UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Teachers' attitudes towards the application of merit pay programs in British Columbia Nijhar, Karnail Singh 1965

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T E A C H E R S * A T T I T U D E S TOWARDS THE A P P L I C A T I O N OF MERIT PAY PROGRAMS I N B R I T I S H COLUMBIA b y K A R N A I L S I N G H N I J H A R C e r t i f i c a t e o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B i r m i n g h a m , U . K . , 1 9 5 7 B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f M a l a y a , M a l a y s i a , I 9 6 3 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF B U S I N E S S A D M I N I S T R A T I O N i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e a n d B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d ; THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1965 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study* I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i -c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n * Department of C o m m e r c e a n d B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 2 0 t h . 1 9 6 5 . i i A B S T R A C T E i g h t y e a r s a g o t h e members o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l s T r u s t e e s 1 A s s o c i a t i o n r e c o m m e n d e d t o t h e t e a c h i n g p r o -f e s s i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h a t t h e y g i v e s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r -a t i o n t o t h e p r o p o s i t i o n o f i n c l u d i n g m e r i t a s one o f t h e f a c t o r s i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r s a l a r i e s . T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T e a c h e r s * F e d e r a t i o n , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e t e a c h i n g p r o -f e s s i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e , was v i g o r o u s i n i t s o p p o s i t i o n t o m e r i t p a y s c h e d u l e s . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s t o a s s e s s t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e r a n k a n d f i l e i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n , a s o p p o s e d t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a n d o f t h e T e a c h e r s * F e d -e r a t i o n t o w a r d s t h i s i s s u e . A s t u d y o f t h e e x i s t i n g s a l a r y s t r u c t u r e s f o r t e a c h e r s i n t h e p r o v i n c e s h o w e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s w e r e p a i d p r i m a r i l y on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e . A n e x a m i n -a t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n m e r i t r a t i n g p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e o f a t e a c h e r c o u l d n o t b e e q u a t e d w i t h h i s t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e , a s t h e r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s c o n -d u c t e d i n d i c a t e d v e r y l o w c o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e m . T h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e n o t b e i n g p a i d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . T h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e t e a c h e r s t o w a r d s t h i s i s s u e o f p a y b a s e d on t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e w e r e t h e n e x a m i n e d . R e s -p o n s e s f r o m 402 t e a c h e r s f r o m a l l l e v e l s o f t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n w e r e f e d i n t o a n I B M c o m p u t e r a n d t h e r e s u l t s i i i a n a l y z e d . S l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n h a l f o f t h e m (48.0$) o p p o s e d m e r i t r a t i n g , a n d t h e r e s t w e r e e i t h e r i n f a v o r (39.0$) o r w e r e u n c e r t a i n o r d i d n o t a n s w e r ( 1 3 . 0 $ ) . T h e s t u d y , h o w e v e r , s h o w e d t h a t t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o m e r i t p a y was g r e a t e r i f t h i s meant t h a t s a l a r i e s w e r e t o b e a f f e c t e d b y d o u b l e i n c r e m e n t s o r s u p e r - m a x i m a s a l a r i e s s u p e r i m p o s e d o n t h e e x i s t i n g s a l a r y s t r u c t u r e . T h e o p p o s i t i o n w o u l d b e l e s s e r i f t h e m e r i t o f a t e a c h e r was b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d b y r e w a r d i n g h i m / h e r w i t h s u p e r -v i s o r y p o s t s c a r r y i n g e x t r a a l l o w a n c e s , g r a n t i n g s t u d y l e a v e o r s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e , a n d a w a r d i n g t r a v e l g r a n t s f o r a p p r o v e d p u r p o s e s . T h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r w e r e made o n t h i s b a s i s . v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT P r o f e s s o r N o e l H a l l f o r h i s k i n d h e l p a n d a d v i c e a n d t o t h e e x e c u t i v e s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l T r u s t e e s * A s s o c i a t i o n a n d t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T e a c h e r s * F e d e r a t i o n f o r t h e l o a n o f m a t e r i a l s a n d a s s i s t a n c e i n n u m e r o u s o t h e r w a y s . I T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S PAGE A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f T a b l e s i v A c k n o w l e d g m e n t • v i i i C H A P T E R I I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 I I R E C O G N I T I O N OF MERIT I N CURRENT S A L A R Y S T R U C T U R E S 12 I I I T E A C H E R S * A T T I T U D E S TOWARDS MERIT R A T I N G 31 I V T E A C H E R S * A T T I T U D E S TOWARDS MERIT R A T I N G ( C o n t . ) 53 V C O N C L U S I O N S 80 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 87 D E S C R I P T I O N S OF MERIT PAY PLANS 94 A P P E N D I C E S : A . Q U E S T I O N N A I R E 96 B . NOTES ON T H E SAMPLE 109 C . MEDFORD R A T I N G S Y S T E M 114 i v L I S T OF T A B L E S T A B L E PAGE 2:1 A T y p i c a l P r e p a r a t i o n a l - T y p e S a l a r y S c h e d u l e 16 3:1 W i l l i n g n e s s t o b e E v a l u a t e d f o r S a l a r y D e t e r m i n a t i o n P u r p o s e s 35 3:2 W i l l i n g n e s s t o b e E v a l u a t e d f o r P r o m o t i o n P u r p o s e s . . . . . . . . . 36 3:3 W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e E v a l u a t i o n f o r P r o m o t i o n i n R e l a t i o n t o P r e f e r e n c e f o r M e r i t R a t i n g 38 3:4 W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e T e a c h i n g E v a l u a t e d f o r S a l a r y D e t e r m i n a t i o n D i s t r i b u t e d b y P r e -v i o u s E x p e r i e n c e o f W o r k i n g U n d e r a M e r i t R a t i n g S y s t e m 39 3:5 W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e T e a c h i n g E v a l u a t e d f o r S a l a r y D e t e r m i n a t i o n D i s t r i b u t e d b y S e x . . . . 40 3:6 W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e T e a c h i n g E v a l u a t e d f o r S a l a r y D e t e r m i n a t i o n D i s t r i b u t e d b y M a r i t a l S t a t u s 41 3:7 W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e T e a c h i n g E v a l u a t e d f o r S a l a r y D e t e r m i n a t i o n a n d A g e o f T e a c h e r s ( i n %) 42 3:8A W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e T e a c h i n g E v a l u a t e d f o r S a l a r y D e t e r m i n a t i o n D i s t r i b u t e d b y Y e a r s o f T e a c h i n g E x p e r i e n c e ( A b s . f i g s . ) . . . 44 V TABLE PAGE 3 : 8 B Willingness to have Teaching Evaluated f o r Salary Determination Distributed by Present C e r t i f i c a t e Levels (Abs. f i g s . ) . . . 45 3:9B Willingness to have Teaching Evaluated f o r Salary Determination Distributed by Present C e r t i f i c a t e Levels ( i n %) 46 3:10 Willingness to have Teaching Evaluated f o r Salary Determination Distributed by Elementary School Teachers, Secondary School Teachers and School P r i n c i p a l s ( i n %) , 48 3:11A Willingness to have Teaching Evaluated f o r Salary Determination Distributed by Certain Environmental Influences (Abs. f i g s . ) 49 3:11B Willingness to have Teaching Evaluated f o r Salary Determination Distributed by Certain Environmental Influences ( i n % ) . . . 50 3:12A Willingness to have Teaching Evaluated f o r Salary Determination According to Size of School where Now Employed (Abs. f i g s . ) . . . . 51 3:12B Willingness to have Teaching Evaluated f o r Salary Determination According to Size of School where Now Employed ( i n %) 52 v i T A B L E PAGE 4:1 C a n T e a c h i n g P e r f o r m a n c e b e A c c u r a t e l y M e a s u r e d ? . 57 4:2 W o u l d T e a c h i n g P e r f o r m a n c e b e F a i r l y M e a s u r e d ? . . . . • 57 4:3 C a n T e a c h i n g P e r f o r m a n c e b e A c c u r a t e l y Measured? 59 4:4 W o u l d T e a c h i n g P e r f o r m a n c e b e F a i r l y M e a s u r e d ? . . 60 4:5 W o u l d a M e r i t P a y S y s t e m A d v e r s e l y A f f e c t R e l a t i o n s A m o n g s t S t a f f ? 64 4:6 W o u l d a M e r i t P a y S y s t e m A d v e r s e l y A f f e c t R e l a t i o n s B e t w e e n F a c u l t y a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ? 65 4:7 W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e T e a c h i n g E v a l u a t e d f o r S a l a r y D e t e r m i n a t i o n D i s t r i b u t e d b y O p i n i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o I n f l u e n c e o f M e r i t P a y o n F a c u l t y R e l a t i o n s h i p s . . . 66 4:8 W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e T e a c h i n g E v a l u a t e d f o r S a l a r y D e t e r m i n a t i o n D i s t r i b u t e d b y O p i n i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o I n f l u e n c e o f M e r i t P a y on F a c u l t y a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R e l a t i o n s h i p s 67 4:9 O p i n i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o I n f l u e n c e o f M e r i t P a y o n F a c u l t y R e l a t i o n s h i p s D i s t r i b u t e d b y E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s , S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s a n d S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s 69 v i i T A B L E PAGE 4:10 O p i n i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o I n f l u e n c e o f M e r i t P a y on F a c u l t y a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R e l a t i o n -s h i p s D i s t r i b u t e d b y E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s , S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s a n d S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s 70 4:11 W i l l a M e r i t P a y S y s t e m A c t a s a n I n c e n t i v e t o I m p r o v e T e a c h i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s ? 73 4:12 A M e r i t P a y S y s t e m a s a n I n c e n t i v e t o I m p r o v e T e a c h i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s D i s t r i b u t e d b y E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s , S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s a n d S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s 74 4:13 T h e F a i r e s t Way o f I n t r o d u c i n g a M e r i t P a y P l a n 75 4 :14 T h e F a i r e s t Way o f A d m i n i s t e r i n g a M e r i t P a y P l a n a f t e r I n t r o d u c t i o n . 75 4:15 P r e f e r e n c e f o r T y p e s o f P r o v i s i o n s t o R e f l e c t a T e a c h e r ' s M e r i t 76 4:16 P e r s o n n e l P r e f e r r e d b y T e a c h e r s a s P a r t i c i -p a n t s i n t h e E v a l u a t i o n o f T e a c h i n g P e r f o r m a n c e 77 4:17 B a s i s u p o n w h i c h M e r i t S a l a r i e s s h o u l d b e A w a r d e d 78 4:18 F r e q u e n c y o f E v a l u a t i o n P r e f e r r e d . . 78 C H A P T E R I INTRODUCTION 1. P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y : No s i n g l e i s s u e i n t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s c a u s e d g r e a t e r c o n t r o v e r s y o r s t i r r e d a s much e m o t i o n a s m e r i t r a t i n g f o r t e a c h e r s * s a l -a r i e s . S i n c e 1956, when m e r i t p l a n s w e r e f i r s t s u g g e s t e d b y t h e 1 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l s T r u s t e e s * A s s o c i a t i o n ( B C S T A ) , s u c h a g r e a t d e a l h a s b e e n s a i d a n d w r i t t e n o n i t d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s , t h a t t h e t y p i c a l t e a c h e r , s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r , o r s c h o o l b o a r d member f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a t e t h e w h e a t f r o m t h e c h a f f . One h a s o n l y t o e x a m i n e s u c h l i t e r a t u r e a s T h e B . C . S c h o o l 2 T r u s t e e o r T h e B . C . T e a c h e r t o o b s e r v e t h e e x t e n t o f e m o t i o n a l t a n g l e t h a t i s r e v e a l e d i n t h e n u m e r o u s a r t i c l e s o n m e r i t p a y t h a t h a v e b e e n r e g u l a r l y a p p e a r i n g . T h e g e n e r a l t o n e o f t h e v i e w s e x p r e s s e d seems t o b e one o f h e a t r a t h e r t h a n o f l i g h t . W h e n e v e r m e r i t i s s t a t e d a s a means o f a t t a i n i n g h i g h e r s a l -a r i e s , e m o t i o n s h a v e a l w a y s b e e n a r o u s e d , b i a s e s a p p e a r a n d p r e c o n c e i v e d p r e j u d i c e s c l o u d t h e i s s u e s . T h e s u b j e c t u s u a l l y t o u c h e s o f f a h o s t o f f e e l i n g s a n d s t i m u l a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a r -g u m e n t o n t h e p a r t o f t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , s c h o o l t r u s t e e s 1. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l T e a c h e r s * A s s o c i a t i o n , B r i e f i n  S u p p o r t o f M e r i t R a t i n g f o r T e a c h e r s * S a l a r i e s , P r e s e n t e d t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1956, p . l . 2. T h e B . C . S c h o o l T r u s t e e a n d T h e B . C . T e a c h e r a r e t h e o f f i -c i a l o r g a n s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l T r u s t e e s A s s o -c i a t i o n a n d T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T e a c h e r s * F e d e r a t i o n r e s -p e c t i v e l y . 2 3 a n d e v e n t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . M a n y s c h o o l t r u s t e e s , who h a v e y e t t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h a m e r i t p a y p l a n , a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e s y s t e m h a s m e r i t s j w h e r e a s m o s t s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , who h a v e y e t t o w o r k u n d e r s u c h a s y s t e m , a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t i t h a s n o t h i n g b u t d e m e r i t s . E l s e w h e r e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , r e s e a r c h a n d f i e l d s t u d i e s on m e r i t r a t i n g h a v e b e e n g o i n g o n s i n c e t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . T h e s u b j e c t a t t r a c t e d a t t e n t i o n i n 1900 w i t h F r a n k S p a u l d i n g 4 m a k i n g t h e f i r s t a n d m o s t n o t a b l e i m p a c t . U n d e r h i s s u p e r -i n t e n d e n c y o f t h e s c h o o l s i n N e w t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , S p a u l d i n g i n s t i t u t e d a m e r i t p a y p r o g r a m . S i n c e t h e n , m e r i t p a y p r o -g r a m s w e r e b r o u g h t i n t o f o c u s p e r i o d i c a l l y b u t i t was t h e 1920is t h a t saw t h e p e a k u s e o f f o r m a l m e r i t p a y p l a n s i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . M a n y p l a n s w e r e , h o w e v e r , a b a n d o n e d i n t h e 1930 ; ,s d u e t o t h e e c o n o m i c d e p r e s s i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f p r o f e s s i o n a l w r i t i n g h a s s i n c e t a k e n p l a c e o n t h i s s u b j e c t . T h e v o l u m e o f l i t e r a t u r e o n t h e t o p i c c a n b e g a u g e d f r o m t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y c o m p i l e d b y Domas a n d T i e d e m a n w h i c h c o v e r s o v e r 3 . C o n s i d e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s : ( i ) "What A b o u t P o o r T e a c h i n g ? " i n t h e P r i n c e G e o r g e C i t i z e n , A u g . 2 7 , 1962, ( i i ) " R e w a r d t h e B e s t " i n T h e W e s t V a n C i t i z e n , O c t . 25, 1962, o r ( i i i ) r e a d t h e p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e B . C . E d u c a t i o n C o n f e r e n c e , 1958, h e l d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h e r e t e r m s l i k e " s t e n o g r a p h i c q u a l i -f i c a t i o n s " , " a p p l e - p o l i s h i n g " a n d " d o i t b e f o r e m e r i t i s f o r c e d o n y o u " h a v e b e e n u s e d . ( V a n c o u v e r S u n , J a n . 30, 1958. 4. N . P a t r i c k ( M r s . ) , M e r i t R a t i n g S t u d y G u i d e . M a n i t o b a S c h o o l T r u s t e e s * A s s o c i a t i o n , A p r i l 1963. 3 one h u n d r e d p a g e s a n d r e f e r s t o m o r e t h a n one t h o u s a n d s t u d i e s a n d a r t i c l e s on t e a c h e r c o m p e t e n c y . R e f e r e n c e t o t h e b i b l i o -g r a p h i e s o f r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s on t h e t o p i c a g a i n a t t e s t t o t h e amount o f i n t e r e s t shown i n t h e c o n t r o v e r s y . T h u s a s t u d y i n S a s k a t c h e w a n o n m e r i t r a t i n g l i s t s f o u r h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y p u b -6 l i c a t i o n s i n i t s b i b l i o g r a p h y . D e s p i t e t h e r e s e a r c h d o n e o n m e r i t r a t i n g , t h e r e e x i s t s s i g n i f i c a n t d i s a g r e e m e n t o n a n u m b e r o f i s s u e s a m o n g s t t e a c h e r s a n d s c h o o l b o a r d s . B a s i c q u e s t i o n s , s u c h a s t h e f o l l o w i n g , h a v e b e e n d e b a t e d t i m e a n d a g a i n , b u t l e f t u n a n s w e r e d : i ) What i s g o o d t e a c h i n g ? i i ) What i s a g o o d t e a c h e r ? i i i ) How c a n e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g b e m e a s u r e d ? i v ) How c a n a n e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r b e s i n g l e d o u t ? v ) I s i t p o s s i b l e t o a t t a c h d o l l a r v a l u e s t o v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e ? I s i t p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s c a n b e d o n e a c c u r a t e l y , n a y , e v e n f a i r l y ? v i ) Who i s q u a l i f i e d t o j u d g e a t e a c h e r * s p e r f o r m a n c e ? v i i ) What a r e t h e p r o c e d u r e s t o b e f o l l o w e d i n e v a l u a t i n g a t e a c h e r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e ? v i i i ) What i s t h e e f f e c t o n : a ) t h e m o r a l e o f t h e t e a c h e r s ? b ) s u p e r v i s i o n p o l i c i e s ? c ) e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g ? 5. S . J . Domas a n d D . V . T i e d e m a n , " T e a c h e r C o m p e t e n c e , A n A n n o t a t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y " , J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n , V o l . 19, N o . 2, D e c e m b e r 1950, p p . 101-218. 6. S t i r l i n g M c D o w e l l , M e r i t - R a t i n g C o n t r o v e r s y a n d t h e I m p l i - c a t i o n s f o r E d u c a t i o n i n S a s k a t c h e w a n , s e e B i b l i o g r a p h y . 4 I t i s p o s s i b l e t o e n u m e r a t e many o t h e r a r e a s o f c o n t r o -v e r s y b u t i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o n o t e t h a t m e r i t r a t i n g i n v o l v e s a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f p r o b l e m s t h a t i n c l u d e s n u m e r o u s o t h e r o b -j e c t i v e s r e l a t e d t o t h e a i m s o f e d u c a t i o n , m e a s u r e m e n t o f t e a c h i n g c o m p e t e n c y a n d e f f e c t i v e p e r s o n n e l p o l i c i e s . I n s h o r t , a s P r o f e s s o r G a l e R o s e p o i n t s o u t : "When we t a l k o f a m e r i t p r o g r a m i n t h e s c h o o l s , we a r e t a l k i n g a b o u t s o m e t h i n g p r e t t y 7 b i g , a n d o f s e r i o u s c o n s e q u e n c e i n t h e t o t a l s c h o o l o p e r a t i o n . " A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l show t h a t a l l t h e s e p r o b l e m s h a v e b e e n s t u d i e d . T h u s , t h e m e a s u r e m e n t a n d p r e d i c t i o n o f t e a c h e r c o m p e t e n c y h a s b e e n c o n -s i d e r e d b y s u c h a u t h o r i t i e s a s B a r r , A c k e r m a n a n d B e e c h e r ; t h e p r o b l e m s o f e v a l u a t i n g g o o d t e a c h i n g a n d i d e n t i f y i n g g o o d t e a c h e r s h a v e b e e n s t u d i e d b y B y r n e , M y r o n , G r i f f i t h s , K e n n e d y , L o o s a n d n u m e r o u s o t h e r s . T h e b i b l i o g r a p h y a l s o i n d i c a t e s a s u f f i c i e n t l i s t o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s p e c i f i c m e r i t p a y p l a n s i n o p e r a t i o n i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . T h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n d e v e l o p i n g m e r i t p a y p r o g r a m s c a n u t i l i s e t h e s e a n d d e r i v e much u s e f u l i n -f o r m a t i o n . I t i s n e i t h e r p r o p o s e d n o r p o s s i b l e i n t h e l i m i t e d s c o p e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h t o r e p e a t o r d i s c u s s i s s u e s t h a t h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n s t u d i e d . P a s t s t u d i e s h a v e n e g l e c t e d a n e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r 7. G a l e R o s e h a s w r i t t e n n u m e r o u s a r t i c l e s o n m e r i t r a t i n g . H i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e U t a h S c h o o l M e r i t S t u d y C o m m i t t e e , S a l t L a k e C i t y , U t a h , h a s made h i s v i e w i m p o r t a n t . S e e , " T h e U t a h S t o r y o n M e r i t S a l a r y S c h e d u l e s " , ' M e r i t R a t i n g * f o r T e a c h e r s ? , S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y , S y r a c u s e , J u l y 1958, p p . 16-22. 5 w h i c h s h o u l d h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d i n d e c i d i n g i f m e r i t p a y s h o u l d b e i m p l e m e n t e d i n a n y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . T h i s f a c t o r i s t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e t e a c h e r s t h e m s e l v e s a n d n o t o f t h e i r a s s o -8 c i a t i o n s n o r o f t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . R e a d i n g s o n t h e t o p i c 8. F o r a g o o d summary o f t h e v i e w s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T e a c h e r s * F e d e r a t i o n o n m e r i t p a y , s e e M e r i t P a y ; t h e F e d e r a t i o n , V a n c o u v e r . T h e f o l l o w i n g a r t i c l e s a r e o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t , " F e d e r a t i o n P o l i c y o n M e r i t P a y " ; " M o t i v e s F o r a n d R e a c t i o n A g a i n s t M e r i t P a y " ; a n d " A . G . M . R e s o l u t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o M e r i t P a y . " B r i e f l y , t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e B . C . T . F . may b e s t a t e d a s f o l l o w s : ( i ) A S t u d y o f t h e P r o b l e m o f M e r i t R a t i n g i s U s e l e s s : " A l l t h e a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e o n t h e s u b j e c t h a s b e e n c a r e f u l l y r e a d , a g r e a t many r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n e x a m i n e d a n d t h e r e l a t i v e l y f e w e x i s t i n g s c h e m e s c l o s e l y s c r u t i n i z e d . T h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a f u l l - s c a l e s t u d y o f m e r i t r a t i n g w o u l d b e f u t i l e was i n e s c a p a b l e . " ( " A S y m p o s i u m : S h o u l d We Want M e r i t R a t i n g ? " , T h e B . C . T e a c h e r , N o v e m b e r , 1956, p . 79). ( i i ) M e r i t R a t i n g b r e e d s C o n f o r m i t y : " . . . r a t i n g t e n d s t o f o r c e c o n f o r m i t y t o p r e c o n c e i v e d i d e a s o f some p e r s o n o r g r o u p o f p e r s o n s , a n d t h a t c o n f o r m i t y w i l l s t i f l e t h e c r e a t i v e i n i t i a t i v e o f t h e t r u l y p r o f e s s i o n a l t e a c h e r . . . n o l o n g e r i s he p e r m i t t e d t h e l u x u r y o f s e l f -r e l i a n c e ; he m u s t t e a c h w h a t w i l l p l e a s e h i s ' s u p e r -i o r s * , b y m e t h o d s w h i c h t h e y t h i n k m e r i t o r i o u s . " ( S p r a g g e , J . A . , " M e r i t P a y - Why t h e B . C . T . F . o p p o s e s i t " . T h e B . C . T e a c h e r , D e c e m b e r , 1958,p. 136). ( i i i ) T e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e c a n n o t b e m e a s u r e d i n t e r m s o f  s a l a r i e s : T h e r e i s a " c o m p l e x i n t e r p l a y o f f a c t o r s i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s " a n d " n o t e a c h e r i s e n t i t l e d t o s o l e c r e d i t f o r t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e p u p i l s who a r e t e m p o r a r i l y u n d e r h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n . H i s a p p a r e n t l y m e r i t o r i o u s r e c o r d may b e d u e i n v a r i o u s m e a s u r e s t o t h e e f f e c t i v e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e y o u n g s t e r s b y e x -c e l l e n t t e a c h i n g i n e a r l i e r g r a d e s , t o t h e i n s p i r a t i o n t h e y may g a i n f r o m o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n t h e c u r r e n t g r a d e , t o t h e c a r e w i t h w h i c h t h e p r i n c i p a l h a s m a t c h e d t h e t e a c h e r ' s a s s i g n m e n t t o h i s p a r t i c u l a r t a l e n t s , t o t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e s c h o o l ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , t o t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s s u c c e s s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a g o o d s c h o o l t o n e , a n d t o c o n s t r u c t i v e i n f l u e n c e s e x e r t e d b y home a n d c o m m u n i t y e n v i r o n m e n t . " How d o e s one m e a s u r e a n i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e u n d e r s u c h c o n d i t i o n s ? ( " M e r i t P a y f o r T e a c h e r s - t h e B . C . T . F . S t a n d , " T h e B . C . T e a c h e r S e p t e m b e r - O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 2 ppl2-14) 6 h a v e l e d t h e w r i t e r t o c o n c l u d e t h a t i n a n a r e a s u c h a s m e r i t r a t i n g , t h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e o f t h e p l a n d e p e n d s n o t s o much o n t h e l o g i c o f t h e c a s e , b u t u p o n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t e a c h e r s a r e a g r e e a b l e t o s u c h a s c h e m e . T h u s t h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o s u r v e y t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t e a c h e r s t o w a r d m e r i t r a t i n g , a n d t o e x a m i n e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f s u c h a s c h e m e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A n a t t e m p t w i l l b e made t o p e n e t r a t e b e h i n d t h e c o m m o n l y h e l d v i e w s a s e x p r e s s e d b y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T e a c h e r s * F e d -e r a t i o n ( B C T F ) a n d t o e x a m i n e what t h e r a n k a n d f i l e t e a c h e r s t h e m s e l v e s f e e l . Q u e s t i o n s s u c h a s t h e f o l l o w i n g w i l l b e e x -p l o r e d : a ) I s o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f m e r i t r a t i n g r a i s e d o n l y b y t h e B . C . T . F . e x e c u t i v e s , o r f r o m a l l l e v e l s o f t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m -b i a ? b ) W o u l d t e a c h e r s b e w i l l i n g t o h a v e t h e i r t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r s a l a r i e s ? c ) D o t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t m e r i t r a t i n g w o u l d a f f e c t a d v e r s e l y r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n s t a f f a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ? d ) W o u l d m e r i t r a t i n g i n f l u e n c e i n a n y way t h e i r t e a c h -i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s ? e ) H a v e t e a c h e r s a n y p r e f e r e n c e i n p e r s o n n e l i n v o l v e d 9 i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e ? 9 . F o r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s , s e e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n A p p e n d i x A . 7 T o t h e e x t e n t p o s s i b l e , t h i s s t u d y w i l l make a s c i e n t i f i c t a b u -l a t i o n o f t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t e a c h e r s t o a l l t h e s e a s p e c t s o f t h e m e r i t p a y i s s u e . I n t h i s s e n s e , t h e r e f o r e , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w i l l b e t h e f i r s t s e r i o u s a s s e s s m e n t t o p r e s e n t t h e v i e w s o f t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o w a r d s t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f m e r i t p a y p l a n s . 2. M e t h o d s o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n : F i r s t , a s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y o f t h e c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e o n m e r i t p a y was u n d e r t a k e n . A s e l e c t e d l i s t o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s g i v e n i n t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y . T h e a i m was t o s t u d y t h e g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f t h e p r o b l e m s i n -v o l v e d i n m e r i t r a t i n g , some o f w h i c h h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n m e n -t i o n e d . F r o m t h i s g e n e r a l s u r v e y a l s o e m e r g e d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e q u e s t i o n s t o b e a s k e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t e a c h e r s a n d i n t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e . S e c o n d , t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e B C S T A was p l a n n i n g t o i n t r o d u c e m e r i t p a y p r o g r a m s i n t o e x i s t i n g t e a c h e r s * s a l a r y s t r u c t u r e s i m p l i e d t h a t m e r i t p a y was n o t r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e c u r r e n t t e a c h e r s * s a l a r y s c h e d u l e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . H e n c e , a n a t t e m p t was made t o s t u d y w h e t h e r t h e r e was a n y o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f m e r i t p r o v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k 11 o f e x i s t i n g s a l a r y s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . T h i r d , v a r i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e o f f i c i a l s o f t h e B C S T A a n d B C T F a n d some l o c a l t e a c h e r s * a s s o c i a t i o n s w e r e h e l d i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e l o c a l a t t i t u d e s o n t h i s t o p i c . A l l 10. S e e B i b l i o g r a p h y a t e n d o f p r e s e n t s t u d y . 11. C h a p t e r I I d i s c u s s e s t h i s p r o b l e m . 8 t h e o f f i c i a l j o u r n a l s o f t h e B S C T A a n d B C T F t h a t p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e s o n m e r i t r a t i n g w e r e s t u d i e d . T h e s e a l s o h e l p e d i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y q u e s t i o n n a i r e . F i n a l l y , t h e a c t u a l s u r v e y o f t e a c h e r s * a t t i t u d e s was c a r r i e d o u t . R e s p o n s e s f r o m 402 t e a c h e r s f r o m a l l l e v e l s o f t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n w e r e f e d i n t o a n I B M c o m p u t e r , a n d t h e 12 r e s u l t s a n a l y z e d . E l s e w h e r e i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e a d e r w i l l f i n d m o r e d e t a i l s on t h e s a m p l e o f t e a c h e r s c h o s e n f o r t h i s 13 s t u d y . 