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Implications of organizational correlates of technology for supervisory behavior Hostetter, Frederick Herbert 1966-12-31

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IMPLICATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CORRELATES OF TECHNOLOGY FOR SUPERVISORY BEHAVIOR by FREDERICK HERBERT HOSTETTER B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 2  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION  i n the Faculty of Graduate S t u d i e s  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1 9 6 6  In the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  British  mission  for  for  p u r p o s e s may  reference  extensive be  without  advanced  of my  Department  written  by  in partial  degree  the  the  at  the  Library  study,  copying of  It  this thesis  that  and  granted  representatives,.  cation  this thesis  Columbia, I agree  available  his  presenting  this thesis  i s understood  University  of  make i t f r e e l y  agree for  that  or  copying, or  shall  per-  scholarly  Department  that  for f i n a n c i a l gain  of  shall  I further  Head o f my  fulfilment  not  be  by publi-  allowed  permission.  of Q^ivA.xngvcfl-  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a .  ftvtaC  (fc?ov\w»>s A c t  Columbia,.  H A ^ V I  •jvct  ABSTRACT T h i s study d e a l s w i t h t h e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s o f i n d u s t r i a l t e c h n o l o g y upon t h e b e h a v i o r o f f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s . Homans' paradigm o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f s o c i a l b e h a v i o r , and Woodward's o b s e r v a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s of technology provide the r a t i o n a l e f o r the enunciat i o n o f s p e c i f i c hypotheses p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e n a t u r e o f s u p e r v i s o r y a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r a c t i o n s and s e n t i m e n t s a t e d w i t h each o f t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f i n d u s t r i a l  associ-  technology.  The v a l i d i t y o f t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses i s t e s t e d t h r u a secondary  a n a l y s i s o f d a t a r e p o r t e d i n a number o f  observational studies of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l behavior. The p e r e n n i a l "man i n t h e middle * concept 1  f i r s t - l i n e supervisor i s rejected.  of the  I t i s not a v a l i d  ideal-  t y p e concept t h a t i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f s u p e r v i s o r y b e h a v i o r i n a l l forms o f contemporary p r o d u c t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t appears t h a t t h e dominant mode o f t e c h n o l o g y w i t h i n a p r o d u c t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n o r work u n i t o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e and p r o c e s s e s .  affects  The l a t t e r phenomena  seem t o be i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s s h a p i n g s u p e r v i s o r y r o l e demands, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f work environment, and, hence, supervisory behavior.  Thus, t h e study suggests t h e u t i l i t y  of t h r e e i d e a l - t y p e c o n s t r u c t s o f s u p e r v i s o r y b e h a v i o r ; one f o r each o f t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f t e c h n o l o g y .  iii Unit-and  small-batch-production  technology  R o l e demands i n c l u d e an i m p o r t a n t  t e c h n i c a l element.  Administrative a c t i v i t i e s include personally attending t o personnel matters,  p r o d u c t i o n r e p o r t s and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ,  and c o o r d i n a t i n g and m o n i t o r i n g work f l o w t h r o u g h t h e u n i t . I n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s a l o n g t h e work f l o w are m i n i m a l l y r e q u i r e d .  I n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h both  subordinates  and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s a r e t y p i c a l l y t a s k - o r i e n t e d , f a c e - t o f a c e and d e v o i d o f c o n f l i c t .  Interactions with  superiors  may be mediated by t h e r e p o r t s o f s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s i f t h e l a t t e r a r e found i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . subordinates,  S e n t i m e n t s toward  s u p e r i o r s and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s t e n d t o be  n e u t r a l t o f r i e n d l y i n tone and f a i r l y c o n s t a n t Mass-production-assembly-line  over t i m e .  technology  The s u p e r v i s o r t y p i c a l l y n e i t h e r p o s s e s s e s , n o r i s r e q u i r e d t o p o s s e s s , a s i g n i f i c a n t body o f t e c h n i c a l knowledge or s e t of t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s .  Administrative  activities  are d i r e c t e d toward c o o r d i n a t i n g and m o n i t o r i n g work f l o w t h r o u g h t h e u n i t , and, i n g e n e r a l , a c h i e v i n g t h e c o l l a b o r a t i o n of others.  These a c t i v i t i e s a r e e f f e c t e d by v e r b a l  i n t e r a c t i o n s , m a i n l y w i t h non-workers such as s t a f f specialists.  The r e q u i r e m e n t f o r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h f e l l o w  s u p e r v i s o r s a l o n g t h e work f l o w ranges f r o m b e i n g required t o inherent i n the productive process.  minimally Inter-  actions with s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s are face-to-face, task-  iv o r i e n t e d , and t y p i c a l l y h o s t i l e .  Interactions with  superiors  t e n d t o be t a s k - o r i e n t e d , h o s t i l e and h e a v i l y mediated by t h e r e p o r t s of s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . with subordinates  Supervisory  interactions  t e n d t o be f a c e - t o - f a c e , f r e q u e n t l y  and p r i m a r i l y t a s k - o r i e n t e d . toward s u b o r d i n a t e s ,  The  s e n t i m e n t s of  hostile,  supervisors  and p a r t i c u l a r l y s u p e r i o r s ,  are  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y t h o s e o f defense and h o s t i l i t y ; t h e y are unstable  over t i m e .  Sentiments toward s t a f f  specialists  t e n d t o be n e u t r a l t o h o s t i l e and g e n e r a l l y s t a b l e over t i m e . Continuous-process technology R o l e demands of t h e s u p e r v i s o r i n c l u d e an  important  t e c h n i c a l element; t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e i s b o t h sought from given t o subordinates  and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s .  of a u t o m a t i c i t y o f p r o d u c t i o n  and  As t h e degree  c o n t r o l i n c r e a s e s , t h e need  f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n of work f l o w w i t h i n and between u n i t s  de-  creases ; s i m i l a r l y f o r the requirement f o r e x c l u s i v e l y t a s k o r i e n t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s with other o r g a n i z a t i o n a c t o r s . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e i n s p e c t i o n and  control  f u n c t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o a s s u r e t h e s a f e t y of both p e r s o n n e l and t h e p r o c e s s and equipment. and  Interactions with  subordinates  s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s tend to a l l o w f o r the mutual e v a l u a t i o n  of t e c h n i c a l i s s u e s .  As t h e degree of a u t o m a t i c i t y of  d u c t i o n c o n t r o l i n c r e a s e s , such i n t e r a c t i o n s t e n d t o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e exchange of a d v i c e and  V.V.  over t i m e .  Murray,  Supervisor  be  information.  S e n t i m e n t s are g e n e r a l l y n e u t r a l t o f r i e n d l y and unstable  pro-  slightly  TABLE GF CONTENTS CHAPTER  PAGE  INTRODUCTION  I.  •  1  Statement o f I n t e n t and Scope o f t h e Study  1  Methodology and O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Study  2  CORRELATES OF TECHNOLOGY: AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE  6  Roots o f t h e Concept o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f Labor O b s e r v a t i o n s o f K a r l Marx O b s e r v a t i o n s o f E m i l e Dmrkheim O b s e r v a t i o n s o f Max Weber C o n t r i b u t i o n s o f T h o r s t e i n Veblen L i m i t a t i o n s o f Contemporary Theory  Organization  P e r s p e c t i v e s o f Joan Woodward and M a r t i n Meissner II.  III.  RESEARCH PROBLEM AND DESIGN  21  C o n c e p t u a l Scheme  21  Research Problem  23  General Hypothesis  23  Research d e s i g n  23  FORMULATION OF SPECIFIC HYPOTHESES  . . . .  27  C a t e g o r y I Technology  27  C a t e g o r y I I Technology  39  Category I I I Technology  4#  vi CHAPTER IV.  V.  VI.  VII.  PAGE  CASE STUDIES: CATEGORY I TECHNOLOGY . . .  60  Case 1  60  Case 2  69  CASE STUDIES: CATEGORY I I TECHNOLOGY  .  .  Case 3  84  Case 4  96  CASE STUDIES: CATEGORY I I I TECHNOLOGY  .  .  129  Case 5  129  Case 6  141 154  ANALYSIS OF DATA  156  C a t e g o r y I Technology I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Case 1  156  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Case 2  162  Analysis of a d d i t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l data .  174  C a t e g o r y I I Technology  179  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Case 3  179  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Case 4  1$8  Analysis of a d d i t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l data .  199  C a t e g o r y I I I Technology  VIII.  6%.  208  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Case 5  208  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Case 6  218  A n a l y s i s of a d d i t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l data .  227 235  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  235  Conclusions Implications  f o r O r g a n i z a t i o n Theory .  Need f o r A d d i t i o n a l Research  . . . .  .  254 256  vii PAGE 263  BIBLIOGRAPHIES B i b l i o g r a p h y o f Case S t u d i e s  264  General Bibliography  265  APPENDICES: ADDITIONAL EMPIRICAL DATA I.  C a t e g o r y I Technology: M i s c e l l a n e o u s Observations  II.  270  Category I Technology: O b s e r v a t i o n s on C a a f t Technology i n P r i n t i n g .  Implications f o r  Supervisory Behavior III.  275  Category I I I Technology: M i s c e l l a n e o u s Observations  V.  273  C a t e g o r y I I Technology: M i s c e l l a n e o u s Observations  IV.  269  279  C a t e g o r y I I I Technology: Notes on Automated Technology  231  LIST GF TABLES TABLE I.  PAGE Changes i n Foreman and Group Leader C o n t a c t s  9 5  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE  PAGE  1.  C o n c e p t u a l Scheme  2.  Management O r g a n i z a t i o n .  22 "A Dyeing and 61  Cleaning P l a n t " 3.  The Management O r g a n i z a t i o n .  "An E l e c t r i c a l 71  E n g i n e e r i n g Works" 4.  O r g a n i z a t i o n C h a r t : Case No. 3  #7  5.  O r g a n i z a t i o n C h a r t : Case No. 4  9&  6.  "The People W i t h Whom Tony D e a l t "  . . . .  109  7.  "As Tony P e r c e i v e d H i s S i t u a t i o n "  . . . .  116  £>.  Management O r g a n i z a t i o n i n "A S t e e l P l a n t " .  9.  Model o f R e l a t i o n s h i p Among Technology,  .  131  S t r u c t u r a l C o r r e l a t e s and S u p e r v i s o r y Behvaior  257  LIST OF CHARTS CHART 1.  PAGE  Framework f o r C l a s s i f y i n g Hypotheses and O r d e r i n g O b s e r v a t i o n s Based on E m p i r i c a l Data  2.  S t r u c t u r a l C o r r e l a t e s o f Category I Technology  3.  40  S t r u c t u r a l C o r r e l a t e s o f Category I I I Technology  5.  "Foreman C o n t a c t F r e q u e n c i e s "  6.  "Contact D u r a t i o n P a t t e r n s W i t h i n AssemblyL i n e S e c t i o n — M a r c h and E a r l i e r "  7.  28  S t r u c t u r a l C o r r e l a t e s o f Category I I Technology  4.  25  49 92  93  " D i a g o n a l Contact F r e q u e n c i e s Between Persons on A d j a c e n t L e v e l s "  94  INTRODUCTION Statement o f i n t e n t and scope T h i s s t u d y i s an attempt t o d e v e l o p and t e s t a s e r i e s of s p e c i f i c hypotheses r e g a r d i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g d i m e n s i o n s of f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r y b e h a v i o r :  (1) t h e n a t u r e and  frequencies of f i r s t - l i n e supervisory a c t i v i t i e s  (2) super-  v i s o r y i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s and f r e q u e n c i e s , and (3) t h e nature of s u p e r v i s o r y sentiments  toward those o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  a c t o r s w i t h whom i n t e r a c t i o n s o c c u r . The  phrase " s u p e r v i s o r y a c t i v i t i e s " denotes any o v e r t  b e h a v i o r d i r e c t e d toward t h e accomplishment o f s u p e r v i s o r y tasks.  Thus, a c t s o f r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , o b s e r v i n g ,  speaking  and l i s t e n i n g a r e i n c l u d e d under t h e t i t l e o f " a c t i v i t i e s . " "Interactions" r e f e r t o a sub-class of a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h t h e s p e a k i n g , l i s t e n i n g and n o n - v e r b a l  communication  a c t i v i t i e s of e i t h e r t h e s u p e r v i s o r or another o r g a n i z a t i o n a c t o r e x e r c i s e immediate i n f l u e n c e s upon t h e b e h a v i o r o r perceptions of another a c t o r .  The n a t u r e  of i n t e r a c t i o n s  w i l l be spoken o f as b e i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a q u a l i t y o r tone a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e " s e n t i m e n t s " interaction.  engendered by an  The term " h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s " s h a l l be  used t o denote i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e f i r s t - l i n e  supervisor  and e i t h e r (1) f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s a l o n g t h e work f l o w , o r (2) s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , e.g., maintenance, q u a l i t y  control,  2  p r o d u c t i o n p l a n n i n g and s c h e d u l i n g , methods o f f i c e r s , e t c . As used i n t h i s s t u d y " s e n t i m e n t s " r e f e r t o t h e f e e l i n g s of an a c t o r i n response t o a p a r t i c u l a r h i s environment.  a s p e c t of  Such f e e l i n g s beome " s e n t i m e n t s " i f t h e y  endure over a p e r i o d of t i m e , f o r example, a few days, o r weeks, o r l o n g e r . To be more s p e c i f i c , t h e o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o proceed by a q u a s i - d e d u c t i v e method t o f o r m u l a t e t e s t a s e r i e s o f s p e c i f i c hypotheses noted dimensions  and  r e g a r d i n g t h e above-  of s u p e r v i s o r y b e h a v i o r under t h r e e c a t e -  g o r i e s of i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g y . The phrase " i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g y " i s used t o denote t h e complex of p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s , t e c h n i c a l o p e r a t i o n s , men-machine systems, and t h e l e v e l and t y p e of m e c h a n i z a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e manufacture or p r o d u c t i o n of a p r o d u c t , s e r i e s of r e l a t e d p r o d u c t , or a s e r v i c e . F o l l o w i n g Joan Woodward's s t u d y ^ t h r e e d i s c e r n i b l e c a t e g o r i e s of i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g y a r e u t i l i z e d i n the a n a l y s i s .  Category I denotes " u n i t and s m a l l - b a t c h  production technology."  Category I I r e f e r s t o t h e t e c h n o l -  ogy a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " l a r g e - b a t c h m a s s - p r o d u c t i o n , l i n e " production.  Category I I I r e f e r s t o  o r assembly-  "continuous-process  technology." O v e r a l l methodology and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y The s t u d y commences w i t h an attempt t o s e t t h e r e search i n i t s h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e .  To t h i s end, t h e  o b s e r v a t i o n s o f a sample o f both t h e e a r l i e s t and contempor a r y s t u d e n t s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t e c h n o l o g y f o r s o c i a l b e h a v i o r a r e examined b r i e f l y .  The  h i s t o r i c a l s u r v e y o f Chapter I concludes w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e r e s e a r c h o f Joan Woodward, which p r o v i d e s a l o g i c a l 2 bridge t o the remaining  chapters of the study.  I n Chapter I I t h e o b s e r v a t i o n made by Woodward, w h i c h s e r v e s as t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f t h i s s t u d y , i s noted.  In  a d d i t i o n , t h e c o n c e p t u a l scheme u n d e r l y i n g t h e a n a l y s i s i s explained.  Chapter I I concludes w i t h a statement o f t h e  g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e s t u d y , p l u s an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e a n a l y t i c a l framework used f o r o r d e r i n g t h e e n u n c i a t i o n o f the s p e c i f i c hypotheses and t h e i r subsequent  testing.  Chapter I I I s e r v e s t o develop t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses r e g a r d i n g t h e dimensions o f s u p e r v i s o r y b e h a v i o r f o r each of the three c a t e g o r i e s of production technology.  Woodward's  observations regarding the organization s t r u c t u r a l c o r r e l a t e s of a g i v e n category of technology preted.  a r e p r e s e n t e d and i n t e r -  The s p e c i f i c hypotheses p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e dimensions  of s u p e r v i s o r y behavior f o r t h a t category of p r o d u c t i o n t e c h nology are then  developed.  C h a p t e r s I V , V and V I each c o n t a i n two case s t u d i e s which provide d e s c r i p t i o n s of f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r y under p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g y  behavior  C a t e g o r i e s I , I I and I I I r e s -  pectively. I n Chapter V I I t h e d a t a o f t h e t h r e e p r e c e d i n g  chap-  4  t e r s and t h e appendices t o t h e s t u d y a r e a n a l y z e d .  The  purpose o f t h e a n a l y s i s i s t o t e s t t h e v a l i d i t y of t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses e n u n c i a t e d i n Chapter I I I . Chapter VIII i n c l u d e s :  (1) a summary o f t h e a n a l y s i s  c a r r i e d out i n Chapter VII (2) a statement of t h e  conclu-  s i o n s emerging from t h e s t u d y (3) an enumeration o f f u t u r e r e s e a r c h problems suggested by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and (4) a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e a n a l y s i s f o r organization theory.  5  FOOTNOTES ON INTRODUCTION •'•Joan Woodward, I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : Theory and P r a c t i c e , (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965). 2  Ibid.  CHAPTER I CORRELATES OF TECHNOLOGY: AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Introduction The  c o n t e n t s o f t h i s c h a p t e r comprise a s u r v e y of  some of t h e h i g h l i g h t s from t h e l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o t e c h n o l o g y , t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r , o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e o r y , and the s o c i a l e f f e c t s of technology. fundamental  By s k e t c h i n g t h e more  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e s e elements, and  p o i n t i n g out t h e l i m i t a t i o n s  by  o f contemporary o r g a n i z a t i o n  t h e o r y , t h e stage i s s e t f o r t h e subsequent a n a l y s i s .  The  c h a p t e r s e r v e s t o i l l u s t r a t e the. c o n t i n u i t y between t h e a n a l y s i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y and t h e r e s e a r c h and  specu-  l a t i o n which precedes i t . H i s t o r i c a l perspective From t h e e a r l i e s t b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e Western i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n s c h o l a r s have s t u d i e d t h e n a t u r e  and  1  s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r i n s o c i e t y .  2  '  Al-  though as e a r l y as t h e t i m e o f A r i s t o t l e s e v e r a l s c h o l a r s 3  r e c o g n i z e d t h e importance  of s o c i e t y ' s d i v i s i o n of l a b o r  and, hence, t e c h n o l o g y , i t was  not u n t i l t h e end of t h e  e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t an e x t e n s i v e s o c i a l c o g n i z a n c e t a k e n of t h e phenomenon.^ I n t h e w r i t i n g s of Adam Smith one notes what i s  was  7  probably the f i r s t serious  attempt t o e n u n c i a t e a t h e o r y o f 5  the p r i n c i p l e o f t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r . who f i r s t saw beyond t h e p u r e l y  But i t was Comte  economic n a t u r e o f t h e  t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y based d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r . ^ The  s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s , p r e d i l e c t i o n s and v a l u e s o f  several scholars  s i n c e Adam Smith have l e d t o r e s e a r c h en-  deavors a l l a p p a r e n t l y stemming, a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y and i n d i r e c t l y i f n o t d i r e c t l y , from a common c o n c e r n f o r  iden-  t i f y i n g t h e n a t u r e and consequences o f t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y conditioned scholars  d i v i s i o n of labor.  The o b j e c t i v e s  of these  seem t o have been d i r e c t e d toward d e l i n e a t i n g t h e  dominant s o c i a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  and b e h a v i o r a l  implications  of t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r under i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n nologies.  tech-  The immediate purpose here i s t o s k e t c h t h e main  b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e s e broad avenues o f i n q u i r y i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e background t o t h e subsequent a n a l y s i s . The  works o f K a r l Marx p r o v i d e a u s e f u l , i f a r b i t r a r y ,  beginning f o r the survey.  I n t h e e a r l i e s t w r i t i n g s by K a r l  Marx one f i n d s a number o f concepts and themes w h i c h appear t o r u n t h r o u g h o u t h i s e n t i r e works.  F o r example, i n h i s  German I d e o l o g y Marx o b s e r v e s t h a t persons who a r e "product i v e l y a c t i v e " e n t e r i n t o " d e f i n i t e p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l 7  relationships."  He goes on t o e x p l a i n t h a t as persons a r e  " e f f e c t i v e , " as t h e y "produce m a t e r i a l l y " and a r e " a c t i v e under d e f i n i t e m a t e r i a l  l i m i t s , " the s o c i a l structure of  s o c i e t y e v o l v e s c o n t i n u o u s l y and i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e w i l l  8 of i n d i v i d u a l s .  The same c o n c e p t s f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n h i s  l a t e r works, f o r example i n C a p i t a l .  Here Marx n o t e s t h a t  'The g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n I a r r i v e d a t — a n d once r e a c h e d , i t s e r v e d as t h e g u i d i n g t h r e a d i n my s t u d i e s — c a n be b r i e f l y f o r m u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : I n t h e s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e i r means o f e x i s t e n c e , men e n t e r i n t o d e f i n i t e , n e c e s s a r y r e l a t i o n s which a r e independent o f t h e i r w i l l , p r o d u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s which c o r r e s p o n d t o a d e f i n i t e s t a g e o f development o f t h e i r m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s . The aggregate o f t h e s e p r o d u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o n s t i t u t e s t h e economic s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i e t y . . . t o which d e f i n i t e forms o f s o c i a l cons c i o u s n e s s c o r r e s p o n d . The mode o f p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l means o f e x i s t e n c e c o n d i t i o n s t h e whole p r o cess o f s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e . ' V The  f o r e g o i n g broad and i n c l u s i v e concepts i n t e g r a t -  i n g t h e w r i t i n g s o f Marx f i n d e x p r e s s i o n i n a number o f lower l e v e l observations which are p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o our a n a l y s i s .  To i l l u s t r a t e , M e i s s n e r remarks t h a t t h e  e l d e r Marx f o c u s e d h i s study upon t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e c h n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n , p r o d u c t i o n t a s k segmentation.**"®  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  To paraphrase Marx h i m s e l f , under t h e  e a r l i e s t forms o f m a n u f a c t u r e , p r o d u c t i o n was h a r d l y g u i s h a b l e from t h a t o f t h e h a n d i c r a f t trades."*'"''  distin-  Neverthe-  l e s s Marx s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e s e two s t a g e s  of technology.  a p o r t i o n o f t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n  Under "manufacture"  (e.g. raw m a t e r i a l s 12  and warehouses) a r e consumed i n common by a l l w o r k e r s . A l s o , t h e p r o c e s s e s o f manufacture c r e a t e a unique " s o c i a l f o r c e " due t o t h e f a c t t h a t "many hands t a k e p a r t s i m u l t a 13  neously  i n one and t h e same u n d i v i d e d  operation." ^  more, a t t h e " g r e a t i n d u s t r y " s t a g e o f manufacture  Furtherother  9  b a s i c a l l y s o c i a l transformations  occur.  Under t h i s  latter  s t a g e of t e c h n o l o g y t h e worker becomes a "mere appendage" t o machines p r o d u c i n g o t h e r machines i n work  organizations  l a r g e l y independent of worker c a p a b i l i t i e s . " ^ Other l o w e r l e v e l o b s e r v a t i o n s  made by Marx p e r t a i n -  i n g t o t h e impact of t e c h n o l o g y on o r g a n i z a t i o n are germane. He s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e f a c t o r y d i v i s i o n of l a b o r does not p r i m a r i l y y i e l d a d i s t r i b u t i o n of workmen i n t o groups. R a t h e r , " i t i s p r i m a r i l y a d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e workmen among 15 s p e c i a l i z e d machines." t h e r e f o r e , "only simple."  C o o p e r a t i o n among workers i s , Marx n o t e s t h a t t h e  organized  groups p e c u l i a r t o the f a c t o r y (as d i s t i n c t from "manufac16 t u r e " ) c o n s i s t of t h e "head workman and h i s few a s s i s t a n t s . " I n t h e f a c t o r y t h e fundamental d i v i s i o n of l a b o r i s between 17 machine o p e r a t o r s  and t h e "mere a t t e n d a n t s "  of t h e  operators.  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e two groups of a c t o r s which Marx cons i d e r s t o be p e c u l i a r t o f a c t o r y t e c h n o l o g y and  organization,  t h e r e i s a " n u m e r i c a l l y u n i m p o r t a n t " c l a s s of workmen, some of them " s c i e n t i f i c a l l y e d u c a t e d , " o t h e r s "brought up t o a t r a d e , " whose o c c u p a t i o n 1$ machinery.  i t i s t o r e p a i r and m a i n t a i n  I t i s c l e a r t h a t Marx i s d e s c r i b i n g t h e phe-  nomenon of what o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e o r i s t s c a l l arrangements.  the  "line-staff"  T h e i r o r i g i n s appear t o l i e i n t h e  organi-  z a t i o n a l f o r m s , or s t r u c t u r e , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a r l y f a c t o r y technology. A study of t h e most advanced p r o d u c t i o n  technology  10 and  i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of h i s t i m e l e d Marx t o p o s i t  t h a t f a c t o r y t e c h n o l o g y and "separation  organization leads to  the  of t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l powers of p r o d u c t i o n  from  19 t h e manual l a b o r . . . . "  7  I t appears t h a t t h e  of i n t e l l e c t u a l powers of p r o d u c t i o n  separation  from manual l a b o r ,  p l u s t h e " t e c h n i c a l s u b o r d i n a t i o n " of t h e machine  operator  and the e l a b o r a t e  provide  system of " b a r r a c k  discipline,"  t h e b a s i s f o r i n d u s t r i a l p a t t e r n s of s u p e r v i s i o n .  For,  as  Marx n o t e s , t h e f i n a l consequence of t h e s e p r o c e s s e s i s t h e d i v i s i o n of "work-people i n t o o p e r a t i v e s and •  •  overlookers.  •  Thus i t i s apparent t h a t Marx's s t u d i e s of t h e n o l o g i c a l l y conditioned  d i v i s i o n of l a b o r i n s o c i e t y embrace  s e v e r a l a r e a s of i n q u i r y . cepts r e l a t i n g production  I n p a r t i c u l a r , he d e v e l o p s cont e c h n o l o g y t o worker  t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s , and i s s u e s such as a l i e n a t i o n from work. t o have c o n t i n u e d  behavior, broad s o c i a l  E m i l e Durkheim appears  t h e s t u d y of t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of  d i v i s i o n of l a b o r a l o n g  tech-  the  some of t h e avenues d e l i n e a t e d  by  Marx. A c a r e f u l s t u d y of Durkheim's The 21 i n Society survey.  y i e l d s a few  observations  D i v i s i o n of Labor  relevant to t h i s  T h e i r primary value i s t o i l l u s t r a t e the  historical  c o n t i n u i t y i n the search f o r understanding regarding i m p l i c a t i o n s of t e c h n o l o g y and t h e d i v i s i o n of l a b o r . Marx, Durkheim sees i n the d i v i s i o n of l a b o r t h e  the Like  "necessary"  11  22 c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e development o f s o c i e t i e s . 23 source of c i v i l i z a t i o n .  I t i s the  I t i s through the d i v i s i o n of  l a b o r , n o t e s Durkheim, t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s a r e l i n k e d  together.  J u s t as t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r makes a s o c i e t y c o h e r e n t , so too i t d e t e r m i n e s t h e " c o n s t i t u t i v e t r a i t s " o f i t s s t r u c 25 ture. I n i t s non-anomic s t a t e t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r 26 d e t e r m i n e s " f u n c t i o n s , " and "ways o f d e f i n i t e a c t i o n . " A l t h o u g h t h e broad l i n e s o f c o n t i n u i t y between t h e works o f Marx and Durkheim a r e amply i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g remarks, t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d u s t r i a l technologies  production  and forms o f t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r i n i n d u s -  t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e n o t as w e l l developed by Durkheim as by Marx. I f broad l i n e s o f h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y connect t h e s t u d i e s o f Marx and Durkheim, t h e c o n n e c t i o n s between t h e e n q u i r i e s o f Max Weber and K a r l Marx a r e even more a p p a r e n t . The use o f language, t h e wide h i s t o r i c a l sweep, t h e sense o f the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s of production  technologies  t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r so t y p i c a l o f Marx, a l l f i n d  upon expres-  s i o n i n Weber's work. I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t Weber r e c o g n i z e s  the  pervasiveness  of t h e d i v i s i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f "human s e r v i c e s " i n t h e 27 i n t e r e s t of production.  I n p a r t i c u l a r , Weber d i s t i n g u i s h e s  between two c l a s s e s o f s e r v i c e s f o r economic p u r p o s e s : "manag e r i a l s e r v i c e s " and s e r v i c e s " o r i e n t e d t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s 2o* of a m a n a g e r i a l agency." Weber s u g g e s t s , t h a t v a r y i n g  12 t e c h n i c a l modes of p r o d u c t i o n "occupational  determine the p a t t e r n s 29 differentiation." He argues t h a t  of  The use of mechanized s o u r c e s of power and machinery i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of modern i n d u s t r y . From a t e c h n i c a l p o i n t of v i e w , t h e l a t t e r presupposes s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of f u n c t i o n . . . and a l s o a p e c u l i a r u n i f o r m i t y and c a l c u l a b i l i t y of performance, both i n q u a l i t y and. quantity.30 That i s , Weber a s s o c i a t e s machine t e c h n o l o g y w i t h  distinc-  t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s i n the form of r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the p l a n n i n g  and  c o n t r o l of  production.  That Weber i s c o g n i z a n t of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t e s of p r o d u c t i o n ceding d i s c u s s i o n .  t e c h n o l o g y i s suggested by the  H i s c o g n i z a n c e may  corpre-  be made more e x p l i c i t  by n o t i n g the t e c h n i c a l f a c t o r s which Weber r e g a r d s as p a r t i a l l y responsible  f o r the e x p r o p r i a t i o n of t h e  u a l worker from the means of p r o d u c t i o n .  individ-  In developing h i s  argument Weber p o i n t s t o the f o l l o w i n g " p u r e l y t e c h n i c a l " factors:  (1) the f a c t t h a t sometimes p r o d u c t i o n  technology  r e q u i r e s the s e r v i c e s of numerous workers e i t h e r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y or s u c c e s s i v e l y ;  (2) the f a c t t h a t s o u r c e s of produc-  t i v e power may  o n l y be r a t i o n a l l y e x p l o i t e d by u s i n g them  simultaneously  f o r b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r operations  control;  under u n i f i e d  (3) the f a c t t h a t f r e q u e n t l y a t e c h n i c a l l y r a t i o n a l  organization  of p r o d u c t i o n  processes i s p o s s i b l e only  by  combining complementary p r o c e s s e s under c o n t i n u o u s and supervision;  (4) the f a c t t h a t c o o r d i n a t e d  p r o c e s s e s of  common labor  can o n l y be e x p l o i t e d r a t i o n a l l y on a l a r g e s c a l e w h i c h , i n  13 t u r n r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g f o r t h e management o f such processes of labor; ( 5 ) the f a c t t h a t , i f production  tech-  n o l o g y and raw m a t e r i a l s a r e under u n i f i e d s u p e r v i s o r y t r o l , l a b o r may be s u b j e c t e d  con-  to a "stringent d i s c i p l i n e "  t h e r e b y c o n t r o l l i n g both t h e pace, q u a n t i t y , s t a n d a r i z a t i o n 31  and q u a l i t y o f p r o d u c t i o n . Subsequent c h a p t e r s s h a l l d e v e l o p and t e s t i n cons i d e r a b l e d e t a i l many o f t h e i d e a s c o n t a i n e d  i n the fore-  going paragraph. This b r i e f sketch of the h i g h l i g h t s of the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o t e c h n o l o g y , t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r and t h e i r s o c i a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and b e h a v i o r a l c o r r e l a t e s would be i n c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f Thorstein Veblen.  Joan Woodward s t a t e s t h a t V e b l e n f i r s t  p o s t u l a t e d t h e l i n k between t e c h n o l o g y and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . The  foregoing  d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e w r i t i n g s o f Marx, Durkheim  and Weber i n d i c a t e s t h a t Woodward's statement i s i n c o r r e c t . A more v a l i d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f acknowledging t h e c o n t i n u i t y apparent i n t h e works o f Marx, Durkheim, Weber and T h o r s t e i n  Veblen.  T h i s c o n t i n u i t y o f p e r s p e c t i v e i s amply r e v e a l e d i n V e b l e n ' s o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t ". . . t h e machine p r o c e s s  condi-  t i o n s t h e growth and scope o f i n d u s t r y , and . . . i t s d i s c i p l i n e i n c u l c a t e s h a b i t s o f thought s u i t a b l e t o t h e i n d u s 33  t r i a l technology. . . ."^  Veblen observes t h a t  14 The d i s c i p l i n e o f t h e machine p r o c e s s e n f o r c e s a s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f conduct and knowledge i n terms o f q u a n t i t a t i v e p r e c i s i o n , and i n c u l c a t e s a h a b i t o f apprehending and e x p l a i n i n g f a c t s i n terms o f materi a l cause and e f f e c t . . . . I t s metaphysics i s m a t e r i a l i s m and i t s p o i n t o f view i s t h a t o f c a u s a l sequence.34 In a d d i t i o n t o comprehending t h e f o r e g o i n g broad s o c i o - c u l t u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a p e r v a s i v e machine t e c h n o l ogy, Veblen p o i n t s t o i t s e f f e c t s upon m a n a g e r i a l  behavior.  He speaks o f t h e " g r a v e s t u r g e n c y " a s s o c i a t e d w i t h k e e p i n g 3 5  comprehensive machine p r o c e s s e s o p e r a t i n g e f f i c i e n t l y . ^ He s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e urgency o f e f f e c t i v e "immediate  super-  v i s i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i a l p r o c e s s e s " i s due t o t h e p e r v a s i v e n e s s o f t h e machine t e c h n o l o g y .  Veblen  contends  t h a t t h e l a r g e s t e f f e c t s of t h e d i s c i p l i n e of mechanical o p e r a t i o n s a r e t o be sought among those r e q u i r e d t o "compre37  hend and g u i d e " t h e p r o c e s s e s .  '  Presumably t h e f i r s t - l i n e  s u p e r v i s o r would be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . first-line  That i s ,  s u p e r v i s o r y b e h a v i o r would appear t o be i n p a r t  dependent upon t h e demands o f t e c h n o l o g y . The presumption  made i n t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h , as  w e l l as t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f Marx and Weber n o t e d above, appears t o have been d i s c o u n t e d by most o f t h e more r e c e n t students of o r g a n i z a t i o n theory.  With t h e exception of a  h a n d f u l o f v e r y r e c e n t s t u d i e s , one f i n d s a t best c a s u a l , i s o l a t e d , i n d i r e c t and f r a g m e n t a r y  acknowledgments o f t h e  e f f e c t s o f a s i n g l e mode o f p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g y upon t h e first-line  s u p e r v i s o r ' s r o l e demands and b e h a v i o r .  A more  dominant and decades has  c e n t r a l a r e a of i n q u i r y d u r i n g t h e p a s t  three  d e a l t w i t h t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n  n o l o g y upon t h e b e h a v i o r of w o r k e r s i n l a r g e mass and assembly l i n e t e c h n o l o g i e s .  The  tech-  production  Hawthorne s t u d i e s , f o r  example, d e l i n e a t e d a r e a s of i n v e s t i g a t i o n which s e r v e d generate countless  e m p i r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d i e s  de-  s i g n e d t o shed some l i g h t upon t h e s o c i a l problems of industrial civilization.  to  an  I t appears as though a concern  f o r d e l i n e a t i n g t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e new  and  dominant  d i v i s i o n of l a b o r under assembly l i n e t e c h n o l o g y was  either  i m p l i c i t , or i n f r e q u e n t l y e x p l i c i t , i n most e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s and t h e o r e t i c a l s t a t e m e n t s subsequent t o t h e Hawthorne studies. D u r i n g t h e p a s t t h r e e decades a tendency has among s t u d e n t s of o r g a n i z a t i o n and  developed  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l behavior  t o i g n o r e p o s s i b l e v a r i a b l e e f f e c t s on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and t h e b e h a v i o r of a c t o r s o f d i f f e r i n g modes of product i o n technologies.  C e r t a i n l y t h e r e are e x c e p t i o n s  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n as t h i s s t u d y w i l l r e v e a l .  to t h i s  On t h e whole, how-  e v e r , i t seems as though t h e f r u i t f u l p e r s p e c t i v e s  and  v a t i o n s of Marx, Weber and V e b l e n have been d i s c o u n t e d either  (1) a p r e o c c u p a t i o n  obserdue  to  w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r o r g a n i -  z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and b e h a v i o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e  division  of l a b o r p e c u l i a r t o assembly l i n e or o t h e r p a r t i c u l a r t e c h n o l o g i e s , or (2) a g e n e r a l  i n s e n s i t i v i t y toward t h e  compara-  t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and b e h a v i o r a l c o r r e l a t e s of v a r i e t i e s of  16 production ment t h e o r y  technology.  Thus, f o r example, c l a s s i c a l manage-  "was d e v e l o p e d i n a t e c h n i c a l s e t t i n g but i n d e ed  pendent o f t e c h n o l o g y . . . ."  o  '  q  p  In their high-level  s t a t e m e n t s c l a s s i c a l management t h e o r i s t s were prone t o g e n e r a l i z e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y narrow exp e r i e n c e , p l u s t h e e x p e d i e n t s found t o be e f f e c t i v e i n p r a c tice^"® w i t h i n a g i v e n t e c h n o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g . attempts* """" t o supplement t h e t h e o r y 4  More r e c e n t  of "formal"  organization  with the f i n d i n g s of e m p i r i c a l studies of the behavior of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l actors a l s o f a i l t o deal adequately w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n s of production  technologies.  F o r example, i n  t h e b e h a v i o r a l models o f March and Simon t e c h n o l o g y i s e i t h e r not i n c l u d e d as a v a r i a b l e , o r , i f i n c l u d e d , t h e poss i b i l i t i e s o f v a r i a b l e t y p e s o f t e c h n o l o g y and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r o t h e r elements o f t h e model a r e not developed i n detail." " 4  2  An a d d i t i o n a l i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e r a t h e r common t e n dency t o d i s c o u n t t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s o f v a r y i n g modes of p r o d u c t i o n  t e c h n o l o g y on o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e , p r o c e s s e s  and t h e b e h a v i o r o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t o r s i s found i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f "human r e l a t i o n s . " As Robert B l a u n e r o b s e r v e s The c r u c i a l v a r i a b l e s t o be s t u d i e d and m a n i p u l a t e d [by s t u d e n t s o f "human r e l a t i o n s " ] a r e . . . t h e g e n e r a l s o c i a l c l i m a t e o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e and t h e q u a l i t y o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t among employees and between employees and t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s — r a t h e r t h a n t h e worker's r e l a t i o n t o t e c h n o l o g y and t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r . In a d d i t i o n t o Blauner*s a n a l y s i s of production n o l o g y and worker a l i e n a t i o n , two r e c e n t  tech-  s t u d i e s a l s o appear  o  17 to have grasped anew the perspectives of Marx, Weber and Veblen.  Both of these studies give e x p l i c i t cognizance to  the apparent variable effects of d i f f e r i n g modes of indust r i a l production technology.  Although sharing t h i s common  basis, the studies move i n quite different d i r e c t i o n s .  On  the one hand Woodward focuses primarily upon the o v e r a l l organizational correlates of major classes of production technology." ""* 4  sis  Meissner on the other hand presents an analy-  of the major dimensions of technologically required and  permitted behavior of rank and f i l e operatives as a function 45  of basic types of production technology. The research objectives of t h i s study have been prompted by the observations of Woodward and Meissner, the perspectives of Marx, Weber and Veblen, and the general deficiency of the current state of organization theory i n dealing with modes of i n d u s t r i a l production technology as a basic variable.  Focusing upon an organizational l e v e l  intermediate between that of Woodward and Meissner the f o l lowing questions are posed f o r analysis:  What are the ef-  f e c t s of current modes of i n d u s t r i a l production technology upon the behavior of f i r s t - l i n e supervisors? such effects be explained?  How might  IB  FOOTNOTES ON CHAPTER I I ^ E m i l e Durkheim, The D i v i s i o n o f Labour i n S o c i e t y , t r a n s . George Simpson (New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 392 See f o r example t h e commentary o f Xenophon ( c i r c a 370 B.C.) i n F r i e d r i c k Klemm, A H i s t o r y o f Western T e c h n o l o g y , t r a n s . Dorothea Waley S i n g e r (London: George A l l e n and Unwin, 1959), p. 29. 3  Durkheim, p. 39. Ibid.  4  5  Ibid.  ^ I b i d . , p. 62. 7 E. Fromm, Marx's Concept o f Man (New Y o r k : Ungar, 1961), p. 197. Ibid. I b i d . , p. 219. S  9  "^Martin Meissner,"Behavioral Adaptations t o I n d u s t r i a l Technology}' u n p u b l i s h e d PhD d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon, c o p y r i g h t 1963 by a u t h o r . " ^ K a r l Marx, C a p i t a l : C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f C a p i t a l i s t P r o d u c t i o n (New York: Humboldt), p. 192. 1 2  I b i d . , pp. 192-193.  1 3  I b i d . , p. 194.  " ^ M e i s s n e r , p. 10. 1 5  M a r x , p.  25B.  Ibid. 1 7  Ibid.  i a  ibid.  1 9  I b i d . , p. 260.  19 Ibid. 21 2 0  Durkheim,  op. c i t .  2 2  I b i d . , p. 50.  2 3  Ibid.  2 i f  I b i d . , p. 61.  I b i d . , pp. 192-193. I b i d . , pp. 365-366. 27 Max Weber, The Theory of S o c i a l and Economic O r g a n i z a t i o n , t r a n s . A.M. Henderson and T a l c o t t Parsons, ed. T a l c o t t Parsons (New York: The Free P r e s s , 1964), p. 218. 2 5  2 6  2 8  I b i d . , p. 219.  2 9  Ibid.  3  °Ibid., p. 228.  3 1  I b i d . , pp. 246-247.  32 Joan Woodward, I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : Theory and P r a c t i s e (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p. 50. 33 T h o r s t e i n Veblen, The Theory o f Business E n t e r p r i s e c 1904 (New York: August M. K e l l y , B o o k s e l l e r , 1965), p. 0 6 . 3 4  I b i d . , pp. 66-67.  3 5  I b i d . , p. 18.  3 6  Ibid.  I b i d . , pp. 312-313. 38  3 7  Woodward, p. 36  ?  39 See f o r example the d i s c u s s i o n o f the t h e o r y of " f o r m a l " o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Joseph A. L i t t e r e r , O r g a n i z a t i o n s : S t r u c t u r e and Behavior (New York: W i l e y , 19©3)• "^Woodward, l o c . c i t . 7  ^"""For example, James G. March and Herbert A. Simon, O r g a n i z a t i o n s (New York and London: Wiley, 1958).  20 i p  March and Simon, op. c i t . See f o r example, t h e models o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l member b e h a v i o r f o u n d a t pp. 66, 69, 71, 117, 120, 128 and 154. I  o  Robert B l a u n e r , A l i e n a t i o n and Freedom: The F a c t o r y Worker and H i s I n d u s t r y (Chicago and London: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1964), p. v i i i . ^Woodward, op. c i t . 45 M e i s s n e r , op. c i t .  CHAPTER  II  RESEARCH PROBLEM AND DESIGN Conceptual  scheme  Although  a t a v e r y broad l e v e l t h e r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d  i n t h i s study has been g u i d e d by t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f Marx, Weber and V e b l e n , an o b s e r v a t i o n by Joan Woodward c o n s t i t u t e s t h e most immediate s t a r t i n g p o i n t . ^  Her s t u d i e s o f t h e im-  p l i c a t i o n s of production technology  f o r organizational struc-  t u r e and p r o c e s s e s l e a d h e r t o t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t Technology, because i t i n f l u e n c e s t h e r o l e s d e f i n e d by t h e f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , must t h e r e f o r e i n f l u e n c e i n d u s t r i a l b e h a v i o u r , f o r how a p e r s o n r e a c t s depends as much on t h e demands o f h i s r o l e and t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h he f i n d s h i m s e l f , as on h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . 2 On t h e b a s i s o f t h e f o r e g o i n g o b s e r v a t i o n , p l u s George 3  Homans'  model o f group s o c i a l b e h a v i o r , a c o n c e p t u a l scheme  was developed  which i s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e a r a t i o n a l e f o r  t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c hypotheses r e g a r d i n g t h e dimens i o n s o f s u p e r v i s o r y b e h a v i o r under a g i v e n c a t e g o r y o f production technology.  F i g u r e I below i s a schematic  por-  t r a y a l o f t h e c o n c e p t u a l scheme u t i l i z e d i n t h e r e s e a r c h . F i g u r e I i s meant t o convey t h a t t h e c o n c e p t u a l scheme t r e a t s t h e n a t u r e and b e h a v i o r a l demands o f a g i v e n category of production technology variable."  as an "independent  Supervisory a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r a c t i o n patterns  and f r e q u e n c i e s , s e n t i m e n t s , a r e r e g a r d e d  22  Organization S t r u c t u r e and Management Processes  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and B e h a v i o r a l Demands of P r o d u c t i o n Technology  Supervisory Activities  Supervisory  Supervisory Sentiments  Interaction  Toward Those w i t h Whom  P a t t e r n s and  I n t e r a c t i o n s Occur  Frequencies FIGURE I CONCEPTUAL SCHEME UTILIZED IN THE STUDY  23  as "dependent v a r i a b l e s . " l a t e d t o account  The " i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e " p o s t u -  f o r observed r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e i n -  dependent and dependent v a r i a b l e s comprises t h e s t r u c t u r a l o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s o f a g i v e n c a t e g o r y o f product i o n t e c h n o l o g y observed Research  by Woodward.  problem  The c e n t r a l problem f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e o r y which s e r v e s as t h e immediate f o c u s o f t h e r e s e a r c h i s i n d i c a t e d i n the following general hypothesis.  The h y p o t h e s i s g i v e s  v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n t o t h e c o n c e p t u a l scheme o f F i g u r e I above. General  hypothesis Given a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y dominant mode o f produc-  t i o n t e c h n o l o g y w i t h i n an e n t e r p r i s e o r work u n i t , a number o f unique o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o r s t r u c t u r a l c o r r e l a t e s w i l l appear, t h e f u n c t i o n of t h e l a t t e r being t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e accomplishment o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e ' s m u l t i - f a c e t e d g o a l s . a consequence o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e ' s t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y  As  influ-  enced s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s , t h e r e w i l l emerge a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c set of f i r s t - l i n e supervisory a c t i v i t i e s .  