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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An examination of management development programs Foo, Chee Chin 1965

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AN EXAMINATION OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS by CHEE GHIN FOO B.A., University of Singapore, 1962 A thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION i n the Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1965 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Commerce and Business Administration The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada - i i -ABSTRACT This thesis i s an attempt to i d e n t i f y and review some of the more s a l i e n t aspects of management development pro-grams and to ascertain whether or not there i s a generally accepted approach to management t r a i n i n g . The d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of management development are examined f i r s t . This i s followed by a discussion on the requirements of a manager. A study of the pre-requisites f o r these programs precedes the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and evaluation of c e r t a i n development a c t i v i t i e s and techniques. Following t h i s are some case studies on how several large Vancouver-based companies conduct th e i r programs. A c r i t i q u e of the evaluation of management tr a i n i n g and a discussion on the problems encountered i n these programs ensue. F i n a l l y , an endeavor i s made to show that the approaches taken to management development programs are f a r from being uniform and a case i s advocated f o r a greater e f f o r t to de-vise a more generally accepted framework of management t r a i n -ing, f l e x i b l e enough to accommodate p a r t i c u l a r needs and si t u a t i o n s . - i v -TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose of Study 1 Research Methodology 2 Scope and Limitations of Study 3 Chapter Organization 3 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 7 I I . MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT 9 Levels of Management Development 9 Requirements of a Manager: Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or S k i l l s 12 i The Myth of a Model Manager 15 Management Development i s Possible . . . . 16 I I I . PRE-REQUISITES FOR SUCCESSFUL OPERATION. . . 18 Clearly Defined Objectives 18 A l l Development i s Self-development. . . . 20 Top Management Support and P a r t i c i p a t i o n . 21 Line Responsibility and Co-operation . . . 22 Conducive Company Climate 2h Sound Company Organization 25 Management Development Should Be Tailor-Made 26 Proper Role of Management Development Staff 27 Development Should Be Continuous 28 IV". DEVELOPMENT TOOLS . 30 P o s i t i o n Description 30 Management Appraisal . . . 32 - V -CHAPTER PAGE The Post-appraisal Interview 35 The Management Inventory 36 V. ON-THE-JOB TRAINING 39 Coaching 39 Job Rotation hi "Assistant" Jobs . ^2 Special Individual Assignment . hh Syndicate ^5 Multiple Management . h$ VI. OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING . kQ Lecture and Panel Discussions . . ^9 Conference Training Methods. . . . . . . . 51 Role Playing 53 Management Games 55 S e n s i t i v i t y Training 58 Programmed Instruction . . . . . 60 VII. EVALUATION OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS 6h Design of Evaluation 65 C r i t e r i a f o r Evaluation 68 Suggestions f o r Improvements 70 Effectiveness of Management Development Programs 72 VIII. SOME CASE STUDIES. 78 A Forest Products Company 79 A Department Store Chain 85 A Public U t i l i t y Corporation 92 A F i n a n c i a l Corporation . 98 - v i -CHAPTER PAGE A Review of the Four Programs 10*+ IX. PROBLEMS IN MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS 107 Overcoming Some O b s t a c l e s i n Management Development 107 Some Un r e s o l v e d Problems 112 X. CONCLUSIONS 116 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Purpose of Study An i n c r e a s i n g l y important area of business e n t e r p r i s e i s the proper development of w e l l - q u a l i f i e d management per-s o n n e l to f u l f i l l b oth p r e s e n t and f u t u r e needs. U n f o r t u n -a t e l y , i t i s a s u b j e c t t h a t has o n l y r e c e n t l y r e c e i v e d wide-spread a t t e n t i o n and c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I n c r e a s i n g c o m p e t i t i o n , changed socio-economic c o n d i t i o n s and new developments i n technology accentuate the need f o r b e t t e r t r a i n e d managers imbued w i t h up to date management p r i n c i p l e s and techniques to cope w i t h the growing c o m p l e x i t i e s of o p e r a t i n g business e n t e r p r i s e s . Management s u c c e s s i o n and company growth demand a steady flow of p r o p e r l y t r a i n e d people t o ensure a degree of c o n t i n u i t y of business o p e r a t i o n s . The i n d i f f e r e n t a t t i -tude towards management development i s f a s t becoming a t h i n g of the p a s t , e s p e c i a l l y i n l a r g e companies, as more and more top managements are beginning to r e a l i z e t h a t the c o m p e t i t i o n of the f u t u r e would be more and more a c o n t e s t between man-agement teams r a t h e r than anything e l s e . 1 T h i s t h e s i s i s concerned w i t h the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and examination of some of the more s a l i e n t aspects o f manage-1. Thomas A. Mahoney, B u i l d i n g the E x e c u t i v e Team. Engl e -wood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1961, p. 20. ment development programs and ascertaining whether there i s a generally accepted set of procedures and p r i n c i p l e s i n man-agement development as i n the case of accounting and other acknowledged professions. A case i s put f o r t h to show that there i s no one accepted way to develop managers. Though the formulation of a general theory of development i s f a r from sight, f o r the moment at l e a s t , i t would be a good idea to explore the p o s s i b i l i t y of making the whole area of manage-ment development more systematic and more generally accept-p able. However, any such framework contemplated should be f l e x i b l e enough to accommodate the d i v e r s i t y of needs and situations ever present i n the business world. Research Methodology Much of the material i n t h i s thesis i s based on second-ary sources, p a r t i c u l a r l y books, •journals, and other publica-tio n s , mostly North American i n o r i g i n . The s t a t i s t i c a l data and some studies are taken mainly from journals and s p e c i a l reports. Several case studies were undertaken to demonstrate how four large Vancouver-based companies, each representing a separate industry, conduct t h e i r management development pro-grams. These case studies are a r e s u l t of several i n t e r -views held with the people responsible f o r co-ordinating t r a i n i n g i n t h e i r respective companies. 2 . By "systematic", i t i s meant that there should be more planning and organization i n a l o g i c a l and r e a l i s t i c manner. "Generally acceptable" refers to a s i t u a t i o n where a set of procedures and p r i n c i p l e s are adhered to by a majority or a l l of the people involved i n management t r a i n i n g . Scope and Limitations of Study Management development i s too wide a topic to be thor-oughly investigated i n every aspect. Thus, only the more s a l i e n t areas are i d e n t i f i e d and reviewed. The areas i n c l u d -ed are as follows; the requirements of a manager; pre-r e q u i s i t e s f o r successful operation; procedures, methods and tools used; evaluation and problems encountered i n management development. Since the thesis i s intended to be a t h e o r e t i c a l exposition, the actual mechanics of operating a management development program are not included. B r i e f l y the focus i s on the "what" and "why" of management development rather than the "how". Chapter Organization Chapter II deals f i r s t l y with the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of management development. Three managerial l e v e l s : f i r s t - l i n e supervision, middle management and top management are i d e n t i -f i e d . Training programs should be designed to s a t i s f y the s p e c i f i c needs at each l e v e l . Technical and human rel a t i o n s s k i l l s are required i n the f i r s t two l e v e l s and conceptual s k i l l i n the t h i r d l e v e l . Next the requirements of a manager are examined. One school of thought believes that c e r t a i n basic s k i l l s are c r u c i a l to a manager's effectiveness. A second school of thought emphasizes c e r t a i n personality t r a i t s . Perhaps, a more plausible approach l i e s i n a combination of the two. Judging from the wide var i e t y of opinions expressed on the requirements of a manager, one can conclude that there - If -i s l i t t l e or no agreement on what a manager should be. How-ever, better management can be learned. Chapter III i s devoted to a discussion of the possible pre-requisites f o r successful operation of a management development program. These pre-requisites are by no means absolutes. Rather, they are guidelines with which one can possibly make a s t a r t . I t appears that a well conceived program should have c l e a r l y defined objectives, top manage-ment support and p a r t i c i p a t i o n , l i n e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and cor operation, conducive company climate and sound company organ-i z a t i o n . Moreover, the program should be tailor-made and continuous. If possible, there should be a management devel-opment s t a f f to a s s i s t i n the administration of the program. A program can only succeed i f each and every p a r t i c i p a n t has a personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to make i t work; f o r ultimately a l l development i s self-development. Development tools are reviewed i n Chapter IV. These are devices used f o r such purposes as determining the basis i n which the program i s to be conducted, ascertaining organ-i z a t i o n a l and i n d i v i d u a l needs, processing and storing data pertaining to the program and f a c i l i t a t i n g the teaching-learning process. Among.the development tools frequently employed are p o s i t i o n description, management appraisal, post-appraisal interview and management inventory. Chapter V i s a study of the development a c t i v i t i e s used i n on-the-job t r a i n i n g . Wherever possible, one should t r y to - 5 -t r a i n managers on-the-job because people learn by doing and i t i s comparatively cheaper and more convenient than off-the-job t r a i n i n g . Off-the-job development a c t i v i t i e s cannot sub-s t i t u t e f o r on-the-job t r a i n i n g . Experience indicates that most of the actual learning takes place on-the-job. The most popular form of on-the-job t r a i n i n g i s personal coaching of a subordinate by his superior. Other forms of on-the-job t r a i n -ing includes job rot a t i o n , s p e c i a l i n d i v i d u a l assignment, syndicate, "assistant" jobs and multiple management. The l a s t two are e s p e c i a l l y good f o r t r a i n i n g promising managers f o r top p o s i t i o n s . This i s followed by a s i m i l a r study of the off-the-job t r a i n i n g i n Chapter.VI. Off-the-job development a c t i v i t i e s are often used to supplement the experiences and a c t i v i t i e s not avai l a b l e on-the-job. Each development technique has i t s merits and weaknesses and i s more suitable f o r some purposes than others. For instance, one i s i n c l i n e d to u t i l i z e r o l e playing, lecture and panel discussions f o r t r a i n i n g people for lower managerial positions; and management games and seminars for.developing managers slated f o r higher managerial echelons. There are some development techniques l i k e the l e c -ture and discussion group which can be used f o r t r a i n i n g people for almost every managerial l e v e l . Chapter VII deals with the evaluation of management development programs. Available l i t e r a t u r e suggests that r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e attention i s paid to evaluation as compared with other areas of management development even though i t i s - 6 -c o n s i d e r e d an e s s e n t i a l aspect of t r a i n i n g . One c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i s the r e l a t i v e nebulous nature of the s u b j e c t . Des-p i t e the l a c k of proper measuring t o o l s , a g r e a t number of f i r m s express s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r r e s u l t s a t l e a s t i n terms of t h e i r own o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s i s an area i n which much work needs to be done. Some case s t u d i e s on how f o u r l a r g e Vancouver-based companies conduct t h e i r management development programs are i n c l u d e d i n Chapter VIII. I t i s n o t i c e d t h a t each company a d m i n i s t e r s i t s program i n a manner i t c o n s i d e r s b e f i t t i n g t o i t s p o l i c y and o p e r a t i o n s . The companies w i t h a l e s s e r range of a c t i v i t i e s tend to employ more s t a n d a r d i z e d t e c h -niques than the companies w i t h d i v e r s i f i e d o p e r a t i o n s . A l l the companies appear to have a f i r m b e l i e f i n p roper coaching by the immediate s u p e r i o r and on-the-job t r a i n i n g . For some reason or another, none of the companies make any strenuous e f f o r t to evaluate t h e i r programs. Chapter IX i s concerned w i t h the problems encountered i n management development. I t seems t h a t some problems can be overcome w h i l e others are l i k e l y to remain u n r e s o l v e d f o r some time to come. Some problems l i k e the r e s i s t a n c e to l e a r n i n g can be r e c t i f i e d by examining the t r u e nature of r e s i s t a n c e and t a k i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n . However, other problems such as one i n v o l v i n g a c o n f l i c t between s a t i s f y i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l needs and i n d i v i d u a l development are not so e a s i l y r e s o l v e d . In Chapter X, a case i s made to show that there i s l i t t l e or no consensus i n the approach to developing managers because of the d i v e r s i t y of needs and si t u a t i o n s . Conse-quently, i t i s suggested that some attempts should be made to develop a more generally accepted framework of management development which i s f l e x i b l e enough to accommodate as many aspirations and circumstances as possible. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The term "management development program" could be quite misleading, e s p e c i a l l y i f one were to inte r p r e t these programs i n terms of courses and classes scheduled i n a c e r t a i n pattern. To overcome this ambiguity, a "management development program" i n t h i s thesis means "a systematic, continuing and judicious treatment of the long-term problem of management development i n a company and resourceful use of work assignments, coaching on the job and other means to a s s i s t managerial personnel to increase t h e i r productivity and competencef,'.s^ Training and development are used interchangeably i n th i s thesis though i n recent years, the use of the term ••training* 1 has become one r e s t r i c t e d to the learning a c t i v i -t i e s of the non-management personnel and "development" has been applied increasingly to the learning process of the managerial group. "Development" refers "to the indiv i d u a l ' s 3. A d e f i n i t i o n found i n John W. Riegel, Executive Devel- opment , Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1952, p. 2. - 8 -e f f o r t s and achievement i n i n c r e a s i n g and i m p r o v i n g h i s m a n a g e r i a l and t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t i e s . H i s e f f o r t s can be g u i d -ed by s e l e c t e d work assignments and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s a f f o r d -i n g h i s b e n e f i c i a l e x p e r i e n c e " . A manager i n t h i s t h e s i s r e f e r s "not o n l y t o e v e r y s u p e r v i s o r i n c l u d i n g t h o s e i n j u n i o r l e v e l s and t h o s e i n s e n i o r l e v e l s i n e v e r y d i v i s i o n o f a b u s i n e s s , b u t i t r e f e r s a l s o t o p e r s o n s n o t s t r i c t l y managers who occupy i m p o r t a n t 6 t e c h n i c a l and s t a f f p o s i t i o n s w h i c h a r e d i f f i c u l t t o f i l l " . The usage o f an a l l - i n c l u s i v e term i s p a r t l y f o r c o n v e n i e n c e and p a r t l y because t h e r e i s no d e f i n i t e l i n e o f d e m a r c a t i o n between t h e d i f f e r e n t e c h e l o n s o f m a n a g e r i a l s t a f f i n any comprehensive management development program. E v e r y e c h e l o n i s i n c l u d e d because one may be a t r a i n i n g ground f o r a n o t h e r . I m p o r t a n t t e c h n i c a l and s t a f f p e r s o n n e l a r e o f t e n I n c l u d e d i n management development even though some of them a r e n o t c l a s s i f i e d as managers. These a r e t h e main d e f i n i t i o n s w h i c h i t i s f e l t s h o u l d be c l a r i f i e d i n i t i a l l y . Other terms by no means l e s s e s s e n -t i a l o r more l u c i d , w i l l be c l a r i f i e d when n e c e s s a r y . h. I b i d . 5. A manager i s d e f i n i e d by t h e F a i r Labor S t a n d a r d s A c t s as a p e r s o n h a v i n g t h e a u t h o r i t y t o h i r e , f i r e , s u p e r v i s e and d i r e c t as w e l l as p o s s e s s i n g some d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers. V i d e , an e x t r a c t o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i n J o s e p h L. Cummins, "Manage-ment a P r o f e s s i o n ? " Advanced Management O f f i c e E x e c u t i v e , V o l . 1 , No. 1 2 , Dec. 1 9 6 2 , p. 1 1 . 6. R i e g e l , op. c i t . , p. 3» CHAPTER II . MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT Before any management development program can be under-taken, i t may be worthwhile to discuss b r i e f l y the types of t r a i n i n g needed i n the d i f f e r e n t managerial echelons and the requirements of a manager. Only then can measures be taken to plan and implement whatever t r a i n i n g program one has i n mind. Levels of Management Development Although every member of the management group has to plan, organize, d i r e c t and control^ each performs these func-tions d i f f e r e n t l y , depending on which echelon he belongs to and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of that echelon. Moreover the a t t r i -butes of t r a i n i n g and experience which a manager possesses at any given time vary with his p o s i t i o n i n the organization. In t h i s respect, a management development program should strive to s a t i s f y the various needs of these echelons. Development should be programmed to correspond with the three l e v e l s of management: f i r s t - l i n e supervision (foremen), middle manage-ment (department heads) and top management (company o f f i c e r s ) . 1 Technical and human re l a t i o n s s k i l l s are paramount i n the 1. Theodore A. Toedt et a l . , Managing Manpower i n the  I n d u s t r i a l Environment.. Dubuque, Iowa: W. C. Brown Co., 1962, pp. i*i+6-¥*9. - 1 0 -f i r s t two l e v e l s , however, i n the t h i r d l e v e l , conceptual 2 s k i l l i s the all-important f a c t o r . Often f i r s t - l i n e supervisors are promoted from the ranks. Though possessing l i t t l e formal education, they are l i k e l y to have considerable experience i n the work at t h e i r l e v e l . With such a background, any tr a i n i n g envisaged should be designed to develop them i n areas i n which they are l i k e l y to be d e f i c i e n t , such as leadership, organizational a b i l i t i e s and problem-solving techniques. With the exception of a few hired from outside, most middle managers are selected from the f i r s t - l i n e supervisors or more frequently today, from the products of junior execu-t i v e development programs. Development should be conducted i n r e l a t i o n to the sources and backgrounds of those involved, A non-college manager requires a d i f f e r e n t t r a i n i n g program from that st i p u l a t e d f o r his college-trained colleague. The former needs to broaden h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l outlook, sharpen.his problem-solving s k i l l and improve his a b i l i t y to communicate. On the other hand, the development program for.the l a t t e r should be designed to f a m i l i a r i z e him with company p o l i c i e s , procedures and operations; and to t r a i n him to be an e f f e c t i v e manager. I t i s at t h i s l e v e l that more and more emphasis should be given to self-development as a key to progress and advancement. - 2 . Robert L. Katz, " S k i l l s of an E f f e c t i v e Administrator," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 3 3 » No. 1 , Jan.-Feb. 1 9 5 5 > pp. 3 3 - ^ 2 . - 11 -Development f o r p o s i t i o n s i n top management takes a somewhat d i f f e r e n t course from the p r e v i o u s two l e v e l s . Those s e l e c t e d f o r these p o s i t i o n s u s u a l l y have proven l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s . More important, the people chosen have demonstrated t h e i r p o t e n t i a l s f o r g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h e i r d u t i e s r e q u i r e a comprehen-s i v e understanding of events and s i t u a t i o n s both w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the company. Development a t t h i s l e v e l i s g e n e r a l l y t a i l o r - m a d e to s u i t the i n d i v i d u a l concerned. S e l f - d e v e l o p -ment i s h e a v i l y s t r e s s e d , f o r the upper echelon i s a p l a c e s t r i c t l y r e s e r v e d f o r people w i t h immense i n i t i a t i v e , energy and c a p a b i l i t i e s . Much emphasis i s p l a c e d on the develop-ment or improvement of c o n c e p t u a l s k i l l a t t h i s l e v e l . Some w r i t e r s argue t h a t a management development program should s t a r t a t a h i g h l e v e l because of the importance of l e a d -e r s h i p , coaching and example by the s u p e r i o r i n the develop-ment of a subordinate.- 1 They f e e l t h a t o n l y top management can permeate the development a c t i v i t i e s down the l i n e . More-over, they b e l i e v e t h a t any development a c t i v i t y not approved by the s e n i o r e x e c u t i v e s i s doomed to f a i l i n i t s o b j e c t i v e . Others, however, m a i n t a i n t h a t r e g a r d l e s s of the l e v e l s t a r t -ed, development a c t i v i t i e s tend to spread r a p i d l y both upwards 3. One of them i s A l l e n , v i d e , Louis A. A l l e n , The Man  agement P r o f e s s i o n . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Go., 196^, p. 302 e t sea. - 12 -and downwards i n the organization.^ These a c t i v i t i e s may s l i d e downwards as the lower echelons begin to consider them to be a device f o r advancement. These a c t i v i t i e s may move upwards because the superiors have to analyze th e i r own job performance and needs for improvement before they can do an e f f e c t i v e job of developing others. Their experiences i n coaching others prepare them well f o r planning and undertak-ing development a c t i v i t i e s for themselves. Requirements of a Manager: Personality C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or S k i l l s One school of thought suggests that an e f f e c t i v e man-ager should have c e r t a i n personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The other school emphasizes basic s k i l l s such as te c h n i c a l , human 6 r e l a t i o n s and conceptual s k i l l s . There i s s t i l l some d i s -pute on which i s more relevant to a manager's effectiveness. Perhaps a more plausible approach l i e s i n a combination of the two as they are quite i n t e r - r e l a t e d i n numerous occasions. For instance, an i n d i v i d u a l can only master a s k i l l provided he has the necessary aptitude, p o t e n t i a l and motivation. Personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e f e r to the "sum t o t a l of t r a i t s and behavior c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a person presents to the world and which determine the reaction of others to h. John W. Riegel, Executive Development, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1952, p. 67. 5. Burt K* Scanlan, "A New Look at Executive Development," Administrative Management, Jan. 196^, p. 31 et sea. 6. Katz, op. c i t . . pp. 33-^2. - 13 -7 him". There i s a lack of consensus as to what character-i s t i c s are e s s e n t i a l i n a manager. Two authors' opinions as to these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are c i t e d to i l l u s t r a t e what i s meant. To Seanlan, the ess e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are as Q follows: Intelligence Adaptability-Decisiveness A n a l y t i c a l A b i l i t y Character • Proper Attitude Motivation Chris Argyris, from his many studies, comes to the con-cl u s i o n that some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of successful managers are 9 as follows: E x h i b i t high f r u s t r a t i o n tolerance Encourage f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n Continually questioning themselves Understand "Laws of Competitive Warfare" Express h o s t i l i t y t a c t f u l l y Accept v i c t o r y with controlled emotion Defeat never shatters them Understand necessity f o r l i m i t s and "unfavourable decision" Identify selves with groups Set goals r e a l i s t i c a l l y Others, l i k e Katz believe that the performance of a 7 . C a r l Heyel, Appraising Executive Performance, New York: American Management Association, 1 9 5 8 , p. 10h~. 8. Scanlan, op. c i t . , p. 32. 9. Chris Argyris, "Some Char a c t e r i s t i c s of Successful Executives," Personal Journal, V o l . 3 2 , No. 5> May 1953? PP» 50-53. 10. Katz, op. c i t . , pp. 33-^ -2. - Ih -manager depends more on fundamental s k i l l s than personality-t r a i t s as mentioned e a r l i e r . For instance, the q u a l i t i e s needed by a shop superintendent are not l i k e l y to be the same as those required by an executive vice-president. A s k i l l i s defined as an a b i l i t y which can be developed, i s not necessar-i l y innate and which i s exhibited i n performance. Three s k i l l s are i d e n t i f i e d : technical, human relations, and concep-t u a l . Technical s k i l l i s an a b i l i t y shown i n p r o f i c i e n c y i n a s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t y p a r t i c u l a r l y one involving procedures, methods and processes. Human r e l a t i o n s s k i l l implies an a b i l i t y to work e f f e c t i v e l y with others. Conceptual s k i l l e n t a i l s an a b i l i t y to recognize the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the various functions of the organization and how changes i n one a f f e c t s the others. According to t h i s approach, conceptual s k i l l becomes increasingly c r i t i c a l i n the upper echelons where p o l i c i e s and long-range decisions are made. At the top of the man-agement hierarchy, conceptual s k i l l i s paramount. I t appears that technical and human re l a t i o n s s k i l l s are the p r i n c i p a l needs at the lower administrative l e v e l s . They also claim that s k i l l s are easier to i d e n t i f y and l e s s l i k e l y to be misinterpreted than t r a i t s i n performance appraisals. Even i n t h i s school of thought, a considerable d i s -agreement exists as to what the s k i l l s should be. Houston, fo r example, offers another l i s t of s k i l l s which he thinks 1 - 15 -i s necessary f o r a manager to do a good job of managing.