UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

British royal commissions 1935-1970 : a continuing instrument of governmental inquiry Smith, Frances Sandra 1970

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BRITISH ROYAL COMMISSIONS 1935-1970: A CONTINUING INSTRUMENT OF GOVERNMENTAL I1IC.UIRY by FRANCES SANDRA SMITH B.A., University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkeley, 1262 A THESIS SUBMITTED III PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REOUIREIiENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of P o l i t i c a l Science l i e accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1970 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e S CXOn\. I9~10 i i . A B S T R A C T D u r i n g t h e m i d d l e t h i r d o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t a p p o i n t e d a n a v e r a g e o f o v e r s i x r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s a n n u a l l y . T h e s e c o m m i s s i o n s e x a m i n e d i s s u e s r a n g i n g f r o m t h e u s e o f c h i l d l a b o u r i n f a c t o r i e s t o M a l t a a n d t h e C i v i l L i s t . T h e y p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n w h a t i s n o w k n o w n a s t h e ' A g e o f R e f o r m ' , a n d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e y d e v e l o p e d a r e p u t a t i o n f o r p r e s e n t i n g r e p o r t s w h i c h w e r e b o t h i l l u m i n a t i n g a n d u s e f u l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s i n c e t h a t t i m e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s h a v e i n s p i r e d o n l y a v e r y f e w o f t h e m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l a n d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e -f o r m s . U s e d b u t i n f r e q u e n t l y , c o m m i s s i o n s h a v e l o s t t h e i r r e p u t a t i o n f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e i n q u i r y a n d a r e n o w k n o w n l e s s f o r w h a t t h e y h a v e a c c o m p l i s h e d t h a n f o r w h a t t h e y h a v e n o t . T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e s t h e B r i t i s h r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n a s i t i s u s e d a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , a n d c o n c l u d e s t h a t i t i s s t i l l a v i a b l e m e t h o d o f G o v e r n m e n t i n q u i r y . T h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n r e t a i n s a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e B r i t i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n a n d , u s e d p r o p e r l y , c a n b e a n e f f e c t i v e m e a n s o f p r o m o t i n g c o n s e n s u s b e t w e e n t h e G o v e r n -m e n t a n d t h e g o v e r n e d . T h e r e h a s , h o w e v e r , b e e n a d i s t i n c t t e n d e n c y f o r G o v e r n m e n t s t o m i s u s e t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n — t o a p p o i n t t h e m w h e n t h e y w e r e u n n e c e s -s a r y o r t o a p p o i n t t h e m t o f o r e s t a l l r e f o r m — w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t a n u m b e r o f r e c e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h a v e b e e n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . O f t h e t h r i t y - s e v e n c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h h a v e r e p o r t e d s i n c e 1 9 3 5 , s i x t e e n w e r e c o m p l e t e l y s u c c e s s f u l a n d f u l f i l l e d t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e e f f e c -t i v e l y . S e v e n p r e s e n t e d w o r t h w h i l e r e p o r t s o n w h i c h n o a c t i o n w a s t a k e n . S e v e n s u b m i t t e d i n a d e q u a t e r e p o r t s w h i c h , a l t h o u g h t h e i r r e -c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e c a r r i e d o u t , f a i l e d t o d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s t h e y w e r e s t u d y i n g . A n d s e v e n d i d n o t c o m p l e t e t h e i r i n v e s -t i g a t i o n s o r d i d s o i n s u c h a f a s h i o n t h a t t h e i r r e p o r t s m u s t b e c o n -s i d e r e d i n f e r i o r a n d t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s u n u s a b l e . A n a l y s i s o f t h i r t y - f i v e o f t h o s e c o m m i s s i o n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s o m e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s a n d c o m m i s s i o n s u c c e s s . F r o m t h i s a n a l y s i s a n d f r o m g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f r e c e n t c o m m i s s i o n s , t h e c o n c l u s i o n s e e m s i n -e s c a p a b l e t h a t u n l e s s t h e G o v e r n m e n t s e t s u p a c o m m i s s i o n w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f a c t i n g o n t h e b a s i s o f i t s r e p o r t , t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s c h a n c e s o f s u c c e s s a r e v e r y s l i g h t . I f , h o w e v e r , t h e G o v e r n m e n t i n -t e n d s t o a c t o n t h e p r o b l e m u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t a k e s a d e q u a t e c a r e t o a p p o i n t t h e m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e t y p e o f c o m m i s s i o n , a n d p r o v i d e s t h a t c o m m i s s i o n w i t h a d e q u a t e f u n d s a n d a d v i c e , t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n c a n f u l f i l l i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e s u c c e s s f u l l y . B e c a u s e t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n r e m a i n s a v i a b l e — a l b e i t i n t e r -m i t t e n t — p a r t o f t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t a l s y s t e m , t h i s s t u d y c o n -c l u d e s t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t , c o m m i s s i o n e r s t h e m s e l v e s , a n d P a r l i a m e n t s h o u l d m a k e e v e r y e f f o r t p o s s i b l e t o p r e v e n t i t s f a l l i n g i n t o d i s u s e . T h e i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y o f s o c i e t y m a k e s i t u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e c o m -m i s s i o n w i l l e v e r a g a i n h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n i t i a t e t h e n u m b e r o f r e f o r m s w i t h w h i c h i t h a s b e e n c r e d i t e d d u r i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , u s e d e f f e c t i v e l y i t m a y b e a b l e t o r e t a i n i t s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e B r i t i s h c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k a n d t o r e g a i n i t s r e p u t a t i o n f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e i n q u i r y . XV. T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 C H A P T E R I T H E C O N S T i r U T I O N A L R O L E O F T H E R O Y A L C O M M I S S I O N . . . . 6 C H A P T E R I I R E C E N T R O Y A L C O M M I S S I O N I N V E S T I G A T I O N S : A N E V A L U A T I O N . 2 6 A . C r i t e r i a 2 6 B . E v a l u a t i o n 2 9 1. S u c c e s s f u l C o m m i s s i o n s 2 9 2 . U s e f u l C o m m i s s i o n s 3 8 3 . M a r g i n a l l y U s e f u l C o m m i s s i o n s 4 2 4 . U n s u c c e s s f u l C o m m i s s i o n s 4 8 C . P e r f o r m a n c e a n d C o n s t i t u t i o n a l R o l e 5 1 C H A P T E R I I I E F F E C T S O F I N D E P E N D E N T V A R I A B L E S 6 0 A . G o v e r n m e n t C o n t r o l l e d V a r i a b l e s 63 1. S o u r c e o f D e m a n d 6 3 2 . I n t e n t i o n o f G o v e r n m e n t 6 8 3 . S u b j e c t M a t t e r 7 0 4 . T y p e 72 5 . N u m b e r o f M e m b e r s 75 6 . T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e 76 B . C o m m i s s i o n C o n t r o l l e d V a r i a b l e s 77 1. L e n g t h o f T i m e 7 8 2 . T y p e o f R e p o r t 8 0 3 . L e n g t h o f R e p o r t 8 1 C . O t h e r V a r i a b l e s 8 2 D . C o n c l u s i o n 8 3 C H A P T E R I V R E F O R M 8 9 A . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e G o v e r n m e n t 9 0 1 . U s e 9 1 2 . C o m p o s i t i o n 9 6 3 . O t h e r A r e a s 1 0 2 B . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s 1 0 3 1. R e p o r t s 1 0 4 2 . E f f o r t s b y C o m m i s s i o n e r s 1 0 7 C . F u r t h e r C o n s i d e r a t i o n s 1 0 9 C O N C L U S I O N . . . 117 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 1 2 2 A . P r i m a r y S o u r c e s 122 B . S e c o n d a r y S o u r c e s 1 2 5 1. G e n e r a l W o r k s o n t h e B r i t i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n 1 2 5 2 . G e n e r a l W o r k s o n R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s 1 2 5 3 . D i s c u s s i o n s o f S p e c i f i c C o m m i s s i o n s 1 2 6 V . A P P E N D I C E S 1 3 0 A . A p p e n d i x I O d e s t o t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n 1 3 0 B . A p p e n d i x I I N o t e o n S o u r c e s W h i c h C o n s i d e r t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n A s a T e c h n i q u e o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n 1 3 4 C . A p p e n d i x I I I T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e o f R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s W h i c h H a v e R e p o r t e d S i n c e 1 9 3 5 143 D . A p p e n d i x I V R e f e r e n c e s t o R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s i n H o u s e o f C o m m o n s D e b a t e s 1 5 1 T A B L E S T A B L E I , N u m b e r o f R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s , A n n u a l A v e r a g e , b y D e c a d e s , 1 8 0 1 - 1 9 7 0 18 T A B L E 2 P e r f o r m a n c e o f R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s W h i c h R e p o r t e d B e t w e e n 1 9 3 5 , a n d 1 9 7 0 3 0 T A B L E 3 A c t i o n s o n C o m m i s s i o n s ' R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 1 9 3 5 - 1 9 7 0 . . 3 1 T A B L E 4 V a r i a b l e s P o s s i b l y A f f e c t i n g C o m m i s s i o n ' s O u t c o m e . . . 6 1 T A B L E 5 I n d e x o f C o m m i s s i o n s , V a r i a b l e s a n d P e r f o r m a n c e . . . . 6 2 T A B L E 6 R e l a t i o n o f G o v e r n m e n t C o n t r o l l e d V a r i a b l e s t o C o m m i s s i o n S u c c e s s 6 4 T A B L E 7 C o m p a r i s o n o f C o m m i s s i o n s b y S u b j e c t A r e a f o r P e r i o d s 1 9 0 5 - 1 9 3 5 a n d 1 9 3 5 - 1 9 6 5 72 T A B L E 8 C o m p a r i s o n o f C o m m i s s i o n s b y T y p e f o r P e r i o d s 1 9 0 5 - 1 9 3 5 a n d 1 9 3 5 - 1 9 6 5 7 5 T A B L E 9 R e l a t i o n o f S i z e t o S u c c e s s 7 6 T A B L E 10 R e l a t i o n o f F a c t o r s C o n t r o l l e d b y C o m m i s s i o n t o C o m m i s s i o n S u c c e s s 7 8 T A B L E 11 R e l a t i o n o f O t h e r F a c t o r s t o C o m m i s s i o n O u t c o m e . . . . 8 2 INTRODUCTION Most twentieth century royal commissions have received a great deal of attention in the press. Many also have been thoroughly analysed and evaluated in such scholarly journals as Public Administration and P o l i t i c a l  Science Quarterly. Yet not a great deal has been written about the use of the royal commission as a technique of investigation. Moreover, what l i t -t l e material there is in this f i e l d tends to be either decidedly inferior in quality or to be the product of research carried out over thirty years 1 ago. However, although the better studies of royal commissions are quite dated and the more recent works are inclined to be somewhat unreliable, some aspects of the subject have been definitively analysed. The origins of the royal commission type of investigation are discussed in Royal Commis-2 sions of Inquiry by Professors Hugh M. Clokie and J. William Robinson. The royal commission's development from i t s inception in the later Middle Ages through each of the major periods of English constitutional history is 3 thoroughly documented by these authors. Also, the success which the royal commission enjoyed during i t s so-called 'Golden Era' in the nineteenth 4 century is covered not only by Clokie and Robinson, but also by Hirst and Redlich in their work on local government reform in the nineteenth century^ and by J. Toulmin Smith in a somewhat biased and distorted contemporary p o l i t i c a l tract entitled Government by Commission Illegal and Pernicious. 2 . T h e s e m i - p e r m a n e n t t y p e o f c o m m i s s i o n i s d e a l t w i t h b y C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n , ' ' a s a r e t h e v a r i o u s p r o c e d u r e s b y w h i c h c o m m i s s i o n s c a n b e a p -8 9 p o i n t e d a n d t h e u s u a l m e t h o d s b y w h i c h t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e c o n d u c t e d . T h e s o c i a l b a c k g r o u n d s , a g e s a n d o c c u p a t i o n s o f c o m m i s s i o n e r s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y a r e a n a l y s e d b y H a n s e r i n t h e t e x t a n d i n A p p e n d i x I I I o f h i s G u i d e t o D e c i s i o n : T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n i n t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y . ^ T h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n ' s p o s i t i o n i n t h e h i e r a r c h y o f a d v i s o r y b o d i e s a n d g o v e r n m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e s g e n e r a l l y i s d i s c u s s e d i n m o s t o f t h e a r t i c l e s a n d m o n o g r a p h s o n B r i t i s h t e c h n i q u e s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a n d i s d e a l t w i t h d e f i n i t i v e l y b y K . C . W h e a r e i n G o v e r n m e n t b y C o m m i t t e e . ^ H o w e v e r , s o m e o f t h e m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t s o f t h e C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n s t u d y , a s w e l l a s o f t h e m o r e g e n e r a l w o r k o n a d v i s o r y b o d i e s e d i t e d b y 12 V e r n o n a n d M a n s e r g h , a r e b a d l y i n n e e d o f b e i n g b r o u g h t u p t o d a t e . Some a r e a s , t o u c h e d u p o n b y t h e s e a n d o t h e r w r i t e r s , d e s e r v e t o b e g i v e n m o r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e t r e a t m e n t . F u r t h e r , s o m e a p p e c t s o f t h e s u b j e c t w h i c h h a v e r e c e i v e d l i t t l e o r n o c o n s i d e r a t i o n n e e d t o b e a n a l y s e d o b j e c t i v e l y i f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n i s t o b e u n d e r s t o o d a s f u l l y a s p o s s i b l e . T h i s s t u d y i s d e s i g n e d t o s u p p l e m e n t a n d t o b r i n g u p t o d a t e s o m e 13 a s p e c t s o f t h e e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e f i e l d . I n e x a m i n i n g t h e p r e s e n t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e o f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n , t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r e n l a r g e s u p o n a t h e m e d e v e l o p e d b y C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n a n d a t t e m p t s t o i n d i c a t e i n w h a t w a y s t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n ' s p o s i t i o n h a s e v o l v e d s i n c e t h e i r w o r k w a s w r i t -t e n . I n e v a l u a t i n g t h e d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s e n j o y e d b y a s e r i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s , a n d i n i s o l a t i n g v a r i a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c o m m i s s i o n s a n d a s s e s s i n g t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e s e c o n d a n d t h i r d c h a p t e r s b r i n g u p t o 14 d a t e b o t h G o s n e l l ' s a n d C l o k i e ' s a n d R o b i n s o n ' s s u r v e y s o f t h e l e g i s l a t i v e a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s u l t s o f r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s , a n d c o n t i n u e t h e t y p e o f e x a m i n a t i o n V e r n o n a n d M a n s e r g h c o n d u c t e d o n a d v i s o r y b o d i e s g e n e r a l l y i n t h e i n t e r w a r p e r i o d . I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e v a r i o u s p r o p o s a l s f o r r e f o r m , t h e 3 . f o u r t h c h a p t e r c o n s i d e r s t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f a n u m b e r o f s c h o l a r s w h o h a v e d e a l t w i t h t h e s u b j e c t a n d a t t e m p t s , i n c o n c l u s i o n , t o e v a l u a t e t h e s e s u g -g e s t i o n s i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d i n c h a p t e r s t w o a n d t h r e e . A s i t s t i t l e s u g g e s t s , t h i s s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n a s i t i s a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e a n d w i t h t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l B r i t i s h r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h h a v e r e p o r t e d s i n c e 1 9 3 5 . U n l i k e t h e o n l y o t h e r r e c e n t w o r k o n t h e s u b j e c t , h o w e v e r , i t i s n o t d e s i g n e d s i m p l y t o p r o v e t h a t t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n i s " t h e g u i d e t o w h a t i s a n d w h a t s h o u l d b e ; . . . t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e S o v e r e i g n I n t e n t t h a t ' R i g h t b e D o n e R a t h e r , i t i s a n a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e a s o b j e c t i v e a n a n a l y s i s a s p o s s i b l e a n d , o n t h e b a s i s o f t h a t a n a l y s i s , t o i n d i c a t e h o w b e s t t h e s t r u c t u r e c a n b e u s e d a n d w h a t p o s s i b l e i m p r o v e m e n t s c a n b e m a d e i n o r d e r t o e n h a n c e t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . t 4 . 1 T h e o n e s i g n i f i c a n t e x c e p t i o n i s K . C . W h e a r e , G o v e r n m e n t b y  C o m m i t t e e ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) . F o r a m o r e t h o r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d a r y s o u c e m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e , s e e A p p e n -d i x I I : A N o t e o n S o u r c e s . 2 H u g h M . C l o k i e a n d J . W i l l i a m R o b i n s o n , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o f  I n q u i r y : T h e S i g n i f i c a n c e o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h P o l i t i c s ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 ) , p p . 2 4 - 5 . 3 I b i d . , p p . 2 5 - 1 4 8 ( i n f r a . ) . 4 I b i d . , p p . 5 4 - 7 9 . 5 J . R e d l i c h a n d F . H i r s t , T h e H i s t o r y o f L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t i n  E n g l a n d ( L o n d o n : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 5 8 ) . 6 J . T o u l m i n S m i t h , G o v e r n m e n t b y C o m m i s s i o n s I l l e g a l a n d P e r - n i c i o u s . T h e N a t u r e a n d E f f e c t s o f A l l C o m m i s s i o n s o f I n q u i r y a n d  O t h e r C r o w n - a p p o i n t e d C o m m i s s i o n s . T h e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l P r i n c i p l e s  o f T a x a t i o n ; a n d t h e R i g h t s , D u t i e s a n d I m p o r t a n c e o f L o c a l S e l f - G o v e r n m e n t . ( 1 8 4 9 ) 7 C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s , p p . 2 0 2 - 3 . 8 I b i d . , p p . 1 4 9 - 5 5 . 9 I b i d . . p p . 1 6 9 - 9 0 . 10 C h a r l e s J . H a n s e r , G u i d e t o D e c i s i o n : t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n  i n t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y ( T o t o w a , New J e r s e y : T h e B e d m i n i s t e r P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 1 7 2 - 8 4 , 2 5 5 - 6 1 . 11 W h e a r e , G o v e r n m e n t b y C o m m i t t e e , p p . 6 8 - 7 6 . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , P . E . P . , A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e s i n B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t ( L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n a n d U n w i n , 1 9 6 0 ) p u r p o s e f u l l y e x c l u d e s t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n f r o m t h e s c o p e o f i t s e x a m i n a t i o n . 12 R . V . V e r n o n a n d N i c h o l a s M a n s e r g h ( e d s . ) , A d v i s o r y B o d i e s : A S t u d y o f t h e i r U s e s i n R e l a t i o n t o C e n t r a l G o v e r n m e n t 1 9 1 9 - 1 9 3 9 . ( L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n a n d U n w i n , 1 9 4 0 ) . 13 T h i s , o f c o u r s e , w a s t h e p u r p o r t e d i n t e n t o f t h e H a n s e r s t u d y . I t s f a i l u r e t o d o s o , h o w e v e r , h a s p r o v i d e d i n p a r t t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h i s t h e s i s . C f . A p p e n d i x I I : N o t e o n S o u r c e s . H a r o l d F . G o s n e l l , ' B r i t i s h R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o f I n q u i r y ' , P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , X L I X ( M a r c h 1 9 3 4 ) , 1 1 6 . H a n s e r , G u i d e t o D e c i s i o n , p . i x . C H A P T E R I T H E C O N S T I T U T I O N A L R O L E O F T H E R O Y A L C O M M I S S I O N I n t e r m s o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l lax-7, r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s i n B r i t a i n a r e 1 a t y p e o f a d v i s o r y b o d y . T h e y a r e o r d i n a r i l y a d h o c , e x t r a - g o v e r n -m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s u s u a l l y a p p o i n t e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a d -2 v i s a b i l i t y o f a l t e r i n g t h e l a w i n s o m e s p e c i f i c a r e a . T h e i r m e m b e r s a r e a p p o i n t e d b y r o y a l w a r r a n t b u t s e l e c t e d b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t -m e n t ( o r d e p a r t m e n t s ) w i t h w h i c h t h e i r a r e a o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s m o s t c l o s e l y c o n c e r n e d . W h i l e . t h e y a r e o f t e n e n c o u r a g e d t o r e p o r t a s s p e e d i l y a s p o s s i b l e , t h e y a r e g i v e n n o s p e c i f i c t i m e l i m i t i n w h i c h t o c o n d u c t t h e i r i n q u i r i e s . U p o n t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , 3 t h e y a r e r e q u i r e d t o s u b m i t a r e p o r t a n d t h e m i n u t e s o f e v i d e n c e u p -o n w h i c h t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s a r e b a s e d . T h e r e p o r t i s p u b l i s h e d a s a 4 C o m m a n d P a p e r a n d t h e m i n i s t e r m o s t c l o s e l y c o n c e r n e d , o r t h e G o v e r n -m e n t a s a w h o l e , d e t e r m i n e s t o w h a t e x t e n t , i f a n y , a c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i l l b e i m p l e m e n t e d . O r d i n a r i l y r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s a r e i n n o w a y c o n c e r n e d w i t h a c t u a l l y p a s s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . N e i t h e r , u s u a l l y , a r e t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s b i n d i n g o n t h e G o v e r n m e n t w h i c h 5 a p p o i n t e d t h e m o r o n a n y s u c c e e d i n g G o v e r n m e n t . E . e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r p u r e l y a d v i s o r y n a t u r e , h o w e v e r , r o y a l c o m -m i s s i o n s a r e u n q u e s t i o n a b l y a p a r t — a l b e i t a n i n t e r m i t t e n t p a r t - -o f t h e B r i t i s h g o v e r n m e n t a l s y s t e m . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , i n f a c t , t h e y h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h , o n c e p r o p e r l y c o n s -t i t u t e d , w e r e n o t s u b o r d i n a t e t o a n y l a r g e r b o d y a n d w h i c h c o u l d n o t b e d i s s o l v e d e x c e p t o n t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e . I n d e e d , f r o m t h e s t a n d -p o i n t o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l a w t h e y h a v e b e e n r e g a r d e d a s b e i n g " u p o n a f o r m a l e q u a l i t y w i t h o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e s t a t e , s u c h a s 6 c o u r t s , H o u s e s o f P a r l i a m e n t , P r i v y C o u n c i l , e t c . " 7 . H o w e v e r , w h i l e t h e y a r e s t i l l a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r o w n m e t h o d s o f p r o c e d u r e a n d t o c o n d u c t t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t h e t i m e a n d m a n n e r w h i c h t h e y d e t e r m i n e t o b e m o s t s u i t a b l e , r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s c a n p r o b a b l y n o l o n g e r b e c a l l e d p r i m a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s . T o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , t h e y a r e s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t a n d c a n b e , a n d h a v e b e e n , d i s s o l v e d o n t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f 7 t h e G o v e r n m e n t . T h e y a r e n o t , l i k e s e l e c t c o m m i t t e e s , a u t o m a t i c a l l y d i s -s o l v e d a t t h e e n d o f a P a r l i a m e n t a r y s e s s i o n o r u p o n a c h a n g e o f G o v e r n m e n t . B u t , t h e y c l e a r l y a r e — a s t h e B a l f o u r C o m m i t t e e d e c l a r e d i n 1 9 1 0 " a p p o i n t e d g . . . a t t h e w i l l a n d d i s c r e t i o n o f t h e E x e c u t i v e G o v e r n m e n t . " T h e y a r e s e c o n -d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s i n s o f a r a s t h e y owe t h e i r e x i s t e n c e t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t . A n d m o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , a s W i l s o n ' s s u c c e s s f u l d i s s o l u t i o n o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P e n a l S y s t e m c l e a r l y s h o w s , t h e y a r e s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s i n s o f a r a s t h e y c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t o n l y a t t h e p l e a s u r e o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t . F r o m a t h e o r e t i c a l s t a n d p o i n t , t h e p o s i t i o n o f r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s v i s a v i s t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i s s o m e w h a t l e s s c l e a r . T h e y m a y b e s e e n , a s A . H . 9 B i r c h s e e s t h e m , a s a t w o - w a y c h a n n e l b e t w e e n t h e p u b l i c a n d W h i t e h a l l . T h e y m a y a l s o b e s e e n a s a m e t h o d b y w h i c h t h e ' p o p u l a r w i l l ' m a y f i n d e x -p r e s s i o n o n s p e c i f i c i s s u e s . T h e i r e x i s t e n c e m a y b e j u s t i f i e d i n a n u m b e r o f w a y s a n d t h e i r r o l e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n s e e n i n v e r y d i f f e r e n t l i g h t s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e v i e w o n e t a k e s o f t h e n a t u r e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g o v e r n -m e n t a n d o f t h e B r i t i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n . T h e t h r e e m a j o r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n B r i t a i n a n d m o s t c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r s o n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n h a v e d e v e l o p e d t h e o r i e s o f B r i t i s h p a r l i a m e n t a r y d e m o c r a c y a n d o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e g o v e r n m e n t . M a n y o f t h e s e t h e o r i e s a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r . Y e t f r o m t h e m t w o d i s t i n c t a n d t o s o m e d e g r e e c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n c a n b e i s o l a t e d . A s w i t h a l l e f f o r t s t o s u m m a r i z e a n d c o n t r a s t t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s , t h e a t t e m p t t o p r e s e n t b r i e f o u t l i n e s o f t h e s e t w o t h e o r i e s r e s u l t s i n a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n a n d p a r t i a l d i s t o r -t i o n o f a c t u a l p o s i t i o n s . H o w e v e r , e x a m i n i n g t h e t w o t h e o r i e s a n d t h e i r i m p l i c i t 8. interpretations of 'representation' allows the analyst to determine the position and jus t i f i c a t i o n for advisory bodies in relation to extreme inter-pretations of the Constitution. At the same time, i t provides a method of evaluating the validity of each constitutional theory. If royal commissions and advisory bodies generally f a i l either to f u l f i l l the functions assigned them or to provide the type of representation which a theory assumes they w i l l , i t i s clear that a significant disparity exists between the theory and reality. The theory,to be valid, must take into consideration a l l the func-tions which advisory bodies, f u l f i l l and must recognize the existence of the type of representation which they provide. The two conflicting theories are best described as the standard text-book interpretation and the current Executive of Whitehall theory.^ Accord-ing to the text-book interpretation of the Constitution, in British parlia-mentary democracy "the w i l l of the people i s given expression by the elector-ate, interpretation by the legislature, and application by the administrative expert."*'*' The people are the p o l i t i c a l sovereign; Parliament, the legisla-12 tive sovereign. The people exercise their p o l i t i c a l sovereignty by select-ing the members of the House of Commons; Parliament, i t s legislative sover-eignty by enacting"the w i l l of the people. There are, and need be, no con-stitutional: guarantees inhibiting the supremacy of Parliament or protecting the people from legislative tyranny. According to the textbook interpreta-tion, the theory of Bri t i s h democracy and the practical necessity of retain-ing the consent of the governed prevent Parliament from acting in opposition to the popular w i l l , from enacting legislation which would arouse the enmity of a majority or even a vocal minority of the population. But periodic and highly structured elections are an inadequate means of determining the popular w i l l on any but very broad policy issues. For the legislature to be able to interpret the w i l l of the people, i t is essential 9. that there be other formal structures through which c i t i z e n s may express t h e i r opinions. It i s necessary that Parliament be given the opportunity to hear the views both of experts and interested p a r t i e s . In other words, i t i s v i t a l to the successful operation of B r i t i s h democracy that advisory bodies and committees of inquiry e x i s t as l i n k s between the governors and the governed. Through them, a channel of communication i s provided which helps give credence to the idea of government b% the people. Through them, l e g i s l a t o r s have an opportunity, otherwise often denied them, of hearing the opinions of at least some portion of the p u b l i c . In t h i s theory, representation i s seem as the process by which the views of the represented are conveyed to the government. Representatives are assumed to act i n support of what they believe t h e i r constituencies or 13 the nation d e s i r e s . By representative government t h i s theory means govern-ment by, the people through t h e i r elected representatives. In contrast to t h i s , the Executive or Governmental theory lays much greater stress on the idea of government for the people. B r i e f l y , t h i s theory assumes that the Government of the day has been given a mandate by the people to govern i n the i n t e r e s t s of the people. It i s not merely an agent which acts i n response to public demand. I t i s , rather, "an independent body which on taking o f f i c e assumes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of leading and d i r e c t i n g P a r l i a -14 ment and the nation i n accordance with i t s own judgement and convictions." The view of the Constitution to which t h i s theory subscribes i s , there-fore, one which considers there to be a d e f i n i t e separation between Government and Parliament. It holds the l e g i s l a t i v e function to be exercised predomin-antly by the Government. It recognises that the Government's existence de-pends upon the acceptance of i t s p o l i c i e s by both the people and Parliament. And i n t h i s sense, i t agrees with the idea that the people are the p o l i t i c a l sovereign and Parliament, the l e g i s l a t i v e sovereign. However, i t wholly r e -10. jects the premise that popular and Parliamentary sovereignty imply a delega-tion of power from the people to Parliament and from Parliament to the Govern-ment in the sense of Parliament and the Government being merely bodies which react' to popular demand. Rather, the Government i s seen as the active i n i t i a -tor — the creator of demands. Its functions are those of "leadership, direc-tion and command" while those of Parliament and the people are simply those of " c r i t i c a l discussion and examination". Parliament and the people must consent to the policies and actions of the Government. But neither can be expected to accept legislation which i s , or which is perceived to be, detrimental to i t s interests. Therefore, the Government must attempt to act in the interests of the people and i t must have channels through which i t can influence public opinion to accept i t s direction. In other words, i t must have the advice of experts to help i t determine what policies w i l l best serve the popular interest. It must have accurate information on how i t s chosen policies can most effectively be put into practice. And, when i t perceives that there is l i t t l e enthusiasm for policies which i t wishes to pursue, i t must have channels through which i t can generate popular support for i t s projected actions. The c i v i l service was originally designed for the two functions of giving advice and supplying information. But in the face of expanding Govern-mental responsibility and constantly changing social needs, technology and science, i t has been unable to f u l f i l l these roles adequately. Therefore, to augment i t , and to generate popular support, advisory bodies have become i n -creasingly essential. They provide the necessary source of expert information and opinion in many areas of policy and administration. They serve as channels through which the Government's actions can be justi f i e d to the public. In other words, their advice and influence permit the Government to exercise i t s functions of "leadership, direction and command" effectively. 1 1 . Thus, i n the Executive theory as w e l l as i n the textbook one, the government of B r i t a i n i s seen as representat ive, both by v i r tue of the manner of i t s se lec t ion and by v i r tue of i t s behavior. I t i s representat ive equal ly i n the sense that i t i s f ree ly elected and that i t s members have an ob l iga t ion to the i r const i tuencies and/or the nat ion. However, whi le the textbook vers ion lays stress on the idea that Parliament acts " i n response to the pos i t i ve wishes of an ac t i ve l y interested e l e c t o r a t e " , ^ the Executive theory emphasizes the notion that "our system i s one of democracy, but of democracy by consent and not by delegat ion, of government of the people, for the people, with,but not by, the p e o p l e . " ^ It i s representat ive government in so far as i t has an ob l iga t ion to act i n the in terests of the people whom i t represents. But i t has no ob l iga t ion to act i n accordance wi th the i r des i res . As roya l commissions are a type of advisory body, the i r cons t i tu t iona l ro le d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y when considered in terms of these opposing theor ies . According to the f i r s t , the i r ro le i s one of providing a means by which the desires of the e lectorate can be conveyed to Parl iament. According to the second, i t i s one of providing the Government wi th a method of generating sup-port for and obtaining information ori which to base and administer i t s p o l i c i e s . Only by examining the actua l funct ioning of roya l commissions can one determine the v a l i d i t y of e i ther approach. From the standpoint of the manner in which they funct ion, roya l commis-sions can be analysed on three d i f fe rent l e v e l s . F i r s t , they can be considered broadly in terms of the i r methods of operat ion. Second, they can be examined in respect to the uses for which the Government normally appoints them. And t h i r d , they can be analysed i n terms of the type of representat ion which they provide. From considering t he i r methods of operat ion, i t i s possible to iden-t i f y them as a pa r t i cu la r type of advisory body. Th is , i n turn , permits them to be analysed at the second and th i rd leve ls i n terms of that type of advisory body, rather than as roya l commissions s p e c i f i c a l l y . 1 2 . F r o m t h e i r m e t h o d s o f o p e r a t i o n , s u c h a s t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e y d e t e r m i n e a n d s u b m i t t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , a d v i s o r y b o d i e s c a n b e d i v i d e d i n t o d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . B e c a u s e t h e i r r e p o r t s a r e e x p e c t e d t o p r o -v i d e a n e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m , t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d o f e q u a l , i f n o t g r e a t e r , i m p o r t a n c e t h a n t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , a n d t h e y t a k e , a n d a r e p r e s u m e d t o b a s e t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s o n , e v i d e n c e f r o m o u t s i d e s o u r c e s , 1 8 r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s c a n b e c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l l y " c o m m i t t e e s t o i n q u i r e " . A s i n t h e c a s e o f a l l a d v i s o r y b o d i e s , a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y p a r t o f t h e i r f u n c t i o n 19 i s t o s u b m i t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t . H o w e v e r , a s i n t h e c a s e o f c o m m i t t e e s t o i n q u i r e g e n e r a l l y , t h a t a d v i c e i s e x p e c t e d t o b e b a s e d o n t h e r e -s u l t s o f a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e s u b j e c t r a t h e r t h a n s o l e l y o n t h e c o m m i s -s i o n e r s ' o w n e x p e r t i s e , a n d t h e r e p o r t i n w h i c h i t a p p e a r s " s h o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a n a u t h o r i t a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f 2 0 t h e s u b j e c t . " I f i t c o u l d b e a s s u m e d t h a t t h e e v i d e n c e w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e b a s i s f o r t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s r e f l e c t s p u b l i c o p i n i o n g e n e r a l l y , t h e f a c t t h a t r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s b e l o n g t o t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n c o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d t o i m p l y t h a t t h e r o l e a s s i g n e d t h e m i n t h e t e x t b o o k t h e o r y o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i s t h e c o r -r e c t o n e . H o w e v e r , t o a r r i v e a t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e a g r e a t d e a l f o r g r a n t e d . M o s t p a r t i c u l a r l y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o a s s u m e t h a t i n a l l c a s e s t h e G o v e r n m e n t s e t s u p c o m m i t t e e s t o i n q u i r e i n o r d e r t o a s c e r -t a i n , w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f c a r r y i n g o u t , w h a t a c t i o n t h e p u b l i c w i s h e s t a k e n i n a c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e . Y e t , w h e t h e r o r n o t s o m e c o m m i t t e e s m a y b e a p p o i n t e d p a r t i a l l y w i t h t h a t i n t e n t , i t i s c e r t a i n l y p o s s i b l e t o i s o l a t e s e v e r a l v e r y d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s w h i c h m o t i v a t e a G o v e r n m e n t t o a p p o i n t a c o m m i t t e e t o i n -q u i r e . A n d t h e s e , r a t h e r t h a n i t s t e c h n i c a l f u n c t i o n o f i n q u i r i n g , w o u l d s e e m t o b e m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s o f a r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n ' s r o l e v i s a v i s t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n . 13. Normally, Governments appoint committees of inquiry for one of four reasons. They appoint them to prepare for legislation, to illuminate a prob-21 lem, to forestall criticism, or to obtain support for proposed legislation. Those designed to prepare for legislation are used in a situation In which the Government recognizes the existence of a problem in a certain area, in-tends to do something about i t , and wishes to find the best possible solution. Those designed to illuminate a problem are appointed to obtain as much infor-mation and as many opinions as possible on a question about which the Govern-ment knows too l i t t l e to be able to develop a positive policy. Those appointed to forestall criticism are set up chiefly for the purpose of delaying action in an area in which the Government does not wish to legislate and yet about which there is a certain amount of public concern. Those designed to obtain support for proposed legislation are appointed when the Government has deter-mined its policy in a given area, but feels that the public is so l i t t l e aware of the necessity of this policy that its action may be criticized as unjusti-fied. In some cases more than one of these motives may be operative. Also, in some cases the investigation of a committee may lead to consequences un-intended by the Government which appointed i t . However, i t is comparatively safe to say that when a Government appoints a committee of inquiry, it does so primarily in order to obtain advice, to acquire information, to gain time or to generate support. These uses, particularly the latter two, argue strongly that it is the Executive theory which best explains the constitutional role of royal commis-sions. There is certainly no way of justifying the support-generating function in terms of the textbook interpretation. However, there is equally no possibil-ity of ruling out the idea that committees of inquiry exist, in part at least, as a means of conveying the desires of the people to the Government. Thus, the textbook interpretation cannot be entirely negated. And the Executive theory 14. could only be considered t o t a l l y v a l i d i f , and only i f , i t can be shown that these committees are designed to determine what i s i n the best i n t e r e s t s of the governed, regardless of what the governed desire. As long, however, as the consent of the governed i s required, the de-s i r e s of the people must be taken into consideration. And the procedure f o l -lowed by committees of inqui r y argues that t h i s i s part of t h e i r function. As w e l l as hearing testimony from government o f f i c i a l s and experts concerned with the topic under i n v e s t i g a t i o n , these committees normally accept evidence from " s e c r e t a r i e s , o f f i c i a l s , or other accredited representatives of the economic, 22 p o l i t i c a l or s o c i a l groups v i t a l l y concerned." Frequently they s o l i c i t testimony from lobby organizations. Only r a r e l y do they appear to r e s t r i c t t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s to a process of determining what would be best without also taking into consideration what i s desired. This leads to the obvious conclusion that the r o l e of r o y a l commissions i s not adequately explained by e i t h e r theory. Unquestionably,judging from the reasons for which Governments appoint committees to inquire, the Executive theory goes much further than the textbook one. But, because i t f a i l s to show that these committees do serve as channels of communication through which the governed may influence p o l i c y means that i t does not give a complete picture of the s i t u a t i o n . The c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e of r o y a l commissions i s not l i m i t e d simply to advising the Government and inf l u e n c i n g the public to accept i t s p o l i c i e s . I t i s also that of providing a means through which the p u b l i c , or at least a portion of the p u b l i c , can have an opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the governmental process and to influence l e g i s l a t i o n . Committees to inquire, a c t u a l l y , are one of the main channels through which i n t e r e s t groups are able to communicate t h e i r demands to the Government. Along with other advisory groups, they are also one of the major means by which the public i s given an opportunity to become involved i n the governmental pro-cess. According to S.E. Finer, "the form and functioning of B r i t i s h Government 15. i s predicated on the assumption that i t w i l l be advised, helped and c r i t i c i z e d 23 by the s p e c i a l i s t knowledge of interested p a r t i e s . " I f correct, t h i s i n i t -s e l f negates the idea that the Government e x i s t s as an e l i t e which alone deter-mines the popular i n t e r e s t . By providing information and advice to the Govern-ment, i n t e r e s t groups and interested i n d i v i d u a l s are given an opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n government and to influence decisions. By providing a channel through which they may do t h i s , committees to inquire are, i n e f f e c t , opening the way for a type of p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy. The r e s u l t i s not government by the people i n the sense that a l l government actions a r i s e as a r e s u l t of demands from, or are p o s t i v e l y Banctioned by, a majority of the people. Yet the r e s u l t i s government by. the people to the extent that the major i n t e r e s t groupings within the population are frequently the sources of information on which p o l i c y i s based and are often given an opportunity to take part i n d e c i s i o n making. The extent to which the advice and opinions of the representatives from inte r e s t groups are u t i l i z e d i n formulating p o l i c y i s the c r u c i a l factor i n determining the degree to which committees of in q u i r y provide a channel through which the people r e a l l y do influence p o l i c y . But even i f t h e i r advice i s not a c t u a l l y accepted, i t cannot be denied that such bodies o f f e r an o u t l e t for 24 that advice. This i n i t s e l f means that they act as a method by which the desires of the people can be communicated to the Government. In other words, i t q u a l i f i e s them to be considered representative i n s t i t u t i o n s , even i n the textbook sense of the term. Yet they are c e r t a i n l y not representative i n t h i s sense e x c l u s i v e l y . The conclusions presented by committees to inquire are expected to be based on the impressions of the commissioners from t h e i r own investigations of the s i t u a t i o n , as w e l l as on the advice and opinions expressed by interested wit-nesses. In formulating recommendations, commissioners must bear i n mind what 1 6 . t h e y b e l i e v e t o . b e f e a s i b l e a n d i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f a l l c o n c e r n e d , a s w e l l a s w h a t i n d i v i d u a l w i t n e s s e s d e s i r e . F r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f r e p r e s e n t a -t i o n t h e o r y , t h e n , c o m m i t t e e s t o i n q u i r e m u s t b e c l a s s e d a s b o d i e s r e p r e s e n t -i n g b o t h t h e i n t e r e s t s a n d t h e d e s i r e s o f t h o s e w h o m t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i l l a f f e c t . T h e y a r e , i n e s s e n c e , d e s i g n e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h a t w i l l b e i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t , b u t t o b a s e t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s o f w h a t t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t i s i n p a r t o n w h a t i s g e n e r a l l y d e s i r e d . F r o m t h i s , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e s e c o m m i t t e e s a r e n o t e x p e c t e d s i m p l y t o r e f l e c t t h e w i l l o f t h e m a j o r i t y . R a t h e r , t h e y a r e i n t e n d e d t o d e t e r m i n e f o r t h e G o v e r n m e n t w h a t w i l l b e s t s e r v e t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a n d b e a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e m a j o r i t y . T h e y a r e , i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , a m e t h o d o f s e c u r i n g " p o l i t i c a l h a r m o n y b e t w e e n t h e C r o w n a n d i t s 2 5 s u b j e c t s " . A n d , a s s u c h , t h e y c a n b e s e e n a s t h e c r e a t i o n o f c o n v e n t i o n d e -2 6 s i g n e d t o s e c u r e t h a t h a r m o n y . S i r I v o r J e n n i n g s m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e r e i s " a c l o s e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p o l i c i e s f o l l o w e d b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e g e n e r a l i d e a s o f t h e m a j o r i t y 2 7 o f t h e e l e c t o r a t e " . I f t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h i s c o n s e n s u s i s t h e a i m o f t h e 2 8 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s y s t e m , a n d i f i t i s t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n ( a s J e n n i n g s a p p e a r s t o s u g g e s t i t i s ) , t h e n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c o m m i t t e e s o f i n q u i r y a n d t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i s o n e i n w h i c h t h e c o m m i t t e e s s e r v e t o f u r -t h e r t h i s c o n s e n s u s . T h e i r r o l e i s t h a t o f p r o v i d i n g a m e a n s t h r o u g h w h i c h c o n s e n s u s c a n b e r e a c h e d . T h e r e i s a s t r o n g a r g u m e n t i n s u p p o r t o f t h e i d e a t h a t B r i t i s h d e m o c r a c y i s n e i t h e r s t r i c t l y g o v e r n m e n t b_y_ t h e p e o p l e n o r g o v e r n m e n t f o r t h e p e o p l e . I t i s , r a t h e r , r e s p o n s i b l e g o v e r n m e n t , b o t h i n t h e s e n s e o f b e i n g r e s p o n s i v e a n d r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e p e o p l e o f t h e c o u n t r y . I f t h i s i s t r u e , b y a c t i n g a s a c h a n n e l w h i c h b o t h a l l o w s t h e p e o p l e t o g i v e t h e i r o p i n i o n s a n d a d v i c e t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t , a n d w h i c h p e r m i t s t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o o b t a i n t h a t a d v i c e , a n d t o 17. g e n e r a t e s u p p o r t f o r o r d e l a y a c t i o n s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s s e r v e b o t h t h e e n d s o f r e s p o n s i b i l -i t y a n d r e s p o n s i v e n e s s . A n d , b y p r o v i d i n g a c h a n n e l t h r o u g h w h i c h i n t e r e s t g r o u p s m a y e x p r e s s t h e i r o p i n i o n s , s u c h c o m m i s s i o n s a c t a s a m e a n s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e g o v e r n m e n t c a n c a r r y o u t t h e c o n v e n t i o n o f c o n s u l t i n g i n t e r e s t s b e -2 9 f o r e e n a c t i n g s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . E x c e p t i n t h e c a s e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m m i s s i o n s , t h e y d o n o t t h e m s e l v e s a c t u p o n t h e i r o w n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . T h e r e -f o r e , t h e y i n n o w a y i m p i n g e u p o n t h e s u p r e m a c y o f P a r l i a m e n t o r t h e r u l e o f l a w . R a t h e r , t h e y s e r v e a s a n a i d t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s a n d c o n v e n t i o n s w h i c h a l l o w t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n t o f u n c t i o n s m o o t h l y . O f t h e v a r i o u s t y p e s o f c o m m i t t e e s t o i n q u i r e , t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n i s u s u a l l y s i n g l e d o u t a s t h e m o s t p r e t i g e o u s . I t i s , i n t h e w o r d s o f A . P . 3 0 H e r b e r t , " t h e A s c o t o f t h e s p o r t o f i n q u i r y " . Y e t , i n t e r m s o f i t s c o n -s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e , t h e t y p e o f s u b j e c t i t e x a m i n e s , i t s p r o c e d u r e a n d i t s c o m p o s i t i o n , t h e r e i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n i t a n d e i t h e r t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l 3 1 o r i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e . O n l y i t s t i t l e , t h e r e l a t i v e i n f r e q u e n c y o f i t s u s e , a n d t h e m a n n e r o f i t s a p p o i n t m e n t d i s t i n g u i s h i t f r o m o t h e r c o m -m i t t e e s o f i n q u i r y a n d g i v e i t t h e a d d i t i o n a l p r e s t i g e w h i c h j u s t i f i e s i t s c o n t i n u e d u s e a s a s e p a r a t e t y p e o f i n v e s t i g a t i v e t e c h n i q u e . A s C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n p o i n t o u t , t h e n a m e • c o m m i s s i o n ' i m p l i e s a b o d y t o w h i c h a u t h o r i t y h a s b e e n d e l e g a t e d , w h i l e ' c o m m i t t e e ' s i m p l y i n d i c a t e s " a s e c t i o n o r s u b d i v i s i o n o f a l a r g e r b o d y t o w h i c h t h e c o m m i t t e e . . . i s r e s -3 2 p o n s i b l e . " R o y a l a n d s t a t u t o r y c o m m i s s i o n s , a l o n e a m o n g t h e t y p e s o f c o m -m i t t e e s t o i n q u i r e , c a r r y t h e l a b e l ' c o m m i s s i o n ' r a t h e r t h a n ' c o m m i t t e e ' . T h i s fcrmal d i s t i n c t i o n , a u g m e n t e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e c a s e o f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n b y t h e f a c t t h a t i t s c o m p l e t e t i t l e i m p l i e s t h a t t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n h a s b e e n d e l e g a t e d i t s a u t h o r i t y b y t h e C r o w n , h e l p s t o e n h a n c e i t s s t a n d i n g i n t h e e y e s o f t h e p u b l i c . 18. In the 'Golden Era of Royal Commissions' — coincident roughly with the middle third of the nineteenth century - - royal commissions were ap-pointed very frequently. For the period of 1851-1860, for example, they were created at a rate of nearly eight a year. Since then, however, there has been a gradual decline in their use, and the average number appointed 33 presently i s only about one per year. (See Table I below). At the same time, the use of departmental and interdepartmental committees has markedly increased. This makes royal commissions comparatively rare among committees to inquire; and this r a r i t y , combined with the reputation for constructive recommendations which this form of inquiry developed during i t s 'Golden E r a ' , serves to give the royal commission a somewhat higher status than that of other committees of inquiry. TABLE I NUMBER OF ROYAL COMMISSIONS, ANNUAL AVERAGE, BY DECADES, 1801-1970 Source: Hugh M. Clokie and J . William Robinson, Royal Commissions of Inquiry:  The Significance of Investigations in B r i t i s h Pol i t i cs (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1932), p. 196. 19. T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e g r e a t e r p r e s t i g e o f r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s , h o w e v e r , i s t h e m e t h o d b y w h i c h t h e y a r e a p p o i n t e d . W h i l e d e p a r t m e n t a l a n d i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e s a r e u s u a l l y a p p o i n t e d b y a n 3 4 i n d i v i d u a l m i n i s t e r o r b y T r e a s u r y m i n u t e , r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s a r e f o r t h e 35 m o s t p a r t c r e a t e d b y r o y a l w a r r a n t . T h i s i s n o t o f m u c h r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a s f a r a s t h e p o w e r s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l b o d i e s a r e c o n c e r n e d , y e t t h e a p p o i n t -m e n t b y w a r r a n t d o e s a p p e a r t o l e n d g r e a t e r d i g n i t y t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t i n g b o d y c r e a t e d b y i t . A l s o , b e c a u s e i t t e c h n i c a l l y d i s a s s o c i a t e s i t f r o m t h e p o l i t -i c a l p a r t o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t a n d a f f i l i a t e s i t w i t h t h e C r o w n , t h e r o y a l w a r -r a n t g i v e s t h e b o d y a p p o i n t e d b y i t a n a p p e a r a n c e o f g r e a t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e t h a n d o e s a n y o t h e r m e t h o d . C o m b i n e d , t h e r e s u l t a n t d i g n i t y a n d a u r a o f i n -d e p e n d e n c e w h i c h t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n e n j o y s , p u t s i t i n a p o s i t i o n o f h i g h s t a n d i n g i n t h e e y e s o f t h e p u b l i c . H o w e v e r , t h e e l e v a t e d s t a t u s n o w a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n f o r m o f i n q u i r y i s b a s e d l a r g e l y o n t h e s e t e c h n i c a l i t i e s . T h e r e i s n o c o n -c l u s i v e b o d y o f e v i d e n c e w h i c h i n d i c a t e s i t t o b e d e r i v e d f r o m e x c e l l e n c e i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e o r e v e n f r o m r e c e n t s u c c e s s i n m a k i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h i c h w e r e u t i l i z e d b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t . I t s p r e s t i g e , i n f a c t , r e s t s u p o n m e a g r e f o u n d a t i o n s . A n d , i n d e e d , i t s r i g h t t o b e c o n s i d -e r e d t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t t y p e o f b o d y e n g a g e d i n f u l f i l l i n g i t s p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e i s o p e n t o q u e s t i o n . 3 6 N o t o n l y i n s a t i r i c a l p o e m s , b u t a l s o i n P a r l i a m e n t , i n t h e p a g e s o f s c h o l a r l y j o u r n a l s , a n d i n t h e n a t i o n a l P r e s s , c r i t i c i s m o f p a r t i c u l a r r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s a n d o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n p r o c e d u r e g e n e r a l l y i s v e r y m u c h i n e v i d e n c e . I n P a r l i a m e n t , f o r e x a m p l e , i t h a s b e e n a r g u e d t h a t " a R o y a l C o m -m i s s i o n i s g e n e r a l l y a p p o i n t e d , n o t s o m u c h f o r d i g g i n g u p t h e t r u t h a s f o r 3 7 d i g g i n g i t i n . " I n t h e p a g e s o f P u b l i c L a w , J e n i f e r H a r t h a s c a s t i g a t e d 3 8 t h e r e c e n t R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P o l i c e , a n d a s s e r t e d t h a t R e f l e c t i o n o n i t s d e f i c i e n c i e s m a k e s o n e w o n d e r w h e t h e r R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s a s we k n o w t h e m t o d a y a r e t h e b e s t m e t h o d , o r e v e n a g o o d m e t h o d , o f t a c k l i n g p r o b l e m s o f t h i s k i n d . I n t h e E c o n o m i s t » t h e S o c i a l i s t L e a d e r a n d t h e New S t a t e s m a n a n d N a t i o n c r i t i c i s m o f t h e l a t e s t R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n M a r r i a g e a n d D i v o r c e w a s b o t h 39 f i e r c e a n d d e v a s t a t i n g . S u c h r e m a r k s , o f c o u r s e , a f f o r d n o c h a l l e n g e t o t h e p r e s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e w h i c h t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n i s d e s i g n e d t o f u l f i l l i s b o t h n e c e s s a r y a n d i m p o r t a n t . H o w e v e r , t h e y d o r a i s e t h e q u e s t i o n o f h o w a d e q u a t e l y r e c e n t c o m m i s s i o n s h a v e s u c c e e d e d i n f u l f i l l i n g t h a t r o l e . T h e y s u g g e s t t h a t t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s p r e s t i g e o u s p o s i t i o n i n t h e h i e r a r c h y o f c o m -m i t t e e s t o i n q u i r e h a s n o t b e e n e a r n e d . A n d , a t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e y t e n d f u r t h e r t o e r o d e t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s p r e s t i g e a n d t o d e p r i v e i t o f t h e o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s i t f r o m o t h e r t y p e s o f c o m m i t t e e s o f i n q u i r y . T e c h n i c a l i t i e s a l o n e a r e i n a d e q u a t e b a s e s f o r t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e p u t a t i o n . O n l y b y s u c c e s s f u l l y f u l f i l l i n g i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e c a n c o m m i s s i o n s l e g i t i m a t e l y j u s t i f y t h e i r p o s i t i o n a n d t h e i r e x i s t e n c e a s a s e p a r a t e t y p e o f i n v e s t i g a t i v e t e c h n i q u e . T h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r e x a m i n e s h o w w e l l , i n f a c t , t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n h a s b e e n f u l f i l l i n g i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e . A n d , p r e s u m i n g t h a t s o m e a t l e a s t o f t h e c r i t i c i s m d i r e c t e d a t i t i s j u s t i f i e d , t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s s t u d y c o n c e n t r a t e s o n d e t e r m i n i n g w h a t c a n - b e d o n e t o i m p r o v e t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s a n d h e l p i t t o r e t a i n — o r r e g a i n — i t s p l a c e a s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f t h e a d h o c c h a n n e l s b e t w e e n t h e p u b l i c a n d W h i t e h a l l . 