UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Level of automation in industry and the propensity to strike in certain industries in the United States Thong, Gregory Tin Sin 1968

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""LEVEL 0? AUTOMATION IN INDUSTRY AND THE PROPENSITY TO STRIKE I N CERTAIN INDUSTRIES IN THE UNITED STATES •by  GREGORY TIN SIN THONG B.E., U n i v e r s i t y o f M a l a y a , 1961. A.M.I.E. ( M a l a y s i a ) , A.M.I.C.E.  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF'BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION i n t h e Department of Commerce and B u s i n e s s  Administration  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u n e , 1968  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s  f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  I agree  t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  Study.  thesis  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of  this  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my  Department or by hlis r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s  It  i s understood  that  f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d  w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Department o f Commerce and B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  copying  Columbia  ii.  ABSTRACT  One  o f the consequences  i n c r e a s i n g use o f automation  a r i s i n g out o f the  i n i n d u s t r y has been c o n s i d e r e d  t o be the e f f e c t o f t h i s on the t r a d e u n i o n ' s a b i l i t y t o s t a g e a successful strike. t e s t e d to determine  I n t h i s s t u d y , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s whether t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n  i n i n d u s t r y and the p r o p e n s i t y to  s t r i k e i n c e r t a i n i n d u s t r y groups i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Data from two p e r i o d s i s a n a l y s e d ; between 1951  and 1959,  Period 1  and P e r i o d 2 between i 9 6 0 and  The measurement o f the l e v e l o f automation  1965.  i n industry i s  made on' the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t the l e v e l o f automation  i s equiv-  a l e n t to the l e v e l o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r o c e s s c o n t r o l employi n g e l e c t r o n i c computers i n these i n d u s t r i e s . o f p r o p e n s i t y to s t r i k e i s determined o f the man-days i d l e due  The measurement  by comparing the r a n k i n g  to work stoppages w i t h the r a n k i n g - o f  the annual average p r o d u c t i o n worker employment l e v e l s among the i n d u s t r i e s .  Secondary d a t a has been adapted f o r use i n  the t e s t o f the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s .  The  d a t a has been e x t r a c t e d  m a i n l y from the t r a d e j o u r n a l , C o n t r o l E n g i n e e r i n g , p u b l i s h e d by the M c G r a w - H i l l  Book Company, and from A n a l y s i s o f Work  Stoppages and the Employment and E a r n i n g s S t a t i s t i c s f o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s , p u b l i s h e d by the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department o f L a b o r , Bureau o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s .  ill.  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a t t h e l e v e l o f s i g n i f icance,  a = .05 > t h e t e s t on the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s  indicated  t h a t t h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y and t h e p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e f o r P e r i o d 1.  For  P e r i o d 2, t h e t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two v a r i a b l e s , under t h e same l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f the r e s u l t s f o r P e r i o d 2 i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n d u s t r i e s t h a t have a c h i e v e d  or maintained  a high or low  l e v e l o f automation are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h p r o p e n s i t y to strike.  The h i g h p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e i n h i g h l e v e l o f a u t o -  m a t i o n i n d u s t r i e s tend t o be caused by a s m a l l number o f s t r i k e s o f l o n g d u r a t i o n on t h e average. i n d u s t r i e s t h a t have m a i n t a i n e d  On t h e o t h e r hand,  a low l e v e l o f automation  have been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h p r o p e n s i t y  to s t r i k e i n general  as a r e s u l t o f a l a r g e number o f s t r i k e s o f s h o r t d u r a t i o n on the average.  A model has been developed t o e x p l a i n t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two v a r i a b l e s . the r e s u l t s o f the s t u d y ,  I t i s concluded that  due t o t h e s h o r t time spans o f t h e  p e r i o d s s t u d i e d , may o n l y i n d i c a t e the. s h o r t - r u n o r t r a n s i t o r y trend.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t these r e s u l t s w i l l be d i s s i m i l a r •  t o those d e r i v e d from a l o n g - r u n set i n .  s t u d y , when e q u i l i b r i u m has  iv.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I.  Page INTRODUCTION  1  Scope o f the Study  1  Statement o f the H y p o t h e s i s  3  Derivation  3  o f the Word "Automation"  D e f i n i t i o n of Automation  4  D e f i n i t i o n o f Other Terms Used i n The Study II.  LITERATURE AND PREVIOUS RESEARCH  15  The P a r t P l a y e d by S t r i k e s i n Collective Bargaining  15  I n d i c a t i o n o f the Waning Povrer Of the U n i o n t o S t r i k e i n C e r t a i n I n d u s t r i e s due t o A u t o m a t i o n  20  Some D e t a i l s o f S t r i k e s by A u t o m a t i o n  23  Affected  R e s e a r c h i n the P r o p e n s i t y t o Strike III.  11  COLLECTION OP DATA  30 39  L e v e l of Automation i n I n d u s t r y  39  The P r o p e n s i t y t o S t r i k e  42  Data, Used and the Method o f Collection Industries  43 Chosen f o r the Study  55  V.  CHAPTER IV.  Page  Theory o f the A n a l y s i s o f k  V.  60  TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS r  by  Contingency Table  60  Chi-square  63  Degrees o f Freedom  65  The C r i t e r i o n f o r x  68  The C o n t i n g e n c y C o e f f i c i e n t , C  70  A n a l y s i s of the.Data  72  Computation  98  INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS  105  The R e s u l t s  103  F a c t o r s R e l a t e d t o the L e v e l o f A u t o m a t i o n i n I n d u s t r y That Tended t o I n c r e a s e t h e D u r a t i o n of S t r i k e s  108  Comparing Some o f t h e R e s u l t s W i t h the G e n e r a l P a t t e r n o f  VI.  Strike Propensities  113  Development o f a Model  115  CONCLUSION  118  BIBLIOGRAPHY  121  APPENDIX  131  vi.  LIST OF TABLES  TABLE  Page I  Names o f some major group and sub-group i n d u s t r i e s from two s o u r c e s  58  r  Contingency Table  62  Ilia  Computation o f L e v e l o f A u t o m a t i o n i n Industry - Period 1  74  IIlb  Computation o f L e v e l o f A u t o m a t i o n i n Industry Using A l t e r n a t i v e Cutoff Point - Period 1  76  Computation o f L e v e l o f A u t o m a t i o n i n Industry - Period 2  77  I r o n and S t e e l  79  Nonferrous Metals  80  A u t o s , Trucks and P a r t s ; A e r o s p a c e , and Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment  81  F a b r i c a t e d M e t a l s and I n s t r u m e n t s  82  Villa  P r o d u c t i o n Workers Employed i n I n d u s t r y D u r i n g Year - P e r i o d 1  84  VIIlb  P r o d u c t i o n Workers Employed i n I n d u s t r y D u r i n g Year - P e r i o d 2  85  .IXa  Work Stoppages O c c u r r i n g i n I n d u s t r y D u r i n g Year - P e r i o d 1  86  IXb  Work Stoppages O c c u r r i n g i n I n d u s t r y D a r i n g Year - P e r i o d 2  87  Xa'  R a n k i n g o f P r o d u c t i o n Workers and Work Stoppages Among I n d u s t r i e s - P e r i o d 1  89  Xb  R a n k i n g o f P r o d u c t i o n Workers and- Work Stoppages Among I n d u s t r i e s - P e r i o d 2  90  II  IIIc TV V VI VII  by  k  vii.  Page  TABLE XIa  Frequency o f  |P-S| - P e r i o d 1  91  Xlb  Frequency o f  |P-S|  - Period 2  92  Xlla  L e v e l of Automation i n I n d u s t r y A g a i n s t P r o p e n s i t y to S t r i k e - P e r i o d 1  95  XIITD  L e v e l o f Automation i n I n d u s t r y ( a l t . c u t o f f p o i n t ) Aga.inst P r o p e n s i t y t o Strike - Period 1  96  L e v e l of Automation i n Industry A g a i n s t P r o p e n s i t y to S t r i k e - P e r i o d 2  97  L e v e l o f Automation i n I n d u s t r y A g a i n s t P r o p e n s i t y to S t r i k e Contingency Table Period 1  99  X H I b . L e v e l of Automation i n Industry U s i n g Alternative Cutoff Points Against P r o p e n s i t y to S t r i k e C o n t i n g e n c y T a b l e Period 1  100  XlTc XHIa  XIIIc  XIV XV  XVI  XVII  XVIII XIX XX  L e v e l o f Automation i n I n d u s t r y A g a i n s t P r o p e n s i t y ot S t r i k e Contingency Table Period 2  101  E f f e c t o f E q u a l i z i n g the Column T o t a l s  io4  C e l l V a l u e s o f Average number o f Work Stoppages (Upper L e f t H a l f ) and Average D u r a t i o n o f S t r i k e s (Lower R i g h t H a l f ) - Period 2  105  I n d i c a t i n g E f f e c t i v e n e s s of N o n p r o d u c t i o n Workers D u r i n g S t r i k e s i n the P e t r o l e u m Industry - Period 2  111  Comparison w i t h Some Common R e s u l t s w i t h the G e n e r a l P a t t e r n o f S t r i k e Propensities  114  I n d u s t r y and S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Code  132  Number o f Work Stoppages by M a j o r Group and Sub-Group I n d u s t r i e s - P e r i o d 2  134  Average D u r a t i o n o f S t r i k e s i n I n d u s t r y Period 2  135  viii.  TABLE XXI XXII XXIII XXIV  Page Computation o f Average Number o f Work Stoppages f o r Each C e l l - P e r i o d 2  ±J>6  Computation o f Average D u r a t i o n o f S t r i k e s f o r Each C e l l - P e r i o d 2  137  R a t i o o f N o n p r o d u c t i o n Workers Employment  138  to Total  Table o f C r i t i c a l Values of Chi-square  139  ix.  L I S T OF ILLUSTRATIONS  FIGURE  Page  1.  A Chi-square D i s t r i b u t i o n  2.  L e v e l o f Automation i n I n d u s t r y P r o p e n s i t y t o S t r i k e Model  66 116  X.  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  to P r o f e s s o r N o e l A. H a l l f o r h i s k i n d and a d v i c e i n the w r i t i n g o f t h i s  thesis.  direction  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION  1.  Scope o f t h e Study:  D u r i n g r e c e n t years., some l i t e r a t u r e  has been w r i t t e n , on automation i n c r e a s i n g automation.,  w h i c h made comments t h a t w i t h  the s t r i k e weapon o f o r g a n i z e d l a b o r  might be d e c l i n i n g i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s and might be made o b s o l e t e . Reference" " has been made i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t o c e r t a i n h i g h l y 1  automated i n d u s t r i e s where s t r i k e s had taken p l a c e w i t h the unions which i n i t i a t e d the s t r i k e s being unable their objectives.  to achieve -  I  The l i t e r a t u r e has n o t i n d i c a t e d t h e f a c t t h a t any o b j e c t i v e g e n e r a l study has been made t o enable to The (a)  s u b s t a n t i a t e these comments  the a u t h o r s  except t h r o u g h o b s e r v a t i o n s .  3  f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s seemed t o be l e f t unanswered: I s t h e r e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e v e l o f automation i n i n d u s t r y and the p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e ?  (b)  I f there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p  3  what k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p  is i t ? (c)  What a r e t h e p o s s i b l e v a r i a b l e s t h a t may a f f e c t  this  relationship?  1.  The d e t a i l s o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be u n f o l d e d i n Chapter I I .  2.  I t i s proposed  i n t h i s s t u d y t o make an attempt t o  p r o v i d e answers t o these q u e s t i o n s .  The s t u d y w i l l be con-  f i n e d t o 15 major i n d u s t r y groups i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s - 8 on m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f d u r a b l e goods, 6 on m a n u f a c t u r i n g  o f non-  d u r a b l e goods and one on m i n i n g . Other major i n d u s t r y groups have been e x c l u d e d due to  r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed by the secondary  d a t a used i n t h e  s t u d y and by t h e sources from which t h e d a t a has been e x t r a c t e d , m a i n l y from a t r a d e j o u r n a l , C o n t r o l E n g i n e e r i n g , and from p u b l i c a t i o n s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f L a b o r , Bureau of  Labor S t a t i s t i c s , B u l l e t i n s on:  (a)  A n a l y s i s o f Work Stoppages  (b)  Employment and E a r n i n g S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The  s t u d y i s c a r r i e d o u t f o r two time p e r i o d s ,  P e r i o d 1, between 1.951 arid 1959 and, P e r i o d 2, between i 9 6 0 and 1965.  The y e a r , 1951., has been chosen as t h e s t a r t i n g  p o i n t f o r P e r i o d 1 because the e l e c t r o n i c computer was f i r s t p  u s e d c o m m e r c i a l l y i n i n d u s t r y f o r d a t a p r o c e s s i n g i n 1951  .  In 1959 s t r i k e s t h a t had been f i r s t r e p o r t e d i n the B u s i n e s s Week and t h e U.S. News and World Report  t o have p r o v e d  i n e f f e c t i v e i n the o i l r e f i n i n g i n d u s t r y , were i n i t i a t e d . P e r i o d 2 has been chosen as t h e p e r i o d when t h e l e v e l o f autom a t i o n m i g h t have a p r o f o u n d e f f e c t on t h e outcome o f t h e strike. 2.  U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department o f Labor, Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s , T e c h n o l o g i c a l Trends i n Major American I n d u s t r i e s , B u l l e t i n No. 147-4, Feb. 19bo, p. 3 .  3.  2.  Statement  o f the H y p o t h e s i s :  s t a t e d as the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , hypothesis,  H  The h y p o t h e s i s can he Q  , and the a l t e r n a t i v e  H^ .  N u l l Hypothesis,  H  Q  :  There i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  l e v e l o f automation i n i n d u s t r y and the p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e i n P e r i o d 1 and P e r i o d 2. Alternative  Hypothesis,  H^  :  There i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the l e v e l o f automation i n i n d u s t r y and the p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e i n P e r i o d 1 and P e r i o d 2. I t i s proposed  t o t e s t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s ,  by u s i n g the n o n p a r a m e t r i c  statistical  H  Q  ,  t e s t method f o r the  t e s t i n g o f s i g n i f i c a n c e and the c o r r e l a t i o n o f q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a . • The c h i - s q u a r e t e s t and the c o n t i n g e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t t e s t w i l l be used.  The l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e assumed t o be  s u f f i c i e n t i n the p r e s e n c e o f secondary d a t a used i s a c c e p t e d as  J.  a.=  .05  .  D e r i v a t i o n o f the word "automation":  word "automation" was  I n l a t e 19^6,  c r e a t e d at a s t a f f meeting  Delmar S. H a r d e r , a m e c h a n i c a l e n g i n e e r .  the  by  He was h o l d i n g the  p o s i t i o n then o f V i c e P r e s i d e n t o f M a n u f a c t u r i n g i n the F o r d Motor Company .  The word f i r s t appeared  i n p r i n t i n the  M c G r a w - H i l l m e t a l w o r k i n g j o u r n a l , the American M a c h i n i s t , i n  3.  James B r i g h t , Automation and Management, (Boston: D i v i s i o n ..of R e s e a r c h , Graduate S c h o o l o f B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 5 8 ) .  4.  the October 2 1 , 1948 i s s u e  .  A n o t h e r c l a i m a n t t o t h e a u t h o r s h i p o f t h e word " a u t o m a t i o n " was John D i e b o l d .  He mentioned  that h i s deriv-  a t i o n o f t h e word was made i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f Delmar S. Harder. D u r i n g t h e w r i t i n g o f t h e H a r v a r d r e p o r t , Making t h e A u t o m a t i c F a c t o r y a R e a l i t y , i n the f a l l o f 1950 , he had used t h e word automization.  F i n d i n g t h e word a u t o m i z a t i o n awkward and a  b i t d i f f i c u l t t o s p e l l , he had i t s h o r t e n e d t o a u t o m a t i o n . 0  John D i e b o l d has been c r e d i t e d w i t h h a v i n g p u b l i s h e d the f i r s t book on a u t o m a t i o n .  4.  D e f i n i t i o n o f Automation:  R e f e r r i n g to the m a j o r i t y  o f l i t e r a t u r e on t h e t o p i c o f a u t o m a t i o n , one would  often  f i n d t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n b e i n g asked, "What i s A u t o m a t i o n ? " Why i s i t n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e a u t o m a t i o n i n any book on t h i s subject?  S i n c e t h e word was c r e a t e d i n 1946,  t h e r e appeared  a whole s e r i e s o f numerous and v a r i e d meanings f o r a u t o m a t i o n . I n e f f e c t , these d i v e r s e d e f i n i t i o n s o f a u t o m a t i o n have generated a v i r t u a l  " j u n g l e " o f d e f i n i t i o n s f o r t h e word.  The maze has been such t h a t i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r an a u t h o r t o d e f i n e t h e l i m i t s w i t h i n w h i c h he i s d i s c u s s i n g t h e t o p i c . One o f t h e reasons a t t r i b u t e d t o t h i s c o n f u s i o n was t h a t the 4. 56.  American M a c h i n i s t , "What i s A u t o m a t i o n ? " V o l . 101, No. 2 2 , Oct. 2 1 , 1957, p. 169W i l b u r C r o s s , John D i e b o l d , B r e a k i n g the C o n f i n e s o f t h e P o s s i b l e , (New York: Jajnes H. Heineman, I n c . , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 6 5 . John D i e b o l d , A u t o m a t i o n , The Advent o f t h e Automatic F a c t o r y , (New York: D. Van N o s t r a n d Company, I n c . , 1 9 5 2 ) , p. i x .  5.  t e c h n o l o g y and p r o c e s s e s o f automation had e x i s t e d even b e f o r e the word was c r e a t e d .  F e o p l e from v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s ,  such  as s c i e n t i s t s , e n g i n e e r s , u n i o n spokesmen, t e c h n i c i a n s , p r o f e s s o r s and i n d u s t r i a l e x p e r t s , have found i t w i t h i n domain t o use automation.  their  These p e o p l e have n o t been a b l e  t o agree on t h e one d e f i n i t i o n o f a u t o m a t i o n , so they produced t h e i r own, and thus c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e chaos. When Delmar S. Harder f i r s t c o i n e d t h e word "automation" he denoted t h i s term t o mean a u t o m a t i c t r a n s f e r of work p i e c e s from one machine t o a n o t h e r i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s w i t h o u t human a i d .  John D i e b o l d d e f i n e d i t as "both  a u t o m a t i c o p e r a t i o n and p r o c e s s o f making t h i n g s a u t o m a t i c " . ^ L o o k i n g a t these d e f i n i t i o n s  from t h e p r e s e n t day p o i n t o f  v i e w , they seem l i m i t e d and f a r t o o i n a d e q u a t e t o d e s c r i b e automation. o  Bright  has c o m p i l e d a l i s t o f 24 d e f i n i t i o n s o f  a u t o m a t i o n w h i c h had been p r e s e n t e d by persons from v a r i o u s v o c a t i o n s and d i s c i p l i n e s i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l  reports before  the Congress o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n October 1955^. tracing 7-  8. 9-  through t h i s l i s t o f d e f i n i t i o n s  On  w h i c h were e x p r e s s e d  P a u l T. V i e l l e t t e , "The R i s e o f t h e Concept o f A u t o m a t i o n " , i n Automation and S o c i e t y , ed. by Howard Boone Jacobson and Joseph S. Roucek, (New York:' P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , I n c . , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. -5. .• B r i g h t , op. c i t . , pp. 239-241. U.S. Congress, J o i n t Committee on t h e Economic R e p o r t , H e a r i n g s , Subcommittee on Economic S t a b i l i z a t i o n Automation and T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change, 84th. Congress, 1 s t S e s s i o n , Oct. 1955, T - " S t a t e s Govt. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , Washington). U n  t e d  6.  n i n e y e a r s a f t e r the word was o r i g i n a t e d , one cannot h e l p b u t f e e l . t h e impact o f the d i v e r s e meanings t h i s word has even t h r o u g h t h i s s h o r t p e r i o d o f time.  generated  The m a j o r i t y o f the  d e f i n i t i o n s came i n s i n g l e sentence form, encompassing b r o a d and l o o s e c o n n o t a t i o n s .  very  Some o f these e x p l a i n e d t h a t  o n l y the word "automation" was new,  b e i n g used t o d e s c r i b e  the p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s vrtiich was m e r e l y an e x t e n s i o n o f mecha n i z a t i o n and o f the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n .  A few even  d e f i n e d automation as b e i n g synonymous w i t h m e c h a n i z a t i o n . Only one d e f i n i t i o n has been g i v e n t h a t i s " p r e c i s e enough t o be u s e f u l i n l o g i c a l Henry  1 0  analysis".  has s u p p o r t e d M a s s i e  1 1  i n his criticism  that  s i n g l e sentence d e f i n i t i o n s o f automation have p r o v i d e d i n s u f f i c i e n t and i n a d e q u a t e coverage o f the e x t e n s i v e a r e a i n w h i c h automation h o l d s meaning, and thus one o f the causes o f the problem. A need f o r a more comprehensive  d e f i n i t i o n that i s  p r e c i s e enough and, y e t , encompassing 12  a wide range, has been  r e c o g n i z e d by B a l d w i n and S h u l t z  Their d e f i n i t i o n  .  was  based on t h r e e b a s i c concepts o f the p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s o f a u t o m a t i o n , and became the g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d and r e c o g n i z e d 10. E. F l o y d Henry, " T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change - A C h a l l e n g e t o C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g " , i n Changing P a t t e r n s i n I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , ed. by F r a n c e s B a i r s t o w ( M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1 3 t h Annual I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s C o n f e r e n c e , Jun. 6 and 7, 1961), p. 73. 11. Joseph L. M a s s i e , "Looking Around, Automation f o r Management", Harvard B u s i n e s s Review, V o l . 34, Ko. 2, MarchA p r i l 195o, p. 143. 12.  George B. B a l d w i n and George P. S h u l t z , "Automation: A New Dimension t o O l d Problems", I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , P r o c e e d i n g s o f the Seventh Annual M e e t i n g , D e t r o i t , Dec. 1954, pp. 1 1 5 - l l b .  7.  view o f automation.  The t h r e e b a s i c c o n c e p t s o f a u t o m a t i o n  quoted a r e as f o l l o w s : (i)  Integration:  Connecting together of c o n v e n t i o n a l l y  s e p a r a t e i n d i v i d u a l work s t a t i o n s , s e p a r a t e m a n u f a c t u r i n g o p e r a t i o n s o r t r a n s f e r machines l i n k e d t o g e t h e r i n sequence w i t h the a u t o m a t i c h a n d l i n g t o form l i n e s o f c o n t i n u o u s p r o d u c t i o n , w i t h the p r o d u c t f l o w i n g t h r o u g h " w i t h o u t the need f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n o f human  hands".  Many o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f machine l o a d i n g and u n l o a d i n g w h i c h had been found n e c e s s a r y a r e e l i m i n a t e d b y t h i s process.  T h i s development 13  Automation"  i s a l s o known as " D e t r o i t  , because o f the c o n t r i b u t i o n made by t h e  a u t o m o b i l e i n d u s t r y i n which t h i s had i t s o r i g i n . " D e t r o i t A u t o m a t i o n " has been known synonymously 3-nization. is  as mech-  A n o t h e r term used i n d e s c r i b i n g t h i s p r o c e s s  "continuous a u t o m a t i c ; p r o d u c t i o n " .  The development o f  t h i s p r o c e s s depends m a i n l y upon t h e advancement o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n the f i e l d o f m e c h a n i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g . T h i s development  o f a u t o m a t i o n has been c o n s i d e r e d b y some  as an e v o l u t i o n o f the p r o c e s s o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n . ( i i ) Feedback  Technology:  The employment o f t h e c l o s e d l o o p  c o n t r o l d e v i c e s o r servomechanisms  which e l i m i n a t e s the  need f o r human c o n t r o l i n the perforaiance o f i n d i v i d u a l operations.  13.  Some b u i l t - i n a u t o m a t i c d e v i c e , sometimes  Anderson Ashburn, . " D e t r o i t A u t o m a t i o n " , i n The A n n a l s o f the American Academy o f P o l i t i c a l a n d . S o c i a l S c i e n c e , V o l 3 ^ 0 , Mar. 1 9 o 2 , A u t o m a t i o n , S p e c i a l e d i t o r C h a r l e s K i l l i n g s w o r t h , pp. 2 1 - 2 8 .  8.  known as " l i t t l e "black b o x e s " i n c o r p o r a t i n g the of mechanizing employed.  i n t e l l e c t u a l and s e n s o r y f u n c t i o n s , a r e  T h i s development i s b a s e d on the  o f p r e s c r i b e d and p r e d e t e r m i n e d ations.  Any  processes  s t a n d a r d s and  establishment specific-  e r r o r o r d e v i a t i o n i n performance i s a u t o -  m a t i c a l l y c o r r e c t e d to enable the system to m a i n t a i n i t s previous predetermined  l e v e l of performance.  The  has a b u i l t - i n c a p a c i t y t o r e g u l a t e and c o n t r o l  system  error,  e n a b l i n g c o n t r o l f u n c t i o n s to be c e n t r a l i z e d , thus a c h i e v i n g remote and s e l f - r e g u l a t i n g c o n t r o l . i s sometimes known as "automatic  T h i s development  c o n t r o l " and i s dependent  upon the advancement o f knowledge and t e c h n i q u e s i n the f i e l d o f e l e c t r i c a l e n g i n e e r i n g , and ( i i i ) E l e c t r o n i c Computer Technology: " b u s i n e s s automation""'' \  electronics.  Sometimes known as  i t i n c o r p o r a t e s the development  o f g e n e r a l and s p e c i a l computing machines p o s s e s s i n g f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e c o r d i n g , s t o r i n g and p r o c e s s i n g o f a l p h a b e t i c a l or numerical data.  Electrical  data  p r o c e s s i n g systems w i t h b u i l t - i n " s y n t h e t i c i n t e l l i g e n c e " have been a b l e t o p e r f o r m c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s a t speeds beyond t h a t a t t a i n e d by u s i n g the human b r a i n power a l o n e . These " e l e c t r o n i c b r a i n s " w i t h t h e i r s t o r e d "memories" a r e c a p a b l e o f s u p p l y i n g d i r e c t i o n to o p e r a t e machines. Advancement i n e l e c t r i c a l e n g i n n e r i n g and  14.  electronics  B e r n a r d Ka,rsh, "Work and Automation", i n A u t o m a t i o n and S o c i e t y , ed. by Howard Boone Jacobson and J o s e p h S. Roucek, (New York: Philosophical L i b r a r y , Inc., 1959), p. 3 8 7 .  has made s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n towards p r o g r e s s i n this f i e l d .  T h i s i s an a r e a where t h e r e i s tremendous  p o t e n t i a l f o r expansion. A u t h o r s who have used t h i s comprehensive  definition  of a u t o m a t i o n and have quoted B a l d w i n and S h u l t z as t h e i r source, i n c l u d e Henry ^, L e f t k o w i t z , Massie"^, N o r t h r u p ^ 1  1 0  1  19 and S i l v e y  .  There a r e a l s o o t h e r l i t e r a t u r e i n w h i c h t h e  t h r e e b a s i c c o n c e p t s have been used t o p r o v i d e a comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n o f a u t o m a t i o n w i t h o u t q u o t i n g any s o u r c e from w h i c h they have been d e r i v e d .  Some o f t h e s e have been w r i t t e n b y  15-  Henry, op. c i t . , p. 7 4 .  16.  I r v i n g L e f t k o w i t z , "Statement o f ...", i n New Views on A u t o m a t i o n , U.S. Congress, J o i n t Economic Committee, d o t h Congress, 2nd S e s s i o n , i 9 6 0 , pp. 147-148. M a s s i e , op. c i t . , p. l43>.  17. 18.  19.  H e r b e r t R. N o r t h r u p , "Automation: E f f e c t s on L a b o r F o r c e , S k i l l s and Employment," I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e E l e v e n t h Annual M e e t i n g , C h i c a g o , Dec. 1958,' p. 33"" Ted.F. S i l v e y , "Automation R e s e a r c h and O r g a n i z e d L a b o r " , i n Man and A u t o m a t i o n , R e p o r t o f t h e P r o c e e d i n g s o f a Conference sponsored by t h e S o c i e t y f o r A p p l i e d A n t h r o p o l o g y a t Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y , (New Haven, C o n n e c t i c u t : Yale University; The Technology P r o j e c t ; 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 88. T h i s comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n has been viewed as b e i n g analogous t o a t h r e e - l e g g e d s t o o l . A l l the three legs are i m p o r t a n t . I f one l e g were t o be o m i t t e d , the o t h e r two a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o m a i n t a i n s t a b i l i t y .  10.  Barkin  ,.Chamberlain  , Limberg  , Shallenberger  , and t h e  Department o f S c i e n t i f i c and I n d u s t r i a l R e s e a r c h , England (D.S.I.R) ion.  .  Woodward  has a l s o made use o f t h i s  definit-  She quoted her s o u r c e as the D.S.I.R. The l i t e r a t u r e on a u t o m a t i o n so f a r uncovered has  produced 11 a u t h o r s and one r e s e a r c h o r g a n i z a t i o n , who have agreed upon t h i s p a r t i c u l a r comprehensive mation.  d e f i n i t i o n o f auto-  S i x o f t h e s e have n o t quoted any s o u r c e from w h i c h  t h e y d e r i v e d t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n even though the remainder d i d . A t l e a s t t h e r e seems t o be a concensus o f o p i n i o n among t h i s group about the e x t e n t o f the a r e a t o be c o v e r e d b y t h i s definition. 20.  I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that there are others  Solomon B a r k i n , " I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Developments' i n Autom a t i o n f o r our Economy", I n Impact o f A u t o m a t i o n on Employment, Committee on E d u c a t i o n and L a b o r , U.S. Congress, House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s j 8 7 t h Congress, 1 s t S e s s i o n , Mar. 1961), pp.  187-188.  21  N e i l W. C h a m b e r l a i n . L a b o r , (New York: M c G r a w - H i l l Book Company, I n c . , 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 2 9 5 . Here i t was s t a t e d t h a t the concept o f i n t e g r a t i o n was n o t h i n g new b u t an e v o l u t i o n o f p r o c e s s e s w h i c h had commenced s i n c e the i n d u s t r i a l revolution. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n from t h e s e i n i t i a l p r o c e s s e s o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n was c o n t r i b u t e d m a i n l y from the o t h e r two b a s i c c o n c e p t s ; f e e d b a c k t e c h n o l o g y and computer technology.  22.  Herman L i m b e r g , "Automation and P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " , I n Airtomation and S o c i e t y , ed. b y Howard Boone Jacob son and Joseph S. Roucek, (New York: P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y I n c . , 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 360-3O1. Frank K. S h a l l e n b e r g e r , "Economics o f P l a n t A u t o m a t i o n " , i n Automation i n B u s i n e s s and I n d u s t r y , ed. b y Eugene M. Grabbe, (New York: John W i l e y and Sons, I n c . , 1957)> p. 5 5 2 . Department o f S c i e n t i f i c and I n d u s t r i a l R e s e a r c h , Automation, A R e p o r t on the T e c h n i c a l Trends and t h e i r Imuact on Management and L a b o r , (London: H.M.S.O., 1956"), p. 1.  23.  24. 25.  Joan Woodward, I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : Theory and Practice.., (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 ^ 5 ) , p. 1 2 .  11.  of t h i s o p i n i o n , b u t have n o t been uncovered by the l i t e r a t u r e examined so f a r . I t would seem t h a t a l o n g drawn out p r o c e s s has been made t o i n d i c a t e the number o f i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h i s defin-, i t i o n was used.  T h i s s t e p has been taken t o g a i n s u p p o r t f o r  the d e f i n i t i o n .  I t i s proposed i n t h i s t h e s i s t o d e f i n e  a u t o m a t i o n by making use o f t h i s comprehensive p u t f o r w a r d by B a l d w i n and  definition  first  Shultz.  Among o t h e r comprehensive  definitions  i s a m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n ^  0  of  automation  just discussed.  This  m o d i f i c a t i o n has n o t g a i n e d as much s u p p o r t as the o r i g i n a l definition.  5-  Definition  o f Other Terns Used i n the  (a)  L e v e l o f Automation  i n Industry:  Study:  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f each  major i n d u s t r y group, a, p a i r o f major i n d u s t r y groups o r ea.ch i n d u s t r y sub-group,  by the e x t e n t o f  automation  ( a c c o r d i n g t o the a c c e p t e d d e f i n i t i o n ) , b e i n g employed 26.  See W a l t e r Buckingham, A u t o m a t i o n , I t s Impact on B u s i n e s s and P e o p l e , (Mew York: Harper and Row, P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 196l), pp. 6-I3. Pour fundamental, p r i n c i p l e s have been used i n the m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the d e f i n i t i o n . They a r e m e c h a n i z a t i o n , c o n t i n u o u s - p r o c e s s , a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l and rationalization. Mechanization includes electronic computers and i s thus e q u i v a l e n t t o e l e c t r o n i c computer t e c h n o l o g y , c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s i s e q u i v a l e n t to i n t e g r a t i o n and a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l I s e q u i v a l e n t t o feedback technology. The f o u r t h p r i n c i p l e , r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , t i e s the e n g i n e e r i n g a s p e c t s o f automation to the economic, s o c i a l and m a n a g e r i a l a s p e c t s , and appears to be I n t a n g i b l e . T h i s s t u d y c o v e r s the s o c i a l asj)ect of a u t o m a t i o n and the o r i g i n a l d e f i n i t i o n seemed more a p p r o p r i a t e i n usage i n t h i s case.  12. i n the p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s d u r i n g the p a r t i c u l a r time period. the  T h i s e x t e n t o f a u t o m a t i o n b e i n g employed i n  p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s can be c o n s i d e r e d by the p e r c e n t -  age o f companies  i n d i c a t i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s  w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e to the d e f i n i t i o n o f a u t o m a t i o n . The i n d u s t r i e s t h a t i n d i c a t e d a l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e of  companies  s t a t i n g t h a t they employed  electronic  computers on a p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l  rank h i g h e r  than an i n d u s t r y t h a t i n d i c a t e d a l o w e r p e r c e n t a g e o f companies p r o v i d i n g d a t a f o r the same a p p l i c a t i o n . Some companies may  employ t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n more than  o t h e r s w i t h i n the same i n d u s t r y group.  I t i s assumed  t h a t t h i s w i l l be averaged out i n the d a t a . The  " l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n " has a l r e a d y been d e f i n e d  as:  "...  the degree t o w h i c h machines  employed a r e s e l f 27  s e t t i n g , s e l f - c o r r e c t i v e and programmed." I t i s thus c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e " l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y " t o encompass the major i n d u s t r y groups and i n d u s t r y sub-groups  studied, to d i f f e r e n t i a t e  this  from the d e f i n i t i o n o f " l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n " . (b)'  Strike:  A s t r i k e has been d e f i n e d , by the U.S.  Bureau  of L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , as a temporary stoppage o f work by 27.  J i r i Nehnevajsa and A l b e r t P r a n c e s , "Automation and S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n " , i n Automation and S o c i e t y , ed. by Howard Boone Jacobson and Joseph S. Roucek, (New York: P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , I n c . , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 3 9 5 .  13.  a group of employees (not n e c e s s a r i l y members o f a u n i o n ) to express a grievance m a j o r i t y of c a s e s ,  In  the  the i s s u e i n d i s p u t e i s d i r e c t l y  between two p a r t i e s , employees.  o r e n f o r c e a demand.  the employers and  the  striking  There are s i g n i f i c a n t examples o f  t h a t have o c c u r r e d .  exceptions  I n a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l s t r i k e , as w e l l  as I n a r i v a l u n i o n o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t r i k e , f o r c e s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the s t r i k e may  i n v o l v e more than  u n i o n r a t h e r than the employer d i r e c t l y .  one  Employees  may  t a k e up s t r i k e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e i r immediate employer i n the case o f a sympathy s t r i k e where u s u a l l y t h e r e e x i s t s no p r e s e n t  d i s p u t e between them.  Workers  may  sometimes engage i n a g e n e r a l o r p r o t e s t s t r i k e to b r i n g t o . t h e a t t e n t i o n of the government m a c h i n e r y t h e i r i n g s about m a t t e r s t h a t a f f e c t Propensity disposition  to S t r i k e :  their  Possessing  t h e i r goals.  well-being.  a strong i n c l i n a t i o n ,  o r proneness o f o r g a n i z e d  a c t i o n to achieve  feel-  l a b o r to adopt s t r i k e  The measure of the p r o p -  e n s i t y to s t r i k e i s d e t e r m i n e d by the man-days l o s t to work stoppages from s t r i k e s and l o c k - o u t s . assumed t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n and  It is  d u r a t i o n of l o c k - o u t s  negligible  as compared w i t h t h a t o f s t r i k e s o f  l a b o r , and  t h a t the work stoppages are caused by  a s s u m p t i o n of s t r i k e a c t i o n by t r a d e u n i o n s . stud;/ work stoppages a r e used synonymously as The  intensity  due  are  organized the  In t h i s strikes.  or d u r a t i o n o f the s t r i k e s have been con-  s i d e r e d more i m p o r t a n t  than the number o f i n d i v i d u a l  strikes.  14.  An i n d u s t r y a f f e c t e d by a s e r i e s o f s m a l l s t r i k e s u n i o n members on s t r i k e ) of s h o r t d u r a t i o n w i l l  (fewer  rank  l o w e r than an i n d u s t r y a f f e c t e d by a few b i g s t r i k e s ( l a r g e number o f u n i o n members on s t r i k e ) o f l o n g e r d u r a t i o n , i f the c u m u l a t i v e man  days l o s t i n the l a t t e r  28 i s g r e a t e r than t h a t i n the former (d)  P r o d u c t i o n Workers:  The s t a n d a r d d e f i n i t i o n o f p r o d u c t -  i o n workers as a c c e p t e d by the U.S.  Bureau o f Labor  S t a t i s t i c s i n c l u d e those i n the a l l - e m p l o y e e group a r e employed i n the f o l l o w i n g a c t i v i t i e s : men  and a l l n o n - s u p e r v i s o r y workers  who  working f o r e -  ( i n c l u d i n g leadmen  and t r a i n e e s ) t h a t have been employed i n f a b r i c a t i n g , processing, assembling, i n s p e c t i o n , handling, r e c e i v i n g , p a c k i n g , s t o r a g e , warehousing,  shipping,  maintenance,  r e p a i r , j a n i t o r i a l , watchmen, s e r v i c e s , p r o d u c t s d e v e l o p ment, a u x i l i a r y p r o d u c t i o n f o r p l a n t ' s own use (e.g. power p l a n t ) , and r e c o r d - k e e p i n g and o t h e r s e r v i c e s w h i c h a r e c l o s e l y connected w i t h  28.  the above p r o d u c t i o n o p e r a t i o n s .  C l a r k K e r r and Abraham S i e g e l , "The I n t e r i n d u s t r y Prope n s i t y t o S t r i k e - An I n t e r n a t i o n a l Comparison", i n I n d u s t r i a l C o n f l i c t , ed. by A r t h u r Kornhauser, Robert Bub i n and A r t h u r M.Ross, (New York: M c G r a w - H i l l Book  Company, I n c . , 1954), p.  189.  CHAPTER  II  LITERATURE AND PREVIOUS RESEARCH  1.  The P a r t p l a y e d b y S t r i k e s i n C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g : scene, p r i o r t o 1 9 3 0 , o r g a n i z e d l a b o r was  I n t h e American  r e l a t i v e l y i n e f f e c t i v e among the l a b o r i n g c l a s s e s .  The  impetus i n the u n i o n i z a t i o n o f l a b o r was due t o f a c t o r s  such  as the G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n , and then the a s s i s t a n c e o f the government, t h r o u g h t h e l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d e d f o r i n t h e Wagner Act"*".  T h i s s p a r k o f l i f e soon b u r s t o u t i n t o v i g o r o u s  and e n e r g e t i c a c t i o n by u n i o n o r g a n i z e r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t o a r e a i n the i n t e n s i v e mass p r o d u c t i o n i n d u s t r i e s such as s t e e l , c o a l , r u b b e r , e l e c t r i c a l goods, a u t o m o b i l e m a n u f a c t u r i n g and the m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f a g r i c u l t u r a l machinery,  t o name a few.  The s t a g e was s e t and t h e days i n w h i c h the management c o u l d e x p l o i t t h e s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by t h e employees, w i t h i m p u n i t y , were numbered w i t h t h e growing s t r e n g t h o f the organized labor.  The power w i e l d e d b y t h e management over  the employees, p r e v i o u s l y u n c o n t e s t e d , was c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d by t h a t o f t h e t r a d e u n i o n , e s t a b l i s h i n g some s o r t o f a s t a t u s quo.  The demands o f the employees f o r b e t t e r w o r k i n g  condit-  i o n s , p r e v i o u s l y unheeded g e n e r a l l y , were c h a n n e l l e d t h r o u g h 1.  B. M. Selekman, "Power and M o r a l i t y . i n L a b o r R e l a t i o n s " , i n Changing P a t t e r n s i n I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , ed. by F r a n c e s B a i r s t o w , ( M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y T h i r t e e n t h Annual I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s C o n f e r e n c e , June 6 and 7 , 1 9 6 l ) p. 6  16.  the t r a d e u n i o n .  The management had t o s i t up and t a k e  notice. I n v a r i a b l y the t r a d e u n i o n and the management would f i n d themselves s i t t i n g a t the c o n f e r e n c e t a b l e i n an e f f o r t to t r y and i r o n o u t the demands p u t f o r w a r d by t h e t r a d e u n i o n , i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f the employees.  When a d e a d l o c k  o c c u r r e d o v e r the i s s u e s o f the s e t t l e m e n t , w i t h each p a r t y n o t c o n c e d i n g or a g r e e i n g t o the demands and o f f e r s o f t h e othe p a r t y , t h e n the t r a d e u n i o n would seek r e c o u r s e i n s t r i k e action.  The p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e o f b a r g a i n i n g s t r e n g t h o f a  t r a d e u n i o n has been c o n s i d e r e d t o be the c a p a c i t y w i t h i n i t s power t o b r i n g t h e f u n c t i o n s and o p e r a t i o n s o f the company to a s t a n d - s t i l l , through s t r i k e a c t i o n .  T h i s avenue o f  a c t i o n would h u r t t h e company most, through the removal o f i t s s o u r c e o f revenue. The s t r i k e as a weapon i n the hands o f the t r a d e u n i o n , can be viewed i n two dimensions.  One i s t h a t i t i s a  means f o r i n t i m i d a t i n g and t h r e a t e n i n g i n o r d e r t o a t t a i n i t s goals.  The t r a d e u n i o n would h a r d l y have any p o s i t i o n o f  power a t a l l i f i t d i d n o t p o s s e s s a t the b a r e minimum, the p o t e n t i a l a b i l i t y to c a l l f o r t h an e f f e c t i v e s t r i k e .  The mere  t h r e a t o f a s t r i k e may be s u f f i c i e n t t o s o f t e n up the defences s e t up by the o p p o s i t i o n , making i t more keen and w i l l i n g t o come t o a compromise.  I n some i n d u s t r i e s , t h i s c o u r s e o f  a c t i o n has been c o n s i d e r e d a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n , i n the 2 bargaining process . An attempt has been made t o manoeuvre 2. S a u l W. G e l l e r m a n , " S t r i k e T h r e a t W i l l D e c l i n e , " i n N a t i o n B u s i n e s s , V o l . 5 1 , No. 7 , J u l y 19&3, p. 37.  17.  the management i n t o a s i t u a t i o n i n v i h i c h i t has t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n c r i s i s bargaining.  The management may thus be p u t i n a  p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y disadvantageous p o s i t i o n .  A n o t h e r common  f e a t u r e i n labor-management d i s p u t e s has been t h a t management has n o t t a k e n p a r t s e r i o u s l y i n t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s u n t i l t h e d e a d l i n e o f t h e s t r i k e has r e a c h e d a p e r i o d t h a t w i l l make management more k e e n l y aware o f the consequences. Due t o i t s weak economic p o s i t i o n , o r i n the f a c e of  a s t r o n g u n i o n , t h e management may n o t choose t o t a k e on a  strike.  The i s s u e s i n v o l v e d may be c o n s i d e r e d by the manage-  ment as b e i n g o f such dimensions t h a t i t i s n o t w o r t h w h i l e t o take on a s t r i k e . the t r a d e u n i o n .  I t w i l l , then c a p i t u l a t e t o the demands o f T h i s w i l l be thought o f as a complete  v i c t o r y f o r the trade union. On t h e o t h e r hand, the s u r r e n d e r o f the management i n manner, may cause, the t r a d e u n i o n t o t h i n k i t has a t t a i n e d a p o s i t i o n much s t r o n g e r than i t a c t u a l l y i s .  Subsequently,  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s , t h e t r a d e u n i o n may be encouraged  to.employ  s i m i l a r s t r a t e g y even o v e r such m a t t e r s  and i s s u e s t h a t t h e rank and f i l e do n o t c o n s i d e r w o r t h w h i l e to  take s t r i k e a c t i o n on.  I n t h i s way, the l e a d e r s o f t h e  t r a d e u n i o n may f i n d themselves so committed b u t w i t h o u t g a i n ing  support from the members. T h i s c o n t i n u a l f l o u r i s h i n g o f the s t r i k e as a weapon  for  i n t i m i d a t i o n , even o v e r i s s u e s i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l i n n a t u r e ,  may cause the p r e v i o u s l y p e r m i s s i v e management t o remove i t s e l f  18.  from t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e o u s p o s i t i o n .  The  management may have no a l t e r n a t i v e h u t t o make a c h o i c e i n a c c e p t i n g t h e c h a l l e n g e g i v e n b y the t r a d e u n i o n and take on the s t r i k e .  The t r a d e u n i o n too may a c t u a l l y want t o p r e c i p -  i t a t e the s t r i k e t o p o i n t o u t t o the management c l e a r l y t h a t i t has  the backing  o f i t s members and i s c a p a b l e o f f o l l o w i n g  t h r o u g h w i t h what i t has t h r e a t e n e d  t o do.  T h i s i s the  second d i m e n s i o n o f t h e s t r i k e - t h e a c t u a l f a c t i t s e l f where the u n i o n members man the p i c k e t s and the company c l o s e s down its  operations. The  d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t r i k e a f f e c t s b o t h the t r a d e  u n i o n and i t s members.  I f t h e management c a p i t u l a t e d d u r i n g  the e a r l y p a r t o f the s t r i k e , t h e members would have the s t r i k e w o r t h w h i l e .  considered  The u n i o n would have a c h i e v e d  a victory.  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e s t r i k e weapon i s u n i q u e i n t h a t i t can be thought o f as a double edged sword, c u t t i n g b o t h ways.  The s t r i k e can be as dangerous t o the u s e r , t h e t r a d e  u n i o n , and t o the v i c t i m , t h e management. s i g n i f i c a n t i n the prolonged s t r i k e .  This i s e s p e c i a l l y  Each p a r t y to the d i s p u t e  may c o n t r i b u t e t o i t s own e x t i n c t i o n i n a s t r i k e , by t h i n k i n g t h a t i t i s i n the p o s i t i o n t o o u t l a s t the o t h e r p a r t y . Trade u n i o n members, who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n p r e v i o u s s t r i k e s , are probably  well.aware that s t r i k e s w i t h i n a c e r t a i n  d u r a t i o n w i l l e n a b l e them t o g a i n more from t h e s t r i k e than they have t o l o s e .  A f t e r t h e end o f t h i s p e r i o d , the p o i n t  of d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s s e t s i n , and they a r e q u i t e l i k e l y to'  19l o s e much more than they w i l l g a i n even a f t e r t h e i r demands have been met  a f t e r a prolonged s t r i k e .  s t a n d t h a t a p s y c h o l o g i c a l " g a i n " may  Some may  take the  have been a c h i e v e d i n  the p r o l o n g e d s t r i k e , i n p u n i s h i n g the management even though they have t o take some o f the punishment  themselves.  A s t r i k e i n r e a l i t y , a f t e r a p e r i o d o f time,  villi  g e n e r a t e s t r o n g economic p r e s s u r e s on the management, through l o s s o f revenue and p o s s i b l e l o s s o f r e m u n e r a t i o n by  union  members which cannot be o f f s e t by the g a i n s d e r i v e d from settlement.  The p a r t i e s i n the d i s p u t e may  a s t a t e of stalemate.  Political  thus a r r i v e a t  p r e s s u r e and p r e s s u r e  the p u b l i c a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d by the s t r i k e may  from  be e x e r t e d  on the d i s p u t a n t s t o get them t o r e s o l v e t h e i r c o n f l i c t and  the  quickly  amiably. Each p a r t y w i l l be f o r c e d t o r e c o n s i d e r and  c o n c e s s i o n s t o the o t h e r p a r t y , i n an attempt strike.  offer  to s e t t l e  the  .. A s t a g e w i l l be a r r i v e d a t when c o n c e s s i o n s o f f e r e d  w i l l be a c c e p t a b l e t o b o t h the p a r t i e s and the c r i s i s w i l l be r e s o l v e d .  Even though the t r a d e u n i o n cannot c l a i m  v i c t o r y t h r o u g h t h i s c o u r s e o f a c t i o n , i t may  thus  complete  be a b l e t o  a c c o m p l i s h , a t l e a s t , a c e r t a i n measure o f what i t has s e t out to  attain. On the o t h e r hand, i f the t r a d e u n i o n members are not  s a t i s f i e d w i t h the outcome o f the s t r i k e , e s p e c i a l l y i f l o s s e s outweigh  the g a i n s , then the t r a d e u n i o n l e a d e r s may  f i n d them-  s e l v e s i n a p r e c a r i o u s p o s i t i o n , the p o s s i b i l i t y o f l o s i n g  members to a r i v a l u n i o n , w h i c h may opportunity.  The  j u s t be w a i t i n g f o r t h i s  t r a d e u n i o n l e a d e r s may  have to take  to improve the morale o f the u n i o n members so t h a t the  steps union  can s t i l l c a l l on the p o t e n t i a l of the s t r i k e weapon t o achieve i t s o b j e c t i v e s . Thus, the t h r e a t of the s t r i k e , and i n some c a s e s , r e s o r t i n g t o a c t u a l s t r i k e a c t i o n by. the t r a d e u n i o n , has been a c o n s i d e r a b l e power w h i c h the management has B o t h employers and  employees r e c o g n i z e  to contend w i t h .  the power to c a l l  a s t r i k e as the t r a d e u n i o n ' s u l t i m a t e weapon, t h r o u g h  on concerte  a c t i o n of the employees.  2.  I n d i c a t i o n o f the  Waning Power o f the Union to S t r i k e i n  C e r t a i n I n d u s t r i e s due decade ago, in  to Automation:  A l i t t l e over a  i t had been r e p o r t e d t h a t the l e v e l of a u t o m a t i o n  the telephone  i n d u s t r y had reached such a sta.ge t h a t when  the t r a d e u n i o n went on s t r i k e to f o r c e management to comply to I t s demands, the management had been a b l e t o m a i n t a i n s e r v i c e s by means of employing s u p e r v i s o r y and personnel  and u s i n g automated equipment.  non-union  S i n c e t h e n , more  e v i d e n c e has appeared r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t o f a u t o m a t i o n on 3  s t r i k e s i n t h i s minor i n d u s t r y . 3.  T h i s i n f l u e n c e has  spread  B u s i n e s s Week, L a b o r , "Union w i t h Tomorrow's Problems, Communication Workers of A m e r i c a " , No. 1 8 0 0 , Feb. 2 9 , 1954 p. 9 8 . I t i s r e p o r t e d here t h a t t h i s u n i o n i s now f a c e d w i t h problems of the f u t u r e w i t h r e s p e c t to s t r i k e a c t i v i t ; There I s a tendency towards a v o i d i n g the i d e a of p a r t i c i pating i n strikes. Even i f a s t r i k e d i d o r i g i n a t e , i t c o u l d l a s t a l o n g time. Success i n the s t r i k e can o n l y b a c h i e v e d a t the stage when machinery and equipment b r e a k down and d e f e r r e d new i n s t a l l a t i o n s can e x e r t s u b s t a n t i a l p r e s s u r e on the management. The t e l e p h o n e i n d u s t r y has been c o n s i d e r e d h i g h l y automated and a l s o 1 employee i n 5 i s a supervisor.  21.  out to' a few o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s as w e l l . These I n d i c a t i o n s have prompted K i r s h t o say t h a t : "In many more i n d u s t r i e s the time has come, o r w i l l soon a r r i v e , when i t w i l l become more and more d i f f i c u l t to wage a s u c c e s s f u l s t r i k e a g a i n s t an automated p l a n t . The machines w i l l o p e r a t e , whether the manual workers w i l l be on the job o r on s t r i k e , and s u b s t i t u t e d non-union p e r s o n n e l w i l l tend the new automated machines and p r o c e s s e s . The v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f many companies a g a i n s t s t r i k e t h r e a t i s . r e c e d i n g , and l a b o r ' s most p o w e r f u l i n s t r u m e n t i s i t s e l f becoming t h r e a t e n e d w i t h o b s o l e s c e n c e i n many c a s e s , under the impact o f automation. Automation can t r u l y be s a i d t o be i n c r e a s i n g l y b l u n t i n g the edge o f l a b o r ' s most e f f e c t i v e weapon, the p o t e n t i a l power t o r e s o r t t o a s t r i k e t o e n f o r c e i t s demands and c l a i m s . " 4 On l o o k i n g a t t h i s q u o t a t i o n the f o l l o w i n g words come v i v i d l y t o one's mind, " l a b o r ' s most p o w e r f u l i n s t r u m e n t . . . . threatened w i t h obsolescence  ....  under the impact o f  automation."  W i t h an i n c r e a s e i n the l e v e l o f automation i n i n d u s t r y , the t r a d e u n i o n ' s use o f the s t r i k e weapon w i l l be d e c l i n i n g i n effectiveness. A number o f o t h e r a u t h o r s share the sajne p o i n t o f v i e w , e x p r e s s i n g t h i s i n a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r number o f words.  4.  Benjamin S. K i r s h , Automation and C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g , (New York: C e n t r a l Book Company, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 80.  22.  These i n c l u d e d B a r b a s h ^ Kheel°, R a s k i n , S e i d m a n , 7  and S t e r n , t o name a few. 1 0  Selekman , 9  They r e f e r r e d t o t h e t e l e p h o n e  communication and o i l r e f i n i n g i n d u s t r i e s as i n d i c a t i n g more s i g n s t h a t the t r a d e u n i o n s s t r i k e weapon might become o b s o l e t e due t o a u t o m a t i o n i n t h e s e i n d u s t r i e s . i n c l u d e d the e l e c t r i c a l u t i l i t i e s  Some o f them a l s o  and t h e c h e m i c a l i n d u s t r i e s  i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , b u t t h e s e had n o t been c i t e d as o f t e n as t h e first  two.  These a u t h o r s o n l y gave b r i e f a c c o u n t s o f what  had t a k e n p l a c e . I t i s a l s o o f i n t e r e s t t o n o t e t h a t W i l l i a m E. Simkiri, Service i n m-  Times 5.  6.  D i r e c t o r o f t h e F e d e r a l M e d i a t i o n and C o n c i l i a t i o n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , has been c i t e d i n The Hew York  11 as h a v i n g s a i d t h a t i n a few automated  i n d u s t r i e s , the  J a c k B a r b a s h , "The Impact o f Technology on Labor Management R e l a t i o n s , " i n A d j u s t i n g t o T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change, ed. b y G e r a l d G. Somers, Edward L. Cushman and Na/6 Weinberg, (New York: Harper and Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 5 2 . Theodore W. K h e e l , "The Changing P a t t e r n s o f C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s " , i n Employment Problems of A u t o m a t i o n and Advanced Technology, ed. b y J a c k S t i e b e r , (London: M a c m i l l a n , l9'ob) p. 379A. H. R a s k i n , "The Squeeze on t h e U n i o n s " , i n The A t l a n t i c M o n t h l y , V o l . 2 0 7 , No. 4 , A p r i l 1 9 6 1 , p. 5 6 . J o e l Seidman, "The Sources o f F u t u r e Growth and D e c l i n e i n American Trade U n i o n s " , I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t i o n , P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e S e v e n t e e n t h Annual M e e t i n g , C h i c a g o , Dec. 1964, p. 1 0 3 3  7. 8.  9.  Selekman, op. c i t . , p. 6 5 .  10.  James L. S t e r n , "Automation - End o r a New Day i n U n i o n i s m ? " i n The A n n a l s o f the American Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , V o l . 5 5 0 , Nov. 1 9 o 3 , The C r i s i s i n t h e American Trade-Union Movement, s p e c i a l e d i t o r s Solomon B a r k i n and A l b e r t A. Blum, p. 27-  11.  The New York Times, May 2 4 , 1 9 6 5 , p. 6 , column 3-  23-  o r g a n i z e d l a b o r ' s s t r i k e weapon had become a l m o s t u s e l e s s . The D i r e c t o r o f t h e F e d e r a l M e d i a t i o n h o l d s t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e government's  3.  and C o n c i l i a t i o n S e r v i c e top m e d i a t o r .  Some D e t a i l s o f S t r i k e s A f f e c t e d by A u t o m a t i o n :  Most  o f t h e d e t a i l s o f s t r i k e s t h a t have been a f f e c t e d a d v e r s e l y , by a u t o m a t i o n from t h e t r a d e u n i o n ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , have been a b s t r a c t e d from r e p o r t s i n t h e B u s i n e s s Week, The New York Times, t h e U.S. News and World R e p o r t , and The W a l l Journal.  Street  These s t r i k e s , r e p o r t e d i n a c e r t a i n amount o f  d e t a i l , r e f e r r e d mainly t o the telephone  communications  i n d u s t r y and t h e p e t r o l e u m i n d u s t r y . I t must be c l a r i f i e d a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e t e l e p h o n e communications i n the c a l c u l a t i o n s .  I t i s because t h e t e l e p h o n e communicat-  i o n s i n d u s t r y has been c o n s i d e r e d communications  industry i s not included  as a minor u n i t o f t h e  s e r v i c e I n d u s t r y , and a l s o due t o reasons t h a t  w i l l be e x p l a i n e d I n Chapter I I I , t h i s minor i n d u s t r y has been omitted.  I t i s considered  as a m a t t e r o f i n t e r e s t t h a t the  d e t a i l s o f s t r i k e s i n t h e t e l e p h o n e communications be r e p o r t e d i n t h i s (a)  industry  chapter.  The Telephone Communications  Industry:  The P r e s i d e n t o f t h e Communication  Workers o f  "12  A m e r i c a , Joseph A. B e i m e 12.  , r e c o u n t e d the i n s t a n c e  that  Joseph A. B e i m e , "American L a b o r i n a Changing World", i n L a b o r i n a Changing A m e r i c a , ed. by W i l l i a m Haber, (New York: B a s i c Books, I n c . , P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 3 2 3 - 3 2 9 .  24. o c c u r r e d i n 1955  when h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n took up a major s t r i k e  a g a i n s t one o f the companies i n the t e l e p h o n e  communications  i n d u s t r y , an i n d u s t r y w h i c h he c o n s i d e r e d f a r more automated than most o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s .  The company, w i t h  approximately  5 0 , 0 0 0 employees on the p a y r o l l , had been d e s i g n a t e d as o f the major employers i n the i n d u s t r y . i n nine  southeastern  The 1955,  one  T h i s company o p e r a t e d  states.  s t r i k e took p l a c e i n the s p r i n g and summer o f  and l a s t e d f o r a p e r i o d o f s e v e n t y - s e v e n  days.  The  s t r i k e had been c o n s i d e r e d e f f e c t i v e by the t r a d e u n i o n a c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n measures. members who  The u n i t y among a l l the u n i o n  were i n the s t r i k e had been m a i n t a i n e d .  f a v o u r a b l e p u b l i c o p i n i o n s u p p o r t i n g the s t r i k e .  There I n the  was  end  the management c a p i t u l a t e d and the u n i o n c o n s i d e r e d t h a t i t had a c h i e v e d a n e t g a i n t h r o u g h the But t h e r e was  strike.  one o u t s t a n d i n g f a c t n o t e d by the u n i o n  d u r i n g the s t r i k e t h a t made them aware t h a t the s t r i k e l e s s than s u c c e s s f u l .  was  The main o b j e c t i v e o f the s t r i k e ,  to  cause the company's o p e r a t i o n s to come t o a h a l t , o r to reduce o r m i n i m i z e was  revenues to such an e x t e n t t h a t i t h u r t most,  not a c h i e v e d e f f e c t i v e l y .  The company was.able t o p r o v i d e  some s e r v i c e to i t s customers d u r i n g the s t r i k e , by u s i n g the automated t e l e p h o n e  system.  Even though the s e r v i c e was  up t o the s t a n d a r d o f the p r e - s t r i k e c o n d i t i o n s i t was  not  sufficient  to p o i n t out t h a t the company c o u l d o p e r a t e l i m i t e d l y w i t h o u t a s s i s t a n c e from s t r i k e - b r e a k e r s .  