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Implications of organizational correlates of technology for supervisory behavior Hostetter, Frederick Herbert 1966

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IMPLICATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CORRELATES OF TECHNOLOGY FOR SUPERVISORY BEHAVIOR by FREDERICK HERBERT HOSTETTER B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 2 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION i n the F a c u l t y of Graduate Studies We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1 9 6 6 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study, I f u r t h e r agree that per m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives,. I t i s understood that copying, or p u b l i  c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Q^ivA.xngvcfl- ftvtaC (fc?ov\w»>s Act H A ^ V I •jvct The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,. Vancouver 8, Canada. ABSTRACT This study deals w i t h the i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s of indus t r i a l technology upon the behavior of f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s . Homans' paradigm of the c o n s t i t u e n t s of s o c i a l behavior, and Woodward's observations regarding o r g a n i z a t i o n a l cor r e l a t e s of technology provide the r a t i o n a l e f o r the enuncia t i o n of s p e c i f i c hypotheses p e r t a i n i n g t o the nature of supervisory a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r a c t i o n s and sentiments a s s o c i  ated w i t h each of three c a t e g o r i e s of i n d u s t r i a l technology. The v a l i d i t y of the s p e c i f i c hypotheses i s t e s t e d t h r u a secondary a n a l y s i s of data reported i n a number of o b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d i e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l behavior. The p e r e n n i a l "man i n the middle 1* concept of the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r i s r e j e c t e d . I t i s not a v a l i d i d e a l - type concept t h a t i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of su p e r v i s o r y behavior i n a l l forms of contemporary production o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I t appears t h a t the dominant mode of technology w i t h i n a production o r g a n i z a t i o n or work u n i t a f f e c t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e and processes. The l a t t e r phenomena seem t o be important f a c t o r s shaping supervisory r o l e de mands, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of work environment, and, hence, supervisory behavior. Thus, the study suggests the u t i l i t y of three i d e a l - t y p e c o n s t r u c t s of supervisory behavior; one f o r each of the three c a t e g o r i e s of technology. i i i Unit-and small-batch-production technology Role demands in c l u d e an important t e c h n i c a l element. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e p e r s o n a l l y attending t o personnel matters, production r e p o r t s and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , and c o o r d i n a t i n g and monitoring work flow through the u n i t . I n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s along the work fl o w are minimally r e q u i r e d . I n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h both subordinates and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s are t y p i c a l l y t a s k - o r i e n t e d , f a c e - t o - face and devoid of c o n f l i c t . I n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s u p e r i o r s may be mediated by the r e p o r t s of s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s i f the l a t t e r are found i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Sentiments toward subordinates, s u p e r i o r s and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s tend t o be n e u t r a l t o f r i e n d l y i n tone and f a i r l y constant over time. Mass-production-assembly-line technology The s u p e r v i s o r t y p i c a l l y n e i t h e r possesses, nor i s re q u i r e d t o possess, a s i g n i f i c a n t body of t e c h n i c a l know ledge or set of t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s are d i r e c t e d toward c o o r d i n a t i n g and monitoring work fl o w through the u n i t , and, i n g e n e r a l , a c h i e v i n g the c o l l a b o r a  t i o n of others. These a c t i v i t i e s are e f f e c t e d by v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , mainly w i t h non-workers such as s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . The requirement f o r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s along the work f l o w ranges from being minimally r e q u i r e d t o inherent i n the productive process. I n t e r  a c t i o n s w i t h s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s are f a c e - t o - f a c e , t a s k -i v o r i e n t e d , and t y p i c a l l y h o s t i l e . I n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s u p e r i o r s tend t o be t a s k - o r i e n t e d , h o s t i l e and h e a v i l y mediated by the r e p o r t s of s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . Supervisory i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h subordinates tend t o be f a c e - t o - f a c e , f r e q u e n t l y h o s t i l e , and p r i m a r i l y t a s k - o r i e n t e d . The sentiments of s u p e r v i s o r s toward subordinates, and p a r t i c u l a r l y s u p e r i o r s , are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y those of defense and h o s t i l i t y ; they are unstable over time. Sentiments toward s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s tend t o be n e u t r a l t o h o s t i l e and g e n e r a l l y s t a b l e over time. Continuous-process technology Role demands of the s u p e r v i s o r i n c l u d e an important t e c h n i c a l element; t e c h n i c a l advice i s both sought from and given t o subordinates and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . As the degree of a u t o m a t i c i t y of production c o n t r o l i n c r e a s e s , the need f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n of work fl o w w i t h i n and between u n i t s de creases ; s i m i l a r l y f o r the requirement f o r e x c l u s i v e l y t a s k - o r i e n t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h other o r g a n i z a t i o n a c t o r s . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e i n s p e c t i o n and c o n t r o l f u n c t i o n s designed t o assure the s a f e t y of both personnel and the process and equipment. I n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h subordinates and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s tend to a l l o w f o r the mutual e v a l u a t i o n of t e c h n i c a l i s s u e s . As the degree of a u t o m a t i c i t y of pro d u c t i o n c o n t r o l i n c r e a s e s , such i n t e r a c t i o n s tend t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the exchange of advice and i n f o r m a t i o n . Sentiments are g e n e r a l l y n e u t r a l t o f r i e n d l y and s l i g h t l y unstable over time. V.V. Murray, Supervisor TABLE GF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE INTRODUCTION • 1 Statement of Intent and Scope of the Study 1 Methodology and Organization of the Study 2 I . CORRELATES OF TECHNOLOGY: AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 6 Roots of the Concept of the D i v i s i o n of Labor Observations of K a r l Marx Observations of Emile Dmrkheim Observations of Max Weber Co n t r i b u t i o n s of Th o r s t e i n Veblen L i m i t a t i o n s of Contemporary Organization Theory Pe r s p e c t i v e s of Joan Woodward and M a r t i n Meissner I I . RESEARCH PROBLEM AND DESIGN 21 Conceptual Scheme 21 Research Problem 23 General Hypothesis 23 Research design 23 I I I . FORMULATION OF SPECIFIC HYPOTHESES . . . . 27 Category I Technology 27 Category I I Technology 39 Category I I I Technology 4# v i CHAPTER PAGE IV. CASE STUDIES: CATEGORY I TECHNOLOGY . . . 60 Case 1 60 Case 2 69 V. CASE STUDIES: CATEGORY I I TECHNOLOGY . . 6%. Case 3 84 Case 4 96 VI. CASE STUDIES: CATEGORY I I I TECHNOLOGY . . 129 Case 5 129 Case 6 141 V I I . ANALYSIS OF DATA 154 Category I Technology 156 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Case 1 156 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Case 2 162 A n a l y s i s of a d d i t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l data . 174 Category I I Technology 179 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Case 3 179 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Case 4 1$8 A n a l y s i s of a d d i t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l data . 199 Category I I I Technology 208 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Case 5 208 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Case 6 218 A n a l y s i s of a d d i t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l data . 227 V I I I . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 235 Conclusions 235 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Org a n i z a t i o n Theory . . 254 Need f o r A d d i t i o n a l Research . . . . 256 v i i PAGE BIBLIOGRAPHIES 263 B i b l i o g r a p h y of Case Studies 264 General B i b l i o g r a p h y 265 APPENDICES: ADDITIONAL EMPIRICAL DATA 269 I. Category I Technology: Miscellaneous Observations 270 I I . Category I Technology: Observations on Caaft Technology i n P r i n t i n g . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Supervisory Behavior 273 I I I . Category I I Technology: Miscellaneous Observations 275 IV. Category I I I Technology: Miscellaneous Observations 279 V. Category I I I Technology: Notes on Automated Technology 231 LIST GF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. Changes i n Foreman and Group Leader Contacts 9 5 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Conceptual Scheme 22 2. Management Organization. "A Dyeing and Cleaning P l a n t " 61 3. The Management Organization. "An E l e c t r i c a l Engineering Works" 71 4. O r g a n i z a t i o n Chart: Case No. 3 #7 5. Organization Chart: Case No. 4 9& 6. "The People With Whom Tony D e a l t " . . . . 109 7. "As Tony Perceived His S i t u a t i o n " . . . . 116 £>. Management Organization i n "A S t e e l P l a n t " . . 131 9. Model of R e l a t i o n s h i p Among Technology, S t r u c t u r a l C o r r e l a t e s and Supervisory Behvaior 257 LIST OF CHARTS CHART PAGE 1. Framework f o r C l a s s i f y i n g Hypotheses and Ordering Observations Based on E m p i r i c a l Data 25 2. S t r u c t u r a l C o r r e l a t e s of Category I Technology 28 3 . S t r u c t u r a l C o r r e l a t e s of Category I I Technology 40 4 . S t r u c t u r a l C o r r e l a t e s of Category I I I Technology 49 5. "Foreman Contact Frequencies" 92 6. "Contact Duration Patterns W i t h i n Assembly- Line S e c t i o n — M a r c h and E a r l i e r " 93 7. "Diagonal Contact Frequencies Between Persons on Adjacent L e v e l s " 94 INTRODUCTION Statement of i n t e n t and scope This study i s an attempt t o develop and t e s t a s e r i e s of s p e c i f i c hypotheses regarding the f o l l o w i n g dimensions of f i r s t - l i n e s u p e rvisory behavior: (1) the nature and frequencies of f i r s t - l i n e s u p e rvisory a c t i v i t i e s (2) super v i s o r y i n t e r a c t i o n p atterns and f r e q u e n c i e s , and (3) the nature of supervisory sentiments toward those o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t o r s w i t h whom i n t e r a c t i o n s occur. The phrase "supervisory a c t i v i t i e s " denotes any overt behavior d i r e c t e d toward the accomplishment of supervisory t a s k s . Thus, ac t s of reading , w r i t i n g , observing, speaking and l i s t e n i n g are in c l u d e d under the t i t l e of " a c t i v i t i e s . " " I n t e r a c t i o n s " r e f e r t o a sub-class of a c t i v i t i e s i n which the speaking, l i s t e n i n g and non-verbal communication a c t i v i t i e s of e i t h e r the su p e r v i s o r or another o r g a n i z a t i o n a c t o r e x e r c i s e immediate i n f l u e n c e s upon the behavior or perceptions of another a c t o r . The nature of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l be spoken of as being c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a q u a l i t y or tone a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the "sentiments" engendered by an i n t e r a c t i o n . The term " h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s " s h a l l be used t o denote i n t e r a c t i o n s between the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and e i t h e r (1) f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s along the work f l o w , or (2) s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , e.g., maintenance, q u a l i t y c o n t r o l , 2 production planning and scheduling, methods o f f i c e r s , e t c . As used i n t h i s study "sentiments" r e f e r t o the f e e l i n g s of an a c t o r i n response t o a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of h i s environment. Such f e e l i n g s beome "sentiments" i f they endure over a p e r i o d of time, f o r example, a few days, or weeks, or longer. To be more s p e c i f i c , the o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study i s t o proceed by a quasi-deductive method t o formulate and t e s t a s e r i e s of s p e c i f i c hypotheses regarding the above- noted dimensions of supervisory behavior under three cate g o r i e s of i n d u s t r i a l production technology. The phrase " i n d u s t r i a l production technology" i s used t o denote the complex of p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s , t e c h n i c a l o p e rations, men-machine systems, and the l e v e l and type of mechanization a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the manufacture or production of a product, s e r i e s of r e l a t e d product, or a s e r v i c e . F ollowing Joan Woodward's study^three d i s c e r n i b l e c a t e g o r i e s of i n d u s t r i a l production technology are u t i l i z e d i n the a n a l y s i s . Category I denotes " u n i t and small-batch production technology." Category I I r e f e r s t o the t e c h n o l  ogy a s s o c i a t e d w i t h "large-batch mass-production, or assembly- l i n e " production. Category I I I r e f e r s t o "continuous-process technology." O v e r a l l methodology and o r g a n i z a t i o n of the study The study commences wi t h an attempt t o set the r e  search i n i t s h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . To t h i s end, the observations of a sample of both the e a r l i e s t and contempo r a r y students of o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of technology f o r s o c i a l behavior are examined b r i e f l y . The h i s t o r i c a l survey of Chapter I concludes w i t h reference t o the research of Joan Woodward, which provides a l o g i c a l 2 bridge t o the remaining chapters of the study. In Chapter I I the observation made by Woodward, which serves as the s t a r t i n g point of t h i s study, i s noted. In a d d i t i o n , the conceptual scheme underlying the a n a l y s i s i s explained. Chapter I I concludes w i t h a statement of the general hypothesis of the study, plus an explanation of the a n a l y t i c a l framework used f o r ordering the enunciation of the s p e c i f i c hypotheses and t h e i r subsequent t e s t i n g . Chapter I I I serves t o develop the s p e c i f i c hypotheses regarding the dimensions of sup e r v i s o r y behavior f o r each of the three categories of production technology. Woodward's observations regarding the o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r a l c o r r e l a t e s of a given category of technology are presented and i n t e r  preted. The s p e c i f i c hypotheses p e r t a i n i n g t o the dimensions of supervisory behavior f o r th a t category of production t e c h  nology are then developed. Chapters IV, V and VI each c o n t a i n two case s t u d i e s which provide d e s c r i p t i o n s of f i r s t - l i n e s u p e rvisory behavior under production technology Categories I , I I and I I I r e s  p e c t i v e l y . In Chapter V I I the data of the three preceding chap-4 t e r s and the appendices t o the study are analyzed. The purpose of the a n a l y s i s i s to t e s t the v a l i d i t y of the s p e c i f i c hypotheses enunciated i n Chapter I I I . Chapter VIII i n c l u d e s : (1) a summary of the a n a l y s i s c a r r i e d out i n Chapter VII (2) a statement of the conclu sions emerging from the study (3) an enumeration of f u t u r e research problems suggested by t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and (4) a d i s c u s s i o n of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the a n a l y s i s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n theory. 5 FOOTNOTES ON INTRODUCTION •'•Joan Woodward, I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : Theory and  P r a c t i c e , (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965). 2 I b i d . CHAPTER I CORRELATES OF TECHNOLOGY: AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE I n t r o d u c t i o n The contents of t h i s chapter comprise a survey of some of the h i g h l i g h t s from the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o technology, the d i v i s i o n of l a b o r , o r g a n i z a t i o n theory, and the s o c i a l e f f e c t s of technology. By sketching the more fundamental r e l a t i o n s h i p s among these elements, and by p o i n t i n g out the l i m i t a t i o n s of contemporary o r g a n i z a t i o n theory, the stage i s set f o r the subsequent a n a l y s i s . The chapter serves t o i l l u s t r a t e the. c o n t i n u i t y between the a n a l y s i s contained i n t h i s study and the research and specu l a t i o n which precedes i t . H i s t o r i c a l perspective From the e a r l i e s t beginnings of the Western i n t e l  l e c t u a l t r a d i t i o n s c h o l a r s have s t u d i e d the nature and 1 2 s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i v i s i o n of l a b o r i n s o c i e t y . ' A l  though as e a r l y as the time of A r i s t o t l e s e v e r a l s c h o l a r s 3 recognized the importance of s o c i e t y ' s d i v i s i o n of l a b o r and, hence, technology, i t was not u n t i l the end of the eighteenth century t h a t an extensive s o c i a l cognizance was taken of the phenomenon.^ In the w r i t i n g s of Adam Smith one notes what i s 7 probably the f i r s t s e r i o u s attempt t o enunciate a theory of 5 the p r i n c i p l e of the d i v i s i o n of l a b o r . But i t was Comte who f i r s t saw beyond the purely economic nature of the t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y based d i v i s i o n of l a b o r . ^ The s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s , p r e d i l e c t i o n s and values of s e v e r a l s c h o l a r s since Adam Smith have l e d t o research en deavors a l l apparently stemming, at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y and i n d i r e c t l y i f not d i r e c t l y , from a common concern f o r iden t i f y i n g the nature and consequences of the t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y conditioned d i v i s i o n of l a b o r . The o b j e c t i v e s of these s c h o l a r s seem t o have been d i r e c t e d toward d e l i n e a t i n g the dominant s o c i a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and b e h a v i o r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the d i v i s i o n of la b o r under i n d u s t r i a l production t e c h  n o l o g i e s . The immediate purpose here i s t o sketch the main boundaries of these broad avenues of i n q u i r y i n order t o e s t a b l i s h the background t o the subsequent a n a l y s i s . The works of K a r l Marx provide a u s e f u l , i f a r b i t r a r y , beginning f o r the survey. In the e a r l i e s t w r i t i n g s by K a r l Marx one f i n d s a number of concepts and themes which appear t o run throughout h i s e n t i r e works. For example, i n h i s German Ideology Marx observes that persons who are "produc t i v e l y a c t i v e " enter i n t o " d e f i n i t e p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l 7 r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " He goes on t o e x p l a i n t h a t as persons are " e f f e c t i v e , " as they "produce m a t e r i a l l y " and are " a c t i v e under d e f i n i t e m a t e r i a l l i m i t s , " the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y evolves continuously and independently of the w i l l 8 of i n d i v i d u a l s . The same concepts f i n d expression i n h i s l a t e r works, f o r example i n C a p i t a l . Here Marx notes that 'The general c o n c l u s i o n I a r r i v e d a t — a n d once reached, i t served as the guiding thread i n my s t u d i e s — c a n be b r i e f l y formulated as f o l l o w s : In the s o c i a l production of t h e i r means of e x i s t e n c e , men enter i n t o d e f i n i t e , necessary r e l a t i o n s which are independent of t h e i r w i l l , productive r e l a t i o n s h i p s which correspond to a d e f i n i t e stage of development of t h e i r m a t e r i a l productive f o r c e s . The aggregate of these productive r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o n s t i t u t e s the economic s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y . . . t o which d e f i n i t e forms of s o c i a l con sciousness correspond. The mode of production of the m a t e r i a l means of existence c o n d i t i o n s the whole pro cess of s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e . ' V The foregoing broad and i n c l u s i v e concepts i n t e g r a t  ing the w r i t i n g s of Marx f i n d expression i n a number of lower l e v e l observations which are p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o our a n a l y s i s . To i l l u s t r a t e , Meissner remarks that the el d e r Marx focused h i s study upon the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t e c h n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n , production o r g a n i z a t i o n and task segmentation.**"® To paraphrase Marx h i m s e l f , under the e a r l i e s t forms of manufacture, production was ha r d l y d i s t i n  guishable from that of the h a n d i c r a f t trades."*'"'' Neverthe l e s s Marx suggests that there were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between these two stages of technology. Under "manufacture" a p o r t i o n of the means of production (e.g. raw m a t e r i a l s 12 and warehouses) are consumed i n common by a l l workers. A l s o , the processes of manufacture create a unique " s o c i a l f o r c e " due t o the f a c t that "many hands take part s i m u l t a - 13 neously i n one and the same undivided o p e r a t i o n . " ^ Fu r t h e r  more, at the "great i n d u s t r y " stage of manufacture other 9 b a s i c a l l y s o c i a l transformations occur. Under t h i s l a t t e r stage of technology the worker becomes a "mere appendage" t o machines producing other machines i n work o r g a n i z a t i o n s l a r g e l y independent of worker c a p a b i l i t i e s . " ^ Other lower l e v e l observations made by Marx p e r t a i n  ing t o the impact of technology on o r g a n i z a t i o n are germane. He suggests t h a t the f a c t o r y d i v i s i o n of l a b o r does not p r i m a r i l y y i e l d a d i s t r i b u t i o n of workmen i n t o groups. Rather, " i t i s p r i m a r i l y a d i s t r i b u t i o n of the workmen among 15 s p e c i a l i z e d machines." Cooperation among workers i s , t h e r e f o r e , "only simple." Marx notes that the organized groups p e c u l i a r t o the f a c t o r y (as d i s t i n c t from "manufac- 16 t u r e " ) c o n s i s t of the "head workman and h i s few a s s i s t a n t s . " In the f a c t o r y the fundamental d i v i s i o n of l a b o r i s between 17 machine operators and the "mere attendants" of the operators. In a d d i t i o n t o these two groups of a c t o r s which Marx con s i d e r s t o be p e c u l i a r t o f a c t o r y technology and o r g a n i z a t i o n , there i s a "numerically unimportant" c l a s s of workmen, some of them " s c i e n t i f i c a l l y educated," others "brought up t o a t r a d e , " whose occupation i t i s t o r e p a i r and maintain the 1$ machinery. I t i s c l e a r t h a t Marx i s d e s c r i b i n g the phe nomenon of what o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e o r i s t s c a l l " l i n e - s t a f f " arrangements. Their o r i g i n s appear t o l i e i n the o r g a n i  z a t i o n a l forms, or s t r u c t u r e , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a r l y f a c t o r y technology. A study of the most advanced production technology 10 and i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of h i s time l e d Marx t o p o s i t t h a t f a c t o r y technology and o r g a n i z a t i o n leads t o the "separation of the i n t e l l e c t u a l powers of production from 19 the manual l a b o r . . . . " 7 I t appears that the s e p a r a t i o n of i n t e l l e c t u a l powers of production from manual l a b o r , plus the " t e c h n i c a l s u b o r d i n a t i o n " of the machine operator and the elaborate system of "barrack d i s c i p l i n e , " provide the b a s i s f o r i n d u s t r i a l patterns of s u p e r v i s i o n . For, as Marx notes, the f i n a l consequence of these processes i s the d i v i s i o n of "work-people i n t o operatives and overlookers. • • • Thus i t i s apparent that Marx's s t u d i e s of the t e c h  n o l o g i c a l l y conditioned d i v i s i o n of l a b o r i n s o c i e t y embrace s e v e r a l areas of i n q u i r y . In p a r t i c u l a r , he develops con cepts r e l a t i n g production technology t o worker behavior, the o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s , and broad s o c i a l i s s u e s such as a l i e n a t i o n from work. Emile Durkheim appears to have continued the study of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the d i v i s i o n of l a b o r along some of the avenues d e l i n e a t e d by Marx. A c a r e f u l study of Durkheim's The D i v i s i o n of Labor 21 i n S o c i e t y y i e l d s a few observations r e l e v a n t t o t h i s survey. Their primary value i s t o i l l u s t r a t e the h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y i n the search f o r understanding regarding the i m p l i c a t i o n s of technology and the d i v i s i o n of l a b o r . L i k e Marx, Durkheim sees i n the d i v i s i o n of l a b o r the "necessary" 11 22 c o n d i t i o n s f o r the development of s o c i e t i e s . I t i s the 23 source of c i v i l i z a t i o n . I t i s through the d i v i s i o n of l a b o r , notes Durkheim, t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s are l i n k e d together. Just as the d i v i s i o n of l a b o r makes a s o c i e t y coherent, so too i t determines the " c o n s t i t u t i v e t r a i t s " of i t s s t r u c - 25 t u r e . In i t s non-anomic s t a t e the d i v i s i o n of l a b o r 26 determines " f u n c t i o n s , " and "ways of d e f i n i t e a c t i o n . " Although the broad l i n e s of c o n t i n u i t y between the works of Marx and Durkheim are amply i l l u s t r a t e d i n the preceding remarks, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d u s t r i a l production technologies and forms of the d i v i s i o n of la b o r i n indus t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s are not as w e l l developed by Durkheim as by Marx. I f broad l i n e s of h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y connect the st u d i e s of Marx and Durkheim, the connections between the en q u i r i e s of Max Weber and K a r l Marx are even more apparent. The use of language, the wide h i s t o r i c a l sweep, the sense of the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s of production technologies upon the d i v i s i o n of l a b o r so t y p i c a l of Marx, a l l f i n d expres s i o n i n Weber's work. I t i s evident t h a t Weber recognizes the pervasiveness of the d i v i s i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n of "human s e r v i c e s " i n the 27 i n t e r e s t of production. In p a r t i c u l a r , Weber d i s t i n g u i s h e s between two c l a s s e s of s e r v i c e s f o r economic purposes: "mana g e r i a l s e r v i c e s " and s e r v i c e s " o r i e n t e d t o the i n s t r u c t i o n s 2o* of a managerial agency." Weber suggests,that v a r y i n g 12 t e c h n i c a l modes of production determine the patterns of 29 "occupational d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . " He argues that The use of mechanized sources of power and machin ery i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of modern i n d u s t r y . From a t e c h  n i c a l point of view, the l a t t e r presupposes s p e c i a l i z a  t i o n of f u n c t i o n . . . and a l s o a p e c u l i a r u n i f o r m i t y and c a l c u l a b i l i t y of performance, both i n q u a l i t y and. quantity.30 That i s , Weber a s s o c i a t e s machine technology w i t h d i s t i n c  t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s i n the form of requirements f o r the planning and c o n t r o l of production. That Weber i s cognizant of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l cor r e l a t e s of production technology i s suggested by the pre ceding d i s c u s s i o n . His cognizance may be made more e x p l i c i t by noting the t e c h n i c a l f a c t o r s which Weber regards as p a r t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e x p r o p r i a t i o n of the i n d i v i d  u a l worker from the means of production. In developing h i s argument Weber po i n t s t o the f o l l o w i n g "purely t e c h n i c a l " f a c t o r s : (1) the f a c t that sometimes production technology r e q u i r e s the s e r v i c e s of numerous workers e i t h e r s i m u l t a  neously or s u c c e s s i v e l y ; (2) the f a c t t h a t sources of produc t i v e power may only be r a t i o n a l l y e x p l o i t e d by using them simultaneously f o r b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r operations under u n i f i e d c o n t r o l ; (3) the f a c t that f r e q u e n t l y a t e c h n i c a l l y r a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of production processes i s p o s s i b l e only by combining complementary processes under continuous and common s u p e r v i s i o n ; (4) the f a c t t h a t coordinated processes of l a b o r can only be e x p l o i t e d r a t i o n a l l y on a l a r g e s c a l e which, i n 13 t u r n r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g f o r the management of such processes of l a b o r ; ( 5 ) the f a c t t h a t , i f production t e c h  nology and raw m a t e r i a l s are under u n i f i e d s u p e r v i s o r y con t r o l , l a b o r may be subjected t o a " s t r i n g e n t d i s c i p l i n e " thereby c o n t r o l l i n g both the pace, q u a n t i t y , s t a n d a r i z a t i o n 31 and q u a l i t y of production. Subsequent chapters s h a l l develop and t e s t i n con s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l many of the ideas contained i n the f o r e  going paragraph. This b r i e f sketch of the h i g h l i g h t s of the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o technology, the d i v i s i o n of la b o r and t h e i r s o c i a l , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and b e h a v i o r a l c o r r e l a t e s would be incomplete without an examination of the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of Tho r s t e i n Veblen. Joan Woodward s t a t e s t h a t Veblen f i r s t p o s t u l a t e d the l i n k between technology and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . The foregoing d i s c u s s i o n of the w r i t i n g s of Marx, Durkheim and Weber i n d i c a t e s t h a t Woodward's statement i s i n c o r r e c t . A more v a l i d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c o n s i s t s of acknowledging the c o n t i n u i t y apparent i n the works of Marx, Durkheim, Weber and T h o r s t e i n Veblen. This c o n t i n u i t y of per s p e c t i v e i s amply revealed i n Veblen's observation t h a t ". . . the machine process condi t i o n s the growth and scope of i n d u s t r y , and . . . i t s d i s  c i p l i n e i n c u l c a t e s h a b i t s of thought s u i t a b l e t o the indus- 33 t r i a l technology. . . ."^ Veblen observes that 14 The d i s c i p l i n e of the machine process enforces a s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of conduct and knowledge i n terms of q u a n t i t a t i v e p r e c i s i o n , and i n c u l c a t e s a h a b i t of apprehending and e x p l a i n i n g f a c t s i n terms of mater i a l cause and e f f e c t . . . . I t s metaphysics i s mat e r i a l i s m and i t s point of view i s t h a t of causal sequence.34 In a d d i t i o n t o comprehending the foregoing broad s o c i o - c u l t u r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of a pervasive machine t e c h n o l  ogy, Veblen p o i n t s t o i t s e f f e c t s upon managerial behavior. He speaks of the "gravest urgency" a s s o c i a t e d w i t h keeping 3 5 comprehensive machine processes operating e f f i c i e n t l y . ^ He suggests t h a t the urgency of e f f e c t i v e "immediate super v i s i o n of the var i o u s i n d u s t r i a l processes" i s due t o the pervasiveness of the machine technology. Veblen contends t h a t the l a r g e s t e f f e c t s of the d i s c i p l i n e of mechanical operations are t o be sought among those r e q u i r e d t o "compre- 3 7 hend and guide" the processes. ' Presumably the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r would be in c l u d e d i n t h i s category. That i s , f i r s t - l i n e s u p e rvisory behavior would appear t o be i n part dependent upon the demands of technology. The presumption made i n the preceding paragraph, as w e l l as the observations of Marx and Weber noted above, appears t o have been discounted by most of the more recent students of o r g a n i z a t i o n theory. With the exception of a handful of very recent s t u d i e s , one f i n d s at best c a s u a l , i s o l a t e d , i n d i r e c t and fragmentary acknowledgments of the e f f e c t s of a s i n g l e mode of production technology upon the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r ' s r o l e demands and behavior. A more dominant and c e n t r a l area of i n q u i r y during the past three decades has d e a l t w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n s of production t e c h  nology upon the behavior of workers i n l a r g e mass production and assembly l i n e t e c h n o l o g i e s . The Hawthorne s t u d i e s , f o r example, d e l i n e a t e d areas of i n v e s t i g a t i o n which served t o generate countless e m p i r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d i e s de signed t o shed some l i g h t upon the s o c i a l problems of an i n d u s t r i a l c i v i l i z a t i o n . I t appears as though a concern f o r d e l i n e a t i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the new and dominant d i v i s i o n of l a b o r under assembly l i n e technology was e i t h e r i m p l i c i t , or i n f r e q u e n t l y e x p l i c i t , i n most e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s and t h e o r e t i c a l statements subsequent t o the Haw thorne s t u d i e s . During the past three decades a tendency has developed among students of o r g a n i z a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l behavior t o ignore p o s s i b l e v a r i a b l e e f f e c t s on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c  t u r e and the behavior of a c t o r s of d i f f e r i n g modes of produc t i o n t e c h n o l o g i e s . C e r t a i n l y there are exceptions t o t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n as t h i s study w i l l r e v e a l . On the whole, how ever, i t seems as though the f r u i t f u l p e r s p e c t i v e s and obser v a t i o n s of Marx, Weber and Veblen have been discounted due t o e i t h e r (1) a preoccupation w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r o r g a n i  z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and behavior a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d i v i s i o n of l a b o r p e c u l i a r t o assembly l i n e or other p a r t i c u l a r t e c h  n o l o g i e s , or (2) a general i n s e n s i t i v i t y toward the compara t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and b e h a v i o r a l c o r r e l a t e s of v a r i e t i e s of 16 production technology. Thus, f o r example, c l a s s i c a l manage ment theory "was developed i n a t e c h n i c a l s e t t i n g but inde e d o q pendent of technology. . . ." ' p In t h e i r h i g h - l e v e l statements c l a s s i c a l management t h e o r i s t s were prone t o g e n e r a l i z e on the b a s i s of t h e i r t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y narrow ex perience, plus the expedients found t o be e f f e c t i v e i n prac tice^"® w i t h i n a given t e c h n o l o g i c a l s e t t i n g . More recent attempts*4"""" t o supplement the theory of "formal" o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h the f i n d i n g s of e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s of the behavior of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t o r s a l s o f a i l t o deal adequately w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n s of production t e c h n o l o g i e s . For example, i n the b e h a v i o r a l models of March and Simon technology i s e i t h e r not inc l u d e d as a v a r i a b l e , o r , i f i n c l u d e d , the pos s i b i l i t i e s of v a r i a b l e types of technology and t h e i r i m p l i c a  t i o n s f o r other elements of the model are not developed i n d e t a i l . " 4 " 2 An a d d i t i o n a l i l l u s t r a t i o n of the r a t h e r common t e n  dency t o discount the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s of var y i n g modes of production technology on o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e , processes and the behavior of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t o r s i s found i n the l i t e r a t u r e of "human r e l a t i o n s . " As Robert Blauner observes The c r u c i a l v a r i a b l e s t o be s t u d i e d and manipulated [by students of "human r e l a t i o n s " ] are . . . the general s o c i a l climate of the e n t e r p r i s e and the q u a l i t y of i n  t e r p e r s o n a l contact among employees and between employees and t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s — r a t h e r than the worker's r e l a t i o n t o technology and the d i v i s i o n of l a b o r . In a d d i t i o n t o Blauner*s a n a l y s i s of production t e c h  nology and worker a l i e n a t i o n , two recent s t u d i e s a l s o appear o 17 to have grasped anew the perspectives of Marx, Weber and Veblen. Both of these studies give explicit cognizance to the apparent variable effects of differing modes of indus t r i a l production technology. Although sharing this common basis, the studies move in quite different directions. On the one hand Woodward focuses primarily upon the overall organizational correlates of major classes of production technology."4""* Meissner on the other hand presents an analy sis of the major dimensions of technologically required and permitted behavior of rank and f i l e operatives as a function 45 of basic types of production technology. The research objectives of this study have been prompted by the observations of Woodward and Meissner, the perspectives of Marx, Weber and Veblen, and the general deficiency of the current state of organization theory in dealing with modes of industrial production technology as a basic variable. Focusing upon an organizational level intermediate between that of Woodward and Meissner the f o l  lowing questions are posed for analysis: What are the ef fects of current modes of industrial production technology upon the behavior of f i r s t - l i n e supervisors? How might such effects be explained? IB FOOTNOTES ON CHAPTER I I ^Emile Durkheim, The D i v i s i o n of Labour i n S o c i e t y , t r a n s . George Simpson (New York: The Free Press, 1964), p. 39- 2 See f o r example the commentary of Xenophon ( c i r c a 370 B.C.) i n F r i e d r i c k Klemm, A H i s t o r y of Western Technology, t r a n s . Dorothea Waley Singer (London: George A l l e n and Unwin, 1959), p. 29. 3 Durkheim, p. 39. 4 I b i d . 5 I b i d . ^ I b i d . , p. 62. 7 E. Fromm, Marx's Concept of Man (New York: Ungar, 1961), p. 197. S I b i d . 9 I b i d . , p. 219. "^Martin Meissner,"Behavioral Adaptations t o I n d u s t r i a l Technology}' unpublished PhD d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon, copyright 1963 by author. " ^ K a r l Marx, C a p i t a l : C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s of C a p i t a l i s t  Production (New York: Humboldt), p. 192. 1 2 I b i d . , pp. 192-193. 1 3 I b i d . , p. 194. "^Meissner, p. 10. 1 5 M a r x , p. 25B. I b i d . 1 7 I b i d . i a i b i d . 1 9 I b i d . , p. 260. 19 2 0 I b i d . 21 Durkheim, op. c i t . 2 2 I b i d . , p. 50. 2 3 I b i d . 2 i f I b i d . , p. 61. 2 5 I b i d . , pp. 192-193. 2 6 I b i d . , pp. 365-366. 27 Max Weber, The Theory of S o c i a l and Economic Organi zation , trans. A.M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons, ed. Talcott Parsons (New York: The Free Press, 1964), p. 218. 2 8 I b i d . , p. 219. 2 9 I b i d . 3°Ibid., p. 228. 3 1 I b i d . , pp. 246-247. 32 Joan Woodward, I n d u s t r i a l Organization: Theory and  Practise (London: Oxford University Press, 1965), p. 50. 33 Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of Business Enterprise c 1904 (New York: August M. Ke l l y , Bookseller, 1965), p. 06. 3 4 I b i d . , pp. 66-67. 3 5 I b i d . , p. 18. 3 6 I b i d . 3 7 I b i d . , pp. 312-313. 38 ? Woodward, p. 36 3 9 7See f o r example the discussion of the theory of "formal" organization i n Joseph A. L i t t e r e r , Organizations: Structure and Behavior (New York: Wiley, 19©3)• "^Woodward, l o c . c i t . "^""For example, James G. March and Herbert A. Simon, Organizations (New York and London: Wiley, 1958). 20 i p March and Simon, op. c i t . See f o r example, the models of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l member behavior found at pp. 66, 69, 71, 117, 120, 128 and 154. I o Robert Blauner, A l i e n a t i o n and Freedom: The Factory  Worker and His Industry (Chicago and London: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1964), p. v i i i . ^Woodward, op. c i t . 45 Meissner, op. c i t . CHAPTER I I RESEARCH PROBLEM AND DESIGN Conceptual scheme Although at a very broad l e v e l the research reported i n t h i s study has been guided by the p e r s p e c t i v e s of Marx, Weber and Veblen, an observation by Joan Woodward c o n s t i t u t e s the most immediate s t a r t i n g p o i n t . ^ Her s t u d i e s of the im p l i c a t i o n s of production technology f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c  t u r e and processes l e a d her t o the observation t h a t Technology, because i t i n f l u e n c e s the r o l e s defined by the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n , must t h e r e f o r e i n f l u e n c e i n d u s t r i a l behaviour, f o r how a person r e a c t s depends as much on the demands of h i s r o l e and the circumstances i n which he f i n d s h i m s e l f , as on h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . 2 On the b a s i s of the foregoing o b s e r v a t i o n , plus George 3 Homans' model of group s o c i a l behavior, a conceptual scheme was developed which i s designed t o provide a r a t i o n a l e f o r the generation of s p e c i f i c hypotheses regarding the dimen sio n s of supervisory behavior under a given category of production technology. Figure I below i s a schematic por t r a y a l of the conceptual scheme u t i l i z e d i n the research. Figure I i s meant t o convey t h a t the conceptual scheme t r e a t s the nature and b e h a v i o r a l demands of a given category of production technology as an "independent v a r i a b l e . " Supervisory a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r a c t i o n p a tterns and f r e q u e n c i e s , sentiments, are regarded 22 Organization S t r u c t u r e and Management Processes C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Behav i o r a l Demands of Production Technology Supervisory I n t e r a c t i o n P a t terns and Frequencies Supervisory A c t i v i t i e s Supervisory Sentiments Toward Those w i t h Whom I n t e r a c t i o n s Occur FIGURE I CONCEPTUAL SCHEME UTILIZED IN THE STUDY 23 as "dependent v a r i a b l e s . " The " i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e " postu l a t e d t o account f o r observed r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the i n  dependent and dependent v a r i a b l e s comprises the s t r u c t u r a l or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s of a given category of produc t i o n technology observed by Woodward. Research problem The c e n t r a l problem f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n theory which serves as the immediate focus of the research i s i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g general hypothesis. The hypothesis g i v e s v e r b a l expression t o the conceptual scheme of Figure I above. General hypothesis Given a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y dominant mode of produc t i o n technology w i t h i n an e n t e r p r i s e or work u n i t , a number of unique o r g a n i z a t i o n a l or s t r u c t u r a l c o r r e l a t e s w i l l ap pear, the f u n c t i o n of the l a t t e r being t o f a c i l i t a t e the accomplishment of the e n t e r p r i s e ' s m u l t i - f a c e t e d g o a l s . As a consequence of the e n t e r p r i s e ' s t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y i n f l u  enced s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s , there w i l l emerge a character i s t i c set of f i r s t - l i n e s u p e rvisory a c t i v i t i e s . The l a t t e r w i l l shape a p a t t e r n of supervisory i n t e r a c t i o n and a set of sentiments toward those w i t h whom such i n t e r a c t i o n s occur. Research design In order t o t e s t the v a l i d i t y of the foregoing gen e r a l hypothesis, the f o l l o w i n g research design i s u t i l i z e d 24 i n Chapter I I I . For a given category of production t e c h n o l  ogy the observations made by Woodward regarding the s t r u c  t u r a l c o r r e l a t e s of t h a t category of technology are summar i z e d i n chart form. On the b a s i s of these data, the con ceptual scheme of Figure I , and reasonable, l o g i c a l i n f e r  ences drawn from the data, a s e r i e s of s p e c i f i c hypotheses i s developed regarding the dimensions of supervisory be h a v i o r under t h a t category of production technology. In Chapter V I I each of the two case s t u d i e s of Chapters IV, V and VI i s analyzed w i t h a view t o : (1) c l a s s i f y i n g the case i n terms of a category of technology (2) t e s t i n g the v a l i d  i t y of the s p e c i f i c hypotheses f o r t h a t category of t e c h n o l  ogy, and (3) r e f o r m u l a t i n g the s p e c i f i c hypotheses as may be r e q u i r e d i n the l i g h t of the a n a l y s i s . Steps (2) and (3) are repeated i n the a n a l y s i s of the a d d i t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l data l o c a t e d i n the appendices. The development and t e s t i n g of the s p e c i f i c hypotheses are organized and coded according t o the a n a l y t i c a l framework depicted i n Chart I below. 2 5 < O co p a> u 8 «d • H % P o a P CD CO 0) o • H P o CD CO 0) • r l P • r l !> • r l P O «; Horizontal Superiors Subordinates o . S3 0) cr CD- P>4 CD u p cd S 3 - J Horizontal Superiors Subordinates Horizontal Superiors Subordinates CO >> CD • r l S P CD «H • H 3 o > cr •H cu P u O &4 o j (0 CP CD «H (H P 3< H - H P O > I S P o «*5 >» hO O O r-i ttf)«H o CD O fl P a ClJ O O CD EH I-C-3 I - C - 2 I-C-l I-B - 2-c I-B - 2-b I-B - 2-a I-B-l-c I-B-l-b I-B-l-a CM I o J I H I I H t 3 13 P H O • r l Ct} +> 6 S c d t=> CO PQ II-C-3 I I - C - 2 II-G-1 I I _ B - 2 - c I I -B - 2-b I I - B - 2 - a II-B-l-c II-B-l-b II-B-l-a I < I H H r H I OS I H ST P - d T3 I mo c N M OP I Cu 0> (SOW rH CO 43 ~a ?3 CD O CO • H CO P o l III-C -3 I I I - G - 2 III-C-1 I I I - B - 2 - c I I I - B - 2 - b I I I - B - 2 - a III-B-l-c III-B-l-b I I I - B - l - a CM o J I r H H r-i I < I H H H CO O • H P a o O 0 - t 26 FOOTNOTES ON CHAPTER I I Joan Woodward, I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : Theory and  P r a c t i c e (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965). 2 r b i d . , p. 79. 