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Husband and wife interaction in house buying Egan, Michael B. 1969

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HUSBAND AND WIFE INTERACTION IN HOUSE BUYING by M i c h a e l B. Egan M.A.,  Glasgow U n i v e r s i t y ,  A THESIS SUBMITTED  1962  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION  i n the Department of COMMERCE AND BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION  We a c c e p t t h i s required  thesis  as c o n f o r m i n g  to the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H M a r c h , 1969  COLUMBIA  In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  degree  Library  further  for  shall  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  thesis  in  at  University  the  make  that  it  of  University  Vancouver  freely  permission  purposes  for  partial  may  be  It  of  British  available for  by  the  understood  gain  for  extensive  granted  is  financial  f u l f i l m e n t of  shall  copying  that be  8,  Commerce and BuainA « H  of  British  Canada  March, 1969  Columbia  TO  of  my  I  agree  and  of  copying  this  or  for that  Study. thesis  Department  or  publication  allowed without  Mmi™ +. -M»r» a  requirements  reference  Head  not  the  Columbia,  permission.  Department  Da t e  thesis  representatives.  written  The  this  my  ABSTRACT  This interaction process  e x p l o r a t o r y study between  examined  the  partners.  other  i n terms  to occur partner  over  decision  interaction was  gence  and  house  buying  partially and  and  divergence  between  i s most  i n which  one  constructed to  variables; then  a field  or  Using  a number  suggested.  survey  of  examine  this  scheme  possible  A questionnaire  undertaken  to v e r i f y  the  suggestions.  results  divergence  indicated  successful  that the concepts  are useful  behavior.  the suggested  was  of dominance.  p a t t e r n s were  of these  The  Interaction  that divergence  situations  framework  intervening  formulated  validity  of  dominates.  some o f t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s several  o f a home.  suggested  the nature  i n the s e a r c h / d e c i s i o n  o f c o n v e r g e n c e and  I t was  A conceptual  and  and w i f e  l e a d i n g to the purchase  was  likely  husband  investigated  The  i n examining  survey  in validating  was,  of  this  however,  the conceptual  interaction patterns.  converaspect  of  only framework  i i i  T A B L E OF  CONTENTS  Chapter  Page  1  The  Nature  2  Toward  and Purpose  a Conceptual  A Conceptual Dominance  Hypotheses  Framework  Framework  Research  5  Survey  6  General  9  Decision  ,  16  and S u g g e s t i o n s f o r  Investigation <+  1  for Investigating  in a Particular  Situation 3  o f the Study  Methodology  Results C o n c l u s i o n s , and E x t e n s i o n s  BIBLIOGRAPHY  28 45 55 74 81  APPENDIX A The  Questionnaire  APPENDIX Survey  89  B Results  100  iv  LIST  OF T A B L E S  Table  Page  1  Age d i s t r i b u t i o n  of respondents  56  2  Length, o f m a r r i a g e  56  3  Size  56  4  Stage  5  Education level  6  Ethnic  7  Occupation  of respondents  8  Occupation  of respondents'  9  Experience  i n home o c c u p a n c y  of family i n family  origins  life  cycle  56  of respondents  100  of respondents  100 100  fathers  ....... .  10  Mobility  of respondents  11  Husband's  12  Husbands  13  W i v e s who  14  Church  15  Education level  16  Husband's  income  range  17  Relatives  living  with  18  Reasons  for starting  19  Reasons  f o r expediting  20  Time  21  Intensity  22  Number o f homes  seriously  23  Offers  made  24  N u m b e r o f t i m e s home was l o o k e d a t b e f o r e d e c i s i o n t o buy  attitude who  drive  spent  mobility  t o work  101 101  of respondents  of respondents'  101 fathers  ...  102 102  families search search  searching  102 102 102 103  of search  actually  101  t o shops  attendance  101 101  towards  drive  100  103 considered  103 103 103  Table  Page  . 25  Sources used and t h e i r  26  Respondents' perception  27  A t t i t u d e towards r e a l services  28 29  importance' of price  estate  104  paid  agents' 104  Who was r e s p o n s i b l e search? .'  f o r starting the  Who  f o rconducting the  was r e s p o n s i b l e  search  104  ?  30  Perception  30A  Condensed  31  Perception  31A  Condensed  32  Perception  32A  Condensed  .33  Perception the  .... 1 0 4  104 o f l o c a t i o n o f home version  106  o f above  59  o f s p a c e i n t h e home version  106  o f above  61  of neighborhood version  107  o f above  62  of functional efficiency  of  home  107  33A  Condensed  34  Perception  34A  Condensed  35  Perception  35A  Condensed  36  Perception  36A  Condensed  version  37  Attitudes  t o w a r d s t h e l o c a t i o n o f a home  37A  Condensed  version  38  A t t i t u d e s towards neighborhood, a e s t h e t i c s and investment Condensed v e r s i o n o f above  38A  version  o f above  62  of aesthetics version  108  o f above  63  of investment version  108  o f above  of aspects  of family  64 living  o f above  o f above  ... 1 0 8 64 .. 1 0 9 65  109 66  vi  Table  Page  39  Attitudes  towards  family  39A  Condensed  version  o f above  M-0  A l l o c a t i o n o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l s p a c e i n a h y p o t h e t i c a l home  41  Order to  of ranking  a n d home l i v i n g . .  of task  67  of additional  p r e s e n t home  42  Amount  43  Amount o f l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y a c t i v i t i e s undertaken  110  68  facilities  ,  segregation  69 70  participation 71  vii  LIST  OF  FIGURES  Page  Figure Figure  1 2  The m a j o r d e t e r m i n a n t s dominance  of  The m a j o r d e t e r m i n a n t s o f a d e s i r e and a b i l i t y t o d o m i n a t e , and o f a w i l l i n g n e s s to accept dominance  17  17  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Grateful Kelly  thanks  are extended  of the Marketing Division  guidance  throughout To my w i f e ,  tabulating  F.  f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e and  my u n d e r t a k i n g o f t h i s Marie, thanks  and i n t y p i n g ,  encouragement.  t o Dr. Robert  research.  f o rher help i n  and f o rh e r i n t e r e s t and  CHAPTER 1 The This  Nature  the interaction  sion  process  between  tion  " e x p l o r a t o r y " because  decision i n view  geographic housing view  of marketing,  its  purchases this  study  which  will  growth  well-being. the purchase important  may p r o v i d e  involving  household  attempt  the decision  process  be p o s s i b l e  theses  that w i l l  be t e s t e d  test  those  and w i f e  i n the deci-  o f a home.  It i s  has been, t o t h e w r i t e r ' s investigation merits  of this closer  will  A l s o , from  buying  decision  Hence,  into  making.  to generate  of  appear t o  decision.  valuable insights  be t o d e v e l o p  1  atten-  the point of  o f a home w o u l d  i n the f i e l d .  hypotheses.  pur-  of population, increased  may b e i n v e s t i g a t e d .  i t should  of the study  investi-  to construct a conceptual  scheme  task  to  and, i n g e n e r a l , the importance  an e x t r e m e l y  investigation  designed  Yet i tsurely  of the rapid  mobility,  there  systematic  process.  to national  represent  husband  l e a d i n g t o the purchase  k n o w l e d g e , no p r e v i o u s chase  o f t h e Study  i s an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y  gate  termed  and Purpose  a number  Therefore, scheme by From  this  o f hypo-  The s e c o n d  a field  other  major  instrument to  2  The ant  buying  family  purchase decision  o f a home  made b y m o s t  life-cycle.  home, t h e r e i s a l s o  for  each  This symbolism  veys.  One, an a t t i t u d i n a l  that of  (.1967), i n v e s t i g a t e d  varied  hold.  venience, sort  from  by b o t h  Research  firstly,  this  that  convenience  word  Social  ly,  survey  conducted  of status,  between  t o be u s e d  accounts  o f the purpose  findings  o f some o f t h e s e  o f t h e word i t meant  "convenience"  everyday  world.  and w i v e s .  "conven-  meant  However, frequently  The s e c o n d two p u r p o s e s  purposes.  house-  functional  and l o v e d by a l l t h e f a m i l y ,  s u r v e y was c o n d u c t e d  definition  and o f p r i v a c y , f o r  was a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  f o rdisplay  home-furnishings  indicate  p a r t n e r s o f t h e same  Inc. (1967), posits  t o be u s e d  home  of investment, of security,  f o r many w i v e s  husbands  Perhaps  f o rthis o f owning  rather  con-  some loca-  p u t on  s t u d y , by o f t h e home, and  second-  the fact  on b e h a l f o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r e r s  corroborate that  sur-  "home" f o r d i f -  The f i n d i n g s  interpretations  their  as a  by Loewy a n d  the m o t i v a t i o n s towards  w h i l e f o r many h u s b a n d s  o f escape  tional the  considerably  indicate  value of  i n two r e c e n t  However, t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  F o r example,  ience"  suggested  members o f "the h o u s e h o l d .  partners.  of the  and f o r t h e household  and t h e c o n n o t a t i o n s o f t h e word  comfort, of convenience,  terms  the  has been  a home r e p r e s e n t s a s o u r c e  both  a t any phase  t o t h e economic  member o f t h e h o u s e h o l d  ownership,  import-  the symbolic value attached to i t ,  unit.  ferent  couples  In addition  the  Snaith  i s p r o b a b l y t h e most  that of  l o o s e and b i a s e d  a home.  Nevertheless,  a home h a s d i f f e r e n t  symbolic  3  values  f o r members o f t h e h o u s e h o l d .  authors life  suggest  (or failure)". With  own  " T h e home s y m b o l i z e s  this  intuition  that  buys  structure  leading to this  able  interest  process  should  tween' h u s b a n d With  this  high.  purchase  shelter.  i s likely  and w i f e  that this  i t i s argued husband  i s due p a r t l y  consider-  on t h i s  unit.  decision  and w i f e  i n this  to the interest  by t h e p r o s p e c t  due t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y a l l their  study  will  that the probability  It  t o have  just  the pro-  making  particular  generated  likely  Thus, t o arouse  of children  pectations i s also  conclude  more t h a n  of the decision  influence  between  This  to provide  o f one's  n o t be i g n o r e d , i t i s on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n  i n mind,  interaction  safe- t o  a home i t i s b u y i n g  among m e m b e r s  the possible  and t h e good  and w i t h t h e evidence  and e x p e r i e n c e , i t appears  cess  While  success  p.5)  evidence,  when a f a m i l y  a physical  (Ibid,  For example, the  context  focus.  of will  and p o s s i b l e  of purchasing  that both  be-  be  ex-  a home.  p a r t n e r s a r e un-  expectations recognised, f a r less  realised. T h u s , we w i l l does  indeed  differences exist; iated  generally between  investigate take  families  and whether t h e s e with, d e c i s i o n In  interaction  order  place;  differences  outcomes  husband  whether  whether  i n these  interaction  any s y s t e m a t i c  interaction are l i k e l y  i n any p r e d i c t a b l e  to establish  between  here  patterns t o be  assoc-  manner.  a basis f o r the examination  and w i f e  i n t h e house  buying  of  4  decision  process  some f o r m  seems n e c e s s a r y . the  possible  would  purchase S u c h an so  behavior  buying  housing from  give  them  sires  of  they  their  necessary  to  housing  tempt  house  buying  decision be  describes as  conceptual  at  least  the  the  been  the this  of  of  of  needs  social  of  de-  what science  theoretifindings".  such this  to  and  states,  will an  at-  approach.  study  above, t h i s  de-  related has  result  Dean  of  The  (1966,  such  the  work  empirical  p.127)  g a t h e r i n g house  f o u r c a t e g o r i e s which  to  been  outcome r a t h e r than  findings". by  problem.  surveys  literature  e x t e n t , the  techniques one  the  of  benefit  to t h i s  empiricist  the  decision  attacked also  into  should  presupposes  indicated  "empiricist  present  falling  designers,  process,  of  necessary  and  Merton  beginnings  made.  investigation  scheme t h a t f o l l o w s  decision  As  towards To  the  of  to  application "...  is  empirical  Robert  o f most  behavior.  d e s c r i b e d as has  on  research r a t h e r than  process.  approach  data  reliable  practice  directed  given  describe  Hence, i t  concepts  in satisfying As  to  c o u l d be  estate developers  which  The  the  be  forced to r e l y  exploring  from  mainly  real  policy  parts  environment  framework  predictions  o f more b a s i c c o n c e p t s  i s "...  to provide In  which  House b u i l d e r s  consumers.  (1966 , p.20)  can  are  sensitized  through  can  some g u i d e - l i n e s  is  cally  behavior.  attempt  interaction.  applicable  direction  application  present  scheme  conceptual  should  such  i n a dynamic  p l a n n e r s , and  the  of  to provide  that positive  house  At  a static  attempt  tentative  This framework  determinants  provide  of  he  who  buying  5  describes 1.  as  follows:-  "wants and p r e f e r e n c e "  2. - " p e t p e e v e s "  surveys;  3.  "use p a t t e r n "  4.  "efficiency  The  latter  first  surveys;'  measure"  two t y p e s  two t y p e s  o f work  i n t h e sense  and p l a n n i n g h o u s i n g ,  ner  has adequate  the  category to  what  3".  type  attempted  homes a r e p u t by d i f f e r e n t  bears  a strong relationship  a home a n d t o t h e m a n n e r decision  process.  approaches asking them  the decision  decision because by ing  how t h e y  outcome. they  trying  t o both  their  they  attitude  participate  process  these  and w i l l  do a t t e m p t  to search  i n the  of these Merely  a home m e a n s t o  be r e f l e c t e d  below  towards  attitudes  However, the f i n d i n g s  to  presumably  that i s questionable.  a s t o how  related  The u s e s  members  u s e a home o r w h a t  g i v e s no i n d i c a t i o n  affect  thesis.  family  loosely i n  i s closely  However, i t i s t h e u t i l i t y  and t e c h n i q u e s  people  and S n a i t h ( 1 9 6 7 ) , and  of study  i n which  and p l a n -  i s required i n housing.  i n this  which  i n design-  i f the designer  by Loewy  this  to the  are useful  I n c . ( 1 9 6 7 ) c o u l d be p l a c e d  Clearly  i s being  be a d j u n c t s  that they  o f what  (1966),  Research  should  but only  knowledge  by L a n s i n g  Social  and  studies.  ing  Studies  surveys;  will i n the  are worthy  o f note  the decision  outcome  t o p i n p o i n t some o f t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s  o f house  buy-  behavior. At  considered  the other as f a l l i n g  extreme into  are the surveys  Dean's  first  and  which second  may  be  6  categories. based  on  family  These v a r y  the  simple  contacted  survey type  by  of  asked  dislikes  approach.  home t h a t  with  might  the  This  presumably  ated  into  speaking  In  new of  about  this,  asking would  Most  a member o f like  his present  in a  Then t h e  price-range suggests  p r e f e r t o have  of  the  which  data  future A  preferred styles  of  this  i n any  were  future  is correlated,  should  various values.  recent  people  home p r e s e n t l y  features  are  each  home.  a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of  would  buy.  homes o f  in quality.  F i b e r g l a s (.1967 ) r e p r e s e n t s  f e a t u r e s they they  of  that person  Owens C o r n i n g  what  mainly  technique  what  h o m e , o r w h a t he  considerably  For  homes, t h e  be  owned. incorpor-  example,  writers  in  conclude  The a b o v e s h o w s a d e f i n i t e t r e n d a w a y f r o m One S t o r y a n d Two S t o r y h o u s e s t y l e s , w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t in a l l other styles. The p o p u l a r i t y of the s p l i t l e v e l s t y l e i s best i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e over $30,000 g r o u p . A b o u t . 2.1% w o u l d p r e f e r t h i s s t y l e t h e n e x t t i m e v s . 5% who now own a s p l i t level. However a c h o i c e of s t y l e s w i l l a l w a y s be n e c e s s a r y t o s a t i s f y t o t a l consumer demand. (Ibid, p.3) There such by  are  f i n d i n g s as  Paxton  sents  obvious  the  these  Rossi  to  (1955) f o r the same  limitations the U.S.  this  type  i n determining  of  housing  the  application  industry.  Department  homes.  He  survey  use  preferences  (1955) i n v e s t i g a t e d the  different  to  of  The  Commerce  of  work pre-  limitations.  Some o f techniques  severe  reasons  very s o p h i s t i c a t e d  and  dislikes.  for families  c o r r e l a t e d h i s data  with  Peter moving  a number  of  to  7  variables, His  p a r t i c u l a r l y stages  conclusion  was  families•adjust are  generated life  cycle  that  will  be  A from of a  referred body  (1966),  range  of  written  by  summarize sent. study  to  the  approach.  this  Added  (1965).  No  enormous range  suggestions  topic,  be  should pirical  be  as  advertise  Chapter  This 3.  and  sell  conclusion  study.  to  material  an  i n the  be  be  of  improving  the  the  to by  obscure  regurgitating  as  the  absorbing  import-  approach pro-  (1961,1962)  problems  digesting as  and  current  Lionel basic  and  them  this  findings,  of  to  repre-  theoretical  state  work  made h e r e  their  empirical  inves-  the  a l l these  i n d i c a t i o n of  cover  material,  could  will  editorship  (1960)  reading  attempt of  Foote  these  however,  the  empirical  j o u r n a l i s t s such  investigated,  and  and  represents  (.1967 ) t e n d  findings  and  that  accom-  made, h o w e v e r , t h r o u g h o u t  for  perhaps  Meanwhile,  MacQuade  in this  (1962),  conceptual  will  that  important  Works u n d e r  Moreover, t h e i r mixture and  an  which  needs,  l i t e r a t u r e is departing,  tov:their ' contents  cedure. and  l a t e r on  this topic. Beyer  Is  cycle.  by  space  composition  e s s e n t i a l background  Reference  ance. pleas  of  life  process  especially  This  to  family  i s the  in family  Meyerson  both  w h i c h makes them of  needs,  shifts  empiricist  Wheaton  tigation  the  mobility  changes.'  large  this  wide  to  by  pany  that  i n the  advice  that  the on  em-  how  homes.  concept  will  be  examined  i n more  detail  in  to  8  It  i s easy  to  criticize  the  work  w h i l e . of f e r i n g  no. u s e f u l  alternative.  other  marketing  recognition  fields  importance to  of  of  social-psychological  predict'consumer  ginning been  to  influence  indicated  psychological Hence sent and  the an  area to  the  as  well of  where be  house  apparent  opportunities  logical  the  co.ncepts  behavior.  been in  recognition  surveys  that  i n the  the  little  housing of  market.  applying  investigation  i s only as  of  the  behas  social-  to  a  family.  to  repre-  is essential,  i s to  more  to  attempting  appears  alternative  most  given  Yet,  significance  do  in  considerable  behavior  The  possibilities to  has  industry.  economic  fruitful.  empirical  explore  Although  concepts  a home h a s  buying  empiricists  a more t h e o r e t i c a l a p p r o a c h  periodic  will  as  this  housing  previously,  field  likely  behavior,  of  conduct  than This  describe thesis  social-psycho-  house  buying  CHAPTER Toward Study involved  2  a Conceptual  of interaction  i n decision  making  Framework  between has been  two o r more  confined mainly  socio—psychological  disciplines  "group  Many o f t h e c o n c e p t s  dynamics".  methodology plied  withsome  analysis  term  than  i t s own  those  system  which  come  group  i s that  interaction  conditions, workshop  groups.  of the  and  type of  among  household  a r e much  a unit over  less  ad hoc  groups. which  has  The built  a considerable  has c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n  and c o n t i n u i t y .  the techniques  A  further  of group-dynamics  members u n d e r  controlled  examine laboratory  simulated, or allowed f o r , i n the  i n t h e home.  r e c o g n i z e d by t h o s e  t o as  the p o i n t of view  t o g e t h e r as work  and norms  to the  have been ap-  This  behavior  of values  more e a s i l y  than  from  suggests  o f group  a n d much  to the description  or "family"  solidarity  i t i s referred  o f groups  householders  o f t i m e , and g e n e r a l l y  drawback  are  making  F o r one t h i n g ,  preserving  the  o f work  decision  "household"  period  of success  however, has l i m i t a t i o n s  members.  up  degree  investigating  groups  where  i n the study  of the behavior  approach, of  developed  persons  These, plus  engaged  9  other  i n experimental  difficulties, group  10  research. groups,  In comparing  Bales  (.1-9.5 5,  the family  group  p . 299 ) i s r e a d y  to  with  experimental  admit  . . .. t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s a r e c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e t y p i c a l n u c l e a r f a m i l y . In t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y t h e r e a r e o b v i o u s sex and age d i f f e r e n c e s , a w e i g h t y t r a d i t i o n , a deep a f f e c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t and l o n g time commitment t o s o l i d a r i t y , a complex s e t o f o u t s i d e r e f e r e n c e groups, and i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e l a t i o n t o t h e means of s u b s i s t e n c e and b a s i c s t a t u s i n t h e s o c i e t y w h i c h u s u a l l y c e n t e r s upon a s i n g l e s e n i o r member — the father, i n our s o c i e t y . A l l of these factors help t o d e f i n e t h e r o l e s o f t h e f a m i l y members v i s - a - v i s each o t h e r . Nevertheless, imental  approach,  updated  experiment,  action  family,  mentioned decision  Kenkel this  subjects.,  decision  by B a t e s  Although feels  Firstly,  Moreover,  atmosphere  which  tern  of husband-wife  most  importantly,  gree  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n  process, using the  for investigating  t h e group  here  i sthe  purchase  two members o f a h o u s e h o l d  a windfall  like  inter-  he a v o i d s t h e c r i t i c i s m s  the decision  pre-  (how t h e  g a i n o f $ 3 0 0 ) was i m p o s e d  s o i t was n o t a p a r t  pattern.  to the exper-  technique f o r investigating  limitations.  s h o u l d spend  decision  suggested  behavior involving  severe  couple the  above,  drawbacks  to analyze husband-wife  purchase  interaction.  