21. 1 E.C.S. Wade and A.W. Bradley, Constitutional Law (7th ed. ; London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1966), pp. 218-219. 2 Commissions have been used for other purposes. The 1919 and 1946 Royal Commissions on Awards to Inventors, for example, were real ly executive and jud ic ia l in nature. The six semi-permanent commissions, the Royal Commissions on Ancient Monuments (England), Ancient and Histor ica l Monuments (Scotland), Ancient Monuments (Wales and Monmouthshire), Histor ical Manuscripts, Fine Arts (England), and Fine Arts (Scotland), have existed for a number of years and function either as essentially administrative or ad-visory bodies. With the exception of the two Royal Commissions on Awards to Inventors, none of these commissions w i l l be discussed here. 3 The minutes of evidence are frequently published. However, there i s no rule governing this procedure and in some instances, for example the Royal Commission on Rhodesia and Nyasaland, this is not done. 4 The only commission i n recent years whose report was not published in f u l l almost immediately subsequent to i t s presentation was the West India Royal Commission. It reported i n December of 1939 and, while i t s recommendations were published (Cmd. 6174),the whole report was not published u n t i l 1945 (Cmd. 6607). 5 The only exceptions to this since 1935 are the Royal Commis-sions on Awards to Inventors. They were essentially administrative bodies and were empowered by the government to make awards on the basis of principles which they had determined. 6 Hugh M. Clokie and J . William Robinson, Royal Commissions of  Inquiry: The Significance of Investigations i n B r i t i s h Pol i t i cs (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1937), p. 151. The fact that this was also recognized by the government is i l lustrated by the following statement made i n Parliament by Prime Minister Baldwin i n November, 1936: "I would l ike to emphasize . . . that a Royal Commission in this country is an entirely independent body, un-controlled by His Majesty's Government, and perfectly free to report i n any sense that i t thinks f i t within the Terms of Reference." Great Br i ta in , Parliament, Parliamentary Debates (House of Commons), 5th ser. , v o l . 317 (3 November-20 November 1936), p. 31. [kll further references to Parliamentary Debates w i l l be cited as follows: 317 H.C.  Deb. 31, 3 November 1936.7 2 2 . 7 O n 2 7 A p r i l 1 9 6 6 , P r i m e M i n i s t e r W i l s o n a n n o u n c e d t h e d i s s o -l u t i o n o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P e n a l S y s t e m i n E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s a n d i n d i c a t e d t h a t h i s G o v e r n m e n t h a d d i s s o l v e d t h e c o m m i s -s i o n a g a i n s t t h e w i s h e s o f i t s c h a i r m a n a n d a m a j o r i t y o f i t s ( r e m a i n i n g ) m e m b e r s . 7 2 7 H . C . D e b . 7 0 4 - 5 , 2 7 A p r i l 1 9 6 6 , 8 G r e a t B r i t a i n , ' R e p o r t o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t a l C o m m i t t e e o n t h e P r o c e d u r e o f R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s ' ( C d . 5 2 3 5 ) , 1 9 1 0 , p . 1 2 . 9 A . H . B i r c h , T h e I d e a o f R e s p o n s i b l e G o v e r n m e n t ( Y o r k s h i r e : U n i v e r s i t y o f H u l l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . 1 7 . 1 0 T h e t e r m ' t e x t - b o o k t h e o r y ' o r ' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ' i s u s e d i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s t h e o r y b y R . V . V e r n o n , ' I n t r o d u c t i o n , ' i n A d -v i s o r y B o d i e s : A S t u d y o f t h e i r U s e s i n R e l a t i o n t o C e n t r a l G o v e r n -m e n t 1 9 1 9 - 1 9 3 9 , e d . b y R . V . V e r n o n a n d N . M a n s e r g h ( L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n a n d U n w i n , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 2 2 , a n d b y L » S . A m e r y , T h o u g h t s o n t h e  C o n s t i t u t i o n ( 2 n d e d . ; O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 1 3 . M o s t o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f b o t h t h e o r i e s i s b a s e d o n A m e r y , T h o u g h t s o n  t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , p p . 1 - 7 0 , a n d A . H . B i r c h , R e p r e s e n t a t i v e a n d R e s -p o n s i b l e G o v e r n m e n t ( L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n a n d U n w i n , 1 9 6 4 ) , C h a p -t e r X I I I . 11 V e r n o n , ' I n t r o d u c t i o n , ' p . 2 2 . 12 W a d e a n d B r a d l e y , C o n s t i t u t i o n a l L a v ; , p p . 5 4 - 5 . 13 T h e d i v i s i o n b e t w e e n t h e o r i e s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w h i c h a s s u m e t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o a c t a s h e b e l i e v e s h i s c o n s t i t u e n c y ( o r t h e n a t i o n ) d e s i r e s a n d t h o s e w h i c h a s s u m e h i m t o a c t i n w h a t h e b e -l i e v e s t o b e t h e i n t e r e s t s o f h i s c o n s t i t u e n c y ( o r t h e n a t i o n ) i s c l e a r l y b r o u g h t o u t i n J . R o l a n d P i n n o c k , ' P o l i t i c a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n : A n O v e r v i e w , ' i n R e p r e s e n t a t i o n , e d . b y J . R o l a n d P i n n o c k a n d J o h n W . C h a p m a n (New Y o r k : A t h e r t o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , p . 1 2 . 1 4 A m e r y , T h o u g h t s o n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , p . 3 1 . 15 I b i d . , p . 2 8 . 16 I b i d . , p . 1 4 . 17 I b i d . , pp. 20 -1 . 1 8 K . C . W h e a r e , G o v e r n m e n t b y C o m m i t t e e ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) , p p . 6 8 - 9 . A c c o r d i n g t o W h e a r e , t h e f o u r m o s t c o m -m o n t y p e s o f c o m m i t t e e s t o i n q u i r e a r e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s , d e p a r t -m e n t a l , i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l a n d s e l e c t c o m m i t t e e s . 1 9 T h e r e h a v e b e e n e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s . N e i t h e r t h e r o y a l c o m -m i s s i o n s o n a w a r d s t o i n v e n t o r s n o r t h e l a t e r r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n o n e q u a l p a y w e r e , i n f a c t , a s k e d t o p r o v i d e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . I n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e , t h i s w a s b e c a u s e t h e c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e i n e s s e n c e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d n o t a d v i s o r y . I n t h e s e c o n d , i t w a s a r e s u l t o f t h e f a c t t h a t , w h i l e t h e G o v e r n m e n t p a t e n t l y h a d n o i n t e n t i o n o f i m m e d i a t e l y i n t r o d u c i n g e q u a l p a y , i t w a s n o n e t h e l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h a t e x a c t l y s u c h a p o l i c y w o u l d c o s t * 2 3 . 2 0 I b i d . , p . 6 9 . 2 1 A l m o s t e v e r y o n e w h o d i s c u s s e s r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s o r c o m m i t t e e s o f i n q u i r y s u g g e s t s a s i m i l a r l i s t o f r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r u s e . C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s , p p . 1 2 3 - 1 2 4 , c i t e f i v e s u c h r e a s o n s : " ( 1 ) T o p r e p a r e t h e w a y f o r a p r e d e t e r m i n e d G o v e r n m e n t p o l i c y ; ( 2 ) t o a s c e r t a i n i n a m o r e o r l e s s " e x p e r t " f a s h i o n t h e b e s t o r m o s t f e a -s i b l e s o l u t i o n t o a p r o b l e m t h e G o v e r n m e n t d e s i r e s t o t a c k l e b u t o n w h i c h i t h a s m a d e n o f i n a l d e c i s i o n ; ( 3 ) t o s h i f t t o a r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e b o d y t h e t a s k o f s o l v i n g s o m e m a j o r e c o n o m i c o r s o c i a l c o n t r o -v e r s y w h i c h t h e C a b i n e t d o e s n o t f e e l c a l l e d u p o n t o s e t t l e ; ( 4 ) t o f o r e s t a l l p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m o r p r e v e n t a n t i c i p a t e d p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e ; o r , l a s t l y , ( 5 ) t o p o s t p o n e a s l o n g a s p o s s i b l e t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a q u e s t i o n d i s t a s t e f u l t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f t h e d a y , a n d a t t h e s a m e t i m e t o p a c i f y s o m e p o l i t i c a l l y p o w e r f u l s e c t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c . " J a c k A . R h o d e s , ' L e g i s l a t i v e S e r v i c e s i n t h e B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t , ' T h e S o u t h w e s t e r n , S o c i a l S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , X X X I I I ( J u n e , 1 9 5 2 ) , 2 9 , g i v e s a l i s t a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l t o C l o k i e ' s a n d R o b i n s o n ' s b u t a d d s " t o m e e t a n e m e r g e n c y c r i s i s r e q u i r i n g i m m e d i a t e a c t i o n " — a u s e w h i c h s e e m s m o s t u n l i k e l y a n d f o r w h i c h t h e r e h a s c e r t a i n l y b e e n n o e x a m p l e i n t h i s c e n t u r y . C h a r l e s J . H a n s e r , G u i d e t o D e - c i s i o n : T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n i n t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y ( T o t o w a , New J e r s e y : T h e B e d m i n i s t e r P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p p . 1 4 0 - 1 6 5 , d e v o t e s a c h a p t e r t o t h e f u n c t i o n s o f r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s a n d ( p . 1 4 1 ) l i s t s f o u r " p u r p o s e s f o r g o v e r n m e n t a p p o i n t m e n t " : ( 1 ) ' ' t o r e s o l v e p o l i c y d i s a g r e e m e n t " ; ( 2 ) " t o g a i n s u p p o r t f o r a p o l i c y " ; ( 3 ) " t o o v e r c o m e d i s t r u s t " ; a n d ( 4 ) " t o a v o i d p r e m a t u r e c o m m i t t m e n t ; t o s a t i s f y a g i t a t i n g g r o u p . " S o m e w h a t m o r e f a c e t i o u s l y , M . G r e e n w o o d , ' O n t h e V a l u e o f R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s . , ' J o u r n a l o f t h e R o y a l S t a t i s t i c a l  S o c i e t y , ( P a r t I I I , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 3 9 9 , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s u s e o f c o m m i s s i o n s : " ( 1 ) . . . g i v e s a p l e a s a n t s e n s e o f c i v i c w o r t h t o a n u m b e r o f e l d e r l y p e r s o n s w i t h o u t r e g u l a r e m p l o y m e n t ; ( 2 ) . . . s a v e s t h e t i m e o f t h o s e c i v i l s e r v a n t s w h o d r a f t a n s w e r s t o p a r l i a -m e n t a r y q u e s t i o n s . M a n y h o n o u r a b l e m e m b e r s c a n b e p e r s u a d e d t o a w a i t a n s w e r s u n t i l t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n h a s r e p o r t e d ; a n d ( 3 ) . . . s t i m u l a t e s t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f t y p i s t s , s t e n o g r a p h e r s a n d p r i n t e r s . " 2 2 C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , p . 1 8 1 . 2 3 S . E . F i n e r , ' T h e P o l i t i c a l P o w e r o f P r i v a t e C a p i t a l , P a r t I I , ' S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , n e w s e r i e s , I V ( J u l y 1 9 5 6 ) , 1 4 . 2 4 D a v i d A . G . B i r n i e , ' A S y s t e m s A n a l y s i s o f R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s i n C a n a d a ' ( u n p u b l i s h e d g r a d u a t i n g e s s a y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 3 2 - 5 6 , d i s c u s s e s t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s a s a m e a n s o f d i m i n i s h i n g t h e s t r e s s o n t h e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m . W i t h o u t m a k i n g e x t e n s i v e a t t i t u d i n a l s u r v e y s o f p e o p l e w h o h a v e a p p e a r e d a s w i t n e s s e s b e f o r e c o m m i s s i o n s , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s a y h o w f a r t h e m e r e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s t h e i r o p i n i o n s g o e s t o -w a r d s s a t i s f y i n g t h e i r d e m a n d s . H o w e v e r , i t i s o b v i o u s , a s B i r n i e m a i n t a i n s , t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t d o e s t e n d t o u s e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s t o a l l e v i a t e s t r e s s . T h e r e f o r e , i t s e e m s l i k e l y t h a t t h e g o v e r n m e n t , a t l e a s t , i s a s s u m i n g t h a t r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s a r e c h a n n e l s t h r o u g h w h i c h d e m a n d s c a n b e m a d e a n d t h a t t h e a c t o f m a k i n g t h e d e m a n d ( o r t h e a b i l i t y t o m a k e i t ) w i l l r e d u c e t h e s t r e s s o n t h e s y s t e m . 24. 25 E.C.S. Wade, 'Introduction,' in A.V. Dicey, An Introduction  to the Study of the Law of the Constitution, ed. by E.C.S. Wade (10th ed.; London: Macmillan & Co., Ltd., 1965), p. c l v i i i . 26 Ibid.. Cf. also Wilson's statement re: The Royal Commission on Quarter Sessions and Assizes, 733 H.C. Deb. 1886-7, 11 August 1966. 27 Sir Ivor Jennings, The British Constitution (4th ed.;Cambridge: The University Press, 1962), p. 188. 28 Marek Sobolewski, 'Electors and Representatives,' in Represen- tation, ed. by J. Roland Pinnock and John W. Chapman (New York: Atherton Press, 1968), pp. 106-107, maintains that the creation of 11 a certain similarity between the course of government policy and the attitudes of the people interested in i t " is the political aim of the process of representation. While this aim could be attri-buted equally well to the clever use of propaganda by the govern-ment, i t does also express the theoretical purpose for the mainten-ance of representative institutions. 29 Sir Ivor Jennings, The Law and the Constitution (4th ed.; London: University of London Press, 1952), p. 107. 30 A.P. Herbert, Anything But Action? (London: Barrie & Rockliff, 1960), p. 23. 31 Most of the writers who have discussed royal commissions agree that the only fundamental difference between them and departmental and interdepartmental committees is one of prestige, cf. Wheare, Government by Committee, p. 69; Clokie and Robinson, Royal Commis- sions.p. 207; R.V. Vernon, 'Introduction,' p. 24; and Wade and Bradley, Constitutional Law, p. 218. Hanser, Guide to Decision, p. 36 and Rhodes, 'Legislative Services in the British Parliament,' p. 36, both cite prestige as one of the main d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g f a c t o r s , but they also tend to exaggerate the distinction somewhat by stat-ing that there is a fundamental legal difference in that departmental and interdepartmental committees can be terminated at the will of the minister while royal commissions cannot. As has been demonstra-ted by the case of the Royal Commission on the Penal System in England and Wales, royal commissions also can be terminated. Select committees also are 'committoes .to inquir---' . But th_y differ from departmental and interdepartmenal committees and royal commissions in their composition and, to some extent, their areas of investigation. They are always made up of members of one or the other of the Houses of Parliament, and they tend presently to be used largely for investigating questions on procedure, breach of privilege, nationalized industries and the delegation of legislation. The scope, subject matter and composition of royal commissions will be discussed in the next chapter. Their procedure is dealt with very thoroughly in Clokie and Robinson, Royal Commissions, pp. 149-190. 25. 32 C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s , p . 150. W h e a r e , G o v e r n m e n t b y C o m m i t t e e , p . 69, r e f e r r i n g t o t h i s p a s s a g e , c o m m e n t s t h a t C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n " a t t a c h t o o m u c h i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e d i f f e r -e n c e b e t w e e n a r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n a n d a d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e o f i n q u i r y . " H o w e v e r , o n p . 207, C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n s t a t e t h a t " i n r e a l i t y t h e y / d e p a r t m e n t a l a n d i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e s _ 7 a r e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o f I n q u i r y i n a l l b u t f o r m a l a p p o i n t m e n t , " w h i c h m a k e s W h e a r e ' s q u e r y o f t h e e a r l i e r p a s s a g e l e s s r e a l i s t i c . 33 T h e r e i s a n e x c e l l e n t d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y d e c l i n e i n t h e u s e o f r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s i n C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s , p p . 191-217. 34 T h e r e h a v e b e e n e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s . O c c a s i o n a l l y d e p a r t m e n t a l a n d i n t e r d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e s h a v e b e e n a p p o i n t e d b y r o y a l w a r r a n t . 35 C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s , p . 152, d i s c u s s t h e v a r i o u s m e a n s b y w h i c h r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s h a v e b e e n a p p o i n t e d . W h i l e t h e y h a v e i n t h e p a s t i n f r e q u e n t l y b e e n a p p o i n t e d b y T r e a s u r y m i n u t e , t h e r e i s a n i n c r e a s i n g t e n d e n c y t o u s e t h e r o y a l w a r r a n t m e t h o d . 36 C f . A p p e n d i x I . 37 344 H . C . D e b . 649, 23 F e b r u a r y 1939. 38 J e n i f e r H a r t , ' S o m e R e f l e c t i o n s o n t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P o l i c e P u b l i c L a w ( A u t u m n , 1963), p . 303. 39 E c o n o m i s t , M a r c h 24, 1956, p . 640; a n d H a n s e r , G u i d e t o  D e c i s i o n , p p . 100-1. C H A P T E R I I R E C E N T R O Y A L C O M M I S S I O N E I V E S T I G A T I O N S : A K E V A L U A T I O N S i n c e J a n u a r y o f 1 9 3 5 , t h i r t y - s e v e n r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s h a v e p r e s e n t e d r e p o r t s . F r o m t h i s g r o u p a n u m b e r o f i n d i v i d u a l c o m m i s s i o n s h a v e b e e n s i n g l e d o u t a n d e x a m i n e d a n d e i t h e r c o n d e m n e d o r p r a i s e d . T h e p r a c t i c e o f a p p o i n t i n g c o m m i s s i o n s h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d a n d b o t h c r i t i c i z e d a n d a p p l a u d e d . B u t n e v e r d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d h a s a n y o n e s e r i o u s l y q u e r i e d h o w s u c c e s s f u l r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s h a v e b e e n a s a f o r m o f i n q u i r y o r h o w a d e q u a t e l y t h e y h a v e p e r f o r m e d t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e o f p r o m o t i n g c o n s e n s u s b e t w e e n t h e g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e g o v e r n e d . Y e t t h e i r c o n t i n u e d u s e f u l n e s s a s a t y p e o f i n q u i r y a n d t h e i r a b i l i t y t o f u l f i l l t h e i r c o n s t i t u -t i o n a l r o l e a r e b o t h d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e i r m a i n t a i n i n g a r e p u t a t i o n f o r a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e e y e s o f t h e p u b l i c . T h e r e f o r e , i t w o u l d s e e m i m p e r a t i v e t h a t s o m e a t t e m p t b e m a d e t o a s s e s s t h e i r o v e r a l l p e r f o r m a n c e . C r i t e r i a P r o b a b l y t h e m a j o r f a c t o r w h i c h h a s m i t i g a t e d a g a i n s t u n d e r t a k i n g s u c h a s t u d y i s t h e p r o b l e m o f e s t a b l i s h i n g c r i t e r i a o n w h i c h t o b a s e c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t a s e r i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l c o m m i s s i o n s . T h e m o s t o b v i o u s m e t h o d o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s o f a c o m m i s s i o n i s t o c o n s i d e r w h a t p e r c e n t a g e o f i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s h a s b e e n p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c p e r i o d o f t i m e . I f , f o r e x a m p l e , a c o m m i s s i o n d o e s m a k e d e f i n i t e p r o p o s a l s a n d i f t h e s e a r e c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d , t h e r e i s a s t r o n g a r g u m e n t f o r a s s u m i n g t h a t s u c h a c o m m i s s i o n h a s n o t b e e n s u c c e s s f u l . B u t i s t h i s i n v a r i a b l y t h e c a s e ? A n d m o r e i m p o r t a n t , i s i t p o s s i b l e t o a s s u m e t h e r e v e r s e - - t h a t s i m p l y b e c a u s e a c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 27; a r e e n a c t e d i t i s n e c e s s a r i l y a s u c c e s s f u l c o m m i s s i o n ? U n t i l i t c a n b e c l e a r l y d e t e r m i n e d w h a t i s m e a n t b y t h e t e r m 1 s u c c e s s ' , t h e a n s w e r s t o b o t h q u e s t i o n s m u s t b e ' n o ' • I f a G o v e r n m e n t s e t s u p a c o m m i s s i o n i n o r d e r t o f o r e s t a l l c r i t i c i s m o f i t s f a i l u r e t o t a k e a c t i o n i n a s p e c i f i c a r e a , a n d i f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s u c c e e d s i n f o r e s t a l l i n g s u c h c r i t i c i s m , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t d o e s n o t e n a c t t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s d o e s n o t m e a n t h a t t h e c o m m i s s i o n w a s i n a l l r e s p e c t s u n s u c c e s s f u l . Q u i t e t h e c o n t r a r y , i n t e r m s o f w h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t e x p e c t e d o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n , i t w a s u n d e n i a b l y a s u c c e s s . L i k e w i s e , e v e n w h e n a c o m m i s s i o n m a k e s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h i c h a r e c a r r i e d o u t , i f t h e e n a c t m e n t o f t h o s e r e c o m m e n -d a t i o n s f a i l s t o s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m f o r w h i c h t h e y w e r e d e s i g n e d , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o j u s t i f y t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e c o m m i s s i o n w a s s u c c e s s f u l . F r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h o s e whom i t s p r o p o s a l s a f f e c t e d , s u c h a c o m m i s s i o n c a n o n l y b e c o n s i d e r e d a n a b j e c t f a i l u r e . T h e d i f f i c u l t y d o e s n o t e n d h e r e . T h e r e h a v e b e e n c o m m i s s i o n s s e t u p e s s e n t i a l l y t o i l l u m i n a t e a p r o b l e m , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e S . o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n P o p u l a t i o n ( 1 9 4 4 - 4 9 ) , w h i c h h a v e m a d e f e w e n a c t a b l e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . O t h e r c o m m i s s i o n s , s u c h a s t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n M a r r i a g e a n d D i v o r c e ( 1 9 5 1 - 5 5 ) h a v e p r e s e n t e d s p l i t r e p o r t s . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e M a r r i a g e a n d D i v o r c e C o m m i s s i o n , h a l f o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s ' r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e a c c e p t e d f o r o v e r t e n y e a r s , a n d t h e n t h e o t h e r h a l f 1 s w e r e e n a c t e d . I f s u c c e s s i s t o b e m e a s u r e d i n t e r m s o f t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f a c o m m i s s i o n ' s p r o p o s a l s , h a l f o f t h a t c o m m i s s i o n m u s t c e r t a i n l y b e r e g a r d e d a s h a v i n g b e e n s u c c e s s f u l . B u t w h i c h h a l f ? O b v i o u s l y , e v e n w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r o b l e m o f h o w m u c h t i m e c a n e l a p s e b e t w e e n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n a n d e n a c t m e n t , d e t e r m i n i n g s u c c e s s f u l n e s s o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s c a r r i e d o u t l e a v e s s o m e t h i n g t o b e d e s i r e d . H o w e v e r , n o o t h e r p u r e l y e m p i r i c a l m e t h o d r e a d i l y s u g g e s t s 2 3 . i t s e l f . T h e r e f o r e , s i n c e o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s i s c l e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e , a n y a t t e m p t a t a s s e s s m e n t m u s t b e b a s e d t o s o m e e x t e n t a t l e a s t o n s u b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a ; F a c t o r s n o t r e a d i l y s u s c e p t i b l e t o e m p i r i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n , s u c h a s t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h e n a c t m e n t o f a c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s h a s s e r v e d t o a m e l i o r a t e t h e s i t u a t i o n w h i c h p r o m p t e d i t s a p p o i n t m e n t a n d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e p o r t h a s p r o v i d e d v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e p u b l i c , m u s t d e f i n i t e l y b e t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a -t i o n i f a n a c c u r a t e a s s e s s m e n t i s t o b e g i v e n . H o w e v e r , e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e t h i r t y - s e v e n c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h h a v e r e p o r t e d s i n c e 1 9 3 5 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s f r e q u e n t l y n o o n e - t o - o n e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e v a l u e o f a c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e p o r t a n d e n a c t m e n t o f i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , i n a s s e s s i n g t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t o f t h e s e c o m m i s s i o n s a f o u r - f o l d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n h a s b e e n u s e d . C o m m i s s i o n s h a v e b e e n c l a s s e d a s ' s u c c e s s f u l ' i f t h e i r r e p o r t s h a v e m a d e a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o k n o w l e d g e ; t h e y h a v e p r e s e n t e d o r i g i n a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h i c h h a v e b e e n a c t e d u p o n w i t h i n a f a i r l y s h o r t p e r i o d ; a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e i r p r o p o s a l s h a v e q u i e t e n e d c r i t i c i s m o f t h e s i t u a t i o n w h i c h b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e i r a p p o i n t m e n t . C o m m i s s i o n s h a v e b e e n r e g a r d e d a s ' u s e f u l ' i f t h e y h a v e p r e s e n t e d w o r t h w h i l e r e p o r t s , b u t e i t h e r h a v e n o t h a d t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a c t e d u p o n d i r e c t l y o r h a v e s u b m i t t e d p r o p o s a l s w h i c h , w h e n i m p l e m e n t e d , a l l e v i a t e d t h e s i t u a t i o n t o s o m e e x t e n t b u t d i d n o t p r e c l u d e f u r t h e r c r i t i c i s m . C o m m i s s i o n s w h o s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s h a v e b e e n e n a c t e d , b u t w h o s e r e p o r t s c o n t r i b u t e d v e r y l i t t l e t o w a r d s g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r s u b j e c t m a t t e r a n d w h o s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s e i t h e r w e r e n o t o r i g i n a l o r d i d l i t t l e t o a m e l i o r a t e t h e s i t u a t i o n h a v e b e e n c l a s s i f i e d a s ' m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l ' . C o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h n e i t h e r p r e s e n t e d w o r t h w h i l e r e p o r t s n o r m a d e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h i c h w e r e e n a c t e d h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d ' u n s u c c e s s f u l ' . 2 9 . E v a l u a t i o n T a b l e 2 l i s t s t h e t h i r t y - s e v e n c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h h a v e r e p o r t e d s i n c e 1 9 3 5 a n d i n d i c a t e s h o w e a c h i s c l a s s i f i e d . S u c c e s s f u l C o m m i s s i o n s A s s h o w n , s i x t e e n o f t h e t h i r t y - s e v e n h a v e b e e n s u c c e s s f u l . O f t h e s e s i x t e e n , h o w e v e r , t h e o n l y o n e s w h i c h i n d i s p u t a b l y b e l o n g i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e t h e t w o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m m i s s i o n s o n A w a r d s t o I n v e n t o r s ( 1 9 1 9 - 3 7 a n d 1 9 4 6 - 5 6 ) a n d t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f D u r h a m ( 1 9 3 4 - 3 5 ) , D i s p a t c h o f B u s i n e s s a t Common L a w ( 1 9 3 4 - 3 6 ) , W e s t I n d i a ( 1 9 3 8 - 3 9 ) , J u s t i c e s o f t h e P e a c e ( 1 9 4 6 - 4 8 ) , U n i v e r s i t y E d u c a t i o n i n D u n d e e ( 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 ) , a n d t h e L a w R e l a t i n g t o M e n t a l I l l n e s s a n d M e n t a l R e t a r d a t i o n ( 1 9 5 4 - 5 7 ) . A l l o f t h e i r r e p o r t s w e r e g e n e r a l l y p r a i s e d , b o t h b e c a u s e o f t h e i r i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y a n d b e c a u s e o f t h e n e w a n d v a l u a b l e o b s e r v a t i o n s w h i c h t h e y m a d e o n t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h x A i c h t h e y w e r e c o n c e r n e d . T h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s d e r i v e d l o g i c a l l y f r o m t h e i r r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s ; w e r e p r a c t i c a b l e ; a n d w e r e - - w i t h f e w a l t e r a t i o n s e n a c t e d f a i r l y s p e e d i l y ( S e e T a b l e 3 ) . N o p r e v i o u s g r o u p o r i n v e s t i g a t i v e b o d y h a d s u b m i t t e d s i m i l a r p r o p o s a l s . A n d , i n l a r g e m e a s u r e , e n a c t m e n t o f t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s e a s e d t h e s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h h a d l e d t o t h e i r a p p o i n t m e n t s . T h e o t h e r e i g h t s u c c e s s f u l c o m m i s s i o n s — t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o n T i t h e R e n t c h a r g e ( 1 9 3 4 - 3 5 ) , S a f e t y i n C o a l M i n e s ( 1 9 3 5 - 3 8 ) , t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l P o p u l a t i o n ( 1 9 3 7 - 3 9 ) , B e t t i n g , L o t t e r i e c a n d G a m i n g ( 1 9 4 9 - 5 1 ) , T a x a t i o n o f P r o f i t s a n d I n c o m e s ( 1 9 5 1 - 5 5 ) , t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e ( 1 9 5 3 - 5 5 ) , C o m m o n L a n d ( 1 9 5 5 - 5 8 ) , a n d L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t i n G r e a t e r L o n d o n ( 1 9 5 7 - 6 0 ) — a r e n o t q u i t e s u c h c l e a r - c u t e x a m p l e s . 3 0 . T A B L E 2 P E R F O R M A N C E O F R O Y A L C O M M I S S I O N S W H I C H R E P O R T E D B E T W E E N 1 9 3 5 A N D 1 9 7 0 1 . U n i v e r s i t y o f D u r h a m ( M a r ' 3 4 - J a n ' 3 5 ) S u c c e s s f u l 2 . M e r t h y r T y d f i l ( M a y ' 3 5 - N o v ' 3 5 ) U n s u c c e s s f u l 3 . T i t h e R e n t c h a r g e ( A u g ' 3 4 - N o v ' 3 5 ) S u c c e s s f u l 4 . B u s i n e s s a t Common L a w ( D e c ' 3 4 - J a n ' 3 6 ) S u c c e s s f u l 5 . P r i v a t e M a n u f a c t u r e o f A r m s ( F e b ' 3 5 - S e p t ' 3 6 ) U s e f u l 6 . T y n e s i d e ( M a y ' 3 5 - F e b * 3 7 ) U n s u c c e s s f u l 7 . P a l e s t i n e ( A u g ' 3 6 - J u n e » 3 7 ) . . . U s e f u l 8 . A w a r d s t o I n v e n t o r s ( I ) ( M a r ' 1 9 - N o v ' 3 7 ) S u c c e s s f u l 9 . S a f e t y i n C o a l M i n e s ( D e c ' 3 5 - D e c ' 3 8 ) S u c c e s s f u l 1 0 . R h o d e s i a a n d N y a s a l a n d ( M a r ' 3 8 - M a r ' 3 9 ) U n s u c c e s s f u l 1 1 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n d u s t . P o p u l a t i o n ( J u l y ' 3 7 - D e c ' 3 9 ) S u c c e s s f u l 1 2 . W e s t I n d i a ( A u g ' 3 8 - D e c ' 3 9 ) S u c c e s s f u l 1 3 . W o r k m e n ' s C o m p e n s a t i o n ( D e c ' 3 8 - D e c ' 4 4 ) U n s u c c e s s f u l 1 4 . E q u a l P a y ( O c t ' 4 4 - O c t ' 4 6 ) U n s u c c e s s f u l 1 5 . J u s t i c e s o f t h e P e a c e ( J u n e ' 4 6 - M a y ' 4 8 ) S u c c e s s f u l 1 6 . P o p u l a t i o n ( M a y ' 4 4 - M a r ' 4 9 ) U s e f u l 1 7 . T h e P r e s s ( I ) ( A p r ' 4 7 - J u n e ' 4 9 ) M a r g i n a l l y U s e f u l 1 8 . B e t t i n g , L o t t e r i e s & G a m i n g ( A p r ' 4 9 - M a r 1 5 1 ) S u c c e s s f u l 1 9 . U n i v e r s i t y E d u c a t i o n i n D u n d e e ( M a y ' 5 1 - A p r ' 5 2 ) S u c c e s s f u l 2 0 . C a p i t a l P u n i s h m e n t ( M a y ' 4 9 - S e p t ' 5 3 ) M a r g i n a l l y U s e f u l 2 1 i S c o t t i s h A f f a i r s ( J u l y ' 5 2 - J u l y 1 5 4 ) M a r g i n a l l y U s e f u l 2 2 . E a s t A f r i c a ( J a n * 5 3 - M a y ' 5 5 ) . . . . U n s u c c e s s f u l 2 3 . T a x a t i o n o f P r o f i t s a n d I n c o m e ( J a n ' 5 1 - M a y ' 5 5 ) S u c c e s s f u l 2 4 . T h e C i v i l S e r v i c e ( N o v ' 5 3 - N o v ' 5 5 ) . S u c c e s s f u l 2 5 . M a r r i a g e a n d D i v o r c e ( S e p t ' 5 1 - D e c ' 5 5 ) . i M a r g i n a l l y U s e f u l 2 6 . A w a r d s t o I n v e n t o r s ( I ) ( M a y ' 4 6 - A p r ' 5 6 ) S u c c e s s f u l 2 7 . L a w o n M e n t a l I l l n e s s ( F e b ' 5 4 - M a y ' 5 7 ) S u c c e s s f u l 2 8 . C o m m o n L a n d ( D e c ' 5 5 - J u l y ' 5 8 ) S u c c e s s f u l 2 9 . D o c t o r s ' R e m u n e r a t i o n ( M a r ' 5 7 - F e b ' 6 0 ) M a r g i n a l l y U s e f u l 3 0 . L o c a l G o v ' t i n G r e a t e r L o n d o n ( D e c 1 5 7 - O c t ' 6 0 ) S u c c e s s f u l 3 1 . T h e P o l i c e ( J a n * 6 0 - M a y ' 6 2 ) M a r g i n a l l y U s e f u l 3 2 . T h e P r e s s ( I I ) ( M a r ' 6 1 - S e p t ' 6 2 ) U s e f u l 3 4 . P e n a l S y s t e m i n E n g l a n d & W a l e s ( A u g ' 6 4 - A p r ' 6 6 ) U n s u c c e s s f u l 3 5 . M e d i c a l E d u c a t i o n ( A u g ' 6 5 - A p r ' 6 8 ) U s e f u l 3 6 . T r a d e U n i o n s & E m p l o y e r s ' A s s n . ( A p r ' 6 5 - M a y ' 6 8 ) . . . M a r g i n a l l y U s e f u l 3 7 . L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t i n E n g l a n d ( M a y ' 6 6 - J u n e ' 6 9 ) U s e f u l 3 1 . T A B L E 3 A C T I O N S ON C O M M I S S I O N S ' R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S 1 9 3 5 - 1 9 7 0 C O M M I S S I O N 1. U n i v e r s i t y o f D u r h a m ( 1 9 3 4 - 3 5 ) 2 . M e r t h y r T y d f i l ( 1 9 3 5 ) 3 . T i t h e R e n t c h a r g e ( 1 9 3 4 - 5 ) 4 . B u s i n e s s a t Common L a w ( 1 9 3 4 - 3 6 ) 5 . M a n u f a c t u r e o f A r m s ( 1 9 3 5 - 3 6 ) 6 . T y n e s i d e ( 1 9 3 5 - 3 7 ) 7 . P a l e s t i n e ( 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 ) 8 . A w a r d s t o I n v e n t o r s ( 1 9 1 9 - 3 7 ) 9 . S a f e t y i n C o a l M i n e s ( 1 9 3 5 - 3 8 ) 1 0 . R h o d e s i a & N y a s a l a n d ( 1 9 3 8 - 3 9 ) 1 1 . I n d u s t r i a l P o p u l a t i o n 1 2 . W e s t I n d i a ( 1 9 3 8 - 3 9 ) 1 3 . W o r k m e n ' s C o m p e n s a t i o n ( 1 9 3 8 - 4 4 ) 1 4 . E q u a l P a y ( 1 9 4 4 - 4 6 ) 1 5 . J u s t i c e s o f t h e P e a c e ( 1 9 4 6 - 4 8 ) 1 6 . P o p u l a t i o n ( 1 9 4 4 - 4 9 ) A C T I O N U n i v e r s i t y o f D u r h a m A c t , 1 9 3 5 a T i t h e A c t , 1 9 3 6 l ) S o m e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n , 1 9 3 6 ; 2 ) A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f J u s t i c e ( M i s c e l l a n e o u s P r o -v i s i o n s ) A c t , 1 9 3 8 l ) W h i t e P a p e r ( 1 9 3 6 ) a g r e e d w i t h r e c o m m e n d a t i o n a g a i n s t S t a t e m o n o p o l y ; 2 ) C i v i l S e r -v a n t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n a c c e p t e d , 1 9 3 6 Some r e s t r i c t i o n s o n i m m i -g r a t i o n , 1 9 3 7 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n 3 l ) S o m e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n , 1 9 3 9 ; 2 ) C o a l I n d u s t r y A c t , 1 9 4 9 ; 3 ) A 1 1 i m p o r t a n t r e c o m -m e n d a t i o n s e f f e c t e d b y 1 9 5 1 C e n t r a l A f r i c a n C o u n c i l b e -g a n o p e r a t i o n , 1 9 4 5 D S o m e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n , 1 9 3 9 - 4 0 ; 2 ) M i n i s t e r o f W o r k s a n d P l a n n i n g A c t , 1 9 4 2 ; 3 ) D i s t r i b u t i o n o f I n d u s t r y A c t , 1 9 4 5 . 1) A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A c t i o n , 1 9 4 0 ; 2 ) C o l o n i a l D e v e l o p u e n t a n d W e l f a r e A c t , 1 9 4 0 ( n o r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ) J u s t i c e s o f t h e P e a c e A c t , 1 9 4 9 a l ) S o m e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n r e : 1 9 5 1 c e n s u s ; 2 ) P o p u l a -t i o n ( S t a t i s t i c s ) A c t , 1 9 6 0 T A B L E 3 - C o n t i n u e d 1 7 . 1 8 . P r e s s ( I ) ( 1 9 4 7 - 4 9 ) B e t t i n g ( 1 9 4 9 - 5 1 ) 1 9 . 2 0 . 2 1 . 2 2 . 2 3 , 2 4 . 2 5 . U n i v . E d . i n D u n d e e ( 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 ) C a p i t a l P u n i s h m e n t ( 1 9 4 9 - 5 3 ) S c o t t i s h A f f a i r s ( 1 9 5 2 - 5 4 ) E a s t A f r i c a ( 1 9 5 3 - 5 5 ) T a x a t i o n ( 1 9 5 1 - 5 5 ) C i v i l S e r v i c e ( 1 9 5 3 - 5 5 ) M a r r i a g e a n d D i v o r c e ( 1 9 5 1 - 5 5 ) W e a k v e r s i o n o f P r e s s C o u n -c i l s e t u p , 1 9 5 3 l ) P o o l B e t t i n g A c t , 1 9 5 4 b ; 2 ) S m a l l L o t t e r i e s a n d G a m i n g A c t , 1 9 5 6 ; 3 ) S m a l l L o t t e r i e s a n d G a m i n g A c t , 1 9 5 6 ( A m e n d m e n t ) , 1 9 5 9 ; 4 ) B e t t i n g a n d G a m i n g A c t , 1 9 6 0 U n i v . o f S t . A n d r e w s A c t , 1 9 5 3 a l ) M i n o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n , 1 9 5 4 ; 2 ) H o m i c i d e A c t , 1 9 5 7 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n A g r e e m e n t " i n p r i n c i p l e " F i n a n c e A c t s , 1 9 5 6 , ' 5 7 , * 6 0 , ' 6 1 , ' 6 2 a n d ' 6 4 E C 2 7 / 5 6 a n d E C 2 8 / 5 6 a ' 5 8 , 2 6 . 2 7 . 2 8 . 2 9 . 3 0 . 3 1 . 1 ) A f e w a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c h a n g e s b y 1 9 5 3 ; 2 ) D i v o r c e ( I n s a n i t y & D e s e r t i o n ) A c t , 1 9 5 8 ; 3 ) M a t r i -m o n i a l C a u s e s ( P r o p e r t y & M a i n -t e n a n c e ) A c t , 1 9 5 8 ; 4 ) M a t r i m o -n i a l ^ P r o c e e d i n g s ( C h i l d r e n ) A c t , 1 9 5 8 ; 5 ) M a t r i m o n i a l P r o c e e d i n g s A c t , 1 9 6 0 A w a r d s t o I n v e n t o r s ( I I ) ( 1 9 4 6 - 5 6 ) A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n a L a w o n M e n t a l I l l n e s s ( 1 9 5 4 - 5 7 ) C o m m o n L a n d ( 1 9 5 5 - 5 8 ) D o c t o r s ' R e m u n e r a t i o n ( 1 9 5 7 - 6 0 ) L o c . G o v . i n G r . L o n d o n ( 1 9 5 7 - 6 0 ) T h e P o l i c e ( 1 9 6 0 - 6 2 ) 3 2 . P r e s s ( I I ) ( 1 9 6 1 - 6 2 ) 3 3 . P e n a l S y s t e m ( 1 9 6 4 - 6 6 ) 3 4 . T r i b u n a l s o f I n q u i r y ( 1 9 6 6 ) 3 5 . M e d i c a l E d u c a t i o n ( 1 9 6 5 - 6 8 ) 3 6 . T r a d e U n i o n s ( 1 9 6 5 - 6 8 ) 3 7 . L o c a l G o v ' t i n E n g l a n d ( 1 9 6 6 - 6 9 ) M e n t a l H e a l t h A c t , 1 9 5 9 C o m m o n s R e g i s t r a t i o n A c t , 1 9 6 5 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n 3 L o n d o n G o v e r n m e n t A c t , 1 9 6 3 1 ) P o l i c e P e n s i o n s A c t , 1 9 6 1 ; 2 ) A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n , 1 9 6 2 -3 ; 3 ) P o l i c e A c t , 1 9 6 4 a ; 4 ) P o l i c e A c t ( S c o t l a n d ) 1 9 6 6 1 ) P r e s s C o u n c i l r e c o n s t i t u t e d v o l u n t a r i l y , 1 9 6 3 ; 2 ) M o n o p o l i e s a n d M e r g e r s A c t , 1 9 6 5 A g r e e m e n t t o s o m e a c t i o n , 1 9 6 9 A c t o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n w h i c h d i r e c t l y i n c o r p o r a t e d a l -m o s t a l l c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . P r i v a t e M e m b e r ' s B i l l . 3 3 . I n e a c h i n s t a n c e t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h a r g u e f o r t h e i r i n c l u s i o n t e n d t o o u t x / e i g h t h o s e w h i c h a r g u e a g a i n s t . H o w e v e r , t h e r e i s d e f i n i t e l y e n o u g h r o o m f o r c o n t e n t i o n t o j u s t i f y t h e i r b e i n g e x a m i n e d i n s o m e w h a t g r e a t e r d e t a i l . I n f o u r o f t h e c a s e s - - s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e c o m m i s s i o n s i n v e s t i g a -t i n g c o a l m i n e s a f e t y , t h e i n d u s t r i a l p o p u l a t i o n , b e t t i n g , a n d c o m m o n l a n d — a c o m p a r a t i v e l y l o n g p e r i o d l a p s e d b e t w e e n t h e t i m e w h e n t h e c o m m i s s i o n s m a d e t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d a n y s u b s t a n t i a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . F u r t h e r , i n a t l e a s t t h e f i r s t t h r e e c a s e s t h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n s u b m i s s i o n o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e p o r t a n d e n a c t m e n t o f i t s p r o p o s a l s w a s o n e o f e i t h e r r a p i d o r d r a s t i c s o c i a l c h a n g e . I t c a n , t h e r e f o r e , b e a r g u e d w i t h s o m e j u s t i f i c a t i o n t h a t t h e i m p e t u s f o r r e f o r m c a m e a s m u c h f r o m c h a n g e d s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s a s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t a r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n h a d u r g e d a p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e o f a c t i o n . A n d t h i s , l o g i c a l l y e n o u g h , r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n w a s i n f a c t r e a l l y n e c e s s a r y , o r i f w h a t i t p r o p o s e d w o u l d h a v e e v e n t u a t e d r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r a r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n h a d i n v e s t i g a t e d o r n o t . I n e a c h o f t h e a b o v e i n s t a n c e s t h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e f a i r l y s t r o n g e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n w a s a c t u a l l y n e c e s s a r y . T h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n S a f e t y i n C o a l M i n e s a r g u e s , i n f a c t , t h a t i n t h a t c a s e a t l e a s t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n w a s f r u s t r a t e d r a t h e r t h a n e n c o u r a g e d b y s o c i a l c h a n g e . N o l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n w a s t a k e n o n i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s u n t i l a f t e r t h e w a r . H o w e v e r , b y e a r l y J u n e o f 1 9 3 9 a n u m b e r o f m e a s u r e s w h i c h d i d n o t n e c e s s i t a t e l e g i s l a t i o n h a d b e e n a g r e e d t o a n d t h e S e c r e t a r y o f M i n e s h a d p r o m i s e d a B i l l w h i c h w o u l d g i v e e f f e c t t o m o s t o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s o t h e r p r o p o s a l s . * " W h i l e i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t h a d n o i n t e n t i o n o f p r e s e n t i n g s u c h a B i l l , t h e p r o p o s a l s o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n w e r e n o t 34. r e a l l y s u f f i c i e n t l y r a d i c a l t o e n c o u r a g e t h a t a s s u m p t i o n . I t i s m o r e l i k e l y t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t t h e B i l l h a d t o b e h e l d u p 2 b e c a u s e o f t h e w a r w a s i n f a c t t h e c a s e a n d t h a t , h a d t h e w a r n o t i n t e r v e n e d , t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w o u l d h a v e b e e n e n a c t e d f a i r l y s p e e d i l y . C o n v e r s e l y , i n t h e i n s t a n c e o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l P o p u l a t i o n t h e r e i s d e f i n i t e l y e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e w a r w a s , a t t h e v e r y l e a s t , t h e c a t a l y s t w h i c h f o r c e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o c o n s i d e r t h e B a r l o w C o m m i s s i o n ' s 3 r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s s e r i o u s l y . H o x r e v e r , t h i s d o e s n o t m e a n t h a t t h e c o m m i s s i o n w a s n o t n e c e s s a r y . T h e d e s c r i p t i v e a n d a n a l y t i c a l s e c t i o n s o f i t s r e p o r t p r o v i d e d " t h e f i r s t f u l l s u r v e y o f c i t y g r o w t h a n d p o p u l a -4 t i o n g r o u p i n g . " T h e f i n d i n g s p r e s e n t e d b y t h e c o m m i s s i o n v e r y o b v i o u s l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e t h i n k i n g o f t h o s e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t o w n a n d 5 c o u n t r y p l a n n i n g . E v e n i f i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t w o u l d h a v e b e e n f o r c e d b y t h e w a r t o u n d e r t a k e a p r o g r a m m e s i m i l a r t o t h a t r e c o m m e n -d e d b y t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n , i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s f a i r l y c e r t a i n t h a t t o b e a b l e t o c o n t e m p l a t e s u c h a p r o g r a m m e t h e G o v e r n m e n t n e e d e d m u c h o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h e r e p o r t . T h e f a c t t h a t t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n h a d r e p o r t e d u n q u e s t i o n a b l y c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o t h e f a c i l i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e G o v e r n m e n t w a s a b l e t o a c t . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n B e t t i n g , L o t t e r i e s a n d G a m i n g , a g a i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r i o d o f t i m e e l a p s e d b e t w e e n s u b m i s s i o n o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e p o r t a n d m a j o r l e g i s l a t i o n d e s i g n e d t o i m p l e m e n t i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . H o w e v e r , n e v e r d u r i n g t h e n i n e y e a r i n t e r v a l d i d P a r l i a m e n t o r t h e P r e s s a l l o w t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o f o r g e t w h a t t h e c o m m i s s i o n h a d p r o p o s e d . T h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e p o r t w a s u s e d a s e v i d e n c e i n s u p p o r t 6 o f a n u m b e r o f P r i v a t e M e m b e r s ' B i l l s . T h e r e p o r t w a s u s e d b y t h e P r e s s i n i t s a t t e m p t s t o o b t a i n m a j o r l e g i s l a t i o n . A n d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e p o r t h a d b e e n v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e d b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t w a s u s e d b y t h e f o r m e r c h a i r m a n o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n t o e m b a r r a s s t h e G o v e r n m e n t 8 i n t o a c t i n g . A l t h o u g h i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t m i g h t h a v e b e e n f o r c e d t o l e g i s l a t e e v e n i f t h e c o m m i s s i o n h a d n o t r e p o r t e d , t h e c o n t i n u e d u s e o f t h e r e p o r t t o e n c o u r a g e i t t o d o s o a n d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s u b s e q u e n t l e g i s l a t i o n p a r a l l e l e d t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a -t i o n s v e r y c l o s e l y b o t h s u g g e s t t h a t t h e c o m m i s s i o n w a s n e c e s s a r y . T o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n Common L a n d i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e W i l l i n k C o m m i s s i o n o n g a m b l i n g r e f o r m . A s i n t h e l a t t e r c a s e , P a r l i a m e n t c o n t i n u a l l y u s e d t h e r e p o r t 9 t o p r e s s u r e t h e G o v e r n m e n t i n t o a c t i n g . L i k e w i s e , i n b o t h c a s e s t h e G o v e r n m e n t h e d g e d f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e a g r e e i n g t o i m p l e m e n t t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d t h e n w a i t e d s e v e r a l m o r e y e a r s b e f o r e a c t u a l l y 1 0 p r e s e n t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . A l t h o u g h w h e n i t f i n a l l y a p p e a r e d , t h e C o m m o n s R e g i s t r a t i o n B i l l d i d n o t f o l l o w t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n a s c l o s e l y a s t h e B e t t i n g a n d G a m i n g B i l l h a d f o l l o w e d t h o s e o f t h e W i l l i n k C o m m i s s i o n , t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s a c q u i e s e n c e t o d e m a n d s f o r l e g i s l a t i o n w a s v e r y o b v i o u s l y i n f l u e n c e d i n t h e f o r m e r c a s e , a s i n t h e l a t t e r , b y t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n a n d b y t h e e v i d e n c e w h i c h t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s h a d p r e s e n t e d i n s u p p o r t o f t h e m . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n T a x a t i o n o f P r o f i t s a n d I n c o m e , l i k e t h e f o u r p r e c e d i n g c o m m i s s i o n s , i s a l s o o p e n t o t h e c r i t i c i s m t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n o n i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w a s n o t i m m e d i a t e * H o w e v e r , w h i l e s o m e o f t h e 11 c o m m i s s i o n ' s p r o p o s a l s w e r e n o t e n a c t e d u n t i l 1 9 6 4 , a n u m b e r o f t h e m w e r e i m p l e m e n t e d q u i t e s p e e d i l y a n d t h e c o m m i s s i o n i s l e s s l i k e l y t o b e c r i t i c i z e d o n t h a t g r o u n d t h a n i t i s t o b e a t t a c k e d o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t b y c h a n g i n g i t s t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e a n d i t s c o m p o s i t i o n t h e T o r y 3 6 . Government manipulated the commission in such a fashion as to insure the results i t desired. The commission had been appointed by the Atlee Government early in 1 9 5 1 . A l i t t l e over a year later, Churchill announced the appointment of a new chairman and a revision in the IP-commission s terms of reference. Heatedly accusing the new Govern-ment of being "determined to influence the conclusions of this Commission 13 for their own party advantages," Hugh Gaitskell led an all-out Opposition attack on the appointment of Lord Waverly as the new chairman. Apparently inspired by the vigor of Gaitskell's assault and by a Labour Party Motion "regretting" the Prime Minister's choice, Lord Waverly resigned within a month. On the 28th of A p r i l , Churchill 1 4 annjnmced the appointment of Lord Radcliffe as Waverly's successor. Lord Radcliffe was accepted more equitably. But criticism of the commission did not stop. The Government was again accused in the Commons 15 af "using" the commission. And even the comparatively pro-Government Economist remarked unfavorably on the commission's composition and * 16 "limiting terms of reference." Nevertheless, the commission's achieve-ment was impressive, and regardless of i t s weaknesses i t was undoubtedly successful. It had a large percentage of i t s recommendations accepted and i t managed to present a series of reports which, in the words of the Economist,constituted "the most comprehensive grand inquest that has ever been held on direct taxation in this country. The other three questionably successful commissions -- those investigating tithe rentcharge, the c i v i l service and local government in Greater London — are not subject to the criticism that too much time elapsed between recommendation and implementation. Rather, the arguments against including them in the successful category are, in the cases of the latter two, that their recommendations — although implemented — generated a good deal of public criticism and, in the case of the Tithe Rentcharge Commission, that the Tithe Rentcharge Act incorporated the commission's recommendations in a substantially altered form. However, despite the fact that the Tithe Rentcharge Act did not follow exactly the recommendations of the commission, there is never-theless ample evidence that the report substantially influenced the Government. The Macdonald Government had, in 1934, presented a B i l l on Tithe Rentcharge which had inspired almost universal opposition. As a result of the negative reaction which the B i l l received, the 18 Government withdrew i t and appointed the royal commission. The 1936 B i l l , although i t lengthened the period of redemption from the forty years recommended by the royal commission to sixty, nevertheless much more closely resembled the royal commission's scheme that i t did the one previously submitted by the Government. In the cases of the Priestley Commission on the Civil Service and the Herbert Commission on London Government, a l l but one of their 19 major recommendations were accepted by the Government and implemented with comparative speed. Both commissions, however, were severely criticized in the Press and the Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London was thoroughly lambasted in Parliament by the entire Labour Party and several Tories whose constituencies were to be 20 affected by the commission's recommendations. Nevertheless, despite the i n i t i a l criticism leveled at both commissions, actual implementation of their recommendations seemed both to calm the furor the recommendations 21 had aroused and to institute plans which worked comparatively well. It is perhaps indicative that although the Labour Party was ostensibly so opposed to the London Government Act at the outset, i t has now been in power for over five years and i t has done l i t t l e to change the working of 22 the Act. Further, its decision to exclude Greater London from the purview of the Royal Commission on Local Government in England (1966-69) would seem to argue that the Labour Party now regards the plan set out by the royal commission .to be workable at least for the present time. Useful Commissions Seven commissions — including the Royal Commissions on The Private Manufacture of and Trading in Arms (1935-36), Palestine (1936-37), Population (1944-49), The Press (1961-62), Tribunals of Inquiry (1966), Medical Education (1965-68), and Local Government in England (1966-69) -- are a l l for the moment at least classed as useful. For the last three named commissions, however, this classification is probably only temporary. A l l three reports contain thorough examinations of their subject matter, present a number of practicable recommendations, and defend their proposals logically and with substantial evidence. In al l three cases, i t is highly likely that the commissions will ultimately be successful. But so far no action has been taken to implement their recommendations. Until i t i s , they can only be regarded as useful. In the case of the Royal Commission on the Private Manufacture of and Trading in Arms, there is no question of its having been successful. In fact, what is in doubt in this instance is whether or not the commission was wholly unsuccessful. Certainly the Opposition regarded i t as such. Opposition response to the report was, indeed, so violently negative that at one stage, after a question had been asked regarding the total cost of printing the evidence, one Labour member demanded of 23 the Financial Secretary of the Treasury 39. W i l l the r igh t honorable and ga l lant Gentleman consider asking the armament f irms to defray the cost of publ ishing th is repor t , i n grat i tude for the whitewashing they received? However, before accepting the Labour Par ty 's verd ic t on the commission's repor t , i t i s necessary to take in to account the fact that Labour's pos i t ion on the armament question was a comparatively rad i ca l one. Therefore, had a roya l commission appointed by, and presumably making recommendations to , a predominantly Conservative Government proposed a course of act ion acceptable to Labour, i t s recommendations would, almost ce r ta in l y , have been wholly ignored by the Government and would, very l i k e l y , have been anathema to the majori ty of the House and the country as w e l l . I f the commission wished i t s recommendations considered se r i ous l y , i t r e a l l y had only two a l te rna t i ves . E i ther i t could present a deta i led report descr ib ing present condit ions i n the industry and recommending no major a l t e ra t i ons , or i t could - - as i n fact i t did invest igate the industry and propose a ser ies of f a i r l y comprehensive reforms which " i f s t r i c t l y app l ied , would go far towards removing the 24 e v i l s so strongly resented by pub l ic op in ion . " The Government chose to re jec t nearly a l l of the commission's 25 recommendations. Nevertheless, the commission had submitted a comparatively thorough repor t . I t had offered considerable support for the Government's pos i t ion regarding the undes i rab i l i t y of a State monopoly i n arms product ion. A l s o , i t had presented a ser ies of proposals which were pract icable and which there was some reasonable change the Government would adopt. Therefore, although i t could by no s t re tch of the imagination be considered success fu l , the commission was useful i n so fa r as i t revealed a considerable amount about the arms industry general ly and made recommendations which were both reasonable 4 0 . a n d p r a c t i c a b l e . A s i n t h e c a s e o f t h e a r m s i n d u s t r y c o m m i s s i o n , t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n P a l e s t i n e h a d f e w o f i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s e n a c t e d a s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f i t s r e p o r t . B u t a g a i n — a s i n t h e i n s t a n c e o f t h e a r m s c o m m i s s i o n — m u c h o f w h a t i t r e c o m m e n d e d e v e n t u a l l y t r a n s p i r e d . H o w e v e r , t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s r e a c t i o n t o t h e t w o r e p o r t s i s d e c i d e d l y d i f f e r e n t . A n d t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s i n v e s t i g a t i n g P a l e s t i n e w e r e u n i q u e i n s o f a r a s t h e y w e n t w e l l b e y o n d t h e i r t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e a n d s u b m i t t e d a r e p o r t w h i c h s t a t e d , i n e f f e c t , t