25.  U.S.  News and World Report  gave some d e t a i l s o f  the s t r i k e t h a t began on J u l y 11, 1963, between the I n t e r n a t i o n a l B r o t h e r h o o d o f E l e c t r i c a l Workers and the G e n e r a l Telephone Company o f F l o r i d a .  Among the 4,200 employees i n  the company, 2,800 o f them p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s t r i k e . r e m a i n i n g 1,400  The  employees, c o n s i s t i n g o f s u p e r v i s o r s and  non-  s t r i k i n g employees, about one t h i r d o f the t o t a l employment i n the company, were a.ble t o m a i n t a i n normal t o the l o c a l community.  telephone  service  I n the f a c e o f the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s  o f the s t r i k e , v i o l e n c e o c c u r r e d i n the form o f c u t t i n g o f c a b l e s , sawing down o f t e l e p h o n e p o l e s , d y n a m i t i n g and throwi n g o f g a s o l i n e bombs.  T h i s method o f i n c r e a s i n g the e f f e c t -  i v e n e s s o f the s t r i k e i n c u r r e d u n f a v o u r a b l e p u b l i c o p i n i o n . The o u t s t a n d i n g f a c t was t h a t t e l e p h o n e s e r v i c e was not  dis-  r u p t e d due t o the s t r i k e , b u t the r e s o r t t o damage o f the company's p r o p e r t y caused p a r t o f the s e r v i c e to be d i s c o n t i n u e d . (b)  The P e t r o l e u m I n d u s t r y :  T h i s i n d u s t r y has been the most  o f t e n c i t e d i n which the s t r i k e has shown p r o o f o f i t s i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the f a c e o f automation. these s t r i k e s o c c u r r e d i n 1959  The f i r s t i n s t a n c e o f  i n this industry.  The t r a d e  u n i o n t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n these s t r i k e s was the O i l ,  Chemical  and Atomic Workers, OCAW. 14 B u s i n e s s Week r e p o r t e d t h a t the OCAW went on s t r i k e 13.  U.S. News and World R e p o r t , L a b o r Week, "How a Company Keeps Going D e s p i t e S t r i k e , Sabotage", V o l . LV, No. 9, Aug. 2 6 , 1963, p . 77. B u s i n e s s Week, L a b o r , "Amoco Beats U n i o n on Job R u l e s " , No. 15ofa, J a n . 23, I960, p. 113.  26.  on J u l y 1, American 191  days.  1959  a t the 800 a c r e p e t r o l e u m r e f i n e r y o f the  O i l Company i n Texas C i t y , Texas. A l l the 1 , 2 5 0  The s t r i k e l a s t e d  u n i o n members went on s t r i k e .  The  i s s u e t h a t p r e c i p i t a t e d the s t r i k e was n o t o v e r demands f o r i n c r e a s e i n wages, b u t over job s e c u r i t y and the management m a i n t a i n i n g the s t a n d t h a t i t had f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to o p e r a t e the r e f i n e r y as a s u c c e s s f u l e n t e r p r i s e . ment wanted t o use the r i g h t o f a s s i g n i n g job r u l e s  The manageand  s e n i o r i t y and a r b i t r a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s w h i c h c o u l d n o t be  agreed  upon by the u n i o n . A f t e r p i c k e t l i n e s had been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r  foxw  h o u r s , the company announced t h a t i t would o p e r a t e the r e f i n e r y . W i t h i n two months, the company was  a b l e t o produce an o u t p u t  o f 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 b a r r e l s a day, a p p r o x i m a t e l y 75 p e r c e n t o f the outp u t o f the p r e - s t r i k e p r o d u c t i o n .  About 300 management p e o p l e ,  a p p r o x i m a t e l y one q u a r t e r o f the p r e - s t r i k e l a b o r f o r c e , worki n g s i x o r seven days a week and u s i n g automated equipment produced  the output r e p o r t e d .  I t had been c o n s i d e r e d t h a t  t h i s a n i l i t y of the company, i n the f a c e o f a s t r i k e , t o o p e r a t e the r e f i n e r y and p r o d u c i n g s u b s t a n t i a l o u t p u t , p l a y e d a major p a r t i n f o r c i n g the u n i o n t o come around M o r a l v i c t o r y i n the s t r i k e was  to a s e t t l e m e n t . a c h i e v e d by  the  management, even though the u n i o n d i d not acknowledge t h i s . The company r e t a i n e d i t s r i g h t o f a s s i g n i n g work and to a s s e s s the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s r e q u i r e d to each job e f f e c t i v e l y .  carry  out the f u n c t i o n s o f  The outcome o f the s t r i k e caused  the  u n i o n to e x p e r i e n c e a s e r i o u s s e t b a c k i n i t s p r e s t i g e , and a  27.  r e d u c t i o n i n the m o r a l e o f the u n i o n members w o r k i n g i n the refinery  a t Texas  City.  15 An a r t i c l e appeared i n the B u s i n e s s Week and i n 16 t h e U.S.  N e w s an d Wo r i d R ep o r t  , of a similar  type o f s t r i k e  t h a t o c c u r r e d between the u n i o n and the S t a n d a r d ' O i l Company (Indiana) a t i t s r e f i n e r y  i n Sugar Creek  (Mo.), n e a r Kansas  The s t i k e began on J u l y 8 , 1 9 5 9 and l a s t e d  City.  i m a t e l y n i n e months.  Seven hundred and s i x t y members o f the  OCAW went on s t r i k e over I s s u e s on job s e c u r i t y r i g h t o f j o b assignment. refinery,  approx-  and management's  The s t r i k e i n i t i a l l y c l o s e d t h e  b u t the company was a b l e t o commence o p e r a t i o n s two  days a f t e r  the s t r i k e began.  An average o u t p u t o f o v e r 5 0  p e r c e n t o f c a p a c i t y was m a i n t a i n e d throughout the d u r a t i o n o f the s t r i k e . I t appeared  t h a t the u n i o n was n o t a b l e t o m a i n t a i n  u n i t y among i t s ranks and 200 o f the s t r i k e r s r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r j o b s b e f o r e the s t r i k e c o l l a p s e d .  I n the v o t i n g , t a k e n a t t h e  t e r m i n a t i o n o f the s t r i k e , the l o c a l u n i o n d e c i d e d t o r e t u r n t o work u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y .  They were w i l l i n g t o p u t t h e i r  i n f u r t h e r n e g o t i a t i o n s on a new c o n t r a c t .  faith  The management  r e f u s e d t o g r a n t the u n i o n any c o n c e s s i o n s i t asked f o r . I n the f a l l o f 1 9 6 1 , the OCAW went on s t r i k e a g a i n s t  15.  B u s i n e s s Week, L a b o r , No.  .16.  "Wine-month O i l S t r i k e C o l l a p s e s " ,  1 5 9 3 , Mar. 1 2 , i 9 6 0 ,  p. 51.  U.S. News and W o r l d R e p o r t , Labor Week, " I t Keeps G e t t i n g Harder t o Win S t r i k e s " , Vo. X L V I I , N o . ' 2 6 , Dec. 2 8 , 1 9 5 9 , P. 7 1 . ' The o u t p u t produced d u r i n g the s t r i k e , r e p o r t e d h e r e , was 7 0 p e r c e n t o f c a p a c i t y . .  28.  the G u l f O i l C o r p o r a t i o n i n t h e company's P o r t A r t h u r r e f i n e r y 17 i n Texas. 18  T h i s was r e p o r t e d i n t h e B u s i n e s s Week  Blundell  i n The W a l l S t r e e t J o u r n a l .  and by  The s t r i k e was over  i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g j o b s e c u r i t y and maintenance o f management rights. The  The s t r i k e l a s t e d f o r a p e r i o d o f seventy-two  days.  r e f i n e r y ' s p r o d u c t i o n and maintenance f o r c e o f 3,700 men  m a i n t a i n s t r i c t p i c k e t l i n e s and none o f t h e s t r i k e r s over t o r e t u r n t o work d u r i n g t h e s t r i k e .  crossed  During the duration  o f t h e s t r i k e , t h e r e f i n e r y was o p e r a t e d b y 600 s u p e r v i s o r y and t e c h n i c a l p e r s o n n e l c o n s i s t i n g o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y one s i x t h of the o r i g i n a l production f o r c e .  Output o f g a s o l i n e , f u e l  o i l and m i s c e l l a n e o u s p r o d u c t s f l o w e d o u t o f t h e p l a n t a t t h e r a t e o f 130,000 b a r r e l s a day, a p p r o x i m a t e l y &5 p e r c e n t o f the p r e - s t r i k e oiitput. G u l f O i l C o r p o r a t i o n was c r e d i t e d w i t h an i m p o r t a n t v i c t o r y i n this dispute.  The u n i o n agreed  t h a t t h e company  be a l l o w e d t o e x e r c i s e g r e a t e r d i s c r e t i o n i n t h e a r e a o f j o b assignments,  e s p e c i a l l y i n the c o n t r a c t i n g o u t o f maintenance  work. Y e t a n o t h e r I n s t a n c e can be c i t e d o f a s t r i k e t h a t took p l a c e i n a h i g h l y automated o i l r e f i n e r y and c h e m i c a l  17.  18.  B u s i n e s s Week, L a b o r , "Ten Week S t r i k e a t G u l f O i l R e f i n e r y ends as b o t h s i d e s bend on j o b s e c u r i t y " , No. 1689, J a n . 1 3 , 1 9 6 2 , p. 9 6 , An output o f l e s s than h a l f the r e f i n e r y ' s c a p a c i t y d u r i n g t h e s t r i k e was r e p o r t e d . W i l l i a m E. B l u n d e l l , "Labor and A u t o m a t i o n - O i l U n i o n F i n d s S t r i k e s O f t e n a r e I n e f f e c t i v e a t Automated P l a n t s " , The W a l l S t r e e t J o u r n a l , V o l . CLIX., No. 14, Jan. 1 9 , 1962, p. 1, Column 1.  29.  p l a n t t h a t n o r m a l l y produced 1;>5,000 b a r r e l s o f g a s o l i n e a day and more than 50 c h e m i c a l b y - p r o d u c t s . R e p o r t s on t h i s 19 20 s t r i k e were made by B u s i n e s s Week , The New York Times , 21 and t h e U.S. News and World Report  .  The s t r i k e s , o v e r  i s s u e s t h a t a r e s i m i l a r t o the o t h e r t h r e e examples r e c o u n t e d e a r l i e r on, began on August 1 9 , 19^2. the  0CAW and t h e S h e l l Oil-Company a t t h e company's p l a n t s  l o c a t e d n e a r Houston, Texas. of  The d i s p u t a n t s were  The s t r i k e l a s t e d f o r a p e r i o d  about a y e a r , i n w h i c h 2,200 workers went on s t r i k e .  was mentioned t h a t d u r i n g t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e s t r i k e ,  It  only  f o r t y - e i g h t o f t h e o i l workers remained on t h e j o b . The company was a b l e t o m a i n t a i n f u l l w i t h the s t r i k e i n progress.  production  T h i s p r o d u c t i o n l e v e l was  a c h i e v e d b y employing automated equipment and t h e e f f o r t s o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,170 non-union s u p e r v i s o r s , e n g i n e e r s and technicians.  The r a t i o o f p r o d u c t i o n workers t o n o n p r o d u c t i o n  workers was 2 t o 1.  Work f a l l i n g  b e h i n d s c h e d u l e was found  o n l y i n e n g i n e e r i n g works, t e c h n i c a l s t u d i e s and maintenance. At  the t e r m i n a t i o n of the s t r i k e , the settlement  p r o v i d e d t h e u n i o n w i t h a 5 p e r c e n t pay i n c r e a s e f o r i t s members, w h i c h was n o t an i s s u e upon w h i c h the s t r i k e was based. The company won major c o n c e s s i o n s i n t h e new one y e a r c o n t r a c t , i n a c h i e v i n g i n c r e a s e d f l e x i b i l i t y i n s u c h a r e a s as s u b c o n t r a c t 1920. 21.  B u s i n e s s Week, L a b o r , " O i l S t r i k e r s g e t G l o b a l S u p p o r t " , No. 1750, May 25, 1963, pp. 6 0 - 6 7 . E d i t o r i a l , The New Y o r k Times, Aug. 1 2 , 1 9 6 3 , p. 2 0 , c o l . 2, U.S. News and World R e p o r t , L a b o r Week, "The S t o r y o f Two S t r i k e s - What Unions a r e Running up A g a i n s t " , V o l . LV., No. 8, Aug. 1 9 , 1963, p. 97-  30.  work, r e d u c t i o n o f employment and r e a s s i g n i n g workers f o r more e f f i c i e n t production. In  summary, i t has been v e r y a p p a r e n t t h a t the i s s u e s  on w h i c h the s t r i k e s r e f e r r e d to i n the p e t r o l e u m b a s e d were not a q u e s t i o n o f wages. demands o f b o t h the p a r t i e s .  The  i n d u s t r y were  They were b a s e d on  the  t r a d e u n i o n demanded job  s e c u r i t y and the r i g h t o f the worker to work o n l y a t the job w h i c h he had been employed.  On the o t h e r hand, management  wanted t o r e g a i n the ground i t had l o s t p r e v i o u s l y by  grant-  ing  right  concessions  to the u n i o n .  Management wanted the  to a s s i g n work and e x e r c i s e d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers i n i m p r o v i n g the o p e r a t i n g e f f i c i e n c y o f the p l a n t . The  d u r a t i o n o f the s t r i k e s i n these examples had  ranged from t e n weeks to a p p r o x i m a t e l y  a year.  The  outcome  o f the s t r i k e s had not l e f t much doubt as t o whom the v i c t o r s were. for  4.  There i s no doubt t h a t i t i s i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t  the OCAW t o win a s t r i k e .  R e s e a r c h i n the P r o p e n s i t y to S t r i k e :  A multinational  g e n e r a l study on the i n t e r i n d u s t r y p r o p e n s i t y to s t r i k e  was  22  c a r r i e d out by K e r r and S i e g e l democratic  .  The  s t u d y was  c o n f i n e d to  i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s where s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a  the employment l e v e l s and man-days l o s t i n i n d u s t r i a l for  the time p e r i o d c o n s i d e r e d were a v a i l a b l e .  disputes  This r e q u i r e -  ment on the d a t a imposed l i m i t a t i o n s on the s t u d y to c o v e r 22.  K e r r and S i e g e l , op. c i t . , pp.  189-212.  on  only  31.  eleven countries.  These c o u n t r i e s c o m p r i s e d o f A u s t r a l i a ,  C z e c h o s l o v a k i a , Germany, I t a l y , the N e t h e r l a n d s , New  Zealand,  •Norway, Sweden, S w i t z e r l a n d , The U n i t e d Kingdom, and  the  United States. The i n mind.  study was  The most  u n d e r t a k e n w i t h a number o f o b j e c t i v e s  i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e was  t o determine whether  employees i n c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i e s have been more i n c l i n e d t o s t r i k e than i n o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s .  I f t h i s was  i n d i c a t e d i n the  s t u d y , an a n a l y s i s o f the r e s u l t s would be c a r r i e d out to assess the c o n t r i b u t o r y f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g s t r i k e o r n o t to s t r i k e among these  the proneness to  industries.  The p e r i o d on w h i c h the s t u d y was'based ranged from 1911 was  t o 1949.  None o f the d a t a from the c o u n t r i e s s t u d i e d  a v a i l a b l e f o r the f u l l range o f t h i r t y - n i n e y e a r s .  A v a i l a b l e data, on man-days l o s t i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s o n l y c o v e r e d p a r t o f the range, from e i g h t to t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s . D a t a from s i x c o u n t r i e s c o v e r e d p e r i o d s g r e a t e r than twenty y e a r s w i t h i n t h i s range. c o l l e c t i v e agreements and  Employment, workers c o v e r e d  by  t r a d e u n i o n membership d a t a was  a b l e f o r time p e r i o d s o f one y e a r to t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s .  availThe  number o f i n d u s t r y groups i n each c o u n t r y s t u d i e d ranged from s i x to t w e n t y - e i g h t .  F i v e c o u n t r i e s p r o v i d e d data f o r l e s s  than s i x t e e n i n d u s t r y g r o u p s , w i t h the remainder p r o v i d i n g g r e a t e r than s i x t e e n . The measurement f o r i n t e r i n d u s t r y p r o p e n s i t y to s t r i k e had used a s i n g l e i n d e x .  The p r o p e n s i t y to s t r i k e  32.  among t h e i n d u s t r i e s had been " a r b i t r a r i l y d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e categories".  These c a t e g o r i e s  medium, medium l o w and low.  ranged from h i g h , medium Categorization  high,  had been based  on whether t h e r a n k i n g o f man-days l o s t was s u b s t a n t i a l l y o r s i g n i f i c a n t l y above, s i m i l a . r and s i g n i f i c a n t l y o r s u b s t a n t i a l l y below t h e employment rank. categories  The s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f the l i m i t s o f  w i t h i n w h i c h , s u b s t a n t i a l l y , s i g n i f i c a n t l y and about  the same would a p p l y , were n o t p r o v i d e d .  " D e t a i l s about the  method o f a n a l y s i s o f d a t a seemed t o be l a c k i n g . From t h e i n t e r i n d u s t r y p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e i n f o r m a t i o n developed, a g e n e r a l i z e d  g r o u p i n g o f i n d u s t r i e s was  made based on t h e homogeneity o f o u t s t a n d i n g  behavorial  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i e s among the c o u n t r i e s . Limitations  i n t h e s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a c o n f i n e d the number o f  industries i n d i c a t i n g a general pattern to  of s t r i k e  propensities  sixteen. Industries  that f e l l i n t o the h i g h category  consisted  .of m i n i n g , and, m a r i t i m e and l o n g s h o r e , medium h i g h - lumber and  t e x t i l e , medium - c h e m i c a l , p r i n t i n g , l e a t h e r , m a n u f a c t u r i n g  (general), construction  and f o o d and k i n d r e d prdoucts,: medium low -  c l o t h i n g , g a s , water and e l e c t r i c i t y and, s e r v i c e , and l o w r a i l r o a d , a g r i c u l t u r e and t r a d e .  I n t h e medium c a t e g o r y ,  f i r m s ' i n these i n d u s t r i e s v a r i e d g r e a t l y i n t h e i r p r o p e n s i t y to s t r i k e , b u t t h e i r average b e h a v i o u r f i t t e d w i t h i n category.  In the categories  a,t t h e e x t r e m i t i e s ,  this  the firms  i n the i n d u s t r i e s showed more c o n s i s t e n c y o f b e h a v i o u r t o f i t w i t h i n these  categories.  33.  The r e s u l t s caused t h e a u t h o r s  to theorize generally  on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e b a s e d on two hypotheses: "Hypothesis  1.  The L o c a t i o n o f t h e Worker i n S o c i e t y .  Hypothesis  2.  The C h a r a c t e r o f the Job and the Workers."  The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s was developed  from the homogen-  eous c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n d u s t r i e s found i n h i g h and medium h i g h c a t e g o r i e s as compared w i t h those i n the medium l o w and low c a t e g o r i e s .  Common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t a r e s i g n i f i c a n t  to above medium p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e i n d u s t r i e s i n c l u d e d environmental  f a c t o r s l i k e working  from the g e n e r a l community.  and l i v i n g u n u s u a l l y remote  T h i s may have r e s u l t e d from  n a t u r a l g e o g r a p h i c a l o r a r t i f i c i a l communication b a r r i e r s . Employees i n these i n d u s t r i e s form r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous groups through  t h e i r common bonds based upon g r i e v a n c e s b r o u g h t about  by i s o l a t i o n . is limited.  Opportunity  to a i r grievances  to t h i r d p a r t i e s  The employers and employees n o r m a l l y come from  d i f f e r e n t backgrounds and t h i s l e a d s t o d i f f i c u l t y o f communication.  V e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l m o b i l i t y o f l a b o r i s c o n s t r a i n e d  by the v e r y n a t u r e  of the jobs.  The employees may thus  feel  t h a t the o n l y way o f g e t t i n g t h e g e n e r a l community t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s w i l l be t o r e s o r t t o s t r i k e a c t i o n . They a l s o f e e l t h a t the i n f r e q u e n c y o f t h e i r c o n t a c t s w i t h the g e n e r a l community w i l l n o t o b l i g a t e them t o c o n s i d e r much t h e e f f e c t s o f any a c t i o n they t a k e , whether o r n o t t h i s w i l l the g e n e r a l community a d v e r s e l y .  affect  On the o t h e r hand, i n d u s t r i e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by below medium p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e p o s s e s s v a s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o i n t e g r a t e and i n t e r a c t w i t h the g e n e r a l community.  Exceptions  can be found among workers i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y , b u t t h e i r a b i l i t y to organize i s l i m i t e d through d i s p e r s i o n . I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h the community w i l l o f f e r o u t l e t s t o a i r grievances  t o p e o p l e who do n o t share such g r i e v a n c e s .  would s e r v e t o reduce any f e e l i n g s o f p e r s e c u t i o n . ities  This  Opportun-  t o engage i n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s , away'  from t h e w o r k i n g environment,'would enable the worker t o l i v e w i t h problems imposed by h i s w o r k i n g environment.  There i s  a l s o i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l m o b i l i t y among j o b s .  Employees i n these i n d u s t r i e s a r e more o b l i g a t e d  and I n t e r w o v e n w i t h the g e n e r a l community, and have t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o adverse p u b l i c o p i n i o n w h i c h w i l l a r i s e o u t o f any s t r i k e a c t i o n t h a t w i l l cause h a r d s h i p s  t o the g e n e r a l community.  Government and market c o n s t r a i n t s found i n these i n d u s t r i e s affect their propensity to strike. The  second h y p o t h e s i s  was a l s o d e r i v e d from an exam-  i n a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s found i n h e r e n t i n i n d u s t r i e s among the c a t e g o r i e s .  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e n o t as s i g n i f i c a n t  as those d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s .  Factors i n the  environment among some i n d u s t r i e s w i t h above medium p r o p e n s i t y to  s t r i k e produce workers who a r e more l i a b l e t o r e s o r t t o  d i r e c t a c t i o n , than compared w i t h those found i n some i n d u s t r i e s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as p o s s e s s i n g below medium, p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e . ' Examples o f e x c e p t i o n s hypothesis  can be produced w h i c h p r e v e n t  to'be a c c e p t e d  neatly.  this  35.  An i n t e r i n d u s t r y s t u d y on s t r i k e - p r o n e n e s s had been 23 c a r r i e d . o u t among a number o f i n d u s t r y groups i n B r i t a i n Strike-proneness  .  has been d e f i n e d as t h e r e l a t i v e p r o p e n s i t y  of workers to p a r t i c i p a t e i n s t r i k e a c t i o n .  The measurement  o f s t r i k e - p r o n e n e s s made use o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h r e e i n d i c a t o r s . The c h o i c e o f t h e u n i t s o f measurement a r e as f o l l o w s : 1.  S t r i k e r s as a p e r c e n t a g e o f workers i n employment p e r year.  2.  Working days l o s t p e r worker p e r y e a r .  3.  S t r i k e s p e r 1 0 , 0 0 0 workers i n employment p e r y e a r . The s t u d y had c o v e r e d  t h e time p e r i o d 1911  t o 1945-  There was no s p e c i a l c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f s t r i k e - p r o n e n e s s f o r the i n d u s t r y groups examined. The r a n k i n g o f t h e i n d u s t r y groups were determined by c o n s i d e r i n g t h e a g g r e g a t i v e e f f e c t o f each i n d i c a t o r . The i n d u s t r y groups ranked  i n descending  order of s t r i k e -  proneness f o r the p e r i o d s t u d i e d a r e as f o l l o w s : 1.  M i n i n g and q u a r r y i n g .  2.  Textiles.  3.  Metal, engineering, s h i p b u i l d i n g .  4.  Transport.  5.  Building.  6.  Clothing.  23-  K.G.J.C. Knowles, " S t r i k e - p r o n e n e s s and. i t s D e t e r m i n a n t s " , i n The American J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , V o l . LX, No. 3 ,  Nov.  195T,  pp.  215-2lo\  56. The a u t h o r mentioned t h a t the r e s u l t s o f t h i s  study  tended t o be c o n f i r m e d by the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by the K e r r and S i e g e l s t u d y , i n terms o f the b e h a v i o u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f employees found i n these i n d u s t r y  groups.  Other I n d i c a t o r measurements o f s t r i k e a c t i v i t y have 24 been used i n a s t u d y c a r r i e d out by Ross and Hartman  .  The  s i x measurements o f s t r i k e a c t i v i t y a r e : 1.  I n t e n s i t y of Organization.  T h i s i s a measurement o f the  r a t i o o f u n i o n membership t o n o n ~ a g r i c u l t u r a l employment. 2.  Membership i n v o l v e m e n t r a t i o .  T h i s i s an i n d i c a t o r o f  the r a t i o o f the number o f workers p a r t i c i p a t i n g I n s t r i k e s t o the t o t a l u n i o n membership. 3.  Employee i n v o l v e m e n t r a t i o .  T h i s i s the r a t i o o f the  number Of workers p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s t r i k e s t o the  non-  a g r i c u l t u r a l employment. 4.  Duration of s t r i k e s .  T h i s r a t i o has been d e r i v e d from  the number o f w o r k i n g days l o s t i n l a b o r d i s p u t e s d i v i d e d  5.  by the number o f workers  i n v o l v e d i n the d i s p u t e .  Membership l o s s r a t i o .  T h i s i s a measurement o f the r a t i o  o f the w o r k i n g days l o s t t o the t o t a l u n i o n membership. 24.  A r t h u r M. Ross and P a u l T. Hartman, Changing P a t t e r n s o f I n d u s t r i a l C o n f l i c t , (New York: John W i l e y and Sons, I n c . , I 9 6 0 ) , pp. 8-14. T h i s i s an e x t e n s i o n o f the s t u d y by A r t h u r M. Ross and Donald I r w i n on " S t r i k e E x p e r i e n c e i n F i v e C o u n t r i e s , 1927-19 T: An I n t e r p r e t a t i o n ' , i n I n d u s t r i a l and Labor R e l a t i o n s Review, V o l . 4, No. 3 , A p r i l 1 9 5 1 , pp. 323-342. The d e t a i l s o f these two s t u d i e s a r e not d i s c u s s e d here because they a r e not i n t e r i n d u s t r y comparative s t u d i e s . i!  1  37.  6.  Employee l o s s r a t i o .  T h i s i s an i n d i c a t i o n of  the  average l o s s of time p e r hundred n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l employees. I t has been found t h a t the r a t i o s indicative  t h a t a r e most  of i n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t a r e the t h r e e  ratios,  membership i n v o l v e m e n t r a t i o , d u r a t i o n o f s t r i k e s and membership l o s s r a t i o . Many f o r m a l t h e o r i e s on i n d u s t r i a l c o n f l i c t have been 25 developed t o e x p l a i n the u n d e r l y i n g causes o f s t r i k e a c t i v i t y Each o f the t h r e e d i s c i p l i n e s , economics, p s y c h o l o g y and ogy a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n the study o f s t r i k e a c t i v i t y .  sociol-  Each  d i s c i p l i n e has r e s o r t e d to d e f i n e the c a u s a t i v e f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g the e x t e n d o f s t r i k e a c t i v i t y and have d e v e l o p e d own  f a v o u r i t e s e t o f remedies to s o l v e the problems.  their It is  n o t e d t h a t some o f the s t u d i e s are so s p e c i f i c t h a t they o n l y be a p p l i c a b l e i n the e x a m i n a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l Others a r e so g e n e r a l t h a t they may i n d u s t r i a l scene.  may  scene.  be a p p l i c a b l e t o the whole  Other than the s t u d i e s r e f e r r e d t o  p r e v i o u s l y , t h e r e does not seem t o be many s t u d i e s on  inter-  industry strike a c t i v i t y . I n summary, s t u d i e s t h a t ' h a v e been c a r r i e d out the p r o p e n s i t y  on  to s t r i k e , made use o f s i n g l e u n i t i n d i c a t o r s  o r m u l t i - u n i t i n d i c a t o r s to measure the p r o p e n s i t y  to s t r i k e .  I n t h i s study,  computation  25-  the p r o p o s e d method of a n a l y s i s and  A good r e f e r e n c e o f t h i s can be found i n A r n o l d S. Tannenbaum, "Unions", i n Handbook o f O r g a n i z a t i o n s , ed. by James C-. March, (Chicago: Rand M c N a l l v and Co.,  .1965), PP. 730-735.  .  38. chosen i s more s u i t e d t o the use o f the s i n g l e u n i t f o r m e a s u r i n g the p r o p e n s i t y to s t r i k e .  indicator  CHAPTER  III  COLLECTION OP DATA  1.  L e v e l o f Automation i n I n d u s t r y :  There i s l i t t l e  doubt  about t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n v o l v e d i n t r y i n g t o q u a n t i f y automation. Obstacles  to t h e measurement o f t h e l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n i n  Industry are formidable. D u r i n g a c e r t a i n time p e r i o d , t h e l e v e l o f autom a t i o n among major group i n d u s t r i e s ana sub-group I n d u s t r i e s under i n v e s t i g a t i o n can be c o n s i d e r e d the c o n f i n e s  t o be c o n t a i n e d  within  o f a c e r t a i n segment i n the continuum s c a l e o f  measurement f o r a u t o m a t i o n .  I n t h i s s t u d y , t h i s segment o f  the continuum i s d i v i d e d up i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , h a v i n g a t t r i b u t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h i g h , medium and l o w l e v e l s o f automation i n i n d u s t r y .  Here, i n d u s t r y i n c l u d e s major and  sub-group i n d u s t r i e s . An i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y can be d e r i v e d from t h e u s e o f t h e comprehensive d e f i n i t i o n o f automation discussed p r e v i o u s l y .  Thus, t h e l e v e l o f a u t o -  m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y c a n be c o n s i d e r e d  as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e l e v e l  o f i n t e g r a t i o n , l e v e l o f feedback t e c h n o l o g y and t h e l e v e l o f computer t e c h n o l o g y employed i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r y . T h i s . c a n be denoted i n t h e form o f an e q u a t i o n  as f o l l o w s : -  40.  A  « f ( l1L  i L  J  x  iL + c. C , i l l  (1)  = l e v e l o f automation i n i n d u s t r y  where  I^k = l e v e l o f i n t e g r a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y *iL  =  ^- ^eve  o f  i i  feedback t e c h n o l o g y i n i n d u s t r y  i  C.^ = l e v e l o f computer t e c h n o l o g y i n i n d u s t r y  i  a^ . = weight c o n t r i b u t e d by i n t e g r a t i o n i n industry b^  i  = w e i g h t c o n t r i b u t e d by feedback t e c h n o l o g y i n industry  c^  i  = w e i g h t c o n t r i b u t e d by computer t e c h n o l o g y i n industry  i  i  = 1 up t o t o t a l number o f i n d u s t r i e s b e i n g s t u d i e d .  I n a p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r y , even i f i t i s p o s s i b l e t o get s t a t i s t i c s on the l e v e l s of. i n t e g r a t i o n , feedback t e c h n o l o g y and computer t e c h n o l o g y employed, i t i s . d i f f i c u l t t o a s s i g n weights  a^ , b^  a t an a p p r o p r i a t e of  a  ±  , b  ±  and  and  c^  t o these components t o a r r i v e  measure o f the l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n . c^  Values  a r e d i f f e r e n t from i n d u s t r y t o i n d u s t r y .  