speak h i g h l y enough of the members of my f a m i l y and my wif e who were prime mo t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s . CHAPTER I DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM The purpose of t h i s study i s t o explore f a c t o r s which c o n t r i b u t e to i n d u s t r i a l work group behavior, e s p e c i a l l y those which e x p l a i n d i f f e r  ences i n behavior as manifested by various work groups. In a s p e c i f i c c ontext, I wish t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p of employee behavior to the work group as s t r u c t u r e d by the technology u t i l i z e d ; t hat i s , what i s the r o l e of technology i n determining behavior i n d i f f e r e n t work groups? For the purpose o f t h i s study, I w i l l r e f e r t o the technology of the p l a n t as the manner i n which work tasks are d i v i d e d and d i s t r i b u t e d . This encompasses the i n t e r r e l a t i o n or flow of these tasks i n t o one another and the way i n which men are brought together t o perform them. This paper, t h e r e f o r e , w i l l be concerned only w i t h the part technology plays i n shaping behavior, and environmental f a c t o r s such as customs, s o c i a l sentiments, number of orders, business c y c l e s , • e t c . , w i l l only be analyzed t o the extent they i n t e r a c t with technology. I t w i l l be assumed t h a t the p l a n t has s p e c i f i c types of technology, that i s , the technology i s s e t ; t h e r e f o r e the question i s what behavior w i l l r e s u l t from a s p e c i f i c technology, given a c e r t a i n mix of v a r i a b l e s ? The groups u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study are taken from a survey of in d u s t r y i n the Vancouver area. The b a s i c c r i t e r i o n f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a group i s th a t the work p o s i t i o n s are l i n k e d by technology or p r o p i n q u i t y i as defined by some n a t u r a l s u b d i v i s i o n . (A " n a t u r a l s u b d i v i s i o n " may be an area as defined by t e c h n o l o g i c a l process or s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the r e s t of the p l a n t . ) This does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean that members of a group can see one another or t a l k w i t h one another but th a t the group i s l i n k e d by the technology and s p a t i a l l y separated from other areas of the p l a n t . 2 1 The other method u t i l i z e d by researchers i n t h i s f i e l d i s to de f i n e a group as a l l those people r e p o r t i n g to the same immediate super v i s o r and working on the same s h i f t ; i n other words, an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t . However, i n the extreme form where work groups are t h i r t y or more, some n a t u r a l boundary i s then sought. Very few i n d u s t r i e s i n t h i s l o c a l e have t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y defined groups of l a r g e r than twelve i n number while i n many smaller p l a n t s a s u p e r v i s o r may be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r more than one work area. The c r i t e r i o n of n a t u r a l boundaries f o r studying group i n t e r  a c t i o n s seems the most adequate f o r t h i s l o c a l e . The merits of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n may not seem too evident f o r such t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y and s p a t i a l l y separated groups such as machinists and furnace crews but c e r t a i n l y are important i n e s t a b l i s h i n g work groups i n large operations such as sawmills and telephone r e p a i r shops. In these areas, the job product passes through many d i f f e r e n t processes i n v o l v i n g many employees before i t i s completed. Here, the form of technology u t i l i z e d and p l a n t s i z e or p r o p i n q u i t y of employees best describes which employees i n t e r a c t i n each group both f o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y r e q u i r e d and permitted co-operation. For example, i n one m i l l a barker to head sawyer group and edgeman t o s o r t e r group was d i s c e r n a b l e while i n a l a r g e m i l l a head sawyer to t r i m sawyer group was d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e under t h i s d e f i n i t i o n . In f a c t , the employees i n these areas were described by management as having d i f f e r e n t degrees of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior ( t u r n o v e r , absenteeism, grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , and pressure a c t i v i t i e s ) . 1 Merrihue, W.V. £ K a t z e l l , R.A., E.R.I. - Y a r d s t i c k of Employee R e l a t i o n s , Harvard Business Review, Vol.33. No.6, 1955, pp.91-99. 3 U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the d e f i n i t i o n of n a t u r a l s u b d i v i s i o n s as e s t a b l i s h e d by technology and p r o p i n q u i t y does not h o l d f o r a l l work groups. I t f a i l s to recognize such f u n c t i o n s as crane operators, main tenance crews, and i n s p e c t i o n teams as work groups. While these employees may not work s i d e by s i d e , they do i n t e r a c t w i t h one another both on a formal and i n f o r m a l b a s i s . In t h i s context, the group whose behavior i s determined by the work process may vary depending on the task i t performs. For i n s t a n c e , maintenance crews work w i t h s i m i l a r t o o l s and may perform . s i m i l a r t a s k s . I w i l l be concerned w i t h groups as defined by a n a t u r a l s u b d i v i s i o n and by the task performed i n order to ensure t h a t a d i v e r s i  f i e d sample i s u t i l i z e d . This study w i l l attempt to review the e f f e c t of technology on work group behavior through i d e n t i f i a b l e v a r i a b l e s . The independent v a r i a b l e s that are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a s p e c i f i c technology w i l l be i n v e s t i  gated and t h e i r relevance t o e x h i b i t e d group behavior e l u c i d a t e d . The format f o r a n a l y z i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s was adapted from 2 that of Dr. M. Meissner. The f i r s t set of f a c t o r s r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y to the form of techno logy i n which the group i s i n v o l v e d , namely t r a n s f e r technology, conversion technology, and operation c y c l e s . Transfer technology r e l a t e s to the a c t u a l process t h a t binds the group s t a r t i n g w i t h no t r a n s f e r and progress ing through hand t r a n s f e r (hand, hand t r u c k s ) , automotive t r a n s f e r (motor tru c k s e t c . ) , dead l i n e and steered l i n e ( r o l l e r s , cranes, remote c o n t r o l l e d conveyors), and l i v e l i n e (overhead conveyors and t r a n s f e r machines w i t h 2 Meissner, M. , " B e h a v i o r a l Adaptations to I n d u s t r i a l Technology," A Doctoral Thesis i n the process of being p u b l i s h e d , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon,- 1963. ' 4 continuous movement). Conversion technology r e l a t e s to the a c t u a l f u n c t i o n the worker performs i n the o v e r a l l process, f o r example, t i g h t e n i n g a b o l t versus f i n i s h i n g m a t e r i a l t o high t o l e r a n c e s on a l a t h e . This form of technology i s a l s o r a t e d by f i v e f a c t o r s : no conversion, hand t o o l s , machine t o o l s , steered automatics, and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics. Opera t i v e c y c l e s are r a t e d from zero to i n f i n i t y f o r each group and a l s o on a s c a l e of no r e g u l a r c y c l e s , r e g u l a r c y c l e s w i t h the same frequency f o r the group, r e g u l a r c y c l e s w i t h a d i f f e r e n t frequency i n the group, and c o n t i n  uous. The. measurement i s made i n terms of c y c l e s per hour passing through the work group i n v o l v i n g both frequency and length of c y c l e s as meaningful v a r i a b l e s . One can note the s c a l a r progression that may be a t t a i n e d by using t h i s r a t i n g method. Work groups may be arranged i n accordance to the degree of t e c h n o l o g i c a l involvement. A group working i n forms of technology i n v o l v i n g hand t r a n s f e r and no conversion methods may be d i s t i n  guished i n a systematic manner from a group working i n a l i v e l i n e , s e l f r e g u l a t i n g , continuous process technology. The second set of f a c t o r s i n v e s t i g a t e d are those i n t e r v e n i n g f a c t o r s t h a t a r i s e out of the form of technology (independent v a r i a b l e s ) and thus a f f e c t the u l t i m a t e behavior p a t t e r n . These b e h a v i o r a l conse quences of the technology are, a t t e n t i o n requirements needed to c a r r y out the job processes r e q u i r e d of the group as.a whole, m o b i l i t y f o r t e c h n i c a l l y r e q u i r e d and permitted co-operation, degree of judgment needed to perform the r e q u i r e d f u n c t i o n s , frequency of breaks i n the job r o u t i n e , and con v e r s a t i o n w i t h i n and outside the group as allowed by the technology. Such c o n s t r a i n t s as noise l e v e l and v i s u a l b a r r i e r s , and the s i z e of the group are 5 a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d . These f a c t o r s are r a t e d i n a s i m i l a r manner t o those d e s c r i b i n g the technology and t h e i r exact form w i l l be e l u c i d a t e d l a t e r . Measurements of i n d i v i d u a l and group s t a t u s are deemed important f o r an intragroup and intergroup comparison of t e c h n i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d behavior. For t h i s purpose four elements of s t a t u s are s t u d i e d ; the p o s i t i o n of group members on the promotional l a d d e r , s e n i o r i t y , e x c l u s i v e - ness of t a s k , and the length of l e a r n i n g time to perform a f u n c t i o n . Cohesiveness or the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of a group f o r i t s members i s a l s o an important b e h a v i o r a l consequence of the technology as i t may be r e l a t e d to the opportunity f o r i n t e r a c t i o n as determined by v i s u a l r e s t r i c t i o n s , noise l e v e l , m o b i l i t y w i t h i n the work group, and a t t e n t i o n requirements of the job. Group s i z e may a l s o be a f a c t o r i n t h i s area as l a r g e groups with many i n t e r a c t i o n r e s t r i c t i o n s may be l e s s cohesive than smaller groups which have s i m i l a r r e s t r i c t i o n s but have a g r e a t e r degree of a t t r a c t i o n through greater t o t a l group involvement. The f i n a l set of f a c t o r s i n v e s t i g a t e d are the dependent v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d with a p a r t i c u l a r form of technology. These dependent f a c t o r s are expressed i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior and may be measured by the degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , the number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the group i n union a c t i v i t i e s , the amount of v o l u n t a r y turnover, and the frequency and l e n g t h of absen teeism. Group behavior as measured by these f a c t o r s may be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t r a n s f e r technology, conversion technology, and c y c l e s , encountered by a work group. Organiza t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t group behavior may a l s o be r e l a t e d to the b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology as i n d i c a t e d by the e f f e c t s of m o b i l i t y , 6 a t t e n t i o n requirements, and other s t u d i e d b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology. E x h i b i t I e l u c i d a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p l a n t technology and the r e s u l t i n g behavior of the group. The economic and c u l t u r a l e nviron ment (e.g., business c o n d i t i o n s , customs, s o c i a l sentiments, e t c . ) do pl a y a r o l e , even though seemingly minor at times, i n forming the b a s i c type of technology the plant w i l l u t i l i z e . The technology ( t r a n s f e r and conversion technology) d i c t a t e s the formal group s t r u c t u r e . I n t e r p l a y between the formal group s t r u c t u r e as determined by the technology and the economic and c u l t u r a l environment a f f e c t s the formation of the i n f o r m a l group and i t s a s s o c i a t e d behavior. Employee pe r c e p t i o n of power or problems and the r e s u l t a n t pressure extended by the work group on the f i r m i s manifested i n the degree of p r o d u c t i v i t y r e l e a s e and employment s t a b i l i t y as measured by v o l u n t a r y absenteeism and turnover. This i n t u r n a f f e c t s the economic and c u l t u r a l environment of the area and the o r g a n i z a t i o n and a l s o has a d i r e c t e f f e c t on i n - p l a n t formal group s t r u c t u r e . An explanation and d e s c r i p t i o n of the chosen f a c t o r s w i l l be presented i n the ensuing chapters. E x h i b i t I I d e p i c t s the stu d i e d r e l a  t i o n s h i p between t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology, and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. The study w i l l be organized i n t o three main sets of p r e d i c t i o n s : I The d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e of t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. I I The d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e of t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on the b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology. 7 EXHIBIT I THE PERCEIVED RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PLANT TECHNOLOGY AND THE 'RESULTING BEHAVIOR OF A GROUP Pressure extended : i Degree of p r o d u c t i v i t y and employment s t a b i l i t y 1 i I I Feedback EXHIBIT I I ORGANIZATION OF THE INVESTIGATED VARIABLES Tec h n o l o g i c a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s B. 1. Transfer technology ( f i v e degrees) 2 . Conversion technology I ( f o u r types) *~ 3 . Cycles per hour ( f i v e degrees) I I C. B e h a v i o r a l Consequences O r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y Relevant Behavior 1. Grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y 2. Spontaneous outbursts 3 . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s 4 . Management e v a l u a t i o n of the group 5. Turnover 6. Absenteeism I I I the Technology 1. A t t e n t i o n requirements 2 . Frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e 3 . Worker m o b i l i t y 4 . Judgment r e q u i r e d 5. Frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n 6. Group s t a t u s 7. Group s i z e 8. Group cohesiveness 9 I I I Influences of b e h a v i o r a l consequences of technology on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. Chapter I I w i l l delve i n t o p e r t i n e n t hypotheses and' s t u d i e s that i n v o l v e the d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e of t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior (Area I i n E x h i b i t I I ) . Chapter I I I w i l l d i s c u s s the methodology of the study, while Chapter IV w i l l d e p i c t the r e s u l t s of t e s t i n g the hypotheses formulated i n Area I i n E x h i b i t I I . Chapter V w i l l d i s c u s s how the t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e to the i n t e r v e n i n g b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology (Area I I i n E x h i b i t I I ) . Chapter VI w i l l be concerned w i t h hypotheses on the i n f l u e n c e s of b e h a v i o r a l consequences of technology on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior (Area I I I i n E x h i b i t I I ) followed by Chapter VII where the r e s u l t s of t h i s area w i l l be discussed. Chapter V I I I w i l l d e s cribe and i n t e r p r e t the conclusions of the study. A s o c i o l o g i c a l study of t h i s nature may be of s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t but at f i r s t glance may seem t o be of l i t t l e p r a c t i c a l importance. I t i s extremely i n t e r e s t i n g f o r science's sake to study why groups a s s o c i a t e d with one form of technology may e x h i b i t a c e r t a i n type of behavior as com pared w i t h groups working i n another form of technology. I t i s my conten t i o n , however, that t h i s type of study a l s o has very r e a l p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . I f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e c h n o l o g i c a l form and s p e c i f i c types of group behavior can be e s t a b l i s h e d , the production of e f f e c t i v e processes and performance i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n as a whole may be a t t a i n e d . The v a r i a b l e s depicted i n t h i s study may be u t i l i z e d by management as a forewarning to the r e a c t i o n of workers placed i n a s p e c i f i c area and adjustments may be taken to create b e t t e r work p a t t e r n s . In t h i s manner 10 i t i s hoped t h a t , given c e r t a i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d v a r i a b l e s , worker r e a c t i o n to union or management programs may be f o r e c a s t e d . Most of the l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s area i s d e s c r i p t i v e r a t h e r than experimental. The mathematics of graph theory and a p p l i c a t i o n s have been developed to a considerable degree, but mostly i n pure mathematical s t a t e 3 r a t h e r than r e l a t e d to the a c t u a l s e t t i n g i n which the behavior occurs. When t h i s research i s coupled with the f a c t that much of the i n f o r m a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r e s u l t a n t group behavior i s of a c o n f i d e n t i a l nature to the companies i n v o l v e d , only l i m i t e d use may be made of the mathematical approach to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l group dynamics. I t must t h e r e f o r e be emphasized that t h i s study i s p u r e l y e x p l o r a t o r y , as i n a d d i t i o n to the above, the sample i s not a random one; r a t h e r i t i s only r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of one l o c a l e , and the t e s t i n g techniques a p p l i e d by the author are only at the most very cursory i n comparison with more s o p h i s t i c a t e d measurement techniques a p p l i c a b l e t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n . However, even i f no c o n c l u s i v e s t a t i s t i c a l evidence can be o f f e r e d to v a l i d a t e the hypotheses presented, the wealth of evidence contained h e r e i n should be s u f f i c i e n t t o d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n to the f a c t o r s considered and at the very l e a s t , to promote f u r t h e r research i n t h i s area. Flament, C., A p p l i c a t i o n s of Graph Theory to Group S t r u c t u r e , Englewood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1963. CHAPTER I I HYPOTHESES CONCERNING THE DIRECT INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGY ON ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR Through i n v e s t i g a t i n g the hypothesis, "that a group's behavior i n the p l a n t i s a product of i t s inherent a b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n i n a c e r t a i n 4 . way," Leonard R. Sayles examined the c a u s a l f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g to m t e r - group and intragroup behavior as i n d i c a t e d i n E x h i b i t I I I . From these apparently t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s , he observed work group behavior, which he c l a s s i f i e d i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s : 1. O v e r - a l l l e v e l of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y 2. Number of unplanned spontaneous outbursts 3. Degree o f i n t e r n a l u n i t y (cohesiveness) "4. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s 5. Management e v a l u a t i o n of groups as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees. By observing more than three hundred groups i n d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i a l s e t t i n g s and s p e c i f i c a l l y e x p l o r i n g the intergroup and intragroup f a c t o r s as a f f e c t  i n g these f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of work groups' behavior, he i d e n t i f i e d four b a s i c group behavior types; a p a t h e t i c , e r r a t i c , s t r a t e g i c , and conserva t i v e . Each o f these group types was a f f e c t e d t o d i f f e r e n t degrees by the intergroup and intragroup t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s which gave four d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e behavior patterns as shown i n E x h i b i t IV. I t i s w i t h the t e c h n o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s that are as s o c i a t e d w i t h a s p e c i f i c technology and t h e i r e f f e c t on group behavior that t h i s study w i l l be b a s i c a l l y concerned, and not with attempting t o i d e n t i f y the number Sayles, L.R., Behavior of I n d u s t r i a l Work Groups, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1958, p. 42. 12 EXHIBIT I I I SAYLES' FACTORS OF INTER- GROUP COMPARISON SAYLES' FACTORS OF INTRA- GROUP COMPARISON 1. P o s i t i o n on promotional l a d d e r , 1. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the task ( s t a t u s of the group) (as a f f e c t i n g grievance r e i n  2 . Size of work group forcement and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ) 3 . R e l a t i v e i n t e r n a l homogeneity 2 . Frequency o f i n t e r a c t i o n (as 4 . E s s e n t i a l n e s s of t h e i r f u n c t i o n a f f e c t i n g group s t r u c t u r e ) 5. Work standards i n v o l v i n g 3 . Problem of ga i n i n g agreement j udgment on output standards i n the i n t e r  6. R e p e t i t i v e n e s s of the task dependent group 7. Compactness of the work area 4 . Impact of i n t e r n a l s o c i a l l i f e (men t o machine r a t i o ) or p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n outside 8. Sex d i f f e r e n c e s a c t i v i t i e s 9. Hours of work 5. Impact of work flow on group l e a d e r s h i p 6. I n t e r n a l u n i t y i n interdependent versus i n d i v i d u a l work operations 13 EXHIBIT IV SAYLES' GROUP TYPE AND CHARACTERISTIC BEHAVIOR 1. APATHETIC C h a r a c t e r i s t i c , of Low S k i l l e d or Long Assembly Line Jobs. Behavior: a) r e l a t i v e l y few grievances or pressure t a c t i c s b) l a c k of c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d or accepted l e a d e r s h i p c) i n t e r n a l d i s u n i t y and f r i c t i o n s d) evidence of suppressed discontent 2. ERRATIC C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Jobs w i t h I d e n t i c a l Tasks, Homogeneous Crews or Short Assembly Lines Behavior: a) e a s i l y inflamed b) poo r l y c o n t r o l l e d pressure t a c t i c s c) quick conversions to good r e l a t i o n s w i t h management d) of t e n h i g h l y c e n t r a l i z e d l e a d e r s h i p e) a c t i v e i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l phase of union 14 EXHIBIT IV (Cont'd.) 3. STRATEGIC C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of I n d i v i d u a l Worker C o n t r o l l e d Jobs. Behavior: a) continuous pressure b) w e l l planned and c o n s i s t e n t grievance a c t i v i t y c) high degree of i n t e r n a l u n i t y d) r e l a t i v e l y good production records over the long r u n , not a l l groups though. 4. CONSERVATIVE C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Top Rungs of Promotional and Status Ladders of the P l a n t — U s u a l l y I n d i v i d u a l Operations. Behavior:. a) r e s t r a i n e d pressure f o r h i g h l y s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s b) moderate i n t e r n a l u n i t y and s e l f assurance c) a c t i v i t y - i n a c t i v i t y c y c l e s i n terms of union a c t i v i t i e s and p l a n t grievance procedures 15 of b e h a v i o r a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e groups that e x i s t through the t e c h n o l o g i  c a l p rogression. However, i f Sayle's b e h a v i o r a l groups are d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e through an independent approach such as t h i s , i t i s my hope that the r e s u l t s w i l l be more u s e f u l than i f a d i r e c t approach toward proving the existence of four t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y determined b e h a v i o r a l groups were taken. 5 Walker and Guest i n v e s t i g a t e d the f o l l o w i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y i n f l u e n c e d f a c t o r s as a f f e c t i n g employee turnover and absenteeism: 1. The degree of r e p e t i t i v e n e s s 2. The degree of mechanical pacing 3. S k i l l as measured by len g t h of l e a r n i n g time 4. Frequency of break i n job r o u t i n e 5. Frequency of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n 6. S i z e of i n t e r a c t i n g group They found a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between absenteeism and mass production c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l as turnover and mass production c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . (Where mass production c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a s s o c i a t e d with a high degree of mechanical pacing, r e p e t i t i v e n e s s , and low s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . ) From these r e s u l t s one might hypothesize that employee d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n as measured by absenteeism and turnover i s great i n technologies possessing a high degree of mass production charac t e r i s t i c s (continuous c y c l e s , high degree o f mechanical pacing, and r e p e t i t i v e n e s s . ) I t may f o l l o w t h a t mass production technologies r e s t r i c t employee i n t e r a c t i o n and t h e i r u n i t y as a group may be l e s s than i n lower t e c h n o l o g i c a l forms. Walker, C.R., and Guest, R.H., The Man on the Assembly L i n e , Cambridge, Mass., Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952. 16 Faunce^ examined the independent v a r i a b l e s that a r i s e from the technology, such as, the amount of a t t e n t i o n r e q u i r e d by the j o b , the d i s t a n c e between work s t a t i o n s , and the extent of c o n t r o l of the work pace, as those having important e f f e c t s upon the frequency and nature of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . He was able t o derive that as a r e s u l t of changes i n produc t i o n techniques i n the "automated" pl a n t ( i n v o l v i n g continuous processes and i n t e g r a t i o n of production work processes) the combination of the above v a r i a b l e s changed considerably so that s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n was i n h i b i t e d t o a greater extent. 7 . . Blauner, m h i s work on a l i e n a t i o n , i n v e s t i g a t e s four technolo g i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i e s ; p r i n t i n g , t e x t i l e s , automobile manufacture, and chemical production. The p r i n t i n g i n d u s t r y i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of c r a f t work where an employee may do i n d i v i d u a l job work with l i t t l e or no t r a n s  f e r and a combination of hand and machine conversion. The t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y i s a machine i n d u s t r y with standardized products r a t h e r than a c r a f t i n d u s t r y l i k e p r i n t i n g . Again, there may be l i t t l e or no t r a n s f e r of product between employees; however, the conversion technology i s c h a r a c t e r  i z e d by semiautomatic spinning frames and automatic looms. Automobile manufacture i s t y p i c a l of assembly l i n e or mass technologies with g r e a t e r d i v i s i o n of l a b o r , steered l i n e and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , and hand and machine conversion. Chemical production i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of process i n d u s t r i e s where l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r of the product does take place as the Faunce, W.A., "Automation i n the Automobile Industry: Some Consequences f o r In-Plant S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 23, 1958, pp. 401-407. 7 . • . Baluner, Robert, A l i e n a t i o n and Freedom, Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1964. 17 chemicals and o i l s flow through pipes from one stage of processing to another, but u s u a l l y without being handled by the employees. In t h i s r e s p e c t , steered and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics are the main types of con v e r s i o n i n the continuous process i n d u s t r i e s . In a n a l y z i n g the meaning of work to the employee i n each of these t e c h n o l o g i e s , Blauner s t a t e s , "There i s l i t t l e meaninglessness i n c r a f t production because each craftsman makes a c o n t r i b u t i o n to a unique product. In continuous-process production there i s l i t t l e a l i e n a t i o n of t h i s type because each operator c o n t r i b u t e s a unique f u n c t i o n i n the processing of a standardized product. Meaninglessness i s most i n t e n s i f i e d on the automo b i l e assembly l i n e because both the product and the f u n c t i o n o f the i n d i - Q v i d u a l worker i s so h i g h l y standardized." On the b a s i s of these f i n d i n g s , the primary hypothesis r e l a t i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior (Area I i n E x h i b i t I I ) i s that grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , v o l u n t a r y t u r n  over, and absenteeism w i l l be low i n forms of technology i n v o l v i n g no t r a n s - . f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r as the technology l i n k i n g the group; no conversion, hand t o o l s , and employee operated machine t o o l s as the source of conversion; and no r e g u l a r c y c l e s or employee c o n t r o l l e d c y c l e s i n the work process. The degree of the described o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior w i l l increase i n technologies i n v o l v i n g dead l i n e and steered l i n e , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r methods; steered and s e l f r e g u l a t i n g conversion processes; and r e g u l a r c y c l e s . However, i n the extreme techno- I b i d . , p. 173. 18 l o g i c a l form of l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , steered and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g conversion, and continuous c y c l e s which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of process i n d u s t r i e s , the degree of the aforementioned o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r a l f a c t o r s w i l l d i m i n i s h from the previous l e v e l . One would a l s o expect t h a t management's e v a l u a t i o n of the work group as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees w i l l be the inv e r s e of the above r e l a t i o n  ships and t h e r e f o r e , management's s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l be grea t e r f o r groups at the extremes of the t e c h n o l o g i c a l s c a l e and l e s s f o r groups i n the middle range. In summary, the v a r i a b l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s area w i l l be of two types; those r e l a t i n g t o the t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and those d e s c r i b i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. The t e c h n o l o g i c a l charac t e r i s t i c s w i l l be analyzed on the b a s i s of the degree of t r a n s f e r techno logy l i n k i n g the members of the group. (No t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , automotive t r a n s f e r , dead and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s  f e r ) , conversion technology r e l a t i n g to the work c a r r i e d out on the product (no conversion, hand t o o l s , machine t o o l s , steered automatics, and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics), and c y c l e s per hour (nonregular, r e g u l a r , or con t i n u o u s ) . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior i s described by grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t y , management e v a l u a t i o n of the group, vo l u n t a r y turnover and absenteeism. The hypotheses based on the c i t e d s t u d i e s express the b e l i e f t h a t there i s a c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior and the requirements of the technology as one progresses up the t e c h n o l o g i c a l s c a l e from no t r a n s f e r , no conversion, and no r e g u l a r c y c l e s t o l i v e l i n e , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics, and continuous process technolo g i e s . In accordance with Blauner's f i n d i n g s , the degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y 19 relevant behavior as indicated by grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , spontaneous outbursts, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , voluntary turn over, and absenteeism w i l l be low i n technologies where a greater amount of employee control and involvement i n the work process e x i s t s , and high i n technologies where the technology controls the rate and amount of employee involvement i n the work process. The inverse of t h i s relationship w i l l be true for management evaluation of the group. Therefore, one w i l l expect a similar degree of organizationally relevant behavior at both ends of the technological scale with the greatest variation occurring i n dead and steered l i n e or l i v e l i n e transfer technologies with steered or s e l f - regulating automatic conversion and regular cycles. CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY The primary source f o r data to t e s t my hypotheses formulated from the sample of i n d u s t r y i n the Vancouver area i s p r i m a r i l y from my own obser v a t i o n s of the technology of the various operations and of the i n t e r a c t i o n s of the work groups. H i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n s of the work groups over long periods of time are provided by management i n c l u d i n g both top l e v e l and f i r s t l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s and foremen. A smaller amount of data i s provided by union o f f i c i a l s and u n f o r t u n a t e l y only a minimum of informa t i o n i s presented from face to face d i s c u s s i o n w i t h employees. The sample i n c l u d e s f i f t y work groups from f i f t e e n p l a n t s where I was given access and s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n to use i n the study. One t h i r d of the sample i s comprised of fi r m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the wood products i n d u s t r y , comprising three sawmills (one employing only eleven men), one sash and door company, and one custom f u r n i t u r e company. Other i n d u s t r i e s sampled are two l o c a l newspapers, two metal f a b r i c a t i n g p l a n t s , one foundry, two automotive r e p a i r shops, one food processing company, one drug company, and one telephone r e p a i r company. As I p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , t h i s sample i s not t r u l y of my own design, but r a t h e r i s l i m i t e d through the choice of many companies not t o impart any i n f o r m a t i o n to a study of t h i s nature. Information r e l a t i n g to techno logy i s r e a d i l y obtained from j u s t about a l l companies but o b t a i n i n g i n f o r  mation on employee behavior i s another s t o r y . A l l too o f t e n a f i r m had to be omitted because the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n v o l v e d would not give any i n d i c a t i o n of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , absenteeism, and turnover i n the area researched. My sample may, t h e r e f o r e , be biased i n favor of the more advanced and f l e x i b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the area of personnel a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 21 t h a t are l o c a t e d i n the Vancouver area. In each p l a n t I attempted to f o l l o w the same technique, although there were some v a r i a t i o n s depending on the a v a i l a b i l i t y of personnel. My research was i n i t i a t e d w i t h an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the personnel manager and/or the production manager i n which we discussed the o v e r - a l l operations of the p l a n t . This was followed by a tour of the operations where the l o c a t i o n of work areas, the b a s i c technology employed, and the number of people i n v o l v e d were observed. I was then able to observe each area by working w i t h i n my previous d e f i n i t i o n of a work group, that i s , the task performed and a n a t u r a l s u b d i v i s i o n i n the work process. The time spent observing each group v a r i e d according to the s i z e of the group and the technology i n v o l v e d but i n a l l cases s u f f i c i e n t time was spent to observe not only the techno logy but a l s o employee i n t e r a c t i o n f o r a p e r i o d of at l e a s t one hour. These observations were attempted with a minimum of d i s r u p t i o n to work group process and i n the m a j o r i t y of cases were c a r r i e d out without the group's knowledge by my u t i l i z a t i o n of inconspicuous vantage p o i n t s such as walkways and other overhead l o c a t i o n s . Even i n the few cases where I was i n p l a i n s i g h t of the group, my presence d i d not seem to i n t e r f e r e w i t h the group i n t e r a c t i o n and communication at hand. Interviews were then h e l d w i t h employees where permitted by management and by technology. This p e r i o d was followed by d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h f i r s t l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s or foremen where my f i n d i n g s were reviewed and e l a b o r a t i o n on i n d i v i d u a l employees, the h i s t o r y of the department, and employee behavior was obtained. A wind-up d i s c u s s i o n was then h e l d w i t h the personnel manager and/or the production manager i n which my f i n d i n g s h o p e f u l l y were r e i n f o r c e d . 