3. D e f i n i t i o n s o f T e r m s : i ) T e a c h e r s : When t h i s t e r m i s u s e d i t r e f e r s t o a p e r s o n h o l d i n g a v a l i d a n d s u b s i s t i n g c e r t i f i c a t e o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n i s s u e d b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a n d who i s a p p o i n t e d o r e m p l o y e d b y a B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s t o g i v e t u i t i o n o r i n -s t r u c t i o n o r t o a d m i n i s t e r o r s u p e r v i s e i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e r v i c e i n a p u b l i c s c h o o l . T h i s d o e s n o t i n c l u d e a p e r s o n t o whom i s i s s u e d a l e t t e r o f p e r m i s s i o n f o r t e a c h i n g . H e n c e , b y t h i s 14 d e f i n i t i o n , p r i n c i p a l s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s t e a c h e r s . i i ) A t t i t u d e s : w i l l b e d e f i n e d t o i n c l u d e t e a c h e r s * f e e l i n g s , b e l i e f s a n d a c t i o n t e n d e n c i e s t o w a r d t h e s u b j e c t o f m e r i t 12. C h a p t e r s I I I a n d I V d i s c u s s t e a c h e r s * a t t i t u d e s . 13. S e e " N o t e s o n t h e S a m p l e " i n A p p e n d i x B . 14. T h e d e f i n i t i o n i s t h a t g i v e n i n t h e M a n u a l o f t h e S c h o o l  L a w , a n d R u l e s o f t h e C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t e r s , 1961, P . 3958. 9 1 5 r a t i n g . i i i ) M e r i t P a y P r o g r a m s : F o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e t e r m " m e r i t 1 1 w h e t h e r u s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h m e r i t p a y p r o g r a m s o r m e r i t p a y s c h e m e s o r m e r i t r a t i n g may b e l o o k e d u p o n a s f o l l o w s : 'Some f o r m o f j u d g m e n t i s made o f a t e a c h e r ( * s c o m p e t e n c y , a n d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s e v a l u a t i o n w i l l a f f e c t h i s s a l a r y i n some p a r t i c u l a r way o r o t h e r * . A d i s t i n c t i o n m u s t b e made b e t w e e n a n e v a l u a t i o n w h i c h r e s u l t s i n p r o m o t i o n t h a t may a l s o c a r r y e x t r a money a n d a n e v a l u a t i o n t h a t a f f e c t s t h e s a l a r y o f t h e t e a c h e r i n a n y g i v e n p o s i t i o n . T h u s , s a l a r y d i f f e r e n t i a l s b a s e d e n t i r e l y o n a c o m b i n a t i o n o f : i ) t r a i n i n g o r e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o b t a i n e d p r i o r t o j o i n i n g t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n o r w h i l e i n s e r v i c e , i i ) e x p e r i e n c e o r s e n i o r i t y i n s e r v i c e , a n d i i i ) p o s i t i o n s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s u c h a s d e p a r t m e n t a l h e a d s , s p e c i a l t a s k s s u c h a s t e a c h i n g v e r y p o o r o r o u t s t a n d i n g p u p i l s , e x t r a w o r k s u c h a s c o u n s e l l i n g , o r i s o l a t i o n o r m a r r i e d a l l o w a n c e s a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d a s m e r i t p r o v i s i o n s i n t h i s s t u d y . 4 . S c o p e o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n : T h e s t u d y m u s t b e e v a l u a t e d a g a i n s t i t s s c o p e a n d l i m i t a t i o n s . T h e s a m p l e u s e d c o n s i s t e d o f 4 0 2 r e s p o n d e n t s f r o m a l l l e v e l s o f t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . I t r e p r e s e n t s a b o u t $% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h 1 5 . D a v i d K r e c h , R . S . C r i t c h f i e l d a n d E.L. B a l l a c h e y , I n d i v i  d u a l i n S o c i e t y . New Y o r k , M c G r a w - H i l l B o o k C o m p a n y , 1 9 6 2 , p . 1 4 0 . 10 C o l u m b i a . S t a t i s t i c a l l y , t h i s i s a l a r g e e n o u g h p e r c e n t a g e f o r a s u r v e y o f t h i s n a t u r e . T h e i s s u e h o w e v e r , i s w h e t h e r t h e s a m p l e i s t r u l y r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n o r d e r t o t e s t t h i s , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y h a s made a n a t t e m p t t o c o m p a r e t h e v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s a m p l e ( s u c h a s i t s m a l e - f e m a l e r a t i o , d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t e a c h e r s t e a c h i n g a t e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s l e v e l , a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n b y p r e s e n t c e r t i f i c a t e l e v e l s o f t e a c h e r s ) w i t h t h e v a r i o u s 16 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s a t l a r g e . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e a f a i r l y c l o s e r e s e m b l a n c e i n t h e m a l e -f e m a l e r a t i o , d i s t r i b u t i o n b y a g e a n d t e a c h e r s * t r a i n i n g b e t -ween t h e s a m p l e a n d t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s . T h e o n l y a r e a w h e r e s i g n i f i c a n t d e v i a t i o n o c c u r s i s t h a t i n t h e s a m p l e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p r i n c i p a l s i s o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d . I n e v a l u a t i n g t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e r e a d e r s h o u l d c o n s i d e r t h i s f a c t o r . I t m u s t a l s o b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n s i n t h e s u r -v e y a r e h y p o t h e t i c a l i n n a t u r e . M e r i t p a y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s n o t y e t a n y e s - n o n c h o i c e , t h o u g h i t may b e s o some d a y . I f m e r i t p a y d o e s b e c o m e a " y e s - n o " c h o i c e a n d n o t m e r e l y a t o p i c f o r d e b a t e , t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s m i g h t w e l l c h a n g e . T h e r e a d e r m u s t b e a r t h i s i n m i n d i n a s s e s s i n g t h e s u r v e y * s f i n d i n g s . 16. S e e A p p e n d i x B . 11 D e s p i t e s u c h l i m i t a t i o n s , t h e w r i t e r i s s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e y a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t e n o u g h t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y d o n o t a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e c u r r e n t a t t i t u d e s o f t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f m e r i t p a y p l a n s . C H A P T E R I I R E C O G N I T I O N OF M E R I T I N CURRENT SALARY S T R U C T U R E S I n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r i t was s t a t e d t h a t t h e B C S T A was p l a n n i n g t o i n t r o d u c e m e r i t r a t i n g i n t o t e a c h e r s * s a l a r y s c h e d u l e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " 1 ' T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t m e r i t o f t h e t e a c h e r i s b e i n g n e g l e c t e d i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s * s a l a r i e s . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o e x p l o r e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s t a t e m e n t i s t r u e . 1. T h e A s s o c i a t i o n h a s r e p e a t e d l y e m p h a s i z e d t h e n e e d f o r t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f a t e a c h e r ' s m e r i t b y " r e a l i s t i c f i n a n c i a l r e w a r d s . " S e e F r a n k M . R e d e r , " M e r i t V s . F o r m u l a , " T h e B . C . S c h o o l T r u s t e e , J u n e 1956, v o l . 12, n o . 2, p p . 12-13. I n a r e c e n t c o n v e n t i o n , t h e A s s o c i a t i o n h a s s e t a s i d e $10,000 t o s t u d y t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f i n t r o d u c i n g m e r i t p a y i n t o t h e e x i s t i n g t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r y s t r u c t u r e s . B r i e f l y , t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e B C S T A may b e s t a t e d a s f o l l o w s : ( i ) T o r a i s e e d u c a t i o n s t a n d a r d s : T h e b a s i c o b j e c t i v e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g " a s a l a r y p a y m e n t w h i c h w i l l g i v e a p p r o p r i a t e r e w a r d f o r s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d " i s " t o r e t a i n g o o d t e a c h i n g a n d t o a t t r a c t t h e b e s t m a t e r i a l among y o u n g men a n d women p l a n n i n g t h e i r c a r e e r s . " I t i s a r g u e d t h a t a n a t t e m p t t o r e w a r d t h e m o r e c o m p e t e n t a p p r o p r i a t e l y w i l l r e s u l t i n r e t a i n i n g s u p e r i o r t e a c h e r s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g q u a l i t y e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h q u a l i t y i n s t r u c t i o n . ( B r i e f i n  S u p p o r t o f M e r i t R a t i n g f o r T e a c h e r s ' S a l a r i e s , p r e s e n t e d t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1956, p . l ) . ( i i ) On p r i n c i p l e , m e r i t p a y i s r i g h t : " I s i t e q u a l i t y t o p r o v i d e e q u a l p a y f o r u n e q u a l p e r f o r m a n c e o f d u t y ? A r e t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e t h e o n l y c r i t e r i a t o b e u s e d i n a r r i v i n g a t a f a i r s a l a r y ? " ( F r a n k R e d e r , " M e r i t v s . F o r m u l a , " T h e B . C . S o h o o l  T r u s t e e , J u n e 1956, p . 13). 13 T h i s i s s u e h a s b e e n a p p r o a c h e d a s f o l l o w s : F i r s t a s t u d y o f c u r r e n t s a l a r y s t r u c t u r e s was made t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s t h a t a r e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g s a l a r y l e v e l s . I t was f o u n d t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e p a i d p r i m a r i l y on t h e b a s i s o f t h e l e v e l o f t r a i n i n g c o m p l e t e d a n d t h e n u m b e r o f y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a c c u m u l a t e d . ( S e e P a r t 2 o f t h i s c h a p t e r ) . S e c o n d , s i n c e t h e t y p i c a l s a l a r y s c h e d u l e c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r i l y t h e t r a i n i n g a n d t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f a t e a c h e r i n d e -t e r m i n i n g h i s s a l a r y , a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n m e r i t p a y was made t o f i n d o u t t o what e x t e n t t h e m e c h a n i c a l s y s t e m o f c o u n t i n g y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e a n d t r a i n i n g c a n a c c u r a t e l y m e a -s u r e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a t e a c h e r . ( S e e P a r t 3 o f t h i s c h a p -t e r ) . T h i r d , a s s u m i n g t h a t t e a c h e r s * s a l a r i e s a r e t o b e b a s e d a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y i f n o t w h o l l y on t h e l e v e l o f t h e i r p e r f o r -m a n c e , t h e n a p e r f o r m a n c e e v a l u a t i o n o t h e r t h a n a m e c h a n i c a l s y s t e m o f c o u n t i n g y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e a n d t r a i n i n g , i s n e c e s -s a r y . ( C h a p t e r s I I I a n d I V w i l l d e a l w i t h t h i s i n g r e a t e r d e -t a i l , w h i l e t h e l a s t c h a p t e r , C h a p t e r V w i l l s u m m a r i z e t h e c o n -c l u s i o n s f r o m t h i s s t u d y , a n d w i l l s u g g e s t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e f i n d i n g s a n d some r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ) . C u r r e n t S a l a r y S t r u c t u r e s U n d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e B o a r d o f e a c h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t f i x e s t h e a n n u a l 14 s a l a r i e s of the teachers employed i n the schools within the d i s t r i c t . The act also provides f o r negotiation and a r b i -2 t r a t i o n . Negotiation, i n p r a c t i c e , has tended to take place between the Board of School Trustees and the l o c a l Teachers 1 Association of each school d i s t r i c t . Currently, the type of salary schedule provided f o r by the agreements i s c a l l e d the preparational type salary sche-3 - • dule. This salary schedule may be explained with reference to Table 2:1. B a s i c a l l y teachers are c l a s s i f i e d according to years of t r a i n i n g , such as Elementary Conditional (EC), E l e -mentary Basic (EB), Elementary Advanced (EA), Professional «C« (PC), Professional «B« (PB) and Professional "A" (PA). (See Table 2:1) In B r i t i s h Columbia, these s i x major l e v e l s of t r a i n i n g are defined as: 2. Manual of the School Law and Rules of the Council of Pub-l i c Instruction, B r i t i s h Columbia Government P r i n t e r s , 1961, pp. 4009-4012. 3. A preparational-type salary schedule c l a s s i f i e d teachers according to t r a i n i n g and experience. There are two types of columns: (a) several v e r t i c a l columns, representing t r a i n i n g or q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and (b) several horizontal columns, representing the number of years of creditable teaching service. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n E C - E l e m e n t a r y C o n d i t i o n a l E B - E l e m e n t a r y B a s i c E A - E l e m e n t a r y A d v a n c e d PC - P r o f e s s i o n a l » C " PB - P r o f e s s i o n a l " B " PA - P r o f e s s i o n a l " A " 15 M i n i m u m R e q u i r e m e n t s F i r s t y e a r s t a n d i n g , C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n . ( T h i s was a n e m e r g e n c y q u a l i f i c a t i o n , n o l o n g e r o f f e r e d . ) S e c o n d y e a r s t a n d i n g , C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n . ( S i n c e 1962 t h i s i s g r a n t e d o n a n i n t e r i m b a s i s o n l y . I t i s v a l i d f o r f o u r y e a r s a n d c a n n o t b e made p e r m a n e n t w i t h o u t a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . ) T h i r d y e a r s t a n d i n g , C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n . ( S i n c e 1962 t h i s c e r t i f i c a t e r e p r e s e n t s t h e m i n i m u m l e v e l o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r p e r m a n e n t c e r t i f i c a t i o n ) . F o u r t h y e a r s t a n d i n g , C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n . ( T h i s c e r t i f i c a t e r e p r e s e n t s e i t h e r a c o m p l e t e d B . E d , d e g r e e ( e l e m e n t a r y p r o g r a m ) o r t h e c o m p l e t e f o u r t h y e a r o f a f i v e y e a r p r o g r a m l e a d i n g t o a B . E d , d e g r e e ( s e c o n d a r y p r o g r a m ) . F i f t h y e a r s t a n d i n g , C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n . T h i s c e r t i f i c a t e i s g r a n t e d on c o m p l e t i o n o f a B . E d , d e g r e e ( s e c o n d a r y p r o g r a m ) o r a B « A . p l u s one y e a r d i p l o m a i n E d u c a t i o n . ) S i x t h y e a r s t a n d i n g , C o l l e g e o f E d u c a t i o n . ( T h i s c e r t i f i c a t e i s g r a n t e d on c o m p l e t i o n o f a n M . E d , d e g r e e o r a n M . A . d e g r e e i n a t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t o r i n E d u c a t i o n * . ) ^ 4. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s S a l a r y S c h e d u l e , 1964: T h e T e a c h e r s * F e d e r a t i o n , V a n c o u v e r 16 T a b l e 2:1 A t y p i c a l p r e p a r a t i o n a l - t y p e s a l a r y s c h e d u l e Y e a r s o f E x p e r i e n c e Y e a r s o f T r a i n i n g E . C . E . B . E . A . P . C . P . B . P • A a $ $ $ $ $ $ 1 a l b l c l d l e l f l 2 a 2 b 2 c 2 d 2 e 2 f 2 3 a 3 b 3 C 3 d 3 e 3 f 3 n a n b n c n d n e n f n F o r e a c h o f t h e s e l e v e l s o f t r a i n i n g a ^maximum a n d a m i n i m u m s a l a r y i s e s t a b l i s h e d . T h u s , f o r a n E . C . t e a c h e r , t h e m i n i m u m w o u l d b e $a-^ a n d t h e maximum w o u l d b e $ a n ( T a b l e 2 : 1 ) . T h i s i s t h e p r i n c i p l e i n a l l S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h o u g h v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e l e v e l o f e a r n i n g s may e x i s t among d i s t r i c t s . ~> 5. F o r i n s t a n c e , S c h o o l D i s t r i c t S o u t h C a r i b o o ' s m i n i m u m a n d maximum f o r e a c h l e v e l o f p r e p a r a t i o n a r e d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e f o r S c h o o l , D i s t r i c t C o u r t e n a y : S o u t h C a r i b o o M i n . M a x . C o u r t e n a y M i n . M a x . E . C . $3050 $3800 $3050 $3960 E . B . 3550 5800 3575 5675 E . A . 4050 6400 4000 6200 P . C . 4550 7440 4450 7090 P . B . 5050 8375 5025 8145 F . A . 5550 8975 5450 8870 S o u r c e : B . C . S c h o o l D i s t r i c t S a l a r y S c h e d u l e s , 1964. 17 The other factor that enters i n t o the consideration of s a l a r i e s i n the preparational-type salary schedules i s years of teaching experience (represented i n Table 2:1 as 1, 2, 3 ••• n). The maximum salary f o r each l e v e l of preparation i s reached by a succession of annual salary increments granted to a l l teachers who continue to be employed, f o r the number of years of teaching experience required to reach the maximum. Thus, the t y p i c a l salary schedule f o r teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia would o r d i n a r i l y specify that the experienced teachers receive more money than the inexperienced ones, and a l s o that those with higher t r a i n i n g , that i s , those with a d d i t i o n a l years of t r a i n i n g receive more money than those with l e s s training.** Hence the *b* amount on each l i n e , i s not smaller than the *a* amount on that l i n e ; and the *c* amount on each l i n e i s not smaller than the *b* amount. S i m i l a r l y , the *d* amount on each l i n e would be le s s than the *e* amount on that l i n e , and the *e* amounts would be l e s s than the * f 1 amounts. Thus i t follows that: b l )> »1 or f n J> e n or d3 ^ c 3 . Against t h i s background, there are also a number of other considerations which determine teachers* s a l a r i e s . Some of the more important of these are as follows: 6. Here again, there may be v a r i a t i o n s i n amounts paid between School D i s t r i c t s (see note 1, p. 12) but the p r i n c i p l e i s the same i n a l l School D i s t r i c t s , v i z . those with higher t r a i n i n g receive a higher salary than those with lesser t r a i n i n g . 18 a) Extra pay f o r greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : In most school d i s t r i c t s , departmental heads and those a s s i s t i n g i n the administration of a school, receive a higher t o t a l salary than the salary schedule allows i n terms 7 of t r a i n i n g and experience. The questionnaire survey i n -dicates that approximately 60% of the school d i s t r i c t s provide f o r such clauses i n t h e i r salary agreements. But the important fa c t t o note i s that, i n making appointments to such posts, the tendency has been to give p r i o r i t y to s e n i o r i t y rather than the merits of a teacher. Informal discussion with respondents on t h i s question confirmed that appointments to posts of greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y were made primarily on the basis of s e n i o r i t y . Therefore i t can be said that e x i s t i n g salary schedules s t i l l do not consider the merit of a teacher i n the determination of h i s s a l a r y . b) Extra pay f o r extra work: It was found that i n some school d i s t r i c t s , teachers who did work a d d i t i o n a l to t h e i r teaching duties, receive ex-8 t r a pay. To quote some examples, teachers who hold the posts of counsellors and l i b r a r i a n s i n a few of the schools, and 7. Examples of such School D i s t r i c t s are: School D i s t r i c t s 5, 6, 9, 14, 20 and 44 (see B.C. School D i s t r i c t Salary Schedules, 1964). The amounts paid tend to vary from $200 to $500 p.a. 8. For instance, l i b r a r i a n s may have more work to do i n addi-t i o n t o teaching duties. Examples are: School D i s t r i c t s 9, 14 and 69. 19 9 t h o s e who t e a c h i n s p e c i a l c l a s s e s , r e c e i v e t o t a l e m o l u m e n t s h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e a l l o w e d i n t e r m s o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g q u a l i f i -c a t i o n s a n d e x p e r i e n c e . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , S p e c i a l C o u n s e l l o r s r e c e i v e $ 5 0 0 / - p e r annum i n t h e f i r s t y e a r a n d $ 7 5 0 / - a f t e r t h e f i r s t y e a r . C h i e f 10 L i b r a r i a n s r e c e i v e $ 6 0 0 / - a n d T e a c h e r C o n s u l t a n t s $ 6 0 0 / - . T h e s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5&% o f t h e s c h o o l d i s -t r i c t s p r o v i d e f o r s u c h c l a u s e s i n t h e i r s a l a r y a g r e e m e n t s . T h e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s a g a i n a s t o w h a t t h e b a s i s i s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t e a c h e r s t o t h e s e p o s t s i n v o l v i n g e x t r a w o r k . A l l e v i d e n c e c o l l e c t e d f r o m i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n w i t h t e a c h e r s on t h i s m a t t e r , s h o w s t h a t , n o t m e r i t b u t s e n i o r i t y h a s b e e n t h e m a i n c r i t e r i o n f o r s u c h a p p o i n t m e n t s . I n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n w i t h some o f t h e o f f i c i a l s o f t h e l o c a l T e a c h e r s * A s s o c i a t i o n i n a n u m b e r o f S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s c o n f i r m e d t h i s v i e w , c ) P e n a l t i e s f o r u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e : Some o f t h e s a l a r y a g r e e m e n t s p r o v i d e f o r ( i ) c l a u s e s w h e r e b y s a l a r y r a i s e s c o u l d b e w i t h h e l d f r o m t e a c h e r s j u d g e d t o b e r e n d e r i n g u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e ; ( i i ) c l a u s e s w h e r e b y a n i n c r e m e n t may b e w i t h d r a w n f r o m t e a c h e r s a t m a x i -11 mum s a l a r y j u d g e d t o b e r e n d e r i n g u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e . 9 . S p e c i a l c l a s s e s i . e . c l a s s e s w h e r e t h e m a j o r i t y o f p u p i l s a r e e i t h e r v e r y i n t e l l i g e n t o r b e l o w n o r m a l . I n b o t h c a s e s , e x t r a a t t e n t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f r o m t h e t e a c h e r s . 1 0 . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s S a l a r y S c h e d u l e s , 1 9 6 4 . S e e f o r S c h o o l D i s t r i c t 44 ( N o r t h V a n c o u v e r ) . ' 1 1 . E x a m p l e s a r e : S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s 11 a n d 4 7 . 20 For example, a clause i n the agreement of the school d i s t r i c t of Kimberley states: "Salary increments ... s h a l l be auto-matic unless withheld by s p e c i a l resolution of the board, such resolution based on written reports of the d i s t r i c t super-intendent of schools and of the school p r i n c i p a l s " and or "the board s h a l l have the power to withdraw one increment from a teacher i n receipt of maximum salary according to t h i s agree-ment, when the work of such teacher i s deemed to be unsatis-factory as evidenced by the written reports of the d i s t r i c t 12 superintendent of schools and of the school p r i n c i p a l , " The survey questionnaire indicated that of the teachers who responded, only 12*2% of them were aware of provisions whereby salary r a i s e s could be withheld f o r unsatisfactory 13 services. The School Boards have revealed through the sur-vey questionnaire, that only 4 of the 31 School Boards that responded, had ever applied t h i s provision since 1956 and i n 14 each School D i s t r i c t , only one teacher was affected. This also appears to be the case i n the United States where a sur-vey showed that almost 80% of the school d i s t r i c t s contacted 12. Loc. c i t . See f o r School D i s t r i c t Kimerley. 13. I t has not been possible t o f i n d out whether only 12.2$ were aware of such provisions or only 12.2% of the teachers who responded were affected by such provisions. I t i s possible, f o r instance, that the percentage of school d i s t r i c t s providing f o r such clauses i s greater but as these provisions are seldom enforced, t h e i r exis-tence i s l i t t l e known. 14. Survey Questionnaire (School Boards). (A Questionnaire asking f o r d e t a i l s on these, v i z . , penalties f o r unsatis-factory service, was d i s t r i b u t e d to the School Boards). 21 15 had not applied t h i s provision to any teacher. Regarding clauses whereby an increment could be with-drawn from teachers at maximum salary f o r unsatisfactory ser-v i c e s , only 25 out of 402 teachers or 6,2% were at a l l aware 16 of t h i s provision i n t h e i r agreements. The School Boards who responded to the survey were aware of only three teachers 17 who were affected by t h i s provision i n the l a s t 8 years. It seems conclusive that i n actual p r a c t i c e , annual salary increases are automatic. Seldom i s demerit the reason f o r s a l a r i e s being withheld or withdrawn, and seldom i s the teacher's performance the basis f o r any betterment i n his salary. d) Miscellaneous f a c t o r s : Other than the factors already mentioned, some 18 school d i s t r i c t s have provisions f o r i s o l a t i o n allowances, 19 20 t r a v e l l i n g allowances, long service bonus, s p e c i a l c l a s s 21 allowances and extra increments paid under emergency con-22 d i t i o n s . 15. National Education Association, Quality-of-Service Pro- v i s i o n s i n Salary Schedules, 1958-1959* Research Report 1959, R. 24, Washington, December 1959, p. 9. 16. Same comment f o r note 2 above. 17. Survey Questionnaire (School Boards). 18. Examples: School D i s t r i c t s 4, 8, 18 and 19. 19. Examples: School D i s t r i c t s 50 and Tahsis River. 20. Examples: School D i s t r i c t s 51 and 52. 21. Example: School D i s t r i c t 14. 22. Example: School D i s t r i c t 13. 22 An attempt was also made through the questionnaire, to determine i f there e x i s t s any school d i s t r i c t s that paid teachers on the merit of t h e i r teaching performance. Only 6 teachers or 1.5$ of those who responded said that t h e i r con-t r a c t s provided f o r any salary d i f f e r e n t i a l s on the basis of teaching performance. A study of the various agreements, how-ever, revealed that except f o r School D i s t r i c t Arrow Lakes, no d i s t r i c t s provided f o r such clauses. In the School Dis-t r i c t of Arrow Lakes, the agreement provides the Board "the ri g h t t o st a r t a teacher on a schedule at a point higher than q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and experience demand. The Board may also accelerate a teacher already on the schedule or pay above scale." I t has not been possible to determine the extent to which such school d i s t r i c t s a c t u a l l y practice these provisions. However i t can be concluded that even i f a l l these school d i s -t r i c t s did enforce such clauses, they would only a f f e c t about 1.5% of the t o t a l population, and t h i s i s almost n e g l i g i b l e . To sum up, the factors that primarily determine tea-chers* s a l a r i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia are: i ) Training: those who have a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g or an ad d i t i o n a l number of c r e d i t hours of course work, receive 23 higher s a l a r i e s than those with l e s s . 23. Whether t h i s factor recognizes the merit of a teacher w i l l be discussed i n the next section, but from the point of view of the competitive s i t u a t i o n i n the mar-ket, i t i s natural that those who have a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g receive a higher salary i f only because they can better compete fo r jobs outside which those with l e s s e r t r a i n i n g can not. 23 i i ) Experience: teachers with greater number of years of teaching experience receive higher pay than those with 24 l e s s . i i i ) Provision i s al s o made f o r extra earnings based on ex-tr a work, greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and for considerations such as i s o l a t i o n , t r a v e l l i n g , s p e c i a l classes and emergency con-d i t i o n s . But i t i s doubtful i f the primary c r i t e r i o n i n the se l e c t i o n of teachers to these posts was t h e i r teaching per-formance. In p ractice therefore, the t y p i c a l salary schedule f o r teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia does not pay teachers according to t h e i r performance i n the classroom unless we hold that classroom performance and training-experience are p o s i t i v e l y correlated. This issue w i l l be the basis of discussion i n the next section. Can merit be equated with t r a i n i n g and experience? In ordinary conversations many people tend to believe that academic c r e d i t s and years of teaching i n the classroom equate with the l e v e l of teaching performance. However, the few research studies conducted on t h i s issue do not 24. Again, whether t h i s recognized the merit of a teacher w i l l be discussed i n the next section, but from the point of view of givin g recognition to those who have wade teaching t h e i r careers; t h i s seems reasonable. 24 25 substantiate t h i s point. I n d i v i d u a l l y , each of the following studies can be debated as to t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y , but i t i s i l l o g i c a l to reject t h e i r t o t a l f i n d i n g s . In a study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between teaching e f f i c i e n c y and years of teaching experience, Barthelmess and Boyer came to the conclusion that the^correlation r a t i o was 0.272 i n the elementary school teacher group and 0.355 i n the junior high school teacher group. Years of teaching experience was e a s i l y determined, though the manner of determining teaching e f f i c i e n c y i s subject to argument. Barthelmess and Boyer, using a sample of about 2500 teachers from both elementary and junior high schools i n Philadelphia, had defined teaching e f f i c i e n c y as follows: f i r s t , the p r i n c i p a l i n each school was 25. Even the teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia agree that a teacher's a b i l i t y t o educate youngsters does not vary primarily on t h e i r differences i n t r a i n i n g and experience. Thus, 93.3% of the respondents agreed that given t r a i n i n g and experience to be the same, some teachers are s t i l l better than others (Survey Questionnaire). Thus, i n answer to the question, "Do you think that given t r a i n i n g and experience to be the same, some teachers are •better' than others?", the responses were as follows: Did Not Answer: 2.0% Strongly Agree: 55.0 ) 93.3$ Agree: 38.3 ) Undecided: 1,7 Disagree: i 1.0 ) - 0 <g Strongly Disagree: 2.0 ) J , U 7 b I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that only 3.0% of the teachers i n B.C. appear convinced that teaching performance varies d i r e c t l y with a teacher's t r a i n i n g and experience. Hence, even those who oppose merit pay (48.0% as we s h a l l see l a t e r ) , are agreed that t r a i n i n g and experience do not equate with teaching performance. 25 to rank h i s teachers according t o e f f i c i e n c y ; second, these rankings from d i f f e r e n t schools were combined to get a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n , and then the r e l a t i o n s h i p between years of teaching experience and teaching e f f i c i e n c y was studied. One could, of course, argue whether p r i n c i p a l s .can. determine teaching e f f i c i e n c y , and also whether d i f f e r e n t rankings can be combined. Barthelmess and Boyer were, however, s a t i s f i e d that the c o r r e l a t i o n r a t i o was very low.^ In another study the sample chosen was 88 high school teachers. This time, the method of determining teaching e f f i c i e n c y was d i f f e r e n t : supervisors, associate teachers and pupils were asked to rank the e f f i c i e n c y of each of these 88 teachers, and then the average standard score equivalents of the ranks assigned to the teachers by these three groups was studied i n conjunction with teaching experience. The study indicated a low c o r r e l a t i o n r a t i o of 0.39. Again, the c r i t e r i a used f o r teaching e f f i c i e n c y may be disputed. 