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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Study of the precision gases market in British Columbia Kidston, Hew Keith 1969

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A STUDY OF THE PRECISION GASES MARKET IN BRITISH COLUMBIA BY HEW KEITH KIDSTON B.A.Sc, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION in the Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH A p r i l , 1969 COLUMBIA In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d S t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Co(*/V>eytCe f £o Stress / ^ M f ^ 7 ^ 4 - W The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e ftft/L. 2/ *! ABSTRACT Union Carbide Canada Limited i s one of four major i n d u s t r i a l gas suppliers in Canada. Recently this firm contemplated entering the pre-c i s i o n gases market as a supplier. However, lacking any detailed know-ledge about this market, Union Carbide decided to have a market study made in order to provide the necessary information for planning a mar-keting program. This thesis presents a study of the precision (or specialty) gases market i n B r i t i s h Columbia, an analysis of the findings, and a sug-gested approach to the marketing of precision gases i n B.C. From information obtained from Union Carbide i t was evident at the outset that precision gases are of a very specialized nature, and that t o t a l market demand for this type of product is limited compared to that for i n d u s t r i a l gases. The company also indicated that the a c t i v i t i e s and interests of precision gas users are widely d i v e r s i f i e d . Because of these factors i t was decided that a market survey should be conducted to determine some of the market c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and that the survey should be conducted over 100 per cent of the known market population. Therefore, data was sought from a l l possible precision gas users in B.C., this data covering such points as: the pa r t i c u l a r gases being used; anticipated consumption; container requirements; and any expected changes in useage or in purchasing practices. Information was also obtained from some suppliers of precision gases i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The data from the market survey were then studied to isolat e pertinent market c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . It was soon confirmed that market demand is r e l a t i v e l y small and users comprise a highly heterogeneous c o l l e c t i o n ; forty-two users were found, ranging from small l o c a l businesses to giant international corporations, representing the f i e l d s of education, medicine, research and manufacturing. Market demand was found to cover a broad spectrum of product types--a t o t a l of seventy-five different gases are ordered i n over two-hundred different ways most of them i n very small amounts. However, further analysis of the data also revealed that of the 142,900 cubic feet of precision gases expected to be consumed in B.C. i n 1969, 73 per cent i s comprised of atmospheric gases and gas mixtures, most of which Union Carbide already handles for the i n d u s t r i a l market; i t also revealed that of these two types of precision gases, 96 per cent i s used in standard i n d u s t r i a l sized cylinders already used by Union Carbide. Thus by i s o l a t i n g those users purchasing atmospheric and mixed gases in indus-t r i a l sized cylinders, Union Carbide can ide n t i f y 70 per cent of the t o t a l market volume as a target market segment requiring a minimum of investment in new gases.and f a c i l i t i e s . Selection of channels of d i s t r i b u t i o n for serving the above target market lead to consideration of the geographical density of the market population, and of the nature of the products and potential cus-tomers i n question. I t was decided that Union Carbide's existing d i r e c t -sales and distributor-sales forces are better suited to give effe c t i v e sales coverage to this target market than any other alternative channels available to the company. The conclusion was, therefore, that Union Carbide should make use of i t s existing marketing organization to aim at the market segment using atmospheric and mixed gases i n standard i n d u s t r i a l sized cylinders. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 Background - Union Carbide Canada Ltd 1 Background - Precision Gases Market 2 Problem D e f i n i t i o n 3 Objectives of the Study 5 Scope of the Study 5 Def i n i t i o n of Terms 6 Plan of the Study 8 I I . A SURVEY OF MARKET DEMAND FOR PRECISION GASES 9 Objectives of the Survey 9 Survey Methods 9 Survey Results 12 Discussion of Results 12 Cylinder Deposits and Demurrage 23 Related Apparatus and Accessories 24 Purchasing Practices 24 Forecast of Demand for Precision Gases 25 I I I . MARKETING METHODS USED BY PRESENT SUPPLIERS 30 Matheson of Canada Ltd. 30 Canadian Liquid A i r 34 The Market in the Seattle Area 35 IV. UNION CARBIDE RESOURCES AND MARKET REQUIREMENTS 37 Union Carbide Resources 37 Market Requirements 40 i i CHAPTER ' PAGE V. A MARKETING PROGRAM FOR UNION CARBIDE 43 Market Segmentation 43 Channels of Dis t r i b u t i o n 45 Pr i c ing 48 Promot ion 50 VI. SUMMARY 52 APPENDIX I Description of Container Styles Encountered in Market Survey 54 APPENDIX I I Detailed Description of Expected Demand for Precision Gases in B.C., Listed by User, 1969 55 APPENDIX I I I Summary of Expected Demand for Precision Gases by Each User, 1969 72 APPENDIX IV Summary of Expected Demand (1969), by Gas 74 APPENDIX V (a) Relative Expected Demand by Gas Type and Container, 1969 86 (b) Relative Forecasted Demand by Gas Type and Container, 1973 87 APPENDIX VI Summary of Expected Demand for Precision Gases in B.C. by Geographical Area, 1969 88 APPENDIX VII Summary of Expected Demand for Precision Gases i n Seattle Area, by User, 1969 89 APPENDIX VIII Designation of Valve Connections on Precision Gas Containers 93 APPENDIX IX L i s t of Firms Contacted Not Using Precision Gases 95 i i i CHAPTER PAGE APPENDIX X Projection of Graduate Enrollment in Canadian Universities and Colleges to 1973-74 96 APPENDIX XI Projection of Graduate Enrollment at The University of B.C. to 1973-74 97 APPENDIX XII Projection of Graduate Enrollment, Selected Faculties, at the University of B.C., to 1973-74 98 APPENDIX XIII Porjection of Enrollment i n Canadian Secondary Schools to 1973-74 . 99 i v LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 Expected Demand for Precision Gases, Cubic Feet Per Year, By Type of Gas, 1969 , 17 2 Expected Demand for Precision Gases, Number of Containers per Year, by Type of Gas, 1969 18 3 Expected Demand for Precision Gases, Containers per Year, by Geographical Area, 1969 21 4 Suppliers of Precision Gases i n B r i t i s h Columbia— Market Shares (Containers per Year), 1969 22 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This paper represents an attempt to study a marketing problem faced by a Canadian manufacturing firm at the present time. The firm i s Union Carbide Canada Limited, and since this report w i l l be centered around the characteristics of this company and i t s relationship with a r e l a t i v e l y unknown market, i t i s f e l t that this introductory chapter should start with a background description of the company and the problem to be treated. Background - Union Carbide Canada Limited Union Carbide Canada Limited, seventy-five per cent owned by Union Carbide Corporation i n the United States, i s a d i v e r s i f i e d manufacturing and sales firm. Its factories produce items ranging from ferro-alloys and carbon electrodes for the steel making industry to nylon f i b r e for the t e x t i l e industry; sales also include consumer products such as f l a s h l i g h t b a t t e r i e s , anti-freeze and insect repellant. One of the many operating divisions of Union Carbide Canada Limited is the Gas Products Di v i s i o n , the backbone of which i s the manufacture and sales of " i n d u s t r i a l " gases, such as oxygen, acetylene, nitrogen and argon. The main users of these gases are metal producers and fabricators, and hospitals. Over the past years the demands of these users have expanded; metal fabricators no longer rely only on oxygen and acetylene for welding, but now require very pure and care f u l l y prepared mixtures of argon, helium, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide; hospitals use not only breathing oxygen, but consume large quantities of nitrous oxide, cyclopropane, - 2 -s t e r i l a n t gases and oxygen-nitrogen mixtures. Thus w h i l e Union Carbide s t a r t e d out supplying p r i m a r i l y atmospheric gases manufactured i n i t s own p l a n t s , i t now a l s o s u p p l i e s a considerable number of non-atmospheric gases which i t must o b t a i n from other sources. So f a r , however, there has been l i t t l e e f f o r t made by any of the four main producers of indus-t r i a l gases i n Canada to supply any gases whose s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of p u r i t y or p r e p a r a t i o n exceed those y i e l d e d d i r e c t l y from conventional commercial production procedures or from present s u p p l i e r s of gases purchased from o u t s i d e sources. Background - P r e c i s i o n Gases Market I t i s because of two main reasons that Union Carbide has r e c e n t l y decided to take another look at i t s p o s i t i o n w i t h respect to p r e c i s i o n gases. F i r s t , during the past few years there has been a s i g n i f i c a n t increase i n the number of i n q u i r i e s r e c e i v e d from present customers (and non-customers as w e l l ) about gases of a non-standard nature; t h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y noted i n the case of h o s p i t a l s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , both of which have come to be q u i t e large users of i n d u s t r i a l gases, p a r t i c u l a r l y the former. Nearly always these requests have had to be turned down due to i n a b i l i t y to supply, w h i l e i n a few cases the requests have been handled by supplying a product made up s p e c i a l l y f o r the occasion. The second reason i s the recent a c q u i s i t i o n of q u i t e s o p h i s t i c a t e d gas pr e p a r a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s by Union Carbide f o r a n a l y t i c a l work i n connection w i t h i t s i n d u s t r i a l gas production processes; i t i s f e l t by management i n Union Carbide that use could be made of t h i s expensive equipment i n producing product of a s p e c i a l t y nature. A f t e r some p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n a - 3 -tentative decision was made to produce and s e l l precision gases. Union Carbide's knowledge of the precision gases market at this stage was quite sketchy, being obtained mainly by piecing together in f o r -mation from salesmen's reports of competitive a c t i v i t y i n various sales t e r r i t o r i e s . It was known that there i s es s e n t i a l l y one supplier s p e c i a l i -zing in precision gases in Canada, that firm being Matheson of Canada Ltd. This company provides a f u l l range of gases, available i n a f u l l range of cylinder sizes; i t has one producing plant in Canada, located i n Ontario, from which a l l shipments to customers are made; a sales o f f i c e and salesman in the Prairies serve a l l of Western Canada. Details concerning channels of d i s t r i b u t i o n , a v a i l a b i l i t y of service, delivery, goodwill with customers, and extent of market coverage were not known. Problem D e f i n i t i o n The foregoing description of the background s i t u a t i o n should c l e a r l y indicate some of the problems faced by Union Carbide in i t s decision to market precision gases. Perhaps the most obvious question to be raised i s that of market demand for this type of product--what types of gases are used, what s p e c i f i c a t i o n of purity must be met, what volumes of gas are used, and what quantities do users prefer to order? A decision to s e l l in this market must also consider how to reach the market; alternatives include direct s e l l i n g , use of existing d i s t r i b u t o r s ' sales organizations, and the use of other intermediaries, perhaps those that are already supplying potential precision gas customers. Very closely a l l i e d with alternative marketing channels i s the question of market segmentation; Union Carbide must decide whether to attempt to cover the whole market, or to concentrate only on parts of i t . A number of c r i t e r i a could be used to differentiate market segments, including product, channels of d is tr ibut ion, and geog-raphic distribution of demand. The area of packaging provides a serious problem as wel l , for generally the container in which the gas is shipped is worth at least as much as the gas i t s e l f ; at the same time, a large supply of gas cylinders must be kept on hand at a l l times as a cushion, and of course each type of gas requires i ts own cylinder stock; thus the number of gases supplied and the range of cylinder sizes provided have a large effect on the capital required to in i t ia te the project. In the industrial gas market, completeness of product offering includes not only the gases sold, but also the related accessories for handling and controll ing the gases; i f the precision gas market is s imilar, then a decision regarding breadth of product lines is required. Problems are also faced with respect to pricing and promotion of precision gases; the relative effects of price, product quality, and service on buyer choice must be determined before a pricing policy can be estab-l ished, while alternative promotional strategies must be considered in terms of effectiveness of costly personal se l l ing (either by a company or dis-tributor sales force) versus cheaper forms of promotion such as mail or trade journal advertisements etc. Note that although the above discussion has tended to treat each problem area individual ly , i t is realized that each is very closely related to the others, and to arrive at any choice among the various alternatives these interrelationships must be recognized and understood. - 5 -Objectives of the Study Having focussed attention on the problems faced by Union Carbide in a n ticipation of expansion of i t s product l i n e , the objectives of this study can now be more c l e a r l y defined. The f i r s t objective i s to determine the nature of the market for precision gases, in terms of t o t a l market demand, type of product demanded, type of user, user preference with respect to packaging, p r i c i n g , method of supply, etc. The second objec-t i v e i s based on the results of the firs t - - h a v i n g determined the market ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s , to formulate a marketing program recommending choice of alternatives i n terms of market segmentation, channels of d i s t r i b u t i o n , packaging, p r i c i n g and promotion. Scope of the Study For p r a c t i c a l reasons this study w i l l be much more limited in scope than i t would be i f conducted by the firm's own Marketing Research Depart-ment or a f u l l time consultant. The l i m i t i n g factor i s time, and therefore i t was decided to conduct the project in terms of the B r i t i s h Columbia market. Within this r e s t r i c t i o n i t is intended to make the study as com-plete as possible, although when obvious short-cuts presented themselves, p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to the market survey, advantage was taken of them; these w i l l be noted as they occur in the presentation. Note should be made of the writer's relationship to Union Carbide and to the project. Because the writer had been employed by Union Carbide as a sales representative in B r i t i s h Columbia for three years, many of the persons interviewed during the survey were f u l l y aware that the project was not of a purely objective nature; i n some cases this actually helped make - 6 -interviews more f r u i t f u l , while i n a number of cases i t was responsible for reluctance or refusal to provide a l l the needed information. The relationship with Union Carbide also made i t impossible to obtain infor-mation from that firm's competitors, while a t r u l y disinterested inves-tigator might not have had such a handicap. Because i t i s f e l t that the precision gases market and market environment i n B.C. may not be e n t i r e l y representative of those across the rest of Canada, i t w i l l not be presumed that the results of this thesis w i l l be applicable to the problem as a whole. Rather, Union Carbide intends to regard the results of the study of the B.C. market as an indication of what i t faces in the Canadian market; past experience i n s e l l i n g across the country can then be used to try and relate the results of the "part" (B.C.) to the "whole" (Canada). This thesis w i l l not, then, attempt to apply the findings of the B.C. study to any area other than B.C. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms It is p a r t i c u l a r l y important to define terms when dealing with topics such as market surveys, market and company demand etc. In this case the most important d e f i n i t i o n required i s by far the most elusive to pin down--that of "precision gases". Union Carbide has yet to provide a useable description, perhaps because f a m i l i a r i t y with the subject tends to result i n an i n t u i t i v e understanding of the meaning of the term. A one sentence d e f i n i t i o n of precision gases is p r a c t i c a l l y impossible, hence a somewhat lengthy description w i l l be used. A "precision gas" i s a gas required i n such a state of purity or preparation that i t cannot be supplied - 7 -as a standard product o f "commercial" p u r i t y ; i n s t e a d the gas must be subjected to some process of p u r i f i c a t i o n or p r e p a r a t i o n that r e q u i r e s the use of s p e c i a l i z e d apparatus and/or techniques; because of the s p e c i a l i z e d nature of t h i s product, i t i s handled and s u p p l i e d i n r e l a t i v e l y small q u a n t i t i e s , u s u a l l y f o r one or a few customer(s) at a time (as opposed to bulk s u p p l y ) , although i t i s not uncommon f o r some gases of t h i s type to be produced p r i o r to an order being r e c e i v e d , and a small inventory kept at the p l a n t . Gases of t h i s type may be shipped as a gas or a l i q u i d , but are used i n gaseous form. Absolute measures of p u r i t y are not s u f f i c i e n t to d e f i n e a p r e c i s i o n gas--methane of 99.5 per cent p u r i t y would u s u a l l y q u a l i f y as a p r e c i s i o n gas, whereas argon of 99.995 per cent p u r i t y f r e q u e n t l y would not. F u r t h e r , the c r i t e r i o n used to define t h i s type of product may be one of q u a n t i t y o r d e r e d — f o r i n s t a n c e , n i t r o g e n of 99.995 per cent p u r i t y i n an " i n d u s t r i a l s i z e d c y l i n d e r (220 cubic foot c a p a c i t y ) i s not defined as a p r e c i s i o n gas, w h i l e the same gas, even at a lower l e v e l of p u r i t y , ordered i n a l e c t u r e b o t t l e of two cubic f e e t c a p a c i t y would normally be defined as a p r e c i s i o n gas. -One could argue that " s p e c i a l t y gas" i s as good a term as " p r e c i s i o n gas", and i n f a c t both terms w i l l be used interchangeably i n t h i s r e p o r t . The main poi n t i s that as long as the product has some a t t r i b u t e that d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t from mass produced com-m e r c i a l l y a v a i l a b l e gas, then i t q u a l i f i e s as a p r e c i s i o n gas. The market f o r p r e c i s i o n gases i s considered to be comprised of a l l p o t e n t i a l users of the product no matter what the nature of t h e i r e xistence (e.g. e d u c a t i o n a l , i n d u s t r i a l , medical, e t c . ) . For purposes of e s t i m a t i n g volumes of product demanded, the time p e r i o d considered w i l l be the 1969 calendar year. As mentioned e a r l i e r , the geographical boundaries of the - 8 -market considered w i l l be those of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Plan of the Study This introductory chapter w i l l be followed by a chapter dealing with the survey of the precision gases market. This w i l l outline the objectives of the survey, and describe the methodology used for obtaining the necessary information. The results of the survey w i l l be included i n the appendices but Chapter I I w i l l summarize these results and discuss the o v e r a l l findings and trends etc. An analysis of the data i n terms of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of demand by product type, user, and geographical location w i l l be included here. Chapter I I I w i l l be concerned with a study of the present marketing si t u a t i o n i n the precision gases market. The purpose here w i l l be to des-cribe the market i n terms of manufacturing, marketing channels and marketing functions, and to compare the s i t u a t i o n in B r i t i s h Columbia with that i n the Seattle, Washington area. In Chapter IV an attempt w i l l be made to analyse Union Carbide's position with respect to the precision gases market. This w i l l be done in terms of the firm's resources v i s - a - v i s the demands of the market, and i s intended to provide a l i n k between Chapter I I I , dealing with the market i t s e l f , and Chapter V. The l a t t e r chapter w i l l then propose a marketing program for Union Carbide that w i l l match the resources of the firm with the market requirements. A f i n a l chapter w i l l then summarize the findings. CHAPTER I I A SURVEY OF MARKET DEMAND FOR PRECISION GASES Objectives of the Survey When planning this project i t was f e l t that the l o g i c a l s tarting point would be a survey of existing market demand for precision gases, this stemming from Union Carbide's lack of information about the market. The objective of the survey, therefore, is to provide a complete picture of the demand side of the market. Data were sought on the types of gases used, including gas mixtures as well as pure gases; for each gas or mixture used, the specifications of gas purity and/or mixture tolerance were required; the volume of each gas that the user expected to purchase in the coming year was covered, as were any relevant data on unusual patterns of useage during the year, or si g n i f i c a n t changes in requirements i n the fore-seeable future. Each user was asked about preference as to the size (capacity) and shape of the containers in which gases are supplied; the purchasing practices of users were also of intere s t . And f i n a l l y , the supplier of gases presently used was noted. Survey Methods Before the survey was started, a l i s t of potential users of precision gases was compiled, the intention being that this l i s t should include a l l possible users of this product in B r i t i s h Columbia. Sources of data within Union Carbide were u t i l i z e d f i r s t ; f i l e s i n the l o c a l sales o f f i c e were searched for records of inquiries about specialty gases, and loc a l production - 10 -department f i l e s were used to determine which customers were using "non-standard" gases. Office personnel and salesmen working throughout B r i t i s h Columbia were interviewed to obtain any available information not recorded. Following this a day was spent discussing possible markets with sales and production personnel i n the company's head o f f i c e ; the f i l e s of the produc-t i o n department in Toronto (which handles most non-standard product items in Canada) were gleaned for information on what types of firms had require-ments for precision gases. F i n a l l y , information was obtained from the American parent company regarding the i r supply of specialty gases i n the United States. Once internal data sources had been covered, use was made of outside sources; regional d i r e c t o r i e s , trade directories and telephone indexes were found to be useful for r e l a t i n g names of l o c a l firms with categories of businesses that were considered to be possible users of these gases. The writer also spoke to personal contacts within the business community to enlarge the scope of sources covered. By this stage the l i s t of possible users was f e l t to be f a i r l y complete, and further checks on completeness were made during the f i e l d work of the survey; this turned out to be an effect i v e check, and a number of gaps were pointed out by some of the persons interviewed. The f i n a l check of the l i s t came at a later stage, when interviews were held with l o c a l d i s t r i b u t o r s of precision gases. The actual survey was conducted in the form of an extensive series of personal interviews designed to cover the complete market; i . e . the survey covered a l l known elements of the market population. Generally speaking, firms on the "possible user" l i s t were contacted by telephone f i r s t and an appointment was made with the appropriate personnel. The - 11 -interviews were quite unstructured, with the number and form of questions being tailored to suit the firm and individual involved; not surprisingly, the reaction to the interview varied widely from person to person--uni-veristy faculty members and corporate purchasing agents were found to respond in quite different manners. In most cases notes were made during the interview due to the large amount of detailed information involved; the length of the discussions ranged from five minutes to more than an hour, again depending on the particular individual and the relative importance of precision gases in his own work. Of course there were a number of cases in which a telephone c a l l was sufficient to determine that no precision gases were used, while in other cases the useage was so small that a l l the infor-mation was given over the phone in a very few minutes. The telephone calls and personal interviews were* supplemented in a few cases with letters from firms giving details that were not available at the time of the interview. Other methods of conducting the survey had been considered; a mail questionnaire to be sent to a l l possible users was rejected because i t was fe l t that only a very small percentage of the sample would reply. A survey based entirely on telephone interviews was another possibility, but was deemed unsuitable for two reasons: a large part of the interviewing was done at universities where i t is very d i f f i c u l t to locate people by telephone, and the writer f e l t that interviews would tend to be more in-formal and informative i f done on a face-to-face basis. Thus a personal type of interview was chosen as the most suitable method. Because of the rather limited nature of the use of precision gases, i t was decided from the outset that whatever method of data collection was used, i t would have to be conducted over the total market population rather than on a partial - 12 -sampling basis. The survey of precision gas users was followed by a v i s i t to local distributors of specialty gas products; this was done with the hopes of covering any gaps in the market survey, and of obtaining any pertinent data on the activities of marketing intermediaries in this market. A further step was taken in this regard when two days were spent in the Seattle, Washington area doing a very brief survey of the major precision gas users and specialty gas distributors. It was f e l t that i t would be useful to compare the marketing situation in B.C. with that in an area that has many similarities, but which was f e l t to be somewhat more industrially developed; the difference in stages of development was thought to be a potential aid to forecasting trends, marketing agents and methods. In retrospect, the survey method chosen appears to have been f a i r l y successful. Although there were a few instances where interviews produced minimal results due to lack of interest or to h o s t i l i t y toward the inter-viewer, nearly a l l meetings produced useable data. Certainly alternative methods of data collection would not have yielded as satisfactory results as were obtained. As mentioned in the previous chapter, the outcome of the survey might have been somewhat more complete had the interviewer had a more neutral relationship with the aims of the project. However, i t is f e l t that this has not significantly jeopardized the validity or comprehensive-ness of the data collected. Survey Results Discussion of Results When the data from the market survey were tabulated, one of the f i r s t characteristics to be noted was the relatively large number of precision gas - 13 -users and the very diverse nature of this c o l l e c t i o n of users.''- A t o t a l of forty-two firms or i n s t i t u t i o n s were found to be purchasing precision gases (or expecting to in 1969), a few of these users consuming large volumes of this product, while others order specialty gases only very infrequently. Some users are very large organizations, such as MacMillan Bloedel or Imperial O i l , while on the other hand quite a few were found to be two- or three-man businesses. The types of a c t i v i t i e s carried on by the users also varied widely; there were s i x u n i v e r s i t i e s or colleges, a technical i n s t i t u t e , high schools, three i n d u s t r i a l research laboratories, ten i n d u s t r i a l a n a l y t i c a l laboratories, four commercial testing labs, seven government research labs, two government agencies, four hospitals and three miscellaneous users. It i s readily apparent that there i s very l i t t l e that a l l or most of these users have i n common; the commercial a c t i v i t y of each user d i f f e r s widely, so that i t i s impossible to c l a s s i f y them by industry sector etc., and the personnel actually using the precision gases do not have common professional backgrounds or i n t e r e s t s — t h e gases are used by chemists, p h y s i c i s t s , metallurgists, b i o l o g i s t s , professors, teachers, graduate students, doctors of medicine, and technicians. This d i v e r s i f i -cation implies that there would be no simple method of reaching a l l users of precision gases through any single promotional medium. Just as the user l i s t i s d i v e r s i f i e d , so also i s the l i s t of gases 2 used. In this l i s t are included some of the more commonly encountered gases in the i n d u s t r i a l gas market, such as oxygen, nitrogen, helium, See Appendix I I and Appendix I I I , pages 55-73. See Appendix IV, pages 74-85. - 14 -argon and a i r . However, also included i n the l i s t are some gases such as boron t r i f l u o r i d e and 1,3-butadiene, both being products of which a new-comer to the f i e l d s of specialty gases or chemistry might never have heard. In a l l , there are 75 gases and 36 different gas mixtures mentioned by users. It should be pointed out, however, that this product i s not defined just by the par t i c u l a r kind of gas i t happens to be, for there are other variables associated with these gases that necessitate a more detailed breakdown before the product i s f u l l y described. One such variable i s that of purity. For instance, nitrogen i s required by some users with a maximum impurity content of one part i n a thousand, while the same gas may be required by another user with a maximum impurity l e v e l of one part in one hundred thousand. Many gases are used at more than two purity l e v e l s . For example, hydrogen and methane are purchased at f i v e different levels of purity; argon, helium, oxygen, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are used at four purity l e v e l s ; and neon, n-butane, ethane, iso-butane, propane and propylene are used at three purity l e v e l s . Gas mixtures are ordered in an almost con-a tinuous range of mixture ratios in some cases, while i t i s not uncommon for mixtures to be ordered with a specified impurity l e v e l for each component or for the ov e r a l l mixture, i n addition to the specified mixture r a t i o . The number of ways in which precision gases may be ordered i s compli-cated not only by the large number of gases and the varying degrees of purity at which they are supplied, but also by the r e l a t i v e l y large selec-t i o n of containers in which they may be supplied.^ The containers range from a one l i t r e Pyrex glass flask which holds about one t h i r t i e t h of a See Appendix I, page 54. - 15 -cubic foot of gas under atmospheric pressure, to a large " i n d u s t r i a l " size (#1A) cylinder containing over 200 cubic feet of gas at pressure exceeding 2,200 pounds per square inch guage (psig). Within this range are found s i x other commonly-used container styles: a lecture bottle holding two cubic feet (CF) of gas at 1,800 psig; a lecture sphere holding eight CF of gas at 2,265 psig; #4, #3, and #2 cylinders holding ten, t h i r t y , and seventy-five CF of gas respectively, at 2,000 psig; and a #1A Low Pressure (L.P.) cylinder holding 100 to 150 pounds of l i q u i f i e d gas at 2 to 110 psig pressure. In addition to these eight container s t y l e s , other containers were occasionally found during the survey, but were not considered to be important enough to be c l a s s i f i e d separately, and so have been c l a s s i f i e d as "other" cylinders in the tables. It should be mentioned that of a l l the container styles described, only a few are currently being used by most suppliers of i n d u s t r i a l or precision gases; i n general, only #1A and #2 cylinders are available from the i n d u s t r i a l gas suppliers, while lecture spheres are handled only by one l o c a l s c i e n t i f i c supply house (Fisher S c i e n t i f i c ) . A l l the other styles are supplied almost exclusively by the Matheson Company of Canada Limited; lecture bottles are sold by s c i e n t i f i c supply wholesalers, but i n a l l cases are supplied to them by Matheson. When the attributes of purity and container style are considerd in addition to the particular kind of gas, the number of precision gas "pro-ducts" ordered in B r i t i s h Columbia swells to over 200. Eight atmospheric gases are ordered in a t o t a l of 31 ways; thirty-nine hydrocarbon gases are ordered in a t o t a l of 69 ways, some individual gases of this type being ordered i n up to eight combinations of purity and container s t y l e . Twenty-seven "other" gases are used in 65 combinations of purity and cylinder s t y l e , while twenty-seven gas mixture types are ordered in 44 - 16 -va r i a t i o n s . Thus to serve the market as a whole, a supplier would have to stock or maintain a source of supply of over 75 different gases, keep on hand a stock of over half a dozen types of containers (in many cases this would mean stocking up to. s i x or eight cylinder styles for each gas), be prepared to refine (or have refined) each gas to high states of purity, and to prepare (or have prepared) mixtures of one to four gases in an almost continuous range of mixture r a t i o s . Of the forty-two users of precision gases i n B r i t i s h Columbia, there are only a few individual users that use substantial amounts. The largest single user i s the Vancouver General Hospital, which expects to use 49,100 CF i n 1969 (34 per cent of the t o t a l market), i n the form of a few gas mixtures. Next i n volume of use is the University of B.C., which expects to use 18,000 CF (13 per cent of t o t a l ) , this being comprised of dozens of dif f e r e n t gases and mixtures. The t h i r d largest user i s Saint Paul's Hos-p i t a l , with 14,300 CF (10 per cent of t o t a l ) , followed by Simon Fraser University with 10,000 CF (7.5 per cent of t o t a l ) . The large i n d u s t r i a l users are Cominco, which i s expected to use 9,100 CF, mostly of a few basic mixtures; MacMillan Bloedel (2,352 CF or 1.7 per cent); and Coast Eldridge (2,074 CF or 1.5 per cent). Two other firms which are large users are the B.C. Hydro and Power Authority and Kent Chemicals; the former uses mainly very high purity sulphur hexafluoride gas and expects to use about 10,000 CF i n 1969, while the l a t t e r uses hydrogen chloride regularly, expecting to consume 9,800 CF i n 1969. Summarizing the above figures, i t i s seen that four hospitals account for 46 per cent of the t o t a l market demand, two u n i v e r s i t i e s account for a further 20 per cent, and f i v e i n d u s t r i a l or com-mercial users account for another 24 per cent. Thus eleven of forty-two - 17 -users (26 per cent) are responsible for 90 per cent of market demand. FIGURE 1 EXPECTED DEMAND FOR PRECISION GASES CUBIC FEET PER YEAR BY TYPE OF GAS, 1969 Container Style Atmospheric and Rare Gases Hydro-Carbon Gases Other Gases Gas Mixtures Sub-Total % of Total Lecture Bottle 723 607 2,358 27 3,715 2.6 Lecture Sphere 64 64 -#4 Cylinder 10 23 141 174 0.1 #3 Cylinder 30 33 326 389 0.3 #2 Cylinder 171 441 3,156 3,768 2.6 #1A Cylinder 7,687 600 29,478 92,683 130,448 91.3 #1A L.P. Cyl. 850' 3,405 4,255 3.0 Flask 7 1 1 3 12 -Other 100 3 103 0.1 Sub-Total 8,621 2,285 36,153 95,869 142,928 100.0 % of Total 6.0 1.6 25.3 67.1 100.0 Source: Appendix V (a), page 86. Figure 1 above shows the demand for specialty gases summarized by type of gas; i t i s evident that the demand i s anything but uniformly dis-tributed; gas mixtures comprise well over ha l f of the t o t a l , and even i f the useage of the two largest consumers of this type of gas were deducted, - 18 -mixtures would s t i l l make up 32 per cent of the t o t a l demand. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n "other gases" shows the second largest demand, this category including twenty-seven pure gases not covered by the terms "atmospheric gases" or "hydro-carbon gases", most of them being gases not normally handled by i n d u s t r i a l gas producers (exceptions being carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and nitrous oxide). FIGURE 2 EXPECTED DEMAND FOR PRECISION GASES NUMBER OF CONTAINERS PER YEAR BY TYPE OF GAS, 1969 Container Style Atmospheric and Rare Gases Hydro-Carbon Gases Other Gases Gas Mixtures Sub-Total % of Total Lecture Bottle 360 211 645 7 1,223 57.3 Lecture Sphere 8 8 0.4 #4 Cylinder 1 2 6 9 0.4 #3 Cylinder 1 1 4 6 0.3 #2 Cylinder 1 4 35 40 1.9 #1A Cylinder 34 2 81 411 528 24.7 #1A L.P. Cyl. 1 3 4 0.2 Flask 186 2 13 84 285 13.4 Other 12 17 29 1.4 Sub-Total 602 220 773 537 2,132 100.0 % of Total 28.2 10.3 36.3 25.2 100.0 Source: Appendix V (a), page 86. - 19 -Figure 2, on the previous page, gives a breakdown of the numbers of each style of container i n demand for the major types of gases. I t i s apparent that lecture bottles are by far the most popular cylinder i n terms of the number used, although a great proportion of the 1,223 lecture bottles i s made up of those used at Simon Fraser University (477) and i n the public schools of B r i t i s h Columbia (500). The number of small cylinders (#4, #3, and #2) used appears quite i n s i g n i f i c a n t , as does the number of low-pressure i n d u s t r i a l size cylinders (#1A L.P.). Thus one can account for 95 per cent of a l l containers used by considering only lecture b o t t l e s , #1A cylinders, and Pyrex f l a s k s . Referring back to Figure 1 however, i t i s evident that the number of containers used t e l l s only part of the story--when the volume of gas sold i s taken into account the r e l a t i v e importance of given containers changes markedly. Although lecture bottles comprise 57 per cent of the cylinders used, these account for only 2.6 per cent of the gas consumed; and while #1A cylinders are a quarter of the t o t a l , the gas sold in them com-prises 91 per cent of the t o t a l gas volume. Other interesting points can be noted by studying Figures 1 and 2. F i r s t , the importance of cylinder style varies from gas to gas; whereas #1A cylinders dominate the s i t u a t i o n i n the gas mixtures c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , lecture bottles constitute over ha l f of the cylinders used for atmospheric gases and nearly a l l of those used for hydrocarbons and "other" gases. Second, although lecture bottles do not account for much of the t o t a l volume of gas sold, within given gas c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s they are of some importance— over 8 per cent of atmospheric gases are used in lecture b o t t l e s , as i s 6 per cent of "other" gases and 26 per cent of hydrocarbon gases. Another point worth noting i s that "other" gases i n #1A cylinders account for 21 perLcent of t o t a l gas volume, and gas mixtures account for another 65 per - 20 -cent of the t o t a l . From the figures i n Appendix IV i t can be shown that of the 92,600 CF of gas mixtures i n #1A cylinders, 65,000 CF i s comprised of various mixtures of oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide; in other words, mixtures of these three basic gases make up over 46 per cent of the t o t a l precision gases expected to be used i n 1969. I t should also be noted, as previously done, that this l a t t e r category of gas i s used largely by one major user, the Vancouver General Hospital (49,100 CF). Immediately above i t was noted that 65,000 CF of gas mixtures i n #1A cylinders are comprised of combinations of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, three gases already commonly handled by Union Carbide. However, i f one studies the breakdown of atmospheric gases and "other" gases, i t can be seen that another 8,700 CF, of gases in #1A cylinders is also comprised of products presently sold on a regular basis by Union Carbide; a further 17,000 CF of mixtures of i n d u s t r i a l gases can be found l i s t e d under "gas mixtures" i n #1A cylinders. The result i s that of the t o t a l of 142,928 CF of precision gases expected to be used i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1969, 90,700 CF i s made up of gases normally handled by Union Carbide i n cylinder types stocked in a l l Union Carbide plants. This implies that nearly 64 per cent of the t o t a l e xisting market for precision gases i n B.C. could be handled by Union Carbide without requiring expansion of product lines to include new types of gases, and without requiring a substantial investment in new cylinders. Geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of demand for precision gases i s what one would expect knowing the present stage of development of B r i t i s h Col-umbia. Figure 3 following shows that 84 per cent of the demand originates from the Vancouver area, while Vancouver Island and the Southern Interior - 21 -FIGURE 3 EXPECTED DEMAND FOR PRECISION GASES CONTAINERS PER YEAR BY GEOGRAPHICAL AREA, 1969 Container Style Vancouver Vancouver Island Southern Interior Other Sub-Total Lecture Bottle 958 114 76 75 1,223 Lecture Sphere 8 8 #4 Cylinder 4 2 3 9 #3 Cylinder 1 4 1 6 #2 Cylinder 28 1 11 40 #1A Cylinder 477 12 39 528 #1A L.P. Cyl. 3 1 4 Flask 285 285 Other 28 1 29 Sub-Total 1,792 134 131 75 2,132 % of Total 84.1 6.3 6.1 3.5 100.0 Source: Appendix VI, page 74-85. each account for roughly 6 per cent. The pattern of demand on Vancouver Island tends to show a more even d i s t r i b u t i o n than average among the various container s t y l e s , this being due largely to the influence of the University of V i c t o r i a requirements. The Southern Interior displays the more common pattern of about half of the t o t a l container requirements being - 22 -for lecture bottles and one quarter for #1A cylinders; Cominco in T r a i l provides the demand for the majority of these cylinders. Perhaps the only c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of product that is i n demand f a i r l y consistently throughout the province i s atmospheric gases and "other" gases i n lecture bottles for the public school system. FIGURE 4 SUPPLIERS OF PRECISION GASES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA MARKET SHARES (CONTAINERS PER YEAR), 1969 Supplier No. of Containers Supplied (Est. 1969) % of Total Matheson of Canada 1,339 67.2 Canadian Liquid A i r 253 12.7 Union Carbide Canada 85 4.3 A i r Reduction Company 37 1.8 Liquid Carbonic Corp. 3 0.1 Other Suppliers 278 13.9 Total 1,995 100.0 Gases not yet ordered 137 2,132 Source: Appendix I I , pages 55-71. Figure 4 above shows how the supply of precision gases to B r i t i s h Columbia users i s divided between the various suppliers. Matheson of Canada has a dominant share as previously indicated, with Canadian Liquid - 23 -A i r being the only other supplier of any consequence, this being due mostly to i t s position as supplier of gas mixtures for the Vancouver General Hospital. For the purposes of this summary, l o c a l d i s t r i b u t o r s of s c i e n t i f i c supplies were not mentioned since the four encountered a l l obtain their gases and containers through Metheson; the one exception to this i s Fisher S c i e n t i f i c which s e l l s lecture spheres obtained from " L i f -O-Gen", an American firm; a t o t a l of eight lecture spheres were encountered dur ing the survey. Cylinder Deposits and Demurrage It was found that i n nearly a l l cases users of precision gases pay a deposit on cylinders when the gas is purchased, and except for lecture b o t t l e s , pay demurrage charges (usually one d o l l a r a month) on the cylinder after an i n i t i a l "free loan" period of two months; with lecture bottles a deposit of about eight dollars i s paid on purchase of the gas (some suppliers c a l l i n g this an outright sale) and the deposit less one d o l l a r is refunded i f the container i s returned within a year. As is the case with i n d u s t r i a l gases, nearly a l l users find demurrage payments a nuisance and would prefer they be eliminated; suggestions for other methods of payment for container use included an annual charge on a per-cylinder basis for regular users; a higher s e l l i n g price for gases to cover cylinder use as w e l l ; and out-r i g h t sale of the cylinders to users, who would then be able to have these cylinders f i l l e d as needed. The l a s t suggestion has the same disadvan-tages that i t would with i n d u s t r i a l gas cylinders (periodic testing of cylinders, maintenance of valves etc., and other safety aspects) while the writer i s not convinced that higher gas prices would be a suitable alternative ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n competitive s i t u a t i o n s ) . The idea of an annual cylinder use charge for large and regular users has some merit, and i n fact - 24 -i s being t r i e d for gases used i n large cylinders by the University of B.C. The only exception to the deposit—demurrage policy was found in connection with Fisher s c i e n t i f i c ' s lecture spheres--these are sold outright and are treated as disposable containers; Fisher w i l l not accept them back for c r e d i t . Related Apparatus and Accessories During the survey users were questioned about their needs for apparatus related to the handling and control of precision gases. Cylinder regulators and needle valves were the only pieces of equipment that were required by most users, the more unusual apparatus required for "exotic" applications being made up by laboratory technicians. Most users f e l t that regulation equipment for laboratory use must be designed for that pur-pose, and that adoption of i n d u s t r i a l designs does not y i e l d satisfactory r e s u l t s . The demand for regulators and valves etc. i s f e l t to be f a i r l y small, as these items normally have a long l i f e expectancy, the only large purchases coming from users expanding thei r laboratory f a c i l i t i e s . Purchasing Practices In considering users' methods of purchasing precision gases i t must be remembered that this product l i n e comprises only a very small proportion of a firm's t o t a l purchases; even the largest user of precision gases spends a r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t amount of money in t h i s area. Therefore, the purchasing of these gases receives less attention than does, for instance, that of i n d u s t r i a l gases. In gene-r a l , the department or group using the precision gas sends a r e q u i s i t i o n to the purchasing department requesting purchase of the gas, the purchasing department usually placing the order with the supplier specified on the - 25 -r e q u i s i t i o n . In the case of u n i v e r s i t i e s , i f the order i s a large one (e.g. supply of a particular gas or gases on a regular basis for a year or more) the purchasing department invites bids from a l l known suppliers, and awards the business to the firm meeting a l l product specifications at the lowest price; i f the order i s not a major one, the order i s placed d i r e c t l y with the usual (or specified) supplier. Hospitals, because they tend to use only a few types of gases and useage i s f a i r l y regular, tend to formalize the purchasing procedures more than do u n i v e r s i t i e s ; bids or quotations are usually requested from suppliers before an order i s placed. One could conclude, then, that on the whole the smaller the order the more l i k e l y i t i s that the f i n a l user of the gas w i l l influence the selection of supplier. Forecast of Demand for Precision Gases Before leaving the discussion of the results of the market survey, a b r i e f look at future trends in market demand might be warranted. During the survey an attempt was made to determine the changes i n demand that might be expected over the next few years for each user and each gas. It soon became very clear however, that none of the users had a good idea of how thei r specialty gas requirements might change. In a few cases, labora-tory technicians or research personnel were able to predict that certain gases would not be required after a certain date, or that an imminent project would require the use of certain new gaseous reagents; but i n general rarely did a laboratory have any idea of the types of experiments planned or types of specialty reagents needed beyond a time horizon of s i x to twelve months. Therefore a forecast of demand change for precision gases - 26 -must be discussed in rather general terms, making use of the few indica-tors of future trends that are available. In the i n d u s t r i a l area, no good indicator of demand change could be found. Some small laboratories connected with chemical producers, r e f i n e r i e s etc., expect the i r useage of gases to continue r e l a t i v e l y un-changed. Other laboratories, such as the MacMillan Bloedel Research Laboratories, expect useage to increase steadily but could not or would not give estimated rates of growth. A number of persons interviewed expressed the opinion that one area that w i l l have a very s i g n i f i c a n t growth rate i n the immediate future i s the study and control of a i r pol-l u t i o n ; i t was f e l t that a number of small testing and research laboratories w i l l become very active i n this f i e l d over the next few years. On the other hand, an area where no growth or perhaps a decline i n demand is expected i s that of the neon sign industry—the growing popularity of p l a s t i c signs with internal fluorescent l i g h t i n g i s causing a l e v e l l i n g off of demand for "neon" li g h t s and hence for high purity rare gases for these l i g h t s . However, considering the i n d u s t r i a l sector as a whole, i t i s f e l t that due to continuing emphasis on technological development the demand for specialty gases w i l l probably grow at an annual rate of 10 percent. Universities i n the province use a considerable amount of precision gases, and the growth of demand from this sector i s expected to be substan-t i a l . I t was found during the market survey that precision gases used at u n i v e r s i t i e s tend to be used i n work done by graduate students; this was borne out by results of the survey at the University of V i c t o r i a where a f a i r l y low useage corresponded to a low graduate student enrollment; and at Seattle University where there i s no graduate school and the demand for - 27 -precision gases was ess e n t i a l l y n i l . The Economic Council of Canada has published a study projecting the enrollment i n Canadian university graduate schools to 1973-74;^ this forecasts an annual increase in graduate enrol-lment ranging from 17 per cent in 1969-70 to 10 per cent i n 1973-74, for an overall increase of 83.8 per cent over the fi v e year period. The o f f i c e of Academic Planning at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia has done 2 a similar forecast with results that are very close to those of the Economic Council study; the ove r a l l increase i n graduate enrollment at U.B.C. for the same period i s predicted to be 83.5 per cent. For purposes of forecasting demand growth, the projected enrollment of graduate students i n selected 3 Faculties was taken from the U.B.C. study, the selected Faculties being those in which precision gases were found to be used. From this projection i t i s seen that enrollment i n these Faculties i s expected to increase 81.9 per cent over the next f i v e years. It i s assumed, then, that the demand for precision gases by u n i v e r s i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l increase by 82 per cent by the end of 1973. In contrast to university enrollment forecasts, the Economic 4 Council projections of enrollment in Canadian secondary schools shows a very modest growth rate, ranging between 2.5 per cent and 4.02 per cent annually. The f i v e year increase of 16.2 per cent shown in Appendix XIII See Appendix See Appendix See Appendix See Appendix X, page 96. XI, page 97. XII, page 98. XI I I , page 99. - 28 -w i l l be taken as an indicator of the percentage increase i n demand for precision gases by the public school system i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The other major type of gas user i s hospitals, whose demand for thi s product i s expected to increase very s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the coming years. Most specialty gases ordered by hospitals are used i n conjunction with complex a n a l y t i c a l apparatus and equipment; the larger hospitals are currently ordering and i n s t a l l i n g new equipment for their laboratories. As a r e s u l t , consumption of oxygen-nitrogen-carbon dioxide mixtures i s expec-ted to jump by about 30 per cent to 40 per cent during the next year, and to increase at an annual rate of 15 per cent to 20 per cent after that. It i s anticipated that as the demand for precision gases increases, there w i l l be s h i f t s i n emphasis with respect to both gases and containers used. Some of the points already mentioned could have an effect here; for instance, growing interest in a i r p o l l u t i o n studies should lead to an inc-reased useage of hydro-carbon and "other" gases (e.g. carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide e t c . ) , as wel l as mixtures of these types of gases; a slackening of demand for rare gases for the neon sign industry w i l l retard growth of sales of Pyrex f l a s k s ; and as just mentioned above, expansion of hospital laboratory f a c i l i t i e s w i l l result in a marked r i s e i n consumption of gas mixtures. A recent development i n the f i e l d of nuclear counters, the " s c i n t i l l a t i o n counter", i s expected to cause a l e v e l l i n g i n demand for nuclear counting gas mixtures. As u n i v e r s i t i e s grow and their needs for specialty gases increase i t i s expected that lecture bottles w i l l tend to be replaced by larger cylinders; a number of laboratory personnel expressed great interest i n the lecture sphere containers, feeling that they have strong advantages over - 29 -lecture b o t t l e s — t h e a b i l i t y to stand upright without use of supporting apparatus, and a four-fold increase in capacity without a s a c r i f i c e i n convenience of handling. For these reasons, and because Fisher S c i e n t i f i c Company indicates that i t plans to promote lecture spheres a c t i v e l y , i t i s f e l t that this type of container w i l l replace lecture bottles more and more in the next few years. At the same time, i t i s expected that containers such as #2 and #1A cylinders w i l l replace lecture bottles (or lecture spheres) as demand from university users expands--note the smaller role that lec-ture bottles play at U.B.C. and the University of Washington, both f a i r l y large i n s t i t u t i o n s , compared to Simon Fraser University, a much smaller i n s t i t u t i o n . For a forecast of demand for precision gases in B r i t i s h Columbia by the end of 1973, see Appendix V(b), page 87. CHAPTER I I I MARKETING METHODS USED BY PRESENT SUPPLIERS The purpose of this chapter i s to look at the existing marketing structure that has developed i n B r i t i s h Columbia; this w i l l be done by examining the operation of each firm that presently supplies specialty gases to this market, and w i l l conclude with a b r i e f look at the marketing si t u a t i o n i n the Seattle area of Washington State as a means of comparison. Matheson of Canada Ltd. U n t i l the past few years, Matheson of Canada Ltd. was almost the only supplier of specialty gas products i n B r i t i s h Columbia. This was the f i r s t company to attempt to f u l l y tap the potential of the Canadian market for t h i s product, and over the years i t has done a very good job of covering almost every aspect of the market; the Matheson catalogue includes v i r t u a l l y every gas encountered i n the market survey, this selection of gases being accompanied by an exhaustive array of accessory equipment for handling and c o n t r o l l i n g the gases i n shipment and i n use. The choice of container size i s also complete as evidenced by the data i n the survey r e s u l t s . Part of the marketing strategy of this supplier, then, has been to approach the Canadian market with a broad and deep product o f f e r i n g . I t would seem reasonable to assume, however, that this approach has been possible largely due to the backing of this firm's we l l established American parent company, which has been supplying a similar market i n the United States for years. Many of the gaseous products sold by Matheson in Canada apparently are obtained from the parent i n the United States, and a l l of the apparatus - 31 -and equipment supplied originates from the same source. Matheson's marketing operations in B r i t i s h Columbia are of a f a i r l y simple nature. As stated e a r l i e r i n this report, Western Canada is served by a sales o f f i c e and a salesman located in the P r a i r i e s ; a great part of Matheson's sales are handled on a direct basis, and th i s one sales-man i s responsible for covering a l l aspects of direct sales as well as the associated service. Shipment of product ordered, d i r e c t l y through Matheson is made from a warehouse in Ontario; no cases of shipment from Western Canadian warehouses were found. In addition to personal s e l l i n g , Matheson r e l i e s heavily on catalogues and technically oriented publications for promotion of i t s products; nearly every user of precision gases encountered possessed a copy of the Matheson catalogue of specialty gases and related accessories, which gives a very complete guide to Matheson products and services. Most major users of precision gases also owned a copy of the "Matheson Gas Data Book", a voluminous publication with an exhaustive l i s t i n g of technical data on p r a c t i c a l l y every gas available; although this book i s sold by Matheson at a price in excess of ten dollars (rather than being given to users as a promotional device) i t appears that i t i s effec-t i v e in enhancing Matheson's image i n users' eyes; i t i s also probably