3 George Homans, The Human Group (London: Routledge and Kegan P a u l , 1951). CHAPTER I I I FORMULATION OF SPECIFIC HYPOTHESES I n t r o d u c t i o n This chapter presents s p e c i f i c hypotheses regarding the dimensions of supervisory behavior under each of the three c a t e g o r i e s of i n d u s t r i a l production technology. The code designations f o l l o w i n g the statement of s p e c i f i c hypo theses are those found i n Chart I . Each of the three cate g o r i e s of technology i s considered s e p a r a t e l y . Some general observations and in f e r e n c e s based upon Woodward's data pre cede the f o r m u l a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c hypotheses f o r a given category of technology. The purpose of the l a t t e r observa t i o n s and in f e r e n c e s i s t o provide the r a t i o n a l e f o r the f o r m u l a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c hypotheses. Category I technology General observations and in f e r e n c e s Probably the most fundamental c o r r e l a t e of Category I production technology i s the "or g a n i c " nature of the manage ment processes t y p i c a l l y found i n the more s u c c e s s f u l enter p r i s e s operating under t h i s technology. Therefore we i n f e r t h a t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s c l a s s of production technology are the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s : (1) the c o n t r i b u t i v e nature of s p e c i a l knowledge and experience t o the common task of the 28 CHART I I STRUCTURAL CORRELATES OF CATEGORY I TECHNOLOGY Category I Production Technology: u n i t and sm a l l batch d e f i n i t i o n : u n i t s produced t o customer requirements; f a b r i c a t i o n of l a r g e u n i t s i n stages S t r u c t u r a l C o r r e l a t e of Technology C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 1. Complexity of technology 2. Median number of l e v e l s of management 3. Median c h i e f executive span of c o n t r o l 4. Median f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s ' span of c o n t r o l 5. Existence of "sma l l primary work groups" 6. Rat i o of supervisory t o non- super v i s o r y personnel 7. R a t i o of d i r e c t t o i n d i r e c t workers 8. Middle management span of c o n t r o l 9. Length of management communication l i n e 10. P r a c t i c e of management by committee 11. T e c h n i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of manage ment and su p e r v i s o r s 12. Required t e c h n i c a l competence of sup e r v i s o r s 13. Source of t e c h n i c a l competence of supe r v i s o r s 14. R e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n of s k i l l e d t o u n s k i l l e d workers Simplest of three c a t e g o r i e s (p.42) 3 (p.52) 4 (p.52) 14-27 (p.61) Yes (p.60) 1:23 (p.55) 1:9 (pp.59-60) r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e (p.53) r e l a t i v e l y short (p.53) r e l a t i v e l y r a r e (P.53) l e s s than i n Cate gory I I I t e c h n o l  ogy (pp.57-58) r e l a t i v e l y very high (pp.57-58,64) experience plus trade t r a i n i n g highest of the 3 catego r i e s of technology (pp.61- 62) 29 CHART II- - c o n t i n u e d S t r u c t u r a l C o r r e l a t e of Technology C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 15. Focus of s k i l l e d workers* a c t i v i t i e s 16. A b i l i t y of d i r e c t l a b o r t o i n f l u e n c e the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of production 17* Existence of formal production c o n t r o l systems 18. Existence of s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s 19. Sense of urgency of production 20. Type of communications regarding production 21. Production schedules based on 22. Planning and time p e r s p e c t i v e of top and lower management 23. Perceived s e c u r i t y of employment f o r d i r e c t workers 24« Interdependence of task f u n c t i o n among marketing (M), Production (P) and development (D) 25. Q u a l i t y of interdepartmental r e l a t i o n s 26. Order of manufacturing c y c l e 27. Frequency of o r g a n i z a t i o n problems 28. Typed management of more success f u l f i r m s d i r e c t l a b o r or production of u n i t s (p.6l) r e l a t i v e l y very great (p.ol) f r e q u e n t l y too d i f f i c u l t t o a t  tempt (pp.42,66) none or few low (p.158) mainly v e r b a l (p.66") f i r m orders only (p. 129) short-term (p.129) f a i r l y high (p.129) high (pp.129- 131, 134) good (pp .130- 133, 135) M-^D—>P (p.128) low (p.135) "organic"''" (p .64) Source: Joan Woodward, I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : Theory and  P r a c t i c e (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965). 3 0 e n t e r p r i s e ; ( 2 ) i n d i v i d u a l tasks set by the t o t a l s i t u a t i o n of the e n t e r p r i s e ; ( 3 ) adjustment and c o n t i n u a l r e d e f i n i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l t a s k s through i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h others; ( 4 ) ad hoc l o c a t i o n of c o n t r o l a u t h o r i t y and communication based upon e x p e r t i s e ; ( 5 ) l a t e r a l r a t h e r than v e r t i c a l communica t i o n s predominating; and ( 6 ) communication of advice and 2 i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r than i n s t r u c t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s . I f r e a l i z e d i n p r a c t i c e w i t h i n an e n t e r p r i s e charac t e r i z e d by Category I technology, the "or g a n i c " nature of the management process suggests t h a t the f i r s t - l i n e super v i s o r i s allowed a f a i r l y wide area of d i s c r e t i o n over the performance of h i s tasks and h i s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h others. Using a s l i g h t l y more o p e r a t i o n a l phraseology, i t i s i n f e r r e d t h a t , as a consequence of the organic nature of management processes, e n t e r p r i s e o r g a n i z a t i o n under Category I technology i s t y p i c a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: 1. F a i r l y f l e x i b l e d e t a i l e d production g u i d e l i n e s coming to the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r from l i n e s u p e r i o r s and the few s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s who may e x i s t i n the o r g a n i  z a t i o n . 2 . The i n i t i a t i o n of t a s k - o r i e n t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s ( i . e . , i n t e r a c t i o n s concerned w i t h production schedules, methods, sequence, q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y ) t o the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r by s k i l l e d d i r e c t workers, and t o the l a t t e r by the former. 3 . Extensive "feedback" t o the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r from s k i l l e d d i r e c t production workers regarding t a s k - o r i e n t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s o r i g i n a l l y i n i t i a t e d e i t h e r d i r e c t l y by the s u p e r v i s o r , or i n d i r e c t l y by s t a f f spe c i a l i s t s i n the form of production schedules, job s p e c i  f i c a t i o n s , e t c . 4. Minimal r e l i a n c e by a l l l e v e l s of management and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s upon the o f f i c i a l records and other i n f o r  mation generated i n the production planning and c o n t r o l a c t i v i t i e s . (This i n f e r e n c e f o l l o w s from both the or ganic nature of the management processes and the f r e  quently r e l a t i v e l y great d i f f i c u l t y of e s t a b l i s h i n g r e  l i a b l e , comprehensive and formal production c o n t r o l s . See Chart I I above.) 5. A high degree of v o l u n t a r y and i n f o r m a l interdependence among f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s and: s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , s e n i o r l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s , and d i r e c t production workers. 6. A low sense of urgency of production experienced by a l l i n d i v i d u a l s , e s p e c i a l l y s k i l l e d d i r e c t workers and t h e i r f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s . In Chart I I are noted a number of s t r u c t u r a l cor r e l a t e s of Category I technology which may have s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the development of the s p e c i f i c hypotheses regarding the dimensions of supervisory behavior i n t h i s c l a s s of produc t i o n technology. For example, one notes a r e l a t i v e l y s h a l  low management o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e (3 l e v e l s on the aver age). In a d d i t i o n , there tends t o be a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l 32 supervisory span of c o n t r o l (small r e l a t i v e e s p e c i a l l y t o Category I I technology). Furthermore, e n t e r p r i s e s under Category I production technology tend t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the existence of sm a l l primary work-groups of s k i l l e d employees able t o i n f l u e n c e t o a considerable degree the qu a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of production. The r e l a t i v e absence of elaborate s t a f f groups engaged i n comprehensive and continuous production planning and c o n t r o l a c t i v i t i e s , suggests t h a t the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r i s able t o exert considerable i n f l u e n c e over the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of production, e s p e c i a l l y since h i s t e c h n i c a l competence i s r e l a t i v e l y great and apparently i s given scope t o be exer c i s e d (organic management processes). F i n a l l y , the r e l a  t i v e l y shallow management o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e ; the r e l a  t i v e l y s m a l l f i r s t - l i n e s u p e rvisory span of c o n t r o l ; and the broad c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of organic management processes o u t l i n e d a b o v e — a l l of these f e a t u r e s of the e n t e r p r i s e under Category I technology suggest t h a t frequent and r e l a  t i v e l y non t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y r e q u i r e d i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h others are one important aspect of supervisory a c t i v i t i e s . S p e c i f i c hypotheses Supervisory a c t i v i t i e s (tasks) ( I - A - l ) As a consequence of the above t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y induced f e a t u r e s of the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r ' s work environment, i t i s hypothesized t h a t the f o l l o w i n g are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of 33 supervisory a c t i v i t i e s under Category I technology: 1. A p p l i c a t i o n of t e c h n i c a l knowledge and e x e r c i s e of t e c h  n i c a l s k i l l a. Based upon h i s a n a l y s i s of production orders and t h e i r attendant s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r p e r s o n a l l y makes a r e l a t i v e l y broad range of t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s , or g i v e s t e c h n i c a l advice regarding ( i ) choice of work t o o l s , methods and sequence ( i i ) content of i n d i v i d u a l workers' tasks ( i i i ) pace of work and the q u a l i t y of production ( p r i m a r i l y when unforeseen d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s e ) . b. The s u p e r v i s o r becomes p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n c o n t r i  buting h i s t e c h n i c a l knowledge and experience t o the d i r e c t production a c t i v i t i e s of h i s subordinates ( p r i m a r i l y when unforeseen problems or excessive work loads a r i s e l 2. In the absence of e x t e n s i v e , continuous, and h i g h l y r a t i o n a l i z e d s t a f f production planning and c o n t r o l a c t i v  i t i e s , the s u p e r v i s o r p e r s o n a l l y executes a range of ad- 3 m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g : a. I s s u i n g w r i t t e n or v e r b a l r e p o r t s regarding attendance, production achieved or i n process, pay, e t c . b. A l l o c a t i n g subordinates t o j o b s , job orders, or par t i c u l a r t a s ks w i t h i n a given job. c. Scheduling and monitoring work fl o w through h i s u n i t . d. Coordinating the work-flow between successive work u n i t s . 34 e. Negotiating w i t h f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s along the work flo w f o r access t o scarce production resources ( m a t e r i a l s , l a b o r , f a c i l i t i e s , s e r v i c e s , e t c . ) . 3. Because o f , and as part of h i s performance of the f o r e  going a c t i v i t i e s , the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r i n Category I production technology performs a c t i v i t i e s the nature of which c o n s i s t s of f a c e - t o - f a c e (verbal) i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h subordinates, l i n e s u p e r i o r s , s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s ( i f found i n the e n t e r p r i s e ) and f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s along the work-flow. Frequency of performance of a c t i v i t i e s (I-A-2) The s p e c i f i c hypotheses regarding the elements of supervisory a c t i v i t i e s c l e a r l y are mutually interdependent. I t i s thus d i f f i c u l t t o separate the elements from one another and p r e d i c t t h e i r r e l a t i v e f r e q u e n c i e s . The exer c i s e of i n t u i t i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , r e q u i r e d . I t i s hypothesized t h a t the s u p e r v i s o r w i l l be en gaged r e l a t i v e l y f r e q u e n t l y i n a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n of h i s t e c h n i c a l knowledge and s k i l l . W i t hin e n t e r p r i s e s under Category I technology the frequency of performance of t e c h n i c a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l be about equal to t h a t of other c l a s s e s of a c t i v i t i e s . Looking ahead, the hypothesis i s t h a t , i n comparison wi t h Category I I t e c h n o l  ogy, the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r w i l l apply h i s t e c h n i c a l knowledge and s k i l l , and c a r r y out " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i  t i e s " more f r e q u e n t l y i n Category I technology. The 35 d i s t r i b u t i o n of a c t i v i t y frequencies i n e n t e r p r i s e s under Categories I and I I I technology w i l l be about equal, w i t h the exception of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , which, i t i s hypothesized, w i l l be of r e l a t i v e l y minor importance under Category I I I technology. Nature of i n t e r a c t i o n s The f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c hypotheses f o l l o w from: (1) the preceding attempt t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the i m p l i c a t i o n s of organic management processes, and (2) the foregoing s p e c i f i c hypotheses regarding the nature and frequency of supervisory a c t i v i t i e s . With subordinates ( I - B - l - a ) . I n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l be fa c e - t o - f a c e and concerned w i t h production methods, pace, q u a l i t y , schedules, s p e c i a l problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the nature of the work at hand, and s p e c i f i c , non-routine jobs or tasks t o be performed by i n d i v i d u a l s or s m a l l groups ( i . e . , " t a s k - o r i e n t e d " i n t e r a c t i o n s ) . Because of the organic nature of management pro cesses, combined w i t h the low sense of urgency about pro d u c t i o n , such i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l tend t o be r e l a x e d ; t h a t i s , devoid of c o n f l i c t s over a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . They w i l l tend t o a l l o w r e c i p r o c a l feedback and e v a l u a t i o n by the p a r t i e s . The t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e of both p a r t i e s w i l l a l  low the i n t e r a c t i o n s t o be based upon the communication of advice and inf o r m a t i o n r a t h e r than e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n s and d i r e c t i o n s . 36 With s u p e r i o r s ( I - B - l - b ) . I t i s hypothesized that the nature of i n t e r a c t i o n s between the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s l i n e s u p e r i o r s w i l l be i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t of the i n t e r a c t i o n s between the su p e r v i s o r and h i s subordinates. H o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s ( I - B - l - c ) . In a d d i t i o n t o the i n t e r a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s described under " i n t e r  a c t i o n s w i t h subordinates," h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s i n v o l v  ing the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r w i l l i n v o l v e n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s over access t o scarce production r e  sources (e.g., m a t e r i a l s , equipment, l a b o r ) . A l s o , such i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l i n v o l v e a c t i v i t i e s designed t o e f f e c t the r e q u i r e d c o o r d i n a t i o n of work-flow between successive work s t a t i o n s . Frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s At best, only very general hypotheses are p o s s i b l e . The r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l span of f i r s t - l i n e s u p e rvisory c o n t r o l , the shallow management o r g a n i z a t i o n , the presence of small primary work groups, and the minimal r e l i a n c e by management upon the formal r e p o r t i n g systems of s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s — a l l of which are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Category I technology, have been noted. I n a d d i t i o n , some of the more s i g n i f i c a n t dimensions of organic management processes have been i n d i  cated. These observations, plus the hypotheses concerning the nature and frequency of supervisory a c t i v i t i e s , suggest the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses. 37 Frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h subordinates (I-B-2-a). The f u l l p o t e n t i a l (under organic management processes) f o r very frequent i n t e r a c t i o n s between the s u p e r v i s o r and h i s subordinates w i l l tend not t o be r e a l i z e d . The extensive t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s of the s u p e r v i s o r , plus the t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e of d i r e c t workers, w i l l tend t o l i m i t i n t e r a c t i o n s between the p a r t i e s . Gn the whole, then, a moderate r a t e of i n t e r a c t i o n s between the su p e r v i s o r and i n d i v i d u a l subordinates may be a n t i c i p a t e d ; a r a t e g r e a t e r than that found i n Category I I technology, but probably l e s s than i n Category I I I technology. With s u p e r i o r s (I-B-2-b). The f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , plus the organic nature of manage ment processes, w i l l tend t o create o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f r e  quent i n t e r a c t i o n s between the su p e r v i s o r and h i s l i n e supe r i o r s . The hypothesis i s th a t the frequency of such i n t e r  a c t i o n s w i l l be at l e a s t as great as th a t between the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s subordinates as a group. Also i t i s hypothesized that the frequency of s u p e r v i s o r - l i n e s u p e r i o r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l be gr e a t e r i n Category I than i n Category I I production technology. The frequency w i l l approximate t h a t found i n Category I I I t e c h n o l o g i e s . Frequency of h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s (I-B-2-c). The r e l a t i v e absence of s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s engaged i n production planning and c o n t r o l a c t i v i t i e s ; the requirements f o r co o r d i n a t i o n along the work flow; and the scope given t o the 38 e x e r c i s e of the s u p e r v i s o r ' s t e c h n i c a l knowledge and s k i l l — suggest that the frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s between the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and f e l l o w l i n e - s u p e r v i s o r s w i l l be f a i r l y h i g h , w h i l e the frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s t a f f s p e c i a l  i s t s (where they appear i n the management o r g a n i z a t i o n ) w i l l tend t o be low. These hypothesized frequencies are r e l a t i v e both t o those f o r other c l a s s e s of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n Gate- gory I technology and r e l a t i v e t o the corresponding i n t e r  a c t i o n s i n e n t e r p r i s e s under Category I I technology. A s i m i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n of h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n frequencies i n technology Categories I and I I I i s hypothesized, where, as w i l l be demonstrated, the nature of organic management processes, the scope of a p p l i c a t i o n g iven t o supervisory t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s , e t c . , are observed i n about the same pro p o r t i o n s . U t i l i z i n g the conceptual scheme (Figure I ) r e l a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r a c t i o n s and sentiments; and, given the foregoing analyses and hypotheses, the f o l l o w i n g dimensions of f i r s t - l i n e s upervisory behavior under Category I t e c h  nology are p r e d i c t e d . Supervisory sentiments Toward subordinates ( I - C - l ) . These sentiments w i l l tend t o be n e u t r a l t o f r i e n d l y . They w i l l tend t o be con stant or s t a b l e over time. Toward s u p e r i o r s (I-C-2). As i n the preceding paragraph. 39 Between p a r t i e s i n h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s (I-C-3)• As i n the preceding two paragraphs. Category I I technology In t h i s s e c t i o n the s p e c i f i c hypotheses p e r t a i n i n g to the dimensions of f i r s t - l i n e s u p e rvisory behavior i n e n t e r p r i s e s under Category I I technology are developed. The b a s i c approach i s the same as that employed i n the previous s e c t i o n . General observations and infere n c e s From the poin t of view of the general hypothesis of the study, perhaps the most important c o r r e l a t e of Category I I technology i s the "mechanistic" nature of the management process w i t h the more s u c c e s s f u l e n t e r p r i s e s employing t h i s type of production technology. I t i s i n f e r r e d t h a t , as s o c i a t e d w i t h Category I I technology one f i n d s : (1) a r i g i d breakdown i n t o f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i s m s , p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s of d u t i e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and power, and (2) a w e l l - developed managerial h i e r a r c h y through which i n f o r m a t i o n f i l t e r s up and d e c i s i o n s and i n s t r u c t i o n s f l o w down t o the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r . I f r e a l i z e d i n p r a c t i c e , t h i s i n  ference suggests that the s u p e r v i s o r i s allowed a very l i m i t e d area of d i s c r e t i o n over the performance of h i s a c t i v i t i e s and h i s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h others. To use a somewhat more o p e r a t i o n a l phraseology con cerning the s i g n i f i c a n c e of mechanistic management, i t i s 40 CHART I I I STRUCTURAL CORRELATES OF CATEGORY I I TECHNOLOGY Category I I Technology: l a r g e batch mass production-and- assembly-line technology S p e c i f i c a t i o n : production i n l a r g e batches; l a r g e batches on assembly l i n e s ; mass production S t r u c t u r a l C o r r e l a t e s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 1. Complexity of technology Average, r e l a t i v e t o Categories I & I I I (p.42) 2. Median number of l e v e l s of management 4 (p.52) 3 . Median c h i e f executive span of c o n t r o l 7 (p.53) 4. Median f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s ' span of c o n t r o l 30-44 (p.61) 5. Existence of "small primary work groups" No (p.60) 6. R a t i o of supervisory t o non- super v i s o r y personnel 1:16 (p.55) 7, R a t i o of d i r e c t t o i n d i r e c t workers 1:4 (pp.59-60) 8. Middle management span of c o n t r o l r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e (p. 53) 9. Length of management communication l i n e r e l a t i v e l y long (p. 52) 10. P r a c t i c e of management by committee r e l a t i v e l y r a r e (p.53) 11. T e c h n i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of manage ment and sup e r v i s o r s l e s s than i n Cate gory I I I t e c h n o l  ogy (pp.57-58) 12. Required t e c h n i c a l competence of supe r v i s o r s very low r e l a t i v e t o other categor i e s of technology (pp.57-58) 13. Source of t e c h n i c a l competence of f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s not s t a t e d but probably on-the- job t r a i n i n g CHART I l l — c o n t i n u e d 41 S t r u c t u r a l C o r r e l a t e s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 14. R e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n of s k i l l e d t o u n s k i l l e d workers 15. Focus of s k i l l e d workers' a c t i v i t i e s 16. A b i l i t y of d i r e c t l a b o r t o i n f l u e n c e q u a n t i t y & q u a l i t y of production 17. Existence of formal production con t r o l systems 18. Existence of s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s 19. Sense of urgency of production 20. Type of communication regarding production 21. Production schedules based on 22. Planning and time p e r s p e c t i v e of management 23. Perceived s e c u r i t y of employment f o r d i r e c t workers lowest of three c a t e g o r i e s of technology (pp.61-62) i n d i r e c t l a b o r , e.g., s t a f f work (pp.62-63) r e l a t i v e low (pp.62-63) yes; h i g h l y de veloped w i t h b u i l t - i n s a n c t i o n f o r f a i l u r e t o meet narrow speci f i e d o b j e c t i v e s (p.66) numerous and com prehensive , f r e  quently i n con f l i c t w i t h f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s (pp. 64-66) r e l a t i v e l y great (pp.135-136) mainly w r i t t e n (p.66) f o r e c a s t s and orders (p.136) medium f o r s e n i o r management, short f o r f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s (pp.135-136) f a i r l y low (p.136) 42 CHART I I I — c o n t i n u e d S t r u c t u r a l C o r r e l a t e s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 24. Interdependence of task f u n c t i o n s among marketing (M), production (P) and development (D) very high (p.137) 25. Order of manufacturing c y c l e D—»P—>M (p.128) 26. Interdepartmental r e l a t i o n s not good (pp . 137 , 145) 27. Frequency of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems high (pp. 137, 139, 145) 28. Type of management of more success f u l f i r m s "mechanistic" (p.64) Source: Joan Woodward, I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : Theory and  P r a c t i c e (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965). 43 i n f e r r e d t h a t Category I I technology i s t y p i c a l l y c h a r a c t e r  i z e d by the f o l l o w i n g s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n ; 1. D i r e c t i v e s and d e c i s i o n s f i l t e r i n g down t o the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r from h i s s u p e r i o r s and l a t e r a l l y from s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . 2. Reliance by a l l l e v e l s of l i n e management and a s s o c i a t e d s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s upon the records generated by the f o r  mal, well-developed production c o n t r o l systems. (The go a l i n view i s t o achieve e f f e c t i v e monitoring of the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s behavior, as w e l l as t h a t of h i s subordinates, as demonstrated by the production q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y achieved.} 3. A high sense of urgency regarding production being ex perienced by a l l persons, p a r t i c u l a r l y the s u p e r v i s o r . 4. A high degree of f u n c t i o n a l interdependence among f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s on the one hand, and f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s r e l a t e d t o each other along the work-flow on the other. As a consequence of the foregoing t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y d e l i m i t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r a l c o r r e l a t e s , a cha r a c t e r  i s t i c set of f i r s t - l i n e s u p e rvisory a c t i v i t i e s tends t o develop. The observations summarized above i n Chart I I I do not provide any d i r e c t i n s i g h t s i n t o the nature of super v i s o r y a c t i v i t i e s i n e n t e r p r i s e s u t i l i z i n g forms of Cate gory I I technology. However, c e r t a i n i n f e r e n c e s based upon the preceding observations may be j u s t i f i e d . I f v a l i d , they 44 w i l l prove h e l p f u l i n o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g f u r t h e r the general hypothesis of the study. I t i s noted from Chart I I I above that the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r has a median span of c o n t r o l i n the order of 30-44- In a d d i t i o n , i t appears t h a t s m a l l primary work groups probably are r a r e i n t h i s type of technology. F u r t h e r  more, r e q u i r e d t e c h n i c a l competence among l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s i s very l i m i t e d r e l a t i v e t o t h a t found i n e i t h e r of Category I or H I production technology. F i n a l l y , because work methods, pace, and volume and q u a l i t y standards a l l tend t o be h i g h l y r a t i o n a l i z e d and c o n t r o l l e d by h i g h e r - l e v e l l i n e management, or non-line s u p e r v i s o r s , the a b i l i t y of e i t h e r d i r e c t workers or the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r u l t i m a t e l y t o adversely i n f l u  ence production q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y i s r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d . S p e c i f i c Hypotheses Supervisory a c t i v i t i e s (tasks) (II-A-1) Given the foregoing t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y induced f e a t u r e s of the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r ' s work environment, i t i s hypothesized that the nature of supervisory a c t i v i t i e s (tasks) under Category I I technology c o n s i s t s , f o r the most p a r t , of v e r b a l and non-verbal i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h subordinates, l i n e s u p e r i o r s , s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , and f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s i n the work-flow. (The primary object of such i n t e r a c t i o n s i s t o e f f e c t the d i r e c t i v e s t r a n s m i t t e d t o the s u p e r v i s o r by l i n e s u p e r i o r s and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . ) 45 I t i s hypothesized t h a t n e i t h e r the t e c h n i c a l nor " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s " s p e c i f i e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n of Category I technology w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t elements of f i r s t - l i n e s u p e rvisory behavior i n Category I I technology. Frequency of performance of a c t i v i t i e s (tasks) (II-A-2) I f one accepts the s p e c i f i c hypothesis that the nature of f i r s t - l i n e s upervisory a c t i v i t i e s under Category I I t e c h  nology c o n s i s t s mainly of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s , then i t f o l l o w s t h a t the frequency w i t h which these a c t i v i t i e s are performed ( t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance) reduces t o the f r e  quency of i n t e r a t i o n s w i t h others. See below f o r the s p e c i  f i c hypotheses regarding i n t e r a c t i o n s . Nature of i n t e r a c t i o n s With subordinates ( I I - B - l - a ) . The d i s c u s s i o n i n the s e c t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n s of mechanistic manage ment suggests the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c hypothesis. I n t e r  a c t i o n s between the sup e r v i s o r and h i s subordinates, a domi nant f e a t u r e of the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r ' s a c t i v i t i e s , w i l l tend t o be h o s t i l e , t h r e a t e n i n g and aggressive i n nature. A l s o , i t i s hypothesized t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n s between the s u p e r v i s o r and h i s subordinates w i l l c o n s i s t mainly of fac e - t o - f a c e communications. The content of such i n t e r  a c t i o n s w i l l be concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h problems of work pace, methods and production q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y . That i s , the i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l p r i m a r i l y be " t a s k - o r i e n t e d . " With s u p e r i o r s ( I I - B - l - b ) . Once again, because of the mechanistic type of management, the sense of urgency of production, the high frequency of " c r i s e s , " e t c . , i t i s hypothesized t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n s between the s u p e r v i s o r and h i s l i n e s u p e r i o r s w i l l ' t e n d t o be tense, h o s t i l e and t a s k - o r i e n t e d i n nature. I n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l f i n d t h e i r bases i n both v e r b a l and w r i t t e n communications. H o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s (with s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s and  f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s along the work flow) ( I I - B - l - c ) . For the reasons o u t l i n e d i n the two preceding paragraphs i t i s p r e d i c t e d that t h i s c l a s s of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l be l a r g e l y t a s k - o r i e n t e d , v e r b a l as w e l l as non-verbal, and f r e q u e n t l y tense, t h a t i s , i n v o l v e c o n f l i c t s over a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s With subordinates (II-B-2-a). Only the most general hypotheses are p o s s i b l e given the q u a l i t y , f o r our purposes, of Woodward's data. Given the absence of small primary work groups, the mechanistic nature of management, the high sense of production urgency, e t c . , i t i s hypothesized t h a t the frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s between the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s subordinates as a group w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y very high. The frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l subordinates w i l l , however, tend on the average t o be low ( r e l a t i v e t o the frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h l i n e s u p e r i o r s , or s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , or f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s along the work f l o w ) . 47 With s u p e r i o r s (II-B-2-b). For the reasons o u t l i n e d i n the previous paragraph, i t i s hypothesized that i n t e r  a c t i o n s between the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s l i n e s u p e r i o r s w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y f a i r l y low, e s p e c i a l l y those i n i t i a t e d by the sup e r v i s o r h i m s e l f . H o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s ( I I - B - 2 - c ) . By the same token, a r e l a t i v e l y very high frequency of h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r  a c t i o n s i s p r e d i c t e d , e s p e c i a l l y f o r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . Supervisory sentiments Toward subordinates ( I I - C - 1 ) . In the absence of more complete d e s c r i p t i v e data regarding the nature of; s upervisory a c t i v i t i e s under Category I I technology, i t has been hypoth e s i z e d t h a t such a c t i v i t i e s w i l l c o n s i s t p r i m a r i l y of i n t e r  a c t i o n s w i t h others. In a d d i t i o n , a r e l a t i v e l y high f r e  quency of tense, t a s k - o r i e n t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s between the super v i s o r and h i s subordinates has been hypothesized. On the ba s i s of these hypotheses i t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t sentiments f e l t by the su p e r v i s o r toward h i s subordinates w i l l tend t o range from n e u t r a l t o s u s p i c i o u s t o aggressive depending upon circumstances. Furthermore, because of the high sense of urgency of production and short time p e r s p e c t i v e s of lower s u p e r v i s o r y l e v e l s , these sentiments w i l l tend t o be unstable or v a r i a b l e , ranging from n e u t r a l t o h o s t i l e . Superiors ( I I - C - 2 ) . By the same token, sentiments of the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r toward h i s s u p e r i o r s w i l l tend 48 to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y those of defense and h o s t i l i t y . They w i l l tend t o be v a r i a b l e depending upon the demands of momentary circumstances. P a r t i e s t o h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s ( s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s along the work-flow ( I I - C - 3 ) . S i m i l a r l y , sentiments of the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r toward s t a f f s p e c i a l  i s t s and f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s along the work f l o w w i l l tend t o be n e u t r a l t o h o s t i l e i n tone. Given the r e l a t i v e l y high frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s between the p a r t i e s , the sentiments of the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r w i l l tend t o be r a t h e r unchang i n g , at l e a s t i n the short-term. Category I I I technology In t h i s s e c t i o n the s p e c i f i c hypotheses p e r t a i n i n g t o the dimensions of f i r s t - l i n e s u p e rvisory behavior under continuous-process technology w i l l be developed. The approach to hypotheses f o r m u l a t i o n w i l l be the same as t h a t employed i n the two previous s e c t i o n s of the chapter. General observations and i n f e r e n c e s Given the general hypothesis of t h i s study, probably the most fundamental c o r r e l a t e of continuous-process t e c h n o l  ogy i s the organic nature of management processes t y p i c a l l y found i n the more s u c c e s s f u l e n t e r p r i s e s employing t h i s type of technology. Proceeding from t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i t i s i n f e r r e d t h a t , the f o l l o w i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h continuous-process technology: (1) the 49 CHART IV STRUCTURAL CORRELATES OF CATEGORY I I I TECHNOLOGY Category I I I Production Technology: continuous-process technology D e f i n i t i o n : i n t e r m i t t e n t production of chemicals i n m u l t i  purpose p l a n t s ; continuous f l o w production of cases, l i q u i d s and c r y s t a l l i n e substances S t r u c t u r a l C o r r e l a t e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 1. Complexity of technology very great r e l a  t i v e t o Categories I and I I (p.42) 2. Median number of l e v e l s of management 6 (p.52) 3- Median c h i e f executive span of c o n t r o l 10 (p.53) 4. Median f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s ' span of c o n t r o l 11-18 (p.61) 5. Existence of "small primary work groups" Yes (p.60) 6. Rati o of supervisory t o non- supervisory personnel 1:5-9 (p.55) 7- R a t i o of d i r e c t t o i n d i r e c t workers 1:1 (pp.59-60) 8. Middle management span of c o n t r o l r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l (p.53) 9. Length of management communication l i n e r e l a t i v e l y long (p.53) 10. P r a c t i c e of management by committee common (p.53) 11. T e c h n i c a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of manage ment and su p e r v i s o r s high r e l a t i v e e s p e c i a l l y t o Category I I t e c h  nology (pp.57-58) 12. Source of t e c h n i c a l competence of sup e r v i s o r s extensive formal or academic t r a i n ing (pp.57-58) 13. Required t e c h n i c a l competence of sup e r v i s o r s r e l a t i v e l y high (PP .57, 65, 149) 14. R e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n of s k i l l e d t o u n s k i l l e d workers midway between t h a t found i n Categories I & I I technology (pp.61-62) . 15. Focus of s k i l l e d workers' a c t i v i t i e s both d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t l a b o r (pp.61-63) 50 CHART I V — c o n t i n u e d S t r u c t u r a l C o r r e l a t e C h a r a c t e r i s t i c 16. A b i l i t y of d i r e c t l a b o r t o i n f l u e n c e the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of production 17 Existence of formal production con t r o l systems 18. Existence of s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s 19. Sense of urgency of production 20. Type of communications regarding production 21. Production schedules based on 22. Planning and time p e r s p e c t i v e of top management 23. Perceived s e c u r i t y of employment f o r d i r e c t workers 24. Interdependence of task f u n c t i o n s among marketing (M), production (P) and development (D) 25. Order of manufacturing c y c l e 26. Interdepartmental r e l a t i o n s 27. Frequency of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems 28. Type of management of more success f u l f i r m s P o t e n t i a l l y very high (pp.62-63) b u i l t - i n ; v i r t u a l l y automatic; not a source of c o n f l i c t between s t a f f and l i n e (pp .66, 152) few & not e a s i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from l i n e super v i s o r s ; no i d e o l o g  i c a l c o n f l i c t w i t h l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s (p.65) low (p.65) mainly v e r b a l (p.66) long-range orders (p.66) very long range (p.152) very high (pp.149, 152) minimal (p.153) D—}M~*P (p. 128) f a i r l y good (pp.147,150,152) low (p . l53) 3 "organic" (p.64) Source: Joan Woodward, I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : Theory and  P r a c t i c e (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965). 51 c o n t r i b u t i v e nature of s p e c i a l knowledge and experience t o the common task of the e n t e r p r i s e ; (2) i n d i v i d u a l tasks set by the t o t a l s i t u a t i o n of the e n t e r p r i s e ; (3) adjustment and c o n t i n u a l r e d e f i n i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l t a s k s through i n t e r  a c t i o n s w i t h others; (4) ad hoc l o c a t i o n of c o n t r o l a u t h o r i t y based upon e x p e r t i s e ; (5) l a t e r a l r a t h e r than v e r t i c a l com munications predominating; and (6) communication of advice and i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r than i n s t r u c t i o n s and decisions.^" As was recognized i n the f o r u m l a t i o n of s p e c i f i c hypotheses f o r Category I technology, i f organic management processes are r e a l i z e d i n p r a c t i c e under continuous-process technology, then the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r i s allowed a f a i r l y wide area of d i s c r e t i o n over the performance of a c t i v i t i e s and h i s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h others. To employ a more o p e r a t i o n a l phraseology, i t i s i n  f e r r e d t h a t , as a consequence of the degree of organic manage ment processes r e a l i z e d i n continuous-process technology, e n t e r p r i s e o r g a n i z a t i o n tends t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: 1. F a i r l y f l e x i b l e , d e t a i l e d production g u i d e l i n e s coming t o the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r from l i n e s u p e r i o r s and p o s s i b l y from the few s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s (see Chart I I I above) which may be found i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . 2. Two-way i n i t i a t i o n of t a s k - o r i e n t e d i n t e r a c t i o n i n v o l v  i n g the d i r e c t ( s k i l l e d ) production workers and t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r . 3. Extensive "feedback" t o the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r from s k i l l e d d i r e c t production workers regarding t a s k - o r i e n t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s i n i t i a t e d e i t h e r d i r e c t l y by the s u p e r v i s o r , or i n d i r e c t l y by s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . 4. As a consequence of (a) the complexity of technology (Chart I I I ) and (b) the ease and f r e q u e n t l y v i r t u a l a u t o m a t i c i t y of formal porduction c o n t r o l systems (see Chart I I I ) — a heavy r e l i a n c e by a l l l e v e l s of management and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s upon the records and other i n f o r  mation generated i n the production planning and c o n t r o l a c t i v i t i e s . However, as a consequence of (b) above, plus organic management processes and items 1, 2, and 3 above, minimal c o n f l i c t a r i s i n g about production matters. 5. A high degree of volun t a r y and i n f o r m a l interdependence among, on the one hand f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s , and, on the other hand s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , s e n i o r l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s and d i r e c t production workers. 6. Generally a low sense of urgency of production e x p e r i  enced by a l l i n d i v i d u a l s , e s p e c i a l l y s k i l l e d d i r e c t workers and t h e i r f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s . When on oc casion production c r i s e s a r i s e , i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s between workers and s u p e r v i s o r s w i l l not d e t e r i o r a t e g r e a t l y , g iven the existence of organic management processes. Chart I I I s p e c i f i e s a group of s t r u c t u r a l c o r r e l a t e s of continuous-process technology which may have s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the development of the s p e c i f i c hypotheses. For example, 53 note the f a c t of a sm a l l span of f i r s t - l i n e s upervisory con t r o l . ( I t i s the smallest of the three c a t e g o r i e s of t e c h  nology. ) The su p e r v i s o r d i r e c t s a s m a l l (primary) group of s k i l l e d d i r e c t production workers who are able t o e x e r c i s e considerable i n f l u e n c e over production, p a r t i c u l a r l y the q u a l i t y of production. The s c a r c i t y of s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , or t h e i r l a c k of d i s t i n c t i o n from other management personnel, the tendency f o r production c o n t r o l t o be v i r t u a l l y b u i l t i n t o the productive system, and the high degree of t e c h n i c a l competence of s u p e r v i s o r s , imply the l a t t e r ' s p o t e n t i a l a b i l  i t y t o e x e r c i s e considerable i n f l u e n c e over production quan t i t y and q u a l i t y . The presence of small primary groups of s k i l l e d workers, the low frequency of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l prob lems, the l a r g e l y v e r b a l nature of communications, and the broad c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of organic processes of management, suggest t h a t the su p e r v i s o r enters i n t o frequent and casual i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h subordinates. From the p r a c t i c e of manage ment by committee and the long l i n e of management communica t i o n s , we i n f e r that i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s u p e r i o r s w i l l be frequent and r a t h e r formal i n nature. S p e c i f i c Hypotheses Supervisory a c t i v i t i e s (III-A-1) As a consequence of the foregoing observed and i n  f e r r e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r ' s work environment, the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of supervisory a c t i v i t i e s under Category I I I technology are hypothesized. 1. A p p l i c a t i o n of t e c h n i c a l knowledge and the e x e r c i s e of t e c h n i c a l s k i l l . In response t o f a i r l y long-range production schedules the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r makes a f a i r l y narrow range of complex t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s , or gi v e s t e c h n i c a l advice t o h i s subordinates, regarding the t e c h n i c a l s p e c i f i c a  t i o n s of the product t o be produced. Advises s u b o r d i  nates regarding t e c h n i c a l adjustments r e q u i r e d i n the process. I f and when c r i s e s occur, he seeks the te c h  n i c a l advice of s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s and/or communicates t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n s t o h i s subordinates. 2. Given the r e l a t i v e absence of s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , the organic nature of management processes, and the auto matic nature of production c o n t r o l s and r e p o r t i n g , the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r performs none of the a d m i n i s t r a  t i v e d u t i e s d e f i n e d i n Chapter I I I . At most he reviews p e r i o d i c production r e p o r t s as a means of monitoring the performance of h i s subordinates and the processes they c o n t r o l . 