To be a b l e t o a s s i g n v a l u e s t o  a^ , b^  and  c^  one needs t o  have a v e r y thorough knowledge o f the l e v e l o f t e c h n o l o g y i n the i n d u s t r y and the w e i g h t s c o n t r i b u t e d by these f a c t o r s . T h i s makes i t more d i f f i c u l t i f the s t u d y i n c l u d e s many i n d u s t r i e s .  41.  T h i s d i f f i c u l t y can be overcome i f the v a l u e s o f i n t e g r a t i o n , feedback t e c h n o l o g y and computer t e c h n o l o g y can be aggregated i n t o one s i n g l e complete component f o r t h a t particular industry.  I n the comprehensive  a u t o m a t i o n employed by S t e t t n e r , i t was  d e f i n i t i o n of  stated  that:  " C e r t a i n l y , i n i t s most developed form, a u t o m a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a number o f advanced types o f m e c h a n i z a t i o n w h i c h , i n combination,.have a u n i q u e economic and s o c i a l impact. The most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s e techniques are automatic c o n t r o l , e l e c t r o n i c data p r o c e s s i n g , and n u m e r i c a l c o n t r o l ; and i n the h i g h e s t form o f a u t o m a t i o n , t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a system o f p r o c e s s c o n t r o l t o a c h i e v e a u t o m a t i c o p e r a t i o n o f a complete p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s . Automatic c o n t r o l u t i l i z e s the p r i n c i p l e o f c l o s e d l o o p c i r c u i t or "feedback"; the i n p u t o f the machine i s made to r e g u l a t e i t s own o u t p u t so t h a t i t i s c o n s t a n t l y maint a i n e d w i t h i n s e t s t a n d a r d s o f q u a l i t y and a c c u r a c y . E l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g i s the a u t o m a t i c h a n d l i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n by means o f e l e c t r o n i c systems known as computers. W i t h n u m e r i c a l c o n t r o l the o p e r a t i o n s o f m a c h i n e . t o o l s o r machine systems a r e d i r e c t e d by n u m e r i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n s , r e c o r d e d on punch c a r d s o r t a p e , w h i c h c o n t r o l the movements o f the machine through a u t o m a t i c equipment. P r o c e s s c o n t r o l l i n k s these t e c h n i q u e s i n such a way as t o p e r m i t a u t o m a t i c o p e r a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , and c o r r e c t i o n o f the p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s from the b e g i n n i n g to end."1  The d e f i n i t i o n o f " n u m e r i c a l c o n t r o l " i n t h i s ment i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s based upon the concepts o f  state-  feedback  t e c h n o l o g y , and e l e c t r o n i c computer t e c h n o l o g y and need n o t be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from them.  I n e l e c t r o n i c computer t e c h -  n o l o g y , d a t a i s p r o c e s s e d i n t o the computer i n the form o f " n u m e r i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n s r e c o r d e d on punch c a r d s o r t a p e . "  1.  Leonora S t e t t n e r , "Survey of L i t e r a t u r e on S o c i a l and Economic E f f e c t s o f T e c h n o l o g i c a l Change",, i n Employment Problems o f A u t o m a t i o n and Advanced Technology, ea. by J a c k Stfeb'e'r, (Tendon: M a c M i l l a n , l y b b ) , p. 452.  42.  The  e l e c t r o n i c computer i s c a p a b l e o f s u p p l y i n g d i r e c t i o n f o r  the automatic automatic  o p e r a t i o n o f machines through c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h  control.  The l i n k i n g o f i n t e g r a t i o n , feedback  t e c h n o l o g y and e l e c t r o n i c computer t e c h n o l o g y  can be a g g r e g a t e d  as a s i n g l e complete component known as p r o c e s s c o n t r o l .  As  an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y , t h e l e v e l o f p r o c e s s c o n t r o l employed i n t h e i n d u s t r y can be used. T h i s means t h a t the l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y i s e q u i v a l e n t to the l e v e l of process c o n t r o l i n i n d u s t r y , that i s  A  where  2.  ^±1,  ~ - ^eve  IL  of  =  P C  iL  ••  <*>  process c o n t r o l i n i n d u s t r y  The P r o p e n s i t y t o S t r i k e :  i .  T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n among the  i n d u s t r i e s studied, i s d i v i d e d i n t o three categories containing a t t r i b u t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h i g h , medium and l o w p r o p e n s i t y to s t r i k e .  The i n d u s t r i e s a r e c l a s s i f i e d by comparing t h e  r a n k i n g , o f annual work stoppages ( i n thousands o f man-hours) i n each i n d u s t r y w i t h t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  r a n k i n g o f the annual  average p r o d u c t i o n worker employment l e v e l ( i n thousands). The p r o d u c t i o n worker employment l e v e l i s chosen because p r o d u c t i o n workers p a r t i c i p a t e " i n s t r i k e s o r a r e a f f e c t e d by s t r i k e s more than s u p e r v i s o r y workers.  The demarcation  repres-  e n t i n g each c a t e g o r y i s d e t e r m i n e d by making sure t h a t approxi m a t e l y one t h i r d o f t h e t a l l y o f t h e f r e q u e n c y  of propensity  to s t r i k e v a l u e s f a l l w i t h i n the medium c a t e g o r y .  In this  way, t h e c e l l i n d i c a t i n g h i g h o r low v a l u e s o f f r e q u e n c y t o  43.  s t r i k e w i l l "be dependent more upon t h e i n d u s t r i e s f a l l i n g w i t h i n the c a t e g o r i e s o f the l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y .  3*  Data Used and the Method o f . C o l l e c t i o n :  (a). L e v e l o f A u t o m a t i o n i n I n d u s t r y .  I n t h i s s t u d y , the  s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a have been e x t r a c t e d from an i s s u e o f C o n t r o l 2  Engineering  , a M c G r a w - H i l l P u b l i c a t i o n on i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n ,  c o n t r o l , systems and d e s i g n .  The s u r v e y o f computers and  t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s has been u n d e r t a k e n b y the M c G r a w - H i l l Department o f Economics. U.S. c o r p o r a t i o n s .  The sample covered 8 0 0 o f the l a r g e s t  About 6 5 0 o f these c o r p o r a t i o n s employed  4 , 9 0 4 d i g i t a l computers i n t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . t h i s sample a r e a l l government a g e n c i e s  Excluded  and e d u c a t i o n s  from instit-  utions. The tables.  r e s u l t s o f the survey have been produced  in.two  The 8 0 0 c o r p o r a t i o n s have been c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o a  number o f major groiip and sub-group i n d u s t r i e s w i t h the manufacturing  i n d u s t r i e s defined according to the Standard  I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( S I C ) system i n the 196"3 Census o f Manufacturers,  Vol. 11,  I n d u s t r y S t a t i s t i c s , p a r t 1 and 2 ,  i s s u e d by the U.S. Department o f Commerce.  The S t a n d a r d  I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n system a l s o covers  non-manufacturing  i n d u s t r i e s as w e l l .  M a j o r group i n d u s t r i e s a r e d e s i g n a t e d  a two-digit numerical  code...  The subgroup i n d u s t r i e s a r e  d e s i g n a t e d by a code c o n t a i n i n g t h r e e n u m e r i c a l 2.  with  d i g i t s and the  C o n t r o l E n g i n e e r i n g . " I n d u s t r y s P u l s e " , V o l , 1 2 , No. 4 , A p r i l 1 9 b 5 , pp. 6 7 , 6 9 . 1  44.  m i n o r i n d u s t r i e s use f o u r n u m e r i c a l  digits.  The  o b j e c t i v e of  u s i n g the code i s t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r u n i f o r m i t y c o m p a r a b i l i t y i n the r e c o r d i n g ' a n d d a t a by'government a g e n c i e s , research agencies.  p r e s e n t a t i o n of  statistical  t r a d e a s s o c i a t i o n s and p r i v a t e  Under the h e a d i n g o f I n d u s t r y , the t a b l e  c o n t a i n s an a s s o r t m e n t of m a n u f a c t u r i n g and industries.  and  nonmanufacturing  These are made up of independent.major group  i n d u s t r i e s , c o m b i n a t i o n o f two o r more major group i n d u s t r i e s , sub-group i n d u s t r i e s and a c o m b i n a t i o n of two or more sub-group industries. One  t a b l e c o n t a i n s s t a t i s t i c s on the a b s o l u t e number  o f computers i n o p e r a t i o n , p e r c e n t a g e o f companies w i t h  no  e l e c t r o n i c computers, p e r c e n t a g e o f companies w i t h e l e c t r o n i c computers t h a t h3,ve been i n o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n t h r e e time spans and  the p e r c e n t a g e of companies p r o p o s i n g  computer o p e r a t i o n s .  The  to expand t h e i r  o t h e r t a b l e c o n t a i n s d a t a on  the  p e r c e n t a g e o f companies i n d i c a t i n g the use o f computers f o r a p a r t i c u l a r a p p l i c a t i o n , one The provided.  of w h i c h i s p r o c e s s c o n t r o l .  d e t a i l s o f the method of s a m p l i n g have not been  I f the q u e s t i o n a i r e method had been u s e d , the  number of q u e s t i o n a i r e s sent out t h a t had b r o u g h t i n r e p l i e s was  not i n d i c a t e d .  The  800  q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as to whether  the date, r e c e i v e d i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the p o p u l a t i o n . n o t known what measure has been used to i n d i c a t e the o f the group of l a r g e s t U.S.  total  corporations.  It is confines  I f the s a l e s  volume i s u s e d , then i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t . t h e l a r g e s t c o r p o r a t i o n s  45.  may be c o n c e n t r a t e d among a few i n d u s t r y  groups.  I t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o check t h e s p r e a d o f t h e companies i n t h e i n d u s t r y groups t h a t have r e p l i e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n a i r e a g a i n s t the t o t a l number o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n t h e i n d u s t r y groups, even though f i g u r e s o f t h e p e r c e n t o f companies w i t h no computers and t h e a b s o l u t e number o f computers i n operation are available.  C e r t a i n l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n s may  employ more than one computer each.  One a s s i s t i n g f a c t o r ,  e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f computers f o r p r o c e s s i s t h a t t h e chance o f companies r e p o r t i n g t h i s  control,  application  b u t n o t owning o r l e a s i n g t h e computer i s l i m i t e d .  I n process  c o n t r o l , I t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r many companies t o combine t o g e t h e r to make use o f a common computer f a c i l i t y , making i t n e c e s s a r y for  t h e computer t o be p r e s e n t i n t h e p l a n t t h a t i s o p e r a t e d  by i t . There i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t y i n v o l v e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g whether t h e d a t a r e c e i v e d i s  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the p o p u l a t i o n  i n terms o f s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y groups i n geographiceJL areas.  I t i s not c e r t a i n that the personnel  c a r r y i n g out  the s u r v e y a r e aware o f t h e p o s s i b l e d i s c r e p a n c i e s a f f e c t i n g the a c c u r a c y o f t h e data, due t o p o s s i b l e shortcomings i n t h e s a m p l i n g method i t s e l f .  The Department o f Economics o f t h e  M c G r a w - H i l l Company has c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e i n c a r r y i n g out surveys o f t h i s n a t u r e b e f o r e .  I t has a l s o c o m p i l e d  m o n t h l y s t a t i s t i c s and conducted o t h e r s t u d i e s on t h e m e t a l w o r k i n g i n d u s t r i e s and has r e p o r t e d t h e d a t a and f i n d i n g s i n the American M a c h i n i s t and i n B u s i n e s s Week.  I t i s a l s o noted  46,  t h a t some o f t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r  d a t a on t h e number o f companies  and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s have been quoted i n one o f t h e b u l l e t i n s i s s u e d b y t h e U.S. Bureau o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s .  Due t o t h e  d i f f i c u l t y i n c o n d u c t i n g t h e s u r v e y and o b t a i n i n g t h e d a t a , the  sources supplying t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  type o f d a t a a r e l i m i t e d .  T h i s l i m i t a t i o n has p l a c e d r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e a b i l i t y o f comparing a v a i l a b l e d a t a w i t h a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e s . (b)  Propensity to Strike:  The s t a t i s t i c s u s e d i n computing  the p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e , namely s t a t i s t i c s on a n n u a l work stoppages and t h e a n n u a l average p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r employment l e v e l , b o t h on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s , have been e x t r a c t e d m a i n l y from t h e U.S. Bureau o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s on t h e f o l l o w i n g : (a)  A n a l y s i s o f Work Stoppages.^  (b)  Employment and E a r n i n g s S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e U n i t e d  States.^  ••^e A n a l y s i s o f Work Stoppages p r o v i d e s data, on d u r a t i o n o f each stoppage, number o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n v o l v e d , geographical c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , causes, unions  i n v o l v e d , method  of t e r m i n a t i o n o f stoppages and d i s p o s i t i o n o f i s s u e s .  Data  t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y a r e found i n T a b l e A - l . 3.  U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department o f L a b o r , Bureau o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , B u l l e t i n No. 1474, op. c i t . , pp. 27-180.  4.  U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department o f L a b o r , Bureau o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , A n a l y s i s o f Work Stoppages, B u l l e t i n Nos. 1136, 1420,  5.  I I 6 3 , 1 1 9 b , 1218, 1 2 3 4 , 1-460, and 1525-  This  1258, 1278, 1302, 1339, 1381,  U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department o f L a b o r , Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s , Employment and E a r n i n g s S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1909-1966, B u l l e t i n No. 1312-4, Oct. 1 9 6 6 .  47.  table provides  a n n u a l d a t a on work stoppages by i n d u s t r y w h i c h  c o v e r s major group i n d u s t r i e s and sub-group i n d u s t r i e s , b o t h for  m a n u f a c t u r i n g as w e l l as n o n - m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s .  Work stoppages i n v o l v i n g s i x or more workers and l a s t i n g f o r a p e r i o d o f a f u l l day or a t l e a s t one  f u l l s h i f t are  recorded.  I t i s mentioned t h a t any work stoppage i n v o l v i n g l e s s than s i x workers and l a s t i n g f o r a p e r i o d of l e s s than one  s h i f t s does  not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the v a l u e o f the d a t a c o m p i l e d , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e s e are r e p o r t e d t o the n e a r e s t idle.  t e n man-days  Coverage o f work stoppages i s not b a s e d upon a sample.  A l l work stoppages above the s p e c i f i e d minimum s i z e and  duration  t h a t have been r e p o r t e d by a r e l i a b l e s o u r c e a r e i n c l u d e d . Sources t h a t s u p p l y i n f o r m a t i o n on the o c c u r r e n c e o f work stoppages t o the Bureau of L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s have been d e v e l o p e d o v e r a number of y e a r s .  These have been updated  o c c a s i o n a l l y when the need a r i s e s t o improve the q u a l i t y o f data t h a t are compiled.  The u p d a t i n g  of s o u r c e s o f  the  strike  i n f o r m a t i o n has been made m a i n l y p r i o r to 1950.  I t has been  estimated  strike  t h a t t h i s improvement of the s o u r c e s o f  i n f o r m a t i o n has not a f f e c t e d much the t o t a l number o f workers i n v o l v e d and t h e man-days o f I d l e n e s s .  Common s o u r c e s most  o f t e n r e l i e d upon to g i v e r e p o r t s on the e x i s t e n c e o f work stoppages i n c l u d e d some o f the f o l l o w i n g : (a)  e x t r a c t s from d a i l y and weekly newspapers on l a b o r  (b)  n o t i f i c a t i o n from government a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n employment s e c u r i t y and i n the m e d i a t i o n  disputes  of l a b o r disputes.  48.  (c)  employers and employer a s s o c i a t i o n s ,  (d)  i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e u n i o n s and t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s . The l a s t two s o u r c e s s u p p l y work stoppage i n f o r m -  a t i o n on a v o l u n t a r y c o - o p e r a t i v e b a s i s e i t h e r as t h e stoppages occur o r p e r i o d i c a l l y .  When t h e r e p o r t o f any work stoppages  from one o f t h e s o u r c e s mentioned above has been r e c e i v e d , f u l l d e t a i l s on t h e work stoppage and o t h e r p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n a r e s e c u r e d by m a i l i n g s t a n d a r d form q u e s t i o n a i r e s t o a l l the p a r t i e s involved.  Exceptions t o t h i s procedure of  o b t a i n i n g f u l l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e work stoppage have been made occasionally.  The n e c e s s a r y s t a t i s t i c a l  d a t a may be o b t a i n e d  by f i e l d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e Bureau o r t h e p a r t i e s  involved  i n t h e work stoppage may be c o n t a c t e d b y s t a f f members o f t h e co-operating state agencies. The a n n u a l s t a t i s t i c a l  d a t a on work stoppages have  been d e r i v e d from t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f a c t u a l s t r i k e d a t a p r o v i d e d by t h e p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d . f o r m u l a s a r e used.  No t e c h n i c a l  statistical  The fundamental p r o c e s s o f c o m p i l a t i o n  i n v o l v e d a s s e m b l i n g t h e r e p o r t s on i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s , w h i c h a r e t h e n grouped i n t o i n d u s t r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o l l o w i n g a n a l y s i s , e v a l u a t i o n and classification.  The b a s i c u n i t f r o m w h i c h t h e d a t a i s  o b t a i n e d i s t h e work stoppage r e g a r d l e s s o f s i z e except t h e minimum as s p e c i f i e d p r e v i o u s l y . 6.  Groups o f workers who  U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department o f L a b o r , Bureau o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , Techniques o f P r e p a r i n g M a j o r BLS S t a t i s t i c a l S e r i e s , B u l l e t i n No. U b b , Dec. 1954, Chpts. 1, b and 12.  49.  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a work stoppage because o f a common o b j e c t i v e are  c l a s s i f i e d as b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n a s i n g l e s t r i k e .  It is  a l s o p o s s i b l e f o r c e r t a i n workers t o be counted more than once i f t h e y a r e i n v o l v e d i n more than one stoppage d u r i n g that year.  No r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e made w i t h r e g a r d t o g e o g r a p h i c a l  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e workers and t h e i r a c t u a l number. I n an e s t a b l i s h m e n t d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n a work stoppage, a l l employees  o f t h e employer a r e c o n s i d e r e d a f f e c t e d  by t h e d i s p u t e , even when a, stoppage i n one s e c t i o n c l o s e r t h e , whole p l a n t .  T h i s c o n d i t i o n i s m a i n t a i n e d r e g a r d l e s s o f what  p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l number o f workers a r e a c t i v e l y ipating  partic-  i n t h e s t r i k e o r m e r e l y made i d l e b y t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s  g o i n g on s t r i k e .  A d j u s t m e n t s a r e made i n t h e c o m p u t a t i o n o f  man-days o f i d l e n e s s , when t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n the number o f workers made i d l e throughout t h e whole p e r i o d o f the work stoppage.  E x c e p t f o r t h i s i n s t a n c e , t h e t o t a l number  o f man-days i d l e i s computed as t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e t o t a l number of workers i n v o l v e d and t h e number o f days o f i d l e n e s s , w i t h the  e x c e p t i o n o f h o l i d a y s and days n o t n o r m a l l y worked.  The  e f f e c t s o f a stoppage on o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , o r i n d u s t r i e s resulting  i n t h e i r employees b e i n g made i d l e due t o s h o r t a g e s  o f m a t e r i a l o r s e r v i c e , sometimes known as secondary i d l e n e s s , are n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e t o t a l number o f mandays o f i d l e n e s s . There appeared t o be a d i s t i n c t i o n between the number o f days o f i d l e n e s s where o n l y workdays a work stoppage.  a r e used and t h e d u r a t i o n o f  The d u r a t i o n o f a work stoppage I s computed  50.  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e number o f c a l e n d a r days, i n c l u d i n g days from t h e b e g i n n i n g u n t i l  non-working  t h e end o f the work stoppage,  r a t h e r t h a n making use o f w o r k i n g days.  I n i n s t a n c e s where  a work stoppage has n o t been t e r m i n a t e d by a f o r m a l agreement at a d e f i n i t e d a t e , c o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a on the number o f man-days o f i d l e n e s s i s c o m p l i c a t e d where the workers b e g i n t o s l o w l y t r i c k l e back t o t h e i r j o b s .  A more d e t a i l e d  r e c o r d o f the number o f men and t h e number o f days o f i d l e n e s s w i l l have t o be k e p t . I n some i n s t a n c e s , a few stoppages may i n v o l v e workers i n more than one i n d u s t r y d i r e c t l y . are  s m a l l as a consequence  Where t h e stoppages  o f the number o f days o f i d l e n e s s ,  t h e s e a r e grouped i n t h e i n d u s t r y w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f workers participating.  On t h e o t h e r hand, where l a r g e i n t e r i n d u s t r y  stoppages o c c u r , the a n a l y s i s i n t h e c o m p u t a t i o n i s made more d e t a i l e d , r e s u l t i n g i n a more p r o p o r t i o n a t e a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e t o t a l number o f man-days o f i d l e n e s s t o each i n d u s t r y . The p o s s i b l e l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t may a f f e c t the a c c u r a c y of  t h e d a t a have been c o n s i d e r e d .  One o f t h e unknowns i s  whether the s o u r c e s p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on work stoppa-ges p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t coverage t h a t w i l l encompass a complete count o f the number o f work stoppages.  The p u b l i c i t y g i v e n  to l a r g e and i m p o r t a n t work stoppages w i l l n o t cause any o f these to be o v e r l o o k e d . These work stoppages c o n t r i b u t e most t o the s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a on the number o f workers and o f the man-days l o s t .  It  51.i s presumed t h a t the d a t a n o t c o v e r e d i s from s m a l l e r and  that these unreported  for  t h e number o f workers and man-days o f i d l e n e s s .  been c o n s i d e r e d  strikes  s t r i k e s do n o t a f f e c t much the f i g u r e s  t h a t the u p d a t i n g  I t has  o f the s o u r c e s o f s t r i k e  i n f o r m a t i o n has n o t s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e d a t a , even though c o m p a r a b i l i t y o f d a t a between p e r i o d s  will  r e q u i r e more c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s , i f g r e a t e r a c c u r a c y i s r e q u i r e d . Work stoppages c o n c e r n i n g  few workers o r o f s h o r t  duration  have n o t been i n c l u d e d because they have been c o n s i d e r e d n o t t o have p l a y e d any s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i d l e n e s s or i n t e r r u p t i o n to production importance to the o v e r a l l  and thus o f l i t t l e  total.  A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n i n the c o m p i l a t i o n o f d a t a may be due t o a l l o w a n c e s n o t b e i n g made t o a c c o u n t f o r normal  stopp-  ages due t o absences due t o i l l n e s s , a b s e n t e e i s m , e t c . These o c c u r d u r i n g t h e normal employment p e r i o d and w i l l  occur  d u r i n g t h e work stoppage as w e l l . Measurement o f secondary i d l e n e s s has been due t o t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f e x i s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s estimate  such i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s .  omitted  to i n d i c a t e or  There have been i n s t a n c e s  when the i d l e n e s s o f workers d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n a s t r i k e have been p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y l e s s than the i d l e n e s s o f o t h e r workers w h i c h has been caused i n d i r e c t l y .  These cases a r e  e s s e n t i a l l y found i n many i n d u s t r i e s w i t h la.rge work f o r c e s and  dependent upon the m a t e r i a l s and s e r v i c e s c o n t r i b u t e d by  a s m a l l e r i n d u s t r y employing a s m a l l e r number o f workers. D a t a p r o v i d e d b y the Employment and E a r n i n g s  Statistics  52.  p r e s e n t d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e non-farm work f o r c e on s u c h a r e a s as t o t a l number o f employees,  women, p r o d u c t i o n  workers i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g and m i n i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n workers i n most o f t h e r e m a i n i n g n o n - m a n u f a c t u r i n g  industries.  r e c o r d e d i n monthly and a n n u a l averages. statistical  These a r e  Included are  d a t a on weekly and h o u r l y e a r n i n g s , average  and o v e r t i m e h o u r s , and l a b o r t u r n o v e r r a t e s .  weekly  The s t a t i s t i c a l  d a t a r e l e v a n t t o t h e s t u d y from t h i s s o u r c e a r e those on t h e n a t i o n a l a n n u a l averages on employment c o v e r i n g p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s i n m a n u f a c t u r i n g and m i n i n g .  Employment l e v e l s w i t h i n  i n d u s t r i e s can change f r e q u e n t l y even w i t h i n a month.  The  use o f t h e a n n u a l average f i g u r e s w i l l c a t e r f o r t h i s v a r i a t i o n . The method o f c o m p i l i n g p r o d u c t i o n worker  statistical  d a t a i s r e l a t e d t o t h a t used t o g a t h e r t o t a l employment l e v e l data.  A complete census o f employment c a r r i e d o u t a t f r e q u e n t  i n t e r v a l s would be time consuming due t o problems  arising  from c o l l e c t i n g and t a b u l a t i n g t h e d a t a , and g r e a t expense would be i n c u r r e d as w e l l .  To o f f s e t these p r o b l e m s , t h e  method u s e d i n c o m p i l i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c a l  d a t a i n c l u d e s measure-  ment o f t h e t o t a l tin!verse and e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s as a benchmark f o r a c e r t a i n time p e r i o d u n t i l  t h e n e x t measurement o f  the u n i v e r s e . i s c a r r i e d o u t , w h i c h i s u s u a l l y made a n n u a l l y during the f i r s t quarter o f the year.  From t h i s u n i v e r s e ,  a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f about 25 m i l l i o n workers  from  approximately 155,000 co-operating establishments are obtained. I n 1 9 o 5 , t h e samples i n m i n i n g and m a n u f a c t u r i n g c o n t a i n e d 46  53.  and 64 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l employees' r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The sample  s u r v e y w i l l enable monthly employment estimate's t o be o b t a i n e d f o r t h e i n t e r i m p e r i o d between benchmarks.  C u r r e n t employment  e s t i m a t e s a r e o b t a i n e d b y u s i n g t h e benchmark and l i n k - r e l a t i v e techniques.  Once a new benchmark i s e s t a b l i s h e d these  interim  e s t i m a t e s a r e updated. The u n i v e r s e o f t o t a l non-farm employment i s made up o f a comprehensive count o f t h e t o t a l number o f p e r s o n s employed i n n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , b y i n d u s t r y i n t h e country.  T o t a l f i g u r e s o f employment i n these  establishments  a r e e x t r a c t e d from s o c i a l i n s u r a n c e r e p o r t s , except f o r i n d u s t r i e s t h a t a r e c o v e r e d when s p e c i a l s o u r c e s such as s p e c i a l ment c e n s u s e s ,  a r e used.  establish-  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of establishments  i n t o t h e v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i e s a r e made a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Code on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r p r i n c i p a l p r o d u c t o r a c t i v i t y w h i c h had been determined  from annual  sales  or r e c e i p t data f o r the previous calendar year, both f o r the u n i v e r s e and f o r t h e sample. The  design o f the sampling procedure  s a m p l i n g method.  uses t h e c u t - o f f  A l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n w h i c h t h e t o t a l number  o f employees over a c e r t a i n s i z e and i n a c e r t a i n r e g i o n a r e included.  The c u t - o f f p o i n t i s chosen i n such a manner as t o  a c h i e v e two o b j e c t i v e s , o f a c c u r a c y and  7-  ( l ) t o p r o v i d e an a p p r o p r i a t e s t a n d a r d  (2) t o r e p r e s e n t a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n o f  U.S. Bureau o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s B u l l e t i n No. 1312-4, op. c i t . , p. 7 8 5 .  54.  t o t a l employment i n the i n d u s t r y .  The p r o p o r t i o n o f  employment v a r i e s from i n d u s t r y to i n d u s t r y because o f e f f e c t o f the p e r c e n t large firms.  total the  o f t o t a l employment i n the p a y r o l l s o f  M o d i f i c a t i o n i n the b a s i c d e s i g n o f the sample  i s r e s o r t e d to i n cases where i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n t o t a l response from a l l f i r m s above the c u t - o f f p o i n t i n w h i c h case some o f the s m a l l e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s  are chosen.  a l s o depends on whether the i n d u s t r i e s  have a l a r g e r p r o p o r t -  ion  of t o t a l employment, t h a t i s found i n l a r g e r o r  This  smaller  establishments. D a t a from t h i s sample i s o b t a i n e d by means o f a standard  form m a i l q u e s t i o n a i r e .  