^" His l i s t i s as follows: Technical and a n a l y t i c a l s k i l l Conceptual s k i l l Human rel a t i o n s s k i l l Teaching and learning s k i l l Communication s k i l l Decision-making s k i l l The Myth of Model Manager Judging from the wide var i e t y of opinions on the re-quirements of a manager, one can conclude that a model mana-ger i s a myth. There are too many variables Involved to have one type of manager able to deal with a l l situations and prob-lems e f f e c t i v e l y . One factor contributing to thi s d i f f i c u l t y of defining a manager i s the absence of proper measuring t o o l s . Another i s that d i f f e r e n t situations require d i f f e r -ent managerial performance, which i n turn demands d i f f e r e n t 12 s k i l l s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . There appears to be as many exceptions as there are rules concerning what constitutes a good manager. One can almost gather s u f f i c i e n t evidence to substantiate any point one chooses. A Fortune magazine f i n d -ing estimated that i f some of the requirements, now being st i p u l a t e d of managers, were to be vigorously applied, as much as a half of the most dynamic men i n business today might be 11. George C. Houston, Manager"Development, Homewood, 111.: Richard D. Irwin Inc., 1961, p. Ih. 12. Roger Bellows, T. Q. Gilson, G. S. Odiorne, Executive  S k i l l s : Their Dynamics and Development, Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Pr e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1962, p. 7. - 16 -13 ou t o f a 30b. I t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e t h e a c t i v i t i e s and r e q u i r e -ments i n a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i r m a t a p a r -lk t i c u l a r o c c a s i o n as p o i n t e d o u t by Mace. T h i s i s e x a c t l y what i s needed i n many i n s t a n c e s , o f management development. The t r a i n i n g r e c e i v e d s h o u l d be a p p r o p r i a t e t o the man him-s e l f and h i s j o b . What i s s e e m i n g l y b e n e f i c i a l t o a group as a whole may be o f l i t t l e use t o the i n d i v i d u a l members. Any t r a i n i n g w h i c h f a i l s t o a t t a i n i t s o b j e c t i v e s i s wasted. Thus, t r a i n i n g s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d t o s t r i k e a happy b a l a n c e between o r g a n i z a t i o n a l g o a l s and i n d i v i d u a l wants. Management Development i s P o s s i b l e , Though t h e c o n c e p t o f a model manager i s w i t h o u t doubt a myth, management development programs a r e based on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t m a n a g e r i a l s k i l l s can be d e v e l o p e d o r im-p r o v e d . I t i s s a i d t h a t w i t h p r o p e r d i r e c t i o n , encouragement, 15 i n c e n t i v e s and t r a i n i n g , b e t t e r management can be l e a r n e d . R e s e a r c h i n p s y c h o l o g y and p h y s i o l o g y shows t h a t an 13. Quoted i n W i l l i a m H. Whyte, J r . , "The F a l l a c i e s o f P e r s o n a l i t y T e s t i n g , " F o r t u n e , V o l . 50, No. 3, S e p t . 195^> p. 118. Ik. Myles L. Mace. The Growth and Development o f Execu- t i v e s , B o s t o n : D i v i s i o n of R e s e a r c h , Graduate S c h o o l of B u s i n e s s , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , 1950, p. 20. 15. V i r g i l K. Rowland, Improving M a n a g e r i a l P e r f o r m a n c e , New Y o r k : Harper and B r o t h e r s , 195o, p. 17 e t s e a . - 17 -i n d i v i d u a l need not have s p e c i a l aptitude or a b i l i t y to develop a s k i l l though his ultimate proficiency i n thi s s k i l l w i l l not be as outstanding as one who possesses these q u a l i -16 t i e s assuming a l l other factors equal. A person can possibly "learn" how to change or improve some of his personality t r a i t s i f he perceives a necessity f o r so doing and i f he i s given the necessary f a c i l i t i e s and backing to accomplish what he has i n mind.1'' However i n a s s i s t i n g another to develop as a manager, one cannot s t a r t from scratch because the i n d i v i d u a l con-cerned already has developed his personality to some extent. His personality, a unique combination of needs, attitudes and a b i l i t i e s cannot be ignored; t h i s forms the framework f o r his further development. Some behavior s c i e n t i s t s are of the opinion that given time and proper methods, an indiv i d u a l ' s •I Q set of personality c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be modified. Of course, there are i n d i v i d u a l differences i n response to any stimulus f o r change owing to differences i n the degree of r i g i d i t y of one's personality and the impact of the stimulus on the i n d i v i d u a l i n question. 16. Katz, op. c i t . , p. !+0. 17. For a more elaborate discourse on the relat i o n s h i p between learning and personality, vide, Donald Snygg, "Learn-ing: An Aspect of Personality Development," i n Learning  Theory, Personality Theory and C l i n i c a l Research, The Kentucky  Symposium, New York: John Wiley and Sons, l n c . , 195*+, pp. 129-137. 18. Walter S. Wikstrom, "Developing Managerial Competence," Studies i n Personnel Policy No. 189. New York: National I n d u s t r i a l Conference Board, 1964-, p. 18. CHAPTER I I I PRE-REQUTSITES FOR SUCCESSFUL OPERATION Over t h e y e a r s , s t u d e n t s o f management f r o m t h e i r p e r -s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s and t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f o t h e r s have p o s t u -l a t e d a s e r i e s o f p r e - r e q u i s i t e s w h i c h t h e y t h i n k have some r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e s u c c e s s o f management d e v e l o p m e n t . 1 By no means s h o u l d t h e s e p r e - r e q u i s i t e s be c o n s i d e r e d as laws i n t h e p u r e l y s c i e n t i f i c s e n s e . R a t h e r t h e y a r e more a p t l y d e s c r i b e d as g u i d e l i n e s i n d i c a t i n g a p o s s i b i l i t y of s u c c e s s i f c e r t a i n p r o c e d u r e s and c o n d i t i o n s a r e f u l f i l l e d . As i n the case o f any body of g u i d e l i n e s , some a r e a c c e p t e d by a m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e i n v o l v e d i n management development, some by a m i n o r i t y and o t h e r s a r e adhered t o by o n l y a few. C l e a r l y D e f i n e d O b j e c t i v e s The p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f a management d e v e l -opment program w i l l be a l o t e a s i e r i f t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e program a r e c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and u n d e r s t o o d . W i t h t h e e s t a b -l i s h m e n t o f o b j e c t i v e s , t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d w i l l be i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o know what t h e y a r e supposed t o do and a c c o m p l i s h . C o n s e q u e n t l y , development a c t i v i t i e s c a n be more e f f e c t i v e l y p l a n n e d and e x e c u t e d . F u r t h e r , t h e r e s u l t s o f 1. W a l t e r S. Wikstrom, " D e v e l o p i n g M a n a g e r i a l Competence," S t u d i e s i n P e r s o n n e l P o l i c y No. 189. New Yo r k : N a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l C o n f e r e n c e B o a r d , 1964-, p. 17. - 19 -the program can more e a s i l y be assessed i f the objectives are 2 known. One possible objective can be improving managers i n •a t h e i r present job performance. Another can be providing a reserve of q u a l i f i e d managerial personnel to replace present incumbents and to s t a f f new posi t i o n s . A t h i r d possible objec-t i v e can be a t t r a c t i n g and retaining desirable personnel who have an as p i r a t i o n to move ahead as quickly as t h e i r a b i l i t i e s permit. S t i l l another can be preparing management f o r d i s -charging managerial r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s e f f e c t i v e l y i n the ever increasing complexities of the highly competitive business world and ensuring that management w i l l be kept up to date with the l a t e s t developments i n engineering, production and other business a c t i v i t i e s . One can also use a t r a i n i n g pro-gram f o r improving morale, communication process, human r e l a -tions s k i l l and so on within the organization. 2. Evaluating a t r a i n i n g program i s s t i l l a major problem today. One suggested approach to the problem i s to assess a program i n terms of i t s stated objectives. Vide, Joseph M. T r i c k e t t , "A Survey of Management Development," i n Management  Education f o r I t s e l f and Its Employees, Part I I , New York: American Management Association], I95^j P« 38. 3. Whyte reports that a college graduate tends to view the existence and nature of a t r a i n i n g program as c r u c i a l of the job o f f e r s he receives. Vide, William H. Whyte, J r . , The  Organization Man. New York: Doubleday and Co., 1957» p. 121 et seq. *f. In a study made by the National I n d u s t r i a l Conference Board i n i 9 6 0 , a majority of the respondents placed present job performance as t h e i r primary objective. Vide, Walter S. Wikstrom, "Why Companies Develop Their Managers," Management  Record. Nov. 1961, pp. 6-8. - 20 -Every company contemplating a management development program should decide what objectives are most conducive i n r e l a t i o n to i t s needs, p o l i c i e s and operations. Whatever objectives established f o r the program should be consistent with the o v e r - a l l corporate goals and p o l i c i e s . Any object t i v e set should be r e a l i s t i c , attainable, compatible with other objectives and c l e a r l y defined. A l l Development i s Self-development I t i s said that any development on the part of the manager i s self-development i n the long run. While i t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the company to a s s i s t him to develop whenever necessary, the entire burden of development rests on the manager because i t i s a job no one can do for him. A l l that a company can do i s provide the man with whatever experiences and opportunities he requires. The actual devel-opment has to be done by him. Studies made of the careers of successful managers indicate that the greatest development takes place when the man himself accepts f u l l accountability f o r his development. For any development of any dimension, he should not only possess the necessary native a b i l i t i e s , but also the energy, drive, i n i t i a t i v e and purpose to develop his p o t e n t i a l s . In short, management development i s the c u l t i v a -t i o n and a c t i v a t i o n of some late n t forces within the ind i v i d u a l . 5. Thomas A. Mahoney, Building the Executive Team, Engle-wood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1961, p. 213. 6. Robert K. Stolz, "Getting Back to Fundamentals i n Execu-t i v e Development," Personnel. Vol. 30, No. 6, May 195h, p. *+39. - 21 -Top Management Support and P a r t i c i p a t i o n The success of a management development program depends a l o t on top management support and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Without t h i s , the program i s u n l i k e l y to receive the support and attention i t deserves. Line managers are mainly concerned with the day-to-day operations and are l i a b l e to neglect the long term development of t h e i r subordinates. Only top man-agement can provide a stimulus f o r development i f they assume th i s function as part of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r maintaining 7 the wellbeing of the enterprise. If the statement that "People do what t h e i r boss ex-g pects" i s accepted as a f a i r assumption, i t follows that i f top management expects t h e i r immediate subordinates to develop t h e i r juniors as well as setting t h e i r administrative house i n order, then the process of development w i l l permeate down the l i n e . A c e r t a i n German i n d u s t r i a l firm i s reported to have discontinued the practice of i n s t r u c t i n g the lower echelons i n the u t i l i z a t i o n of the l a t e s t management p r i n c i p l e s , the reason being the subordinates are unable to apply these tech-niques i n t h e i r jobs because these are not practised by t h e i r superiors. To overcome t h i s , the firm decided to introduce improved techniques and procedures at the upper echelons 7. Mahoney, op. c i t . , p. 21. 8 . A remark made by Lawrence A. Appley of the American Management Association quoted i n V i r g i l Rowland, Managerial Performance Standards, New York: American Management Assoc-i a t i o n , I960 , p. 15. - 22 -f i r s t b e fore extending them to the r e s t of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . However, i t i s p r e f e r a b l e i f top management i n i t i a t e s the program r a t h e r than be s o l d on i t . T h i s should c r e a t e an o b l i g a t i o n to ensure t h a t the program w i l l work. But once they launch the program, they should prove t h e i r i n t e r -e s t by a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n other words, they should be d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the p l a n n i n g , o r g a n i z i n g , d i r e c t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g of a l l aspects of the program as much as t h e i r time would pe r m i t . Should they d e l e g a t e some of these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , they must m a i n t a i n an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n i t s p r o g r e s s . Otherwise the program w i l l d i s i n t e g r a t e and 10 the end r e s u l t s may not be worth the e f f o r t expended. L i n e R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and C o - o p e r a t i o n The l i n e r e f e r s to "those f u n c t i o n s which have d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r accomplishing the o b j e c t i v e s of the enter 11 p r i s e " . L i n e managers i n c l u d e d i v i s i o n managers to f i r s t l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s . I f each manager i s h e l d accountable f o r o b t a i n i n g r e s u l t s through others he c o u l d not h e l p but d e v e l op h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s i n order to a t t a i n whatever goals he 9. Louis A. A l l e n , The Management P r o f e s s i o n . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 196M-, p. 302. 10. Ewing W. R e i l l e y and Bernard J . M u l l e r - T h y e r , "The O v e r - a l l Company P l a n , " i n Harwood F. M e r r i l l and E l i z a b e t h M a r t i n g , Developing E x e c u t i v e S k i l l s . New York: American Management A s s o c i a t i o n , 1952, p. ¥f. 11. A d e f i n i t i o n by L. A. A l l e n quoted i n H a r o l d Koontz and C y r i l O'Donnell. P r i n c i p l e s of Management. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1959, p. 135. - 23 -12 sets to accomplish He should be made to r e a l i z e beyond any doubt that his value to the company i s increased, not decreased, through his e f f o r t s to develop others. I t i s contended that the immediate superior i s i n the 13 best possible p o s i t i o n to develop his subordinates. Through regular i n t e r a c t i o n , he should know th e i r i n d i v i d u a l weaknesses and those areas that need attention and develop-ment. The close working rela t i o n s h i p offers the superior numerous opportunities to a l l o t s p e c i f i c assignments that would improve t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s . Learning i s a process attainable through actual doing. The speed of learning w i l l accelerate i f the superior assigns tasks that are l i k e l y to enhance i t s progress. The l i n e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r development Is complicated by the lack of consensus on the proper way to t r a i n subordin-ates. Cases have been c i t e d of well-intending superiors who i n the process of coaching t h e i r subordinates a c t u a l l y per-formed t h e i r jobs f o r them. In so doing, the subordinates were deprived of the opportunities to develop. Consequent-l y i t may be necessary to t r a i n the managers i n how to coach t h e i r juniors. 12. A l l e n , op. c i t . , p. 303. 13. Myles L. Mace, The Growth and"Development of Executives. Boston: D i v i s i o n of Research, Graduate School of Business, Harvard University, 1950? P» 108 et seq. . Ik. S t o l z , op. c i t . , p. ¥+0. - 2h -C o n d u c i v e C o m p a n y C l i m a t e W i t h o u t a c o n d u c i v e c o m p a n y c l i m a t e , i t w o u l d b e a n a r d u o u s t a s k t o r u n a s u c c e s s f u l m a n a g e m e n t d e v e l o p m e n t p r o -g r a m . C o m p a n y c l i m a t e r e f e r s t o a m a n a g e r ' s w o r k i n g e n v i r o n -m e n t o r r a t h e r h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . W o r k i n g e n v i r o n m e n t c o n s i s t s o f t h e c o m p a n y p o l i c i e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s , t h e w a y a m a n a g e r i s t r e a t e d , t h e t r a i n i n g a f f o r d e d t o h i m , t h e i n t e r e s t s h o w n i n h i m a n d a l l t h e t h i n g s t h e c o m p a n y 15 s t r e s s e s a n d u p h o l d s . T h e c r e a t i o n o f a c o n d u c i v e c o m p a n y c l i m a t e i n v o l v e s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s o u n d p o l i c i e s a n d p r a c t i c e s a s w e l l a s a s t r i c t a d h e r e n c e t o t h e m . T h e r e s h o u l d b e c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e s o u n d n e s s a n d f a i r n e s s o f t h e c o m p a n y o p e r a t i o n s . O t h e r -w i s e s o m e a s p e c t s o f m a n a g e m e n t d e v e l o p m e n t m a y i n s p i r e f r u s -t r a t i o n a n d i n s e c u r i t y . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e m a n a g e r s h o u l d b e a c c o r d e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a n d f a c i l i t i e s t o p r a c t i c e w h a t h e h a s a c q u i r e d , o t h e r w i s e h i s t r a i n i n g i s w a s t e d . R e s e a r c h s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t a n y t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m i s o f l i t t l e u s e u n l e s s w h a t t h e m a n a g e r h a s l e a r n e d i s r e i n f o r c e d b y h i s w o r k 16 e n v i r o n m e n t . T h e p r o p e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f p r o m o t i o n a n d c o m p e n s a t i o n p r a c t i c e s h e l p s t o c r e a t e a m o r e c o n d u c i v e c o m p a n y c l i m a t e . 15. D . E . B a l c h , " T h e P r o b l e m o f C o m p a n y C l i m a t e , " i n M e r r i l l a n d M a r t i n g , o p . c i t . , p . 66. 16. D o u g l a s M c G r e g o r . T h e H u m a n S i d e o f E n t e r p r i s e . N e w Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l B o o k C o . , I 9 6 0 , p . 2 0 2 . - 25 -Their influence on motivation i s becoming so widely recog-nised that quite a few companies are making conscious e f f o r t s to c a p i t a l i z e f u l l y on them. Some evidences of these deliber-ations are noticed i n the current popularity i n managerial job evaluation, executive compensation plans, "promotion from 17 . within" and "company-wide promotion" p o l i c i e s . I t i s sug-gested that a better company climate.would r e s u l t i f the company takes care to ensure that the program i s sincere, 18 universal and compulsory f o r a l l company managerial s t a f f . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i f universal and compulsory may a s s i s t i n eliminating any doubt i n top management's professed intention and genuine i n t e r e s t , and i n d i s p e l l i n g any fear that p a r t i c -i p a t i n g i n management development i s a penalty. Sound Company Organization A well designed and comprehensive management develop-ment program requires sound company organization to succeed. B r i e f l y , i n a sound organization managers are required to 19 know what a c t i v i t i e s are expected of them. Their responsi-b i l i t i e s , a u t h o r i t i e s , and ac c o u n t a b i l i t i e s are c l e a r l y d efin-ed and understood. The problem of to whom they report and who 17. Stolz, op. c i t . , p. kk-1. 18. W i l l a r d E. Bennett, Manager Selection, Education and  Training, New York: McGraw-Hill.Book Co., 19^9, pp. ;36-38. 19. For detailed information on planning a sound organiza-t i o n , vide, Theodore A. Toedt et a l . . Managing Manpower i n the I n d u s t r i a l Environment, Dubuque, Iowa: W. C. Brown Co., 1962, pp. M-i+9-551. - 26 -reports to them i s c l a r i f i e d . No duplication or overlapping of functions and a c t i v i t i e s i s permitted. Delegation i s practised whenever possible so that the superior's work load i s lightened and his subordinates are furnished with the opportunities to apply t h e i r talents and to gain experience. Any authority given i s equated with a corresponding degree of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y or accountability. Managers are also required to maintain healthy relationships with th e i r superiors, sub-ordinates, and other i n t e g r a l components of the organization. A business enterprise that does not know what present and future needs there are within the organization i s not l i k e l y to succeed i n i t s t r a i n i n g program. Management Development Should Be Tailor-made I t i s u n r e a l i s t i c to assume every person to be i d e n t i -c a l with every other i n needs, goals, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , learn-ing capacity and background. The same i s true of the wide spectrum of business enterprises and t h e i r management teams. The i d e a l management development program i s one which i s f l e x i b l e enough to include a va r i e t y of development a c t i v i t i e s s u f f i c i e n t to each individual's needs and c a p a b i l i t i e s and yet maintain a c e r t a i n degree of uniformity f o r evaluative pur-20 poses. In t h i s connection, management development programs should be tailor-made to s u i t the i n d i v i d u a l as well as the organization. The value of packaged programs has been 20. Wlkstrom, op. c i t . , p. 18, et seq. - 27 -2 1 questioned i n some quarters. I t i s a waste of e f f o r t , time and money to develop s k i l l s i n individ u a l s that are of no relevance to management or to develop the same s k i l l i n a l l management people when a vari e t y of s k i l l s i s needed. In the f i n a l analysis, the management development programs should be planned, organized and run on the basis of the organizational needs and objectives, and the potentials of the management group. Proper Role of Management Development Staff The quality of the management development s t a f f i s another factor that influences the success of a program. Like any other s t a f f function, i t only advises and counsels but does not do the actual job of t r a i n i n g . Its broad r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s consist of promoting the i n t e r e s t of manage-ment development within the organization and of rendering assistance when c a l l e d upon. The s t a f f , i f they could per-form these a c t i v i t i e s with enthusiasm, wisdom and resource-fulness, could stimulate and f a c i l i t a t e management develop-22 ment to some extent. McGregor argues that the s t a f f should not attempt to " s e l l " the concepts of development to management. Instead 21. An elaborate discussion can be found i n Melvin Aushen, "Executive Development, In-Compahy vs University Programs," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 32, No. 5> Sept.-Oct. 1954-, P P . 83-91. : " ~ " 22. John ¥. Riegel, Executive Development, Ann Arbor: Univ e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1952, p. 53. - 28 -they should a s s i s t management to operate i n such a manner that they would not only a t t a i n t h e i r objectives but also, i n the process, enhance the growth of t h e i r subordinates at the same time. If t h i s was the case, a l l managers would be engaging i n self-development and a s s i s t i n g t h e i r juniors to 23 develop i n order to achieve t h e i r goals. Development Should Be Continuous Management should r e a l i z e that quick results are not usually attainable i n management development. Much time, e f f o r t and expense has to be spent to bring about a process of growth and change i n the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The old proverb, "Rome was not b u i l t i n a day", l u c i d l y i l l u s t r a t e s the learn-ing process i n any s i t u a t i o n . A l l changes take time; exten-sive and enduring changes generally require a f a i r l y long period of time to be accomplished. These changes require reinforcement i f they are to be sustained. Managers who coach t h e i r subordinates should be aware of the d i f f i c u l t i e s of changing another's customary mode of behavior. Otherwise they w i l l be handicapped i n th e i r e f f o r t s to promote and develop those under them. Sometimes tr a i n i n g fads seem able.to incur some impressive changes i n behavior as r e f l e c t e d i n improved job performance. However, these devices are shor t - l i v e d because they are often temporary adaptive responses to some pressure to bring about some speedy 23» McGregor, op. c i t . . p. 20h, et.seqq. - 29 -r e s u l t s . The moment the pressure wears off the people con-cerned revert back to t h e i r previous state. Accordingly, to e f f e c t any durable change as well as to f o r e s t a l l any p o s s i b i l -i t y of reversion, development has to be a continuous pro-24-cess. In our highly dynamic world, change should be accepted as normal. When business enterprises change, demands on the managerial personnel change correspondingly. With changing demands, new means and techniques have to be developed to t r a i n managers to meet the challenges of change. The highly v o l a t i l e and dynamic nature of business necessitates the 25 development of management personnel, a never-ending process. 24-. Wikstrom, op. c i t . , p. 22. 25. John H. Proctor and William M. Thornton, Training ;-A Handbook f o r Managers, New York: American Management Association, 1961, p. 189. CHAPTER IV DEVELOPMENT TOOLS Any kind of t r a i n i n g scheme needs some tools to f a c i l i -tate i t s progress. Management development i s no exception. These development tools are devices used fo r such purposes as determining the basis i n which the program i s to be conducted, ascertaining organizational and i n d i v i d u a l needs, processing and storing data pertaining to the programs and f a c i l i t a t i n g the teaching-learning process. P o s i t i o n Description In any sound organization, there should be an accurate and up to date system of p o s i t i o n descriptions which defines c l e a r l y the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and authority delegated to each po s i t i o n , the exis t i n g relationship between positions and the accountability of each incumbent. This should be contrived i n r e l a t i o n to established administrative p r i n c i p l e s rather than peculiar c a p a b i l i t i e s of the managerial personnel. Lines of authority and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y should be well delineated so as to enable each incumbent to understand p r e c i s e l y what i s expected of him."'" With such a delineation, the incumbent i s also i n a good p o s i t i o n to esta b l i s h the d i r e c t i o n i n which he should develop. 