an eff e c t i v e aid in promoting gas sales since i t makes the reader aware of a l l the gases that are available. In addition to s e l l i n g d i r e c t l y to users, Matheson also s e l l s precision gases to a number of s c i e n t i f i c supply wholesalers; a t o t a l of four such firms i n the Vancouver area were found to handle Matheson gases. Two of them, Fisher S c i e n t i f i c Company Limited and Canadian Laboratory Supplies Limited, are engaged primarily i n s e l l i n g s c i e n t i f i c apparatus, - 32 -equipment and supplies to a l l kinds of laboratories throughout the province. In order to complement th e i r product l i n e s , both of these firms offer the complete l i n e of Matheson gases, sold i n lecture bottles only; they both f e e l that handling these gases contributes much more to having a complete product l i n e than i t does d i r e c t l y to p r o f i t s . The other two firms, Welch S c i e n t i f i c Company of Canada Limited and Central S c i e n t i f i c Company of Canada Limited, concentrate on supplying educational i n s t i t u t i o n s (primarily public secondary schools) with s c i e n t i f i c apparatus and supplies; they also carry the f u l l l i n e of Matheson gases i n lecture b o t t l e s , but fe e l that this product line,does make a s i g n i f i c a n t contribution to p r o f i t as well as rounding out th e i r product o f f e r i n g . A l l of these suppliers purchase the gases from Matheson F.O.B. the Ontario plant, paying a deposit on cylinders which i s refunded when the cylinder i s returned; none would disclose the exact discount that Matheson gives them from l i s t prices, but Welch Scien-t i f i c indicated i t was in the range of 30 per cent off l i s t ; usually the gas i s resold at Matheson l i s t prices, these distributors setting their own s e l l i n g p r ice. A l l expressed severe d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the present dis-count from Matheson, feeling that i t i s too low. Each of these four firms competes with the others i n the market, since Fisher and Canadian Labora-tories do s e l l to schools as well as other laboratories; none f e l t that they were competing with Matheson to any degree. Fisher is the only firm that also carries a competing l i n e of specialty gases, this l i n e being obtained from "Lif-O-Gen" as mentioned in the previous chapter; these gases, of which there i s a selection of nineteen, are supplied i n lecture sphere containers which are considered to be disposable. Fisher would not indicate what sales margin i t has on this l i n e , but as i t was stated that i t intends - 33 -to promote these gases actively i t i s assumed that the margin is probably better than that on Matheson gases. In a l l cases the s c i e n t i f i c supply distributors are responsible for performing a l l marketing functions; each warehouses a limited amount of the more popular gases for regular customers, and each handles i t s own promotion as w e l l . Only i n the area of technical service and trouble-shooting does Matheson become involved, supplying the appropriate information or person-nel when the need i s s u f f i c i e n t . In assessing Matheson's reputation i n the precision gases market, one i s faced with c o n f l i c t i n g views; some users were very s a t i s f i e d with Matheson's product, service, and prices; others were highly d i s s a t i s f i e d on a l l counts, and of course most f e l l somewhere i n between. Generalizing, however, i t could be said that the product l i n e offered by this firm i s satisfactory to most users; those who required very close tolerances on product preparation were often disappointed however. It was quite common' to hear complaints about Matheson's prices, although most users had no other suppliers by which to judge these prices. The most common complaint from Matheson customers (and ex-customers) was about service--nearly every user encountered mentioned extremely long delivery times (even considering the specialty nature of the product) and very infrequent v i s i t s by sales personnel; nearly a l l users stated that having a l o c a l representative would greatly enhance the position of any supplier. The overall impression gained was that firms dealt with Matheson mainly because they had no other choice of suppliers. - 34 -Canadian Liquid A i r A second supplier of precision gases i s Canadian Liquid A i r , the largest i n d u s t r i a l gas supplier in Canada. Through i t s Lab Gases Division i n Montreal, this firm has been attempting to enter the specialty gases market i n Canada for the past few years. It was learned from a l o c a l user of precision gases that i n the past year Canadian Liquid A i r (C.L.A.) has conducted a survey of the specialty gases market across Canada, and that i t now intends to greatly increase i t s e f f o r t s in marketing this product l i n e . C.L.A. s e l l s precision gases on a direct basis through i t s regular ( i n d u s t r i a l gas) sales force which has coverage from coast to coast. Because of i t s production plants and f i l l i n g stations scattered throughout Canada, C.L.A. i s able to stock gases at numerous points when necessary; in B r i t i s h Columbia some gases are stocked i n Vancouver. The l i n e of gases being sold by this firm i s f a i r l y limited so f a r , being mainly very pure atmospheric gases and mixtures of these gases. Personal s e l l i n g is backed up by a f a i r l y extensive program of advertising i n trade journals and other magazines (e.g. "Time" magazine), although this advertising is directed at i n d u s t r i a l gases i n general, and only occasionally i s directed s p e c i f i c a l l y at preci-sion gases. Canadian Liquid A i r has a substantial part of the B r i t i s h Columbia specialty gas market because of i t s current position as supplier of most gas mixtures for the Vancouver General Hospital. Aside from Union Carbide, the only other s e l l e r s of precision gases in B r i t i s h Columbia play a very minor role i n the overall picture; A i r Reduction Company Inc., Liquid Carbonic Corporation, and Monsanto Company a l l s e l l very small amounts of the more exotic gases, primarily to the u n i v e r s i t i e s ; none of these could be said to have a marketing system i n - 35 -Canada (for precision gases, at least) as e s s e n t i a l l y a l l of this business i s handled by mail due to i t s infrequent and irregular occurrence. The Market i n the Seattle Area Two days were spent i n Seattle i n an attempt to get a " f e e l " for the precision gases market in that area. As had been expected i t was found that useage of precision gases was centered around two main p o i n t s — t h e University of Washington and the Boeing Company--a si t u a t i o n not unlike that i n Vancouver, where U.B.C. and Simon Fraser University represent one main area of useage, and MacMillan Bloedel i s the largest single i n d u s t r i a l user. There was one s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y i n the supply side of the markets as w e l l , the Matheson Company Inc. having a dominant share of the Seattle market, and from what could be determined, of the West Coast market also. As i s the case i n B r i t i s h Columbia, a number of firms i n the United States are st a r t i n g to show a growing awareness of the precision gases market. Union Carbide Corporation i s already i n this f i e l d , s e l l i n g a l l thei r specialty gas products in the U.S. through a single d i s t r i b u t o r , the J. T. Baker Chemical Company. Another firm, Merck, Sharpe and Dohme, who supply pharmaceuticals and chemicals throughout the U.S., has also entered the specialty gas market by s e l l i n g through a chemical supplies wholesaler, Wilshire Chemical. Both J. T. Baker Chemical and Wilshire Chemical, as well as Matheson, operate out of C a l i f o r n i a , having a salesman c a l l on Washington users three or four times a year; a l l gas shipments are made from C a l i f o r n i a plants, except for the more unusual,products, which come from the Eastern States. In addition to the three suppliers already mentioned, two more are slowly becoming active i n this market; the A i r Reduction - 36 -Company Inc. and A i r Products and Chemicals Inc., both large i n d u s t r i a l gas suppliers i n the United States, are intending to market precision gases on a direct basis and through the i r i n d u s t r i a l gas d i s t r i b u t o r organizations. There was one obvious difference noted between the B r i t i s h Columbia and Seattle market s t r u c t u r e s — i n Seattle there i s no s c i e n t i f i c supplies d i s t r i b u t o r that s e l l s precision gases, as opposed to the four encountered in the Vancouver area. A number of firms of this nature were interviewed, but a l l expressed complete lack of interest i n this f i e l d due to lack of demand and poor p r o f i t margins. Because of the fact that neither of the two i n d u s t r i a l gas producers that market specialty gases on a direct basis have of f i c e s or plants i n Seattle, there i s absolutely no lo c a l supply or warehousing f a c i l i t i e s for this product in the area. This s i t u a t i o n of no lo c a l supply but a number of s e l l e r s operating " d i r e c t " or through distantly located d i s t r i b u t o r s seems to be of some significance, and w i l l be mentioned at a la t e r stage of this report. CHAPTER IV UNION CARBIDE RESOURCES AND MARKET REQUIREMENTS Union Carbide Resources With t o t a l assets of $174,693,000 and annual net sales of $159,686,000 (1967), Union Carbide Canada Limited would cert a i n l y rank as one of the large and well established members of the Canadian i n d u s t r i a l community. Perhaps more important than i t s s i z e , i n considering i t s capa-b i l i t y to enter a new market, is the company's d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , technological and otherwise, as indicated by the products i t s e l l s and the markets i t serves; a firm s e l l i n g to the electronics industry and the nuclear power industry, to name just two, must be able to, keep pace with some of the faster changing aspects of the i n d u s t r i a l scene. In terms of serving the precision gases market, then, i t i s f e l t that Union'Carbide has adequate f i n a n c i a l resources to allow i t to approach the problem r e l a t i v e l y unhampered by a lack of funds, keeping in mind, of course, that funds would be available only i f management had some assurance of a reasonable le v e l of p r o f i t a b i l i t y for the project. Another area in which Union Carbide has a strong footing i s that of technology; reference has already been made to the wide d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of the company's products, the the predominance of technologically-oriented products has been mentioned as w e l l . In the more s p e c i f i c f i e l d of gas products, this firm has a long standing record of technological leadership and achievement; a f u l l time development department i s maintained i n Ontario, and this i s backed up by a large development department and f u l l scale research a c t i v i t i e s of the - 38 -American parent company. Closely related to technological resources are personnel resources. Union Carbide i s staffed at a l l levels with w e l l -trained and experienced employees; the sales force has a large percentage of engineers and technologists in i t s ranks; development a c t i v i t i e s are handled by a highly trained group; production department personnel include many engineers and employees with much experience in gas technology; and management personnel tend to be very technically oriented as w e l l . A l l employees are continually kept up-to-date and are upgraded by company-organized and outside trai n i n g programs. Union Carbide resources also include a complete range of indus-t r i a l gas production f a c i l i t i e s . Plants producing a variety of i n d u s t r i a l gases are located i n most provinces across the country, and warehousing f a c i l i t i e s are found i n nearly a l l major c i t i e s in Canada; the l a t t e r type of f a c i l i t y i s also associated with i n d u s t r i a l gas f i l l i n g stations located in smaller centers, for instance the Okanagan Valley in B r i t i s h Columbia. As outlined i n an e a r l i e r chapter, Union Carbide now possesses r e l a t i v e l y sophisticated f a c i l i t i e s for preparing ultra-pure gases and very precise gas mixtures, one of the most accurate of such i n s t a l l a t i o n s in Canada. These production f a c i l i t i e s are backed by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a variety of rare gases and other non-industrial gases from Union Carbide i n the United States; i t is planned that should the demand be s u f f i c i e n t , a number of the more exotic gases needed for the Canadian specialty gases market w i l l be obtained from this source. F i n a l l y , one of Union Carbide's most important resources i s a well developed system of marketing channels of d i s t r i b u t i o n . The Gas Products d i v i s i o n has es s e n t i a l l y two such channels, the f i r s t being that of direct - 39 -s e l l i n g . An i n d u s t r i a l gas sales force has been in operation for this company in Canada for more than twenty-five years, and over this period has developed into a highly s k i l l e d unit operating out of about twelve centres across Canada, giving effective coverage of almost a l l geographic regions of any i n d u s t r i a l importance. This sales force presently c a l l s on a number of firms or i n s t i t u t i o n s that use precision gases, and hence has some f a m i l i a r i t y with certain users in the specialty gas market, although i n most cases the sales force i s c a l l i n g on persons other than those involved s p e c i f i c a l l y with the use of precision gases. The second channel of d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n d u s t r i a l cases i s through a well developed system of welding supply dis t r i b u t o r s which covers v i r t u a l l y every region of Canada. In the more developed areas these dis-tributors handle the business of smaller i n d u s t r i a l gas users while Union Carbide s e l l s d i r e c t l y to the large users. Outside the i n d u s t r i a l l y developed zones, the dis t r i b u t o r s generally handle a l l the i n d u s t r i a l gas business, even i f Union Carbide has a sales representative i n the area (the Okanagan and Kootenay regions are a good example of this in B r i t i s h Columbia). The strength of these dis t r i b u t o r s varies from area to area, but i n general the Union Carbide dis t r i b u t o r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia are effective and give coverage to nearly a l l of the province. In the f i e l d of i n d u s t r i a l gases, these distributors are exclusive dealers for Union Carbide gases (excluding direct sales), and handle only Union Carbide gases (as opposed to the welding apparatus market, where dist r i b u t o r s compete with each other i n each other's geographical t e r r i t o r i e s , and most handle competing product brands). When considering the le v e l of Union Carbide resources i n r e l a t i o n to the marketing of precision gases, i t might be of value to mention any - 40 -apparent weaknesses i n the firm's p o s i t i o n . F i r s t , since this i s a new market for Union Carbide, i t i s quite unfamiliar with many of the actual users and uses of precision gases; the majority of laboratory researchers and technicians interviewed during the survey were not aware that Union Carbide had any connection with the supply of gases of any kind, as con-trasted with the market's general f a m i l i a r i t y with Matheson's name, products and services. Second, because i t has been primarily a supplier of i n d u s t r i a l gases, the firm does not have a ready supply of most other types of gases, and at the moment i s not equipped to handle many gases such as some hydrocarbons etc. F i n a l l y , neither the firm's own sales force nor i t s d i s t r i b u t o r s ' sales forces are f a m i l i a r with the nature and uses of most precision gases. This i s not to say that these are insurmountable problems, but they are factors that w i l l have to be considered when making decisions on the marketing of precision gases. Market Requirements An obvious s t a r t i n g point in discussing the requirements of a p a r t i c u l a r market is that of product requirements. When regarding the mar-ket as a whole, i t i s evident that this requirement covers a wide area; 75 different gases and 36 different gas mixtures were encountered during the survey. Many of these gases are wanted at quite different levels of pur i t y , and the containers preferred also d i f f e r widely. In short, the market as a whole demands a product prepared and delivered i n an almost endless variety of ways, as shown by the 210 combinations l i s t e d i n Appen-dix IV. For most of these gases the market also requires a very high level - 41 -of service on the part of the supplier. Nearly a l l users, except perhaps u n i v e r s i t i e s , indicated that they expect not only a product of very high quality ( i . e . with respect to purity and precision of mixture), but that they also expect the supplier to act more or less as a technical consul-tant i n matters r e l a t i n g to preparation, use, technical characteristics etc. of the product. While university users may not always want the "consulting" type of service, they are extremely fussy about product quali t y . At this point i s should also be noted, however, that although many users order gases of a very high quality, there were a number of cases where the reasons for this were not apparent; often users would r e l y on " t r a d i t i o n " to explain why a particular gas was needed i n a state of very high purity (e.g. "We've always ordered i t that way"). This does not mean that there i s not a r e a l need for very tight specifications—many users do indeed need the purest possible product, some users having to re-purify i t themselves before f i n a l use. A d d i t i o n a l l y , quite a few users, admitted that they ordered gases with specifications considerably more s t r i c t than necessary, but explained that they f e l t that the added cost for higher quality was more than j u s t i f i e d by the increased safety margin; a sub-standard product can be extremely costly to a user i n terms of time lost in an experiment or i n having to re-do a n a l y t i c a l work etc. due to contamina-t i o n . Another requirement of the market is prompt delivery; because most users cannot schedule or plan the i r projects very far i n advance, new reagents are often needed on r e l a t i v e l y short notice, a whole project some-times being geared to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of such a reagent. The question of delivery can be so important that some specialty gas users chose their - 42 -s u p p l i e r s main ly on the b a s i s o f d e l i v e r y t i m e s . S u p p l i e r s o f p r e c i s i o n gases are not he lped i n d e a l i n g , w i t h matters o f product q u a l i t y , s e r v i c e and d e l i v e r y by the n e c e s s i t y o f s u p p l y i n g a cons ide rab l e number o f users w i t h ( f r equen t ly ) ve ry sma l l q u a n t i t i e s o f p roduc t , sma l l both i n terms o f p h y s i c a l quan t i t y and d o l l volume. Th i s i s f e l t to be one aspect o f t h i s market to which any p ros -p e c t i v e s u p p l i e r should g ive some a t t e n t i o n before making any f i r m d e c i s i o n s on market ing a c t i v i t i e s . CHAPTER V A MARKETING PROGRAM FOR UNION CARBIDE Market Segmentation In drawing up a marketing program for Union Carbide to follow in the marketing of precision gases, the f i r s t question that comes to mind i s : should