and hence  these  ( 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 6 1 ) i n a much r e p o r t e d a n d  attempts  structure  member  sents  Kenkel  d u r i n g an a c t u a l  analytical group  despite  of their  normal  the experiment  i s likely  to distort  interaction.  Bales' structure  tends  spending  h a s a game-  the normal  Finally,  and  t o equate  by one member, t h r o u g h  on  such  pat-  perhaps the dethings  as  11  speech that  and  gesture,  member.  assume  such  bers.  with  There  doubt  perimental  appear  on  other the  approach  amount t o be  a relationship,  These, p l u s  siderable  the  of  no  influence exerted  a priori  particularly  reasons  based  on  of  pursuing  current  to  among f a m i l y mem-  possible criticisms,"'"  utility  by  this  formal  cast  con-  type  of  ex-  group-dynamics  theory. A much, m o r e b a s i c , a n d to  investigating  concepts either or  and apply  attempt  marketing based ics, to  consumer  techniques them  to mold  on  specific  mathematics,  apply  these  l o s s of  question and  As  from  into  a number  abounds  a  general  i n Kenkel's  both'the  theory  its applicability  to  the  case, on  an  theory. of  such  end  the  areas  the  behavior,  former, as  econom-  The  attempt  predicting  inherent  i s often  and  Current  in Itself,  drawbacks there  "borrow"  consumer  d e s c r i b i n g and  which  the  of  psychology.  almost to  i s to  approach  disciplines,  i n examples  c o n t r i b u t i o n s to  as  of  aspects  s o c i o l o g y , and  becomes  more f r u i t f u l  behavior  c o n t r i b u t i o n s from  perspective  attempt.  purchase  particular  them  literature  consumer b e h a v i o r a  to  perhaps  causing in  a failure  contribution is  investigation  of  the to  based,  consumer  be-  havior . In greater  Foote  order  extent,  that  this  i t i s often  problem  may  be  better that  "'"For a f u l l p r e s e n t a t i o n (.1961) p p . 1 4 0 - 1 9 0 .  and  overcome  particular  critique  see  to  a  lines  of  Nelson  N.  12  research of  being pursued  e x p e r t s from  these tion  conducted offer  further  the  cribed  by  lation able  H.  predictive  American  of t h i s  Clark  behavior — such  by as  for this  value of these elsewhere  predict  meetings  criticism  A des-  N.  Foote  of e m p i r i c a l the  and  fields.  Nelson  corre-  dependent  vari-  reference to a v a r i e t y  age,  income,  i s that  time  and has  social eroded  independent  variables,  (1960 , p.312 )  because  as  Associa-  i s t h e work  ( 1 9 5 4 , 1 9 5 5 ) and failure  symposia  Marketing  various  method  to  Such  for constructive  criticizes.the  reason  comments  the  experts i n the  example  variables  possible  Foote  good  spending  independent The  by  techniques to properly  —  exposed  regularly opportunity  Foote  be  of d i s c i p l i n e s .  Lincoln  (1961).-  marketers  a variety  s u g g e s t i o n s by  particularly  by  of status.  the  perhaps,  as  • C o n d i t i o n s t h a t were once l i m i t i n g become successively permitting, stimulating, faci l i t a t i n g , as t h e p e r s o n c h o o s e s and s h a p e s an e n v i r o n m e n t m o s t s u i t a b l e f o r t h e i d e n t i t y he p r o g r e s s i v e l y clarifies, m a n i f e s t s and e l a b o r a t e s . ^ Improvements mobility, to  standard of  decrease  ables  as  i n such  factors living,  the p r e d i c t i v e  t h e y become  less  as  education, health,  and  leisure  value of these and  less  social  time, are  expected  intervening  limiting.  Foote  variconcludes  2 c f . , F o o t e ( 1 9 6 0 ) C h a p . 12 f o r a f u l l t r e a t m e n t o f h i s view of the s h o r t c o m i n g s of e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h i n house buying behavior.  .13  In h o u s e h o l d s , w h i c h a r e t h e u n i t s by w h i c h c o n s u m e r b e h a v i o r t e n d s t o be o r g a n i z e d , the i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s become s u c h p h e n o m e n a as a u t h o r i t y , i n f l u e n c e and v a l u e s . (1961, p.3) If  these  are  variables ity,  influence  this  stage  the  that is  and  avoid to  the  the  there  will  to  reached.  ative  to  has  taken  partners though,  will  these  terms.  of  Included  author-  sub—areas  on  of work,  have  expressed  in this  may  be  s e t may  be  home  may  decision  areas have  location  rel-  transport,  to  When t h e  desired  in either  a  d e c i s i o n s may  to p u b l i c  of  of  areas  f o r a home, e a c h  a set  i s meant  I t i s assumed  these  facilities.  looking  decision  of  the  attributes,  positive  or  some a s p e c t s  negative  of  loca-  tion  as  d e s c r i b e d above, together w i t h e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h  gard  to  other  thetic  considerations.  modified the  a s p e c t s , such  or r e i n f o r c e d  as  This by  information gathered  each and  allocation set w i l l of  the  the  at  of d e c i s i o n s or  which  among t h e s e  helpful  what  general decision  be  probably  be  purchase  a complex  within  start  be  the  home, b u t  to r e c r e a t i o n a l  may  exactly  the  to place  to  independent  t h i n g s as  study.  leading to  these  Included  shops, and  been  of  in this  member as  One  probably  schools,  i n some d e t a i l  process  each  location  such  the  confusion i t should  variable"  areas.  of  then  values.  semantic  decision  variables,  determinants  indicate  p e r c e i v e d by  be  the  "dependent  decision be  intervening  m u s t be  To  by  the  be  of  space  and  re-examined,  aesand  partners in light  interaction  which  re-  takes  of  14  place  during  the search  to  some e x t e n t  by  the interaction  cess.  determines,  A survey  seem t o j u s t i f y cess an  into  tions  by D a n i e l  type,  and c o l o r ,  relative  .to s u p p o s e ,  more  economically  a. home w o u l d  then,  decision one  areas  or other  sidered For  partners "expert". tations" Zober  band are of  less  engine  These  be d i s c u s s e d  o f an a u t o m o b i l e  into  expert.  defined.  i t i s proposed  that  that  the r e l a t i v e l y  that  b e some d e c i s i o n a r e a s  purchase  there  may  one o r o t h e r  while  on by  the wife  i s con-  more f u l l y this  To c l a r i f y  area.  both  "role  later.  with  i n each  though-,  or  degrees  decision  the d e c i s i o n process are dominated  of the  t h e hus-  the different  partner  expecMartin  splitting  Some d e c i s i o n a r e a s ,  which  some  i s the color  a r e termed  decision areas,  during  be  a decision i n that  suggests  a u t h o r i t y e x e r c i s e d by e i t h e r  reason-  t o be t h e p r e r o g a t i v e o f  a r e f a c e t s o f what  will  as  expecta-  I t seems  i s generally looked  "expert",  pro-  such  having  people  suggests  t o make  would  a pattern.  i n the sense  the husband  clearly  partner  pro-  the purchase of  d e c i s i o n areas  f o r many  also  person  the mechanical  area, may  that  (1966, pp.224-225) a l s o  purchase  survey  are considered  partner,  which  each  f o l l o w such  which  as 'the  into  (1958)  the decision  decision areas.  survey  the proper  example,  down  i s determined  the decision  and S t a f f  In t h i s  process  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  also  Starch's  during  of s p l i t t i n g  with  to these  place  Starch  concept  was b r o k e n  able  of  which takes  this  Thus t h e s e a r c h  a n d t o some e x t e n t  decision areas.  automobile  model,  process.  there  partially  15  dominated jointly  by t h e h u s b a n d  decided.  or the wife,  However,  i n any p a r t i c u l a r  dominated  by one p a r t n e r  dominance  by t h e o t h e r p a r t n e r .  final over  purchase which  therefore pants and  decision  there  i n each  there  may  may  —  These  exists  explicit both  This  indicates  have  been  agreement  of  be d e f i n e d where  between  on t h e r a t i o n a l e  that  i n the reached  t h e two  i n terms  situations  this  I t i s proposed  between  areas  to  area  decisions  agreement.  concepts w i l l  i n those  decision  be r e s e n t m e n t  the i n t e r a c t i o n  of these decision  divergence.  Convergence  there  was n o t c o m p l e t e  t o examine  a n d some w h i c h a r e  partici-  convergence  as  follows:-  there i s  the partners  and outcome  of the  decision. This  definition  partners the  excludes those  merely  acquiesces to a decision  where  one o f t h e  o u t c o m e r e a c h e d by  other.  Divergence  —  exists  i n any d e c i s i o n  agreement,  implicit  among m e m b e r s Since  decisions  ner's  desired  through exist  i n each  tions,  t o each  and s i n c e  likely  to exist  d i v e r g e n c e i s most  partially-dominated  or e x p l i c i t ,  decision either  various  a r e a as i n d i c a t e d  i s most  while  relative  situation  of the decision  s e t must be r e a c h e d  default,  vergence  or  situations  likely  situations.  exists  i n each  positively  part-  or  o f dominance  i t follows  i n joint  dis-  unit.  area  degrees  above,  where  decision  to exist  I t i s this  that  con-  situa-  i n dominated pattern  of  16  convergence/divergence  in decision  chase  which w i l l  decision i t s e l f ,  variable" A  in this  Conceptual in It  of  dominance  ants  of  by  one  decision  on  on  the  cept  attempt  any  this but  decision  1  i s an  cribes  the  a  none  The ure  area,  the  pur-  "dependent  the  light  one  of  is a  will  be  i n the  dominate. sufficient  making  shed  one  before  of  the  to  for  can  desire  dominate  the  any  Figure  dominance a  and that  others  to  then  ac-  condi-  dominance  in  situation. basic  source  article nature  of  by  for  the  Donald  power  and  structure  Wolfe  described  (1959) i n which  authority  i n the  in he  Figdes-  family:-  Power and a u t h o r i t y a r e s i m i l a r c o n c e p t s i n t h a t they both d e a l w i t h the a b i l i t y of one s o c i a l e n t i t y to i n f l u e n c e or a f f e c t the b e h a v i o r of another. However a u t h o r i t y i s a s p e c i a l c a s e h a v i n g t o do w i t h t h e decision making p r o c e s s i n s o c i a l groups. ( I b i d , p.101) He  a  determin-  i s a necessary  condition  in  leading  m u s t be  part  Each  on  unit  person.  members t o  the  determinants  process  than  that  the  on  the  decision  s i t u a t i o n there  willingness to  examining  hypothesis  of  Dominance  Situation  i n v o l v i n g more  the  part  and  termed  Examining  by  member o f  decision  decision,  tion,  that  convergence/divergence  i n any  ability  for  Particular Decision  p.I?.,- r e s t s  exist  Framework  decision  purchasing  be  the  study.  i s suggested  particular  1,  a  s i t u a t i o n s , not  proceeds  to  define  authority:-  17  Fig.  1 ——  The  Desire •Ability  major to to  determinants  of  dominance.  dominate Dominance of a decision area  dominate  W i l l i n g n e s s by o t h e r members t o a c c e p t dominance  Fig.  2 -—  The m a j o r dominate,  d e t e r m i n a n t s o f a d e s i r e and a b i l i t y t o and o f a w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t dominance.  Need f o r dominance of a d e c i s i o n area A  V a l u e p l a c e d on dominance of t h a t decision area  Desire to dominate a particular decision area  E x p e c t e d outcome o f t h e a t t e m p t t o dominate that area L e g i t i m a t e power exerted r e l a t i v e to that decision area C o n t r i b u t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l to the decision unit  B  A b i l i t y to dominate a particular decision area  Degree o f competence i n making a p a r t i c ular decision Ability coerce  to punish  or  Others * p e r c e p t i o n of t h i s attempt t o dominate a d e c i s i o n area  C  W i l l i n g n e s s by o t h e r s to accept the attempt to dominate  18  A u t h o r i t y i s t h e a b i l i t y o f one p e r s o n . t o make d e c i s i o n s w h i c h g u i d e t h e b e havior of another person i n a given behavioral region at a given time, where b o t h p e r c e i v e t h i s a b i l i t y as the f i r s t ' s r i g h t , ( I b i d , p.102) Clearly  the three determinant  namely, the d e s i r e willingness  "dominance"  term  "authority",  definition,  are present  i s substituted since  Before  t h e r e must be an e x e r c i s e  short,  the term  This (1961, of  not  define  also  of dominance  to define  h i m s e l f uses  mentioned  power (1964)  structure, uses  i t .  the term  i t .  Blood  Wolfe's  authority. interaction  which  need  of  sitIn  between  not conform  (1959,  pp.105,  by  to  Morgan  although  the term.  Heer  neither  Similarly,  113-116) b u t does  (1963,  pp.135-138)  reference to the family  i s also  and Wolfe  o f dominance  both  (1958 , p . 2 2 ) ,  but with  dominance, p a r t i a l  f o rthe  i n any g i v e n  i s suggested  David  and t h i s  t o the concept  female  of this  or extend  the term  or extend  The  i n the group.  p . 9 2 ) a n d by K o m a r o v s k y  them a t t e m p t s  Wolfe  est  idea  of  and t h e r e c o g n i t i o n  "dominance" presupposes  of "authority"  argument,  exist  of a decision-making group,  pattern  definition  according to  will  and t h e  i s different.  i n this  uation  the  i n this  the latter,  dominance  above,  o f one i n d i v i d u a l ,  o n l y d e s c r i b e s an a b i l i t y  ability.  members  mentioned  The t e r m i n o l o g y , h o w e v e r ,  term  an  and a b i l i t y  of others,  authority.  factors  the sense  Rose  Coser  ( 1 9 6 0 , C h a p . 2 ) come  clos-  when t h e y  dominance  that  speak  by e i t h e r  o f male and  male  or female,  19  and  joint  forms  decisions,  are mainly  but they  determined  suggest  t h a t any o f t h e s e  by i n d i v i d u a l  decision-making  ability.  Recognizing the  above m a t e r i a l  Dominance  the contributions the following  and c o n s t r a i n t s  definitions  - i s the exercise of a desire part  o f one p e r s o n  particular  decision  willingness  are presented:-  and a b i l i t y  to decide  with  unit  to accept  of a  concurrent  on t h e p a r t o f a l l o t h e r s  decision-making  on t h e  t h e outcome  situation,  ofa l l  this  i n the  decision  o u t come. Partial•Dominance  ^ will  decision (.ability one Joint  unit  e x e r c i s e some  degree  a decision  of the of desire  outcome, but  member e x e r c i s e s a g r e a t e r d e g r e e  same  decision without see  when a l l members  to determine  Decisions - w i l l the  occur  occur  desire  when a l l members e x e r c i s e and a b i l i t y  outcome. equal  This  to determine  may  willingness  the others  of both.  occur  a  with or  by a l l p a r t n e r s t o  exercise this  desire  and  ability. It  should  cision band  be n o t e d  a decision  process .leading to the purchase  or wife  portant  that although  dominated,  this  one i n t h e d e c i s i o n  households  attach different  decision outcome. "weights"  area  i n t h e de-  o f a home may area That  may  be  hus-  n o t be an i m -  i s , different  to different  decision  20  areas.  Thus,  an  overall  decision  husband  or w i f e  dominated  greater  weights  a r e ..attached, t o t h o s e  which .either sion  one  be  attached  to  joint  attached  to  dominated  divergence  the  i s dominant.  outcome w i l l  Hence  to  outcome w i l l  jointly  decision  decided  areas  decision  decision  attached to  specific  decision  outcome  the  in  those  decision  ine  the  the  importance  individually,  cision  and  specific ability  ance  on  based and  the  own  shall cision  though  to  deci-  relative  weights  those  convergence/  examine  both  areas  i n the  decision  of husband/wife present  latter,  which  will area  necessarily  the  im-  overall  dominance  framework  that decision  not  one  p . 17 , e x p a n d s  description  to  dominate  part of  partially  "Degree of  2,  Komarovsky  least  of  overall  greater than  i n examining  The the  in  will  exam-  presumably to  to the  each  part-  overall  de-  outcome. Figure  more  of  an  areas  areas.  degree  areas.  determinants  indicate ner  and  either  relatively-  decision  i f the  are  process  portance  that  Similarly,  i t i s necessary  i n the  extent  be  on  preference  area".  a willingness others.  (1958 , p. 2 2 ) , b u t respect.  for  here  as  per  se",  are  desire domin-  diagrams (1961, i n at  as  a particular  assume  as  "Strength  contained within  to  are  p.92)  describes  Morgan  dominate  reasonable  a  them  What K o m a r o v s k y and  slightly  accept  Morgan  depart.'from  "Desire to  I t appears  to  of  These  by  for a product", 'A'  give'a  determinants  schemes p r e s e n t e d  important  termed  and  the  significant  of preference  be  of  Figure 1 to  that at  what deleast  21  a  part  of the desire  preference decision purely ally, a  t o dominate  for a certain  area.  I t may  a personality desire  cognized.  decision well  These  that "strength  outcome  i s very  sire  t o dominate  CA)  Focusing sion  A need  i n that  desire  t o dominate i s  H o w e v e r , more  and then  attempts  t o have  this  concepts  a r e examined that  should  that  decision  suggest  be n o t e d  with  f o r power w i t h i n  favors  detail  at this  stage  decision  the strength  o f de-  a particular  deci-  area.  t o dominate that  gener-  desire r e -  i n greater  for a particular  closely associated  a  particular  a person  some o r a l l o f t h e f a c t o r s 1.  from  because  of preference  we  stem  arise  on t h e d e s i r e  area,  outcome  be t h a t  will  below, but t h e main p o i n t is  often  characteristic.  t o dominate  c e r t a i n outcome  will  this  may  listed  be a f u n c t i o n  of  below:-  the group  by t h a t  indi-  vidual . 2.  The v a l u e  placed  influence  over  that 3.  1.  A need tors a.  given  decision  s i t u a t i o n by  outcome o f an a t t e m p t  decision  f o r p o w e r may  listed  t o dominate  situation. spring  from  some o r a l l o f t h e f a c -  below:-  The p e r s o n a l i t y the  a given  to exert h i s  individual.  The e x p e c t e d a  on t h e a t t e m p t  traits,  inherited or learned,  of  individual.  c f . , Morgan (1961, p . 9 2 ) , D o u g l a s , F i e l d and Tarpey ( 1 9 6 7 ) , N i c o s i a (1966, p . 5 7 f f ) , Brody and Cunningham  (1968 ,. p p . 5 0 - 5 1 ) , G r u b b ( 1 9 6 7 , p . 2 2 f f ) , Gof'fman (1-959 , p p . 1 4 1 - 1 6 6 ) , P a r s o n s a n d S h i l l s ( 1 9 5 1 , p p . 110-158). b.  The  degree  o f power  exerted  outside  the  decision  unit. c f . , B o t t ( 1 9 5 5 , pp.. 3 6 1 - 3 6 3 ) , H e e r ( 1 9 6 2 , p p . 6 5 - 6 7 ) , Parsons (1964, p . 3 7 f f ) , Coser (1964). c.  The  degree  structure cf.,  of s a t i s f a c t i o n within  Wolfe  value placed  the  most  the  the  factors  a.  The  b.  The  c.  a t t e m p t i n g to dominate  desire  which  value the Starch  may  also  t h e most  to dominate, determine  individual  value assigned to ethnic  Blood  and  family  factor  below  this  assigns  i s probably  complex  and  (1958 ) p . 9 8 ) , E l k i n  convictions, cf.,  p.116).  important but  affecting  cf.,  on  the p r e s e n t power  the. g r o u p .  (1959,  The  with  are  some  of  value. to h i s l i f e (1964 ,  p.73ff).  traditions,  traditions  and  style,  religious  values,  (1960 , p . 3 3 ) .  The  number  of r o l e s  the  expectations  occupied within  the group,  a s s i g n e d t o ' t h e s e role's  by  and  the  individual. c f . , Zaltman (1965, pp.162-164), Wolgast (1958, p p . 1 5 2 - 1 5 3 ) , B o t t ( 1 9 5 5 , pp . 3 6 0 f-f ) ,' K e n k e l ( 1 9 5 6 , pp .140-1.43 ) , ' E l k i n ( 1 9 6 4 , p p . 9 4 - 1 0 5 ) , P a r s o n s a n d B a l e s (1955, p . 2 5 9 f f ) , Douglas et a l (1967, pp.626 4 ) , C o s e r ( 1 9 6 4 , p p . 1 6 - 2 4 ) , B l o o d and W o l f e ( 1 9 6 0 , pp.. 2 0 2 4 ) . d.  The cf.,  value placed Morgan  on  family  (1961, p.92),  cohesion. Komarovsky  (1958 , p . 2 2 ) .  23  e.  The  individualVs  c f . , . Komar.ovsky pp.. 5 8-62 ). f.  The  value placed  ence  i n a given  level  of a s p i r a t i o n .  ( 1 9 5 8 , p..24), D o u g l a s e t a l (1967 , by t h e i n d i v i d u a l on h i s e x p e r i decision situation.  c f . , W o l g a s t (1958 , p . ! 5 3 f f ) , K e n k e l ( 1 9 6 1 , pp. 255262 ) , Heer (1963 , p . l ' 9 3 f f ) , W o l f e (1959 , p p . 1 0 1 1 0 2 ) , B l o o d and Wolfe' ( I 9 6 0 , p p . 3 0 - 3 6 ) . g.  The  i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e v e l of acceptance of  social  values. cf., h.  The  The  (1955 , p.358 ), Heer  degree of i n e r t i a  cf., 3.  Bott  Starch  (1962 , p . 6 6 ) .  of the i n d i v i d u a l ,  (1958 , p . 9 8 ) .  e x p e c t e d outcome o f an a t t e m p t t o d o m i n a t e  may  be  a function of:a.  The  desire  and a b i l i t y  o f o t h e r members t o  b.  The  e x p e r i e n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h  the  above.  dominate.  reference  c.  Personality  traits  d.  The  pattern  and d e g r e e o f r o l e d e f i n i t i o n w i t h i n  the  unit.  e.  External  of the i n d i v i d u a l .  support perceived  by t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  c f . , Wolfe (1958, p.113), Bott Heer ( 1 9 6 3 , p . 1 3 9 ) . In summary, a d e s i r e treme, a f u n c t i o n while  only  (1955,  to dominate  of the p e r s o n a l i t y  a t t h e o t h e r e x t r e m e , i t may  evaluation  to  may  p.360ff),  b e , a t one  of the i n d i v i d u a l ,  be b a s e d on a c a r e f u l  o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s needs  and  ex-  preferences,  24  together with to CB)  an  e s t i m a t e of. t h e  The  1.  ability  to dominate a p a r t i c u l a r d e c i s i o n  t o be  The  a function  legitimate  within  the  attempting  area  of:-  power e x e r t e d by  the  individual  2.  The  contribution  3.  The  i n d i v i d u a l ' s degree of competence i n making  4.  The  a.  above, s e c t i o n external  (A),  and  B l o o d and  Contribution  l e v e l of  applied  roles played  2c.  (1960, pp.84-102).  family  may  be  a function  of:-  income  funds.  The  l e v e l of s o c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n  c.  The  l e v e l of  d.  The  individual's ability  the  group .  intellectual  Komarovsky  played,  above.  b.  cf.,  roles  i n d i v i d u a l w e a l t h and/or  to group  within  origins.  Wolfe  t o the  coerce.  of: -  s u p p o r t g i v e n to the  family  family.  specifically.  t o p u n i s h or  of the  same r e f e r e n c e s as  Ethnic  The  and  a function  group.  cf.,  a.  be  the  cf., c.  power may  r e l a t i v e strength  The  i n d i v i d u a l to the  both generally  The  cf., b.  of the  individual's ability  Legitimate  is  group.  decisions,  2.  e f f e c t s of  dominate.  likely  1.  likely  to the  group.  contribution. to communicate  ( 1 9 6 1 , p.. 2 5 5 f f ) .  