1. W i l l a r d E. Bennett, Manager Selection, Education and  Training, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1959, p. 32. - 31 -Most managerial a c t i v i t i e s have c e r t a i n standards of performance. The process of se t t i n g standards i s designed to induce a greater comprehension i n each incumbent of his present job requirements and a mutual agreement between his superior and himself concerning which standards of performance are acceptable. Standards set must be simple, f a i r and a t t a i n -able. They should be as s p e c i f i c as possible and be devoid of any ambiguity. The actual setting of standards for manager-i a l positions i s by no means an easy task because of such problems as differences i n opinions on what the standards should be and differences i n requirements of managerial posi-p tions even though they may be i n the same category. Absence of such standards denies the i n d i v i d u a l an opportunity to know his actual job performance. This may place him at a serious psychological handicap i n which he experiences d i f f i -c u l t y i n developing his p o t e n t i a l to the f u l l e s t . Moreover, a superior has no means to evaluate him and i s therefore, 3 unable to a s s i s t his development. The p o s i t i o n description i s a useful t o o l i n management development. I t s t r i v e s to a t t a i n the objective of develop-ment by o u t l i n i n g the standards of performance which guide 2. George Straus and Leonard R. Sayles, Personnel. Engle-wood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., i960, pp. 527-543. 3. William C. Trenhaft, "Experience with Executive Stand-ards of Performance," General Management Series No. 183. New York: American Management Association, 1956, pp. 3-11. - 32 -t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f each incumbent as w e l l as h i s development a c t i v i t i e s . The sum o f a l l t h e p o s i t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n s i n a company p r o v i d e s a g u i d e p o s t f o r t h e development of t h e e n t i r e management. Management A p p r a i s a l The r e a l work of management development b e g i n s w i t h management a p p r a i s a l . A management a p p r a i s a l i s s i m p l y an a t t e m p t t o measure f a c t o r s w h i c h a r e u s e f u l i n t h e u t i l i z a -t i o n and development of a manager's c a p a b i l i t i e s . I t i s a d e v i c e used t o e v a l u a t e a manager's p r e s e n t p e r f o r m a n c e , t o a s c e r t a i n t h e l e v e l o f h i s c u r r e n t s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s and t o a s s e s s h i s p o t e n t i a l f o r f u r t h e r , development. Some r e l e -v a n t f a c t o r s c o u l d be measured i n an o b j e c t i v e manner but o t h e r s a r e judged s u b j e c t i v e l y . An adequate management a p p r a i s a l o n l y c o n s i d e r s f a c t o r s t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t , r e l i a b l e , h o b j e c t i v e , p r a c t i c a l and f r e e f r o m any b i a s . The methods o f a p p r a i s a l a r e many and v a r i e d . Check-l i s t s a r e w i d e l y u s e d on w h i c h t h e a p p r a i s e r t i c k s o f f the d e s c r i p t i o n s t h a t a p p r o x imate the a p p r a i s e e ' s performance. Sometimes the i t e m s a r e open-ended i n w h i c h the a p p r a i s e r has t o d e s c r i b e the a p p r a i s e e ' s performance i n h i s own words. At h. Thomas A. Mahoney, B u i l d i n g the E x e c u t i v e Team, E n g l e -wood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1961, p. 86. 5. An " a p p r a i s e r " i n t h i s t h e s i s r e f e r s t o t h e p e r s o n mak-i n g the a p p r a i s a l , u s u a l l y a s u p e r i o r . An " a p p r a i s e e " i s the i n d i v i d u a l b e i n g a p p r a i s e d , n o r m a l l y a s u b o r d i n a t e . - 33 -times, a rating scale i s used to pinpoint the appraisee's per-formance i n each item. Sometimes unintentional bias appears i n the assessment, which i s often attributed to the "halo" e f f e c t on the part of the appraiser. Generally, there are two broad approaches to management appraisal, one i s the " t r a i t " approach and the other i s the " r e s u l t s " approach. In the " t r a i t " approach, a manager's t o t a l performance i s reviewed and assessed i n r e l a t i o n to the personality t r a i t s and operating techniques that characterise his p o s i t i o n . The r a t i o n a l e i s that some of the t r a i t s have a bearing on a manager's performance. Normally the company w i l l have to decide what t r a i t s are pertinent to i t s operations before the actual evaluation begins. Usually the appraiser i s cautioned to be f a i r and objective i n his judgement. Sometimes he i s required to j u s t i f y his assessment as well as preparing an o v e r - a l l performance of the appraisee. In addition, the appraisal i s used f o r gauging the appraisee's p o t e n t i a l f o r assuming greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and f o r determining his development a c t i v i t i e s . In the " r e s u l t s " approach, a manager's performance i s compared with a l i s t of objectives and standards established f o r his p o s i t i o n . The rationale behind th i s approach i s that 6. For d e t a i l s , vide, Walter S. Wikstrom, "Developing Managerial Competence," Studies i n Personnel P o l i c y No. 1 8 9 , New York: National I n d u s t r i a l Conference Board, 1964-, pp. 2 9 - 3 8 . - 3h -a manager's e f f o r t should be directed toward achieving cer-t a i n s p e c i f i c goals and how he succeeds i n at t a i n i n g them should be a measure of his performance. More often than not, the goals and standards set are mutually agreed by his super-i o r and himself. I t i s suggested that these targets should be r e a l i s t i c , s p e c i f i c , harmonious with one another and 7 should concentrate on defining r e s u l t s not a c t i v i t i e s . These targets become the standards by which a manager assess-es his year-round performance and they are also the c r i t e r i a by which his performance i s appraised by his superior. Both the appraiser and the appraisee are expected to know the underlying causes f o r the present year's performance i n order to plan r e a l i s t i c a l l y f o r a new record i n the next year. Neither approach i n i t s e l f ensures an adequate manage-ment appraisal. Few organizations go to either extreme. Usually the main assessment i s on the indi v i d u a l ' s o v e r - a l l performance. So i f the " t r a i t " approach i s applied, the appraiser also considers the quantity and qual i t y of per-formance. S i m i l a r l y , t r a i t s or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s having some r e l a t i o n to the re s u l t s are taken into consideration when the " r e s u l t " approach i s used. I t i s suggested that the " r e s u l t " approach i s easier to work with because i t ; i s more g d e f i n i t e and s p e c i f i c . Much of the c r i t i c i s m l e v e l l e d against the " t r a i t " approach could be traced to the numerous studies f a i l i n g to uncover any consistent set of character-7. Malcolm P. McNair quoted i n i b i d . . p. 38. 8. Ibid., p. 58. - 3 5 -i s t i e s that could discriminate between an e f f e c t i v e manager 9 and a less capable one. The Post-appraisal Interview In management development, the most c r i t i c a l phase i s not making the management appraisal but rather what i s done with i t i n the post-appraisal interview between the appraiser and appraisee. The post-appraisal interview i s a device for communicating the appraisal r e s u l t s to the appraisee, and a s p e c i f i c technique f o r i n d i v i d u a l coaching and self-develop-ment. 1 0 Several purposes are served by the interview. One i s the stimulation of discussion between the superior and his subordinate on matters a f f e c t i n g t h e i r mutual r e s p o n s i b i l i -t i e s and performances i n the company. Other purposes are to c l a r i f y the subordinate's understanding of his r e s p o n s i b i l i -t i e s , to point out the weaknesses i n his performance and to a s s i s t him i n his self-development. S t i l l another i s inform-ing him where he stands i n the organization. Care should be taken i n the progress of the interview, 9. One dissident study claims that personal characteris-t i c s which can d i f f e r e n t i a t e the more e f f e c t i v e managers from the l e s s e f f e c t i v e ones can be i d e n t i f i e d . The predicators are v a l i d regardless of job assignments or type of company. Vide, T. A. Mahoney et a l . , " I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and P r e d i c t i o n of Management Effectiveness," Personal Administration, Vol. 26, No. h, Jul.-Aug., 1963, pp.12-23. 10. Mahoney, op. c i t . . p. 115. - 36 -l e s t the appraisee assume a defensive role -when informed of his weaknesses. He may even challenge the c r i t i c i s m s and so create an awkward s i t u a t i o n between his appraiser and himself. Any c r i t i c i s m by the superior should be communicated to the subordinate with tact and understanding. By no means i s the interview i n f a l l i b l e . One short-coming i s the f a c t that many superiors d i s l i k e the idea of explaining and defending th e i r c r i t i c i s m s of the a b i l i t i e s of others, e s p e c i a l l y of t h e i r subordinates with whom they are anxious to maintain a c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . 1 1 The Management Inventory A well-thought out management development program usually requires a management inventory to keep stock of the management resources of the company. I t i s an endeavour to appraise the management people as a team and to i d e n t i f y the present and future needs of the managerial s t a f f as guides f o r management development. To sta r t a management inventory, one should f i r s t c o l -l e c t data on the company's present and future needs. Present needs could be obtained from sources such as the p o s i t i o n descriptions and the organization charts. For the future needs, one has to study company plans, market forecasts, possible new products and new production processes, changes 1 1 . For a c r i t i q u e on the post-appraisal interview, vide. D. E. Balch "Executive Selection and Inventory," Personnel  Series No. 171, New York: American Management Association, 1957, P P . 3 -16 . - 37 -i n management techniques and economic trends. A l l managers i n every function and at a l l l e v e l s i n an organization should be required to supply data and judgements to make a management inventory workable. One can obtain information on the i n d i v i d u a l manager from such sources as personnel records and management apprais-a l s . For development purposes, the s i g n i f i c a n t data are the indi v i d u a l ' s education and t r a i n i n g , his work experience and his personality. Other information such as age, health, family circumstances and other personal matters may be con-sidered i f they a f f e c t the manager*s opportunity for advance-ment or transfer i n any way.. Normally i t i s an accepted practice to include judgements on his capacity f o r assuming more r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and the t r a i n i n g required to prepare h i m. 1 2 The p r a c t i c a l usefulness of a management inventory i s la r g e l y influenced by the manner i n which the data and judge-ments are summarized. Three common forms used are the coded organization chart, the replacement table and cent r a l i z e d personnel f i l e . The coded organization chart i s an attempt to provide a quick glance at the e f f i c i e n c y of performance i n each managerial p o s i t i o n and/or the adequacy or strength of the reserves within the company. To describe the present performance and readiness f o r promotion of incumbent i n the chart, s p e c i a l codes, symbols or colours are employed. The 12. Wikstrom, op. c i t . . p. 95 et seq. - 38 -replacement table i s a device u t i l i z e d to pinpoint the possible replacements or backstops i n each p o s i t i o n i n the company. Usually these replacements are l i s t e d i n order of t h e i r r e a d i -ness to assume the p o s i t i o n . The centralized personnel f i l e i s the most detailed of the three. Each manager has a f i l e which contains the relevant information about him. A l l these i n d i v i d u a l f i l e s are centralized to provide r e a d i l y - a v a i l a b l e data relevant f o r planning e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n and develop-13 ment of management personnel. 13. For det a i l e d information on the management inventory forms, vide, Mahoney, op. c i t . . pp. 119-123 and i b i d . , pp. 95-100. CHAPTER V ON-THE-JOB TRAINING One of the primary c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n any management development program i s to study the e x i s t i n g and p o s s i b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the managers to be t r a i n e d i n t h e i r c u r r e n t j o b s . An i n d i v i d u a l ' s job allows him to apply and t e s t what he i s l e a r n i n g , and p r o v i d e s him w i t h the development exper-i e n c e s and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t he may s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u i r e . His r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s s u p e r i o r enables him to r e c e i v e p e r s o n a l coaching. I n a d d i t i o n both h i s s u p e r i o r and he need not take time from p r o d u c t i v e work, s i n c e the development a c t i v i t i e s can be b u i l t i n t o h i s job. Coaching Coaching i s simply an i n t e l l i g e n t d e l e g a t i o n of r e -s p o n s i b i l i t i e s coupled w i t h a p a t i e n t guidance of sub o r d i n -ates towards e f f e c t i v e performance of the a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n d i s c h a r g i n g these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . This i s a development technique which i s used e x t e n s i v e l y i n almost a l l managerial l e v e l s . The u n d e r l y i n g assumption of coaching i s t h a t the s u p e r i o r r e c o g n i z e s and d i s c h a r g e s h i s p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to t r a i n h i s subordinates and they i n t u r n respond p o s i t i v e l y to h i s c o a c h i n g . 1 1. John H. P r o c t o r and W i l l i a m M. Thornton, T r a i n i n g : A Handbook f o r L i n e Managers. "New York: American Management ~~ A s s o c i a t i o n , 1961, p. 61 e t sea. - 1+0 -In coaching, the superior may only s t i p u l a t e the results required with or without hinting on the a c t i v i t i e s required to accomplish them. If anything goes wrong, he may a s s i s t the subordinate i n l o c a t i n g and r e c t i f y i n g the errors. A good coach must have confidence i n his subordinates; otherwise he would not tolerate t h e i r mistakes. Errors are inevitable i n most learning s i t u a t i o n s . One form of coaching i s that of the superior consulting his subordinates on his own problems with the objective of broadening t h e i r outlook and preparing them f o r greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Another Important aspect of coaching that should not be overlooked i s counselling. Counselling i s an attempt to a s s i s t a subordinate i n doing an e f f e c t i v e job and i n handling problems a r i s i n g from the work s i t u a t i o n . During the counselling sessions the coach and his trainee discuss the d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced by the trainee. And the coach suggests ways of overcoming them. Care should be taken not to extend the coaching to a p s y c h i a t r i c counsel-2 l i n g which i s reserved f o r q u a l i f i e d s p e c i a l i s t s . Several problems are encountered i n coaching. In some cases, the superiors refuse to coach t h e i r subordinates through fear of the subordinates becoming the i r bosses. In 2. For a comprehensive treatment of coaching, vide, Myles L. Mace, The Growth and Development of Executives, Boston: D i v i s i o n of Research, Graduate School of Business, Harvard University, 1950, pp. 107-156. - hi -o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , the s u p e r i o r s may be d i s i n t e r e s t e d i n coach-i n g b u t do so because i t i s p a r t of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . There a r e a l s o cases of s u p e r i o r s who a r e o n l y t o o w i l l i n g t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h o r even t a k e o v e r t h e s u b o r d i n a t e s ' j o b s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e s u b o r d i n a t e s a r e d e n i e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o d e v e l o p . There i s a l s o a danger of a s u p e r i o r who may t r y t o "mold" h i s s u b o r d i n a t e i n h i s own image thus i n h i b i t i n g o r i g i n a l t h o u g h t and a c t i o n . Sometimes c o a c h i n g i s not e f f e c -t i v e s i m p l y because t h e s u b o r d i n a t e s have r e a c h e d t h e i r peak of a t t a i n m e n t and cannot be d e v e l o p e d f u r t h e r . Job R o t a t i o n B r o a d l y , s p e a k i n g , t h e r e a r e two v e r s i o n s o f j o b r o t a t i o n . The f i r s t i s a k i n d of o r i e n t a t i o n and i n i t i a l j o b t r a i n i n g f o r new employees - o f t e n c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s - i n w h i c h t h e y a r e moved t h r o u g h a p l a n n e d s e r i e s o f r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t - t e r m a s s i g n m e n t s . The second i s t h e movement of p e r s o n n e l t o p o s i t i o n s of l i n e o r s t a f f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s where t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m as e f f e c t i v e l y as any e f f i c i e n t incum-b e n t . Job r o t a t i o n o f f e r s s e v e r a l advantages. F o r one, i t p r o v i d e s a w e l l - r o u n d e d t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e t o a t r a i n e e , b e s i d e s f u r n i s h i n g him w i t h a v a r i e t y o f p e r s p e c t i v e s o f company o p e r a t i o n s . The company c o u l d a l s o b e n e f i t t h r o u g h 3. W a l t e r S. W i k s t r o m , " D e v e l o p i n g M a n a g e r i a l Competence," S t u d i e s i n P e r s o n n e l P o l i c y ' N o . 189. New Y o r k : N a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l C o n f e r e n c e B o a r d , 1964-, p. 62. - 4-2 -p e r i o d i c i n j e c t i o n o f f r e s h management v i e w p o i n t s w h i c h c o u l d r e s u l t i n the e l i m i n a t i o n o f u n n e c e s s a r y p r a c t i c e s and o p e r a -t i o n s . Job r o t a t i o n s t i m u l a t e s s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t and t e s t s t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h r o u g h a s e r i e s of d i f f e r e n t a s s i g n m e n t s . L a s t l y , i t i s employed t o i n c r e a s e g r e a t e r c o - o p e r a t i o n and 4-u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . As might be e x p e c t e d , some c r i t i c i s m s a r e l e v e l l e d a t j o b r o t a t i o n . One i s t h a t the p e o p l e b e i n g r o t a t e d may n o t t a k e t h e i r j o b s s e r i o u s l y on a c c o u n t o f t h e i r s u p e r i o r s and c o l l e a g u e s who f e e l t h a t i t i s a waste o f time t o t r a i n t emporary members of t h e i r d epartments. Job r o t a t i o n i s n o t a p p l i c a b l e t o p e o p l e whose v a l u e t o the company l i e s i n t h e i r r e s t r i c t e d and s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge. No one c a r e s whether the l e g a l c o u n s e l knows about p r o d u c t p l a n n i n g , p r o v i d e d he d i s c h a r g e s h i s d u t i e s w e l l . A l m o st e v e r y m a n a g e r i a l j o b r e -q u i r e s some s o r t of e x p e r t s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge. A problem w i t h j o b r o t a t i o n i s t h a t o f t e n i n e x p e r i e n c e d men a r e s e n t t o do work r e q u i r i n g e x p e r t knowledge. " A s s i s t a n t " Jobs Sometimes companies use " a s s i s t a n t " j o b s as t r a i n i n g s t a t i o n s f o r p r o m i s i n g m a n a g e r i a l p e r s o n n e l . I n p r a c t i c e , t h e r e a r e two k i n d s o f a s s i s t a n t s - the l i n e a s s i s t a n t s and 4-. Dwight S. S a r g e n t , "The Job R o t a t i o n Method," i n Harwood F. M e r r i l l and E l i z a b e t h M a r t i n g ( e d s . ) , D e v e l o p i n g E x e c u t i v e S k i l l s , New Y o r k : A m e r i c a n Management A s s o c i a t i o n , 1958, p. 125 e t s e q . - h3 -t h e s t a f f a s s i s t a n t s . The f o r m e r h a s a f o r m a l a u t h o r i t y o v e r , t h e s u p e r i o r ' s d u t i e s i n kls a b s e n c e . The l a t t e r h a s n o n e o f t h i s ; h i s r o l e i s u s u a l l y a d v i s o r y . A t a n y r a t e , i t i s f e l t t h a t w o r k i n g a s a n a s s i s t a n t , w h e t h e r i n a l i n e o r s t a f f c a p a c i t y , o f f e r s a m p l e o p p o r t u n i -t i e s t o l e a r n m a n a g e m e n t p r a c t i c e s b y o b s e r v a t i o n a n d p a r t i c -i p a t i o n . A i n a n ' s p o s i t i o n a s a n a s s i s t a n t a i d s h i m i n u n d e r -s t a n d i n g t h e f u n c t i o n s o f h i s s u p e r i o r a n d t h e d i v i s i o n o r d e p a r t m e n t w h i c h h e h e a d s . I n a d d i t i o n , h e i s b r o u g h t i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h many k e y p e o p l e a n d t h i s p e r m i t s h i m t o s t u d y t h e i r m e t h o d s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The e x p e r i e n c e . t h u s o b t a i n e d 5 may b e r e l e v a n t t o h i s f u t u r e a s s i g n m e n t s . O c c a s i o n a l l y . a p o t e n t i a l m a n a g e r may be g i v e n a n a s s i s t -a n t p o s i t i o n t o u n d e r s t u d y t h e man h e i s s l a t e d t o r e p l a c e . The u n d e r s t u d y i s o f t e n a s s i g n e d i n c r e a s i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a n d a u t h o r i t y w i t h t h e i n c u m b e n t s l o w l y r e l i n q u i s h i n g h i s d u t i e s s o t h a t t h e c o n t i n u i t y i s m a i n t a i n e d w h e n t h e p r o m o -t i o n b e c o m e s e f f e c t i v e . " A s s i s t a n t " p o s i t i o n s a r e o f t e n u s e d f o r t r a i n i n g p e o p l e f o r t o p m a n a g e m e n t j o b s . The m a i n c r i t i c i s m a g a i n s t t h e s e t r a i n i n g s t a t i o n s i s t h a t t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a s s i s t a n t s t e n d s t o c r e a t e " c r o w n 5. J o h n ¥ . R i e g e l , E x e c u t i v e D e v e l o p m e n t , A n n A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n P r e s s . 1 9 5 2 , p . 28h e t s e a . 6 . M o r e i n f o r m a t i o n o n u n d e r s t u d i e s c a n b e f o u n d i n The C l e v e l a n d E l e c t r i c I l l u m i n a t i n g C o . ( T r a i n i n g U n i t , P e r s o n n e l D e p a r t m e n t ) , " T r a i n i n g y o u r U n d e r s t u d i e s " i n M e r r i l l a n d M a r t i n g , o p . c i t . , p p . 1 1 1 - 1 2 3 . - 1+4- -princes". Sometimes there i s some d i f f i c u l t y i n removing people who have been assigned as assistants even though t h e i r performances do not come up to expectation. Having l i t t l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and authority of t h e i r own, they may be sub-jected to constant interference i n t h e i r work by th e i r superiors, which may prevent them from gaining experience. Even i f they develop, they tend to behave l i k e r e p l i c a s of th e i r superiors. This development could be a detriment to any hope of introducing innovation i n the company. Special Individual Assignment Quite often a company may give an i n d i v i d u a l a spe c i a l assignment either f o r broadening his experience or f o r te s t -ing him. This assignment could be anything from a study of possible plant s i t e s to a market f o r a new product. He may engage i n thi s assignment i n addition to his regular a c t i v i -t i e s or he may be released temporarily from his job. In the case of a project, he i s usually responsible for i t s com-p l e t i o n and i s required to furnish a report with his analysis and recommendations. As much as possible the assignment should not invoke work i n which the i n d i v i d u a l i s already competent; otherwise the e f f o r t expended may not be worthwhile. On the other hand, i t should be tough but not overwhelming f o r the inten-t i o n i s not to break him but to stretch him. Selection of an appropriate assignment i s sometimes a problem.'7 7. Wikstrom, op. c i t . , p. 56 et seq. - 4-5 -Syndicate A syndicate or a task force i s a small ad hoc committee, consisting usually of three to s i x people organized to study and solve one p a r t i c u l a r problem. They normally work under the leadership of a person who i s quite f a m i l i a r with the 8 syndicate approach as well as the nature of the problem. Since the problems involved are often interdepartmental i n nature, the members are often selected from a vari e t y of func-tions within the organization. Two objectives are envisaged i n a syndicate. One i s to analyze the s p e c i f i c problem and submit recommendations f o r the solving of the problem. The other i s to provide the mem-bers with an opportunity to broaden t h e i r outlook and exper-ience by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n managerial problems with other 9 managers. Through working c l o s e l y with others, they may come to appreciate the c a p a b i l i t i e s of people i n other areas and the contribution they made to the success of the organiz-ations. Once the problem i s analyzed and a report submitted, the group i s disbanded. Multiple Management Multiple management was f i r s t popularised by Charles P. 8. Daniel R. Davies and Robert T. Livingston, You and  Management. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1958, p. 225. 9. E a r l G. Planty and Thomas Freeston, Developing Man-a g e r i a l A b i l i t y . New York: The Ronald Press Co. ,1954-, p. - 4-6 -McCormick i n 1932."*"° I t i s an at t e m p t t o d e v e l o p managers i n h a n d l i n g problems and making d e c i s i o n s i n m a t t e r s n o r m a l l y above t h e i r l e v e l o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . An e l a b o r a t e system may have a " J u n i o r B oard of D i r e c t o r s " , a " S a l e s B o a r d " and " F a c t o r y B o a r d " t o supplement t h e u s u a l Board o f D i r e c t o r s . I n i t i a l l y t he members o f the s e boards a r e a p p o i n t e d by top management. T h e r e a f t e r t h e new members may be chosen by the o u t g o i n g b o a r d . Members s e r v e a d e s i g n a t e d p e r i o d of time w h i c h c o u l d range f r o m s i x months t o a y e a r . G e n e r a l l y o n l y a p a r t o f t h e bo a r d members i s r e p l a c e d each t i m e t o ensure a c o n t i n u i t y o f work. These boards a r e o f t e n p e r m i t t e d t o draw up t h e i r own c o n s t i t u t i o n s and b y l a w s . T h e i r f u n c t i o n s a r e m a i n l y a d v i s -o r y ; t h e i r t a s k i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e , a n a l y z e and recommend. Some companies p e r m i t t h e i r boards t o probe i n a l m o s t e v e r y a s p e c t o f t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . O t h e r s keep t h e i r s w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s . Whatever t h e i r scope, o n l y unanimous f i n d i n g s and recommendations a r e s u b m i t t e d t o t h e u s u a l Board o f D i r e c t o r s f o r a p p r o v a l o r r e j e c t i o n . Some companies p r a c t i s i n g i t 11 c l a i m t h e number o f r e j e c t i o n s i s n o m i n a l . 10. More on M u l t i p l e Management i s f o u n d i n C h a r l e s P. McCormick, The Power o f P e o p l e ; M u l t i p l e Management up t o  Da t e , New Y o r k : Harper and B r o t h e r s , 194-9. 