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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Athenian proxenies of the fifth century B.C. Walbank, Michael Burke

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i ATHENIAN PROXENIES OF THE FIFTH CENTURY B.C. by MICHAEL BURKE WALBANK B.A., University of B r i s t o l , 1954 M.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n the Department of C l a s s i c s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1970 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I ag ree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Depar tment o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l no t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depar tment o f C l a s s i c s  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia Vancouver 8, Canada D a t e Qctobflr J.lt.h, 1970 i i ATHENIAN PROXENIES OF THE FIFTH CENTURY B.C. ABSTRACT There i s no exact p a r a l l e l f o r the ancient o f f i c e of the proxeny: the closest analogy i s found i n the modern consulate. Proxenoi were c i t i z e n s of one state appointed by a second state to serve i t s i n t e r e s t s in t h e i r home-state; i n return f o r these services they received various honours and p r i v i l e g e s . These were enumerated i n the decrees appointing the proxenoi, or in subsequent decrees passed a f t e r a period of service. At Athens i t appears that the i n s c r i p t i o n of such decrees, usually at public expense, upon marble s t e l a i that were then set up on the Akropolis, was i t s e l f a p r i v i l e g e not granted to every proxenos. There i s some evidence that, i n the f i f t h century at lea s t , these s t e l a i were erected near the Erechtheion. One hundred and fourteen fragments have survived from the f i f t h century; t h i s study contains c r i t i c a l editions of the sixty-nine proxeny-decrees that they comprise, including the f i r s t publication of four fragments, together with a survey of the p r i v i l e g e s therein enumerated. Since i t i s seldom possible to date these documents upon other c r i t e r i a , an analysis of the changes that occurred i n A t t i c letter-shapes during the f i f t h century forms a major part of the study. Also included are photographs of a l l but f i v e of the fragments studied, many of which have never before been photographed. i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S My especial thanks are due to Professors Malcolm F. McGregor and C.W.J.Eliot of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia who supervised t h i s thesis and throughout the time that I have been engaged upon i t have been ready with advice, c r i t i c i s m and encouragement. Professor Donald W.Bradeen of the University of Cincinnati, both i n Athens i n 1967/8 and i n Vancouver i n the Summer of 1969, was of the greatest assistance to me and has since given me valuable advice and information i n correspond nee. Professor Eugene Vanderpool, Professor of Archaeology at the American School of C l a s s i c a l Studies i n Athens, introduced me to the authorities of the various museums i n Athens and was always ready to help and advise me when I encountered problems of any sort. Mrs Ntina Pegpa-Delmouzou, Director of the Epigraphical C o l l e c t i o n of the National Archaeological.Museum i n Athens, gave me access to a l l the f a c i l i t i e s of the Co l l e c t i o n , allowed me to take photographs and advised and assisted me continually, as well as introducing me to her colleagues i n the National Archaeological Museum and the Akropolis Museum. These f i v e i ndividuals have taught me most of what I know of Greek Epigraphy and my debt to them cannot be measured. iv The University of B r i t i s h Columbia and the H.R. MacMillan Family Fund of Vancouver, the Canada Council, whose Doctoral Fellowship I held i n 1 9 6 7 / 8 and 1 9 6 9 / 7 0 , and the American School of C l a s s i c a l Studies i n Athens, whose Wheeler Fellowship I was awarded f o r 1 9 6 7 / 8 , made i t possible f o r me to spend two years i n Athens and a further year i n Vancouver during the research f o r and preparation of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . I am deeply grateful to the s t a f f s of the following i n s t i t u t i o n s : The American School of C l a s s i c a l Studies i n Athens, i n p a r t i c u l a r , i t s Director, Professor Henry S.Robinson, i t s Secretary u n t i l 1968, William R.Biers, and i t s Libra r i a n , Mrs Mary Z e l i a Pease Philippides; The Agora Excavations at Athens, especially the F i e l d Director, Professor T.Leslie Shear, J r . , and the Secretary, Mrs Poly Demoulini; The Epigraphical C o l l e c t i o n of the National Archaeological Museum, Athens; The Akropolis Museum, Athens; The Agora Museum, Athens; The Graeco-Roman Co l l e c t i o n of the B r i t i s h Museum, London; The F i t z W i l l i a m Museum, Cambridge; The I n s t i t u t e f o r C l a s s i c a l Studies at the University of London. V The following ind i v i d u a l s have helped me at various times with advice, c r i t i c i s m or encouragement: at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Mrs Ann McCallum, Mrs Elizabeth Bongie and Mr P h i l l i p Harding, as well as my colleagues Massimo C i a v o l e l l a , Gary Ferngren, Agnes Vandersypen and George West; Alan L.Boegehold, Paul A. Clement and Benjamin D.Meritt, V i s i t i n g Professors at the American School of C l a s s i c a l Studies i n Athens; also i n Athens, Professors Colin Edmondson, Evelyn B.Harrison, Donald R.Laing, J r . , W.Kendrick Pritchett and Evelyn L. Smithson, and my colleagues John S . T r a i l l and S t e l l a Grobel; Miss L.H.Jeffery of Lady Margaret H a l l , Oxford, and her student Susan Sherwin-White; A.G.Woodhead of Corpus C h r i s t i College, Cambridge; David M.Lewis of Christ Church, Oxford; John Smart of the University of Leeds. v i TABLE OF CONTENTS Pages Bibliography and Abbreviations 1-44 Part I: Proxeny and Proxenos 45-101 1. Introduction 45-50 2. The Stelai: (a) Materials 51-56 (b) Physical Characteristics of the Stelai 57-62 (c) Criteria for Dating 63-86 3. The Evidence and i t s Meaning 87-101 Part II: The Decrees 102-645 Introduction 102-110 The Edited Texts 111-645 Index of Inscriptions Cited 6 4 6 - 6 6 5 Plates 666-682 v i i LIST OF TABLES CONTAINED IN THE TEXT Pages 1. Proxeny-Decrees catalogued according to t h e i r Line-Lengths 62 2. Letter-Shapes at Athens 74 3. Letter-Shapes found i n dated Fifth-Century Inscriptions 75-S4 4. Chart depicting the Appearance or Disappearance of Key Shapes 85-£6 5. Athenian Proxenies of the F i f t h Century known solely from L i t e r a r y Sources 103 6. Athenian Proxeny-Decrees of the F i f t h Century on Stone 104-110 v i i i LIST OF PLATES The qua l i t y of these'photographs varies; they are intended to a s s i s t the reader i n i d e n t i f y i n g the documents here edited and to give some idea of the appearance of the fragments, but they should not be used to check readings of the texts. Plate Decree # Page I, 1 1 (I.G., I I 2 , 5224 on right) 666 2 1, base 3 2 4 4 a,b 5 4 a 6 4 b I I , 1 3 |,b,c 667 2 3 a,b 3 5 4 6 5 7 6 9 a,b I I I , 1 8 668 2 10 3 11 4 12 a 5 12 b,c 6 13 Plate Decree # i x Page IV, 1 14 a,b 669 2 23 3 16 4 17 a,b,_c 5 15 a 6 15 b V, 1 18 670 2 19 3 20 4 21 a 5 21 b 6 21 c VI, 1 22 a,b,c 671 2 22 a 3 4 28 a 5 28 b 6 28 c VII, 1 24 672 2 2? 3 26 a,b,£ VIII, 1 29 673 2 34 3 30 4 35 Plate x Decree # Page VIII, 5 32 673 6 33 IX, 1 31 674 2 37 3 3 * 4 39 5 42 6 43 X, 1 36 675 2 40 3 41 4 44 a 5 44 b 6 44, l e f t l a t e r a l , b,d, showing f o l i a t i o n XI, 1 44 c 676 2 44 d 3 44, suggested arrangement of fragments a,b,£,d XII, 1 45 677 2 46 3 47, fragments b,_c,d,£ XIII, 1 47 f 678 2 47 £,h 3 48 4 49 x i Plate Decree # Page XIII, 5 51 °78 6 52 XIV, 1 53 679 2 54 3 56 4 55 a,b 5 57 6 59 7 63 XV, 1 61, appendix 680 2 62 3 61 XVI, 1 64 a 681 2 64 b 3 64 c 4 60 b,c,d,e,f ,jg XVII, 1 65 682 2 69 3 66 a,b,c 4 67 5 68 1 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABBREVIATIONS: B.T. ANCIENT AUTHORITIES Blbliotheca Teubneriana. F.A..C., F.G.H., F.H.G.See bibliography of modern authorities. O.C..T. Aineias Taktikos, Aischines, Andokides, Androtion, Antiphon, Aristophanes, Oxford C l a s s i c a l Texts. Aeneae T a c t l c l de obsidione toleranda commentarlus, edited by R.Schoene (BiT., Leipzig, 1911). Aeschlnis Oratlones, edited by F.Blass (B.T., Leipzig, I896). Andocidis Oratlones, edited by F.Blass and C.Fuhr (B.T., fourth edition,. Leipzig, 1913). Andocides: On the Mysteries, edited by D.M.MacDowell (Oxford, 1952). F.G.H.., I l l B, pp. 60-77. #324. Antlphontls Oratlones et Fragmenta. edited by F.Blass and T.Thalheim (B.T., Leipzig, 1914). Arlstophanls Comoedlae. edited by F.W. H a l l and W.M.Geldart (QvC.T., 2 volumes, second e d i t i o n , Oxford, I906-I907). 2 Aristophanes, Scholia, edited by G.Dindorf (4 volumes, Oxford, 1838). Fragments; F.A.C., I, pp. 572-793. A r i s t o t l e , Ae.IIoA. : A r l s t o t e l l s Atheniensium Respublica, edited by F.G.Kenyon (O.C.T., Oxford,1920). P o l i t i c s : A r i s t o t e l i s P o l l t i c a , edited by W.D.Ross (O.C.T., Oxford, 1957). Athenaios, Athenael Naucratltae Dlpnosophistae, edited by G.Kaibel (B.T., 3 volumes, Leipzig, I887-I890. Demosthenes, Demosthenis Oratlones, edited by S.H. Butcher and W.Rennie (O.C.T., 3 volumes, Oxford, 1903-193D. Diodoros, Diodori Blbllotheca H l s t o r i c a , edited by F.Vogel and C.,T.Fischer (B.T., 5 volumes, t h i r d e d i tion, Leipzig, 1888-1906). Diogenes Laertlos, Diogenls L a e r t l l Vitae Phllosophorum, edited by H.S.Long (O.C.T., 2 volumes, Oxford, 1964). Dionysios Halikarnassios, D i o n y s l l Halicarnasel Antlqultates Romanae, edited by C.Jacoby (B.T., 4 volumes, Leipzig, I 8 8 5 - I 9 0 5 ) . Douris, F.G.E., II A, pp. 136-158, #76. Ephoros, F.G-.H. , ? I I A, pp. 37-109, #70. Eupolis, F.A.C., I, pp. 310-447. 3; Eustathios, Herodotos, Isokrates, Livy, Lysias, Pausanias, Philochoros, Phrynichos, Pindar, Plato, Pliny, E u s t a t h i i Commentarii ad Homeri Illadem, edited by M.Devarius ( 3 volumes, L e i p z i g , 1827). Herodoti Historlae, edited by K.Hude (O.C.T., 2 volumes, t h i r d edition, Oxford, 1 9 2 7 ) . see bibliography of modern au t h o r i t i e s . I s o c r a t i s Oratlones, edited by F.Blass (B.T., 2 volumes, Leipzig, I 8 8 9 - I 8 9 8 ) . T l t l L i v i ab Urbe Condlta. edited by R.S. Conway, C.F.Walters, S.K.Johnson and A.H. McDonald (O.C.T., 5 volumes, Oxford, 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 6 5 ) . Lyslae Oratlones, edited by K.Hude (O.C.T., Oxford, 1 9 1 2 ) . . Pausanlae Graeciae Descriptlo, edited by F.Spiro (B.T., 3 volumes, Leipzig, 1 9 0 3 ) . F.G.H., I l l B, pp. 9 7 - I 6 0 , # 3 2 8 . F.A.C., I, pp. 3 1 0 - 4 4 7 . Pindar1 Carmlna cum Fragmenta. edited by B. S n e l l (JB.T_., second e d i t i o n , Leipzig, 1 9 5 5 ) . Platonls Opera, edited by J.Burnet (O.C.T., 5 volumes, Oxford, 1 9 0 3 - 1 9 1 0 ) . C. P l l n l l Secundi Naturalis H i s t o r l a . edited by L.Ian and C.Mayhoff (B.T., 5 volumes, Leipzig, I 8 9 2 - I 9 0 9 ) . Plutarch, Plutarch! v l t a e P a r a l l e l l a e , edited by K.Ziegler (B.T., 3 volumes, t h i r d e d i t i o n , Leipzig, 1964). [^Plutarch ] , Vlt.X Orat.t Vltae Decern Oratorum (Moralia, 8 3 2 b ) , i n Plutarch's Moralia. X, edited by H.N.Fowler (Loeb C l a s s i c a l Library, Cambridge,Mass.,,and London, i 9 6 0 ) * Polemon,, F.H.G., I I I , pp. 108-148. Polybios,. P o l y b l i Hlstoriae, edited by T.Buettner-Wobst (B.T., 5 volumes [ volume I, second edi t i o n , 19051 volumes II-V, f i r s t e dition, 1889-1905 ]•••, Leipzig, 1 8 8 9 - 1 9 0 5 ) . Suldae Lexicon, edited by A.Adler (B.T., 5 volumes, Leipzig, 1 9 2 8 - 1 9 3 8 ) . F.G.H., II B, pp. 5 1 6 - 5 1 7 , #115. Thucydldls Historiae, edited by H.S.Jones and J.E.Powell (O.C.T., second ed i t i o n , Oxford, 1 9 4 2 ) . Xenophon, Xenophontis Opera Omnia, edited by E.C. Marchant (O.C.T., 5 volumes, Oxford, 1 9 0 0 -1 9 2 0 ) . Suidas, Theopompos, Thucydides, BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ABBREVIATIONS 2 MODERN AUTHORITIES A.H.R. A • J • A • A.J.P. A.T.L. American H i s t o r i c a l Review. American Journal of Archaeology. American Journal of Philology* see B.D.Meritt, H.T.Wade-Gery and M.E;McGregor, The Athenian Tribute L i s t s .  Abh.Berlin. Abhandlungen der preusslschen Akademle der Wissenschafteni phllosophisch-hlstorlsohe  Klasse. J.d'Andre', La Proxe'nlei Contribution a 1'Etude du Droit  International Grec (Toulouse, 1 9 1 1 ) , A.Andrewes, "The Generals i n the Hellespont," J.H.S., LXXIII ( 1 9 5 3 ) . P P . 1 - 9 . "Thucydides and the Persians,. " H l s t o r i a . X ( 1 9 6 1 ) , p p . 1 - 1 8 . Ant.Class. Antlqulte Classlque. Anzelger Ak.Wien. Anzelger der philosophlsoh-hlstorlschen Klasse der Akademle der Wlssenschaften i n Wien. Archaeologlsoh-eplgraphlsche Mltteilungen  aus Oesterrelch ungaben. Ath.Mitt. Mlttellungen des kalserlich-deutschen Arch.Epigr.Mitt, archaeologischen I n s t l t u t s t athenlsche A"pteilung« Austin, Stoichedon (1938), see next item,= R.P.Austin, The Stoichedon Style i n Greek Inscriptions (Oxford C l a s s i c a l and P h i l o l o g i c a l Monographs. Oxford, 1938). "Across and Down," G.H., VIII (1939)» PP. 137-138. E.Balogh, P o l i t i c a l Refugees i n Ancient Greece (Witwaters-rand, 1943). W.Bannier, MZu attlschen Urkunden des,;V. Jahrhunderts," Ath.Mitt., XXVII (1902), pp. 301-304. nZu a t t l s c h e n Inschriften. I," BiPh.W. (I9II)» pp. 853-854. wZu a t t l s c h e n Inschriften. V," BiPh.W. (1916), pp. 1067-1072. "ZU attl s c h e n Inschriften. V I, n BiPh.W. (1917). PP. 91-96. "Zu att l s c h e n Inschriften. VII," B.Ph.W. (1917)» PP. 344-351. "Zu a t t l s c h e n Inschriften.VIII," BiPh.W. (1917). PP. 1216-1224. MZu a t t l s c h e n Inschriften. IX," BiPh.W. (1917). PP. 1342-1349. wZu att l s c h e n Inschriften.X, w B".Ph. W.. (1918), pp. 449-456. W.Bannier. B • C_. H • Beazley, J.D.Beazley, Bechtel, F.Bechtel, B e i b l a t t . Beloch. K.J.Beloch, Bengtson, H.Bengtson, "Zu at t l s c h e n Inschriften. XII," B.Ph.W. (1921), pp. 307-312. nZu attlschen Inschriften. XIII," BiPh.W. (1922), pp. 835-839. "Zu attlschen Inschriften.XIV," B.Ph.W.(1925). PP. 861-864. "Zu at t l s c h e n Inschriften. XV," BiPh.W. (1927), PP. 667-671. B u l l e t i n de Correspondance Hellenlque. Bed-Figure, see next item. A t t i c Red-Figure Vase-Painters (3 volumes, : second e d i t i o n , Oxford, 1963). Personennamen. see next item. Die hl s t o r l s c h e n Personennamen des  Grlechlschen:. bis zur Ka l s e r z e l t (Hildesheim, 1964; r e p r i n t of 1917 e d i t i o n ) . Jahreshefte des oesterrelchlsoh archaeolo-gischen I n s t l t u t s i n w l e n . B e i b l a t t . 2 Gr.Gesch.. II.1 (1913)» see next item. Grlechlsche Geschichte, I I , bis auf die sophlstische Bewegung und den peloponnesischen  Krleg. I (second edition, B e r l i n and Leipzig, 1913)* Staatsvertraege. II (1962), see next item. Die Staatsvertraege des Altertums. I I , die 8 Vertraege der griechisch-roemlschen Welt von 700 b i s 338 v. Chr. (Muenchen, 1 9 6 2 ) . Beule - L'Acropole, I, II ( 1 8 5 3 / 4 ) , see next item. E.Beule', L'Acropole d'Athenes (2 volumes, Paris, 1 8 5 3 / 4 ) . A. Billheimer, "Amendments i n Athenian Decrees," A.J.A., XLII ( 1 9 3 8 ) , pp. 4 5 6 - 4 8 5 . Binneboessel, Urkundenrellefs (1932)» see next item. B. . Binneboessel, S t u d i e s zu den attlschen, Urkundenreliefs des und 4 . Jahrhunderts (Leipzig, 1 9 3 2 ) . B.M.C. A Catalogue of the Greek Coins i n the B r i t i s h  Museum (London, I 8 7 3 - 1 9 2 7 ) . A. Boeckh, "Athenische Inschriften," I n t e l l l g e n z b l a t t ( I 8 3 5 ) , p. 3 2 . B. Ph.W. B e r l i n e r Phllologlsche WochenschrIft. O.Broneer, "Excavations on. the North Slope of the Akropolis i n Athens, 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 4 , " Hesperla. B.S. A. CD. Buck, Busolt,, G.Busolt, IV ( 1 9 3 5 ) . PP. 1 0 9 - 1 8 8 . Annual of the B r i t i s h School at Athens. "The Interstate Use of the Greek Dialects-," C.P., VIII ( 1 9 1 3 ) , PP. 1 3 3 - 1 5 9 . Gr.Gesoh.. I I I . I ( 1 8 9 7 ) ; I I I . 2 ( 1 9 0 4 ) , see next item. Griechische Geschlohte bis zur Schlacht bel  Chaeronela, Band I I I , Tome I J die Pente-kontaetie ( 1 8 9 7 ) 5 Band I I I , Tome 2s der 9 peloponneslsche Krleg (1904t Handbuecher der  a l t e n Gesohichte, II Serie, erste Abteilung (Gotha, 1897 and 1904). "Ueber den Volksbeschluss CIA IV/ 2, Nr. 35c, M Philologus, L (1891), pp. 583-606. C.A.H. The Cambridge Ancient History (Cambridge. 1932-). Capps Studies (1936), C l a s s i c a l Studies:Presented to Edward Capps on his Seventieth Birthday (Princeton, 1936). C..I.G. Corpus Inscrlptlonum Graecarum. Pars I I , Inscrlptlones Attlcae, edited by A.Boeckh (B e r l i n , 1828). C.J. C l a s s i c a l J.ournal. G o l l i t z and Bechtel, Sammlung, III.2 (1905), see next item. H . C o l l i t z , F.Bechtel and O.Hoffmann, Sammlung der grlechlschen D l a l e c t - I n s c h r l f t e n , III.2 (Goettingen, 1905). Cbnze,. Att.Grabrellefsr(1890). see next item. A.Conze, Die att i s c h e n Grabrellefs ( B e r l i n . 1890). Cornell Cl.St. Cornell Studies- i n C l a s s i c a l Philology. C.P. C l a s s i c a l Philology.' C.£. C l a s s i c a l Quarterly. £.R> C l a s s i c a l Review. C.R.A.I. Comptes Rendus de l'Acade'mle des Inscriptions et de Belles-Le11 r e s, 10 C. Curtius, Curtius, E.Curtius, D. A. D i l l e r , A . D i l l e r , Dinsmoor, W.B.Dinsmoor, W.Dittenberger, Dittmar, A.Dittmar, Dohrn, T.Dohrn, Archaeologische Zeitung (Berlin, 1871). Gr. Gesch.. II (1888')', see next item. Griechische Geschichte. I I : b i s zum Ende  des peloponnesischen Krieges (Berlin, 1888). A E A T I ' O V ApxaioAoyiH O V or ApxaioAoytHOV A E A T I ' O V . Race Mixture (1937), see next item. Race Mixture among the Greeks before  Alexander ( I l l i n o i s Studies i n Language and  Philology. XX.1-2, Urbana,Illinois,1937). Archons (1931), see next item. The Archons of Athens i n the H e l l e n i s t i c Age (Cambridge, Mass., 1931). Observations on the Hephaisteion. Hesperia. Supplement V (1941). "K r i t i s c h e Bemerkungen zu griechischen In-s c h r i f t e n , " Hermes. XVI (1881), pp. 161-200. "De Menelai Pelagonis T i t u l i s , " Satura Sauppe (1879), PP. 43-60. Coronis (1890), see next item. De Atheniensium More Exteros Coronis Publice Ornandi Quaestiones Epigraphicae (Leipziger Studien. XIII .[Leipzig, 1890],pp. 65-248). Attische P l a s t i k (1957), see next item. Attische P l a s t i k vom Tode des Phidias b i s  zum Wirken der Grossen Meister des IV.Jh.v. Chr.(Krefeld,1957). 11 S.Dow, "The Purported Decree o f Themlstokles t Stele and In s c r i p t i o n , " A.J..A. , IX ( 1 9 6 2 ) , PP. 3 5 3 - 3 6 8 . "The L i s t s of Athenian Archontes," Hesperla, III ( 1 9 3 4 ) , pp. 140-190.. E.Drerup, " E i n athenisches Proxeniedekret fuer. Arlstoteles."Ath.Mitt...3BEIII ( I 8 9 8 ),pp.3 6 9 - 3 8 1 . D. -SJ. Daremberg-Saglio, Dlctionnalre des Antlquite's Grecques et Romalnes.- (Paris. 1 8 7 7 - 1 9 1 9 ) . A.Dumont,, "Deux Bas-Reliefs Atheniens Dates," B.C.H., II (1878), pp. 5 5 9 - 5 6 9 . U.K.Duncan,. "Notes on Lettering by some A t t i c Masons i n the Sixth and F i f t h Centuries • Ei.C.," B..S.A., LVI (1961), pp., 179-188. E. A. Ecpr)p.epi<; A p x a t o A o Y i KTI 0 r A p x a i o A o y i x r | EcpriyieptV (published i n three series»I,1837-1843, 1 8 5 2 -1 8 6 0 ; I I , 1 8 6 2 - 1 8 7 4 ; I I I , I 8 8 3 - . Series I and II are each paged continuously, i n consecutive-ly-numbered f o l i o s ; i n s c r i p t i o n s i n each series are also numbered consecutively. Series III has separate pagination f o r each volume). EM. Epigraphic Museum, Athens. Ehrenberg Studies.. Ancient Society and I n s t i t u t i o n s t Studies  Presented to Vtofcor Ehrenberg on his seventy-f i f t h Birthday, edited by E.Badlan (Oxford, 1966). 12 Eranos Vindobonensls. F e s t s c h r i f t zur 42. Versammlung deutscher Philologen und Schul-maenner i n Wien. dargebracht von  der philologlsch-arohaeologlschen  Gesellsohaft i n Wien (Vienna, I 8 9 3 ) . E. A.C., The Fragments,- of A t t i c Comedy, edited by J.M.Edmonds (3 volumes, Leiden, 1957). Ferguson,, Treasurers (1932), see next item. W.S.Ferguson, • The.Treasurers of Athena (Cambridge,Mass., 1932). The Athenian Secretaries, Cornell Cl.St., VII (1898). "The Constitution of Theramenes," C.P., XXI (1926), pp. 72-75. "The Condemnation of Antiphon," Melanges  Glotz. 