22 The i n t e r v i e w schedule was designed to give q u a l i t a t i v e informa t i o n on i n t e r and i n t r a group f a c t o r s and was d i r e c t e d t o the production manager and/or the personnel manager. I t s o b j e c t i v e was t o o b t a i n data f o r support or r e f u t a t i o n of data subsequently obtained through my own observations and gives i n f o r m a t i o n on the past h i s t o r y of the p l a n t and any changes that had occurred, group r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h management and i n t e r n a l group r e l a t i o n s . The complete t e x t of the i n t e r v i e w schedule appears i n Appendix A. I must admit that I d i d not r i g i d l y adhere t o t h i s schedule but attempted to i n i t i a t e d i s c u s s i o n and e s t a b l i s h a medium conducive to the f r e e exchange of ideas and examples i n each of these areas. I found I gathered much more meaningful i n f o r m a t i o n when I used the i n t e r v i e w schedule as a g u i d e l i n e and allowed the management people t o t a l k w i t h i n t h i s area. In cases where the' person interviewed would not respond on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e , I was forced to ask each of the questions i n t u r n and subsequently only ob t a i n e d an e s s e n t i a l minimum of i n f o r m a t i o n . When f r e e d i s c u s s i o n d i d occur, I found I only had t o ask a few questions to cover the areas of i n t e r e s t . One of the main stumbling blocks i n attempting an i n d u s t r i a l sur vey of t h i s nature l i e s i n the d i f f e r i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s that companies have as t o what c o n s t i t u t e s a grievance. A grievance i s an e f f o r t on the p a r t of employees to communicate on a v e r t i c a l s c a l e w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n . They can stem from v i o l a t i o n s o f the working agreement, the s t a t e of working con d i t i o n s , t e c h n o l o g i c a l change, and even an accumulation of f r u s t r a t i o n s . Some companies do not c a l l a grievance such unless i t goestto a r b i t r a t i o n , w h i l e other companies c a l l any complaint a grievance. In order t o e s t a b l i s h a c r i t e r i o n f o r judging grievances i n t h i s study, I w i l l d e f i ne a grievance 23 as a complaint t h a t has been presented t o the su p e r v i s o r or the shop steward and has a j u s t i f i a b l e cause, not j u s t a complaint f o r the sake of complain i n g . T h i s , I admit, i s very d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h at times; however, judgment was l e f t to the foreman and other management personnel consulted t o e s t a b l i s h the frequency of grievances, once given t h i s d e f i n i t i o n . I am not only i n t e r e s t e d i n the frequency of grievance a c t i v i t y f o r a p a r t i c u l a r group, but a l s o the c o n d i t i o n from which the grievance a r i s e s . The observation schedule I designed appears i n Appendix B. The areas analyzed i n c l u d e the technology form, the job f u n c t i o n , the work group f u n c t i o n as determined by the technology, a measurement of group s t a t u s and the a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s or dependent v a r i a b l e s a r i s i n g from the technology. The d e f i n i t i o n o f the technology was e s t a b l i s h e d on the b a s i s of three c r i t e r i a : t r a n s f e r technology, conversion technology, and operation c y c l e s . The t r a n s f e r technology r e l a t i n g to the t e c h n o l o g i c a l process t h a t binds the group was broken i n t o a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e s t a r t i n g w i t h no t r a n s f e r and progressing through hand t r a n s f e r (hand, hand t r u c k s , e t c . ) , automotive t r a n s f e r (motor t r u c k s , e t c . ) , dead l i n e and steered l i n e ( r o l l e r s , cranes, remote c o n t r o l l e d conveyors, e t c . ) , and l i v e l i n e (overhead conveyors and t r a n s f e r machines with continuous movement). Conversion technology r e l a t i n g to the a c t u a l conversion of m a t e r i a l was a l s o judged on a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e : no conversion, hand t o o l s (wrenches, hammers, e t c . ) , machine t o o l s ( l a t h e s , shapers, e t c . ) , steered- automatics ( e x t r u s i o n p ress, e t c . ) , and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics (automatic trimmer, continuous press where a d j u s t  ments are made a u t o m a t i c a l l y by the machine, e t c . ) . Cycles were judged on a s i m i l a r s c a l e f o r the group, progressing from no r e g u l a r c y c l e s to r e g u l a r c y c l e s , same frequency w i t h i n the group; r e g u l a r c y c l e s , d i f f e r e n t 24 frequency w i t h i n the group; a continuous process; and f i n a l l y , some c y c l e s r e g u l a r , some continuous w i t h i n the group. Operative c y c l e s were then r a t e d from zero t o i n f i n i t y f o r the number of c y c l e s passing through the group. The r a t i n g of groups was performed by attempting to recognize the main trend or p r e v a i l i n g form w i t h i n the o v e r - a l l group. For example, the main form of t r a n s f e r technology that l i n k s the group would be given the a s s o c i a t e d r a t i n g w i t h i n the zero to four s c a l e f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r group. S i m i l a r l y , a r a t i n g was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r conversion technology and c y c l e s . In t h i s manner, a d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r the groups from four t o f i f t y was obtained by f i r s t r a t i n g f o r t r a n s f e r technology (hand t r a n s f e r to l i v e l i n e ) , then r a t i n g f o r conversion technology (no conversion to s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics), and f i n a l l y r a t i n g f o r c y c l e s (no r e g u l a r c y c l e s t o r e g u l a r , continuous). Thus, the group having the lowest form of techno logy (hand t r a n s f e r , no conversion, no r e g u l a r c y c l e s ) i s placed i n the number one p o s i t i o n and the group e x i s t i n g i n the highest form of technology ( l i v e l i n e ; s e l f - r e g u l a t o r y automatics; r e g u l a r , continuous c y c l e s ) i s placed i n the number f i f t y p o s i t i o n w i t h the r e s t placed accord i n g l y i n these l i m i t s . This d i s t r i b u t i o n e s t a b l i s h e s the t e c h n o l o g i c a l progression of the work groups i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the paper. I then i n v e s t i g a t e d the i n t e r v e n i n g f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the job f u n c t i o n as they are important i n determining the r e s u l t a n t behavior of the work group. Here, fo u r f a c t o r s were s t u d i e d ; the a t t e n t i o n requirements of the job f u n c t i o n , the frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , the m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group as allowed by the technology, and work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment. A l l f a c t o r s were again r a t e d on a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e . 25 The progression f o r judging the frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e was e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r observing the groups and a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h f i r s t l e v e l s u p e r v i s o r s . The number of breaks l i s t e d are i n excess of those covered by the working agreement of a l l the p l a n t s ( i . e . , two c o f f e e breaks and one lunch p e r i o d ) . The s c a l e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r m o b i l i t y of workers w i t h i n the group i s based on the assumption t h a t co-operation permitted by the p l a n t r u l e s allows more in-group freedom than t e c h n i c a l l y r e q u i r e d co operation alone. In order to study the i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the group, a s c a l e of conversation frequency w i t h i n the group and outside the group was formulated. The,bases f o r these s c a l e s were the r e s u l t s of an unpublished study I d i d i n 1965 on "Communication Patterns of Work Groups i n T h i r t y - F i v e T e c h n o l o g i c a l S e t t i n g s . " I found'that conversation frequency o u t s i d e the group ranging from one to f i f t y p l u s per hour f o r the t o t a l group g i v e s a good s c a l a r d i s p e r s i o n . In t h i s study I found that group s i z e i s p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the amount of conversation between group members where i t i s allowed by the technology, t h e r e f o r e , the frequency per man hour i s the most meaningful method of measurement. Conversation frequency outside the group d i d not seem to be r e l a t e d to group s i z e but r a t h e r the m o b i l i t y of the group; t h e r e f o r e , I have chosen to u t i l i z e the conversation frequency of the t o t a l group. The communication observed i s the t o t a l communication (or conver s a t i o n ) i n which each employee i s i n v o l v e d . The only form of communication deemed meaningful to i n v e s t i g a t e was that of speech because i f other methods ( s i g n , s i g n a l , or o b j e c t ) were i n c l u d e d t t h e r e s u l t s may tend towards e q u a l i t y , that i s , group t o t a l s may become s i m i l a r r e g a r d l e s s of the form of techno logy and the only v a r i a n t would be group s i z e . Voice communication i s 26 something t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e to any worker unless he i s handicapped, while communication by mechanical means i s not. A mechanical or v i s u a l s i g n a l may a l s o be d i r e c t e d at more than one worker, p l a c i n g the onus on the observer to d i s t i n g u i s h to whom the s i g n a l was meaningful, whereas the d i r e c t i o n of v o c a l contact i s u s u a l l y q u i t e c e r t a i n . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i n sawmills where l i g h t s are used as means of communication e i t h e r t o one i n d i v i d u a l or t o the group as a whole and even though a l l eyes i n the area are d i r e c t e d toward the l i g h t s , the message t r a n s m i t t e d i s not meaning f u l to a l l employees. V i s u a l r e s t r i c t i o n s and noise l e v e l i n h i b i t i n g the frequency of in-group i n t e r a c t i o n were a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d on a f i v e - s t e p s c a l e . The s c a l e f o r noise l e v e l i s q u i t e s u b j e c t i v e . Under i d e a l c o n d i t i o n s I can hear the t i c k of my w r i s t watch about eighteen inches from my ear; t h e r e f o r e , as the noise l e v e l increased my watch had t o be moved c l o s e r to my ear and under the most extreme c o n d i t i o n s had to be pressed r i g h t t o my ear before the t i c k i n g could be heard. I t was by judging the approximate distance of sound from my ear that I r a t e d the noise l e v e l . A diagram of work flow and work area s i z e was a l s o constructed to a i d i n studying group i n t e r a c t i o n . The measurement of group s t a t u s was obtained p a r t l y through d i s  cussion w i t h the s u p e r v i s o r and p a r t l y through observation. The p o s i t i o n on the promotional ladder i s c l e a r l y defined i n terms of grades e s t a b l i s h e d through the process of job e v a l u a t i o n and encompasses i n d i v i d u a l knowledge, s k i l l , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the job f u n c t i o n . In most cases these grades were obtained from the companies' working agreements but i n cases of nonunion shops, a v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n had to s u f f i c e . The s e n i o r i t y s c a l e 27 i s based on company s e n i o r i t y as t h i s i s the only s e n i o r i t y i n some p l a n t s and i s the best c r i t e r i o n f o r an intergroup comparison as opposed to depart mental s e n i o r i t y . In cases where the group was composed of a mixture of grades and s e n i o r i t y , an o v e r a l l average was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a group r a t i n g . The- exclusiveness of the task as r e l a t e d t o the r e s t of the p l a n t was measured by observing whether the same job was performed by a l l the group, more than h a l f the group, h a l f the group, l e s s than h a l f the group or whether a l l members of the group performed d i f f e r e n t jobs. By u t i l i z i n g t h i s measurement s c a l e , an inter-group comparison may be made f o r the studied groups. The sole c r i t e r i o n f o r measuring the l e n g t h of l e a r n i n g time to perform the f u n c t i o n to minimum acceptable standards was based on supervisory o pinion i n r e l a t i o n to the s c a l e of no time r e q u i r e d , l e s s than one year, l e s s than two y e a r s , l e s s than three years and three years or more. The l a s t area of i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s the dependent f a c t o r s a r i s i n g from the technology. This area i s one of the most important but u n f o r t u  n a t e l y , i t i s a l s o one of the most s u b j e c t i v e . The f a c t o r s are grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , cohesive- ness as described by management, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , manage ment e v a l u a t i o n of the group as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees, turnover, and absenteeism. Measurement of them i s based on the s u b j e c t i v e o p i n i o n of members of management i n the companies s t u d i e d . Only i n a few cases were a c t u a l personnel records made a v a i l a b l e or u t i l i z e d t o enhance the,objec t i v i t y of the study. The scales presented i n t h i s study are my attempt to e s t a b l i s h a common base f o r an i n t e r - i n d u s t r y comparison. Measurement of the techno l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s was based on s c a l e s developed by Dr. Meissner i n h i s 28 p r e v i o u s l y quoted study and by a p i l o t study undertaken by myself i n a metal p l a n t . In t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y work the degrees were t e s t e d on a number of groups and proved t o be b e n e f i c i a l instruments f o r comparing these groups. In the course of the study, only the exclusiveness of task s c a l e was changed t o account f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i n group s i z e . A d i f f i c u l t y i n measuring the length of l e a r n i n g time t o perform the f u n c t i o n was encoun te r e d i n the p r i n t i n g i n d u s t r y where a lengthy a p p r e n t i c e s h i p of seven years must be served before one becomes a journeyman. Here management's opinion was t h a t the length of l e a r n i n g time to perform the job to m i n i  mum acceptable standards c e r t a i n l y f e l l w i t h i n the e s t a b l i s h e d s c a l e r a t h e r than the time r e q u i r e d f o r a p p r e n t i c e s h i p . I have already defined a grievance as any complaint that has been presented to the s u p e r v i s o r or the shop steward and that has a " j u s t i f i a b l e " cause and cohesiveness as the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of a group f o r i t s members. D e f i n i t i o n s a l s o enhance the comparative value of ah i n t e r  i n d u s t r y group comparison as each f a c t o r i s judged on a s i m i l a r base. In t h i s study turnover r e f e r s t o v o l u n t a r y turnover and absenteeism r e f e r s to both short term and long term absences from the job due t o sickness and other reasons. D i s c u s s i o n at the l e v e l o f f i r s t l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s was not l i m i t e d to j u s t these f a c t o r s f o r i t was i n t h i s area t h a t a wealth of i n f o r m a t i o n about i n d i v i d u a l s comprising the work group and even supe r v i s o r y a t t i t u d e to the work group was e l u c i d a t e d . Nowhere d i d I detect the f e e l i n g t h a t a supervisor was concerned about how he was f a r i n g i n comparison t o other groups I had s t u d i e d or with upper management's d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s group. 29 A f t e r concluding my observations and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h the f o r e  men i n the various work areas throughout the p l a n t , I then returned to the personnel manager and/or the production manager f o r a concluding d i s c u s s i o n . I t was i n these d i s c u s s i o n s that I gathered reinforcement or r e f u t a t i o n of my m a t e r i a l . I am happy to s t a t e t h a t i n every case agreement on work group behavior e x h i b i t e d i n that p a r t i c u l a r p l a n t was the outcome of these d i s c u s s i o n s . Within the time and resources at my d i s p o s a l , the v a l i d i t y of t h i s study must r e s t s o l e l y on the above bases. CHAPTER IV RESULTS OF TESTING HYPOTHESES CONCERNING THE.DIRECT INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGY ON ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR The primary hypothesis r e l a t i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior (area I i n E x h i b i t I I ) i s th a t the degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , v o l u n t a r y turnover, and absenteeism w i l l be low i n forms of technology i n v o l v i n g no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r as the technology l i n k i n g the group; no conversion, hand t o o l s and employee operated machine t o o l s as the source of conversion; and no r e g u l a r c y c l e s or employee c o n t r o l l e d c y c l e s i n the work process. The degree of described o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior w i l l i ncrease i n technologies i n v o l v i n g dead l i n e and steered l i n e , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r methods; steered and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g conversion pro cesses; and r e g u l a r c y c l e s . However, i n the.extreme t e c h n o l o g i c a l form of l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , steered and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g conversion, and c o n t i n  uous c y c l e s which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of process i n d u s t r i e s , the degree of the aforementioned o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r a l f a c t o r s w i l l d i m i n i s h from the previous l e v e l . I t i s a l s o expected t h a t management's e v a l u a t i o n of the work group as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees w i l l be the inverse of the above r e l a t i o n  ships and, t h e r e f o r e , management's s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l be greater f o r groups at the extremes o f the t e c h n o l o g i c a l s c a l e and l e s s f o r groups i n the middle range. The study data were arranged i n t o frequency i n t e r v a l s i n accordance with the s i z e of the studi e d groups. A t a b l e o f group s i z e as appearing i n Table I was then constructed. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the 31 element of s i z e plays a r o l e i n group i n t e r a c t i o n since the l a r g e r the group the more p o t e n t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n pathways that e x i s t . The opportunity f o r i n t e r a c t i o n as measured by the s i z e of the group i s a d e f i n i t e f a c t o r i n determining r e s u l t a n t work group behavior as was i n d i c a t e d i n the supportive s t u d i e s . Therefore, group s i z e becomes meaningful i n i n t e r  p r e t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the independent and dependent techno l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d f a c t o r s . The mean group s i z e f o r the f i f t y groups as determined- from the grouped data i n Table I was found to be 6.03 with the median 4.68 and the mode at 4 . 5 members. Thus the average of a l l the groups was c l o s e t o s i x members with groups of f i v e members having the highest recurrence, c l o s e l y f o l lowed by groups composed of fo u r members. Only two of the stu d i e d groups had' more than fourteen members and they were composed of twenty and twenty-one members. This a n a l y s i s o f group s i z e w i l l become more meaningful as one i n v e s t i g a t e s the r e s u l t a n t comparisons of techno logy w i t h the studi e d forms of behavior. Table I I d e p i c t s the t e c h n o l o g i c a l progression of the groups th a t were s t u d i e d . This progression was obtained by f i r s t r a t i n g the t r a n s f e r technology or the technology l i n k i n g the group. The groups were then arranged w i t h i n t h e i r t r a n s f e r technology i n sequence of gradings according to t h e i r conversion technology score. F i n a l l y , w i t h i n the con v e r s i o n technology grouping, the groups were scaled on t h e i r c y c l i c a l r a t i n g . The progression was then an o v e r - a l l s c a l i n g on the b a s i s o f t r a n s f e r technology, a s c a l i n g w i t h i n each of the t r a n s f e r technology groupings on the b a s i s of conversion technology, and f i n a l l y , w i t h i n t h i s framework, a s c a l i n g on the b a s i s of c y c l e s . For example, the newspaper 32 TABLE I A TABLE OF GROUP SIZE FOR THE STUDY SAMPLE Group Siz e Number of Groups 50 11 22 5 4 4 2 14 and over 2 The a r i t h m e t i c mean of t h i s i n t e r v a l i s 20.50 33 'TABLE I I THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESSION OF THE INVESTIGATED WORK GROUPS AS DETERMINED BY THE STUDY METHOD TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY NO REGULAR CYCLES REGULAR CYCLES, SAME FREQUENCY FOR GROUP REGULAR CYCLES, DIFFERENT FREQUENCY IN GROUP CONTINUOUS PROCESS SOME CYCLES REGULAR, SOME CONTINUOUS No Transfer No Conversion Hand Tools Machine Tools Newspaper paste-up (1) Lead pot workers (2) Lead burning department (3) Metalwork assembly shop (4) Auto mechanics group (5) Metal p l a n t maintenance crew (6) Sawmill maintenance crew (7) Teletype r e p a i r shop (8) Sheetmetal f a b r i c a t i o n (9) Newspaper a d v e r t i s i n g (10) Door f i n i s h i n g department ( n ) Sawmill machine shop (12) Solder s p o o l i n g department (13) Metal p o l i s h i n g group (14) Steered Auto matics Foundry machine shop (15) 34 TABLE I I (Cont'd.) TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY NO REGULAR CYCLES REGULAR CYCLES, SAME FREQUENCY FOR GROUP REGULAR CYCLES, DIFFERENT FREQUENCY IN GROUP CONTINUOUS PROCESS SOME CYCLES REGULAR, SOME CONTINUOUS Hand Transfer Automotive Transfer No Conversion Hand Tools Machine Tools Sawmill l o g pond (16) Sawmill l o g pond (17) Sawmill l o g pond (18) Foundry small moulds group (19) Foundry mould core group (20) Custom f u r n i t u r e group (21) Sheetmetal c u t t i n g department (22) Casting chippers and gr i n d e r s (23) Newspaper photography p r o c e s s i n g (24) Die shop (25) Steered Automa t i c s No Conversion Door f a b r i c a t i n g department (26) Newspaper e d i t o r i a l t y p e s e t t i n g (27) Hand Tools Metal goods shipping department (28) Foundry shipping department (29) Cable shipping department (30) Automotive p a i n t shop (31) 35 TABLE I I (Cont'd.) TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGY NO REGULAR CYCLES REGULAR CYCLES, SAME FREQUENCY FOR GROUP REGULAR CYCLES, DIFFERENT FREQUENCY IN GROUP CONTINUOUS PROCESS SOME CYCLES REGULAR SOME CONTINUOUS Dead Line and Steered Line L i v e Line No Conversion Hand Tools Steered Automa t i c s Hand Tools S e l f Regulating Automatics Sawmill green chain (32) Sawmill green chain (33) Foundry furnace and molding crew (34) Plywood door g l u i n g (35) Pharmaceutical packaging (36) Telephone d i a l r e p a i r (37) Metal anodizing group (38) Sawmill barker and head sawyer group (39) Sawmill edgeman to s o r t e r group (40) Sawmill head sawyer to t r i m sawyer (41) Sawmill gang sawyer t o t r i m sawyer (42) Metal e x t r u s i o n press (43) Sheet metal p a i n t i n g (44) Newspaper press room (45) Food processing (46) Wire e x t r u s i o n and cable c o i l i n g group (47) Newspaper m a i l room (48) Sawmill automatic t r i m shop (49) Newspaper press b l d g . (50) 36 paste-up group l i s t e d at the beginning of the progression has no t r a n s f e r technology, u t i l i z e s hand t o o l s i n the conversion process, and has no r e g u l a r c y c l e s ; whereas the newspaper press at the end of the p r o g r e s s i o n has a l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r technology, u t i l i z e s a s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic c o n t r o l l e d through a master console i n the conversion process, and i s an example of a continuous process. In order to gain f u r t h e r i n s i g h t i n t o the establishment of t h i s p r o g r e s s i o n , E x h i b i t V was designed. A f t e r cursory observation of Table I I , i t i s obvious that the groups stu d i e d are not e q u a l l y disbursed along the t e c h n o l o g i c a l s c a l e . The s c a l e of t e c h n o l o g i c a l progression u t i l i z e d i n E x h i b i t V was constructed i n the same manner as the one described i n the previous e x h i b i t w i t h the groupings e s t a b l i s h e d by r a t i n g s on t r a n s f e r technology, conversion technology, and c y c l i c a l frequency i n that order. A bar graph was then constructed f o r the number of groups o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n an area of t e c h n o l o g i c a l progression. The area chosen f o r the base of each bar s p l i t s each of the t r a n s f e r technology r a t i n g s i n h a l f as t h i s gives the most meaningful r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of group disbursement. I f one could choose a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of i n d u s t r y to give the best sample f o r a study of i n d u s t r i a l work groups, a graph of equal frequencies f o r each area of t r a n s f e r technology would be expected. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s i s not the case here. F i f t e e n of my groups f a l l i n the category of no t r a n s f e r technology, twelve are l i n k e d by hand t r a n s f e r , four are j o i n e d through automotive t r a n s f e r , twelve are t i e d by dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r mechanisms, and seven are bound by s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics as the main form of product t r a n s f e r . EXHIBIT V A FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESSION OF THE GROUPS STUDIED Technological Progression i n Accordance with Conversion and Transfer Technology 38 Of the f i f t e e n groups working i n technologies where no t r a n s f e r technology l i n k e d the group, eleven u t i l i z e d hand t o o l s and machine t o o l s i n t h e i r product conversion, while only three u t i l i z e d machine t o o l s i n a technology r e q u i r i n g no r e g u l a r c y c l e s or r e g u l a r c y c l e s with a d i f f e r e n t frequency w i t h i n the group, and one used steered automatics i n i t s m a t e r i a l conversion. In Table I I , only three of these f i r s t f i f t e e n groups are a c t u a l l y i n v o l v e d i n the use of hand t o o l s alone; the other twelve are invo l v e d i n technologies employing hand t o o l s , machine t o o l s , and steered automatics to va r y i n g degrees i n t h e i r conversion processes. The c r i t e r i o n f o r judgment here was the main type of conversion process u t i l i z e d i n pro ducing the product. The sawmill machine shop (group 12), the s o l d e r spooling department (group 13), and metal p o l i s h i n g crew (group 14) used machine t o o l s as t h e i r main source of conversion even though some hand t o o l s were i n v o l v e d and the metal p o l i s h i n g crew had one steered automa t i c machine i n t h e i r f i n i s h i n g process. The foundry machine shop had mainly steered automatics although some hand t o o l s and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics were evident. At t h i s point one might question why the sawmill maintenance crew (group 7) i s higher than the metal p l a n t maintenance crew (group 6) i n the no t r a n s f e r , hand t o o l s , no r e g u l a r c y c l e s , t e c h n o l o g i c a l s c a l e . This type of con c l u s i o n i s due to one's concept of a maintenance crew or f o r that matter, any type of crew as e x i s t i n g apart from a p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r y and technology. A l l too f r e q u e n t l y , when one mentions a "widget crew" or a "frimfram group" people immediately t h i n k of these groups as being the same throughout a l l i n d u s t r i e s . This i s only l o g i c a l f o r our idea of t h i s crew i s formed according t o our past experience and 39 knowledge. Therefore when we say "maintenance crew," we t h i n k of mainte nance as being u n i v e r s a l and s i m i l a r throughout a l l i n d u s t r y r a t h e r than th i n k of a s p e c i f i c type of maintenance.associated with a s p e c i f i c type of i n d u s t r y or even technology. In t h i s case the sawmill maintenance crew worked with a greater amount of machine equipment due to the large s c a l e maintenance p r o j e c t s demanded by the type of technology employed i n the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y . The metal p l a n t maintenance crew worked on p r o j e c t s t h a t were more of an i n d i v i d u a l nature and r e q u i r e d only hand t o o l s and l i g h t machine t o o l s such as d r i l l s , g r i n d e r s , e t c . I t must be noted t h a t the maintenance crew at the sawmill was employed by an e n t e r p r i s e t h a t kept a very t i d y , updated p l a n t with modern equipment; t h e r e f o r e , the f e a t u r e s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g these two crews are p a r t i c u l a r t o the i n v e s t i g a t e d p l a n t s and not i n d i c a t i v e of a l l sawmill or metal pl a n t maintenance crews. Moving up the s c a l e represented i n Table I I to the twelve groups j o i n e d by hand t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s , one may d i f f e r e n t i a t e between eleven groups which have e i t h e r no conversion or i n c o r p o r a t e hand t o o l s , a degree of hand and machine t o o l s , and machine t o o l s ; and only one group, the e d i t o r i a l t y p e s e t t i n g group which employed many machine t o o l s and some s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g punch tape monitors, working i n r e g u l a r c y c l e s but at a d i f f e r e n t frequency w i t h i n the group. In t h i s grouping, the three sawmill ponds (groups 16, 17 and 18) were approximately equal i n t h a t no conversion was undertaken but d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was made on the number of c y c l e s per hour that passed through the group. One of the more i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t o r s here i s that the sawmill s i z e was no i n d i c a t i o n of t h i s type of group's produc t i v i t y . The smallest m i l l had the greatest per c a p i t a p r o d u c t i v i t y while - the l a r g e s t m i l l experienced many bot t l e n e c k s and breakdowns during my 40 v i s i t and was e v i d e n t l y prone to such t i e u p s . The same man (who worked at both places as a saw sharpener) showed me around both m i l l s and s a i d of the smaller o p e r a t i o n , "This m i l l i s a f a m i l y run ope r a t i o n . I t s p r o d u c t i v i t y i n board f e e t per man per minute i s greater than any other m i l l i n Van couver. There i s j u s t no comparison between working here, where i t ' s a pleasure t o work and...where sometimes i t ' s pure h e l l . " The intermediate m i l l pond was very small and fed a very e f f i c i e n t l y run m i l l but i t s c y c l e s were somewhat slower than the f i r s t group. The t h i r d t e c h n o l o g i c a l step i n Table I I i s i n d i c a t i v e of the four companies having a means of automotive t r a n s f e r b i n d i n g the work group i n t o a productive whole. Only four groups were found i n t h i s area; three shipping departments and one automotive p a i n t shop. A l l the shipping departments had no conversion but were graded according to the type of automotive equipment and the q u a n t i t y of orders handled. The metal goods shipping department used only small hyster v e h i c l e s while the foundry and cable s h i p p i n g departments used l a r g e and small motor l i f t s . The automotive p a i n t shop (group 31) was an example of hand and machine t o o l conversion technology where the car was t r a n s f e r r e d from work s t a t i o n to work s t a t i o n s t a r t i n g w i t h wet sanding through t o p a i n t i n g and d r y i n g i n a bake oven. The next area on the t e c h n o l o g i c a l progression i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of i n d u s t r i e s w i t h dead l i n e ( r o l l e r s , hand pushed r a i l c a r t s ) and steered l i n e (cranes, remote c o n t r o l l e d conveyors) t r a n s f e r technology. Twelve groups were found to be i n t h i s range; s i x with no conversion or hand t o o l s w i t h some machine t o o l s ; and s i x with steered automatics as a source of conversion. The two green chains (groups 32 and 33) at the beginning of. t h i s area were separated mainly on the b a s i s of s i z e as i t a f f e c t e d the 41 c y c l i c a l p a t t e r n of work. The smaller m i l l only had two men on the green chain w i t h each s e t t i n g h i s own r a t e of speed whereas the l a r g e r m i l l had eight men working i n a continuous motion with the technology s e t t i n g the speed. In t h i s m i l l the lumber was marked by a p a i r of s o r t e r s and each man on the chain was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t a c k i n g a p a r t i c u l a r marking. The aluminum anodizing group (group 38) marks the u t i l i z a t i o n of steered auto matics i n the conversion process. The metal p l a t e s were moved by an over head crane and dipped i n a s e r i e s of three v a t s . The group members move with the p l a t e s , c o n t r o l t h e i r t i m i n g , and stack them at the end of the v a t s . The i n t e r n a l sawmill groups (groups 39, 40, 41 and 42) were separable on the b a s i s of s i z e of p l a n t and p r o d u c t i v i t y . The l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r technology processes had only seven groups w i t h the sheet metal p a i n t i n g group (group 44) u t i l i z i n g hand and machine t o o l s i n the conversion process w i t h the remainder u t i l i z i n g s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics. A group disbursement i n t h i s l a t t e r area was ob t a i n e d on the b a s i s of p r o g r e s s i v e l y i n c r e a s i n g output. Now that the t e c h n o l o g i c a l progression of i n d u s t r i a l work groups i n t h i s study has been e l u c i d a t e d and an idea of group disbursement w i t h i n t h i s progression obtained, I w i l l t u r n my a t t e n t i o n t o comparing the degree of technology with r e s u l t a n t work group behavior. I hope that f u r t h e r i n  s i g h t w i l l be gained by supplementing t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n with d e s c r i p t i o n s of group i n t e r a c t i o n . Tables I I I , IV, V, VI, VII and V I I I d e p i c t the degree of r e s u l t a n t behavior a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r technology. For s i m p l i c i t y and c l a r i t y , t a b l e s are constructed with the degree of behavior f o r a given technology recorded. The t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n i s based on the major TABLE I I I • • • THE DEGREE OF GRIEVANCE AND PRESSURE ACTIVITY ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY Type of Transfer Technology Type o f Conversion No Transfer I-land msf er Automotive Transfer Dead and Steered Line Transfer L i v e Line Transfer T o t a l s Technology H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L No Conversion 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 7 Hand Tools 1 0 10 1 0 3 0 0 1 1 0 3 1 0 0 4 0 17 Machine Tools 0 1 2 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 Steered Automatics 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 3 0 0 0 2 1 5 S e l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 1 5 T o t a l 1 i 1 13 1 0 11 0 0 4 1 7 1 1 5 7 3 40 TABLE IV THE DEGREE OF UNPLANNED SPONTANEOUS OUTBURSTS ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY Type of Transfer Technolog y Type of Conversion No Transfer Hand Transfer Automotive Transfer Dead and Steered Line Transfer L i v e Line Transfer T o t a l s Technology H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L H M No Conversion 0 0 0 0 0 3 . 