within  25  3.  Degree o f c o m p e t e n c e may be a f u n c t i o n o f : — a.  Experience  relative, to a p a r t i c u l a r decision  situation. b.  Personality traits. It  s h o u l d be n o t e d  literature garding by  surveyed,  the a b i l i t y  Parsons  lieve  t o be two m a j o r s c h o o l s to dominate.  sented believe  One o f t h e s e ,  to dominate i s l a r g e l y  played w i t h i n the group.  by B l o o d and W o l f e , that this  are considered  necessarily  tangible;  Hoffman, S t r o d t b e c k ,  However,  We a r g u e t h a t r e s o u r c e s  a husband.  t o the household  to look  these  are not  after  Child-care i s a resource as i m p o r t a n t  or con-  as w a g e - e a r n i n g . tradition-  have d e f i n e d t h e r o l e s p l a y e d by t h e w i f e and h u s b a n d  r e s p e c t i v e l y , hence t h e r e i s a c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n r o l e s and r e s o u r c e s . 4.  con-  f o r example, i n our s o c i e t y a w i f e  M o r e o v e r , c a r e o f c h i l d r e n and e a r n i n g o f wages ally  and H e e r ,  i n purely t a n g i b l e terms, f o r  a p p e a r s t o have c o n s i d e r a b l y more a b i l i t y c h i l d r e n than  school, repre-  i s more a f u n c t i o n o f t h e r e s o u r c e s  example, e a r n i n g a b i l i t y .  tribution  represented  a f u n c t i o n of  The o t h e r  t r i b u t e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o t h e f a m i l y . resources  of thought r e -  and B a l e s , Z a l t m a n , B o t t , K e n k e l , and o t h e r s , b e -  that the a b i l i t y  the r o l e s  here t h a t t h e r e appear, from the  Ability  to punish  or coerce  a.  Personality traits  b.  External  support.  may depend on :-  of the i n d i v i d u a l .  between  26  c.  Degree o f c o n t r o l o v e r f a m i l y  resources.  d.  Degree o f d o m i n a n c e e x e r c i s e d  over other  decision  areas, e.  Disparities strength  w i t h i n the  v i r o n m e n t a l and  personal  individual  within  inate  that  decision  cated  previously,  desire  t o do  the  an  Willingness  perception  specifically we  and  that  the  one  i f this  vice versa.  situation  definition  of  exist  ability  ability  attempt  of the  to  of was  can  acknowledge-  decision  to dominate  o f o t h e r members t o d o m i n a t e t h a t superior  indiwithout  convergence  the  the  As  convergence,  a deliberate  i t assumes an  an  t o dom-  Since acquiescence  area.  given  Also  en-  i s ultimately a function  must be  a superior  the  enable  exists.  o f a l l o t h e r members o f t h e  member has  abil-  exist.  b e f o r e d o m i n a n c e and there  the  In e i t h e r c a s e , dom-  cannot  attempt.  e x c l u d e d f r o m the  part  desire  decision part  and  are  his desire  to dominate could  situation  simultaneously  ment on  situations,  group to e x e r c i s e  of t h i s  must assume t h a t  exist  s e c t i o n on  o f o t h e r members t o a c c e p t t h i s  dominate a d e c i s i o n their  decision  ability  so,  in this  c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h may  area,  i n a n c e of a d e c i s i o n (C)  educational  on .  to dominate p a r t i c u l a r  the  relative  communication a b i l i t y  T h u s , what i s d e s c r i b e d ity  e.g.  of p e r s o n a l i t y , r e l a t i v e  attainment, r e l a t i v e so  group.—  that  absence of d e s i r e decision  r e m a i n i n g member.  unit  on area, Hence,  27  convergence  and d o m i n a n c e may  a l t h o u g h , a more l i k e l y plete  situation,  i s . t h a t t h e r e w i l l n o t be  a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t o f one member's s u p e r i o r  influence  this  i n 'any g i v e n  com-,  l a c k o f d e s i r e t o i n f l u e n c e a d e c i s i o n outcome, nor a  complete to  event  exist  ability  i t , on t h e p a r t o f t h e r e m a i n i n g members.  c a s e , i f d o m i n a n c e o f any d e g r e e i s e f f e c t e d by  member t h e n t h e r e w i l l over t h a t d e c i s i o n  exist  some d i v e r g e n c e  In  one  i n the group  situation.  Summary In  this  c h a p t e r an a t t e m p t  a scheme whereby :  of  the determinants  a d e c i s i o n making s i t u a t i o n  a fairly  this  be d e s c r i b e d .  Although  scheme t h e r e i s no c l a i m made t h a t t h e  scheme I s c o m p r e h e n s i v e .  However, t h e f r a m e w o r k as b l o c k e d  i n F i g . 2 (p.17) i s f e l t  goes,  o f d o m i n a n c e by one member  l a r g e number o f s o u r c e s have been c o n s u l t e d i n  constructing  out  may  has been made t o s e t up  although the p r i o r  t o be c o m p l e t e ,  determinants  as f a r as i t  o f each  c a p a b l e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n s i o n beyond those t h e body o f t h e c h a p t e r .  b l o c k may  be  indicated i n  CHAPTER 3 H y p o t h e s e s and S u g g e s t i o n s f o r I n v e s t i g a t i o n Referring  t o t h e c o n c e p t u a l scheme d e s c r i b e d p r e -  v i o u s l y . , i t i s c l e a r t h a t many o f t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s i n a n c e , s u c h as r o l e s substantially change.  t o change  o v e r t i m e as c i r c u m s t a n c e s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y  A l s o , as R o s s i h a s p o i n t e d o u t ( 1 9 5 5 ,  house p u r c h a s e s these  and r e s o u r c e s , a r e l i a b l e  changing  that stages certain  o f dom-  a r e g e n e r a l l y .undertaken circumstances.  i n the family  life  p.177),  as a r e s u l t o f  For these reasons  i t i s felt  c y c l e may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s i n t h e house b u y i n g  decision  process . The f a m i l y cept.  life  The f o l l o w i n g  cycle  i s a purely descriptive  con-  scheme p r e s e n t e d by B l o o d and W o l f e  (1960,  p.42) i s r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e w i t h o u t b e i n g t o o de-  tailed  f o rour purposes:-  Stage  1  —  Newly m a r r i e d - no c h i l d r e n ;  t h e "Honeymoon"  stage Stage  2  Stage  3  Stage  4  • Eldest child -  Eldest child  under s c h o o l age. under  adolescence.  Some o r a l l c h i l d r e n 28  adolescent or over.  29  Stage  5  -  A l l c h i l d r e n have l e f t  home —  "Empty  Nest"  stage. Stage  6  —  Husband h a s r e t i r e d .  Of c o u r s e t h i s  i s only a t y p i c a l  much b e t w e e n f a m i l i e s .  p a t t e r n and c a n v a r y  F o r e x a m p l e , one o r b o t h p a r t n e r s  may have c h i l d r e n by a p r e v i o u s m a r r i a g e ; n o t have l e f t  very  home by t h e t i m e  their  o r c h i l d r e n may  father r e t i r e s ;  and  so on . R i c h and J a i n of  using the l i f e  behavior.  (1968 , pp.47-48 ) q u e s t i o n t h e u t i l i t y  cycle  concept  i n understanding  T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , a l a r g e body o f e v i d e n c e ,  c l u d i n g work u n d e r t h e e d i t o r s h i p Glick  indicates  o f C l a r k ( 1 9 5 5 ) , and by  t h a t the concept  of the frequently indicated  dictors social uable  of " t r a d i t i o n a l " class,  family  independent  buying behavior. sent a d e t a i l e d In  life  such  Wolfe's  as a g e , i n c o m e , and  between t h e p a r t -  c y c l e , Komarovsky  This i s b a s i c a l l y  to pre-  concept.  terms o f c o n v e r g e n c e / d i v e r g e n c e  hypothesis  of family  i t i s not i n t e n d e d here  of this  life  In  i n v a l u e s as p r e -  i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n  p r e s e n t s t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t convergence cycle.  i s useful.  c y c l e seems an a c c e p t a b l e and v a l -  However, defence  decline  concepts  variable  ners over the f a m i l y  life  in-  ( 1 9 5 7 ) , L a n s i n g and K i s h ( 1 9 5 7 ) , and W e l l s and Gubar  (1966), which view  consumer  (1961,  p.262)  d e c l i n e s over the  i n k e e p i n g w i t h B l o o d and  ( I 9 6 0 , p. 44) t h a t t h e m i d d l e  stages of  t h e f a m i l y c y c l e r e p r e s e n t t h e p e r i o d o f peak w i f e  dominance  30  in  f a m i l y d e c i s i o n making.  ment as t o what o c c u r s later mon  stages  of the  T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be  i n the p a t t e r n of dominance i n the  c y c l e . . Yet  there  i s a hypothesis  t o both,, t h a t c o n v e r g e n c e d e c l i n e s a t l e a s t  middle.stages  of the  cycle.  ined i n l i g h t  of the  conceptual  This hypothesis  to  the  w i l l be  first  f i r s t stage  f o r a number o f r e a s o n s .  p l a c e , t h e d e s i r e t o d o m i n a t e w i l l be  are  likely  their perceptions life  any  decision unit.  is likely  of t h e i r  cycle this  a r e most l i k e l y  stage  life  fairly Since  to exercise Nor  is i t  in  Of a l l s t a g e s  or f a m i l y v a l u e s  hence w i l l be  experience  t o have had unlikely  in this  to pursue a c t i v e l y  in  couple  set of i n t e r p e r s o n a l values  Neither partner i s l i k e l y  v a l u e on h i s o r h e r  dissatisfied.  d u r i n g which the  to d i s c a r d t r a d i t i o n a l  ence i n house b u y i n g ,  has  of c o m p a t i b i l i t y  style."'"  i s a time  f a v o r o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a new  both are l i k e l y  t o be  occur the  to s e v e r a l f a c t o r s .  Moreover t h e r e i s a high l i k e l i h o o d  norms.  In  t h a t a power s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y u n i t  evolved, w i t h which e i t h e r  the  to  shared  t o be y o u n g , n e i t h e r i s l i k e l y  c o n s i d e r a b l e power o u t s i d e t h e likely  pre-  fori t .  e q u a l l y b e t w e e n t h e p a r t n e r s due both  exam-  scheme o f f e r s  I t would appear t h a t convergence i s l i k e l y d u r i n g the  com-  scheme d e s c r i b e d i n t h e  v i o u s c h a p t e r , t o determine whether the justification  disagree-  in and  much e x p e r i -  to p l a c e  situation.  high  Finally,  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  "'"Life s t y l e i s d e f i n e d h e r e as t h e e x p r e s s i o n a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o r o f a s e t o f p e r s o n a l v a l u e s .  of a  through  31  compatible  style  of d e c i s i o n making.  There i s a l s o l i k e l y a t e t h e house b u y i n g the  t o be  decision.  s i t u a t i o n that both  more, t h e r o l e s o c c u p i e d  are  be  similar,  likely  to  have o c c u r r e d  likely  decision.  o f r o l e s and  position  In the  stage.  and  And  or coerce  partners  through  as  segregation  resources.  is  relative  partners  are  placed  on  to a  similar-  in a  similar  o t h e r , though the  likeli-  are  likely This  is likely  t o be w i l l i n g  is likely  to  to cause mutual be  p a r t n e r may  to p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s ,  occur of  in  dependence.  disrupted in several have a  particularly This  or t o a h i g h value  e t h n i c , c u l t u r a l or r e l i g i o u s  been o b s e r v e d ,  to  a balancing  s t r o n g d e s i r e t o dominate a l l d e c i s i o n s i t u a t i o n s . due  likely  N e g a t i v e l y , l a c k of experience  F o r e x a m p l e , one  c o u l d be  both "new  i n view of the  a s h a r i n g o f v a l u e s , and  T h i s t y p i c a l p a t t e r n may ways.  likely  s u c h a power i s s m a l l .  s h o r t , both  house b u y i n g  What i s  Also, neither partner i s  finally,  the  to  contri-  earners,  " l o v e r s " and  role  d e c i s i o n making t a s k s .  positively roles  are probably  little  r e s o u r c e s , both  to punish  hood o f u s i n g  share  this  i n part  w i f e are  t o have- a n y s p e c i a l p r a c t i c a l a b i l i t i e s  home b u y i n g ity  by  due  domin-  making s i m i l a r  t h e h u s b a n d and  t h e m s e l v e s as  Conversely,  be  to  to the household.  f o r example, both  to consider  homemakers".  by  ability  T h i s may  are probably  b u t i o n s , i n terms of r e s o u r c e s ,  to  equal  f o r i n s t a n c e , t h o u g h no  traditions. particular  being It  studies  has  32  can  be c i t e d , t h a t Negro f a m i l i e s a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y  c h a l , whereas Chinese f a m i l i e s a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y W h a t e v e r t h e t r u t h of. t h e s e possibly port  observations  matriar-  patriarchal.  such f a c t o r s  l e a d t o a d e s i r e f o r d o m i n a n c e , and c u l t u r a l  f o r any a b i l i t y  d i s c r e p a n c i e s between t h e p a r t n e r s , i n r e l a t i o n  tribution partner  to the f a m i l y .  t h i s may be p e r c e i v e d  marriage.  better education  by t h e l a t t e r  competence t o t h e f o r m e r . greater  T h i s may make t h e o t h e r  might i n c r e a s e the p o s s i b i l i t y  t o some e x t e n t  the other  persist  make  permissive  A l s o , one  due t o a p r e v i o u s  marriage,  p r i o r to marriage,  which  dominating  throughout the f a m i l y l i f e  "dis-  cycle.  i s a dominant p e r s o n a l i t y  i s permissive,  t o some e x t e n t  suggested t h a t these  "normal" p a t t e r n are l i k e l y to  e x a m p l e , i f one p a r t n e r  while  may  situations.  r u p t i o n s " t o an o t h e r w i s e  For  greater  more  of that partner  However,it i s t e n t a t i v e l y  persist  partner  t o dominate.  may have more e x p e r i e n c e  decision  as i m p a r t i n g  c o n t r i b u t i o n i n terms o f funds t o the  or t o s p e c i a l f a m i l y circumstances  certain  t o con-  than the other  S i m i l a r l y , one p a r t n e r  t o w a r d an a t t e m p t by t h e o t h e r partner  patterns  P e r h a p s , f o r e x a m p l e , i f one  has a s u b s t a n t i a l l y  a considerably  sup-  t o dominate.  Other f a c t o r s which might l e a d t o d i f f e r e n t are  could  this  situation  i s l i k e l y to  throughout the f a m i l y l i f e  O t h e r f a c t o r s s u c h as r o l e s and r e s o u r c e s  type  cycle.  are l i k e l y to  change o v e r t h e c y c l e , w h e r e a s f a c t o r s l i k e p e r s o n a l i t y  33  traits to  and r e l i g i o u s  remain r e l a t i v e l y  o r e t h n i c c o n v i c t i o n s , a r e more constant.  Nevertheless,  a p p e a r t h a t t h e "Honeymoon S t a g e "  likely  i t would  i s a p e r i o d when  joint  d e c i s i o n m a k i n g , and hence c o n v e r g e n c e , i s h i g h l y l i k e l y t o occur:,. L e t us now e x a m i n e w h e t h e r s u c h j o i n t ing  and t h e r e f o r e c o n v e r g e n c e i s l i k e l y  next.two stages  of the c y c l e .  to d e c l i n e over the  In g e n e r a l  s e v e r a l c o n d i t i o n s . w h i c h would " n o r m a l l y " in  joint  first  d e c i s i o n making d u r i n g t h i s  d e c i s i o n mak-  terms t h e r e a r e lead to a decline  period.  L e t us l o o k  o f a l l a t the d e s i r e t o dominate d i f f e r e n t  situations.  T h i s may be g r e a t e r due p a r t l y  hood t h a t t h e h u s b a n d a n d / o r w i f e w i l l of v a r i o u s types increased role stances  decision  to the l i k e l i -  e x e r t more i n f l u e n c e  outside the f a m i l y d e c i s i o n u n i t .  Also,  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h changing f a m i l y  circum-  may c r e a t e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an i n t r a - f a m i l y  structure relative a d d i t i o n , over  to different  decision situations.  time, perceptions  of l i f e  power In  s t y l e may become  d i s p a r a t e w i t h t h e c o n s t r a i n t s i m p o s e d by t h e n e c e s s i t y t o raise  and c a r e  each p a r t n e r certain For  for children.  is likely  aspects.of  A l s o w i t h the passage of t i m e ,  to perceive his/her experience i n  housing  example, the w i f e w i l l  t o be g r e a t e r t h a n  s p e n d c o n s i d e r a b l y more t i m e a t  home,, and so w i l l be more aware o f s p e c i f i c relative cycle that  to l i v i n g  and w o r k i n g  changes a r e l i k e l y each p l a c e s  the other's.  i n t h e home.  shortcomings Finally,  life  t o cause d i f f e r e n c e s i n the value  on t h e home.  For example, the husband  may  34  look  on t h e home a s a p l a c e  of h i s work, w h i l e place  the wife  t o r e l a x away f r o m t h e p r e s s u r e s i s likely  where she p e r f o r m s h e r m a j o r The  ability  to regard  i t as a  roles.  t o dominate i s a l s o l i k e l y  t o change  over time.  The h u s b a n d i s u s u a l l y m a k i n g a l a r g e r  absolute  and  economic c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e f a m i l y .  There i s  relative  likely the  to develop a s p e c i a l i z e d r o l e  s t r u c t u r e due p a r t l y t o  h u s b a n d ' s need t o d e v o t e more t i m e and e f f o r t  while  t h e w i f e h a s t o d e v o t e more t i m e and e f f o r t  roles  o f m o t h e r and homemaker.  to h i s job, to her  T h i s has been d e s c r i b e d as 2  the  s e p a r a t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t a l r o l e s and e x p r e s s i v e , r o l e s ,  the  husband a d o p t i n g  over, likely and  the wife's  the former, the wife  preoccupation  to give her greater  the l a t t e r .  w i t h t h e home and f a m i l y i s  ability  t o express  b o t h h e r own  h e r c h i l d r e n ' s needs i n t e r m s o f p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t .  On t h e o t h e r  h a n d , b o t h t h e h u s b a n d and w i f e a r e i n a s t r o n g -  er p o s i t i o n t o punish reducing  or coerce  the other  p a r t n e r , mainly  his/her contribution to the family.  our  s o c i e t y there  for  the wife's  the  family usually the wife  i s considerable  e x t e r n a l support  r o l e s o f m o t h e r and homemaker. i s regarded  t o dominate c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n However, n e i t h e r p a r t n e r  by  Finally, in expressed  Also, within  as t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  o f t h e c h i l d r e n ' s n e e d s , w h i c h adds c o n s i d e r a b l y ity  More-  to her a b i l -  situations. i s likely  t o be so  willing  2 cf., Morris Z e l d i t c h J r . "Role i n t h e N u c l e a r F a m i l y " i n P a r s o n s and B a l e s for a s c h o l a r l y treatment of t h i s t o p i c .  Differentiation ( 1 9 5 5 ) Chap. V I ,  35  as p r e v i o u s l y t o l e t t h e o t h e r p a r t n e r d o m i n a t e some d e c i sion areas. in  their  T h i s c o u l d be due t o t h e p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s  perception of the value  ences I n t h e type areas  one  net r e s u l t  partner w i l l  s i o n areas attempt  experience,  of the various r o l e s The  or s i t u a t i o n s .  possible factors  t o dominate c e r t a i n  efficiency  deci-  The w i f e may, f o r i n s t a n c e ,  t o the types  of r o l e  she p l a y s and h e r  These c o u l d i n c l u d e t h e l o c a -  t o s h o p s and s c h o o l s , t h e f u n c -  o f t h e home, and t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e  Areas which r e l a t e  tribution  t o t h e h u s b a n d ' s r o l e s and c o n -  c o u l d be i t s l o c a t i o n r e l a t i v e  or investment  aspects  t o h i s work,  take a greater i n t e r e s t providing  a suitable  finan-  o f t h e home, m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e  home, and p r i v a c y f r o m e x t e r n a l i n t e r f e r e n c e .  and  i s that  t o d o m i n a t e a r e a s , i n t h e house p u r c h a s i n g d e c i s i o n  t i o n o f t h e home r e l a t i v e  cial  assumed.  attempt  c o n t r i b u t i o n to the f a m i l y .  home.  and s e g r e g a t i o n and s p e c i a l -  of a l l these  probably  process, that relate  tional  differ-  of c o n t r i b u t i o n offered to the f a m i l y ,  of specialized  ization  o f a home, t o r e a l  i n the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  He may a l s o  o f h i s home  environment f o r business  entertainment,  he may be more aware o f t h e s t a t u s p r o v i d i n g a s p e c t s o f  t h e home. attempt  These a r e t h e a r e a s  i n w h i c h he i s l i k e l y t o  dominance. Whether d o m i n a n c e o f d e c i s i o n a r e a s  take place w i l l couple  maintains  does i n f a c t  depend t o a l a r g e e x t e n t on how w e l l t h e or mutually  adjusts the pattern of values  36  and  style  T h i s may  of l i f e  he r e f l e c t e d  segregation which equally  expected  a home.  I t may  which  t o some e x t e n t i n t h e p a t t e r n o f t a s k  develops .  I f the p a r t n e r s  participate  i n a l a r g e number o f t a s k s , a n d d e c i s i o n s t h e n  w o u l d be  to  they shared at the o u t s e t of t h e i r ' m a r r i a g e .  t o make j o i n t  d e c i s i o n s i n the buying  a l s o be p a r t i a l l y  the p a r t n e r s share  leisure  reflected  i n the  activities.  the c o m p a t i b i l i t y the l i k e l i h o o d  of t h e i r  of j o i n t  the house b u y i n g It  activities life  and  decision  in  styles  convergent  and  the l a t e r  there-  share, the  closer  d e c i s i o n making i n  to  determine  p a r t n e r s h i p are l i k e l y  t h a t a r e most c o n d u c i v e  stages of the marriage  to  cycle.  g e s t e d t h a t t h e h u s b a n d i s more r e l u c t a n t major r o l e  style,  hence t h e g r e a t e r  i s therefore extremely d i f f i c u l t  to adjustments  extent  process.  what c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e m a r r i a g e lead  the couple  of  These  w o u l d g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e c o u p l e ' s l i f e f o r e t h e more l e i s u r e  they  to  convergence  I t has  been  sug-  to r e p l a c e the  of " l o v e r " w i t h t h a t of " f a m i l y p r o v i d e r " than  the w i f e i s to adopt the r o l e T h i s may  be  a l s o has  strongly  s u f f i c e here  overdrawn,  o f " m o t h e r " and  "home maker".  however, because the r o l e  attractive  emotional overtones.  t o say t h a t s u c c e s s f u l a d j u s t m e n t  family circumstances w i l l  of  p r o b a b l y be r e f l e c t e d  to  "father" Let i t  changing  i n the  amount o f a g r e e m e n t t h e r e i s b e t w e e n h u s b a n d and w i f e abo'ut v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e home.  3 7  I t was n o t e d  earlier  t h a t t h e r e was a d e g r e e o f  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e h y p o t h e s i s Blood  and W o l f e .  