1(1932), pp. 358-366. F. estgabe Regelsberger Festgabe Ferdinand Regelsberger zu selnem Doktor-Jubilaeum ueberrelcht  von der rechts- und staatswlssen-schaftllchen Fakultaet der Unl v e r s l - taet Zuerlch (Zuerich, 1907). F.GiH, Die Fragmente der grlechlsohen H l s t o r l k e r . edited by F.Jacoby ( B e r l i n and Leiden, 1923-1958). -F.H.G. Fragmenta Hlstoricorum Graecorum,edited by C.Mueller (Paris,3 volumes, 1848-1883). 1 3 J.V.A.Pine. Horoit Studies i n Mortgage, Real Security and Land Tenure i n Ancient Athens, Hesperla, Supplement IX (1951)* P.Foucart, "Fragment de Decret Athenien," B.C.H., I ( 1 8 7 7 ) , PP. 80-81. "Decret de Proxenie," B.C.H., I ( I 8 7 7 ) , pp. 3 0 3 - 3 0 7 . "Decrets Atheniens du I¥me S i e c l e , " B.C.H., XXI (1888), pp. 1 5 3 - 1 7 9 . "Decrets Atheniens," Rev.Phil.. XXVII ( 1 9 0 3 ) . PP. 2 1 5 - 2 2 0 . H.Francotte, p_e l a L e g i s l a t i o n Athenlenne sur l e s Dis t i n c t i o n s Honoriflques (Louvain, 1 9 0 0 ) . Fraser and Bean, Peraea ( 1 9 5 * 0 , see next item. P.M.Fraser and G.JE.Bean, The Rhodlan Peraea and I s -lands (Oxford, 1 9 5 4 ) . G.Fredrich, "Sklathos und Peparethos," Ath.Mltt.. XXXI ( 1 9 0 6 ) , pp. 99-128. Friederichs and Wolters, Gipsabguesse ( I 8 8 5 ) , see next item. C.Friederichs and P. Wolters^ Die Gipsabguesse antlker B l l d -werke i n h l s t o r l s c h e r Folge  erklaert. Baustelne zur Ge-schlchte der griechlsoh-roemi-schen P l a s t i k ( B e r l i n I 8 8 5 ) . 14 G.H.Frogen, Euks, A.Fuks, E.Gebhard, G.Gerlach, J.Gerlach, G.Gilbert, E.Gjerstad, Gbldstaub, M.Goldstaubj The Change from the A t t i c to the Ionic  Alphabets i n Athenian Decrees ( c i r c a 570 to 317 B.C.)(Diss., U.of Minnesota, 1 9 5 5 ) . Ancestral Constitution (1953)» see next item. The Ancestral Constitution! Five Studlea i n Athenian Party P o l i t i c s at the end of  the F i f t h Century B?.C. (London, 1 9 5 3 ) . "AUTO, Inscriptlones Graecae. I , 5 6 , 3 t " Muenchener Studlen. XXII ( 1 9 6 7 ) , pp.21-24. Grlechlsche Ehrenlnschrlften (Halle, 1 9 0 8 ) . Avrip AyaGoq (Muenchen, 1 9 3 2 ) . Beltraege zur innern Gesohlchte Athens-:; im  Z e l t a l t e r des peloponnesischen Krleges,: (Leipzig, 1 8 7 7 ) . The Constitutional A n t i q u i t i e s of Sparta and Athens (translated by E.J.Brooks and T.Nicklin, London, I 8 9 5 ) . Goettlnglsche Gelehrte Anzelgen. The Swedish Cyprus Expedition. IV/. 2 (Uppsala, 1 9 4 8 ) . kbeiac, ( I 8 8 9 ) , see next item. De kteiaq Notlone et Usu In lure publico A t t l c o (Brea.auer Philologische Abhandlung. Band 4, Heft I, Breslau, I889). 15 Gomme,, A.W.Gomme, H.Gregoire G.„R. G. R. B. S_. Haggard, P.Haggard, Hartel, W.Hartel, Commentary, I (1945)» II ( 1 9 5 6 ) ; III ( 1 9 5 6 ) , see next item. A H i s t o r i c a l Commentary on Thucydldes, Is Introduction and Commentary on Book I (Oxford, 1 9 4 5 ) .II; The Ten Years' War.. Books I I - I I I (Oxford, 1 9 5 6 ) . I l l J The Ten-Years' War, Books IV-V 24 (Oxford, 1 9 5 6 ) . "Athenian Notes. 1, Athenian P o l i t i c s , 5 1 0 -483 B.C.* 2 , The Treaty of C a l l l a s , " A.J.P. LXV ( 1 9 4 4 ) , pp. 3 2 1 - 3 3 9 . and R.Goossens, "Les Allusions Polltlques dans L'Helene d'Euripides L'Episode de Teucros et les Debuts du Teucride Evagoras," C.R.A.I. ( 1 9 4 0 ) , pp. 2 0 6 - 2 2 7 . Greece and Rome. Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies; Secretaries ( 1 9 3 0 ) , see next item.. The Secretaries of the Athenian Bbule (Missouri, 1 9 3 0 ) . "The Secretaries of the Athenian Bbule i n the F i f t h Century,"P.A.P.A., LVII ( 1 9 2 6 ) , pp. x x x i - x x x i i . Studien, II ( 1 8 7 8 ) , see next item. Studlen ueber attisches Staatsrecht und Urkundenwesen, II (Vienna, I878) 16 J . Hatzfeld, Alclblade t Etude sur l ' H i s t o i r e Heichelheim, Hermes, d'Athenes a l a F i n du V e Slecle (Paris, 1 9 5 D . Wlrtschaftsgeschlchte, I ( 1 9 3 8 ) , see next item. F.M.Heichelheim, Wlrtschaftsgeschlchte des Altertums, I (Leiden, 1 9 3 8 ) . Hermes. Z e l t s c h r l f t fuer klasslsche  P h l l o l o g i e . N.Herz and W.K.Prltchett, "Marble i n A t t i c Epigraphy," A.J.A., XLVII ( 1 9 5 3 ) , PP. 7 1 -83. E.L.Hicks, A Manual of Greek H i s t o r i c a l Inscriptions (Oxford, 1 8 8 2 ) . Hicks and H i l l , Manual 2 ( 1 9 0 1 ) , see next item.. E.L.Hicks and G ^ F . H i l l , A Manual of Greek H i s t o r i c a l Inscriptions (second edition, Oxford, 1 9 0 1 ) . C.G.Higglns and W.K.Prltchett, "Engraving Techniques i n A t t i c Epigraphy," A.J.A., LXIX ( 1 9 6 5 ) , PP. 3 6 7 - 3 7 1 . Hignett Constitution ( 1 9 5 2 ) , see next item.. C H i g n e t t A History of the Athenian Constitution to the End of the F i f t h Century BiC.(Oxford, 1 9 5 2 ) . H i l l Sources^ ( 1 9 5 1 ) , see next item. 17 G. P . H i l l , H l s t o r i a . H. F.Hltzig, G . F . H i l l , Sources f o r Greek History between the Persian and the Peloponneslan Wars (second e d i t i o n , edited by R.Meiggs and A.Andrewes, Oxford, 1 9 5 1 ) . F . H l l l e r von Gaertringen, "Attische Inschriften, I. Oiniadai," Sltzungsp.Ak.Berlln ( 1 9 2 1 ) , pp. 4 3 6 - 4 3 8 . A History of Cyprus. I (Cambridge,1940). H i s t o r l a , Z e i t s c h r i f t fuer a l t e Geschlchte. "Altgrlechische Staatsvertraege ueber Rechtshilfe," Festgabe Regelsberger-( 1 9 0 7 ) , PP. 7 0 - 1 2 2 . "Nouvelles et Correspondance," B.-C.H., I ( 1 8 7 7 ) . PP. 5 1 - 5 3 . Ni.I.A. ( 1 9 2 5 ) » see next item.. Novae Inscrlptiones Attlcae (Leiden,1925)• "Novae Inscrlptiones A t t i c a e , " Mnemosyne, XLIX : ( 1 9 2 1 ) , pp. 201-204. "Interstate J u r i d i c a l Agreementsrin the Athenian:Empire," J.H.&., LXIII ( 1 9 4 3 ) , pp. 4 7 - 5 1 . Harvard Studies i n C l a s s i c a l Philology. Harvard Studies i n C l a s s i c a l Philology, Supplementary Volume Is Athenian Studiess  Presented to William Scott Ferguson (Cambridge,Mass., 1 9 4 0 ) . T.Homolle, Hondius, j;.J.E.Hondius, R.J.Hopper, H»S»G«P. M.'JL'J1*JZ' .supply I 18 Inscr.Cos (1891). The Inscriptions of Cos. edited by W.R.Paton and E.L.Hicks (London, 1891). Inscr.Cret.. IV ( 1 9 4 0 ) . Inscriptiones Creticae. IV: T i t u l i G ortynii, edited by M.Guarducci (Rome, 1 9 5 0 ) . I.G. Inscriptiones Graecae. I.G., I. Inscriptiones Atticae Anno E u c l i d i s Vetustiores. edited by A.Kirchhoff (Berlin, 1873; supplements i n 1877, 1886 and 1891). I.G., I . Inscriptiones Atticae E u c l i d i s Anno Anteriores. e d i t i o minor, edited by F . H i l l e r von Gaertringen (Berlin, 1 9 2 4 ) . I.G., I I , 1-5* Inscriptiones Atticae Aetatis quae est i n t e r E u c l i d i s Annum et August! Tempora. edited by U.Koehler (Berlin, 1877-1895): fasc. 1 (1877); 2 (1883); 3 (1888); 4 ( 1 8 9 3 ) ; 5 ,(1895). 2 .I.G., I I , 1 - 3 . Inscriptiones Atticae E u c l i d i s Anno Posteriores. e d i t i o minor, edited by J.Kirchner (Berlin, 1913 -1940): fasc. 1 (1913); 1 , addenda et index (1918); 2 . 1 ( 1 9 2 7 ) ; 2 . 2 (1931); 3 . 1 (1935); 3 . 2 ( 1 9 4 0 ) . I.G., V, 2 . Inscriptiones Laconiae. Messeniae. Arcadiae. edited by F . H i l l e r von Gaertringen (Berlin, 1 9 1 3 ) . 19 I»G., IX, 1. Inscrlptiones Graeciae septentrionalis Voluminibus VII et VIII non comprehensae. I: Inscriptiones Phocidis. L o c r i d i s . Aetoliae. Acarnaniae. insularum maris I o n i i , edited by W.Dittenberger (Berlin, 1897). I.G., XI, 4. Inscriptiones D e l i . IV: Inscriptiones D e l i l i b e r a e . Decreta, foedera. c a t a l o g i t dedica-tiones. v a r i a . edited by P.Roussel (Berlin, 1914). I.G., XII,1. Inscriptiones insularum maris Aegaei praeter Delum, I: Inscriptiones Rhodi, Chalce. Carpathi t cum Saro, Casi. edited by F. H i l l e r von Gaertringen (Berlin, 1895). I.G., XII, 2. I I : Inscriptiones Lesbi. Nesi, Tenedi. edited by W.Paton (Berlin, 1899). I..G., XII, 8. VIII: Inscriptiones insularum maris 4^ T h r a c i c i . edited by C.Fredrich ( B e r l i n , 1909) I.G., XII, Supplementum. Inscriptiones Graecae insularum maris Aegaei praeter Delum. edited by F. H i l l e r von Gaertringen (Berlin, 1939). r.G., XIV. Inscriptiones S i c i l i a e ; e t I t a l i a e , a d d i t t s graecis G a l l i a e . Hjspaniae. Britanniae. Germaniae i n s c r i p t i o n i b u s . edited by G. Kaibel (Berlin, 1890). Index kc.Goett. Index Scholarum publice et privatim i n Academia Georgia Augusta per Seinestre 'aestivum habendarum. Goettingen. 20 I n t e l l i g e n z b l a t t . W.Jane 1 1 , Jahreshefte. J e f f e r y , L.H.Jeffery, J • H • S. Kahrstedt, U.Kahrstedt, G.Kaibel, Archaeologisches I n t e l l i g e n z b l a t t der  allsemelnen l l t e r a r i s c h e n Z e i t s c h r l f t e n . Ausgewaehlte Inschrlften ( B e r l i n , 1 9 0 6 ) . Jahreshefte des oesterreiohischen archaeologlschen I n s t i t u t s i n Wien. Local Scripts ( 1 9 6 1 ) , see next item. The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece > A. Study of the Origin of the Greek Alpha- bet and i t s Development from the Eighth to the F i f t h Centuries^ B.C.. (Oxford,'•••M: * 1 9 6 1 ) . Journal of Hellenic Studies. Maglstratur ( 1 9 3 6 ) , see next item. Untersuchungen zur Magistratur i n Athen (Studlen zum oeffehtlichen Recht Athens, T e l l 2 , Stuttgart, 1 9 3 6 ) . Staatsgebiet und Staatsangehoerlge i n Athen (Goettlnger Eorschungen. Heft 4 , . Stuttgart and B e r l i n , 1 9 3 4 ) . "Untersuchungen zu athenischen Behoerden, IV. Bemerkungen zur Geschichte des Rats der Fuenfhundert," K i l o . XXXIII ( 1 9 4 0 ) , pp. 1 -12 . P.-W.,R.-E., ¥ 1 1 1 , 1 ( 1 9 1 2 ) , 4 5 7 » 6 7 - 4 5 8 i 3 1 , s.v. Herakleides ( 1 ) , Eplgrammata Graeca ex Lapidibus Conlecta (B e r l i n , 1 8 7 8 ) . 21 " E H rcov 7tspi T T J V AnpoTroXiv avaanacpoDV,11 E.A.(1898), pp. 1 - 2 2 . "ETttYPacpiua. npoaeTJviai .A*t" E.A. ( I 8 9 8 ) , P. 1 3 5 . . "Amtsjahre und Kalenderjahre im V. Jahr-hundert," Hermes. XXIX ( 1 8 9 4 ) , pp. 32-.81. Anal.Eplgr., see next item. Analecta Epigraphlca et Onomatologioa (Leipzig, 1 8 4 2 ) . Inscr.Gr. ( 1 9 1 3 ) » see next item. Inscriptiones Graecae (Bonn, 1 9 1 3 ) . "Mittheilung," Monatsb.Ak.Berlin (1861, publ. 1 8 6 2 ) , pp. 6 0 1 - 6 0 8 . "Ueber das Bruchstueck eines at t i s c h e n Psephlsma." Sitzungsb.Ak.Berlin ( 1 8 8 6 ) , PP. 3 0 3 - 3 1 4 . " I n s c h r i f t e n von der Akropolis zu Athen aus der Z e i t nach dem Jahre des Archon Eukleidesr," Sltzungsb.Ak.Berlin ( I 8 8 7 ) , pp. 1 0 5 9 - 1 0 7 4 , 1 1 8 5 - 1 2 0 5 . " I n s c h r i f t e n von der Akropolis zu Athen," Sitzungsb.Ak.Berlin (1888), pp.. 2 3 9 - 2 5 4 . P.A., see next item. Prosopographia A t t i c a (2 volumes, second e d i t i o n , B e r l i n , 1913) Imagines 1 ( 1 9 3 5 ) ; 2 ( 1 9 4 8 ), see next item. 22 J J . Kirchner, Kilo.. U.Koehler, W.Kolbe, Koumanoudis,. S;, A. Koumanoudi s, Imagines Insorlptlonum Attlcarum, e l n  B l l d e r a t l a s eplgraphlscher Denkmaeler  Attlkas ( B e r l i n , 1935s second e d i t i o n edited by G.Klaf fenbach, B e r l i n , 1 9 4 8 ) , K i l o , Beltraege zur a l t e n Geschlchte. wZur Geschlchte des Nlklasfriedens," Ath.Mltt., I ( 1 8 7 6 ) , pp. 171-172. "Die attlschen Grabsteine des fuenften Jahrhunderts, I," Ath.Mltt., X. ( I 8 8 5 ) , PP. 3 5 9 - 3 7 9 . "Herakleides der Klazomenler," Hermes. XXVII ( 1 8 9 2 ) , pp. 6 8 - 7 8 . "Attische Inschriften des fuenften Jahr-hunderts," Hermes,XXXI ( I 8 9 6 ) , pp. 1 3 7 -154. "Zur athenischen Marinerwaltung,"Ath.Mitt.,. XXVI ( 1 9 0 1 ) , pp. 3 7 7 - 4 1 8 . A.E.E. ( I 8 7 1 ) , see next item. A-rrixTiq Erciypacpai fevriruuBioi (Athens, 1871). " A T T I H O : tyrwiamra, " Ae^vaiov ( 1 8 7 6 ) , pp. 7 4 - 1 0 6 , 1 6 4 - 1 9 1 . "EmYPoWcti E H TOOV 7 t e p i r o AOKXTITTIeTov " Aeiivaiov, VI ( 1 8 7 7 ) , PP. 1 2 7 - 1 4 8 . "Am via 1 E7ri Ypacpai", " Aenvaiov » X ( 1 8 8 1 ) , pp. 6 8 - 7 5 . "incpt'aiaaTa A T T I H C X ," E.A. ( 1 8 8 3 ) , pp. 1 7 0 -1 7 1 . 23 i"Auo 6ao6exa6e<; A T T I H C D V \J/T]cpicpaW," E.A. (1886), pp. 97-115. S.N.Koumanoudls, "E7riYPacpat cxvexSoToi," Nepv Aenvaiov, II ( 1 9 5 2 ) , pp. 3 1 - 3 2 . P.Kretschmer and E .Locker, Ruecklaeufiges Woerterbuoh der grlechjlsohen Sprache (Goettin-gen, 1 9 6 3 ) . A.Kuenzi, Epldosis; Sammlung f r e l w l l l i g e r Beltraege zu Zelten der Not i n Athen (Bern, 1 9 2 3 ) . Lambrechts, Proxeniedecreten (19 58). see next item.. A. Lambrechts, Tekst en U l t z l c h t van de Atheense Proxenlede-oreten Tot 323 v..C. (Brussels, 1 9 5 8 ) . Gr.Eplgr.. II ( 1 9 0 2 ) , see next item. Handbuch der griechlsohen Epigraphle, I I 1 die  Attlschen Inschrlften. I (Leipzig, I 8 9 8 - I 9 0 2 ) . Gr.Eplgr.^ ( 1 9 1 4 ) , see next item. Grlechlsche Epigraphlk ( t h i r d e d i t i o n , Muencheir, 1 9 1 4 ) . LeBas and Reinach,, Voyage (1888), see next item. P.LeBas and S.Reinach,, Voyage Arche'ologique en Greoe et en Asle Mlneure. It Attlque (Paris, 1 8 8 8 ) . T.Lenschau, P.-W.,R.-E.,XIX,1 ( 1 9 4 1 ) , 907*32-911128,s.v. Phrynichos ( 3 ) . '•Die Vorgaenge i n Athen isach dem Sturz der V i e r -hundert," Rh.M., XOI ( 1 9 4 1 ) , pp. 24 - 3 0 . B. Leonardos, "Decret Athenien de 320/9," D.A.(1915),pp.195-224. L a r f e l d , W.Larfeld, L a r f e l d , W.Larfeld, 24 Lerat, L.Lerat, D.M.Lewis, Jj.H.Lipsius, H.W.Litchfield, R.Loeper, Gl.Loeschcke, H.G.Lolling, Locrlens, I ( 1 9 5 2 ) , see next item. Les Locrlens de 1* Quest,11Topographle et Ruines (Blb-llotheque des Ecoles Francalses _ _ _ _ _ — — — — — — — _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ d'Athenes et de Rome, Fasc.1 7 6 , Paris, 1 9 5 2 ) . "Notes on A t t i c Inscriptions," B.S..A., XLIX ( 1 9 5 4 ) , pp. 1 7 - 5 0 . "Apollo Delios," B.S.A., LW ( i 9 6 0 ) , pp. 1 9 0 -194.. Das attische Recht und Rechtsverfahren,I (Leipzig, 1 9 0 5 ) . "The A t t i c Alphabet i n Thucydides. A Note on: Thuc. ¥ 1 1 1 , 9 . 2 , " H.S.O.P., XXIII ( 1 9 1 2 ) , pp. 1 2 9 - 1 5 4 . ":A,TCOOTxaO)ia HaraXoyov 7tpuravea)v E.A., III (1893) p.210. De T i t u l l s Aliquot A t t l c l s Quaestiones  Hlstoricae (Bonn, I 8 7 6 ) . "ETCIYpctcpai avanoivaxreic;: evpeaic, ertiypaytAv ev xxi AnpOTtoXei D_.A. ( I 8 9 0 ) , pp.37-42. "Eupectc; £7riYPacp(Bv ev k-npoixoKei ," D.A. (1888), pp. 1 1 0 - 1 1 5 . "Avaotacpai nai eupiiu-ara. 6 ) : ETtiYPacpat ev rxi AnpoTtoAei ," D.A. (1888), pp. 2 0 5 - 2 0 9 . 25 S.Luria, W.A.McDonald, C.P.Loughran and A.E.Raubltschek, "Three A t t i c Proxeny Decrees," Hesperia, XVI ( 1 9 ^ 7 ) , pp. 78-81. L.-S_.-J.., 9 / ( 1 9 4 0 ) . . A Greek-English Lexicon, edited by H.G. Lidd e l and H.Scott (ninth e d i t i o n edited by H.S.Jones and R.McKenzie, Oxford, 1 9 4 0 ) . "Zur Geschlchte der Praeskripte i n den attlschen voreuklidischen Volksbe-schluessen," Hermes, LXII ( 1 9 2 7 ) , PP* 2 5 7 - 2 7 5 . "A L i n g u i s t i c Examination of an Eplgraphical Formula," A.J.A., LIX. ( 1 9 6 5 ) , pp. 1 5 1 - 1 5 5 . Mysteries ( 1 9 6 2 ) , see next item. Andokidest On the Mysteries (Oxford, 1 9 6 2 ) . : "The Genius of Alkibiades," Phoenix. XIX, ( 1 9 6 5 ), pp. 27-46. "Two Notes on Athenian F i n a n c i a l Decrees," B.S.A., LXII ( 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 1 3 - 1 7 . "Athenian Imperialism and the Founda-t i o n of Brea," , XVI ( 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 1 7 2 - 1 9 2 . . MacDowell, D.M.MacDowell, M.F.McGregor, H.B.Mattingly, 26 H.B.Mattingly, "Periclean Imperialism," Ehrenberg Studies ( 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 193-224. "The Growth of Athenian Imperialism," H i s t o r l a . XII ( 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 2 5 7 - 2 7 3 . "The Peace of K a l l i a s , " H i s t o r l a . XIV ( 1 9 6 5 ) , PP. 273-281. "Athens and Aigina," H i s t o r l a . XVI ( 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 1-5. "Athens and Euboea," J.H..S., LXXXl ( 1 9 6 l ) , pp. 124-132. "The F i n a n c i a l Decrees of K a l l i a s (I.G., I 2 , 9 1 / 2 ) , " P.A.G.A., VII ( 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 35-55. "Athens, Delphi and Eleusis i n the la t e 420»s," P.A.G.A., X ( 1 9 6 7 ) , pp. 6 I - 7 6 . M.H.E.Meier, Commentatlo de Proxenla: slve de Publico Graecorum Hospltlo (Halle, 1 8 4 2 ) . R.Meiggs, "A Note on Athenian Imperialism," C.R., LXIII ( 1 9 4 9 ) , pp. 9 - 1 2 . "The Dating of Fifth-Century A t t i c I nscriptions," J.H.S., LXXXVI ( 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 8 6 - 9 8 . Meiggs and Lewis, G.H.I. ( 1 9 6 9 ) , see next item. R.Meiggs and D.M.Lewis A Selection of Greek H i s t o r i c a l Inscriptions to the End of the F i f t h  Century B.C. (Oxford, 1 9 6 9 ) . Melanges Glotz, I,, II ( 1 9 3 2 ) . Melanges Gustave Glotz (2 volumes, Paris, 1 9 3 2 ) . Melanges Nicole, II ( 1 9 0 5 ) . Melanges J . Nicole. II (Paris, 1 9 0 5 ) . B.D.Meritt, The Athenian Calendar i n the F i f t h Centu-ry, Based on a Study of the Detailed  Accounts of Money Borrowed by the Athenian  State. I.G., I 2 , 324 (Cambridge, Mass., 1928.) . Athenian Financial Documents of the F i f t h Century (University of Michigan Studies,, Humanistic series, XXV/II, Ann Arbor, 1 9 3 2 ) . Epigraphlea A t t i c a (Martin C l a s s i c a l Lectures, IX, Cambridge, Mass., 1 9 4 0 ) . wAn Athenian Treaty with an Unknown State," A.J..P., LXVIII ( 1 9 4 7 ) , pp. 3 1 2 - 3 1 5 . "Notes on A t t i c Inscriptions," A.J.P., LXIX ( 1 9 4 8 ) , pp. 70 -72. "Archelaos and the Decelean War," Capps Studies? ( 1 9 3 6 ) . pp. 2 4 6 - 2 5 2 . "Greek Inscriptions," Hesperia. V ( 1 9 3 6 ) , P P . 3 5 5 - 4 3 0 . "Greek Inscriptions," Hesperia. VII ( 1 9 3 8 ) , pp. 7 6 - 1 4 6 . 28 B.D.Meritt, "Greek Inscriptions," Hesperia. VIII ( 1 9 3 9 ) » pp. 48-82. "Notes on A t t i c Decrees," Hesperia, X ( 1 9 4 1 ) , pp. 3 0 1 - 3 3 7 . "Greek Inscriptions," Hesperia. XI ( 1 9 4 2 ) , PP. 2 7 5 - 3 0 3 . "Greek Inscriptions," Hesperia, XIII ( 1 9 4 4 ) , pp. 2 1 0 - 2 6 8 . " A t t i c Inscriptions of the F i f t h Century," Hesperia, XIV ( 1 9 4 5 ) , pp. 6 1 - 1 3 3 . "Greek Inscriptions," Hesperia, XV ( 1 9 4 6 ) , pp. 1 6 9 - 2 5 3 . "Greek Inscriptions," Hesperia. XXI ( 1 9 5 2 ) , pp. 3 4 0 - 3 8 0 . "Greek Inscriptions," Hesperia, XXIX ( i 9 6 0 ) , pp. 1-77. "Greek Inscriptions," Hesperia, XXXII ( 1 9 6 3 ) , PP. 1 -56 . "An Athenian Decree," Robinson Studies, II ( 1 9 5 3 ) , PP. 2 9 8 - 3 0 3 . B.D.Meritt and H.T.Wade-Gery, "The Dating of Documents to the Mid-Fifth Century, I," J.H.S.,LXXXII ( 1 9 6 2 ) , pp. 6 7 - 7 4 . B.D.Meritt and H.T.Wade-Gery, "The Dating of Documents to the Mid-Fifth Century, I I , " J.H.S., LXXXIII ( 1 9 6 3 ) , PP. 100-118. B.D.Meritt, H.T.Wade-Gery and M.F.McGregor,, The Athenian Tribute L i s t s . I (Cambridge, Mass., 1 9 3 9 ) . II(Princeton, 1 9 4 9 ) . III (Princeton, 1 9 5 0 ) . IV (Princeton, 1 9 5 3 ) . Meyer, Forschungen. II ( I 8 9 9 ) , see next item. E.Meyer, Forschungen zur a l t e n Geschlchte, I I : zur Geschichte des fuenften Jahrhunderts v. Chr. (Halle, I 8 9 9 ) . G.d.A., I I I , IV ( 1 9 0 1 ) , see next item. Geschichte des Alterthums, I I I : das Per-serrelch und die Griechen... bis zu den  Friedensschluessen von 448 und 446 v. Chr. (Stuttgart, 1 9 0 1 ) . IV: das Perserreich und die Griechen... Athen (vom Frleden von 446 bis zur Capi- t u l a t i o n Athens Im Jahre 404 v. Chr.) (Stuttgart and B e r l i n , 1 9 0 1 ) . A.T.F.Michaelis, Der Parthenon (2 volumes, Lei p z i g , I 8 7 0 - I 8 7 1 ) . Michel, Recueil ( 1 9 0 0 ) , see next item. 30 C.Michel, Recuell d'Inscriptions Grecques (Brussels and Paris, 1 9 0 0 ) . Recueil, Supplement (1912), see next item. Recuell d*Inscriptions Grecques., Supplement (Brussels and Paris, 1 9 1 2 ) . P.Mbnceaux,, Essai sur l e s proxenes atheniens (Paris,1882). Les Proxenies Grecques (Paris, 1 8 8 6 ) . D.-S., IV . l ( 1 9 0 7 ) , pp. 732-740, s.v.Proxenia. Mbnatsb.Ak.Berlin. Mbnatsberiohte der Akademle der Wlssen-schaften zu B e r l i n . O.Mueller, Untersuchungen zur Geschlchte des attlschen Buerger- und Ehereohts, Neue Jahrbuecher. XXV, Supplement ( I 8 9 9 ) , pp. 6 6 3 - 8 6 6 . Muenchener Studlen. Muenchener Studien zur Sprachwissen-schaft. K.D.Mylonas, "frfcpicfvia ATTIKOV," B.C.H., XII (1888), pp. 1 2 9 - 1 5 2 . "EmYPacpai en rx\c; Aupo7to\eu>c,, " B.G.H.., XIII ( I 8 8 9 ) , pp. 1 5 2 - 1 5 5 . Nachmanson,. H.A.Ir ( 1 9 3 1 ) , see next item. E. Nachmanson,, Historlsche Attlsche I n s c h r i f t e n (Klelne Texte fuer Vorlesungen und Uebungen. 1 1 0 , second edition, Berlin,. 1 9 3 1 ) . Neue Jahrbuecher. Neue Jahrbuecher fuer classische P h i l o l o g l e . 