2^ Using the ratings of teachers by county superintendents and other personnel on a r a t i n g card, Davis and French, i n a study i n Pennsylvania i n 1928 reported the c o r r e l a t i o n as 0.23 26. Harriet M. Barthelmess and P h i l i p A. Boyer, "A Study of the Relation between Teaching E f f i c i e n c y and Amount of College C r e d i t Earned while i n Service," Educational Administration  and Supervision. XIV (1928), pp. 521-535. 27. Boardman, Charles W., "Professional Tests and Measures of Teaching E f f i c i e n c y i n High School," Teachers College Contributions to Education, no. 327, New York, Columbia University, 1928, p. 85. 26 b e t w e e n t e a c h i n g e f f i c i e n c y a n d t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . z I n a s t u d y c o n d u c t e d b y t h e New E n g l a n d S c h o o l s D e v e l o p m e n t ; C o u n c i l , T i e d e m a n c i t e s n u m e r o u s o t h e r r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s s h o w i n g t h a t a l o w c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s b e t w e e n t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a n d t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Two f u r t h e r s t u d i e s 29 s u m m a r i z e d i n h i s b o o k 7 a r e q u o t e d a s f o l l o w s : " M o s s , L o m a n a n d H u n t r e p o r t t h a t a c h e m i s t r y t e s t b a s e d o n m a t e r i a l f o u n d i n t h e m o s t c o m m o n l y u s e d t e x t b o o k i n c o l l e g e c o u r s e s o f i n t r o d u c t o r y c h e m i s t r y was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 6667 s t u d e n t s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d e n d o f a n e l e m e n t a r y c h e m i s t r y c o u r s e i n 28 c o l l e g e s a n d u n i v e r s i t i e s . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e t e s t i s r e p o r t e d a s 0.90, a n d i t s v a l i d i t y t h e n m a t c h e d w i t h g r a d e s g i v e n . b y t h e i n s t r u c t o r s o f t h e c o u r s e was O.638. T h e h i g h e s t m e d i a n s c o r e s w e r e r e p o r t e d f o r p u p i l s o f i n s t r u c t o r s w h o ^ h a d b e e n t e a c h i n g f r o m 1-11 y e a r s . A n o t i c e a b l e d e c r e a s e was f o u n d i n t h e m e d i a n s c o r e s o f p u p i l s o f i n s t r u c t o r s w i t h 12 o r m o r e y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e 30 D a v i s t e s t e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t p e r s o n s who h a v e t a u g h t s c h o o l f o r a n u m b e r o f y e a r s a r e b e t t e r t e a c h e r s " t h a n a r e p e r s o n s w i t h l e s s e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g . He r e l a t e d p u p i l s c o r e s on s t a t e - w i d e s u b j e c t a r e a exams i n M i n n e s o t a t o t e a c h e r s w i t h v a r y i n g a m o u n t s o f e x p e r i e n c e . S u b j e c t s f o r t h e s t u d y came f r o m n i n e t y s c h o o l s t h r o u g h o u t M i n n e s o t a . O n l y t h o s e s c h o o l s w i t h a t l e a s t a m i n i m u m o f 30 p u p i l s a n d 3 t e a c h e r s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d . A l t o g e t h e r , d a t a was c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e r e c o r d s o f 796 t e a c h e r s a n d 13,460 p u p i l s . D a v i s r e p o r t e d t h a t p u p i l s o f t e a c h e r s w i t h 2 o r m o r e y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e w e r e m o r e s u c c e s s f u l i n p a s s i n g t h e M i n n e s o t a S t a t : e B o a r d T e s t t h a n w e r e p u p i l s o f t e a c h e r s w i t h one y e a r o f e x p e r i e n c e . I n t e r e s t i n g l y e n o u g h , p u p i l s o f t e a c h e r s w i t h m o r e t h a n 2 y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e s n o w e d l i t t l e o r n o a d v a n t a g e o v e r p u p i l s o f t e a c h e r s w i t h j u s t 2 y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e . 3 1 28. D a v i s , S . B . a n d F r e n c h , L . C , " T e a c h e r R a t i n g , " U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h , S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n J o u r n a l , i i i , 1928, P . 57. 29* New E n g l a n d S c h o o l s D e v e l o p m e n t C o u n c i l , T e a c h e r C o m p e t e n c e  a n d I t s R e l a t i o n t o S a l a r y , 1956, e d . b y D . T i e d e m a n , p . 5. 30. F . A . M o s s , W . M . L o m a n , a n d T . H u n t , " I m p e r s o n a l M e a s u r e m e n t o f T e a c h i n g , " E d u c a t i o n a l R e c o r d , x , 1929, p p . 40-50. 31. D a v i s , q u o t e d i n T e a c h e r C o m p e t e n c e a n d I t s R e l a t i o n t o S a l a r y , e d . b y T i e d e m a n , p . ® . 27 T h u s , t h e e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l o w c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s b e t w e e n y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a n d t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e -n e s s . G r a n t e d t h a t i n e a c h s t u d y t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s c o u l d b e a r g u e d , i t i s s t i l l d i f f i c u l t t o r e j e c t t h e t o t a l f i n d i n g s u s i n g d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d s o f d e f i n i n g t e a c h i n g e f f i c i e n c y . One w o u l d h a v e t o show t h a t a l l o f t h e s e w a y s o f d e f i n i n g t e a c h i n g e f f i c i e n c y w e r e e x t r e m e l y u n r e l i a b l e b e f o r e t h e c u m u l a t i v e f i n d i n g s c o u l d b e r e j e c t e d . What o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t r a i n i n g a n d t e a c h i n g a b i l i t y ? T h e p r e p a r a t i o n a l - t y p e s a l a r y s c h e d u l e a s i t e x i s t s t o d a y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a l s o r e l a t e s s a l a r y t o l e v e l s o f t r a i n i n g . I t h a s b e e n s t a t e d e a r l i e r t h a t f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e c o m p e t i t i v e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e m a r k e t , i t s e e m s j u s -t i f i e d t h a t t h o s e w i t h m o r e f o r m a l t r a i n i n g s h o u l d r e c e i v e a h i g h e r t o t a l s a l a r y t h a n t h o s e w i t h l e s s e r f o r m a l t r a i n i n g . I s t h e s a l a r y d i f f e r e n t i a l , h o w e v e r , j u s t i f i e d i n t e r m s o f a b i l i t y t o t e a c h ? T i e d e m a n m e n t i o n s t h a t t h i s q u e s t i o n c a n e a s i l y b e s t u d i e d : " A l l t h a t w o u l d b e n e c e s s a r y w o u l d b e t o c o m p a r e t h e d i s -t r i b u t i o n o f j u d g e d t e a c h i n g p r o f i c i e n c y f o r t e a c h e r s w i t h d i f f e r e n t a m o u n t s o f t r a i n i n g b u t w i t h t h e same a m o u n t o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . I f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e w o r k i n g on a s o u n d p r i n c i p l e , o n e w o u l d e x p e c t t o f i n d m a r k e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s e d i s t r i b u t i o n s , T i e d e m a n , h o w e v e r , s e a r c h e d f o r s t u d i e s w h i c h w o u l d r e a s o n a b l y s u p p o r t a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h i s n a t u r e . 28 " N o s t u d y was f o u n d w h i c h c o u l d d e f i n i t e l y b e s a i d t o r e p o r t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p r o f i c i e n c y a s a t e a c h e r - i n - s e r v i c e a n d a m o u n t o f t r a i n i n g . . . i t i s a m a z i n g how t h e i d e a o f t h e p r e p a r a t i o n - t y p e s a l a r y s c h e d u l e c o u l d b e c o m e s o f i r m l y « e n t r e n c h e d on t h e b a s i s o f s o l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f i t s v a l i d i t y . " T h e n e a r e s t t h a t r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s come t o s t u d y i n g t h i s p r o b l e m i s a l s o r e p o r t e d hy T i e d e m a n : 0 0 D a v i s a n d F r e n c h r e p o r t t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n " p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g " a n d r a t i n g o f t e a c h e r s b y c o u n t y s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s a n d o t h e r o f f i c i a l s who w e r e o f f i c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d t o r a t e t e a c h e r s o n a R a t i n g C a r d e n d o r s e d b y t h e P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e C o u n c i l o f E d u c a t i o n was 0.41 i n a g r o u p o f 2156 t e a c h e r s . T h e y c o n c l u d e : "We c a n o n l y i n f e r now t h a t . . . a h i g h d e g r e e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g ( i s ) n o t c o n c o m i t a n t w i t h a h i g h r a t i n g a s a t e a c h e r . * I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t D v a i s a n d F r e n c h d o n o t i d e n t i f y t h e i r t r a i n i n g v a r i a b l e e x c e p t a s " p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g " . I t i s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r t h i s means a m o u n t o f t r a i n i n g o r n o t a n d , i f i t d o e s , w h e t h e r i t means a m o u n t o f a l l t r a i n i n g o r j u s t amount o f s t u d y i n t h e f i e l d s o f e d u c a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , D a v i s a n d F r e n c h d i d n o t i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n " p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g " a n d p r o f i c i e n c y r a t i n g s when t h e e x p e r i e n c e v a r i a b l e was c o n t r o l l e d . C o n t r o l o f t h i s v a r i a b l e may r e d u c e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . 3 4 Two s t u d i e s r e p o r t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h h a v e some b e a r i n g on t h e p r o b l e m . T h e B a r t h e l m e s s a n d B o y e r a r t i c l e m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t s t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n r a t i o b e t w e e n t h e i r c r i t e r i o n o f t e a c h i n g e f f i c i e n c y a n d amount o f c o l l e g e c r e d i t e a r n e d w h i l e i n s e r v i c e w e r e 0 . 2 7 2 i n a g r o u p o f 5002 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a n d 0.355 i n a g r o u p o f j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . O f c o u r s e , a m o u n t o f c o l l e g e c r e d i t e a r n e d w h i l e i n s e r v i c e i s n o t t h e v a r i a b l e b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n a l - t y p e s a l a r y s c h e d u l e . T h i s v a r i a b l e i s t h e t o t a l a m o u n t o f s t u d y c r e d i t a t e a c h e r h a s a c c u m u l a t e d . I f t o t a l amount o f c o l l e g e c r e d i t i s r e l a t e d t o t e a c h i n g e f f i c i e n c y a s many p e o p l e b e l i e v e , t h e l o w r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n amount o f c o l l e g e c r e d i t e a r n e d w h i l e i n s e r v i c e a n d t e a c h i n g p r o f i c i e n c y w h i c h was r e p o r t e d b y B a r t h e l m e s s a n d 3 2 . T e a c h e r C o m p e t e n c e a n d I t s R e l a t i o n t o S a l a r y , e d . b y T i e d e m a n , p . 5. 3 3 * T e a c h e r C o m p e t e n c e a n d I t s R e l a t i o n t o S a l a r y , e d . b y T i e d e m a n , p . 3 4 . S . B . D a v i s a n d L . C . F r e n c h , . * " T e a c h e r R a t i n g , " U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g h , S c h o o l o f E d u c a t i o n J o u r n a l , i i i , 1 9 2 8 , P P . 6 0 - 6 4 . 29 B o y e r may b e c a u s e d b y m i x i n g t e a c h e r s w i t h t h e b a c h e l o r , s d e g r e e who t o o k n o m o r e c o l l e g e w o r k w i t h t e a c h e r s w i t h o u t t h e d e g r e e who t o o k n o more w o r k . I n a d d i t i o n , B r o o m r e p o r t s t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n n u m b e r o f u n i t s t a k e n i n e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s ( e x c l u d i n g p r a c -t i c e t e a c h i n g ) a n d e s t i m a t e s o f c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g w o r t h was 0 . 0 1 i n a g r o u p o f 243 t e a c h e r s . A g a i n we f i n d t h a t t h i s d o e s n o t g i v e t h e c l e a r a n s w e r d e s i r e d . S a l a r y i n c r e m e n t s i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n a l - t y p e s a l a r y s c h e d u l e a r e a w a r d e d w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o t h e amount o f t r a i n i n g i n o n l y e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t c e r t i f i c a t i o n l a w s d o d i f f e r e n t i a t e on t h i s s c o r e . 3 5 T h u s , f r o m e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e , t h e i n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t t h e amount o f t r a i n i n g a n d t e a c h i n g p r o f i c i e n c y h a v e v e r y l o w c o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . O t h e r s t u d i e s , c i t e d b y T i e d e m a n l e a d t o t h e same c o n c l u s i o n e x c e p t t h a t " i n c e r t a i n h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l a r e a s t h e t r a i n i n g o f t h e t e a c h e r i n h i s s u b j e c t a r e a i s a m a t t e r o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e . " D a v i s , f o r i n s t a n c e , r e p o r t s " t h a t s t u d e n t s o f t e a c h e r s who h a d n o t h a d s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n t h e s u b j e c t w h i c h t h e y t a u g h t s c o r e d h i g h e r o n s u b j e c t m a t -t e r a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s t h a n d i d s t u d e n t s o f t e a c h e r s who h a d r e c e i v e d s u c h t r a i n i n g . A m a j o r e x c e p t i o n was f o u n d i n t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t i n c h e m i s t r y . H e r e t h e p u p i l s o f q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s (a c o l l e g e m a j o r o r m i n o r i n c h e m i s t r y ) f a r e x c e e d e d 36 t h o s e o f u n q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s . H u g h e s a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e e f f e c t s o f t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g o n t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f p u p i l s . P u p i l s o f P h y s i c s i n 29 s c h o o l s o f v a r y i n g s i z e w e r e t e s t e d . T h e s e t e s t s u s e d w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d t o c o v e r t h e m a t e r i a l c o v e r e d i n t h e t e x t s m o s t c o m m o n l y u s e d i n t h e s e s c h o o l s . T h e p u p i l s w e r e e q u a t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . O f t h e t h r e e t e s t s c o n d u c t e d , 3 5 . N . E . B r o o m , " A N o t e on P r e d i c t i n g T e a c h e r S u c c e s s , " E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d S u p e r v i s i o n , x v i i i , 1 9 3 2 , p p . 6 4 - 6 7 . 3 6 . B r o o m , E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d S u p e r v i s i o n , x v i i i , 1 9 3 2 , p p . 6 4 - 6 7 . ' : ~~ 30 t h e p u p i l s o f t e a c h e r s who h a d s p e c i a l i z e d i n P h y s i c s made a v e r a g e s c o r e s a b o v e t h e mean s c o r e s o f a l l t h o s e who t o o k p a r t on a l l t h r e e o c c a s i o n s . 3 7 H e n c e , a l l e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e p o i n t s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a t e a c h e r a n d h i s e x p e r i e n c e a n d / o r t r a i n i n g . 37. I b i d . CHAPTER I I I * TEACHERS* ATTITUDES TOWARDS MERIT RATING The previous chapter demonstrated that the e x i s t i n g salary structures f o r teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia do not take merit i n -to consideration. I f i t could have been established that a teacher's a b i l i t y to educate youngsters does depend primarily on t r a i n i n g and years of teaching experience, then the prepar-ational-type salary schedule as i t e x i s t s today i s j u s t i f i e d . But our study points out that the mechanical system of counting years of experience and t r a i n i n g of a teacher do not equate with hi s teaching performance. Hence, i f we hold that teachers should be paid according 1 to the proficiency with which they teach, then c e r t a i n changes should be introduced i n t o the e x i s t i n g salary structures i n 2 B r i t i s h Columbia. It i s consideration of t h i s question that has led the BGSTA to conceive of plans r e l a t i n g professional competency and s a l a r i e s . Our stand i s that before any action i s taken i n implementing a system of rewarding good teaching per-formance, i t w i l l be necessary to examine very c a r e f u l l y the 1. This issue was raised with the teachers i n the Questionnaire Survey. Teachers were asked whether "better" performance should be rewarded i n the form of higher s a l a r i e s , assuming that a r e l i a b l e method fo r measuring teaching performance could be developed. About 60.0% agreed that t h i s should be so, while about 23.0% were against salary d i f f e r e n t a t i o n based on merit, other than by t r a i n i n g and experience. The r e s t , about 17.9% were undecided. Thus a good % of the teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia do hold that teachers should be paid according to the proficiency with which they teach. 2. i . e . the e x i s t i n g salary must, i n addition to t r a i n i n g , ex-perience, extra r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or extra work, also provide for salary d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n on the basis of teaching perfor-mance. 32 attitudes of the teachers themselves towards merit pay. This chapter and the next w i l l discuss teachers* attitudes towards the application of merit pay programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 2. D e f i n i t i o n of Merit Rating: At t h i s juncture, a d e f i n i t i o n of "merit r a t i n g " must be considered. A f t e r studying the various definitions** found i n the l i t e r a t u r e , a d e f i n i t i o n was evolved to 3. The l i t e r a t u r e on the subject defines merit pay from two approaches: one, merit pay i s related e n t i r e l y to teaching performance, that i s , a teacher's salary i s based e n t i r e l y upon the measurement of his teaching performance, however t h i s may be measured and whatever performance may mean; two, merit pay i s only p a r t i a l l y r elated to teaching performance, that i s , i t i s superimposed upon the e x i s t i n g salary structures based on t r a i n i n g and experience. The l i t e r a t u r e on the t o p i c , however, emphasizes the l a t t e r approach, as consider f o r instance the following examples: (a) National Education Association Classroom Teachers: "Merit r a t i n g i s a subjective, q u a l i t a t i v e judgment of a teacher made administratively by one or more persons, with or without the p a r t i c i p a t i o n or the knowledge of the person rated, f o r the purposes of determining salary." (N.E.A., Dept. of Classroom Teachers, Classroom Teachers Speak on Merit Rating. Nov. 1956, p. 4-5. (b) A Doctoral D i s s e r t a t i o n : "Merit r a t i n g i s a system whereby the evaluation made of a teacher by one or more administrative a u t h o r i t i e s may be related, either completely or p a r t i a l l y , to the salary paid that teacher f o r a given year or iperiod of years." (Minnesota Education Association, Merit Rating: Facts and Issues, A p r i l , 1958, p. 3). (c) A Professor: "Merit r a t i n g i s the e f f o r t to evaluate or measure more successfully the effectiveness of the performance of the teacher*, with a view to rewarding excellence while avoiding over-payment to the mediocre or unsuccessful teacher." (Rogers, V i r g i l , M, (ed.), "Merit Rating" For Teachers? Syracuse, July, 1958, p. 10). (d) Michigan Classroom Teacher: "The evaluation of teacher techniques i n the classroom applied t o a d d i t i o n a l pay beyond the basic salary schedule." (Quoted i n Brighton, S.F. and Hannan, Merit Pay f o r Teachers, San Francisco, p. 2) 4 s u i t t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s u r v e y . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t 80% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e s u r v e y a g r e e d w i t h t h e d e -5 f i n i t i o n c h o s e n . A l l t e a c h e r s w e r e a s k e d t o b a s e t h e i r a n s w e r s on t h e d e -f i n i t i o n g i v e n . T h i s was n e c e s s a r y l e s t t h e a n a l y s i s o f a t t i -t u d e s b e b a s e d on d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e t e r m " m e r i t p a y " . T h u s t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s w e r e s t r e s s e d t o t h e r e s p o n -d e n t s : ( i ) T h e r e i s a n e v a l u a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e , ( i i ) T h i s e v a l u a t i o n i s n o t f o r p r o m o t i o n s , d i s m i s s a l s o r f o r i m p r o v i n g p e r f o r m a n c e : i t s p r i m a r y p u r p o s e i s f o r s a l a r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n , ( i i i ) T h a t s a l a r i e s a r e o n l y p a r t i a l l y a f f e c t e d , t h a t i s , t h e i r e f f e c t s a r e s u p e r i m p o s e d on t h e e x i s t i n g s a l a r y s c h e d u l e s b a s e d on t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e . 3 . W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e T e a c h i n g E v a l u a t e d f o r p u r p o s e s o f  S a l a r y D e t e r m i n a t i o n A s i m p l i e d a b o v e , t h e t h e o r y o f m e r i t r a t i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t some f o r m o f e v a l u a t i o n h a s t o b e made t o d e c i d e a s t o who i s a b e t t e r t e a c h e r , b e f o r e a h i g h e r s a l a r y c a n b e p a i d t o one a s o p p o s e d t o a n o t h e r . T h u s e v a l u a t i o n i s t h e k e y a s p e c t o f m e r i t r a t i n g . B y e v a l u a t i o n we mean a p r o c e s s b y w h i c h a n i n -d i v i d u a l o r a g r o u p o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l , w i t h o r w i t h o u t t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n e v a l u a t e d , make a d e c i s i o n a s t o 4. S e e C h a p t e r I , D e f i n i t i o n s o f T e r m s . 5. S e e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e S u r v e y 34 I t i s f r e q u e n t l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e d o m i n a n t a t t i t u d e o f t e a c h e r s t o w a r d s e v a l u a t i o n f o r s a l a r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n i s one o f o p p o s i t i o n . T h i s s t a t e m e n t i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d b y s u r v e y s c o n -d u c t e d i n C a n a d a a n d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . A s u r v e y c o n d u c t e d i n I l l i n o i s , f o r i n s t a n c e , c o n c l u d e d t h a t a b o u t 85% o f t h e 6 t e a c h e r s o p p o s e m e r i t p a y p r o g r a m s , w h e r e a s a n o t h e r s u r v e y i n 7 New E n g l a n d f o u n d t h a t a b o u t 65% w e r e a g a i n s t m e r i t p a y . A s t u d y i n t h e S t a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n a l s o f o u n d t h a t m o s t o f t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s r e g i s t e r e d t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o m e r i t r a t i n g , 8 t h o u g h t h e s o u r c e c o n s u l t e d g a v e n o d e t a i l s . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e B C T F h a s a l s o a g i t a t e d a g a i n s t m e r i t p a y a n d r e p e a t e d l y s t r e s s t h a t t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s w o u l d r e s e n t a n y p l a n i m p l e m e n t e d . F r o m t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s u r v e y , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l o p p o -s i t i o n t o m e r i t r a t i n g i s s t r o n g e r t h a n t h a t f r o m t h e r a n k a n d f i l e o f t h e t e a c h i n g p o p u l a t i o n . T h u s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o T a b k e 3:1, o f t h e 402 t e a c h e r s who r e s p o n d e d , o n l y s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n h a l f o p p o s e d m e r i t r a t i n g (193 t e a c h e r s o r 48%). T h e r e s t w e r e i n f a v o u r (157 t e a c h e r s o r 39.0%) o r u n c e r t a i n 6. S t u d y made b y B o o n z , A l l e n a n d H a m i l t o n , M a n a g e m e n t C o n -s u l t a n t s , i n E v a n s t o n , I l l i n o i s . 7. New E n g l a n d S c h o o l s D e v e l o p m e n t C o u n c i l , I b i d . p . 38. 8. W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e S c h o o l D i r e c t o r ' s N e w s l e t t e r , F e b r u a r y , 1962. 35 9 o r d i d n o t a n s w e r (52 t e a c h e r s o r 13.0%). T a b l e 3:1 W i l l i n g n e s s t o b e E v a l u a t e d f o r S a l a r y D e t e r m i n - a t i o n P u r p o s e s D e g r e e o f W i l l i n g n e s s A b s o l u t e N o s . % D i d N o t A n s w e r 11 2.7 D e f i n i t e l y N o t 136 33.8) ) 14.2) P r o b a b l y N o t 57 U n d e c i d e d 41 10.2 P r o b a b l y W o u l d 111 27.6) ) 11.4) D e f i n i t e l y W o u l d 46 T o t a l 402 100% 4• E v a l u a t i o n f o r P r o m o t i o n a s a g a i n s t E v a l u a t i o n f o r  S a l a r i e s T h e t e a c h e r s w e r e a s k e d what t h e i r a t t i t u d e s w e r e t o -w a r d s e v a l u a t i o n f o r p r o m o t i o n p u r p o s e s a s o p p o s e d t o e v a l -u a t i o n f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r s a l a r i e s . I t i s e v a l u a t i o n f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r s a l a r i e s t h a t t e a c h e r s o p p o s e , n o t f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f p r o m o t i o n s , a s c a n b e s e e n f r o m T a b l e s 3:1 a n d 3:2: 9. I n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e r e was n o m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s k e y q u e s t i o n , a f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y w o r d e d was a s k e d . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h i s q u e r y , n W o u l d y o u b e w i l l i n g t o s e e m e r i t p r o v i s i o n s b e i n g i n c l u d e d i n y o u r s a l a r y s c h e d u l e ? 1 1 t h e f i n d i n g s w e r e v e r y s i m i l a r : t h u s 48.0% s t i l l o p p o s e d m e r i t r a t i n g , b u t t h i s t i m e o n l y a b o u t 38.0% e x p r e s s e d p r e f e r e n c e . T h i s s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e i s , h o w e v e r , i n s i g n i f i c a n t a n d t h e r e i s n o way o f a c c o u n t i n g f o r i t . 3 6 T a b l e 3 ? 2 : W i l l i n g n e s s t o b e E v a l u a t e d f o r P r o m o t i o n P u r p o s e s D e g r e e o f W i l l i n g n e s s D i d N o t A n s w e r D e f i n i t e l y N o t W i l l i n g P r o b a b l y N o t W i l l i n g U n d e c i d e d P r o b a b l y W i l l i n g D e f i n i t e l y W i l l i n g T o t a l T h u s a b o u t 6 6 % o f t h o s e who r e s p o n d e d w e r e w i l l i n g t o b e e v a l u a t e d f o r p r o m o t i o n p u r p o s e s , w h e r e a s o n l y 3 9 . 0 % w o u l d 1 0 want a n y e v a l u a t i o n t o a f f e c t t h e i r s a l a r i e s . T h i s a p p a r e n t p a r a d o x , t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t e v a l u a t i o n f o r p r o m o t i o n a l p u r p o s e s b u t n o t e v a l u a t i o n f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s a l a r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n , may b e e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y a p p a r e n t l y b e l i e v e e v a l u a t i o n m e t h o d s d e v e l o p e d s o f a r a r e u s e -f u l o n l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e e x t r e m e s - t h o s e o f d u b i o u s v a l u e t o t h e s e r v i c e a n d t h o s e o f s e e m i n g l y o u t s t a n d i n g v a l u e . H e n c e , i n t h e i r v i e w e v a l u a t i o n i s o n l y u s e f u l f o r p u r p o s e s 1 0 . T h e s e f i n d i n g s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h o s e o f a n o t h e r s u r v e y o f t e a c h e r s * a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s m e r i t p a y c o n d u e t e d i n New E n g l a n d . T h e r e , w h i l e 7 7 . 5 % w e r e w i l l i n g t o h a v e t h e i r t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r p u r p o s e s o t h e r t h a n f o r s a l a r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n , o n l y a b o u t h a l f o f t h e s e w e r e w i l l i n g t o h a v e t h i s e v a l u a t i o n a f f e c t t h e i r s a l a r i e s . (New E n g l a n d S c h o o l s D e v e l o p m e n t C o u n c i l , T e a c h e r C o m p e t e n c e a n d I t s  R e l a t i o n t o S a l a r y , ( e d . b y T i e d e r m a n ) , 1 9 5 6 , p . 3 8 ) . A b s o l u t e Nos 1 3 3 . 2 4 7 1 1 . 7 ) ) 1 9 . 2 % 3 0 7 . 5 ) 4 7 1 1 . 7 1 5 9 3 9 . 6 ) ) 6 6 . 0 % 1 0 6 2 6 . 4 ) 4 0 2 1 0 0 % 3 7 s u c h a s t e n u r e , d i s m i s s a l s a n d p r o m o t i o n s , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n b e i n g t h a t e v a l u a t i o n f a i l s t o meet a d e q u a t e l y t h e t e s t o f o b j e c -1 1 t i v i t y r e q u i r e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f s a l a r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t e a c h e r s a p p e a r t o l e n d s u p p o r t t o t h e B C T F s t a t e m e n t t h a t : "We f a v o u r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t e a c h e r p e r f o r m a n c e . I n -d e e d , we u s e t h e g r o s s s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s o f p r o -f e s s o r s o f e d u c a t i o n , p r i n c i p a l s , a n d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s t o i n f l u e n c e c h o i c e f o r e n t r y i n t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n s , e x t e n s i o n o f a t e a c h e r ' s f u n c t i o n , a n d f o r p r o m o t i o n . What we d o n o t a c c e p t i s t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s e v a l -u a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e v a r y i n g a m o u n t s o f s a l a r y t o b e p a i d t o a t e a c h e r . O u r o p p o s i t i o n i s i n p a r t e m o t i o n a l , i n p a r t p r a g m a t i c , i n t h a t s u c h e v a l u a t i o n i s u n c e r t a i n , b u t i n a l a r g e m e a s u r e p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n t h a t s u c h a n e x t e n s i o n o f c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n c a n n o t y e t b e d e m o n -s t r a b l y d e v e l o p e d w i t h o u t a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t i n g t h e e d u -c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n . " 1 2 A b r e a k d o w n o f t h e 6 6 . 0 % ( o r 2 6 5 t e a c h e r s ) f a v o r i n g e v a l -u a t i o n f o r p r o m o t i o n p u r p o s e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r m e r i t r a t i n g i s s h o w n i n T a b l e 3 s 3 • 1 1 . T h e s e a r e t h e u s u a l v i e w s e x p r e s s e d b y t h o s e who o p p o s e e v a l u a t i o n f o r p u r p o s e s o f s a l a r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n . S e e B u r k e , A . J . "Some D a n g e r s o f M e r i t M e a s u r e m e n t " , N a t i o n s  S c h o o l s . J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 8 , p p . 2 7 - 2 8 . 1 2 . B C T F , M e r i t P a y . S e c t i o n V u n d e r D e f i n i t i o n o f T e r m s 38 T a b l e 3*3: W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e E v a l u a t i o n f o r P r o m o t i o n i n  R e l a t i o n t o P r e f e r e n c e f o r M e r i t R a t i n g P r e f e r e n c e f o r % o f % o f T o t a l M e r i t R a t i n g A b s . f i g s . 265 R e s p o n d e n t s D i d N o t A n s w e r 2 0.8 2.7 D e f i n i t e l y N o t ? 