0 0 3 1 0 i 0 0 0 1 0 7 Hand Tools 1 0 10 1 0 3 0 0 1 1 0 3 1 0 0 4 0 17 Machine Tools 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 Steered Automatics 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 3 0 0 0 1 2 5 S e l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 1 5 T o t a l 1 0 14 1 0 11 0 0 4 3 2 7 1 1 5 6 3 41 TABLE V THE DEGREE OF PARTICIPATION OF UNION GROUPS IN UNION ACTIVITIES AS ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY Type of Transfer Technology Type of Conversion Technology No Transfer Hand Transfer Automotive Transfer Dead and Steered Line Transfer L i v e Line Transfer T o t a l s H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L No Conversion 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 6 Hand Tools 1 0 9 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 i+ 1 12 Machine Tools 0 1 2 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 Steered Automatics 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 2 2 3 Se l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 3 3 T o t a l 1 1 12 1 2 8 0 0 3 4 2 3 1 3 3 7 8 29 TABLE VI THE DEGREE OF TURNOVER ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY Type of Transfer Technoloj iy Type of Conversion Technology No Transfer Hand Transfer Automotive Transfer Dead and Steered Line Transfer L i v e Line Transfer T o t a l s H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L No Conversion 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 6 Hand Tools 2 1 8 0 1 3 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 4 4 13 Machine Tools 0 1 2 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 Steered Automatics 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 4 1 0 0 0 1 4 3 S e l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 3 3 0 T o t a l 2 2 11 0 1 11 0 0 4 2 8 2 4 3 0 8 14 28 TABLE VII THE DEGREE OF ABSENTEEISM ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY Type of Transfer Technology Type o f Conversion Technology No Transfer Hand Transfer Automotive Transfer Dead and Steered Line Transfer L i v e Line Transfer T o t a l s H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L No Conversion 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 6 Hand Tools 0 1 10 0 1 3 0 0 1 0 3 1 1 0 0 1 5 15 Machine Tools 0 1 2 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 Steered Automatics 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 3 0 0 0 1 2 5 S e l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 1 5 0 T o t a l 0 2 13 0 2 10 0 0 <4 2 6 4 2 5 0 4 15 31 TABLE V I I I THE DEGREE OF MANAGEMENT'S EVALUATION OF THE GROUP AS SATISFACTORY EMPLOYEES ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY Type of Transfer Technology Type of Conversion Technology No Transfer Hand Transfer Automotive Transfer Dead and Steered Line Transfer Live Line Transfer T o t a l s H M L H M L H • M L H M L H M L H M L No Conversion 0 0 0 1 2 0 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 5 3 0 Hand Tools 9 2 0 3 1 0 1 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 1 15 5 1 Machine Tools 2 1 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 • 0 Steered Automatics 1 0 0 . 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 5 3 0 S e l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 6 0 T o t a l 12 3 0 8 ^• 0 4 0 0 6 6 0 0 6 1 30 19 1 48 ca t e g o r i e s of t r a n s f e r technology and conversion technology. As the type of c y c l e s (nonregular, r e g u l a r , and continuous) encountered by a group i s used f o r o b t a i n i n g a d i s p e r s i o n w i t h i n these main c a t e g o r i e s , c y c l e s w i l l only be discussed to the extent they i n f l u e n c e behavior of a group that d i f f e r s from other groups i n the same t e c h n o l o g i c a l category. The r e s u l t a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior i s presented i n s i x separate t a b l e s ; grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover, absen teeism, and management's e v a l u a t i o n of the group as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees. The b a s i s f o r measurement of t h i s behavior was discussed i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the methodology of the study w i t h reference to Appendix B. I t i s thought that the three degrees of hi g h , medium, and low degrees of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior w i l l i n d i c a t e the general d i f f e r e n c e s of behavior e x h i b i t e d by any one group i n a p a r t i c u l a r technology. In t h i s chapter a comparison f o r each o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior type f o r a given technology w i l l be presented and comparisons w i t h the hypotheses presented i n Chapter I I w i l l be made. However, a complete understanding of work group behavior w i t h i n the t e c h n o l o g i c a l representa t i o n cannot be obtained unless i n d i v i d u a l groups are i n v e s t i g a t e d and ex pl a n a t i o n s based on supporting s t u d i e s f o r both t y p i c a l and deviant groups w i t h i n each t e c h n o l o g i c a l category are i n v e s t i g a t e d . To avoid r e p e t i t i o n i n d i s c u s s i o n of groups w i t h i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l category, a l l s i x types of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior w i l l be discussed f o r each technolo g i c a l category; i . e . , grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , t u rnover, absenteeism, and management's e v a l u a t i o n of the groups as s a t i s f a c t o r y 49 employees, w i l l be discussed f o r groups i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t o o l s t e c h n o l o g i e s , then no t r a n s f e r , machine t o o l s t e c h n o l o g i e s , and on through the t e c h n o l o g i c a l progression. A c l e a r and s u c c i n c t summary comparing the study r e s u l t s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior f o r a given technology w i t h the hypotheses presented i n Chapter I I w i l l be made. To e x p l a i n the r e s u l t s i n these t a b l e s , I must r e t u r n to my t h e o r e t i c a l grounding f o r t h i s study, as the expected r e s u l t s are based on theory. The r e s u l t s of the s t u d i e s of Say l e s , Walker and Guest, Faunce, and Blauner, l e d me to expect c e r t a i n r e s u l t s . These are that grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i  p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , t u rnover, and absenteeism w i l l be low i n forms of technology i n v o l v i n g no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r as the technology l i n k i n g the group; no conversion, hand t o o l s , and employee operated machine t o o l s as the source of conversion; and no r e g u l a r c y c l e s or employee c o n t r o l l e d c y c l e s i n the work process. The degree of the above o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior w i l l i ncrease i n technologies i n v o l v i n g dead l i n e and steered l i n e , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r methods; steered and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g conversion and continuous c y c l e s which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of process i n d u s t r i e s , the degree of the aforementioned o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r a l f a c t o r s w i l l d i m i n i s h from the previous l e v e l . I t i s a l s o hypothesized t h a t management's e v a l u a t i o n of the work group as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees w i l l be the inverse of the above r e l a t i o n  ships and t h e r e f o r e , greater f o r groups at the extremes of the t e c h n o l o g i  c a l s c a l e and l e s s f o r groups i n the middle range. In the r e s u l t s of the present study, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior c l a s s i f i e d as high or medium degree does tend to r i s e s l i g h t l y 50 f o r groups working i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e , and l i v e l i n e t e c h n o l o g i e s , but tapers o f f f o r the groups i n the higher extremes of l i v e l i n e technolo g i e s . As these o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t b e h a v i o r a l f a c t o r s are based on Sayles' study, i t should be noted, as i n d i c a t e d i n E x h i b i t IV, that a l l four types of group behavior: a p a t h e t i c , e r r a t i c , s t r a t e g i c , and conserva t i v e may be found i n technologies where work group members have some con t r o l over the work process. For example, a p a t h e t i c behavior i s c h a r a c t e r  i s t i c of both low s k i l l e d jobs and long assembly l i n e s ; e r r a t i c behavior i s evident both i n areas o f short assembly l i n e s and of homogeneous crews performing i d e n t i c a l t a s k s ; s t r a t e g i c behavior i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of only i n d i v i d u a l worker c o n t r o l l e d j o b s ; and conservative behavior i s c h a r a c t e r  i s t i c of jobs that are u s u a l l y i n d i v i d u a l operations w i t h some i m p l i c a t i o n s toward s t a t u s which w i l l be discussed i n the s e c t i o n concerning the b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology. Therefore, some mixture of these b e h a v i o r a l group types may be found i n technologies of no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r , as w e l l as technologies of dead and steered l i n e , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r . As Sayles' t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s have t h i s nebulous q u a l i t y , the o r i g i n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of t r a n s f e r technology, conversion t e c h  nology, and c y c l e s w i l l be continued to be used i n the d e s c r i p t i v e phase of t h i s study. The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior manifested i n turnover and absenteeism as i n v e s t i g a t e d by Walker and Guest was the b a s i s f o r my hypothesis t h a t turnover and absenteeism w i l l be low i n forms of technology i n v o l v i n g no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r technology as l i n k i n g the group; no conversion, hand t o o l s and employee operated machine: t o o l s as the source of conversion; and no r e g u l a r c y c l e s or employee 51 c o n t r o l l e d c y c l e s i n the work process; and w i l l i n c r e a s e i n technologies i n v o l v i n g dead l i n e and steered l i n e , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r methods; steered and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g conversion processes; and r e g u l a r c y c l e s . Turnover and absenteeism w i l l then d i m i n i s h i n technologies of l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r ; s t e e r e d , and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g conversion; and continuous c y c l e s . Tables I I I to V I I I i n d i c a t e that t h i s hypothesis holds t r u e except i n the extreme case where turnover and absenteeism i n l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r techno l o g i e s r e g a r d l e s s of the source of conversion or number of c y c l e s i s i n the medium to high category. I t was hypothesized t h a t management's e v a l u a t i o n of the group as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees would a l s o have a c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p but be greater f o r groups at e i t h e r end of the t e c h n o l o g i c a l s c a l e and smaller i n the center. Table V I I I shows that no c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s f o r groups i n t h i s study. Management's e v a l u a t i o n of the group as s a t i s f a c  t o r y employees i s g r e a t e r i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r technologies than dead l i n e and steered l i n e , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s  f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s . Again the source of conversion w i t h i n these t r a n s f e r technologies does not seem to a f f e c t t h i s t r e n d . To attempt t o comprehend the meaning of these r e s u l t s and why some i n d i v i d u a l group d e v i a t i o n s occur, groups w i t h i n each t e c h n o l o g i c a l category must be i n v e s t i g a t e d . As was mentioned, r a t h e r than look at each type of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior and the deviant groups w i t h i n each t a b l e , I w i l l progress along the t e c h n o l o g i c a l s c a l e a n a l y z i n g groups t y p i c a l of hypothesized behavior and deviant groups as most of these groups are common to a l l types of .in v e s t i g a t e d behavior. In t h i s manner I hope that a minimum of r e p e t i t i o n w i l l be encountered. 52 In no t r a n s f e r , hand t o o l conversion t e c h n o l o g i e s , e i g h t o f eleven are c o n s i s t e n t with the hypothesized behavior. These are the newspaper paste-up group ( 1 ) , the lea d burning department ( 3 ) , the metalwork assembly shop ( 4 ) , the metal p l a n t maintenance crew ( 6 ) , the t e l e t y p e r e p a i r shop ( 8 ) , the sheetmetal f a b r i c a t i o n department ( 9 ) , the newspaper a d v e r t i s i n g group (10), and the door f i n i s h i n g department (11). I s h a l l attempt to describe two of these groups so t h a t one may see the s i m i l a r i t i e s of t e c h  nology and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior between them. The newspaper paste-up group (1) operates i n a no t r a n s f e r , no conversion, and no r e g u l a r c y c l e s technology. This i s a very low s k i l l e d job e n t a i l i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a r t i c l e s on a newspaper page. The job i s very tedious and i n v o l v e s the simplest manipulations t o f i l l a page. Cer t a i n a r t i c l e s are set aside as " f i l l e r s " f o r any unused space. The jobs are a l l i n d i v i d u a l w i t h each man working one p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n of the paper, f o r example, the weekend s e c t i o n , sports s e c t i o n , wand ads, and so on. I n t e r n a l d i s u n i t y was very prevalent i n t h i s group, pressure t a c t i c s , g rievances, and spontaneous outbursts were at a minimum, i n f a c t , an i n  formal group seemed almost nonexistent. The lea d burning department (3) a l s o operates i n a no t r a n s f e r , hand t o o l , and no r e g u l a r c y c l e technology. This job i n v o l v e s a tremendous degree of s k i l l and r e q u i r e s a long l e a r n i n g time with s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g before the f u n c t i o n can be performed. The group does q u i t e a number of t h e i r jobs i n the f i e l d and thus has a degree of autonomy from the r e s t of the p l a n t . Even though t h i s group mainly e x h i b i t s a low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover, and absenteeism, management claims the group 53 w i l l exert pressure i n a c t i v i t y - i n a c t i v i t y c y c l e s as meets t h e i r needs, and because of t h e i r p o s i t i o n r e l a t i v e t o the r e s t of the p l a n t , they u s u a l l y f i n d that t h e i r needs are met both by management and the union. The main deviant from the groups i n the no t r a n s f e r , hand t o o l c onversion, category i s the lead pot workers. T h e i r e x h i b i t e d behavior of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , t urnover, i s high. Absenteeism and management's ev a l u a t i o n of the group as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees i s only moderate. They are an example of a group performing almost i d e n t i c a l tasks where each man l a d l e s molten lead out of a pot i n t o a s e r i e s of ingot molds. When he reaches the end of the s e r i e s of molds, he then t i p s them over onto the rack and stacks the ingots i n a p i l e on the f l o o r . L i t t l e judgment i s r e q u i r e d by the employee and the job i s p h y s i c a l l y t a x i n g due to the extreme heat from the lead pots and the weight of the metal. (One l a d l e f i l l e d one ingot weighing approximately f i f t y pounds.) The only break the men have from t h i s process i s the skimming of the o x i d i z e d l a y e r of molten metal from each of the ingots before the metal s o l i d i f i e s . These men are the main source of grievance a c t i v i t y i n the p l a n t but the frequency and i n t e n s i t y of t h e i r grievances holds no r e l a t i o n to the issues they represent. The group had marched "en masse" to the foreman to complain about such t h i n g s as the l a c k of water pressure i n t h e i r d r i n k i n g f o u n t a i n and other c o n d i t i o n s that could be r e c t i f i e d through a simple d i s c u s s i o n . The auto mechanics group (7) e x h i b i t s a greater degree of t u r n  over than the t y p i c a l groups i n the no t r a n s f e r , hand t o o l conversion technology where t h e i r turnover i s of a medium degree compared with the low degree of t y p i c a l groups. They are a nonunion group, thus t h e i r 54 p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s i s n i l . T h e ir work i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n d i v i d u a l jobs which are i d e n t i  c a l i n t h a t they are a l l working on car engines. Working c o n d i t i o n s i n the garage are e x c e l l e n t but because each employee has h i s own set of t o o l s , there i s constant b i c k e r i n g among employees and grievances presented t o management about the disappearance of t o o l s . The group i s not what one would c a l l cohesive, but r a t h e r has two members t h a t have been with the f i r m f o r ten or twelve years and three t h a t have been there l e s s than a year and i t has been a problem h o l d i n g on t o the three mechanics. This may be because of no l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n the group. The two o l d e r mechanics have formed a c l i q u e and keep everything t o themselves, g i v i n g the younger ones no d i r e c t i o n whatsoever. As the manager of the operation s t a t e d , " I f only these k i d s could be given some d i r e c t i o n and guidance on the shop f l o o r , t h i s place might not serve as a t r a i n i n g ground f o r other s e r v i c e - s t a t i o n s . " The sawmill maintenance crew (7) and the metal p l a n t maintenance crew (6) both work i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t o o l conversion, and no r e g u l a r c y c l e s technology; however, t h e i r behavior d i f f e r s i n t h a t the metal p l a n t maintenance crew i s t y p i c a l of groups i n t h i s type of technology while the sawmill maintenance crew has a high degree of turnover and are only evaluated as a moderately s a t i s f a c t o r y group by management. Both main tenance crews are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n d i v i d u a l , noninterdependent operations which-allows t h e i r members to work as s c a t t e r e d subgroups. B a s i c a l l y , the members do not a l l work together but work i n the l o c a t i o n s occupied by other work groups. However, through working i n p a i r s and by c o n s t a n t l y s h i f t i n g l o c a t i o n s they seem to keep a group i d e n t i t y . Perhaps t h i s i s 55 due to t h e i r power as represented by the s k i l l s they possess as compared to the r e s t of the p l a n t . The•production manager of the metal p l a n t s t a t e d , "Our maintenance people are a r e a l s o c i a l u n i t . They have a s a t i s f y i n g job and d e r i v e a l o t of p r i d e from i t as they can see the end r e s u l t of t h e i r work. They are not pressed to meet production i n d i c e s and have a l a r g e degree of c o n t r o l over what they do. They eat lunch together and discu s s common problems and above a l l they keep the d i r t y end of the s t i c k e q u a l l y d i v i d e d . " The m i l l manager had s i m i l a r comments to make about h i s crew but here the s i m i l a r i t y ended. The m i l l crew i s a s m a l l e r crew with only f i v e members as compared to the metal crew of twelve and because of the demands of the technology, i s r e q u i r e d to work as a crew more o f t e n than the maintenance people i n the metal p l a n t . The d e c i d i n g d i f f e r e n c e i s noted by Sayles,- "For most of the men i n conservative groups there i s the p r o b a b i l i t y that i f the company does not provide s a t i s f a c t o r y employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , there are an adequate number of jobs a v a i l a b l e r e q u i r i n g 9 t h e i r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n the l o c a l l a b o r market." The sawmill crew was s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by seasonal f a c t o r s . The crew worked and e x h i b i t e d behavior t y p i c a l of other no t r a n s f e r , hand t o o l conversion, and no r e g u l a r c y c l e s technologies i n the f a l l and winter but as soon as outside construc t i o n i n d u s t r i e s s t a r t e d i n the s p r i n g , the l e v e l of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t i e s would r i s e , spontaneous outbursts would occur sometimes, and crew members would begin l e a v i n g the m i l l f o r outside jobs. This group's behavior p a t t e r n i s d e f i n i t e l y a f f e c t e d by the company's i n a b i l i t y to . Sayles, op. c i t . p.35. '56 provide adequate rewards to keep t h e i r maintenance people. In no t r a n s f e r , machine t o o l conversion technologies two of the three i n v e s t i g a t e d groups, the sawmill machine shop (12) and the metal p o l i s h i n g group (14) have the hypothesized low grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , t urnover, absenteeism,, and a high e v a l u a t i o n as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees. These groups are i n d i v i d u a l operations where each operates h i s own machine and c o n t r o l s h i s own work pace with the exception of the metal p o l i s h i n g group where extruded metal s t r i p s are p o l i s h e d and the task i s r e p e t i t i v e . On the other hand, the solder s p o o l i n g group even though working i n a no t r a n s f e r , machine t o o l conversion technology w i t h r e g u l a r c y c l e s but a d i f f e r e n t frequency i n the group, has a medium degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover, absen teeism, and a medium e v a l u a t i o n as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees. The t y p i c a l job c o n s i s t s of each man performing the same o p e r a t i o n , one spooling f i v e pound s p o o l s , the other one pound spools. The s o l d e r i s c o i l e d i n a large b a r r e l , the operator places the spool on the machine, attaches the f r e e end of t h i s c o i l to the spool and w i t h h i s l e f t hand pushes the l e v e r operating the machine while g u i d i n g the s o l d e r on the spool w i t h h i s r i g h t hand. When he judges t h a t he has enough s o l d e r on the spool he shuts the machine o f f and then weighs the spool. He removes any excess so l d e r or adds i f the weight i s d e f i c i e n t and f i n a l l y , c l i p s the spool f r e e from the main s o l d e r bulk. The j o b , t h e r e f o r e , r e q u i r e s some judgment, but i s extremely t e d i o u s . The only group i n the no t r a n s f e r , steered automatic conversion with no r e g u l a r c y c l e s technology, the foundry machine shop (15), e x h i b i t e d 57 the hypothesized behavior of low grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n . u n i o n - a c t i v i t i e s , t urnover, absenteeism, and a high e v a l u a t i o n by management. This group i s i n v o l v e d i n l a t h e and machining operations s i m i l a r to those of the sawmill machine shop (12) but the machinery u t i l i z e d i s of the steered . automatics conversion type g i v i n g the operator a g r e a t e r amount of m o b i l i t y from the equipment. In summary, groups i n no t r a n s f e r technologies were i n d i c a t i v e of the hypothesized low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n - i n union a c t i v i t i e s , t urnover, and absenteeism. They were a l s o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a high e v a l u a t i o n as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees. Deviant group behavior was a t t r i b u t e d to such f a c t o r s as: frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , lack of i n f o r m a l group l e a d e r s h i p , l a c k of r e c o g n i t i o n by the company of s k i l l e d workers' m o b i l i t y and l a c k of p r o v i s i o n of adequate rewards to keep these people, and the l a c k of judgment and degree of r e p e t i t i o n r e q u i r e d by some jo b s . Progressing t o the hand t r a n s f e r technologies where hypothesized o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior i s comparable to that of technologies where no t r a n s f e r i s e v i d e n t , some d e v i a t i o n s are a l s o encountered. The sawmill l o g ponds (16, 17 and 18) are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of hand t r a n s f e r , no conversion technologies with r e g u l a r c y c l e s throughout the group. The groups e x h i b i t e d a low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover and absenteeism. However, two of the l o g pond groups (17 and 18) were viewed as having a moderate r a t i n g as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees. These groups are i n v o l v e d i n t r a n s f e r r i n g logs and one man operating a c u t o f f 58 saw. The j o b . i t s e l f i s extremely popular i n summer but extremely unpopu l a r i n winter. No cohesion e x i s t s w i t h i n the group.other than a u n i f i e d f e e l i n g of discontent i n the winter months. These jobs r e q u i r e only a minimum of s k i l l and employees are thought of as " s l a c k e r s " by the manage ment of the two companies. The t h i r d l o g pond (16) i s from a f a m i l y run m i l l and composed of only two men who could speak r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e E n g l i s h . Of groups i n hand t r a n s f e r , hand t o o l conversion t e c h n o l o g i e s , only the custom f u r n i t u r e group (21) and the sheetmetal c u t t i n g department (22) have the hypothesized low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , t urnover, absenteeism, and a high e v a l u a t i o n as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees by management. These groups c o n t r o l t h e i r own work pace and r e q u i r e s k i l l to perform t h e i r f u n c t i o n s . The custom f u r n i t u r e b u i l d i n g shop i s one of the few west of the Rocky Mountains and each man was proud of h i s s k i l l as a f u r n i t u r e craftsman. A l l work i n c l u d i n g the f i t t i n g of springs and up h o l s t e r i n g was done on a frame which was assembled by a cabinet maker outside t h i s shop t o meet s p e c i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d by customers. The sheet metal shop i s the highest p a i d group i n a l a r g e foundry as each job performed r e  qui r e s a lengthy t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . The hand t r a n s f e r technology i n v o l v e s one man on l a y o u t , one man on the c u t t i n g shears, one man operating the bending machines and two men i n v o l v e d i n assembly. The foundry small molds group (19) which a l s o works i n a hand t r a n s f e r , hand t o o l conversion technology e x h i b i t e d the hypothesized be havior i n a l l f a c t o r s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior but p a r t i c i p a  t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s where a medium degree was evident. , This group has one man passing sand to two men, each i n v o l v e d i n making small molds, and 59 another two men who are each i n v o l v e d i n making l a r g e molds. The core's f o r these molds are obtained from the mold core group which i s s i t u a t e d i n the next department. As the next paragraph i n d i c a t e s , the mold core group i s the hot bed of t h i s p l a n t and the high degree of i n d i v i d u a l con t a c t between these groups may account f o r the medium degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s shown by the small molds group. The mold core group (20) a l s o i s i n v o l v e d i n a hand t r a n s f e r , hand t o o l conversion technology and e x h i b i t s a high degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s . Turnover, absenteeism, and management ev a l u a t i o n of the group as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees are only medium. Even though the group i s l i n k e d by hand t r a n s f e r technology, the nature of the work e n t a i l s a high degree of s k i l l f o r i t i s i n t h i s area that cores are made f o r a l l the molds i n the foundry. The group i s composed of f i v e men: two that pack the sand i n the core molds, one who d r i e s the sand, one who sprays the molded cores w i t h g r a p h i t e and one who operates the bake oven. A great degree of personal judgment enters i n t o the work of these men, they have a high degree of personal m o b i l i t y and work from 7:00 A.M. to 3:30 P.M. (as does the r e s t of the foundry) i n comparison t o 8:00 A.M. to 3:30 P.M. f o r the metal work and machine s e c t i o n s of the foundry. The group i s the heart of union a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the p l a n t and exerts c o n t i n - • uous pressure on management and f e l l o w foundry workers. Grievances over time and motion s t u d i e s are t h e i r prime t a r g e t as they f e e l one cannot f o r c e a job as e x a c t i n g as t h e i r s . The. group has a high degree of i n t e r n a l u n i t y and i s q u i t e permanent i n that there are very few jobs a v a i l a b l e w i t h  i n the p l a n t t h a t are at a higher rung on the promotional ladder and these 60 jobs r e q u i r e s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g by the i n d i v i d u a l performing them. The hand t r a n s f e r , machine t o o l conversion category i s represented i n t h i s study by four groups; the c a s t i n g chippers and g r i n d e r s (23), the newspaper photography processing (24), the d i e shop (25), and the door f a b r i c a t i n g department (26). The groups have the hypothesized low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous out b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover, absenteeism, and a high e v a l u a t i o n as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees by management. However, two exceptions are evident. These are the medium degree of absenteeism and the medium e v a l u a t i o n by management f o r the c a s t i n g chippers and g r i n d e r s (23), and the medium degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s f o r the door f a b r i c a t i n g department (26). The chippers' and g r i n d e r s ' job i s to g r i n d the excess metal and sand o f f the sand c a s t i n g s . The c a s t i n g s are f i r s t placed i n a sand b l a s t i n g furnace f o r p r e l i m i n a r y c l e a n i n g and then passed on to the g r i n d e r s f o r f i n a l c l e a n i n g . The g r i n d e r s compose the main bulk of the crew and are a l l i n v o l v e d i n s i m i l a r t a s k s . The area i s extremely dusty and d i r t y with a covering of dust over e v e r y t h i n g . This group i s the lowest s t a t u s group i n the p l a n t and a l s o one of the lowest p a i d . On t h i s b a s i s one might expect a l a r g e r degree of turnover than does e x i s t but as the employees have no other s k i l l , they stay. However, the group i s not very cohesive. They are a source of constant b i c k e r i n g among themselves and w i t h management and the union but they "don't want to rock the boat too hard and l o s e t h e i r j o b s . " The door f a b r i c a t i n g department (26) exerts some grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y and i s q u i t e a c t i v e i n union a c t i v i t i e s . T heir technology i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a short assembly l i n e w i t h the f i r s t man i n the group 61 operating three d i f f e r e n t machines at d i f f e r e n t times t o prepare door moldings. These are then passed through the molding machine to the " s t i c k e r " where they are glued and then to the sasher who assembles the doors and passes them through the sanding machine. Judgment i s important i n s e t t i n g t o l e r a n c e s and a d j u s t i n g the machine. The f a c t that t h i s group exerts a small degree of pressure on management may be r e l a t e d to i t s high degree of i n t e r n a l u n i t y and that a l l members have been there f o r more than ei g h t years. The only group r e p r e s e n t i n g hand t r a n s f e r , steered automatic conversion technologies i s the newspaper e d i t o r i a l t y p e s e t t i n g group (27). The g i r l s i n t h i s group type a punch tape. This tape i s v e r i f i e d and then coded by machines on d i s c s and then processed and the r e s u l t a n t a r t i c l e waxed and d r i e d before being passed to the paste-up group. The m a j o r i t y of equipment u t i l i z e d i n the conversion process i s the steered automatic type of coding, p r o c e s s i n g , and waxing machines. The behavior c h a r a c t e r  i s t i c of t h i s group i s s i m i l a r t o the hypothesized low grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover, absenteeism, and a high e v a l u a t i o n as s a t i s  f a c t o r y employees by management. Thus, groups i n hand t r a n s f e r technologies were a l s o i n general i n d i c a t i v e of the hypothesized low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover and absenteeism. They were a l s o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a high evalua t i o n as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees. Deviant group behavior may be a t t r i b u t e d t o such f a c t o r s as: seasonal f a c t o r s , e t h n i c background, frequency of contact w i t h t r o u b l e areas i n the p l a n t , no jobs a v a i l a b l e at higher rungs 62 of the promotional ladder without extensive s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , l a c k of s k i l l to perform b e t t e r j o b s , and high i n t e r n a l u n i t y and length of s e r  v i c e possessed by a group. In the automotive t r a n s f e r , no conversion groups, the metal goods shipping department (28), the foundry shipping department (29), and the cable shipping department ( 3 0 ) , the hypothesized behavior was a low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous out b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover and absenteeism. The• hypothesized degree of management's e v a l u a t i o n of the group as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees was high. The same hypotheses were formulated f o r the automotive t r a n s f e r , hand t o o l conversion group, the automotive p a i n t shop (31). The type of technology u t i l i z e d by these groups was p r e v i o u s l y noted as small hyster v e h i c l e s by the metal goods shipping department, and small and l a r g e motor l i f t s by the foundry and cable shipping departments. In the automo t i v e p a i n t shop the group experienced the same frequency of c y c l e s as the car was passed from f u n c t i o n t o f u n c t i o n . The e x h i b i t e d behavior of these groups i n the automotive t r a n s f e r , no conversion and the automotive t r a n s f e r , hand t o o l conversion technologies was i d e n t i c a l w i t h the hypothesized i n a l l measured c a t e g o r i e s of or g a n i z a  t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. Progressing i n t o the dead and steered l i n e and l i v e l i n e areas where st u d i e s of Sayles, Walker and Guest, Faunce, and Blauner i n d i c a t e one should expect a higher degree of r e s u l t a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior' which tapers o f f s l i g h t l y i n extreme t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s ( l i v e l i n e , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics, and continuous process t e c h n o l o g i e s ) , deviant groups are s t i l l found. 