UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Effects of father absence on scholastic aptitude and achievement Simpson, Richard Lee 1969

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EFFECTS OF FATHER ABSENCE ON SCHOLASTIC APTITUDE AND ACHIEVEMENT by RICHARD LEE SIMPSON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Psycho 1ogy We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as con fo rm ing to the r e q u i r e d s t anda rd . THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1969 In present ing th is thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and Study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of th is thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of Psychology. The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i 1 , 1 9 6 9 . A B S T R A C T A s t u d y was c a r r i e d o u t t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t o f p a r e n t a l a b s e n c e u p o n a c h i l d ' s s u b s e q u e n t v e r b a l a n d n u m e r i c a l a p t i t u d e . T h e p r i m a r y f o c u s was o n f a t h e r -s e p a r a t e d c h i l d r e n ( b o t h m a l e a n d ' f e m a l e ) , b u t s m a l l s a m p l e s o f s t u d e n t s who had b e e n s e p a r a t e d f r o m m o t h e r o r f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s w e r e i n c l u d e d . A g e o f s e p a r a t i o n ( u p t o s i x y e a r s o l d ) , a n d l e n g t h o f s e p a r a t i o n ( t h r e e m o n t h s o r l o n g e r ) , w e r e t h e p r i m a r y i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n v e s t i -g a t e d . T h e n e c e s s a r y i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d f r o m q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s t h a t w e r e m a i l e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 , 0 0 0 f i r s t y e a r U n i v e r s i t y o f B . C . s t u d e n t s ( a c a d e m i c s e s s i o n 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 ) . T h e a g e a n d l e n g t h o f s e p a r a t i o n was s u b s e q u e n t l y v e r i f i e d i n a s e p a r a t e l e t t e r t o t h e p a r e n t s . V e r b a l a n d n u m e r i c a l a p t i t u d e was m e a s u r e d by t h e C o o p e r a t i v e S c h o o l a n d C o l l e g e A b i l i t y T e s t ( S C A T ) , a n d t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s o b t a i n e d i n f i r s t y e a r u n i v e r s i t y E n g l i s h a n d M a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s . T h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s d e m o n s t r a t e d g r e a t e r a p t i t u d e i n v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t i e s . T h e l e n g t h o f t h e s e p a r a t i o n was i n s i g n i f i c a n t , b u t a s e p a r a t i o n a f t e r t h e c h i l d was e i g h t e e n m o n t h s o l d p r o d u c e d a g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e i n v e r b a l s k i l l s ( r e l a t i v e t o i i i n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y ) , t h a n a s e p a r a t i o n b e f o r e e i g h t e e n m o n t h s . F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s a t t a i n e d a h i g h e r mean s c o r e i n t h e f i r s t y e a r E n g l i s h c o u r s e t h a n s t u d e n t s f r o m i n t a c t h o m e s . T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n mean m a t h e m a t i c a l s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by t h e two g r o u p s . T h e p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f b r o t h e r s i n t h e homes o f f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s d i d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t . F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d f e m a l e s t u d e n t s d e m o n s t r a t e d g r e a t e r p r o f i c i e n c y i n v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t i e s . T h i s s u p e r i o r i t y o f v e r b a l a p t i t u d e r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a p t i t u d e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h a t d e m o n s t r a t e d by g i r l s who h a d n o t b e e n s e p a r a t e d f r o m a p a r e n t . T h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e two i n d e -p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , a g e a n d l e n g t h o f s e p a r a t i o n , w e r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b s e r v e d f o r m a l e s . T h e s a m p l e s o f s t u d e n t s who w e r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m m o t h e r o r b o t h p a r e n t s d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d w e r e t o o s m a l l t o p e r m i t m e a n i n g f u l a n a l y s e s . Some i n t e r e s t i n g t r e n d s i n t h e d a t a w e r e d i s c u s s e d . ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o D r . D. T. K e n n y a n d D r . E . I. S i g n o r i w h o s e a d v i c e , c r i t i c i s m a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t made t h i s s t u d y p o s s i b l e . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 1 T h e G e n e r a l Problem . . 1 T h e o r e t i c a l Framework 1 I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 4 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and S e x - R o l e Development 6 Mother Absence and A p t i t u d e 19 Summary 20 I I I . HYPOTHESES 24 Genera l H y p o t h e s i s 24 S p e c i f i c P r e d i c t i o n s 24 IV. METHOD 29 S u b j e c t s 29 Measures Used 32 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 32 V e r i f i c a t i o n L e t t e r 33 C o o p e r a t i v e Schoo l and C o l l e g e A b i l i t y Te s t (SCAT) 34 F i n a l Exam Marks i n E n g l i s h and Mathemati cs 37 P rocedu re 39 v i CHAPTER PAGE V. RESULTS 42 P r e d i c t i o n One 46 P r e d i c t i o n Two 51 P r e d i c t i o n T h r e e 55 P r e d i c t i o n F o u r . . . . . 64 P r e d i c t i o n F i v e 64 P r e d i c t i o n S i x 65 P r e d i c t i o n S e v e n 65 P r e d i c t i o n E i g h t 69 P r e d i c t i o n N i n e 69 V I . DISCUSSION 78 G e n e r a l F i n d i ngs 78 V I I . SUMMARY 87 V I I I . IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 95 REFERENCES 100 APPENDIX A S a m p l i n g P r o c e d u r e 107 APPENDIX B New A r t s One P r o j e c t 113 APPENDIX C Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1 "14 APPENDIX D Summary o f F i r s t Y e a r T e s t S t a t i s t i c s on t h e S c h o o l and C o l l e g e A b i l i t y T e s t 116 APPENDIX E C o n v e r s i o n o f SCAT S c o r e s t o T - S c o r e s . 117 L I S T OF T A B L E S T A B L E PAGE I . N u m b e r o f S t u d e n t s R e c e i v i n g Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 31 I I . N u m b e r o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s R e t u r n e d ( b y F a c u l t y ) 40 I I I . N umber o f S t u d e n t s S e p a r a t e d f r o m P a r e n t s D u r i n g C h i l d h o o d 43 I V . N u m b e r o f P a r e n t - S e p a r a t e d S t u d e n t s i n E a c h D i s c i p l i n e 45 V. R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n L e n g t h o f F a t h e r ' s A b s e n c e a n d S o n ' s M a t h e m a t i c a l a n d V e r b a l A p t i t u d e 47 V I . R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n S o n ' s A g e when F a t h e r D e p a r t e d a n d M a t h e m a t i c a l a n d V e r b a l A p t i t u d e 47 V I I . R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n S o n ' s A g e when F a t h e r D e p a r t e d a n d S o n ' s M a t h e m a t i c a l a n d V e r b a l A p t i t u d e ( R e v i s e d c a t e g o r i e s ) . 49 V I I I . R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n S o n ' s A g e when F a t h e r D e p a r t e d a n d L e n g t h o f A b s e n c e . . 50 I X . R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n A p t i t u d e S c o r e s f o r F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d a n d P a r e n t - P r e s e n t G i r l s 53 X. R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n L e n g t h o f F a t h e r ' s A b s e n c e a n d D a u g h t e r ' s M a t h e m a t i c a l a n d V e r b a l A p t i t u d e 54 v i i i T A B L E PAGE X I . R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n D a u g h t e r ' s A g e when F a t h e r D e p a r t e d a n d M a t h e m a t i c a l a n d V e r b a l A p t i t u d e 54 X I I . R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n D a u g h t e r ' s A g e when F a t h e r D e p a r t e d a n d D a u g h t e r ' s M a t h e -m a t i c a l a n d V e r b a l A p t i t u d e ( r e v i s e d c a t e g o r i e s ) -56 X I I I . R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n D a u g h t e r ' s A g e when F a t h e r D e p a r t e d a n d L e n g t h o f A b s e n c e . . . 57 X I V . V a r i a b l e s U s e d t o M a t c h t h e Two G r o u p s . . . 60 XV. Number o f S t u d e n t s O b t a i n i n g H i g h e r V e r b a l o r N u m e r i c a l S c o r e s f o r t h e 22 M a t c h e d P a i r s o f S u b j e c t s 61 X V I . F a t h e r - S e p a r a t e d S t u d e n t s ( b y D i s c i p l i n e ) . . 63 X V I I . R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n A p t i t u d e S c o r e s f o r F a t h e r - S e p a r a t e d M a l e s w i t h a n d w i t h o u t O l d e r B r o t h e r s a n d F a t h e r - P r e s e n t M a l e S t u d e n t s 67 X V I I I . R e l a t i o n s h i p B e t w e e n A p t i t u d e S c o r e s f o r F a t h e r - S e p a r a t e d M a l e s w i t h O l d e r B r o t h e r s a n d a M a t c h e d S a m p l e o f F a t h e r - P r e s e n t M a l e S t u d e n t s 67 X V I X . M o t h e r - S e p a r a t e d S t u d e n t s ( b y D i s c i p l i n e ) . . 72 ix TABLE PAGE XX. N u m e r i c a l and V e r b a l A v e r a g e S c o r e s f o r M o t h e r - S e p a r a t e d S t u d e n t s 73 X X I . S t u d e n t s S e p a r a t e d f r o m B o t h P a r e n t s D u r i n g C h i l d h o o d ( b y F a c u l t y ) 75 X X I I . N u m e r i c a l and V e r b a l A v e r a g e S c o r e s f o r S t u d e n t s S e p a r a t e d f r o m B o t h P a r e n t s . . . 76 X X I I I . T o t a l Number o f 1 s t Y e a r S t u d e n t s i n E a c h F a c u l t y ( 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 ) 108 XXIV. Number o f S t u d e n t s i n E a c h F a c u l t y C o m p l e t i n g U.B.C. T e s t B a t t e r y ( 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 ) . 109 XXV. Summary o f F i r s t Y e a r T e s t S t a t i s t i c s on t h e S c h o o l and C o l l e g e A b i l i t y T e s t (1 9 6 7 -68) 1 1 6 L I S T OF FIGURES FIGURES PAGE 1. G r a p h i c M e t h o d o f S c a l i n g SCAT ( M a l e s V e r b a l ) S c o r e s t o T - S c o r e s 118 2. G r a p h i c M e t h o d o f S c a l i n g SCAT ( F e m a l e s V e r b a l ) S c o r e s t o T - S c o r e s 119 3. G r a p h i c M e t h o d o f S c a l i n g SCAT ( M a l e s N u m e r i c a l ) S c o r e s t o T - S c o r e s 120 4. G r a p h i c M e t h o d o f S c a l i n g SCAT ( F e m a l e s N u m e r i c a l ) S c o r e s t o T - S c o r e s 121 CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND The G e n e r a l P r o b l e m A p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t i s h i g h l y d e p e n d e n t upon e n v i r o n -m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . A s t u d y done by K u c k e n b e r g i n 1963 f o r a P h . D . t h e s i s , and s u b s e q u e n t l y p u b l i s h e d u n d e r h e r m a r r i e d name, C a r l s m i t h ( 1 9 6 4 ) , i n d i c a t e s t h a t one o f t h e s e c o n d i -t i o n s i s p a r e n t a l a b s e n c e f r o m t h e home d u r i n g some p o r t i o n o f t h e c h i l d ' s e a r l y f o r m a t i v e y e a r s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e f a t h e r a f f e c t s a c h i l d ' s s e x - r o l e d e v e l o p m e n t , w h i c h i n t u r n d i f f e r e n t i a l l y a f f e c t s t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f n u m e r i c a l and v e r b a l s k i l l s . The c e n t r a l f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s u b s e q u e n t m a t h e m a t i c a l and v e r b a l a p t i t u d e s c o r e s a t t a i n e d by c h i l d r e n who we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m f a t h e r d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d . T h e o r e t i c a l F r a m e w o r k The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s a r e p l i c a t i o n and e x t e n s i o n o f t h e s t u d y done by C a r l s m i t h . She r e v i e w e d p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h i n t h e f i e l d o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and f a t h e r a b s e n c e , a r r i v i n g a t t h e f o l l o w i n g summary c o n c l u s i o n s : 1. F e m a l e s a r e g e n e r a l l y s u p e r i o r t o m a l e s i n v e r b a l a p t i t u d e s , w h i l e m a l e s a r e g e n e r a l l y s u p e r i o r t o f e m a l e s i n q u a n t i t a t i v e a p t i t u d e s . 2 . F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d boy s d e m o n s t r a t e more u n d e r l y i n g 2 f e m i n i n e t r a i t s t h a n boy s who have n o t been s e p a r a t e d f r o m f a t h e r . 3 . Boy s and g i r l s who o b t a i n h i g h " m a s c u l i n i t y " s c o r e s on m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i t y s c a l e s d e m o n s t r a t e s u p e r i o r p r o b l e m s o l v i n g a b i l i t y . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e p r e m i s e s C a r l s m i t h p o s t u l a t e d t h a t a p t i t u d e p a t t e r n s w o u l d p r o v i d e a u s e f u l i n d e x o f m a s c u l i n e o r f e m i n i n e s e x - r o l e i d e n t i t y . S c h o l a s t i c A p t i t u d e T e s t ( SAT) s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by H a r v a r d f r e s h m e n ( c l a s s e s o f 1963 and 1964) we re u s ed by C a r l s m i t h as i n d i c e s o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s m a t h e m a t i c a l and n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t i e s . The S c h o l a s t i c A p t i t u d e T e s t y i e l d s two m e a s u r e s , a v e r b a l and m a t h e m a t i c a l s c o r e . The s c o r e s a r e r e p o r t e d on a s c a l e o f 200 t o 8 0 0 , w i t h an a v e r a g e o f 5 0 0 . She r e p o r t s t h a t f o r t h e e n t i r e H a r v a r d f r e s h m e n c l a s s o f 1964 ( n = 1 1 8 0 ) , t h e m e d i a n Math and V e r b a l a p t i t u d e s c o r e s we re 695 and 6 7 7 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . In g e n e r a l , t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h a t c l a s s d i d b e t t e r on t h e Math s e c t i o n t h a n t h e V e r b a l s e c t i o n . C a r l s m i t h u t i l i z e d s t u d e n t s who we re b o r n d u r i n g t h e war y e a r s ( 1 9 4 1 - 4 5 ) . T h e s e s t u d e n t s we re f r o m i n t a c t m i d d l e o r u p p e r m i d d l e - c l a s s f a m i l i e s ( e x c l u d i n g homes b r o k e n by d e a t h , d e s e r t i o n , d i v o r c e , o r s e p a r a t i o n ) . He r f a t h e r -s e p a r a t e d s a m p l e s c o n s i s t e d o f s t u d e n t s whose f a t h e r s were i n v o l v e d i n t h e war i n some c a p a c i t y , hence we re a b s e n t f r o m home f o r s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e r e a s o n s . The m a j o r i t y o f h e r 3 samples consisted of boys, with the exception of a small sample of high school g i r l s . The results from her study indicate that absence of the father does have a s i g n i f i c a n t effect upon a child's mathematical and verbal a b i l i t i e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y she found: 1. Early (before the c h i l d is twelve months old) and prolonged (more than one year) separation from the father results in greater verbal a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e to numerical a b i l i t y . 2. No separation from the father results in greater numerical a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e to verbal a b i l i t y . 3. Late, brief separations during childhood may result in an extreme elevation in numerical a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e to verbal a b i 1 i t y . Subsequent to Carlsmith's study a number of other studies have been published which are relevant to this area of research. Some of these more recent studies are consistent with her r e s u l t s , others provide new implications and directions for further research into the effects of father absence on cognitive a b i l i t y patterns. CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE L ITERATURE A number o f p r o c e d u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s we re e n c o u n t e r e d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o r e p l i c a t e C a r l s m i t h ' s ( 1 9 6 4 ) s t u d y , and t h e s e w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e t h e r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e t o t h i s s t u d y i s r e v i e w e d . C a r l s m i t h l i m i t e d h e r s a m p l e t o f i r s t y e a r u n i v e r s i t y m a l e s t u d e n t s whose f a t h e r s we re i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Armed S e r v i c e s , and s e r v e d o v e r s e a s d u r i n g some p o r t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . She a d m i n i s t e r e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o t h e s e s t u d e n t s t o a s c e r t a i n t h e d a t e s when t h e i r f a t h e r s we re o v e r s e a s . The a c c u r a c y o f t h i s r e p o r t e d d a t a i s q u e s t i o n a b l e when one c o n s i d e r s t h a t h e r s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f s t u d e n t s who we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e i r f a t h e r s b e f o r e age s i x , and q u i t e o f t e n t h e s e p a r a t i o n had o c c u r r e d b e f o r e t h e c h i l d was two y e a r s o f a g e . E r r o r s i n r e p o r t i n g t h e l e n g t h o f t h e s e p a r a t i o n , o r t h e age o f t h e c h i l d when t h e s e p a r a t i o n o c c u r r e d , w o u l d s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t t h e mean s c o r e s o f some o f C a r l s m i t h ' s c a t e g o r i z e d f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d g r o u p s . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t d i f f i c u l t y i n h e r e n t i n C a r l s m i t h ' s s t u d y i s t h e l a c k o f s t a t i s t i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e a n a l y s i s and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h e r d a t a . She r e p o r t s m e d i a n math and v e r b a l s c o r e s f o r t h e e n t i r e H a r v a r d f r e s h m e n c l a s s o f 1964 (math = 6 9 5 ; v e r b a l = 6 7 7 ) , c o n c l u d i n g t h a t t h i s c l a s s d e m o n s t r a t e d a s u p e r i o r i t y i n math c o m p a r e d w i t h v e r b a l a b i l i t y . Then u s i n g t h e a b o v e g r o u p as c o n t r o l s , she 5 c a l c u l a t e s mean s c o r e s f o r t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s , c o m p a r i n g t h e s e s c o r e s w i t h t h e m e d i a n s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . B e c a u s e o f t h e s e i n d i s c r i m -i n a t e c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n mean and m e d i a n s c o r e s , C a r l s m i t h ' s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s a t t a i n e d l o w e r s c o r e s i n b o t h v e r b a l and n u m e r i c a l a p t i t u d e c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . T h i s i n e f f e c t i s one c o n c l u s i o n t h a t C a r l s m i t h ( 1 9 6 4 ) d raws f r o m h e r r e s u l t s : F o r e x a m p l e . . . t h e g r o u p t h a t was f a t h e r - a b s e n t f o r o v e r t h r e e y e a r s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r i n b o t h Math and V e r b a l A p t i t u d e t h a n any o f t h e o t h e r g r o u p s , w h i c h s u g g e s t s a g e n e r a l l y l o w e r l e v e l o f a b i l i t y f o r t h i s g r o u p . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s p o s s i b l y s p u r i o u s b e c a u s e t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e m e d i a n s c o r e s f o r t h e e n t i r e H a r v a r d f r e s h m e n c l a s s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e math and v e r b a l s c o r e s a r e p r o b a b l y n e g a t i v e l y s k e w e d . I f i n f a c t t h i s i s s o , a c o m p a r i s o n o f m e d i a n s c o r e s f o r one g r o u p w i t h mean s c o r e s f o r a s e c o n d g r o u p , o r e ven c a l c u l a t i n g and c o m p a r i n g M-V s c o r e s f o r d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s , w o u l d be q u e s t i o n a b l e f r o m a s t a t i s t i c a l v i e w p o i n t . R e p o r t i n g b o t h t h e mean and m e d i a n s c o r e s f o r e v e r y g r o u p w o u l d have added g r e a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y t o h e r r e s u l t s . A t h i r d d i f f i c u l t y i n a s s e s s i n g C a r l s m i t h ' s r e s e a r c h i s h e r a r b i t r a r y c h o i c e o f s u b - g r o u p i n g s b a s e d upon t h e two i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . She r e p o r t s t h a t , " . . . f a t h e r -a b s e n t c a t e g o r i e s f o r e a c h s a m p l e a r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d a t e s o f f a t h e r a b s e n c e , s a m p l e s i z e , and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r t h a t g r o u p . " No a t t e m p t was 6 made i n h e r s t u d y t o f o l l o w an o u t l i n e o f c h i l d h o o d d e v e l o p -m e n t a l s t a g e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n and m a t h e m a t i c a l f a c i l i t y . D i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s m i g h t have been o b t a i n e d i f d e v e l o p m e n t a l d i c h o t o m i e s had been u t i l i z e d i n s t e a d o f o r i g i n a l c a t e g o r i e s c h o s e n on t h e b a s i s o f s a m p l e s i z e . A f o u r t h p r o b l e m i n h e r e n t i n C a r l s m i t h ' s s t u d y i n v o l v e s t h e number o f s t u d e n t s i n e a c h o f h e r f a t h e r - a b s e n t c a t e g o r i e s , and t h e s t a t i s t i c a l i n f e r e n c e s she d r aws f r o m t h e c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n t h e v e r b a l and m a t h e m a t i c a l mean s c o r e s f o r t h e s e s u b - g r o u p s . She c a l c u l a t e s and c o m p a r e s mean s c o r e s f o r d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s o f f a t h e r - a b s e n t s t u d e n t s w i t h o u t f i r s t c o m p e n s a t i n g f o r t h e d i f f e r i n g number o f s t u d e n t s i n e a c h g r o u p w i t h a w e i g h t i n g t e c h n i q u e . F o r e x a m p l e , h e r c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e M-V s c o r e o b t a i n e d by one s t u d e n t w i t h t h e a v e r a g e M-V s c o r e o b t a i n e d by t w e n t y - t w o s t u d e n t s i s o f d o u b t f u l v a l u e . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and S e x - R o l e D e v e l o p m e n t C a r l s m i t h ( 1 964 ) s t r u c t u r e s h e r s t u d y upon W h i t i n g ' s ( 1 9 6 0 ) t h e o r y o f c r o s s - s e x i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . In e s s e n c e h i s t h e o r y p o s t u l a t e s t h a t t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e f a t h e r d u r i n g a b o y ' s i n f a n c y r e s u l t s i n a " f e m i n i n e " a p p r o a c h t o l i f e b e c a u s e o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e m o t h e r . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e f a t h e r w i l l f a c i l i t a t e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a " m a s c u l i n e " s e l f - i m a g e . C a r l s m i t h r e l a t e s s e x - r o l e d e v e l o p -ment t o a p t i t u d e p a t t e r n s b a s e d upon M i l t o n ' s ( 1 9 6 7 ) s t u d y . 