The l a t t e r  w i l l shape a p a t t e r n o f s u p e r v i s o r y i n t e r a c t i o n and a s e t o f s e n t i m e n t s toward t h o s e w i t h whom such i n t e r a c t i o n s o c c u r . Research  design  I n o r d e r t o t e s t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e f o r e g o i n g gene r a l hypothesis, the f o l l o w i n g research design i s u t i l i z e d  24 i n Chapter I I I .  For a given category of production t e c h n o l -  ogy t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s made by Woodward r e g a r d i n g t h e s t r u c t u r a l c o r r e l a t e s o f t h a t c a t e g o r y o f t e c h n o l o g y a r e summari z e d i n c h a r t form.  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e d a t a , t h e  c e p t u a l scheme o f F i g u r e I , and r e a s o n a b l e , l o g i c a l ences drawn from t h e d a t a , a s e r i e s o f s p e c i f i c i s developed r e g a r d i n g t h e dimensions  coninfer-  hypotheses  o f s u p e r v i s o r y be-  h a v i o r under t h a t c a t e g o r y o f p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g y .  In  Chapter V I I each o f t h e two case s t u d i e s o f Chapters I V , V and V I i s a n a l y z e d w i t h a view t o : (1) c l a s s i f y i n g t h e i n terms o f a c a t e g o r y o f t e c h n o l o g y i t y o f t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses ogy, and  case  (2) t e s t i n g t h e v a l i d -  f o r t h a t category of t e c h n o l -  (3) r e f o r m u l a t i n g t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses  be r e q u i r e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e a n a l y s i s .  Steps  as  may  (2) and  (3)  are repeated i n the a n a l y s i s of the a d d i t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l data l o c a t e d i n the  appendices.  The development and t e s t i n g of t h e s p e c i f i c  hypotheses  a r e o r g a n i z e d and coded a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a n a l y t i c a l framework d e p i c t e d i n Chart I below.  2 5  co p  Horizontal  I-C-3  II-C-3  III-C-3  Superiors  I-C-2  II-C-2  III-G-2  Subordinates  I-C-l  II-G-1  III-C-1  Horizontal  I-B-2-c  II_B-2-c  III-B-2-c  Superiors  I-B-2-b  II-B-2-b  III-B-2-b  Subordinates  I-B-2-a  II-B-2-a  III-B-2-a  Horizontal  I-B-l-c  II-B-l-c  III-B-l-c  Superiors  I-B-l-b  II-B-l-b  III-B-l-b  Subordinates  I-B-l-a  II-B-l-a  III-B-l-a  a> u  8  «d %  •H  o  P  a  P  CD CO  o . S3  0)  0)  o  cr CD-  P>4  •H P  o CD CD  u p  cd  S3-  J  < CO CD •rl P S CD «H • H  O  >>  CO  0)  •rl P •rl !> •rl P O  «;  CM  I  oJ  3 o > cr •H cu P  u  &4  H  <  I  oJ  I  rH H  I  H H  O oj  (0  rH  CP «H (H P 3<H - H P O > CD  IS  CM  I  r-i  I  I  I  <I  OS  I  H  H  I  H H H  P  o  «*5 ST >» O  hO O  r-i  ttf)«H o  CD O P ClJ O  P  OP  I Cu  fl  a  O  P H O • r l Ct} +>  EH  t=> CO PQ  CD  6  - d T3  mo  t3 13  S  cd  M  0>  (SOW rH CO  c  I  N  CO O  43  ~a  ?3 CD  O CO • H CO P ol  •H P  a o  O  0-t  26  FOOTNOTES ON CHAPTER I I Joan Woodward, I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : Theory and P r a c t i c e (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965). r b i d . , p. 79. 3 2  George Homans, The Human Group (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1951).  CHAPTER I I I FORMULATION OF SPECIFIC HYPOTHESES Introduction T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s s p e c i f i c hypotheses r e g a r d i n g t h e dimensions o f s u p e r v i s o r y b e h a v i o r under each o f t h e three categories of i n d u s t r i a l production technology.  The  code d e s i g n a t i o n s f o l l o w i n g t h e statement o f s p e c i f i c hypot h e s e s a r e t h o s e found i n Chart I .  Each o f t h e t h r e e c a t e -  gories of technology i s considered separately.  Some g e n e r a l  o b s e r v a t i o n s and i n f e r e n c e s based upon Woodward's d a t a p r e cede t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses category of technology.  f o r a given  The purpose o f t h e l a t t e r o b s e r v a -  t i o n s and i n f e r e n c e s i s t o p r o v i d e t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e formulation of the s p e c i f i c  hypotheses.  Category I t e c h n o l o g y G e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s and i n f e r e n c e s P r o b a b l y t h e most fundamental  c o r r e l a t e o f Category I  p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g y i s t h e " o r g a n i c " n a t u r e o f t h e management p r o c e s s e s t y p i c a l l y found i n t h e more s u c c e s s f u l e n t e r p r i s e s o p e r a t i n g under t h i s t e c h n o l o g y .  T h e r e f o r e we i n f e r  that a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s c l a s s of production technology are t h e f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : (1) t h e c o n t r i b u t i v e n a t u r e o f s p e c i a l knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e t o t h e common t a s k o f t h e  28 CHART I I STRUCTURAL CORRELATES OF CATEGORY I TECHNOLOGY  C a t e g o r y I P r o d u c t i o n Technology: u n i t and s m a l l b a t c h d e f i n i t i o n : u n i t s produced t o customer r e q u i r e m e n t s ; f a b r i c a t i o n o f l a r g e u n i t s i n stages S t r u c t u r a l C o r r e l a t e o f Technology 1. C o m p l e x i t y o f t e c h n o l o g y 2. Median number o f l e v e l s o f management 3. Median c h i e f e x e c u t i v e span o f control 4. Median f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s ' span of c o n t r o l 5. E x i s t e n c e o f " s m a l l p r i m a r y work groups" 6. R a t i o o f s u p e r v i s o r y t o nonsupervisory personnel 7. R a t i o o f d i r e c t t o i n d i r e c t workers 8. M i d d l e management span o f c o n t r o l 9. Length o f management communication line 10. P r a c t i c e o f management by committee 11. T e c h n i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f management and s u p e r v i s o r s 12. R e q u i r e d t e c h n i c a l competence o f supervisors 13. Source o f t e c h n i c a l competence o f supervisors 14. R e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f s k i l l e d t o u n s k i l l e d workers  Characteristic Simplest of three c a t e g o r i e s (p.42) 3 (p.52) 4 (p.52) 14-27 Yes  (p.61) (p.60)  1:23 (p.55) 1:9 (pp.59-60) r e l a t i v e l y large (p.53) r e l a t i v e l y short (p.53) r e l a t i v e l y rare (P.53) l e s s than i n Category I I I t e c h n o l ogy (pp.57-58) r e l a t i v e l y very h i g h (pp.57-58,64) experience plus trade t r a i n i n g highest of the 3 categories of t e c h n o l o g y (pp.6162)  29 CHART I I - - c o n t i n u e d  S t r u c t u r a l C o r r e l a t e o f Technology 15. Focus o f s k i l l e d workers*  activities  16. A b i l i t y o f d i r e c t l a b o r t o i n f l u e n c e t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f production 17* E x i s t e n c e o f f o r m a l p r o d u c t i o n c o n t r o l systems 18. E x i s t e n c e o f s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s 19. Sense o f urgency o f p r o d u c t i o n 20. Type o f communications r e g a r d i n g production 21. P r o d u c t i o n s c h e d u l e s based on 22. P l a n n i n g and time p e r s p e c t i v e o f t o p and lower management 23. P e r c e i v e d s e c u r i t y o f employment f o r d i r e c t workers 24« Interdependence o f t a s k f u n c t i o n among m a r k e t i n g (M), P r o d u c t i o n (P) and development (D)  Characteristic direct labor or production of u n i t s (p.6l) r e l a t i v e l y very great (p.ol) frequently too difficult to attempt (pp.42,66) none o r few low (p.158) mainly v e r b a l (p.66") f i r m orders o n l y (p. 129) short-term (p.129) f a i r l y high (p.129) h i g h (pp.129-  131,  134)  25. Q u a l i t y o f i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l relations 26. Order o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g c y c l e  good (pp.130-  27. Frequency o f o r g a n i z a t i o n problems 28. Typed management o f more s u c c e s s f u l firms  low (p.135) "organic"''" (p.64)  Source:  133,  135)  M-^D—>P (p.128)  Joan Woodward, I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : Theory and P r a c t i c e (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965).  30  e n t e r p r i s e ; ( 2 ) i n d i v i d u a l t a s k s s e t by t h e t o t a l s i t u a t i o n of t h e e n t e r p r i s e ; ( 3 ) adjustment and c o n t i n u a l r e d e f i n i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l t a s k s t h r o u g h i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s ;  (4)  ad hoc l o c a t i o n o f c o n t r o l a u t h o r i t y and communication based upon e x p e r t i s e ; ( 5 ) l a t e r a l r a t h e r t h a n v e r t i c a l communicat i o n s p r e d o m i n a t i n g ; and ( 6 ) communication o f a d v i c e and 2  i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n i n s t r u c t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s . I f r e a l i z e d i n p r a c t i c e w i t h i n an e n t e r p r i s e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by C a t e g o r y I t e c h n o l o g y , t h e " o r g a n i c " n a t u r e o f t h e management p r o c e s s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e f i r s t - l i n e  super-  v i s o r i s a l l o w e d a f a i r l y wide a r e a o f d i s c r e t i o n over t h e performance o f h i s t a s k s and h i s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h  others.  U s i n g a s l i g h t l y more o p e r a t i o n a l p h r a s e o l o g y , i t i s i n f e r r e d t h a t , as a consequence o f t h e o r g a n i c n a t u r e o f management p r o c e s s e s ,  e n t e r p r i s e o r g a n i z a t i o n under C a t e g o r y  I t e c h n o l o g y i s t y p i c a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: 1.  F a i r l y f l e x i b l e d e t a i l e d p r o d u c t i o n g u i d e l i n e s coming t o t h e f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r f r o m l i n e s u p e r i o r s and t h e few s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s who may e x i s t i n t h e o r g a n i zation.  2.  The i n i t i a t i o n  of task-oriented interactions  i n t e r a c t i o n s concerned w i t h p r o d u c t i o n  (i.e.,  schedules,  methods, sequence, q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y ) t o t h e f i r s t l i n e s u p e r v i s o r by s k i l l e d d i r e c t w o r k e r s , and t o t h e l a t t e r by t h e f o r m e r . 3.  Extensive  "feedback" t o t h e f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r f r o m  s k i l l e d d i r e c t production workers regarding t a s k oriented interactions o r i g i n a l l y i n i t i a t e d  either  d i r e c t l y by t h e s u p e r v i s o r , o r i n d i r e c t l y by s t a f f  spe-  c i a l i s t s i n t h e form o f p r o d u c t i o n s c h e d u l e s , j o b s p e c i fications, etc. 4.  M i n i m a l r e l i a n c e by a l l l e v e l s o f management and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s upon t h e o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s and o t h e r mation generated activities.  infor-  i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l  ( T h i s i n f e r e n c e f o l l o w s f r o m both t h e o r -  g a n i c n a t u r e o f t h e management p r o c e s s e s and t h e f r e quently r e l a t i v e l y great d i f f i c u l t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g r e l i a b l e , comprehensive and f o r m a l p r o d u c t i o n c o n t r o l s . See Chart I I above.) 5.  A h i g h degree o f v o l u n t a r y and i n f o r m a l  interdependence  among f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s and: s t a f f  specialists,  s e n i o r l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s , and d i r e c t p r o d u c t i o n 6.  workers.  A low sense o f urgency o f p r o d u c t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d by a l l i n d i v i d u a l s , e s p e c i a l l y s k i l l e d d i r e c t w o r k e r s and their f i r s t - l i n e supervisors. I n Chart I I a r e noted a number o f s t r u c t u r a l c o r -  r e l a t e s o f Category  I t e c h n o l o g y which may have s i g n i f i c a n c e  f o r t h e development o f t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses r e g a r d i n g t h e dimensions  o f s u p e r v i s o r y b e h a v i o r i n t h i s c l a s s o f produc-  t i o n technology.  F o r example, one n o t e s a r e l a t i v e l y  shal-  low management o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e (3 l e v e l s on t h e a v e r age).  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e tends t o be a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l  32  s u p e r v i s o r y span o f c o n t r o l ( s m a l l r e l a t i v e e s p e c i a l l y t o Category I I technology).  F u r t h e r m o r e , e n t e r p r i s e s under  Category I production technology  t e n d t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d  by t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s m a l l p r i m a r y work-groups o f s k i l l e d employees a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f p r o d u c t i o n .  The r e l a t i v e absence  of e l a b o r a t e s t a f f groups engaged i n comprehensive and continuous  p r o d u c t i o n p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l a c t i v i t i e s ,  suggests t h a t the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r i s able t o exert c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e over t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f p r o d u c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e h i s t e c h n i c a l competence i s r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t and a p p a r e n t l y i s g i v e n scope t o be e x e r c i s e d ( o r g a n i c management p r o c e s s e s ) .  F i n a l l y , the r e l a -  t i v e l y s h a l l o w management o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e ; t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r y span o f c o n t r o l ; and t h e broad c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f o r g a n i c management  processes  o u t l i n e d a b o v e — a l l o f these f e a t u r e s o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e under C a t e g o r y I t e c h n o l o g y  suggest t h a t f r e q u e n t and r e l a -  t i v e l y non t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y r e q u i r e d i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s a r e one i m p o r t a n t  aspect  of supervisory  activities.  S p e c i f i c hypotheses Supervisory a c t i v i t i e s  (tasks) ( I - A - l )  As a consequence o f t h e above t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y i n d u c e d f e a t u r e s o f t h e f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r ' s work environment, i t i s hypothesized  that the f o l l o w i n g are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  33 s u p e r v i s o r y a c t i v i t i e s under Category 1.  I  technology:  A p p l i c a t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l knowledge and e x e r c i s e o f t e c h nical  skill  a. Based upon h i s a n a l y s i s o f p r o d u c t i o n o r d e r s and  their  attendant s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , the f i r s t - l i n e supervisor p e r s o n a l l y makes a r e l a t i v e l y broad range o f t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s , or g i v e s t e c h n i c a l advice regarding ( i ) c h o i c e o f work t o o l s , methods and ( i i ) content o f i n d i v i d u a l w o r k e r s '  sequence  tasks  ( i i i ) pace o f work and t h e q u a l i t y o f p r o d u c t i o n ( p r i m a r i l y when u n f o r e s e e n b. The  difficulties  arise).  s u p e r v i s o r becomes p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n c o n t r i -  b u t i n g h i s t e c h n i c a l knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e t o t h e d i r e c t production a c t i v i t i e s of h i s ( p r i m a r i l y when u n f o r e s e e n  subordinates  problems or e x c e s s i v e work-  loads a r i s e l 2.  In t h e absence o f e x t e n s i v e , c o n t i n u o u s , and h i g h l y r a t i o n a l i z e d s t a f f p r o d u c t i o n p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l a c t i v i t i e s , t h e s u p e r v i s o r p e r s o n a l l y executes  a range o f ad-  3  ministrative activities  including:  a. I s s u i n g w r i t t e n or v e r b a l r e p o r t s r e g a r d i n g  attendance,  p r o d u c t i o n a c h i e v e d o r i n p r o c e s s , pay, e t c . b. A l l o c a t i n g s u b o r d i n a t e s t o j o b s , j o b o r d e r s , or p a r t i c u l a r tasks w i t h i n a given job. c. S c h e d u l i n g and m o n i t o r i n g work f l o w through h i s u n i t . d. C o o r d i n a t i n g t h e w o r k - f l o w between s u c c e s s i v e work units.  34 e. N e g o t i a t i n g w i t h f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s a l o n g t h e workflow f o r access t o scarce production  resources  (materials, labor, f a c i l i t i e s , services, etc.). 3.  Because o f , and as p a r t of h i s performance o f t h e f o r e g o i n g a c t i v i t i e s , t h e f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r i n Category I production  t e c h n o l o g y performs a c t i v i t i e s t h e n a t u r e  of which c o n s i s t s of f a c e - t o - f a c e with subordinates,  (verbal) i n t e r a c t i o n s  line superiors, staff  ( i f found i n the e n t e r p r i s e ) and f e l l o w  specialists supervisors  a l o n g the w o r k - f l o w . Frequency of performance of a c t i v i t i e s The  s p e c i f i c hypotheses r e g a r d i n g  t h e elements of  supervisory a c t i v i t i e s c l e a r l y are mutually It  (I-A-2)  interdependent.  i s t h u s d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a t e t h e elements f r o m  a n o t h e r and p r e d i c t t h e i r r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s . c i s e of i n t u i t i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , It  i s hypothesized  one  The  exer-  required.  t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r w i l l be  en-  gaged r e l a t i v e l y f r e q u e n t l y i n a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of h i s t e c h n i c a l knowledge and s k i l l .  Within  e n t e r p r i s e s under Category I t e c h n o l o g y t h e f r e q u e n c y of performance of t e c h n i c a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be about e q u a l t o t h a t o f o t h e r c l a s s e s of a c t i v i t i e s . hypothesis ogy,  L o o k i n g ahead, t h e  i s t h a t , i n comparison w i t h C a t e g o r y I I t e c h n o l -  the f i r s t - l i n e supervisor w i l l apply h i s t e c h n i c a l  knowledge and s k i l l , and  c a r r y out " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  t i e s " more f r e q u e n t l y i n C a t e g o r y I t e c h n o l o g y .  activi-  The  35 d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a c t i v i t y f r e q u e n c i e s i n e n t e r p r i s e s under C a t e g o r i e s I and I I I t e c h n o l o g y w i l l be about e q u a l , w i t h the exception of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , which, i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d , w i l l be o f r e l a t i v e l y minor importance Category  under  I I I technology.  Nature o f i n t e r a c t i o n s The f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c hypotheses f o l l o w from: (1) t h e p r e c e d i n g attempt t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f o r g a n i c management p r o c e s s e s , and (2) t h e f o r e g o i n g s p e c i f i c hypotheses r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e and f r e q u e n c y o f supervisory  activities.  With subordinates  (I-B-l-a).  I n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l be  f a c e - t o - f a c e and concerned w i t h p r o d u c t i o n methods, pace, q u a l i t y , s c h e d u l e s , s p e c i a l problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e n a t u r e o f t h e work a t hand, and s p e c i f i c , n o n - r o u t i n e  jobs  o r t a s k s t o be performed by i n d i v i d u a l s o r s m a l l groups (i.e., "task-oriented" interactions). Because o f t h e o r g a n i c n a t u r e o f management p r o c e s s e s , combined w i t h t h e low sense o f urgency about p r o d u c t i o n , such i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l t e n d t o be r e l a x e d ; t h a t i s , d e v o i d o f c o n f l i c t s over a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . w i l l t e n d t o a l l o w r e c i p r o c a l feedback parties.  They  and e v a l u a t i o n by t h e  The t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e o f both p a r t i e s w i l l a l -  low t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s t o be based upon t h e communication o f a d v i c e and i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r than e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n s and directions.  36  With s u p e r i o r s ( I - B - l - b ) .  I t i s hypothesized  t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e f i r s t - l i n e  that  supervisor  and h i s l i n e s u p e r i o r s w i l l be i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s . Horizontal interactions (I-B-l-c).  In addition to  t h e i n t e r a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d under " i n t e r actions with subordinates," h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s i n v o l v ing the f i r s t - l i n e supervisor w i l l involve negotiation with f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s over a c c e s s t o s c a r c e p r o d u c t i o n r e sources  ( e . g . , m a t e r i a l s , equipment, l a b o r ) .  i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l i n v o l v e a c t i v i t i e s designed  A l s o , such t o effect the  r e q u i r e d c o o r d i n a t i o n o f w o r k - f l o w between s u c c e s s i v e work stations. Frequency o f i n t e r a c t i o n s At b e s t , o n l y v e r y g e n e r a l hypotheses a r e p o s s i b l e . The r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l span o f f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r y  control,  t h e s h a l l o w management o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e presence o f s m a l l p r i m a r y work g r o u p s , and t h e m i n i m a l r e l i a n c e by management upon t h e f o r m a l r e p o r t i n g systems o f s t a f f  specialists—all  of w h i c h a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h C a t e g o r y I t e c h n o l o g y , been n o t e d .  I n a d d i t i o n , some o f t h e more s i g n i f i c a n t  dimensions o f o r g a n i c management p r o c e s s e s cated.  have  have been i n d i -  These o b s e r v a t i o n s , p l u s t h e hypotheses  t h e n a t u r e and f r e q u e n c y the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses.  concerning  o f s u p e r v i s o r y a c t i v i t i e s , suggest  37 Frequency o f i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s u b o r d i n a t e s  (I-B-2-a).  The f u l l p o t e n t i a l (under o r g a n i c management p r o c e s s e s ) f o r v e r y f r e q u e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s w i l l t e n d n o t t o be r e a l i z e d .  The e x t e n s i v e  t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r , p l u s the t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e o f d i r e c t workers, w i l l tend t o l i m i t i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e p a r t i e s .  Gn t h e w h o l e , t h e n ,  a moderate r a t e o f i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e s u p e r v i s o r and i n d i v i d u a l s u b o r d i n a t e s may be a n t i c i p a t e d ; a r a t e g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t found i n C a t e g o r y I I t e c h n o l o g y ,  but p r o b a b l y  less  than i n Category I I I technology. With s u p e r i o r s (I-B-2-b).  The f i r s t - l i n e  supervisor's  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , p l u s t h e o r g a n i c n a t u r e o f management p r o c e s s e s , w i l l t e n d t o c r e a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f r e quent i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s l i n e superiors.  The h y p o t h e s i s  i s t h a t t h e frequency  o f such i n t e r -  a c t i o n s w i l l be a t l e a s t as g r e a t as t h a t between t h e f i r s t l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s hypothesized  that t h e frequency  as a group.  Also i t i s  of s u p e r v i s o r - l i n e superior  i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l be g r e a t e r i n C a t e g o r y I t h a n i n Category I I production technology.  The f r e q u e n c y  will  approximate  t h a t f o u n d i n Category I I I t e c h n o l o g i e s . Frequency o f h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s ( I - B - 2 - c ) .  The  r e l a t i v e absence o f s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s engaged i n p r o d u c t i o n p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l a c t i v i t i e s ; t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n a l o n g t h e work f l o w ; and t h e scope g i v e n t o t h e  38 e x e r c i s e o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s t e c h n i c a l knowledge and s k i l l — suggest t h a t t h e f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e f i r s t l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and f e l l o w l i n e - s u p e r v i s o r s w i l l be f a i r l y h i g h , while the frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s t a f f ists  special-  (where t h e y appear i n t h e management o r g a n i z a t i o n ) w i l l  t e n d t o be l o w . These h y p o t h e s i z e d f r e q u e n c i e s a r e r e l a t i v e both t o t h o s e f o r o t h e r c l a s s e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n g o r y I t e c h n o l o g y and r e l a t i v e t o t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  Gate-  inter-  a c t i o n s i n e n t e r p r i s e s under Category I I t e c h n o l o g y .  A  s i m i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n of horizontal interaction frequencies i n t e c h n o l o g y C a t e g o r i e s I and I I I i s h y p o t h e s i z e d , where, as w i l l be demonstrated,  t h e n a t u r e o f o r g a n i c management  p r o c e s s e s , t h e scope o f a p p l i c a t i o n g i v e n t o s u p e r v i s o r y t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , e t c . , a r e observed i n about t h e same proportions. U t i l i z i n g t h e c o n c e p t u a l scheme ( F i g u r e I ) r e l a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r a c t i o n s and s e n t i m e n t s ; and, g i v e n t h e f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s e s and h y p o t h e s e s , t h e f o l l o w i n g of  first-line  dimensions  s u p e r v i s o r y b e h a v i o r under Category I t e c h -  nology a r e p r e d i c t e d . Supervisory  sentiments  Toward s u b o r d i n a t e s ( I - C - l ) . t e n d t o be n e u t r a l t o f r i e n d l y .  These s e n t i m e n t s  They w i l l t e n d t o be con-  s t a n t o r s t a b l e over t i m e . Toward s u p e r i o r s ( I - C - 2 ) . paragraph.  will  As i n t h e p r e c e d i n g  39  Between p a r t i e s i n h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s ( I - C - 3 ) • As i n t h e p r e c e d i n g two p a r a g r a p h s . Category I I technology In t h i s s e c t i o n t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses t o t h e dimensions  of f i r s t - l i n e  pertaining  supervisory behavior i n  e n t e r p r i s e s under C a t e g o r y I I t e c h n o l o g y a r e d e v e l o p e d . The b a s i c approach  i s t h e same as t h a t employed i n t h e  previous section. G e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s and i n f e r e n c e s From t h e p o i n t o f view o f t h e g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s o f t h e s t u d y , perhaps t h e most i m p o r t a n t c o r r e l a t e o f Category I I t e c h n o l o g y i s t h e " m e c h a n i s t i c " n a t u r e o f t h e management p r o c e s s w i t h t h e more s u c c e s s f u l e n t e r p r i s e s employing type of production technology.  I t i s inferred t h a t , as-  s o c i a t e d w i t h Category I I t e c h n o l o g y one f i n d s : breakdown i n t o f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i s m s , p r e c i s e of  this  (1) a r i g i d definitions  d u t i e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and power, and (2) a w e l l -  developed managerial h i e r a r c h y through which i n f o r m a t i o n f i l t e r s up and d e c i s i o n s and i n s t r u c t i o n s f l o w down t o t h e f i r s t - l i n e supervisor.  I f realized i n practice, this i n -  ference suggests t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r i s allowed a very l i m i t e d a r e a o f d i s c r e t i o n over t h e performance activities  of h i s  and h i s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s .  To use a somewhat more o p e r a t i o n a l p h r a s e o l o g y  con-  c e r n i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f m e c h a n i s t i c management, i t i s  40 CHART I I I STRUCTURAL CORRELATES OF CATEGORY I I TECHNOLOGY  C a t e g o r y I I Technology: l a r g e b a t c h mass p r o d u c t i o n - a n d assembly-line technology S p e c i f i c a t i o n : production i n l a r g e batches; l a r g e batches on assembly l i n e s ; mass p r o d u c t i o n Structural Correlates 1.  Complexity o f technology  2.  Median number o f l e v e l s o f management 3 . Median c h i e f e x e c u t i v e span o f control 4. Median f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s ' span of c o n t r o l 5. E x i s t e n c e o f " s m a l l p r i m a r y work groups" 6. R a t i o o f s u p e r v i s o r y t o nonsupervisory personnel 7, R a t i o o f d i r e c t t o i n d i r e c t workers 8. M i d d l e management span o f c o n t r o l 9.  Length o f management communication line  10.  P r a c t i c e o f management by committee  11.  T e c h n i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f management and s u p e r v i s o r s  12. R e q u i r e d t e c h n i c a l competence o f supervisors 13. Source o f t e c h n i c a l competence o f f i r s t - l i n e supervisors  Characteristic Average, r e l a t i v e to Categories I & I I I (p.42) 4  (p.52)  7  (p.53)  30-44 (p.61) No (p.60) 1:16 (p.55) 1:4 (pp.59-60) relatively large (p. 53) r e l a t i v e l y long (p. 52) r e l a t i v e l y rare (p.53) l e s s than i n Category I I I t e c h n o l ogy (pp.57-58) very low r e l a t i v e t o other categori e s of technology (pp.57-58) not s t a t e d but p r o b a b l y on-thejob t r a i n i n g  41  CHART I l l — c o n t i n u e d  Structural Correlates  Characteristic  14. R e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f s k i l l e d t o u n s k i l l e d workers  lowest of three categories of technology (pp.61-62)  15.  indirect labor, e.g., s t a f f work (pp.62-63) r e l a t i v e low (pp.62-63) y e s ; h i g h l y developed w i t h b u i l t - i n sanction for f a i l u r e to meet narrow s p e c i f i e d objectives (p.66)  Focus o f s k i l l e d w o r k e r s ' a c t i v i t i e s  16. A b i l i t y o f d i r e c t l a b o r t o i n f l u e n c e quantity & q u a l i t y of production 17. E x i s t e n c e o f f o r m a l p r o d u c t i o n cont r o l systems  18. E x i s t e n c e o f s t a f f  specialists  numerous and comprehensive , f r e q u e n t l y i n conf l i c t with f i r s t l i n e supervisors (pp. 64-66)  19.  Sense o f urgency o f p r o d u c t i o n  r e l a t i v e l y great (pp.135-136)  20.  Type of communication r e g a r d i n g production P r o d u c t i o n s c h e d u l e s based on  mainly w r i t t e n (p.66)  22.  P l a n n i n g and t i m e p e r s p e c t i v e o f management  medium f o r s e n i o r management, s h o r t for f i r s t - l i n e supervisors (pp.135-136)  23.  P e r c e i v e d s e c u r i t y o f employment f o r d i r e c t workers  f a i r l y low (p.136)  21.  f o r e c a s t s and o r d e r s (p.136)  42  CHART I I I — c o n t i n u e d  Structural Correlates 24. Interdependence o f t a s k f u n c t i o n s among m a r k e t i n g (M), p r o d u c t i o n (P) and development (D) 25. Order o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g c y c l e 26. I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l  relations  27. Frequency o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems 28. Type o f management o f more s u c c e s s f u l firms  Characteristic  very high  (p.137)  D—»P—>M (p.128) not good ( p p . 1 3 7 , 145) h i g h (pp. 137, 139, 145) "mechanistic" (p.64)  Source: Joan Woodward, I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : Theory and P r a c t i c e (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) .  43 i n f e r r e d t h a t Category I I technology  i stypically  character-  i z e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n ; 1.  D i r e c t i v e s and d e c i s i o n s f i l t e r i n g down t o t h e f i r s t l i n e s u p e r v i s o r from h i s s u p e r i o r s and l a t e r a l l y from staff  2.  specialists.  R e l i a n c e by a l l l e v e l s o f l i n e management and a s s o c i a t e d s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s upon t h e r e c o r d s g e n e r a t e d by t h e f o r mal, w e l l - d e v e l o p e d  p r o d u c t i o n c o n t r o l systems. (The  g o a l i n view i s t o achieve e f f e c t i v e monitoring  of the  f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s b e h a v i o r , as w e l l as t h a t o f h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s , as demonstrated by t h e p r o d u c t i o n q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y achieved.} 3.  A h i g h sense o f urgency r e g a r d i n g p r o d u c t i o n b e i n g exp e r i e n c e d by a l l p e r s o n s ,  4.  p a r t i c u l a r l y the supervisor.  A h i g h degree o f f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e among f i r s t l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s on t h e one hand, and f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r  along  t h e w o r k - f l o w on t h e o t h e r . As a consequence o f t h e f o r e g o i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y delimited organization s t r u c t u r a l correlates, a characteri s t i c s e t o f f i r s t - l i n e supervisory a c t i v i t i e s tends t o develop.  The o b s e r v a t i o n s summarized above i n Chart I I I do  not p r o v i d e any d i r e c t i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f superv i s o r y a c t i v i t i e s i n e n t e r p r i s e s u t i l i z i n g forms o f C a t e gory I I technology. the preceding  However, c e r t a i n i n f e r e n c e s based upon  o b s e r v a t i o n s may be j u s t i f i e d .  I f valid,  they  44  w i l l prove h e l p f u l i n o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g f u r t h e r t h e hypothesis  of t h e  general  study.  I t i s n o t e d f r o m Chart I I I above t h a t t h e  first-line  s u p e r v i s o r has a median span of c o n t r o l i n t h e o r d e r 30-44-  of  I n a d d i t i o n , i t appears t h a t s m a l l p r i m a r y work  groups p r o b a b l y  are r a r e i n t h i s t y p e of t e c h n o l o g y .  Further-  more, r e q u i r e d t e c h n i c a l competence among l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s i s v e r y l i m i t e d r e l a t i v e t o t h a t found i n e i t h e r of C a t e g o r y I or H I  production technology.  F i n a l l y , because work methods,  pace, and volume and q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s  a l l t e n d t o be h i g h l y  r a t i o n a l i z e d and c o n t r o l l e d by h i g h e r - l e v e l l i n e management, or n o n - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s , t h e a b i l i t y  of e i t h e r d i r e c t w o r k e r s  or t h e f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r u l t i m a t e l y t o a d v e r s e l y ence p r o d u c t i o n q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y i s r e l a t i v e l y  influ-  limited.  S p e c i f i c Hypotheses Supervisory a c t i v i t i e s  (tasks)  (II-A-1)  Given the f o r e g o i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y induced  features  of t h e f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r ' s work environment, i t i s hypothesized  t h a t the nature  of s u p e r v i s o r y  ( t a s k s ) under C a t e g o r y I I t e c h n o l o g y p a r t , of v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l  activities  c o n s i s t s , f o r t h e most  interactions with  subordinates,  l i n e s u p e r i o r s , s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , and f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s i n the work-flow.  (The p r i m a r y  o b j e c t of such i n t e r a c t i o n s i s  t o e f f e c t the d i r e c t i v e s t r a n s m i t t e d t o the s u p e r v i s o r l i n e s u p e r i o r s and s t a f f  specialists.)  by  45  I t i s hypothesized  t h a t n e i t h e r the t e c h n i c a l nor  "administrative a c t i v i t i e s " s p e c i f i e d i n the discussion of Category I technology first-line  w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t elements o f  supervisory behavior  i n Category I I technology.  Frequency o f performance o f a c t i v i t i e s  (tasks)  I f one a c c e p t s t h e s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s i s of f i r s t - l i n e  (II-A-2)  that the nature  s u p e r v i s o r y a c t i v i t i e s under Category I I t e c h -  nology c o n s i s t s mainly o f i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s , then i t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e frequency  w i t h which these a c t i v i t i e s are  performed ( t h e i r r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e ) r e d u c e s t o t h e f r e quency o f i n t e r a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s .  See below f o r t h e s p e c i -  f i c hypotheses r e g a r d i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s . Nature o f i n t e r a c t i o n s With subordinates  (II-B-l-a).  The d i s c u s s i o n i n t h e  s e c t i o n dealing with the i m p l i c a t i o n s of mechanistic ment s u g g e s t s t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s i s .  manage-  Inter-  a c t i o n s between t h e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s , a dominant f e a t u r e o f t h e f i r s t - l i n e  supervisor's a c t i v i t i e s ,  will  t e n d t o be h o s t i l e , t h r e a t e n i n g and a g g r e s s i v e i n n a t u r e . Also, i t i s hypothesized  t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n s between  t h e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s w i l l c o n s i s t m a i n l y o f f a c e - t o - f a c e communications.  The content  o f such i n t e r -  a c t i o n s w i l l be concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h problems o f work pace, methods and p r o d u c t i o n q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y . the i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l p r i m a r i l y be " t a s k - o r i e n t e d . "  That i s ,  With s u p e r i o r s ( I I - B - l - b ) .  Once a g a i n , because of  t h e m e c h a n i s t i c t y p e of management, t h e sense of urgency o f p r o d u c t i o n , the high frequency of " c r i s e s , " e t c . , i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e s u p e r v i s o r and his  l i n e s u p e r i o r s w i l l ' t e n d t o be t e n s e , h o s t i l e and t a s k -  oriented i n nature.  I n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l f i n d t h e i r bases i n  both v e r b a l and w r i t t e n communications. Horizontal i n t e r a c t i o n s (with s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s a l o n g t h e work f l o w ) ( I I - B - l - c ) .  and  For  t h e reasons o u t l i n e d i n t h e two p r e c e d i n g paragraphs i t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h i s c l a s s of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l be  largely  t a s k - o r i e n t e d , v e r b a l as w e l l as n o n - v e r b a l , and f r e q u e n t l y t e n s e , t h a t i s , i n v o l v e c o n f l i c t s over a u t h o r i t y and responsibility. Frequency o f i n t e r a c t i o n s With s u b o r d i n a t e s  (II-B-2-a).  Only t h e most g e n e r a l  hypotheses a r e p o s s i b l e g i v e n t h e q u a l i t y , f o r our o f Woodward's d a t a .  purposes,  G i v e n t h e absence of s m a l l p r i m a r y work  g r o u p s , t h e m e c h a n i s t i c n a t u r e o f management, t h e h i g h sense of production urgency, e t c . , i t i s hypothesized t h a t the f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e f i r s t - l i n e  supervisor  and h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s as a group w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y v e r y h i g h . The f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l w i l l , however, t e n d on t h e average t o be low  subordinates (relative to  the frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h l i n e s u p e r i o r s , or s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , o r f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s a l o n g t h e work f l o w ) .  47 With s u p e r i o r s ( I I - B - 2 - b ) .  F o r t h e reasons  outlined  i n t h e previous paragraph, i t i s hypothesized t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e f i r s t - l i n e  s u p e r v i s o r and h i s l i n e  s u p e r i o r s w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y f a i r l y l o w , e s p e c i a l l y  those  i n i t i a t e d by t h e s u p e r v i s o r h i m s e l f . Horizontal interactions (II-B-2-c).  By t h e same  token, a r e l a t i v e l y very high frequency of h o r i z o n t a l  inter-  actions i s predicted, especially f o r interactions with staff specialists. Supervisory  sentiments  Toward s u b o r d i n a t e s ( I I - C - 1 ) . complete  I n t h e absence o f more  d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a r e g a r d i n g t h e nature of; s u p e r v i s o r y  a c t i v i t i e s under Category I I t e c h n o l o g y , i t has been h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t such a c t i v i t i e s w i l l c o n s i s t p r i m a r i l y o f i n t e r actions with others.  In addition, a r e l a t i v e l y high f r e -  quency o f t e n s e , t a s k - o r i e n t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s has been h y p o t h e s i z e d . b a s i s o f t h e s e hypotheses  On t h e  i t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t sentiments  f e l t by t h e s u p e r v i s o r toward h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s w i l l t e n d t o range from n e u t r a l t o s u s p i c i o u s t o a g g r e s s i v e depending upon c i r c u m s t a n c e s . of urgency  Furthermore,  because o f t h e h i g h sense  o f p r o d u c t i o n and s h o r t t i m e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f  l o w e r s u p e r v i s o r y l e v e l s , t h e s e s e n t i m e n t s w i l l t e n d t o be u n s t a b l e o r v a r i a b l e , r a n g i n g from n e u t r a l t o h o s t i l e . Superiors (II-C-2). of t h e f i r s t - l i n e  By t h e same t o k e n ,  sentiments  s u p e r v i s o r toward h i s s u p e r i o r s w i l l  tend  48 to  be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y t h o s e o f defense and  hostility.  They w i l l t e n d t o be v a r i a b l e depending upon t h e demands of momentary c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Parties to horizontal interactions (staff f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s along the work-flow sentiments of the f i r s t - l i n e  (II-C-3).  specialists, Similarly,  s u p e r v i s o r toward s t a f f  special-  i s t s and f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s a l o n g t h e work f l o w w i l l t e n d t o be n e u t r a l t o h o s t i l e i n t o n e .  Given the r e l a t i v e l y high  f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e p a r t i e s , t h e s e n t i m e n t s of t h e f i r s t - l i n e ing,  s u p e r v i s o r w i l l t e n d t o be r a t h e r unchang-  at l e a s t i n the short-term.  Category I I I t e c h n o l o g y In t h i s s e c t i o n t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e dimensions o f f i r s t - l i n e  s u p e r v i s o r y b e h a v i o r under  c o n t i n u o u s - p r o c e s s t e c h n o l o g y w i l l be developed. t o hypotheses  The  approach  f o r m u l a t i o n w i l l be t h e same as t h a t employed  i n t h e two p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s o f t h e c h a p t e r . G e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s and i n f e r e n c e s Given the g e n e r a l hypothesis of t h i s study, probably t h e most fundamental  c o r r e l a t e of continuous-process t e c h n o l -  ogy i s t h e o r g a n i c n a t u r e o f management p r o c e s s e s t y p i c a l l y found i n t h e more s u c c e s s f u l e n t e r p r i s e s employing t h i s t y p e of t e c h n o l o g y .  P r o c e e d i n g from t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i t i s  i n f e r r e d t h a t , the f o l l o w i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  characteristics  are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n t i n u o u s - p r o c e s s t e c h n o l o g y : (1) t h e  49 CHART IV STRUCTURAL CORRELATES OF CATEGORY I I I TECHNOLOGY Category I I I P r o d u c t i o n Technology:  continuous-process technology D e f i n i t i o n : i n t e r m i t t e n t production of chemicals i n m u l t i purpose p l a n t s ; c o n t i n u o u s f l o w p r o d u c t i o n o f c a s e s , l i q u i d s and c r y s t a l l i n e s u b s t a n c e s Structural Correlate  1. Complexity o f t e c h n o l o g y 2. Median number o f l e v e l s o f management 3- Median c h i e f e x e c u t i v e span o f  Characteristic very great r e l a t i v e t o Categories  I and I I (p.42) 6 (p.52)  10 (p.53)  control 4. Median f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s ' span of c o n t r o l 5. E x i s t e n c e o f " s m a l l p r i m a r y work groups" 6. R a t i o o f s u p e r v i s o r y t o nonsupervisory personnel 7- R a t i o o f d i r e c t t o i n d i r e c t workers 8. M i d d l e management span o f c o n t r o l  Yes (p.60)  9. Length o f management communication  relatively  line  10. P r a c t i c e o f management by committee 11. T e c h n i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f management and s u p e r v i s o r s  11-18  (p.61)  1:5-9 (p.55) 1:1 (pp.59-60) r e l a t i v e l y small  (p.53)  long  (p.53) common (p.53)  high r e l a t i v e especially to Category I I t e c h -  nology (pp.57-58)  12. Source o f t e c h n i c a l competence o f supervisors  extensive formal or academic t r a i n  ing  (pp.57-58)  13. R e q u i r e d t e c h n i c a l competence o f  r e l a t i v e l y high  14. R e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f s k i l l e d t o u n s k i l l e d workers  midway between t h a t found i n Categories I & I I technology  supervisors  (PP.57, 65, 149)  (pp.61-62) .  15. Focus o f s k i l l e d w o r k e r s ' a c t i v i t i e s  b o t h d i r e c t and indirect labor  (pp.61-63)  50 CHART I V — c o n t i n u e d  Structural Correlate  Characteristic  16. A b i l i t y o f d i r e c t l a b o r t o i n f l u e n c e t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f production  P o t e n t i a l l y very high  17 E x i s t e n c e o f f o r m a l p r o d u c t i o n cont r o l systems  built-in; virtually a u t o m a t i c ; not a source o f c o n f l i c t between s t a f f and  (pp.62-63)  l i n e (pp.66,  18. E x i s t e n c e o f s t a f f  specialists  19. Sense o f urgency o f p r o d u c t i o n 20. Type o f communications r e g a r d i n g production 21. P r o d u c t i o n s c h e d u l e s based on 22.  P l a n n i n g and time p e r s p e c t i v e o f t o p management 23. P e r c e i v e d s e c u r i t y o f employment f o r d i r e c t workers 24. Interdependence o f t a s k f u n c t i o n s among m a r k e t i n g (M), p r o d u c t i o n (P) and development (D) 25. Order o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g c y c l e 26. I n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s 27. 28.  Frequency o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems Type o f management of more s u c c e s s f u l firms  152)  few & not e a s i l y distinguishable from l i n e superv i s o r s ; no i d e o l o g i c a l conflict with l i n e supervisors  (p.65) low (p.65)  mainly v e r b a l  (p.66)  long-range  orders  (p.66)  v e r y l o n g range  (p.152)  very high  152)  (pp.149,  minimal (p.153) D — } M ~ * P (p.  128)  f a i r l y good  (pp.147,150,152) low (p.l53) 3  "organic"  (p.64)  Source: Joan Woodward, I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : Theory and P r a c t i c e (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965).  51 c o n t r i b u t i v e n a t u r e o f s p e c i a l knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e t o t h e common t a s k o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e ;  (2) i n d i v i d u a l t a s k s s e t  by t h e t o t a l s i t u a t i o n o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e ;  (3) adjustment  and c o n t i n u a l r e d e f i n i t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l t a s k s t h r o u g h  inter-  a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s ; (4) ad hoc l o c a t i o n o f c o n t r o l a u t h o r i t y based upon e x p e r t i s e ; (5) l a t e r a l r a t h e r t h a n v e r t i c a l comm u n i c a t i o n s p r e d o m i n a t i n g ; and (6) communication  of advice  and i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n i n s t r u c t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s . ^ " As was r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e f o r u m l a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c hypotheses f o r Category I t e c h n o l o g y , i f o r g a n i c management p r o c e s s e s a r e r e a l i z e d i n p r a c t i c e under c o n t i n u o u s - p r o c e s s technology, then the f i r s t - l i n e supervisor i s allowed a f a i r l y wide a r e a o f d i s c r e t i o n over t h e performance  of  a c t i v i t i e s and h i s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s . To employ a more o p e r a t i o n a l p h r a s e o l o g y , i t i s i n f e r r e d t h a t , as a consequence o f t h e degree o f o r g a n i c management p r o c e s s e s r e a l i z e d i n c o n t i n u o u s - p r o c e s s t e c h n o l o g y , e n t e r p r i s e o r g a n i z a t i o n t e n d s t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: 1.  F a i r l y f l e x i b l e , d e t a i l e d p r o d u c t i o n g u i d e l i n e s coming t o t h e f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r from l i n e s u p e r i o r s and p o s s i b l y from t h e few s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s  (see Chart I I I  above) which may be found i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . 2.  Two-way i n i t i a t i o n o f t a s k - o r i e n t e d i n t e r a c t i o n ing the direct  involv-  ( s k i l l e d ) p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s and t h e i r  supervisor. 3.  E x t e n s i v e "feedback" t o t h e f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r from  s k i l l e d d i r e c t production workers regarding t a s k o r i e n t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s i n i t i a t e d e i t h e r d i r e c t l y by t h e s u p e r v i s o r , o r i n d i r e c t l y by s t a f f 4.  specialists.  As a consequence o f (a) t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t e c h n o l o g y (Chart I I I ) and (b) t h e ease and f r e q u e n t l y v i r t u a l a u t o m a t i c i t y o f f o r m a l p o r d u c t i o n c o n t r o l systems (see Chart I I I ) — a heavy r e l i a n c e by a l l l e v e l s o f management and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s upon t h e r e c o r d s and o t h e r mation generated activities.  infor-  i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l  However, as a consequence o f (b) above,  p l u s o r g a n i c management p r o c e s s e s and i t e m s 1, 2, and 3 above, m i n i m a l 5.  c o n f l i c t a r i s i n g about p r o d u c t i o n  A h i g h degree o f v o l u n t a r y and i n f o r m a l  matters.  interdependence  among, on t h e one hand f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s , a n d , on t h e o t h e r hand s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , s e n i o r l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s and d i r e c t p r o d u c t i o n 6.  workers.  G e n e r a l l y a low sense o f urgency o f p r o d u c t i o n e x p e r i enced by a l l i n d i v i d u a l s , e s p e c i a l l y s k i l l e d workers and t h e i r f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s .  direct  When on oc-  casion production c r i s e s a r i s e , interpersonal r e l a t i o n s between w o r k e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s w i l l n o t d e t e r i o r a t e g r e a t l y , g i v e n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f o r g a n i c management processes. Chart I I I s p e c i f i e s a group o f s t r u c t u r a l c o r r e l a t e s of continuous-process  t e c h n o l o g y which may have s i g n i f i c a n c e  f o r t h e development o f t h e s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s .  F o r example,  53 n o t e t h e f a c t o f a s m a l l span o f f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r y control.  (It i s the smallest of the three categories of tech-  nology. )  The s u p e r v i s o r d i r e c t s a s m a l l (primary) group o f  s k i l l e d d i r e c t p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s who a r e a b l e t o e x e r c i s e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e over p r o d u c t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e q u a l i t y of production.  The s c a r c i t y o f s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s ,  o r t h e i r l a c k o f d i s t i n c t i o n f r o m o t h e r management  personnel,  t h e tendency f o r p r o d u c t i o n c o n t r o l t o be v i r t u a l l y b u i l t i n t o t h e p r o d u c t i v e system, and t h e h i g h degree o f t e c h n i c a l competence o f s u p e r v i s o r s , i m p l y t h e l a t t e r ' s p o t e n t i a l i t y t o e x e r c i s e c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e over p r o d u c t i o n t i t y and q u a l i t y .  abilquan-  The presence o f s m a l l p r i m a r y groups o f  s k i l l e d w o r k e r s , t h e low f r e q u e n c y  o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l prob-  lems, t h e l a r g e l y v e r b a l n a t u r e o f communications, and t h e broad c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f o r g a n i c p r o c e s s e s  o f management,  suggest t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r e n t e r s i n t o f r e q u e n t and c a s u a l i n t e r a c t i o n s with subordinates.  From t h e p r a c t i c e  o f manage-  ment by committee and t h e l o n g l i n e o f management communicat i o n s , we i n f e r t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s u p e r i o r s w i l l be f r e q u e n t and r a t h e r f o r m a l i n n a t u r e . S p e c i f i c Hypotheses Supervisory a c t i v i t i e s  (III-A-1)  As a consequence o f t h e f o r e g o i n g o b s e r v e d and i n f e r r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r ' s work environment, t h e f o l l o w i n g  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of supervisory  a c t i v i t i e s under Category I I I t e c h n o l o g y  are hypothesized.  1.  A p p l i c a t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l knowledge and t h e e x e r c i s e o f technical  skill.  In response t o f a i r l y long-range  production  schedules  t h e f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r makes a f a i r l y narrow range o f complex t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s , o r g i v e s t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e to h i s subordinates, regarding the t e c h n i c a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e product t o be produced.  Advises subordi-  nates regarding t e c h n i c a l adjustments r e q u i r e d i n t h e process.  I f and when c r i s e s o c c u r , he seeks t h e t e c h -  n i c a l a d v i c e o f s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s and/or communicates t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n s t o h i s subordinates. 2.  Given t h e r e l a t i v e absence o f s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , t h e o r g a n i c n a t u r e o f management p r o c e s s e s , and t h e a u t o m a t i c n a t u r e o f p r o d u c t i o n c o n t r o l s and r e p o r t i n g , t h e f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r performs none o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s d e f i n e d i n Chapter I I I . At most he r e v i e w s p e r i o d i c p r o d u c t i o n r e p o r t s as a means o f m o n i t o r i n g t h e performance o f h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s and t h e p r o c e s s e s  they  control. 3.  Because o f , and i n t e g r a l t o t h e performance o f h i s t e c h n i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , t h e s u p e r v i s o r '-engages; i n f a c e - t o face i n t e r a c t i o n s primarily with  subordinates.  Frequency o f performance o f a c t i v i t i e s The  (III-A-2)  low sense o f urgency o f p r o d u c t i o n ; t h e r e l a t i v e l y  l o n g t i m e and p l a n n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e o f management; t h e ease o f p r o d u c t i o n c o n t r o l ; t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s m a l l p r i m a r y work-  groups r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e f i r s t - l i n e  supervisor—these  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s u p e r v i s o r ' s work environment suggest t h a t a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i s t i n g of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s occur most f r e q u e n t l y . t i e s under c o n t i n u o u s  The  will  performance o f t e c h n i c a l a c t i v i -  process technology  w i l l o c c u r somewhat  less frequently. Nature o f i n t e r a c t i o n s The  s p e c i f i c hypotheses under t h i s s e c t i o n f o l l o w  from the p r e c e d i n g  hypotheses.  With subordinates  (III-B-l-a).  Interactions w i l l  be  f a c e - t o - f a c e , v e r b a l and somewhat i n f o r m a l , t h a t i s , not mainly t a s k - o r i e n t e d .  Because of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f  o r g a n i c management p r o c e s s e s , b o t h d e s c r i b e d and above, p l u s t h e g e n e r a l l y low sense o f urgency of  hypothesized production  and t h e absence of c o n f l i c t w i t h s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , a c t i o n s between t h e f i r s t - l i n e  s u p e r v i s o r and h i s  intersubordinates  w i l l t e n d t o be r e l a x e d ; t h a t i s , d e v o i d of c o n f l i c t a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  over  With the p o s s i b l e exception  c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s , the t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e  of  of both p a r t i e s  w i l l a l l o w t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s t o be based upon t h e communicat i o n o f a d v i c e and i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n e x p l i c i t t i o n s and  instruc-  directions.  With superiors ( I I I - B - l - b ) .  I t i s hypothesized  that,  because o f : (1) t h e r e l a t i v e l y l o n g c h a i n of management communication  (2) the p r a c t i c e of management by committee  (3)  t h e l o n g t i m e and p l a n n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e of management, and  56 (4) t h e h i g h degree o f c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e t e c h n o l o g y ,  inter-  a c t i o n s between t h e f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s l i n e s u p e r i o r s w i l l t e n d t o be f a c e - t o - f a c e , t a s k - o r i e n t e d , and g e n e r a l l y r e l a x e d ; that i s , devoid of c o n f l i c t s a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  over  The t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e o f  b o t h f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r s u p e r i o r s w i l l p e r m i t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s t o be based upon t h e communication o f a d v i c e and i n f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as i n s t r u c t i o n s and directions. Horizontal interactions (with fellow  first-line  s u p e r v i s o r s and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s ) ( I I I - B - l - c ) .  The r e l a -  t i v e l y h i g h l y complex n a t u r e o f f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d c o n t i n u o u s process technology suggests t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t f i r s t - l i n e supervisors w i l l enter i n t o i n t e r a c t i o n s with f e l l o w v i s o r s , e i t h e r along the work-flow sections of the e n t e r p r i s e .  super-  o r i n t h e maintenance  These i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l t e n d t o  be t a s k - o r i e n t e d , and, g i v e n t h e n a t u r e o f o r g a n i c management p r o c e s s e s , l a r g e l y d e v o i d o f c o n f l i c t over a u t h o r i t y and  responsibility. The ease and v i r t u a l l y a u t o m a t i c n a t u r e o f p r o d u c t i o n  c o n t r o l , p l u s t h e l o n g t i m e and p l a n n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e o f management, suggest t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s w i l l be o f v e r y l i m i t e d i m p o r t a n c e , except p o s s i b l y i n p e r i o d s o f c r i s i s i n t h e p r o duction process.  To t h e e x t e n t t o which t h i s c l a s s o f i n t e r -  a c t i o n s o c c u r s , i t w i l l be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b e i n g d e v o i d o f  57 c o n f l i c t over a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  M u t u a l communi-  c a t i o n o f a d v i c e and i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feature of t h i s class of i n t e r a c t i o n s . Frequency o f i n t e r a c t i o n s The f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s e s and hypotheses f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c hypotheses  suggest t h e  regarding i n t e r a c t i o n f r e -  quencies. With subordinates ( I I I - B ^ - a f r . the f i r s t - l i n e  Interactions  between  s u p e r v i s o r and h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s w i l l be more  f r e q u e n t t h a n f o r e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r two c l a s s e s o f i n t e r actions.  I n comparison w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n f r e q u e n c i e s i n  e i t h e r o f Category I o r Category I I t e c h n o l o g y , t h e f r e q u e n cy o f i n t e r a c t i o n s between s u p e r v i s o r s and d i r e c t p r o d u c t i o n workers w i l l be t h e g r e a t e s t i n Category I I I t e c h n o l o g y . With s u p e r i o r s (III-B-2-b). a c t i o n s between f i r s t - l i n e  The f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r -  s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r l i n e supe-  r i o r s w i l l be l e s s t h a n t h e f r e q u e n c y o f i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h subordinates or p a r t i e s t o h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s .  The  f r e q u e n c y o f s u p e r v i s o r - s u p e r i o r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l be g r e a t e r i n Category I I I t h a n i n Category I I t e c h n o l o g y , but s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n t h a t found i n Category I t e c h n o l o g y . Horizontal  interactions  (III-B-2-c).  The f r e q u e n c y  of t h i s c l a s s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l be mid-way between t h e f r e q u e n c i e s noted i n t h e two p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n s .  I n compari-  son t o Category I I t e c h n o l o g y , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t o be l e s s i n Category I I I  58  production technology.  The r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c y o f h o r i z o n t a l  i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l be a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same i n C a t e g o r i e s I and I I I t e c h n o l o g y , w i t h a p o s s i b l y g r e a t e r f r e q u e n c y i n c o n t i n u o u s - p r o c e s s t y p e s o f t e c h n o l o g y , where t h e c o m p l e x i t y of t h e t e c h n o l o g y i s c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r . Supervisory sentiments Toward s u b o r d i n a t e s ( I I I - C - 1 ) . (III-C-2). C-3)«  Toward s u p e r i o r s  Toward p a r t i e s i n h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s ( I I I -  As i n e n t e r p r i s e s under Category I t e c h n o l o g y , s e n t i -  ments o f s u p e r v i s o r s t o w a r d s u b o r d i n a t e s , s u p e r i o r s and p a r t i e s t o h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l t e n d t o be n e u t r a l t o f r i e n d l y i n tone.  However, i n c o n t r a s t t o Category I  t e c h n o l o g y , t h e s e s e n t i m e n t s w i l l e x h i b i t a c e r t a i n amount o f i n s t a b i l i t y over t i m e due t o t h e major s i g n i f i c a n c e a t tached t o production c r i s e s i n continuous-process technology.  59  FOOTNOTES ON CHAPTER I I I Joan Woodward, I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : Theory and P r a c t i c e (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p. 23. Woodward d e f i n e s " o r g a n i c " management systems as b e i n g "more a d a p t a b l e " : j o b s l o s e much o f t h e i r f o r m a l d e f i n i t i o n , and communications up and down t h e h i e r a r c h y a r e more i n t h e n a t u r e o f c o n s u l t a t i o n t h a n t h e p a s s i n g up o f i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e r e c e i v i n g o f o r d e r s . " I n t h e subsequent a n a l y s i s we u t i l i z e a s l i g h t l y more o p e r a t i o n a l concept o f " o r g a n i c " management p r o c e s s e s . 2  Tom Burns and G.M. S t a l k e r , The Management o f Innovat i o n (London: T a v i s t o c k P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 121-122. 3  ^The f o r e g o i n g c r i t e r i a s h a l l c o n s t i t u t e t h e d e f i n i t i o n of " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . " "^Woodward, op. c i t . , p. 23. " ' M e c h a n i s t i c ' systems a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r i g i d break down i n t o f u n c t i o n a l spec i a l i s m s , precise d e f i n i t i o n of d u t i e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and power, and a w e l l d e v e l o p e d command h i e r a r c h y t h r o u g h which i n f o r m a t i o n f i l t e r s up and d e c i s i o n s and i n s t r u c t i o n s f l o w down." I n t h e subsequent a n a l y s i s we u t i l i z e a somewhat more o p e r a t i o n a l concept o f " m e c h a n i s t i c " management p r o c e s s e s . ^Woodward, l o c . c i t . See f o o t n o t e 1 o f Chapter I I I f o r a d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e concept o f " o r g a n i c " management p r o c e s s e s .  CHAPTER I V CASE STUDIES:  CATEGORY I TECHNOLOGY  Introduction Chapter I V i s t h e f i r s t o f t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e  chapters  devoted e n t i r e l y t o t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e m p i r i c a l d a t a i n t h e form o f case s t u d i e s .  The c h a p t e r c o n s i s t s o f two case  s t u d i e s used t o demonstrate examples o f t h e n a t u r e o f f i r s t l i n e s u p e r v i s o r y r o l e demands and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t i c s under Category I t e c h n o l o g y . e d i t e d i n order t o present  character-  The cases have been  only those data p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s  analysis. The  sources  o f t h e case s t u d i e s w i l l be c i t e d  t i a l l y i n c o n v e n t i o n a l f o o t n o t e form.  ini-  Thereafter, within a  g i v e n c a s e , o n l y page r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be used t o i n d i c a t e those p o r t i o n s of the s t u d i e s u t i l i z e d i n t h e research.  CASE NO. 1 "A Dyeing and C l e a n i n g  Plant  Background 1.  T h i s i s a s h o r t account o f t h e foremen's p l a c e i n a f i r m o f d y e r s and c l e a n e r s . The f i r m i s a s m a l l one, employing i n a l l about 400 p e o p l e , o f whom 250 a r e i n t h e works. The r e m a i n i n g 150 work i n shops b e l o n g i n g t o t h e company, a t w h i c h goods a r e r e c e i v e d from customers f o r c l e a n i n g and d y e i n g . I n t h i s study we a r e concerned o n l y w i t h t h e w o r k s , w i t h i t s 250 employees and t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s .  61  Factory 2.  Organization F i g u r e I I below p o r t r a y s t h e management o r g a n i z a t i o n  of t h e e n t e r p r i s e d e s c r i b e d i n Case No. 1.  J o i n t Managing D i r e c t o r (A) (Production)  J o i n t Managing D i r e c t o r - (B) (Shop Branches)  Company S e c r e t a r y and  Assistant General Manager  r  O f f i c e Manager  Works Manager  Foreman  FIGURE I I MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION (adapted f r o m s o u r c e : pp. 73-74)  The A s s i s t a n t G e n e r a l Manager "has r e c e n t l y come on t h e scene.  He i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e P r o d u c t i o n D i r e c t o r and  t h e Works Manager i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o him a l t h o u g h a t p r e s e n t ,  62 as a newcomer, he i s a c t i n g r a t h e r as a s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n t t o t h e P r o d u c t i o n D i r e c t o r t h a n as c o n t r o l l e r of  production."  In o t h e r words, t h e f a c t o r y w i l l u l t i m a t e l y have f o u r l e v e l s of management a u t h o r i t y i n s t e a d of i t s p r e s e n t  three.  The Managing D i r e c t o r f o r P r o d u c t i o n has had a g r e a t d e a l of e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e f a c t o r y , i n d i f f e r e n t management p o s i t i o n s , over t h e y e a r s , and has always been i n t e r e s t e d i n the methods and p r o c e s s e s and i n ways o f imp r o v i n g them. . . . t h e Works Manager, the foremen and t h e o t h e r s u p e r v i s o r s have a l l been w i t h t h e company or t h e i n d u s t r y f o r many y e a r s . The 3.  Technology and t h e Foremen's Work  The procedure f o r t h e major p a r t of t h e company's b u s i n e s s , c l e a n i n g , can be s i m p l y d e s c r i b e d . Goods a r e c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e shop branches by van a t n i g h t , and on a r r i v a l a t t h e works are s o r t e d i n t o c a t e g o r i e s f o r c l e a n i n g . Those w h i c h i t i s i m p r a c t i c a b l e t o d r y - c l e a n u s u a l l y go d i r e c t f r o m t h e s o r t i n g p o i n t t o t h e Wetc l e a n i n g Department, though o t h e r s are sent f o r wetc l e a n i n g a f t e r h a v i n g a l r e a d y been t h r o u g h the Dryc l e a n i n g Department. A f t e r b e i n g d r i e d t h e y pass t o t h e F i n i s h i n g Department f o r s p o t t i n g and p r e s s i n g and are t h e n i n s p e c t e d and d i s p a t c h e d . The a r t i c l e s t o be d r y - c l e a n e d go s t r a i g h t t o t h e D r y - c l e a n i n g Department, and t h e n , i n t h e same way, t o t h e F i n i s h i n g , I n s p e c t i o n , and D i s p a t c h s e c t i o n s . Dry-cleaning  4-  5.  department  The D r y - c l e a n i n g Department has c l e a n i n g machines, h y d r o - e x t r a c t o r s and t u m b l e r s f o r d r y i n g . The work cons i s t s almost e n t i r e l y of p u t t i n g t h e c l o t h e s , e t c . , i n t o t h e c l e a n i n g machines and t h e n t r a n s f e r r i n g them t o t h e o t h e r s i n t u r n . As t h e goods have p r e v i o u s l y been s o r t e d a c c o r d i n g t o m a t e r i a l and c o l o u r , t h e work i s ent i r e l y manual and r e q u i r e s no s k i l l or p a r t i c u l a r knowl e d g e on t h e p a r t of t h e w o r k e r s . There are two s h i f t s w o r k i n g i n t h i s department, each c o n s i s t i n g of f o u r men under a charge-hand. The l a t t e r , who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e work of t h e department, i s a l s o i n charge o f t h e s o r t e r , who, however, r e q u i r e s l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n a p a r t f r o m b e i n g kept i n f o r m e d about what k i n d of work i s r e q u i r e d n e x t . The department i s a busy one, f o r thousands o f a r t i c l e s pass t h r o u g h i n a day and t h e charge-hand works on t h e j o b w i t h t h e o t h e r  63  6.  men f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of t h e s h i f t . He does, however, spend some of h i s t i m e o r g a n i z i n g t h e work so t h a t t h e washing machines do not s t a n d i d l e and he i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r such t h i n g s as m a i n t a i n i n g t h e l e v e l o f cleaning s p i r i t . He i s a l s o l i k e l y t o f i n d h i m s e l f i n v o l v e d i n minor machine r e p a i r s and maintenance. He spends l i t t l e or no t i m e a c t u a l l y s u p e r v i s i n g t h e work. T h i s work does not demand a g r e a t d e a l o f s k i l l on the p a r t of t h e s u p e r v i s o r and t h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s no foreman i n charge. At t h e same t i m e i t does need a good d e a l of p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y of t h e machines used. The charge-hand on t h e day s h i f t , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , has been w i t h t h e company f o r s i x t e e n y e a r s and h i s e x p e r i e n c e c o v e r s n e a r l y a l l t h e d i f f e r ent k i n d s o f work done i n t h e f a c t o r y . He has been i n t h e D r y - c l e a n i n g Department f o r n e a r l y t e n y e a r s , as charge-hand f o r t h e l a s t f i v e . He i s p a i d on t h e same b a s i s as t h e o r d i n a r y o p e r a t o r s i n h i s department, i . e . a c c o r d i n g t o t h e amount of work h a n d l e d i n . a week, w i t h a f l a t r a t e a d d i t i o n of f i v e p e n c e an h o u r . 0  Wet-cleaning 7.  8.  9.  department  The W e t - c l e a n i n g Department d e a l s w i t h two c a t e g o r i e s of work: t h a t w h i c h cannot be d r y - c l e a n e d because of i t s n a t u r e , and t h a t w h i c h does not respond t o d r y - c l e a n i n g , and i s t h e r e f o r e sent on f o r w e t - c l e a n i n g . Articles a r r i v e i n the department, m o s t l y f r o m the s o r t e r s , w i t h c o l o u r e d l a b e l s on them i n d i c a t i n g t h e degrees o f p r i o r i t y t h e y s h o u l d r e c e i v e . They a r e s o r t e d i n t o c a t e g o r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t r e a t m e n t t o be g i v e n . The a c t u a l c l e a n i n g i s done e i t h e r by hand or by mac h i n e , and i n some cases by a c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e two. There i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i e t y of p o s s i b l e t r e a t m e n t i n t h e way of r i n s e s and d r y i n g methods. The w o r k e r s number e i g h t w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l two men i n a s m a l l s e c t i o n devoted t o c a r p e t c l e a n i n g . The equipment c o n s i s t s of washing machines, h y d r o - e x t r a c t o r s , t u m b l e r s and o t h e r a p p a r a t u s f o r d r y i n g . I n t h i s department, t h e system of wage-payment depends a g a i n on t h e amount of output and i s e s s e n t i a l l y a group bonus p l a n . There i s a foreman i n charge and h i s j o b i s p r i n c i p a l l y one o f o r g a n i z i n g the p r o d u c t i o n f l o w i n t h e department , not o n l y t o keep t h e work g o i n g but a l s o t o make sure t h a t t h e c o r r e c t treatment i s g i v e n t o t h e d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s of goods i n v o l v e d . He s o r t s t h e a r t i c l e s h i m s e l f . A l l t h i s means t h a t he must be a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e d i f f e r e n t f a b r i c t y p e s and know t h e e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of t r e a t m e n t upon them. He needs t o be a b l e t o e s t i m a t e t h e l i k e l i h o o d of s u c c e s s i n wetc l e a n i n g a p a r t i c u l a r garment, and weigh t h i s up a g a i n s t  64 t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of i t s b e i n g u t t e r l y s p o i l e d i f t h e p r o cess f a i l s . He must have i n mind such t h i n g s as chances of c o a t s s h r i n k i n g , or s k i r t s d r o p p i n g , or c o l o u r s r u n n i n g . He must remember t h a t r a y o n l o s e s h a l f i t s s t r e n g t h when wet, and must be c a r e f u l t o spot t h a t a garment has padding i n i t and so cannot go i n t o t h e mac h i n e s . The present foreman has been i n h i s p o s i t i o n f o r t h e l a s t twenty y e a r s , h a v i n g worked p r e v i o u s l y i n t h e W e t - c l e a n i n g Department of a n o t h e r f i r m . 7 The  10.  dyehouse For a number of r e a s o n s , o n l y a v e r y s m a l l amount of d y e i n g i s u n d e r t a k e n t h e s e days, and t h e Dyehouse emp l o y s o n l y t h r e e w o r k e r s , w i t h a foreman i n charge. The l a t t e r s j o b i s m a i n l y a t e c h n i c a l one; he examines goods sent f o r d y e i n g and d e c i d e s on t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t r e a t m e n t . He a l s o has t o a d v i s e on t h e l i k e l i h o o d of s u c c e s s f u l dyeing of goods t h a t are sent f r o m t h e shops i n d o u b t f u l cases f o r h i s o p i n i o n . A l l t h i s r e q u i r e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e knowledge o f f a b r i c s and f i b r e s and p a r t i c u l a r l y of t h e e f f e c t s on them of b o i l i n g . The foreman's p o s i t i o n i s , from t h e t e c h n i c a l p o i n t of v i e w , a v e r y r e s p o n s i b l e one; p r e s e n t - d a y f a b r i c s w i t h t h e i r m i x t u r e s of n a t u r a l and s y n t h e t i c f i b r e s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o dye s u c c e s s f u l l y and t h e r i s k of f a i l u r e i s o f t e n h i g h . The foreman of t h e Dyehouse g a i n e d h i s knowledge o f t h e t r a d e a t a n o t h e r company, and came t o h i s p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n as an a l r e a d y e x p e r i e n c e d man d u r i n g t h e Second World War. f  LL.  12.  F i n i s h i n g department A f t e r goods have been c l e a n e d t h e y are sent t o t h e F i n i s h i n g Department where t h e y are p r e p a r e d f o r d i s p a t c h t o the shops. The two p r i n c i p a l o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e department are s p o t t i n g and p r e s s i n g . S p o t t i n g i n v o l v e s examining garments and removing any s m a l l marks l e f t on them a f t e r t h e y have been t h r o u g h c l e a n i n g p r o c e s s e s . There i s one group o f people engaged on t h i s work. A f t e r t h e s p o t t i n g t h e garments are d i s t r i b u t e d by a s e r v i c e o p e r a t o r among t h e P r e s s i n g S e c t i o n , which c o n s i s t s of a number of s m a l l g r o u p s , each c o n c e n t r a t i n g on a d i f f e r e n t t y p e of f i n i s h i n g p r o c e s s . The p r e s s e r s and s p o t t e r s a r e under t h e charge o f t h e F i n i s h i n g Department foreman, who a l s o c o n t r o l s two s m a l l e r s e c t i o n s , c l e a n i n g h o u s e h o l d goods and h a t s , which are r e g a r d e d as p a r t of t h e F i n i s h i n g Department. I t i s t h i s foreman who came t o a c t as a k i n d o f u n o f f i c i a l c o - o r d i n a t o r of t h e work of t h e f a c t o r y . He has been w i t h t h e f i r m f o r a g r e a t many y e a r s , coming t o i t when he was e i g h t e e n . He has been charge-hand i n the D r y - c l e a n i n g Department, foreman of the S p o t t i n g S e c t i o n ,  65 and s u b s e q u e n t l y of t h e P r e s s i n g S e c t i o n i n a d d i t i o n . He has added t o h i s g r e a t amount o f p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e by s t u d y i n g t h e t e c h n o l o g y o f c l e a n i n g and d y e i n g a t a l o c a l i n s t i t u t e . When t h e p r e v i o u s Works Manager l e f t more t h a n two y e a r s ago i t f e l l t o him t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e work, f i r s t o f h i s department and o f t h o s e s e c t i o n s most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o i t , and s u b s e q u e n t l y of a l l t h e p r o d u c t i o n departments. H i s p o s i t i o n as Works Manager has now been f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d , though he c o n t i n u e s g s t i l l i n h i s r o l e o f foreman of t h e F i n i s h i n g Department. 13.  14.  15.  Silk spotting I n t h i s s e c t i o n t h e r e a r e a f o r e l a d y and f o u r g i r l s . They do t h e s p o t t i n g o f a l l s i l k o r i m i t a t i o n s i l k g a r ments and a l l w h i t e garments. The f o r e l a d y spends a good d e a l o f h e r t i m e c h e c k i n g over and s o r t i n g goods as t h e y a r r i v e i n t r o l l e y s , p u t t i n g a s i d e any t h a t r e q u i r e r e c l e a n i n g , o r which have been d r y - c l e a n e d and r e q u i r e w e t - c l e a n i n g . She s u p e r v i s e s t h e work o f h e r g i r l s and when t i m e p e r m i t s checks what t h e y have done. The f o r e l a d y has been w i t h t h e company s i n c e t h e mid' t h i r t i e s , h a v i n g worked p r e v i o u s l y a t a n o t h e r f i r m as a s p o t t e r . She became f o r e l a d y ' l o n g e r ago t h a n I c o u l d remember' and has had a v a s t amount o f e x p e r i e n c e which a l l o w s h e r t o a d v i s e when a d d i t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t , o t h e r t h a n s i m p l e s p o t t i n g , i s n e c e s s a r y f o r garments t h a t have been c l e a n e d . Her r o l e as checker and a d v i s e r i s , i n f a c t , a more i m p o r t a n t s i d e o f h e r work t h a n h e r supervisory function. R e p a i r s department T h i s department u n d e r t a k e s a l t e r a t i o n s and r e p a i r s at t h e r e q u e s t o f customers. There i s a f o r e l a d y w i t h a f a i r l y T l a r g e w o r k - f o r c e , i n c l u d i n g some p a r t - t i m e r s , who i s l e f t v e r y much on h e r own t o r u n t h e s e c t i o n . Apart from a d v i s i n g on r e p a i r s and s u p e r v i s i n g and c h e c k i n g work, she keeps r e c o r d s o f work done f o r c o s t i n g purp o s e s , and of t h e work of d i f f e r e n t o p e r a t o r s f o r wage purposes. I t i s s k i l l e d work i n t h i s department and one of t h e f o r e l a d y ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s f o r t h e t r a i n i n g of new w o r k e r s , who a r e f o r t h e most p a r t i n e x p e r i e n c e d when t h e y come. The workers range i n age from g i r l s not l o n g out of s c h o o l t o an o l d l a d y over s e v e n t y . The f o r e l a d y s t a r t e d w i t h t h e company twenty y e a r s ago as a shop a s s i s t a n t , becoming a shop manageress and l a t e r s u p e r v i s o r over s e v e r a l shop-branches b e f o r e t r a n s f e r r i n g t o h e r p r e s e n t j o b i n 1940. She i s , i n f a c t , one of t h e few people on t h e p r o d u c t i o n s i d e who has had e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e shops and i s t h e r e f o r e i n a p o s i t i o n t o a p p r e c i a t e some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f d e a l i n g w i t h customers f a c e - t o - f a c e .  66 16.  I n s p e c t i o n department The I n s p e c t i o n Department, w h i c h employs women and i s under t h e c o n t r o l o f a C h i e f I n s p e c t o r , i s r e g a r d e d as one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t departments i n t h e works. A l l a r t i c l e s come here f o r e x a m i n a t i o n and t h o s e which do not meet t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d a r e r e t u r n e d f o r f u r t h e r p r o c e s s i n g . The department has a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on o p e r a t o r s i n o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e f a c t o r y , as work which does not pass i n s p e c t i o n i s r e t u r n e d t o t h e people r e s p o n s i b l e , who must re-do i t . The C h i e f I n s p e c t o r spends some o f h e r time i n f e e d i n g work t o t h e i n s p e c t o r s and s e e i n g t h a t t h e y m a i n t a i n a r e a s o n a b l e r a t e o f i n s p e c t i o n , and some o f i t i n c h e c k i n g t h e i r work. She a l s o sees t o t h e s o r t i n g and r e m o v a l o f garments t o t h e p o i n t o f d i s p a t c h . She i s h e r s e l f an e x - i n s p e c t o r . 9 I n v e s t i g a t i o n department  17.  The I n v e s t i g a t i o n Department d e a l s w i t h q u e r i e s and c o m p l a i n t s from t h e shops and f r o m customers about a r t i c l e s overdue, m i s s i n g o r damaged. I t s work i n v o l v e s s e a r c h i n g f o r garments w h i c h have gone a s t r a y i n t h e f a c t o r y o r which may have been d i s p a t c h e d t o t h e wrong branch i n e r r o r , w r i t i n g l e t t e r s o f e x p l a n a t i o n o r a p o l ogy, a r r a n g i n g f o r c l a i m forms t o be completed and comp e n s a t i o n s e t t l e d , and d e a l i n g w i t h q u e r i e s on t h e t e l e phone. The s t a f f of t h r e e i s under t h e c o n t r o l o f a l a d y who has had e x p e r i e n c e both i n t h i s f a c t o r y and w i t h a n o t h e r f i r m . Her r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n s e c t i o n s a r e i n f o r m a l and f r i e n d l y ; c o - o p e r a t i o n i n f i n d i n g m i s s i n g a r t i c l e s i s r e a d i l y g i v e n by t h e f a c t o r y p e o p l e , who r e g a r d h e r department as one t h a t i s s i m p l y doing another necessary job. The Demands o f S u p e r v i s i o n Except i n t h e F i n i s h i n g Department t h e number o f w o r k e r s under t h e c o n t r o l o f any s u p e r v i s o r i n t h i s f a c t o r y i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . The importance o f a s u p e r v i s o r ' s j o b , however, s h o u l d not be a s s e s s e d s o l e l y i n terms o f t h e number o f w o r k e r s he i s i n charge o f o r t h e amount o f work done i n h i s department. The t y p e o f work done must a l s o be t a k e n i n t o account. Here, f o r i n s t a n c e , though i t h a n d l e s a c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l number o f a r t i c l e s , t h e W e t - c l e a n i n g Department g i v e s a g r e a t d e a l o f i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n t o them. Treatments must be v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t y p e s o f f a b r i c s and c o l o u r s and t h e foreman spends a g r e a t d e a l o f time d e c i d i n g and a d v i s i n g on i n d i v i d u a l t r e a t m e n t s . The D r y - c l e a n i n g Department, howe v e r , does work w h i c h i s much more r e p e t i t i v e , w i t h l i t t l e m o d i f i c a t i o n of the standard process necessary or p o s s i b l e . I n t h i s department i t has not been found  67  18.  19.  20.  n e c e s s a r y t o have a foreman and t h e r e i s a w o r k i n g charge-hand i n c o n t r o l o f each shift.1° Except i n t h e D r y - c l e a n i n g Department, t h e r e a r e two important requirements f o r the s u p e r v i s o r i n t h i s f a c t o r y : o r g a n i z i n g a b i l i t y and an e x p e r t knowledge o f t h e work done i n h i s department. I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e he must be a b l e t o a d m i n i s t e r h i s department so as t o keep t h e f l o w o f work r u n n i n g smoothly w i t h a l l machines and w o r k e r s employed t o t h e b e s t advantage. T h i s does not i n v o l v e a l o t o f 'paper work' o r any l o n g - t e r m p l a n n i n g but i t does r e q u i r e t h e a b i l i t y t o t h i n k ahead on a s h o r t - t e r m b a s i s , t o adapt t o t h e d i f f e r e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f each day. I n t h e second p l a c e he must be t h e t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t and a d v i s e r f o r h i s department. The wetc l e a n i n g foreman, f o r i n s t a n c e , must be a b l e t o say whether a p a r t i c u l a r a r t i c l e i s l i k e l y t o w e t - c l e a n succ e s s f u l l y ; t h e f o r e l a d y i n charge o f s i l k s p o t t i n g must be a b l e t o d e c i d e whether a garment w h i c h i s s t i l l s t a i n e d when i t comes t o h e r department s h o u l d be r e processed. This k i n d of expertness r e q u i r e s a great d e a l o f f i r s t - h a n d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e work. There a r e , o f c o u r s e , o t h e r f u n c t i o n s f o r t h e superv i s o r s t o perform. They a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e t r a i n i n g of new employees coming i n t o t h e i r departments. They a r e r e s p o n s i b l e a l s o f o r the engagement o f s t a f f f o r t h e i r departments, though i n t h i s case a l l a p p l i c a n t s a r e seen f i r s t and s c r e e n e d by t h e F i n i s h i n g Department foreman, now Works Manager, and o n l y t h e most l i k e l y ones sent on t o be seen and a c c e p t e d o r r e j e c t e d by t h e foremen. F i n a l l y t h e y a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e work and d i s c i p l i n e o f t h o s e i n t h e i r departments. T h i s l a s t f u n c t i o n does not f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y , as i t i s t h e s o r t o f f a c t o r y where t h e w o r k e r s know what t h e i r j o b s a r e and get on w i t h them w i t h o u t c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n . A system o f payment by r e s u l t s p l a y s i t s p a r t i n t h i s and i n d e e d emphasizes t h e importance o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r . F o r t h e system t o r u n smoothly t h e s u p p l y o f work t o o p e r a t o r s needs t o be c o n t i n u o u s and the s u p e r v i s o r must o r g a n i z e t h i n g s so t h a t t h i s i s t h e case. As we have seen, t h e I n s p e c t i o n Department cont r o l s s t a n d a r d s o f q u a l i t y ; i n d i v i d u a l w o r k e r s have t o re-do work which i s not up t o s t a n d a r d , and t h e i r bonus e a r n i n g s a r e a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d when garments a r e r e t u r n e d t o them. The q u e s t i o n o f s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g o f s u p e r v i s o r s c a l l s f o r l i t t l e comment. W i t h t h e s m a l l numbers i n volved the occasion f o r r e p l a c i n g a s u p e r v i s o r a r i s e s v e r y r a r e l y . There i s no f o r m a l scheme o f t r a i n i n g f o r s u p e r v i s o r s ; emphasis i s p l a c e d r a t h e r on p i c k i n g t h e r i g h t people f o r t h e work on t h e assumption t h a t t h e y can t h e n be r e l i e d upon t o develop t h e n e c e s s a r y s u p e r v i s o r y s k i l l s i n t h e i r own way. The q u e s t i o n of t e c h -  68 n i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r s u p e r v i s o r s does not a r i s e , as newlya p p o i n t e d s u p e r v i s o r s are i n v a r i a b l y h i g h l y e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e work t h e y are t o c o n t r o l . H A t t i t u d e s of t h e  21.  22.  23.  Supervisors  W h i l e t h e foremen i n t h i s f a c t o r y spend a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t of t h e i r t i m e h e l p i n g 'on t h e j o b , ' t h e y do have c e r t a i n s i g n s o f s t a t u s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h them from t h e o r d i n a r y o p e r a t o r s . They are g i v e n an e x t r a week's h o l i d a y , t h e y have s i c k n e s s pay b e n e f i t s and t h e y do not c l o c k on and o f f . As f a r as t h e i r pay i s concerned, the p o s i t i o n i s t h a t the s u p e r v i s o r s a r e on a f l a t r a t e , which v a r i e s f r o m one i n d i v i d u a l t o ano t h e r but which p l a c e s a l l of them, as a r u l e , above t h e e a r n i n g s of t h o s e t h e y are i n charge o f . I t must be n o t e d t h a t t h e work of the f a c t o r y i s t o some e x t e n t s e a s o n a l , so the few o c c a s i o n s on w h i c h a good w o r k e r ' s pay exceeds h i s s u p e r v i s o r ' s wage are more t h a n o f f s e t by t h e weeks of t h e ' o f f season. There i s no p e n s i o n , but a g r a t u i t y on r e t i r e m e n t i s p a y a b l e t o s u p e r v i s o r s a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n of t h e d i r e c t o r s . The s u p e r v i s o r s are s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p o s i t i o n . They a r e l a r g e l y i n d e p e n d e n t , and f r e e t o r u n t h e i r departments as t h e y t h i n k f i t . They do not need t o have much c o n t a c t w i t h managers as t h e r e are no problems of p l a n n i n g , or raw m a t e r i a l , t o be d i s c u s s e d w i t h them, and t h e s u p e r v i s o r i s t h e t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i n h i s f i e l d and makes t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s f o r h i m s e l f . The o r g a n i z a t i o n i s an i n f o r m a l one; s u p e r v i s o r s a r e not separ a t e d from t o p management by l o n g l i n e s of c o n t r o l , and t h e y and t h e managers have worked t o g e t h e r l o n g enough t o know each o t h e r e x t r e m e l y w e l l . The s u p e r v i s o r s ' j o b s have not changed v e r y much over t h e y e a r s , and so t h e i r c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e remains r e l e v a n t t o d a y . Any problems t h a t do a r i s e t h e y can d i s c u s s w i t h t h e Works Manager, whom t h e y accepted as c o - o r d i n a t o r bef o r e he was f o r m a l l y a p p o i n t e d t o h i s p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n . R e l a t i o n s between s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r w o r k e r s have a l r e a d y been touched upon. They a r e , f o r t h e most p a r t , v e r y easy and f r i e n d l y , w i t h t h e s u p e r v i s o r h a v i n g a l ways i n t h e back o f h i s or h e r mind t h a t i t w i l l be a t r i c k y j o b t o f i n d s u i t a b l e r e p l a c e m e n t s f o r any w o r k e r s who are a l l o w e d t o l e a v e where t h i s c o u l d be p r e v e n t e d . For the most p a r t r e l a t i o n s between s u p e r v i s o r s are a l s o good. I n a s m a l l , s t a b l e group l i k e t h i s , whose members have known each o t h e r f o r many y e a r s , g o o d - w i l l and t a c t overcome t h e minor d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t a r i s e a t t i m e s i n r e l a t i o n s between them. I n f a c t , w h i l e a c e r t a i n amount of c o - o p e r a t i o n between t h e f a c t o r y departments i s n e c e s s a r y , t h e work of  69  one does not a f f e c t t h a t of a n o t h e r t o any g r e a t e x t e n t . Very much more does t h e work of a l l departments a f f e c t t h e company's shops, and v i c e v e r s a . There are many ways i n which t h e shops can h e l p t h e f a c t o r y : by c l o s e l y i n s p e c t i n g a l l a r t i c l e s r e c e i v e d and n o t i n g t e a r s , e t c . , by c l e a r l y l a b e l l i n g a l l such t h i n g s as b e l t s t h a t a r e l i k e l y t o become s e p a r a t e d from garments, and so on. F o r t h e i r p a r t , t h e f a c t o r y people can h e l p or h i n d e r c o n s i d e r a b l y t h e work of t h e shops. At p r e s e n t , n e i t h e r seems t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y aware o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s of the o t h e r ; t h e f a c t o r y people do not have t o r e a s o n w i t h angry customers f a c e - t o - f a c e and t h e shop people do not know of t h e t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h some of the t r e a t m e n t s t h e y recommend t o customers. This company i s n o t , of c o u r s e , t h e o n l y one t o have t h i s p a r t i c u l a r problem; t o some e x t e n t i t i s i n e v i t a b l e i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h i s k i n d , w i t h i t s s e p a r a t e system of c o n t r o l f o r f a c t o r y and s h o p s . 1 2 Conclusion 24.  25-  T h i s i s a s t u d y of t h e s u p e r v i s o r s of a s m a l l f i r m of c l e a n e r s and d y e r s . I n t h i s case t h e s u p e r v i s o r s are i n charge of v a r y i n g numbers of o p e r a t o r s and of d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of work. By and l a r g e , t h e y r u n t h e i r own shops: t h e y are t h e i r own t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s , t h e y do not have t o c o n s u l t w i t h o t h e r s about p l a n s , or raw m a t e r i a l s . T h e i r t e c h n i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are heavy, and t h e i r p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e s a g r e a t d e a l of p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e of t h e work t h e y c o n t r o l . The main importance of s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h i s k i n d of f i r m i s t h a t t h e y are d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e , t o a v e r y g r e a t e x t e n t , f o r the f i r m ' s r e p u t a t i o n w i t h i t s customers. P r o d u c t s which are not up t o s t a n d a r d cannot be 'scrapped', and so t h e need f o r t e c h n i c a l compet e n c e and y e a r s of p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e on t h e p a r t of t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance i n t h i s industry.13  CASE NO.  2  ""An E l e c t r i c a l E n g i n e e r i n g Background and 1.  Works"  Technology  T h i s i s an account of t h e p l a c e o c c u p i e d by t h e foremen i n a company about 600 s t r o n g engaged i n t h e manufact u r e of e l e c t r i c a l e q u i p m e n t . 1 5  70 2.  3.  Type o f p r o d u c t i o n i n e a r l y y e a r s [ f i f t y y e a r s ago] s e t t h e p a t t e r n f o r what was t o f o l l o w . Thus between 1915 and 1919 t h e company was engaged e n t i r e l y on cont r a c t work f o r o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , w o r k i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l o r d e r s f o r r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s , and t h i s t y p e of work has c o n t i n u e d t o be a major p a r t o f production.1° F o l l o w i n g the post-war slump of 1949,  "a g r a d u a l  ex-  p a n s i o n o c c u r r e d . . . and t h e t o t a l amount o f work i n hand 17 became g r e a t e r t h a n i n any o t h e r peace-time p e r i o d . " 4. The company has always manufactured e l e c t r i c a l e q u i p ment such as g e n e r a t o r s , s w i t c h g e a r and s m a l l - s i z e d e l e c t r i c motors. . . . There i s a l s o a c e r t a i n amount o f s u b - c o n t r a c t machining. Because t h e company i s engaged i n a v e r y c o m p e t i t i v e f i e l d and among i t s r i v a l s i s a number of much l a r g e r mass-producing c o n c e r n s , i t has tended t o s p e c i a l i z e i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n of motors of a s l i g h t l y non-standard t y p e . S i n c e many o f t h e o r d e r s are f o r s m a l l numbers o n l y , p r o d u c t i o n c o n s i s t s t o some e x t e n t i n s m a l l l o t s of o r d e r s of d i f f e r e n t t y p e s . There a r e a l s o l o n g - t e r m o r d e r s , so t h a t t o t a l product i o n c o n s i s t s p a r t l y o f l o n g - t e r m c o n t r a c t work and p a r t l y o f o r d e r s f o r s m a l l numbers o f s p e c i a l d e s i g n s and t y p e s . 1 8 5.  F i g u r e I I I below p o r t r a y s the management o r g a n i z a t i o n  of the e n t e r p r i s e discussed i n t h i s  case.  The Management O r g a n i z a t i o n The managing d i r e c t o r 6.  Of t h e two w o r k i n g d i r e c t o r s , o n l y t h e Managing D i r e c t o r d i r e c t l y concerns t h i s s t u d y . He i s c l o s e l y i n t o u c h w i t h p r o d u c t i o n and employees t h r o u g h t h e Works and P e r s o n n e l Managers. . . . [He] has c o n t r o l l e d t h e company f r o m t h e days when i t employed 175 o r so w o r k e r s . . . u n t i l today when i t has 600-odd employees. I t i s o n l y n a t u r a l t o expect t h a t a f t e r n e a r l y twenty y e a r s a mana g i n g d i r e c t o r w i l l have impressed h i s own p h i l o s o p h y o f management on a company, e s p e c i a l l y when, as i n t h i s case, i t has grown and p r o s p e r e d under h i s d i r e c t i o n . Leaving a s i d e m a t t e r s o f company p o l i c y and t e c h n i c a l development f o r which he has had r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and c o n s i d e r i n g o n l y h i s v i e w s on management, i t may be s a i d t h a t t h i s Managi n g D i r e c t o r has always b e l i e v e d t h a t a company has a  Board o f D i r e c t o r s  Managing D i r e c t o r  Personnel Manager  Sales Manager  Accountant  Technical  Chief Designer  Works Manager  Director  Chief Draughtsman  Head o f Test Dept.  Buyer o f Materials  Foremen FIGURE I I I THE MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION (adapted from s o u r c e : p. 19)  ^  72  7.  8.  9.  10.  