11. F r e d e r i c k J . B e l l , " H i g h l i g h t s o f M u l t i p l e Management," i n M. Jo s e p h Dooher and V i v i e n n e F. M a r q u i s ( e d s . ) , The  Development o f E x e c u t i v e T a l e n t , New Y o r k : A m e r i c a n Manage-ment A s s o c i a t i o n , 1952, p. 110 e t seq. - K7 -Multiple management i s only possible i f the chief executive i s prepared to allow the various managerial eche-lons to express t h e i r thoughts and transmit them to top man-agement while maintaining the f i n a l authority. The Board of Directors must give f u l l consideration to the suggestions put f o r t h by the boards. To make i t workable, i t i s es s e n t i a l that the boards be granted important problems to grapple with. Merely using these boards f o r exercise and confining them to dealing with t r i v i a l matters defeats the very purpose of multiple management. Multiple management i s a good i n -s t r u c t i o n a l method f o r developing managers slated f o r top management po s i t i o n s . CHAPTER VI OFF-THE-JOB TRAINING Off-the-job t r a i n i n g i s often necessary because of cer-t a i n d e f i c i e n c i e s i n on-the-job t r a i n i n g . One deficiency i s the lack of proper sequence i n learning which may impede the learning process and may cause undue confusion and d i f f i c u l t y . There i s also the p o s s i b i l i t y of the r e l a t i v e s i gnificance of events being d i s t o r t e d on the job. Minor problems, because of t h e i r immediacy, may appear more important than major i s * sues which are less pressing at a p a r t i c u l a r time. Further, on-the-job t r a i n i n g seldom offers a learner an opportunity to discover what p r i n c i p l e s are general and which are s p e c i f i c . Off-the-job t r a i n i n g does not necessarily imply that the t r a i n i n g i s done outside the company. What i s connoted i s that the development exercises are held i n locations other than the work s i t u a t i o n as i n the conference rooms or t r a i n -ing centres of companies and so on. The subjects taught could range from the humanities to s p e c i f i c techniques advo-cated by the company. For dealing with matters quite unique to i t s e l f , the company i s l i k e l y to ask i t s most competent and experienced employees to handle them. Where more general subjects such as personnel psychology and business economics are concerned, outside consultants may be c a l l e d i n . Both in-company sessions and outside courses have t h e i r advantages and l i m i t a t i o n s . Company conducted sessions may be more - 4-9 -s p e c i f i c and possibly less expensive at l e a s t i n terms of the time l o s t from work. But the r e l a t i v e l y homogenous c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the participants does not provide the broadening influence which one receives i n an outside course where the d i f f e r e n t ideas and experiences from a variety of companies are discussed and shared. Lecture and Panel Discussions By a l l accounts, the lecture i s probably one of the more frequently used methods of i n s t r u c t i o n . Before d e l i v e r -ing a lecture, i t i s es s e n t i a l to f i n d out the nature of the audience to which one i s trying to transmit the information. The degree of f a m i l i a r i t y which the audience has with the material w i l l a f f e c t the presentation. Next the lecturer should decide the extent to which the topic w i l l be dealt with. He should attempt to s t a r t from what they already know and proceed i n a l o g i c a l sequence to the end. No matter how seasoned a speaker i s , he should t r y to rehearse his lectures so as to b u i l d up confidence i n himself and his material. During the lecture he should not only t r y to promote understanding but also t r y to stimulate and r e t a i n the i n t e r e s t of the l i s t e n e r s . He has to be sensitive to t h e i r reactions, and be able to act accordingly. Various teaching aids such as graphs, photographs and charts may be used to supplement the teaching process. 1 1. For more information on the lecture, vide. W i l l a r d E. Bennett, "The Lecture as a Management Training Technique," Personnel. V o l . 32, No. 6, May 1956, pp. H-97-507. - 5 0 -A panel discussion may be considered as a co-opera-t i v e lecture where a small group of people gives i t s i n d i v i d -2 u a l views on some controversial issues or problems. Much of what has been said of the lecture applies here. Often a panel discussion i s more i n t e r e s t i n g than a lecture because of i t s va r i e t y of speakers and views. Inasmuch as possible the chairman should ensure that the d i f f e r e n t speakers do not duplicate each other.or miss anything c r u c i a l . If pos-s i b l e , some e f f o r t should be made to bring the speakers together p r i o r to the panel discussion to plan t h e i r mater-i a l s so as to create some degree of unity and sequence i n presentation. Both the lecture and the panel discussion permit the speaker to have a choice of the manner i n which he wants to present his information. Because the two methods allow l i t t l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n from the audience, there i s a danger of them becoming passive, unless they are i n t e r l e e t u a l l y re-sponsive to what the speaker has to say. They appear to be well-suited f o r imparting knowledge. Rarely however do people develop s k i l l s or change t h e i r attitudes through these techniques. 2. Daniel R. Davis and Robert T. Livingston, You and ' Management, New York: Harper and Brothers, 1958, p. 222. - 51 -Conference Training Methods A conference may be described as "a small group of people who have met to define, to understand better or to solve a problem of mutual i n t e r e s t through a free and co-3 operative o r a l interchange of information." There are many types of conferences tr a i n i n g methods. Some of the more f r e -quently used methods are seminars, "brainstorming", case studies, "buzz sessions" and problem-solving conferences. A l l conference t r a i n i n g methods have these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , though they may d i f f e r i n approach and structure. These methods are based on the assumption that a most e f f e c t i v e way of learning i s by doing, because active p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n group discussion a s s i s t s the development of i n d i v i d u a l s . To ensure maximum i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the 'size of the group i s del i b e r a t e l y kept small; usually to less than f i f -teen people. As far as possible these should be "a lack of time pressure, a c e r t a i n degree of informality, f r i e n d l i n e s s , k absence of tension, frank and easy exchange of ideas", i n the t r a i n i n g sessions where these methods are employed. Much can be said of the values of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these methods. F i r s t l y , the participants learn and appreciate aspects of problems which they may not be aware of. Secondly, p a r t i c i p a t i o n tends to prevent i n t e l l e c t u a l stagnation, since 3 . Frank A. De P h i l l i p s , ¥. M. Berliner and J . J . Cribbin, Management of Training Programs, Homewood, 111.: Richard D. Irwin Inc., I960, p. ISO. 4-. Loc. c i t . -.52 -the problems discussed are frequently new or presented and handled i n a d i f f e r e n t perspective. Thirdly, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these techniques oyer a considerable length of time may broaden the outlook of the participants as well as influence t h e i r attitudes. Fourthly, these t r a i n i n g methods help to develop some i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s . One worth mentioning i s an increased a b i l i t y to analyze problems systematically and 5 c r i t i c a l l y . A l l conference techniques require proper leadership to make the e f f o r t expended worthwhile. Some suggestions have been put f o r t h to a s s i s t the conference leader i n his task. One i s that he should always show a permissive accepting attitude i n order to encourage expression of h o s t i l e or negative feelings among the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Another i s that he should try his best to induce as much p a r t i c i p a t i o n as possible from every member of the group. The t h i r d guideline suggests that he should endeavour to i n f l a t e the ego of the participants when the opportunity arises e s p e c i a l l y the r e t i c e n t ones. In the fourth place, he should encourage competition among the participants with the aim of bringing out the various sides of a problem. Lastly, he should review with them what has taken place. 5. John W. Riegel, Executive Development. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1952, p. 67. 6. Stanley G. Dulksky, "Improving Leadership of Manage-ment Conferences," i n M. Joseph Dooher and Vivienne Marquis, (eds.), The Development of Executive SCalent, New York: American Management Association, 1952, pp. 175-171. - 53 -Like a l l other techniques, these methods have t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s . Some of the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s could he traced to the extremely high expectation of the r e s u l t s . These tech-niques are meant to be devices f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l experience, l i s t e n i n g and speaking, not psychological tools f o r causing changes i n behavior. While an in d i v i d u a l ' s outlook may be modified by experience, his overt behavior may remain con-stant. Oft-times the presence of senior executives may pre-clude some participants from expressing t h e i r views or they may run the show instead of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Some people appear to be temperamentally unsuited f o r these methods be-cause they are either too passive or too domineering to be productive. Too often, the conference leaders are not qual-i f i e d to do t h e i r job. Many leaders are chosen simply because they are holding responsible positions i n the company, not f o r t h e i r leadership q u a l i t i e s . Role Playing Role playing i s the acting out spontaneously of cer-t a i n characters i n a s p e c i f i c interpersonal s i t u a t i o n . The participants are players i n a spontaneous t r a i n i n g drama. They lea r n by assuming the roles of the characters c i t e d . This technique i s used frequently f o r t r a i n i n g s k i l l s i n human re l a t i o n s because I t provides i n s i g h t and experience i n interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Role playing i s used more frequently f o r t r a i n i n g people i n lower managerial ranks than the higher echelons. - 5h -At the beginning of each role playing session, the p a r t i c i p a n t s are briefed by the i n s t r u c t o r regarding the s i t u a t i o n that i s to be dramatized and are given a succinct d e s c r i p t i o n of the characters involved. After that, the participants are l e f t on t h e i r own to act out the s i t u a t i o n and assume the roles of the characters as they proceed. Those not acting the scene may be asked to i d e n t i f y them-selves a c t i v e l y with one or two of the participants who are assuming the r o l e s . Sometimes a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e may be played by more than one person, one a f t e r another, by repeat-ing the same s k i t . This i s done to enable the group to appreciate d i f f e r e n t approaches to the same r o l e . At times too, the roles may be rotated among the p a r t i c i p a n t s , so that each p a r t i c i p a n t may be able to experience more than one viewpoint of a s i t u a t i o n . Therefore, role playing i s useful i n developing s k i l l s i n interviewing, counselling and other forms of interpersonal dealings. The.-emotions generated help a p a r t i c i p a n t to obtain a greater insight into the f e e l i n g s of others and a better grasp of t h e i r motivation. Likewise he i s able to gain i n -sight into his own behavior because the statements he made, the feelings he displayed and the action he took during the r o l e playing are pointed out and discussed by the group. There are quite a fen people who have some ideas how they would l i k e to conduct th e i r interpersonal dealings but h e s i -tate to try them out because of fear of possible f a i l u r e . - 55 -Role playing not only offers them an opportunity to practise and to improve t h e i r techniques but also to develop s k i l l and confidence. One disadvantage of the technique i s that the p a r t i c i -pants may not take t h e i r roles seriously. Some may even treat the entire matter as a big joke. Another disadvantage and even more c r u c i a l i s the d i f f i c u l t y i n predicting how much i s being l e a r n t . Participants learn as a consequence of t h e i r responses to the roles played. There i s bound to be some differences i n learning because of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r -ences i n responses. As i n any other t r a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n , what a person learns i s influenced by his background. Unlike most other techniques, role playing does not permit the instructor to control i t s d i r e c t i o n once the acting s t a r t s . At times, the p a r t i c i p a n t may place too much emphasis on solving the problem rather than on an increased understanding of the 7 interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Management Games A management game could be considered as a dynamic t r a i n i n g exercise based upon a working model of a business s i t u a t i o n . Within the model, there i s a series of r e l a t i o n -ships which are believed to influence the business s i t u a t i o n 7 . For more information on r o l e playing and i t s uses, vide, Alex Bavelas, "Role Playing and Management Training," i n Paul Pigors, C. A. Myers and F. T. Malm,"Readings i n  Personnel Administration, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1 9 5 9 , PP. 2 7 0 - 2 7 8 . - 56 -being s i m u l a t e d . I n f o r m a t i o n on the c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n i s s u p p l i e d p e r i o d i c a l l y to the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Through a n a l y s i s of the g i v e n data and c r i t i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n of how the s i t u a -t i o n r e a c t s to t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e moves, they may embark i n making d e c i s i o n s t h a t would best accomplish t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s . In the simple games, the i n s t r u c t o r may modify the s i t u a t i o n i n accordance w i t h the d e c i s i o n s made by the par-t i c i p a n t s and promulgate the p e r i o d i c r e t u r n s . Computers are o f t e n programmed to process the d e c i s i o n s made i n the more complicated g a m e s . E m p i r i c a l time i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a f r a c t i o n of i t s a c t u a l d u r a t i o n ; a month or .quarter may o n l y be f i f t e e n minutes or a h a l f hour i n the games. The p e r i o d i c r e p o r t s a c t as a k i n d of feedback w i t h which the p a r t i c i p a n t s g c o u l d e v a l u a t e t h e i r r e s u l t s and p l a n t h e i r next moves. Ever s i n c e management games were i n t r o d u c e d a few years ago, t h e r e has been c o n t r o v e r s y r e g a r d i n g the degree of r e a l -ism i n the s i m u l a t i o n , compared to the e m p i r i c a l world. Some f e e l t h a t the c l o s e r the game resembles the working e n v i r o n -ment, the e a s i e r i t i s f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s to apply what they have l e a r n e d . Others argue t h a t the games should s t i m u l a t e a g e n e r a l business s i t u a t i o n i n s t e a d of a s p e c i f i c i n d u s t r y or company. To them, the purpose of the games i s to enable the p a r t i c i p a n t s to r e c o g n i z e the importance of continuous 8. An e x c e l l e n t book oh the a p p l i c a t i o n of s i m u l a t i o n i n i n d u s t r y i s J o e l M. Kibbee, C. J . C r o f t and B. Namus, Manage-ment Games. Net? York? Rei n h a r t P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1961. - 57 -a n a l y s i s of b u s i n e s s e v e n t s and t o g a i n more f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h 9 t h e a n a l y t i c t o o l s . The c r i t i q u e phase w h i c h g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w s a f t e r a c e r -t a i n number of rounds o f p l a y i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as t h e most v a l u a b l e a s p e c t of t h e games. 1 0 D u r i n g t h e c r i t i q u e , the p a r -t i c i p a n t s a r e g i v e n complete d e t a i l s as t o what a c t u a l l y o c c u r s i n t h e games f o r the f i r s t t i m e . U s u a l l y a g u i d e d d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w s i n w h i c h each team e x p l a i n s the s t r a t e g i e s i t employed. F r e q u e n t l y an o u t s i d e c o n s u l t a n t may be c a l l e d i n t o a n a l y z e the s t r a t e g i e s and t h e game's outcome and t o a s s i s t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n l o c a t i n g t h e i r e r r o r s and r e c t i f y -i n g them. Some games have two c r i t i q u e s , one h a l f way t h r o u g h the game and the o t h e r a t the c o n c l u s i o n . The f i r s t c r i t i q u e i s t o en a b l e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o r e v i e w t h e i r performances t o t h a t p o i n t . T h i s i s t o enable them t o be b e t t e r p r e p a r e d t o handle t h e f a c t o r s t h a t have t r o u b l e d them p r e v i o u s l y i n the second h a l f of t h e p l a y , Management games a r e v a l u a b l e t o o l s f o r s t r e s s i n g t h e im p o r t a n c e o f sound o r g a n i z a t i o n by l o n g - r a n g e p l a n n i n g and o p e r a t i n g a l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d l i n e s r a t h e r t h a n e x p e d i e n c y . To a c h i e v e t h i s , t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e games s h o u l d be l o n g enough f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s t o d i s c o v e r the u n d e r l y i n g r e l a -t i o n s h i p s and p r i n c i p l e s . However, t h e games a r e n o t appro-9. P a u l S. Greenlaw, L. W. H e r r o n and R. H. Rawdon, B u s i n e s s S i m u l a t i o n , Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . : P r e n t i c e -H a l l , I n c . , 1962, pp. 78-83 and 250-251. 10. K i b b e e , e t a l . , p. 85. - 58 -p r i a t e f o r i n s t r u c t i n g new subjects. Rather they are useful devices f o r managers who would l i k e to try whatever management p r i n c i p l e s they have learned. The games are more suitable f o r teaching senior managerial personnel than junior execu-t i v e s . One frequent c r i t i c i s m l e v e l l e d at the games i s that they deal only with quantitative variables and often ignore the human elements. If managing i s getting r e s u l t s through the e f f o r t s of others, the c r i t i c s argue, how much r e a l i s t i c t r a i n i n g can these games provide? In reply, the proponents claim there i s no need f o r the games to include the human factor for there are already many excellent methods f o r t r a i n -ing the q u a l i t a t i v e aspect of managing. Moreover, i t i s possible to point out some of the human influences on decis-ion making during the c r i t i q u e phase. A further c r i t i c i s m suggests that the games, are top. expensive and u n r e a l i s t i c . Too expensive because of the many hours required and the high cost per hour. And too u n r e a l i s t i c because of the tendency to over-simplify the variables i n the process of constructing a working model. 1 1 S e n s i t i v i t y Training S e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g i s a newly-evolved t r a i n i n g method directed at making people more sensitive to themselves and others, and more aware how they consciously or unconsciously 11. B i l l y E.Goetz, "A Critique of Business Games." Journal  of Academy of Management, Vol. 2, No. 3, Dec. 1959, PP. 177-180. - 59 -a f f e c t others and how others i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e them. I t i s hoped t h a t w i t h a heightened s e n s i t i v i t y to o t h e r s , a manager would be more e f f e c t i v e i n accomplishing r e s u l t s through the e f f o r t of o t h e r s . Because of ambiguity surrounding the nature of s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g , i t has not become widespread 12 i n usage up to date. An u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e of s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g i s t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s are c r e a t u r e s of t h e i r c u l t u r e s . A l l con-cepts and value s governing i n d i v i d u a l behavior and i n t e r -p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s stem from t h e i r c u l t u r e s . Only a few people are aware of and q u e s t i o n the assumptions upon which these concepts and va l u e s are based. The o b j e c t i v e of sen-s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g then, i s to a s s i s t the i n d i v i d u a l s i n a p p r e c i a t i n g these assumptions and dev e l o p i n g a g r e a t e r awareness of the nature and problem of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a -13 t i o n s h i p . J I n a t y p i c a l program f o r s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g , the p a r t i c i p a n t s l i v e t o g e t h e r i n a l o c a t i o n f o r two weeks away from t h e i r job r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and f a m i l i e s . They are a s s i g n e d to "T groups" - "T" f o r t r a i n i n g which i s the crux 12. Walter S. Wikstrom, "Developing Managerial Competence," S t u d i e s i n P e r s o n n e l P o l i c y . No. 189, New York: N a t i o n a l I n d u s t r i a l Conference Board, 1964-, p. 90. 13. For more i n f o r m a t i o n on the uses and l i m i t a t i o n s of s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g , v i d e , A l f r e d J . Marrow, Behind the  E x e c u t i v e s Mask, New York: American Management A s s o c i a t i o n , 196'+, and I.R. Wescheler and E. H. Schein, Issues i n Human  R e l a t i o n s , Washington, D'.C.: N a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g L a b o r a t o r i e s , N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1962. - 60 -of the program - which also includes lectures, i l l u s t r a t i v e movies and so on. There i s no agenda or goal stipulated i n 14-these "T groups" sessions. The ins t r u c t o r may even refuse to give any guideline at a l l . In b r i e f , they are l e f t com-p l e t e l y to themselves. Usually t o t a l strangers are thrown into a group i n which they are expected to study how a group behaves and how i t s members (including themselves) operate within i t . To many, i t i s quite an experience to analyze others c r i t i c a l l y c.,;' openly and be s i m i l a r l y analyzed by others. I t i s hoped with such an experience the participants w i l l i n t e r a c t with others more e f f e c t i v e l y . Most of the former participants endorse the experience as valuable and b e n e f i c i a l . Others consider i t to be a waste of time. Programmed Instruction Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s an organized systematic approach to learning l a r g e l y based on the studies of B. F. 15 Skinner and Norman Crowder. I t i s an attempt to get the learner p a r t i c i p a t i n g a c t i v e l y i n the learning process. The 14-. Chris Argyris, "T-Groups f o r Organizational E f f e c t i v e -ness," Harvard Business Review. Vol. 4-2, No. 2, March-Apr. 1964-, pp. 60-74-. " ; " 15. Vide, B. F. Skinner, "The Science of Learning and the Art of Teaching," in.Wendell I. Smith and J . William Moore, Programmed Learning, New York: Van Nostrand Co., 1962, pp. 18-33 and N. A. Crowder, "Automatic Tutoring by I n t r i n s i c Programming," i n A. A. Lumsdaire and Robert Glaser (eds.), Teaching Machines and Programmed Learning, Washington, D. C : Department of Audio-visual Instruction, National Education Association, I960, pp. 286-298. - 61 -material to be learned i s presented i n small steps c a l l e d frames. The increment of d i f f i c u l t y between any two consec-utive steps i s d e l i b e r a t e l y made very small so that the i n -formation presented could be e a s i l y comprehended and free from error. Someone remarked quite aptly that "programmed i n s t r u c t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y the most exciting and p o t e n t i a l l y the most s i g n i f i c a n t development to appear on the business 16 scene since the d i g i t a l computer." A t r a i n i n g program operated by programmed i n s t r u c t i o n consists of a series of frames on the subject. Each frame i s b u i l t on the previous one so that the learner can pro-gress step by step, frequently at his own pace. At each frame up to that l e v e l , he i s subjected to an examination i n which he i s required to make some kind of active "response" l i k e pushing a button or answering a question. If he makes the correct i'response" (which means that he has f u l l y under-stood the contents of the frame), he i s allowed to proceed. Otherwise, he would be informed of his mistakes or instructed to restudy the materials. Generally there are two major approaches to t h i s sort of rapid, error-free learning. One i s the l i n e a r or single track form expounded by Skinner, and the other i s the multi-ple-choice or "branching" form favoured by Crowder. In the l i n e a r approach, the program i s designed to lead the learner 16. Roger ¥. C h r i s t a i n , "Guides to Programmed Learning," Harvard Business Review. Vol. 4-0, No. 6, Nov.-Dec. 1962, P. 36. - 62 -i n an u n i n t e r r u p t e d sequence of frames. Proponents of t h i s approach b e l i e v e t h a t the absence of e r r o r s c o n t r i b u t e s to more e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g , because a c o r r e c t answer i s i n f a c t a "reward" and a l s o an i n c e n t i v e to g r e a t e r e f f o r t or con-t i n u e d e f f o r t . Thus they endeavour to minimize the number of e r r o r s through the use of the narrow gaps between two frames and prompts as w e l l as b a s i n g each step on p r e v i o u s l y l e a r n e d m a t e r i a l . In the m u l t i p l e response approach, a l e a r n -er making a wrong ch o i c e i s shunted i n t o another t r a c k or branch where h i s e r r o r i s c o r r e c t e d and the p o i n t i n q u e s t i o n i s c l a r i f i e d . He may continue i n the branching sequence f o r a number of frames, a g a i n depending on h i s responses be f o r e 17 he i s p e r m i t t e d to r e t u r n to the main t r a c k . Today, combin-a t i o n s of the two techniques are q u i t e common. There are s e v e r a l advantages i n u s i n g programmed i n -s t r u c t i o n i n i n d u s t r y . F i r s t l y , i t i s more e f f e c t i v e than the c o n v e n t i o n a l method. Lea r n i n g i s more thorough because of the g r a d u a l and systematic exposure of new m a t e r i a l s . Secondly, the program i s c o n s i s t e n t , s i n c e each l e a r n e r r e c e i v e s i d e n t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n . I d e n t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n tends to produce s i m i l a r r e s u l t s which i s o f t e n d e s i r a b l e . T h i r d -l y , the program permits s e l f - p a c i n g so t h a t a f a s t l e a r n e r can f o r g e ahead without being h e l d back by slower ones. F o u r t h l y , i t r e q u i r e s l e s s time. O f t e n course times have 17. Theodore B. Dolmatch, Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n : The  B a s i c Vocabulary. New York: American Management A s s o c i a t i o n , 1962. p. 14 e t sea. - 63 -been slashed by one-third or even by one-half. In addition, there are other benefits, such as improvement i n morale and motivation to,learn, better defined t r a i n i n g goals and reduc-t i o n of the more rote a c t i v i t i e s of the t r a i n i n g department. Programmed i n s t r u c t i o n has i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . For one thing, there are quite a few topics that are d i f f i c u l t or almost impossible to teach i n t h i s manner. One i s the broad area of "executive Judgement" which i s too nebulous and com-18 prehensive to be grasped f u l l y within a short duration. Many programs being written and used today are poorly con-structed. Unless the program i s well designed, the i n t e r e s t of the learner w i l l d e c l i n e . A d d e d to t h i s , i s the long lead time required to construct, refine and validate an e f f e c t i v e program. There i s , of course, the high i n i t i a l investment e s p e c i a l l y f o r a custom-built program. 