3 2 7 . l ) 33.8) P r o b a b l y N o t 2 7 1 0 e 5 ) 1 4 < 2 ) U n d e c i d e d l 8 7 # 1 1 0 < > 2 P r o b a b l y W o u l d 1 0 1 3 8 # o ) 2 7 o 6 ) D e f i n i t e l y W o u l d 44 16.5) 11.4) T o t a l 265 100.0 100.0 T h e t a b l e s h o w s t h a t m o r e t h a n h a l f o f t h e t e a c h e r s who i n d i c a t e t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o b e e v a l u a t e d f o r p r o m o t i o n p u r -p o s e s (54.5%) a r e a l s o i n f a v o r o f m e r i t r a t i n g , b u t n o t a l l t e a c h e r s who a r e i n f a v o r o f a n e v a l u a t i o n s c h e m e f o r p r o -m o t i o n a r e a l s o i n f a v o r o f m e r i t r a t i n g . T h i s may a c c o u n t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t w h e r e a s 66.0% w i l l b e p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t e v a l u a t i o n f o r p r o m o t i o n , o n l y 39.0% w i l l h a v e t h i s e v a l u a t i o n a f f e c t t h e i r s a l a r i e s 5» W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r s a l a r y d e t e r - m i n a t i o n d i s t r i b u t e d b y p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e o f w o r k i n g  u n d e r a m e r i t r a t i n g s y s t e m . A n a t t e m p t was made t o a s s e s s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h o p p o -s i t i o n t o m e r i t r a t i n g i s d u e t o a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e o f w o r k i n g u n d e r s u c h a s y s t e m . T h e s u r v e y s h o w s t h a t o n l y 20 t e a c h e r s o r a b o u t 5.0% o f t h e t o t a l r e s p o n s e h a d a n y p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e ' 39 o f w o r k i n g u n d e r a m e r i t r a t i n g s y s t e m . O b v i o u s l y t h e r e f o r e , much o f t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o m e r i t p a y p r o g r a m s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m -b i a i s b a s e d on s u p p o s i t i o n s o f i t s a d v a n t a g e s a n d d i s a d v a n -t a g e s . T a b l e 3:4 s h o w s t h a t o f t h o s e w i t h p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e o f w o r k i n g u n d e r a m e r i t r a t i n g s y s t e m , s l i g h t l y m o r e t h a n h a l f (55.0%) a r e i n f a v o r o f m e r i t p a y a s o p p o s e d t o 39.0$ f r o m t h e t o t a l s a m p l e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e a p p e a r s a s t r o n g e r o p p o s i t i o n t o m e r i t p a y f r o m t h o s e who h a v e n o t w o r k e d u n d e r s u c h a s y s -t e m t h a n f r o m t h o s e who h a v e . T a b l e 3:4: W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r s a l a r y  d e t e r m i n a t i o n d i s t r i b u t e d b y p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e  o f w o r k i n g u n d e r a m e r i t r a t i n g s y s t e m . P r e v i o u s E x p e r i e n c e % o f T o t a l D e g r e e o f W i l l i n g n e s s i n M e r i t R a t i n g R e s p o n d e n t s A b s o l u t e F i g s . % o f 20 D i d N o t A n s w e r 1 5.0 2.7 D e f i n i t e l y N o t 2 10.0 33.8 P r o b a b l y N o t 5 25.0 14.2 U n d e c i d e d 1 5.0 10.2 P r o b a b l y W o u l d 10 50.0 27.6 D e f i n i t e l y W o u l d 1 5.0 11.4 T o t a l 20 100.0 100.0 6. W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r s a l a r y d e t e r -m i n a t i o n d i s t r i b u t e d b y s e x 39.4% o f t h e m a l e r e s p o n d e n t s a s o p p o s e d t o 38.9% o f t h e 13 4 0 female respondents were i n favor of merit pay whereas 48.8% of the male respondents as against 46,8% of the female respondents are against merit pay (Table 3s5). Thus, whereas the men are more decided one way or the other, the women predominate among the "undecideds": 13.8% of the female respondents are undecided as against 7*0% of the male respondents. The general conclusion, however, i s that attitudes do not seem to be affected by sex, as the percentage d i f f e r e n t i a l s are i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Table 3:5: Willingness to have teaching evaluated for salary determination d i s t r i b u t e d by sex. Degree of Willingness Did Not State Sex Males Females Both Abs. F i g s . Abs. Figs . %_ Abs. Figs . JL Abs F i g s. J L Did Not Answer 10 4.7 1 0.5 11 2.7 D e f i n i t e l y Not 1 100.0 71 33.3 64 34.0 136 33.8 Probably Not 33 15.5 24 12.8 57 14.2 Undecided 15 7.0 26 13.8 41 10.2 Probably Would 59 27.7 52 27.7 111 27.6 D e f i n i t e l y Would 25 11.7 21 11.2 46 11.4 Total 1 100.0 213 100.0 188 100.0 402 100.0 13. This appears to contradict the findings of the survey con-ducted by the BCTF, where a larger f r a c t i o n of women than men were i n favor of merit pay. (BCTF, Study of Teacher  Opinion on Salary Issues, April-May, 1962, p, 5). In the New England Survey, however, a larger f r a c t i o n of men than women were w i l l i n g t o be evaluated f o r salary purposes. (New England Schools Development Council, Teacher Competence and I t s Relation to Salary, 1956, ed. by D. Tiedeman, p. 7). 4 1 7 . Willingness to have teaching evaluated f o r salary  determination d i s t r i b u t e d by marital status: In informal discussions with teachers i t was gathered that there would be a higher proportion of unmarried teachers favor-ing merit pay plans than married teachers. The survey tested t h i s commonly accepted b e l i e f and the hypothesis was confirmed. (Table 3 : 6 ) Table 3 : 6 Willingness to have teaching evaluated f o r salary  determination d i s t r i b u t e d by marital status Did Not Degree of State Willingness Status Married Single Both Abs. Abs. Abs • Abs. f i g s . % f i g s % f i g s. % f i g s . _____ Did Not Answer 1 6 . 7 1 0 3 . 6 0 . 0 1 1 2 . 7 D e f i n i t e l y Not 5 3 3 . 3 9 1 3 3 . 1 4 0 3 5 . 7 1 3 6 ( 3 3 . 8 Probably Not 1 6 . 7 4 0 14 . 5 1 6 1 4 . 3 5 7 1 4 . 2 Undecided 4 2 6 . 7 25 9 . 1 1 2 1 0 . 7 4 1 1 0 . 2 Probably Would 3 2 0 . 0 7 6 2 7 . 6 ) 32 2 8 . 6 i ) 1 1 1 2 7 . 6 ) ) ) ) D e f i n i t e l y Would 1 6 . 6 _ 3 3 _ 1 2 . 0 ) 1 2 1 0 . 7 ) 4 6 1 1 . 4 ) Total 1 5 1 0 0 . 0 275 1 0 0 . 0 1 1 2 1 0 0 . 0 4 0 2 1 0 0 . 0 Compare, f o r instance, the following %: For Merit Pay Against Merit Pay Married Respondents: 4 7 . 6 % 3 9 . 6 % Single Respondents: 5 0 . 0 % 3 9 . 3 % But the percentage d i f f e r e n t i a l s are so s l i g h t that one could j u s t as well conclude that attitudes are not affected by marital 42 s t a t u s . 8 . W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r s a l a r y  d e t e r m i n a t i o n d i s t r i b u t e d b y a g e o f t e a c h e r s ; A s c a n b e s e e n f r o m T a b l e 3:7 b e l o w , a c c e p t a n c e o f e v a l -u a t i o n f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s a l a r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n a l s o d e p e n d e d t o some e x t e n t o n t h e a g e o f t h e t e a c h e r s . T a b l e 3:7 W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r s a l a r y  d e t e r m i n a t i o n a n d a g e o f t e a c h e r s (%). A G E - G R O U P S D e g r e e o f No 18-25 26-35 36-50 51 T o t a l W i l l i n g n e s s A n s w e r y r s . y r s . y r s . p l u s (n=13) (n=l l8) (n=124) (n=121) (n=26) (N=402) D i d N o t A n s w e r 15.4 0.8 2.4 D e f i n i t e l y N o t 7.7 34.7 30.6 P r o b a b l y N o t 15.4 10.2 21.0 U n d e c i d e d 30.8 11.0 9.7 P r o b a b l y W o u l d 23.1 30.5) 26.6) ) ) D e f i n i t e l y W o u l d 7.7 12.7) 9.7) T o t a l 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.1 .0 2.7 36.4 46.2 33.8 12.4 7.7 14.2 7.4 11.5 10.2 25.6) ) 14.0) 30.8) ) 3.8) 27.6) ) 11.4) 100.0 100.0 100.0 30.1 6.5 100.0 % o f T o t a l 3.2 29 .4 30.8 T h e t a b l e a b o v e shows t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r f r a c t i o n o f t h o s e i n t h e y o u n g e s t a g e - g r o u p , t h a t i s 43.2% (30.5 + 12.7) i n t h e 18-25 a g e - g r o u p , f a v o r i n g m e r i t p a y a s o p p o s e d t o t h o s e i n t h e o l d e s t a g e - g r o u p . I n t h e l a t t e r g r o u p 34.6% (3018 + 3.8) o n l y f a v o r m e r i t p a y . T h u s , o f t h e 39.0% i n f a v o r o f m e r i t r a t i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a g o o d p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e m a r e among t h e y o u n g e s t a g e - g r o u p o f t h e t e a c h i n g profession. This would probably r e f l e c t the assessment by t h i s group of t h e i r prospects f o r promotion under t h e i r e x i s t i n g salary agreements, and any higher incomes would, therefore, have to be earned by teaching competency and they are w i l l i n g to t r y such a scheme. 9. Willingness to have teaching evaluated f o r salary deter- mination d i s t r i b u t e d by years of teaching experience of  the teachers: When the r e s u l t s with reference to the age d i s t r i b u t i o n from above are taken and compared with those r e l a t i n g t o d i s -t r i b u t i o n by number of years of teaching experience, there i s some close resemblance i n them. Thus, those teachers who have had less than 3 years of teaching experience (probably also those among the youngest age-group) are i n favor of merit pay: 43.0% (29.6 + 13.4)« There i s a greater proportion here favoring merit pay than amongst those with more than 10 years of teaching experience: 43.0% ^  39.0% of t o t a l sample, where-as i n 11 + years of teaching experience category, 39.Q% ^36.4% (26.0 + 10.4) or 39.0 > 27.5% (17.2 + 10.3) (See Tables 3:8A and 3:8B) I t may be i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that amongst those between seven and ten years of teaching experience, there i s also a larger proportion f o r merit pay plans than would be found i n the t o t a l sample: 42.6% (36.2 + 6.4) y 39.0%. I t i s very l i k e l y that they are those who have reached t h e i r present max-ima i n the e x i s t i n g salary schedules and are looking f o r other ways of advancing t h e i r incomes. 44 Table 3?8 A:Willingness to have teaching evaluated f o r  salary determination d i s t r i b u t e d by years  of teaching experience (absolute figures) Years of Teaching Experience Degree of No 1-3 4-6 7-10 11-19 20+ Willingness Answer yrs yrs yrs yrs yrs Total Did Not Answer 2 1 1 1 5 1 11 D e f i n i t e l y Not 2 50 21 19 31 13 136 Probably Not 1 27 12 5 7 5 57 Undecided 0 24 7 2 6 2 41 Probably Would 1 53 15 17 20 5 111 D e f i n i t e l y Would 2 24 6 3 8 3 46 Total 8 179 62 4 7 77 29 402 Table 3*8 B: Willingness to have teaching evaluated f o r  salary determination d i s t r i b u t e d by years  of teaching experience ( i n %) Years of Teaching Experience Degree of No Willingness Answer 1-3 yrs 4-6 yrs 7-10 yrs 11-19 yrs 20+ yrs Total Did Not Answer 14.3 0.6 1.6 2.1 6.5 3.4 2.7 D e f i n i t e l y Not 28.6 27.9 33.9 40.4 40.3 44.8 33.8 Probably Not 14.3 15.1 19.4 10.6 9.1 17.2 14.2 Undecided .0 13.4 11.3 4.3 7.8 6.9 10.2 Probably Would 14.3 D e f i n i t e l y Would28.6 29.6) ) 13.4) 24.2) ) 9 . 7 ) 36.2) ) 6.4) 26.0) ) 10.4) 17.2) ) 10.3) 27.6) ) 11.4) T o t a l 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 % of T o t a l 1.8 44.5 15.4 11.8 19.2 7.2 100.0 4 , 5 1 0 . W i l l i n g n e s s t o have t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r s a l a r y  d e t e r m i n a t i o n d i s t r i b u t e d by present c e r t i f i c a t e  l e v e l s of respondents: Those f a v o r i n g m e r i t pay were a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d i n d i f -f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n s by t h e i r present c e r t i f i c a t e l e v e l s ( T a b l e s 3 * . 9 A and 3 : 9 B ) . Table 3i9A: W i l l i n g n e s s t o have t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r  s a l a r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n d i s t r i b u t e d by present  c e r t i f i c a t e l e v e l s ( a b s o l u t e f i g u r e s ) Present C e r t i f i c a t e L e v e l s Degree of No W i l l i n g n e s s Answer E.C. E.B. E.A. P.C. P.B. P. 1 4 A.Other Tot D i d Not Answer 0 0 1 2 3 4 1 0 1 1 D e f i n i t e l y Not 0 2 5 6 1 2 1 3 3 4 1 7 2 1 3 6 Probably Not 0 1 1 9 9 4 1 7 5 2 5 7 Undecided 0 1 2 3 2 4 9 1 1 4 1 Probably Would 1 4 5 4 8 9 2 5 9 1 1 1 1 D e f i n i t e l y Would 1 3 1 7 3 4 6 4 8 4 6 T o t a l 2 1 1 1 7 0 3 6 3 7 9 5 3 7 1 4 4 0 2 1 4 . Such as those w i t h temporary permits t o t e a c h and so on. 46 Table 3:9B: Willingness to have teaching evaluated f o r salary determination d i s t r i b u t e d by present c e r t i f i c a t e  l e v e l s ( i n %)~. ' Present C e r t i f i c a t e Levels Degree of No Willingness Answer E.C. E.B. E.A. P.C. P.B. P.A. Other Total Did Not Answer .0 .0 0 . 6 5 . 6 8.1 4.2 2.7 .0 2.7 D e f i n i t e l y Not .0 18.2 32.9 33.3 35.1 35.8 45.9 14.3 33.8 Probably Not .0 9.1 11.2 25.0 10.8 17.9 13.5 14.3 14.2 Undecided ,0 9.1 13.5 5 . 6 10.8 9.5 2.7 7.1 10.2 Probably Would 50.0 D e f i n i t e l y Would 50.0 36.4) 31.8)22.2)24.3) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 27.3) 10.0) 8.3)10.8) 26.3)24.3) ) ) 6.2)10.8) 7.1) ) ) 57.1) 27 .6) ) ) 11.4) Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0100.0 100.0 100.0 % of Total 0.5 2.7 42.3 9.0 9.2 23 .6 9.2 3.5 100.0 Thus, compared t o the 3 9 . 0 % from the t o t a l sample that were i n favor of merit pay, the d i s t r i b u t i o n by c e r t i f i c a t e 1 l e v e l s i n favor of merit pay i s as follows (Table 3*9B) E.C. 6 3 . 7 % E.B. 4 1 . 8 % E.A. 3 0 . 5 % P.C 3 5 . 1 % P.B. 3 2 . 5 % P.A. 3 5 . 1 % Others 6 4 . 2 % T h e f i n d i n g s show t h a t t h o s e w i t h t h e l o w e s t c e r t i f i c a t e l e v e l s , v i z . E . C . a n d E . B . , a n d a g o o d p e r c e n t a g e o f " o t h e r s " a l s o f e l l u n d e r t h i s c a t e g o r y , w e r e m o r e i n f a v o r o f a m e r i t r a t i n g s y s t e m t h a n t h o s e w i t h b e t t e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , s u c h a s t h e E . A . o r P . C . o r P . B . o r P . A . We may p r o j e c t t h i s i n t o t h e p o p u l a t i o n a n d a s s u m e t h a t i n g e n e r a l t h e r e w i l l b e a l a r g e r f r a c t i o n o f t h o s e w i t h l o w e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s who w i l l o p t i n t o a m e r i t p a y s c h e d u l e t h a n a m o n g s t t h o s e w i t h h i g h e r q u a l i f i -c a t i o n s . T h i s w o u l d seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s some d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n among t h e l o w e r l e v e l s o f t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n a n d a n y c h a n g e s i n s a l a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e w e l c o m e f o r t h e m . I t c o u l d b e v e r y l i k e l y t h a t a g o o d p e r c e n -t a g e o f t h e m a r e among t h e y o u n g e s t a g e - g r o u p ( T a b l e 2-7) a n d among t h o s e w i t h t h e l e a s t t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ( T a b l e s 3:8A a n d 3:8B). 1 1 . W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r s a l a r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n d i s t r i b u t e d b y e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s ,  s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , a n d s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s . T h e p r o p o n e n t s a n d o p p o n e n t s o f a n e v a l u a t i o n s c h e m e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g s a l a r i e s a l s o v a r i e d i n d i f f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n s when s t u d i e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e g r a d e s t a u g h t a n d s c h o o l p r i n -c i p a l s ( T a b l e 3 : 1 0 ) . 48 Table 3?10? Willingness to have teaching evaluated f o r salary  determination d i s t r i b u t e d by elementary school teachers, secondary school teachers, and school p r i n c i p a l s ( i n % ) . Grade-levels/School P r i n c i p a l s Degree of No Elem.Sch. Sec.Sch. Sch, Willingness Answer (n=4) Teacher (n=179) Teacher (n=I59) P r i n c i p a l (n=bU) Total (N=402) Did Not Answer .0 1.1 3.8 5.0 2.7 D e f i n i t e l y Not Probably Not 25.0 25.0 32.4) ) 11.2) 27.7) ) 18.2) 55.0) ) 11.7) 33.8) ) 14.2) Undecided .0 13.4 9.4 3.3 10.2 Probably Would .o D e f i n i t e l y Would 50.0 30.7) ) 11.2) 29.6) ) 11.3) 15.0) ) 10.0) 27.6) ) 11.4) Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 % of Total 1.0 44.5 39.6 14.9 100.0 The findings are that, amongst the elementary school teachers, there i s the highest proportion who are i n favor of merit pay, and therefore the smallest proportion against merit pay: 41.9% i n favor >^ 39.0% of sample t o t a l , and 48.0% of t o t a l sample against ^ 43.6% of elementary school teachers. There i s also a greater proportion amongst the secondary school teachers, compared to the t o t a l sample, who favor merit pay: 40.9% > 39.0%. On the other hand, one could expect, amongst school p r i n c i p a l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, to f i n d only one i n every four who would be i n favor of a merit pay scheme: only 25.0% of them 49 15 expressed p r e f e r e n c e f o r a me r i t r a t i n g system. 12. W i l l i n g n e s s t o have t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r s a l a r y d e t e r - m i n a t i o n d i s t r i b u t e d among c e r t a i n environmental i n - f l u e n c e s F o r : t h e purposes of t h i s a n a l y s i s , environmental i n -f l u e n c e s i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : (a) the s i z e of the town where the respondents are now employed, and (b) the s i z e of the s c h o o l , as d e f i n e d by the number of t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l , where the respondents a re now employed. (Ta b l e s 3 : H A and 3:11B and 3:12A and 3:12B). Table 3 ?HA: W i l l i n g n e s s t o have t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r s a l a r y  d e t e r m i n a t i o n d i s t r i b u t e d among c e r t a i n e n v i r o n - mental i n f l u e n c e s (abs. f i g s . ) ' S i z e of Town Degree of No W i l l i n g n e s s Answer R u r a l 5,000-9,000 10,000-19,000 20,000-49,000 Over 50,000 T o t a l D i d Not Answer 1 4 1 4 0 1 11 D e f i n i t e l y Not 5 34 21 17 16 43 136 Probably Not 2 16 8 9 6 16 57 Undecided 2 8 6 6 2 17 41 Probably Would 7 30 20 23 7 24 111 D e f i n i t e l y Would 3 7 11 9 3 13 46 T o t a l 20 99 67 68 34 114 402 15. I t may be i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare our f i n d i n g s w i t h the r e -s u l t s of surveys conducted elsewhere: (a) In the New England Survey mentioned e a r l i e r , the author concluded t h a t "a l a r g e r f r a c t i o n of elementary than j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s would oppose e v a l u a t i o n " (p. 3 7 ) , (b) In the Washington S t a t e Survey r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r , 47.3% of the a d m i n i s t o r s (probably mainly s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s ) were i n f a v o r of m e r i t pay, and (c) In a survey, u s i n g a nation-wide sampling of s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , 86.0% f a v o r e d the p r i n c i p l e of m e r i t pay. (The Nation's S c h o o l s , May, 1956) 50 T a b l e 3 : 1 1 B ; W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r s a l a r y  D e t e r m i n a t i o n d i s t r i b u t e d among c e r t a i n e n v i r o n - m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s ( i n % ) . S i z e o f Town D e g r e e o f No W i l l i n g n e s s A n s w e r R u r a l 5 P 0 0 -9,999 1 0 , 0 0 0 -19 , 000 2 0 , 0 0 0 -49 ,000 O v e r 50 ,000 T o t a l D i d N o t A n s w e r 5 . 0 4 . 0 1 .5 5.9 . 0 .9 2 .7 D e f i n i t e l y N o t 2 5 . 0 34.3 31 .3 25 .0 47 .1 37 .1 33.8 P r o b a b l y N o t 1 0 . 0 1 6 . 2 1 1 . 9 1 3 . 2 17 .6 1 4 . 0 1 4 . 2 U n d e c i d e d 1 0 . 0 8 . 1 9 . 0 8.8 5.9 14.9 1 0 . 2 P r o b a b l y W o u l d 35 .0 30.3) ) 7 . 1 ) 2 9 . 9 ) ) 16.4) 33.8 20 .6) ) 8.8) 2 1 . 1 ) ) 11 .4 ) 27 .6 D e f i n i t e l y W o u l d l 5 . 0 1 3 . 2 1 1 . 4 T o t a l 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 % o f T o t a l 5 . 0 24 .6 1 6 . 7 16 .9 8 . 5 28.4 1 0 0 . 0 T a b l e s 3: 11A a n d 3 : H B show t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n s o f t e a -c h e r s w i l l i n g t o h a v e t h e i r t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r s a l a r y p u r -p o s e s w o u l d v a r y w i t h t h e s i z e o f t h e t o w n i n w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r s a r e now e m p l o y e d . I n t h e r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , 37.4% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s f a v o r e d m e r i t p a y p l a n s , a n d i n t o w n s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n b e t w e e n 20,000 - 49,000, t h e p e r c e n t a g e i s 29.4%, a n d i n t o w n s w i t h o v e r 50,000 p o p u l a t i o n , t h e p e r c e n t a g e i s 32.5%. T h e s e p r o p o r t i o n s a r e s m a l l e r t h a n f o r t h e w h o l e s a m p l e (39.0%). I n t o w n s b e t w e e n 5,000 - 19,000 i n h a b i t a n t s , t h e p r o -p o r t i o n i s a b o u t 46% t o 47%. T h u s , o p p o s i t i o n t o m e r i t p a y p l a n s w o u l d c o m e , on t h e one h a n d , f r o m t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s a n d , on t h e o t h e r , f r o m t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e v e r y l a r g e t o w n s . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h e v i e w s 51 g a t h e r e d f r o m some o f t h e l o c a l t e a c h e r s * a s s o c i a t i o n o f f i c i a l s . T h i s f a c t o r c o u l d b e p r o f i t a b l y k e p t i n m i n d i n a n y i n t r o d u c -t o r y s c h e m e s t o b r i n g i n t o o p e r a t i o n m e r i t p l a n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I n a n e f f o r t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f a n o t h e r e n v i r o n -m e n t a l f a c t o r o n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s m e r i t p a y , r e s p o n s e s w e r e a l s o s t u d i e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e s i z e o f t h e s c h o o l w h e r e t h e t e a c h e r s a r e p r e s e n t l y e m p l o y e d ( T a b l e s 3*12A a n d 3 : 1 2 B ) . T a b l e 3 s l 2 A ; W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r s a l a r y  d e t e r m i n a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o s i z e o f s c h o o l w h e r e  now e m p l o y e d ( A b s . f i g s . ) S i z e o f S c h o o l ( i . e . N o . o f T e a c h e r s ) D e g r e e o f No W i l l i n g n e s s A n s w e r 1 -5 6 -10 1 1 - 2 0 2 1 - 4 0 4 1 - 6 0 60+ T o t a l D i d N o t A n s w e r 1 1 1 2 4 1 1 11 D e f i n i t e l y N o t 5 11 18 40 44 13 5 136 P r o b a b l y N o t 2 5 6 11 25 3 5 57 U n d e c i d e d 2 4 5 15 8 4 3 41 P r o b a b l y W o u l d 3 15 16 33 27 9 8 111 D e f i n i t e l y W o u l d 3 7 5 10 16 1 4 46 T o t a l 16 43 51 111 124 31 26 402 52 T a b l e 3 : 1 2 B : W i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r s a l a r y  d e t e r m i n a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o s i z e o f s c h o o l w h e r e  now e m p l o y e d ( i n % ) . S i z e o f S c h o o l ( i . e . N o . o f T e a c h e r s ) D e g r e e o f No W i l l i n g n e s s A n s w e r 1 - 5 6 - 1 0 1 1 - 2 0 2 1 - 4 0 4 1 - 6 0 6 0 - T o t a l D i d N o t A n s w e r 6 . 3 2 . 3 2 . 0 1 . 8 3 . 2 3 . 2 3 . 8 2 . 7 D e f i n i t e l y N o t 3 1 . 3 2 5 . 6 3 5 . 3 3 6 . 0 3 5 . 5 4 1 . 9 1 9 . 2 33 .8 P r o b a b l y N o t 1 2 . 5 1 1 , 6 1 1 . 8 9 . 9 2 0 . 2 9 . 7 1 9 . 2 1 4 . 2 U n d e c i d e d 1 2 . 5 9 . 3 9 . 8 1 3 . 5 6 . 5 1 2 . 9 1 1 . 5 3 0 . 2 P r o b a b l y W o u l d 1 8 . 8 3 4 . 9 ) 3 1 . 4 ) 2 9 . 7 ) 2 1 . 8 ) 2 9 . 0 ) 3 0 . 8 ) 2 7 . 6 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) D e f i n i t e l y W o u l d 1 8 . 8 1 6 . 3 ) 9 . 8 ) 9 . 0 ) 1 2 . 9 ) 3 . 2 ) 1 5 . 4 ) 1 1 . 4 ) T o t a l 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 100.0 1 0 0 . 0 % o f T o t a l 4 . 0 1 0 . 7 1 2 . 7 2 7 . 6 3 0 . 8 7 . 7 6 . 5 1 0 0 . 0 I t w i l l b e o b s e r v e d t h a t i n v e r y s m a l l s c h o o l s , t h a t i s , t h o s e s c h o o l s w i t h f e w e r t h a n 5 t e a c h e r s e m p l o y e d , m o r e t h a n h a l f o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e i n f a v o r o f m e r i t r a t i n g : 51 .2%. t T h e r e i s a l s o a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n i n s c h o o l s w i t h 6 t o 10 t e a c h e r s : 4 1 . 2 % . O n c e we move t o s c h o o l s w i t h 11 t e a c h e r s a n d o v e r , t h e p r o p o r t i o n s f a v o r i n g m e r i t p a y a r e l o w e r t h a n t h e o v e r - a l l p e r -c e n t a g e o f 39 .0%: t h u s , 37.4% f o r s c h o o l s b e t w e e n 1 1 - 2 0 t e a c h e r s , 34.7% f o r t h o s e b e t w e e n 2 1 - 4 0 t e a c h e r s , 32.2% f o r t h o s e b e t w e e n 4 1 - 6 0 t e a c h e r s a n d 36.7% f o r s c h o o l s w i t h o v e r 60 t e a c h e r s . T h i s w o u l d be- a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t o k e e p i n m i n d i n i n t r o d u c i n g a n y e x p e r i m e n t a l m e r i t p a y p l a n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . C H A P T E R I V . T E A C H E R S ' A T T I T U D E S TOWARDS MERIT R A T I N G ( C o n t i n u e d ) T h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r e x a m i n e d t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o w a r d s m e r i t r a t i n g . T e a c h e r s who e x p r e s s e d w i l l i n g n e s s t o b e e v a l u a t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f s a l a r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n w e r e t h e n s t u d i e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e i r s e x , a g e , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , c e r t i f i c a t i o n l e v e l s , y e a r s o f t e a c h -i n g e x p e r i e n c e , t h e s i z e o f t h e s c h o o l s w h e r e t h e y a r e now e m -p l o y e d , t h e s i z e o f t h e t o w n s w h e r e t h e y a r e p r e s e n t l y e m p l o y e d , t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s e v a l u a t i o n f o r p r o m o t i o n a l p u r p o s e s a n d w h e t h e r t h e y h a v e h a d p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e o f w o r k i n g u n d e r a m e r i t r a t i n g s y s t e m . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l e x p l o r e f u r t h e r t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t e a c h e r s t o w a r d s m e r i t p a y . T h e f o c u s w i l l b e on m a j o r c o n t r o -v e r s i a l i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a m e r i t p a y p l a n . F o u r m a i n a r e a s w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d , v i z . : 1. T h e a t t i t u d e s o f t e a c h e r s t o w a r d s t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e . 2. T h e a t t i t u d e s o f t e a c h e r s on t h e i n f l u e n c e o f m e r i t r a t i n g o n t h e m o r a l e o f t h e f a c u l t y . 3. T e a c h e r s * o p i n i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f m e r i t p a y on t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . 4. T h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s r e l a t i n g t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a m e r i t p a y p l a n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 1 1 . T h e M e a s u r e m e n t o f T e a c h i n g P e r f o r m a n c e 54 One o f t h e m a i n r e a s o n s t h e B C T F i s o p p o s e d t o m e r i t r a t i n g i s i t c o n t e n d s t h a t n o v a l i d m e t h o d h a s y e t b e e n d e v i s e d t o m e a s u r e t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e s o a s t o b e a b l e t o a t t a c h 2 s a l a r i e s t o i t . A n y p l a n o f a c t i o n o n t h e p r o b l e m w o u l d h a v e t o c o n s i d e r a t l e a s t t h e f o l l o w i n g b a s i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : 1 1 ( i ) T h e c r i t e r i a b y w h i c h p r o f e s s i o n a l c o m p e t e n c e m i g h t b e e v a l u a t e d w o u l d h a v e t o b e d e v e l o p e d , ( i i ) P r o c e d u r e s , i n s t r u m e n t s a n d t e c h n i q u e s f o r a p p l y -i n g t o s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s w o u l d h a v e t o b e w o r k e d o u t , ( i i i ) B o t h t h e c r i t e r i a a n d t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s w o u l d h a v e t o b e t e s t e d i n t h e a c t u a l c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n . n ^ A l l t h e s e , i n t u r n , w o u l d demand t h a t t h e r e b e a t l e a s t some b a s i c a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a n d t h e s c h o o l t r u s t e e s on i s s u e s s u c h a s t h e f o l l o w i n g : 1. R e a d e r s a r e a d v i s e d t o a c q u a i n t t h e m s e l v e s w i t h a t l e a s t some o f t h e w o r k s on t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e c o m p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d . S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e f o l l o w i n g : ( i ) T h e M e a s u r e m e n t a n d P r e d i c t i o n o f T e a c h e r E f f e c t i v e n e s s . W i s c o n s i n S t u d i e s , D e m b a r P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , M a d i s o n 3, 19ol. ( i i ) V a n d e r W e r f , L . S . , How t o E v a l u a t e T e a c h e r s a n d T e a c h i n g , New Y o r k , 1958. ( i i i ) New E n g l a n d S c h o o l s D e v e l o p m e n t C o u n c i l , T e a c h e r C o m p e t - e n c e a n d I t s R e l a t i o n t o S a l a r y , 1956, e d . T i e d e m a n ; A p p e n d i x C l i s t s 47 p a g e s o f n o t e s t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n e f f e c t i v e a n d i n e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r s ; ( i v ) B a r r , A . S . l i s t s a n u m b e r o f c h a r a -c t e r i s t i c s o f a g o o d t e a c h e r a n d t h e n f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e s t h e m i n P h i D e l t a K a p p a , M a r c h 1958, p p . 282-284; ( v ) H a r e , D o u g l a s , "What i s a G o o d T e a c h e r ? " , T h e H i g h S c h o o l J o u r n a l , J a n u a r y , 1958, p . 110; ( v i ) B y r n e , T . C . " G o o d T e a c h i n g a n d G o o d T e a c h e r s " , T h e C a n a d i a n A d m i n i s t r a t o r , F e b r u a r y , 1962, p p .20-23; a n d ( v i i ) W o r t h , W . H . " C a n A d m i n i s t r a t o r s R a t e T e a c h e r s ? " , T h e C a n a d i a n A d m i n i s t r a t o r , O c t o b e r , 1961, p p . 1-5. 2. " M e r i t P a y f o r T e a c h e r s - T h e B . C . T . F . S t a n d , " T h e B . C .  T e a c h e r , S e p t e m b e r - O c t o b e r , 1962, p p . 12-14. 3. L o c . c i t . 55 ( i ) What i s an e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r ? ( i i ) What i s e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g ? ( i i i ) What c r i t e r i a does one use i n me a s u r i n g an e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r , or e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g ? ( i v ) Who s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m e a s u r i n g t e a c h i n g p e r -formance and a t t a c h i n g d o l l a r amounts t o i t ? ^ The B.C.TLJF. contends t h a t agreement on t h e s e i s s u e s i s not y e t p o s s i b l e and any p l a n t o implement a m e r i t pay program i s bound t o be c r i t i c i z e d as u n f a i r and u n j u s t . 4 . The l i t e r a t u r e on m e r i t r a t i n g has thrown c o n s i d e r a b l e l i g h t on t h e q u a l i t i e s an e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r ought t o have. Un-f o r t u n a t e l y , some of t h e s e a r e i m p o s s i b l e t o a t t a i n and some a r e c o n t r a d i c t o r y , as n o t i c e t h e f o l l o w i n g : (a) P r o f e s s o r B a r r l i s t s 12 q u a l i t i e s of a good t e a c h e r : R e s o u r c e f u l n e s s I n t e l l i g e n c e E m o t i o n a l S t a b i l i t y C o n s i d e r a t e n e s s Buoyancy O b j e c t i v i t y ( P h i D e l t a Kappan, March, 1 9 5 8 , pp. 2 8 2 - 2 8 4 ) Drxve D ominance A t t r a c t i v e n e s s Refinement C o - o p e r a t i v e n e s s R e l i a b i l i t y (b) Byrne would d i s a g r e e w i t h B a r r on ' i n t e l l i g e n c e * as an i n d i s p e n s a b l e t r a i t i n a good t e a c h e r . " S t u d i e s i n d i c a t e a s l i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p between degrees of i n t e l l i g e n c e and r a t e d s u c c e s s b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e not c r u c i a l . " ( B y r n e , T.C., "Good T e a c h i n g and Good T e a c h e r s , " The C a n a d i a n A d m i n i s t r a t o r , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 6 2 , p. 2 2 ) . Whereas some a u t h o r i t i e s have a l s o s t r e s s e d knowledge of s u b j e c t - m a t t e r as an i m p o r t a n t t r a i t i n a good t e a c h e r , Byrne s a y s t h a t " d e s p i t e o p i n i o n i n some q u a r t e r s , knowledge of s u b j e c t -m a t t e r does n o t appear t o be a major f a c t o r i n t e a c h -i n g s u c c e s s . " ( L o c . c i t . ) Numerous o t h e r s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h e wide disagreement on t h e s e f o u r i s s u e s . 