7 He f o u n d a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n " m a s c u l i n i t y " p e r s e , and s u p e r i o r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g a b i l i t y . S i m i l a r l y he f o u n d t h a t a " f e m i n i n e " a p p r o a c h t o l i f e i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s u p e r i o r v e r b a l a p t i t u d e ( t h i s h o l d s t r u e f o r b o t h m a l e s and f e m a l e s ) . T h e r e i s a s u b s t a n t i a l body o f e v i d e n c e t o c o r r o b o r a t e t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a m a s c u l i n e s e l f -image f o r boys i s i n d e e d d e p e n d e n t upon t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e f a t h e r d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d , o r a t l e a s t some p a r t o f c h i l d h o o d (Mu s s en and D i s t l e r , 1 9 5 9 ; Mus sen and R u t h e r f o r d , 1 9 6 3 ; B a r c l a y and Cu sumano , 1 9 6 7 ) . B u r t o n and W h i t i n g ( 1 9 6 1 ) r e v i e w some o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e f a t h e r d u r i n g a c h i l d ' s i n f a n c y r e s u l t s i n c r o s s - s e x i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w h i c h i s e i t h e r a c t e d o u t , o r more u s u a l l y c o m p e n s a t e d f o r by e x a g g e r a t e d m a s c u l i n e b e h a v i o r . T h i s c o m p e n s a t o r y - m a s c u l i n i t y b e h a v i o r among f a t h e r -s e p a r a t e d boys has a l s o been n o t e d by s e v e r a l o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s ( B a r c l a y and Cu sumano , 1 967 ; L y n n and S a w r e y , 1 9 5 9 ) . R o h r e r and Edmonson ( 1 960 ) f o u n d t h a t f a t h e r -s e p a r a t i o n l e a d s t o s e x - r o l e c o n f l i c t s w h i c h t e n d t o be r e s o l v e d by t h e boy by a c o m p u l s i v e d e n i a l o f a n y t h i n g t h a t has o v e r t o n e s o f f e m i n i n i t y . The p a r e n t a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p i c t u r e w h i c h emerge s f r o m t h e s e s t u d i e s seems t o be r a t h e r c o n s i s t e n t , w i t h m a l e s t y p i c a l l y i d e n t i f y i n g more c l o s e l y w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r s t h a n t h e i r m o t h e r s , t h u s d e v e l o p i n g a r e l a t i v e l y 8 s t a b l e m a s c u l i n e s e l f - i m a g e . T h i s i s a l s o t h e c o n c l u s i o n a r r i v e d a t i n a number o f s t u d i e s done by O s g o o d , S u c i , and Tannebaum ( 1 9 5 7 ) . O t h e r s t u d i e s have n o t a l w a y s been c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e a b o v e f i n d i n g s . F o r e x a m p l e , H e t h e r i n g t o n ( 1 967 ) f o u n d t h a t c h i l d r e n o f b o t h s e x e s i m i t a t e t h e d o m i n a n t p a r e n t i n f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e sex o f t h e p a r e n t . B e i e r and R a t z e b u r g ( 1 9 5 3 ) , and Payne and Mus sen ( 1 9 5 6 ) , f o u n d t h a t t h e more " m a s c u l i n e " t h e m o t h e r , t h e l e s s s t r o n g l y t h e son t e n d s t o i d e n t i f y w i t h h i s f a t h e r . Payne and Mu s sen ( 1 9 5 6 ) p o s t u l a t e t h a t a " m a s c u l i n e " m o t h e r w o u l d u s u a l l y be t h e more d o m i n a n t p a r e n t i n t h e home, hence i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e s o n ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e f a t h e r . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e c o m p e n s a t o r y - m a s c u l i n i t y s t r i v i n g s n o t e d i n f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d boys o t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s seem t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h i s g r o u p . F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d boys a r e more p a s s i v e ( B a r c l a y and Cu sumano , 1967 ) and d e p e n d e n t ( T i l l e r , 1 9 5 8 ; S t o l z , 1954) t h a n a r e boys who were n o t s e p a r a t e d f r o m f a t h e r d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d . T i l l e r , ( 1 9 5 8 ) f o u n d t h a t f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d boy s a r e more d e p e n d e n t , e s p e c i a l l y upon p e e r s , b u t a t t h e same t i m e have more d i f f i c u l t y i n p e e r - a d j u s t m e n t t h a n n o n - s e p a r a t e d b o y s . M o s t o f t h e s e s t u d i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s o f f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d boys have r e l i e d upon r e t r o -s p e c t i v e a c c o u n t s o f c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s t o e x p l a i n p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t . T h u s , i n T i l l e r ' s ( 1 9 5 8 ) s t u d y , 9 f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d boys a r e d e s c r i b e d as p a s s i v e and d e p e n d e n t w i t h p o o r p e e r a d j u s t m e n t , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e i n f e r e n c e t h a t t h e s e p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s a r e c a u s e d by t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e f a t h e r . S t o l z ( 1 9 5 4 ) , i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t s t u d y c o n c e n t r a t e d upon t h e f a t h e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d h i s s on a f t e r a p e r i o d o f s e p a r a t i o n . She s t u d i e d c h i l d r e n who we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e i r f a t h e r s f r o m b i r t h u n t i l a t l e a s t one y e a r o f a g e . She f o u n d t h a t when t h e f a t h e r s r e t u r n e d t o t h e f a m i l y t h e y we re more s e v e r e i n d i s c i p l i n i n g t h e c h i l d t h a n n o n - s e p a r a t e d f a t h e r s . T h e s e f a t h e r s a l s o p e r c e i v e d t h e i r s o n s as b e i n g more w i t h d r a w n , e f f e m i n a t e , and r e j e c t e d by o t h e r c h i l d r e n . They s u b s e q u e n t l y d e v e l o p e d a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e s e c o n d c h i l d ( b o r n w h i l e t h e y we re h o m e ) , w h e r e a s t h e f i r s t - b o r n s m a i n t a i n e d a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n -s h i p w i t h t h e i r m o t h e r s . T h i s c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m o t h e r and f i r s t - b o r n seemed t o be an a t t e m p t by t h e m o t h e r t o c o m p e n s a t e t h e c h i l d f o r f a t h e r ' s l a c k o f a t t e n t i o n and a f f e c t i o n . T h i s e x t r a a t t e n t i o n r e n d e r e d t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d c h i l d by t h e m o t h e r a c t u a l l y b e g i n s w i t h t h e i n i t i a l s e p a r a -t i o n o f c h i l d f r o m f a t h e r . Some r e s e a r c h ( K o c h , 1 9 6 1 ; T i l l e r , 1958 ) has i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n f a t h e r - a b s e n t homes t h e m o t h e r c h a n g e s h e r c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s ( o r has a d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h t o c h i l d - r e a r i n g t h a n do m o t h e r s i n i n t a c t homes) t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r t h e d u a l r o l e o f f a t h e r and m o t h e r t h a t she i s f o r c e d t o a s s u m e . Koch ( 1 9 6 1 ) , f o u n d 10 t h a n i n b r o k e n home s i t u a t i o n s ( b r o k e n by d e a t h , d i v o r c e , s e p a r a t i o n o r d e s e r t i o n ) t h e m o t h e r i s more i n s e c u r e , u n w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e r c h i l d , and more r e s e n t f u l and r e j e c t i n g o f t h e c h i l d . Koch a l s o f o u n d t h a t many o f t h e s e m o t h e r s seem t o e x p e r i e n c e f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T i l l e r ( 1 9 5 8 ) , i n v e s t i -g a t i n g N o r w e g i a n f a m i l i e s , f o u n d t h a t m o t h e r s i n f a t h e r -a b s e n t homes l e a d l e s s a c t i v e s o c i a l l i v e s , a r e more o v e r -p r o t e c t i v e o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and s t r e s s o b e d i e n c e and p o l i t e n e s s a s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n and h a p p i n e s s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The q u e s t i o n t h e n a r i s e s w h e t h e r f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d c h i l d r e n t e n d t o i d e n t i f y w i t h m o t h e r , t h u s d e v e l o p i n g a " f e m i n i n e " a p p r o a c h t o l i f e , o r do t h e y m a n i f e s t b e h a v i o r w h i c h c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as f e m i n i n e b a s e d upon t h e i r m o t h e r ' s c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s ? In o t h e r w o r d s , i f t h e m o t h e r s o f f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d boys a r e o v e r p r o t e c t i v e , d e m a n d i n g p o l i t e n e s s and o b e d i e n c e f r o m t h e i r c h i l d r e n , n o t a l l o w i n g them t o become i n v o l v e d i n any " r o u g h h o u s e " games o r a c t i v i t i e s , one w o u l d e x p e c t t h e s e boy s t o m a n i f e s t more e f f e m i n a t e b e h a v i o r t h a n f a t h e r -p r e s e n t b o y s . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s b e t w e e n f a t h e r - a b s e n t and f a t h e r - p r e s e n t homes may a c c o u n t t o some d e g r e e f o r C a r l s m i t h ' s r e s u l t s . T h a t i s , a s s u m i n g t h a t s e x - r o l e d e v e l o p m e n t i s d e f i n i t e l y r e l a t e d t o a p t i t u d e p r o f i c i e n c y , t h e n one w o u l d i n f e r t h a t a c h a n g e i n c h i l d -r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s w h i l e t h e f a t h e r i s a b s e n t w o u l d a f f e c t 11 p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t , and t h e n i n d i r e c t l y , c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t . The t r a u m a s u f f e r e d by t h e c h i l d when t h e f a t h e r d e p a r t s f r o m t h e home, e s p e c i a l l y i n b r o k e n - h o m e s i t u a t i o n s , may a l s o have s u b s e q u e n t a d v e r s e e f f e c t s upon a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e r e i s some r e s e a r c h w h i c h add s c r e d e n c e t o t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . K e l l y e t a l . ( 1 9 5 5 ) s t u d i e d b r o k e n homes , f i n d i n g t h a t f a m i l y d i s r u p t i o n p r i o r t o s c h o o l e n t r a n c e does n o t a d v e r s e l y i n f l u e n c e t h e c h i l d ' s s u b s e q u e n t r e a d i n g p e r f o r m a n c e , b u t a f a m i l y b r e a k - d o w n d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s o f s c h o o l d e f i n i t e l y has an a d v e r s e e f f e c t upon r e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . R u s s e l l ( 1 9 6 7 ) a d d e d a new d i m e n s i o n t o b r o k e n - h o m e s t u d i e s when he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f c h i l d r e n f r o m homes b r o k e n by d e a t h have a c a d e m i c p r o b l e m s , t h a n do c h i l d r e n f r o m i n t a c t homes o r homes b r o k e n by o t h e r t y p e s o f p r o b l e m s . T h e r e i s a p a u c i t y o f r e s e a r c h i n t h i s s p e c i f i c a r e a , b u t i t w o u l d seem r e a s o n a b l e t o a s sume t h a t m o t h e r s i n t h e s e f a t h e r - a b s e n t homes w o u l d n o t be as r e i n f o r c i n g o f n u m e r i c a l a p t i t u d e s as v e r b a l a p t i t u d e s i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . In t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s one c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t mos t m o t h e r s w o u l d f e e l more c o m f o r t a b l e h e l p i n g and e n c o u r a g i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h r e a d i n g and o t h e r v e r b a l p u r s u i t s , t h a n t h e y w o u l d h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h n u m e r i c a l o r s c i e n t i f i c e n d e a v o r s . T h i s s e l e c t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t m i g h t s t i m u l a t e t h e c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t , and s u b s e q u e n t l y h i s a b i l i t i e s , i n v e r b a l p u r s u i t s 12 r a t h e r t h a n i n n u m e r i c a l p u r s u i t s . Mo s t o f t h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d up t o t h i s p o i n t have been d e a l i n g a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c h i l d -r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s r e l e v a n t t o a b o y ' s s e x - r o l e d e v e l o p m e n t . Some r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e has s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a n a c l i t i c bond b e t w e e n m o t h e r and d a u g h t e r , t h e f a t h e r a l s o p l a y s a v i t a l r o l e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h i s d a u g h t e r ' s " f e m i n i n e " i d e n t i t y ( H e t h e r i n g t o n , 1 967 ; Mus sen and R u t h e r f o r d , 1 9 6 3 ; R o s e n b e r g and S u t t o n - S m i t h , 1 9 6 8 ) . T h e s e s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i f t h e f a t h e r has a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s d a u g h t e r , e n c o u r a g i n g and r e i n f o r c i n g h e r s e x - a p p r o p r i a t e b e h a v i o r , she w i l l d e v e l o p a s e c u r e " f e m i n i n e " s e l f - i m a g e . H e t h e r i n g t o n ( 1 9 6 7 ) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e d a u g h t e r w i l l d e v e l o p t h i s " f e m i n i n i t y " e ven i f she has a v e r y d e m a n d i n g o r d o m i n e e r i n g f a t h e r . T h i s e f f e c t was more p r o n o u n c e d i f t h e d o m i n a t i n g f a t h e r was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a home h i g h i n c o n f l i c t . Mu s sen and R u t h e r f o r d ( 1 9 6 3 ) , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , f o u n d t h a t " m a s c u l i n e " g i r l s t e n d t o have more e f f e m i n a t e f a t h e r s t h a n " f e m i n i n e " g i r l s . A l s o , g i r l s who o b t a i n l o w m o t h e r -i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c o r e s on t h e M i n n e s o t a M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y I n v e n t o r y ( M . M . P . I . ) p e r c e i v e t h e i r f a t h e r s as more m a s c u l i n e ( e v e n i f t h e y a r e n o t ) , w h e r e a s g i r l s w i t h h i g h m o t h e r -i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s c o r e s p e r c e i v e t h e i r f a t h e r s a s l e s s m a s c u l i n e ( B e i e r and R a t z e b u r g , 1 9 5 3 ) . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y " b a l a n c e p r i n c i p l e " i s o p e r a t i n g i n f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s . T h a t i s , i f t h e f a t h e r i s p e r c e i v e d as 13 e f f e m i n a t e by t h e d a u g h t e r , she c o m p e n s a t e s o r " b a l a n c e s " t h e f a m i l y w i t h m a s c u l i n e o v e r t b e h a v i o r . S i m i l a r l y , t h e son w i t h a m a s c u l i n e m o t h e r w o u l d t e n d t o be somewhat e f f e m i n a t e i n h i s b e h a v i o r t o c o u n t e r b a l a n c e h e r m a s c u l i n i t y . R o s e n b e r g and S u t t o n - S m i t h ( 1 9 6 8 ) p r e s e n t some e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y o f a m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y b a l a n c e w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e . They f o u n d t h a t i n a two c h i l d ( s o n and d a u g h t e r ) f a m i l y t h e d a u g h t e r r e a c t s t o h e r r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n by i d e n t i f y i n g more s t r o n g l y w i t h t h e m o t h e r , w h e r e a s a boy w i t h two s i s t e r s o v e r t l y d e m o n s t r a t e s a h i g h e r d e g r e e o f m a s c u l i n i t y t h a n a boy w i t h one s i s t e r . F o r s e c o n d - b o r n c h i l d r e n i n two and t h r e e c h i l d f a m i l i e s t h e p r e s e n c e o f an o l d e r l i k e - s e x s i b l i n g i s c o n d u c i v e t o a p p r o p r i a t e s e x - r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . More r e s e a r c h i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a r e a may r e l a t e t h i s s i b l i n g s e x - r o l e b a l a n c e ( i f i n d e e d one e x i s t s ) t o a s i b l i n g a p t i t u d e b a l a n c e . F o r e x a m p l e , p o s s i b l y one s i b l i n g w i l l become p r o f i c i e n t i n n u m e r i c a l s u b j e c t s b e c a u s e an o l d e r s i b l i n g has d e m o n s t r a t e d an a p t i t u d e f o r v e r b a l p u r s u i t s . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s a r e r a t h e r c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r f i n d i n g s t h a t f i r s t - b o r n c h i l d r e n t e n d t o a c h i e v e g r e a t e r s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l e m i n e n c e t h a n l a t e r b o r n s ( A l t u s , 1 9 6 5 ; Sampson and H a n c o c k , 1 967 ; S ampson , 1 9 6 2 ) . Sampson ( 1 9 6 2 ) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t f i r s t - b o r n s have a h i g h e r need f o r a c h i e v e m e n t t h a n l a t e r - b o r n s . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f f i r s t - b o r n s ( m a l e o r 14 f e m a l e ) a t t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l c o m p a r e d t o o t h e r s i b l i n g s ( C a p r a and D i t t e s , 1 9 6 2 ) . I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t a f i r s t - b o r n ( m a l e o r f e m a l e ) w i t h a y o u n g e r s i s t e r has a h i g h e r need t o a c h i e v e t h a n a f i r s t - b o r n w i t h a y o u n g e r b r o t h e r . A l t u s ( 1 9 6 5 ) f o u n d some e v i d e n c e among U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a s t u d e n t s t h a t f i r s t - b o r n c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s a r e somewhat s u p e r i o r t o s i b l i n g s i n v e r b a l a p t i t u d e ; d i f f e r e n c e s i n math a p t i t u d e we re i n s i g n i f i c a n t . A s u p e r i o r i t y i n v e r b a l a p t i t u d e f o r f i r s t - b o r n s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e when one c o n s i d e r s t h a t f i r s t - b o r n c h i l d r e n may i d e n t i f y more c l o s e l y w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s t h a n do l a t e r - b o r n s . S e c o n d - b o r n c h i l d r e n seem t o i d e n t i f y more c l o s e l y w i t h p e e r s ( P a l m e r , 1 9 6 6 ) . O r d i n a l p o s i t i o n and sex o f s i b l i n g a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h need a c h i e v e -m e n t , and t h e n i n d i r e c t l y w i t h a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t . B u t p e r h a p s e ven more i m p o r t a n t t h a n o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f d i f f e r e n t i a l a b i l i t i e s i s t h e d e g r e e and n a t u r e o f i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n p a r e n t and c h i l d . S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s have f o u n d a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t y p e o f d i s c i p l i n e u s ed i n t h e home and a p t i t u d e p a t t e r n s . B i n g ( 1 9 6 3 ) f o u n d t h a t t h e l e s s l o v i n g and n u r t u r a n t t h e p a r e n t s , t h e h i g h e r t h e i r s o n ' s v e r b a l a b i l i t y . She a l s o d e t e r m i n e d t h a t a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n d a u g h t e r and an " i n t r u s i v e , d e m a n d i n g , m o t h e r " f a c i l i t a t e s d e v e l o p m e n t o f h i g h v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s , w h e r e a s a c a s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p e n h a n c e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n o n - v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s . I t was a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t p u n i s h i n g t h e d a u g h t e r f o r p o o r s p e e c h r e s u l t e d i n r e l a t i v e l y l o w v e r b a l a b i l i t y . P o s s i b l y c h i l d r e n who a r e p u n i s h e d f o r i n c o r r e c t l y u s i n g w o r d s o r i n c o r r e c t grammar may become c o n d i t i o n e d t o a v o i d v e r b a l i z i n g as much as p o s s i b l e . B u t , c r i t i c i s m f o r p o o r a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t c o r r e l a t e s p o s i t i v e l y w i t h h i g h e r v e r b a l a b i l i t y f o r b o t h boys and g i r l s c o m p a r e d w i t h n o n - c r i t i c a l home s i t u a t i o n s . B a e r and R a g o s t a ( 1 9 6 6 ) s t u d i e d t h e r e t r o s p e c t i v e a c c o u n t s o f c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s ' home e n v i r o n m e n t s , c o n c l u d i n g t h a t h i g h v e r b a l m a l e s came f r o m homes l o w i n p a r e n t - c h i l d l o v e . The r e p o r t s we re i n c o n c l u s i v e f o r t h e f e m a l e g r o u p . L e v y ( 1 9 6 6 ) c a r r i e d o u t an i n t e n s i v e s t u d y o f o v e r p r o t e c t e d c h i l d r e n and a r r i v e d a t s i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s as t h e a b o v e two r e s e a r c h e r s . He f o u n d t h a t : . . . t h e i n t e r e s t s , s c h o o l g r a d e s , and a c h i e v e m e n t t e s t s o f G r o u p I [ t h e o v e r p r o t e c t e d g r o u p ] c h i l d r e n s h o w s , i n s p i t e o f v a r i a t i o n i n i n t e l l i g e n c e and e c o n o m i c l e v e l s , r e l a t i v e l y h i g h s u c c e s s i n l a n g u a g e ( v o c a b u l a r y , c o m p o s i t i o n , ' E n g l i s h ' ) , p o o r s c o r e s i n a r i t h m e t i c , and s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g , a f e a t u r e i n s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r a s t w i t h o u r c h e c k g r o u p . He h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t a l a c k o f f r i e n d s d u r i n g e a r l y c h i l d h o o d p r o d u c e s a c l o s e r m o t h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p and c o n s e q u e n t l y , g r e a t e r p r o f i c i e n c y by t h e c h i l d i n v e r b a l a p t i t u d e s . A n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t o f t h i s s t u d y i s - t h e d i s c o v e r y t h a t c h i l d r e n who have s u f f e r e d r e j e c t i o n by t h e i r p a r e n t s have h i g h e r a r i t h m e t i c a b i l i t y t h a n c h i l d r e n f r o m o t h e r home s i t u a t i o n s . T h e s e r e j e c t e d c h i l d r e n a r e w e l l b e l o w t h e r e a d i n g l e v e l o f o t h e r c h i l d r e n . C r a n d a l l , Dewey e t a l . ( 1 9 6 4 ) f o u n d t h a t g i r l s who a r e c o m p e t e n t i n b o t h r e a d i n g and a r i t h m e t i c have m o t h e r s who a r e l o w i n e x p r e s s e d a f f e c t i o n and n u r t u r a n c e . T h e s e s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t a d e m a n d i n g , r e s t r i c t i v e , a u t h o r i t a r i a n home i s t h e mos t c o n d u c i v e e n v i r o n ment f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s . The e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t i e s i s i n c o n c l u s i v e . I n t r i n s i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o d i s c i p l i n e a r e p a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s . I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o a s sume t h a t t h e v a l u e s t o w h i c h t h e p a r e n t s a d h e r e w i l l a f f e c t t h e i r c h i l d -r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s , w h i c h i n t u r n w i l l a f f e c t a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t . K a t k o v s k y e t a l . ( 1 964 ) f o l l o w e d t h i s l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g i n t h e i r s t u d i e s , f i n d i n g t h a t t h e h i g h e r t h e v a l u e f a t h e r s p l a c e d upon i n t e l l e c t u a l a c h i e v e m e n t f o r t h e m s e l v e s , t h e more t h e s e f a t h e r s i n s t i g a t e d , and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n , i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n . S i m i l a r l y m o t h e r s , w i t h h i g h a c a d e m i c v a l u e s , p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e i r d a u g h t e r ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s ( b u t n o t t h e i r s o n ' s ) more t h a n m o t h e r s who p l a c e d l e s s v a l u e on a c a d e m i c s . T h i s h i g h d e g r e e o f i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n p a r e n t and c h i l d was n o t e d i n t h e l a s t p a r a g r a p h t o have a d e f i n i t e e f f e c t upon t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a b i l i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y v e r b a l a b i l i t y . C r a n d a l l ( 1 9 6 3 ) r e v i e w e d a number o f s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f p a r e n t a l v a l u e s and c h i l d r e n ' s a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t . He f o u n d a g r e e m e n t among s e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s t h a t t h e f a t h e r ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l v a l u e s a r e p o s i t i v e l y 17 c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s , and t h e s e v a l u e s a r e a l s o p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The d a u g h t e r ' s a c h i e v e m e n t s t r i v i n g s were f o u n d t o be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i r d e s i r e f o r p a r e n t a l a p p r o v a l . H o n z i k ( 1 9 6 7 ) f o u n d t h a t boy s show g r e a t e r a c a d e m i c a c c e l e r a -t i o n t h a n g i r l s when t h e f a t h e r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e r e i s p a r e n t a l s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e f a t h e r ' s i n c o m e and o c c u p a t i o n . A l l o f t h e f a c t o r s m e n t i o n e d so f a r , p a r e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e , a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s and c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s , a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f t h e p a r e n t s . Kagan e t a l . ( 1 963 ) f o u n d t h a t t h e m o t h e r ' s e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l i s h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o h e r c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s . E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l i s one o f t h e v a r i a b l e s g e n e r a l l y u s ed t o a s s e s s s o c i o -e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t m o t h e r s w i t h a d v a n c e d e d u c a t i o n ( c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l ) t e n d t o be l e s s r e s t r i c t i v e o r c o e r c i v e w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s . T h e s e m o t h e r s a r e more c r i t i c a l o f t h e i r d a u g h t e r ' s s h o r t c o m i n g s , and e x p e c t h i g h e r a c a d e m i c p r o f i c i e n c y f r o m t h e i r s o n s , t h a n do m o t h e r s w i t h l e s s e d u c a t i o n . The e n r i c h e d e n v i r o n m e n t s o f t h e m i d d l e and u p p e r -c l a s s homes p r o v i d e t h e c h i l d r e n o f t h e s e homes w i t h g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p t h e i r i n n a t e a c a d e m i c and c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . M i l n e r ( 1 9 5 1 ) , t e s t e d r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s i n g r a d e one c h i l d r e n , f i n d i n g t h a t t h o s e c h i l d r e n who s c o r e d 18 a b o v e a v e r a g e we re g e n e r a l l y f r o m t h e m i d d l e and u p p e r - c l a s s homes . The c h i l d r e n who o b t a i n e d l ow s c o r e s we re p r e d o m i -n a n t l y f r o m l o w e r - c l a s s f a m i l i e s . A s t u d y by H i l l and G i a m m a t t e o ( 1 9 6 3 ) f o u n d a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .84 b e t w e e n s o c i a l c l a s s and v o c a b u l a r y i n a s a m p l e o f two h u n d r e d and t w e n t y -t h r e e t h i r d g r a d e c h i l d r e n . R e s e a r c h done by t h e R a d c l i f f e I n s t i t u t e o f I n d e p e n d e n t S t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e b a c k g r o u n d s o f a number o f g i r l s who had s u c c e e d e d as s c i e n t i s t s . T h i s s t u d y showed t h a t : . . . t h e s e g i r l s t e n d e d t o come f r o m two c o n t r a s t i n g k i n d s o f homes i n n e i t h e r o f w h i c h s t a t u s was i m p o r t a n t . On t h e one h a n d , t h e p a r e n t s we re h i g h l y e d u c a t e d and i n c l i n e d t o g i v e t h e i r d a u g h t e r s an a t m o s p h e r e o f s e c u r i t y and e n c o u r a g e m e n t ; and on t h e o t h e r , t h e p a r e n t s had had l i t t l e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y and t h e p r a c t i c a l had t h e mos t p o w e r f u l a p p e a l . ( F i e l d s o f Work f o r Women, 1 9 6 4 ) . The a b o v e s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t f o r g i r l s n o n - v e r b a l a p t i t u d e s a r e n o t as c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i o e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s p e r s e , as a r e v e r b a l a p t i t u d e s . In e s s e n c e , mos t o f t h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d t o t h i s p o i n t have i n d i c a t e d t h a t many v a r i a b l e s have an e f f e c t upon t h e c h i l d ' s v e r b a l d e v e l o p m e n t , b u t f e w v a r i a b l e s seem t o have any e f f e c t s upon m a t h e m a t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . One v a r i a b l e t h a t seems t o a f f e c t b o t h v e r b a l and m a t h e m a t i c a l a p t i t u d e i s p a r e n t a l e m p h a s i s ( o r l a c k o f e m p h a s i s ) upon e a r l y i n d e p e n -d e n t b e h a v i o r f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . An i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d y by C h a n c e ( 1 9 6 1 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n o f m o t h e r s who f a v o r e a r l i e r i n d e p e n d e n c e t r a i n i n g make l e s s a d e q u a t e a c a d e m i c 19 p r o g r e s s i n b o t h r e a d i n g and a r i t h m e t i c ( r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r I .Q. s c o r e s ) t h a n c h i l d r e n whose m o t h e r s f a v o r l a t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e t r a i n i n g . A c o n f l i c t i n g s t u d y by Shaw ( 1 9 6 4 ) f o u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s who we re d o i n g w e l l i n s c h o o l ( c l a s s i f i e d as " a c h i e v e r s " by Shaw) we re e x p e c t e d by t h e i r p a r e n t s t o become i n d e p e n d e n t a t an e a r l i e r age t h a n " n o n - a c h i e v e r s . " F a t h e r s o f m a l e " u n d e r a c h i e v e r s " e x p e c t e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o d e m o n s t r a t e more m a s c u l i n e b e h a v i o r a t an e a r l i e r age t h a n was e x p e c t e d o f m a l e " a c h i e v e r s " by t h e i r f a t h e r s . The c h o i c e o f s a m p l e s by Chance and Shaw c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o b t a i n e d i n t h e i r r e s u l t s . C h a n c e u t i l i z e d g r a d e one c h i l d r e n , w h e r e a s Shaw s t u d i e d g r a d e e l e v e n and t w e l v e s t u d e n t s . F e l d ( 1 9 6 7 ) , f o u n d t h a t p a r e n t s who s t r e s s e d e a r l y i n d e p e n d e n c e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n s h i f t e d t o a m a s t e r y o f s o c i a l s k i l l s d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e . One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t an e m p h a s i s upon m a s t e r y o f s o c i a l s k i l l s w o u l d a l s o e n t a i l an e m p h a s i s upon v e r b a l s k i 1 1 s , p o s s i b l y e x p l a i n i n g why c h i l d r e n f r o m m i d d l e and u p p e r - c l a s s f a m i l i e s i m p r o v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n v e r b a l s k i l l s r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l s k i l l s . M o t h e r A b s e n c e and A p t i t u d e M o s t o f t h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d i n t h i s p a p e r have i n d i -c a t e d t h a t f a c t o r s s u c h as s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s - - d i s c i p l i n e , i n d e p e n d e n c e t r a i n i n g , i n t e l l e c t u a l e x p e c t a t i o n s - - a n d e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s , a f f e c t a c h i l d ' s a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t . I t i s a l s o t o be n o t e d t h a t mos t of t h e s t u d i e s p e r t a i n i n g t o b r o k e n homes d e a l w i t h f a t h e r - a b s e n t s i t u a t i o n s . R e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e seems t o have been w r i t t e n a b o u t homes w h e r e t h e m o t h e r i s a b s e n t , and t h e c h i l d r e n a r e l e f t i n t h e c a r e o f t h e f a t h e r . One o b v i o u s r e a s o n f o r t h e p a u c i t y o f r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a i s t h e l a c k o f m o t h e r -a b s e n t homes a v a i l a b l e f o r s t u d y . S c h a f f e r ' s ( 1 958 ) r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t a c h i l d doe s n o t m a n i f e s t o v e r t p r o t e s t r e a c t i o n s t o m a t e r n a l a b s e n c e u n t i l a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e s e v e n t h m o n t h . T h i s w o u l d a g r e e w i t h t h e g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t a c h i l d d o e s n o t b e g i n t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e m o t h e r f r o m o t h e r s i n h i s e n v i r o n m e n t u n t i l a b o u t t h e end o f t h e s i x t h m o n t h . K e l l y e t a l . ( 1 9 6 5 ) d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s i x t h - g r a d e c h i l d r e n f r o m m o t h e r l e s s homes p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r on a r e a d i n g t e s t t h a n c h i l d r e n f r o m f a t h e r l e s s homes . In v i e w o f t h e s m a l l s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e t h e i r r e s u l t s a r e h i g h l y t e n t a t i v e . A d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s i n t h i s a r e a w o u l d shed new l i g h t on t h e f i e l d o f a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t . H o w e v e r , a t p r e s e n t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f o r m u l a t e any d e f i n i t e h y p o t h e s i s a b o u t m o t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . Summary The s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d i n d i c a t e t h a t a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n -s h i p e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e p r o c e s s o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and s e x -r o l e d e v e l o p m e n t . F a t h e r a b s e n c e d u r i n g some p o r t i o n o f a b o y ' s c h i l d h o o d doe s have a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t upon t h e s u b s e -q u e n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f a " m a s c u l i n e " s e i f - i d e n t i t y . The evidence also indicates that father-separation may adversely aff e c t a g i r l ' s "feminine" sex-role development. For boys, father-separation correlates with the following behavior: overt compensatory-masculinity s t r i v i n g s , dependency (especially upon peers), sex-role c o n f l i c t s , passiveness, agressive fantasies, and verbal proficiency. For g i r l s , the effect of father-separation upon overt behavior is i nconc1 usi ve. The research establishes that there is a de f i n i t e correlation between sex-role development and d i f f e r e n t i a l aptitude patterns. It has also been established that various environmental factors influence aptitude development, especially development of verbal s k i l l s . A third r e l a t i o n -ship is that environmental conditions affect primary sex-role development. It is obvious that the interaction of these three variables is a complex process, involving mediating processes which are beyond the scope of this study. Assuming that environmental factors antedate the other two variables, the question then arises as to the relationship between sex-role development and aptitude patterns. At least three p o s s i b i l i t i e s are evident: 1. Environment »Sex-Role Development •Aptitude Development 2. Environment >Aptitude Development »Sex-Role Development Sex-Role Development 3. Environment Aptitude Development The mo s t p l a u s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p b a s e d upon t h e e v i d e n c e a t h a n d , and t h e one a c c e p t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , seems t o be t h e t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s . T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n i n f e r s t h a t s e x - r o l e d e v e l o p m e n t and a p t i t u d e p r o f i c i e n c y c a n d e v e l o p r e l a t i v e l y i n d e p e n d e n t l y . B u t i n mos t c a s e s a r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s . C a r l s m i t h ( 1 964 ) seems t o a c c e p t t h e f i r s t p o s s i b i l i t y l i s t e d a b o v e , i n f e r r i n g a c a u s e and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n s e x - r o l e d e v e l o p m e n t and a p t i t u d e p a t t e r n s . She a c c e p t s t h e p o s t u l a t e s t h a t m a s c u l i n i t y i s d e f i n i t e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y , and f e m i n i n i t y w i t h v e r b a l a b i l i t y . She t h e n i n v e r t s t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , a s s u m i n g t h a t p r o f i c i e n c y i n n u m e r i c a l p u r s u i t s w i l l l o g i c a l l y d e p i c t a " m a s c u l i n e " a p p r o a c h t o l i f e , w h i l e v e r b a l a b i l i t y w i l l be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f e m i n i n i t y . T h i s r e a s o n i n g i s l o g i c a l i f one a c c e p t s h e r c a u s e - e f f e c t d i r e c t i o n . B u t e x c e p t i o n s w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n w i t h i n h e r t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e -w o r k . In a d d i t i o n t o m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y v a r i a b l e s , t h e r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t v a r i o u s o t h e r f a c t o r s a r e r e l a t e d t o a c h i l d ' s d i f f e r e n t i a l a b i l i t i e s . H i g h v e r b a l a b i l i t y i s r e l a t e d t o p a r e n t a l e m p h a s i s upon e a r l y i n d e p e n d e n c e t r a i n i n g p a r e n t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and e n c o u r a g e m e n t i n a c a d e m i c a c t i v i t i e s , p a r e n t a l c r i t i c i s m o f p o o r a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t , and p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s o f h i g h a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . O t h e r v a r i a b l e s t h a t we re a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t o 23 be c o r r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h a c h i l d ' s v e r b a l p r o f i c i e n c y a r e : a u t h o r i t a r i a n home d i s c i p l i n e , e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l o f t h e p a r e n t s , o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e c h i l d , and l a c k o f a wa rm, l o v i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p a r e n t s and c h i l d . C r i t i c i s m by m o t h e r s o f t h e i r d a u g h t e r ' s p o o r u se o f grammar n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t s v e r b a l a p t i t u d e . F a m i l y d i s i n t e g r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s o f s c h o o l a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t s t h e v e r b a l a b i l i t y o f b o t h boy s and g i r l s . N u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y i n boys i s a f f e c t e d p o s i t i v e l y by s u c h f a c t o r s a s : e a r l y r e j e c t i o n o f t h e c h i l d by t h e p a r e n t s , e a r l y e m p h a s i s upon i n d e p e n d e n t b e h a v i o r , p a r e n t a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i r c h i l d ' s a c a d e m i c e n d e a v o r s . F o r g i r l s , a m o t h e r who i s c a s u a l and " d i s t a n t " w i t h h e r d a u g h t e r r e s u l t s i n h i g h e r m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o g i r l s f r o m o t h e r t y p e s o f home e n v i r o n m e n t s . In a d d i t i o n , f o r b o t h boys and g i r l s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t i m u l i s u c h as n u m e r i c a l games and t o y s i n v o l v i n g c o n c e p t f o r m a -t i o n s , have been c o r r e l a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e s i n m a t h e m a t i c a l s k i l l s . The e f f e c t s o f m a t e r n a l d e p r i v a t i o n upon d e v e l o p i n g a p t i t u d e s i s s t i l l a r e l a t i v e l y u n r e s e a r c h e d f i e l d . The s t u d y by K e l l y e t a l . ( 1 9 6 5 ) r e v i e w e d i n t h i s p a p e r , i n d i c a t e s t h a t m o t h e r - s e p a r a t e d c h i l d r e n a r e more p r o f i c i e n t i n r e a d i n g t h a n f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d c h i l d r e n . More r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a i s n e e d e d . CHAPTER I I I HYPOTHESES G e n e r a l H y p o t h e s i s As a g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s , i t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t s e p a r a -t i o n f r o m a p a r e n t d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d w i l l i n f l u e n c e a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e c h i l d r e n w i l l d e v e l o p g r e a t e r v e r b a l a p t i t u d e r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a p t i t u d e . T h i s s t u d y w i l l a l s o e x a m i n e t h e d a t a t o a s c e r t a i n i f t h e age o f t h e c h i l d , and t h e l e n g t h o f t h e s e p a r a t i o n , c o n s t i t u t e i m p o r t a n t i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n t h e d i f f e r e n -t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f a p t i t u d e p a t t e r n s . A n a l y s i s o f t h e a b o v e v a r i a b l e s w i l l i n e f f e c t c o n s t i t u t e a v e r i f i c a t i o n t e s t o f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by C a r l s m i t h ( 1 9 6 4 ) i n h e r s t u d y . S p e c i f i c P r e d i c t i o n s B a s e d upon t h e a b o v e g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s , and t h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d i n t h i s p a p e r , t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c p r e d i c t i o n s a r e made: 1. F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s w i l l have r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r v e r b a l s k i l l s t h a n m a t h e m a t i c a l s k i l l s . The e v i d e n c e doe s i n d i c a t e t h a t f a t h e r - a b s e n c e a f f e c t s p o s i t i v e l y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s . W h e t h e r t h i s e f f e c t i s c a u s e d by a " f e m i n i n e " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p a t t e r n , a c h a n g e i n c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s , m a l a d j u s t m e n t c a u s e d by paternal deprivation or a combination of a l l three factors, is not clear and is not the direct focus of this study. 2. Father-separated female students w i l l have r e l a t i v e l y higher verbal s k i l l s compared with their numerical s k i l l s and this r e l a t i v e superiority of verbal s k i l l to numerical s k i l l should not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from that demonstrated by g i r l s who have not been separated from their fathers. As a general rule females are r e l a t i v e l y more p r o f i -cient in verbal s k i l l s than in mathematical pursuits. The absence of the father w i l l interfere with the development of an appropriate "feminine" identity by the daughter, especially i f the absence is prolonged. This interference with appropriate sex-role development w i l l also a f f e c t aptitude development. Hence, one could expect that, as a group, father-separated g i r l s w i l l not attain higher scores on verbal tests than g i r l s who have not been separated from their father. 3. Male students who have not been separated from their fathers during childhood w i l l have r e l a t i v e l y higher mathematical a b i l i t y than the father-separated male students whereas father-separated male students w i l l demonstrate greater proficiency in verbal a b i l i t y than the father-present group. The male students who were not separated from their fathers during childhood w i l l develop r e l a t i v e l y stable masculine i d e n t i t i e s (even i f the father is somewhat effemi-nate and the mother is "masculine"). Accepting the postulate that masculinity is correlated with superior problem-solving a b i l i t y , i t is postulated that this group w i l l demonstrate superiority in numerical aptitude r e l a t i v e to father-separated students. 4. There w i l l be proportionally fewer father-separated male students in the f i r s t year science programme at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia than in any other f i r s t year programme. The f i r s t year Science programme at U.B.C. emphasizes analytica1-numerica1 reasoning rather than verbal proficiency. Previous research has indicated that students choosing the f i r s t year Science programme are superior in mathematical a b i l i t y compared with verbal a b i l i t y . Also the sciences generally, especially applied sciences, are associated with "masculinity," whereas the more subjective d i s c i p l i n e s are associated with overtones of "femininity." 5. There w i l l be proportionally more father-separated students (both male and female) in the "New Arts I Programme" (see Appendix A for a description of this programme) than in any other f i r s t year programme at the University of B r i t i s h Columbi a. The New Arts t project is organized on a seminar basis. Students choosing this programme were aware that discussion 27 and p a r t i c i p a t i o n w o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d . Hence one c o u l d e x p e c t t h a t t h e m a l e s t u d e n t s who c h o s e t h i s programme a r e more v e r b a l l y o r i e n t a t e d t h a n m a l e s t u d e n t s i n o t h e r p rog rammes ( e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e e v e r y s t u d e n t who a p p l i e d f o r t h i s new programme i n 1 9 6 7 - 1 9 6 8 was a c c e p t e d ) . S i n c e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d g i r l s a r e l i k e l y t o have more s e x - r o l e c o n f l i c t s t h a n g i r l s n o t s e p a r a t e d f r o m f a t h e r , i t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d g i r l s w o u l d a l s o c h o o s e t h e A r t s I P rogramme b e c a u s e i t s u n s t r u c t u r e d a t m o s p h e r e w o u l d a l l o w them more f r e e d o m t o " d i s c o v e r " t h e m s e l v e s . 6 . S e c o n d o n l y t o t h e New A r t s I P r o g r a m m e , t h e r e w i l l be a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d ma 1e s t u d e n t s i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The c o m p e n s a t o r y - m a s c u l i n i t y s t r i v i n g s n o t e d i n f a t h e r -s e p a r a t e d boy s s h o u l d p r e d i s p o s e them t o c h o o s e a programme w h i c h a l l o w s them t o c o m p e n s a t e f o r an u n s t a b l e m a s c u l i n e i d e n t i t y . The " m a s c u l i n e " image o f t h e S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n s h o u l d a t t r a c t t h e s e s t u d e n t s . 7 . F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s who have o l d e r b r o t h e r s ( r e m a i n i n g i n t h e home d u r i n g t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e f a t h e r ) , w i l l n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e f a t h e r - p r e s e n t g r o u p i n v e r b a l and m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t i e s . O l d e r b r o t h e r s i n t h e home ( w h i l e t h e f a t h e r i s a b s e n t ) p r o v i d e a s u b s t i t u t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n f i g u r e . The r e s e a r c h by R o s e n b e r g and S u t t o n - S m i t h ( 1 968 ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f an o l d e r l i k e - s e x s i b l i n g i s c o n d u c i v e t o a p p r o p r i a t e s e x - r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . T h e s e boy s ( w i t h o l d e r b r o t h e r s ) s h o u l d t h e n d e v e l o p a more s t a b l e m a s c u l i n e i d e n t i t y t h a n boy s w i t h o u t o l d e r b r o t h e r s , h ence s h o u l d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m t h o s e boys n o t s e p a r a t e d f r o m f a t h e r . 8 . The f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s w i l l a t t a i n a r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s i n t h e f i r s t y e a r E n g l i s h c o u r s e ( E n g l i s h 1 0 0 ) , t h a n t h o s e s t u d e n t s who we re n o t s e p a r a t e d f r o m f a t h e r d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d . T h i s p r e d i c t i o n f o l l o w s l o g i c a l l y f r o m t h e f i r s t p r e d i c t i o n t h a t f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s have h i g h e r v e r b a l a p t i t u d e c o m p a r e d w i t h m a t h e m a t i c a l a p t i t u d e . 