this firm attempt to s e l l to the whole precision gases market, or should i t segment the market and concentrate on a particular portion of i t ? I t i s f e l t that the information presented so far strongly suggests a policy of market segmentation. In the previous chapter i s was noted that the market as a whole requires a very large number of gases, many of them i n small quantities; at the moment Union Carbide i s a supplier only of i n d u s t r i a l gases plus a very limited number of other gases. The market also requires a complete range of cylinder styles and sizes, while Union Carbide i s equipped to supply only a very limited number of cylinder types. Another market requirement i s that of comprehensive service; at the moment Union Carbide i s quite unfami-l i a r with a majority of the firms using precision gases, and i s not familar with the nature of the uses of precision gases. At the same time, the market i s dominated by a supplier that has been in this business for many years, i s well known by nearly a l l users, and whose products have gained acceptance not only i n B r i t i s h Columbia but across North America. For these reasons i t i s suggested that an attempt to cover the complete preci-sion gases market, starting from scratch, would present a formidable task. The summaries of market demand presented i n Appendices V(a) and - 44 -(b) indicate two obvious c r i t e r i a by which market segments may be i d e n t i -f i e d and quantified. The f i r s t c r i t e r i o n i s the type of precision gas demanded; there are four types shown, and considering Union Carbide's position, the segments of the market using atmospheric gases and gas mix-tures appear to offer a reasonable target market. These two types of gases cover almost three quarters of t o t a l present demand (by volume of gas) between them, and Appendix V(b) indicates that i n f i v e years this propor-t i o n is expected to increase to almost f o u r - f i f t h s of the t o t a l market. Since Union Carbide supplies atmospheric gases and since, as pointed out i n Chapter I I , a large percentage of the gas mixtures are combinations of three gases commonly supplied by Union Carbide, these segments would seem to be natural choices. As we l l as segmenting by gas type, container type can also be used. I t i s noticed that of t o t a l market demand, over 90 per cent (by gas volume) i s met with the use of #1A cylinders, the equivalent of standard " i n d u s t r i a l " cylinders used by Union Carbide. Thus Union Carbide could supply 90- per cent of the market without having to invest i n new types of cylinders, while the investment i n #1A cylinders needed to handle the B r i t i s h Columbia market, for example, should not pose a serious problem. Now the two methods of segmentation can be applied simultaneously to define a market segment consisting of those users demanding atmospheric gases and gas mixtures i n #1A cylinders; Appendix V(a) indicates that this segment i s approximately 70.3 per cent of the t o t a l market (by gas volume); Appendix V(b) suggests that this figure w i l l r i s e to 76.6 per cent by 1973. Hence Union Carbide can define a market segment i n terms of product demanded that w i l l exclude only a small part of the t o t a l market, and s t i l l allow the - 45 -firm to plan a marketing program that w i l l not represent a heavy burden on currently available resources. Before f i n a l l y deciding on this segment, however, the firm must be s a t i s f i e d that the segment is i d e n t i f i a b l e in terms of a b i l i t y to focus marketing e f f o r t on target users. As i t happens, the market segment defined above is quite i d e n t i f i a b l e — u s e of Appendix I I w i l l show that most of the product in this segment is used by hospitals, with much of the remainder going to the two Vancouver u n i v e r s i t i e s ; these present a very e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d and easily reached market segment. Channels of D i s t r i b u t i o n There are b a s i c a l l y three existing channels of d i s t r i b u t i o n through which Union Carbide could d i s t r i b u t e precision gases: the company's own sales organization, i t s welding supply d i s t r i b u t o r organization, and s c i e n t i f i c supply wholesalers. The choice among these, however, i s affected by market segmentation decisions (or, i t could be argued, vice versa); a decision to s e l l only two of the four types of gases and to concentrate on the market for large cylinders e s s e n t i a l l y precludes the use of s c i e n t i f i c supply houses, due to their need to supply a complete range of gas types and their apparent cap a b i l i t y of handling gases only i n lecture b o t t l e s . On the other hand, this, segmentation policy favours the use of either of the remaining two channels. Both Union Carbide's sales force and the d i s t r i -butors' sales forces are thoroughly familiar with atmospheric gases and thei r properties, and with i n d u s t r i a l style cylinders: the administrative aspects of both these organizations are geared to the handling of these gases and containers. I f a policy of non-segmentation were followed - 46 -instead, a large amount of e f f o r t would be required to set up new proce-dures and data systems, and to educate personnel. Union Carbide salesmen are already c a l l i n g on organizations which are major users of precision gases, and with some extra e f f o r t and time could make c a l l s on personnel dealing s p e c i f i c a l l y with precision gases. Local Union Carbide welding supply d i s t r i b u t o r s are very interested in handling a l i n e of specialty gas products, as they f e e l that their salesmen could cover this market readily while making regular c a l l s , and that these new contacts might provide the occasional opportunity to uncover additional i n d u s t r i a l gas users as w e l l . Use of the d i s t r i b u t o r sales organizations would be of great benefit i n giving good coverage of most geographical regions of the province, should users of specialty gases appear i n some of the more distant areas. I t would be a p o s s i b i l i t y , of course, to s e l l e n t i r e l y through the d i s t r i b u t o r channel, rather than through both direct and i n -direct channels; however, the fact that direct sales force representatives have we l l established relationships with u n i v e r s i t i e s and hospitals i s a very strong argument in favour of using direct s e l l i n g as w e l l . Another factor contributing to this argument is the strong technical orientation and t r a i n i n g of many Union Carbide sales personnel--this "expertise" could be very important i n making a marketing program successful. At this point i t might be of interest to compare the suggestions made above with the s i t u a t i o n encountered i n the Seattle precision gases market. The Seattle market shows d i s t i n c t s i m i l a r i t i e s to that i n B r i t i s h Columbia, or more p a r t i c u l a r l y , to that i n the Vancouver area; the largest users are the u n i v e r s i t i e s and a single large i n d u s t r i a l research laboratory (excluding hospitals, which were not covered i n the Seattle area), and the - 47 -remaining users tend to be of a very small s i z e , in terms of product used. Geographically the two areas have much i n common, p a r t i c u l a r l y their loca-t i o n r e l a t i v e to the i n d u s t r i a l centres of their respective countries. E a r l i e r i t was stated that the Seattle area was expected to be considerably more developed in terms of the precision gases market, but the differences noted were not nearly as great as expected. I t i s f e l t , though, that the development of a marketing structure i s somewhat more advanced i n the Seattle area than i n Vancouver, as evidenced by the appearance of five or so new suppliers in the past few years; this growth i n the number of suppliers seems more pronounced than that in Canada at the moment. Yet of a l l the firms now handling specialty gas products in Seattle, not one (other than Matheson) i s s e l l i n g through l o c a l s c i e n t i f i c supply whole-sal e r s ; even Matheson i s not r e a l l y s e l l i n g through this channel, as these wholesalers show no interest i n promoting the sales of specialty gases. It i s also of interest that i n d u s t r i a l gas firms such as A i r Reduction and Ai r Products have chosen to s e l l on a direct basis or through their regular welding supply d i s t r i b u t o r s , concentrating primarily on atmospheric and rare gases i n a "standard" (i n d u s t r i a l ) l i n e of containers (Union Carbide Corporation is the exception here, having chosen to turn the entire mar-keting function over to J. T. Baker Chemical, a large chemical supply firm). This comparison i s not intended to "prove" that suggestions of segmentation and channel selection made above are "correct", but merely to indicate that similar conclusions have been drawn i n somewhat similar market circum-stances . Although s c i e n t i f i c supply dis t r i b u t o r s do not seem to f i t into the present Union Carbide marketing picture, as proposed above, they should - 48 -be borne i n mind for future developments; i f Union Carbide finds that the precision gas market warrants expansion into a more complete l i n e of gases in the future, then use of marketing intermediaries with a f a i r l y wide coverage of the market could be used to great advantage. At the moment i t appears doubtful that any s c i e n t i f i c supply firm would carry two competing lines of specialty gases, but i t might be possible at a future date to interest a wholesaler in changing suppliers, or to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the product s u f f i c i e n t l y to complement existing lines rather than to compete with them (perhaps by means of container s t y l e , as with "Lif-O-Gen's" lecture spheres which have been taken on by Fisher S c i e n t i f i c i n addition to Matheson lecture b o t t l e s ) . Pri c i n g This section on p r i c i n g w i l l be expressed in general rather than s p e c i f i c terms, the reason being that the writer does not have detailed information on Union Carbide's cost structure for the preparation of specialty gas products; however, i t i s f e l t that information can be presented here which w i l l aid those with a working knowledge of product costs to determine s e l l i n g prices. A s t a r t i n g point i n this discussion could be to review certain characteristics of the target market,segments selected at the beginning of the chapter. I t was noted that the segment selected i s dominated by two user types, namely u n i v e r s i t i e s and hospitals. There are s u f f i c i e n t differences between these two types to require s l i g h t l y different mar-keting approaches. The f i r s t main difference is i n the product used— hospitals tend to use gas mixtures of a few different v a r i e t i e s , with the - 49 -useage of each variety and the specifications of each variety being f a i r l y constant over a reasonably long period of time ( i . e . years, or fractions thereof, rather than just months). On the other hand,' un i v e r s i t i e s (and many other users) are inclined to purchase quite small quantities of a very large variety of gases, with useage being irregular and specifications of the gases changing constantly. The second difference arises partly out of the f i r s t , and partly out of organizational differences between uni-v e r s i t i e s and hospitals; this difference is one of methods of purchasing (see also Chapter I I ) . In general, a l l gases used by hospitals are pur-chased largely on the basis of purchasing department decisions, and s e l l i n g price is inclined to play a s i g n i f i c a n t role in the choice of suppliers. Gases purchased by u n i v e r s i t i e s , because of the complete lack of product homogeniety, because of the widely different nature of use of each gas, and because of problems of co-ordinating the purchases of a multitude of far-flung f a c u l t i e s and departments, seem to come somewhat less under the i n -fluence of purchasing agents; although a l l orders are placed through the purchasing, o f f i c e , the individual users have more influence in deciding who s h a l l supply the gas than i s the case with their medical counterparts. This i n turn means that the price of the product is not as important a factor with u n i v e r s i t i e s , although i t certainly cannot be ignored. Another factor to consider in setting prices is the relationship of Union Carbide to potential customers and competitors. In the precision gases market Union Carbide is a newcomer, whereas Matheson i s a well established firm; therefore any business gained from, say, the un i v e r s i t i e s w i l l have to be wrested from Matheson, although Matheson's advantage is at least p a r t i a l l y offset by Union Carbide's a b i l i t y to provide superior - 50 -service due to a l o c a l l y based sales force. In the area of hospitals, thinking s p e c i f i c a l l y of the Vancouver General, Canadian Liquid A i r has the advantage of being the major present supplier—new business w i l l have to be taken away from a strong competitor here as w e l l . Therefore, i t i s not as i f Union Carbide were entering an untapped market and could exact a large premium for pioneering the ,field--a premium may be j u s t i f i e d by an a b i l i t y to supply a p a r t i c u l a r l y precise grade of gas (should this be wanted by the customer), but i t i s f e l t that i n general prices w i l l have to be at least somewhat competitive. Exceptions to this w i l l be found i n cases where a specialty gas performs a c r u c i a l role i n laboratory proce-dures or experiments, and where past sources of the gas have proved to be unreliable from a quality point of view; i n these cases users are w i l l i n g to pay large sums for a product on whose specifications they can depend. In essence, then, this discussion leads to the conclusion that product prices could be determined through a competitive pri c i n g procedure, allowing a premium for superior service and product quality where applicable (primarily u n i v e r s i t i e s ) , this premium being perhaps of the order of 10 per cent to 15 per cent. This would have to be modified by "cost-plus" pri c i n g should the f i r s t method be found to y i e l d an unsatisfactory cost/sales r a t i o . Promotion When a choice of market segments and channels of d i s t r i b u t i o n was made e a r l i e r i n this chapter, most of the possible alternative methods of promotion were removed; having chosen direct s e l l i n g and a di s t r i b u t o r organization as the two channels, the use of a large degree of personal - 51 -s e l l i n g has been predetermined. Because of the wide range of types of product users, most methods of advertising appear impractical; certainly trade journal advertising, a popular method i n i n d u s t r i a l gas .promotion, would be inef f e c t i v e because any one journal would reach only a very limited number of potential users. It i s a l o g i c a l conclusion, then, that any advertising, to be e f f e c t i v e , must be aimed extremely s e l e c t i v e l y at potential users; this could be done i n two ways, either by sending adver-t i s i n g l i t e r a t u r e through the mail, or by delivering such material through the sales force i n the f i e l d . Since most potential users are f a i r l y readily reached by sales personnel, i t i s suggested that this would be the most effect i v e method of delivery, p a r t i c u l a r l y since personal contact usually has an e f f e c t i v e sales impact. During the market survey i t was very evident that the type of advertising l i t e r a t u r e that impresses specialty gas users is the " f a c t u a l " or technical type; Matheson gas catalogues, probably the most complete such l i t e r a t u r e encountered i n any area of gas s a l e s — s p e c i a l t y or i n d u s t r i a l — were found almost universally throughout the market; a great number of persons indicated that Matheson gases were often purchased primarily because the necessary information (product and container sp e c i f i c a t i o n s , prices, apparatus etc.) was readily at hand i n the Matheson catalogue. In addition, nearly every major user of precision gases owned a copy of the "Matheson Gas Data Book", which gives exhaustive technical data on every gas sold by Matheson. In view of the effect that this type of l i t e r a t u r e seems to have, i t i s recommended that promotional l i t e r a t u r e be based on as com-prehensive as possible a catalogue of a l l gases to be offered to the market. CHAPTER VI SUMMARY The f i r s t part of this study, a survey of the precision gases market, reveals that the demand for precision gases in B r i t i s h Columbia originates from a large number of individual users, and covers a very div-erse range of gases ordered at widely varying specifications of purity and in a complate range of container styles and sizes. Analysis of the data obtained from the survey shows that overall demand can be broken down to expose some s i g n i f i c a n t s t a t i s t i c s : of the t o t a l estimated volume of gas demanded, 73 per cent is comprised of atmospheric and rare gases or gas mixtures (primarily mixtures of atmospheric gases); s i m i l a r l y , 72 per cent of the t o t a l volume demanded is used in standard i n d u s t r i a l sized compressed gas cylinders. A large part of this market segment ( i . e . users of atmos-pheric gases and gas mixtures in i n d u s t r i a l - s i z e d cylinders) is comprised of u n i v e r s i t i e s and large hospitals, the l a t t e r being the primary users of gas mixtures. A discussion of market conditions later in the study points out that Union Carbide faces strong competition from Matheson of Canada Ltd., a firm that i s well established in supplying the t o t a l precision gases market; other firms are showing an active interest in this market, par-t i c u l a r l y Canadian Liquid A i r and Fisher S c i e n t i f i c Company. At the same time, Union Carbide faces some deficiences in terms of resources required to supply and to s e l l to a l l of the market, i n i t i a l l y at least. With these ideas in mind, i t i s recommended that Union Carbide's f i r s t marketing decision be to segment the market, and to select as i t s - 53 -target market those users demanding atmospheric gases and gas mixtures, supplied in standard industrial cylinders. This decision is then followed by a choice of direct se l l ing and use of the welding supply distr ibutors' sales organizations as the most suitable channels of distribution to reach this market segment. It is suggested that competitive pricing of the product is compatible with market conditions, and i t is fe l t that this could lead to the most satisfactory pricing policies i f modified by "cost-plus" pricing when necessary. F ina l ly , i t is evident that promotional efforts should be based on personal se l l ing , with support from advertising l i terature consisting of a very complete descriptive and technically-oriented product catalogue. A P P E N D I C E S APPENDIX I DESCRIPTION OF CONTAINER STYLES ENCOUNTERED IN MARKET SURVEY - 54 -Because i t was found that most of the precision gases used i n B.C. were supplied by The Matheson Company of Canada Ltd., and because t h i s appears to be the only supplier o f f e r i n g a complete range of container sizes, the data i n t h i s report have been compiled using the Matheson Company cylinder designation. Below i s a description of the common containers encountered. Matheson Approx. Approx. Approx. Working Designation Height Diametre Capacity Pressure Lecture Bottle 1 5 " 2 " 2CF 1 8 0 0 psig #4 Cylinder 1 4 " 4 " 10CF 2000 psig #3 Cylinder 2 1 - 2 4 " 5 - 6 " 3 0 C F 2000 psig #2 Cylinder 2 5 - 2 7 " 8 " - 75CF 2000 psig #1A Cylinder 5 0 - 5 3 " 8-10" 200CF 2200 psig #1A L.P. Cylinder 4 6 " 1 5 " - 100 - 1 5 0 lb 2-110 psig In addition to the above containers, precision gases are also supplied i n 1 ) Pyrex Flasks of one l i t r e capacity, and 2 ) spherical "lecture b o t t l e s " , which are approximately s i x inches i n diameter and have a capacity of up to eight cubic feet at 2 2 6 5 psig pressure; these two containers are referred to as "Pyrex Flasks" (or "Flasks") and "Lecture Spheres" respe c t i v e l y . . . . APPENDIX I I DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EXPECTED DEMAND FOR PRECISION GASES IN B.C. LISTED BY USER, 1969 - 55 -Expected Use Per Year Container Units Miscellaneous Name Gas Specifications Container Supplier Units Gas Remarks 1. University Neon 99.995$ 1 1. Pyrex Flask Ai r Reduction Co , 8 8 l i t r e s Demand of B.C. Diminishing Physics Dept. Neon-20 1 1. Pyrex Flask Ai r Reduction Co. 2 2 l i t r e s Problems with H2 Contamination Ethane 9 9 - 9 $ 1 1. Pyrex Flask Ai r Reduction Co . 