d e f i n i t e s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards i t s w o r k e r s . He has always aimed t o encourage a f a m i l y f e e l i n g i n the f i r m , t o make everyone f e e l t h a t t h e y are thought of as i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n t h e company and i t s a f f a i r s , and not s i m p l y as l a b o u r w h i c h can be h i r e d or f i r e d t o s u i t t h e convenience of t h e moment and w i t h no c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e e f f e c t t h i s may have on t h e i r lives. Two e f f e c t s of t h i s manner o f t h i n k i n g may be i n stanced. In l i n e w i t h the d e s i r e t o t r e a t a l l workers as r e s p o n s i b l e i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e r e i s a d e t e r m i n a t i o n f i r s t t o have as few r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s as p o s s i b l e , and s e c o n d l y , t o a l l o w anyone a c c e s s t o t o p management. Each employee of t h e company knows t h a t he can have an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e Managing D i r e c t o r , i f he w i s h e s t o see him. The Managing D i r e c t o r i s i n c l o s e tough w i t h t h e works s i d e of t h e b u s i n e s s not o n l y t h r o u g h h i s c o n t a c t w i t h the Works and P e r s o n n e l Managers, but a l s o by means o f h i s d a i l y walk around t h e works and h i s c h a i r manship of t h e Works A d v i s o r y Committee [ t h e l a b o u r management works c o u n c i l ] . Perhaps he i s more c l o s e l y concerned w i t h t h e d e t a i l of what i s g o i n g on t h a n would be t h e case w i t h o t h e r men i n h i s p o s i t i o n ; . . . . . H i s i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t i n t h e work o f t h e company and i n i t s people has c o n t i n u e d as t h e company has grown.19 The works and p e r s o n n e l managers R e s p o n s i b l e t o the Managing D i r e c t o r f o r p r o d u c t i o n i s t h e Works Manager. He and h i s a s s i s t a n t are both p r o f e s s i o n a l e n g i n e e r s who have been w i t h t h e company i n t h e i r p r e s e n t c a p a c i t i e s s i n c e j u s t b e f o r e t h e war, and so have l i v e d t h r o u g h t h e major p e r i o d o f company growth. At t h e r i s k of o v e r - s i m p l i f y i n g t h e p i c t u r e , i t can be s a i d t h a t t h e Works Manager h i m s e l f i s p r i n c i p a l l y concerned w i t h t h e t e c h n i c a l s i d e of t h e p r o d u c t i o n work, l e a v i n g f a c t o r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l a r g e l y t o t h e A s s i s t a n t Works Manager. Thus t h e Works Manager w i l l be most o f t e n found i n one of t h e shops, t a l k i n g over and s u g g e s t i n g s o l u t i o n s t o a d i f f i c u l t y caused by some t e c h n i c a l problem. The A s s i s t a n t Works Manager, on t h e o t h e r hand, i s concerned w i t h product i o n c o n t r o l and p r o g r e s s , p l a n t and b u i l d i n g m a i n t e nance and so on. The P e r s o n n e l Manager i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e Managi n g D i r e c t o r f o r engaging and d i s m i s s i n g s t a f f , f i x i n g r a t e s o f pay, a r r a n g i n g m e r i t i n c r e a s e s , and d e a l i n g w i t h any p e r s o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t may be brought t o him. He a l s o p l a y s a major p a r t i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of s p o r t s and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e company,  73 and i n a d d i t i o n has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , j o i n t l y w i t h t h e A c c o u n t a n t , f o r p a c k i n g and t r a n s p o r t and t h e main f a c t o r y s t o r e s . He . . . j o i n e d t h e f i r m as a y o u t h j u s t b e f o r e t h e war and [has] been g i v e n a f u l l e n g i n e e r i n g t r a i n i n g . . . .20 The Workers and t h e F a c t o r y Atmosphere 11.  12.  13.  14.  Something s h o u l d be s a i d of the g e n e r a l atmosphere i n the f a c t o r y . . . . t h e g e n e r a l atmosphere i s an ext r e m e l y happy one. A number o f p o s s i b l e reasons f o r t h i s can be suggested: f i r s t t h e same team of managers and most o f t h e foremen have l i v e d t h r o u g h t h e expans i o n y e a r s t o g e t h e r , and so t h e p o l i c y has had time t o t a k e r o o t and grow as the f i r m has grown; s e c o n d l y r e l a t i o n s between management and u n i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s — both i n f o r m a l l y and a t J o i n t C o n s u l t a t i o n meetings i n which each department i s r e p r e s e n t e d by i t s shop stewa r d — a r e on the whole f r i e n d l y ; t h i r d l y , t h e r e i s t h e d e l i b e r a t e i n f o r m a l i t y o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , and t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f each employee as an i n d i v i d u a l o f imp o r t a n c e i n h i s own r i g h t . The company [has] a s o l i d core o f workers who have been w i t h i t f o r over f i f t e e n y e a r s o r more, but w i t h t h e e x p a n s i o n of r e c e n t y e a r s t h e s e r e p r e s e n t a s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e whole t h a n t h e y d i d . Most o f them a r e s k i l l e d men, and t h e p r e s e n t aim i s t o enl a r g e the c o r e , f o r , l i k e a l l f i r m s , t h i s one w i s h e s t o f e e l t h a t i t can depend on a few w o r k e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y s k i l l e d men, t h r o u g h any change. However, i t i s b e i n g found e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o g e t s u i t a b l e s k i l l e d men f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n shops and any a d d i t i o n t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n s t r e n g t h can o n l y be made by the r e c r u i t m e n t of s e m i - s k i l l e d or u n t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l . . . . t h i s a f f e c t s t h e foreman's j o b and makes i t more d i f f i c u l t t h a n i n former y e a r s . There i s a s h o r t a g e o f s k i l l e d w o r k e r s i n t h e a r e a , .... For t h e s k i l l e d l a b o u r t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e t h e r e i s a c u t e c o m p e t i t i o n between t h e v a r i o u s f i r m s R e l a t i o n s between management and w o r k e r s a r e such t h a t t h e r e a r e no h a r d f e e l i n g s when good w o r k e r s l e a v e and t h e y are u s u a l l y re-engaged i f t h e y w i s h t o r e t u r n , as t h e y q u i t e o f t e n do Despite the d i f f i c u l t l a b o u r p o s i t i o n i n t h e d i s t r i c t , however, t h e t u r n o v e r i n t h i s f i r m i s no more t h a n t h e average f o r t h e industry. We come now t o t h e e l e v e n foremen and t h e j o b s they p e r f o r m , t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o t h e i r work, t o t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s and t h e i r managers, and how t h e y f i t i n t o t h e framework o f management i n t h i s company.21  74 The 15.  16.  17.  Foreman's Background  Most of them have been w i t h t h e company f o r a t l e a s t f i f t e e n years, having p r e v i o u s l y served apprenticeships i n e i t h e r m e c h a n i c a l or e l e c t r i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g . The c a s e - h i s t o r y o f one of them, Mr. X, i s f a i r l y t y p i c a l of the group. Mr. X i s now f o r t y - s e v e n y e a r s o l d , and has l i v e d most of h i s l i f e w i t h i n a few m i l e s o f h i s p r e s e n t j o b . When he l e f t s c h o o l a t t h e age of f o u r t e e n he went t o work i n a f i r m of e l e c t r i c a l e n g i n e e r s , and o b t a i n e d an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p . He s e r v e d h i s t i m e , and t h e n cont i n u e d t o work f o r t h e f i r m i n h i s t r a d e . . . ., Mr. X o b t a i n e d employment w i t h h i s p r e s e n t company i n 1937, w o r k i n g i n a t r a d e c l o s e l y s i m i l a r t o h i s own. I t was a t about t h i s time t h a t t h e company's e x p a n s i o n began and t h a t t h e present management team t o o k over. Then came t h e war-time i n c r e a s e i n numbers, w i t h t h e necess i t y of i n c r e a s i n g t h e number of departments and i n consequence t h e number of foremen. I n 1940 Mr. X was a p p o i n t e d as a foreman, and he has h e l d h i s p o s i t i o n ever s i n c e . I t w i l l be seen t h a t Mr. X i s a man who has been a l l h i s w o r k i n g l i f e i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e k i n d of work w h i c h he i s now s u p e r v i s i n g , h a v i n g s e r v e d an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p and worked f o r a p e r i o d as a c r a f t s m a n . He has had no f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n s i n c e he l e f t s c h o o l except f o r t h e t e c h n i c a l p a r t of h i s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , nor d i d he have any t r a i n i n g f o r h i s work as a foreman. He was app o i n t e d because he was a good workman who, i t was f e l t , would be a b l e t o s t a n d up t o t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n v o l v e d i n a s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n and who showed s i g n s of p o s s e s s i n g t h e l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s r e q u i r e d . 2 2 The  18.  Foreman's Work  The foreman's work can be c o n s i d e r e d as c o n s i s t i n g of t e c h n i c a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s u p e r v i s o r y d u t i e s . . . Technical duties  19.  I n t h i s , as i n o t h e r f i r m s , t h e t e c h n i c a l s i d e of t h e foreman's work has changed c o n s i d e r a b l y over t h e y e a r s . I n e a r l i e r days t h e foreman of t h i s company was t o l d what work was t o be done i n h i s shop and he t h e n had t o work out t h e best way o f doing i t . He had t o c o n s i d e r work methods from t h e p o i n t s of view of q u a l i t y of work, and economy of m a t e r i a l and t i m e . It was u s u a l l y up t o him t o d e c i d e t h e o r d e r i n which j o b s and o p e r a t i o n s had t o be done. Today, much of t h i s i s done f o r him by s p e c i a l i s t departments. The P r o g r e s s  75  20.  Department l a y s down t h e sequence of the o p e r a t i o n s on a p a r t i c u l a r j o b and says when t h e y a r e t o be done. The P l a n n i n g Department p r e s c r i b e s t h e methods t o be used. But however cut and d r i e d t h i s sounds i n t h e o r y , i t does not mean t h a t i n p r a c t i c e t h e foreman has l i t t l e t e c h n i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y today. He i s s t i l l the man on t h e s p o t , t h e man of p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e P l a n n i n g Department d e c i d e s on methods does not r e l i e v e him o f t h e n e c e s s i t y t o c o n s i d e r t h e i r d e c i s i o n s v e r y c a r e f u l l y , t o c r i t i c i z e them when n e c e s s a r y and t a k e s t e p s t o see t h a t j o b s a r e done i n the most economic a l ways. He w i l l , i n f a c t , v e r y o f t e n be c o n s u l t e d on any m a t t e r out o f t h e o r d i n a r y b e f o r e t h e P l a n n i n g Department d e c i d e s on t h e methods. H i s e x p e r i e n c e and knowledge a l s o p l a y a p a r t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g p i e c e r a t e s f o r j o b s — m a t t e r s i n d i s p u t e w i l l be t h r a s h e d out by t h e f i x e r s , the p l a n n e r s and t h e foreman. The growth o f s p e c i a l i s t departments has meant t h a t t h e r e has been a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of s k i l l and a change i n the c o m p l e x i t y o f the work of t h e p r o d u c t i o n departments. P r e v i o u s l y t h e s k i l l e d w o r k e r s were a l l engaged on p r o d u c t i o n work, under t h e c o n t r o l of t h e v a r i o u s shop f o r e men. Today many o f them a r e i n t h e P l a n n i n g Department, t h e Tool-room, and I n s p e c t i o n s e c t i o n s , and t h e i r work makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r t h e a c t u a l p r o d u c t i o n work t o be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y done by l e s s s k i l l e d p e o p l e . F o r the foreman's p a r t , t h i s means t h a t he i s now s u p e r v i s i n g many more s e m i - s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d w o r k e r s on s i m p l e r j o b s . He has l e s s p l a n n i n g t o do but he has t o do more t r a i n i n g of new a d u l t w o r k e r s , as t h e work s t i l l r e q u i r e s a c e r t a i n amount of s k i l l and e x p e r i e n c e and care, and new workers a r e m o s t l y i n e x p e r i e n c e d when t h e y come to i t . 2 3 Administrative duties  21.  I n t h e o l d d a y s , but w i t h i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f most o f t h e foremen, every department r e c e i v e d a works o r d e r f o r every s e p a r a t e j o b , g i v i n g d e t a i l s of t h e p a r t i c u l a r j o b to be done and t h e number r e q u i r e d . The foreman was i n complete c o n t r o l from the moment he r e c e i v e d t h e works o r d e r ; he d e c i d e d who s h o u l d do t h e j o b , w h i c h machines s h o u l d be u s e d , how much m a t e r i a l would be needed and when i t s h o u l d be f e t c h e d f r o m t h e s t o r e s . Owing t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e work, however, and t h e need f o r management t o be kept more e x a c t l y i n f o r m e d of the p r o d u c t i o n p o s i t i o n t h r o u g h o u t the company, a few y e a r s ago t h e P r o g r e s s Department was r e o r g a n i z e d and a new system of c o n t r o l i n s t a l l e d . The P r o g r e s s Department i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o l l o w i n g every j o b t h r o u g h from b e g i n n i n g t o end; i t makes s u r e t h a t t h e r i g h t amount and  76  22.  23-  t y p e o f m a t e r i a l i s a v a i l a b l e t o make t h e s p e c i f i e d number o f components, and t h a t every department c a r r i e s out i t s work as f a r as p o s s i b l e t o s c h e d u l e , so t h a t t h e r e i s a s t e a d y f l o w o f work throughout a l l shops. Instead of j u s t t h e s i m p l e works o r d e r , t h e foreman i s now s e n t , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e works o r d e r , s e p a r a t e r e q u i s i t i o n o r d e r s f o r every d i f f e r e n t t y p e o f m a t e r i a l t h a t w i l l be r e q u i r e d f o r t h e j o b , a l l o f which he has t o check and s i g n i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n t h e m a t e r i a l needed. T h i s i n v o l v e s him i n h a n d l i n g more paper t h a n p r e v i o u s l y , even though much o f t h i s paper work i s f a i r l y r o u t i n e . . . . On t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s i d e t h e foreman i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r k e e p i n g c e r t a i n r e c o r d s and making r e g u l a r r e t u r n s . These concern such t h i n g s as t h e work done i n h i s shop, and d a i l y a b s e n t e e s . There a r e a l s o o c c a s i o n a l r e p o r t s and l i s t s t o be c o m p i l e d c o n c e r n i n g , f o r example, h o l i d a y arrangements. (The company o p e r a t e s a system o f staggered h o l i d a y s . ) P r o g r e s s r e p o r t s on c e r t a i n workers are a l s o r e q u i r e d a t i n t e r v a l s , as a r e r e p o r t s on t h e a p p r e n t i c e s i n h i s shop. I t can be seen t h e r e f o r e t h a t t h e amount o f c l e r i c a l work r e q u i r e d o f t h e foreman can be s u b s t a n t i a l and i s always c o n s i d e r a b l e , and c e r t a i n l y a g r e a t d e a l more t h a n had t o be done i n t h e o l d days. One r e a s o n i s t h e b i g g e r number o f workers t h a t t h e foreman has t o d e a l w i t h . As we have seen, t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e P r o g r e s s Department has a l s o l e d t o an i n c r e a s e i n paper-work f o r t h e foreman. Another department whose importance has i n c r e a s e d i s t h e P e r s o n n e l Department, and t h i s t o o has i n v o l v e d e x t r a work i n some d i r e c t i o n s f o r t h e foreman, a l though r e l i e v i n g him o f some burdens i n o t h e r s . It is e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e s e s p e c i a l i s t departments, i f t h e y a r e t o f u l f i l t h e i r f u n c t i o n s p r o p e r l y , t o be i n p o s s e s s i o n of u p - t o - d a t e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e w o r k s , whether c o n c e r n i n g p r o d u c t i o n o r p e r s o n n e l m a t t e r s ; as t h e y have i n c r e a s e d i n i m p o r t a n c e , so has t h e amount of c l e r i c a l o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work done by t h e foreman increased.24 Supervisory  24.  duties  By ' s u p e r v i s o r y ' we mean t h a t a s p e c t o f t h e foreman's work concerned w i t h t h e h a n d l i n g o f t h e workpeople under h i s c o n t r o l . The most o b v i o u s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y here i s f o r m a i n t a i n i n g d i s c i p l i n e , i n i t s w i d e s t sense; t h a t i s of endeavouring t o ensure t h a t workers a r r i v e r e g u l a r l y and p u n c t u a l l y and work s t e a d i l y and c a r e f u l l y d u r i n g t h e i r p r o p e r hours o f work. I f t h e purpose has not changed i n t h i s company, i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e methods have, because o f t h e a l t e r e d s i t u a t i o n o f b o t h t h e workers and t h e foreman. The w o r k e r ' s p o s i t i o n i s v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t nowadays from what i t was b e f o r e t h e war; t h e n  77  25.  26.  27  w o r k e r s knew t h a t t h e y c o u l d be e a s i l y r e p l a c e d , whereas now t h i s i s not t h e case. Not o n l y can t h e worker a f f o r d t o r i s k b e i n g s a c k e d , he can a f f o r d t o l e a v e of h i s own a c c o r d s a f e i n t h e knowledge t h a t o t h e r emp l o y e r s w i l l be g l a d t o engage him. The change i n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s of t h e worker has changed t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e foreman. The l a t t e r can no l o n g e r t h i n k i n terms of h i s workpeople w i s h i n g t o stay at a l l c o s t s ; . . . . t h e 'sack' i s not t h e extreme p e n a l t y i t used t o be. Another f a c t o r w h i c h has changed the s i t u a t i o n from t h e foreman's p o i n t of view i s t h e i n c r e a s e d importance of t h e P e r s o n n e l D e p a r t ment. B e f o r e t h e war t h e foreman h i r e d and f i r e d t h e w o r k e r s i n h i s shop. Now the h i r i n g i s done by the P e r s o n n e l Department, w i t h t h e foreman h a v i n g t h e r i g h t t o t u r n down anyone he t h i n k s not l i k e l y t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y , but not h a v i n g the power t o d i s m i s s , except a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e P e r s o n n e l Manager. . . . There are two o t h e r p e n a l t i e s w h i c h can be i n f l i c t e d : s u s p e n s i o n , a power which i s never used i n t h e company nowadays, and v a r y i n g t h e pay r a t e , which can o n l y be done a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e Works Manager. As f a r as t h e maintenance of d i s c i p l i n e g o e s , t h e n , t h e p o s i t i o n i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t from b e f o r e t h e war. As t h e r e i s no p e n a l t y which the foreman can impose w i t h out f i r s t g e t t i n g p e r m i s s i o n , and as t h i s i s o n l y encouraged i n s e r i o u s c a s e s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t he needs t o use l e a d e r s h i p of a d i f f e r e n t t y p e . Much more t r o u b l e has t o be t a k e n over newcomers and, as we have s e e n , more t r a i n i n g of a d u l t w o r k e r s i s n e c e s s a r y . Late-comers and absentees have t o be "reasoned w i t h " , and not t h r e a t e n e d . The foreman a l s o has c e r t a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e t r a i n i n g of a p p r e n t i c e s . Every boy goes i n t o t h e v a r i o u s shops, l e a r n i n g something of t h e work t h a t i s done i n each, and t h e foreman must e i t h e r g i v e i n s t r u c t i o n h i m s e l f or see t h a t an e x p e r i e n c e d man i s put i n charge of t h e boys. I t i s up t o t h e foreman t o a r range m a t t e r s so t h a t a p p r e n t i c e s spending about s i x months i n h i s shop have the o p p o r t u n i t y of g e t t i n g a l l round p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e of t h e p r o c e s s e s t h a t are c a r r i e d on t h e r e . He must be i n c l o s e enough t o u c h w i t h t h e i r work, even i f he i s not s u p e r v i s i n g i t p e r s o n a l l y , t o be a b l e t o send r e p o r t s on t h e p r o g r e s s t h e y are making and t h e promise they show t o t h e P e r s o n n e l Manager, who r e l i e s on t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r planning t h e i r future training.25  78 S e l e c t i o n and T r a i n i n g o f Foremen 28.  29.  V a c a n c i e s f o r foremen's p o s i t i o n s do not a r i s e v e r y f r e quently. When t h e y do, t h e p o l i c y i s t o promote from w i t h i n i f p o s s i b l e but t h e r e i s no h a r d and f a s t r u l e about t h i s ; i f t h e r e appears t o be no s u i t a b l e man t h e n t h e company i s q u i t e p r e p a r e d t o b r i n g someone i n from outside. ... A p p l i c a n t s from i n s i d e t h e company are almost i n v a r i a b l y e x p e r i e n c e d tradesmen who have been a c t i n g as charge-hands or s e t t e r s . . . . T h i s s e l e c t i o n method ensures t h a t so f a r as p o s s i b l e t h e p r o s p e c t i v e foreman w i l l have had adequate t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e t e c h n i c a l s i d e o f t h e j o b he i s t o supervise. Up t o t h e p r e s e n t i t has not been f e l t necessary t o arrange t r a i n i n g i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or superv i s o r y a s p e c t s o f t h e foreman's j o b . The A t t i t u d e s o f t h e Foremen I t i s now time t o c o n s i d e r t h e f e e l i n g s o f t h e foremen about t h e i r work and i t s c i r c u m s t a n c e s . W h i l e t h e y do not a l l f e e l q u i t e t h e same way about t h e i r j o b s , t h e y have a s u r p r i s i n g amount i n common when t h e y come t o t a l k about t h e i r work.26  30.  31.  32.  Attitudes to status ' I t h i n k sometimes t h e foremen f e e l t h a t a l o t of t h e i r s t a t u s has been t a k e n away from them', was a r e mark made by one foreman and echoed by o t h e r s i n d i f f e r e n t words. And what do t h e foremen mean by t h i s word ' s t a t u s ' ? What t h e y mean can be u n d e r s t o o d from 'the d i f f e r e n t i a l between foreman and worker nowadays i s a l t o g e t h e r t o o s m a l l ' and, i n a c o n v e n i e n t summary, 'less r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , l e s s p r i v i l e g e s , l e s s contact w i t h managers and a l o w e r q u a l i t y w o r k - f o r c e ' . T h i s i s not t o say t h a t t h i s company's foremen a r e d i s c o n t e n t e d ; on t h e c o n t r a r y t h e y agree t h a t t h e a t mosphere i n t h e f i r m i s a happy one. N e v e r t h e l e s s we have seen t h a t a p e r i o d o f change and growth has come a b o u t , and as t h e j o b o f t h e foreman has g r a d u a l l y changed, s o , i t appears t o him, has t h e s t a t u s , t h e importance o f h i s j o b i n t h e eyes o f management. .... On t h e whole, as i n many o t h e r f i r m s t o d a y , t h e foreman i s j u s t i f i e d i n t h i n k i n g t h a t he i s l e s s v a l u a b l e t o t h e f i r m t h a n he used t o be, a t l e a s t i n terms o f h i s pay. Other p r i v i l e g e s enjoyed by t h e foremen a r e t h e same as f o r a l l t h e company's s t a f f as opposed t o h o u r l y - p a i d w o r k e r s , and i n c l u d e s i c k n e s s pay f o r up  79  33 •  t o a month and a f t e r w a r d s a t t h e company's d i s c r e t i o n , and no c l o c k i n g on and o f f . The foreman's hours are t h e same as f o r h o u r l y - p a i d w o r k e r s . . . . .... The foreman's j o b c a r r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , but a l s o . . . i t i s of r a t h e r a d i f f e r e n t k i n d from e a r l i e r days. The words of one of the f o r e men are r e v e a l i n g : 'Before t h e war t h e foreman r a n h i s own shop.' The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t nowadays he does not, and so he f e e l s t h a t h i s j o b i s a l e s s r e s p o n s i b l e one. B e f o r e t h e war he made h i s own e s t i m a t e s , promised j o b c o m p l e t i o n t i m e s , engaged and d i s m i s s e d h i s own s t a f f , w h i l e nowadays t h e s e f u n c t i o n s have been t a k e n from him by P l a n n i n g P r o g r e s s and P e r s o n n e l Departments, and t o t h i s e x t e n t he i s no l o n g e r i n such d i r e c t c o n t r o l . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i s t s and more e l a b o r a t e c o n t r o l systems means r e a l l y not t h a t t h e foreman's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s l e s s , but t h a t i t i s d i f f e r e n t . H i s r o l e demands, f a r more t h a n i t used t o , t h e a b i l i t y - and w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h o t h e r s . He must be prepared and a b l e t o make out r e t u r n s a c c u r a t e l y and p u n c t u a l l y f o r t h e P e r s o n n e l Department , or t o d i s c u s s methods of work w i t h t h e P l a n n i n g Department. We have a l r e a d y seen, moreover, t h a t t h e foreman has t o spend more t i m e i n t r a i n i n g new a d u l t workers t h a n he once d i d . There a r e one o r two o t h e r t h i n g s which t h e foremen t h i n k a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t t h e i r s t a t u s . They f e e l , e.g. t h a t i t i s made r a t h e r t o o easy f o r t h e i r w o r k e r s t o go d i r e c t t o members of h i g h e r management w i t h t h e i r problems. I n f a c t , people l i k e t h e Managing D i r e c t o r and the P e r s o n n e l Manager, though t h e y a r e f a i r l y o f t e n approached by workers about such t h i n g s as e d u c a t i o n a l and w e l f a r e m a t t e r s , a r e c o n s c i o u s of the need t o uph o l d t h e foreman's a u t h o r i t y and t h e y r a r e l y d e a l w i t h m a t t e r s which come i n t o t h e foreman's p r o v i n c e . But t h e foreman, who i s concerned about h i s s t a t u s and p e r haps t o o l i a b l e t o suspect people of r e d u c i n g i t , i s i n c l i n e d t o f e a r t h a t h i s w o r k e r s go t o o t h e r s t o d i s cuss m a t t e r s t h a t are h i s concern. .... The r e l a t i o n s between foremen and shop stewa r d s are g e n e r a l l y v e r y good and t h e foremen sometimes even ask t h e shop stewards t o r a i s e m a t t e r s t h e y want d i s c u s s e d a t t h e meetings [ o f t h e Works A d v i s o r y Council]. N e v e r t h e l e s s , though i t i s o n l y a s m a l l p o i n t t o t o t h e foreman, they do t e n d t o r e g a r d t h e s i t u a t i o n [ o f t h e i r l i m i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o u n c i l m e e t i n g s ] as a n o t h e r s i g n of d e c l i n i n g s t a t u s . 2 7 R e l a t i o n s w i t h managers  34.  I t might almost be s a i d t h a t t h e l a c k of a t t e n t i o n which t h e y g i v e t o t h e c l e r i c a l s i d e of t h e i r work i s  80 t h e most s e r i o u s s h o r t c o m i n g of t h e company's foremen. . . . t h e growth of t h e company has l e d t o more paperwork f o r t h e foremen, paper-work on which t h e s p e c i a l i s t departments such as P l a n n i n g , P r o g r e s s and P e r s o n n e l depend f o r t h e i r knowledge about t h e day-to-day s i t u a t i o n . Without t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y cannot c a r r y out t h e i r f u n c t i o n s p r o p e r l y . . . .: why are t h e s e d u t i e s not d e a l t w i t h more e f f e c t i v e l y and why i s t h e i r importance not r e c o g n i z e d ? 3 5«  36.  37.  •  •  •  •  The answer . . . i s . . .; t h e foreman's paper work i s not done more e f f e c t i v e l y because he i s not made t o do i t e f f e c t i v e l y . . . . t h e foreman does a p p r e c i a t e t h e importance of t h e s p e c i a l i s t departments, but does not r e c o g n i z e how i m p o r t a n t he i s t o them. W h i l e he a p p r e c i a t e s t h e need t o g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n t o a n o t h e r foreman, he does not r e a l i z e j u s t how much t h e s e o t h e r departments are dependent on him f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . This c o u l d be put a n o t h e r way by s a y i n g t h a t he i s i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k a s p e c i a l i s t department has t a k e n over p a r t of h i s job e n t i r e l y , and t h a t t h a t p a r t of t h e j o b can now be l e f t t o i t . Though c o n s i d e r a b l e t r o u b l e i s u s u a l l y t a k e n t o exp l a i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of new systems t o t h e foremen, i t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t foremen r e c e i v e no t r a i n i n g f o r t h e i r job o t h e r t h a n t h e t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e t h e y o b t a i n as o p e r a t o r s . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e n , t h a t t h e y s h o u l d not r e a l i z e c o m p l e t e l y j u s t where thepr r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ends and someone e l s e ' s begins. . . . I t appears t h a t some f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s i d e of h i s work would be v a l u a b l e t o t h e new foreman, t o g i v e him i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e work of f u n c t i o n a l departments and t h e r e l a t i o n between t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and h i s . I t was s a i d e a r l i e r t h a t t h e foremen a r e not f o r c e d t o do a l l the t h i n g s t h a t t h e y are t h e o r e t i c a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r . I t seems t h a t t h i s i s due p a r t l y t o t h e f a c t t h a t some managers p r e f e r t o do t h i n g s t h e m s e l v e s r a t h e r t h a n i n s i s t t h a t t h e p r o p e r p e o p l e do them. The P e r s o n n e l Manager, f o r i n s t a n c e , w i l l go t o p r o d u c t i o n d e p a r t ments and get f o r h i m s e l f i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h foremen have d e l a y e d s e n d i n g t o him. The Works Manager w i l l s o r t out f o r a foreman a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems which have r e s u l t e d i n a delay i n production. On t h e w h o l e , t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s more or l e s s a c c e p t e d by everyone; over the y e a r s i t has become known t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t c e r t a i n foremen a r e n ' t expected t o do. At t h e same t i m e , t h e r e are some u n f o r t u n a t e r e s u l t s . Some managers are overworked t h r o u g h doing o t h e r s ' work f o r them. A g a i n , foremen are not always o b l i g e d t o do t h i n g s t h e y c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be expected t o do and so t h e y do not  81  38.  39*  get p r a c t i c e and e x p e r i e n c e i n s o l v i n g t h e i r own problems. T h i s l e a d s us t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n s between h i g h e r managers and foremen. I t can be s a i d a t once t h a t t h e y are e x t r e m e l y good and f r i e n d l y a t a pers o n a l l e v e l . The Managing D i r e c t o r ' s l a r g e l y s u c c e s s f u l attempt t o m a i n t a i n a happy w o r k i n g atmosphere i s a p p r e c i a t e d and applauded. The managers a r e seen as v e r y h a r d - w o r k i n g and competent i n d i v i d u a l s . I t does not excape t h e a t t e n t i o n of t h e foremen, however, t h a t t h e managers are d e v o t i n g a good d e a l of t i m e t o d o i n g o t h e r p e o p l e ' s work. T h i s i s g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as b e i n g bad both f o r t h e company and f o r departments. I f t h e Works Manager i s o c c u p i e d i n d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c d e p a r t m e n t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , he has not enough t i m e t o do h i s own work, nor i s he a v a i l a b l e t o " t h e r e s t of t h e f a c t o r y . ( T h i s i s what was meant by t h e comment " l e s s manager c o n t a c t ' . ) . . t h e foremen f e e l t h a t h i g h e r management does not always t a k e a s u f f i c i e n t l y strong l i n e . Any d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n s between people a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n o r d e r t h a t i t may be c l e a r , i s bound t o be o v e r - s i m p l i f i e d . The f o r e man's view i n the p r e s e n t c a s e , i n v e r y s i m p l e t e r m s , i s : (a) h i s a u t h o r i t y i s l e s s e n e d and h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f e w e r , due t o t h e growth of s p e c i a l i s t departments who now do p a r t of what was h i s j o b , and due t o t h e f a c t t h a t communications between management and w o r k e r s can by-pass him; (b) t h e managers are i n c l i n e d t o do t o o much of t h e work t h a t s h o u l d be done by t h e foreman, i n s t e a d of c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e i r own work and e n s u r i n g t h a t everyone e l s e does t h e same. .... Top management does not r e g a r d them [ t h e foremen] as of l o w e r s t a t u s o r i m p o r t a n c e , though i t may not have done e v e r y t h i n g p o s s i b l e t o make i t c l e a r t o t h e foremen t h a t w h i l e t h e i r r o l e has changed and some t a s k s have been t a k e n away, o t h e r a s p e c t s of t h e i r work a r e more i m p o r t a n t t h a n ever. . . . 28 Conclusion  40.  T h i s s t u d y has been m a i n l y concerned w i t h t h e foreman's r o l e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y how i t has a l t e r e d , i n a growing o r g a n i z a t i o n . We have seen how an i n c r e a s e i n numbers, t h e need f o r more t r a i n i n g of a d u l t w o r k e r s , and t h e growing importance of s p e c i a l i s t departments have a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e change i n the foreman's j o b . Also t h a t he h i m s e l f sees i n t h e changes a l o w e r i n g of h i s s t a t u s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I t i s suggested t h a t t h e foreman's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e i n f a c t no l e s s s import a n t t h a n t h e y were. . . . 2 9  82 FOOTNOTES ON CHAPTER IV The P l a c e o f t h e Foreman i n Management. Seven case s t u d i e s u n d e r t a k e n by t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l P s y c h o l o g y (London: S t a p l e s P r e s s , 1957),pp. 73-82. 2  3  p . 73.  p p . 73-74.  V V 6  7474.  p p . 74-75.  p p . 75-76. 8  7  PP. 76-77 9  1 G  p p . 77-78 P P  i;L  .  78-79.  p p . 79-80.  p p . 81-82.  1 2  p . 82. ^ T h e Place, o f the. Foreman i n Management. Seven case S t u d i e s u n d e r t a k e n by t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l P s y c h o l o g y (London: S t a p l e s P r e s s , 1957), pp. 17-33. 1 3  1 5  P.  17.  1 6  P.  17.  1 7  p p . 17-18. p. 18.  p p . 19-20. 20 p p . 20-21. pp. 21-22. 1 9  u  22  pp. 22-23  23 pp. 23-24 24 pp. 24-25 2 5  p p . 26-27  2 6  pp.  2 7  27-28  p p . 28-30  *°pp. 30-32 29 p. 3 2 .  CHAPTER V CASE STUDIES:  CATEGORY I I TECHNOLOGY  Introduction Chapter V comprises two  case s t u d i e s u t i l i z e d i n t h i s  s t u d y t o demonstrate examples o f t h e n a t u r e of r o l e demands and  supervisory  environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n  p r i s e s employing Category I I t e c h n o l o g y .  The  enter-  s t u d i e s have  been e d i t e d so t h a t o n l y t h o s e d a t a a r e i n c l u d e d which are p e r t i n e n t t o t h e a n a l y s i s t h a t f o l l o w s i n Chapter V I I .  Case No.  3  Background and D e s c r i p t i o n of P l a n t Technology 1. 2.  3.  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r semi-independent p l a n t s p e c i a l i z e d i n a t y p e o f custom-made u n i t f o r m i n g a component p a r t of many t y p e s of e l e c t r i c a l equipment.2 To meet c o m p e t i t i o n , i t was becoming e s s e n t i a l t o make more complex u n i t s and a l s o t o reduce t h e i r s i z e . Top p l a n t management not o n l y gave [a r e c e n t l y e n l a r g e d ] group of e n g i n e e r s s m a l l e r and more complex u n i t s t o d e s i g n , b u t , b r e a k i n g t h e p l a n t precedent of s p e c i a l i z i n g i n custom-made p r o d u c t s , a l s o d e c i d e d t o massproduce some of t h e s e u n i t s . . . [ a l s o ] t h e p l a n t was i n t h e t h r o e s of a major e x p a n s i o n . From e a r l y s p r i n g 1951 t o m i d - w i n t e r 1952, t e n months l a t e r , the number of employees more t h a n doubled.3 The  s p e c i a l m a s s - p r o d u c t i o n (assembly l i n e ) s e c t i o n  was . . . l o c a t e d i n one room and s u p e r v i s e d by one foreman. . . . [The s e c t i o n ] was t o p e r f o r m a l l o p e r a t i o n s i n quick succession. Thus, t h e foreman i n charge not o n l y  85  4.  had a l l t h e headaches accompanying r a p i d e x p a n s i o n , but he a l s o f a c e d i n m i n i a t u r e , problems met i n a l l t h r e e m a n u f a c t u r i n g departments, p l u s t h e customary problems w h i c h accompany r e p e t i t i v e assembly l i n e operations.4 As one company o b s e r v e r phrased i t : 'This o r g a n i z a t i o n puts r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on t h e immediate superv i s o r . . . h i g h e r - u p s [ a r e ] not h e l d r e s p o n s b i l e . ' . . . department heads . . . now a l l found t h e m s e l v e s o v e r - i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r own departments and l e f t t o go-it-alone.5  Organization of Assembly-line 5.  Section  The f o r t y workers i n t h e assembly l i n e s e c t i o n were  d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r groups under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f a s i n g l e foreman.  Group 1 c o n s i s t e d o f 6 g i r l s w i n d i n g  c l u d i n g t h e i r group l e a d e r .  coils, in-  Group 2 comprised one group  l e a d e r and e l e v e n c o i l a s s e m b l y - l i n e g i r l s .  I n Group 3  e i g h t e e n case a s s e m b l e r s (1 group l e a d e r , t w e l v e l i n e g i r l s assembling  assembly  p a r t s and f i n i s h e d c o i l s , 4 o l d e r  g i r l s p r e p a r i n g c o v e r s f o r c a s e s , and 1 r e p a i r g i r l ) were employed.  Group 4 was made up o f 4 men p e r f o r m i n g  f i n i s h i n g operations.  various  They had no group l e a d e r and so  6 r e p o r t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e s e c t i o n foreman. 6. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e were i n t h e room t h r e e t e s t g i r l s or i n s p e c t o r s , s u p e r v i s e d by a t e s t foreman who v i s i t e d them a t i n t e r v a l s d u r i n g t h e day. I n t h i s s t u d y , we w i l l be d i r e c t l y concerned o n l y w i t h groups 2 and 3, t h e two a s s e m b l y - l i n e g r o u p s , cons i s t i n g a t t h e s t a r t o f about 30 g i r l s . Each o f t h e s e two groups was under t h e s e m i - s u p e r v i s i o n o f a d i f f e r e n t group l e a d e r , who a t t h e same t i m e was a member o f t h e u n i o n . These two group l e a d e r s , both women, i n t u r n r e p o r t e d t o t h e s e c t i o n foreman [Teddy, t h e f o c u s o f our attention].7 Overall Organization. 7.  F u r t h e r Notes on Technology  W i t h i n t h e p l a n t f u l l - t i m e t i m e s t u d y and methods im-  provement o f f i c e r s were u t i l i z e d . - A l s o , a r i g i d system o f  86 i n v e n t o r y c o n t r o l was employed. 8.  9.  10.  Members o f t h e t i m e study and work methods department a n a l y z e d t h e work o p e r a t i o n s i n g r e a t d e t a i l , subd i v i d i n g t h e t o t a l a s s e m b l i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n t o a number o f h i g h l y r e p e t i t i v e j o b s by a s s i g n i n g t o each g i r l o n l y a v e r y few p a r t i c u l a r o p e r a t i o n s t o perform on each u n i t , such as i n s e r t i n g a c o i l i n a c a s e , t u r n i n g a screw, o r soldering a connection. Each g i r l was a s s i g n e d no more t h a n f o u r o r f i v e o p e r a t i o n s t o perform on each u n i t — a l l f o u r o r f i v e t o be completed i n a l i t t l e over 1 1/2 m i n u t e s . . . .8 As t h e [ a s s e m b l y - l i n e ] s e c t i o n was p l a c e d i n t h e Assembly Department, t h e s e c t i o n foreman r e p o r t e d t o t h e Assembly Department,head, who r e p o r t e d t o t h e c h i e f o f a l l p r o d u c t i o n . I n t u r n t h e l a t t e r worked d i r e c t l y under t h e p l a n t manager.9 F i g u r e IV below i s a schematic  g a n i z a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n of managerial nel  portrayal of the or-  and s u p e r v i s o r y  person-  i n t h e p l a n t as a whole.  S u p e r v i s o r y B e h a v i o r and Problems o f S u p e r v i s i o n A major component o f any work environment w i t h w h i c h a s u p e r v i s o r must cope i s t h e a t t i t u d e s toward work o f subo r d i n a t e s and s u p e r i o r s .  E v i d e n c e p e r t a i n i n g t o such  atti-  t u d e s and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s u p e r v i s o r y b e h a v i o r a r e summarized i n t h e next t h r e e p a r a g r a p h s . 11.  Another irksome t r a i t o f t h e [ a s s e m b l y - l i n e ] j o b [ i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e 20 s e c , 5-step assembly o p e r a t i o n ] was the p a c i n g imposed by a moving assembly l i n e o r by t h e speed o f a d j a c e n t w o r k e r s . . . . many o f t h e g i r l s p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e b e l t , but passed i t e m s t o one a n o t h e r s i n c e t h e y were r u b b i n g elbows anyway. As t h e employees' rhythm demands and temperments d i f f e r e d , many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y p r e f e r r e d d i f f e r e n t speeds and rhythms o f work f l o w . To keep t h e work on an assembly l i n e f l o w i n g smoothly, every p o s i t i o n has t o be f i l l e d , and everyone w o r k i n g i n rhythm. . . . Sometimes, however, Teddy [ t h e foreman] d i d n o t even have enough o f t h e s e g i r l s t o r e p l a c e absent e e s , so he would have t o phone . . . t o g e t a r e p l a c e ment i m m e d i a t e l y t r a n s f e r r e d . . . f o r t h e day. At o t h e r  P l a n t Manager  S c h e d u l i n g and Efficiency Division (Production Control)  Production Control  2 Foremen  Machining Dept. 2 (Foremen 1 Group Leader  1 12  Coilwindi n g Dept. Foreman Group Leaders  Material Control Division  Engineering Division  Test Division  1 Group Leader  2 Engineers 2 Foremen  2 Foremen 2 Group Leaders  Assembly Dept.  1 Group Leader  1 Foreman 1 Group Leader  I  2 Assembly Foremen 6 Group Leaders  Assembly-line Section Foreman  \ ><eFocus o f Case Study  3 Assembly-line Group Leaders  FIGURE IV ORGANIZATION CHART. CASE.NO. 3 (adapted from s o u r c e : p. 21)  SB  12.  13.  t i m e s . . . he might s e r i o u s l y need an e x t r a g i r l t o keep t h o s e on t h e l i n e s u p p l i e d , o r t o a t t e n d t o odd j o b s and r e p a i r s . [Such emergencies o c c u r r e d perhaps 2-3 t i m e s per week.]l° However s u c c e s s f u l Teddy had been i n ending t h e g i r l s ' s t r o n g n e g a t i v e s e n t i m e n t s toward t h e i r d i r e c t s u p e r v i s o r s [group l e a d e r s ] , he made l i t t l e p r o g r e s s i n ending t h e d i s c o n t e n t o f t h e g i r l s toward t h e i r job demands. D u r i n g Teddy's r e g i m e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e ample i n t e r v i e w e v i d e n c e , t h e g i r l s r e a c t e d s t r o n g l y against the boring r e p e t i t i v e nature of t h e i r j o b s . l l Members of management made a p r a c t i c e , of d r o p p i n g i n t h e room [because i t was a 'pet' p r o j e c t ] . . . to see what was g o i n g on. . . . O c c a s i o n a l l y , even t h e p l a n t manager h i m s e l f would drop around. From t h e s e s o u r c e s and m i s c e l l a n e o u s management g o s s i p c h a n n e l s , t h e i m p r e s s i o n b u i l t up t h a t t h e ease a s s e m b l e r s and t h e i r group l e a d e r were e n t i r e l y t o o happy a l o t . There was t o o much t a l k i n g and l a u g h i n g and not enough a t t e n t i o n t o work. K a t y , t h e group l e a d e r , was cons i d e r e d f a r t o o f r i e n d l y and easy g o i n g w i t h t h e girls.12  R e l a t i o n s w i t h S u p e r i o r s and S u b o r d i n a t e s 14. On o c c a s i o n s [ t h e f o r e m a n ] , had l o o k e d f o r a l i t t l e b a c k i n g and some h e l p o r a d v i c e i n r u n n i n g t h e d e p a r t ment , but had been unable t o approach anyone f o r extended d i s c u s s i o n . As t h e p l a n t was g o i n g t h r o u g h an almost unprecedented e x p a n s i o n , everyone was busy and had l i t t l e t i m e t o s p a r e . He dared approach . . . h i s department head, o n l y on s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s such as when he needed h e l p o r when he wanted t h e g i r l s t o work o v e r t i m e , and even t h e n t h e y d i d not t a l k long.13 ... i n defense o f t h e g i r l s [ t h e foreman] s a i d t h a t t h e y were s c a r e d management would jump t h e quota i f t h e y i n c r e a s e d t h e i r output a d d i n g s k e p t i c a l l y ' I don't know m y s e l f i f t h e y [management] would do t h a t ' . He was o b v i o u s l y c a u t i o u s about t e l l i n g [ t h e g i r l s ] t o make l e s s n o i s e and i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r him t o check up on them a l l t h e t i m e t o see how l o n g t h e y s t a y e d [ i n t h e l a d i e s ' room].14 S u p e r v i s o r y Tasks and 15.  Sentiments  [The foreman's] w o r r i e s about h i s department were r e f l e c t e d d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w . . . . At t h i s t i m e he r e f e r r e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t on h i s f o r m e r j o b , t h e y d i d not do r e p e t i t i v e w o r k [ C a t e g o r y I t e c h n o l o g y : custommade u n i t s ] , as t h e y o n l y made a few u n i t s o f each t y p e . Having [now] t h e same product t o do day a f t e r day and week a f t e r week b o t h e r e d him a good d e a l , f o r  89 he d i d not have t h e enjoyment and c h a l l e n g e o f f i g u r i n g out new problems and o f w o r k i n g w i t h h i s hands.15 He f e l t i n s e c u r e about h i s p o s i t i o n . " ^ 16.  R e l a t i o n s w i t h S t a f f S p e c i a l i s t s and Management The f o l l o w i n g paragraph  suggests something o f t h e  f l a v o r of the challenges t o e f f e c t i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l change. I n t h e p r o c e s s of i n t r o d u c i n g t h e s o l d e r i n g machine as w e l l as t h e new p r o d u c t , no member i n management made much o f an e f f o r t e i t h e r t o w i n over t h e i r [ t h e foreman's and group l e a d e r s ' ] c o o p e r a t i o n o r t o g u i d e them. The department head was so p r e s s e d by new problems c o n t i n u a l l y a r i s i n g i n h i s overexpanded d e p a r t ment t h a t he l e f t many o f h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s t o f e n d as best t h e y c o u l d f o r t h e m s e l v e s . The e f f i c i e n c y men were f r u s t r a t e d by t h e t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , so t h e y p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e [assembly] room s u p e r v i s o r s whose t e c h n i c a l e x p e r i e n c e was even l e s s t h a n t h e i r own.17 To t h e foreman " . . .  management r e p r e s e n t e d a k i n d of i n 18  e x o r a b l e , u n f r i e n d l y , and m y s t e r i o u s f o r c e . " 17.  The f o l l o w i n g t h r e e paragraphs s i m i l a r l y a r e sugges-  t i v e of the f l a v o r of challenges t o e f f e c t i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , t h i s time w i t h s u b o r d i n a t e s , i n s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l change. With a j o b suddenly t h r u s t a t them w h i c h t h e y sensed c o u l d not work, w i t h a department head t o o busy t o o f f e r more t h a n t o k e n h e l p , and w i t h e f f i c i e n c y men more o r l e s s t a k i n g over t h e room, t h e s u p e r v i s o r s . . . d i d not know where t h e y s t o o d . Without [ t h e s u p e r v i s o r s ' ] p r e s e n c e , however, t h e g i r l s would p r o b a b l y have g i v e n up l o n g b e f o r e . [The foreman and s e c t i o n heads] cons c i e n t i o u s l y spent much time calming and s o o t h i n g t h e r u f f l e d d i s p o s i t i o n s o f t h e g i r l s , but when any t r o u b l e f l a r e d up between t h e e f f i c i e n c y e x p e r t s and t h e g i r l s , [the foreman and group l e a d e r s ] were i n c l i n e d t o be on t h e s i d e l i n e s , t o l o o k t h e o t h e r way, and l e t t h e  90  18.  e x p e r t s show how e x p e r t t h e y were. Sometimes, however, t o p r o t e c t t h e g i r l s , t h e y would have t o s t e p i n . . . . I n s h o r t , t h e r e was a n y t h i n g but harmony . . . among w o r k e r s , e f f i c i e n c y men, and room s u p e r v i s o r s . 1 9 One o f t h e more irksome demands o f any j o b i s t o be i n t e r r u p t e d t o do an o l d j o b over a g a i n . Persons worki n g on an assembly l i n e have work rhythms which i n c l u d e s u b t l e a l t e r n a t i o n s o f work and r e s t , o r moments of c o n v e r s a t i o n , o r exchanging p l e a s a n t r i e s w i t h moments o f s i l e n c e . Among overworked p e r s o n s , t h e s e s u b t l e rhythms a r e s e r i o u s l y i n t e r r u p t e d and, i n s t e a d a d u l l e x a s p e r a t i n g rhythm o f l i t t l e e l s e but work, work, work i s imposed w i t h o n l y a minimum o f a l t e r n a t i n g moments o f r e s t , j o k e s , o r t a l k of any k i n d . The m a t t e r i s made worse i f t h e overwork i s caused by a b a c k f l o w o f r e j e c t s . W i t h no o t h e r a s s e m b l y - l i n e e x p e r i e n c e , [ t h e f o r e m a n ] , t h e defender of t h e group a g a i n s t t h e ravages o f management and t i m e s t u d y and methods men, perhaps by t h i s one maneuver o f dumping r e j e c t s onto an a l r e a d y confused l i n e , unknowingly added t h e f i n a l s t r a w t h a t broke t h e w i l l o f t h e g i r l s t o produce.20  A F u r t h e r Note on R e l a t i o n s Between Foremen and Management 19« [Although, a f t e r a p e r i o d of time,] the t e c h n i c a l problems had been s o l v e d , . . . s t i l l t h e g i r l s had t r o u b l e a s s e m b l i n g t h e u n i t s . As a l a s t r e s o r t , management . . . removed t h e new product from t h i s group o f g i r l s , g i v i n g i t over i n s t e a d t o an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t group i n an a d j a c e n t room. Thus, two weeks a f t e r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the new p r o d u c t , t h e t i m e s t u d y and methods men s e t about t r a n s f e r r i n g t h e problem product and a l l i t s a s s o c i a t e d p a r t s , j i g s , and t h e l i k e out o f t h e room.21 . . . t h e day a f t e r t h e removal of t h e problem p r o duct , [ t h e Foreman] was summarily t o l d by management t o d i s m i s s t h e e n t i r e group i n f i f t e e n minutes u n t i l f u r t h e r n o t i c e . He was t a k e n aback by t h i s pronouncement, b u t , as i t t u r n e d o u t , t h e g i r l s were r e l i e v e d . ... As a r e s u l t of t h i s o c c u r r e n c e , t h e t e s t d e p a r t ment s e t about more c a r e f u l l y t e s t i n g washers, and, no doubt, o t h e r incoming s u p p l i e s [which had been c a u s i n g most o f the problems on t h e assembly l i n e ] . 