31 Num.Chron. O.G.I. J.H.Oliver, P.A.C.A. -? f A • _P • A • A.A.Palaios, U.E.Paoli, Pec£rka, J.Pecfrka,, Numismatic Chronicle. Orientis Graecl Inscriptiones Selectae, edited by W.Dittenberger (Leipzig, 1 9 0 3 -1 9 0 5 ) . "Selected Greek Inscriptions," Hesperia, II ( 1 9 3 3 ) , PP. 4 8 0 - 5 1 8 . "The Monument with the Marathon Epigrams," Hesperia, V/ ( 1 9 3 6 ) , pp. 2 2 5 - 2 3 4 . Proceedings of the A f r i c a n C l a s s i c a l  Association. Proceedings of the American P h i l o l o g i c a l  Association. ,'lrr)Cpicfu.a Teixicpou nat cppoupticrecuc; T ^ C ; feXeucuvoc,," IloXeuov , I ( 1 9 2 9 ) , pp. 1 7 4 -180. Studl d i Dlretto A t t l c o (Pubblicazlonl  d e l l a r . Unlversita d e g l i Studi d i Firenze,. Faoolta d i Lettere e_ d_i F i l o s o f i a , n.s.. IX, Florence, 1 9 3 0 ) . "II Processo d i Agorato," H.F.I.C., X ( 1 9 3 2 ) , pp. - 2 8 9 - 3 0 8 . Enktesls: ( 1 9 6 6 ) , see next item.. The Formula f o r the Grant of Enktesis i n A t t i c Inscriptions (Acta U n i v e r s i t a t i s Carolinae: Philosophlca et H i s t o r i c a Monographia, XV, Prague, 1 9 6 6 ) . 32 "Land Tenure and the Development of the Athenian P o l l s , " Thomson Studies (1963), pp. 183-201. Kerameikos, Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen, I I I : Inschriften, Ostraka, Fluchtafeln (B e r l i n , 1941). De Scribibus Reipublicae Atheniensium (Leipziger Studien, XVIII, Leipzig, 1897). "Ilapdaruia de V i l l e s sur des Steles de Proxenle," B.C.H., X X (1896), pp. 549-562. "A Note on the P o l i t i c a l Implications of Proxenia i n the Fourth Century," C . C ^ . , VIII (1958), pp. 185-191. Philologus: Z e i t s c h r i f t fuer das klassische  Altertum. L«Ancienne Ath&nes (1835), see next item. L'Ancienne Athines, ou La Description  des Antiquites d*Athenes et de ses environs (Athens, 1835). E.A. (from 1837 to 1862 Pittakys published continuously i n t h i s journal, numbering the i n s c r i p t i o n s consecutively throughout each of Series I and I I ) . Medicis (1902), see next item. De Graecorum Medicis P u b l i c i s ( B e r l i n , 1902). 33 "Delphische Neufunde, I I I , " K i l o , XV (1918), pp. 303-338. Foreigners (1947), see next item. Foreigners i n A t t i c Inscriptions (Philadelphia, 19 W . Non-Athenians (1935), see next item. Non-Athenians i n A t t i c Inscriptions (New York, 1935). Review of Austin, Stoichedon, i n A.J.A., XLIII (1939), PP. 534-536. "Epigraphica Restituta," A.J.P., EXXXV (1964), pp. 40-55. "Expenditures of Athena, 408-406 B.C. and the Hellenotamiai," B.C.H., LXXXVIII (1964), pp. 455-481. "Greek Inscriptions," Hesperia. XI (1942), pp. 230-249. "The A t t i c S t e l a i , I," Hesperia, XXII (1953), PP. 225-299. "The A t t i c S t e l a i , I I , " Hesperia, XXV (1956), pp. 178-317. P a u l y r - Wissowa-Kroll, Real-Encyclopaedie  der classlschen Altertumswlssenschaft., (Stuttgart, 1894- ) . A.H., I (1842); II (1855), see next item. 34 A.R.Rangabe, Antiquites Hellenlques ou Repertoire d'Inscriptions et d'autres Antiqulte's  Decouvertes depuls 1'Affranchlssement  de l a Grece (2 volumes, Athens, 1842 and 1 8 5 5 ) . j A.E.Raubitschek, "The Mechanical Engraving-of C i r c u l a r Letters," A.J.A., LV ( 1 9 5 1 ) , p p . 3 4 3 - 3 4 4 . "The Treaties between Persia and Athens," GiR.B.S., V ( 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 151-159 . "Greek Inscriptions," Hesperia>XII ( 1 9 4 3 ) , PP. 1 2 - 8 8 . P.-W.,R.-E., XIX.2 ( 1 9 3 8 ) , 1591*13-1591 * 4 5 ,s.v. Phainippos ( 2 ) . P.-W.,R.-E., XIX.2 ( 1 9 3 8 ) , 1 7 8 6 * 2 -1786153, s..v. Phanosthenes. Raubitschek, Dedications ( 1 9 4 9 ) , see next item.. A. E.Raubitschek and L.H.Jeffery, Dedications from the Athenian Acropolis. A Catalogue of the Inscrlpt. -ions of the Sixth and F i f t h  Centuries B.C. (Cambridge, Mass., 1 9 4 9 ) . B. Rayet, "Communication," B u l l e t i n de l'Ecole Francals en Athenes, I ( I 8 7 1 ) , p. 246. R.E.A. Revue des Etudes Anclennes. 35 R. B. G. R. F.I.G. Rev.Phil. Revue des Etudes Grecques. R i v i s t a d i f i l o l o g i a e d i istruzione c l a s s i c a . Revue de Phllol o g i e de L i t t e r a t u r e et d*Histoire ancienne. Rh.M. J . and L.Robert, Rhelnlsches Museum fuer P h i l o l o g i e . " B u l l e t i n Epigraphique," R.E.G., LVII (1944), pp. 175-241. " B u l l e t i n Epigraphique," R.E.G., LIX-LX ( 1 9 4 6 - 1 9 4 7 ) , pp. 2 9 8 - 3 7 2 . " B u l l e t i n Epigraphique," R.E.G., LXII ( 1 9 4 9 ) , pp. 9 2 - 1 6 2 . " B u l l e t i n Epigraphique," R.E.G.., LXV ( 1 9 5 2 ) , pp., 124-202. " B u l l e t i n Epigraphique," R.E.G., LXXVII ( 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 1 2 7 - 2 5 9 . " B u l l e t i n Epigraphique," R.E.G., LXXXI ( 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. 420-549. L.Robert, Monnaies Grecques (Centre de recherches d* h l s t o i r e et de philologje»hautes etudes  numismatiques,-2, Paris and Geneva, 1 9 6 7 ) . Roberts and Gardner, Epigraphy, II ( 1 9 0 5 ) , see next item. E.S.Roberts and E.A.Gardner, An Introduction to Greek Epigraphy.,IIs The Inscriptions of A t t i c a (Cambridge, 1 9 0 5 ) . 36 Robinson Studies, II ( 1 9 5 3 ) . Studies Presented to David Moore Robinson on his Seven- t i e t h Birthday. I I , edited by W.C.Korfmacher (St.Louis, Missouri, 1 9 5 3 ) . H.Roehl, "Zu Lysias XX 1 9 , Andocides II 2 3 , Lyslas XIII 7 2 , Corpus Inscr. Atticarum 5 9 , " Hermes, XI ( I 8 7 6 ) , pp. 3 7 9 - 3 8 1 . L.Ross,, Kunstblaetter. XXVII ( 1 8 3 5 ) , PP. 1 0 5 - 1 0 6 . Archaeologlsche Aufsaetze, I (Leipzig, I 8 5 5 - I 8 6 1 ) . P.Roussel, "LfAmende de Chios (Aristophane, Paix, V. 169-172)," R«E.A., XXXV ( 1 9 3 3 ) , pp.385-386. "Remarques sur un Discours d'Antiphon (nept TOU HpcpSou cpovou ) Melanges Glotz, II ( 1 9 3 2 ) , pp. 813-822. G. de Sanctis, "Contributi e p i g r a f i c i a l i a cronologia della guerra deceleica," R.F.I.C., LXIII ( 1 9 3 5 ) , pp. 2 0 5 - 2 1 3 . Satura Sauppe ( 1 8 7 9 ) . Satura P h i l o l o g l c a Hermanno Saupplo Obtullt Amicorum C o rile gar um Decas (Berlin, 1 8 7 9 ) . Sauppe, Proxenis ( I 8 7 7 ) , see next item. H. Sauppe, Commentatio de Proxenis Athenienslum (Index Ac.Goett,,Goettingen, I 8 7 7 ) . Scala, Staatsvertraege. I ( I 8 9 8 ) , see next item. 37 R.von Scala, A.Schaefer, H.Schaeffer, R.S.Schlaifer, v E.Schlesinger, W.Schmltthenner, R.Schoell, R.Schoene, J.G.Schubert,, E.Schweigert, Schwyzer,, E.Schwyzer, Die Staatsvertraege des Alterturns, I (Leipzig, 1898). Demosthenes und seine Z e i t (3 volumes, Leipzig, 1 8 8 5 , 1886 and I 8 8 7 ) . "Beltraege zur Geschichte der attischen Symmachie," Hermes, LXXIV ( 1 9 3 9 ) , PP. 2 2 5 - 2 6 4 . Review of A.T.L., I, i n A.H.R., XLV ( 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 ) , pp. 3 6 9 - 3 7 1 . "Notes on Athenian Public Cults," H.S.C.P., LI ( 1 9 4 0 ) , pp. 2 3 3 - 2 6 0 . Die Grlechische As y l l e (Giessen, 1 9 3 3 ) . De Coronarum apud Athenienses. Honoribus  Quaestlones Eplgraph!cae (B e r l i n , I 8 9 I ) . "Der Prozess des Phidias" Sltzungsb.Bayr. Ak. ( 1 8 8 8 ) , pp. 1 - 5 3 . Grlechische R e l i e f s aus Athenlschen Samm-lungen (Leipzig, I 8 7 2 ) . De Progenia A t t i c a (Leipzig, 1 8 8 1 ) . "Inscriptions from the North Slope of the Akropolis," Hesperia, VII ( 1 9 3 8 ) , pp. 2 6 4 - 3 1 0 . D.G. ( 1 9 2 3 ) , see next item. Dialectorum Graecarum Exempla Epigraphlca Potiora (Leipzig, 1 9 2 3 ) . 38 S.E.G". Suppiementum Epigraph 1 cum Graecum (Leiden, 1 9 2 3 - \ S.E.G., III ( 1 9 2 7 - 1 9 2 9 ) » edited by J.J.E.Hondius. S.E.G., X ( 1 9 4 9 ) , edited by J.J.E.Hondius and A.E.Raubitschek. S.E.G., XI ( 1 9 5 4 ) , edited by J.J.E.Hondius and A.G.Woodhead. S.E.G., XII ( 1 9 5 5 ) , edited by A.G.Woodhead. S.E.G., XIV ( 1 9 5 7 ) . edited by A.G.Woodhead. S.E.G., XVI ( 1 9 5 9 ) , edited by A.G.Woodhead. S.E.G., XVII ( i 9 6 0 ) , edited by A.G.Woodhead. S.E.G., XVIII ( 1 9 6 2 ) , edited by A.G.Woodhead. S.E.G., XIX ( I 9 6 3 ) , edited by A.G.Woodhead. S.E.G., XXI ( I 9 6 5 ) , edited by A.G.Woodhead. S.E.G., XXIII ( 1 9 6 8 ) , edited by A.G.Woodhead. S.E.G., XXIV ( 1 9 6 9 ) , edited by A.G.Woodhead. Serta H o f f i l e r l a n a ( 1 9 4 0 ) . Serta H o f f l l e r i a n a t H o f f l l e r o v Zbornlk (Zagreb, 19-40). S..I..G. , I 2 ( I 8 9 8 ) , I 3 ( 1 9 1 5 ) . Sylloge Inscrlptlonum Graecarum, I, edited by W. Dittenberger (second e d i t i o n , Leipzig, I 8 9 8 ; t h i r d e d i tion, Leipzig, 1 9 1 5 ) . Sltzungsb.Ak.Berlin. Sitzungsber1chte der koenlgllch preusslschen Akademle der Wlssenschaf- ten zu B e r l i n . Sitzungsb.Ak.Wien. Sjtzungsb.Bayr.Ak, Sonderschr.Wien 39 Sltzungsberichte der Akademle der  Wissenschaften i n Wien. Sltzungsberichte der Bayerischen  Akademle der Wissenschaften. Sonderschriften des oesterreichischen K.Spyridakis, archaeologischen I n s t i t u t s i n Wien. Evagoras I von Salamis (Stuttgart, 1935)• KuVtpiot BaouXeTq TOU 4 A i . ix. X. (4-11 -311/ 10 TC. X. ) (Leukosia, 1 9 6 3 ) . G.E.M. de Ste.-Croix,, "Notes on J u r i s d i c t i o n i n the Athen-ia n Empire," G. g., EV (1961), pp. 94-112. "The Constitution of the Five Thousands II I . Ath.Pol. 3 0 - 3 1 and Contemporary Decrees," H l s t o r i a . V ( 1 9 5 6 ) , p p . l - 2 3 . "The Peace of C a l l i a s , " H i storla,VIII ( 1 9 5 9 ) , PP. 6 1 - 7 9 . Drakon's Law on Homicide (University of  C a l i f o r n i a Publications sClassical Studies, Volume 3 , Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1968), Grlechische P l a s t i k des 4 . Jahrhunderts  vor Chrlstus; Untersuchungen zur Zeitbe-stlmmunp; (Frankfurt, 1 9 3 8 ) . A.N.M. ( 1 9 0 3 - 1 9 3 7 ) , see next item. Das Athener Natlonalmuseum (Athens,1903-1 9 3 7 ) . P.-W. ,R.-E. , VI.2 ( 1 9 0 7 ) , 820s43-828s59, s_.v. Evagoras (8 and 9 ) , D.M.Stockton, R.S ..Stroud, H.K.Suesserot, Svoronos, I.N.Svoronos, H.Swoboda, 40 H.Swoboda, "Bemerkungen zur p o l i t i s c h e n Stellung der athenischen Strategen," Rh.M., XLV (1890), pp. 288-310,. L.von Sybel, Katalog der Skulpturen zu Athen (Berlin,= 1881), E.Szanto, Untersuchungen- ueber das attische Buerger-recht (Wien, 1881). T.A.P.A. Transactions of the American P h i l o l o g i c a l Association, Thorns on Studies', repcx<j * Studies Presented to George Thomson on the Occasion of his S i x t i e t h Birthday (Prague, 1 9 6 3 ) . P.Thraemer, P..-W.,H.-E., II.2 ( I 8 9 6 ) , 1 6 4 2 : 5 0 - 1 6 9 7 1 3 3 , , s.v. Asklepios ( 2 ) . O.Tissot,. Des Proxe'nies Grecques et de leur:Analogie avec l e s I n s t i t u t i o n s Consulalres Modernes Tod,; E.N.Tod, (Dijon, 1 8 6 3 ) . G.H_.I., I 1 (1933) J I 2 ( 1 9 4 6 ) , see next item. A Selection of Greek H i s t o r i c a l Inscriptions  to the End of the F i f t h Century (Oxford, 1933; second edition, 1 9 4 6 ) . "A Note on the S p e l l i n g of |^ d*p,ou = I K £CXTJ,OU," A.J.P., LXFII ( 1 9 4 6 ) , pp. 3 2 9 - 3 3 3 . "The Progress of Greek Epigraphy 1 9 3 5 - 1 9 3 6 , " JT .H.S. , LVII ( 1 9 3 7 ) , P P . 1 6 0 - 2 1 8 . J . S . T r a i l l , J . U l l r i c h , ' J.L.Ussing, I.M. J.Valeton, H.T.Wade-Gery, Walter, O.Walter, A.B.West,, 41 "Two New Prytany Inscriptions from the Athenian Agora," Hesperia. XXXVIII ( 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 418-431. De Proxenia (Berlin, 1822). Inscrlptiones Graecae Inedltae -(Copenhagen, 1 8 4 6 | . "de I n s c r i p t i o n i s Phrynlcheae Partis ultimae Lacunis explendis," Hermes, XLIII (1908), pp. 4 8 1 - 5 1 0 . "Studies i n A t t i c Inscriptions of the F i f t h Century B.C.," B.S.A., XXXIII ( 1 9 3 2 / 3 , published 1 9 3 5 ) , PP« IOI - I 3 6 . "The Peace of K a l l i a s , " H.S.C.P., Suppl. I ( 1 9 4 0 ) , pp. 1 2 1 - 1 5 6 . "The Fin a n c i a l Decrees of K a l l i a s (I.G., I 2 , 9 1 - 9 2 ) , " J.H.S. , LI ( 1 9 3 D , PP. 5 7 - 8 5 . Beschrelbung ( 1 9 2 3 ) , see next item. Be s chr e l bung der R e l i e f s im klelnen AkropcQls-museum l n Athen (Wien, 1 9 2 3 ) . . "Neugewonnene R e l i e f s der Athenischen Museen',' Bei b l a t t ( 1 9 1 1 ) , pp. 5 7 - 6 l . "Zu Attischen R e l i e f s , " Beiblatt ( 1 9 1 5 ) , pp. 87-98. "Ein Beitrag zur Aussprache des Griechischen',' Serta H o f f l l e r l a n a ( 1 9 4 0 ) , pp. 1 0 1 - 1 0 3 . "Prosopographical Notes on the Treaty between 42 Athens and H a l i a i , " A.J.P., LVI (1935), pp. 7 2 - 7 6 . E.Weston, "New Dating f o r some -&ttic Honorary Decrees," A.J.P., LXI ( 1 9 4 0 ) , pp. 3 4 5 - 3 5 7 . U.von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Curae Thucydldeae (Index Ac.Goett., 1 8 8 5 ) . A r i s t o t l e s und Athen (2 . volumes, B e r l i n , I 8 9 3 ) . A.Wilhelm, Att.Urk., see next item. Attische Urkunden. I-V ( 1 9 1 1 - 1 9 4 2 ) . Att.Urk., I (1911):"Iphiades von Abydos und Archonides von Herbita," Anzeiger Ak.Wien,XIV ( I 9 I I ) , PP. 170-179. Att.Urk., III ( 1 9 2 5 ) « Sitzungsb.Ak.Wien. CCII . 5 ( 1 9 2 5 ) . Att.Urk.. IV ( 1939)s Sitzungsb.Ak.Wien, CCXVII. 5 ( 1 9 3 9 ) . Att.Urk.. V ( 1 9 4 2 ) : Sitzungsb.Ak.Wien, CCXX.5 ( 1 9 4 2 ) . Beltraege ( 1 9 0 9 ) : Beitraege zur griechlschen In- schriftenkunde: Sonderschr.Wien, VII ( 1 9 0 9 ) . N.Beltraege. VI (1921)s Neue Beltraege zur  griechlschen Inschriftenkunde, Vis Sitzungsb.Ak. Wien. GLXXXIII .3 ( 1 9 2 1 ) . Urk.Dram. ( 1 9 0 6 ) : Urkunden dramatischer Auffuehr-ungen i n Athens Sonderschr.Wien, VI ( 1 9 0 6 ) . "Urkunden des attlschen Relches," Anzeiger AkWien, X ( 1 9 0 9 ) , PP. 41 -58. 43 A.Wilhelm, "Zu griechlschen Inschriften," Arch.-Eplgr. Mitt., XVII (1894), pp. 35-45. " I n s c h r i f t aus Thasos," Ath.Mltt., XXVIII (1903). PP. 437-448. "Buergerechtsverleihungen der Athener," Ath. Mitt., XXXIX (1914), pp. 290-291. "Epigraphischer Bericht aus Griechenland," Be i b l a t t (I898), pp. 41-50. Review of Kirchner, P . A . , I, i n B.Ph.W. (1902), pp. 1089-1101. "Communlcatiori: Note sur un Fragment d'Inscrip-t i o n trouve sur l'Acropole d'Athenes," C. R.A.I,. (1900), pp. 524-532. "Zur Geschichte von Thasos," Eranos Vindobonensis (1893). PP. 241-252. Review of Michel, Recuell. fasc. I, II (1897), i n G.G.A. (I898), pp. 201-235. Review of Dittenberger, S.I.G., I 2 (1898), i n G.G.A. (1903). PP. 769-798. "Attische Psephismen," Hermes. XXIV (I889), pp. 108-152. "Der Friedensbund der Hellenen," Jahreshef te .HI... (190.0), pp. 145-162. "Die Lokrische Maedcheninschrift," Jahreshef te, xiv (1911), PP. 163-256. "Fuenf Beschluesse der Athener," Jahreshefte,XXI-XXII (1923-1924), pp. 123-172. 44 A.Wilhelm, A.G.Woodhead, E.Ziebarth,, Z.oest.Gymn. L.Zgusta, : "Ein Beschluss der Athener," Melanges Nicole, II ( 1 9 0 5 ) , PP. 5 9 7 - 6 0 2 . Review of E.Ziebarth, Kulturbilder aus  grlechisohen Staedten i n Z.oest.Gymn., VIII-i x ( 1 9 1 3 ) , PP. 6 7 3 - 6 9 3 . The Study of Greek Inscriptions (Cambridge, 1 9 5 9 ) . "Pelsander," A . J . P . , LXXXV ( 1 9 5 4 ), pp. 1 3 1 -146. "Greek Inscriptions," Hesperia, XVII ( 1 9 4 8 ) , pp. 5 4 - 6 0 . Beitraege zur Geschlchte des Seeraubs und  Seehandels im a l t e n Griechenland (Hamburg, 1 9 2 9 ) . ' Z e l t s c h r l f t fuer die oesterrelchtschen  Gymnaslen. Kleinasiatische Personennamen (Prague,-1964). 45 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION The subject of t h i s study i s the series of decrees issued at Athens i n honour of foreigners who served the c i t y ' s commercial and p o l i t i c a l i nterests during the f i f t h century B7.C., the period during which Athens, having formed the Confederacy of Delos among the Greek states as a means of attacking the Persian Empire, herself became an imperial power and reduced her Confederate a l l i e s to the status of vassals. One of the tools by which t h i s change was effected was the o f f i c e of the proxenia. We possess today fragments of some sixty-nine i n s c r i p t i o n s found i n Athens that record grants of proxeny or the award of further p r i v i l e g e s to ex i s t i n g proxenoi. L i t e r a r y sources add the names of another nine men, so that we know i n a l l of seventy-eight proxenles granted during the f i f t h century at Athens.. For the fourth century the volume of evidence, both i n s c r i p t i o n a l and l i t e r a r y , i s much greater, but t h i s period l i e s outside the scope of the present study. My examination of the A t t i c proxenies i s primarily epigraphic and i s based upon autopsy throughout. The a n a l y t i c essay that forms Part One i s based upon the editions of the texts that comprise Part Two. Modern studies of the proxenia are of three kinds: general examinations of i t s meaning and functions, whether at Athens 46 alone or throughout Greece; monographs upon s p e c i f i c terms or formulae found not only i n proxeny-decrees "but also i n other types of Greek i n s c r i p t i o n s ; and analyses of the law-codes of Athens and of other Greek states. To these should be added the discussions of i n d i v i d u a l decrees i n the Corpora and other c o l l e c t i o n s of Greek inscriptions.. I append a bibliography of these studies, l i s t e d i n chronological order; those that r e t a i n significance are preceded by a s t e r i s k s . J . U l l r i c h , De Proxenla (B e r l i n , 1822). *C.I.G., edited by A.Boeckh (Be r l i n , 1828-1856); Part II of Volume I contains the i n s c r i p t i o n s of A t t i c a ; the greatest value for the study of proxenies l i e s i n Boeckh's discussion of Lakonian and Boiotlan proxenies i n Parts IV and V of Volume I. *K.S.Pittakys, passim, E.A. (1837-1862); Pittakys edited many fragments of A t t i c proxenies a f t e r t h e i r excavation on the Akropolis and elsewhere i n Athens. M.H.E.Meier, Commentatio de Proxenla slve de Publico Graecorum Hospltio (Halle, 1842).. A.R.Rangabe, A.H., I and II (1842 and 1855). C.Tissot, Des Proxenies Grecques et de leur Analogie avec l e s I n s t i t u t i o n s Consulaires Modernes (Dijon, I 8 6 3 ) . * I.G... I, edited by A.Kirchhoff (B e r l i n , I 8 7 3 - I 8 9 I ) ; A t t i c i n s c r i p t i o n s of the f i f t h century. G.Loeschke, De. T i t u l l s Aliquot A t t i c l s Quaestiones Hlstoricae 47 (Bonn, 1876). •I.G., I I , edited by U.Koehler (B e r l i n , I877-I895);Attic i n s c r i p t i o n s of the fourth century and l a t e r . H.Sauppe, Commentatlo de Proxenls Atheniensium (Index  Schol.Goett., I877); a c r i t i c a l index of A t t i c proxenies. *J.G.Schubert, De Proxenla A t t i c a (Leipzig, 1881); i n v e s t i -gates the formulae found i n A t t i c proxenies. E.Szanto, Untersuchungen ueber das griechische Buergerrecht (Wien, 1881). P.Monceaux, Essai sur les Proxenes Atheniens (Paris, 1882). *P.Monceaux, Les Proxenies Grecques (Paris, 1886); an expansion of hi s e a r l i e r essay> t h i s remains the most comprehensive and valuable general study avai l a b l e , though i t i s now much out of date. I t takes l i t t l e account of epigraphical problems. M.Goldstaub, De. kbe'ac; Notione et Usu i n lure Publico A t t l c o (Breslau, I889). *A.Dittmar, De Atheniensium More Exteros Coronis publloe  ornandl Quaestiones Eplgraphicae (Leipzig, 1891)1 t h i s contains many new restorations and i s therefore of considerab-l e value. W.Schmitthenner, De Coronarum apud Athenienss.s Honoribus  Quaestiones Epigraph!cae (Berlin, I891). *A.Wilhelm, passim, 1889-1942 (see bibliography, pp. 42-44) j Wilhelm published several fragments of A t t i c proxenies for the f i r s t time and made valuable comments upon many others; 48 he never attempted a single comprehensive study, though his Attlsche Urkunden, IV (1939) i s l a r g e l y concerned with fi f t h - c e n t u r y proxeny-decrees. H.Francotte, De l a L e g i s l a t i o n Athehienne sur l e s D i s t i n c t i o n s  Honorlflques (Louvain, 1900).. J.H.Lipsius, Das attlsche Recht und Rechtsverfahren, I (Leipzig, 1 9 0 5 ) G.Gerlach, Griechische Ehrenlnschrlften (Halle, 1908). J.d*Andre, La Proxenlet Contribution a l fEtude du Droit  International Grec (Toulouse, 1911). *I.G., I I 2 , edited by J.Kirchner ( B e r l i n , 1913-1940); A t t i c i n s c r i p t i o n s of the fourth century and l a t e r . *I.G., I 2 , edited by F . H i l l e r von Gaertringen ( B e r l i n , 1924); A t t i c i n s c r i p t i o n s of the f i f t h century. A.Kuenzi, Epldosls (Bern, 1923). *S_.E.G. (Leiden, 1923-)? the indispensible epigraphlc bibliography. J.Gerlach, Avr|p kyaQoq (Muenchen, 1932). E.Schlesinger, Die Griechlsche A s y l l e (Giessen, 1933). U.E.Paoli, Studl d i D l r l t t o A t t i c o (Florence, 1930). U.Kahrstedt, Staatsgeblet und Staatsangehoer1ge i n Athen (Stuttgart, 1934). *B.D.Meritt, passim, Hesperia (1936-); f i r s t editions of fragments discovered i n the excavation of the Athenian Agora conducted from 1932 onwards by the American School of C l a s s i c a l Studies at Athens. Meritt also discusses other proxeny-decrees 49 here and elewhere (see bibliography, pp. 27-29), but has not so f a r attempted a single comprehensive study. *A.Lambrechts, Tekst en U l t z i c h t van de Atheense  Proxenledecreten Tot 323 v.C. (Brussels, 1958); an attempt to synthesize a l l previous work on the A t t i c proxenies, unfortunately, she r e l i e s too much on the work of her predecessors and too l i t t l e upon autopsy. *J.Pec£rka, The Formula for the Grant of Enktesis i n A t t i c  Inscriptions (Prague, 1966); an extremely valuable study, based throughout upon autopsy and furnished with excellent photographs. In none of the works here l i s t e d are the texts of a l l extant proxeny-decrees ava i l a b l e : the Corpora, i t i s true, are complete for t h e i r times, but do not separate 2 proxenies from other decrees; I.G., I i s now f o r t y - f i v e years old and so does not include material from the excava-t i o n of the Athenian Agora (a new e d i t i o n i s i n preparation but i s not expected to be available f o r several years). I t i s the aim of the present study to provide a complete e d i t i o n of a l l f i f t h - c e n t u r y A t t i c proxeny-decrees so f a r published. The fragmentary nature of nearly a l l these documents l i m i t s the conclusions that can be drawn from them; moreover, the surviving decrees are l i k e l y to be only a small f r a c t i o n of the t d a l number of proxenies granted; thus, attempts to draw conclusions from them are hazardous. 