o f K o m a r o v s k y and t h a t o f  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e c e n t r e d on t h e l i k e l y  p a t t e r n o f d e c i s i o n making i n t h e l a t e r say  stages  M- t h r o u g h  an  over  sented With  m a t u r i t y and t h e l a t e r  stages  of the  evinced i n  provide  the c o n d i t i o n s f o r  a r e f e w e r e c o n o m i c c o n s t r a i n t s and i n c r e a s e d for leisure  decline an  departure  of the c y c l e would tend t o d e c l i n e .  Among t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h - c o u l d  ity  pre-  i s the case.  i t w o u l d seem t h a t any i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y  the middle  posit  scheme a n d t h e a r g u m e n t s  above i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e l a t t e r  children  this  and W o l f e  d e c i s i o n making i n t h e l a t e r  From t h e c o n c e p t u a l  the growing  earlier.  d e c i s i o n making d e c l i n e s  t h e c y c l e , whereas Blood  i n c r e a s e d amount o f j o i n t  stages.  of the c y c l e ,  6 o f t h e scheme p r e s e n t e d  Komarovsky has argued t h a t j o i n t consistently  stages  activity.  Coupled w i t h these  i n the strength of the maternal  role  i n c r e a s e d s t r e s s on c o m p a n i o n s h i p r o l e s .  opportun-  c o u l d be a  and p o s s i b l y There  could  a l s o be an i n c r e a s e d e c o n o m i c c o n t r i b u t i o n by t h e w i f e i f she  pursued  a money e a r n i n g  occupation.  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t c o u l d be a r g u e d t h a t i f i n compatibility stages  then  in life  s t y l e has o c c u r r e d over  a return to compatibility  P e r h a p s the. p a r t n e r s have d e v e l o p e d  the previous  i s less  separate  likely. interests;  t h e w i f e , f o r e x a m p l e , i n community a c t i v i t i e s , ly  particular-  i f she i s o f h i g h s t a t u s , t h e h u s b a n d i n a c t i v i t i e s a s -  s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s work.  Katz  and L a z a r s f e l d (1955 , p.295 )  38  have d e s c r i b e d t h e t y p i c a l woman community p u b l i c a f f a i r s leader: B e t t e r e d u c a t e d , w e a l t h i e r women — that i s women o f h i g h e r s t a t u s , no m a t t e r what t h e i r l i f e c y c l e p o s i t i o n — seem t o move i n a c l i m a t e which promotes g r e a t e r participation i n public affairs. I n f a c t , s u c h t y p e s o f women have a d o p t e d a new s e t o f r o l e s which i s l i k e l y In a d d i t i o n ,  to discourage stress  t h e s e new r o l e s  woman's s e l f r e l i a n c e  on c o m p a n i o n s h i p  are l i k e l y  t o encourage t h e  i n certain decision  consequent dominance i n t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s . be  roles.  situations,  with  Among them  could  t h e s t y l e and d e s i g n o f t h e h o u s e , t h e t y p e o f n e i g h b o r -  h o o d , and t h e l o c a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o community a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h she p a r t i c i p a t e s . her  maternal role  I f she h a s f o u n d f u l f i l l m e n t i n  she may a t t e m p t t o d o m i n a t e t h e l o c a t i o n  o f h e r home r e l a t i v e t o h e r c h i l d r e n ' s  families.  Once a g a i n we must s p e a k i n t e r m s o f t h e d e g r e e o f successful the  adjustment t o changing family  c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and  i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f what t h e s e a d j u s t m e n t s  be.  We must a l s o  b e a r i n mind t h a t  have d e v e l o p e d e x t e r n a l  interests.  should  t h e h u s b a n d t o o may He may a l s o  be  looking  ahead t o h i s r e t i r e m e n t when he p l a n s t o p u r s u e t h e s e i n t e r ests.  What may d e t e r m i n e t h e p a t t e r n  circumstances  i s whether there  reliance  between t h e p a r t n e r s .  indicate  t o them t h a t  i s a balancing  of s e l f -  I f s o , t h e i r m a t u r i t y may  j o i n t decisionsare  However, i f one p a r t n e r  o f dominance i n t h e s e  more  fruitful.  i s less s e l f - r e l i a n t there  i sa  39  strong  possibility  sion areas. these  tbat the other  The d i f f e r e n t  later  stages  will  patterns  are described  d o m i n a t e most d e c i -  t h a t may d e v e l o p i n  by D o n a l d W o l f e  (1959,  p . 1.13 ) When a w i f e p a s s e s t h e age o f f i f t y , and h e r c h i l d r e n a r e a b o u t t o l e a v e home o r have a l r e a d y l e f t , she h a s d e v e l o p e d h e r r e s o u r c e s t o t h e i r h i g h e s t peak. She may have become u s e d t o t h e s e c u r i t y and s a t i s f a c t i o n o f r e l a t i v e l y h i g h power and a u t h o r i t y i n t h e home. With the m a t u r a t i o n o f h e r c h i l d r e n , she h a s l o s t what i s p e r haps h e r most i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n , c h i l d r e a r i n g , as w e l l as a s o u r c e o f h e r own need g r a t i f i c a t i o n . A t t h i s t i m e we m i g h t e x p e c t two c o n t r a r y t r e n d s : f i r s t , a r e t u r n t o d e p e n d e n c y on h e r h u s b a n d f o r t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f h e r e m o t i o n a l n e e d s , and s e c o n d , an e f f o r t t o f i n d a r e p l a c e m e n t f o r h e r l o s t f u n c t i o n and t o r e d i r e c t h e r r e s o u r c e s , and t h u s p o w e r , t o w a r d o t h e r fami l y regions. Among o t h e r d e c i s i o n process has  v a r i a b l e s w h i c h may a l s o a f f e c t t h e  i s social  suggested that r o l e  class.  Komarovsky  segregation  and i n d e p e n d e n t d e c i s i o n  making a r e g r e a t e s t  i n lower  an  s t r u c t u r e and j o i n t  egalitarian role  and u p p e r income g r o u p s ,  work. level  c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d  i s likely  t o be l o w e s t .  income g r o u p s , Thus t h e r e  hood o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n and s h a r i n g roles. parity  Hence, t h e r e w i l l between t h e p a r t n e r s  life-styles.  This  A l l these  through the conceptual  In t h e case o f t h e lower  relaframe-  educational  i s less  of i n t e r e s t  likeli-  i n respective  be a g r e a t e r p r o b a b i l i t y i n their perception  i n turn i s l i k e l y  while  d e c i s i o n making a r e  more common i n t h e m i d d l e income g r o u p . tionships  ( 1 9 6 1 , p.263 )  of d i s -  of t h e i r  t o cause g r e a t e r  role  40  segregation  and  so  i n c r e a s e the p r o b a b i l i t y  of  independent  d e c i s i o n making.  I n the. u p p e r income g r o u p , p r o b a b l y  economic r e s o u r c e s  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the  f a m i l y by  have r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e h u s b a n d ' s commitment t o activities family role  which decrease h i s opportunity  activities.  At t h e  to a p p r e c i a t e her  Hence, b o t h  are w i l l i n g  own  e c o n o m i c d e p e n d e n c e on h e r to accept  specialization.  In the middle  of c o n d i t i o n s are  less l i k e l y  role  segregation related  to occur,  since there less  income.  course,  social  Occupation,  However, u s u a l l y t h e s e  c l a s s c a n n o t be  education  and  For  high a b i l i t y  is  husband. and their extremes i s prob-  judged s o l e l y  by  s t a t u s are  class.  e x a m p l e , h i g h income employment i s u s u a l l y h i g h  t o c o m m u n i c a t e and  is highly likely  to dominate those  interested;  social  gen-  r e i n f o r c e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s d e s c r i b e d  and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e ,  t o s e e k and  in decision situations.  conditions  a home.  prob-  of  social  s t a t u s employment, which i m p l i e s r e s p e c t  ity  of  likelihood  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h income i n d e t e r m i n i n g  sibility  in  dependence. Of  above.  to  income g r o u p t h e s e  a b l y a h i g h d e g r e e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n and  erally  chances  i n t e r e s t s but  i n d e p e n d e n t d e c i s i o n making i n the areas  economic  occupational  same t i m e , t h e w i f e has  a b l y more o p p o r t u n i t y t o p u r s u e h e r likely  husband  to p a r t i c i p a t e  T h i s would i n c r e a s e the  specialization.  the  the  The  male who  respon-  enjoys  these  t o e x e r c i s e h i s d e s i r e and  abil-  decision situations  f o r example, investment  W o r k i n g w i v e s may  accept  tend  and  i n w h i c h he  is  status aspects  to r e s i s t  this  or at  of least  41  s h a r e more t h a n n o n - w o r k i n g w i v e s i n t h e because of the their  resources  they c o n t r i b u t e t o the  r e l a t i v e l y l e s s r e l i a n c e on  (.1963 , p . 1 3 8 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t a w i f e earning  strong.  Whatever the  socio-economic l e v e l  tain  of d e c i s i o n making.  patterns  Related i s , the  economic l e v e l s . least the  the  or n e c e s s i t y  opportunity  of t h i s  those t h a t would o c c u r at the  cer-  socioat  interaction in typical  of  occupied.  to d i s r u p t the  typical  e x p e c t e d a t any  specific  i n t u r n to s o c i a l m o b i l i t y i s f a m i l y  However, t h e r e of t h i s  Research Inc.  i s an a p p a r e n t d i c h o t o m y as  f a c t o r i n the  decision process.  maturity  In d e c i s i o n making than w i v e s from Yet  backto  the  Social  ( 1 9 6 7 , p p . 3 2 f f ) s u g g e s t s t h a t women f r o m  f a t h e r - o r i e n t a t e d homes d i s p l a y g r e a t e r  homes.  with  level. Related  ability  are  highly  t o move b e t w e e n  level previously  i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n w h i c h m i g h t be  effects  find  is social mobility,  transition,  Thus s o c i a l m o b i l i t y w o u l d t e n d  ground.  to  i f they  i s associated  d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s would e x h i b i t f e a t u r e s  social  Heer  I t w o u l d seem p r o b a b l e t h a t d u r i n g  e a r l y stages  and  status/  i t appears  to socio-economic l e v e l  ability  David  with a high  truth in this  process,  family  hence bows t o h i s d e s i r e s  probable that  that  the male.  h u s b a n d i s u n l i k e l y t o have an  a b e t t e r h u s b a n d , and  decision  at the  newly-weds p e r c e i v e  and  mother-orientated  same t i m e i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t their  cap-  home as o f f e r i n g an  the  opportunity  to  42  experiment with the  improvements over the  y e a r s pass the  p a t e r n a l home.  As  homemakers become more c o n s e r v a t i v e  w i s h to r e t u r n to the  ways o f t h e  older  and  generation;  They want t o c a p t u r e t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e p a s t and y e t i m p r o v e upon i t t h r o u g h c o n t r i b u t i o n s from the p r e s e n t . Clbid,  Thus i n some ways f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d may certain decision patterns  p.43)  be  at d i f f e r e n t l i f e  G e o g r a p h i c m o b i l i t y m i g h t a l s o be certain the  d e c i s i o n making p a t t e r n s .  search/decision  find  prior  cycle  Or  associated  C l e a r l y i t could  attempts to f i n d  to i t s a r r i v a l  at the  new  i t could  a l s o do  t h a t t h e y p r e f e r t o buy,  p o s e d upon them i s l i k e l y patterns. increases and  the  hypothesis  the  i s put  i s a l s o s u g g e s t e d by  families  are  likely  family  location.  I t could  more c o n s i s t e n t v a l u e the it  likelihood  time c o n s t r a i n t  distinctive  likelihood  of j o i n t  forward  Komarovsky  by  conceptual  more a m b i t i o u s  decision constraint  there  the  partners,  (1961, p.264). since  to  increase  members.  i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e of the  is less likelihood  mobile  o r a t l e a s t have a  p a t t e r n , t h i s would tend  increase  im-  d e c i s i o n making.  scheme;  of communication between the  would probably  members s i n c e  then the  be  A s s u m i n g , how-  p r o b a b i l i t y that this  t o be  to  accommodation f o r h i s  to create  the  affect  i f the  need f o r c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e  thus i n c r e a s e s  This It  There i s the  with  so  t h a t m o b i l e f a m i l i e s p r e f e r t o r e n t homes. ever,  with  stages.  p r o c e s s where a m o b i l e f a m i l y has  accommodation q u i c k l y .  husband, say,  associated  of e x t r a  Also family  familial  .4 3  attachments.  Much of. t h i s w o u l d d e p e n d , h o w e v e r , on t h e  i n d i v i d u a l member's a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s m o b i l i t y .  I f these  attitudes  are inconsistent, the p r o b a b i l i t y of divergence  obviously  higher.  north  In view of the i n c r e a s i n g m o b i l i t y of  A m e r i c a n f a m i l i e s t h e e f f e c t s o f t h i s m o b i l i t y on  major purchase d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s i s worth  exploring.  What h a s been i m p l i e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e f o r e g o i n g ments i s t h a t c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s ated in  with  ability  higher  earner.  would give  give  i n educational  superior a b i l i t y  the p r o b a b i l i t y of his/her  in social  one p a r t n e r  dominance.  d e s i r e and a b i l i t y  Above a l l , d i s c r e p a n c i e s  in life  perception  the p r o b a b i l i t y of  w i l l increase  T h u s , where d i s c r e p a n c i e s partners,  style,  Dis-  i m p l i e s would t o dominate.  a t t i t u d e s and r o l e divergence.  are found t o exist•between  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the pattern  m a k i n g w i l l be e x p l o r e d .  attainment  t o c o m m u n i c a t e and  s t a t u s and a l l t h a t t h i s  superior  Discrepancy  r e f l e c t e d i n d o m i n a n c e by  Discrepancy  one p a r t n e r  thus increase crepancy  i s probably  argu-  o f d o m i n a n c e may be a s s o c i -  d i s c r e p a n c i e s between t h e p a r t n e r s .  earning  the  is  the  of d e c i s i o n  I f these discrepancies  do n o t  e x i s t , t h e d e c i s i o n p a t t e r n may be e x p e c t e d t o be a s s o c i ated  with  other  variables.  Summary - The o n l y  formal  is  i s likely  that  divergence  middle stages gested  offered i n this  to increase  of the f a m i l y l i f e  that there  patterns  hypothesis  may be o t h e r  cycle.  a t l e a s t up t o t h e I t i s also  variables associated  of convergence/divergence.  study  sugwith  Among t h o s e t h a t  will  4 4  be  i n v e s t i g a t e d here are s o c i a l  c l a s s , education,,  income,  s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , f a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d , and g e o g r a p h i c Discrepancies ables  between t h e p a r t n e r s  may a l s o be a s s o c i a t e d  with  Degree o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n j o i n t  i n some o f t h e s e certain decision  making p a t t e r n s , in family  tasks.  will  be  style.  O t h e r d i s p a r i t i e s a r e more r e a d i l y o b s e r v a b l e . may be a s s o c i a t e d  varipatterns.  leisure activities  u s e d a s an i n d i c a t i o n o f c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f l i f e  degree o f r o l e s e g r e g a t i o n  mobility.  with  Finally, decision  and i s i n d i c a t e d by d e g r e e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n  CHAPTER 1+ Research As  indicated previously, this  atory b o t h i n -  no  Methodology  s u b s t a n c e and method.  proven r e s e a r c h  study  i s purely  Consequently, there are  t o o l s a v a i l a b l e to test  the p o s s i b l e r e -  l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h were s u g g e s t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s A questionnaire veloping  was c o n s t r u c t e d  a s u i t a b l e instrument  more t h o r o u g h l y indicated  t o cover  s i b l e , t h a t might a f f e c t  will  step  chapter. t o w a r d s de-  w i t h which t o i n v e s t i g a t e  and a c c u r a t e l y any r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t were  n a i r e was c o m p i l e d  chapter  as a f i r s t  i n the exploratory f i e l d  c e r t a i n other  explor-  features describe  study.  The q u e s t i o n -  as many d e c i s i o n a r e a s as p o s -  h u s b a n d - w i f e i n t e r a c t i o n as w e l l as  of the search/decision process. the questionnaire  This  and i t s u n d e r l y i n g  r a t i o n a l e , and t h e manner i n w h i c h i t was u s e d . The  Questionnaire  field  survey  : The q u e s t i o n n a i r e  i s presented  as i t was u s e d i n t h e  i n A p p e n d i x A.  f i v e m a j o r s e c t i o n s , n a m e l y , House b u y i n g ent  Home I n f o r m a t i o n ,  ities  I t c o n s i s t s of Information,  I n d i v i d u a l O r i e n t a t i o n , Family  and D e m o g r a p h i c I n f o r m a t i o n .  examined. 45  Each o f these  Pres-  Activ-  w i l l be  46 House b u y i n g  Information  This s e c t i o n i s intended  both  to r e f r e s h the respon-  d e n t ' s memory a b o u t t h e h o u s e s e a r c h / d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s  and t o  determine whether there  i s a t y p i c a l pattern during  this  process.  c o n s t r a i n t , or such s p e c i a l  situa-  tions  Since  a time  as an o u t s t a n d i n g  cess, i t i s f i r s t were f e l t any  time  t h e whole  pro-  d e t e r m i n e d w h e t h e r any s u c h c o n s t r a i n t s  to exist during  b a r g a i n , may a f f e c t  either  it.  at the outset of the process  Then a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s  or at  attempt to  determine the respondent's p e r c e p t i o n of the length o f the search, the  the i n t e n s i t y  of e f f o r t  made d u r i n g t h e s e a r c h , and  amount o f i n d e c i s i o n t h a t was e v i n c e d .  i n f o r m a t i o n u s e d and t h e i r also sought.  importance to the process are  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  toward r e a l e s t a t e agents,  the respondent's  i f used, both  p u r c h a s e a r e s o u g h t , p l u s any a d d i t i o n a l ing the part played  by t h e a g e n t .  rected at determining instrumental Finally, paid  The s o u r c e s o f  before  and a f t e r  comments  Questions  attitude  concern-  are also d i -  t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f who was  i n starting  and c o n d u c t i n g  the respondent's a t t i t u d e  the process.  toward the p r i c e  actually  i s sought.  Present  Home  Information  This s e c t i o n explores the partners' perception of various attributes  of t h e i r present  home.  Various  aspects  o f t h e home, s u c h a s l o c a t i o n and s p a c e , a r e b r o k e n down i n to s u b - f a c t o r s .  Each o f t h e l a t t e r  are described  ina  47  short, phrase.  The r e s p o n d e n t i s a s k e d how a p p r o p r i a t e  of these p h r a s e s i s i n d e s c r i b i n g h i s home.. possible like  i n t e r m s b o t h o f p h r a s e o l o g y and l a y o u t . to c i t y  centre'  a t t r i b u t e , whereas - 'long  biased.  itive  attributes.  The p u r p o s e o f t h i s  it  of questions  a t t r i b u t e s being  h i s answers t o give  home.  Since  that  extremely  representing  of t h e i r  prevent t h i s pattern  generally  impression  Considerable  foolish  of h i s  recently  an  unfavorable feel  t o the i n t e r v i e w e r .  and u n f a v o r a b l e  phrases  should  e s t a b l i s h e d , and so f o r c e t h e  t h o u g h t was g i v e n  separately.  to using  t o i n d i c a t e the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  the semantic  perception  of  t h e s e a s p e c t s o f t h e home.  However, i t was f e l t  r e s p o n d e n t w o u l d be u n l i k e l y  t o t h i n k a b o u t h i s home i n  terms of p o l a r phrases.  held  secondly,  To do so m i g h t make them  i n t o t h i n k i n g about each q u e s t i o n  differential  Firstly, i t  important purchase i t i s quite  home.  being  pos-  negative  i s twofold.  t h e y w o u l d be r e l u c t a n t t o g i v e  possible favorable  respondent  possible  a favorable  they would appear r a t h e r  Mixing  with  t h e r e s p o n d e n t s c h o s e n have o n l y  undertaken :this  impression  t h e p h r a s e s may  t h e r e s p o n d e n t does n o t s t a n -  dardize  that  extent  e s t a b l i s h e d , and t h u s ,  attempts t o ensure that  possible  t o work' -. w o u l d  be. n o t e d t h a t p o s s i b l e  are interspersed  prevents a pattern favorable  journey,  To t h i s  However, i t s h o u l d  attributes  A phrase  - may be t h o u g h t o f as a p o s -  s e l d o m be r e g a r d e d as s u c h . be  aspect of  The p h r a s e s a r e c h o s e n t o be as u n b i a s e d as  — 'Close  sible  that p a r t i c u l a r  each  The t e c h n i q u e a c t u a l l y  that the  used  48  i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a l l o w s t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o g i v e an ion r e l a t i v e  to each a s p e c t , w i t h o u t i n v o l v i n g  much m i n d . s e a r c h i n g . fairly  rapidly  Individual The  Thus he s h o u l d be a b l e t o p r o g r e s s  t h r o u g h a w i d e number o f a r e a s .  purpose  of t h i s  felt  section  i s t o d e t e r m i n e what  were d e s i r a b l e a t t r i b u t e s  A s p e c t s o f t h e home were b r o k e n down i n t o m a t c h e d as c l o s e l y vious section.  sub-factors  "prescriptive"  that  as p o s s i b l e w i t h t h o s e g i v e n i n t h e p r e -  The  these aspects.  ployed  i n a home.  r e s p o n d e n t was  asked to i n d i c a t e h i s  of agreement w i t h s t a t e m e n t s of o p i n i o n  section  i n too  Orientation  the respondent  degree  him  opin-  This section and a l s o  c o u l d be  loosely  regarding termed  " p r e d i c t i v e " whereas the p r e v i o u s  i s purely descriptive.  Again the t e c h n i q u e  i s d e s i g n e d t o c o v e r as w i d e  a range  em-  o f a s p e c t s as  p o s s i b l e w h i l e m i n i m i z i n g the time taken t o respond. The treated possible  last  two  a s p e c t s , "Space and  Facilities"were  i n a somewhat d i f f e r e n t manner s i n c e t o use t h e same t e c h n i q u e .  For example,  be m e a n i n g l e s s t o ask t h e r e s p o n d e n t w h e t h e r "A h o u s e s h o u l d have s u f f i c i e n t "Space"  section  certain  living  that  So i n t h e  a s s u m p t i o n s were made a b o u t  o r d e r a d d i t i o n a l space o p t i o n s .  