9 . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e m a l e s t u d e n t s who w e r e n o t s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e i r f a t h e r s d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d w i l l a t t a i n a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s i n t h e f i r s t y e a r m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e ( M a t h e m a t i c s 110 o r 120 ) t h a n t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s . T h i s p r e d i c t i o n f o l l o w s f r o m t h e t h i r d p r e d i c t i o n . T h a t i s , i f s t u d e n t s who w e r e n o t s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e i r f a t h e r s d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d have h i g h e r n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y t h a n t h o s e who w e r e s e p a r a t e d , t h e n t h e s e n o n - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s s h o u l d a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e g r e a t e r p r o f i c i e n c y i n m a t h e m a t i c a l s u b j e c t s . CHAPTER IV METHOD S u b j e c t s A t o t a l o f 977 s t u d e n t s , 553 m a l e s and 424 f e m a l e s , we re s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . A s a m p l e o f 1 ,000 s t u d e n t s ( 570 m a l e s and 430 f e m a l e s ) was o r i g i n a l l y s e l e c t e d by a s t r a t i f i e d random s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e ( s e e A p p e n d i x A f o r a d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e o f t h e s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e ) , b u t 19 we re s u b s e q u e n t l y o m i t t e d due t o t h e l a c k o f a d d r e s s e s f o r t h i s g r o u p . The s t u d e n t s w e r e a l l i n f i r s t y e a r a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d u r i n g t h e a c a d e m i c s e s s i o n 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 . The t o t a l number o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t h e i r f i r s t y e a r a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 was 3 , 6 8 5 . M a l e s c o m p r i s e d 2 , 094 o r 5 6 . 8 2 p e r c e n t o f t h i s t o t a l , f e m a l e s c o m p r i s e d 1,591 o r 4 3 . 1 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a 1. The s e l e c t i o n o f s a m p l e s f r o m t h e f i r s t y e a r p o p u l a t i o n a t U . B . C . was made w i t h two p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s , f i r s t l y t o o b t a i n a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l e f r o m a l l t h e f i r s t y e a r S c h o o l s and F a c u l t i e s , and s e c o n d l y , t o o b t a i n as l a r g e a s a m p l e as p o s s i b l e t o e n s u r e a h i g h d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y i n t h e r e s u l t s . B o t h m a l e s and f e m a l e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y f o r two r e a s o n s : 1. To t e s t t h e c o n c l u s i o n a r r i v e d a t by C a r l s m i t h 30 ( 1 9 6 4 ) i n h e r s t u d y t h a t : In g e n e r a l , t h e e f f e c t o f f a t h e r a b s e n c e on a p t i t u d e a p p e a r s t o be t h e same f o r g i r l s as f o r b o y s , w i t h b o t h e a r l y and l o n g s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e f a t h e r b e i n g p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r v e r b a l a p t i t u d e . 2 . To a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d g i r l s a r e o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n some F a c u l t i e s , and p r o p o r t i o n a l l y u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n o t h e r s . T a b l e I o u t l i n e s t h e number o f s t u d e n t s i n e a c h o f t h e f i r s t y e a r d i s c i p l i n e s a t U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who w e r e s e l e c t e d as t h e 981 s t u d e n t s t o t a k e p a r t i n t h i s s t u d y . In v i e w o f t h e s m a l l number o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e F a c u l t y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , S c h o o l o f Home E c o n o m i c s , S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and D e p a r t m e n t o f M u s i c , i t was c o n s i d e r e d a d v i s a b l e t o i n c l u d e a l l o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s i n t h e s t u d y . S i m i l a r l y , b e c a u s e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l n a t u r e o f t h e "New A r t s one P r o j e c t " ( s e e A p p e n d i x B f o r a c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s p r o g r a m m e ) , w h i c h i s an u n s t r u c t u r e d s e m i n a r a p p r o a c h t o l e a r n i n g , a l l s t u d e n t s i n t h i s programme a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y . The r e m a i n i n g s t u d e n t s w e r e s e l e c t e d by t h e s t r a t i f i e d random s a m p l i n g m e t h o d o u t l i n e d i n A p p e n d i x A . C a r l s m i t h , i n h e r s t u d y , s e l e c t e d o n l y t h e s t u d e n t s who we re b o r n d u r i n g t h e war y e a r s ( 1 9 4 1 - 1 9 4 5 ) . He r s u b j e c t s w e r e s t u d e n t s whose f a t h e r s had s e r v e d o v e r s e a s w i t h some b r a n c h o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Armed F o r c e s . A number o f o t h e r 31 TABLE I NUMBER OF STUDENTS RECE IV ING QUESTIONNAIRES M a l e % F e m a l e % T o t a l % o f F a c u 1 t y * A r t s 1 51 66.81 75 3 3 . 1 8 226 17 . 87 S c i e n c e 182 8 0 . 8 8 43 19.11 225 17 . 47 ED. ( E l e t n . ) 8 11 .76 60 8 8 . 2 3 68 1 7 . 8 5 ED. ( S e c . ) 14 4 6 . 6 6 16 5 3 . 33 30 1 9 . 3 5 A r t s P r o j . 105 4 6 . 4 6 121 5 3 . 5 4 226 9 5 . 3 5 * * H.E . 0 - 45 1 0 0 . 0 0 45 9 5 . 7 4 P.E. 44 6 2 . 8 6 26 3 7 . 1 4 70 1 0 0 . 0 0 M u s i c 24 4 6 . 1 5 28 5 3 . 8 5 52 1 0 0 . 0 0 A g r . 25 71 .43 10 2 8 . 5 7 35 1 0 0 . 0 0 T o t a l s 553 5 6 . 6 0 424 4 3 . 4 0 977 2 7 . 6 8 * P e r c e n t o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s who c o m p l e t e d U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o u n s e l l i n g T e s t B a t t e r y ( s e e A p p e n d i x A ) . * * A d d r e s s e s we re n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l s t u d e n t s i n t h i s g r o u p . s t u d e n t s we re e x c l u d e d by C a r l s m i t h : S t u d e n t s whose f a t h e r s w e r e i n t h e s e r v i c e b u t d i d n o t go o v e r s e a s we re e l i m i n a t e d f r o m t h e s t u d y b e c a u s e I f e l t i t w o u l d be t o o d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n t h e p e r i o d s o f f a t h e r - s e p a r a t i o n f o r t h i s g r o u p . F o r e i g n - b o r n s t u d e n t s and t h o s e f r o m b r o k e n homes (due t o d e a t h , s e p a r a t i o n , o r d i v o r c e ) we re a l s o e x c e p t e d . F o r e i g n - b o r n s t u d e n t s we re a l s o o m i t t e d f r o m t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n v o l v e d i n c o n t r o l l i n g f o r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . S t u d e n t s f r o m b r o k e n homes we re r e t a i n e d b e c a u s e a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e " p a r e n t - s e p a r a t e d g r o u p i n t h i s s t u d y a r e f r o m b r o k e n homes. E x c l u d i n g t h i s g r o u p w o u l d h a v e s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e d u c e d t h e s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e . M e a s u r e s Used Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n o n e - p a g e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( A p p e n d i x C) was c o n s t r u c t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f o b t a i n i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n : ( 1 ) age and sex o f t h e s t u d e n t , (2) p a r e n t s l i v i n g o r d e c e a s e d , (3) number and a ge s o f b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s , (4) o c c u p a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , and age o f f a t h e r , and (5) o c c u p a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , and age o f m o t h e r . The i n t r o d u c t o r y p a r a g r a p h t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e e x p l a i n e d t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y i n v e r y g e n e r a l t e r m s . T h i s p a r a g r a p h was added i n t h e hope t h a t i t w o u l d s t i m u l a t e a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t u d y t h a n i s u s u a l l y e l i c i t e d by t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e - s u r v e y m e t h o d . A s u b - s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n e d t h e 33 q u e s t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o s e p a r a t i o n o r n o n - s e p a r a t i o n f r o m a p a r e n t d u r i n g some p o r t i o n o f c h i l d h o o d . T h i s s e c t i o n a s k s : BEFORE YOUR 6TH BIRTHDAY WERE YOU EVER SEPARATED FROM EITHER PARENT FOR THREE MONTHS OR LONGER: ' ' WHICH PARENT: YOUR AGE WHEN SEPARATION OCCURRED: ( t o n e a r e s t m o n t h , e . g . , 3 y e a r s , 8 m o n t h s ) LENGTH OF SEPARATION ( t o n e a r e s t mon th ) ( a p p r o x i m a t e i f n e c e s s a r y ) REASON FOR SEPARATION Age s i x was c h o s e n on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e b e c a u s e t h e r e i s some c o n s e n s u s t h a t s e x - r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s l a r g e l y c o m p l e t e d by t h a t s t a g e . H e t h e r i n g t o n ( 1 9 6 6 ) i n d i c a t e s i n h e r s t u d y t h a t t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e f a t h e r a f t e r age f i v e had l i t t l e e f f e c t on t h e s e x - t y p e d b e h a v i o r o f b o y s . F r e u d , ( 1 9 4 9 ) f e l t t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n was n o r m a l l y c o m p l e t e d by t h e age o f s i x . P a r t I I o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e q u e s t e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e c o u r s e s t h e s t u d e n t s l i k e d and d i s l i k e d w h i l e i n h i g h s c h o o l . T h i s s e c t i o n was a d d e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o g i v e i t t h e f a c a d e o f a " c o n v e n t i o n a l " s u r v e y i n f o r m a t i o n f o r m , r a t h e r t h a n t o e l i c i t any s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n . V e r i f i c a t i o n L e t t e r . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e p e r t a i n i n g t o age and l e n g t h o f s e p a r a t i o n f r o m a p a r e n t ( o r p a r e n t s ) d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d , 34 a s h o r t v e r i f i c a t i o n l e t t e r was d e v i s e d ( s e e c o p y i n A p p e n d i x C ) . T h i s l e t t e r r e q u e s t e d v e r i f i c a t i o n f r o m a p a r e n t ( o r p a r e n t s ) t h a t t h e s t u d e n t was s e p a r a t e d f r o m one o r b o t h p a r e n t s a t t h e age s p e c i f i e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n t i n u e d f o r t h e i n d i c a t e d l e n g t h o f t i m e . C o o p e r a t i v e S c h o o l and C o l l e g e A b i l i t y T e s t ( SCAT) The C o o p e r a t i v e S c h o o l and C o l l e g e A b i l i t y T e s t ( Fo rm 1 C) i s r ecommended f o r s t u d e n t s a t t h e f r e s h m a n and s ophomore l e v e l who have a l r e a d y been a d m i t t e d t o c o l l e g e . T h i s i s t h e f o r m o f t h e SCAT t h a t has been a d m i n i s t e r e d a t U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o a l l i n c o m i n g s t u d e n t s on a c o m p u l s o r y b a s i s . The t e s t y i e l d s t h r e e s c o r e s , a v e r b a l , q u a n t i t a t i v e o r n u m e r i c a l , and a t o t a l s c o r e . F o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y t h e v e r b a l and q u a n t i t a t i v e s c o r e s we re u t i l i z e d . C o n t r i b -u t i n g t o t h e s e two s c o r e s a r e f o u r s u b t e s t s m e a s u r i n g s k i l l s i n s e n t e n c e c o m p r e h e n s i o n and work d e f i n i t i o n s , a r i t h m e t i c c o m p u t a t i o n ( i n v o l v i n g m a n i p u l a t i n g n u m b e r s ) and q u a n t i t a t i v e p r o b l e m s . The t e s t i s d e s i g n e d t o m e a s u r e " s c h o o l - 1 e a r n e d a b i l i t i e s " r a t h e r t h a n " i n n a t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . " The i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t i e s f o r t h e SCAT, as m e a s u r e d by t h e K u d e r - R i c h a r d s o n F o r m u l a , a r e .92 f o r t h e v e r b a l s e c t i o n and .93 f o r t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e s e c t i o n . An u n p u b l i s h e d s t u d y by Cannon ( 1 9 5 9 ) r e p o r t e d i n t h e SCAT s u p p l e m e n t , c o r r e l a t e d t h e SCAT and t h e SAT A b i l i t y T e s t , w h i c h was u s e d by C a r l s m i t h as h e r i n d e x o f math and v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s . The r e s u l t s a r e as f o l l o w s : C o r r e l a t i o n o f SAT V e r b a l w i t h SCAT V e r b a l 79 C o r r e l a t i o n o f SAT Math w i t h SCAT Q u a n t i t a t i v e . . . .74 A n o t h e r u n p u b l i s h e d s t u d y a l s o c i t e d i n t h e s u p p l e m e n t , r e p o r t s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e SAT and SCAT f o r f r e s h m a n g i r l s a s : C o r r e l a t i o n o f SAT V e r b a l w i t h SCAT V e r b a l . . . . . .84 C o r r e l a t i o n o f SAT Ma th w i t h SCAT Q u a n t i t a t i v e . . . .82 T h i s h i g h d e g r e e o f c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two t e s t s a l l o w s one t o c o m p a r e r e s u l t s b e t w e e n t h i s s t u d y and C a r l -s m i t h ' s w i t h a h i g h d e g r e e o f c o n f i d e n c e t h a t b o t h t e s t s a r e m e a s u r i n g v e r y s i m i l a r a p t i t u d e s . Norms f o r t h e SCAT have been e s t a b l i s h e d n a t i o n a l l y and l o c a l l y . B e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n u n i v e r s i t i e s and s c h o o l s , t h e SCAT manua l s t r o n g l y recommends t h a t e v e r y i n s t i t u t i o n u t i l i z i n g t h e SCAT e s t a b l i s h and i n t e r p r e t s c o r e s t h r o u g h l o c a l n o r m s . A p p e n d i x A , T a b l e X X I I I , page 1 0 8 , l i s t s t h e number o f f r e s h m e n ( c o m b i n e d m a l e s and f e m a l e s ) i n e a c h o f t h e f i r s t y e a r p rog rammes a t U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who c o m p l e t e d t h e SCAT i n t h e a c a d e m i c s e s s i o n 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 . T h i s t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t 9 5 . 7 5 p e r c e n t o f a l l f i r s t y e a r s t u d e n t s w r o t e t h e SCAT i n 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 . A summary o f f i r s t y e a r a v e r a g e v e r b a l and q u a n t i t a -t i v e s c o r e s on t h e SCAT f o r t h e s e s s i o n 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 i s f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x D, page 1 16 . On t h e v e r b a l s e c t i o n o f t h e t e s t t h e New A r t s One g r o u p a t t a i n e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r a v e r a g e s t a n d i n g , w i t h t h e F a c u l t y o f A r t s , F a c u l t y o f S c i e n c e , and S c h o o l o f Home E c o n o m i c s f o l l o w i n g i n t h a t o r d e r . The S e c o n d a r y D i v i s i o n o f t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n o b t a i n e d t h e l o w e s t s t a n d i n g . On t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e s e c t i o n o f t h e t e s t t h e F a c u l t y o f S c i e n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y s u p e r i o r , w i t h t h e F a c u l t y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , S c h o o l o f Home E c o n o m i c s , and t h e New A r t s One P r o j e c t c l o s e l y g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r . The E l e m e n t a r y D i v i s i o n o f t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a -t i o n o b t a i n e d t h e l o w e s t mean s c o r e on t h i s s e c t i o n . The S c h o l a s t i c A p t i t u d e T e s t ( S A T ) , u s e d by C a r l s m i t h as h e r m e a s u r e o f a s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t i e s , r e p o r t s m a t h e -m a t i c a l and v e r b a l s c o r e s on a s c a l e r a n g i n g f r o m 200 t o 800, w i t h a mean o f 500. T h i s s c a l e and mean were s e t i n 1 9 4 1 , hence t h e mean o f 500 i s m i s l e a d i n g when i n t e r p r e t i n g SAT s c o r e s t o d a y . The raw s c o r e s a r e now c o n s i d e r e d as p o s i t i o n s on a s c a l e , n o t p o s i t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s . T h a t i s , t h e s c o r e a c a n d i d a t e a c h i e v e s i s n o t a f f e c t e d by t h e a b i l i t i e s o f t h e o t h e r c a n d i d a t e s who t a k e t h e t e s t a t t h e same t i m e . C a r l s m i t h does n o t c o n c e r n h e r s e l f w i t h t h e a b s o l u t e m a g n i t u d e o f e a c h s t u d e n t ' s s c o r e on t h e SAT, she c a l c u l a t e s i n s t e a d a Math m i n u s V e r b a l d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e f o r e a c h s t u d e n t . She s t a t e s , " T h i s s i n g l e d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e i s p r e f e r r e d f o r a l l c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n g r o u p s s i n c e i t c o n t r o l s t o some e x t e n t f o r g e n e r a l l e v e l o f a b i l i t y . " The s c o r e s f o r t h e SCAT a r e r e p o r t e d somewhat 37 d i f f e r e n t l y . The v e r b a l s c o r e i s r e p o r t e d on a s c a l e f r o m 0 t o 6 0 ; t h e n u m e r i c a l s c o r e has a s c a l e f r o m 0 t o 5 0 . To e n s u r e as d i r e c t a p a r a l l e l t o SAT s c o r e s as p o s s i b l e , t h e SCAT s c o r e s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y we re c o n v e r t e d t o T - s c a l e e q u i v a l e n c i e s ( s e e A p p e n d i x E f o r t h e s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e ) . The T - s c a l e has a mean o f 50 and a s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f 1 0 . In a d d i t i o n t o a s c a l e e x t e n d i n g 100 u n i t s ( f r o m -5 SD t o +5 S D ) , t h e T - s c a l e n o r m a l i z e s t h e d a t a . M u l t i p l y i n g e v e r y T - s c o r e by a c o n s t a n t o f 10 c r e a t e s a d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h a mean o f 500 and a h y p o t h e t i c a l r a n g e o f 0 t o 1 , 0 0 0 . F o r p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s t h e r a n g e o f T - s c o r e s c an be c o n s i d e r e d as e x t e n d i n g f r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y s c o r e 20 t o s c o r e 75 ( o r 200 t o 750 i n t h i s s t u d y ) . T h i s c o n v e r s i o n o f SCAT s c o r e s t o T - s c o r e s , t h e n m u l t i p l y i n g e a c h s c o r e by t e n , a s s u r e s a r e l a t i v e l y p a r a l l e l s c o r e e q u i v a l e n c y s c a l e b e t w e e n t h i s s t u d y and t h e s t u d y done by C a r l s m i t h . F i n a l Exam M a r k s i n E n g l i s h and M a t h e m a t i c s . The i n d i c e s o f d i f f e r e n t i a l a c h i e v e m e n t i n a c t u a l c o u r s e work i n E n g l i s h and M a t h e m a t i c s w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e f i n a l ma r k s l i s t e d f o r e a c h s t u d e n t on t h e R e g i s t r a r ' s B r o a d s h e e t s a t U . B . C . E v e r y s t u d e n t who was r e g i s t e r e d i n E n g l i s h 100 a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d u r i n g t h e a c a d e m i c s e s s i o n 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 ( t h i s i n c l u d e s a l l t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y e x c e p t t h o s e r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e New A r t s I P r o g r a m m e ) , w r o t e a s t a n d a r d e x a m i n a t i o n i n t h a t c o u r s e . S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e 38 we re s t a n d a r d e x a m i n a t i o n s f o r e a c h o f t h e two f i r s t y e a r m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s , M a t h e m a t i c s 110 and M a t h e m a t i c s 1 2 0 . U n l i k e E n g l i s h 1 0 0 , M a t h e m a t i c s was o n l y a r e q u i r e d c o u r s e i n t h e F a c u l t y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , F a c u l t y o f S c i e n c e , S c h o o l o f Home E c o n o m i c s , and S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . Hence d a t a i n t h e s p e c i f i c a r e a o f m a t h e m a t i c a l c o u r s e a c h i e v e m e n t was n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r many o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y . P r o c e d u r e A p i l o t s t u d y was c a r r i e d o u t t o a s c e r t a i n t h e e f f e c t i v e -n e s s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n e l i c i t i n g t h e r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n . The s u b j e c t s we re a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h u n d r e d g r a d e t w e l v e and t h i r t e e n s t u d e n t s f r o m K e l o w n a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , who we re w r i t i n g t h e C o u n s e l l i n g T e s t B a t t e r y p r i o r t o a p p l y i n g f o r e n t r a n c e t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r t h e s e s s i o n 1 9 6 8 - 6 9 . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was m o d i f i e d s l i g h t l y a f t e r t h i s i n i t i a l t r i a l s e s s i o n . The m o d i f i c a t i o n s w e r e so s l i g h t t h a t a s e c o n d p i l o t s t u d y was n o t deemed n e c e s s a r y . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w i t h an a c c o m p a n y i n g l e t t e r and a s t a m p e d r e t u r n e n v e l o p e , was m a i l e d t o e a c h o f t h e 977 s u b j e c t s i n t h e s a m p l e ( s e e T a b l e I, page 3 1 ) . A f t e r a r e a s o n a b l e l e n g t h o f t i m e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e w e e k s ) a f o l l o w -up q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a c c o m p a n y i n g l e t t e r was m a i l e d t o t h o s e s t u d e n t s who had n o t r e t u r n e d t h e f i r s t f o r m . The t o t a l 39 number o f r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s was 8 1 5 , o r 83 .42 p e r c e n t . -T a b l e I I l i s t s t h e number o f r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r e a c h o f t h e f i r s t y e a r p r o g r a m m e s . The h i g h e s t r e t u r n was f r o m t h e S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n ( 9 7 . 1 4 p e r c e n t ) , t h e l o w e s t r e t u r n f r o m t h e F a c u l t y o f S c i e n c e ( 7 8 . 6 7 p e r c e n t ) . G i r l s r e t u r n e d p r o p o r t i o n a l l y more q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h a n b o y s , 8 6 . 3 2 p e r c e n t t o 8 1 . 1 9 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The s t u d e n t s who i n d i c a t e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t t h e y had been s e p a r a t e d f r o m a p a r e n t ( o r p a r e n t s ) d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d w e r e s e l e c t e d as t h e p o t e n t i a l e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . V e r i f i c a t i o n l e t t e r s we re m a i l e d t o t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s t o i n c r e a s e t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e r e p o r t e d i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o age and l e n g t h o f s e p a r a t i o n . Some o f t h e r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s we re o r i g i n a l l y c o m p l e t e d by a p a r e n t , hence v e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e was u n n e c e s s a r y . N i n e t y -f o u r v e r i f i c a t i o n l e t t e r s we re s e n t , s e v e n t y ( o r 7 4 . 4 7 p e r c e n t ) we re r e t u r n e d . Tho se s t u d e n t s who d i d n o t mee t t h e c r i t e r i o n s p e c i f i e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( a b s e n t f o r t h r e e month s o r more b e f o r e t h e i r s i x t h b i r t h d a y ) , we re o m i t t e d f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . SCAT s c o r e s w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y r e c o r d s f o r e v e r y s t u d e n t r e t u r n i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( e i g h t h u n d r e d and n i n e t e e n ) . T h e s e we re c o n v e r t e d t o f o u r s e p a r a t e T - s c a l e d i s t r i b u t i o n s , ( 1 ) m a l e s - v e r b a l , (2 ) m a l e s - n u m e r i c a l , ( 3 ) f e m a l e s - v e r b a l , and ( 4 ) f e m a l e s - n u m e r i c a l ( s e e A p p e n d i x E ) . 