h a t a s l o n g a s t h e c o m m i s s i o n a n d t h e c o u n t r y — w a s f o r c e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f P a l e s t i n e w i t h i n t h e t e r m s o f t h e M a n d a t e , n o r e a l s o l u t i o n w a s p o s s i b l e . A l t h o u g h a f t e r i n i t i a l a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s p r o p o s a l s 26 t h e G o v e r n m e n t e v e n t u a l l y r e j e c t e d i t s p l a n f o r p a r t i t i o n , t h e r e c a n b e l i t t l e q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e c o m m i s s i o n w a s u s e f u l . I t s r e p o r t w a s a n e x c e p t i o n a l l y t h o r o u g h a n d w e l l a r g u e d d o c u m e n t . A s w e l l a s p r o v i d i n g s u b s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e i n s u p p o r t o f i t s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e M a n d a t e w a s u n t e n a b l e , i t i n c l u d e d a t h o r o u g h a n d w o r t h w h i l e s u m m a r y o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e p e o p l e s o f P a l e s t i n e a n d o f B r i t i s h i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e a r e a . I t b r o u g h t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t a n d o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l M a n d a t e s C o m m i s s i o n t h e n e e d f o r m o r e d e c i s i v e a c t i o n t h a w a s p o s s i b l e w i t h i n t h e t e r m s o f t h e M a n d a t e . T h e 27 s o l u t i o n i t p r o p o s e d w a s e v i d e n t l y a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t . T o a n e x t e n t , i t s a r g u m e n t a t i o n e v e n c o n v i n c e d t h e M a n d a t e s C o m m i s s i o n . H o w e v e r , w h i l e t h e M a n d a t e s C c o a a i s s i o n a c c e p t e d t h e i d e a o p a r t i t i o n , i t s e a l e d t h e f a t e o f t h e p a r t i t i o n s c h e m e b y r e j e c t i n g t h e i d e a o f 28 s e p a r a t e a n d i n d e p e n d e n t c o u n t r i e s . A s t h e c o m m i s s i o n h a d r e a l i z e d , w i t h o u t i n d e p e n d e n c e p a r t i t i o n w a s d o o m e d t o f a i l u r e . T h e r e f o r e , u l t i m a t e l y t h e e n t i r e p l a n p r o p o s e d b y t h e c o m m i s s i o n h a d t o b e rejected and the commission,, although i t had produced a thoroughly worth-while report, was unsuccessful i n convincing a l l of the countries concerned of the necessity of i n s t i t u t i n g i t s recommendations. As i n the cases of the armament industry and Palestine commissions, the Royal Commission on Population was not r e a l l y successful. Much of what i t 29 recommended i n connection with s o c i a l p o l i c y was completely ignored. Also, several of the assumptions on v/hich i t based proposals have subsequently 30 proven inaccurate. Nevertheless, i t was useful i n so f a r as i t presented a considerable amount of data on past population trends and provided several 31 acceptable suggestions for the improvement of census c o l l e c t i o n . Likewise, i t pioneered — with considerable success — the use of s p e c i a l i s t committees 32 working i n conjunction with royal commissions. Unlike the other useful commissions, the 1962 Royal Commission on the Press had most of i t s recommendations implemented. The Press Council revised i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n along the l i n e s proposed by the commission and agreed to 33 c e r t a i n other of the commission's suggestions. The Monopolies and Mergers Act, 1965, did not follow the commission's recommendations exactly, but i t did give the Government power to r e j e c t newspaper mergers which were deemed unnecessary and i t set up an administrative t r i b u n a l i n the place of the 34 proposed Press Amalgamations Court. Nevertheless, implementation of the commission's recommendations did not q u e l l controversy. Lord Thomson's 1967 amalgamation of The Times and the Sunday Times and the Debate i n the Commons which this i n s p i r e d made It 35 quite apparent that very l i t t l e progress had been made. While r e v i t a l -36 i z a t i o n of the Press Council had d e f i n i t e l y had c e r t a i n b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s , the tendency for control over the country's newspapers to concentrate i n the hands of a few dynasties was s t i l l unchecked. Short of outright Government interv e n t i o n , however, there was l i t t l e that the commission could have r e c o m m e n d e d w h i c h w o u l d h a v e r e v e r s e d t h e t e n d e n c y . D u e t o t e l e v i s i o n ' s p r o p e n s i t y t o r o b t h e n e w s p a p e r i n d u s t r y o f p o s s i b l e a d v e r t i s i n p r e v e n u e , t h e r i s i n g c o s t s o f p r o d u c t i o n , a n d t h e s h o r t a g e o f m o n e y ( a n d i n s o m e c a s e s i n c l i n a t i o n ) f o r r a t i o n a l i z i n g m u c h o f t h e i n d u s t r y , m a n y p a p e r s w e r e f a c e d w i t h t h e c h o i c e b e t w e e n m e r g i n g o r d y i n p . E i t h e r c h o i c e r e s u l t e d i n g r e a t e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n . W i t h o u t s o m e f o r m o f G o v e r n m e n t a i d — a p o s s i b i l i t y r e j e c t e d n o t o n l y b y t h e c o m m i s s i o n b u t b y t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f b o t h m a j o r p a r t i e r a s x v e l l — t h e p r o b l e m o f e m p i r e - b u i l d i n g i n t h e i n d u s t r y a d m i t t e d t o n o s o l u t i o n . B e c a u s e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s d i d n o t n o t i c e a b l y r e l i e v e t h e p r o b l e m , i t c o u l d b e a r g u e d t h a t the. S h a w c r o s s P r e s s C o m m i s s i o n w a s o n l y m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l . I n t h i s c a s e , h o w e v e r , s i n c e t h e p r o b l e m t h e c o m m i s s i o n c o n s i d e r e d w a s v i r t u a l l y i n s o l u b l e a n d s i n c e a c c e p t a n c e o f i t s p r o p o s a l s d i d h a v e b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s , t h e c o m m i s s i o n c a n p r o b a b l y j u s t i f i a b l y b e c l a s s e d a s u s e f u l . T h e c o m m i s s i o n i t s e l f h a d b e e n u n d e r n o d e l u s i o n s a b o u t h o w e f f e c t i v e i t s p r o p o s a l s w o u l d b e . I t h a d n o t e n d e a v o r e d t o s t o p a m a l g a m a t i o n s o r t o b r e a k a p a r t e x i s t e n t d y n a s t i e s . B y m a k i n p s u g g e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o e n c o u r a g e g r e a t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e f o r i n d i v i d u a l p a p e r s a n d h i p h e r s t a n d a r d s o f j o u r n a l i s m t h r o u g h o u t t h e i n d u s t r y , t h e c o m m i s s i o n h o p e d o n l y t o r e d u c e t h e i n s i d i o u s e f f e c t s o f h a v i n g t h e p r o p r i e t o r s h i p o f m o s t o f t h e n a t i o n ' s n e x ^ s p a p e r s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e h a n d s o f ' a f e w - P r e s s L o r d s . T o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e n e w P r e s s C o u n c i l h a s h e l p e d t o a c h i e v e t h i s , t h e c o m m i s s i o n w a s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y u s e f u l . M a r g i n a l l y U s e f u l C o m m i s s i o n s U n l i k e t h e 1 9 6 2 S h a w c r o s s C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P r e s s , t h e 1 9 4 9 B o s s C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P r e s s w a s o n l y m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l . A l o n g w i t h t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o n C a p i t a l P u n i s h m e n t ( 1 9 4 9 - 5 3 ) , S c o t t i s h A f f a i r s ( 1 9 5 2 - 5 4 ) , M a r r i a g e a n d D i v o r c e ( 1 9 5 1 - 5 5 ) , D o c t o r s ' a n d D e n t i s t s ' R e m u n e r a t i o n ( 1 9 5 7 - 6 0 ) , 4 3 . t h e P o l i c e ( 1 9 6 0 - 6 2 ) , a n d T r a d e U n i o n s a n d E m p l o y e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n s ( 1 9 6 5 - 6 8 ) , t h e f i r s t R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P r e s s ( 1 9 4 7 - 4 9 ) f a i l e d e i t h e r t o p r e s e n t a g o o d r e p o r t o r t c p r o v i d e a s o l u t i o n f o r t h e p r o b l e m i t w a s e x a m i n i n g . H o w -e v e r , a l l o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s i n t h i s g r o u p d i d h a v e a t l e a s t s o m e o f t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i m p l e m e n t e d . T h e r e f o r e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e x a m i n e e a c h i n d i v i d u a l l y t o s e e w h y i t c a n n o t b e c l a s s i f i e d a s s u c c e s s f u l . A l t h o u g h i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y s o u n d , t h e 1 9 4 9 c o m m i s -s i o n o n t h e P r e s s f a i l e d i n t w o r e s p e c t s . F i r s t , t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r r e d g r a v e l y i n a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f o w n e r s h i p w o u l d n o t 37 c o n t i n u e . S e c o n d , a l t h o u g h i t s r e p o r t w a s u s e d t o f o r c e t h e P r e s s 3 8 ' v o l u n t a r i l y ' t o s e t u p a P r e s s C o u n c i l , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h r e s u l t e d w a s d i s s i m i l a r i n s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t w a y s t o t h a t p r o p o s e d b y t h e r o y a l c o m r a i s -39 4 0 s i o n . A s t h e 1 9 6 2 c o m m i s s i o n c o m m e n t e d , H a d t h e 1 9 4 9 r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s b e e n c a r r i e d o u t m u c h o f o u r o w n i n q u i r y m i g h t h a v e b e e n u n n e c e s s a r y a n d p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s o f p o s s i b l e d e v e l o p m e n t s m i g h t i n d e e d , o f i t s e l f , h a v e m o d i f i e d t h e c o u r s e w h i c h i n t h e e n d t h o s e d e v e l o p m e n t s a c t u a l l y t o o k . B y f a i l i n g t o r e c o p n i z e t h e g r a v i t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n a n d b y I m p l v i n p t h a t m e r g e r s w e r e u n l i k e l y t o c o n t i n u e , t h e 1 9 4 9 c o m m i s s i o n g r e a t l y w e a k e n e d i t s o w n c a s e . T h e r a t i o n a l e f o r s e t t i n g u p a P r e s s C o u n c i l w i t h l a y m e m b e r s a n d a n i n t e r e s t i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g m o n o p o l i s t i c t r e n d s c o u l d o n l y b e p r o v i d e d b y a w a r e n e s s t h a t a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s m o n o p o l y e x i s t e d . 3 y d e n y i n p t h i s , t h e c o m m i s s i o n w e a k e n e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h o s e w h o a d v o c a t e d a s t r o n p P r e s s C o u n c i l a n d r e i n f o r c e d t h e o f f i c i a l P r e s s p o s i t i o n t h a t l a y m e m b e r s a n d e c o n o m i c i n q u i r i e s w e r e u n n e c e s s a r y . T h e s e c o n d m a r p i n a l l y u s e f u l c o m m i s s i o n i s t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n C a p i t a l P u n i s h m e n t . I f o n e t o o k i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n o n l y t h e s o u n d n e s s o f i t s m a j o r p r o p o s a l s a n d t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s w h i c h i t s r e p o r t m a d e t o k n o w l e d g e o n t h e s u b j e c t , i t w o u l d p o s s i b l y h a v e t o b e c l a s s i f i e d a s u n s u c c e s s f u l . 44. H o w e v e r s a f e w o f i t s m i n o r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e e n a c t e d a n d , m o r e s i g n i f i -c a n t l y s i n t h e H o u s e o f Commons a n d e l s e w h e r e a b o l i t i o n i s t s l a t c h e d o n t o i t s r e p o r t a n d m a d e e x c e l l e n t u s e o f i t i n t h e i r f i g h t t o e n d c a n i t a l p u n i s h m e n t . L e d b y S i d n e y S i l v e r m a n , t h e a b o l i t i o n i s t s i n t h e Commons r e p e a t e d l y c i t e d t h e r e p o r t a s s u b s t a n t i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t c a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t w a s i n n o w a y a 4 1 d e t e r r e n t . A l t h o u g h m u c h o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h t h e r e p o r t p r e s e n t e d 4 2 w a s n o t n e w 5 i t d i d s h e w c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t t h e r e m o v a l o f t h e d e a t h p e n a l t y h a d n o t , i n c o u n t r i e s i n v e s t i g a t e d b y t h e c o m m i s s i o n , r e s u l t e d i n a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e m u r d e r r a t e . T h i s , a d d e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s e v i d e n c e a p p e a r e d i n a G o v e r n m e n t r e p o r t w h i c h w a s o s t e n s i b l y d e s i g n e d t o p r o p o s e a l t e r n a t i v e s t o a b o l i t i o n , l e n t c o n s i d e r a b l e f o r c e t o t h e a b o l i t i o n i s t s ' c a s e . W h e t h e r o r n o t i t a c t u a l l y s w a y e d o p i n i o n o n t h e q u e s t i o n i s a m o o t p o i n t . B u t r e g a r d -l e s s o f w h e t h e r i t i n f l u e n c e d a n y o n e , t h e r e p o r t d i d h a v e s o m e u t i l i t a r i a n v a l u e a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e c o m m i s s i o n c a n n o t b e s a i d t o h a v e b e e n w h o l l y u n -s u c c e s s f u l . U n l i k e t h e c a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t c o m m i s s i o n , t h e P o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n S c o t -t i s h A f f a i r s h a d m o s t o f i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i m p l e m e n t e d . I t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , 4 3 h o w e v e r , h a d a r o u s e d l i t t l e i n t e r e s t a n d i t s r e p o r t w a s c r i t i c i z e d o n t h e 4 4 g r o u n d s t h a t i t d i d n o t r e a l l y s a y a n y t h i n g . I t d i d , o f c o u r s e , s a y q u i t e a b i t . B u t i t s t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e h a d p r e c l u d e d i t i n q u i r i n g i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f e i t h e r P a r l i a m e n t a r y o r m a j o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v o l u t i o n a n d i t f a i l e d t h e r e f o r e t o t a c k l e t h e o n l y p r o b l e m w h i c h w a s c a u s i n p w i d e s p r e a d 4 5 c o n c e r n . L i k e t h e c a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t c o m m i s s i o n s t h e S c o t t i s h A f f a i r s c o m m i s s i o n w a s s e t u p t o d r a w f i r e a w a y f r o m a p o t e n t i a l l y e x p l o s i v e p o l i t i c a l q u e s t i o n . I t w a s n o t a s k e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f i n s t i t u t i n g a m a j o r r e f o r m m e a s u r e . R a t h e r , i t w a s a s k e d t o s u g g e s t m i n o r s t e p s w h i c h , a t o n e a n d t h e s a m e t i m e , w o u l d i m p r o v e t h e s i t u a t i o n w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e t c d r a s t i c a c t i o n a n d w o u l d s i l e n c e t h e c r y f o r m a j o r r e f o r m . S c o t t i s h d e m a n d 4 5 . f o r m o r e h o m e r u l e h a d i n s p i r e d a C o n s e r v a t i v e e l e c t i o n p r o m i s e o f a r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n i n v e s t i g a t i o n . B y s e t t i n g u p a c o m m i s s i o n w i t h a r e m i t w h i c h d i s a l l o w e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f P a r l i a m e n t a r y d e v o l u t i o n , h o w e v e r , t h e n e w C o n -s e r v a t i v e G o v e r n m e n t s k i r t e d t h e r e a l i s s u e a n d l e f t t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r d e v o l u t i o n w a s a p r a c t i c a b l e s o l u t i o n s t i l l u n a n s w e r e d . T h e m i n o r r e f o r m s w h i c h t h e c o m m i s s i o n w a s a b l e t o s u g g e s t n e i t h e r s i l e n c e d t h e a d v o c a t e s o f i n c r e a s e d h o m e r u l e n o r o f f e r e d t o t h o s e who o p p o s e d i t a n y s o l i d e v i d e n c e o f i t s u n d e s i r a b i l i t y . A f e w w o r t h w h i l e r e f o r m s r e s u l t e d f r o m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e c o m m e n -d a t i o n s o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n M a r r i a g e a n d D i v o r c e . F o u r P r i v a t e M e m b e r s ' B i l l s w e r e p a s s e d e n a c t i n g m i n o r m e a s u r e s a g r e e d t o b y t h e c o m m i s s i o n , a n d o n e G o v e r n m e n t B i l l b r o u g h t s o m e f u r t h e r r e f o r m s . H o w e v e r , t h e G o v e r n m e n t B i l l w a s n o t i n t r o d u c e d u n t i l f i v e y e a r s a f t e r t h e c o m m i s s i o n h a d r e p o r t e d a n d w a s a c t u a l l y d r a w n u p b y a n e x p e r t c o m m i t t e e c h a i r e d b y M r . J u s t i c e A r t h i a n D a v i s . I t I n c o r p o r a t e d s o m e c f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , 46 b u t o n l y a f t e r t h e c o m m i t t e e h a d r e v i e w e d t h e m a n d a d d e d s o m e o f i t s o w n . A s f a r a s i t s r e p o r t w a s c o n c e r n e d , t h e c o m m i s s i o n w a s a t t a c k e d f r o m 47 n e a r l y e v e r y q u a r t e r . O . R , M c G r e g o r , a l t h o u g h m o r e v i t r i o l i c t h a n m o s t , p e r h a p s b e s t s u m s u p t h e g i s t o f t h e c r i t i c i s m . A f t e r q u o t i n g a p a r a g r a p h 4 8 f r o m t h e r e p o r t , h e c o m m e n t s c T h i s p a s s a g e i s a t y p i c a l e x a m p l e o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n ' s a p p r o a c h t o t h e s o c i a l p r o b l e m s i n h e r e n t i n i t s t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e . T h e v i t a l i s s u e s a r e r e s o l v e d b y c l i c h e a n d r h e t o r i c . T h r o u p h o u t t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n o f w i t -n e s s e s a n d i n t h e R e p o r t t h e C o m m i s s i o n n e v e r a d m i t a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n m a t t e r s o f s o c i a l f a c t a n d q u e s t i o n s o f v a l u e a n d o p i n i o n . D o g m a t i c p r e s u p -p o s i t i o n s a b o u t p r e v a i l i n g a t t i t u d e s t o m a r r i a g e a n d d i v o r c e , t h e t r e n d o f d i v o r c e s t a t i s t i c s , a n d t h e e f f e c t o f d i v o r c e o n c h i l d r e n p a r a d e w i t h i n t h e R e p o r t w i t h a l l t h e s e l f - a s s u r a n c e , o f s e l f - e v i d e n t m y t h s . T h e p a u c i t y o f e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e a b o u t s u c h m a t t e r s a n d t h e C o m m i s s i o n ' s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e r a r e w i t n e s s e s w h o a t t e m p t e d t o i n t r o d u c e a n y , a r e a l i k e r e m a r k a b l e . It. i s , t h e r e f o r e , n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t 46. t h e R e p o r t n o w h e r e s u g g e s t s t h e n e e d f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h w h i c h i t d e a l r > , o r h i n t s t h a t t h e C o m m i s s i o n f o u n d t h e a b s e n c e o f a r e s e a r c h s e c r e t a r i a t a n e m b a r r a s s m e n t . . . . T h e M o r t o n C o m m i s s i o n , a m o n g t h e l e a s t d i s t i n g u i s h e d c o m m i s s i o n s o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , m a r k s a f u r t h e r s t a g e i n t h e t r a n s i t i o n o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n f r o m a n i n v e s t i g a t i n g a n d c l a r i f y i n g a g e n c y t o a d e v i c e f o r o b f u s c a t i n g s o c i a l l y u r g e n t b u t i n c o n v e n i e n t i s s u e s . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n D o c t o r s ' a n d D e n t i s t s ' R e m u n e r a t i o n e l i c i t e d n o t h i n g l i k e t h e c r i t i c i s m l e v e l e d a t t h e M o r t o n C o m m i s s i o n . I n f a c t , i n o n e o f h i s r a t h e r t o o f r e q u e n t f o r a y s i n t o t h e w o r l d o f h y p e r b o l e , H a n s e r (who w a s a m o n g t h e c r i t i c s o f t h e M o r t o n C o m m i s s i o n ) m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e P i l k i n e t o n 49 C o m m i s s i o n " s a v e d " t h e N a t i o n a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e . '' H o w e v e r s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e f a c t t h a t i t w a s g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d a s h a v i n g p r e s e n t e d a " f a i r " r e p o r t " * ^ a n d i t . d i d h a v e i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a c c e p t e d , t h e P i l k i n g t o n C o m m i s s i o n w a s n o t w i t h o u t i t s own c r i t i c s " * ' * " a n d i t w a s o f q u e s t i o n a b l e n e c e s s i t y . I t h a d b e e n s e t u p b e c a u s e M a c m i l l a n c o u l d n o t s e e h i s w a y c l e a r t o g r a n t t h e t w e n t y -f o u r p e r c e n t p a y i n c r e a s e d e m a n d e d b y t h e d o c t o r s a n d d e n t i s t s . B u t w h e n i t r e p o r t e d , i t r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t a g r e e t o a n i n c r e a s e o f a b o u t t h e a m o u n t o r i g i n a l l y r e q u e s t e d — r e t r o a c t i v e t o 31 D e c e m b e r 3.959 a n d w i t h a l u m p s u m t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e w a i t i n g p e r i o d . I t d i d , i n f a c t , w h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d h a v e d o n e ( o r a t l e a s t s h o u l d h a v e b e e n a b l e t o d o ) . I t e x a m i n e d t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e t w o p r o f e s s i o n s , f o u n d t h e m t o b e r e a s o n a b l e , a n d a c c e p t e d t h e m . N e i t h e r t h e f o r m u l a w h i c h i t s u g g e s t e d f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f f u t u r e p a y i n c r e a s e s n o r t h e p r o p o s a l s w h i c h i t m a d e i n r e g a r d t o p r e s e n t p a y s c a l e s w e r e o r i g i n a l . T h e c o m m i s s i o n w a s m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l i n s o f a r a s i t d i d p r e s e n t s o m e i n t e r e s t i n g s t a t i s t i c a l m a t e r i a l a b o u t t h e l e v e l s o f p r o f e s -s i o n a l e a r n i n g s a n d d i d c o n v i n c e t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o a c c e n t t h e d o c t o r s ' d e m a n d s . B u t t h e r e h a d b e e n n o m a j o r p u b l i c o u t c r y a b o u t t h e d o c t o r s ' r e q u e s t s a n d 47. t h e r e f o r e t h e c o m m i s s i o n w a s u n n e c e s s a r y i n s o f a r a s c o n v i n c i n g t h e p u b l i c w a s c o n c e r n e d . H a d t h e G o v e r n m e n t i t s e l f b e e n p r e p a r e d t o e x a m i n e t h e 52 d o c t o r s ' c a s e , t h e c o m m i s s i o n s h o u l d h a v e b e e n u n n e c e s s a r y a l t o g e t h e r . T h e 1 9 6 2 R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P o l i c e w a s t h e t h i r d t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y c o m m i s s i o n s e t u p t o i n q u i r e i n t o p o l i c e a c t i v i t i e s . A l t h o u g h m o s t o f i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e i m p l e m e n t e d , i t s f i n a l r e p o r t w a s n o t w e l l 5 3 r e c e i v e d ; e n a c t m e n t o f i t s p r o p o s a l s d i d n o t p r e c l u d e , f u r t h e r i n c i d e n t s 5 4 5 5 w h i c h a r o u s e d c r i t i c i s m o f t h e p o l i c e ' ' a n d t h e " t i n k e r i n g " " " w h i c h t h e c o m m i s s i o n h a d p r o p o s e d w a s n o t f a r - r e a c h i n g e n o u r r h t o p r e v e n t t h e n e e d f o r f u r t h e r l e g i s l a t i o n w i t h i n t h e d e c a d e . ' T h e c o m m i s s i o n w a s u s e f u l i n s o f a r a s i t s i n t e r i m r e p o r t m a d e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h i c h —• w h e n i m p l e m e n t e d — g a v e t h e p o l i c e a l o n g o v e r d u e p a y i n c r e a s e . B u t i t c a n n o t b e c l a s s i f i e d a s a s u c c e s s f u l c o m m i s s i o n s i n c e t h e q u e s t i o n a b l e l o g i c o f i t s r e p o r t w e a k e n e d t h e i m p a c t o f i t s c o n c l u s i o n s ^ ^ a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f i t s f i n a l r e p o r t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f a i l e d t o i m p r o v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h i t h a d b e e n a p p o i n t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e . T h e l a s t o f t h e m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l c o m m i s s i o n s , t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n T r a d e U n i o n s a n d E m p l o y e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n s , d i d n o t r e p o r t u n t i l M a y 1 9 6 8 . B u t a s t h e Q u e e n ' s S p e e c h o n . t h e O p e n i n g o f t h e 1967-68 P a r l i a m e n t a r y S e s s i o n 5 8 h a d i m p l i e d , a c t i o n o n i t s r e p o r t w a s f a i r l y s p e e d y . L e s s t h a n a y e a r a f t e r t h e c o m m i s s i o n h a d r e p o r t e d , t h e G o v e r n m e n t p r e s e n t e d a W h i t e P a p e r d i s c u s s i n g t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d o u t l i n i n g t h e l e g i s -5 9 l a t i o n i t p l a n n e d . " H o w e v e r , t h e p r o p o s e d B i l l d i f f e r e d i n s e v e r a l s i g n i f -i c a n t r e s p e c t s f r o m w h a t t h e c o m m i s s i o n h a d r e c o m m e n d e d . A n d , l i k e t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e p o r t i t s e l f , i t d i d n o t seem, t o p l e a s e a n y o n e v e r y m u c h . ^ ^ T h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h t h e c o m m i s s i o n h a d b e e n s e t u p t o e x a m i n e w e r e c e r t a i n l y n o t o n e s f o r w h i c h t h e r e w e r e r e a d i l y a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n s . F e p a r d l e s s o f w h a t i t r e c o m m e n d e d , i t w a s b o u n d t o d i s p l e a s e s o m e o n e . H o w e v e r , b y 48. r e s o r t i n g t o c o m p r o m i s e a n d b y p r o d u c i n g w h a t t h e E c o n o m i s t c a l l e d a " f e e b l e " a n d a " f a i n t - h e a r t e d " r e p o r t , ^ t h e c o m m i s s i o n s u c c e e d e d n e i t h e r i n s u g g e s t i n g a p o s i t i v e p r o g r a m m e o f r e f o r m n o r i n p l e a s i n g a n y o n e a t a l l . E v e n t h e . C h a i r -m a n o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s u b m i t t e d a n a d d e n d u m w h i c h s u g g e s t e d t h a t h e d i d n o t r e a l l y t h i n k t h e r e p o r t w a s v e r y g o o d a n d p o s s i b l y s o m e o t h e r b o d y s h o u l d 6 2 h a v e a l o o k i n t o t h e p r o b l e m . ' N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e c o m m i s s i o n w a s n o t w i t h o u t s o m e r e d e e m i n g f e a t u r e s . T h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s b o t h s o l i c i t e d a d d i t i o n a l s u r v e y s a n d s e n t s e v e n o f t h e i r m e m b e r s a b r o a d t o o b s e r v e f o r t h e m s e l v e s i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s i n S w e d e n a n d 63 G e r m a n y . C o m m e n t i n g o n o n e o f t h e s u r v e y s , t h e E c o n o m i s t r e m a r k e d : T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n T r a d e U n i o n s a n d ( f o r l u c k ) E m p l o y e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n s m a y w e l l i n t h e e n d p r o d u c e a m i n n o w . B u t i n t h e p r o c e s s i t h a s s p a w n e d a f a s c i n a t i n g a r r a y o f e v i d e n c e a n d r e s e a r c h w h i c h i s d o i n g q u i t e a l o t to f u r t h e r e v e r y o n e ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o b l e m . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , n e i t h e r t h e E c o n o m i s t n o r a n y o n e e l s e w a s a b l e t o c o m m e n t w i t h s u c h e n t h u s i a s m a b o u t t h e r e p o r t i t s e l f . U n s u c c e s s f u l C o m m i s s i o n s T h e r e m a i n i n g s e v e n c o m m i s s i o n s — t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o n t h e S t a t u s o f t h e C o u n t y B o r o u g h of M e r t h y r T y d f i l ( 1 9 3 5 ) , L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t i n t h e T y n e s i d e A r e a ( 1 9 3 5 - 3 7 ) , R h o d e s i a a n d N y a s a l a n d (1938-39), W o r k m e n ' s C o m p e n s a t i o n ( 1 9 3 8 - 4 4 ) . E q u a l P a y ( 1 9 4 4 - 4 6 ) , E a s t A f r i c a ( 1 9 5 3 - 5 5 ) , a n d t h e P e n a l S y s t e m i n E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s ( 1 9 6 4 - 6 6 ) — w e r e a l l u n s u c c e s s f u l . T h e l a s t c o m m i s s i o n a n d t h e c o m m i s s i o n o n w o r k m e n ' s c o m p e n s a t i o n a c t u a l l y n e v e r e v e n c o m p l e t e d t h e i r i n q u i r i e s . A l t h o u g h i n b o t h c a s e s s o m e o f t h e i r r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s w e r e u s e d b y o t h e r b o d i e s , t h e y t h e m s e l v e s w e r e u n a b l e t o m a k e a n y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o r e v e n t o a n a l y s e t h e e v i d e n c e s u b m i t t e d t o t h e m . T h e f i r s t t w o c o m m i s s i o n s , t h o s e , o n M e r t h y r T y d f i l a n d t h e T y n e s i d e A r e a , b o t h s u b m i t t e d r e p o r t s a n d p r o p o s e d c o m p a r a t i v e l y d r a s t i c s o l u t i o n s f o r 49. t h e p r o b l e m s t h e y w e r e e x a m i n i n g . H o w e v e r , i n n e i t h e r c a s e w e r e t h e i r r e c o m -m e n d a t i o n s a c t e d u p o n . W h i l e t h e M e r t h y r T y d f i l r e p o r t w a s g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d 6 4 t o h a v e b e e n s u p e r i o r t o t h e o n e o n T y n e s i d e , b o t h c o m m i s s i o n s a p p e a r t o h a v e d i s r e g a r d e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t a s k e d t o s u g g e s t g u i d e l i n e s f o r g e n e r a l l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t r e f o r m a n d t h a t w h a t t h e y r e c o m m e n d e d m u s t — t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t a t l e a s t — b e a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e p e o p l e s o f t h e a r e a s . U n l e s s t h e M i n i s t e r o f H e a l t h w i s h e d t o i g n o r e t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s a n d a t t h e s a m e t i m e t o c r e a t e a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h h e w o u l d v e r y l i k e l y b e f o r c e d t o m a k e s i m i l a r c h a n g e s i n m a n y o t h e r a r e a s , h e h a d t o c h o i c e b u t t o r e j e c t b o t h c o m m i s s i o n s ' p r o p o s a l s . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n R h o d e s i a a n d N y a s a l a n d w a s s e t u p p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e a l a r g e a n d v o c i f e r o u s b o d y o f w h i t e o p i n i o n i n N o r t h e r n R h o d e s i a w a s d e m a n d i n g e i t h e r i m m e d i a t e a m a l g a m a t i o n w i t h S o u t h e r n R h o d e s i a o r c o m p l e t e s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . T h e c o m m i s s i o n w a s e m p o w e r e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e o n l y t h e f o r m e r p o s s i b i l i t y a n d i t r e c o m m e n d e d a c o m p r o m i s e w i t h w h i c h i t w a s a u i t e e v i d e n t 66 n o n e o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s e n t i r e l y a g r e e d a n d w h i c h " u n h a p p i l y o b s c u r e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d i s s i m i l a r i t y o f n a t i v e p o l i c i e s w a s w h a t h a d i n s p i r e d 6 7 t h e d e m a n d f o r a m a l g a m a t i o n " i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . T h e G o v e r n m e n t v i r t u a l l y i g n o r e d t h e r e p o r t . A t f i r s t , o f c o u r s e , 6 8 i t w a s f o r c e d t o d o s o b y t h e o n s e t o f t h e w a r . " H o w e v e r , l a t e r , w h e n t h e G o v e r n m e n t f o u n d t i m e t o c o n s i d e r f a v o u r a b l v t h e w a r - t i m e W e s t I n d i a R e p o r t , i t s t i l l t o o k l i t t l e d e c i s i v e a c t i o n i n r e s p e c t t o t h e R h o d e s i a - N y a s a l a n d f q r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . " And> m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n 1 9 5 2 a n d 5 3 w h e n P a r l i a m e n t w a s c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r o p o s e d C e n t r a l A f r i c a n F e d e r a t i o n , t h e r e w a s o n l y p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f a c t t h a t a c o m m i s s i o n h a d o n c e i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e s u b j e c t . ^ C u r i o u s l y , t h e o n e t h i n g u p o n w h i c h t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s h a d a l l s e e m e d t o a g r e e w a s t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d b e n o f e d e r a t i o n . ^ B u t p r o b a b l y t h i s , l i k e t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s o t h e r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d i t s r e p o r t i t s e l f , w a s t h o u g h t 50. n o t t o b e p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s h a d , q u i t e o b v i o u s l y , f a i l e d t o a r r i v e a t a n y a c c e p t a b l e c o n c l u s i o n o n w h a t s h o u l d b e d o n e i n t h e a r e a . U n l i k e m o s t c o m m i s s i o n s , t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n E q u a l P a y w a s n o t a s k e d t o m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . T h e G o v e r n m e n t m a d e n o s e c r e t a b o u t t h e f a c t t h a t i t h a d n o i n t e n t i o n o f i m m e d i a t e l y i n t r o d u c i n g e q u a l p a y a n d t h a t w h a t i t w a s a s k i n g t h e c o m m i s s i o n t o d o w a s o n l y " t o c o n s i d e r t h e s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c 72 a n d f i n a n c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e c l a i m o f e q u a l p a y f o r e q u a l w o r k . . . " U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e c o m m i s s i o n d i d n o t d o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l . I t s r e p o r t i n c l u d e d n o c o m p r e h e n s i v e s u m m a r y o f i t s f i n d i n g s ; i t s c o n c l u s i o n s t e n d e d t o b e b a s e d m o r e o n v a l u e j u d g m e n t s t h a n o n f a c t s ; a n d a l t h o u g h i t d i d c o n s i d e r t h e e f f e c t s o f e q u a l p a y i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , i t f a i l e d t o p u t m u c h e m p h a s i s o n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i t o b t a i n e d . C o m m e n t i n g o n t h e e f f e c t o f t h e 7 3 r e p o r t s h o r t l y a f t e r i t s s u b m i s s i o n , o n e c r i t i c o b s e r v e d t h a t . . . t h e a r g u m e n t s h a v e b e e n p r e t t y m u c h t h e s a m e a s i f t h e c o m m i s s i o n h a d n e v e r s a t T s i c j . T h o s e u r g i n g t h a t e q u a l p a y b e g r a n t e d a t o n c e h a v e t a k e n t h e i r s t a n d o n j u s t i c e a n d t h e o n l y v o c a l o p p o s i t i o n h a s s t r e s s e d t h e h e a v y f i n a n c i a l c o s t a n d t h e d e g r e e o f i n f l a t i o n e n t a i l e d i n r a i s i n g t h e r a t e s o f p a y o f w o m e n i n t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e s a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . T h e s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c i m p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h t h e c o m m i s s i o n w a s a s k e d t o e x p l o r e h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d . T o a f a i r l y g r e a t d e g r e e , t h i s w a s t h e f a u l t o f t h e r e p o r t i t s e l f . T h e l a s t o f t h e u n s u c c e s s f u l c o m m i s s i o n s , t h e P o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n E a s t A f r i c a , p r e s e n t e d a r e p o r t w h i c h w a s i n s o m e w a y s q u i t e i n f o r m a t i v e . T h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s , h o w e v e r s e x a m i n e d t h e i r p r o b l e m a l m o s t s o l e l y f r o m a l a i s s e z - f a i r e e c o n o m i c s t a n d p o i n t a n d m a d e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h i c h a l s o r e f l e c t e d t h i s b i a s . C o n s e a u e n t l y , a s a l l o f t h e C o l o n i a l E a s t A f r i c a n G o v e r n m e n t s s u b s e q u e n t l y a r g u e d , t h e c o m m i s s i o n t e n d e d t o o v e r e m p h a s i z e t h e 7 4 e a s e w i t h w h i c h i t s r e f o r m s c o u l d b e i m p l e m e n t e d . L i k e w i s e , i t f a i l e d t o 5 1 . t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e f a c t t h a t i t w a s f a c e d w i t h a c i r c u l a r p r o b l e m . B y s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e C o l o n i a l G o v e r n m e n t s e r a d i c a t e t r i b a l i s m b y r e p l a c i n g t r i b a l t e n u r e w i t h i n d i v i d u a l t e n u r e a n d b y e n c o u r a g i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t c f a m o d e r n c a s h e c o n o m y , t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s w e r e i g n o r i n g t h e f a c t t h a t i t w a s t r i b a l i s m i t s e l f w h i c h i n l a r g e m e a s u r e w a s p r e c l u d i n g s u c h r e f o r m s . A s a r e s u l t , a l t h o u g h i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e a c c e p t e d i n t h e o r y b y t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t s ^ " * t h e y w e r e n o t , a n d i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n , i m p l e m e n t e d . P e r f o r m a n c e a n d C o n s t i t u t i o n a l R o l e U n q u e s t i o n a b l y , t h o s e c o m m i s s i o n s c l a s s i f i e d a s s u c c e s s f u l h a v e h e l p e d t o p r o m o t e c o n s e n s u s b e t w e e n t h e g o v e r n o r s a n d t h e g o v e r n e d a n d h a v e , t h e r e f o r e , f u l f i l l e d t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e . F c u a l l y c e r t a i n l y , t h o s e c o m m i s s i o n s c l a s s i f i e d a s u n s u c c e s s f u l h a v e b e e n u n a b l e t o p r o m o t e c o n s e n s u s a n d h a v e , i n f a c t , f a i l e d t o f u l f i l l a n y s i g n i f i c a n t f u n c t i o n a t a l l . w i t h t h e u s e f u l a n d m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , i t i s p o s s i b l e o n l y t o s p e c u l a t e a b o u t t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h c o m m i s s i o n s i n t h e s e g r o u p s s u c -c e e d e d i n p r o m o t i n g c o n s e n s u s . Q u i t e o b v i o u s l y , n o p e x-ras e n t i r e l y s u c c e s s f u l . . B e c a u s e i n m o s t c a s e s t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e n o t a c c e p t e d . , t h e u s e f u l c o m m i s s i o n s d i d . n o t s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h b a d g i v e r , r i s e t o t h e i r a p p o i n t -m e n t . L i k e w i s e , a l t h o u g h i n e a c h c a s e a t l e a s t s o m e o f t h e i r p r o p o s a l s w e r e i m p l e m e n t e d , t h e m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l c o m m i s s i o n s a l s o f a i l e d i n m o s t i n s t a n c e s t o p r o v i d e a c c e p t a b l e r e m e d i e s f o r t h e p r o b l e m s t h e y w e r e s t u d y i n g . T h e u s e f u l c o m m i s s i o n s , h o w e v e r , d i d s u b m i t w o r t h w h i l e r e p o r t s w h i c h i n v a r i a b l y c l a r i f i e d t h e i s s u e s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n a n d e n h a n c e d p u b l i c a w a r e n e s s . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , tfcn u s e f u l c o m m i s s i o n s h a v e v e r y p r o b a b l y c o m e c l o s e r t o f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e t h a n h a v e t h e r \ a r p i n a l l y u s e f u l o n e s w h o s e r e p o r t s d i d l i t t l e t o i m p r o v e , p u b l i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o b l e m s t h e y w e r e i n v e s t i g a t i n g . 5 2 ; 348 H.C. Deb. 1082-5, 4 Jul y 1939. 352 H.C. Dob. 645, 17 Oct. 1939. Comments on the recommendations, both i n Parliament and outside, support t h i s conclusion. Cf. 359 H.C. Deb. 1026-94, 17 Apr. 1940: F. J . Osborn, 'The Future of Town and Countryside,' P o l i t i c a l  Quarterly, XIV (Jan. - Mar., 1943), 2; Dame A l i x Meynell, 'Location of Industry,' Public Administration,XXXVIII (Spring, 1959), 9-20; and William Robson, 'Evacuation, Town Planning, and the War,' P o l i t i c a l Quarterly, XI (Jan.-Mar., 1940), 45-58. F. J . Osborn, 'Bri t a i n ' s Town-Country Pattern: The Report of the Royal Commission,' P o l i t i c a l q u arterly, XI (Apr.-June, 1940), 230. As i s to be expected, references to the commission increased as the Government moved closer to accepting i t s recommendations. Cf. 377 H.C. Deb. 1531-5, 11 Feb. 1942; 379 H.C. Deb. 965-1039, 29 A p r i l 1942; Great B r i t a i n , Parliament, Parliamentary Papers (House of Commons and Command), 1943-44, Vol. VIII (Accounts, v o l . 4 ) , Cmd. 6527, May, 1944, 'Employment Po l i c y , ' ch. i i i , 12; 409 H.C. Deb. 837-949, 21 Mar. 1945; 432 H.C. Deb. 943-9, 29 Jan. 1947; and Great B r i t a i n , Parliament, Parliamentary Papers (House of Commons and Command), 1948, Vo l . II (Reports, v o l . 2), Cmd. 7540, Oct. 1948, ' D i s t r i b u t i o n of Industry,' Part I I , 9-13. 522 H.C. Deb. 2109-34, 29 Jan. 1954; 537 H.C. Deb. 814-40, 18 Feb. 1955; 546 H.C. Deb. 1803-71, 25 Nov. 1955; 588 H.C. Deb. 836-56, 16 May 1958; and 601 H.C. Deb. 1618-1703, 13 Mar. 1959. Economist, March 17, 1956, 608. Ibi d . The Economist argues that the Government agreed to i n i t i a t e l e g i s l a t i o n p a r t l y because of *' the courageous recent statement of the Chairman of the former Royal Commission that i t w i l l not be easy to get men of standing to serve on such commissions i f t h e i r reports are l e f t i n the pending tray as long as his report has been.'' 5 3 . 9 T h e D e b a t e o n t h e r e p o r t w a s i n i t i a t e d b y a P r i v a t e M e m b e r w h o a s k e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o a c t o n t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n -d a t i o n s , 6 0 0 H . C . D e b . 6 8 7 - 7 5 4 , 2 0 F e b . 1 9 5 9 . F i v e y e a r s l a t e r , o n a M o t i o n f o r A d j o u r n m e n t a T o r y M . P . a l s o a s k e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o a c t , 6 8 9 H . C . D e b . 1 7 6 - 8 6 , 10 F e b . 1 9 6 4 . A s i d e f r o m t h i s , f r o m t h e t i m e t h e r e p o r t w a s s u b m i t t e d u n t i l l e g i s l a t i o n -was b r o u g h t f o r w a r d , t h e G o v e r n m e n t w a s a s k e d f i f t e e n t i m e s i n t h e f o r m o f w r i t t e n a n d o r a l q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e f a t e o f t h e r e p o r t : 5 9 5 H . C . D e b . 5 2 , 12 D e c . 1 9 5 8 ; 6 1 2 H . C . D e b . 6 6 7 , 2 N o v . 1 9 5 9 ; 6 2 0 H . C . D e b . l - - * 2 , 2 1 M a r . 1 9 6 0 ; 6 2 7 H . C . D e b . 1 3 4 , 2 6 J u l y 1 9 6 0 ; 6 3 2 H . C . D e b . 6 9 , 15 D e c . 1 9 6 0 ; 6 3 3 H . C . D e b . 4 1 , 2 6 J a n u a r y 1 9 6 1 ; 6 3 9 H . C . D e b . 6 - 7 , 2 4 A p r . 1 9 6 1 ; 6 4 1 H . C . D e b . 3 7 , 1 J u n e 1 9 6 1 ; 6 4 6 H . C . D e b . 1 7 , 23 O c t . 1 9 6 1 ; 6 4 8 H . C . D e b . 1 5 - 1 6 , 6 N o v . 1 9 6 1 ; 6 5 9 H . C . D e b . 9 8 , 1 4 M a y 1 9 6 2 ; 6 7 8 H . C . D e b . 1 1 2 , 2 8 M a y 1 9 6 3 ; 6 8 2 H . C . D e b . 2 2 1 , 2 4 O c t . 1 9 6 3 ; • 6 9 7 H . C . D e b . 1 1 , 2 2 J u n e 1 9 6 4 ; a n d 7 0 4 H . C . D e b . 1 9 7 - 8 , 2 1 D e c . 1 9 6 4 . 1 0 T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n B e t t i n g , L o t t e r i e s a n d G a m i n g s u b m i t t e d i t s r e p o r t o n 2 8 A p r i l 1 9 4 9 . T h e G o v e r n m e n t f i n a l l y a g r e e d t o a c t " a t t h e e a r l i e s t p r a c t i c a b l e m o m e n t " — i n M a r c h o f 1 9 5 6 ( 5 4 9 H . C . D e b . 2 5 5 5 , 9 M a r c h 1 9 5 6 ) . T h e G o v e r n m e n t B e t t i n g a n d G a m i n g B i l l w a s n o t i n t r o d u c e d u n t i l O c t o b e r o f 1 9 5 9 ( 6 1 2 H . C . D e b . 5 3 9 , 3 0 O c t o b e r 1 9 5 9 ) . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n Common L a n d s u b m i t t e d i t s r e p o r t o n 11 J u l y 1 9 5 8 . T h e G o v e r n m e n t d i d n o t p r o m i s e t o l e g i s l a t e u n t i l N o v e m b e r o f 1 9 6 1 ( 6 4 8 H . C . D e b . 1 5 - 1 6 , 6 N o v . 1 9 6 1 ) . T h e T o r y G o v e r n m e n t n e v e r d i d g e t a r o u n d t o p r e s e n t i n g a B i l l . O n e w a s i n t r o d u c e d , h o w e v e r , i n t h e H o u s e o f L o r d s s h o r t l y a f t e r L a b o u r c a m e t o p o w e r ( 7 0 4 H . C . D e b . 1 9 7 - 8 , 2 1 D e c . 1 9 6 4 a n d 2 6 2 H . L . D e b . 6 4 0 , 2 1 D e c . 1 9 6 4 1 . 11 T h e F i n a n c e A c t s o f 1 9 5 5 , ' 5 6 , * 5 7 , ' 5 8 , ' 6 0 , ' 6 1 , ' 6 2 a n d ' 6 4 a l l c o n t a i n e d s o m e p r o v i s i o n s r e c o m m e n d e d b y t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n . 12 S i r L i o n e l C o h e n h a d b e e n t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s o r i g i n a l c h a i r m a n . B e c a u s e o f h i s a p p o i n t m e n t a s L o r d o f A p p e a l i n O r d i n a r y , h e r e s i g n e d i n D e c e m b e r o f 1 9 5 1 . 13 4 9 6 H . C . D e b . 9 3 8 - 4 1 , 2 6 F e b . 1 9 5 2 . 1 4 4 9 9 H . C . D e b . 1 0 1 9 , 2 8 A p r . 1 9 5 2 i 15 5 1 2 H . C . D e b . 2 0 4 4 - 7 , 17 M a r . 1 9 5 3 . 16 E c o n o m i s t , J u n e 1 1 , 1 9 5 5 , p . 2 1 7 . 17 I b i d . , p . 9 1 5 . 5 4 . 18 A n g u s M . M a c k i n t o s h , ' T h e U s e o f A d v i s o r y B o d i e s b y t h e M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e a n d F i s h e r i e s , ' i n A d v i s o r y B o d i e s , e d . b y R . V . V e r n o n a n d N i c h o l a s M a n s e r g h ( L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n a n d U n w i n , 1 9 4 0 ) , p p . 4 2 8 - 9 . 19 M o s t o f t h e m a j o r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n w e r e i m p l e m e n t e d b y E s t a b l i s h m e n t C i r c u l a r s 2 7 / 5 6 a n d 2 8 / 5 6 . T h e o n l y m a i n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s n o t i n c l u d e d w e r e t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n ' s p r o p o s a l s o n s u p e r a n n u a t i o n . T h e r e c o m m e n d a -t i o n s o f t h e L o n d o n G o v e r n m e n t r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n f o r m e d t h e b a s i s f o r t h e L o n d o n G o v e r n m e n t A c t , 1 9 6 3 . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e o n l y m a j o r c h a n g e c o n c e r n e d t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r c o n t r o l o f e d u c a t i o n . 2 0 6 5 4 H . C . D e b . 3 8 - 1 0 5 , 1 1 9 - 6 5 , 1 9 F e b . 1 9 6 2 a n d 6 5 4 H . C . D e b . 2 2 4 - 3 3 8 , 2 0 F e b . 1 9 6 2 . 2 1 R e : t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e , c f . ' T h e P r i e s t l e y C o m m i s s i o n a n d A f t e r w a r d s , ' P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , X X X V I ( S u m m e r , 1 9 5 8 ) , 1 7 3 - 8 4 . 2 2 L a b o u r ' s L o n d o n G o v e r n m e n t A c t , 1 9 6 7 , d i d r e v e r s e o n e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n . I t s p l i t t h e t i m e s f o r * e l e c t i o n s s o t h a t a l l w o u l d n o t o c c u r s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . 2 3 3 1 9 H . C . D e b . 1 7 7 3 , 4 F e b . 1 9 3 7 . 2 4 E c o n o m i s t , N o v . 7 , 1 9 3 6 , p . 2 5 1 . 2 5 G r e a t B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t , P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s ( H o u s e o f C o m m o n s a n d C o m m a n d ) , 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 , V o l . X X I ( A c c o u n t s , v o l . 6 ) , C m d . 5 4 5 1 , M a r c h , 1 9 3 6 , ' S t a t e m e n t R e l a t i n g t o R e p o r t o f R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n P r i v a t e M a n u f a c t u r e o f a n d T r a d i n g i n A r m s , 1 9 3 5 - 3 6 . ' D u r i n g t h e D e b a t e o n t h e r e p o r t , t h e O p p o s i t i o n p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t h a d a g r e e d t o a c c e p t 1/2 o f 1 / 5 o f t h e 10 p r o p o s a l s m a d e b y t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n ( 3 2 4 H . C . D e b . 2 8 1 - 4 0 0 , 2 6 M a y 1 9 3 7 ) . S o o n a f t e r t h e D e b a t e , but a l m o s t a y e a r a f t e r t h e r e p o r t w a s s u b m i t t e d , t h e G o v e r n m e n t a l s o a g r e e d t o a d o p t t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t h a t p u b l i c s e r v a n t s ( i n c l u d i n g r e t i r e d o n e s ) s h o u l d n o t j o i n a r m a m e n t f i r m s w i t h o u t e x p r e s s \ « r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n f r o m t h e i r M i n i s t e r s ( E c o n o m i s t , J u l y 1 7 , 1 9 3 7 , p . 1 2 1 ) . 55 26 3 4 1 H . C . D e b . 1 9 9 3 - 4 , 2 4 N o v . 1 9 3 8 . G r e a t B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t , P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s ( H o u s e o f C o m m o n s a n d C o m m a n d ) , 1 9 3 8 - 3 9 , V o l . X X V I I ( A c c o u n t s , v o l . 1 2 ) , C m d . 6 0 1 9 , M a y 1 9 3 9 , ' P a l e s t i n e : S t a t e m e n t o f P o l i c y . ' 2 7 G r e a t B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t , P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s ( H o u s e o f C o m m o n s a n d C o m m a n d ) , 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 , V o l . X I V ( R e p o r t s , v o l . 6 ) , C m d . 5 5 1 3 , J u l y , 1 9 3 7 , ' P a l e s t i n e : S t a t e m e n t o f P o l i c y . * 2 8 E c o n o m i s t . A u g . 2 8 , 1 9 3 7 , p . 4 2 1 . 2 9 6 4 9 H . C . D e b . 9 4 - 5 , 2 0 N o v . 1 9 6 1 . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t h a t f a m i l y a l l o w a n c e s b o i n c r e a s e d b y 2 s . p e r w e e k , t h e r e i s s o m e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a s s u m i n g t h a t i t m a y h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t . T h e F i n a n c e A c t , 1 9 5 2 , i n c l u d e d a p r o v i s i o n f o r a 3 s . i n c r e a s e . T h e f a c t t h a t t h e i n c r e a s e w a s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t r e c o m m e n d e d b y t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t n o m e n t i o n w a s m a d e o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n d u r i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e B i l l , l e a d s o n e t o b e l i e v e , h o w e v e r , t h a t w h i l e t h e c o m m i s s i o n m a y h a v e b e e n o n e f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e G o v e r n m e n t , i t w a s n o t t h e p r i m a r y o n e . 3 0 T h e c o m m i s s i o n a s s u m e d , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t i m m i g r a t i o n f r o m r a c i a l l y d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s w o u l d b e ( a n d s h o u l d b e ) l i m i t e d . C f . G r e a t B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t , P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s H o u s e o f C o m m o n s a n d C o m m a n d ) , 1 9 4 8 - 4 9 , V o l . X I X ( R e p o r t s , v o l . 9 ) , C m d . 7 6 9 5 , M a r c h 1 9 4 9 , ' R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n P o p u l a t i o n , ' p . 2 2 5 . T h i s w a s n o t n a t u r a l l y t h e c a s e , a n d a n a r t i f i c i a l l i m i t a t i o n w a s n o t i m p o s e d u n t i l 1 9 6 8 . 3 1 6 4 9 H . C . D e b . 9 4 - 5 , 2 0 N o v . 1 9 6 1 . 3 2 E a c h o f t h e s e c o m m i t t e e s s u b m i t t e d s e p a r a t e r e p o r t s . T h e s e i n c l u d e d t h e ' R e p o r t s a n d S e l e c t e d P a p e r s o f t h e S t a t i s t i c a l C o m m i t t e e , ' ' R e p o r t s o f t h e B i o l o g i c a l a n d M e d i c a l C o m m i t t e e , ' ' R e p o r t o f t h e E c o n o m i c s C o m m i t t e e , ' ' P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t o f t h e F a m i l y C e n s u s , ' ' R e p o r t o f a n I n q u i r y i n t o F a m i l y L i m i t a t i o n , ' 3 3 C f . a n n o u n c e m e n t b y W . F . D c e d e s , M i n i s t e r w i t h o u t P o r t f o l i o , 6 9 7 H . C . D e b . 9 4 7 - 9 , 2 4 J u n e 1 9 6 3 ; a n d A . E . M u s s o n , ' P a r l i a m e n t a n d t h e P r e s s , ' P a r l i a m e n t a r y A f f a i r s , I X ( F a l l , 1 9 5 6 ) 4 0 4 - 1 7 . 3 4 ' C u r r e n t S u r v e y , ' P u b l i c L a w ( W i n t e r , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 3 5 9 . A l s o , c f . 7 0 9 H . C . D e b . 1 2 1 7 - 1 9 , 2 9 M a r . 1 9 6 5 . 3 5 7 4 0 H . C . D e b . 1 6 6 3 - 1 7 8 5 , 8 F e b . 1 9 6 7 . 5 6 . 3 6 I t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e , f o r e x a m p l e , w h e t h e r t h e o l d ' t o k e n ' P r e s s C o u n c i l ( s e t u p i n 1 9 5 3 u n d e r t h r e a t o f P a r l i a m e n t a r y a c t i o n ) w o u l d h a v e h a d s u f f i c i e n t p o w e r e v e n t o c o n s i d e r c e n s u r i n g t h e N e w s o f t h e W o r l d f o r p u b l i s h i n g t h e ' m e m o i r s ' o f t h e m e m o r a b l e M i s s K e e l e r ( c f . T i m e , O c t . 1 0 , 1 9 6 9 , p p . 3 6 - 7 ) . 3 7 G r e a t B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t , P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s ( H o u s e o f C o m m o n s a n d C o m m a n d ) , 1 9 4 8 - 4 9 , V o l . X X ( R e p o r t s , v o l . 1 0 ) , C m d . 7 7 0 0 , J u n e , 1 9 4 9 , ' R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P r e s s , ' p . 1 7 5 . 3 8 I n a D e b a t e o n t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e p o r t , 4 6 7 H . C . D e b . 2 6 8 3 - 2 7 9 4 , 2 8 J u l y 1 9 4 9 , t h e H o u s e u n a n i m o u s l y a p p r o v e d a G o v e r n m e n t s p o n s o r e d r e s o l u t i o n a s k i n g t h e P r e s s t o s e t u p a P r e s s C o u n c i l . T h e P r e s s o s t e n s i b l y d i d n o t h i n g . T h r e e y e a r s l a t e r M r . S i m m o n s , L a b o u r M e m b e r f o r B r i e r l y H i l l , i n t r o d u c e d a B i l l t o e s t a b l i s h a P r e s s C o u n c i l ( 5 0 8 H . C . D e b . 9 6 2 - 1 0 6 0 , 2 3 N o v . 1 9 5 2 ) . T h e M o t i o n f o r a Q u e s t i o n w a s d e f e a t e d 1 1 6 - 1 2 4 , b u t d e b a t e o n t h e B i l l w a s r e s u m e d s o m e t i m e l a t e r ( 5 1 5 H . C . D e b . 7 4 8 - 8 0 6 , 8 M a y 1 9 5 3 ) . S i m m o n s , h o x j e v e r , w i t h d r e w h i s B i l l s i n c e i n t h e i n t e r i m t h e P r e s s h a d d r a w n u p a d r a f t c o n s t i t u t i o n f o r a ' v o l u n t a r y ' P r e s s C o u n c i l . W h i l e i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t S i m m o n s ' B i l l w o u l d a c t u a l l y h a v e p a s s e d , i t i s a l m o s t c e r t a i n t h a t a T o r y A m e n d m e n t a g a i n d e m a n d i n g ' v o l u n t a r y ' a c t i o n w o u l d h a v e . I n a n y c a s e , P a r l i a m e n t a r y o p i n i o n w a s o b v i o u s l y u n a n i m o u s i n d e m a n d i n g s o m e a c t i o n a n d i t i s a p p a r e n t ( c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t i m i n g o f t h e P r e s s ' s d e c i s i o n ) t h a t P a r l i a m e n t a r y p r e s s u r e w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f o r c i n g t h e P r e s s t o s e t u p a c o u n c i l . 3 9 G r e a t B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t , P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s ( H o u s e o f C o m m o n s a n d C o m m a n d ) , 1 9 6 1 - 6 2 , V o l . X X I ( R e p o r t s , v o l . 1 4 ) , C m n d . 1 8 1 1 , S e p t . 1 9 6 2 , ' R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 , ' p . 1 0 1 . A G e n e r a l C o u n c i l o f t h e P r e s s w a s f i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n J u l y , 1 9 5 3 , b u t " i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h a t r e c o m m e n d e d b y t h e 1 9 4 9 C o m m i s s i o n . " 1 . T h e r e w a s n o l a y c h a i r m a n ; 2 . T h e r e w e r e n o l a y m e m b e r s ; a n d 3 . N o s a n c t i o n s w e r e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e C o u n c i l . 4 0 I b i d . , p p . 1 0 0 - 1 . 4 1 C f . c s p . 5 3 6 H . C . D e b . 2 0 6 4 - 2 1 8 3 , 10 F e b . 1 9 5 5 ; 5 4 8 H . C . D e b . 2 5 3 6 - 2 6 5 6 , 16 F e b . 1 9 5 6 ; a n d 7 0 4 H . C . D e b , 8 8 3 - 7 , 2 1 D e c . 1 9 6 4 . 5 7 . 4 2 G r e a t B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t , P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s ( H o u s e o f C o m m o n s a n d C o m m a n d ) , 1 9 3 0 - 3 1 , V o l . V I ( R e p o r t s , v o l . 2 ) , P a p e r # 1 5 , D e c . 1 9 3 0 , ' R e p o r t o f t h e S e l e c t C o m m i t t e e o n C a p i t a l P u n i s h m e n t , e s p . p p . x x i - x x v i , l x x x i v - x c v i , a n d 1 4 6 - 8 ; C a p i t a l  P u n i s h m e n t i n t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y ( L o n d o n : P u t n a m ' s , 1 9 3 0 ) ; J u l i a J o h n s e n , ( e d . ) , C a p i t a l P u n i s h m e n t ( H e w Y o r k : H . W. W i l s o n , 1 9 3 9 ) ; a n d T h o r s t e n S e l l i n , ( e d . ) , M u r d e r a n d t h e D e a t h P e n a l t y , V o l . C C L X X X I V o f t h e A n n a l s o f t h e M e r i c a n A c a d e m y o f F o l i t i c a l  a n d S o c i a l S c i e n c e ( N o v . , 1 9 5 2 ) . 43 I n t h e H o u s e o f C o m m o n s , f o r e x a m p l e , a l t h o u g h t h e c o m m i s s i o n s a t f o r t w o y e a r s , t h e G o v e r n m e n t w a s o n l y q u e s t i o n e d t h r e e t i m e s o n t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s p r o g r e s s : 5 2 5 H . C . D e b . 1 8 1 9 , 3 0 M a r . 1 9 5 4 ; 5 3 0 H . C . D e b . 9 , 12 J u l y 1 9 5 4 ; a n d H . C . D e b . 2 2 8 , 2 7 J u l y 1 9 5 4 . 4 4 T h e a t t a c k w a s l e d b y J o G r i m o n d . C f . 5 3 6 H . C . D e b . 9 0 4 - 1 0 2 8 , 1 F e b . 1 9 5 5 . 4 5 T h e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e t h e m s e l v e s a r e r e m a r k a b l y v a g u e ( c f . A p p e n d i x H ) . T h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r , h o w e v e r , m a d e i t v e r y c l e a r i n t h e H o u s e o f C o m m o n s t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f P a r l i a m e n t a r y d e v o l u t i o n w a s o u t s i d e i t s t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e ( 5 0 4 H . C . D e b . 7 6 7 - 7 2 , 2 4 J u l y 1 9 5 2 . 4 6 6 2 0 H . C . D e b . 5 0 5 - 5 5 , 23 l i a r . 1 9 6 0 . 4 7 1 9 9 H . L . D e b . 9 7 2 - 8 9 , 9 9 2 - 1 0 6 6 , 2 4 O c t . 1 9 5 6 ; E c o n o m i s t , M a r c h 3 , 1 9 5 6 , p . 6 4 0 ; New S t a t e s m a n a n d N a t i o n . M a r c h 3 1 , 1 9 5 6 , p . 2 9 6 ; S o c i a l i s t L e a d e r , A p r i l 7 , 1 9 5 6 ; T h e ( L o n d o n ) T i m e s , M a r c h 2 1 , 1 9 5 6 ; C h a r l e s J . H a n s e r , G u i d e t o D e c i s i o n : T h e  R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n ( T o t o w a , New J e r s e y : T h e B e d m i n s t e r P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p p . 1 0 2 - 3 ; A . P . H e r b e r t , A n y t h i n g B u t A c t i o n ? ( L o n d o n : B a r r i e & R o c k l i f f , 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 3 1 ; O . R . M c G r e g o r , D i v o r c e i n E n g l a n d ( L o n d o n : W i l l i a m H e i n e m a n n , 1 9 5 7 ) , p p . 1 8 1 f f . ; a n d 0 . R . M c G r e g o r , ' T h e M o r t o n C o m m i s s i o n : A S o c i a l a n d H i s t o r i c a l C o m m e n t a r y , ' B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , V I I ( S e p t . , 1 9 5 6 ) , 1 7 1 - 9 3 . 4 8 M c G r e g o r , ' T h e M o r t o n C o m m i s s i o n , ' p p . 1 8 8 - 9 . 4 9 H a n s e r , G u i d e t o D e c i s i o n , p . 1 3 8 . 5 0 T h e ( L o n d o n ) T i m e s , M a y 2 0 , 1 9 6 0 , p . 6 . 5 1 E c o n o m i s t , F e b . 2 0 , 1 9 6 0 , p p . 