50 The second and t h i r d chapters of Part One area discussion of the physical aspects of the s t e l a i and an analysis of the various formulae found i n the decrees. The second chapter establishes tentative c r i t e r i a f o r the dating of A t t i c i n s c r i p t i o n s of the f i f t h century. 1 Discussion of the h i s t o r i c a l significance of i n d i v i d u a l decrees w i l l be found i n the c r i t i c a l notes accompanying each text. 1 . In 1967-1968, which I spent i n Athens, D.W.Bradeen and M.F.McGregor were working on A t t i c letter-shapes of the f i f t h century. I have had f u l l access to t h e i r notes and manuscripts. 51 CHAPTER TWO THE STELAI a Materials-The materials employed i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of decrees varied from place to place according to a v a i l a b i l i t y and cost. At Athens, where there was an abundant supply of good marble, bronze does not seem to have been used to any extent, though the non-survival of bronze i n s c r i p t i o n s may be merely an accident of preservation- 1 1. Bronze could be melted down, so that obsolete decrees would be l i k e l y to disappear e n t i r e l y , whereas fragments at i e a s t of marble documents might e a s i l y survive. The two extant examples of fi f t h - c e n t u r y bronze decrees known to me are both inscribed i n very small l e t t e r s , not suited to the monumental character of a l l known fift h - c e n t u r y proxeny-decrees (S.E.G., XXI, 14, and an unpublished f r a g -ment now i n the Akropolis Museum; the l a t t e r i s an h o n o r i f i c , but apparently of a r e l i g i o u s nature,, while the former seems to be a lex sacra). L i t e r a r y references are few. 52 Several of the extant decrees of the f i f t h century contain a publication-clause that s p e c i f i e s a stone s t e l e . In every case the decree i s inscribed on marble, not poros or any other stone, though poros was sometimes used, es p e c i a l l y in: the archaic period, for the i n s c r i p t i o n of private dedications and r e l i g i o u s documents. Many of the proxenies and ho n o r i f i c decrees contain a publicat i o n -2 clause vpf t h i s sort. The marble used i n the f i f t h century i s i n nearly every case that known as Pentelic, or what I believe to be a variant of Pentelic. Hymettan marble i s employed for dedications and private documents; there are a few decrees inscribed i n a marble that i s very s i m i l a r to that known as Hymettan, but that I believe to derive from the Pentelic quarries., 2. # # 3,4 , 5 , 6„7 ( ? ) , 1 0 , 1 1 , 1 2 ( ? ; ) , 1 3,14 , 1 5 , 1 6 , 1 7(?),19 ( ? ) , 2 0 , 2 1 , 2 3 U ) , 2 5 ( ? ) , 2 6 ,28,3 0 , 3 2 , ,33,34„35»36,38,39,40,41 ,43,44,47,48, 4 9 , 5 0 , 5 1 , 5 2 , 5 3 , 5 4 , 5 6 , 5 8 , 5 9 ( ^ ) , 6 l , 6 2,64 , 6 5 , 6 6 , 6 7,68 , 6 9 ; 2 honorifics: I.G., I , 110,113,117 and 160. p 3. H i l l e r (I.G., I ), when he describes the marble, uses three categories: Pentelic, white and blue; he also d i f f e r -entiates Parian and Hymettan marbles from Pentelic. I be-li e v e that h i s white and blue marbles are Pentelic variants. 53 Herz and P r i t c h e t t have emphasized that, physical appearances to the contrary, there Is no chemical difference among the various types of A t t i c marble found i n epigraphical study: so-called "Hymettan"marble may come from the same quarry as "Pentelic" on either Mt.Pentele or Mt.Hymettos. This I have confirmed from personal observation.. However, the terms "Hymettan" and "Pentelic" are usefu l short-hand l a b e l s , saving much tedious and i r r e l e v a n t discussion, and I propose to employ them i n t h i s study, f i r s t defining what I mean by them. I t must be emphasized that they are l a b e l s , not f u l l geological and petrographical i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s . "Hymettan" marble, when freshly broken, i s white, with a s l i g h t l y chalky appearance. Its cr y s t a l s are small, hardly v i s i b l e to the naked eye, and the stone w i l l take a high p o l i s h . The pattern of f o l i a t i o n i s usually unclear. I t **' XLV/II (1953). PP. 71-83. especially pp.75-77- Their discussion i s very f u l l and enlightening, but the standards they lay down are surely beyond both the a b i l i t i e s and the needs of most epigraphists. With t h e i r requirement that the desc r i p t i o n of marbles should be based on four factors (p .77)» the colour of the marble, the grain-size, structures v i s i b l e i n the marble and the presence of accessory minerals, I f i n d no fault? i t i s a system that I intend to follow i n t h i s study. 54 r a p i d l y weathers to a d u l l grey and i s at a l l times, even when fresh, darker and less bright than "Pentelic." I t i s most common l n i n s c r i p t i o n s a f t e r the middle of the fourth century. "Pentelic" marble, as generally employed i n public documents of the f i f t h century, i s creamy-white (not "snow-white," the term used by Herz and P r i t c h e t t , op.cit., p.75), the c r y s t a l s usually apparent to the naked eye, i t s f o l i a t i o n often c l e a r l y v i s i b l e . I t frequently contains bands and streaks of greenish-blue mica and other discolorations r r e s u l t i n g from impurities. I t does not take as high a p o l i s h as Hymettan, and i t weathers usually to a pale creamy-yellow, often with rusty-red patches. This rusty-red weathering i s found p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l e t t e r s on the inscribed surfaces. There are two other v a r i e t i e s of marble found i n f i f t h -century public documents. Both, as I have said, I believe to be variants of Pentelic, though i t i s hard to dis t i n g u i s h them, i n t h e i r weathered state, from Hymettan. One, when fre s h l y broken, i s extremely white, i t s cr y s t a l s small and hard to distinguish, but without the chalky appearance of Hymettan. I t weathers to a pale blue-grey with pinkish-red patches. The f o l i a t i o n i s usually extremely marked; when a stele has been broken i t frequently s p l i t s along these planes of f o l i a t i o n , producing flakes of 55 regular thickness. Impurities i n the planes of fracture, between flakes, are often deep pink i n colour. This i s the marble c a l l e d marmor caeruleus by H i l l e r . This blue-white marble seems not to have come into vogue before the l a t e 4 2 0 's; there e x i s t a few examples from the mi d - f i f t h century, but these do not seem to have the very ft marked f o l i a t i o n of the l a t e r documents. The second variant i s also extremely white, but with very noticeable small c r y s t a l s . I t weathers with a f a i n t blue tinge, but no trace of red, never acquiring the d u l l grey tone of Hymettan, and lacking the l a t t e r ' s chalky appearance when fre s h l y broken. This marble has i n d i s t i n c t f o l i a t i o n and few, i f any, impurities. H i l l e r c a l l s i t albus.? He has another category, candidus.° which i s r e a l l y no d i f f e r e n t from albus. 5 . I.G.,I 2,31 ( # 8 ) . 6 . Proxeny-decrees are ##8 , 1 1 , 1 3 , 2 3 , 2 4 , 3 7 , 3 8 , 3 9 , 4 1 , 4 3 , 4 4 , 4 5 , 4 6 , 4 9 , 6 1 , 6 3,64 , 6 7 , 6 8 . An incomplete l i s t of other f i f t h - c e n t u r y decrees includes I.G.,I 2 , 2 9 , 4 8 , 5 0 , 6 2 , 1 0 1 , 1 1 0 , 1 2 0 , 1 2 3 , 1 3 1 ,133, 1 3 6 , 1 3 8 and 1 7 2 . 7 . I.G.,I 2 , 6 ; 4 0/41 ; 4 6 ; 5 6 ( # 1 3 ) ; 7 0 ( # 2 8 );91/ 9 2 ; 1 0 2 ; 1 0 6 a ( # 6 8 );188; 3 0 1 ; 3 9 9 . 8 . I.G.,I 2 , 9 3 a and b(##34 and 3 5 ) ; 3 0 8 ; 9 4 5 . H i l l e r c i t e s .I.G. ,1 , 5(which I have not seen) and the Hekatompedon i n s c r i p t i o n ( I . G . , I 2 , 3 / 4 ) as examples of "Parian" marble. I.G.,I 2 , 3 / 4 i s inscribed on marble f i r s t employed i n the 56 In t h i s study, therefore, I intend to employ the following terms to describe the colour of the marblet Hymettan; Pentelic; blue-white; white; to each I s h a l l add notes, where relevant, about disc o l o r a t i o n s , bands and streaks, f o l i a t i o n and c r y s t a l l i n e structure. metopes™of a mid-sixth century temple; as such, i t may well be i s l a n d marble, though in~ appearance i t seems l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t from white A t t i c marble. 57 Physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s t e l a i Proxeny-decrees of the f i f t h century were usually engraved with care, with the l e t t e r s well-spaced and arranged Q stoichedon. Some s t e l a i have r e l i e f - p a n e l s , either recessed into the face of the s t e l e , o r set above horizontal 11 mouldings and fascias; others have merely mouldings and 12 13 14 f a s c i a s , or triangular gables. J Several have p l a i n tops. No decree whose top i s preserved can be dated e a r l i e r than 430 B.C., but t h i s i s probably merely an accident of su r v i v a l . Many decrees begin with a heading containing the name (and sometimes the demotic) of the secretary of the Boule at the time when the decree was passed; sometimes t h i s heading contains the name of the eponymous archont sometimes 9 . ## 3» 8, 1 0 , 36 are non-stolchedon; # 6 l i s par t l y stoichedon. 1 0 . ##9 and 66. 1 1 . ##22, 2 9 , 47 and probably #55. 1 2 . ##26, 46 and 6 0 . 1 3 . ##33 and 48. 14. ##25, 3 1 , 6 2 , 63 and possibly #54. 58 the names of both the secretary and the archon are included. 1"* More often, a stele w i l l bear a t i t l e i n which the name of the proxenos i s set out with h i s ethnic and patronymic; 1^ sometimes a stele w i l l have both t i t l e and heading.^ The t i t l e Is inscribed on: the upper face of the st e l e , or on the projecting f a s c i a below the r e l i e f , or on the horizontal member of the gable. The heading i s generally found below the t i t l e , on the face of the st e l e , above the o f f i c i a l preamble. 15* ##8, 33» 47 and 60 have headings containing the secretary's name alone; ##50 and 63 have headings with the names of the secretary and the archon; #66 has a heading containing the archon's name alone. 16. ##l, 4, 9, 22, 29, 36, 45(?), 47, 48, 55, 63, 65(?), 66. 17. ##47, 63, 66 (the l a t t e r has i t s heading set above i t s t i t l e , both on the face of the s t e l e ) . 18. In the view of Lambrechts (Proxenledecreten f 1958 ] , p. 36) most s t e l a i bore either a r e l i e f , with or without a gable, or a gable alone; the horizontal member of the gable bore the t i t l e of the proxenos. This may have been so i n many cases, but at lea s t three examples survive of a completely p l a i n s t e l e , without gable, r e l i e f , crowning moulding, t i t l e or heading (##25, 31 and 54; #26 may also f a l l into t h i s cate-gory; #62 has nothing but an invocation inscribed at the top of an otherwise p l a i n s t e l e ) . 59 Below these there may appear the Invocation &eoi , above the preamble. The s t e l a i vary i n width, height, chequer- and l e t t e r -s i z e . The sole feature common to a l l i s t h e i r monumental aspect, i n keeping with the atmosphere of the Akropolis, 20 where, i t appears, they were intended to be set up. In the f i f t h century the l e t t e r s of the text were generally between 0.008m. and 0.011m, i n height, while those 21 of the t i t l e and heading were larger. Line-length, i n the majority of cases extant, i s between twenty-two and t h i r t y -three l e t t e r s , with another group between t h i r t y - e i g h t and forty-two l e t t e r s . There does not seem to be any c o r r e l a t i o n between the date of the stele and the l e t t e r - s i z e or 19* ##31 and 62 have nothing but an invocation; #60 has both a heading and an invocation. 20. See pp.100-101, below. 21. Some eleven proxeny-decrees (out of a t o t a l of s i x t y -nine) have l e t t e r s of height greater than 0.012m. (##3, 5» 6, 11, 12, 14, 22, 26, 32, 38 and 47; #1 , not a decree but a grave-stele, also has large l e t t e r s . Only ##3 and 14 have l e t t e r s exceeding 0.0l6m. i n the body of the decree). 6o line-length. The s t e l a i , as a r u l e , were inscribed on one face only; the only exception to t h i s rule i s #17» which "bears upon i t s reverse the text of a second and l a t e r decree 2 (I.G., II , 150) whose content appears to be i n no way connected with that of #17; i n t h i s case, I think, the stele became obsolete and was re-used for the l a t e r d e c r e e . 2 3 In the f i f t h century oplsthographic s t e l a i are oil-uncommon, except for public accounts and leges sacrae. The backs of the s t e l a i are generally rough-picked, sometimes f l a t , sometimes witk a curved horizontal p r o f i l e . I do not know of any case i n which the o r i g i n a l back i s cut by dowel-holes or other i n c i s i o n s by which the stele might have been fastened to a wall; i t appears that these s t e l a i were intended to be free-standing monuments. The rough condition of the backs suggests that they were set up close to a wall, so that t h e i r backs would not be v i s i b l e . Several s t e l a i are wider at the bottom than at 22. See Table One, page 62. 23. #15 may have been oplsthographic, but the text on the reverse, i f there was one, has not survived. 24. I.G:., I 2 , 10/11/12/13 (?:); 34/35; W 4 l ; 46; 75; S.E.G., x,37. I.G'., I 2 , 8 8 / 8 9 and 91/92 deal with f i n a n c i a l matters, while 2 I.G., I , 24/25 are r e l i g i o u s i n character. 61 the top, or have projections at the top where the r e l i e f or gable begins; apparently each stele was set up independently of the others. The r e l a t i v e l y finished appearance of the sides i s an argument i n support of t h i s hypothesis. 62 TABLE ONE PROXENY-DECREES CATALOGUED ACCORDING TO THEIR LINE-LENGTHS Line-length 15 16 20 21 22 23 24 25 27 28 29 Decree # 14 16 58 33 35 5 3 48 9 6 11 34 40 13 19 52 18 7 45 15? 16 21 3? 39 20 53 27 29 47 25 54 49 41 62 50 46 67 57 59 Line-length V- 32 ?? ?6 38 40 41 42 45 46 Decree'# 22 17 15 23 61 32 8 12 4 10 44 56 30 24 64 27? 55 31 28 8? 37? 38 66 68 36 65 69 51 Line-length 47 50 55 58 70 Decree # 27? 6o 2 43 63 2? 10? 36? Note: the queries indicate documents for which two or more line-lengths are possible; the less l i k e l y lengths are queried. #1 consists of two couplets and so i s not included. 63 c C r i t e r i a for dating In theory, i n s c r i p t i o n s may be dated by one or more of several means* reference within the text to a known h i s t o r i c a l event; firm archaeological evidence; analysis of the sculptural s t y l e or form of the stele; study of the evolution of technical terms, formulae and orthography; letter-shapes. Unfortunately, the series of extant f i f t h - c e n t u r y A t t i c proxeny-decrees offers l i t t l e unambiguous reference to known h i s t o r i c a l events: archon-dating i s r a r e ; 2 ^ dating by secretary alone i s inconclusive, as are other 25. Seven such proxeny-decrees survive, none e a r l i e r than 421/0 B.C.: ##33 (A r i s t i o n , 421/0 B.C.), Charias, 415/4 B.C.), 55 ( K a l l i a s , 412/1 B.C.), 62 (Euktemon, 408/7 B.C.), 63 (Euktemon or Antlgenes, 408/7 or 407/6 B.C.), 65 (Antigenes, 407/6 B.C.), and 66 (Alexias, 405/4 B.C.); i n addition, there are four decrees that probably contained archon-formulae, but the names of the archons cannot be restored with any certainty: ##4 and 8 (ca 460-445 S.C.) and ##31 (post 421/0 B..C?) and 67 (ca 405/4 B.C..?). 64 attempts to employ prosopography as an aid; contextual 2? references are, for the most part, speculative. Archaeological evidence i s here of l i t t l e values no proxeny-decree has so far been uncovered i n the excavation 28 of uncontaminated f i f t h - c e n t u r y deposits. 26. Of the l i s t i n note 25 above #63 lacks the name of the secretary; i n the res t , the date of the secretary i s confirmed by the name of the archon. I do not know of any other proxeny-decree of the f i f t h century i n which the secretary's date i s certain. Other prosopographical references depend upon termini post or ante quern non, and thus are too vague to be of any use. 27. Exceptions are #32 (dated by reference to i t i n the securely-dated #33t though i t i s not absolutely c e r t a i n that t h i s i s the decree mentioned i n the text of #33)» #56 (whose preamble dates i t to the period of the oligarchy of 411/0 B.C.), and #6l (dated by the return to Athens i n 407 B.C. of i t s proposer Alkibiades, a f t e r the f a l l of Selymbria, arrangements fo r which are embodied i n t h i s decree; see Xenophon, Hellenlka, I, 3-10; Plutarch, Alkibiades, 30; Diodoros, XIII, 66.4). 28. Possibly, one of those decrees annulled by the Th i r t y i n 404/3 B.C. may one day be discovered i n a fi f t h - c e n t u r y context; one such document may exist (#46), but i t was found i n a r e l a t i v e l y modern context. For a l i s t of such decrees see Part Two, Appendix l b . 65 S t y l i s t i c c r i t e r i a , despite the claims of some a r t -h i s t o r i a n s , are found, upon examination, to be at best vague, at worst based upon dubious h i s t o r i c a l "evidence." Attempts to chart the evolution of technical terms and 30 formulae are s i m i l a r l y unhelpful: i n practice, these c r i t e r i a , unless the document i s already securely dated by other means, are valueless. Changes of orthography are likewise of l i t t l e assistance, since there does not seem 29. The most recent comprehensive work of t h i s sort i s that of Binneboessel (Urkundenreliefs [1932] ) . 30. Lambrechts (Proxenledecreten [1958] attempts a synthesis of a l l dating c r i t e r i a , e s p e c i a l l y those of form, s t y l e and text. Her analysis i s too often based upon insecure restorations, and she does not appear to have any first-hand experience of the stones themselves; too often she allows preconceived ideas to a l t e r her view of the facts and to warp her judgement: as when, for example, she suggests that #32, a document inscribed throughout i n A t t i c characters, should be placed i n the early fourth century (when Ionic s c r i p t was the r u l e ) , because i t does not f i t i n with her ideas about the width of s t e l a i (p. 3 2 ) . 66 to be a c l e a r l y defined terminus post or ante quern non 31 f o r any form. There remains the study of letter-shapes. In the course of the f i f t h century there was considerable 31. Wade-Gery (J.H.S., LI [ 1931] .pp.,78,-83 ) catalogued the variant forms of the f i r s t declension dative p l u r a l ( -act , -cciai » -sat and -aiq ), concluding that the older d i s y l l a b i c forms tended to go out of use i n the 420's. Mattingly (Ehrenberg Studies [1966 ] , pp. 196-203) made a si m i l a r catalogue of the variant forms of the present middle and passive imperative ( -oa9a> , «OCT©OJV and -ECOCD , -eo©cov ) and of the prefixes xcuv-and auv«* . His conclusion was:.that here too the 420's were a period of t r a n s i t i o n during which the newer forms began to intrude alongside the old and that the older forms went out of use ca 420 B.C. While both Wade-Gery1s and Mattingly*s catalogues provide some support for the view that the older forms died out a f t e r 420 B.C. , I do not think that they are of much use i n establishing a terminus ante quern non for the newer forms. The use, or non-use, of the dasela has been suggested as another c r i t e r i o n for dating; however, though there seems to be a period i n the 450*s and 440's i n which i t was frequently omitted, there i s no d i s c e r n i b l e pattern of gradually increasing use or disuse. The same i s true of the s u b s t i t u t i o n of Ionic -ou- f o r A t t i c -o-; the most that can be said i s that the Ionic orthography be-comes more common towards the end of the century. 