The  form o f the q u e s t i o n a . i r e  i s a s i n g l e s h u t t l e schedule which w i l l u n i t (a n o n - f a i m e s t a b l i s h m e n t ) a p e r i o d of a c a l e n d a r y e a r .  enable a r e p o r t i n g  to p r o v i d e m o n t h l y d a t a o v e r Information  required includes  the e n t r y o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p r i n c i p a l p r o d u c t produced or a c t i v i t y , and employment d a t a c o v e r i n g f u l l o r employees on the p a y r o l l who ending nearest  the 15th  part-time  r e c e i v e pay f o r the m o n t h l y p e r i o d  o f the month.  In a d d i t i o n , f o r mining  and m a n u f a c t u r i n g r e p o r t i n g u n i t s , d a t a on the number o f production  and r e l a t e d workers i n c l u d e d i n t h e  f i g u r e , are The for  requested. d a t a computed f i r s t i s the a l l - e m p l o y e e  each b a s i c e s t i m a t i n g c e l l , w h i c h may  all-employee  t o t a l employment  estimate  estimate  be an i n d u s t r y .  The  f o r the c u r r e n t month i s the p r o d u c t o f  the r a t i o o f a l l employees i n the sample e s t a b l i s h m e n t s the c u r r e n t month to a l l employees i n the sample  for.  establishments  55.  f o r the p r e v i o u s month m u l t i p l i e d by the a l l - e m p l o y e e f o r the p r e v i o u s month.  estimate  M o n t h l y p r o d u c t i o n worker e s t i m a t e s  f o r the same b a s i c e s t i m a t i n g c e l l a r e computed as a p r o d u c t o f the a l l - e m p l o y e e e s t i m a t e f o r the c u r r e n t month and  the  r a t i o o f p r o d u c t i o n workers t o a l l employees i n the sample e s t a b l i s h m e n t s f o r the c u r r e n t month.  The monthly e s t i m a t e s  o f p r o d u c t i o n workers f o r major group i n d u s t r i e s and  sub-group  i n d u s t r i e s a r e o b t a i n e d by summing p r o d u c t i o n worker e s t i m a t e s f o r component c e l l s .  The annual average d a t a f o r p r o d u c t i o n  workers i s o b t a i n e d by summing the m o n t h l y e s t i m a t e s and i n g by  divid-  12. The  r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e s i z e o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t sample  has been C o n s i d e r e d a f a c t o r i n m a i n t a i n i n g a h i g h degree o f a c c u r a c y and r e l i a b i l i t y produced by the e s t i m a t e s . e r r o r w h i c h may  Accumulated  a r i s e from the use o f the l i n k - r e l a t i v e t e c h -  n i q u e w i l l be removed by a d j u s t i n g t o new benchmarks a n n u a l l y . Changes i n new  benchmarks w i l l a l s o c a t e r f o r any changes  r e q u i r e d i n the changes o f i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f individual  e s t a b l i s h m e n t s due t o changes o f p r o d u c t o r a c t i v i t y  d u r i n g the i n t e r i m p e r i o d .  I t appears t h a t changes i n new  benchmark v a l u e s have been c o n t r i b u t e d c h i e f l y by the changes i n the i n d u s t r i a l  4.  classification.  I n d u s t r i e s Chosen f o r t h e Study.  most d i f f i c u l t  The v a r i a b l e t h a t i s  to measure and t h e r e f o r e most d i f f i c u l t  s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a on i s automation. t h a t the l e v e l o f automation  to o b t a i n  Even though i t i s assumed  i n i n d u s t r y i s e q u i v a l e n t to the  56.  l e v e l of process c o n t r o l i n i n d u s t r y ,  there are r e l a t i v e l y  fev/ s o u r c e s o f d a t a on p r o c e s s c o n t r o l .  This l a c k of data  has d i c t a t e d the type o f i n d u s t r i e s and the number o f i n d u s t r i e s t h a t have been chosen f o r t h i s study. Referring i s s u e of Control  t o the t a b l e on page 6 9 o f the A p r i l 1 9 6 5  E n g i n e e r i n g , the f o l l o w i n g major group i n d u s t r i e s  have been chosen f o r the s t u d y : A.  M a n u f a c t u r i n g o f Durable Goods. 1.  Primary metal i n d u s t r i e s c o n s i s t i n g of i r o n  and s t e e l and n o n - f e r r o u s m e t a l s . 2.  Machinery.  3.  Electrical  4.  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment c o n s i s t i n g o f a u t o s ,  trucks  Machinery.  and p a r t s , aerospace and o t h e r  equipment. 5 and 6.  B.  F a b r i c a t e d m e t a l s and i n s t r u m e n t s  7-  Stone, c l a y and  glass.  8.  Miscellaneous manufacturing.  M a n u f a c t u r i n g o f Non-durable 1.  Chemicals.  2.  Paper and P u l p .  3.  Rubber.  4.  P e t r o l e u m and  5.  Food and  6.  Textiles.  Goods.  Coal products.  Beverages.  transportation  57.  C.  Mining. The i n d u s t r y , f a b r i c a t e d m e t a l s and i n s t r u m e n t s have  been c o n s i d e r e d t o be comprised o f two major group i n d u s t r i e s , the f a b r i c a t e d m e t a l s and t h e i n s t r u m e n t s i n d u s t r i e s .  Mining  i n c l u d e s m e t a l , c o a l , crude p e t r o l e u m and n a t u r a l g a s , q u a r r y i n g and n o n - m e t a l l i c m i n i n g . Other major group and sub-group i n d u s t r i e s i n c l u d e d in  t h i s t a b l e but n o t i n c l u d e d i n the study a r e r a i l r o a d s ,  o t h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communications, e l e c t r i c and commercial b u s i n e s s .  utilities  F o r r a i l r o a d s and o t h e r t r a n s p o r t -  a t i o n and communications, complete  d a t a on n o n - s u p e r v i s o r y  workers  I n t h e A n a l y s i s o f Work  i s not available.  Stoppages, e l e c t r i c , gas and s a n i t a r y s e r v i c e s a r e aggregated as one minor i n d u s t r y .  S i n c e d a t a on man-days i d l e i s ...not  a v a i l a b l e t o enable t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l g r o u p i n g t o be broken up, e l e c t r i c u t i l i t i e s are omitted. t r a d e , f i n a n c e and s e r v i c e s .  Commercial b u s i n e s s i n c l u d e s D a t a on n o n - s u p e r v i s o r y  f o r f i n a n c e and s e r v i c e s i s i n c o m p l e t e and thus  workers  commercial  business i s omitted.. Comparing t h e l i s t o f i n d u s t r i e s i n C o n t r o l E n g i n e e r i n g w i t h t h a t r e p o r t e d b y t h e U.S. Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s on the A n a l y s i s o f Work Stoppages and t h e Employment and E a r n i n g s S t a t i s t i c s , those i n C o n t r o l E n g i n e e r i n g have major group and sub-group i n d u s t r i e s mixed t o g e t h e r . in  There i s some d i f f i c u l t y  t y i n g back some o f these major group and sub-group i n d u s t r i e s  w i t h t h a t r e p o r t e d b y t h e U.S. Bureau o f Labor because.the  Statistics  names i n t h e former a r e o f t e n s h o r t e n e d and do n o t  58.  TABLE I .  NAMES OP SOME MAJOR GROUP AND SUB-GROUP INDUSTRIES FROM WO SOURCES.  Names o f I n d u s t r y Groups from D i f f e r e n t  Sources  No.  Control Engineering  U.S. Bureau o f L a b o r Statistics  1.  Aerospace  Aircraft  2.  Instruments  Instruments products.  3-  Chemicals  Chemicals and a l l i e d products.  4.  Paper and P u l p  Paper and a l l i e d products.  5.  Rubber  Rubber and m i s c e l l a n e o u s p l a s t i c s products.  6.  Petroleum products  7.  . Textiles  and c o a l  and p a r t s and r e l a t e d  P e t r o l e u m r e f i n i n g and related industries. . Textile mill  products.  59.  f o l l o w e x a c t l y that of the l a t t e r .  D e t a i l s o f minor i n d u s t r i e s  o r t h e S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Code f o r each major group o r sub-group i n d u s t r y i n the f o r m e r a r e n o t p r o v i d e d . T a b l e I i s a l i s t o f major group and subgroup  industries  w h i c h have been p r o v i d e d w i t h names t h a t a r e n o t e x a c t l y t h e same b y each s o u r c e . .A means f o r t y i n g back t h e names o f i n d u s t r i e s p r o v i d e d by these two s o u r c e s o f s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a has been o  p r o v i d e d by t h e p u b l i c a t i o n News F r o n t ,  I n the Table of  Contents t h e names o f i n d u s t r i e s a r e s i m i l a r t o those used i n C o n t r o l E n g i n e e r i n g , b u t here t h e r e i s a breakdown o f t h e i n d u s t r i e s and t h e S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Code i s provided.  R e l a t i n g t h e m i n o r i n d u s t r i e s and t h e i r S t a n d a r d  I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Code t o those found i n t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e U.S. Bureau o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , i t i s found t h a t the names o f i n d u s t r i e s g i v e n i n C o n t r o l E n g i n e e r i n g a r e synonymous w i t h t h a t u s e d i n t h e U.S. Bureau o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s .  There  may be a tendency i n t r a d e j o u r n a l p u b l i c a t i o n s t o use s h o r t e n e d and r e l a t e d names d i f f e r e n t from those used by t h e U.S. Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s .  To ensure t h a t t h e r e i s c o n s i s t e n c y i n  u s i n g t h e d a t a from C o n t r o l E n g i n e e r i n g and from t h e U.S. Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s , a t a b l e c o n t a i n i n g i n d u s t r y c l a s s i f i e d  into  major groups and sub-groups w i t h t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g two d i g i t and t h r e e d i g i t S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Code has been c o m p i l e d as shown i n T a b l e X V I I I i n t h e Appendix. 8.  News F r o n t , "The News F r o n t D i r e c t o r y U.S. M a n u f a c t u r e r s " , 19Sl, p. 3-  o f 7,500 L e a d i n g  CHAPTER  IV  TESTING OP HYPOTHESIS  1.  Theory o f the A n a l y s i s o f  r  by  k  Contingency Table: .  The method used i n the t e s t i n g o f the h y p o t h e s i s i s dependent upon the phenomena t h a t i s s t u d i e d .  I n the l e v e l o f a u t o -  m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y and the p r o p e n s i t y to s t r i k e , the degree of  d i f f e r e n c e w i t h i n each v a r i a b l e cannot r e a d i l y be  t h a t i s , the s c o r e s may n o t be t r u l y  numerical.  quantified,  The  two  v a r i a b l e s can be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o a number o f a t t r i b u t e s . These c a t e g o r i e s a r e independent i n t h a t assignment o f one f r e q u e n c y t o a c e l l i n no way a f f e c t s the assignment o f any o t h e r f r e q u e n c y to t h a t c e l l o r any o t h e r c e l l . Data thus c a t e g o r i z e d can be t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e by u s i n g :nonp.arametric t e s t s .  A : nonparametric  statistical  t e s t i s used on a model w h i c h does n o t l a y down c o n d i t i o n s about the parameters o f the p o p u l a t i o n from w h i c h the sample has been drawn.  I n u s i n g the  nonparametric s t a t i s t i c a l  tests  c e r t a i n assumptions a r e made, such a s , the o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e made i n d e p e n d e n t l y and the v a r i a b l e s under s t u d y p o s s e s s . u n d e r l y i n g continuity"'".  These assumptions a r e c o n s i d e r e d fewer and weaker  than those c o n n e c t e d w i t h p a r a m e t r i c t e s t s . . 1.  In a d d i t i o n to  S i d n e y S i e g e l , N o n p a r a m e t r i c S t a t i s t i c s f o r the B e h a v i o u r a l S c i e n c e s , (New York: M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., I n c . , 1 9 5 6 ) , P • 31 •'  61.  t h i s , the n o n - p a r a m e t r i c  t e s t s d i s p e n s e w i t h the  requirement  f o r measurement so s t r o n g as those found n e c e s s a r y i n p a r a metric  tests. The c h i - s q u a r e t e s t may  he employed to t e s t  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e s among i n d e p e n d e n t  the  groups,  when the d a t a i n the form o f f r e q u e n c i e s can be a l l o c a t e d to categories.  The c h i - s q u a r e t e c h n i q u e r e q u i r e s t h a t each'  observation  be o b t a i n e d i n such a manner t h a t i f the v a l u e  o f any one o b s e r v a t i o n i s known, i t i s not p o s s i b l e to make an  a p r i o r i p r e d i c t i o n o f the v a l u e o f any o t h e r o b s e r v a t i o n . I n o r d e r t h a t the c h i - s q u a r e t e s t can be a p p l i e d ,  t h e f r e q u e n c i e s w i l l have t o be a r r a n g e d i n the form o f a t a b l e as shown:'in T a b l e I I . ing  When data, i s c l a s s i f i e d  to two o r more a t t r i b u t e s , the t a b l e thus formed I s  g e n e r a l l y known as a c o n t i n g e n c y  table.  An  r  t i n g e n c y t a b l e i s made up o f a t a b l e p o s s e s s i n g k  accord-  by r  k  con-  rows and  columns. R e f e r r i n g to T a b l e I I , A  where  A  i s divided Into  k  and  B  a r e the two v a r l a t e s  c a t e g o r i e s and  B  into  r  categories. Let  Column headings Row  headings  = =  A, , A , A- ... A. ... 1 2' p j B-^, B , B- ... B^ ...  Observed c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s  0  2  =  0^ .  A, K  B  r  where s u b s c r i p t  r e p r e s e n t s the row and script  j  i sub-  represents the'  62.  TABLE I I .  r  by  k  A  2  CONTINGENCY TABLE  A  3  l  °u  °12  °13  B  2  °21  °22  °23  B  3  °31  °32  °33  B  •  i  B  °il  B  rl  r Column Total  n  .i  •  •  •  •  °2j  •  0  0  n  i2  O-  •  -z  o. .  •  Row Total  \  n  °lk  •  •  «  •  •  •  °2k  n  2.  °3k  n  3.  •  •  •  •  r2  °r3  .2  ".3  •  • •  •  n.  •  I .  i3  •  r  •  •  •  •  n  °rk  •  n  r. N  .k  column t o w h i c h the r e s p e c t i v e cell Row t o t a l o f observed  belongs.  f r e q u e n c i e s = n.  =  0.  E  1J  (3) Column t o t a l o f observed  frequencies = n . = E 0, ' i = l 10  (4)  3  T o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c e s  = N =  r En.  k = E  n  (50  63.  2.  Chi-square:  The acceptance  h y p o t h e s i s i s determined  or r e j e c t i o n of a s t a t i s t i c a l  on whether i t i s known about what t o  e x p e c t i f the h y p o t h e s i s i s t r u e .  To a c h i e v e t h i s , i t i s  n e c e s s a r y t o compute the f r e q u e n c y v a l u e s which w i l l e x p e c t e d i n the v a r i o u s c e l l s o r components o f an  be  r  by  k  c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e i f the h y p o t h e s i s of independence i s t r u e . Let d e f i n e d by the  E. . be the expected f r e q u e n c y f o r the i t h row and the  k th  column.  cell  This  expected f r e q u e n c y v a l u e can be determined by m u l t i p l y i n g  the  t o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c i e s by the p r o d u c t o f the p r o b a b i l i t y o f g e t t i n g a f r e q u e n c y i n t o the  i t h row and the p r o b a b i l i t y p  o f g e t t i n g a f r e q u e n c y f a l l i n g i n t o the i.  k t h column. i  two p r o b a b i l i t i e s can be denoted by  and  n  The  n  -j^-  respectively.  Therefore, n.  h  .  (n. ) ( n  .)  Thus, under the h y p o t h e s i s o f independence, the expected of the f r e q u e n c i e s ,  value  E. . , f o r any c e l l , can be computed as the  r e s u l t o f the p r o d u c t o f the row t o t a l , c e l l b e l o n g s and the column t o t a l ,  n.  , to which  n ., , t o w h i c h the  the cell  b e l o n g s and then d i v i d i n g by the t o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c i e s , N .  The  sum  o f the expected c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s f o r any row  column i s e q u a l t o the sum  or  o f the observed c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s f o r  t h a t c o r r e s p o n d i n g row o r column. 2.  The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s computation i s e x p l a i n e d i n John E. Preund, Modern Elementary S t a t i s t i c s , Second E d i t i o n , (Englewood C l i f f s ; N . J . , P r e n t i c e H a l l , I n c . , . 1 9 6 5 ) , PP- 272-281.  The  expected  c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s have been computed i n  o r d e r t o t e s t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s ,  H  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  The b a s i s upon w h i c h the  A  and  B .  O  , t h a t t h e r e i s no  d e c i s i o n i s made to a c c e p t o r r e j e c t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s w i l l d e t e r m i n e d by a comparison between the observed Q. . iJ  }  and the expected H  hypothesis,  q  c e l l frequencies,  , i s true.  cell  be  frequencies,  E. . , i f the n u l l ij  Depending upon the l e v e l  of  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the t e s t t h a t i s r e q u i r e d , i f the d i f f e r e n c e s between  0. .  and  E. .  a r e small,, t h i s w i l l i n d i c a t e the f a c t  t h a t the h u l l h y p o t h e s i s ,  H  Q  ,  s h o u l d be a c c e p t e d .  But  the o t h e r hand, i f the d i f f e r e n c e s between the f r e q u e n c i e s  on are  s u b s t a n t i a l , t h i s w i l l i n d i c a t e the f a c t t h a t the n u l l hypoH  thesis,  O  , s h o u l d be r e j e c t e d .  The v a r i a t i o n between the two s e t s o f f r e q u e n c i e s may  be s u b s t a n t i a l , b u t i t i s n e c e s s a r y  these d i f f e r e n c e s  may  t o determine whether  be a t t r i b u t e d by chance H  they show t h a t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t t h e r e i s a dependence between  A  q  or whether  , i s f a l s e w h i c h means  and  B .  The measure  o r c r i t e r i o n upon w h i c h the d e c i s i o n i s b a s e d can be  expressed  a l g e b r a i c a l l y as f o l l o w s : r  k  (0. . - E. . )  i=l  j=l  E. .  2  x = £ s -12 i i _ c  -....(7)  p  where  y.  = a s t a t i s t i c c a l l e d c h i - s q u a r e and i t s symbol i s the greek l e t t e r c h i w i t h the exponent  r k £ £ i=l j - l  2 .  = a double summation s i g n ' i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a l l c e l l s a r e i n c l u d e d i n the summation.  65.  There e x i s t s a t h e o r e t i c a l  d i s t r i b u t i o n which i s  c a l l e d the chi-square d i s t r i b u t i o n . of independence i s t r u e ,  I f the n u l l hypothesis  the r e s u l t i n g  sampling d i s t r i b u t i o n  agrees v e r y c l o s e l y w i t h t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l  distribution.  This  i s t h e r e a s o n why t h e name, c h i - s q u a r e , has been chosen as t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r t e s t i n g . t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s o f independence. The shape o f one on t h e t h e o r e t i c a l  chi-square distrbutions i s  as shown i n F i g u r e 1.  3-  Degrees o f Freedom:  The shape o f t h e c h i - s q u a r e  distri-  b u t i o n depends on the number o f degrees o f freedom o r t h e I n Figure 1,  number o f independent v a r i a t e s .  d i s t r i b u t i o n has 4 degrees o f freedom.  Y  this chi-square  indicates the  3  ordinate scale  of the curve.  The v a l u e s o f Y  f o r each  c h i - s q u a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n v a r i e s w i t h t h e number o f degrees o f freedom.  The f i g u r e  shows t h a t t h e c u r v e i s skex^ed t o t h e  r i g h t and t h e t e s t f o r t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , tailed test.  .05 .  i s equal to  i / .r(i|)  If  the r e j e c t i o n  region  (shaded)  When t h e number o f degrees o f freedom i s df-2  2  , i s a one-  .05 , then t h e a r e a  i s assumed as  under t h e c u r v e f a l l i n g w i t h i n  d f  Q  The a r e a under t h e c u r v e i s e q u a l t o one.  the l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e  Y «  H  (X ) 2  2  *f e" ,  •  2  2  where T i n d i c a t e s t h e gamma f u n c t i o n . From Quinn McNemar, P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t a t i s t i c s , Second E d i t i o n , (New York: John W i l e y and Sons, I n c . , 1 9 5 4 ) , pp. 2 1 8 - 2 1 9 .  67-  l a r g e , t h e r e s u l t a n t c\irve approximates  c l o s e l y t o a normal  curve. A t a b l e denoting the c r i t i c a l values of chi-square i s a v a i l a b l e , b y computing from t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c h i - s q u a r e 4 distribution . T h i s t a b l e has two s c a l e s , t h e v e r t i c a l s c a l e showing t h e number o f degrees o f freedom and t h e h o r i z o n t a l s c a l e i n d i c a t i n g t h e p r o b a b i l i t y under t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , p  H  Q  x  > that  i s g r e a t e r o r equal to chi-square.  I t has  been c o n s i d e r e d an u n u s u a l o c c u r r a n c e t h a t a problem  should  i n v o l v e more than t h i r t y degrees o f freedom.  2 When  x  i s computed b y an  r  b y k  contingency  t a b l e , t h e e q u a t i o n used t o compute t h e number o f degrees o f freedom i s df = ( r - l ) ( k - 1 )  (8)  I t c a n be shown t h a t , s i n c e t h e sum o f t h e e x p e c t e d  cell  f r e q u e n c i e s o f any row o r column must be e q u a l t o t h e sum o f the observed c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s f o r t h a t row o r column, t h e n , i n an  r  by  k  contingency t a b l e , i f  ( r - l ) ( k - l ) of the  expected c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s have been computed, a l l t h e r e m a i n i n g E- • may be o b t a i n e d b y s u b t r a c t i n g , , from t h e t o t a l s o f t h e rows and t h e columns. of  r  cells.  rows and k  columns has  ( r - l ) ( k - 1 ) independent  S u b j e c t t o ..the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed b y t h e problem, t h e  independent 4.  I n g e n e r a l , a c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e composed  c e l l s p o s s e s s freedom t o take on any v a l u e s .  See T a b l e XXIV i n t h e Appendix..  When  68.  a p r o b l e m has a l a r g e r number o f independent c e l l s , t h e r e a r e more chances f o r random s a m p l i n g v a r i a t i o n s t o t a k e p l a c e . W i t h the number o f the c e l l s t h a t can f l u c t u a t e  independently  o f the o t h e r s b e i n g i n c r e a s e d , t h e r e , is. more leeway f o r f l u c t u a t i o n s i n random s a m p l i n g t o be i n c l u d e d i n the o p e r a t i o n . Allowance  f o r t h i s has been t a k e n i n t o account  the c r i t i c a l  i n computing  v a l u e s f o r c h i - s q u a r e mentioned p r e v i o u s l y . o  4.  The C r i t e r i o n f o r  X :  l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n between  I f there e x i s t s  the observed  frequencies, their difference r e l a t i v e l y small.  relatively  and the expected  ( 0 . . - E. •)  x  and  cell  will  be  I f there e x i s t s a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e  v a r i a t i o n between the observed and the expected c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s 2 2 t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e and x w i l l be l a r g e . Small values of x w i l l s u p p o r t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , H , w h i l e l a r g e v a l u e s o f Q  X  2  w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to i t s r e j e c t i o n .  Whether the  X  2  l a r g e enough to r e j e c t o r s u p p o r t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s ,  is H  Q  ,  w i l l be b a s e d on the c h i - s q u a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n and the l e v e l o f significance required. F o r example, suppose t h a t the l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , a = .05 H  o  i s r e q u i r e d i n the  test.  The n u l l  hypothesis,  , can be t e s t e d w i t h the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i o n : 2  R e j e c t the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s , x 05  than if  x  2  1 S  anc  ^  a c c e  Pt  H  , i f  X  i s greater  the h y p o t h e s i s ( o r r e s e r v e judgement)  l e s s than o r e q u a l to  2  x 05  '  69x  When  x  i s g r e a t e r than  , the v a r i a t i o n  between the observed and expected c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s a r e too l a r g e t o be due t o chance a l o n e .  The p r e s u m p t i o n can be  made t h a t the sample f r e q u e n c i e s have been drawn from a.popu l a t i o n where the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b e i n g s t u d i e d a r e n o t i n d e pendent o f each o t h e r .  I t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t a r e l a t i o n -  2 A  s h i p e x i s t s between  and  B .  x  When  i s l e s s than o r  2 x 05  equal to  3  ^  n e  n u  H  hypothesis,  H  q  , cannot be  rejected.,  The v a r i a t i o n between the o b s e r v e d and e x p e c t e d c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s may be a t t r i b u t e d t o chance.  There i s much l i k e l i h o o d t h a t  the observed sample r e l a t i o n s h i p s  a r e n o t h i n g more t h a n t h a t  caused by random s a m p l i n g v a r i a t i o n .  Judgement can be  r e s e r v e d o r i t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e i s no between  A  and  relationship  B . p  I n c a x r y i n g out the  x  t e s t , t h e r e i s one  require-  ment t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y t o ensure t h a t the t e s t i s n o t l e s s  2 meaningful.  The  x  s a m p l i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n has been form-  u l a t e d t o approach c l o s e l y the t h e o r e t i c a l c h i - s q u a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n from w h i c h the tables, a r e c o m p l i e d .  Thus, i t i s  i m p o r t a n t t h a t the t e s t s h o u l d n o t be used when the e x p e c t e d c e l l frequencies are very small.  A r u l e o f thumb, c o n s i d e r e d  r e l a t i v e l y s a f e and used by many s t a t i s t i c i a n s , i s t o use the  x  2 c r i t e r i o n when none o f the e x p e c t e d c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s  i s l e s s than  2  5 .  A more s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i o n f o r the  x  t e s t has- been recommended t h a t when the number o f degrees  of  freedom, d f . i s g r e a t e r than 1 , then fewer than 20 p e r c e n t of the c e l l s s h o u l d p o s s e s s an e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c y o f l e s s than  70.  5•, and no c e l l s h o u l d p o s s e s s 5 than 1.  an expected f r e q u e n c y o f l e s s  There a r e a l s o o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s and  requirements  p  x  n e c e s s a r y f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the use t o he v a l i d .  analysis for i t s  These i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g :  1.  The  sample o b s e r v a t i o n s must be independent o f each o t h e r .  2.  The  sample o b s e r v a t i o n s must be drawn a t random from the  a r e a o r p o p u l a t i o n sampled. 3.  The  d a t a must be e x p r e s s e d i n o r i g i n a l u n i t s and n o t i n  percentage In  or r a t i o  form.  t h i s s t u d y , the two . v a r i a b l e s , the l e v e l o f a u t o -  m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y and the p r o p e n s i t y to s t r i k e a r e each d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s c o n t a i n i n g h i g h , medium and attributes.  The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s ,  t h r e e by t h r e e c o n t i n g e n c y  H  Q  low  , w i l l be t e s t e d on a  table possessing  (3-1)(3-1) = 4  degrees o f freedom.  5.  The  Contingency  Coefficient, C :  A f t e r i t has been shown  t h a t a c o r r e l a t i o n between the two q u a l i t a t i v e v a r i a b l e s meet 2  the l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e r e q u i r e d by employing c r i t e r i o n , i t i s necessary  the  x  t o o b t a i n an i n d i c a t i o n o f the  strength of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p .  The measure o f the s t r e n g t h  o f a s s o c i a t i o n o r c o r r e l a t i o n between two s e t s o f a t t r i b u t e s 5.  W i l l i a m G. Cochran, "Some Methods f o r S t r e n g t h e n i n g the Common x t e s t s " , i n B i o m e t r i c s , V o l . 10, 1954, pp. 418-420. 2  71.  can be determined by employing  o  the contingency  coefficient,  5  When t h e two v a r i a b l e s p o s s e s s a g r e a t e r degree o f a s s o c i a t i o n , then a h i g h e r v a l u e o f  C  i s derived.  The  degree o f a s s o c i a t i o n can be computed from a c o n t i n g e n c y  table  o f the f r e q u e n c i e s by u s i n g the formula  Contingency  coefficient,  C =  (9)  — X +N  The  symbols used i n t h i s f o r m u l a a r e s i m i l a r t o those used i n  the  r  by  k  contingency table discussed e a r l i e r .  F o r c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e s t h a t have a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number o f rows a,nd columns, t h e c o n t i n g e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t ,  C ,  i s s i m i l a r to the o r d i n a r y c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i n the respect t h a t they have v a l u e s c l o s e t o 1  and c l o s e t o  0  when t h e r e i s no c o r r e l a t i o n  when t h e a s s o c i a t i o n i s s t r o n g .  There I s a  l i m i t a t i o n t o t h i s s i m i l a r i t y when the c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e r e l a t i v e l y , few rows and columns.  possess  When t h e r e i s an e q u a l  number o f rows and columns i n a c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e ,  r = k .  Then, Upper l i m i t o f  (10)  C = M  is.  I n a t h r e e by t h r e e c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e , of  = 0.8l6  .  gency c o e f f i c i e n t , 6.  v  C  has a maximum v a l u e  The f a c t t h a t t h e upper l i m i t o f t h e c o n t i n C , i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s  S i e g e l , op. c i t . , pp. 1 9 6 - 2 0 2 .  imposes a l i m i t a t i o n on t h e comparison o f two  contingency  c o e f f i c i e n t s u n l e s s I t i s ensured t h a t they have been d e r i v e d from c o n t i n g e n c y The determining  t a b l e s of the same s i z e .  contingency  coefficient,  C , i s applicable i n  the s t r e n g t h o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between two  o f a t t r i b u t e s r e g a r d l e s s o f the shape o f the p o p u l a t i o n  sets they  have been d e r i v e d from, whether the v a r i a b l e s are c o n t i n u o u s o r d i s c r e t e , and whether they are o r d e r a b l e o r not. and  the ease of c o m p u t a t i o n s has C o n t r i b u t e d  This,  to i t s a p p l i c -  ation.  6.  A n a l y s i s of the Data:  (a.)  L e v e l of A u t o m a t i o n i n I n d u s t r y .  i s n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r P e r i o d 1,  Process c o n t r o l data 2,  but i s a v a i l a b l e f o r P e r i o d  s i n c e the d a t a has been r e p o r t e d i n 19S5.  Data on the  percent-  age o f e l e c t r o n i c computers by i n d u s t r y group t h a t were opera t i o n a l p r i o r t o 1959  and p r i o r to 1965  i s a v a i l a b l e , i n the  form o f age of o p e r a t i n g e l e c t r o n i c computers. I t i s assumed t h a t the p e r c e n t a g e o f  operating  e l e c t r o n i c computers i s d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l to the a p p l i c a t i o n of p r o c e s s c o n t r o l by u s i n g e l e c t r o n i c computers f o r each p o i n t i n time.  