3. Because o f , and i n t e g r a l t o the performance of h i s t e c h  n i c a l a c t i v i t i e s , the su p e r v i s o r '-engages; i n f a c e - t o - face i n t e r a c t i o n s p r i m a r i l y w i t h subordinates. Frequency of performance of a c t i v i t i e s (III-A-2) The low sense of urgency of production; the r e l a t i v e l y long time and planning p e r s p e c t i v e of management; the ease of production c o n t r o l ; the existence of sm a l l primary work-groups r e s p o n s i b l e t o the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r — t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s u p e r v i s o r ' s work environment suggest t h a t a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i s t i n g of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h others w i l l occur most f r e q u e n t l y . The performance of t e c h n i c a l a c t i v i  t i e s under continuous process technology w i l l occur somewhat l e s s f r e q u e n t l y . Nature of i n t e r a c t i o n s The s p e c i f i c hypotheses under t h i s s e c t i o n f o l l o w from the preceding hypotheses. With subordinates ( I I I - B - l - a ) . I n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l be f a c e - t o - f a c e , v e r b a l and somewhat i n f o r m a l , that i s , not mainly t a s k - o r i e n t e d . Because of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of organic management processes, both described and hypothesized above, plus the g e n e r a l l y low sense of urgency of production and the absence of c o n f l i c t w i t h s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , i n t e r  a c t i o n s between the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s subordinates w i l l tend t o be r e l a x e d ; t h a t i s , devoid of c o n f l i c t over a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . With the p o s s i b l e exception of c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s , the t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e of both p a r t i e s w i l l a l l o w the i n t e r a c t i o n s t o be based upon the communica t i o n of advice and i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r than e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c  t i o n s and d i r e c t i o n s . With s u p e r i o r s ( I I I - B - l - b ) . I t i s hypothesized t h a t , because of: (1) the r e l a t i v e l y long chain of management com munication (2) the p r a c t i c e of management by committee (3) the long time and planning p e r s p e c t i v e of management, and 56 (4) the high degree of complexity of the technology, i n t e r  a c t i o n s between the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s l i n e s u p e r i o r s w i l l tend t o be f a c e - t o - f a c e , t a s k - o r i e n t e d , and g e n e r a l l y r e l a x e d ; t h a t i s , devoid of c o n f l i c t s over a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e of both f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r s u p e r i o r s w i l l per mit the i n t e r a c t i o n s t o be based upon the communication of advice and in f o r m a t i o n as w e l l as i n s t r u c t i o n s and d i r e c t i o n s . H o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s (with f e l l o w f i r s t - l i n e  s u p e r v i s o r s and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s ) ( I I I - B - l - c ) . The r e l a  t i v e l y h i g h l y complex nature of f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d continuous- process technology suggests the p r o b a b i l i t y that f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s w i l l enter i n t o i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h f e l l o w super v i s o r s , e i t h e r along the work-flow or i n the maintenance s e c t i o n s of the e n t e r p r i s e . These i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l tend t o be t a s k - o r i e n t e d , and, given the nature of organic manage ment processes, l a r g e l y devoid of c o n f l i c t over a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The ease and v i r t u a l l y automatic nature of production c o n t r o l , plus the long time and planning p e r s p e c t i v e of management, suggest t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n s between the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s w i l l be of very l i m i t e d importance, except p o s s i b l y i n periods of c r i s i s i n the pro duct i o n process. To the extent t o which t h i s c l a s s of i n t e r  a c t i o n s occurs, i t w i l l be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by being devoid of 57 c o n f l i c t over a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Mutual communi c a t i o n of advice and in f o r m a t i o n w i l l be a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of t h i s c l a s s of i n t e r a c t i o n s . Frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s The foregoing analyses and hypotheses suggest the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c hypotheses regarding i n t e r a c t i o n f r e  quencies. With subordinates ( I I I - B ^ - a f r . I n t e r a c t i o n s between the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s subordinates w i l l be more frequent than f o r e i t h e r of the other two c l a s s e s of i n t e r  a c t i o n s . In comparison w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n frequencies i n e i t h e r of Category I or Category I I technology, the frequen cy of i n t e r a c t i o n s between s u p e r v i s o r s and d i r e c t production workers w i l l be the gr e a t e s t i n Category I I I technology. With s u p e r i o r s ( I I I - B - 2 - b ) . The frequency of i n t e r  a c t i o n s between f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r l i n e supe r i o r s w i l l be l e s s than the frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h subordinates or p a r t i e s t o h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . The frequency of s u p e r v i s o r - s u p e r i o r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l be g r e a t e r i n Category I I I than i n Category I I technology, but s l i g h t l y l e s s than t h a t found i n Category I technology. H o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s ( I I I - B - 2 - c ) . The frequency of t h i s c l a s s of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l be mid-way between the frequencies noted i n the two preceding s e c t i o n s . In compari son t o Category I I technology, the frequency of h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s i s hypothesized t o be l e s s i n Category I I I 58 production technology. The r e l a t i v e frequency of h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l be approximately the same i n Categories I and I I I technology, w i t h a p o s s i b l y g r e a t e r frequency i n continuous-process types of technology, where the complexity of the technology i s considerably g r e a t e r . Supervisory sentiments Toward subordinates ( I I I - C - 1 ) . Toward s u p e r i o r s ( I I I - C - 2 ) . Toward p a r t i e s i n h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s ( I I I - C-3)« As i n e n t e r p r i s e s under Category I technology, s e n t i  ments of supe r v i s o r s toward subordinates, s u p e r i o r s and p a r t i e s t o h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l tend t o be n e u t r a l t o f r i e n d l y i n tone. However, i n contrast t o Category I technology, these sentiments w i l l e x h i b i t a c e r t a i n amount of i n s t a b i l i t y over time due t o the major s i g n i f i c a n c e a t  tached t o production c r i s e s i n continuous-process technology. 59 FOOTNOTES ON CHAPTER I I I Joan Woodward, I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : Theory and  P r a c t i c e (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965), p. 23. Woodward defines "organic" management systems as being "more adaptable": jobs l o s e much of t h e i r formal d e f i n i t i o n , and communications up and down the h i e r a r c h y are more i n the nature of c o n s u l t a t i o n than the passing up of in f o r m a t i o n and the r e c e i v i n g of order s . " In the subsequent a n a l y s i s we u t i l i z e a s l i g h t l y more o p e r a t i o n a l concept of "organic" management processes. 2 Tom Burns and G.M. S t a l k e r , The Management of Innova t i o n (London: Tavistock P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1961), pp. 121-122. 3 ^The foregoing c r i t e r i a s h a l l c o n s t i t u t e the d e f i n i  t i o n of " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . " "^Woodward, op. c i t . , p. 23. "'Mechanistic' systems are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r i g i d break down i n t o f u n c t i o n a l spe c i a l i s m s , p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n of d u t i e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and power, and a w e l l developed command h i e r a r c h y through which i n f o r m a t i o n f i l t e r s up and d e c i s i o n s and i n s t r u c t i o n s f l o w down." In the subsequent a n a l y s i s we u t i l i z e a somewhat more o p e r a t i o n a l concept of "mechanistic" management processes. ^Woodward, l o c . c i t . See footnote 1 of Chapter I I I f o r a d e f i n i t i o n of the concept of "organic" management processes. CHAPTER IV CASE STUDIES: CATEGORY I TECHNOLOGY In t r o d u c t i o n Chapter IV i s the f i r s t of three consecutive chapters devoted e n t i r e l y t o the p r e s e n t a t i o n of e m p i r i c a l data i n the form of case s t u d i e s . The chapter c o n s i s t s of two case s t u d i e s used t o demonstrate examples of the nature of f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r y r o l e demands and environmental character i s t i c s under Category I technology. The cases have been e d i t e d i n order t o present only those data p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s a n a l y s i s . The sources of the case s t u d i e s w i l l be c i t e d i n i  t i a l l y i n conventional footnote form. T h e r e a f t e r , w i t h i n a given case, only page references w i l l be used t o i n d i c a t e those p o r t i o n s of the s t u d i e s u t i l i z e d i n the research. CASE NO. 1 "A Dyeing and Cleaning Plant Background 1. This i s a short account of the foremen's place i n a f i r m of dyers and cle a n e r s . The f i r m i s a sm a l l one, employing i n a l l about 400 people, of whom 250 are i n the works. The remaining 150 work i n shops belonging to the company, at which goods are r e c e i v e d from cus tomers f o r c l e a n i n g and dyeing. In t h i s study we are concerned only w i t h the works, w i t h i t s 250 employees and t h e i r s u p e r v i s o r s . 61 Factory Organization 2. Figure I I below portrays the management o r g a n i z a t i o n of the e n t e r p r i s e described i n Case No. 1. Company Secretary and r O f f i c e Manager J o i n t Managing D i r e c t o r (A) (Production) J o i n t Managing Director- (B) (Shop Branches) A s s i s t a n t General Manager Works Manager Foreman FIGURE I I MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION (adapted from source: pp. 73-74) The A s s i s t a n t General Manager "has r e c e n t l y come on the scene. He i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the Production D i r e c t o r and the Works Manager i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o him although at present, 62 as a newcomer, he i s a c t i n g r a t h e r as a s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n t t o the Production D i r e c t o r than as c o n t r o l l e r of production." In other words, the f a c t o r y w i l l u l t i m a t e l y have f o u r l e v e l s of management a u t h o r i t y i n s t e a d of i t s present three. The Managing D i r e c t o r f o r Production has had a great deal of experience i n the f a c t o r y , i n d i f f e r e n t manage ment p o s i t i o n s , over the years, and has always been i n  t e r e s t e d i n the methods and processes and i n ways of im proving them. . . . the Works Manager, the foremen and the other s u p e r v i s o r s have a l l been w i t h the company or the i n d u s t r y f o r many years. The Technology and the Foremen's Work 3. The procedure f o r the major part of the company's business, c l e a n i n g , can be simply described. Goods are c o l l e c t e d from the shop branches by van at n i g h t , and on a r r i v a l at the works are s o r t e d i n t o c a t e g o r i e s f o r c l e a n i n g . Those which i t i s i m p r a c t i c a b l e t o dry-clean u s u a l l y go d i r e c t from the s o r t i n g point t o the Wet- cleaning Department, though others are sent f o r wet- cleaning a f t e r having already been through the Dry- cleaning Department. A f t e r being d r i e d they pass t o the F i n i s h i n g Department f o r s p o t t i n g and p r e s s i n g and are then inspected and dispatched. The a r t i c l e s t o be dry-cleaned go s t r a i g h t t o the Dry-cleaning Department, and then, i n the same way, t o the F i n i s h i n g , I n s p e c t i o n , and Dispatch s e c t i o n s . Dry-cleaning department 4- The Dry-cleaning Department has c l e a n i n g machines, hydro-extractors and tumblers f o r d r y i n g . The work con s i s t s almost e n t i r e l y of p u t t i n g the c l o t h e s , e t c . , i n t o the c l e a n i n g machines and then t r a n s f e r r i n g them t o the others i n t u r n . As the goods have p r e v i o u s l y been so r t e d according t o m a t e r i a l and c o l o u r , the work i s en t i r e l y manual and r e q u i r e s no s k i l l or p a r t i c u l a r know ledge on the part of the workers. 5. There are two s h i f t s working i n t h i s department, each c o n s i s t i n g of f o u r men under a charge-hand. The l a t t e r , who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the work of the department, i s a l s o i n charge of the s o r t e r , who, however, r e q u i r e s l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n apart from being kept informed about what k i n d of work i s r e q u i r e d next. The department i s a busy one, f o r thousands of a r t i c l e s pass through i n a day and the charge-hand works on the job w i t h the other 63 men f o r a considerable amount of the s h i f t . He does, however, spend some of h i s time o r g a n i z i n g the work so t h a t the washing machines do not stand i d l e and he i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r such t h i n g s as maintaining the l e v e l of c l e a n i n g s p i r i t . He i s a l s o l i k e l y t o f i n d h i m s e l f i n  volved i n minor machine r e p a i r s and maintenance. He spends l i t t l e or no time a c t u a l l y s u p e r v i s i n g the work. 6. This work does not demand a great d e a l of s k i l l on the part of the s u p e r v i s o r and t h e r e f o r e there i s no foreman i n charge. At the same time i t does need a good dea l of p r a c t i c a l experience, p a r t i c u l a r l y of the machines used. The charge-hand on the day s h i f t , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , has been wi t h the company f o r s i x t e e n years and h i s experience covers n e a r l y a l l the d i f f e r  ent kinds of work done i n the f a c t o r y . He has been i n the Dry-cleaning Department f o r n e a r l y t e n y e a r s , as charge-hand f o r the l a s t f i v e . He i s paid on the same ba s i s as the ordinary operators i n h i s department, i . e . according t o the amount of work handled i n . a week, w i t h a f l a t r a t e a d d i t i o n of fivepence an h o u r . 0 Wet-cleaning department 7. The Wet-cleaning Department deals w i t h two c a t e g o r i e s of work: th a t which cannot be dry-cleaned because of i t s nature, and t h a t which does not respond t o d r y - c l e a n i n g , and i s t h e r e f o r e sent on f o r wet-cleaning. A r t i c l e s a r r i v e i n the department, mostly from the s o r t e r s , w i t h coloured l a b e l s on them i n d i c a t i n g the degrees of p r i o r  i t y they should r e c e i v e . They are s o r t e d i n t o cate g o r i e s according t o the treatment t o be g i v e n . 8. The a c t u a l c l e a n i n g i s done e i t h e r by hand or by ma chine, and i n some cases by a combination of the two. There i s a considerable v a r i e t y of p o s s i b l e treatment i n the way of r i n s e s and d r y i n g methods. The workers number eight w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l two men i n a small sec t i o n devoted t o carpet c l e a n i n g . The equipment c o n s i s t s of washing machines, h y d r o - e x t r a c t o r s , tumblers and other apparatus f o r d r y i n g . In t h i s department, the system of wage-payment depends again on the amount of output and i s e s s e n t i a l l y a group bonus p l a n . 9 . There i s a foreman i n charge and h i s job i s p r i n c i  p a l l y one of o r g a n i z i n g the production f l o w i n the de partment , not only t o keep the work going but a l s o t o make sure that the c o r r e c t treatment i s given t o the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s of goods i n v o l v e d . He s o r t s the a r t i c l e s h i m s e l f . A l l t h i s means tha t he must be able t o recognize d i f f e r e n t f a b r i c types and know the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t kinds of treatment upon them. He needs t o be able t o estimate the l i k e l i h o o d of success i n wet- c l e a n i n g a p a r t i c u l a r garment, and weigh t h i s up against 64 the p r o b a b i l i t y of i t s being u t t e r l y s p o i l e d i f the pro cess f a i l s . He must have i n mind such t h i n g s as chances of coats s h r i n k i n g , or s k i r t s dropping, or colours run ning. He must remember t h a t rayon l o s e s h a l f i t s s t r e n g t h when wet, and must be c a r e f u l t o spot t h a t a garment has padding i n i t and so cannot go i n t o the ma chines. The present foreman has been i n h i s p o s i t i o n f o r the l a s t twenty years, having worked p r e v i o u s l y i n the Wet-cleaning Department of another firm.7 The dyehouse 10. For a number of reasons, only a very s m a l l amount of dyeing i s undertaken these days, and the Dyehouse em ploys only three workers, w i t h a foreman i n charge. The l a t t e r f s job i s mainly a t e c h n i c a l one; he examines goods sent f o r dyeing and decides on the appropriate treatment. He a l s o has t o advise on the l i k e l i h o o d of s u c c e s s f u l dyeing of goods that are sent from the shops i n d o u b t f u l cases f o r h i s o p i n i o n . A l l t h i s r e q u i r e s a considerable knowledge of f a b r i c s and f i b r e s and p a r t i c u l a r l y of the e f f e c t s on them of b o i l i n g . The foreman's p o s i t i o n i s , from the t e c h n i c a l point of view, a very r e s p o n s i b l e one; present-day f a b r i c s w i t h t h e i r mixtures of n a t u r a l and s y n t h e t i c f i b r e s are d i f f i c u l t t o dye s u c c e s s f u l l y and the r i s k of f a i l u r e i s o f t e n high. The foreman of the Dyehouse gained h i s knowledge of the trade at another company, and came to h i s present p o s i t i o n as an already experienced man during the Second World War. F i n i s h i n g department LL. A f t e r goods have been cleaned they are sent t o the F i n i s h i n g Department where they are prepared f o r d i s  patch t o the shops. The two p r i n c i p a l operations i n the department are s p o t t i n g and p r e s s i n g . Spotting i n v o l v e s examining garments and removing any s m a l l marks l e f t on them a f t e r they have been through c l e a n i n g processes. There i s one group of people engaged on t h i s work. A f t e r the s p o t t i n g the garments are d i s t r i b u t e d by a s e r v i c e operator among the P r e s s i n g S e c t i o n , which c o n s i s t s of a number of small groups, each concentrating on a d i f f e r e n t type of f i n i s h i n g process. The pressers and s p o t t e r s are under the charge of the F i n i s h i n g Department foreman, who a l s o c o n t r o l s two smaller s e c t i o n s , c l e a n i n g household goods and h a t s , which are regarded as part of the F i n i s h  i n g Department. 12. I t i s t h i s foreman who came t o act as a k i n d of unof f i c i a l c o - o r d i n a t o r of the work of the f a c t o r y . He has been w i t h the f i r m f o r a great many yea r s , coming t o i t when he was eighteen. He has been charge-hand i n the Dry-cleaning Department, foreman of the S p o t t i n g S e c t i o n , 65 and subsequently of the P r e s s i n g S e c t i o n i n a d d i t i o n . He has added t o h i s great amount of p r a c t i c a l experience by studying the technology of c l e a n i n g and dyeing at a l o c a l i n s t i t u t e . When the previous Works Manager l e f t more than two years ago i t f e l l t o him t o co-ordinate the work, f i r s t of h i s department and of those s e c t i o n s most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o i t , and subsequently of a l l the production departments. His p o s i t i o n as Works Manager has now been f o r m a l l y recognized, though he continues g s t i l l i n h i s r o l e of foreman of the F i n i s h i n g Department. S i l k s p o t t i n g 13. In t h i s s e c t i o n there are a f o r e l a d y and f o u r g i r l s . They do the s p o t t i n g of a l l s i l k or i m i t a t i o n s i l k gar ments and a l l white garments. The f o r e l a d y spends a good deal of her time checking over and s o r t i n g goods as they a r r i v e i n t r o l l e y s , p u t t i n g aside any that r e  qui r e r e c l e a n i n g , or which have been dry-cleaned and r e q u i r e wet-cleaning. She supervises the work of her g i r l s and when time permits checks what they have done. 14. The f o r e l a d y has been w i t h the company s i n c e the mid- ' t h i r t i e s , having worked p r e v i o u s l y at another f i r m as a s p o t t e r . She became f o r e l a d y 'longer ago than I could remember' and has had a vast amount of experience which allows her t o advise when a d d i t i o n a l treatment, other than simple s p o t t i n g , i s necessary f o r garments t h a t have been cleaned. Her r o l e as checker and a d v i s e r i s , i n f a c t , a more important s i d e of her work than her supervisory f u n c t i o n . Repairs department 15. This department undertakes a l t e r a t i o n s and r e p a i r s at the request of customers. There i s a f o r e l a d y w i t h a f a i r  l y Tlarge work-force, i n c l u d i n g some p a r t - t i m e r s , who i s l e f t very much on her own t o run the s e c t i o n . Apart from a d v i s i n g on r e p a i r s and s u p e r v i s i n g and checking work, she keeps records of work done f o r c o s t i n g pur poses, and of the work of d i f f e r e n t operators f o r wage purposes. I t i s s k i l l e d work i n t h i s department and one of the f o r e l a d y ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s f o r the t r a i n i n g of new workers, who are f o r the most part inexperienced when they come. The workers range i n age from g i r l s not long out of school t o an o l d lady over seventy. The f o r e l a d y s t a r t e d w i t h the company twenty years ago as a shop a s s i s t a n t , becoming a shop manageress and l a t e r s u p e r v i s o r over s e v e r a l shop-branches before t r a n s f e r  r i n g t o her present job i n 1940. She i s , i n f a c t , one of the few people on the production s i d e who has had experience i n the shops and i s t h e r e f o r e i n a p o s i t i o n to appreciate some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of d e a l i n g w i t h customers f a c e - t o - f a c e . 66 I n s p e c t i o n department 16. The I n s p e c t i o n Department, which employs women and i s under the c o n t r o l of a Chief Inspector, i s regarded as one of the most important departments i n the works. A l l a r t i c l e s come here f o r examination and those which do not meet the r e q u i r e d standard are returned f o r f u r t h e r processing. The department has a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on operators i n other p a r t s of the f a c t o r y , as work which does not pass i n s p e c t i o n i s returned t o the people r e  s p o n s i b l e , who must re-do i t . The Chief Inspector spends some of her time i n feeding work t o the inspec t o r s and seeing t h a t they maintain a reasonable r a t e of i n s p e c t i o n , and some of i t i n checking t h e i r work. She a l s o sees t o the s o r t i n g and removal of garments t o the point of d i s p a t c h . She i s h e r s e l f an ex-inspector.9 I n v e s t i g a t i o n department 17. The I n v e s t i g a t i o n Department deals w i t h queries and complaints from the shops and from customers about a r t i  c l e s overdue, missing or damaged. I t s work i n v o l v e s searching f o r garments which have gone a s t r a y i n the f a c t o r y or which may have been dispatched t o the wrong branch i n e r r o r , w r i t i n g l e t t e r s of explanation or a p o l  ogy, arranging f o r c l a i m forms t o be completed and com pensation s e t t l e d , and d e a l i n g w i t h queries on the t e l e  phone. The s t a f f of three i s under the c o n t r o l of a lady who has had experience both i n t h i s f a c t o r y and w i t h another f i r m . Her r e l a t i o n s w i t h the production s e c t i o n s are i n f o r m a l and f r i e n d l y ; co-operation i n f i n d i n g missing a r t i c l e s i s r e a d i l y given by the f a c t o r y people, who regard her department as one that i s simply doing another necessary job. The Demands of S u p e r v i s i o n Except i n the F i n i s h i n g Department the number of workers under the c o n t r o l of any s u p e r v i s o r i n t h i s f a c t o r y i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . The importance of a s u p e r v i s o r ' s j o b , however, should not be assessed s o l e l y i n terms of the number of workers he i s i n charge of or the amount of work done i n h i s department. The type of work done must a l s o be taken i n t o account. Here, f o r i n s t a n c e , though i t handles a comparatively small number of a r t i c l e s , the Wet-cleaning Department g i v e s a great d e a l of i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n t o them. Treatments must be v a r i e d according t o the types of f a b r i c s and colours and the foreman spends a great deal of time d e c i d i n g and a d v i s i n g on i n  d i v i d u a l treatments. The Dry-cleaning Department, how ever, does work which i s much more r e p e t i t i v e , w i t h l i t t l e m o d i f i c a t i o n of the standard process necessary or p o s s i b l e . In t h i s department i t has not been found 67 necessary t o have a foreman and there i s a working charge-hand i n c o n t r o l of each shift.1° 18. Except i n the Dry-cleaning Department, there are two important requirements f o r the s u p e r v i s o r i n t h i s f a c  t o r y : o r g a n i z i n g a b i l i t y and an expert knowledge of the work done i n h i s department. In the f i r s t place he must be able t o administer h i s department so as t o keep the f l o w of work running smoothly w i t h a l l machines and workers employed t o the best advantage. This does not i n v o l v e a l o t of 'paper work' or any long-term planning but i t does r e q u i r e the a b i l i t y t o t h i n k ahead on a short-term b a s i s , t o adapt t o the d i f f e r e n t requirements of each day. In the second place he must be the t e c h n i  c a l expert and a d v i s e r f o r h i s department. The wet- cl e a n i n g foreman, f o r i n s t a n c e , must be able t o say whether a p a r t i c u l a r a r t i c l e i s l i k e l y t o wet-clean suc c e s s f u l l y ; the f o r e l a d y i n charge of s i l k s p o t t i n g must be able t o decide whether a garment which i s s t i l l s t a i n e d when i t comes t o her department should be r e  processed. This k i n d of expertness r e q u i r e s a great deal of f i r s t - h a n d experience w i t h the work. 19. There a r e , of course, other f u n c t i o n s f o r the super v i s o r s t o perform. They are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the t r a i n  i n g of new employees coming i n t o t h e i r departments. They are r e s p o n s i b l e a l s o f o r the engagement of s t a f f f o r t h e i r departments, though i n t h i s case a l l a p p l i  cants are seen f i r s t and screened by the F i n i s h i n g De partment foreman, now Works Manager, and only the most l i k e l y ones sent on t o be seen and accepted or r e j e c t e d by the foremen. F i n a l l y they are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the work and d i s c i p l i n e of those i n t h e i r departments. This l a s t f u n c t i o n does not f i g u r e prominently, as i t i s the s o r t of f a c t o r y where the workers know what t h e i r jobs are and get on w i t h them without close s u p e r v i s i o n . A system of payment by r e s u l t s plays i t s part i n t h i s and indeed emphasizes the importance of the s u p e r v i s o r as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r . For the system t o run smoothly the supply of work to operators needs t o be continuous and the s u p e r v i s o r must organize t h i n g s so t h a t t h i s i s the case. As we have seen, the I n s p e c t i o n Department con t r o l s standards of q u a l i t y ; i n d i v i d u a l workers have to re-do work which i s not up t o standard, and t h e i r bonus earnings are adversely a f f e c t e d when garments are r e  turned t o them. 20. The question of s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g of s u p e r v i s o r s c a l l s f o r l i t t l e comment. With the small numbers i n  volved the occasion f o r r e p l a c i n g a s u p e r v i s o r a r i s e s very r a r e l y . There i s no formal scheme of t r a i n i n g f o r s u p e r v i s o r s ; emphasis i s placed r a t h e r on p i c k i n g the r i g h t people f o r the work on the assumption that they can then be r e l i e d upon t o develop the necessary super v i s o r y s k i l l s i n t h e i r own way. The question of t e c h -68 n i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r s u p e r v i s o r s does not a r i s e , as newly- appointed s u p e r v i s o r s are i n v a r i a b l y h i g h l y experienced i n the work they are t o c o n t r o l . H A t t i t u d e s of the Supervisors While the foremen i n t h i s f a c t o r y spend a consider able part of t h e i r time h e l p i n g 'on the job,' they do have c e r t a i n signs of s t a t u s which d i s t i n g u i s h them from the ordinary operators. They are given an e x t r a week's h o l i d a y , they have sic k n e s s pay b e n e f i t s and they do not clock on and o f f . As f a r as t h e i r pay i s concerned, the p o s i t i o n i s that the s u p e r v i s o r s are on a f l a t r a t e , which v a r i e s from one i n d i v i d u a l t o an other but which places a l l of them, as a r u l e , above the earnings of those they are i n charge of. I t must be noted t h a t the work of the f a c t o r y i s t o some extent seasonal, so the few occasions on which a good worker's pay exceeds h i s s u p e r v i s o r ' s wage are more than o f f s e t by the weeks of the ' o f f season. There i s no pension, but a g r a t u i t y on retirement i s payable t o s u p e r v i s o r s at the d i s c r e t i o n of the d i r e c t o r s . 2 1 . The s u p e r v i s o r s are s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p o s i t i o n . They are l a r g e l y independent, and f r e e t o run t h e i r de partments as they t h i n k f i t . They do not need t o have much contact w i t h managers as there are no problems of planning, or raw m a t e r i a l , t o be discussed w i t h them, and the s u p e r v i s o r i s the t e c h n i c a l expert i n h i s f i e l d and makes t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s f o r h i m s e l f . The o r g a n i  z a t i o n i s an i n f o r m a l one; s u p e r v i s o r s are not sepa r a t e d from top management by long l i n e s of c o n t r o l , and they and the managers have worked together long enough to know each other extremely w e l l . The s u p e r v i s o r s ' jobs have not changed very much over the years, and so t h e i r considerable experience remains r e l e v a n t today. Any problems that do a r i s e they can d i s c u s s w i t h the Works Manager, whom they accepted as co-ordinator be f o r e he was f o r m a l l y appointed t o h i s present p o s i t i o n . 2 2 . R e l a t i o n s between su p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r workers have already been touched upon. They ar e , f o r the most part, very easy and f r i e n d l y , w i t h the s u p e r v i s o r having a l  ways i n the back of h i s or her mind th a t i t w i l l be a t r i c k y job t o f i n d s u i t a b l e replacements f o r any workers who are allowed t o leave where t h i s could be prevented. For the most part r e l a t i o n s between supe r v i s o r s are a l s o good. In a s m a l l , s t a b l e group l i k e t h i s , whose members have known each other f o r many years, g o o d - w i l l and t a c t overcome the minor d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t a r i s e at times i n r e l a t i o n s between them. 2 3 . In f a c t , w h i l e a c e r t a i n amount of co-operation be tween the f a c t o r y departments i s necessary, the work of 6 9 one does not a f f e c t t h a t of another to any great extent. Very much more does the work of a l l departments a f f e c t the company's shops, and v i c e versa. There are many ways i n which the shops can help the f a c t o r y : by c l o s e l y i n s p e c t i n g a l l a r t i c l e s r e c e i v e d and noting t e a r s , e t c . , by c l e a r l y l a b e l l i n g a l l such t h i n g s as b e l t s t h a t are l i k e l y t o become separated from garments, and so on. For t h e i r p a r t , the f a c t o r y people can help or hinder c o n s i d e r a b l y the work of the shops. At present, n e i t h e r seems t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y aware of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the other; the f a c t o r y people do not have t o reason w i t h angry customers f a c e - t o - f a c e and the shop people do not know of the t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h some of the treatments they recommend t o customers. This company i s not, of course, the only one t o have t h i s p a r t i c u l a r problem; t o some extent i t i s i n e v i t a b l e i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h i s k i n d , w i t h i t s separate system of c o n t r o l f o r f a c t o r y and s h o p s . 1 2 Conclusion 2 4 . This i s a study of the s u p e r v i s o r s of a small f i r m of cleaners and dyers. In t h i s case the s u p e r v i s o r s are i n charge of v a r y i n g numbers of operators and of d i f  f e r e n t kinds of work. By and l a r g e , they run t h e i r own shops: they are t h e i r own t e c h n i c a l experts, they do not have t o consult w i t h others about p l a n s , or raw m a t e r i a l s . T h e ir t e c h n i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are heavy, and t h e i r p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e s a great deal of p r a c t i c a l experience of the work they c o n t r o l . 2 5 - The main importance of s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h i s k i n d of f i r m i s t h a t they are d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e , t o a very great extent, f o r the f i r m ' s r e p u t a t i o n w i t h i t s cus tomers. Products which are not up t o standard cannot be 'scrapped', and so the need f o r t e c h n i c a l compe tence and years of p r a c t i c a l experience on the part of the s u p e r v i s o r s i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance i n t h i s i n d u s t r y . 1 3 CASE NO. 2 ""An E l e c t r i c a l Engineering Works" Background and Technology 1 . This i s an account of the place occupied by the foremen i n a company about 600 strong engaged i n the manufac tu r e of e l e c t r i c a l e q u i p m e n t . 1 5 70 2. Type of production i n e a r l y years [ f i f t y years ago] set the p a t t e r n f o r what was t o f o l l o w . Thus between 1915 and 1919 the company was engaged e n t i r e l y on con t r a c t work f o r other o r g a n i z a t i o n s , working t o i n d i v i  dual orders f o r r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l q u a n t i t i e s , and t h i s type of work has continued t o be a major part of production.1° 3. Following the post-war slump of 1949, "a gradual ex pansion occurred . . . and the t o t a l amount of work i n hand 17 became gr e a t e r than i n any other peace-time p e r i o d . " 4. The company has always manufactured e l e c t r i c a l equip ment such as generators, switchgear and s m a l l - s i z e d e l e c t r i c motors. . . . There i s a l s o a c e r t a i n amount of sub-contract machining. Because the company i s engaged i n a very competitive f i e l d and among i t s r i v a l s i s a number of much l a r g e r mass-producing concerns, i t has tended t o s p e c i a l i z e i n the production of motors of a s l i g h t l y non-standard type. Since many of the orders are f o r small numbers only, production c o n s i s t s t o some extent i n small l o t s of orders of d i f f e r e n t types. There are a l s o long-term orders, so t h a t t o t a l produc t i o n c o n s i s t s p a r t l y of long-term contract work and p a r t l y of orders f o r small numbers of s p e c i a l designs and types.18 5. Figure I I I below portrays the management o r g a n i z a t i o n of the e n t e r p r i s e discussed i n t h i s case. The Management Organization The managing d i r e c t o r 6. Of the two working d i r e c t o r s , only the Managing D i r e c  t o r d i r e c t l y concerns t h i s study. He i s c l o s e l y i n touch w i t h production and employees through the Works and Per sonnel Managers. . . . [He] has c o n t r o l l e d the company from the days when i t employed 175 or so workers . . . u n t i l today when i t has 600-odd employees. I t i s only n a t u r a l t o expect t h a t a f t e r n e a r l y twenty years a man aging d i r e c t o r w i l l have impressed h i s own philosophy of management on a company, e s p e c i a l l y when, as i n t h i s case, i t has grown and prospered under h i s d i r e c t i o n . Leaving aside matters of company p o l i c y and t e c h n i c a l development f o r which he has had r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and c o n s i d e r i n g only h i s views on management, i t may be s a i d t h a t t h i s Manag ing D i r e c t o r has always b e l i e v e d that a company has a Board of D i r e c t o r s Managing D i r e c t o r Technical D i r e c t o r Personnel Manager Sales Manager Works Manager Chief Designer Chief Draughts man Head of Test Dept. Accountant Buyer of M a t e r i a l s Foremen FIGURE I I I ^ THE MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION (adapted from source: p. 19) 72 d e f i n i t e s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards i t s workers. He has always aimed t o encourage a f a m i l y f e e l i n g i n the f i r m , t o make everyone f e e l t h a t they are thought of as i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n the company and i t s a f  f a i r s , and not simply as labour which can be h i r e d or f i r e d t o s u i t the convenience of the moment and w i t h no c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the e f f e c t t h i s may have on t h e i r l i v e s . 7. Two e f f e c t s of t h i s manner of t h i n k i n g may be i n  stanced. In l i n e w i t h the d e s i r e t o t r e a t a l l workers as r e s p o n s i b l e i n d i v i d u a l s , there i s a determination f i r s t t o have as few r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s as p o s s i b l e , and secondly, t o a l l o w anyone access t o top management. Each employee of the company knows that he can have an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the Managing D i r e c t o r , i f he wishes t o see him. 8. The Managing D i r e c t o r i s i n c l o s e tough w i t h the works s i d e of the business not only through h i s contact w i t h the Works and Personnel Managers, but a l s o by means of h i s d a i l y walk around the works and h i s c h a i r  manship of the Works Advisory Committee [the labour- management works c o u n c i l ] . Perhaps he i s more c l o s e l y concerned w i t h the d e t a i l of what i s going on than would be the case w i t h other men i n h i s p o s i t i o n ; . . . . . His intense i n t e r e s t i n the work of the company and i n i t s people has continued as the company has grown.19 The works and personnel managers 9. Responsible t o the Managing D i r e c t o r f o r production i s the Works Manager. He and h i s a s s i s t a n t are both p r o f e s s i o n a l engineers who have been w i t h the company i n t h e i r present c a p a c i t i e s s i n c e j u s t before the war, and so have l i v e d through the major p e r i o d of company growth. At the r i s k of o v e r - s i m p l i f y i n g the p i c t u r e , i t can be s a i d t h a t the Works Manager h i m s e l f i s p r i n  c i p a l l y concerned w i t h the t e c h n i c a l side of the pro d u c t i o n work, l e a v i n g f a c t o r y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l a r g e l y t o the A s s i s t a n t Works Manager. Thus the Works Manag er w i l l be most o f t e n found i n one of the shops, t a l k  i ng over and suggesting s o l u t i o n s t o a d i f f i c u l t y caused by some t e c h n i c a l problem. The A s s i s t a n t Works Manager, on the other hand, i s concerned w i t h produc t i o n c o n t r o l and progress, p l a n t and b u i l d i n g mainte nance and so on. 10. The Personnel Manager i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the Manag ing D i r e c t o r f o r engaging and d i s m i s s i n g s t a f f , f i x i n g r a t e s of pay, arranging merit i n c r e a s e s , and d e a l i n g w i t h any personal d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t may be brought t o him. He a l s o plays a major part i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of sports and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the company, 73 and i n a d d i t i o n has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , j o i n t l y w i t h the Accountant, f o r packing and t r a n s p o r t and the main f a c t o r y s t o r e s . He . . . j o i n e d the f i r m as a youth j u s t before the war and [has] been given a f u l l e n g i neering t r a i n i n g . . . .20 The Workers and the Factory Atmosphere 11. Something should be s a i d of the general atmosphere i n the f a c t o r y . . . . the general atmosphere i s an ex tremely happy one. A number of p o s s i b l e reasons f o r t h i s can be suggested: f i r s t the same team of managers and most of the foremen have l i v e d through the expan s i o n years together, and so the p o l i c y has had time t o take root and grow as the f i r m has grown; secondly r e  l a t i o n s between management and union r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s — both i n f o r m a l l y and at J o i n t C o n s u l t a t i o n meetings i n which each department i s represented by i t s shop stew a r d — a r e on the whole f r i e n d l y ; t h i r d l y , there i s the d e l i b e r a t e i n f o r m a l i t y of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the r e c o g n i t i o n of each employee as an i n d i v i d u a l of im portance i n h i s own r i g h t . 12. The company [has] a s o l i d core of workers who have been w i t h i t f o r over f i f t e e n years or more, but w i t h the expansion of recent years these represent a s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n of the whole than they d i d . Most of them are s k i l l e d men, and the present aim i s t o en l a r g e the core, f o r , l i k e a l l f i r m s , t h i s one wishes t o f e e l t h a t i t can depend on a few workers, p a r t i c u  l a r l y s k i l l e d men, through any change. However, i t i s being found extremely d i f f i c u l t t o get s u i t a b l e s k i l l e d men f o r the production shops and any a d d i t i o n t o the production s t r e n g t h can only be made by the recruitment of s e m i - s k i l l e d or u n t r a i n e d personnel. . . . t h i s a f  f e c t s the foreman's job and makes i t more d i f f i c u l t than i n former years. 13. There i s a shortage of s k i l l e d workers i n the area, . . . . For the s k i l l e d labour that i s a v a i l a b l e there i s acute competition between the v a r i o u s f i r m s R e l a t i o n s between management and workers are such that there are no hard f e e l i n g s when good workers leave and they are u s u a l l y re-engaged i f they wish t o r e t u r n , as they q u i t e o f t e n do Despite the d i f f i c u l t labour p o s i t i o n i n the d i s t r i c t , however, the turnover i n t h i s f i r m i s no more than the average f o r the i n d u s t r y . 14. We come now t o the eleven foremen and the jobs they perform, t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o t h e i r work, to t h e i r c o l  leagues and t h e i r managers, and how they f i t i n t o the framework of management i n t h i s company.21 74 The Foreman's Background 15. Most of them have been w i t h the company f o r at l e a s t f i f t e e n y ears, having p r e v i o u s l y served a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s i n e i t h e r mechanical or e l e c t r i c a l engineering. The c a s e - h i s t o r y of one of them, Mr. X, i s f a i r l y t y p i c a l of the group. 16. Mr. X i s now f o r t y - s e v e n years o l d , and has l i v e d most of h i s l i f e w i t h i n a few miles of h i s present job. When he l e f t school at the age of fourteen he went t o work i n a f i r m of e l e c t r i c a l engineers, and obtained an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p . He served h i s time, and then con t i n u e d t o work f o r the f i r m i n h i s t r a d e . . . ., Mr. X obtained employment w i t h h i s present company i n 1937, working i n a trade c l o s e l y s i m i l a r t o h i s own. I t was at about t h i s time that the company's expansion began and that the present management team took over. Then came the war-time increase i n numbers, w i t h the neces s i t y of i n c r e a s i n g the number of departments and i n consequence the number of foremen. In 1940 Mr. X was appointed as a foreman, and he has h e l d h i s p o s i t i o n ever s i n c e . 17. I t w i l l be seen t h a t Mr. X i s a man who has been a l l h i s working l i f e i n v o l v e d w i t h the k i n d of work which he i s now s u p e r v i s i n g , having served an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p and worked f o r a p e r i o d as a craftsman. He has had no f u r t h e r education s i n c e he l e f t school except f o r the t e c h n i c a l part of h i s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p , nor d i d he have any t r a i n i n g f o r h i s work as a foreman. He was ap pointed because he was a good workman who, i t was f e l t , would be able t o stand up t o the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n  volved i n a s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n and who showed signs of possessing the l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s required.22 The Foreman's Work 18. The foreman's work can be considered as c o n s i s t i n g of t e c h n i c a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and s u p e r v i s o r y d u t i e s . . . T e c h n i c a l d u t i e s 19. In t h i s , as i n other f i r m s , the t e c h n i c a l s i d e of the foreman's work has changed considerably over the years. In e a r l i e r days the foreman of t h i s company was t o l d what work was t o be done i n h i s shop and he then had t o work out the best way of doing i t . He had t o consider work methods from the p o i n t s of view of q u a l i t y of work, and economy of m a t e r i a l and time. I t was u s u a l l y up t o him t o decide the order i n which jobs and operations had t o be done. Today, much of t h i s i s done f o r him by s p e c i a l i s t departments. The Progress 7 5 Department l a y s down the sequence of the operations on a p a r t i c u l a r job and says when they are t o be done. The Planning Department p r e s c r i b e s the methods to be used. But however cut and d r i e d t h i s sounds i n theory, i t does not mean tha t i n p r a c t i c e the foreman has l i t t l e t e c h n i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y today. He i s s t i l l the man on the spot, the man of p r a c t i c a l experience, and the f a c t t h a t the Planning Department decides on methods does not r e l i e v e him of the n e c e s s i t y t o consider t h e i r d e c i s i o n s very c a r e f u l l y , t o c r i t i c i z e them when necessary and take steps t o see t h a t jobs are done i n the most economi c a l ways. He w i l l , i n f a c t , very o f t e n be consulted on any matter out of the ordinary before the Planning De partment decides on the methods. His experience and knowledge a l s o play a part i n e s t a b l i s h i n g piece r a t e s f o r j o b s — m a t t e r s i n dispute w i l l be thrashed out by the f i x e r s , the planners and the foreman. 2 0 . The growth of s p e c i a l i s t departments has meant th a t there has been a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of s k i l l and a change i n the complexity of the work of the production departments. P r e v i o u s l y the s k i l l e d workers were a l l engaged on pro duction work, under the c o n t r o l of the various shop f o r e  men. Today many of them are i n the Planning Department, the Tool-room, and I n s p e c t i o n s e c t i o n s , and t h e i r work makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r the a c t u a l production work t o be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y done by l e s s s k i l l e d people. For the foreman's p a r t , t h i s means tha t he i s now s u p e r v i s i n g many more s e m i - s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d workers on simpler jobs. He has l e s s planning t o do but he has t o do more t r a i n i n g of new a d u l t workers, as the work s t i l l r e  q u i r e s a c e r t a i n amount of s k i l l and experience and care, and new workers are mostly inexperienced when they come to i t . 2 3 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s 2 1 . In the o l d days, but w i t h i n the experience of most of the foremen, every department r e c e i v e d a works order f o r every separate j o b , g i v i n g d e t a i l s of the p a r t i c u l a r job to be done and the number r e q u i r e d . The foreman was i n complete c o n t r o l from the moment he r e c e i v e d the works order; he decided who should do the job, which machines should be used, how much m a t e r i a l would be needed and when i t should be fetched from the s t o r e s . Owing to the i n c r e a s i n g complexity of the work, however, and the need f o r management to be kept more e x a c t l y informed of the production p o s i t i o n throughout the company, a few years ago the Progress Department was reorganized and a new system of c o n t r o l i n s t a l l e d . The Progress Department i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o l l o w i n g every job through from begin ning t o end; i t makes sure that the r i g h t amount and 76 type of m a t e r i a l i s a v a i l a b l e t o make the s p e c i f i e d num ber of components, and t h a t every department c a r r i e s out i t s work as f a r as p o s s i b l e t o schedule, so tha t there i s a steady flow of work throughout a l l shops. Instead of j u s t the simple works order, the foreman i s now sent, together w i t h the works order, separate r e q u i s i t i o n orders f o r every d i f f e r e n t type of m a t e r i a l t h a t w i l l be re q u i r e d f o r the job , a l l of which he has t o check and s i g n i n order t o ob t a i n the m a t e r i a l needed. This i n  volves him i n handling more paper than p r e v i o u s l y , even though much of t h i s paper work i s f a i r l y r o u t i n e . . . . 22. On the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s i d e the foreman i s a l s o respon s i b l e f o r keeping c e r t a i n records and making r e g u l a r r e  tu r n s . These concern such t h i n g s as the work done i n h i s shop, and d a i l y absentees. There are a l s o o c c a s i o n a l r e p o r t s and l i s t s t o be compiled concerning, f o r example, h o l i d a y arrangements. (The company operates a system of staggered h o l i d a y s . ) Progress r e p o r t s on c e r t a i n workers are a l s o r e q u i r e d at i n t e r v a l s , as are re p o r t s on the apprentices i n h i s shop. 23- I t can be seen t h e r e f o r e that the amount of c l e r i c a l work r e q u i r e d of the foreman can be s u b s t a n t i a l and i s always co n s i d e r a b l e , and c e r t a i n l y a great d e a l more than had t o be done i n the o l d days. One reason i s the bigger number of workers th a t the foreman has t o deal w i t h . As we have seen, the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Progress Depart ment has a l s o l e d t o an increase i n paper-work f o r the foreman. Another department whose importance has i n  creased i s the Personnel Department, and t h i s too has i n  volved e x t r a work i n some d i r e c t i o n s f o r the foreman, a l  though r e l i e v i n g him of some burdens i n others. I t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r these s p e c i a l i s t departments, i f they are t o f u l f i l t h e i r f u n c t i o n s p r o p e r l y , t o be i n possession of up-to-date i n f o r m a t i o n about the s i t u a t i o n i n the works, whether concerning production or personnel matters; as they have increased i n importance, so has the amount of c l e r i c a l or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e work done by the foreman increased.2 4 Supervisory d u t i e s 24. By 'supervisory' we mean tha t aspect of the foreman's work concerned w i t h the handling of the workpeople under h i s c o n t r o l . The most obvious r e s p o n s i b i l i t y here i s f o r maintaining d i s c i p l i n e , i n i t s widest sense; t h a t i s of endeavouring t o ensure t h a t workers a r r i v e r e g u l a r l y and p u n c t u a l l y and work s t e a d i l y and c a r e f u l l y during t h e i r proper hours of work. I f the purpose has not changed i n t h i s company, i t i s recognized t h a t the meth ods have, because of the a l t e r e d s i t u a t i o n of both the workers and the foreman. The worker's p o s i t i o n i s v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t nowadays from what i t was before the war; then 77 workers knew tha t they could be e a s i l y r e p l a c e d , where as now t h i s i s not the case. Not only can the worker a f f o r d t o r i s k being sacked, he can a f f o r d t o leave of h i s own accord safe i n the knowledge that other em ployers w i l l be g l a d t o engage him. 25. The change i n the circumstances of the worker has changed the p o s i t i o n of the foreman. The l a t t e r can no longer t h i n k i n terms of h i s workpeople wishing t o stay at a l l c o s t s ; . . . . the 'sack' i s not the ex treme penalty i t used t o be. Another f a c t o r which has changed the s i t u a t i o n from the foreman's point of view i s the increased importance of the Personnel Depart ment. Before the war the foreman h i r e d and f i r e d the workers i n h i s shop. Now the h i r i n g i s done by the Personnel Department, w i t h the foreman having the r i g h t t o t u r n down anyone he t h i n k s not l i k e l y t o be s a t i s  f a c t o r y , but not having the power to d i s m i s s , except a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the Personnel Manager. . . . There are two other p e n a l t i e s which can be i n f l i c t e d : suspension, a power which i s never used i n the company nowadays, and varying the pay r a t e , which can only be done a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the Works Manager. 