the  asked to rank  S i m i l a r l y , the  respondent  requested to rank order h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r a d d i t i o n a l  facilities  i n h i s own  home.  im-  i t would  he a g r e e d  space".  a d e q u a c y o f t h e home and t h e r e s p o n d e n t was  was  i t appeared  49  Family  Activities This  s e c t i o n i s intended  t o i n d i c a t e t o some  t e n t the r e s p o n d e n t ' s p e r c e p t i o n  of the p a t t e r n of  participation,  and  participation  in leisure  The  and  tasks  activities  represent As  a reasonable,  segregation  pondent.  Leisure a c t i v i t y  indication  of p e r c e i v e d  p a t i o n , stage  in family l i f e  and  an  i n f o r m a t i o n on  age,  occu-  level,  and  s e c t i o n i s intended  w i t h those  d e s c r i p t i o n of the r e s p o n d e n t ' s  i s included.  The  h u s b a n d and  similar.  w h e t h e r he  The  v a c a t i o n home s i n c e t h i s may tude toward m o b i l i t y .  The  composition,  affect wife's  given  sep-  sections  f a m i l y has  l o c a t i o n and  use his  section includes  s h o p p i n g h a b i t s , and  a  geographic  w i f e are these  Also  husband's p a r t i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a t i o n  d r i v e s to work, whether the  on h o u s e h o l d  to  comparing h i s  of h i s f a t h e r .  a r a t e demographic s e c t i o n s to complete; very  res-  give  cycle, educational  Part of t h i s  occupation  rigorous  mobility  the  should  t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s s o c i a l m o b i l i t y by  education  by  to  life-style.  section incorporates  husband's s a l a r y .  fairly  participation  sample.  i s intended  perceived  to  Information  This  indicate  activities.  though f a r from e x h a u s t i v e  degree of r o l e  Demographic  task  s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n were f e l t  i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , task p a r t i c i p a t i o n  represent  ex-  church  are on  of a attiquestions going.  50  A p p l i c a t i o n and Use o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The  field  band and w i f e of t h i s to  instrument  i s t o be c o m p l e t e d by t h e h u s -  s e p a r a t e l y b u t a t t h e same t i m e .  i s t o e n s u r e a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e t h a t each i s f r e e  g i v e h i s / h e r own a n s w e r s t o e a c h p a r t  naire without sary  The o b j e c t  overt  of the question-  i n f l u e n c e by t h e o t h e r .  This  i s neces-  so t h a t t h e two s e t s o f a n s w e r s may be compared.  In  t h i s way any d i s c r e p a n c i e s t h a t e x i s t b e t w e e n t h e s p o u s e s in  c e r t a i n perceptions  is  felt  that there  and a t t i t u d e s w i l l  may be c o n s i d e r a b l e  be i n d i c a t e d .  It  d i f f e r e n c e s i n per-  c e p t i o n o f c e r t a i n a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e home now owned, and i n attitudes  toward v a r i o u s  This gators Peter  can  i s contrary  of household behavior, Rossi  (1961). types  opinion  a t t r i b u t e s o f a home.  (1955),  Blood  to that of several  investi-  i n c l u d i n g Donald Wolfe  and W o l f e  (1960),  (1959),  and K o m a r o v s k y  They u s e d o n l y w i v e s as r e s p o n d e n t s i n s i m i l a r  of s t u d i e s .  It i s their  g i v e an u n b i a s e d  structure, l i f e  contention  answer t o i n q u i r i e s  style  and a t t i t u d e s .  t h a t e i t h e r spouse as t o f a m i l y  Y e t , f o r the purposes  of examining p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s situation  i t appears imperative  role  to question  i n a decision separately  each  party to the d e c i s i o n . The  h u s b a n d and w i f e , t h e n , were a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e  the  questionnaire  a t t h e same t i m e b u t w i t h o u t  The  s t r u c t u r e of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i f completed i n t h i s  w o u l d a l l o w s e v e r a l c o m p a r i s o n s t o be made.  collusion.  First,  way,  their  51  perceptions  of. t h e n e c e s s i t y , t o buy a home, o f t h e s e a r c h /  decision process, started could  of. t h e manner i n which, t h e p r o c e s s was  and c o n d u c t e d , and o f t h e p r i c e p a i d  be c o m p a r e d .  Second, t h e i r  a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e home c o u l d their  perceptions  of various  be c o m p a r e d , and so t o o c o u l d  a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a s p e c t s o f homes i n g e n e r a l .  comparisons could perception titude  Third,  be made f o r e a c h r e s p o n d e n t b e t w e e n h i s  o f a s p e c t s o f t h e home now o c c u p i e d and h i s a t -  t o w a r d homes i n g e n e r a l ,  what he w o u l d l i k e . cate  f o r the house,  possible  Finally,  that  i s , what he h a s and  comparisons would a l s o  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p a r t n e r s  indi-  i n education,  s o c i a l m o b i l i t y and g e o g r a p h i c m o b i l i t y , as w e l l as i n p e r ceptions  of family It  naire  r o l e s t r u c t u r e s and f a m i l y  must be e m p h a s i z e d once more t h a t  i s designed p r i m a r i l y t o explore  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n h u s b a n d and w i f e and is The  expectations.  with  i n perception,  attitudes there process.  t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , and c o n likely  and e x p e c t a t i o n s  and i n t e r v e n i n g  life  areas of  conditions  f o r con-  Thus a w i d e r a n g e o f b o t h i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ,  s u c h as p e r c e p t i o n s  ily  question-  i s f u r t h e r designed t o i n d i c a t e v a r i a b l e s  v e r s e l y , v a r i a b l e s which provide  areas,  possible  f o r divergence i n the d e c i s i o n  w h i c h may be a s s o c i a t e d  vergence.  this  style.  I f these d i f f e r e n c e s are present  a possible basis questionnaire  life  relative  to certain  v a r i a b l e s , s u c h as s t a g e i n t h e fam-  c y c l e , have been  included.  A m a j o r s h o r t c o m i n g o f t h e s u r v e y method as o u t l i n e d above i s t h a t  one i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t o f i n t e r a c t i o n , namely  52  the l e v e l o f communication identified.  I d e a l l y , e a c h w o u l d be a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e  questionnaire separately to complete  b e t w e e n t h e p a r t n e r s , c a n n o t be  jointly  and a f t e r w a r d s t h e y w o u l d  a. t h i r d  copy, w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o the  copies completed s e p a r a t e l y .  T h i s t e c h n i q u e might  t o t h e i n t e r v i e w e r what t h e l i k e l y is.  Even s o , i t ' w o u l d  effort required  indicate  p a t t e r n of communication  not ensure a true r e f l e c t i o n  normal p a t t e r n of communication. and  be a s k e d  of the  Also the a d d i t i o n a l  t o a t t e m p t t h i s were n o t f e l t  time  t o be  j ustified. The  Sample.  O n l y f a m i l i e s who had r e c e n t l y  were c o n s i d e r e d as s u i t a b l e r e s p o n d e n t s . limit  homes  An a r b i t r a r y  o f t h r e e months f r o m t h e d a t e o f p u r c h a s e  t h e i n t e r v i e w was s e t .  time  commitment t o  T h i s was t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s e a r c h /  d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s was r e c a l l e d a s a c c u r a t e l y Also  bought  as p o s s i b l e .  i t was i n t e n d e d t o e n s u r e as f a r as p o s s i b l e  that  pro-  l o n g e d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e p r e s e n t home d i d n o t d i s t o r t t h e attitudes,  and e x p e c t a t i o n s w h i c h o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e s e a r c h /  decision process. A further sample  by l i m i t i n g  w i t h a market  economic  c o n s t r a i n t was i m p o s e d  t h e s u r v e y t o t h o s e o c c u p i e r s o f homes  v a l u e o f b e t w e e n $18,000 and $40,000 a t t h e  date of purchase.  T h i s r a t h e r w i d e r a n g e was e x p e c t e d t o  accommodate t h o s e i n t h e m i d d l e s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t was i m p o s e d Vancouver.  on t h e  by l i m i t i n g  D a t a as. t o p u r c h a s e  levels.  A spacial  the survey to the c i t y of  d a t e , market  v a l u e , and l o -  c a t i o n was g a t h e r e d f r o m T e e l a R e p o r t s (1968 ) and from':the  53  records  o f i n t e r e s t e d r e a l e s t a t e d e a l e r s i n t h e Vancouver  area.  The. a d d r e s s e s , o f s u i t a b l e  on  a map o f V a n c o u v e r .  roughly  into  r e s p o n d e n t s were l o c a t e d  These l o c a t i o n s were g r o u p e d  several clusters  corresponding  p o s s i b l e t o what a r e g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d of a r e a s , risdale,  Fraserview  through  as d i f f e r e n t  types  f o r e x a m p l e P o i n t G r e y , D u n b a r , M a r p o l e , and K e r i n t h e w e s t , and H a s t i n g s  intended  as n e a r l y as  i n the east  t o spread these  E a s t , G r a n d v i e w , and  end o f t h e c i t y .  t h e c o n t a c t s as e v e n l y  areas  but d i f f i c u l t i e s  I t was o r i g i n a l l y as p o s s i b l e  i n making  fruitful  c o n t a c t s meant t h a t t h i s had t o be a b a n d o n e d i n f a v o r o f making c o n t a c t s wherever p o s s i b l e . suggestion  encountered  p r o p e r t i e s , purchasers  e r t y rented, t o other other  i s no  t h a t t h e s a m p l e i s i n any way r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  Among t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s vacant  Hence, t h e r e  purposes than  that telephoning  i n making c o n t a c t s  not yet i n occupation,  t e n a n t s , and p r o p e r t y accommodation.  being  were prop-  used f o r  I n i t i a l l y i t was f e l t  p o t e n t i a l respondents might l e a d t o a high  r e f u s a l r a t e , so c o n t a c t s were made on a d o o r t o d o o r b a s i s . However, t h i s cated  earlier,  telephone ber  l e d t o an e x t r e m e l y  t h e r e f o r e s u b s e q u e n t c o n t a c t s were made by  and i n t e r v i e w s a r r a n g e d .  Where no t e l e p h o n e  num-  was a v a i l a b l e f o r a p r o s p e c t i v e r e s p o n d e n t c o n t a c t was  made by v i s i t i n g the  h i g h a b o r t r a t e as i n d i -  area.  t h a t a d d r e s s when t h e i n t e r v i e w e r was i n  5 4  Interviewing. during  a five  through during  during  both  t o door  spouses  terviewing  interview appeared  a t t h e same  time  there  with  and  i f they  and  method.  and  suggestions  that  were  could  that  asked  suggest  These  will  process,  contact  was  to interview the i n -  first  impressions  of speeding  their  chapter. was  f o r which  technique  opinion  i t was  level were  capable  designed.  with  take  asked It  sought.  questionnaire in  the  content  observations  interested  chapter.  and p o s s i b l e  might  both  and  responses.  of the  and o t h e r  S u f f i c e t o say at t h i s technically  this  were  up t h e  any i m p r o v e m e n t s  type  but  The r e s p o n d e n t s  comments, t o g e t h e r  of. t h i s  minutes,  Each  the educational  of the interviewers  of t h i s  made  no s u b s t a n t i a l p r o b l e m  be i n d i c a t e d i n t h e f i n a l  surveys  tionnaire  the  as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e .  had t h e e f f e c t  respondents  future  was  thirty  considerably  o u t t o them  The  limitations  when  conditions  and weekends .  of the respondents.  generally  parties  Weather  generally restricted  c o m p l e t e 'the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  This  of January  the necessity  to evenings that  part  interviews  when a d m i n i s t r a t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  t o vary  was p o i n t e d  ses  Also  these  restricted  stages  l a s t e d approximately  nationality to  1969.  severely  basis.  was f o u n d  encountered  time  conducted  i n the latter  the e a r l i e r  schedule  It  team  of February  much o f t h i s  a door  man  week p e r i o d  the middle  especially on  A three  Also the  d i r e c t i o n s which  will  be d i s c u s s e d i n  stage  of e l i c i t i n g  that  the ques-  those  respon-  CHAPTER 5 Survey  Results  A t o t a l of s i x t y - f i v e adequately used  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were  enough f o r t a b u l a t i o n p u r p o s e s .  to give individual  responses.  These were a l l  However, s e v e r a l o f  b o t h t h e men's and women's q u e s t i o n n a i r e s gave demographic d a t a .  completed  incomplete  I n a d d i t i o n , one o f t h e h u s b a n d ' s  ques-  t i o n n a i r e s h a d no c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i f e ' s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Hence, i n comparing  the responses  total  c o u p l e s were u s e d .  of thirty-two  responses Respondent  were o m i t t e d i n t h e f i n a l  the length of the marriage, family  i n the family  life  . .5 5  i I  tabulation.  1,2,3 and 4 g i v e t h e age d i s t r i b u t i o n  the r e s p o n d e n t s , stage  I n a l l c a s e s , no  Profiles  Tables  and  o f h u s b a n d s and w i v e s , a  cycle.  of a l l size,  56  Table  1 —  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n d e n t s Age . 21-30. . 31-40 years ' years  Wives Husbands Table  2 —  Range  - 4L-5Q year's  . 51-60 years  Over 60 years  15  7  5  3  0  . . .9  11  7  2  1  4-10 years  11-20 years  Over 20 years  10  6  7  Length, o f M a r r i a g e Years Married Less than 1-3 1 years  Number o f families  Table  3 —  2  6  Size of Family Number o f C h i l d r e n  Number o f families  Table  4 —  0  1 or 2  3 or 4  5 or 6  7 o r more  7  13  8  3  0  Stage i n F a m i l y L i f e Age  of Eldest  Less than 1-5 1 year years Number o f families Note  1  6  Cycle Child  5-12 years  12-15 years  10  2  16 y e a r s or over 6  ( t o T a b l e 4) The s e v e n f a m i l i e s w i t h no c h i l d r e n have been o m i t ted from t h i s t a b l e . A l s o , o n l y two f a m i l i e s had c h i l d r e n who had l e f t home: b o t h o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n were o v e r t w e n t y y e a r s o f age.  57  Summary From t h e s e t a b l e s and f r o m T a b l e s . 5. t h r o u g h 17 i n Appendix  B, t h e f o l l o w i n g  p a t t e r n emerges.  i n t e r v i e w e d were m a i n l y f r o m f a m i l i e s in  her late  t w e n t i e s and t h e h u s b a n d  The r e s p o n d e n t s  i n w h i c h t h e w i f e was i n h i s early  thirties.  The  c o u p l e s had m a i n l y been m a r r i e d l e s s t h a n t e n y e a r s .  The  families consisted usually  school age, that family  life  i s , families  cycle.  o f one o r two c h i l d r e n o f i n the middle stages of the  The r e s p o n d e n t s were g e n e r a l l y  middle or upper-middle  socio-economic l e v e l ,  band's o c c u p a t i o n , s a l a r y , and e d u c a t i o n . exhibited very s i m i l a r similar perience  educational levels  f a m i l y backgrounds.  of the  j u d g e d by h u s The p a r t n e r s  and came f r o m  They had a wide  range  of ex-  i n home o c c u p a t i o n b u t were n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y  mobile.  Most o f t h e h u s b a n d s d r o v e t o w o r k , b u t o n l y a b o u t h a l f t h e wives drove t o shops.  About  h a l f t h e w i v e s were b o r n i n  C a n a d a , b u t o v e r h a l f t h e h u s b a n d s were b o r n o u t s i d e  Canada.  Conclusions The  sample  was h e a v i l y b i a s e d t o w a r d s young m a r r i e d  couples i n the middle stages of the f a m i l y from t h e middle socio-economic l e v e l s .  life  c y c l e , and  There were few d i s -  crepancies  i n education l e v e l ,  origins.  Most o f t h e w i v e s d i d n o t have o c c u p a t i o n s o u t -  s i d e t h e home.  f a m i l y background,  and e t h n i c  58  The  House B u y i n g  Summary through  Process  The f o l l o w i n g summary i s d e r i v e d f r o m T a b l e s 23 i n A p p e n d i x B. About f o u r o u t o f s i x r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t  decided  jointly  to start  done s o , p a r t i c i p a t e d slight  t h e s e a r c h , but f o r t h e husband t o Again,  four out o f s i x respondents  t h e r e was a p r e s s i n g r e a s o n  to start  the search.  the r e a s o n s s i t e d , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h r e n t e d and  T h e r e was a  t e n d e n c y f o r t h e w i f e t o be s e e n as t h e i n f l u e n t i a l  t h e main s e a r c h e r .  felt  t h a t t h e y had  l o o k i n g f o r a new home, and h a v i n g  e q u a l l y i n the search.  in the d e c i s i o n t o s t a r t be  18  Of  accommodation,  need f o r more s p a c e were most f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d .  some c a s e s  these  the  no p a r t i c u l a r l y  search  pedite  it,  according  Over h a l f eleven  r e a s o n s may have been a s s o c i a t e d .  and f i f t y  p r e s s i n g reason  t o most o f t h e  seeing  homes d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f m a i n l y  make o f f e r s on o n l y  finally  between one t o t h r e e  as l a s t i n g  The r e s p o n d e n t s seemed p r e p a r e d one, two, o r , a t most, t h r e e  houses seen, a l t h o u g h that they  t o ex-  responses.  the respondents reported  one month.  During  occurred  m o n t h s , t h o u g h one i n t h r e e r e p o r t e d t h e s e a r c h l e s s than  w e l l over  half  In  to  of the  of the respondents  made o f f e r s on o n l y one home, a f t e r  i n g a t i t g e n e r a l l y o n l y once o r t w i c e .  said  look-  Thus i t a p p e a r s  t h a t f o r most o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t h e s e a r c h was f a i r l y i n t e n s i v e , and t h a t d e c i s i o n s were made q u i t e q u i c k l y once t h e desired  home had been  seen.  59  Well bination  over h a l f the respondents reported  o f open "houses, a d v e r t s ,  using  a com-,  d r i v i n g a r o u n d , and r e a l  e s t a t e a g e n t s as s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n  on p r o s p e c t i v e  A b o u t one i n two who u s e d a r e a l  agent p e r c e i v e d him  as t h e most i m p o r t a n t estate  source.  respondents f e l t  they paid roughly  Home I n f o r m a t i o n  dix  what t h e y  B.  Itwill  following  out o f s i x intended  paying  somewhat on t h e h i g h e r  The t a b l e s  a r e condensed from t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  f o r example, Table  five  purchase but  The summary h e r e i s d e r i v e d  T a b l e 30 f f . i n A p p e n d i x B. text  before  Finally,  t h e i r home, t h o u g h g e n e r a l l y  Present  B,  A t t i t u d e s toward the r e a l  a g e n t were g e n e r a l l y f a v o r a b l e  much l e s s so a f t e r p u r c h a s e .  for  estate  homes.  30A i s d e r i v e d  included  from  i n the  t a b l e s i n Appendix  f r o m T a b l e 30 i n Appen-  be n o t e d t h a t e a c h t a b l e i n t h i s  section includes  side.  and t h e  i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s from a l l  r e s p o n d e n t s , and a c o m p a r i s o n o f r e s p o n s e s g i v e n  by e a c h  couple. Location Table  30A —  Perception  City center Work Shops Relatives Theaters, etc. Church Recreational facilities Friends Schools Most t h i n g s  o f l o c a t i o n a l A s p e c t s o f t h e Home  Degree o f Proximity  Proximity Rank  Degree o f Agreement  Agreement Rank  31.0 19.3 26.0 14.3 . 21.3 .24.0  3 9 4 10 7 5  13.7 9.7 11.3 15.3 13.7 13.0  5 10 8 3 5 7  '23.0 21.0 33.3 35.7  6 8 2 1  11.3 15.3 17.0 18.3  8 3 2 1  60  Note:  "Degree o f P r o x i m i t y " i s a w e i g h t e d a v e r a g e s c o r e b a a e d on th.e r e s p o n s e s on Table. 30 o f A p p e n d i x B. W e i g h t s o f t w o , o n e , and z e r o were a p p l i e d r e s p e c t i v e l y , t o "Very a p p r o p r i a t e " , " F a i r l y appropr i a t e " and "Not a t a l l a p p r o p r i a t e " r e s p o n s e s i n that table. The t o t a l f o r e a c h l i n e was d i v i d e d by t h r e e t o g i v e "Degree o f P r o x i m i t y " i n T a b l e 30A. T h u s , t h e maximum p o s s i b l e s c o r e was 4 3 . 3 . S i m i l a r l y , w e i g h t s o f t w o , o n e , and z e r o were a p p l i e d r e s p e c t i v e l y t o "Agreement", " P a r t i a l Agreement" and " D i s a g r e e m e n t " i n T a b l e 30. The t o t a l f o r e a c h l i n e was d i v i d e d by t h r e e t o g i v e "Degree f o A g r e e m e n t " i n T a b l e 30A. The maximum s c o r e h e r e was-21.3 From T a b l e  by  both partners  did.  30A i t a p p e a r s t h a t most homes were  as b e i n g  very  close  I t appeared p a r t i c u l a r l y  to both.  T h e r e was r e l a t i v e l y  home was f a i r l y  close  to city  on  the perception  tional  of distance  facilities.  located relative  close  ed  did .  centered  f r o m w o r k , shops and r e c r e a -  t o shops t h a n t o work.  shopping, i n d i v i d u a l  t h e home was v e r y  leisure  leisure  judging  I n d e e d , a l l homes  The home seemed  joint  i n that order.  a suitable pattern,  that  and c h u r c h , b u t n o t  O v e r a l l , t h e home seemed much b e t t e r  best f o r c h i l d r e n ' s schools,  work a c t i v i t i e s ,  according  Most d i s a g r e e m e n t  seem f u r t h e s t f r o m t h e work p l a c e .  wife's  to schools,  they  c l o s e agreement t h a t t h e  center  close to friends or r e l a t i v e s .  t o most t h i n g s  seen  located  activities,  activities,  and h u s b a n d ' s  O v e r a l l , t h i s was  consider-  by t h e d e g r e e o f a g r e e m e n t  c o n v e n i e n t f o r most o f t h e t h i n g s  they  61  Space T a b l e 31A —  P e r c e p t i o n of. t h e .Adequacy of. t h e A l l o c a t i o n " o f Space  D i n i n g room L i v i n g space Storage space Garage space M a s t e r bedroom O t h e r bedrooms Kitchen Bathroom f a c i l ities Garden Hobbies Entertainment P a t i o or porch Children's activ ities Space i n g e n e r a l  -  W i t h i n the.  Home .  Degree o f * Adequacy  Adequacy Rank  32.7 37.7 24.3 27.0 3 5.3 32.7 36 . 0  7 1 13 12 4 7 2  15 . 0 18 . 3 14 . 0 15.7 15 . 7 17 . 3 17 . 3  11 1 13 8 8 2 2  30.3 '3 3'. 3 29.0 34 . 3 21.7  10 6 11 5 14  16 15 13 14 16  .7 .7 .7 .3 .3  5 8 14 12 7  31. 3 36 . 0  9 2  16 . 7 17 . 