56 I n t h e l i g h t o f t h i s b a c k g r o u n d , t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w e r e s o u g h t t o t h i s p r o b l e m . M o s t t e a c h e r s r e a d i l y a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e r e w a s a d i f f e r e n c e i n t e a c h e r s a n d i n t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e , a n d w o u l d o f t e n p o i n t t o t h o s e w h o m t h e y h a v e k n o w n w e r e o u t s t a n d i n g . M o s t s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s a l s o a g r e e d t h a t t h e r e w a s s u p e r i o r t e a c h i n g a n d p o o r t e a c h i n g a n d s o d i d m o s t p a r e n t s t o w h o m t h i s p r o b l e m w a s d i r e c t e d . T h e t e a c h e r s , h o w e v e r , a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h i s d i f f e r -e n c e i n t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e c a n n o t b e a c c u r a t e l y m e a s u r e d , b y e i t h e r s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s o r s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s ( T a b l e 4:1). O u t o f 18.1% w h o t h o u g h t t h i s c o u l d b e p o s s i b l e , o n l y 1.2% w e r e q u i t e p o s i t i v e a b o u t i t . T h e r e s t w e r e u n c e r t a i n (10.2%) o r t h o u g h t t h a t t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e c o u l d n o t b e a c c u r a t e l y m e a s u r e d t o s e r v e a s a b a s i s f o r a. m e r i t p a y p l a n . (70.1%). i I n T a b l e 4:2, i t i s o b s e r v e d t h a t , w h e r e a s 18.1% t h o u g h t t h a t t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e c a n b e a c c u r a t e l y m e a s u r e d , 23.9 b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s m e a s u r e m e n t w o u l d b e d o n e f a i r l y e n o u g h t o s e r v e a s a b a s i s f o r a m e r i t p a y p l a n . T h e r e i s s t i l l a s i z e a b l e s e g -m e n t o f 45.3% w h o b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s m e a s u r e m e n t o f p e r f o r -m a n c e b y s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s a n d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s w i l l n o t b e c a r r i e d o u t f a i r l y . T h e s e f a c t o r s m a y a c c o u n t f o r t h e s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n t o m e r i t r a t i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A f e w t y p i c a l c o m m e n t s f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s m a y e l a b o r a t e f u r t h e r t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n : 57 T a b l e 4;1: C a n T e a c h i n g P e r f o r m a n c e b e A c c u r a t e l y M e a s u r e d ? A b s . F i g s , % o f T o t a l D i d N o t A n s w e r 6 1,5 D e f i n i t e l y Y e s 5 1.2) ) 18.1 P r o b a b l y Y e s 68 16.9) U n d e c i d e d 41 10.2 P r o b a b l y No 121 30.1) ) "70 • i. D e f i n i t e l y No 161 40.0) T o t a l 402 100.0 T a b l e 4:2: W o u l d T e a c h i n g P e r f o r m a n c e b e F a i r l y M e a s u r e d ? A b s . F i g s . % o f T o t a l D i d N o t A n s w e r 8 2.0 D e f i n i t e l y Y e s 6 1.5) ) 23,9 P r o b a b l y Y e s 90 22.4) U n d e c i d e d 76 18.9 P r o b a b l y No 118 29.4) ) 45.3 D e f i n i t e l y No 104 25.9) T o t a l 402 100.0 " I am a g a i n s t m e r i t p a y . A t e a c h e r ' s w o r k c a n n o t b e m e a s u r e d i n t e r m s o f money f a i r l y . T h e r e a r e s o many a s p e c t s o f t e a c h i n g t h e ' w h o l e c h i l d ' t h a t a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t i s o n l y o n e . M e r i t p a y l e a d s t o d i s h o n e s t y , l o s s o f i n t e g r i t y a n d u n e t h i c a l p r a c t i c e s b y t e a c h e r s a n d s c h o o l b o a r d s . A n d h e r e we a r e t r y i n g t o make t e a c h i n g a p r o f e s s i o n . " " T h i s w h o l e i d e a o f m e r i t r a t i n g i s d a n g e r o u s . T h e t e a c h e r b e c o m e s t h e v i c t i m o f j u d g e s who may o r may n o t b e f a i r . " " I am a g a i n s t m e r i t r a t i n g b e c a u s e t h e e v a l -u a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g w o u l d b e u n f a i r , a n d t h e r e w o u l d b e m o r e s t r a i n a d d e d on t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s l o a d . " " I d o n o t b e l i e v e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o j u d g e ' g o o d * t e a c h i n g b e c a u s e e v e r y o n e ' s i d e a o f g o o d t e a c h i n g v a r i e s w i t h t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e a n d t r a i n -i n g . " " I know my p r i n c i p a l w o u l d n o t b e f a i r j he a d m i t s h a v i n g f a v o u r i t e s . " " I am n o t a g a i n s t t h e m e r i t p r i n c i p l e b u t s h o r t o f c a l l i n g G o d t o b e t h e j u d g e i n a s s e s s i n g t e a c h e r v a l u e , t h e r e w o u l d b e n o f a i r way . . . . A p a r t f r o m a l l t h i s , I f e e l t h a t money s h o u l d n o t b e s o i m p o r t a n t . A g o o d t e a c h e r g e t s h i s r e w a r d s f r o m t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f s e e i n g h i s r e -s u l t s . " " M e r i t p a y w o u l d w o r k w e l l i n l a r g e d i s t r i c t s a n d s c h o o l s . I n s m a l l e r s c h o o l s , s u c h a s i n a company t o w n w h e r e I l i v e , I f e e l t h a t y o u r o u t -s i d e l i f e f r o m s c h o o l a n d y o u r r e l a t i o n s t o o t h e r p e o p l e who a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e o f a h i g h e r s o c i a l s t a t u s w o u l d h a v e m o r e b e a r i n g on y o u r m e r i t p a y t h a n on t h e t i m e a n d e x t r a w o r k y o u g i v e t o y o u r s c h o o l . " 1 59 T A B L E 4:3 C A N T E A C H I N G PERFORMANCE BE A C C U R A T E L Y MEASURED? N o . A n s w e r E . S . T . S . S . 1 S . P . T O T A L A b s . % A b s . . % A b s . . % A b s . % A b s . . % D i d N o t A n s w e r 0 .0 4 2.2 2 1.3 0 .0 6 1.5 D e f i n i t e l y Y e s 0 .0 2 1.1) 3 1.9) 0 .0) 5 1.2 ) ) ) P r o b a b l y Y e s 1 25.0 41 22.9) 19 11.9) 7 11.7) 68 16.9 U n d e c i d e d 0 .0 19 10.6 14 8.8 8 13.3 41 10.2 P r o b a b l y No 0 .0 53 29.6 51 32.1 17 28.3 121 30.1 D e f i n i t e l y No 3 75.0 60 33.5 70 44.0 28 46.7 161 40.0 T o t a l 4 100.0 179 100.0 159 100.0 60 100.0 402 100.0 E . S . T . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s S . S . T . S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s S . P . S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l . T A B L E 4:4 WOULD T E A C H I N G PERFORMANCE BE F A I R L Y MEASURED? No A n s w e r E . S . T . S . S . T . S . P . T O T A L A b s . % A b s . . % A b s . • % A b s . % A b s . . , % D i d n o t a n s w e r 0 .0 6 3.4 2 1.3 0 .0 8 2.0 D e f i n i t e l y Y e s 0 .0 1 .6) 3 1.9) 2 3.3) 6 1.5 ) ) ) P r o b a b l y Y e s 0 .0 52 29.1) 27 17.0) 11 18.3) 90 22.4 U n d e c i d e d 1 25.0 35 19.6 30 18.9 10 16.7 76 18.9 P r o b a b l y No 1 25.0 47 26.3 52 32.7 18 30.0 118 29.4 D e f i n i t e l y No 2 50.0 38 21.2 45 28.3 19 31.7 104 25.9 T o t a l 4 100.0 179 100.0 159 100.0 60 100.0 402 100.0 E . S . T . E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s S . S . T . S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s S . P . . S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l . 61 I n o r d e r t o s t u d y t h e s e r e s p o n s e s i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l , t h e y were s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , v i z . e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s and s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s . The f i n d i n g s a r e found i n T a b l e s 4s 3 and 4 s 4 . I n T a b l e 4 s 3 , we observe t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n of elemen-t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s who b e l i e v e t h a t t e a c h i n g performance can be a c c u r a t e l y measured exceeds t h a t o f t h e s econdary s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , which i n t u r n , exceeds t h a t of t h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s (EST > SST ^> SP) as f o l l o w s , i n p r o p o r t i o n a t e terms: 24 .0% > 13.8% ^ 11.7%. I n t h e o t h e r c a s e , T a b l e 4 s 4 , t h e p r o p o r t i o n of e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , s t i l l exceeds t h o s e of t h e o t h e r two groups: 29.7% ^ 18.9% f o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , or 29.7% ^ 21.6% f o r s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s . These f i g u r e s may account f o r t h e h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e of e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s who a r e w i l l i n g t o experiment w i t h a m e r i t r a t i n g system (see T a b l e 3 s 1 0 ) . T a b l e 4s4 a l s o e x h i b i t s an i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e . There i s a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s as opposed t o s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s who b e l i e v e t h a t t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m -n a t u r a l f o r s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s t o f e e l t h i s way about themselves, t hough t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of t h e m s e l v e s as f a i r j u d g e s i s s t i l l b elow t h e o v e r - a l l a verage of 23.9% f o r t h e t o t a l sample. Dr. Byrne a c c o u n t s f o r t h i s when he s a y s t h a t most p e o p l e b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of good t e a c h i n g i s a s i m p l e m a t t e r , ance would be f a i r l y measured 1 8 . 9 % ) . I t would be b u t : 62 " F o r t h o s e c h a r g e d w i t h t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f e v a l -u a t i n g t e a c h i n g , h o w e v e r , t h e t a s k i s n o t s o s i m p l e . S c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e k e e n l y a w a r e o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t e a c h i n g . T h e y a r e n o t a l w a y s p o s i t i v e what t e a c h e r i s a g o o d t e a c h e r . I n f a c t , t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i s u n i q u e who d o e s n o t o c c a s i o n a l l y h a v e m i s g i v i n g s a s t o t h e i n -f a l l i b i l i t y o f h i s j u d g m e n t . " 5 2. T h e I n f l u e n c e o f M e r i t P a y on t h e M o r a l e o f t h e F a c u l t y  a n d on T e a c h i n g S t a n d a r d s A f r e q u e n t l y e x p r e s s e d v i e w i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n m e r i t r a t i n g i s t h a t m e r i t r a t i n g w o u l d r e s u l t i n a d v e r s e r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s t t h e members o f t h e f a c u l t y , a n d b e t w e e n t h e f a c u l t y a n d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s , i t i s a r g u e d , w o u l d l o w e r t h e m o r a l e o f t h e t e a c h e r s a n d a f f e c t t h e s t a n d a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s c h o o l s . P r o f e s s o r G i l e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , s a y s : 5. B y r n e , T . C . , " G o o d T e a c h i n g a n d G o o d T e a c h e r s " , T h e  C a n a d i a n A d m i n i s t r a t o r , F e b r u a r y 1962, p . 20. One i s r e m i n d e d o f n u m e r o u s s t u d i e s c a r r i e d o u t t h a t s t r e s s t h e t r e m e n d o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n a r r i v i n g a t a f a i r j u d g m e n t o f a t e a c h e r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e . I n one p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y , f o r i n s t a n c e , 60 s u p e r v i s o r s w e r e a s k e d t o r a t e t h e same t e a c h e r s . T h e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e r a t i n g s was s u c h t h a t i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n d i f f i c u l t t o b a s e a m e r i t s a l a r y on t h e m . ( B e e c h e r , D w i g h t E . , T h e T e a c h i n g E v a l u a t i o n R e c o r d , E d u c a t o r ' s P u b l i s h i n g C o . , . 1 9 5 6 , p . 3 ) . I n a n o t h e r s t u d y c o n d u c t e d a t B a n f f , 63 s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s a n d 65 p r i n c i p a l s w e r e p l a c e d i n a t e s t s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e y w e r e r e q u i r e d t o r a t e one s p e c i f i c t e a c h e r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e a f t e r a n o b s e r v a t i o n o f a b o u t 15 m i n u t e s . T h e r e w e r e w i d e v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e r a t i n g s a s s i g n e d t o t h e t e a c h e r . ( W o r t h , W a l t e r H . , " C a n A d m i n i s t r a t o r s R a t e T e a c h e r s ? " , T h e C a n a d i a n A d -m i n i s t r a t o r , O c t o b e r,1961, p p . 2^-4). . 63 " T h e r e i s n o d o u b t i n my m i n d t h a t m e r i t r a t i n g i s l a u d a b l e i n p r i n c i p l e b u t i f . . . we a r e r e a l l y i n -t e r e s t e d i n i m p r o v i n g t e a c h e r m o r a l e , r a t h e r t h a n l o w e r i n g i t , t h e n m e r i t r a t i n g i s n o t p o s s i b l e , p a r -t i c u l a r l y when a t t a c h e d t o a s a l a r y s c h e d u l e . " 6 O t h e r o p p o n e n t s o f m e r i t r a t i n g c o n t e n d t h a t i t w i l l r e -s u l t i n s e t t i n g " t e a c h e r a g a i n s t t e a c h e r " , " e m b a r r a s s t h e 7 weak a n d make s n o b s o f t h e s t r o n g . " i t w i l l a l s o r e s u l t i n " a p p l e - p o l i s h i n g " a n d l e a d t o " a mad s c r a m b l e a f t e r i n d i v i d u a l 8 r e c o g n i t i o n . " I t i s p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b e c o m e s m a i n l y r a t i n g o f f i c e r s , t h e n p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s w o u l d e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e f a c u l t y a n d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d u p s e t t h e i d e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e t w o t h a t 9 s h o u l d e x i s t . T h e p r o p o n e n t s o f m e r i t p a y , h o w e v e r , s t r e s s t h a t m e r i t r a t i n g w o u l d i m p r o v e f a c u l t y a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s b y g i v i n g a b o d y o f f a c t u a l a n d o b j e c t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d e n a b l e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o make more c o n c r e t e s u g g e s -10 t i o n s . T h e r e a r e o t h e r s who a d m i t t h a t a c e r t a i n amount o f u n e a s i n e s s w o u l d o c c u r i n t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f a c h a n g e f r o m t h e f a m i l i a r t o t h e u n f a m i l i a r , a n d t h a t a c e r t a i n s p i r i t o f c o m p e t i t i o n w o u l d e n t e r t h e p i c t u r e , b u t : 6. G i l e s , q u o t e d i n S c h o l a s t i c T e a c h e r , M a r c h 8, 1957. 7. S p r a g g e , J . A . , " M e r i t P a y - Why t h e B . C . T . F . O p p o s e s I t " , T h e B . C . T e a c h e r , D e c e m b e r , 1956, p . 159. 8. L e o , X . C r o f t , " T h e B o o m e r a n g o f M e r i t P a y " , T h e T e a c h e r s '  M a g a z i n e , A p r i l , 1954, P p . 7-10. 9 . L o c . c i t . 10. I n t e r v i e w s w i t h s c h o o l t r u s t e e s . 64 " T h e q u e s t i o n i s - w o u l d t h a t n e c e s s a r i l y b e b a d ? I n o u r s o c i e t y , a n o r m a l amount o f c o m p e t i t i o n i s u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a g o o d t h i n g . I f i t d o e s n o t o b l i t e r a t e c o -o p e r a t i o n , i t s e r v e s a s a n i m p e t u s t o b r i n g o u t t h e b e s t p e r f o r m a n c e f r o m a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . C e r t a i n l y , i t i s d e a d e n i n g t o a m b i t i o n t o a s y s t e m w h e r e t h e r e i s n o p o s s i b i l i t y o f e x t r a r e c o m p e n s e a n d e x t r a r e c o g n i t i o n f o r e x t r a e f f o r t a n d p e r f o r m a n c e . " 11 T h e g e n e r a l o p i n i o n a m o n g s t t h e t e a c h i n g p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s t h a t m e r i t r a t i n g w i l l a f f e c t a d v e r s e l y t h e r e l a t i o n s a m o n g s t t h e members o f t h e f a c u l t y , a n d b e t w e e n t h e f a c u l t y a n d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( T a b l e s 4:5 a n d 4:6). T a b l e 4:5: W o u l d a M e r i t P a y S y s t e m A d v e r s e l y A f f e c t R e l a t i o n s  A m o n g s t S t a f f ? A b s . f i g s . I n : % D i d N o t A n s w e r 7 1.7 D e f i n i t e l y n o t P r o b a b l y n o t 15 52 3.7) ) 12.9) 16.6 U n d e c i d e d 23 5.7 P r o b a b l y w o u l d D e f i n i t e l y w o u l d 171 134 42.5) ) 33.3) 75.8 T o t a l 402 100.0 11. S h a n n o n , W . A . M e r i t R a t i n g " , "Why Some S c h o o l B o a r d s A r e E x p l o r i n g , " M e r i t R a t i n g " - o r E f f e c t i v e P e r s o n n e l P o l i c i e s , e d . V i r g i l , R o g e r s M . , S y r a c u s e , N . Y . , 1961. 65 B e t w e e n F a c u l t y a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ? A b s . f i g s . I n % D i d n o t a n s w e r 23 5.7 D e f i n i t e l y n o t 28 7.0) ) 34.6 P r o b a b l y n o t 111 27.6) U n d e c i d e d 37 9.2 P r o b a b l y w o u l d 122 30.3) ) 50.4 D e f i n i t e l y w o u l d 81 20.1) T o t a l 402 100.0 3 o u t o f e v e r y 4 t e a c h e r s (75.8%) s a y t h a t a m e r i t p a y s y s t e m w o u l d a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t s t a f f r e l a t i o n s , a n d 1 o u t o f e v e r y 2 (50.4%) s a y t h e same f o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e f a c u l t y a n d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T o g i v e a t o u c h o f r e a l i t y t o t h e t e a c h e r s 1 o p i n i o n s on t h i s i s s u e , a s a m p l e o f t h e i r comments f o l l o w s : ( a ) " A m e r i t p a y s y s t e m w o u l d h a v e d e m o r a l i z i n g r e s u l t s a s a r e s u l t o f j e a l o u s y a n d c o m p e t i t i o n . " ( b ) " M e r i t p a y w i l l r e s u l t i n b i t t e r n e s s a n d a n g e r among t e a c h e r s , a n d b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s . " ( c ) " A m e r i t p a y s y s t e m w o u l d make t h e p o o r t e a c h e r p o o r e r a s he w o u l d b e t r y i n g t o c o v e r up h i s i n a d e q u a c i e s t h e w r o n g way - b y t r y i n g t o i m p r e s s t h e / j u d g e i n t h e m e r i t s y s t e m . " ( d ) "When a m e r i t p a y s y s t e m i s i m p l e m e n t e d , t h e " r a t r a c e " h a s b e g u n . " ( e ) " W h i l e t h e r e w o u l d b e many p i t f a l l s when t h e p l a n i s 66 T A B L E 4:7 W I L L I N G N E S S TO BE E V A L U A T E D FOR SALARY D E T E R M I N A T I O N D I S T R I B U T E D BY OPINIONS WITH REGARD TO I N F L U E N C E OF MERIT PAY ON F A C U L T Y R E L A T I O N S H I P S W i l l H a v e A d v e r s e R e l a t i o n s ( H o r i z o n t a l ' I) D e g r e e o f W i l l i n g n e s s N o . A n s * D e f . N o . P r o b . No . U n d e c P r o b . Y e s D e f . Y e s T o t a l , ( A b s . ) D i d n o t a n s w e r 27.3 .0 .0 .0 36.4 36.4 11 D e f i n i t e l y n o t .0 .7 5.1 5.1 ,40.4 48.5 136 P r o b a b l y n o t .0 1.8 10.5 1.8 49.1 36.8 57 U n d e c i d e d .0 2.4 19.5 4.9 46.3 26.8 41 P r o b a b l y w o u l d 2.7 7.2 18.9 9.0 43.2 18.9 111 D e f i n i t e l y w o u l d 2.2 8.7 21.7 6.5 . 37.0 23.9 46 T o t a l ( A b s . ) 7 15 52 23 171 134 402 % o f T o t a l 1.7 3.7 12.9 5.7 42.5 33.3 100.0 I 67 TABLE 4:8 WILLINGNESS TO BE EVALUATED FOR SALARY DETERMINATION DISTRIBUTED BY OPINIONS WITH REGARD TO INFLUENCE OF MERIT PAY ON FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION RELATIONSHIPS W i l l Have A d v e r s e R e l a t i o n s h i p s ( H o r i z o n t a l %) T o t a l Degree of W i l l i n g n e s s No. Ans. Def. No. P r o b . No Undec. Pro b . Yes Def. Yes (Abs.) D i d not answer 18.2 .0 36.4 .0 46.4 9.1 11 D e f i n i t e l y not 8.8 3.7 14.0 11.0 28.7 33.8 136 P r o b a b l y not .0 .0 26.3 7.0 52.6 14.0 57 Undecided 4.9 4.9 31.7 7.3 41.5 9.8 41 P r o b a b l y would 3.6 12.6 38.7 10.8 22.5 11.7 111 D e f i n i t e l y would 6.5 15.2 37.0 6.5 15.2 19.6 46 T o t a l (Abs.) 23 28 111 37 122 8 l 402 % o f T o t a l 5.7 7.0 27.6 9.2 30.3 20.1 100. 68 I f e e l t h a t i n t i m e e v e r y t h i n g w o u l d w o r k o u t t o t h e s a t i s -f a c t i o n o f t h e g o o d t e a c h e r . " ( f ) " A m e r i t p a y s y s t e m i s a l o u s y s y s t e m ! " A s m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d , t h e o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p s a m o n g s t t h e f a c u l t y a n d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , d i f f e r e d b e t w e e n t h e p r o p o n e n t s a n d o p p o n e n t s o f m e r i t p a y . ( T a b l e s 4:7 a n d 4:8) I n g e n e r a l , t h e p r o p o n e n t s o f a m e r i t r a t i n g s y s t e m w e r e l e s s i n c l i n e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i m p l e m e n -t a t i o n o f m e r i t p a y w o u l d a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e f a c u l t y , a n d b e t w e e n t h e f a c u l t y a n d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w h e r e a s t h e o p p o n e n t s w e r e m o r e i n c l i n e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t s u c h c o n s e q u e n c e s w o u l d r e s u l t . I n p e r c e n t a g e t e r m s , o u t o f 136 t e a c h e r s who w e r e d e f i n i t e l y a g a i n s t a m e r i t s y s t e m , 88.9% (40.4 + 48.5) b e l i e v e d a m e r i t s y s t e m w o u l d h a v e a d v e r s e human r e l a t i o n s e f f e c t s w i t h i n t h e f a c u l t y , a n d 62.5% (28.7 + 33.8) b e l i e v e d t h i s w o u l d a l s o b e t h e c a s e b e t w e e n t h e f a c u l t y a n d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f T a b l e s 4:7 a n d 4:8 s u g g e s t s s i m i l a r f i n d i n g s f o r t h e 57 t e a c h e r s who w o u l d p r o -b a b l y o p p o s e a m e r i t p a y s y s t e m : 85.9% (49.1 + 36.8) i n t h e f i r s t s i t u a t i o n , a n d 66.6% (52.6 + 14.0) i n t h e s e c o n d s i t u -a t i o n . A m o n g s t t h o s e o p p o s i n g m e r i t p a y , t h e r e i s a b e l i e f t h a t f a c u l t y r e l a t i o n s w o u l d b e much w o r s e o f f u n d e r a m e r i t r a t i n g s y s t e m t h a n r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e f a c u l t y a n d t h e a d -m i n i s t r a t i o n s . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e p r o p o n e n t s o f m e r i t p a y , t h e p r o p o r -t i o n s o f t h o s e who t h i n k t h a t a d v e r s e r e l a t i o n s w o u l d r e s u l t a r e much l o w e r , a n d t h i s may a c c o u n t f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t o f a 69 TABLE 4:9 OPINIONS WITH REGARD TO INFLUENCE OF MERIT PAY ON FACULTY RELATIONSHIPS DISTRIBUTED BY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS, SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS AND SCHOOL PRINCIPALS W i l l A f f e c t Adverse R e l a t i o n s ( H o r i z o n t a l %) T o t a l S t a t u s o f Respondents No. Ans. Def. No Prob. No Undec. Prob. Yes Def. Yes (Abs.) No Answer .0 25.0 26.0 .0 .0 50.0 4 Elem. School Teachers 2.2 5.6 14.0 7.3 42.5 28.5 179 Sec. School Teachers .6 1.9 14.5 5.7 47.8 29.6 159 School P r i n c i p a l s 3.3 1.7 5.0 1.7 31.7 56.7 60 T o t a l (Abs.) 7 15 52 23 171 134 402 % of T o t a l 1.7 3.7 12.9 5.7 42.5 33.3 100.0 70 T A B L E 4:10 OPINIONS WITH REGARD TO I N F L U E N C E OF MERIT PAY ON F A C U L T Y AND A D M I N I S T R A T I O N R E L A T I O N S H I P S D I S T R I B U T E D BY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL T E A C H E R S , SECONDARY SCHOOL T E A C H E R S AND SCHOOL P R I N C I P A L S W i l l A f f e c t A d v e r s e R e l a t i o n s ( H o r i z o n t a l i) T o t a l S t a t u s o f R e s p o n d e n t s No A n s . D e f . No P r o b . No U n d e c . P r o b . Y e s D e f . Y e s ( A b s . ) No A n s w e r .0 35.0 25.0 .0 50.0 .0 4 E l e m . S c h o o l T e a c h e r s 1.7 7.8 31.3 8.9 29.1 21.2 179 S e c . S c h o o l T e a c h e r s 1.3 .< 6.9 29.6 11.9 34.0 16.4 159 S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s 30.0 3.3 11.7 3.3 23.3 28.3 60 T o t a l ( A b s . ) 23 28 H I 37 122 81 402 % o f T o t a l 5.7 7.0 27.6 9.2 30.3 20.1 100.0 71 m e r i t r a t i n g s y s t e m . T a b l e 4:7 s h o w s t h a t o f t h e 111 t e a c h e r s who w o u l d p r o b a b l y a c c e p t a m e r i t s y s t e m , 62.1% (43»2 + 18.9) c o n s i d e r t h i s w o u l d b r i n g a b o u t a d v e r s e r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e f a c u l t y , a n d 44.2% (22.5 + 11.7: s e e T a b l e 4:8) f e e l t h i s f o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e f a c u l t y a n d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e p r o -p o r t i o n s f o r t h e 46 t e a c h e r s who a r e d e f i n i t e l y i n f a v o r o f m e r i t p a y a r e 60.9% (37.0 + 23.9), a n d 24.8% (15.2 + 19.6) r e s -p e c t i v e l y . A n a t t e m p t was a l s o made t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e v i e w s h e l d b y t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s on t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a s o p p o s e d t o t h o s e h e l d b y t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a n d t h e s c h o o l p r i n -c i p a l s ( T a b l e s 4:9 a n d 4:10). G e n e r a l l y , t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s w e r e l e a s t i n c l i n e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t a m e r i t p a y p r o -g r a m w o u l d h a v e h a r m f u l human r e l a t i o n s c o n s e q u e n c e s . T h e p r o p o r t i o n s i n e a c h g r o u p t h a t b e l i e v e d a d v e r s e r e l a t i o n s w o u l d r e s u l t among f a c u l t y members a r e : E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s : 71.0% (42.5 + 28.5) S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l T e a c h e r s : 77.4% (47.8 + 29.6) S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s : 88.4% (31.7 + 56.7) S u c h a m a r k e d d i f f e r e n c e , h o w e v e r , i s n o t n o t i c e d i n T a b l e 4:10 w h e r e t h e p r o p o r t i o n s a r e 50.3% t o 50.4% t o 51.6%. 3 . T h e I n f l u e n c e o f M e r i t P a y on T e a c h i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s T h e B . C . T . F . a n d t h e B . C . S . T . A . a r e on o p p o s i t e g r o u n d s on t h i s i s s u e . T h e B . C . T . F . i s o f t h e v i e w t h a t m e r i t r a t i n g w i l l s t i f l e t h e c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y o f a t e a c h e r a n d t h e r e b y l o w e r t h e t e a c h i n g s t a n d a r d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A l l a n S p r a g g e , t h e 72 D i r e c t o r f o r E c o n o m i c W e l f a r e i n t h e B . C . T . F . , w r i t i n g i n t h e B . C . T e a c h e r , s a y s : " T h e mark o f a v i g o r o u s s c h o o l s y s t e m i s e n d l e s s v a r i e t y o f m e t h o d s . T h e t r u l y p r o f e s s i o n a l t e a c h e r c o n s t a n t l y e x -p e r i m e n t s , i m p r o v i s e s , a d a p t s . He c h o o s e s c l a s s r o o m t e c h -n i q u e s w h i c h he b e l i e v e s w i l l b e e f f e c t i v e i n . h i s c l a s s , a n d he t e a c h e s t r u t h a s he s e e s i t . T o make h i s s a l a r y d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e j u d g m e n t o f a n e v a l u a t o r , o r a g r o u p o f e v a l u a t o r s , i s t o s t i f l e h i s c r e a t i v e i n s t i n c t . No l o n g e r i s he p e r m i t t e d t h e l u x u r y o f s e l f - r e l i a n c e ; he m u s t t e a c h what w i l l p l e a s e h i s " s u p e r i o r s " b y m e t h o d s w h i c h t h e y t h i n k m e r i t o r i o u s . A d o p t m e r i t r a t i n g a n d k i l l a c a d e m i c f r e e -d o m . " 12 T h e S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , h o w e v e r , h o l d a d i f f e r e n t v i e w : " T h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t c o m p l e t e a n d d e p r e s s i n g c o n f o r m i t y w o u l d b e t h e r e s u l t o f r e c o g n i z i n g e x c e l l e n c e i s p a t e n t l y r i d i c u l o u s . I s c o n f o r m i t y a n o t i c e a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h o s e t e a c h e r s who a r e a l r e a d y r e c o g n i z e d a s o u t s t a n d i n g p e o p l e b y t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s , t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s , t h e i r d i s t r i c t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s a n d t h e t r u s t e e s who e m p l o y t h e m ? A n d y e t t h e s e a r e t h e p e o p l e whom we w i s h t o r e c o g n i z e f i n a n c i a l l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e what t h e y a r e , a n d n o t b e c a u s e t h e y f i t i n t o a n y r i g i d p a t t e r n . T h e p e o p l e who a r e c o n f i d e n t o f t h e i r own a b i l i t y t o e x c e l , who w i l l c o n f o r m t o n o d r e a r y p a t t e r n f o r s u c c e s s a r e t h e p e o p l e who w i l l g e n e r a l l y t a k e t h e i r t a l e n t s w h e r e t h e y w i l l b e r e c o g n i z e d a n d r e w a r d e d . T h e y a r e t h e p e o p l e f o r whom t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n h a s a c r y i n g n e e d . " 13 T h e s u r v e y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p r o -p o r t i o n o f t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who a r e o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t a m e r i t p a y s y s t e m w o u l d n o t a c t a s a n i n c e n t i v e t o i m -p r o v e t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s , 48.8% t o 41.1% ( T a b l e 4:11). 12. S p r a g g e , J . A . , " M e r i t P a y - Why t h e B . C . T . F . O p p o s e s i t " , T h e B . C . T e a c h e r , D e c e m b e r , 1958, p . 136. 13. B e i n d e r , F r a n k , " A T r u s t e e ' s A n s w e r : B . C . T . F . S t a n d on M e r i t P a y " , T h e B . C . S c h o o l T r u s t e e , W i n t e r I962-63, p . 16. 7 3 P r o p o r t i o n a t e l y , t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a g a i n e x c e e d e d t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s w h o , i n t u r n , e x c e e d e d t h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s i n e x p r e s s i n g a f a v o r a b l e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e e f f e c t s o f a m e r i t r a t i n g s y s t e m : 45.3% (26.3 + 19.0) > 42.8% (27.7 + 15.1) > 23.3% (20.0 + 3.3) a s i n T a b l e 4:12. T a b l e 4:11: W i l l a M e r i t P a y S y s t e m A c t a s a n I n c e n t i v e t o  I m p r o v e T e a c h i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s ? A b s . f i g s . I n % D i d n o t a n s w e r 6 1.5 D e f i n i t e l y n o t 92 22.9) ) 48.8 P r o b a b l y n o t 104 25.9) U n d e c i d e d 35 8.7 P r o b a b l y w o u l d 104 25.9) ) 41.1 D e f i n i t e l y w o u l d 61 15.2) T o t a l 402 100.0 S a m p l e comments f r o m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n d i c a t e t h a t on t h i s i s s u e o f t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s , t e a c h e r s a r e n o t a s e m o t i o n a l a s i n t h e e a r l i e r i s s u e s : ( a ) " I n c r e a s i n g t e a c h e r s * s a l a r i e s c a n n o t make a g o o d t e a c h e r b e t t e r : he i s a l r e a d y d o i n g h i s b e s t . I t c a n make a n a v e r a g e t e a c h e r w o r s e t h o u g h . " ( b ) " P u p i l s w i l l r e c e i v e a b e t t e r c a l i b r e o f t e a c h e r s , a s t h e m e d i o c r e t e a c h e r s w o u l d f e e l c o m p e l l e d t o t a k e m o r e c o u r s e s a n d h e n c e b e c o m e t r u l y p r o f e s s i o n a l . T h e p r e -s e n t s t r u c t u r e p r o m o t e s m e d i o c r i t y . " 4. T e a c h e r s 1 S u g g e s t i o n s R e l a t i n g t o t h e I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a M e r i t P a y P l a n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 74: TABLE 4:12 A MERIT PAY SYSTEM AS AN INCENTIVE TO IMPROVE TEACHING EFFECTIVENESS DISTRIBUTED BY ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS , SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS, AND SCHOOL PRINCIPALS W i l l Improve T e a c h i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s S t a t u s of Respondents No Ans. Def. Not ( H o r i z o n t a l %) Prob. Not Undec. P r o b . Yes Def. Yes T o t a l (Abs.) No Answer .0 25.0 25.0 .0 25.0 25.0 4 Elem S c h o o l Teachers 1.1 22.3 25.1 6.1 26.3 19.0 179 Sec. S c h o o l Teachers 1.9 22.6 25.3 9.4 27.7 15.1 159 S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s 1.7 25.0 35.0 15.0 20.0 3.3 60 T o t a l (Abs.) 6 92 104 35 104 61 402 % o f T o t a l 1.5 22.9 25.9 8.7 25.9 15.2 100.0 75 T h e s u r v e y a l s o e x p l o r e d some o f t h e k e y f a c t o r s t h a t w o u l d h a v e t o b e c o n s i d e r e d i n s u c c e s s f u l l y i m p l e m e n t i n g a m e r i t p a y p r o g r a m i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( T a b l e s 4:13 - 4:18). T a b l e 4:13: T h e F a i r e s t Way o f I n t r o d u c i n g a M e r i t P a y P l a n ( i ) V o l u n t a r y f o r t h o s e a g r e e i n g t o come u n d e r t h e p l a n , b u t n o t r e q u i r e d f o r t h o s e n o t w i l l i n g 51.2% ( i i ) C o m p u l s o r y f o r a l l , p r o v i d e d t h e p l a n was a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s 30.8% ( i i i ) V o l u n t a r y f o r t h o s e a l r e a d y e m p l o y e d , b u t c o m p u l s o r y f o r a l l t e a c h e r s a p p o i n t e d i n t h e f u t u r e 7.2% ( i v ) O t h e r s 2.5% ( v ) No A n s w e r 8.2% 100.0% T h u s , a k e y f a c t o r i n i n t r o d u c i n g a m e r i t p a y p r o g r a m w o u l d b e t o d e v i s e a s y s t e m a n d t h e n i m p l e m e n t i t on a v o l u n -t a r y b a s i s . A p l a n u n i l a t e r a l l y i m p o s e d u p o n a l l t h e t e a c h e r s , e v e n i f t h e m a j ' o r i t y a g r e e d t o t h e s y s t e m , w o u l d b e d e f i n i t e l y o p p o s e d b y m o r e t h a n t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e t e a c h i n g p o p u l a t i o n . T a b l e 4:14: T h e F a i r e s t Way o f A d m i n i s t e r i n g a M e r i t P a y P l a n  A f t e r I n t r o d u c t i o n ( i ) A d m i n i s t e r e d b y a j o i n t c o m m i t t e e o f t r u s t e e s a n d t e a c h e r s i n t h e d i s t r i c t . . . 