67 v a r i a t i o n and evolution of letter-forms; i n a few cases only ( A t t i c gamma, delta, i o t a and tau; Ionic gamma, lambda, x i and psi) i s the change so s l i g h t as to be neg l i g i b l e as a c r i t e r i o n f o r dating. For the remaining l e t t e r s of the Greek alphabet as i t was employed at Athens i n the f i f t h century I have l i s t e d at least three, often more, basic changes of shape that can be used, singly or i n combination with other l e t t e r s , to provide termini post or ante quern non. 32 One absolute and undoubted c r i t e r i o n i s the disappearance of A t t i c s c r i p t from public documents a f t e r 33 403/2 B;C. as a re s u l t of the Law of Archinos. Before t h i s time, there i s a period of t r a n s i t i o n , 411/0 to 403/2 B.C., during which several dated documents 34 were inscribed throughout i n Ionic s c r i p t , or i n a mixture of A t t i c and Ionic c h a r a c t e r s ; b e f o r e 411/0 B.C. there are very few dated documents employing Ionic s c r i p t 36 i n whole or i n part. Documents of a private nature follow no rules; i n the case of public documents the use of Ionic 32, See Table Two, p. 74. 33« Theopompos (fragment 115)» quoted by Douris (fragment 7 6 ) . 34. I.G. , I 2 , 110a; 124; 298; A.T.L. , II,A .13; ##62 and 66. 35. I.G., I 2 , 108; 120; 123; 304c; 305? # 6 l . -: . v ' o 36. I.G., I , 359 (mixed); 377 (Ionic, now l o s t ) ; ##54 and ' v - > x ' 2 55 (Ionic). I.G., I ,57 (JUT.L. , 1 1 , D 3-6) has some Ionic forms. 68 s c r i p t before 411/0 B.C. seems to depend upon the subject-matter,3''7 while the use of mixed s c r i p t i s apparently a whim,or a habit, of the secretary (not the mason). 3^ There i s a tendency to disregard variations of l e t t e r -shapes upon a single stele as being of minor importance. On the contrary, these variations can be of cardinal s i g n i f i -cance, i n that they may point to the replacement of a more by a l e s s experienced or progressive mason, or vice versa, thus i n d i c a t i n g the existence, side by side, of two d i f f e r e n t schools of engraving that had hitherto been thought to 37. !".<£.» I » 16 (Phasells); 17 ( E r e t r i a ) ; 117 (Klazomenians ^ at Daphnous); 377 (Delphic Amphiktyony); ##1, 15, 16, 24, 34, 35» 54 and 55»-Ih a l l these cases the text may have been drafted o r i g i n a l l y in-an Ionic-speaking area, as was r.G., 2 II » 55 (A«T_.L., I I , D. 21 , f o r Aphytis and Poteidaia). I.G.., 2 I , 38 i s a lex ; sacra; the stele contains two decrees:, the second of which i s i n Ionic s c r i p t ; the date i s not certain, but the character of the letter-shapes suggests a date i n the l a s t years of the f i f t h century, i f not l a t e r . Sj.E.G., XV/, 27 and 28 are both late f i f t h-century accounting-records.. 38. I..G;., I 2 , 14/15; 3 4 , , 57; 71; 80; 126; 177; 189; 303; 314; 316; 328; 369; 373; 377; ##36; 47; 60; 6 l and 69. The Coinage-Decree (A.T..L.., II,,D I 14) was surely inscribed o r i g i n a l l y i m A t t i c characters,, but the copies.<• erected i n Aphytis, Odessa,, Syme, Siphnos and Smyrna are i n Ionic s c r i p t ; the Kos fragment-!: i s i n A t t i c scriptt. 69 f l o u r i s h at d i f f e r e n t times. Such changes r a r e l y occur 39 within a single decree, but are common i n series documents whose texts were inscribed year by year upon the same ste - r 40 l a i . The evidence of dated documents of the f i f t h century does not support the view that the contract for any one year was awarded to a single mason.. It w i l l be Instructive to compile a l i s t of f i f t h - c e n t u r y i n s c r i p t i o n s whose date i s beyond reasonable doubt, and to examine the l e t t e r - v a r i a t i o n s found i n them. I have therefore drawn up a chart depicting the major variations of l e t t e r -shapes found i n Athenian i n s c r i p t i o n s of the f i f t h century, 41 giving to each variant a number. I have also compiled a 39« C a s u a l t y - l i s t s are an apparent exception; however, when two or more hands are seen to have been at work i n a single l i s t , the second i s probably the r e s u l t of a l a t e r accession 2 of names* see I'.G>, I , 928, 929 and 943, f o r example. The prescripts of the t r i b u t e q u o t a - l i s t s are sometimes inscribed i n a d i f f e r e n t s c r i p t from the accounts, perhaps as a form of decoration, or flourish., 40. Tribute q u o t a - l i s t s j building-accounts; inventories-; accounts and audits. 41. Table Two, p. 7 4 . I have based the numeration and s e l e c t i o n of variants upon those of M.P.McGregor and D.W.Bradeen, which they have kindly made available to me.. 70 chronological l i s t of securely-dated documents, and have noted In i t the l e t t e r - v a r i a t i o n s by number. Such a l i s t was 43 drawn up by Meiggs, but i t was l i m i t e d to the period 460-430 B.C. and to the l e t t e r s beta, rho, sigma and phi. Using t h i s as a "base, I have drawn up a l i s t covering the period 460-403 B.C., including i n i t a l l the l e t t e r s of the alphabet except gamma1 delta, eta, i o t a , kappa, tau, x i and p s i . From t h i s I have compiled a chart in d i c a t i n g such appearances or disappearances of l e t t e r - v a r i a t i o n s as seem to have s i g n i f l -44 cance. I have included i n Table Two shapes, obviously of the period 480-460 B.C., that do not occur i n the dated documents but that I consider to have significance for the development of the shapes of the m i d - f i f t h century. I have not attempted, as Meiggs did, to carry t h i s analysis to those documents whose dating i s insecure, but intend to apply my findings to the examination of the proxeny-documents that forms the subject of t h i s study. Though Ionic omega i s not found i n dated i n s c r i p t i o n s e a r l i e r than 415/4 B.C., i t occurs i n several documents whose dates may be set with some pr o b a b i l i t y i n an 4 2 . Table Three, pp. 75 -84 4 3 . J.H.S., LXXXVI (1966) , p. 92 4 4 . Table Four, pp. 85-86 71 e a r l i e r p e r i o d ; ^ I have therefore included i t s variants i n Table Two. The r e s u l t s of t h i s analysis i n general support the orthodox view that the three-barred sigma was not employed a f t e r 440 B.C.: the latest-dated occurrence of t h i s variant 46 i s 443/2 B.C. The four-barred sigma appears i n the 47 Erechtheid Casualty-List, ' but, although the main text must be dated to 460 B.C., or very soon a f t e r , t h i s form of sigma, i n company with an equally advanced rho, i s found only i n the post s c r i p t , cut i n a d i f f e r e n t hand and probably a late a d d i t i o n to the l i s t . Nevertheless, the four-barred sigma makes an undoubted 48 appearance i n 453/2 B'.C. , and i t s use thereafter i s i n -creasingly frequent. As l a t e as 443/2 B.C., both the three-and the four-barred sigma are found together i n the same document.^ 4 5 . I.G., I 2 , 16 (ca 465 B.C.); 17 (ca 450 B.C.); 80 (ca 450 B..C.?; possibly i n the 420's); 25 (ca 424/3 B.C.); I.G., I I 2 , 55 (ca 428-423 B.C.); ## 1 , 1 5 , 1 6 , 34 and 35 ( a l l before 415/4 B.C.). 46. I.G., I 2 , 3 4 3 . 4 7 . I.G., I 2 , 9 2 9 . 48. A.T.L., I I , L i s t 2 . 4 9 . I.GJ. , I 2 , 3 4 3 . 72 Another early variant i s the t a i l e d rho. Type 3 i s not found a f t e r 445 B.C., but type 7t with rounded, not angular loop, exists for more than a decade, from 451/0 down to 438/7 B..C., and i s also found i n the postscript of the Erechtheid Casualty-List.-* 0 Types 3 and 7 are found together i n 451/0 E..C.-'1 Both are found i n company with the more ad-vanced untalled, rounded rho from the 450*s onward. This phenomenon, of advanced and primitive letter-forms being ; : found i n the same i n s c r i p t i o n , occurs throughout the f i f t h century; the eplgraphist should be wary of dating any document on the evidence of a single l e t t e r , the more so when the i n s c r i p t i o n i s small and fragmentary and contains few l e t t e r s . No absolute dating i s possible, though one may a r r i v e at an approximate date by comparing documents inscribed over a period of years by a single mason. A pattern of minor changes i n the letter-shapes can sometimes be detected i n dated documents by the same mason that enables undated documents by the same hand to be placed at the beginning, middle or end 52 of such a series. 50. I.G., I 2 , 929. 51. A.T.L., I I , L i s t 4. 52. I believe that ##49 and 63 can be so dated by t h e i r appearance l n a series the e a r l i e s t document i n which i s I.G., I 2 , 87 and the l a t e s t I.G., I 2 , 47. 73 The probable existence of schools of masons complicates the matter, however: a pupil might be expected to imitate his master's s t y l e at the beginning of his career, and to de-velope h i s own s t y l e l a t e r . I believe that many Instances of hands that appear to d i f f e r only i n the shapes of one or two l e t t e r s may be attributed to t h i s cause.. Another factor that may lead to variations of l e t t e r -shapes i s the gradual wearing-down of tools; there i s no way of detecting t h i s when one i s comparing two or more documents, but occasionally variations i n the shapes of c e r t a i n l e t t e r s within one document may prove to be the r e -s u l t of a change of tools rather than of masons. TABLE TWO LETTER-SHAPES AT ATHENS, 480-403 B.C. 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 A A A A A * t B A A A A 1 £ E E E I H H e o O G • S r i il , 4 O o F u i t IUIT K I J M U T o r l i l l HQ K K V V / U L I M A* A/ A / A7 A/ /V Y H N N p n P n l> p P P (> P P > * * f ( < T T V V Y V V Y Y Y <D <t> CD <t> Ov«| <*> <*> t + X X A n A A A 75 TABLE THREE LETTER-SHAPES FOUND IN DATED FIFTH-CENTURY INSCRIPTIONS Inscription Date I.O.,I2,92? Body 460? Postscr. A B E Z 6 A M N 0 n P £ Y $ X 0 , Subject 2 1 3 2 2 2 2 4 2 1 3 1 2 1 3 -3 4 3 7 3 3 4 8 9 2 - - - 4 2 - 5 2 1 4 1 1 4 V -3 4 7 5 2 7 4 8 6 4 7 8 Erechtheid casualty-list A.T.L.,11,1 Prescr. 454/3 Text Postscr. 3 . 4 - 4 2 3 3 1 - 1 2 - - 2 -2 4 3 1 4 3 4 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 7 1 3 -3 2 9 2 3 5 7 - - 4 - 4 - - 2 2 - 8 1 7 - 3 -9 Tribute quota-l i s t # 1 A.T.L.,II,2 Presor. 453/2 Text Postscr. - - 4 - - 4 - - - - 9 7 6 * - - -3 2 4 - 4 1 2 2 1 1 4 1 5 3 3 -4 2 9 2 7 4 4 8 3 1 4 - 4 4 2 10 2 1 1 1 7 - 3 -4 Tribute quota-l i s t # 2 A.T.L.,II,3 Prescr. 452/1 Text 4 - 4 - 2 - - 5 1 - 8 1 - -4 2 4 1 2 2 2 3 1 1 4 1 2 4 3? 4 3 5 2 8 4 4 7 5 10 3 -Tribute quota-l i s t # 3 A.T.L.,11,4 Prescr. 451/0 Text - 4 3? 3 2 2 4 3 3 4 2 - 1 - 3 2 5 7 1 1 1 4 5 1 - - 2 2 Tribute quota-l i a t # 4 2 3 3 7 3 3 -A.T.L.,11,5 Prescr. 450/49 4 - 31 -Text - 2 - - - 3 1 - - -4 1 1? 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 7 2 3 3 2 4 3 7 3 4 2 8 3 10 Tribute quota-l i s t # 5 76 I n s c r i p t i o n Date A B E Z e A M N 0 II P £ Y 0 X 0 Subject A . T . L . , I I , 7 P r e s c r . 448/7? 3 3 _ - 4 5 2 _ _ 8? - 2 _ _ - Tribute quota-4 2 3 l i a t # 7? Text 4 2 4 2 2 2 1 7 2 1 1 7 2 4 3 -3? 4 2 10 5 8 4 ? 6 7 C o l . 4 3 2 3 3 3 4 2 7 2 1 3 5 5; - 2-3 • 4 4 2? 5 10 6 A . T . L . , 1 1 , 8 P r e s c r . 447/6? 4 3 4 - 1? 2 1 1 - - Tribute quota-4 10 l i s t # 8? Text 4 2 3 2 4 4 2 1 1 1 4 1 4 4 3 -4 2 10 2 5 2 5 - - 2 6 7 I .G . .X ,339 447/6 4 - 4 o 2 2 2 7 2 1 5 7 6 - - - Parthenon a/c 1 5 3 8 7 I . G . , I 2 , 3 6 1 447/6 4 5 2-3 4 *#• 3 - - 7 2 - - 7 - - 2 - Parthssos a/c 1 A . T . L . , 1 1 , 9 446/5 3 2? 4 1 3 2-4 2 1 1 1 6 8 2 4 3 - Tribute quota-4 3 3 5 2 3 8 9 5 l i s t # 9 7 9 10 6 2 I . G . , 1 ,340 446/5 3 - 4 - 3 2 2 7 1 1 5 5? 3 - 2 - Parthenon a/c 2 2 4 4 2 6 7 6 1 . 0 . , I ,360 446/5 5 - 4 - 3 2 2 6 2 - - 7 3 - - - Parthenos a/c 2 7 3 10 A . T . L . , 1 1 , 1 0 P r e s c r . 445/4 Text I . £ . . I 2 » 3 4 1 I . G . , 1 ,359 445/4 445/4 A . T . L . , I I , 1 1 P r e s c r . 444/3 I . G . , 1 ,342 I . G . , I 2 , 3 5 6 444/3 444/3 - 4 -2 4 1 2 1 3 4 3 7 2 - 10 7 5 8 4 6? 10 6 8 - - 7 2 7 6 6 7 8 - - - Tribute quota-4 3 - l i s t # 10 - - - Parthenon a/c 3 4 2-3 - Parthenos a/o 3 3 4 -4 -3 - 2 - 1 - 9 10 6 - -4 2 2 5 2 1 6 8 4 4 2 4 3 7 10 7 3 8 10 3 2 2 7 2 1 6 5 2 - 2 6 2 2 3 7 1 1 8 9 6 - 3 10 Tr ibute quota-l i s t # 11 Parthenon a/c 4 Parthenos a/o 4 77 I n s c r i p t i o n Date A B E z G A M N 0 n P 2 Y X 0 Subject A . T . L . , I I , 1 2 P r e s c r . 443/2 4 4 l i s t # 12 Text 3-4 2 4 1 4 4 l 5 l i 1 7 4 5 3 -10 2 5 5 6 6 2 P o s t s c r . 3 -I.G.,1 ,34 3 443/2 3 3 4 - 3 2 2 7 2 i 6 2 6 4 3-3 - Parthenon a/c 5 4 6? 9 5 7 8 A.T.L. ,11,13 P r e s c r . 442/1 — — 4 — 4 4 1? 7 2 •> 6 8 6 5 - Tr ibute quota-2 8 7 l i s t # 13 Text 3 3 4 1 4 4 1 7 2 i 6 8 5 5 2 -4 8 6 3 I . G . , I 2 , 3 4 4 442/1 — 4 — 3 4 — 7 2 i 5? 8 / 3 - 2 - Parthenon a/c 6 8 7 I.£.»I 2»358 442/1 4-5 3 4 - 3 4 2 7 1 i 8 5 5 4 2 - Parthenos a/o 6 2 2? 8 A.£.L. ,11,14 441/0 3 2 4 4 4 2 3 2 1 5 7 4 4 2 - Tribute quota-4 6 3 6 8 7 l i s t # 14 1.0. ,I 2,345 443/0 - - 4 3 - 2 - 2 - - - - 5 3 - Parthenon a/c 7 A.T.L.,11,15 P r e s c r . 440/39 3 4 3 4 2 1 1 8 6 4 4 2 - Tr ibute quota-4 7 o l i s t # 15 Text 3 3 4 — 4 4 3 7 2 1 8 O 7 6 4 3 — 4 8 8 7 5 1.0. ,I ,50 440/39 4 3 4 - 4 2 2 5 2 1 8 5 4 - 3 - Saaian decree 3 4 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 2 1.0. ,I ,293 440/39 4 - 4 4 « 2 7 2 3 6 8 7 4 3 - Saaian War a/es 8 5 - g 1.0. ,I ,346 440/39 3 - 4 1 2 3 2 6 2 1 6 5? 3 - 2 - Parthenon a/c 8 4 4 10 4 5 5 n I .£. , I 2 ,355 440/39 4 4 - 2 2 1 7 1 2 6-8 6 7 7 5 3 - Parthenos a/c 8 5 3 2 2 9 10 A . f . L . , 11,16 439/8 3 - 4 - 4 - 2 7 2 1 5 5 - - - - Tr ibute quota-4 8 l i s t # 16 I . G . , I 2 , 3 4 7 4 39/8 4 - 4 1 3 3 2 7 2 1 5 5 3? 5 3 - Parthenon a/o 9 5 4 6 7 7 . 9 10 78 I n s c r i p t i o n I . G . , 1 2 , 354 Date A B E Z 6 A M N 0 . I I P £ Y < I > X 0 Subject 439/8 4 3 3 - 4 - 2 4 3 7 2 3 7 7 7 - 3 - Parthenos a/o 9 9? A . T . I . , 1 1 , 1 7 P r e s c r . 436/7 Text I . G . , 1 ,348 43S/7 - - - - - - 3 - . . . - - - - Tribute quota-4 3 4 - 4 2 - - 2 - 6 - - - - - l i s t # 17 4 - 4 1 3 2 2 7 2 1 6 7 2 4 3 - Parthenon a/c 10 5 4 9 7 9 6 8 10 9 i . e . , 1 ,349 I .G. , I 2 ,363 437/6 4 3 4 2 3 4 2 7 2 1 6 5 2 ? - 3 - Parthenon a/c 11 9 7 6 437/6 4 - 4 - 3 1 2 7 1 1 5 8 2 5 2 - P r o p y l a i a a/c 1 5 4 2 8 3 A . T . L . ,11,19 I«_t«,I2,350 I . G . , I 2 , 3 6 4 436/5 436/5 436/5 3 - -4 4 3 4 4 3 4 5 - 4 2 - 7 1 8 7 -4 4 2 7 2 1 8 5 6 4 3? 10 10 7 3 4 2 7 2 - 6 6 7 -- - Tribute quota-l i s t # 19 - - Parthenon a/c 12 - - P r o p y l a i a a/o 2 A . T . L . , 1 1 , 2 0 P r e s c r . 435/4 Text I.G.,1 ,365 435/4 435/4 3 - 4 5 - 3 -4 3 4 1 4 2 2 7 1 3 6 7 4 2 3 2? 2 8 8 7 4 9 4 - - - 4 - 2? - 2 - - 5 9 - -4 2-3 4 - 3 4 2 7 2 2-3 5 6 2-7 - 3 6 10 Tribute quota-l i s t # 20 Parthenon a/o 13 P r o p y l a i a a/c 3 Text »232 I . G . , I 2 , 256 I . G . , I 2 , 276 I . G . , 1 ,352 I . G . , I 2 , 3 6 6 434/3 4 - 4 - 3 - 2 7 2 1 8 6 7 - 2 -7 4 3 4 - 2 4 2 7 1 1 6 7 6 2 2 -2 8 7 4 434/3 4 - 5 - 3 - 2 7 2 1 6 7 5 - 2 -5 2 8 7 3 434/3 4 - 4 - 2 2 2 7 2 1 8 7 7 2 -2? 434/3 4 - 4 - 4 2 3 7 2 1 8 7 7 4 2 -8 8 8 9 434/3 4 3 4 - 3 4 2 7 2 1 6 5 5 5 3 » 3 8 8 10 6 434/3 4 3 4 - 4 2 3 7 2 1 6 8 2 4 2 -3? 8 10 6 Tribute quota-l i s t # 21 Pronaos i n v . Hekatoap. i n v . Parthenon i n v . Parthenon a/c 14 P r o p y l a i a a/c 4 I 79 I n s c r i p t i o n Date A: B E z e A M N 0 n P 2 Y 0 X 0 Subject A.T.L.,11,22 P r e s c r . 433/2 3 4 - 3 2 mm 7 2 6 7 5 - - Tribute quota-3 8 8 l i s t # 22 Text 3 3 4 1 3 2 2 7 2 i 8 7 4 4 3 -4 3 9 6 17 I . O . , I 2 , 5 1 Preaable 433/2 3 _ 4 - 4 4 3 7 2 i 8 8 I 4 2-4 3 - Rhegion decree 4 5 8 Q 1 .0 . , I 2 ,52 Preaoble 433/2 3 3 4 4 4 2 7 7 1 i 8 8 4 4 3 - Leont inoi decree A • 4 3 8 I .£ . . I 2 .233 433/2 3 - 5 - 3 - 9 2 i 8 9 7 - 3 - Pronaos i n v . I . G . , 1 ,257 433/2 4 3 4 - 2 4 3 7 O 2 i 8 7 7 5 2 - Hekatoap. i n v . I . G . , I 2 , 2 7 7 433/2 3 _ 4 - 4 2 _ 0 8 2 i 8 7 4 4 2 - Parthenon i n v . 2 4 5 9 7 6? I . G . , 1 ,255 433/2 4 3 5 - 4 2 2 7 2 i 6 7 7 5 3 - Kerkyra War a/cs 2 9 8 I . G . , 1 .353 433/2 4 3 4 - 4 4 2 7 2 i 6 7 6 4 3 - Parthenon a/c 15 2 8 8 5 I . G . , 1 ,366 433/2 4 3 4 - 3 4 2 7 2 i 8 7 6 4 3 - P r o p y l a i a a/c 5 5 9 8 7 A .T.L.,11,23 P r e s c r . 432/1 3 . 4 mm 4 2 2 1 «•» 6 7 3 - Tribute quota-4 2 8 l i s t # 23 Text 3 2? 4 - 3 2 2 7 1 i 6 7 2? 4 3 -2 4 3 4 2 8 4 1 .0 . , I ,234 432/1 4 - 4 - 3 - 3 7 1 9 i 8 7 7 5 3 - Pronaos I n v . I . G . , I 2 , 2 5 8 432/1 3 4 2 3 7 2 i 8 6? 5? 4 3 «= Hekatoap. i n v . ~ 2 4 8 8 7 I . G . , 1 ,278 432/1 4 - 4 - 4 4 3 8 2 i 6 7 7 - 3 - Parthenon i n v . I . G . , I 2 , 296 432/1 3 4 4 4 3 2? 2 i 8 8 7 6 4 _ - M i l i t a r y a/cs 8 7 I . G . , 1 ,367 432/1 4 - 3 - 3 5 2 7 2 i 5 7-10 3-7 - 2 - P r o p y l a i a a/c 6 2 5 6 9 I . G . , 1 ,945 432/1 4 - 4 - 3 4 1 7 2 2 8 7 7 4 3 - P o t e i d a i a epigram 9 5 I . G . , I 2 ,235 431/0 4 4 3 4 3 7 2 1 8 7 6 4 2 - Pronaos i n v . 5 1 8 7 2 1 . 0 . , I ,259 431/0 3 - 4 - 4 4 3 7 2 1 8 7 6 4? 2 - Hekatoap. i n v . 4 8? 8 7 5 I . G . , 1 ,279 431/0 3 - 4 - 4 4 3 7 2 1 8 7 5 4 2 - Parthenon i n v . 8 8 6 80 I n s c r i p t i o n Date A B E Z 9 A M N 0 n p £ Y CD X 0 Subject A . T . L . , 1 1 , 2 5 430/29 3 3 4 - 3 2 2 7 2 2 8 7 7 4 3 . - Tribute quota-2 4 3 8 l i s t # 25 i I . G . , 1 ,236 430/29 4 - 4 - 3 4 3 7 2 1 8 9 7 4 2 - Pronaos i n v . 5 4 9 2 I . G . , 1 ,260 430/29 4 c - 3? 4 3 - 2 2 1 8 8 - - - - Hekatoap. i n v . I .O.»I 2 »378 430/29 j 4 - 4 - 3 4 2 7 2 A . T . L . , 1 1 , 2 6 429/8 3 4 3 4 4 7 2 1 6 7 7 4 2 - Tribute quota-_ 4 5 H o t # 26 I ,237 429/8 4 - 3 - 3 2 2 7 1 1 8 5 6 4 3 - Pronaos i n v . 4 4 2 2 9 8 0 7 I . G . , I 2 , 2 6 l 429/8 4-5 4 _ 2 4 2 7 2 - » 8 6 6 4 2 - Hekatomp. i n v . 8 7 I . G . , 1 ,310 429/8 4-5 3 4 1 3 4 l r 2 7 2 2 8 8 6 4 3 - Other Gods a/os 9? 10 A . T . L . ,11,27 428/7 4 3 4 3 4 4 2 4 2 1 8 7 7 4 2 - Tribute quota-8 3 2 8 3 l i s * # 27 I . G . , 1 ,238 428/7 4 3 3 - 3 4 2 7 1 1 8 7 6 4 2 - Pronaos i n v . 2 4 2 9 7 5 , I . G . , 1 ,262 428/7 3 - 4 - 3 2 W 7 1 2 8 7 - 4? 2 - Hekatoep. i n v . 5 5 2 5 8 I . G . , 1 ,60 427/6 4 3 4 - 3 4 2 7 2 1 8 7 3? 5 3 - Lesbos deoree 8 7 2 I . G . , 1 ,239 427/6 4 - 3 - 3 4 2 7 2 1 9 9 7 6 3 - Pronaos i n v . 2 5 4 3 I . G . , 1 ,263 427/6 4 - 4 - 3 - - 8 3 2 8 10 - 4 3 - Hekatomp.' i n v . 2 5 9 I . G . , 1 ,297 427/6 3 4 - 4 7 8 2 8 7 6 - - M i l i t a r y a/cs I . G . , I 2 , 2 4 0 426/5 4-5 4 - 3 2 3 7 1 1 8 8 7 5 3 - Pronaos i n v . 4 lor 2 9 10 2 I . G . , 1 ,368 426/5 4 - 4 - 3 2 2 7 2 1 8-9 7 7 - 2-3 - V i c t o r i e s a/c 4-5 10 A . T . L . ,11, A 9 425/4 3 3 4 1 4 2 2 7 1 1 6 7 7 4 3 - Tr ibute assess-4 4? 2 8 8 ment # 9 2 9? ; 1.0. , i ,241 425/4 4 - 4 - 3 2 2 7 2 1 8 7 7 4-5 3 - Pronaos i n v . 4 9? 2 81 I n s c r i p t i o n Date A B E Z e A M N 0 n P Y 0 X 0 Subject I . G . , 1 2 , 5 7 424/3 4 3 4 1 4 2 2 9 2 i 8 9 7 4 3 - Kethone decree 3 8 I . G . , 1 2 , 8 7 424/3 3 3 4 - 4 4 1 ' ;7 2 i 8 9 7 4 3 - E a l i e i s decree 4 5 9 3 9 I . G . , 1 ,242 424/3 4 - 4 - 3 4 4 7 2 1 8 7 5? 4 3 - Pronaos i n v . 9 7 I . G . , 1 2 , 2 4 3 423/2 3? 3 4 4 4 4 7 2 2 6 7 7 4 3 mm Pronaos 1ST. 4 3 8 I . G . , I 2 , 3 2 4 423/2 4 5 3 4-5 - 4 4 2 7 2 1 6 7 7 4 3 - L o g i s t a i a/cs 3 8 9 3 8 | 4 J I 2 264 422/1 J 4 4 3 2 2 7 2 2 8 7 „ Hekatoap. i n v . I . G . , 1 ,280 422/1 4 * 3 4 - 4 5 2 7 2 1 6 8 7-8 4 2 - Parthenon i n v . 4 2 8 9 A . T . L . , 1 1 , 3 4 421/0 4 3 4 3 4 4 7 3 1 6 7 7 4 2 Tribute quota-8 8 l i s t # 34 A . T . I . . , I I , A 10 421/0 4 3 4 - 2 4 4 7 2 1 8 7 7 4 - - Tribute assess-8 nent # 10 I . G . , I 2 , 8 2 421/0 . 4 3 4 - 4 2-4 1 7 2 1 6 7 7 5 2 am Proxeny # 33 2 9? 3 8 8? I . G . , I 2 , 8 4 421/0 4 3 4 3 4 2 2 7 2 1 9 8 7 3 5 3 _ Hephaist ion 3 9 3 7 2 I . G . , 1 ,265 421/0 4 - 4 - 3 5 4 7 2 1 8 7 7 4 3 - Hekatoap. i n v . 3 2 I . G . , I 2 , 2 8 1 421/0 4 ** 4 3 4 3 7 1 2 1 8-97-8 7 3 mm Parthenon i n v . I . G . , 1 2 , 8 6 420/19 3 3 4 4 2 2 7 3 2 8 7 7 3 mm Argive t r e a t y 4 9 2 I . G . , 1 ,266 420/19 4 - 4 - 3 5 2 7 2 2 8 7 5? 4 3 - Hekatoap. i n v . 4 3 7 5 I . G . , I 2 , 2 8 2 420/19 4 - 4 - 3 4 2 7 2 i-e 8 7 5 4 3 - Parthenon i n v . 