Therefore,  P  - 'l959 C  =  °*°'1959  oTc^"^  x  p  - -1965 c  /  ....(ll)  \  73.  where  P.C. = a p p l i c a t i o n of p r o c e s s c o n t r o l u s i n g e l e c t r o n i c computers ( p e r c e n t ) O.C. = o p e r a t i n g e l e c t r o n i c computers ( p e r c e n t ) .  The  subscript  denotes the y e a r t h a t i s a p p l i c a b l e .  o f the c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r The p e r c e n t a g e 1965  P.  0 . - ^ 5 0 ,  a  r  e  The r e s u l t s  shown i n Table  Ilia.  f i g u r e f o r o p e r a t i n g e l e c t r o n i c computers f o r  i s 100 percent. I n the computation  industry,  o f the l e v e l o f automation i n  the i n d u s t r i e s a r e ranked i n d e s c e n d i n g  order u s i n g  the p r o c e s s c o n t r o l f i g u r e s f o r 1 9 5 9 t h a t have been computed. On i n s p e c t i o n  o f the d a t a , i t i s n o t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e s i x  i n d u s t r i e s showing z e r o v a l u e s f o r a p p l i c a t i o n  o f process  control.  T h i s i s about one t h i r d t h e t o t a l number o f i n d u s t r i e s  studied.  I f the i n d u s t r i e s w i t h z e r o v a l u e s a r e a l l o c a t e d t o  the l o w c a t e g o r y , then i n d u s t r i e s a l l o c a t e d t o the h i g h c a t e g o r y have a p p l i c a t i o n 3.5  and  o f p r o c e s s c o n t r o l v a l u e s between  ( - ~ °) 3  5  2  =  1.75 •  The i n d u s t r i e s a l l o c a t e d t o the medium c a t e g o r y h a v e - a p p l i c ation-  o f p r o c e s s c o n t r o l v a l u e s between 1 . 7 5 and z e r o , as  shown i n T a b l e  Ilia.  An a l t e r n a t i v e method o f a l l o c a t i n g i n d u s t r i e s t o each c a t e g o r y b y means o f v a l u e s o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r o c e s s c o n t r o l f a l l i n g w i t h i n the o n e - t h i r d  range o f the maximum and  minimum v a l u e s have been computed as shown i n T a b l e Industries  Illb.  f a l l i n g w i t h i n each c a t e g o r y s h o u l d possess t h e  74.  TABLE I l i a .  COMPUTATION OF LEVEL OF AUTOMATION IN INDUSTRY - PERIOD 1. Process Control 1965 (percent)  Industry  Level of R a t i o o f OperProcess Automation a t i n g E l e c . Comp. C o n t r o l i n Industry 1 9 5 9 t o Operat1959 i n g E l e c . Comp. (percent) 1965  P e t r o l e u m and C o a l Products  50  7 100  3.5  Mining  52  5 100  2.5  E l e c t r i c a l Machinery  27  7 100  1.89  Chemicals  21  7 100  1.47  24  1.44  Stone, C l a y and G l a s s  6  Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment  . 8  10 100  0.8  Machinery  23  . 3 100  0.68  3 100  0.51  3 100  0.39  1 100  O.28  Fabricated and  Metals  Instruments  Nonferrous Metals  17 13.  100  28 15  1 100  0.15  I r o n and S t e e l  58  0 100  0  0  loo  0  24.  0 100  0  Rubber  25  0 100  0  0  0 100  0  28  0 100  Textiles Source:  Cutoff "point r  Paper and Pulp  Food and. Beverages  Cutoff Point  Medium  Misc. Manufacturing A u t o s , Trucks and Parts  Aerospace  High  Low  C o n t r o l E n g i n e e r i n g , V o l . 1 2 , NO, 4 , A p r i l 1 9 6 5 , pp. 6 7 , 6 ;  75.  f o l l o w i n g range o f v a l u e s o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r o c e s s c o n t r o l : H i g h C a t e g o r y = 3 . 5 t o ( 3 - 5 - ' , f °) 3  Medium C a t e g o r y Low  = 2.33 to (2.33 -  C a t e g o r y = 1.17  = 2.33  5  °)  =1.17  to zero.  When T a b l e I l l b i s examined, i t c a n be seen t h a t  approximately  t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e major group and subgroup i n d u s t r i e s  fall  w i t h i n the low category, a l a r g e concentration of i n d u s t r y groups i n a s i n g l e c a t e g o r y . For P e r i o d  2, computation f o r the a l l o c a t i o n o f  i n d u s t r i e s t o each c a t e g o r y u s i n g t h e o n e - t h i r d shown i n T a b l e I I I c .  Industries  range i s  f a l l i n g w i t h i n each c a t e g o r y  s h o u l d p o s s e s s t h e f o l l o w i n g range o f v a l u e s o f a p p l i c a t i o n of p r o c e s s c o n t r o l : H i g h C a t e g o r y = 58 t o (58 - ° V 5  Medium C a t e g o r y = 3 8 . 6 7  to (38.67  °)  = 38.67  - —- —;) 1  =19-34  Lovr C a t e g o r y = 1 9 . 3 4 t o z e r o . I t must be n o t e d t h a t t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  of the  i n d u s t r i e s t o t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y has been d e r i v e d  from d a t a a p p l i c a b l e  f o r that period.  In certain  c a s e s , i t may be argued t h a t c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i e s may have been misplaced i n the d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s . ;  I n the e a r l y stages  o f the a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r o c e s s c o n t r o l u s i n g e l e c t r o n i c computers, snags a r e p l e n t i f u l and thus making t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n n o t so  76.  COMPUTATION OP LEVEL OP AUTOMATION IN INDUSTRY USING ALTERNATIVE CUTOFF POINTS - PERIOD 1.  TABLE I I l b .  Process C o n t r o l  Industry-  1959  (percent)  Petroleum Products  and C o a l  L e v e l of Automation In Industry  3-5  High 2.6  Mining  1.89  Cutoff Point  Chemicals  1.47  Medium  Stone,  1.44  Electrical  Machinery  C l a y and G l a s s  Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment  0.8  Machinery  0.69  F a b r i c a t e d M e t a l s and Instruments  0.51  Nonferrous  0.39  Misc.  Metals  Manufacturing  0.28  A u t o s , Trucks and parts  0.15  I r o n and S t e e l  0  Aerospace  0  Paper and P u l p  0  Rubber  0  Food and Beverages  0  Textiles  0  Source:  Cutoff Point  Low  C o n t r o l E n g i n e e r i n g , V o l . 1 2 , No. 4 , A p r i l pp. 67 and 6 9 .  1965,  77. COMPUTATION OF LEVEL OF AUTOMATION IN  TABLE I I I c .  INDUSTRY - PERIOD 2 . Process C o n t r o l  Industry  1965  (percent)  I r o n and S t e e l  58  Mining  52  Petroleum Products  and C o a l  50  Aerospace  46  Textiles  28  Misc.  28  Manufacturing  Electrical  Machinery  27  Rubber  25  Paper and P u l p  24  Machinery  23  Chemicals  21  F a b r i c a t e d M e t a l s and Instruments  17  A u t o s , Trucks and Parts  15  Nonferrous  13  Metals  L e v e l o f Automation In I n d u s t r y  High  Cutoff Point  Medium  Cutoff Point  loy7  Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment  8  Stone, C l a y and G l a s s  6  Food and Beverages  Source:  C o n t r o l E n g i n e e r i n g , V o l . 1 2 , No. 4, A p r i l 1 9 6 5 , P- 6 9 .  78.  effective.  One o f these i n d u s t r i e s i s p u l p and paper.  It  7  has been r e p o r t e d some i n i t i a l  1  that i n this industry, during Period  t e e t h i n g t r o u b l e s have o c c u r r e d i n the use o f  e l e c t r o n i c computers f o r p r o c e s s c o n t r o l . at  2,  I t appeared  l e a s t 2 o f the e a r l y o p e r a t o r s o f e l e c t r o n i c computer  have t a k e n then out o f o p e r a t i o n .  Once these  that systems  difficulties  have been s t r a i g h t e n e d o u t , t h e r e i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t the i n d u s t r i e s w i l l be p l a c e d i n the c o r r e c t c a t e g o r y , b u t these changes w i l l o n l y be made a f t e r P e r i o d 2 when the d a t a i n d i c ates  this.  (b)  P r o p e n s i t y to S t r i k e :  S t a t i s t i c a l data f o r P e r i o d s 1 g  and 2 on a n n u a l work stoppages  and annual average p r o d u c t i o n  worker employment l e v e l s f o r major group i n d u s t r i e s can be e x t r a c t e d d i r e c t l y from the p u b l i c a t i o n s o f the U.S.  Bureau  of L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s .  E x t r a computations are n e c e s s a r y f o r  g r o u p i n g s o f sub-group  i n d u s t r i e s or p a i r e d g r o u p i n g o f major  group i n d u s t r i e s • w h e r e the d a t a i s comprised o f an r a t h e r than a s i n g l e u n i t .  aggregate  The computations f o r i n d u s t r y  groups comprised o f g r o u p i n g s o f sub-group  i n d u s t r i e s or  p a i r e d g r o u p i n g s o f major group i n d u s t r i e s i s shown i n the following  tables: T a b l e IV.  I r o n and  Steel  Data f o r the i r o n and s t e e l i n d u s t r y i s d e r i v e d from  7.  U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department o f L a b o r , Bureau of L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , B u l l e t i n No. 1474, o p . , c i t . , p. 1 6 2 .  8.  Data on annual work stoppages f o r sub-group i n d u s t r i e s f o r 1951 and 1954 i s not a v a i l a b l e i n the l o c a l l i b r a r i e s .  79.  TABLE IV.  IRON AND STEEL  P r o d u c t i o n Workers ( i n thousands)  Year  B l a s t Furnaces, S t e e l works and Basic Steel Products  I r o n and Steel S t e e l £ Columns Found. ( l ) a n d ( 2 ) Iron  and  (2)  (1)  Work Stoppages ( i n thousands o f man-days) B l a s t Furnaces, S t e e l works and Basic Steel Products  (3)  (4)  Iron and Steel Found.  I r o n and Steel 2 Columns (4)and(5)  (5)  (6)  n. a.  n. a.  1951  620.2  237 . 3  857.5  n. a.  1952  541.5  226.1  767.6  20,400  623  21,023  1953  620.4  217.5  837.9  522  462  984  1954  546.1  182.5  728.6  1955  604.5  201.8  806.3  1956  595.4  211.2  1957  600.1  1958  n. a.  n. a.  759  243  1,002  806.6  11,300  292  11,592  201.0  801.1  436  200  opo  436.5  162.7  649.2  198  347  545  1959  470.9  181.5  652.4  36,600  590  37,190  i960  528.4  173-3  701.7  472  54l  1,013  1961  478.4  150 • O  635.0  224  162  386  1962  476.3  163.7  64o.O  195  216  411 .  1963  479.1  168.3  647.3 .  285  128  4l3  1964  515.8  181.7.  697.5  181  316  497  1965  54l  193  734  342  513  855  Source:  n.a.  n. a.  U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department o f ' L a b o r , Bureau o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , B u l l e t i n s on A n a l y s i s o f Work Stoppages and Employment and E a r n i n g s S t a t i s t i c s f o r the U n i t e d States'. •  = not a v a i l a b l e .  80.  TABLE V.  N0NPERR0US METALS  P r o d u c t i o n Workers ( i n thousands)  Year  Primary Iron Nonferrous Metal and Metals I n d u s t r i e s S t e e l Column ( l ) minus Column ( 2 ) (1)  (2)  (3)  1951  1,175.1  857.5  1952  1,084.7  1953  Work Stoppages ( i n thousands o f man-days) Primary Iron Metal and Industries Steel  Nonferrous metals• Column ( 4 ) minus Column ( 5 ) (6)  (4)  (5)  317.6  n. a.  n. a.  767.6  317 • 1  23,000  21,023  1,977  1,172.6  837.9  334.7  1,510  984  526  1954  1,017.9  728.6  289.3  1955  1,115.8  8O0.3  309.5  1,570  1,002  568  1956  1,131.6  806.6  325.0  12,700  11,592  1,108  1957  1,117.9  801.1  316.8  1,150  636  514  1958  928.0  649.2  278.8  711  545  166  1959  953.8  652.4  301.4  39,000  37,190  1,810  i960  993.8  701.7  292.1  1,880  1,013  1961  914.6  635.0  279.6  oo5  386  279  1962  937 . 3  640.0  297.3  872  4ll  461  1963  947.4  647  300.1  637  413  . 224  1964  1,003.6  697.5  306.1  1,010  497  513  1965  1,057.8  734 '  323.8 .  1,390  855  535  Source:  n.a.  .3  n. a.  n. a.  n. a.  n. a.  867  U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department o f L a b o r , Bureau o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , B u l l e t i n s on A n a l y s i s o f Work Stoppages and Employment and E a r n i n g s S t a t i s t i c s f o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  = not a v a i l a b l e .  81. TABLE V I .  AUTOS, TRUCKS AND PARTS; TRANSPORTATION  AND OTHER  EQUIPMENT  P r o d u c t i o n workers  Year  AEROSPACE,.  ( i n thousands)  Work Stoppages  T r a n s p o r t - Autos, Trucks Aerospace Other Trans- T r a n s p o r t ation and P a r t s . (Aircraft portation ation Equipment (Motor and P a r t s ) Equipment Equipment V e h i c l e s and Column ( l ) Equipment) minus Columns (2) and (3)  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  1951  1,213.1  681.8  348.4  182.9  1952  1,331.4  618.7  495.4  1953  1,542.9  739.4  1954  1,331.4  1955  (5)  ( i n thousands o f man-days)  [Autos, Trucks Aerospace Other T r a n s and P a r t s . (Aircraft portation (Motor and P a r t s ) Equipment V e h i c l e s and Column (5) (Equipment) minus Columns (6) and (7)  ; (6)  (7)  n.a.  n. a»  n. a.  217-3  2,230  684  927  586.2  217.3  2,730  781  601.5  560.2  169.7  n.a.  n.a.  l,4l4.l  718.3  525.5  170.3  1,910  1,210  403.  . '297  1956  1,364.3  619.5  561.0  183.8  1,800  495  1,040  .265  1957  1,395.0  ; 601.7  591.4  201.9  1,170  860  1958  1,120.6  452.5  491.9  176.2  4,310  3,870  308  132  1959  1,163.4  537.5  445.7  180.2  1,390  367  312  711  i960  . 1,107.4  563.3..  369.6  174.5  3,550  487  1,190  1,873  1961  992.7  479.1  347.7  165.9  2,500  2,240  •19.6 2  1,059.9  534.O  349.1  176.8  1,410  650  1963  1,112.3  573.6  350.8  187.9  678  523  1964  1,119-6  579.2  •338.6  201.8  6,410  5,920  160  330  1965  1,238.1  659.5  357.0  221.6  2,630  868  946  816  Source:  .  U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department o f Labor, Bureau o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , B u l l e t i n s on A n a l y s i s o f Work Stoppages and, Employment and E a r n i n g s S t a t i s t i c s f o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  ii.a. - not available.  1,350 n. a.  88.2  35.6 555 53.7  (8) n.a.  '  619 599 n.a.  221.8  224.4 205 101.3  82.  TABLE V I I .  FABRICATED METALS AND INSTRUMENTS  P r o d u c t i o n Workers ( i n thousands) Year  Fabricated Metal Products:  InstruFabricated ments and M e t a l s , and Instruments Related Products Columns ( 1 ) and ( 2 )  Work Stoppages ( i n thousands o f man-days) InstruFabricated Fabricments, and M e t a l s and ated Related Metal Instruments Products Products Columns (.4) and ( 5 )  (1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  1951  883.O  222. 5  1,105.3  1,500  127  1,427  1952  859.4  255.2  1,092.6  2,450  297  2,727  1953  937-4  249.8  1,187,2  1,690  246  •1,956  1954  851.1  251.0  1,082.1  1,200  145  1,345  1955  897.8  229.6  1,127-4  1,590  694  2,284  1956  900.7  256.1  1,136.8  1,420  134  1,554  1957  915.2  255.1  1,146.5  715  202  915  1958  824.5  214.8  1,039.5  1,220  235  1,455  1959  868.5  250.5  1,098.8  5,150  158  5,508  i960  874.5  252.6  1,106.9  579  1961  826.0  225.I  1,049.1  1,130  1962  865.7  229.1  1,092.8  1963  881.6  252.5  1954  914.0  1965.  982.4 Source:  (5).  94.8  (6)  675.8  170  1,500  651  4l8  1,059  1,115-9  516  122  658  254.0  1,148.0  1,550  170  1,720  247.5  1,229.7  1,430  109  1,559  U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department o f L a b o r , Bureau o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , B u l l e t i n s on A n a l y s i s o f Work Stoppages and Enployment and E a r n i n g s S t a t i s t i c s f o r the United States.  .  83.  the aggregate o f two sub-group  industries.  One  consists of  b l a s t f u r n a c e s , s t e e l w o r k s and b a s i c s t e e l p r o d u c t s and the o t h e r o f i r o n and s t e e l f o u n d r i e s . T a b l e V.  Nonferrous metals.  The p r i m a r y m e t a l i n d u s t r i e s a r e composed o f the sub-group  i n d u s t r i e s , i r o n and s t e e l , and n o n f e r r o u s . m e t a l s .  Data, on nonf e r r o u s m e t a l s i s o b t a i n e d as the r e s i d u a l from the p r i m a r y m e t a l i n d u s t r i e s a f t e r the v a l u e s f o r the i r o n and s t e e l i n d u s t r y have been deducted.  The n o n f e r r o u s m e t a l  i n d u s t r y c o n s i s t s o f p r i m a r y and secondary s m e l t i n g , r e f i n i n g , r o l l i n g , drawing and a l l o y i n g o f n o n f e r r o u s m e t a l s , nonf e r r o u s f o u n d r i e s and m i s c e l l a n e o u s p r i m a r y m e t a l i n d u s t i e s . Table VI.  A u t o s , T r u c k s and P a r t s ;  Aerospace  and Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment. The major gro\ip i n d u s t r y , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment, c o n s i s t s o f the sub-group  industries  a u t o s , t r u c k s and p a r t s ;  a e r o s p a c e , and other, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment.  Data f o r  a u t o s , t r u c k s and p a r t s , and aerospace can be r e c o r d e d d i r e c t l y from the s o u r c e s o f the d a t a .  The d a t a on o t h e r  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment i s computed as the r e s i d u a l from the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment major group i n d u s t r y a f t e r the v a l u e s f o r a u t o s , t r u c k s and p a r t s , and aerospace have been deducted.  The o t h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n equipment i n d u s t r y  con-  s i s t s o f s h i p and b o a t b u i l d i n g and r e p a i r i n g , and r a i l r o a d equipment.  84. TABLE V i l l a .  PRODUCTION WORKERS EMPLOYED IN INDUSTRY DURING YEAR - PERIOD 1.  1952  1951  1953  19!54  1955  1956  Production Production Production Production Production Ranking Workers Workers Ranking Workers Ranking Workers Ranking Workers Ranking  Industry-  (1000)  (1000) 858  I r o n and S t e e l  318  Nonferrous M e t a l s  1,130  6 14  3  (1000)  768  7  838  317 1,164  14  335  (1000)  6  729  14  289  14  2  1,183  3  1,046  3  806 310  6  1958  1959  Production Production Production Production Workers Ranking Workers Ranking Workers Ranking Workers Ranking  (1000)  6  1957  (1000) 807  !  14  325  (1000)  6 14  (1000)  801 317  6  649  279 946  3  1,027  857  4  969  3 4  3  1,159  2  1,143  5  975  4  959  5 3 4  x  (1000)  6 14  652 301  6 14  866  5 .  909  5  1,029  5  884  5  1,069 924  Autos, Trucks and P a r t s  682  8  619  8  8  602  8  718  7  620  8  602  8  453  12  538  8  Aerospace  348  12  495  10  739 586  9  560  9  526  9  561  9  591  9  492  9  446  12  Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment  183  16  217  16  217  16  170  16  170  16  184  16  202  16  176  16  180  16  1,105  4  1,093  3  1,187  2  1,082  2  1,127  2  1,137  3  1,145  2  2  503  10  506  9  523  10  503  10  518  10  526  IP  519  10  8  1,099 506  2  Chemicals  1,039 494  Paper and Pulp  435  11  422  12  443  12  44l  12  454  9  12  465  12  463  12  454  11  472  11  Rubber  271  15  270  15  288  257  15  290  15  264  290  480  11 .  15  494  464  495  15  9  15 11  291  507  15 11  288  Stone, C l a y and G l a s s  15 11  507  11  493  11  458  10  496  10  Petroleum and C o a l Products  173  17  169  17  173  17  167  17  163  17 ;  161  17  157  17  147  l4o  1,338  1,331  1  1,330  1  1,297  1  1,292  1  17  Food and Beverages  1  17  1,302  1  1,263  1  1,222  1  1,222  Textiles  1,146  2  1,073  4  1,064  1  4  953  4  962  4  944  5  893  5  833  5  857  5  346  13  333  13 6  357  13  327  13  330  13  333  13  315  14  300  13  13  701  7  695  7  611  7  313 590  Machinery Electrical  Machinery  F a b r i c a t e d M e t a l s and Instruments  Misc. Manufacturing  840  Mining Source:  7  801  765  7  U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department o f Labor, Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s , B u l l e t i n on Employment and E a r n i n g s S t a t i s t i c s f o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  686  7  680  1  8 j  7  85. TABLE V H I b .  PRODUCTION WORKERS EMPLOYED IN INDUSTRY DURING YEAR PERIOD 2.  I960  1963  1964  1965  Production Production Production Production Production Production Workers Ranking Workers Ranking Workers Ranking Workers Ranking Workers Ranking Workers Ranking (1000) (1000) (1000) (1000) (1000) (1000)  Industry  702  6  635  6  640  6  647  6  697  6  734  6  292  15  280  15  297  15  300  15  306  15  324  15  1,036  3  976  4  1,038  4  1,059  3  1,120  3  1,208  2  996  4  979  3  1,051  3  1,034  4  1,037  4  1,140  4  Autos, Trucks and Parts  563  8  479  9  534  7  574  7  579  7  660  7  Aerospace  370  12  348  12  349  12  351  12  339  12  357  13  Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment  175  16  166  16  177  16  188  16  202  16  222  16  1,107  2  1,049  2  1,093  2  1,114  2  1,148  2  1,230  1  Chemicals  510  9  505  8  519  8  525  8  529  8  545  8  Paper and Pulp  480  11  478  10  486  10  486  10  489  11  499  10  Rubber  293  14  288  14  317  13  323  13  336  13  367  12  Stone, C l a y and G l a s s  492  10  469  11  478  11  484  11  494  10  504  9  Petroleum and C o a l Products  138  17  130  17  126  17  120  17  114  17  112  17  Food and Beverages  1,212  1  1,190  1  .1,178  1  1,167  1  1,157  1  1,155  3  : I r o n and S t e e l Nonferrous M e t a l s Machinery Electrical  Machinery  F a b r i c a t e d M e t a l s and Instruments  r  1962  1961  Textiles  835  5  805  5  812  5  793  5  798  5  823  5  Misc. Manufacturing  314  13  304  13  313  14  310  14  318  14  33T  14  Mining  570  7  532  7  512  9  498  9  497  9  492  11  Source:  U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department o f Labor,  Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s ,  Bulletin  on Employment and Earnings S t a t i s t i c s I  1  ir  •- • *  • —•  f o r t h e U.S.  8 6.  WORK STOPPAGES OCCURRING IN INDUSTRY DURING YEAR  TABLE IXa.  PERIOD 1.  1951 Work Stoppages  (1000  Industry  man-days)  195£>  Work Ranking Stoppages  (1000  1954  1953  Work Ranking Stoppages  (1000  man-days)  Work Ranking Stoppages  (1000  man-days)  man-days)  I r o n and S t e e l  n. a.  21,023  1  984  6  Nonferrous M e t a l s  n. a.  1,977  5  526  12  3  2,150  1 3  Machinery Electrical  Machinery  3,370  3,990  1,040  1,180  7  1,620  1955 Work Ranking Stoppages  (1000  1956 Work v Ranking Stoppages  (1000  irian-days)  Work Ranking Stoppages  (1000  man-days)  1959 Work Ranking Stoppages  (1000  man-days]  Ranking  man-days]  7  11,592  1  636  5  545  7  37,190  1  568  10  1,108  6  514  8  166  12  1,810  6  1,350  3,800  1  3,630  2  1,380  1  2,760  2  2,820  4  1,010  3,300  2  3,050  3  785  4  1,030  5  820  9  1,210  5  495  11  860  3  3,870  1  367  14  1,040  7  88  17  308  9  312  15  15  222  14  132  16  711  10  4  915  2  1,453  3  3,308  3  381  10  318  8  422  13  252  11  442  12  n. a.  684  14  781  9  n.a.  Aerospace  n. a.  927  10  1,350  4  n. a.  403  13  Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment  n. a.  619  16  599  10  n.a.  297  14  2,727  4  1,936  (1000  1958  1,002  n.a.  n. a.  1,427  Work Ranking Stoppages  man-days)  Autos, Trucks and P a r t s  F a b r i c a t e d M e t a l s and Instruments  1957  265.  2  1,345  2,284  y  1,554  159  634  9  399  197  15  233  16  256  11  Chemicals  201  621  15  825  8  Paper and Pulp  494  815  12  222  16  77  Rubber  700  912  11  493  13  1,620  490  12  580  9  420  9  147  13  1,930  13  316  14  300  5  231  810  495  11  994  8  614  6  1,200  4  1,230  8  Petroleum and C o a l Products  56  1,110  8  105  17  50  51  17  174  17  233  13  14  550  11  Food and Beverages  819  1,250  6'  1,210  5  694  974  8  513-  10  574  7  661  6  3,490  1,070  9  593  11  573  1,400  4  426  12  212  15  111  17  229  16  17  280  15  186  191  16  295  14  201  16  141  14  846  7  179  845  1,080  17  5  240  12  302  10  5,650  2  Stone, C l a y and G l a s s  Textiles Misc. Manufacturing  195 1,290  Mining Source:  •224  4,310  2  U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department o f Labor, Bureau o f Labor B u l l e t i n s on A n a l y s i s o f Work Stoppages.  Statistics,  6  1,320  .  141 -  1,720  n.a. = n o t a v a i l a b l e  7  87. (  "'  '  TABLE IXb.  WORK STOPPAGES OCCURRING IN INDUSTRY DURING YEAR PERIOD 2.  i  .  .  '  .  .  .  I960  •  1961  1962  1964  1963  1965  Work Work Work Work Work Work Stoppages Ranking Stoppages Ranking Stoppages Ranking Stoppages Ranking Stoppages Ranking Stoppages Ranking (1000 (1000 (1000 (1000 (1000 (1000 man-days) man-days) man-days) man-days) man-days) man-days)  Industry  1,013  5  386  8  867  6  279  12  Machinery  1,240  3  1,240  E l e c t r i c a l Machinery  1,260  2  487  Aerospace Other Transportation Equipment  12  413  10  497  9  855  7  .461  10  224  12  513  8  535  12  3  1,200  1  845  2  1,140  3  1,870  1  716  4  631  6  835  3  859  5  795  10  10  2,240  1  650  5  523  5  5,920  1  868  6  1,190  4  36  17  555  8  54  17  160  15  946  3  1,873  1  224  13  205  14  101  15;  330  13  816  9  Fabricated Metals and Instruments  674  8  1,300  2  1,069  2  638  4  1,720  2  1,539  2  Chemicals  314  11  441  7  767  4  481  6  337  12  737  11  Paper and Pulp  136  14  324  9  436  11  146  14  580  7  931  4  Rubber  261  12  215  14  159  16  1,100  1  452  10  443  13  Stone, Clay and Glass  228  13  458  6  318  13  459  8  412  11  836  8  Petroleum and Coal Products  80  15  316  10  522  9  338  11  164  14  33  17  Food and Beverages  651  9  589  5  6l4  7  444  9  866  4  928  5  Textiles  34  17  39  16  100  17  193  13  124  174  15  Misc. Manufacturing  74  16  125  15  178  15  95  16  146  16  164  16  700  7  310  11  983  3  481  6  808  6  431  14  Iron and Steel Nonferrous Metals  Autos, Trucks and Parts  Mining  411  Source: . United States, Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor B u l l e t i n s on Analysis of Work Stoppages.  Statistics,  88.  Table V I I .  F a b r i c a t e d metals  and i n s t r u m e n t s .  T h i s i s a p a i r e d g r o u p i n g o f t h e major group i n d u s t r i e s the f a b r i c a t e d m e t a l p r o d u c t s I n d u s t r y and t h e i n s t r u m e n t s and r e l a t e d products i n d u s t r y . The  f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s have been c o m p i l e d  t o determine  the c u t o f f p o i n t s d e n o t i n g each o f t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f the p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e . and  The  a. t a b l e s r e f e r t o P e r i o d 1  t h e b. t a b l e s r e f e r t o P e r i o d 2. Table V I I I .  P r o d u c t i o n Workers Employed i n  I n d u s t r y d u r i n g Year. .The annual average v a l u e s o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n worker employment l e v e l s a r e r e c o r d e d a g a i n s t t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n d u s t r y f o r the p a r t i c u l a r year. ranked i n d e s c e n d i n g T a b l e IX.  The i n d u s t r i e s a r e then  order a c c o r d i n g to the s i z e of the v a l u e s . Work Stoppages o c c u r r i n g i n I n d u s t r y  d u r i n g Year. The  same p r o c e d u r e i s r e p e a t e d here except  t h a t work  stoppages data, i s u s e d i n s t e a d o f p r o d u c t i o n worker d a t a . T a b l e X. R a n k i n g o f P r o d u c t i o n Workers and Work Stoppages among I n d u s t r i e s . The  r a n k i n g s o f p r o d u c t i o n workers among I n d u s t r i e s  i n Table V I I I and t h e r a n k i n g s o f work stoppages among i n d u s t r i e s i n Table IX a r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r i n Table X. f o r each y e a r . The  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e r a n k i n g Of p r o d u c t i o n workers and  the""ranking o f work stoppages f o r c o r r e s p o n d i n g  i n d u s t r i e s are  89. •TABLE Xa.  RANKING OP PRODUCTION WORKERS AND WORK STOPPAGES AMONG INDUSTRIES PERIOD 1.  1952  1951 Industry-  1954 .  1953  P  S  P-S  P  S  P-S  P  S  P-S  7  1  6  6  6  0  14  5  9  14 12  2  2  3  -1  3  1  2  5  7  -2  5  3  8 14  -6  8  Aerospace  10 10  0  9  Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment  16 16  0  4  -1  9 15" -6  I r o n and S t e e l Nonferrous M e t a l s Machinery Electrical  1956  1955  195 8  1957  1959  !  Machinery  Autos, Trucks and P a r t s  F a b r i c a t e d M e t a l s and Instruments  n  Chemicals  3  P  S  P-S  P  S  P-S  P  S  P-S  6  7  -1  6  1  5  6  5  •1  14 10  4  14  6  8  13  8  5  3  1  2  2  2  0  3  1  2  2  5  2  3  4  3  1  4  4  9  -1  7  5  2  8 11  -3  8  4  5  9 13  -4  7  16 10  6  16 14  2  2  0  10  8  2  P  S  P-S  :n. a.  S  P-S  P  S  P-S  7  -1  6  1  5  14 12  2  14  6  8  3  2  1  3  4  -1  0  4  5  -1  4  9  -5  3  5  12  1  11  8 14  -6  2  9 17  -8  9  9  0  12 15  -3  2 .16 15  1  16 14  2  16 16  0  16 10  6  4  -1  9  2  3  -1  10  9  1  10 13 12 16  3  6  -1.  2  0  2  3  -l;  -3  1.0 10  0  8  8  0  9 13  -4  -4  12 11  1  11 11  0  11 12  -1  2  2  3  Paper and Pulp  12 12  0  12 16  -4  12 15  -3  Rubber  15 11  4  15 13  2  15 12  3  15  9  6  15  9  6  15 13  2  15  5  10  Stone, C l a y and Glass  11 13  -2  11 14  -3  11 11  0  11  8  3  11  6  5  10  4  6  10  8  2  Petroleum and Coal Products  17  8  9  17 17  0  17 17.  0  17 17  0  17 13  4  17 14  3  17 11  6  Food and Beverages  1  6  -5  1  5  -4  1  8  7  1 10  -9  1  6  -5  Textiles  4  9  -5  4 11  -7  4  4  0  5 12  -7  5 15 -10  13 17  -4  13 15  -2  13 16  -3  13 14  -1  14 16  -2  13 14  -1  7  0  5  2  7 12  -5  7 10  -3  Mi s c. Manufac t u r i n g  6  Mining  2  4  7  P = Ranking o f P r o d u c t i o n Workers among I n d u s t r i e s S = Ranking o f Work Stoppages n.a.  = not a v a i l a b l e  among I n d u s t r i e s ,  8  6"  2  7  7  -6  1  5 17 -12  1  7  -6  5 16 -11  13 17  -4  2  5  7  1  90. TABLE Xb.  RANKING OP PRODUCTION WORKERS-AND WORK STOPPAGES AMONG INDUSTRIES PERIOD 2.  I960  Industry-  I r o n and S t e e l Nonferrous M e t a l s Machinery .Electrical  Machinery  Autos, T r u c k s and P a r t s  s  6 10  -4  6  9 -3  5 15 12  3  15  8  7  3  2  1  3  3  0  4  3  . 1  2  7 5  2  8  4  12 17  3 16 14  2  2  0  2  2  0  2  8 7  1  8 4  9  1  14 14  P  s  6  5  1  6  8 -2  15  6  9 15 12  3  3  0  4  3  1  4  1  3  4  2  2  3 4  -I  3  6  -3  8 10  -2  9 1  7 5  Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment  16  1  15  2  Chemicals  9 11  -2  Paper and Pulp  11 14  -3  Rubber  14 12  2  Stone, C l a y and Glass  10 13  -3  Petroleum and C o a l Products  17 15  2  8 -6  9 -8  Food and Beverages  1  Textiles  5 17 -12  P-S  P  s  6 12  P-S  P  -6  s  S  P-S  6  7  -1  1  1  4 5 -1  4 10  -6  1  6  7 6  1  -5  12 15  -3  16 1.5  1  16 13  4  -2  4  8 6  2  10 11  -1  10 14  -4  11  7  4  10  0  13 16  -3  13  1  12  13 10  3  6  5  11 13  -2  11  8  3  10 11  -1  17 10  7  17  6  17 14  -4  1  16 13 2  10  11  1  5  8 -5  5 16 -11  15 10  12  9  8 17 11  7 -6  5 17 -12  1  9 -8  5 13  -8  7  3 16  9  7  2  0  2  -1  8 12  -4  8 11  -3  4  6  12 13  -1  2  1  4  -1  14 16  -2  14 16  0  7 11  -4  9 3  6  0 6  3  9 6  among I n d u s t r i e s .  1  \  9 8. 1  3 17 17  0  5  -2  -.3  5 17 -12  14 15  S = Ranking o f Work Stoppages  10  3  -2  P = Ranking o f P r o d u c t i o n Workers among I n d u s t r i e s .  2  13  13 15  7  P  3  3  13 16 . -3 7  P-S  15 12  8 12 17  F a b r i c a t e d M e t a l s and Instruments  Mining  P  P-S  4  1965  P-S  S  12  1964  1963  P  Aerospace  Mls c. Manufac t u r i n g  1962  1961  -2  3  5 15 -.10  14 16  -2  3 11 14 -3  91. TABLE XIa.  ip-sl 1 1  FREQUENCY OP  Frequency o f  1951  1952  1953  1954  P-S|  1955  PERIOD 1.  |P-S| .  D u r i n g Year  1956  1957  1958  1959  Average o f • Horizontal Horizontal Total Total  0  3  4  3  2  3  4  -  19  1  2  1  3-  4  2  5  3  20  2  6  4  2  3  2  1  20  3  -  1  4  3  2  1  11  4  3  2  2  1  1  -  2  11  5  2  1  -  1  4  . 1  3  12  3  1  -  1  2  1  4  12  -.  1  1  1  -  -  -  3  -  3  2  6  •  n.a.  7  n.a.  8  •-  -  -  1  1  9  2  -  -  1  -  -  -  3  10  -  -.  -  -  1  -  1  2  11  -  -  -  -  -  1  1  2  12  -  -  -  -  -  1  -  1  17  17  17  17  17  17  17  119  Vertical n.a. Total  n. a.  Cumulative Average o f Horizontal Total  4 Cutoff Point  4 10  15 3 7 3 •7 3  7  15? 15  7  16^  2 7 2  7 l  7  17  17  P = Ranking o f P r o d u c t i o n Workers among I n d u s t r i e s . S = Ranking o f Work Stoppages among I n d u s t r i e s , n.a. = n o t a v a i l a b l e  Assume  P-S <_ | l |  = Medium  TABLE X l b .  