7 0 0 - 1 . 5 3 . C f . H e r b e r t , A n y t h i n g B u t A c t i o n ? , p . 1 9 , o n t h e n e e d f o r i n q u i r i e s r e s u l t a n t f r o m ' t h e f a i l u r e t o g o v e r n . ' B e n W h i t a k e r , T h e P o l i c e ( L o n d o n : P e n g u i n , 1 9 6 4 ) , p p . 1 3 - 1 7 ; J e n i f e r H a r t , ' S o m e R e f l e c t i o n s o n t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P o l i c e , ' P u b l i c L a w ( A u t u m n , 1 9 6 3 ) , p p . 2 8 3 -3 0 4 ; B r y a n K e i t h L u c a s , ' C o m m e n t , 1 P u b l i c L a w ( A u t u m n , 1 9 6 2 ) , p p . 2 5 1 - 3 ; D . W. P o l l a r d , ' T h e P o l i c e A c t , 1 9 6 4 , ' P u b l i c L a w ( S p r i n g , 1 9 6 6 ) , p p . 3 5 - 6 4 ; D . E . R e g a n , ' C o m m e n t , ' P u b l i c L a v ; ( S p r i n g , 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 1 - 7 ; E c o n o m i s t , J u n e 2 , 1 9 6 2 , p p . 8 7 3 - 4 a n d J a n . 2 0 , 1 9 6 8 , p . 4 8 . 6 8 4 H . C . D e b . 8 , 1 0 0 , 2 2 7 - 3 1 , 12 N o v . 1 9 6 3 a n d 2 8 6 - 8 , 13 N o v . 1 9 6 3 . W h i t a k e r , T h e P o l i c e , p . 1 3 . 7 2 8 H . C . D e b . 1 3 4 1 - 8 , 1 8 M a y 1 9 6 6 : T h e Home S e c r e t a r y ( R o y J e n k i n s ) a n n o u n c e d t h a t h e w a s u n d e r t a k i n g ' ' a m o r e f a r -r e a c h i n g r e o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a n w a s c o n t e m p l a t e d b y t h e c o m m i s s i o n . " H e r e d u c e d ( b y a m a l g a m a t i o n ) t h e n u m b e r o f p o l i c e f o r c e s i n E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s f r o m 1 1 7 t o 4 9 . C f . W h i t a k e r , T h e P o l i c e , p p . 1 5 - 1 7 , a n d H a r t , ' S o m e R e f l e c t i o n s , ' p p . 2 8 3 - 3 0 4 . 7 5 3 H . C . D e b . 5 , 3 1 O c t . 1 9 6 7 . G r e a t B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t , ' I n P l a c e o f S t r i f e : A P o l i c y f o r I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , ' ( C m n d . 3 8 8 8 ) , L o n d o n : H e r M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 9 . R o b e r t K i l r o y - S i l k , ' L e g i s l a t i n g o n I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , ' P a r l i a m e n t a r y A f f a i r s , X X I I ( S u m m e r , 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 2 5 0 . E c o n o m i s t , S e p t e m b e r 2 8 , 1 9 6 8 , a n d O c t . 2 6 , 1 9 6 8 . G r e a t B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t , ' R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n T r a d e U n i o n s a n d E m p l o y e r s A s s o c i a t i o n s , ' ( C m n d . 3 6 2 3 ) , L o n d o n , H e r M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , J u n e , 1 9 6 8 , p p . 2 7 9 - 8 1 . E c o n o m i s t , M a r c h 2 2 , 1 9 6 7 , p . 3 2 7 . 5 9 . 6 4 R . N . S p a n n , ' T h e U.-.e o f A d v i s o r y B o d i e s b y t h e M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h , ' i n A d v i s o r y B o d i e s , e d . b y R . V . V e r n o n a n d N i c h o l a s M a n s e r g h ( L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n a n d U n w i n , 1 9 4 0 ) p p . 2 7 2 - 6 ; E c o n o m i s t , M a r c h 2 0 , 1 9 3 7 , p p . 6 3 8 - 9 ; a n d J . H . W a r r e n , ' T h e S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e P r o p o s a l s f o r t h e R e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f T y n e s i d e G o v e r n m e n t , ' P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , X V ( O c t . , 1 9 3 7 ) 3 6 9 - 8 4 . 6 5 S p a n n , ' T h e U s e o f A d v i s o r y B o d i e s , ' p . 2 7 5 ; 3 2 1 H . C . D e b . 7 1 6 - 1 7 , 15 M a y 1 9 3 6 ; a n d 3 8 8 H . C . D e b . 2 7 0 9 , 2 5 J u l y 1 9 3 8 . 6 6 C f . N o t e s o f R e s e r v a t i o n s b y a l l s i x c o m m i s s i o n e r s : G r e a t B r i t a i n P a r l i a m e n t , P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s ( H o u s e o f C o m m o n s a n d C o m m a n d ) , 1 9 3 8 - 3 9 , V o l . X V ( R e p o r t s , v o l . 7 ) , C m d . 5 9 4 9 , M a r c h 1 9 3 9 , ' R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n R h o d e s i a a n d N y a s a l a n d , ' p p . 2 4 8 - 6 3 . 6 7 C o l i n L e y s , ' T h e C a s e A g a i n s t F e d e r a t i o n i n C e n t r a l A f r i c a , ' P u b l i c L a w ( S p r i n g , 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 2 0 . 6 8 * 3 5 2 I I . C . D e b . 1 3 8 , 1 0 O c t . 1 9 3 9 . 6 9 W. F . G u t t e r i d g e , ' T h e D e b a t e o n C e n t r a l A f r i c a n F e d e r a t i o n i n R e t r o s p e c t , ' P a r l i a m e n t a r y A f f a i r s , X ( S u m m e r , 1 9 5 7 ) , 2 1 3 . 7 0 4 9 7 H . C . D e b . 2 0 8 - 9 , 4 M a r c h 1 9 5 2 . 71 ' R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n R h o d e s i a , a n d N y a s a l a n d , " p . 2 1 3 . 72 4 0 2 H . C . D e b . 1 3 3 1 , 2 A u g . 1 9 4 4 . 73 G e r t r u d e W i l l i a m s , ' E q u a l P a y , ' P o l i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , X V I I I ( J u l y - S e p t . , 1 9 4 7 ) , 2 3 0 . 7 4 G a r y A l l e n , ' Q u a r t e r l y C h r o n i c l e , ' A f r i c a n A f f a i r s , L V ( O c t . , 1 9 5 6 ) , 2 5 0 - 1 . 75 5 7 1 H . C . D e b . 7 6 5 - 8 5 9 , 3 1 M a y 1 9 5 7 . C H A P T E R I I I E F F E C T S OF I N D E P E N D E N T V A R I A B L E S T h e f a c t t h a t s o m e w h a t o v e r f o r t y n e r c e n t o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s e x a m i n e d w e r e w h o l l y s u c c e s s f u l a n d t h a t a n a d d i t i o n a l t w e n t y p e r c e n t w e r e p a r t i a l l y s o s u g g e s t s t h a t a s a t e c h n i q u e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h o r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n c a n b e o f g r e a t v a l u e . I t a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s t e c h n i q u e s h o u l d b e r e t a i n e d . Y e t , a t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e f a c t t h a t s l i g h t l y o v e r o n e h a l f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e f a i l u r e s i n a t l e a s t s o m e r e s p e c t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n h a s n o t b e e n u s e d a s e f f e c t i v e l y a s p o s s i b l e . I t s u g g e s t s t h a t p e r h a p s t h e r e a r e s o m e t y p e s o f p r o b l e m s f o r w h i c h t h e c o m m i s s i o n i s b e t t e r s u i t e d t h a n o t h e r s a n d t h a t p o s s i b l y o t h e r f a c t o r s , s u c h a s i t s c o m p o s i t i o n , t i m i n g o r t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e , m a y a f f e c t i t s o u t c o m e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t w o u l d b e i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r a l l o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n c e i v a b l y c o u l d p r e j u d i c e t h e r e s u l t s o f a r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n i n v e s t i g a t i o n . * " L i k e w i s e , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o e x a m i n e a n y o n e f a c t o r i n i s o l a t i o n . H o w e v e r , o n e c a n s i n g l e o u t a n u m b e r o f i n t e r a c t i n g v a r i a b l e s a n d , b y c o m p a r i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f s i m i l a r a n d d i s s i m i l a r c o m m i s s i o n s , o n e c a n a t l e a s t i n d i c a t e h o w t h o s e v a r i a b l e s m a y t e n d t o a f f e c t t h e o u t c o m e o f a n i n q u i r y . 6 1 . T a b l e 4 s h o w s t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h c a n m o s t r e a d i l y b e c o n s i d e r e d . 2 T a b l e 5 l i s t s a l l o f t h e r e l e v a n t c o m m i s s i o n s a n d t h e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h m a y h a v e a f f e c t e d t h e i r o u t c o m e s . T a b l e 4 s u g g e s t s t h a t s o m e o f t h e f a c t o r s a r e d i r e c t l y c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t w h i c h a p p o i n t s t h e c o m m i s s i o n , s o m e a r e p r i m a r i l y d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e c o m m i s s i o n i t s e l f , a n d s o m e a r e l a r g e l y t h e r e s u l t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T A B L E 4 V A R I A B L E S P O S S I B L Y A F F E C T I N G C O M M I S S I O N ' S O U T C O M E 1. V A R I A B L E S O V E R W H I C H T H E G O V E R N M E N T H A S SOME C O N T R O L A . S o u r c e o f D e m a n d B . G o v e r n m e n t ' s I n t e n t i o n i n A p p o i n t i n g a C o m m i s s i o n C . S u b j e c t M a t t e r f o r I n v e s t i g a t i o n D . T y p e o f C o m m i s s i o n E . N u m b e r o f M e m b e r s F . S p e c i f i c i t y o f T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e I I . V A R I A B L E S O V E R W H I C H T H E C O M M I S S I O N H A S SOME C O N T R O L A . L e n g t h o f T i m e . W h i c h t h e I n a u i r y T a k e s E . T y p e o f R e p o r t C . L e n g t h o f R e p o r t I I I . O T H E R P O S S I B L Y I N F L U E N T I A L V A R I A B L E S A . P a r t y i n P o w e r a t T i m e o f A p p o i n t m e n t B . C h a n g e i n G o v e r n m e n t D u r i n g C o m m i s s i o n ' s S i t t i n g H o w e v e r , n o r e a l l y r i g i d d i s t i n c t i o n i s i n f a c t p o s s i b l e . M o s t o f t h e v a r i a b l e s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y s o m e w h a t i n t e r d e p e n d e n t a n d , l i k e w i s e , n e a r l y a l l a r e a f f e c t e d b y o t h e r v a r i a b l e s n o t c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . P r i m a r i l y , t h e y a r e g r o u p e d a s t h e y a r e s i m p l y b e c a u s e i n c o n s i d e r i n g h o w r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s c a n b e m a d e m o r e Table 5 62. INDEX OF COMMISSIONS, VARIABLES AND PERFORMANCE COMMISSIONS VARIABLES PERFORMANCE 4 w HftcE PURPOSE S A M C T 3 TYPE8 b SIZE REMIT TIME PMT LENGTH PARTY #a #8 mo, pp. Appt. Rept. Univ. of Durham Pres. Group Prepare Legis. Educat ion Expert 8 8 Med. Specific 10 Short Un. 94 Short Nat ' l Nat' 1 Successful Merthyr T y d f i l Prev. Invest. Prepare Legis. Gov't Prob. Impartial . 2 2 Small Specific 6 Short Un. 137 Short Nat ' l Nat '1 Unsuccessful Tithe Rentcharge Pres. Group Prepare Legis. Econ. Prob. Expert 5 4 Small Diffuse 15 Av. M-M 107 Short Nat ' l Nat '1 Successful Bus. at Common Law P a r i . -Request Prepare Legis! Gov't Prob. Expert 7 7 Small Specific 13 Av. Un-R. 148 Short Nat' 1 N a t ' l . Successful Manufacture of Arms P a r i . "•Motion Stop C r i t i c i s m Econ. Prob. Impartial 7 7 Small Specific 19 Av. Un. 101 Short Nat '1 N a t ' l Useful Tyneside Prev. Invest. Study Prob. Gov't Prob. Impartial ' 2 5 Small Diffuse 21 Av. M-M 104 Short Nat ' l N a t ' i Unsuccessful Palestine Gov't -Incident Study Prob. Colonial Expert 6 6 Small Specific 10 Short Un. 404 Long Nat' 1 N a t ' l Useful Safety i n Coal Mines Gov't -Incident Prepare Legis. Health Expert 10 10 Med. Specific 36 Av. Un-R. 520 Long Nat' l N a t ' l Successful Rhodesia & Nyasaland Pres. Group Stop C r i t i c i s m Colonial Impartial 6 6 Small Specific 12 Short Un-R? 283 Med. Nat ' l N a t ' l Unsuccess f u l Indust. Population P a r i . -Motion Study Prob. CP., Trans. Impartial 13 13 Med. Diffuse 29 Av. M-M 320 Long Nat' l N a t ' l Successful West India Prev. Invest. Prepare Legis. Colonial Impartial 10 8 Med. Diffuse 16 Av. Un. 30' JShort Nat '1 N a t ' l Successful Workmen's Comp. Gov't * Prepare Legis. Econ. Prob. Impartial 16 15 Large Diffuse 72 Nat' 1 Coal. Unsuccess f u l Equal Pay P a r i . -Motion Study Prob. Econ. Prob. Impartial 9 9 Med. Diffuse 24 Av. Un-R? 220 Med. Coal. Lab. Unsuccessful Justic e s of Peace Gov't Prepare Legis. Gov't Prob. Impartial 16 15 Large Specific 23 Av. M-M 111 Short Lab. Lab. Successful Population Gov't -Incident Study Prob. Social Prob. Impartial 16 14 Large Diffuse 60 Long Un-R. 259 Med. Coal. Lab. Useful The Press (I) P a r i . -Motion Stop C r i t i c i s m Social Prob. Impartial 17 15 Large Diffuse 26 Av. Un-R. 363 Long Lab. Lab. Marg. Useful Betting Pari.. -Request Get Support Social Prob. Impartial 13 13 Med. Diffuse 23 Av. Un. 190 Med. Lab. Lab. Successful Univ. Ed. i n Dundee Pres. Group Prepare Legis. Education Expert 9 9 Med. Specific 11 Short Un. 75 Short Lab. Cons. Sucressful C a p i t a l Punishment Gov't -Incident Get Support Social Prob. Impartial 12 11 Med. Specific 40 Long Un-R. 506 Long Lab. Cons. Marg. Useful S c o t t i s h A f f a i r s Gov't -Party Stop C r i t i c i s m Gov't Prob. Impartial 15 15 Large Diffuse 24 Av. Un. 126 Short Cons. Cons. Marg. Useful East A f r i c a Pres. Group Study Prob. Colonial Expert 7 8 Med. Diffuse 28 Av. Un. 482 Long Cons. Cons. Unsuccessful Taxation Gov't Prepare Legis. Econ. Prob. Rep. 14 13 Med. Diffuse 52 Long M-M 487 Long Lab. Cons. Successful C i v i l Service Gov't Prepare Legis. Gov't Prob. Impartial 12 12 Med. Specific 24 Av. Un-R. 239 Med. Cons. Cons. Successful Marriage & Divorce Gov't -Stop B i l l Stop C r i t i c i s m S o c i a l Prob. Impartial 19 19 Large Diffuse 51 Long S p l i t 405 Long Lab. Cons. Marg. Useful Mental I l l n e s s Law P a r i . -Request Study Prob. Health Impartial 11 10 Med. Specific 39 Long Un. 328 Long Cons. Cons. Successful Common Land P a r i . -Motion Stop C r i t i c i s m CP. , Trans. Expert 12 12 Med. Diffuse 31 Av. Un. 284 Med. Cons. Cons. Successful Dr.s' Remuneration Gov't -Stop B i l ! Stop C r i t i c i s m Econ. Prob. Impartial 9 9 Med. Specific 35 Av. Un-R 346 Long Cons. Cons. Marg. Useful Loc. Gov. i n London Gov't Prepare Legis. Gov't Prob. Expert 7 7 Small Diffuse 34 Av. Un. 373 Long Cons. Cons. • Successful The Police P a r i . -Request Stop C r i t i c i s m Gov't Prob. Impartial 15 14 Large Diffuse 28 Av. M-M 196 Med. Cons. Cons. Marg. Useful The Press (II) Pari-] Motion Stop C r i t i c i s m Social Prob. Impartial 5 5 Small Specific 18 Av. Un. 238 Med. Cons. Cons. Useful Penal System Gov't -Party Study Prob. Gov't Prob. Impartial 16 Large Diffuse Cons. Lab. f Unsuccessful Tribunals of Inquiry Gov't' -Stop B i l l Stop C r i t i c i s m Gov't Prob. Expert 7 6 Small Sp e c i f i c 9 Short Un. 57 Short Lab. Lab. Useful Medical Education Gov't -Party Stop C r i t i c i s m Education Expert 16 1.7 Large Diffuse 27 Av. Un. 404 Long Lab. Lab. Useful Trade Unions Gov't -Party Stop C r i t i c i s m S o c i a l Prob. Impartial. 12 12 Med. Diffuse 37 Long Un-R? 352 jLong Lab. Lab. Marg. Useful Loc. Gov. i n England Gov't Prepare Legis. Gov't Prob. Impartial 11 11 Med. Diffuse 36 Av. M-M 22( Short Lab. Lab. Useful Source: Charles J . Hanser, Guide to Decision: The Royal Commission i n the Twentieth Century (Totowa; New Jersey: The Bedminster Press, 1965J , pp. 247-253 (Un.=unanimous; M-M=majority-minority; Un-R=unanimous with reservations). Co^. 1 refers to number appointed; Col E 2 , to number signing. In a l l of |hese, the 'reservations' were r e a l l y fundamental disagreements with the report. Page numbers from short reports. This was a demand, not a B i l l . In t h i s case, the new Government was responsible for terminating the Inquiry. 63. effective i t seemed most advantageous to be able to direct suggestions to the body which can most readily act upon the advice. Government Controlled Variables Of those factors controlled by the Government which appoints the commission, a l l appear — in varying degrees — to suggest a possible relationship between the Government's actions in setting up a commission and whether or not the commission will be successful. Table 6 presents the variables considered and indicates how they correlate with the outcomes of the commissions. Source of Demand The first of the variables over which the Government has some control is the source of demand which inspired the Government to set up a commission. In his study of Canadian royal commissions, J.F. Hodgetts notes that in Canada the establishment of a commission is usually inspired by a demand from outside the Government. He specifies five agencies which generate demands — the public in general, certain interest groups. Parliament, the 3 Press and previous investigative bodies. Similar agencies are also responsible for encouraging the Government to set up commissions in Britain. However, i t is also not uncommon in Britain for the Government itself to be the agency v/hich creates the demand. In the case of the Royal Commission on the Civil Service, for example, the idea cf setting up a commission appears to have originated with, the Government and not to have been suggested even tentatively by any outside body. Also in Britain, as presumably in Canada as well, i t is often extremely difficult when outside agencies are involved to determine v/hich agency was actually responsible, for forcing the Government to act. For example, the Royal Commission on the Distribution of the Indus-tr i a l Population was first suggested by the Special Area Commissioner in 6 4 . T A B L E 6 R E L A T I O N O F G O V E R N M E N T C O N T R O L L E D V A R I A B L E S T O C O M M I S S I O N S U C C E S S % S U C C E S S -F U L 1 . S O U R C E O F DEMAND ( 3 5 ) A . P r e s s u r e G r o u p ( 5 ) 6 0 % B . P a r l i a m e n t ( 1 0 ) 5 0 1 . G e n e r a l r e q u e s t ( 4 ) 75 2 . P r i v . M e m . M o t i o n ( 6 ) 3 3 C . G o v e r n m e n t ( 1 7 ) 2 9 1. N e e d ( 6 ) 6 7 2 . I n c i d e n t ( 4 ) 2 5 3 . T o S t o p B i l l ( 3 ) 4 . P a r t y P l e d g e ( 4 ) D . P r e v i o u s I n v e s t i g a t i o n ( 3 ) 3 3 % % % U S E F U L M A R G I - U N S U C C E S S -N A L L Y U S E F U L F U L 4 0 % 20% 2 0 % 10 25 3 3 17 17 2 9 29 1 2 17 17 5 0 2 5 3 3 6 7 25 5 0 25 6 7 I I . P U R P O S E I N A P P O I N T I N G ( 3 5 ) A . P r e p a r e f o r L e g i s l a t i o n ( 1 3 ) 77% E . G e n e r a t e S u p p o r t ( 2 ) 5 0 C . I l l u m i n a t e , a P r o b l e m (8) 25 D . F o r e s t a l l C r i t i c i s m ( 1 2 ) 8 8% 15% 5 0 % 25 5 0 3 3 5 0 8 I I I . S U B J E C T A R E A ( 3 5 ) A . H e a l t h ( 2 ) 1 0 0 % B . C i t y P l a n n i n g , e t c . ( 2 ) 1 0 0 C . E d u c a t i o n ( 3 ) 6 7 33% D . G o v ' t a l P r o b l e m s ( 1 1 ) 4 5 18 9% 27% E . E c o n . P r o b l e m s ( 6 ) 3 3 17 17 3 3 F . D o m . & C o l o n i a l ( 4 ) 2 5 25 5 0 G . S o c i a l P r o b l e m s ( 7 ) 14 2 9 4 3 14 I V . T Y P E O F C O M M I S S I O N ( 3 5 ) A . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e ( 1 ) 1 0 0 % D . E x p e r t ( 1 1 ) 6 4 27 9% C . I m p a r t i a l ( 2 3 ) 26 17 30% 26 V . S I Z E O F C O M M I S S I O N ( 3 5 ) A . M e d i u m ( 1 6 ) 6 3 % 6% 19% 13% B . S m a l l ( 1 0 ) 3 0 4 0 30 C . L a r g e ( 9 ) 1 1 2 2 4 4 1 3 VI. T E R M S O F R E F E R E N C E ( 3 5 ) A . S p e c i f i c ( 1 5 ) 47% 27% 13% 13% B . D i f f u s e ( 2 0 ) 3 5 1 5 2 5 2 5 65. O c t o b e r , 1936- t h e i d e a w a s t h e n s e c o n d e d b y v a r i o u s p r e s s u r e g r o u p s ; o n e m o n t h l a t e r t h e G o v e r n m e n t a c c e p t e d w i t h o u t a d i v i s i o n a P r i v a t e M e m b e r ' s M o t i o n r e q u e s t i n g a n i n q u i r y ; a n d f i n a l l y , i n M a r c h , 1 9 3 7 , t h e G o v e r n m e n t 5 a n n o u n c e d i t s i n t e n t i o n t o a p p o i n t a r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n . B e c a u s e t h e G o v e r n m e n t i n B r i t a i n i s f r e q u e n t l y t h * i n s t i g a t o r a n d b e c a u s e ' t h e P r e s s ' a n d ' t h e p u b l i c ' t e n d s i m p l y t o b e r e s i d u a l c a t e g o r i e s t o w h i c h o n e c a n a t t r i b u t e i n f l u e n c e w i t h o u t b e i n g a b l e t o s h o w a n y d i r e c t c a u s e a n d e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e s t h e G o v e r n m e n t a s a s o u r c e o f d e m a n d a n d d o e s n o t i n c l u d e e i t h e r t h e P r e s s o r t h e p u b l i c . B e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h o f s e v e r a l a g e n c i e s w a s t h e e f f i c i e n t c a u s e o f a c o m m i s s i o n b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e o n e w h i c h a p p e a r s t o h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t m o s t d e c i s i v e l y i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e s o u r c e o f d e m a n d . A s i n t h e H o d g e t t s ' s t u d y , t h e i n c i d e n t s o r p r o b l e m s w h i c h i n s p i r e d t h e r e q u e s t f o r a n i n q u i r y a r e n o t d i s c u s s e d . ^ I n g e n e r a l , p r e s s u r e g r o u p s a r e c i t e d a s t h e s o u r c e w h e n t h e y m a d e t h e o r i g i n a l r e q u e s t f o r a c o m m i s s i o n , a n d w h e n n o o t h e r a g e n c y s u b s e q u e n t l y a r g u e d i n f a v o u r o f a n i n q u i r y . P a r l i a m e n t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e s o u r c e o f t h e d e m a n d w h e n t h e s e t t i n g u p o f a c o m m i s s i o n w a s p r e c e d e d b y g e n e r a l P a r l i a m e n t a r y c o n c e r n o v e r t h e p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e t o b e i n v e s t i g a t e d . T h e G o v e r n m e n t i s c r e d i t e d a s b e i n g t h e i n s t i g a t o r I n t h o s e c a s e s i n w h i c h i t a n c e a r s t h a t t h e p a r t y i n p o w e r , s o m e i n d i v i d u a l m e m b e r o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t , o r t h e G o v e r n m e n t a s a w h o l e e i t h e r r e a c t e d t o s o m e o c c u r r e n c e b y s u g g e s t i n g a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o r s e t u p a c o m m i s s i o n i n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y a n i s s u e o n w h i c h i t w a s f e l t l e g i s l a t i o n w a s n e e d e d , b u t o n w h i c h t h e r e w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o b a s e p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . L a s t l y , p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e g e n e r a t e d t h e d e m a n d f o r a n i n c u i r y w h e n , a s i n t h e i n s t a n c e o f p r e s s u r e g r o u p s , t h e y m a d e the. o r i g i n a l r e q u e s t f o r a c o m m i s s i o n a n d t h e r e q u e s t w a s a g r e e d t o b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t w i t h o u t t h e r e h a v i n g b e e n a s u b s e a u e n t d e m a n d 66. f r o m s o m e o t h e r a g e n c y . A s T a b l e 6 i n d i c a t e s , a m o n g t h o s e c o m m i s s i o n s s e t u p i n r e s p o n s e t o r e q u e s t s f r o m p r e s s u r e g r o u p s t h e r e w a s a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f s u c c e s s f u l c o m m i s s i o n s t h a n t h e r e w a s a m o n g t h o s e s e t u p i n r e s p o n s e t o d e m a n d s f r o m a n y o t h e r a g e n c y . S i x t y p e r c e n t , o f t h o s e r e q u e s t e d b y p r e s s u r e g r o u p s w e r e s u c c e s s f u l , a s c o m p a r e d t o f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h o s e r e q u e s t e d b y P a r l i a m e n t a n d o n l y t w e n t y - n i n e a n d t h i r t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y o f t h o s e i n i t i a t e d b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t a n d b y p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i n g b o d i e s . H o w e v e r , t h e p r e s e n c e o f a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l a n d h a v i n g b e e n s e t u p i n r e s p o n s e t o a d e m a n d f r o m a p r e s s u r e g r o u p d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l y t h e p r e s e n c e o f a c a u s e a n d e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p . N o r , i n t h i s c a s e , i s i t n e c e s s a r i l y e v e n s u g g e s t i v e o f a n y p o s s i b l e c a u s a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t h e s a m p l e , b o t h o f c o m m i s s i o n s i n s p i r e d b y p r e s s u r e g r o u p s a n d o f c o m m i s s i o n s i n s p i r e d b y p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , i s s o m e w h a t s m a l l t o s e r v e a s a b a s i s f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . A n d , i n t h e s e c o n d p l a c e , t h e i n o r d i n a t e l y h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f u n s u c c e s s f u l c o m m i s s i o n s ( a n d t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g a b s e n c e o f a n y u s e f u l o r m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l c o m m i s s i o n s ) m e a n s , i n f a c t , t h a t c o m m i s s i o n s s e t u p i n r e s p o n s e t o d e m a n d s f r o m p r e s s u r e g r o u p s w e r e n e a r l y a s l i k e l y t o f a i l c o m p l e t e l y t o f u l f i l l t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e a s t h e y w e r e t o f u l f i l l i t s u c c e s s f u l l y . Y e t , S e c t i o n I o f T a b l e 6 i s n o t w h o l l y w i t h o u t s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h y t h o s e c o m m i s s i o n s s e t u p i n r e s p o n s e t o d e m a n d s f r o m o u t -s i d e P a r l i a m e n t a n d t h e G o v e r n m e n t w e r e a l l e i t h e r c o m p l e t e l y s u c c e s s f u l o r c o m p l e t e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l . A n d , b y s u b d i v i d i n g t h e s e c t i o n s o f P a r l i a m e n t a r y -a n d G o v e r n m e n t - i n s p i r e d c o m m i s s i o n s , i t s u p g e s t s s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t w h e n t h e G o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d a n d s h o u l d n o t a p p o i n t c o m m i s s i o n s . O f t h o s e c o m m i s s i o n s s e t u p i n r e s p o n s e t o a d e m a n d f r o m P a r l i a m e n t , f o r t y p e r . c e n t w e r e s e t u p a s a r e s u l t o f g e n e r a l P a r l i a m e n t a r y c o n c e r n e v e r a 67. p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e a n d s i x t y p e r c e n t r e s u l t e d f r o m a b a c k - b e n c h d e m a n d f o r a n i n q u i r y — e i t h e r j u s t o n t h e O r d e r P a p e r o r a c t u a l l y v o t e d o n a n d p a s s e d . O f t h e f o r t y p e r c e n t e s t a b l i s h e d b e c a u s e o f P a r l i a m e n t a r y c o n c e r n , t h r e e -q u a r t e r s w e r e s u c c e s s f u l a n d o n l y o n e w a s m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l . O f t h e s i x t y p e r c e n t s e t u p a f t e r P a r l i a m e n t h a d a c t u a l l y d e m a n d e d a n i n q u i r y , o n e - t h i r d w e r e s u c c e s s f u l , o n e - t h i r d u s e f u l , a n d o n e - - t h i r d m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l o r u n s u c c e s s f u l . O f t h o s e c o m m i s s i o n s i n s t i g a t e d b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t i t s e l f , t h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t w e r e s e t u p a p p a r e n t l y i n . r e s p o n s e t o a n e e d f o r i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t a s a w h o l e o r o f s o m e i n d i v i d u a l m i n i s t e r ; t w e n t y -t h r e e p e r c e n t w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d a s a r e s u l t o f a p a r t i c u l a r i n c i d e n t w h i c h a r o u s e d p u b l i c c o n c e r n a n d r e v e a l e d t h e n e e d f o r a n i n q u i r y ; e i g h t e e n p e r c e n t c a m e i n t o b e i n g w h e n i t l o o k e d a s t h o u g h a P r i v a t e M e m b e r ' s B i l l w h i c h t h e G o v e r n m e n t d i s l i k e d m i g h t p a s s : a n d a n o t h e r t w e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t r e s u l t e d f r o m e l e c t i o n p r o m i s e s o r p a r t y m a n i f e s t o s . T w o - t h i r d s o f t h e g r o u p s e t u p i n r e s p o n s e t o a n e e d f o r i n f o r m a t i o n a n d a q u a r t e r o f t h o s e r e s u l t i n g f r o m a n i n c i d e n t w e r e s u c c e s s f u l . N o n e o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s i n t h e o t h e r g r o u p s w e r e s u c c e s s f u l , a n d o v e r o n e h a l f o f b o t h g r o u p s w e r e e i t h e r o n l y m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l o r w e r e w h o l l y u n s u c c e s s f u l . A l t h o u g h t h e n u m b e r o f c o m m i s s i o n s i n e a c h g r o u p i s s o m e w h a t s m a l l t o s e r v e a s a b a s i s f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , t h e c o n c l u s i o n s t o w h i c h t h e a n a l y s i s l e a d s a r e l o g i c a l a n d a r e , t h e r e f o r e , p r o b a b l y w o r t h t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t s t h a t c o m m i s s i o n s a r e m o r e l i k e l y t o b e s u c c e s s f u l i f t h e y a r e v o l u n t a r i l y a g r e e d t o b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t t h a n i f t h e y a r e f o r c e d u p o n a G o v e r n m e n t . A n d i t s u p p o r t s t h e l o g i c a l a s s u m p t i o n t h a t c o m m i s s i o n s a r e m u c h m o r e l i k e l y t o b e s u c c e s s f u l i f t h e G o v e r n m e n t a p p o i n t s t h e m i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n i t f e e l s i t n e e d s , t h a n i f i t s e t s t h e m u p f o r a n v o f t h e o t h e r r e a s o n s w h i c h m o t i v a t e a G o v e r n m e n t t o c r e a t e a d e m a n d f o r a 68. r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n . U s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n m a y r e s u l t f r o m h a v i n g a c o m m i s s i o n e x a m i n e a p r o b l e m o n w h i c h t h e G o v e r n m e n t r e a l l y h a s n o i n t e n t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i n g . O r s o m e l e g i s l a t i o n — t h o u g h u s u a l l y n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t -i v e l e g i s l a t i o n — m a y r e s u l t f r o m t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f s u c h a c o m m i s s i o n . H o w e v e r , g e n e r a l l y , u n l e s s t h e G o v e r n m e n t i t s e l f i s w i l l i n g , v o l u n t a r i l y , t o a c q u i e s c e t o a d e m a n d f o r a r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n o r i s i t s e l f i n t e r e s t e d i n o b t a i n i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h a c o m m i s s i o n i n q u i r y c a n s u p p l y , t h e l i k e -l i h o o d o f a c o m m i s s i o n b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l i s m a r k e d l y l i m i t e d . I n t e n t i o n o f G o v e r n m e n t A n a l y s i s o f t h e s e c o n d f a c t o r o v e r w h i c h t h e G o v e r n m e n t h a s s o m e c o n t r o l - • - i t s p u r p o s e i n a p p o i n t i n g a c o m m i s p i o n — s u p p o r t s t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s . H o w e v e r , a s m o s t s t u d e n t s c f r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s h a v e p o i n t e d o u t , i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s r e a l m o t i v a t i o n i n a p p o i n t i n g a c o m m i s s i o n . A n d a l w a y s , o f c o u r s e , t h e r e e x i s t s t h e o b v i o u s d a n g e r o f d e d u c i n g w h y a c o m m i s s i o n w a s a p p o i n t e d f r o m w h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t d i d i n r e s p o n s e t o i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . Y e t n e a r l y e v e r y o n e w h o h a s d i s c u s s e d r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e f a c t t h a t G o v e r n m e n t s d o s e t u p d i f f e r e n t c o m m i s s i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s a n d m o s t s t u d i e s c i t e e x a m p l e s o f c o m m i s -8 s i o n s d e s i g n e d f o r e a c h p u r p o s e w h i c h i s s p e c i f i e d . T h e r e f o r e , i t s e e m s l o g i c a l t o a s s u m e t h a t c o m m i s s i o n s c a n b e c l a s s i f i e d i n t e r m s o f t h e G o v e r n -m e n t ' s m o t i v a t i o n i n s e t t i n g them, u p , a n d i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l m o t i v a t i o n m i g h t well i n f l u e n c e t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s a t t i t u d e t o a c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . T h i s s t u d y a s s u m e s t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e G o v e r n m e n t m a y b e m o t i v a t e d b y m o r e t h a n o n e c o n s i d e r a t i o n , o n e u s u a l l y p r e d o m i n a t e s a n d t h a t t h e p r e d o m i n a n t o n e m a y v e r y w e l l i n f l u e n c e b o t h t h e a c t u a l c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n a n d t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s a t t i t u d e t o i t s r e p o r t . I n d e t e r m i n i n c w h a t t h e 69. G o v e r n m e n t ' s p r i m a r y m o t i v a t i o n a c t u a l l y w a s , i t r e g a r d s a l l o f t h o s e c o m m i s -s i o n s w h i c h t h e G o v e r n m e n t s p e c i f i c a l l y d e c l a r e d t o b e d e s i g n e d o n l y t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a s h a v i n g b e e n s e t u p t o i l l u m i n a t e a p r o b l e m . I t c o n -s i d e r s a l l c o m m i s s i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e a s i t u a t i o n o n w h i c h t h e G o v e r n m e n t h a d a l r e a d y a n n o u n c e d i t s i n t e n t i o n t o r e t a i n t h e s t a t u s q u o a s h a v i n g b e e n s e t u p t o f o r e s t a l l c r i t i c i s m . A n d i t c l a s s i f i e s c o m m i s s i o n s i n v e s t i g a t i n g s u b j e c t s o n w h i c h t h e G o v e r n m e n t h a d a n n o u n c e d i t s i n t e n t i o n t o l e g i s l a t e o r a b o u t w h i c h o n l y t h e G o v e r n m e n t h a d s h o w n c o n c e r n a s h a v i n g b e e n c r e a t e d i n o r d e r t o p r e p a r e f o r l e g i s l a t i o n . B e c a u s e a l l o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s c o u l d n o t r e a d i l y b e c l a s s i f i e d u s i n g o n l y t h e a b o v e i n d i c a t o r s , o t h e r f a c t o r s a l s o w e r e t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T w o c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s h a v i n g b e e n s e t u p i n o r d e r t o g e n e r a t e s u p p o r t . T h e s e w e r e s o d e s i g n a t e d b e c a u s e i n b o t h c a s e s M i n i s t e r s i n t h e L a b o u r G o v e r n m e n t w e r e s t r o n g l y — t h o u g h u n o f f i c i a l l y - c o m m i t t e d t o a p r o g r a m m e o f r e f o r m i n t h e a r e a s t o b e i n v e s t i g a t e d b u t w e r e b e i n g t h w a r t e d i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o p a s s l e g i s l a t i o n b e c a u s e o f s u p p o s e d p o p u l a r r e s i s t a n c e t o t h e i r m e a s u r e s . T h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d i n o n e . o f t h e o t h e r t h r e e g r o u p s o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e w o r d i n g i n t h e i r t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e , t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s i n i t i a l s t a t e m e n t i n P a r l i a m e n t a n n o u n c i n g t h e i r a p p o i n t m e n t a n d t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s a p p a r e n t a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e p r o b l e m b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d . S e c t i o n I I o f T a b l e 6 i n d i c a t e s t h e n u m b e r o f c o m m i s s i o n s i n e a c h g r o u p a n d s u p p o r t s t h e l o g i c a l a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i f a c o m m i s s i o n i s s e t u p i n o r d e r t o p r e p a r e f o r l e g i s l a t i o n , i t i s m u c h m o r e l i k e l y t o b e s u c c e s s f u l t h a n i f i t i s s e t u p f o r a n y o t h e r r e a s o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s a m p l e o f c o m m i s s i o n s a p p o i n t e d i n o r d e r t o g e n e r a t e s u p p o r t i s t o o s m a l l t o b e o f a n y s i g n i f i c a n c e . B u t t h e o t h e r g r o u p s a l l c o n t a i n a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e c o m -m i s s i o n s t o w a r r a n t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n a n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n s u g g e s t s s e v e r a l 70. p o s s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n s — b e s i d e s t h e o b v i o u s o n e a b o u t c o m m i s s i o n s s e t u p i n o r d e r t o p r e p a r e f o r l e g i s l a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , f i f t y p e r c e n t ( o r o v e r ) o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s s e t u p t o i l l u m i n a t e a p r o b l e m o r t o f o r e s t a l l c r i t i c i s m s u b m i t t e d r e p o r t s w h i c h d i d l i t t l e t o c l a r i f y t h e i s s u e w h i c h t h e y w e r e s t u d y i n g . T h i s a r g u e s e i t h e r t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t f r e q u e n t l y t o o k i n s u f f i c i e n t c a r e i n c h o o s i n g t h e p e r s o n -n e l o r t h e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e f o r s u c h c o m m i s s i o n s o r t h a t t h e s u b j e c t s b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d w e r e n o t t h e s o r t w h i c h c o u l d b e h a n d l e d a d e a u a t e l y b y a r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n . F u r t h e r , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t did e v e n t u a l l y l e g i s l a t e o n t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f o v e r h a l f o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s s e t u p t o f o r e s t a l l c r i t i c i s m s u g g e s t s t h a t a p p o i n t i n g a c o m m i s s i o n m a y p u t o f f t h e e v i l d a y o n w h i c h t h e G o v e r n m e n t h a s t o t a k e s o m e a c t i o n o n a n i s s u e w h i c h i t w i s h e s t o a v o i d , b u t o r d i n a r i l y i t d o e s n o t d i s p o s e o f t h e i s s u e a l t o g e t h e r . A l s o , b e c a u s e t h e G o v e r n m e n t i s t h e n f r e q u e n t l y f o r c e d t o l e g i s l a t e o n t h e b a s i s o f a n i n f e r i o r o r u n n e c e s s a r y r e p o r t , i t s u g g e s t s t h a t a p p o i n t i n g a c o m -m i s s i o n i n o r d e r t o f o r e s t a l l c r i t i c i s m m a y i n f a c t b e d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . S u b j e c t M a t t e r C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e s u c c e s s o f c o m m i s s i o n s a p p o i n t e d t o s t u d y p r o b l e m s i n s p e c i f i c a r e a s s u p p o r t s t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n t y p e s o f p r o b l e m s f o r w h i c h t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l s u i t e d . H o w e v e r , t h e p o s s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h c a n b e d e r i v e d f r o m S e c t i o n I I I m u s t b e r e g a r d e d a s t e n t a t i v e a t b e s t . F e w c o m m i s -s i o n s f i t n e a t l y i n t o a n y s i n g l e c a t e g o r y a n d m o s t o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s c o n t a i n t o o f e w e x a m p l e s t o w a r r a n t a n y d e d u c t i o n s w h a t e v e r bein<? b a s e d o n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d . The. c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s u s e d h e r e a r e t a k e n d i r e c t l y f r o m C h a r l e s J . H a n s e r ' s 71. 9 s t u d y , G u i d e t o D e c i s i o n ; T h e P o y a l C o m m i s s i o n . T h e s e w e r e u s e d f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s . F i r s t , a l t h o u g h i n a u i t e a f e w i n s t a n c e s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o q u e s t i o n H a n s e r ' s d e c i s i o n t o p l a c e a p a r t i c u l a r c o m m i s s i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r y , a n y a t t e m p t t o g r o u p c o m m i s s i o n s o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r s u b i e c t a r e a r e s u l t s i n s o m e d e g r e e o f d i s t o r t i o n and. h i s s c h e m e i s n o w o r s e i n t h i s r e g a r d t h a n a n y o t h e r w o u l d b e . * " ^ S e c o n d , b e c a u s e h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w a s m a d e i n d e p e n d -e n t l y a n d a p p a r e n t l y w i t h o u t a n y i n t e n t t o i n d i c a t e h o w w e l l c o m m i s s i o n s p e r f o r m e d o n d i v e r s e t o p i c s , i t w a s f e l t t h a t t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w o u l d b e m o r e r e l i a b l e — o r w o u l d a t l e a s t g i v e a n a p p e a r a n c e o f g r e a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y — t h a n w o u l d a n y s y s t e m d e v e l o p e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . A n d t h i r d , R a n s e r h a s u s e d h i s s c h e m e t o c l a s s i f y a l l c o m m i s s i o n s a p p o i n t e d s i n c e 1 9 0 0 ; t h e r e f o r e , b y a d o p t i n g i t c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n c o m m i s s i o n s a p p o i n t e d i n the. t h i r t y y e a r p e r i o d s b e f o r e a n d a f t e r 1935 c a n r e a d i l y b e m a d e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , m o s t o f t h e r e s u l t a n t c a t e g o r i e s a r e r a t h e r s m a l l . H o w -e v e r , c o m m i s s i o n s i n v e s t i g a t i n g s o c i a l p r o b l e m s c o n s t i t u t e t w e n t y p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e a n d d o s h o w a m a r k e d t e n d e n c y t o b e s u c c e s s f u l l e s s f r e q u e n t l y t h a n c o m m i s s i o n s i n a n y o t h e r c a t e g o r y . T h e y a p p e a r t o b e s l i g h t l y m o r e l i k e l y t h a n c o m m i s s i o n s i n q u i r i n g i n t o G o v e r n m e n t a l p r o b l e m s t o h a v e t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a c t e d , u p o n . B u t s i n c e t h e i r r e p o r t s s e e m — a s a g r o u p — t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f e r i o r t o t h e r e p o r t s o f c o m m i s s i o n s c o n d u c t i n g i n v e s t -i g a t i o n s i n a n y o t h e r s u b i e c t a r e a , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f t e n a c t s u p o n t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s r a i s e s t h e a u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s e x a m i n i n g s o c i a l p r o b l e m s — l i k e t h o s e a p p o i n t e d t o f o r e s t a l l c r i t i c i s m — • i n f a c t o f t e n d o m o r e h a r m t h a n g o o d . C o n s i d e r i n g S e c t i o n I I I m o r e b r o a d l y , i t i s p e r h a p s a l s o w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f c o m m i s s i o n s i n v e s t i g a t i n g ' D o m i n i o n a n d C o l o n i a l ' m a t t e r s , * " * " t h o s e c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h H a n s e r w a s a b l e t o p u t i n t o r e l a t i v e l y s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s t e n d e d t o b e s u c c e s s f u l m u c h m o r e f r e q u e n t l y t h a n d i d 7 2 . c o m m i s s i o n s s t u d y i n g s u b j e c t s w h i c h f a l l u n d e r s u c h g e n e r a l h e a d i n g s a s ' G o v e r n m e n t a l ' , ' E c o n o m i c ' , o r ' S o c i a l P r o b l e m s ' . Y e t , j u d g i n g f r o m H a n s e r ' s f i g u r e s , d u r i n g t h e t h i r t y y e a r p e r i o d b e g i n n i n g i n 1 9 3 5 t h e r e v e r e m a n y f e w e r c o m m i s s i o n s a p p o i n t e d i n t h e s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t a r e a s t h a n t h e r e h a d b e e n i n t h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n 1 9 0 5 a n d 1 9 3 5 . A s T a b l e 7 i n d i c a t e s , the. t o t a l n u m b e r o f c o m m i s s i o n s a p p o i n t e d i n t h e . l a t e r p e r i o d w a s s o m e w h a t l e s s t h a n t w o - f i f t h s 12 o f w h a t i t w a s i n t h e e a r l i e r o n e . T A B L E 7 C O M P A R I S O N O F C O M M I S S I O N S B Y S U B J E C T A R E / . F O P P E R I O D S 1 9 0 5 - 3 5 a n d 1 9 3 5 - 6 5 N U M B E R O F C O M M I S S I O N S % O F T O T A L % S U B J E C T A F E A 1 9 0 5 - 3 5 1 9 3 5 - 6 5 1 9 0 5 - 3 5 1 9 3 5 - 6 5 D I F . G o v e r n m e n t a l P r o b l e m s 20 8 26% 29% +3% S o c i a l P r o b l e m s 5 6 6 2 1 + 1 5 E c o n o m i c P r o b l e m s 15 5 1 8 18 H e a l t h 6 2 8 7 - 1 E d u c a t i o n 6 1 8 4 - 4 D o m i n i o n a n d C o l o n i a l 1 4 4 1 8 1 4 - 4 C i t y P l a n n i n g , T r a n s p o r t , e t c . 10 2 1 3 7 - 6 M i l i t a r y 2 3 - 3 T O T A L 78 2 8 1 0 0 % 1 0 0 % 0 B u t v i e w e d a s a p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f c o m m i s s i o n s i n e a c h g r o u p , c o m m i s s i o n s i n s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t a r e a s s t i l l s h o w a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c l i n e . I f , t h e r e f o r e , s u b j e c t m a t t e r d o e s a f f e c t t h e c h a n c e s o f a c o m m i s s i o n b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l , t h i s w o u l d a r g u e b o t h t h a t G o v e r n m e n t s o u g h t t o a v o i d r e l y i n g t o o h e a v i l y o n t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n a s a n i n v e s t i g a t i v e d e v i c e f o r g e n e r a l l ' -p r o b l e m s , a n d t h a t p o s s i b l y , a s m a n y c r i t i c s h a v e m a i n t a i n e d , ' r o y a l c o m m i s -s i o n s h a v e b e e n l e s s e f f e c t i v e i n r e c e n t y e a r s t h a n t h e y w e r e i n t h e p a s t . T y p e C o n s i d e r i n g t h e t y p e o f c o m m i s s i o n w h i c h t h e G o v e r n m e n t , a p p o i n t s a n d t h e r e l a t i v e s u c c e s s w h i c h e a c h t y p e t e n d s t o h a v e p r e s e n t s s o m e c f t h e s a m e d i f -f i c u l t i e s w h i c h o n e e x p e r i e n c e s w h e n t r y i n g t o c l a s s i f y c o m m i s s i o n s b y s u b j e c t 73. a r e a a n d t o r e l a t e s u c c e s s t o t h e s u b j e c t s t u d i e d . I n t h e . f i r s t p l a c e , l i k e s u b j e c t a r e a , c o m m i s s i o n t y p e i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e . ' I m p a r t i a l ' c o m m i s s i o n s , f o r e x a m p l e , a r e r a r e l y e v e r w h o l l y i m p a r t i a l ; a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y t h e y i n c l u d e s o m e ' e x p e r t s ' a n d / o r s o m e c o m m i s s i o n e r s w h o c o u l d b e t e r m e d ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ' . S e c o n d l y , a s a c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n S e c t i o n s I I I a n d I V o f T a b l e 6 s h o w s , b o t h d i v i s i o n i n t o s u b j e c t a r e a s a n d d i v i s i o n i n t o t y p e s r e s u l t s i n s o m e c a t e g o r i e s b e i n g s o u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d t h a t , n o c o n c l u s i o n s c a n b e d r a w n f r o m t h e m . U n l i k e d i v i s i o n i n t o s u b j e c t a r e a s , h o w e v e r , d i v i s i o n i n t o t y p e s i s s i m p l i f i e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t a l m o s t e v e r y o n e w h o d i s c u s s e s r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s 14 i d e n t i f i e s t h e s a m e t h r e e d i s t i n c t t y p e s . T h e ' I m p a r t i a l ' c o m m i s s i o n — s o m e t i m e s r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e ' U n b i a s e d ' c o m m i s s i o n - — i s r e c o g n i z e d t o b e t h a t v a r i e t y o f c o m m i s s i o n w h i c h i s c o m p o s e d l a r g e l y ( o r s o l e l y ) o f d i s t i n -g u i s h e d i n d i v i d u a l s w h o h a v e n o p a r t i c u l a r e x p e r t i s e i n t h e s u b j e c t , b e i n g e x a m i n e d a n d w h o h a v e n o t p u b l i c l y c o m m i t t e d t h e m s e l v e s t o a n y s p e c i f i c s t a n d o n t h e i s s u e s w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t r a i s e s . T h e ' E x p e r t ' c o m m i s s i o n i s g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d a s b e i n g o n e w h i c h i s c o m p o s e d w h o l l y o r a l m o s t w h o l l y o f i n d i v i d u a l s w h o , b y v i r t u e o f t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n o r a c a d e m i c i n t e r e s t s , a r e k n o w l e d g e a b l e , a b o u t t h e f i e l d i n t o w h i c h i n q u i r y i s b e i n g m a d e b u t w h o o s t e n s i b l y h a v e n o p a r t i c u l a r c o m m i t m e n t t o a n y o n e p o i n t o f v i e r c a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t . The. ' R e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' c o m m i s s i o n i s r e c o g n i z e d b y s c h o l a r s — t h o u g h n o t a l w a y s 15 b y P a r l i a m e n t o r t h e p u b l i c — t o b e o n e o n w h i c h v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d a n d b a l a n c e d a g a i n s t e a c h o t h e r a n d o n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s s e r v e a s s p o k e s m e n f o r p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t s o f v i e w a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t b e i n g e x a m i n e d . P r o b a b l y b e c a u s e f e w c o m m i s s i o n s a r e r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e a s b e i n g o f o n e t y p e o r a n o t h e r , m o s t a u t h o r s m e r e l y a c k n o w l e d g e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e t h r e e t y p e s a n d p e r h a p s c i t e a n e x a m p l e o f e a c h . H a n s e r , h o w e v e r , h a s c l a s * -s i f i e d a l l c o m m i s s i o n s a p p o i n t e d s i n c e 1 9 0 0 b y t y p e a s w e l l a s b y s u b j e c t 74. 1 6 m a t t e r . A s I n t h e c a s e o f h i s d e c i s i o n s a b o u t s u b j e c t a r e a , h e g i v e s n o i n d i c a t i o n o f w h a t r u l e s h e u s e d t o a r r i v e a t h i s c o n c l u s i o n s a n d , a g a i n , s o m e o f h i s d e c i s i o n s a r e s o m e w h a t q u e s t i o n a b l e , " ^ H o w e v e r , f o r t h e s a m e r e a s o n s w h i c h m a d e i t s e e m a d v i s a b l e t o e m p l o y h i s s c h e m a w h e n d i s c u s s i n g s u b j e c t a r e a , h i s d e c i s i o n s o n t y n e o f c o m m i s s i o n h a v e b e e n u s e d h e r e w i t h o u t a l t e r a t i o n . ^ A s S e c t i o n I V o f T a b l e 6 s h o w s , s e v e n o u t o f t h e e l e v e n e x p e r t c o m m i s -s i o n s w e r e s u c c e s s f u l , a n d t h r e e u s e f u l . O n l y a c i u a r t e r o f t h e i m p a r t i a l c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e s u c c e s s f u l a n d l e s s t h a n o n e - f i f t h w e r e u s e f u l . T h e r e w a s a m a r k e d t e n d e n c y f o r t h e i m p a r t i a l c o m m i s s i o n s t o t u r n i n r e p o r t s w h i c h w e r e l a r g e l y d e v o i d o f m e r i t , a n d a l l o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h t h i s s t u d y c l a s -s i f i e d a s m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l w e r e c o m p o s e d o f s o - c a l l e d ' i m p a r t i a l ' c o m m i s s i o n e r s . A g a i n , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a n y d i r e c t c a u s e a n d e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e G o v e r n m e n t h a s t e n d e d t o a p p o i n t e x p e r t c o m m i s s i o n e r s t o e x a m i n e p r o b l e m s w h i c h f a l l i n t h e s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t a r e a s . A s S e c t i o n I I I i n d i c a t e d , c o m m i s s i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t s h a v e g e n e r a l l y b e e n s u c c e s s f u l m o r e f r e q u e n t l y t h a n c o m m i s s i o n s i n g e n e r a l a r e a s . S i n c e 1 9 0 0 n o n e o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s a p p o i n t e d t o i n q u i r e i n t o s o c i a l p r o b l e m s h a s b e e n 1 0 o f t h e e x p e r t t y p e . ' A t t h e s a m e t i m e , c o m m i s s i o n s i n v e s t i g a t i n g s o c i a l m a t t e r s h a v e h a d a n o t i c e a b l e t e n d e n c y t o p r e s e n t u n s a t i s f a c t o r y r e p o r t s . T h e r e i s , t h e r e f o r e , n o r e a l e v i d e n c e t o s h o w t h a t t y p e i n a n y w a y d i r e c t l y a f f e c t s a c o m m i s s i o n ' s c h a n c e s o f b e i n p - s u c c e s s f u l . S u b j e c t a r e a — o r i n d e e d s o m e o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n — m a y b e a m u c h m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t d e t e r m i n a n t . B u t n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a t e n d e n c y f o r e x p e r t c o m m i s s i o n s b o t h t o s u b m i t b e t t e r r e p o r t s a n d t o b e s u c c e s s f u l m o r e f r e q u e n t l y t h a n i m p a r t i a l c o m m i s s i o n s i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d b y c o m p a r i n g t h e t w o t y p e s . L i k e w i s e , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t h a s a p p o i n t e d p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y f e w e r e x p e r t 7 5 . c o m m i s s i o n s i n r e c e n t y e a r s i s d e m o n s t r a t e d b y c o m p a r i n g t h e t w o t h i r t y - y e a r 2 0 p e r i o d s b e f o r e a n d a f t e r 1 9 3 5 ( S e e T a b l e 8 ) . T h e r e f o r e 9 a s i n t h e c a s e o f T A B L E 8 C O M P A R I S O N OF C O M M I S S I O N S BY T Y P E F O R P E R I O D S 1 9 0 5 - 3 5 a n d 1 9 3 5 - 6 5 N U M B E R O F E A C H T Y P E % OF T O T A L % T Y P E O F C O M M I S S I O N 1 9 0 5 - 3 5 1 9 3 5 - 6 5 1 9 0 5 - 3 5 1 9 3 5 - 6 5 D I F / I m p a r t i a l 36 2 1 46% 75% +29% E x p e r t 2 6 6 3 3 2 1 - 1 2 R e p r e s e n t a t i v e 16 1 2 1 4 - 1 7 T O T A L 78 2 8 1 0 0 % 1 0 0 % 0 s u b j e c t a r e a s i t w o u l d s e e m r e a s o n a b l e t o a s s u m e t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d a v o i d u s i n g i m p a r t i a l c o m m i s s i o n s w h e n e v e r p o s s i b l e a n d t h a t , c o n c e i v a b l y , t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s r e c e n t p e n c h a n t f o r u s i n g t h e i m p a r t i a l t y p e o f c o m m i s s i o n m a y h a v e r e s u l t e d i n — o r c o n t r i b u t e d t o — a d e c l i n e i n t h e p r o c e d u r e ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . N u m b e r o f M e m b e r s S e c t i o n V o f T a b l e 6 c o r r e l a t e s s i z e w i t h o u t c o m e . I n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a f a i r l y e v e n d i s t r i b u t i o n b e t w e e n t h e n u m b e r s o f s m a l l , m e d i u m a n d l a r g e c o m m i s s i o n s , i t a s s u m e s s m a l l c o m m i s s i o n s t o b e t h o s e o n w h i c h t h e r e w e r e f e w e r t h a n e i g h t m e m b e r s ; m e d i u m c o m m i s s i o n s t o b e o n e s w i t h m o r e t h a n s e v e n b u t l e s s t h a n f i f t e e n m e m b e r s ; a n d l a r g e c o m m i s s i o n s t o b e o n e s w h i c h h a d o v e r f o u r t e e n m e m b e r s . I n t h e c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e n u m b e r o f m e m b e r s c h a n g e d d u r i n g t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s s i t t i n g , i t u s e s t h e n u m b e r o f c o m m i s s i o n e r s w h o w e r e a c t i v e f o r h a l f o r m o r e o f t h e p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h t h e c o m m i s s i o n o p e r a t e d . A n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o m m i s s i o n s o f a v e r a g e s i z e h a v e t e n d e d t o b e s u c c e s s f u l m u c h m o r e f r e q u e n t l y t h a n h a v e e i t h e r l a r g e o r s m a l l c o m m i s s i o n s . S m a l l c o m m i s s i o n s h a v e b e e n u s e f u l o r s u c c e s s f u l s e v e n t y p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e . B u t o n l y t h i r t y pnr c e n t o f t h e s m a l l c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e w h o l l y s u c c e s s f u l a s c o m p a r e d w i t h o v e r s i x t y p e r c e n t o f t h e a v e r a g e s i z e d 7 6 . o n e s . L a r g e c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e f r e q u e n t l y n e i t h e r s u c c e s s f u l n o r u s e f u l . P a r t o f t h i s r e s u l t i s s u r p r i s i n g . B e c a u s e t h e r e i s a d e f i n i t e c o r r e l a -t i o n b e t w e e n t y p e a n d s i z e , a n d b e c a u s e e x p e r t c o m m i s s i o n s t e n d t o b e s m a l l , i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n r e a s o n a b l e t o a s s u m e t h a t s m a l l c o m m i s s i o n s w o u l d h a v e b e e n s u c c e s s f u l m u c h m o r e f r e q u e n t l y t h a n i n f a c t t h e y w e r e . H o w e v e r , a s T a b l e 9 s h o w s , r e o r g a n i z i n g t h e c o m m i s s i o n s s o t h a t s m a l l c o m m i s s i o n s a r e t h o s e w h i c h h a d f e w e r t h a n s i x m e m b e r s : s m a l l - m e d i u m a n d l a r g e - m e d i u m , t h o s e w h i c h h a d b e t w e e n f i v e a n d e l e v e n a n d t e n a n d s i x t e e n m e m b e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y ; a n d l a r g e c o m m i s s i o n s t h o s e w h i c h h a d o v e r f i f t e e n m e m b e r s , o n l y r e n d e r s t h e t w o e x t r e m e c a t e g o r i e s t o o s m a l l f o r u s e a n d d o e s n o t c o n t r a d i c t t h e o t h e r r e s u l t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y . T A B L E 9 P v E L A T I O N O F S I Z E T O S U C C E S S S I Z E O F COMMISSION % S U C C E S S F U L % U S E F U L % MAF.G'IITALLY % U N S U C C E S S F U L U S E F U L A . S m a l l ( 4 ) 25% 25% 5 0 % B. S m a l l - M e d i u m ( 1 3 ) 46 2 3 8% 2 3 C . L a r g e - M e d i u m ( 1 3 ) 4 6 8 3 8 8 D . L a r g e ( 5 ) 2 0 4 0 2 0 2 0 I t d o e s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e l a r g e r a c o m m i s s i o n w a s t h e m o r e l i k e l y i t w a s t o b e m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l . H o w e v e r , l i k e S e c t i o n V o f T a b l e 6 , i t o n l y c o n -c l u s i v e l y s h o w s t h a t i f s i z e d o e s a f f e c t o u t c o m e , a p p o i n t i n g a n a v e r a g e s i z e d c o m m i s s i o n i s m o r e l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n s u c c e s s t h a n i s a p p o i n t i n g a s m a l l o n e , a n d m u c h m o r e l i k e l y t o d o s o t h a n i s s e t t i n g u p a l a r g e c o m m i s s i o n . T e r m s o f P r e f e r e n c e T h e l a s t o f t h e v a r i a b l e s o v e r w h i c h the. G o v e r n m e n t h a s s o m e c o n t r o l i s t h e c h a r a c t e r o f a r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n ' s t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e . T h e i r c h a r a c t e r , o f c o u r s e , i s o f s i g n a l i m p o r t a n c e t o a c o m m i s s i o n a n d c a n , i f p r o p e r c a r e i s n o t t a k e n , b e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t r i m e n t t o i t . I n d e e d , t h e r e i s n o Question 77. b u t t h a t a c o m m i s s i o n ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s c a n b e s e v e r e l y p r e j u d i c e d b y i n a p p r o -p r i a t e l y w o r d e d , a m b i g u o u s o r v a g u e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e . W h a t h a s b e e n d o n e i n S e c t i o n V I i s t o d i v i d e c o m m i s s i o n s o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e i r t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e a n d t o a t t e m p t t o s h o w h o w t h e o u t c o m e s o f c o m m i s s i o n s w i t h s p e c i f i c r e m i t s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e o u t c o m e s o f c o m m i s s i o n s w i t h m o r e g e n e r a l o r d i f f u s e o n e s . I n d e c i d i n g w h i c h w e r e 21 s p e c i f i c a n d w h i c h w e r e d i f f u s e , t h e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e t h e m s e l v e s w e r e u s e d a s t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r a n d d e c i s i o n w a s b a s e d c n t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s i d -e r a t i o n s : (1) w h e t h e r a c o m m i s s i o n w a s a s k e d t o e x a m i n e a s p e c i f i c a s p e c t o f a p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m o r w h e t h e r i t w a s s i m p l y a s k e d t o e x a m i n e t h e . p r o b l e m ; a n d (2) w h e t h e r i t w a s g i v e n s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s t o a n s w e r i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m o r w h e t h e r i t w a s s i m p l y a s k e d t o l o o k i n t o i t a n d r e p o r t o r m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . A l l c o m m i s s i o n s e x a m i n i n g s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f p r o b l e m s a n d a l l w h i c h w e r e g i v e n p a r t i c u l a r q u e s t i o n s t o b e a n s w e r e d w e r e c l a s s e d a s h a v i n g s p e c i f i c t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e . A l l o t h e r s w e r e , c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e h a d d i f f u s e r e m i t s . N o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h o s e w i t h d i f f u s e r e m i t s w e r e m o r e n u m e r o u s a n d w e r e s u c c e s s f u l l e s s f r e q u e n t l y t h a n t h o s e w i t h s p e c i f i c t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e . L i k e -w i s e , t h e y w e r e , u s e f u l l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , a n d c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y m o r e l i k e l y t o b e b o t h m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l a n d u n s u c c e s s f u l . F i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e t h e y t u r n e d i n r e p o r t s v / h i c h w e r e o f l i t t l e v a l u e i n i m p r o v i n g p u b l i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o b l e m w i t h v / h i c h t h e y v / e r e d e a l i n g . C o m m i s s i o n C o n t r o l l e d V a r i a b l e s T a b l e 10 s h o w s t h o s e f a c t o r s o v e r w h i c h t h e c o m m i s s i o n i t s e l f h a s s o m e 22 c o n t r o l a n d c o r r e l a t e s t h e m v / i t h c o m m i s s i o n o u t c o m e s . O b v i o u s l y , a l l s u c h f a c t o r s a r e a t b e s t i n t e r m e d i a t e v a r i a b l e s . T h e y m a y h a v e s o m e s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t u p o n t h e c h a n c e s o f a c o m m i s s i o n ' s s u c c e s s , b u t a t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e y 7 8 . a r e t h e m s e l v e s p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t e d b y s u c h f a c t o r s a s t h e t y p e o f p r o b l e m w i t h w h i c h t h e c o m m i s s i o n i s d e a l i n g , w h o m t h e G o v e r n m e n t h a s p u t o n t h e c o m m i s s i o n , a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e . A l -t h o u g h a l o g i c a l c a s e c a n b e m a d e f o r a s s u m i n g t h a t e a c h a f f e c t s o u t c o m e , t h e r e i s n o d e f i n i t e p r o o f t h a t t h i s i s s o . L e n g t h o f t i m e T h e f i r s t o f t h e f a c t o r s , t h e l e n g t h , o f t i m e w h i c h , a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n t a k e s , i s p o s s i b l y m o r e i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e s c o n e o f t h e p r o b l e m w i t h w h i c h t h e c o m m i s s i o n i s d e a l i n g t h a n i t i s o f h o w w e l l a c o m m i s s i o n i s g e t t i n g o n . H o w -e v e r , t h i s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e c a s e , a n d i t p r o b a b l y b e c o m e s l e s s s o t h e T A B L E 10 R E L A T I O N O F F A C T O R S C O N T R O L L E D B Y C O M M I S S I O N T O C O M M I S S I O N S U C C E S S V A R I A B L E S 1. L E N G T H O F T I M E ( 3 3 -A . S h o r t - a v e r a g e ( 1 1 ) B . L o n g - a v e r a g e ( 1 0 ) C . S h o r t ( 6 ) C . L o n g ( 6 ) % S U C -C E S S F U L 54% 4 0 3 3 3 3 % U S E -F U L 18% 2 0 3 3 17 % M A R G I N A L L Y % U N S U C -U S E F U L C E S S F U L ?