26. As f a r as the maintenance of d i s c i p l i n e goes, then, the p o s i t i o n i s very d i f f e r e n t from before the war. As there i s no penalty which the foreman can impose w i t h  out f i r s t g e t t i n g permission, and as t h i s i s only en couraged i n s e r i o u s cases, i t i s evident that he needs t o use l e a d e r s h i p of a d i f f e r e n t type. Much more t r o u b l e has t o be taken over newcomers and, as we have seen, more t r a i n i n g of a d u l t workers i s necessary. Late-comers and absentees have t o be "reasoned w i t h " , and not threatened. 27 The foreman a l s o has c e r t a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the t r a i n i n g of apprentices. Every boy goes i n t o the v a r i o u s shops, l e a r n i n g something of the work th a t i s done i n each, and the foreman must e i t h e r g i v e i n s t r u c  t i o n h i m s e l f or see that an experienced man i s put i n charge of the boys. I t i s up t o the foreman t o a r  range matters so t h a t apprentices spending about s i x months i n h i s shop have the opportunity of g e t t i n g a l l - round p r a c t i c a l experience of the processes t h a t are c a r r i e d on there. He must be i n c l o s e enough touch w i t h t h e i r work, even i f he i s not s u p e r v i s i n g i t per s o n a l l y , t o be able t o send r e p o r t s on the progress they are making and the promise they show to the Per sonnel Manager, who r e l i e s on t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n f o r planning t h e i r f u t u r e training.25 78 S e l e c t i o n and T r a i n i n g of Foremen 28. Vacancies f o r foremen's p o s i t i o n s do not a r i s e very f r e  quently. When they do, the p o l i c y i s t o promote from w i t h i n i f p o s s i b l e but there i s no hard and f a s t r u l e about t h i s ; i f there appears t o be no s u i t a b l e man then the company i s q u i t e prepared t o b r i n g someone i n from outside. . . . A p p l i c a n t s from i n s i d e the company are almost i n  v a r i a b l y experienced tradesmen who have been a c t i n g as charge-hands or s e t t e r s . . . . 29. This s e l e c t i o n method ensures that so f a r as p o s s i b l e the prospective foreman w i l l have had adequate t r a i n i n g and experience i n the t e c h n i c a l s i d e of the job he i s t o supervise. Up t o the present i t has not been f e l t neces sary t o arrange t r a i n i n g i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or super v i s o r y aspects of the foreman's job. The A t t i t u d e s of the Foremen I t i s now time t o consider the f e e l i n g s of the foremen about t h e i r work and i t s circumstances. While they do not a l l f e e l q u i t e the same way about t h e i r j o b s , they have a s u r p r i s i n g amount i n common when they come to t a l k about t h e i r work.26 A t t i t u d e s t o s t a t u s 30. 'I t h i n k sometimes the foremen f e e l t h a t a l o t of t h e i r s t a t u s has been taken away from them', was a r e  mark made by one foreman and echoed by others i n d i f  f e r e n t words. And what do the foremen mean by t h i s word 'status'? What they mean can be understood from 'the d i f f e r e n t i a l between foreman and worker nowadays i s a l t o g e t h e r too s m a l l ' and, i n a convenient summary, 'l e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , l e s s p r i v i l e g e s , l e s s contact w i t h managers and a lower q u a l i t y work-force'. 31. This i s not t o say t h a t t h i s company's foremen are discontented; on the contrary they agree that the a t  mosphere i n the f i r m i s a happy one. Nevertheless we have seen that a p e r i o d of change and growth has come about, and as the job of the foreman has g r a d u a l l y changed, so, i t appears t o him, has the s t a t u s , the importance of h i s job i n the eyes of management. . . . . On the whole, as i n many other f i r m s today, the foreman i s j u s t i f i e d i n t h i n k i n g t h a t he i s l e s s valuable t o the f i r m than he used t o be, at l e a s t i n terms of h i s pay. 32. Other p r i v i l e g e s enjoyed by the foremen are the same as f o r a l l the company's s t a f f as opposed t o h o u r l y - p a i d workers, and i n c l u d e sickness pay f o r up 7 9 t o a month and afterwards at the company's d i s c r e t i o n , and no c l o c k i n g on and o f f . The foreman's hours are the same as f o r h o u r l y - p a i d workers. . . . . . . . The foreman's job c a r r i e s considerable r e  s p o n s i b i l i t y , but a l s o . . . i t i s of r a t h e r a d i f f e r e n t k i n d from e a r l i e r days. The words of one of the f o r e  men are r e v e a l i n g : 'Before the war the foreman ran h i s own shop.' The i m p l i c a t i o n i s that nowadays he does not, and so he f e e l s that h i s job i s a l e s s r e s p o n s i b l e one. Before the war he made h i s own estimates, promised job completion times, engaged and dismissed h i s own s t a f f , w h i l e nowadays these f u n c t i o n s have been taken from him by Planning Progress and Personnel Departments, and t o t h i s extent he i s no longer i n such d i r e c t c o n t r o l . On the other hand, the i n t r o d u c t i o n of f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l  i s t s and more elaborate c o n t r o l systems means r e a l l y not t h a t the foreman's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s l e s s , but that i t i s d i f f e r e n t . His r o l e demands, f a r more than i t used t o , the a b i l i t y - and w i l l i n g n e s s t o co-operate w i t h others. He must be prepared and able t o make out r e  turns a c c u r a t e l y and p u n c t u a l l y f o r the Personnel De partment , or to d i s c u s s methods of work w i t h the P l a n  ning Department. We have already seen, moreover, that the foreman has t o spend more time i n t r a i n i n g new adult workers than he once d i d . 3 3 • There are one or two other t h i n g s which the foremen t h i n k adversely a f f e c t t h e i r s t a t u s . They f e e l , e.g. t h a t i t i s made r a t h e r too easy f o r t h e i r workers t o go d i r e c t t o members of higher management w i t h t h e i r problems. In f a c t , people l i k e the Managing D i r e c t o r and the Personnel Manager, though they are f a i r l y o f t e n approached by workers about such t h i n g s as e d u c a t i o n a l and w e l f a r e matters, are conscious of the need t o up hold the foreman's a u t h o r i t y and they r a r e l y deal w i t h matters which come i n t o the foreman's province. But the foreman, who i s concerned about h i s s t a t u s and per haps too l i a b l e t o suspect people of reducing i t , i s i n c l i n e d t o f e a r that h i s workers go t o others t o d i s  cuss matters t h a t are h i s concern. . . . . The r e l a t i o n s between foremen and shop stew ards are g e n e r a l l y very good and the foremen sometimes even ask the shop stewards to r a i s e matters they want discussed at the meetings [of the Works Advisory Coun c i l ] . Nevertheless, though i t i s only a s m a l l point t o t o the foreman, they do tend t o regard the s i t u a t i o n [of t h e i r l i m i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o u n c i l meetings] as another s i g n of d e c l i n i n g status.27 R e l a t i o n s w i t h managers 34. I t might almost be s a i d that the l a c k of a t t e n t i o n which they give t o the c l e r i c a l s i de of t h e i r work i s 80 the most s e r i o u s shortcoming of the company's foremen. . . . the growth of the company has l e d t o more paper work f o r the foremen, paper-work on which the s p e c i a l  i s t departments such as Planning, Progress and Person n e l depend f o r t h e i r knowledge about the day-to-day s i t u a t i o n . Without t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n they cannot c a r r y out t h e i r f u n c t i o n s p r o p e r l y . . . .: why are these d u t i e s not d e a l t w i t h more ef f e c t i v e l y and why i s t h e i r importance not recognized? • • • • 3 5« The answer . . . i s . . .; the foreman's paper work i s not done more e f f e c t i v e l y because he i s not made t o do i t e f f e c t i v e l y . . . . the foreman does appreciate the importance of the s p e c i a l i s t departments, but does not recognize how important he i s t o them. While he appreciates the need t o g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n t o another foreman, he does not r e a l i z e j u s t how much these other departments are dependent on him f o r i n f o r m a t i o n . This could be put another way by saying t h a t he i s i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k a s p e c i a l i s t department has taken over part of h i s job e n t i r e l y , and that t h a t part of the job can now be l e f t t o i t . 36. Though considerable t r o u b l e i s u s u a l l y taken t o ex p l a i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new systems t o the foremen, i t should be remembered t h a t foremen r e c e i v e no t r a i n  ing f o r t h e i r job other than the t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g and experience they o b t a i n as operators. I t i s not s u r p r i s  i n g , then, t h a t they should not r e a l i z e completely j u s t where thepr r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ends and someone e l s e ' s be g i n s . . . . I t appears t h a t some formal i n s t r u c t i o n i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s i d e of h i s work would be v a l u a b l e t o the new foreman, t o g i v e him i n f o r m a t i o n about the work of f u n c t i o n a l departments and the r e l a t i o n between t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and h i s . 37. I t was s a i d e a r l i e r that the foremen are not f o r c e d t o do a l l the t h i n g s t h a t they are t h e o r e t i c a l l y respon s i b l e f o r . I t seems that t h i s i s due p a r t l y t o the f a c t t hat some managers p r e f e r t o do t h i n g s themselves r a t h e r than i n s i s t t h a t the proper people do them. The Person n e l Manager, f o r i n s t a n c e , w i l l go t o production depart ments and get f o r h i m s e l f i n f o r m a t i o n which foremen have delayed sending to him. The Works Manager w i l l s o r t out f o r a foreman a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems which have r e  s u l t e d i n a delay i n production. On the whole, t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s more or l e s s accepted by everyone; over the years i t has become known t h a t there are c e r t a i n t h i n g s that c e r t a i n foremen aren't expected t o do. At the same time, there are some unfortunate r e s u l t s . Some managers are overworked through doing others' work f o r them. Again, foremen are not always o b l i g e d t o do t h i n g s they could reasonably be expected to do and so they do not 81 get p r a c t i c e and experience i n s o l v i n g t h e i r own problems. 38. This leads us t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s between higher managers and foremen. I t can be s a i d at once th a t they are extremely good and f r i e n d l y at a per sonal l e v e l . The Managing D i r e c t o r ' s l a r g e l y success f u l attempt t o maintain a happy working atmosphere i s appreciated and applauded. The managers are seen as very hard-working and competent i n d i v i d u a l s . I t does not excape the a t t e n t i o n of the foremen, however, th a t the managers are devoting a good deal of time t o doing other people's work. This i s g e n e r a l l y regarded as being bad both f o r the company and f o r departments. I f the Works Manager i s occupied i n d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c departmental d i f f i c u l t i e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , he has not enough time to do h i s own work, nor i s he a v a i l a b l e t o " the r e s t of the f a c t o r y . (This i s what was meant by the comment "le s s manager contact'.) . . the foremen f e e l t h a t higher management does not always take a suf f i c i e n t l y strong l i n e . 39* Any d e s c r i p t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s between people at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n order that i t may be c l e a r , i s bound t o be o v e r - s i m p l i f i e d . The f o r e  man's view i n the present case, i n very simple terms, i s : (a) h i s a u t h o r i t y i s lessened and h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i  t i e s fewer, due t o the growth of s p e c i a l i s t departments who now do part of what was h i s j o b , and due t o the f a c t that communications between management and workers can by-pass him; (b) the managers are i n c l i n e d t o do too much of the work t h a t should be done by the foreman, i n s t e a d of concentrating on t h e i r own work and ensuring that everyone e l s e does the same. . . . . Top management does not regard them [the foremen] as of lower s t a t u s or importance, though i t may not have done everything p o s s i b l e t o make i t c l e a r t o the foremen th a t w h i l e t h e i r r o l e has changed and some tasks have been taken away, other aspects of t h e i r work are more important than ever. . . . 28 Conclusion 40. This study has been mainly concerned w i t h the foreman's r o l e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y how i t has a l t e r e d , i n a growing o r g a n i z a t i o n . We have seen how an increase i n numbers, the need f o r more t r a i n i n g of adult workers, and the growing importance of s p e c i a l i s t departments have a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o the change i n the foreman's job. Also t h a t he h i m s e l f sees i n the changes a lowering of h i s s t a t u s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I t i s suggested t h a t the foreman's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are i n f a c t no l e s s s impor tan t than they were. . . . 2 9 82 FOOTNOTES ON CHAPTER IV The Place of the Foreman i n Management. Seven case s t u d i e s undertaken by the N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of I n d u s t r i a l Psychology (London: S t a p l e s Press, 1957),pp. 73-82. 2 p . 73. 3pp. 73-74. V 74-V 74. 6pp. 74-75. 7pp. 75-76. 8 PP. 76-77 9pp. 77-78 1 G P P . 78-79. i ; Lpp. 79-80. 1 2 p p . 81-82. 1 3 p . 82. ^ T h e Place, of the. Foreman i n Management. Seven case Studies undertaken by the N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of I n d u s t r i a l Psychology (London: S t a p l e s P r e s s , 1957), pp. 17-33. 1 5 P . 17. 1 6 P . 17. 1 7 p p . 17-18. p. 18. 1 9 p p . 19-20. 20 upp. 20-21. pp. 21-22. 22 23 24 pp. 22-23 pp. 23-24 pp. 24-25 2 5 p p . 26-27 2 6 p p . 27-28 2 7 p p . 28-30 *°pp. 30-32 29 p. 32 . CHAPTER V CASE STUDIES: CATEGORY I I TECHNOLOGY In t r o d u c t i o n Chapter V comprises two case s t u d i e s u t i l i z e d i n t h i s study t o demonstrate examples of the nature of s u p e r v i s o r y r o l e demands and environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n enter p r i s e s employing Category I I technology. The s t u d i e s have been e d i t e d so t h a t only those data are i n c l u d e d which are p e r t i n e n t t o the a n a l y s i s t h a t f o l l o w s i n Chapter V I I . Case No. 3 Background and D e s c r i p t i o n of P l a n t Technology 1. This p a r t i c u l a r semi-independent pl a n t s p e c i a l i z e d i n a type of custom-made u n i t forming a component part of many types of e l e c t r i c a l equipment.2 2. To meet competition, i t was becoming e s s e n t i a l t o make more complex u n i t s and a l s o t o reduce t h e i r s i z e . Top p l a n t management not only gave [a r e c e n t l y enlarged] group of engineers s m a l l e r and more complex u n i t s t o design, but, breaking the plant precedent of s p e c i a l i z  i n g i n custom-made products, a l s o decided t o mass- produce some of these u n i t s . . . [ a l s o ] the plant was i n the throes of a major expansion. From e a r l y s p r i n g 1951 t o mid-winter 1952, ten months l a t e r , the number of employees more than doubled.3 3. The s p e c i a l mass-production (assembly l i n e ) s e c t i o n was . . . l o c a t e d i n one room and supervised by one foreman. . . . [The s e c t i o n ] was t o perform a l l operations i n quick succession. Thus, the foreman i n charge not only 85 had a l l the headaches accompanying r a p i d expansion, but he a l s o faced i n m i n i a t u r e , problems met i n a l l three manufacturing departments, plus the customary problems which accompany r e p e t i t i v e assembly l i n e operations.4 4. As one company observer phrased i t : 'This o r g a n i  z a t i o n puts r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on the immediate super v i s o r . . . higher-ups [are] not h e l d r e s p o n s b i l e . ' . . . department heads . . . now a l l found themselves over-involved i n t h e i r own departments and l e f t t o go-it-alone.5 Organization of Assembly-line S e c t i o n 5. The f o r t y workers i n the assembly l i n e s e c t i o n were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r groups under the s u p e r v i s i o n of a s i n g l e foreman. Group 1 c o n s i s t e d of 6 g i r l s winding c o i l s , i n  c l u d i n g t h e i r group l e a d e r . Group 2 comprised one group leader and eleven c o i l assembly-line g i r l s . In Group 3 eighteen case assemblers (1 group l e a d e r , twelve assembly l i n e g i r l s assembling p a r t s and f i n i s h e d c o i l s , 4 o l d e r g i r l s preparing covers f o r cases, and 1 r e p a i r g i r l ) were employed. Group 4 was made up of 4 men performing v a r i o u s f i n i s h i n g operations. They had no group leader and so 6 reported d i r e c t l y t o the s e c t i o n foreman. 6. In a d d i t i o n , there were i n the room three t e s t g i r l s or i n s p e c t o r s , supervised by a t e s t foreman who v i s i t e d them at i n t e r v a l s during the day. In t h i s study, we w i l l be d i r e c t l y concerned only w i t h groups 2 and 3, the two assembly-line groups, con s i s t i n g at the s t a r t of about 30 g i r l s . Each of these two groups was under the semi-supervision of a d i f f e r e n t group l e a d e r , who at the same time was a member of the union. These two group l e a d e r s , both women, i n t u r n reported t o the s e c t i o n foreman [Teddy, the focus of our a t t e n t i o n ] . 7 O v e r a l l Organization. Further Notes on Technology 7. W i t h i n the plan t f u l l - t i m e time study and methods im provement o f f i c e r s were u t i l i z e d . - A l s o , a r i g i d system of 86 i n v e n t o r y c o n t r o l was employed. 8. Members of the time study and work methods department analyzed the work operations i n great d e t a i l , sub d i v i d i n g the t o t a l assembling operations i n t o a number of h i g h l y r e p e t i t i v e jobs by a s s i g n i n g t o each g i r l only a very few p a r t i c u l a r operations t o perform on each unit, such as i n s e r t i n g a c o i l i n a case, t u r n i n g a screw, or s o l d e r i n g a connection. Each g i r l was assigned no more than fo u r or f i v e operations t o perform on each u n i t — a l l f o u r or f i v e t o be completed i n a l i t t l e over 1 1/2 minutes. . . .8 9 . As the [assembly-line] s e c t i o n was placed i n the As sembly Department, the s e c t i o n foreman reported t o the Assembly Department,head, who reported t o the c h i e f of a l l production. In t u r n the l a t t e r worked d i r e c t l y under the plan t manager.9 10. Figure IV below i s a schematic p o r t r a y a l of the or g a n i z a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n of managerial and supervisory person n e l i n the plan t as a whole. Supervisory Behavior and Problems of Su p e r v i s i o n A major component of any work environment w i t h which a s u p e r v i s o r must cope i s the a t t i t u d e s toward work of sub ordinates and s u p e r i o r s . Evidence p e r t a i n i n g t o such a t t i  tudes and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r supervisory behavior are summarized i n the next three paragraphs. 11. Another irksome t r a i t of the [assembly-line] job [ i n a d d i t i o n t o the 20 s e c , 5-step assembly operation] was the pacing imposed by a moving assembly l i n e or by the speed of adjacent workers. . . . many of the g i r l s paid l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o the b e l t , but passed items t o one another since they were rubbing elbows anyway. As the employees' rhythm demands and temperments d i f f e r e d , many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y p r e f e r r e d d i f f e r e n t speeds and rhythms of work flow. To keep the work on an assembly l i n e f l o w i n g smoothly, every p o s i t i o n has t o be f i l l e d , and everyone working i n rhythm. . . . Sometimes, however, Teddy [the foreman] d i d not even have enough of these g i r l s t o repla c e absen t e e s , so he would have t o phone . . . t o get a r e p l a c e  ment immediately t r a n s f e r r e d . . . f o r the day. At other Plant Manager Scheduling and E f f i c i e n c y D i v i s i o n (Production C o n t r o l ) 2 Foremen Machining Dept. Production C o n t r o l C o i l w i n d - i n g Dept. Assembly Dept. M a t e r i a l C o n t r o l D i v i s i o n 1 Group Leader Engineering D i v i s i o n 2 Engineers 2 Foremen 1 Group Leader Test D i v i s i o n 2 Foremen 2 Group Leaders 2 (Foremen 1 Group Leader 1 Foreman 12 Group Leaders 1 Foreman 1 Group Leader I 2 Assembly Foremen 6 Group Leaders Assembly-line Section Foreman \ ><eFocus of Case Study 3 Assembly-line Group Leaders FIGURE IV ORGANIZATION CHART. CASE.NO. 3 (adapted from source: p. 21) SB times . . . he might s e r i o u s l y need an e x t r a g i r l t o keep those on the l i n e s u p p l i e d , or t o attend t o odd jobs and r e p a i r s . [Such emergencies occurred perhaps 2-3 times per week.]l° 12. However s u c c e s s f u l Teddy had been i n ending the g i r l s ' strong negative sentiments toward t h e i r d i r e c t s u p e r v i s o r s [group l e a d e r s ] , he made l i t t l e progress i n ending the discontent of the g i r l s toward t h e i r job demands. During Teddy's regime, according t o the ample i n t e r v i e w evidence, the g i r l s reacted s t r o n g l y against the boring r e p e t i t i v e nature of t h e i r j o b s . l l 13. Members of management made a practice, of dropping i n the room [because i t was a 'pet' p r o j e c t ] . . . t o see what was going on. . . . O c c a s i o n a l l y , even the plant manager hi m s e l f would drop around. From these sources and miscellaneous management gossi p channels, the impression b u i l t up t h a t the ease assemblers and t h e i r group leader were e n t i r e l y too happy a l o t . There was too much t a l k i n g and laughing and not enough a t t e n t i o n t o work. Katy, the group l e a d e r , was con s i d e r e d f a r too f r i e n d l y and easy going w i t h the g i r l s . 1 2 R e l a t i o n s w i t h Superiors and Subordinates 14. On occasions [the foreman], had looked f o r a l i t t l e backing and some help or advice i n running the depart ment , but had been unable t o approach anyone f o r ex tended d i s c u s s i o n . As the plant was going through an almost unprecedented expansion, everyone was busy and had l i t t l e time t o spare. He dared approach . . . h i s department head, only on s p e c i a l occasions such as when he needed help or when he wanted the g i r l s t o work overtime, and even then they d i d not t a l k long.13 . . . i n defense of the g i r l s [the foreman] s a i d t h a t they were scared management would jump the quota i f they increased t h e i r output adding s k e p t i c a l l y 'I don't know myself i f they [management] would do t h a t ' . He was obviously cautious about t e l l i n g [the g i r l s ] t o make l e s s noise and i t was d i f f i c u l t f o r him t o check up on them a l l the time t o see how long they stayed [ i n the l a d i e s ' room].14 Supervisory Tasks and Sentiments 15. [The foreman's] w o r r i e s about h i s department were r e f l e c t e d during an i n t e r v i e w . . . . At t h i s time he r e f e r r e d t o the f a c t t h a t on h i s former j o b , they d i d not do r e p e t i t i v e work[Category I technology: custom- made u n i t s ] , as they only made a few u n i t s of each type. Having [now] the same product t o do day a f t e r day and week a f t e r week bothered him a good d e a l , f o r 89 he d i d not have the enjoyment and challenge of f i g u r  ing out new problems and of working w i t h h i s hands.15 He f e l t insecure about h i s p o s i t i o n . " ^ 16. R e l a t i o n s w i t h S t a f f S p e c i a l i s t s and Management The f o l l o w i n g paragraph suggests something of the f l a v o r of the challenges t o e f f e c t i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a  t i o n s i n s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l change. In the process of i n t r o d u c i n g the s o l d e r i n g machine as w e l l as the new product, no member i n management made much of an e f f o r t e i t h e r t o win over t h e i r [the foreman's and group le a d e r s ' ] cooperation or t o guide them. The department head was so pressed by new prob lems c o n t i n u a l l y a r i s i n g i n h i s overexpanded depart ment th a t he l e f t many of h i s subordinates t o fend as best they could f o r themselves. The e f f i c i e n c y men were f r u s t r a t e d by the t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , so they paid l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o the [assembly] room super v i s o r s whose t e c h n i c a l experience was even l e s s than t h e i r own.17 To the foreman " . . . management represented a k i n d of i n - 18 exorable, u n f r i e n d l y , and mysterious f o r c e . " 17. The f o l l o w i n g three paragraphs s i m i l a r l y are sugges t i v e of the f l a v o r of challenges t o e f f e c t i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , t h i s time w i t h subordinates, i n s i t u a t i o n s i n  v o l v i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l change. With a job suddenly t h r u s t at them which they sensed could not work, w i t h a department head too busy t o o f f e r more than token h e l p , and w i t h e f f i c i e n c y men more or l e s s t a k i n g over the room, the s u p e r v i s o r s . . . d i d not know where they stood. Without [the s u p e r v i s o r s ' ] presence, however, the g i r l s would probably have given up long before. [The foreman and s e c t i o n heads] con s c i e n t i o u s l y spent much time calming and soothing the r u f f l e d d i s p o s i t i o n s of the g i r l s , but when any t r o u b l e f l a r e d up between the e f f i c i e n c y experts and the g i r l s , [the foreman and group le a d e r s ] were i n c l i n e d t o be on the s i d e l i n e s , t o look the other way, and l e t the 90 experts show how expert they were. Sometimes, however, t o pr o t e c t the g i r l s , they would have t o step i n . . . . In s h o r t , there was anything but harmony . . . among workers, e f f i c i e n c y men, and room supervisors.19 18. One of the more irksome demands of any job i s t o be i n t e r r u p t e d t o do an o l d job over again. Persons work ing on an assembly l i n e have work rhythms which i n c l u d e s u b t l e a l t e r n a t i o n s of work and r e s t , or moments of conversation, or exchanging p l e a s a n t r i e s w i t h moments of s i l e n c e . Among overworked persons, these s u b t l e rhythms are s e r i o u s l y i n t e r r u p t e d and, i n s t e a d a d u l l exasperating rhythm of l i t t l e e l s e but work, work, work i s imposed w i t h only a minimum of a l t e r n a t i n g moments of r e s t , j o k es, or t a l k of any k i n d . The matter i s made worse i f the overwork i s caused by a backflow of r e j e c t s . With no other assembly-line experience, [the foreman], the defender of the group against the ravages of management and time study and methods men, perhaps by t h i s one maneuver of dumping r e j e c t s onto an already confused l i n e , unknowingly added the f i n a l straw that broke the w i l l of the g i r l s t o produce.20 A Further Note on R e l a t i o n s Between Foremen and Management 19« [Although, a f t e r a p e r i o d of time,] the t e c h n i c a l problems had been s o l v e d , . . . s t i l l the g i r l s had t r o u b l e assembling the u n i t s . As a l a s t r e s o r t , management . . . removed the new product from t h i s group of g i r l s , g i v i n g i t over i n s t e a d t o an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t group i n an adjacent room. Thus, two weeks a f t e r the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the new product, the time study and methods men set about t r a n s f e r r i n g the prob lem product and a l l i t s a s s o c i a t e d p a r t s , j i g s , and the l i k e out of the room.21 . . . the day a f t e r the removal of the problem pro duct , [the Foreman] was summarily t o l d by management t o dismiss the e n t i r e group i n f i f t e e n minutes u n t i l f u r t h e r n o t i c e . He was taken aback by t h i s pronounce ment, but, as i t turned out, the g i r l s were r e l i e v e d . . . . As a r e s u l t of t h i s occurrence, the t e s t depart ment set about more c a r e f u l l y t e s t i n g washers, and, no doubt, other incoming s u p p l i e s [which had been causing most of the problems on the assembly l i n e ] . 2 2 Management's Monitoring of Performance 20. Management kept informed about the assembly-line sec t i o n i n d i r e c t l y by the u s u a l means of w r i t t e n records and v e r b a l accounts of i n t e r m e d i a r i e s . Their main r e  l i a n c e , as i s the custom i n work o r g a n i z a t i o n s , was on using w r i t t e n records t o keep them r e g u l a r l y informed regarding the work performance of the group. The most 91 frequent and wi d e l y used record i n f o r m a t i o n was the d a i l y e f f i c i e n c y r e p o r t s . In a d d i t i o n , plant manage ment re c e i v e d monthly p r o f i t and l o s s statements, out put r e j e c t , and absence records. [ A l l of which are subject t o i n a c c u r a c i e s and misuse.] As middle and upper management were u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the performance of numerous groups throughout the e n t i r e p l a n t , they could not p o s s i b l y monitor d i r e c t l y the performance of a l l groups. Their judgements then became through n e c e s s i t y dependent on the i n f o r m a t i o n they r e c e i v e d secondhand and of these the ones most r e l i e d on were the above-mentioned d a i l y e f f i c i e n c y reports.2 3 The Foreman and Management Norms 21. . . . management through t h e i r time study and methods men had e s t a b l i s h e d a work pace and work methods which the assemblers were expected t o f o l l o w . . . . As regards the room s u p e r v i s o r s , they were expected by management t o 'keep the g i r l s working' by any or a l l appropriate means of which perhaps the most wid e l y accepted norm was a f i r m d i s c i p l i n a r i a n manner. [There i s ] good evidence t o support the point of view th a t judgements h e l d by some members of management about [the assembly room foreman] being a poor s u p e r v i s o r were p r i m a r i l y based on an emotional r e a c t i o n t o him as a person r a t h e r than on an o b j e c t i v e a p p r a i s a l of him or the performance of h i s group.24 [The foreman] f i n d i n g h i m s e l f i n the middle between the a n t i - t i m e study views of h i s former i n t i m a t e worker and union a s s o c i a t e s and the pro-time-study views of h i s new upper management bosses, avoided the ambivalence . . . by s t r e s s i n g the n o n - c o n t r o v e r s i a l need f o r co operation. . . .25 The f o l l o w i n g charts and t a b l e provide a q u a n t i t a t i v e supplement t o the preceding m a t e r i a l s . CHART V FOREMAN CONTACT FREQUENCIES FEBRUARY, 1952 < . T » 9 E » MID-APRIL TO MID - MAY, 1932 I S T A . E PLANT OR DIVISION MANAGER SUB-DIVISION CHIEFS DEPARTMENT OR SECTION HEADS ETC. ASSEMBLY LINE FOREMAN GLORIA STAFF WORKERS GROUP LEADERS PAIR CONTACT FREQUENCY A, EltlmoUd By Each Htmbtr Adapted from source, p. 60 L E S S T H A N F O R T N I G H T L Y F O R T N I G H T L Y TO T W I C E W E E K L Y TWICE W E E K L Y TO O N C E OAILY M O R E T H A N O N C E D A I L Y CHART VI 93 CONTACT DURATION PATTERNS WITHIN ASSEMBLY-LINE SECTION-MARCH AND EARLIER Note Relative Isolation of Group 2 and Their Group Leader Gloria TEDDY o o o o o o • -v. o o o o GROUP 3 GROUP 2 OVER 30 MIN. DAILY 10 - 30 • . I - 10 • • NIL Q • APPROX. 3 ASSEMBLERS ^ n H S p e n t , C « V " ' i D f , D u J r i n 8 P a i r a n d G r o u P Contacts L a s t i n g O v e r 45 W o r k d k « U i « . , n U , e " B a " d M a i D ' y ° n R e c o r d e d O b s e r v a t i o n , of Normal X - A I . o includes 10-20 m i n . d a i l y breakfa . t snack before work. Y—B a s e d on general observations and on interviews /5—Based on general and Rest P e r i o d observations. Adapted from source, p. 54 CHART V I I DIAGONAL CONTACT FREQUENCIES BETWEEN PERSONS ON ADJACENT LEVELS Assembly Line S e c t i o n Supervisors and Related Management Personnel—February, Sage 2 321 2 E VIII ENGINEERING ENGINEERS MIR CONTACT FREQUENCY At E i t i*a l «d By Each LESS THAU FORTNIGHTLY FORTNIOHTLT TO TWICE WEEKLY TWICE WCIKLT TO ONCE DAILY MORE THAN ONCE OAILY Note L o w Frequencies Between Persons on Levels V I and V I I . T h i s Relat ive " B r e a k " in Interact ion C o i n c i d e d w i t h a " B r e a k " in Informat ion F l o w . vO Adapted from source, p. 55 TABLE I CHANGES IN FOREMAN AND GROUP LEADER CONTACTS (Adapted from source: p. 66) N U M B E R C O N  T A C T S PER H O U R N l N 2 T F N U M B E R PER SONS PER H O U R N l N 2 T F % C O N T A C T S SELF-INI T I A T E D N 1 N 2 T F C O N T A C T OVER 45 Sec. T O T A L D U R A T I O N PER H O U R (MIN.) N i N 2 T F N U M B E R C O N  T A C T S PER PERSON PER HOUR Ni N 2 T F H T E D D Y 8 x / x < F R A N K x 5 x / Z N E L / / 9 5 O GROUP 3 18 12 20 22 OUTSIDE 3V2 5 9.3 12 < A L L 34/2 25 57 48 OH 1 X / X X 1 X / / / l l 9 10 12 14 2 4 7 9 16 19 27 31 50 x / x x 41 x / / / 50 59 61 62 63 78 50 41 43 75 53 53 51 74 3.2 x / x x 0.3 x / / / 2.6 0.3 2.4 0.3 3.3 1.0 2.4 4.9 5.9 6.7 8 5.8 14.4 9.2 8 x / x x 5 x / / / 9 5 2 1.2 1.7 1.6 VA iy 4 1.3 1.3 2.2 1.3 2.1 1.5 CO o g GROUP 3 1 2 3 8 w A L L IVi 4 6 12 w S 2 7 2 17 5 11 8* 29 ? 88 ? 65 67 72 67 72 0 0.3 8 1.3 0 ' 1.415 3.4 5 14 13 27 7 14 10 20 co c o k < H A L L 37 29 63 60 H Z O O H O 8 7.2 29.4 12.6 x — N o t present / — N o t relevant N 1 — N e l M i d - M a r c h N 2 — N e l E a r l y M a y T — T e d d y M i d - M a r c h F — F r a n k E a r l y M a y 96 Case No. 4 2 6 Background. General remarks regarding nature and organiza t i o n of production 1. Z a l e z n i k remarks that the work u n i t s t u d i e d i n t h i s case was part of a l a r g e " m u l t i p l a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n . " The production u n i t i n question produced consumer e l e c t r i c a l 27 products. He describes the technology of the assembly l i n e as f o l l o w s . . . . the [conveyor] b e l t was t o move continuously and the g i r l s [operators] were supposed t o complete t h e i r work c y c l e by the time the u n i t had moved i n t o the next work p o s i t i o n . I t became imperative t h a t work be com p l e t e d w i t h i n the standard time allowances. Any delays or f a i l u r e on the part of a s i n g l e operator t o complete her operations w i t h i n the standard time allowance would r e s u l t i n u p s e t t i n g the work flow.28 2. In observing the assembly l i n e , the researcher focused h i s a t t e n t i o n on the foreman and h i s behavior i n s u p e r v i s i n g the l i n e . The researcher was i n t e r e s t e d , however, i n a l l aspects of the l i n e ' s operations s i n c e the foreman was e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n whatever occurred on the l i n e . 2 9 Tony the foreman 3. The f o l l o w i n g excerpts from Z a l e z n i k ' s case study have been chosen f o r t h e i r relevance t o the s p e c i f i c hypothe ses developed i n Chapter I I I . 4. Tony as foreman of the study l i n e i s the key f i g u r e i n t h i s s t o r y . (See Figure [V] f o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n chart of the d i v i s i o n , i n c l u d i n g Tony's assembly l i n e . } He was i n h i s l a t e t w e n t i e s , married, but he had no c h i l d r e n . Tony had been w i t h the company continuously s i n c e the e a r l y 1940's except f o r a p e r i o d of s e r v i c e i n the army during the war. He had s t a r t e d as an operator when the company was s t i l l r a t h e r small and had g r a d u a l l y worked h i s way up t o a s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n i n the organization. He had had previous experience as a foreman on a small assembly l i n e In the company, but, because of some d i f  f i c u l t y which was never made c l e a r t o the researcher, he 97 was t r a n s f e r r e d . When the company retrenched because of a seasonal r e d u c t i o n i n business, Tony, along w i t h s e v e r a l other s u p e r v i s o r s i n the d i v i s i o n , was r e  appointed as a group leader on another l i n e , r e p o r t i n g to a foreman. When the company expanded operations i n the new p l a n t , Tony was appointed foreman of one of the three assembly l i n e s , r e p o r t i n g now t o the f a c t o r y supervisor.3 0 The su p e r v i s o r ' s p o s i t i o n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n 5. Figure V below i l l u s t r a t e s the s t r u c t u r e of the f o r  mal o r g a n i z a t i o n i n which Tony, the assembly l i n e supervisor, found h i m s e l f . Assembly l i n e technology. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 6. Tony's l i n e c o n s i s t e d of a mechanized conveyor about 46O f e e t long. About h a l f of the l i n e was devoted t o work p o s i t i o n s and the other h a l f t o space f o r p o s s i b l e f u t u r e expansion. Although only h a l f of the conveyor had work setups, completed u n i t s rode down t o the end of the l i n e where they were placed on an overhead con veyor f o r t r a n s f e r t o the t e s t department. 7. There were approximately f i f t y operators assigned t o the l i n e . T h i r t y - s i x of the operators had r e g u l a r p o s i t i o n s on the l i n e where they performed simple as sembly operations r e q u i r i n g about 4 1/2 minutes. The remaining personnel were r e p a i r men, who were s t a t i o n e d at t a b l e s o f f the main l i n e t o f i x f a u l t y u n i t s , and stock c l e r k s , who kept the operators' bins s u p p l i e d w i t h p a r t s . Of the t h i r t y - s i x operators on the l i n e , a l l were women except f o r approximately s i x men who assembled the heavier parts of the u n i t s . 8. The assembly work was very r o u t i n e , w i t h each worker performing a s e r i e s of simple operations on each u n i t . The small component p a r t s t o be assembled were s t o r e d i n convenient bins w i t h i n easy arm's reach of the operators. The t o o l s used i n the assembly work were l i m i t e d t o hand p l i e r s , s o l d e r i n g i r o n s , and a i r gun nut runners and screw d r i v e r s . Despite the simple nature of the work, i t d i d demand considerable manual d e x t e r i t y , and i t g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e d f o u r weeks of t r a i n i n g before a new operator could perform her work steps i n the standard time. During the t r a i n i n g period, an e x t r a g i r l was g e n e r a l l y assigned t o the work p o s i  t i o n w i t h the new operator so that the e n t i r e l i n e would not be h e l d up by the new g i r l . 9. At about every twelve or t h i r t e e n work s t a t i o n s on the l i n e , an o n - l i n e i n s p e c t o r was assigned t o check Vice President Production C o n t r o l Methods Purchasing j General Manager DEPARTMENT HEAD LEVEL Methods Analyst Bob Test | Manufacturing Mr. Nixon SECTION MANAGER LEVEL D o t t i e Assembly Section Harry  Factory Supervisor FOREMAJN LEVEL Foreman Tony Group Leader Le v e l Helen f Operators Engineering j F i n a l Assembly Factory Engineering Roy Engineer George Jean Q u a l i t y C o n t r o l Production I n s p e c t i o n Process I n s p e c t i o n Dick R i t a 3 Inspectors Figure V ORGANIZATION CHART: CASE NO. 4 (Adapted from source: p. 91) 99 the work of the operators i n the preceding p o s i t i o n s . There were three such o n - l i n e i n s p e c t o r s , each of whom was considerably o l d e r than the average operator. These i n s p e c t o r s reported t o Tony, the foreman, u n l i k e the q u a l i t y c o n t r o l i n s p e c t o r s s t a t i o n e d at the end of the frork l i n e who had t h e i r own group leader. This group leader i n t u r n reported up through the q u a l i t y c o n t r o l h i e r a r c h y . [See Figure V above] 10. The work o r g a n i z a t i o n was f a i r l y simple too. A l l par t s going i n t o the assembly of the u n i t s on the study l i n e came there w i t h some preparatory work already hav ing been completed i n another department c a l l e d sub assembly. The assembly base, t o which a l l p a r t s were assembled, came t o the f i r s t s t a t i o n on the l i n e on an overhead conveyor. The f i r s t two s t a t i o n s on the l i n e were not on the movable conveyor, probably because heavier assembly work was performed at these s t a t i o n s . Operator #1 passed the assembly bases t o operator §2 by hand. Operator #3 had the f i r s t p o s i t i o n on the conveyor. Beginning w i t h operator #3, the work t r a v  e l ed from operator t o operator on the b e l t . Each operator on the b e l t had about t h i r t y - s i x inches of work space a l l o t t e d t o her and she had t o complete her assembly work w i t h i n t h a t space on the conveyor. When an assembly base had f u l l y entered each operator's work area, she was supposed t o have completed her work on the preceding u n i t . The g i r l s on the l i n e had no c o n t r o l over the speed of the b e l t , and the operations had been timed and supposedly balanced by methods per sonnel so tha t each operator was t h e o r e t i c a l l y able t o complete her c y c l e w i t h i n the standard time allowed. Furthermore, the conveyor was supposed t o move c o n t i n  uously w i t h no operator moving out of p o s i t i o n or f a i l  i n g t o complete her c y c l e of work w i t h i n the a l l o t t e d time. 11. At the end of the work p o r t i o n of the conveyor, a male operator removed the assembly f i x t u r e and placed the completed assembly base f l a t on the conveyor where i t would r i d e down t o the end of the l i n e f o r t r a n s f e r by overhead conveyor t o the t e s t department. Before being placed f l a t on the conveyor, the u n i t passed through a s e r i e s of three v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n s by the q u a l i t y c o n t r o l i n s p e c t o r s . 12. In the t e s t department, the u n i t s were given t h o r  ough performance t e s t s and subjected t o i n s p e c t i o n w i t h the a i d of very f i n e and p r e c i s e instruments. Adjust ments were made i n the t e s t department, and the assem b l i e s were sent by overhead conveyor t o the f i n a l assem b l y department where the u n i t s from Tony's l i n e were j o i n e d t o other major assemblies. 13. The u n i t assembled on Tony's l i n e was the most impor tant component of the f i n i s h e d product. Tony had roughly 100 three or f o u r times the number of personnel on h i s l i n e compared w i t h f i n a l assembly and the u n i t s assembled on h i s l i n e accounted f o r at l e a s t 7®% of the t o t a l f a c t o r y cost of the product. 14. The f i n a l product was a r e l a t i v e l y new consumer item and design changes to improve i t were made very f r e  quently. The product was c o n s t a n t l y being f i e l d t e s t e d and new improvements were incorporated r e g u l a r l y . The design changes v a r i e d i n t h e i r e f f e c t on the p h y s i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the l i n e and on the work being performed. Sometimes a change would a f f e c t only one operator and, again, on other occasions, the e n t i r e l i n e would have to be shut down whi l e the g i r l s r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n on some new operations. To i n d i c a t e the frequency of changes i n design, the head of the methods department i n the d i v i s i o n reported t h a t during an eight-month p e r i o d there were over 700 design changes i n the u n i t assembled on Tony's l i n e . Again, some of these changes had l i t t l e , i f any, e f f e c t on the p h y s i c a l character of the l i n e , w h i l e others i n v o l v e d a s h u f f l i n g of opera t i o n s r e q u i r i n g a temporary stoppage of the line.3 1 The Assemblers 15.. There were mainly female operators on the l i n e who v a r i e d from g i r l s i n t h e i r l a t e teens t o middle-aged women wit h grown f a m i l i e s . Age, and hence common i n t e r  e s t s , seemed t o be one of the d i v i d i n g l i n e s t h a t marked the o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n f o r m a l groups w i t h i n the l i n e . The o l d e r women seemed t o group together, w h i l e a number of the very young g i r l s who were about t o be married or who were contemplating marriage tended t o keep together. Operators #1 and #2 were young men i n t h e i r l a t e teens or e a r l y twenties and the g e n e r a l l y kept apart from the g i r l s on the l i n e . A number of women on the l i n e were divorcees and some of them formed t h e i r own l i t t l e group. S t i l l another s o c i a l grouping was formed by a few women i n t h e i r e a r l y t h i r t i e s who had been f l o a t e r s , or u t i l i t y operators, i n the o l d p l a n t . These operators were f a s t e r workers than the average g i r l on the l i n e and they knew more of the work p o s i t i o n s on the l i n e as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of t h e i r having been f l o a t e r s i n the o l d p l a n t . A l  though there seemed t o be a c l u s t e r i n g of g i r l s i n one s o c i a l group or another, as expressed i n t h e i r choice of company during the r e s t periods (two a day l a s t i n g ten minutes), the groups tended a l s o t o s h i f t somewhat and a g i r l c o u ld, i n some cases, be numbered i n , or on the f r i n g e o f , s e v e r a l of the i n f o r m a l groups. 16. Because of the simple and r e p e t i t i v e nature of the work, many of the g i r l s could perform t h e i r operations i n the a l l o t t e d time and simultaneously c a r r y on con-101 v e r s a t i o n s . The conversations were g e n e r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o neighbouring g i r l s and the r u l e p r o h i b i t i n g operators from l e a v i n g t h e i r work p o s i t i o n s except f o r the r e s t p e r i o d , or i f they were r e l i e v e d , accounted i n l a r g e measure f o r t h i s l i m i t on conversation. Whenever the l i n e was shut down f o r one reason or another, conversa t i o n s were more prolonged and ge n e r a l . The observer n o t i c e d considerable k i d d i n g among the operators r e  garding events i n the company or personal matters. For example, operators #1 and #2, both male, used t o k i d back and f o r t h concerning t h e i r work speed. They seemed t o take p r i d e i n outdoing one another on boasts of not being f o r c e d t o do more work than they could. Whoever was i n v o l v e d i n g e t t i n g them t o increase t h e i r output, whether i t was Tony or the methods a n a l y s t , would be the subject of t h e i r jokes and mimicking. Operators #3 and #4 would banter back and f o r t h but on t o p i c s of l i t t l e concern t o the immediate work s i t u a - t i o n . Operators #13 and #14 who were both about the same age and were planning t o be married at about the same time had many s e r i o u s conversations concerning t h e i r wedding plans. The other g i r l s i n t h e i r immedi ate v i c i n i t y subjected them t o much k i d d i n g . At times the observer was even asked by operators #13 and #14 t o comment on various domestic problems; such as, should the husband help w i t h the d i s h e s , and how d i d the researcher react t o h i s w i f e ' s f i r s t attempts at cooking. The bowling league i n the plant was another subject of i n t e r e s t t o some of the g i r l s who t a l k e d about i t from time t o time. And, of course, the s t a t e of a f f a i r s on the assembly l i n e became the f o c a l point of much conversation and the o u t l e t of many of the operators' f e e l i n g s . As w i l l be discussed i n l a t e r chapters, the problem of d i s r u p t e d work flow became the major aspect of l i f e on the l i n e and the operators took s i d e s on the question of who was t o blame, and what should be done about i t . 