63 In the dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r , no conversion technologies two sawmill green chain groups are encountered, one e x h i b i t i n g the hypothesized higher degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior, the other e x h i b i t i n g the lower degree of behavior i d e n t i c a l with groups i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r t e c h  n o l o g i e s . The sawmill green chain (33) r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the hypothesized high degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior i s a constant thorn i n management's side as they may f l a r e up f o r no apparent reason. Manage ment r e l a t e d t h i s t o the employees' d i s l i k e of the work which i s p h y s i c a l l y demanding, too warm i n summer months, and too c o l d i n winternmonths. In f a c t , most of the p o s i t i o n s are h e l d by new Canadians l e a r n i n g the language, students on summer v a c a t i o n , or men s t a r t i n g with the m i l l s and hoping to work up to b e t t e r p o s i t i o n s . T h e i r grievances are u s u a l l y t r e a t e d very l i g h t l y by management with the r e s u l t that one w i l l d i e as another a r i s e s t o take i t s p l a c e . This group has a high degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , and absenteeism. I t has only a medium degree o f turnover and a medium e v a l u a t i o n as a s a t i s f a c t o r y group. • • In c o n t r a s t the other green chain (32) which i s smaller than the previous e x h i b i t s a low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s . . Turnover and absenteeism are present t o a medium degree and management's e v a l u a t i o n of the group as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees i s high. This green chain group works i n a f a m i l y owned and operated sawmill. A l l employees but one who i s a part-time employee are East Indian and are r e l a t e d to one another. Very l i t t l e E n g l i s h i s spoken or understood by the m a j o r i t y of 64 the employees" i n the m i l l , as some were j u s t new a r r i v a l s from I n d i a . The m i l l i s nonunion which accounts f o r the low degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s . Turnover.and absenteeism are moderate as there are a few East Indian operated m i l l s i n t h i s area whose owners bargain f o r each other's employees. This m i l l had j u s t l o s t i t s gang sawyer to another m i l l and the gang saw was being operated by the owner who seemed to be w e l l versed i n a l l phases of m i l l work. In the dead and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r , hand t o o l conversion technology, four groups are present; the foundry furnace and molding crew (34), the plywood door g l u i n g group (35), the pharmaceutical packaging group (36) and the telephone d i a l r e p a i r shop (37)-. The only group e x h i b i t i n g the hypothesized behavior i s the foundry furnace and molding crew which has high grievance and pressure a c t i v i t i e s , number of unplanned spontaneous outbursts and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s w i t h a medium degree of t u r n o v e r , absenteeism and a medium e v a l u a t i o n as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees by management. The plywood door g l u i n g group (35) c o n s t r u c t i n g s o l i d doors has low grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous out b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , t u r n o v e r , and absenteeism. I t a l s o has a high e v a l u a t i o n as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees by management. The group c o n s i s t s of two men who operate the glue machine which a p p l i e s glue to the plywood panels and a l s o operate a press. They have a f a i r degree of c o n t r o l over the amount of doors glued but most complete t h i r t y to t h i r t y - f i v e doors per day. These are placed in. the press and allowed to dry overnight. The .smell from the glue i s almost unbearable t o one t h a t i s not accustomed to i t , but i t d i d n ' t seem to bother the men at a l l . •65 Both of these men have been with the f i r m f o r twelve years and work q u i t e w e l l together. This type of work Is not too d e s i r a b l e to the other men i n the p l a n t , although one s t a t e d , "There's not too much pressure i n v o l v e d . I wouldn't mind the work but i t would take some time to get used to t h a t glue s m e l l . " Even though the men i n t h i s have a comparable degree of s e n i o r i t y t o the r e s t of the p l a n t , the job c e r t a i n l y holds no rank of high s t a t u s w i t h i n the p l a n t . The pharmaceutical packaging group (36) e x h i b i t s a l e s s e r degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , and p a r t i c i p a  t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s than expected f o r a dead l i n e t r a n s f e r technology but these men are being groomed as f u t u r e salesmen; t h e r e f o r e , the short run monotony of the job of wrapping drugs i s overcome by f u t u r e a s p i r a t i o n s . The telephone d i a l r e p a i r shop (37) i s comparable w i t h the pharmaceutical group. These men a l s o e x h i b i t a low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , as they are being t r a i n e d f o r jobs i n the f i e l d . In both cases, absenteeism and turnover meet the expected, f o r i f an employee notes newer employees reaching the f i e l d before he does, he r e a c t s through absenteeism a n d . f i n a l l y leaves the job. Progressing to the dead and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r , and steered automatic conversion t e c h n o l o g i e s , the s i x r e p r e s e n t a t i v e groups are: the metal anodizing group (38), the sawmill barker and head sawyer group (39), the sawmill edgeman to s o r t e r group (40), the sawmill head sawyer to t r i m sawyer group (41), the sawmill gang sawyer t o t r i m sawyer group (42), and the metal e x t r u s i o n press (43). Only three of these groups e x h i b i t the higher degree of hypothesized o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior, while 66 two reach a higher degree only i n some f a c t o r s , and one e x h i b i t s the same degree as hypothesized f o r the no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s . The metal anodizing group (38) and the metal e x t r u s i o n press (43) have the hypothesized higher degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. These groups work i n a steered l i n e , steered automatics technology. The work pace i s high and tempers c o n t i n u a l l y f l a r e as bottlenecks occur. The foreman of the e x t r u s i o n press crew takes great care i n determining which men w i l l work together so that p e r s o n a l i t y c o n f l i c t s w i l l be avoided. He i s p a r t i c u l a r l y aware of e t h n i c background and w i l l not allow an Englishman i n h i s crew to work with a German i n h i s crew, as they don't seem to r e a l i z e that World War I I has ended. He b e l i e v e s t h a t the low b o i l i n g p o i n t of h i s crew i s r e l a t e d t o the high degree of r e p e t i t i v e n e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s technology. The sawmill barker and head sawyer group (39) has low grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , low spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , low p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , low turnover, and low absenteeism coupled w i t h a high e v a l u a t i o n as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees. This group operates i n a steered l i n e t r a n s f e r technology s t a r t i n g w i t h the barker, the peeled logs pass on t o the l e v e r man who f l i p s them onto a l i n e where they're picked up by the head r i g operated by the head sawyer. A f t e r the sawyer i s through c u t t i n g , the helper p u l l s the lumber onto the conveyor. This group i s the highest s t a t u s group i n the m i l l as the barker must have s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g to operate the water pressure and t i m i n g of the l o g i n the barker, while the head sawyer i s the most valued job i n the p l a n t and a l s o the highest s k i l l e d and highest p a i d . 67 The above group i s the exact opposite of the sawmill group of head sawyer t o t r i m sawyer i n a l a r g e r m i l l C+l). This group i s s i m i l a r t o the previous group but has two b a s i c d i f f e r e n c e s ; i t i s l a r g e r due t o the design of the m i l l and the head sawyer r i d e s the head r i g as he cuts the l o g s . There i s c o n t i n u a l b i c k e r i n g among the group through the use of hand s i g n a l s but some of the members are a l s o known t o frequent a l o c a l pub during noon hour and a f t e r work. The f a c t o r s a t t r i b u t i n g to the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the groups' be havior may be found i n m i l l age, s i z e , and management p o l i c y . The second group works i n an ol d e r m i l l that has a long record of l a y o f f s and con stant s h i f t i n g of employees. They have an extremely d i f f i c u l t time keeping head sawyers because of the e x t e r n a l demand f o r head sawyers. The union i s i n a constant b a t t l e w i t h management over replacements f o r head sawyers. The union s t a t e s s e n i o r i t y i s a prime f a c t o r but management emphasizes a b i l i t y to do the job. They take employees who have e x c e l l e n t p o t e n t i a l and t r a i n them to be head sawyers and when a vacancy a r i s e s move these people i n t o the p o s i t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s c r e ates hardships between the head sawyer and the r e s t of the p l a n t ; t h e r e f o r e , when an opening a r i s e s elsewhere, the head sawyer may leave. In the f i r s t group, the m i l l i s extremely modern, the head sawyer w e l l paid and the group works as a u n i t . This head sawyer has been on the job f o r more than ten years and manage ment w i l l go to j u s t about any l i m i t to keep him there. As the m i l l f o r e  man s a i d , "This man i s the key i n our ope r a t i o n . He i s the highest p a i d and w e ' l l go to any lengths to keep him. Our problem i n the f o r e s t r y i n d u s t r y today i s t r a i n i n g . We have no program t o prepare our people t o move t o other jobs. A l l too o f t e n people leave as they can see no f u t u r e 68 here and we have no one t r a i n e d t o take t h e i r p lace. Our l a c k of t r a i n i n g costs a l l of the companies i n the i n d u s t r y thousands of d o l l a r s each year. As the s i t u a t i o n stands r i g h t now, i t ' s b e t t e r f o r us to meet our key personnel's demands r a t h e r than face l o s i n g them." This p o l i c y i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n the edgeman t o s o r t e r group (40). They too have a low degree of a c t i v i t y i n the grievance f i e l d , as w e l l as, a low degree of absenteeism and a medium degree of turnover. I b e l i e v e t h a t the m i l l foreman's statements of t h i s management's a t t i t u d e s and p o l i c i e s toward i t s employees accounts f o r t h i s low degree o f anti-company behavior i n t h i s technology. The sawmill gang sawyer to t r i m sawyer (42) a l s o has a low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , and absenteeism a s s o c i a t e d wit h a medium degree of turnover and a high e v a l u a t i o n by management. This i s the East Indian f a m i l y run sawmill whose c l o s e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p both on and o f f the job and the i n a b i l i t y of many of these people to speak . E n g l i s h may account f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of l i m i t e d job o p p o r t u n i t i e s out side t h i s m i l l and the low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior f o r t h i s group i n the steered l i n e , steered automatic technology. In summary, the higher degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , t urnover, and absenteeism hypothesized f o r the dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r technologies was found f o r most- groups s t u d i e d i n t h i s category. The hypothesized lower e v a l u a t i o n of these groups as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees was a l s o found with the noted exceptions. The l a r g e r number of d e v i a t i o n s from the hypothesized were a t t r i b u t e d to such f a c t o r s as: management 69 p o l i c y , the r e p e t i t i v e n e s s of the j o b , the m o b i l i t y of employees from t h e i r work p l a c e s , the status of the group as measured by t e c h n i c a l competence, and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of higher s k i l l e d jobs to members of the work groups. E t h n i c background and f a m i l y t i e s were again found to be important i n a f f e c t i n g the behavior of work groups. Only the sheet metal p a i n t i n g group i s found i n the l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , hand t o o l conversion t e c h n o l o g i c a l category i n t h i s study. This group has the hypothesized high degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i  t i e s , turnover, and absenteeism. Management's e v a l u a t i o n of t h i s group as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees i s medium. A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i r work w i l l be given i n the chapter d i s c u s s i n g the b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology. The hypothesized degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior f o r groups i n l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion, and con tinuous c y c l e s i s lower than hypothesized f o r the previous groups i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , hand t o o l conver s i o n t e c h n o l o g i e s . The groups i n t h i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l category as shown i n Table I I are: the newspaper press room (45), the food processing group ( 4 6 ) , the wire e x t r u s i o n and cable c o i l i n g group (47), the newspaper m a i l room (48), the sawmill automatic t r i m shop (49), and the newspaper press b u i l d  i n g (50). These groups e x h i b i t mainly a low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , and number of unplanned spontaneous ou t b u r s t s . Their p a r t i c i p a  t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s remains low f o r the newspaper press room, the news paper m a i l room, and the sawmill automatic t r i m shop, but r i s e s to a medium degree f o r the food processing group, the wire e x t r u s i o n and cable c o i l i n g group, and the newspaper press b u i l d i n g . Turnover and absenteeism r i s e s 70 to a medium degree f o r the most part and high i n a few instances while management's e v a l u a t i o n of the group as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees i s only medium f o r a l l groups. The-groups i n t h i s study i n the l i v e l i n e , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion and continuous process technology d i f f e r from Blauner's continuous process groups i n the gas and o i l i n d u s t r y i n that these groups s t i l l have a l a r g e degree of employee i m m o b i l i t y as c o n t r a s t e d to the freedom of the i n d i v i d u a l i n the gas and o i l i n d u s t r y . In f a c t , i n c l o s e l y a n a l y z i n g the gas and o i l i n d u s t r y technology where l i v e l i n e , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics and continuous flow i s present, i t i s evident t h a t none o f the technologies represented i n t h i s study are automated t o the degree that the i n d i v i d u a l has freedom of movement. The c o n t r o l f a c  tor- i s present i n the groups represented i n t h i s study i n t h a t the employee has c o n t r o l over the process which may account f o r the low degree of g r i e  vance and pressure a c t i v i t y and the number of unplanned spontaneous out b u r s t s . However, the degree of automation i n the s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g conver s i o n , continuous processes u t i l i z e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia s t i l l has many t r a d i t i o n a l t i e s i n t h a t unions r e q u i r e t h a t jobs that e x i s t e d i n the past remain as i n the newspaper press b u i l d i n g (50) or that management has only automated one part of a' l a r g e process as i n the sawmill automatic t r i m shop (49). The group approaching c l o s e s t to the technology of the continuous processes i n gas and o i l i s the. newspaper press room (45), where the degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous out b u r s t s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s i s lower than comparable groups i n the l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion, 71 and continuous process area. This group was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a new concept i n the newspaper f i e l d due to the degree of m o b i l i t y allowed the men by t h e i r working agreement. They interchanged jobs w i t h i n t h e i r area so that a l l would become p r o f i c i e n t i n each job f u n c t i o n . A l l these men must have a high degree of s k i l l t o set up the press but during the operation t h e i r job changes to one of watching. This was a new p l a n t and a l l the employees seemed quite happy with the work. One employee expressed h i s f e e l i n g s , "This i s the place to work r a t h e r than the o l d job shop where you l e a r n only one f u n c t i o n . Here I'm l e a r n i n g everything. I t makes q u i t e a d i f f e r  ence when you understand the t o t a l operation and know who t o go t o i f any t h i n g goes wrong." However, a f a i r l y high degree of turnover and absen teeism was evident due to the company's poor f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n . The company had m i l l i o n s t i e d up i n c a p i t a l expenditure but was r e a l i z i n g very l i t t l e from revenues. Many employees were worried about the company f o l d i n g and had decided to f i n d new jobs before t h i s happened. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e i r f e a r s were j u s t i f i e d when the company c l o s e d operations. The higher than a n t i c i p a t e d degree of turnover and absenteeism may be due to the s k i l l and t e c h n i c a l competence that, employees i n these groups have. In t h i s economic p e r i o d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, s k i l l e d workers are i n high demand i n a l l types of i n d u s t r y . This a l s o coupled w i t h a high degree of c a p i t a l investment and expansion undertaken i n the f o r e s t , mining, power, telecommunications, and other i n d u s t r i e s , r e s u l t s i n many opportuni t i e s f o r s k i l l e d employees. This may r e s u l t i n a f a i r l y high degree of absenteeism followed by turnover f o r employees not s a t i s f i e d i n t h e i r present employment. I b e l i e v e t h a t the b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology which w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g chapters w i l l help e x p l a i n the high degree of turnover and absenteeism encountered i n the l i v e 72 l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion, and continuous pro cess technologies. In summarizing the hypotheses r e l a t i n g the t e c h n o l o g i c a l charac t e r i s t i c s to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior p r e d i c t e d a c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t was f e l t t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior as measured by grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned sponta neous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n , turnover and absenteeism would be low i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s , r i s i n g i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , hand machine, or steered automatic conversion, and d i m i n i s h i n g i n l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion, continuous c y c l e s . I t was hypothesized t h a t management's e v a l u a t i o n of the group would have the opposite curve, that i s , high i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s , r i s i n g through dead l i n e and steered l i n e , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s , to l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automa t i c conversion, continuous c y c l e s technologies where i t would d i m i n i s h . In t h i s chapter I t was e s t a b l i s h e d that these hypotheses hold (with some noted exceptions) except f o r the case of the l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion, continuous c y c l e s technology where turnover and absenteeism were present to a higher degree than a n t i c i p a t e d . I t i s hoped that these d e v i a t i o n s and the others encountered may be ex p l a i n e d by i n v e s t i g a t i n g the b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology such as a t t e n t i o n requirements of the j o b , frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , worker m o b i l i t y , judgment r e q u i r e d , frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n , group s t a t u s , group cohesiveness, and group s i z e as a f f e c t i n g cohesiveness. Other v a r i a t i o n s outside of the technology employed as noted In my d e s c r i p t i o n s are the companies' p o l i c y as r e f l e c t e d i n r e c o g n i t i o n of 73 the work group through pay and f r i n g e b e n e f i t s , i n other words, the group's perception of how i t i s being t r e a t e d by the company. The prime example here i s the d i f f e r e n t approach to the m i l l workers taken by two d i f f e r e n t companies. The companies' approach to unions i s another f a c t o r e x t e r n a l t o the technology as some companies i n my study such as, the auto mechanics, one s a w m i l l , and automotive pa i n t shop are nonunion. In these cases the company employee r e l a t i o n s were very good as e x t e r n a l pressure was on the company t o meet and maintain employee requests. Ethnic background, and f a m i l y operations a l s o played an important r o l e i n determining work group behavior, e s p e c i a l l y i n the cases of the East I n d i a n . m i l l and the metal e x t r u s i o n press. Within the group, the areas of i n f o r m a l l e a d e r s h i p or the group's perception of s u p e r v i s i o n were not i n v e s t i g a t e d as they are not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one s p e c i f i c technology, but these are f a c t o r s that may a f f e c t group- 10 behavior as i n d i c a t e d by Walker. Walker, C.R., et a l . , The Foreman on the Assembly L i n e , Cambridge, Mass., Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956. pp. 135-1M-1. CHAPTER V iA DISCUSSION OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE TECHNOLOGY ON THE BEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE TECHNOLOGY The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the t e c h n o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s to the i n t e r v e n i n g b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology may be of i n t e r e s t at t h i s stage of o r g a n i z i n g a t o t a l p i c t u r e of the i n f l u e n c e of technology on organiza t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. The e f f e c t of t e c h n o l o g i c a l form on the be h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology may not e l u c i d a t e any general r e l a t i o n s h i p s but may be of value i n e x p l a i n i n g i n t e r v e n i n g behavior f o r a s p e c i f i c t r a n s f e r or conversion form. The b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology which were discussed i n Chapters I , I I and I I I are: A. Tec h n i c a l behavior ( a t t e n t i o n r e q u i r e  ments of the job f u n c t i o n ; frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , i . e . r e s t p e r i o d s , lunch, coffee breaks and washroom t r i p s ; m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group; and work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment); B. Frequency of v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n ; C. Group s t a t u s ; D. Group cohesiveness and group s i z e as a f f e c t i n g cohesiveness. Other v a r i a b l e s such as aspects of p e r s o n a l i t y , management o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s , supervisory s t y l e , e t h n i c background, and the l i k e may a l s o i n f l u e n c e these i n t e r v e n i n g b e h a v i o r a l v a r i a b l e s but an e f f o r t w i l l be made to discuss the i n f l u e n c e of the technology on the i n t e r v e n i n g v a r  i a b l e s . A. Techn i c a l Behavior The s t u d i e s of Sayles, Walker and Guest, and Faunce as o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I i n d i c a t e that a t t e n t i o n requirements of the job f u n c t i o n , the frequency of breaks i n the job r o u t i n e , the m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group, and work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment are important b e h a v i o r a l .75 / consequences of the technology. The d e s c r i p t i o n of the r e s u l t s of t e s t i n g hypotheses concerning the d i r e c t Influence of technology on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior i n the previous chapter i n d i c a t e s the importance of these f a c t o r s . Blauner has described the degree of s u b d i v i s i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n of work. He found that p r i n t e r s i n the c r a f t i n d u s t r i e s have c o n t r o l over the process of work which extends i n t o the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s of production but t h i s c o n t r o l i s l o s t i n the mass production automobile i n d u s t r i e s where, "The automobile worker i s an a l i e n a t e d worker because h i s work has become almost completely compartmentalized from other areas of h i s l i f e , so t h a t 11 there i s l i t t l e meaning l e f t i n i t beyond the in s t r u m e n t a l purpose." In the chemical process i n d u s t r i e s Blauner f e e l s t h a t the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n production again becomes meaningful t o an employee. The degree of c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d by groups i n t h i s study may be found i n the e f f e c t that the t e c h  nology has on the aforementioned v a r i a b l e s of t e c h n i c a l behavior. Tables IX, X, XI and XII de p i c t the degree of the f o l l o w i n g be h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology: a t t e n t i o n requirements of the job f u n c t i o n , frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group, and work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment r e l a t e d to each techno l o g i c a l category. The a t t e n t i o n requirements of the job f u n c t i o n range i n the medium and low c a t e g o r i e s of the t a b l e f o r the no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and motor t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s , progressing to a high degree i n the dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r , steered automatic conversion, and i n l i v e l i n e Blauner, A l i e n a t i o n and Freedom, Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1964, pp. 121, 122. TABLE IX THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE ATTENTION REQUIREMENTS OF THE JOB FUNCTION Typ a of Transfer Technology Type of Conversion Technology No Transfer Hand Transfer Automotive Transfer Dead and Steered Line Transfer L i v e Line Transfer T o t a l s H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L No Conversion 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 8 Hand Tools 0 9 2 0 2 2 0 0 1 0 1 3 0 0 1 0 12 9 Machine Tools 0 2 1 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 Steered Automatics 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 6 2 0 S e l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 5 0 1 T o t a l 0 12 3 0 6 6 0 0 k 6 1 5 5 0 1 11 19 20 TABLE X THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE FREQUENCY OF BREAK IN THE JOB ROUTINE Type of Conversion Technology Type of Transfer Technology No Transfer Hand Transfer Automotive Transfer Dead and Steered Line Transfer L i v e Line Transfer Totals. No Conversion Hand Tools Machine Tools Steered Automatics S e l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics T o t a l 10 12 16 28 15 TABLE XI THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE MOBILITY OF WORKERS IN THE GROUP Type of Transfer Technoloj; IY Type o f Dead and Conversion No Hand Automotive Steered Line L i v e Line Technology Transfer Transfer Transfer Transfer Transfer T o t a l s H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L No Conversion 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 6 0 2 Hand Tools 11 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 3 1 0 1 0 0 20 1 0 Machine Tools 3 0 0 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 1 0 Steered Automatics 1 0 0 'I 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 0 0 0 3 0 5 S e l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 4 2 0 4 T o t a l 15 0 0 11 1 0 4 0 0 4 1 7 3 0 4 37 2 11 TABLE XII THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON WORK STANDARDS INVOLVING JUDGMENT Type of Transfer Technology Type o f Dead and Conversion No Hand Automotive Steered Line L i v e Line Technology Transfer Transfer Transfer Transfer Transfer T o t a l s H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L No Conversion 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 6. 