% 3 0 5 0 18% 1 0 3 3 1 1 . T Y P E OF R E P O R T ( 3 3 ) A . M a j o r i t y - M i n o r i t y ( 7 ) 57% B . U n a n i m o u s ( 1 5 ) 47 C . U n a n , - R e s e r v a t i o n s ( 1 0 ) 3 0 D . S p l i t ( 1 ) 14% 3 3 1 0 14% 7 4 0 1 0 0 14% 1 3 2 0 1 1 1 . L E N G T H O F R E P O R T ( 3 3 ) A . S h o r t ( 1 2 ) B . M e d i u m ( 8 ) C . L o n g ( 1 3 ) 5 0 % 3 8 3 8 2.5% 25 15 8% 1 3 3 8 17% 25 8 l o n g e r i t t a k e s f o r a c o m m i s s i o n t o r e p o r t . T a k i n p a n i n o r d i n a t e l e n g t h o f 2 3 t i m e may i n d i c a t e h o p e l e s s d e a d l o c k . A l s o , i t m a y w e l l c r e a t e a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h a r e p o r t ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e a l r e a d y dat3d b y t h e t i m e t h e y a r e 79. m a d e o r i n w h i c h a G o v e r n m e n t , o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n t i n a c t i n g o n a c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e p o r t , h a s , b y t h e t i m e t h e r e p o r t i s s u b m i t t e d , e i t h e r l o s t i n t e r e s t i n i t , o r d i s c o v e r e d n e w i s s u e s w h i c h w i l l t a k e p r e c e d e n c e . I n g r o u p i n g c o m m i s s i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e e a c h t o o k , c o m -m i s s i o n s w h i c h r e p o r t e d w i t h i n a y e a r w e r e l i s t e d a s s h o r t ; t h o s e w h i c h t o o k b e t w e e n o n e a n d t w o y e a r s a n d b e t w e e n t w o a n d t h r e e y e a r s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s s h o r t - a v e r a g e a n d l o n g - a v e r a g e , r e s p e c t i v e l y ; a n d t h o s e w h i c h s a t f o r o v e r t h r e e y e a r s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d l o n g . T h i s m e t h o d i s n o t e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y b e c a u s e i t n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y p l a c e s i n d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h w e r e c l o s e r t o e a c h o t h e r i n t e r m s o f t h e i r l e n g t h t h a n t h e y w e r e t o t h e m e d i a n o f t h e g r o u p t o w h i c h t h e y w e r e a s s i g n e d . H o w e v e r , i t g i v e s b y f a r t h e b e s t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o m m i s s i o n s b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s a n d d o e s i n d i -c a t e t h e p r e s e n c e o f c e r t a i n t e n d e n c i e s . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , t h e n , i t w a s r e t a i n e d . S e c t i o n I o f T a b l e 1 0 s h o w s t h e r e s u l t s o f c o r r e l a t i n g t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e a c o m m i s s i o n s a t w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n . I t i n d i c a t e s t h a t a v e r a g e c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e s u c c e s s f u l m o r e f r e q u e n t l y t h a n e i t h e r s h o r t o r l o n g o n e s . I t s h o w s t h a t t h e r e w a s a t e n d e n c y f o r t h e n u m b e r s o f m a r g i n a l l y u s e -f u l c o m m i s s i o n s t o i n c r e a s e t h e l o n g e r t h e c o m m i s s i o n s a t . A n d i t s u p p o r t s t h e i n i t i a l a s s u m p t i o n t h a t l o n g c o m m i s s i o n s w o u l d b e t h e l e a s t l i k e l y t o b e s u c c e s s f u l . B e c a u s e o f t h e h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f u s e f u l c o m m i s s i o n s a m o n g t h e g r o u p w h i c h s a t f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d , t h e r e i s n o r e a s o n t o a s s u m e t h a t s i t t i n g f o r a r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f p e r i o d i s p r e j u d i c i a l t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e r e p o r t . H o w -e v e r , b e c a u s e f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h o p e r a t e d f o r a l o n g p e r i o d w e r e m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l , t h e r e i s d e f i n i t e l y a b a s i s f o r c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t l e n g t h y d e l i b e r a t i o n i s a p o l i c y w i t h d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s . 8 0 . T h e r e i s n o i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t w a s a n y l e s s likel37 t o a c t o n s u c h a c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ; h o w e v e r , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i r r e p o r t s t e n d e d t o b e i n f e r i o r t o t h o s e o f b o t h s h o r t a n d a v e r a g e l e n g t h c o m m i s s i o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t , i f i t i s c o n f u s i o n o r m a j o r d i s a g r e e m e n t w h i c h i s h o l d i n g u p a r e p o r t , s u c h c o m m i s s i o n s s h o u l d e i t h e r r e s i g n o r s u b m i t a s e r i e s o f m a j o r i t y a n d m i n o r i t y r e p o r t s . T y p e o f P e p o r t P r e s u m a b l y , t h e t y p e o f r e p o r t w h i c h a c o m m i s s i o n s u b m i t s r e f l e c t s n o t o n l y t h e e x t e n t o f a g r e e m e n t a n o n g t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s , b u t a l s o t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s p u t f o r w a r d b y t h e c o m m i s s i o n a r e t h e r e s u l t o f c o m p r o m i s e . W i t h u n a n i m o u s a n d m a j o r i t y - m i n o r i t y r e p o r t s t h e r e i s n o e v i d e n c e t h a t a n y o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s ' p o s i t i o n s h a v e b e e n c o m p r o m i s e d . W i t h s p l i t a n d u n a n i m o u s - w i t h - r e s e r v a t i o n s r e p o r t s , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s d e f i n i t e l y a n i m p l i c a t i o n n o t o n l y t h a t t h e r e w a s s e r i o u s d i s a g r e e m e n t a m o n g t h e c o m m i s s i o n -e r s , b u t a l s o t h a t t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h i c h t h e c o m m i s s i o n p u t f o r w a r d r e f l e c t e d t h e l o w e s t c o m m o n d e n o m i n a t o r o f a g r e e m e n t w h i c h w a s p o s s i b l e . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , t h e n i t s e e m s l o g i c a l t o a s s u m e t h a t w h i l e t h e f a c t c f a r e p o r t b e i n g e i t h e r u n a n i m o u s o r o f t h e m a j o r i t y - m i n o r i t y type m a y n o t a f f e c t t h e o u t c o m e o f a c o m m i s s i o n a t a l l , t h e i s s u i n g o f e i t h e r a s n l i t o r a u n a n - -i m o u s - w i t h - r e s e r v a t i o n s t y p e r e p o r t m a y w e l l a f f e c t i t n e g a t i v e l y . B o t h S e c t i o n I I o f T a b l e 10 a n d a . 7 c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n l o n g c o m m i s s i o n s a n d e v i d e n c e o f c o m p r o m i s e s u p p o r t t h e c o n t e n t i o n s t h a t c o m p r o m i s e r e p o r t s a r e o f t e n o f i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y a n d t h a t , i n o r d i n a t e l e n g t h o f t e n r e f l e c t s a n a t t e m p t t o r e a c h a c o m m o n d e n o m i n a t o r o f o p i n i o n . I t g i v e s n o i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y - m i n o r i t y t y p e o f r e p o r t t e n d s t o b e i n a n y w a y i n f e r i o r o r l e s s l i k e l y t o b e a c t e d u p o n t h a n t h e u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t . B u t , b e c a u s e o f t h e a p -p a r e n t l i k e l i h o o d t h a t a G o v e r n m e n t w i l l a c t o n t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f s p l i t a n d u n a n i m o u s - w i t h - r e s e r v a t i o n s r e p o r t s , i t d o e s s u g g e s t t h a t w h i l e . 31. c o m p r o m i s e s m a y b e a t t r a c t i v e t o a G o v e r n m e n t s i n t h e l o n g r u n t h e y a c h i e v e v e r y l i t t l e . L e n g t h o f R e p o r t T h e l a s t o f t h e f a c t o r s o v e r w h i c h , t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s h a v e s o m e c o n t r o l — t h e l e n g t h o f t h e i r r e p o r t — m a y w e l l s e e m t o b e w h o l l y i r r e l e v a n t t o a c o m m i s s i o n ' s o u t c o m e . H o w e v e r , i t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e l e n g t h o f a c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e p o r t c a n a f f e c t t h e n u m b e r o f r e a d e r s w h i c h t h e r e p o r t w i l l . h a v e a n d c a n , t h e r e f o r e , a f f e c t t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . ^ F o r S e c t i o n I I I o f T a b l e 1 0 , l e n g t h o f r e n o r t w a s d e t e r m i n e d o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f p a g e s , i n c l u d i n g a p p e n d i c e s , w h i c h t h e r e w e r e i n t h a t v o l u m e o f t h e r e p o r t w h i c h c o n t a i n e d t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s ' r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . 25 I n t h e t w o c a s e s i n w h i c h ' s h o r t v e r s i o n s ' o f t h e m a i o r r e p o r t w e r e p u b l i s h e d , t h e n u m b e r o f p a g e s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e s h o r t v e r s i o n s w e r e u s e d . S h o r t r e p o r t s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e t h o s e w h i c h r a n t o l e s s t h a n 1 5 0 n a g e s ; m e d i u m . , t h o s e w i t h b e t w e e n 1 5 0 a n d 3 0 0 ; a n d l o n g , t h o s e w i t h o v e r 3 0 C p a g e s . £\s S e c t i o n I I I i n d i c a t e s , c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h , s u b m i t t e d s h o r t r e p o r t s w e r e s u c c e s s f u l m u c h m o r e f r e q u e n t l y t h a n t h o s e w h i c h s u b m i t t e d e i t h e r m e d i u m l e n g t h o r l o n g r e p o r t s . H o w e v e r , t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e a c t e d u p o n l e s s f r e q u e n t l y t h a n t h o s e o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s w i t h l o n p r e p o r t s . T h e r e f o r e , b e -c a u s e o f t h e h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l c o m m i s s i o n s a m o n g t h e l a t t e r g r o u p , t h e r e i s n o r e a l s u p p o r t f o r t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t s h o r t e r r e p o r t s a t t r a c t g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n a n d b y d o i n g s o a r e m o r e l i k e l y t o f o r c e a G o v e r n m e n t t o t a k e a c t i o n o n a c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . L e n g t h p r o b a b l y d o e s a f f e c t r e a d e r s h i p , a n d t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f s h o r t v e r s i o n s i s t h e r e f o r e p r o b a b l y a g o o d i d e a . H o w e v e r , t h e i n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t l e n g t h i s m o r e l i k e l y t o b e d e t e r m i n e d b y o t h e r f a c t o r s w h i c h a f f e c t o u t c o m e t h a n i t i s i t s e l f t o b e a d e t e r m i n a n t o f a c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e s u l t s . 8 2 . O t h e r V a r i a b l e s T a b l e 11 c o r r e l a t e s c i r c u m s t a n t i a l f a c t o r s w i t h c o m m i s s i o n r e s u l t s . I t s h o w s t h a t w h e t h e r t h e L a b o u r o r C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y a p p o i n t e d a c o m m i s s i o n d o e s n o t a p p e a r s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o a f f e c t i t s o u t c o m e . B u t i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e h a s b e e n a d i s t i n c t t e n d e n c y f o r t h a t g r o u p o f c o m m i s s i o n s a p p o i n t e d u n d e r o n e G o v e r n m e n t a n d r e p o r t i n g d u r i n g t h e t e n u r e o f a n o t h e r t o h a v e a c o m p a r a t i v e ! } / h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f m a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l a n d u n s u c c e s s f u l c o m m i s s i o n s . T A B L E 11 R E L A T I O N OF OTHER. F A C T O R S T O C O M M I S S I O N O U T C O M E % M A R G I N A L L Y % U N S U C -mRIABLES S U C C E S S F U L U S E F U L U S E F U L C E S S F U L 1 . P A R T Y A P P O I N T I N G ( 3 5 ) A . C o n s e r v a t i v e + ( 2 4 ) 42% 17% 13% 29% B . C o n s e r v a t i v e ( 1 0 ) 4 0 10 30 2 0 C . L a b o u r ( 1 1 ) 36 2 7 36 I I . G O V E R N M E N T ( 3 5 A . N o c h a n g e ( 2 7 ) 44% 22% 19% 15% B . C h a n g e ( 8 ) 2 5 1 3 2 5 3 8 P a r t y i n P o w e r T h e f i g u r e s f o r S e c t i o n I o f T a b l e 1 1 w e r e o b t a i n e d s i m p l y b y d e t e r m i n -i n g w h i c h p a r t y w a s i n p o w e r a t t h e t i m e w h e n a p a r t i c u l a r c o m m i s s i o n w a s a p p o i n t e d . T h e f i r s t c a t e p o r y i n c l u d e s t h o s e c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h w e r e a p p o i n t e d u n d e r t h e N a t i o n a l a n d C o a l i t i o n G o v e r n m e n t s , a s w e l l a s u n d e r w h o l l y T o r y G o v e r n m e n t s . T h e s e c o n d r e f e r s t o t h e p e r i o d d u r i n p w h i c h o n l y t h e C o n s e r v -a t i v e s w e r e i n p o w e r ; a n d t h e t h i r d , t o t h e t i m e s d u r i n p w h i c h t h e L a b o u r p a r t y w a s t h e s o l e p a r t y i n p o w e r . A s t h e T a b l e i n d i c a t e s , t h e r e i s n o e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a p p o i n t m e n t b y o n e p a r t y o r t h e o t h e r w i l l a f f e c t a c o m m i s s i o n ' s o u t c o m e . C h a n g e o f G o v e r n m e n t T h e f i g u r e s f o r S e c t i o n I I t a k e ' c h a n g e o f G o v e r n m e n t ' i n t o c o n s i d e r -83. a t i o n o n l y w h e n t h e r e w a s a c h a n g e f r o m t h e N a t i o n a l t o t h e C o a l i t i o n , f r o m t h e C o a l i t i o n t o t h e L a b o u r , o r b e t w e e n L a b o u r a n d C o n s e r v a t i v e G o v e r n m e n t s . C a b i n e t r e s h u f f l e s a n d c h a n g e s i n P r i m e M i n i s t e r w e r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d . J u d g i n g f r o m t h e T a b l e , w h e n t h e r e r-ras a c h a n g e i n G o v e r n m e n t t h e r e w a s a l s o a m a r k e d t e n d e n c y f o r c o m m i s s i o n s s e r v i n g d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d n o t t o f u l -f i l l t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e . H o w e v e r , o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s m a k e i t q u e s t i o n a b l e t h a t t h e c h a n g e i t s e l f w a s a c t u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o m m i s -s i o n s ' r e s u l t s . I n t h e c a s e s o f a l l b u t o n e o f t h e n a r g i n a l l y u s e f u l a n d u n -26 s u c c e s s f u l c o m m i s s i o n s i n c a t e g o r y B , f a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n t h e c h a n g e i n G o v e r n m e n t w o u l d a p p e a r t o p r o v i d e a b e t t e r e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e i r f a i l u r e s . F u r t h e r , t h e r e h a v e b e e n s e v e r a l o u t s t a n d i n g e x a m p l e s o f c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h w e r e a p p o i n t e d b y a n d r e p o r t e d t o o n e G o v e r n m e n t , b u t h a d t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 27 a c t e d u p o n b y a n o t h e r . T h e r e f o r e , a l t h o u g h i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a c h a n g e i n G o v e r n m e n t m a y a f f e c t a c o m m i s s i o n ' s c h a n c e s o f s u c c e s s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t s u c h a n a s s u m p t i o n , a n d i t w o u l d a p p e a r m o r e l i k e l y t h a t t h e h i g h p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n i n S e c t i o n I I i s e i t h e r c a u s e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t b o t h v a r i a b l e s a r e d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e same, d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r o r t h a t i t i s s i m p l y c o i n c i d e n t a l . C o n c l u s i o n H o c l e a r c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p c a n b e e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n a n y o f t h e f a c t o r s d i s c u s s e d a n d a c o m m i s s i o n ' s c h a n c e s o f s u c c e s s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n i s r e l a t e d t o t h e s o u r c e o f d e m a n d f o r t h e c o m m i s s i o n , t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s i n t e n t i o n w h e n a p p o i n t i n g i t , i t s s u b j e c t o f s t u d y , i t s t y p e a n d s i z e , t h e s p e c i f i c i t y ' - o f i t s t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e , t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e w h i c h i t s i n q u i r y t a k e s , a n d t h e t y p e o f r e p o r t w h i c h t h e c o m m i s s i o n s u b m i t s . 84. O n t h e b a s i s o f t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d h e r e , t h e i d e a l c o m m i s s i o n w o u l d b e o n e a p p o i n t e d b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o p r o p o s e l e g i s l a t i o n i n a n a r r o w s u b j e c t a r e a ; i t w o u l d b e m e d i u m - s i z e d , e x p e r t , a n d w o u l d w o r k u n d e r s p e c i f i c t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e ; a n d w i t h i n a s h o r t - a v e r a g e l e n g t h o f t i m e w o u l d s u b m i t e i t h e r a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t o r o n e o f t h e m a i o r i t y - m i n o r i t y t y p e . S u c h a c o m m i s s i o n w o u l d m o s t n e a r l y f u l f i l l i t s i n t e n d e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e . 85. 1 Such considerations as how well the commissioners get on with one another personally, for example, could very wel l affect a com-mission's investigation, but are not readily ascertainable. Also, events external to the commission i t s e l f , such as the outbreak of war or the beginning of a recession, could in some instances be res-ponsible for a commission's inab i l i ty to obtain information or for a Government's unfavourable response to i t s report. But these, too, are not infrequently d i f f i c u l t to identify and also — as a compari-son between the Royal Commissions on West India and on Rhodesia and Nyasaland i l lustrates — are not uniformly pre judic ia l . 2 The two administrative commissions — the Royal Commissions on Awards to Inventors - - have been excluded since they were empow-ered by their terms of reference to act on their own recommendations and they cannot, therefore, be meaningfully compared with the advis-ory commissions which were empowered only to suggest possible courses of action. 3 J .F . Hodgetts, 'Royal Commissions of Inquiry in Canada: A Study in Legislative Technique' (Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of Toronto, 1940), p. 48. 4 518 H.C. Deb. 1536-40, 30 July 1953. The Government's announce-ment of i t s intention to set up a commission obviously took Parliament completely by surprise. In offering a reason for the Government's decision, R.A. Butler (then Chancellor of the Exchequer) would only say that '* . . . i t has been found that, about every twenty years, a review of this sort i s necessary, and i t is now twenty years since we had the last Royal Commission. " The Opposition was not overly impressed by this explanation. 5 Great B r i t a i n , Parliament, Parliamentary Papers (House of Commons and Command), 1939-40, Vol . IV (Reports, V o l . 1), Cmd. 6153 January, 1940, 'Report of the Royal Commission on the Distribution of the Industrial Population,' pp. 3-4. 6 Hodgetts, 'Royal Commissions in Canada', p. 48. 7 Throughout this analysis, i t is assumed that unless a category contains at least twenty per cent of the sample (eg. seven out of t h i r t y - f i v e ) , the category is not suff ic ient ly represented to warrant generalizations being drawn from i t . 8 Cf. n . 21, Chapter I . 9 Charles J . Hanser, Guide to Decision: The Royal Commission in  the Twentieth Century (Totowa, New Jersey: The Bedminister Press, 1965), pp. 247-53. Hanser's book was published prior to the setting up of the Royal Commissions on Medical Education, Trade Unions and Employers' Associations, Tribunals of Inquiry, and Local Government i n England. The last two of these were considered to be Governmental problems; the second, a social problem; and the f i r s t was (somewhat arb i t rar i ly ) consigned to Education. Presumably, i t could just as wel l be c lass i f ied under Health. 8 6 . 10 T h e o n l y r e a l l y v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e - - t o g r o u p t h e m b y M i n i s t r y — i s a l s o f u l l o f p i t f a l l s . C e r t a i n s u b j e c t s ( s u c h a s L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t ) s h i f t f r o m o n e M i n i s t r y t o a n o t h e r o v e r t i m e . Some c o m m i s s i o n s a p p e a r t o b e i n t h e p r e s e r v e o f m o r e t h a n o n e M i n i s t r y . Some M i n i s t r i e s ( s u c h a s M i n e s ) h a v e o n l y h a d o n e c o m m i s s i o n i n t h e p a s t t h i r t y y e a r s . A n d f u r t h e r , s e p a r a t i n g c o m m i s s i o n s o n t h e b a s i s o f w h i c h M i n i s t r y a p p e a r e d t o b e i n c h a r g e o f t h e i n q u i r y w o u l d n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y s e p a r a t e c o m m i s s i o n s ( l i k e t h e t w o R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o n t h e P r e s s ) w h i c h p a t e n t l y b e l o n g i n t h e s a m e c a t e g o r y . A r t h u r H a r r i s o n C o l e , A F i n d i n g L i s t o f B r i t i s h R o y a l  C o m m i s s i o n R e p o r t s : 1 8 6 0 - 1 9 3 5 ( C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 5 ) , i n f r a . , d i v i d e s c o m m i s s i o n s b y s u b j e c t a r e a . C o l e , h o w e v e r , i s d e a l i n g w i t h a m u c h l a r g e r n u m b e r o f c o m -m i s s i o n s a n d h a s n i n e t e e n c a t e g o r i e s — o n e o f w h i c h i s f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s . 11 T h i s i s , i n f a c t , a m i s n o m e r . P a l e s t i n e , w h i c h H a n s e r i n c l u d e s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y , w a s a c t u a l l y a M a n d a t e d T e r r i t o r y , a n d n o t r e a l l y e i t h e r a c o l o n y o r a D o m i n i o n . 12 T h e s e f i g u r e s e x c l u d e a l l c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h H a n s e r c l a s s i f i e s a s ' O p e r a t i n g ' o r a s ' S e m i - p e r m a n e n t ' . T h i s i n c l u d e s t h e t w o c o m m i s s i o n s o n a w a r d s t o i n v e n t o r s . T h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f c o m m i s s i o n s i n e a c h o f t h e 1 9 3 5 - 6 5 g r o u p s d o e s n o t a l w a y s t a l l y w i t h t h e n u m b e r i n d i c a t e d i n S e c -t i o n I I I . T h i s i s b e c a u s e H a n s e r c l a s s i f i e s c o m m i s s i o n s b y s t a r t i n g d a t e a n d t h i s s t u d y h a s c l a s s i f i e d t h e m b y d a t e o f c o m p l e t i o n . 13 H a n s e r , G u i d e t o D e c i s i o n , p p . 4 7 - 9 , c i t e s O . R . M c G r e g o r , ' T h e M o r t o n C o m m i s s i o n : A S o c i a l a n d H i s t o r i c a l C o m m e n t a r y , ' B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , V I I ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 5 6 ) , 1 8 9 a n d W i l l i a m A . R o b s o n , ' T h e B e v e r i d g e R e p o r t : A n E v a l u a t i o n , ' P o l i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , X I V ( A p r i l - J u n e , 1 9 4 3 ) , 1 5 0 - 1 , a s p r o p o n -e n t s o f t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w . H a n s e r h i m s e l f d e n e g r a t e s s u c h a s u g g e s t i o n . H o w e v e r , h e o f f e r s n o e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e t o s u p -p o r t h i s p o s i t i o n . 14 e g . H a n s e r , G u i d e t o D e c i s i o n , p p . 4 1 - 3 , 1 7 6 - 7 ; H o d g e t t s , ' R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s i n C a n a d a , ' S e c t i o n I I I - B ; J a c k A . R h o d e s , ' L e g i s l a t i v e S e r v i c e s i n t h e B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t , ' S o u t h w e s t e r n  S o c i a l S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , X X X I I I ( J u n e , 1 9 5 2 ) , 3 1 ; a n d H u g h M . C l o k i e a n d J . W i l l i a m R o b i n s o n , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o f I n q u i r y :  T h e S i g n i f i c a n c e o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h P o l i t i c s ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 ) , p p . 1 5 6 - 1 6 9 . 15 S i n c e i n o r d e r t o a v o i d a n y a p p e a r a n c e o f p r e j u d i c e , ' i m p a r -t i a l 1 o r ' u n b i a s e d ' c o m m i s s i o n s o f t e n i n c l u d e m e m b e r s o f b o t h s e x e s a n d p e o p l e f r o m d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , c h u r c h e s , r e g i o n s , e t c . , i m p a r t i a l c o m m i s s i o n s a r e s o m e t i m e s r e f e r r e d t o a s b e i n g ' r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e . 1 E g . 3 4 3 H . C . D e b . 1 0 3 2 - 8 8 , 8 F e b r u a r y 1 9 3 9 . 8 7 . 16 H a n s e r , G u i d e t o D e c i s i o n , p p . 2 4 7 - 5 3 . 17 F o r i n s t a n c e , u n l e s s o n e c o n s i d e r s t h e f a c t t h a t a l l o f i t s m e m b e r s p r e s u m a b l y p a i d t a x e s , t h e r e s e e m s n o r e a s o n t o c a l l t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n T a x a t i o n o f P r o f i t s a n d I n c o m e ' r e p r e s -e n t a t i v e ' . 1 8 A g a i n , a s h e c o n c l u d e d h i s s t u d y b e f o r e s o m e o f t h e m o r e r e c e n t c o m m i s s i o n s h a d b e e n a p p o i n t e d , t h o s e c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e t y p e d f o r t h i s s t u d y o n t h e b a s i s o f w h e t h e r a m a j o r i t y o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s w e r e u n b i a s e d , e x p e r t o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . 19 H a n s e r , G u i d e t o D e c i s i o n , p . 2 4 9 . 2 0 A g a i n , ' O p e r a t i n g ' a n d ' S e m i - p e r m a n e n t ' c o m m i s s i o n s h a v e b e e n e x c l u d e d . L i k e w i s e , a g a i n t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f c o m m i s s i o n s i n e a c h g r o u p i n t h e 1 9 3 5 - 6 5 p e r i o d d o e s n o t a l w a y s t a l l y w i t h t h e n u m b e r s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 5 . 2 1 S e e A p p e n d i x I I I . 2 2 T h e f i g u r e s i n T a b l e 10 a r e b a s e d o n f a c t s a b o u t t h e t h i r t y - t h r e e n o n - a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h a c t u a l l y e x a m i n e d a p r o b l e m a n d s u b m i t t e d r e p o r t s . B o t h t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o n W o r k m e n ' s C o m p e n s a t i o n a n d o n t h e P e n a l S y s t e m i n E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s h a v e b e e n e x c l u d e d . T h e f o r m e r d i d s u b -m i t a s e v e n p a g e u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t e x p l a i n i n g w h y i t h a d n o t c o m p l e t e d i t s w o r k , b u t i t n e v e r r e a l l y f u n c t i o n e d . T h e l a t t e r f u n c t i o n e d f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d , b u t d i d n o t c o m p l e t e i t s i n v e s t i -g a t i o n o r s u b m i t a r e p o r t . 2 3 E c o n o m i s t . S e p t e m b e r 1 6 , 1 9 6 7 , p . 9 6 7 , c o m m e n t e d t h a t ' ' L o r d D o n o v a n ' s R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n T r a d e U n i o n s a n d E m p l o y e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n s h a s b e e n s i t t i n g t o o l o n g a l r e a d y . ' ' O n A p r i l 2 0 , 1 9 6 8 , p . 1 4 , i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s a m e c o m m i s s i o n , i t s a i d , " T h e c o m m i s s i o n a l r e a d y h a s b e e n s i t t i n g f o r m o r e t h a n t h r e e y e a r s ; a n d i t i s a f a i r l y g e n e r a l a p p r e h e n s i o n t h a t a n y c o m m i s s i o n w h i c h m u l l s o v e r a r e p o r t f o r t h a t l o n g i s i n t h e p r o c e s s o f t r y i n g t o s t r i k e a c o m p r o m i s e o n i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n i t s m e m b e r s , r a t h e r t h a n p r o d u c i n g a n y t h i n g u s e f u l . " 2 4 e g . H a n s e r , G u i d e t o D e c i s i o n , p . 2 1 1 , a n d N . M a n s e r g h , ' T h e U s e o f A d v i s o r y B o d i e s i n t h e R e f o r m o f t h e M a c h i n e r y o f G o v e r n m e n t , 1 i n A d v i s o r y B o d i e s , e d . b y R . V . V e r n o n a n d N i c h o l a s M a n s e r g h ( L o n d o n : A l l e n & U n w i n , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 8 4 . 2 5 B e c a u s e o f t h e w a r , t h e r e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n W e s t I n d i a w a s n o t p u b l i s h e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y u n t i l 1 9 4 5 ; h o w e v e r , a n a b b r e v i a t e d v e r s i o n c o n t a i n i n g i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s h a d b e e n p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 3 9 . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t i n E n g l a n d p u r p o s e l y s u b m i t t e d b o t h a d e t a i l e d a n d v e r y l o n g r e p o r t a n d a s h o r t v e r s i o n c o n t a i n i n g i t s m a j o r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . 88. 2 6 T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P e n a l S y s t e m i n E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s . 2 7 E g . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o n S a f e t y i n C o a l M i n e s , t h e D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l P o p u l a t i o n , B e t t i n g , L o t t e r i e s a n d G a m i n g , a n d C o m m o n L a n d . C H A P T E R : I V R E F O R M U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e ' i d e a l ' o r ' p e r f e c t ' c o m m i s s i o n i s n e i t h e r a l -w a y s p o s s i b l e n o r n e c e s s a r i l y a l w a y s d e s i r a b l e . I t i s o n l y a m o d e l , a n d i t o n l y s u g g e s t s w h i c h c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d i s m o s t l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n a s u c c e s s f u l c o m m i s s i o n . I t d o e s n o t t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r v a r i a b l e s w h i c h m a y a l s o a f f e c t o u t c o m e o r m a y a t l e a s t m i t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e f a c t o r s d i s c u s s e d . N o r d o e s i t c o n s i d e r t h e p r a c t i c a -b i l i t y o f r e s t r i c t i n g t h e u s e o f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n t e c h n i q u e t o t h o s e o c c a s i o n s o n w h i c h a l l o f t h e s u g g e s t e d c o n d i t i o n s c a n b e m e t . J u d g i n g f r o m T a b l e 5, c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m o n e a n o t h e r h a v e b e e n p e r f e c t l y c a p a b l e o f f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r c o n s t i t u -t i o n a l r o l e . F u r t h e r , a l t h o u g h f o u r t e e n o f t h e t h i r t y - f i v e c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e s u c c e s s f u l , n o n e o f t h e t h i r t y - f i v e w a s o f t h e i d e a l t y p e , a n d o n l y t w o o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e s i m i l a r i n a l l r e s p e c t s . ' ' " T h e a b s e n c e o f a n y p e r f e c t c o m m i s s i o n s s u g g e s t s t h a t r e s t r i c t i n g t h e u s e o f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n p r o c e d u r e t o t h o s e o c c a s i o n s o n w h i c h a l l o f t h e o p t i m u m c o n d i t i o n s c a n b e m e t w o u l d b e t a n t a m o u n t t o e l i m i n a t i n g t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n a l t o g e t h e r . T h e s u c c e s s o f f o u r t e e n o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t , w h i l e p o s s i b l y t h e i d e a l c o m m i s s i o n h a s t h e g r e a t e s t c h a n c e o f b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l , v a r i a t i o n s f r o m t h e i d e a l n e e d n o t r e s u l t i n a c o m m i s s i o n b e i n g u n s u c c e s s f u l . F u r t h e r , t h e f a c t t h a t m o s t o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o m m i s s i o n s d i f f e r e d f r o m o n e a n o t h e r m e a n s , i n e f f e c t , t h a t n o o n e f a c t o r i s o f u l t i m a t e s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d t h a t t h e i n t e r -a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e v a r i a b l e s p r o b a b l y h a s g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e t h a n d o e s a n y s i n g l e v a r i a b l e c o n s i d e r e d b y i t s e l f . U n q u e s t i o n a b l y , r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s c o u l d b e u s e d m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y a n d t h e v a r i o u s w a y s i n w h i c h c e r t a i n f a c t o r s a p p e a r t o i n f l u e n c e a r o y a l 90. commission's r e s u l t s should not be ignored. Yet, recommendations de-signed to improved the usefulness of the r o y a l commission procedure w i l l undoubtedly be more e f f e c t i v e i f they stress f l e x i b i l i t y rather than i f they s t r i v e to create one optimum type of commission. Recommendations for the Government One general r u l e , however, probably should be adopted. Commis-sions should not be set up unless there i s some reasonable chance that 2 t h e i r recommendations w i l l be considered favourably. Governments have, a l l too frequently, tended to use royal commissions as a sort of sop to p u b l i c opinion. Banking on the fa c t that Parliament and the p ublic w i l l cease a g i t a t i n g about a question f or the duration of an i n v e s t i g a t i o n , they have set up ro y a l commissions apparently i n the hope that by the time such commissions have presented t h e i r reports, the problems w i l l mysteriously have gone away. Unfortunately, t h i s i s r a r e l y the case. The problems remain to haunt them •— or t h e i r suc-cessors — and much too often, as the large number of marginally use-f u l commissions t e s t i f i e s , the Government i s then forced to act on the basis of inadequate information or to carry out the recommendations of i n f e r i o r reports. However, simply urging the Government not to use commissions i n t h i s fashion does not seem to have discouraged what i s recognized as 3 being a time-honoured p r a c t i c e . For t h i s reason, several suggestions for reforming royal commissions have been directed towards checking the Govern-ment's power to use them i n t h i s manner. The remainder of the recommen-dations which i t xfould be up to the Government to implement have, i n the main, dealt with the composition of commissions. Most often they have been designed to encourage the Government to appoint the r i g h t type of commission for each p a r t i c u l a r type of problem or to discourage i t from i n t e n t i o n a l l y 9 1 . o r o t h e r v / i s e p r e j u d i c i n g a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n ' s r e s u l t s b y u s i n g v a g u e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e a n d / o r a p p o i n t i n g p e o p l e w h o w o u l d b e u n a b l e t o d o a n a d e q u a t e j o b o r w o u l d a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y n e v e r a g r e e o n w h a t a c t i o n ( i f a n y ) s h o u l d 4 b e t a k e n . U s e A n y i d e a o f m a k i n g m a n d a t o r y t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f c o m m i s s i o n s a n d t h e r e b y e l i m i n a t i n g t h e i r u s e a s p a c i f y i n g i n s t r u m e n t s i s a l w a y s d e p r e -c a t e d . A n y m o v e i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n — f a r f r o m s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s o f a n a d v i s o r y b o d y — w o u l d i n v o l v e t r a n s f o r m i n g w h a t s h o u l d b e a n o r g a n i z a t i o n t o a d v i s e i n t o a n o r g a n i z a t i o n t o l e g i s l a t e a n d m a k e p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s . F o u r o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s , h o w e v e r , w a r r a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . F i r s t P a r l i a m e n t c o u l d , a s H e r b e r t h a s s u g g e s t e d , b e a s k e d t o g r a n t f o r m a l p e r m i s -s i o n b e f o r e a c o m m i s s i o n i s s e t u p . " * S e c o n d , c o m m i s s i o n e r s c o u l d , a s H e r b e r t a g a i n h a s r e c o m m e n d e d , b e p a i d f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s . ^ T h i r d , t h e G o v e r n m e n t c o u l d r e f u s e — s i m p l y b y m a k i n g t h e i s s u e a v o t e o f c o n f i d e n c e , i f n e c e s -s a r y — t o b e f o r c e d i n t o a p p o i n t i n g a c o m m i s s i o n w h i c h P a r l i a m e n t d e m a n d s b u t t h e G o v e r n m e n t o b v i o u s l y d o e s n o t w a n t . A n d f o u r t h , e a c h o f t h e M i n i s -t r i e s c o u l d b e a s s i g n e d w h a t H e r b e r t c a l l s a " r e s e a r c h a n d t e c h n i c a l s e c t i o n w h i c h , " e x e m p t f r o m d a y t o d a y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , / a n d 7 c h a r g e d o n l y t o l o o k a h e a d " , w o u l d b e a b l e t o f o r e s e e a n d p o s s i b l y p r e v e n t s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e G o v e r n m e n t f i n d s i t s e l f f o r c e d t o r e s o r t t o a p p o i n t i n g a r o y a l c o m m i s -s i o n o r a c o m m i t t e e s i m p l y i n o r d e r t o g a i n t i m e . ' 7 I n b e h a l f o f h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t h a t f o r m a l P a r l i a m e n t a r y p e r -m i s s i o n b e r e q u i r e d b e f o r e a c o m m i s s i o n c a n b e s e t u p , H e r b e r t a r g u e s , f i r s t t h a t t h e n e e d t o o b t a i n s u c h p e r m i s s i o n w o u l d d i s c o u r a g e m i s u s e a n d , s e c o n d , t h a t i f i t g r a n t e d t h e p e r m i s s i o n , " P a r l i a m e n t w o u l d b e f o r m a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e g a n d c o u l d n o t a f t e r w a r d s c o m p l a i n . " U n f o r t u n a t e l y , n e i t h e r j u s t i f i c a t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w s . P a r l i a m e n t c o u l d - - a n d v e r y p r o b a b l y w o u l d - - c o m p l a i n 9 2 , i f t h e c o m m i s s i o n w e r e a d i s a s t e r r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r i t h a d a g r e e d 9 t o i t o r n o t . L i k e w i s e , w h i l e t h e G o v e r n m e n t m i g h t f i n d i t s e l f h a v i n g t o p r e p a r e m o r e e l a b o r a t e s t a t e m e n t s w h e n a n n o u n c i n g t o P a r l i a m e n t i t s i n t e n -t i o n t o s e t u p a c o m m i s s i o n , t h e m e r e n e c e s s i t y o f h a v i n g t o c o n v i n c e a H o u s e d o m i n a t e d b y G o v e r n m e n t s u p p o r t e r s w o u l d p r o b a b l y n o t s e e m t o b e m u c h o f a n o b s t a c l e t o a G o v e r n m e n t d e t e r m i n e d t o a v o i d a c t i o n b y a p p o i n t i n g a c o m m i s s i o n . C u r r e n t p r a c t i c e n o w d i c t a t e s t h a t , u n l e s s P a r l i a m e n t i s n o t p r e s e n t l y s i t t i n g , t h e G o v e r n m e n t i n f o r m P a r l i a m e n t w h e n i t i s p l a n n i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n . ^ A p p a r e n t l y t h i s p r a c t i c e h a s n o t p r e v e n t e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t f r o m r e s o r t i n g t o m i s u s e . T h e r e a r e o t h e r p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e q u i r i n g P a r l i a m e n t a r y p e r m i s s i o n . T h e f i r s t , a n d m o s t o b v i o u s , i s h o w t o g e t t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o a g r e e t o s u c h a p l a n . A s H e r b e r t p o i n t s o u t , P a r l i a m e n t d o e s h a v e s o m e m e a s u r e o f c o n t r o l i n s o f a r a s i t v o t e s t h e m o n e y f o r i n q u i r i e s . ' " ' ' ' H o w -e v e r , t h i s i s d o n e a f t e r t h e f a c t a n d i n r e a l i t y o n l y a l l o w s P a r l i a m e n t t o c r i t i c i z e — i t d o e s n o t g i v e i t c o n t r o l o v e r t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f c o m m i s -12 s i o n s . M i n i s t e r s d e t e r m i n e w h e n a r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s h o u l d b e s e t u p a n d , i n s o f a r a s t h e y t e n d t o s e e t h i s a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t a n d t o v i e w c o m m i s s i o n i n q u i r i e s a s d e s i g n e d t o a d v i s e t h e G o v e r n m e n t ( n o t P a r l i a -m e n t ) , t h e y w o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y b e l o a t h t o t u r n t h i s p r e r o g a t i v e o v e r t o a n o t h e r a g e n c y . S e c o n d l y , a n y m o v e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f r e q u i r i n g P a r l i a m e n t a r y s a n c t i o n w o u l d t e n d t o e r o d e t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n ' s p r e s t i g e a n d t o t h r e a t e n i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p o s i t i o n . W h e t h e r o r n o t i t a c t u a l l y t u r n e d r o y a l c o m m i s -s i o n s i n t o c r e a t u r e s o f P a r l i a m e n t — d e p e n d e n t f o r t h e i r e x i s t e n c e u p o n P a r l i a m e n t a r y a p p r o v a l — i t w o u l d n e v e r t h e l e s s a p p e a r t o d o s o . A n d i t w o u l d a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y d e p r i v e t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n o f t h e d i s t i n c t i o n o f b e i n g a n a g e n c y c r e a t e d t o a d v i s e t h e C r o w n a n d g i v e i t t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f 93. being one set up to serve Parliament. T h i r d l y , as the Guardian has pointed out, "Governments are prompted to set up Royal Commissions for reasons that do not always appear on the 13 surface." Should a Government decide to abuse the p r a c t i c e , even Herbert can give no guarantee that Parliament would n e c e s s a r i l y be capable of r e a l -i z i n g i t . Also, because the Government controls the appointment of personnel as w e l l as the framing of the terms of reference, even with e f f e c t i v e P a r l i a -mentary scrutiny a determined Government could s t i l l sabotage an apparently j u s t i f i a b l e i n v e s t i g a t i o n with the minimum of d i f f i c u l t y . Requiring Parliamentary permission, then, would not n e c e s s a r i l y provide an adequate check on Government misuse and would, instead, almost c e r t a i n l y generate a whole new series of problems — not the least of which would be to devise an e f f e c t i v e procedure by which Parliament could tender a j u s t and binding d e c i s i o n . For these reasons, i t i s probably i m p r a c t i c a l . Paying commissioners, however, does not seem to provide the answer e i t h e r . Although i t has been recommended both as a means to discourage misuse and as a method by which the s e l e c t i o n of personnel for commissions 14 could be improved, i t has several inherent drawbacks. F i r s t , i t would cost money. Second, i t would challenge what Herbert c a l l s "the habit of unpaid public service."* -^ And t h i r d , even assuming that i t d i d not lead to misuse, i t would open the commission st a f f e d with paid investigators to the charge that i t was being encouraged to take an inordinate length of time. Herbert j u s t i f i e s h i s suggestion on the grounds that i t would*^ make the administration think more than twice before they appointed an unnecessary committee and /j70uld7 put the taxpayer on guard. However, r o y a l commissions are often quite expensive undertakings as i t i s . * 17 (The l a s t one cost an estimated j e 3 7 8 , 8 5 1 ) . Therefore, the degree to 9 4 . which an a d d i t i o n a l sum would act as a d i s i n c e n t i v e i s questionable, and Canada's experience with the use of paid commissioners would i n fact r e -fute the idea that i t i n any way discourages the Government from appoint-18 ing r o y a l commissions. Indeed, an equally l o g i c a l case could be made for the continued use of unpaid men. Surely, Governments r e a l i z i n g that they are asking a group of distinguished and busy i n d i v i d u a l s to devote t h e i r time i n vain can j u s t i f y t h e i r actions much less r e a d i l y i f they are unable to argue that the i n d i v i d u a l s are being adequately compensated. The t h i r d suggestion — that Governments refuse to be pressured into appointing unwanted r o y a l commissions — derives from the evidence presented i n Table 6. Apparently, judging from the figures i n Section I, commissions set up because the Government i t s e l f f e e l s that an inquiry i s needed or because i t agrees with and accepts a Parliamentary suggestion for an i n v e s t i g a t i o n have a much better chance of being successful than do those which Parliament urges upon the Government against i t s wishes. This 19 i s only reasonable f o r , as Clokie and Robinson have pointed out, Only r a r e l y can the Government be expected to accept, with good or bad grace, suggestions /"by commissions,/ for changes to which they are more or less d e f i n i t e l y h o s t i l e . However, regardless of i t s apparent soundness, the recommendation that Governments cease acquiescing to demands for unwanted commissions i s probably at best misdirected. Obviously, for a Government opposed to tak-ing any action on a p a r t i c u l a r question, the s e t t i n g up of an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s the lesser of two e v i l s . Thus, i f Governments cannot be dissuaded a l t o -gether from appointing commissions only to gain time or f o r e s t a l l c r i t i c i s m , i t seems u n l i k e l y that they w i l l agree not to use commissions i n t h i s manner on those occasions when they have been suggested by some outside agency. The recommendation s t i l l deserves consideration. However, the record of f a i l u r e s 95c f o r c o m m i s s i o n s o f t h i s t y p e s h o u l d p r o b a b l y b e p o i n t e d o u t t o P a r l i a m e n t a n d t o p r e s s u r e g r o u p s r a t h e r t h a n t o G o v e r n m e n t s w h i c h , v e r y l i k e l y , a g r e e d t o s e t t h e m u p w i t h p r e c i s e l y t h i s e n d i n v i e w . T h e l a s t s u g g e s t i o n - - t h a t t h e M i n i s t r i e s e a c h b e g i v e n a r e s e a r c h a n d t e c h n i c a l s e c t i o n — h a s t h e o b v i o u s d r a w b a c k t h a t s u c h a n i n n o v a t i o n w o u l d c o s t m o n e y . N e v e r t h l e s s , t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l t o b e s a i d i n i t s f a v o u r a n d a g r e e i n g t o i t w o u l d v e r y p r o b a b l y b e t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s a d v a n -t a g e a s w e l l a s p o s s i b l y h a v i n g t h e e f f e c t o f r e d u c i n g t h e n u m b e r o f u n n e c e s -s a r y c o m m i s s i o n s a n d o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . W h a t H e r b e r t a p p a r e n t l y h a d i n m i n d i s t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d s e t u p s o m e t h i n g o n t h e o r d e r o f t h e t w o l a w r e f o r m c o m m i t t e e s . T h e s e w o u l d b e a t t a c h e d t o e a c h D e p a r t m e n t a n d w o u l d s p e n d t h e i r t i m e e x a m i n i n g p r o b -l e m s w h i c h , i n h i s w o r d s , a r e " a t p r e s e n t o n l y ' i n t h e a i r ' " , b u t f o r w h i c h t h e G o v e r n m e n t m a y n e e d a n s w e r s s h o u l d t h e y b e r a i s e d i n P a r l i a m e n t . S p e c -i f i c a l l y , h e a p p a r e n t l y s e e s t h e s e b o d i e s a s b e i n g a b l e t o p r e v e n t t h e G o v e r n m e n t f r o m f e e l i n g i t s e l f f o r c e d i n t o a p p o i n t i n g a c o m m i t t e e s i m p l y 20 b e c a u s e o f t h e " u n e x p e c t e d s u c c e s s o f a p r i v a t e m e m b e r ' s B i l l " . A s f a r a s r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s a r e c o n c e r n e d , t h i s w o u l d n o t b e a g r e a t s a v i n g . D u r i n g t h e p a s t t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s , o n l y t w o c o m m i s s i o n s — t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o n M a r r i a g e a n d D i v o r c e a n d o n T r i b u n a l s o f I n q u i r y - - a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n s e t u p b e c a u s e o f P r i v a t e M e m b e r s ' B i l l s . H o w e v e r , t h e u t i l i t y o f r e s e a r c h a n d t e c h n i c a l s e c t i o n s n e e d n o t s t o p h e r e . I n c o n -j u n c t i o n w i t h b e i n g a w a r e o f w h a t p r o b l e m s w e r e l i k e l y t o a r i s e , s u c h b o d i e s w o u l d s u r e l y b e f a m i l i a r w i t h w h a t h a d a l r e a d y b e e n d o n e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e y w o u l d p r e s u m a b l y b e i n a p o s i t i o n e i t h e r t o p r e v e n t t h e u n n e c e s s a r y a p p o i n t -m e n t o f a c o m m i s s i o n a s s i g n e d t o r e - c o v e r o l d g r o u n d o r , a t t h e v e r y l e a s t , t o m a k e c e r t a i n t h a t s u c h a c o m m i s s i o n w a s f a m i l i a r w i t h w h a t m a t e r i a l w a s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e s o t h a t i t w o u l d n o t s i m p l y r e p e a t p r e v i o u s l y d o c u m e n t e d 96. 