2 2 Management's M o n i t o r i n g o f Performance 20.  Management kept i n f o r m e d about t h e a s s e m b l y - l i n e s e c t i o n i n d i r e c t l y by t h e u s u a l means o f w r i t t e n r e c o r d s and v e r b a l accounts o f i n t e r m e d i a r i e s . T h e i r main r e l i a n c e , as i s t h e custom i n work o r g a n i z a t i o n s , was on u s i n g w r i t t e n r e c o r d s t o keep them r e g u l a r l y i n f o r m e d r e g a r d i n g t h e work performance o f the group. The most  91 f r e q u e n t and w i d e l y used r e c o r d i n f o r m a t i o n was t h e d a i l y e f f i c i e n c y r e p o r t s . I n a d d i t i o n , p l a n t management r e c e i v e d monthly p r o f i t and l o s s s t a t e m e n t s , o u t put r e j e c t , and absence r e c o r d s . [ A l l of which are s u b j e c t t o i n a c c u r a c i e s and misuse.] As m i d d l e and upper management were u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e performance o f numerous groups throughout t h e e n t i r e p l a n t , t h e y c o u l d not p o s s i b l y m o n i t o r d i r e c t l y t h e performance o f a l l g r o u p s . Their judgements t h e n became t h r o u g h n e c e s s i t y dependent on t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y r e c e i v e d secondhand and o f t h e s e t h e ones most r e l i e d on were t h e above-mentioned d a i l y e f f i c i e n c y reports.23 The Foreman and Management Norms 21. . . . management t h r o u g h t h e i r t i m e s t u d y and methods men had e s t a b l i s h e d a work pace and work methods which t h e assemblers were e x p e c t e d t o f o l l o w . . . . As r e g a r d s t h e room s u p e r v i s o r s , t h e y were e x p e c t e d by management t o 'keep t h e g i r l s w o r k i n g ' by any o r a l l a p p r o p r i a t e means o f which perhaps t h e most w i d e l y a c c e p t e d norm was a f i r m d i s c i p l i n a r i a n manner. [There i s ] good e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e p o i n t o f view t h a t judgements h e l d by some members o f management about [ t h e assembly room foreman] b e i n g a poor s u p e r v i s o r were p r i m a r i l y based on an e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n t o him as a person r a t h e r t h a n on an o b j e c t i v e a p p r a i s a l o f him o r t h e performance of h i s group.24 [The foreman] f i n d i n g h i m s e l f i n t h e m i d d l e between t h e a n t i - t i m e s t u d y views o f h i s f o r m e r i n t i m a t e worker and u n i o n a s s o c i a t e s and t h e p r o - t i m e - s t u d y views o f h i s new upper management b o s s e s , a v o i d e d t h e ambivalence . . . by s t r e s s i n g t h e n o n - c o n t r o v e r s i a l need f o r coo p e r a t i o n . . . .25 The f o l l o w i n g c h a r t s and t a b l e p r o v i d e a q u a n t i t a t i v e supplement  t o the preceding m a t e r i a l s .  CHART V FOREMAN CONTACT FREQUENCIES MID-APRIL TO FEBRUARY, 1952  <.T» E 9  MID  »  -  MAY,  1932  PLANT OR DIVISION MANAGER  SUB-DIVISION CHIEFS  DEPARTMENT OR SECTION HEADS ETC.  ASSEMBLY LINE FOREMAN  STAFF WORKERS  GLORIA  PAIR CONTACT FREQUENCY  GROUP LEADERS  A, EltlmoUd By Each Htmbtr LESS  THAN  FORTNIGHTLY  Adapted f r o m s o u r c e , p. 60  TWICE  FORTNIGHTLY TO  W E E K L Y TO  MORE THAN  ONCE  TWICE ONCE DAILY  WEEKLY OAILY  ISTA.E  93  CHART V I CONTACT DURATION PATTERNS WITHIN ASSEMBLY-LINE SECTION-MARCH AND EARLIER Note Relative Isolation of Group 2 and Their Group Leader Gloria  TEDDY  o  o  o  o  o  o  •  GROUP 3  o o o o  -v.  GROUP 2  OVER 3 0 MIN. DAILY 10 I  -  30  •  .  10  •  •  NIL  Q  • APPROX. 3 ASSEMBLERS  P Contacts L a s t i n g O v e r 45 " ' ° O b s e r v a t i o n , of Normal X - A I . o includes 10-20 m i n . d a i l y b r e a k f a . t snack before w o r k . Y — B a s e d on general observations a n d on i n t e r v i e w s /5—Based on general and Rest P e r i o d observations. ^nH  S p e n t  , « "' C  V  Work k«Ui«. d  i D  ,nU,e  f,  "  B  D u  r i n 8  P  a  i  r  a  n  d  G  r  o  u  J  a  d  M  a  i  D  y  Adapted from s o u r c e , p. 54  n  R  e  c  o  r  d  e  d  CHART V I I DIAGONAL CONTACT FREQUENCIES BETWEEN PERSONS ON ADJACENT LEVELS Assembly L i n e S e c t i o n S u p e r v i s o r s a n d R e l a t e d Management P e r s o n n e l — F e b r u a r y ,  Sage 2  ENGINEERING  321  ENGINEERS  2E  VIII MIR CONTACT FREQUENCY At E i t i * a l « d By Each LESS THAU FORTNIGHTLY FORTNIOHTLT TO TWICE WEEKLY TWICE WCIKLT TO ONCE DAILY MORE THAN ONCE OAILY  Note L o w F r e q u e n c i e s B e t w e e n Persons o n L e v e l s V I a n d V I I . T h i s R e l a t i v e Interaction Coincided with a " B r e a k " i n Information Flow.  Adapted from s o u r c e , p. 55  " B r e a k " in  vO  TABLE  I  CHANGES IN FOREMAN AND GROUP LEADER CONTACTS (Adapted from s o u r c e : p. 66) NUMBER CONT A C T S PER HOUR N  H <  TEDDY FRANK  Z O  NEL GROUP 3 OUTSIDE  <  ALL  N  l  2  T  F  8 x  x 5  / x  x /  / 18  / 12  9 20  5 22  3V 34/  2  2  5 9.3  12  25  57  48  4  3 6  8 12  29  63  60  OH  N U M B E R PERSONS PER HOUR N  N  l  T  2  F  1  X  /  X  X  1  X  /  /  /  l  l  %  N  1  F  C O N T A C T OVER 45 Sec. T O T A L D U R A T I O N PER H O U R (MIN.) Ni N T F  NUMBER CONT A C T S PER PERSON P E R HOUR Ni N T F  8 x  CONTACTS SELF-INITIATED N  2  T  2  50 x  x 41  / x  x /  3.2 x  x 0.3  / x  x /  / 61  / 62  50 63  59 78  / 2.4  / 0.3  2.6 3.3  50  41  43  75  2.4  4.9  5.9  53  53  51  74  8  65  0  72  0  9  10  12  14  2  4  7  9  16  19  27  31  2  7  2  17  ?  88  5  11  8*  29 67  72  2  x 5  / x  x /  0.3 / 1.0 2  / 1.2  9 1.7  5  6.7 VA  iy  1.3  1.3  5.8 14.4  9.2 2.2  1.3  2.1  1.5  0.3  1.3 5  14  13  27  3.4 7  14  10  20  4  1.6  CO  o  GROUP 3 ALL  g  w w  1 2 IVi  ? 67  '  8  1.415  S  co cok  <H HZ OO HO  ALL  x — N o t present  37  / — N o t relevant  N — N e l Mid-March 1  8  N — N e l Early May 2  7.2 29.4  T—Teddy Mid-March  12.6  F—Frank Early  May  96 Case No.  4  2 6  Background. G e n e r a l remarks r e g a r d i n g n a t u r e and t i o n of production 1.  organiza-  Z a l e z n i k remarks t h a t t h e work u n i t s t u d i e d i n t h i s  case was  part of a l a r g e " m u l t i p l a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n . "  The  p r o d u c t i o n u n i t i n q u e s t i o n produced consumer e l e c t r i c a l 27 products.  He d e s c r i b e s t h e t e c h n o l o g y  o f t h e assembly l i n e  as f o l l o w s . . . . t h e [ c o n v e y o r ] b e l t was t o move c o n t i n u o u s l y and t h e g i r l s [ o p e r a t o r s ] were supposed t o complete t h e i r work c y c l e by t h e t i m e t h e u n i t had moved i n t o t h e next work p o s i t i o n . I t became i m p e r a t i v e t h a t work be comp l e t e d w i t h i n the standard time allowances. Any d e l a y s or f a i l u r e on t h e p a r t of a s i n g l e o p e r a t o r t o complete her o p e r a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e s t a n d a r d t i m e a l l o w a n c e would r e s u l t i n u p s e t t i n g t h e work f l o w . 2 8 2. I n o b s e r v i n g t h e assembly l i n e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r f o c u s e d h i s a t t e n t i o n on t h e foreman and h i s b e h a v i o r i n s u p e r v i s i n g t h e l i n e . The r e s e a r c h e r was i n t e r e s t e d , however, i n a l l a s p e c t s of the l i n e ' s o p e r a t i o n s s i n c e t h e foreman was e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n whatever o c c u r r e d on t h e l i n e . 2 9 Tony t h e foreman 3.  The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s from Z a l e z n i k ' s case  study  have been chosen f o r t h e i r r e l e v a n c e t o t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses developed i n Chapter I I I . 4.  Tony as foreman of t h e s t u d y l i n e i s t h e key f i g u r e i n t h i s s t o r y . (See F i g u r e [V] f o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r t of t h e d i v i s i o n , i n c l u d i n g Tony's assembly l i n e . } He was i n h i s l a t e t w e n t i e s , m a r r i e d , but he had no c h i l d r e n . Tony had been w i t h t h e company c o n t i n u o u s l y s i n c e t h e e a r l y 1940's except f o r a p e r i o d of s e r v i c e i n t h e army d u r i n g t h e war. He had s t a r t e d as an o p e r a t o r when t h e company was s t i l l r a t h e r s m a l l and had g r a d u a l l y worked h i s way up t o a s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . He had had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e as a foreman on a s m a l l assembly l i n e I n t h e company, b u t , because o f some d i f f i c u l t y which was never made c l e a r t o the r e s e a r c h e r , he  97 was t r a n s f e r r e d . When t h e company r e t r e n c h e d because o f a s e a s o n a l r e d u c t i o n i n b u s i n e s s , Tony, a l o n g w i t h s e v e r a l o t h e r s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h e d i v i s i o n , was r e a p p o i n t e d as a group l e a d e r on another l i n e , r e p o r t i n g t o a foreman. When t h e company expanded o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e new p l a n t , Tony was a p p o i n t e d foreman o f one o f t h e t h r e e assembly l i n e s , r e p o r t i n g now t o t h e f a c t o r y supervisor.30 The s u p e r v i s o r ' s p o s i t i o n i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n 5.  F i g u r e V below i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f o r -  mal o r g a n i z a t i o n i n which Tony, t h e assembly l i n e s u p e r v i s o r , found h i m s e l f . Assembly l i n e t e c h n o l o g y . Characteristics 6. Tony's l i n e c o n s i s t e d o f a mechanized conveyor about 46O f e e t l o n g . About h a l f o f t h e l i n e was devoted t o work p o s i t i o n s and t h e o t h e r h a l f t o space f o r p o s s i b l e f u t u r e expansion. A l t h o u g h o n l y h a l f o f t h e conveyor had work s e t u p s , completed u n i t s rode down t o t h e end of t h e l i n e where t h e y were p l a c e d on an overhead conv e y o r f o r t r a n s f e r t o t h e t e s t department. 7. There were a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t y o p e r a t o r s a s s i g n e d t o t h e l i n e . T h i r t y - s i x o f t h e o p e r a t o r s had r e g u l a r p o s i t i o n s on t h e l i n e where t h e y performed s i m p l e a s sembly o p e r a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g about 4 1/2 minutes. The r e m a i n i n g p e r s o n n e l were r e p a i r men, who were s t a t i o n e d at t a b l e s o f f t h e main l i n e t o f i x f a u l t y u n i t s , and s t o c k c l e r k s , who kept t h e o p e r a t o r s ' b i n s s u p p l i e d w i t h p a r t s . Of t h e t h i r t y - s i x o p e r a t o r s on t h e l i n e , a l l were women except f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x men who assembled t h e h e a v i e r p a r t s o f t h e u n i t s . 8. The assembly work was v e r y r o u t i n e , w i t h each worker p e r f o r m i n g a s e r i e s o f s i m p l e o p e r a t i o n s on each u n i t . The s m a l l component p a r t s t o be assembled were s t o r e d i n convenient b i n s w i t h i n easy arm's r e a c h o f t h e o p e r a t o r s . The t o o l s used i n t h e assembly work were l i m i t e d t o hand p l i e r s , s o l d e r i n g i r o n s , and a i r gun nut r u n n e r s and screw d r i v e r s . D e s p i t e t h e s i m p l e n a t u r e o f t h e work, i t d i d demand c o n s i d e r a b l e manual d e x t e r i t y , and i t g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e d f o u r weeks o f t r a i n i n g b e f o r e a new o p e r a t o r c o u l d perform h e r work steps i n t h e standard time. During t h e t r a i n i n g period, an e x t r a g i r l was g e n e r a l l y a s s i g n e d t o t h e work p o s i t i o n w i t h t h e new o p e r a t o r so t h a t t h e e n t i r e l i n e would n o t be h e l d up by t h e new g i r l . 9. At about every t w e l v e o r t h i r t e e n work s t a t i o n s on t h e l i n e , an o n - l i n e i n s p e c t o r was a s s i g n e d t o check  Vice President j General  Production Control  Manager  DEPARTMENT HEAD LEVEL Manufacturing Mr. Nixon  Purchasing  Engineering  Quality Control  SECTION MANAGER LEVEL  Test |  Assembly S e c t i o n Harry  j F i n a l Assembly  Methods  Production Inspection  Factory Engineering Roy Factory  Supervisor  FOREMAJN LEVEL Foreman Tony  Methods A n a l y s t Bob  Engineer George  Process Inspection Dick  Group Leader L e v e l Dottie  Helen f  Jean  Operators Figure V ORGANIZATION CHART: CASE NO. 4 (Adapted from s o u r c e : p. 91)  Rita 3 Inspectors  99  10.  11.  12.  13.  the work o f t h e o p e r a t o r s i n t h e p r e c e d i n g p o s i t i o n s . There were t h r e e such o n - l i n e i n s p e c t o r s , each o f whom was c o n s i d e r a b l y o l d e r t h a n t h e average o p e r a t o r . These i n s p e c t o r s r e p o r t e d t o Tony, t h e foreman, u n l i k e the q u a l i t y c o n t r o l i n s p e c t o r s s t a t i o n e d a t t h e end o f the frork l i n e who had t h e i r own group l e a d e r . This group l e a d e r i n t u r n r e p o r t e d up t h r o u g h t h e q u a l i t y c o n t r o l h i e r a r c h y . [See F i g u r e V above] The work o r g a n i z a t i o n was f a i r l y s i m p l e t o o . A l l p a r t s g o i n g i n t o t h e assembly o f t h e u n i t s on t h e s t u d y l i n e came t h e r e w i t h some p r e p a r a t o r y work a l r e a d y havi n g been completed i n a n o t h e r department c a l l e d subassembly. The assembly base, t o which a l l p a r t s were assembled, came t o t h e f i r s t s t a t i o n on t h e l i n e on an overhead conveyor. The f i r s t two s t a t i o n s on t h e l i n e were n o t on t h e movable c o n v e y o r , p r o b a b l y because h e a v i e r assembly work was performed a t t h e s e s t a t i o n s . O p e r a t o r #1 passed t h e assembly bases t o o p e r a t o r §2 by hand. O p e r a t o r #3 had t h e f i r s t p o s i t i o n on t h e conveyor. B e g i n n i n g w i t h o p e r a t o r #3, t h e work t r a v e l e d from o p e r a t o r t o o p e r a t o r on t h e b e l t . Each o p e r a t o r on t h e b e l t had about t h i r t y - s i x i n c h e s o f work space a l l o t t e d t o h e r and she had t o complete h e r assembly work w i t h i n t h a t space on t h e conveyor. When an assembly base had f u l l y e n t e r e d each o p e r a t o r ' s work a r e a , she was supposed t o have completed h e r work on t h e p r e c e d i n g u n i t . The g i r l s on t h e l i n e had no c o n t r o l over t h e speed o f t h e b e l t , and t h e o p e r a t i o n s had been t i m e d and s u p p o s e d l y b a l a n c e d by methods p e r s o n n e l so t h a t each o p e r a t o r was t h e o r e t i c a l l y a b l e t o complete h e r c y c l e w i t h i n t h e s t a n d a r d t i m e a l l o w e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e conveyor was supposed t o move c o n t i n u o u s l y w i t h no o p e r a t o r moving out o f p o s i t i o n o r f a i l i n g t o complete h e r c y c l e o f work w i t h i n t h e a l l o t t e d time. At t h e end o f t h e work p o r t i o n o f t h e c o n v e y o r , a male o p e r a t o r removed t h e assembly f i x t u r e and p l a c e d the completed assembly base f l a t on t h e conveyor where i t would r i d e down t o t h e end o f t h e l i n e f o r t r a n s f e r by overhead conveyor t o t h e t e s t department. B e f o r e b e i n g p l a c e d f l a t on t h e c o n v e y o r , t h e u n i t passed t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f t h r e e v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n s by t h e quality control inspectors. I n t h e t e s t department, t h e u n i t s were g i v e n t h o r ough performance t e s t s and s u b j e c t e d t o i n s p e c t i o n w i t h the a i d o f v e r y f i n e and p r e c i s e i n s t r u m e n t s . Adjustments were made i n t h e t e s t department, and t h e assemb l i e s were s e n t by overhead conveyor t o t h e f i n a l assemb l y department where t h e u n i t s from Tony's l i n e were j o i n e d t o o t h e r major a s s e m b l i e s . The u n i t assembled on Tony's l i n e was t h e most import a n t component o f t h e f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t . Tony had r o u g h l y  100  14.  The 15..  16.  t h r e e or f o u r t i m e s t h e number o f p e r s o n n e l on h i s l i n e compared w i t h f i n a l assembly and t h e u n i t s assembled on h i s l i n e a c c o u n t e d f o r a t l e a s t 7®% o f t h e t o t a l f a c t o r y c o s t o f the p r o d u c t . The f i n a l product was a r e l a t i v e l y new consumer i t e m and d e s i g n changes t o improve i t were made v e r y f r e q u e n t l y . The product was c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g f i e l d t e s t e d and new improvements were i n c o r p o r a t e d r e g u l a r l y . The d e s i g n changes v a r i e d i n t h e i r e f f e c t on t h e p h y s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e l i n e and on t h e work b e i n g performed. Sometimes a change would a f f e c t o n l y one o p e r a t o r and, a g a i n , on o t h e r o c c a s i o n s , t h e e n t i r e l i n e would have t o be shut down w h i l e t h e g i r l s r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n on some new o p e r a t i o n s . To i n d i c a t e t h e f r e q u e n c y o f changes i n d e s i g n , t h e head o f t h e methods department i n t h e d i v i s i o n r e p o r t e d t h a t d u r i n g an eight-month p e r i o d t h e r e were over 700 d e s i g n changes i n t h e u n i t assembled on Tony's l i n e . A g a i n , some o f t h e s e changes had l i t t l e , i f any, e f f e c t on t h e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e l i n e , w h i l e o t h e r s i n v o l v e d a s h u f f l i n g of operat i o n s r e q u i r i n g a temporary stoppage of the l i n e . 3 1 Assemblers There were m a i n l y female o p e r a t o r s on t h e l i n e who v a r i e d f r o m g i r l s i n t h e i r l a t e t e e n s t o middle-aged women w i t h grown f a m i l i e s . Age, and hence common i n t e r e s t s , seemed t o be one o f t h e d i v i d i n g l i n e s t h a t marked t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n f o r m a l groups w i t h i n t h e l i n e . The o l d e r women seemed t o group t o g e t h e r , w h i l e a number o f t h e v e r y young g i r l s who were about t o be m a r r i e d or who were c o n t e m p l a t i n g m a r r i a g e tended t o keep t o g e t h e r . O p e r a t o r s #1 and #2 were young men i n t h e i r l a t e t e e n s or e a r l y t w e n t i e s and t h e g e n e r a l l y kept a p a r t from t h e g i r l s on t h e l i n e . A number o f women on t h e l i n e were d i v o r c e e s and some o f them formed t h e i r own l i t t l e group. S t i l l another s o c i a l g r o u p i n g was formed by a few women i n t h e i r e a r l y t h i r t i e s who had been f l o a t e r s , or u t i l i t y o p e r a t o r s , i n t h e o l d p l a n t . These o p e r a t o r s were f a s t e r w o r k e r s than t h e average g i r l on the l i n e and t h e y knew more of t h e work p o s i t i o n s on t h e l i n e as a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e i r h a v i n g been f l o a t e r s i n t h e o l d p l a n t . A l though t h e r e seemed t o be a c l u s t e r i n g o f g i r l s i n one s o c i a l group or a n o t h e r , as expressed i n t h e i r c h o i c e of company d u r i n g the r e s t p e r i o d s (two a day l a s t i n g t e n m i n u t e s ) , t h e groups tended a l s o t o s h i f t somewhat and a g i r l c o u l d , i n some c a s e s , be numbered i n , o r on t h e f r i n g e o f , s e v e r a l o f t h e i n f o r m a l groups. Because o f t h e s i m p l e and r e p e t i t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e work, many o f the g i r l s c o u l d perform t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e a l l o t t e d time and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c a r r y on con-  101 v e r s a t i o n s . The c o n v e r s a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o n e i g h b o u r i n g g i r l s and t h e r u l e p r o h i b i t i n g o p e r a t o r s from l e a v i n g t h e i r work p o s i t i o n s except f o r t h e r e s t p e r i o d , o r i f t h e y were r e l i e v e d , accounted i n l a r g e measure f o r t h i s l i m i t on c o n v e r s a t i o n . Whenever t h e l i n e was shut down f o r one r e a s o n o r a n o t h e r , c o n v e r s a t i o n s were more p r o l o n g e d and g e n e r a l . The o b s e r v e r n o t i c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e k i d d i n g among t h e o p e r a t o r s r e g a r d i n g events i n t h e company o r p e r s o n a l m a t t e r s . For example, o p e r a t o r s #1 and #2, both male, used t o k i d back and f o r t h c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r work speed. They seemed t o t a k e p r i d e i n o u t d o i n g one a n o t h e r on b o a s t s o f n o t b e i n g f o r c e d t o do more work t h a n t h e y c o u l d . Whoever was i n v o l v e d i n g e t t i n g them t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r o u t p u t , whether i t was Tony o r t h e methods a n a l y s t , would be t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e i r j o k e s and m i m i c k i n g . O p e r a t o r s #3 and #4 would b a n t e r back and f o r t h but on t o p i c s o f l i t t l e concern t o t h e immediate work s i t u a t i o n . O p e r a t o r s #13 and #14 who were b o t h about t h e same age and were p l a n n i n g t o be m a r r i e d a t about t h e same t i m e had many s e r i o u s c o n v e r s a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r wedding p l a n s . The o t h e r g i r l s i n t h e i r immedia t e v i c i n i t y s u b j e c t e d them t o much k i d d i n g . At t i m e s t h e o b s e r v e r was even asked by o p e r a t o r s #13 and #14 t o comment on v a r i o u s domestic problems; such a s , s h o u l d t h e husband h e l p w i t h t h e d i s h e s , and how d i d the researcher r e a c t t o h i s w i f e ' s f i r s t attempts a t c o o k i n g . The b o w l i n g league i n t h e p l a n t was a n o t h e r s u b j e c t o f i n t e r e s t t o some o f t h e g i r l s who t a l k e d about i t from t i m e t o t i m e . And, o f c o u r s e , t h e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s on t h e assembly l i n e became t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f much c o n v e r s a t i o n and t h e o u t l e t o f many o f t h e o p e r a t o r s ' f e e l i n g s . As w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n l a t e r c h a p t e r s , t h e problem o f d i s r u p t e d work f l o w became t h e major a s p e c t o f l i f e on t h e l i n e and t h e o p e r a t o r s took s i d e s on t h e q u e s t i o n o f who was t o blame, and what s h o u l d be done about i t . 3 2 The Group Leaders 17.  18.  There were f o u r group l e a d e r s on t h e l i n e who r e p o r t e d t o Tony. Three o f t h e s e group l e a d e r s were women and each was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r one s e c t i o n o f t h e l i n e , o r f o r about t w e l v e g i r l s . The f o u r t h group l e a d e r was a middle-aged man who was i n charge o f t h e repairmen. The repairmen were d e f i n i t e l y s e p a r a t e d from t h e main l i n e and seldom e n t e r e d i n t o t h e events which o c c u r r e d t h e r e . The t h r e e group l e a d e r s on t h e main l i n e were D o t t i e , H e l e n , and Jean. D o t t i e was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f i r s t t w e l v e s t a t i o n s on t h e l i n e and i n s p e c t o r #1; Helen had t h e middle t w e l v e g i r l s on t h e l i n e and i n s p e c t o r #2;  102 and Jean had t h e f i n a l s e c t i o n of t h e l i n e and i n s p e c t o r §3. The group l e a d e r s s u p e r v i s e d d i r e c t l y t h e o p e r a t o r s i n t h e i r s e c t i o n and were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e e i n g t h a t t h e w o r k e r s m a i n t a i n e d t h e p r o p e r r a t e of p r o d u c t i o n and q u a l i t y standards. They a l s o r e l i e v e d g i r l s who had t o be excused at o t h e r t h a n r e s t p e r i o d s , and f i l l e d i n f o r g i r l s who were absent from work or who had t o l e a v e work e a r l y because of i l l n e s s or f o r o t h e r r e a s o n s . The group l e a d e r s had t o be s u r e t o o t h a t t h e o p e r a t o r s were p r o v i d e d w i t h p a r t s , and t h e y were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e p o r t i n g t o Tony any t i m e f a u l t y p a r t s were d i s c o v e r e d . I n a d d i t i o n , because t h e l i n e was no l o n g e r s t a f f e d w i t h f l o a t e r s , t h e p l a n t management had d e s i g n a t e d t h e group l e a d e r s as "working group l e a d e r s " and e x p e c t e d them t o f u n c t i o n as f l o a t e r s as w e l l as s u p e r v i s o r s . 3 3 Tony's R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h Group Leaders D o t t i e and H e l e n and Jean 19. Tony r e c o g n i z e d D o t t i e ' s [ h i g h s t a t u s ] p o s i t i o n on t h e l i n e [as a w o r k i n g group l e a d e r ] . He c a l l e d upon her t o h e l p him out of d i f f i c u l t i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y when he wanted t o 'push' u n i t s o f f t h e l i n e t o get them i n h i s day's quota. D o t t i e always responded t o Tony's r e q u e s t s f o r a s s i s t a n c e , a l t h o u g h she t o l d t h e o b s e r v e r t h a t she d i s l i k e d l e a v i n g h e r s e c t i o n . On t h e t h i r d day of work i n t h e new p l a n t , Tony asked D o t t i e t o f i l l out a l l t h e m e r i t r a t i n g forms f o r o p e r a t o r s on t h e l i n e . 20. D u r i n g t h e h e i g h t of t h e c o n f l i c t between t h e o t h e r group l e a d e r s , t h e g i r l s , and Tony over s h u t t i n g down t h e conveyor, D o t t i e g e n e r a l l y m a i n t a i n e d a n e u t r a l a t t i t u d e . She never defended Tony and she r a r e l y c r i t i c i z e d or a n t a g o n i z e d him i n f r o n t of t h e o t h e r g i r l s . A l t h o u g h Tony had a d i f f i c u l t t i m e as i t was, h i s p o s i t i o n would p r o b a b l y have become i m p o s s i b l e i f D o t t i e had d e c i d e d t o s i d e a g a i n s t him.34 21. Throughout t h e o b s e r v e r ' s s t a y on t h e l i n e , he n o t i c e d t h a t H e l e n [a w o r k i n g group l e a d e r ] and Tony were always i n c o n f l i c t . Tony tended t o blame h i s t r o u b l e s on H e l e n , and he even went so f a r as t o t h r e a t en t o f i r e her i f c o n d i t i o n s on t h e l i n e d i d not improve . . . H e l e n c o n t i n u e d t o t h i n k t h a t Tony was p i c k i n g on her and t r e a t i n g her u n f a i r l y . 3 5 22. Tony p r e t t y much l e t [ J e a n , t h e t h i r d w o r k i n g group l e a d e r ] a l o n e and never blamed her f o r any o f h i s problems. Jean used t o be d i s t r e s s e d over t h e f a c t t h a t t h e g i r l s were so o f t e n out of p o s i t i o n , but she d i d not blame them. She e x p r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n t o t h e o b s e r v e r t h a t t h e l i n e s h o u l d be shut down as soon as t h e g i r l s began t o get out of p o s i t i o n , and she sympathized w i t h H e l e n on t h i s i s s u e . She thought t h e l i n e was p o o r l y managed and she tended t o blame Tony f o r i t s problems.36  103 Horizontal Interactions. 23.  24.  25-  26.  27.  (The Methods  Men)  The methods department was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p h y s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e l i n e s . I t determined t h e breakdown, sequence, and methods of work on t h e assembly l i n e s , t h e p h y s i c a l arrangement of t h e l i n e s , and t h e p o s i t i o n i n g of t o o l s and p a r t s a t each of t h e work s t a t i o n s . Methods was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n s t a l l i n g eng i n e e r i n g changes. I t r e c e i v e d e n g i n e e r i n g change n o t i c e s from t h e e n g i n e e r i n g department and t h e n d e t e r mined t h e new p r o c e s s which would r e s u l t f r o m t h e change. A methods a n a l y s t i n t r o d u c e d t h e changes t o t h e l i n e by r e a r r a n g i n g t h e work p o s i t i o n s i f n e c e s s a r y , r e i n s t r u c t i n g t h e o p e r a t o r s , and r e b a l a n c i n g t h e l i n e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n of methods work i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e methods department d e t e r m i n e d how t h e work was t o be p e r f o r m e d , how many o p e r a t o r s were t o be u s e d , and what t h e sequence of o p e r a t i o n s was t o be. Methods t h e n t r a i n e d t h e w o r k e r s and made c e r t a i n t h e l i n e was b a l a n c e d so t h a t work was d i v i d e d e v e n l y among t h e o p e r a t o r s . The foreman of the l i n e t h e n became r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m a i n t a i n i n g p r o d u c t i o n , q u a l i t y , and morale. The methods work was a c o n t i n u i n g p a r t of t h e a c t i v i t i e s on a l i n e because of t h e f r e q u e n t i n t r o d u c t i o n of t e c h n i c a l changes. F r e d was t h e head of t h e methods department and he r e p o r t e d t o t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g department head. Nevert h e l e s s , he appeared on a lower l e v e l i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r t t h a n o t h e r e x e c u t i v e s who a l s o r e p o r t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e department head. F r e d was v e r y u n p o p u l a r among l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s a t a l l l e v e l s i n t h e d i v i s i o n . When t h e o b s e r v e r a r r i v e d a t t h e p l a n t , t h e c o n f l i c t between methods p e r s o n n e l , p a r t i c u l a r l y F r e d , and l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s was an e s t a b l i s h e d a s p e c t of p l a n t l i f e . Some o f t h e h o s t i l e f e e l i n g s toward F r e d c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o h i s ' p e r s o n a l i t y . ' He seemed t o be a moody p e r s o n and he g e n e r a l l y k e p t a p a r t from h i s c o l l e a g u e s except f o r h i s d e a l i n g s w i t h them on work problems. A c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t of t h e c o n f l i c t , however, stemmed from a t t e m p t s on t h e p a r t of methods p e r s o n n e l and l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s t o 'pass t h e buck.' Methods work and s u p e r v i s i o n were i n t e r r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s and i t was d i f f i c u l t , i f not imp o s s i b l e , t o separate t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Hard f e e l i n g s developed when, f o r example, l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s b e l i e v e d t h e methods department, and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , F r e d , had u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e number of men r e q u i r e d t o perform a c e r t a i n job. On one o c c a s i o n t h e head of t h e t e s t department had t o modify some u n i t s t h a t had been i n i n v e n t o r y and were a w a i t i n g c o m p l e t i o n i n the new p l a n t . The head of t h e t e s t department s a i d , 'We've got 800 u n i t s t h a t  104 have t o be m o d i f i e d . That means a complete r e w o r k i n g as i f t h e u n i t s were j u s t coming out o f t h e assemblyl i n e i n t o t e s t . Yet t h e y t e l l me a l l I need i s 4 men t o do t h e j o b . Imagine, 4 men f o r 800 u n i t s . ' The o b s e r v e r a s k e d , 'Who i s ' t h e y ' ? ' He r e p l i e d , 'Methods, of c o u r s e . They must be c r a z y . ' The o b s e r v e r a s k e d , 'Does methods always s e t t h e number of men?' The answer was, 'Yeah. And t h e n t h e y t u r n i t over t o me t o get t h e work done.' The o b s e r v e r responded, 'The work i s your r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . ' The head of t e s t s a i d , 'You're damned r i g h t . And t h e y t e l l me a l l I need i s 4 men. Why i t ' s a complete r e w o r k i n g . W e l l , I'm g o i n g t o t r y and get some more men." 28. On t h e one hand, t h e head o f t h e t e s t department knew t h a t an i n c r e a s e i n p e r s o n n e l f o r t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n job would mean an i n c r e a s e i n c o s t s . The department head who would have had t o a u t h o r i z e t h e e x t r a p e r s o n n e l would have been v e r y r e l u c t a n t t o do so. On t h e o t h e r hand, i f e x t r a p e r s o n n e l were not a s s i g n e d , t h e • head of t e s t f e l t d o u b t f u l about meeting t h e s c h e d u l e . He f e l t , i n a d d i t i o n , t h a t i f he d i d not complete t h e work on s c h e d u l e t h a t he, a l o n e , would be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e because F r e d would c l a i m t h a t t h e p e r s o n n e l a s signment was a c c u r a t e , but t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s i o n was a t f a u l t f o r not c o m p l e t i n g t h e work on t i m e . T h i s was but one example o f t h e n a t u r e of t h e c o n f l i c t between methods p e r s o n n e l and l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s . 29. D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d i n which t h e new p l a n t was b e i n g p r e p a r e d f o r p r o d u c t i o n , ' n e e d l i n g ' between F r e d and v a r i o u s l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s had i n c r e a s e d . The o b s e r v e r asked Tony's b o s s , Dan, how methods was p r o g r e s s i n g i n g e t t i n g t h e l i n e s ready. Dan r e p l i e d , ' T h e y ' l l never get f i n i s h e d . The way t h i s t h i n g was s e t up, t h e y were supposed t o do t h e p r o c e s s work, s e t up t h e l i n e s , and p l a c e t h e t o o l s i n p o s i t i o n . A l l t h a t we were supposed t o do was t o put t h e m a t e r i a l s i n t h e l i n e s . W e l l , i t ended up t h a t we're d o i n g a l l t h e i r work.' The o b s e r v e r asked, 'What's t h e t r o u b l e , d i d n ' t t h e y have enough men?' Dan r e p l i e d , 'Nan, t h a t ' s not t h e i r t r o u b l e . What's wrong withomethods i s t h a t i t ' s mismanaged. T h e y ' l l never have enough men. I t ' s j u s t p l a i n mismanaged." F r e d had a d i f f e r e n t i d e a about t h a t . He s a i d , ' A f t e r we get a l l t h e work s e t up and t h e o p e r a t o r s t r a i n e d , we t u r n t h e l i n e s over t o s u p e r v i s i o n . What a snap t h e y have. They don't have t o do a n y t h i n g . We do i t a l l f o r them and t h e y j u s t s t e p i n and t a k e o v e r . ' F r e d summarized h i s o p i n i o n o f t h e p l a n t ' s s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h : 'This s o - c a l l e d s u p e r v i s i o n can't be depended on t o do a job.'37  105 The 30.  31.  32.  33.  Q u a l i t y Control People The company p l a c e d major emphasis on m a i n t a i n i n g s t r i c t s t a n d a r d s of p r o d u c t q u a l i t y , and, f o r t h a t r e a s o n , o r g a n i z e d a s e p a r a t e s t a f f group i n t h e d i v i s i o n c a l l e d q u a l i t y c o n t r o l . The head of the q u a l i t y c o n t r o l department was on the same l e v e l i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n as the m a n u f a c t u r i n g department head, r e p o r t i n g d i r e c t l y t o the d i v i s i o n g e n e r a l manager. The q u a l i t y c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n was t h e n d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l groups. One group p r o v i d e d i n s p e c t i o n f o r incoming m a t e r i a l s , a n o t h e r f o r new product d e s i g n s , and a t h i r d f o r u n i t s coming o f f the v a r i o u s assembly l i n e s . T h i s l a t t e r t y p e of i n s p e c t i o n was r e f e r r e d t o as p r o c e s s inspection. Tony was most concerned w i t h t h i s g r o u p , s i n c e i t s p e r s o n n e l i n s p e c t e d the u n i t s assembled on his line. D i c k was the head of p r o c e s s i n s p e c t i o n , and r e p o r t e d t o t h e head of the p r o d u c t i o n i n s p e c t i o n s e c t i o n of the q u a l i t y c o n t r o l department. Dick had t h r e e group l e a d e r s a s s i g n e d t o him and t h e r e was one group l e a d e r s t a t i o n e d at the end of each of the t h r e e assembly l i n e s s u p e r v i s i n g t h r e e or f o u r q u a l i t y c o n t r o l i n s p e c t o r s . The i n s p e c t o r s on the l i n e s checked t h e work v i s u a l l y t o see t h a t workmanship met q u a l i t y s t a n d a r d s and t h a t p a r t s were not l e f t out i n assembly. The i n s p e c t o r s a l s o checked f o r f a u l t y and broken p a r t s . The q u a l i t y c o n t r o l i n s p e c t o r s were s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t f r o m the ' o n - l i n e ' i n s p e c t o r s who r e p o r t e d t o t h e foreman. I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t Tony had t h r e e such i n s p e c t o r s on h i s l i n e a t about every t w e l v e work p o s i t i o n s . R i t a was the q u a l i t y c o n t r o l group l e a d e r on t h e s t u d y line. She had two female i n s p e c t o r s and one male i n s p e c t o r working f o r her. These i n s p e c t o r s worked at p o s i t i o n s f o l l o w i n g t h e l a s t work s t a t i o n on t h e l i n e . Each of the t h r e e q u a l i t y c o n t r o l i n s p e c t o r s checked each u n i t produced and made a r e c o r d of a l l the r e j e c t s f o u n d . There were a t o t a l of about t e n t y p e s of r e j e c t s i n c l u d i n g u n s o l d e r e d c o n n e c t i o n s , poor c o n n e c t i o n s , and broken parts. R i t a worked a l o n g w i t h her i n s p e c t o r s , c h e c k i n g on t h e thoroughness of t h e i r work as w e l l as the q u a l i t y of the work coming from the l i n e . At t h e end of each day R i t a t u r n e d i n t o the q u a l i t y c o n t r o l o f f i c e a r e p o r t on the r e j e c t s found i n t h e day's p r o d u c t i o n . The next day the q u a l i t y c o n t r o l o f f i c e p r e p a r e d and d i s t r i b u t e d a summary r e p o r t showing the q u a l i t y performance of each line. A copy of t h i s r e p o r t went t o the m a n u f a c t u r i n g department head and a l l s u p e r v i s o r s below him i n c l u d i n g the foreman of each l i n e . The q u a l i t y c o n t r o l department a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d r e j e c t s t a n d a r d s which were c o n s i d e r e d a measure of the q u a l i t y performance on t h e l i n e s . For Tony's l i n e , the s t a n d a r d was 0.5 r e j e c t s per u n i t , but the q u a l i t y c o n t r o l d e p a r t -  106 ment hoped t h a t t h i s s t a n d a r d c o u l d e v e n t u a l l y be t i g h t e n e d o r reduced. At R i t a ' s work space on t h e l i n e she kept a c l i p board w i t h q u a l i t y c o n t r o l c h a r t s . She r e c o r d e d r e j e c t s on t h e c h a r t s f o r each twenty u n i t s produced. Curves were p l o t t e d showing t h e r e j e c t s p e r u n i t produced a g a i n s t s t a n d a r d and t h e s e curves were c l e a r l y marked out i n r e d . The c l i p board was v i s i b l e t o a l l who passed t h e i n s p e c t i o n p o s i t i o n on t h e l i n e , and, s i n c e i t was kept up t o d a t e , t h e c u r r e n t q u a l i t y performance o f t h e l i n e c o u l d be seen a t a g l a n c e . 3 8 The  Engineers  34•  There were two groups o f e n g i n e e r s o f importance t o Tony's l i n e . The f i r s t was t h e f a c t o r y e n g i n e e r i n g group and t h e second, product e n g i n e e r i n g . The f a c t o r y e n g i n e e r i n g department was a p a r t o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e head o f t h i s group r e p o r t e d t o t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g department head. F a c t o r y e n g i n e e r i n g was a l i a i s o n group t h a t had g e n e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e l p i n g t o i n t e r p r e t e n g i n e e r i n g changes w h i c h came f r o m t h e product e n g i n e e r i n g department and f o r p a s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e p r o d u c t i o n l i n e s back t o e n g i n e e r i n g . T h e i r d u t i e s were n o t r i g i d l y d e f i n e d and t h e y seemed t o have been a s s i g n e d v a r i o u s t a s k s because t h e r e was no o t h e r group i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o handle t h e j o b s c o n v e n i e n t l y . Roy, t h e head o f f a c t o r y e n g i n e e r i n g , had v e r y l i t t l e d i r e c t d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e study l i n e , a l t h o u g h he v i s i t e d t h e l i n e f r o m time t o t i m e . George, one o f t h e f a c t o r y e n g i n e e r s r e p o r t i n g t o Roy, spent c o n s i d e r a b l e time on t h e study l i n e . He viewed h i s f u n c t i o n i n i t i a l l y as one o f b e i n g h e l p f u l t o Tony i n k e e p i n g t h e l i n e g o i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y where s p e c i a l problems a r o s e . At f i r s t , he was v e r y sympat h e t i c t o Tony's problems and o f f e r e d t o h e l p out i n many ways. Roy d i d n o t want Tony t o grow dependent on George, however. He wanted i n s t e a d t o have Tony l e a r n t o s o l v e h i s own problems. The second e n g i n e e r i n g g r o u p , product e n g i n e e r i n g , was a f u l l - f l e d g e d department whose head r e p o r t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e d i v i s i o n g e n e r a l manager. There were o n l y one o r two o c c a s i o n s where r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h i s department appeared on t h e l i n e and t h e n o n l y f o r b r i e f v i s i t s a t t h e r e q u e s t o f some o t h e r a u t h o r i t y . They had, however, a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n d i r e c t e f f e c t on t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e l i n e s i n c e most t e c h n i c a l changes had t h e i r o r i g i n i n product e n g i n e e r i n g . As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , product e n g i n e e r i n g sent t e c h n i c a l changes, w h i c h seemed t o be coming t h r o u g h c o n t i n u o u s l y , t o t h e methods department. Bob t h e n i n s t a l l e d t h e change on the l i n e . 3 9  35.  36.  107 Supervisory Interactions with Superiors ; 37.  38.  39.  40.  41.  Dan was Tony's immediate boss. Dan had been i n charge of t h e l i n e a t t h e o l d p l a n t , but w i t h t h e e x p a n s i o n and move t o t h e new p l a n t he was promoted t o a p o s i t i o n i n which he had charge o f a l l t h e assembly l i n e s making l a r g e u n i t s . Tony and s e v e r a l foremen now r e p o r t e d t o Dan so t h a t he had c o n s i d e r a b l y more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a n formerly. Dan was i n h i s m i d d l e o r l a t e f o r t i e s . He had been a s u p e r v i s o r f o r about twenty y e a r s i n companies manuf a c t u r i n g p r o d u c t s s i m i l a r or a l l i e d t o t h o s e b e i n g p r o duced i n t h e company. Dan was a w i r y i n d i v i d u a l w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e energy. He w a l k e d and spoke r a p i d l y and tended t o s t u t t e r f r o m nervousness r a t h e r f r e q u e n t l y . Dan s u f f e r e d from stomach u l c e r s which he a t t r i b u t e d t o worry. He had developed a r a t h e r c y n i c a l p h i l o s o p h y about s u p e r v i s i o n as a r e s u l t of h i s twenty y e a r s ' e x p e r i e n c e . Dan's p o i n t o f v i e w c o n c e r n i n g s u p e r v i s i o n and h i s work methods might b e s t be i l l u s t r a t e d by l e t t i n g him d e s c r i b e them. He was t a l k i n g o f t h e k i n d s o f problems he f a c e d w h i l e r u n n i n g t h e assembly l i n e and he gave many examples of t h e s e problems. Dan: Here's a n o t h e r example. THere was a g i r l who wasn't k e e p i n g up w i t h h e r work. So I c a l l e d h e r i n t o the o f f i c e and I s a i d , "What's t h e m a t t e r ? Why a r e n ' t you k e e p i n g up?" W e l l , she s a i d t h a t she was t r y i n g h e r best and so on. So I s a i d t o h e r , "Look, I know what's the m a t t e r . L e t me t e l l you what's wrong w i t h you. I n the f i r s t p l a c e , you were made a u t i l i t y o p e r a t o r f o r a month and you d i d n ' t g e t a 10^ r a i s e , which you were supposed t o g e t , u n t i l a week b e f o r e you went back t o y o u r o l d j o b . I s n ' t t h a t i t ? " She s a i d y e s . Imagine, I was t e l l i n g h e r what was b i t i n g h e r . J u s t l o o k , she's on u t i l i t y f o r a month and h e r 10^ r a i s e doesn't come t h r o u g h u n t i l h e r l a s t week. That was a d i r t y d e a l and I knew i t . But what c o u l d I do? I t j u s t t a k e s them a l o n g t i m e t o get t h e s e r a i s e s t h r o u g h . So I s a i d t o h e r , "Now l o o k , who a r e you s p i t i n g ? You t h i n k you're s p i t i n g the p r e s i d e n t o f t h e company. W e l l , you're n o t . You're s p i t i n g me. The o l d man don't c a r e i f you don't keep up. I'm t h e p r e s i d e n t t o you, and I'm t h e guy you're s p i t i n g . " W e l l , she s a i d , "I'm s t i l l burned up and I t h i n k I ' l l q u i t . " So I s a i d , " I know you're burned up. But where can you go? Where e l s e can you g e t $1.45 an hour and f r e e i n s u r a n c e ? You won't be a b l e t o c o l l e c t unemployment u n l e s s you're l a i d o f f and i f you q u i t you can't collect." . . . Mr. N i x o n , was t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g department head of t h e d i v i s i o n , and he r e p o r t e d t o t h e d i v i s i o n g e n e r a l manager. Mr Nixon was seldom seen on Tony's l i n e , and  108 on t h e o c c a s i o n s t h a t he appeared i t was more o r l e s s f o r a t o u r o f i n s p e c t i o n . Tony came i n c o n t a c t w i t h Mr. N i x o n d i r e c t l y o n l y when a p r o d u c t i o n meeting was h e l d i n t h e l a t t e r ' s o f f i c e , or when an u n u s u a l p r o b lem r e a c h e d Mr. Nixon's l e v e l f o r a d e c i s i o n . The d i v i s i o n g e n e r a l manager was even more remote t o Tony, and he was seen q u i t e i n f r e q u e n t l y w h i l e making a t o u r of t h e p l a n t . The d i v i s i o n g e n e r a l manager o c c a s i o n a l l y a d d r e s s e d t h e e n t i r e s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f of t h e d i v i s i o n , and i t was o n l y on t h o s e o c c a s i o n s t h a t Tony h e a r d him speak. The v i c e p r e s i d e n t of t h e d i v i s i o n was t h e v e r y t o p t o Tony. Tony h e a r d of t h e t o p management o n l y when h i s immediate s u p e r v i s o r i n f o r m e d him t h a t p r e s s u r e was on t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n or t o improve q u a l i t y . ^ 0 F i g u r e VI summarizes t h e p e o p l e w i t h whom Tony d e a l t . The f o l l o w i n g p a r t s of Case No.  4 present  data  per-  t a i n i n g t o : a t t i t u d e s o f s u p e r v i s o r s toward t h e i r work; a t t i t u d e s toward t r a i n i n g g i v e n t o s u p e r v i s o r s ; s u p e r v i s o r y problems.  The  d e c i s i o n to i n c l u d e data regarding s u p e r v i s o r  a t t i t u d e s toward t r a i n i n g i s based upon t h e p o s s i b l e u t i l i t y o f these d a t a i n v a l i d a t i n g t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses sentiments  of f i r s t - l i n e  supervisors.  Case No.  concerning  3 lacked  data  i n r e g a r d t o s u p e r v i s o r y a t t i t u d e s toward t r a i n i n g . The  r e f e r e n c e t o " I " i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i a l o g u e denotes  t h e remarks of t h e i n t e r v i e w e r , Z a l e z n i k . Supervisory a t t i t u d e s — t o w a r d t r a i n i n g 42.  An I n t e r v i e w w i t h H a l . H a l was a foreman o f an a s sembly l i n e and t h i s i n t e r v i e w t o o k p l a c e on t h e work f l o o r . There were a number o f e n g i n e e r s , methods a n a l y s t s , and o t h e r w o r k i n g on a new model on t h e f l o o r . Hal: You n o t i c e a l l t h e s e p e o p l e s t a n d i n g around on the l i n e ? I: Yes. Hal: W e l l , t h e y ' r e e n g i n e e r s , q u a l i t y c o n t r o l men, and methods men. You see t h e y ' r e supposed t o have t h e s e t h i n g s worked out b e f o r e t h e y b r i n g t h e work down t o us. But t h e y never do. They ought t o work out t h e methods  Dick  5* R i t a  ean -j, L i n e ( a u t h o r i t y ) ~ Relationship ^ S t a f f (assistance) Relationship Operators  Quality Control Inspectors  FIGURE V I THE PEOPLE WITH WHOM TONY DEALT (Copied from s o u r c e : p. 120)  H  o  110 and e n g i n e e r i n g s i t t i n g a t t h e i r desks and t h e y ought t o b u i l d a few u n i t s b e f o r e t u r n i n g i t over t o u s . I: You mean b u i l d a few u n i t s here? Hal: Oh no. B u i l d them u p s t a i r s o r some p l a c e around where t h e y work. Not h e r e . But a t l e a s t now i t ' s b e t t e r t h a n i t used t o be. Now t h e y come down here t o work out t h e problems. B e f o r e t h e y used t o send p a r t s down and s a y , 'Go ahead, b u i l d t h e u n i t s . ' Then we were supposed t o work out t h e problems. That way t h e y weren't h e l p i n g me. That's what t h e y ' r e i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r — t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e f o r us i n a l i n e and a t l e a s t now t h e y come down t o h e l p u s . But b e f o r e when t h e y came down a t a l l , t h e y were j u s t g e t t i n g i n t h e way. That was a f t e r t h e work was t u r n e d over t o me. I t was my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h e n . And I d i d n ' t h e s i t a t e t o put them out when t h e y were g e t t i n g i n t h e way. You know I a c t u a l l y put some o f them o u t . But, o f c o u r s e , i t was i n a n i c e way, but j u s t t h e same I asked them t o l e a v e . Once t h e y t u r n t h e assemb l y over t o me, w e l l , i t ' s my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and I have t o meet s c h e d u l e . But I want t h e i r h e l p and I expect t o g e t i t when I c a l l on them. But we're l e a r n i n g . At l e a s t t h e y t r y t o g e t t h e bugs out o f new models b e f o r e t h e y t u r n i t over t o me. So we're l e a r n i n g how t o work t o g e t h e r l i t t l e by l i t t l e . I t ' s t h e same w i t h my boss. That's one t h i n g about my boss, he doesn't h e s i t a t e t o speak up when we're r i g h t . You know we always have new models coming t h r o u g h . A f t e r a l l i t ' s p a r t o f our b u s i n e s s , and you have t o expect changes. I t takes a l i t t l e while t o get s t r a i g h t e n e d out on new models, but not t o o l o n g and t h e n t h i n g s r u n smoothly.41 T i [ a n anonymous t r a i n e e ] : Y o u ' l l f i n d out t h a t t h i s t r a i n i n g t r i e s t o b u i l d us up as s u p e r v i s o r s . They t r y t o compliment us and t e l l us we a r e b i g people and i m p o r t a n t , but when we're a c t u a l l y on t h e job we're n o t h i n g . How many people do any o f us superv i s e ? None. . A l l we have a r e people over o u r h e a d s — on t o p o f u s . So i t ' s a l o t o f bunk. I guess i t ' s a l l r i g h t f o r people l i k e and who o n l y have people under them and not over them. But i t ' s not t h a t way w i t h u s . A l l we see i s people coming i n over u s . They b r i n g people i n and put them over u s . Take and . They j u s t came i n t o our department. The department head brought them i n . W e l l , t h e y ' r e h i s boys. They can do no wrong as f a r as he's concerned. Meanwhile we t a u g h t them a l l we know and • t h e n have t o r e p o r t t o them. T2: That's r i g h t . We see i t g o i n g on a l l t h e t i m e . They b l e e d us w h i t e f o r our knowledge and t h e n we have to r e p o r t t o them. We a c t u a l l y spend more t i m e e x p l a i n ing t h e r u l e s and e x c e p t i o n s t o t h e m — t h e r e a r e a :  43.  