0 2 Hand Tools 11 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 4 0 0 1 0 0 21 0 0 Machine Tools 2 0 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 1 Steered Automatics 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 1 7 S e l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 6 T o t a l 13 0 2 10 2 0 4 0 0 4 0 8 1 0 6 32 2 16 80 t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion, continuous c y c l e s techno logy . In the f i f t e e n hand t r a n s f e r technology groups, only three e x h i b i t a low degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements. These are the newspaper paste-up group (1) and the lead pot workers (2) i n the hand t o o l conversion tech nology and the so l d e r s p o o l i n g group (13) i n the machine t o o l conversion category who have only surface a t t e n t i o n requirements as compared w i t h a medium degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements of other groups i n the no t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i c a l category. In the hand t r a n s f e r technology, s i x of twelve groups have low a t t e n t i o n requirements. These are: the sawmill l o g ponds (16, 17 and 18) i n the no conversion area, the foundry small molds group (19) and the foundry mold core group (20) i n hand t o o l conversion, and the c a s t i n g chippers and grinders (23) i n machine t o o l conversion. A l l other groups i n the hand t r a n s f e r technology have a medium degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements. A l l groups i n the automotive t r a n s f e r technology have a low degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements. In the dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s , s i x groups have a high degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements, one has a medium degree, and f i v e have a low degree. A l l s i x groups w i t h the high degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements are i n the steered automatic conversion techno logy which i n c l u d e s the metal anodizing group (38) t o the metal e x t r u s i o n press (43). The group with the medium degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements i s the telephone d i a l r e p a i r shop (37) while the other three groups i n the hand t o o l conversion category, the foundry furnace and molding crew ( 3 4 ) , the plywood door g l u i n g group (35), and the pharmaceutical packaging group (36), have a low degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements. The two sawmill green 81 chains i n the no conversion category have a low degree of a t t e n t i o n r e  quirements. In other words, a progression i s evident i n the dead l i n e and steered l i n e technologies as the f i r s t f i v e groups have a low degree o f a t t e n t i o n requirements, the s i x t h group has a medium degree and the l a s t s i x groups have a high degree. In l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , hand t o o l conversion, the sheet metal p a i n t i n g group (44) has a low degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements while the l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion groups w i t h the exception of the food processing group (46) have a high degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the technology. Most of the d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l on these groups was e l u c i d a t e d i n the previous chapters or w i l l be described i n Chapter V I I ; however, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to compare some of the groups with a s i m i l a r degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements. The newspaper paste-up group (1) has the very monotonous job of p l a c i n g a r t i c l e s on a page which r e q u i r e s a low degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements. Even the c a s t i n g chippers and g r i n d e r s (23) which work w i t h machine t o o l s i n the process of removing p i t holes and excess metal from the c a s t i n g have r e l a t i v e l y low a t t e n t i o n requirements. The metal p a i n t i n g group (44) which works i n a l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r t e c h  nology has the r e p e t i t i v e task of p a i n t i n g metal sheets w i t h spray guns and brushes which r e q u i r e s very low a t t e n t i o n requirements. Of groups with a medium degree o f a t t e n t i o n requirements, the lead burning department ( 3 ) , the sheetmetal c u t t i n g department (22), and the telephone d i a l r e p a i r shop (37) are but a few. Even though these groups are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r a s i m i l a r degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements i s 82 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r f u n c t i o n . I t i s a l s o of s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t no groups i n steered automatic conversion technologies have a low degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements and t h a t a l l groups i n dead and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r , steered automatic conversion have a high degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements. The food processing group (46) which deviates from other groups i n the l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion has a low degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements i n t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the group pays only surface a t t e n t i o n to the job. Therefore, the source of conversion i s important i n determining the a t t e n t i o n requirements of the job f u n c t i o n as the steered automatics and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e a high degree of a t t e n t i o n while other forms of conversion r e q u i r e a lower degree. The frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e ( r e s t p e r i o d s , l u n c h , coffee breaks, washroom t r i p s , and v i s i t s w i t h other workers) i s high i n the no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s , becoming lower i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r t e c h  nologies w i t h only two groups i n the s i x i n l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion having a high degree of frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e . Only three groups i n the no t r a n s f e r , hand.transfer, and auto motive t r a n s f e r technologies have a low frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e . These are the three sawmill l o g pond groups (16, 17 and 18) where m o b i l i t y i s r e s t r i c t e d w i t h i n the l o g pond area and only noon hour,coffee breaks, and emergencies give the men any break from the job r o u t i n e . A l s o , only four groups w i t h i n these t r a n s f e r technologies have a medium degree of break i n the job r o u t i n e . These are the l e a d pot workers ( 2 ) , the s o l d e r 83 s p o o l i n g department (13), the metal p o l i s h i n g group (14) and the foundry- mold core group (20). The lead pot workers and so l d e r spooling department have r e g u l a r lunch and coffee breaks but only have a few side t r i p s t o the washroom or d r i n k i n g f o u n t a i n . The men on the l e a d pots take s a l t t a b l e t s and are cautioned against d r i n k i n g too much water. Although no production quota e x i s t s on these jobs there i s an i n f o r m a l r e c o r d e x i s t i n g among the men f o r the most number of ingots poured i n a day and i n the so l d e r s p o o l i n g department, a record f o r the pounds of so l d e r spooled and packaged i n a day. This informal'competition among the group members helps t o create i n t e r e s t • i n the job and may account f o r the lower degree of break i n the job r o u t i n e f o r these groups. The metal p o l i s h i n g group and the foundry mold core group have a high degree of c o n t r o l over t h e i r work pace, are q u i t e c l o s e l y k n i t , and autonomous from the r e s t of the p l a n t . Informal d i s c u s s i o n s are c a r r i e d on by the groups while the work process i s progressing w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t members keep the break from the job r o u t i n e r e l a t i v e l y low f o r these types of technology. In the dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r technology, the plywood door g l u i n g group (38) and the foundry furnace and molding crew (34) have a high degree of frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e . The plywood door g l u i n g group works i n b a s i c a l l y a dead l i n e t r a n s f e r technology w i t h the members c o n t r o l l i n g t h e i r own work pace. The spreading of glue i s an extremely t r y i n g job as the glue i s not only s t i c k y but has a very penetrat i n g odor and the fumes hurt one's eyes. I t i s not usual to see members of t h i s group f r e q u e n t l y v i s i t the washroom or go outside f o r a breath of a i r . The foundry furnace and molding crew i s one of the l a r g e r groups i n t h i s study and works i n an area t h a t i s prone to extremely high temperatures. The work i t s e l f a l s o lends t o many breaks as a f t e r the molds are positioned-., 84 there i s a period before the furnace i s tapped and a f t e r the furnace i s tapped there i s a p e r i o d f o r c o o l i n g of the product. The l e n g t h of t h i s p e r i o d i s dependent on the s i z e . o f the c a s t i n g . The pharmaceutical packaging group ( 3 6 ) , the telephone d i a l r e p a i r group.(37) and the metal e x t r u s i o n press crew (43) have a medium' degree of frequency of break In the job r o u t i n e which i s higher than other groups i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s . The de gree of break i n the job r o u t i n e f o r the f i r s t two groups may be r e l a t e d t o the degree of r e p e t i t i v e n e s s of the job i n a dead l i n e t r a n s f e r techno logy. As was p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , these areas are t r a i n i n g grounds f o r more c h a l l e n g i n g jobs. The people employed know that they w i l l only be i n these l o c a t i o n s f o r a b r i e f p e r i o d ; however, the job i s f a r below most of t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s w i t h the r e s u l t that a higher degree of break than f o r other groups i n t h i s technology i s evident. The metal e x t r u s i o n press crew func t i o n s i n a manner s i m i l a r t o the foundry furnace and molding crew as they work extremely hard while b i l l e t s are being extruded i n t o s t r i p s f o r one order but once the order i s completed, the equipment must be adjusted f o r the next order. In the l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r technology groups only the two news paper press groups (45 and 50) have a high degree of break i n the job r o u t i n e . These groups are q u i t e busy during the s e t t i n g up of the p r e s s , but once i t i s i n motion the watching f u n c t i o n allows a high frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e . The other groups i n l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r are i n  volved i n processes which are not completely operated from one or two consoles and t h e r e f o r e these people must watch a p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n through out the process. 85 The r e s u l t s of the degree of m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group are s i m i l a r t o those of frequency of break i n the.job r o u t i n e . A l l groups i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r technologies w i t h the exception of the door f a b r i c a t i n g department (26) have a high degree of m o b i l i t y w i t h i n the group. However, f i v e of twelve groups have a higher degree of m o b i l i t y than others i n the dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r technology and four o f seven groups have a lower degree of m o b i l i t y than others i n the l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r technology. In the hand t r a n s f e r , machine conversion technology, the door f a b r i c a t i n g group has a medium degree of m o b i l i t y as m o b i l i t y i s mainly f o r t e c h n i c a l l y r e q u i r e d co-operation. The machines u t i l i z e d i n door f a b r i c a t i n g r e q u i r e c l o s e a t t e n t i o n and m o b i l i t y of employees i s mainly i n the t r a n s f e r of the product from one work place to the next. In dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s , the hand t o o l conversion groups (the foundry furnace and moulding crew, the plywood door g l u i n g group, the pharmaceutical packaging group, and the telephone d i a l r e p a i r shop) and the metal anodizing group (38) i n steered automatic conversion have a higher degree o f m o b i l i t y w i t h i n the group than other groups i n t h i s t r a n s f e r technology. A l l the hand t o o l groups i n t h i s t r a n s  f e r technology are mobile or have m o b i l i t y f o r both t e c h n i c a l l y r e q u i r e d and permitted co-operation. In t h i s respect hand t o o l conversion may a l l o w the employee to leave h i s work place whenever he sees f i t , where the methods of machine t o o l conversion and steered automatic conversion may t i e an employee to the work process f o r at l e a s t a longer p e r i o d of time. The members of the metal anodizing group have no set work places but move from vat to vat with the metal sheets and are mobile to work i n any l o c a t i o n i n t h i s process. 86 Again, i t i s only the newspaper press groups i n the l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion, continuous c y c l e s techno logy t h a t have a high degree of m o b i l i t y . The other groups must stay at t h e i r work s t a t i o n s as was p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d . The e x h i b i t e d degree of work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment i s evident i n Table X I I . The degree of work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment i s high i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , automotive t r a n s f e r , dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r where no conversion, hand t o o l conversion, and machine t o o l conversion i s u t i l i z e d . Where steered automatics and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics are the source of conversion, the degree of work standards i n v o l v i n g .judgment i s lower than previous sources of conversion. However, three exceptions are evident: the metal p o l i s h i n g group (14) and the sawmill green chains (32 and 33). The metal p o l i s h i n g group has one machine that i s a steered automatic but the m a j o r i t y are machine t o o l s . These machines are set f o r a s p e c i f i c type of metal s t r i p and the operator feeds the metal i n t o the machine. The only judgment r e q u i r e d i n t h i s no t r a n s f e r , machine t o o l s conversion group i s whether the s t r i p i s completely p o l i s h e d and i f not, some hand f i n i s h i n g may have to be done. The sawmill green chains which are a dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r , no conversion technology o f f e r the employee l i t t l e judgment as a l l he i s r e q u i r e d to do i s to read the grading mark and stack a c c o r d i n g l y . B. Frequency of Verbal I n t e r a c t i o n The frequency of v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n may a l s o vary w i t h techno l o g i c a l form. Tables X I I I , XIV, XV and XVI de p i c t the frequency of i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l conversation of the groups and the as s o c i a t e d l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s of v i s u a l c o n s t r a i n t s and noise l e v e l . TABLE X I I I THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE CONVERSATION PER MAN WITHIN THE GROUP Type of Transfer Technology Types of Conversion Technology No Transfer Hand Transfer Automotive Transfer Dead and Steered Line Transfer i i v e Line Transfer T o t a l s H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L No Conversion 0 0 0 2 0 1 3 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 6 1 1 Hand Tools 5 3 3 3 0 1 0 0 1 3 0 1 1 0 0 12 3 6 Machine Tools 3 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 2 Steered Automatics 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 0 0 0 3 0 5 S e l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 0 2 4 T o t a l 9 3 3 8 0 4 3 0 1 5 1 6 1 2 4 26 6 18 TABLE XIV THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON CONVERSATION OUTSIDE THE GROUP Type of Transfer Technology Type o f Conversion Technology No Transfer Hand Transfer Automotive Transfer Dead and Steered Line Transfer L i v e Line Transfer T o t a l s H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L No Conversion 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 1 4 Hand Tools 2 5 4 1 0 3 0 0 1 0 1 3 0 0 1 3 6 12 Machine Tools 1 0 2 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 5 Steered Automatics 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 1 1 6 S e l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 0 1 5 T o t a l 4 5 6 1 3 8 3 0 1 0 1 11 0 1 6 8 10 32 TABLE XV THE DEGREE OF VISUAL RESTRICTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY Type of Transfer Technology Type of Conversion Technology No Transfer Hand Transfer Automotive Transfer Dead and Steered Line Transfer L i v e Line Transfer T o t a l s H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L No Conversion 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 8 Hand Tools 2 0 9 0 0 4 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 0 1 2 1 18 Machine Tools 0 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 Steered Automatics 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 2 0 0 0 3 2 3 S e l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 1 2 3 T o t a l 2 0 13 1 0 11 0 1 3 2 2 8 1 2 4 6 5 39 TABLE XVI THE DEGREE OF NOISE LEVEL ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY Type of Transfer Technology Type o f Conversion Technology • No Transfer Hand Transfer Automotive Transfer Dead and Steered Line Transfer L i v e Line Transfer T o t a l s H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L No Conversion 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 6 Hand Tools 3 5 3 2 0 2 0 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 6 9 6 Machine Tools 1 1 1 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 3 Steered Automatics 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 0 0 5 3 0 S e l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 6 0 0 T o t a l 4 7 4 4 1 7 0 1 3 7 4 1 6 1 0 21 14 15 91 In the no t r a n s f e r technology where a medium or high degree of conversation and a r e l a t i v e l y low degree of r e s t r i c t i o n s are evident f o r the m a j o r i t y of groups, three groups i n hand t o o l conversion have a low degree of conversation w i t h i n the group while four i n hand t o o l conversion and two i n machine t o o l conversion have a low degree of conversation out side the group. The sawmill maintenance crew (7) has a low degree of conversa t i o n frequency w i t h i n the group which may be a t t r i b u t e d to the high degree of noise and v i s u a l r e s t r i c t i o n s between group members. This group does communicate to a high degree with other group members as they perform t h e i r t a s k s . Even when together the sawmill maintenance crew d i d not have as high a degree of communication as the metal p l a n t maintenance crew as the equipment i n the sawmill i s l a r g e r and f a r t h e r apart i n . a r e a than i n the metal p l a n t . The sheetmetal f a b r i c a t i o n group (9) and the newspaper a d v e r t i s i n g group (10) a l s o have a low degree of v e r b a l conversation w i t h  i n the group but t h i s i s as s o c i a t e d w i t h a low degree of v e r b a l conversation outside the group. The sheetmetal f a b r i c a t i o n group i s hampered by a high noise l e v e l but the newspaper a d v e r t i s i n g group has no such r e s t r i c t i o n s . The members of the l a t t e r group work i n s i l e n c e without d i s t u r b i n g the next man. In many cases the next man may be a bench or two away which would n e c e s s i t a t e a loud conversation which would not be t o l e r a t e d by the r e s t of t h i s group. This r u l e of t h i s group appeared to be, "work i n s i l e n c e . " Other groups i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t o o l conversion having a low degree of conversation outside the group are the lead pot workers (2) and the lead burning department ( 3 ) . In no t r a n s f e r , machine t o o l c onversion, 92 the s o l der s p o o l i n g department (13) and the metal p o l i s h i n g group (14) have a low degree of conversation outside the group. These groups, as most of the other groups having a low degree o f e x t e r n a l c o n v e r s a t i o n , are e i t h e r extremely cohesive groups such as the lead burners or metal p o l i s h i n g groups or are s p a t i a l l y i s o l a t e d from the r e s t of the plan t as a l l f our of these groups are with the lead burners the only ones having a high frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e . In the hand t r a n s f e r technology, four of twelve groups have a low degree of conversation frequency. 'The sawmill l o g pond (16) of the East Indian m i l l d i d very l i t t l e i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l communicating as the members were f u r t h e r apart than i n the other l o g ponds. In hand t o o l conversion groups, the foundry small molds group (19) d i d l i t t l e i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l communicating as they were i s o l a t e d from the r e s t of the p l a n t except the mold core group and had a high noise, l e v e l w i t h some v i s u a l r e s t r i c t i o n as i n h i b i t o r s of conversation. In machine t o o l conversion the c a s t i n g chippers and g r i n d e r s (23) and the door f a b r i c a t i n g department (26) have a low degree of both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l v e r b a l communication. The former group has a very high noise l e v e l as a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r w h i le the l a t t e r has both noise and v i s u a l b a r r i e r s as l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s . Other groups e x h i b i t i n g a low degree of e x t e r n a l communication are a l s o depart mentalized or have l i m i t i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s such as low frequency of break. The only group i n the automotive t r a n s f e r technology having a low i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l degree of v e r b a l comnjunication i s the automotive paint shop.(31) which has medium v i s u a l r e s t r i c t i o n s , a medium noise l e v e l , and whose members are q u i t e f a r apart i n work l o c a t i o n . 93 Si x of twelve groups i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e e x h i b i t a low degree of v e r b a l communication. In the no conversion category, the one sawmill green chain (31) has a high degree of v e r b a l communication w i t h i n the group and one (32) has a medium degree. Noise i s somewhat of an i n h i b i t o r but group members are mobile and r e q u i r e d to work together to some extent. In f a c t communication i s qu i t e e f f e c t i v e i n breaking the monotony of t h i s job. In hand t o o l conversion only the plywood door g l u i n g group (35) has a low degree of conversation as the foundry furnace and molding crew (34)., the pharmaceutical packaging group (35) and the telephone d i a l r e p a i r shop (36) have a high degree. These groups have l i t t l e noise or v i s u a l r e s t r i c t i o n s and again conversation i s one way of overcoming job monotony. The only group i n steered automatic conver s i o n that e x h i b i t s a high degree of conversation i s the metal anodizing group (39) which has low v i s u a l r e s t r i c t i o n s between group members and the noise l e v e l only reaches a medium degree. The groups i n l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics conversion, continuous process technology have a medium or low degree of conversation. Only the two newspaper press groups (45 and 50) have a medium degree of conversation. The other groups i n t h i s category are r e s t r i c t e d by e i t h e r noise l e v e l , v i s u a l b a r r i e r s , or a combination of both. M o b i l i t y , a t t e n t i o n requirements and frequency o f break i n the job r o u t i n e are o f t e n l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s of conversation frequency f o r these groups. In summary, there i s a low degree of v e r b a l communication i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s . However, i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r technologies a mixture of high and 94 low degrees of v e r b a l communication was found, and i n l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion, continuous c y c l e s t e c h n o l o g i c a l groups, a low degree of communication was found r a t h e r than the a n t i c i p a t e d high. These v a r i a t i o n s were a t t r i b u t e d to the degree of v i s u a l r e s t r i c  t i o n s and noise l e v e l , as w e l l as a t t e n t i o n requirements, frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , and m o b i l i t y . The as s o c i a t e d l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s of v i s u a l c o n s t r a i n t s and noise l e v e l are low i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s , i n c r e a s i n g i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r technologies w i t h the exception of l i v e l i n e , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion, continuous c y c l e s where v i s u a l r e s t r i c t i o n s are mainly low and the noise l e v e l i s high. C. Group Status Status at the i n d i v i d u a l group membership l e v e l has been i n v e s - 12 t i g a t e d by Jay M. Jackson. He f e e l s that the more h i g h l y valued an i n d i v i d u a l i s by a group, the grea t e r w i l l be h i s a t t r a c t i o n t o the group. From t h i s study, one may expect t h a t a group awarding high s t a t u s t o an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be a t t r a c t i v e t o him and t h e r e f o r e , a group in v o l v e d i n e x c l u s i v e , high status jobs t h a t other members i n the work o r g a n i z a t i o n may a s p i r e to a t t a i n w i l l hold a p o s i t i o n of st a t u s r e l a t i v e t o other work groups i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Inter-group s t a t u s then a r i s e s out of the status of the f u n c t i o n s or jobs a p a r t i c u l a r group performs r e l a t i v e to other groups i n the p l a n t . In t h i s study, work group status i s measured by the group's p o s i  t i o n on the promotional l a d d e r , s e n i o r i t y , exclusiveness of t a s k , and Jackson, J.M., "Reference Group Processes i n a Formal O r g a n i z a t i o n , " Group Dynamics, 2nd Ed., Dorwin, C a r t w r i g h t , Row, Peterson and Co., 1962, p. 120. •95 l e n g t h of l e a r n i n g time t o perform the job. The f i r s t two f a c t o r s o f p o s i t i o n on the promotional ladder and s e n i o r i t y of i n v e s t i g a t e d groups may only prove u s e f u l i n comparing the b e h a v i o r a l consequences'of the technology with o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior as the c i t e d s t u d i e s of Sayles, Walker and Guest have i n d i c a t e d that groups i n d i f f e r e n t t e c h n o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g s may have d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s on the promotional ladder and d i f f e r e n t degrees of s e n i o r i t y . Sayles has a l s o d e s c r i b e d , as i n E x h i b i t IV, th a t groups i n s i m i l a r technologies may be composed of members performing tasks t h a t are h i g h l y e x c l u s i v e or members performing tasks that are s i m i l a r . This d i v e r s i t y w i t h i n the same technology i s tr u e of the length of l e a r n i n g time t o perform the f u n c t i o n . Sayles' a p a t h e t i c groups and conservative groups may operate w i t h i n s i m i l a r technologies such as no t r a n s f e r w i t h hand t o o l conversion. S t a t u s , as measured by p o s i t i o n on the promotional l a d d e r , s e n i o r i t y , exclusiveness of t a s k , and length of l e a r n i n g time t o perform the f u n c t i o n i s depicted i n Tables XVII, X V I I I , XIX, and XX. These t a b l e s i n d i c a t e that there are groups with a high p o s i t i o n on the promotional ladder and groups with medium and low p o s i t i o n s , r e g a r d l e s s of the technology. S i m i l a r r e s u l t s are apparent f o r s e n i o r i t y and le n g t h of l e a r n i n g time to perform the f u n c t i o n . In other words, there i s no d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e c h n o l o g i c a l form and the group's p o s i t i o n on the promotional l a d d e r , length of l e a r n i n g time to perform the f u n c t i o n , or s e n i o r i t y . There i s , however, a high degree of exclusiveness of task i n l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion, and c o n t i n  uous c y c l e s . This f i n d i n g concurs with Blauner's d e s c r i p t i o n of the e x c l u s i v e f u n c t i o n s i n the chemical i n d u s t r y that was noted i n Chapter I I . TABLE XVII THE POSITION ON THE PROMOTIONAL LADDER ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY Type of Transfer Technology Type o f Dead and Conversion No Hand Automotive Steered Line L i v e Line Technology Transfer Transfer Transfer Transfer Transfer T o t a l s H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L No Conversion 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 3 4 Hand Tools 3 5 3 2 2 0 0 1 0 1 1 2 0 0 1 6 9 6 Machine Tools 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 • 0 0 0 0 3 2 2 Steered Automatics 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 2 1 0 0 0 3 4 1 S e l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 2 1 3 2 T o t a l 4 7 4 4 5 3 2 3 2 4 3 5 1 3 3 14 21 15 TABLE XVIII THE DEGREE OF SENIORITY ASSOCIATED WITH A GIVEN TECHNOLOGY Typ e of Transfer Technology Type o f Conversion Technology No Tran s f e r Hand Transfer Automotive Transfer Dead and Steered Line Transfer L i v e Line Transfer T o t a l s H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L No Conversion 0 0 0 0 2 1 2 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 4 Hand Tools 3 3 5 2 2 0 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 0 1 7 6 8 Machine Tools 0 3 0 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 1 Steered Automatics 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 1 5 2 Se l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 3 3 T o t a l 4 6 5 3 6 3 2 1 1 2 5 5 0 3 4 11 21 18 TABLE XIX THE DEGREE OF EXCLUSIVENESS OF TASK ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY Type of Transfer Technology Type of Dead and Conversion No Hand Automotive Steered Line Live Line Technology Transfer Transfer Transfer Transfer Transfer Totals H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L' No Conversion 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 5 Hand Tools 5 0 6 3 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 3 0 1 0 10 1 10 Machine Tools 1 0 2 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 Steered Automatics 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 5 1 2 S e l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 6 0 0 T o t a l 6 0 9 5 0 7 4 0 0 6 1 5 6 1 0 27 2 21 TABLE XX THE LENGTH OF LEARNING TIME TO PERFORM A FUNCTION ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY. Type of Transfer Technoloj iy Type of Conversion Technology No Transfer Hand Transfer Automotive Transfer Dead and Steered Line Transfer Live Line Transfer T o t a l s H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L No Conversion 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 8 Hand Tools 5 2 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 1 8 5 8 Machine Tools 2 0 1 1 2 1 0 t0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 2 Steered Automatics 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 5 1 2 S e l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 2 3 1 2 T o t a l 8 2 5 3 3 6 1 0 3 4- 3 5 3 1 3 19 9 22 100 D. Group Cohesiveness 13 / Leonard Sayles i n h i s survey of i n d u s t r i a l work groups suggests that i n l a r g e r assembly l i n e s , on which employees are r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h employees on e i t h e r s i d e of them, the develop ment of a "cohesive" work group i s impaired. In t h i s manner "cohesive" may be defined as the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of a group f o r i t s members. The author a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t one may expect smaller groups to e x h i b i t greater cohesiveness than l a r g e r ones, but no i n d i c a t i o n i s made of what one should expect the range of the s i z e of the smaller or l a r g e r groups to be. However, one would expect as group s i z e increases that c l i q u e s (a group w i t h mutual a t t r a c t i o n on the part of a l l members) w i l l form w i t h i n the group. Table XXI i n d i c a t e s that there i s no p r e d i c t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e c h n o l o g i c a l formaand cohesiveness f o r t h i s study as there are groups described as having a low degree of cohesiveness and others described as having a medium or high degree of cohesiveness i n every type of t r a n s f e r technology. The idea that the smaller group i s more cohesive than the l a r g e r group i s not t r u e i n t h i s study. Table XXII which r e l a t e s group s i z e to the described degree of. cohesiveness i n d i c a t e s t h a t groups w i t h a high degree of cohesiveness are of s i m i l a r s i z e to groups w i t h a low degree of cohesiveness. . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of cohesiveness to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior w i l l be discussed i n Chapter V I I . In that chapter d e s c r i p t i o n s of Sayles, L.R., Behavior of I n d u s t r i a l Work Groups, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1958, p. 56. TABLE XXI THE DEGREE OF GROUP COHESIVENESS AS DESCRIBED BY MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATED WITH A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY Type of. Transfer Technology Type of Conversion Technology No Tran s f e r Hand Transfer Automotive Transfer Dead and Steered Line Transfer L i v e Line Transfer T o t a l s H " M L H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L No Conversion 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 2 3 Hand Tools 5 1 ' 5 3 0 1 1 . 0 0 0 1 3 1 0 0 10 2 9 Machine Tools 1 1 1 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 2 Steered Automatics 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 1 1 0 0 0 4 1 3 S e l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 0 2 4 T o t a l 6 2 7 6 0 7 4 0 0 4 4 4 1 2 4 21 8 21 TABLE XXII THE RELATIONSHIP OF AVERAGE GROUP SIZE TO GROUP COHESIVENESS FOR A PARTICULAR TECHNOLOGY Type of Transfer Technolog Y Type of Dead and Conversion No Hand Automotive Steered Line L i v e Line Technology Transfer Transfer Transfer Transfer Transfer T o t a l s H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L H M L No Conversion 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.7 4.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.3 5.0 3.7 Hand Tools 7.0 2.0 6.0 5.0 0.0 5.0 6.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 20.0 8.7 4.0 0.0 0.0 5.5 11.0 6.6 Machine Tools 2.0 2.0 4.0 6.7 0.0 10.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.4 1.0 7.0 Steered Automatics 0.0 0.0 11.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.3 910 7.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.3 9.0 7.7 Se l f - R e g u l a t i n g Automatics 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.5 4.3 0.0 6.5 4.3 T o t a l 4.5 2.0 7.0 5.9 0.0 5.9 5.2 0.0 0.0 6.3 11.3 7.9 4.0 6.5 4.3 5.1 6.7 5.8 103 groups with s i m i l a r degrees of cohesiveness w i l l be given. E. Summary The r e s u l t s of the i n f l u e n c e of technology on the b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology i n d i c a t e the f o l l o w i n g : .1. A t t e n t i o n requirements of the job f u n c t i o n are low i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s , i n c r e a s i n g i n dead and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r . 