3  5 2  Degree o f Agreement  A g r e erne Rank  " " D e g r e e o f a d e q u a c y " was c a l c u l a t e d i n t h e same way as'' "Degree o f p r o x i m i t y " i n T a b l e 30A. Agreement this  section."''  i n p e r c e p t i o n was v e r y h i g h t h r o u g h o u t Space i n g e n e r a l was  q u a t e by most f a m i l i e s . s p a c e , m a s t e r bedroom,  considered very  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  living  space, kitchen  entertainment space, garden, dining  room, and o t h e r bedrooms  were c o n s i d e r e d v e r y  satisfactory.  Hobby s p a c e , g a r a g e s p a c e , and s t o r a g e s p a c e were relatively  less  satisfaction  ade-  considered  s a t i s f a c t o r y , w i t h , perhaps a l s o r e l a t i v e  w i t h bathroom f a c i l i t i e s  dis-  and s p a c e f o r c h i l d r e n ' s  activities.  S i n c e t h e h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e degree o f agreement i s 21.3, a l l o w i n g f o r s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s i n p e r c e p t i o n a degree o f a g r e e m e n t o f 14.0 o r o v e r i s c o n s i d e r e d h i g h a g r e e m e n t i n p e r c e p t i o n between the p a r t n e r s . B e l o w 10.0 i s l o w agreement .  62  Neighborhood T a b l e 32A  —  P e r c e p t i o n o f A s p e c t s of. t h e Degree o f Approp— Approp— riateness r lateness Rank  Attractive H i g h Income Friendly S i m i l a r people Enjoyable  34.7 20.3 19.3 22.7 28.7  Neighborhood  Degree o f Agreement  1 4 5 3 2  Agreement Rank  18.0 15.7 15.7 14.0 14.3  1 2 2 5 4  Agreement i n p e r c e p t i o n o f a s p e c t s o f t h e n e i g h b o r hood  was  also very high.  considered a t t r a c t i v e  The  n e i g h b o r h o o d seems t o have been  and e n j o y a b l e .  T h e r e was  less  assur-  a n c e , as w o u l d be e x p e c t e d f r o m a m a i n l y m i d d l e income that they l i v e d  i n a h i g h income  area.  t o o , a b o u t t h e t y p e o f p e o p l e who  lived  a b l e , the neighborhood r a t e d f a i r l y  T h e r e was there.  p o o r l y on  group,  some d o u b t ,  Most  notice-  friendliness.  Efficiency Table  33A  -- P e r c e p t i o n o f t h e F u n c t i o n a l A s p e c t s o f t h e Home Degree o f Appropriateness  Adequately equipped k i t c h e n E a s y t o keep house clean A d e q u a t e h e a t i n g etc. E x t e r i o r easy t o maintain I n t e r i o r easy t o keep c l e a n Garden easy t o maintain E a s i l y r u n home .  Appropriateness Rank  Degree o f Agreement  Agreement Rank  30 . 7  4  19 . 3  1  31. 0 3 4.0  3 2  16 . 7 18.7  3 2  24 . 3  7  15 . 3  5  28 . 7  5  15 . 7  4  25 . Q 35 . 0  6 1  13 . 3 13 . 3  6 '6  .6 3  A g r e e m e n t i n p e r c e p t i o n was f a i r l y this  s e c t i o n , except  t h e home.  high  throughout  i n p e r c e p t i o n of. t h e e a s e o f r u n n i n g o f  Closer i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e s u l t s  w i v e s d i d n o t t h i n k i t i s so e a s i l y o v e r a l l t h e home seemed v e r y  shows t h a t  r u n as h u s b a n d s d i d , b u t  easy t o r u n .  Both  partners  a g r e e d t h a t t h e home was e a s y t o keep c l e a n a n d heated was  and v e n t i l a t e d .  fairly  adequately  adequately  They a g r e e d a l s o t h a t t h e k i t c h e n e q u i p p e d , t h o u g h t h e r e was more d o u b t  as t o w h e t h e r t h e e x t e r i o r was e a s y t o m a i n t a i n , t h e g a r d e n was  easy t o m a i n t a i n ,  and t h e i n t e r i o r was e a s y t o keep c l e a n .  Aesthetics Table  34A —  Perception of A e s t h e t i c a l Features Degree o f A p p r o p Approp- r i a t e n e s s ria'teness Rank  A t t r a c t i v e design Pleasant i n t e r i o r B r i g h t appearance Pleasant surround ings R e a l l y s u i t s our tastes  o f t h e Home  Degree o f Agreement  Agreement Rank  28.7 32.3 29.0  5 2 4  17.3 17.7 17.3  4 1 4  .3 3.0  1  17.7  1  30.7  3  17.7  1  Here a g a i n , a g r e e m e n t i n p e r c e p t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p a r t ners  was v e r y h i g h , and t h e home was r a t e d h i g h l y on most o f  the a e s t h e t i c f e a t u r e s  mentioned.  64  Investment Table. 35A —  P e r c e p t i o n of Investment Aspects Degree o f Approp— riateness  Good c o n d i t i o n when bought Owning t h i s home i s a v e r y good i n vestment We p a i d w e l l w i t h i n o u r income f o r t h i s home Again  o f Home  Approp— riateness Rank  Degree o f Agreement  27.3 .  2  18.0  1  32.0  1  16.0  2  26.0  3  16.0  2  t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e a g r e e m e n t  in this- section.  Buying  Although, both  home as a good i n v e s t m e n t ,  considered  i n perception  owning  t h e r e was much l e s s  Agreement Rank  their  assurance  about t h e c o s t o f f i n a n c i n g . Family Table  Living 36A - - P e r c e p t i o n o f V a r i o u s A s p e c t s Degree o f Approp-' Approp- r i a t e n e s s riateness Rank  Good home f o r r a i s ing a family Very r e l a x i n g Adequate f o r a l l p a r e n t s ' needs Agreement very  suitable  However,  of Family  Degree o f Agreement  Living  Agreement Rank  33.7 35.3  2 1  17.7 16.3  1 2  28.3  3  13.0  3  was v e r y h i g h t h a t t h e home was c o n s i d e r e d  for raising  a f a m i l y , and a l s o v e r y  t h e r e was a r e l a t i v e l y  relaxing.  l a r g e amount o f d i s a g r e e m e n t  as t o w h e t h e r i t was a d e q u a t e f o r a l l p a r e n t s '  needs.  65  Summary o f D a t a on P r e s e n t Th_e  areas  Home  Information  of greatest difference i n perception  were  l o c a t i o n a s p e c t s , f u n c t i o n a l a s p e c t s , and a d e q u a c y f o r p a r ents' needs.  S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e home was r e p o r t e d l y  located relative ities,  t o t h e c i t y c e n t e r and t o s h o p s .  also expressed the  t o h u s b a n d ' s w o r k , and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l -  w i t h some d i s a g r e e m e n t a l s o on t h e home's  relative  badly  over  location  D i s a g r e e m e n t was  t h e e a s e w i t h w h i c h t h e home was r u n and  ease o f m a i n t a i n i n g  the garden.  Individual Orientation Location Table  37A —  A t t i t u d e s Towards t h e L o c a t i o n o f a Home Degree o f Importance  Closeness t o c i t y centre C l o s e n e s s t o work C l o s e n e s s t o shops Closeness t o r e l atives Closeness t o theaters,e t c . Closeness t o church Closeness t o r e c reational f a c i l ities Closeness t o friends Closeness t o s chooIs Location i n general It  16 . 7 31.7 28 . 7 12 . 3  8 3 5 10  Degree o f Agreement  Agreement Rank  15 . 7 14 . 0 14 . 0  3 5 5  15 . 0  4  13.0 23.0  9 6  13.7 12 . 7  7 9  31.7  3  13 . 7  7  19 . 0  7  10 . 7  33.7 3 8.'. 3  2 1  18 . 3 17 . 0  i s a t once v e r y  agreement i n a t t i t u d e  Importance Rank  evident  10 1 2  t h a t t h e r e was much  less  t o w a r d s t h e l o c a t i o n o f a home t h a n i n  perception of i t s location.  T h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e  disagree-  66  merit b e t w e e n t h e p a r t n e r s a b o u t w h e t h e r t h e home s h o u l d be c l o s e t o f r i e n d s , t o c h u r c h , , t o r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , and to  t h e a t e r s and r e s t a u r a n t s .  strongly that the l o c a t i o n specifically  However, t h e y  o f a home i s v e r y  t h a t i t s h o u l d be v e r y  ever, both put a low p r i o r i t y closeness  to city  center.  were much more d o u b t f u l b o t h  d i d agree i m p o r t a n t , and  close to schools.  How-  on c l o s e n e s s t o r e l a t i v e s and  A l l other aspects i n attitudes  of l o c a t i o n  and d e g r e e o f  agreement i n a t t i t u d e s . N e i g h b o r h o o d , A e s t h e t i c s , and I n v e s t m e n t Table  38A —  A t t i t u d e s Towards N e i g h b o r h o o d , A e s t h e t i c s and I n v e s t m e n t  Ne i g h b o r h o o d Attractiveness H i g h income Friendliness P e o p l e l i k e us  Degree o f Importance  Imp o r t a n c e Rank  Degree o f Agreement  Agreement Rank  32.0 10 . 0 23.3 25.7  "1 4 3 2  15 . 3 14 . 0 13 . 0 13 . 0  1 2 3 3  29 . 7 37.3  3 2  16 . 0 18 . 0  4 1  37 . 7 23.0  1 4  17 . 3 16 . 7  2 3  .3  15 . 7  2  1  16.. 3  1  2  13 . 3  3  Aesthetics A t t r a c t i v e design B r i g h t and a i r y Pleasant surroundings Good v i e w Investment S h o u l d be i n good c o n d i t i o n when 28 . 7 bought Owning a home i s a good i n v e s t m e n t . 3 5.0 Financing costs s h o u l d be l o w 3.1.'. 3  67  There attitude family  was c l e a r l y  a great deal o f disagreement i n  concerning, the type of neighborhood  should l i v e .  ment c o n c e r n e d  .Otherwise, t h e o n l y area o f d i s a g r e e -  the cost of f i n a n c i n g .  There  a g r e e m e n t t h a t t h e home s h o u l d be b r i g h t pleasant tial.  i n which the  was s t r o n g  and a i r y , i n  s u r r o u n d i n g s , b u t t h a t a good v i e w was n o t e s s e n An a t t r a c t i v e  so an a t t r a c t i v e l y  neighborhood  d e s i g n e d home.  seemed i m p o r t a n t , b u t n o t Both agreed  that  owning  a home was a good i n v e s t m e n t b u t t h a t t h e house need n o t be in  good c o n d i t i o n when  F a m i l y and Home Table  39A —  bought.  Living  A t t i t u d e s Towards V a r i o u s P u r p o s e s t i o n s o f t h e Home  Strength of Agreement Raising a family A place to relax Privacy E n t e r t a i n i n g one's friends Reflection of personality Symbol o f s u c c e s s Displaying possessions Base f o r e x t e r n a l leisure pursuits Note:  Rank  and F u n c -  Degree o f Agreement between Agreement Rank Partners  38.0 41. 0 38.0  2 1 3  16 . 7 19 . 7 16 . 7  4 1 4  36.7  4  17 . 7  3  34.0 16 . 7 13.3.  5 8 7  18 . 7 13 . 3 14 . 0  2 8 6  18.0 •  6  14 . 0  6  " S t r e n g t h o f a g r e e m e n t " above r e f e r s t o t h e w e i g h t e d a v e r a g e o f i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e s , as i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 39 . The most n o t i c e a b l e f e a t u r e o f t h i s  extremely high importance statement  section  i s the  a t t a c h e d by b o t h p a r t n e r s t o t h e  "Home i s a p l a c e i n w h i c h  one c a n r e l a x " .  68  However, i t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t i c e d  that  the previous  state-  ment, "The most i m p o r t a n t p u r p o s e o f a home i s t o p r o v i d e good e n v i r o n m e n t f o r r a i s i n g a f a m i l y " , strongly  yet . s t i l l  both partners.  received  Both a l s o  s h o u l d have p r i v a c y , one's f r i e n d s .  i s w o r d e d much more  extremely strong strongly  agreed s t r o n g l y  s e n s i t i v e t o t h e home's p o s s i b i l i t i e s  s u c c e s s , as a p l a c e seek e x t e r n a l  to display possessions,  t h e home  to entertain  that  t o some e x t e n t r e f l e c t e d t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y . very  s u p p o r t by  agreed that  and be a s u i t a b l e p l a c e  They a l s o  t h e i r home  Neither  was  as a s y m b o l o f o r as a b a s e t o  leisure pursuits.  Space T a b l e 40 — Order o f choice 1 2 3 M5 Note:  A l l o c a t i o n o f I n t e r n a l and E x t e r n a l H y p o t h e t i c a l Home Inside  space  R e c r e a t i o n o r f a m i l y room Den o r h o b b i e s room S e p a r a t e d i n i n g room G u e s t bedroom A d d i t i o n a l garage space  a  Space i n a  Outside space Rear g a r d e n Patio Front garden Swimming p o o l —  A l t h o u g h no d e g r e e o f a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n p a r t n e r s i n t h e i r ranking i s given here, scanning the completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s shows a v e r y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tween t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l r a n k i n g s , i n b o t h t h i s a n d the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n .  69  Facilities T a b l e 41 — O r d e r o f R a n k i n g o f A d d i t i o n a l F a c i l i t i e s t o P r e s e n t Home Order o f choice 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8  Bathroom equipment K i t c h e n equipment Home d e c o r a t i n g e q u i p m e n t Home e n t e r t a i n m e n t f a c i l i t i e s A i r c o n d i t i o n i n g and h e a t i n g e q u i p m e n t G a r d e n i n g equipment o r garden f u r n i t u r e Hobby e q u i p m e n t Games room e q u i p m e n t It appears that  space, both i n s i d e  and o u t s i d e t h e  home, was c h o s e n m a i n l y on t h e b a s i s o f i m p r o v i n g the> q u a l ity  of family  ies  a p p e a r t o have been c h o s e n t o i m p r o v e t h e f u n c t i o n a l  efficiency  living  i n greater privacy.  However,  o f t h e home b e f o r e i m p r o v i n g f a m i l y  facilit-  living.  One  a p p a r e n t i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s t h e c h o o s i n g o f a den o r h o b b i e s room, u s u a l l y  associated with  individual activities,  a s e p a r a t e d i n i n g room, w h i c h i s more s u i t a b l e activities.  for joint  Y e t , a d d i t i o n a l home e n t e r t a i n m e n t  r a n k e d above hobby  equipment.  before  facilities  One must assume t h a t t h e  s p a c e c h o i c e was made w i t h a den r a t h e r t h a n a h o b b i e s room i n mind.  In t h i s  c a s e t h e r e must have been  awareness o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r i v a c y  considerable  s u c h a room w o u l d  offer,  p a r t i c u l a r l y , p e r h a p s , t o t h e husband. I t w o u l d a p p e a r , a l s o , t h a t C a n a d i a n home  owners  have n o t y e t a c c e p t e d s e p a r a t e d i n i n g rooms and swimming p o o l s i n t h e same way t h a t t h e i r border.  counterparts south of the  70  Summary It  seems t h a t f o r t h i s s a m p l e t h e main p u r p o s e o f  t h e home was t o p r o v i d e a p l a c e t o r e l a x and r a i s e w i t h as l i t t l e home i t s e l f  i n t e r f e r e n c e as p o s s i b l e f r o m o u t s i d e .  h a d t o be b r i g h t and a i r y ,  ings close to schools. very e f f i c i e n t . ficient  i n pleasant  Furthermore,  i t was e x p e c t e d  surround-  tween t h e p a r t n e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  t o have s u f -  and f o r e n t e r t a i n i n g  T h e r e were p o s s i b l e d i v e r g e n c e s  of t h e l o c a t i o n  The  I t w a s - e x p e c t e d t o be f u n c t i o n a l l y  space f o r f a m i l y a c t i v i t i e s  friends.  a family  concerning  i n a t t i t u d e becertain  o f t h e home, t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d ,  aspects  the symbolic  f u n c t i o n o f t h e homef and t h e c o s t s o f f i n a n c i n g . Family Table  Activities 42 — Amount o f Task  Segregation  Husband W i f e Husband Wife only only mainly mainly Major expenditures Family budgeting Holiday decisions Children's education Home d e c o r a t i n g Gardening Household tasks Evenings out Savings Cheque book  9 18 5 1 2 4 0 2 6 11  -  T h e r e was a c e r t a i n denced i n t h e r e s p o n s e s  1 2 0 2 4 4 22 1 1 2  14 11 10 1 4 21 1 8 12 24  amount o f r o l e  to this  series  i n g t h e cheque b o o k , f a m i l y b u d g e t i n g , lesser extent inated  family savings  activities.  1 7 2 6 22 11 31 6 14 6  Both equally 38 26 47 45 32 23 11 45 29 21  segregation  of questions. gardening,  eviKeep-  and t o a  seem t o have been h u s b a n d dom-  H o u s e h o l d t a s k s and t o a l e s s e r  extent  71  home d e c o r a t i n g were r e p o r t e d l y w i f e d o m i n a t e d . concerning ies  children, family activities  were m a i n l y  joint This along  Major expenditures  indicates a certain  i n s t r u m e n t a l and e x p r e s s i v e  43 —  lines  Amount o f L e i s u r e A c t i v i t y i t i e s Undertaken  friends, visiting  t o m o v i e s was c l e a r l y  Participation  Activ-  least  Alone  Together  Never  2 . 29 2 15 19 19 12 3 1 6 2 33 10 1  52 22 50 12 24 39 46 57 61 32 57 2 18 58  7 9 5 34 18 4 4 2 3 24 2 26 32 3  i n holiday going, e n t e r t a i n i n g  evidenced  were m a i n l y  Community a c t i v i t i e s  involving  life  segregation i n the  of a l l , e i t h e r  d i n i n g o u t and  i n the sample.  and c l u b a c t i v i t i e s alone  or together.  were  styles.  i f at  under-  Hence,  there  in activities  t h e s p o u s e and c h i l d r e n , t h e r e f o r e a c l o s e  one w o u l d s u s p e c t ,  Hob-  undertaken alone,  seems t o have been c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n  tity,  mainly  as s u g g e s t e d  f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s ,  b i e s and e x t r a e d u c a t i o n  taken  activit-  framework.  Joint participation  all.  were  amount o f t a s k and r o l e  Dining out Hobb i e s Movies Community a c t i v i t i e s Sports Shopping Tele-viewing Visiting relatives Holidays Church going Visiting friends Extra education . Club a c t i v i t i e s Entertaining  going  and l e i s u r e  w i t h a t e n d e n c y f o r t h e h u s b a n d t o make t h e d e c i s i o n s .  conceptual Table  joint.  Decisions  iden-  b e t w e e n t h e h u s b a n d ' s and w i f e ' s  72  G e n e r a l Summary,arid C o n c l u s i o n s It istered  s h o u l d he remembered t h a t , t h i s  t o r e s p o n d e n t s who  outcome.  own  home and  T h i s was  in their  i n both t h e i r attitudes  admin-  reached a d e c i s i o n  have been f a i r l y  b e t w e e n h u s b a n d s and w i v e s  eral.  actually  In such c i r c u m s t a n c e s i t might  p e c t e d t h a t t h e r e would  their  had  s u r v e y was  have b e e n s u s close  agreement  p e r c e p t i o n s of  towards  homes i n gen-  i n d e e d v e r i f i e d by t h e r e s u l t s  of the  sur-  vey . Among t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h p e r h a p s  l e d to t h i s  agree-  ment were t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e p a r t n e r s i n e d u c a tional life  l e v e l , socio-economic background,  style.  With r e f e r e n c e to the l a t t e r , both p a r t n e r s  seemed t o a g r e e needs o f t h e i r  that t h e i r  posed  life  s h o u l d be a d a p t e d  activities.  They b o t h  t o a c c e p t the type of l i f e  Thus, a p a r t from h o l i d a y s , t h e i r c e n t e r e d on v i s i t i n g and  appeared  f a m i l y needs  im-  environment.  neighbors or t h e i r  friends  or  relatives.  main e x t e r n a l a c t i v i t i e s  entertaining  I n s i d e t h e home, t h e y b o t h a c t i v e l y  from  which  pursued  upon them, n a m e l y , l i v i n g o u t s i d e t h e c i t y c e n t e r ,  near s c h o o l s , but not c l o s e to t h e i r  their  to the  f a m i l y , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e t h e y  a l a r g e number o f j o i n t generally  and p e r c e p t i o n o f  f r i e n d s and  attempted  relatives.  improvements to  They were n o t v e r y i n t e r e s t e d a c t i v i t i e s , and  indeed p r e f e r r e d  in their privacy  them. At the'same t i m e t h e s e f a m i l y needs i m p o s e d  a  certain  73  amount o f r o l e  segregation.  The  w i f e was  home—keeping r o l e s while, the husband roles.  had  Support for. the w i f e ' s r o l e s  an e f f i c i e n t  and  allotted  the  t h e money—making  e n s u r e d t h a t she  convenient environment.  The  had  husband  was  aware o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t h e home o f f e r e d him t o p r o v e h i s w o r t h as a p r o v i d e r .  Thus he was  willing  t o make t h e home  even more f u n c t i o n a l , more c o n v e n i e n t f o r h i s f a m i l y , and more p l e a s a n t e n v i r o n m e n t . insisted  The w i f e a c c e p t e d , o r  on, the f u n c t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y  of her  w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e b e i n g aware o f h e r own and h e r h u s b a n d ' s  respect. w i f e and and  perhaps He  ences  individual  the  t o some e x t e n t n e g l e c t e d i n a t l e a s t  almost i n v a r i a b l y  Moreover,  one  of o p i n i o n regarding  i n t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d , and perhaps  environment,  apparent agreement,  hus-  one  d r o v e t o work w h i l e h i s  c h i l d r e n a r e more c o n v e n i e n t l y  schools.  perhaps  needs.  Y e t , even w i t h a l l t h i s band was  a  located  f o r shops  o r o t h e r p a r t n e r had  financing  differ-  c o s t s , the type of people  s e v e r a l aspects of l o c a t i o n ,  and  o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e home. T h u s , even u n d e r  these g e n e r a l l y  suitable  conditions  f o r a s u c c e s s f u l d e c i s i o n o u t c o m e , t h e r e were a s p e c t s o f t h e home a b o u t w h i c h - t h e r e was n e r s , sometimes f a i r l y cess of the f i n a l  disagreement between the  considerable  outcome a p p e a r s  disagreement.  partThe  suc-  t o have stemmed f r o m a  r e c o g n i t i o n and a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e needs o f c h i l d r e n , o f t h e w i f e ' s r o l e as s a t i s f i e r  of these needs,  life  needs.  best suited  to such  and o f t h e t y p e o f  CHAPTER 6 General Conclusions, The  field  in providing process. be  and E x t e n s i o n s  instrument proved reasonably  useful  successful  i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e house b u y i n g  decision  The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d a r e a s i n w h i c h t h e r e  differences  that  is,in  terms of the c o n c e p t u a l framework, areas o f p o s s i b l e  diver-  gence.  which  They a l s o  may be a t t a c h e d outcome. tions  of opinion  between t h e p a r t n e r s ,  may  showed t o some e x t e n t t h e w e i g h t s  to various  decision  They i n d i c a t e d , t o o , t h a t  o f t h e h u s b a n d and w i f e  sacrificed  i n reaching  this  areas i n the d e c i s i o n some o f t h e e x p e c t a -  individually  decision  may have t o be  o u t c o m e , and s u g g e s t -  ed what t h e s e may be f o r t h e s a m p l e . The  c o n c e p t u a l framework i n Chapter  2 seemed  suc-  cessful  i n i n d i c a t i n g the determinants of the i n t e r a c t i o n  pattern  for. t h i s h e a v i l y  the as  family  life  cycle  biased  C l e a r l y , stage i n  i s an i m p o r t a n t i n t e r v e n i n g  s u g g e s t e d i n C h a p t e r 4.  small  sample.  However, t h e s a m p l e was t o o  t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n  of other i n t e r v e n i n g patterns  variable  variables.  pattern  Thus many o f t h e s u g g e s t e d  i n d i c a t e d i n C h a p t e r 3 c a n n o t be v a l i d a t e d .  