2 1 f i n d i n g s . F u r t h e r , b e c a u s e t h e y w o u l d u n d o u b t e d l y k e e p s t a t i s t i c s o n v a r i o u s p r o b l e m a r e a s , t h e y w o u l d i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d m a k e u n n e c e s s a r y c o m -m i s s i o n s l i k e t h e o n e o n d o c t o r s ' a n d d e n t i s t s ' p a y a n d g r e a t l y s i m p l i f y the tasks of commissions which now find i t n e c e s s a r y t o r e l y o n t h e f r e -q u e n t l y c o n f l i c t i n g t e s t i m o n y o f i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s . H o w e v e r , e v e n t h o u g h r e s e a r c h a n d t e c h n i c a l s e c t i o n s w e r e u t i l i z e d , o n l y b y r e f u s i n g t o a b u s e t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n t e c h n i q u e o f i n q u i r y c a n G o v e r n m e n t s e f f e c t i v e l y p u t a n e n d t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r n o t i o n t h a t " . . . t o a p p o i n t a R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n i s t o e n s u r e i m m e d i a t e p o s t p o n e m e n t o f 2 2 a n y d e c i s i o n s w h i c h a r e d i f f i c u l t o r e x p e n s i v e . " A l t h o u g h H a n s e r d o e s s e e m t o d e f e n d c o m m i s s i o n s s e t u p " t o a v o i d p o l i t i c a l c o m m i t m e n t a n d a t t h e s a m e t i m e . . . s a t i s f y a n y a g i t a t i n g g r o u p t h a t i t s v i e w s w i l l r e c e i v e f a i r 2 3 . . . t r e a t m e n t , " n e i t h e r t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d h e r e n o r t h e o p i n i o n s o f a m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e w h o h a v e s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e s u b j e c t j u s t i f y s u c h 2 4 u s e . N o t o n l y i s i t d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n ' s p r e s t i g e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I a p p o i n t i n g a c o m m i s s i o n s i m p l y t o f o r e s t a l l c r i t i c i s m i s a l s o u n l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n w o r t h w h i l e l e g -i s l a t i o n , u s u a l l y d o e s n o t c u r t a i l t h e c r i t i c i s m i t w a s d e s i g n e d t o a b o r t , a n d n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y e v e n t u a l l y l e a d s t h e G o v e r n m e n t i n t o t a k i n g l e g i s l a -t i v e a c t i o n o n t h e b a s i s o f a n i n a d e q u a t e o r u n n e c e s s a r y r e p o r t . C o m p o s i t i o n In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e a c t u a l s e t t i n g u p o f c o m m i s s i o n s , t h e r e i s o n e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o n w h i c h e v e r y o n e a p p e a r s t o a g r e e . R o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s - - a n d a l l i n v e s t i g a t i v e b o d i e s — s h o u l d b e g i v e n s p e c i f i c t e r m s o f r e f e r -2 5 e n c e . A s R . V . V e r n o n r e m a r k e d , " A r o v i n g c o m m i s s i o n i s a r o v i n g n u i s a n c e . ' 27 I t i s u n l i k e l y t o p r o v i d e a n y c l e a r g u i d e f o r l e g i s l a t i o n ; i t 97 w i l l g e n e r a l l y p r o d u c e m a j o r i t y a n d m i n o r i t y r e p o r t s , w i l l l e a v e t h e p u b l i c ( a n d v e r y l i k e l y t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o o ) w i t h t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t " t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l t o b e s a i d o n b o t h s i d e s " - p e r h a p s o n m o r e t h a n t w o s i d e s - w i l l d e f i n i t e l y p o s t p o n e d e c i s i v e a c t i o n , a n d w i l l d i s c o u r a g e c i t i z e n s w i t h a v o c a t i o n s a n d r e s p o n -s i b i l i t i e s f r o m l e n d i n g t h e i r s e r v i c e s i n f u t u r e t o e n t e r p r i s e s s o u n p r o d u c t i v e o f r e s u l t s . A s T a b l e 6 i n d i c a t e d , t h o s e c o m m i s s i o n s w i t h s p e c i f i c t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e w e r e b o t h s u c c e s s f u l a n d u s e f u l m o r e f r e q u e n t l y t h a n w e r e t h o s e g i v e n d i f -f u s e r e m i t s . H o w e v e r , a l t h o u g h G o v e r n m e n t m a y o c c a s i o n a l l y d e l i b e r a t e l y s u p p l y c o m m i s s i o n s w i t h v a g u e r e m i t s i n t h e h o n e t h a t s u c h c o m m i s s i o n s w i l l t h e n 28 p r o d u c e v a g u e — a n d b a s i c a l l y u n u s a b l e — r e p o r t s , t h e d e g r e e o f s p e c i f -i c i t y o f a c o m m i s s i o n ' s t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e i s p r o b a b l y m o r e o f t e n a f u n c t i o n o f t h e t y p e o f s u b j e c t w h i c h a c o m m i s s i o n i s s e t u p t o e x a m i n e t h a n i t i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f h o w s e r i o u s l y t h e G o v e r n m e n t i s i n t e r e s t e d i n r e f o r m . B r o a d , g e n e r a l s u b j e c t s i n v i t e b r o a d , g e n e r a l r e m i t s a n d v a g u e r e p o r t s . A s i s d e m o n s t r a t e d b o t h b y t h e a n a l y s i s i n C h a p t e r I I I a n d b y a n e a r l i e r e x a m i n -29 a t i o n o f a d v i s o r y b o d i e s u s e d b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s , g r e a t e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i s o b t a i n e d i n t h e w o r k i n g o f a n a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e i f t h e r a n g e o f q u e s t i o n s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s n a r r o w . S p e c i f i c t e c h n i c a l o r a d m i n -i s t r a t i v e p r o b l e m s h a v e b e e n s p e e d i l y s o l v e d b y s u c h c o m m i t t e e s ; g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s t e n d t o l e a d t o i n c o n -c l u s i v e a n d s e l f - c o n t r a d i c t o r y r e p o r t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , o n e i s r e l u c t a n t - - e v e n w h e n f a c e d w i t h s u c h p o s i -t i v e e v i d e n c e - - t o a r g u e t h a t G o v e r n m e n t s s h o u l d o n l y u s e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s i n t h o s e i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e p r o b l e m u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s s p e c i f i c a n d c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . A c c e p t a n c e o f s u c h a p o l i c y w o u l d , v e r y p r o b a b l y , i n c r e a s e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f s u c c e s s f u l c o m m i s s i o n s , b u t i t w o u l d a t t h e s a m e t i m e s e v e r e l y r e s t r i c t t h e n u m b e r o f o c c a s i o n s o n w h i c h t h i s t y p e o f i n q u i r y m i g h t b e f r u i t f u l l y u t i l i z e d . A g a i n s t s u c h a p p a r e n t f a i l u r e s a s t h e r e c e n t R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n M a r r i a g e a n d D i v o r c e , o n e m u s t b a l a n c e t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s 98. of, for example, the Royal Commission on the D i s t r i b u t i o n of the I n d u s t r i a l 30 Population, or the commissions on b e t t i n g , taxation or London government. A l l of these, despite the fact that they were dealing with quite broad topics and were working under d i f f u s e remits, helped to encourage consensus on v i t a l problems. They would probably be judged 'successful' by almost any standard, and i t would most c e r t a i n l y have been unfortunate had the Government been unable to u t i l i z e t h i s form of inquiry i n these p a r t i c u l a r instances. Therefore, although i t i s probably safe to say that wholesale use of r o y a l commissions for vague and i l l - d e f i n e d topics should be d i s -couraged, i f the Government r e a l l y intends to act on t h e i r reports and takes s u f f i c i e n t care i n s e l e c t i n g t h e i r personnel, such i n q u i r i e s obviously can be quite worthwhile. However, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to know exactly what to recommend i n r e -gard to the s e l e c t i o n of personnel. Like commissions studying narrow, c l e a r l y delineated t o p i c s , commissions st a f f e d with a r e l a t i v e l y small 31 number of experts have generally proven to be the most e f f e c t i v e . And yet, as i n the instance of commissions studying broad problems, large r e -presentative and i m p a r t i a l commissions have i n the past been successful and have on occasion lent themselves to the problem under consideration more r e a d i l y than small expert commissions would have done. Representative commissions, however, should probably be used only i n exceptional cases. Their h i s t o r y has been marked by such notable f a i l -ures as the l i c e n s i n g commission of 1929, and, as the Balfour Report com-32 mented, A Commission selected on the p r i n c i p l e of representing various i n t e r e s t s s t a r t s with a serious handicap against the p r o b a b i l i t y of harmony i n i t s work and perhaps even of p r a c t i c a l r e s u l t s from i t s labours. K.C. Wheare suggests that t h i s type of commission should be resorted to only when, f i r s t , the p a r t i e s concerned w i l l be more l i k e l y to accept the 99. c o n c l u s i o n s o f a c o m m i s s i o n u p o n w h i c h t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d ; s e c o n d , t h e r e m a y b e s o m e u t i l i t y i n h a v i n g c o n f l i c t i n g p a r t i e s h e a r e a c h o t h e r ' s a r g u m e n t s ; t h i r d , t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s m a y h a v e e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e f o r t h e p u b l i c a n d m a y h e l p t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o a r r i v e a t a d e c i s i o n ; a n d f o u r t h , t h e r e i s a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o n e g o t i a t e a n d a p r o s p e c t 33 t h a t n e g o t i a t i o n m a y p r o v e f r u i t f u l . V e r y p r o b a b l y a l l o f t h e s e c o n d i -t i o n s s h o u l d b e m e t b e f o r e t h e G o v e r n m e n t d e c i d e s t o u s e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o m m i s s i o n a n d , s i n c e l a r g e c o m m i s s i o n s a r e o n l y r e a l l y n e c e s s a r y w h e n i n -t e r e s t s a r e b e i n g r e p r e s e n t e d , o n l y i f t h e s e c r i t e r i a a r e f u l f i l l e d s h o u l d t h e G o v e r n m e n t r e s o r t t o p u t t i n g m o r e t h a n f o u r t e e n o r f i f t e e n p e o p l e o n a c o m m i s s i o n . A s f a r a s ' i m p a r t i a l ' m e m b e r s h i p i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e r e a r e u n d o u b t e d l y s o m e o c c a s i o n s o n w h i c h t h i s i s a d v i s a b l e . H o w e v e r , t h e r e h a s b e e n q u i t e a 34 b i t o f c r i t i c i s m o f t h i s t y p e o f i n q u i r y a n d i t h a s a n u m b e r o f a p p a r e n t d r a w b a c k s o f w h i c h t h e G o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d b e a w a r e . F i r s t , u s i n g ' i m p a r t i a l ' o r ' u n b i a s e d ' m e n i n v i t e s t h e a s s u m p t i o n 35 v o i c e d b y t h e W e b b s t h a t . . . we m a y r e s t a s s u r e d t h a t t h i s m e a n s m e r e l y t h a t t h e s e l e c t o r a n d t h e s e l e c t e d a g r e e i n t h e i r b i a s . B y l e a v i n g a c o m m i s s i o n o p e n t o t h i s s o r t o f a c c u s a t i o n , a G o v e r n m e n t m a y p r e j u d i c e t h e c h a n c e s o f i t s r e p o r t b e i n g r e c e i v e d w i t h e n t h u s i a s m . S e c o n d , c e r t a i n t o p i c s — e s p e c i a l l y t e c h n i c a l a n d s c i e n t i f i c t o p i c s - - d o n o t l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o t h i s f o r m o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . P a r t i c u -l a r l y w h e n p r o b l e m s o f a t e c h n i c a l n a t u r e a r e b e i n g d i s c u s s e d , t h e c o m m i s -s i o n e r s m u s t h a v e s u f f i c i e n t k n o w l e d g e o f t h e f i e l d t o a s s e s s a c c u r a t e l y c o n f l i c t i n g t e s t i m o n y e m a n a t i n g f r o m e x c e s s i v e l y c o m m i t t s o i n d i v i d u a l s , a n d t h e y m u s t b e a b l e t o c r o s s - e x a m i n e w i t n e s s e s e f f e c t i v e l y . A n d t h i r d , c o m p a r a t i v e l y s h o r t r e p o r t s i s s u e d i n a s b r i e f a s p o s -s i b l e a t i m e a f t e r t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n h a v e u n q u e s t i o n a b l e 100. advantages. There is a tendency, discussed by Mansergh in relation to 36 the Royal Commission on Electoral Systems and demonstrated by the more recent Royal Commission on Trade Unions, for 'neutral' bodies to spend con-siderable time amassing material instead of pronouncing a verdict on i t . Further, there is often, as in the case of the Royal Commission on Capital Punishment, a predilection for such bodies to re-cover much ground already adequately documented elsewhere. Both of these activities encourage the presentation of long reports -- probably less l i k e l y to be absorbed by the public --, and increase the time span between the creation of the commis-sion and i t s ultimate reporting date. On the other hand, expert commissions are not always the solution either. In the f i r s t place, for some problems experts are simply non-existent. Secondly, when they are available they frequently have very definite, well known and sometimes controversial opinions about their sub-jects. And thirdly, in some types of inquiries -- such as the one on doctors' and dentists' pay — they must be considered 'interested parties', and consequently, as K.C. Wheare has pointed out, they should not be on committees to inquire since they would — by virtue of their membership — 38 become judges i n their own cause. Therefore, when any of these condi-tions prevails, the impartial commission is probably the best answer, re-gardless of the problems associated with i t . Otherwise, except in those rare instances when a representative body is called for, small commissions composed entirely of experts or — preferably -- medium-sized commissions on which experts predominate w i l l probably prove to be the most satisfactory. The Government should always select men in whom i t has confidence. Although this not infrequently leaves the commission open to the charge that the party in power is manipulating a supposedly 'independent' inquiry, 39 not doing so is vir t u a l l y certain to doom the investigation to failure. H e r b e r t M o r r i s o n h a s s u g g e s t e d t h a t 1 0 1 . 4 0 I t i s w i s e i n t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a l l c o m m i t t e e s t o c o n s i d e r t h e i n c l u s i o n o f M e m b e r s o f P a r l i a m e n t f o r t h i s g i v e s t h e m v a l u a b l e e x p e r i e n c e a n d e n s u r e s w e l l i n f o r m e d c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o P a r l i a m e n t a r y d e b a t e . T h e W e b b s h a v e u r g e d t h e u s e o f l a w y e r s a n d s o c i o l o g i s t s o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e s e t w o p r o f e s s i o n s a r e w e l l e q u i p p e d t o h a n d l e p e r -s o n s g i v i n g o r a l e v i d e n c e a n d t o o b t a i n t h e g r e a t e s t v a l u e f r o m s u c h t e s t i -4 1 m o n y . W h e a r e h a s a r g u e d a g a i n s t t h e d r a f t i n g o f c i v i l s e r v a n t s a n d e x -c i v i l s e r v a n t s , m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t t h e f o r m e r a r e b e s t s u i t e d t o b e a d v i s e r s 4 2 o r w i t n e s s e s r a t h e r t h a n m e m b e r s , a n d t h a t t h e l a t t e r a r e l i k e l y t o h a v e s y m p a t h y f o r o f f i c i a l m e t h o d s a n d p o i n t s o f v i e w , a n d . . . t h e i r i n f l u e n c e u p o n c o m m i t -t e e s i s l i k e l y t o b e o n t h e o f f i c i a l s i d e . H a n s e r , i n G u i d e t o D e c i s i o n , o f f e r s n o r e a l r e a s o n f o r t h i s c o n v i c t i o n b u t d o e s s u g g e s t t h a t r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s m i g h t b e n e f i t f r o m t h e i n c l u s i o n 4 3 o f m o r e l a b o u r , w o r k i n g c l a s s , s o c i a l i s t a n d t r a d e u n i o n i s t m e m b e r s . A l l o f t h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s c o u l d — a n d p r o b a b l y s h o u l d — b e i m p l e m e n t e d w h e n e v e r t h e G o v e r n m e n t i s a p p o i n t i n g i m p a r t i a l o r m e d i u m - s i z e d , p r e d o m i n a n t l y expert c o t n m i s s i o f t s . H o w e v e r , t h e f i r s t o n e d e s e r v e s t o b e g i v e n p a r t i c u l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . O n m o r e t h a n o n e o c c a s i o n w h e n t h e G o v e r n -m e n t h a s a p p e a r e d t o b e i g n o r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t , i t h a s b e e n t h o s e e x - c o m m i s s i o n e r s w h o w e r e a l s o M e m b e r s o f P a r l i a m e n t w h o h a v e b e e n a b l e t o f o r c e t h e G o v e r n m e n t a t l e a s t i n t o p u b l i c l y d e f e n d i n g 4 4 i t s p o s i t i o n o n t h e r e p o r t . S u c h m e n o b v i o u s l y h a v e a l e v e r w i t h w h i c h t o p r e s s u r e t h e G o v e r n m e n t i n t o a c t i n g a n d , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e M e m b e r s o f P a r l i a m e n t , t h e y c a n f r e q u e n t l y g e n e r a t e m o r e w i d e - s p r e a d i n t e r e s t i n a n d s u p p o r t f o r a c o m m i s s i o n ' s p r o p o s a l s t h a n o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n s o f t e n a r e a b l e t o d o . 102. O t h e r A r e a s W i l l i a m R o b s o n , H e r m a n F i n e r a n d C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n h a v e a l l u r g e d t h a t G o v e r n m e n t s e q u i p c o m m i s s i o n s w i t h s u f f i c i e n t f u n d s t o h i r e r e s e a r c h 45 s t a f f s o f t h e i r o w n . O n t h o s e o c c a s i o n s o n w h i c h s u c h s t a f f s c o u l d b e o f h e l p , t h i s s h o u l d d e f i n i t e l y b e g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , h o w -e v e r , c o m m i t t e e s o f i n q u i r y h a v e i n t h e p a s t c o m m i s s i o n e d s t u d i e s t o b e 46 d o n e b y o u t s i d e a g e n c i e s . T h i s h a s p r o v e d t o b e a s a t i s f a c t o r y a r r a n g e -m e n t a n d i n s o m e i n s t a n c e s i t m a y b e p r e f e r a b l e t o a s s i g n i n g a f i x e d s t a f f t o a c o m m i s s i o n . I n a n y c a s e , f o r m o s t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h e r e i s d e f i n i t e l y a n e e d f o r o u t s i d e r e s e a r c h a n d c e r t a i n l y o n e o f t h e s e m e t h o d s c o u l d u s u a l l y b e e m p l o y e d p r o f i t a b l y a n d p r o b a b l y s h o u l d b e u s e d . I n e v e r y i n s t a n c e , t h e D e p a r t m e n t s m o s t c l o s e l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i n q u i r y s h o u l d g i v e t h e c o m m i s -47 s i o n e r s a s m u c h h e l p a s p o s s i b l e . I n r e g a r d t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s h a n d l i n g o f c o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t s , H a n s e r h a s a r g u e d t h a t t h e s e c o u l d b e a d v e r t i s e d m o r e e f f e c t i v e l y , a n d t h a t , a s a n a i d t o p u b l i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e G o v e r n m e n t m i g h t i s s u e p o p u l a r 48 v e r s i o n s o r s u m m a r i e s , p e r h a p s w r i t t e n b y t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s t h e m s e l v e s . T h e s e a r e , o f c o u r s e , p o s s i b i l i t i e s . H o w e v e r , m a k i n g s u r e t h a t e v e r y c o m -m i s s i o n ' s r e p o r t i s d e b a t e d i n P a r l i a m e n t w o u l d p r o b a b l y a c h i e v e t h e s a m e 49 e n d a n d i s c e r t a i n l y s o m e t h i n g t h e G o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d d o . N o t o n l y d o e s i t a l l o w a c o m m i s s i o n ' s p r o p o s a l s t o b e d i s c u s s e d i n a p u b l i c f o r u m , i t i s a l s o a w a y o f i n d i c a t i n g t o t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s t h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t i s g r a t e -f u l f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s . S i m p l y t o s h e l v e a r e p o r t — w i t h o u t a c t i n g o n i t o r d i s c u s s i n g i t — i s n o t o n l y u n f a i r t o t h o s e w h o h a v e g i v e n t h e i r t i m e p r e p a r i n g i t , b u t i t i s r u d e a n d i t w i l l p o s s i b l y d i s c o u r a g e b o t h t h o s e c o m m i s s i o n e r s a n d o t h e r s f r o m t a k i n g p a r t i n i n q u i r i e s i n t h e f u t u r e . 103. L a s t l y , t h e r e i s r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t - - i f t h e s i t u a t i o n w a r r a n t s i t — G o v e r n m e n t s s h o u l d f e e l f r e e t o s u g g e s t t o c o m m i s s i o n e r s t h a t t h e y s i m p l y d i s b a n d . O b v i o u s l y , s u c h a c t i o n s h o u l d o n l y b e r e s o r t e d t o i n e x t r a o r d i n a r y c a s e s . B u t w h e n a n i n c o m i n g G o v e r n m e n t i n h e r i t s a c o m m i s s i o n i t p o s i t i v e l y d o e s n o t w a n t , o r w h e n a G o v e r n m e n t w h i c h a p p o i n t e d a c o m m i s s i o n d e c i d e s d e f i n i t e l y t h a t t h e r e i s n o l i k e l i h o o d o f i t s b e i n g a b l e t o p r o d u c e e n a c t a b l e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , i t w i l l p r o b a b l y b e b e t t e r i n t h e l o n g r u n i f t h e G o v e r n m e n t s o i n f o r m s t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s a n d s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y t e r m i n a t e t h e i r i n q u i r y . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s i s w h a t W i l s o n d i d i n r e s p e c t t o t h e r e c e n t R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P e n a l S y s t e m i n E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s . ^ H a v i n g t a k e n a s i m i l a r c o u r s e o f a c t i o n w i t h t h e w o r k m e n ' s c o m p e n s a t i o n c o m m i s s i o n m i g h t h a v e s a v e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t u n n e c e s s a r y e x -p e n d i t u r e a n d c e r t a i n l y w o u l d h a v e p l e a s e d a n d b e n e f i t e d a m a j o r i t y o f 52 t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s . R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s I f a G o v e r n m e n t a p p o i n t s a c o m m i s s i o n w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f a c t -i n g o n t h e b a s i s o f i t s p r o p o s a l s , a n d i f i t t a k e s s u f f i c i e n t c a r e i n t h e s e t t i n g u p o f t h a t c o m m i s s i o n , t h e s o r t o f r e p o r t w h i c h t h e c o m m i s s i o n u l t i m a t e l y p r e s e n t s w i l l p r o b a b l y n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t t h e i n v e s t i g a -t i o n ' s c h a n c e s o f b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l . N e i t h e r , i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , w i l l t h e r e b e a n y n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s t o e x e r t s p e c i a l e f f o r t s t o m a k e s u r e t h a t t h e i r p r o p o s a l s w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d f a v o u r a b l y . H o w e v e r , i n t h o s e — u n f o r t u n a t e l y m o r e n u m e r o u s - - c a s e s i n w h i c h b o t h c o n d i t i o n s a r e n o t m e t , c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e p o r t s a n d t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s c a n b e i n -f l u e n t i a l i n d e t e r m i n i n g h o w t h e G o v e r n m e n t w i l l r e a c t t o t h e i r r e c o m m e n -d a t i o n s . A n d , a t t h e s a m e t i m e , t h e y w i l l a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y a f f e c t p o p u l a r r e s p o n s e t o t h e r e p o r t s a n d t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s c h a n c e s o f e n c o u r a g i n g b r o a d -b a s e d c o n s e n s u s o n i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . 104. Although some suggestions have been made on the subject of how royal commission procedure could be improved, these will not be considered here. Reports In regard to the reports submitted by the royal commissions, the Balfour Committee made two notable suggestions. First, i t argued that every effort should be made to achieve unanimity. And second, it maintained that unless a quorum was willing to sign a minority report, such a report should not be submitted."^ Not surprisingly, there is l i t t l e evidence which would support either recommendation. As the data in table 10 indicate, over the past thirty-five years commissions which submitted majority-minority reports have, in fact, been successful more frequently than have commissions which presented completely unanimous reports. And, as the Economist's strident criticism of Shonfield's inappropriately named 'Addendum' illustrates,there is l i t t l e purpose in attempting to conceal fundamental disagreement by having those who object sign a report with which their later comments in-dicate they are not in sympathy. Obviously i t cannot be recommended that commissions strive to produce majority-minority reports. Nor can it be argued that every incon-sequential point of disagreement should be presented in the form of a separate document. But it is worth noting that, as K.C. Wheare has stated, unanimity is not of itself desirable,and that camouflaging what is really a minority report by euphemistically calling it a 'reservation', an 'addendum' or a 'memorandum of dissent' only serves to confuse. As R.V. Vernon has commented, "minor differences are no good excuse /Jsic7 for minority reports and hardly even for 'reservations'."^ But when there are fundamental differences of opinion -- such as apparently existed 1 0 5 . a m o n g t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s s t u d y i n g R h o d e s i a a n d , m o r e r e c e n t l y , t r a d e u n i o n s i t c a n b e p o s i t i v e l y h a r m f u l t o t r y t o b u r y t h e m . I n s u c h c a s e s , t h e l o w e s t c o m m o n d e n o m i n a t o r o f a g r e e m e n t i s u s u a l l y c l o s e t o n i l . T h e r e f o r e , t h e w o r t h o f t h e f e w p o s i t i v e p r o p o s a l s w h i c h s u c h c o m m i s s i o n s c a n i n c o r -p o r a t e i n t h e i r r e p o r t s w i l l p r o b a b l y v e r g e o n b e i n g n i l a s w e l l . T h e G o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y w i l l b e d e p r i v e d o f a c h a n c e t o b e e x p o s e d t o a s e r i e s o f w e l l t h o u g h t o u t , t h o u g h c o n f l i c t i n g , a r g u m e n t s . A n d , e v e n i f t h e G o v e r n m e n t e n a c t s t h e m e a g r e p r o p o s a l s o n w h i c h s u c h a b o d y c a n a g r e e , t h e r e i s l i t t l e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e y w i l l a m e l i o r a t e t h e s i t u a t i o n t o a n y m a r k e d e x t e n t . ^ T h e r e f o r e , e x c e p t i n t h e c a s e s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o m m i s s i o n s , u n -a n i m i t y s h o u l d n e v e r b e s o u g h t s i m p l y f o r i t s o w n s a k e . U n a n i m o u s - w i t h -r e s e r v a t i o n s r e p o r t s s h o u l d b e a v o i d e d i f t h e y a r e s i m p l y a m e a n s o f d i s -g u i s i n g f u n d a m e n t a l d i s a g r e e m e n t . A n d m i n o r i t y r e p o r t s - - a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e y r e a l l y a r e t h e p r o d u c t o f w e l l t h o u g h t o u t c o n t r a d i c t o r y o p i n i o n s — s h o u l d n o t b e d i s c o u r a g e d i f b y r e f u s i n g t o a l l o w t h e m t h e c o n v i c t i o n s o f t h e m a j o r i t y w i l l h a v e t o b e p r e s e n t e d i n a w a t e r e d - d o w n f o r m s i m p l y t o a c c o m m o d a t e t h e f e w w h o d i s a g r e e a n d t o a l l o w t h e m t o a t t a c h t h e i r n a m e s t o t h e r e p o r t . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e o p t i m u m l e n g t h o f a r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t , 5 9 i t i s o f t e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t r e p o r t s s h o u l d b e k e p t c o m p a r a t i v e l y b r i e f . T h i s i s v e r y p r o b a b l y a g o o d i d e a s i n c e , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s l i t t l e t o s u g -g e s t t h a t t h e a c t u a l n u m b e r o f p a g e s i n a c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e p o r t i s r e l a t e d t o t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s s u c c e s s , i n o r d i n a t e l e n g t h i s o f t e n i n d i c a t i v e o f w o o l y t h i n k i n g a n d w i l l a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y d i s c o u r a g e r e a d e r s h i p . I n s o m e c a s e s , h o w e v e r , s e v e r e l y c o n s t r i c t i n g t h e a m o u n t o f m a t e r i a l c o n t a i n e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r r e p o r t w o u l d a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s a b i l i t y t o c o v e r i t s s u b j e c t m a t t e r t h o r o u g h l y a n d t o c o n v i n c e t h e G o v e r n m e n t 1 0 6 . o f i t s c o n c l u s i o n s . I n s u c h i n s t a n c e s , c o m m i s s i o n s s h o u l d p r o b a b l y c o n s i d e r f o l l o w i n g t h e e x a m p l e o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t i n E n g l a n d 6 0 a n d p u b l i s h s e p a r a t e ' S h o r t V e r s i o n s ' o f t h e i r r e p o r t s . A l t h o u g h t h i s s u g g e s t i o n i n v i t e s t h e o b v i o u s c r i t i c i s m t h a t p u b l i s h i n g a b r i d g e d e d i t i o n s w i l l d i s c o u r a g e a d e q u a t e a t t e n t i o n f r o m b e i n g f o c u s s e d o n t h e f u l l r e p o r t , i f t h e a b b r e v i a t e d v e r s i o n s a r e r e a l l y o n l y s u m m a r i e s o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , t h i s w i l l p r o b a b l y n o t b e t h e c a s e . W h i l e s u c h a s u m m a r y w i l l p o s s i b l y e n c o u r a g e a g r e a t e r n u m b e r o f p e o p l e t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e m s e l v e s w i t h a c o m m i s s i o n ' s p r o p o s a l s , i t p r o v i d e s a n i n a d e q u a t e b a s i s f o r d i s c u s -s i n g t h e m a n d t h e r e f o r e a n y o n e w h o i s s e r i o u s l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e m w i l l h a v e n o r e c o u r s e b u t t o e x a m i n e t h e c o m p l e t e r e p o r t . I n a n y c a s e , w h e t h e r o r n o t s h o r t v e r s i o n s a r e i s s u e d , a l l r e p o r t s s h o u l d c o n t a i n a n o u t l i n e o f t h e i r m a j o r c o n c l u s i o n s a n d / o r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . A d m i t t e d l y , m o s t c o m m i s s i o n s d o t h i s a l r e a d y . B u t i n t h e r a r e i n s t a n c e s 6 1 w h e n t h e y d o n o t , t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s r i s k c i r c u m s c r i b i n g t h e p u b l i c i t y w h i c h t h e i r r e p o r t s s h o u l d r e c e i v e a n d p r e j u d i c i n g t h e c o m m i s s i o n s ' c h a n c e s o f f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e s e f f e c t i v e l y . P o s s i b l y , a l o n g t h i s l i n e a s w e l l , c o m m i s s i o n e r s s h o u l d a l s o i n d i -c a t e i n t h e i r r e p o r t s t h e i m m e d i a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h l e d t o t h e c o m m i s -s i o n ' s a p p o i n t m e n t a n d g i v e a b r i e f l i s t o f p r e v i o u s i n q u i r i e s w h i c h h a v e 6 2 d e a l t w i t h t h e s a m e s u b j e c t . T h i s h a s o c c a s i o n a l l y b e e n d o n e i n t h e p a s t , a n d i t h a s t h e o b v i o u s a d v a n t a g e t h a t i t p e r m i t s t h e r e a d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d m o r e f u l l y t h e k i n d s o f p r o b l e m s o r t h e t y p e s o f a r g u m e n t s w i t h w h i c h t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e d e s i g n e d t o d e a l . I t i s , o f c o u r s e , n o t a l w a y s f e a s i b l e . B u t i t i s h e l p f u l w h e n i t c a n c o n v e n i e n t l y b e d o n e . P a r l i a m e n t n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y s u g g e s t s t h a t c o m m i s s i o n e r s s h o u l d 6 3 p r o v i d e i n t e r i m r e p o r t s . W h i l e t h i s i s p o s s i b l e o n t h o s e c o m p a r a t i v e l y r a r e o c c a s i o n s w h e n a c o m m i s s i o n i s g i v e n a s e r i e s o f r e l a t i v e l y i n d e p e n d e n t 1 0 7 . q u e s t i o n s , i t w o u l d n o r m a l l y b e i m p r a c t i c a l i n t h e e x t r e m e . O n l y , t h e r e -f o r e , w h e n t h e s u b j e c t r e a d i l y l e n d s i t s e l f t o i t s h o u l d a c o m m i s s i o n a l l o w i t s e l f t o b e p r e s s u r e d i n t o s u b d i v i d i n g i t s s t u d y a n d s u b m i t t i n g s e p a r a t e r e p o r t s i n e a c h a r e a . F i n a l l y , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h c o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t s , G . D . H . C o l e h a s 6 4 r e c o m m e n d e d t h a t R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s a n d D e p a r t m e n t a l C o m m i t t e e s s h o u l d b e e n c o u r a g e d t o f o r m u l a t e a c t u a l h e a d s o f p r o p o s a l s f o r l e g i s l a t i o n , a n d t o d i s c u s s t h e s e w i t h o u t s i d e i n t e r e s t s b e f o r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i r r e p o r t s . N o t o n l y w o u l d t h i s i n c r e a s e m a r k e d l y t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e w h i c h e a c h s e p a r -a t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n w o u l d t a k e , i t w o u l d a l s o p u t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o b t a i n i n g o u t s i d e c o n s e n t o n t h e s h o u l d e r s o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n e r s a n d w o u l d p r o b a b l y h a v e t h e e f f e c t o f p r e s e n t i n g t h e G o v e r n m e n t n o t w i t h a d v i c e , b u t w i t h a f a i t a c c o m p l i . T h e p r o b l e m s i t w o u l d g e n e r a t e i n t h o s e i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e r e w e r e t w o o r m o r e r e p o r t s d o n o t b e a r c o n t e m p l a t i o n . I n some c a s e s i t m i g h t m e a n t h a t t h e t i m e s p a n b e t w e e n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a r e p o r t a n d l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n o n i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w o u l d b e s h o r t e n e d ; b u t t h e f e w o c c a s i o n s o n w h i c h i t m i g h t c o n c e i v a b l y r e d u c e t h e t o t a l t i m e b e t w e e n t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a c o m m i s s i o n a n d p o s i t i v e a c t i o n o n i t s r e p o r t c e r t a i n l y d o n o t w a r r a n t i t s a d o p t i o n . E f f o r t s b y C o m m i s s i o n e r s C o m m i s s i o n e r s n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y r e s i g n . M o s t o f t e n t h e y d o s o o s t e n s i b l y b e c a u s e o f i l l - h e a l t h o r u n e x p e c t e d f a m i l y o r b u s i n e s s c r i s e s . H o w e v e r , a c o m m i s s i o n e r ' s r e s i g n a t i o n c a n o c c a s i o n a l l y b e b e n e f i c i a l t o a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a n d w h e n e v e r t h i s i s t h e c a s e h e m o s t c e r t a i n l y s h o u l d l e a v e t h e c o m m i s s i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , h e s h o u l d b e p r e p a r e d t o r e s i g n i f , a s w a s t h e c a s e w i t h L o r d W a v e r l y o n t h e t a x c o m m i s s i o n , h i s a p p o i n t m e n t i s n o t 108„ 6 5 a c c e p t a b l e t o a s u b s t a n t i a l b o d y o f i n f l u e n t i a l o p i n i o n . H e s h o u l d r e s i g n — a n d s h o u l d p r o b a b l y u r g e h i s f e l l o w c o m m i s s i o n e r s t o d o s o a s w e l l — i f a t t h e o u t s e t o f a n i n q u i r y h e f i n d s t h a t t h e r e i s n o a g r e e m e n t o n w h a t t h e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e a r e a s k i n g t h e c o m m i s s i o n t o d o a n d p r o -6 6 l o n g e d d i s c u s s i o n w i t h t h e r e l e v a n t D e p a r t m e n t h a s p r o v e d o f n o a v a i l . I f h e i s c h a i r m a n , h e s h o u l d r e s i g n i f , i n t h e w o r d s o f t h e B a l f o u r C o m -m i t t e e , h e " f i n d s h i s v i e w s p e r s i s t e n t l y r e j e c t e d b y t h e C o m m i s s i o n " . ^ I t i s n o t a l w a y s p o s s i b l e , o f c o u r s e , f o r a c o m m i s s i o n e r t o t e l l i f a n i n q u i r y i s d o o m e d a t t h e o u t s e t o r i f h i s p r e s e n c e w i l l b e p r e j u d i c -i a l t o t h e e f f e c t i v e f u l f i l l m e n t o f i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r o l e . I f , h o w e v e r , h e f e e l s e i t h e r t o b e t h e c a s e , h e w i l l b e d o i n g b o t h t h e c o m m i s s i o n a n d t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n f o r m o f i n q u i r y a d i s s e r v i c e s h o u l d h e d e c i d e t o r e -m a i n o n i t . I n d i v i d u a l c o m m i s s i o n e r s d o h a v e s o m e m e a s u r e o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o s a b o t a g e a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n b y g i v i n g i t a v a g u e o r a m b i g u o u s r e m i t o r b y s e l e c t i n g p e o p l e u n l i k e l y e v e r t o a g r e e . I f a l l c o m m i s s i o n e r s w e r e t o r e s i g n w h e n e v e r t h e y s u s p e c t e d t h i s w a s b e i n g d o n e , t h e y c o u l d r e d u c e s u b s t a n t i a l l y t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o a b u s e t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n t e c h n i q u e o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h e l e n g t h o f t i m e w h i c h a c o m m i s s i o n t a k e s d o e s n o t s e e m t o a f f e c t s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h e c h a n c e s o f i t s p r o p o s a l s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d f a v o u r -6 8 a b l y . I n a l l f a i r n e s s t o t h o s e whom i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i l l a f f e c t , i t s h o u l d p r o b a b l y m a k e e v e r y e f f o r t t o c o m p l e t e i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n a s s p e e d i l y a s p o s s i b l e . B u t , a l t h o u g h i t h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t G o v e r n m e n t s s h o u l d 6 9 i m p o s e t i m e l i m i t s o n c o m m i s s i o n s , t h e r e i s n o e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e i d e a t h a t e i t h e r t h i s , o r t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a t i m e l i m i t b y t h e c o m m i s s i o n i t s e l f , w o u l d v e r y g r e a t l y b e n e f i t a n y i n q u i r y . H o w e v e r , o n c e t h e c o m m i s s i o n h a s c o m p l e t e d i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l m e t h o d s b y w h i c h c o m m i s s i o n e r s c a n e n c o u r a g e t h e G o v e r n -109. ment to take pos i t i ve act ion on the i r recommendations. Under i dea l condi -t i ons , of course, the Government w i l l do th i s without any prodding. But when i t shows signs of ignoring a report , by making sure that Parliament and the Press maintain f a i r l y constant pressure, commissioners can not i n -frequently force a reca lc i t ran t Government to act on the basis of t he i r proposals. By tab l ing Motions to discuss a report or by presenting Pr ivate Members' B i l l s incorporat ing some of i t s recommendations, they can — i f they are M.P . ' s — often generate su f f i c ien t support w i th in Parliament to encourage the Government to discuss a repor t . And even i f they are pr ivate c i t i z e n s , they can on occasion - - as W i l l i n k successfu l ly did i n respect to the report of the Royal Commission on Bet t ing , Lo t te r ies and Gaming — ^ embarrass the Government in to act ing by making publ ic statements denigrat ing the Government's a t t i tude towards a report and chast is ing i t for having wasted the commissioners' t ime. A l l t h i s should not be necessary, since techn ica l l y , of course, a commissioner's r espons ib i l i t y to a report ends once he has signed i t . Nevertheless, the commissioner does have the potent ia l a b i l i t y to inf luence the Government and, t heo re t i ca l l y at any ra te , he does have a continuing respons ib i l i t y to see that the body of which he was a part f u l f i l l s i t s cons t i tu t iona l ro le e f f e c t i v e l y . Therefore, whenever those who served on an invest iga t ion genuinely f e e l that the Government has given the i r report inadequate at tent ion or unfa i r treatment, they should attempt to generate publ ic support for t he i r recommendations and encourage the Government i n any way possib le to take act ion on the basis of t he i r proposals. Further Considerations Since the cons t i tu t iona l ro le of the roya l commission i s that of securing consensus on issues of general concern, nei ther those commissions which presented i n f e r i o r reports nor those which submitted usefu l reports 1 1 0 . o n w h i c h n o a c t i o n w a s t a k e n c a n b e s a i d t o h a v e f u l f i l l e d t h a t r o l e e f f e c -t i v e l y . H o w e v e r , i n m o s t c a s e s f a i l u r e w a s n o t d u e e i t h e r t o t h e i n a d e q u a -c i e s o f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n t e c h n i q u e o r t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o m m i s s i o n s t h e m s e l v e s . O n a m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e o c c a s i o n s o n w h i c h c o m m i s s i o n s s u b -m i t t e d u s e f u l r e p o r t s , a n d i n e v e r y i n s t a n c e i n w h i c h a c o m m i s s i o n ' s c h a n -c e s o f s u c c e s s w e r e i n t e n t i o n a l l y o r a c c i d e n t a l l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d b y v a g u e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e o r f a u l t y c o m p o s i t i o n , t h e b l a m e f o r t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s f a i l u r e m u s t b e p l a c e d s q u a r e l y o n t h e G o v e r n m e n t x v h i c h a p p o i n t e d i t o r o n t h e G o v e r n m e n t ( s ) w h i c h f a i l e d t o c a r r y o u t i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . O b v i o u s l y , t h e t e c h n i q u e d o e s h a v e i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . ( T h e r e i s , f o r e x a m p l e , a d e q u a t e e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t o r d i n a r i l y i t i s n o t t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e d e v i c e f o r d e a l i n g w i t h b r o a d i s s u e s o f s o c i a l p o l i c y ) . Y e t i t d o e s h a v e t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r m a k i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d f o r g e n e r a t i n g c o n s e n s u s o n i s s u e s o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h e r e f o r e , i n t h e f a c e o f t h e f a c t t h a t n o t i n f r e q u e n t l y i t i s t h e G o v e r n m e n t w h i c h h a s p r e v e n t e d i t f r o m d o i n g s o , e v e r y e f f o r t s h o u l d b e m a d e b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t i t s e l f t o m a k e s u r e t h a t i t i s u s e d a s e f f e c t i v e l y a s p o s s i b l e . Y e t n o t o n l y t h e G o v e r n m e n t , b u t P a r l i a m e n t a s w e l l , h a s a r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y t o t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n a n d t o t h o s e w h o v o l u n t a r i l y g i v e t h e i r t i m e t o t a k e p a r t i n i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . B y r e f u s i n g t o f o r c e t h e G o v e r n -m e n t i n t o a p p o i n t i n g u n w a n t e d c o m m i s s i o n s , b y k e e p i n g a c h e c k o n t h o s e whom t h e G o v e r n m e n t s e l e c t s a s c o m m i s s i o n e r s a n d c h a l l e n g i n g t h o s e o f whom i t d i s a p p r o v e s , a n d b y m a k i n g c e r t a i n t h a t c o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t s a r e a l w a y s d e -b a t e d i n b o t h H o u s e s , P a r l i a m e n t c a n e f f e c t i v e l y e x e r c i s e i t s f u n c t i o n s o f a d v i s i n g a n d c r i t i c i s i n g a n d c a n h e l p t o p r e v e n t t h e t y p e s o f s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e w r o n g m e n a r e a p p o i n t e d t o a n i n q u i r y o r i n w h i c h a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n ' s f i n d i n g s a r e t o t a l l y i g n o r e d . A l w a y s i t s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o 111. c o n s i d e r a p p o i n t i n g s o m e o f i t s o w n m e m b e r s t o a c o m m i s s i o n . A n d , w h e n -e v e r t h e G o v e r n m e n t h a s f a i l e d t o a r r a n g e a t i m e d u r i n g w h i c h a r e p o r t c a n b e d e b a t e d , i t s h o u l d c o n s i d e r r e f u s i n g t o v o t e m o n e y f o r t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h a t r e p o r t u n t i l t h e G o v e r n m e n t a g r e e s t o d o s o . O b v i o u s l y , P a r l i a m e n t c a n n o t b y i t s e l f p r e v e n t t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s a c c i d e n t a l o r i n t e n t i o n a l a b u s e o f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n t e c h n i q u e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t c a n - - a n d s h o u l d — a d v i s e a n d c r i t i c i z e t h e G o v e r n m e n t o n i t s u s e o f r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s a n d e x e r t i t s n o t i n c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e t o p r e v e n t G o v e r n m e n t s s e t t i n g u p u n n e c e s s a r y o r i n j u d i c i o u s l y c o m p o s e d i n q u i r i e s . 1 1 2 . 1 T h e s e w e r e t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f D u r h a m a n d o n U n i v e r s i t y E d u c a t i o n i n D u n d e e , a n d e v e n t h e s e w e r e o n l y s i m i l a r i n r e s p e c t t o t h e f a c t o r s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t . 2 ' R e p o r t o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t a l C o m m i t t e e o n t h e P r o c e d u r e o f R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s ' ( C d . 5 2 3 5 ) , 1 9 1 0 , p . 6 . ( H e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d a s ' T h e B a l f o u r R e p o r t 1 ) . 3 A . P . H e r b e r t , A n y t h i n g B u t A c t i o n ? A S t u d y o f t h e U s e s a n d  A b u s e s o f C o m m i t t e e s o f I n q u i r y ( L o n d o n : B a r r i e a n d R o c k l i f f , 1 9 6 0 ) , p . 2 3 , n o t e s t h a t " T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n i s n o t a n e w j o k e . A n h i s -t o r i a n o f t h e T u d o r a g e w r o t e : ' F r o m t h i s t i m e ( 1 5 1 7 ) t h e i d e a o f a R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n w a s n e v e r a b s e n t f r o m t h e m i n d s o f p o l i t i c i a n s . ' " 4 T h i s s o r t o f c r i t i c i s m h a s c o m e f r o m a w i d e v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g : H e r b e r t , A n y t h i n g B u t A c t i o n ? , p . 3 1 ; L o r d C h o r l e y , ' C a p i -t a l P u n i s h m e n t , ' P o l i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y . X X V ( J a n . - M a r c h , 1 9 5 4 ) , 6 ; E c o n o m i s t . M a r c h 2 4 , 1 9 5 6 , p . 6 4 0 , a n d F e b . 3 , 1 9 6 8 , p . 1 4 . 5 H e r b e r t , A n y t h i n g B u t A c t i o n ? p . 4 7 . 6 I b i d . , p . 4 8 . 7 I b i d . . . 8 I b i d . , p . 4 7 . 9 O n l y t w o s e n a t o r s v o t e d a g a i n s t t h e T o n k i n G u l f R e s o l u t i o n . 1 0 C f . A p p e n d i x I V . 11 H e r b e r t , A n y t h i n g B u t A c t i o n ? p . 4 7 . 12 T h e o n e r e c e n t i n s t a n c e i n w h i c h P a r l i a m e n t ' s c r i t i c a l f u n c t i o n i n r e g a r d t o r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s w a s e x e r c i z e d o n a v o t e o n s u p p l y w a s i n 1 9 3 9 . C f . 3 4 4 H . C . D e b . 6 4 6 - 6 4 , 2 3 F e b . 1 9 3 9 . 13 G u a r d i a n , M a r c h 1 6 , 1 9 6 0 ( q u o t e d i n H e r b e r t , A n y t h i n g B u t A c t i o n ? p . 4 7 ) . 14 C h a r l e s J . H a n s e r , G u i d e t o D e c i s i o n : T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n i n t h e  T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y ( T o t o w a , New J e r s e y : T h e B e d m i n s t e r P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 1 8 3 . 15 H e r b e r t , A n y t h i n g B u t A c t i o n ? p . 4 8 . 16 I b i d . , p p . 4 7 - 8 . 17 G r e a t B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t , ' R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t i n E n g l a n d ' ( C m n d . 4 0 4 0 ) , V o l . I , ( L o n d o n : H e r M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , J u n e , 1 9 6 9 ) , p . i i . 18 J . F . H o d g e t t s , ' R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o f I n q u i r y i n C a n a d a : A S t u d y i n L e g i s l a t i v e T e c h n i q u e ' ( U n p u b l i s h e d M . A . T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1 9 4 0 ) , p . 4 2 . 113. 19 Hugh M. Clokie and J. William Robinson, Royal Commissions of  Inquiry; The Significance of Investigations in British Politics (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1937), p. 123. 20 Herbert, Anything But Action? p. 48. 21 Eg. The Royal Commission on Capital Punishment. 22 Daily Telegraph, January 25, 1960 (quoted in Herbert, Anything  But Action? p. 46). 23 Hanser, Guide to Decision, p. 143. 24 Cf. Chapter III, Table 6; Herbert, Anything But Action? p. 46; The Balfour Report, p. 6; Clokie and Robinson, Royal Commissions of  Inquiry, p. 123; Angus Mackintosh, 'The Use of Advisory Bodies by The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries,' in Advisory Bodies: A  Study of their Uses in Relation to the Central Government 1919-1939. ed. by R. V. Vernon and Nicholas Mansergh (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1940), p. 429; and R. V. Vernon, 'Conclusion,' Advisory  Bodies, p. 439. 25 The Balfour Report, p. 6; Clokie and Robinson, Royal Commissions of Inquiry, p. 154; Hanser, Guide to Decision, p. 204; Vernon, 'Introduction,' Advisory Bodies, p. 25; N . Mansergh, 'The Use of Advisory Bodies in the Reform of the Machinery of Government,' Advisory Bodies, p. 83; A. J. Brown, 'The Use of Advisory Bodies by the Treasury,' Advisory Bodies, p. 122; J. Taylor, 'The Use of Advisory Bodies by the Department of Mines,' Advisory Bodies, p. 385; Mackintosh, 'The Use of Advisory Bodies by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries,' p. 431; and Vernon, 'Conclusion,* p. 439. 26 Vernon, 'Introduction,' Advisory Bodies, pp. 25-6, and 'Con-clusion, ' p. 439. 27 Vernon, 'Conclusion,' p. 439. 28 Clokie and Robinson, Royal Commissions of Inquiry, p. 129. 29 J. Taylor, 'The Use of Advisory Bodies by the Department of Mines,' p. 385. 30 Vernon, 'Introduction, 1 p. 26, specifically singles this one out as an example of a "roving commission". 31 Cf. Chapter III, Tables 5 and 6; and J. Taylor, 'The Use of Advisory Bodies by the Department of Mines,' p. 385. 32 The Balfour Report, p. 6. 1 1 4 . 3 3 K . C . W h e a r e , G o v e r n m e n t b y C o m m i t t e e ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 7 9 . C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o f I n q u i r y , p p . 1 5 8 - 6 3 , a p p e a r t o d e p r e c a t e t h e u s e a l t o g e t h e r ; b u t t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n i s n e v e r t h e l e s s s i m i l a r t o W h e a r e ' s i n s o f a r a s t h e y a r g u e t h a t ( p . 1 6 0 ) " T h e r e i s m o r e t o b e s a i d o n b e h a l f o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h p r o d u c e a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t . " 3 4 W i l l i a m A . R o b s o n , ' T h e R e f o r m o f G o v e r n m e n t , 1 i n C r i s i s i n  B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t , e d . b y W . J . S t a n k i e w i c z ( L o n d o n : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 1 5 0 ; a n d J e n i f e r H a r t , ' S o m e R e f l e c t i o n s o n t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P o l i c e , ' P u b l i c L a w ( A u t u m n , 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 3 0 3 . 3 5 S i d n e y a n d B e a t r i c e W e b b , M e t h o d s o f S o c i a l S t u d y ( L o n d o n : L o n g -m a n ' s , G r e e n , 1 9 3 2 ) , p . 4 5 ( e m p h a s i s i n o r i g i n a l ) . 3 6 M a n s e r g h , ' T h e U s e o f A d v i s o r y B o d i e s i n t h e R e f o r m o f G o v e r n -m e n t , ' p . 8 4 . 3 7 O f t h e t h r i t y - t w o e x p e r t a n d i m p a r t i a l c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h w e r e d i s c u s s e d , t h e i m p a r t i a l c o m m i s s i o n s t o o k a n a v e r a g e o f e i g h t m o n t h s l o n g e r t o r e p o r t . 3 8 W h e a r e , G o v e r n m e n t b y C o m m i t t e e , p . 7 8 . 3 9 C f . C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o f I n q u i r y , p . 1 3 0 , o n t h e i n a d v i s a b i l i t y o f a p p o i n t i n g c o m m i s s i o n e r s w i t h w h o m t h e G o v e r n m e n t i s c e r t a i n t o d i s a g r e e . 4 0 H e r b e r t M o r r i s o n , G o v e r n m e n t a n d P a r l i a m e n t ( L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 4 ) , p . 2 7 5 . 4 1 W e b b , M e t h o d s o f S o c i a l S t u d y , p p . 1 5 1 - 2 . 4 2 W h e a r e , G o v e r n m e n t b y C o m m i t t e e , p p . 7 5 - 6 . 4 3 H a n s e r , G u i d e t o D e c i s i o n , p . 1 8 3 . 4 4 E g . D i s c u s s i o n o f t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e D i s p a t c h o f B u s i n e s s a t Common L a w , 3 2 6 H . C . D e b . 3 5 8 6 - 9 9 , 3 0 J u l y 1 9 3 7 ; a n d t h e D e b a t e o n t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n S a f e t y i n C o a l M i n e s , 3 5 4 H . C . D e b . 1 1 3 7 - 1 2 5 0 , 2 1 M a r c h 1 9 3 9 . 4 5 R o b s o n , ' T h e R e f o r m o f G o v e r n m e n t , ' p . 1 5 0 ; H e r m a n F i n e r , ' T h e B r i t i s h S y s t e m , 1 U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o L a w R e v i e w , X V I I I ( S p r i n g , 1 9 5 1 ) , 5 6 0 ; a n d C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o f I n q u i r y , p . 1 7 4 . 4 6 E g . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t i n E n g l a n d . 4 7 C f . t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e B a l f o u r R e p o r t , p . 7 . 4 8 H a n s e r , G u i d e t o D e c i s i o n , p . 2 1 1 . 1 1 5 . 4 9 C o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t s a r e u s u a l l y d e b a t e d , e i t h e r s e p a r a t e l y o r i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a B i l l e n a c t i n g t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . T h e r e h a v e , h o w e v e r , b e e n n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n s , e g . t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e . 5 0 C f . t h e c o m m e n t s o f M r . F r e d e r i c k M u l l e y , 5 7 1 H . C . D e b . 7 7 7 , 3 1 M a y 1 9 5 7 . 5 1 C f . 7 2 7 H . C . D e b . 7 0 3 - 8 , 2 7 A p r i l 1 9 6 6 ; a n d ' C u r r e n t S u r v e y , ' P u b l i c L a w ( S p r i n g , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 2 6 4 . 5 2 C f . G r e a t B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t , P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s ( H o u s e o f C o m m o n s p n d C o m m a n d ) , 1 9 4 4 - 4 5 , V o l . V I ( R e p o r t s , v o l . 3 ) , C m d . 6 5 8 8 , J a n . , 1 ^ 4 5 , ' R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n W o r k m e n ' s C o m p e n s a t i o n , ' p p . 1 - 7 . 5 3 T h e a c t u a l p r o c e d u r e b y w h i c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a r e c o n d u c t e d h a s n o t r e a l l y b e e n c o n s i d e r e d a t a l l i n t h i s s t u d y . Some d i s c u s s i o n o f i t a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r i t s i m p r o v e m e n t c a n b e f o u n d , h o w e v e r , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s : T h e B a l f o u r R e p o r t , i n f r a . ; C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o f I n q u i r y , p p . 1 4 9 - 9 0 ; a n d W e b b , M e t h o d s  o f S o c i a l S t u d y , p p . 1 4 0 - 5 2 . 5 4 T h e B a l f o u r R e p o r t , p p . 5 - 6 , 1 2 - 1 4 . T h e f i r s t o p i n i o n i s e c h o e d b y V e r n o n , ' C o n c l u s i o n , ' p . 4 4 1 , a n d b y C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n , R o y a l  C o m m i s s i o n s o f I n q u i r y , p p . 1 6 1 - 2 , 1 8 9 - 9 0 . ( N . B . T h e n u m b e r o f c o m m i s s i o n e r s c o n s t i t u t i n g a q u o r u m i s s p e c i f i e d i n e a c h i n d i v i d u a l c o m m i s s i o n ' s t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e ) . 5 5 E c o n o m i s t , J u n e 1 5 , 1 9 6 8 , p . 1 7 . 56 W h e a r e , G o v e r n m e n t b y C o m m i t t e e , p . 9 3 . 5 7 V e r n o n , ' C o n c l u s i o n , ' p p . 4 4 1 - 2 . 5 8 C f . T a b l e 10 a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t d i s c u s s i o n o f ' T y p e o f R e p o r t ' i n C h a p t e r I I I . 5 9 H a n s e r , G u i d e t o D e c i s i o n , p . 2 1 1 ; a n d M a n s e r g h , ' T h e U s e o f A d v i s o r y B o d i e s i n t h e R e f o r m o f t h e M a c h i n e r y o f G o v e r n m e n t , ' p p . 8 3 - 4 . 6 0 G r e a t B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t , ' L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t R e f o r m ' ( C m n d . 4 0 3 9 ) , L o n d o n : H e r M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , J u n e , 1 9 6 9 . 6 1 E g . t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n E q u a l P a y . 6 2 E g . t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P r e s s ( 1 9 4 7 - 4 9 ) . 6 3 3 5 1 H . C . D e b . 1 8 2 1 , 3 O c t . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 2 H . C . D e b . 1 0 6 7 - 8 , 19 O c t . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 6 H . C . D e b . 7 7 8 , 2 5 J a n . 1 9 4 0 ; 6 1 6 H . C . D e b . 1 5 8 , 4 F e b . 1 9 6 0 . 6 4 G . D . H . C o l e , ' M e t h o d s o f S o c i a l L e g i s l a t i o n , ' P u b l i c A d m i n i s -t r a t i o n , I X ( J a n . , 1 9 3 1 ) , 1 4 . 1 1 6 . 6 5 C f . t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e T a x a t i o n o f P r o f i t s a n d I n c o m e i n C h a p t e r I I . 6 6 C f . t h e l o n g n o t e o f r e s e r v a t i o n b y E . C l e m e n t D a v i s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n , P a r l i a m e n t , P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s ( H o u s e o f C o m m o n s a n d C o m m a n d ) , 1 9 3 5 - 3 6 , V o l . V I I I ( R e p o r t s , v o l . 2 ) , C m d . 5 0 6 5 , J a n . , 1 9 3 6 , ' R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e D i s p a t c h o f B u s i n e s s a t C o m m o n L a w , 1 p p . 1 0 8 - 1 3 0 . 67 T h e B a l f o u r R e p o r t , p . 1. 6 8 C f . t h e s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d ' L e n g t h o f T i m e ' i n C h a p t e r I I I . 6 9 T h e B a l f o u r R e p o r t , p . 4 ; a n d H e r b e r t , A n y t h i n g B u t A c t i o n ? p . 4 7 . 7 0 C f . E c o n o m i s t , M a r c h 1 7 , 1 9 5 6 , p . 6 0 8 . C O N C L U S I O N I n 1 9 5 1 , H e r m a n F i n e r p u b l i s h e d a n a r t i c l e i n w h i c h h e m a i n t a i n e d * " . . . s i n c e t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y h a r d l y a s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c , o r p o l i t -i c a l s t a t u t e o f a n y i m p o r t a n c e h a s b e e n d r a f t e d a n d i n t r o d u c e d i n t o P a r l i a m e n t o t h e r w i s e t h a n a s a r e s u l t o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f a R o y a l C o m -m i s s i o n o f I n q u i r y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s w a s n o t t r u e i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , a n d i t i s e v e n l e s s a c c u r a t e t o d a y . B u t a t t h e s a m e t i m e , i t i s p e r h a p s n o g r e a t e r a d i s -t o r t i o n t h a n i s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s a r e m e r e l y b o d i e s 2 s e t u p b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t i n o r d e r t o t a k e m i n u t e s a n d w a s t e y e a r s . W h e n i t i s g i v e n a s u b j e c t w i t h w h i c h i t c a n d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y a n d w h e n i t i s p r o p e r l y c o n s t i t u t e d , t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n i s e m i n e n t l y s u i t e d t o i t s r o l e o f p r o m o t i n g c o n s e n s u s b e t w e e n t h e G o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e g o v e r n e d . B e c a u s e o f i t s p r e s t i g e a n d t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s o r d i n a r i l y c o m p o s e d o f d i s -t i n g u i s h e d m e n , i t i s n o r m a l l y a b l e t o g u a r a n t e e t h a t i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i l l r e c e i v e a m a x i m u m a m o u n t o f p u b l i c i t y . B e c a u s e i t s o l i c i t s a n d u s u a l l y o b t a i n s o p i n i o n s a n d a d v i c e f r o m a l l o f t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s s e r i o u s l y c o m m i t t e d t o f i n d i n g a c c e p t a b l e s o l u t i o n s t o t h e p r o b l e m s i t i s e x a m i n i n g , i t p e r m i t s t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f d i v e r g e n t p o i n t s o f v i e w a n d a l l o w s t h o s e w h o h o l d t h e m t o c o n v e y t h e i r i d e a s t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t . A n d , b e c a u s e i t d o e s n o t a c t o n i t s o w n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , i t i s a b l e t o p r e s e n t a r e p o r t w h i c h c a n , a t o n e a n d t h e s a m e t i m e , c l a r i f y t h e i s s u e s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n a n d o f f e r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r d i s c u s s i o n w i t h o u t i n t e r f e r r i n g w i t h e i t h e r t h e s u p r e m a c y o f P a r l i a m e n t o r t h e r u l e o f l a w . 1 1 8 . O v e r t h e l a s t t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s , i t h a s b e e n s u c c e s s f u l o n n e a r l y f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e o c c a s i o n s o n w h i c h i t h a s b e e n u s e d . I t h a s d e a l t e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h k n o t t y p r o b l e m s s u c h a s t h e r e f o r m o f L o n d o n G o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e l a w o n m e n t a l i l l n e s s . A n d i t h a s p r o v e d i t s a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e s o l u t i o n s t o d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m s a n d t o p r o m o t e c o n s e n s u s o n i s s u e s o f n a -t i o n a l c o n c e r n . H o w e v e r , i t h a s b e e n u s e d c o m p a r a t i v e l y i n f r e q u e n t l y , a n d n o t a l w a y s f o r t h e m o s t a u s p i c i o u s r e a s o n s o r t o t h e b e s t e f f e c t . C o m m i s s i o n s l i k e t h o s e w h i c h d e a l t w i t h S c o t t i s h a f f a i r s , m e d i c a l e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a d e u n i o n s w e r e s e t u p s i m p l y b e c a u s e a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y h a d p r o m i s e d t o d o s o m e -t h i n g a b o u t a p r o b l e m a n d , o n t a k i n g o f f i c e , h a d f o u n d t h a t i t d i d n o t k n o w w h a t t o d o o r t h a t i t n e e d e d t i m e i n w h i c h t o o b t a i n f u n d s o r t o o r d e r i t s p r i o r i t i e s . C o m m i s s i o n s l i k e t h e o n e o n d o c t o r s ' a n d d e n t i s t s ' p a y w e r e i n s t i t u t e d u n n e c e s s a r i l y a n d c o u l d h a v e b e e n a v o i d e d h a d t h e G o v e r n m e n t b e e n a d e q u a t e l y i n f o r m e d a n d b e e n p r e p a r e d t o m e e t t h e l e g i t i m a t e d e m a n d s o f t h o s e w h o s e r e q u e s t i n s p i r e d i t s a p p o i n t m e n t . A n d , c o m m i s s i o n s s u c h a s t h o s e w h i c h s t u d i e d e q u a l p a y a n d m a r r i a g e a n d d i v o r c e w e r e c r e a t e d i n t e n -t i o n a l l y a s a m e a n s o f s i l e n c i n g d e m a n d s f o r p o s i t i v e a c t i o n a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y i n v i t e d t h e s u s p i c i o n t h a t t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w e r e d o o m e d a t t h e o u t s e t a n d e n c o u r a g e d t h e b e l i e f t h a t " A R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n i s g e n e r a l l y a p p o i n t e d , 3 n o t s o m u c h f o r d i g g i n g u p t h e t r u t h , a s f o r d i g g i n g i t i n . " U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t t e n d s t o b e t h e f a i l u r e s w h i c h r e m a i n e m b e d d e d i n t h e p u b l i c m i n d . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e i s a c h a n c e t h a t , s i n c e " e a c h n o t e d 4 f a i l u r e w i l l h i n d e r t h e c r e a t i o n o f o t h e r c o m m i s s i o n s , ' a l l o w i n g t o o m a n y c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y d e s t r o y a n i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h h a s a n i m p o r t a n t r o l e w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e B r i t i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n . I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , t h e s y s t e m c a n t o l e r a t e a c e r t a i n p e r c e n t a g e o f ' u s e f u l ' a n d e v e n ' u n s u c c e s s f u l ' c o m -m i s s i o n s . B u t r e c e n t P a r l i a m e n t a r y r e a c t i o n t o t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f n e w 1 1 9 . c o m m i s s i o n s , a n d c o m m e n t s s u c h a s t h o s e w h i c h h a v e b e e n d i r e c t e d b y O . R . M c G r e g o r , J e n i f e r H a r t a n d W i l l i a m R o b s o n a t t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n p r o c e d -6 u r e g e n e r a l l y , i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e l e v e l o f t o l e r a n c e m a y a l r e a d y h a v e b e e n s u r p a s s e d — t h a t t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n i s l o s i n g i t s p r e s t i g e a n d w i l l e v e n t u a l l y f a l l i n t o d i s u s e . S i n c e t h i s w o u l d d e p r i v e b o t h t h e G o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e p e o p l e o f w h a t h a s b e e n c a l l e d o n e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t c h a n n e l s b e t w e e n t h e p u b l i c a n d W h i t e h a l l , ^ e v e r y e f f o r t s h o u l d b e m a d e t o p r e v e n t t h i s f r o m h a p p e n i n g . I n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , t h e f i r s t s t e p t o w a r d s t h i s e n d s h o u l d b e t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a nex* D e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m i t t e e t o r e - e x a m i n e c o m m i s s i o n p r o c e d u r e . S i n c e t h e B a l f o u r C o m m i t t e e s u b m i t t e d i t s r e p o r t n e a r l y s i x t y y e a r s h a v e p a s s e d , a n d d u r i n g t h a t t i m e t h e r e h a s b e e n a m a r k e d d e c r e a s e i n t h e u s e o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o m m i s s i o n s a n d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f c o m m i s s i o n s a p p o i n t e d t o d e a l w i t h b r o a d s o c i a l q u e s t i o n s . T h e v i r t u a l e l i m i n a t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e b o d i e s h a s r e m o v e d m a n y o f t h e p r o b l e m s t o w h i c h t h e c o m m i t t e e a d d r e s s e d i t s e l f , a n d t h e p r o p o r t i o n a t e i n c r e a s e b o t h o f c o m m i s s i o n s d e s i g n e d t o d e a l w i t h g e n e r a l i s s u e s o f s o c i a l p o l i c y a n d i n t h e u s e o f i m p a r t i a l b o d i e s a s a s u b s t i t u t e f o r r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e o n e s h a s g e n e r a t e d a n e w s e r i e s o f d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h t h e c o m m i t t e e d i d n o t f o r e s e e . T h e r e f o r e , a n e w i n v e s t i g a t i o n s h o u l d p r o b a b l y b e g i n b y e x a m i n i n g t h e a c t u a l c h a n g e s w h i c h h a v e t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e u s e o f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s -s i o n p r o c e d u r e a n d , o n t h a t b a s i s , r e v i e w t h e 1 9 1 0 r e p o r t w i t h a n e y e t o e l i m i n a t i n g p o t e n t i a l l y h a r m f u l p r o p o s a l s s u c h a s t h e c l a u s e a d v i s i n g t h a t a l l e f f o r t s b e a i m e d a t a t t a i n i n g u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t s . F r o m t h e r e , i t s h o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e o n d e v i s i n g a c o n c r e t e , t h o u g h f l e x i b l e , s e t o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n t h e o p t i m u m c o m p o s i t i o n o f r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s f o r s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f i n v e s -t i g a t i o n s , a c l e a r p a t t e r n f o r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e , a n d 120. p o s s i b l e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e p u b l i c i t y g i v e n c o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t s . A n d f i n a l l y , i t s h o u l d t r y t o d e v e l o p a f e a s i b l e m e t h o d b y w h i c h t h e n u m b e r o f c o m m i s s i o n s i n t e n d e d o n l y a s s t o p - g a p m e a s u r e s t o p r e v e n t r a t h e r t h a n p r e s e n t l e g i s l a t i o n c o u l d b e c u t t o a m i n i m u m . G i v e n t h e s e r e f o r m s , t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n m a y w e l l r e t a i n a v i a b l e r o l e i n t h e B r i t i s h g o v e r n m e n t a l s y s t e m . 1 2 1 . 1 H e r m a n F i n e r , " T h e B r i t i s h S y s t e m , " U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o  L a w R e v i e w , X V I I I ( S p r i n g 1 9 5 7 ) , 5 5 4 . 2 7 2 0 H . C . D e b . 1 9 8 , 10 N o v e m b e r 1 9 6 5 . S i r K e i t h J o s e p h c h a l l e n g e d P r i m e M i n i s t e r W i l s o n ' s a p p o i n t m e n t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n T r a d e U n i o n s a n d E m p l o y e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n s a n d a s s e r t e d t h a t p r i o r t o t h e e l e c t i o n W i l s o n h a d a r g u e d t h a t r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s s p e c i a l i z e d i n " t a k i n g m i n u t e s a n d w a s t i n g y e a r s " . I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t s i n c e h e b e c a m e P r i m e M i n i s t e r , W i l s o n h a s s e t u p a t l e a s t s i x c o m m i s s i o n s , i t w o u l d b e i n t e r e s t i n g t o k n o w i f t h i s i s r e a l l y h i s c o n s i d e r e d o p i n i o n o f w h a t r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s u s u a l l y d o . 3 3 4 4 H . C . D e b . 6 4 9 , 23 F e b r u a r y 1 9 3 9 . 4 H u g h M . C l o k i e a n d J . W i l l i a m R o b i n s o n , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o f  I n q u i r y : T h e S i g n i f i c a n c e o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h P o l i t i c s ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 1 5 1 . 5 E g . 4 3 5 H . C . D e b . 1 0 1 9 , 9 M a r c h 1 9 5 7 ; a n d 7 2 0 H . C . D e b . 1 9 8 , 10 N o v e m b e r 1 9 6 5 . 6 O . R . 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A S t u d y o f t h e U s e s a n d  A b u s e s o f C o m m i t t e e s o f I n q u i r y . L o n d o n : B a r r i e a n d R o c k l i f f , 1 9 6 0 . H o d g e t t s , J . F . ' R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o f I n q u i r y i n C a n a d a : A S t u d y i n L e g i s l a t i v e T e c h n i q u e . ' U n p u b l i s h e d M . A . T h e s i s U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1 9 4 0 . J a c k s o n , R . M . ' R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s a n d C o m m i t t e e s o f E n q u i r y . ' T h e L i s t e n e r . L V ( 1 2 A p r i l 1 9 5 6 ) , 3 3 3 - 9 . M o o r e , W . H a r r i s o n . ' E x e c u t i v e C o m m i s s i o n s o f I n q u i r y . ' C o l u m b i a L a w R e v i e w , X I I ( J u n e , 1 9 1 3 ) , 5 0 0 - 5 2 3 . R h o d e s , J a c k A . ' L e g i s l a t i v e S e r v i c e s i n t h e B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t , ' T h e S o u t h w e s t e r n S o c i a l S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , X X X I I I ( J u n e , 1 9 5 2 ) , p p . 2 8 - 3 7 . R o b s o n , W i l l i a m A . ' T h e R e f o r m o f G o v e r n m e n t . ' P o l i t i c a l  Q u a r t e r l y . X X X V ( A p r i l - J u n e , 1 9 6 4 ) , p p . 1 9 3 - 2 1 1 . V e r n o n , R . V . a n d M a n s e r g h , N i c h o l a s ( e d s . ) , A d v i s o r y B o d i e s : A S t u d y o f t h e i r U s e s i n R e l a t i o n t o t h e C e n t r a l G o v e r n m e n t , 1 9 1 9 - 1 9 3 9 . L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n a n d U n w i n L t d . , 1 9 4 0 . W e b b , S i d n e y a n d W e b b , B e a t r i c e . M e t h o d s o f S o c i a l S t u d y . L o n d o n : L o n g m a n s , G r e e n a n d C o . , 1 9 3 2 . W h e a r e , K . C . G o v e r n m e n t b y C o m m i t t e e . O x f o r d : T h e C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 . C . D i s c u s s i o n s o f S p e c i f i c C o m m i s s i o n s B r o m h e a d , P e t e r . ' P a r l i a m e n t a n d t h e P r e s s . ' P a r l i a m e n t a r y  A f f a i r s , X V I ( S u m m e r , 1 9 6 3 ) , 2 7 9 - 2 9 3 . B r o w n , E . H . P h e l p s . ' T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n T r a d e U n i o n s . ' P o l i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , I X L ( O c t o b e r - D e c e m b e r , 1 9 6 8 ) , 4 5 1 - 4 5 3 . C h o r l e y , L o r d . ' C a p i t a l P u n i s h m e n t . ' P o l i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , X X V ( J a n u a r y - M a r c h , 1 9 5 4 ) , 4 - 1 6 . E c o n o m i s t . 1 9 3 5 - 1 9 6 7 . 1 2 7 . F o r d , P . a n d G . A B r e v i a t e o f P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s . 1 9 1 7 - 1 9 3 9 . B a s i l B l a c k w e l l : O x f o r d , 1 9 5 1 . F o r d , P . a n d G . A B r e v i a t e o f P a r l i a m e n t a r y P a p e r s , 1 9 4 0 - 1 9 5 4 . B a s i l B l a c k w e l l : O x f o r d , 1 9 6 1 . G a r n e r , J . F . ' L o n d o n G o v e r n m e n t a n d I t s R e f o r m . ' P u b l i c L a w ( A u t u m n 1 9 6 1 ) , 2 5 6 - 2 7 0 . G a r r a t t , G . T . ' P a l e s t i n e B e f o r e t h e C o m m i s s i o n . ' P o l i t i c a l  Q u a r t e r l y , V I I ( O c t o b e r - D e c e m b e r , 1 9 3 6 ) , 5 0 9 - 5 2 1 . G o w a n , I v o r a n d G i b s o n , L e o n . ' T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t i n E n g l a n d : A S u r v e y o f Some o f t h e W r i t t e n E v i d e n c e . ' P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , X L V I ( S p r i n g , 1 9 6 8 ) , 1 3 - 2 4 . G r a y , A l l e n . ' Q u a r t e r l y C h r o n i c l e . ' A f r i c a n A f f a i r s , L V ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 5 6 ) , 2 5 0 - 1 . ' G r e a t e r L o n d o n : t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s P r o p o s a l s . ' P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a - t i o n , X L ( S p r i n g , 1 9 6 2 ) , 9 1 - 9 4 . G u t t e r i d g e , W . F . ' T h e D e b a t e o n C e n t r a l A f r i c a n F e d e r a t i o n i n R e t r o s p e c t . ' P a r l i a m e n t a r y A f f a i r s , X ( S u m m e r , 1 9 5 7 ) , 2 1 0 -2 1 9 . H a r t , J e n i f e r . ' S o m e R e f l e c t i o n s o n t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P o l i c e . ' P u b l i c L a w ( A u t u m n , 1 9 6 3 ) , 2 8 3 - 3 0 4 . K e i t h - L u c a s , B r y a n . ' C o m m e n t . ' P u b l i c L a w ( A u t u m n , 1 9 6 2 ) , 2 5 1 -2 5 3 . K i l r o y - S i l k , R o b e r t . ' L e g i s l a t i n g o n I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s . ' P a r l i a m e n t a r y A f f a i r s , X X I I ( S u m m e r , 1 9 6 9 ) , 2 5 0 - 7 . L e y s , C o l i n . ' T h e C a s e A g a i n s t F e d e r a t i o n i n C e n t r a l A f r i c a . ' P u b l i c L a w ( S p r i n g , 1 9 6 0 ) , 1 8 - 3 5 . ' L o n d o n G o v e r n m e n t a n d I t s R e f o r m ' P u b l i c L a w , A u t u m n , 1 9 6 1 . ' T h e L o n d o n G o v e r n m e n t B i l l . ' P o l i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , X X X I V ( A p r i l - J u n e , 1 9 6 3 ) , 1 1 5 - 1 2 0 . M a c K e n z i e , W . J . M . ' T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e . ' P o l i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , X X V I I ( A p r i l - J u n e , 1 9 5 6 ) , 1 2 9 - 1 4 0 . M c D o u g a l l , K a y . ' T h e M e n t a l H e a l t h B i l l . * P o l i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , X X X ( A p r i l - J u n e , 1 9 5 9 ) , 1 2 0 - 1 3 0 . M c G r e g o r , O . R . ' T h e M o r t o n C o m m i s s i o n : A S o c i a l a n d H i s t o r i c a l C o m m e n t a r y . ' B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , V I I ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 5 6 ) , 1 7 1 - 1 9 3 . 1 2 3 . M c i n t o s h , H a r j o r i e . ' T h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t i n G r e a t e r L o n d o n . * B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f  S o c i o l o g y , X I I ( S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 6 1 ) , 2 3 6 - 2 4 8 . M a r s h a l l , G e o f f r e y . ' P a r l i a m e n t a n d t h e P e r o g a t i v e o f M e r c y . 1  P u b l i c L a w ( S p r i n g , 1 9 6 1 ) , 8 - 2 5 . M e y n e l l , Dame A l i x , ' L o c a t i o n o f I n d u s t r y . 1 P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a -t i o n . X X X V I I I ( S p r i n g , 1 9 5 9 ) , 9 - 2 0 . M u s s o n , A . E . ' P a r l i a m e n t a n d t h e P r e s s . ' P a r l i a m e n t a r y A f f a i r s . I X ( F a l l , 1 9 5 6 ) , 4 0 4 - 4 1 7 . N o t e s t e i n , F . W . ' T h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n P o p u l a -t i o n : A R e v i e w . 1 P o p u l a t i o n . I l l ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 4 9 ) , p p . 2 3 2 -4 1 . O s b o r n , F . J . ' B r i t a i n ' s T o w n - C o u n t r y P a t t e r n : T h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n . ' P o l i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y . X I ( A p r i l - J u n e , 1 9 4 0 ) , 2 2 3 - 2 3 3 . O s b o r n , F . J . ' T h e F u t u r e o f T o w n a n d C o u n t r y s i d e . ' P o l i t i c a l  Q u a r t e r l y , X I V ( J a n u a r y - M a r c h , 1 9 4 3 ) , 1 - 1 8 . P o l l a r d , D . W . ' T h e P o l i c e A c t 1 9 6 4 . ' P u b l i c L a w ( S p r i n g , 1 9 6 6 ) , 3 5 - 6 4 . ' T h e P r i e s t l e y C o m m i s s i o n a n d A f t e r w a r d s . ' P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , X X X V I ( S u m m e r , 1 9 5 8 ) , 1 7 3 - 1 3 4 . R a m p h a l , S . S . ' T h e W e s t I n d i e s : C o n s t i t u t i o n a l B a c k g r o u n d t o F e d e r a t i o n . 1 P u b l i c L a w ( S u m m e r , 1 9 5 9 ) , 1 2 8 - 1 5 1 . R e g a n , D . E . ' T h e P o l i c e S e r v i c e : A n E x t r e m e E x a m p l e o f C e n t r a l C o n t r o l o v e r L o c a l A u t h o r i t y S t a f f . ' P u b l i c L a w ( S p r i n g , 1 9 6 6 ) , 1 3 - 3 3 . R e g a n , D . E . ' C o m m e n t . ' P u b l i c L a w ( S p r i n g , 1 9 6 7 ) , 1 - 7 . R i c h a r d s , P e t e r G . ' T h e S e l e c t i o n o f J u s t i c e s o f t h e P e a c e . ' P u b l i c L a w ( S u m m e r , 1 9 6 1 ) , 1 3 4 - 1 4 9 . ' R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e ( 1 9 5 3 - 5 5 ) . ' P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , X X X I V ( S u m m e r , 1 9 5 6 ) , 1 8 7 - 1 9 8 . R o b s h a w , P e t e r . ' A n o t h e r V i e w o f t h e L o n d o n G o v e r n m e n t R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n . ' P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , I X L ( A u t u m n , 1 9 6 1 ) , 2 4 7 - 2 5 0 . R o b s o n , W i l l i a m A . ' E v a c u a t i o n , T o w n P l a n n i n g , a n d t h e W a r . ' P o l i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , X I ( J a n u a r y - M a r c h , 1 9 4 0 ) , 4 5 - 5 3 . R o b s o n , W i l l i a m A . ' T h e R e f o r m o f L o n d o n G o v e r n m e n t . ' P u b l i c  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , I X L ( S p r i n g , 1 9 6 1 ) , 5 9 - 7 1 . 1 2 9 . ' R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e : I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f R e p o r t ( C m d . 9 6 1 3 ) . ' P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , X X X I V ( A u t u m n , 1 9 5 6 ) , 3 2 1 - 3 2 3 . S h a r p e , L . J . ' T h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n L o c a l G o v e r n -m e n t i n G r e a t e r L o n d o n . 1 P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , I X L ( S p r i n g , 1 9 6 1 ) , 7 3 - 9 2 . T h o m a s , I v o r . ' S a f e t y i n M i n e s . 1 P o l i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , X ( A p r i l -J u n e , 1 9 3 9 ) , 2 4 4 - 2 5 3 . W a r r e n , J . H . ' T h e S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e P r o p o s a l s f o r R e o r g a n i z a -t i o n o f T y n e s i d e G o v e r n m e n t . ' P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , X V ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 7 ) , 3 6 9 - 3 8 4 . W h i t a k e r , B e n . T h e P o l i c e . L o n d o n : P e n g u i n , 1 9 6 4 . W i l l i a m s , G e r t r u d e . ' E q u a l P a y . ' P o l i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , X V I I I ( J u l y - S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 4 7 ) , 2 3 0 - 2 3 9 . W i l l s , A . J . A n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e H i s t o r y o f C e n t r a l A f r i c a . L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 . W i l s o n , S i r A r n o l d . ' W o r k m e n ' s C o m p e n s a t i o n . ' P o l i t i c a l  Q u a r t e r l y , X ( A p r i l - J u n e , 1 9 3 9 ) , 2 3 2 - 2 4 3 . 1 3 0 . A P P E N D I X I O D E S T O T H E R O Y A L C O M M I S S I O N 1. " T h e M a t t e r ' s R e f e r r e d t o a R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , " b y G e o f f r e y P a r s o n s . ( S o u r c e : P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R e v i e w , X V I ( W i n t e r , 1 9 5 6 ) , 6 4 ) . I f y o u ' r e p e s t e r e d b y c r i t i c s a n d h o u n d e d b y f a c t i o n T o t a k e s o m e p r e c i p i t a t e , p o s i t i v e a c t i o n T h e p r o p e r p r o c e d u r e , t o t a k e my a d v i c e , i s A p p o i n t a C o m m i s s i o n a n d s t a v e o f f t h e c r i s i s . B y s h e l v i n g t h e m a t t e r y o u d a u n t o p p o s i t i o n A n d b l u n t i t s i m p a t i e n c e b y m o n t h s o f a t t r i t i o n , R e p l y i n g m e a n w h i l e , w i t h a s h r u g a n d a s m i l e , " T h e m a t t e r ' s r e f e r r e d t o a R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n . " A R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n i s s t r i c t l y i m p a r t i a l , T h e p r o s a n d t h e c o n s i t w i l l e x p e r t l y m a r s h * . - ' A n d o n e o f i t s p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I s g e t t i n g b o g g e d d o w n i n a s e a o f s t a t i s t i c s . S o s h o u l d y o u , p e r h a p s , f o r i n a c t i o n b e c h i d e d A n a n s w e r t o a l l m e n i s a p t l y p r o v i d e d ; Y o u s i m p l y e x p l a i n , a g a i n a n d a g a i n , " T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n h a s n o t y e t d e c i d e d . " L e t t h e t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e l a c k p r o p e r p r e c i s i o n T h a t a r g u m e n t s l e n g t h y m a y h o l d u p d e c i s i o n , A n d t h e n , w h i l e t h e y f u m b l e w i t h f a c t a n d w i t h f i g u r e , T h e c o n f l i c t w i t h i n t h e C o m m i s s i o n g r o w s b i g g e r . A n d s o , w h e n a t l a s t i t s r e p o r t i s p r o v i d e d , I f c l a m o u r f o r a c t i o n h a s s t i l l n o t s u b s i d e d , Y o u s a y w i t h a p o u t " T h e m a t t e r ' s i n d o u b t . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n i s s o m e w h a t d i v i d e d . " T h u s , o n c e a C o m m i s s i o n i t s s e s s i o n c o m m e n c e s , A l l y o u h a v e t o d o i s s i t o n y o u r f e n c e s N o l o n g e r i n d a n g e r o f c o m i n g a c r o p p e r , F o r p r e j u d g i n g i t s f i n d i n g s i s h i g h l y i m p r o p e r . W h e n t h e s u b j e c t ' s b e e n h e l d f o r s o l o n g i n s u s p e n s i o n T h a t i t c e a s e s t o c a l l f o r t h d e b a t e a n d d i s s e n s i o n , A n n o u n c e w i t h o u t f u s s " T h e r e ' s n o m o r e t o d i s c u s s . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n ' s r e t i r e d o n a p e n s i o n . " I f d e l a y q u i t e i n d e f i n i t e b e y o u r e n d e a v o u r , T h e r e ' s n o t h i n g t o s t o p t h e t h i n g s i t t i n g f o r e v e r , T i l l i t s m e m b e r s , w o r n o u t b y t h e i r m a n i f o l d r i g o u r s , D i e o f f , o n e b y o n e , l i k e t h e t e n l i t t l e n i g g e r s . T h o u g h , s h r o u d e d w i t h c o b w e b s , a s i g h t f o r c o m p u n c t i o n , A f e w f r a i l s u r v i v o r s m a y l a b o u r w i t h u n c t i o n , I f s o m e o n e a s k e d w h y , t h e y ' d s a d l y r e p l y , " T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n ' s f o r g o t t e n i t s f u n c t i o n . " 1 3 1 . 2 . P a g e a n t o f P a r l i a m e n t , b y A . P . H e r b e r t . ( S o u r c e : H u g h M . C l o k i e a n d J . W i l l i a m R o b i n s o n , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o f  I n q u i r y : T h e S i g n i f i c a n c e o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h P o l i t i c s ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 ) , p p . 2 3 6 - 8 ) . I s a w a n o l d m a n i n t h e p a r k ; I a s k e d t h e o l d m a n w h y H e w a t c h e d t h e c o u p l e s a f t e r d a r k ; H e m a d e t h i s s t r a n g e r e p l y : — " I am t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n K i s s i n g , A p p o i n t e d b y G l a d s t o n e i n ' 7 4 ; T h e r e s t o f m y c o l l e a g u e s a r e b u r i e d o r m i s s i n g ; O u r M i n u t e s w e r e l o s t i n t h e l a s t G r e a t W a r . B u t s t i l l I ' m a R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n W h i c h n e v e r h a s m a d e a r e p o r t , A n d a c u t e l y I f e e l my p o s i t i o n , F o r i t m u s t b e a c r i m e ( o r a t o r t ) T o b e s u c h a R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n . M y t a s k I i n t e n d t o s e e t h r o u g h , T h o u g h I k n o w a s a n o l d p o l i t i c i a n , N o t a t h i n g w i l l b e d o n e i f I d o . " I n e v e r c a n r e m e m b e r h o w e x a c t l y we b e g a n , B u t I s e e m t o r e c o l l e c t a c a s e a b o u t a c l e r g y m a n ; A m o u n t a i n w a s d e l i v e r e d , r a t h e r s t r a n g e l y , b y a m o u s e ; T h e r e w e r e m e e t i n g s , t h e r e w e r e a r t i c l e s a n d q u e s t i o n s i n t h e H o u s e ; T h e n e c e s s i t y f o r a c t i o n w a s c l e a r t o e v e r y o n e , B u t t h e v i e w w a s v e r y g e n e r a l t h a t n o t h i n g c o u l d b e d o n e , A n d t h e G o v e r n m e n t c o u r a g e o u s l y d e c i d e d t h a t t h e C r o w n S h o u l d a p p o i n t a s c o r e o f g e n t l e m e n t o t r a c k t h e t r o u b l e d o w n -W h i c h a l w a y s t a k e s a l o n g , l o n g t i m e . "We f i r s t e x p l o r e d t h e h i s t o r y o f h u m a n o s c u l a t i o n , T h e v i e w s o f t h e M o h a m m e d a n s , t h e m o r a l s o f t h e n a t i o n , A n d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e ( i f a n y ) o f e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n — A n d t h a t t o o k a l o n g , l o n g t i m e . " N e x t a l i t t l e d o u b t a r o s e a b o u t t h e l i m i t s o f o u r r e f e r e n c e , We a c c o r d i n g l y a p p r o a c h e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t w i t h d e f e r e n c e , H a v i n g a s c e r t a i n e d t h a t k i s s e s w e r e o f e v e r y k i n d a n d s o r t — Some k i s s e s , f o r e x a m p l e , b e i n g l o n g a n d o t h e r s s h o r t — D i d t h e G o v e r n m e n t e x p e c t u s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e l a t t e r ? T h e G o v e r n m e n t r e p l i e d t h a t i t d i d n ' t r e a l l y m a t t e r - -B u t t h a t t o o k a l o n g , l o n g t i m e . " D i s r a e l i w a s a m e m b e r , b u t h e v e r y s o o n r e s i g n e d ; L o r d A r r o w d i e d i n ' 9 8 , o l d R a t t l e l o s t h i s m i n d ; S t i l l , o n c e a m o n t h , i n w i n t e r , we a s s e m b l e d t o d i s c u s s ; A n d t h e n t h e B o e r W a r b r o k e o u t , w h i c h i n t e r r u p t e d u s - -A n d t h a t t o o k a l o n g , l o n g t i m e . 132. "We t h e n c o l l e c t e d e v i d e n c e , b u t c a r e f u l l y d i s m i s s e d T h e o p i n i o n o f a n y o n e w h o a c t u a l l y k i s s e d ; We s u m m o n e d s o c i a l w o r k e r s f r o m t h e c i t i e s o f t h e N o r t h , G o o d m a g i s t r a t e s f r o m M o n m o u t h , N o n c o n f o r m i s t s f r o m t h e F o r t h ; We s u m m o n e d a l l t h e B i s h o p s w h o w e r e o v e r s i x t y - o n e A n d a s k e d i f t h e y w e r e k i s s e d a n d , i f t h e y w e r e , h o w i t w a s d o n e . T h e y a n s w e r e d i n t h e n e g a t i v e a n d s a i d t h e r e w a s a b u n d a n t S u p p o r t f o r t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e p r a c t i c e w a s r e d u n d a n t - -A n d t h a t t o o k a l o n g , l o n g t i m e . "We n e x t e x a m i n e d d o c t o r s w i t h e x t r e m e l y h i g h d e g r e e s , W h o t h o u g h t t h a t o s c u l a t i o n w a s t h e c a u s e o f B r i g h t ' s D i s e a s e , A n d o n e o r t w o S o c i e t i e s e x i s t i n g t o s u p p r e s s A l l f r i v o l o u s a c t i v i t y , i n c l u d i n g t h e c a r e s s ; I n d u s t r i a l e m p l o y e r s s a i d t h a t k i s s i n g a l w a y s t e n d s T o e c o n o m i c c o n d u c t a n d i s b a d f o r d i v i d e n d s . J u s t t h e n t h e G r e a t W a r h a p p e n e d ; o u r p r o c e e d i n g s w e r e a d j o u r n e d ; T w o m e m b e r s j o i n e d t h e c o n s t a b l e s a n d s e v e n w e r e i n t e r n e d . A n d I t h i n k t h a t i t w a s d u r i n g t h a t u n f o r t u n a t e c a m p a i g n O u r M i n u t e s m u s t h a v e v a n i s h e d — t h e y w e r e n e v e r s e e n a g a i n — F o r t h e W a r t o o k a l o n g , l o n g t i m e . " T h e r e w e r e t e n o f u s s u r v i v i n g a t t h e f i n i s h o f t h e W a r , A n d s o m e o f u s w e r e n o t s o e n e r g e t i c a s b e f o r e ; B u t t h e s e n s e o f c i v i c d u t y s t i l l i n v i g o r a t e d a l l A n d we g a t h e r e d o n c e a q u a r t e r i n a c e l l a r i n W h i t e h a l l . ( T h e s e t h i n g s t a k e a l o n g , l o n g t i m e . ) " O n e l i t t l e q u e s t i o n p u z z l e d u s f o r m a n y a w e a r y y e a r : ' W h a t i s t h e r i g h t p r o c e d u r e w h e n t h e M i n u t e s d i s a p p e a r ? ' T h e S e c r e t a r y s a i d h e t h o u g h t t h e p r e c e d e n t s w e r e s m a l l , T h e C h a i r m a n s a i d h e d i d n ' t k n o w a p r e c e d e n t a t a l l . T h e S e c r e t a r y s a i d h e t h o u g h t we s h o u l d r e m e m b e r w h e r e we w e r e A n d c o n t i n u e o u r i n q u i r y , w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e , f r o m t h e r e . B u t a l o t o f t i m e h a d p a s s e d s i n c e t h e i n q u i r y h a d b e g u n , A n d n o n e o f u s r e m e m b e r e d w h a t e x a c t l y we h a d d o n e . A n d i t h a s t o b e c o n c e d e d t h a t y o u c a n ' t g o v e r y f a r T o w a r d s a d e f i n i t e o b j e c t i v e i f y o u d o n ' t k n o w w h e r e y o u a r e . T h e C h a i r m a n t o o k t h e v i e w t h a t we s h o u l d j u s t b e g i n a g a i n , F o r t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e M i n u t e s w o u l d b e a w k w a r d t o e x p l a i n . We r e s o l v e d i t w a s a q u e s t i o n we c o u l d n o t a t o n c e d e c i d e , A n d t h a t w a s t h e p o s i t i o n w h e n t h e S e c r e t a r y d i e d - -B u t i t a l l t o o k a l o n g , l o n g t i m e . " T h a t l e f t t h e m e m b e r s s e v e n . I s h o u l d h a t e t o c a l l t o m i n d T h e m e l a n c h o l y s t e p s b y w h i c h o u r m e m b e r s h i p d e c l i n e d ; I k n o w t h a t o n t h e s u i c i d e o f P r e b e n d a r y G u n n I s u d d e n l y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t o u r m e m b e r s h i p w a s o n e . A n d t h a t ' s t h e r e a s o n w h y y o u m a y o b s e r v e me i n t h e s p r i n g I n v e s t i g a t i n g p a r k - s e a t s a n d p l a c e s w h e r e t h e y c l i n g . T h a t k i s s i n g i s p r o c e e d i n g t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e d o u b t — I c a n ' t i m a g i n e w h y i t ' s d o n e o r w h a t i t ' s a l l a b o u t ; B u t w h e n e v e r i t ' s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e p l e b s a r e h a v i n g f u n I t ' s g e n e r a l l y g r a n t e d t h a t s o m e t h i n g s h o u l d b e d o n e . 133. C i v i c d u t y ' s f o o d a n d d r i n k t o m e , a n d , t h o u g h i t m a y b e s h o r t , I c a n p r o m i s e y o u a t l e a s t a u n a n i m o u s R e p o r t - -B u t i t d o e s t a k e a l o n g , l o n g t i m e . " I am t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n K i s s i n g , A p p o i n t e d b y G l a d s t o n e i n '74; T h e r e s t o f my c o l l e a g u e s a r e b u r i e d o r m i s s i n g ; O u r M i n u t e s w e r e l o s t i n t h e l a s t G r e a t W a r . B u t I ' m s t i l l a R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , M y t a s k I i n t e n d t o s e e t h r o u g h , T h o u g h I k n o w a s a n o l d p o l i t i c i a n , N o t m u c h w i l l b e d o n e i f I d o . " A P P E N D I X I I N O T E ON S O U R C E S W H I C H C O N S I D E R T H E R O Y A L C O M M I S S I O N A S A T E C H N I Q U E O F I N V E S T I G A T I O N 1 I . P r i m a r y S o u r c e s : A . G r e a t B r i t a i n . P a r l i a m e n t . P a r l i a m e n t a r y D e b a t e s . ( H o u s e o f C o m m o n s ) , 5 t h s e r . T h r o u g h o u t H a n s a r d t h e r e a r e r e f e r e n c e s b o t h t o s p e c i f i c r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s a n d t o t h e u s e o f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n p r o -c e d u r e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I l l u m i n a t i n g c o m a e n t s b y b a c k - b e n c h e r s a s w e l l a s b y c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s c a n b e f o u n d n o t o n l y i n t h e d e b a t e s o n t h e r e p o r t s o f p a r t i c u l a r c o m m i s s i o n s b u t a l s o i n t h e s e c t i o n s e n t i t l e d ' A n s w e r s t o O r a l Q u e s t i o n s ' a n d ' A n s w e r s t o W r i t t e n Q u e s t i o n s ' . T h i s s o u r c e i s s o m e w h a t d i f -f i c u l t t o u s e s i n c e r e f e r e n c e s t o c o m m i s s i o n s a n d t o r o y a l c o m -m i s s i o n p r o c e d u r e a r e w i d e l y s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e v o l u m e s a n d a r e n o t a l w a y s n o t e d i n t h e i n d i c e s . ( C f . A p p e n d i x I V f o r a d e t a i l e d l i s t o f r e f e r e n c e s t o r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s i n H a n s a r d ) . B . G r e a t B r i t a i n . P a r l i a m e n t . P a r l i a m e n t a r y D e b a t e s . ( H o u s e o f L o r d s ) , 5 t h s e r . T h e g r e a t v o l u m e o f m a t e r i a l p r e c l u d e d e x t e n d e d u s e o f b o t h t h e L o r d s ' a n d C o m m o n s ' D e b a t e s i n t h i s s t u d y . J u d g i n g f r o m t h e l i m i t e d u s e t h a t w a s m a d e o f t h e m , h o w e v e r , t h e d e b a t e s a n d a n -s w e r s t o q u e s t i o n s r e p o r t e d i n t h e H o u s e o f L o r d s ' D e b a t e s a r e a s f r u i t f u l a s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n a s a r e t h o s e i n t h e C o m m o n s ' D e b a t e s . O r d i n a r i l y , a n y m a j o r s t a t e m e n t m a d e i n t h e L o r d s i s s u b s e q u e n t l y q u e s t i o n e d , o r a t l e a s t r e f e r r e d t o , i n t h e C o m m o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a s s o m e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n r e p o r t s w h i c h a r e n e v e r d e b a t e d i n t h e C o m m o n s a r e d e b a t e d f u l l y i n t h e L o r d s , a t h o r o u g h 1 3 5 . e x a m i n a t i o n o f B r i t i s h r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s s h o u l d i n c l u d e r e f e r -e n c e t o m a t e r i a l i n t h e L o r d s ' D e b a t e s . C . G r e a t B r i t a i n . ' R e p o r t o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t a l C o m m i t t e e o n t h e P r o c e d u r e o f R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s . ' C d . 5 2 3 5 . 1 9 1 0 . C o m m o n l y r e f e r r e d t o a s ' T h e B a l f o u r R e p o r t , ' t h i s c o m p a r -a t i v e l y b r i e f d o c u m e n t i s t h e o n l y s u r v e y w h i c h h a s b e e n m a d e b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t o n t h e s u b j e c t o f r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s . O n t h e b a s i s o f e v i d e n c e s u b m i t t e d t o t h e c o m m i t t e e , t h i s r e p o r t m a k e s a n u m b e r o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a b o u t h a / c o m m i s s i o n s s h o u l d b e c o n s t i t u t e d , h o w e v i d e n c e s h o u l d b e t a k e n a n d h o w r e p o r t s s h o u l d b e w r i t t e n . O n e o f i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s - - t h a t r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s s h o u l d a l -w a y s a t t e m p t t o p r e s e n t u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t s - - h a s b e e n s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d . M o s t o f i t s o t h e r s u g g e s t i o n s , h o w e v e r , a r e g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d a n d t o t h i s d a y a c t a s a g u i d e t o c h a i r m e n a n d t o c o m m i s -s i o n e r s g e n e r a l l y . D . H e r b e r t , A . P . A n y t h i n g B u t A c t i o n ? A S t u d y o f t h e U s e s a n d A b u s . e s o f C o m m i t t e e s o f I n q u i r y . L o n d o n : B a r r i e a n d R o c k l i f f f o r t h e I n s t i t u t e o f E c o n o m i c A f f a i r s , 1 9 6 0 . I n p o i n t o f f a c t , v e r y l i t t l e o f t h i s p a m p h l e t i s a c t u a l l y d e v o t e d t o r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s s p e c i f i c a l l y . N o n e t h e l e s s , S i r A l a n ' s e x p e r i e n c e , b o t h a s a c o m m i s s i o n e r a n d a s a n M . P . w h o s p o n s o r e d P r i v a t e M e m b e r ' s B i l l s d e s i g n e d t o e f f e c t v a r i o u s r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , m a k e s w h a t h e h a s t o s a y a b o u t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i n v a l u a b l e . I n A n y t h i n g B u t A c t i o n ? h e s p e c i f i e s a n u m b e r o f c r i -t e r i a o n w h i c h t o j u d g e w h e t h e r a c o m m i t t e e o r c o m m i s s i o n i s n e c e s -s a r y , e x a m i n e s a f e w p a r t i c u l a r c o m m i s s i o n s i n t h e l i g h t o f h i s c r i t e r i a a n d ( p e r h a p s m o s t v a l u a b l y ) s u g g e s t s a s e r i e s o f r e f o r m s w h i c h i n h i s o p i n i o n c o u l d m a k e t h e u s e o f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n l e s s o p e n t o c h a l l e n g e a n d i t s r e p o r t s m o r e u s e f u l a n d e f f e c t i v e . 1 3 6 . I I . S e c o n d a r y S o u r c e s : A . S m i t h , J . T o u l m i n . G o v e r n m e n t b y C o m m i s s i o n s I l l e g a l a n d P e r n i c i o u s . T h e N a t u r e a n d E f f e c t s o f A l l C o m m i s s i o n s o f  I n q u i r y a n d O t h e r C r o w n - a p p o i n t e d C o m m i s s i o n s . T h e C o n s t i - t u t i o n a l P r i n c i p l e s o f T a x a t i o n ; a n d t h e R i g h t s , D u t i e s a n d  I m p o r t a n c e o f L o c a l S e I f - G o v e r n m e n t . ( 1 8 4 9 ) . T h i s w o r k w a s n o t u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , b u t s h o u l d c e r -t a i n l y b e g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n a n y c o m p l e t e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e u s e o f r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s i n B r i t i s h p o l i t i c a l l i f e . S m i t h w a s , a c c o r d i n g t o C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n , ' a n e m b i t t e r e d o p p o n e n t o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y W h i g R e f o r m e r s , " a n d h i s b o o k , a s i t s t i t l e s u g g e s t s , r e f l e c t s t h i s b i a s . H o w e v e r , u n t i l t h e C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n w o r k a p p e a r e d , i t w a s t h e o n l y b o o k o n t h e s u b j e c t a n d , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h o s e a u t h o r s , t h e a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o i t " i s j u s t i f i e d b y t h e l a c k o f o t h e r w o r k s a n d b y t h e f a c t t h a t / " S m i t h J s y s t e m a t i z e s m u c h o f t h e c r i t i c i s m w h i c h h a s b e e n b e s t o w e d o n 3 R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o f I n q u i r y . ' 1 B . C l o k i e , H u g h M c D o w a l l a n d R o b i n s o n , J . W i l l i a m , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o f I n q u i r y : T h e S i g n i f i c a n c e o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n B r i t i s h  P o l i t i c s . S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 . The C l o k i e a n d R o b i n s o n s t u d y i s t h e o n l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e , u n -b i a s e d m o n o g r a p h o n t h e s u b j e c t o f B r i t i s h r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s o u t o f p r i n t a n d , i n s o m e r e s p e c t s , o u t o f d a t e . H o w e v e r , i t s t i l l p r o v i d e s t h e o n l y t h o r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r y a n d e v o l u t i o n o f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n f o r m o f i n -q u i r y . I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i n t h e t x r e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , i t e x a m i n e s t h e v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s w h i c h r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s p e r f o r m . I t d i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f c o m m i s s i o n s o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r i n t e n d e d f u n c t i o n a n d o f t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n a n d 1 3 7 . g i v e s e x a m p l e s o f e a c h . I t d i s c u s s e s t h e a c t u a l p r o c e d u r e o f a p p o i n t m e n t a n d o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n . A n d , i n a n a t t e m p t t o a s s e s s t h e s u c c e s s f u l n e s s o f t h o s e c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h h a d r e p o r t e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t h i r d o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , i t p r o v i d e s a p a r t i a l l i s t o f t h e l e g i s l a t i v e a c t i o n t a k e n o n t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f e a c h c o m m i s s i o n . C . H o d g e t t s , J . F . ' R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o f I n q u i r y i n C a n a d a : A S t u d y i n L e g i s l a t i v e T e c h n i q u e . ' U n p u b l i s h e d M . A . T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1 9 4 0 . H o d g e t t s ' t h e s i s e x a m i e s r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s i n C a n a d a i n m u c h t h e s a m e m a n n e r a s C l o k i e ' s a n d R o b i n s o n ' s d o e s f o r B r i t a i n . Y e t , e v e n t h o u g h i t i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e C a n a d i a n u s e o f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n a n d i t s a t t e m p t t o c o m p a r e t h e C a n a d i a n v e r -s i o n t o t h e B r i t i s h i s h a m p e r e d b y a n i n c o m p l e t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e l a t t e r , i t i s v a l u a b l e t o t h e s t u d e n t o f B r i t i s h r o y a l c o m m i s -s i o n s . F i r s t , i t s d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e C a n a d i a n r o y a l c o m m i s -s i o n m a k e s i t a p p a r e n t t h a t i n C a n a d a t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n i s o f t e n u s e d i n s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e t h e B r i t i s h w o u l d u s e a t r i b u n a l ( a n d , i n -c i d e n t l y , i n d i c a t e s w h y t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y d e c l i n e i n t h e u s e o f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n i n B r i t a i n h a s n o t b e e n p a r a l l e l e d b y a s i m i l a r d e c l i n e i n C a n a d a ) . S e c o n d , i t s e x c e l l e n t a p p e n d i x i n w h i c h t h e ( f e w ) l e g i s l a t i v e r e s u l t s o f e a c h ' i m p o r t a n t ' c o m m i s s i o n a r e l i s t e d a n d i t s d i s c u s s i o n o f " R e p o r t s a n d R e s u l t s " i n t h e b o d y o f t h e t e x t f o r c e t h e s t u d e n t o f B r i t i s h r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s t o q u e r y t h e v a l u e o f e x p o r t i n g s u c h i n s t i t u t i o n s . A n d , t h i r d , i t s a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y t h e s o u r c e s w h i c h g e n e r a t e d e m a n d f o r r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s p r o v i d e s a s u g g e s t i o n f o r a f u r t h e r m e t h o d o f a n a l y s i n g B r i t i s h r o y a l c o m m i s -s i o n s . 1 3 8 . D . V e r n o n , R . V . a n d M a n s e r g h , N i c h o l a s ( e d s . ) . A d v i s o r y B o d i e s : A S t u d y o f t h e i r U s e s i n R e l a t i o n t o C e n t r a l G o v e r n m e n t , 1 9 1 9 - 1 9 3 9 . L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n a n d U n w i n , 1 9 4 0 . A l t h o u g h i t i s n o t c o n c e r n e d e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s , A d v i s o r y B o d i e s i s s t i l l u n q u e s t i o n a b l y o n e o f t h e t w o b e s t s t u d i e s o n t h e s u b j e c t . I n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n , V e r n o n o u t l i n e s t h e r o l e o f r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s a n d c o m m i t t e e s o f i n q u i r y i n t h e " m a c h i n e o f P a r l i a m e n t a r y d e m o c r a c y . " I n t h e n i n e c h a p t e r s on t h e u s e o f a d -v i s o r y b o d i e s b y v a r i o u s , g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s , t h e a u t h o r s o f e a c h c h a p t e r e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l r o y a l c o m -m i s s i o n s w h i c h r e p o r t e d i n t h e i r f i e l d d u r i n g t h e i n t e r w a r p e r i o d a n d a t t e m p t t o a s s e s s t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e i r s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e . I n a g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n , V e r n o n s u g g e s t s a n u m b e r o f p o s s i b l e r e f o r m s w h i c h m i g h t i n c r e a s e t h e u t i l i t y o f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n . A n d , i n t h e a p p e n d i x , t h e r e i s a c h e c k - l i s t o f a d v i s o r y b o d i e s w h i c h o p e r a t e d b e t w e e n 1 9 1 9 a n d 1 9 3 9 w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e s t u d e n t o f r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s w i t h a c o n v e n i e n t g u i d e b o t h t o t h e c o m m i s -s i o n s w h i c h f u n c t i o n e d d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d a n d t o t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e i r u s e b y p a r t i c u l a r d e p a r t m e n t s . 2. W h e a r e , K . C . G o v e r n m e n t b y C o m m i t t e e . O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 . L i k e A d v i s o r y B o d i e s , G o v e r n m e n t b y C o m m i t t e e i s n o t c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e c h a p t e r d e -v o t e d t o w h a t W h e a r e d e f i n e s a s ' c o m m i t t e e s t o i n q u i r e 1 c o n t a i n s a n i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n t y p e o f i n q u i r y . I t s p e c i f i e s t h e m a j o r f u n c t i o n s w h i c h s u c h a n i n q u i r y i s d e s i g n e d t o f u l f i l l a n d , o n t h e b a s i s o f t h o s e f u n c t i o n s , c l a s s i f i e s t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r t y p e s o f a d v i s o r y b o d i e s . 1 3 9 . F . H a n s e r , C h a r l e s J . G u i d e t o D e c i s i o n : T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n i n  t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y . T o t o w a , New J e r s e y : T h e B e d m i n s t e r P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 . A p p a r e n t l y H a n s e r i n t e n d e d t h i s v o l u m e t o f u l f i l l t h r e e o b -j e c t i v e s . H e w a n t e d i t , f i r s t , t o p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e 4 r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n a s a " d e c i s i o n a l m e c h a n i s m . " S e c o n d , h e w a n t e d i t t o o f f e r a " c a l m a p p r a i s a l o f t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n i t s e l f . " " ' A n d , t h i r d , h e w a n t e d i t t o p r o v e that t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n i s t h e " g u i d e t o w h a t i s a n d w h a t s h o u l d b e ; . . . t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e S o v e r e i g n I n t e n t t h a t ' R i g h t b e D o n e ' " ^ a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s s h o u l d c r e a t e a n A m e r i c a n e q u i v a l e n t t o t h i s " p r o c e s s a n t e c e d e n t t o u l t i m a t e d e c i s i o n . " ^ U n f o r t u n a t e l y , p a r t i a l l y a s a r e s u l t o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s a n i n h e r e n t c o n f l i c t i n t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s , t h e b o o k s u c c e e d s i n d o i n g n o n e of t h e t h r e e t h i n g s ± t s e t s o u t t o a c c o m p l i s h . I t s d e s c r i p t i o n i s i n c o m p l e t e . I t s a s s e s s m e n t i s b a s e d o n p a r t i a l e v i d e n c e . A n d i t s a t t e m p t t o p e r s u a d e t h e U.S. t o a d o p t t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n v i n c i n g . H a n s e r r e l i e s l a r g e l y o n d i s c u s s i o n s o f p a r t i c u l a r c o m m i s -s i o n s a s h i s m e a n s o f a n a l y s i n g t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n t y p e o f i n q u i r y , a s s e s s i n g i t s v a l u e a n d p r o p a g a t i n g h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n i s t h e " b e s t a n d m o s t r e l i a b l e g u i d e Zto p o l i c y f o r m a t i o n / y e t d e v i s e d . " ^ T h e w e a k n e s s e s o f h i s f i r s t c h a p t e r a r e i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e w e a k n e s s e s o f t h e e n t i r e s t u d y . T h e c h a p t e r o p e n s w i t h a r a t h e r s e n s a t i o n a l i z e d v e r s i o n o f t h e S a v i d g e C a s e a n d t h e n c o m m e n c e s to d i s c u s s t h e t h r e e m o s t r e c e n t r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s on t h e p o l i c e a n d t h e f o u r t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s on t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e . I t i m p l i e s t h a t 1 4 0 . a l l s e v e n c o m m i s s i o n s w e r e u n m i t i g a t e d s u c c e s s e s . Y e t i t p r e -s e n t s n o c o n c r e t e c r i t e r i a t o i n d i c a t e o n w h a t b a s e s t h e s e c o n -c l u s i o n s a r e f o u n d e d . I t d i s c u s s e s o n l y t w o o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s i n a n y d e t a i l a n d , i n d i c a t i v e l y , i t s m e t h o d s o f d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f e a c h o n e a r e s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e f i r s t — t h e 1 9 2 8 R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P o l i c e — t h e c h a p t e r c i t e s t h e f a c t t h a t p r e s s o p i n i o n w a s n e a r l y u n a n i m o u s i n i t s s u p p o r t o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a s i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n ' s s u c c e s s . I t f a i l s t o r e g a r d a s s i g n i f i c a n t t h e f a c t t h a t v e r y fev/ o f t h o s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e a c t u a l l y i m p l e m e n t e d , a l t h o u g h i t d o e s m e n t i o n t h o s e w h i c h w e r e . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e s e c o n d — t h e 1 9 6 0 R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P o l i c e — p r e s s o p i n i o n ( w h i c h w a s g e n e r a l l y n e g a t i v e a b o u t t h e F i n a l R e -p o r t ) i s n o t m e n t i o n e d . T h a t t h e c o m m i s s i o n w a s s u c c e s s f u l s e e m s t o b e s u b s t a n t i a t e d l a r g e l y b y t h e f a c t t h a t i t s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e e f f e c t e d . T h e r e i s n o r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s c h o l a r l y a r t i c l e s o n t h e s u b j e c t — m o s t o f v / h i c h w e r e n e g a t i v e . T h e r e i s n o r e a l a t t e m p t t o c o m p a r e t h e t w o c o m m i s s i o n s , a l -t h o u g h t h e y w e r e s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t i n t e r m s o f c o m p o s i t i o n , n u m b e r o f m e m b e r s , l e n g t h o f t i m e a n d t y p e o f r e p o r t . T h e r e i s n o i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e 1 9 6 2 R e p o r t c o n t a i n e d a n u m b e r o f g l a r i n g i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . W h i l e t h e p u b l i c o p i n i o n s a m p l e ( u s e d b y t h e r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n ) i s c i t e d a s s h o w i n g t h a t t h e r e h a d b e e n n o l e s s e n i n g o f r e s p e c t f o r t h e p o l i c e , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s a m p l e a l s o s t a t e d t h a t 4 2 . 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e p u b l i c t h o u g h t t h a t s o m e o f t h e p o l i c e t o o k b r i b e s i s n o t m e n t i o n e d . A s i s t h e c a s e t h r o u g h -o u t t h e w h o l e b o o k , t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r d e a l s o n l y w i t h t h e g o o d t h i n g s a b o u t e a c h c o m m i s s i o n a n d a p p e a r s t o a s s u m e t h a t e a c h c o m m i s s i o n 1 4 1 . w h i c h w a s a p p o i n t e d w a s c o n s t i t u t e d i n t h e b e s t m a n n e r p o s s i b l e a n d a l w a y s p r o d u c e d t h e b e s t c o n c e i v a b l e r e s u l t s . T h e b o o k c o n t a i n s e r r o r s o f f a c t a s T t f e l l a s o f j u d g e m e n t . I t i s a s h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e i n i t s u s e o f e v i d e n c e a s i t i s i n p i c k i n g t h e c o m m i s s i o n s o n w h i c h i t s c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e s t r u c t u r e a r e s u p p o s e d l y b a s e d . A n d i t s a u t h o r i s e i t h e r n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n t h e s u b j e c t o r h e h a s s i m p l y c h o s e n t o i g n o r e t h e c r i t i c a l m a t e r i a l . H o w e v e r , t h e a p p e n d i c e s a r e e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l . T h e y c o n t a i n n o t o n l y a c o m p l e t e l i s t o f a l l o f t h e c o m m i s s i o n s w h i c h h a v e r e p o r t e d s i n c e t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , b u t a l s o a g r e a t d e a l o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t e a c h c o m m i s -s i o n a n d t h e t y p e o f r e p o r t i t s u b m i t t e d . g . B i r n i e , D a v i d A . G . ' A S y s t e m s A n a l y s i s o f R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s i n C a n a d a . 1 U n p u b l i s h e d g r a d u a t i n g e s s a y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 5 6 . T h i s i s a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y t h e f u n c t i o n s w h i c h r o y a l c o m m i s s i o n s s e r v e b y u s i n g E a s t o n i a n s y s t e m s a n a l y s i s . I t i s s o m e w h a t m o r e r e l e v a n t t o t h e s t u d y o f C a n a d i a n r o y a l c o m m i s -s i o n s t h a n i t i s t o t h e B r i t i s h o n e s . N o n e t h e l e s s , i t s d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e a s a c h a n n e l f o r d e m a n d s a n d a s a m e a n s o f d i m i n -i s h i n g s t r e s s o n t h e s y s t e m i s w o r t h y o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n b y a n y o n e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e u s e o f a d v i s o r y b o d i e s . 1 4 2 . T h e s o u r c e s w h i c h d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h i n d i v i d u a l c o m m i s s i o n s a r e l i s t e d — t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e s e i n t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y . O n l y m o n o g r a p h s a n d b o o k - l e n g t h s t u d i e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d h e r e . A r t i c l e s a n d s h o r t e r d i s c u s s i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s u b j e c t a r e l i s t e d i n t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y , b u t a r e n o t b e i n g g i v e n p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n a s t h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y e i t h e r w i t h o u t e s p e c i a l m e r i t o r a r e q u i t e e l d e r l y . H u g h M . C l o k i e a n d J . W i l l i a m R o b i n s o n , R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n s o f  I n q u i r y : T h e S i g n i f i c a n c e o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h P o l i t i c s . ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 7 ) , p . v . C h a r l e s J . H a n s e r , G u i d e t o D e c i s i o n : T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n i n  t h e T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y ( T o t o w a , New J e r s e y : T h e B e d m i n s t e r P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p . i x . I b i d . , p . 5 2 . I b i d . » p . i x . I b i d . I b i d . , p . 2 1 8 . 143 .A P P F. H n x Z I I I TEEMS OF FF,?KPFKCE O F TOY PL C O - ^ I P P T O H S v T H I O H SFPOFTED S I N C E 1^35 Royal Commission on the University of Durbar:. 1?34-35 • i S t o enquire into the organization and work, of the University of Durham and i t s constituent colleges and into the r e l a t i o n of the University to those colleges, and to report i n what respects the present organization can be improved and xehat changes, i f any, are desirable i n the constitutions, functions and powers of the Thiversity and i t s constituent colleges?" Poyal Commission on the f. tat us of the Countv Borough of J'srthvr T v d f i l , 1935. ' " t o investigate and report whether the existing status of Merthyr T y d f i l as a county Borough should be continued, a n d i f not,, what other arrangements should be made for i t s l o c a l government, regard being had to i t s own interests,, and. to those of the surrounding counties end county d i s t r i c t s ; ' Poyal Commission on Tithe Rentcharge i n England and "'ales, 1934-35; " t o enquire into and report upon the whole question of t i t h e rent-charge i n England and Wales and i t s incidence, with special reference to the s t a b i l i z e d value, statutory remission, powers of recovery, and methods and terms of redemption , ; Royal Commission on the Dispatch of Business at Common Law, 1 9 3 4 - 3 6 : "to enquire into the state of business i n the King's Bench Division cf the High Court of Justice and to report whether, j th a view to greater dispatch, any reforms should be adopted, and i n p a r t i c u l a r what i s the j u d i c i a l strength required to deal with t h « business, w h e t h e r there should be any further fusion or further sub-division cf the P i v i s i o n s of the Supreme Court, whether any alterations should be. made in. the Ci r c u i t s of the .Judges, whether any further imasure should bo taken for the devolution of work from the High Court to the County Court, and whether a r e t i r i n g age should be imposed upon those appointed, i n the future to the Bench of the Suprerce Court Royal Commission on t h e Private Manufacture of and Trading i n Arms, 1 ? 3 5 - 3 6 : ' ( 1 ) to consider and report upon the p r a c t i c a b i l i t y and d e s i r a b i l i t y (both, f r o m the national and international point cf vie") of the adoption (a) by the United Kingdom alone, (b) by the tnited Kingdom, i n conjunction with the other countries cf the. world of a prohibition of private manu-facture of and trade i n arms and munitions of war, and the i n s t i t u t i o n of a State monopoly of such manufacturing and trader (2) to consider and report whether there are anv steps which can usefully he taken to remove or minimize the kinds of objections to which private manufacture 144. i s s t a t e d i n A r t i c l e 8 ( 5 ) o f t h e C o v e n a n t o f t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s t o b e o p e n : ( 3 ) t o e x a m i n e t h e p r e s e n t a r r a n g e m e n t s i n f o r c e i n t h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m r e l a t i v e t o t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e e x p e r t t r a d e i n a r m s a n d m u n i t i o n s o f w a r , a n d t o r e p o r t w h e t h e r t h e s e a r r a n g e m e n t s r e q u i r e r e v i s i o n , a n d , , i f s o , i n w h a t d i r e c t i o n s : " R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t i n t h e T y n e s i d e A r e a s 1 9 3 5 - 3 7 2 " t o e x a m i n e t h e s y s t e m o f l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e a r e a s o f l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t n o r t h a n d s o u t h o f t h e r i v e r T y n e f r o m t h e s e a t o t h e b o u n d a r y o f the R u r a l D i s t r i c t s o f C a s t l e H a r d a n d H e x h a m i n t h e C o u n t y o f N o r t h -u m b e r l a n d a n d t o t h e w e s t e r n b o u n d a r y o f t h e C o u n t y o f D u r h a m , t o c o n s i d e r w h a t c h a n g e s , i f a n y , s h o u l d b e m a d e i n t h e e x i s t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h a v i e w t o s e c u r i n g g r e a t e r e c o n o m y and. e f f i c i e n c y , a n d t o m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s r' R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n P a l e s t i n e , 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 ; " t o a s c e r t a i n t h e u n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s o f t h e d i s t u r b a n c e s w h i c h b r o k e o u t i n P a l e s t i n e i n t h e m i d d l e o f A p r i l : t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e M a n d a t e f o r P a l e s t i n e i s b e i n g i m p l e m e n t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o b l i g a t i o n s o f t h e M a n d a t o r y t o w a r d s t h e A r a b s and. J e w s r e s p e c t i v e l y . ; a n d t o a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r , u p o n a p r o p e r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t e r m s o f t h e M a n d a t e , , e i t h e r t h e A r a b s o r t h e J e w s h a v e a n y l e g i t i m a t e g r i e v a n c e s u p o n a c c o u n t o f t h e w a v i n w h i c h t h e M a n d a t e h a s b e e n o r i s b e i n g i m p l e m e n t e d ; a n d i f t h e C o m m i s s i o n i s s a t i s f i e d t h a t a n y s u c h g r i e v a n c e s a r e w e l l f o u n d e d 5 t o m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r t h e i r r e m o v a l a n d f o r t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f t h e i r r e c u r r e n c e : " R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n S a f e t y i n C o a l M i n e s , 1 9 3 5 - 3 8 ; ' ' t o e n q u i r e w h e t h e r t h e s a f e t y a n d h e a l t h o f m i n e w o r k e r s c a n b e better i n s u r e d b y e x t e n d i n g o r m o d i f y i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e s o r g e n e r a l p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e C o a l M i n e s A c t , 1 9 1 1 , o r t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , h a v i n g r e g a r d t o t h e c h a n g e s w h i c h h a v e t a k e n p l a c e i n organization, m e t h o d s o f w o r k , a n d e q u i p m e n t s i n c e i t became l a w , a n d ' t h e e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d : a n d t o m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i " R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n Rhodesia a n d N y a s a l a n d . , 1 9 3 8 - 3 9 : " t o e n q u i r e a n d r e p o r t w h e t h e r a n y , a n d i f s o , w h a t f o r m , o f c l o s e r c o - o p e r a t i o n o r a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n S o u t h e r n R h o d e s i a , N o r t h e r n R h o d e s i a a n d N y a s a l a n d i s d e s i r a b l e and. f e a s i b l e , w i t h d u n r e g a r d t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a l l t h e i n h a b i t a n t s , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f r a c e , o f t h e T e r r i t o r i e s c o n -c e r n e d a n d t o t h e s p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f O u r G o v e r n m e n t i n t h e . U n i t e d K i n g d o m o f G r e a t B r i t a i n a n d N o r t h e r n I r e l a n d f o r t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e N a t i v e i n h a b i t a n t s : R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n the G e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e I n d u s t r i a l P o p u l a t i o n , 1 9 3 7 - 3 9 ' " t o e n q u i r e i n t o t h e c a u s e s w h i c h h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h e p r e s e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l p o p u l a t i o n o f G r e a t B r i t a i n a n d t h e p r o b a b l e d i r e c t i o n o f a n y c h a n g e i n t h a t d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e f u t u r e : : t o c o n s i d e r w h a t s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c o r s t r a t e g i c d i s a d v a n t a g e s a r i s e f r o m the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i e s o r o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l p o p u l a -t i o n i n l a r g e t o w n s o r i n p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s o f t h e c o u n t r y ; a n d to r e p o r t w h a t r e m e d i a l m e a s u r e s i f a n y s h o u l d be t a k e n i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t : " 145. P o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n W e s t I n d i a , I P 3 8 - 3 9 ; " t o i n v e s t i g a t e s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s i n B a r b a d o s , B r i t i s h G u i a n a , B r i t i s h H o n d u r a s , t h e L e e w a r d I s l a n d s , T r i n i d a d a n d T o b a g o , a n d t h e W i n d w a r d I s l a n d s , a n d m a t t e r s c o n n e c t e d t h e r e w i t h , a n d t o m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s : " R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n W o r k m a n ' s C o m p e n s a t i o n , 1938-44 " t o e n q u i r e i n t o a n d r e p o r t o n t h e o p e r a t i o n a n d e f f e c t s o f t h e s y s t e m o f w o r k m e n ' s c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r i n j u r i e s d u e t o e m p l o y m e n t a n d t h e w o r k i n g a n d s c o p e o f t h e l a w r e l a t e d t h e r e t o , a n d t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h i s s y s t e m t o o t h e r s t . a t u t . 