Ill thousand e x c e p t i o n s — t h a n we do g e t t i n g our work done. Then t h e y have t h e s e p o l i c i e s i n w r i t i n g . A l l r i g h t , so t h e y have p o l i c i e s . 4 2 A t t i t u d e s toward work 44... many s u p e r v i s o r s complained i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s about t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r work s i t u a t i o n s , . . . The worr i e s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s seemed t o be of f o u r t y p e s . F i r s t , some s u p e r v i s o r s were concerned about t h e i r s t a t u s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ; s e c o n d l y , t h e r e were t h o s e d i s t u r b e d over t h e i r r a t e of advancement. T h i r d l y , some s u p e r v i s o r s r e f l e c t e d n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s w h i c h a r o s e out of u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r s u p e r i o r s or w i t h s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . F i n a l l y , t h e r e were s u p e r v i s o r s who were t o r n between the demands of w o r k e r s and t h e demands imposed upon them as s u p e r v i s o r s by company p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s . These f o u r t y p e s of w o r r i e s were not s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e a r - c u t so t h a t o n l y one t y p e would o r d i n a r i l y appear i n any one i n t e r v i e w . Most i n t e r v i e w s c o n t a i n e d r e f l e c t i o n s of more t h a n one major problem.43 45. . .: T h i s human r e l a t i o n s i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t . That's what we need i n t h i s company. As i t i s now, t h e y ' r e not doing a good j o b a t i t . Of c o u r s e , t h i s company's o r g a n i z a t i o n j u s t grew f a s t and I suppose e v e n t u a l l y t h e y ' l l work out t h e s e problems. And when I t a l k about human r e l a t i o n s , I don't mean j u s t t o w o r k e r s , but I mean t o s u p e r v i s o r s t o o . That's v e r y important. As i t i s now, t h e r e a r e n ' t any p o l i c i e s s e t up, or c l e a r - c u t l i n e s of d e m a r c a t i o n on a s u p e r v i s o r ' s job.44 46 George was a h i g h l y i n s e c u r e i n d i v i d u a l , and he was concerned w i t h s e v e r a l a s p e c t s of h i s work s i t u a t i o n . He was a c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e , t h e o n l y one among a l l t h e s u p e r v i s o r s whom the author had met at t h e company. I n a d d i t i o n , George had had c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e i n s u p e r v i s i n g l a r g e numbers o f w o r k e r s . He was e x t r e m e l y c o n s c i o u s of h i s background and f e l t t h a t h i s a b i l i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e were not being g i v e n f u l l scope i n h i s present j o b . H i s s t a t e m e n t , "They don't r e a l l y need a foreman h e r e , " i m p l i e d s t r o n g l y "a foreman of my c a l i b e r . " H i s past work h i s t o r y ended i n h i s being "promoted out t h e d o o r " when b u s i n e s s cut back. H i s present s i t u a t i o n w i t h t h e company seemed t o him t o be t h e p r e l u d e t o a r e p e t i t i o n of h i s p r e v i o u s experiences. The company had r e t r e n c h e d and George found h i m s e l f s u p e r v i s i n g a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l g r o u p , a comedown from the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s he had h e l d p r e v i o u s l y . H i s f e e l i n g s about h i s e d u c a t i o n a l background and work e x p e r i e n c e s e t t h e c o n t e x t f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g George's o t h e r w o r r i e s .  112 47.  48.  49.  50.  George's concern w i t h t h e l a c k of ' p o l i c i e s ' or ' c l e a r - c u t l i n e s of d e m a r c a t i o n ' of t h e foreman's a u t h o r i t y r e f l e c t e d the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y nature of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s and e x e c u t i v e s i n t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s of t h e d i v i s i o n management. George f e l t t h a t i t was not r i g h t f o r t h e person i n q u a l i t y c o n t r o l t o send out a memorandum w i t h "the s u p e r v i s i o n on the l i n e s t i n k s . " I t was, as he saw i t , a d i r e c t a t t a c k on him, and George f e l t i t was unj u s t i f i e d i n v i e w of the l a c k of p o l i c i e s . Similarly, George f e l t f r u s t r a t e d a t not b e i n g g i v e n i n f o r m a t i o n by t h e department head. W i t h o u t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , George f e l t t h a t he was not a b l e t o do t h e s u p e r v i s o r y j o b of w h i c h he was c a p a b l e . The l a c k of d i r e c t d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e department head a l s o seemed t o George a r e f l e c t i o n of h i s lowered s t a t u s i n t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . George kept coming back i n t h e i n t e r v i e w t o h i s major c o n c e r n s — h i s f e e l i n g of i n s e c u r i t y and h i s f e e l i n g of b e i n g l i m i t e d i n h i s p r e s e n t work s i t u a t i o n . George e x p e c t e d t h e t r a i n i n g meetings t o cure t h e i l l s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o improve t h e human r e l a t i o n s p r a c t i c e s p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p o s i t i o n of s u p e r v i s o r s . He was w a i t i n g f o r t h a t p a r t of t h e course which would d e a l w i t h such problems and he p l a n n e d t o speak h i s mind even though he f e l t t h a t he would "get s l a p p e d down." George was used t o b e i n g " s l a p p e d down," and e x p e c t e d t h i s t r e a t m e n t . The i n t e r v i e w s w i t h o t h e r s u p e r v i s o r s r e v e a l e d problems s i m i l a r t o George's and i n c l u d e d w o r r y over s t a t u s , advancement, r e l a t i o n s w i t h s u p e r i o r s and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , and c o n f l i c t s i n " r e c o n c i l i n g company p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s w i t h t h e demands imposed upon them by t h e work s i t u a t i o n . 4 5 Another complaint v o i c e d by s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h e i n t e r views c e n t e r e d around t h e i r u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s u p e r i o r s and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . One s u p e r v i s o r complained about h i s s u p e r i o r as f o l l o w s : You know, t h e t r o u b l e i s t h e people above me want t o do i t a l l by t h e m s e l v e s . They g i v e you r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , but no a u t h o r i t y . Here's an example of what I mean. I came i n one morning and f o u n d I was h i t p r e t t y h a r d w i t h a b s e n t e e i s m . W e l l , I was i n a s p o t , but t o me i t was no problem. I knew where t o get r e placements. But no, I c o u l d n ' t do t h a t , I had t o w a i t f o r my boss and he doesn't come i n u n t i l a f t e r 9. And so I had t o w a i t u n t i l he came i n t o see him about i t . But" he c o u l d n ' t d e c i d e . He had t o go i n t o see h i s boss about i t . So t h a t t a k e s us u n t i l 10 o ' c l o c k . By t h e t i m e . t h e t h i n g i s d e c i d e d , I'm behind s c h e d u l e . So t h e r e i t i s . I t was a p r e t t y s i m p l e t h i n g and I knew what t o do. But no, I had t o w a i t t o see my boss  113  51.  52.  53.  54.  and t h e n he had t o see h i s boss. You know what i t i s ? They're j u s t a f r a i d t o l e t someone e l s e d e c i d e t h i n g s . They're j u s t s c a r e d . Another s u p e r v i s o r complained about n o t g e t t i n g h e l p from t h e methods department. He s a i d , "People l o o k a t t h i s l i n e and t h i n k t h e r e ' s n o t h i n g t o i t . W e l l , t h e y ' r e wrong. I have t o do a l l t h e work by m y s e l f . We never g e t a methods man h e r e . I had t o put up a l l t h e t o o l s by m y s e l f and a r r a n g e t h e l i n e . W e l l , I don't mind c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h methods, but you'd t h i n k t h e y ' d g e t around t o h e l p i n g me once i n a while."46 A number o f s u p e r v i s o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e on t h e group l e a d e r l e v e l , were t o r n between c o n f l i c t s caused by t h e w o r k e r s ' demands and t h e demands imposed upon them by what t h e y saw as company p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s . One s u p e r v i s o r , B i l l was e x t r e m e l y a g i t a t e d d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w . He spoke r a p i d l y and w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e feeling. Bill: I don't mind t a l k i n g t o y o u and I've g o t a l o t o f t h i n g s on my mind. You don't g e t any c o n s i d e r a t i o n around h e r e . Some guys a r e always p u s h i n g t o g e t work out. W e l l , I don't agree w i t h t h a t . You can't c r a c k a whip and g e t any work out. After a l l the g i r l s have f e e l i n g s t o o . You j u s t have t o use y o u r common sense. That's a l l t h e r e i s t o s u p e r v i s i o n . Now, I'm not p e r f e c t , but I know when I'm r i g h t and I'm g o i n g t o s t i c k up f o r i t . Now t h e y c a l l me a h o t head around h e r e . W e l l , maybe t h a t ' s t r u e . I argue i n t h e s e meetings when I t h i n k I'm r i g h t , and I s t i c k up to i t . Come over h e r e . See t h a t g i r l [ p o i n t i n g ] . She can't even use a power t o o l — s h e has t o use a hand t o o l , and does t h a t t a k e time.' And she's r e a l n e r v o u s . Look a t her.' Why I've even had g i r l s ready t o c r y . I remember one g i r l I f o u g h t f o r . They wanted t o f i r e h e r , but I wouldn't l e t them. I had c o n f i d e n c e i n h e r . I found out t h a t an i n s p e c t o r was p i c k i n g on h e r . T h i s i n s p e c t o r d i d n ' t know h e r work. She used t o a l i b i by blaming t h i s o t h e r g i r l . I looked i n t o i t and found t h e r e was n o t h i n g wrong w i t h t h i s g i r l ' s work. The i n s p e c t o r was p i c k i n g on h e r and t h i s ^ poor g i r l was n e r v o u s . I t o l d t h e i n s p e c t o r t o r e p o r t a l l r e j e c t s t o me and n o t t o say a n y t h i n g t o t h i s g i r l . W e l l , d i d t h a t g i r l ' s work p i c k up.' She was l i k e a new p e r s o n . I t j u s t i f i e d my c o n f i d e n c e i n h e r . I e v e n t u a l l y had t h e i n s p e c t o r f i r e d f o r p i c k i n g on h e r . I go t o b a t f o r my g i r l s . They were d o i n g poor work a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e l i n e so when i t came t o o u r p a r t o f t h e l i n e my g i r l s c o u l d n ' t work. W e l l , I had t h a t changed soon. I went over and f o u g h t a g a i n s t i t .  114  55.  56.  57.  58.  59-  I f i g h t f o r t h e g i r l s and t h e y have c o n f i d e n c e i n me. That's t h e o n l y way t o work. You can't d r i v e them. Look a t t h i s work. How do t h e y expect t h e g i r l s t o get a t i t ? See t h i s work? Look, i t ' s s p o i l e d . The g i r l was so nervous she c o u l d n ' t work. I t ' s tough on them. Look a t t h i s . The g i r l showed me h e r hands. They were a l l s c a r r e d up from t r y i n g t o l o o s e n t h i s nut so t h a t she c o u l d g e t a t her work. I'm t e l l i n g you, t h e y g e t nervous and a g g r a v a t e d . I : What makes them nervous and aggravated? Bill: W e l l , I ' l l t e l l you. I t ' s t h o s e l i t t l e t h i n g s . You t a k e some o f t h e s e g i r l s . They're 27 and 28 and a r e w o r r i e d because t h e y haven't got c h i l d r e n . I t ' s t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . And a n o t h e r t h i n g , t h e y get no c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I: Consideration? Bill: Sure. Once when t h e y wanted t h e g i r l s t o work o v e r t i m e on a S a t u r d a y , t h e y d i d n ' t g i v e them any n o t i c e and some of them made appointments t h e y c o u l d not break. W e l l , t h e y c a l l e d them i n t o t h e f r o n t o f f i c e and t a l k e d t o them and t r i e d t o g e t them t o come in. You s h o u l d have seen t h o s e g i r l s . They came out of t h e f r o n t o f f i c e s c a r e d and t h e y were c r y i n g . When t h e o t h e r g i r l s saw t h a t , t h e y d i d n ' t want t o work. Heck, I c o u l d see t h e i r p o i n t . They had an a p p o i n t ment so t h e y c o u l d n ' t work o v e r t i m e . They d i d n ' t g i v e them any n o t i c e . I t makes sense I But no, t h e y had t o c a l l them i n t o t h e f r o n t o f f i c e . I : Front o f f i c e ? Bill: Aw yeah, you know what I mean [nods h i s head i n t h e g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n of t h e o f f i c e s ] . I : S u r e , I see. Bill: Now, what c o u l d I do? I t p u t s me i n a tough s p o t . I can't t a k e t h e g i r l s ' s i d e t o o much. I wouldn't l o o k good. A f t e r a l l , t h e g i r l s have t o r e s p e c t my p o s i t i o n . I can't, get t o o f a m i l i a r . But I d i d n ' t f e e l r i g h t about i t . I c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d how the g i r l s f e l t . I : What d i d you say? Bill: W e l l , I s a i d , "Look, I know how you f e e l . I know i t i s n ' t r i g h t , but maybe t h e y c o u l d n ' t h e l p i t . " Help i t ! How do I know t h e y c o u l d n ' t h e l p i t . But what c o u l d I say? I t ' s j u s t l i k e my w i f e s a y s . She works as an o p e r a t o r i n t h e company. She s a i d t o me, "What's t h e m a t t e r w i t h you people? Why do you t h i n k we don't have no b r a i n s f o r ? You don't g i v e us c r e d i t f o r knowing a n y t h i n g . " You see. My w i f e knows. They don't t h i n k t h e g i r l s g o t any b r a i n s . They do. They get upset q u i c k . They expect t h e g i r l s t o do t h i n g s but t h e y don't e x p l a i n why t h e y s h o u l d do i t .  115 60.  61.  Look, i t ' s j u s t common sense. I can go over and y e l l a t t h e g i r l s and d r i v e them t o g e t out more work; but t h a t way you g e t l e s s work. You h u r t t h e i r f e e l i n g s and upset them and t h e y can't work. I t j u s t doesn't make sense. But some people b e l i e v e i n d r i v i n g , but I know b e t t e r . I t doesn't work.47 Where does t h e foreman f i t i n t o t h i s p i c t u r e ? He does not possess t h e t e c h n i c a l knowledge r e q u i r e d f o r product d e s i g n and he i s not r e q u i r e d t o have t h i s knowledge f o r h i s j o b . P r o d u c t d e s i g n i s i n t h e b a i l i w i c k o f t h e e n g i n e e r . He may have some unders t a n d i n g o f methods work, but he does not have t o be an e x p e r t i n t h i s f u n c t i o n e i t h e r . A foreman can d i s t i n g u i s h between p r o d u c t s w i t h a c c e p t a b l e o r una c c e p t a b l e q u a l i t y , but he does not have t o determine t h e s t a n d a r d o f q u a l i t y and whether i t i s b e i n g met. These f u n c t i o n s b e l o n g t o q u a l i t y c o n t r o l s p e c i a l i s t s . The foreman c o u l d p r o b a b l y p e r f o r m many o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , but he does not have t o be p r o f i c i e n t ; i n f a c t he p r o b a b l y i s l e s s s k i l l e d i n p e r f o r m i n g a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n s t h a n many o f h i s subordinates . The foreman f u n c t i o n i n a modern work u n i t , u n l i k e t h e s p e c i a l i s t f u n c t i o n s , i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . The succ e s s f u l o p e r a t i o n o f a work u n i t depends on a t t a i n i n g t h e c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f many p e o p l e , w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s and f u n c t i o n s , f o r t h e common purpose o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . The c h i e f f u n c t i o n o f t h e foreman as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r i s t o a t t a i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f people i n t h e work group.48  A d d i t i o n a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s of Supervisory Behavior 62.  F o r t h e f i r s t f o u r days f o l l o w i n g t h e p l a n t o p e n i n g , Tony's l i n e succeeded i n exceeding t h e s c h e d u l e d o u t put. Dan c o n s i d e r e d Tony's performance v e r y s u c c e s s ful. But i n c o n t i n u i n g t o a t t a i n t h e output Tony had many k n o t t y problems t o s o l v e . The f o l l o w i n g i n c i dents h i g h l i g h t some o f t h e problems t h a t Tony f a c e d on t h e f o u r t h day o f t h e p l a n t ' s o p e r a t i o n s . J e a n , t h e group l e a d e r o f t h e t h i r d s e c t i o n , c a l l e d Tony over t o show him some p i e c e s o f i n s u l a t i n g s l e e v i n g i n one o p e r a t o r ' s b i n . Jean: Tony, t a k e a l o o k a t t h i s s l e e v i n g . Op.: They're c u t t i n g t h e s l e e v i n g t o o s h o r t . Look a t how much bare w i r e t h e r e i s a f t e r I make t h e connection. Tony: That s h o u l d n ' t be.  Dan: "Speed up t h e conveyor; get out t h e p r o d u c t i o n " "Stop t h e conveyor; don't i n t e r f e r e w i t h D i c k ' s girls" "You're t h e foreman so you're r e s p o n s i b l e " Dick: Bob: "The l i n e b e i n g out o f p o s i t i o n has n o t h i n g t o do w i t h methods. The l i n e i s balanced."  "Your not c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h me" Tony: " I want t o be a s u c c e s s f u l foreman" " I have t o meet p r o d u c t i o n q u o t a "  Helen: " I don't u n d e r s t a n d , Dan t o l d me. . . ."  "The conveyor has t o keep r u n n i n g " " I want t o be independent" " I am a foreman; I have a u t h o r i t y "  Rita: "I'm t r y i n g t o keep from marking r e j e c t s on your s h e e t . I'm t r y i n g t o h e l p you out."  /ft  "Stop t h e conveyor" Operators FIGURE  "Stop t h e c o n v e y o r " Quality Control Inspectors  VII  AS TONY PERCEIVED HIS SITUATION (Copied from s o u r c e : p. 201) r—  1  ON  117 Op.: We had the same t r o u b l e over a t t h e o l d p l a n t . Jean: T h i s has been g o i n g on a l o n g t i m e . We comp l a i n e d about i t t o Bob, but i t h a s n ' t done any good. Tony: Let me t a k e t h i s p a r t over t o Bob [ t h e methods man] and a p i e c e of the s l e e v i n g and I ' l l f i n d out what t h e p r o c e s s sheet c a l l s f o r . Tony and t h e o b s e r v e r s t a r t e d t o walk over t o t h e methods o f f i c e . On the way t h e y met Dan. Tony showed Dan t h e p a r t and the s h o r t s l e e v i n g and e x p l a i n e d t h e problem. Dan: We'd been h a v i n g t h a t same t r o u b l e over a t t h e o l d p l a n t . I c o u l d n ' t get a n y t h i n g done about i t . I t ' s an o l d s t o r y . Tony: I was g o i n g over t o Bob w i t h t h i s . Dan: Yeah. Go ahead i n t o see Bob and ask what t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s are f o r t h i s on the p r o c e s s s h e e t s . [ S m i l i n g . ] Yeah. You do t h a t . Go ahead i n and see what t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s a r e . Tony walked i n t o t h e methods o f f i c e and found Bob s e a t e d a t h i s desk. Bob's desk was p i l e d h i g h w i t h p r o c e s s s h e e t s and he seemed t o be q u i t e busy. Tony: Say, Bob, t h i s s l e e v i n g i s t o o s h o r t and i t ' s a hot c i r c u i t and l e a v e s t h e w i r e bare. That's bad. Dan t o l d me i t ' s an o l d s t o r y . What i s the s i z e c a l l e d f o r on t h e p r o c e s s s h e e t s ? Bob: What does t h e l e a d w i r e measure and what does t h e s l e e v i n g measure? Tony: [ A f t e r measuring them on a r u l e . ] I t ' s 1 3/4" f o r t h e l e a d w i r e on each s i d e and 7/8" f o r t h e s l e e v i n g . That's t o o s h o r t . Bob: W e l l , maybe t h e y ' r e not c u t t i n g i t r i g h t i n sub-assembly. Why don't you check w i t h Frank [foreman of sub-assembly]? Tony: F i r s t I'd l i k e t o know what t h e p r o c e s s sheet c a l l s f o r . Bob: A l l right. Tony: I'm s o r r y t o t a k e your t i m e i f you're busy, but I'd l i k e t o get t h i s s t r a i g h t once and f o r a l l . Bob: W e l l , I'm p r e t t y busy now, but I ' l l l o o k i t up. What's the p a r t number? Tony: [Pause] W e l l , t o t e l l you t h e t r u t h , I f o r got t o l o o k . Bob: [ I m p a t i e n t l y ] W e l l , what's t h e o p e r a t i o n number? I s i t o p e r a t i o n 88? Tony: I don't know. Bob: I t l o o k s l i k e i t ' s p a r t number 304. I think t h a t ' s o p e r a t i o n 88. Let me l o o k i t up. Yeah. O p e r a t i o n 88, p a r t number 304. I t s h o u l d be 1 1/2" f o r each of t h e l e a d w i r e s , not 1 3/4". I guess t h i s i s something t h e y ' v e j u s t done i n sub-assembly. Go out and check w i t h Frank on t h i s .  118 Tony: Look, Bob, y o u come out w i t h me. I want t o g e t t h i s s t r a i g h t once and f o r a l l . Dan j u s t t o l d me i t ' s an o l d s t o r y . Bob: What do y o u mean, o l d s t o r y [ a n g r i l y ] ? You go out and see Frank. I haven't g o t t i m e . I'm busy w o r k i n g on t h e s e p r o c e s s s h e e t s . Tony walked over t o t h e subassembly work a r e a and saw Frank. Tony e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e l e a d w i r e s were t o o l o n g and n o t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s on t h e p r o c e s s s h e e t . Frank g o t h i s copy o f t h e p r o c e s s sheet and he saw t h a t t h e l e a d w i r e s were l o n g e r t h a n s p e c i f i e d . At t h i s p o i n t Bob came o v e r . Frank: T h i s must have j u s t been changed. Bob: No, i t h a s n ' t . There haven't been any r e c e n t e n g i n e e r i n g changes t h r o u g h . Frank: W a i t , I ' l l c a l l my group l e a d e r over and see what she says about i t . He c a l l e d h i s group l e a d e r over and e x p l a i n e d t h e problem. Group Leader: Gh, I remember now. You see t h i s p a r t number 209 down here on t h e s h e e t . W e l l , we c o u l d n ' t g e t them so t h e y t o l d me t o s u b s t i t u t e 304 f o r i t , and I c u t i t t o t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f 209. That's 1 3 / 4 " . See i t h e r e . I was t o l d t h e s e p a r t s a r e i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e . I guess t h e y t o o k 304's t h a t were cut f o r 209's and used them i n a n o t h e r p o s i t i o n . Wait and I ' l l g e t you a h a n d f u l o f 3 0 4 s w i t h 1 1/2" lead wire. Bob: Yeah. I see i t now. They're used i n t e r changeably. The group l e a d e r r e t u r n e d w i t h t h e p a r t s and gave them t o Tony. Tony r e t u r n e d t o t h e l i n e . When Tony h a d , l e f t , Bob s a i d t o t h e o b s e r v e r , "Look how comp l i c a t e d Tony made t h a t t h i n g . I f he had used a l i t t l e i n i t i a t i v e , he c o u l d have used t h e 1 3/4" l e a d s j u s t by h a v i n g t h e o p e r a t o r make an e x t r a s i z e l a r g e r c o n n e c t i o n and bending t h e w i r e upward as i t l e a d s out o f t h e p a r t . That would have t a k e n c a r e o f t h e problem. I n s t e a d , he wants me t o make changes on t h e p r o c e s s sheet and t h a t g e t s i n v o l v e d i n a l o t o f paper work and i t would t a k e t o o l o n g t o come t h r o u g h . You s e e , i f he had o n l y t a k e n t h e t r o u b l e t o t h i n k about i t . I w i s h he'd use some common sense and work t h e s e t h i n g s out on t h e l i n e h i m s e l f . Then he wouldn't have a l l t h i s t r o u b l e . A l i t t l e l a t e r , R i t a c a l l e d Tony. R i t a : Tony, l o o k a t how t h i s l e a d w i r e i s d r e s s e d . I t ' s t e r r i b l e and I've been t e l l i n g t h e g i r l s about it. Tony: Whose o p e r a t i o n i s t h a t ? R i t a t o l d Tony t h e name o f t h e o p e r a t o r r e s p o n s i b l e T  119 f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n and Tony c a u t i o n e d h e r about i t and p o i n t e d out t h e problem t o t h e o p e r a t o r ' s group l e a d e r . J u s t t h e n , Bob came w a l k i n g by and Tony c a l l e d him o v e r . Tony: Look, Bob, I'm h a v i n g t r o u b l e w i t h t h i s l e a d d r e s s i n g . I want t o work out a system f o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h a t . Come on over t o R i t a w i t h me and see i f we can straighten t h i s out. They w a l k e d over t o R i t a . Bob: Now what's t h e t r o u b l e w i t h t h i s l e a d d r e s s business, Rita? R i t a : T h i s i s t e r r i b l e . We have t o do something about i t . These w i r e s a r e t o u c h i n g and t h e y ' r e a l l going t o short out. J u s t t h e n , George, t h e f a c t o r y e n g i n e e r , came by and Tony l e f t Bob and R i t a w h i l e he went t o speak t o George. Tony: George, I want t o work out a system on t h i s l e a d d r e s s i n g b u s i n e s s . Can we g e t t o g e t h e r tomorrow on t h a t ? George: S u r e : That's a good i d e a . We s h o u l d g e t after that. Bob watched Tony and George t a l k i n g f o r a moment and t h e n he wheeled around and l e f t t h e l i n e i n a h u f f , s a y i n g , "What i s t h i s ? You c a l l me over on t h e l e a d d r e s s and w h i l e you're t a l k i n g about i t , y o u walk over t o somebody e l s e . I came over h e r e t o h e l p you and i f t h i s i s what you're g o i n g t o do, I ' l l go back t o t h e o f f i c e . I'm busy and g o t p l e n t y o f t h i n g s t o do over t h e r e . " Tony h a r d l y n o t i c e d what Bob s a i d and he cont i n u e d t a l k i n g t o George. Then R i t a c a l l e d out t o Tony a g a i n . R i t a : Tony, come over h e r e and t a k e a l o o k a t t h i s . They're g e t t i n g t h e l i g h t s bent on t h e s e u n i t s . Can't you do something about i t ? Tony: Bob was supposed t o b r i n g some b r a c k e t s over t o h o l d up t h e assembly bases. He's g o t some over h e r e now and I b e l i e v e more a r e coming. D i c k came up t o t h e l i n e and R i t a showed him t h e bent l i g h t s . D i c k commented, "Methods was supposed t o b r i n g t h o s e b r a c k e t s over a l o n g t i m e ago. They're s u r e t a k i n g t h e i r t i m e about i t . " R i t a went back t o h e r i n s p e c t i o n p o s i t i o n s and a few minutes l a t e r c a l l e d out t o Tony a g a i n . R i t a : Look a t t h i s . They're p u t t i n g i n t h e p i n s r e v e r s e d . We've g o t a whole l i n e o f completed u n i t s now l i k e t h a t . George: Oh, t h a t ' s s e r i o u s . That can cause a l o t o f t r o u b l e . You'd [ t o Tony] b e t t e r g e t t h a t s t r a i g h t ened o u t . Tony: I t o l d t h e p i n - u p o p e r a t o r about i t . He s h o u l d n ' t be d o i n g i t t h a t way.  120 Tony, George, R i t a , and D i c k went over t o t h e p i n up o p e r a t o r ' s p o s i t i o n . Tony: [To the o p e r a t o r . ] You're p u t t i n g t h e p i n s i n wrong. D i d n ' t I show you how t h e y were supposed t o go i n ? Op.: You t o l d me? I'm d o i n g i t t h e way I was shown. No one t o l d me d i f f e r e n t . I t goes l i k e t h i s [ p o i n t i n g ] 1, 2, 3, 4. George: No, you're r e v e r s i n g the p i n s . Tony: I t o l d you t h a t . Op.: You d i d not.' No one t o l d me t o do i t d i f f e r e n t t h a n I am. R i t a : Tony, why don't you get him a p i n - u p c h a r t ? How's he supposed t o remember where t h e y go? Tony: A l l r i g h t . I ' l l go over t o t h e o f f i c e and get him one, and I ' l l b r i n g some e x t r a s back f o r you. Bob reappeared on the l i n e and he i m m e d i a t e l y spoke t o Tony a n g r i l y . Bob: What's t h e i d e a of c a l l i n g me over t o check on the l e a d d r e s s and t h e n l e a v i n g me i n the m i d d l e t o go over t o somebody e l s e ? I'm busy over a t t h e o f f i c e and I t a k e my time o f f t o h e l p you and you haven't got the manners t o s t a y w i t h me. You r u n o f f . That's what I c a l l b e i n g i m p o l i t e . Tony: How can you say t h a t , Bob? I j u s t walked over t o George t o see i f we can get t o g e t h e r tomorrow t o work out a system on t h i s l e a d d r e s s . I didn't mean t o be i m p o l i t e , but i f you t h i n k I was, I'm sorry. I apologize. I d i d n ' t t h i n k I was i m p o l i t e . Bob: [ R a i s i n g h i s v o i c e . ] W e l l , what e l s e would you c a l l i t but i m p o l i t e ? That's what i t was, wasn't i t ? Tony: W e l l , I'm s o r r y , Bob. I d i d n ' t mean t o be i m p o l i t e . I went over t o George about t h a t l e a d dress. George: That's r i g h t , Bob. We a l l ought t o get t o g e t h e r tomorrow morning on t h a t . R i t a came up t o the group a g a i n . R i t a : Tony, I t h o u g h t you promised t o b r i n g a p i n up c h a r t f o r the o p e r a t o r . Tony: [ R a i s i n g h i s v o i c e i n anger.] Now w a i t a m i n u t e , R i t a . Stop p u t t i n g words i n my mouth. I d i d not say I'd b r i n g a p i n - u p c h a r t o v e r . I s a i d I'd t r y t o get i t . R i t a : W e l l , I s a i d you t o l d me t h a t you'd t r y t o b r i n g i t over. Tony: I never promised a n y t h i n g l i k e t h a t . I s a i d I'd t r y . R i t a : W e l l , now I have t o go a l l the way down the l i n e and change the p i n s . [ R i t a s t a r t e d t o walk away. Dick followed her.] D i c k : R i t a , you w i l l not change t h o s e p i n s . That's not y o u r j o b , R i t a , and I don't want you t o do t h a t .  121 Tony: I ' l l go down t o t h e o f f i c e and g e t t h o s e pin-up c h a r t s . [Tony l e f t . ] D i c k : Boy. They c a l l t h i s s u p e r v i s i o n . T h i s l i n e i s g e t t i n g a l l f o u l e d up. George: Now w a i t a m i n u t e , D i c k . Don't say t h a t . G i v e Tony a break. He's j u s t g e t t i n g s t a r t e d . D i c k : W e l l , nobody's g i v i n g me a break. I was i n Nixon's o f f i c e and he gave me h e l l about t h e q u a l ity. No one's g o i n g t o t a k e t h e r a p f o r me. By God, t h i s has g o t t o change. We're g o i n g t o g e t q u a l i t y out o f t h i s l i n e , o r e l s e . George: W e l l , don't blame Tony. H e ' l l be a l l right. D i c k : O.K., George [ s m i l e s ] , l e t ' s you and I c o o p e r a t e . Do you want t o cooperate w i t h me? George: Sure. W e ' l l cooperate [ l a u g h s ] . Tony r e t u r n e d w i t h s e v e r a l pin-up c h a r t s . He gave one t o R i t a and one t o t h e o p e r a t o r a t t h e pin-up s t a t i o n . Tony t h e n came over t o where D i c k and George were s t a n d i n g . R i t a t h e n c a l l e d Tony, D i c k , and George and showed them a u n i t w i t h a r e j e c t t a g containing a long l i s t of r e j e c t s . R i t a read o f f t h e r e j e c t s one by one and she showed D i c k a q u e s t i o n a b l e p i e c e o f work. Dick: R i t a , r e j e c t i t J Reject everything l i k e t h a t . Don't t a k e any chances. We're g o i n g t o t i g h t e n up now. Tony walked away w i t h o u t comment and he was r e j o i n e d by D i c k and George. R i t a t h e n came over w i t h the pin-up c h a r t t h a t Tony had g i v e n t o h e r . R i t a : T h i s l o o k s l i k e t h e pin-up c h a r t f o r t h e other l i n e s . Tony: Aw, I'm s o r r y . I d i d n ' t l o o k and brought t h e wrong c h a r t . I'm s o r r y . George: Look, Tony, I ' l l t a k e a walk over t o t h e o f f i c e and g e t you some c h a r t s f o r y o u r l i n e . Tony: Would you do t h a t , George? Gee, thanks a lot. And w h i l e you're t h e r e , would you g e t me some e x t r a c h a r t s ? Get about 7 o f them so t h a t I have them, w i l l you? George: S u r e , Tony. A l i t t l e l a t e r , Tony spoke t o t h e o b s e r v e r . He s a i d , I don't know why Bob g o t s o r e and c a l l e d me i m p o l i t e . I guess he's s t i l l mad about t h a t s l e e v i n g b u s i n e s s t h i s morning.49 D u r i n g t h e second week o f o p e r a t i o n s and t h e r e a f t e r during the observation period, a f u l l - f l e d g e d feud broke out on t h e l i n e . The f e u d c e n t e r e d around t h e conveyor. The conveyor was supposed t o o p e r a t e cont i n u o u s l y except f o r t h e luncheon and r e s t p e r i o d s , but i t d i d n o t work out t h a t way. The o p e r a t i o n o f t h e conveyor l i n e was based on t h e n  63.  64.  122 assumption t h a t each assembly sequence would be p e r formed w i t h i n t h e s t a n d a r d t i m e a l l o w e d . The speed of t h e conveyor b e l t was s e t so t h a t when each o p e r a t o r completed h e r work ( i f w i t h i n t h e s t a n d a r d t i m e a l l o w a n c e ) , t h e u n i t had e n t e r e d f u l l y i n t o t h e next o p e r a t o r ' s work p o s i t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e was supposed t o be a u n i t i n each work p o s i t i o n a t a l l times. I t d i d not t a k e Tony v e r y l o n g t o f i g u r e out t h a t each 4.5 minutes t h a t t h e conveyor was s t o p p e d he would l o s e one u n i t i n t h a t day's p r o d u c t i o n . F o r the f i r s t week o f work, Tony d i d not seem concerned over t h e f a c t t h a t t h e conveyor was b e i n g s t o p p e d when a g i r l g o t out o f p o s i t i o n . A f t e r a l l , i t was t h e f i r s t week, t h e quota was s e t f a i r l y l o w , and Tony was exceeding i t . No one had t o o much cause f o r c o m p l a i n t . But, b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e second week, t h e s i t u a t i o n became c h r o n i c . A p p a r e n t l y some o f t h e g i r l s c o u l d not or would n o t , p e r f o r m t h e i r work w i t h i n s t a n d a r d t i m e a l l o w a n c e s . They would g e t out o f p o s i t i o n moving a l o n g t h e l i n e i n t o o t h e r o p e r a t o r s ' work s t a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o f o l l o w t h e uncompleted u n i t as i t rode down the conveyor. Other g i r l s were f o r c e d out o f p o s i t i o n , and t h e c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n became s e r i o u s . As t h e g i r l s g o t out o f p o s i t i o n , t h e y had t o walk back t o t h e i r r e g u l a r work s t a t i o n s f o r p a r t s . S o l d e r i n g i r o n l i n e s c r o s s e d making i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the g i r l s t o work w i t h t h e i r o n s . These i n t e r f e r e n c e s i n c r e a s e d t h e work t i m e s so t h a t t h e o p e r a t o r s moved even f u r t h e r out o f p o s i t i o n . 5 0 The g i r l s d i s l i k e d g e t t i n g out o f p o s i t i o n because i t was p h y s i c a l l y t i r i n g t o walk from t h e i r r e g u l a r s t a t i o n s t o where t h e i r u n i t had moved and t h e n back f o r p a r t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e y were u n a b l e t o c a r r y on t h e i r normal c o n v e r s a t i o n s and t h e work c l i m a t e became v e r y t e n s e . The g i r l s t h e r e f o r e began t o p r e s s u r e Tony t o shut down t h e conveyor t o g i v e them a chance t o g e t back t o t h e i r normal work p o s i t i o n s . Tony, on t h e o t h e r hand, was d e t e r m i n e d t o keep t h e conveyor r u n n i n g a t a l l c o s t s . What k e p t r u n n i n g t h r o u g h h i s mind was " e v e r y 4.5 m i n u t e s , I'm down one u n i t . " Tony b e l i e v e d H e l e n was r e s p o n s i b l e i n some way f o r t h e problem and he l e t h e r know about i t . Meanwhile, H e l e n and Jean were caught between t h e g i r l s ' demands t h a t t h e conveyor be s t o p p e d and Tony's i n s i s t e n c e t h a t i t c o n t i n u e t o r u n . As t h e days p a s s e d , t h e s i t u a t i o n grew worse because a b s e n t e e i s m i n c r e a s e d and new o p e r a t o r s a s s i g n e d t o t h e l i n e c o u l d not keep up w i t h t h e work on u n f a m i l i a r p o s i t i o n s . D o t t i e t r i e d t o keep n e u t r a l , but Tony a s s i g n e d h e r t o h e l p 'push' out u n i t s a t t h e end o f t h e l i n e . As l o n g as she was away from h e r s e c t i o n , i t t o o began t o have  123 d i f f i c u l t y k e e p i n g up, w h i c h o n l y i n t e n s i f i e d t h e problem.51 One morning t h e g i r l s were out o f p o s i t i o n and t h e y began p r e s s u r i n g t o have t h e conveyor shut down. The g i r l s kept i n s i s t i n g t o Helen t h a t she s h o u l d shut down t h e conveyor. H e l e n kept r e p e a t i n g a t each r e q u e s t , "Tony doesn't want t h e l i n e t o s t o p . " Because s e v e r a l g i r l s were absent from Helen's s e c t i o n she was busy on t h e l i n e h e l p i n g f i l l - i n o p e r a t o r s and she t o o k p o s i t i o n s h e r s e l f u n t i l a f i l l - i n o p e r a t o r c o u l d be a s s i g n e d . At one p o i n t i n t h e day, w h i l e t h e g i r l s were f a r out o f p o s i t i o n , H e l e n c a l l e d f o r Tony. H e l e n : Tony, i s out f o r r e l i e f . You b e t t e r shut down t h e l i n e . She s h o u l d n ' t be away.52 Tony was w o r r i e d . He s a i d t o t h e o b s e r v e r , "These g i r l s [ " r e f e r r i n g t o t h e group l e a d e r s ] have me b e h i n d the e i g h t b a l l . I have t o depend on them f o r answers i n case N i x o n c a l l s me i n t o h i s o f f i c e , and I don't know whether t h e y ' r e t e l l i n g me t h e r i g h t s t u f f o r not. They've been on t h e l i n e l o n g e r . So I've j u s t got t o w a i t and g e t s t r a i g h t e n e d o u t . Meanwhile, t h e y ' v e g o t me b e h i n d t h e e i g h t b a l l and I have t o depend on them f o r answers. When N i x o n o r H a r r y c a l l me i n , t h e y want a q u i c k answer and i t has t o be right. I t doesn't l o o k r i g h t f o r me t o h e s i t a t e . So I have t o depend on my group l e a d e r s , but I'm not s u r e t h e y ' r e t e l l i n g me t h e r i g h t answers. Well, I ' l l be s t r a i g h t e n e d out soon and I ' l l know f o r mys e l f . 53 . . . . O p e r a t o r s #1 and §2 k e p t t h e i r word. F o l l o w i n g the r e b a l a n c i n g , t h e y were always b e h i n d i n f e e d i n g u n i t s on t o t h e assembly l i n e , and t h e l i n e had many gaps where t h e r e s h o u l d have been u n i t s . T h i s l a g f u r t h e r reduced d a i l y p r o d u c t i o n . Bob r a n i n t o a snag toward t h e end o f t h e l i n e and he d i d n o t complete h i s work u n t i l l a t e i n t h e a f t e r noon. The l i n e had t o be shut down f o r a good p a r t of t h e day and t h i s upset Tony. He s a i d , "Look, Bob promised i t wouldn't i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e l i n e and y e t the l i n e has s t o p p e d and I ' l l be l u c k y t o g e t 35 u n i t s o f f t h e l i n e t o d a y . And t h a t throws my c o s t s up. I s u r e hope t h i s r e b a l a n c i n g was checked. I don't have c o n f i d e n c e i n Bob's work. I f something i s wrong t o morrow and I don't g e t p r o d u c t i o n , t h e y ' l l have me on the c a r p e t because t h e l i n e i s now supposed t o be r e b a l a n c e d . Dan c a l l e d me i n t o H a r r y ' s o f f i c e and y e l l e d about h a v i n g e x t r a p e o p l e on t h e l i n e and about quality. That q u a l i t y i s t e r r i b l e . I'm g o i n g t o have to work something out on t h a t . Boy, I'm on t h e c a r p e t , and I know i t I W i t h t h e s e e x t r a p e o p l e on t h e l i n e ,  124 t h a t throws my c o s t s up. I've g o t t o f i n d out what my c o s t s a r e . Nobody t e l l s me a n y t h i n g , but i f I don't know what my c o s t s a r e and keep them down, t h e y ' l l c a l l me i n t h e o f f i c e and n a i l me. I want t o f i n d out what my c o s t s a r e and g e t them down b e f o r e t h e y put me 70.  71.  72.  on t h e spot.54  A f t e r t h e r e b a l a n c i n g , events on t h e l i n e took a t u r n f o r t h e worse f o r Tony. The l i n e c o u l d not keep r u n n i n g s t e a d i l y and p r o d u c t i o n was down. D o t t i e had been t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e l i n e and so had C a r o l . Pete remained on t h e l i n e and Bob spent most o f each day t h e r e . I n a d d i t i o n , George, t h e f a c t o r y e n g i n e e r , was temporarily assigned t o t h e l i n e f u l l time t o t r y t o improve q u a l i t y . The o p e r a t o r s began s t a r t i n g and s t o p p i n g t h e conveyor almost a t w i l l . Pete a l s o began t o c o n t r o l t h e conveyor. He had t h e i d e a t h a t i t would improve t h e s i t u a t i o n t o r u n t h e l i n e c o n t i n u o u s l y f o r about 15 minutes and t h e n t o s t o p i t f o r 3 or 4 minutes so t h a t t h e g i r l s c o u l d g e t caught up w i t h t h e i r work. He s t a r t e d t o do t h i s w i t h o u t cons u l t i n g Tony. When Tony l e a r n e d o f t h i s , he wanted t o know, "Who does t h i s Pete t h i n k he i s ? " He t o l d Pete t o f o r g e t about h i s p l a n . Bob a l s o a c t e d as though he were a s u p e r v i s o r on t h e l i n e . He t o l d t h e g i r l s t o f i l l i n t h e gaps on t h e l i n e by moving t h e u n i t s a l o n g t h e conveyor.55 Observer: Tony, you've t o l d me a number o f t i m e s t h a t i n your j o b as foreman you a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o d u c t i o n , q u a l i t y , and p e r s o n n e l . T e l l me, what does t h a t mean? Tony: [ S m i l i n g . ] W e l l , p r o d u c t i o n means t h a t I'm supposed t o g e t a c e r t a i n q u a n t i t y out every day. The schedule . . . Observer: Y e s , but t e l l me i n your own words. Tony: [Laughing.] W e l l , methods i s supposed t o s e t up t h e l i n e f o r me so t h a t I can g e t out a c e r t a i n amount. I f t h e y don't b a l a n c e t h e l i n e o r i f t h e y don't s e t i t up r i g h t , I'm n o t g o i n g t o g e t our t h e q u a n t i t y on my s c h e d u l e . So I'm r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h a t . That means I'm g o i n g t o g e t put on t h e c a r p e t f o r t h a t . Now, I don't have t o l e t methods come i n h e r e t o r e balance t h e l i n e or anything. A f t e r a l l , I'm i n charge o f t h e l i n e . But i f I d o n ' t , t h e n F r e d i s g o i n g t o see N i x o n and t e l l him I don't want t o cooperate. Now t h a t ' s g o i n g t o make me l o o k bad. So I have t o coo p e r a t e w i t h them. [Laughing.] You know something? You see a l o t o f people who come down t o t h e l i n e and t r y t o t e l l me what t o do. Look a t a l l t h e people I g o t t o c o n f r o n t w i t h . There's methods, t h e n t h e r e ' s i n s p e c t i o n and e n g i n e e r i n g , and t h a n I g o t t o c o n f r o n t w i t h my boss. That means I g o t  12$  73•  74.  t o c o n f r o n t w i t h 5 d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e . And t h e y don't want t o know t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e s t o r y . They o n l y look at t h e i r side. I don't know. I t h i n k t h i n g s w i l l be a l l r i g h t . As soon as I g e t my i n v e n t o r y and f i n d out where I s t a n d , I ' l l g e t e v e r y t h i n g s t r a i g h t ened o u t . I t ' s g o t t o s t r a i g h t e n out 156 The company's s t a n d a r d j o b d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f o r e man f u n c t i o n a s s i g n e d c e r t a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o a foreman and g r a n t e d him a measure o f a u t h o r i t y . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e foreman f u n c t i o n were d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : "The j o b i n v o l v e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r emp l o y e e s ' conduct and f o r d i s c i p l i n e i n t h e department, a l s o q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f work p r o d u c e d . " The j o b d e s c r i p t i o n a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e foreman "must be a b l e t o use independent judgment and r e g u l a r l y e x e r c i s e d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers." The o r g a n i z a t i o n g r a n t e d t h e foreman a c e r t a i n amount o f a u t h o r i t y w h i c h gave him a measure o f cont r o l over t h e a c t i o n s and f u t u r e o f o t h e r s . He e o u l d i n i t i a t e a c t i o n i n h i r i n g , d i s c h a r g i n g , promoting, and d i s c i p l i n i n g employees. A foreman a l s o p r e p a r e d m e r i t r a t i n g s , w h i c h were used i n awarding pay i n c r e a s e s t o employees.57 There were a t l e a s t two key r e l a t i o n s h i p s on t h e assembly l i n e i n which t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r growth and development e x i s t e d : (1) i n Tony's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s b o s s , and (2) i n Tony's r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . The n e g a t i v e q u a l i t y o f t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e s u l t e d i n t h e development and p e r p e t u a t i o n o f n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between Tony and h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s . A k i n d o f v i c i o u s c i r c l e was i n p r o c e s s , t h e r e f o r e , w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e elements. First, we f i n d Tony w i t h a s e t o f f i x e d b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s w h i c h d i d not h e l p him u n d e r s t a n d e v e n t s about him. Second, a s e t o f n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t e d between Tony and h i s b o s s , and Tony and t h e s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , i n w h i c h Tony d i d not r e c e i v e any h e l p i n m o d i f y i n g h i s b e l i e f s o r i n l e a r n i n g from h i s e x p e r i ence. T h i r d , t h e f o r t i f i c a t i o n o f h i s b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s upward l e d t o u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s between Tony and h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s v i c i o u s c i r c l e , as we saw i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f Tony and h i s l i n e , were t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e l i n e t o meet p r o d u c t i o n and q u a l i t y g o a l s ; t h e low s t a t e o f morale among t h e o p e r a t o r s ; and f i n a l l y Tony's own f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g pushed around.58  126  FOOTNOTES ON CHAPTER V F.L.W. R i c h a r d s o n , T a l k , Work and A c t i o n ( I t h a c a , New Y o r k : The S o c i e t y f o r A p p l i e d A n t h r o p o l o g y , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , New York S t a t e S c h o o l o f I n d u s t r i a l and Labor R e l a t i o n s , 1961). 2  p . 17.  3  pp.  4  p . 18.  5  p . 18.  V  17-18.  19  7  p.  19.  8  p.  22.  V  19.  p. 25. p. 25 12 A  * p . 22.  1 3  p . 26.  1 4  p . 26.  l 5  p.  26.  p . 26. p . 28. 18 " p. 33.  l 6  1 7  p.  29.  °P.  29.  1 9  2  2 X1  p.  2 2  29.  p . 30.  127 p.  2 3  2 4 P  30.  . 56.  p p . 56-57. 26 A. Z a l e z n i k , Foreman T r a i n i n g i n a Growing E n t e r p r i s e , (Boston: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y S c h o o l o f B u s i n e s s , D i v i s i o n o f R e s e a r c h , 1951). 2 5  2 7  p.  2 9  p p . S8-89.  3  87.  ° p p . 90-91.  3 1  P P . 93-96.  3 2  p p . 96-97.  3 3  P P . 97-98.  3 4  p p . 104-105.  3 5  p.  105.  3 6  p.  106.  3 7  p p . 106-108.  3 8 P  3 9  4  p . 110-111.  p p . 113-114.  V  119.  4 1  p p . 61-62.  4 2  p.  65.  4 3  p.  72.  4 4  p.  73.  4 5  p p . 76-77.  4 6  P P . 79-80.  47pp. 80-82. 48'p. 216, 49pp. 123-129. 50p. 134. 51•p. 135. 52p. 135. 53pp. 142-143.  54p. 158. 55P. 159.  56p.  166.  57p. 184. 58 'p. 189.  CHAPTER V I CASE STUDIES:  CATEGORY I I I TECHNOLOGY  Introduction Chapter V I i s t h e l a s t o f t h e t h r e e c h a p t e r s  devoted  e n t i r e l y t o t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e m p i r i c a l d a t a i n t h e form of  case s t u d i e s .  The c h a p t e r c o n s i s t s o f two case s t u d i e s  which s e r v e t o demonstrate examples o f t h e n a t u r e o f f i r s t l i n e s u p e r v i s o r y r o l e demands and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s under c o n t i n u o u s - p r o c e s s t e c h n o l o g y .  The two case  s t u d i e s o f t h e c h a p t e r have been e d i t e d i n o r d e r t o p r e s e n t o n l y t h o s e d a t a which a r e p e r t i n e n t t o t h e a n a l y s i s . Case 6 i s a t y p i c a l o f t h e p r e c e d i n g f i v e In e f f e c t , i t r e p r e s e n t s a composite drawn from two d i s t i n c t s o u r c e s .  studies.  case-study-commentary  The content and o r g a n i -  z a t i o n o f Case 6 r e f l e c t s t h e o b j e c t i v e o f a t t e m p t i n g t o v a l i d a t e t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses  f o r m u l a t e d i n Chapter I I I .  CASE NO. 5 A STEEL PLANT  1  P r o d u c t i o n and t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n 1.  [ T h i s ] s t u d y o f male s u p e r v i s o r s was c a r r i e d out i n one o f t h e p l a n t s o f a s t e e l company, i n which a r e emp l o y e d almost 3,000 p e o p l e . P r o d u c t i o n c o n s i s t s a l most e n t i r e l y o f ' f l a t * s t e e l , t h a t i s t o s a y ' s l a b s ' which v a r y i n s i z e but a r e something o f t h e o r d e r o f t h i r t y f e e t by s i x , and ' b i l l e t s , ' l o n g bars about s i x  130  2. 