were, f o r example, i n s u f f i c i e n t 74  There  respondents i n the e a r l i e r  7 5  or  later  s t a g e s of. t h e f a m i l y  life  cycle, to i n d i c a t e , the  p a t t e r n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h these stages.  The  same  limita-  t i o n a p p l i e s to p r e d i c t i n g , the l i k e l y  effects  variables  income l e v e l s ,  mobility and in  s u c h as e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s , and  geographic m o b i l i t y .  Moreover,  w i f e were i n g e n e r a l s u f f i c i e n t l y s u c h t h i n g s as p e r c e p t i o n o f l i f e  level,  and  f a m i l y background,  of o t h e r social  the husband  similar  t o each  other  style, educational  to i n d i c a t e the l i k e l y  f e c t s on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n o f d i s p a r i t i e s  ef-  between  them. All, from and  attitudes,  life  economic l e v e l s .  to  few  disparities,  isfactory  decision  As was  have r e a c h e d  i n both p e r c e p t i o n s  appears  to the middle  life  suitable  stages  socio-  contribute  style.  Such a  to a m u t u a l l y  sat-  outcome. i n Chapter  attitude  do e x i s t  a d e c i s i o n outcome.  5,  areas of divergence  even f o r c o u p l e s It i s possible  when a r e a s o f d i v e r g e n c e become s u f f i c i e n t l y d e c i s i o n outcome w i l l  be r e a c h e d .  i n v e s t i g a t i o n might  who  t h a t when  d i v e r g e n c e i n such, a r e a s becomes i n t e n s e e n o u g h , o r  area of f u t u r e  and  are i n the middle  t o the r e s o u r c e s they  share a s i m i l a r  suggested  p e r c e p t i o n and  concluded  Such c o u p l e s e x h i b i t a c e r t a i n amount o f  segregation related  the f a m i l y , but  can be  t o be h i g h b e t w e e n h u s b a n d s  c y c l e , and b e l o n g  combination of f a c t o r s  in  convergence,  is likely  display  the f a m i l y  role  that j u s t i f i a b l y  the survey i s t h a t  w i v e s who of  in fact,  perhaps  numerous,  H e n c e , one  no  worthwhile  be a c o m p a r i s o n  between  76  b u y e r s and non—buyers,, t o d e t e r m i n e whether, t h e r e a r e 'any distinctive  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h the. two  groups.  A n o t h e r u s e f u l a p p r o a c h / w o u l d be t o i n v e s t i g a t e b e h a v i o r o f a sample  of people a c t u a l l y  buying decision process.  Such  engaged i n t h e house  an i n v e s t i g a t i o n w o u l d  e x p e c t e d t o use  the l o n g i t u d i n a l approach.  buyers would  c o n t a c t e d a t an e a r l y  be  stage of the s e a r c h / on t h e i r  o v e r some p e r i o d o f t i m e .  o u t s e t , t h e c o n c e p t u a l scheme c o u l d be u s e d t o the l i k e l y sible  The  havior.^  i t s pos-  i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e most  t o f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n house b u y i n g  be-  N e v e r t h e l e s s , c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d i e s of the  p r e s e n t t y p e c o u l d have t h e i r aspects of such b e h a v i o r . view v i s i t o r s  judgements  uses  One  t o an open h o u s e .  t h e house i t s e l f ,  t h i s way,  At the  outcome.  l o n g i t u d i n a l approach  worthwhile d i r e c t i o n  per-  establish  p a t t e r n o f c o n v e r g e n c e / d i v e r g e n c e and  e f f e c t s on t h e d e c i s i o n  be  Prospective  d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s and be q u e s t i o n e d r e g u l a r l y c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s  the  i n studying  particular  a p p r o a c h m i g h t be t o I n t h i s way  c o u l d be k e p t c o n s t a n t and  one  inter-  factor,  objective  as t o i t s v a r i o u s a s p e c t s c o u l d be g i v e n . differences  the husband  and w i f e  In  i n p e r c e p t i o n of the house between c o u l d be  j u d g e d more  sensitively.  A n o t h e r a p p r o a c h w h i c h c o u l d p r o v e u s e f u l w o u l d be i n t e r v i e w r e a l e s t a t e salesmen  to determine whether  to they  ^"Granbois and E n g e l (1965 ) g i v e c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t t o t h i s v i e w , and o u t l i n e t h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l approach.  77  have o b s e r v e d  any  particular, d e c i s i o n patterns being  iated with certain  decision  outcomes.  Meanwhile, i t i s fe.lt t h a t the present be  usefully  extended  study  3.  of the  I f such  intervening variables  suggested  an e x t e n s i o n i s a n t i c i p a t e d  t h e s e c t i o n on House B u y i n g  problems i n response home b u y i n g p l a y e d by  concerned  Chapter  the f o l l o w i n g  worded s l i g h t l y  the urgency  e s t a t e agent.  differently.  w o u l d be b e t t e r w o r d e d : - "On  In each case  be  how  c o u l d be  by  you  asking  Home I n f o r m a t i o n i t s h o u l d  not  to s t a t e t h i s  i n f a c t have done s o .  able that s e v e r a l respondents, l e v e l and  t h o s e who  applicable"  used wherever d e s i r e d .  i n t e r v i e w e r s were i n s t r u c t e d  difficulty  5  directly.  (N.A.) r e s p o n s e s  tional  being  the i n t e r v i e w e r  responses  on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t "Not  d e n t s , b u t may  part  ques-  a n s w e r s by  Alternatively,  t h e s e c t i o n on P r e s e n t  specified  the  the  main  the  many o t h e r homes were  more a c c u r a t e o r s p e c i f i c  questions In  i m p o s e d on  For example, Question  t o make an o f f e r ? "  c o u l d ensure these  presented.  p r o c e s s , t h e o f f e r s made on homes, and  the r e a l  sug-  I n f o r m a t i o n , the  t i o n s c o u l d have p r o v i d e d more m e a n i n g f u l  prepared  the  in  g e s t i o n s f o r improvement of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e are In  could  to i n c r e a s e the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s of  t h e s a m p l e i n o r d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e more t h o r o u g h l y effects  assoc-  mainly  The  to a l l responI t was  those  notice-  of lower  educa-  a r e n o n - C a n a d i a n s by b i r t h ,  i n h a n d l i n g the semantics  of t h i s  section.  had Thus,  78  the  questionnaire  successful.with  as  i t i s presently  w o r d e d m i g h t not  a l a r g e r sample w k i c h i n c l u d e s  more  C a n a d i a n s : a n d r e s p o n d e n t s o f l o w e r income g r o u p s . are  both very  Important parts  of the  Vancouver  be  so  new These  housing  market. The  r e s p o n s e r a t e to the  Individual Orientation  t i o n was' e x t r e m e l y g o o d , p e r h a p s b e c a u s e t h e much more e a s i l y  handled.  the  on  sub-sections  s e m a n t i c s were  However, i t s h o u l d  Space and  Facilities  i s r e q u e s t e d t o number a l l t h e  that  boxes w i t h  sec-  be the  stated  in  respondent  h i s order  of  choice. In t h e  Demographic I n f o r m a t i o n  mobility patterns sponse r a t e . cerning  the  towns a r e tries  do  before  and  T h e r e may, words " c i t i e s "  p r o b a b l y not not  f o r e x a m p l e , be and  be  the  ing  t o ask  or s t a t e s .  As  indicated earlier,  one  part  in this  atre-  improvement would preference  i t s nature should  be  of the  for  stay-  decision  s u r v e y was  wife.  i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t of the of  some c o u n -  periodically.  c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n h u s b a n d and  indication  recon-  o f m o b i l i t y i n d e x must be  wife., a l s o t o i n d i c a t e h e r  cess which•was n o t . i n d i c a t e d  a very  and  Hence, t h i s  One  on  or s t a t e s " :  cities,  unsuccessful.  i n Vancouver or moving  difficulties  "provinces  r e g a r d e d as  t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h some k i n d relatively  part  a f t e r m a r r i a g e drew a p o o r  have p r o v i n c e s ,  g a r d e d as  s e c t i o n , the  Since  the  level  t h i s may  decision pattern, sought.  One  proof be  some  possible  79  method o f doing, t h i s w o u l d he. t o a d m i n i s t e r , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e p a r a t e l y t o t h e h u s b a n d and w i f e , and t h e n have, them comp l e t e a combined v e r s i o n .  Comparison o f the i n d i v i d u a l  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and t h e j o i n t sights  one m i g h t p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n -  i n t o t h e e f f e c t s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n on t h e d e c i s i o n  cess.  The main p r o b l e m  w i t h such  t i m e " r e q u i r e d " t o "complete why t h e p r e s e n t  survey  such  an a p p r o a c h  pro-  w o u l d be t h e  a l e n g t h y i n t e r v i e w , which i s  d i d not attempt i t .  Summary T h i s h a s b e e n an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y  to investigate  i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n h u s b a n d and w i f e i n t h e d e c i s i o n leading  t o the purchase  o f a home.  I t was p o s t u l a t e d t h a t  t h e b u y i n g ' o f a home i s p e r h a p s t h e most socially  and e c o n o m i c a l l y  makes.  Y e t , t h e r e i s no t h e o r e t i c a l l y  to the i n v e s t i g a t i o n concerned  The an a p p r o a c h .  study  psychologically,  important purchase  o f house b u y i n g  with satisfying  housing  attempted  that a family  sensitized  behavior  The  those  needs.  to build  a framework t o a i d such  I n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n h u s b a n d and w i f e was i n attitude  and e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g , t h e p u r c h a s e  I t was s u g g e s t e d those  approach  t o guide  e x a m i n e d i n t e r m s o f c o n v e r g e n c e and d i v e r g e n c e towards,  process  that divergence  i s most l i k e l y  o f a home.  to occur i n  d e c i s i o n s i t u a t i o n s d o m i n a t e d by one o r o t h e r p a r t n e r .  c o n c e p t u a l framework i n d i c a t e d  some o f t h e p o s s i b l e d e -  t e r m i n a n t s o f d o m i n a n c e , and h e n c e o f d i v e r g e n c e .  80  From t h i s  framework s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e  convergence/divergence ing variables  were d e v e l o p e d , , u s i n g s u c h  as s t a g e i n f a m i l y l i f e  tween p a r t n e r s , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r a p h i c and to t e s t ment was this who  and  s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , and  the v a l i d i t y developed  survey i n d i c a t e have a c t u a l l y  educational levels,  several others.  a survey undertaken.  The  perception exist.  Moreover, these d i f f e r e n c e s  The  to those suggested t h e s a m p l e was suggested  too s m a l l to v e r i f y  i n that  course, indicate ficiently  indicated  3.  closely However  relationships  A l s o , the r e s u l t s  do n o t , o f  a t what p o i n t t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s become s u f  They d i d s u g g e s t , h o w e v e r , t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e con i s associated with reaching a decision  outcome.  S e v e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s were made as t o t h e  possible  d i r e c t i o n s which  future research of t h i s  A l s o , improvements t o the f i e l d should  and  a c u t e o r numerous t o p r e v e n t an outcome b e i n g  reached. vergence  chapter.  a l l the  sev-  are" a s s o c i -  i n t e r a c t i o n patterns correspond f o r such a sample i n Chapter  o  wives  of o p i n i o n , a t t i t u d e  a t e d w i t h some o f t h e d e t e r m i n a n t s o f d o m i n a n c e 2.  results  a d e c i s i o n outcome t h e r e a r e  differences  geo-  instrui  t h a t even b e t w e e n h u s b a n d s and  reached  be  In order  a field  e r a l areas i n which  i n Chapter  interven-  cycle, disparities  of these p r e d i c t i o n s  and  conditions for  i t be a n t i c i p a t e d  s e a r c h may  be p r o f i t a b l y  type might t a k e .  i n s t r u m e n t were  that this p a r t i c u l a r pursued.  suggested,  line  of r e -  81  BIBLIOGRAPHY A l d e r s o r i j ¥. • M a r k e t i n g B e h a v i o r and E x e c u t i v e A c t i o n . 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P r o j e c t Home: The M o t i v a t i o n s Towards Homes and H o u s i n g , p r e p a r e d f o r t h e P r o j e c t Home C o m m i t t e e , i 9 6 6 . Luck,  D . J . , H.G. W a l e s , and D.A. T a y l o r . M a r k e t i n g Research. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1961.  86  McQuade, W.- "Why P e o p l e Don't Buy H o u s e s " , No. 7 (December 1967 ), 1.53-155.  F o r t u n e , 76  Mack, R.W. " H o u s i n g as. an I n d e x o f S o c i a l C l a s s " , F o r c e s , 24, ( 1 9 5 1 ) .  Social  Martineau, Pierre. "The P a t t e r n o f S o c i a l C l a s s e s " , P r o c e e d i n g s of. t h e Am. M a r k e t i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , June , 1957. . " S o c i a l C l a s s and S p e n d i n g B e h a v i o r " , J . M a r k e t i n g , 2 3 , ( O c t o b e r 1 9 5 8 ) , 121-130. M e r t o n , R o b e r t K. "The S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y o f H o u s i n g " , i n U r b a n Hous i n g . Wheaton e t a l ( q . v . ) , 1966 , 20-35. M e y e r s o n , M. e t a l . H o u s i n g P e o p l e and C i t i e s . M c G r a w - H i l l , 1962.  New Y o r k :  M i n d a l , W i l l i a m A. " F i t t i n g t h e S e m a n t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l t o t h e M a r k e t i n g P r o b l e m " , J . M a r k e t i n g s 25 ( A p r i l 1 9 6 1 ) , 28-31. M i t t e l s t a e d t , R. "An E x p e r i m e n t a l S t u d y o f t h e E f f e c t s o f E x p e r i e n c e on Consumer D e c i s i o n M a k i n g " , C h i c a g o , Illinois: F a l l C o n f e r e n c e o f t h e Am. M a r k e t i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , 19 6 6. M y r d a l , A. and V. K l e i n . Women's Two R o l e s . R o u t l e d g e a n d Kegan P a u l , 1 9 5 6 .  London:  N i c o s i a , F r a n c e s c o M. Consumer D e c i s i o n P r o c e s s e s . Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1966.  New  Osgood, C h a r l e s E. "The N a t u r e and Measurement o f M e a n i n g " , P s y c h . B u l l e t i n , 49 (May 1 9 5 2 ) , 197-237. Owens C o r n i n g F i b e r g l a s . R e p o r t on Home B u y e r s P r e f e r e n c e s . S u r v e y R e p o r t , 1967^ Parsons, Talcott. "Age and Sex i n t h e S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e " , Am. S o c . R e v i e w , 7 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 4 2 ) , 604-616. , and R o b e r t F. B a l e s . F a m i l y , S o c i a l i z a t i o n and I n t e r a c t i o n P r o c e s s . New Y o r k : Free P r e s s , 1955. , and Edward A. S h i l s , e d . Toward a G e n e r a l T h e o r y of A c t i o n . C a m b r i d g e , Mass.: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y ' P r e s s , 1951.  87  P a x t o n , E.T. What P e o p l e Want_When They Buy a House. W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: U.S. D e p t . o f Commerce, 19 5 5. R i c h , S t u a r t U. and S.C. J a i n . " S o c i a l C l a s s and L i f e C y c l e as P r e d i c t o r s o f Shopping B e h a v i o r " , J . M a r k e t i n g R e s e a r c h , F e b r u a r y 1968. Rosow, I . 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The D e v e l o p m e n t and T e s t i n g o f a F i e l d I n s t r u m e n t f o r R e s e a r c h i n t o t h e S t u d i e s o f A t t i t u d e s and P r e f e r e n c e s I n v o l v e d i n t h e P u r c h a s e o f Homes. Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967. S o c i a l R e s e a r c h I n c . The Homemaker and Home F u r n i s h i n g s . Chicago, I l l i n o i s : S.R.I., J u l y 1967. S t a f f o r d , James E. "The E f f e c t s o f Group I n f l u e n c e s on Consumer B r a n d P r e f e r e n c e s " , J . M a r k e t i n g R e s e a r c h (February 1966). S t a r c h , D a n i e l and S t a f f . Male v s . F e m a l e : the P u r c h a s e o f S e l e c t e d P r o d u c t s . Fawcett P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1958. Teela Market Surveys. R e a l t y 78, December 1 9 6 8 .  S a l e s Review.  I n f l u e n c e on G r e e n w i c h , Conn.: Vols.  77 and  T u c k e r , W.T. F o u n d a t i o n s f o r a T h e o r y o f Consumer B e h a v i o r . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t , Winston, 1967. Waller,Willard.  The F a m i l y .  New Y o r k :  Dryden  P r e s s , 1951.  88  W e l l s , W.D. and G, G u b a r . " L i f e - C y c l e Concept i n M a r k e t i n g Research.", J . M a r k e t i n g .Research (November 1966 ) , . 35 5-3 64.. " :  W k e a t o n , W.L.C., e t a l . P r e s s , 1966.  Urban H o u s i n g .  "  New  York:  Free  W i r t h , L. " H o u s i n g as a F i e l d o f S o c i o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h " , Am. Soc. R e v i e w , 22 No. 2 ( A p r i l ' 1947 ) . W o l f e , D o n a l d M. "Power and A u t h o r i t y i n t h e F a m i l y " , i n S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l P o w e r, ed. D o r w i n C a r t w r i g h t ( q . v . ) 98-116. W o l g a s t , E l i z a b e t h H. "Do Husbands o r Wives Make t h e P u r c h a s i n g D e c i s i o n s " , J . M a r k e t i n g , 23 ( O c t o b e r 1 9 5 8 ) , 151-158. Zaltman, Gerard. Marketing; Behavioral Sciences. £ W o r l d , 1965.  C o n t r i b u t i o n s from the New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , Brace  Z e l d i t c h , M o r r i s , J r . "Role D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n the N u c l e a r F a m i l y " i n F a m i l y , S o c i a l i z a t i o n and I n t e r a c t i o n P r o c e s s , e d . P a r s o n s £ B a l e s ( q . v . ) Chap. 6. Zober, M a r t i n . "Determinants of Husband-Wife Buying R o l e s " , i n Consumer B e h a v i o r and t h e B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s , ed. B r i t t ( q . v . ) , 224-225.  89  APPENDIX A Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ' used i n t h e F i e l d House B u y i n g  Survey  Information  We hope t o g e t some i d e a o f t h e e n t i r e p r o c e s s l e a d i n g up t o t h e p u r c h a s e o f a home. S i n c e y o u r own p u r c h a s e i s f a i r l y r e c e n t , p e r h a p s y o u c a n g i v e us t h e b e n e f i t o f y o u r e x p e r i e n c e on t h e f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s : 1)  Do y o u remember any r e a l l y t o l o o k f o r a new home?  2)  D i d any s i n g l e p r e s s i n g r e a s o n c r o p - u p d u r i n g  3)  R o u g h l y how l o n g d i d y o u s p e n d l o o k i n g f o r t h i s  4)  Approximately  5)  On how many were y o u p r e p a r e d  7)  How many t i m e s d i d y o u l o o k a t t h i s d e c i d i n g t o buy i t ?  8)  Which o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s use? (Please t i c k appropriate  9) 10)  11)  pressing reason f o r s t a r t i n g  home?  how many homes d i d y o u s e e i n t h a t  home b e f o r e  j Advertisements  j  j  Friends' advice  j  j  Relations' advice  j  j  Driving  | j  Real  j  j  source  e s t a t e agent  would you c o n s i d e r  Whose i d e a was i t t o s t a r t appropriate box) Husband o n l y  | [ Husband m a i n l y  j  Wife o n l y  j  | |  Husband o n l y  j  Wife only  Q  most  home-hunting?  j Wife mainly  Who d i d most o f t h e h u n t i n g ? box )  j  •  | •  important?  (Please  tick  Both e q u a l l y |  (Please t i c k  j Husband m a i n l y Wife mainly  finally  of i n f o r m a t i o n d i d you boxes)  |  around  time?  t o make an o f f e r ?  Open h o u s e s  Which s i n g l e  the search?  |  appropriate  Both equally]  |  90  12)  I f y o u u s e d a r e a l e s t a t e a g e n t how d i d y o u f e e l a b o u t t h e s e r v i c e s he o f f e r e d ? somewhat n o t a t a l l Very h e l p f u l helpful helpful a)  before  b)  after  purchase purchase  13)  Would y o u c a r e agent ?  14)  D i d y o u pay more o r l e s s f o r y o u r home t h a n y o u a l l y "intended p a y i n g ? Much more "  Present  t o e l a b o r a t e on t h e p a r t p l a y e d  Slightly more — -  Home  Slightly less  by t h e origin-  Much less  Information  B e l o w a r e some p h r a s e s w h i c h may d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f a.home. O p p o s i t e each phrase t h e r e a r e t h r e e b l a n k s p a c e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o how a p p r o p r i a t e y o u f e e l t h e s e p h r a s e s a r e i n d e s c r i b i n g y o u r home. Please put a cross i n the space which b e s t d e s c r i b e s your o p i n i o n o f each o f t h e phrases. For example, i f you f e e l t h a t i t i s very appropr i a t e t o s a y t h a t y o u r home i s c l o s e t o t h e c i t y c e n t e r , answer t h u s : Very appropriate Close  to c i t y center  Location Close to c i t y center Long j o u r n e y t o work Long w a l k t o s h o p s Short t r i p to r e l atives Close to theaters and r e s t a u r a n t s Long way f r o m o u r church Few r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s nearby Many f r i e n d s l i v e nearby Short journey to suitable schools  X  Fairly appropriate  Not a t a l l appropriate  91  ^  ^  t ' d)  Very Fairly Not a t a l l appropriate appropriate appropriate  Convenient l o c a t i o n f o r most o f t h e t h i n g s we do Space A d e q u a t e d i n i n g room S u f f i c i e n t l i v i n g space I n s u f f i c i e n t storage space L a r g e enough g a r a g e space P a r e n t s ' M a s t e r bedroom adequate O t h e r bedrooms a d e q u a t e S u f f i c i e n t k i t c h e n space Adequate bathroom facilities L a r g e enough g a r d e n Inadequate space f o r hobbies Adequate space to e n t e r t a i n guests Adequate p a t i o or p o r c h space S u f f i c i e n t space f o r children's a c t i v i t i e s In g e n e r a l s u f f i c i e n t space f o r our p u r p o s e s Neighborhood A t t r a c t i v e neighborhood High-income a r e a L i t t l e contact with neighbors P e o p l e l i k e us l i v e i n t h i s area This i s the kind of n e i g h b o r h o o d we p a r t i c u l a r l y enjoy Efficiency Adequately equipped kitchen E a s y t o keep house clean A d e q u a t e h e a t i n g and ventilation Exterior difficult to m a i n t a i n  .9 2  Efficiency  (.cont'd)  Very appropriate  Fairly appropriate  Not a t a l l appropriate  I n t e r i o r easy, t o keep c lean Garden t a k e s g r e a t effort to maintain In g e n e r a l t h i s i s an e a s i l y r u n home Aesthetics Attractively designed home Pleasant i n t e r i o r B r i g h t appearance Pleasant surroundings T h i s home r e a l l y s u i t s our t a s t e s Investment Home was i n v e r y good c o n d i t i o n when b o u g h t Owning t h i s home i s a v e r y good i n v e s t m e n t We p a i d w e l l w i t h i n o u r income f o r t h i s home Family  Living  etc.  