40 TABLE I I NUMBER OF QUESTIONNAIRES RETURNED (BY FACULTY) F a c u l t y Ma l es %* F e m a l e s %* T o t a l %* A r t s 122 80 .79 61 81 .33 183 8 0 . 9 7 S c i e n c e 146 80 .22 31 7 2 . 0 9 177 7 8 . 6 7 E d . (E1 em.) 6 75 .00 50 8 3 . 3 3 56 8 2 . 3 5 E d . ( S e c . ) 9 64 .28 15 9 3 . 7 5 24 8 0 . 0 0 A r t s P r o j . 84 80 .00 106 8 7 . 6 0 190 8 4 . 0 7 H .E . - - 41 91 .1 1 41 91 .11 P . E . 42 95 .45 26 1 0 0 . 0 0 68 9 7 . 1 4 M u s i c 21 87 .50 26 9 2 . 8 5 47 9 0 . 3 8 A g r . 19 76 .00 10 1 0 0 . 0 0 29 8 2 . 8 6 T o t a 1 s 449 81 .19 366 8 6 . 3 2 81 5 8 3 . 4 2 * P e r c e n t o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s who r e c e i v e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . 41 In a d d i t i o n t o t h e SCAT s c o r e s , Math 110 o r 120 c o u r s e m a r k s , and E n g l i s h 100 c o u r s e m a r k s we re o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e R e g i s t r a r ' s b r o a d s h e e t s f o r a l l s t u d e n t s r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e s e c o u r s e s . The o r i g i n a l d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y was t o r e p l i c a t e C a r l s m i t h ' s r e s u l t s w i t h m a t c h e d p a i r s o f f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s o n l y . T h i s d e s i g n i s s t i l l r e t a i n e d , b u t w i t h t h e d i s c o v e r y o f a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f m o t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s , and s t u d e n t s who we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s , t h e d e s i g n was e x t e n d e d t o i n c l u d e t h e s e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s . The i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s s t u d y a r e t h e same as t h o s e i n C a r l s m i t h ' s s t u d y , t h a t i s , l e n g t h o f f a t h e r a b s e n c e , and age o f t h e c h i l d when t h e s e p a r a t i o n o c c u r r e d . The s t a t i s t i c a l m e t h o d s u s e d t o a n a l y z e t h e d a t a a r e e x p l a i n e d more f u l l y i n t h e r e s u l t s . CHAPTER V RESULTS Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s we re r e c e i v e d f r o m 815 s t u d e n t s ( 449 m a l e s and 366 f e m a l e s ) . Of t h i s g r o u p 102 ( 1 2 . 5 2 p e r c e n t ) s t u d e n t s we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m a p a r e n t ( o r p a r e n t s ) d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d . T a b l e I I I o u t l i n e s t h e d a t a p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e number o f s t u d e n t s s e p a r a t e d f r o m f a t h e r , m o t h e r , o r b o t h p a r e n t s . The t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t 75 ( 7 3 . 5 3 p e r c e n t ) s t u d e n t s we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m f a t h e r , 14 ( 1 3 . 7 2 p e r c e n t ) s t u d e n t s f r o m m o t h e r , and 13 ( 1 2 . 7 4 p e r c e n t ) s t u d e n t s f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s . In v i e w o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l l y l a r g e s a m p l e s o f s t u d e n t s s e p a r a t e d f r o m m o t h e r o r b o t h p a r e n t s , t h e s e g r o u p s a r e r e t a i n e d i n t h e s t u d y and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n . The r e a s o n s f o r s e p a r a t i o n f r o m a p a r e n t ( o r p a r e n t s ) may be l i s t e d as f o l l o w s : 1. F a t h e r w o r k i n g away f r o m home ( 3 0 . 3 9 p e r c e n t ) . 2 . I l l n e s s o f p a r e n t ( 1 5 . 6 8 p e r c e n t ) . 3 . D e a t h o f p a r e n t ( 1 3 . 7 2 p e r c e n t ) . 4 . T r a v e l ( 1 3 . 7 2 p e r c e n t ) . 5. F a t h e r i n Armed S e r v i c e s ( 9 . 8 0 p e r c e n t ) . 6. S e p a r a t i o n o f p a r e n t s ( 4 . 9 0 p e r c e n t ) . 7 . D i v o r c e ( 3 . 9 2 p e r c e n t ) . 8 . O t h e r (5 .88 p e r c e n t ) . 9 . Rea s on n o t s p e c i f i e d ( 1 . 9 6 p e r c e n t ) . 43 TABLE I I I NUMBER OF STUDENTS SEPARATED FROM PARENT(S ) DURING CHILDHOOD M a l e Fema1e T o t a l % F a t h e r S e p a r a t e d 44 31 75 7 3 .53 M o t h e r S e p a r a t e d 8 6 14 13 .72 S e p a r a t e d From B o t h 5 8 13 12 .74 T o t a l S e p a r a t e d 57 45 102 12 . 5 2 * * P e r c e n t o f t h e 815 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e c e i v e d . 44 The p e r c e n t a g e o f c h i l d r e n f r o m b r o k e n homes ( l i s t e d r e a s o n s 3 , 6 , and 7 , page 4 2 , i n c l u d e d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s a m p l e i s 2 2 . 5 5 p e r c e n t . T a b l e IV o u t l i n e s t h e number o f s t u d e n t s i n e a c h f a c u l t y who c o n s t i t u t e t h e p a r e n t - s e p a r a t e d g r o u p ( n = 1 0 2 ) . The D e p a r t m e n t o f M u s i c has t h e h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s ( 1 7 . 0 2 p e r c e n t ) , f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y by t h e A r t s I P r o j e c t ( 1 6 . 8 4 p e r c e n t ) . The S c h o o l o f Home E c o n o m i c s has t h e l o w e s t p r o p o r t i o n ( 4 . 8 8 p e r c e n t ) . The s c o r e s f o r t h e v e r b a l and n u m e r i c a l s e c t i o n s o f t h e SCAT r e p o r t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e s u l t s a r e c o n v e r t e d T - s c a l e s c o r e s . F o r b o t h t h e v e r b a l and q u a n t i t a t i v e s e c t i o n s o f t h e SCAT t h e c o n v e r t e d a v e r a g e T - s c o r e s a r e 500 ( f o r b o t h m a l e and f e m a l e s a m p l e s ) . T h a t i s , t h e mean s c o r e s a r e 500 on b o t h t h e v e r b a l and n u m e r i c a l s e c t i o n s f o r t h e e n t i r e s a m p l e (n=449) o f m a l e s , s i m i l a r l y t h e means a r e 500 on b o t h s e c t i o n s f o r t h e e n t i r e s a m p l e o f f e m a l e s ( n = 3 6 6 ) . C a r l s m i t h r e p o r t s t h a t t h e m e d i a n s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by t h e 1964 H a r v a r d c l a s s ( n = l , 1 8 0 ) on t h e SAT a r e 695 and 677 on t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l and v e r b a l s e c t i o n s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Hence any d i r e c t c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n t h e s e r e s u l t s and t h o s e o b t a i n e d by C a r l s m i t h w i l l have t o a c c o u n t f o r t h i s m e d i a n M-V d i f f e r e n c e . 45 TABLE IV NUMBER OF PARENT-SEPARATED STUDENTS IN EACH D I S C I P L I N E F a c u 1 t y M a l e Fema1e T o t a l % A r t s 13 5 18 9 .84 S c i e n c e 19 2 21 1 1 .86 E d . ( E l em.) 1 8 9 1 6 . 0 7 E d . ( S e c . ) 2 2 4 16 .67 A r t s P r o j . 14 18 32 1 6 . 8 4 H .E . 0 2 2 4 . 8 8 P . E . 3 2 5 7 . 35 M u s i c 3 5 8 1 7 . 0 2 A g r . 2 1 3 1 0 . 3 4 T o t a 1 s 57 45 102 1 2 . 5 2 * P e r c e n t o f r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . 46 P r e d i c t i o n 1 . F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s w i l l have r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r v e r b a l s k i l l s r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l s k i l l s . The a v e r a g e s c o r e s on t h e SCAT f o r t h e f o r t y - f o u r f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s a r e 5 1 3 . 4 7 ( SD=93.78 ) on t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e o r n u m e r i c a l s e c t i o n , and 5 4 4 . 5 2 ( SD=90.55 ) on t h e v e r b a l s e c t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e o f 3 1 . 0 4 p o i n t s b e t w e e n t h e s e means i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l ( t = 1 . 9 8 ) . H e n c e , t h e f i r s t p r e d i c t i o n i s v e r i f i e d . C a r l s m i t h c o n c l u d e d i n h e r s t u d y t h a t e a r l y d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e home by t h e f a t h e r ( b e f o r e son i s t w e l v e month s o f a g e ) , and an a b s e n c e o f more t h a n one y e a r , p r o d u c e s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e s o n ' s v e r b a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y . T a b l e s V and VI p a r a l l e l C a r l s m i t h ' s p a r a d i g m , p r o v i d i n g a t e s t o f t h i s f i n d i n g . The M-V s c o r e s f r o m t h e t a b l e s , a l t h o u g h n o t r e a c h i n g s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , s u g g e s t t h e o p p o s i t e o f C a r l s m i t h ' s c o n c l u s i o n s . T h a t i s , a d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e home a f t e r t h e c h i l d i s t w e l v e m o n t h s o f a g e , and an a b s e n c e o f l e s s t h a n one y e a r , p r o d u c e s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e s o n ' s v e r b a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o h i s n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y . The s o n ' s age when f a t h e r d e p a r t s a p p e a r s t o be an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e . The d a t a i n T a b l e VI s u g g e s t s t h a t a s e p a r a t i o n a t any age d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d p r o d u c e s an i n c r e a s e i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l s k i l l . B u t , t a k i n g 47 TABLE V RELAT IONSHIP BETWEEN LENGTH OF F A T H E R ' S ABSENCE AND SON ' S MATHEMATICAL AND VERBAL APTITUDE L e n g t h o f F a t h e r ' s Math V e r b a l MVV A b s e n c e n Mean SD Mean SD D i f f . t 3 -12 mon th s 30 5 2 4 . 6 3 7 9 . 9 2 5 5 3 . 2 6 8 9 . 7 0 - 2 8 . 6 3 1.55 More t h a n 12 mon th s 14 507.71 8 0 . 6 9 5 0 9 . 3 5 104 .11 - 1.64 .06 C o n t r o l G r o u p * 392 4 9 7 . 0 0 9 9 . 5 9 4 9 3 . 8 2 1 0 0 . 2 8 3 .18 .54 * T h e c o n t r o l g r o u p c o n s i s t s o f a l l t h e m a l e s t u d e n t s who i n d i c a t e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t t h e y had n o t been s e p a r a t e d f r o m a p a r e n t d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d . TABLE VI RELAT IONSH IP BETWEEN SON ' S AGE WHEN FATHER DEPARTED AND MATHEMATICAL AND VERBAL APTITUDE S o n ' s Age When F a t h e r M a t h V e r b a l D e p a r t e d n Mean SD Mean SD D i f f . t 0 - 12 month s 1 2 5.27.83 1 09.1 9 5 5 6 . 6 6 74.1 7 - 2 8 . 8 3 .81 More t h a n 12 month s 32 5 0 8 . 0 9 8 6 . 7 2 5 3 9 . 9 6 9 3 . 0 5 - 3 1 . 8 7 1.80 C o n t r o l G r o u p 392 4 9 7 . 0 0 9 9 . 5 9 .493.82 1 0 0 . 2 8 3 .18 .54 48 i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e g e n e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c h i l d ' s l a n g u a g e , e s p e c i a l l y t h e s udden and m a r k e d i n c r e a s e i n t h e a v e r a g e number o f new wo rd s t h a t a r e l e a r n e d by a c h i l d a t a b o u t t h e age o f e i g h t e e n month s ( G o o d e n o u g h and T y l e r , 1 9 5 9 ) , T a b l e VI was r e v i s e d t o a s s e s s t h i s t r e n d i n v o c a b u l a r y d e v e l o p m e n t . T a b l e V I I o u t l i n e s t h e two r e v i s e d c a t e g o r i e s . The M-V s c o r e s i n t h i s t a b l e i n d i c a t e t h a t i f t h e f a t h e r d e p a r t s b e f o r e t h e c h i l d i s e i g h t e e n month s o f age t h e r e i s l i t t l e e f f e c t upon t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f v e r b a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y . H o w e v e r , a d e p a r t u r e a f t e r t h e c h i l d i s e i g h t e e n mon th s o f age a p p e a r s t o d e p r e s s n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o v e r b a l a b i l i t y , a l t h o u g h t h e M-V s c o r e does n o t r e a c h s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i -c a n c e ( t = l . 6 5 ) . The i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e two i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w i t h a p t i t u d e i s o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e V I I I . The s m a l l N ' s i n some o f t h e c e l l s make t h e s e r e s u l t s h i g h l y t e n t a t i v e . M i n u s s i g n s p r e c e d i n g t h e mean M-V s c o r e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e a v e r a g e v e r b a l s c o r e i s h i g h e r t h a n t h e math s c o r e f o r t h e g r o u p . To t e s t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e i n d e p e n d e n t and d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a c o e f f i c i e n t o f m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n was c o m p u t e d . The m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a -t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t o f .32 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e two i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s t o g e t h e r a c c o u n t f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n t h e M-V s c o r e s . T h i s i s a l ow 49 TABLE V I I RELAT IONSHIP BETWEEN SON 'S AGE WHEN FATHER DEPARTED AND SON ' S MATHEMATICAL AND VERBAL APTITUDE (REV ISED CATEGORIES) S o n ' s Age When F a t h e r Ma th V e r b a l M-V D e p a r t e d n Mean SD Mean SD D i f f . t 0 - 18 month s 13 5 2 7 . 0 0 7 5 . 9 5 537.31 1 0 3 . 8 4 - 1 0 . 3 1 .28 More t h a n 18 mon th s 31 5 0 9 . 6 4 8 5 . 8 2 537 .51 9 3 . 5 0 - 2 7 . 8 7 1.65 C o n t r o l G roup 392 4 9 7 . 0 0 9 9 . 5 9 4 9 3 . 8 2 1 0 0 . 2 8 3 . 18 .54 TABLE V I I I 50 RELAT IONSHIP BETWEEN SON ' S AGE WHEN FATHER DEPARTED AND LENGTH OF ABSENCE L e n a t h o f F a t h e r ' s Ove r 7 - 18 1-6 A t A b s e n c e 1 9 B i r t h T o t a l s n 22 4 4 30 Math 5 1 3 . 5 4 552 .00 5 5 8 . 2 5 5 2 4 . 6 3 3 -12 Mon th s V e r b a 1 5 4 6 . 5 4 596 .00 5 4 7 . 5 0 5 5 3 . 2 7 M-V - 3 3 . 0 0 - 4 4 .00 1 0 . 7 5 - 2 8 . 6 4 n 4 4 Ma th 5 2 5 . 2 5 5 2 5 . 2 5 1 3 - 1 8 M o n t h s V e r b a l 5 1 7 . 2 5 5 1 7 . 2 5 M-V 8 . 0 0 8 . 0 0 n 1 1 2 Math 502 .00 4 8 8 . 0 0 4 9 5 . 0 0 1 9 - 30 M o n t h s V e r b a l 453 .00 6 5 2 . 0 0 5 5 2 . 5 0 M-V 49 .00 - 1 6 4 . 0 0 - 5 7 . 5 0 N 5 1 1 1 8 Ma th 4 8 0 . 0 0 690 .00 4 1 0 . 0 0 5 1 7 . 0 0 5 0 2 . 1 2 O v e r 30 V e r b a l 5 1 4 . 0 0 640 .00 4 4 2 . 0 0 3 0 5 . 0 0 4 9 4 . 6 2 M o n t h s M-V - 3 4 . 0 0 50 .00 - 3 2 . 0 0 2 1 2 . 0 0 7 . 50 31 6 5 2 44 Math 5 0 9 . 6 4 5 6 6 . 6 7 5 2 8 . 6 0 5 0 2 . 5 0 T o t a l s V e r b a l 5 3 7 . 5 2 5 7 9 . 5 0 5 2 6 . 4 0 4 7 8 . 5 0 M-V - 2 7 . 8 8 - 1 2 . 8 3 2 . 20 2 4 . 0 0 51 c o r r e l a t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t o n l y a s l i g h t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s ( b u t n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l ) . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s showed t h a t t h e l e n g t h o f t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o r r e l a t e d - . 1 9 w i t h a p t i t u d e ( s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t , t = . 2 5 ) , t h e age when t h e s e p a r a t i o n o c c u r r e d c o r r e l a t e d .33 w i t h a p t i t u d e ( s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l , t = 2 . 2 9 ) . Hence t h e r e i s a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a -t i o n b e t w e e n t h e age o f t h e c h i l d , when t h e s e p a r a t i o n o c c u r r e d and an i n c r e a s e i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i 1 i t y . P r e d i c t i o n 2 . F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d f e m a l e s t u d e n t s w i l l have r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r v e r b a l s k i l l s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e i r n u m e r i c a l s k i l l s . H o w e v e r , t h i s r e l a t i v e s u p e r i o r i t y o f v e r b a l s k i l l t o n u m e r i c a l s k i l l s h o u l d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i -c a n t l y f r o m t h a t d e m o n s t r a t e d by g i r l s who have n o t been s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e i r f a t h e r s . C a r l s m i t h i n c l u d e d a s m a l l s a m p l e o f h i g h s c h o o l g i r l s i n h e r s t u d y , f i n d i n g t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f f a t h e r a b s e n c e on t h e i r a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t i s s i m i l a r t o t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r b o y s . T h a t i s , s e p a r a t i o n f r o m f a t h e r a t an e a r l y age and f o r a p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h h i g h e r v e r b a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y a l s o i n d i c a t e g r e a t e r r e l a t i v e p r o f i c i e n c y i n v e r b a l p u r s u i t s f o r f a t h e r -52 s e p a r a t e d g i r l s . The a v e r a g e s c o r e s f o r t h e t o t a l s a m p l e (n = 31) o f g i r l s who were s e p a r a t e d f r o m f a t h e r a r e 5 2 6 . 0 6 ( SD=76 .63 ) on t h e v e r b a l s e c t i o n and 4 8 7 . 8 3 ( SD=102 .84 ) on t h e n u m e r i c a l s e c t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e means i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l ( t = 2 . 0 1 ) . The s e c o n d p a r t o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t f a t h e r -s e p a r a t e d f e m a l e s t u d e n t s w i l l n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r i n a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t f r o m f a t h e r - p r e s e n t g i r l s i s n o t v e r i f i e d . The a v e r a g e c o n v e r t e d T - s c o r e s f o r t h e s a m p l e o f g i r l s (n=321) f r o m i n t a c t homes a r e 4 9 3 . 2 9 and 4 9 9 . 9 6 on t h e v e r b a l and n u m e r i c a l s e c t i o n s , . r e s p e c t i v e l y . T a b l e IX l i s t s t h e s c o r e s f o r t h e two g r o u p s o f g i r l s . The a v e r a g e v e r b a l s c o r e o f 5 2 6 . 0 6 ( SD=76 .63 ) a c h i e v e d by t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d g r o u p i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e v e r b a l s c o r e o f 4 9 3 . 2 9 ( SD=101 .92 ) o b t a i n e d by t h e p a r e n t s -p r e s e n t g r o u p o f g i r l s ( t = 2 . 1 7 ) , s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l ) . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e r e s p e c t i v e n u m e r i c a l means f o r t h e two g r o u p s i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t ( t = . 6 2 ) . The e f f e c t s o f t h e two i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ( age and l e n g t h o f s e p a r a t i o n ) upon d a u g h t e r ' s a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p -ment a r e o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e s X and X I . A l t h o u g h n o t r e a c h i n g s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e d a t a i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o b s e r v e d f o r m a l e s . A d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e home by t h e f a t h e r a f t e r h i s d a u g h t e r i s t w e l v e mon th s o f a g e , f o r a p e r i o d o f one y e a r o r l e s s , p r o d u c e d an i n c r e a s e i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y . 53 TABLE IX RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A P T I T U D E SCORES FOR FATHER-SEPARATED AND PARENT-PRESENT G I R L S Math V e r b a l M-V G r o u p s n Mean SD Mean SD D i f f . t F a t h e r -s e p a r a t e d 31 487.83 102.84 526.06 76.63 -38.23 2.01* P a r e n t s -p r e s e n t 321 499.96 102.99 493.29 101.92 6.67 .82 *p .05 54 TABLE X RELAT IONSH IP BETWEEN LENGTH OF F A T H E R ' S ABSENCE AND DAUGHTER 'S MATHEMATICAL AND VERBAL APTITUDE L e n g t h o f F a t h e r ' s Ma th V e r b a l MV A b s e n c e n Mean SD Mean SD D i f f . t 3 - 12 month s 21 4 9 8 . 3 3 104 .66 5 3 9 . 3 3 7 2 . 8 2 - 4 1 . 0 0 1.39 M o r e t h a n 12 mon th s 10 4 6 5 . 8 0 95 .11 4 9 9 . 2 0 8 3 . 0 8 - 3 3 . 4 0 .94 C o n t r o l G r o u p * 321 4 9 9 . 9 6 102 .99 4 9 3 . 2 9 1 0 1 . 9 2 6 . 67 .82 * T h e c o n t r o l g r o u p c o n s i s t s o f a l l t h e f e m a l e s t u d e n t s who i n d i c a t e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t t h e y had n o t been s e p a r a t e d f r o m a p a r e n t d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d . TABLE XI RELAT IONSH IP BETWEEN DAUGHTER 'S AGE WHEN FATHER DEPARTED AND MATHEMATICAL AND VERBAL APTITUDE D a u g h t e r ' s Age When F a t h e r Ma th V e r b a l M-V D e p a r t e d n Mean SD Mean SD D i f f . t 0 - 1 2 m o n t h s 7 5 1 7 . 5 7 1 2 5 . 7 2 5 3 0 . 1 4 3 7 . 7 0 - 1 2 . 5 7 .24 More t h a n 12 m o n t h s 24 4 7 9 . 1 6 9 3 . 9 5 5 2 4 . 8 7 8 4 . 6 5 - 4 5 . 7 1 1.80 C o n t r o l G r o u p 321 4 9 9 . 9 6 1 0 2 . 9 9 4 9 3 . 2 9 1 0 1 . 9 2 6 .67 .82 A f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a u g h t e r ' s age when t h e s e p a r a t i o n o c c u r r e d i s o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e X I I . The d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t M-V d i f f e r e n c e f o r e i t h e r o f t h e two g r o u p s . B u t a g a i n , s i m i l a r t o t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f o r t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s , t h e e f f e c t o f a s e p a r a t i o n a f t e r t h e d a u g h t e r i s e i g h t e e n month s o f a g e , a p p e a r s t o d e p r e s s n u m e r i c a l a p t i t u d e r e l a t i v e t o v e r b a l a p t i t u d e ( t = 1 . 4 2 , s t a t i s t i c a l l y no t s i g n i f i c a n t ) . T h i s t r e n d i s n o t as e v i d e n t f o r t h o s e g i r l s who we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m f a t h e r b e f o r e e i g h t e e n month s o f age ( t = . 8 6 ) . The i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e two i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s w i t h a p t i t u d e i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X I I I . A g a i n t h e s m a l l N ' s i n some o f t h e c e l l s may add an e r r o r f a c t o r t o t h e d a t a . A m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was c a l c u l a t e d w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s an i n s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n a p t i t u d e and t h e two i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s t a k e n t o g e t h e r ( R = . 2 1 ) . I n s p e c t i o n o f t h e M-V s c o r e s i n T a b l e X I I I doe s n o t i n d i c a t e any d e f i n i t e t r e n d . The M-V t o t a l s c o r e f o r e a c h d i v i s i o n o f t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a r e p r e f a c e d w i t h m i n u s s i g n s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t f o r e v e r y g r o u p v e r b a l a b i l i t y i s s u p e r i o r t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y . P r e d i c t i o n 3 . M a l e s t u d e n t s who have n o t been s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e i r f a t h e r s d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d w i l l have r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t y t h a n t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e 56 TABLE X I I RELAT IONSH IP BETWEEN DAUGHTER 'S AGE WHEN FATHER DEPARTED AND DAUGHTER 'S MATHEMATICAL AND VERBAL APTITUDE (REV ISED CATEGORIES) D a u g h t e r ' s Age When F a t h e r D e p a r t e d Ma th n Mean SD V e r b a l Mean SD M-V D i f f . t 0 - 18 month s More t h a n 18 month s 9 5 0 7 . 5 5 1 1 2 . 5 2 5 4 4 . 5 5 6 0 . 2 9 - 3 7 . 0 0 .86 22 4 7 9 . 7 7 9 7 . 43 5 1 8 . 5 0 8 4 . 4 9 C o n t r o l G r o u p 321 4 9 9 . 9 6 1 02 . 99 4 9 3 . 2 9 101 . 92 3 8 . 7 3 1.42 6 .67 .82 57 TABLE X I I I RELAT IONSH IP BETWEEN DAUGHTER 'S AGE WHEN FATHER DEPARTED AND LENGTH OF. ABSENCE L e n g t h o f D a u g h t e r ' s Age ( i n M o n t h s ) when F a t h e r L e f t F a t h e r ' s A b s e n c e ( i n M o n t h s ) O v e r 19 7 -18 1-6 A t B i r t h T o t a l s n 1 5 3 2 21 3 -12 Math V e r b a 1 4 8 2 . 1 8 541 .81 5 1 8 . 3 3 5 2 7 . 3 3 5 9 7 . 5 0 5 3 7 . 5 0 4 9 8 . 3 3 5 3 9 . 3 3 M-V - 5 9 . 6 3 - 9 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0 - 4 1 . 0 0 n 1 1 1 3 - 18 Math V e r b a l M-V 4 1 5 . 0 0 4 5 3 . 0 0 - 3 8 . 0 0 4 1 5 . 0 0 4 5 3 . 0 0 - 3 8 . 0 0 n 1 1 2 1 9 - 3 0 Ma th V e r b a l 6 4 5 . 0 0 5 0 5 . 0 0 4 8 0 . 0 0 6 4 0 . 0 0 5 6 2 . 5 0 5 7 2 . 5 0 M-V 1 4 0 . 0 0 - 1 6 0 . 0 0 - 1 0 . 0 0 n 4 1 1 1 7 O v e r 30 Ma th V e r b a l 4 4 5 . 0 0 4 4 5 . 0 0 5 8 0 . 0 0 6 0 2 . 0 0 3 0 8 . 0 0 5 1 6 . 0 0 4 5 0 . 0 0 4 8 6 . 0 0 4 4 5 . 4 3 4 8 3 . 4 3 M-V 0 . 0 - 2 2 . 0 0 - 2 0 8 . 0 0 - 3 6 . 0 0 - 3 8 . 0 0 n 22 5 .3 1 31 T o t a l s Ma th 4 7 9 . 7 7 5 2 3 . 0 0 5 0 1 . 