3 2 The Group Leaders 17. There were f o u r group leaders on the l i n e who r e  ported t o Tony. Three of these group leaders were women and each was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r one s e c t i o n of the l i n e , or f o r about twelve g i r l s . The f o u r t h group leader was a middle-aged man who was i n charge of the repairmen. The repairmen were d e f i n i t e l y separated from the main l i n e and seldom entered i n t o the events which occurred t h e r e . 18. The three group leaders on the main l i n e were D o t t i e , Helen, and Jean. D o t t i e was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f i r s t twelve s t a t i o n s on the l i n e and i n s p e c t o r #1; Helen had the middle twelve g i r l s on the l i n e and i n s p e c t o r #2; 102 and Jean had the f i n a l s e c t i o n of the l i n e and i n s p e c t o r §3. The group leaders supervised d i r e c t l y the operators i n t h e i r s e c t i o n and were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r seeing t h a t the workers maintained the proper r a t e of production and q u a l i t y standards. They a l s o r e l i e v e d g i r l s who had t o be excused at other than r e s t p e r i o d s , and f i l l e d i n f o r g i r l s who were absent from work or who had t o leave work e a r l y because of i l l n e s s or f o r other reasons. The group leaders had t o be sure too t h a t the operators were provided w i t h p a r t s , and they were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e  p o r t i n g t o Tony any time f a u l t y p a r ts were discovered. In a d d i t i o n , because the l i n e was no longer s t a f f e d w i t h f l o a t e r s , the plant management had designated the group leaders as "working group l e a d e r s " and expected them to f u n c t i o n as f l o a t e r s as w e l l as supervisors.3 3 Tony's R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h Group Leaders D o t t i e and Helen and Jean 19. Tony recognized D o t t i e ' s [high s t a t u s ] p o s i t i o n on the l i n e [as a working group l e a d e r ] . He c a l l e d upon her t o help him out of d i f f i c u l t i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y when he wanted t o 'push' u n i t s o f f the l i n e t o get them i n h i s day's quota. D o t t i e always responded t o Tony's requests f o r a s s i s t a n c e , although she t o l d the observer th a t she d i s l i k e d l e a v i n g her s e c t i o n . On the t h i r d day of work i n the new p l a n t , Tony asked D o t t i e t o f i l l out a l l the merit r a t i n g forms f o r operators on the l i n e . 20. During the height of the c o n f l i c t between the other group l e a d e r s , the g i r l s , and Tony over s h u t t i n g down the conveyor, D o t t i e g e n e r a l l y maintained a n e u t r a l a t  t i t u d e . She never defended Tony and she r a r e l y c r i t i  c i z e d or antagonized him i n f r o n t of the other g i r l s . Although Tony had a d i f f i c u l t time as i t was, h i s p o s i  t i o n would probably have become impossible i f D o t t i e had decided t o s i d e against him.34 21. Throughout the observer's stay on the l i n e , he n o t i c e d t h a t Helen [a working group leader] and Tony were always i n c o n f l i c t . Tony tended t o blame h i s t r o u b l e s on Helen, and he even went so f a r as t o t h r e a t  en t o f i r e her i f c o n d i t i o n s on the l i n e d i d not improve . . . Helen continued t o t h i n k that Tony was p i c k i n g on her and t r e a t i n g her u n f a i r l y . 3 5 22. Tony p r e t t y much l e t [Jean, the t h i r d working group leader] alone and never blamed her f o r any of h i s prob lems. Jean used t o be d i s t r e s s e d over the f a c t t h a t the g i r l s were so o f t e n out of p o s i t i o n , but she d i d not blame them. She expressed the opinion t o the observer th a t the l i n e should be shut down as soon as the g i r l s began t o get out of p o s i t i o n , and she sympathized w i t h Helen on t h i s i s s u e . She thought the l i n e was poorly managed and she tended t o blame Tony f o r i t s problems.36 103 H o r i z o n t a l I n t e r a c t i o n s . (The Methods Men) 23. The methods department was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p h y s i  c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of the l i n e s . I t determined the break down, sequence, and methods of work on the assembly l i n e s , the p h y s i c a l arrangement of the l i n e s , and the p o s i t i o n i n g of t o o l s and p a r t s at each of the work s t a  t i o n s . Methods was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n s t a l l i n g en g i n e e r i n g changes. I t r e c e i v e d engineering change n o t i c e s from the engineering department and then deter mined the new process which would r e s u l t from the change. A methods an a l y s t introduced the changes t o the l i n e by rearranging the work p o s i t i o n s i f necessary, r e i n s t r u c t i n g the operators, and rebalancing the l i n e . 24. According t o the d e f i n i t i o n of methods work i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , the methods department determined how the work was t o be performed, how many operators were t o be used, and what the sequence of operations was t o be. Methods then t r a i n e d the workers and made c e r t a i n the l i n e was balanced so t h a t work was d i v i d e d evenly among the operators. The foreman of the l i n e then became re s p o n s i b l e f o r maintaining production, q u a l i t y , and morale. The methods work was a continuing part of the a c t i v i t i e s on a l i n e because of the frequent i n t r o d u c  t i o n of t e c h n i c a l changes. 25- Fred was the head of the methods department and he reported t o the manufacturing department head. Never t h e l e s s , he appeared on a lower l e v e l i n the organiza t i o n chart than other executives who a l s o reported d i r e c t l y t o the department head. 26. Fred was very unpopular among l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s at a l l l e v e l s i n the d i v i s i o n . When the observer a r r i v e d at the p l a n t , the c o n f l i c t between methods personnel, p a r t i c u l a r l y Fred, and l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s was an estab l i s h e d aspect of plant l i f e . Some of the h o s t i l e f e e l  ings toward Fred could p o s s i b l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o h i s ' p e r s o n a l i t y . ' He seemed t o be a moody person and he g e n e r a l l y kept apart from h i s colleagues except f o r h i s dealings w i t h them on work problems. A considerable part of the c o n f l i c t , however, stemmed from attempts on the part of methods personnel and l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s t o 'pass the buck.' Methods work and s u p e r v i s i o n were i n t e r r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s and i t was d i f f i c u l t , i f not im p o s s i b l e , t o separate t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Hard f e e l i n g s developed when, f o r example, l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s b e l i e v e d the methods department, and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , Fred, had underestimated the number of men r e q u i r e d t o perform a c e r t a i n job. 27. On one occasion the head of the t e s t department had t o modify some u n i t s that had been i n inventory and were awaiting completion i n the new p l a n t . The head of the t e s t department s a i d , 'We've got 800 u n i t s t h a t 104 have to be modified. That means a complete reworking as i f the u n i t s were j u s t coming out of the assembly- l i n e i n t o t e s t . Yet they t e l l me a l l I need i s 4 men to do the job. Imagine, 4 men f o r 800 u n i t s . ' The observer asked, 'Who i s 'they'?' He r e p l i e d , 'Methods, of course. They must be crazy.' The observer asked, 'Does methods always set the number of men?' The ans wer was, 'Yeah. And then they t u r n i t over t o me t o get the work done.' The observer responded, 'The work i s your r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . ' The head of t e s t s a i d , 'You're damned r i g h t . And they t e l l me a l l I need i s 4 men. Why i t ' s a complete reworking. W e l l , I'm going t o t r y and get some more men." 28. On the one hand, the head of the t e s t department knew th a t an increase i n personnel f o r the m o d i f i c a t i o n job would mean an increase i n c o s t s . The department head who would have had t o a u t h o r i z e the e x t r a person n e l would have been very r e l u c t a n t t o do so. On the other hand, i f e x t r a personnel were not assigned, the • head of t e s t f e l t d o u b t f u l about meeting the schedule. He f e l t , i n a d d i t i o n , that i f he d i d not complete the work on schedule t h a t he, alone, would be h e l d respon s i b l e because Fred would c l a i m that the personnel as signment was accurate, but that the s u p e r v i s i o n was at f a u l t f o r not completing the work on time. This was but one example of the nature of the c o n f l i c t between methods personnel and l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s . 29. During the p e r i o d i n which the new plant was being prepared f o r production, 'needling' between Fred and v a r i o u s l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s had increased. The observer asked Tony's boss, Dan, how methods was progressing i n g e t t i n g the l i n e s ready. Dan r e p l i e d , ' T h e y ' l l never get f i n i s h e d . The way t h i s t h i n g was set up, they were supposed to do the process work, set up the l i n e s , and place the t o o l s i n p o s i t i o n . A l l t h a t we were supposed to do was t o put the m a t e r i a l s i n the l i n e s . W e l l , i t ended up t h a t we're doing a l l t h e i r work.' The observer asked, 'What's the t r o u b l e , didn't they have enough men?' Dan r e p l i e d , 'Nan, t h a t ' s not t h e i r t r o u b l e . What's wrong withomethods i s t h a t i t ' s mismanaged. T h e y ' l l never have enough men. I t ' s j u s t p l a i n mis managed." Fred had a d i f f e r e n t idea about t h a t . He s a i d , 'After we get a l l the work set up and the opera t o r s t r a i n e d , we t u r n the l i n e s over t o s u p e r v i s i o n . What a snap they have. They don't have t o do anything. We do i t a l l f o r them and they j u s t step i n and take over.' Fred summarized h i s opinion of the p l a n t ' s s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h : 'This s o - c a l l e d s u p e r v i s i o n can't be depended on t o do a job. '37 105 The Q u a l i t y C o n t r o l People 30. The company placed major emphasis on maintaining s t r i c t standards of product q u a l i t y , and, f o r that reason, organized a separate s t a f f group i n the d i v i  s i o n c a l l e d q u a l i t y c o n t r o l . The head of the q u a l i t y c o n t r o l department was on the same l e v e l i n the o r g a n i  z a t i o n as the manufacturing department head, r e p o r t i n g d i r e c t l y t o the d i v i s i o n general manager. The q u a l i t y c o n t r o l o r g a n i z a t i o n was then d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l groups. One group provided i n s p e c t i o n f o r incoming m a t e r i a l s , another f o r new product designs, and a t h i r d f o r u n i t s coming o f f the v a r i o u s assembly l i n e s . This l a t t e r type of i n s p e c t i o n was r e f e r r e d t o as process i n s p e c t i o n . Tony was most concerned w i t h t h i s group, sin c e i t s personnel inspected the u n i t s assembled on h i s l i n e . 31. Dick was the head of process i n s p e c t i o n , and reported t o the head of the production i n s p e c t i o n s e c t i o n of the q u a l i t y c o n t r o l department. Dick had three group leaders assigned t o him and there was one group leader s t a t i o n e d at the end of each of the three assembly l i n e s super v i s i n g three or f o u r q u a l i t y c o n t r o l i n s p e c t o r s . The i n s p e c t o r s on the l i n e s checked the work v i s u a l l y t o see that workmanship met q u a l i t y standards and t h a t p a r ts were not l e f t out i n assembly. The i n s p e c t o r s a l s o checked f o r f a u l t y and broken p a r t s . The q u a l i t y c o n t r o l i n s p e c t o r s were separate and d i s t i n c t from the ' o n - l i n e ' i n s p e c t o r s who reported t o the foreman. I t w i l l be r e  c a l l e d that Tony had three such i n s p e c t o r s on h i s l i n e at about every twelve work p o s i t i o n s . 32. R i t a was the q u a l i t y c o n t r o l group leader on the study l i n e . She had two female i n s p e c t o r s and one male inspec t o r working f o r her. These i n s p e c t o r s worked at p o s i  t i o n s f o l l o w i n g the l a s t work s t a t i o n on the l i n e . Each of the three q u a l i t y c o n t r o l i n s p e c t o r s checked each u n i t produced and made a record of a l l the r e j e c t s found. There were a t o t a l of about ten types of r e j e c t s i n c l u d  ing unsoldered connections, poor connections, and broken p a r t s . R i t a worked along w i t h her i n s p e c t o r s , checking on the thoroughness of t h e i r work as w e l l as the q u a l i t y of the work coming from the l i n e . At the end of each day R i t a turned i n t o the q u a l i t y c o n t r o l o f f i c e a r e p o r t on the r e j e c t s found i n the day's production. The next day the q u a l i t y c o n t r o l o f f i c e prepared and d i s t r i b u t e d a summary report showing the q u a l i t y performance of each l i n e . A copy of t h i s report went t o the manufacturing department head and a l l s u p e r v i s o r s below him i n c l u d i n g the foreman of each l i n e . 33. The q u a l i t y c o n t r o l department a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d r e j e c t standards which were considered a measure of the q u a l i t y performance on the l i n e s . For Tony's l i n e , the standard was 0.5 r e j e c t s per u n i t , but the q u a l i t y c o n t r o l depart-106 ment hoped th a t t h i s standard could e v e n t u a l l y be tigh t e n e d or reduced. At R i t a ' s work space on the l i n e she kept a c l i p board w i t h q u a l i t y c o n t r o l c h a r t s . She recorded r e j e c t s on the charts f o r each twenty u n i t s produced. Curves were p l o t t e d showing the r e j e c t s per u n i t produced against standard and these curves were c l e a r l y marked out i n red. The c l i p board was v i s i b l e to a l l who passed the i n s p e c t i o n p o s i t i o n on the l i n e , and, since i t was kept up t o date, the current q u a l i t y performance of the l i n e could be seen at a glance.38 The Engineers 34• There were two groups of engineers of importance t o Tony's l i n e . The f i r s t was the f a c t o r y engineering group and the second, product engineering. 35. The f a c t o r y engineering department was a part of the manufacturing o r g a n i z a t i o n and the head of t h i s group reported t o the manufacturing department head. Factory engineering was a l i a i s o n group that had general respon s i b i l i t y f o r h e l p i n g t o i n t e r p r e t engineering changes which came from the product engineering department and f o r passing i n f o r m a t i o n from the production l i n e s back to engineering. Their d u t i e s were not r i g i d l y defined and they seemed t o have been assigned v a r i o u s tasks be cause there was no other group i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n t o handle the jobs conveniently. Roy, the head of f a c t o r y engineering, had very l i t t l e d i r e c t d e a lings w i t h the study l i n e , although he v i s i t e d the l i n e from time t o time. George, one of the f a c t o r y engineers r e p o r t i n g to Roy, spent considerable time on the study l i n e . He viewed h i s f u n c t i o n i n i t i a l l y as one of being h e l p f u l t o Tony i n keeping the l i n e going, p a r t i c u l a r l y where s p e c i a l problems arose. At f i r s t , he was very sympa t h e t i c t o Tony's problems and o f f e r e d t o help out i n many ways. Roy d i d not want Tony t o grow dependent on George, however. He wanted i n s t e a d t o have Tony l e a r n to solve h i s own problems. 36. The second engineering group, product engineering, was a f u l l - f l e d g e d department whose head reported d i r e c t l y t o the d i v i s i o n general manager. There were only one or two occasions where r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h i s department appeared on the l i n e and then only f o r b r i e f v i s i t s at the request of some other a u t h o r i t y . They had, however, a considerable i n d i r e c t e f f e c t on the a c t i v i t i e s of the l i n e s i n c e most t e c h n i c a l changes had t h e i r o r i g i n i n product engineering. As mentioned pre v i o u s l y , product engineering sent t e c h n i c a l changes, which seemed t o be coming through c o n t i n u o u s l y , t o the methods department. Bob then i n s t a l l e d the change on the l i n e . 3 9 107 Supervisory I n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h S u p e r i o r s ; 37. Dan was Tony's immediate boss. Dan had been i n charge of the l i n e at the o l d p l a n t , but w i t h the expansion and move t o the new plant he was promoted t o a p o s i t i o n i n which he had charge of a l l the assembly l i n e s making l a r g e u n i t s . Tony and s e v e r a l foremen now reported t o Dan so that he had co n s i d e r a b l y more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than formerly. 38. Dan was i n h i s middle or l a t e f o r t i e s . He had been a su p e r v i s o r f o r about twenty years i n companies manu f a c t u r i n g products s i m i l a r or a l l i e d t o those being pro duced i n the company. Dan was a wiry i n d i v i d u a l w i t h considerable energy. He walked and spoke r a p i d l y and tended t o s t u t t e r from nervousness r a t h e r f r e q u e n t l y . Dan s u f f e r e d from stomach u l c e r s which he a t t r i b u t e d t o worry. 39. He had developed a r a t h e r c y n i c a l philosophy about s u p e r v i s i o n as a r e s u l t of h i s twenty years' experience. Dan's point of view concerning s u p e r v i s i o n and h i s work methods might best be i l l u s t r a t e d by l e t t i n g him describe them. He was t a l k i n g of the kinds of problems he faced w h i l e running the assembly l i n e and he gave many examples of these problems. 40. Dan: Here's another example. THere was a g i r l who wasn't keeping up w i t h her work. So I c a l l e d her i n t o the o f f i c e and I s a i d , "What's the matter? Why aren't you keeping up?" W e l l , she s a i d t h a t she was t r y i n g her best and so on. So I s a i d to her, "Look, I know what's the matter. Let me t e l l you what's wrong w i t h you. In the f i r s t p l a c e , you were made a u t i l i t y operator f o r a month and you didn't get a 10^ r a i s e , which you were supposed t o get, u n t i l a week before you went back t o your o l d job. I s n ' t that i t ? " She s a i d yes. Imagine, I was t e l l i n g her what was b i t i n g her. Just l o o k , she's on u t i l i t y f o r a month and her 10^ r a i s e doesn't come through u n t i l her l a s t week. That was a d i r t y deal and I knew i t . But what could I do? I t j u s t takes them a long time t o get these r a i s e s through. So I s a i d t o her, "Now look, who are you s p i t i n g ? You t h i n k you're s p i t i n g the president of the company. W e l l , you're not. You're s p i t i n g me. The o l d man don't care i f you don't keep up. I'm the president t o you, and I'm the guy you're s p i t i n g . " W e l l , she s a i d , "I'm s t i l l burned up and I t h i n k I ' l l q u i t . " So I s a i d , " I know you're burned up. But where can you go? Where e l s e can you get $1.45 an hour and f r e e insurance? You won't be able t o c o l l e c t unemploy ment unless you're l a i d o f f and i f you q u i t you can't c o l l e c t . " 41. . . . Mr. Nixon, was the manufacturing department head of the d i v i s i o n , and he reported t o the d i v i s i o n g eneral manager. Mr Nixon was seldom seen on Tony's l i n e , and 108 on the occasions that he appeared i t was more or l e s s f o r a t o u r of i n s p e c t i o n . Tony came i n contact w i t h Mr. Nixon d i r e c t l y only when a production meeting was h e l d i n the l a t t e r ' s o f f i c e , or when an unusual prob lem reached Mr. Nixon's l e v e l f o r a d e c i s i o n . The d i v i s i o n general manager was even more remote t o Tony, and he was seen q u i t e i n f r e q u e n t l y w h i l e making a t o u r of the p l a n t . The d i v i s i o n general manager occasion a l l y addressed the e n t i r e supervisory s t a f f of the d i v i  s i o n , and i t was only on those occasions that Tony heard him speak. The v i c e president of the d i v i s i o n was the very top t o Tony. Tony heard of the top manage ment only when h i s immediate su p e r v i s o r informed him that pressure was on t o increase production or t o im prove q u a l i t y .^ 0 Figure VI summarizes the people w i t h whom Tony d e a l t . The f o l l o w i n g parts of Case No. 4 present data per t a i n i n g t o : a t t i t u d e s of s u p e r v i s o r s toward t h e i r work; a t  t i t u d e s toward t r a i n i n g given t o s u p e r v i s o r s ; s u p e r v i s o r y problems. The d e c i s i o n t o i n c l u d e data regarding s u p e r v i s o r a t t i t u d e s toward t r a i n i n g i s based upon the p o s s i b l e u t i l i t y of these data i n v a l i d a t i n g the s p e c i f i c hypotheses concerning sentiments of f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s . Case No. 3 lacked data i n regard t o supervisory a t t i t u d e s toward t r a i n i n g . The reference t o " I " i n the f o l l o w i n g dialogue denotes the remarks of the i n t e r v i e w e r , Z a l e z n i k . Supervisory a t t i t u d e s — t o w a r d t r a i n i n g 42. An Interview w i t h Hal. Hal was a foreman of an as sembly l i n e and t h i s i n t e r v i e w took place on the work f l o o r . There were a number of engineers, methods a n a l y s t s , and other working on a new model on the f l o o r . H a l : You n o t i c e a l l these people standing around on the l i n e ? I : Yes. Hal: W e l l , they're engineers, q u a l i t y c o n t r o l men, and methods men. You see they're supposed t o have these t h i n g s worked out before they b r i n g the work down t o us. But they never do. They ought t o work out the methods Dick -j, Line ( a u t h o r i t y ) ~ R e l a t i o n s h i p ^ S t a f f ( a s s i s t a n c e ) R e l a t i o n s h i p 5* R i t a ean Operators Q u a l i t y C o n t r o l Inspectors FIGURE VI THE PEOPLE WITH WHOM TONY DEALT (Copied from source: p. 120) H o 110 and engineering s i t t i n g at t h e i r desks and they ought to b u i l d a few u n i t s before t u r n i n g i t over t o us. I : You mean b u i l d a few u n i t s here? Hal: Oh no. B u i l d them u p s t a i r s or some place around where they work. Not here. But at l e a s t now i t ' s b e t t e r than i t used t o be. Now they come down here t o work out the problems. Before they used t o send parts down and say, 'Go ahead, b u i l d the u n i t s . ' Then we were supposed t o work out the problems. That way they weren't h e l p i n g me.: That's what they're i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r — t o provide s e r v i c e f o r us i n a l i n e and at l e a s t now they come down t o help us. But before when they came down at a l l , they were j u s t get t i n g i n the way. That was a f t e r the work was turned over t o me. I t was my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y then. And I didn't h e s i t a t e t o put them out when they were g e t t i n g i n the way. You know I a c t u a l l y put some of them out. But, of course, i t was i n a n i c e way, but j u s t the same I asked them t o leave. Once they t u r n the assem bly over t o me, w e l l , i t ' s my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and I have t o meet schedule. But I want t h e i r help and I expect t o get i t when I c a l l on them. But we're l e a r n i n g . At l e a s t they t r y t o get the bugs out of new models before they t u r n i t over t o me. So we're l e a r n i n g how t o work together l i t t l e by l i t t l e . I t ' s the same w i t h my boss. That's one t h i n g about my boss, he doesn't h e s i t a t e t o speak up when we're r i g h t . You know we always have new models coming through. A f t e r a l l i t ' s part of our business, and you have t o expect changes. I t takes a l i t t l e w h i l e t o get str a i g h t e n e d out on new models, but not too long and then t h i n g s run smoothly.41 43. T i [ a n anonymous t r a i n e e ] : Y o u ' l l f i n d out tha t t h i s t r a i n i n g t r i e s t o b u i l d us up as s u p e r v i s o r s . They t r y t o compliment us and t e l l us we are b i g people and important, but when we're a c t u a l l y on the job we're nothing. How many people do any of us super v i s e ? None. . A l l we have are people over our h e a d s — on top of us. So i t ' s a l o t of bunk. I guess i t ' s a l l r i g h t f o r people l i k e and who only have people under them and not over them. But i t ' s not tha t way w i t h us. A l l we see i s people coming i n over us. They b r i n g people i n and put them over us. Take and . They j u s t came i n t o our department. The department head brought them i n . Well, they're h i s boys. They can do no wrong as f a r as he's concerned. Meanwhile we taught them a l l we know and • then have t o rep o r t t o them. T 2 : That's r i g h t . We see i t going on a l l the time. They bleed us white f o r our knowledge and then we have to r eport t o them. We a c t u a l l y spend more time e x p l a i n  ing the r u l e s and exceptions t o them—there are a I l l thousand e x c e p t i o n s — t h a n we do g e t t i n g our work done. Then they have these p o l i c i e s i n w r i t i n g . A l l r i g h t , so they have p o l i c i e s . 4 2 A t t i t u d e s toward work 44- . . . many sup e r v i s o r s complained i n the i n t e r v i e w s about t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r work s i t u a t i o n s , . . . The wor r i e s r e f l e c t e d i n the i n t e r v i e w s seemed to be of f o u r types. F i r s t , some super v i s o r s were concerned about t h e i r s t a t u s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; secondly, there were those d i s t u r b e d over t h e i r r a t e of advancement. T h i r d l y , some super v i s o r s r e f l e c t e d negative a t t i t u d e s which arose out of u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r s u p e r i o r s or w i t h s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . F i n a l l y , there were su p e r v i s o r s who were t o r n between the demands of workers and the demands imposed upon them as super v i s o r s by company p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s . These f o u r types of worries were not s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e a r - c u t so that only one type would o r d i n a r i l y appear i n any one i n t e r v i e w . Most i n t e r v i e w s contained r e  f l e c t i o n s of more than one major problem.43 45- . . .: This human r e l a t i o n s i s very important. That's what we need i n t h i s company. As i t i s now, they're not doing a good job at i t . Of course, t h i s company's o r g a n i z a t i o n j u s t grew f a s t and I suppose ev e n t u a l l y t h e y ' l l work out these problems. And when I t a l k about human r e l a t i o n s , I don't mean j u s t t o workers, but I mean t o s u p e r v i s o r s too. That's very important. As i t i s now, there aren't any p o l i c i e s set up, or c l e a r - c u t l i n e s of demarcation on a s u p e r v i s o r ' s job.44 46 George was a h i g h l y insecure i n d i v i d u a l , and he was concerned w i t h s e v e r a l aspects of h i s work s i t u a t i o n . He was a c o l l e g e graduate, the only one among a l l the s u p e r v i s o r s whom the author had met at the company. In a d d i t i o n , George had had considerable experience i n s u p e r v i s i n g l a r g e numbers of workers. He was extremely conscious of h i s background and f e l t t h a t h i s a b i l i t i e s and experience were not being given f u l l scope i n h i s present job. His statement, "They don't r e a l l y need a foreman here," i m p l i e d s t r o n g l y "a foreman of my c a l i b e r . " His past work h i s t o r y ended i n h i s being "promoted out the door" when business cut back. His present s i t u a t i o n w i t h the company seemed t o him to be the prelude t o a r e p e t i t i o n of h i s previous experiences. The company had retrenched and George found h i m s e l f s u p e r v i s i n g a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l group, a comedown from the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s he had h e l d pre v i o u s l y . His f e e l i n g s about h i s educational background and work experience set the context f o r understanding George's other w o r r i e s . 112 47 . George's concern w i t h the l a c k of ' p o l i c i e s ' or ' c l e a r - c u t l i n e s of demarcation' of the foreman's a u t h o r i t y r e f l e c t e d the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y nature of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s and executives i n the higher l e v e l s of the d i v i s i o n management. George f e l t t h a t i t was not r i g h t f o r the person i n q u a l i t y c o n t r o l t o send out a memorandum w i t h "the s u p e r v i s i o n on the l i n e s t i n k s . " I t was, as he saw i t , a d i r e c t attack on him, and George f e l t i t was un j u s t i f i e d i n view of the l a c k of p o l i c i e s . S i m i l a r l y , George f e l t f r u s t r a t e d at not being given i n f o r m a t i o n by the department head. Without t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , George f e l t t h a t he was not able t o do the supervisory job of which he was capable. The l a c k of d i r e c t d e a l  ings w i t h the department head a l s o seemed t o George a r e f l e c t i o n of h i s lowered s t a t u s i n t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . 4 8 . George kept coming back i n the i n t e r v i e w t o h i s major c o n c e r n s — h i s f e e l i n g of i n s e c u r i t y and h i s f e e l  i n g of being l i m i t e d i n h i s present work s i t u a t i o n . George expected the t r a i n i n g meetings to cure the i l l s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o improve the human r e l a t i o n s p r a c t i c e s p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h regard t o the p o s i t i o n of s u p e r v i s o r s . He was w a i t i n g f o r that part of the course which would d e a l w i t h such problems and he planned t o speak h i s mind even though he f e l t t hat he would "get slapped down." George was used t o being "slapped down," and expected t h i s treatment. 4 9 . The i n t e r v i e w s w i t h other s u p e r v i s o r s revealed prob lems s i m i l a r t o George's and i n c l u d e d worry over s t a t u s , advancement, r e l a t i o n s w i t h s u p e r i o r s and s t a f f s p e c i a l   i s t s , and c o n f l i c t s i n " r e c o n c i l i n g company p o l i c i e s and  p r a c t i c e s w i t h the demands imposed upon them by the  work s i t u a t i o n . 4 5 50. Another complaint v o i c e d by s u p e r v i s o r s i n the i n t e r  views centered around t h e i r u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s u p e r i o r s and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . One s u p e r v i s o r complained about h i s s u p e r i o r as f o l l o w s : You know, the t r o u b l e i s the people above me want t o do i t a l l by themselves. They gi v e you respon s i b i l i t y , but no a u t h o r i t y . Here's an example of what I mean. I came i n one morning and found I was h i t p r e t t y hard w i t h absenteeism. W e l l , I was i n a spot, but t o me i t was no problem. I knew where t o get r e  placements. But no, I couldn't do t h a t , I had t o wait f o r my boss and he doesn't come i n u n t i l a f t e r 9 . And so I had t o wait u n t i l he came i n to see him about i t . But" he couldn't decide. He had t o go i n t o see h i s boss about i t . So that takes us u n t i l 10 o'clock. By the time.the t h i n g i s decided, I'm behind schedule. So there i t i s . I t was a p r e t t y simple t h i n g and I knew what to do. But no, I had t o wait t o see my boss 113 and then he had t o see h i s boss. You know what i t i s ? They're j u s t a f r a i d to l e t someone e l s e decide t h i n g s . They're j u s t scared. 51. Another supervisor complained about not g e t t i n g help from the methods department. He s a i d , "People look at t h i s l i n e and t h i n k there's nothing t o i t . W e l l , they're wrong. I have t o do a l l the work by myself. We never get a methods man here. I had t o put up a l l the t o o l s by myself and arrange the l i n e . W e l l , I don't mind cooperating w i t h methods, but you'd t h i n k they'd get around t o h e l p i n g me once i n a while."46 52. A number of s u p e r v i s o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those on the group leader l e v e l , were t o r n between c o n f l i c t s caused by the workers' demands and the demands imposed upon them by what they saw as company p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s . One s u p e r v i s o r , B i l l was extremely a g i t a t e d during the i n t e r v i e w . He spoke r a p i d l y and w i t h considerable f e e l i n g . 53. B i l l : I don't mind t a l k i n g t o you and I've got a l o t of t h i n g s on my mind. You don't get any considera t i o n around here. Some guys are always pushing t o get work out. W e l l , I don't agree wi t h t h a t . You can't crack a whip and get any work out. A f t e r a l l the g i r l s have f e e l i n g s too. You j u s t have t o use your common sense. That's a l l there i s t o s u p e r v i s i o n . Now, I'm not p e r f e c t , but I know when I'm r i g h t and I'm going t o s t i c k up f o r i t . Now they c a l l me a hot head around here. W e l l , maybe t h a t ' s t r u e . I argue i n these meetings when I t h i n k I'm r i g h t , and I s t i c k up to i t . 54. Come over here. See tha t g i r l [ p o i n t i n g ] . She can't even use a power t o o l — s h e has t o use a hand t o o l , and does t h a t take time.' And she's r e a l nervous. Look at her.' Why I've even had g i r l s ready t o cry. I remember one g i r l I fought f o r . They wanted t o f i r e her, but I wouldn't l e t them. I had confidence i n her. I found out tha t an i n s p e c t o r was p i c k i n g on her. This i n s p e c t o r didn't know her work. She used t o a l i b i by blaming t h i s other g i r l . I looked i n t o i t and found there was nothing wrong w i t h t h i s g i r l ' s work. The i n s p e c t o r was p i c k i n g on her and t h i s ^ poor g i r l was nervous. I t o l d the i n s p e c t o r t o re p o r t a l l r e j e c t s t o me and not t o say anything t o t h i s g i r l . W e l l , d i d that g i r l ' s work pick up.' She was l i k e a new person. I t j u s t i f i e d my confidence i n her. I ev e n t u a l l y had the i n s p e c t o r f i r e d f o r p i c k i n g on her. I go t o bat f o r my g i r l s . They were doing poor work at the beginning of the l i n e so when i t came t o our part of the l i n e my g i r l s couldn't work. W e l l , I had that changed soon. I went over and fought against i t . 114 I f i g h t f o r the g i r l s and they have confidence i n me. That's the only way t o work. You can't d r i v e them. 55. Look at t h i s work. How do they expect the g i r l s t o get at i t ? See t h i s work? Look, i t ' s s p o i l e d . The g i r l was so nervous she couldn't work. I t ' s tough on them. Look at t h i s . The g i r l showed me her hands. They were a l l s c a r r e d up from t r y i n g t o loosen t h i s nut so t h a t she could get at her work. I'm t e l l i n g you, they get nervous and aggravated. I : What makes them nervous and aggravated? 56. B i l l : W e l l , I ' l l t e l l you. I t ' s those l i t t l e t h i n g s . You take some of these g i r l s . They're 27 and 28 and are worried because they haven't got c h i l d r e n . I t ' s t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . And another t h i n g , they get no c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I : Consideration? 57. B i l l : Sure. Once when they wanted the g i r l s t o work overtime on a Saturday, they didn't g i v e them any n o t i c e and some of them made appointments they could not break. W e l l , they c a l l e d them i n t o the f r o n t of f i c e and t a l k e d t o them and t r i e d t o get them t o come i n . You should have seen those g i r l s . They came out of the f r o n t o f f i c e scared and they were c r y i n g . When the other g i r l s saw t h a t , they didn't want t o work. Heck, I could see t h e i r p o i n t . They had an appoint ment so they couldn't work overtime. They didn't g i v e them any n o t i c e . I t makes sense I But no, they had t o c a l l them i n t o the f r o n t o f f i c e . I : Front o f f i c e ? B i l l : Aw yeah, you know what I mean [nods h i s head i n the general d i r e c t i o n of the o f f i c e s ] . I : Sure, I see. 58. B i l l : Now, what could I do? I t puts me i n a tough spot. I can't take the g i r l s ' s i de too much. I wouldn't look good. A f t e r a l l , the g i r l s have t o respect my p o s i t i o n . I can't, get too f a m i l i a r . But I didn't f e e l r i g h t about i t . I could understand how the g i r l s f e l t . I : What d i d you say? 59- B i l l : W e l l , I s a i d , "Look, I know how you f e e l . I know i t i s n ' t r i g h t , but maybe they couldn't help i t . " Help i t ! How do I know they couldn't help i t . But what could I say? I t ' s j u s t l i k e my w i f e says. She works as an operator i n the company. She s a i d t o me, "What's the matter w i t h you people? Why do you t h i n k we don't have no b r a i n s f o r ? You don't g i v e us c r e d i t f o r knowing anything." You see. My wife knows. They don't t h i n k the g i r l s got any b r a i n s . They do. They get upset quick. They expect the g i r l s t o do t h i n g s but they don't e x p l a i n why they should do i t . 115 60. Look, i t ' s j u s t common sense. I can go over and y e l l at the g i r l s and d r i v e them t o get out more work; but t h a t way you get l e s s work. You hurt t h e i r f e e l  ings and upset them and they can't work. I t j u s t doesn't make sense. But some people b e l i e v e i n d r i v  i n g , but I know b e t t e r . I t doesn't work.47 61. Where does the foreman f i t i n t o t h i s p i c t u r e ? He does not possess the t e c h n i c a l knowledge r e q u i r e d f o r product design and he i s not r e q u i r e d t o have t h i s knowledge f o r h i s job. Product design i s i n the b a i l i w i c k of the engineer. He may have some under standing of methods work, but he does not have t o be an expert i n t h i s f u n c t i o n e i t h e r . A foreman can d i s t i n g u i s h between products w i t h acceptable or un acceptable q u a l i t y , but he does not have t o determine the standard of q u a l i t y and whether i t i s being met. These f u n c t i o n s belong t o q u a l i t y c o n t r o l s p e c i a l i s t s . The foreman could probably perform many of the pro duction o perations, but he does not have t o be pro f i c i e n t ; i n f a c t he probably i s l e s s s k i l l e d i n per forming a c t u a l operations than many of h i s sub ordinates . The foreman f u n c t i o n i n a modern work u n i t , u n l i k e the s p e c i a l i s t f u n c t i o n s , i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . The suc c e s s f u l operation of a work u n i t depends on a t t a i n i n g the c o l l a b o r a t i o n of many people, w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s and f u n c t i o n s , f o r the common purpose of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The c h i e f f u n c t i o n of the foreman as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r i s t o a t t a i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n of people i n the work group.48 A d d i t i o n a l I l l u s t r a t i o n s of Supervisory Behavior 62. For the f i r s t f o u r days f o l l o w i n g the pla n t opening, Tony's l i n e succeeded i n exceeding the scheduled out put. Dan considered Tony's performance very success f u l . But i n continuing t o a t t a i n the output Tony had many knot t y problems t o s o l v e . The f o l l o w i n g i n c i  dents h i g h l i g h t some of the problems t h a t Tony faced on the f o u r t h day of the p l a n t ' s operations. Jean, the group leader of the t h i r d s e c t i o n , c a l l e d Tony over t o show him some pieces of i n s u l a t i n g s l e e v i n g i n one operator's b i n . Jean: Tony, take a look at t h i s s l e e v i n g . Op.: They're c u t t i n g the s l e e v i n g too sh o r t . Look at how much bare wire there i s a f t e r I make the connection. Tony: That shouldn't be. Bob: "The l i n e being out of p o s i t i o n has nothing t o do w i t h methods. The l i n e i s balanced." Dan: "Speed up the conveyor; get out the production" "Stop the conveyor; don't i n t e r f e r e w i t h Dick's g i r l s " "You're the foreman so you're r e s p o n s i b l e " Dick: Helen: " I don't understand, Dan t o l d me. . . ." "Your not cooperating w i t h me" Tony: " I want t o be a s u c c e s s f u l foreman" " I have t o meet production quota" "The conveyor has t o keep running" " I want t o be independent" " I am a foreman; I have a u t h o r i t y " /ft "Stop the conveyor" Operators R i t a : "I'm t r y i n g t o keep from marking r e j e c t s on your sheet. I'm t r y i n g t o help you out." "Stop the conveyor" Q u a l i t y C o n t r o l Inspectors FIGURE VII AS TONY PERCEIVED HIS SITUATION (Copied from source: p. 201) r— 1 ON 117 Op.: We had the same t r o u b l e over at the o l d p l a n t . Jean: This has been going on a long time. We com p l a i n e d about i t to Bob, but i t hasn't done any good. Tony: Let me take t h i s part over t o Bob [the methods man] and a piece of the s l e e v i n g and I ' l l f i n d out what the process sheet c a l l s f o r . Tony and the observer s t a r t e d t o walk over t o the methods o f f i c e . On the way they met Dan. Tony showed Dan the part and the short s l e e v i n g and explained the problem. Dan: We'd been having t h a t same t r o u b l e over at the o l d p l a n t . I couldn't get anything done about i t . I t ' s an o l d s t o r y . Tony: I was going over t o Bob w i t h t h i s . Dan: Yeah. Go ahead i n to see Bob and ask what the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s are f o r t h i s on the process sheets. [Smiling.] Yeah. You do t h a t . Go ahead i n and see what the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s are. Tony walked i n t o the methods o f f i c e and found Bob seated at h i s desk. Bob's desk was p i l e d high w i t h process sheets and he seemed t o be q u i t e busy. Tony: Say, Bob, t h i s s l e e v i n g i s too short and i t ' s a hot c i r c u i t and leaves the wire bare. That's bad. Dan t o l d me i t ' s an o l d s t o r y . What i s the s i z e c a l l e d f o r on the process sheets? Bob: What does the l e a d wire measure and what does the s l e e v i n g measure? Tony: [ A f t e r measuring them on a r u l e . ] I t ' s 1 3/4" f o r the l e a d wire on each s i d e and 7/8" f o r the s l e e v i n g . That's too s h o r t . Bob: W e l l , maybe they're not c u t t i n g i t r i g h t i n sub-assembly. Why don't you check w i t h Frank [foreman of sub-assembly]? Tony: F i r s t I'd l i k e t o know what the process sheet c a l l s f o r . Bob: A l l r i g h t . Tony: I'm s o r r y t o take your time i f you're busy, but I'd l i k e t o get t h i s s t r a i g h t once and f o r a l l . Bob: W e l l , I'm p r e t t y busy now, but I ' l l look i t up. What's the part number? Tony: [Pause] W e l l , t o t e l l you the t r u t h , I f o r  got t o look. Bob: [ I m p a t i e n t l y ] W e l l , what's the operation number? I s i t operation 88? Tony: I don't know. Bob: I t looks l i k e i t ' s part number 304. I t h i n k t h a t ' s operation 88. Let me look i t up. Yeah. Operation 88, part number 304. I t should be 1 1/2" f o r each of the l e a d w i r e s , not 1 3 / 4 " . I guess t h i s i s something they've j u s t done i n sub-assembly. Go out and check w i t h Frank on t h i s . 118 Tony: Look, Bob, you come out w i t h me. I want t o get t h i s s t r a i g h t once and f o r a l l . Dan j u s t t o l d me i t ' s an o l d s t o r y . Bob: What do you mean, o l d s t o r y [ a n g r i l y ] ? You go out and see Frank. I haven't got time. I'm busy working on these process sheets. Tony walked over t o the subassembly work area and saw Frank. Tony explained t h a t the l e a d wires were too long and not according t o the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s on the process sheet. Frank got h i s copy of the process sheet and he saw that the le a d wires were longer than s p e c i f i e d . At t h i s point Bob came over. Frank: This must have j u s t been changed. Bob: No, i t hasn't. There haven't been any recent engineering changes through. Frank: Wait, I ' l l c a l l my group leader over and see what she says about i t . He c a l l e d h i s group leader over and explained the problem. Group Leader: Gh, I remember now. You see t h i s part number 209 down here on the sheet. W e l l , we couldn't get them so they t o l d me t o s u b s t i t u t e 304 f o r i t , and I cut i t t o the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of 209. That's 1 3 / 4 " . See i t here. I was t o l d these p a r t s are interchangeable. I guess they took 304's t h a t were cut f o r 209's and used them i n another p o s i t i o n . Wait and I ' l l get you a handful of 3 0 4 Ts w i t h 1 1/2" l e a d w i r e . Bob: Yeah. I see i t now. They're used i n t e r  changeably. The group leader returned w i t h the parts and gave them t o Tony. Tony returned t o the l i n e . When Tony h a d , l e f t , Bob s a i d t o the observer, "Look how com p l i c a t e d Tony made t h a t t h i n g . I f he had used a l i t t l e i n i t i a t i v e , he could have used the 1 3/4" leads j u s t by having the operator make an e x t r a s i z e l a r g e r connection and bending the wire upward as i t leads out of the p a r t . That would have taken care of the problem. Instead, he wants me t o make changes on the process sheet and th a t gets i n v o l v e d i n a l o t of paper work and i t would take too long t o come through. You see, i f he had only taken the t r o u b l e t o t h i n k about i t . I wish he'd use some common sense and work these t h i n g s out on the l i n e h i m s e l f . Then he wouldn't have a l l t h i s t r o u b l e . A l i t t l e l a t e r , R i t a c a l l e d Tony. R i t a : Tony, look at how t h i s l e a d wire i s dressed. I t ' s t e r r i b l e and I've been t e l l i n g the g i r l s about i t . Tony: Whose operation i s t h a t ? R i t a t o l d Tony the name of the operator r e s p o n s i b l e 119 f o r the operation and Tony cautioned her about i t and pointed out the problem t o the operator's group lea d e r . Just then, Bob came walking by and Tony c a l l e d him over. Tony: Look, Bob, I'm having t r o u b l e w i t h t h i s l e a d d r e s s i n g . I want t o work out a system f o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h a t . Come on over t o R i t a w i t h me and see i f we can s t r a i g h t e n t h i s out. They walked over t o R i t a . Bob: Now what's the t r o u b l e w i t h t h i s l e a d dress business, R i t a ? R i t a : This i s t e r r i b l e . We have t o do something about i t . These wires are touching and they're a l l going t o short out. Just then, George, the f a c t o r y engineer, came by and Tony l e f t Bob and R i t a w h i l e he went t o speak t o George. Tony: George, I want t o work out a system on t h i s l e a d d r e s s i n g business. Can we get together tomorrow on that? George: Sure: That's a good id e a . We should get a f t e r t h a t . Bob watched Tony and George t a l k i n g f o r a moment and then he wheeled around and l e f t the l i n e i n a h u f f , s a y i n g , "What i s t h i s ? You c a l l me over on the l e a d dress and while you're t a l k i n g about i t , you walk over t o somebody e l s e . I came over here t o help you and i f t h i s i s what you're going t o do, I ' l l go back t o the o f f i c e . I'm busy and got ple n t y of t h i n g s t o do over t h e r e . " Tony h a r d l y n o t i c e d what Bob s a i d and he con t i n u e d t a l k i n g t o George. Then R i t a c a l l e d out t o Tony again. R i t a : Tony, come over here and take a look at t h i s . They're g e t t i n g the l i g h t s bent on these u n i t s . Can't you do something about i t ? Tony: Bob was supposed t o b r i n g some brackets over t o h o l d up the assembly bases. He's got some over here now and I b e l i e v e more are coming. Dick came up t o the l i n e and R i t a showed him the bent l i g h t s . Dick commented, "Methods was supposed t o b r i n g those brackets over a long time ago. They're sure t a k i n g t h e i r time about i t . " R i t a went back t o her i n s p e c t i o n p o s i t i o n s and a few minutes l a t e r c a l l e d out t o Tony again. R i t a : Look at t h i s . They're p u t t i n g i n the pins reversed. We've got a whole l i n e of completed u n i t s now l i k e t h a t . George: Oh, t h a t ' s s e r i o u s . That can cause a l o t of t r o u b l e . You'd [to Tony] b e t t e r get that s t r a i g h t  ened out. Tony: I t o l d the pin-up operator about i t . He shouldn't be doing i t th a t way. 120 Tony, George, R i t a , and Dick went over t o the p i n  up operator's p o s i t i o n . Tony: [To the operator.] You're p u t t i n g the pins i n wrong. Didn't I show you how they were supposed t o go i n ? Op.: You t o l d me? I'm doing i t the way I was shown. No one t o l d me d i f f e r e n t . I t goes l i k e t h i s [ p o i n t i n g ] 1, 2, 3, 4. George: No, you're r e v e r s i n g the p i n s . Tony: I t o l d you t h a t . Op.: You d i d not.' No one t o l d me t o do i t d i f  f e r e n t than I am. R i t a : Tony, why don't you get him a pin-up chart? How's he supposed t o remember where they go? Tony: A l l r i g h t . I ' l l go over t o the o f f i c e and get him one, and I ' l l b r i n g some extras back f o r you. Bob reappeared on the l i n e and he immediately spoke to Tony a n g r i l y . Bob: What's the idea of c a l l i n g me over t o check on the l e a d dress and then l e a v i n g me i n the middle t o go over t o somebody else? I'm busy over at the o f f i c e and I take my time o f f t o help you and you haven't got the manners t o stay w i t h me. You run o f f . That's what I c a l l being i m p o l i t e . Tony: How can you say t h a t , Bob? I j u s t walked over t o George to see i f we can get together tomorrow to work out a system on t h i s l e a d dress. I didn't mean to be i m p o l i t e , but i f you t h i n k I was, I'm s o r r y . I a p o l o g i z e . I didn't t h i n k I was i m p o l i t e . Bob: [ R a i s i n g h i s v o i c e . ] W e l l , what e l s e would you c a l l i t but i m p o l i t e ? That's what i t was, wasn't i t ? Tony: W e l l , I'm s o r r y , Bob. I didn't mean t o be i m p o l i t e . I went over to George about th a t l e a d dress. George: That's r i g h t , Bob. We a l l ought t o get together tomorrow morning on t h a t . R i t a came up t o the group again. R i t a : Tony, I thought you promised t o b r i n g a p i n  up chart f o r the operator. Tony: [ R a i s i n g h i s v o i c e i n anger.] Now wait a minute, R i t a . Stop p u t t i n g words i n my mouth. I d i d not say I'd b r i n g a pin-up chart over. I s a i d I'd t r y t o get i t . R i t a : W e l l , I s a i d you t o l d me t h a t you'd t r y t o b r i n g i t over. Tony: I never promised anything l i k e t h a t . I s a i d I'd t r y . R i t a : W e l l , now I have t o go a l l the way down the l i n e and change the p i n s . [ R i t a s t a r t e d t o walk away. Dick f o l l o w e d her.] Dick: R i t a , you w i l l not change those p i n s . That's not your jo b , R i t a , and I don't want you to do t h a t . 