39.6% ( i i ) A d m i n i s t e r e d b y a c o m m i t t e e o f t e a c h e r s f r o m t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t 28.4% ( i i i ) A d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s . 10.0% ( i v ) O t h e r s 10.2% ( v ) No A n s w e r 11.0% 100.0% A s a n t i c i p a t e d , f e w t e a c h e r s w o u l d a g r e e t o t h e B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s a s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o d y i n a m e r i t p a y p l a n . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e m o s t f a v o r a b l e r e s u l t s w o u l d b e o b -t a i n e d i f a c o m p r o m i s e a r r a n g e m e n t b e t w e e n ( i ) a n d ( i i ) a b o v e c o u l d b e w o r k e d o u t : We s u g g e s t a j o i n t c o m m i t t e e w i t h t e a c h e r s a n d t r u s t e e s e q u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d , a n d a c h a i r m a n a g r e e d t o b y b o t h p a r t i e s . T a b l e 4:15? P r e f e r e n c e s f o r T y p e s o f P r o v i s i o n s t o R e f l e c t a  T e a c h e r ' s M e r i t A p p r o x i m a t e % ( i ) C r e a t e more s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n s e . g . d e p a r t m e n t h e a d s , a s s i s t a n t d e p a r t m e n t h e a d s a n d c o u n s e l l o r s 40.0% ( i i ) M e r i t o r i o u s t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e t o b e r e w a r d e d b y b o n u s e s f o r t r a v e l l i n g , s t u d y g r a n t s a n d s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e 35.0% ( i i i ) M e r i t o r i o u s t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e t o b e r e w a r d e d b y i n c r e m e n t s ( d o u b l e i n c r e m e n t s o r s u p e r - m a x i m u m s a l a r i e s ) b a s e d o n e x i s t i n g s a l a r y s c h e d u l e s 20.0% ( i v ) M i s c e l l a n e o u s 5*0% 100.0% T h o u g h we h a v e s e e n e a r l i e r t h a t 39.0% o f t h e t e a c h i n g p o p u l a t i o n w o u l d b e w i l l i n g t o b e e v a l u a t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f s a l a r y d e t e r m i n a t i o n , a g o o d p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e m w o u l d p r e -f e r t h e i r m e r i t o r i o u s t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e t o b e r e w a r d e d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b y i n c r e m e n t s b a s e d on t h e e x i s t i n g s a l a r y s c h e -d u l e s , b u t r a t h e r b y means o f b e i n g g i v e n s u p e r v i s o r y p o s t s o r b o n u s e s , s t u d y g r a n t s o r s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e . 77 T a b l e 4?16? P e r s o n n e l P r e f e r r e d b y T e a c h e r s a s P a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e E v a l u a t i o n o f T e a c h i n g P e r f o r m a n c e TI^JJ  No A n s w e r P e r s o n n e l Y e s No U n c e r t a i n T o t a l ( a ) S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s 58.7 23.4 17.9 100.0 ( b ) D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s 44.7 32.9 22.4 100.0 ( c ) C o m m i t t e e o f t e a c h e r s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e same d i s t r i c t 33.8 45.3 20.9 100.0 ( d ) C o m m i t t e e o f t e a c h e r s a p p o i n t e d b y t h e s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 14.6 59.7 25.7 100.0 ( e ) J o i n t c o m m i t t e e o f t e a c h e r s a n d s c h o o l t r u s t e e s f r o m same d i s t r i c t 21.9 65.2 12.9 100.0 ( f ) B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s 3.7 ,78.1 18.2 100.0 (g ) O t h e r s . 13.7 0.7 85.6 100.0 S c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s a r e c l e a r l y p r e f e r r e d a s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e , w i t h t h e d i s t r i c t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s a s t h e n e x t c h o i c e . T h e t e a c h i n g p o p u l a t i o n w o u l d r e s e n t m o s t h a v i n g t h e B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s a s p a r -t i c i p a n t s i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e . I n r e s p o n s e t o f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s , m o r e t h a n 80% o f t h e t e a c h e r s w e r e o p p o s e d t o e i t h e r p a r e n t s o r p u p i l s h a v i n g a n y s a y i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f a t e a c h e r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e . T h e t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e o b v i o u s l y m o r e w i l l i n g t o s u b m i t t o e v a l u a t i o n f r o m " o n h i g h " t h a n f r o m e i t h e r " o n p a r " o r " b e l o w " t h e m s e l v e s . 78 T a b l e 4:17: B a s i s u p o n w h i c h M e r i t S a l a r i e s s h o u l d b e A w a r d e d ( I n %) M e r i t S a l a r i e s S h o u l d b e o n : ( i ) A c t u a l c l a s s r o o m ( i i ) T o t a l W o r k -t e a c h i n g o n l y L o a d o f a t e a c h e r D i d n o t a n s w e r 6.7 7.7 D e f i n i t e l y n o t P r o b a b l y n o t 47.5) ) 19.9) 67.4 7.5) ) 7.5) 15.0 U n d e c i d e d 7.0 7.0 P r o b a b l y w o u l d D e f i n i t e l y w o u l d 11.2) ) 7.7) 18.9 38.6) ) 31.8) 70.4 T o t a l 100.0 100.0 A l m o s t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h o s e who r e s p o n d e d w o u l d h a v e t h e t o t a l w o r k - l o a d o f a t e a c h e r a s a b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i o n u p o n w h i c h m e r i t s a l a r i e s s h o u l d b e a w a r d e d , r a t h e r t h a n o n a c t u a l c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g T a b l e 4:18: F r e q u e n c y o f o n l y . E v a l u a t i o n P r e f e r r e d F r e q u e n c y A b s . % < % M o n t h l y 64 15 .9 T w i c e y e a r l y 119 29 .6 O n c e y e a r l y 109 27 .1 O t h e r s 76 18 .9 No A n s w e r 34 8 .5 T o t a l 402 100.0 79 T h e t e n d e n c y i s t o p r e f e r e v a l u a t i o n t o t a k e p l a c e f r o m t w i c e y e a r l y (29.6%) t o o n c e y e a r l y (27.1%), b u t i t i s s u r -p r i s i n g t o n o t e t h e g r e a t d i s p a r i t y i n v i e w s on t h i s i s s u e . A f u r t h e r b r e a k d o w n s h o w e d t h a t s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s f a v o r e d o n c e y e a r l y e v a l u a t i o n s ( a l m o s t 40.0% o f t h e p r i n c i p a l s ) w h e r e a s t h e e l e m e n t a r y a n d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s f a v o r e d t w i c e y e a r l y e v a l u a t i o n s ( a b o u t 40.0% o f e a c h c a t e g o r y ) . C H A P T E R V . C O N C L U S I O N S T h e B C S T A h a s s i n c e 1956 r e c o m m e n d e d t o t h e t e a c h i n g p r o -f e s s i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t h a t t h e y g i v e s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r -a t i o n t o t h e p r o p o s i t i o n o f i n c l u d i n g m e r i t a s one o f t h e f a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g s a l a r i e s . T h e p r e s e n t s u r v e y was c o n -d u c t e d t o s t u d y t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e t e a c h e r s t o w a r d s t h i s p r o -p o s i t i o n a n d t o e x a m i n e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e on t h e p o s -s i b l e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a m e r i t r a t i n g s y s t e m i n B r i t i s h C o l -u m b i a . O u r c o n c l u s i o n s a r e a s f o l l o w s : 1. D o N o t I m p l e m e n t a S y s t e m o f E v a l u a t i n g o f T e a c h i n g  P e r f o r m a n c e t h a t g i v e s r e c o g n i t i o n o n l y on t h e b a s i s  o f s a l a r y i n c r e m e n t s i n t h e e x i s t i n g s c h e d u l e s T h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , m o r e t h a n 93*0%, a r e a g r e e d t h a t g i v e n t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e t o b e t h e s a m e , some t e a c h e r s s t i l l d o a b e t t e r j o b o f t e a c h i n g 1 t h a n o t h e r s . T h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n m e r i t r a t i n g t o j u s t i f y t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a t e a c h e r d o e s n o t v a r y d i r e c t l y w i t h h i s t r a i n i n g a n d y e a r s 2 o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . T h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e t e a c h e r s a r e , t h e r e f o r e , s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d on t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e . A d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e e x i s t i n g t e a c h e r s * s a l a r y s c h e -d u l e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s h o w s t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y n o r e c o g n i -t i o n i n t h e f o r m o f m o n e t a r y r e w a r d s i s g i v e n t o t e a c h e r s 1. S e e F o o t n o t e p . 19. 2. S e e C h a p t . I I , S e c t i o n 3. 81 3 p r i m a r i l y on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e . T h i s i s i n c o n f l i c t w i t h a n a s s u m p t i o n a c c e p t e d e a r l i e r , t h a t i s , t e a c h e r s s h o u l d b e p a i d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r o f i c i e n c y w i t h w h i c h 4 t h e y t e a c h . , w h i c h i s what a m e r i t r a t i n g s y s t e m p u r p o r t s t o a c h i e v e , a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y . Y e t , when t h e t e a c h e r s w e r e a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e y t h e m s e l v e s w o u l d b e w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t a n e v a l u a t i o n s y s t e m f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r s a l a r i e s , o n l y 39.0% w e r e p r e p a r e d t o g o w i t h i t . I n t e r m s o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , 39.0% i s s m a l l , b u t i n t e r m s o f what t h e B C T F h a s p r o j e c t e d i n t o t h e p r e s s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n i s s u r p r i s i n g l y l a r g e r t h a n what m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d . I n f a c t , t h e p r o p o r t i o n m i g h t h a v e b e e n l a r g e r h a d n o t t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o a m e r i t s y s t e m b e e n o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e i n -f l u e n c e o f t h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s who f o r m e d a g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f t h e n u m b e r o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e s a m p l e t h a n t h e y d o i n t h e 5 t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . A b r e a k d o w n o f t h e 39.0% i n f a v o r o f a m e r i t r a t i n g s y s -t e m s h o w s t h a t t h e i r i n f l u e n c e i n e x e r t i n g t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f s u c h a s c h e m e b y t h e t e a c h i n g p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d b e v e r y s m a l l r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r n u m b e r s . T h e i r s t a t i s -t i c a l p r o f i l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , s h o w s t h a t t h e y w o u l d b e m a i n l y a m o n g s t t h e y o u n g e s t o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n , h o l d i n g r e l a t i v e l y l o w c e r t i f i c a t e l e v e l s , c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e l o w e r 3. S e e C h a p t . I I , S e c t i o n 2. 4. S e e C h a p t . I l l , S e c t i o n 1. 5. S e e " N o t e s on t h e S a m p l e " i n A p p e n d i x B . 82 g r a d e s i n t h e s c h o o l s , a n d h a v i n g r e l a t i v e l y f e w e r y e a r s o f 6 t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . T h e a p p a r e n t l y s t r o n g f e e l i n g s o f d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n t h i s g r o u p e x h i b i t s a g a i n s t t h e e x i s t i n g s y s t e m o f s a l a r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e f l e c t s t h e i r a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e p r o s p e c t s f o r h i g h e r i n c o m e t h r o u g h p r o m o t i o n s . T h e y w o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , b e w i l l i n g t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h a m e r i t r a t i n g s y s t e m b u t i t i s d o u b t f u l t h e y c o u l d o v e r c o m e t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s s y s t e m b y t h e 48.0% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , w h o w o u l d p r o -b a b l y a l s o f o r m a s t r o n g e r a n d m o r e i n f l u e n t i a l g r o u p i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n . T h e s t u d y t h u s l e a d s t o a p a r a d o x i c a l c o n c l u s i o n t h a t w h e r e a s , i n p r i n c i p l e m e r i t p a y i s a c c e p t e d b y a s i g n i f i -c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f t e a c h e r s , i n p r a c t i c e m o s t w o u l d w a n t n o t h -i n g t o d o w i t h i t . T h e s u r v e y s h o w s t h a t t h i s o p p o s i t i o n t o m e r i t p a y i n p r a c t i c e s t e m s f r o m t h e i r d i s t r u s t o f m e t h o d s o f m e a s u r i n g t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e , a b e l i e f t h a t a m e r i t r a t i n g s y s t e m w i l l r e s u l t i n a s e r i o u s l o w e r i n g o f t e a c h e r m o r a l e a n d i t s p r o b a b l e 7 e f f e c t s o n t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . B e f o r e a m e r i t r a t i n g s y s t e m c a n b e s u c c e s s f u l l y i m p l e m e n t e d i n t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t s a d v o c a t e s m u s t f i r s t d e v i s e a s y s t e m w h i c h d o e s n o t d o v i o l e n c e t o s o u n d p r i n c i p l e s o f h u m a n r e l a t i o n s , w h i c h w i l l i m p r o v e t h e s e r v i c e s t o s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a n d w h i c h c a n r e l i a b l y 6. S e e C h a p t . I l l , T a b l e 3:7, 3:8A a n d 3:8B, a n d 3:10. 7. S e e C h a p t . I V , T a b l e s 4:1, 4:2, 4:5, 4:6 a n d 4:11. 83 m e a s u r e t e a c h i n g c o m p e t e n c y f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f d e t e r m i n i n g s a l a r i e s . U n t i l t h e n c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a r e g o i n g t o r e s i s t , a n d i t w o u l d n o t b e a d v i s a b l e t o f o r c e down a p l a n o v e r t h e i r p r o t e s t s . 2. I m p l e m e n t a S y s t e m o f E v a l u a t i o n o f T e a c h i n g P e r f o r m a n c e  t h a t g i v e s r e c o g n i t i o n t o c o m p e t e n c y t h r o u g h s u p e r v i s o r y  p o s i t i o n s , t r a v e l g r a n t s o r s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e T h e s t u d y o f t e a c h e r s 1 a t t i t u d e s on m e r i t p a y h a s b r o u g h t o u t a n a r e a w o r t h c o n s i d e r i n g i n g i v i n g r e c o g n i t i o n t o o u t -s t a n d i n g t e a c h e r s . T h e B C T F , a s w e l l a s t h e t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h 8 C o l u m b i a a r e n o t o p p o s e d t o e v a l u a t i o n f o r p r o m o t i o n p u r p o s e s . T h e t e a c h e r s h a v e a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t a t e a c h e r ' s m e r i t o u g h t t o b e r e c o g n i s e d b y s e l e c t i n g h i m / h e r f o r a s u p e r v i s o r y p o s t , s u c h a s a d e p a r t m e n t h e a d , a n a s s i s t a n t d e p a r t m e n t h e a d o r a c o u n s e l l o r , s u c h s e l e c t i o n b e i n g made p r i m a r i l y on t h e b a s i s o f t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e a n d n o t on t h e b a s i s o f t r a i n i n g a n d 9 e x p e r i e n c e . M e r i t o r i o u s t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m a n c e c o u l d a l s o b e r e w a r d e d b y g r a n t i n g t h e t e a c h e r s b o n u s e s ( n o t s a l a r y i n c r e -m e n t s ) , t r a v e l g r a n t s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s , o r s t u d y g r a n t s 10 o r s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e . I n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t e a c h e r s i n -d i c a t e d t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o h a v e a n e v a l u a t i o n s c h e m e c o -o p e r a t i v e l y d r a w n b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s , t r u s t e e s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , p r o v i d e d t h e m e r i t was b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e m a n n e r e x p l a i n e d 8. S e e C h a p t . I l l , T a b l e 3:2. 9. S e e C h a p t . I V , T a b l e 4:15. 10. L o c . c i t . a b o v e . T h e y p o i n t o u t t h a t s u c h a ' m e r i t p a y p l a n * w o u l d a l s o f i t i n w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e B C S T A i n r e w a r d i n g t h e c o m -p e t e n t t e a c h e r s , r e t a i n i n g t h e m i n t h e s c h o o l s a n d a l s o i n -c r e a s i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e . T h u s , t h e p l a n w o u l d b e a b l e t o a t t r a c t a h i g h e r c a l i b r e o f r e c r u i t s i n -t o t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n , a s t h e o u t s t a n d i n g i n d i v i d u a l w i l l h a v e h i s a b i l i t y r e c o g n i z e d a n d e a r n a h i g h e r i n c o m e i n a s h o r t e r t i m e i n s t e a d o f h a v i n g t o a c c u m u l a t e t h e r e q u i r e d y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . M o r e i m p o r t a n t , i t i s s t r e s s e d , i s t h a t b o t h t h e t e a c h e r s a n d t h e B C T F w i l l c o - o p e r a t e m o r e w i l l i n g -l y i n m a k i n g s u c h a p l a n a t t a i n i t s o b j e c t i v e s . I n v i e w o f t h e s e f a c t o r s , we recommend t h a t t h e S c h o o l B o a r d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e c o g n i z e t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s made b y o u t s t a n d i n g t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s b y i n s t i t u t i n g m o r e p r o m o t i o n a l s t e p s s u c h a s m o r e v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s h i p s , m o r e d e p a r t m e n t o r a s s i s t a n t d e p a r t m e n t h e a d s o r s p e c i a l s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n s t h a t w i l l n o t r e m o v e t h e t e a c h e r s f r o m t h e c l a s s r o o m s a n d f o r w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r s c a n b e p a i d e x t r a a l l o w a n c e s . S c h o o l B o a r d s may a l s o i n s t i t u t e m e a s u r e s w h e r e b y o u t s t a n d i n g t e a c h e r s may b e r e w a r d e d b y b e i n g g r a n t e d t r a v e l g r a n t s f o r a p p r o v e d p u r p o s e s , s t u d y g r a n t s o r s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e . T h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e s e t e a c h e r s s h o u l d a l w a y s b e b a s e d p r i m a r i l y o n t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e a s t e a c h e r s a n d n o t on t h e b a s i s o f t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e . T h e p o l i c i e s r e l a t e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u c h a p l a n s h o u l d b e t h e j o i n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r s , t h e t r u s t e e s 85 l l a n d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n i t i a l l y , i t may b e a d v i s a b l e t h a t t h e p l a n b e made v o l u n t a r y , t h a t i s , v o l u n t a r y f o r t h o s e a g r e e i n g t o come u n d e r t h e p l a n , b u t n o t r e q u i r e d f o r t h o s e 12 n o t w i l l i n g . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e e v a l u a t i v e c r i t e r i a s h o u l d c o n s i d e r n o t o n l y a c t u a l c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g p e r f o r m -13 a n c e b u t o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m a s w e l l . T e a c h e r s i n d i s c u s s i o n s h a v e s t a t e d t h a t t h e e v a l u a t o r y c r i t e r i a s h o u l d b e a g a i n s t a n a c c e p t e d s t a n d a r d , a n d o n c e a t t a i n e d , t h e t e a c h e r s c o n c e r n e d s h o u l d b e r e w a r d e d . T h u s t h e r e i s t o b e n o l i m i t o n t h e n u m b e r p l a c e d o n " m e r i t s t a t u s " . T h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s s h o u l d b e t h e p r i m a r y o f f i c i a l s i n v o l v e d i n t h e r a t i n g o f t e a c h e r s , t h o u g h o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l s u c h a s t h e d i s t r i c t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s c o u l d s u p p l e m e n t t h e e v a l u a -14 t i o n p r o c e s s . T h e s e a r e t h e b r o a d c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t o b e k e p t i n m i n d i n i m p l e m e n t i n g a ' m e r i t p l a n * a s e n v i s a g e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . I f i m p l e m e n t e d , t h e s a l a r y d i f f e r e n t i a l s b e t w e e n t e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i l l i n f u t u r e d e p e n d u p o n : ( i ) T r a i n i n g ( i i ) E x p e r i e n c e ( i i i ) E x t r a W o r k 11. S e e C h a p t . 12. S e e C h a p t . 13. S e e C h a p t . 14. S e e C h a p t . I V , T a b l e 4:14/ I V , T a b l e 4:13. I V , T a b l e 4:17. 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" S c h o o l E x e c u t i v e , M a y , 1948. B a r r , A . S . " A s s e s s m e n t o f t h e T e a c h e r ' s P e r s o n a l i t y " S c h o o l R e v i e w , W i n t e r , I960. " M e a s u r e m e n t o f T e a c h e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d P r e -d i c t i o n o f T e a c h i n g E f f i c i e n c y " . R e v i e w o f E d u c a t i o n a l  R e s e a r c h , J u n e , 1952. " M e a s u r e m e n t a n d P r e d i c t i o n o f T e a c h i n g S u c c e s s " , R e v i e w o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , J u n e , 1949. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l T r u s t e e s ' A s s o c i a t i o n , B . C . S . T . A .  S t a t e m e n t o f P o l i c y , 1964: t h e A s s o c i a t i o n , V a n c o u v e r . B a r t h e l m e s , H . M . , a n d P h i l i p A . 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B r i g h t o n , S t a y n e r F . , a n d H a n n a n , C e c i l J . , M e r i t P a y P r o g r a m s  f o r T e a c h e r s , S a n F r a n c i s c o , 1962. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s S a l a r y S c h e d u l e s , 1964: T h e T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n , V a n c o u v e r , 1964. B u r k e , A . J . " R e c o g n i t i o n o f M e r i t i n T e a c h e r S a l a r y P o l i c y " . L a y - P r o f e s s i o n a l A c t i o n P r o g r a m s t o S e c u r e a n d R e t a i n  Q u a l i f i e d T e a c h e r s , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . : N a t i o n a l C o m m i s -s i o n on T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n a n d P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a n d a r d s , 1 9 5 4 . "Some D a n g e r s o f M e r i t M e a s u r e m e n t " , N a t i o n ^ s S c h o o l s , J a n u a r y , 1 9 4 8 . B y r n e , T . C . " G o o d T e a c h i n g a n d G o o d T e a c h e r s . " T h e C a n a d i a n  A d m i n i s t r a t o r , F e b r u a r y , 1962. C a l i f o r n i a T e a c h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , " D i s c u s s i o n G u i d e o n M e r i t R a t i n g " . C . T . A . J o u r n a l , J a n u a r y , 1 9 5 7 . " C a n T e a c h e r C o m p e t e n c e B e M e a s u r e d ? " T h e B . C . T e a c h e r , M a y - J u n e , 1 9 5 6 . C h a n d l e r , B . J . , " M e r i t R a t i n g i s N o t D e t r i m e n t a l t o T e a c h e r s ' M o r a l e " . N a t i o n ' s S c h o o l s , A p r i l , 1 9 5 8 . C o c k i n g , W . D . , " J u d g i n g M e r i t i n T e a c h i n g " . S c h o o l E x e c u t i v e , S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 4 7 . C o e n , A . W . , " A n a l y s i s o f S u c c e s s f u l M e r i t R a t i n g P r o g r a m s " . P h i D e l t a K a p p a n , J u n e , 1 9 5 8 . C o o p e r , R . E . , " T h e C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r L o o k s a t M e r i t R a t i n g " . T h e B . C . 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C a m b . , M a s s . , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 . J o h n s o n , G r a n v i l l e B . , " A n E x p e r i m e n t a l T e c h n i q u e f o r t h e P r e d i c t i o n o f T e a c h e r E f f e c t i v e n e s s " . J o u r n a l o f E d u -c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , M a y , 1957. K a r a m , I . A . , " M e r i t - R a t i n g S a l a r y P l a n s i n P u b l i c S c h o o l S y s t e m s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1955-56". J o u r n a l o f  E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , D e c e m b e r , 1959. K e n n e d y , E . D . , "What A r e t h e A d v a n t a g e s a n d D i s a d v a n t a g e s o f T e a c h e r M e r i t R a t i n g P l a n s ? B u l l e t i n o f t h e N a t i o n a l  A s s o c i a t i o n o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s , A p r i l , 1957. K r a u s e , G . R . , a n d M c C a l l , W . A . , " M e a s u r e m e n t o f T e a c h e r M e r i t f o r S a l a r y P u r p o s e s " . J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , O c t o b e r , 1959. 91 L e a , T . C r o f t , " T h e B o o m e r a n g o f M e r i t P a y " . T h e T e a c h e r s '  M a g a z i n e , A p r i l , 1954. L o n g , J o h n , " A T e a c h e r L o o k s a t M e r i t R a t i n g " . T h e M a n i t o b a  T e a c h e r , J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , 1957. L o o s , L . E . , "What A r e t h e A d v a n t a g e s a n d D i s a d v a n t a g e s o f T e a c h e r M e r i t R a t i n g P l a n s ? " B u l l e t i n o f t h e N a t i o n a l  A s s o c i a t i o n o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s , A p r i l , 1958. M a n u a l o f t h e S c h o o l L a w , a n d R u l e s o f t h e C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c  I n s t r u c t i o n , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t e r s , 1961. M c D o w e l l , S t i r l i n g , " T h e M e r i t R a t i n g C o n t r o v e r s y a n d I t s  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r E d u c a t i o n i n S a s k a t c h e w a n . M . E d . T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n . M c K e n n a , J . J . , " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a M e r i t P l a n " . A m e r i c a n S c h o o l B o a r d J o u r n a l , J u n e , I960 . M c S w a i n , E . T . , a n d o t h e r s . " S h o u l d T e a c h e r s ' S a l a r i e s B e R e -l a t e d t o M e r i t R a t i n g ? " I l l i n o i s E d u c a t i o n , M a r c h ,1957. M a n i t o b a T e a c h e r s * S o c i e t y , S p e c i a l R e p o r t - M e r i t R a t i n g . W i n n i p e g , N o v e m b e r - D e c e m b e r , 1959. " M e r i t P a y " . T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T e a c h e r s * F e d e r a t i o n , V a n -c o u v e r , 1963. " M e r i t P a y f o r T e a c h e r s - t h e B . C . T . F . S t a n d " . 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D E S C R I P T I O N S OF S P E C I F I C MERIT PLANS ( A v a i l a b l e f r o m r e s p e c t i v e S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s ) A l t o n P u b l i c S c h o o l s D i s t r i c t N o . 11, S e t o n , I l l i n o i s . B a r r i n g t o n P u b l i c S c h o o l s , B a r r i n g t o n , I l l i n o i s . B e a v e r t o n P u b l i c S c h o o l s , B e a v e r t o n , O r e g o n . C a n t o n P u b l i c S c h o o l s , C o l l i n s v i l l e , C o n n e c t i c u t . E v a n s t o n P u b l i c S c h o o l s , E v a n s t o n , I l l i n o i s . F l o r i d a E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , T a l l a h a s s e e , F l o r i d a . G l e n c o e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , G l e n c o e , I l l i n o i s . G r o s s e P o i n t P u b l i c S c h o o l s , G r o s s e P o i n t , M i c h i g a n . H i g h l a n d P a r k P u b l i c S c h o o l s , H i g h l a n d P a r k , I l l i n o i s . H u n t i n g t o n P u b l i c S c h o o l s , H u n t i n g t o n , P e n n s y l v a n i a . I t h a c a P u b l i c S c h o o l s , I t h a c a , New Y o r k . L a d u e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , L a d u e , M i s s o u r i . L e x i n g t o n P u b l i c S c h o o l s , L e x i n g t o n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s . L i n c o l n P u b l i c S c h o o l s , L i n c o l n , M a s s a c h u s e t t s . M e d f o r d P u b l i c S c h o o l s , M e d f o r d , O r e g o n . M e r c e r I s l a n d S c h o o l D i s t r i c t N o . 4 0 0 , M e r c e r I s l a n d , W a s h i n g -t o n . M i d l a n d P u b l i c S c h o o l s , M i d l a n d , M i c h i g a n . M i l w a u k i e U n i o n H i g h S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , M i l w a u k i e , O r e g o n . M o n t g o m e r y C o u n t y B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , R o c k v i l l e , M a r y l a n d . New C a n a a n P u b l i c S c h o o l s , New C a n a a n , C o n n e c t i c u t . N e w t o n P u b l i c S c h o o l s , N e w t o n v i l l e , M a s s a c h u s e t t s . N i s k a y u n a P u b l i c S c h o o l s , N i s k a y u n a , N . Y . P a l a t i n e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , P a l a t i n e , I l l i n o i s . S c a r s d a l e P u b l i c S c h o o l s , S c a r s d a l e , N . Y . Summit Public Schools, Summit, New Jersey. University C i t y Public Schools, University C i t y , Missouri. Weber County School D i s t r i c t , Ogden, Utah. West Hartford Public Schools, West Hartford, Connecticut. Woodstock Public Schools, Woodstock, I l l i n o i s . APPENDIX 96 A P P E N D I X A : Q U E S T I O N N A I R E T e a c h e r s * A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d s M e r i t a n d I t s R e l a t i o n s h i p t o S a l a r i e s I n s t r u c t i o n s : 1. P l e a s e a n s w e r o r c h e c k a l l t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s . 