T h i s i s a v e r y good home for raising a family Our home i s v e r y r e laxing It i s r a t h e r inadequate f o r a l l p a r e n t s ' needs Individual Orientation B e l o w a r e some s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t a s p e c t s o f any home; p l e a s e i n d i c a t e whether you s t r o n g l y agree, p a r t i a l l y agree, o r d i s a g r e e w i t h e a c h o f them by p u t t i n g a c r o s s i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e space o p p o s i t e each s t a t e m e n t . Strongly agree Location A home s h o u l d be c l o s e t o t h e c i t y centre A l o n g j o u r n e y t o work i s n o t r e a l l y important  Partially agree  Disagree  93  Individual Orientation Location  (cont'd)  (cont'd)  Strongly agree  It  i s not important t o l i v e within walking distance of shops One's home s h o u l d be c l o s e t o one's r e l a t i v e s I t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r one's home t o be n e a r t h e a t e r s and r e s t a u r a n t s A home does n o t have t o be n e a r one's p l a c e o f w o r s h i p I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o have recreational facilities nearby I t i s important t o l i v e near one's f r i e n d s A s u i t a b l e s c h o o l s h o u l d be within walking distance o f one's home The l o c a t i o n o f a home i s very important Ne i g h b o r h o o d An a t t r a c t i v e n e i g h b o r h o o d i s very important I t i s b e s t i f one's n e i g h b o r s are i n a high—income bracket N e i g h b o r s s h o u l d keep t o themselves The b e s t k i n d o f n e i g h b o r h o o d i s one where p e o p l e l i k e ourselves l i v e Aesthetics It  i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o have an a t t r a c t i v e l y d e s i g n e d home The i n t e r i o r o f a home must be b r i g h t and a i r y Pleasant surroundings are very important A good v i e w i s e s s e n t i a l  Partially agree Disagree  94  I n d i v i d u a l O r i e n t a t i o n ' (.cont'd)  Investment  Strongly agree  Partially agree Disagree  It  i s i m p o r t a n t f o r a home t o be i n good c o n d i t i o n when b o u g h t Owning a home i s a good inve stment The c o s t o f f i n a n c i n g a home s h o u l d be l o w enough t o l e a v e a m a j o r p a r t o f one's income f o r o t h e r p u r c h a s e s and a c t i v ities F a m i l y and Home L i v i n g The most i m p o r t a n t p u r p o s e o f a home i s t o p r o v i d e a good environment f o r r a i s i n g a family Home i s a p l a c e i n w h i c h one can r e l a x Home i s a p l a c e where one c a n f i n d p r i v a c y from t h e r e s t of t h e w o r l d Home i s a p l a c e t o e n t e r t a i n one's f r i e n d s Home i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f one's personality Home i s a s y m b o l o f one's success Home i s a p l a c e t o d i s p l a y one's p o s s e s s i o n s Home i s a b a s e f r o m w h i c h one s e t s o f f t o s e e k o u t side l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s Space Suppose y o u now l i v e d i n a home w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f the f o l l o w i n g : a d e q u a t e bedroom s p a c e f o r c h i l d r e n and parents; a l i v i n g / d i n i n g area; a kitchen; one b a t h r o o m and a s i n g l e g a r a g e . S u p p o s e , f u r t h e r , t h a t y o u c o u l d add t h e f o l l o w i n g rooms t o s u c h a home, i n what o r d e r w o u l d y o u c h o o s e them? CPut t h e o r d e r o f y o u r c h o i c e i n t h e box opp o s i t e each room).  .9 5  Additional garage space Recreation or f a m i l y room  • •  Guest bedroom  •  a  A separate dining | I room  Den o r hobb i e s| room  Now, t h e s p a c e o u t s i d e t h i s i m a g i n a r y house c o n s i s t s o f a s m a l l f r o n t g a r d e n and a s m a l l r e a r g a r d e n . Again you a r e g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x t e n d t h i s s p a c e i n t h e ways d e s c r i b e d b e l o w — i n what o r d e r w o u l d y o u a d d t h e s e e x t e n sions t o your property? Swimming pool  V~~| F r o n t 1 1 I garden|  I 1 Patio \ I  | J  Rear I I garden I I  Facilities I n y o u r own home, s u p p o s e y o u were g i v e n t h e c h a n c e t o a d d t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c i l i t i e s — i n what o r d e r w o u l d y o u add them? Games room equipment  Home e n t e r tainment  Family ing?  •  •  Bathroom equipment  •  Gardening equipment or garden furniture  •  Hobby | 1 equipment 1 I  Home d e;c co orraat i n g j equipment  A i r conditioning or h e a t i n ; equipment j  •  Kitchen equip ment  Activities Who i n y o u r h o u s e h o l d i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f o l l o w (Please t i c k appropriate box) Husband W i f e M a i n l y Mainly only only husband wife  Major e x p e n d i t u r e s , appliances  e.g. I  F a m i l y b u d g e t i n g , e.g. monthly payments Where t o s p e n d Children's  holidays  education  car, I  • • •  • • • •  • • • •  Both equally  • • • • • • • •  96  Husband W i f e Mainly Mainly ' o n l y o n l y husband wife Home d e c o r a t i n g . furnishing  and  Gardening Household washing  tasks, dishes  e.g.  When and where t o evenings out  spend  Household' s a v i n g s K e e p i n g t h e cheque book Which o f t h e f o l l o w i n g  • • • • • •  • • • • • • • • • • • •  Both e qual  • • • • • •  • • • • • •  do y o u do : -  [ I f Alone p l e a s e put A i n t h e box o p p o s i t e t h a t p a r t i c ular activity. I f Together p l e a s e put T i n t h e box o p p o s i t e t h a t p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v :iittyy . . I f y o u s e l d o m o r n e v e r do any o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s e i t h e r i n t h e box o p p o s i t e N t o g e t h e r or a l o n e , p l e a s e put those a c t i v i t i e s . ] e.g.  i f you  Dining Doing  seldom  out hobbies  Going to  movies  Working i n community activities Sporting activities  o r n e v e r do t h e s h o p p i n g answer  • • • • •  Shopping Watching television Visiting relatives G o i n g on holiday Church  going  • • • • •  Visiting  Shopping friends  Taking e x t r a educational courses Pursuing club activities, e.g. amateur dramatics, b r i d g e , poker Entertaining friends  • •  • •  97  Demographic Informal' i o n '. Husband B e l o w are. some q u e s t i o n s w h i c h we w o u l d l i k e y o u t o answer for. t h e p u r p o s e o f s o r t i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f our'"survey. A l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n y o u p r o v i d e h e r e w i l l o f c o u r s e be treated i n the s t r i c t e s t confidence. Age:  Number o f y e a r s  married:  Occupation: Education:  high-school graduation college  —  level  college graduation post-graduate Salary:  A. B. C.  degree  Below a r e a s e r i e s o f s a l a r y r a n g e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s A t h r o u g h F. P l e a s e i n d i c a t e i n t h e box b e l o w t h e l e t t e r o f t h a t s a l a r y range w i t h i n which you f a l l .  Under $3,000 Between $3,000 - $5,000 Between $5,000 - $7,000  D. E. F.  •  What was y o u r  Between $7,000 - $10,000 Between $10,000 - $13,000 Over $13,000  father's occupation?  D i d he r e c e i v e - much l e s s - slightly  education less  than  education  you? than  you?  - t h e s a m e . e d u c a t i o n as you? - slightly  more'-.education t h a n  - much more e d u c a t i o n CPlease  tick  than  you?  you?  the a p p r o p r i a t e box)  Where were y o u b o r n ?  '  How many homes have y o u o c c u p i e d  since  marriage?  • • • • •  98  Demographic I n f o r m a t i o n Husband  (cont'd)  In how many c i t i e s provinces or states countries  have y o u l i v e d s i n c e your marriage?  Now, b e f o r e y o u were m a r r i e d i n how many c i t i e s provinces or states countries  d i d you l i v e ?  Do y o u d r i v e t o work? Do y o u own o r h a v e t h e u s e o f a v a c a t i o n home? I f you. had. t h e c h o i c e o f s t a y i n g i n V a n c o u v e r i n d e f i n i t e l y or o f moving p e r i o d i c a l l y , w h i c h would you p r e f e r ?  Demographic  Information Wife .  B e l o w a r e some q u e s t i o n s w h i c h we w o u l d l i k e y o u t o answer f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s o r t i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f our s u r v e y . A l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n y o u p r o v i d e w i l l o f c o u r s e be t r e a t e d i n the s t r i c t e s t c o n f i d e n c e . Occupation: Age: Education  Number o f y e a r s  married  - high school graduation - some c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n - college graduation - post-graduate  work  Number o f c h i l d r e n Number o f c h i l d r e n  Age o f e l d e s t  child  l i v i n g a t home  Where were y o u b o r n ? B e f o r e y o u were m a r r i e d i n how many c i t i e s states or provinces countries  d i d you l i v e ?  Demographic Wife  Information  Ccont'd)  Do y o u have any r e l a t i v e s , l i v i n g w i t h you? If  s o , who?  Do y o u d r i v e • t o  shops?  R o u g h l y how o f t e n p e r week do y o u shop? How o f t e n do y o u . a t t e n d c h u r c h s e r v i c e s ( s a y , how many t i m e s p e r m o n t h ) What was y o u r Did  father's  occupation?  he r e c e i v e - much l e s s - slightly  education than less  you?  e d u c a t i o n t h a t you?  - t h e same e d u c a t i o n as you? - slightly  more e d u c a t i o n t h a n  - much more e d u c a t i o n t h a n  you?  you?  100  APPENDIX B E d u c a t i o n L e v e l of Respondents  Table 5  High School graduation or l e s s Husbands Wives  Some College  College graduation  Post-graduate work  12 .13  T a b l e 6>- — ~ :  Husbands Wives  Ethnic Canada 15 19  O r i g i n s of Respondents U.S.  U.K.  Europe  East Asia 3 4  1 2  T a b l e 7 --• O c c u p a t i o n o f R e s p o n d e n t s  P r o f e s s i o n a l , or semi B u s i n e s s or government Entrepreneur S k i l l e d or semi Other Housewife Note: Table  One  Respondent  Husbands 11 5 2 3 6 -  Wive s 5 1 1 0 23  reported having  retired  8 -- O c c u p a t i o n o f R e s p o n d e n t s '  Fathers  P r o f e s s i o n a l or semi B u s i n e s s or government Entrepreneur S k i l l e d or semi Fisherman or farmer Other ...  Husbands  Wives  4 4 11 4  6 7 6 4 4 2  . 6 . .  0  South America 1 1  101  Table 9 —  E x p e r i e n c e i n Home  Occupancy  Homes O c c u p i e d S i n c e M a r r i a g e One Number o f families  Two' T h r e e F o u r F i v e  7  4  3  T a b l e 10 -- M o b i l i t y  1  S i x Seven E i g h t o r more  6'  7  2  5  of Respondents Countries Occupied  Before marriage'  One  Husbands Wives  Two  Three  F o u r o r more  20 21  8 5  1 1  1 0  20  8  1  0  Since marriage Number o f families  T a b l e 1 1 — Husbands' Number p r e f e r r i n g Number p r e f e r r i n g T a b l e 12 — Husbands  Attitude  Towards  t o move t o stay  24^ 7 1  Who D r i v e t o Shops  D r i v e t o shops Sometimes d r i v e t o shops Never d r i v e t o shops Note:  7 24  Who D r i v e t o Work  D r i v e t o work Sometimes d r i v e t o work N e v e r d r i v e t o work T a b l e 13 — Wives  Mobility  .13 5 12  Twenty o f t h e t h i r t y - t w o w i v e s s h o p p e d o r t w i c e p e r week.  either  T a b l e 14 — C h u r c h A t t e n d a n c e o f R e s p o n d e n t s Once p e r month o r more f r e q u e n t l y At main f e s t i v a l s Never  14 4 12  once  T a b l e 15 —  Education L e v e l of Respondents' Fathers  Fathers' education  Husbands  Much l e s s Slightly less Same S l i g h t l y more Much more T a b l e 16 —  Wives  11 8 5 3 2  Husbands'  Income  11 4 3 6 6  Range  Under $3 ,000 Between $3,000 - $5,000 Between $5,000 - $7,000 Between $7,000 - $10,000 Between $10,000 - $13,000 Over $13 ,000  .  T a b l e 17 —  Families  Relatives Living with  No r e l a t i v e s One r e l a t i v e Two r e l a t i v e s House  Buying  T a b l e 18 —  1 1 5 12 6 4  26 f a m i l i e s 2 families 3 families Process  Reasons f o r S t a r t i n g  No p r e s s i n g r e a s o n A pressing reason  21 41  Search  respondents respondents  Reasons s i t e d Shortcomings of r e n t e d accommodation Space needs R e c e n t l y moved t o V a n c o u v e r Other T a b l e 19 — No r e a s o n A reason  Reasons f o r E x p e d i t i n g ... ...  32 18  Reasons s i t e d E x p i r y of lease Expecting children. Special opportunity Other  ... ... ... ...  3 4 3 8  ... 12 r e s p o n d e n t s . . . .113 r e s p o n d e n t s ... 6 respondents ... 10 r e s p o n d e n t s  Search  10 3  Table  20 —  Time S p e n t  Searching  Up t o one week Between one and f o u r weeks B e t w e e n one and t h r e e months Between f o u r and s e v e n months Between e i g h t and t w e l v e months Table  5 17 21 10 8  21 '— I n t e n s i t y o f S e a r c h  Homes s e e n  Less than 5  5-10  11-20  10  10  15  Number o f respondents Table  ... ... ... ... ...  21-50  Over 100  3  4  19  22 — Number o f Homes S e r i o u s l y  Prepared to make o f f e r on  51-100  Considered  1  2  3  4  5  6 o r more  17  14  18  4  3  2  None  Number o f respondents  4  Table. -23 — O f f e r s A c t u a l l y Made 4 O f f e r s made on 1 2 3 o r more None Number o f respondents 35 19 3 0 6 Note: The p r e s e n c e o f "none" r e s p o n s e s i n T a b l e s 22 and 23 c a s t d o u b t on t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e i r f i n d i n g s . 24 — Number o f Times Home was L o o k e d a t B e f o r e D e c i s i o n t o Buy 4 Times l o o k e d a t 1 2 3 o r more Table  Number o f respondents  .2 3  ,23  12  5  104  Table  25 —  S o u r c e s Used and T h e i r  Sources  Used  Open h o u s e s Advertisements D r i v i n g around Friends' advice Relations' advice R e a l e s t a t e agent  41 .' 3 9 38 10 8 40  Table  Number o f respondents  Much more 12  28 -- Who  Husband o n l y Wife o n l y Both e q u a l l y Table  29 —  17  of Price Much less  Paid than  2  33 19  Somewhat helpful 15 15  Not a t a l l helpful 2 11  Was R e s p o n s i b l e f o r S t a r t i n g ... 2 ... 2 ... 45  Husband m a i n l y Wife m a i n l y  the Search? ... ...  Who Was R e s p o n s i b l e f o r C o n d u c t i n g  Husband o n l y Wife o n l y Both e q u a l l y  expected  Towards R e a l E s t a t e A g e n t s ' S e r v i c e s  Very helpful  Before purchase A f t e r Purchase  Slightly less  34  27 — A t t i t u d e  He was  Table  Slightly more  Important 11 9 6 3 4 17  26 — R e s p o n d e n t s ' , P e r c e p t i o n s  P r i c e was  Table  Most  Importance  ... 7 ... 3 ... 42  Husband m a i n l y Wife m a i n l y  ... ...  6 9  the Search? 9 4  10 5  P r e s e n t Home I n f o r m a t i o n Note on m e t h o d o l o g y Individual  In a l l  Orientation  correspond to s i m i l a r tionnaire.  the t a b l e s  section, a l l  i n this  and t h e  t h e p h r a s e s on t h e l e f t  phrases of these s e c t i o n s  of the ques-  A l l n e g a t i v e p h r a s e s , f o r e x a m p l e , "Long  ey t o w o r k " , have been r e v e r s e d  i n t h e t a b l e s , and t h e i r  c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e s p o n s e s have a l s o been r e v e r s e d . e x a m p l e , a "Not a t a l l  journ-  Thus, f o r  a p p r o p r i a t e " r e s p o n s e t o "Long  journey  t o w o r k " , now r e a d s as a ' " V e r y a p p r o p r i a t e " r e s p o n s e t o " C l o s e t o work" i n t h e t a b l e . In t h e r i g h t "Agreement  hand p a r t o f t h e t a b l e , t h a t i s ,  i n P e r c e p t i o n Between P a r t n e r s " , t h e r e s p o n s e s o f  e a c h h u s b a n d h a s b e e n compared t o t h a t o f e a c h wife.  corresponding  " A g r e e m e n t " d e n o t e s t h e number o f r e s p o n s e s  were e x a c t l y  similar,  that  f o r example, i f both answered  a p p r o p r i a t e " t o any i t e m :  "Partial  "Fairly  agreement" denotes a  one s p a c e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s , and " D i s a g r e e ment" a two s p a c e d i f f e r e n c e . able" this ply  this  i s tabulated  i s treated  I f both r e p l i e d  as " A g r e e m e n t " ;  as a no r e s p o n s e .  "Not a p p l i c -  i f one makes no r e "No r e s p o n s e s "  been o m i t t e d from t h e s e t a b l e s , b u t the I n d i v i d u a l should t o t a l  sixty-five  should t o t a l  t h i r t y - t w o r e s p o n s e s , as i n d i c a t e d  of Chapter  5.  have  section  r e s p o n s e s , and t h e Agreement  section  at the s t a r t  T a b l e 30 -- P e r c e p t i o n o f L o c a t i o n o f Home  Close t o c i t y center C l o s e t o work. C l o s e t o shops Close to r e l a t i v e s C l o s e t o t h e a t e r s and restaurants Close t o church Close t o r e c r e a t i o n facilities Many f r i e n d s n e a r b y Close to s u i t a b l e schools Convenient l o c a t i o n f o r most t h i n g s  Individual Agreement i n P e r c e p t i o n Perception between P a r t n e r s Very Fairly Not a t a l l Partial Dis Approp- AppropappropAgreeAgreeAgreeriate riate riate ment ment ment 31 20 31 16  31 18 16 21  2 21 13 20  13 10 14 20  16 9 6 6  2 9 8 2  17 27  30 18  16 9  13 17  15 5  2 3  24 16 44  21 31 12  15 14 4"  12 18 23  10 10 5  5 0 1  46  5  3  24  7  0  41 49 27 30 45 37  16 15 19 21 16 24  7 0 19 13 2 2  17 24 15 17 17 21  11 7 12 13 13 10  3 0 5 2 0 0  34 42  23 16  6 3  22 20  6 7  2 3  33  21  8  14  13  2  T a b l e 31 -- P e r c e p t i o n o f Space i n t h e Home A d e q u a t e d i n i n g room S u f f i c i e n t l i v i n g space S u f f i c i e n t s t o r a g e space S u f f i c i e n t garage space A d e q u a t e m a s t e r bedroom O t h e r bedrooms a d e q u a t e Adequate bathroom facilities L a r g e enough g a r d e n Adequate space f o r hobb i e s  Individual Agreement i n P e r c e p t i o n Perception between P a r t n e r s Very Fairly Not a t a l l Partial Dis Approp - Ap-prop- " " a p p r o p AgreeAgreeAgreer iate r iate riate ment ment ment Adequate e n t e r t a i n m e n t space Adequate porch o r p a t i o S u f f i c i e n t space f o r children' s activities S u f f i c i e n t space i n general . Table  32 -- P e r c e p t i o n o f  Attractive H i g h income Friendly P e o p l e l i k e us We p a r t i c u l a r l y e n j o y t h i s neighborhood  43 23  17 19  2 19  17 18  9 13  2 0  37  20  3  23  4  1  48  12  1  23 .  5  0  Neighborhood 40 13 15 15  24 35 42 38  1 16 8 4  22 18 17 16  10 11 13 10  0 2 1 0  31  24  4  16  11  0  34 31  24 31  7 2  26 ' 20  6 10  0 1  38 25  26 23  0 15  25 18  6 10  0 2  27 27  32 21  3 10  17 13  13 14  0 0  42  21  0  10  20  0  T a b l e 33 -- P e r c e p t i o n o f F u n c t i o n a l E f f i c i e n c y o f t h e Home Adequately equipped k itchen Easy t o keep house c l e a n A d e q u a t e h e a t i n g and ventilation E x t e r i o r easy'ito m a i n t a i n I n t e r i o r e a s y t o keep clean Easy t o m a i n t a i n g a r d e n I n g e n e r a l , an e a s i l y r u n home  Individual Agreement i n P e r c e p t i o n between P a r t n e r s Perception Very F a i r l y Not a t a l l Partial Dis Approp- AppropappropAgreeagreeAgreeriate riate riate ment ment ment Table  34 — P e r c e p t i o n o f A e s t h e t i c s  A t t r a c t i v e l y d e s i g n e d home Pleasant i n t e r i o r B r i g h t appearance Pleasant surroundings R e a l l y s u i t s our t a s t e s Table  35 --  30 33 29 38 30  26 31 29 23 32  7 1 6 2 2  21 21 20 23 22  10 11 12 7 9  1 0 0 2 0  P e r c e p t i o n of Investment  In good c o n d i t i o n when bought O w n i n g - t h i s home i s a good i n v e s t m e n t We p a i d w e l l w i t h i n o u r income  28  26  9  22  10  0  35  26  1  18  12  0  19  40  4  18  12  1  41 44  19 18  1 2  23 18  7 13  0 0  33  19  6  13  13  3  T a b l e 36 — P e r c e p t i o n o f Aspects of Family L i v i n g V e r y good home f o r r a i s i n g a family Our home i s v e r y r e l a x i n g I t i s adequate f o r a l l p a r e n t s ' needs  T a b l e 37 — Attitudes toward t h e L o c a t i o n of a Home S h o u l d be c l o s e t o c i t y c e n t e r S h o u l d be c l o s e t o work S h o u l d be w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e o f shops S h o u l d be c l o s e t o r e l a t i v e s S h o u l d be n e a r t h e a t e r s and restaurants S h o u l d be c l o s e t o c h u r c h S h o u l d be n e a r r e c r e a t i o n a l facilities S h o u l d be n e a r f r i e n d s S h o u l d be w i t h i n w a l k i n g distance of school Location i s very important  Individual Orientation Strongly P a r t i a l l y Disagree agree agree  Agreement i n A t t i t u d e between P a r t n e r s Agree P a r t i a l l y D i s a g r e e agree  11 39  28 17  14 6  16 14  15 14  0 1  31 9  24 19  7 36  14 17  14 11  3 3  4 17  31 35  27 10  13 12  15 14  2 3  37 15  21 27  5 17  14 5  15 22  1 2  40 52  21 11  1 1  27 22  1 9  1 0  37 4 20 24  22 22 31 29  3 37 8 11  17 13 15 14  12 16 9 11  1 1 2 6  29  31  3  16  16  ^0  2  23  1  1 13  22 18  0 0  T a b l e 38 -- A t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s N e i g h b o r h o o d , A e s t h e t i c s and Inve s tment Ne i g h b o r h o o d S h o u l d be a t t r a c t i v e S h o u l d be h i g h income S h o u l d be f r i e n d l y S h o u l d have p e o p l e l i k e us Aesthetics Home must be a t t r a c t i v e l y designed I n t e r i o r , must be b r i g h t a n d airy Pleasant surroundings are very important A good v i e w i s e s s e n t i a l  52 52 19  9 31  14  Individual Orientation Strongly P a r t i a l l y Disagree agree agree Investment Home must be i n good c o n d i t i o n when b o u g h t Owning a home i s a good investment F i n a n c i n g c o s t s s h o u l d be l o w enough  Agreement i n A t t i t u d e between P a r t n e r s Agree P a r t i a l l y D i s a g r e e agree  30  26  9  15  17  0  42  21  0  19  11  0  36  22  6  13  14  4  51 59 49  12 5 16  0 0 0  20 27 18  10 4 14  46  18  0  21  11  37 8  28 34  0. 22  24 10  20  0 1  8  24  31  15  12  4  12  29  22  15  12  3  T a b l e 39 -•- A t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s F a m i l y and Home L i v i n g The most i m p o r t a n t p u r p o s e o f a home i s t o p r o v i d e a good e n vironment f o r r a i s i n g a family Home i s a p l a c e t o r e l a x Home i s a p l a c e t o f i n d p r i v a c y Home i s . a p l a c e t o e n t e r t a i n one's f r i e n d s Home i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f one's personality Home i s a s y m b o l o f s u c c e s s Home i s a p l a c e t o d i s p l a y one's p o s s e s s i o n s . Home i s a b a s e f o r e x t e r n a l leisure activities  

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