1/2 1/2 l i t r e Methane 99-9$ 1 1. Pyrex Flask Ai r Reduction Co . 1 1 l i t r e Helium 9 9 - 9 9 9 $ 1 1. Pyrex Flask Ai r Reduction Co , 2 2 l i t r e s Helium-Neon 90.l$He-9.9$Ne 1 1. Pyrex Flask Air Reduction Co. 6 6 l i t r e s Argon 9 9 - 9 9 9 5 $ 1 1. Pyrex Flask Air Reduction Co. 4 4 l i t r e s Argon-Neon 1 1. Pyrex Flask Air Reduction Co . 3 3 l i t r e s Hydrogen 9 9 - 9 9 9 5 $ 1 1. Pyrex Flask Air Reduction Co. 2 2 l i t r e s Xenon 9 9 - 9 9 5 $ 1 1. Pyrex Flask Ai r Reduction Co. 1/5 1/ 5 l i t r e Carbon Dioxide 99-995$ 1 1. Pyrex Flask Air Reduction Co. 2 2 l i t r e s Carbon Monoxide 99 • 8 $ 1 1. Pyrex Flask Ai r Reduction Co. 2 2 l i t r e s Chlorine 9 9 - 9 7 $ 1 1. Pyrex Flask Ai r Reduction Co. 1 1 l i t r e Demand Diminishing Bromine 9 8 . 5 $ ( ? ) 1 1. Pyrex Flask A i r Reduction Co . 1 1 l i t r e Demand Diminishing Iodine 9 8 . 5 $ ( ? ) 1 1. Pyrex Flask Ai r Reduction Co. 1 1 l i t r e Demand Diminishing Fluorine 9 8 . 5 $ ( ? ) 1 1. Pyrex Flask Ai r Reduction Co . 1/2 1/2 l i t r e Demand Diminishing Silane 9 9 . 9 9 9 9 $ 1 1. Pyrex Flask Air Reduction Co . 1/2 1/2 l i t r e Deuterated Lecture Bottle Merck, Sharpe 1/2 Hyrocarbons Dohme Hydrocarbons Lecture Bottle P h i l l i p s 2 Hydrogen 9 9 - 9 9 9 $ Cylinder, 1 9 4 C F Matheson 1/2 1 0 0 C F O 2 1 ppm N 2 5 Ppm CnHn .2 ppm Helium "I s o t o p i c a l l y Pure" Cylinder, 213CF Matheson 2 4 0 0 C F Deuterium 9 9 - 5 $ ( ? ) Cy Under _ 2 5 1. Liquid Carbonic 2 5 0 l i t r e s Approx.$ 1 3 0/litre Helium_3 "Pure" Cylinder ™ 2 - 5 1. Monsanto 8 20 l i t r e s - 56 -Name Gas Used Specifications Container Supplier Expected Use Per Year Miscellaneous Remarks Container Units Units Gas University Nitrogen - CO 2 5 5 5 p p m C02±l$ Cylinder, 2 2 4 C F Liquid Carbonic 1/2 1 0 0 C F of B.C. Nitrogen-0 xygen 3 0 0 p p m 0 2+10% Cylinder, 2 2 7 C F Matheson 1/2 1 0 0 C F Dept. of Air-Chlorine lOppm CI+10% Cylinder, 2 2 0 C F Matheson 1/2 1 0 0 C F Biology & N2-O2-CO2 40+.5% 0 2 Cylinder, 227CF Matheson 1/2 1 0 0 C F With Analysis Botany 3 0 0 p p m C02+10% N2-O2-CO2 l+.2% O2 Cylinder, 2 2 7 C F Matheson 1/2 1 0 0 C F 3 3 5 p p m CO 2+10% N2-CO2 l80ppm CO2+10% Cylinder, 2 2 7 C F Matheson 1/2 100CF Chlorine 9 9 - 5 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1 l b . Chemistry Dept Carbon Monoxide 9 9 - 5 % Cylinder, 1 6 0 C F Matheson 1/4 50CF $600/cyl. Deuterium 9 9 . 5 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1 4 l i t r e s Carbon Dioxide N2 lOppm Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1/2 l b . Approx. $100/ Lecture Bottle; O2 2ppm Off Spec. when delivered Helium-Oxygen 3±.5% 0 2 Cylinder, 285CF Not Ordered Yet 3 850CF N2 lOppm Oxygen 9 9 - 9 5 % Cylinder, 2 4 4 C F Matheson 3 7 5 0 C F Fluorine 9 8 . 5 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 Hydrogen 9 9 . 0 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 5 0 25 l b . Chloride Hydrogen Bromide 9 9 - 8 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 8 8 l b . Chlorine 9 9 - 5 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 2 2 l b . Chlorine 9 9 - 5 % Cylinder, 1 5 l b . Matheson 1 1 5 l b . Hydrocarbons Lecture Bottle P h i l l i p s 6 Dichlorodifluo-romethane (Freon 12) 9 9 . 5 % Lecture Bottle A l l i e d Chemical 1 3 / 4 l b . Sulphur Dioxide 9 9 - 9 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 6 6 l b . Sulphur Dioxide 9 9 - 9 % Cylinder, 1 5 0 l b . Matheson 2 300 l b . - 57 -Name Gas Used Specifications Container Supplier Expected Use Per Year Container Units Units Gas Miscellaneous Remarks Chemistry Dept Hydrogen 1 1/2 l b . Sulphide 9 9 . 5 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 3 Hydrogen 9 9 - 9 5 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 2 4CF Dept. of Metallurgy Nitrogen 99.998%N 2 Cylinder, 227CF Matheson 3 700CF O2 20ppm: H20 lppm Argon-Methane 1 0 % Methane Cylinder, 2 4 0 C F Matheson 1 250CF Carbon Monoxide 9 9 - 5 % Cylinder, 160CF Matheson 1 5 2400CF Hydrogen Sulphide 99.5% Cylinder, 59 l b . Matheson 2 118 l b . Hydrogen 1/2 l b . Chloride 99.0% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 Sulphur Dioxide 9 9 . 9 % Cylinder, 1 5 0 l b . Matheson 1 150 l b . Nitrogen - SO2 S0 2 from 10% to 20% Cylinder, 2 2 7 C F Matheson 2 450CF With Analysis Methane 9 9 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 2CF Medicine - Helium- 1 .3% i s o - Cylinder, 160CF Matheson 6 950CF Demand Biochemistry Isobutane butane Diminishing Cylinder, 6 4 C F Matheson 6 400CF Hydrogen 1/2 Chloride 99.0% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/4 l b . Ammonia 9 9 . 9 5 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 3/8 l b . Phosgene 99.0% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/2 3/8 l b . Carbon Monoxide 9 9 - 5 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/3 1/3CF Dimethylamine 99.0% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/2 3/16 l b . Pathology A i r - CO2 10% CO2 Cylinder, 220CF CLA 20 4400CF "Geiger Gas" Cylinder, 60CF Tracerlab 1 50CF Helium Base Hydrogen Chloride 99.0% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/2 1/4 l b . Hydrogen 1/2 1/2 l b . Bromide 99.8% Lecture Bottle Matheson - 58 -Name Gas Used Specifications Container Supplier Expected Use Per Year Miscellaneous Remarks Container Units Units Gas Medicine - Nitrogen 9 9 - 9 $ Lecture Sphere Fisher 4 32CF Neurology Helium -Isobutane 1.3$ Isobutane Cylinder, 160CF Matheson 1 150CF "Geiger Gas" 7 Cylinder, 60CF Tracerlab 1 50CF Helium Base V.G.H. Air - CO 0.1$ CO Cylinder, 220CF Matheson 2 450CF A i r - CO2 3$ ~ i o $ c o 2 Cylinder, 20CF CLA 3 60CF ME (Med.) Cyls. Carbon Monoxide 9 9 . 5 $ Cylinder, 2 4 C F Matheson 1/2 1 0 C F Faculty of Ammonia 9 9 . 9 5 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 3 / 8 l b . Forestry Sulphur Dioxide 9 9 . 9 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1 l b . Chlorine 9 9 . 5 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1 l b . Carbon Dioxide 9 9 . 5 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1/2 l b . Nitrogen 9 9 . 9 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 2 CF Faculty of Nitrogen - CO 2 360+10ppmC0 2 Cylinder, 2 2 7 C F Matheson 2 4 5 0 C F Agriculture 260+10ppmC0 2 Cylinder, 2 2 7 C F Matheson 3 7 0 0 C F Helium 9 9 - 9 9 9 $ Cylinder, 213CF Matheson 1 200CF Carbon Dioxide 9 9 - 9 9 $ Cylinder, 6 0 l b . Matheson 3 180 l b . Hydrogen 1/2 Chloride 9 9 . 0 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/4 lb. Boron Tri™ flu o r i d e 9 9 . 5 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/2 3/16 l b . A i r - C0 2 5 ± . 5 $ C 0 2 Cylinder, 220CF CLA 2 450CF Chemical Methane 9 9 . 1 $ Cylinder, 100CF Matheson 1/4 25CF Engineering 9 9.1$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 2CF Helium - N2 5 + . 5$N 2 Cylinder, 213CF Matheson 1 / 5 50CF With Analysis l75+. 5$N 2 Cylinder, 213CF Matheson 1/5 50CF With Analysis 2 5 + . 5$N 2 Cylinder, 213CF Matheson 1 / 5 50CF With Analysis Propane 9 9 $ Cylinder, 100 l b . Matheson 1/4 25 l b . 9 9 $ Cylinder, 14 l b . Matheson 1/4 3 l b . Propylene 9 9 - 5 $ Cylinder, 14 l b . Matheson 1/4 3 l b . - 59 -Expected Use Per Year Container Units Miscellaneous Name Gas Used Specifications Container Supplier units Gas Remarks Chemical Cyclopropane 99.0% Cylinder, 15 l b . Matheson 1/4 4 l b . Engineering Ethane 99% Cylinder, 10 l b . Matheson 1/5 2 l b . Ethylene 99.0% Cylinder, 8 l b . Matheson 1/5 2 l b . Tetrafluoro-methane (Freon 99.7% Cylinder, 2 l b . Matheson 1/5 1/2 l b . -14) C0 2-0 2-CO-N 2 Varies Cylinder, 200CF Matheson 1/4 50CF With Analysis H2-CH 4-C 2-Ho-N 2 Varies Cylinder, 2 2 0 C F Matheson 1/4 50CF With Analysis n-Butane 99.0% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/5 1-Butene 99-0% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/6 1-3 Butadiene 99.5% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/6 Hydrogen Chloride 99.0% Cylinder, 20 l b . Matheson 1/8 2 l b . E l e c t r i c a l Argon 99.9995% Cylinder, 2 4 7 C F Matheson 1/5 50CF Engineering Nitrogen 99 .999% Cylinder, 2 2 7 C F Matheson 1/5 50CF Oxygen 99.95% Cylinder, 1 0 C F Matheson 1 1 0 C F 2. Simon Fraser Helium - 3 "Pure" Cylinder, 2.5 1 . Monsanto 4 10 l i t r e s University Helium - 3 "Low Tritium" Cylinder, 2 . 5 1 . Monsanto 2 5 l i t r e s He-3 99.1mol% Physics Dept. He-4 0.1mol% Gross Comp. H 2 0.2mol% Helium 99-999% 1 1. Pyrex Flask Matheson 1 1 l i t r e ) Carbon Dioxide 99-995% 1 1. Pyrex Flask Matheson 1 1 l i t r e ) "Air Reduction Krypton 99 .995% 1 1. Pyrex Flask Matheson 1 1 l i t r e ) Labels" on Argon 99.9995% 1 1. Pyrex Flask Matheson 1 1 l i t r e ) Flasks Neon 99-995% 1 1. Pyrex Flask Matheson 1 1 l i t r e ) Biosciences Carbon Dioxide 99-5% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/2 1/4 l b . Dept. Oxygen - CO 2 il <| 2+. 5 % C 0 2 Cylinder, 2 4 4 C F Matheson 3 750CF - 60 -Name Biosciences Dept. Chemistry Dept Gas Used Radioactive CO2 Methane A i r - C 0 2 Nitrogen Helium-Isobutane Argon-Oxygen Deuterium Xenon Krypton Allene n-Butane n-Butane Isobutane Isobutane 1-3 Butadiene Cis-2-Butene Trans-2-Butene 1-Butene Isobutylene 1, 1-Difluoro-ethylene Dimethylamine Dimethyl Ether 2.2 Dimethyl-propane  Specifications 5 0 $ CO2 with C-14 99.0% 280-300ppmC02 0 2 2ppm 1.3$Isobutane l~5ppm0 2 99.5% 9 9 . 9 9 5 $ 9 9 . 9 9 5 $ 9 7 $ 9 9 . 0 $ 9 9 . 5 $ 9 9 $ 9 9 - 5 $ 9 9 . 5 $ 9 9 . 0 $ 9 9.0$ 9 9 . 0 $ 9 9 . 0 $ 9 9 . 0 $ 9 9 . 0 $ 9 9 $ Container Cylinder 5 0 lb Cylinder, 300CF Cylinder, 220CF Cylinder, 224CF Cylinder, 160CF Cylinder, 300CF Lecture Bottle Cylinder, 2 5 1. Cylinder, 2 5 1. Lecture Bottle Lecture Bottle Lecture Bottle Lecture Bottle Lecture Bottle Lecture Bottle Lecture Bottle Lecture Bottle Lecture Bottle Lecture Bottle Lecture Bottle Lecture Bottle Lecture Bottle Lecture Bottle Supplier Expected Use Per Year Container Units Units Gas *2 100 l b . 2 600CF * 2 5 5500CF *2 450CF 2 300CF 1 300CF 30 420 l i t r e s 1 2 5 l i t r e s 1 25 l i t r e s 5 2 1/2 l b . 6 2 l b . 6 2 l b . 6 2 l b . 6 2 l b . 4 1 1/2 l b . 4 1 1/2 l b . 4 1 1/2 l b . 4 1 1/2 l b . 3 1 l b . 8 4 l b . 2 1 l b . 1 1/2 l b . 6 2 l b . Miscellaneous Remarks Matheson Not ordered yet Not ordered yet Matheson Matheson Matheson Matheson Matheson Matheson Matheson Matheson Matheson Matheson Matheson Matheson Matheson Matheson Matheson Matheson Matheson * W i l l use i f can fi n d a supplier & i f price i s approx. $100/ c y l . or less * W i l l use i f can f i n d a supplier *May use next year Requires Accurate Analysis - 61 -Name Gas Used Specifications Container Supplier Expected Use Per Year Miscellaneous Remarks Container Units Units Gas Chemistry Dept Ethane 99$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 8 2 l b . Ethyl Chloride 99 • 7$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 12 6 l b . Ethylene 99-0$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 12 3 l b . 1,2 Dichloro-tetrafluoroethane (Freon 114) 99.5$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 2 2 l b . Hexafluoro-ethane 99$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 2 1 l b . (Freon 116) Dichlorodifluo-romethane (Freon 12) 99-5$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 2 1 1/2 l b . C h l o r o t r i f l u o r o " methane (Freon 1 3 ) 99.0$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 2 1 1/2 lb. Tetrafluoro-methane (Freon 14) 99.7$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 2 1/8 l b . Dichlorofluoro-methane (Gene™ tron 21) 99-0$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 2 1 1/2 l b . Trifluoromethane (Genetron 2 3 ) 98.0$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 2 1 l b . Methane 99$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 12 24CF Methyl Chloride 99-5$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 8 4 l b . Monoethylamine 98.5$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/2 1/4 l b . Monomethy-lamine 98.0$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/2 1/ 4 l b . Propane 99$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 12 4 l b . Propylene 99$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 6 2 l b . Trimethylamine 99.0$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/2 1/4 l b . Ai r Dry Lecture Bottle Matheson 2 4 48CF Ammonia 99-95$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 8 3 l b . Argon 99.998$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 24 48CF - 62 -Name Gas Used Specifications Container Supplier Expected Use Per Year Miscellaneous Remarks Container Units Units Gas Chemistry Dept Carbon Dioxide 9 9 - 8 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 8 9 l b . Carbon Dioxide 9 9 . 5 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 8 9 l b . Carbon Monoxide 9 9 - 5 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 6 6CF Carbonyl 1/2 l b . Sulphide 9 6 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 Chlorine 9 9 - 5 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 5 1 5 l b . Difluoro-ethylene 9 9 - 0 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 8 4 l b . Helium 9 9 - 9 9 5 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 3 6 72CF Hydrogen 9 9 . 8 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 3 0 6 0 C F Hydrogen 9 9 - 9 8 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 3 0 6 0 C F Hydrogen Bromide 9 9 . 8 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 6 6 l b . Hydrogen Chloride 9 9 - 0 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 8 4 l b . Hydrogen Fluoride 9 8 . 0 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 6 4 1/2 l b . Hydrogen Sulphide 9 9 - 5 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 6 3 l b . N i t r i c Oxide 9 8 . 5 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 6 4CF Nitrogen 9 9 - 9 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 4 8CF Nitrogen 9 9 - 9 9 7 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 4 8CF Nitrous Oxide 9 8 . 0 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 6 3 l b . Oxygen 9 9 . 6 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 4 8CF Sulphur Dioxide 9 9 . 9 8 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 12 12 l b . Sulphur Dioxide 9 9 . 9 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 12 12 l b . Sulphur Hexafluoride 9 8 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 4 2 l b . 3. University of Hydrogen 9 9 - 8 $ Cylinder, 1 9 4 C F Matheson 2 4 0 0 C F Notre Dame Nitrogen 9 9 - 9 9 9 $ Cylinder, 227CF Matheson 4 900CF Nelson - 63 -Name Gas Used Specifications Container Supplier Expected Use Per Year Miscellaneous Remarks Container Units Units Gas 4- Selkirk College 3 N i t r i c Oxide 98.5% Cylinder, 3CF Matheson 2 6CF Castlegar N i t r o s y l Chloride 97% Lecture Bottle Not ordered yet Unknown Nitrogen Dioxide 99.5% Lecture Bottle Not ordered yet Unknown Neon 99.995% Lecture Bottle Not ordered yet Unknown Argon 99.9995% Lecture Bottle Not ordered yet Unknown Deuterium Lecture Bottle Not ordered yet Unknown Deuterated -hydrocarbons Lecture Bottle Not ordered yet Unknown 5- B.C. In s t i t u t e Chlorine 99.5% Lecture Bottle Matheson 6 6 l b . of Technology Sulphur Dioxide 99-9% Lecture Bottle Matheson 3 3 l b . Helium 99-999% 1 1 . Pyrex Flask Not ordered yet 1 1 l i t r e Argon 99.999% 1 1 . Pyrex Flask Not ordered yet 1 1 l i t r e Neon 99-995% 1 1 . Pyrex Flask Not ordered yet 1 1 l i t r e Hydrogen 99.95% Lecture Bottle Not ordered yet 1 2CF Oxygen 99-95% Lecture Bottle Not ordered yet 1 2CF 6. University of Compressed A i r Cylinder, 3 0 C F Matheson 1/2 1 5 C F V i c t o r i a Carbon Dioxide 9 9 . 8 % Cylinder, 8 l b . Matheson 1/2 4 l b . Carbon Dioxide 99.8% Cylinder, 3 l b . Matheson 1/2 1 1/2 lb. Nitrogen Dioxide 99.5% Cylinder, 5 l b . Matheson 1/3 2 l b . N i t r i c Oxide 98.5% Cylinder, 8CF Matheson 1/2 4CF Nitrous Oxide 9 8 . 0 % Cylinder, 3 l b . Matheson 1/2 1 1/2 lb. Chlorine 99-5% Cylinder, 15 l b . Matheson 1 15 l b . Ammonia 99-95% Cylinder, 5 l b . Matheson 1/2 4 l b . Ammonia 99.95% Cylinder, 100 l b . Matheson 1/2 50 l b . Argon-Methane 10% Methane Cylinder, 240CF Matheson 1/2 1 0 0 C F Isobutylene 99-5% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/4 1-Butene 9 9 . 0 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/4 Cis -2-Butene 9 9 . 0 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/4 - 64 -Expected Use Per Year Container Units Miscellaneous Name Gas Used Specifications Container Supplier Units Gas Remarks University of Propylene 99-5$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/4 V i c t o r i a Hydrogen 1/4 Sulphide 99-5$ Lecture Bottle Matheson Helium 99-995$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/4 Oxygen - C0 2 $C0 2 Cylinder, 244CF CLA 1 250CF Sulphur Dioxide 99.9$ Cylinder, 15 l b . Matheson 1/2 2 1/2 l b . 7. Royal Roads Sulphur Dioxide 99-9$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/2 1/2 l b . M i l i t a r y Neon 99-95$ Lecture Bottle 1/2 1CF College, Helium 99-995$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/2 1CF V i c t o r i a 8. MacMillan Hydrogen Bloedel Research Sulphide 99-5$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 5 2 1/2 l b . Ltd., Vancouver Sulphur Dioxide 99-98$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 5 5 l b . Nitrogen 99-7$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 5 10CF Oxygen 99.6$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 5 10CF Carbon Monoxide 99-5$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 5 5CF Carbon Dioxide 99-5$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 5 2 1/2 l b . Hydrogen Chloride 99.0$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 5 2 1/2 l b . Carbonyl Sulphide 96$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 2 1 l b . N i t r i c Oxide 98.5$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 2 1CF Nitrous Oxide 98.0$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 6 3 l b . Chlorine 99-5$ Lecture Bottle Matheson 5 5 l b . Ammonia 99-95$ Cylinder, 100 l b . Matheson 1 100 l b . Nitrogen 99-999$ Cylinder, 224CF 2 450CF ) Expect to Helium 99-999$ Cylinder, 285CF 2 550CF ) start using Argon 99-999$ Cylinder, 300 2 600CF ) i n a year - 65 -Expected Use Per Year Container Units Miscellaneous Name Gas Used Specifications Container Supplier Units Gas Remarks 9 . Columbia Hydrogen 99.999% Cylinder, 191CF CLA 1 200CF Cellulose Co. Nitrogen 99.999% Cylinder, 2 2 4 C F CLA 2 4 5 0 C F Ltd., R & D Trichlorofluoro Non pressurized Labs, Delta methane (Freon- Container - 1 qt. I D 99-5% Matheson 1 2CF Liquid at NTP 10. Hooker ChemicalsHe-0o-CO9-C0~ Not Ltd., North N2»H2 Obtainable Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 2 C F With Analysis Vancouver 11 . Coast Eldridge Helium 0 2 .lppm Cylinder, 285CF CLA 4 1150CF Professional Nitrogen 0 2 lppm Cylinder, 2 2 4 C F CLA 4 900CF Services, Van. *Mercaptans Lecture Bottle Matheson 3 1 1/2 lb. *3 Different ( ? ) Kinds *co 2-o 2 Varies Lecture Bottle Matheson 3 1 1/2 lb. *3 Different C 0 2 - 0 2 Ratios Propane Lecture Bottle Phillips 1/2 1/4 lb. n-Butane Lecture Bottle Phillips 1/2 1/2 lb. 12. Standard Oil Hydrogen 99.95% Lecture Bottle Matheson 4 8CF Co., Burnaby Propane 99% Lecture Bottle Phillips 1 1/2 lb. Refinery Isobutane 99% Lecture Bottle Phillips 1 1 lb. n-Butane 9 9-0% Lecture Bottle Phillips 1 1 lb. 1-Butene 9 9-0% Lecture Bottle Phillips 1/2 1 lb. Isobutylene 99% Lecture Bottle Phillips 1/2 1 lb. 13. British America in Nitrogen -Oil Co. Ltd., Helium 3 0 % He Cylinder, 80CF Matheson 1 100CF ) Port Moody Hydrogen- 3 0 % N2 ) Research Grade Refinery Nitrogen Cylinder, 80CF Matheson 1 1 0 0 C F ) Gases Used - 66 -Expected Use Per Year Container Units Miscellaneous Name Gas Used Spec i f i c a t i o n s Container Supplier Units Gas Remarks 1 4 . S h e l l Canada Hydrogen 9 9 - 9 5 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 4 8CF Ltd., Burnaby Carbon Monoxide 9 9 • 8% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1CF Refinery Methane 99-5% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 2CF Acetylene 99.5% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 0 . 