18. John P i . Murphy and Irving A. Golberg, "Strategies for using Programmed Instruction," Harvard Business Review. Vol. 4-2, No. 3, May-June 1964-, p. 120. CHAPTER VII EVALUATION OF MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Despite the increasing i n t e r e s t i n management develop-ment programs, r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e work has been done on the evaluation of these programs i n contrast to the amount of headway made i n the planning, organizing, and administration of programs. A program not accompanied by an evaluation of i t s r e s u l t s i s l i k e l y to turn sour, f o r evaluation requires as much serious notice and planning as any other aspect of management development. For our purpose, evaluation could be defined as "an attempt to arr i v e at correct judgement of the value or worth of such a program; t h i s judgement may be i n either monetary or non-monetary terms". 1 Evaluation i n management development i s necessary on several counts. The f i r s t being the desire to ascertain whether the amount of expenditure incurred f o r management development i s j u s t i f i a b l e or not i n terms of the returns received. Next i s the question of the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e -ness of alternate developmental techniques a v a i l a b l e . Evalu-atio n could be employed to determine the most e f f e c t i v e approach to a s p e c i f i c problem. A t h i r d task for evaluation l i e s i n the area of improving the i n d i v i d u a l approaches to 1. Walter R. Mahler, "Evaluation of Management Develop-ment Programs," Personnel. Vol. 30, No. 1, July 1953, p. 1 1 6 . - 6 5 -development. As mentioned e a r l i e r i n the t h e s i s , a l l manage-ment development u l t i m a t e l y i s self-development. E v a l u a t i o n a t the i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l may be more b e n e f i c i a l than a t a group l e v e l as i t i s more s p e c i f i c and more r e l a t e d t o the problems f a c e d by the i n d i v i d u a l . As a consequence, manage-ment would be i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to s e l e c t the p a r t i c i p a n t s p most l i k e l y to b e n e f i t from a p a r t i c u l a r t r a i n i n g course. Design of E v a l u a t i o n In c u r r e n t e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e s , there are three b a s i c designs i n t e nded t o p r o v i d e measures of b e n e f i t s and val u e s of development a c t i v i t i e s . Each of them i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by 3 a d i f f e r e n t degree of thoroughness. At the lowest l e v e l of thoroughness i s what may be termed a.common sense e v a l u a t i o n or an " i n f o r m a l a f t e r - t h e -event" quest f o r i n d i c a t i o n s of the b e n e f i t s of a completed development a c t i v i t y . An e v a l u a t o r may s e a r c h f o r evidence which i s thought to have some r e l a t i o n s h i p with the completed a c t i v i t y , such as the number of promotions a f t e r the t r a i n -i n g program, i n f e r e n c e s a r r i v e d a t from o b s e r v a t i o n s on job performance, r e p o r t e d expressions of s a t i s f a c t i o n or f r u s t r a -t i o n and so on. U n f o r t u n a t e l y evidence o b t a i n e d i n such a manner i s c o n f i n e d to whatever happens to be a v a i l a b l e and 2. Thomas A. Mahoney, B u i l d i n g the E x e c u t i v e Team. Engle-wood C l i f f s , N. J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1961. p. 258 e t sea. 3. This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s taken from Mahler, op. c i t . , p. 118 e t seq. - 66 -may not have any r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p -with the r e s u l t s of the program. O b v i o u s l y t h i s approach l a c k s the degree of p r e -c i s i o n and v a l i d i t y i n any r e l i a b l e measuring t o o l . In s p i t e of these l i m i t a t i o n s , i t i s s t i l l the most widely used approach mainly because of i t s convenience. However an i n c r e a s i n g number of companies i s s w i t c h i n g over to more p r e c i s e measuring techniques. "Systematic e v a l u a t i o n " i s the second approach to measuring the outcome of management development. Normally, p r o v i s i o n s are made t o measure c e r t a i n g o a l achievements be f o r e and a f t e r the s p e c i f i c , t r a i n i n g course. To ensure the v a l i d i t y of the measurement, the same measuring t o o l s s hould be employed before and a f t e r the event. T h i s means t h a t the type of evidence, c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n , and the measuring d e v i c e s are determined p r i o r to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the program. Whatever means employed should permit some amount of q u a n t i f i c a t i o n on which some i n f e r e n c e s or judge-ments co u l d be made. One example of t h i s approach i s con-d u c t i n g an a t t i t u d e survey to determine the extent to which a human r e l a t i o n s course has r e s u l t e d i n a change i n the s u b o r d i n a t e s ' f e e l i n g s towards t h e i r s u p e r i o r s and thus towards the company as a whole. Though t h i s approach o f f e r s a more o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n , i t has l i t t l e c o n t r o l over the o t h e r f a c t o r s t h a t may have some i n f l u e n c e on the r e s u l t s . F o r i n s t a n c e , any attempt to c o r r e l a t e the r e d u c t i o n of e x e c u t i v e turnover w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of d e f e r r e d compen-- 6 7 -sation i s challengeable i f there are changes i n the economic s i t u a t i o n , changes -within the organization structure and so on. A t h i r d and perhaps the most i d e a l design i s the "ex-perimental evaluation". Data c o l l e c t i o n i s done under cer-t a i n controlled conditions. Usually; a control group i d e n t i -c a l to the experimental group except f o r the difference of the factor being evaluated i s established. Measurements are taken i n both groups before and a f t e r the t r a i n i n g session. Any change observed i n the experimental group but not i n the control group i s thus imputed to the t r a i n i n g . A serious defect of t h i s approach i s the f a c t that the mere s e l e c t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s into experi-mental and control groups a f f e c t t h e i r reactions to the ex-periment. Consequently a bias i s created. Several sugges-tions have been put f o r t h to overcome th i s bias. One i s to conduct an a c t i v i t y to be evaluated within a single depart-ment or d i v i s i o n i n i t i a l l y , with other s i m i l a r units as con-t r o l s instead of selecting both the experimental and control groups from the same locations. In this way, any p r i o r ident-4-i f i c a t i o n as experimental group or control group i s lessened. Another obstacle encountered i n t h i s approach i s the r e l u c -tance of many organizations to set up control groups. They f e e l that the establishment of such groups denies t h e i r managers the opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n development a c t i v i -t i e s and t h i s may jeopardize t h e i r morale and careers. Des-h. Mahoney, op. c i t . , p. 264-. - 68 -p i t e i t s l i m i t e d use today, more and more o r g a n i z a t i o n s are beginn i n g to adopt the experimental approach f o r a s s e s s i n g 5 t h e i r management development a c t i v i t i e s . C r i t e r i a f o r E v a l u a t i o n The s e l e c t i o n and development of a p p r o p r i a t e c r i t e r i a of e v a l u a t i o n i s j u s t as important as the de s i g n chosen f o r e v a l u a t i o n i n the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of c o n c l u s i o n s o b t a i n e d . A l l c r i t e r i a used f o r e v a l u a t i o n should be ob j e c -t i v e , r e l i a b l e , unbiased, and p r a c t i c a l measures of f a c t o r s s e l e c t e d as r e l e v a n t i n d i c a t o r s of the goals of management development. S e l e c t i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e s e t of c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n r e q u i r e s two main t a s k s . The f i r s t i s the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the f a c t o r s thought to be r e l e v a n t i n a s s e s s i n g management development. Any f a c t o r s e l e c t e d should be a b l e to measure a t l e a s t one of these l e v e l s of management development o b j e c t i v e s - immediate, i n t e r m e d i a t e , and u l t i m a t e . For measuring immediate b e n e f i t s , the r e l e v a n t f a c t o r s are changes i n knowledge, a t t i t u d e s , s k i l l s , e t c . For i n t e r m e d i a t e g a i n s , changes i n i n d i v i d u a l performance and subo r d i n a t e s ' a t t i t u d e s and performance. For u l t i m a t e b e n e f i t s , measures of o r g a n i z a t i o n performance l i k e growth, r a t e s of r e t u r n , and so on. 5 .For. a framework'of the experimental method, v i d e , D a n i e l M. Goodacre I I , "The Experimental E v a l u a t i o n of Man-agement T r a i n i n g : P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e , " P e r s o n n e l , V o l . 3 3 , No. 6 , May 1 9 5 7 , PP. 5 3 ^ 5 3 8 . - 6 9 -The second t a s k i s t o determine or d e v e l o p measures f o r t h e s e f a c t o r s . U ndoubtedly t h i s i s a d i f f i c u l t j o b because th e f a c t o r s s e l e c t e d s h o u l d n o t o n l y be r e l e v a n t but a l s o m e a surable, o t h e r w i s e they a r e u s e l e s s . More commonly used methods of measurement i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : a t t i t u d e s - , and o p i n i o n s , knowledge and s k i l l s , and p erformance. A t t i -t udes and o p i n i o n s a r e perhaps th e most commonly used bu t t h e i r v a l u e s as c r i t e r i a of measurement v a r y w i t h t h e con-t e x t . O b s e r v e r s , i n s t r u c t o r s and p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e o f t e n sought f o r a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g such and such a c o u r s e . A t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s i f used i n t h i s c o n t e x t have l i t t l e e v a l u a t i v e v a l u e . However i n cases where a change of a t t i t u d e i s i n v o l v e d , measures of a t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s s e r v e as m e a n i n g f u l c r i t e r i a . Measures of knowledge and s k i l l a r e more o b j e c t i v e t h a n the p r e v i o u s two. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y so i f t h e t e s t s a r e d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the o c c a s i o n . Any a t t e m p t , however, t o c o n s t r u c t t e s t s and i n t e r -p r e t r e s u l t s s h o u l d be done by q u a l i f i e d s p e c i a l i s t s . O t h e r -w i s e t h e e v a l u a t i o n runs the r i s k o f u n r e l i a b i l i t y and i n -a c c u r a c y . Measures of performance whether on t h e i n d i v i d u a l o r h i s s u b o r d i n a t e o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n as a whole a r e q u i t e o b j e c t i v e . Perhaps th e most p o p u l a r measures a r e the p e r -formance r a t i n g and management a p p r a i s a l s i n w h i c h s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s of performance a r e e v a l u a t e d . 6 . Much of t h e i d e a s i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s t a k e n f r o m Mahoney, op. c i t . . pp. 2 6 6 - 2 6 8 , Goodacre, op. c i t . , p. 5 3 5 e t s e q . , and A. C. MacKinney, " P r o g r e s s i v e L e v e l s ' i n t h e E v a l u a -t i o n o f T r a i n i n g Programs," P e r s o n n e l , V o l . 3 L , No. 3 , Nov.-Dec. 1 9 5 7 , PP. 75-77^ - 70 -A c c o r d i n g t o Lindbom and O s t e r b e r g , t h e r e a r e t h r e e l e v e l s a t w h i c h t h e r e s u l t s of development a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d 7 be e v a l u a t e d . L e v e l s here r e f e r t o the d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f b e h a v i o r b e i n g e v a l u a t e d . The t r a i n e e ' s c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o r i s t h e f i r s t l e v e l o f e v a l u a t i o n . I t i s the most p o p u l a r b u t t h e l e a s t m e a n i n g f u l of the t h r e e as t h e r e may be l i t t l e o r no r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s performance i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and h i s performance on t h e j o b . A second and more p e n e t r a t -i n g a p p r a i s a l i s t h a t of the t r a i n e e ' s b e h a v i o r a f t e r the program w h i c h c o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t by a t r a i n e d o b s e r v e r , h i s s u p e r i o r , h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s , c o l l e a g u e s and even by him-s e l f - a s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n . However t h i s l e v e l of e v a l u a t i o n f a i l s t o measure the u l t i m a t e g o a l of most programs - b e t t e r employee performance. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , e v a l u a t i o n o f the employee's b e h a v i o r on t h e j o b o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t o f h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s i s t h e most m e a n i n g f u l of the t h r e e . V a r -i o u s a s p e c t s of t h e s u b o r d i n a t e s ' b e h a v i o r c o u l d be u t i l i z e d t o a s s e s s the b e n e f i t s of t r a i n i n g programs. Whatever a s p e c t t o be o b s e r v e d s h o u l d be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e n a t u r e and o b j e c -t i v e s of the programs. Success i n a communication co u r s e c o u l d be e v a l u a t e d by measuring t h e s u b o r d i n a t e s ' comprehen-s i o n o f h i s i n s t r u c t i o n b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e t r a i n i n g program. S u g g e s t i o n s f o r Improvements Much work needs t o be done i n d e v e l o p i n g t e c h n i q u e s 7. Theodore R. Lindbom and Welsey O s t e r b e r g , " E v a l u a t i n g t h e R e s u l t s of S u p e r v i s o r y T r a i n i n g , " P e r s o n n e l , V o l . 31, No. 3, Nov. 195*+, PP. 224-228. - 7 1 -that would e f f e c t i v e l y evaluate the outcome of t r a i n i n g courses. One report i n 1952 indicated that most companies adopted t r a i n i n g programs on the basis of f a i t h and hope 8 rather than on observed t r a i n i n g r e s u l t s . The s i t u a t i o n has not changed much today. For some reason or other, some companies cannot engage i n any elaborate and precise form of evaluation. In such a case, a crude measure l i k e the "common sense" method i s better than none at a l l . Though evaluation i s a d i f f i c u l t task, there i s no reason why attempts should not be made to improve t h i s and develop more e f f e c t i v e tools to measure the r e s u l t s of t r a i n -ing programs. Some suggestions have been made regarding t h i s . One i s that top management should ask for periodic evaluation and should not be s a t i s f i e d with crude measures. Endeavours should be undertaken to develop and apply more sophisticated techniques l i k e the experimental evaluation method. Manage-ment should explore the p o s s i b i l i t y of greater u t i l i z a t i o n of measuring and in t e r p r e t i n g tools currently being developed to an increasingly sophisticated l e v e l i n the behavioral sciences. More emphasis should be placed on using evaluation to improve management development, not j u s t i f y i n g i t . More attention should be paid to defining the objectives of management development c l e a r l y and r e a l i s t i c a l l y . Last but not l e a s t , there should be more research into t h i s area and a greater 8. Charles B. Hendrick, "Feedback: A Method of Evaluating and Improving Management Training," Personnel. Vol. 32, No. 1, July 1955, P. 16. - 72 -exchange o f i n f o r m a t i o n between companies, i n s t i t u t i o n s and 9 i n t e r e s t e d b o d i e s . E f f e c t i v e n e s s of Management Development Programs Measurements o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of management d e v e l o p -ment i s an e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t j o b as we have o b s e r v e d e a r l i e r . However, f o r purposes of e v a l u a t i o n and guidance f o r p l a n n i n g f u t u r e programs, some k i n d s of measurements, even though they f a l l s h o r t o f the i d e a l , a r e n e c e s s a r y . Some a u t h o r i t i e s , l i k e A n d r e w s 1 0 f o r i n s t a n c e , seem t o f e e l t h a t i t i s more i m p o r t a n t t o t h i n k about t h e problems and c r i t i c i s m s encoun-t e r e d by t h e s e programs t h a n t h e i r measurements. Whether management t r a i n i n g i s s u c c e s s f u l o r n o t depends more on how the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d come up t o o r f a l l s h o r t o f e x p e c t a t i o n s 11 t h a n on t h e a b s o l u t e s u c c e s s o f t h e program. Andrews, f r o m h i s two s t u d i e s , s a i d t h a t e v i d e n c e , ob-t a i n e d f r o m p e r s o n n e l t e s t i m o n y , o b s e r v a t i o n s by c o l l e a g u e s , s u p e r i o r s and s u b o r d i n a t e s and c o u r s e i n s t r u c t o r s more o f t e n t h a n n o t su g g e s t e d some f a v o u r a b l e e n t h u s i a s m as t o the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of management t r a i n i n g programs though t h e r e were c a s e s of d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . He argues t h a t d e s p i t e t h e 9. M a h l e r , op. c i t . . p ; 121 e t s e a . 10. Kenneth R. Andrews, " I s Management T r a i n i n g E f f e c t i v e ? ( I ) E v a l u a t i o n by Managers and I n s t r u c t o r s , " H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s  Review, V o l . 35, Mo. 1, Jan.-Feb. 1957, p. 85. 11. E r w i n K. T a y l o r , "Management Development a t t h e C r o s s -r o a d s , " P e r s o n n e l J o u r n a l . V o l . 36, No. 2, March-Apr. 1959, p. - 73 -d i f f i c u l t y i n assessing or j u s t i f y i n g the returns and benefits from these programs, t h i s should not prevent anyone from doing so as long as some i n d i c a t i o n of gains are shown. The impor-tant thing, i t seems, i s t o be cognizant of the needs of the organization and i t s members and to conduct the t r a i n i n g pro-cess to meet these wants. He postulates that the e f f e c t i v e -ness of a program i s a function of such factors as i t s dura-t i o n , the amount of trainees' involvement i n the program and t h e i r association with other p a r t i c i p a n t s , the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , experience and behavior of the i n s t r u c t o r s , nature of the par t i c i p a n t s ' previous experience and the relationship between the t r a i n i n g received and the job a c t i v i t i e s and environment. Let us now turn to two studies by the American Manage-ment Association. T r i c k e t t conducted the f i r s t survey i n 1952-53 i n which the effectiveness of management tra i n i n g programs was measured by the degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n of the company administrating the program with reference to the r e s u l t s obtained i n terms of i t s desired objectives. The objectives included desired management at t r i b u t e s , changes i n management thinking and attitudes, and changes i n management action and prac t i c e . He found a t h i r d of 1,954- responding companies expressed a general s a t i s f a c -t i o n with t h e i r programs, ten percent were not s a t i s f i e d at a l l and the balance was either not able to judge t h e i r r e s u l t s 12. Andrews, op. c i t . . and K. R. Andrews, "Is Management Training E f f e c t i v e ? Til) Measurements,'Objective and P o l i c y , " Harvard Business Review, Vol. 35, No. 2, March-Apr. 1957? PP. 63-72. - 74- -13 or made no comment one way or the other. The other was ca r r i e d out by Siningen i n 1954-. Out of the 34-2 companies with programs he studied, about a t h i r d did not make apprais-als of t h e i r program. Among the two-thirds who did evaluate, he discovered seventy-five percent were either s a t i s f i e d or quite s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r r e s u l t s , twenty-three percent thought i t was either too early or too d i f f i c u l t to evaluate. Only two percent seemed to be d e f i n i t e l y d i s s a t i s f i e d "not so much with management development i n general but with t h e i r 14-own approach or progress up to date." ' In 1962, the National I n d u s t r i a l Conference Board made a study involving 1,074- graduates of twenty-six d i f f e r e n t programs i n fourteen companies to see how they assessed these programs. The findings revealed a high enthusiasm for these programs on the part of the participants though the l e v e l of enthusiasm varied by program and by company. Favorable a t t i -tudes were expressed by the majority of the former p a r t i c i -pants but a third,of them were quite c r i t i c a l of c e r t a i n company practices. For instance, the l a t t e r group f e l t that the courses were "too slow moving" and thought they should be "tougher - more exacting". They also said that they would 13. Joseph M. T r i c k e t t , "A Survey of Management Develop-ment ," Management Education f o r I t s e l f and Its Employees Part  Two, New York: American Management Association, 195*+, p. 38 . 14-. One reason f o r th i s apparently wide difference i n the two findings i s perhaps traceable to the f a c t that Siningen separated the companies with plans from those without plans. T r i c k e t t made no such d i s t i n c t i o n s and"used the term "pro-gram" more broadly. "James C. Siningen,'"Current Practice i n the Development of Management Personnal," Research Report No. 2 6 , New York: American Management Association, 1955} P« 12. - 75 -have appreciated them more had they been checked more f r e -quently and informed of t h e i r progress. According to Krugman, the people that are most l i k e l y to benefit from attending management development programs are those who are deprived either through age or poor super-v i s i o n or s p e c i a l i z a t i o n or some combination of the three. Some people, because of th e i r age have been bypassed or even have l o s t t h e i r status. A t r a i n i n g program may furnish them with an opportunity to prove th e i r worth again. Subordinates working under poor supervision are found to react more r e a d i l y to t r a i n i n g programs than those who have good supervisors. S p e c i a l i s t s seldom exposed to topics or experiences other than those pertaining to th e i r own areas seem to gain more from these courses than those who have more varied job a c t i v -i t i e s . Other writers are not so convinced of the effectiveness of these programs. Hariton says that, i n general, research studies indicate that when c r i t e r i a of morale and productiv-i t y were considered, courses i n human relations do not seem 15. Stephen Habbee, "College Graduates Assess Their Com-pany Training," Studies i n Personnel Pol i c y No. 188, New York: National I n d u s t r i a l Conference Board, 1963, vide, Highlights i n the Preface. 16. His remarks are supported by Andrews, op. c i t . , who f e e l s that people working i n a specialized capacity or having l i t t l e s o c i a l intercourse i n t h e i r work tend to react more intensely (or favorably) to management development courses. Herbert E. Krugman, "Management Development Training: Who P r o f i t s Most," Personnel, Vol. 36, No. 3, May-June 1959, pp. 59-62. - 76 -to produce concrete r e s u l t s . L i b e r a l education courses conducted by some corporations are now, being dropped to be replaced by more p r a c t i c a l courses. In good times, manage-ment does not question management development programs, but i n lean years they demand answers. Friedman believes that many managements are s t i l l buying executive t r a i n i n g on f a i t h because a l o t of the executives do not know much about these programs or f e e l that the measuring of the payoff of 18 the program i s an almost impossible task. In a c l a s s i c evaluation of a supervisory t r a i n i n g pro-gram by Fleishman, .Harris and Burt, i t was discovered that what the trainees learned i n the program might be o f f s e t by such factors as t h e i r job environment and whether a f t e r the program they i d e n t i f i e d themselves more with the workforce 19 or with the management. . B l a n s f i e l d even goes so far as to c a l l management development programs a "fad" because they appear to be a transient, passing thing. They are often 17. Theodore Haritoh, "Are Training Programs Paying Off?" Personnel Series No. 151, New York: American Management Association, 1953? P« 1-18. Jack J . Friedman, "The Riddle of Executive Training: Where's the Payoff?" Dun's Review and Modern Industry, Vol. 78, No. 6, Dec. 1961, pp. 4-9-53. " ~~~ ' ' 19. While a program might make the trainees more concerned with human r e l a t i o n s , i t might also make them more aware of the f a c t that they belong to the management group. Showing "consideration" to the workforce and getting things done do not always go hand i n j i a n d . Vide, Edwin A. Fleishman, Edwin F. Harris and Harold E. Burtt, Leadership and Supervision i n  Indus t r y : , An.Evaluation of a Supervisory Training Program, Columbus, Ohio: "Bureau of Educational Research, Ohio State Univ e r s i t y , 1955, PP. 87-104-. - 77 -dropped i n a major budget cut necessitated by poor business conditions. As he points out, many s c e p t i c a l executives •would argue that, "We got along a l l r i g h t before without t h i s program, and i n view of the f a i l u r e to show great immed-20 i a t e returns, we can get along without i t now". 