2. The frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e ( r e s t p e r i o d s , l u n c h , coffee breaks, washroom t r i p s , and v i s i t s w i t h other workers) and on the job p h y s i c a l m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group are high i n the no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s , decreasing i n the dead l i n e and steered l i n e and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s . I t i s f e l t t h a t the d e v i a t i o n of the l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion, continuous c y c l e s technology f o r these three f a c t o r s ( a t t e n t i o n requirements of the job f u n c t i o n , frequency o f break i n the job r o u t i n e , and on the job p h y s i c a l m o b i l i t y ) from Blauner's f i n d i n g s may be a t t r i b u t e d to the s p a t i a l separation of the watching f u n c t i o n s r e q u i r e d of the members of these groups r a t h e r than c o n t r o l from one or two c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n s as evidenced by Blauner's groups. .3. Work standards i n v o l v i n g employee judgment as measured by the amount of c o n t r o l the employee has over the conversion process i s high .in no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , automotive t r a n s f e r , dead and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r where no conversion, hand t o o l conversion and machine conversion i s u t i l i z e d . Where steered automatics and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics are the source of conversion, the degree of work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment i s lower than the previous sources of conver s i o n . 104 4.. There i s a high degree of v e r b a l communication i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s . However, i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s , both high and low degrees of v e r b a l communication are evident, and i n l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g conversion, continuous c y c l e s t e c h n o l o g i c a l groups, a low degree of communication i s found. These v a r i a t i o n s are a t t r i b u t e d to the degree of v i s u a l r e s t r i c t i o n s and noise l e v e l , as w e l l as a t t e n t i o n requirements, frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , and m o b i l i t y . The a s s o c i a t e d l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s of v i s u a l c o n s t r a i n t s and noise l e v e l are low i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r and automotive t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s , i n  c r e a s i n g i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r technologies with the exception of l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion, continuous c y c l e s where v i s u a l r e s t r i c t i o n s are mainly low and the noise l e v e l i s high. .5. There i s no p r e d i c t a b l e l i n e a r or c u r v i l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the group's p o s i t i o n on the promotional l a d d e r , s e n i o r i t y , exclusiveness of t a s k , and length of l e a r n i n g time to perform the j o b , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l form except f o r exclusiveness of task i n the l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion, continuous c y c l e s technology where a high exclusiveness of task i s evident. 6. High, medium, and low degrees of cohesion are present i n almost a l l t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a t e g o r i e s . Group s i z e has no apparent e f f e c t on cohesiveness i n any t e c h n o l o g i c a l category i n t h i s study. CHAPTER VI HYPOTHESES CONCERNING THE EFFECTS OF THE BEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE TECHNOLOGY ON ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR Hypotheses concerning the e f f e c t s of b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior w i l l be based on the previous d e s c r i p t i o n s o f these areas t h a t appeared i n Chapters IV and V. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v e s t i g a t e d w i l l be of area I I w i t h area I I I i n E x h i b i t I I . The p r e v i o u s l y described s t u d i e s of S a y l e s , Walker and Guest, and Faunce as that appear i n Chapter I I again w i l l form the t h e o r e t i c a l base f o r the new set of hypotheses. 14 Faunce examined the i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s that a r i s e from the technology t h a t i n f l u e n c e work group behavior. He found t h a t a t t e n t i o n requirements of the job was one f a c t o r having an important e f f e c t upon the frequency and nature of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , he found t h a t when a t t e n t i o n requirements f o r a job f u n c t i o n became more s t r i n g e n t , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n was i n h i b i t e d to a greater extent w i t h the b e h a v i o r a l conse quence of employee unrest. A r e l e v a n t hypothesis f o r t h i s study i s th a t groups having a high degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements w i l l have a high degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , t u r n o v e r , and absenteeism. Groups w i t h a low or medium degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements w i l l have a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. The i n t e r v e n i n g b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology of frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e ( r e s t p e r i o d s , lunch, coffee breaks, washroom t r i p s , and v i s i t s w i t h other workers), on the job p h y s i c a l m o b i l i t y 14 Faunce, W.A., "Automation i n the Automobile Industry: Some Consequences f o r In-Plant S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 23, 1958, pp. 401-407. •106 of workers i n the group, and work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment (the amount of c o n t r o l the.employee has . over . the conversion process) were examined by 15 Walker and.Guest, and Sayles. Walker and Guest examined the technolo g i c a l l y i n f l u e n c e d f a c t o r s of frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , the frequency of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , and the degree of mechanical pacing as they a f f e c t e d employee turnover and absenteeism. They found a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between absenteeism and mass production c h a r a c t e r  i s t i c s and turnover and mass production c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (where mass pro duction c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a high degree o f mechanical pacing, r e p e t i t i v e n e s s , and low s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ) . Sayles examined the t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y i n f l u e n c e d f a c t o r s of work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment and frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n as they i n f l u e n c e the o v e r a l l l e v e l of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , degree of i n t e r n a l u n i t y (cohesiveness), p a r t i c i p a  t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , and management's e v a l u a t i o n of groups as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees. He found t h a t the lower the degree of judgment allowed by the technology and the lower the frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n allowed by the technology, the higher the o v e r a l l l e v e l of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , and p a r t i  c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s . There i s an exception i n the extreme case where long assembly l i n e s which i n h i b i t t o t a l group i n t e r a c t i o n and a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior i s e x h i b i t e d . Walker, C.R., and Guest, R.H., The Man on the Assembly L i n e , Cambridge, Mass., Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1952. 16 Sayles, L.R., Behavior of I n d u s t r i a l Work Groups, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1958, pp. 64-66; 76-79. 107 On the b a s i s of t h i s m a t e r i a l , i t i s hypothesized that groups having a high or medium degree of break i n the job r o u t i n e ( r e s t p e r i o d s , lunch, coffee breaks, washroom t r i p s , and v i s i t s w i t h other workers), on the job p h y s i c a l m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group, and work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment (the amount of c o n t r o l the employee has over the con v e r s i o n p r o c e s s ) , w i l l have a low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover and absenteeism. Groups with a low degree of break i n the job r o u t i n e , on the job p h y s i c a l m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group, and work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment w i l l have a medium or high degree of o r g a n i z a  t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. Although none of the c i t e d s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t e communication w i t h  i n the group and outside the group as a means of e x p l a i n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior, both Walker and Guest, and Sayles have examined the 17 frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n . Walker and Guest have noted that on longer assembly l i n e s where workers are r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n to workers on e i t h e r side of them may a l s o i n h i b i t the development of any r e a l i n f o r - 18 mal group. Sayles i n d i c a t e s that the i n f o r m a l group produces the needed adjustments and c o - o r d i n a t i o n between group members re q u i r e d by the work process but where the group i s d i v i d e d by a communications b a r r i e r , work centered d i s c o n t e n t s are p r e v a l e n t . Walker, C R . , and Guest, R.H., The Man on the Assembly L i n e , Cambridge Mass., Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1952, ;p. 79.. Say l e s , L.R., Op. c i t . , p. 79. 108 . For t h i s study, i t i s hypothesized t h a t groups having a high or medium degree of v e r b a l communication w i l l have a low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i  c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover, and absenteeism. Groups w i t h a low degree of v e r b a l communication w i l l have a high degree of organiza t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. Leonard Sayles has s t a t e d , "the s t a t u s of the work done by a group i s b e l i e v e d to be an important f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g i t s p a t t e r n of behavior. I t a f f e c t s the a t t i t u d e of the members toward t h e i r group. S e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , even s e l f - r i g h t e o u s n e s s , i s a product of recognized 19 value." In the r e l a t i o n of behavior to s t a t u s , one would expect the higher the st a t u s of the group, the lower w i l l be the degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i  c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover and absenteeism. Status may be measured by the group p o s i t i o n on the promotional l a d d e r , job s e c u r i t y as determined by s e n i o r i t y , exclusiveness of the task performed by the group and the length of l e a r n i n g time to perform the f u n c t i o n r e q u i r e d of the group. Pay d i f f e r e n t i a l s may a l s o be an important f a c t o r c o n t r i  b u t i n g to st a t u s but were not measured because o f the d i f f i c u l t y i n ob t a i n i n g wage s c a l e s from nonunion employers. Communication has a l s o been used f o r a means of studying the 20 sta t u s of members w i t h i n the group. H o r s e f a l l and Arnsberg stud i e d the i n i t i a t i n g and r e c e i v i n g of communication as w e l l as content and were able Sayles,, L.R., Behavior of I n d u s t r i a l Work Groups, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1958, p.55. H o r s e f a l l , A.B. and Arnsberg,.C.M. , "Teamwork and Production i n a Shoe Factory," Human Or g a n i z a t i o n , 8, #1 Winter 1949, pp. 13-25. 109 t o i n v e s t i g a t e the existence of i n f o r m a l group l e a d e r s , that i s , the person of highest s t a t u s i n the group. They found that such an i n d i v i d u a l indulges i n more conversation w i t h each of the group members than any other person i n the group. I t i s assumed that t h i s person i s able t o give some form of s o c i a l approval through v e r b a l communication. I f t h i s assumption holds t r u e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s , i t i s w i t h i n the realm of p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i t may hold t r u e f o r groups. A member or members of a group of high s t a t u s may give s o c i a l appro v a l i n the form of v e r b a l communication to an i n d i v i d u a l or members of a group of lower s t a t u s . I f t h i s i s the case,.one may hypothesize that groups of high status as measured by p o s i t i o n on the promotional l a d d e r , s e n i o r i t y , exclusiveness of t a s k , and l e n g t h of learning.time t o perform the job w i l l be i n v o l v e d i n a greater amount of communication w i t h other groups w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s and noise l e v e l , than a group of low s t a t u s . In s t u d i e s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between cohesiveness and p e r f o r - 21 mance, Cartwright and Zander found that high producing employees f e l t t hat they were part of the group i n c o n t r a s t to low producers who f e l t only par t i a l membership or none at a l l . In a d d i t i o n , groups with the highest degree of cohesiveness were'. composed of employees. with the highest l e v e l s of morale and job s a t i s f a c t i o n . Therefore, i n t h i s study i t i s expected t h a t groups having a high degree of cohesiveness (the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of a group f o r i t s members) w i l l have a low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , t u r n  over, and absenteeism. Conversely, groups w i t h a low degree of cohesiveness w i l l have a high degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. C a r t w r i g h t , D., and Zander, A., Group Dynamics, Evanston, I l l i n o i s , Row, Peterson and Co., 1960, pp. 566, 567. CHAPTER VII RESULTS OF TESTING HYPOTHESES CONCERNING THE EFFECTS OF BEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE TECHNOLOGY ON ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR A. T e c h n i c a l Behavior Tables X X I I I , XXIV, XXV, and XXVI show the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology as i n d i c a t e d by a t t e n t i o n requirements of the j o b , frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group, and work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment and o r g a n i  z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior as i n d i c a t e d by grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , t urnover, and absenteeism. I t was hypothesized that groups having a high degree of a t t e n  t i o n requirements w i l l have a high degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , t urnover, and absenteeism. Groups w i t h a medium or low degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements w i l l have a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. The r e s u l t s of Table XXIII support t h i s hypothesis as most of the groups are found t o have a high degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior a s s o c i a t e d with a high degree of b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology, or a low degree of the former a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a medium or low degree of the l a t t e r . I t i s t r u e t h a t some d e v i a t i o n s do e x i s t , but these are i n the m i n o r i t y and w i l l be described a f t e r a l l the hypotheses r e l a t i n g t o a t t e n t i o n r e q u i r e  ments of the job f u n c t i o n , frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group, and work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment have been discussed. I t was hypothesized that groups having a high or medium degree of break i n the job r o u t i n e ( r e s t p e r i o d s , l u n c h , c o f f e e breaks, washroom t r i p s , I l l TABLE XXIII A TABLE COMPARING ATTENTION REQUIREMENTS OF THE JOB WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR High Medium Low T o t a l High 2 0 5 7 Grievance and Medium 2 0 1 3 p-ppciaivpe A c t i v i t v Low 7 19 14 40 T o t a l 11 19 20 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 1 0 5 6 Number of Unplanned Medium 2 0 1 3 Spontaneous Outbursts Low 8 19 14 41 T o t a l 11 19 20 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 2 0 5 7 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Medium 4 1 3 8 Union A c t i v i t i e s 29 f o r Union Groups Low 4 17 8 T o t a l 10 18 16 44 High Medium Low T o t a l High 4 2 2 8 Turnover Medium 6 1 7 14 Low 1 15 11 28 T o t a l 11 19 20 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 2 0 2 4 Absenteeism Medium 6 1 8 15 Low 3 18 10 31 T o t a l 11 19 20 50 112 TABLE XXIV A TABLE COMPARING THE FREQUENCY OF BREAK IN THE JOB 'ROUTINE WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR * High Medium Low T o t a l High 1 3 3 7 Grievance and Medium 0 1 2 3 Pressure A c t i v i t y Low 27 3 10 40 T o t a l 28 7 15 50 ; High Medium Low T o t a l High 1 2 3 6 Number of Unplanned Medium 0 1 2 3 Spontaneous Outbursts Low 27 4 10 41 T o t a l 28 7 • 15 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 1 3 3 7 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Medium 3 1 '4 8 Union A c t i v i t i e s f o r Union Groups Low 22 2 5 29 T o t a l 26 6 12 44 High Medium Low T o t a l High 3 2 3 8 Turnover Medium 2 4 8 14 Low 23 1 4 28 T o t a l 28 7 15 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 0 0 4 4 Absenteeism Medium 5 4 6 15 Low 23 3 5 31 T o t a l 28 7 15 50 113 TABLE XXV A TABLE COMPARING THE MOBILITY OF WORKERS IN THE GROUP WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR High Medium Low T o t a l High 5 0 2 7 Grievance and Medium 1 0 2 3 Pressure A c t i v i t y - Low 31 2 7 40 T o t a l 37 2 11 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 5 0 1 6 Number of Unplanned Medium 0 0 3 3 Spontaneous Outbursts Low 32 2 7 41 T o t a l 37 2 11 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High i+ 0 3 7 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Medium 4 1 3 8 Union A c t i v i t i e s f o r Union Groups Low 25 1 3 29 T o t a l 33 2 9 44 High Medium Low T o t a l High 8 0 0 8 Turnover Medium 4 1 9 14 Low 25 1 2 28 T o t a l 37 2 11 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 3 0 ^ 1 4 Absenteeism Medium 7 1 7 15 Low 27 1 3 31 T o t a l 37 2 11 50 114 TABLE XXVI 'A TABLE COMPARING WORK STANDARDS INVOLVING JUDGMENT WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR High Medium Low T o t a l High 4 0 3 7 Grievance and Medium 1 0 2 3 Pressure A c t i v i t y Low 27 2 11 40 . T o t a l 32 2 16 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 4 0 2 6 Number of Unplanned Medium 0 0 3 3 Spontaneous Outbursts Low 28 2 11 41 T o t a l 32 2 16 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 4 0 3 7 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Medium 2 1 5 8 Union A c t i v i t i e s f o r Union Groups Low 22 1 6 29 T o t a l 28 2 14 44 High Medium Low T o t a l High 5 0 3 8 Turnover Medium 4 0 10 14 Low 23 2 3 28 T o t a l 32 2 16 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 2 0 2 4 Absenteeism Medium 5 0 10 15 Low 25 2 4 31 T o t a l 32 2 16 50 115 and v i s i t s w i t h other workers), on the job p h y s i c a l m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group, and work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment.(the amount of c o n t r o l the employee has over the conversion p r o c e s s ) , w i l l have a low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover, and absenteeism. Groups w i t h a low degree of break i n the job r o u t i n e , on the job p h y s i c a l m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group, and work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment w i l l have a medium or high degree o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. Tables XXIV, XXV, and XXVI o f f e r support to t h i s hypothesis as they show groups having a high degree of b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology have a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. The r e s u l t s f o r groups having a low or medium degree of b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology are i n c o n c l u  s i v e . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior i n d i c a t e d by turnover and absenteeism o f f e r s the best support to the hypothesis that groups with a medium or low degree of the above b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology w i l l have a medium or high degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. As has already been i n d i c a t e d , some groups have l i t t l e grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s but may r e a c t to t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y imposed l i m i t a t i o n s on the job by a medium or high degree of absenteeism and turnover. Although the o v e r a l l t r e n d of these b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology i s important i n examining o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior, the d e v i a t i o n s from the hypothesized become qu i t e important i n e x p l a i n i n g why c e r t a i n groups e x h i b i t behavior that i s d i f f e r e n t from the hypothesized. In technologies where no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and machine t r a n s f e r are prevalent sources'of b i n d i n g the group, the groups w i t h high 116 l e v e l s of u n s a t i s f a c t o r y behavior or those d e v i a t i n g from the expected began with the lead pot workers (2) who e x h i b i t e d high grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , a high number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , a high p a r t i c i  p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , high turnover, medium absenteeism, and a medium ev a l u a t i o n by management as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees. This type of work i s extremely monotonous i n that the a t t e n t i o n requirements of the job f u n c t i o n and frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e are low, while the work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment are low and the m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group i s r e s t r i c t e d compared to other groups i n t h i s t r a n s f e r technology. Thus, these t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s do p l a y a r o l e i n determining t h e i r behavior f o r even though the employees have l i t t l e break i n t h e i r job r o u t i n e , they are j u s t mobile enough to i n t e r a c t w i t h one another and r e i n f o r c e t h e i r complaints or act on a perceived grievance. In other words, they have j u s t enough r e s t r i c t i o n s t o l i m i t any concerted a c t i v i t y but enough freedom t o allow spontaneous outburst. Other groups having s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior i n the no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r technologies are the s o l d e r spooling group (13) and the c a s t i n g chippers and g r i n d e r s (23). These groups have r e l a t i v e l y low a t t e n t i o n requirements, a low frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , low m o b i l i t y compared with other groups i n the low t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s , and u t i l i z e hand and machine t o o l s i n t h e i r product conversion. This d e s c r i p t i o n compares d i r e c t l y with that of the l e a d pot workers as depicted above. The degree of these t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d with the mental or p h y s i c a l requirements of the job i s enough to breed the degree of " u n s a t i s f a c t o r y " behavior e x h i b i t e d by these groups. 117 In the.technologies of.dead l i n e , steered l i n e , and l i v e l i n e the foundry furnace and molding crew .(34) and the two green.chains (.32 and 33) e x h i b i t s i m i l a r behavior i n t h e i r frequency and l e v e l of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover, and absenteeism. The foundry furnace and molding crew i s one of the l a r g e r groups i n the p l a n t . I t i s l i n k e d by two overhead cranes which c a r r y c r u c i b l e s from the furnace that are t i p p e d i n t o the prepared molds. While the metal i s being prepared i n the furnace, the crew readies the molds, then a s s i s t s i n the tapping of the furnace and the pouring of the metal, and l a s t l y the removal of the c a s t i n g s from the area. The employees while.having n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l t a s k s , are r e q u i r e d to i n t e r a c t w i t h one another i n a work process that i s as monotonous and s t r e n u  ous as that of the previous groups. I t i s no s u r p r i s e t h a t the b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology are of the same magnitude as the others i n t h i s category w i t h a t t e n t i o n requirements, frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , and m o b i l i t y r e l a t i v e l y low. The sawmill green chains represent a short steered l i n e process that r e q u i r e s high p h y s i c a l endurance and a calm temperament. There must be a degree of c o - o r d i n a t i o n between the employees i f the lumber i s to be separated c o r r e c t l y but i n t e r a c t i o n and communication i s i n h i b i t e d by the low frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , and low m o b i l i t y of the workers i n the group. The foundry mold core group (20) exerts continuous pressure and has c o n s i s t e n t grievance a c t i v i t y , as w e l l as a high degree of unplanned spontaneous outbursts and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s . The b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology i n d i c a t e r e s t r i c t i o n s on group freedom. Even 118 though the a t t e n t i o n requirements of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r group are low and the work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment are h i g h , the frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e and the m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group are f a i r l y low. Another group which i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s type of behavior i s the door f a b r i c a t i n g department (26) which was described as operating i n a short assembly l i n e . This group i s l i m i t e d by the even more s t r i n g e n t technolo g i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s o f d e t a i l e d a t t e n t i o n requirements, low m o b i l i t y and the use of machine t o o l s . However, the frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e i s such t h a t i f coupled w i t h the tenure of the people i n t h i s group, i t could have a mellowing e f f e c t on the number of spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , turnover, and absenteeism shown by t h i s group. The sheet metal p a i n t i n g group (4-M-) which f u n c t i o n s i n a l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r technology and engages i n work q u i t e s i m i l a r t o that of the door f a b r i c a t i n g department has high grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , a high number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , high p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t y , high turnover, high absenteeism, and a low e v a l u a t i o n as s a t i s f a c  t o r y employees by t h e i r management. In t h i s case metal panels are hung on a continuously c i r c u l a t i n g overhead conveyor. As these panels pass by, they are spray p a i n t e d , then pass i n t o a bake oven, and f i n a l l y emerge and are removed from the conveyor and stacked. The odor and spray of p a i n t i s prominent i n t h i s area. The foreman of t h i s crew gave the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p  t i o n of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , "This i s the pressure crew i n the p l a n t . They are extremely a c t i v e i n the union and c o n t i n u a l l y p lan t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s and other's throughout the day. I have to be extremely c a r e f u l of what I say i n t h e i r presence i f I don't have concrete evidence or before I know i t — bingo I I t ' s a g r i e v a n c e — a n d a well-planned one at t h a t ! The two p l a n t 119 hotheads are a l s o i n t h i s group and sometimes, some f a i r l y rough on-the- spot a c t i o n i s encountered." The t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s , again, hold the key to t h i s behavior, f o r even though the frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e i s low, the low a t t e n t i o n requirements of the job f u n c t i o n , the high m o b i l i t y f o r t h i s type of technology, and the low judgment f a c t o r s a l l o w enough in-group freedom f o r both spontaneous outbursts and concerted behavior. In the no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r t e c h  nologies,, e i g h t groups having r e l a t i v e l y low s t a t u s as depicted i n Chapter V have a low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , a low number of un planned, spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , low p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , low or medium turnover, and low absenteeism. They are the newspaper paste-up group ( 1 ) , the auto mechanics group ( 5 ) , the sawmill machine shop ( 1 2 ) , the foundry machine shop (15), the sawmill l o g ponds (16, 17, and 18), and the newspaper e d i t o r i a l t y p e s e t t i n g group (27). The newspaper paste-up group has only surface a t t e n t i o n requirements w i t h the frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , m o b i l i t y , and judgment f a c t o r s being very high. Even w i t h t h i s freedom, the group i s not c l o s e l y k n i t . The sawmill machine and foundry machine shops have d e t a i l e d a t t e n t i o n requirements, a high frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , and a high in-group m o b i l i t y . The b a s i c d i f f e r  ence between the two i s that a higher judgment f a c t o r i s i n v o l v e d i n the hand and machine conversion of the m i l l versus the steered automatics o f the foundry. The l o g pond groups a l l have low a t t e n t i o n requirements, a low frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , a high m o b i l i t y of employees i n the group, and high work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment. The l a c k o f break i n the job r o u t i n e i s balanced by the undemanding type of work 120 c a r r i e d out by these groups. The mechanics group has d e t a i l e d a t t e n t i o n requirements, a high frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , a high m o b i l i t y w i t h i n the group, and a high judgment f a c t o r i n t h e i r work processes which are comparable to the f a c t o r s encountered i n the sawmill machine shop. This degree of freedom coupled with i n d i v i d u a l type of work i s conducive to the low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior shown by t h i s group. The newspaper e d i t o r i a l t y p e s e t t i n g group has a l e s s e r degree of freedom than the r e s t of. these groups as d e t a i l e d a t t e n t i o n requirements, l e s s frequency of break, l e s s m o b i l i t y , and the use of machine t o o l s i n the conversion process c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s group. As p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , t h i s group e x h i b i t s a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior due to t h e i r l i m i t e d i n t e r a c t i o n and the high degree of noise encountered i n t h e i r work area. The lead burning department ( 3 ) , the door f i n i s h i n g group (11), the metal p o l i s h i n g group (14), and the shipping departments (28, 29, and 30) are r e l a t i v e l y high s t a t u s groups as i n d i c a t e d i n Chapter V, and have a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. Even though the requirements of the job are exa c t i n g f o r the d i e shop (25) and the lead burning department ( 3 ) , these groups have a high degree of freedom of m o b i l i t y and break i n the job r o u t i n e . The door f i n i s h i n g group (11) i s s l i g h t l y more r e s t r i c t e d i n m o b i l i t y and frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , but as there are only two men i n the group and both are w i t h i n ten f e e t of each o t h e r , there i s a maximum degree of i n t e r a c t i o n . The shipping departments (28, 29, and 30) a l s o have a maximum degree of freedom of m o b i l i t y , and break i n the job r o u t i n e a s s o c i a t e d 121 w i t h low a t t e n t i o n requirements and a high degree of c o n t r o l over t h e i r j o b s. These groups are not e x a c t l y high status as t h e i r l ength of l e a r n i n g time i s low.but management i n d i c a t e d they are key groups around n e g o t i a t i n g time. The metal p o l i s h i n g group (14) l i k e the l e a d burners and the d i e shop have d e t a i l e d a t t e n t i o n requirements, a low frequency of.break i n the job r o u t i n e , a higher m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group,, and low judgment r e q u i r e d i n the job process. This group i s composed of two brothers of Japanese background whose department i s completely separate from the r e s t o f the p l a n t . Their b a s i c f u n c t i o n i s the p o l i s h i n g of metal s t r i p s on machine t o o l s and steered automatics which i n i t s e l f i s an extremely monotonous task. However, t h i s group has an absolute minimum i n t u r n o v e r , absenteeism, spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , and grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y . They are management's main focus during n e g o t i a t i o n s and serve as an e x c e l l e n t channel of communications to and from both the union and manage ment. The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s behavior may l i e i n t h e i r approach t o the job and the p r i d e they take i n t h e i r work. They have r a i s e d t h i s group to a high s t a t u s l e v e l i n the p l a n t . Progressing i n t o the dead l i n e , steered l i n e , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s  f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s , the newspaper press room (45), the food processing p l a n t (46), the wire e x t r u s i o n and cable c o i l i n g group (47), the newspaper m a i l room (48), the sawmill automatic trimshop (49), and the newspaper press b u i l d i n g (50) e x h i b i t medium or low grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h medium or high .turnover and absenteeism. The door g l u i n g group i s a s i g n i f i c a n t exception here as i t has low grievance and pressure 122 a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , t urnover, and absenteeism. In these groups, the a t t e n t i o n r e  quirements are high w i t h the frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , the m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group, and work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment very low. There are three exceptions to t h i s degree of job r i g i d i t y ; the door g l u i n g group and the two press rooms. The door g l u i n g group has r e s t r i c t i o n s comparable to those i n the lower t e c h n o l o g i e s , but has a r e l a t i v e l y high r e s t r i c t i o n i n m o b i l i t y , whereas, the press groups are very mobile and tend to congregate i n a group throughout the operation of the press but t h e i r frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e i s a l s o h i gh. The two press groups d i f f e r i n that one i s operated by a console c o n t r o l and f i l l s a whole b u i l d i n g w h i l e the other i s q u i t e small and operated from a small panel. Both are l o o s e l y constructed groups, where i n t e r a c t i o n i s i n h i b i t e d by s p a t i a l s e p aration during set-up and by noise during the operation. The r o l e that the b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology play- i n determining o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior i s an extremely important one. The preceding d e s c r i p t i o n s i n d i c a t e that groups having s i m i l a r be h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology a l s o e x h i b i t a s i m i l a r degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior except the few noted groups t h a t had s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s . B. Frequency of Verbal I n t e r a c t i o n I t was hypothesized that groups having a high or medium degree of in-group v e r b a l communication would have a low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a  t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover, and absenteeism. Groups with a low 123 degree of in-group v e r b a l communication would have a high degree of or g a n i z a  t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. Table XXVII i n d i c a t e s that the above hypothesis holds f o r groups having a high degree of in-group v e r b a l communication as they do e x h i b i t a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. However, the t a b l e s i n t h i s e x h i b i t a l s o show that most of the groups having a low degree of v e r b a l communication w i t h i n the group a l s o have a medium or low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior r a t h e r than the hypothesized high degree. Therefore, there appears to be a s i m i l a r medium or low degree o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior, r e g a r d l e s s of the degree of v e r b a l communication w i t h i n the group. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the degree of v e r b a l communication w i t h i n the group has l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on organiza t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. In order to understand t h i s r e s u l t , a d e s c r i p t i o n of the groups having a s i m i l a r degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior, r e g a r d l e s s of the degree of v e r b a l communication w i t h i n the group, w i l l be presented. Group status was discussed i n the chapter comparing t e c h n o l o g i c a l form with the b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology. The r e s u l t s of t h i s comparison i n d i c a t e d t h a t no p r e d i c t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between the technology and the degree of st a t u s of a group except f o r the high exclusiveness of task i n l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic con v e r s i o n continuous c y c l e s technology. As there are groups of both high and low s t a t u s i n each t e c h n o l o g i c a l category, i t i s thought to be of i n t e r e s t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between these degrees of status t o determine i f there i s any d i f f e r e n c e i n the conversation patterns w i t h i n the group and r e s t r i c t i v e elements between group members. 124 TABLE XXVII A TABLE COMPARING THE DEGREE OF VERBAL COMMUNICATION WITHIN THE GROUP WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR High Medium Low T o t a l High 4 2 1 7 • Grievance and Medium 1 0 2 3 Pressure A c t i v i t y Low 21 4 15 40 T o t a l 26 6 18 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 4 2 0 6 Number of Unplanned Medium 0 0 3 3 Spontaneous Outbursts Low 22 4 15 41 T o t a l 26 6 18 50 High Medium Low T o t a l • High 3 2 2 7 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Medium 2 1 5 8 Union A c t i v i t i e s f o r Union Groups Low 19 3 7 29 T o t a l 24 6 14 44 High Medium Low T o t a l High 4 3 1 8 Turnover Medium 4 1 9 14 Low 18 2 8 28 T o t a l 26 6 18 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 3 1 0 4 Absenteeism Medium 3 3 9 15 Low 20 2 9 31 T o t a l 26 6 18 50 125 The groups shown as low status i n Tables XVII, X V I I I , XIX, and XX and having a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior i n the no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r have gr e a t e r e x t e r n a l communication than the r e s t of the groups i n these t e c h n o l o g i e s . These are the newspaper paste-up group ( 1 ) , the mechanics ( 5 ) , the machine shops (12 and 15), and the newspaper e d i t o r i a l t y p e s e t t i n g group (27). The exceptions here are the m i l l ponds (16, 17, and 18) where the East Indian c u l t u r a l group e x h i b i t e d lower i n t e r n a l communication than the other two. However, a l l these groups were l o o s e l y j o i n e d and conversation appeared to take place between sub-groups of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the group r a t h e r than the t o t a l group. For example, the two se n i o r mechanics conversed q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y and consulted each other f o r i n f o r m a t i o n while the younger mechan i c s would converse among themselves and say l i t t l e t o the o l d e r ones unless they were faced w i t h a problem they couldn't s o l v e . The groups of low status having medium or low grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a medium or high degree of turnover and absen teeism t h a t work i n dead l i n e , steered l i n e , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r technologies have l i t t l e e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l communication. These are the door g l u i n g group (35), the newspaper press groups (45 and 50), the food processing p l a n t (46), the wire e x t r u s i o n and cable c o i l i n g group (47), the newspaper m a i l room (48), and the sawmill automatic t r i m shop (49). The r e s t r i c t i v e f a c t o r s of noise and s i g h t become very important i n these groups f o r t h i s type of r e s t r i c t i o n may i n h i b i t the formation of any r e a l i n f o r m a l 22 group as mentioned m the study by Walker and Guest. In the cases of the 22 Walker, C.R. and Guest, R., The Man on the Assembly L i n e , Cambridge, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P ress, p. 79. .126 press rooms i n t e r a c t i o n d i d occur during the running of the press but the noise f a c t o r even r e s t r i c t e d t h i s conversation to a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree. Groups of high status as.depicted i n Tables XVII, X V I I I , XIX, and XX that work i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r have the same opportunity f o r conversation as the aforementioned groups i n these technologies due t o the low degree of r e s t r i c t i n g f a c t o r s . These are the l e a d burners ( 3 ) , the door f i n i s h e r s (11), the metal p o l i s h e r s (14), the d i e makers (25) and the shippers (28, 29, and 30). A l l of these groups met and entered i n t o d i s c u s s i o n s as t o t a l u n i t s . This d i s c u s s i o n was mainly work centered r a t h e r than d i r e c t e d toward e x t e r n a l or personal messages. The exception here I s , of course, the shipping groups who must i n t e r a c t w i t h t r u c k d r i v e r s , salesmen, foremen, purchasing c l e r k s , and many ot h e r s , but t h i s l a r g e degree of e x t e r n a l communication d i d not seem t o a f f e c t t h e i r i n t e r n a l u n i t y to any n o t i c e a b l e extent. The degree of o r g a n i  z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior e x h i b i t e d by these groups i s s i m i l a r to the low degree e x h i b i t e d by the lower s t a t u s groups i n these t e c h n o l o g i e s . Groups t h a t have a medium or high degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , t urnover, and absenteeism, and i n general have a higher degree of spontaneous behavior r a t h e r than the concerted type are the l e a d pot workers ( 2 ) , the s o l d e r spooling department (13), and the chippers and g r i n d e r s (23) i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r and automotive t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s , and the green chains (32 and 33), and the foundry furnace and mold core group (34) i n the dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s . These groups have a higher degree of i n t e r n a l conversation than e x t e r n a l but a l l communication i s i n h i b i t e d t o an extent by.noise. In other words, these groups d i d 127 communicate; however, t h i s communication i s l i m i t e d so that the group cannot i n t e r a c t as a t o t a l group. B r i e f meetings between i n d i v i d u a l s and the passage of messages from person t o person t y p i f i e s the communication of these groups. This i s an i d e a l medium f o r i n s u f f i c i e n t communications which i n t u r n give b i r t h t o many tensions which accumulate u n t i l r e l e a s e d through a s h o r t - l i v e d f l a r e - u p and then the c y c l e begins again. The only group e x h i b i t i n g a s i m i l a r degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior as the above groups but d i f f e r i n g i n the amount of v e r b a l communication are the chippers and g r i n d e r s (23). They communicate e x t e r  n a l l y to a gr e a t e r extent than above groups which may p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n why they have a high or medium degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior f o r even though they converse and b i c k e r among themselves, a f a i r amount of t h e i r communication i s d i r e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y to s u p e r v i s o r s , engineers and other employees. The groups i n d i c a t i v e . o f continuous pressure on management and the union through w e l l planned group a c t i v i t y , the foundry mold core group (20), the door f a b r i c a t i n g department (26), and the sheet metal p a i n t i n g group (44), d i f f e r from the previous groups i n the frequency of t h e i r communications. The foundry mold core group and the sheet metal group have a high degree of in-group d i s c u s s i o n w i t h few r e s t r i c t i o n s . The groups are compact enough th a t conversations may i n v o l v e the group as a whole r a t h e r than j u s t a few members at one time. These groups have the opportunity to d i s c u s s i s s u e s at length during the normal work pro cess and may f o l l o w up by t a k i n g w e l l planned and concerted a c t i o n d i r e c t e d toward the union or management. Again, an exception i s witnessed i n the amount of communicating done by the door f a b r i c a t i n g department where, both e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l 128 communication i s low. As was observed i n the dis c u s s i o n s . o n the technology and the b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the ..technology, t h i s group has a l l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of one prone to . sudden f l a r e - u p s , but because of tenure i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s , have seemingly mellowed and exert w e l l planned pressure on management. The group i s composed of only three members and communication t h a t i s i n i t i a t e d i n v o l v e s the whole group or i s passed throughout"the group. Communicative i n t e r a c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s high i n groups e x h i b i t i n g a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior and i s low f o r groups e x h i b i t i n g a comparable low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior r a t h e r than the hypothesized high. This d e v i a t i o n may be a t t r i b u t e d to the r e s t r i c t i v e noise and v i s u a l f a c t o r s present i n dead and steered l i n e and p a r t i c u l a r l y l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s . In some groups, as noted, these r e s t r i c t i v e f a c t o r s allow only p a r t i a l in-group communication which has the end r e s u l t of employee f r u s t r a t i o n and a high degree of unorganized spontaneous outbursts. C. Group Status S t a t u s , as measured by p o s i t i o n on the promotional l a d d e r , s e n i o r i t y , e x c l u s i v e n e s s of t a s k , and length o f l e a r n i n g time t o perform the f u n c t i o n , i s compared with o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior i n Tables XXVIII, XXIX, XXX, and XXXI. In r e l a t i n g behavior to s t a t u s , i t was hypothesized t h a t one would expect the higher the st a t u s o f the group, the lower the degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i  p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , t u rnover, and absenteeism. As the t a b l e s i n d i  c a t e , t h i s hypothesis i s true f o r groups having a high degree of st a t u s as 129 TABLE XXVIII A TABLE COMPARING GROUP POSITION ON THE PROMOTIONAL LADDER WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR High Medium Low T o t a l High 0 4 3 7 Grievance and Medium 1 0 2 3 Pressure A c t i v i t y Low 13 17 10 40 T o t a l 14 21 15 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 0 3 3 6 Number of Unplanned Medium 1 1 1 3 Spontaneous Outbursts Low 13 17 11 41 T o t a l 14 21 15 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 1 4 2 7 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Medium 1 4 3 8 Union A c t i v i t i e s f o r Union Groups Low 10 12 7 29 T o t a l 12 20 12 44 High Medium Low T o t a l High 0 4 4 8 Turnover Medium 3 4 7 14 Low 11 13 4 28 T o t a l 14 21 15 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 0 0 4 4 Absenteeism Medium 2 7 6 15 Low 12 14 5 31 T o t a l 14 21 15 50 130 TABLE XXIX A TABLE COMPARING SENIORITY WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR High Medium Low T o t a l High 1 2 4 7 Grievance and Medium 0 2 1 3 Pressure A c t i v i t y Low 10 17 13 4-0 T o t a l 11 21 18 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 1 1 4 6 Number of Unplanned Medium 0 2 1 3 Spontaneous Outbursts Low 10 18 13 41 T o t a l 11 21 18 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 1 3 3 7 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Medium 1 5 2 8 Union A c t i v i t i e s Low 8 10 11 29 f o r Union Groups T o t a l 10 18 16 44 High Medium Low T o t a l High 0 2 6 8 Turnover Medium 1 8 5 14 Low 10 11 7 28 T o t a l 11 21 18 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 0 0 4 4 Absenteeism Medium 1 9 5 15 Low 10 12 9 31 T o t a l 11 21 18 50 131 TABLE XXX A TABLE COMPARING EXCLUSIVENESS OF TASK WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR High Medium Low T o t a l •;• High 2 2 3 7 Grievance and Medium 2 0 1 3 Pressure A c t i v i t y Low 23 0 17 40 . T o t a l 27 2 21 50 - High Medium Low T o t a l High 1 2 3 6 Number of Unplanned Medium 3 0 0 3 Spontaneous Outbursts Low 23 0 18 41 T o t a l 27 2 21 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 3 1 3 7 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Medium 5 1 2 8 Union A c t i v i t i e s f o r Union Groups Low 15 0 13 29 T o t a l 23 2 18 44 High Medium Low T o t a l High 4 2 2 8 Turnover Medium 9 0 . 5 14 Low 14 0 14 28 T o t a l 27 2 21 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 1 2 1 4 Absenteeism Medium 9 0 6 15 Low 17 0 14 31 T o t a l 27 2 21 50 132 TABLE XXXI A TABLE COMPARING LENGTH OF LEARNING TIME TO PERFORM FUNCTION WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR High Medium Low T o t a l High 0 2 5 7 Grievance and Medium 1 0 2 3 Pressure A c t i v i t y - Low 18 7 15 40 T o t a l 19 9 22 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 0 1 5 6 Number of Unplanned Medium 1 1 1 3 Spontaneous Outbursts Low 18 7 16 ^1 T o t a l 19 9 22 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 1 2 ' 4 7 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Union A c t i v i t i e s f o r Union Groups Medium Low 2 13 3 4 3 12 8 29 T o t a l IB 9 19 44 High Medium Low T o t a l High 3 1 4 8 Turnover Medium Low 4 12 3 5 7 11 14 28 T o t a l 19 9 22 50 High Medium Low T o t a l . High 0 1 3 4 Absenteeism Medium Low 5 14 2 6 8 11 15 32 T o t a l - 19 9 22 50 133 measured.by p o s i t i o n on the.promotional l a d d e r , s e n i o r i t y , exclusiveness of t a s k , and l e n g t h of l e a r n i n g time t o perform the f u n c t i o n , as they do e x h i b i t a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. However, groups having a medium or low degree of s t a t u s a l s o e x h i b i t a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. Again, there i s a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t beha v i o r no matter what the degree of the v a r i a b l e s a t t r i b u t i n g to s t a t u s . I t appears t h a t p o s i t i o n on the promotional ladder, s e n i o r i t y , e x c l u s i v e  ness of t a s k , and length of l e a r n i n g time t o perform the f u n c t i o n have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. Rather than g e n e r a l i z e on these r e s u l t s , a group by group approach may provide an explanation f o r s p e c i f i c cases. The groups i n the no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r technologies that e x h i b i t a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior, namely, the newspaper paste-up group ( 1 ) , the mechanics group ( 5 ) , the machine shops (12 and 15), the m i l l ponds (16, 17, and 18), and the newspaper e d i t o r i a l t y p e s e t t i n g group (27) are a s s o c i a t e d with a low p o s i t i o n on the promotional l a d d e r , low s e n i o r i t y , low exclusiveness of t a s k , and a short l e n g t h of l e a r n i n g time t o perform the f u n c t i o n . These jobs are very low p r e s t i g e jobs having a f a i r l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of new and u n s k i l l e d people performing them, the m a j o r i t y l e a r n i n g at the bottom rung of the ladder before moving up. In t h i s r e s p e c t , most of them are faced w i t h s p l i t r o l e s , that i s , they want t o be accomodative, to the union's wishes while at the same time c r e a t i n g a good impression w i t h management. Their appearance to both management and the union i s , then, of an a p a t h e t i c nature. 134 Other groups i n the no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r technologies that e x h i b i t a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e  vant behavior, the lead burners ( 3 ) , the door f i n i s h i n g group ( 1 1 ) , the metal p o l i s h i n g group (14), the die shop (25), and the shipping depart ments (28, 29, and 30), have high p o s i t i o n s on the promotional l a d d e r , medium-high s e n i o r i t y , high exclusiveness of t a s k , and a long length of l e a r n i n g time to perform t h e i r f u n c t i o n . The only exception here i s the shipping departments which have a r e l a t i v e l y short l e n g t h of l e a r n i n g time. These groups have a high l e v e l of s e l f confidence, and consequently c a r r y a high degree of p r e s t i g e r e l a t i v e to other groups i n the p l a n t . These groups are the main t a r g e t of management a c t i v i t y as i t i s through these people that management attempts to communicate with the r e s t of the p l a n t and to r e c e i v e feedback on these messages as w e l l as union a c t i v i t y . Only the metal p o l i s h i n g group (25) e x h i b i t e d approximately equal communi c a t i o n w i t h management and the union but the production manager f e l t , "these brothers weigh everything that both management and the union present and give us extremely good r e p r e s e n t a t i o n at a l l times. I f we're out i n l e f t f i e l d , they c e r t a i n l y t e l l us, and then i t ' s up t o us to r e c o n s i d e r . " The lead pot workers ( 2 ) , the s o l d e r s p o o l i n g group ( 5 ) , the chippers and g r i n d e r s (23), the green chains (32 and 33) and the foundry furnace and mold core group (34) have a medium-low p o s i t i o n on the pro motional l a d d e r , medium-low s e n i o r i t y i n the p l a n t , low exclusiveness of t a s k , and low l e a r n i n g time t o perform t h e i r f u n c t i o n s . The f a c t that members of these groups n e a r l y a l l have i d e n t i c a l tasks and a low l e a r n i n g time t o perform t h e i r j o b s , coupled w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y high i n t e r a c t i o n gives an e x c e l l e n t environment f o r spontaneous a c t i v i t y i n some form of 135 overt behavior. Members of many of these groups, p a r t i c u l a r l y the green c h a i n s , appear t o be marking time or w a i t i n g f o r an opportunity to move i n t o another area i n the p l a n t . As one of the men on the green chain s t a t e d , "This job i s f o r the b i r d s . A guy leaves here a f t e r work and he's too t i r e d to do anything. I go home to the wife and k i d s , eat supper, and then f l a k e out. The only time we get to do anything as a f a m i l y i s on the weekend. W e l l , I'm g e t t i n g some s e n i o r i t y ' here now and I'm going to apply f o r every p o s t i n g that' 1 .can. I'm going t o get out of here come h e l l or high water!" On the other hand, the groups of the foundry mold core shop (20), the door f a b r i c a t i n g department (26) and the sheet metal p a i n t i n g area (44) hold medium p o s i t i o n s on the promotional l a d d e r , medium s e n i o r i t y , r e l a  t i v e l y high exclusiveness i n t h e i r t a s k s , but a short l e a r n i n g time t o perform these t a s k s . The s t a t u s of these groups appears t o be higher than those e x h i b i t i n g a higher degree of spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , but these people are a l s o f r u s t r a t e d to an extent i n t h a t w i t h t h e i r present s k i l l s they can r i s e no h i g h e r • i n the p l a n t . Therefore, t h e i r behavior i s of the concerted type i n which each member of the group i s as w e l l informed as the next. I t i s to these groups that groups having high spontaneous a c t i v i t y t u r n t h e i r a t t e n t i o n i n times of i n - p l a n t t r o u b l e . Informal reinforcement i s communi cated between these two types of groups during lunch break and a f t e r hours. However, group commitment i s t o t a l i n groups having w e l l planned concerted a c t i v i t y but not i n the groups e x h i b i t i n g spontaneous a c t i v i t y due to r e s t r i c t e d communications and i n t e r a c t i o n between group members. These higher status groups are c o n s c i o u s l y or unconsciously the. prime t a r g e t of the union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The foundry foreman i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f i r s t area approached by the union i s the mold core group w i t h 136 the idea.that . t h e i r f e e l i n g s w i l l be i n d i c a t i v e of the t o t a l p l a n t . In the dead l i n e and s t e e r e d . l i n e , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r t e c h  n o l o g i e s , the plywood door g l u i n g group (35), the newspaper press rooms ('45. and 50), the food processing p l a n t ( 46), the wire e x t r u s i o n and cable c o i l i n g group (47), the newspaper m a i l room (48), and the sawmill automa t i c t r i m shop (49) have a medium p o s i t i o n on the promotional l a d d e r , a medium-low s e n i o r i t y , a high exclusiveness of t a s k , and a medium l e n g t h ' of l e a r n i n g time to perform t h e i r f u n c t i o n . However, even though they are more s k i l l e d than low status groups i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s , t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n i s i n h i b i t e d to the extent t h a t i t does not come near the t h r e s h o l d r e q u i r e d f o r a t o t a l group e f f o r t . The communication r e q u i r e d t o i n i t i a t e and r e i n f o r c e any idea i s l a c k i n g , thus, the group i s f r u s t r a t e d i n i t s attempts to gain s e l f confidence and reach the l e v e l of i n d i v i d u a l conformity to group norms and goals necessary to the f u n c t i o n i n g of a group. The s t a t u s t h a t i t does have i s l o s t i n the group's i n a b i l i t y to organize as a t o t a l group. In summary, groups of high s t a t u s do e x h i b i t a low degree- of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. However, medium and low status groups a l s o tend towards a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior due to the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed on them by t h e i r technology and by the very s t r u c t u r e of the job i t s e l f as low s t a t u s groups i n the no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r technologies have jobs t h a t require, l i t t l e I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the r e s t of the p l a n t as w e l l as w i t h i n the group. High s t a t u s jobs i n these technologies have a high degree of in-group i n t e r a c t i o n . Some groups of low s t a t u s were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from others by the degree of spontaneous .outbursts they e x h i b i t e d while other groups 137 of.medium status were noted t o have a high degree.of concerted grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y . Groups i n l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r technology have a medium status but t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n i s i n h i b i t e d to the extent t h e i r grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , and p a r t i c i p a  t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s becomes lower than groups i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e t e c h n o l o g i e s . The hypothesis t h a t higher status groups may communicate t o a greater extent than the r e s t of the p l a n t as a means of s o c i a l approval does not seem to have any c o n c l u s i v e evidence. I t has already been noted t h a t management i n most instances d i r e c t s i t s communications t o high s t a t u s groups such as the l e a d burners (3) and the metal p o l i s h i n g group (14) while the union communicates through medium status groups having w e l l planned concerted a c t i v i t i e s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e that n e i t h e r of these group types enter i n t o on the job communications w i t h e x t e r n a l groups or i n d i v i d u a l s to any great extent. The only exception i s the s h i p p i n g departments, but most of t h e i r communication i s t o i n d i v i d u a l s outside the p l a n t such as truck d r i v e r s and to purchasing and s a l e s people w i t h i n the p l a n t . They do i n t e r a c t with i n d i v i d u a l s i n other departments to a g r e a t e r degree- than any other group but most of t h i s communication i s shipping o r i e n t e d r a t h e r than problem o r i e n t e d . In f a c t , low status groups i n no t r a n s f e r technologies e x h i b i t greater communication with other areas i n the p l a n t than any of the other groups observed. I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e that these people are approaching higher status areas f o r reinforcement.and r e c o g n i t i o n of ideas as these are mainly people at the lower rung of the promotional ladder. In t h i s r e s p e c t , groups of higher s t a t u s may wish to withhold c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n 138 or be the e x c l u s i v e source of t h i s information and wait u n t i l approached by lower status groups before imparting i t , r a t h e r than going t o these groups. The sawmill groups (39, 4-0, 41 and 42) hold a r e l a t i v e l y high p o s i t i o n on the promotional ladder, medium s e n i o r i t y ( f i v e to nine y e a r s ) , high exclusiveness of t a s k , and a long l e a r n i n g time to perform t h e i r f u n c t i o n . Their s t a t u s , as measured by these f a c t o r s , should be h i g h , yet the perceived s t a t u s of each of the groups i s not s i m i l a r . I have already i n d i c a t e d t h a t of the two m i l l s i n v o l v e d , one' i s w i l l i n g t o look a f t e r the requirements of i t s employees while the other i s w i l l i n g t o take i t s chances that the employees w i l l stay r e g a r d l e s s of the e x t e r n a l l a b o r market. In t h i s case i t i s the perceived s t a t u s of the group r e l a t i v e to the r e s t of the p l a n t , and even more important, the r e s t of the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y , t h a t i s one of the prime f a c t o r s governing the behavior of these groups. D. Group Cohesiveness Cohesiveness as defined i n terms of the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of a group f o r i t s members i m p l i e s two c o n d i t i o n s : the p r o p e r t i e s of the group such as i t s g o a l s , s i z e , i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and p o s i t i o n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n or i n d u s t r y ; and the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l member f o r s e c u r i t y membership, r e c o g n i t i o n , and other th i n g s which may be der i v e d by the i n d i  v i d u a l from group membership. Group cohesiveness, then, e n t a i l s the nature of the group and the extent of involvement of i n d i v i d u a l members. As Hubert Bonner has s t a t e d , "the more a t t r a c t i v e the group i s t o i t s members, the greater i s the power t o produce changes i n i t s i n d i v i d u a l members, such as s o l u t i o n s o f problems, i n c r e a s i n g l y e f f e c t i v e d i s c u s s i o n , p r o d u c t i v i t y on 23 t a s k , e t c . " 23 Bonner, H., Group Dynamics, New York, Ronald P r e s s , 1959, p. 86. 139 In t h i s aspect, one may expect t h a t groups having a high degree of cohesiveness (the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of a group f o r i t s members) w i l l have a low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spon taneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover, and absen teeism. Groups with a low degree of cohesiveness w i l l have a- high degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. Table XXXII i n d i c a t e s that t h i s hypothesis i s tr u e as groups having a high degree o f cohesiveness have a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. However, groups having a low degree of group cohesiveness a l s o have a low degree o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. In t h i s case, the r e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e that cohesiveness has l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. I t i s the high and medium st a t u s groups t h a t provide s a t i s f a c t i o n to t h e i r members through r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r members' values and needs i n t h e i r r e s u l t a n t behavior. The low st a t u s groups on the other hand e x h i b i t a l a r g e degree of i n d i v i d u a l member independence as i n d i c a t e d i n the com parisons of communication frequency, group s t a t u s , and the d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s . The technology and i t s a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s r e s t r i c t s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the low status group w i t h i n the l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r technologies as w e l l as the others t o the extent t h a t group members' needs do not reach the t h r e s h o l d of being t o t a l group needs and, t h e r e f o r e , the " a t t r a c t i v e n e s s " and "power" of these groups as perceived by t h e i r members i s very low. On the other hand, medium and high s t a t u s groups e x h i b i t concerted group a c t i o n as the group needs are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the t o t a l of the i n d i v i d u a l mem bers' needs. Thus, the t e c h n o l o g i c a l make-up th a t i s conducive to a high degree of i n t e r a c t i o n and job st a t u s allows a higher degree of cohesiveness than technologies where i n t e r a c t i o n i s impaired and the jobs hold a r e l a -14-0 TABLE XXXII A TABLE COMPARING GROUP COHESIVENESS WITH ORGANIZATIONALLY RELEVANT BEHAVIOR High Medium Low T o t a l High 4 3 0 7 Grievance and Medium 0 2 1 3 Pressure A c t i v i t y Low 17 4 19 40 T o t a l 21 9 20 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 3 3 0 6 Number of Unplanned Medium 1 1 1 3 Spontaneous Outbursts Low 17 5 19 41 T o t a l 21 9 20 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 3 4 0 7 P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Union A c t i v i t i e s f o r Union Groups Medium Low 3 13 2 2 3 14 8 29 T o t a l 19 8 17 44 High Medium Low T o t a l High 3 3 2 8 Turnover Medium 4 4 6 14 Low 14 2 12 28 T o t a l 21 9 20 50 High Medium Low T o t a l High 2 1 1 4 Absenteeism Medium 3 7 4 14 Low 16 1 15 32 T o t a l 21 9 20 50 141 t i v e l y low st a t u s i n comparison to the r e s t of the p l a n t and other com parable jobs i n the i n d u s t r y . 24 . . Seashore has found that under c o n d i t i o n s o f low cohesiveness, perception of a high degree of support from the company i s c o i n c i d e n t w i t h low p r o d u c t i v i t y standards, while low support i s c o i n c i d e n t w i t h higher pro duction. He i n d i c a t e s that the insecure employee experiences g r e a t e r a n x i e t y regarding the f u l f i l l m e n t of company demands and w i l l adopt high p r o d u c t i v i t y standards to minimize t h i s a n x i e t y . I t may be th a t the e x h i b i t e d low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior found i n t h i s study, r e g a r d l e s s o f the degree of cohesiveness, i s r e l a t e d t o the low cohesive groups' attempts i n some cases t o reduce t h i s a n x i e t y s t a t e . E. Summary This chapter has attempted t o r e l a t e the e f f e c t s of b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology w i t h the degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior e x h i b i t e d by groups i n the t e c h n o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n w i t h the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : 1. The hypothesis t h a t groups having a high degree of a t t e n  t i o n requirements would have a high degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover, and absenteeism was found•to be t r u e . The asso c i a t e d hypothesis that groups w i t h a. medium or low degree of a t t e n t i o n requirements would have a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior i s a l s o t r u e . Seashore, S.E., Group Cohesiveness i n the I n d u s t r i a l Work Group, Ann Arbour, The U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan P r e s s , 1954. pp. 97-102. 