121 Tony: I ' l l go down t o the o f f i c e and get those pin-up c h a r t s . [Tony l e f t . ] Dick: Boy. They c a l l t h i s s u p e r v i s i o n . This l i n e i s g e t t i n g a l l f o u l e d up. George: Now wait a minute, Dick. Don't say t h a t . Give Tony a break. He's j u s t g e t t i n g s t a r t e d . Dick: W e l l , nobody's g i v i n g me a break. I was i n Nixon's o f f i c e and he gave me h e l l about the q u a l  i t y . No one's going t o take the rap f o r me. By God, t h i s has got t o change. We're going t o get q u a l i t y - out of t h i s l i n e , or e l s e . George: W e l l , don't blame Tony. H e ' l l be a l l r i g h t . Dick: O.K., George [ s m i l e s ] , l e t ' s you and I co operate. Do you want t o cooperate w i t h me? George: Sure. We'll cooperate [ l a u g h s ] . Tony returned w i t h s e v e r a l pin-up c h a r t s . He gave one t o R i t a and one t o the operator at the pin-up s t a t i o n . Tony then came over t o where Dick and George were standing. R i t a then c a l l e d Tony, Dick, and George and showed them a u n i t w i t h a r e j e c t tag cont a i n i n g a long l i s t of r e j e c t s . R i t a read o f f the r e j e c t s one by one and she showed Dick a questionable piece of work. Dick: R i t a , r e j e c t i t J Reject everything l i k e t h a t . Don't take any chances. We're going t o t i g h t e n up now. Tony walked away without comment and he was r e  j o i n e d by Dick and George. R i t a then came over w i t h the pin-up chart t h a t Tony had given t o her. R i t a : This looks l i k e the pin-up chart f o r the other l i n e s . Tony: Aw, I'm s o r r y . I didn't look and brought the wrong c h a r t . I'm s o r r y . George: Look, Tony, I ' l l take a walk over t o the o f f i c e and get you some charts f o r your l i n e . Tony: Would you do t h a t , George? Gee, thanks a l o t . And w h i l e you're t h e r e , would you get me some e x t r a charts? Get about 7 of them so that I have them, w i l l you? George: Sure, Tony. A l i t t l e l a t e r , Tony spoke t o the observer. He s a i d , nI don't know why Bob got sore and c a l l e d me i m p o l i t e . I guess he's s t i l l mad about t h a t s l e e v i n g business t h i s morning.49 63. During the second week of operations and t h e r e a f t e r during the observation p e r i o d , a f u l l - f l e d g e d feud broke out on the l i n e . The feud centered around the conveyor. The conveyor was supposed t o operate con t i n u o u s l y except f o r the luncheon and r e s t p e r i o d s , but i t d i d not work out t h a t way. 64. The operation of the conveyor l i n e was based on the 122 assumption that each assembly sequence would be per formed w i t h i n the standard time allowed. The speed of the conveyor b e l t was set so that when each opera t o r completed her work ( i f w i t h i n the standard time allowance), the u n i t had entered f u l l y i n t o the next operator's work p o s i t i o n . Therefore, there was sup posed t o be a u n i t i n each work p o s i t i o n at a l l times. I t d i d not take Tony very long t o f i g u r e out t h a t each 4.5 minutes that the conveyor was stopped he would l o s e one u n i t i n that day's production. For the f i r s t week of work, Tony d i d not seem concerned over the f a c t that the conveyor was being stopped when a g i r l got out of p o s i t i o n . A f t e r a l l , i t was the f i r s t week, the quota was set f a i r l y low, and Tony was exceeding i t . No one had too much cause f o r complaint. But, beginning w i t h the second week, the s i t u a t i o n be came ch r o n i c . Apparently some of the g i r l s could not or would not, perform t h e i r work w i t h i n standard time allowances. They would get out of p o s i t i o n moving along the l i n e i n t o other operators' work s t a t i o n s i n order t o f o l l o w the uncompleted u n i t as i t rode down the conveyor. Other g i r l s were f o r c e d out of p o s i t i o n , and the cumulative e f f e c t of the s i t u a t i o n became s e r i o u s . As the g i r l s got out of p o s i t i o n , they had to walk back t o t h e i r r e g u l a r work s t a t i o n s f o r p a r t s . S o l d e r i n g i r o n l i n e s crossed making i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the g i r l s t o work w i t h the i r o n s . These i n t e r f e r e n c e s increased the work times so that the operators moved even f u r t h e r out of p o s i t i o n . 5 0 The g i r l s d i s l i k e d g e t t i n g out of p o s i t i o n because i t was p h y s i c a l l y t i r i n g t o walk from t h e i r r e g u l a r s t a t i o n s t o where t h e i r u n i t had moved and then back f o r p a r t s . Furthermore, they were unable t o c a r r y on t h e i r normal conversations and the work cli m a t e be came very tense. The g i r l s t h e r e f o r e began t o pres sure Tony t o shut down the conveyor t o giv e them a chance t o get back t o t h e i r normal work p o s i t i o n s . Tony, on the other hand, was determined t o keep the conveyor running at a l l c o s t s . What kept running through h i s mind was "every 4.5 minutes, I'm down one u n i t . " Tony b e l i e v e d Helen was r e s p o n s i b l e i n some way f o r the problem and he l e t her know about i t . Meanwhile, Helen and Jean were caught between the g i r l s ' demands tha t the conveyor be stopped and Tony's i n s i s t e n c e that i t continue t o run. As the days passed, the s i t u a t i o n grew worse because absenteeism increased and new operators assigned t o the l i n e could not keep up w i t h the work on u n f a m i l i a r p o s i t i o n s . D o t t i e t r i e d t o keep n e u t r a l , but Tony assigned her t o help 'push' out u n i t s at the end of the l i n e . As long as she was away from her s e c t i o n , i t too began t o have 123 d i f f i c u l t y keeping up, which only i n t e n s i f i e d the problem.51 One morning the g i r l s were out of p o s i t i o n and they began pr e s s u r i n g t o have the conveyor shut down. The g i r l s kept i n s i s t i n g t o Helen t h a t she should shut down the conveyor. Helen kept repeating at each request, "Tony doesn't want the l i n e t o stop." Be cause s e v e r a l g i r l s were absent from Helen's s e c t i o n she was busy on the l i n e h e l p i n g f i l l - i n operators and she took p o s i t i o n s h e r s e l f u n t i l a f i l l - i n opera t o r could be assigned. At one point i n the day, wh i l e the g i r l s were f a r out of p o s i t i o n , Helen c a l l e d f o r Tony. Helen: Tony, i s out f o r r e l i e f . You b e t t e r shut down the l i n e . She shouldn't be away.52 Tony was worried. He s a i d t o the observer, "These g i r l s ["referring t o the group le a d e r s ] have me behind the eight b a l l . I have t o depend on them f o r answers i n case Nixon c a l l s me i n t o h i s o f f i c e , and I don't know whether they're t e l l i n g me the r i g h t s t u f f or not. They've been on the l i n e longer. So I've j u s t got t o wait and get s t r a i g h t e n e d out. Meanwhile, they've got me behind the eight b a l l and I have t o depend on them f o r answers. When Nixon or Harry c a l l me i n , they want a quick answer and i t has t o be r i g h t . I t doesn't look r i g h t f o r me t o h e s i t a t e . So I have t o depend on my group l e a d e r s , but I'm not sure they're t e l l i n g me the r i g h t answers. W e l l , I ' l l be s t r a i g h t e n e d out soon and I ' l l know f o r my s e l f . 53 . . . . Operators #1 and §2 kept t h e i r word. F o l l o w i n g the r e b a l a n c i n g , they were always behind i n feeding u n i t s on t o the assembly l i n e , and the l i n e had many gaps where there should have been u n i t s . This l a g f u r t h e r reduced d a i l y production. Bob ran i n t o a snag toward the end of the l i n e and he d i d not complete h i s work u n t i l l a t e i n the a f t e r  noon. The l i n e had t o be shut down f o r a good part of the day and t h i s upset Tony. He s a i d , "Look, Bob promised i t wouldn't i n t e r f e r e w i t h the l i n e and yet the l i n e has stopped and I ' l l be lucky t o get 35 u n i t s o f f the l i n e today. And that throws my costs up. I sure hope t h i s r e b alancing was checked. I don't have confidence i n Bob's work. I f something i s wrong t o  morrow and I don't get production, t h e y ' l l have me on the carpet because the l i n e i s now supposed t o be r e  balanced. Dan c a l l e d me i n t o Harry's o f f i c e and y e l l e d about having e x t r a people on the l i n e and about q u a l i t y . That q u a l i t y i s t e r r i b l e . I'm going t o have to work something out on t h a t . Boy, I'm on the carpet, and I know i t I With these e x t r a people on the l i n e , 124 t h a t throws my costs up. I've got t o f i n d out what my costs are. Nobody t e l l s me anything, but i f I don't know what my costs are and keep them down, t h e y ' l l c a l l me i n the o f f i c e and n a i l me. I want t o f i n d out what my costs are and get them down before they put me on the spot.54 70. A f t e r the r e b a l a n c i n g , events on the l i n e took a t u r n f o r the worse f o r Tony. The l i n e could not keep running s t e a d i l y and production was down. D o t t i e had been t r a n s f e r r e d from the l i n e and so had C a r o l . Pete remained on the l i n e and Bob spent most of each day there. In a d d i t i o n , George, the f a c t o r y engineer, was te m p o r a r i l y assigned t o the l i n e f u l l time t o t r y t o improve q u a l i t y . The operators began s t a r t i n g and stopping the conveyor almost at w i l l . Pete a l s o began to c o n t r o l the conveyor. He had the ide a t h a t i t would improve the s i t u a t i o n t o run the l i n e c ontinu ously f o r about 15 minutes and then t o stop i t f o r 3 or 4 minutes so tha t the g i r l s could get caught up w i t h t h e i r work. He s t a r t e d t o do t h i s without con s u l t i n g Tony. When Tony learned of t h i s , he wanted t o know, "Who does t h i s Pete t h i n k he i s ? " He t o l d Pete t o f o r g e t about h i s plan. Bob a l s o acted as though he were a su p e r v i s o r on the l i n e . He t o l d the g i r l s t o f i l l i n the gaps on the l i n e by moving the u n i t s along the conveyor.55 71. Observer: Tony, you've t o l d me a number of times th a t i n your job as foreman you are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r production, q u a l i t y , and personnel. T e l l me, what does t h a t mean? Tony: [Smili n g . ] W e l l , production means t h a t I'm supposed t o get a c e r t a i n q u a n t i t y out every day. The schedule . . . Observer: Yes, but t e l l me i n your own words. 72. Tony: [Laughing.] W e l l , methods i s supposed t o set up the l i n e f o r me so that I can get out a c e r t a i n amount. I f they don't balance the l i n e or i f they don't set i t up r i g h t , I'm not going t o get our the qua n t i t y on my schedule. So I'm r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h a t . That means I'm going t o get put on the carpet f o r t h a t . Now, I don't have t o l e t methods come i n here t o r e  balance the l i n e or anything. A f t e r a l l , I'm i n charge of the l i n e . But i f I don't, then Fred i s going t o see Nixon and t e l l him I don't want t o cooperate. Now t h a t ' s going t o make me look bad. So I have t o co operate w i t h them. [Laughing.] You know something? You see a l o t of people who come down t o the l i n e and t r y t o t e l l me what t o do. Look at a l l the people I got t o confront w i t h . There's methods, then there's i n s p e c t i o n and engineering, and than I got t o confront w i t h my boss. That means I got 12$ t o confront w i t h 5 d i f f e r e n t people. And they don't want t o know the other s i d e of the s t o r y . They only look at t h e i r s i d e . I don't know. I t h i n k t h i n g s w i l l be a l l r i g h t . As soon as I get my inventory and f i n d out where I stand, I ' l l get everything s t r a i g h t  ened out. I t ' s got t o s t r a i g h t e n out 156 7 3 • The company's standard job d e s c r i p t i o n of the f o r e  man f u n c t i o n assigned c e r t a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o a foreman and granted him a measure of a u t h o r i t y . The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the foreman f u n c t i o n were defined as f o l l o w s : "The job i n v o l v e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r em ployees' conduct and f o r d i s c i p l i n e i n the department, a l s o q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of work produced." The job d e s c r i p t i o n a l s o s t a t e d t h a t the foreman "must be able t o use independent judgment and r e g u l a r l y e x e r c i s e d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers." The o r g a n i z a t i o n granted the foreman a c e r t a i n amount of a u t h o r i t y which gave him a measure of con t r o l over the a c t i o n s and f u t u r e of others. He eould i n i t i a t e a c t i o n i n h i r i n g , d i s c h a r g i n g , promoting, and d i s c i p l i n i n g employees. A foreman a l s o prepared merit r a t i n g s , which were used i n awarding pay i n  creases t o employees.57 7 4 . There were at l e a s t two key r e l a t i o n s h i p s on the assembly l i n e i n which the p o t e n t i a l f o r growth and development e x i s t e d : (1) i n Tony's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s boss, and (2) i n Tony's r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . The negative q u a l i t y of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e s u l t e d i n the development and perpetu a t i o n of negative r e l a t i o n s h i p s between Tony and h i s subordinates. A k i n d of v i c i o u s c i r c l e was i n process, t h e r e f o r e , which c o n s i s t e d of three elements. F i r s t , we f i n d Tony w i t h a set of f i x e d b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s which d i d not help him understand events about him. Second, a set of negative r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t e d be tween Tony and h i s boss, and Tony and the s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , i n which Tony d i d not r e c e i v e any help i n modifying h i s b e l i e f s or i n l e a r n i n g from h i s e x p e r i  ence. T h i r d , the f o r t i f i c a t i o n of h i s b e l i e f s and a t t i t u d e s i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s upward l e d t o u n s a t i s  f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s between Tony and h i s s u b o r d i  nates. The r e s u l t s of t h i s v i c i o u s c i r c l e , as we saw i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of Tony and h i s l i n e , were the f a i l u r e of the l i n e t o meet production and q u a l i t y g o a l s ; the low s t a t e of morale among the operators; and f i n a l l y Tony's own f e e l i n g s of being pushed around.58 126 FOOTNOTES ON CHAPTER V F.L.W. Richardson, Talk, Work and A c t i o n ( I t h a c a , New York: The So c i e t y f o r Appl i e d Anthropology, C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , New York State School of I n d u s t r i a l and Labor R e l a t i o n s , 1961). 2 p . 17. 3pp. 17-18. 4 p . 18. 5 p . 18. V 1 9 7 p . 1 9 . 8 p . 2 2 . V 1 9 . p. 25. p. 25 1 2 A * p . 22. 1 3 p . 26. 1 4 p . 26. l 5 p . 2 6 . l 6 p . 26. 1 7 p . 28. 18 " p. 33. 1 9 p . 2 9 . 2°P. 2 9 . 2 1 X p . 2 9 . 2 2 p . 30. 127 2 3 p . 30. 2 4 P . 56. 2 5 p p . 56-57. 26 A. Z a l e z n i k , Foreman T r a i n i n g i n a Growing Enter p r i s e , (Boston: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y School of Business, D i v i s i o n of Research, 1951). 2 7 p . 87. 2 9 p p . S8-89. 3°pp. 90-91. 3 1 P P . 93-96. 3 2 p p . 96-97. 3 3 P P . 97-98. 3 4 p p . 104-105. 3 5 p . 105. 3 6 p . 106. 3 7 p p . 106-108. 3 8 P p . 110-111. 3 9 p p . 113-114. 4V 119. 4 1 p p . 61-62. 4 2 p . 65. 4 3 p . 72. 4 4 p . 73. 4 5 p p . 76-77. 4 6 P P . 79-80. 47 48 pp. 80-82. 'p. 216, 49 50 51 52 53 54 pp. 123-129. p. 134. •p. 135. p. 135. 55 56 pp. 142-143. p. 158. P. 159. 57 58 p. 166. p. 184. 'p. 189. CHAPTER VI CASE STUDIES: CATEGORY I I I TECHNOLOGY I n t r o d u c t i o n Chapter VI i s the l a s t of the three chapters devoted e n t i r e l y to the p r e s e n t a t i o n of e m p i r i c a l data i n the form of case s t u d i e s . The chapter c o n s i s t s of two case s t u d i e s which serve t o demonstrate examples of the nature of f i r s t - l i n e s u p ervisory r o l e demands and environmental character i s t i c s under continuous-process technology. The two case s t u d i e s of the chapter have been e d i t e d i n order t o present only those data which are p e r t i n e n t t o the a n a l y s i s . Case 6 i s a t y p i c a l of the preceding f i v e s t u d i e s . In e f f e c t , i t represents a composite case-study-commentary drawn from two d i s t i n c t sources. The content and or g a n i  z a t i o n of Case 6 r e f l e c t s the o b j e c t i v e of attempting t o v a l i d a t e the s p e c i f i c hypotheses formulated i n Chapter I I I . CASE NO. 5 A STEEL PLANT 1 Production and the Organization 1. [This] study of male sup e r v i s o r s was c a r r i e d out i n one of the p l a n t s of a s t e e l company, i n which are em ployed almost 3,000 people. Production c o n s i s t s a l  most e n t i r e l y of ' f l a t * s t e e l , that i s t o say 'slabs ' which vary i n s i z e but are something of the order of t h i r t y f e e t by s i x , and ' b i l l e t s , ' long bars about s i x 130 inches square. The production work i s done i n f o u r departments: Coke-Ovens, Blast-Furnaces, M e l t i n g Shop and R o l l i n g M i l l , a l l of which are working round the c l o c k . There i s a s u b s t a n t i a l number of maintenance men, mostly on day work, but w i t h a few on s h i f t s . In a l l there are about eighty foremen and of these s l i g h t l y more than h a l f are engaged on production work and the remainder on maintenance. This study i s concerned mainly w i t h the production foremen i n the four departments named above. 2. For present purposes the plant may be regarded as an independent company, w i t h an autonomous management. . . . . [See Figure V I I I below] 3. Each of the managers of the four production depart ments has under him an a s s i s t a n t manager and a number of foremen. To e x p l a i n the p o s i t i o n of the foremen i t i s necessary t o describe the work of the departments and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of some of the people i n them. F i r s t , . . . the processes of the plant can be summar i z e d as f o l l o w s . The raw m a t e r i a l s of steel-making are i r o n ore and c o a l . The c o a l i s made i n t o coke i n the coke-ovens, coke and ore are heated together i n the b l a s t - f u r n a c e s t o become i r o n ; the i r o n i s t r a n s  formed i n t o s t e e l i n the M e l t i n g Shop, and the s t e e l i n g o t s are then passed through the R o l l i n g M i l l , where they are r o l l e d down t o the r e q u i r e d s i z e s . 2 The Work of the Foremen The coke-ovens 4. This department employs 200 men, of whom t h i r t y or so are on permanent day-work and the r e s t on s h i f t - w o r k . There are three s h i f t s , and the f o u r groups of s h i f t workers r o t a t e on a weekly b a s i s . The s u p e r v i s o r s i n c l u d e f o u r s h i f t - f o r e m e n , and two day-foremen, one of the l a t t e r i n charge of the washing and crushing p l a n t , and the other i n charge of heating. 5. As c o a l a r r i v e s i t i s t i p p e d on t o conveyor b e l t s , and passes on f o r bl e n d i n g , washing, and crushing. I l l i t s crushed form the c o a l then remains i n a s t o r  age tower u n t i l i t i s charged i n t o the coke-ovens. A f t e r i t has been coked, i t i s pushed from the ovens, quenched, screened f o r s i z e and then t r a n s p o r t e d t o the b l a s t furnaces. 6. The f i r s t part of the process, from the d e l i v e r y of the c o a l u n t i l i t i s ready f o r charging, i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of one of the day^-foremen who c o n t r o l s a work-force of about twenty men. The other day- foreman, the Heater Foreman, i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the heating of the hundred or so ovens. I t i s h i s job t o decide what temperature i s needed i n every oven, and General Manager A s s i s t a n t General Manager Works Manager iQuarriesf ducation Labour O f f i c e r 1 O f f i c e r D f f i c e Manager Ch i e f |Acct. Commercial Chief Manager Engineer Chief Draughtsman Mechanical Engineering E l e c t r i c a l Engineering F u e l & Progress Coke Ovens B l a s t Furnaces Melting Shop Asst. Manager Asst. Manager Asst. Manager Rol] Mil Ling LI Asst. Manager Chief Chemist Chief M e t a l l u r g i s t [Foremen! Foremen) Foremen] Foremen FIGURE V I I I MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION IN" A STEEL PLANT" (Developed from source data: p. 83) 13 2 t o ensure by r e g u l a r i n s p e c t i o n that the ovens and t h e i r apparatus and f l u e s (of which there are twenty-seven t o each oven) are i n s e r v i c e a b l e condi t i o n . He and h i s a s s i s t a n t are both on day-work, but he has one man on each s h i f t . The work at the coke-ovens proper i s s h i f t - w o r k c o n t r o l l e d by the s h i f t - f o r e m e n , each of whom has an a s s i s t a n t who pays s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o s u p e r v i s i n g the f i v e men em ployed on each s h i f t i n the by-product p l a n t . 7. Gn the maintenance side there i s one foreman and and a s s i s t a n t foreman attached t o t h i s department but r e s p o n s i b l e t o the Mechanical Engineer, and a foreman r e s p o n s i b l e t o the E l e c t r i c a l Engineer. These men are on duty during the day-time only. 8. To summarize the s i t u a t i o n , there i s always a s h i f t - foreman on duty, but the other foremen mentioned are at work only during the day, that i s during the l a t t e r part of the morning s h i f t and the e a r l i e r part of the afternoon s h i f t . The manager and a s s i s t a n t manager of the department, moreover, and the heads of the d i f f e r  ent maintenance departments are a l s o at work, as a r u l e , only during the day. This means t h a t f o r the whole of the n i g h t - s h i f t and f o r p a r t s of the morning and afternoon s h i f t s the shift-foreman i s the only s u p e r v i s o r on duty, so t h a t at these times h i s span of c o n t r o l i s considerably widened. For example, when the Heater Foreman i s not there the shift-foreman i s i n general charge of the heaters though the l a t t e r are r e s p o n s i b l e t o the Heater Foreman f o r the t e c h n i c a l s i d e of t h e i r work. 9 . The extent of the shift-foreman's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y must be emphasized. The foreman i s , of course, work in g according t o i n s t r u c t i o n s i s s u e d by the departmental manager, but the a c t u a l progress of the work remains h i s province. He i s i n charge of only a medium-sized working group but of p l a n t which i s p h y s i c a l l y l a r g e and covers a f a i r amount of ground. This p l a n t i s work in g round the clock seven days a week, and i t i s im portant t o spot any signs of t r o u b l e as e a r l y as pos s i b l e so t h a t minor maintenance can prevent major r e  p a i r s l a t e r . For the g r e a t e r part of the time the shift-foreman i s i n e n t i r e charge, without a manager on the spot t o help or advise him i f he i s i n d i f f i c u l  t i e s . The b l a s t furnaces 10. There i s much the same arrangement of s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h i s department as i n the previous one. In a d d i t i o n t o the s h i f t - f o r e m e n , who are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the work at the furnaces themselves, there i s a number of day- foremen. Those foremen who may be s a i d t o belong t o 133 the department i n c l u d e one i n charge of the gas- c l e a n i n g p l a n t , two r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the ore d e l i v e r y and crushing s e c t i o n (each working one s h i f t d a i l y ) , and one i n c o n t r o l of a gang of labours. There are a l s o two foremen r e s p o n s i b l e f o r mechanical mainte nance, and one f o r e l e c t r i c a l maintenance. 11. The departmental manager has under him two a s s i s  t a n t managers, one concentrating on the m a t e r i a l supply s i d e and one on the work of the furnaces proper. During normal day working hours, t h e r e f o r e , the l a t t e r i s i n c l o s e touch w i t h the s h i f t - f o r e m e n , one of whom i s on duty at any time. 12. In t h i s department v a r i o u s kinds of ore are received, put through the crushing p l a n t and then s t o r e d i n bun kers t o await charging i n t o the furnaces. Goke i s brought by t r o l l e y from the coke-ovens and a l s o s t o r e d . Up t o t h i s p o i n t , the work i s under the c o n t r o l of a day-foreman. According t o proportions l a i d down by the manager of the department the furnaces are charged w i t h coke and the d i f f e r e n t types of ore. About every s i x hours each furnace i s tapped by i t s furnacemen, under the s u p e r v i s i o n of the s h i f t - f o r e m a n . 13. An a d d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t y of t h i s department i s gas- c l e a n i n g . The gas t h a t i s given o f f by the furnaces i s t r e a t e d i n an elaborate c l e a n i n g plant f o r which a day-foreman i s r e s p o n s i b l e . His work i s d i s t i n c t l y more t e c h n i c a l than t h a t of most of the production foremen, and i t r e q u i r e s a more t e c h n i c a l background than t h e i r s . 14. In t h i s department the shift-foremen are again i n s o l e charge f o r that part of the time when the day- foreman and managers are not on duty, and t h e i r respon s i b i l i t i e s are again heavy. As i n most other produc t i o n departments, each shift-foreman has an a s s i s t a n t foreman working w i t h him. M e l t i n g shop 15. A f t e r the operations of the b l a s t - f u r n a c e s we come t o the a c t u a l steel-making, which i s c a r r i e d out i n open-hearth furnaces. B r i e f l y , the procedure i s as f o l l o w s : hot metal ( i r o n ) i s c a r r i e d from the b l a s t  furnaces, s t o r e d i n a mixer, and d e - s i l i c o n i z e d . The furnace i t i s intended f o r i s charged w i t h scrap metal and limestone i n proportions l a i d down by the o f f i c e of the M e l t i n g Shop Manager and then charged w i t h the s p e c i a l q u a n t i t y of hot metal. A f t e r twelve hours or so the furnace i s tapped and the s t e e l poured i n t o i n  got moulds (the process known as teeming). 16. The s u p e r v i s o r s i n c l u d e f o u r day-foremen, two i n charge of gangs of labourers and two i n c o n t r o l of b r i c k l a y e r s engaged on furnace maintenance work. There 134 i s a l s o one mechanical maintenance foreman attached t o the department. Then there are the equivalent of s h i f t - f o r e m e n , c a l l e d i n t h i s case sample-passers, one of whom i s i n charge of the furnaces during every s h i f t . They each have an a s s i s t a n t sample-passer. 17. The sample-passer's job c o n s i s t s of s u p e r v i s i n g the work on a l l f u rnaces, each of which i s under the charge of a f i r s t - h a n d and employs three other workers. The work i n c l u d e s both charging and teeming; i n a d d i t i o n the sample-passer oversees a v a r i e t y of work connected w i t h the s o r t i n g and p r e p a r a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l f o r charging. Although the f i r s t - h a n d s c o n t r o l the work of each furnace, d i r e c t i n g i t s charging and watching f o r the moment when i t should be tapped, the sample- passer i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r ensuring that the s t e e l i s produced t o the s p e c i f i c a t i o n s l a i d down. He i s pre sent when furnaces are tapped and has a l a b o r a t o r y r e  port made on a sample of s t e e l j u s t before t a p p i n g , i n accordance w i t h which he c o n t r o l s the throwing i n of manganese. L i k e the other s h i f t - f o r e m e n , the sample- passer i s i n s o l e c o n t r o l f o r a good deal of the time. L i k e them, he i s r e s p o n s i b l e , through the a s s i s t a n t manager, to the manager of the department. The r o l l i n g m i l l 18. A f t e r the s t e e l has been tapped and t r a n s f e r r e d t o ingot moulds, the i n g o t s are placed i n soaking p i t s , where they are heated t o a uniform temperature through out. They are then f e d i n t o the cogging m i l l where they are shaped i n t o s l a b s of v a r i o u s s i z e s and blooms, f i v e inches square and upwards. The l a t t e r pass on t o a f i n i s h i n g m i l l where they are shaped i n t o long b i l - l i t s , from two t o f i v e inches square. In a d d i t i o n , a f t e r passing through the r o l l s , s l a b s and b i l l e t s are cut t o r e q u i r e d lengths by hot or c o l d shears, and sur face dressings are a p p l i e d i n some cases. 19. In a d d i t i o n t o s h i f t - f o r e m e n , there are i n t h i s de partment two maintenance foremen on day-work and a day- foreman i n charge of labourers and a c h i e f s t o c k t a k e r , the l a t t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s t e e l and i t s d r e s s i n g a f t e r i t has been r o l l e d . There are no a s s i s t a n t f o r e  men, but what are i n e f f e c t leading-hands c o n t r o l the work at i t s d i f f e r e n t stages; f o r example, the R o l l e r i s i n t e c h n i c a l c o n t r o l of the operation of the cogging m i l l and the f i n i s h i n g m i l l , the Heater c o n t r o l s the work at the soaking p i t s . These men, however, are not s u p e r v i s o r s , and the o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y remains t h a t of the foreman, who f o l l o w s weekly i n s t r u c t i o n s which g i v e d e t a i l s of the type and amount of production needed. The M e l t i n g Shop works from the same i n s t r u c  t i o n s , producing s t e e l of the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y 135 s p e c i f i e d as may be most convenient during the course of a week but not i n a set order. The R o l l i n g M i l l Foreman must t h e r e f o r e keep i n touch w i t h the M e l t i n g Shop and w i t h the l a b o r a t o r y which t e s t s the q u a l i t y of s t e e l so t h a t he can p l a n h i s department's work. He t r i e s t o do t h i s so as t o achieve as good a f l o w of work as p o s s i b l e , which means attempting t o get a run of s i m i l a r s i z e s through the m i l l t o avoid frequent changing of the r o l l s . 3 The demands of the foreman's job 20. We have seen t h a t , i n any of the departments, the day-foreman i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r part of the work, e.g. the washing and crushing of c o a l i n the Goke-Ovens Department. The s h i f t - f o r e m a n , on the other hand, i s g e n e r a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the main work of production i n h i s department, e.g. sample-passing i n the M e l t i n g Shop, and, i n a d d i t i o n , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s e c t i o n s c o n t r o l l e d by the day-foremen when the l a t t e r are not on duty. In e i t h e r case there i s not more than a small amount of paper-work, confined f o r the most part t o keeping simple records of q u a n t i t i e s and kinds produced and hold-ups encountered. 21. Foremen a l s o have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n connection w i t h the t r a i n i n g of production workers. U n t i l r e  c e n t l y , t r a i n i n g has been f a i r l y i n f o r m a l but there i s now the beginning of organized departmental t r a i n i n g , and the foremen have a b i g part t o play i n t h i s . One or two s p e c i f i c job t r a i n i n g courses have been run by foremen and other production people, helped and en couraged by the s t a f f of the T r a i n i n g Department. Meetings are a l s o h e l d i n some department f o r d i s c u s  s i o n of v a r i o u s production processes. The success of t h i s t r a i n i n g depend t o a great extent on the enthus iasm of the foremen, f o r i t i s a new departure and one i n which i n t e r e s t must be s t i m u l a t e d among ol d e r workers. 22. Foremen have a great deal t o do w i t h other people i n the course of t h e i r w o r k — w i t h other foremen, w i t h the maintenance engineers and t h e i r workers, w i t h other production and s p e c i a l i s t departments. An important demand on them, t h e r e f o r e , i s t h a t they should be both w i l l i n g and able t o co-operate w i t h a l l of these. The f a c t t h a t the plant i s working round the clock em phasizes t h i s demand—problems of c o - o r d i n a t i o n cannot be sorted out when the plant has c l o s e d down, but must be foreseen and prevented. 23. F i n a l l y , the foreman's job r e q u i r e s a high degree of p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . More than most f a c t o r y foremen, those i n t h i s plant are 'on the go," up and down s t a i r  ways and over a considerable amount of ground. The 136 R o l l i n g M i l l t e r r i t o r y , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s c e r t a i n l y not l e s s than h a l f a mile long and the only means of com munication, as a r u l e , i s by word of mouth. To super v i s e adequately, the foreman must p a t r o l h i s t e r r i t o r y ; he may have t o walk from one end of h i s department t o the other t o g i v e an i n s t r u c t i o n , c limbing s e v e r a l f l i g h t s of s t a i r s on the way. . . .4 S e l e c t i o n and T r a i n i n g of Foremen S e l e c t i o n 24. In the f o u r departments j u s t d e s c r i b e d , the work of the operators ranges from u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r i n g t o very s k i l l e d work r e q u i r i n g considerable experience, as i n the case of the f i r s t - h a n d on a furnace. The advance ment of workers from one job t o another takes place along l i n e s which have been agreed i n the past between the union r e p r e s e n t i n g the production workers and the management. As a r u l e , promotion i s by set stages and on the b a s i s of s e n i o r i t y . New employees, then, must s t a r t at the bottom and work t h e i r way up through jobs of r i s i n g s t a t u s and i n t e r e s t and, u s u a l l y , of i n c r e a s  ing r a t e s of pay. For example, i n the R o l l i n g M i l l a man w i l l begin as a p a i n t e r or r a c k - d r i v e r , and move up when a vacancy occurs t o be an a s s i s t a n t - s t r a i g h t e n e r . His next move w i l l be t o s c a l i n g , g r e a s i n g , or a s s i s t  i n g on the shears and, according t o which of these jobs he goes t o , h i s promotion i s determined f o r the f u t u r e up a p a r t i c u l a r avenue. He may end up as a r o l l e r , on the one hand, or as the heater i n charge of the soaking p i t s , on the other. 25. In the past, promotion t o a s s i s t a n t foreman and then to foreman of production work u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d i n t h i s same l i n e of advancement. This was so, provided t h a t managers agreed t h a t s e n i o r i t y went w i t h a b i l i t y t o supervise and t h a t the union was agreeable t o the ap pointment. The exception t o t h i s p r a c t i c e i n c l u d e d the more t e c h n i c a l or s p e c i a l i s t foremen's p o s i t i o n s , such as t h a t of the Heater Foreman i n the Coke-Gvens. The m a j o r i t y of the present production foremen, then, have been w i t h the f i r m f o r many years and have worker t h e i r way up the r i g i d system of advancement, f i n a l l y becoming foremen by reason of t h e i r s e n i o r i t y , t h e i r a b i l i t y and t h e i r acceptance by the union. Because of t h i s system they are a l l h i g h l y experienced i n what might be c a l l e d t h e i r own l i n e s , the l i n e s they them selv e s have come up, although t h e i r p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i  ence of other kinds of work i n t h e i r departments i s l i m i t e d . In f a c t , w h i l e the day-foremen, on the whole, are s u p e r v i s i n g only processes i n which they are h i g h l y experienced, the shift-foremen supervise at times a 137 v a r i e t y of work i n a l l of which they cannot p o s s i b l y be expert. They t h e r e f o r e have t o r e l y c o n s i d e r a b l y on the knowledge and judgment of the f i r s t - h a n d s , or s e n i o r workers, on some of the operations. For t h i s reason, more than any other, shift-foremen p r e f e r t o stay w i t h the same group of workers as i t r o t a t e s from one s h i f t t o another. They f e e l that they need to know the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the s e n i o r workers. 26. Some of the present a s s i s t a n t foremen have reached t h e i r p o s i t i o n s i n the same way as the foremen but others were appointed under a d i f f e r e n t p o l i c y of the l a s t few years. They are men, comparatively young ones, who s t a r t e d t h e i r careers w i t h the f i r m i n the l a b o r a t o r i e s and who have t h e r e f o r e more t e c h n i c a l knowledge of the processes, though l e s s p r a c t i c a l ex perience i n the p l a n t , than t h e i r foremen. The aver age a s s i s t a n t foreman of t h i s k i n d i s now about t h i r t y - f i v e years o l d and has worked f o r f o u r or f i v e years i n a l a b o r a t o r y and, by t h i s time, f o r about ten years i n a production department. Some of these new-style a s s i s t a n t foremen say that they have found t h a t there i s a great d e a l t o l e a r n about the p r a c t i  c a l problems of production, 'how t o d e a l w i t h snags through experience.' 27. The new p o l i c y f o r the appointment of a s s i s t a n t foremen has r e s u l t e d from higher management l o o k i n g at the foreman's p o s i t i o n i n a new way. I t wants the foremen of the f u t u r e t o be younger on appointment than the present foremen and t h e i r predecessors were. I t a l s o wants them t o have good t e c h n i c a l knowledge and a reasonable standard of general education. This i s p a r t l y because the demands, and the impor tance, of the foreman's job are recognized and p a r t l y because managers f e e l t h a t the foreman's p o s i t i o n should be made, t o a much g r e a t e r extent than h i t h e r  t o , the f i r s t rung of the management ladder. 28. At the same time, there have been changes over the y e a r s — i n the output of the plant and i n methods of p r o d u c t i o n — w h i c h add f o r c e t o the new p o l i c y . The increase i n production i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n the M e l t i n g Shop; working w i t h furnaces b u i l t at the time of the f i r s t war i t has more than doubled the load i t was o r i g i n a l l y intended f o r . In these circumstances, an e x t r a burden i s i n e v i t a b l y placed on managers and s u p e r v i s o r s ; i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important t o foresee d i f f i c u l t i e s and d e a l w i t h them before they become se r i o u s problems, e s p e c i a l l y where the plant i s work ing round the c l o c k . Great a t t e n t i o n must be p a i d t o maintenance so that major overhauls and consequent l o s s e s of production are avoided. Good t i m i n g and co o r d i n a t i o n both w i t h i n and between departments have 13 8 become more important than ever. 2 9 . The second change i s i n the use of more mechanical methods of handling. Whereas years ago, f o r i n s t a n c e , the charging of the furnaces i n the M e l t i n g Shop was done by hand by a number of men i t i s now done by one man operating a charger. The r e s u l t of t h i s change i s t h a t the foreman today i s not s u p e r v i s i n g manual labour t o the same extent as p r e v i o u s l y ; the work i s becoming g r a d u a l l y more s k i l l e d , w i t h l e s s emphasis needed on the p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n of workers. T r a i n i n g 3 0 . There i s l i t t l e formal t r a i n i n g f o r foremen i n t h i s p l a n t , though some T.W.I, courses have been h e l d . On the other hand, r e g u l a r foremen's meetings have been r e c e n t l y introduced f o r the p l a n t as a whole and f o r i n d i v i d u a l departments. These meetings ar e , i n d i r e c t l y , a form of t r a i n i n g , and p o s s i b l y one of the best forms. They provide the opportunity f o r foremen t o meet t h e i r colleagues from d i f f e r e n t departments and from d i f f e r  ent jobs and a l s o f o r them t o meet r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of v a r i o u s l e v e l s of management f o r d i s c u s s i o n of p l a n t a f f a i r s . In a d d i t i o n t o these r e g u l a r meetings, s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g courses f o r foremen, on such t o p i c s as s a f e t y , are a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y h e l d . 5 The A t t i t u d e s of the Foremen . . ., we s h a l l consider how the foremen f e e l about t h e i r p o s i t i o n , how they stand w i t h other people, and so on. Reactions t o change 3 1 . The m a j o r i t y of the production foremen have been i n t h i s p l a n t f o r a great many years. They f e e l t h a t i t i s t h e i r p l a n t , i n a way, and they are r a t h e r proud of i t s e f f o r t s . They are a l s o thoroughly accustomed t o i t s ways. 3 2 . As we have seen, there are changes i n the a i r at present: more mechanization, new methods of t r a i n i n g , e t c . These a l l a f f e c t the foremen very c l o s e l y and so the foremen's a t t i t u d e s t o them are of p a r t i c u l a r i n  t e r e s t . Whereas the o l d e r ones, at any r a t e , might be expected t o r e s i s t new t h i n g s and look l o n g i n g l y back t o the past, t h i s was seldom found t o be the case. . . . . In some cases, i t i s t r u e , there was c e r t a i n l y some regret expressed f o r the o l d days, when i t was e a s i e r t o enforce d i s c i p l i n e because workers were more concerned about keeping t h e i r jobs. Even so, there was u s u a l l y at the same time a r e a l i s t i c r e c o g n i t i o n 139 t h a t c o n d i t i o n s have changed and t h a t methods of super v i s i n g have t o be modified a c c o r d i n g l y . 33. Though there i s t h i s general readiness t o accept change, i t i s not always accompanied by understanding. Some foremen f e e l , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t there are many more people employed on 'odd jobs' nowadays than i n the past and t h a t these people spend t h e i r time t e l l - ing other people t o do t h i n g s . With regard t o the t r a i n i n g of operators, f o r example, some r e a l enthus iasm was expressed f o r organized t r a i n i n g , and there was general agreement t h a t i t i s a 'good t h i n g ' . . . . At the same time, foremen of those departments which have not yet introduced formal t r a i n i n g tend t o t h i n k t h a t the s t a f f of the T r a i n i n g Department should do the job themselves and not come round urging depart mental people t o do i t . . . . R e l a t i o n s w i t h managers 34. On the whole, the foremen appear t o f e e l t h a t they are very c l o s e t o t h e i r managers, and t h i s f e e l i n g seems t o have grown i n recent years. 'I doubt i f the shift-foremen have ever been c l o s e r t o management than they are today.' There was a l i t t l e c r i t i c i s m of mana gers f o r not g i v i n g more support t o the foremen i n d i s  c i p l i n a r y matters, but t h i s seemed to be more a means of r e l i e v i n g o c c a s i o n a l f e e l i n g s of f r u s t r a t i o n than anything e l s e . 35. The importance t o s u p e r v i s o r s of the man at the top i s emphasized here by the f a c t that h a r d l y any mention was made by foremen of changes or advances without r e  ference t o the General Manager. 'The place has pro gressed more under t h i s man than ever before; there's more heart i n the job a l t o g e t h e r . ' . . . 'He mixes more w i t h both men and managers.' . . . 'He's done i t almost by p e r s o n a l i t y alone.' I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t comments d i d not r e f e r t o the t e c h n i c a l knowledge or a b i l i t y of the General Manager. What they d i d o f t e n imply was t h a t he i s w i l l i n g t o delegate r e s p o n s i b i l  i t y t o those capable of doing a j o b , and prepared t o support and encourage. 'Without i n t e r f e r i n g , ' i t was s a i d , 'he i s i n t e r e s t e d enough to go round t o the d i f  f e r e n t departments t o see how t h i n g s are going on.' This i n f o r m a l contact i s w e l l regarded. 'Meetings are very u s e f u l but managers and e s p e c i a l l y the General Manager speaking t o men i n the works i s f a r b e t t e r than meetings.' The p o s i t i o n and s t a t u s of the foremen i — — 36. The foremen's r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r managers are prob ably a l s o due, i n p a r t , t o the confidence they have i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n . This comes from a number of f a c t o r s . 140 The foremen are 'on the s t a f f and they enjoy the s t a t u s of s t a f f members, i n c l u d i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c o n t r i b u t o r y superannuation scheme. T h e i r jobs are h i g h l y r e s p o n s i b l e ones and they are allowed t o get on w i t h them without much i n t e r f e r e n c e . (To some ex t e n t t h i s i s i n e v i t a b l e because of the sheer s i z e of the departments and the f a c t t h a t the foremen are con s t a n t l y moving round them. Problems i n communication alone make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r people t o i n t e r f e r e very much.) But apart from a l l o w i n g the foremen a f a i r l y f r e e hand, higher management has made d e l i b e r a t e a t  tempts t o b u i l d up the p o s i t i o n of the foremen. We have already seen t h a t the new p o l i c y on s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g of f u t u r e foremen i s aimed at making the f o r e  man's p o s i t i o n more of a management one. As w e l l as t h i s , higher management has introduced such t h i n g s as the Foremen's C o u n c i l , which i s attended by a l l f o r e  men and v a r i o u s managers, and the Foremen's Panel, a company management committee which discusses matters r e l a t i n g t o foremen and which i s concdrned w i t h such t h i n g s as t h e i r s t a t u s and t h e i r t r a i n i n g . (These are i n a d d i t i o n t o the weekly departmental meetings, a t  tended by foremen.) 37. F i n a l l y , . . . the work th a t the foremen supervise i n t h i s plant i s not becoming l e s s s k i l l e d . In f a c t , i f anything, i t i s becoming more s k i l l e d , w i t h the i n  cr e a s i n g use of mechanical handling. For t h i s reason a l s o the s t a t u s of the foreman i s growing. Conclusion 38. The production foremen of t h i s study are i n r e s p o n s i b l e p o s i t i o n s r e q u i r i n g a f a i r amount of t e c h n i c a l know ledge. This they have acquired through many years of experience, as production workers of r i s i n g degrees of s k i l l , as a s s i s t a n t foremen and i n t h e i r present p o s i  t i o n s . The importance of the foremen i s recognized by higher management which has made considerable e f f o r t s t o b u i l d up t h e i r p o s i t i o n s and add t o t h e i r s t a t u s . R e l a t i o n s between s e n i o r managers and the foremen are p a r t i c u l a r l y s a t i s f y i n g t o the l a t t e r , l a r g e l y because of the a t t i t u d e s t o the most s e n i o r manager. 