0 5 C F Ethane 9 9 . 5 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1 / 4 l b . Propane 9 9 . 5 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1 / 4 l b . Propylene 9 9 - 5 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1 / 4 l b . n-Butane 9 9 - 5 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1/2 l b . Isobutane 9 9 • 5% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1/2 l b . Isobutylene 99.5% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1/2 l b . Cis-2-Butene 99.5% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1/2 l b . Trans-2-Butene 99.5% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1/2 l b . Pentane 99.5% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 7 1 5 - Imperial O i l Carbon Monoxide 99.5% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/2 1/2CF Enterprises Ltd.Carbon Dioxide 9 9 . 9 9 5 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/2 1 / 4 l b . Port Moody Methane 9 9 . 9 9 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/2 1CF Oxygen 9 9 - 9 9 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/2 1CF Nitrogen 9 9 - 9 9 9 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/2 1CF Propane 9 9 - 9 9 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 2 1/2 l b . With Analysis Isobutane 9 9 . 9 6 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 2 1 l b . With Analysis 1-Butene 9 9 . 4 0 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/2 1 / 4 l b . 2-Butene 9 9.8% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1/2 1 / 4 l b . n-Butane 9 9 - 9 9 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 2 1 l b . With Analysis Isopentane Research Grade Lecture Bottle Matheson 2 ? With Analysis Ethane 9 9 . 9 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1 / 4 l b . With Analysis Propylene 9 9 . 7 0 % Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1/2 3 / 4 l b . With Analysis Hydrocarbon Mix + 0 . 0 5 w t . % Lecture Bottle P h i l l i p s 1 Use 4 Different Mixes - 67 -Name Gas Used Specifications Container Supplier Expected Use Per Year Miscellaneous Remarks Container Units Units Gas 1 6. Noranda Copper Carbon Dioxide 9 9 • 5 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1 / 2 lb. M i l l s , Ltd. Hydrogen Delta Sulphide 99.5% Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1 / 2 l b . 1 7. Lafarge Cement Nitrogen -( ? ) Oxygen 4 + 0 . 5 $ 0 2 Cylinder, 2 2 4 C F 7 3 6 5 0 C F With Analysis Nitrogen-CO 2 2 7 + 0 .5%C0 2 Cylinder, 2 2 4 C F 7 3 6 5 0 C F With Analysis 1 8 . Reichhold Dimethyl Ether 99.0% Lecture Bottles Matheson 2 1 l b . Chemicals Carbon Monoxide 9 9 . 8 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 2 2 CF (Canada) Ltd. Port Moody 1 9 . B.C. Hydro & Argon-Methane 1 0 $ Methane Cylinders, 2 4 0 C F Matheson 2 5 0 0 C F Power Authority Propylene 9 9 - 5 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1 / 4 l b . Vancouver Ethane 9 9 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1 / 4 l b . Hydrogen 9 9 - 9 9 9 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 3 6 C F Sulphur Hexa- Very t i g h t specs. fluo r i d e Cylinder, 1 0 0 l b . 7 4 0 4 0 0 0 on 0 2 , H 2 0 2 0. Aluminum Hydrogen Company of Sulphide 9 9 . 6 $ Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1 / 2 l b . Canada Ltd. Kitimat 2 1 . William H. Steer Argon 9 9 . 9 9 9 9 8 $ 1 1 . Pyrex Flask Voltare 1 5 1 5 l i t r e s Supplies a l l of Co., Vancouver Neon 9 9 . 9 9 9 9 8 $ 1 1 . Pyrex Flask Voltare 1 5 0 1 5 0 l i t r e s neon sign industry Argon-Neon 2 0 $ Neon 1 1 . Pyrex Flask Voltare 7 5 7 5 l i t r e s i n B.C. Expects demand to f a l l from now on. \ - 6 8 -Name Gas Used Specifications Container Supplier Expected Use Per Year Container Units Units Gas Miscellaneous Remarks 22 23 Cominco Ltd T r a i l , Technical Research Labs . Instrument Shop 2 4 Bondar-Clegg & Co. Ltd.,North Vancouver 2 5 Western Petroleum Analyses Services Ltd.,North Vancouver Carbon Monoxide Hydrogen Sulph. Krypton Xenon Nitrogen Dioxide N i t r i c Oxide N i t r o s y l Chloride Trimethylamine Carbonyl Sulphide Argon-Methane Helium-Hydrogen Helium-Hydrogen N2-CO-C02 Hydrogen-N2 Hydrogen-N2 Oxygen-N H -N -CO -CO-He~ CH 4 Nitrogen-0 2 Nitrogen Hydrogen Sulphide Sulphur Dioxide Nitrogen-CO Hexane N20-CO N2-CO-N20 9 9 . 5 $ 9 9 - 5 $ 9 9 - 9 9 9 $ 9 9 . 9 9 9 $ 9 9 . 5 $ 9 9 . 0 $ 9 3 . 0 $ 9 9 . 0 $ 1 0 $ Methane 8 $ Hydrogen 8 . 5 $ Hydrogen ppm CO, ppm C 0 2 3 8 $ N 2 2 8 $ N 2 2 1 $ N 2 $ mixture 4 0 ppm 0 2 9 9 - 9 9 9 $ 9 8 . 5 $ 9 9 - 9 $ Various r a t i o s Various r a t i o s Various ratios C y l . 160 cf . Matheson C y l . 2 2 l b . Matheson C y l . 1 5 1 . C y l . 1 5 1 . Cyl. 1 0 l b . Matheson Cy l . 2 0 cf . Matheson C y l . 5 l b . Matheson C y l . 2 l b . Matheson Lecture bottle Matheson C y l . 2 4 0 c f . Matheson Cy l . 2 1 3 c f . Matheson C y l . 8 0 c f . Matheson C y l . 2 2 7 cf . Matheson Cy l . 8 0 cf . Matheson C y l . 80 cf . Matheson C y l . 8 0 c f . Matheson C y l . 2 2 0 c f . Matheson C y l . 8 0 c f . Matheson Cyl. 2 2 7 cf . Matheson C y l . 2 2 l b . Matheson C y l . 5 l b . Fisher Lecture bottle Lecture bottle Lecture bottle Lecture bottle Matheson Matheson not ordered yet not ordered yet 1 X l ) l 0 1/10 2 1 H5 1/5 !_ 2 9 16 2 3 2 2 2 1 1 3 1 2 1 i ? i 2 1 5 0 c f . 1 0 lb 1 . 5 1 . 1 . 5 1 . 5 l b . 2 0 c f . 1 I 4 l b . l b . l b . 2150 c f . 3400 c f . 425 c f . 675 c f . 150 c f . 150 c f . 150 c f . 225 c f . 6 7 5 cf. 22 l b . 10 l b . 2 c f . 7 \ lb . 1 c f . Dew point -60 C 5 8 . 5 5 $ H 2 5 $ N 1 2 $ CO 2 . 0 $ CO 1 . 5 $ He , 0 . 9 5$CH 4 Name Gas Used Specifications 2 6 General Testing Labs., Vancouver 2 7 Kent Chemicals Ltd. Vancouver 28 B.C. Research Council, U.B.C. Canada 2 9 Dept. of Forestry & Rural Development, U.B.C. 3 0 Fisheries Research Board, U.B.C. 3 1 Fisheries Research Board, Nanaimo 32 Dept. of Forestry & Rural Development, V i c t o r i a 33. Dept. of National Defense; D.R.B. Esquimalt Chlorine Hydrogen Chloride Carbon Monoxide Sulphur Dioxide Hydrogen Sulphide Chlorine Hydrogen Chloride Ammonia Helium-Isobutane Carbon Monixide Helium-Isobutane Carbon Monoxide Hydrogen Sulphide Chlorine Ethylene Oxide Nitrogen-C0 2 Hydrogen Chloride Hydrogen Chloride Hydrogen Fluoride Hydrogen Sulphide Hydrogen Chlorine 9 9 - 5 % 9 9 % 9 9 % 9 9 - 9 % 9 9 - 5 % 9 9 . 5 % 9 9 - 0 % 9 9 - 9 5 % 1 . 3 % Isobutane 1 . 3 % Isobutane 9 8 . 0 % 9 9 - 5 % 9 9 . 5 % %C0 , + . 5 99-0% 9 9 - 0 % 9 8 . 0 % 9 9 . 5 % 9 9 . 9 5 % 9 9 . 5 % - 69 -Expected Use per Year Container Supplier Container Units Units Gas Miscellaneous Remarks Lecture bottle Fisher 1 2 \ l b . Cy l . 60 l b . Cy l . 6 0 c f . Matheson Matheson 1 5 1 2 9 0 0 l b . 5 0 c f . Lecture bottle Lecture bottle Matheson Matheson 1 ? 2 \ l b . | l b . Lecture bottle Lecture bottle Lecture bottle Matheson Matheson Matheson 1 ? ? 2 i l b . | l b . J l b . Cy l . 160 c f . Lecture bottle Matheson Matheson 2 2 300 c f. 2 cf. Cy l . 160 c f . Lecture bottle Lecture bottle Lecture bottle Lecture bottle Matheson Matheson Matheson Matheson Matheson 1 2 1 1 / 5 1 / 5 75 c f . 1 c f . C y l . 80 cf. Lecture bottle 1 2 1 30 c f. | l b . with analysis Lecture bottle Lecture bottle Lecture bottle Lecture bottle Lecture bottle 1 ? ? 2 1 ? 2 i l b . I l b . t l b . 1 c f . £ l b . 70 -Name Gas Used Specif ications Container Ammonia 9 9 - 9 5 % Lecture bottle Nitrous Oxide 98 . 0 % Lecture bo t t l e N i t r i c Oxide 98.5% Lecture bottle Sulphur Dioxide 99.9% C y l . 5 l b . Methane 7 Lecture bottle Ethane 9 9 % Lecture bottle Ethylene 9 9 . 0 % Lecture bottle n-Butane 9 9 - 0 % Lecture bottle 1-Butene 9 9 - 0 % Lecture bottle Dichlorofluroo-methane 9 9 - 0 % Cyl. 1 5 l b . (Genetron - 2 1 ) Oxygen -C0 2 various r a t i o s C y l . 2 4 4 cf.) Hydrogen 9 9 - 9 9 9 % Cyl. 1 9 1 cf.) Argon 9 9 . 9 9 8 % Lecture bottle Oxygen 9 9 - 9 7 % Lecture sphere Helium-Isobutane 0 . 9 5 % Isobutane C y l . 6 4 cf. Sulphur Dioxide 9 9 . 9 % Lecture bottle Sulphur Dioxide 9 9 . 9 % Lecture bottle Methane 9 9 % C y l . 1 0 c f . Nitrogen-CO 4 ppm CO Cyl . 2 2 7 cf. Supplier Expected Use per Year Container Units Units Gas Miscellaneous Remarks Dept. of National Defense (contd.) 34 Dept. of Agri-culture, U.B.C 35 B a i l i e Meter Co. Ltd., Vancouver B r i t i s h Columbia 36 Dept. of Mines & Petroleum Resources, Vancouver 3 7 Dept. of Highways, Vancouver Not yet ordered Fisher Fisher Matheson Not yet ordered Not yet ordered Matheson Matheson 1 £ i 1 2 1 1 1 l l Unknown Unknown 2 2 3 Unknown Unknown 1 4 0.5 2 1 2 .1 1 I I 4 I lb, lb. cf. l b . cf . l b . l b . lb. lb. 8 lb, 16 cf, 16 cf 2 0 0 cf 1 0 c f . 1 0 0 cf May use i n 1 - 2 years May use i n 1 - 2 years May use i n future for a i r pol l u t i o n instru-mentation work 71 -Name Gas Used Specifications Container Supplier Expected Use per Year Miscellaneous Remarks Container Units Units Gas 38 School Boards throug] i - Hydrogen 9 9 - 9 5 $ Lecture bottle 125 250 cf .) Supplied mainly out the Province Oxygen 9 9 - 9 5 $ Lecture bottle 1 0 0 200 cf . ) by Central S c i -(and including B.C. Carbon Dioxide 9 9 - 8 $ Lecture bottle 100 50 l b . ) e n t i f i c Co . , Vocational Schools) Argon 9 9 - 9 5 $ Lecture bottle 75 150 cf. ) Welch S c i e n t i f i c Helium 99 - 9 5 $ Lecture bottle 50 100 cf . ) Co., Fisher S c i -Nitrogen 9 9 - 9 $ Lecture bottle 25 50 cf. ) e n t i f i c Co. and Chlorine 9 9 - 5 $ Lecture bottle 15 15 l b . ) Canlab. Hydrogen Sulphide 9 9 . 5 $ Lecture bottle 5 2X  L 1 lb.) Estimate given Carbon Monoxide 9 9 - 5 $ Lecture bottle 5 5 cf .) by Welch S c i e n t i f i c Co. 39 St. Paul's Hospital Helium 9 9 - 9 5 $ C y l . 10 cf.(MD) U . C C L . 8 1 0 0 cf . Vancouver Air-CO 0 . 1 3 0 $ CO Cy l . 220 c f . U.C.C.L. 8 Helium-O^ 21$ 0 C y l . 200 c f . U.C.C.L. 45 9 0 0 0 cf . Carbon Dioxide 99 . 8 $ Lecture bottle Matheson 2 l l h . Carbon Monoxide 9 9 - 5 $ Lecture bottle Matheson 1 l cf . Argon-02 21$ 0 2 C y l . 244 cf. Not yet 10 2450 c f . Expect to st a r t ordered using next year. Nitrogen - 0 2 2 l l $ 0 2 C y l . 224 c f . U.C .C .L. 3 700 cf . Nitrogen - 0 2 8 +2$ 0 2 C y l . 224 cf. U.C .C . L . 3 700 cf . 0xygen-C02 4 ±2$ C0 2 C y l . 1 2 2 c f . U.C .C . L . 6 700 cf . 0xygen-C02 8 +2$ CO Cy l . 1 2 2 c f . U X X .L. 6 700 cf . 40 Vancouver General Air-C0 2 8 + . 5 $ C0 2 C y l . 220 c f . 0 • L • A • 1 0 0 2 2 , 0 0 0 c f . Hospital N 2 - 0 2 - C 0 2 5 . 4 5 i . 0 3 % c o 2 C y l . 224 c f . C • L • A • 6 1 , 3 5 0 c f . 1 1 . 4 5 ± . 0 3 $ o 2 Nitrogen-CO^ 1 1 . 2 5 ± . 0 3 $ co Cyl. 224 c f . C.L.A. 6 1 , 3 5 0 c f . 0 x y g e n-C0 2 four r a t i o s C y l . 244 c f . C.L.A. 100 2 4 , 4 0 0 c f . Carbon Monoxide 9 9 - 5 $ Lecture bottle Matheson 1 l c f . 44 Royal Jubilee Air-CO 0 . 1 3 0 $ CO Cy l . 2 2 0 c f . U X X .L. 6 1 , 3 0 0 c f . Hospital, V i c t o r i a 42 St. Joseph's o 2-co 2 3 . 0 $ +.5 c o 2 Cyl. 244 c f . 0 • L • A • 2 500 c f . Hospital, V i c t o r i a 0 2 - C 0 2 1 0 . 0 $ +.5 co Cyl. 244 c f . C.L.A. 2 5 0 0 cf . APPENDIX I I I SUMMARY OF EXPECTED DEMAND FOR PRECISION GASES BY EACH USER, 1969 - 72 -User Lec" Bot t Lect Sph #4 #3 :ylCylCyl]Cyl #2J#1A$1 L.P Cyl FlaskOther University of B.C. Simon Fraser Univ. Univ. of Notre Dame Selkir k College B.C. Institue of Tech. University of V i c t o r i a Royal Roads College MacMillan Bloedel Columbia Cellulose Hooker Chemical Coast Eldridge Standard O i l B.A. O i l S h e l l Canada Imperial O i l Noranda Copper M i l l s Lafarge Cement Reichhold Chemicals B.C. Hydro Aluminum Co. W . H . Steer Co. Cominco Bondar-Clegg Co. W.Petroleum Analyses Gen. Testing Labs. Kent Chemicals B.C. Research Council Can. Dept. of Forestry (U.B.C.) Fisheries Res. Board (U .B.C.) Fisheries Res. Board (Nanaimo) Can. Dept. of Forestry (Victoria) Can. D.R.B.j Esquimalt 98 4 7 7 1 1 .2 2 5 0 1 1 7 16 1 5 2 4 5 1 l 2 1 0 1 7 6 3 7 1 4 2 3 3 1 5 3 7 5 1 3 8 2 4 0 - 73 -User Lect Bot Lect 3 p h #4 #3 #2 Cyl #1A Cyl #1 L.P Cyl Flask Dther Total Can. Dept• of Agriculture B.C. Dept. of Mines B.C. Dept. of Highway B.C. Schools St. Paul's Hospital Vane. General Hosp. Royal Jubilee Hosp. St. Joseph's Hosp. rs 5 0 0 3 1 4 l 3 1 2 1 6 9 2 1 2 6 4 8 7 1 1 5 0 0 9 2 2 1 3 6 4 Total 1 , 2 2 3 8 9 6 4 0 5 2 8 4 2 8 5 2 9 2 , 1 3 2 APPENDIX IV SUMMARY OF EXPECTED DEMAND (1969), BY GAS I "ATMOSPHERIC" AND RARE GASES Approx. Annual Annual No. of No. of Annual Total Present Cyls. Volume Volume Gas Specifn. Container Users Used Used of Gas Air "dry" Lecture bottle 1 2 4 , 4 8 c f . Cyl. 3 0 c f . ( # 3 ) 1 1 2 1 5 c f . 6 3 cf. Argon 9 9 - 9 9 9 9 8 $ Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 6 1 5 1 5 l i t r e s 9 9 - 9 9 9 5 $ Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 3 6 6 l i t r e s Cylinder, 2 4 7 c f . 2 2 . 5 0 0 cf. 9 9 . 9 9 8 $ Lecture bottle 1 2 4 4 8 c f . Lecture sphere 1 2 16 c f . 9 9 . 9 5 $ Lecture bottle 5 0 7 5 1 5 0 c f . 7 1 5 cf. Helium 9 9 . 9 9 9 $ Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 3 4 4 l i t r e s Cyl. 2 1 3 c f . 3 7 1 , 4 9 0 c f . 9 9 . 9 9 5 $ Lecture bottle 3 3 7 75 c f . 9 9 . 9 5 $ Lecture bottle " 5 0 5 0 1 0 0 cf. Cyl. 1 2 c f . (Med.) 1 8 1 0 0 c f . "Isotopically pure" Cyl. 2 1 3 c f . 1 2 2 2 5 cf. 1 , 9 9 0 c f . Krypton 9 9 . 9 9 5 $ Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 1 1 1 l i t r e Cyl. 25 l i t r e s 2 1 2 5 l i t r e s 26 l i t r e s Neon 9 9 . 9 9 9 9 8 $ Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 6 1 5 0 1 5 0 l i t r e s 9 9 . 9 9 5 $ Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 3 1 0 1 0 l i t r e s 9 9 - 9 5 $ Lecture bottle 1 1 2 2 5 l i t r e s I 8 5 l i t r e s Nitrogen 9 9 . 9 9 9 $ Lecture bottle 2 4 i 1 0 c f . Cyl. 2 2 7 c f . 8 2 0 4 , 5 4 0 c f . 9 9 - 9 $ Lecture bottle 5 0 3 5 7 0 c f . Lecture sphere 1 4 3 0 c f . 4 , 6 5 0 c f . I "ATMOSPHERIC" AND RARE GASES contd. Approx. Annual Annual No. of No. of: Annual Total Present Cyls. Volume Volume Gas Specifn. Container Users Used Used of Gas Oxygen 9 9 . 9 9 % Lecture bottle 1 1 2 1 c f . 9 9 - 9 7 % Lecture sphere 1 2 16 c f . 9 9 - 9 5 % Lecture bottle 5 0 1 0 1 2 0 2 c f . Cy l . 1 0 c f . ( # 4 ) 1 1 1 0 c f . C y l . 2 4 4 cf. 1 3 7 3 2 c f . 9 9.6% Lecture bottle 2 9 1 8 c f . 9 8 0 cf. Xenon 9 9 . 9 9 5 % Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 1 1 / 5 1 / 5 l i t r e C y l . 2 5 l i t r e s 2 1 2 5 l i t r e s 2 5 l i t r e s II HYDROCARBON GASES Approx. Annual Annual No. of No . of Annual Total Present Cyls. Volume Volume Gas Specifn. Container Users Used Used of Gas Acetylene 9 9 - 6 $ Lecture bottle 1 1 1/20 c f . Allene 9 7 $ Lecture bottle 1 5 2| l b . 1 ,3-Butadiene 99-5% Lecture bottle . 2 4 f l b . n-Butane 9 9 - 9 9 $ Lecture bottle 1 2 f l b . 2J l b . 9 9 - 5 $ Lecture bottle 2 7 9 9 $ Lecture bottle 5 8 * 3 } l b . 6% l b . 1-Butene 9 9 - 4 $ Lecture bottle 1 i 2 i l b . 2| l b . 9 9 $ Lecture bottle 5 6 2f l b . 2-Butene 99.8$ Lecture bottle 1 i 2 \ l b . Cis-2-Butene 9 9 - 5 $ Lecture bottle 1 1 A l b . l{ l b . 9 9 $ Lecture bottle 2 4 2 l b . Trans-2-Butene 9 9 . 5 $ Lecture bottle 1 1 \ l b . l{ l b . 9 9 $ Lecture bottle 1 4 2 l b . Cyclopropane 9 9 $ Cylinder, 1 5 l b . 1 i 4 4 l b . 1,1-Difluoro-ethylene 9 9 $ Lecture bottle 2 16 8 l b . Dimethylamine 9 9 $ Lecture bottle 2 2^ 1 l b . Dimethyl Ether 9 9 $ Lecture bottle 2 3 1^ l b . 2,2-Dimethyl-propane 9 9 $ Lecture bottle 1 6 2\ l b . II HYDROCARBON GASES contd. Gas Specifn. Container Approx. No. of Present Users Annual No. of Cyls . Used Annual Volume Used Annual Total Volume of Gas Ethane 9 9 - 9 % 9 9 - 5 % 9 9 % Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e Lecture bottle Lecture bottle Lecture bottle C y l . 10 lb (#2) 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 10 1 / 5 ^ l i t r e z l b . I l b . 2| l b . 2 l b . 2f l b . Ethyl Chloride 9 9 . 7 % Lecture bottle 1 12 6 l b . Ethylene 9 9 % Lecture bottle C y l . 8 l b . (#2) 2 1 1 3 1 / 5 3j l b . l j l b . 4| l b . Ethylene Oxide Lecture bottle 1 1 / 5 1/10 l b . Freon-11 (T r i c h l o r o f l u o r o -methane) 9 9 - 5 % Lecture bottle 1 1 h l b -Freon-12 (Dichlorodi-fluoromethane) 9 9 . 5 % Lecture bottle 2 3 2 l b . Freon - 1 3 (Chloro-trifluoromethane) 99% Lecture bottle 1 2 1^ l b . Freon - 1 4 (Tetra-fluoromethane) 9 9 - 7 % Lecture bottle Cyl. 2 l b . 1 1 2 1 / 5 1/8 l b . i l b . , £ l b . Freon - 1 1 4 (1,2-Dichlorotetra-fluoroethane) 9 9 - 5 % Lecture bottle 1 2 2 l b . Freon-116 (Hexafluoroethane) 9 9 % Lecture bottle 1 2 1 l b . II HYDROCARBON GASES contd. Gas Specifn. Container Approx. No. of Present Users Annual No. of Cyls. Used Annual Volume Used Annual Total Volume of Gas Genetron -21 (Dichlorofluoro-me thane) 9 9 $ Lecture bottle Cy l . 1 5 l b . ( # 2 ) 1 1--2 l 2 2 l b . 8 l b . 1 0 l b . Genetron -23 (Trifluoromethane 9 8 $ ) Lecture bottle 1 2 • 1 l b . Hexane Lecture bottle 1 l 2 ' 1 / 8 l b . Isobutane 9 9 - 9 6 $ 9 9 - 5 $ 9 9 $ Lecture bottle Lecture bottle Lecture bottle 1 2 2 2 7 7 f l b . 2*.lb. 2$ l b . 5 f l b . Isobutylene 9 9 - 5 $ Lecture bottle Lecture bottle 2 2 3 | A l b . l{ l b . 2 l b . Isopentane "research gr" Lecture bottle 1 2 \ l b . Methane 9 9 - 9 9 $ 9 9 - 9 $ 9 9 - 5 $ 9 9 - 1 $ 9 9 $ Lecture bottle Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e Lecture bottle Lecture bo t t l e Cy l . 1 0 0 c f . ( # 2 ) Lecture bottle Cy l . 1 0 c f . ( # 4 ) C y l . 3 0 0 cf. ( # 1 ) 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 l 2 1 1 1 1/4 1 4 1 2 1 c f . 1 l i t r e 2 c f . 2 cf . 2 5 c f . 3 0 c f . 1 0 c f . 6 0 0 c f . 6 7 0 c f . Methyl Chloride 9 9 - 5 $ Lecture bottle 1 8 4 l b . Monoethy1amine 9 8 . 5 $ Lecture bottle 1 i 2 i l b . Monomethylamine 9 8 $ Lecture bottle 1 1 2 i l b . II HYDROCARBON GASES contd. Gas Specifn. Container Approx. No. of Present Users Annual No. of Cyls. Used Annual Volume Used Annual Total Volume of Gas Propane 99-99% 99.5% 99% Lecture bottle Lecture bottle Lecture bottle C y l . 14 l b . (#2) C y l . 100 l b . (#1) 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 3 | 4 f l b . 1 l b . 3 J l b . 3 l l b . 25 l b . 33 l b . Pentane 99-5% Lecture bottle 1 1 •j l b . Propylene 99.7% 99.5% 99% Lecture bottle Lecture bottle C y l . 14 l b . (#2) Lecture bottle 1 3 1 1 4 6 1 l b . 1 l b . 3 | l b . 2 l b . 6 f l b . Trimethylamine 99% Lecture bottle Cyl. 2 l b . (#4) 1 1 1/1 j l b . | l b . f l b . C n H n Lecture bottle 2 8 3 l b . Deuterated C nH n Lecture bottle 1 i 2 i l b . I l l OTHER GASES Approx. Annual Annual No. of No. of Annual Total Present Cyls. Volume Volume Gas Specifn. Container Users Used Used of Gas Ammonia 9 9 . 9 5 % Lecture bottle 5 1 1 4 l b . Cy l . 5 l b . ( # 3 ) 1 1 2 2£lb. Cyl . 1 0 0 l b . 2 i f 1 5 0 l b . 1 5 6 l b . Boron T r i f l u o r i d e 9 9 - 5 % Lecture bottle 1 1 2 i l b . Bromine 9 8 . 5 % ( ? ) Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 1 1 1 l i t r e Carbon Dioxide 9 9 . 9 9 5 % Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 2 3 3 l i t r e s Lecture bottle 2 l i -" f i b . 9 9 . 9 9 % C y l . 60 l b . 1 3 r 8 o i b . 9 9 -8% Lecture bottle 5 0 1 2 0 6 0 l b . Cy l . 3 l b . ( # 4 ) 1 1 2 l±lb. Cyl . 8 l b . ( # 3 ) 1 1 2 4 l b . 9 9 - 5 % Lecture bottle 5 25 1 2 ^ 1 b . 2 6 0 l b . Carbon 14-Dioxide C y l . 