2. F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e w o r d ' m e r i t * may b e b r o a d l y l o o k e d u p o n a s f o l l o w s : "Some f o r m o f j u d g m e n t i s made o f a t e a c h e r ' s c o m p e t e n c y , a n d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s e v a l u a t i o n w i l l a f f e c t h i s s a l a r y i n some way o r o t h e r . " T h u s , s a l a r y d i f f e r e n t i a l s b a s e d e n t i r e l y on a c o m b i n -a t i o n o f ( a ) t r a i n i n g o r e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o b t a i n e d p r i o r t o j o i n i n g t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n , o r w h i l e i n s e r v i c e , ( b ) e x p e r i e n c e o r s e n i o r i t y i n s e r v i c e , a n d ( c ) p o s i t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s u c h a s D e p t . H e a d s , s p e c i a l t a s k s s u c h a s t e a c h i n g v e r y p o o r o r o u t s t a n d i n g p u p i l s , e x t r a w o r k s u c h a s c o u n s e l l i n g , o r i s o l a t i o n o r m a r r i e d a l l o w a n c e s a r e n o t c o n -s i d e r e d a s m e r i t p r o v i s i o n s when a n s w e r i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . F o r Q u e s t i o n I , P a r t I I , H o w e v e r , y o u a r e r e q u e s t e d t o g i v e y o u r d e f i n i t i o n o f m e r i t , o r m e r i t a s i s a p p l i e d i n y o u r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . PART I : 1. M a l e F e m a l e 2. S i n g l e M a r r i e d 3. A g e l a s t b i r t h d a y 4. S c h o o l D i s t r i c t 5. N o . o f y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e s a s a t J u n e 30, 1964 6. P l e a s e i n d i c a t e n u m b e r o f y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e 9 7 a t c e r t i f i c a t e l e v e l s : E . C . E . B . E a A > P . C . P . B . P . A . O t h e r s ( p l e a s e e x p l a i n ) : 7 . C e r t i f i c a t e l e v e l n o w , i . e . J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 6 4 : E . C . E . B . E . A . P . C . P . B . P . A . O t h e r s ( p l e a s e e x p l a i n ) : 8. L e v e l : E l e m e n t a r y S e c o n d a r y 9 . How many t e a c h e r s i n y o u r s c h o o l ? 1 0 . S i z e o f t o w n w h e r e y o u a r e now e m p l o y e d : R u r a l j 5 , 0 0 0 - 9 , 9 9 9 ; 1 0 , 0 0 0 - 1 9 , 9 9 9 ; 2 0 , 0 0 0 - 4 9 , 9 9 9 ; O v e r 5 0 . 0 0 0 1 1 . T e a c h e r A d m i n i s t r a t o r _ ( p l e a s e b e p r e c i s e ) 1 2 . N o . o f y e a r s i n p r e s e n t s c h o o l P r e s e n t S c h o o l d i s t r i c t _ _ PART I I : . I A . D o y o u i n g e n e r a l a g r e e w i t h t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f m e r i t g i v e n a b o v e ? Y e s No I B . W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o v i s i o n s a r e u s e d i n y o u r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t t o r e f l e c t m e r i t ? a ) s a l a r y r a i s e s a r e w i t h h e l d f r o m t e a c h e r s j u d g e d t o b e r e n d e r i n g u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e b ) a n i n c r e m e n t i s w i t h d r a w n f r o m t e a c h e r s a t maximum s a l a r y j u d g e d t o b e r e n d e r i n g 9 8 u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e c ) e x t r a s a l a r i e s o r a l l o w a n c e s a r e p a i d t o t e a c h e r s who a r e d o i n g s p e c i a l k i n d s o f w o r k i n a d d i t i o n t o t e a c h i n g , e . g . D e p t . H e a d s a s s i s t i n g i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , l i b r a r i a n s , c o u n s e l l o r s ; t h e s e t e a c h e r s t h e r e f o r e r e c e i v e m o r e t h a n what t h e s a l a r y s c h e d u l e a l l o w s i n t e r m s o f t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e d) t e a c h e r s p a i d more p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e r e n d e r i n g e x c e p t i o n a l t e a c h i n g s e r v i c e , e . g . s u c h a s d o u b l e i n c r e m e n t s i n some y e a r s , s u p e r - m a x i m u m s a l a r i e s o r m e r i t b o n u s e s e) s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s b a s e d o n o t h e r f a c t o r s b e s i d e s t r a i n i n g , e x p e r i e n c e , w o r k l o a d , o r c o m p e t e n c y , e . g . t r a v e l s o r r e n d e r -i n g c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e o f some k i n d f ) s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s b a s e d o n s e x o r m a r i t a l s t a t u s g ) n o n e o f t h e s e h) a n y o t h e r s ( p l e a s e e l a b o r a t e ) : W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o v i s i o n s w o u l d y o u l i k e t o s e e u s e d i n y o u r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t t o r e f l e c t m e r i t ? ( Y o u may r a n k 1, 2, o r 3 e t c . y o u r p r e f e r e n c e - 1 b e i n g y o u r f i r s t c h o i c e , 2 s e c o n d c h o i c e e t c . ) a ) s a l a r y r a i s e s a r e w i t h h e l d f r o m t e a c h e r s j u d g e d t o b e r e n d e r i n g u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e b ) a n i n c r e m e n t i s w i t h d r a w n f r o m t e a c h e r s a t maximum s a l a r y j u d g e d t o b e r e n d e r i n g u n -s a t i s f a c t o r y s e r v i c e c ) e x t r a s a l a r i e s o r a l l o w a n c e s a r e p a i d t o t e a c h e r s who a r e d o i n g s p e c i a l k i n d s o f w o r k i n a d d i t i o n t o t e a c h i n g , e . g . D e p t . H e a d s a s s i s t i n g i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , l i b r a r -i a n s , c o u n s e l l o r s j t h e s e t e a c h e r s t h e r e -f o r e r e c e i v e m o r e t h a n what t h e s a l a r y s c h e d u l e a l l o w s i n t e r m s o f t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e d ) t e a c h e r s p a i d m o r e p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e r e n d e r i n g e x c e p t i o n a l t e a c h i n g s e r v i c e , e . g . s u c h a s d o u b l e i n c r e m e n t s i n some y e a r s , s u p e r - m a x i m u m s a l a r i e s o r m e r i t b o n u s e s e) s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s b a s e d on o t h e r f a c t o r s b e s i d e s t r a i n i n g , e x p e r i e n c e , w o r k l o a d , o r c o m p e t e n c y , e . g . t r a v e l s o r r e n d e r i n g c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e o f some k i n d f ) s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s b a s e d o n s e x o r m a r i t a l s t a t u s g ) n o n e o f t h e s e h ) a n y o t h e r s ( p l e a s e e l a b o r a t e ) : 100 W o u l d y o u b e w i l l i n g t o h a v e y o u r t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f d e t e r m i n i n g y o u r p r o m o t i o n ? D e f i n i t e l y n o t P r o b a b l y n o t U n d e c i d e d P r o b a b l y w o u l d D e f i n i t e l y w o u l d W o u l d y o u b e w i l l i n g t o h a v e y o u r t e a c h i n g e v a l u a t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f d e t e r m i n i n g y o u r s a l a r y ? D e f i n i t e l y n o t P r o b a b l y n o t U n d e c i d e d P r o b a b l y w o u l d D e f i n i t e l y w o u l d W o u l d y o u b e w i l l i n g t o s e e m e r i t p r o v i s i o n s b e i n g i n -c l u d e d i n y o u r s a l a r y s c h e d u l e ? D e f i n i t e l y n o t P r o b a b l y n o t U n d e c i d e d P r o b a b l y w o u l d D e f i n i t e l y w o u l d D o y o u t h i n k t h a t a m e r i t p a y s y s t e m w o u l d a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t y o u r r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n y o u r s c h o o l ? D e f i n i t e l y n o t 101 P r o b a b l y n o t U n d e c i d e d P r o b a b l y w o u l d D e f i n i t e l y w o u l d D o y o u t h i n k t h a t a m e r i t p a y s y s t e m w o u l d a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t y o u r r e l a t i o n s w i t h y o u r s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l a n d t h e  s u p e r i n t e n d e n t ? D e f i n i t e l y n o t P r o b a b l y n o t U n d e c i d e d P r o b a b l y w o u l d D e f i n i t e l y w o u l d H a v e y o u e v e r b e e n e m p l o y e d i n a s c h o o l o r s c h o o l d i s -t r i c t w i t h a m e r i t c l a u s e i n t h e s a l a r y s c h e d u l e ? Y e s No D o y o u t h i n k t h a t a m e r i t p a y s y s t e m w o u l d a c t a s a n i n -c e n t i v e f o r y o u t o i m p r o v e y o u r e f f e c t i v e n e s s a s a t e a c h e r ? D e f i n i t e l y n o t P r o b a b l y n o t U n d e c i d e d P r o b a b l y w o u l d D e f i n i t e l y w o u l d A s s u m i n g y o u a r e t e a c h i n g u n d e r a m e r i t p a y s y s t e m , d o y o u t h i n k t h a t m e r i t s a l a r i e s s h o u l d b e b a s e d o n : ( a ) Y o u r a c t u a l c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g o n l y ? D e f i n i t e l y n o t 102 Probably not Undecided Probably should D e f i n i t e l y should (b) Your handling of your t o t a l work-load ( i . e . teach-ing, record keeping, etc.)? D e f i n i t e l y not Probably not Undecided Probably should D e f i n i t e l y should 10A. Do you think that given t r a i n i n g and experience to be the same, some teachers are "better" than others? Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly disagree 10B. Assuming that a r e l i a b l e method could be developed f o r evaluating the performance of i n d i v i d u a l teachers, do you think that these "better" teachers ought to receive a higher salary? Strongly agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree 103 1 1 . D o y o u t h i n k t h a t s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s a n d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s c o u l d j u d g e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s a c c u r a t e l y e n o u g h t o s e r v e a s a b a s i s f o r m e r i t p a y ? D e f i n i t e l y C o u l d P r o b a b l y C o u l d U n d e c i d e d P r o b a b l y N o t D e f i n i t e l y N o t 1 2 . D o y o u t h i n k t h a t s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s a n d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s w o u l d j u d g e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s f a i r l y e n o u g h t o s e r v e a s a b a s i s f o r m e r i t p a y ? D e f i n i t e l y W o u l d P r o b a b l y W o u l d U n d e c i d e d P r o b a b l y N o t D e f i n i t e l y N o t 1 3 . A s s u m i n g t h a t y o u w e r e t e a c h i n g u n d e r a m e r i t p a y s y s -t e m , w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s w o u l d y o u p r e f e r t o h a v e e v a l u a t e y o u r p e r f o r m a n c e f o r s a l a r y p u r p o s e s ? a ) Y o u r S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l : D e f i n i t e l y Y e s P r o b a b l y Y e s U n d e c i d e d P r o b a b l y No D e f i n i t e l y No b ) Y o u r D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t : D e f i n i t e l y Y e s P r o b a b l y Y e s 104 Undecided _ Probably No_ D e f i n i t e l y Nio_ c) Your School Board of Trustees D e f i n i t e l y Yes_ Probably Yes Undecided Probably No D e f i n i t e l y No_ d) A committee of teachers elected by teachers from your own school d i s t r i c t : D e f i n i t e l y Yes. Probably Yes _ Undecided Probably No _ D e f i n i t e l y No_ e) A committee of teachers appointed by the school administration: D e f i n i t e l y Yes_ Probably Yes Undecided Probably No D e f i n i t e l y No f) A j o i n t committee of teachers and school board trustees from within your school d i s t r i c t : D e f i n i t e l y Yes_ Probably Yes Undecided Probably No 105 D e f i n i t e l y No g ) A n y o t h e r s ( p l e a s e e l a b o r a t e ) N o t e : R a n k t h e a b o v e f r o m 1 . m o s t d e s i r a b l e t o 7. l e a s t d e s i r a b l e . 14. A p a r t f r o m q u e s t i o n 13, w o u l d y o u f a v o r a m e r i t p a y s y s -t e m t h a t w o u l d g i v e some v o i c e t o p a r e n t s a n d p u p i l s i n e v a l u a t i n g y o u r p e r f o r m a n c e f o r s a l a r y p u r p o s e s ? a ) P a r e n t s : D e f i n i t e l y Y e s P r o b a b l y Y e s U n d e c i d e d P r o b a b l y No D e f i n i t e l y No b ) P u p i l s : D e f i n i t e l y Y e s P r o b a b l y Y e s U n d e c i d e d P r o b a b l y No D e f i n i t e l y No 15. How f r e q u e n t l y d o y o u t h i n k i t w o u l d b e n e c e s s a r y t o e v a l u a t e y o u r p e r f o r m a n c e u n d e r a m e r i t p a y s y s t e m ? M o n t h l y j T w i c e Y e a r l y ; Y e a r l y O t h e r s ( p l e a s e e l a b o r a t e ) : 16. I f a m e r i t p a y s y s t e m was t o b e i n t r o d u c e d i n y o u r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g w o u l d b e , i n 106 y o u r v i e w , t h e f a i r e s t way o f i n t r o d u c i n g i t ? a ) C o m p u l s o r y f o r a l l , p r o v i d e d t h e p l a n was a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s i n t h e d i s t r i c t : b ) V o l u n t a r y f o r t h o s e a g r e e i n g t o come u n d e r t h e p l a n , b u t n o t r e q u i r e d f o r t h o s e n o t w i l l i n g : c ) V o l u n t a r y f o r t h o s e a l r e a d y e m p l o y e d i n t h e d i s t r i c t b u t c o m p u l s o r y f o r a l l t e a c h e r s a p p o i n t e d i n t h e d i s t r i c t i n t h e f u t u r e : d ) A n y o t h e r p l a n ( p l e a s e e l a b o r a t e ) : 17. I f a m e r i t p a y s y s t e m was t o b e i n t r o d u c e d i n y o u r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g w o u l d b e , i n y o u r v i e w , t h e f a i r e s t way o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g i t : a ) A d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e b o a r d o f s c h o o l t r u s t e e s b ) A d m i n i s t e r e d b y a j o i n t c o m m i t t e e o f t r u s t e e s a n d t e a c h e r s i n t h e d i s t r i c t c ) A d m i n i s t e r e d b y a c o m m i t t e e o f t e a c h e r s f r o m y o u r own s c h o o l d i s t r i c t d ) A n y o t h e r p l a n ( p l e a s e e l a b o r a t e ) : 18. S h o u l d y o u b e g i v e n a c h o i c e , w h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e s 1 0 7 o f m e r i t p a y w o u l d y o u p r e f e r ? a ) S u p e r - m a x i m u m s a l a r i e s ? D e f i n i t e l y Yes_ P r o b a b l y Y e s U n d e c i d e d P r o b a b l y No D e f i n i t e l y No b ) S k i p p i n g s t e p s o n t h e a u t o m a t i c s c h e d u l e , e . g . d o u b l e i n c r e m e n t s i n c e r t a i n y e a r s . D e f i n i t e l y Yes_ P r o b a b l y Y e s U n d e c i d e d P r o b a b l y No D e f i n i t e l y No c ) M a s t e r t e a c h e r s e . g . " S u p e r i o r " t e a c h e r s g i v e n m i n o r s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n s a n d t h e r e f o r e r e c e i v i n g e x t r a c o m p e n s a t i o n . D e f i n i t e l y Yes_ P r o b a b l y Y e s U n d e c i d e d P r o b a b l y No D e f i n i t e l y No 1 8 . d ) A n y o t h e r p l a n ( p l e a s e e x p l a i n ) : 108 19. I t w o u l d b e h e l p f u l i f y o u w o u l d s t a t e y o u r name a n d a d d r e s s h e r e f o r f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n b u t y o u n e e d n o t i f y o u p r e f e r n o t t o : Name: A d d r e s s : 20. " A n y comments y o u w o u l d l i k e t o m a k e , p l e a s e d o s o h e r e . T h a n k y o u . " 109 APPENDIX B NOTES ON THE SAMPLE Five hundred questionnaires were d i s t r i b u t e d to the elementary and secondary school teachers who were attending the Summer School at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, July -August, 1964 (there were over 6 , 000 teachers i n attendance). Sixty questionnaires were d i s t r i b u t e d to the school p r i n c i p a l s attending the P r i n c i p a l s * Conference, held at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, July 21-31> 1 9 6 4 . The returns were as follows: No Answer (NA) 10 Elementary School Teachers (EST) 196 Secondary School Teachers (SST) 173 School P r i n c i p a l s (SP) 60 T o t a l 439 From the questionnaires returned, the following were eliminated: (a) Those that were not i n a form permitting analysis, such as the ones where most of the questions were un-answered. (b) Those where the respondents had not taught previously or had les s than one year's teaching experience. (c) Those who were not teaching i n B r i t i s h Columbia the previous year, and (d) Those whose respondents were kindergarten school 110 t e a c h e r s . T h i s l e f t 402 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r a n a l y s i s p u r p o s e s , d i s -t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s : No A n s w e r 4 1.0 E S T 179 44.5 S S T 159 39.6 S P 60 14.9 T o t a l 402 100.0 A b r i e f b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e 402 r e s p o n d e n t s f o l l o w s : T A B L E I SAMPLE D I S T R I B U T E D BY S E X M a l e s F e m a l e s T o t a l NA 3 1 4 E S T 58 121 179 S S T 93 66 159 S P 60 0 60 T o t a l 214 188 402 ( a ) 214 o r 53.2% o f t h e t o t a l s a m p l e i s c o m p r i s e d o f m a l e s . ( b ) F e m a l e s o u t n u m b e r m a l e s i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s ; 121 o u t o f 179 E S T o r 67.6% o f E S T a r e f e m a l e s . ( c ) I n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t o t a l f e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n , f e m a l e s a r e m a i n l y i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s ; t h u s , 121 o u t o f 188 f e m a l e s o r 64.4% a r e i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . I l l ( d ) I n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , t h e n u m b e r o f m a l e t e a c h e r s -f e m a l e t e a c h e r s i . e . 58.5% (93 o u t o f 159 S S T ) a r e m a l e s . T A B L E I I SAMPLE D I S T R I B U T E D ( A b s . BY M A R I T A L f i g s . ) S T A T U S No A n s w e r S i n g l e M a r r i e d T o t a l NA 0 1 3 4 E S T 5 70 104 179 S S T 8 38 113 159 SP 2 3 55 60 T o t a l 15 112 275 402 ( a ) M o r e t h a n h a l f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a r e m a r r i e d t e a c h e r s ; 275 o u t o f 402 o r 68.4%. ( b ) P r o p o r t i o n o f m a r r i e d t e a c h e r s i s h i g h e s t a m o n g s t t h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s (55 o u t o f 60 o r 91.7%), a n d n e x t a m o n g s t t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s (113 o u t o f 179 o r 71.1%), w i t h t h e s m a l l e s t p r o p o r t i o n a m o n g s t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s (104 o u t o f 179 o r 58.1%). 112 T A B L E I I I SAMPLE D I S T R I B U T E D BY AGE ( A b s . f i g s . ) AGE GROUP N o . A n s w e r 18-25 26-35 36-50 50+ T o t a l NA 0 0 3 1 0 4 E S T 5 90 35 38 11 179 S S T 4 27 78 44 6 159 SP 4 1 8 38 9 60 T o t a l 13 118 124 121 26 402 ( a ) A s e x p e c t e d , m o s t o f t h o s e i n t h e y o u n g e s t a g e g r o u p (18-25) a r e E X T , i ^ e . 90 o u t o f 118 o r 76.3%. ( b ) T h e S S T a r e m a i n l y i n t h e m i d d l e - a g e g r o u p s (26--35) , 78 o u t o f 124 i n g r o u p 26-35 a r e S S T (62.9%). ( c ) T h e SP a r e m a i n l y i n t h e o l d e s t a g e g r o u p s , i . e . i n t ' g r o u p 36-50 w i t h 38 o f t h e 60 SP o r 63.3%. T A B L E I V SAMPLE D I S T R I B U T E D BY NUMBER OF Y E A R S OF T E A C H I N G E X P E R I E N C E Number o f Y e a r s o f T e a c h i n g E x p e r i e n c e . No A n s w e r 1-3 4-6 7-10 11-19 20+ T o t a l NA 0 4 0 0 0 0 4 E S T 2 103 24 23 22 6 179 S S T 5 70 36 17 26 4 159 S P 0 3 2 7 29 19 60 T o t a l 7 180 62 47 77 29 402 ( a ) A g o o d n u m b e r o f t h e t e a c h e r s h a v e l e s s t h a n 6 y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e : 180 o u t o f 402 o r 45.0% w i t h l e s s t h a n 3 y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e a n d 62 o u t o f 402 o r 15.0% w i t h l e s s t h a n 6 y e a r s . T h e r e f o r e , a b o u t 60.0% o f t h e t e a c h e r s h a v e l e s s t h a n 6 y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . ( b ) T h e t a b l e a l s o s h o w s what w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d , i . e . t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f t h e SP w o u l d h a v e h a d t h e l o n g e s t y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . T h u s , 48 (29 + 19) o u t o f t h e SP o r 80.0% h a v e h a d m o r e t h a n 10 y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x -p e r i e n c e . ( c ) T h e E S T h a v e f e w e r y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e t h a n t h e S S T . 114 A P P E N D I X C MEDFORD MERIT R A T I N G PROGRAM I n t r o d u c t i o n I n a l l a r e a s o f human e n d e a v o r t h e r e a r e t h o s e who d i s -p l a y a s u p e r i o r p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e i r d u t i e s . A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f t h i s s u p e r i o r p e r f o r m a n c e i s a b a s i c p r e c e p t o f t h e A m e r i -c a n way o f l i f e - we r i s e a n d f a l l o n o u r own m e r i t . T h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n w i l l a c c e p t t h i s i f i t i s t o p r o g r e s s . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s s e l f - e v i d e n t t h a t someone must e v a l u a t e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a n i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e c h o s e n v o c a t i o n o r p r o f e s s i o n . T h e p e r s o n e n t r u s t e d w i t h t h i s t a s k m u s t b e f a i r a n d i m p a r t i a l i n h i s j u d g m e n t a n d , a b o v e a l l , b e c o m p e t e n t t o e v a l u a t e . M u t u a l t r u s t m u s t e x i s t among i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s a s i n o t h e r m a t t e r s . I f we a c c e p t t h e s e b a s i c p r e c e p t s , we members o f t h e M e d f o r d P u b l i c S c h o o l s * t e a c h i n g s t a f f s h o u l d b e g u i d e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s : 1. R e f r a i n f r o m g i v i n g i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g m e r i t o r c a r e e r i n c r e m e n t s t h a t w o u l d d i s c r e d i t a n i n d i v i d u a l o r t h e p l a n . 2. C o o p e r a t e i n e v e r y way t o g i v e t h i s p l a n a f a i r c h a n c e t o s u c c e e d . 3. P r o c e e d t h r o u g h r e g u l a r c h a n n e l s t o c o r r e c t a n y i n -e q u a l i t i e s f o u n d i n t h i s p l a n . 4. T r e a t c o n f i d e n t i a l l y t h e r e s u l t s o f a n e v a l u a t i o n o f a t e a c h e r who h a s a p p l i e d f o r a m e r i t o r c a r e e r i n c r e m e n t . 5. B e g u i d e d b y t h e h i g h e s t e t h i c a l a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s f o r o u r m u t u a l b e n e f i t . O b j e c t i v e s T h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d t e a c h e r s o f t h e M e d f o r d P u b l i c S c h o o l s i n o r d e r t o : s 1. m a i n t a i n t h e h i g h l e v e l o f t e a c h i n g e f f i c i e n c y , 2. e n c o u r a g e c a r e e r s e r v i c e d e d i c a t e d t o c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g , 3. c o m p e t e w i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g a t t r a c t i o n s o f p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y , 4. c o m p e n s a t e m o r e n e a r l y f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r f o r m a n c e e m b o d y i n g t h o s e q u a l i t i e s t h a t r e a c h a b o v e a n d b e y o n d d e g r e e s a n d e x p e r i e n c e , 5. r e a c h more c l o s e l y t h a t g o a l o f e f f e c t i v e l y p r o d u c i n g t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e c i t i z e n s h i p i n t h i s c o m m u n i t y , d o s u b m i t t h i s p l a n t o s u p p l e m e n t t h e s a l a r y s c h e d u l e b u t n o t t o a l t e r i t i n a n y m a n n e r , e x c e p t a s e c o n o m i c d e v i a t i o n s d e v e l o p . E l i g i b i l i t y A t e a c h e r b e c o m e s e l i g i b l e f o r m e r i t i n c r e a s e when he g o e s o n t e n u r e . A t e a c h e r o f t h r e e o r more y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e a n d new i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m may b e c o n s i d e r e d f o r e l i g i b i l i t y on t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f h i s s e c o n d y e a r i n t h e s y s t e m . What t h e M e r i t P l a n D o e s T h e M e r i t P r o g r a m a s p r o p o s e d may e f f e c t a t e a c h e r ' s s a l -a r y t w o w a y s -116 1. E n a b l e a t e a c h e r t o a t t a i n t h e maximum s a l a r y l i s t e d o n t h e M e d f o r d S a l a r y S c h e d u l e i n a s h o r t e r p e r i o d o f t i m e . T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y d o u b l i n g t h e i n -c r e m e n t s l i s t e d i n t h e r e g u l a r s a l a r y s c h e d u l e . 2. E n a b l e a t e a c h e r t o g o b e y o n d t h e Maximum a s l i s t e d on t h e r e g u l a r s a l a r y s c h e d u l e . T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y g r a n t i n g a n amount up t o t h r e e t i m e s t h e l a r g e s t i n c r e m e n t l i s t e d i n t h e M e d f o r d S a l a r y S c h e d u l e . What R a t i n g Q u a l i f i e s a T e a c h e r f o r M e r i t B e n e f i t s E v a l u a t i o n s h e e t 1. N e c e s s a r y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s : a . A s t r o n g i n T E A C H I N G E F F E C T I V E N E S S ( S e e I t e m 2, b e l o w ) . b . A s t r o n g i n a n y o n e o f t h e o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s ( S e e I t e m 2). c » A b o v e A v e r a g e i n t h e r e m a i n i n g t w o c a t e g o r i e s . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s a b o v e a v e r a g e i n m o r e t h a n o n e - h a l f t h e i t e m s , 2, I n o r d e r t o r e c e i v e " s t r o n g " r a t i n g f o r a n y one c a t e g o r y a t e a c h e r m u s t h a v e a t l e a s t o n e - h a l f o f t h e i t e m s i n t h e " s t r o n g " c o l u m n a n d n o n e b e l o w " a b o v e a v e r a g e " . A " b e l o w a v e r a g e " r a t i n g i n a n y i t e m w i t h i n a n y c a t e g o r y d i s q u a l i f i e s t h e t e a c h e r . Who d o e s t h e R a t i n g 1. T h e b u i l d i n g p r i n c i p a l i s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a t e a c h e r ' s m e r i t r a t i n g . He may c a l l i n a n y r e s o u r c e p e r s o n t h o u g h t p e r t i n e n t t o h i s f i n d i n g s . He w i l l 117 a r r a n g e t o c h e c k p e r s o n a l l y t h e e v a l u a t i o n s h e e t w i t h t h e t e a c h e r i n o r d e r t h a t t h e l a t t e r u n d e r s t a n d s h i s r a t i n g . 2. T h e r e w i l l b e t w o a p p e l l a t e b o a r d s , one e l e c t e d f r o m a n d b y t h e t e a c h e r s f o r t h e e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s ( o n e t h r o u g h s i x ) a n d one e l e c t e d f r o m a n d b y t h e t e a c h e r s f o r t h e s e c o n d a r y g r a d e s ( s e v e n t h r o u g h t w e l v e ) . E a c h o f t h e s e b o a r d s w i l l c o n s i s t o f t w o t e a c h e r s , t h e a s s i s t a n t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , a n d one a l t e r n a t e . T h e a l t e r n a t e i s t o f u n c t i o n i n c a s e o f i n a b i l i t y o f a r e g u l a r member t o a t t e n d . M e m b e r s w i l l b e e l e c t e d f o r a t e r m o f t h r e e y e a r s ; one new member b e i n g e l e c t e d e a c h y e a r . T o p u t t h e p l a n i n t o e f f e c t , n o m i n e e s f o r t h e s e b o a r d s w i l l t o t a l s i x . F o r e i t h e r b o a r d , t h e one r e c e i v i n g t h e g r e a t e s t n u m b e r o f v o t e s w i l l s e r v e one y e a r a n d w i l l b e c h a i r m a n . T h e one r e c e i v i n g t h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t n u m b e r o f v o t e s w i l l s e r v e t w o y e a r s . T h e o n e r e c e i v i n g t h e l o w e s t n u m b e r o f v o t e s w i l l b e a l t e r n a t e . T h e n e x t y e a r , t h e one who h a d r e c e i v e d t h e s e c o n d l a r g e s t n u m b e r o f v o t e s w i l l b e c o m e c h a i r m a n . T h e new members w i l l b e e l e c t e d f o r a t e r m o f t h r e e y e a r s a n d w i l l s e r v e f i r s t a s a n a l t e r n a t e . T h e a p p e l l a t e b o a r d w i l l t a k e t h e n e c e s s a r y s t e p s i n e v e r y c a s e t o o b t a i n a l l t h e e v i d e n c e a s t o q u a l i f i -c a t i o n s o f a n y t e a c h e r who a p p e a l s t o i t . T h e a p p e l l a t e , b o a r d s a r e s e t up w i t h t h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f r e v i e w i n g t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s r e l a t i v e to teacher merit. The board's decision i s f i n a l subject to any action deemed necessary by the board of education. A teacher w i l l have the right to request a personal appearance before the appellate board. A l l other duties and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e l a t i n g to the appellate board s h a l l be determined by the executive board of the Medford Teachers' Association. 3. A nominating committee w i l l submit s i x names to serve each appellate board. Application f o r Merit Rating A teacher may make formal application f o r merit r a t i n g to the p r i n c i p a l or the p r i n c i p a l may recommend to the teacher that he apply f o r said increment. The p r i n c i p a l w i l l forward a l l applications to the superintendent's o f f i c e f o r f i n a l action by the school board. An accumulative record f o r each applicant s h a l l be kept i n the superintendent's o f f i c e so that i t may be accessible to the teacher and those responsible f o r evaluating the teacher's q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r merit r a t i n g . P u b l i c i t y 1. Provide f o r a reasonable amount of p u b l i c i t y f o r career teachers receiving the increment. 2. A l i s t of a l l the merit and career teachers of the Med-ford Public Schools s h a l l be on f i l e and available i n each p r i n c i p a l ' s o f f i c e . Review of Plan A review of the plan s h a l l be made by a committee c o n s i s t i n g o f a member o f t h e S c h o o l B o a r d , t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , t h e A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , a n d t h e E x e c u t i v e B o a r d o f t h e T e a c h e r ' s A s s o c i a t i o n u p o n t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e M e d f o r d T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n o r a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e S c h o o l B o a r d . M e r i t a n d C a r e e r I n c r e m e n t s M e r i t r a t i n g i n v o l v e s t h e e v a l u a t i o n a n d r e w a r d i n g ( a d d i t i o n a l p a y ) t o a t e a c h e r f o r o u t s t a n d i n g t e a c h i n g a s b a s e d u p o n t h e " T e a c h e r E v a l u a t i o n S h e e t " . A p p l i c a t i o n f o r m e r i t r a t i n g t o r e c e i v e m e r i t o r c a r e e r i n c r e m e n t s i s v o l u n t a r y o r a t e a c h e r may b e r e c o m m e n d e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n b y a p r i n c i p a l . M e r i t i n c r e m e n t s a p p l y t o t e a c h e r s i n t h e M e d f o r d s y s t e m who h a v e met t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , c o m p l e t e d t h e p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d , a n d h a v e n o t a r r i v e d a t t h e s a l a r y s c h e d u l e maximum. M e r i t c a r e e r i n c r e m e n t s p e r t a i n t o t e a c h e r s who h a v e a r r i v e d a t t h e M e d f o r d s a l a r y m a x i m u m . I n t h e m e r i t c a t e g o r y , one; may a p p l y o r b e r e c o m m e n d e d e a c h y e a r a n d may r e c e i v e a n a d d i t i o n a l i n c r e m e n t e a c h y e a r t h a t t h e t e a c h e r q u a l i f i e s . T h i s p l a n w i l l e n a b l e t e a c h e r s t o r e a c h t h e maximum i n a s h o r t e r p e r i o d o f t i m e t h a n s c h e d u l e d . I n t h e c a r e e r c a t e g o r y , t e a c h e r s may b e r a t e d o n c e f o r i n c r e m e n t a t t h e e n d o f a t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d . I n t h i s m a n n e r , t h e t h r e e y e a r s c a n b e l i k e n e d t o a p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d . One may a p p l y e a c h y e a r f o r r a t i n g t o e n a b l e s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t a n d t o know h i s s t a t u s . ( H o w e v e r , t h e c a r e e r i n c r e m e n t when g r a n t e d s h a l l b e g i v e n o n l y o n c e i n a n y t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d ) • I n o r d e r t o q u a l i f y f o r a c a r e e r i n c r e m e n t a t e a c h e r 120 m u s t h a v e t a u g h t t e n y e a r s i n t h e M e d f o r d S c h o o l S y s t e m . T e a c h e r s new t o t h e M e d f o r d S c h o o l S y s t e m w i t h l e s s t h a n t e n y e a r s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e may b e c r e d i t e d w i t h o n e - h a l f t h e p r i o r p e r i o d o f e x p e r i e n c e . P o r t i o n s o f a y e a r ' s e x p e r i e n c e d o n o t c o u n t • P e r s o n s who a r e r a t e d t o r e c e i v e m e r i t o r c a r e e r i n c r e -m e n t s f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e a n d who a r e l a t e r r a t e d a s d e f i c i e n t i n t h a t s t a t u s s h a l l b e d e c r e a s e d i n amount r e c e i v e d a b o v e a n d b e y o n d t h e s a l a r y s c h e d u l e . T h i s i s t o b e d o n e a t t h e same r a t e t h a t he p r e v i o u s l y was i n c r e a s e d u n t i l s u c h t i m e a s he i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h a t s a l a r y s c h e d u l e o n t h e b a s i s o f p r e p a r -a t i o n a n d e x p e r i e n c e o r a g a i n r e g a i n s h i s m e r i t a d v a n t a g e . F o r t h e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s o f t h i s m e r i t p l a n c a r e e r t e a c h e r s s h a l l b e t r e a t e d t h e same a s m e r i t t e a c h e r s , p r o g r e s -s i n g y e a r l y a t o n e - t h i r d o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d c a r e e r i n c r e m e n t . T h i s t e m p o r a r y a r r a n g e m e n t w i l l t h u s n o t p l a c e t e a c h e r s c u r -r e n t l y a t maximum a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e . E f f e c t i v e w i t h t h e 1962-63 s c h o o l y e a r , q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s w i l l b e e l i g i b l e t o r e c e i v e f u l l c a r e e r i n c r e m e n t s . S i n c e t h e r a t i n g w i l l b e b a s e d on m e r i t , t h e r e w i l l n o t b e a s e t p e r c e n t a g e o f t e a c h e r s g r a n t e d m e r i t o r c a r e e r i n -c r e m e n t s . T h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n s h a l l e s t a b l i s h t h e s c h e d u l e o f m e r i t a n d c a r e e r i n c r e m e n t s . T h e M e d f o r d T e a c h e r s * A s s o c -i a t i o n E x e c u t i v e B o a r d a n d a l l t e a c h e r s i n t h e s y s t e m s h a l l b e n o t i f i e d when i n c r e m e n t s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d o r r e v i s e d . 