0 0 4 5 0 . 0 0 V e r b a l 5 1 8 . 5 0 5 6 4 . 8 0 5 3 0 . 3 3 4 8 6 . 0 0 .M-V . . . . . - 38 .73 - 4 1 . 8 0 - 2 9 . 3 3 - 3 6 . 0 0 However, f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d male s t u d e n t s w i l l demons t ra te g r e a t e r p r o f i c i e n c y i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y than the f a t h e r -p r e s e n t g roup . The average n u m e r i c a l s c o r e o b t a i n e d by the f o r t y -f o u r f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d male s t u d e n t s i s 513.47 (SD=93.78). The average n u m e r i c a l s co re o b t a i n e d by the male s t u d e n t s (n=392) who were not s e p a r a t e d from a pa ren t d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d i s 497.00 ( S D = 9 9 . 5 9 ) . The d i f f e r e n c e between these two means i s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i q n i f i c a n t , ( t=1.09) hence the f i r s t p a r t of the above p r e d i c t i o n i s not v e r i -f i e d . That i s , f a t h e r - p r e s e n t s t u d e n t s do not demons t ra te g r e a t e r p r o f i c i e n c y i n n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e to f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s . F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d male s t u d e n t s o b t a i n e d an average s co re of 544.52 (SD=90.55) i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y , the f a t h e r -p r e s e n t male group o b t a i n e d a v e r b a l s co re of 493.82 (SD=100.28). The d i f f e r e n c e between these two means i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l ( t = 3 . 4 5 ) . Hence the second p a r t of the p r e d i c t i o n i s v e r i f i e d : f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d male s t u d e n t s do demons t r a te g r e a t e r p r o f i c i e n c y i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e to the f a t h e r - p r e s e n t male g roup . In o r d e r to o b t a i n a more p r e c i s e a n a l y s i s of t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , matched groups were o b t a i n e d f o r the f a t h e r -s e p a r a t e d and f a t h e r - p r e s e n t male s t u d e n t s . Twenty-two s t u d e n t s who were s e p a r a t e d from t h e i r f a t h e r s f o r t h r e e to s i x months when they were aged n i n e t e e n months or over (up t o s i x y e a r s ) , were m a t c h e d w i t h t w e n t y - t w o s t u d e n t s who were n o t s e p a r a t e d f r o m a p a r e n t d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d . The two g r o u p s we re m a t c h e d on t h e b a s i s o f f a t h e r ' s a g e , e d u c a t i o n , and o c c u p a t i o n , t h e s t u d e n t ' s h i g h s c h o o l p r o g r a m m e , h i g h s c h o o l a v e r a g e , and o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n . T a b l e X IV o u t l i n e s t h e v a r i a b l e s u s e d t o m a t c h t h e two g r o u p s . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e v a r i a b l e s o u t l i n e d i n t h e t a b l e , an a t t e m p t was made t o a l s o m a t c h t h e g r o u p s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t ' s m o t h e r s , and t h e a g e s o f b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s . T a b l e XV c o m p a r e s t h e m a t c h e d g r o u p s , i n d i c a t i n g t h e number o f s t u d e n t s who a t t a i n e d h i g h e r v e r b a l o r n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s . The d a t a i n T a b l e XV i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t f o u n d by C a r l s m i t h i n h e r s t u d y . S i n c e h e r e n t i r e s a m p l e a c h i e v e d h i g h e r ma r k s on t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l s e c t i o n t h a n t h e v e r b a l s e c t i o n o f t h e SAT , she u n d e r s t a n d a b l y f o u n d t h a t more f a t h e r - p r e s e n t s t u d e n t s a t t a i n e d h i g h e r m a t h e m a t i c a l s c o r e s r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r v e r b a l s c o r e s . The a v e r a g e s c o r e s f o r t h e t w e n t y - t w o f a t h e r -s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s i n t h e m a t c h e d g r o u p s a r e 5 4 6 . 5 4 ( SD=95 .44 ) on t h e v e r b a l s e c t i o n and 5 1 3 . 5 4 ( SD=109 .69 ) on t h e n u m e r i c a l s e c t i o n o f t h e SCAT. The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e means i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t ( t = 1 . 5 7 ) . T h e s e s c o r e s c o m p a r e w i t h t h e a v e r a g e s c o r e s f o r t h e f a t h e r - p r e s e n t m a t c h e d g r o u p , 5 2 1 . 5 9 (SD = 8 7 . 2 3 ) and 510.31 (SD = 7 6 . 2 8 ) on 60 T A 3 L E XIV V A R I A B L E S USED TO MATCH THE TWO GROUPS E d u c a t i o n F a t h e r ' s E d u c a t i o n : S u b j e c t ' s E d u c a t i o n * ( G r a d e 12 A c a d e m i c -T e c h n i c a l P r o g .) U n i v e r s i t y D e g r e e s 6 P a r t i a l U n i v e r s i t y 9 S r . H i g h S c h o o l 8 A r t s S p e c i a l t y 9 Jr. H i g h S c h o o l 3 S c i e n c e S p e c i a l t y 9 P u b l i c S c h o o l 1 T e c h n i c a l S p e c i a l t y 3 No f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n 1 N o t s p e c i f i e d 1 F a t h e r ' s O c c u p a t i o n : P r o f e s s i o n a l 4 U n s k i l l e d T r a d e s 2 B u s i n e s s a n d M a n a g e r i a l 7 A r m e d F o r c e s 2 S k i l l e d T r a d e s 3 D e c e a s e d 4 O t h e r V a r i a b l e s F a t h e r - F a t h e r -S e p a r a t e d P r e s e n t H i g h S c h o o l A v e r a g e 72.61 7 1 . 5 0 Mean A g e o f S u b j e c t s 1 8 . 9 0 1 8 . 6 3 O n l y C h i l d 1 2 E l d e s t C h i l d 11 9 S e c o n d C h i l d 6 8 T h i r d C h i l d 4 4 F o u r t h o r M o r e 1 1 M e a n A g e o f F a t h e r s 5 0 . 8 8 5 0 . 0 0 Mean A g e o f M o t h e r s 4 8 . 0 0 4 8 . 1 9 A g e R a n g e o f F a t h e r s 4 1 - 6 0 4 4 - 6 0 A g e R a n g e o f M o t h e r s 4 1 - 6 3 4 2 - 5 9 Number w i t h O l d e r B r o t h e r s 6 9 Number w i t h O l d e r S i s t e r s 5 6 Number f r o m B r o k e n Homes 2 3 Number f r o m I n t a c t Homes 20 19 61 TABLE XV NUMBER OF STUDENTS OBTAINING HIGHER VERBAL OR NUMERICAL SCORES FOR THE 22 MATCHED PA IRS OF SUBJECTS V e r b a l H i g h e r N u m e r i c a l H i g h e r t h a n N u m e r i c a l t h a n V e r b a l T o t a l s F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d S t u d e n t s 14 8 22 F a t h e r - p r e s e n t S t u d e n t s 12 10 22 t h e v e r b a l and n u m e r i c a l s e c t i o n s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n means f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t (t= . 5 2 ) . A c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n t h e v e r b a l means f o r t h e t w e n t y two f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d and c o n t r o l s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e means ( t = . 1 3 ) . The r e s u l t s f r o m t h e m a t c h e d g r o u p s i n d i c a t e t h a t f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d and f a t h e r - p r e s e n t m a l e s t u d e n t s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n e i t h e r v e r b a l a b i l i t y o r n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y . H e n c e p r e d i c t i o n t h r e e i s n o t v e r i f i e d . The r e s u l t s f o r p r e d i c t i o n s f o u r , f i v e , and s i x a r e o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e X V I . The t a b l e o u t l i n e s . t h e number o f m a l e and f e m a l e s t u d e n t s i n e a c h d i s c i p l i n e who were s e p a r a t e d f r o m f a t h e r d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d . P r o p o r t i o n a l l y , a l m o s t as many f e m a l e s as m a l e s were f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d (8.47 p e r c e n t c o m p a r e d w i t h 9.80 p e r c e n t f o r m a l e s ) . B e c a u s e o f t h e s m a l l s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e s , E l e m e n t a r y and S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s a r e c o m b i n e d i n t h i s t a b l e . The s m a l l s i z e o f t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s a m p l e s f o r t h e F a c u l t y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , t h e S c h o o l s o f Home E c o n o m i c s and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f M u s i c , p r e c l u d e t h e s e g r o u p s f r o m any s t a t i s t i c a l c o m p a r i s o n s . H e n c e , p r e d i c t i o n s f o u r , f i v e and s i x c a n n o t be e i t h e r v e r i f i e d o r r e f u t e d f r o m t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a . B u t , 63 TABLE XVI FATHER-SEPARATED STUDENTS (BY D I S C I P L I N E ) F a c u 1 t y M a l e s %* F e m a l e s %* T o t a l %* A r t s 7 5.74 4 6 .56 11 6.01 S c i e n c e 15 1 0 . 2 7 1 3 . 22 16 9 .04 E d u c a t i on 3 2 0 . 0 0 7 1 0 . 7 7 10 1 2 . 5 0 A r t s I P r o j . 13 1 5 . 4 8 13 1 2 . 26 26 1 3 . 6 8 H .E . - - 1 2 . 44 1 2 .44 P . E . 2 4 . 7 6 2 7 . 69 4 5 .88 M u s i c 2 9 . 52 2 7 .69 4 8.51 A g r . 2 1 0 . 53 1 1 0 . 0 0 3 10 . 34 T o t a l s 44 9 .80 31 8 .47 75 9 . 20 * P e r c e n t c a l c u l a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e number o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e c e i v e d f o r e a ch f a c u l t y ( s e e T a b l e I I , page 40) . c o m p a r i s o n s a r e made b e t w e e n t h e F a c u l t i e s o f A r t s , S c i e n c e , E d u c a t i o n , and t h e A r t s I P r o j e c t , s i n c e e a c h o f t h e s e d i s c i p l i n e s c o n t a i n t e n o r more f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s . P r e d i c t i o n 4 . T h e r e w i l l be p r o p o r t i o n a l l y f e w e r f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s i n t h e f i r s t y e a r S c i e n c e programme a t U . B . C . t h a n i n any o t h e r f i r s t y e a r p r o g r amme. The d a t a f r o m T a b l e XVI s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e F a c u l t y o f A r t s and S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n may have t h e f e w e s t f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s , 4 . 7 6 and 5 . 7 4 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . The F a c u l t y o f S c i e n c e has 1 0 . 27 p e r c e n t f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s . C a l c u l a t i n g a d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n p e r c e n t a g e s y i e l d s t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t i s t i c a l l y n o n s i g n i f i c a n t t - v a l u e s b e t w e e n t h e t o t a l ( c o m b i n e d m a l e s and f e m a l e s ) s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s f o r t h e F a c u l t y o f S c i e n c e and t h e o t h e r t h r e e d i s c i p l i n e s : A r t s and S c i e n c e , t =1 .08 ; E d u c a t i o n and S c i e n c e , t = . 7 7 ; A r t s I P r o j e c t and S c i e n c e , t = 1 . 4 1 . P r e d i c t i o n 5. T h e r e w i l l be p r o p o r t i o n a l l y more f a t h e r -s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s ( b o t h m a l e and f e m a l e ) i n t h e New A r t s I P rogramme t h a n i n any o t h e r f i r s t y e a r p rogramme a t U . B . C . F o r m a l e s i n t h e A r t s I P r o j e c t 15 . 48 r e p o r t t h e y we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m f a t h e r , f o r f e m a l e s 1 2 . 2 6 p e r c e n t . The t o t a l f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s i n t h e A r t s I P r o j e c t i s 1 3 . 6 8 . C o m p a r i n g t h e f i r s t f o u r t o t a l g r o u p s i n T a b l e X V I , as was done i n p r e d i c t i o n f o u r , y i e l d s t h e f o l l o w i n g t - v a l u e s b a s e d upon d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n p e r c e n t a g e s : A r t s and A r t s I P r o j e c t , t = 2 . 5 6 ( s i g n i f i c a n t a t .05 l e v e l ) ; S c i e n c e and A r t s I P r o j e c t , t =1.41 ( i n s i g n i f i c a n t ) ; E d u c a t i o n and A r t s I P r o j e c t , t = . 2 7 ( i n s i g n i f i c a n t ) . T h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t more s t u d e n t s i n t h e New A r t s I P r o j e c t , t h a n i n t h e A r t s F a c u l t y , a r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m f a t h e r d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d . The d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e A r t s I P r o j e c t and t h e F a c u l t i e s o f S c i e n c e o r E d u c a t i o n a r e n o n s i g n i f i c a n t . P r e d i c t i o n 6 . S e c o n d o n l y t o t h e Mew A r t s I P r o g r a m m e , t h e r e w i l l be a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The d a t a i n T a b l e XVI i n d i c a t e t h a t 4 . 7 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e m a l e s i n t h e S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e i r f a t h e r s d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d . The s a m p l e i s t o o s m a l l f o r s t a t i s t i c a l c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h t h e o t h e r d i s c i p 1 i n e s . P r e d i c t i o n 7. F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s who have o l d e r b r o t h e r s ( r e m a i n i n g i n t h e home d u r i n g t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e f a t h e r ) , w i l l n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e f a t h e r - p r e s e n t g r o u p i n v e r b a l and m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t i e s . T w e l v e ( 2 7 . 2 7 p e r c e n t ) o f t h e f o r t y - f o u r f a t h e r -66 s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d on t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h a t t h e y have o l d e r b r o t h e r s . The r e m a i n i n g t h i r t y - t w o s t u d e n t s ( 7 2 . 7 3 p e r c e n t ) a r e e i t h e r o n l y c h i l d r e n , e l d e s t c h i l d r e n o r have o l d e r s i s t e r s . T a b l e X V I I l i s t s t h e r e s p e c t i v e mean n u m e r i c a l and v e r b a l a p t i t u d e s c o r e s f o r t h e s e g r o u p s . F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s w i t h o l d e r b r o t h e r s o b t a i n e d a v e r b a l a v e r a g e s c o r e o f 5 5 5 . 2 5 ( S D = 1 0 4 . 2 5 ) ; t h i s c o m p a r e s w i t h t h e a v e r a g e v e r b a l s c o r e o f 4 9 3 . 8 2 (S'D = 1 0 0 . 2 8 ) o b t a i n e d by t h e f a t h e r - p r e s e n t g r o u p (n = 3 9 2 ) . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e means i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t ( t = 1 . 9 0 ) . The n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s f o r t h e two g r o u p s a r e n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t ( t = . 5 8 ) . Hence i t seems t h a t t h e a b o v e p r e d i c t i o n i s v e r i f i e d . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e a p t i t u d e s c o r e s b e t w e e n t h e t w e l v e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s w i t h o l d e r b r o t h e r s , and t h e t h i r t y - t w o f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s w i t h o u t o l d e r b r o t h e r s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e s e two g r o u p s on e i t h e r n u m e r i c a l ( t = . 0 1 ) , o r v e r b a l a p t i t u d e ( t = . 4 4 ) . Hence i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e o f o l d e r b r o t h e r s i n t h e home has l i t t l e e f f e c t upon t h e a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t o f f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s . S i n c e t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n v e r b a l means f o r t h e t w e l v e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s and t h e f a t h e r - p r e s e n t g r o u p a l m o s t r e a c h e d s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ( t = 1 . 9 0 ) , a 67 TABLE XV I I RELAT IONSHIP BETWEEN APTITUDE SCORES FOR FATHER-SEPARATED MALES WITH AND WITHOUT OLDER BROTHERS AND FATHER-PRESENT MALE STUDENTS Math V e r b a l M-V n M.ean SD Mean S.D D i f f . t F a t h e r -s e p a r a t e d 12 S t u d e n t s w i t h O l d e r B r o t h e r s F a t h e r -S e p a r a t e d S t u d e n t s 32 w i t h o u t O l d e r B r o t h e r s F a t h e r -p r e s e n t 392 Samp le TABLE X V I I I RELAT IONSH IP BETWEEN APTITUDE SCORES FOR FATHER-SEPARATED MALES WITH OLDER BROTHERS AND A MATCHED SAMPLE OF FATHER-PRESENT MALE STUDENTS Math V e r b a l M-V n Mean SD Mean SD D i f f . t F a t h e r -s e p a r a t e d 12 513 .41 9 1 . 9 8 5 5 5 . 2 5 104 . 25 - 4 1 . 8 4 1.90 S t u d e n t s w i t h O l d e r B r o t h e r s F a t h e r -p r e s e n t 12 5 2 0 . 8 3 9 0 . 6 3 4 7 2 . 6 6 8 6 . 1 2 4 8 . 1 7 1.86 S t u d e n t s w i t h O l d e r B r o t h e r s 513 .41 9 1 . 9 8 5 5 5 . 2 5 1 0 4 . 2 5 - 4 1 . 8 4 1.90 5 1 3 . 5 0 1 0 0 . 4 6 5 4 0 . 5 0 6 9 . 1 2 - 2 7 . 0 0 1..67 4 9 7 . 0 0 9 9 . 5 9 4 9 3 . 8 2 1 0 0 . 2 8 3 .18 .54 68 f u r t h e r c h e c k was deemed n e c e s s a r y . A m a t c h e d s a m p l e o f t w e l v e f a t h e r - p r e s e n t m a l e s t u d e n t s was s e l e c t e d . The two g r o u p s w e r e m a t c h e d on t h e b a s i s o f s t u d e n t ' s a g e , number o f b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s , f a t h e r ' s e d u c a t i o n , f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n , and f a t h e r ' s a g e . B o t h g r o u p s had o l d e r b r o t h e r s . The n u m e r i c a l a v e r a g e s c o r e f o r t h e f a t h e r - p r e s e n t c o n t r o l g r o u p i s 5 2 0 . 8 3 , ( S D = 9 0 . 6 3 ) , t h e v e r b a l s c o r e , 4 7 2 . 6 6 ( S D = 8 6 . 1 2 ) . T h i s c o m p a r e s w i t h a n u m e r i c a l s c o r e o f 513 .41 ( S D = 9 1 . 9 8 ) , and a v e r b a l s c o r e o f 5 5 5 . 2 5 (SD= 1 0 4 . 2 5 ) f o r t h e t w e l v e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s w i t h o l d e r b r o t h e r s ( s e e T a b l e X V I I I ) . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e v e r b a l mean s c o r e s i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 105 l e v e l ( t = 2 . 4 6 ) , t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e n u m e r i c a l mean s c o r e s f o r t h e two g r o u p s i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t ( t = . 2 9 ) . T h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s w i t h o l d e r b r o t h e r s ( r e m a i n i n g i n t h e home d u r i n g t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e f a t h e r ) do d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y f r o m t h e f a t h e r - p r e s e n t g r o u p . The f a t h e r -s e p a r a t e d g r o u p d e m o n s t r a t e g r e a t e r p r o f i c i e n c y i n v e r b a l p u r s u i t s c o m p a r e d t o t h e f a t h e r - p r e s e n t g r o u p . T h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e n u m e r i c a l means f o r t h e two g r o u p s . P r e d i c t i o n 8 . The f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s w i l l a t t a i n a r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s i n t h e f i r s t y e a r E n g l i s h c o u r s e ( E n g l i s h 1 0 0 ) , t h a n t h o s e s t u d e n t s who we re no t s e p a r a t e d f r o m f a t h e r d u r i n g c h i l d -hood . F o r t y - f o u r m a l e s t u d e n t s we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m f a t h e r d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d . Of t h i s g r o u p , f i r s t y e a r E n g l i s h m a r k s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i r t y - o n e s t u d e n t s ( t h e A r t s I g r o u p d i d n o t r e c e i v e a s e p a r a t e mark f o r E n g l i s h 1 0 0 ) . A m a t c h e d s a m p l e o f t h i r t y - o n e f a t h e r - p r e s e n t s t u d e n t s was s e l e c t e d . The s a m p l e s we re m a t c h e d on t h e b a s i s o f a g e , u n i v e r s i t y p r o g r a m m e , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d , and o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n . The mean s c o r e f o r t h e f i r s t y e a r E n g l i s h c o u r s e i s 8 3 . 9 3 ( SD=11.39 ) p e r c e n t f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . The a v e r a g e s c o r e f o r t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s i s 9 1 . 9 3 (SD = 1 6.1 3).. The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e two means i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l ( t = 1 . 9 7 ) . Hence t h e a b o v e h y p o t h e s i s i s v e r i f i e d . P r e d i c t i o n 9 . The m a l e s t u d e n t s who we re n o t s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e i r f a t h e r s d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d w i l l a t t a i n a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f s u c c e s s i n t h e f i r s t y e a r m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e ( M a t h e m a t i c s 110 o r 120 ) t h a n t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s . M a t h e m a t i c s m a r k s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r t w e n t y - o n e o f t h e f o r t y - f o u r f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s . The m a t c h e d g r o u p o f t h i r t y - o n e s t u d e n t s i n h y p o t h e s i s e i g h t we re u t i l i z e d f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s . To r e i t e r a t e , t h e g r o u p s we re m a t c h e d on t h e b a s i s o f s t u d e n t ' s a g e , s o c i o e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d , o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n , and u n i v e r s i t y p r o g r amme. S i n c e t h e two g r o u p s w e r e m a t c h e d on t h e b a s i s o f u n i v e r s i t y p r o g r a m m e , t w e n t y - t w o o f t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p e n r o l l e d i n a f i r s t y e a r m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e . T h i s c o m p a r e s w i t h t w e n t y -one i n t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d g r o u p . The f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d g r o u p o b t a i n e d an a v e r a g e s c o r e o f 9 8 . 0 0 ( SD=26 .16 ) p e r c e n t on t h e f i r s t y e a r m a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s , t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p o b t a i n e d an a v e r a g e o f 9 5 . 0 0 ( SD=21.33 ) p e r c e n t . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e r e s p e c t i v e means i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t ( t = . 4 7 ) . The above p r e d i c t i o n i s n o t v e r i f i e d . The o r i g i n a l i n t e n t o f t h i s s t u d y was t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t o f f a t h e r a b s e n c e upon a c h i l d ' s a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p -m e n t . The u n e x p e c t e d d i s c o v e r y t h a t 1 3 . 7 2 p e r c e n t and 1 2 . 7 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e 102 s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m m o t h e r and b o t h p a r e n t s r e s p e c t i v e l y , r e s u l t e d i n an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n t o i n c l u d e t h e s e g r o u p s . A l t h o u g h t h e two g r o u p s a r e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l n u m e r i c a l l y (14 s t u d e n t s m o t h e r - s e p a r a t e d ; 13 s t u d e n t s s e p a r a t e d f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s ) , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t an a n a l y s i s 71 o f t h e s e g r o u p s m i g h t i n d i c a t e some i n t e r e s t i n g t r e n d s . T a b l e XVIX o u t l i n e s t h e number o f m a l e and f e m a l e s t u d e n t s i n e a c h o f t h e f i r s t y e a r p rog rammes who we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m m o t h e r d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d . P r o p o r t i o n a l l y , t h e F a c u l t y o f A r t s has more m o t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s t h a n any o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e , 2 2 . 2 2 p e r c e n t . The S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and t h e A r t s I P r o j e c t f o l l o w c l o s e l y b e h i n d w i t h 2 0 . 0 0 p e r c e n t and 1 8 . 