3.  i n c h e s s q u a r e . The p r o d u c t i o n work i s done i n f o u r departments: Coke-Ovens, B l a s t - F u r n a c e s , M e l t i n g Shop and R o l l i n g M i l l , a l l o f w h i c h a r e w o r k i n g round t h e c l o c k . There i s a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f maintenance men, m o s t l y on day work, but w i t h a few on s h i f t s . I n a l l t h e r e a r e about e i g h t y foremen and o f t h e s e s l i g h t l y more t h a n h a l f a r e engaged on p r o d u c t i o n work and t h e r e m a i n d e r on maintenance. T h i s s t u d y i s concerned m a i n l y w i t h t h e p r o d u c t i o n foremen i n t h e f o u r departments named above. F o r p r e s e n t purposes t h e p l a n t may be r e g a r d e d as an independent company, w i t h an autonomous management. . . . . [See F i g u r e V I I I below] Each o f t h e managers o f t h e f o u r p r o d u c t i o n d e p a r t ments has under him an a s s i s t a n t manager and a number of foremen. To e x p l a i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e foremen i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e s c r i b e t h e work o f t h e departments and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f some of t h e p e o p l e i n them. F i r s t , . . . t h e p r o c e s s e s o f t h e p l a n t can be summari z e d as f o l l o w s . The raw m a t e r i a l s o f s t e e l - m a k i n g are i r o n ore and c o a l . The c o a l i s made i n t o coke i n the coke-ovens, coke and ore a r e h e a t e d t o g e t h e r i n the b l a s t - f u r n a c e s t o become i r o n ; t h e i r o n i s t r a n s formed i n t o s t e e l i n t h e M e l t i n g Shop, and t h e s t e e l i n g o t s a r e t h e n passed t h r o u g h t h e R o l l i n g M i l l , where t h e y a r e r o l l e d down t o t h e r e q u i r e d s i z e s . 2 The Work o f t h e Foremen The  4.  5.  6.  coke-ovens  T h i s department employs 200 men, o f whom t h i r t y o r so are on permanent day-work and t h e r e s t on s h i f t - w o r k . There a r e t h r e e s h i f t s , and t h e f o u r groups o f s h i f t w o r k e r s r o t a t e on a weekly b a s i s . The s u p e r v i s o r s i n c l u d e f o u r s h i f t - f o r e m e n , and two day-foremen, one of t h e l a t t e r i n charge o f t h e washing and c r u s h i n g p l a n t , and t h e o t h e r i n charge o f h e a t i n g . As c o a l a r r i v e s i t i s t i p p e d on t o conveyor b e l t s , and passes on f o r b l e n d i n g , w a s h i n g , and c r u s h i n g . I l l i t s c r u s h e d f o r m t h e c o a l t h e n remains i n a s t o r age tower u n t i l i t i s charged i n t o t h e coke-ovens. A f t e r i t has been coked, i t i s pushed f r o m t h e ovens, quenched, s c r e e n e d f o r s i z e and t h e n t r a n s p o r t e d t o the b l a s t f u r n a c e s . The f i r s t p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s , from t h e d e l i v e r y of t h e c o a l u n t i l i t i s ready f o r c h a r g i n g , i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f one of t h e day^-foremen who c o n t r o l s a w o r k - f o r c e o f about t w e n t y men. The o t h e r dayforeman, t h e H e a t e r Foreman, i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e h e a t i n g o f t h e hundred o r so ovens. I t i s h i s j o b t o d e c i d e what t e m p e r a t u r e i s needed i n e v e r y oven, and  General Manager Assistant General Manager Works Manager  ducation Officer  1  Labour Officer  Dffice Manager  Chief |Acct.  Commercial Manager  Chief Draughtsman  iQuarriesf  Coke Ovens  Blast Furnaces  Melting Shop  Chief Engineer  Mechanical Engineering  Electrical Engineering  Chief Chemist  Rol]Ling M i l LI  Chief Metallurgist Asst. Manager  Asst. Manager  [Foremen! Foremen)  Asst. Manager  Asst. Manager  Foremen] Foremen FIGURE V I I I  MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION I N " A STEEL PLANT" (Developed from source d a t a : p. 83)  Fuel & Progress  13 2  7.  8.  9.  t o ensure by r e g u l a r i n s p e c t i o n t h a t t h e ovens and t h e i r a p p a r a t u s and f l u e s (of w h i c h t h e r e are t w e n t y - s e v e n t o each oven) a r e i n s e r v i c e a b l e c o n d i t i o n . He and h i s a s s i s t a n t a r e both on day-work, but he has one man on each s h i f t . The work a t t h e coke-ovens p r o p e r i s s h i f t - w o r k c o n t r o l l e d by t h e s h i f t - f o r e m e n , each of whom has an a s s i s t a n t who pays s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o s u p e r v i s i n g t h e f i v e men emp l o y e d on each s h i f t i n t h e by-product p l a n t . Gn t h e maintenance s i d e t h e r e i s one foreman and and a s s i s t a n t foreman a t t a c h e d t o t h i s department but r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r , and a foreman r e s p o n s i b l e t o the E l e c t r i c a l Engineer. These men a r e on duty d u r i n g t h e day-time o n l y . To summarize the s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e i s always a s h i f t foreman on d u t y , but t h e o t h e r foremen mentioned are at work o n l y d u r i n g t h e day, t h a t i s d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r p a r t of t h e morning s h i f t and t h e e a r l i e r p a r t of t h e afternoon s h i f t . The manager and a s s i s t a n t manager of t h e department, moreover, and t h e heads of t h e d i f f e r ent maintenance departments are a l s o a t work, as a r u l e , o n l y d u r i n g t h e day. T h i s means t h a t f o r t h e whole of t h e n i g h t - s h i f t and f o r p a r t s of t h e morning and a f t e r n o o n s h i f t s t h e s h i f t - f o r e m a n i s t h e o n l y s u p e r v i s o r on d u t y , so t h a t a t t h e s e t i m e s h i s span of c o n t r o l i s c o n s i d e r a b l y widened. F o r example, when t h e H e a t e r Foreman i s not t h e r e t h e s h i f t - f o r e m a n i s i n g e n e r a l charge of t h e h e a t e r s though t h e l a t t e r are r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e H e a t e r Foreman f o r t h e t e c h n i c a l s i d e of t h e i r work. The e x t e n t of t h e s h i f t - f o r e m a n ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y must be emphasized. The foreman i s , of c o u r s e , worki n g a c c o r d i n g t o i n s t r u c t i o n s i s s u e d by t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l manager, but t h e a c t u a l p r o g r e s s of t h e work remains h i s p r o v i n c e . He i s i n charge of o n l y a medium-sized w o r k i n g group but o f p l a n t w h i c h i s p h y s i c a l l y l a r g e and c o v e r s a f a i r amount o f ground. T h i s p l a n t i s worki n g round t h e c l o c k seven days a week, and i t i s imp o r t a n t t o spot any s i g n s of t r o u b l e as e a r l y as poss i b l e so t h a t minor maintenance can prevent major r e p a i r s l a t e r . F o r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t of t h e t i m e t h e s h i f t - f o r e m a n i s i n e n t i r e charge, w i t h o u t a manager on t h e spot t o h e l p or a d v i s e him i f he i s i n d i f f i c u l ties. The  10.  b l a s t furnaces  There i s much t h e same arrangement of s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h i s department as i n t h e p r e v i o u s one. In addition t o t h e s h i f t - f o r e m e n , who are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e work a t t h e f u r n a c e s t h e m s e l v e s , t h e r e i s a number of dayforemen. Those foremen who may be s a i d t o belong t o  133  11.  12.  13.  14.  t h e department i n c l u d e one i n charge of t h e gasc l e a n i n g p l a n t , two r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e ore d e l i v e r y and c r u s h i n g s e c t i o n (each w o r k i n g one s h i f t d a i l y ) , and one i n c o n t r o l of a gang of l a b o u r s . There a r e a l s o two foremen r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m e c h a n i c a l m a i n t e nance, and one f o r e l e c t r i c a l maintenance. The d e p a r t m e n t a l manager has under him two a s s i s t a n t managers, one c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e m a t e r i a l s u p p l y s i d e and one on t h e work of t h e f u r n a c e s proper. D u r i n g normal day w o r k i n g h o u r s , t h e r e f o r e , the l a t t e r i s i n c l o s e touch w i t h the s h i f t - f o r e m e n , one of whom i s on duty a t any t i m e . I n t h i s department v a r i o u s k i n d s o f ore a r e r e c e i v e d , put t h r o u g h t h e c r u s h i n g p l a n t and t h e n s t o r e d i n bunkers t o await charging i n t o the furnaces. Goke i s brought by t r o l l e y f r o m t h e coke-ovens and a l s o s t o r e d . Up t o t h i s p o i n t , t h e work i s under t h e c o n t r o l o f a day-foreman. A c c o r d i n g t o p r o p o r t i o n s l a i d down by t h e manager of t h e department t h e f u r n a c e s are charged w i t h coke and t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of o r e . About every s i x hours each f u r n a c e i s t a p p e d by i t s furnacemen, under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n of t h e s h i f t - f o r e m a n . An a d d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t y of t h i s department i s gasc l e a n i n g . The gas t h a t i s g i v e n o f f by t h e f u r n a c e s i s t r e a t e d i n an e l a b o r a t e c l e a n i n g p l a n t f o r w h i c h a day-foreman i s r e s p o n s i b l e . H i s work i s d i s t i n c t l y more t e c h n i c a l t h a n t h a t of most of t h e p r o d u c t i o n foremen, and i t r e q u i r e s a more t e c h n i c a l background than t h e i r s . I n t h i s department the s h i f t - f o r e m e n a r e a g a i n i n s o l e charge f o r t h a t p a r t of t h e t i m e when t h e dayforeman and managers a r e not on d u t y , and t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are a g a i n heavy. As i n most o t h e r product i o n departments, each s h i f t - f o r e m a n has an a s s i s t a n t foreman w o r k i n g w i t h him. M e l t i n g shop  15.  16.  A f t e r t h e o p e r a t i o n s of t h e b l a s t - f u r n a c e s we come t o t h e a c t u a l s t e e l - m a k i n g , w h i c h i s c a r r i e d out i n open-hearth f u r n a c e s . B r i e f l y , t h e p r o c e d u r e i s as f o l l o w s : hot m e t a l ( i r o n ) i s c a r r i e d from t h e b l a s t f u r n a c e s , s t o r e d i n a m i x e r , and d e - s i l i c o n i z e d . The f u r n a c e i t i s i n t e n d e d f o r i s charged w i t h s c r a p m e t a l and l i m e s t o n e i n p r o p o r t i o n s l a i d down by t h e o f f i c e of t h e M e l t i n g Shop Manager and t h e n charged w i t h t h e s p e c i a l q u a n t i t y of hot m e t a l . A f t e r t w e l v e hours or so t h e f u r n a c e i s tapped and t h e s t e e l poured i n t o i n got moulds (the p r o c e s s known as t e e m i n g ) . The s u p e r v i s o r s i n c l u d e f o u r day-foremen, two i n charge of gangs of l a b o u r e r s and two i n c o n t r o l of b r i c k l a y e r s engaged on f u r n a c e maintenance work. There  134  17.  18.  19.  i s a l s o one m e c h a n i c a l maintenance foreman a t t a c h e d t o t h e department. Then t h e r e a r e t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f s h i f t - f o r e m e n , c a l l e d i n t h i s case s a m p l e - p a s s e r s , one o f whom i s i n charge o f t h e f u r n a c e s d u r i n g every s h i f t . They each have an a s s i s t a n t sample-passer. The sample-passer's j o b c o n s i s t s o f s u p e r v i s i n g t h e work on a l l f u r n a c e s , each o f w h i c h i s under t h e charge o f a f i r s t - h a n d and employs t h r e e o t h e r w o r k e r s . The work i n c l u d e s b o t h c h a r g i n g and t e e m i n g ; i n a d d i t i o n t h e sample-passer o v e r s e e s a v a r i e t y of work connected w i t h t h e s o r t i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l f o r c h a r g i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e f i r s t - h a n d s c o n t r o l t h e work o f each f u r n a c e , d i r e c t i n g i t s c h a r g i n g and w a t c h i n g f o r t h e moment when i t s h o u l d be t a p p e d , t h e samplepasser i s responsible f o r ensuring that the s t e e l i s produced t o t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s l a i d down. He i s p r e sent when f u r n a c e s a r e t a p p e d and has a l a b o r a t o r y r e p o r t made on a sample o f s t e e l j u s t b e f o r e t a p p i n g , i n accordance w i t h which he c o n t r o l s t h e t h r o w i n g i n o f manganese. L i k e t h e o t h e r s h i f t - f o r e m e n , t h e samplep a s s e r i s i n s o l e c o n t r o l f o r a good d e a l o f t h e t i m e . L i k e them, he i s r e s p o n s i b l e , t h r o u g h t h e a s s i s t a n t manager, t o t h e manager o f t h e department. The r o l l i n g m i l l A f t e r t h e s t e e l has been tapped and t r a n s f e r r e d t o i n g o t moulds, t h e i n g o t s a r e p l a c e d i n s o a k i n g p i t s , where t h e y a r e h e a t e d t o a u n i f o r m t e m p e r a t u r e t h r o u g h out. They a r e t h e n f e d i n t o t h e cogging m i l l where t h e y a r e shaped i n t o s l a b s o f v a r i o u s s i z e s and blooms, f i v e i n c h e s square and upwards. The l a t t e r pass on t o a f i n i s h i n g m i l l where t h e y a r e shaped i n t o l o n g b i l l i t s , from two t o f i v e i n c h e s s q u a r e . I n a d d i t i o n , a f t e r p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e r o l l s , s l a b s and b i l l e t s a r e cut t o r e q u i r e d l e n g t h s by hot o r c o l d s h e a r s , and s u r f a c e d r e s s i n g s a r e a p p l i e d i n some c a s e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o s h i f t - f o r e m e n , t h e r e a r e i n t h i s department two maintenance foremen on day-work and a dayforeman i n charge o f l a b o u r e r s and a c h i e f s t o c k t a k e r , t h e l a t t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s t e e l and i t s d r e s s i n g a f t e r i t has been r o l l e d . There a r e no a s s i s t a n t f o r e men, but what a r e i n e f f e c t l e a d i n g - h a n d s c o n t r o l t h e work a t i t s d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s ; f o r example, t h e R o l l e r i s i n t e c h n i c a l c o n t r o l of the operation of the cogging m i l l and t h e f i n i s h i n g m i l l , t h e H e a t e r c o n t r o l s t h e work a t t h e s o a k i n g p i t s . These men, however, a r e not s u p e r v i s o r s , and t h e o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y remains t h a t of t h e foreman, who f o l l o w s weekly i n s t r u c t i o n s which g i v e d e t a i l s o f t h e t y p e and amount o f p r o d u c t i o n needed. The M e l t i n g Shop works from t h e same i n s t r u c t i o n s , p r o d u c i n g s t e e l o f t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y  135 s p e c i f i e d as may be most convenient d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of a week but not i n a s e t o r d e r . The R o l l i n g M i l l Foreman must t h e r e f o r e keep i n t o u c h w i t h t h e M e l t i n g Shop and w i t h t h e l a b o r a t o r y w h i c h t e s t s t h e q u a l i t y of s t e e l so t h a t he can p l a n h i s department's work. He t r i e s t o do t h i s so as t o a c h i e v e as good a f l o w of work as p o s s i b l e , w h i c h means a t t e m p t i n g t o get a r u n of s i m i l a r s i z e s t h r o u g h t h e m i l l t o a v o i d f r e q u e n t changing of t h e r o l l s . 3 The  20.  21.  22.  23.  demands of t h e foreman's j o b We have seen t h a t , i n any of t h e departments, t h e day-foreman i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p a r t of t h e work, e.g. t h e washing and c r u s h i n g o f c o a l i n t h e Goke-Ovens Department. The s h i f t - f o r e m a n , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s g e n e r a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e main work of p r o d u c t i o n i n h i s department, e.g. s a m p l e - p a s s i n g i n t h e M e l t i n g Shop, and, i n a d d i t i o n , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s e c t i o n s c o n t r o l l e d by t h e day-foremen when t h e l a t t e r a r e not on d u t y . I n e i t h e r case t h e r e i s not more t h a n a s m a l l amount of paper-work, c o n f i n e d f o r t h e most p a r t t o k e e p i n g s i m p l e r e c o r d s o f q u a n t i t i e s and k i n d s produced and h o l d - u p s encountered. Foremen a l s o have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e t r a i n i n g of p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , t r a i n i n g has been f a i r l y i n f o r m a l but t h e r e i s now t h e b e g i n n i n g of o r g a n i z e d d e p a r t m e n t a l t r a i n i n g , and t h e foremen have a b i g p a r t t o p l a y i n t h i s . One or two s p e c i f i c j o b t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s have been r u n by foremen and o t h e r p r o d u c t i o n p e o p l e , h e l p e d and encouraged by t h e s t a f f of t h e T r a i n i n g Department. M e e t i n g s are a l s o h e l d i n some department f o r d i s c u s s i o n of v a r i o u s p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s e s . The s u c c e s s of t h i s t r a i n i n g depend t o a g r e a t e x t e n t on t h e enthusiasm of t h e foremen, f o r i t i s a new d e p a r t u r e and one i n w h i c h i n t e r e s t must be s t i m u l a t e d among o l d e r workers. Foremen have a g r e a t d e a l t o do w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e i n t h e c o u r s e of t h e i r w o r k — w i t h o t h e r foremen, w i t h t h e maintenance e n g i n e e r s and t h e i r workers, w i t h o t h e r p r o d u c t i o n and s p e c i a l i s t departments. An i m p o r t a n t demand on them, t h e r e f o r e , i s t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be b o t h w i l l i n g and a b l e t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h a l l of t h e s e . The f a c t t h a t t h e p l a n t i s w o r k i n g round t h e c l o c k emp h a s i z e s t h i s demand—problems of c o - o r d i n a t i o n cannot be s o r t e d out when t h e p l a n t has c l o s e d down, but must be f o r e s e e n and p r e v e n t e d . F i n a l l y , t h e foreman's j o b r e q u i r e s a h i g h degree o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . More t h a n most f a c t o r y foremen, t h o s e i n t h i s p l a n t are 'on t h e go," up and down s t a i r ways and over a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of ground. The  136 R o l l i n g M i l l t e r r i t o r y , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s c e r t a i n l y not l e s s t h a n h a l f a m i l e l o n g and t h e o n l y means o f comm u n i c a t i o n , as a r u l e , i s by word of mouth. To s u p e r v i s e a d e q u a t e l y , t h e foreman must p a t r o l h i s t e r r i t o r y ; he may have t o walk f r o m one end o f h i s department t o t h e o t h e r t o g i v e an i n s t r u c t i o n , c l i m b i n g s e v e r a l f l i g h t s o f s t a i r s on t h e way. . . .4 S e l e c t i o n and T r a i n i n g of Foremen 24.  25.  Selection I n t h e f o u r departments j u s t d e s c r i b e d , t h e work of t h e o p e r a t o r s ranges from u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r i n g t o v e r y s k i l l e d work r e q u i r i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e , as i n t h e case of t h e f i r s t - h a n d on a f u r n a c e . The advancement of w o r k e r s f r o m one j o b t o another t a k e s p l a c e a l o n g l i n e s w h i c h have been agreed i n t h e past between t h e u n i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s and t h e management. As a r u l e , promotion i s by s e t s t a g e s and on t h e b a s i s o f s e n i o r i t y . New employees, t h e n , must s t a r t a t t h e bottom and work t h e i r way up t h r o u g h j o b s o f r i s i n g s t a t u s and i n t e r e s t and, u s u a l l y , of i n c r e a s i n g r a t e s o f pay. F o r example, i n t h e R o l l i n g M i l l a man w i l l b e g i n as a p a i n t e r o r r a c k - d r i v e r , and move up when a vacancy o c c u r s t o be an a s s i s t a n t - s t r a i g h t e n e r . H i s next move w i l l be t o s c a l i n g , g r e a s i n g , o r a s s i s t i n g on the s h e a r s and, a c c o r d i n g t o which o f t h e s e j o b s he goes t o , h i s promotion i s determined f o r t h e f u t u r e up a p a r t i c u l a r avenue. He may end up as a r o l l e r , on t h e one hand, o r as t h e h e a t e r i n charge o f t h e s o a k i n g p i t s , on t h e o t h e r . I n t h e p a s t , promotion t o a s s i s t a n t foreman and t h e n t o foreman o f p r o d u c t i o n work u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d i n t h i s same l i n e o f advancement. T h i s was s o , p r o v i d e d t h a t managers agreed t h a t s e n i o r i t y went w i t h a b i l i t y t o s u p e r v i s e and t h a t t h e u n i o n was a g r e e a b l e t o t h e appointment. The e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s p r a c t i c e i n c l u d e d t h e more t e c h n i c a l o r s p e c i a l i s t foremen's p o s i t i o n s , such as t h a t of t h e H e a t e r Foreman i n t h e Coke-Gvens. The m a j o r i t y o f t h e p r e s e n t p r o d u c t i o n foremen, t h e n , have been w i t h t h e f i r m f o r many y e a r s and have w o r k e r t h e i r way up t h e r i g i d system o f advancement, f i n a l l y becoming foremen by r e a s o n o f t h e i r s e n i o r i t y , t h e i r a b i l i t y and t h e i r acceptance by t h e u n i o n . Because o f t h i s system t h e y a r e a l l h i g h l y e x p e r i e n c e d i n what might be c a l l e d t h e i r own l i n e s , t h e l i n e s t h e y thems e l v e s have come up, a l t h o u g h t h e i r p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i ence of o t h e r k i n d s o f work i n t h e i r departments i s limited. I n f a c t , w h i l e t h e day-foremen, on t h e w h o l e , a r e s u p e r v i s i n g o n l y p r o c e s s e s i n which t h e y a r e h i g h l y experienced, the s h i f t - f o r e m e n supervise at times a  137  26.  27.  28.  v a r i e t y o f work i n a l l of which t h e y cannot p o s s i b l y be e x p e r t . They t h e r e f o r e have t o r e l y c o n s i d e r a b l y on t h e knowledge and judgment o f t h e f i r s t - h a n d s , o r s e n i o r w o r k e r s , on some of t h e o p e r a t i o n s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , more t h a n any o t h e r , s h i f t - f o r e m e n p r e f e r t o s t a y w i t h t h e same group o f w o r k e r s as i t r o t a t e s from one s h i f t t o a n o t h e r . They f e e l t h a t t h e y need t o know t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e s e n i o r w o r k e r s . Some o f t h e p r e s e n t a s s i s t a n t foremen have reached t h e i r p o s i t i o n s i n t h e same way as t h e foremen but o t h e r s were a p p o i n t e d under a d i f f e r e n t p o l i c y o f t h e l a s t few y e a r s . They a r e men, c o m p a r a t i v e l y young ones, who s t a r t e d t h e i r c a r e e r s w i t h t h e f i r m i n t h e l a b o r a t o r i e s and who have t h e r e f o r e more t e c h n i c a l knowledge o f t h e p r o c e s s e s , though l e s s p r a c t i c a l exp e r i e n c e i n t h e p l a n t , t h a n t h e i r foremen. The a v e r age a s s i s t a n t foreman o f t h i s k i n d i s now about t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s o l d and has worked f o r f o u r o r f i v e y e a r s i n a l a b o r a t o r y and, by t h i s t i m e , f o r about t e n y e a r s i n a p r o d u c t i o n department. Some of t h e s e n e w - s t y l e a s s i s t a n t foremen say t h a t t h e y have found t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l t o l e a r n about t h e p r a c t i c a l problems o f p r o d u c t i o n , 'how t o d e a l w i t h snags through experience.' The new p o l i c y f o r t h e appointment o f a s s i s t a n t foremen has r e s u l t e d f r o m h i g h e r management l o o k i n g at t h e foreman's p o s i t i o n i n a new way. I t wants t h e foremen o f t h e f u t u r e t o be younger on appointment t h a n the p r e s e n t foremen and t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s were. I t a l s o wants them t o have good t e c h n i c a l knowledge and a r e a s o n a b l e s t a n d a r d of g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . T h i s i s p a r t l y because t h e demands, and t h e import a n c e , of t h e foreman's j o b a r e r e c o g n i z e d and p a r t l y because managers f e e l t h a t t h e foreman's p o s i t i o n s h o u l d be made, t o a much g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n h i t h e r t o , t h e f i r s t rung of t h e management l a d d e r . At t h e same t i m e , t h e r e have been changes over t h e y e a r s — i n t h e output o f t h e p l a n t and i n methods o f p r o d u c t i o n — w h i c h add f o r c e t o t h e new p o l i c y . The increase i n production i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n the M e l t i n g Shop; w o r k i n g w i t h f u r n a c e s b u i l t a t t h e t i m e o f t h e f i r s t war i t has more t h a n doubled t h e l o a d i t was o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d f o r . I n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , an e x t r a burden i s i n e v i t a b l y p l a c e d on managers and s u p e r v i s o r s ; i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important t o foresee d i f f i c u l t i e s and d e a l w i t h them b e f o r e t h e y become s e r i o u s problems, e s p e c i a l l y where t h e p l a n t i s worki n g round t h e c l o c k . Great a t t e n t i o n must be p a i d t o maintenance so t h a t major o v e r h a u l s and consequent l o s s e s of production are avoided. Good t i m i n g and coo r d i n a t i o n both w i t h i n and between departments have  13 8 29.  30.  become more i m p o r t a n t t h a n e v e r . The second change i s i n the use of more m e c h a n i c a l methods o f h a n d l i n g . Whereas y e a r s ago, f o r i n s t a n c e , the c h a r g i n g of t h e f u r n a c e s i n the M e l t i n g Shop was done by hand by a number o f men i t i s now done by one man o p e r a t i n g a c h a r g e r . The r e s u l t of t h i s change i s t h a t t h e foreman t o d a y i s not s u p e r v i s i n g manual l a b o u r t o the same e x t e n t as p r e v i o u s l y ; the work i s becoming g r a d u a l l y more s k i l l e d , w i t h l e s s emphasis needed on the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n of w o r k e r s . Training There i s l i t t l e f o r m a l t r a i n i n g f o r foremen i n t h i s p l a n t , though some T.W.I, c o u r s e s have been h e l d . On t h e o t h e r hand, r e g u l a r foremen's meetings have been r e c e n t l y i n t r o d u c e d f o r t h e p l a n t as a whole and f o r i n d i v i d u a l departments. These meetings a r e , i n d i r e c t l y , a f o r m o f t r a i n i n g , and p o s s i b l y one of t h e best forms. They p r o v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r foremen t o meet t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s from d i f f e r e n t departments and f r o m d i f f e r ent j o b s and a l s o f o r them t o meet r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of v a r i o u s l e v e l s of management f o r d i s c u s s i o n of p l a n t affairs. In a d d i t i o n t o these r e g u l a r meetings, s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s f o r foremen, on such t o p i c s as s a f e t y , are a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y h e l d . 5 The  A t t i t u d e s o f the Foremen  . . ., we s h a l l c o n s i d e r how t h e foremen f e e l about t h e i r p o s i t i o n , how t h e y s t a n d w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e , and so on. R e a c t i o n s t o change 31.  32.  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n foremen have been i n t h i s p l a n t f o r a g r e a t many y e a r s . They f e e l t h a t i t i s t h e i r p l a n t , i n a way, and t h e y are r a t h e r proud of i t s e f f o r t s . They a r e a l s o t h o r o u g h l y accustomed t o i t s ways. As we have seen, t h e r e a r e changes i n t h e a i r a t p r e s e n t : more m e c h a n i z a t i o n , new methods of t r a i n i n g , e t c . These a l l a f f e c t t h e foremen v e r y c l o s e l y and so t h e foremen's a t t i t u d e s t o them are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . Whereas the o l d e r ones, a t any r a t e , might be expected t o r e s i s t new t h i n g s and l o o k l o n g i n g l y back t o t h e p a s t , t h i s was seldom f o u n d t o be t h e c a s e . .... I n some c a s e s , i t i s t r u e , t h e r e was c e r t a i n l y some r e g r e t e x p r e s s e d f o r t h e o l d d a y s , when i t was e a s i e r t o e n f o r c e d i s c i p l i n e because w o r k e r s were more concerned about k e e p i n g t h e i r j o b s . Even s o , t h e r e was u s u a l l y at the same t i m e a r e a l i s t i c r e c o g n i t i o n  139  33.  t h a t c o n d i t i o n s have changed and t h a t methods o f s u p e r v i s i n g have t o be m o d i f i e d a c c o r d i n g l y . Though t h e r e i s t h i s g e n e r a l r e a d i n e s s t o a c c e p t change, i t i s not always accompanied by u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Some foremen f e e l , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t t h e r e a r e many more people employed on 'odd j o b s ' nowadays t h a n i n t h e p a s t and t h a t t h e s e people spend t h e i r t i m e t e l l i n g o t h e r people t o do t h i n g s . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e t r a i n i n g o f o p e r a t o r s , f o r example, some r e a l enthusiasm was e x p r e s s e d f o r o r g a n i z e d t r a i n i n g , and t h e r e was g e n e r a l agreement t h a t i t i s a 'good t h i n g ' . . . . At t h e same t i m e , foremen of t h o s e departments w h i c h have not y e t i n t r o d u c e d f o r m a l t r a i n i n g t e n d t o t h i n k t h a t t h e s t a f f o f t h e T r a i n i n g Department s h o u l d do t h e j o b themselves and not come round u r g i n g d e p a r t mental people t o do i t . . . . R e l a t i o n s w i t h managers  34.  35.  i  36.  On t h e whole, t h e foremen appear t o f e e l t h a t t h e y a r e v e r y c l o s e t o t h e i r managers, and t h i s f e e l i n g seems t o have grown i n r e c e n t y e a r s . ' I doubt i f t h e s h i f t - f o r e m e n have ever been c l o s e r t o management t h a n t h e y a r e t o d a y . ' There was a l i t t l e c r i t i c i s m o f manag e r s f o r not g i v i n g more s u p p o r t t o t h e foremen i n d i s c i p l i n a r y m a t t e r s , but t h i s seemed t o be more a means of r e l i e v i n g o c c a s i o n a l f e e l i n g s of f r u s t r a t i o n than anything else. The importance t o s u p e r v i s o r s o f t h e man a t t h e t o p i s emphasized here by t h e f a c t t h a t h a r d l y any mention was made by foremen o f changes o r advances w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e G e n e r a l Manager. 'The p l a c e has p r o g r e s s e d more under t h i s man t h a n ever b e f o r e ; t h e r e ' s more h e a r t i n t h e j o b a l t o g e t h e r . ' . . . 'He mixes more w i t h both men and managers.' . . . 'He's done i t almost by p e r s o n a l i t y a l o n e . ' I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t comments d i d not r e f e r t o t h e t e c h n i c a l knowledge o r a b i l i t y o f t h e G e n e r a l Manager. What t h e y d i d o f t e n i m p l y was t h a t he i s w i l l i n g t o d e l e g a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h o s e c a p a b l e of d o i n g a j o b , and p r e p a r e d t o s u p p o r t and encourage. 'Without i n t e r f e r i n g , ' i t was s a i d , 'he i s i n t e r e s t e d enough t o go round t o t h e d i f f e r e n t departments t o see how t h i n g s a r e g o i n g on.' This i n f o r m a l contact i s w e l l regarded. 'Meetings a r e v e r y u s e f u l but managers and e s p e c i a l l y t h e G e n e r a l Manager s p e a k i n g t o men i n t h e works i s f a r b e t t e r than meetings.' The p o s i t i o n and s t a t u s o f t h e foremen —  —  The foremen's r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r managers a r e proba b l y a l s o due, i n p a r t , t o t h e c o n f i d e n c e t h e y have i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n . T h i s comes from a number o f f a c t o r s .  140  37.  The foremen are 'on t h e s t a f f and t h e y enjoy t h e s t a t u s of s t a f f members, i n c l u d i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c o n t r i b u t o r y s u p e r a n n u a t i o n scheme. T h e i r j o b s a r e h i g h l y r e s p o n s i b l e ones and t h e y a r e a l l o w e d t o get on w i t h them w i t h o u t much i n t e r f e r e n c e . (To some ext e n t t h i s i s i n e v i t a b l e because o f t h e s h e e r s i z e o f t h e departments and t h e f a c t t h a t t h e foremen a r e cons t a n t l y moving round them. Problems i n communication a l o n e make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r p e o p l e t o i n t e r f e r e v e r y much.) But a p a r t f r o m a l l o w i n g t h e foremen a f a i r l y f r e e hand, h i g h e r management has made d e l i b e r a t e a t tempts t o b u i l d up t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e foremen. We have a l r e a d y seen t h a t t h e new p o l i c y on s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g o f f u t u r e foremen i s aimed a t making t h e f o r e man's p o s i t i o n more o f a management one. As w e l l as t h i s , h i g h e r management has i n t r o d u c e d such t h i n g s as t h e Foremen's C o u n c i l , w h i c h i s a t t e n d e d by a l l f o r e men and v a r i o u s managers, and t h e Foremen's P a n e l , a company management committee w h i c h d i s c u s s e s m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o foremen and which i s concdrned w i t h such t h i n g s as t h e i r s t a t u s and t h e i r t r a i n i n g . (These a r e i n a d d i t i o n t o the weekly departmental meetings, a t tended by foremen.) F i n a l l y , . . . t h e work t h a t t h e foremen s u p e r v i s e i n t h i s p l a n t i s not becoming l e s s s k i l l e d . In f a c t , i f a n y t h i n g , i t i s becoming more s k i l l e d , w i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g use of m e c h a n i c a l h a n d l i n g . For t h i s r e a s o n a l s o t h e s t a t u s of t h e foreman i s g r o w i n g . Conclusion  38.  39.  The p r o d u c t i o n foremen o f t h i s study a r e i n r e s p o n s i b l e p o s i t i o n s r e q u i r i n g a f a i r amount o f t e c h n i c a l knowl e d g e . T h i s t h e y have a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h many y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e , as p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s of r i s i n g degrees o f s k i l l , as a s s i s t a n t foremen and i n t h e i r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n s . The importance o f t h e foremen i s r e c o g n i z e d by h i g h e r management w h i c h has made c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t s t o b u i l d up t h e i r p o s i t i o n s and add t o t h e i r s t a t u s . R e l a t i o n s between s e n i o r managers and t h e foremen a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s a t i s f y i n g t o t h e l a t t e r , l a r g e l y because o f t h e a t t i t u d e s t o t h e most s e n i o r manager. I t has been r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e p l a n t t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l methods o f a p p o i n t i n g foremen do not a l t o g e t h e r meet t h e needs o f t o d a y . A p o l i c y of a p p o i n t i n g a s s i s t a n t foremen who a r e both younger and more t e c h n i c a l l y knowledgeable t h a n t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s were on a p p o i n t ment has been i n o p e r a t i o n now f o r some y e a r s . 6  141 CASE NO. 6 D e s c r i p t i o n of technology 1.  2.  3.  A continuous-process p l a n t i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from a t y p i c a l f a c t o r y . There a r e no r e c o g n i z a b l e machines and v e r y few workers v i s i b l e . Except f o r a few maintenance workers . . . w e l d i n g o r p a i n t i n g p i p e s , y o u see v e r y few people d o i n g a n y t h i n g and nobody making a n y t h i n g . I n s t e a d , one sees a l a r g e number o f i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s w i t h v a s t a r e a s o f open space between them, huge networks o f p i p e s , and l a r g e towers and o t h e r equipment which one l a t e r l e a r n s a r e v a r i o u s types of d i s t i l l a t i o n u n i t s or chemical r e a c t o r s . The c h e m i c a l s which a r e made and t h e o i l s w h i c h a r e r e f i n e d f l o w t h r o u g h t h e s e p i p e s from one s t a g e o f t h e i r processing t o another, u s u a l l y without being h a n d l e d a t a l l by t h e w o r k e r s . . . . The f l o w o f m a t e r i a l s , t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t c h e m i c a l s , and t h e temperature p r e s s u r e , and speed o f t h e p r o c e s s a r e r e g u l a t e d by a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l d e v i c e s . The a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l s make p o s s i b l e a c o n t i n u o u s f l o w i n which raw materials are introduced at t h e beginning of the process and a l a r g e volume o f t h e product c o n t i n u a l l y emerges a t t h e end s t a g e . 8 The a l t e r n a t i o n between r o u t i n e and c r i s i s seems t o be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f p r o c e s s t e c h n o l o g y . . . .9 Organization Because o f t h e e x t r e m e l y complex t e c h n o l o g y and t h e h i g h l e v e l o f c a p i t a l investment n e c e s s a r y t o produce i n d u s t r i a l c h e m i c a l s and t h e p r o d u c t s o f t h e o i l i n d u s t r y , t h e c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s i n d u s t r i e s a r e dominated by l a r g e companies.10 D e s p i t e t h e s i z e o f t h e major companies, i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s do not employ as many w o r k e r s , on t h e a v e r a g e , as i n t h e a u t o m o b i l e i n d u s t r y . [Category I I technology] . . . T h i s i s because a u t o m a t i o n has reduced t h e s i z e of t h e work f o r c e i n t h e c o n t i n u o u s - p r o c e s s i n d u s t r i e s and a l s o because o f a c o n s c i o u s p o l i c y o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . The l a r g e companies have p r e f e r r e d t o o p e r a t e many m i d d l e - s i z e d p l a n t s r a t h e r t h a n a few b i g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . . . . The average c h e m i c a l p l a n t has about 69 employees; t h e average o i l r e f i n e r y , 142 employees. . . .11 D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i s a d e c i s i v e f e a t u r e o f t h e cont i n u o u s - p r o c e s s i n d u s t r i e s , e x p r e s s e d n o t o n l y by t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e p l a n t s o f a s i n g l e company but a l s o by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s . Continuousp r o c e s s t e c h n o l o g y r e s u l t s i n a l a y o u t o f work t h a t i s  142 v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t e x t i l e and a u t o m o b i l e p r o d u c t i o n , where t h e b u l k of machine and a s s e m b l y - l i n e o p e r a t i o n s and t h e m a j o r i t y o f w o r k e r s a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d under one r o o f . Chemical and o i l r e f i n i n g o p e r a t i o n s a r e d i v i d e d among many b u i l d i n g s o r s u b p l a n t s w i t h l a r g e s t r e t c h e s o f open space between t h e b u i l d i n g s . I n a sense, a c h e m i c a l f a c t o r y o r a r e f i n e r y does not c o n s i s t o f one p l a n t , but a l a r g e number o f p l a n t s , i n each o f w h i c h a p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t or a p a r t i c u l a r r e a c t i o n i s p r o c e s s e d . . . . The danger o f f i r e and o t h e r h a z a r d s , as w e l l as t h e range o f p r o d u c t s and p r o c e s s e s , makes such d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n n e c e s s a r y . Even i n t h e l a r g e s t continuous-process establishments, the ' s o c i a l d e n s i t y o f t h e work f o r c e i s v e r y low.12 1  Management e x p e c t a t i o n s and 4.  5.  characteristics  Because o f t h e h i g h degree o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t c o n t i n u o u s - p r o c e s s t e c h n o l o g y demands, management i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n a permanent, s t a b l e work f o r c e ; and i n d e e d , employment i n t h e o i l and c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r i e s i s often f o r l i f e . . . . [the] i n d u s t r i e s have moved from a commodity t o a w e l f a r e concept o f employment . . . [management] and t h e p r o s p e c t i v e emp l o y e e t h i n k o f employment i n terms o f a whole work c a r e e r — a l o n g - t e r m r e l a t i o n s h i p i n w h i c h t h e employer t a k e s on an i n c r e a s i n g burden o f f r i n g e b e n e f i t s c o v e r ing t h e man and h i s f a m i l y , and t h e employee a c q u i r e s t e n u r e , j o b r i g h t s , and r i g h t s t o promotion opportuni t i e s . . . .13 The w e l f a r e concept o f employment i n t h e s e young [continuous-process] i n d u s t r i e s p a r t i a l l y r e f l e c t s the s o c i a l l y p r o g r e s s i v e viewpoints of t h e i r managerial e l i t e s , who a r e u s u a l l y c o l l e g e t r a i n e d . I t i s a cons c i o u s p o l i c y , but one w h i c h stems n a t u r a l l y f r o m t h e economic b a s i s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n c o n t i n u o u s - p r o c e s s plants.14 R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and V a r i e t y i n 'Automated Work*  6.  7.  Very l i t t l e of t h e work o f c h e m i c a l o p e r a t o r s i s p h y s i c a l o r manual, d e s p i t e t h e b l u e - c o l l a r s t a t u s o f t h e s e f a c t o r y employees. P r a c t i c a l l y a l l p h y s i c a l p r o d u c t i o n and m a t e r i a l s - h a n d l i n g i s done by a u t o m a t i c p r o c e s s e s , r e g u l a t e d by a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l s . The work of the chemical operator i s t o monitor these automatic p r o c e s s e s : h i s t a s k s i n c l u d e o b s e r v i n g d i a l s and gauges; t a k i n g r e a d i n g s o f t e m p e r a t u r e s , p r e s s u r e s , and r a t e s o f f l o w ; and w r i t i n g down t h e s e r e a d i n g s i n l o g d a t a sheets.15 . . . w i t h t h e emergence o f automated c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s t e c h n o l o g y , t r a d i t i o n a l c r a f t s k i l l has been c o m p l e t e l y e l i m i n a t e d from t h e p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s . . . .  143 In t h e p l a c e o f p h y s i c a l e f f o r t and s k i l l i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l , manual sense, t h e major j o b requirement f o r production workers i n continuous-process technology i s responsibility.16 W i t h i n each o f t h e b u i l d i n g s t h a t make up a c o n t i n uous-process p l a n t , a s m a l l crew, g e n e r a l l y numbering f r o m t h r e e t o seven w o r k e r s p e r s h i f t , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r p r o d u c t s o r p r o c e s s e s o f t h e i r subp l a n t . Each team i s d i r e c t e d by a head s h i f t o p e r a t o r who has c o n s i d e r a b l e t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e , and each i s made up o f w o r k e r s o f d i v e r s e l e v e l s o f t r a i n ing and w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . . . . [The o p e r a t o r c a l l s upon t h e head s h i f t o p e r a t o r when something i s s e r i o u s l y wrong.]17 For our purposes o f a n a l y s i s i t w i l l be u s e f u l t o i n t e r j e c t i n t o t h i s commentary by Robert  Blauner  data  2.8 g a t h e r e d by W i l l i a m F. Whyte.  The o b s e r v a t i o n s r e c o r d e d  below p e r t a i n t o a c o n t i n u o u s - p r o c e s s  avaition gasoline  plant. 8, The work d u t i e s o f t h e [ c a t a l y s t p l a n t ] c o n t r o l room were l a r g e l y d i v i d e d between t h e f r a c t i o n a t o r o p e r a t o r (#3) and t h e h y d r o - s t i l l m a n (#2). The p o l y o p e r a t o r (#1) was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n t r o l room, c a t a l y s t p l a n t and engine room, but t h e r e were c h a r t s i n t h e c o n t r o l room r e g i s t e r i n g t h e engine room o p e r a t i o n s , so l i t t l e human c o n t a c t t h e r e was n e c e s s a r y . The p o l y o p e r a t o r h a r d l y ever walked over t o t h e engine room. The eng i n e o p e r a t o r u s u a l l y came i n t o t h e c o n t r o l room once a day, t o j o i n o t h e r s a t l u n e h , and perhaps once more d u r i n g t h e w o r k i n g day. There was n o t h i n g t o t a k e t h e p o l y o p e r a t o r i n t o t h e c a t a l y s t p l a n t except h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h e c k i n g on work a c t i v i t y ; t h e c a t a l y s t o p e r a t o r was h a r d l y ever seen i n t h e c o n t r o l room. 9. The work o f t h e t h r e e c o n t r o l - r o o m men ( f o r each s h i f t ) i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e s c r i b e because, except f o r r e g u l a r h o u r l y samples o f product f o r t e s t i n g t o be drawn from v a r i o u s p i e c e s o f equipment, t h e a c t i v i t y depended v e r y l a r g e l y upon t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e process. When o p e r a t i o n s were g o i n g smoothly, t h e men had l i t t l e t o do but watch t h e i r c h a r t s ; when o p e r a t i o n s were n o t g o i n g q u i t e r i g h t , t h e r e were adjustments t o make a l most c o n s t a n t l y . S i n c e any adjustment made by t h e f r a c t i o n a t o r operator a f f e c t e d operations i n the area o f t h e h y d r o - s t i l l m a n (and v i c e v e r s a ) , t h i s would be a p e r i o d o f a c c e l e r a t e d communication between them and  144 and w i t h t h e p o l y o p e r a t o r . An emergency would g e n e r a t e g r e a t l y a c c e l e r a t e d a c t i v i t y . F o r example, i f one engine broke down, t h e c o n t r o l - r o o m men had t o respond q u i c k l y i n o r d e r t o l i g h t e n t h e l o a d on t h e o t h e r f i v e . Otherwise, the o t h e r o v e r l o a d e d engines might a l l go down, and t h e p r o c e s s would come t o a v e r y c o s t l y h a l t . 11. The p o l y o p e r a t o r had a l a r g e and heavy r e s p o n s i b i l i t y but few s p e c i f i c a l l y a s s i g n e d d u t i e s . Every hour he was r e q u i r e d t o l o o k i n t o t h e c r a c k i n g f u r nace from both s i d e s , t o cheek t h e c o n d i t i o n of t h e t u b e s . . . . W h i l e t h e p o l y o p e r a t o r had c e r t a i n o t h e r checks t o make, h i s j o b c o n s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y o f coo r d i n a t i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e o t h e r two men. 12. I t was t e c h n i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t o o p e r a t e t h e c o n t r o l room w i t h o n l y two men, and, i n f a c t , t h e p l a n t was s e t up on t h i s b a s i s . However, t h e company found i t n e c e s s a r y t o s e t up t h e p o l y - o p e r a t o r p o s i t i o n t o a s s u r e a p r o p e r c o o r d i n a t i o n between t h e o t h e r two men. 13. Above t h e p o l y o p e r a t o r , i n the l i n e o f a u t h o r i t y , were t h e foreman, p l a n t manager, d i v i s i o n s u p e r intendent, General Superintendent of F i e l d Operations, Department Manager, V i c e P r e s i d e n t f o r t h e N a t u r a l G a s o l i n e Department, P r e s i d e n t , and Chairman o f t h e Board o f D i r e c t o r s . [ i . e . , 6 l e v e l s o f l i n e management] 19 20 To c o n t i n u e w i t h B l a u n e r ' s commentary.  10.  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f head s h i f t 14.  operator  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a head s h i f t o p e r a t o r i s ext r e m e l y g r e a t ; he c o - o r d i n a t e s t h e work o f a l l t h e members o f h i s team, a r r a n g e s f o r maintenance p r i o r i t i e s and f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t o f m a t e r i a l s and p r o d u c t s t o and from h i s p l a n t , and s e r v e s as t h e l i n k between h i s work team and management.21 S c h e d u l i n g o f maintenance work i s determined by what p i e e e o f equipment breaks down, and t h e r e i s o b v i o u s l y no way t o s t a n d a r d i z e t h i s . 2 2 Workers' c o n t r o l over t i m e and movement; p r o d u c t i o n q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y ; work methods  15.  The s p e c i a l t e c h n o l o g i c a l and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the continuous-process i n d u s t r i e s g i v e workers a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n t r o l over t h e i r immediate work p r o c e s s e s . . . . The l a c k o f c o n s t a n t j o b p r e s s u r e i n cont i n u o u s - p r o c e s s p l a n t s i s not a p r o d u c t o f management's h u m a n i t a r i a n concern f o r t h e employees but i s p r i n c i p a l l y due t o t h e n a t u r e o f an automated technology.23  145 16. 17.  18. 19.  20.  21.  