5 10 7 5 I . G . , I 2 , 3 7 9 420/19 4 - 4 - 3 4 2 7 2 2 8 7 7 5 3 — Vasa p o a p i l i a a/cs I . G . , 1 2 267 419/8 4 4 3 5 4 7 2 2 8 7 7 5 3 Hekatomp. inv . . I . G . , 1 ,283 419/8 4 - 4 1 3 2 2 7 2 1 8 7 7 4 3 - Parthenon i n v , -4 3 9 5 2 I . G . , 1 ,311 419/8 3 3 5 1 4 2 2 7 1 1 8 7 7 2 3 - Eleuais a/cs 4 4 8 2 4 8 2 I n s c r i p t i o n A.T.L. ,11,33 Jnow 37) I . G . , 1 ,94 2 I . G . , 1 ,244 I . G . , I 2 , 2 6 8 I . G . , 1 2 , 3 0 2 I . G . , 1 2 , 9 6 I . G . , I 2 , 2 4 5 I . G . , I 2 , 2 6 9 I . G . , I 2 , 3 0 2 Date A B E Z e A M N 0 n P 2 Y 0> X 0 Subject 418/7 -f4 - 4 4 - 8 3 8 7 7 4-5 - Tribute quota-l i a t # 37 418/7 4 3 4 1 4 4 3 7 1 i 6 7 7 5 3 - H o l e i o n decree 9 2 8 9 3 418/7 4 3 4 4 4 2? 4 2 2 8 7 8 - - Hyperboloa' amend-5 3 5 8 ment 7 418/7 4 - 4 - 3 4 2 7 1 1 8 7 7 4 3 - Pronaos i n v . 2 2 9 8 418/7 4 - 4 - 3 - 1 7 2 1 8 7 5 - 3 - Hekatonp. i n v . 5 2 9 7 418/7 3 3 4 1 4 4 1 7 2 - 6 7 7 4 3 =• Athena a/cs 4 5 2 ? 8 9 417/6 3 3 4 3 1 2 7 2 4 8 8 7 4 3 - Argive t r e a t y 4 2 3 8 9 9 5? 4 5 9 417/6 4 3 4 - 3 2 3 7 1 2 8 7 7 4 3 - Pronaos inv. 1 5 2 8 10 417/6 4 - 4 - 3 2 2 7 2 1 8 7 7 - 3 - Hekatonp. i n v . 4 8? 417/6 3 3 4 1 4 4 2 7 2 - 6 7 7 4 3 - Athena a/cs 4 9 8 I .£ .»I 2 .98/9 I . G . , 1 2 , 2 4 6 i .a . , i 2 270 , I ,370 416/5 3 4 3 4 1 4 2 2 4 7 9 2 3 3 8 7 7 5 3 - S i c i l i a n War a/es 416/5 4 - 4 - 3 2 2 7 9 2 2 8 9 7 10 7 4 $ 3 - Pronaos i n v . 416/5 4 - 4 - 3 - - 7 2 1 8 7 7 4 3 - HekatompV, i n v . 416/5 4 5 3 4 - 3 5 2 7 2 1 8 7 7 5 2-3 - Athena and Hephaiatos a/cs S . E . 0 . , X , 1 1 1 415/4 ; i . G . , I 2 , 2 4 7 415/4 I . G . , 1 2 , 2 7 1 415/4 I . G . , 1 2 , 3 0 2 415/4 4 3 4 - 3 - 2 7 1 1 8 7 4 3 2 2 Proxeny # 54 4 - 4 - 3 2 2 7 2 - 8 7 7 4 3 - Pronaos i n v . 8 9 4 - - - 3 - 1 7 2 = 8 7 - - 3 - Hekatomp. i n v . 2 3 3 4 2 4 4 1 7 2 1 6 7 7 4 3 - Athena a/cs 4 2 9 8 5 9 83 I n s c r i p t i o n Date A B E Z e A M N O n P £ Y c p X Q Subject I . G . , 1 2 , 2 4 8 414/3 4 - 4 - 3 5 2 7 2 1 8 7 7 5 3 - Pronaos i n v . 2 9 I . G . , 1 ,286 414/3 4 - 4 - 3 2 2 7 1 1 8 7 7 5 3 - Parthenon i n v . 5 4 8 2 8 I . G . , 1 ,24 9 413/2 4 - 4 - 3 2 2 7 2 1 8? 7 7 5 3 - Pronaos inv., 2? 9 10 I . G . , 1 ,287 413/2 4 - 4 - 3 4 1-2 7 2 1 8 8 ( 5 4 - 5 3 - Parthenon i n v . 2 9 7 I . G . , I 2 , 1 0 3 I . G . , I 2 , 2 5 0 I . G . , I 2 , 2 5 1 I . G . , 1 ,288 412/1 3 3 4 - 4 - 2 7 1 1 8 8 7 4 3 4 Prorany # 55 4 8 9 2 412/1 4 - 4 - 3 2 1-2 7 2 1 8 7 7 5 3 - Pronaos i n v . 9 10 8? 412/1 5 - 5 - 3 - 3 7 3 - 8 9 _ _ 3 - Pronaos i n v . 412/1 4 - 4 - 3 2 1 2 7 2 1 8 8 7 4-5 3 - Parthenon i n v . I . G . , I 2 , 2 9 8 411/0 4 - 4 - 4 4 2 8 2 1 8 7 6 ~ - - M i l i t a r y a/es 5 9 8 A . T . L . , I I , A 13 410/09 4 - 5 - 3 - 3 9 2 - 8 9 8 5 - - Tribute assess-ment # 13 2 I . G . , 1 ,108 T o p ] I , I I 410/09 4 3 4 - 4 4 2 7 1 4 8 7 7 4 3 - Heapolis decrees 5 5 9 2 9 8 Bottom I I I 3 3 4 - 4 4 2 7 2 1 8 7 7 5 3 -4 5 3 8 8 2 I . G . , 1 ,109 410/09 4 3 5 - 3 3 3 7? 1 1 9 9 7 5 2 - Sacred funds 4 9 2 2 I . G . , 1 ,110 410/09 4 3 4 1 4 4 2 7 2 4 8 7 8 5 3 - Phrynichos ' assassins 2 5 9 8 I . G , , 1 ,110a 410/09 3 3 4 = 4 - 2 7 1 1 8 T 7 - 2 Honours f o r the 4 9 2 Hal ikarnas s ians 2 1 . 0 . , I ,112 410/09 4 - 4 - 4 - 2 7 Q 2 1 8 7 7 - 3 - Peoree I . G . , I 2 , 1 1 4 410/09 4 3 4 — 4 2 2 o 7 2 1 8 7 7 4 3 — C o n s t i t u t i o n 4 4 4 I . Q . , I 2 , 1 1 5 409/8 4 3 4 1 4 4 2 7 2 1 8 8 8 4 2 — Drakon's code 2 5 2 9 9 5 1 . 0 . , I ,372/3 409/8 4 3 4 - 3 3 2 9 2 2 8 7 7 -. 3 — Ereohtheion a/cs 4 4 3 9 10 8 84 I n s c r i p t i o n Sate A B £ z G. A M N 0 n P z Y 0 X 0 Subject I .G . , 1 2 , 1 16 408/7 4 3 4 - 4 3 l 5 1 i 8 8 7 4 3 4 Proxeny # 6 1 2 7 2 10 I . G . , 1 ,118 408/7 4 3 4 - 3 - 3 7 2 i 8 7 7 4 2 - Proxeny # 6 2 4? 8 I . G . , 1 ,120 408/7 - 4 - 3 - 7 1 - - - 7 - 3 - Decree I . G . , I 2 , 2 5 4 408/7 4 om 4 - 3 4 1 7 2 i 8 8 7 4 3 - Pronaos i n v . 2 9 9 8 I . G . , 1 ,374 408/7 4 3 4 1 4 2 2 7 1 i 8 7 7 4 3 - Erochthoion a/< 4 9 2 4 9 5 I . G . , I 2 , 1 2 3 407/6 4 4 2 3 7 mm 8 8 «•> Decree 2 5 9 9 9 I . G . , 1 ,255 407/6 3 - 4 - 3 4 1 7 2 1 8 8 7 4-5 3 - Pronaos inv." 4 2 9 — - 2 I . G . , 1 ,275 407/6 4 - 4 - 3 4 - 7 2 1 8 7 7-6 5 3 - HekatoBPo1 i n v . 5 8 2 I . G . , 1 ,304a 407/6 4 3 4 - 4 4 2 7 2 1 8 8 7 •5 3 - Athena a/cs 3 9 2 9? 9 8? I . G . , I 2 , 3 0 4 b 407/6 4 3 4 4 3 2 7 2 4 8 7 7 7 3 _ Athena a/os 5 4 6 9 8 I . G . , 1 2 , 1 2 4 406/5 4 4 4 CM „ 7 2 \ > 8 8 7 3 1 Decree 2 9 9 I . G . , 1 ,255 406/5 4 4 - 3 3 1 7 2 1 8 6 7 5 3 - Pronaos i n v . 5 4 7 8 2 I . G . , 1 ,305 406/5 3 3 4 1 4 2 2 7 1 mm 8 7 7 4 3 - Athena a/cs 4 5 9 I . G . , I 2 , 1 2 5 405/4 3 3 4 mm 4 2 7 2 1 8 7 7 4 3 3 Proxeny # 66 4 5 9 9 Mote; the e n t r i e s under theta designate the shapes of both tbeta and omicron; the e n t r i e s under onicron designate the s ines of both omicron and t h e t a . Hyphenated nuabers i n d i c a t e t r a n s i t i o n a l shapes. *5 TABLE FOUR CHART DEPICTING THE APPEARANCE OR DISAPPEARANCE OF KEY SHAPES Not before Not a f t e r Exceptions Remarks 450 B . C . - A 1,2 A A 449 B.C. - B 1 449 B .C. ? - z 3 Y <X> 1 1 e< 445 B.C. A 5 A - 446 B.C. B 3 B - 451 B.C. ? 446 B . C . ? - Z 3 I 427 B .C. 420 B.C. M 1 / A - 447 B .C. - N 1 A/ Never found alone - N 2 A/ 449 B.C. 429 B .C. l o t alone a f t e r 447 B.C. - N 3 / V 440 B.C. Not alone a f t e r 450 B.C. N 6 K - Found alone only i n 439 B . C . N 8 N - 460 B.C. Alone only a f t e r 431 B .C. N 9 N - 460 B.C. e o 3 ( s i z e ) - Not alone before 421 B .C. am P £ 3,4 1,4 r p 5 r £ 5 i - 447 B .C. £ 7 - 452 B.C. Z 8 - 460 B.C. z z 9 10 5 0 3 CD 414 B.C. * Exceptions include doubt fu l readings or the appearance of a c e r t a i n le t ter-shape a t a time when the great major i ty of v a r i a n t s of t h i s l e t t e r are of another type . The term "not alone" i n d i c a t e s the presence of other v a r i a n t s w i t h i n the same i n s c r i p t i o n . 36 Rot before Hot a f t e r Exceptions fienarka 440 B . C . - B 2 n 2 P -n 4 P - Hot alone before 416 B.C, - P 1 P - P Z 2 2 P Never found alone Z 6 i -435 B . C . E 5 £ - Except once i n 433/2 B.C, z alone only a f t e r 418 B.C, - 2 415 B.C. - N 5 Al 417 B.C. 408 B . C . - N 6 - N 10 N 425 B.C. ? 408 B.C. Alone only i n 452 B.C. - P 7 P 430 B.C. - 00 2 ( d r i l l e d ) 428 B.C. 420 B.C. - P 5 - Z 5 < 428 B.C. - Y 2,3 V Y 420 B.C. - Y 4 Y 414 B.C. - Y 5 Y 419 B.C. 417 B .C. $ 6 - 432 B .C. ? <£> 8 -425 B . C . - E 3 E Not alone a f t e r 431 B.C. A 5 u - 447 B.C. 431 B .C. 428 B.C. M 4 M Z 6 i 428 B.C. 405 B.C. 415 B .C. O 2,4 /V f\ 410 B.C. 0> 7 Q 1,3 4> 87 CHAPTER THREE THE EVIDENCE AND ITS MEANING There i s no exact modern equivalent to the ancient proxenos: the concept of permanent o f f i c i a l representation abroad was not known i n the Greek c i t y - s t a t e s , but proxenoi gradually assumed some of the functions that today would be performed by embassies, consulates or trade-missions. The exclusiveness of Greek c i t y - l i f e appears to have given r i s e to most of the functions of the proxenoi. There was at f i r s t no code of i n t e r n a t i o n a l law or custom; i n very few cases (such as double-citizenship) did a c i t i z e n of one state have vested r i g h t s i n any other state; i n t e r -course between c i t i e s was carried on by individuals f o r reasons of friendship, r e l i g i o n or trade, or by o f f i c i a l delegations. Because each state reserved to i t s own c i t i z e n s the p r i v i l e g e and protection of i t s laws, i t s courts and i t s gods, foreigners were forced to make use of c i t i z e n s of the host-city to plead t h e i r causes before the courts or the Assembly, to sponsor them at r e l i g i o u s observances, to witness documents, or to act as commercial agents. I t i s not clear at what point these duties owed by an i n d i v i d u a l to some c i t i z e n s of a s p e c i f i c state became duties owed to a l l the c i t i z e n s of that state; however, when 88 c e r t a i n c i t i e s developed as trade emporia, others as r e l i g i o u s centres, the flow of v i s i t o r s became so large and so regular that individuals i n these c i t i e s began to be known for t h e i r preference f o r c i t i z e n s of s p e c i f i c states; what had begun as private t i e s of h o s p i t a l i t y evolved into public t i e s . F i n a l l y these were regularized i n the grant of proxenia by the c l i e n t - c i t y . . While the o f f i c e originated as an instrument or as the r e s u l t of trade or r e l i g i o u s intercourse, the proxenoi almost as soon must have been employed to introduce o f f i c i a l delegations to the governing bodies of t h e i r own c i t i e s . Their success to a large extent depended upon t h e i r i n f l u -ence, so that naturally the most prominent individuals would be chosen as proxenoi; wealth and prestige were no hindrance to the performance of t h e i r other duties. The standing of the i n d i v i d u a l was enhanced by his selection, and he probably derived f i n a n c i a l benefit from the commercial side of his duties as proxenos; thus, there was considerable incentive f o r wealthy men to put themselves forward as candidates for the proxenia, p a r t i c u l a r l y that of important states such as Athens. In return f o r t h e i r services the proxenoi might also receive benefits within the c l i e n t - c i t y ; the basic p r i v i l e g e s could be granted to especially deserving i n d i v i d u a l s . The more • 89 important the c l i e n t - s t a t e the fewer the p r i v i l e g e s i t needed to o f f e r i n order to a t t r a c t would-be proxenoi, and the more p r i v i l e g e s i t had at i t s disposal as rewards f o r continuing or special service. Thus, i n A t t i c proxenies one can detect three stages* euergesia and canvass on the part of the candidate; formal award of the t i t l e proxenos (and usually euergetes); f i n a l l y , the grant of p r i v i l e g e s over and above those usually awarded, or at a l a t e r date as an addition to an e a r l i e r grant. I t i s possible that the erection of a stone stele on the Akro-p o l i s bearing a record of the decree that granted the proxeny and i t s p r i v i l e g e s was i t s e l f one of these extra p r i v i l e g e s ; t h i s might explain the d i s p a r i t y between the number of known A t t i c proxeny-decrees i n the f i f t h century and the number of Athens' a l l i e s i n the Confederacy of Delos and the l a t e r Empirei one might expect that Athens would have appointed a proxenos to serve her interests i n each of the a l l i e d states as a matter of basic p o l i c y . 1 1 . We possess some sixty-nine proxeny-decrees and know of nine more from l i t e r a r y sources; at i t s height the Empire had perhaps as many as three hundred and f i f t y members: the re g i s t e r of A.T.L. l i s t s three hundred and forty-three states; i n a good year ca one hundred and sixty paid t r i b u t e (see A.T.L., I, pp. 215-460) . 90 The o f f i c e of proxenos was an ancient one, found throughout the Greek world. The etymological d e r i v a t i o n of the word Is obscure: i t seems to be associated from the beginning with the concept of the 7tpoaTcn"nc; , "one who stands 2 before or protects", the p r e f i x 7 t p o - seeming to indicate that the proxenos stood i n place of as well as on behalf of his c l i e n t the c;evoc; , Some sources date the o f f i c e back to the period of the Trojan War,^ but the e a r l i e s t records on stone or bronze -belong to the l a t e seventh or early sixth centuries 4 B.C. The e a r l i e s t Athenian proxenoi known date to the? time of 2. The e a r l i e s t l i t e r a r y references derive from the f i f t h century B.C., when, i t i s clear, the meaning of the word was well-established; etymological references are very late* see L.-S.-J;., 9 (1940), pp. 1491-1492, s.v. 7tpo.;evo<; . Monceaux, a r t i c l e on Proxenia i n Daremberg-Saglio, Dlctionnalre des  Antlqultes Grecques et Romalnes, IV.1 (1907) , pp. 732-740* 3. Livy, I, 1 (the Trojan Ant enor); Eustathios, ad Illadem, I I I , 204; IV, 377. 4 . I.G;., IX, 1, 868 (dated by J e f f e r y , Local S c r i p t s . pp„ 232 and 234, # 9 , to ca 625-600 B.C.?) i s a Kerkyrean record of proxenoi as witnesses to w i l l s . An i n s c r i p t i o n from Olympia records a proxenos of E l i s (S.E.G., XI, 1180a) and i s dated by J e f f e r y (ibp.cit. , pp. 190 and 199. #15) t to ca 600-550 B.C.? 91 the Persian Wars^ but the f i r s t records on stone at Athens can be placed no e a r l i e r than the middle of the f i f t h 6 century B.C. At Athens i n the f i f t h century the t i t l e of euergetes 7 i s seldom found without the proxenla; throughout the period of Athens' independence and well into H e l l e n i s t i c times the two t i t l e s are usually applied to the same honorand, implying that the proxeny was not awarded unless i t had been earned by 5. Alexandros of Makedonia (Herodotos, VIII, 136; 140-143); Arthmios of Z e l e i a (Aischines, Kteslphon, 258 ) ; the poet Pindar of Thebes (Isokrates, Antldosls, 166) . 6. The e a r l i e s t i s probably #1, the grave-stele of Pythagoras of Salybria, who died at Athens and was buried i n the Kerameikos at public expense. Other proxenies that probably date before 445 B..C. are ##2, 3, 4, 5. 6, 7 and 8. 2 7. I.G., I , 110 bestows the t i t l e of euergetes on s i x persons involved i n the murder of the oligarch Phrynichos i n 411/0 2 B.C. I.G., II , 174 i s apparently a bestowal of euergesia without the proxeny upon Epikerdes of Kyrene; his services are so outstanding that there i s cause to wonder why he did not receive the proxenia as well. The decree makes no mention of a previous grant of proxeny. 92 g euergesia. In the f i f t h century, where a clause r e l a t i n g to services performed by the candidate survives on stone, on-l y i n about h a l f the number of decrees i s the service 9 s p e c i f i e d . P r i v i l e g e s are, naturally, enumerated with care. The majority of proxeny decrees are mutilated; where complete examples survive they are quite short, lacking the f u l l roster of p r i v i l e g e s , and thus unsatisfactory as i l l u s t r a t i o n s . No complete decree i s e a r l i e r than the end of the Archidamisn 8. Alexandros of Makedonia was proxenos and euergetes (see above, note 5)» the l a t e s t example known to me of both t i t l e s combined i s I.G., I I 2 , 892 (188/7 B.C.). 9. General praise-clausess ##1, 4, 9(?)» 12(?), 13. 25(?), 27(?) , 47, 50. Service unspecified* ##2, 5, 21, 26, 28, 34, 35(?)» 38, 39, 46, 48, 54, 59, 6 l ( ? ) , 62, 63(?), 66. Service to an embassyt 30, 32(?), 3 3 ( ? ) « Service to the army or f l e e t 1 ##8, 22, 23, 31, 55, 60. Ship-buildings ##44, 65. Medical services (?)i #49. Service- and praise-clauses omitted or perisheds ##3» 6, 7,. 10. 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 24, 29, 36, 37, 40, 41, 42, 43, 45, 51. 52, 53. 56, 57, 58, 64, 67, 68, 69. 93 War.^ However, some idea of the normal order of p r i v i l e g e s can be gained from them and from the several decrees whose opening clauses survive. V i r t u a l l y a l l decrees i n which the opening clauses survive begin with the eulogys praise of the honorand (some-times replaced by the publication-clause) followed by enumeration of the services performed; or services followed by praise; the l a t t e r order seems to be a la t e feature."1"^ Very probably the same rule was followed i n those decrees whose opening clauses have perished. The other p r i v i l e g e s awarded to Athenian proxenoi i n the f i f t h century follow no p a r t i c u l a r order, except that generally the I n v i t a t i o n to the prytaneion for dinner, issued i f the proxenos i s l n Athens at the time of passage of the 10. Complete decrees are ##33» 62 and 66. #62 i s the best i l l u s t r a t i o n of the form that we possess. In ##l6 and 47 the decree i s v i r t u a l l y complete, but the r i d e r following i t i s incomplete. #21 has a lacuna i n the text, but i s otherwise complete. 11. Praise followed by services* ## 5, 8, 21, 25, 29, 31, 33, 39, 48, 59. 63. Publication-clause substituted for praise, followed by services-:* ##3, 16, 20, 36.. I n v i t a t i o n to prytaneion precedes praise and services t #26. Services followed by praise. ##34, 35, 47, 54, 55, 62, 65. 94 12 decree, i s set at the end. One very common clause i s that safeguarding the proxenos, 13 often his family also, from c i v i l wrong; i t i s usually coupled with an injun c t i o n to the o f f i c i a l s of the state to watch over the proxenos' in t e r e s t s , or with a clause enabling the proxenos to seek redress i n the Athenian 14 courts. Sometimes the s t a t e - o f f i c i a l s are given a separate injunction to watch over the interests of the proxenos, with-out any s p e c i f i c a t i o n of the area of concern. The proxenos i s treated, i n short, as i f he were an Athenian* the generals and other s t a t e - o f f i c i a l s are often Instructed to ensure that he be protected, with his family, from murder or other violence, and severe penalties are l a i d down against those who harm him, with compensation to be 12. ##3, 17. 19, 26, 40, 41, 42, 43(?) , 60, 6 l , 62, 64, 68, 69. In #26 t h i s clause precedes other clauses. 13. ##2, 5, 7, 10(?), 11, 12(7), 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20(?), ; 21, 22, 24, 26, 27, 30, 31, 32(7), 36, 37, 38(7),, 39, 42, 43, 44(7), 47, 50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57(?), 58, 59(7), 60, 62, 65(7), 67, 68. 1 14. ##2(7), 7, 14, 15, 47.. In #49 access to Athenian courts i s apparently granted as a separate p r i v i l e g e . 15. This appears- to be the case i n #22; i n #20 the generals and the Boule are to swear an oath, possibly to safeguard the honorand. 95 16 paid by the malefactors. This protection applies not only 17 i n Athens but throughout the Empire. A clause that i s frequently included i n these decrees i s one assuring the proxenos that i f he needs assistance from the state he w i l l be allowed to present h i s case to the governing bodies; no intermediary i s required, but the Boule and the prytaneis are Instructed to forward his requests and 18 sometimes are threatened with a fine i f they delay t h i s . Often a clause lays down that his business: w i l l take prece-dence over a l l other concerns, except the usual i n i t i a l 19 s a c r i f i c e s . These are the commonest p r i v i l e g e s awarded; sometimes others are enumerated, such as 16. ##5 , ; 7, 13, 18, 24, 30, 3 1 , 39, 47, 50, 67. In #7 the c i t y i n which the murder takes place i s also to be fined. 17. Of the l i s t i n note 16 above, only #39 apparently contains no reference to the Empire.. 18. ##2, 4(7), 10, 1 7 ( ? ) , 18, 2 1 , 22 , 24, 26, 30, 3 1 , 3 2 ( ? ) , 3 9 ( 7 ) , kk, 4 7 ( ? ) , 49 , 50, 5 K ? ) , 5 5 ( ? ) . 56. In #15 a penalty i s l a i d down i f no action i s taken to meet the proxenos' claims; In #28 the compulsory nature of t h i s service to the proxenos i s emphasized. 19. ## 2 ( ? ) , 18, 2 1 , 22, 26, 49. 96 20 a t e l e l a . Enktesis i s rare and i s not found before 425 21 22 B;C. x A s y l i a i s granted once i n the f i f t h century. Certain decrees contain p r i v i l e g e s of a highly spec i a l i z e d natures the r i g h t to s a i l and carry on trade i n 23 c e r t a i n areas under Athenian-blockade; J compensation for losses, or special payments; exemption from taxes on the 25 import of ship-building materials; the establishment of a spe c i a l commission...to discuss a case brought by the 26 proxenos; guarantees that lands or moneys w i l l be 27 i n v i o l a b l e . ' These are obviously the r e s u l t of special pleading, and not of the sort available to the general run of proxenoi.. There are also occasional grants of f u l l Athenian 20. General ateleiax ##14, 28, 4?, 5 5 U ) , 58(7), 68. Exemption from the metoikiont ##18, 39, 60. Exemption from m i l i t a r y service and garrison-duties: ##18, 2 1 . 3 9 -Ateleia"of the sort granted to proxenoi": #30. 21 . . ##30, 3 2 ( ? ) , 5 8 ( ? ) . 22. #56. 23. ##34, 35, 56. 24. # # 1 9 ( ? ) , 27(7), 28, 32(7), 46, 5 K ? ) , 57(7), 64(7). 25. #44. 26. #39(?) . . 27. ##19, 22(7). 