2o. Michael B l a n s f i e i d , "The Untimely Passing of Manage-ment Development, " Personnel Journal, Vol. 39, No. 10, March 1961, p. 4-05. CHAPTER 7111 SOME CASE STUDIES The management development programs studied i n thi s chapter are case studies of four large scale business enter-prise s with head o f f i c e s i n Vancouver. By no means, should they be considered as representative of the management prac-1 tiees i n the Vancouver area. But they do provide some i n -sight on how some companies t r a i n t h e i r personnel f o r man-a g e r i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . In view of the f a c t the case studies are undertaken i n s t r i c t e s t confidence, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the companies involved i s de l i b e r a t e l y l e f t out. However, the nature of t h e i r p o l i c i e s and a c t i v i t i e s are disclosed i n order to appre-cia t e how th e i r management development programs r e l a t e to th e i r operations. The terms " t r a i n i n g " and "development" are used interchangeably. So i s the case with managerial job t i t l e s l i k e "executives, managers and supervisors" though there are some differences i n status i n each of them. The interchangeability i s resorted to for purposes of convenience. Each study i s organized to depict the highlights of the pro-grams studied though some attempt i s made to follow 1. They are chosen because they are Vancouver-based, large scale operations, having some form of management tr a i n i n g and being i n d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i e s . In addition, they are among those companies which r e p l i e d favorably to a mail request sent to twenty-five firms i n Vancouver f o r permission to study t h e i r programs. - 79 -a pattern i n presenting each case. A Forest Products Company This company, incorporated i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i s con-sidered one of the world's foremost producers of forest pro-ducts - newsprint, pulp, lumber and related products. Its operations are located c h i e f l y i n the coastal areas of B r i t i s h Columbia. The present company represents an amalga-mation of two of Western Canada's largest f o r e s t products firms which took place at the end of 1 9 5 9 . I t i s a highly i n t e -grated organization spreading out i n four operating groups: logging, wood products, pulp and paper, and packaging. Each product group i s autonomous, maintaining i t s own separate sales organization, administrative and production functions and so on. The s t a f f function and services are retained at the head o f f i c e s i n Vancouver. According to the Manager f o r Corporate Training, vigor-ous attention to management development programs was f i r s t paid some time i n 1955 when top management decided that the supervisory s t a f f should be exposed to management p r i n c i p l e s and techniques p r i o r to t h e i r assuming managerial responsi-b i l i t i e s . The company conforms to the widely u t i l i z e d three-t i e r e d managerial c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : supervisory or f i r s t - l i n e , middle and top management. A consultant was c a l l e d i n to ascertain the needs of the company and to give advice on the implementation of - 8 0 -appropriate programs. His recommendation of setting a course on basic management p r i n c i p l e s and functions i n i t i a l l y was approved by the Board of Directors. The consultant assisted i n the f i r s t few courses. The administration of management development has since come under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Cor-porate Training Section of the Personnel Department. There are two main objectives of management tra i n i n g i n t h i s company. One i s to narrow the gap between the manager's present performance and the mutually agreed standard as deter-mined by his immediate superior and himself. These standards are resolved or modified by periodic appraisal. The other objective i s to a s s i s t the employee to improve his e f f e c t i v e -ness i n his present job and to prepare f o r advancement within the company. Other objectives, stressed l e s s , include attempts to improve the communication process i n the company, to f a m i l i a r i z e employees i n corporate p o l i c i e s and operations, and to boost up morale. However, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these pro-grams or attendance at these courses does not e n t i t l e the participants to an automatic promotion. This i s to prevent the establishment of "crown prince" status amongst the ranks of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Neither i s i t necessary f o r any one to take a few courses before assuming a new p o s i t i o n as long as he i s considered well q u a l i f i e d to handle the new job. The s e l e c t i o n of candidates f o r the courses i s based l a r g e l y on the r e s u l t s of "Position P r e s c r i p t i o n Appraisal". The "Position P r e s c r i p t i o n " l i s t s a l l the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , - 8 1 -s k i l l s and experience assumed necessary to perform a s a t i s -factory job i n a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n . In the appraisal, the appraisee's current performance i s evaluated against t h i s l i s t of c r i t e r i a i n a quantitative basis to a r r i v e at a "Per-formance Index". However, this type of appraisal and i t s c o r o l l a r y , the "Performance Index", i s more suitable f o r salary administration than as a development t o o l . This i s because i t depicts only an o v e r a l l assessment of the i n d i v i d -u a l and does not pinpoint the s p e c i f i c areas where he needs assistance and counselling. If the appraisee i s found to be capable and s u f f i c i e n t l y q u a l i f i e d to assume more responsi-b i l i t i e s , he i s not required to take a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g as mentioned e a r l i e r . Further t r a i n i n g serves more to " f i l l " the gulf between actual performance and the standards s t i p u -l a t e d i n a p o s i t i o n rather than as a pre-requisite f o r advancement. Despite t h i s , i t i s the company's as p i r a t i o n to have a l l the p o t e n t i a l management people undergo a common experience at these courses. The company prefers to f i l l a vacancy or new p o s i t i o n with someone from i t s own ranks though i t w i l l not hesitate to h i r e an outsider i f there i s no suitable candidate within or i f there i s a need to strengthen the organization with "new blood". Promotion i s mainly a function of the "Position P r e s c r i p t i o n Appraisal". Any deficiency i n the requirements of the next p o s i t i o n has to be r e c t i f i e d before assuming the new p o s i t i o n . Though the retirement age i s s i x t y - f i v e , i t i s not always adhered to. - 82 -Most of the t r a i n i n g i s done on-the-job. Managers at a l l l e v e l s are held responsible f o r the development of t h e i r sub-ordinates. The Corporate Training Section i s only a s t a f f function providing assistance or counsel to the l i n e managers when deemed necessary. The rationale f o r t h i s ultimate l i n e managerial r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s to prevent the l i n e from "passing" the task of t r a i n i n g to a s t a f f function. The company adheres to a p r i n c i p l e that a sound superior-subordinate relationship i s v i t a l on two counts. The f i r s t i s that such a relationship w i l l be more conducive to the accomplishment of the objectives of both men. The second i s that a close relationship w i l l enable the superior to coach the subordinates. This relates to the s t i p u l a t i o n that the provision of succession i s a manager's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; he i s being appraised on the q u a l i t y and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of his successor. The Manager f o r Corporate Training substantiates the j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a strong superior-subordinate r e l a t i o n s h i p by quoting a c e r t a i n American Manage-ment Association study i n d i c a t i n g that about eighty percent of the executives interviewed a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r immediate super-2 i o r s as the main fa c t o r i n t h e i r development. The company plans and organizes i t s courses and develop-ment a c t i v i t i e s with the assistance of publications from the American Management Association, the National I n d u s t r i a l Con-ference Board and the u n i v e r s i t i e s . Since on-the-job coach-ing i s the key development t o o l , other means and methods are 2. He could not give the exact l o c a t i o n of t h i s statement nor could the writer locate i t . - 8 3 -considered supplementary. Lately, the company i s becoming more and more interested i n the outside courses as offered at the Banff School of Continuing Education, the American Man-agement Association, and other i n s t i t u t i o n s . To encourage self-development which i s also a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of every manager, the company has a refund system f o r successful com-p l e t i o n of correspondence courses and the courses offered by l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e the Vancouver Board of Trade and the Extension Department of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. However, top management on the advice of the Corporate Train-ing Section has to i n i t i a t e and approve such courses, which must be related to s p e c i f i c job requirements before they are e l i g i b l e f o r the refund. The in-company courses are conducted by experienced mem-bers of the s t a f f . The advantages of these in-company courses are that: f i r s t l y , they can be designed to s u i t the company; secondly, they are more p r a c t i c a l i n the sense that company examples, materials and situations can be u t i l i z e d ; t h i r d l y , they are more adaptable to s u i t both the instructor and the trainees. No outside personnel i s used except at the i n i t i a l stages when a consultant was c a l l e d i n to formulate a workable program. The Training Manager mentioned that outside experts would be introduced soon, possibly t h i s coming season. Almost a l l of the t r a i n i n g i s done at the product group l e v e l except one or two courses f o r the managerial s t a f f higher than the f r o n t - l i n e supervisors. One of these i s an administrative course which originated from the consultant's recommendation. - 81+ -I t i s the company's long-term objective to conduct a general program fo r a l l supervisors. Courses conducted at the product group l e v e l are primar-i l y devised to cater to the s p e c i f i c needs of each group. A l l i n s t r u c t o r s of courses have access to the Corporate Training Section f o r guidance or assistance. Frequently the courses are held i n locations away from company operations such as i n hotels and resorts. The i n t e n t i o n i s to minimize d i s t r a c t i o n from job r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and to create a more conducive atmos-phere fo r learning. The company resorts to a number of teaching methods and aids i n i t s courses. Audio-visual aids and handouts often supplement the lectures and discussions. Although d i f f e r e n t approaches are employed to s u i t d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s and groups, the most popular techniques are the case studies, role playing and group discussion, either free or guided. For greater effectiveness, the i n s t r u c t o r i s sometimes aided by a teaching manual which among other things gives hints on when to stress or repeat a point, when and what to i l l u s t r a t e on the blackboard, as well as a s c r i p t of the curriculum to be taught. Formal i n s t r u c t i o n and t r a i n i n g seldom exceed s i x and a half hours a day to ensure maximum in t e r e s t , p a r t i c i p a t i o n and absorption. The Training Manager believes that the i n t r o -duction and the follow-up of these courses are c r u c i a l to t h e i r success. When questioned on the evaluation of these courses and - 85 -the other development a c t i v i t i e s , the Training Manager argues that i t i s a most d i f f i c u l t task because the measuring tools a v a i l a b l e are inadequate, or inaccurate. Perhaps the only "workable" test at present i s the actual job performance meas-ured against c e r t a i n standards and objectives. Quite often, the r e s u l t s of these development a c t i v i t i e s do not show up immediately but they would gradually show up i n some form or another i n the future. University graduates re c r u i t e d into the company are assigned to the d i f f e r e n t operating units and are paid i n i t i a l -l y at hourly wages. Later they are dispatched on a two week ori e n t a t i o n tour of the entire company operations. Following t h i s , they are placed i n a planned job rot a t i o n on a monthly basis. The Training Manager f e e l s that u n i v e r s i t y graduates are excellent material f o r managerial positions and the company i s r e c r u i t i n g them i n increasing numbers. A Department Store Chain The company under study i s a holding company which through i t s subsidiaries owns-^or operates eight department stores and one shopping centre i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Alberta. Its re-t a i l outlets carry complete l i n e s of the customary department store merchandise, and with the exception of one store i n Vic-t o r i a , operate extensive food departments. I t maintains i t s own overseas buying o f f i c e s and promotes i t s own brands. The company i s considered as the fourth largest department store chain i n Canada. This case study i s on the management develop-- 86 -ment program i n i t s Vancouver store. The management tr a i n i n g program i n t h i s company refers to the period when the management trainee undergoes t r a i n i n g as i n the case of on-the-job t r a i n i n g or attending sp e c i a l courses prepared f o r them. D i s t i n c t i v e t r a i n i n g f o r management r e c r u i t s began some-time i n 194-7. At that time, the t r a i n i n g period was spread over three years. In 1950 i t was reduced to two years. Since 1957 the program extends over a year. Each year about t h i r t y -f i v e to f o r t y - f i v e people p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s program. This year, however, the company intends to expose more people with managerial potentials to the program. Of the one hundred and f o r t y people to be interviewed, seventy-five to eighty w i l l be selected. Those chosen w i l l be divided into groups of about f o r t y each. The size of each group i s kept small f o r reasons of convenience and p r a c t i c a b i l i t y . According to the Staff Training O f f i c e r , one of the main objectives of the program i s "to acquaint the p o t e n t i a l mana-3 gers with the knowledge of what makes the company t i c k " . By th i s he means a good understanding of the company history, operations, p o l i c i e s and procedures as well as an appreciation of the reasons or factors behind the company's success. The other objectives are stated quite s p e c i f i c a l l y . One i s to teach the participants how to treat t h e i r customers, colleagues and subordinates. Another i s to a s s i s t these trainees i n 3 . Actual phrase used by the Staff Training O f f i c e r . - 87 -reducing lateness, absenteeism and accidents, and i n increas-ing e f f i c i e n c y on the f l o o r sales. S t i l l another i s to help them i n improving t h e i r job performance. And l a s t l y , i t i s a means to prepare the trainees for managerial r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The p o t e n t i a l junior executive is.expected to indicate that he has resourcefulness, i n i t i a t i v e , s e l f - r e l i a n c e , enthus-iasm, self-confidence, that he i s eager and w i l l i n g to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and that he has the a b i l i t y to d i r e c t and organ-iz e people. No age l i m i t i s set though the preferable ages are between twenty-two and twenty-five. A uni v e r s i t y degree would be an advantage but i s not e s s e n t i a l . University graduates are given a higher i n i t i a l salary and a better opportunity to ad-vance. The company expects the candidates to have at le a s t some high school education. His experience and s k i l l , i f r e l e -vant to the company, would be taken into consideration. A prospective managerial candidate has a series of three interviews; one by the Staff Training O f f i c e r , another by the 4-o f f i c e superintendent and the t h i r d by his department manager. The f i n a l decision f o r se l e c t i o n depends on the department man-ager to whose department the successful candidate w i l l be assigned. About ten percent of the successful candidates are women. The company adheres to a very r i g i d p o l i c y of promotion from within. Preferences f o r managerial positions are accorded 4-. Person i n charge of the non-selling functions i n the store. - 88 -to people who are associated i n one way or another with the company such as the regular rank and f i l e and the part-time employees. This i s r e f l e c t e d i n the f a c t that about ninety percent of the selected candidates f o r the management develop-ment program are from these sources. Promotion i s l a r g e l y based on job performance and evidences of greater managerial p o t e n t i a l s . The program i s more orientated towards a development of techniques and a comprehensive understanding of the entire company p o l i c i e s and operations rather than on the development of conceptual or problem-solving s k i l l s . Much emphasis i s placed on good customer r e l a t i o n s and the a b i l i t y to do an e f f e c t i v e job running a department. In some respects, i t resembles an elaborate induction program. Every trainee under-goes a common program using a d e f i n i t e curriculum and teaching techniques though these may change from year to year. The pro-gram allows no room f o r people who wish to develop t h e i r spec-i f i c needs and demands. In other words, the program i s design-ed to cater more to organizational needs than to i n d i v i d u a l wants. The Staff Training O f f i c e r remarked that the nature of the program resembles that of the compulsory and universal basic course i n many armies which every cadet o f f i c e r has to undergo before obtaining his commission. In t h i s management development program, there are f i v e d i f f e r e n t types of tr a i n i n g which a p o t e n t i a l manager has to take. The f i r s t i s the Basic Training which consists of rules, - 89 -procedures, company history and " s e l l i n g " the company. The Sales Procedure Training constitutes the second type. Here the trainee i s given some pointers on s a l e s b i l l s , salesman-ship and customer relat i o n s h i p s . The t h i r d and the most important i s Training on-the-Job -where the trainee i s coached by his superior on the various aspects of his functions and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The fourth i s Self-improvement Training i n which the i n d i v i d u a l i s encouraged to develop himself by taking correspondence courses, night school classes and University of B r i t i s h Columbia courses. The f i f t h and the l a s t type i s Executive Training which consists of attending courses l i k e the General Merchandising and Food Merchandis-ing, and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the Breakfast Meetings and Super-vi s o r s ' Conferences. Only the l a s t three types of t r a i n i n g - Training on-the-Job, Executive Training and Self-improvement Training would be examined because the Basic Training and Sales Procedure Training are a c t u a l l y incorporated i n Training on-the-Job. On-the-Job Training i s considered to be the major device of t r a i n i n g . The department manager i s obliged to coach a l l those reporting to him. The subordinates are constantly appraised so that t h e i r weaknesses can be overcome and t h e i r merits exploited. The superior i s given .some guidelines f o r coaching, l i k e informing the subordinates of t h e i r progress, counselling them i n t h e i r problems and motivating them to develop further. Sometimes the superior may arrange i n t e r -- 90 -store v i s i t s , f o r them to broaden t h e i r perspectives and ex-periences. The Executive Training i s a pre-requisite f o r a l l poten t i a l managers. The General Merchandising Course which i s compulsory f o r a l l participants i n the management development program i s dealt with f i r s t . The General Merchandising Course i s comprised of weekly lectures by senior and exper-ienced s t a f f members on various aspects of merchandising and covers a s i x months period usually from September to March. No outside experts are used. The curriculum includes r e t a i l inventory, purchasing, transportation and c r e d i t operations only to mention a few. The contents of the course are d e l i b -erately selected to r e l a t e to company operations on the assumption that both the i n s t r u c t o r and the trainees are i n a better p o s i t i o n to communicate with one another i f the issues and examples c i t e d are t o p i c a l to both. The lectures are usually followed by discussions on the highlights of the topics covered. Frequently audio-visual aids supplement t h i s . In every course there i s usually an open meeting held towards the end of the course where the chief executive and his immediate subordinates make themselves available for answering any questions put f o r t h by the participants regard-ing the company. Grades are given but they are not con-sidered as c r i t i c a l f o r the most important thing i s actual job performance e s p e c i a l l y under some pressure. Other important aspects of Executive Training are the - 91 -Breakfast Meetings and the Supervisors' Conferences. A l l managers, whether trainee or confirmed, are required to attend these Breakfast Meetings which meet once weekly or f o r t n i g h t l y . At these meetings, they discuss a wide range of topics and problems r e l a t i n g to the company with senior execu-t i v e s . The Supervisors' Meetings are also held regularly but less frequently than the other. The difference here i s that the discussions are confined to supervisors. The idea behind these two types of meetings i s to stimulate i n t e r e s t i n prob-lem solving, to acquaint managers with the l a t e s t develop-ments i n merchandising and current business conditions, and to encourage a greater interchange of ideas. On completion of the one year program the trainees must undergo another round of interviews, four t h i s time. One i s by the merchandising manager, the second i s by the store manager, the next by the department manager to whose depart-ment one or two of the successful trainees may be assigned, and the fourth and l a s t i s by the Staff Training O f f i c e r . If the trainees are successful, they w i l l be posted as assistant managers i n the numerous departments. Every year hence they w i l l be appraised by the same group of assessors u n t i l they become department managers. A l l appraisees are e n t i t l e d to know t h e i r r e s u l t s . The other courses sponsored by the company include courses i n food merchandising, in-store courses on store sys-tems, human re l a t i o n s and so on. The company also sends - 92 -promising managers to attend the Toastmaster Course which i s held four times a year. Self-improvement i s encouraged by the company. At f i r s t a l l those who attended outside courses had t h e i r fees paid by the company. Among the courses attended, the Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Courses and the Dale Carnegie Courses were most popular. Recently the company decided to send employees to the Toastmaster Courses instead of the Dale Carnegie Courses. Of l a t e , the company only makes payments af t e r the courses have been successfully attended, the reason being that too many people f a i l e d to complete t h e i r courses. One of the major factors contributing to t h i s high f a i l u r e rate was the frequent transfer of managers from one l o c a t i o n to another. A Public U t i l i t y Corporation This undertaking i s one of the most comprehensive sys-tems of public u t i l i t y services i n Canada. The corporation i s responsible f o r the generation and transmission of elec-t r i c i t y throughout areas of B r i t i s h Columbia containing more than ninety percent of the population of the Province. Other corporate a c t i v i t i e s include gas service, urban and i n t e r -urban passenger transportation service and a r a i l f r e i g h t service. The number of people under i t s employ i s around six thousand. The present corporation i s the r e s u l t of an amal-gamation of two u t i l i t y organizations, one p r i v a t e l y owned, the other under the control of the p r o v i n c i a l government. It - 93 -i s now a governmental agency. Some f i f t e e n years ago one of the two organizations forming the amalgamation launched the nucleus of the present S t a f f Services D i v i s i o n . Later the Staff Services D i v i s i o n i n i t i a t e d a Department for Manpower Planning and Development. One of th i s department's functions i s to promote management development i n the corporation. A manager i s defined by the corporation as a holder of a supervisory p o s i t i o n . A l l man-agers are held responsible and accountable f o r the control, u t i l i z a t i o n and development of the employees under t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . The objectives of management devel-opment i n the corporation are primarily two-fold as i s the case i n many companies with other secondary aims. One i s improvement of performance i n the present job and the other i s to prepare managers f o r placement i n more responsible po s i t i o n s . The Manpower Planning and Development Department i s charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of providing a ce n t r a l i z e d planning, co-ordinating and advisory service to a s s i s t the company to make the most e f f e c t i v e use of i t s human resources. The services offered by the Department include the following; the maintenance of a continuous review of a l l management people and t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l s of development; assistance to the l i n e f o r determining and planning f o r future require-ments a r i s i n g from growth and a t t r i t i o n ; maintenance of a cen t r a l i z e d placement, development and counselling service. - 9h -The basis f o r determining development needs and a c t i v i -t i e s i s the re s u l t s of the annual Individual Performance Re-view which i s applicable to a l l supervisory and professional personnel. "Professional personnel" refers to engineers, accountants and others who belong to recognized professions. The purpose of t h i s Review i s to ascertain two things. One i s to examine whether the appraisee has r e a l i z e d his expecta-tions, or to put thi s another way, how f a r he has achieved the standards and objectives required. The other i s to i d e n t i f y areas i n which improvement i n performance can be aided by further t r a i n i n g and experiences. The Review indicates per-formance i n the elements of management such as objectives; p o l i c i e s and programs; organization; people; cost control and e f f e c t i v e use of resources; technical competence and adminis-t r a t i o n . In each Review, two appraisals are stipulated, one by the immediate superior and the other a s e l f - a p p r a i s a l by the appraisee himself. To a s s i s t i n the assessing, descriptive wording suggesting a range from highly s a t i s f a c t o r y (perform-ance) down to inadequate performance i n each area of a c t i v i t y within every element of management i s given i n the Review sheet. Most of the actual performance i s expected to f a l l somewhere between the two extremes. The superior i s required to discuss the two appraisals with his subordinate. I f there are some d i s p a r i t i e s i n the appraisals, there i s a l i k e l i h o o d of a f a i l u r e of communication emanating from the subordinate misinterpreting the objectives and procedures set out by his - 95 -superior or i t could be due to something else l i k e the'.incom-petency of the subordinate. Both w i l l have to c l a r i f y and resolve any differences i n assessment and agree on a program f o r the appraisee f o r performance improvement and development i n the present job. As a consequence an i n d i v i d u a l develop-ment program i s t e n t a t i v e l y drawn up. The next step i s to present the dual appraisals before the D i v i s i o n a l Appraisal Committee consisting of managerial personnel included i n each l e v e l of supervision above the appraisee. They w i l l review the appraisee's tentative i n d i v -i d u a l development program and approve i t i f they f e e l i t i s j u s t i f i a b l e . His p o t e n t i a l to handle more demanding work i s assessed and related to the d i v i s i o n a l replacement needs i n the forseeable future. The appraisee's current "stage of readiness" to acquire more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s ascertained. If necessary, the Committee may recommend him f o r development a c t i v i t i e s that w i l l advance his "stage of readiness". Follow-ing the D i v i s i o n Appraisal Committee's assessment, the superior i s required to confirm the approved i n d i v i d u a l development pro-gram with the-appraisee, and i f necessary, discuss with him possible ways and means to implement the program. Each i n d i v i d u a l program i s designed to r e c t i f y i n d i v i d u a l discrepancies. This i s consistent with the p r e v a i l i n g company philosophy