142 2. I t was hypothesized t h a t groups having a high or medium degree of break i n the job r o u t i n e ( r e s t p e r i o d s , l u n c h , coffee breaks, washroom t r i p s , and v i s i t s w i t h other workers), on the job p h y s i c a l m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group, and work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment (the amount of c o n t r o l the employee has over the conversion p r o c e s s ) , w i l l have a low degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , t u rnover, and absenteeism. Groups with a low degree of break i n the job r o u t i n e , on the job p h y s i c a l m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group, and work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment w i l l have a medium or high degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. In t h i s study i t was found that t h i s hypothesis i s t r u e , as groups having a high degree of these b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the t e c h  nology have a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. The r e  s u l t s f o r groups with a low or medium degree of these b e h a v i o r a l conse quences of the technology are i n c o n c l u s i v e , but most groups having a s i m i l a r degree of b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology a l s o have a s i m i l a r degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. 3. Groups having a high degree of in-group v e r b a l communication do e x h i b i t a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior as was hypothesized. But the hypothesis that communication frequency and organ i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior are r e l a t e d i s not supported because most of the groups having a low degree of v e r b a l communication w i t h i n the group a l s o have a medium or low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior r a t h e r than the hypothesized high degree. This d e v i a t i o n may be a t t r i b u t e d to the r e s t r i c t i v e n o i s e and v i s u a l f a c t o r s present i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s . In some 143 groups, as noted, these r e s t r i c t i v e f a c t o r s allow only p a r t i a l in-group communication which has the end r e s u l t of employee f r u s t r a t i o n and a high degree of unorganized spontaneous o u t b u r s t s . 4. In r e l a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior t o status as measured by p o s i t i o n on the promotional l a d d e r , s e n i o r i t y , exclusiveness of t a s k , and length of l e a r n i n g time to perform the f u n c t i o n , i t was hypo t h e s i z e d that one would expect the higher.the s t a t u s of the group, the lower w i l l be the number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover, and absenteeism. While t h i s hypothesis may hold t r u e f o r t h i s study, the hypo t h e s i s that the degree of st a t u s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior are r e l a t e d i s not supported because groups having a medium or low degree of status a l s o e x h i b i t a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. I t i s thought that these l a t t e r r e s u l t s may be due t o the l i m i t a t i o n s im posed on them by t h e i r technology and by the s t r u c t u r e of the job i t s e l f as low st a t u s groups i n the no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r technologies have jobs t h a t r e q u i r e l i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i n the p l a n t as w e l l as w i t h i n the group w h i l e medium st a t u s groups i n l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r technology have t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n i n h i b i t e d t o the extent that t h e i r grievance-and pressure a c t i v i t i e s , number of unplanned sponta neous o u t b u r s t s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s becomes lower than groups i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e t e c h n o l o g i e s . 6. The hypothesis that higher s t a t u s groups may communicate to a greater extent than the r e s t of the p l a n t as a means of s o c i a l approval does not have any co n c l u s i v e evidence. In f a c t , i t may be th a t groups of higher status may wish to withhold c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n or be the 144 e x c l u s i v e source of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and wait u n t i l approached by lower status groups before imparting i t , r a t h e r than going t o those groups. 6. Groups having a high degree of cohesiveness have the hypo t h e s i z e d low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. However, the hypothesis that the degree of cohesiveness and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior are r e l a t e d i s not supported as groups having a low degree of cohesiveness a l s o have a low degree o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. Some of these groups with low cohesiveness may have a l a r g e degree of i n d i v i d u a l member independence as i n d i c a t e d i n the comparisons of com munication frequency, group s t a t u s , and the d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s . I t may be t h a t group member's needs do not reach the t h r e s h o l d of being group needs and, t h e r e f o r e , the "power" and " a t t r a c t i v e n e s s " of those groups as perceived by t h e i r members i s very low. On the other hand, some of the low cohesive groups may not perceive the company as being supportive and work t o reduce t h e i r r e s u l t a n t a n x i e t y s t a t e . CHAPTER V I I I CONCLUSIONS The purpose of my study was t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p of employee behavior t o the work group as s t r u c t u r e d by the form of techno logy u t i l i z e d i n the group. I t was hoped t h a t the v a r i a b l e s depicted i n t h i s study may be used as a forewarning to the r e a c t i o n of employees placed i n a s p e c i f i c technology and th a t adjustments could be made t o create b e t t e r work p a t t e r n s . The f i r s t measurement attempted was the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the degree of technology as graded by t r a n s f e r methods, conversion methods, and c y c l e s to the r e s u l t a n t behavior of the groups as i n d i c a t e d by grievance and pres sure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover, absenteeism, and management e v a l u a t i o n of the group as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees. While no d i r e c t t r e n d r e l a t i o n s h i p was found, groups i n the technologies of no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and auto motive t r a n s f e r on the whole d i d e x h i b i t a lower degree of behavior as measured by the above f a c t o r s than groups i n the dead l i n e , steered l i n e , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s . Groups i n l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion continuous c y c l e technology had a lower degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , than groups i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e technologies w i t h steered automatics as the source of conversion and r e g u l a r c y c l e s , d i f f e r e n t frequency i n the group, and continuous c y c l e s . There were notable exceptions, however, and d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d that f a c t o r s ranging from the described b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the techno logy to e t h n i c background of group members were the cause of these d e v i a t i o n s . 146 The second measurement attempted was the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the degree of technology as c l a s s i f i e d by t r a n s f e r methods, conversion methods, and c y c l e s to the b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology as c l a s s i f i e d by a t t e n t i o n requirements of the job f u n c t i o n , frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , m o b i l i t y o f workers i n the group, frequency of v e r b a l communi c a t i o n , group s t a t u s , group s i z e , and group cohesiveness. The b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology such as a t t e n t i o n requirements of the job f u n c t i o n , frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group, and work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment were found t o be r e l a t e d to the form of technology. A t t e n t i o n requirements were low or medium i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s , r e g a r d l e s s of conversion source or c y c l e s . A t t e n t i o n r e q u i r e  ments increase i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r , steered automatic conversion, r e g u l a r c y c l e s , d i f f e r e n t frequency i n the group, and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion, continuous process techno l o g i e s . The frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group, and work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment were high or medium i n the no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r technologies no matter what form of conversion was present, becoming lower i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r , steered automatic conversion', r e g u l a r c y c l e s , d i f f e r e n t frequency i n the group and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion, continuous c y c l e s t e c h n o l o g i e s . In the case where steered automatics and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics are the source of conversion i t was found t h a t the degree of work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment i s lower than f o r other sources of conversion. 147 The degree of v e r b a l communication was found t o be high i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r and automotive t r a n s f e r technologies r e g a r d l e s s of conversion source, decreasing i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e , steered automatic conversion, r e g u l a r c y c l e s d i f f e r e n t frequency i n the group, and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion, continuous c y c l e s t e c h n o l o g i e s . Some v a r i a t i o n s were found, e s p e c i a l l y i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r , no conversion and hand t o o l conversion, no r e g u l a r c y c l e s or r e g u l a r c y c l e s , same frequency i n the group, but these were a t t r i b u t e d to v i s u a l r e s t r i c t i o n s and noise l e v e l as w e l l as ass o c i a t e d a t t e n t i o n requirements of the j o b , frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , and worker m o b i l i t y . The a s s o c i a t e d l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s of v i s u a l c o n s t r a i n t s and noise l e v e l were, i n g e n e r a l , low i n no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s . Noise l e v e l increased i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e t r a n s f e r , steered automatic conversion and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion, continuous c y c l e s t e c h n o l o g i e s . No r e l a t i o n s h i p was found between the group's p o s i t i o n on the promotional l a d d e r , s e n i o r i t y , exclusiveness of t a s k , and length of l e a r n i n g time t o perform the f u n c t i o n , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l form except i n l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r , s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatic conversion, continuous c y c l e s techno logy where a high exclusiveness of task was found. No r e l a t i o n s h i p between cohesiveness and t e c h n o l o g i c a l form was found i n t h i s study, as w e l l as, no r e l a t i o n s h i p between the degree of cohesiveness and group s i z e as groups w i t h few members and groups w i t h many members were found f o r both cohesive and non-cohesive groups. 14-8 The t h i r d measurement attempted was the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the b e h a v i o r a l consequences of the technology w i t h the degree of o r g a n i z a  t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. The t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d f a c t o r s such as a t t e n t i o n requirements of the job f u n c t i o n , frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e , m o b i l i t y of workers i n the group, and work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment pla y an extremely important r o l e i n e x p l a i n i n g work group behavior. The more exacting these f a c t o r s are the gre a t e r the degree of overt be ha v i o r on the group's behalf except i n the cases of groups w i t h l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r technology with steered automatics and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics as a source of conversion where these f a c t o r s i n h i b i t e d i n t e r a c t i o n t o such a degree t h a t the group's behavior was lower than groups i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e technologies i n the e x h i b i t e d degree of grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , and p a r t i c i  p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s . Groups t h a t were found to have a high degree of in-group v e r b a l communication e x h i b i t e d a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. However, groups that had a low degree of v e r b a l communication w i t h i n the group, a l s o had a medium or low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t be h a v i o r . Therefore, in-group communication had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. This low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior may be a t t r i b u t e d t o the r e s t r i c t i v e degree of noise which was present i n dead l i n e , steered l i n e , and l i v e l i n e t r a n s f e r t e c h n o l o g i e s . However, some groups had only p a r t i a l in-group communication because of the r e s t r i c t i v e f a c t o r s w i t h the end r e s u l t of a high degree of employee f r u s t r a t i o n and unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s . 149 Group status was measured by p o s i t i o n on the promotional l a d d e r , s e n i o r i t y , exclusiveness of t a s k , and length of l e a r n i n g time t o perform the f u n c t i o n . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that the higher the status of the group, the lower the degree of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , p a r t i c i p a  t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s , turnover, and absenteeism. Groups having a medium or low degree o f status a l s o were found t o have a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the degree of s t a t u s has l i t t l e e f f e c t on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. The low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior f o r low or medium st a t u s groups was r e l a t e d t o the l i m i t a t i o n s of the technology as low st a t u s groups i n the no t r a n s f e r , hand t r a n s f e r , and automotive t r a n s f e r techno l o g i e s e x h i b i t e d l i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n . w h i l e medium st a t u s groups had t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n i n h i b i t e d to the extent t h a t t h e i r grievance and pressure a c t i v i t i e s , number of unplanned spontaneous o u t b u r s t s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s became lower than groups i n dead l i n e and steered l i n e t e c h n o l o g i e s . I t was found t h a t higher status groups do not communicate t o a greater extent than lower status, groups but may wish t o withhold c e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n or be the e x c l u s i v e source of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and wait u n t i l approached by the lower status groups before imparting i t , r a t h e r than going to these groups. Cohesiveness as defined i n terms of the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of a group f o r i t s members was high f o r groups e x h i b i t i n g a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior. Groups with a low degree of cohesive ness a l s o had a low degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior which i n d i c a t e s the degree of cohesiveness has l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y 150 r e l e v a n t behavior. I t may be t h a t groups with low cohesiveness could not elevate i n d i v i d u a l needs above the t h r e s h o l d to becoming group needs and t h a t the "power" and " a t t r a c t i v e n e s s " of these groups as perceived by the i n d i v i d u a l members was very low. Other groups with a low degree of cohesiveness t h a t perceive the company as non-supportive may be s t r i v i n g to reduce a n x i e t y through higher p r o d u c t i v i t y . The p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of group behavior f o r a given technology i s very i n c o n c l u s i v e as the behavior of groups i n t h i s study compared with Sayles' was d i f f e r e n t f o r what appears to be s i m i l a r t e c h n o l o g i e s . Sayles* study appears to be t h e o r e t i c a l l y sound as once group behavior i s known, t h i s i s an e x c e l l e n t method f o r c l a s s i f y i n g groups according to the behavior e x h i b i t e d ; however, t h i s i s g r e a t l y d i f f e r e n t from the problem at hand, which i s the p r e d i c t i o n of group behavior given a p a r t i c u l a r technology. Even Sayles has s t a t e d , "Our o b j e c t i v e was to e x p l a i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n be h a v i o r among work groups. We wished to d i s c o v e r whether c e r t a i n aspects of employee day-to-day behavior could be r e l a t e d t o the s t r u c t u r e of the work group, as determined by the technology of the e n t e r p r i s e , independent of su p e r v i s o r y s k i l l s (or t h e i r absence), management and union pressures, 25 and i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s . " However, i n a n a l y z i n g my r e s u l t s as compared t o Sayles', I f i n d g l a r i n g d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n types of work group behavior a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s i m i l a r l y described t e c h n o l o g i e s . The f i r s t problem a r i s e s i n t r y i n g to f i n d c o n s i s t e n t group behavior a s s o c i a t e d with s i m i l a r t e c h n o l o g i e s . As E x h i b i t IV i n d i c a t e s , technologies c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of low s k i l l e d jobs or long assembly l i n e jobs Sayles, L.R., Behavior of I n d u s t r i a l Work Groups, New York,'John Wiley and Sons, 1958, p. 162. 151 develop a p a t h e t i c work groups. A low s k i l l e d job i n t h i s case i s one t h a t i n v o l v e s a short l e n g t h of l e a r n i n g time i n order to accomplish a work task. One group r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a p a t h e t i c behavior i n my study i s the newspaper paste-up group which i n v o l v e s i n d i v i d u a l jobs i n a non-transfer technology r a t h e r than member dependent f u n c t i o n s . The m i l l pond groups are charac t e r i s t i c of a hand t r a n s f e r technology and do hold t r u e t o the a p a t h e t i c group type. The. door g l u i n g group, the newspaper press room, the food processing p l a n t , the wire e x t r u s i o n and cable c o i l i n g group, the newspaper m a i l room, the sawmill automatic t r i m shop, and the newspaper press b u i l d i n g are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the higher forms of t r a n s f e r technology but are d e f i n  i t e l y not long assembly l i n e jobs or p a r t i c u l a r l y low s k i l l e d j o b s , yet these groups e x h i b i t e d behavior c l o s e t o a p a t h e t i c . Technologies w i t h i d e n t i c a l t a s k s , homogeneous crews, or short assembly l i n e s are the ones i d e n t i f i e d by Sayles as t y p i c a l of e x h i b i t i n g e r r a t i c behavior. This d e s c r i p t i o n holds the best comparison i n terms of behavior with my study as exemplified.'by the previous d e s c r i p t i o n of the lead pot workers, mechanics, and s o l d e r s p o o l i n g group. The chippers and g r i n d e r s who are i n v o l v e d i n a hand t r a n s f e r technology but b a s i c a l l y a l l perform the same task e x h i b i t behavior on the a p a t h e t i c - e r r a t i c a x i s which i s the expected as technologies c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of both types are found. Deviant groups are found though, such as, the pharmaceutical packaging group, the telephone d i a l r e p a i r shop, and the aforementioned door g l u i n g group, newspaper m a i l room, the sawmill automatic t r i m shop and the news paper press group which operate i n short dead, s t e e r e d , and l i v e l i n e technologies but are not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of e r r a t i c behavior. 152 S t r a t e g i c groups are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of i n d i v i d u a l worker con t r o l l e d jobs according to the summary of Sayles' groups i n E x h i b i t IV. In t h i s study groups one t o t h i r t y - o n e are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of va r y i n g degrees of worker c o n t r o l but only the foundry mold core group and the door f a b r i  c a t i n g department are i n the category that I described as i n d i c a t i v e of t h i s type of behavior. E x h i b i t IV d e p i c t s conservative groups as i n d i v i d u a l operations at the top rungs of the promotional and st a t u s ladders of the p l a n t . While i t i s tr u e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l jobs may a t t r i b u t e a degree of status t o the work group, i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t the amount of status a c e r t a i n technology w i l l impart to the group, independent of the group occupying the p o s i t i o n . The d i e shop i s the only group i n my study which could be p r e d i c t e d to be a conservative group as the d e s c r i p t i o n i n d i c a t e d . The maintenance crew i n the m i l l was seen t o d i f f e r c o n s i d e r a b l y from the maintenance crew i n the metal p l a n t and, as w e l l , the sawmill barker and head sawyer group i n one m i l l d i f f e r e d from the sawmill barker and head sawyer group i n another sawmill. In f a c t , my three shipping departments d i f f e r from Sayles' i n th a t mine e x h i b i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i m i l a r to those of a conservafive group as t h e i r behavior was d e f i n i t e l y that of a w e l l 2 6 formed group and not the apathy described by Sayles as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of shipping departments. Another p o i n t of contention i s presented by t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n as Sayles continues, "Even more i n t e r e s t i n g from our poi n t of view i s a s t r i k i n s i m i l a r i t y i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among groups t h a t behave Say l e s , L.R., Behavior of I n d u s t r i a l Work Groups, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 195 8, pp. 10-11. 153 s i m i l a r l y . In the s e v e r a l p l a n t s from which we were able to o b t a i n d e s c r i p t i o n s , wire drawers c o n s i s t e n t l y acted l i k e a s t r a t e g i c group r e  gardless of the company i n which they were l o c a t e d , as d i d welders, g r i n d e r s , 27 p r e s s e r s , e t c . , behave i n a p r e d i c t a b l e f a s h i o n . " The three c i t e d examples of the maintenance crews, barker and head sawyer groups, and shipping depart ments i n d i c a t e these f i n d i n g s do not hold true i n my research r e s u l t s . One of the reasons on which I have ela b o r a t e d , i s the d i f f e r e n t degrees of t e c h  nology with which these groups are a s s o c i a t e d . Group behavior appears to be a f f e c t e d by more than j u s t the type of technology u t i l i z e d and extends i n t o the t o t a l s t r u c t u r e of the job w i t h i n a given p l a n t . The type of s u p e r v i s i o n appears as an important 2 8 v a r i a b l e as i n d i c a t e d i n the study by Walker as does the degree of i n  formal l e a d e r s h i p . Other approaches to studying the i n f l u e n c e of technology on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior have followed d i f f e r e n t procedures than t h i s study. 29 In her study on i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , Joan Woodward u t i l i z e s the type of product as a method of d e f i n i n g technology. She e s t a b l i s h e s three main c a t e g o r i e s : i n t e g r a l products, dimensional products, and com bined systems. The i n t e g r a l product category i s subdivided on the b a s i s of u n i t and small batch production and l a r g e batch and mass prod u c t i o n ; dimensional products are c l a s s e d as the r e s u l t of process pr o d u c t i o n ; 2 7 I b i d . , pp. 39-40. 28 Walker, C.R., et a l . , The Foreman on the Assembly L i n e , Cambridge, Mass. Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956, pp. 135-141. 29 Woodward, Joan, I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , Theory.and P r a c t i c e , London, U n i v e r s i t y of Oxford P r e s s , 1965, pp. 135-141. 154 while combined systems include products of both l a r g e batch and process production. The technology i s i n v e s t i g a t e d along with o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s and the e f f e c t of change on the t o t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . 30 Merrihue and K a t z e l l u t i l i z e i n d i c a t o r s such as periods of absence, separations ( a l l t y p e s ) , i n i t i a l v i s i t s t o the dispensary f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l reasons, suggestions submitted through the suggestion system, ac t i o n s i n c u r r i n g d i s c i p l i n a r y suspension, grievances submitted through the formal grievance procedure, work stoppages, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the insurance plan to measure t h e i r Employee R e l a t i o n s Index f o r groups i n General E l e c t r i c P l a n t s . This index i s u t i l i z e d i n a p l a n t to p l a n t , area to area comparison throughout the General E l e c t r i c O r g a n i z a t i o n . These st u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t explanations of behavior on a group b a s i s w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y of p r e d i c t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior, given a s p e c i f i c technology does have a place i n i n d u s t r y . I t may be p o s s i b l e to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to group behavior i n t o input and output v a r i a b l e s and construct models s i m i l a r to those used i n econometrics. In other words, given a set of v a r i a b l e s r e l a t i n g to the technology, o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c u l t u r e , and the requirements of the job i t s e l f as input v a r i a b l e s , s p e c i f i c degrees of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t behavior w i l l be the r e s u l t a n t output v a r i a b l e s f o r a given group. I t i s hoped th a t e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d i e s such as t h i s one w i l l pave the way f o r more complex and time consuming studies such as the previous ones. In t h i s f a s h i o n , the f a c t o r s i n v e s t i g a t e d h e r e i n w i l l be meaningful on a t o t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n b a s i s . Merrihue, W.V., and K a t z e l l , R.A., "E.R.I. - Y a r d s t i c k of Employee R e l a t i o n s , " Harvard Business Review, Vol.33, No.6, 1955, pp. 91-99. 155 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Blauner, R., A l i e n a t i o n and Freedom, Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1964. 2. Bonner, H., Group Dynamics, New York, Ronald P r e s s , 1959. 3. Car t w r i g h t , D., Zander, A., Group Dynamics, Evanston, I l l i n o i s , Row, Peterson and Co., 1960. 4. Faunce, W.A., "Automation i n the Automobile Industry: Some Consequences f o r P l a n t S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , " American S o c i o l o g i c a l  Review, 23, 1958, pp. 401-407. 5. Flament, C., A p p l i c a t i o n of Graph Theory t o Group S t r u c t u r e , Englewood C l i f f s , P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1963. 6. H o r s e f a l l , A.B. , and Arnsberg, CM., "Teamwork and Production i n a Shoe Factory," Human Or g a n i z a t i o n , 8, No. 1, Winter, 1949, pp. 13-25. 7. Jackson, J.M., "Reference Group Processes i n a Formal O r g a n i z a t i o n , " Group Dynamics, 2nd ed., Dorwin, Row, Ca r t w r i g h t , Peterson, and Co., 1962, p. 120. 8. Meissner, M., "Be h a v i o r a l Adaptations to I n d u s t r i a l Technology," A Doctoral Thesis i n the process of being p u b l i s h e d , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, 1963. 9. Merrihue, W.V. and K a t z e l l , R.A., "E.R.I. - Y a r d s t i c k of Employee R e l a t i o n s , " Harvard Business Review, Vol.33, No. 6, 1955, pp. 91-99. 10. Sayles, L.R., Behavior of I n d u s t r i a l Work Groups, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1958. 11. Seashore, S.E., Group Cohesiveness i n the I n d u s t r i a l Work Group, Ann Arbour, U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan P r e s s , 1954. 12. Walker, C.R., et a l . , The Foreman on the Assembly L i n e , Cambridge, Mass., Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956. 13. Walker, C.R., and Guest, R.H., The Man on the Assembly L i n e , Cambridge, Mass., Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952. 14. Woodward, J . , I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : Theory and P r a c t i c e , London U n i v e r s i t y of Oxford P r e s s , 1965. 156 APPENDIX A INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 1. H i s t o r y of the Pl a n t a) Which are the key areas i n the p l a n t ? What s k i l l s are involved? Are these the most p r o f i t a b l e operations? Which are the l e a s t p r o f i t a b l e ? b) What changes a f f e c t i n g your work groups have occurred i n the past? Do you a n t i c i p a t e any f u t u r e changes? c) Which areas have been your major problem areas i n the p l a n t ? 2. Group R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h Management a) Which groups i n the p l a n t are the most s e l f s u f f i c i e n t ? Which are the l e a s t ? b) Which groups i n the pla n t are the most i n f l u e n t i a l ? Which are the l e a s t i n f l u e n t i a l ? c) Which group has the highest turnover and absenteeism? Which has the lowest? d) Which jobs are the most popular? Which are the l e a s t popular? 157 APPENDIX A (Cont'd.) e) Which group e x h i b i t s the highest grievance l e v e l ? Which has the lowest? f ) Which groups are pro-union? Which are a n t i  union? Which are i n a c t i v e ? 3. I n t e r n a l Group R e l a t i o n s a) Which groups are the most t i g h t l y k n i t ? b) Which groups are more i n f o r m a l i n t h e i r work r e l a t i o n s and interchange jobs w i t h one another w i t h i n the group? 158 APPENDIX B TECHNOLOGICAL GROUP STUDY Group: Date: Technology Rating 1. Transfer Technology 0 - no t r a n s f e r 1 - hand t r a n s f e r 2 - automotive t r a n s f e r 3 - dead l i n e and steered l i n e 4 - l i v e l i n e 2. Conversion Technology 0 - no conversion 1 - hand t o o l s 2 - machine t o o l s 3 - steered automatics 4 - s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics 3. Cycles 0 - no r e g u l a r c y c l e s 1 - r e g u l a r c y c l e s , same frequency f o r group 2 - r e g u l a r c y c l e s , d i f f e r e n t frequency i n group 3 - continuous process 4 - some cy c l e s r e g u l a r , some continuous 4. Cycles 0 to i n f i n i t y 5. Notes 159 APPENDIX B (Cont'd.) Job Function The Mechanics of the Work Task as Defined by the Technology 1. A t t e n t i o n requirements of the job f u n c t i o n 0 - low 1 - surface 2 - d e t a i l e d 3 - e x t e r n a l l y focused 4 - watching 2. Frequency of break i n the job r o u t i n e 0 - high frequency ( s i x or gr e a t e r ) 1 - medium frequency (3 - 5 per day) 2 - low frequency ( 1 - 2 per day) 3 - break as covered i n c o l l e c t i v e agreement (no replacement) 4 - no break except as i n c o l l e c t i v e agreement (replacement needed) 3. M o b i l i t y of workers i n group (.maybe to co-operate) 0 - a l l mobile 1 - m o b i l i t y f o r permitted co-operation 2 - m o b i l i t y f o r both t e c h n i c a l l y r e q u i r e d and permitted co-operation 3 -. m o b i l i t y f o r t e c h n i c a l l y r e q u i r e d co-operation 4 - no m o b i l i t y 4. Work standards i n v o l v i n g judgment ( l i n k e d to  conversion technology) 0 - hand t o o l s (worker judgment only) 1 - hand and machine t o o l s 2 - machine t o o l s 3 - steered automatics 4 - s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g automatics 5. Notes 160 APPENDIX B (Cont'd.) Work Group Function as Determined by the Technology 1. S i z e of work group 2. I n t e r a c t i o n of work group A. Conversation frequency w i t h i n group 0 - high frequency (21 and above/man/hour) 1 - above medium frequency (11-20/man/hour) 2 - medium frequency (6-10/man/hour) 3 - low frequency (1-5/man/hour) 4 - no conversation B. Conversation frequency outside group 0 - high frequency (51 and above) 1 - above medium frequency (21-50/hour) 2 - medium frequency (11-20/hour) 3 - low frequency (1-10/hour) 4- - no conversation C. V i s u a l r e s t r i c t i o n s 0 - no r e s t r i c t i o n s 1 - some r e s t r i c t i o n 2 - can see h a l f of group 3 - can see l e s s than h a l f of group 4- - can't see one another D. Noise l e v e l 0 - quiet 1 - l i t t l e noise 2 - moderate noise 3 - qu i t e loud 4 - extremely noisy 3. Work Flow 4. Compactness of work area 5. Notes 161 APPENDIX B (Cont'd.) IV Measurement of Group Status 1. P o s i t i o n on promotional ladder 0 - t r a i n e e 1 - grade C 2 - grade B 3 - grade A 4 - Head operator 2. S e n i o r i t y 0 - no s e n i o r i t y ( 0 - 1 year) 1 - 1 - 4 years 2 - 5 - 9 years 3 - 1 0 - 1 4 years 4 - 15 years or more 3. Exclusiveness of task 0 - same job performed by a l l the group' 1 - same job performed by more than h a l f the group 2 - same job performed by h a l f the group 3 - same job performed by l e s s than h a l f the.group 4 - a l l d i f f e r e n t jobs 4. Length of l e a r n i n g time t o perform f u n c t i o n 0 - no time r e q u i r e d 1 - l e s s than one year 2 - l e s s than two years 3 - l e s s than three years 4 - three years or more 5. Notes 162 APPENDIX B (Cont'd.) V Associated Factors A r i s i n g from the. Technology (dependent v a r i a b l e s ) 1. Grievance and pressure a c t i v i t y 0 - none 1 - low ( 1 - 2 grievances per month) 2 - moderate (3 - 4 grievances per month) 3 - above moderate ( 4 - 5 grievances per month) 4 - high (above 5 grievances per month) 2. Number of unplanned spontaneous outbursts 0 - none 1 - 1 per month 2 - 2 per month 3 - 3 per month 4 - 4 per month or more 3. Cohesiveness as described by management on the job - o f f the job - 4. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n union a c t i v i t i e s 0 - nonunion 1 - card c a r r i e r 2 - a c t i v e at times 3 - very a c t i v e 4 - shop steward 5. Management e v a l u a t i o n of the group as s a t i s f a c t o r y employees  0 - e x c e l l e n t 1 - good 2 - moderate 3 - poor 4 - u n s a t i s f a c t o r y 6. Turnover 0 - none 1 - low 2 - medium 3 - high 4 - constant 163 APPENDIX B (Cont'd.) 7. Absenteeism 0 - none 1 - low 2 - medium 3 - high 4 - constant 8. Notes 

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