FREQUENCY OF  Frequency o f IP-S!  1  r  I960  1961  1962  j P-S|  .  .I.P-SI D u r i n g Year  1963  1964  1965  PERIOD 2. Cumulative Average o f Average o f Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Total Total Total  0  2  2  1  -  2  1  8  1  1  4  2  3  2  6  18  2  5  2  2  17  3 -  4  "Vi  2  3  3  • 7  3  21  2  2  2  2  -  8  '3  xof 12  -  4  1  '2  8  -  1  1  3  1  2  -  -  6  -  -  -  -  -  1  10 S  -  -  -  -  2  2  11  -  1  -  -  -  -  1  12  1  1  1  1  -  4  -  -  -  -  -  5  -  2  1  1  6  1  -  3  1  7  -  1  -  8  2  1  9  1  -  12  -.  14  -  • -  -  -  -  -  -  15  1  -  -  -  -  -  1  17  17  17  17  17  •17  102  Vertical Total  P = Ranking, o f P r o d u c t i o n Workers  Cutoff  3  2 3  12| 3 14  1 2  151  1 1-  F  1 3 1  16  o"  2 3  1  17  F  17  _  .—;  among I n d u s t r i e s  S = Ranking o f Work Stoppages among I n d u s t r i e s  i  4^ < A  s  s  u  m  e  p  _  g  <  ,  < (  2  j_  M  e  d  ±  u  m  Point  93-  computed. Table X I . |P-S[ sign of  Frequency o f  |P-S|.  denotes t h e a b s o l u t e v a l u e i r r e s p e c t i v e o f  P-S , where  P  i s the r a n k i n g o f p r o d u c t i o n workers  among i n d u s t r i e s and  S  i s t h e r a n k i n g o f work  among i n d u s t r i e s . for  each y e a r .  The f r e q u e n c i e s o f  |P-S|  stoppages are compiled  F o r each p e r i o d , the f r e q u e n c i e s o f  j P-S J  a r e t o t a l l e d and then averaged b y d i v i d i n g by t h e number o f y e a r s o f d a t a a v a i l a b l e vii t h i n t h a t p e r i o d .  A cumulative  average o f t h i s t o t a l i s c o m p i l e d . The c r i t e r i o n f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g the l i m i t s t o each c a t e g o r y o f t h e p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e i s determined b y e n s u r i n g t h a t o n e - t h i r d o f t h e count on t h e f r e q u e n c y o f the p r o p e n s i t y to  s t r i k e v a l u e s f a l l w i t h i n the medium c a t e g o r y .  |P-S|  v a l u e t h a t w i l l be chosen t o m a i n t a i n t h i s  The criterion  can be o b t a i n e d by comparing the c u m u l a t i v e average o f the frequencies of  |P-Sf  a g a i n s t the numerical f i g u r e which i s  o n e - t h i r d t h e t o t a l number o f i n d u s t r y groups i n . t h e s t u d y . There a r e 17 i n d u s t r y groups and o n e - t h i r d o f t h i s i s II 3  - R2 ~ O * In P e r i o d 1, T a b l e X I a . i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s v a l u e  corresponds  approximately w i t h that value of the cumulative  average o f t h e f r e q u e n c i e s o f  • ]P-S|  for  |P-S| = 1 .  Thus, t h e medium c a t e g o r y o f the p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e w i l l be s c o r e d when i n d u s t r i e s have v a l u e s o f to  the absolute value of  1  P-S  l e s s than o r e q u a l  f o r each y e a r i n P e r i o d 1.  94.  I n P e r i o d 2, T a b l e X l b . i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e v a l i i e 2  17  = 5^  of  l i e s between the v a l u e s o f the c u m u l a t i v e average  of the frequencies of If  |P-S| = 1  |P-S|  f o r |P-S| = 1  and  |P-S| = 2 .  i s chosen as t h e c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e medium  c a t e g o r y , then t h e w e i g h t s a r e h i g h e r i n t h e h i g h and l o w c a t e g o r i e s and l o w e r i n the medium c a t e g o r y . i s chosen,  If  | P — S| = 2  the weight i n t h e medium c a t e g o r y i s h i g h e r than  t h a t i n the h i g h and low c a t e g o r i e s .  I t i s proposed t o  d e f i n e t h e medium c a t e g o r y f o r P e r i o d 2 b y u s i n g  P-S v a l u e s  t h a t a r e l e s s than o r e q u a l t o t h e a b s o l u t e v a l u e o f Before the t e s t of the n u l l hypothesis, H  q  2 . , can be  c a r r i e d o u t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e d a t a be c o m p i l e d i n t h e form o f a t h r e e b y t h r e e c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e as proposed.  This  has been c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s where the a. and b. t a b l e s a r e f o r P e r i o d 1 and the  c. t a b l e i s f o r  P e r i o d 2. T a b l e X I I . L e v e l o f Automation Propensity to S t r i k e .  i n Industry against  F o r P e r i o d 1 , Tables X l l a . and X l l b . a r e c o m p i l e d from d a t a d e r i v e d from T a b l e s I l i a ,  and I l l b . and T a b l e Xa.  Each c a t e g o r y o f p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e c o n t a i n s s u b - u n i t c e l l s f o r each y e a r w i t h i n t h e p e r i o d f o r each i n d u s t r y .  The  c r i t e r i o n f o r t h e s c o r i n g f o r the medium c a t e g o r y have been defined.  The h i g h c a t e g o r y i s s c o r e d when the i n d u s t r i e s  possess values of  P-S  g r e a t e r than the p o s i t i v e v a l u e o f  1  i n t h e p o s i t i v e range, t h a t i s , the r a n k i n g o f p r o d u c t i o n workers  i s lower ( l a r g e r numerical  v a l u e ) than t h e r a n k i n g o f  I  TABLE  JCIIa.  LEVEL OP AUTOMATION IN INDUSTRY AGAINST PROPENSITY TO STRIKE - PERIOD 1.  i  1.  i  Propensity to S t r i k e Industry  High '51  Xi  '52 '52  Petroleum and Coal Products  1  Mining  1  '54  '55  Low  Medium '57  '56  I  .  '58  l  1 1  '59  .'51  152  ' 5 3  '54  '55  l  1  1  1  1  1  '56  '57  '58  '59  '51  '52  ' 5 3  '54  '55  '56  '57  '58  1  1  '59  £  Electrical Machinery  1  1  1  1  1  1  Btvel of Automation In Industry  10 Chemicals  •H  T3  7  1  1  Stone, Clay and Glass 1  1  Machinery  1  1  1  1  I  1  1  . 1 1 1 1  Other Transporta t i o n Equipment  1  1  F a b r i c a t e d Metals and Instruments  1 4  1  I  1 I  1  1 1  1  I  1  1  1 1 1 1  1  1  1  OJ  S Nonferrous Metals  1 1  1  1  1  1  1  Misc. Manufacturing  1  Autos, Trucks and Parts  1  Iron and S t e e l  1 1  1  1  1  Food and Beverages  1  1  1  1 1  1  13 1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 1  1  1 1  1 1  1  1  1  1  1 1  1  1  1  1  12 _  _  •  44  Defining Propensity to S t r i k e Categories. P-S > - 1 = Low P-S <. | l |  = Medium  P-S >  = High  1  56  1  1  Textiles  1  1  1  1 1  1  1  1  1  I  21  22 1  Paper and Pulp o Rubber  I  1  1  . 1 1 1  Aerospace  — . —  21  19 39  .  36  42  96. TABLE  Xllb.  LEVEL OP AUTOMATION IN INDUSTRY (ALT. CUTOFF POINTS) AGAINST PROPENSITY TO STRIKE - PERIOD 1. P r o p e n s i t y to S t r i k e High  Industry-  '51  Petroleum and w C o a l Products  '53 '54  '55  *56 '57  '58  '59  '51  '52  '53  '54  '55  '56  '57  '58  '59  '51.'52 '53 '54 '55 »56 '57 '58  '59  1  1  1  1 8  1  Mining  u  '52  Low  Medium  E l e c t r i c a l Machinery|  1  Chemicals  1  1 1 1 1  S Stone, C l a y and  1  Glass  1  1  1  1 1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  7  -p w  c  Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment  1  1  1  1  1  1  Machinery  1  1  1  1  1  1  O •H  F a b r i c a t e d Metals and Instruments  o  Nonferrous M e t a l s  -P  1 1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  -P  Mi s c. Manufac t u r ing  o  Autos, Trucks and Parts  H > CD Hi  o  I r o n and  1 1  Steel  1  1  Aerospace Paper and Pulp Rubber  1  Food and Beverages  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  P-S > - 1 = P-S  <. | l |  P-S >  1  Low  = Medium «= High  1  1  1  1 1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  29  28.  1 27  44  39  36  Textiles  D e f i n i n g P r o p e n s i t y to S t r i k e C a t e g o r i e s .  1  1  1  TABLE X I I c .  LEVEL OP AUTOMATION IN INDUSTRY AGAINST PROPENSITY TO STRIKE  ;>  -  PERIOD 2.  P r o p e n s i t y to S t r i k e Industry  High  '60 '61 '62 '63 '64 '65 I r o n and S t e e l Xi  1 1 1 1  Mining Petroleum and C o a l Products  Level of Automation in Industry  Medium  '60 '61 '62 '63 «64 '65  1 1 1 1  Aerospace  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 6  1  Misc. Manufacturing  0)  1  1  1  1 1  Machinery  1  Rubber Paper and Pulp  1 1  Machinery  1  1 1  Chemicals  1  1 1  1  o  N o n f e r r o u s Metals  1  1  Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment  1 1  1  1  1  1  .  1  1  1  1  1  1 1  1  1 1  P-S < |2| = Medium >  2 = High  1  1 1  1  1 1  14  15  7  30  43  29  Defining Propensity to S t r i k e Categories. P-S > - 2 = Low  36  1  1  1  .  P-S  1  1  1  Food and Beverages  :  1  1  1 1 1  Stone,, ...Clay and Glass  1  42  1  1 1 1  1 1  14  1  1  22  F a b r i c a t e d Metals and Instruments  1  1  24  1 1  6  Autos, Trucks and Parts  1  1  1 1  1 1  1  8  1  1  1 1  1  1 1  1  1 1  Electrical  1  1  Textiles  s  1 1 1  1  10  •H TJ  Low  '60 '61 '62 '63 '64 '65 •  98.  the work stoppages  among i n d u s t r i e s .  S i m i l a r l y , the low  c a t e g o r y i s s c o r e d when t h e i n d u s t r i e s p o s s e s s v a l u e s o f P-S  g r e a t e r than t h e n e g a t i v e v a l u e o f  1  i n the n e g a t i v e  range, t h a t i s , t h e r a n k i n g o f p r o d u c t i o n workers  among  i n d u s t r i e s i s h i g h e r ( s m a l l e r n u m e r i c a l v a l u e ) than t h e r a n k i n g o f the.work stoppages for  each c e l l  computed.  among i n d u s t r i e s .  The s c o r e s  a r e then t o t a l l e d and row and column t o t a l s a r e  The d i f f e r e n c e a c r o s s t h e p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e ,  .  as i n d i c a t e d b y an i n s p e c t i o n o f the column t o t a l s , i s approximately.22  p e r c e n t "between maximum and minimum.  The  h i g h and l o w w e i g h t s a r e found i n t h e h i g h and l o w c a t e g o r i e s respectively. F o r P e r i o d 2, Table X I I c . i s c o m p i l e d b y r e p e a t i n g the same p r o c e d u r e  except t h a t t h e h i g h c a t e g o r y i s s c o r e d  when t h e i n d u s t r i e s p o s s e s s v a l u e s o f p o s i t i v e value of  2  P-S  g r e a t e r than t h e  i n t h e p o s i t i v e range and the l o w c a t e -  gory i s s c o r e d when the i n d u s t r i e s p o s s e s s v a l u e s o f 2  g r e a t e r than t h e n e g a t i v e v a l u e o f  i n the n e g a t i v e  P-S range.  The d i f f e r e n c e a c r o s s c a t e g o r i e s o f p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 48 p e r c e n t w i t h t h e medium c a t e g o r y a l l o c a t e d a h i g h e r weight w h i l e t h e w e i g h t s o f t h e o t h e r two c a t e g o r i e s a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same.  7.  Computation:  each c e l l ,  The t o t a l observed c e l l  0. . , row t o t a l s ,  frequencies f o r  n. , column t o t a l s , n . , and  the t o t a l number o f f r e q u e n c i e s ,  N  and c. a r e t r a n s f e r r e d t o Tables  - X l l l a . . b.  t  from T a b l e s X l l a . , b.  99.  and  c. r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The e x p e c t e d c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s f o r each  E. • > a r e computed a c c o r d i n g t o e q u a t i o n ( 6 ) and i j i n s e r t e d i n b r a c k e t s i n each c e l l t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h i s from cell,  2  the  observed c e l l frequencies.  x  The v a l u e s o f t h e  c r i t e r i o n and t h e c o n t i n g e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t , C , a r e then computed. TABLE X H I a .  LEVEL OP AUTOMATION  IN INDUSTRY AGAINST  PROPENSITY TO STRIKE CONTINGENCY TABLE PERIOD 1. Propensity to Strike  Level of Autiomation  10  in Indus t:ry  High  2  (6.882)  22  Low  _ (10-7-765) " 7.7b5  13  11  19  44 (7-6.882) 6T8B2  +  (19-12.706)  36  39  2  ^ (4-6.555) ' b.353  (21-18.555) , (15-16.9^1) 18.555 " I5T9^I 2  (12.706)  (13.765)  (15.529)  2  (16.941)  (18.353)  12  21 (6.353  21 (20.706)  Column T o t a l  •  4  •7 (7.765)  Medium  Low  Medium  High  Row Total  2  2  56  42 119  , (22-20.70o) 20.700  ^ (12-15.529) ' 15329  ,  2 T  2  (11-15.765) 15T7o5  2  12.7Ob  = 0 . 5 4 5 + 0 . 0 0 2 + 0 . 8 7 1 + 0 . 0 8 1 4-O.382 -f O.917 + 0.555 =  7.571  +3.118  + 0.802  2  100.  R e f e r r i n g t o T a b l e XXIV. i n t h e Appendix, on t h e c r i t i c a l values of the chi-square, using dom,  x 05  ^*  X  2 x  .05  as a  v a  l  u e  or  "  9'49 .  4  degrees o f f r e e -  Therefore  from, t h e s a m p l i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n i s l e s s  I f the l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  then t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s ,  H  Q  a = .05  than  i s accepted,  , i s not rejected.  This i n d i c a t e s  t h a t t h e r e I s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e l e v e l o f automation i n i n d u s t r y and t h e p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e i n P e r i o d 1 . Contingency c o e f f i c i e n t ,  C  .731  V 7.2171+119 = 0.241  TABLE X H I b .  LEVEL OF AUTOMATION IN INDUSTRY USING ALTERNATIVE CUTOFF POINTS AGAINST PROPENSITY TO STRIKE CONTINGENCY TABLE - PERIOD 1 . Propensity to Strike  Level of Automation in Industry  High High  Medium  Low  Column T o t a l  8  Medium  4 (5.175)  7  2 (4.588)  7 (7.765) • (31.059)  44  (4.235)  7 (6.882)  (6.353  27  28  29  Low  (27.529)  39  (25.412) 36  " Rov; Total  14 21 84 119  101.  In Table X l l l b .  an i n s p e c t i o n o f t h e v a l u e s o f t h e  expected c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s , t h e v a l u e s a r e l e s s than  E. . , i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n two c e l l s ,  5 •  The number-of c e l l s w i t h  e x p e c t e d c e l l f r e q u e n c i e s o f l e s s than  5  22 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l number o f c e l l s . satisfy  i s approximately T h i s does n o t  t h e r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t i f the number o f degrees o f  freedom i s g r e a t e r than  1 , then f e w e r than 20 p e r c e n t o f  the c e l l s s h o u l d p o s s e s s v a l u e s on expected f r e q u e n c i e s o f 9 l e s s than  5«  Since t h i s requirement i s n o t s a t i s f i e d ,  f u r t h e r computations TABLE X I I I c .  f o r this  table are omitted.  LEVEL OP AUTOMATION I N INDUSTRY AGAINST PROPENSITY TO STRIKE CONTINGENCY TABLE - PERIOD. 2.  Propensity to Strike.  High in Industry  Level of Automation  High  Medium  Column T o t a l  9-  6  6  8  14  22  14  24  (6.824)  (10.118)  (7.059)  (17.706)  (12.355) Low  Low  Medium  10  Row Total  15  (11-941) 7  56  (10.588)  (15.176)  (10.255)  50  45  29  Cochran, op. c i t . , pp. 4 1 8 - 4 2 0 .  42  102  102.  2 x  _ (10-7.059) 77059  +  j. ( 6 - 1 0 , l l 8 ) ' 10.118  2  (22-17.706) 17.705  4. ( 7 - l Q . 2 5 5 ) 10.235  2  2 T  , (8-6.824) . 6.824"  (6-12.555) 12.353  2 +  ^ (14-11.941) ^ (14-10.588) 11.941 " 10.588 2  +  (15^15-176) 15.17b  2  +  2  +  2  +  = 1.225 + I . 6 7 6 + 0.203 + 3.267  + 1.041 + 0 . 3 5 5 + 1 . 0 9 9 -:•  + 0.002 + 1.002 = 9.89 ? X 05  h  a  s  a  v a  l  u e  °£  9.49 •  Therefore  P  x  from  p  the s a m p l i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n i s g r e a t e r l e v e l of significance, hypothesis, a relationship and  H  Q  a = '.05  , i s rejected.  than  x 05 •  I  f  t  h  e  i s a c c e p t e d , then t h e n u l l This i n d i c a t e s that there i s  between the l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y  the propensity  to s t r i k e i n Period 2.  Contingency c o e f f i c i e n t ,  C = J ^ tjg^fg"  =0.297 2 • The c o n t i n g e n c y c o e f f i c i e n t ,  C , and t h e  x  c r i t e r i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t , though n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y strong, correlation  between t h e l e v e l o f a u t o -  m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y and t h e p r o p e n s i t y  t o s t r i k e i n P e r i o d 2.  :  CHAPTER  V  INTERPRETATION OP THE RESULTS  1.  The R e s u l t s :  The t e s t o f t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s ,  H  Q  , •  s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h e f a c t t h a t i n P e r i o d 1, the l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y had n o t reached a stage t h a t would e x e r t a s t r o n g b e a r i n g on s t r i k e a c t i v i t y , i f the l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e used i n t h i s s t u d y i s a c c e p t e d .  I t i s proposed not  to develop t h e r e s u l t s a r r i v e d a t f o r P e r i o d 1 any f u r t h e r . I n P e r i o d 2, t h e t e s t o f the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s ,  H  Q  ,  d i d I n d i c a t e that the l e v e l o f automation i n i n d u s t r y d i d a f f e c t the p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e . on t h e o b s e r v e d f r e q u e n c y  R e f e r r i n g to Table X I I I c .  t o t a l s f o r each c e l l , I t w i l l be  noted that i n d u s t r i e s w i t h h i g h l e v e l of automation i n d i c a t e a . h i g h a f f i n i t y w i t h high p r o p e n s i t y to s t r i k e  [ c e l l (1,1)].  Medium l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n i n d u s t r i e s i n d i c a t e , a h i g h a f f i n i t y w i t h medium p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e  [cell  ( 2 , 2 ) ] , and l o w l e v e l  of automation i n d u s t r i e s i n d i c a t e a high a f f i n i t y w i t h high propensity to s t r i k e  [cell  (~5,l)]>  The l a s t p a r t o f t h i s statement r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r qualification.  Looking  a t the row d e s i g n a t e d b y l o w l e v e l  o f a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y , the medium p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e c e l l t o t a l of observed frequencies  ( c e l l 5,2)  has a s l i g h t l y  g r e a t e r v a l u e compared w i t h t h a t o f the h i g h p r o p e n s i t y  104.  to s t r i k e c e l l t o t a l  [cell  (3,1)].  B u t , on examining t h e  column t o t a l s , i t w i l l he n o t e d t h a t t h e weight g i v e n t o t h e medium p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e column i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 45 p e r c e n t h i g h e r than t h a t o f the h i g h p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e  column.  T a b l e XIV has been c o m p i l e d t o p r o v i d e a b e t t e r i d e a o f t h e e f f e c t o f e q u a l i z i n g t h e w e i g h t s o f each column, t o t a l , and s u b s e q u e n t l y amending t h e observed f r e q u e n c y v a l u e s found i n each  cell.  TABLE XIV.  EFFECT OF EQUALIZING THE COLUMN TOTALS.  Propensity to S t r i k e High  10x4  rt o  High in Industry  Level o f Autom;  •rH  Medium  po ; :=3 4 11.3 ox—pO = 6.8 l4x^  Low  Column T o t a l .  34  r  = 4.7 22x|^ =  17.4  I5x|i  po =  Medium  15.9  30x4g = p4  =  Row Total  Low ° 29 = 9.4  25.4  I4x^ 29 = 16.4  40.5  29  f%  11.9  = 8.2  43x-g = 34 2 9 > ' §  - 34  36.0  102  The e q u a l i z e d column t o t a l v a l u e i s ^ = —~— ^ 34 . To a c h i e v e t h i s e q u a l i z a t i o n , e a c h column t o t a l and each v a l u e i s m u l t i p l i e d b y an e q u a l i z i n g f a c t o r .  cell  The e q u a l i z i n g  f a c t o r f o r each column t o t a l i s the same as t h a t f o r each individual  c e l l a p p e a r i n g i n the same column, and has a v a l u e  105.  o f the new value.  column t o t a l d i v i d e d by the o r i g i n a l column t o t a l  The  effect  e f f e c t o f e q u a l i z i n g the column w e i g h t s  the statement p u t f o r w a r d p r e v i o u s l y .  does n o t  In f a c t ,  s u p p o r t s the e x p l a n a t i o n t h a t i n the row i n d i c a t i n g low o f automation  i n i n d u s t r y , the observed  this level  c e l l value f o r high  p r o p e n s i t y to s t r i k e can be c o n s i d e r e d to be i n d i c a t i v e o f s. h i g h e r v a l u e than t h a t f o r the observed  c e l l v a l u e f o r medium  p r o p e n s i t y to s t r i k e . A c c o r d i n g to the d e f i n i t i o n o f p r o p e n s i t y to s t r i k e , an i n d i c a t i o n  o f h i g h p r o p e n s i t y to s t r i k e , c a n be  attributed  t o an i n c r e a s e i n the v a l u e s o f man-days o f i d l e n e s s due work stoppages, because the v a l u e s o f the. average  to  annual  p r o d u c t i o n worker employment l e v e l s a r e r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c a c r o s s the time p e r i o d d e s i g n a t e d by P e r i o d 2.  The i n c r e a s e i n the  v a l u e s o f man-days o f i d l e n e s s can be due t o two 1.  S m a l l number o f s t r i k e s b u t each t a k i n g a l o n g d u r a t i o n  b e f o r e a s e t t l e m e n t i s r e a c h e d , on the 2.  causes:  average.  Large number o f s t r i k e s b u t each t a k i n g a s h o r t d u r a t i o n  b e f o r e a s e t t l e m e n t i s reached, :  on the  average.  Long s t r i k e s a r e d e f i n e d here as l a s t i n g l o n g e r than one month, and s h o r t s t r i k e s as l a s t i n g l e s s  than one month.  A n - a n a l y s i s o f supplementary d a t a ha.s been r e c o r d e d i n Tables XIX., XX., determine  XXI., and X X I I . i n the Appendix, t o  the average.number of work stoppages and the average  d u r a t i o n o f s t r i k e s f o r each c e l l .  The  r e s u l t s of t h i s  106.  c o m p u t a t i o n have been c o l l e c t e d t o g e t h e r as shown i n T a b l e XV. appended below, as an a i d i n comparing t h e r e s u l t s  that  have been o b t a i n e d f o r P e r i o d 2 .  TABLE XV.  CELL VALUES OF AVERAGE NUMBER OF WORK STOPPAGES (UPPER LEFT HALF) AND AVERAGE DURATION OF STRIKES (LOWER RIGHT HALF) - PERIOD 2 .  Propensity High  to Strike Low  1  Medium  59.9  y S  77-7  y  82  /  y  /  Level of Automation  High 39-8  103  y S  y /  20.8  103  yS  / •  : 60.5  9.5 yS  Medium / /  22.3  /  16.2  /  13-5  :  in Industry  /  X  o5  144  176.1  y S  Low yS  20.6  y/  14.05  y S  11.2  The average d u r a t i o n o f s t r i k e s i s computed as t h e r a t i o o f man-days i d l e due t o d i s p u t e s , t o t h e number o f workers involved . 1  Referring to c e l l  ( 1 , 1 ) and c e l l  ( 3 , 1 ) i n Table  XV. i t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t ' t h e average d u r a t i o n o f s t r i k e s among industries i nc e l l  ( 1 , 1 ) i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y double t h a t o f  cell  (3,1).  1.  Ross and Hartman, op. c i t . , pp. 8 - l 4 .  B u t , t h e average number o f work stoppages  among  107.  industries i n c e l l  (3,1)  (1,1).  i s h i g h e r than, t h a t o f c e l l  T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the tendency f o r h i g h p r o p e n s i t y to  s t r i k e i n i n d u s t r i e s t h a t have a t t a i n e d a h i g h l e v e l o f  a u t o m a t i o n i s because these i n d u s t r i e s e x p e r i e n c e  on the  a v e r a g e , a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number o f s t r i k e s b u t each ing  over a l o n g d u r a t i o n .  t h a t have m a i n t a i n e d for  extend-  On the o t h e r hand, i n i n d u s t r i e s  a low l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n , t h e tendency  r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e i s a t t r i b u t e d t o the  f a c t t h a t these i n d u s t r i e s e x p e r i e n c e  on the a v e r a g e , a  r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r number o f s t r i k e s b u t each e x t e n d i n g  over a  s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n , compared w i t h the i n d u s t r i e s t h a t have achieved h i g h l e v e l of automation. A s t u d y o f s t r i k e a c t i v i t y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s o v e r a p e r i o d o f t e n y e a r s between 1927 and 1936 had been r e p o r t e d p by P e t e r s o n  .  The r e s u l t s d e r i v e d from t h i s s t u d y  indicated  t h a t s t r i k e s o f s h o r t d u r a t i o n had a g r e a t e r tendency o f success  from the w o r k e r s ' p o i n t o f view t h a n s t r i k e s o f l o n g  duration.  S t r i k e s t h a t l a s t e d l e s s than one month were- con-  s i d e r e d t o be o f s h o r t d u r a t i o n and those l a s t i n g one month o r more were c o n s i d e r e d  t o be o f l o n g d u r a t i o n .  s t r i k e s have been c o n s i d e r e d longer.  t o be l a s t i n g t h r e e months o r  The p r o p o r t i o n o f the l o n g e s t s t r i k e s l o s t by the  u n i o n s were h i g h e r than those l o s t i n l o n g 2.  The l o n g e s t  strikes.  F l o r e n c e P e t e r s o n , S t r i k e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , l 8 8 0 1936, U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department o f L a b o r , Bureau o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , B u l l e t i n No. 6 5 1 , 1 9 3 3 , pp. 7 6 - 7 8 .  108.  Suppose i t s h o u l d happen t h a t t h i s t r e n d i n t h e s t r i k e a c t i v i t y had been c o n t i n u e d strikes  experienced  i n P e r i o d 2.  Then, s i n c e  b y i n d u s t r i e s w i t h h i g h l e v e l o f auto-  m a t i o n and a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e , tended to l a s t f o r a l o n g d u r a t i o n on t h e a v e r a g e , s t r i k e  activity  i n these i n d u s t r i e s m i g h t tend t o be l e s s s u c c e s s f u l from t h e w o r k e r s ' p o i n t o f view.  I n d u s t r i e s w i t h low l e v e l of auto-  m a t i o n t h a t had a. g r e a t e r a f f i n i t y w i t h h i g h p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e experienced  strikes  generally of short duration.  Strike  a c t i v i t y i n these i n d u s t r i e s might have a g r e a t e r tendency i n a c h i e v i n g success  2.  from t h e w o r k e r s ' p o i n t o f view.  Factors r e l a t e d t o the L e v e l o f Automation i n I n d u s t r y  t h a t tended t o i n c r e a s e t h e d u r a t i o n o f s t r i k e s :  A natural  development a r i s i n g from t h e employment o f a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r i e s t h a t have a c h i e v e a h i g h l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n p o s s e s s excess p r o d u c t i o n c a p a c i t y o v e r g e n e r a l market demands. I n t r o d u c i n g automatic  equipment i n t o a company r e q u i r e s heavy  f i n a n c i a l investments  which i n turn are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h metic-  u l o u s p l a n n i n g b y the management. automatic  I t w i l l be p l a n n e d f o r  equipment t o be used f o r a number o f y e a r s  replacement.  before  To c a t e r f o r t h e growth o f t h e company, excess  p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y w i l l be i n c l u d e d .  Some i n d u s t r i e s p o s s e s s  the a b i l i t y o f s u p p l y i n g t h e annual market demand w h i l e  only  o p e r a t i n g the p l a n t s f o r e i g h t o r n i n e months o f the y e a r . This reserve of production c a p a c i t y strengthens a b i l i t y o f the management t o weather a l o n g s t r i k e . o f management t o take on a s t r i k e i s reduced..  the '  The f e a r  B e f o r e a, s t r i k e  109.  commences, the management i s a b l e t o use  t h i s excess  i o n capacity to s t o c k p i l e t h e i r inventory.  product-  . Extra  storage  space can be r e n t e d t e m p o r a r i l y f o r s t o r i n g the excess m a t e r i a l s o r equipment produced.  The  c a p a c i t y i s a i d e d by the 1947 •5 R e l a t i o n s Act  .  a b i l i t y to use  excess  production  amendments to the N a t i o n a l L a b o r  This l e g i s l a t i o n i n c l u d e d a requirement f o r  s i x t y - d a y s ' n o t i c e o f c o n t r a c t t e r m i n a t i o n and t h i r t y - d a y s ' n o t i c e t o the government b e f o r e any commence.  strike activity  could  T h i s advance w a r n i n g system i n c r e a s e s the company's  a b i l i t y t o i n c r e a s e o u t p u t p r i o r to a s t r i k e . The  excess p r o d u c t i o n  c a p a c i t y due  to a u t o m a t i o n a l s o  e n a b l e s management, a f t e r a s t r i k e , to meet market demands not s a t i s f i e d d u r i n g the s t r i k e . c i t e d as an example.  The  s t e e l i n d u s t r y has  been  M a r k e t r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s t e e l a f t e r the k  116  day  s t r i k e i n 1959  the end o f the s t r i k e .  , were s a t i s f i e d w i t h i n s i x months a f t e r This s t r i k e involved h a l f a m i l l i o n  t r a d e u n i o n members and has been c o n s i d e r e d  as the  longest  work stoppage caused by u n i o n s i n the h i s t o r y o f the i n d u s t r y . I n s p i t e of t h i s , when the combined n e t p r o f i t s o f the major s t e e l p r o d u c e r s had been computed f o r 1 9 5 9 , t h i s was  5 percent The  has  i t i n d i c a t e d that  h i g h e r than t h a t of the p r e v i o u s  year.  i n c r e a s e i n the l e v e l of a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y  c o n t r i b u t e d to the change i n the mix  and n o n p r o d u c t i o n workers i n the i n d u s t r y .  between p r o d u c t i o n In manufacturing  3.  James L. S t e r n , " D i s c u s s i o n . D e c l i n i n g U t i l i t y of the S t r i k e " , i n I n d u s t r i a l and L a b o r R e l a t i o n s Review, V o l . No. 1, Oct. 1964, pp. 62-66. .  4.  R a s k i n , op.  c i t . , pp.  55-57-  18,  110.  i n d u s t r i e s , a u t o m a t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n t h e r e d u c t i o n o f some b l u e - c o l l a r jobs.  The m i n i n g i n d u s t r y too has been a f f e c t e d .  One o f t h e s p e c t a c u l a r r e d u c t i o n s i n employment l e v e l s has been found i n t h e c o a l m i n i n g i n d u s t r y .  I n the s o f t c o a l  m i n i n g i n d u s t r y , i t has been found t h a t w i t h i n 40 y e a r s s i n c e World War 1 ,  employment had been reduced from 7 0 0 , 0 0 0  that 200,000.  to l e s s  I n the hard c o a l mining i n d u s t r y , f o r the  c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r i o d , t h e r e d u c t i o n was from 1 8 0 , 0 0 0 t o 1 3 , 0 0 0 . R e d u c t i o n o f some b l u e - c o l l a r j o b s would c o n t r i b u t e to the r e d u c t i o n o f the s t r e n g t h o f workers.  u n i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g these  A l t h o u g h new j o b s have been c r e a t e d b y a u t o m a t i o n ,  t h e s e had been found p r e d o m i n a n t l y among e n g i n e e r s , t e c h n i c i a n s and w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s .  These workers a r e h a r d t o o r g a n i z e .  A s t u d y on t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f u n i o n members among w h i t e - c o l l a r employees i n t h e m a n u f a c t u r i n g I n d u s t r i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t 8 p e r c e n t were u n i o n members i n I960 .  M i n i n g had been i n c l u d e d  v/ith o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s end c o n s t r u c t i o n and f o r t h i s c a t e g o r y , 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e w h i t e - c o l l a r workers were u n i o n members. W i t h i n t h e l a s t two decades, p r o d u c t i o n workers  t h e r a t i o .of non-  t o t o t a l employment has been i n c r e a s i n g  r a p i d l y as shown by d a t a c o m p i l e d i n T a b l e X X I I I . i n the Appendix.  