The r e l a x e d work atmosphere d u r i n g smooth o p e r a t i o n s a l l o w s c h e m i c a l workers t o c o n t r o l t h e i r pace o f work.24 Chemical workers c o n t r o l t h e pace o f t h e i r work; t h e y do n o t , however, c o n t r o l t h e pace o f p r o d u c t i o n . . . the automatic processes t a k i n g place w i t h i n the c h e m i c a l r e a c t o r s determine t h e speed o f production.25 . . . c h e m i c a l workers a r e a b l e t o c o n t r o l t h e q u a l i t y of t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n . I n f a c t , c o n t r o l o f t h e q u a l i t y of t h e p r o d u c t i s t h e i r major j o b r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 2 6 C h e m i c a l - p r o c e s s work i s not as s t a n d a r d i z e d as work on t h e a u t o m o b i l e assembly l i n e o r i n t h e t e x t i l e m i l l . The worker has more freedom t o determine t e c h n i q u e s o f d o i n g h i s j o b . T h i s r e s u l t s from t h e v a r i e t y i n h e r e n t i n t h e work; t h e l a c k o f t i m e p r e s s u r e , which a l l o w s e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and change; and t h e new s i t u a t i o n s f o r which new s o l u t i o n s must be found.27 An u n u s u a l degree o f m o b i l i t y r e s u l t s from t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e p l a n t i n [ s i c ] a l a r g e number o f i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s s p r e a d over a wide a r e a , t h e h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f maintenance and d i s t r i b u t i o n w o r k e r s , and t h e g e n e r a l l y r e l a x e d pace o f work.28 S m a l l p r i m a r y work groups The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y demanded of t h e c h e m i c a l worker i s a c o l l e c t i v e , as w e l l as an i n d i v i d u a l , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . S i n c e t h e p r o c e s s i s i n t e g r a t e d and c o n t i n u o u s r a t h e r t h a n d i v i d e d i n t h e manner t h a t l a b o r i s d i v i d e d , t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f any one employee f o r h i s share o f a plant s process i s i n e v i t a b l y l i n k e d t o the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f o t h e r w o r k e r s . An i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e d e v e l o p s , and automated p l a n t s t e n d t o be based on team o p e r a t i o n s . The worker's s h i f t from s k i l l t o r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h e r e f o r e f o s t e r s t h i n k i n g i n terms o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e whole r a t h e r t h a n t h e i n d i v i d u a l part.29 The t e c h n o l o g y , economic s i t u a t i o n , and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of the chemical i n d u s t r y a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e work f o r c e i n a cohesi v e i n d u s t r i a l community. Of f i r s t importance i s t h e s m a l l s i z e o f t h e p l a n t s i n t h e i n d u s t r y and t h e decent r a l i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n t h e p l a n t . . . . Communicat i o n between workers and management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i s more f r e q u e n t and i s e s p e c i a l l y l i k e l y t o be two-way communication i n which a d v i c e i s sought, as w e l l as orders g i v e n . . . . Chemical-process operators are c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r s h i f t and a p a r t i c u l a r department; t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l work teams a r e not o n l y c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , t h e y a l s o have an e x p l i c i t h i e r a r c h y o f a u t h o r i t y and s t a t u s . . . . Work teams i n t h e c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r y develop i d e n t i t i e s : teams on d i f f e r ent s h i f t s s t r i v e t o outdo each o t h e r i n t h e q u a l i t y of t h e i r p r o d u c t . . . .30 T  22.  146 The quality of supervision i n continuous-process 23.  The overbearing supervision c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of past i n d u s t r i a l practices i s u n l i k e l y i n a modern continuous-process plant. Chemical production requires responsible workers who w i l l not need to be watched too c l o s e l y . Due to decentralized operations, the large amount of outdoor work, and the considerable physical mobility possible, individuals often work out of the range of t h e i r immediate supervisors. As f o r operators, three-quarters of the time they are working nights or weekends, where there may be only one superv i s o r on duty i n the entire plant.31 Insight into the nature of supervisory practices i n  Category I I I technology i s found i n the following obser32  vations made by W.F.  Whyte.  Here Whyte i s quoting  the  words of the foreman of the catalyst plant as the l a t t e r discusses h i s use of the Daily Operating Data sheets. 24. That sheet i s not there primarily f o r my checking. The purpose of i t i s to enable the men to know what they are doing. By just looking over that sheet, I can t e l l how things are going. I f something i s wrong, I just ask the men to explain i t to me. I never t r y to f i x r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or say who i s to blame. I f a man's explanation i s weak, he knows i t as well as I do. I don't have to t e l l him. In t e l l i n g me, he t e l l s himself. That i s a l l that i s necessary. These men are very s e n s i t i v e ; they have t h i n skins and they take great pride i n t h e i r work.33 To continue with Blauner's report: 25.  The chemical workers interviewed a l l f e l t that the load of supervision was l i g h t and that they were given considerable scope to do t h e i r jobs i n t h e i r own way. . . . This freedom i s possible because the work team which runs an i n d i v i d u a l plant takes over many of the functions of supervision i n other technological contexts. A worker w i l l come to work and do h i s job w e l l , not out of fear of a p a r t i c u l a r boss, but because he f e e l s the other operators i n h i s crew are depending upon him to do h i s part of the t o t a l work. Many of the co-ordinating and administrative functions of superv i s i o n f a l l to the head s h i f t operator, the leader of each plant's work crew. Since the head operator i s an  147  26.  27.  h o u r l y b l u e - c o l l a r employee and t h e most e x p e r i e n c e d man i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r department, h i s guidance i s not f e l t t o be o p p r e s s i v e s u p e r v i s i o n . The f a c e t h a t he has p r e v i o u s l y worked a t each o f t h e j o b s i n h i s department i n t h e course o f w o r k i n g h i s way t o t h e t o p i s an i m p o r t a n t b a s i s o f h i s a u t h o r i t y and respect.35 The c h e m i c a l o p e r a t o r p r o b a b l y has more p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i t h persons i n h i g h e r l e v e l s of s u p e r v i s i o n t h a n do workers i n m a s s - p r o d u c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s . These c o n t a c t s g e n e r a l l y a r e f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n on p r o d u c t i o n problems and a r e t h e r e f o r e more s a t i s f y i n g t h a n adm i n i s t r a t i v e o r d i s c i p l i n i n g c o n t a c t s . I n automated p r o d u c t i o n , when t h e w o r k e r s ' f u n c t i o n becomes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r a t h e r than s k i l l , c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h superv i s o r s , e n g i n e e r s , c h e m i s t s , and o t h e r t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s becomes a r e g u l a r , n a t u r a l p a r t o f t h e j o b d u t i e s . Because t h e o p e r a t o r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r an i m p o r t a n t and e x p e n s i v e p r o c e s s , he can i n i t i a t e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h o s e h i g h e r i n s t a t u s . Because he i s t h e person c l o s e s t t o t h e a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n s , he must be l i s t e n e d t o . . . . Automobile assemblers and t e x t i l e o p e r a t i v e s [Category I I t e c h n o l o g y ] may c a l l upon a foreman o r maintenance m a c h i n i s t when some mechanism i s not w o r k i n g p e r f e c t l y , but t h e i r own a d v i c e i s r a r e l y c o n s u l t e d by t h e i r s u p e r i o r s . T e c h n i c a l cons u l t a t i o n w i t h s u p e r i o r s does t a k e p l a c e i n c E a f t i n d u s t r i e s [ e . g . , p r i n t i n g , Category I t e c h n o l o g y ] , but s i n c e c r a f t s m e n have a more independent domain, i t i s b u i l t i n t o t h e system l e s s t h a n i n c o n t i n u o u s - p r o c e s s technology.36 A climate of c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s necessary f o r successf u l o p e r a t i o n s because o f t h e interdependence o f work teams and t h e importance o f i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Because t h e t e c h n o l o g y , work o r g a n i z a t i o n , and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f c h e m i c a l p l a n t s a l l o w t h e worker t o become i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e company t h r o u g h h i s work group and t o i d e n t i f y w i t h the e n t e r p r i s e , t h e q u a l i t y o f s u p e r v i s i o n i s extremely salient.37 The f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s by Whyte s t r e n g t h e n t h e  foregoing analysis. first-line  The d a t a p e r t a i n t o t h e r o l e o f t h e  s u p e r v i s o r i n t h e manufacture So  o f an  experiment-  1  al 28.  product. At 6:30 on Tuesday n i g h t , Tom L l o y d [ t h e foreman] r e c e i v e d a t e l e p h o n e c a l l from t h e main o f f i c e w i t h t h e o r d e r t o s t a r t t h e t r i - i s o b u t y l e n e r u n as soon as poss i b l e . Me had known some time i n advance t h a t a p r o duet of t h i s n a t u r e was t o be made, but t h i s was t h e  148  29.  30.  31.  32.  33»  f i r s t t i m e he was g i v e n exact s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ( i n i t i a l b o i l i n g p o i n t and d r y p o i n t t e m p e r a t u r e ) . Lloyd asked i f he c o u l d s t a r t t h e r u n t h e f o l l o w i n g morning, but he was t o l d t h a t t h i s was a r u s h o r d e r , so t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s t a r t work i m m e d i a t e l y . Since L l o y d was n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e d e t a i l e d o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e f r a c t i o n a t i n g column, he t e l e p h o n e d Dan Benton, h i s s t a f f e n g i n e e r , and asked him t o r e t u r n t o t h e p l a n t t o t a k e charge o f o p e r a t i o n s a t once. The f r a c t i o n a t i n g column i n which t h e product was t o be made was under t h e d i r e c t charge o f t h e f r a c t i o n a t o r o p e r a t o r , b u t , h a v i n g had a good d e a l o f f r a c t i o n i n g e x p e r i e n c e , t h e h y d r o - s t i l l m a n was n a t u r a l l y i n t e r e s t e d a l s o , and both men n o r m a l l y worked under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e p o l y o p e r a t o r . To t h i s group were added L l o y d [ t h e foreman] and Benton [ s t a f f e n g i n e e r ] who o r d i n a r i l y spent l i t t l e t i m e w i t h i n t h e p l a n t . D u r i n g t h e r u n , L l o y d spent most o f h i s t i m e a t H i - T e s t , c o n s u l t i n g w i t h Benton and t h e o p e r a t o r s . He a l s o t o o k samples from t h e f r a c t i o n a t i n g column up t o t h e l a b o r a t o r y i n o r d e r t o r u n d i s t i l l a t i o n s t e s t s on them. When he went home t o s l e e p , he c a l l e d i n c a t a l y s t - o p e r a t o r Thompson t o do t h e d i s t i l l a t i o n s . Benton was i n a c t i v e charge f r o m Tuesday n i g h t u n t i l F r i d a y morning. D u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d , he was i n t h e p l a n t almost c o n t i n u a l l y , g e t t i n g o n l y 10 h o u r s s l e e p . At t h e s t a r t , he took over t h e #3 f r a c t i o n a t i n g column h i m s e l f and d i r e c t e d t h e f r a c t i o n a t o r o p e r a t o r i n a l l changes. S i n c e o t h e r w i s e t h e p l a n t was o p e r a t i n g i n a r o u t i n e manner, t h e r e was l i t t l e f o r t h e p o l y o p e r a t o r and h y d r o - s t i l l m a n t o do except watch Benton and t h e f r a e t i o n a t o r operator. Benton had c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e i d e a s as t o how t h e r u n s h o u l d be s t a r t e d , and i t appeared t h a t by Tuesday morning he had been s u c c e s s f u l . The product a t t h a t time t e s t e d t o s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , but by t h e time t h e t e s t r e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d t h e column had become f l o o d e d and was no l o n g e r making t h e p r o d u c t . Having • been u n s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s e f f o r t , Benton l i s t e n e d t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f t h e o p e r a t o r s and t r i e d out a number o f t h e i r i d e a s . At t h e s t a r t o f t h e d a y l i g h t t o u r (7 a.m. t o 3 p.m.), f r a c t i o n a t o r - o p e r a t o r K e n d a l l gave h i s o p i n i o n t o L l o y d t h a t no f u r t h e r p r o g r e s s c o u l d be g a i n e d a l o n g t h e l i n e s t h e n b e i n g pursued, and went on t o o u t l i n e h i s i d e a s a s t o how t h e f r a c t i o n a t i n g column s h o u l d be h a n d l e d . L l o y d had a h i g h r e g a r d f o r K e n d a l l and t h e r e f o r e d e t e r mined t o t u r n t h e column over t o h i m w i t h o u t r e s t r i c t i o n s o r s u p e r v i s i o n . By now Benton was p h y s i c a l l y and n e r v o u s l y exhausted and L l o y d sent him home.  149 34.  35.  36.  At t h e end o f K e n d a l l ' s t o u r he s t i l l had no r e s u l t s , but he was a b l e t o c o n v i n c e L l o y d t h a t he was moving i n t h e r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . L l o y d o r d e r e d K e n d a l l t o work a n o t h e r e i g h t h o u r s , r e m a i n i n g i n charge o f t h e k e y c o l umn. W a l l i n g was p o l y o p e r a t o r on evening t o u r (3 t o 11 p.m.). L l o y d i n s t r u c t e d W a l l i n g t o pay c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e way K e n d a l l was o p e r a t i n g t h e column. At t h e end o f evening t o u r , t h e product was s t i l l t o be made. L l o y d sent K e n d a l l home and h e l d W a l l i n g over f o r a n o t h e r e i g h t h o u r s , o r d e r i n g him t o t a k e exc l u s i v e charge o f t h e column. E a r l y Saturday m o r n i n g , 22 h o u r s a f t e r K e n d a l l began t r y i n g h i s p l a n , t h e p r o duct came o v e r , and s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r t h e b r i e f r u n was completed. One o p e r a t o r expressed t h e g e n e r a l v i e w p o i n t o f t h e w o r k e r s when he s a i d : I t wasn't u n t i l t h e y l e f t i t t o t h e o p e r a t o r t h a t t h e y g o t t h e t h i n g l i n e d out. S u r e , i t would have gone much f a s t e r i f t h e y had made i t t h a t way i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . The o p e r a t o r knows t h e s e columns b e t t e r t h a n t h e t e c h n i c a l man.39 Case 6 c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s by  W.F. Whyte. ® 4  The remarks p e r t a i n t o s u p e r v i s o r - w o r k e r  r e l a t i o n s as found i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l product d e s c r i b e d above. 37.  38.  39.  [The foreman] . . . g o t a l o n g e x c e e d i n g l y w e l l w i t h t h e men, and y e t he was not a b l e t o s o l v e some o f t h e b a s i c problems o f worker-management r e l a t i o n s . Why not? I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , we note t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e foreman's p o s i t i o n . Even as t h e w o r k e r s expressed t h e i r r e s p e c t f o r Tom L l o y d , t h e y spoke i n q u i t e d i f f e r e n t terms about o t h e r t o p management o f f i c i a l s who c o u l d i n t r o d u c e sudden changes a t any t i m e . Nor was Tom L l o y d a b l e t o do a n y t h i n g about t h e p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g promotion o f n o n - c o l l e g e men, even though he bel i e v e d t h a t s e v e r a l o f h i s H i - T e s t o p e r a t o r s were w e l l q u a l i f i e d f o r supervisory positions. I n t h e second p l a c e , t h e t r i - i s o b u t y l e n e r u n demons t r a t e s f o r us t h e way i n w h i c h a change i n t e c h n o l o g y o r p r o c e s s can upset worker-management r e l a t i o n s , even when t h e foreman c o n t i n u e s t o be r e g a r d e d as a good s u p e r v i s o r . T h i s r u n brought about a sudden and d r a s t i c change i n t h e r e l a t i o n s among t h e o p e r a t o r s and between o p e r a t o r s and management. Dan Benton, t h e  150 s t a f f e n g i n e e r , i n e f f e c t t o o k over o p e r a t i o n s , l e a v ing t h e p o l y o p e r a t o r l i t t l e t o do. Benton and L l o y d enormously i n c r e a s e d t h e t i m e t h e y spent w i t h t h e o p e r a t o r s i n the p l a n t . Thompson, a l o w e r - s t a t u s man from t h e c a t a l y s t p l a n t — a p r e v i o u s source o f f r i c t i o n —came i n t o run t e s t s which, i n e f f e c t , t o l d the H i Test men how t h e y were p r o g r e s s i n g . F i n a l l y , when the j o b was l e f t t o o p e r a t o r s , f i r s t a f r a c t i o n a t o r o p e r a t o r and t h e n a p o l y o p e r a t o r was h e l d over f o r an a d d i t i o n a l e i g h t hours t o t a k e c o n t r o l of o p e r a t i o n s f r o m t h e men r e g u l a r l y a s s i g n e d . 4®. The run y i e l d e d poor r e s u l t s both i n t e c h n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y and i n human r e l a t i o n s . I n f a c t , i t demons t r a t e s t h e mutual dependence o f e f f i c i e n c y and human ... r e l a t i o n s . 41. How s h o u l d such a r u n have been handled? The operat o r s b e l i e v e d t h a t i f i t had been l e f t t o them, t h e y would have been a b l e t o produce the product i n a much s h o r t e r t i m e . I n d i s c u s s i o n s a f t e r w a r d Tom L l o y d , w h i l e a d m i t t i n g t h e f a i l u r e o f h i s approach i n t h e c a s e , was not s u r e t h a t t h e o p e r a t o r s were r i g h t . He argued t h a t , i n t h e best o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t would t a k e more t h a n e i g h t hours t o produce t h e new p r o d u c t . Thus, i f d i f f e r e n t p o l y o p e r a t o r s had d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s about how t o r e a c h t h i s g o a l , by j u s t l e a v i n g i t t o them i t would be i m p o s s i b l e t o a t t a i n t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n s i s t e n c y t h a t e f f i c i e n t p r o g r e s s r e q u i r e d . Perhaps t h a t i s t r u e , but conversations h e l d w i t h the operators before the run suggest t h a t t h e r e may have been more c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e i r approach t h a n t h e foreman r e c o g n i z e d . S e v e r a l of t h e s e men, as t h e y c o n t r a s t e d t h e i r own o p e r a t i n g approach t o t h a t o f t h e e n g i n e e r s , s a i d t h a t t h e e n g i neer t e n d s t o shoot s t r a i g h t a t t h e t a r g e t , as h i s t h e o r i e s l o c a t e t h a t t a r g e t f o r him. On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e o p e r a t o r , w i t h h i s more i n t i m a t e f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the equipment, i s i n c l i n e d t o make a l i t t l e change and w a i t t o see what e f f e c t i t has. Then he makes a n o t h e r s m a l l change and w a i t s a g a i n and so on. He i s content W i t h a g r a d u a l approach t o t h e t a r g e t . I t i s i n t e r e s t ing t o note t h a t i n t h e t r i - i s o b u t y l e n e r u n t h e e n g i n e e r ' s performance f i t t e d i n w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s s t a t e ments of t h e o p e r a t o r s . He aimed f o r t h e t a r g e t , he got t h e r e t o o f a s t , he o v e r s h o t t h e mark, and t h e whole job had t o be done o v e r . 42. However, even i f we a c c e p t L l o y d ' s statement r e g a r d i n g t h e need f o r a u n i f o r m a p p r o a c h , i t does not necess a r i l y f o l l o w t h a t t h e e n g i n e e r must t a k e over i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e t h e approach. I f L l o y d and Benton had had t i m e b e f o r e s t a r t i n g t h e r u n t o c o n s u l t o f t h e operat o r s , t h i s c o u l d have l e d t o a d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g a u n i f o r m a p p r o a c h , which would t h e n have been c a r r i e d  151 out under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e p o l y o p e r a t o r s . P e r haps L l o y d and Benton would have approached t h e p r o b lem i n t h i s way, had t h e y been g i v e n t i m e . I f s o , t o p management's demands f o r immediate a c t i o n s i m p l y p r o l o n g e d t h e process.41  152  FOOTNOTES ON CHAPTER V I The P l a c e o f t h e Foreman i a Management. Seven case s t u d i e s u n d e r t a k e n by t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l P s y c h o l o g y (London: S t a p l e s P r e s s , 1957)  pp. 83-94.  p p . 83-84.  2  p p . 84-88.  3  p p . 88-89.  4  5  p p . 89-91. P P . 91-94.  6  7 Robert B l a u n e r , A l i e n a t i o n and Freedom: The Fact o r y Worker and H i s I n d u s t r y (Chicago and London: The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1964). g  9  p . 157.  p p . 126-127.  1 Q  i:L  1 2  p p . 124-125.  p.  127.  p p . 127-128.  1 3  p.  130.  1 4  p.  130.  p p . 132-133. 16 P. 133. 1 5  T O O  P . 133-134. 18 1 7  P  W.F. Whyte, " E n g i n e e r s and Workers: A Case S t u d y , " Human O r g a n i z a t i o n , V o l . 14, No. 4, 1956, pp. 3-12. 1 9  P . 4".  20  B l a u n e r , op. c i t . ,  21  *V  134.  2 2  p.  134.  2 3  p.  135-  2 4  P-  2 7  p.  137. 138. 139. 139.  2 S  p.  140.  2 9  p.  °p.  143. 146.  P.  147.  p. 26 p. 2 5  3  3 1  T  0  0  W.F. Whyte, op. c i t ,  32  3 3  p.  6.  B l a r a n e r , op. c i t .  3 4  3 5  3 6  3 7  p. PPp.  147. 147-148. 148.  38 Whyte, op. c i t .  8.  3  V  4 G  Ibid.  U  P-  11.  CHAPTER V I I ANALYSIS OF DATA Introduction The a n a l y s i s c a r r i e d out i n Chapter V I I compromises two d i s t i n c t approaches.  F i r s t , t h e case s t u d i e s o f  C h a p t e r s I V , V and V I w i l l be a n a l y z e d i n o r d e r : (1) t o demonstrate t h e p r o c e s s and l o g i c by which t h e cases were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o c a t e g o r y o f t e c h n o l o g y (2) t o t e s t the  v a l i d i t y o f t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses e n u n c i a t e d i n  Chapter I I I , and (3) t o suggest bases f o r m o d i f y i n g t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses as may be r e q u i r e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e data.  Second, t h e a d d i t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l d a t a found i n t h e  appendices w i l l be s c r u t i n i z e d . the  Where t h e s e d a t a s u p p o r t  o b s e r v a t i o n s and i n f e r e n c e s drawn from Woodward's s t u d y ,  and where t h e y t e n d t o c o n f i r m t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses o f Chapter I I I , t h e s o u r c e s o f c o n f i r m a t i o n be c i t e d .  will  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , where t h e a d d i t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l  d a t a q u e s t i o n t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s , an attempt i s made t o account f o r t h e d i s c r e p a n c i e s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t t h e c o m p l e t e n e s s , s p e c i f i c i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e v a r i o u s d a t a v a r y w i d e l y from case t o case and appendix t o appendix.  The p r e d i l e c t i o n s ,  s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s and r e s e a r c h p e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e a u t h o r s  155 of t h e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s d i f f e r both among themselves and from t h o s e o f t h e a u t h o r o f t h i s s t u d y .  T h e r e f o r e , as t h e  subsequent a n a l y s i s w i l l r e v e a l , i n f e r e n c e s , guesses and hunches f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y i n t h e attempt t o v a l i d a t e t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses  o f t h e study.  A p o r t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses  enunciated i n  Chapter I I I were phrased i n a manner d e s i g n e d t o suggest t h e v a r i a t i o n o f c e r t a i n dimensions h a v i o r as a f u n c t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g y . of  o f s u p e r v i s o r y beThe f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s e s  Cases 1 and 2 w i l l c o n t a i n o n l y l i m i t e d r e f e r e n c e s t o  such phenomena.  I n t h e subsequent case a n a l y s e s t h e v a r i a -  t i o n o f t h e dimensions  of supervisory behavior across the  c a t e g o r i e s o f t e c h n o l o g y w i l l be made more e x p l i c i t .  For  t h e l a t t e r a n a l y s e s , t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f Case 1 and 2 w i l l be u t i l i z e d . C i t a t i o n o f source d a t a Each o f t h e s i x case s t u d i e s w i l l be a n a l y z e d rately.  sepa-  The source f o r s t a t e m e n t s made i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f  a case w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by c i t i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p a r a graph o f t h a t case.  F o l l o w i n g t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e two case  studies f o r a given category of technology, the a d d i t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l d a t a p e r t a i n i n g t o t h a t c a t e g o r y w i l l be c o n s i dered.  The source o f statements which draw upon t h e a d d i -  t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l d a t a w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by c i t i n g t h e appendix number, s e c t i o n and paragraph. statement  F o r example, a  f o l l o w e d by t h e d e s i g n a t i o n ( V , A , l ) " r e f e r s t o n  156 paragraph  1 o f s e c t i o n A o f Appendix V.  CATEGORY I TECHNOLOGY I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Case No. 1: "A Dyeing and C l e a n i n g P l a n t " J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n as Category Technology  I  The t e c h n o l o g i e s o f c l e a n i n g and d y e i n g d e s c r i b e d i n t h e case appear t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a number o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s b e l o n g i n g t o Category  I technology.  For  example, F i g u r e I I above shows t h r e e l e v e l s o f management o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h e q u a l s t h e median observed  by Woodward.  S i m i l a r l y , one n o t e s t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s h o r t management communication l i n e .  I n a d d i t i o n , one n o t e s t h e e x i s t e n c e  o f s e v e r a l s m a l l p r i m a r y work groups:  5 workers i n t h e d r y -  c l e a n i n g o p e r a t i o n , 8 i n wet c l e a n i n g , 3 i n t h e dyehouse, 2 i n t h e c a r p e t c l e a n i n g s e c t i o n , and 1+ g i r l s w o r k i n g i n s i l k s p o t t i n g . ( p a r a g r a p h s 5,  10, and 13).  F o r t h e s e 22  w o r k e r s t h e r e a r e 3 foremen, s u g g e s t i n g a f i r s t - l i n e  super-  v i s o r y span o f c o n t r o l o f about 7, a f i g u r e w e l l below t h e range o f 14-27  suggested  by Woodward (Chart I I ) .  Other o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s p e c u l i a r t o Category I t e c h n o l o g y a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e case s t u d y . example, t h e s c a r c i t y o f s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . g e n e r a l manager (paragraph 2),  Note, f o r The a s s i s t a n t  and t h e " i m p o r t a n t "  t i o n and I n v e s t i g a t i o n departments (paragraphs  Inspec-  16 and 17)  might be c o n s i d e r e d t o be s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t u n i t s .  Although  157 the of  l a t t e r two departments appear t o be an i n t e g r a l p a r t t h e work f l o w and, hence, t o b e l o n g t o t h e " l i n e "  activity.  The e x t e n s i v e t e c h n i c a l competence and r e s p o n -  s i b i l i t y o f f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s (paragraphs 9 , 10, 14,  18, 24)  12,  conforms w e l l w i t h t h e c o r r e l a t e s o f C a t e g o r y  I t e c h n o l o g y d e s c r i b e d i n C h a r t I I . S i m i l a r l y , one n o t e s the  h i g h degree o f f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e between  m a r k e t i n g (shops) and p r o d u c t i o n (the f a c t o r y ) (paragraph 23).  Such i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i s i n a c c o r d w i t h C a t e g o r y I  technology. I t i s c l e a r from t h e case m a t e r i a l t h a t t h e f a c t o r y o p e r a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f u n i t p r o d u c t i o n based upon f i r m c u s tomer o r d e r s o n l y .  Each o r d e r r e c e i v e s u n i q u e , i n d i v i d u a l  t r e a t m e n t i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s (paragraph The p r e c e d i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s suggest t h e for  17). justification  c l a s s i f y i n g t h e case w i t h i n Category I t e c h n o l o g y .  The  j u s t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s strengthened f u r t h e r by c e r t a i n elements of o r g a n i c management p r o c e s s e s w h i c h appear t o e x i s t w i t h i n t h e e n t e r p r i s e .  Specifically,  paragraph 24 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s "run t h e i r shops."  They a r e t h e i r own t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s .  The  own first-  l i n e s u p e r v i s o r does not have t o c o n s u l t w i t h o t h e r s about p l a n s , o r raw m a t e r i a l s . for  I n o t h e r words, t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e  t h e "ad hoc l o c a t i o n o f c o n t r o l a u t h o r i t y and communi-  c a t i o n based on e x p e r t i s e . "  P a r a g r a p h 21 p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n -  a l e v i d e n c e o f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f o r g a n i c management  158 processes.  The  fact that f i r s t - l i n e supervisors  "are  d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e , t o a very great extent, f o r the f i r m ' s r e p u t a t i o n w i t h i t s customers" (paragraph  25),  s u g g e s t s an a d d i t i o n a l e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n of o r g a n i c management; namely, t h a t s u p r e v i s o r y p e r s o n n e l  contribute t h e i r  " s p e c i a l knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e t o common t a s k s of t h e enterprise." I t i s concluded,  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e case s t u d y  d e a l s w i t h an e n t e r p r i s e which may Category I  be c l a s s i f i e d under  technology.  Support f o r S p e c i f i c Hypotheses The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t s of o b s e r v a t i o n s i n f e r e n c e s drawn from t h e p r e c e d i n g  case.  The a n a l y s i s i s  o r g a n i z e d i n accordance w i t h t h e c a t e g o r i e s of Chart The  and  I.  code d e s i g n a t i o n s f o l l o w i n g each sub-heading r e f e r t o  t h i s chart.  I n a d d i t i o n , the a n a l y s i s r e f l e c t s t h e con-  c e p t u a l scheme ( F i g u r e I ) r e l a t i n g s u p e r v i s o r y  activities,  i n t e r a c t i o n s and consequent s e n t i m e n t s  expressed  f e l t or  toward o t h e r s . Nature of s u p e r v i s o r y a c t i v i t i e s ( I - A - l ) W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e D r y - C l e a n i n g  department,  i t i s n o t e d t h a t t h e f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r e x e r c i s e s both h i s t e c h n i c a l knowledge and s k i l l and t h a t he  executes  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n o r d e r t o o r g a n i z e and c o o r d i n a t e t h e work o f h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s  (paragraphl?).  For  ex-  159 ample, i n Wet-Cleaning t h e s u p e r v i s o r e x e r c i s e s h i s t e c h n i c a l knowledge and i s s u e s i n s t r u c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e t r e a t m e n t t o be g i v e n t h e i t e m s .  correct  He u t i l i z e s h i s t e c h n i c a l  knowledge t o i d e n t i f y f a b r i c s and t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t s on them (paragraph 9).  In a d d i t i o n ,  t h e s u p e r v i s o r of t h e W e t - C l e a n i n g department endeavors t o o r g a n i z e a smooth p r o d u c t i o n f l o w w i t h i n h i s u n i t . ( a d m i n i s trative activities).  A n o t h e r example i s t h e  supervision  of work i n t h e F i n i s h i n g , I n s p e c t i o n and S i l k S p o t t i n g partments.  Paragraphs 12,  14 and 16  illustrate  a c t i v i t i e s of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e n a t u r e : t h e and m o n i t o r i n g  of work f l o w .  The  supervisory  coordination  f i r s t - l i n e supervisor i n  t h e R e p a i r s department performs both t e c h n i c a l and trative activities.  de-  adminis-  Gn t h e one hand she a d v i s e s on r e p a i r s .  On t h e o t h e r hand she r e c o r d s work done f o r purposes o f c o s t i n g and wage d e t e r m i n a t i o n  (paragraph 15).  In general,  t h e n , b o t h t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s  are  s i g n i f i c a n t elements i n t h e b e h a v i o r  of f i r s t - l i n e  super-  v i s o r s i n t h i s case (paragraph 1 8 ) .  F u r t h e r m o r e , one f i n d s ,  as h y p o t h e s i z e d ,  evidence f o r the s u p e r v i s o r ' s  involvement i n the d i r e c t production a c t i v i t i e s  9  and  personal (paragraphs  16). A l t h o u g h t h e case m a t e r i a l f a i l s t o demonstrate  face-to-face verbal interactions with others, i t i s i n f e r r e d f r o m t h e d a t a t h a t such i n t e r a c t i o n s do o c c u r i n t h i s f a c t o r y and t h a t t h e y comprise a s i g n i f i c a n t element of t h e  super-  160 v i s o r ' s o v e r a l l behavior.  I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t one  element of t h e s u p e r v i s o r ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n Category I t e c h n o l o g y would c o n s i s t of t h e c o o r d i n a t i o n o f work f l o w between s u c c e s s i v e work u n i t s , n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s f o r access t o scarce r e s o u r c e s , e t c . The d a t a o f t h e case do not g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t t h i s e s i s (paragraph 2 3 ) .  hypoth-  I t appears t h a t o n l y t h e s u p e r v i s o r  of t h e F i n i s h i n g department engages i n such a c t i v i t i e s (paragraph 1 2 ) . Frequency  o f performance  of a c t i v i t i e s  (I-A-2)  The d a t a o f t h e case a r e not s u f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w a n a l y s i s i n r e g a r d t o t h e hypotheses  of t h i s  section.  Nature o f i n t e r a c t i o n s With subordinates ( I - B - l - a ) .  The d a t a o f t h e case  appear t o p r o v i d e i n d i r e c t s u p p o r t f o r t h e h y p o t h e s i s r e garding the face-to-faee t a s k - o r i e n t e d nature of i n t e r a c t i o n s between t h e f i r s t - l i n e nates.  s u p e r v i s o r and h i s s u b o r d i -  The s u p e r v i s o r ' s t y p i c a l l y heavy t e c h n i c a l r e s p o n -  s i b i l i t i e s ; h i s e x e r c i s e of these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  based  upon h i s t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e ; t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s m a l l p r i m a r y work-groups, and c o n t i n u a l l y changing t r e a t m e n t s o f work i t e m s — a l l t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e f a c t o r y appear t o support t h e h y p o t h e s i s . b y i n f e r e n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e d a t a l e n d support t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s u p e r v i s o r - s u b o r d i n a t e i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l t e n d t o be  161 " r e l a x e d " ; t h a t i s , d e v o i d o f c o n f l i c t s over a u t h o r i t y and responsibility.  F o r example, one  observes (1)  p l i n e i s not a problem (paragraph 191;  (2)  that  that  disci-  relation-  s h i p s are " v e r y easy and f r i e n d l y " (paragraph 22),  (3)  and  t h a t t h e r e i s a h i g h p e r c e i v e d s e c u r i t y of employment (paragraph  22).  With s u p e r i o r s ( I - B - l - b ) . regarding  The  s p e c i f i c hypotheses  i n t e r a c t i o n s between f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s  and  t h e i r l i n e s u p e r i o r s were t h e same as t h o s e f o r i n t e r a c t i o n s between s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t e s .  Gn t h e whole,  t h e case d a t a s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s e s , a l t h o u g h  i t i s not  p o s s i b l e t o c o n f i r m t h a t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s are m a i n l y oriented.  task-  I n g e n e r a l , one n o t e s f e a t u r e s of o r g a n i c manage-  ment p r o c e s s e s w h i c h t e n d t o s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s e s .  The  s u p e r v i s o r i s l a r g e l y independent and f r e e t o r u n h i s  depart-  ment as he sees f i t .  The  o r g a n i z a t i o n i s " i n f o r m a l " : mana-  g e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s know each o t h e r w e l l .  There are  vir-  t u a l l y no problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e c h n o l o g i c a l change. The  s u p e r v i s o r has  "easy a c c e s s " t o t h e Works Manager, h i s  immediate s u p e r i o r (paragraph  21).  Horizontal interactions (I-B-l-c).  For t h e most p a r t ,  t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses r e g a r d i n g h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t h e f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r are not w e l l s u p p o r t e d by t h e case d a t a .  Such i n t e r a c t i o n s a p p a r e n t l y a r e  t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y r e q u i r e d t o any e x t e n t .  not  For those h o r i z o n -  t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w h i c h do o c c u r p a r t o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s  is  162  s u p p o r t e d by t h e case.  S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s observed  as h y p o t h e s i z e d , t h e s e i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e " r e l a x e d . "  that, Accord-  i n g t o p a r a g r a p h 2 2 r e l a t i o n s between s u p e r v i s o r s a r e "good." Frequency o f i n t e r a c t i o n s The case does n o t p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n frequencies of i n t e r a c t i o n s .  concerning  I n f e r e n c e s appear t o be un-  warranted. Supervisory  sentiments  I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d o r i g i n a l l y t h a t s u p e r v i s o r y s e n t i ments t o w a r d s u b o r d i n a t e s , s u p e r i o r s , f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s a l o n g t h e w o r k - f l o w , and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s would be s i m i l a r : t h a t i s , n e u t r a l t o f r i e n d l y , f a i r l y c o n s t a n t and based upon m u t u a l r e s p e c t f o r t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e p l u s t h e e f f e c t s o f o r g a n i c management p r o c e s s e s .  I f one a c c e p t s t h e  preceding a n a l y s i s regarding the nature of supervisory i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s , t h e n i t might be i n f e r r e d t h a t t h e hypotheses r e g a r d i n g s u p e r v i s o r y s e n t i m e n t s  a r e sub-  s t a n t i a t e d by t h e case d a t a .  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Case No. 2 : "An E l e c t r i c a l  Engineering  J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n as Category Technology  I  Case 2 poses problems o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n n o t found i n Case 1 .  The s o u r c e s o f c e r t a i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a m b i g u i t i e s  a r e two i n number ( 1 ) t h e n e c e s s a r i l y i d e a l n a t u r e o f t h e  163 s p e c i f i c hypotheses f o r Category I t e c h n o l o g y , and  (2) t h e  f a c t t h a t i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g y might be r e g a r d e d as a continuum, t h e d i v i s i o n s o f which (e.g. Category I ) t e n d t o be somewhat a r b i t r a r y .  Technologies approaching  b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e d i v i s i o n s o f t h e continuum  the  pose unique  d i f f i c u l t i e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and a t t e m p t s t o d e v e l o p p o r t f o r t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses.  sup-  Case 2 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e  phenomena d e s c r i b e d above. I n t h e second paragraph o f t h e case one l e a r n s t h a t o r i g i n a l l y t h e company was  engaged e n t i r e l y i n p r o d u c t i o n  f o r i n d i v i d u a l orders of s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s .  Such a t y p e o f  p r o d u c t i o n c o n t i n u e s t o be t h e major p a r t o f t h e company's output.  The s m a l l b a t c h n a t u r e o f p r o d u c t i o n i s c o n f i r m e d  i n paragraph 4.  T h i s paragraph shows t h a t t h e e n t e r p r i s e  t e n d s t o s p e c i a l i z e i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n of s m a l l l o t s o f s l i g h t l y non-standard  s w i t c h g e a r and e l e c t r i c motors, a l -  though p r o d u c t i o n a l s o c o n s i s t s " p a r t l y " o f l o n g - t e r m t r a c t work.  con-  I t might be c o n c l u d e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e case  s t u d y d e s c r i b e s what i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y a s m a l l b a t c h  produc-  t i o n t e c h n o l o g y (Catagory I ) but w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e r e b e i n g a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l amount o f l a r g e b a t c h p r o d u c t i o n as w e l l . What of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s which have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Category I t e c h n o l o g y ?  The p r e c e d i n g d i s -  c u s s i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t , i n accordance w i t h t h e c o r r e l a t e s o f Category I t e c h n o l o g y , p r o d u c t i o n i s based upon f i r m o r d e r s  only.  I t suggests that t h e order of t h e manufacturing  c y c l e i s from m a r k e t i n g t o development t o p r o d u c t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e c o r r e l a t e s o f Category I t e c h n o l o g y , one o b s e r v e s from F i g u r e I I I t h a t t h e e n t e r p r i s e c o m p r i s e s t h r e e l e v e l s o f management.  T h i s number e q u a l s t h e median  f o r Category I t e c h n o l o g y observed by Woodward.(Chart I I above).  Thus t h e l e n g t h o f t h e management  communication  l i n e i s " r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t " as s u g g e s t e d by Woodward.  Fur-  t h e r m o r e , i n approximate accordance w i t h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Category I t e c h n o l o g y a p o r t i o n o f t h e d i r e c t l a b o r f o r c e c o n s i s t s o f s k i l l e d workers  (paragraph 1 2 ) .  T h i s f a c t s u g g e s t s t o us t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e e n t e r p r i s e p o s s e s s e s a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h , but d e c l i n i n g , p r o p o r t i o n of s k i l l e d t o u n s k i l l e d labor.  F i n a l l y , we observe  from t h e d a t a o f paragraphs 15 and.16 t h a t t h e r e q u i r e d t e c h n i c a l competence o f s u p e r v i s o r s i s h i g h .  Most s u p e r -  v i s o r s have p r e v i o u s l y s e r v e d a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s i n e i t h e r m e c h a n i c a l o r e l e c t r i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g (paragraph 1 5 ) .  The  foremen i n p a r t s u p e r v i s e t h e k i n d o f h i g h l y s k i l l e d t e c h n i c a l work f o r w h i c h t h e y t h e m s e l v e s were t r a i n e d .  The  t r e n d , however, i s toward i n c r e a s i n g l y u n s k i l l e d l a b o r . B r i e f l y , t h e n , t h e case e x h i b i t s a number o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Category I t e c h nology.  However, one a l s o observes one o r two s t r u c t u r a l  c o r r e l a t e s w h i c h do n o t conform t o t h e i d e a l f e a t u r e s obs e r v e d by Woodward.  S p e c i f i c a l l y , one n o t e s t h e presence  165 of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s s u g g e s t i v e o f t h e l o c a t i o n o f the technology  d e s c r i b e d i n t h e case as b e i n g c l o s e t o t h e  boundary s e p a r a t i n g C a t e g o r i e s I and I I .  F o r example,  F i g u r e I I I above i l l u s t r a t e s t h e f a i r l y e l a b o r a t e s p e c i a l i s t organization i n the enterprise.  staff  As paragraph 19  r e v e a l s , t h e sequencing and s c h e d u l i n g o f p r o d u c t i o n a r e p a r t i a l l y s p e c i f i e d f o r t h e f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r by t h e P r o g r e s s Department. p r o d u c t i o n methods.  The P l a n n i n g Department p r e s c r i b e s I n s p i t e o f t h e presence o f t h e s e  s t a f f g r o u p s , t h e i r degree o f c o n t r o l over s u p e r v i s o r y behavior i s only p a r t i a l .  The s u p e r v i s o r i s r e q u i r e d t o con-  s i d e r c a r e f u l l y t h e t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n s (not d i r e c t i v e s ) of t h e s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . when n e c e s s a r y  He c r i t i c i z e s t h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n s  and t a k e s s t e p s t o see t h a t work i s done i n  t h e most e c o n o m i c a l way (paragraph  19).  An a d d i t i o n a l ex-  ample o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s f a i l i n g t o conform t o t h e i d e a l t y p e s o f Category I t e c h n o l o g y  i s found i n t h e  use f o r c o n t r o l purposes by management o f s t a f f department r e p o r t s (paragraph  21).  F i n a l l y , a key c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f  o r g a n i c management appears t o be absent from t h e e n t e r p r i s e d e s c r i b e d i n Case 2: namely, t h e adjustment and c o n t i n u a l r e d e f i n i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l tasks through i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h others. Not w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e f o r e g o i n g d e p a r t u r e s  from  C a t e g o r y I o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s , one n o t e s a d d i t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e which do conform w i t h C a t e g o r y I  166 organizational correlates.  Paragraph 19 o f t h e case demon-  s t r a t e s t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r i s c o n s u l t e d on any t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r out o f t h e o r d i n a r y b e f o r e p r o d u c t i o n methods a r e d e c i d e d upon.  S i m i l a r l y , one n o t e s t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r  consults with Personnel regarding h i r i n g ; the f i n a l d e c i s i o n concerning  the h i r i n g of a d d i t i o n a l l a b o r i s h i s (para-  graph 19 and 2 5 ) . z a t i o n support  These two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e o r g a n i -  f e a t u r e s o f o r g a n i c management i n v o l v i n g t h e  communication o f a d v i c e and i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n d e c i s i o n s , and t h e c o n t r i b u t i v e n a t u r e and e x p e r i e n c e  o f s p e c i a l knowledge  t o t h e common t a s k s o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e .  I t i s concluded,  t h e r e f o r e , that although  Case 2  c o n t a i n s elements which f a i l t o conform w i t h t h e i d e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Category I t e c h n o l o g y  s t r u c t u r a l cor-  r e l a t e s , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n Category I i s a t l e a s t partially  justified.  Support f o r S p e c i f i c Hypotheses I n t h i s s e c t i o n t h e a n a l y s i s o f Case 2 i s c o n t i n u e d . The g o a l i s t o demonstrate t h e degree t o which t h e case m a t e r i a l s e i t h e r p r o v i d e support  f o r t h e s p e c i f i c hypotheses  regarding s u p e r v i s o r y behavior i n Category I technology, or i n d i c a t e t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and r e f i n e m e n t s  required i n the  s p e c i f i c hypotheses. Nature o f s u p e r v i s o r y a c t i v i t i e s ( I - A - l ) The  d a t a p r o v i d e support  f o r the hypothesis  regard-  i n g t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l knowledge and t h e e x e r c i s e  167 of t e c h n i c a l s k i l l .  F o r example, one n o t e s t h e s t r o n g  t e c h n i c a l background o f t h e f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r graph 1 6 ) .  (para-  H i s e x t e n s i v e t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g and many y e a r s  of e x p e r i e n c e  as a s k i l l e d workman a r e o f immediate r e l e -  vance t o t h e t e c h n i c a l l y s k i l l e d work performed by a p o r t i o n of h i s subordinates  (paragraph 1 7 ) .  measure o f t e c h n i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  He has a c o n s i d e r a b l e (paragraph 1 9 ) .  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , and as h y p o t h e s i z e d ,  the f i r s t -  l i n e s u p e r v i s o r i n t h i s e n t e r p r i s e i s t h e "man on t h e s p o t , " t h e "man o f p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e " hypothesized  (paragraph 1 9 ) .  I t was  t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r " p e r s o n a l l y makes a r e l a -  t i v e l y broad range o f t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s , o r g i v e s t e c h n i cal etc.  advice regarding  (1) c h o i c e o f work t o o l s and methods"  A n a l y s i s o f t h e case r e v e a l s t h a t t h e s u p e r v i s o r  a p p l i e s h i s t e c h n i c a l knowledge and s k i l l i n e v a l u a t i n g and c r i t i c i z i n g p l a n n i n g department s p e c i f i c a t i o n s on product i o n methods.  He c o n s u l t s w i t h s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s when o u t -  o f - t h e - o r d i n a r y jobs are scheduled. experience  and knowledge o f t h e f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r a r e  u t i l i z e d i n the establishment It  F i n a l l y , the technical  of piece-rates  (paragraph 1 9 ) .  a p p e a r s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e t e c h n i c a l r o l e de-  mands o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r i n Case 2 a r e o f a c o n s u l t a t i v e nature.  S o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s does  not f i g u r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n h i s r o l e . The  d a t a do not support t h e h y p o t h e s i s  t h a t , when  u n f o r e s e e n problems o r e x c e s s i v e work l o a d s a r i s e , t h e  168  s u p e r v i s o r becomes p e r s o n a l l y a c t i v e i n c o n t r i b u t i n g b i s t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s t o t h e d i r e c t p r o d u c t i o n work of h i s subordinates. Among t h e s e t of i d e a l s t r u c t u r a l c o r r e l a t e s of C a t e g o r y I t e c h n o l o g y l i s t e d i n C h a r t I I are t e n c e of few  or no s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s  ment of f o r m a l p r o d u c t i o n and  (1) t h e e x i s -