121 S c h e d u l e o f M e r i t I n c r e m e n t s T h e f o l l o w i n g s c h e d u l e o f m e r i t i n c r e m e n t s h a s b e e n a p p r o v e d a t a r e g u l a r m e e t i n g o f t h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n a n d s h a l l r e m a i n i n e f f e c t u n t i l c h a n g e s b y o f f i c i a l b o a r d a c t i o n . 1. A M e r i t R a t i n g I n c r e m e n t s h a l l b e e q u a l t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s r e g u l a r i n c r e m e n t o n t h e s a l a r y s c h e d u l e a n d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h q u a l i f i c a t i o n s l i s t e d o n p a g e 122. 2. A C a r e e r I n c r e m e n t i s t h r e e t i m e s t h e h i g h e s t i n -c r e m e n t o n t h e r e g u l a r s a l a r y s c h e d u l e a n d g r a n t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s l i s t e d o n p a g e 122. A p p l i c a t i o n a n d R a t i n g F o r m A p p l i c a t i o n , r a t i n g f o r m s a n d o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n may b e o b t a i n e d f r o m b u i l d i n g p r i n c i p a l s , M e d f o r d T e a c h e r s ' A s s o -c i a t i o n o f f i c e r s o r t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s . 122 F o r m 49M M E R I T R A T I N G F O R M M e d f o r d , O r e g o n P u b l i c S c h o o l s N a m e o f T e a c h e r G r a d e o r D e p t . I n t e r v i e w S c h o o l D a t e T i m e : B e g a n E n d e d B e l o w A b o v e A v e r a g e A v e r a g e A v e r a g e S t r o n g T e a c h i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s 1. M o t i v a t e s , c h a l l e n g e s s t u d e n t s 2. M a i n t e n a n c e o f h i g h a c a d e m i c s t a n d a r d s 3. A t t e n t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s o f p u p i l s 4. I n f l u e n c e u p o n p u p i l s 5. L e s s o n p l a n s , d e v e l o p s c o u r s e o f s t u d y 6. P r e s e n t a t i o n o f d a i l y l e s s o n s 7. P r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s s i g n m e n t s 8. P u p i l p r o g r e s s , o b t a i n s r e s u l t s R A T I N G P e r s o n a l Q u a l i t i e s 1. H e a l t h , a b s e n c e f r o m d u t i e s B e l o w A b o v e 123 A v e r a g e A v e r a g e A v e r a g e S t r o n g 2. P e r s o n a l a p p e a r a n c e , n e a t n e s s a n d h a b i t s '  3. V o i c e , e f f e c t on o t h e r s ' 4. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s c h o o l - c o m m u n i t y l i f e 5. I n i t i a t i v e a n d s e l f -r e l i a n c e 6. T a c t i n d e a l i n g w i t h p u p i l s , p a t r o n s 7. C h e e r f u l n e s s a n d o p t i m i s m .  8. F o r c e f u l n e s s a s member o f t h e s t a f f 9. S y m p a t h y a n d u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f s t u d e n t s 10. S e n s e o f humor 11. T e a c h i n g p e r s o n a l i t y R A T I N G P r o f e s s i o n a l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s 1. L o y a l t y t o s c h o o l s y s t e m 2. P r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t a n d g r o w t h 3. C o o p e r a t i o n w i t h p r i n c i p a l , f e l l o w t e a c h e r s , a n d p a r e n t s 124 B e l o w A b o v e A v e r a g e A v e r a g e A v e r a g e S t r o n g 4 . U s e o f E n g l i s h , w r i t t e n a n d o r a l 5. A s s i s t a n c e w i t h e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s 6. G o o d j u d g m e n t , makes r i g h t d e c i s i o n s 7. R e c e p t i v e t o s u g g e s t i o n s R A T I N G S c h o o l M a n a g e m e n t a n d O r g a n i z a t i o n 1 . E f f e c t i v e u s e o f m a t e r i a l s a n d e q u i p m e n t 2 . P r o m p t n e s s a n d a c c u r a c y o f r e p o r t s 3» C a r e o f r o o m a n d e q u i p m e n t 4 . I n t e r e s t i n a n d i n f l u e n c e w i t h p u p i l s 5. C l a s s r o o m c o n t r o l , d i s c i p l i n e 6. O r g a n i z a t i o n o f c l a s s t i m e 7. P u n c t u a l i t y , o n t i m e Below Above Average Average Average Strong 8. Attitude toward assigned duties RATING Acknowledged by (Teacher) (Principal) Comments: T E A C H I N G E F F E C T I V E N E S S 1. M o t i v a t e s , c h a l l e n g e s s t u d e n t s S t i m u l a t e s a d e s i r e i n a l l p u p i l s t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e t a s k a t h a n d . C l a s s a c t i v i t i e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n s u c h a m a n n e r a s t o b e m e a n i n g f u l t o s t u d e n t s . E a c h s t u d e n t i s m o t i v a t e d t o d o h i s b e s t a n d i n some m e a s u r e t o e x p e r i e n c e s u c c e s s i n a n a r e a o f s c h o o l l i f e . 2. M a i n t e n a n c e o f h i g h a c a d e m i c s t a n d a r d s C o n t i n u a l l y s e e k s a n d a t t a i n s h i g h d e g r e e s o f a c h i e v e m e n t a s s e t f o r t h i n t h e s t a n d a r d s f o r p r o m o t i o n i n e a c h s u b j e c t o r g r a d e l e v e l . 3 . A t t e n t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s o f p u p i l s S u c c e s s f u l t e a c h e r s r e c o g n i z e a n d a s s i s t s t u d e n t s i n s o l v i n g b o t h a c a d e m i c a n d p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s . S p e c i a l m a t e r i a l s a r e p r e p a r e d a n d s e c u r e d t o c a r e f o r i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s . T e a c h e r s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s m u s t c o n s t a n t l y g u a r d a g a i n s t a l l o w i n g t h e s c h o o l t o b e o p e r a t e d o n a n a s s e m b l y l i n e b a s i s . C o n s i d e r s i n d i v i d u a l n e e d s i n m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g t h e s t u d e n t . 4. I n f l u e n c e u p o n p u p i l s T h e t e a c h e r e x e r t s a w h o l e s o m e a n d d e s i r a b l e i n f l u e n c e u p o n p u p i l s , s u c h a s i m p a r t i n g g o o d m o r a l a n d s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s , p r o p e r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d c o r r e c t s t u d y h a b i t s a n d a c h i e v e -ment g o a l s , a n d a c o n s t r u c t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d g o o d c i t i z e n s h i p . A t e a c h e r c a n h a r d l y b e e x p e c t e d t o b e " a l l t h i n g s t o a l l c h i l d r e n " a n d y e t s h e comes a s n e a r d o i n g 127 t h i s a s a n y o t h e r p e r s o n i n t h e c h i l d ' s l i f e . 5. L e s s o n p l a n s , p r e p a r a t i o n L e s s o n p l a n s s h o u l d b e c o n c i s e , d e f i n i t e , e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t e d , a n d i n d i c a t i v e o f a d e q u a t e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e d a y ' s w o r k . T h e y s h o u l d b e w r i t t e n o u t i n s u c h a m a n n e r t h a t a s u b -s t i t u t e may e a s i l y u n d e r s t a n d what h a s b e e n d o n e a n d what i s p l a n n e d . F o l l o w s c o u r s e o f s t u d y a n d u s e s t e x t s a n d o t h e r c u r r i c u l a r m a t e r i a l s a p p r o v e d f o r h e r c l a s s e s . 6 . P r e s e n t a t i o n o f d a i l y l e s s o n s T h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e l e s s o n i s made i n t e r e s t i n g , c h a l -l e n g i n g , a n d t o t h e p o i n t . I t a l l o w s a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n f o r s t u d e n t s 1 s u p e r v i s e d s t u d y t i m e . T h e t e a c h e r u s e s v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s , m e t h o d s , a n d a i d s t o p u t o v e r t h e p o i n t s i n e a c h d a y ' s w o r k . S t u d e n t s s h o u l d b e made t o f e e l t h a t t h e y " l e a r n e d s o m e t h i n g i n c l a s s t o d a y " . When a s t u d e n t f e e l s t h a t he h a s n o t a c c o m p l i s h e d o r l e a r n e d s o m e t h i n g , he l o s e s i n t e r e s t a n d i n v a r i a b l y b e c o m e s a p r o b l e m . " M a k e i t t h y b u s i n e s s t o know t h y s e l f , w h i c h i s t h e m o s t d i f f i c u l t l e s s o n i n t h e w o r l d . " C e r v a n t e s 7. P r e s e n t a t i o n o f a s s i g n m e n t s A s s i g n m e n t s s h o u l d b e d e f i n i t e , c l e a r , p u r p o s e f u l , p o s s i b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h , a n d w o r t h y o f t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d f o r c o m -p l e t i o n . T h e s e c r e t o f many s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h e r s i s t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h a s s i g n m e n t s a r e p r e s e n t e d . I t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r a t e a c h e r t o p r e s e n t new a s s i g n m e n t s i n s u c h a way t h a t s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t s a r e m o t i v a t e d a n d a r o u s e d . A d e q u a t e 128 t i m e o n p r e p a r a t i o n o f a s s i g n m e n t s u s u a l l y s a v e s t e a c h e r a n d s t u d e n t t i m e l a t e r . 8. P u p i l p r o g r e s s , o b t a i n s d e s i r e d r e s u l t s N o r m a l l y , one y e a r o f a c a d e m i c g r o w t h o r p r o g r e s s o n t h e b a s i s o f a c c e p t e d s t a n d a r d s i s c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l . How-e v e r , t h e r e a r e v a r i a b l e s on t h e p a r t o f e a c h p u p i l w h i c h e n t e r i n t o t h e e v a l u a t i o n s u c h a s a b i l i t y , h e a l t h , e t c . T h e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i s w h e t h e r t h e c h i l d made a d e q u a t e p r o g r e s s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h h i s p o t e n t i a l a b i l i t y b a s e d o n a c h i e v i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s s e t b y t h e s c h o o l . A g o o d t e a c h e r r e g u l a r l y c o m p a r e s h e r p u p i l s p r o g r e s s w i t h o t h e r s i m i l a r g r o u p s a n d w i t h h e r c l a s s e s o f t h e p a s t . I t i s o f t e n p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y a r e a s t h a t n e e d t o b e s t r e n g t h e n e d . E f f o r t m u s t b e a c c o m p a n i e d b y a c h i e v e m e n t . T h e r e i s o n l y one way t o d e t e r m i n e p u p i l a c h i e v e m e n t a n d t h a t i s b y m e a s u r i n g . PERSONAL Q U A L I T I E S 1. H e a l t h , a b s e n c e f r o m d u t i e s T h i s r e f e r s t o t h e p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f e v e r y -t e a c h e r t o r e m a i n i n t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l , a n d e m o t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n . S u f f i c i e n t r e s t a n d c o n s t a n t a t t e n t i o n t o h e a l t h d e f i c i e n c i e s a r e a " m u s t " i n o r d e r t o a t t a i n o n e ' s " t o p " t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . C o n s t a n t a b s e n c e b e c a u s e o f p o o r h e a l t h o r u s i n g e n e r g y f o r o t h e r t y p e s o f w o r k o r i n t e r e s t s b e c o m e s a b u r d e n o n t h e e n t i r e f a c u l t y a n d a n i m p o s i t i o n o n t h e s t u d e n t s . 2. P e r s o n a l a p p e a r a n c e , n e a t n e s s a n d h a b i t s T h e t e a c h e r d r e s s e s n e a t l y a n d m o d i s h l y i n g o o d p r o f e s s i o n a l 129 t a s t e . Personal grooming i n care of h a i r , n a i l s , and c l o t h -ing i s exemplary to both students and community. Good pos-ture sets a desirable example fo r a l l . Cosmetics are used with appropriate d i s c r e t i o n . Students look at teachers through many eyes and from a l l angles. 3. Voice, e f f e c t on others This re f e r s to an a r t i c u l a t e and well-modulated voice with e f f e c t i v e d i c t i o n , d i s t i n c t enough f o r every student i n the room to hear e a s i l y what i s said. 4. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community l i f e This re f e r s to s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i v i t y i n c i v i c and service groups, clubs, churches and a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n com-munity betterment programs along with other c i t i z e n s . I t may be through personal services or f i n a n c i a l contributions or both. Personal i n t e r e s t and b e l i e f s usually determine the extent of one's p a r t i c i p a t i o n over and above the mini-mum expected of teachers. ; 5. I n i t i a t i v e and s e l f - r e l i a n c e The teacher demonstrates i n i t i a t i v e i n taking action neces-sary f o r the well-being of her students and school. As occasions ari s e f o r decisions, and action, the c r i s e s are not side-stepped. The teacher takes p o s i t i v e and proper steps to care f o r s i t u a t i o n s as problems a r i s e . The teacher acts i n such a manner that she appears to know what to do, when to do i t , and how to do i t . 6. Tact i n dealing with p u p i l s , patrons This refers to a teacher's a b i l i t y to keep i n mind that 130 t h e r e a r e u s u a l l y t w o s i d e s t o e v e r y q u e s t i o n a n d t h a t s t u -d e n t s a n d p a t r o n s a r e f o r t h e m o s t p a r t w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d a n d c o o p e r a t i v e i n d i v i d u a l s . 7. C h e e r f u l n e s s a n d o p t i m i s m T h e t e a c h e r i s e n t h u s i a s t i c a n d p l e a s a n t i n d e a l i n g w i t h s t u d e n t s a n d p a t r o n s . S h e k e e p s p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s t o h e r -s e l f a n d d o e s n ' t a l l o w t h e m t o i n f l u e n c e h e r s c h o o l w o r k . 8 . F o r c e f u l n e s s a s member o f t h e s t a f f T h i s r e f e r s t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p e x e r t e d b y i n -d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s t o w a r d i m p r o v i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m . I t i s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h one i s r e s p e c t e d a s a n a u t h o r i t y a n d a l e a d e r i n some a r e a o f s c h o o l l i f e . 9 . S y m p a t h y a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s t u d e n t s T h i s means t h a t t h e t e a c h e r i s s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e p r o b l e m s o f y o u n g p e o p l e a n d i s a b l e t o e s t i m a t e s t u d e n t d i f f i c u l -t i e s i n a p o s i t i v e a n d o b j e c t i v e m a n n e r . S t u d e n t s f e e l t h a t f r o m t h i s t e a c h e r t h e y r e c e i v e f a i r , c o n s i s t e n t , a n d i m p a r t i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T e a c h e r s s h o u l d a c t a n d d e m o n -s t r a t e g e n u i n e i n t e r e s t i n e a c h s t u d e n t ' s p r o b l e m . 10. S e n s e o f Humor T h e t e a c h e r l a u g h s w i t h t h e c l a s s f r o m t i m e t o t i m e a n d i s a b l e t o s e e t h e f u n n y s i d e o f a s i t u a t i o n a n d t h u s e a s e t e n s i o n . T h i s i s one o f t h e m o s t d e s i r a b l e p e r s o n a l t r a i t s o f a s u c c e s s f u l t e a c h e r . 11. T e a c h i n g P e r s o n a l i t y T h e t e a c h e r i s f r i e n d l y a n d b u s i n e s s l i k e w i t h o u t b e i n g t o o p e r s o n a l . S h e i s a b l e t o meet a n d t o h a n d l e c l a s s r o o m 131 s i t u a t i o n s w i t h o u t c o n s t a n t h e l p f r o m t h e o f f i c e . A t e a c h -i n g " s p a r k l e " i s e v i d e n t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . S h e r e a l l y l i k e s s t u d e n t s a n d i s s i n c e r e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r w e l f a r e , H e r e n t h u s i a s m a p p e a r s t o b e c o n t a g i o u s . P R O F E S S I O N A L Q U A L I T I E S 1. L o y a l t y t o s c h o o l s y s t e m K n o w i n g a n d p r a c t i c i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e t h i c s a t a l l t i m e s a r e t h e e a r m a r k s o f t h e l o y a l t e a c h e r . S h e d e f e n d s t o t h e b e s t o f h e r a b i l i t y u n j u s t c r i t i c i s m o f f e l l o w t e a c h e r s a n d t h e p o l i c i e s o f h e r s c h o o l s y s t e m . S h e k e e p s p e r s o n a l c r i t i -c i s m w i t h i n t h e " S c h o o l f a m i l y . " 2. P r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r e s t a n d g r o w t h T h e t e a c h e r a t t e n d s a n d p a r t i c i p a t e s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l m e e t -i n g s , c u r r i c u l a r a n d o t h e r o f f i c i a l g a t h e r i n g s . P r o f e s -s i o n a l p u b l i c a t i o n s a r e r e a d . Summer s c h o o l s a r e a t t e n d e d r e g u l a r l y w i t h a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o h e r s p e c i f i c t e a c h i n g a r e a s . T h e t e a c h e r i s a p a r t i c i p a t i n g member i n h e r own p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 3. C o o p e r a t i o n w i t h p r i n c i p a l , f e l l o w t e a c h e r s , a n d p a r e n t s T h e t e a c h e r p e r f o r m s a s s i g n e d d u t i e s c h e e r f u l l y a n d e f f e c -t i v e l y . P r o b l e m s a f f e c t i n g t h e t e a c h e r i n h e r s c h o o l w o r k a r e d i s c u s s e d w i l l i n g l y a n d o b j e c t i v e l y w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l a n d / o r p a r e n t s . S h e i s a c o o p e r a t i n g member o f t h e " e d u -c a t i o n a l t e a m " . 4. U s e o f E n g l i s h , w r i t t e n a n d o r a l T h i s r e f e r s t o a b i l i t y t o s p e a k t o c l a s s e s , g r o u p s , a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h p o i s e a n d a r e a s o n a b l e c o r r e c t n e s s o f 132 o f g r a m m a t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d w i t h a n a d e q u a t e v o c a b u l a r y . T h e t e a c h e r w r i t e s c o m m u n i c a t i o n s c o r r e c t l y . 5. A s s i s t a n c e w i t h e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s means w i l l i n g a c c e p t a n c e o f s u p e r v i s i n g s c h o o l f u n c -t i o n s a n d v o l u n t a r y a t t e n d a n c e a t s c h o o l a f f a i r s a s a p a r t o f t h e j o b . T h e t e a c h e r s h o w s i n t e r e s t i n s c h o o l a f f a i r s o t h e r t h a n j u s t h e r p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i a l t y . 6. G o o d j u d g m e n t , makes r i g h t d e c i s i o n s T h i s r e f e r s t o m a k i n g r e a s o n a b l e r e q u e s t s o f s t u d e n t s a n d p a r e n t s . Common s e n s e i s u s e d i n d i s c i p l i n a r y m e a s u r e s a s t h e y a r i s e . A s e n s e o f p r o p e r d i s c r e t i o n i s n o t e d i n h e r c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r s a n d i n f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n h e r a r e a o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e , t o a r e a s o n a b l e d e g r e e , g o o d a n d p o o r j u d g m e n t on t h e p a r t o f a t e a c h e r , b y t h e n u m b e r o f t i m e s t e a c h e r ' s d e c i s i o n s a r e a p p e a l e d o r p r o t e s t e d b y s t u d e n t s o r p a r e n t s . 7 . R e c e p t i v e t o s u g g e s t i o n s T h i s i m p l i e s w i l l i n g n e s s t o r e c e i v e s u g g e s t i o n s c h e e r f u l l y a n d t o b e n e f i t b y t h e m w i t h o u t i l l w i l l . A c c e p t s t h e w i l l o f a n d a b i d e s b y t h e r u l e s , r e g u l a t i o n s , a n d d e c i s i o n s o f t h e g r o u p o r a u t h o r i t y i n a l l m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o t h e s c h o o l . SCHOOL MANAGEMENT AND O R G A N I Z A T I O N 1. E f f e c t i v e u s e o f m a t e r i a l s a n d e q u i p m e n t T h i s means t h a t t h e t e a c h e r e m p l o y s t h e v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l a i d s a t h e r d i s p o s a l a n d makes t h e b e s t u s e o f t h e m . S h e u s e s s u c h r e s o u r c e s a s f i l m s t r i p s , l i b r a r y , m a p s , c h a r t s , 133 e t c . t o make l e s s o n s m o r e m e a n i n g f u l , y e t m a i n t a i n s a g o o d b a l a n c e o f s u c h m a t e r i a l s . 2. P r o m p t n e s s a n d a c c u r a c y o f r e p o r t s T h i s r e f e r s t o a l l r e p o r t s , r e g u l a r a n d s p e c i a l , r e q u e s t e d o f t h e t e a c h e r b y t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . P r o m p t a n d a c c u r a t e r e p o r t i n g i s e v i d e n c e o f g o o d o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d a c o o p e r -a t i v e a t t i t u d e e s s e n t i a l t o g o o d t e a c h i n g . 3. C a r e o f r o o m a n d e q u i p m e n t T h i s r e f e r s t o t h e c a r e o f d i s t r i c t p r o p e r t y f o r w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r i s r e s p o n s i b l e a n d i n c l u d e s i n s t r u c t i n g s t u d e n t s i n t h e c a r e o f r o o m s a n d e q u i p m e n t . T h i s w i l l i n c l u d e g e n e r a l h o u s e k e e p i n g d u t i e s d e l e g a t e d t o t h e t e a c h e r . S c h o o l r u l e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e u s e o f thumb t a c k s , s c o t c h t a p e , e t c . a r e f o l l o w e d r e l i g i o u s l y . Damage t o d e s k s , w a l l s , e t c . , a r e q u i c k l y n o t i c e d a n d r e f e r r e d t o t h e p r i n c i p a l t h e same d a y damage o c c u r s . T e a c h e r s a r e e x p e c t e d t o a s s i g n a n d t o t e a c h s t u d e n t s " c a r e o f t h e r o o m " d u t i e s . 4. I n t e r e s t i n a n d i n f l u e n c e w i t h p u p i l s T h e t e a c h e r must h a v e a t h o r o u g h k n o w l e d g e o f c h i l d g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y a s i t a p p l i e s t o t h e a g e g r o u p o f t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h w h i c h s h e w o r k s . I n t e r e s t i n p u p i l s w i l l b e e v i d e n c e d b y a l o v e f o r t e a c h i n g , a n o v e r -a l l c o n s c i e n t i o u s j o b d o n e , a n d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o d o m o r e t h a n t e a c h t h e c o u r s e o f s t u d y . T h e t e a c h e r w i t h a k e e n i n t e r e s t i n h e r p u p i l s \ i t i l l b e q u i c k t o r e c o g n i z e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t p r o b l e m s a n d w i l l g i v e s y m p a t h e t i c h e l p . T h e m o s t l a s t i n g i n f l u e n c e s t h e 134 t e a c h e r h a s u p o n t h e s t u d e n t s a r e i n t h e f o r m o f a t t i t u d e s d e v e l o p e d a s a r e s u l t o f h e r t e a c h i n g . T h e t e a c h e r who i s f u l l y a w a r e o f t h i s w i l l s t r i v e t o d e v e l o p a t t i t u d e s a n d w o r k h a b i t s t h a t w i l l make t h e c h i l d a b e t t e r s t u d e n t a n d a b e t t e r c i t i z e n . 5. C l a s s r o o m c o n t r o l , d i s c i p l i n e T h i s r e f e r s t o t h e t e a c h e r ' s a b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n a s t h e p e r -s o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o n d u c t o f s t u d e n t s u n d e r h e r c h a r g e . A l t h o u g h s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e i s a g o a l t o s t r i v e t o -w a r d , o u r e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y h o l d s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r m u s t a s s u m e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c c e p t a b l e s t u d e n t c o n d u c t . D i s c i p l i n e i s t h e f i r s t r u l e o f t h e c l a s s r o o m a n d d e t e r -m i n e s t h e a t m o s p h e r e f o r l e a r n i n g . T e a c h e r s w i l l v a r y i n m e t h o d s o f c l a s s r o o m c o n t r o l b u t t h e w e l l - o r g a n i z e d r o o m w i l l b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a m i n i m u m o f t i m e l o s s i n g a i n i n g s t u d e n t a t t e n t i o n . A n a t t i t u d e o f " r e s p e c t f o r t h e r i g h t s o f o t h e r s " w i l l b e r e f l e c t e d b y t h e s t u d e n t s a n d t h e t e a c h e r . I f a v i s i t o r t o t h e c l a s s r o o m t a k e s a t t e n t i o n , d o t h e s t u d e n t s w o r k q u i e t l y on t h e i r own o r m u s t t h e y b e a s k e d t o r e m a i n q u i e t one o r m o r e t i m e s w h i l e t h e v i s i t o r i s i n t h e room? 6 . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f c l a s s t i m e T h i s c o n s i s t s o f g e t t i n g t h e m o s t f r o m t h e t e a c h i n g d a y b y s y s t e m a t i c a n d c o n s i s t e n t p r a c t i c e s i n r o o m o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t means a l a c k o f t i m e - w a s t i n g b y p u p i l s a n d t e a c h e r . T h e r e i s a l w a y s e v i d e n c e o f s m o o t h c l a s s o p e r a t i o n . I n c l a s s r o o m s w h e r e b r e a k s o c c u r b e t w e e n one c l a s s a n d 135 another, preparation f o r the next class i s clear-cut and precise. The students w i l l always know what t o do next with a modicum of time loss and repeated teacher d i r e c t i o n s . The teacher organizes her work so that during class time she remains i n the classroom with a minimum amount of leav-ing f o r securing materials or conferring with others. 7. Punctuality, on time Teachers quickly lose standing i n the eyes of the f a c u l t y and administration i f they are constantly l a t e t o school and classes. Any teacher who f a i l s to be on time to classes w i l l never be able to teach students the need to be prompt and on time. Teachers should r e a l i z e that they often teach more by example than by words. 8. Attitude toward assigned duties This re f e r s to acceptance without complaint of a l l duties which teachers may be expected to be assigned as part of t h e i r jobs. It also means a d i l i g e n t performance of those duties with the same consideration as f o r regular school work. A teacher's value to a school system i s determined to a large extent upon the attitude she has toward the "whole job 1 1. F o r m 48-M 136 A P P L I C A T I O N FOR MERIT OR C A R E E R R A T I N G Name S c h o o l F i r s t L a s t D e p a r t m e n t D a t e 1 : 2.. 3.. 4.. 5.. 6. S u b j e c t t a u g h t ( i n c l u d e s t u d y h a l l a n d o t h e r a s s i g n m e n t s w h i c h t a k e a c o m p l e t e p e r i o d . ) Number o f c l a s s e s T o t a l n u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s A d d i t i o n a l r e m a r k s a b o u t c l a s s e s n o t c o v e r e d a b o v e : E X P E R I E N C E S OTHER THAN BUT R E L A T E D TO T E A C H I N G P O S I T I O N . ( T r a v e l , w o r k , e t c . f o r p r e v i o u s t h r e e y e a r s ) 1.. 2: 3.. 4. P R O F E S S I O N A L A S S I G N M E N T S ( C o m m i t t e e w o r k , c o u r s e o f s t u d y w o r k , o f f i c e h e l d , e t c . f o r p r e v i o u s t h r e e y e a r s . ) I n d i c a t e w i t h o r w i t h o u t r e m u n e r a t i o n o r c r e d i t . ) U s e a d d i t i o n a l s h e e t i f n e c e s s a r y . 1. 2. 3 137 C O N T I N U A T I O N OF P R O F E S S I O N A L STUDY D e g r e e now h e l d A r e y o u w o r k i n g t o w a r d a n y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : ( s t a t e w h e r e ) . B a c h e l o r ' s P H . D . M . A . , M . S . , M . E d . E d . D . _ M a s t e r ' s p l u s 45 h o u r s A d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s C r e d e n t i a l s C o u n s e l o r s h i p O t h e r _ I f o t h e r , i n what f i e l d ? X F o r m 48-MO. 138 C A R E E R T E A C H E R Q U E S T I O N N A I R E M e d f o r d P u b l i c S c h o o l s M e d f o r d , O r e g o n T o b e f i l l e d i n b y e l i g i b l e c a n d i d a t e s , t e a c h e r s who a r e now a t maximum s a l a r i e s . ( U s e a d d i t i o n a l p a p e r i f n e c e s s a r y ) Name S c h o o l G r a d e o r s u b j e c t t a u g h t 1. H a v e y o u e v e r r e c e i v e d a m e r i t i n c r e m e n t ? I f s o , when? 2. L i s t h o n o r s o r r e c o g n i t i o n s y o u h a v e r e c e i v e d a s a t e a c h e r . D e s c r i b e a n d g i v e d a t e s 3. What h a v e y o u d o n e b e y o n d t h e s a l a r y r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n t o i m p r o v e y o u r s e l f a s a t e a c h e r , a c -q u a i n t y o u r s e l f w i t h r e c e n t r e s e a r c h on c h i l d g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t , a c q u i r e t h o r o u g h a n d u p - t o - d a t e k n o w l e d g e o f y o u r g r a d e o r t e a c h i n g s u b j ' e c t ( s ) , o r d i s c o v e r a n d a p p l y b e t t e r t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e ? 4. What h a v e y o u d o n e t o a s s i s t p u p i l s i n e x t r a - c l a s s a c t i v i -t i e s o r a f t e r s c h o o l h o u r s ? 139 5. What h a v e y o u d o n e b e y o n d y o u r n o r m a l t e a c h i n g a c t i v i t i e s t o i m p r o v e e d u c a t i o n i n t h e M e d f o r d S y s t e m , s u c h a s w o r k o r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o m m i t t e e s - e . g . c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s , c u m m u l a t i v e r e c o r d s , r e p o r t i n g s y s t e m s , e t c . ? 6. How h a v e y o u p a r t i c i p a t e d i n l o c a l , r e g i o n a l , s t a t e , a n d n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( p r o f e s s i o n a l , c i v i c , s e r v i c e , f r a t e r n a l , e t c . ) ? 7. How h a v e y o u p a r t i c i p a t e d i n c o m m u n i t y a c t i v i t i e s ? ( E x p l a i n a . M e d f o r d b . O t h e r c o m m u n i t i e s 8. What c o n s t r u c t i v e t h i n g s h a v e y o u d o n e : a . T o e s t a b l i s h g o o d c o m m u n i t y r e l a t i o n s a n d t o i n t e r -p r e t t h e s c h o o l s ? b . T o e s t a b l i s h b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e home a n d s c h o o l ? 9 . A r e y o u w i l l i n g t o b e n o m i n a t e d f o r t h e C a r e e r T e a c h e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ? Y e s No 10. L i s t a n d e x p l a i n a n y o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n w h i c h y o u h a v e made t o e d u c a t i o n w h i c h i n y o u r j u d g e m e n t w a r r a n t s c o n -s i d e r a t i o n i n e v a l u a t i n g y o u r w o r k a s a t e a c h e r . D a t e _ A d d r e s s T e a c h e r ' s S i g n a t u r e T e l e p h o n e 

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