39. I t has been recognized i n the p l a n t t h a t the t r a d i  t i o n a l methods of appointing foremen do not a l t o g e t h e r meet the needs of today. A p o l i c y of appointing a s s i s  t a n t foremen who are both younger and more t e c h n i c a l l y knowledgeable than t h e i r predecessors were on appoint ment has been i n operation now f o r some years.6 CASE NO. 6 141 D e s c r i p t i o n of technology 1. A continuous-process plant i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from a t y p i c a l f a c t o r y . There are no recognizable machines and very few workers v i s i b l e . Except f o r a few main tenance workers . . . welding or p a i n t i n g p i p e s , you see very few people doing anything and nobody making anything. Instead, one sees a l a r g e number of i n d i v i  dual b u i l d i n g s w i t h vast areas of open space between them, huge networks of p i p e s , and l a r g e towers and other equipment which one l a t e r l e a r n s are v a r i o u s types of d i s t i l l a t i o n u n i t s or chemical r e a c t o r s . The chemicals which are made and the o i l s which are r e f i n e d f l o w through these pipes from one stage of t h e i r processing t o another, u s u a l l y without being handled at a l l by the workers. . . . The flow of m a t e r i a l s , the combination of d i f f e r e n t chemicals, and the temperature pressure, and speed of the process are reg u l a t e d by automatic c o n t r o l devices. The automatic c o n t r o l s make p o s s i b l e a continuous f l o w i n which raw m a t e r i a l s are introduced at the beginning of the pro cess and a l a r g e volume of the product c o n t i n u a l l y emerges at the end stage.8 The a l t e r n a t i o n between r o u t i n e and c r i s i s seems to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of process technology. . . .9 Organization 2. Because of the extremely complex technology and the high l e v e l of c a p i t a l investment necessary t o produce i n d u s t r i a l chemicals and the products of the o i l indus t r y , the continuous process i n d u s t r i e s are dominated by l a r g e companies.10 Despite the s i z e of the major companies, i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s do not employ as many workers, on the average, as i n the automobile i n d u s t r y . [Category I I technology] . . . This i s because automation has reduced the s i z e of the work f o r c e i n the continuous-process i n d u s t r i e s and a l s o because of a conscious p o l i c y of d e c e n t r a l i z a  t i o n . The l a r g e companies have p r e f e r r e d t o operate many middle-sized p l a n t s r a t h e r than a few b i g estab lishments. . . . The average chemical p l a n t has about 69 employees; the average o i l r e f i n e r y , 142 employees. . . .11 3. D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i s a d e c i s i v e f e a t u r e of the con tinuous-process i n d u s t r i e s , expressed not only by the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p l a n t s of a s i n g l e company but a l s o by the o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s . Continuous- process technology r e s u l t s i n a layout of work that i s 142 very d i f f e r e n t from t e x t i l e and automobile p r o d u c t i o n , where the bulk of machine and assembly-line operations and the m a j o r i t y of workers are concentrated under one r o o f . Chemical and o i l r e f i n i n g operations are d i v i d e d among many b u i l d i n g s or subplants w i t h l a r g e s t r e t c h e s of open space between the b u i l d i n g s . In a sense, a chemical f a c t o r y or a r e f i n e r y does not c o n s i s t of one p l a n t , but a l a r g e number of p l a n t s , i n each of which a p a r t i c u l a r product or a p a r t i c u l a r r e a c t i o n i s pro cessed. . . . The danger of f i r e and other hazards, as w e l l as the range of products and processes, makes such d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n necessary. Even i n the l a r g e s t continuous-process establishments, the ' s o c i a l d e n s i t y 1 of the work f o r c e i s very low.12 Management expectations and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 4. Because of the high degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t continuous-process technology demands, management i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n a permanent, s t a b l e work f o r c e ; and indeed, employment i n the o i l and chemical i n d u s t r i e s i s o f t e n f o r l i f e . . . . [the] i n d u s t r i e s have moved from a commodity t o a w e l f a r e concept of employment . . . [management] and the prospective em ployee t h i n k of employment i n terms of a whole work c a r e e r — a long-term r e l a t i o n s h i p i n which the employer takes on an i n c r e a s i n g burden of f r i n g e b e n e f i t s cover ing the man and h i s f a m i l y , and the employee acquires tenure, job r i g h t s , and r i g h t s t o promotion opportun i t i e s . . . .13 5. The w e l f a r e concept of employment i n these young [continuous-process] i n d u s t r i e s p a r t i a l l y r e f l e c t s the s o c i a l l y p rogressive viewpoints of t h e i r managerial e l i t e s , who are u s u a l l y c o l l e g e t r a i n e d . I t i s a con s c i o u s p o l i c y , but one which stems n a t u r a l l y from the economic b a s i s of production i n continuous-process plants.14 R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and V a r i e t y i n 'Automated Work* 6. Very l i t t l e of the work of chemical operators i s p h y s i c a l or manual, despite the b l u e - c o l l a r s t a t u s of these f a c t o r y employees. P r a c t i c a l l y a l l p h y s i c a l production and m a t e r i a l s - h a n d l i n g i s done by automatic processes, r e g u l a t e d by automatic c o n t r o l s . The work of the chemical operator i s t o monitor these automatic processes: h i s tasks i n c l u d e observing d i a l s and gauges; t a k i n g readings of temperatures, pressures, and r a t e s of f l o w ; and w r i t i n g down these readings i n l o g data sheets.15 7. . . .with the emergence of automated continuous- process technology, t r a d i t i o n a l c r a f t s k i l l has been completely e l i m i n a t e d from the productive process. . . . 143 In the place of p h y s i c a l e f f o r t and s k i l l i n the t r a d i  t i o n a l , manual sense, the major job requirement f o r production workers i n continuous-process technology i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 1 6 Within each of the b u i l d i n g s t h a t make up a c o n t i n  uous-process p l a n t , a s m a l l crew, g e n e r a l l y numbering from three t o seven workers per s h i f t , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p a r t i c u l a r products or processes of t h e i r sub- p l a n t . Each team i s d i r e c t e d by a head s h i f t opera t o r who has considerable t r a i n i n g and experience, and each i s made up of workers of di v e r s e l e v e l s of t r a i n  in g and w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . . . . [The operator c a l l s upon the head s h i f t operator when something i s s e r i o u s l y wrong.]17 For our purposes of a n a l y s i s i t w i l l be u s e f u l t o i n t e r j e c t i n t o t h i s commentary by Robert Blauner data 2.8 gathered by W i l l i a m F. Whyte. The observations recorded below p e r t a i n t o a continuous-process a v a i t i o n g a s o l i n e p l a n t . 8, The work d u t i e s of the [ c a t a l y s t p l a n t ] c o n t r o l room were l a r g e l y d i v i d e d between the f r a c t i o n a t o r operator (#3) and the h y d r o - s t i l l m a n (#2). The poly operator (#1) was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n t r o l room, c a t a l y s t p l a n t and engine room, but there were charts i n the c o n t r o l room r e g i s t e r i n g the engine room operations, so l i t t l e human contact there was necessary. The poly operator h a r d l y ever walked over t o the engine room. The en gine operator u s u a l l y came i n t o the c o n t r o l room once a day, t o j o i n others at luneh, and perhaps once more during the working day. There was nothing t o take the poly operator i n t o the c a t a l y s t plant except h i s r e  s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r checking on work a c t i v i t y ; the c a t a  l y s t operator was h a r d l y ever seen i n the c o n t r o l room. 9. The work of the three control-room men ( f o r each s h i f t ) i s d i f f i c u l t t o describe because, except f o r r e g u l a r hourly samples of product f o r t e s t i n g t o be drawn from v a r i o u s pieces of equipment, the a c t i v i t y depended very l a r g e l y upon the c o n d i t i o n of the process. When operations were going smoothly, the men had l i t t l e t o do but watch t h e i r c h a r t s ; when operations were not going q u i t e r i g h t , there were adjustments t o make a l  most c o n s t a n t l y . Since any adjustment made by the f r a c t i o n a t o r operator a f f e c t e d operations i n the area of the h y d r o - s t i l l m a n (and v i c e v e r s a ) , t h i s would be a pe r i o d of a c c e l e r a t e d communication between them and 144 and w i t h the poly operator. 10. An emergency would generate g r e a t l y a c c e l e r a t e d a c t i v i t y . For example, i f one engine broke down, the control-room men had t o respond q u i c k l y i n order t o l i g h t e n the l o a d on the other f i v e . Otherwise, the other overloaded engines might a l l go down, and the process would come t o a very c o s t l y h a l t . 11. The poly operator had a l a r g e and heavy r e s p o n s i  b i l i t y but few s p e c i f i c a l l y assigned d u t i e s . Every hour he was r e q u i r e d t o look i n t o the c r a c k i n g f u r  nace from both s i d e s , t o cheek the c o n d i t i o n of the tubes. . . . While the poly operator had c e r t a i n other checks t o make, h i s job c o n s i s t e d p r i m a r i l y of co o r d i n a t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s of the other two men. 12. I t was t e c h n i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t o operate the c o n t r o l room w i t h only two men, and, i n f a c t , the p l a n t was set up on t h i s b a s i s . However, the company found i t necessary t o set up the poly-operator p o s i t i o n t o as sure a proper c o o r d i n a t i o n between the other two men. 13. Above the poly operator, i n the l i n e of a u t h o r i t y , were the foreman, p l a n t manager, d i v i s i o n super intendent, General Superintendent of F i e l d Operations, Department Manager, Vice President f o r the N a t u r a l Gasoline Department, P r e s i d e n t , and Chairman of the Board of D i r e c t o r s . [ i . e . , 6 l e v e l s of l i n e manage ment] 19 20 To continue w i t h Blauner's commentary. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y of head s h i f t operator 14. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a head s h i f t operator i s ex tremely g r e a t ; he co-ordinates the work of a l l the mem bers of h i s team, arranges f o r maintenance p r i o r i t i e s and f o r the t r a n s p o r t of m a t e r i a l s and products t o and from h i s p l a n t , and serves as the l i n k between h i s work team and management.21 Scheduling of maintenance work i s determined by what pieee of equipment breaks down, and there i s obviously no way t o standardize this.2 2 Workers' c o n t r o l over time and movement; production  q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y ; work methods 15. The s p e c i a l t e c h n o l o g i c a l and economic c h a r a c t e r i s  t i c s of the continuous-process i n d u s t r i e s g i v e workers a great d e a l of c o n t r o l over t h e i r immediate work pro cesses. . . . The l a c k of constant job pressure i n con tinuous-process p l a n t s i s not a product of management's humanitarian concern f o r the employees but i s p r i n c i  p a l l y due t o the nature of an automated technology.23 145 16. The r e l a x e d work atmosphere during smooth operations allows chemical workers t o c o n t r o l t h e i r pace of work.24 17. Chemical workers c o n t r o l the pace of t h e i r work; they do not, however, c o n t r o l the pace of production . . . the automatic processes t a k i n g place w i t h i n the chemical r e a c t o r s determine the speed of production.25 18. . . . chemical workers are able t o c o n t r o l the q u a l i t y of t h e i r production. In f a c t , c o n t r o l of the q u a l i t y of the product i s t h e i r major job r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 2 6 19. Chemical-process work i s not as standardized as work on the automobile assembly l i n e or i n the t e x t i l e m i l l . The worker has more freedom t o determine techniques of doing h i s job. This r e s u l t s from the v a r i e t y inherent i n the work; the l a c k of time pressure, which allows experimentation and change; and the new s i t u a t i o n s f o r which new s o l u t i o n s must be found.27 20. An unusual degree of m o b i l i t y r e s u l t s from the organi z a t i o n of the pl a n t i n [ s i c ] a l a r g e number of i n d i v i  dual b u i l d i n g s spread over a wide area, the high propor t i o n of maintenance and d i s t r i b u t i o n workers, and the g e n e r a l l y r e l a x e d pace of work.28 Small primary work groups 21. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y demanded of the chemical worker i s a c o l l e c t i v e , as w e l l as an i n d i v i d u a l , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Since the process i s i n t e g r a t e d and continuous r a t h e r than d i v i d e d i n the manner th a t l a b o r i s d i v i d e d , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of any one employee f o r h i s share of a plant T s process i s i n e v i t a b l y l i n k e d t o the r e s p o n s i b i l  i t y of other workers. An i n c r e a s i n g interdependence develops, and automated p l a n t s tend t o be based on team operations. The worker's s h i f t from s k i l l t o respon s i b i l i t y t h e r e f o r e f o s t e r s t h i n k i n g i n terms of the c o l l e c t i v e whole r a t h e r than the i n d i v i d u a l part.29 22. The technology, economic s i t u a t i o n , and s o c i a l s t r u c  t u r e of the chemical i n d u s t r y a l s o c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i  c a n t l y t o the i n t e g r a t i o n of the work f o r c e i n a cohes i v e i n d u s t r i a l community. Of f i r s t importance i s the s m a l l s i z e of the p l a n t s i n the i n d u s t r y and the decen t r a l i z e d o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the p l a n t . . . . Communica t i o n between workers and management r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i s more frequent and i s e s p e c i a l l y l i k e l y t o be two-way communication i n which advice i s sought, as w e l l as orders given. . . . Chemical-process operators are c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r s h i f t and a par t i c u l a r department; the departmental work teams are not only c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , they a l s o have an e x p l i c i t h i e r  archy of a u t h o r i t y and s t a t u s . . . . Work teams i n the chemical i n d u s t r y develop i d e n t i t i e s : teams on d i f f e r  ent s h i f t s s t r i v e t o outdo each other i n the q u a l i t y of t h e i r product. . . .30 146 The quality of supervision in continuous-process 23. The overbearing supervision characteristic of past industrial practices i s unlikely in a modern contin uous-process plant. Chemical production requires responsible workers who w i l l not need to be watched too closely. Due to decentralized operations, the large amount of outdoor work, and the considerable physical mobility possible, individuals often work out of the range of their immediate supervisors. As for operators, three-quarters of the time they are working nights or weekends, where there may be only one super visor on duty in the entire plant.31 Insight into the nature of supervisory practices in Category III technology i s found in the following obser- 32 vations made by W.F. Whyte. Here Whyte i s quoting the words of the foreman of the catalyst plant as the latter discusses his use of the Daily Operating Data sheets. 24. That sheet i s not there primarily for my checking. The purpose of i t i s to enable the men to know what they are doing. By just looking over that sheet, I can t e l l how things are going. If something i s wrong, I just ask the men to explain i t to me. I never try to f i x responsibility or say who i s to blame. If a man's explanation i s weak, he knows i t as well as I do. I don't have to t e l l him. In t e l l i n g me, he t e l l s himself. That i s a l l that i s necessary. These men are very sensitive; they have thin skins and they take great pride in their work.33 To continue with Blauner's report: 25. The chemical workers interviewed a l l f e l t that the load of supervision was light and that they were given considerable scope to do their jobs in their own way. . . . This freedom i s possible because the work team which runs an individual plant takes over many of the functions of supervision in other technological con texts. A worker w i l l come to work and do his job well, not out of fear of a particular boss, but because he feels the other operators in his crew are depending upon him to do his part of the total work. Many of the co-ordinating and administrative functions of super vision f a l l to the head shift operator, the leader of each plant's work crew. Since the head operator i s an 147 hourly b l u e - c o l l a r employee and the most experienced man i n the p a r t i c u l a r department, h i s guidance i s not f e l t t o be oppressive s u p e r v i s i o n . The face t h a t he has p r e v i o u s l y worked at each of the jobs i n h i s de partment i n the course of working h i s way t o the top i s an important b a s i s of h i s a u t h o r i t y and respect.35 26. The chemical operator probably has more personal contact w i t h persons i n higher l e v e l s of s u p e r v i s i o n than do workers i n mass-production i n d u s t r i e s . These contacts g e n e r a l l y are f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n on production problems and are t h e r e f o r e more s a t i s f y i n g than ad m i n i s t r a t i v e or d i s c i p l i n i n g contacts. In automated production, when the workers' f u n c t i o n becomes respon s i b i l i t y r a t h e r than s k i l l , c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h super v i s o r s , engineers, chemists, and other t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s becomes a r e g u l a r , n a t u r a l part of the job d u t i e s . Because the operator i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r an important and expensive process, he can i n i t i a t e i n t e r  a c t i o n w i t h those higher i n s t a t u s . Because he i s the person c l o s e s t t o the a c t u a l o p e r a t i o n s , he must be l i s t e n e d t o . . . . Automobile assemblers and t e x t i l e o peratives [Category I I technology] may c a l l upon a foreman or maintenance machinist when some mechanism i s not working p e r f e c t l y , but t h e i r own advice i s r a r e l y consulted by t h e i r s u p e r i o r s . T e c h n i c a l con s u l t a t i o n w i t h s u p e r i o r s does take place i n c E a f t i n  d u s t r i e s [e.g., p r i n t i n g , Category I t e c h n o l o g y ] , but s i n c e craftsmen have a more independent domain, i t i s b u i l t i n t o the system l e s s than i n continuous-process technology . 3 6 27. A climate of c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s necessary f o r success f u l operations because of the interdependence of work teams and the importance of i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Because the technology, work o r g a n i z a t i o n , and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of chemical p l a n t s a l l o w the worker t o be come i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the company through h i s work group and t o i d e n t i f y w i t h the e n t e r p r i s e , the q u a l i t y of s u p e r v i s i o n i s extremely salient.3 7 The f o l l o w i n g observations by Whyte strengthen the foregoing a n a l y s i s . The data p e r t a i n t o the r o l e of the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r i n the manufacture of an experiment- So1 a l product. 28. At 6:30 on Tuesday n i g h t , Tom L l o y d [the foreman] re c e i v e d a telephone c a l l from the main o f f i c e w i t h the order t o s t a r t the t r i - i s o b u t y l e n e run as soon as pos s i b l e . Me had known some time i n advance t h a t a pro- duet of t h i s nature was t o be made, but t h i s was the 148 f i r s t time he was given exact s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ( i n i t i a l b o i l i n g p o i n t and dry point temperature). L l o y d asked i f he could s t a r t the run the f o l l o w i n g morning, but he was t o l d that t h i s was a rush order, so tha t i t was necessary t o s t a r t work immediately. Since Ll o y d was not f a m i l i a r w i t h the d e t a i l e d operations of the f r a c t i o n a t i n g column, he telephoned Dan Benton, h i s s t a f f engineer, and asked him t o r e t u r n t o the plant t o take charge of operations at once. 29. The f r a c t i o n a t i n g column i n which the product was to be made was under the d i r e c t charge of the f r a c - t i o n a t o r operator, but, having had a good dea l of f r a c t i o n i n g experience, the h y d r o - s t i l l m a n was natu r a l l y i n t e r e s t e d a l s o , and both men normally worked under the s u p e r v i s i o n of the poly operator. 30. To t h i s group were added L l o y d [the foreman] and Benton [ s t a f f engineer] who o r d i n a r i l y spent l i t t l e time w i t h i n the p l a n t . During the run, L l o y d spent most of h i s time at Hi-Test, c o n s u l t i n g w i t h Benton and the operators. He a l s o took samples from the f r a c t i o n a t i n g column up t o the l a b o r a t o r y i n order t o run d i s t i l l a t i o n s t e s t s on them. When he went home to s l e e p , he c a l l e d i n c a t a l y s t - o p e r a t o r Thompson t o do the d i s t i l l a t i o n s . 31. Benton was i n a c t i v e charge from Tuesday night u n t i l F r i d a y morning. During t h a t p e r i o d , he was i n the plant almost c o n t i n u a l l y , g e t t i n g only 10 hours sleep. At the s t a r t , he took over the #3 f r a c t i o n a t i n g column himself and d i r e c t e d the f r a c t i o n a t o r operator i n a l l changes. Since otherwise the plan t was operating i n a r o u t i n e manner, there was l i t t l e f o r the poly operator and h y d r o - s t i l l m a n t o do except watch Benton and the f r a e t i o n a t o r operator. 32. Benton had c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e ideas as t o how the run should be s t a r t e d , and i t appeared t h a t by Tuesday morning he had been s u c c e s s f u l . The product at tha t time t e s t e d t o s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , but by the time the t e s t r e s u l t s were reported the column had become flooded and was no longer making the product. Having • been unsuccessful i n t h i s e f f o r t , Benton l i s t e n e d t o the suggestions of the operators and t r i e d out a num ber of t h e i r ideas. 33» At the s t a r t of the d a y l i g h t t o u r (7 a.m. t o 3 p.m.), f r a c t i o n a t o r - o p e r a t o r K e n d a l l gave h i s o p i n i o n t o L l o y d t h a t no f u r t h e r progress could be gained along the l i n e s then being pursued, and went on t o o u t l i n e h i s ideas as to how the f r a c t i o n a t i n g column should be handled. L l o y d had a high regard f o r K e n d a l l and t h e r e f o r e deter mined t o t u r n the column over t o him without r e s t r i c  t i o n s or s u p e r v i s i o n . By now Benton was p h y s i c a l l y and nervously exhausted and Lloy d sent him home. 149 34. At the end of Kendall's t o u r he s t i l l had no r e s u l t s , but he was able t o convince L l o y d t h a t he was moving i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . L l o y d ordered K e n d a l l t o work another eight hours, remaining i n charge of the key c o l  umn. W a l l i n g was poly operator on evening t o u r (3 t o 11 p.m.). Lloy d i n s t r u c t e d W a l l i n g t o pay c l o s e a t t e n  t i o n t o the way K e n d a l l was operating the column. 35. At the end of evening t o u r , the product was s t i l l t o be made. L l o y d sent K e n d a l l home and h e l d W a l l i n g over f o r another eight hours, ordering him t o take ex c l u s i v e charge of the column. E a r l y Saturday morning, 22 hours a f t e r K e n d a l l began t r y i n g h i s p l a n , the pro duct came over, and s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r the b r i e f run was completed. 36. One operator expressed the general viewpoint of the workers when he s a i d : I t wasn't u n t i l they l e f t i t t o the operator that they got the t h i n g l i n e d out. Sure, i t would have gone much f a s t e r i f they had made i t t h a t way i n the f i r s t p l ace. The operator knows these columns b e t t e r than the t e c h n i c a l man.39 Case 6 concludes w i t h the f o l l o w i n g observations by W.F. Whyte.4® The remarks p e r t a i n t o supervisor-worker r e l a t i o n s as found i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the experimental product described above. 37. [The foreman] . . . got along exceedingly w e l l w i t h the men, and yet he was not able t o solve some of the basi c problems of worker-management r e l a t i o n s . Why not? 38. I n the f i r s t p l a c e , we note the l i m i t a t i o n s of the foreman's p o s i t i o n . Even as the workers expressed t h e i r respect f o r Tom L l o y d , they spoke i n q u i t e d i f  f e r e n t terms about other top management o f f i c i a l s who could introduce sudden changes at any time. Nor was Tom Lloy d able t o do anything about the p o l i c y regard in g promotion of non-college men, even though he be l i e v e d t h a t s e v e r a l of h i s Hi-Test operators were w e l l - q u a l i f i e d f o r supervisory p o s i t i o n s . 39. In the second p l a c e , the t r i - i s o b u t y l e n e run demon s t r a t e s f o r us the way i n which a change i n technology or process can upset worker-management r e l a t i o n s , even when the foreman continues t o be regarded as a good su p e r v i s o r . This run brought about a sudden and dras t i c change i n the r e l a t i o n s among the operators and between operators and management. Dan Benton, the 150 s t a f f engineer, i n e f f e c t took over o p e r a t i o n s , l e a v  ing the poly operator l i t t l e t o do. Benton and L l o y d enormously increased the time they spent w i t h the operators i n the p l a n t . Thompson, a lower-status man from the c a t a l y s t p l a n t — a previous source of f r i c t i o n —came i n t o run t e s t s which, i n e f f e c t , t o l d the H i - Test men how they were progressing. F i n a l l y , when the job was l e f t t o operators, f i r s t a f r a c t i o n a t o r operator and then a poly operator was h e l d over f o r an a d d i t i o n a l eight hours t o take c o n t r o l of operations from the men r e g u l a r l y assigned. 4®. The run y i e l d e d poor r e s u l t s both i n t e c h n i c a l ef f i c i e n c y and i n human r e l a t i o n s . In f a c t , i t demon s t r a t e s the mutual dependence of e f f i c i e n c y and human ... r e l a t i o n s . 41. How should such a run have been handled? The opera t o r s b e l i e v e d t h a t i f i t had been l e f t t o them, they would have been able t o produce the product i n a much sho r t e r time. In d i s c u s s i o n s afterward Tom L l o y d , w h i l e admitting the f a i l u r e of h i s approach i n the case, was not sure t h a t the operators were r i g h t . He argued t h a t , i n the best of circumstances, i t would take more than eight hours t o produce the new product. Thus, i f d i f  f e r e n t poly operators had d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s about how t o reach t h i s g o a l , by j u s t l e a v i n g i t t o them i t would be impossible t o a t t a i n the necessary consistency t h a t e f f i c i e n t progress r e q u i r e d . Perhaps t h a t i s t r u e , but conversations h e l d w i t h the operators before the run suggest t h a t there may have been more consistency i n t h e i r approach than the foreman recognized. Several of these men, as they contrasted t h e i r own operating approach t o t h a t of the engineers, s a i d t h a t the engi neer tends t o shoot s t r a i g h t at the t a r g e t , as h i s t h e o r i e s l o c a t e t h a t t a r g e t f o r him. On the other hand, the operator, w i t h h i s more i n t i m a t e f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the equipment, i s i n c l i n e d t o make a l i t t l e change and wait t o see what e f f e c t i t has. Then he makes another s m a l l change and w a i t s again and so on. He i s content With a gradual approach t o the t a r g e t . I t i s i n t e r e s t  ing t o note t h a t i n the t r i - i s o b u t y l e n e run the engi neer's performance f i t t e d i n w i t h the previous s t a t e  ments of the operators. He aimed f o r the t a r g e t , he got there too f a s t , he overshot the mark, and the whole job had t o be done over. 42. However, even i f we accept Lloyd's statement regard in g the need f o r a uniform approach, i t does not neces s a r i l y f o l l o w that the engineer must take over i n order to provide the approach. I f L l o y d and Benton had had time before s t a r t i n g the run t o consult of the opera t o r s , t h i s could have l e d t o a d e c i s i o n regarding a uniform approach, which would then have been c a r r i e d 151 out under the d i r e c t i o n of the poly operators. Per haps Ll o y d and Benton would have approached the prob lem i n t h i s way, had they been given time. I f so, top management's demands f o r immediate a c t i o n simply prolonged the process.41 152 FOOTNOTES ON CHAPTER VI The Place of the Foreman i a Management. Seven case s t u d i e s undertaken by the N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of I n d u s t r i a l Psychology (London: Staples Press, 1957) pp. 83-94. 2pp. 83-84. 3pp. 84-88. 4pp. 88-89. 5pp. 89-91. 6PP. 91-94. 7 Robert Blauner, A l i e n a t i o n and Freedom: The Fac t o r y Worker and His Industry (Chicago and London: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Pr e s s , 1964). gpp. 124-125. 9 p . 157. 1 Q p p . 126-127. i : Lp. 127. 1 2 p p . 127-128. 1 3 p . 130. 1 4 p . 130. 1 5 p p . 132-133. 16 T O O P. 133. 1 7 P P . 133-134. 18 W.F. Whyte, "Engineers and Workers: A Case Study," Human Or g a n i z a t i o n , V o l . 14, No. 4, 1956, pp. 3-12. 1 9 P . 4". 20 Blauner, op. c i t . , 21 * V 134. 2 2 p . 134. 2 3 p . 135- 2 4 P - 137. 2 5 p . 138. 26 T 0 0 p. 139. 2 7 p . 139. 2 S p . 140. 2 9 p . 143. 3°p. 146. 3 1 P . 147. 32W.F. Whyte, op. c i t , 3 3 p . 6. 3 4 B l a r a n e r , op. c i t . 3 5 p . 147. 3 6 P P - 147-148. 3 7 p . 148. 38 Whyte, op. c i t . 3 V 8. 4 G I b i d . U P - 11. CHAPTER V I I ANALYSIS OF DATA In t r o d u c t i o n The a n a l y s i s c a r r i e d out i n Chapter V I I compromises two d i s t i n c t approaches. F i r s t , the case s t u d i e s of Chapters IV, V and VI w i l l be analyzed i n order: (1) t o demonstrate the process and l o g i c by which the cases were c l a s s i f i e d according t o category of technology (2) t o t e s t the v a l i d i t y of the s p e c i f i c hypotheses enunciated i n Chapter I I I , and (3) t o suggest bases f o r modifying the s p e c i f i c hypotheses as may be r e q u i r e d i n the l i g h t of the data. Second, the a d d i t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l data found i n the appendices w i l l be s c r u t i n i z e d . Where these data support the observations and i n f e r e n c e s drawn from Woodward's study, and where they tend t o confirm the v a l i d i t y of the s p e c i f i c hypotheses of Chapter I I I , the sources of co n f i r m a t i o n w i l l be c i t e d . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , where the a d d i t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l data question the v a l i d i t y of the s p e c i f i c hypotheses, an attempt i s made t o account f o r the d i s c r e p a n c i e s . I t i s important t o note t h a t the completeness, s p e c i  f i c i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y of the v a r i o u s data vary widely from case t o case and appendix t o appendix. The p r e d i l e c t i o n s , s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s and research p e r s p e c t i v e s of the authors 155 of the source m a t e r i a l s d i f f e r both among themselves and from those of the author of t h i s study. Therefore, as the subsequent a n a l y s i s w i l l r e v e a l , i n f e r e n c e s , guesses and hunches f i g u r e prominently i n the attempt t o v a l i d a t e the s p e c i f i c hypotheses of the study. A p o r t i o n of the s p e c i f i c hypotheses enunciated i n Chapter I I I were phrased i n a manner designed t o suggest the v a r i a t i o n of c e r t a i n dimensions of supervisory be hav i o r as a f u n c t i o n of technology. The f o l l o w i n g analyses of Cases 1 and 2 w i l l c o n t a in only l i m i t e d references t o such phenomena. In the subsequent case analyses the v a r i a  t i o n of the dimensions of supervisory behavior across the categ o r i e s of technology w i l l be made more e x p l i c i t . For the l a t t e r analyses, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of Case 1 and 2 w i l l be u t i l i z e d . C i t a t i o n of source data Each of the s i x case s t u d i e s w i l l be analyzed sepa r a t e l y . The source f o r statements made i n the a n a l y s i s of a case w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by c i t i n g the appropriate para graph of tha t case. Following the a n a l y s i s of the two case s t u d i e s f o r a given category of technology, the a d d i t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l data p e r t a i n i n g t o that category w i l l be c o n s i  dered. The source of statements which draw upon the ad d i  t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l data w i l l be i n d i c a t e d by c i t i n g the appendix number, s e c t i o n and paragraph. For example, a statement f o l l o w e d by the de s i g n a t i o n n ( V , A , l ) " r e f e r s t o 156 paragraph 1 of s e c t i o n A of Appendix V. CATEGORY I TECHNOLOGY I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Case No. 1: "A Dyeing and Cleaning P l a n t " J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n as Category I  Technology The t e c h n o l o g i e s of clea n i n g and dyeing described i n the case appear t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a number of organiza t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s belonging to Category I technology. For example, Figure I I above shows three l e v e l s of management o r g a n i z a t i o n , which equals the median observed by Woodward. S i m i l a r l y , one notes the corresponding short management communication l i n e . In a d d i t i o n , one notes the existence of s e v e r a l s m a l l primary work groups: 5 workers i n the dry- cleaning o p e r a t i o n , 8 i n wet c l e a n i n g , 3 i n the dyehouse, 2 i n the carpet c l e a n i n g s e c t i o n , and 1+ g i r l s working i n s i l k spotting.(paragraphs 5, 10, and 13). For these 22 workers there are 3 foremen, suggesting a f i r s t - l i n e super v i s o r y span of c o n t r o l of about 7, a f i g u r e w e l l below the range of 14-27 suggested by Woodward (Chart I I ) . Other o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s p e c u l i a r t o Category I technology are described i n the case study. Note, f o r example, the s c a r c i t y of s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . The a s s i s t a n t general manager (paragraph 2), and the "important" Inspec t i o n and I n v e s t i g a t i o n departments (paragraphs 16 and 17) might be considered t o be s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t u n i t s . Although 157 the l a t t e r two departments appear t o be an i n t e g r a l part of the work flow and, hence, t o belong t o the " l i n e " a c t i v i t y . The extensive t e c h n i c a l competence and respon s i b i l i t y of f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s (paragraphs 9 , 10, 12, 14, 18, 24) conforms w e l l w i t h the c o r r e l a t e s of Category I technology described i n Chart I I . S i m i l a r l y , one notes the h igh degree of f u n c t i o n a l interdependence between marketing (shops) and production (the f a c t o r y ) (paragraph 23). Such interdependence i s i n accord w i t h Category I technology. I t i s c l e a r from the case m a t e r i a l t h a t the f a c t o r y operation c o n s i s t s of u n i t production based upon f i r m cus tomer orders only. Each order r e c e i v e s unique, i n d i v i d u a l treatment i n the production process (paragraph 17). The preceding observations suggest the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r c l a s s i f y i n g the case w i t h i n Category I technology. The j u s t i f i c a t i o n of t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s strengthened f u r  t h e r by c e r t a i n elements of organic management processes which appear t o e x i s t w i t h i n the e n t e r p r i s e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , paragraph 24 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s "run t h e i r own shops." They are t h e i r own t e c h n i c a l experts. The f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r does not have t o consult w i t h others about pl a n s , or raw m a t e r i a l s . I n other words, there i s evidence f o r the "ad hoc l o c a t i o n of c o n t r o l a u t h o r i t y and communi c a t i o n based on e x p e r t i s e . " Paragraph 21 provides a d d i t i o n  a l evidence of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of organic management 158 processes. The f a c t t h a t f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s "are d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e , t o a very great extent, f o r the f i r m ' s r e p u t a t i o n w i t h i t s customers" (paragraph 25), suggests an a d d i t i o n a l e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n of organic manage ment; namely, that suprevisory personnel c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r " s p e c i a l knowledge and experience t o common ta s k s of the e n t e r p r i s e . " I t i s concluded, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the case study deals w i t h an e n t e r p r i s e which may be c l a s s i f i e d under Category I technology. Support f o r S p e c i f i c Hypotheses The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s c o n s i s t s of observations and i n f e r e n c e s drawn from the preceding case. The a n a l y s i s i s organized i n accordance w i t h the c a t e g o r i e s of Chart I . The code designations f o l l o w i n g each sub-heading r e f e r t o t h i s c h a rt. In a d d i t i o n , the a n a l y s i s r e f l e c t s the con cep t u a l scheme (Figure I) r e l a t i n g s u p ervisory a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r a c t i o n s and consequent sentiments f e l t or expressed toward others. Nature of supervisory a c t i v i t i e s ( I - A - l ) With the exception of the Dry-Cleaning department, i t i s noted t h a t the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r e x e r c i s e s both h i s t e c h n i c a l knowledge and s k i l l and t h a t he executes a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n order t o organize and c o o r d i  nate the work of h i s subordinates (paragraphl?). For ex-159 ample, i n Wet-Cleaning the s u p e r v i s o r e x e r c i s e s h i s t e c h n i  c a l knowledge and i s s u e s i n s t r u c t i o n s regarding the c o r r e c t treatment t o be given the items. He u t i l i z e s h i s t e c h n i c a l knowledge t o i d e n t i f y f a b r i c s and t o assess the e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t treatments on them (paragraph 9). In a d d i t i o n , the s u p e r v i s o r of the Wet-Cleaning department endeavors t o organize a smooth production f l o w w i t h i n h i s u n i t . ( a d m i n i s  t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s ) . Another example i s the s u p e r v i s i o n of work i n the F i n i s h i n g , I n s p e c t i o n and S i l k S p o t t i n g de partments. Paragraphs 12, 14 and 16 i l l u s t r a t e s u p e r v i s o r y a c t i v i t i e s of an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e nature: the c o o r d i n a t i o n and monitoring of work flow. The f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r i n the Repairs department performs both t e c h n i c a l and adminis t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . Gn the one hand she advises on r e p a i r s . On the other hand she records work done f o r purposes of c o s t i n g and wage determination (paragraph 15). In g e n e r a l , then, both t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s are s i g n i f i c a n t elements i n the behavior of f i r s t - l i n e super v i s o r s i n t h i s case (paragraph 18). Furthermore, one f i n d s , as hypothesized, evidence f o r the s u p e r v i s o r ' s personal involvement i n the d i r e c t production a c t i v i t i e s (paragraphs 9 and 16). Although the case m a t e r i a l f a i l s t o demonstrate f a c e - t o - f a c e v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s , i t i s i n f e r r e d from the data t h a t such i n t e r a c t i o n s do occur i n t h i s f a c t o r y and t h a t they comprise a s i g n i f i c a n t element of the super-160 v i s o r ' s o v e r a l l behavior. I t was hypothesized t h a t one element of the s u p e r v i s o r ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s i n Category I technology would c o n s i s t of the c o o r d i n a t i o n of work f l o w between successive work u n i t s , n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s f o r access t o scarce resources, e t c . The data of the case do not g e n e r a l l y support t h i s hypoth e s i s (paragraph 23). I t appears t h a t only the s u p e r v i s o r of the F i n i s h i n g department engages i n such a c t i v i t i e s (paragraph 12). Frequency of performance of a c t i v i t i e s (I-A-2) The data of the case are not s u f f i c i e n t t o a l l o w a n a l y s i s i n regard t o the hypotheses of t h i s s e c t i o n . Nature of i n t e r a c t i o n s With subordinates ( I - B - l - a ) . The data of the case appear t o provide i n d i r e c t support f o r the hypothesis r e  garding the face-to-faee t a s k - o r i e n t e d nature of i n t e r  a c t i o n s between the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s s u b o r d i  nates. The s u p e r v i s o r ' s t y p i c a l l y heavy t e c h n i c a l respon s i b i l i t i e s ; h i s e x e r c i s e of these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s based upon h i s t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e ; the existence of small primary work-groups, and c o n t i n u a l l y changing treatments of work i t e m s — a l l these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f a c t o r y appear t o support the hypothesis.by i n f e r e n c e . Furthermore, the data lend support t o the hypothesis t h a t supervisor-subordinate i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l tend t o be 161 " r e l a x e d " ; t h a t i s , devoid of c o n f l i c t s over a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . For example, one observes (1) t h a t d i s c i  p l i n e i s not a problem (paragraph 191; (2) t h a t r e l a t i o n  s h i p s are "very easy and f r i e n d l y " (paragraph 22), and (3) t h a t there i s a high perceived s e c u r i t y of employment (paragraph 22). With s u p e r i o r s ( I - B - l - b ) . The s p e c i f i c hypotheses regarding i n t e r a c t i o n s between f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r l i n e s u p e r i o r s were the same as those f o r i n t e r a c t i o n s between su p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r subordinates. Gn the whole, the case data support the hypotheses, although i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o confirm t h a t the i n t e r a c t i o n s are mainly t a s k - o r i e n t e d . In g e n e r a l , one notes f e a t u r e s of organic manage ment processes which tend t o support the hypotheses. The s u p e r v i s o r i s l a r g e l y independent and f r e e t o run h i s depart ment as he sees f i t . The o r g a n i z a t i o n i s " i n f o r m a l " : mana gers and s u p e r v i s o r s know each other w e l l . There are v i r  t u a l l y no problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e c h n o l o g i c a l change. The s u p e r v i s o r has "easy access" t o the Works Manager, h i s immediate s u p e r i o r (paragraph 21). H o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s ( I - B - l - c ) . For the most p a r t , the s p e c i f i c hypotheses regarding h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r are not w e l l supported by the case data. Such i n t e r a c t i o n s apparently are not t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y r e q u i r e d t o any extent. For those h o r i z o n  t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s which do occur part of the hypothesis i s 1 6 2 supported by the case. S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t i s observed t h a t , as hypothesized, these i n t e r a c t i o n s are " r e l a x e d . " Accord ing t o paragraph 2 2 r e l a t i o n s between s u p e r v i s o r s are "good." Frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s The case does not provide i n f o r m a t i o n concerning frequencies of i n t e r a c t i o n s . Inferences appear t o be un warranted. Supervisory sentiments I t was hypothesized o r i g i n a l l y t h a t supervisory s e n t i  ments toward subordinates, s u p e r i o r s , f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s along the work-flow, and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s would be s i m i l a r : t h a t i s , n e u t r a l t o f r i e n d l y , f a i r l y constant and based upon mutual respect f o r t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e plus the e f  f e c t s of organic management processes. I f one accepts the preceding a n a l y s i s regarding the nature of supervisory i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s , then i t might be i n f e r r e d t h a t the hypotheses regarding s u p e r v i s o r y sentiments are sub s t a n t i a t e d by the case data. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Case No. 2 : "An E l e c t r i c a l Engineering J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n as Category I  Technology Case 2 poses problems of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n not found i n Case 1 . The sources of c e r t a i n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a m b i g u i t i e s are two i n number ( 1 ) the n e c e s s a r i l y i d e a l nature of the 163 s p e c i f i c hypotheses f o r Category I technology, and (2) the f a c t t h a t i n d u s t r i a l production technology might be regarded as a continuum, the d i v i s i o n s of which (e.g. Category I) tend t o be somewhat a r b i t r a r y . Technologies approaching the boundaries of the d i v i s i o n s of the continuum pose unique d i f f i c u l t i e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and attempts t o develop sup port f o r the s p e c i f i c hypotheses. Case 2 i l l u s t r a t e s the phenomena described above. In the second paragraph of the case one l e a r n s t h a t o r i g i n a l l y the company was engaged e n t i r e l y i n production f o r i n d i v i d u a l orders of small q u a n t i t i e s . Such a type of production continues t o be the major part of the company's output. The small batch nature of production i s confirmed i n paragraph 4. This paragraph shows t h a t the e n t e r p r i s e tends t o s p e c i a l i z e i n the production of small l o t s of s l i g h t l y non-standard switchgear and e l e c t r i c motors, a l  though production a l s o c o n s i s t s " p a r t l y " of long-term con t r a c t work. I t might be concluded, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the case study describes what i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y a small batch produc t i o n technology (Catagory I) but w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y of there being a r e l a t i v e l y s m a ll amount of l a r g e batch pro d u c t i o n as w e l l . What of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s which have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Category I technology? The preceding d i s  cussion suggests t h a t , i n accordance w i t h the c o r r e l a t e s of Category I technology, production i s based upon f i r m orders only. I t suggests that the order of the manufacturing c y c l e i s from marketing t o development t o production. In a d d i t i o n t o these c o r r e l a t e s of Category I technology, one observes from Figure I I I that the e n t e r p r i s e comprises three l e v e l s of management. This number equals the median f o r Category I technology observed by Woodward.