of serving the needs of the organization through the f u l f i l l m e n t of i n d i v i d u a l needs and aspirations. However, there are safeguards against s a c r i f i c i n g organization goals to i n d i v i d u a l objectives l i k e the job description and the Indiv-- 96 -i d u a l Performance Review. The company holds the b e l i e f that the motivation to do a better job and improve one's capabil-i t i e s i s greatly influenced by the s a t i s f a c t i o n received i n having one's goals accomplished. Besides there i s no point i n having a program that i s of l i t t l e or no use to the person involved, as neither he nor the corporation i s l i k e l y to benefit from such a program. The dual assessments approach coupled with a review by the D i v i s i o n Appraisal Committee i s directed at attaining a sa t i s f a c t o r y superior-subordinate relationship at a l l levels of the company operations. This i s based on the assumption that the quality of such a relationship w i l l l a r g e l y deter-mine the l e v e l of performance attained and the measure of personal growth achieved by each. A superior's a b i l i t y to develop others influences his own chance of advancement. As i n the case of most companies, most of the tra i n i n g i s done on-the-job under the personal guidance and coaching of the immediate superior. Unlike many business enterprises, the company w i l l not hesitate to use outside consultants for teaching whenever necessary. Sometimes th i s i s inevitable because of the complexities of i t s operations and because no employee i s able to conduct the t r a i n i n g sessions as s t i p u -l a t e d by the company. There i s no basic t r a i n i n g course which a l l employees must undergo as i n some companies, though the corporation does conduct general as well as s p e c i f i c induc-t i o n programs f o r a l l new employees. - 97 -To develop i t s managerial s t a f f , the corporation r e -sorts to a va r i e t y of teaching techniques and courses. The choice of the techniques depends on the e x i s t i n g circum-stances. Several in-company courses covering many topics r e l a t i n g to the company operations are available to the employees. Outside courses and programs as offered by any i n s t i t u t i o n i n North America are also accessible to the man-agement people i f the corporation sees a need f o r them to attend. As mentioned e a r l i e r , managers are only sent to such courses or programs a f t e r t h e i r s p e c i f i c needs have been spotted i n the Individual Performance Reviews and approved by the D i v i s i o n Appraisal Committee. In addition, managers are encouraged to take courses and studies f o r t h e i r s e l f -development. They are e n t i t l e d to a refund of fees when the courses are approved by the corporation. Evaluating the r e s u l t s of these programs i s one problem area encountered by the company. The Manager f o r Management Development attr i b u t e s t h i s to a lack of refine d and r e l i a b l e measuring too l s . At present, the evaluation i s done through the r e s u l t s c r i t e r i o n as r e f l e c t e d i n the Individual Perfor-mance Reviews. How these managers perform i n r e l a t i o n to the targets and standards set for them w i l l roughly indicate the degree of success (or f a i l u r e ) of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l programs. According to the Manager f o r Management Development, the corporation stresses the importance of not "pigeonholing" employees f o r t r a i n i n g . People are d i s s i m i l a r because of t h e i r differences i n education, background, experience and capabil-- 98 -i t i e s . What may be relevant f o r one job s i t u a t i o n may not be so f o r another even though the job t i t l e s may be i d e n t i c a l . This i s evitable owing to the variances i n the work environ-ments i n which these positions are located. An i n d i v i d u a l -ized and s p e c i f i c approach to management development i s even more c r i t i c a l i n a corporation such as thi s where there i s much d i v e r s i t y i n operations, dispersed over a wide geograph-i c a l area and decentralized i n structure. I t i s on account of these factors that the management development programs are designed to cater to s p e c i f i c needs and objectives rather than to f u l f i l l a l l demands and aspirations i n a single pro-gram. A F i n a n c i a l Corporation The corporation founded i n 1950 i a Vancouver i s acclaim-ed to be one of the largest independent f i n a n c i a l enterprises i n Worth America today. Its a c t i v i t i e s include installment purchase and personal loans, short-term financing of indus-t r i a l expansion and loans f o r purchase of c a p i t a l equipment. Most of i t s two hundred branches are i n North America and the remainder i n the Bahamas and Europe. In 1963 a tr a i n i n g program f o r the po t e n t i a l branch managers was started. This, according to the Controller who i s i n charge of personnel and procedure, i s the f i r s t step towards a t r u l y comprehensive management development reach-ing a l l managerial echelons. Meanwhile preparations are under way f o r a program at the next managerial l e v e l - the - 99 -d i s t r i c t managers. Following t h i s there w i l l be a develop-ment scheme fo r the regional managers. Development at the upper echelons w i l l be mainly counselling by seniors and attendance of the numerous courses or programs by the d i f f e r -ent i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the Banff School f o r Continuing Education and the University of C a l i f o r n i a . Usually the t r a i n i n g and f a c i l i t i e s offered i n these courses are not av a i l a b l e within the organization. The company defines the present t r a i n i n g program f o r p o t e n t i a l branch managers as "Supervisory Training Program" and the "Executive Training Program" refers to the development of d i s t r i c t managers and above. One of the most emphasized objectives of the present program i s to t r a i n the p o t e n t i a l branch managers to operate i n a manner stip u l a t e d by the company p o l i c i e s and procedures. The purpose i s to a t t a i n a c e r t a i n degree of uniformity i n operations and to develop a s p e c i f i c company image i n the eyes of the p u b l i c . A program l i k e t h i s i s necessary i n view of the f a c t that many of the employees had worked i n other com-panies before and the same means have to be employed to re-orient t h e i r customary mode of operations to that of the com-pany. One other emphasized objective i s to produce a s u f f i c -i e n t quantity of w e l l - q u a l i f i e d personnel to f i l l vacancies and new positions a r i s i n g out of the company's rapid expan-sion. Other objectives include better job performance and the improvement of morale. - 100 A l l branch managers are instructed to h i r e only people •who possess the p o t e n t i a l f o r advancement at l e a s t up to the branch manager l e v e l . This i s i n keeping with the promotion from within p o l i c y which stipulates that a l l future managers have to work from the bottom upwards. However, some pro-v i s i o n s are made for "new blood" to be admitted into the cor-poration; f o r example, a special accelerated and more demand-ing program f o r a few college graduates re c r u i t e d each year. Only top quality graduates are considered for the special program, the company preferring not to r e c r u i t any i f no one meets i t s expectations as was the case i n 1964-. The r e l a t i v e homogeneity of the operations makes i t possible and expedient f o r a l l employees to undergo the same basic t r a i n i n g . Those who prove themselves to possess some managerial potentials are selected to j o i n t h i s program. In general, one may say with some j u s t i f i c a t i o n that the Supervisory Training Program i s designed to develop a breed of company .men. The rationale for t h i s , as observed e a r l i e r , i s to create a f a m i l i a r company image among i t s f a r - f l u n g cus-tomers by o f f e r i n g them similar services and f a c i l i t i e s as well as a uniform pattern of business transactions. To some degree, the process of s t r i v i n g to establish a uniform company image i s enhanced by the r e l a t i v e homogenous nature of i t s a c t i v i t i e s . As such the program i s more orientated to a t t a i n -5. Maintenance of a uniform company image i s not an un-f a m i l i a r phenomenon. S h e l l O i l , f o r instance, u t i l i z e s the same S h e l l sign and English l e t t e r i n g i n every part of the world i t operates. - 1 0 1 -ing corporate goals than to serving s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l needs. However, th i s i s not true of the development plans at the upper l e v e l s of management where human re l a t i o n s and concep-t u a l s k i l l s are c r u c i a l . Much of these plans are dictated by the s p e c i f i c demands of these senior executives. The approach to tr a i n i n g i s that of "learning by doing". Underlying t h i s i s the p r i n c i p l e that one should not only acquire new information and knowledge but should be able to u t i l i z e them as much as possible. A l l trainees i n the Super-visory Training Program are instructed to schedule t h e i r own t r a i n i n g and are responsible f o r arranging t h e i r coaching sessions with t h e i r immediate superiors. Such requirements are deemed necessary i n view of the nature of the program which i s designed to permit each trainee to progress at his own pace. In other words, there i s a d e f i n i t e number of a c t i v i t i e s c a l l e d areas of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which have no s p e c i f i c time l i m i t s of completion f o r the trainee. How quick-l y and how well he i s able to complete t h i s series of a c t i v -i t i e s i s a function of his motivation, c a p a b i l i t i e s and back-ground. A rationale f o r t h i s i s that no two i n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n i n the same speed owing to personal differences. A f a s t and energetic learner should be allowed and encouraged to forge ahead as r a p i d l y as his a b i l i t i e s w i l l permit him. An area of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y r e f e r s to the s p e c i f i c a c t i v -i t i e s i n one topic which the trainee has to learn and prac-t i c e well enough to a t t a i n a c e r t a i n standard of performance. - 102 -The topics that have to be studied include p r o f i t planning, c o l l e c t i n g , cashiering and other a c t i v i t i e s connected with the operations of a branch o f f i c e . Each trainee i s supplied with a Management Guide Book which sp e l l s out i n d e t a i l the nature of these areas of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n which he has to show competence. A Q u a l i f i c a t i o n Procedure i s used by the company to d i r e c t the trainee's progress i n the program. This Q u a l i f i c a t i o n Procedure serves two functions, one i s to confirm the trainee's standing i n areas, or parts of areas i n which he has attained the required l e v e l of performance and the other i s to indicate how f a r and how well he has pro-6 gressed i n each area. Once he has f u l f i l l e d a l l the require-ments i n one area, he i s considered q u a l i f i e d i n that area. He goes on u n t i l he i s q u a l i f i e d i n a l l the st i p u l a t e d areas. B r i e f l y , t h i s t r a i n i n g scheme permits the trainee to be tested a f t e r he has been trained but before he has assumed his man-a g e r i a l p o s i t i o n . The company stip u l a t e s that a l l managers be accountable for t r a i n i n g t h e i r subordinates. In t h i s program, the branch manager i s required to meet the trainee formally once a week off. the job. The purposes of the formal meeting are three-f o l d . The f i r s t i s to check his progress i n accordance with 6. An analogy to t h i s i s the R . C . A . F . 5BX Plan; except that i n the 5BX, a p a r t i c i p a n t must complete a l l the require-ments i n each l e v e l before he moves to the next. Here the trainee may attempt to meet the requirements of several or even a l l the areas at the same time though he may reach a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l i n each area. - 103 -h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n procedure; the second i s to discuss with him his plans f o r completing the next week1s assignments i n these areas of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the t h i r d i s to give what-ever counsel he needs. In addition, the d i s t r i c t manager meets the trainee once a quarter to review his work. A l l the coaching i s done by the company personnel and no outside t r a i n e r i s involved. The system permits and encourages those with ambition to progress as f a s t and as f a r i n the program as t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s w i l l permit, as the c r i t e r i o n i s achieve-ment i n results,not the amount of time expended. Many of the a c t i v i t i e s i n these areas of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y require the trainee to do some role playing i n order to appreciate t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e and p r a c t i c a b i l i t y . One char-a c t e r i s t i c of r o l e playing i s the implied pressure on the actor to attempt to " f e e l " l i k e the person whose ro l e he i s playing. To t h i s end, r o l e playing enables a trainee to develop an empathetic understanding of others, e s p e c i a l l y his prospective c l i e n t s and colleagues. The major teaching method i s the personal coaching by the immediate superior. Other le s s frequently used techniques are the various group tr a i n i n g methods such as lectures, discussions, case studies and conferences. These, however, are employed to a greater degree i n the upper echelons. Refund of fees are available to those who successfully completed th e i r self-development courses. However, these courses must be related to their jobs and be approved by the C o n t r o l l e r . - 104- -One feature, common to most companies, but absent here i s the performance appraisal. The closest approximation of the company to a performance appraisal i s an annual assess-ment fo r possible salary increase. Recommendations for salary increase are p a r t i a l l y based on some aspects of job performance. I t appears that the chief consideration i s the comparison between the appraisee's present and previous years' figures of such accounting e n t i t i e s as t o t a l r e t a i l outstand-ing, accounts per employee, net profit". The Controller said that the performance appraisal i n a format commonly known i s 7 not suitable for such a company as h i s . The program i s f a c i l i t a t e d by two fac t o r s . One i s the r e l a t i v e homogeneity of the company a c t i v i t i e s and the other i s the r a p i d i t y of the company expansion. These factors together with the compulsory retirement at s i x t y - f i v e f o r men and s i x t y f o r women eliminate one major problem l i k e l y to ob-struct the success of management development as experienced by many companies. This problem i s how to have s u f f i c i e n t man-a g e r i a l positions f o r the personnel trained i n the company1s own Management Development Programs. A f a i l u r e to f u l f i l l t h e i r expectations f o r greater managerial r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s could r e s u l t i n f r u s t r a t i o n , disappointment and resignations amongst these people. A Review of the Four Programs I t i s in t e r e s t i n g to note that each company operates 7. He did not elaborate on t h i s . - 105 -i t s own management development program i n i t s own p a r t i c u l a r way. Even i f they were i n the same industry, i t i s doubtful whether they would employ one standard approach to t h e i r pro-grams simply because no two firms have i d e n t i c a l problems, operations, background and pers o n a l i t i e s involved. Companies with a lesser range of a c t i v i t i e s tend to employ more standardized techniques than companies with d i v e r s i f i e d operations. Both the department store chain and the f i n a n c i a l corporation could be c l a s s i f i e d i n the former category. For instance, the f i n a n c i a l corporation i s en-deavoring to produce a d i s t i n c t class of company men<within i t s ranks. Such an approach i s l i a b l e to encourage the growth of stereotypes. The same may be said of the department store chain i n which a l l the p o t e n t i a l managers are required to undergo the same basic t r a i n i n g . In both cases, the emphasis i s on t r a i n i n g t h e i r managerial personnel i n the accepted com-pany mode of operation. However, the other two companies seem to approach development from a d i f f e r e n t angle. Development i s more i n d i v i d u a l l y oriented and no basic t r a i n i n g i s s t i p u -l a t e d f o r a l l managers. Development a c t i v i t i e s are designed to f u l f i l l the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s p e c i f i c needs which are deter-mined from the performance appraisals. A l l four companies appear to have a firm b e l i e f i n pro-per coaching by the immediate superiors and on-the-job t r a i n -ing. A sound superior-subordinate relationship i s stressed i n a l l instances. Normally a superior i s held responsible f o r the development of his subordinates. He i s expected to guide - 106 -and coach his juniors x^henever possible. Though the compan-ies consider on-the-job a c t i v i t i e s as the main means to t r a i n t h e i r personnel, they do not hesitate to resort to off-the-job development a c t i v i t i e s both within and outside the com-pany when necessary. Moreover, fee refunds are used as an incentive to encourage managers to attend outside courses r e l a t i n g to the i r work. For some reason or other, none of the companies make any strenuous e f f o r t to evaluate t h e i r program. CHAPTER IX PROBLEMS IN MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Management development programs w i l l be better u t i l i z e d i f more of t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s and obstacles blocking t h e i r pro-gress are i d e n t i f i e d and overcome. In t h i s chapter the possible reasons that c e r t a i n programs f a i l to carry through, and t h e i r possible solutions w i l l be examined. There i s also a discussion of some unresolved problems. Overcoming Some Obstacles i n Management Development An obvious area to probe i n any f a i l u r e of management t r a i n i n g i s the trainee or p a r t i c i p a n t himself. Andrews advocates that a person with a negative attitude toward learning or having too set a mind should be d i s q u a l i f i e d for he would not benefit much from a program. For t h i s reason, only a w i l l i n g and capable i n d i v i d u a l without corporate or f a m i l i a l complications should be permitted to attend any 1 program. Sometimes the wrong people are being trained to do a job as noted by Gordon. He found out that i n quite a number of s i t u a t i o n s , the new employees d i d not receive t h e i r orien-t a t i o n } j o b i n s t r u c t i o n and management counselling from t h e i r 1. Kenneth R. Andrews, "Is Management Training E f f e c t i v e ? (II) Measurements, Objectives and P o l i c y , " Harvard Business  Review, Vol. 35> No. 2, March-Apr. 1957, p . " ^ - 108 -supervisors but from others, such as the "set-up men and lead man" and occasionally, from the "informal leader". The same sort of s i t u a t i o n would possibly occur among managerial people. I f a company desires to improve i t s t r a i n i n g a c t i v i -t i e s , i t should t r a i n those people who actually do t h i s func-t i o n . Accordingly, the company should ascertain who does the actual t r a i n i n g job and should provide him with the necessary 2 t r a i n i n g to perform his task e f f e c t i v e l y . One hypothesis, explaining the f a i l u r e of many manage-3 ment development programs i s given by A l l e n . Two factors are involved. One i s the f a i l u r e to define i n i t a l l y the kind of work a manager should do and thus develop him accordingly to do his job. The other i s the assumption that the training could be accomplished away from the job. The former could be r e c t i f i e d by an i n i t i a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the a c t i v i t i e s en-t a i l e d i n managing and tr a i n i n g him to perform his task e f f e c t i v e l y . In the l a t t e r , off-the-job a c t i v i t i e s such as seminars, conferences and courses though forming an i n d i s -pensable part of the t r a i n i n g process are ac t u a l l y designed f o r f i l l i n g gaps i n knowledge and s k i l l . He suggests that a manager could learn more e f f e c t i v e l y through applying manage-ment p r i n c i p l e s i n his regular job a c t i v i t i e s than r e l y i n g 2. Richard M. Gordon, "Do We Train the Wrong People," Personnel, Vol. 36, No. 11, A p r i l 1958, p. 4-15 et sea. 3. Louis A. A l l e n , "Does Management Development Develop Managers?" Personnel Journal, Vol. 34-, No. 2, Sep.-Oct. 1957? p.18. - 109 too much on the off-the-job development a c t i v i t i e s . Too often, a trainee may le a r n what has been taught i n the course but unfortunately the learning i s not transferred to the job s i t u a t i o n . Frequently, t h i s i s due to his work environment i n which there are c e r t a i n formal and informal forces at work which may hinder his attempt to apply his t r a i n i n g . A l l jobs are said to have s o c i a l meanings. Any endeavor to change an ind i v i d u a l ' s job behavior i s almost synonymous with t r y i n g to change h i s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . For instance, the ind i v i d u a l ' s superior may not appreciate or approve his learning. Thus he has to go along with his superior or face some undesirable consequences. Or he may have to drop some or most of his t r a i n i n g i n order to placate his colleagues, subordinates, and some informal groups. A l l t r a i n i n g programs should include some t r a i n i n g on how to over-come the problems encountered i n applying the t r a i n i n g . Most recurrent of these problems are the deterrent e f f e c t s of other i n d i v i d u a l s . One may say that no development program could be e f f e c t i v e unless a man's work environment permits him to 4-apply his t r a i n i n g . Frequently a t r a i n i n g program f a l l s short because of poor superior-subordinate r e l a t i o n s h i p . A sound relationship i s almost indispensable for any subordinate to be coached properly by hi s supervisor. Oft-times t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s 4-. James N. Mosel, "Why Training Programs F a i l to Carry Over," Personnel, Vol. 34-, No. 3, Nov.-Dee. 1957, pp. 56-64-. - 110 -hindered by a number of f a c t o r s . Many l i n e managers f a i l to give s u f f i c i e n t time and thought to working with t h e i r jun-i o r s . Not uncommonly, the r i v a l r y between the superior and subordinate i s allowed to be repressed instead of being acknowledged. Often the company climate may be anything but tolerant of mistakes and the i n d i v i d u a l needs to learn./ I t i s suggested that a l l these shortcomings should be r e c t i f i e d before e f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g i s possible. For instance, the superior should be made to r e a l i z e that his status i s l a r g e l y affected by his a b i l i t y to develop others. S i m i l a r l y his own superior i s held accordingly. Top management should ensure that development i s encouraged and f a c i l i t a t e d by s u f f i c i e n t opportunities within the organization. Experiences from u n i v e r s i t y programs indicate that many companies have to contend with poor re s u l t s because of one or more of the following reasons: p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n these pro-grams too l a t e or too soon, sending the wrong candidates to these courses and choosing unsuitable programs. Consequently many participants become fr u s t r a t e d f o r two reason. Some may f e e l that they have been denied the opportunity to use the t r a i n i n g which they have been sent f o r . Worse s t i l l , t h i s d e n i a l means possible f a i l u r e to l i v e up to the expectations of others. Some of those who develop a broader perspective and new attitudes may experience some d i f f i c u l t i e s i n adjust-5. Harry Levinson, "A Psychologist Looks at Executive Development," Harvard Business Review. Vol. 4-0, No. 5? Sep.-Oct. 1962, pp. 69-75. - I l l -ing themselves i n t h e i r old work environment. Aushen suggests that a company should integrate p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these univer-s i t y courses as part of a long term, managerial s t a f f i n g pro-gram. A company contemplating p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n these courses should make a thorough study of the programs avail a b l e , and then se l e c t the appropriate candidates to attend the programs which match corporate needs. In addition, provisions should be made to accommodate these p a r t i c i p a n t s when they return so that what they le a r n i s not wasted. Resistance to learning i s a common obstacle faced i n management development or, f o r that matter, any sort of t r a i n -ing. Many people r e s i s t t r a i n i n g because they view i t as a threat to t h e i r s o c i a l relationships and accustomed modes of behavior rather than as a source of help. Learning generally implies a change of some kind. Sometimes the resistance could be a t t r i b u t e d to a block i n communications, the i n s t r u c t o r may not know what his trainees f e e l about the t r a i n i n g and what they want and vice versa. In other cases the trainee may Interpret t r a i n i n g as a r e f l e c t i o n on management b e l i e f that he i s not as good as he should be.? One approach suggested to solve t h i s recurrent problem i s to examine the true nature of resistance. Normally the 6 . Melvin Aushen, "Better Use of Executive Development Programs," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 3 6 , No. 6 , Nov.-Dec. 1 9 5 5 , PP. 6TW. 7 . James R. Surface, "Resistance to Training," Harvard  Business Review, Vol. 3 2 , No. 2 , March-Apr. 1 9 5 k 5 p. 7 3 et seg,. - 1 1 2 -trainees do not r e s i s t technical change but rather s o c i a l change - a change i n t h e i r s o c i a l relationships that usually accompanies technical change. For t h i s reason, the ins t r u c t o r should attempt to ensure a genuine comprehension, i n depth and d e t a i l of the s p e c i f i c s o c i a l relationship that would be sustained or threatened by the learning process or by the manner i n which i t i s introduced. As such, both the i n s t r u c -tor and his trainees should communicate as f r e e l y as possible regarding t h e i r attitudes, the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered and whatever comments and suggestions they f e e l warranted. As f a r as possible, the program should be designed to s t r i k e a balance between the i n d i v i d u a l need and the demands of the organization. 