I n t h e aerospace and, p e t r o l e u m and c o a l p r o d u c t s  i n d u s t r i e s , t h e r e were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 n o n p r o d u c t i o n 5-  workers  Benjamin Solomon and Robert K. Burns, " U n i o n i z a t i o n o f W h i t e - c o l l a r Employees, E x t e n t , P o t e n t i a l and I m p l i c a t i o n s " , i n The J o u r n a l o f B u s i n e s s , The Graduate S c h o o l o f B u s i n e s s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , V o l . XXXVI, No. 2 , A p r . 1 9 6 3 , p. 1 5 3 -  111.  t o 3 p r o d u c t i o n workers  on t h e average by 1965•  This represents  a s u b s t a n t i a l r e s e r v o i r o f stand-by work f o r c e p o t e n t i a l . E x c e p t f o r l e s s than 10 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l as i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e s e n o n p r o d u c t i o n workers bargaining unit.  are o u t s i d e the union  T h i s o u t - o f - u n i t p o t e n t i a l work f o r c e can be  employed by the management  t o o p e r a t e t h e automated p r o d u c t i o n  equipment and s a t i s f y market demands d u r i n g a s t r i k e . The d i s c u s s i o n , c a r r i e d o u t i n Chapter I I on t h e d e t a i l s o f s t r i k e a c t i v i t y i n the p e t r o l e u m i n d u s t r y i n P e r i o d 2, i n c l u d e d d a t a on n o n p r o d u c t i o n workers during a s t r i k e .  o p e r a t i n g the p l a n t  The d a t a has been c o l l e c t e d t o g e t h e r as  shown i n T a b l e X V I , t o i n d i c a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f employi n g n o n p r o d u c t i o n workers  i n t h i s i n d u s t r y to operate the  a u t o m a t i c p r o d u c t i o n equipment when t h e p r o d u c t i o n workers on  went  strike.  TABLE XVI.  INDICATING EFFECTIVENESS OF NONPRODUCTION WORKERS DURING STRIKES IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY PERIOD 2 . R a t i o o f Nonproduction workers t o t o t a l employment  Output D u r i n g S t r i k e (percentage o f pre-strike output  Year  Company  Location of Refinery  1959  American O i l  Texas C i t y  1 5  1961  Gulf O i l  Port Arthur  1 7  50  1962  Shell O i l  Houston  1 3  ^•100  •2=.  75  112.  The automated p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s has been c o n s i d e r e d to  employ l i t t l e d i r e c t l a b o r t o o p e r a t e .  in  the form o f maintenance  and i n s p e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . '.  automated i n d u s t r i e s , major maintenance out° t o f i r m s o u t s i d e .  Indirect labor i s I n some  work has been c o n t r a c t e d  T h i s i n c r e a s e s the management's  a b i l i t y t o o p e r a t e the p l a n t i n the p r e s e n c e o f a s t r i k e . The a b i l i t y o f n o n p r o d u c t i o n workers  to operate a  s t r i k i n g p l a n t may be dependent upon the l e v e l s of r e q u i r e d i n the automated p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s .  The  workers a r e n o r m a l l y b e t t e r t r a i n e d and educated. c a s e s , t h e y may be the persons who workers on how  skill nonproduction I n some  i n s t r u c t the p r o d u c t i o n  t o o p e r a t e the automated p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s .  A t a p i n c h , t h e s e p e r s o n s can o p e r a t e the automated p r o d u c t i o n 7 p r o c e s s themselves.  I n a s t u d y c a r r i e d out by B r i g h t , i t has  been found t h a t w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n the l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y , t h e r e i s a tendency -for s k i l l r e q u i r e m e n t s t o be r a i s e d up t o a c e r t a i n p o i n t .  A f t e r t h i s p o i n t , the p r o d u c t i o n  p r o c e s s e s a r e so automated t h a t s k i l l r e q u i r e m e n t s are taken away from the p r o d u c t i o n worker. in  At h i g h l e v e l s of automation  i n d u s t r y , i n the m a j o r i t y of c a s e s , s k i l l  requirements f o r  o p e r a t i n g the p l a n t may be b r o u g h t t o a. minimum.  R e p o r t s from  some s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t o n l y a few hours a r e r e q u i r e d to i n s t r u c t the p r o d u c t i o n worker on how  t o o p e r a t e the a u t o m a t i c  p r o d u c t i o n equipment. W i t h the h i g h e r l e v e l o f t r a i n i n g and 6. J . R.. Duncan, '''The Impact o f Automation on B a r g a i n i n g " , i n Canadian L a b o r , V o l . 1 2 , No. 1, J a n , 19^7, p. S. 7 . ' James R. B r i g h t , "Does Automation R a i s e S k i l l R e q u i r e m e n t s ? " i n H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s Review, V o l . 3& No. 4 , J u l y - A u g u s t . 3  . 1 9 5 8 , PP-  ~  113.  e d u c a t i o n o f t h e n o n p r o d u c t i o n worker o v e r t h a t o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n worker, even i f f u r t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r to o p e r a t e t h e p r o d u c t i o n equipment, s h o r t e r i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l o n l y be r e q u i r e d .  time  I f there i s evidence o f a pending  s t r i k e b y t h e p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s , t h e management can conduct t h i s i n s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g the p e r i o d j u s t p r i o r to the s t r i k e . T h i s w i l l reduce any a p p r e h e n s i o n t h a t t h e management may f e e l r e g a r d i n g damage t o t h e e x p e n s i v e equipment•while o p e r a t i n g the s t r u c k p l a n t w i t h r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e r i e n c e d p e r s o n n e l .  3«  Comparing some o f t h e r e s u l t s w i t h t h e G e n e r a l P a t t e r n  of S t r i k e P r o p e n s i t i e s :  The i n d u s t r y groups i n t h i s s t u d y  t h a t a r e common w i t h those found i n t h e K e r r and S i e g e l s t u d y are m i n i n g , t e x t i l e , c h e m i c a l , m a n u f a c t u r i n g ( g e n e r a l ) and, f o o d and k i n d r e d p r o d u c t s .  The c o m p a r a t i v e p r o p e n s i t y t o  s t r i k e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n v a l u e s a r e c o m p i l e d as shown i n T a b l e XVII.  114.  TABLE X V I I .  COMPARISON OP SOME COMMON RESULTS WITH THE GENERAL PATTERN OP STRIKE PROPENSITIES. Propensity to S t r i k e  I n d u s t r y Group  Period 1  Period.2  K e r r and Si.egel Study  Mining  High  High  High  Textile  Low  Low  Medium H i g h •  Chemical .  Not  Medium  Medium  Medium  Medium  Medium  Low  Low  Medium  Manufac t u r i n g  (general)  Pood and k i n d r e d products  For Periods  defined  1 and 2 t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r y  group t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e c a t e g o r y i s determined by the f r e q u e n c i e s o f the p r o p e n s i t y to s t r i k e f o r t h e p e r i o d d e r i v e d from Tables X l l a . and X I I c .  alone  I f the  f r e q u e n c i e s o f t h e p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e a r e predominant i n a p a r t i c u l a r category,  then t h e I n d u s t r y group i s s a i d t o  possess that p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l of propensity to s t r i k e .  When  the f r e q u e n c i e s o f p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e f a l l e q u a l l y w i t h i n two o r t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s , then, t h e p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e f o r t h a t i n d u s t r y i s s t a t e d as. n o t d e f i n e d . The i n d u s t r y group c o n t a i n i n g m a n u f a c t u r i n g  (general)  i s a vague d e s c r i p t i o n as d e f i n e d i n t h e K e r r and S i e g e l study.  T h i s I n d u s t r y group i n c l u d e s m e t a l w o r k i n g w h i c h i s  found i n m i s c e l l a n e o u s m a n u f a c t u r i n g ,  e l e c t r i c a l machinery,,  m a c h i n e r y , f a b r i c a t e d m e t a l s and i n s t r u m e n t s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  115,  equipment and t h e p r i m a r y m e t a l i n d u s t r i e s .  The p r o p e n s i t y  to s t r i k e f o r t h i s i n d u s t r y group i s c a t e g o r i z e d by a g g r e g a t i n g t h e predominant c a t e g o r y o f p r o p e n s i t y  t o s t r i k e found i n  each i n d u s t r y w i t h i n the group. In Table XVII.  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p r o p e n s i t y t o  s t r i k e a r e found i n t e x t i l e and, f o o d and k i n d r e d  products.  T h i s i n d i c a t e s t o some degree t h a t t h e r e a r e some  exceptions  t o the e x p l a n a t i o n  of the general p a t t e r n of s t r i k e p r o p e n s i t i e s .  I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s may be due t o the time p e r i o d u n d e r t a k e n i n t h i s s t u d y i s s h o r t o r t h a t  other  f a c t o r s may a f f e c t the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f s t r i k e p r o p e n s i t i e s . F o r P e r i o d s 1 and 2 , t h e i n f o r m a t i o n known on the r e m a i n i n g i n d u s t r y groups a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o e x p l a i n l e v e l s of propensity behavioural  t o s t r i k e a l o n e as b e i n g caused b y  e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s such as i s o l a t i o n and o p p o r t -  u n i t y t o i n t e r a c t w i t h the g e n e r a l  4.  their  Development o f a Model:  community.  A f t e r the d i s c u s s i o n on the  various f a c t o r s that are derived e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y from t h e l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y t h a t a f f e c t t h e propensity  t o s t r i k e , i t has been thought a p p r o p r i a t e  that a  model be developed t o e x p l a i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e two variables.  T h i s model i s shown i n F i g u r e I I . The l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y i s c o n s i d e r e d  be r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o p e n s i t y the s t r i k e .  to  t o s t r i k e t h r o u g h the outcome o f  I n an i n d u s t r y t h a t has a c h i e v e d h i g h l e v e l o f  FIGURE 2.  LEVEL OF AUTOMATION IN INDUSTRY - PROPENSITY TO STRIKE MODEL.  LEVEL OF AUTOMATION IN INDUSTRY  STRIKE  VARIABLES RELATED TO LEVEL OF AUTOMATION IN INDUSTRY (a) D i r e c t l y - 1. Production Capacity Related 2. R a t i o o f nonproduction workers t o total employment (b) I n v e r s e l y - 1. Strength of Related Union  OUTCOME OF STRIKE  WORKER ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES 1. 2.  L o c a t i o n o f workers i n the g e n e r a l community C h a r a c t e r o f Job and Worker  PROPENSITY TO STRIKE  FEEDBACK H H  ON  117-  automation,  the trade unions  win a s t r i k e .  g e n e r a l l y f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t to  They may t r y t o swing the outcome o f t h e  s t r i k e i n t h e i r f a v o u r "by p r o l o n g i n g t h e s t r i k e i n t h e hope t h a t breakdowns o f machinery and maintenance r e q u i r e m e n t s a i d them.  will  This i n c r e a s e s the i n d u s t r y ' s p r o p e n s i t y to s t r i k e .  I f the w o r k e r s '  environmental  f a c t o r s support  the p r o p e n s i t y  to s t r i k e , then t h i s w i l l r e i n f o r c e f u r t h e r t h e i n d u s t r y ' s propensity to s t r i k e . environmental  On t h e o t h e r hand, i f the workers'  f a c t o r s do n o t support  the p r o p e n s i t y to s t r i k e ,  even i f t h e i n d u s t r y has a c h i e v e d a h i g h l e v e l o f  automation,  t h i s may reduce t h e i n d u s t r y ' s p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e . P e r i o d 2, t h e r e a r e a few e x c e p t i o n a l cases. of the s t r i k e i s p e r p e t u a l l y unfavourable the t r a d e u n i o n may l o s e t h e w i l l  For  I f the outcome  t o the t r a d e u n i o n ,  t o s t r i k e . ' T h i s may even-  t u a l l y l e a d t o t h e i n d u s t r y b e i n g c a t e g o r i z e d as h a v i n g l o w p r o p e n s i t y to s t r i k e . I n i n d u s t r i e s t h a t can o n l y m a i n t a i n a l o w l e v e l o f automation,  t h e t r a d e u n i o n s may be more c e r t a i n o f a f a v o u r a b l e  outcome out o f the s t r i k e . f a c t o r s support  I f t h e workers'  environmental  t h e p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e , t h e r e vii 11 be a l a r g e r  number o f s t r i k e s , b u t t h e f a v o u r a b l e outcome from t h e t r a d e u n i o n ' s p o i n t o f v i e w can be a c h i e v e d i n a s h o r t s t r i k e . w i l l i n c r e a s e the p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e . where the w o r k e r s ' to  strike.  environmental  This  Exceptions are p o s s i b l e  f a c t o r s reduce t h e p r o p e n s i t y  CHAPTER  VI  CONCLUSION  The  t e s t oh t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s ,  H  Q  , indicated  t h a t t h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y and t h e p r o p e n s i t y  t o s t r i k e f o r P e r i o d 1, where-  as t h i s t e s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two v a r i a b l e s f o r P e r i o d 2, a t and o n l y a t t h e l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  a = .05 •  i c a n c e here i s emphasized.  The v a l u e o f t h e l e v e l o f s i g n i f The l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t I s  a c c e p t e d draws a l i n e between whether t h e n u l l H  Q  , i s accepted or r e j e c t e d .  hypothesis,  The e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s  t h a t have been computed i s dependent upon t h i s l e v e l o f significance,  a = .05.  I n P e r i o d 1, i t i s c o n s i d e r e d  that the presence of  a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y i s n o t s t r o n g enough t o a f f e c t subs t a n t i a l l y the propensity and  to s t r i k e .  Among t h e major group  sub-group i n d u s t r i e s t h a t have been s t u d i e d , t h e r e have  not appeared r e p o r t s r e f e r r i n g t o t h i s p e r i o d t h a t a u t o m a t i o n has  a f f e c t e d t h e t r a d e u n i o n ' s a b i l i t y t o stage a s u c c e s s f u l  strike.  On t h e o t h e r hand, f o r P e r i o d 2, r e p o r t s have  appeared t h a t i n some c a s e s , t h e t r a d e unions, have been u n a b l e to s t a g e a s u c c e s s f u l s t r i k e from t h e i r p o i n t o f view.  119.  The degree o f a c c u r a c y o f t h e r e s u l t s i s dependent m a i n l y on t h e assumptions made and t h e type o f d a t a t h a t i s used.  The d a t a used i s secondary d a t a , and t h i s has been  adapted f o r t h i s s t u d y .  As f a r as p o s s i b l e , c o n s i s t e n c y i n  the e x t r a c t i o n o f d a t a from t h e v a r i o u s s o u r c e s has been maintained i n u s i n g the Standard I n d u s t r i a l  Classification  Code d e v e l o p e d b y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Bureau o f t h e Budget. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y and t h e p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e a r e such t h a t o n l y a q u a l i t a t i v e method o f measurement c a n be employed.  At the  most, t h e method used here i n m e a s u r i n g a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e l e v e l s o f a u t o m a t i o n t o w h i c h the i n d u s t r i e s can be c l a s s i f i e d .  The p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e  has been measured by d a t a t h a t had been c o l l e c t e d on t h e a c t u a l occurance o f the s t r i k e i t s e l f .  I t i s n o t i n d i c a t i v e immed-  i a t e l y whether t h e outcome o f t h e s t r i k e has changed propensity to strike.  the workers'  T h i s may o n l y be made apparent i f t h e  s t u d y has been c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e l o n g - r u n , o r an o p i n i o n s u r v e y has been c a r r i e d o u t on t h e workers v;ho have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s t r i k e , i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e s t r i k e has been t e r m i n a t e d . I t must be mentioned t h a t t h e l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y does n o t always have t o assume t h e r o l e o f an a c t i v a t o r on t h e p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e .  The i n d u s t r y ' s l e v e l o f p r o p -  e n s i t y t o s t r i k e may a f f e c t t h e . l e v e l o f a u t o m a t i o n i n t h i s i n d u s t r y under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s .  I f an i n d u s t r y . i s c a p a b l e  o f b e i n g automated, h i g h p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e i n t h e i n d u s t r y may be one o f t h e c h i e f c o n t r i b u t o r y f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e  120.  management's d e c i s i o n t o speed-up t h e i r a u t o m a t i o n programme. The r e s u l t s o f the s t u d y , on t h e , whole , a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f a g e n e r a l t r e n d f o r the p a r t i c u l a r i n d u s t r y groups and t h e p e r i o d s under study.  The tendency o f t h e r e s u l t s  t o show c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been due t o t h e appearance o f these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on a m a j o r i t y o f o c c a s i o n s . There a r e e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s g e n e r a l t r e n d , b u t these a r e o n l y found i n the m i n o r i t y .  A d e t a i l e d study w i l l have t o be  c a r r i e d o u t t o o b t a i n a more p r e c i s e i d e a r e g a r d i n g exceptions.  these  Thus, any g e n e r a l statement o f t h e r e s u l t s o f  • t h i s s t u d y , when r e f e r r i n g t o s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r i e s , s h o u l d be made w i t h t h e r e s e r v a t i o n about e x c e p t i o n s w h i c h a r e c o n t r a r y to the g e n e r a l t r e n d . On the whole, t h e study f o r each p e r i o d has been c a r r i e d out f o r a s h o r t time span.  F o r P e r i o d 2, e s p e c i a l l y ,  the r e s u l t s may be i n d i c a t i v e o f s h o r t - r u n o r t r a n s i t o r y effects.  I n the s h o r t - r u n , e q u i l i b r i u m may n o t have been  attained.  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A r t i c l e s i n J o u r n a l s , Magazines and Newspapers.  American M a c h i n i s t .  "What i s A u t o m a t i o n ? "  V o l . 101. No. 22.  Oct. 2 1 , 1957Ashburn, Anderson.  " D e t r o i t Automation".  The A n n a l s o f  the American Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e . Mar. 1 9 o 2 . A u t o m a t i o n . S p e c i a l E d i t o r B l u n d e l l , W i l l i a m E.  C h a r l e s C. K i l l i n g s w o r t h .  "Labor and A u t o m a t i o n - O i l U n i o n F i n d s  S t i k e s O f t e n a r e I n e f f e c t i v e a t Automated Street Journal. B r i g h t , James R.  Plants".  Wall  V o l . CLIX. No. 14. Jan. 1 9 , 1 9 6 2 . "Does A u t o m a t i o n R a i s e S k i l l  Labor.  Requirements?"  V o l . 3 6 . No. 4 . J u l y - A u g . 1 9 5 8 .  H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s Review. B u s i n e s s Week.  Vo. 340,  "Amoco Beats U n i o n on Job R u l e s " .  No. 1 5 8 6 . J a n . 2 3 r d , i 9 6 0 B u s i n e s s Week.  Labor.  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July 1963.  " S t r i k e - p r o n e n e s s and i t s D e t e r m i n a n t s " . V o l . LX. No. 3- Nov. 1 9 5 4 .  The American Journal:' o f S o c i o l o g y . M a s s i e , J o s e p h L.  Nation's  " L o o k i n g Around.  H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s Review.  A u t o m a t i o n f o r Management".  V o l . 3 4 . No. 2 . Mar . - A p r i l 1 9 5 6 -  The News F r o n t D i r e c t o r y o f 7 5 0 0 L e a d i n g U.S.  News F r o n t . Manufac t u r e r s .  1961.  The New Y o r k Times.  Editorial.  The New York Times.  May 24, 1 9 6 5 .  Aug. 1 2 , 1 9 6 3 .  Solomon, Benjamin and B u r n s , R o b e r t K.  "Unionization of  White C o l l a r Employees, E x t e n t , P o t e n t i a l and I m p l i c a t i o n s " . The J o u r n a l o f B u s i n e s s .  U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago.  V o l . XXXVI.  No. 2 . A p r i l . 1 9 6 3 . R a s k i n , A. H. Monthly.  "The Squeeze on t h e U n i o n s " .  V o l . 207- No. 4.' A p r i l 1 9 & 1 .  The A t l a n t i c  130.  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"The S t o r y o f  two S t r i k e s - What u n i o n s a r e r u n n i n g up a g a i n s t " . No. 8 .  Aug. 1 9 ,  V o l . LV.  1963-  U.S. News and World R e p o r t .  L a b o r Week.  Keeps g o i n g D e s p i t e S t r i k e , Sabotage". Aiig. ' 2 6 , 1 9 6 3 .  Vol. 18.  "How a Company V o l . LV. No. 9 ,  1 3 1 .  APPENDIX  TABLE X V I I I .  INDUSTRY AND STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION CODE. Standard I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Code Two D i g i t Three D i g i t Code Code  Industry M a j o r Group  Sub-group  Primary Metal Industries  I r o n and S t e e l  33  3.^1, 332 333 t o 3 3 6 , 339  Machinery  35  351 t o 359  Electrical Machinery  35  361  Nonferrous Metals  Transportation Equipment  369  371  A u t o s , Trucks and Parts Aerospace  to 367,  37  Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment  372  373 t o 375, 379  Fabricated Metals  34  341 t o 349  and I n s t r u m e n t s  38  381  t o 387  Chemicals ..  28  281  t o 2 8 7 , 289  Paper and P u l p  26  261  t o 266  Rubber  30  301 t o  Stone, C l a y and Glass  32  321 t o 329  P e t r o l e u m and Coal Products  29  291,  Food and Beverages  20  201 t o 209  Textiles  22  221 t o 229  Misc. Manufacturing  39  391, 393 t o 396, 398, 399  Mining  Source:  10 t o 14  503, 306,  307  2 9 5 , 299  101 t o 1 0 6 , 1 0 8 , 1 0 9 , 1 5 1 , 132, 138, l 4 l , 142, 144, 145, 147 t o 149.  U n i t e d S t a t e s , Department o f L a b o r , Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s , Employment and E a r n i n g s S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 190lFT9oo= B u l l e t i n "No. '£512 - 4 ,  Oct. i960.  133-  ANALYSIS OP SUPPLEMENTARY DATA - PERIOD 2.  Reference to the d u r a t i o n of s t r i k e s recorded i n T a b l e XX. have been made i n the d i s c u s s i o n o f the l i t e r a t u r e on the p r o p e n s i t y t o s t r i k e i n Chapter I I , as an of s t r i k e a c t i v i t y . 1  indicator  The average d u r a t i o n o f s t r i k e s i s  computed as the r a t i o o f man-days i d l e due t o work stoppages found i n T a b l e IXb. t o t h e number o f workers i n v o l v e d w h i c h i s found i n T a b l e XIX.  Computation o f t h e average number  o f work stoppages i n each c e l l as r e c o r d e d i n T a b l e X X I . i s o b t a i n e d from d a t a found i n T a b l e s X I I c . and XIX.  The  average d u r a t i o n o f s t r i k e s i n each c e l l found i n T a b l e X X I I . have been computed from T a b l e s X I I c . and XX.  1.  Ross and Hartman, op. c i t . , pp. 8 - l 4 .  124. TABLE XIX.  Number o f Work Stoppages beginning during year  Industry-  I960  1961  95  70  154  .154  Petroleum and C o a l Products  12  Aerospace  1964  1965  I960  1961  1962  1962  1964  78  98  122  74  48  45  41  49  52  159  153  155  188'  49  28  52  46  82  72  17  10  14  22  12  2  15  7  2  5  1  28  14  19  12  19  22  82  2  221  8  20  15  Textiles  30  35  30  . 26  27  44  5  6  7  12  8  21  Mi s c. Manufac t u r i n g  54  56  54  46  49  54  5  10  7  8  9  7  102  114  99  109  105  127  97  67  64  44  62  52  Rubber  53  65  43  82  67  92  20  22  15  22  20  55  Paper and Pulp  52  62  63  54  79  91  9  15  19  9  29  29  Mining  dusti  >>  •H  Electrical  o n3  §  •H  Med  •H  +•* • >\  Level  o  Machinery  93 .  1965  Machinery  144  176  196  171  191  266  69  89  62  59  120  112  Chemicals  91  94  103  104  94  102  22  14  29  20  21  29  F a b r i c a t e d Metals and Instruments  o  1962  Number o f Workers I n v o l v e d (Thousands)  1963  I r o n and S t e e l  3  NUMBER OF WORK STOPPAGES BY MAJOR GROUP AND SUB-GROUP INDUSTRIES - PERIOD 2.  224  210  258  220  251  297  50  110  58  46  87  95  A u t o s , Trucks and P a r t s  70  62  56  58  66  84  82  272  45  54  344  71'  Nonferrous M e t a l s  63  56  83  52  75  82  20  26  4p  14  29  25  Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment  24  24  25  21  26  27  25  22  14  11  22  50  Stone, C l a y and!.Glass  98  130  113  118  117  129  18  24  16  20  22  71  .184  177  206  158  186  227  66  80  55  52  55  57  Fo6$ and Beverages Source:  U.S. Department o f Labor,. A n a l y s i s o f Work Stoppages.  Bureau o f Labor S t a t i s t i c s ,  B u l l e t i n s on  TABLE XX.  AVERAGE DURATION OP STRIKES I N INDUSTRY - PERIOD 2 . Average D u r a t i o n o f S t r i k e s (days o f I d l e n e s s )  High  Industry-  >> .  W  I960  1961  1962  1963  1964  1965  I r o n and S t e e l  13-7  8.0  9.1  10.1  10.1  16.0  Mining  14.3  8.2  18.9  10.4  9-7  6.0  P e t r o l e u m and C o a l P r o d u c t s  40.0  21.0  74.6 179.0  33-0  33.0  Aerospace  14.5  18.0  23.9  6.8  8.0  12.5  6.8  6.5  14.3  14.8  15.5  8.3  Misc. Manufacturing  14.8  12.5  25.4  11.9  16.2  23.4  Electrical  13-0  10.7  9-9  18.9  13.6  15.1  8.7  9.4  10.6  34.4  15.0  8.1  Paper and P u l p  15-1  21.6  22.2  16.2  14.9  23.8  Machinery  18.0  13.9  19.1  14.2  . 9.5  16.6  Chemicals  14.3  31.5  26.5  24.0  16.0  25.4  F a b r i c a t e d M e t a l s and I n s t r u m e n t s  13.4  11.8  18.4  13-8  19.8  16.2  5.9  8.2  14.4  9-7  17.2  12.1  10.7  11.5  16.0  13.2  15.3  9.4  15.4  16.2  Textiles  <—t  rt  tomatio  rt  Medium  H •H p;  C M  O  •—l  Machinery  Rubb e r  A u t o s , T r u c k s and P a r t s O  Hi  Nonferrous Metals  43.2  O t h e r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment  75.0  4.2  13.4  S t o n e , C l a y and G l a s s  12.7  19.1  19.9  23.0  17.9  11.8 '  9.9  • 7.4  11.1  8.4  15-7  I6.3  Food and Beverages  136. TABLE XXI.  COMPUTATION OP AVERAGE NUMBER OF WORK STOPPAGES FOR EACH CELL - PERIOD 2. Number o f Work Stoppages  Industry  High P r o p e n s i t y to S t r i k e  Medium P r o p e n s i t y to S t r i k e  Low P r o p e n s i t y t o S t r i k e  I960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965  I 9 6 0 1961 1962 1963 1964  I960 1961 1962 1963 1964  95  I r o n and S t e e l Mining  id  159  17  Petroleum and Coal Products Aerospace  28 Average  -  14  Average  «= 77.7  30  Textiles :  E l e c t r i c a l Machinery  82,  Rubber  67 79  Paper and Pulp Machinery  196  Chemicals  103 618 =  Average  * •  = 103  114  53  65  144  176  91  94  49  54  Nonferrous Metals  63  56  O t h e r T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment  24  24  130  83  53  63  118  83  36  37  44  137  43  54 94 102  104 2262 103 22  Average =  56  58  25  31  113 Average =  847  = 60.5  224  84  117 139 227  = 65  36 ^ 37  52  Food and Beverages Average =  30  171 191 266  70  75  656 ~8~ = 82  19  54  93  Average  66  62'  12  99  210 258 220 251 297  A u t o s , Trucks and P a r t s  Stone, C l a y and Glass  46  35  109 105  62  F a b r i c a t e d M e t a l s and Instruments  o  54  56  102 91  98 188  14 Average =  Misc. Manufacturing  1965  12  22  -  78  154  12  22  19 599 „ 59.9 10  93  123  154  153 155  10  70  1965  = 144  98 184 177 206 158 186 Average = - i  2  ^  =  176.1  127. TABLE XXII.  COMPUTATION OP AVERAGE DURATION OF STRIKES FOR EACH CELL - PERIOD 2. Average D u r a t i o n o f S t r i k e s  .Industry-  -High P r o p e n s i t y to S t r i k e  19.60 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 I r o n and S t e e l  High  21.0  Petroleum and Coal Products Aerospace  18.9 10.4 9-7 74.6 179.0 33.0 23.9  14.5  3Q7 S Average =  >>  Medium P r o p e n s i t y to S t r i k e  -Low P r o p e n s i t y t o S t r i k e  I960 1961 1962  I960 1961 1962  13.7  Mining  (days o f i d l e n e s s ) 1963 1964 1965  9.1 10.1  16.0  8.0  14.3  10.1  6.0  8.2  33.0  40.0  12.5  = 39-75  1962 1964 1965  6.8 8.0  18.0 Average =  1  2  ^  ,  Q  Average = 1^2. = 9.5  = 20.8  Misc. Manufacturing  •H  Electrical  4-5  §  6.8 6.5  Textiles  •H  Med  ion  Ind ust:  Li  vel of J  -P  12.5 25.4 11.9 16.2 23.4  Machinery  34.4  Rubber  10.7  8.7  9-4  14.9 23.8  Paper and Pulp  21.6 22.2 14.2  Chemicals  26.5  14.2  21.5  24.0  Average =  Low  A u t o s , Trucks and Parts  8.2  N o n f e r r o u s Metals  42.2  Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment  75-0  Stone, C l a y and Glass  17.2  16.0 25.4 Average = ^ p p ^ = 12-5  18.4 13.8 19.8 16.2  5.9  16.2  9.5 16.6  = 16.2  11.8  14.4  9.7  12.4  9.4  15.1  10.6 15.1  18.0 12-9  F a b r i c a t e d Metals and Instruments  Hi  9.9 8.1  19.1  = 22.3  14.8  18.9 13.6  Machinery  Average =  cu  15.0  13.0  14.2 14.8 15.5 8.2  12.4  12.1  10.7 11.5 16.0 12.2 15.3 15.4 16.2  4.2  23.0  19.1  19.9  17.9 H.8  Food and Beverages  16.2 Average = ^ ' 2  2  = 20.6  Average = ^ 2  ,  S  = 14.05  12.7  9-9 7.4  11.1  Average = -y-^ = 7  8.4 15.7 11.2  138.  TABLE X X I I I .  RATIO OF NONPRODUCTION WORKERS TO TOTAL EMPLOYMENT R a t i o o f Nonproduction Workers t o T o t a l Employment ( p e r c e n t )  Industry  1947  1951  1959  1965  11.9  12.5  18.4  17.1  8.8  9-6  19-4  22.1  P e t r o l e u m and C o a l P r o d u c t s  23.1  25.1  35.2  38.2  Aerospace  25.9  25.7  38.1  42.8  6.1  7.4  9-4  10.7  Induistry  High  I r o n and S t e e l  Textiles  ri •H  ri o  ~-i  Automat:  Mining  •H CD  vel (  n  M i sc. Manufac t u r i n g  12.8  14.8  19.3  20.0  Electrical  21.7  22.3  30.6  31.3  Rubber  18.6  18.9  22.3  22.2  Paper and P u l p  12.7  14.9  19.6  22.1.  Machinery  20.9  22.4  29.3  30.0  Chemicals  24.8  28.9  37-5  39-8  F a b r i c a t e d M e t a l s and Instruments  17.4  19.4  25.1  25.7  A u t o s , Trucks and P a r t s  18.5  18.1  22.1  21.6  Nonferrous Metals  15.3  17.0  21.6  20.4 •  Other T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Equipment  11.9  14.5  18.9  17.8  Stone, C l a y and G l a s s  12.3  13.6  17.9  19.7  Food and Beverages  22.5  2o . 0  31.7  34.1  Machinery  CD  Low  hi  Source:  T a b l e C - 3 . Manpower R e p o r t of the Prec3ident and A Report on Manpower Requirements, R e s o u r c e s , U t i l i z a t i o n and T r a i n i n g , b y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f L a b o r , Transm i t t e d t o t h e Congress, A p r i l 1 9 6 7 .  TABLE XXIV.  TABLE OF CRITICAL VALUES OF CHI SQUARE P r o b a b i l i t y under  . .98 •  .99  H  x  that  Q  • 95  .90  .80  • 70  .50  .0039  .016  .064  .15  .46  1.07  .30  >. c h i square .10  .05  .02  1.64  2.71  3-84  5.4l  6.  .20  .01  ,64  .001  1  .00016  2  .02  .04  .10  .21  .45  .71  1.39  2.41  3.22  4.60  5.99  7.82  9.21  13.82  3  .12  .18  .35  .58  1.00  1.42  2.37  3.66  4.64  6.25  7.82  9.84 1 1 . 3 4  16.27  ; 4  ,30  .43  .71  1.05  1.65  2.20  3,36  4.88  5.99  7-78  9.49  . 5  .55  .75  1.14  1.6l  2.34  3.00  4.35  6.06  7.29  6  .87.  1.13  1.64  2.20  3.07  3.83  5.35  7.23  8.56  . .00063  10.83  II.67  13.28  18.46 •  9.24 1 1 . 0 7  13.29  15.09  20.52  10.64 1 2 . 5 9  15.03  16.81  22.46  9.80 12.02  14.07  16.62  18.48  24.32  7  1.24  1.56  2.17  2.83  3.82  4.57  6.35  8.38  8  1.65  2.03  2.73  3.49  4.59  5.53  7.34  9,52  11.03  13.36  15.51  18.17  20.09  26.12  9  2.09  2.53  3-32  4.17  5.38  6.39  8.34  10.66  12.24  14.68  16.92  19.68  21.67  27.88  10  2.56  3.06  3.94  4.86  6.18  7-27  9.34  11.78  13.44  15.99  18.31  21.16  23-21.  29-59  Source:  Sidney S i e g e l , Nonparametric S t a t i s t i c s f o r the B e h a v i o u r a l (New York: M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., I n c . , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 2 4 9 .  Sciences,  

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