(Chart I I above). Thus the leng t h of the management communication l i n e i s " r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t " as suggested by Woodward. Fur thermore, i n approximate accordance w i t h the cha r a c t e r  i s t i c s of Category I technology a p o r t i o n of the d i r e c t l a b o r f o r c e c o n s i s t s of s k i l l e d workers (paragraph 12). This f a c t suggests t o us the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the enter p r i s e possesses a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h , but d e c l i n i n g , propor t i o n of s k i l l e d t o u n s k i l l e d l a b o r . F i n a l l y , we observe from the data of paragraphs 15 and.16 th a t the r e q u i r e d t e c h n i c a l competence of su p e r v i s o r s i s high. Most super v i s o r s have p r e v i o u s l y served a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s i n e i t h e r mechanical or e l e c t r i c a l engineering (paragraph 15). The foremen i n part supervise the k i n d of h i g h l y s k i l l e d t e c h  n i c a l work f o r which they themselves were t r a i n e d . The t r e n d , however, i s toward i n c r e a s i n g l y u n s k i l l e d l a b o r . B r i e f l y , then, the case e x h i b i t s a number of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Category I t e c h  nology. However, one a l s o observes one or two s t r u c t u r a l c o r r e l a t e s which do not conform t o the i d e a l f e a t u r e s ob served by Woodward. S p e c i f i c a l l y , one notes the presence 165 of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s suggestive of the l o c a t i o n of the technology described i n the case as being c l o s e t o the boundary separating Categories I and I I . For example, Figure I I I above i l l u s t r a t e s the f a i r l y elaborate s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the e n t e r p r i s e . As paragraph 19 r e v e a l s , the sequencing and scheduling of production are p a r t i a l l y s p e c i f i e d f o r the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r by the Progress Department. The Planning Department p r e s c r i b e s production methods. In s p i t e of the presence of these s t a f f groups, t h e i r degree of c o n t r o l over supervisory be ha v i o r i s only p a r t i a l . The su p e r v i s o r i s r e q u i r e d t o con s i d e r c a r e f u l l y the t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n s (not d i r e c t i v e s ) of the s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . He c r i t i c i z e s these i n s t r u c t i o n s when necessary and takes steps t o see that work i s done i n the most economical way (paragraph 19). An a d d i t i o n a l ex ample of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s f a i l i n g t o conform t o the i d e a l types of Category I technology i s found i n the use f o r c o n t r o l purposes by management of s t a f f department r e p o r t s (paragraph 21). F i n a l l y , a key c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of organic management appears t o be absent from the e n t e r p r i s e described i n Case 2: namely, the adjustment and c o n t i n u a l r e d e f i n i t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l t a sks through i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h others. Not withstanding the foregoing departures from Category I o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s , one notes a d d i t i o n a l aspects of the e n t e r p r i s e which do conform w i t h Category I 166 o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s . Paragraph 19 of the case demon s t r a t e s t h a t the su p e r v i s o r i s consulted on any t e c h n i c a l matter out of the ordin a r y before production methods are decided upon. S i m i l a r l y , one notes t h a t the s u p e r v i s o r c o n s u l t s w i t h Personnel regarding h i r i n g ; the f i n a l d e c i  s i o n concerning the h i r i n g of a d d i t i o n a l l a b o r i s h i s (para graph 19 and 25). These two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the or g a n i  z a t i o n support f e a t u r e s of organic management i n v o l v i n g the communication of advice and i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r than d e c i  s i o n s , and the c o n t r i b u t i v e nature of s p e c i a l knowledge and experience t o the common tasks of the e n t e r p r i s e . I t i s concluded, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t although Case 2 contains elements which f a i l t o conform w i t h the i d e a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Category I technology s t r u c t u r a l cor r e l a t e s , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n Category I i s at l e a s t p a r t i a l l y j u s t i f i e d . Support f o r S p e c i f i c Hypotheses In t h i s s e c t i o n the a n a l y s i s of Case 2 i s continued. The g o a l i s t o demonstrate the degree t o which the case m a t e r i a l s e i t h e r provide support f o r the s p e c i f i c hypotheses regarding supervisory behavior i n Category I technology, or i n d i c a t e the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and refinements r e q u i r e d i n the s p e c i f i c hypotheses. Nature of supervisory a c t i v i t i e s ( I - A - l ) The data provide support f o r the hypothesis regard ing the a p p l i c a t i o n of t e c h n i c a l knowledge and the e x e r c i s e 167 of t e c h n i c a l s k i l l . For example, one notes the strong t e c h n i c a l background of the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r (para graph 16). H i s extensive t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g and many years of experience as a s k i l l e d workman are of immediate r e l e  vance t o the t e c h n i c a l l y s k i l l e d work performed by a p o r t i o n of h i s subordinates (paragraph 17). He has a considerable measure of t e c h n i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (paragraph 19). More s p e c i f i c a l l y , and as hypothesized, the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r i n t h i s e n t e r p r i s e i s the "man on the spot," the "man of p r a c t i c a l experience" (paragraph 19). I t was hypothesized t h a t the sup e r v i s o r " p e r s o n a l l y makes a r e l a  t i v e l y broad range of t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s , or gi v e s t e c h n i  c a l advice regarding (1) choice of work t o o l s and methods" etc. A n a l y s i s of the case r e v e a l s t h a t the sup e r v i s o r a p p l i e s h i s t e c h n i c a l knowledge and s k i l l i n e v a l u a t i n g and c r i t i c i z i n g planning department s p e c i f i c a t i o n s on produc t i o n methods. He con s u l t s w i t h s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s when out- of- t h e - o r d i n a r y jobs are scheduled. F i n a l l y , the t e c h n i c a l experience and knowledge of the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r are u t i l i z e d i n the establishment of p i e c e - r a t e s (paragraph 19). I t appears, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the t e c h n i c a l r o l e de mands of the sup e r v i s o r i n Case 2 are of a c o n s u l t a t i v e nature. Sole r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t e c h n i c a l d e c i s i o n s does not f i g u r e predominantly i n h i s r o l e . The data do not support the hypothesis t h a t , when unforeseen problems or excessive work loads a r i s e , the 168 s u p e r v i s o r becomes p e r s o n a l l y a c t i v e i n c o n t r i b u t i n g b i s t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s t o the d i r e c t production work of h i s subordinates. Among the set of i d e a l s t r u c t u r a l c o r r e l a t e s of Category I technology l i s t e d i n Chart I I are (1) the e x i s  tence of few or no s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s (2) a l i m i t e d develop ment of formal production c o n t r o l and planning systems, and (3) the minimum r e l i a n e e f o r c o n t r o l purposes by a l l l e v e l s of management upon the formal r e p o r t s of s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . I n the preceding d i s c u s s i o n regarding case c l a s s i f i c a t i o n the departures from the i d e a l Category I c o r r e l a t e s were noted. They concerned mainly the presence i n t h i s case of the foregoing types of s t r u c t u r a l cor r e l a t e s . F i n a l l y , i t was hypothesized o r i g i n a l l y t h a t " i n the absence of e x t e n s i v e , h i g h l y r a t i o n a l i z e d s t a f f produc t i o n planning and c o n t r o l a c t i v i t i e s , the s u p e r v i s o r per s o n a l l y c a r r i e s out a range of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . . . . n I n d i r e c t l y , t h e r e f o r e , the l a t t e r hypothesis i s confirmed by the case m a t e r i a l s . That i s , the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r i n the e n t e r p r i s e reported i n Case 2 does not perform a l l these adminstrative a c t i v i t i e s because of the existence of s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . However, the foregoing a n a l y s i s i s not meant t o imply that i n t h i s example of Category I technology a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s and a c t i v i t i e s of the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r are non e x i s t e n t . Rather, as the data of the case i n d i c a t e , the 169 nature of h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s d i f f e r s l i g h t l y from those o r i g i n a l l y hypothesized. (This d i f f e r e n c e might be i n t e r p r e t e d as r e f l e c t i n g the closeness of the technology t o the boundary separating Categories I and I I . ) Thus, paragraph 23 contains evidence that the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s of the s u p e r v i s o r "can be s u b s t a n t i a l and [are] always c o n s i d e r a b l e . " B a s i c a l l y , the data support the two sub-hypotheses regarding the nature of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s : "the issuance of v e r b a l or w r i t t e n r e p o r t s r e  garding attendance, absenteeism, e t c . , " and the "issuance of w r i t t e n or v e r b a l r e p o r t s regarding production achieved, i n process, e t c . " In paragraphs 22 and 23 one notes e v i  dence t o the e f f e c t t h a t the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r i s i n  volved i n a c t i v i t i e s designed t o provide production and personnel s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s w i t h up-to-date i n f o r m a t i o n . I t i s these types of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s , r a t h e r than those d e a l i n g w i t h the a l l o c a t i o n of jobs and t a s k s , or the scheduling and monitoring of work f l o w , which comprise the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s of the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r i n t h i s case. The foregoing observations regarding the departures from hypothesized supervisory a c t i v i t i e s i n d i c a t e a basic d e f i c i e n c y i n the s p e c i f i c hypotheses of t h i s study; namely, t h e i r e s s e n t i a l l y modal or i d e a l n a t u r e — a charac t e r i s t i c which f a i l s t o acknowledge the continuum-like nature of the range of production t e c h n o l g i e s from Category I to Category I I I . 170 The case data do not demonstrate support f o r our other hypothesis regarding the nature of supervisory ad m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . We f i n d no evidence t o support the hypothesis t h a t the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r i s i n v o l v e d i n behavior designed t o (1) coordinate work f l o w between successive work u n i t s , or (2) negotiate access t o scarce resources i n demand by f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s . Our f i n a l hypothesis under the "Nature of super v i s o r y a c t i v i t i e s " d e a l t w i t h the existence of a c t i v i t i e s the nature of which c o n s i s t s of f a c e - t o - f a c e v e r b a l i n t e r  a c t i o n s w i t h subordinates, l i n e s u p e r i o r s , s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s ( i f found i n the e n t e r p r i s e ) , and f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s along the work flow. The data of the case provide no d i r e c t con f i r m a t i o n of t h i s hypothesis. Presumably, however, such i n t e r a c t i o n s are a basic component of the o v e r a l l set of a c t i v i t i e s of the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s discussed i n the case. Frequency of performance of a c t i v i t i e s (I-A-2) The case data are i n s u f f i c i e n t t o permit d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s under t h i s s e c t i o n . Nature of i n t e r a c t i o n s With subordinates ( I - B - l - a ) . For the most part the data appear t o support the hypothesis t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n s be tween f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r subordinates would be f a c e - t o - f a c e , t a s k - o r i e n t e d and r e l a x e d , t h a t i s devoid 171 of c o n f l i c t s over a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . One notes, f o r example, th a t the s u p e r v i s o r i s p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h t r a i n i n g new-comers, and t h a t he keeps i n clo s e per sonal touch w i t h t h e i r progress (paragraph 27). F u r t h e r  more, these i n t e r a c t i o n s appear t o be r e l a x e d , the a t  mosphere of the f a c t o r y i s considered t o be "happy" (paragraph 3 D . I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o demonstrate support f o r the s p e c i f i c hypotheses s t a t i n g that supervisor-subordinate i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l "tend t o al l o w feedback and e v a l u a t i o n by the p a r t i e s " and that "The t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e of both the p a r t i e s w i l l a l l o w the i n t e r a c t i o n s t o be based upon the communication of advice and i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r than e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n s and d i r e c t i v e s . " With s u p e r i o r s ( I - B - l - b ) . The s p e c i f i c hypotheses regarding the nature of s u p e r v i s o r - s u p e r i o r i n t e r a c t i o n s were the same as those f o r i n t e r a c t i o n between f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s and subordinates. The hypotheses are not w e l l s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n t h i s case. The explanation f o r t h i s f a i l u r e appears t o l i e i n the e f f e c t s of the s t r u c t u r a l c o r r e l a t e s noted i n the case which depart from the i d e a l s of Category I technology. Thus, contrary t o the hypoth e s i s t h a t s u p e r v i s o r - s u p e r i o r i n t e r a c t i o n s would tend t o be devoid of c o n f l i c t s over a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , one f i n d s a suggestion that some ambiguity e x i s t s regard ing the l i m i t s of supervisory r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y 172 (paragraphs 36 and 38). Furthermore, the presence of s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s and formal planning and c o n t r o l systems sug gests t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n s between the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s l i n e s u p e r i o r s w i l l be mediated by the r e p o r t s i n t e g r a l t o these systems. In s p i t e of these p o t e n t i a l l i m i t a t i o n s t o f a c e - t o - f a c e , v e r b a l , t a s k - o r i e n t e d i n t e r  a c t i o n s f r e e from c o n f l i c t s over a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l  i t y , r e l a t i o n s between the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s s u p e r i o r s appear to be r e l a x e d . The data i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s are "good and f r i e n d l y at the personal l e v e l " (paragraph 38). H o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s ( I - B - l - c ) . The preceding d i s c u s s i o n a p p l i e s t o the s p e c i f i c hypotheses regarding the nature of h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . As noted pre v i o u s l y , the hypotheses regarding i n t e r a c t i o n s between f e l l o w s u p e r v i s o r s along the work-flow f i n d no support from the data of the ease. Given t h a t the s u p e r v i s o r f r e  quently f a i l s t o execute h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i  t i e s (paragraphs 34 and 35), h i s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s appear t o be f a c e - t o - f a c e and t a s k - o r i e n t e d as hypothesized. A l s o , because the atmosphere i s considered "happy" (paragraph 31), and because r e l a t i o n s between super v i s o r s and t h e i r s u p e r i o r s are "good and f r i e n d l y " (para graph 38), i t i s i n f e r r e d t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n s between the s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s and the s u p e r v i s o r are f r e e from c o n f l i c t over a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Thus, although para-173 graphs 32 and 35 h i n t at the p o s s i b i l i t y of resentment be tween these two groups, one notes from paragraph 33 t h a t s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s are c a r e f u l t o recognize the p r e r o g a t i v e s of the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and t h a t they attempt t o up h o l d the s u p e r v i s o r ' s a u t h o r i t y With the exception of h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s between s u p e r v i s o r s along the work f l o w , the hypotheses seem t o be confirmed by the data. Frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s A n a l y s i s under t h i s s e c t i o n i s not j u s t i f i e d given the q u a l i t y of data i n Case 2. Supervisory sentiments I t was o r i g i n a l l y hypothesized t h a t s u p e r v i s o r s ' sentiments toward subordinates ( I - G - l ) , s u p e r i o r s (I-C-2) and p a r t i e s t o h o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s (I-C-3) would be uniform; namely, n e u t r a l t o f r i e n d l y and f a i r l y constant over time. The data i n the case appear t o confirm these hypotheses. The preceding d i s c u s s i o n regarding the a t  mosphere i n the e n t e r p r i s e , the nature of s u p e r v i s o r - s u p e r i o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and the care taken by s t a f f s p e c i a l  i s t s t o p r o t e c t and respect the p r e r o g a t i v e s of the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r imply p a r t i a l support f o r the hypotheses regarding sentiments. The f a i l u r e of the s p e c i f i c hypotheses p e r t a i n i n g t o s upervisory sentiments are evident i n regard t o s e n t i  ments toward l i n e s u p e r i o r s . Thus, as i n d i c a t e d above, 174 i n t e r a c t i o n s between f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r l i n e s u p e r i o r s are not e n t i r e l y devoid of c o n f l i c t over the a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the s u p e r v i s o r . In a d d i  t i o n , s u p e r v i s o r - l i n e s u p e r i o r i n t e r a c t i o n s tend t o be mediated by the r e p o r t s of s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . The s t a t u s of the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r i s , t h e r e f o r e , r a t h e r ambiguous. The foregoing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s u p e r v i s o r - l i n e - s u p e r i o r i n t e r a c t i o n s suggest that the q u a l i t y of s e n t i  ments between these two c l a s s e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a c t o r s tend toward those found i n e n t e r p r i s e s under Category I I technology. This phenomenon may f i n d i t s o r i g i n s i n the nature of the technology and t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e s of Case 2, which, as noted above, do not completely conform t o the i d e a l s of Category I technology. A n a l y s i s of A d d i t i o n a l E m p i r i c a l Data In the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n the data of Appendices I and I I are examined. Appendix I c o n s i s t s of a number of e m p i r i c a l observations bearing upon supervisory behavior i n what appear t o be instances of Category I production technology. Appendix I I c o n s i s t s of observations p e r t a i n  ing t o : (1) the s t r u c t u r a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l process cor r e l a t e s of c r a f t technology, and (2) the i m p l i c a t i o n s of these c o r r e l a t e s of technology f o r the behavior of f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s . A note on organic management processes. Preparatory t o the enunciation i n Chapter I I I of s p e c i f i c hypotheses concerning the dimensions of sup e r v i s o r y behavior under Category I technology, the c e n t r a l i t y of organic manage ment processes f o r t h i s category of technology was d i s  cussed. To what extent do the data of Appendices I and I I demonstrate organic management processes as a cor r e l a t e of Category I technology? A c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of organic management processes i s the c o n t r i b u t i v e nature of s p e c i a l knowledge and exper ience t o the common task of the e n t e r p r i s e . The data pro v i d e evidence of the s k i l l e d craftsman b r i n g i n g t o bear h i s t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s and t e c h n i c a l experience upon the c o n t i n u a l l y changing nature of the work t o be performed (11,5). See a l s o (I,3 2(a), 32(b), 33(c) and 33(a)). A second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of organic management pro cesses i n v o l v e s i n d i v i d u a l t a s k s being set by the t o t a l s i t u a t i o n of the e n t e r p r i s e . Paragraph 5 of Appendix I I suggests t h a t i n c r a f t i n d u s t r i e s such i s the case. De pending upon the nature of the job at hand the craftsman s e l e c t s h i s t o o l s and e x e r c i s e s d i s c r e t i o n over h i s work methods and sequence. Paragraph 21 of Appendix I demon s t r a t e s that work pace i s l a r g e l y i n f l u e n c e d by the nature of the item being produced. Paragraph 32 i s another ex ample of the presence of t h i s f e a t u r e of organic manage ment processes i n Category I technology. Organic management processes may a l s o be ch a r a c t e r -176 i z e d by the adjustment and c o n t i n u a l r e d e f i n i t i o n of i n  d i v i d u a l t a s k s through i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h others. Because each miner under hand got method of c o a l - g e t t i n g i s capable of performing a l l tasks of h i s crew, h i s p e r f o r  mance of a given task i s probably the product of mutual agreement among crew members (I,3 2(d)). A f o u r t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of organic processes of management i s the ad hoc l o c a t i o n of c o n t r o l a u t h o r i t y and communication based upon e x p e r t i s e . See (I ,32(a ) -32(d)) f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n of t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of organic manage ment i n Category I production technology. The r e l a t i v e absence of " f u n c t i o n a l r a t i o n a l i t y " i n p r i n t i n g , p l u s the " l i t t l e need f o r e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l s " over p r i n t e r s and other craftsmen, are a d d i t i o n a l c o n f i r m a t i o n (11,4 and 6). Under organic processes of management l a t e r a l r a t h e r than v e r t i c a l communications appear t o be predomi nant. The f a c t t h a t , "to a l a r g e extent the workers run the composing room" (11,8), i n d i c a t e s (by inference) the importance of l a t e r a l communications i n t h i s example of Category I technology. The "extensive f r e e i n t e r a c t i o n s among crew members" under the hand got method of c o a l g e t t i n g i s another example of t h i s phenomenon ( I , 3 2 ( c ) ) . The s i x t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of organic management pro cesses concerns the communication of advice and i n f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r than i n s t r u c t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s . See (1,27 and 32(b)) (11,6, 7 and 8) f o r co n f i r m a t i o n of t h i s phenomenon under 177 Category I technology. To summarize the foregoing paragraphs, the e m p i r i  c a l data of the appendices appear t o confirm our hypotheses regarding the presence of organic management processes i n Category I technology. We now t u r n t o an a n a l y s i s of the data of the appendices from the point of view of our s p e c i f i c hypotheses concerning the dimensions of super v i s o r y behavior. Mature of supervisory a c t i v i t i e s ( I - A - l ) Frequency of a c t i v i t i e s (I-A-2) The data of the appendices are of i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a l  i t y t o a l l o w e i t h e r c o n f i r m a t i o n , m o d i f i c a t i o n , or r e f u t a  t i o n of the s p e c i f i c hypotheses of these two s e c t i o n s . Mature of i n t e r a c t i o n s With subordinates ( I - B - l - a ) . I t was o r i g i n a l l y hypothesized t h a t the nature of supervisor-subordinate i n t e r a c t i o n s would be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the f o l l o w i n g f e a  t u r e s : they would be f a c e - t o - f a c e , task o r i e n t e d , and devoid of c o n f l i c t s over a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; t h a t they would a l l o w r e c i p r o c a l feedback and e v a l u a t i o n based upon the communication of advice and in f o r m a t i o n . None of the data of the appendices appear t o c o n t r a d i c t these hypotheses. The data at ( I I , 6 and 7) tend t o support them by i n f e r e n c e . With s u p e r i o r s ( I - B - l - b ) . H o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s 178 ( I - B - l - c ) . The a d d i t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l data l a c k the quality- needed t o j u s t i f y comments regarding the v a l i d i t y of the l a t t e r two groups of hypotheses. Frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s With subordinates (I-B-2-a). The s p e c i f i c hypotheses of t h i s s e c t i o n i n c l u d e d the p r e d i c t i o n that the extensive t e c h n i c a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s of the s u p e r v i s o r , plus the t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e of d i r e c t workers would tend t o l i m i t i n t e r a c t i o n s . See (11,3, 6,23 and 32(b)) f o r c o n f i r  mation. The p o r t i o n of the s p e c i f i c hypotheses of t h i s s e c t i o n which p r e d i c t e d that the frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s between f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s and t h e i r subordinates would be l e s s i n Category I than i n Category I I I technology tends t o be supported by (11,7). With s u p e r i o r s (I-B-2-b). H o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s (I-B-2-c). The q u a l i t y of the a d d i t i o n a l e m p i r i c a l data i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o permit a d i s c u s s i o n of the v a l i d i t y of the s p e c i f i c hypotheses under these two s e c t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y f o r the s p e c i f i c hypotheses p e r t a i n i n g t o s u p e r v i s o r y sentiments. 179 CATEGORY I I TECHNOLOGY I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Case No» 3 J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n under Category I I Technology How w e l l do the t e c h n o l o g i c a l - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l charac t e r i s t i c s of the plan t described i n Case No. 3 approximate the c o r r e l a t e s observed by Woodward (Chart I I I ) ? F i r s t , one observes from Figure IV above t h a t the number of l e v e l s of management i n the e n t e r p r i s e i s 5, one more than the median number observed by Joan Woodward. On the other hand, the c h i e f executive span of c o n t r o l i s 5, two l e s s than the median of 7 found i n Woodward's sample. Second, the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r ' s span of c o n t r o l f a l l s w i t h i n the range Woodward noted f o r Category I I t e c h  nology. Paragraph 5 shows tha t the su p e r v i s o r d i r e c t e d the a c t i v i t i e s of 40 subordinates. Woodward notes a range of 30-44 as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Category I I technology. T h i r d , and i n accordance w i t h Woodward's data, one f i n d s l i t t l e evidence f o r the existence of s m a l l primary work-groups. The s i z e of the two work groups s t u d i e d i n t h i s case ranges from 11 t o 18 (paragraph 5). Fourth, as noted i n Woodward's study (Chart I I I ) , s k i l l e d l a b o r focuses upon i n d i r e c t a c t i v i t i e s . That i s , the d i r e c t l a b o r appears t o be s e m i - s k i l l e d w h i l e the s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s probably can be c l a s s i f i e d as s k i l l e d . F i f t h , s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s appear t o perform many 180 e r u c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the e n t e r p r i s e o u t l i n e d i n Case No. 3« The f i v e preceding c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s suggest t h a t the case describes Category I I production technology. However, paragraphs 1 and 2 i n d i c a t e the d i f f i c u l t y i n attempting a neat, unequivocal c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of the technology i n v o l v e d i n Case No. 3. I t i s c l e a r that one i s d e a l i n g w i t h an e n t e r p r i s e i n a p a r t i c u l a r stage of what i n f a c t i s a pro cess of t e c h n o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n — a phenomenon perhaps c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of contemporary economic o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Both u n i t production and assembly-line technologies are employed i n the productive processes of the e n t e r p r i s e . Yet, f o r the production u n i t s t u d i e d i n t h i s case, the technology i s ob v i o u s l y t h a t of the assembly l i n e . In a d d i t i o n t o the foregoing c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Category I I technology one notes t h a t (1) emergencies are common (paragraph 11), suggesting a high sense 6f urgency of production (2) management pro cesses tend t o be mechanistic (paragraphs 13, 14, 19, 20 and 21) (3) interdepartmental r e l a t i o n s tend t o be poor (paragraph 17) and (4) interdepartmental interdependence seems t o be h i g h l y developed (paragraphs 8, 17). For the purposes of a n a l y s i s , t h e r e f o r e , i t appears j u s t i f i a b l e t o c l a s s i f y Case No. 3 under Category I I technology. Support f o r the S p e c i f i c Hypotheses The f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s of the data of Case 3 i s organized i n accordance w i t h the o b s e r v a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s of Chart I . L i k e the preceding analyses, i t s r a t i o n a l e 181 and development f o l l o w from the conceptual scheme (Figure I) r e l a t i n g supervisory a c t i v i t i e s , i n t e r a c t i o n s , sentiments and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s of Category I I production technology. Nature of supervisory a c t i v i t i e s (II-A-1) The data of Case 3 suggest that the primary focus of the s u p e r v i s o r ' s a c t i v i t i e s i s t o achieve and maintain a r e g u l a r work fl o w along the assembly l i n e w i t h i n h i s work u n i t (paragraph 11). Such a r e g u l a r f l o w of production must meet the combined demands of q u a l i t y c o n t r o l , " e f f i c i e n c y , " and production scheduling s p e c i a l i s t s . The data a l s o suggest t h a t the c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of f i r s t - l i n e s upervisory a c t i v i t i e s i s t h a t they c o n s i s t mainly of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h others. For example, paragraph 11 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the s u p e r v i s o r i n t e r a c t s w i t h s u p e r i o r s t o secure the r e q u i r e d number of workers. Paragraph 13 i s a l s o suggestive of ad hoc t a s k - o r i e n t e d v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s between the s u p e r v i s o r and h i s s u p e r i o r s . From paragraph 16 the p o s s i b i l i t y of i n t e r a c t i o n s between the s u p e r v i s o r s and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s i s i n f e r r e d . S i m i l a r l y , one f i n d s evidence i n paragraph 17 f o r the existence of i n t e r a c t i o n s between the s u p e r v i s o r and h i s subordinates. One f i n d s no evidence i l l u s t r a t i n g the nature of s u p e r v i s o r y a c t i v i t i e s beyond the i n t e r a c t i n g behaviors described above. 182 Frequency of supervisory a c t i v i t i e s (II-A-2) The m a t e r i a l s of the case are at best suggestive. I t has been i n d i c a t e d t h a t the case p o i n t s t o i n t e r a c t i o n s as the primary a c t i v i t y of the s u p e r v i s o r . Information p e r t a i n i n g t o the frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s i s o u t l i n e d below. I n t e r a c t i o n s Nature and frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h subordinates ( I I - B - l - a ) . Paragraph 17 i n d i c a t e s the r a t h e r ambivalent nature of the s u p e r v i s o r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h h i s subordinates. Although such i n t e r a c t i o n s as those designed t o calm and soothe "the r u f f l e d d i s p o s i t i o n s of the g i r l s " appear t o be non-task-oriented, one might i n f e r t h a t the s u p e r v i s o r ' s m o t i v a t i o n i s t o r e l i e v e some of the o b s t a c l e s t o achieving production t a r g e t s , namely, those obstacles found i n the sentiments of h i s subordinates. Paragraphs 17, 18 and 21 are suggestive of the t a s k - o r i e n t e d nature of i n t e r a c t i o n s i n i t i a t e d by the s u p e r v i s o r . A l s o , they suggest the n e u t r a l t o aggressive nature of such i n t e r a c t i o n s . Superiors ( I I - B - l - b ) . The i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s between the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s l i n e s u p e r i o r s appear t o be based upon t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y r e q u i r e d i n t e r a c t i o n s ( I I - B - l b ) . Such i n t e r a c t i o n s are f r e q u e n t l y f a c e - t o - f a c e , although they are a l s o t y p i c a l l y mediated by the v a r i o u s 183 production c o n t r o l r e p o r t s used by management t o monitor performance (paragraph 20). O v e r a l l , i n t e r a c t i o n s between the s u p e r v i s o r and h i s s u p e r i o r s are t a s k - o r i e n t e d (para graph 21). In p a r t i c u l a r , as paragraph 19 i n d i c a t e s , these i n t e r a c t i o n s focus upon the st r e n g t h and d i s p o s i t i o n of the sup e r v i s o r ' s work f o r c e . H o r i z o n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s ( s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s ) ( I I - B - l - c ) . I n t e r a c t i o n s between the s u p e r v i s o r and the s t a f f s p e c i a l  i s t s tend t o be i n i t i a t e d by the l a t t e r (paragraphs 16, 17). We i n f e r t h a t the tone of these i n t e r a c t i o n s i s h o s t i l e or aggressive due t o the apparent ambiguity concerning the sup e r v i s o r ' s a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r production (paragraphs 16, 17), plus the s u p e r v i s o r ' s burden of meet in g demanding production schedules (paragraph 11), a burden which probably i n c r e a s e s when s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s i n t e r f e r e w i t h the assemblers* t a s k s . Frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s With subordinates (II-B-2-a). W i t h i n the case d e s c r i p  t i o n reference t o the frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s between the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s subordinates i s minimal. Para graph 17, however, i n d i c a t e s t h a t the su p e r v i s o r spent "much time™ i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h h i s female subordinates i n order t o calm and soothe t h e i r " r u f f l e d d i s p o s i t i o n s . " For the purpose of hypotheses t e s t i n g under t h i s s e c t i o n , the q u a n t i t a t i v e data i n c l u d e d i n Case No. 3 i s app r o p r i a t e . 184 The q u a n t i t a t i v e data contained i n Case 3 cover the regimes of two s u p e r v i s o r s w h i l e the case d e s c r i p t i o n has d e a l t s o l e l y w i t h the regime of a s i n g l e s u p e r v i s o r , Teddy of Chart V. The case study focused on the r o l e of Teddy because t h i s was the emphasis i n the source m a t e r i a l . For the purposes of a n a l y s i s , however, i t w i l l be u s e f u l t o consider the q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o both regimes. Chart V i n d i c a t e s t h a t the foreman i n assembly l i n e technology i n t e r a c t s w i t h (communicates v e r b a l l y ) s u b o r d i  nates about once per day, as estimated by each party. How ever, Chart V I , which deals e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h the i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s of the s u p e r v i s o r discussed i n the case, presents a more complex p i c t u r e . Chart VI i s a record of "time spent conversing during p a i r and group contacts l a s t i n g over 45 seconds or 1 minute." 1 The data presented i n Chart VI introduce f u r t h e r refinements i n the i n f e r e n c e s s t a t e d i n the preceding sec t i o n . The case m a t e r i a l r e v e a l s t h a t the s u p e r v i s o r , Teddy, p r e f e r r e d t o d e a l w i t h the group leader Nel. His i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h G l o r i a tended t o be r a t h e r poor. Thus, one notes a measure of v o l u n t a r i s m i n the f r e  quency and d u r a t i o n of contacts w i t h subordinates. (Note a l s o t h a t Nel's contacts w i t h G l o r i a were n i l . ) In e f f e c t , then, i n t e r a c t i o n s between the s u p e r v i s o r and h i s s u b o r d i  nate G l o r i a were apparently not t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y r e q u i r e d . 185 S i m i l a r l y , as Chart V i l l u s t r a t e s , i n t e r a c t i o n s between the s u p e r v i s o r and the assemblers of G l o r i a ' s group were not r e q u i r e d . Thus, by i n f e r e n c e , the r a t h e r extensive con t a c t s shown between the s u p e r v i s o r and Nel on the one hand, and between the s u p e r v i s o r and h i s subordinate assemblers on the other hand, were not demanded e x c l u s i v e l y by the requirements of technology. Therefore, as we hypothesized above, i t i s concluded that assembly l i n e technology r e q u i r e s , on the average, only minimally frequent contacts of short d u r a t i o n between the su p e r v i s o r and i n d i v i d u a l subordinates (see a l s o Chart V I I ) . I n t e r a c t i o n s i n excess of t h i s minimum may or may not be t a s k - o r i e n t e d . The data do not permit a more concise s t a t e  ment. Table I appears t o support the conc l u s i o n t h a t the frequency and d u r a t i o n of supervisor-subordinate i n t e r a c t i o n s are only minimally r e q u i r e d i n Category I I technology. F i n a l l y , the data of Chart V and Table I support the hypothesis t h a t the frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s between the su p e r v i s o r and h i s subordinates ais a group w i l l be r e l a t i v e l y h i gh. With s u p e r i o r s (II-B-2-b). Although Chart V i m p l i e s a measure of d i s c r e t i o n concerning the frequency of i n t e r  a c t i o n s between f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , the apparently t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y r e q u i r e d i n t e r a c t i o n s between the s u p e r v i s o r and h i s s u b - d i v i s i o n c h i e f s u p e r i o r appear 186 s l i g h t l y more determinate i n frequency. With the exception of Frank's more frequent i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h the s u b - d i v i s i o n c h i e f of the t e s t i n g department, the frequency of i n t e r  a c t i o n s between assembly l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s and s u p e r i o r s appears t o be approximately constant f o r both Frank and Teddy. On the average, such i n t e r a c t i o n s occur more than once d a i l y . The frequency of i n t e r a c t i o n s between the assem b l y l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s (Teddy and Frank) and the engineering department sub-chief appear t o be u n r e l a t e d t o p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s between Frank and Teddy. By i n f e r e n c e , then, the minimum frequency of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r set of i n t e r a c t i o n s may be t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y r e q u i r e d , being a f u n c t i o n of the s t r u c t u r a l c o r r e l a t e s of Category I I technology. Once agai n , however, the patterns are obscure. D i f  ferences i n i n t e r a c t i o n frequency between Teddy and Frank w i t h top management suggest t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y r a t h e r than t e c h n o l o g i c a l requirements may be operative f o r t h i s c l a s s of i n t e r a c t i o n s . Paragraphs 14 and 16 suggest the r e l a  t i v e l y low frequency and short d u r a t i o n of i n t e r a c t i o n s be tween the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and h i s l i n e s u p e r i o r s . With s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s ( I I - B - 2 - c ) . In g e n e r a l , the high incidence of t e c h n o l o g i c a l change and the d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such changes (paragraphs 16 and 17) are suggestive of f a i r l y frequent i n t e r a c t i o n s between the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . 187 Chart V prompts the in f e r e n c e t h a t a measure of d i s  c r e t i o n i s p o s s i b l e regarding the frequency of s u p e r v i s o r y i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . For example, accord i n g t o Chart V, Frank i n t e r a c t e d more f r e q u e n t l y w i t h the scheduler and the e f f i c i e n c y man than d i d Teddy. Conversely, Teddy i n t e r a c t e d more f r e q u e n t l y w i t h the foreman of the Test s e c t i o n than Frank. Supervisory sentiments toward: Subordinates ( I I - C - 1 ) . The preceding p o r t i o n s of the case study suggest t h a t the sentiments of the s u p e r v i s o r toward h i s subordinates w i l l tend t o be n e u t r a l t o s l i g h t l y negative. Paragraph 17 i n d i c a t e s the general l a c k of har mony p r e v a i l i n g i n the u n i t , w h i l e paragraph 21 r e f e r s t o the d i s c i p l i n a r i a n norm the su p e r v i s o r was expected t o en f o r c e . Paragraphs 12, 13, 14 and 18 suggest t h a t t h i s c l a s s of sentiments may be g e n e r a l l y v a r i a b l e or unstable due t o t h e ^ r e g u l a r demands of technology on the assemblers, and the i r r e g u l a r demands of s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s upon the assemblers. Superiors ( I I - C - 2 ) . From paragraph 16 one l e a r n s t h a t the s u p e r v i s o r regards management as an " i n e x o r a b l e , u n f r i e n d l y , and mysterious f o r c e . " Apparently the super v i s o r ' s s u p e r i o r s l a c k confidence i n h i s a b i l i t y t o r e s o l v e the production problems (paragraph 19). The s u p e r v i s o r r e c e i v e s v i r t u a l l y no advance n o t i c e of changes i n procedures 188 and no a s s i s t a n c e from management regarding the i n t r o d u c  t i o n of t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes (paragraphs 16 and 19). Management e v a l u a t i o n of the sup e r v i s o r i s h i g h l y subjec t i v e , e f f i c i e n c y r e p o r t s not withstanding (paragraph 21). These f a c t o r s suggest t h a t the sentiments of the super v i s o r toward h i s s u p e r i o r s w i l l be n e u t r a l t o negative i n nature and g e n e r a l l y s t a b l e over time. S t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s ( I I - C - 3 ) . Paragraph 17 p o i n t s t o the c o n s i s t e n t l y h o s t i l e r e l a t i o n s between the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r and s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Case 4 The attempt t o v a l i d a t e the s p e c i f i c hypotheses p e r t a i n i n g f i r s t - l i n e s u p e rvisory behavior i n e n t e r p r i s e s under Category I I technology continues w i t h an a n a l y s i s of the data of Case 4. J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n Paragraphs 1, 2, 4 and 6-14 leave no doubt t h a t Case No. 4 p e r t a i n s t o assembly l i n e technology. The ch a r a c t e r  i s t i c s of the technology described i n the case are suf f i c i e n t l y p r e c i s e t o preclude any p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t produc t i o n technology Categories I and I I I may be i n v o l v e d . For example, one notes the existence of many of the s t r u c t u r a l c o r r e l a t e s of Category I I technology i d e n t i f i e d by Woodward i n Chart I I I . S p e c i f i c a l l y , one observes 6 l e v e l s of operat-189 i n g management (paragraph 5 ) , 2 more than Woodward's median. In a d d i t i o n , the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r ' s span of c o n t r o l over 36 r e g u l a r assemblers f a l l s w i t h i n the range of 30-44 recorded i n Chart I I I . As Woodward suggested, there i s l i t t l e evidence f o r the existence of small primary work groups. Paragraph 6 i n d i c a t e s t h a t there i s about 7.2 f e e t between assemblers. A l s o , the s o c i a l groupings which do emerge (paragraphs 15, 16) appear t o be u n r e l a t e d t o t e c h  n o l o g i c a l requirements. A l s o , one notes t h a t the d i r e c t l a b o r i s manual and s e m i - s k i l l e d i n character. The focus of s k i l l e d l a b o r i s apparently i n the realm of i n d i r e c t l a b o r (e.g. t e s t i n g , q u a l i t y c o n t r o l , methods, e t c . ) . Another s t r u c t u r a l c o r r e l a t e of Category I I technology noted by Woodward i s the existence of s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s , and f o r  mal production c o n t r o l systems. Figure V and paragraphs 30-33, and 35-36 demonstrate the existence of these cor r e l a t e s i n t h i s case. F i n a l l y , the high frequency of pro duct design changes (paragraph 14) suggest that the p l a n  ning and time p e r s p e c t i v e of management conforms w i t h Woodward's data. C l e a r l y , then, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t h i s case i n t o Category I I technology appears amply j u s t i f i e d . Support f o r S p e c i f i c Hypotheses Supervisory A c t i v i t i e s Nature of sup e r v i s o r y a c t i v i t i e s (II-A-1) In g e n e r a l , the assembly l i n e s u p e r v i s o r ' s a c t i v i t i e s 190 are d i r e c t e d toward "maintaining production, q u a l i t y and morale" (paragraph 24). From the l i m i t e d data presented i n the case, i t i s i n f e r r e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the be h a v i o r s e x h i b i t e d by the s u p e r v i s o r c o n s i s t of v e r b a l , f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r a c t i o n s , or exchanges of communications. The d e s c r i p t i o n of the operation of the assembly l i n e u n i t found i n paragraphs 6-14 i s noteworthy because of i t s l a c k of references t o a c t i v i t i e s performed by the s u p e r v i s o r other than entering i n t o i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h others. I t i s i n f e r r e d from the case d e s c r i p t i o n t h a t the assembly l i n e s u p e r v i s o r i n t e r a c t e d w i t h (spoke to) the o n - l i n e i n s p e c t o r s (subordinates) and the f a c t o r y engineer in g department (paragraph 35) whose general r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was t o i n t e r p r e t engineering changes and t o act as l i a i s o n between production and product engineering. I t appears that the purpose of such i n t e r a c t i o n s i s t o a l l o w the s u p e r v i s o r t o monitor the performance of the assemblers and t o permit him t o e x e r c i s e d i r e c t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n over the v a r i o u s stages of production along the assembly l i n e (paragraph 18, 19). S i m i l a r l y , i n t e r a c t i o n s between the s u p e r v i s o r and top management occurred only i n r o u t i n e production meetings or when s p e c i a l production problems came t o the a t t e n t i o n of top management (paragraph 46). Although the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r of the assembly u n i t apparently does i n t e r a c t w i t h the q u a l i t y c o n t r o l i n s p e c t o r s at the end of the l i n e (paragraph 30), he l a c k s 191 s u p e r v i s o r y a u t h o r i t y over these persons (paragraph 31)« Presumably, then, he i s unable t o d i r e c t , or r e a l i s t i c a l l y monitor t h e i r performance. Paragraphs 17-22 i n d i c a t e t h a t a p o r t i o n of the sup e r v i s o r ' s a c t i v i t i e s c o n s i s t of f a c e - t o - f a c e v e r b a l i n  t e r a c t i o n s w i t h h i s three subordinate working group l e a d e r s . I t i s through these group l e a d e r s , by means of h i s i n t e r  a c t i o n s w i t h them, th a t the assembly l i n e s u p e r v i s o r co ordinates the a c t i v i t i e s , output and production q u a l i t y of the assembly l i n e workers. F i n a l l y , i t i s i n f e r r e d t h a t an a d d i t i o n a l element of the su p e r v i s o r ' s behavior c o n s i s t s of attempts t o mediate, v i a f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r a c t i o n s , c o n f l i c t s a r i s i n g from, on the one hand, the demands of the workers as expressed through t h e i r group lea d e r s (paragraphs 1, 14, 20-22), and, on the other hand, the production demands and expectations of management, plus the c o n f l i c t between methods and super v i s i o n over a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r production (paragraph 26). I t appears, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r y behavior under Category I I technology c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of l i s t e n i n g and t a l k i n g i n order t o achieve the " c o l l a b o r a  t i o n of people" (paragraph 61). Through h i s face-to-faee i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h others the f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r attempts t o monitor the performance of h i s subordinates and t o e f f e c t t h a t r e g u l a r f l o w of s p e c i f i e d p a r ts and i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d 1 9 2 i f production i s t o meet the qu a n t i t y and q u a l i t y standards imposed by s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s and whose achievement i s ex pected by the management. Frequency of supervisory a c t i v i t i e s ( I I - A - 2 ) The case l a c k s any e m p i r i c a l observations regarding the frequency w i t h which the above components of super v i s o r y behavior occur. Inferences appear t o be u n j u s t i f i e d . Nature of supervisory i n t e r a c t i o n s I n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h subordinates ( I I - B - l - a ) . As sug gested above, the nature of the s u p e r v i s o r ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h h i s subordinates, and p a r t i c u l a r l y the group leaders and o n - l i n e i n s p e c t o r s , c o n s i s t of fa c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r a c t i o n s whose, purpose i s t o f a c i l i t a t e the c o o r d i n a t i o n of work a c t i v i t i e s along the l i n e and t o monitor the performance (quantity and q u a l i t y of production) of the assembly l i n e workers. Although the case l a c k s i n f o r m a t i o n regarding the d i r e c t i o n of i n i t i a t i o n of such i n t e r a c t i o n s , i t appears th a t there i s a wide measure of d i s c r e t i o n open t o the sup e r v i s o r regarding w i t h whom, how f r e q u e n t l y and t o what end such i n t e r a c t i o n s w i l l occur. Thus, i t appears t h a t the s u p e r v i s o r chooses t o work p r i m a r i l y w i t h group leader D o t t i e , w i t h whom h i s i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s were r e l a  t i v e l y e f f e c t i v e (paragraph 1 9 ) . I n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h group leader Jean were n e u t r a l i n tone and apparently occurred 193 i n f r e q u e n t l y (paragraph 22). The s u p e r v i s o r ^ i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h Helen, the t h i r d group l e a d e r , were h o s t i l e i n tone and probably occurred l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than the i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h D o t t i e (paragraph 21). A l l the a v a i l a b l e data point t o the e x c l u s i v e l y and immediately t a s k - o r i e n t e d nature of i n t e r a c t i o n s between the s u p e r v i s o r and h i s subordinates. I n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h s u p e r i o r s ( I I - B - l - b ) . Paragraphs 37 and 41 suggest t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n s between the su p e r v i s o r and h i s s u p e r i o r s occur r e l a t i v e l y r a r e l y . The f i r s t - l i n e assembly su p e r v i s o r i s one of " s e v e r a l " r e p o r t i n g t o h i s immediate s u p e r i o r (paragraph 37). I t was only "seldom" that the supervisor "saw" the head of manufacturing