8 Some Unresolved Problems Hot a l l the problems encountered i n managerial develop-ment could be e a s i l y resolved. Some of them are dilemmas as either one of the available courses of action appears to be anything but desirable. Others seem to be part and parcel of any learning process. As happens frequently, new problems a r i s e as old ones are unravelled. An i n a b i l i t y to define a model manager both i n terms of hi s work and his c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s a major d i f f i c u l t y faced i n management development. I t i s necessary to know what are the factors involved i n the making of an e f f e c t i v e manager 8 . Paul R. Laurence, "How to Deal with Resistance to Change," Harvard Business Review. Vol. 3 2 , Nov. 3 , May-June 1954-, p. 5 2 et seq. - 1 1 3 -before any b e n e f i c i a l t r a i n i n g i s possible. There are only broad descriptions and standards of successful managers i n general but none f o r a p a r t i c u l a r incumbent i n a p a r t i c u l a r o company i n a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . There are not only differences i n job requirements f o r positions i n d i f f e r e n t companies but also some differences i n requirements f o r s i m i l a r positions within the same organization. The problem i s further complicated by the d i f f e r e n t schools of thought on what are the relevant factors pertaining to an e f f e c t i v e manager. One school of thought suggests that a good manager requires c e r t a i n t r a i t s such as i n t e l l i g e n c e , adaptability, decisiveness, a n a l y t i c a l a b i l i t y , character and m o t i v a t i o n . 1 0 Another school emphasizes c e r t a i n s k i l l s such as human, tech n i c a l , and conceptual. 1 3" Sometimes a dilemma may a r i s e out of the l i n e - s t a f f r e l a t i o n s i n operating the program. I t i s not a simple task to define the detailed duties of the s t a f f i n a program. If the s t a f f i s given the authority to implement the program or to pressure the l i n e to do so, the l i n e managers' v i t a l r e l a -9 . Vide. "The Mythology of the Ideal Executive," i n Myles L. Mace, The Growth and Development of the Executive. Boston: D i v i s i o n of Research, Graduate School of Business, Harvard University, 1 9 5 0 , pp. 2 0 - 2 3 . 1 0 . Burt K. Seanlan, "A New Look at Executive Development," Administrative Management, Jan. 1964-, pp. 30-34-. 1 1 . Robert L. Katz, " S k i l l s of an E f f e c t i v e Administrator," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 3 3 , No. 1 , Jan.-Feb. 1 9 5 5 * PP. 33-4-2. - 1 1 4 - -tionships with t h e i r subordinates are threatened. On the other hand, i f the s t a f f were to serve only i n an advisory capacity most i f not a l l of i t s recommendations might not be heeded by the l i n e e s p e c i a l l y i f the l i n e managers are not 1 2 enthusiastic about development. A sim i l a r problem r e l a t i n g to the question of where to s t r i k e a happy medium may occur when there i s a c o n f l i c t between organization needs and i n d i v i d u a l development. From his research, Chris Argyis found that e f f i c i e n t managers are generally task-oriented. Unfortunately the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s common i n task-oriented indiv i d u a l s are often the very oppo-s i t e of the q u a l i t i e s required i n good coaches. They tend to be d i r e c t i v e and domineering. Frequently they ignore or even block the aspirations of t h e i r subordinates, e s p e c i a l l y when these wants clash with t h e i r own objectives. Such a behavior pattern may be instrumental i n at t a i n i n g c e r t a i n corporate goals but usually at the expense of s t i f l i n g i n d i v i d u a l needs and development. As such, i t appears that the goals of the company do not go hand i n hand with i n d i v i d u a l needs i n cer-t a i n occasions. 1^ Lack of capable and w i l l i n g instructors i s a recurring problem i n development. Accepted organization p r i n c i p l e s 1 2 . George S. Odiorne, "Five Manager Development Problems," Personnel Journal. Vol. 3 6 , No. 1 , May 1 9 5 7 , p. 7 . 1 3 . Chris Argyis, "Top Management Dilemma: Company Needs versus Individual Development," Personnel. Vol. 3 2 , No. 2 , Sep. 1 9 5 8 , pp. I23-I34-. - 115 -demand that the manager has to be coached by his supervisor. More often than not these supervisors do not possess the t r a i n i n g nor the i n c l i n a t i o n to teach. Some of them are reluctant to develop t h e i r juniors because they see them as threats to t h e i r own positions. Others who have gone through the hard way have regarded coaching as tantamount to pamper-ing. With such negative reactions, they are not l i k e l y to do a good job of coaching. Someone claims that a f a i r l y bright i n d i v i d u a l requires four years of specialized study to be-14-come a competent counsellor. Yet how many l i n e managers have been exposed to a rudimentary course i n teaching and counselling? Not very many, perhaps only a handful. 14-. Erwin K. Taylor, "Management Development at the Gross-roads," Personnel Journal. Vol. 30, No. 2, March-Apr. 1959, P. 19.. CHAPTER X CONCLUSIONS A major* obstacle to any uniform approach to management development i s the lack of a consistent and generally accept-ed set of a c t i v i t i e s and requirements which a manager should do and have. I t i s possible to define the kind of man f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r organization i n a p a r t i c -u l a r s i t u a t i o n . But a model manager f o r a l l industries and i n a l l occasions i s non-existent. Nevertheless, t h i s should not prevent any attempt to systematize p o s i t i o n descriptions, e s p e c i a l l y within a p a r t i c u l a r f i r m as a guide f o r manage-ment development. By "systematic", i t i s meant a r a t i o n a l and r e a l i s t i c d elineation of the various managerial a c t i v i -t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . With a c l a r i f i e d p o s i t i o n c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n , i t i s easier to comprehend i n which d i r e c t i o n one should develop. Otherwise development would be l e f t too much to chance. The m u l t i p l i c i t y of variables of the business world i s r e f l e c t e d i n the almost i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c nature of s p e c i f i c business u n i t s . One f i r m i s d i f f e r e n t from another just as one human being d i f f e r s from another. There are differences i n p o l i c i e s , operations, p e r s o n a l i t i e s involved, sizes and backgrounds i n these corporations. As a r e s u l t , a wide va r i e t y of development a c t i v i t i e s emerges to accommodate a host of diverse needs and s i t u a t i o n s . The very existence of - 117 -such a variety without some kind of c o n t r o l l i n g agency elimin-ates the p o s s i b i l i t y of a uniform approach. Case studies made of four large companies i n Vancouver indicate that- each company tackles i t s management development problems i n i t s own peculiar way. Other studies by i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e the American Management Association and the National I n d u s t r i a l Conference Board support t h i s observation. This i s to be expected i n a s i t u a t i o n where there i s no recognized body having the necessary power or influence to ensure a c e r t a i n degree of uniformity i n development p r i n c i -ples and a c t i v i t i e s . Some people believe that the gradual p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n of management i s paving the way f o r such a professional body comparable to the acknowledged profession-a l groups l i k e lawyers and doctors. If management were to become a recognized profession, then i t would be a l o t easier to introduce and implement some sort of guidelines within which management development programs are to be administered. A professional body would clear much of the confusions and controversies p r e v a i l i n g today, such as whether these pro-grams are e f f e c t i v e or not, the manner i n which they should be organized and operated and so on. Further, an established association would eliminate many pseudo-management consul-tants who have done more than t h e i r f a i r share of harm to management development. Some c r i t i c s fear the p r o f e s s i o n a l -i z a t i o n of management would produce stereotypes and even-t u a l l y destroy the entrepreneurial s p i r i t so e s s e n t i a l to - 118 -business. This i s a b i t too farfetched, Experiences show that i t i s easier to make advances and improvements when the tasks are tackled i n an organized and systematic manner rather than i n a haphazard fashion. A look at advances and achievements made i n medicine and engineering would confirm t h i s . A big problem i n many areas of management development i s the lack of proper measurement tools and techniques. The evaluation of a p a r t i c u l a r program, f o r instance, i s not a simple task. Some of the res u l t s of the tr a i n i n g sessions could not be detected u n t i l a lapse of time. Courses i n -volved with the t r a i n i n g of q u a l i t a t i v e aspects of management are generally more d i f f i c u l t to measure than those concerned with quantitative aspects. Frequently there are other fac-tors working simultaneously to Influence the end res u l t s of the t r a i n i n g process so that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine how each of the changes could be attr i b u t e d to the program i n question. Controversy s t i l l rages over the question of whether the " t r a i t " approach or the " r e s u l t s " approach to performance appraisal i s more appropriate. One of the out-standing Issues i n t h i s controversy i s how to decide which of the two approaches measures the performance of a manager more r e a l i s t i c a l l y and accurately. Perhaps i n many instances, the sol u t i o n l i e s i n a discreet combination of the two. Consequently i t i s not unsual to see many companies s t i l l adopting management development programs on f a i t h and - 1 1 9 -hope because of the absence of a r e l i a b l e measuring device f o r evaluating the effectiveness of these programs. One way-i s to do what i s being done by an increasing number of com-panies, that i s , to measure the r e s u l t s of t h e i r programs i n terms of t h e i r own objectives. U n t i l a set of r e l i a b l e meas-uring tools and techniques i s developed, many of the t r a i n -ing sessions have to be conducted on a t r i a l and error basis. C o n f l i c t s between organizational needs and i n d i v i d u a l wants i s another recurring headache i n management develop-ment. Compatibility of organizational and i n d i v i d u a l objec-tives do not always coincide. How to f i n d a happy medium i s i t s e l f a problem. A company wishing to accomplish i t s stated goals should be prepared to plan, organize, d i r e c t , and con-t r o l i t s s t a f f i n a manner i t considers b e f i t t i n g . Yet, a l l management development i n the f i n a l analysis i s i n d i v i d u a l self-development. Accordingly a company should encourage i t s employees to develop i n a d i r e c t i o n consistent with i t s goals i f possible by means of various incentives and yet be able to accommodate i n d i v i d u a l aspirations by a c a r e f u l design of i t s management development program. I t i s not an easy job to do, but the company should at l e a s t try'. Presently, there are s t i l l some programs being i n i t i a t e d by some over-zealous top executives without the f a i n t e s t idea of what these programs r e a l l y e n t a i l . Once started they are contented to s i t back and l e t f a t e decide the outcome of these programs. Undoubtedly some programs come into being primarily - 120 -because some companies want to l i v e up to the I n d u s t r i a l "Joneses". Worse s t i l l are the t r a i n i n g plans copied whole-sale from other firms without the s l i g h t e s t modification to s u i t the p a r t i c u l a r circumstances i n which they are to be operated. Under such circumstances, the chance of success i s not an optimistic one indeed. Oft-times the i n d i v i d u a l who i s put i n charge of corporate t r a i n i n g has l i t t l e t r a i n -ing or experience i n developing others. Moreover, there are others who seem to think that development a c t i v i t i e s can func-t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y independently of a conducive company climate, top management support and p a r t i c i p a t i o n , l i n e co-operation and proper organization. Though a sizeable proportion of the companies having some kind of t r a i n i n g schemes report s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r r e s u l t s , there i s ample scope to examine why others do not meet t h e i r expectations. Research i n management development i s too v i t a l an assignment to be l e f t e n t i r e l y to the univer-s i t i e s , and other i n s t i t u t i o n s concerned with the subject. Every company operating a program should be continually ex-pl o r i n g new ways and techniques to improve i t s program and should exchange experiences and information with others as much as possible. One such area i n which more research needs to be done i s the evaluation of management development pro-grams. Of course, these non-commercial i n s t i t u t i o n s could ac't as a kind of clearing house f o r the data r e l a t i n g to manage-ment development. - 121 -With the increasing complexities of operating a busi-ness organization today, the need f o r w e l l - q u a l i f i e d manager-i a l personnel increases correspondingly. Competition i n the future i s predicted to be more and more a battle between opposing management teams rather than anything else. This i s because the other factors of production are equally obtainable to a l l competitors with l i t t l e or no difference i n q u a l i t y and quantity. Companies with highly competent managerial personnel have an advantage over others. A good management team cannot be trained overnight nor can i t be rec r u i t e d from outside. If a company wants a team that i s able to carry out i t s objectives and operations, i t has to develop one i t s e l f . Training i s not as simple as i t may sound. E f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g e n t a i l s elaborate planning, organs i z a t i o n and comprehensive understanding of the nature of the learning process among other things. In view of the absence of some d e f i n i t e resemblance of order i n management development, some e f f o r t s should be made to systematize management t r a i n i n g as much as possible with the ultimate purpose of establishing a generally accepted framework. Otherwise management would s t i l l remain an art or an immature science at i t s very best and the p o s s i b i l i t y of i t becoming a profession a f o r l o r n dream. I t i s high time that management development no longer be l e f t to chance. What i s suggested i s not a system of procedures and tech-niques b l i n d l y adhered to. Rather i t should be a generally accepted framework which o f f e r s a range within which manage-- 122 -ment t r a i n i n g i s to be conducted. This i s deemed necessary on account of the d i v e r s i t y of needs and situations p r e v a i l -ing i n the business world. Take the teaching profession for example. The vari e t y of subjects to be taught, the countless assortments of p e r s o n a l i t i e s and situations involved do not prevent the establishment of a recognized profession, with a set of rul e s , p r i n c i p l e s and techniques which are f l e x i b l e enough to cater to a l l needs and conditions. I f and when management attains the status of an acknowledged profession, management development programs would be i n a better p o s i t i o n to t r a i n a new breed of managers ably trained and q u a l i f i e d to f u l f i l the obligations of t h e i r profession and that of t h e i r respective companies. BIBLIOGRAPHY; A. BOOKS A l l e n , Louis A. 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Homewood, 111 .: Richard D. Irwin Inc., I960 . Drucker, Peter. The Practice of Management. New York: Harper and Row, 1 9 5 ^ ' ' Fleishman, Edwin A., E. F. Harris and H. E. Burtt. Leadership  and Supervision i n Industry: An Evaluation of a Super-visory Training Program, Columbus, Ohio: Bureau of Educational Research, Ohio State University, 1955. Greenlaw, Paul S., L. W. Herron and R. H. Rawdon. Business  Simulation. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: Prentice-Hall Inc., Houston, George C. Manager Development. Homewood, 111.: Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1961. Kibbee, J o e l M., C. J . Croft and B. Namus. Management Games. New York: Reinhart Publishing Corp., 1961. - 124- -Koontz, Harold and C y r i l O'Donnell. P r i n c i p l e s of Management. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1 9 5 9 . Mace, Myles L. The Growth and Development of the Executive. Boston: D i v i s i o n of Research, Graduate School of : Business, Harvard University, 1 9 5 0 . Mahoney, Thomas A. Building the Executive Team. Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . : Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1961. McCormick, Charles P. The Power of People: Multiple Manage- ment up to Date. New York: Harper and Brothers, 194-9. McGregor, Douglas. The Human Side of Enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., I960. ' Newcomer, Mabel. The Big Business Executive. New York: Columbia University Press, 1 9 5 5 . Planty, E a r l G., ¥. S. McCord and C. A. Efferson. Training  Employees and Managers f o r Production and Teamwork. New York: Ronald Press Co., 194-8. , and Thomas Freeston. Developing Managerial A b i l i t y . New York: Ronald Press Co., 1954-. Riegel, John W. Executive Development. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan" Press, 1 9 5 2 . Rowland, V i r g i l . Improving Managerial Performance. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1 9 5 o \ ' Shartle, C a r r o l l L. Executive Performance and Leadership. Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . : Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1 9 5 6 . Straus, George and L. R. Sayles. Personnel. Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . : Prentice-Hall, Inc., I 9 6 0 . Taylor, Frederick ¥. S c i e n t i f i c Management. New York: Harper and Brothers, 194-7. Toedt, Theodore A. et a l . Managing Manpower i n the I n d u s t r i a l  Environment. Dubuque, Iowa: W. C. Brown Co., 1962. Warner, Lloyd W. and James C. Abegglen. Big Business Leaders  i n America. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1 9 5 5 . What Makes an Executive. Report of a Round Table on Executive  P o t e n t i a l and Performance. New York: Columbia Univer-s i t y Press, 1 9 5 5 * ' Whyte, J r . , William H. The Organization Man. Garden 6 i t y , N. Y.: Doubleday and Co., 1 9 5 7 . - 1 2 ? -Wolf, William B. The Management of Personnel, Belmont, Gal.: Wadsworth Publishing Co. Inc., 1962. B. PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS Balch, D. E. "Executive Selection and Inventory," Personnel  Series No. 171, Hew York: American Management Assoc-i a t i o n , 1 9 5 7 . Dotmatch, Theodore B. Programmed Instruction: The Basic Vocabulary, New York: American Management Association, 1 9 6 ^ Habbee, Stephen. "College Graduates Assess Their Company Training," Studies i n Personnel P o l i c y No. 188, New York: National I n d u s t r i a l Conference Board, 1963. Hariton, Theodore. "Are Training Programs Paying Off?" Personnel Series No. 151. New York: American Manage-ment Association, 1953. Heyel, C a r l . Appraising Executive Performance, New York: American Management Association, 1958. Marrow, A l f r e d J . Behind the Executive Mask, New York: American Management Association, 1964-. Proctor, John H. and William M. Thorton. Training: A Hand- book f o r Line Managers, New York: American Management Association, 1961. Rowland, V i r g i l . Managerial Performance Standards. New York: American Management Association, I960 . Sinnigen, James C. "Current Prac t i c e i n the Development Personnel," Research Report No. 2 6 , New York: American Management Association, 1 9 5 5 . Smiddley, Harold F. "General E l e c t r i c ' s Philosophy and Approach f o r Management Development," General Manage- ment Series No. 17M> New York: American Management Association, 1 9 5 ? . Trenhaft, William C. "Experience with Executive Standards," General Management Series No. 183. New York: American Management Association, 1956. T r i c k e t t , Joseph M. "A Survey of Management Development," Management Education f o r I t s e l f and Its Employees Part  Two, New York: American Management Association, 1954-. - 126 -Wescheler, I. R. and E. H. Sehein. Issues i n Human Relations. Washington, D. C : National Training Laboratories, National Education Association, 1962. Wikstrom, Walter S. "Developing Managerial Competence," Studies i n Personnel P o l i c y No. 1 8 9 . New York: National I n d u s t r i a l Conference Board, 1964-. C. ESSAYS AND ARTICLES IN COLLECTIONS Balch, D. E. "The Problem of Company Climate," i n Harwood F. M e r r i l l and Elizabeth Marting, Developing Executive  S k i l l s , (eds.), New York: American Management Assoc-i a t i o n , 1958, pp. 66-72. Bavelas, Alex. "Role Playing and Management Training," i n Paul Pigors, C. A. Myers and F. T. Malm, Readings i n  Personnel Administration. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1959, p p . 270-278. B e l l , Frederick J . "Highlights of Multiple Management," i n M. Joseph Dooher and Vivienne F. Marquis, (eds.), The  Development of Executive Talent, New York: American Management Association, 1952, pp. 109-114-. Crowder, N. A. "Automatic Tutoring by I n t r i n s i c Programming," i n A. A. Lumsdaire and Robert Glaser, (eds.), Teaching  Machines and Programmed Learning, Washington, D. C.: Department of Audio-visual Instruction, National Educa-t i o n Association, i960, pp. 286-298. Dulksky, Stanley G. "Improving Leadership of Management Con-ferences," i n Dooher and Marquis, op. c i t . . pp. 175-179. Pamp J r . , Frederic E. "Li b e r a l Arts as Training f o r Executives," i n Robert A. Goldwin and Charles H. Nelson, Towards the  L i b e r a l l y Educated Executive, New York: The New Ameri-can Library of World Literature, Inc., i960, pp. 52-64-. R e i l l e y , Ewing W. and Bernard J . Muller-Thyer. "Planning an Executive Development Program," i n Dooher and Marquis, op. c i t . . pp. 26-39. . "The Overall Company Plan," i n M e r r i l l and Marting, op. c i t . . pp. 33-44. Sargent, Dwight S. "The Job Rotation Method," i n i b i d . , pp. 124-130. Skinner, B. F. "The Science of Learning and the Art of -Teaching," i n Wendell I. Smith and J . William Moore, Programmed Learning. New York: Van Nostrand Co., 1962, pp. I8-33. - 127 -Snygg, Donald. "Learning: An Aspect of Personality Develop-ment," i n Learning, Theory, Personality Theory and  C l i n i c a l Research: The Kentucky Symposium, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1954-, pp. 127-139. The Cleveland E l e c t r i c Illuminating Co. (Training Unit, Personnel Department). "Training your Understudies," i n M e r r i l l and Marting, op. c i t . , pp. 111-123. U r i s , Auren. "The Three Basic Methods of Leadership and More About the Methods," i n Harold Kootz and C y r i l O'Donnell, Readings i n Management, New York: McGraw-H i l l Book Co., 1959, PP. 223-233. D. PERIODICALS A l l e n , Louis A. "Does Management Development Develop Mana-gers?" Personnel, Vol. 34-, No. 2, Sep.-Oct. 1957, pp. 18-25. Andrews, Kenneth R. "Is Management Training E f f e c t i v e ? (I) Evaluation by Managers and Instructors," Harvard Busi-ness Review, Vol. 35, No. 1, Jan.-Feb. 1957, pp.. 85-94-. ,. "Is Management Training E f f e c t i v e ? (II) Measurements, Objectives and P o l i c y , " Harvard Business  Review. Vol. 35, No. 2, March-Apr. 1957, pp. 63-81. Argyris, Chris. "Some Characteristics of Successful Execu-t i v e s , " Personnel Journal, Vol. 32, No. 2, Jun. 1953, PP. 50-5T. . "Top Management Dilemma: Company Needs versus Individual Development," Personnel, Vol. 32, No. 2, Sep. 1958, pp. I23-I34-. . "T. Groups for Organizational E f f e c t i v e -ness," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 4-2, No. 2, March-Apr. 1964-, pp. 60-74-. Aushen, Melvin. "Better Use of Executive Development Programs,' Harvard Business Review, Vol. 33, No. 6, Nov.-Dec. 1955, pp. 67-74-. " . "Executive Development, In-company vs. Univer-s i t y Programs," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 32, No. 5, Sept.-Oct. I954-, PP. 83.91. Bailey, Joseph K. "The Goals of Supervisory Training," Personnel, V o l . 32, No. 2, Sep. 1955, pp. 152-162.-Bennett, Willard E. "The Lecture as a Management Training Technique," Personnel, V o l . 32, No. 6 , May 1956, pp. 4-97-507. - 128 -B l a n s f i e l d , Michael. "The Untimely Passing of Management Development," Personnel Journal. Vol. 39, No. 10, March 1961, pp. 4-04-4-08. . . C h r i s t a i n , Roger W. "Guides to Programmed Learning," Harvard  Business Review, Vol. 4-0, No. 6, Nov.-Dec. 19o2, pp. 36-4-0 and 173-179. Cummins, Joseph L. "Management a Profession," Advanced Management O f f i c e Executive. Vol. 1, No. 12, Dec. 1962, pp. 9-13. Donham, Paul. "Is Management a Profession," Harvard Business Review. Vol. 4-0, No. 5, Sep.-Oct. 1962, pp. 60-68. E d i t o r i a l . "Should a Business be Educated?" Fortune. Vol. 4-7, No. 4-, Apr. 1953, PP. 113-115. Friedman, Jack J . "The Riddle of Executive Training: Where's the Payoff?" Dun's Review and Modern Industry.Vol. 78, No. 6, D e c . 1961, pp. 4-9-54-. Goetz, B i l l y E. "A Critique of Business Games," Journal of  Academy of Management. Vol. 2, No. 3, Dec. 1959, pp. 177-180. Goodacre I I , Daniel M. "The Experimental Evaluation of Man-agement Training: P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e , " Personnel. Vol. 33, No. 6, May 1957, PP. 534-538. Gordon, Richard M. "Do We Train the Wrong," Personnel Journal. Vol. 36, No. 11, Arp. 1958, pp. 4-15-4-16. Hendrik, Charles B. "Feedback: A Method of Evaluating and Improving Management Training," Personnel. Vol. 32, No. 1, July 1955, PP. 16-28. Katz, Robert L. " S k i l l s of an E f f e c t i v e Administrator," Harvard Business Review. V o l . 33, No. 1, Jan.-Feb. 1955, pp. 33-4-2. Krugman, Herbert E. "Management Development Training: Who P r o f i t s Most," Personnel. Vol. 36, No. 3, May-June 1959, pp. 59-62. Laurence, Paul R. "How to Deal with Resistance to Change," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 32, No. 3, May-June 195^, PP. 4-9-57. Levinson, Harry. "A Psychologist Looks at Executive Develop-ment," Harvard Business Review. Vol. 4-0, No. 5, Sep-Oct. 1962, pp. 69-75. : ~ - 129 -Lindbom, Theodore R. and Welsey Osterberg. "Evaluating the Results of Supervisory Training," Personnel. Vol. 3 1 , Ho. 3 , Nov. 1 9 5 4 , pp. 224 - 2 2 7 . MacKinney, A. C. "Progressive Levels i n the Evaluation of Training Programs," Personnel. Vol. 3 4 , No. 3 , Nov.-Dec. 1 9 5 7 , PP. 7 2 - 7 7 . Mahler, Walter R. "Evaluation of Management Development Pro-grams," Personnel. Vol. 3 0 , No. 2 , Sep. 1 9 5 3 , PP. 1 1 6 -1 2 1 . Mahoney, T. A. et a l . " I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and P r e d i c t i o n of Management Effectiveness," Personnel Administration, Vol. 2 6 , No. 4 , July-Aug. 1 9 6 3 , PP. 1 2 - 2 3 . McFarland, Dalton E. "Education f o r Management: New Direc-tions and New Challenges," Journal of the Academy of Management, Vol. 2 , No. 1 , Apr. 1 9 5 9 , pp. 39-46. Mosel, James M. "Why Training Programs F a i l to Garry Over," Personnel. V o l . 3 4 , No. 3 , Nov.-Dec. 1 9 5 7 , pp. 56-64. Murphy, John R. and Irving A. Golberg. "Strategies f o r Using Programmed Instruction," Harvard Business Review, Vol. 42, No. 3 , May-June 1 9 6 4 , pp. 1 1 5 - 1 3 2 . Prentice, W. C. H. "Understanding Leadership," Harvard Busi- ness Review, V o l . 3 9 , No. 5 , Sep.-Oct. 1 9 6 l , pp. 143-1 5 1 . Odiorne, George S. "Five Manager Development Problems," Personnel Journal. Vol. 3 6 , No. 1 , May 1 9 5 7 , pp. 7 - 9 . Seanlan, Burt K. "A New Look at Executive Development," Administrative Management. Jan. 1 9 6 4 , pp. 3 0 - 3 3 * S t o l z , Robert K. "Getting Back to Fundamentals i n Executive Development," Personnel. V o l . 3 0 , No. 6 , May 1 9 5 4 , pp. 4 3 4 - 4 4 4 . Surface, James R. "Resistance to Training," Harvard Business Review. Vol. 3 2 , No. 2 , March-Apr. 1 9 5 4 , pp. 7 3 - 7 8 . Taylor, Erwin K. "Management Development at the Crossroads," Personnel, Vol. 3 0 , No. 2 , March-Apr. 1 9 5 9 , PP. 8-24. Wikstrom, Walter S. "Why Companies Develop Their Managers," Hanagement Record. Hov. 1 9 6 1 , pp. 6 - 8 . Whyte, J r . , William H. "The F a l l a c i e s of Personality Test-ing," Fortune, Vol. 5 0 , No. 3 , Sep. 1 9 5 4 , pp. 1 1 7 - 1 1 9 and 204 - 2 1 0 . 

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