5 0 l b . 1 2 1 0 0 l b . Carbon Monoxide 9 9 . 8 % Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 1 3 2 l i t r e s Lecture bottle 2 3 3 cf. 9 9 . 5 % Lecture bottle 7 1 9 1 9 c f . Cy l . 24 c f . ( # 3 ) 1 1 2 1 2 cf. Cyl . 1 6 0 c f . ( # 1 ) 3 16 2 5 6 0 cf. 99% C y l . 6 0 c f . ( # 2 ) 1 1 2 3 0 cf. 98% Lecture bottle 2. 3 3 cf. 2 6 3 0 c f . Carbonyl Sulphide 96% Lecture bottle 3 3i 2 l b . Chlorine 9 9 . 9 7 % Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 1 1 1 l i t r e 9 9 . 5 % Lecture bottle 2 0 4 6 4 6 l b . Cyl . 1 5 l b . ( # 3 ) 2 2 3 0 l b . 75 l b , I l l OTHER GASES contd. Gas Specifn. Container Approx. No. of Present Users Annual No. of Cyls. Used Annual Volume Used Annual Total Volume of Gas Deuterium 99.5$ Lecture bottle 2 31 434 l i t r e s Cyl. 25 l i t r e s 1 2 50 l i t r e s 484 l i t r e s Fluorine 98 .5$ Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 1 1 2 ^ l i t r e Helium-3 "pure" Cyl . 2.5 l i t r e s 2 12 30 l i t r e s "low t r i t i u m " C y l . 2.5 l i t r e s 1 2 5 l i t r e s 35 l i t r e s Hydrogen 99-9995$ Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 1 2 2 l i t r e s 99.999$ Lecture bottle 1 3 6 c f . Cy l . 194 c f . 2 290 c f . 99.98$ Lecture bottle 1 30 60 cf. 99-95$ Lecture bottle 50 136 272 c f . 99 -8$ Lecture bottle 1 30 60 c f . Cyl . 194 c f . 1 2 388 c f . 1075 c f . Hydrogen Bromide 99.8$ Lecture bottle 3 14 14 l b s . Hydrogen Chloride ' 99$ Lecture bottle 10 67 34 l b s . Cy l . 20 l b s . (#2) 1 1/8 2 lbs,. C y l . 60 l b s . (#1) 1 15 900 l b s . 935 l b s . Hydrogen Fluoride 98$ Lecture bottle 2 6i 3 l b s . Hydrogen Sulphide 99.5$ Lecture bottle 10 22 11 l b s . Cy l . 22 l b s . (#2) 1 1 2 i l b . Cy l . 59 l b s . (#1) 1 2 118 l b s . 98.5$ C y l . 22 l b s . 1 1 22 l b s . 150 l b s . Iodine 98.5$ (?) Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 1 1 1 l i t r e Mercaptans Lecture bottle 1 3 1^  l b s . I l l OTHER GASES contd. Approx. Annual Annual No. of No. of Annual Total Present Cyls . Volume Volume Gas Specifn. Container Users Used Used of Gas Neon-20 9 9 $ Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 1 2 2 l i t r e s N i t r i c Oxide 9 9 $ C y l . 2 0 c f . ( # 2 ) 1 1 2 0 c f . 9 8 . 5 $ Lecture bottle 3 8 5 c f . Cyl. 3 cf. ( # 4 ) 1 2 6 cf. Cyl. 8 c f . ( # 3 ) 1 1 2 4 c f . 3 5 c f . Nitrogen Dioxide 99.-5% C y l . 5 l b . ( # 4 ) 1 1 / 3 2 l b . -C y l . 1 0 l b . ( # 3 ) 1 1 2 5 l b . 7 l b . Ni t r o s y l Chloride 9 3 $ C y l . 5 l b . ( # 3 ) 1 1 / 5 1 l b . Nitrous Oxide 9 8 $ Lecture bottle 3 1 2 6 l b . Cyl . 3 l b . ( # 4 ) 1 1 2 l | l b . 7 ^ 1 b . Phosgene 9 9 $ Lecture bottle 1 1 2 i l b . Silane 9 9 . 9 9 9 $ Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 1 1 2 ^ l i t r e Sulphur Dioxide 9 9 - 9 8 $ Lecture bottle 2 1 7 1 7 l b . 9 9 . 9 $ Lecture bottle 5 2 3 2 3 l b . Cyl . 5 l b . ( # 4 ) 3 3 1 5 l b . Cyl. 1 5 0 l b . ( # 1 ) 2 3 4 5 0 l b . 5 0 0 l b . Sulphur Hexaflu- 9 8 $ Lecture bottle 1 4 2 l b . oride 7 C y l . 1 0 0 l b . ( # 1 ) 1 4 0 4 , 0 0 0 l b . 4 , 0 0 0 l b . IV GAS MIXTURES Gas Specifn. Container Approx. No. of Present Users Annual No. of Cyls., Used Annual Volume Used Annual Total Volume of Gas Argon-Neon 9 9 - 9 9 5 % puri .ty Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 1 3 3 l i t r e s 9 9 . 9 9 9 9 8 % » Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 6 75 75 l i t r e s 78 l i t r e s Argon-Oxygen % o 2 C y l . 3 0 0 c f . 1 10 3,000 c f . ppm. 0 2 C y l . 3 0 0 cf. 1 1 300 c f . 3,300 cf. Argon-Methane 10% CH, 4 C y l . 240 cf. 4 12 2,880 cf. Air-Chlorine ppm. C l 2 C y l . 220 c f . 1 1 2 100 cf. Air-Carbon Dioxide % C0 0 C y l . 220 c f . 3 122 26 , 8 4 0 cf. Li Cyl. (medical) 20 c f . 1 3 60 c f . ppm. C0'2 C y l . 220 c f . 1 25 5 , 5 0 0 cf. 32,400 cf. Air-Carbon Monoxid 3 % CO Cyl . 2 20 c f . 3 16 3,520 cf. Helium-Neon 9 - 9 % Ne Pyrex Flask 1 l i t r e 1 6 6 l i t r e s Helium-Oxygen % o 2 C y l . 213 c f . 2 4 8 10,225 cf. Helium-Nitrogen % He Cyl . 80 cf. 1 1 8 0 cf. % N 2 ' Cyl . 213 cf. 1 1 2 100 c f . 180 cf. Helium-Hydrogen % He Cyl . 8 0 c f . 1 1 ' .... 8 0 cf. % H 2 C y l . 8 0 cf. 1 2 160 cf. Cyl . 213 c f . 1 16 3,400 cf. 3,640 c f . Helium-Isobutane % Isobutane Cyl . 6 4 cf. 2 9 576 cf. Cyl . 160 c f . 5 11 1,760 cf. 2 , 3 0 0 c f . Geiger Gas He-base Cyl. 6 0 c f . 2 2 120 c f . Hydrogen-Nitrogen % N 2 C y l . 80 c f . 3 5 400 c f . IV GAS MIXTURES contd. Gas Specifn. Container Approx. No. of Present Users Annual No. of Cyls. Used Annual Volume Used Annual Total Volume of Gas Nitrogen-Carbon Dioxide ppm. CO2 % co2 C y l . 2 2 7 c f . Cy l . 8 0 c f . Cy l . 2 2 7 cf. 4 1 2 6 1 2 9 1 , 3 6 0 c f . 4 0 c f . 2 , 0 4 0 c f . 3 , 4 5 0 c f . Nitrogen-Carbon Monoxide ppm. CO % CO Cy l . 2 2 7 c f . Lecture bottle 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 c f . 2 c f . 1 1 5 cf. Nitrogen-Oxygen ppm. O2 % 0 % N* Cy l . 8 0 c f . Cy l . 2 2 7 c f . Cy l . 2 2 7 cf. Cyl . 8 0 c f . 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 9 2 8 0 c f . 1 1 3 c f . 2 , 0 4 3 c f . 1 6 0 cf. 2 , 4 0 0 cf. Nitrogen-Sulphur Dioxide % so2 C y l . 2 2 7 c f . 1 2 4 5 0 cf. Nitrous Oxide-CO % CO Lecture bottle 1 1 2 1 cf. Oxygen-C arbon Dioxide % co 2 Lecture bottle C y l . 1 2 2 cf. Cyl. 2 4 4 cf-. 1 2 5 ' 3 1 2 1 0 8 6 c f . 1 , 4 6 0 c f . 2 6 , 3 5 0 cf. 2 7 , 8 2 0 cf. W C ° 2 ppm. C0„ % co2 1 C y l . 2 2 7 c f . Cyl. 2 2 7 c f . 2 1 1 6 2 2 7 cf. 1 , 3 6 2 c f . 1 , 5 9 0 cf. N2-C02~CO ppm. C0 2, CO Cyl. 2 2 7 c f . 1 3 6 8 0 cf. N 20-CO-N 2 % Lecture bottle 1 1 2 1 c f . C 0 2 - 0 2 - . C 0 - N 2 % Cyl. 2 2 0 c f . 1 1 4 5 0 c f . H 2-CH 4-C 2H 6-N 2 % C y l . 2 2 0 c f . 1 1 4 5 0 cf.. He-0 2-C0 2-CO-N 2-H 2 % Lecture bottle 1 1 2 cf. IV GAS MIXTURES cohtd. Approx. Annual Annual No. of No. of Annual Total Present Cyls. Volume Volume Gas Specifn. Container Users Used Used of Gas H2-N2-C02~C0-He-CH4 % C y l . 220 c f . 1 1 220 c f . C nH n mixture % Lecture bottle 1 1 2 l b . APPENDIX V(a) RELATIVE EXPECTED DEMAND BY GAS TYPE AND CONTAINER, 1969 Atmosph. & Rare Gases Hydroc Gas carbon ses Other Gases Gas Mixtures Sub--total Container No .of Total No .of Total No .of Total No .of Total 1 No.ofjg of i Vol. j % of Style Cyls . Vol, Cyls. Vol. Cyls. Vol. Cyls. Vol. Cyls.| Total C .F . ! 1 Total C .F . C F . C .F . C .F . 1 1 i 1 Lecture bottle 360 723 211 607 645 2 ,358 7 27 ' 1 1,223| 5 7 . 3 ' 1 3,7.15) 2 . 6 Lecture sphere 8 64 0 . 4 64! 1 #4 cylinder 1 10 2 23 6 141 i 9;. 0 . 4 174 j 0 . 1 #3 cylinder 1 30 1 33 4 326 61 0 . 3 3891 0 . 3 #2 cylinder 1 171 4 441 35 3,156 40 | 1. 9 3 ,768) 2 . 6 #1A cylinder 34 7 ,687 2 600 81 29,478 411 9 2 , 6 8 3 528i 2 4 . 7 1 3 0 , 4 4 8 | 9 1 . 3 #1A L.P. c y l . 1 850 -3 3 , 4 0 5 • 4" - 0 . •2 4 , 2 5 5 j 3 . 0 Flask 186 7 2 1 13 1 84 3 285 J 1 3 . 4 121 Other 12 100 17 3 2 91 I 1. 4 103j 1 0 . 1 Sub-Total 602 8 , 6 2 1 220 2,285 773 36 ,153 537 9 5 , 8 6 9 2 ,132j i 100 . 0 142,928,' 1 100 . 0 % of Total 28 .2 6 . 0 10 .3 1.6 3 6 . 3 25 -3 25 .2 67 .1 1 100 .0} 1 1 0 0 . 0 ! 1 APPENDIX V(b) RELATIVE FORECASTED DEMAND BY GAS TYPE AND CONTAINER, 1973 Container Style Atmosph. & Rare Gases i Hydrocarb. Gases Other Gases Gas Mixtures Sub--Total No.of Cyls. Vol. C .F. No .of Cyls . Vol. C .F. No.of Cyls. Vol. C F . No .of Cyls . Vol. C .F . No.of1$.of. C y l s . j T o t a l Vol. j C F . j % of Total Lecture bottle 3 2 1 6 4 5 1 1 9 3 4 2 5 4 4 1 , 9 8 5 1 3 5 0 9 9 7 3 5 .1 3,0221 1 . 0 Lecture sphere 5 0 4 0 0 2 5 2 8 8 2 8 4 0 9 1 0 3 3 . 6 l , 0 9 7 j 0 . 3 #4 cylinder 1 1 0 14 3 2 9 1 5 0 5 3391 0 .1 #3 cylinder 1 3 0 3 1 0 0 8 6 5 2 1 2 0 .4 7 8 2 | 0 . 2 #2 cylinder 6 • 1 , 0 2 5 1 3 1 , 4 3 0 7 0 6 , 3 0 0 8 9 3 .1 8,7551 2 8 #1A cylinder 61 1 3 , 8 0 0 5 1 , 5 0 0 1 5 0 5 4,600 1 , 0 2 8 2 3 2 , 0 0 0 1 , 2 4 4 4 3 9 3 0 1 , 9 0 0 ' . 9 4 3 #1A L.P. c y l . 1 8 5 0 3 3 , 4 0 5 4 0 1 4 , 2 5 5 j 1 3 Flask 2 0 2 . 7 3 1 2 4 1 -91 3 3 2 0 11 3 1 2 j Other 2 7 2 1 0 2 9 2 5 6 2 . 0 2121 Sub-total 6 6 3 1 5 , 1 0 2 1 6 2 4 , 1 0 6 8 1 3 6 2 , 8 1 3 1, 2 0 2 2 3 8 , 3 5 3 2 , 8 4 0 1 0 0 0 3 2 0 , 3 7 4'j 1 1 0 0 0 % of t o t a l 23-4 4 - 7 5 . 7 1 . 3 2 8 . 6 19.6 4 2 . 3 7 4 . 4 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 1 1 APPENDIX VI SUMMARY OF EXPECTED DEMAND FOR PRECISION GASES IN B.C. BY GEOGRAPHICAL AREA, 1969 Geographical Container Atmospheric Hydrocarbon Other Gas Total Area Style Gases Gases Gases Mixtures Lecture Bottle 2 3 4 2 0 5 5 1 2 7 9 5 8 Lecture Sphere 8 8 #4 Cyl. 1 1 2 4 #3 Cyl. 1 1 Greater #2 Cyl. 1 2 2 5 28 Vancouver #1 Cyl. 27 2 7 8 3 7 0 4 7 7 #1 L.P. Cyl. 1 2 3 Pyrex Flask 1 8 6 2 1 3 8 4 2 8 5 Other 1 1 1 7 4 8 T 28 TOTAL 4 6 7 2 1 2 6 2 7 1 7 9 2 Lecture Bottle 5 1 6 5 7 1 1 4 #4 Cyl. 2 2 Vancouver #3 Cyl. 1 1 2 4 Island #2 Cyl. 1 1 # 1 Cyl. 1 2 1 2 #1 L.P. Cyl. 1 1 TOTAL 5 2 7 62 1 3 1 3 4 Lecture Bottle 3 8 3 8 7 6 #4 Cyl. 1 2 3 Southern #3 Cyl. 1 1 I n t e r i o r #2 Cyl. 2 9 1 1 #1 Cyl. 7 3 29 3 9 Other 1 4 6 3 8 • 1 TOTAL 4 6 I 1 3 1 Other Lecture Bottle 3 7 3 8 7 5 Total B.C. 6 0 2 2 2 0 7 7 3 5 3 7 2 1 3 2 APPENDIX VII SUMMARY OF EXPECTED DEMAND FOR PRECISION GASES IN SEATTLE AREA, BY USER, 1969 Some Pr ecis i o n Gases Used In Seattle Area, 1 9 6 8 User or Firm Name Gas Container Supplier Est Cyl Argon 1 1 . Pyrex Flask Matheson 1 Cylinder, 2 4 7 CF Air Products Co 1 Helium 1 1 . Pyrex Flask Matheson 3 Hydrogen Lecture Bottle Matheson 2 3 Nitrogen Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 5 Cylinder, 3 2 CF Matheson 1 Oxygen 1 1 . Pyrex Flask Matheson 1 Atmospheric Cylinder, 4CF Merck, Sharpe 5 0 Gases & Dohme Krypton 1 1 . Pyrex Flask Matheson 1 Xenon 1 1 . Pyrex Flask Matheson 3 Acetylene Cylinder, 4 0 CF Matheson 1 Methane Cylinder, 1 0 0 CF Matheson 1 0 2 Cylinder, 3 0 0 Matheson 1 Other Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 1 Hydrocarbons Cylinder ( # 4 ) Matheson 3 Cylinder ( # 1 A ) Matheson 1 Ammonia Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 Cylinder, 2 l b . Matheson 3 Cylinder, 1 0 0 lb Matheson 1 Carbon Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 Monoxide Cylinder, (#7A) Matheson 1 Carbonyl Sulphide Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 Hydrogen Bromide Cylinder, 4 l b . Matheson 2 Hydrogen Chloride Lecture Bottle Matheson 7 Cylinder, 2 l b . Matheson 6 # Miscellaneous University of Washington 1 s t Six Months Only 1 s t Six Months Only Nitrogen, Hydro, gen mainly Est. # User or Firm Name Gas Container Supplier Cyls/Yr. Miscellaneous University of Hydrogen Washington Fluoride Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 Hydrogen Cylinder, 3 l b . Cylinder, 9 l b . Matheson Matheson 1 1 Sulphide Lecture Bottle Matheson 4 Cylinder, 3 l b . Cylinder, 9 l b . Cylinder, 1 7 5 l b . Matheson Matheson Matheson 2 3 3 Nickel Carbonyl Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 N i t r i c Oxide Lecture Bottle Cylinder, 2 0 CF Matheson Matheson 1 1 Nitrogen Dioxide Cylinder, 3 / 4 l b . Matheson 1 Nitrogen T r i ~ f l u o r i d e Cylinder, 4 4 gm. A i r Products Co 2 Phosgene Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 S i l i c o n Te« t r a f l u o r i d e Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 Sulphur Dioxide Cylinder, 5 l b . Cylinder, 1 5 l b . Matheson Matheson 1 1 C 0 ~ N 2 Cylinder, 2 4 CF Matheson 1 C 0 2 - N 2 Cylinder, 6 0 l b . Matheson 1 C 0 » 0 2 Cylinder, 1 6 0 CF Matheson 1 0 2 - C 0 2 Cylinder, 2 4 4 CF Cylinder(Med) "E" Matheson 2 A i r - C 0 2 Matheson 1 Air -CnHn Cylinder, "G" . , Matheson 2 Krypton«CH^ Cylinder, 2 5 - 1 . Matheson 1 Helium CnHn Cylinder, 2 1 3 CF Matheson 2 Argon-CH^ Cylinder, 2 4 7 C F Matheson 1 0 2«CO»Ne«N 2 Cylinder, "H" Matheson 1 User or Firm Name Gas Container Supplier Est. # Cyls/Yr Miscellaneous Seattle University Q«gas Cylinder, 2 1 3 CF Matheson 2 Nuclear Counter Gas Aloe D i v i s i o n of C 0 2 " N 2 ~ 0 2 Cylinder, Med. Instrumentation 5 0 ? For Resale Brunswick Corp. Laboratories S c i e n t i f i c Product 3 CO2- N 2 ~ ° 2 Cylinder, Med. Instrumentation 60 For Resale Laboratories Corning The Boeing Methane Lecture Bottle Matheson 60 Company Xenon Lecture Bottle Matheson 3 0 Other Lecture Bottle Matheson 1 0 Nitrous Oxide Cylinder, 6 l b . Matheson 5 Hydrogen Chloride Cylinder, 2 l b . Matheson 5 Ammonia Cylinder, 5 l b . Matheson 5 Methyl Bromide Cylinder, 2 0 l b . Matheson 5 Methyl Chloride Cylinder, 2 0 l b . Matheson 5 1,3 Butadiene Cylinder, 2 l b . Matheson 5 N i t r o s y l Chloride Cylinder, 5 l b . Matheson 5 Carbon Monoxide Cylinder, 1 6 0 CF Matheson 5 Neon Cylinder, 2 5 0 1 . Matheson 3 99-7$ Purity Hydrogen Cylinder, 3 0 CF Matheson 5 Nitrogen Cylinder, 2 2 7 CF Matheson 1 5 9 9 - 9 9 7 $ He~N2 Cylinder, 2 1 3 CF Matheson 2 5 Argon Cylinder, 2 4 0 CF A i r Reduction 1 5 He«N 2-C0 2 Cylinder, 1 0 0 CF Ai r Reduction 3 Food Chemical Nitrogen Cylinder, 2 2 0 CF A i r Reduction Research Other Lecture Bottle Matheson Unspecified Laboratories User or Firm Name Gas Container Supplier Est. # Cyls/Yr Miscellaneous Seattle Public Schools Nitrogen Hydrogen Argon Helium Lecture Bottle Lecture Bot t l e Lecture Bot t l e Lecture Bot t l e )Welch ) S c i e n t i f i c or )Central ) S c i e n t i f i c No Details APPENDIX VIII DESIGNATION OF VALVE CONNECTIONS ON PRECISION GAS CONTAINERS - 93 -Following are l i s t e d the Compressed Gas Association Gas Cylinder Valve Outlets and Connections, used on a l l cylinders except lecture bottles and lecture spheres: Gas CGA Valve Outlet & Conn. No. A i r 5 9 0 , 1 3 4 0 Argon 5 8 0 Helium 5 9 0 , 5 8 0 Krypton 5 9 0 Nitrogen 5 8 0 Oxygen 5 4 0 Xenon 5 9 0 Cyclopropane 5 1 0 Ethane 3 5 0 Ethylene 3 5 0 Freon-14 3 2 0 Genetron - 2 1 6 6 0 Methane 3 5 0 Propane 5 1 0 Propylene 5 1 0 Trimethylamine 2 4 0 Ammonia 2 4 0 Carbon Dioxide 3 2 0 Carbon Monoxide 3 5 0 Chlorine 6 6 0 Deuterium 3 5 0 Hydrogen 3 5 0 Hydrogen Chloride 3 3 0 Hydrogen Sulphide 3 3 0 N i t r i c Oxide 6 6 0 Nitrogen Dioxide 1 6 0 N i t r o s y l Chloride 6 6 0 Nitrous Oxide 3 2 0 Sulphur Dioxide 6 6 0 Sulphur Hexafluoride 5 9 0 - 94 -With the following gas mixtures, the major component of the mixture i s l i s t e d f i r s t : A i r CGA Valve Outlet & Conn. No. Argon - Oxygen 5 8 0 Argon - Methane 3 5 0 A i r - Carbon Dioxide (Oxygen 5 0 % ) 3 2 0 (Oxygen 5 0 % ) 5 4 0 A i r - Carbon Monoxide 3 5 0 Helium - Nitrogen 5 9 0 Helium - Hydrogen 3 5 0 Helium - Isobutane 3 5 0 Geiger Gas 3 5 0 Hydrogen - Helium 3 5 0 Hydrogen - Nitrogen 3 5 0 Nitrogen - Carbon Dioxide 3 2 0 Nitrogen - Carbon Monoxide 3 5 0 Nitrogen - Oxygen 3 2 0 Oxygen - Carbon Dioxide 5 4 0 Nitrogen - Oxygen — Carbon Dioxide (Oxygen 5 0 % ) 3 2 0 (Oxygen 5 0 % ) 5 4 0 Nitrogen - Carbon Dioxide -Carbon Monoxide 3 5 0 Carbon Dioxide - Oxygen -Carbon Monoxide - Nitrogen 3 5 0 Hydrogen - Nitrogen - Carbon Dioxide - Carbon Monoxide — Helium - Methane 3 5 0 A l l lecture bottles and lecture spheres are equipped with a female 5 / l 6 " - 3 2 outlet. APPENDIX IX LIST OF FIRMS CONTACTED NOT USING PRECISION GASES - 95 -Scott Paper Ltd., New Westminster The Carling Breweries (B.C.) Ltd., Vancouver Macro D i v i s i o n of Kennamental, Port Coquitlam Kennametal of Canada Ltd., V i c t o r i a Esco Ltd., Port Coquitlam Crown Zellerbach Building Materials Ltd., Fraser M i l l s Benjamin Moore & Co. Ltd., Burnaby Canadian Forest Products Ltd., New Westminster Aluminum Company of Canada Ltd., Richmond Western Canada Ste e l , Vancouver B.C. D i s t i l l e r y Co. Ltd., New Westminster Canadian Park & T i l f o r d D i s t i l l e r i e s Ltd., North Vancouver Molson's Capilano Brewery Ltd., Vancouver Fraser-Valley Milk Producers Association, Burnaby Jersey Farms Ltd., Vancouver Canadian Pittsburgh Industries Ltd., North Vancouver Lenkurt E l e c t r i c Co. of Canada Ltd., Burnaby Dominion Glass Co. Ltd., Burnaby B.C. Government, Dept. of Agriculture, Vancouver Instrument Service Laboratories Ltd., Vancouver Frederick Goertz Ltd., Vancouver B.C. Sugar Refining Co. Ltd., Vancouver B r i t i s h American Chemical Co. Ltd., Burnaby Domtar Chemicals Ltd., New Westminster B.C. Telephone Company, Vancouver Canadian Industries Ltd., Vancouver Chemex Labs Ltd., North Vancouver Kennco Explorations (Western) Ltd., Vancouver Wood Laboratory, Vancouver Ele c t r o n i c Laboratories of Canada Ltd., Burnaby McCarter Radio & Tel e v i s i o n Ltd., Vancouver National Electrolab Associates Ltd., Vancouver Research Industries Ltd., Burnaby B r i t t o n Research Ltd., Vancouver Coast Petrographic Service, Vancouver Chemech P o l l u t i o n Abatement Systems Ltd., Vancouver Honeywell Controls Ltd., Vancouver B a i l i e Meter Co. Ltd., Vancouver Mine Safety Appliances Co. of Canada Ltd., Vancouver B.C. Forest Products Ltd., Vancouver Can Dive Ltd., Vancouver I n d u s t r i a l Diving Co. Ltd., Vancouver Kodak Processing Laboratory, North Vancouver Canadian Government, Department of Agriculture, V i c t o r i a Rayonier Canada (B.C.) Ltd., Vancouver CAE Machinery Ltd., Vancouver A - l S t e e l & Iron Foundry Ltd., Vancouver APPENDIX X PROJECTION OF GRADUATE ENROLLMENT IN CANADIAN UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES TO 1973-74 - 96 -A c a d e m i c Y e a r E n r o l l m e n t C h a n g e f r o m P r e v i o u s Y e a r % C h a n g e f r o m P r e v i o u s Y e a r 1 9 6 8 - 6 9 30,200 1 9 6 9 - 7 0 35,300 + 5 , 1 0 0 +16 .9% 1 9 7 0 - 7 1 4 0 , 4 0 0 + 5 , 1 0 0 + 1 4 . 4 % 1 9 7 1 - 7 2 4 5 , 6 0 0 + 5 , 1 0 0 + 1 2 . 6 % 1 9 7 2 - 7 3 5 0 , 6 0 0 + 5 , 0 0 0 +11 .0% 1 9 7 3 - 7 4 5 5 , 5 0 0 + 4 , 9 0 0 + 9 . 6 8 % 1 9 6 8 - 6 9 t o 1 9 7 3 - 7 4 + 2 5 , 3 0 0 + 8 3 . 8 % S o u r c e : W. M . I l l i n g a n d Z . E . Z s i g m o n d , E n r o l l m e n t i n  S c h o o l s a n d U n i v e r s i t i e s 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 t o 1 9 7 5 - 7 6 , E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l o f C a n a d a , S t a f f S t u d y N o . 2 0 , O c t o b e r 1 9 6 7 -APPENDIX XI PROJECTION OF GRADUATE ENROLLMENT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA TO 1973-74 - 97 -Academic Year Enrollment Change from Previous Year $ Change from Previous Year 1 9 6 8 - 6 9 2 , 3 9 5 1 9 6 9 - 7 0 2 , 7 1 3 + 3 1 8 + 1 3 - 3 $ 1 9 7 0 - 7 1 3 , 0 3 4 + 3 2 1 + 1 1 . 8 $ 1 9 7 1 - 7 2 3 , 5 0 1 + 4 6 7 + 1 5 . 4 $ 1 9 7 2 - 7 3 3 , 9 6 3 + 4 6 2 +13 .2% 1 9 7 3 - 7 4 4 , 3 9 9 + 4 3 6 + 1 1 . 0 $ 1 9 6 8 - 6 9 to 1 9 7 3 - 7 4 + 2 , 0 0 4 + 8 3 . 5 $ Source: Estimate of Enrollment - By Faculty - By Year Level,  1 9 6 8 / 6 9 to 1 9 7 3 / 7 4 , University of B.C., Office of Academic Planning, September I 9 6 8 . APPENDIX XII PROJECTION OF GRADUATE ENROLLMENT, SELECTED FACULTIES, AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA TO 1973-74 - 98 -Academic Year Enrollment Change from Previous Year % Change from Previous Year 1 9 6 8 - 6 9 1 , 2 2 7 1 9 6 9 - 7 0 1 , 3 2 8 + 1 0 1 + 8 . 2 3 $ 1 9 7 0 - 7 1 1 , 4 0 3 + 7 5 + 5 - 6 5 $ 1 9 7 1 - 7 2 1 , 7 5 5 + 3 5 2 + 2 5 . 1 $ 1 9 7 2 - 7 3 2 , 0 0 2 + 2 4 7 +14.1% 1 9 7 3 - 7 4 2 , 2 2 3 + 2 2 1 +11.0% 1 9 6 8 - 6 9 to 1 9 7 3 - 7 4 + 9 9 6 +81.9% The above figures represent graduate enrollment i n the Faculties of Agriculture, Applied Science, Forestry, Medicine and Science. Source: Estimate of Enrollment - By Faculty - By Year Level,  1 9 6 8 / 6 9 to 1 9 7 3 / 7 4 , University of B.C., Office of Academic Planning, September I 9 6 8 . APPENDIX XIII PROJECTION OF ENROLLMENT IN CANADIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS TO 1973-74 - 99 -Academic Year Enrollment Change from Previous Year % Change from Previous Year 1 9 6 8 - 6 9 1 , 3 6 7 , 0 0 0 1 9 6 9 - 7 0 1 , 4 2 2 , 0 0 0 + 55,000 + 4 . 0 2% 1 9 7 0 - 7 1 1 , 4 6 2 , 0 0 0 + 40,000 + 2 . 8 1 % 1 9 7 1 - 7 2 1 , 5 0 5 , 0 0 0 + 43,000 + 2 . 9 4 % 1 9 7 2 - 7 3 1 , 5 4 3 , 0 0 0 + 38,000 + 2 , 5 2 % 1 9 7 3 - 7 4 1 , 5 8 8 , 0 0 0 + 4 5 , 0 0 0 + 2 . 9 1 % 1 9 6 9 - 7 0 to 1 9 7 3 - 7 4 + 2 2 1 , 0 0 0 +16.2% Source: W. M. I l l i n g and Z. E. Szigmond, Enrollment i n Schools  and Un i v e r s i t i e s 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 to 1 9 7 5-76, Economic Council of Canada, St a f f Study No. 2 0 , October 1 9 6 7 . 

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