97 28 c i t i z e n s h i p ; t h e i r r a r i t y i s not just an accident of preservation: c i t i z e n s h i p was the ultimate accolade and seldom awarded while Athens was at the height of her power. Only those states whose c i t i z e n s h i p was of l i t t l e or no value to outsiders were prodigal i n granting i t , at l e a s t during the period of independence from Makedonia or Rome. The proxenla and i t s attendant p r i v i l e g e s were sometimes granted to several members of one family or to several i n -29 d l v i d u a l s at once; whether a l l these persons performed 28. In I.Gi, I , 113» Evagoras of Salamis, king i n his own r i g h t and perhaps already an Athenian proxenos, i s granted f u l l c i t i z e n s h i p . In J_.G. , I , 160, the honorand i s apparently given c i t i z e n s h i p ; his previous status i s unknown. In I.G., 2 I , 110, Thrasyboulos of Kalydon i s granted c i t i z e n s h i p and other rights f o r his part i n the murder of the oligarch Phrynichos; no proxeny i s involved. Apollodoros of Megara may also have acquired c i t i z e n s h i p by an associated decree, now l o s t . Phanosthenes, the honorand of #44, i s probably the Andrian of that name who became a c i t i z e n and held the st r a t e g i a i n 407-/6 BVC. 29. ##3, 4, 5 , 7, 9, 10, 1 3 ( ? ) . 15, 16, 18, 20, 24(7), 25 , 26, 28, 29 , 31, 32(7), 36, 37(7), 43, 44(7), 45(7), 48, 50, 5 1 , 54, 55, 65. Multiple proxenies possibly involving members of one family are ##11, 12, 23, 39, 42(7), 64 and 68. Multiple proxenies not involving members of the same family are ##3, 8, 21, 60 and 6 l . 98 the same duties, or whether one of them was regarded as the senior proxenos, i s not made clear. Sometimes, too, the 30 proxenia i s hereditary, though whether the grant of a proxeny to a man and his sons f a l l s into t h i s category, or whether a s p e c i f i c grant "to his descendants" i s also necessary i s unclear. Publication was usually at the expense of the state; sometimes the method of disbursement i s Indicated, sometimes 31 not.^ In a few cases the proxenos i s expected to pay for 32 the stele; i f I am correct l n believing that publication 30. # # 1 , 3, 4 , 6 ( ? ) , 9, 13(?)» 16, 18, 20(7), 22 , 25, 26, 27, 28(7), 29 , 3 7 ( ? ) , 39, 44(7),. 50, 55, 6 l , 62, 65. ##l, 9 ( ? ) , 55, and 6 l are stated to have been inherited, 3 1 . # # 1 , 3, 5, 6(7), , 1 1 , 12(7), 14, 15, 1 7 ( ? ) , 1 9 ( ? ) , 20, 22 , 2 3 ( ? ) , 25, 26, 27, 28(7), 30, 33, 34, 35, 36, 39, 40, 41, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49, 50, 5 1 , 52 , 53, 56, 58, 5 9 ( * ) , 6 1 , 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69(7). In ##3, 22, 33, 41(7), 44 and 63 the method of payment i s sp e c i f i e d . 32. ##4, 10, 13, 16, 2 1 , 32(7), 38, 54, 68; i n #61 the c i t y of Selymbria pays for the s t e l e . 99 was i t s e l f regarded as an extra p r i v i l e g e , t h i s provision would indicate perhaps that the state did not think so highly of the proxenos* claims as he himself did. In some cases, too, p u b l i c a t i o n i s s p e c i f i c a l l y stated to be that of an already e x i s t i n g decree of proxeny to which new 33 p r i v i l e g e s are to be added. In c e r t a i n documents the f o r -mula "write up t h i s decree" i s used instead of "write up ... as proxenos", I do not know whether t h i s has any s i g n i f i c a n c e . In several examples a stele carries a decree and one or more r i d e r s ; on occasion, even, two decrees, with or without r i d e r s . J Since the same hand has engraved the whole st e l e , i t must be assumed that the riders at least are the work of orators i n the Assembly, adding to the p r i v i l e g e s already voted upon. Presumably they merely r e f l e c t fresh consideration of the honorand*s worth. 33. ##30, 6 1 , 6?;##30, 56 and 67 are republications of older decrees as parts of new ones. 34. ##22, 64, 35. ##4, 10, 13, 16, 17, 19, 2 1 , 22 , 28, 30, 32, 38, 42, 4 4 ( ? ) , 47, 49, 50, 56, 6 l , 62, 64. #13 contains two decrees, as does #28. #56 contains three decrees, each of a d i f f e r e n t date. 100 A few documents, engraved i n the early fourth century, are copies of fi f t h - c e n t u r y decrees: i n some cases the o r i g i n a l s are stated to have been erased by the Thir t y Tyrants i n 4 0 4 / 3 B.C.; the s t e l a i merely record the res t o r a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l p r o x e n i e s . O t h e r documents are fourth-century decrees that include f i f t h - c e n t u r y " 37 texts; yet others are fi f t h - c e n t u r y decrees inscribed throughout i n Ionic s c r i p t that appears to be of fourth-38 century character; the reasons f o r I n s c r i p t i o n or r e -i n s c r i p t i o n are not made clear i n the surviving texts. Publication of a proxeny-decree involved the erection of a marble stele upon the Akropolis; occasionally a sanls i s also s p e c i f i e d , to be set up i n the Bbuleuterion.39 The exact l o c a t i o n of these s t e l a i i s never sp e c i f i e d , but there i s some evidence to suggest that the s i t e of most, i f not a l l , f i f t h - c e n t u r y proxeny-stelai was i n the neighbourhood 36. See Appendix l b . 3 7 . See Appendix l a . 3 8 . # # 4 8 , 67, 68 , 69; the date of r e - i n s c r i p t l o n of #50 i s known from the decree i t s e l f ( 3 8 5 / 4 B.C.). 39 . # # 5 , 6 ( ? ) , 16, 20; #16 seems to be unique i n that i t i s apparently to be published i n the Bouleuterion only. 101 of the E r e c h t h e i o n ; ^ t h i s b u i l ding contained the shrine of Athena Pollas, who would naturally be concerned i n the dealings of Athens with other states. Elsewhere, the temple of the t u t e l a r y deity of the c i t y i s often s p e c i f i e d as the 41 place where proxeny-decrees are to be recorded. 4 0 . The sixty-nine documents included i n t h i s study comprise one hundred and fourteen fragments, of which the find-spots of eighty-two are known. Of these eleven are merely stated to have been found on the Akropolis. Of the r e s t , by far the largest number, t h i r t y - f o u r , seem to derive from the area of the Erechtheion, F i f t e e n were found i n or near i t ; s i x were extracted from the foundations of the temple of Roma and Augustus, i n which materials from the Erechtheion, discarded i n the course of repair-work i n Roman times, were. Included; from the same general area, east of the Parthenon, came one more fragment, while three were found between the Parthenon and the Erechtheion. Nine fragments were found i n the debris scattered over the north slope of the Akropolis, below the Erechtheion. The next largest concentration of fragments derives from the south slope of the Akropolis, twelve i n a l l , h a l f of these from the area of the Asklapleion and the theatres of Dionysos and Herodes At t i c u s . 41. For instance, Anaphia, Arcadian K l i t o r , Delphoi, Ephesos, Kos, Kalymnos, Paros, Rhodes, Thera and T r a l l e s . 102 PART TWO THE. DEGREES Introduction In t h i s part w i l l "be found editions of the sixty-nine Athenian proxeny-documents of the f i f t h century that have survived on stone, arranged i n chronological order according to t h e i r dates, i n so f a r as I can determine them. For the convenience of the reader I have compiled a chart (Table Six, pp. 104-110) i n which these documents are l i s t e d , to-gether with t h e i r numbers i n J_.G. or S.E.G. I have not included amongst these proxenies that.are known sol e l y from l i t e r a r y sources: these l a t t e r I have arranged i n a separate l i s t (Table Five, p. 103). A f t e r the edited texts w i l l be found two appendices: i n these are l i s t e d proxenies that were o r i g i n a l l y granted i n the f i f t h century, but were reinscribed or reinstated i n the fourth century; i n the second are those decrees, other than proxenies,that involve honours granted to in d i v i d u a l foreigners during the f i f t h century. 1 0 3 TABLE FIVE ATHENIAN PROXENIES OF,THE FIFTH CENTURY KNOWN SOLELY FROM LITERARY SOURCES Honorand(s) C i t i z e n s h i p Date Reference (a) Alexandres 1 Hakedonia ca 482/1-480/79 B .C . Herodotoa, V I I I , 136 2 A r t h a i o s Z e l e i a pa 481/0 B .C . A i s c h i n e a . ' Ktes iphon. 258 Pindar 3 Thebes ca 475 B .C. I s o k r a t e s . A n t i d o a i s . 16*6 Hermeailaos 4 Chios 441/0 B .C . Athenaios, X I I I , 603 enf Hyaphodoros Abdera 433/0 B .C . Thacydides, I I , 29. 1 6 H i l d a s Gortyna (Erete) ca 430 B .C . Thuoydides, I I , 85. 5*4 7 Dexandros Myti lene 428/7 B .C. A r i s t o t l e . P o l i t i c s . V . 1304 a . 9 8 A r i a s Hessapia 435/4 B .C . Poleaon, fragment 89} Snidaa, s . v . "ApTo^ 9 Thoukydidea Pharsalos 412/1 B . C . Thucydides, V I I I , 92";' 8 1. See pp.90-91 note 5. The son of Anyntor , he was sent by the Persians to urge the Athenians to s n b a i t a f t e r t h e i r c i t y had been b u r n t ; the Athenians warned h i s o f f t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s , since they d i d not wish to harm one who had helped then so much i n the p a s t . 2. See pp.90-91 note 5. The Persians sent him to the Peloponnese to a t t e a p t to buy o f f the Spartans; the Athenians declared h i a a t i a o s and outlawed h i o f r o a t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s and that of t h e i r a l l i e s . 3. See pp.90-91 note 5. He was honoured because he pra ised Athens i n one of h i s poems (fragment 76) and was g iven t e n thousand drachaai ; the reference to a proxeny i s doubt fu l and nay be a gloss on what Isokrates o r i g i n a l l y s a i d ; the g i f t o f money i s unusual ly l a r g e . 4 . A contemporary and f r i e n d of Sophokles; Athenaios reports an anecdote of Ion of Chios about the conduct of Hermeailaos and Sophokles Then the l a t t e r vas serving as a genera l i n 440 B.C. 5. The son of Pytheas and b r 0 t h e r - i n - l a w to S i t a l k s a of Thrake; the Athenians appointed h i a proxenos and used h i a to b r i n g about an a l l i a n c e w i t h the Thraeian k i n g . 6. N i k i a s was perhaps a r e l a t i v e of Polypoa, the honorand of # 66; see pp.618-619. 7. One of the Athenian proxenoi i n Myti lene a t the time of the r e v o l t of Lesbos (see Thucydides, I I I , 2. 3: the Athenians were forewarned of the r e v o l t by t h e i r p r o x e n o i ) . 8. Tyrant of Hessapia a t the t i n e of the e x p e d i t i o n to S i o i l y (see Thucydides, V I I , 39. 4 ) . % He was v i s i t i n g Athens dur ing the o l i g a r c h y of the Four Hundred; a f t e r the aurder of Phryniohos he prevented an outbreak of f i g h t i n g between the moderates and the extreme o l i g a r c h s . 104 TABLE SIX ATHENIAN PROXENY-DECREES OF THE FIFTH CENTURY ON STONE Decree # , 1 . 6 . or S . E . G . IHonorand(a) C i t i z e n s h i p Date by le t ter-shapes L i k e l y date I ,1034 Pythagoras S a l y b r i a oa 460-440 B . C . 460-440 B.C. 2 I ,33 [ — ] C — ] [ h i s sons J ca 460-445 B .C. 458/7 B.C. 2 I ,36 (X,33) M t h a l y k i d e s Thespia i Korragides Henestratos Athenaios t h e i r sons ca 460-440 B.C. 458/7 or 447/6 B.C. I ,23+30 (X ,20) Parian[os] [ jesa ? (Lesbos)] ca 460-445 B . C . h i s sons: Athenod[oros] Ikes ios 455/4 B.C. 1,27a A [ ] [ D e l ] p h o i [ h i s brothers] [ h i s f a t h e r ] oa 460-445 B . C . 455-450 B.C. I 2 , 2 7 b [ — J [—3 oa 460-445 B .C. 455-450 B.C. X ,28a A o h e l o l [ o n ] JBoiotia ? ] ca 460-445 B .C. h i s sons 455-450 B.C. l 2 . 3 1 ?heran[enes] £kypros ? ] ca 460-445 B.C. Lakedaiaon[ios] 449/8 B .C. 105 Honorand(s) C i t i z e n s h i p Date by let ter-shapes L i k e l y date The sons of Iphiades: Arogos Aayntor Alezoaenos t h e i r sons Abydos oa 445-435 B.C. 445 B.C. Chion[? ] h i s sons: A c h i l l e s P h i l i p p o s C ] ca 445-430 B.C. 440 B.C. [ — 3 [ — 3 [ — 3 s isthenes oa 445-430 B.C. 440 B.C. [ — 3 ca 445-430 B.C. 440 B.C. Leonides Halikarnassos ca 440-435 B.C. [ h i s sons ?] 440 B.C. E— 3 0 — 3 ca 440-430 B .C . 440-430 B.C. Ar is tonos h i s sons [Larisa] ca 440-425 B.C. 431/0 B.C. A[ny]tos h i s sons [ — 3 ca 440-425 B.C. 430 B . C . [ — 3 1 — 3 ca 435-*©D B.C. 430 B.C. [ — - 3 [ — 3 [ t h e i r sons] [ ] ca 435-425 B.C. 430 B . C . 106 107 Decree # I . G . or S . E . G . Bonorsnd(s) C i t i z e n s h i p Date by le t ter-shapes L i k e l y date 27 2 I ,28b [ ] [ ] [ h i s sons] ca 430-415 B.C. 430-415 B.C. 28 2 I ,70 Potanodoros h i s son: E u r y t i o n other Orchonenians: P y t h i l l e s P o [ ] [ 3 Ha[ ] Orchoaenos ca 430-415 B.C. 424/3 B .C. 29 I , M 5 Sotimos h i s sons H e r a k l e i a ca 430-410 B .C. 424/3 B .C. 30 I I 2 , 8 Herakleides [ Klasooenai ? ] r e i n s o r i b e d i n 399/8 B .C. 424/3 B .C . 31 2 I ,72 E [ — — ] [ I l l y r i a ] ca 435-410 B . C . [ G]rabos [ ] [ t h e i r sons ?J 425-420 B.C. 32 2 I ,83 P o l y s t r a t o s [ Phleious J [ h i s brother ? ] ca 430-415 B .C. 421/0 B.C. 33 I ,82 Asteas A l e i a ca 430-415 B . C . 421/0 B .C . 34 2 I ,93a Lykon Aohaia ca 430-410 B . C . 420 B.C. 35 2 I ,93b [ — — ] [ A c h a i a ?] ca 430-410 B . C . 420 B.C. 108 Deere* # I . G . or S . E . G . Hpnorand(s) C i t i z e n s h i p Date by le t ter-shapes L i k e l y date 36 I ,146 Hp: Proxenos h i s sons: C h a l f k i d e u s ] [ ] [ M i l e t o s ?] ca 4 30-405 B.C. 420 B.C. 37 I ,147 [. ] [ ] [ h i s sons ?] ca 430-415 B .C . 420 B.C. 38 I2,150 s [ o ] a i [ s t ] r [ a t o s f —— ] ea 430-410 B .C . 420 B .C. 39 I ,154 [ ] t ] [ t h e i r sons] [ ] ea 430-410 B .C. 420 B.C. 40 I ,157 [ ] [ ] ea 425-405 B . C . 420 B .C. 41 1,129 [ ] [ ] ca 425-405 B . C . 420 B .C . 42 Unpublished [ ] [ ] [ ?] ca 430-415 B.C. 420 B.C. 43 Unpublished [ — — ] [ h i s sons ? ] [ ] oa 420-405 B . C . 420 B.C. 44 I ,122+156 Ant iochides [Andros ] (X,79+131) Phanosthenes other persons oa 420-405 B .C. 420-415 or 408/7 B .C . 45 Unpublished [ ] H i k [ ] (] ' J OS Heokr[ ] [As]sos ? or ea 420-405 B.C. [Thys]soB ? 420-405 B.C. 1 0 9 Decree # I . G . o r S . E . G . ,Honorand(s) C i t i z e n s h i p Date by le t ter-shapes L i k e l y date 46 2 „ I I ,60 Xanthip [poa ] [ K a a e i ] r a ? oa 420-410 B.C. 416/5 B.C. 47 I ,144+155 (X,108) Proxenides Knidos oa 430-415 B.C. 416/5 B.C. 48 2 I I ,27 K a l l i p p o s h i s sons: Enkrat idas Hipp[ ] Gyrton (Thessaly) r e i n s c r i b e d oa 400 B . C . ? 416/5 B .C . 49 50 2 I ,152 2 I I ,32 aanaz Archonides Deaon t h e i r sons [Kos ? ] ca 425-405 B.C. [ S i c i l y ? ] r e i a s c r i b e d i n 385/4 B . C . 416/5-410/09 B.C. 416/5 B .C . 51 I2,359 Oorkis h i s wi fe [Helos ?] oa 420-405 B.C. 416/5 B.C. 52 XXI,57 [ -3 [ I o n i a ] ca 420-405 B.C. 415-405 B.C. 53 Unpublished [ — 3 [ ] oa 420-405 B.C. 415 B.C. 54 X . l l l A n d [ — — ] [Ephesos ?] ca 420-410 B.C. h i s sons 415/4 B.C. 55 2 I ,103 E u r y t i o n h i s f a t h e r : Potanodoros Orchonenos ca 420-400 B.C. 412/1 B . C . 56 I I 2 , 1 2 Pythophanes [ Phai]stos ? r e i n s c r i b e d i n 399/8 B . C . 411/0 B . C . 110 Decree # I . G . or j S . E . G . Honorand(s) Citizenship Date £roa letter-shapes Likely date 57 X,120 [——jkyses [ Asia Minor ? ] ca 420-405 B.C. [ ] 7 410 B.C. 58 XVI, 10 [ — ] [ ] late f i f t h century late f i f t h century 59 60 X.140 2 , I ,106 A r o h i [ — — - ] [ — — ] oa 430-405 B.C. 410 B.C. Polyklos Poraieus A |riBt]oboulos [ Hellespont ?"| oa 430-405 B.C. 409/8 B.C. 61 2 „ I ,116 Apollodoros Selynbria [—]o« |~] chos oa 415-405 B.C. 408/7 B.C. 62 2 I ,118 Oiniades his sons Palaiskiathos ca 415-405 B.C. 408/7 B.C. 63 64 2 I ,119 I2,67 (X,112) D [ ] ca 425-405 B.C. [T]ele«achos Oi (taia ?] oa 425-405 B.C. [ ] [——]BOS 408/7 or 407/6 B.C. 408/7 B.C. 65 66 67 68 2 I ,105 II ,73 [Ar]ch[e l a [ s ] Makedonia ca 425-405 B.C. I2,125 [p]olypos foortOyna ? ca 410-400 B.C. C ] [ ] I 2 , 1 0 6 a (- II2,48) [ r — - ] C ] [ ] ea 430-405 B.C. ea 420-400 B.C. 407/6 B.C. 405/4 B.C. 405/4 B.C. 404/3 B.C 69 II ,202 E p a i [ ] [ ] ea 410-400 B.C. 404/3 B.C. I l l #1. Grave-stele, ca 460-440 B.C. Public b u r i a l f or the proxenos Pythagoras of Salybria. PI. 1,1,2 BIBLIOGRAPHY. Koumanoudis, A.E.E..(1871), 115; Rayet, B u l l e t i n , 1(1871), p. 246; Curtius, Arch.Zeit. (1871), p. 29; Kaibel, Epigrammata (I878), p. 14 #36; Schubert, Proxenia (1881),p. 69'; Kbehler, Ath.Mitt. ,: X (I885), p. 366 #13; I.G., I, Supplement, p. 115 #491 1 2 (1886); Conze, Att.Grabreliefs (1890), 1440a; Collitz-Bechtel,, Sammlung, 111.2(1905), p. 770 #5781; Michel, Re cue 11". Supplement (1912), p. 174 #1758; Buck, C.P., ¥111 (1913), pp. 144-145; r..G_:. , I 2 , 1034 (1924); Oliver, Hesperia. II (1933), P. 487; VU936), PP. 225-226; Peek, Kerameikos, 111(1941), p. 28; S..E..G. , X (1949), 408; Lambrechts, Proxeniedecreten (1958), p. 152. PHOTOGRAPHS. Oliver (1936), p. 226; Lambrechts ( o p . c i t . ) , p i s . IV and V, Fragments a and b, stele of Pentelic marble set i n a marble base, standing on a three-stepped poros krepidoma i n the Kerameikos Cemetery outside the Dipylon Gate of Athens. The stele Is inscribed with the name of the 112 honorand; i t may o r i g i n a l l y have borne a painted design, of which there now remains no trace. The base i s inscribed i n smaller l e t t e r s with a metrical i n s c r i p t i o n of four l i n e s . The monument stands where i t xias found i n 18?1 i n excavation of the Kerameikos Cemetery. It was f i r s t published by Kbumanoudis ( l o c . c i t . ) . Fragment a. H. 1 .850m. W. 0 . 5 2 0 m . Th. 0 .250m. L e t t e r -height 0 . 0 3 2 m . Fragment b". H. 0 . 2 6 0 m . ¥ . . 0 . 8 8 0 m . Th. 0 . 8 8 0 m . Letter-height 0 . 0 l 6 m . Letter-shapes; A3 and 4, B2, E4, HI,© 2 , E2, M3 and 5 , K2 and 3 , 01,IT 1\ PI, 3 , 8 and 9 , £ 8 , Y.6 and 7, «4, X2, 05. Ionic s c r i p t . The forms of beta etnd rho suggest a date a f t e r 460 B.O.., but not l a t e r than 440 B.C. Sigma type 8 i s found r a r e l y before 446 B:C i n A t t i c i n s c r i p t i o n s , but i t s appearance here i n an Ionic document may not be a r e l i a b l e indicator of date. 113 ca 460-440 B..C. Stolch. nuOayopo wppI;eY*a? ape.*f(-s. t e : X d P i P 7tpo(Y).ovcov Tie n a t OCUTO ev6a6'A©T)vaTot nuOayopilV efteaav ulov Snu-oafat Atovutr tou, Imto&oroY 61: 5 rear pf6a SaXuppfav tHer 'axQ? cpetu.evo. COMMENTARY.. This i s the only surviving fifth-century example of the b u r i a l by the Athenians at public expense of a proxenos who had died i n Athens. Ionic s c r i p t i s employed perhaps because the proxenos came from an area where t h i s s c r i p t was i n general use. Salybria (Selymbria), on the Propontis, was a tributary of the Empire at least from 451/0 B..C. (A.T.L., I, pp. 400-401). There i s no x^ ay of t e l l i n g when the proxeny granted to Pythagoras and his ancestors was Instituted.. Line 2. The mason inscribed p i instead of gamma here,. 114 #2. Proxeny? ca 460-445 B.C. Honours for an unknown man and perhaps h i s sons. PI.1,3 BIBLIOGRAPHY. I.G., I, Supplement, p . 8 #22f (18?7): I.G., I 2 , 33 (1924). PHOTOGRAPHS. None so f a r published. EM 6803, fragment of s l i g h t l y micaceous Pentelic marble. It s provenance i s unknownj i t was f i r s t published by Kirchhoff from a t r a n s c r i p t of U. Koehler as I.G., I, Supplement, p. 8 #22f i n I877. I t i s broken on a l l sides, but the back, which Is smooth-dressed, may be o r i g i n a l . S t e l a i whose backs are smooth-dressed are rare; i f the back i s o r i g i n a l i t i s possible that the st e l e was oplstho-graphic, though there i s no trace of any l e t t e r s on the surviving part of the back. H.max, 0.157m. W.max. 0.094m. Th. 0.059m. Letter-height 0.008m.-0.009m. Chequer 0.0118m.x 0.0127m. Letter-shapes. A4, E4, 0)3 and 4 , K2, A4, M4, N7, 02, P5, 2j4, Y7. A t t i c s c r i p t ; i t i s not c e r t a i n whether or not the dasela was used. Sigma type 4 i s not found i n dated i n -sc r i p t i o n s a f t e r 445 B.C. Mu type 4 i s not found i n secure-l y dated i n s c r i p t i o n s before 428 B.C., but a mu of t h i s 1 1 5 o type i s found i n I.G., I , 18 which i s by the same hand as the present document and which should probably be dated ca 458/7 B.C. In f a c t , i t i s possible, on a super-f i c i a l examination of the stones, to make a case f o r putting 2 #2 i n the same stele as I.G., I , 18, but there are s l i g h t differences i n the shapes and sizes of certain l e t t e r s (notably sigma), and the horizontal chequer i s considerably 2 2 greater on I.G., I , 18 than on #2. Parts of I.G., I , 338 (dated between 465 and 455 B.C.) are also by the same hand. ca 460-455 B.C. Stoich. 10 ] t [ ] 0 l M a * [. a& t J K e r a i [ T ] o v 6ep , o [ v -]7T0Aiq T [ - / r p j o r o i q [ j 0 l £ v [ ] H u p [ ] 6 e o [ v r a i __________ ] o a [ — -_ ] e o [ - — — ] o [ — -116 COMMENTARY. Not very much can be made of t h i s document; i t i s clear from l i n e s 5 and"8 that more than one person are involved, perhaps a father and his sons» therefore the singular [aoijuerai i n l i n e 3 must r e f e r to one of several i n d i v i d u a l s ; the formula [^OTro^av a S i j K e r a t [l_e6e? aurov /jucp'fte^v.os ] Is one possible reading. H i l l e r (I.G., I 2 , 33) restored l i n e s 4-8 with a f i f t y - s e v e n l e t -t e r l i n e , but h i s p a r a l l e l s are drawn from l a t e r documents (for l i n e 4, I.G., I I 2 , 385.17, dated to 319/8 B.C.; for l i n e s 6-7, I.G., I 2 , 54.8 and 108.30, dated respectively to the 430*s and to 410/09 B.C.); I therefore hesitate to adopt H i l l e r * s restorations, which run as follows» [_,«,_,«_._,«fc.