0 r 3 f s y s t e r s f o r p r o v i d i n g b e n e f i t s o r a s s i s t a n c e t o i n c a p a c i t a t e d o r u n e m p l o y e d , w o r k m e n a n d t o m a k e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t o f i n j u r e d w o r k m e n a n d t h e r e s t o r a t i o n c f t h e i r w o r k i n g c a p a c i t y , a n d t o m a k e s u c h r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , w h e t h e r b y w a y o f a m e n d m e n t o f t h e W o r k m e n ' s C o m p e n s a t i o n A c t s c r o t h e r w i s e , a s m a y a p p e a r d e s i r a b l e " : a n d , f u r t h e r , t o c o n s i d e r i n r e l a t i o n t o w o r k m e n ' s c o m p e n s a t i o n a n d a d v i s e w h e t h e r a n y a l t e r a t i o n i s d e s i r a b l e i n t h e p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n i n r e g a r d t o t h e . c i v i l l i a b i l i t y o f t h e e m p l o y e r t o p a y c o m p e n s a t i o n o r d a m a g e s i n r e s p e c t , t o s u c h i n j u r i e s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h o s e A c t s ? " R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n E q u a l P a y , 1944-46; " t o e x a m i n e t h e e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e r e m u n e r a t i o n o f m e n a n d w o m e n i n t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , i n i n d u s t r y end. i n o t h e r f i e l d s o f e m p l o y m e n t ; : and. t o c o n s i d e r t h e s o c i a l ; , e c o n o m i c a n d f i n a n c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e c l a i m o f e q u a l p a y f o r e c u a l v o r k : a n d t o r e p o r t s " R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n J u s t i c e s o f t h e P e a c e , 1 9 4 6 - 4 8 ' : " t o r e v i e w t h e p r e s e n t a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n a n d r e m o v a l . o f J u s t i c e s o f t h e P e a c e i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . . . t h e s e l e c t i o n a n d a p p o i n t -m e n t o f c h a i r m e n o f M a g i s t e r i a l B e n c h e s , o f J u s t i c e s t o f o r m p a n e l s f o r J u v e n i l e C o u r t s ; a n d o n t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f S t i p e n d i a r y M a g i s t r a t e s . . . " R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n P o p u l a t i o n , 1 5 4 4 - 4 9 " " t o e x a m i n e t h e f a c t s r e l a t i n g t o t h e p r e s e n t p o p u l a t i o n t r e n d s i n -G r e a t B r i t a i n ; t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c a u s e s o f t h e s e t r e n d s a n d t o c o n s i d e r t h e i r p r o b a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s : t o c o n s i d e r w h a t m e a s u r e s , i f a n y , s h o u l d b e t a k e n i n t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t o i n f l u e n c e t h e f u t u r e t r e n d o f p o p u l a t i o n : a n d t o m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s : " R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e Press,_, 1 9 4 7 - 4 9 ; ' ' w i t h t h e o b j e c t o f f u r t h e r i n g t h e f r e e e x p r e s s i o n c f o p i n i o n t h r o u g h t h e P r e s s a n d t h e g r e a t e s t p r a c t i c a b l e a c c u r a c y i n t h e p r e s e n t a -t i o n o f n e w s , t o e n q u i r e i n t o t h e c o n t r o l , m a n a g e m e n t a n d o w n e r s h i p o f t h e n e w s p a p e r a n d p e r i o d i c a l P r e s s a n d t h e n e w s a g e n c i e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e f i n a n c i a l s t r u c t u r e a n d t h e m o n o p o l i s t i c t e n d e n c i e s i n c o n t r o l , a n d t o m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t h e r e o n : ' 5 R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n P e t t i n g , . L o t t e r i e s a n d G a i n i n g , 1 ? 4 C ~ 5 1 : " t o e n q u i r e i n t o t h e e x i s t i n g l a w a n d p r a c t i c e t h e r e u n d e r r e l a t i n g t o l o t t e r i e s , b e t t i n g a n d g a m i n g , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s w h i c h h a v e t a k e n p l a c e s i n c e t h e r e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s -s i o n o n L o t t e r i e s a n d B e t t i n g , i n 1 9 3 3 , a n d t o r e p o r t w h a t c h a n g e s , i f a n y , a r e d e s i r a b l e a n d p r a c t i c a b l e r,,: 146. R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n U n i v e r s i t y E d u c a t i o n i n D u n d e e , 1951-52: " t o e n q u i r e i n t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n i n D u n d e e , a n d i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h S t . A n d r e w s U n i v e r s i t y , a n d t o r e c o m m e n d w h a t c h a n g e s , i f a n y , s h o u l d h e m a d e i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n , f u n c t i o n s , a n d p o w e r s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S t . A n d r e w s , o f U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e , D u n d e e , o r o f a n y o t h e r b o d y o r i n s t i t u t i o n c o n c e r n e d ; ? ? R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n C a p i t a l P u n i s h m e n t , 1949-53: " t o c o n s i d e r a n d r e p o r t w h e t h e r a n y l i a b i l i t y u n d e r t h e c r i m i n a l l a w i n G r e a t B r i t a i n t o s u f f e r c a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t f o r m u r d e r s h o u l d b e l i m i t e d , o r m o d i f i e d , a n d i f s o , t o w h a t e x t e n t a n d b y w h a t m e a n s , f o r h o w l o n g a n d u n d e r w h a t c o n d i t i o n s p e r s o n s w h o w o u l d o t h e r w i s e h a v e b e e n l i a b l e t o s u f f e r c a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t s h o u l d b e d e t a i n e d , a n d w h a t c h a n g e s i n t h e e x i s t i n g l a w a n d t h e p r i s o n s y s t e m w o u l d b e r e q u i r e d : a n d t o e n q u i r e i n t o a n d t a k e a c c o u n t o f t h e p o s i t i o n i n t h o s e c o u n t r i e s w h o s e e x p e r i e n c e a r i d p r a c t i c e m a y t h r o w l i g h t o n t h e s e q u e s t i o n s ! ' ' E c y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n S c o t t i s h A f f a i r s , 1^ 52-54: " t o r e v i e w , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f i n a n c i a l ; , e c o n o m i c , a d m i n i s t r a t -i v e , a n d o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n v o l v e d , t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r e x e r c i s i n g t h e f u n c t i o n s o f O u r ' G o v e r n m e n t i n r e l a t i o n t o S c o t l a n d a n d t o r e p o r t : ; " R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n c n E a s t A f r i c a , 1953-55:; " h a v i n g r e g a r d t o t h e r a p i d r a t e o f i n c r e a s e o f t h e A f r i c a n p o p u l a t i o n o f E a s t A f r i c a a n d t h e c o n g e s t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n o n t h o l a n d i n c e r t a i n l o c a l i t i e s , t o e x a m i n e t h e m e a s u r e s n e c e s s a r y t o b e t a k e n t o a c h i e v e a n i m p r o v e d s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g , i n c l u d i n g t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f c a p i t a l t o e n a b l e p e a s a n t f a r m i n g t o d e v e l o p a n d e x p a n d p r o d u c t i o n ; a n d t o f r a m e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t h e r e o n w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o : (1) t h e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e l a n d a l r e a d y i n o c c u p a t i o n b y t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f b e t t e r f a r m i n g m e t h o d s : : (2) t h e a d a p t a t i o n s o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n t r a d i t i o n a l t r i b a l s y s t e m s o f t e n u r e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e f u l l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e l a n d : (3) t h e o p e n i n g f o r c u l t i v a t i o n a n d s e t t l e m e n t o f l a n d , a t p r e s e n t n o t f u l l y u s e d ; ( 4 ) t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d s i t i n g o f i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s ; : (5) t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f e m p l o y m e n t i n i n d u s t r y , c o m m e r c e , m i n i n g a n d p l a n t a t i o n a g r i c u l t u r e , w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s a n d t h e g r o w t h o f l a r g e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n s ; ( 6 ) t h e s o c i a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r i s e f r o m t h e g r o w t h o f p e r m a n e n t u r b a n a n d i n d u s t r i a l p o p u l a t i o n s . " T h e C o m m i s s i o n s h o u l d e x a m i n e a n d r e p o r t o n t h e above- m a t t e r s t a k i n g a s a b a s i s t h e g e n e r a l p r o p o s i t i o n s e m b o d i e d i n P a r t V I o f S i r P h i l i p M i t c h e l l ' s d e s p a t c h t o t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e F o . 193 c f 1 6 t h N o v e m b e r , 1951 " T h e m e m b e r s o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n s h o u l d h e l d t h e m s e l v e s f r e e t o e x a m i n e 5 a n d w h e r e n e c e s s a r y c c e m e n t u p o n , p o l i c y i n s u c h r e l a t e d f i e l d s a s f o r e x a m p l e , e d u c a t i o n a n d p u b l i c h e a l t h , t - r h i c h a p p e a r t o t h e n t o h a v e a b e a r i n g o n t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e e x t e n t t c w h i c h e x i s t i n g t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s a r e a d e q u a t e t o m e e t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f e x t e n s i v e i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e C o m m i s s i o n s h o u l d a l s o c o n s i d e r p r o b a b l e t r e n d s o f p o p u l a t i o n i n E a s t 147. A f r i c a and make such recommendations as they consider appropriate on this subject i n r e l a t i o n to the other problems involved. 'In t h e i r deliberations the Commission should take account of existing obligations incurred by treaty, agreement or formal declaration of policy i n r e l a t i o n to the security of land reserved for the different races and groups i n various parts of the Te r r i t o r i e s concerned." Royal Commission on the Taxation of P r o f i t s and Income, 1951-55; " t o enquire into the present system of taxation of p r o f i t s and income, including i t s incidence and ef f e c t s , with p a r t i c u l a r reference to the taxation of business p r o f i t s and the taxation of salaries and wages . . . and to make recommendations consistent with maintaining the same t o t a l y i e l d of the exi s t i n g duties i n r e l a t i o n to the national income:" Extended (March, 1952): " . . . t o make recommendations bearing i n mind that i n the present f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n i t may be necessary to reta i n the revenue from p r o f i t s and income; and, in. se far as they make recommendations which would o n balance e n t a i l a substantial loss of revenue., to indicate i n order of p r i o r i t y i n which such recommendations should be taken into considerations" Royal Commission on the C i v i l Service, 1953-55: "to consider and make recommendations on certain questions concerning the conditions of service of c i v i l servants within the ambit of the C i v i l Service National Whitley Council, viz-. (a) whether any changes are desirable i n the principles which should govern pay? or i n the rates of pay at present i n force for the main, categories •— bearing i n mind i n t h i s connection the need for a suitable relationship between the pay of those categories; (b) whethe r any changes are desirable i n the hours of work, arrangements for overtime and remuneration for extra duty, and annual leave allowances; (c) whether any changes are desirable within the framework of the existing superannuation scheme?" Royal Commission on Marriage and Divorce, 1951-551 "to enquire into the law of England and the law of Scotland concern-ing divorce and other matrimonial causes and into the powers of courts of i n f e r i o r j u r i s d i c t i o n i n matters affecting relations between husband and wife, and. to consider whether any changes should be made i n the las? or i t s administration, including the law relati n g to the property rights of husband and wife, both during marriage- and after i t s termination (except by death), having i n mind the need to promote and maintain healthy and happy married l i f e and to safeguard the internstc avA well-being cf children: and to consider whether any alt e r a t i o n should be made i n the law prohibiting marriage with certain relations by kindred or a f f i n i t y : " Royal Commission on Awards to Inventors, 1946-56: " . . . to deal with claims i n respect to the user of inventions, designs, drawings or processes on behalf cf the Crown:" 148. Royal Commission on the Law Relating to Mental I l l n e s s and Mental Deficiency,.1954-57; "to enquire, as regards England, and Wales, into the existing law and administrative machinery governing the c e r t i f i c a t i o n , detention, care (other than hospital care or treatment under the National Health Service Acts, 1946-52), absence on t r i a l or licence, discharge and supervision of persons who are alleged to be suffering from mental illness or mental defect, other than Broadmoor patientsr, to consider as regards England and Wales s the extent to which i t i s now, or should be made, s t a t u t o r i l y possible for such persons to be treated,-as voluntary patients, without certification.- and to make recommendations.-" Royal Commission, on Common Land, 1955-58,° "to recommend what chances, i f any, are desirable i n the law r e l a t -ing to common land i n order to promote the benefit cf those holding manorial and common r i g h t s , the enjoyment of the public, or, where at present l i t t l e or no use i s made of such land, i t s use for some other desirable purpose:" Royal Commission on doctors' and Dentists 5 Remuneration, 1957-60; "to consider (a) How the levels of professional remuneration from a l l sources now received by doctors and dentists taking any part i n the Rational Health. Service compare with the remuneration received by members cf other professions, by other members of the medical and dental profes-sions, and by people engaged i n connected occupations; (b) What, i n the l i g h t of the foregoing, should be the proper current levels of remunera-tion of such doctors and dentists by the national Health Service; (c) Whether, and i f so, what arrangements should be made to keep that remu-neration under reviews And to make recommendations;" Royal Commission on Local Government i n Greater London, 1957-60; "to examine the present system and working of l o c a l government i n the greater London area: to recommend whether any, and i f so, what changes i n the l o c a l government structure and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of l o c a l authority functions i n the area, or i n any part of i t , would better secure effective and convenient l o c a l government; and to regard, for these purposes, l o c a l government as not including the administration of po l i c e , or of water, and the Greater London area as comprising the Metropolitan Police District together with the c i t y of London, the Boroughs of Dartford, Romford, and Watford.,, the Urban D i s t r i c t s of Caterham and Warlingham, Chorley Wood, Hornchurch, Rickmansworth., and Walton and Weybridge, and the Parish of Watford i n the Watford Rural r e s t r i c t : " Royal Commission on the P o l i c e , 1960-62; "to review the constitutional position of the police throughout Great B r i t a i n , the arrangements for their control and administration and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , to consider; —• (1) the constitution and function?, of l o c a l police authorities; (2) the status and accountability of members of police forces, including chief o f f i c e r s of police?, (3) the relationship of police with the public and the means of insuring that complaints by the public against the police are e f f e c t i v e l y dealt with; and 1 4 9 . ( 4 ) the broad principles which should govern the remuneration of the constable, having regard to the nature and extent of police dut5.es and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and the need to attract and retain an adequate number of recru i t s with the proper q u a l i f i c a t i o n s : " Royal Commission on the Press, 1961-62: "to examine the economic and f i n a n c i a l factors affecting the production and sale of newspapers, magazines and other periodicals i n the United Kingdom, including (a) manufacturing, p r i n t i n g , d i s t r i b u t i o n and other costs:: (b) effi c i e n c y of production, and (c.) advertising and other revenue, including any revenue derived from, interests i n t e l e v i s i o n : tp consider whether these factors tend to diminish, d i v e r s i t y of ownership and control or the number or variety of such publications, having regard to the importance, i n the public i n t e r e s t , of the accurate presentation of news and the free expression of opinion:" Royal Commission on the Penal System i n England and Wales, 1964-66; "In the l i g h t of modern knowledge of crime and i t s causes and of modern penal practice here and abroad, to re-examine the concepts and purposes which should underlie the punishment and treatment, of offenders i n England and Wales: to report how far they are realized by the penalties and methods of treatment available to the courts, and whether any changes i n these, or i n the arrangements and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the sentences to be imposed on par t i c u l a r offenders,are desirable? to review the work cf the services and i n s t i t u t i o n s dealinp with offenders and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h e i r administration.:, and to make recommendations.' Royal Commission on Tribunal's of Inquiry, 1966-66: "to review the working of the Tribunals of Inquiry (Evidence) Act, 1921, and to 'consider whether i t should be retained or replaced, by some other procedure, and, i f retained, whether any changes are necessary or desirable :t: Royal Commission on ?fedical Education, 1965-68? " to review medical education, undergraduate and postgraduate, i n Great B r i t a i n , and i n the l i g h t of national needs and resources, includ-ing technical assistance overseas, to advise Her Majesty's Government on. what principles future development — includinr i t s planning and co-ordination — should be based. In p a r t i c u l a r , i n the l i g h t of those princ i p l e s and having regard to the statutory functions cf the General Medical Council and the current review by that Council of recent changes i n the undergraduate curriculum, to consider what changes may be. needed i n the pattern, number, nature or location of the i n s t i t u t i o n s providing medical education or i n i t s general content? and to report:" Royal Commission on Trade Unions and Employers* Associations, 1966-68: "to consider relations between managements and employees and the role of trade unions and employers' associations i n promoting the interests of the i r members and i n accelerating the s o c i a l and economic advance of the nation, with par t i c u l a r reference to the law affecting the. a c t i v i t i e s of those bodies: and to report:' R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t i n E n p l a n e ! , 1966 -69; " t o c o n s i d e r t h e s t r u c t u r e o f l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t i n E n g l a n d , o u t s i d e G r e a t e r L o n d o n , i n r e l a t i o n to i t s e x i s t i n g f u n c t i o n s ' ; a n d t o m a k e r e c -o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r a u t h o r i t i e s a n d - b o u n d a r i e s , a n d f o r f u n c t i o n s a n d t h e i r d i v i s i o n , h a v i n g r e g a r d to t h e s i z e a n d c h a r a c t e r o f a r e a s i n vhich t h e s e c a n b e m o s t e f f e c t i v e l y e x e r c i z e d e n d t h e n e e d t o s u s t a i n a v i a b l e sysf eta o f l o c a l d e m o c r a c y . " 1 5 1 . A P P E N D I X I V R E F E R E N C E S T O R O Y A L C O M M I S S I O N S I N H O U S E O F COMMONS D E B A T E S I . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f D u r h a m A . A p p o i n t m e n t 1 . A n n o u n c e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 2 8 4 H . C . D e b . 1 3 1 6 , 2 0 D e c . 1 9 3 3 . 2 . T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e : 2 8 6 H . C . D e b . 1 6 5 4 , 6 M a r c h 1 9 3 4 . 3 . M e m b e r s : 2 8 6 H . C . D e b . 4 9 4 , 2 2 F e b . 1 9 3 4 , a n d 2 8 6 H . C . D e b . 1 6 5 4 , 6 M a r c h 1 9 3 4 . B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : C . G o v e r n m e n t S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 3 0 1 H . C . D e b . 1 8 9 - 9 0 , 3 0 A p r . 1 9 3 5 . D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s : 1 . How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e R e p o r t : 2 9 3 H . C . D e b . 1 2 6 6 , 8 N o v . 1 9 3 4 ; 2 9 5 H . C . D e b . 1 8 2 1 , 6 D e c . 1 9 3 4 ; 2 9 7 H . C . D e b . 3 4 4 - 5 , 3 0 J a n . 1 9 3 5 ; 2 9 8 H . C . D e b . 1 1 2 6 , 27 F e b . 1 9 3 5 . 2 . O t h e r : 3 0 2 H . C . D e b . 2 0 2 4 , 6 J u n e 1 9 3 5 . I I . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e S t a t u s o f t h e C o u n t y B o r o u g h o f M e r t h y r T y d f i l A . A p p o i n t m e n t 1 . T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e : 3 0 0 E . C . D e b . 1 8 5 0 , 17 A p r . 1 9 3 5 . 2 . M e m b e r s : 3 0 0 H . C . D e b . 1 8 5 0 , 17 A p r . 1 9 3 5 . 3 . D e b a t e o n A p p o i n t m e n t : 3 0 0 H . C . D e b . 2 0 5 0 - 5 7 , 18 A p r . 1 9 3 5 . B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : C . G o v e r n m e n t S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 3 1 2 H . C . D e b . 7 1 6 - 7 , 15 M a y 1 9 3 6 . D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s : 3 0 0 H . C . D e b . 7 9 3 , 8 A p r . 1 9 3 5 . I I I . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n T i t h e R e n t c h a r g e i n E n g l a n d a n d W a l e s A . A p p o i n t m e n t 1. T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e : 2 9 0 H . C . D e b . 1 6 9 2 , 13 J u n e 1 9 3 4 . 2 . M e m b e r s : 2 9 2 H . C . D e b . 2 2 6 7 , 3 0 J u l y 1 9 3 4 . B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : 3 1 2 H . C . D e b . 4 0 3 - 5 2 0 , 13 M a y 1 9 3 6 ( i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e T i t h e B i l l ) . C . G o v e r n m e n t S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t : ( W h i t e P a p e r , C m d . 5 1 0 2 ) . D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s 1 . How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e A p p o i n t m e n t : 2 9 1 H . C . D e b . 5 4 2 , 2 1 J u n e 1 9 3 4 ; 2 9 1 H . C . D e b . 1 5 6 0 , 2 J u l y 1 9 3 4 ; 2 9 1 H . C . D e b . 2 0 8 6 , 5 J u l y 1 9 3 4 . 2 . How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e R e p o r t : 2 9 7 H . C . D e b . 3 4 8 - 9 , 3 0 J a n . 1 9 3 5 ; 2 9 9 H . C . D e b . 8 0 9 , 18 M a r . 1 9 3 5 ; 3 0 2 H . C . D e b . 1 4 1 9 3 1 M a y 1 9 3 5 ; 3 0 3 H . C . D e b . 7 9 2 , 2 4 J u n e 1 9 3 5 ; 3 0 3 H . C . D e b . 1 2 6 6 , 2 7 J u n e 1 9 3 5 ; 3 0 4 H . C . D e b . 2 3 0 6 - 7 , 2 9 J u l y 1 9 3 5 ; 3 0 5 H . C . D e b . 3 5 5 - 6 , 2 4 O c t . 1 9 3 5 ; 3 0 7 H . C . D e b . 2 9 5 - 6 , 1 5 2 . T i t h e R e n t c h a r g e ( C o n t . ) 2 . How M u c h L o n g e r ( C o n ' t ) 5 D e c . 1 9 3 5 ; 3 0 8 H . C . D e b . 4 4 - 5 , 4 F e b . 1 9 3 6 ; 3 0 8 H . C . D e b . 5 5 7 - 8 , 1 0 F e b . 1 9 3 6 ; 3 0 8 H . C . D e b . 1 1 1 6 , 13 F e b . 1 9 3 6 ; 3 0 8 H . C . D e b . 1 7 8 0 - 1 , 19 F e b . 1 9 3 6 ; 3 . W h a t A c t i o n o n R e p o r t : 3 0 7 H . C . D e b . 1 4 2 2 , 16 D e c . 1 9 3 5 ; 3 1 0 H . C . D e b . 1 6 3 3 , 3 0 M a r . 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 1 H . C . D e b . 1 4 6 , 2 2 A p r . 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 1 H . C . D e b . 5 6 1 , 2 7 A p r . 1 9 3 6 . 4 . O t h e r : 2 9 3 H . C . D e b . 2 1 3 0 , 15 N o v . 1 9 3 4 ; 3 0 0 H . C . D e b . 1 9 9 , 2 A p r . 1 9 3 5 . I V . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e D i s p a t c h o f B u s i n e s s a t Common L a w A . A p p o i n t m e n t 1 . A n n o u n c e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 2 9 3 H . C . D e b . 4 5 7 - 7 8 , 1 N o v . 1 9 3 4 . 2 . T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e : 2 9 5 H . C . D e b . 6 8 3 , 2 7 N o v . 1 9 3 4 . 3 . M e m b e r s : 2 9 5 H . C . D e b . 6 8 4 , 2 7 N o v . 1 9 3 4 . 4 . D e b a t e o n A p p o i n t m e n t : 2 9 5 H . C . D e b . 6 8 4 - 5 , 2 7 N o v . 1 9 3 4 ; 2 9 3 H . C . D e b . 4 5 7 - 7 8 , 1 N o v . 1 9 3 4 . B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : 3 2 6 H . C . D e b . 3 5 8 6 - 9 9 , 3 0 J u l y 1 9 3 7 . C . S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 3 2 6 H . C . D e b . 3 5 9 7 , 3 0 J u l y 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 8 H . C . D e b . 9 , 2 6 O c t . 1 9 3 7 . D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s I . A c t i o n o n R e p o r t : 3 2 6 H . C . D e b . 3 4 5 - 6 , 2 8 O c t . 1 9 3 7 . 2 . O t h e r : 2 9 5 H . C . D e b . 1 5 8 9 , 5 D e c . 1 9 3 4 ; 2 9 5 H . C . D e b . 1 8 2 0 , 6 D e c . 1 9 3 4 . V . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P r i v a t e M a n u f a c t u r e o f a n d T r a d i n g i n A r m s A . A p p o i n t m e n t 1 . R e q u e s t s f o r A p p o i n t m e n t : 2 8 8 H . C . D e b . 1 3 8 0 , 2 3 A p r . 1 9 3 4 ; 2 9 1 H . C . D e b . 2 0 2 , 19 J u n e 1 9 3 4 . 2 . A n n o u n c e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 2 9 5 H . C . D e b . 3 0 1 - 3 , 2 2 N o v . 1 9 3 4 . 3 . T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e : 2 9 8 H . C . D e b . 2 3 - 4 , 18 F e b . 1 9 3 5 . 4 . M e m b e r s : 2 9 8 H . C . D e b . 2 3 , 1 8 F e b . 1 9 3 4 . 5 . D e b a t e o n A p p o i n t m e n t : 2 9 5 H . C . D e b . 3 0 9 - 1 2 , 3 3 3 - 6 , 2 2 N o v . 1 9 3 4 ; 2 9 5 H . C . D e b . 5 2 4 , 2 6 N o v . 1 9 3 4 ; 2 9 8 H . C . D e b . 2 4 - 6 , 1 8 F e b . 1 9 3 5 ; 3 1 2 H . C . D e b . 1 4 3 2 - 3 , 1 5 1 5 - 7 , 2 1 M a y 1 9 3 6 . B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : 3 2 4 H . C . D e b . 2 8 1 - 4 0 0 , 2 6 M a y 1 9 3 7 . C . G o v e r n m e n t S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t : ( W h i t e P a p e r , C m d . 5 4 5 1 ) . D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s 1 . How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e A p p o i n t m e n t : 2 9 5 H . C . D e b . 6 7 7 - 8 , 2 7 N o v . 1 9 3 4 ; 2 9 6 H . C . D e b . 8 1 6 - 8 , 17 D e c . 1 9 3 4 ; 2 9 6 H . C .  D e b . 1 5 2 5 - 7 , 2 1 D e c . 1 9 3 4 ; 2 9 7 H . C . D e b . 2 3 - 4 , 2 8 J a n . 1 9 3 4 ; 2 9 7 H . C . D e b . 1 9 2 3 - 4 , 13 F e b . 1 9 3 5 . 2 . How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e R e p o r t : 3 0 7 H . C . D e b . 1 3 9 9 , 16 D e c . 1 9 3 5 ; 3 0 9 H . C . D e b . 1 1 8 6 , 3 M a r . 1 9 3 5 ; 3 1 0 H . C . D e b . 4 3 2 , 18 M a r . 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 5 H . C . D e b . 1 7 1 1 , 3 0 J u l y 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 6 H . C . D e b . 2 9 , O c t . 1 9 3 6 . 3 . A c t i o n o n R e p o r t : 3 1 7 H . C . D e b . 8 6 9 - 7 0 , 1 1 N o v . 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 8 H . , C . D e b . 8 3 7 , 3 0 N o v . 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 8 H . C . D e b . 2 6 1 7 , 17 D e c . 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 9 H . C . D e b . 3 9 - 4 0 , 19 J a n . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 1 9 H . C . D e b . 5 6 8 , 2 5 J a n . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 1 9 H . C . D e b . 1 2 8 8 , 1 F e b . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 0 H . C . D e b . 8 3 7 , 15 F e b . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 0 H . C . D e b . 1 6 4 1 - 2 , 2 2 F e b . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 1 H . C . D e b . 3 0 , 1 M a r . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 1 H . C . D e b . 1 8 4 2 , 16 M a r . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 2 H . C . D e b . 7 8 1 , 13 A p r . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 3 8 H . C . D e b . 3 3 1 6 , 2 8 J u l y 1 9 3 3 . 1 5 3 . A r m s ( C o n t . ) 4 . O t h e r : 2 9 6 H . C . D e b . 9 6 1 , 18 D e c . 1 9 3 4 ; 2 9 8 H . C . D e b . 5 2 6 , 2 1 F e b . 1 9 3 4 ; 3 0 0 H . C . D e b . 7 9 6 - 7 , 8 A p r . 1 9 5 3 ; 3 0 1 H . C .  D e b . 6 8 9 , 3 M a y 1 9 3 5 ; 3 1 2 H . C . D e b . 8 2 6 - 7 , 18 M a y 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 7 H . C . D e b . 6 , 3 N o v . 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 9 H . C , D e b . 1 7 7 3 , 4 F e b . 3 3 2 H . C . D e b . 1 4 1 2 , 4 M a r . 1 9 3 8 . VI. T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t i n t h e T y n e s i d e A r e a A . A p p o i n t m e n t 1 . A n n o u n c e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 2 9 9 H . C . D e b . 2 0 7 3 , 1 9 3 5 . 2 . T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e : 3 0 0 H . C . D e b . 1 8 4 9 , 1 7 A p r . 1 9 3 5 . 3 . M e m b e r s : 3 0 0 H . C . D e b . 1 8 5 0 , 17 A p r i l 1 9 3 5 . B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : C . S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 3 3 1 H . C . D e b . 1 7 1 8 , 15 F e b . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 3 8 H . C . D e b . 2 7 0 9 , 2 5 J u l y 1 9 3 8 . D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s I . How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e R e p o r t : 3 0 7 H . C . D e b . 1 9 3 4 - 5 , 19 D e c . 1 9 3 5 ; 3 1 7 H . C . D e b . 6 9 1 , 10 N o v . 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 9 H . C . D e b . 3 3 9 - 4 0 , 2 1 J a n . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 1 9 H . C . D e b . 1 0 7 0 , 2 8 J a n . , 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 1 H . C . D e b . 9 7 0 , 9 M a r . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 1 H . C . D e b . 1 6 2 6 , 15 M a r . 1 9 3 7 . 2 . A c t i o n o n R e p o r t : 3 2 1 H . C . D e b . 2 5 5 0 , 2 2 M a r . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 2 H . C ? D e b . 2 8 - 9 , 9 A p r . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 4 H . C . D e b . 4 2 1 , 2 7 M a y 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 5 H . C . D e b . 1 9 7 1 , 3 0 J u n e 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 6 H . C . D e b . 1 0 8 1 , 13 J u l y 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 6 H . C . D e b . 2 4 0 8 , 2 2 J u l y 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 9 H . C . D e b . 1 0 5 3 , 2 3 N o v . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 3 1 H . C . D e b . 1 7 1 8 , 15 F e b . 1 9 3 8 ; 3 4 3 H . C . D e b . 7 6 1 - 2 , 7 F e b . 1 9 3 9 . 3 . O t h e r : 3 0 9 H . C . D e b . 1 0 1 3 , 2 M a r . 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 9 H . C . D e b . 2 7 9 - 8 0 , 2 5 J a n . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 2 H . C . D e b . 1 1 9 5 - 6 , 15 A p r . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 3 8 H . C . D e b . 5 8 6 - 7 , 7 J u l y 1 9 3 7 . V I I . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n P a l e s t i n e A . A p p o i n t m e n t 1 . A n n o u n c e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 3 1 2 H . C . D e b . 8 3 7 - 8 , 1 8 M a y 1 9 3 6 . 2 . T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e : 3 1 5 H . C . D e b . 1 5 1 2 , 2 9 J u l y 1 9 3 6 . 3 . M e m b e r s : 3 1 5 H . C . D e b . 1 5 1 1 , 2 9 J u l y 1 9 3 6 . B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : 3 2 6 H . C . D e b . 2 2 3 5 - 2 3 6 7 , 2 1 J u l y 1 9 3 7 ; 3 3 2 H . C . D e b . 1 7 3 7 - 9 4 , 8 M a r . 1 9 3 8 . C . G o v e r n m e n t S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t : ( W h i t e P a p e r , C m d . 5 5 1 3 ) . D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s : 1 . How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e A p p o i n t m e n t : 3 1 3 H . C . D e b . 3 7 , 9 J u n e 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 3 H . C . D e b . 6 3 1 - 2 , 15 J u n e 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 3 H . C . D e b . 1 7 4 7 , 2 4 J u n e 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 4 H . C . D e b . 3 8 4 - 5 , 1 J u l y 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 5 H . C . D e b . 4 2 4 - 5 , 2 2 J u l y 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 5 H . C . D e b . 1 3 4 1 - 2 , 2 8 J u l y 1 9 3 6 . 2 . How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e R e p o r t : 3 1 7 H . C . D e b . 2 5 2 , 5 N o v . 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 8 H . C . D e b . 2 4 6 6 , 16 D e c . 1 9 3 6 ; 3 2 1 H . C . D e b . 3 7 4 , 3 M a r . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 2 H . C . D e b . 9 3 8 - 9 , 14 A p r . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 5 H . C . D e b . 1 9 4 6 , 3 0 J u n e 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 4 H . C . D e b . 9 9 9 -1 0 0 0 , 2 J u n e 1 9 3 7 . 3 . O t h e r : 3 1 2 H . C . D e b . 1 8 4 8 , 2 6 M a y 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 2 H . C . D e b . 2 3 9 2 , 2 9 M a y 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 3 H . C . D e b . 1 3 1 4 , 1 3 2 1 - 3 , 19 J u n e 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 4 H . C . D e b . 2 3 6 , 3 0 J u n e 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 7 H . C . D e b . 1 7 7 2 , 18 N o v . 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 8 H . C . D e b . 4 0 9 - 1 0 , 2 5 N o v . 1 9 3 6 ; 3 1 9 H . C . D e b . 9 4 7 , 2 7 J a n . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 1 9 H . C . D e b . 1 5 8 6 , 3 F e b . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 0 H . C . D e b . 2 0 1 6 , 2 4 F e b . 1 9 3 7 ; 1 5 4 . P a l e s t i n e ( C o n t , ) 3 . O t h e r ( C o n ' t ) 3 2 2 H . C . D e b . 1 7 7 9 - 8 0 , 2 0 A p r . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 6 H . C . D e b . 3 3 0 - 1 , 7 J u l y 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 6 H . C . D e b . 5 8 9 - 9 0 , 8 J u l y 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 6 H . C .  D e b . 8 5 1 - 4 , 12 J u l y 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 6 H . C . D e b . 1 0 5 3 - 4 , 13 J u l y 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 6 H . C . D e b . 1 2 4 5 , 1 4 J u l y 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 6 H . C . D e b . 1 7 7 2 - 5 , 19 J u l y 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 6 H . C . D e b . 1 9 7 0 , 2 0 J u l y 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 6 H . C . D e b . 1 9 9 7 - 8 , 2 0 J u l y 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 6 H . C . D e b . 2 1 9 7 - 8 0 , 2 1 J u l y 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 6 H . C . D e b . 2 2 3 1 , 2 1 J u l y 1 9 3 7 ; 3 2 8 H . C . D e b . 1 1 5 5 , 4 N o v . 1 9 3 7 . V I I I . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n A w a r d s t o I n v e n t o r s ( I ) ( 1 9 1 9 - 1 9 3 7 ) A . A p p o i n t m e n t : B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : C . G o v e r n m e n t S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t : D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s : 3 2 6 H . C . D e b . 2 5 8 0 , 23 J u l y 1 9 3 7 . I X . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n S a f e t y i n C o a l M i n e s A . A p p o i n t m e n t 1 . A n n o u n c e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 3 0 7 H . C . D e b . 4 6 , 3 D e c . 1 9 3 5 . 2 . T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e : 3 0 7 H . C . D e b . 1 5 2 5 - 6 , 1 7 D e c . 1 9 3 5 . 3 . M e m b e r s : 3 0 7 H . C . D e b . 1 5 2 5 , 17 D e c . 1 9 3 5 . B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : 3 4 5 H . C . D e b . 1 1 3 7 , 1 1 3 7 - 1 2 5 0 , 2 1 M a r . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 4 7 H . C . D e b . 2 7 6 0 - 7 0 , 2 6 M a y 1 9 3 9 . C . G o v e r n m e n t S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 3 4 3 H . C . D e b . 2 0 0 - 3 , 1 F e b . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 4 8 H . C . D e b . 1 0 8 2 - 5 , 4 J u l y 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 2 H . C . D e b . 6 5 4 , 17 O c t . 1 9 3 9 . D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s 1 . How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e R e p o r t : 3 1 0 H . C . D e b . 2 7 8 9 , 8 A p r . 1 9 3 6 ; 3 3 0 H . C . D e b . 1 9 8 4 , 2 2 D e c . 1 9 3 7 ; 3 3 3 H . C . D e b . 202-3, 15 M a r . 1 9 3 8 ; 3 3 4 H . C . D e b . 1 6 6 , 5 A p r . 1 9 3 8 ; 3 3 4 H . C . D e b . 5 2 7 , 7 A p r . 1 9 3 8 ; 3 3 5 H . C . D e b . 1 3 8 5 - 6 , 10 M a y 1 9 3 8 ; 3 3 6 H . C . D e b . 2 0 3 , 17 M a y 1 9 3 8 ; 3 4 2 H . C . D e b . 9 7 8 - 9 , 6 D e c . 1 9 3 8 . 2 . A c t i o n o n R e p o r t : 3 4 3 H . C . D e b . 3 8 6 - 7 , 2 F e b . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 2 H . C . D e b . 6 5 4 , 17 O c t . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 5 K . C . D e b . 4 6 4 , 5 D e c . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 5 H . C . D e b . 1 2 2 6 - 7 , 13 D e c . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 8 H . C . D e b . 1 7 8 - 9 , 5 M a r . 1 9 4 0 ; 3 7 0 H . C . D e b . 4 1 9 , 2 5 M a r . 1 9 4 1 ; 4 9 0 H . C . D e b . 2 2 2 , 10 J u l y 1 9 5 1 . X . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n R h o d e s i a a n d N y a s a l a n d A . A p p o i n t m e n t 1 . R e q u e s t f o r A p p o i n t m e n t : 3 2 4 H . C . D e b . 1 0 5 9 - 6 0 , 2 J u n e 1 9 3 7 . 2 . A n n o u n c e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 3 2 9 H . C . D e b . 1 0 2 3 - 5 , 23 N o v . 1 9 3 7 . 3 . T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e : 3 2 9 H . C . D e b . 1 0 2 4 , 23 N o v . 1 9 3 7 . 4 . M e m b e r s : 3 3 1 H . C . D e b . 1 9 0 8 , 16 F e b . 1 9 3 8 ; 3 3 2 H . C . D e b . 1 1 1 4 , 2 M a r . 1 9 3 8 . B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : . 3 4 8 H . C . D e b . 4 4 1 - 2 , 5 3 1 , 5 4 7 , 8 J u n e 1 9 3 9 ; 3 7 6 H . C . D e b . 5 1 4 - 5 , 2 0 N o v . 1 9 4 1 . C . G o v e r n m e n t S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 3 5 2 H . C . D e b . 1 3 8 , 10 O c t . 1 9 3 9 . D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s 1 . A c t i o n o n R e p o r t : 3 4 5 H . C . D e b . 1 1 9 3 , 2 8 M a r . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 4 5 H . C . D e b . 2 6 2 1 , 4 A p r . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 4 8 H . C . D e b . 1 3 2 3 - 4 , 14 J u n e 1 9 3 9 ; 3 4 9 H . C . D e b . 4 0 5 , 2 8 J u n e 1 9 3 9 ; 3 4 9 H . C . D e b . 1 3 0 0 - 1 , 5 J u l y 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 0 H . C . D e b . 2 1 2 4 - 5 , 1 A u g . 1 9 3 9 . 155. Rhodesia and Nyasaland (Cont.) 2. Other: 332 H. C. Deb. 2131, 10 Mar. 1938; 335 H. C. Deb. 1388, 10 May 1938; 348 H. C. Deb. 441, 7 June 1939; 352 H. C. Deb. 138, 10 Oct. 1939; 352 H. C. Deb. 1084, 24 Oct. 1939; 376 H. C. Deb. 1379-80, 9 Dec. 1941. XI. The Royal Commission on the Geographical Distribution of the Industrial Population A. Appointment 1. Requests for Appointment: 321 H. C. Deb. 796-7, 8 Mar. 1937; 321 H. C. Deb. 969-70, 9 Mar. 1937. 2. Announcement of Intent: 321 H. C. Deb. 1027, 9 Mar. 1937. 3. Terms of Reference: 326 H. C. Deb. 342, 7 July 1937. 4. Members: 326 H. C. Deb. 342, 7 July 1937. 5. Debate on Appointment: 321 H. C. Deb. 1031-1116 (inter-mittently), 9 Mar. 1937; 326 H. C. Deb. 242-5 (Intermit-tently), 7 July, 1937. B. Debate on Report: 359 H. C. Deb. 1026-94, 17 Apr. 1940. C. Government Statement of Intent: 377 H. C. Deb. 1531-5, 11 Feb. 1942. D. Other References: 1. How Much Longer Before Appointment: 322 H. C. Deb. 30, 6 Apr. 1937; 324 H. C. Deb. 423, 27 May 1937; 324 H. C.  Deb. 1954-5, 10 June 1937; 325 H. C. Deb. 1972, 30 June 1937. 2. How Much Longer Before Report: 329 H. C. Deb. 2237-8, 2 Dec. 1937; 330 H. C. Deb. 980, 14 Dec. 1937; 331 H. C.  Deb. 1252-3, 10 Feb. 1938; 335 H. C. Deb. 1578-9, 11 May 1938; 337 H. C. Deb. 1255, 23 June 1938; 338 H. C. Deb. 2919, 26 July 1938; 338 H. C. Deb. 3326, 28 July 1938; 340 H. C. Deb. 23-4, 1 Nov. 1938; 341 H. C. Deb. 683-4, 15 Nov. 1938; 341 H. C. Deb. 1753-4, 23 Nov. 1938; 343 H. C. Deb. 369-70, 2 Feb. 1939; 343 H. C. Deb. 770, 7 Feb. 1939; 344 H. C. Deb. 183, 21 Feb. 1939; 345 H. C.  Deb. 211, 14 Mar. 1939; 346 H. C. Deb. 1690, 2 May 1939; 347 H. C. Deb. 2073, 23 May 1939; 248 H. C. Deb. 2004-5, 20 June 1939; 349 H. C. Deb. 813, 29 June 1939; 349 H. C.  Deb. 1112-3, 4 July 1939; 351 H. C. Deb. 1136, 27 Sept. 1939; 352 H. C. Deb. 1387-8, 25 Oct. 1939; 352 H. C. Deb. 1569-70, 26 Oct. 1939; 353 H. C. Deb. 1011-2, 21 Nov. 1939; 356 H. C. Deb. 216, 18 Jan. 1940. 3. Action on Report: 355 H. C. Deb. 810, 7 Dec. 1939; 357 H. C. Deb. 23-4, 6 Feb. 1940; 357 H. C. Deb. 577-8, 13 Feb. 1940; 357 H. C. Deb. 2246, 29 Feb. 1940; 359 H. C. Deb. 563, 10 Apr. 1940; 395 H.C. Deb. 805-6, 7 Dec. 1943. 4. Other: 326 H. C. Deb. 862, 12 July 1937; 326 H. C. Deb. 1972, 20 July 1937; 328 H. C. Deb. 712-4, 2 Nov. 1937; 329 H. C. Deb. 2224, 2 Dec. 1937. XII. The Royal Commission on West India A. Appointment 1. Requests for Appointment: 324 H. C. Deb. 1035-6, 2 June 1937; 331 H. C. Deb. 1041, 9 Feb. 1938. 2. Announcement of Intent: 337 H. C. Deb. 93-4, 14 June 1938. 3. Terms of Reference: 338 K. C. Deb. 3299, 28 July 1938. 1 5 6 . W e s t I n d i a ( C o n t . ) 4 . D e b a t e o n A p p o i n t m e n t : 3 3 7 H . C . D e b . 1 0 2 - 1 1 4 , 1 8 4 , 14 J u n e 1 9 3 8 . B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : 3 5 8 H . C . D e b . 2 1 6 5 - 2 2 1 0 , 2 1 M a r . 1 9 4 0 . C . G o v e r n m e n t S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 3 5 7 H . C . D e b . 1 1 6 4 - 6 , 2 0 F e b . 1 9 4 0 ; 3 6 0 H . C . D e b . 7 0 2 - 3 , 1 M a y 1 9 4 0 . D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s : 1 . How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e A p p o i n t m e n t : 3 3 8 H . C . D e b . 3 7 0 -1, 6 J u l y 1 9 3 8 ; 3 8 8 H . C . D e b . 2 1 7 7 - 8 , 2 0 J u l y 1 9 3 8 . 2 . How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e R e p o r t : 3 4 4 H . C . D e b . 2 1 2 8 , 8 M a r . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 4 6 H . C . D e b . 5 3 0 , 2 0 A p r . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 4 9 H . C . D e b . 4 1 5 - 6 , 2 8 J u n e 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 1 H . C . D e b . 1 3 2 1 , 2 7 S e p t . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 2 H . C . D e b . 3 1 3 , 11 O c t . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 2 H . C . D e b . 5 2 2 , 12 O c t . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 3 H . C . D e b . 1 2 0 6 - 7 , 2 2 N o v . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 7 H . C . D e b . 1 3 2 7 , 2 1 F e b . 1 9 4 0 . 3 . A c t i o n o n R e p o r t : 4 4 5 H . C . D e b . 4 0 6 - 8 , 15 M a r . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 2 H . C . D e b . 1 7 6 8 , 3 1 O c t . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 7 H . C . D e b . 2 0 3 , 7 F e b . 1 9 4 0 ; 3 5 7 H . C . D e b . 1 5 6 2 - 3 , 2 2 F e b . 1 9 4 0 ; 3 6 0 H . C . D e b . 1 4 3 3 - 4 , 9 M a y 1 9 4 0 ; 3 6 3 H . C . D e b . 7 9 6 , 2 4 J u l y 1 9 4 0 . 4 . O t h e r : 3 3 8 H . C . D e b . 4 0 0 , 6 J u l y 1 9 3 8 ; 3 4 1 H . C . D e b . 1 7 4 5 - 6 , 23 N o v . 1 9 3 8 ; 3 5 7 H . C . D e b . 2 0 5 2 - 3 , 2 8 F e b . 1 9 4 0 ; 3 9 7 H . C . D e b . 2 0 3 4 - 5 , 8 M a r . 1 9 4 4 ; 4 0 9 H . C . D e b . 1 8 3 1 , 11 A p r . 1 9 4 5 ; 4 1 4 H . C . D e b . 1 0 4 , 9 O c t . 1 9 4 5 . X I I I . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n W o r k m e n ' s C o m p e n s a t i o n A . A p p o i n t m e n t 1. A n n o u n c e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 3 3 7 H . C . D e b . 1 0 6 4 - 6 , 2 2 J u n e 1 9 3 8 . 2 . T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e : 3 4 1 H . C . D e b . 5 0 6 , 14 N o v . 1 9 3 8 . , 3 . M e m b e r s : 3 4 1 H . C . D e b . 5 0 6 , 14 N o v . 1 9 3 8 ; 3 4 2 H . C . D e b . 2 1 6 4 - 5 , 15 D e c . 1 9 3 8 . 4 . D e b a t e o n A p p o i n t m e n t : 3 4 3 H . C . D e b . 1 0 3 2 - 8 8 , 8 F e b . 1 9 3 9 . B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : ( N o R e p o r t ) C . G o v e r n m e n t S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t : D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s 1. How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e A p p o i n t m e n t : 3 3 7 H . C . D e b . 2 1 0 4 -5 , 3 0 J u n e 1 9 3 8 ; 3 3 8 H . C . D e b . 5 7 0 - 1 , 7 J u l y 1 9 3 8 ; 3 3 8 H . C . D e b . 2 4 0 5 , 2 1 J u l y 1 9 3 8 ; 3 3 8 H . C . D e b . 3 0 9 4 , 27 J u l y 1 9 3 8 ; 3 4 1 H . C . D e b . 1 0 8 6 , 17 N o v . 1 9 3 8 ; 3 4 2 H . C . D e b . 2 9 , 2 8 N o v . 1 9 3 8 ; 3 4 2 H . C . D e b . 1 1 6 7 , 7 D e c . 1 9 3 8 . 2 . How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e R e p o r t : 3 4 9 H . C . D e b . 9 2 6 - 7 , 3 J u l y 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 0 H . C . D e b . 7 3 6 , 2 0 J u l y 1 9 3 9 . 3 . W i l l G o v e r n m e n t A c t B e f o r e R e p o r t : 3 4 3 H . C . D e b . 1 9 0 3 , 16 F e b . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 4 4 H . C . D e b . 1 2 6 6 - 8 , 1 M a r . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 4 6 H . C . D e b . 1 1 7 4 , 2 6 A p r . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 4 7 H . C . D e b . 6 8 4 - 5 , 11 M a y 1 9 3 9 ; 3 4 8 H . C . D e b . 5 8 4 - 6 , 8 J u n e 1 9 3 9 ; 3 4 9 H . C . D e b . 6 2 3 - 4 , 2 9 J u n e 1 9 3 9 ; 3 4 9 H . C . D e b . 1 8 0 4 - 6 , 10 J u l y 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 1 H . C . D e b . 1 8 2 1 , 3 O c t . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 2 H . C . D e b . 1 0 6 7 - 8 , 19 O c t . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 6 H . C . D e b . 7 7 8 , 2 5 J a n . 1 9 4 0 . 4 . O t h e r : 3 4 2 H . C . D e b . 2 9 0 1 - 2 , 2 1 D e c . 1 9 3 8 ; 3 4 7 H . C . D e b . 1 0 0 8 - 9 , 15 M a y 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 1 H . C . D e b . 1 9 7 7 , 4 O c t . 1 9 3 9 ; 3 5 6 H . C . D e b . 4 1 4 , 2 3 J a n . 1 9 4 0 ; 3 7 0 H . C . D e b . 1 6 8 3 - 4 , 10 A p r . 1 9 4 1 ; 3 7 1 H . C . D e b . 3 7 1 , 2 3 A p r . 1 9 4 1 . 1 5 7 . X I V . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n E q u a l P a y A . A p p o i n t m e n t 1. R e q u e s t s f o r A p p o i n t m e n t : 3 9 8 H . C . D e b . 1 8 0 6 - 8 , 4 A p r . 1 9 4 4 ; 3 9 9 H . C . D e b . 2 5 , 18 A p r . 1 9 4 4 . 2 . A n n o u n c e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 3 9 9 H . C . D e b . 1 7 0 9 - 1 0 , 9 M a y 1 9 4 4 . 3 . T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e : 4 0 2 H . C . D e b . 1 3 8 1 , 2 A u g . 1 9 4 4 . 4 . M e m b e r s : 4 0 3 H . C . D e b . 2 8 , 2 6 S e p t . 1 9 4 4 ; 4 0 3 H . C . D e b . 1 9 6 1 , 12 O c t . 1 9 4 4 . B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : C . G o v e r n m e n t S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 4 3 8 H . C . D e b . 1 0 6 9 - 7 5 , 6 J u n e 1 9 4 7 . D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s 1. How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e A p p o i n t m e n t : 4 0 0 H . C . D e b . 1 2 0 0 - 1 , 6 J u n e 1 9 4 4 ; 4 0 0 H . C . D e b . 2 1 5 6 , 15 J u n e 1 9 4 4 ; 4 0 1 H . C . D e b . 2 0 2 , 2 1 J u n e 1 9 4 4 ; 4 0 1 H . C . D e b . 7 2 2 , 2 8 J u n e 1 9 4 4 ; 4 0 1 H . C . D e b . 1 3 4 0 , 6 J u n e 1 9 4 4 ; 4 0 2 H . C ? D e b . 1 8 8 , 19 J u l y 1 9 4 4 ; 4 0 2 H . C . D e b . 7 5 8 , 2 6 J u l y 1 9 4 4 . 2 . How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e R e p o r t : 4 1 5 H . C . D e b . 4 1 4 , 3 1 O c t . 1 9 4 5 ; 4 1 5 H . C . D e b . 7 6 8 , 1 N o v ' . 1 9 4 5 ; 4 1 5 H . C . D e b . 1 5 6 9 , 8 N o v . 1 9 4 5 ; 4 1 5 H . C . D e b . 1 9 1 5 , 13 N o v . 1 9 4 5 ; 4 1 7 H . C . D e b . 9 2 0 - 1 , 17 D e c . 1 9 4 5 ; 4 1 8 H . C . D e b . 6 8 2 , 2 9 J a n . 1 9 4 6 ; 4 2 0 H . C . D e b . 8 8 , 6 M a r . 1 9 4 6 ; 4 1 9 H . C . D e b . 1 1 0 7 , 2 A p r . 1 9 4 6 ; 4 2 1 H . C . D e b . 4 8 6 . 18 A p r . 1 9 4 6 ; 4 2 2 H . C . D e b . 3 4 0 , 2 M a y 1 9 4 6 ; 4 2 4 H . C . D e b . 1 2 4 . 2 4 J u n e 1 9 4 6 ; 4 2 4 H . C . D e b . 2 0 5 . 2 6 J u n e 1 9 4 6 ; 4 2 5 H . C . D e b . 1 7 2 . 16 J u l y 1 9 4 6 ; 4 2 6 H . C . D e b . 1 2 7 - 8 . 3 0 J u l y 1 9 4 6 ; 4 2 7 H . C . D e b . 3 6 2 , 10 O c t . 1 9 4 6 ; 4 2 8 H . C . D e b . 1 2 1 7 , 5 N o v . 1 9 4 6 . 3 . A c t i o n o n R e p o r t : 4 3 0 H . C . D e b . 5 1 , 18 N o v . 1 9 4 6 ; 4 3 0 H . C . D e b . 1 0 2 2 , 2 1 N o v . 1 9 4 6 ; 4 3 0 H . C . D e b . 2 2 2 . 2 5 N o v . 1 9 4 6 ; 4 3 1 H . C . D e b . 4 0 8 . 18 D e c . 1 9 4 6 ; 4 3 7 H . C . D e b . 3 2 , 6 M a y 1 9 4 7 ; 4 3 8 H . C . D e b . 2 3 , 3 J u n e 1 9 4 7 ; 4 3 8 H . C . D e b . 8 1 , 10 J u n e 1 9 4 7 . 4 . O t h e r : 4 0 8 H . C . D e b . 9 5 9 - 6 0 , 2 2 F e b . 1 9 4 5 ; 7 1 4 H . C . D e b . 1 9 0 4 - 1 2 , 2 3 J u n e 1 9 6 5 . X V . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e J u s t i c e s o f t h e P e a c e A . A p p o i n t m e n t 1. A n n o u n c e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 4 1 6 H . C . D e b . 7 7 2 , 2 2 N o v . 1 9 4 5 . 2 . T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e : 4 2 4 H . C . D e b . 6 8 4 - 5 , 2 4 J u n e 1 9 4 6 . 3 . M e m b e r s : 4 2 4 H . C . D e b . 6 8 3 . 2 4 J u n e 1 9 4 6 . B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : C . G o v e r n m e n t S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 4 5 7 H . C . D e b . 7 , 2 6 O c t . 1 9 4 8 . D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s 1. How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e R e p o r t : 4 4 3 H . C . D e b . 1 2 7 . 3 N o v . 1 9 4 7 ; 4 4 5 H . C . D e b . 3 9 1 - 2 . 18 D e c . 1 9 4 7 ; 4 4 6 H . C . D e b . 1 9 0 0 , 5 F e b . 1 9 4 8 ; 4 4 8 H . " " b . D e b . 8 5 , 4 M a r . 1 9 4 8 ; 4 5 0 H . C . D e b . 9 0 6 - 8 , 3 M a y 1 9 4 8 ; 4 5 4 H . C . D e b . 5 2 , 2 2 J u l y 1 9 4 8 . 2 . O t h e r : 4 2 4 H . C . D e b . 1 7 8 1 - 2 , 1 J u l y 1 9 4 6 ; 4 3 5 H . C . D e b . 2 3 2 . 27 M a r . 1 9 4 7 ; 4 3 5 H . C . D e b . 2 3 1 1 - 2 4 , 3 A p r . 1 9 4 7 ; 7 2 3 H . C . D e b . 2 5 5 . 2 F e b . 1 9 6 6 ; 7 5 7 H . C . D e b . 2 2 6 , 2 3 J a n . 1 9 6 8 . 1 5 8 . X V I . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n P o p u l a t i o n A . A p p o i n t m e n t 1. A n n o u n c e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 3 9 5 H . C . D e b . 3 7 0 , 1 D e c . 1 9 4 3 . 2 . T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e : 3 9 5 H . C . D e b . 3 7 0 , 1 D e c . 1 9 4 3 . 3 . M e m b e r s : 3 9 5 H . C . D e b . 3 7 0 , 1 D e c . 1 9 4 3 ; 3 9 7 H . C . D e b . 1 5 7 2 - 4 , 2 M a r . 1 9 4 4 . 4 . D e b a t e o n A p p o i n t m e n t : 4 1 8 H . C . D e b . 1 4 3 9 - 4 7 , 4 F e b . 1 9 4 6 . B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : C . G o v e r n m e n t S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t : D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s 1 . How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e R e p o r t : 4 0 4 H . C . D e b . 3 4 1 , 2 6 O c t . 1 9 4 4 ; 4 0 9 H . C . D e b . 3 8 1 , 15 M a r . 1 9 4 5 ; 4 1 6 H . C . 4 0 1 , 2 0 N o v . 1 9 4 5 ; 4 3 3 H . C . D e b . 5 1 1 - 1 2 , 13 F e b . 1 9 4 7 ; 4 3 3 H . C . D e b . 3 0 3 , 2 6 F e b . 1 9 4 7 ; 4 4 3 H . C . D e b . 2 1 2 4 , 2 7 N o v . 1 9 4 7 ; 4 4 7 H . C . D e b . 2 4 6 . 19 F e b . 1 9 4 8 ; 4 4 9 H . C . D e b . 1 6 6 , 22 A p r . 1 9 4 8 ; 4 5 0 H . C . D e b . 2 3 1 . 13 M a y 1 9 4 8 ; 4 5 3 H . C . D e b . 4 1 , 8 J u l y 1 9 4 8 ; 4 5 4 H . C . D e b . 1 5 , 19 J u l y 1 9 4 8 . 2 . A c t i o n o n R e p o r t : 4 6 6 H . C . D e b . 4 4 6 , 23 J u n e 1 9 4 9 ; 4 6 7 H . C . D e b . 3 3 , 14 J u l y 1 9 4 9 ; 6 4 9 H . C . D e b . 9 4 - 5 , 2 0 N o v . 1 9 6 1 . 3 . O t h e r : 3 9 7 H . C . D e b . 1 8 8 1 , 7 M a r . 1 9 4 4 ; 3 9 8 H . C . D e b . 2 2 0 2 , 6 A p r . 1 9 4 4 ; 3 9 9 H . C . D e b . 2 1 0 - 1 , 19 A p r . 1 9 4 4 ; 4 6 7 H . C . D e b . 1 0 4 , 2 6 J u l y 1 9 4 9 ; 4 7 7 H . C . D e b . 6 4 3 , 6 J u l y 1 9 5 0 . X V I I . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n t h e P r e s s ( I ) ( 1 9 4 7 - 1 9 4 9 ) A . A p p o i n t m e n t 1 . R e q u e s t s f o r A p p o i n t m e n t : 4 2 2 H . C . D e b . 2 8 - 9 , 3 0 A p r . 1 9 4 6 ; 4 2 5 H . C . D e b . 1 1 3 3 - 9 , 16 J u l y 1 9 4 6 ; 4 2 7 H . C . D e b . 2 3 - 4 , 8 O c t . 1 9 4 6 . 2 . A n n o u n c e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 4 2 5 H . C . D e b . 1 0 8 4 - 5 , 16 J u l y 1 9 4 6 . 3 . T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e : 4 3 5 H . C . D e b . 1 2 3 2 , 2 6 M a r . 1 9 4 7 . 4 . M e m b e r s : 4 3 5 H . C . D e b . 1 2 3 2 , 2 6 M a r . 1 9 4 7 . 5 . D e b a t e o n A p p o i n t m e n t : 4 2 8 H . C . D e b . 4 5 2 - 7 8 , 2 9 O c t . 1 9 4 6 . B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : 4 6 7 H . C . D e b . 2 6 8 3 - 2 7 9 4 , 2 8 J u l y 1 9 4 9 . C . G o v e r n m e n t S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 4 6 7 H . C . D e b . 2 6 8 3 , 2 6 9 7 , 2 8 J u l y 1 9 4 9 . D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s 1. How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e A p p o i n t m e n t : 4 3 4 H . C . D e b . 9 4 8 , 10 M a r . 1 9 4 7 . . 2 . How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e R e p o r t : 4 5 3 H . C . D e b . 1 0 1 0 - 1 , 13 J u l y 1 9 4 8 ; 4 6 3 H . C . D e b . 2 4 7 . 13 A p r . 1 9 4 9 . 3 . A c t i o n o n R e p o r t : 4 6 8 H . C . D e b . 1 0 0 6 , 2 4 O c t . 1 9 4 9 ; 5 0 8 H . C . D e b . 9 6 2 - 1 0 6 0 , 2 8 N o v . 1 9 5 2 . 4 . O t h e r : 4 3 5 H . C . D e b . 1 6 5 3 - 4 , 3 1 M a r . 1 9 4 7 ; 4 9 3 H . C . D e b . 2 0 2 - 4 , 2 4 J u n e 1 9 4 7 ; 4 4 4 H . C . D e b . 1 6 0 . 18 N o v . 1 9 4 7 ; 4 5 1 H . C . D e b . 3 0 , 2 7 M a y 1 9 4 8 ; 4 6 7 H . C . D e b . 5 1 , 18 J u l y 1 9 4 9 ; 5 1 1 H . C . D e b . 2 2 9 2 , 2 6 F e b . 1 9 5 3 . 1 5 9 . X V I I I . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n B e t t i n g , L o t t e r i e s a n d G a m i n g A . A p p o i n t m e n t 1 . R e q u e s t s f o r A p p o i n t m e n t : 4 3 5 H . C . D e b . 1 8 2 9 - 3 0 , 1 A p r . 1 9 4 7 ; 4 5 3 H . C . D e b . 1 9 9 , 6 J u l y 1 9 4 8 ; 4 5 8 H . C . D e b . 1 6 2 9 - 3 0 , 2 9 N o v . 1 9 4 8 ; 4 6 0 H . C . D e b . 9 1 9 , 2 6 J a n . 1 9 4 9 . 2 . A n n o u n c e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 4 6 1 H . C . D e b . 5 2 7 , 1 0 F e b . 1 9 4 9 . 3 . T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e : 4 6 1 H . C . D e b . 5 2 7 , 1 0 F e b . 1 9 4 9 . 4 . M e m b e r s : 4 6 1 H . C . D e b . 5 2 7 , 10 F e b . 1 9 4 9 ; 4 6 3 H . C . D e b . 2 0 2 5 , 14 A p r . 1 9 4 9 . B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : 5 4 9 H . C . D e b . 2 4 8 7 - 2 5 7 8 , 9 M a r . 1 9 5 6 . C . G o v e r n m e n t S t a t e m e n t s o f I n t e n t : 5 0 9 H . C . D e b . 6 5 0 - 1 , 11 D e c . 1 9 5 2 ; 5 2 0 H . C . D e b . 7 5 , 12 N o v . 1 9 5 3 ; 6 1 3 H . C . D e b . 8 0 5 , 16 N o v . 1 9 5 9 . D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s : 1 . How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e R e p o r t : 4 8 5 H . C . D e b . 3 2 3 , 2 2 M a r . 1 9 5 1 . 2 . P r i v a t e M e m b e r s ' B i l l s : 5 2 2 H . C . D e b . 2 1 0 9 - 3 4 , 2 9 J a n . 1 9 5 4 ; 5 2 3 H . C . D e b . 1 5 7 9 - 6 0 7 , 12 F e b . 1 9 5 4 ; 5 2 7 H . C . D e b . 7 6 0 - 8 0 4 , 7 M a y 1 9 5 4 ; 7 3 7 H . C . D e b . 8 1 4 - 4 0 , 18 F e b . 1 9 5 5 ; 5 4 5 H . C . D e b . 1 8 5 1 , 9 N o v . 1 9 5 5 ; 5 4 6 H . C . D e b . 1 8 0 3 - 7 1 , 25 N o v . 1 9 5 5 ; 5 5 1 H . C . D e b . 5 5 2 - 6 3 6 , 13 A p r . 1 9 5 6 ; 5 8 8 H . C . D e b . 8 3 6 - 5 6 , 16 M a y 1 9 5 8 ; 5 9 5 H . C . D e b . 4 0 8 , 12 N o v . 1 9 5 8 ; 6 0 1 H . C . D e b . 1 6 1 8 - 1 7 0 3 , 13 M a r . 1 9 5 9 ; 6 0 4 H . C . D e b . 8 5 8 - 9 , 2 4 A p r . 1 9 5 9 . X I X . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n U n i v e r s i t y E d u c a t i o n i n D u n d e e A . A p p o i n t m e n t 1 . A n n o u n c e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 4 8 7 H . C . D e b . 1 4 1 3 , 3 M a y 1 9 5 1 . 2 . T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e : 4 8 7 H . C . D e b . 1 4 1 3 , 3 M a y 1 9 5 1 . 3 . M e m b e r s : 4 8 7 H . C . D e b . 1 4 1 3 , 3 M a y 1 9 5 1 . B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : 5 1 7 H . C . D e b . 1 7 9 6 - 1 8 4 2 , 13 J u l y 1 9 5 3 ( i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S t . A n d r e w s B i l l ) . C . G o v e r n m e n t S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t : D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s : 4 9 9 H . C . D e b . 9 8 , 3 0 A p r . 1 9 5 2 . X X . T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n C a p i t a l P u n i s h m e n t A . A p p o i n t m e n t 1 . A n n o u n c e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 4 5 8 H . C . D e b . 5 6 5 , 18 N o v . 1 9 4 8 . 2 . T e r m s o f R e f e r e n c e : 4 6 0 H . C . D e b . 3 2 9 , 2 0 J a n . 1 9 4 9 . 3 . M e m b e r s : 4 6 0 H . C . D e b . 3 2 9 , 2 0 J a n . 1 9 4 9 ; 4 6 4 H . C .  D e b . 3 5 5 ' , 2 8 A p r . 1 9 4 9 . B . D e b a t e o n R e p o r t : 5 3 6 H . C . D e b . 2 0 6 4 - 2 1 8 3 , 10 F e b . 1 9 5 5 ; 5 4 8 H . C . D e b . 2 5 3 6 - 2 6 5 6 , 16 F e b . 1 9 5 6 . C . G o v e r n m e n t S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t : 5 3 6 H . C . D e b . 2 0 6 5 - 7 2 , 10 F e b . 1 9 5 5 . D . O t h e r R e f e r e n c e s 1. How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e A p p o i n t m e n t : 4 6 4 H . C . D e b . 4 2 , 2 M a y 1 9 4 9 . 160. C a p i t a l P u n i s h m e n t ( C o n t . ) 2 . How M u c h L o n g e r B e f o r e R e p o r t : 4 9 4 H . C . D e b . 5 5 7 , 2 2 N o v . 1 9 5 1 ; 4 9 7 H . C . D e b . 1 4 6 , 13 M a r . 1 9 5 2 ; 4 9 8 H . C .  D e b . 8 0 7 - 8 , 2 7 M a r . 1 9 5 2 ; 5 0 2 H . C . D e b . 4 9 , 12 J u n e 1 9 5 2 ; 5 0 5 H . C . D e b . 1 4 6 , 2 3 O c t . 1 9 5 2 ; 5 0 8 H . C . D e b . 7 7 - 8 , 2 7 N o v . 1 9 5 2 ; 5 1 0 H . C . D e b . 4 0 , 2 1 J a n . 1 9 5 3 ; 5 1 1 H . C . D e b . 2 2 8 9 - 9 0 , 2 6 F e b . 1 9 5 3 ; 5 1 4 H . C . D e b . 3 6 5 , 16 A p r . 1 9 5 3 ; 5 1 5 H . C . D e b . 3 3 , 7 M a y 1 9 5 3 ; 5 1 7 H . C . D e b . 5 7 7 - 8 , 2 J u l y 1 9 5 3 ; 5