-,_,_,_,_.t.-.r]ov 6evio[v*6i*6oa6at 6e au-roTc; 7rpoe6pi*av ev Txaai TOT<; aY] 1-5 [ o c i v fcotq he 7t]aXi<; Tj^feeciv, wai 7tpoao6ov evai auroT? 7tpo<5 rep, 0oXev K a J * \ \ rov 6euov TCPJOTOK; L^e^ct r a tepa oc; euepYeTat-c; oat A©evatov T O 6euo*T.o]-> [c; 6e 7tpuTave<5 h ] o \ av [Xaxoot 7tpuTaveuev 6ovai T E V cpoecpov 7rept aurov e j ? [c; Tev Ttporev T O V ] Kup[Tov eKKXeoiov-- — ] H i l l e r * s version i s weakened by the inconsistency with which he introduces the dasela; though his l i n e 6 can, i n 11? fact, be improved i f one reads instead [npJoToi<g ' [y,e©A/itepa Ao? Ttpoxtfevoi S c t v A©evatov TO 6'cfu.o]. Line 1. The bottom of a central v e r t i c a l survives above of l i n e 2 . Line 2 - 3 . In accordance with well-known formulae one could restore a fifty-two l e t t e r l i n e as follows: [inivekBoOat ] 6e H O U [a& T o v r e p , poXev xat roc, T t p u T a v e q " r \ \ * - i • [ n a t T 0 ( s C T p a T e y o J ~ [cj fto<; a v u l &6t]H e r a t [p-e6e? aurov ftu<p'/uvoq ------—] However, the formulae are so common and admit of so many varations that they provide very l i t t l e confirmation o f H i l l e r ' s line-length, or of any other. Line 4 . The Demos i s evidently enjoined to take some action; I doubt whether any clause ending [7rpo<^ ] r o v o e u o v can be accommodated i n the av a i l a b l e space. Line 9 . One might restore, on the analogy o f #28, l i n e s 1 6 -17» [eav 6e aAXo TO] 6edv.Tat evat auToT? /leuptftfOat ara©ov ho, rt a v 6uvovr|at]. Lines 1 1 - 1 2 . The l e t t e r s 8 0 i n l i n e 11 suggest that the mood changes here to the Imperative; one might restore, on the analogy o f #4, l i n e s 21 -23» [kc; be T O d i x a O T e ] * [ p t o v TtpoanaKea]Qo [aGroc; A©eva£e ho 7roXep,apxo? etHoct Aepepov acp'ftec;] [hai yiXiaeq exo'eH]o[o'iv e eu©uveo*©o]. 118 I am not aware of any case where twenty days'grace are allowed; the usual time Is f i v e or ten days. 119 #3. Proxeny. ca 460-440 B.C. Honours for four Thespians. PI. 11,1,2 BIBLIOGRAPHY. I.G., I, 2? (1873)i Foucart, B.C.H., I (I877)t PP. 303-307? I.G.» I» Supplement, p. 9 #27 (1877): Hicks, G.H.I.(1882), pp. 31-32 #265 Hicks and H i l l , Manual 2 (1901), pp. 62-63; Michel, Recueil, Supplement (1912), p. 3 #1429; I.G., I 2 , 36 (1924); Gomme, Commentary, I (1945), p. 339? Loughran and Raubitschek, Hesperia. XVI (1947), pp. 78-79 #1; S.E.G., X (1949), 33? Lambrechts, Proxenledeoreten (1958), pp. 29, 35, 70, 150. PHOTOGRAPHS. Loughran and Raubitschek, op.cit.. p i . XIII (squeezes). Three joining fragments of s l i g h t l y micaceous Pentelic marble. Fragments b and c were f i r s t associated by Foucart ( l o c . c i t . ) . Fragment a was Joined to fragments b and c by Loughran and Raubitschek ( l o c . c i t . ) . F o l i a t i o n i s v e r t i c a l and p a r a l l e l to the face. Fragment a, EM 12411, i s of unknown provenance. The l e f t edge and rough-picked back are preserved. I t joins the top "of fragment b. I t was f i r s t published by Loughran and 120 Raubitschek ( l o c . c i t . ) . H.max. 0.l4lm. W.max. 0.2l6m. Th.O.lOOm. Fragments b and c bear the same inventory-number, EM 6575« Fragment b was found i n 1864 at the west end of the Akropolis; i t was f i r s t published by Kirchhoff from a trans-c r i p t of U. Koehler as I.G., I, 27 i n 1873- The l e f t edge and rough-picked back are preserved. H.max. 0.215m. W.max. 0.275m. Th. 0.100m. Fragment c was found on the Akropolis i n excavation at the west end of the Erechtheion} I t was f i r s t published by Foucart ( l o o . c i t ) . The r i g h t edge and rough-picked back are preserved. I t Joins the r i g h t side of fragment b. H.max. 0.240m. W.max. 0.240m. Th. 0.100m. Combined dimensionsi H.max. 0.380m. W. 0.500m. Th. 0.100m. Letter-height 0.018m.-0.022m. Non-stoichedon; v e r t i c a l chequer 0.0267m. Letter-shapes. A 3 and 4, E4 ( t a i l e d ) , &3, K2, A\2 and 4, M2f NI, 2 and 3. 02, n 4 , P6, 28 and 10, Yl-2, ®5, X2-3. Possibly A t t i c s c r i p t , but with a strong Boiotian influence. The dasela was not employed. I f i t i s A t t i c , the forms of nu tChd upsilon should date i t i n the 450*s or very early 440*8; 121 however, the four-barred sigma should be an i n d i c a t i o n of a date well a f t e r 450 B.C. The form of rho i s closer to Boiotian shapes than to anything A t t i c . Whether A t t i c or Boiotian, however, the shapes are a curious mixture of l a t e and early forms. Suitable contexts (see below) would be a f t e r the ba t t l e of Tanagra (458 B.C.), or a f t e r the b a t t l e of Koroneia (446 B.C.) I know of no other i n s c r i p t -ion by the same hand} the shapes of mu, nu, rho, sigma and upsil o n are perhaps more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Bo i o t i a than of A t t i c a at the middle of the f i f t h century (see Jeffery,• Local S c r i p t s , p. 89). I t i s worth mentioning another doc-ument inscribed at Athens but executed by a foreign mason and r e l a t i n g to foreigners! t h i s i s the l i s t of Argive casualties at the ba t t l e of Tanagra (I.G., I ,93^/2). I t i s the existence of t h i s document that leads me to suggest a date i n the 450*s for #3. ca 460-440 B.C. Non-stolch. ca 24-25 a [e]6oxoev r i e [ t p o X e i KCU r o t 6eu.]« [ 0 1 , jAtavrtq £7tLpuraveue,----- e J-r i •' * s' 4-5 * *" ' T - 2 - , " L Y P J a u . u . a r q u e , e ^ e c r a T e , - - J -r c a 2 i , * y _„, r t ** r * c a 2 n b , £ J t X e o ? etTte^KopLpaJYtSev K a ^ i - J ? 5 ©aXuHt'sev nat Mevearparov at A©evatov T05 Q e a n i a q avayp-122 atpcai Ttpoxcevoc; nat euepyera-[cj.i) A©eva*ov na i TO 9 7raT6acj TOCJ [auTolv eu. 7CoXei ev OTeXe; 10 [vei»oi 6e ] 7roXeT[a]i a7tou.ta6ocra-r " * "i * =* » # [vrov Tev OTeXev ' j T O 6e apYuptov [a7ro6ovTov oi KoXanpJeTai *K[aX]-[eoai 6e auTocj CTU x-^v1** ec; T O J [ 7 r p u T a v e T o v e<5 aupiov. vacat ] vacat COMMENTARY. Although t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n i s non-stoichedon, the r e s t o r a t i o n of the text presents few problems, since well-known formulae are involved. The average i n t e r v a l between l e t t e r s Is 0.006m.j the mason ca r r i e s his text as close to the r i g h t edge as he can, so that, where there Is uncut space at the end of a l i n e , one can be c e r t a i n that the next l e t t e r (at the s t a r t of the succeeding l i n e ) w i l l be a wide one, as i n l i n e s 8 and 10. Lines 1-4. No attempt should be made to restore the names of the secretary and the epistates. The orator's name w i l l depend upon the length of that of the epistates, but i t cannot be more than nine l e t t e r s long, and probably w i l l be of seven or eight l e t t e r s , since a t h r e e - l e t t e r epistates-name i s not very l i k e l y . I donab know of any Athenian name 123 with the termination -Xeau; of les s than eight l e t t e r s . Before the lambda of t h i s name there i s a trace of a v e r t i c a l . While i t could be part of i o t a or upsllon, i t s closeness to the following lambda probably rules out up-s l l o n ; otherwise, the name Thrasyleos would be a strong candidate. Stes l l e o s , the general who was k i l l e d at Marathon i n 490 B.C., was the son of Thrasyleos; his son, i f named a f t e r his grandfather, would be of the r i g h t age to be orator of a decree In the 450*s or 440*8 (see P.A., I I , 12906). Another St e s l l e o s , perhaps a grandson of the general, was involved with Laches l n the early 420*8, when hi s unmartial behaviour made him a laughing-stock (P.A., I I , 12905). However, t h i s man was probably s t i l l a minor i n the period 460-440 B.C. Another candidate i s Dexileos, putative grandfather of the knight Dexileos who was k i l l e d at the age of twenty i n 394/3 B.C. (P.A., I, 3229); the family was a wealthy and prominent one la t e i n the f i f t h century; i t would be reasonable to assume i t s prominence i n the m i d - f i f t h century, and to suggest that one of i t s mem-bers was named Dexileos at t h i s time. Fourth-century names with the termination -XECDCJ are Arrhileos and Charlleos. Lines 4-10. The four honorands are not otherwise known. Loughran and Baubitschek suggest that they were partisans of Athens forced to leave Thespial a f t e r the disaster at 124 Koroneia l n 446 B.C. (op.cit., p. 79)- This argument i s a plausible one, "but the letter-forms, i f they are Bolotian, are not of much chronological assistance and would probably support a date ten years e a r l i e r ; I suggest that these four Thespians may have been honoured a f t e r the ba t t l e s of Tanagra or Oinophyta i n 458 B.C., and that the employment of an Argive mason to inscribe the l i s t of Argive casualties at Tanagra (I.G., I 2 , 931/2) was prece-dent f o r the i n s c r i p t i o n by a Thespian mason of t h i s decree i n honour of four Thespians. As Loughran and Raubitschek suggest ( l o c . c i t . ) , the publication-formula does not men-t i o n the secretary of the Boule, who usually i s named as being l n charge of the i n s c r i p t i o n of public documents; yet the state i s to bear the cost ( l i n e s 10-12); perhaps the honorands themselves had charge of the i n s c r i p t i o n , and so might have employed a fellow-countryman to do the work. In l i n e s 4 - 5 the name of the second honorand may be Thalykides, i n which case there w i l l be a vacat of about two l e t t e r s at the end of l i n e 4 . Loughran and Raubitschek suggest that the root of t h i s name i s ai©a- or aiQaX- , but discount the name Aithalykides because they do not believe that there i s space enough for the f i r s t two l e t t e r s of t h i s name i n l i n e 4 ; my measurements of the stone convince me that _ there i s enough space, and, since the practice of t h i s mason 125 i s to f i l l up h i s l i n e s to the r i g h t , I think the longer name more l i k e l y . In l i n e 4 the f i r s t four l e t t e r s of the f i r s t honorand's name are clear) the space between fragments b and c i s enough f o r two l e t t e r s a f t e r rho, i f one of them i s of medium width i thus, rho-alpha can be restored with some confidence. A f t e r the break the feet of a triangular l e t -t e r survive, followed by the bottom of an i o t a . The name i s thus l i k e l y to be E b p [ p a ] y j 6 e v } i t s root-form Korragos i s found i n Thessaly (see Bechtel, Personennamen. p. 254). At the r i g h t edge of the stone the l e f t foot of alpha survives. Line 5» The bottom of the v e r t i c a l of kappa survives a t the r i g h t edge.. Line 7« The apex of alpha survives at the l e f t edge. Line 8. The apex of alpha and the top of theta survive. Line 9» The top of the r i g h t stroke of nu survives at the l e f t edge. Line 11. The r i g h t t i p of the bar of tau survives at the l e f t edge of fragment c. Line 12. The spacing of the extant l e t t e r s of t h i s i n s c r i p t -i o n suggests that there w i l l not be room enough for [ 7 r a p a o x o v T o v ] (suggested by H i l l e r , I.G., I 2 , 36). The r i g h t t i p of the upper bar of epsllon survives at the l e f t edge of fragment c. 126 Line 13. The whole upper bar of epsllon survives on the break at the l e f t edge; the next three l e t t e r s are part-ially-preserved but certain. At the r i g h t edge only the top of the v e r t i c a l of kappa survives. After l i n e 14 I have restored the stone as i f there were no further provisions. The formula i n l i n e 14 i s that often found concluding a decree; i t i s always possible, of course, that a r i d e r was added at t h i s point. 127 #4. Proxeny. ca 460-44,J> B.C. Honours for Parianos of Issa and his sons. P l . 1,4,5,6 BIBLIOGRAPHY. I.G., I , l 6 ; 22 (1873); I.G., I 2 , 23; 30 (1924); Haggard, Secretaries (1930), p. 10 #8; Merltt, Hesperia. XIV (1945), p. 126 note 132; Loughran and Raubitschek, Hesperia. XVI (1947), pp. 79-81 #2; S.E.G., X (1949), 20; Lambrechts, Proxenledecreten (1958), pp. 27, 30, 33. 117, 150. PHOTOGRAPH. Loughran and Raubitschek, op.cit., p l . XIII.2 . Two joining fragments of s l i g h t l y micaceous Pentelic marble. F o l i a t i o n i s v e r t i c a l and p a r a l l e l to the face; i n fragment a there i s a layer of greenish mica, along which the back has s p l i t away from the face. These fragments were f i r s t associated by Loughran and Raubitschek ( l o c . c i t . ) t J.H. Oliver tested and confirmed the j o i n on t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s . Fragment a, EM 6566, preserves the l e f t edge; otherwise,, i t i s broken on a l l sides. I t was found i n I865 at the east end of the Akropolis, and was f i r s t published by Kirchhoff from a t r a n s c r i p t of U. Koehler as I.G., I, 16 128 i n 1 8 7 3 . H. max. 0 . 2 6 0 m . W.max. 0 .172m. Th.max. 0 . 1 0 0 m . L e t t e r -height, l i n e s 1-5 0 . 0 2 1 m . ; l i n e s 6 f f . 0 . 0 1 0 m . - 0 . 0 1 1 m . Chequer, l i n e s 1-5 0 . 0 2 6 4 m .x 0.0264m.5 l i n e s 6 f f . 0 . 0 1 5 3 m .x 0 . 0 l 6 0 m . Fragment b,EM 6 5 7 0 , preserves the l e f t edge and rough-picked back. I t i s of unknown provenance. I t was f i r s t published by Kirchhoff from a tr a n s c r i p t of U. Koehler as I. G., I, 22 i n I 8 7 3 . I t joins the bottom of fragment a. H.max. 0 . 2 8 0 m . W.max. 0 . l 6 6 m . Th. 0.117m. Letter-height 0 . 0 1 0 m . - 0 . 0 1 1 m . Chequer 0 . 0 1 5 3 m .x 0 .0159m. Combined Dimensions! Bimax. 0 . 5 2 8 m . W.max. 0 . 172m. Th.0.117m. Letter-shapes. A3 and 4 , B3, E3-4, HI, @ 2 , K2,A 4 , M2, N7 and 8 , 01 and 2 , III, P6 and 8 , £ 4 , Y7, * 4 , X3. A t t i c s c r i p t , with regular use of the dasela (except, possibly, in, l i n e 5)« Sigma type 4 i s not found i n dated i n s c r i p t i o n s a f t e r 445 B.^C.j that found i n : the present document i s an unusual variant with a very long top stroke; i t occurs also i n the heading of A.T.L., I I , D 11 and i n the Kos fragment of the Decree of Klearchos (A.T.L., I I , D 14), neither of which i s by the same hand. I t also occurs 129 2 i n I.G., I , 19 and 29, whose hands are otherwise t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t from each other and from #4. By the same hand as #4, however, are #2 and I.G., I 2 , 32 and 34 and S.E.G., X, 15; a l l these documents should probably be dated i n the l a t e 450*s or early 440 ,s. A s l i g h t l y e a r l i e r date, a f t e r 460 B.C., Is not ruled out. ca 460-445 B.C. Stoich. a npoxc7e[vov xai EUEPYETOV] 5 A@eva[i'ov. IIapiav[o A©evo6[opo? TO Ixeaxo [TO vacat] ] ] ] Stoich.42 10 b [ . 3 • a, ]v[ctYpacpacu 6e TOV YPawiaTea TOV rec, POXECJ TO cpc]-ecpiovi.a T[O]6[E eareXet Xi6i'vei xai ©ivai ep. TTOXEI T E X]~ 130 7 t e v T e H O V T e[pov narecfreXav eq AecfSov vtai hoxx roq a]-[ r ] p a r i o T a < ; a[veXaPov ?•? ] 20 [•]* Aecrpov [ "EH TO 6t]« [ n a a j T e p t'o t[oo'ai'ovAo 6e 7toXeu.apxoq eq TO Smaarepi] [ov 7r]poo'HaX[eo'©o a u T o q A©eva£e nevre Aep -epov acp'fteq] [av /z]ai HXeo[eq excenoaiv e eueuvecreo* )? ] [ . . 6]e /lot e[.... ...^f 1".. ] 2E? [ ' ^ » ] e i 7 r e * T[a pe v aAAa K a © a 7 t e p T e i poXet [..*.]°Ae[.. ?5 ] [ . . ? . ] . [ ?7 •] COMMENTARY. Loughran and Raubitschek'assumed that l i n e 3 contained an ethnic and that the two men named i n l i n e s k and 5 were men of t h i s c i t y sent to Athens as ambassadors. They restored l i n e s 1-5 as followsJ npofxcrevov n a * e u e p y e T o v ] A©eva[iov r o v yTpecrpeov TOV] JIaptav[ov. vaoat ] i . © e v o 6 [ o o o v - Tonomen p a t r l s ] 5 Ineaio [TO nomen p a t r i s . ] Lines 6ff. they restored, I think correctly, with a forty-two l e t t e r l i n e . 131 I f i n d t h e i r version as a whole unsatisfactory, primarily because I do not see what connexion the ambassadors of Parion, a small state on the Hellespont, might have with the a f f a i r s of Lesbos. The conjunction that they make i n l i n e 15 between these Parian envoys and the government of Issa i n Lesbos I f i n d unsatisfactory because too abrupt, and, in:.any case, unconvincing. I suggest, therefore, that the l e t t e r s H4PIAN i n l i n e 3 are part of a personal name, not of an ethnic. While i t i s true that no such personal name i s known from elsewhere,, there are s u f f i c i e n t extant personal names derived from ethnics to make t h i s assumption reasonable. The honorands w i l l thus be c i t i z e n s of Issa, and t h e i r connexion i n l i n e 15 with the government of Issa becomes a l o g i c a l p o s s i b i l i t y . The decree, then, w i l l be concerned with the a f f a i r s of Lesbos, and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , of Issa (see l i n e s 15t 19 and 20). I t remains to restore the heading s a t i s f a c t o r i l y i n conformity with t h i s assumption-Lines 1-2 must contain the formula n p o x o e [vov ktxi euepysTov ]| A©evcu[ov] , i n the genitive, or i t s equivalent i n the nominative or dative. Thus, the minimum Inscribed width of the s t e l e w i l l be 0.555m., permitting a l i n e -length i n l i n e s 6ff. of t h i r t y - s i x or more l e t t e r s . How-ever, l i n e s 6-8 contain a preamble whose formulae f i x the 132 line-length at between thirty-seven and forty-two l e t t e r s . Lines 13-15 contain a publication-formula demanding, within the l i m i t s set by the preamble, a line - l e n g t h of f o r t y or forty-two l e t t e r s . I have been unable to devise suitable restorations of l i n e s 8-10, 16-19 and 21-24 with a f o r t y - l e t t e r l i n e , so that I think that Loughran*s and Raubitschek's forty-two l e t t e r l i n e must stand. I think, too, that they are correct i n assuming that s y l l a b i c d i v i s i o n was observed i n l i n e s 1 -5 . so that we can say only that these l i n e s contained a maximum of twenty-five l e t t e r s . I suggest as a p o s s i b i l i t y that the heading be restored as follows t npoxo"e[vov KCU euepyerov] A©evai'[ov. vacat 1 IIapiav[o n a i TOY 7 t a i o o v auTO ] A6evo6[opo? TO Ilapiavo] 5 imaio [TO Ilapiavo. ] The absence of an ethnic i s , at f i r s t sight, awkward, but I suggest that the ethnic would be restored i n l i n e 8, which could be restored as follows t [I| p]x e»Aep,o[..5. . ei7Tev•Hapiavoi TOI t c a a i o i lav ro 6 e | e ] T a i KTX.#9 provides a p a r a l l e l f o r t h i s arrangement* the f i r s t f i v e l i n e s contain a l i s t of the names of the sons of Iphlades of Abydos, apparently without any ethnic; then follow the regular preamble and the decree i t s e l f . 133 Lines 6-8. With a forty-two l e t t e r l i n e Hippothontls i s 2 the only possible prytany. In l i n e 7 H i l l e r (I.G., I ,30) suggested that the name of the secretary included a demotic; he placed the epistates-formula i n l i n e 8, reading the l e t t e r s XEAEMD as part of the name Archedemos; 2 t h i s man was orator of I.G., I , 19 (probably dated to 458 B.C.). However, demotlcs are not found i n preambles before the end of the f i f t h century, except i n very rare cases; Loughran's and Baubitschek's version, based on a suggestion of B.D.Meritt (reported by Haggard, l o c . c i t . ) , makes Archedemos the orator i [ a ]veuev,Ai [ o T t p , o q eYPap-p-areuev,KaXXiaq e7feaTare , A ] -[p]xe6epo[q eXne-urk. ] However, i t seems to me at lea s t a p o s s i b i l i t y that t h i s decree contained an archon-formula, and that the l e t t e r s XE i n l i n e 8 are the end of the word [ep]xe « while archon-formulae generally are not found i n preambles before 421/0 B.C., there are at lea s t two examples (I.G., I , 19 and 22) i n the period 460-445 B.C. I suggests r *-\ A ' n - a » ' ca 5 » ' ca 6 .]_a Jveuev,At [ o v ? e y p a p p a T e u e v , e x e c r a t e , —••>-I have t e n t a t i v e l y restored the name Dion as that of the secretary; t h i s man i s known from k a l o s - l n s c r l p t l o n s on pots of the period 480-470 B.C. (P.A., I, 4489; see Beazley 134 Red-Figure, I I , p. 1574) and thus would probably be of s u f f i c i e n t age to be a member of the Boule i n the 450*s. Thus, there would be l e f t eleven l e t t e r s f o r the names of the epistates and the archon. The l a t t e r could be any one of Habron (458/7 B.C.), K a l l i a s (45