7 5 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e s e p e r c e n t a g e s a r e p o s s i b l y m i s l e a d i n g b e c a u s e o f t h e v e r y s m a l l s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e . No s t u d e n t s i n t h e F a c u l t i e s o f E d u c a t i o n , A g r i c u l t u r e , o r t h e S c h o o l o f Home E c o n o m i c s r e p o r t t h e y we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m m o t h e r d u r i n g c h i 1 d h o o d . T a b l e XX o u t l i n e s t h e a v e r a g e n u m e r i c a l and v e r b a l s c o r e s f o r t h e m a l e s and f e m a l e s who we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m m o t h e r d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d . The e f f e c t o f m o t h e r s e p a r a t i o n on a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t f o r m a l e s seems t o be d e t r i m e n t a l f o r b o t h v e r b a l and n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t i e s . The M-V s c o r e ( 1 8 . 3 7 ) i s n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e means ( t = . 38 ) . T a b l e XX i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e M-V d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e o f - 5 3 . 3 4 f o r m o t h e r - s e p a r a t e d f e m a l e s i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t ( t = 1 . 3 0 ) . The n u m e r i c a l a v e r a g e s c o r e o f 4 5 3 . 5 6 ( SD=109 .21 ) i s b e l o w t h e a v e r a g e n u m e r i c a l s c o r e o f 4 9 9 . 9 6 ( SD=102.99) o b t a i n e d by t h e s a m p l e o f g i r l s f r o m i n t a c t homes ( n = 3 2 1 ) , b u t i s n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( t = . 9 4 ) . The mean 72 TABLE XVIX MOTHER -SEPARATED STUDENTS (BY D I S C I P L I N E ) F a c u 1 t y Ma l e F e m a l e T o t a l %* A r t s 3 1 4 2 2 . 2 2 S c i e n c e 2 - 2 9 .52 Ed . ( E l em.) - - - -E d . ( S e c . ) - - - -A r t s P r o j . 1 5 6 1 8 . 7 5 H.E. - - - - -P . E . 1 - 1 2 0 . 0 0 M u s i c 1 - 1 1 2 . 5 0 A g r . - - - -T o t a l s 8 6 14 13 . 72 * P e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l number o f s t u d e n t s s e p a r a t e d i n e a c h f a c u l t y ( s e e T a b l e I V ) . 73 TABLE XX NUMERICAL AND VERBAL AVERAGE SCORES FOR MOTHER-SEPARATED STUDENTS N u m e r i c a l V e r b a l M-V n Mean SD Mean SD D i f f . t M a l e s 8 4 8 7 . 6 2 85 .31 4 6 9 . 2 5 8 8 . 6 0 18 . 37 .38 F e m a l e s 6 4 5 3 . 6 6 109.21 5 0 7 . 0 0 9 9 . 0 4 - 5 3 . 3 4 1.30 v e r b a l s c o r e o f 5 0 7 . 0 0 ( SD=99.04 ) o b t a i n e d by t h e m o t h e r -s e p a r a t e d g i r l s doe s n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e v e r b a l s c o r e o f 4 9 3 . 2 9 ( SD=101 .92 ) o b t a i n e d by t h e g i r l s f r o m i n t a c t homes ( t = . 3 2 ) . The s m a l l s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e s o f m o t h e r - s e p a r a t e d g i r l s and boys makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c o v e r any d e f i n i t e t r e n d i n t h e d a t a . The t h i r t e e n s t u d e n t s who were s e p a r a t e d f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s f o r t h r e e month s o r l o n g e r d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d a r e l i s t e d by programme i n T a b l e X X I . As was p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d f o r t h e m o t h e r - s e p a r a t e d g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s , t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s i z e o f t h i s s a m p l e makes t h e s e r e s u l t s h i g h l y t e n t a t i v e . T a b l e XX I I i n d i c a t e s t h a t s e p a r a t i o n f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s seems t o r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y f o r m a l e s . The f i v e m a l e s t u d e n t s who were s e p a r a t e d f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s o b t a i n e d an a v e r a g e v e r b a l s c o r e o f 5 7 5 . 2 0 ( S D = 1 2 6 . 8 5 ) . T h i s s c o r e i s h i g h e r t h a n t h e a v e r a g e v e r b a l s c o r e o f 4 9 3 . 8 2 ( SD=101 .92 ) o b t a i n e d by t h e e n t i r e s a m p l e (n=392) o f m a l e s f r o m i n t a c t homes , b u t i s n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( t = l . 2 8 ) . The a v e r a g e n u m e r i c a l s c o r e o b t a i n e d by t h e f i v e m a l e s t u d e n t s s e p a r a t e d f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s i s 4 8 9 . 6 0 ( S D = 8 9 . 5 7 ) . T h i s s c o r e does n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e a v e r a g e n u m e r i c a l s c o r e o f 497 .00 (SD = 9 9 . 59) o b t a i n e d by t h e f a t h e r -p r e s e n t s t u d e n t s ( t = , 1 6 ) . The M-V d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e o f - 8 5 . 6 0 f o r t h e " b o t h -75 TABLE XXI STUDENTS SEPARATED FROM BOTH PARENTS DURING CHILDHOOD (BY FACULTY) F a c u 1 t y Mal e F e m a l e T o t a l % A r t s S c i e n c e E d . ( E l em .) E d . ( S e c .) A r t s P r o j . H.E . P . E . M u s i c A g r . 3 3 3 1 6 . 6 7 1 4 . 28 3 3 . 3 3 5 0 . 0 0 3 7 . 5 0 T o t a l s 13 1 2 . 7 4 76 TA-BLE X X I I NUMERICAL AND V E R B A L AVERAGE SCORES FOR S T U D E N T S S E P A R A T E D FROM BOTH P A R E N T S N u m e r i c a l V e r b a l M-y n M e a n SD M e a n SD D i f f . t M a l e s F e m a 1 e s 5 8 4 8 9 . 6 0 8 9 . 5 7 5 7 5 . 2 0 1 2 6 . 8 5 - 8 5 . 6 0 1.63 5 2 6 . 8 7 8 8 . 8 4 5 0 8 . 7 5 6 5 . 3 6 1 8 . 1 2 .68 77 s e p a r a t e d " m a l e g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s doe s n o t r e a c h s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ( t = 1 . 6 3 ) . A g a i n , t h e s m a l l s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e s makes any o f t h e s e r e s u l t s h i g h l y t e n t a t i v e . The e i g h t f e m a l e s who we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s o b t a i n e d s c o r e s o f 5 2 6 . 8 7 (SD=88.84) , i n n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y and 5 0 8 . 7 5 ( SD=65.36 ) i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y . T h e s e s c o r e s a r e h i g h e r t h a n t h e n u m e r i c a l mean o f 4 9 9 . 9 6 ( SD=102 .99 ) and t h e v e r b a l mean o f .493.29 ( SD=101 .92 ) o b t a i n e d by t h e s a m p l e o f g i r l s f r o m i n t a c t homes ( n = 3 2 1 ) , b u t a r e n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n n u m e r i c a l m e a n s , t = . 7 9 ; d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n v e r b a l m e a n s , t= .61 . CHAPTER VI D ISCUSS ION G e n e r a l F i n d i n g s The e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s p r o v i d e s u p p o r t f o r C a r l -s m i t h ' s ( 1 9 6 4 ) c e n t r a l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t m a l e s t u d e n t s who a r e s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e i r f a t h e r s d u r i n g some p o r t i o n o f c h i l d -hood s u b s e q u e n t l y d e v e l o p g r e a t e r p r o f i c i e n c y i n v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t i e s . C a r l s m i t h f o u n d t h a t b o t h i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ( age o f s e p a r a t i o n and l e n g t h o f s e p a r a t i o n ) , c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e c h i l d ' s d i f f e r e n t i a l a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t . In c o n t r a s t t o h e r f i n d i n g s , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y f o u n d t h a t t h e l e n g t h o f t h e s e p a r a t i o n had a s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon a p t i t u d e p a t t e r n s . The age o f t h e c h i l d when t h e s e p a r a t i o n o c c u r r e d had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f v e r b a l a b i 1 i t i e s r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t i e s . F a t h e r ' s d e p a r t u r e a f t e r t h e c h i l d had r e a c h e d a y e a r o f age o r m o r e , seemed t o d e p r e s s n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y w i t h o u t a f f e c t i n g v e r b a l a b i l i t y . T h i s may s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e f a t h e r i s more " c r i t i c a l " d u r i n g c e r t a i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r i o d s t h a n d u r i n g o t h e r p h a s e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . The g e n e r a l t r e n d o f t h e d a t a s u g g e s t s t h a t a t e m p o r a r y s e p a r a t i o n ( l e s s t h a n one y e a r ) a f t e r t h e c h i l d 79 i s a t l e a s t one y e a r o f a g e , p r o d u c e s an i n c r e a s e i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y . The s t u d y by S t o l z ( 1 9 5 4 ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t f a t h e r s who we re away f r o m home when a m a l e c h i l d was b o r n ( t h e s e f a t h e r s w e r e i n t h e Armed S e r v i c e s ) , we re more r e j e c t i n g and s e v e r e w i t h t h e c h i l d when t h e y r e t u r n e d t h a n n o n -s e p a r a t e d f a t h e r s w i t h t h e i r s o n s . T h e s e r e j e c t e d s on s m a i n t a i n e d a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r m o t h e r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e i r c h i l d h o o d . T h i s m i g h t a c c o u n t f o r some o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n i n n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o v e r b a l a b i l i t y f o l l o w i n g a t e m p o r a r y a b s e n c e o f t h e f a t h e r . T h o s e m a l e s who we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e i r f a t h e r s f o r a p r o l o n g e d p e r i o d ( i n c l u d i n g t h o s e s t u d e n t s who we re p e r m a n e n t l y s e p a r a t e d f r o m f a t h e r by d i v o r c e , d e s e r t i o n o r d e a t h ) may have r e a c t e d t o t h e m o t h e r ' s i n s e c u r e and a n x i o u s c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s ( K o c h , 1961) w i t h c o m p e n s a t o r y m a s c u l i n i t y w h i c h w o u l d p o s s i b l y i n t e r f e r e w i t h h e i g h t e n e d v e r b a l f l u e n c y . The e f f e c t o f f a t h e r - s e p a r a t i o n upon d i f f e r e n t i a l a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t a p p e a r s t o f o l l o w t h e same p a t t e r n f o r f e m a l e s as was n o t e d f o r m a l e s , w i t h f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d g i r l s d e m o n s t r a t i n g g r e a t e r p r o f i c i e n c y i n v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t i e s . T h i s same g e n e r a l t r e n d was n o t e d by C a r l s m i t h i n h e r r e s e a r c h . H o w e v e r , i n c o n t r a s t t o h e r r e s u l t s , a t e m p o r a r y ( l e s s t h a n 12 m o n t h s ) s e p a r a t i o n o f f a t h e r and d a u g h t e r a f t e r t h e d a u g h t e r has r e a c h e d t w e l v e month s o f a g e , f a c i l i t a t e d v e r b a l d e v e l o p m e n t more t h a n a p r o l o n g e d e a r l y s e p a r a t i o n as was f o u n d by C a r l s m i t h . I n c l u d e d i n t h e g r o u p o f g i r l s who we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e i r f a t h e r s l o n g e r t h a n t w e l v e month s ( T a b l e X ) , a r e t h o s e g i r l s who came f r o m homes b r o k e n by s e p a r a t i o n , d i v o r c e o r d e a t h . G i r l s f r o m t h e s e homes may s u f f e r t r a u m a f r o m t h e p e r m a n e n t s e p a r a -t i o n f r o m t h e i r f a t h e r s , and t h e r e s u l t i n g c h a n g e i n c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s by t h e m o t h e r . The s t u d i e s by H e t h e r i n g t o n ( 1 9 6 7 ) , and R o s e n b e r g and S u t t o n - S m i t h ( 1 9 6 8 ) , f o u n d t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e f a t h e r i s v i t a l t o t h e d a u g h t e r ' s f e m i n i n e s e i f - i d e n t i t y . A c c e p t i n g t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n t h a t f e m i n i n i t y doe s c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y w i t h v e r b a l a b i l i t y , i t w o u l d l o g i c a l l y f o l l o w t h a t t h e l o n g e r t h e f a t h e r and d a u g h t e r a r e s e p a r a t e d , t h e more d e t r i m e n t a l t h i s w o u l d be t o t h e d a u g h t e r ' s s e x - r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , and s e c o n d a r i l y , t o h e r v e r b a l a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s w o u l d p o s s i b l y e x p l a i n why a t e m p o r a r y s e p a r a t i o n p r o d u c e s g r e a t e r v e r b a l a b i l i t y t h a n a p r o l o n g e d s e p a r a t i o n . H o w e v e r , t h e q u e s t i o n o f why a s e p a r a t i o n p e r se p r o d u c e s an i n c r e a s e i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y i s s t i l l u n a n s w e r e d . In c o n t r a s t t o C a r l s m i t h ' s c r o s s - s e x i d e n t i f i c a t i o n h y p o t h e s i s , i t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t r a u m a a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e p a r a t i o n , t h e a b s e n c e o f " m a s c u l i n e " g u i d a n c e i n s h a p i n g t h e . c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s , t h e f e e l i n g s o f a b a n d o n m e n t and s u b s e q u e n t m i s t r u s t o f t h e f a t h e r , and t h e c h a n g e i n t h e m o t h e r ' s c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s , may p r o d u c e t h e i n c r e a s e i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y . T h e s e h y p o t h e s e s w o u l d r e q u i r e , o f c o u r s e , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t o a s s e s s t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o v e r b a l and n u m e r i c a l a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t . I t was f o u n d t h a t f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m f a t h e r - p r e s e n t m a l e s t u d e n t s i n n u m e r i c a l a p t i t u d e . T h i s r e s u l t i s a t v a r i a n c e w i t h C a r l s m i t h ' s f i n d i n g t h a t " t h e m a i n e f f e c t o f f a t h e r a b s e n c e seems t o be a p r o g r e s s i v e d e p r e s s i o n o f t h e Ma th s c o r e . " A c l o s e a n a l y s i s o f he r d a t a r e v e a l s t h a t t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s g e n e r a l l y o b t a i n e d l o w e r s c o r e s i n b o t h v e r b a l and m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t y c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . The i n d i s c r i m i n a t e c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n mean and m e d i a n s c o r e s f o r d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s makes i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s w i t h any d e g r e e o f e x a c t i t u d e t r e n d s i n C a r l s m i t h ' s r e s u l t s . F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d g i r l s we re a l m o s t as p r o f i c i e n t i n n u m e r i c a l a p t i t u d e as t h e f a t h e r - p r e s e n t s a m p l e . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f f a t h e r and d a u g h t e r may n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t n u m e r i c a l a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t , b u t may p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t v e r b a l a p t i t u d e . The r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e o f f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d g i r l s makes t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s h i g h l y t e n t a t i v e . 82 The c h o i c e o f f i r s t y e a r F a c u l t y by t h e f a t h e r -s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s ( m a l e and f e m a l e ) p r o v i d e d some i n t e r e s t i n g and p r o v o c a t i v e f i n d i n g s . The d a t a ( a l t h o u g h s t a t i s t i c a l l y n o n s i g n i f i c a n t ) s u g g e s t s t h a t more f a t h e r -s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s c h o o s e t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e S e c o n d a r y d i v i s i o n , t h a n any o t h e r f i r s t y e a r programme a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B .C . P e r h a p s t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e f a t h e r d u r i n g some p o r t i o n o f c h i l d h o o d c r e a t e s an i n s e c u r i t y i n t h e s e c h i l d r e n w h i c h m o t i v a t e s them t o c h o o s e a r e l a t i v e l y " s e c u r e " p r o f e s s i o n . A l s o , s i n c e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d c h i l d r e n have h i g h e r v e r b a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t t h e s e c h i l d r e n t o c h o o s e a f i e l d w h i c h a l l o w s them t o u t i l i z e t h e i r v e r b a l a p t i t u d e . The F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n w o u l d be a l o g i c a l c h o i c e . The S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n may a t t r a c t t h e f e w e s t f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s . The r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e makes t h e s e r e s u l t s h i g h l y t e n t a -t i v e . A P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n D e g r e e does n o t o f f e r as s e c u r e a f u t u r e as many o f t h e o t h e r d e g r e e s ( i n c l u d i n g E d u c a t i o n ) , and e m p h a s i z e s a t h l e t i c s r a t h e r t h a n v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s . T h i s m i g h t a c c o u n t f o r t h e r e l a t i v e l y f ew f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s c h o o s i n g t h i s d i s c i p l i n e . The i n s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f o l d e r b r o t h e r s upon t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t o f f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s i s d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n . The f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s w i t h o u t o l d e r b r o t h e r s d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n e i t h e r v e r b a l o r n u m e r i c a l a p t i t u d e f r o m t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s w i t h o l d e r b r o t h e r s . A s s u m i n g t h a t a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t and s e x - r o l e i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , t h e a b o v e r e s u l t s seem t o be i n c o n t r a s t t o R o s e n b e r g and S u t t o n S m i t h ' s ( 1 9 6 8 ) s t u d y w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f an o l d e r l i k e - s e x s i b l i n g i s c o n d u c i v e t o a p p r o p r i a t e s e x - r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . B u t , i f t h e o r i g i n a l l y s t a t e d h y p o t h e s i s i s a c c e p t e d , t h a t s e x -r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t c an d e v e l o p r e l a t i v e l y i n d e p e n d e n t l y , t h e a b o v e f i n d i n g s a r e p l a u s i b l e . T h a t i s , f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d boys w i t h o l d e r b r o t h e r s may s t i l l d e v e l o p a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e m a s c u l i n e s e l f - i m a g e , b u t a l s o become v e r b a l l y o r i e n t a t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e f a t h e r and t h e r e s u l t a n t c h a n g e s i n t h e home env i r o n m e n t . W i t h r e s p e c t t o p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e f i r s t y e a r E n g l i s h and M a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s , t h e d a t a was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e o b t a i n e d a p t i t u d e p a t t e r n s f o r t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s . T h a t i s , f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s showed s u p e r i o r i t y i n v e r b a l p u r s u i t s r e l a t i v e t o n o n - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s . The f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s a l s o o b t a i n e d a h i g h e r mean s c o r e i n t h e E n g l i s h 100 c o u r s e t h a n a m a t c h e d s a m p l e o f n o n - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s . S i m i l a r l y , s i n c e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d i n n u m e r i c a l a p t i t u d e b e t w e e n f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s and n o n -s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e w o u l d e x i s t be tween mean s o c r e s i n t h e i r M a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s . T h i s i s e x a c t l y wha t was f o u n d . The f i n d i n g t h a t m o t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s have l o w e r a b i l i t y i n b o t h v e r b a l and n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y r e l a -t i v e t o n o n - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s does n o t a g r e e w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f K e l l y e t a l . ( 1 9 6 5 ) . They f o u n d t h a t s i x t h -g r a d e c h i l d r e n f r o m m o t h e r l e s s homes p e r f o r m e d more p r o f i c i e n t l y on a r e a d i n g t e s t t h a n c h i l d r e n f r o m f a t h e r -l e s s homes . M o t h e r - s e p a r a t e d g i r l s i n t h i s s t u d y o b t a i n e d a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r mean v e r b a l s c o r e t h a n t h e n o n - s e p a r a t e d g r o u p o f g i r l s , b u t l o w e r t h a n t h e mean v e r b a l s c o r e o b t a i n e d by t h e s a m p l e o f f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d g i r l s . H e n c e , t h e a p t i t u d e d a t a f o r t h e m o t h e r - s e p a r a t e d g i r l s a l s o c o n t r a d i c t s t h e f i n d i n g s o f K e l l y e t a l . The s a m p l e s o f m o t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s f o r t h i s s t u d y and f o r t h a t o f K e l l y e t a l . we re r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l . T h i s m i g h t a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i s c r e p a n t r e s u l t s . A l s o , K e l l y e t a l . t e s t e d s i x t h - g r a d e c h i l d r e n , w h e r e a s t h i s s t u d y was c o n c e r n e d w i t h f i r s t y e a r u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . P o s s i b l y d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f m o t h e r - s e p a r a t i o n v e r b a l a b i l i t y i m p r o v e s s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y , b u t as t h e s e p a r a t i o n c o n t i n u e s t h e c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s become more a n a l y t i c a l l y o r i e n t a t e d . 85 T h i s s p e c u l a t i o n i s h i g h l y t e n t a t i v e s i n c e t h e mean n u m e r i c a l s c o r e f o r t h e m o t h e r - s e p a r a t e d g i r l s was w e l l b e l o w t h a t o b t a i n e d by e i t h e r t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d , o r n o n -s e p a r a t e d g i r l s . Mo re r e s e a r c h i s e s s e n t i a l i n t h i s s p e c i f i c a r e a . S e p a r a t i o n f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d was n o t d e t r i m e n t a l t o a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t ; i n f a c t , s e p a r a t i o n f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y f o r m a l e s r e l a t i v e t o n o n - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s . H o w e v e r , t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e means was no t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . N u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h a t o f t h e n o n - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s . F o r g i r l s a l s o , n e i t h e r v e r b a l n o r n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y was n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t e d b e c a u s e o f an e a r l y s e p a r a t i o n f r o m b o t h m o t h e r and f a t h e r . T h e s e g i r l s o b t a i n e d h i g h e r a v e r a g e s c o r e s i n b o t h v e r b a l and n u m e r i c a l a p t i t u d e c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e n o n - s e p a r a t e d g r o u p o f g i r l s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e a v e r a g e n u m e r i c a l s c o r e f o r t h e s e g i r l s i s h i g h e r t h a n t h e i r a v e r a g e v e r b a l s c o r e . A g a i n , t h e s m a l l s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e s of. b o t h - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s and f e m a l e s , makes t h e s e r e s u l t s h i g h l y t e n t a t i v e . In mos t i n s t a n c e s t h e s e c h i l d r e n s e p a r a t e d f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s w e r e s t a y i n g w i t h r e l a t i v e s , f o s t e r p a r e n t s o r we re i n h o s p i t a l ; s i t u a t i o n s t h a t w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be more c o n d u c i v e t o v e r b a l d e v e l o p m e n t t h a n t h e home e n v i r o n m e n t s o f t h e n o n - s e p a r a t e d c h i l d r e n . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h e s e p a r a t i o n p e r se c a u s t h e i n c r e a s e i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y . CHAPTER V I I SUMMARY A s t u d y was c a r r i e d o u t t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e f f e c t o f p a r e n t a l a b s e n c e upon a c h i l d ' s a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e e f f e c t o f p a r e n t - c h i l d s e p a r a t i o n upon s u b s e q u e n t v e r b a l o r n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y . An a t t e m p t was made t o r e p l i c a t e r e s e a r c h done by C a r l s m i t h ( 1 9 6 4 ) i n w h i c h i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t e a r l y s e p a r a t i o n ( f o r t h r e e mon th s o r l o n g e r ) o f f a t h e r and son p r o d u c e s g r e a t e r s u b s e q u e n t v e r b a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y f o r t h e s o n . S m a l l s a m p l e s o f s t u d e n t s who we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m m o t h e r o r f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s we re i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p r i m a r y g r o u p o f f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s . The s u b j e c t s we re f i r s t y e a r s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B .C . d u r i n g t h e a c a d e m i c s e s s i o n 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s we re u t i l i z e d t o e l i c i t t h e r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n , w h i c h was s u b s e q u e n t l y v e r i f i e d by a p a r e n t . The number o f s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s was 102 (57 m a l e and 45 f e m a l e ) ; 75 f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d , 14 m o t h e r - s e p a r a t e d , and 13 s e p a r a t e d f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s . The m e a s u r e s u s ed t o a s s e s s v e r b a l and n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y w e r e t h e C o o p e r a t i v e S c h o o l and C o l l e g e A b i l i t y T e s t ( S C A T ) , and a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s i n f i r s t y e a r u n i v e r s i t y E n g l i s h and M a t h e m a t i c s c o u r s e s . The SCAT was p a r t o f a 88 c o m p u l s o r y c o u n s e l l i n g t e s t b a t t e r y a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l f r e s h m e n s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B .C . The m a j o r f i n d i n g s f o r e a c h o f t h e n i n e p r e d i c t i o n s , i n b r i e f , a r e : P r e d i c t i o n 1. F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s w i l l have r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r v e r b a l s k i l l s . r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l s k i l l s . F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s d e m o n s t r a t e d g r e a t e r p r o f i c i e n c y i n v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t i e s . The l e n g t h o f t h e s e p a r a t i o n d i d n o t s i g n i f i -c a n t l y a f f e c t a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t , bu t t h e age o f t h e c h i l d when s e p a r a t i o n o c c u r r e d was i m p o r t a n t . T h a t i s , i f t h e s e p a r a t i o n o c c u r r e d b e f o r e t h e c h i l d was e i g h t e e n m o n t h s o f a g e , t h e i n c r e a s e i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y was n o t as p r o n o u n c e d as t h a t p r o d u c e d by a s e p a r a t i o n a f t e r t h e c h i l d was e i g h t e e n mon th s o l d (up t o age s i x y e a r s ) . P r e d i c t i o n 2. F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d f e m a l e s t u d e n t s w i l l have r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r v e r b a l s k i l l s c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e i r n u m e r i c a l s k i l l s . H o w e v e r , t h i s r e l a t i v e s u p e r i o r i t y o f v e r b a l s k i l l t o n u m e r i c a l s k i l l s h o u l d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h a t d e m o n s t r a t e d by g i r l s who have n o t been s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e i r f a t h e r s . F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d f e m a l e s t u d e n t s d e m o n s t r a t e d g r e a t e r p r o f i c i e n c y i n v e r b a l a b i l i t i e s r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l 89 a b i l i t i e s . The a v e r a g e v e r b a l s c o r e o f t h e f a t h e r -s e p a r a t e d g r o u p was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e mean v e r b a l s c o r e o b t a i n e d by g i r l s who we re n o t s e p a r a t e d f r o m a p a r e n t . The mean n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s f o r t h e two g r o u p s d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y . The age when t h e s e p a r a t i o n o c c u r r e d , and t h e l e n g t h o f t h e s e p a r a t i o n , d i d no t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t . B u t t h e t r e n d i n t h e d a t a was s i m i l a r t o t h a t o b s e r v e d f o r m a l e s , w i t h a s e p a r a t i o n o c c u r r i n g a f t e r t h e d a u g h t e r i s t w e l v e month s o f age f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e ( one y e a r o r l e s s ) , p r o d u c i n g an i n c r e a s e i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y . A s e p a r a t i o n a f t e r t h e d a u g h t e r was e i g h t e e n month s o f age seemed t o d e p r e s s n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y c o m p a r e d w i t h v e r b a l a p t i t u d e . P r e d i c t i o n 3. M a l e s t u d e n t s who have n o t been s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e i r f a t h e r s d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d w i l l have r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t y t h a n t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s . H o w e v e r , f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e g r e a t e r p r o f i c i e n c y i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y t h a n t h e f a t h e r - p r e s e n t g r o u p . M a l e s t u d e n t s who were n o t s e p a r a t e d f r o m a p a r e n t d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d d i d n o t d e m o n s t r a t e h i g h e r n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e mean m a t h e m a t i c a l s c o r e s f o r t h e two g r o u p s was s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t . The f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s o b t a i n e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r mean v e r b a l s c o r e t h a n t h e t o t a l s a m p l e o f n o n - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s . B u t when t h e f a t h e r -s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s we re c ompa red w i t h a m a t c h e d s a m p l e o f f a t h e r - p r e s e n t s t u d e n t s , t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two v e r b a l means was s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t ( t h e d i f f e r e n c e be tween t h e n u m e r i c a l means was a l s o n o n s i g n i f i -c a n t ) . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s n eeded b e f o r e any c o n c l u s i o n s can be r e a c h e d r e g a r d i n g t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . P r e d i c t i o n 4 . T h e r e w i l l be p r o p o r t i o n a l l y f e w e r f a t h e r -s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s i n t h e f i r s t y e a r S c i e n c e programme a t U . B . C . t h a n i n any o t h e r f i r s t y e a r p r o g r a m m e . The p r o p o r t i o n o f f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t o n o n -s e p a r a t e d m a l e s i n t h e F a c u l t y o f S c i e n c e d i d n o t a p p e a r t o d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e o t h e r f i r s t y e a r d i s c i p l i n e s a t U . B . C . ( 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 s e s s i o n ) . The s m a l l s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e p r e v e n t e d s t a t i s t i c a l c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h mos t o t h e r f i r s t y e a r p r o g r a m m e s . P r e d i c t i o n 5. T h e r e w i l l be p r o p o r t i o n a l l y more f a t h e r -s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s ( b o t h m a l e and f e m a l e ) i n t h e New A r t s I P rog ramme t h a n i n any o t h e r f i r s t y e a r programme a t U . B . C . B e c a u s e o f t h e s m a l l s i z e s o f t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s a m p l e s f o r e a c h o f t h e f i r s t y e a r d i s c i p l i n e s a t U . B . C , 91 s t a t i s t i c a l c o m p a r i s o n s c o u l d o n l y be made b e t w e e n t h e F a c u l t i e s o f A r t s , S c i e n c e , and E d u c a t i o n , and t h e New A r t s I P r o j e c t . The New A r t s I P r o j e c t c o n t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s ( c o m b i n e d m a l e s and f e m a l e s ) t h a n t h e A r t s F a c u l t y , b u t d i d no t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m e i t h e r t h e F a c u l t y o f S c i e n c e o r t h e F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n . Hence t h e p r e d i c t i o n was n o t v e r i f i e d . P r e d i c t i o n 6 . S e c o n d o n l y t o t h e New A r t s I P r o g r a m m e , t h e r e w i l l be a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s i n t h e f i r s t y e a r o f t h e S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B .C . The s a m p l e o f f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s i n t h e S c h o o l o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n was t o o s m a l l (n=2) f o r s t a t i s t i c a l c o m p a r i s o n s . P r e d i c t i o n 7. F a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s who have o l d e r b r o t h e r s ( r e m a i n i n g i n t h e home d u r i n g t h e a b s e n c e o f t h e f a t h e r ) , w i l l n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e f a t h e r - p r e s e n t g r o u p i n v e r b a l and m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t i e s . The p r e s e n c e o f o l d e r b r o t h e r s i n t h e homes o f t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s d i d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t t h e a p t i t u d e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s . T h a t i s , f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s w i t h o l d e r b r o t h e r s d i d n o t a c h i e v e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t verbal and numerical mean scores than the father-separated male students without older brothers i n the home. The father-separated male students with older brothers also did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the fath e r present group i n verbal and mathematical a b i l i t i e s . Hence the above p r e d i c t i o n i s v e r i f i e d . But the d i f f e r e n c e between the verbal means almost reached s i g n i f i c a n c e , suggesting that a true d i f f e r e n c e might e x i s t i f a large enough sample of father-separated students was a v a i l a b l e . P r e d i c t i o n 8. The father-separated male students w i l l a t t a i n a r e l a t i v e l y greater degree of success i n the f i r s t year English course ( E n g l i s h 1 0 0 ) , than those students • who were not separated from f a t h e r during childhood. The father-separated male students did a t t a i n a higher degree of success i n the f i r s t year U.B.C. English course than the male students who were not separated from a parent during childhood. Hence, p r e d i c t i o n eight i s v e r i f i e d . P r e d i c t i o n 9. The male students who were not separated from t h e i r f a t h e r s during childhood w i l l a t t a i n a greater degree of success i n the f i r s t year mathematics course (Mathematics 110 or 120) than the father-separated students. 93 There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the mean mathematical scores obtained by the father-separated and non-separated male students. The results for the mother-separated and both-separated students are b r i e f l y summarized below: Mother-Separated Students 1. The mother-separated female students did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y in aptitude development from g i r l s who were net separated from a parent during childhood. 2. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the mean verbal score r e l a t i v e to the numerical (M-V) score obtained by the mother-separated g i r l s . 3. The effect of mother-separation upon aptitude develop-ment for males is s t a t i s t i c a l l y insignoficant. That i s , the difference between the verbal mean r e l a t i v e to the numerical mean was not s i g n i f i c a n t , suggesting that mother-separation does not d i f f e r e n t i a l l y affect either aptitude. The small size of the sample makes these observations very tentative. Students Separated from Both Parents 1. The male students who were separated from both parents obtained a higher verbal score than those students from intact homes, but the difference was s t a t i s t i c a l l y 94 n o n s i g n i f i c a n t . S i m i l a r l y , the d i f f e r e n c e between the numerical means f o r the two groups was i n s i g n i f i c a n t . 2. The both-separated male students did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y in verbal aptitude r e l a t i v e to numerical aptitude (although the verbal mean score was much higher than the numerical score the small s i z e of the sample makes these r e s u l t s d i f f i c u l t to assess s t a t i s t i c a l l y ) . 3. The verbal and numerical mean scores obtained by the female students who were separated from both parents are higher than the scores f o r the non-separated female group, but the d i f f e r e n c e s are not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Some of the f a c t o r s which may have been responsible f o r the d i f f e r e n c e in r e s u l t s between t h i s study and the study done by Carlsmith were discussed. One d i f f i c u l t y was the d i f f e r e n c e i n s t a t i s t i c a l techniques employed in the two s t u d i e s . A second f a c t o r was the d i f f e r e n t measures employed to a s c e r t a i n the student's verbal and numerical a b i l i t y . A t h i r d f a c t o r was the s i z e of the samples used. F i n a l l y there may be a basic d i f f e r e n c e i n aptitude patterns between students accepted at Harvard U n i v e r s i t y and students accepted at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. V CHAPTER V I I I IMPL ICAT IONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e two i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s , age when s e p a r a t i o n o c c u r r e d and l e n g t h o f s e p a r a t i o n , m i g h t c l a r i f y t h e t e n t a t i v e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y . C a r l s m i t h ( 1 9 5 4 ) , f o u n d t h a t i f t h e f a t h e r l e a v e s home b e f o r e h i s son i s t w e l v e month s o f a g e , and p r o l o n g s h i s a b s e n c e f o r more t h a n one y e a r , t h e e f f e c t i s an i n c r e a s e i n t h e s o n ' s v e r b a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y . The p r e s e n t s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h e o p p o s i t e o f C a r l s m i t h ' s r e s u l t s . T h a t i s , a d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e home a f t e r t h e c h i l d i s t w e l v e month s o f age ( e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r t h e c h i l d i s e i g h t e e n month s o f a g e ) , f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e n o t e x c e e d i n g one y e a r , p r o d u c e s an i n c r e a s e i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y . The same r e s u l t s w e r e o b s e r v e d f o r f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d fema 1 es . The r e s u l t s f o r b o t h m a l e s and f e m a l e s i n t h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t t h a t t h e l o n g e r t h e s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n f a t h e r and c h i l d , t h e more d e t r i m e n t a l t h e e f f e c t s upon t h e c h i l d ' s n u m e r i c a l a p t i t u d e . S i m i l a r l y , t h e o l d e r t h e c h i l d ( up t o a g e s i x ) when t h e s e p a r a t i o n o c c u r s , t h e more n e g a t i v e t h e e f f e c t upon t h e c h i l d ' s s u b s e q u e n t m a t h e -m a t i c a l a b i l i t y . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e c h i l d and t h e f a t h e r t h r o u g h o u t i n f a n c y i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t i f t h e c h i l d i s t o d e v e l o p a n u m e r i c a l a p t i t u d e . As C a r l s m i t h p o i n t s o u t i n h e r s t u d y , t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f f a t h e r and c h i l d may be v i t a l i n h e l p i n g t h e c h i l d t o d e v e l o p an a n a l y t i c a l a p p r o a c h t o p r o b l e m s o l v i n g . T h i s a n a l y t i c a l a p p r o a c h 'would s u b s e q u e n t l y i m p r o v e m a t h e -m a t i c a l a c h i e v e m e n t . A s t u d y o f t h e n a t u r e and d e g r e e o f i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n f a t h e r and c h i l d d u r i n g t h e c h i l d ' s i n f a n c y , and t h e c o r r e l a t i o n of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h d i f f e r e n t i a l a p t i t u d e s , w o u l d add v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e . d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c h i l d ' s a p t i t u d e p a t t e r n s To f u r t h e r a s s e s s why f a t h e r - a b s e n t c h i l d r e n a c h i e v e h i g h e r v e r b a l s c o r e s r e l a t i v e t o c h i l d r e n f r o m i n t a c t homes , i t w o u l d be v a l u a b l e t o a s c e r t a i n t h e t o t a l amount o f v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n p a r e n t and c h i l d ( e a c h d a y ) i n t h e two home s i t u a t i o n s . One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t i n t h e f a t h e r - a b s e n t home f o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e i s more i n t e r -a c t i o n b e t w e e n m o t h e r and c h i l d t h a n i n an i n t a c t home. C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , t h e r e m i g h t be more v e r b a l i z a t i o n by t h e m o t h e r t o t h e c h i l d . The m o t h e r i n a f a t h e r - a b s e n t home m i g h t c o m p e n s a t e f o r h e r l o n e l i n e s s by l a v i s h i n g a t t e n t i o n upon t h e c h i l d , p e r h a p s t r e a t i n g h im more l i k e a c o m p a n i o n t h a n a c h i l d . T h i s m i g h t e n t a i l a more a d u l t l e v e l o f v e r b a l i z a t i o n by t h e m o t h e r t o t h e c h i l d , t h a n i n homes 97 w h e r e b o t h p a r e n t s a r e p r e s e n t . The s m a l l s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e s o f m o t h e r - s e p a r a t e d and b o t h - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y make any o f t h e r e s u l t s v e r y t e n t a t i v e . The f i n d i n g t h a t m o t h e r - s e p a r a t e d m a l e s t u d e n t s d e m o n s t r a t e d l o w e r a b i l i t y i n b o t h v e r b a l and n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o n o n - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s may add c r e d e n c e t o m a t e r n a l d e p r i v a t i o n t h e o r i e s . S p i t z ( 1 9 6 4 ) , f o u n d t h a t m a t e r n a l d e p r i v a t i o n c a u s e s a p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l l a g . L a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t i n p a r t i c u l a r was b e l o w n o r m a l . He h y p o t h -e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e i s a c r i t i c a l p e r i o d , d u r i n g w h i c h some s t i m u l a t i o n f r o m t h e m o t h e r i s e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e c h i l d ' s n o r m a l c o u r s e o f d e v e l o p m e n t . I f a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e s a m p l e o f m o t h e r - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d , p e r h a p s t h i s c r i t i c a l p e r i o d c o u l d be v e r i f i e d , and t h e r e l a t i v e age when i t o c c u r s l o c a t e d ( i f i n f a c t a c r i t i c a l p e r i o d doe s e x i s t ) . S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h v e r b a l and n u m e r i c a l s c o r e s ( c o m p a r e d w i t h n o n - s e p a r a t e d s t u d e n t s ) o b t a i n e d by t h e s t u d e n t s who we re s e p a r a t e d f r o m b o t h p a r e n t s , w o u l d be c l a r i f i e d by a l a r g e r s a m p l e . The r e a s o n s f o r t h e s e p a r a t i o n w o u l d be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t o c o n s i d e r i n t h i s t y p e o f r e s e a r c h . B r o v e r m a n e t a l . ( 1 9 6 8 ) , r e v i e w t h e l i t e r a t u r e a b o u t s e x - d i f f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d t o c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s , f i n d i n g t h a t a c o n s e n s u s o f r e s e a r c h e r s a g r e e t h a t f e m a l e s a r e s u p e r i o r o v e r m a l e s i n t a s k s r e q u i r i n g s i m p l e p e r c e p t u a l -m o t o r a s s o c i a t i o n s , h o w e v e r m a l e s a r e s u p e r i o r i n c e r t a i n t a s k s r e q u i r i n g a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o r r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f s t i m u l u s e l e m e n t s . F o r e x a m p l e , y oung g i r l s e x c e e d young boy s i n t a s k s o f f i n e m a n u a l d e x t e r i t y and c l e r i c a l a p t i t u d e , w h e r e a s boys a r e s u p e r i o r t o g i r l s on s p a t i a l t e s t s , a s s e m b l i n g o b j e c t s , and s o l v i n g m a z e s . B r o v e r m a n e t a l . i n c l u d e s p e e c h and r e a d i n g i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f p e r c e p t u a l - m o t o r b e h a v i o u r s . A n d , as s u c h , c o n c l u d e f r o m t h e i r s u r v e y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t f e m a l e s a r e s u p e r i o r t o m a l e s f r o m c h i l d h o o d t h r o u g h a d u l t h o o d i n v e r b a l f u n c t i o n s . H o w e v e r , i n s t e a d o f a t t r i b u t i n g t h e s e c o g n i t i v e sex d i f f e r e n c e s t o c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s t h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s a r e r e f l e c t i o n s o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , v a r i a t i o n s i n hormone l e v e l s and t h e i r d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s upon a c t i v a t i o n and i n h i b i t i o n o f n e u r a l p r o c e s s e s . T h i s v i e w p o i n t r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n as t o t h e p h y s i o -l o g i c a l e f f e c t s upon t h e c h i l d c a u s e d by t h e t r a u m a o f s e p a r a t i o n f r o m a p a r e n t ( o r p a r e n t s ) , and t h e c o n s e -q u e n c e s t o c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g . B r o v e r m a n e t a l . f o u n d t h a t h e i g h t e n e d a c t i v i t y o f t h e s y m p a t h e t i c n e r v o u s s y s t e m i m p r o v e d p e r f o r m a n c e on p e r c e p t u a 1 - m o t o r t a s k s , 99 s u c h as s p e e d o f naming c o l o r hues and r e a d i n g s p e e d , t h e c l a s s o f b e h a v i o u r s i n w h i c h f e m a l e s a r e s u p e r i o r t o m a l e s . T rauma a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r e n t a l s e p a r a t i o n may i n c r e a s e s y m p a t h e t i c a c t i v i t y r e l a t i v e t o p a r a s y m p a t h e t i c f u n c t i o n i n g w h i c h m i g h t a c c o u n t f o r some o f t h e i n c r e a s e i n v e r b a l a b i l i t y r e l a t i v e t o n u m e r i c a l a b i l i t y f o r p a r e n t -s e p a r a t e d c h i l d r e n ( b o t h m a l e s and f e m a l e s ) . H o w e v e r , any p h y s i o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h w o u l d have t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e r e s u l t s o f many m a t e r n a l d e p r i v a t i o n s t u d i e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t s e p a r a t i o n f r o m t h e m o t h e r may n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i f f e r e n t n e u r a l f u n c t i o n i n g b e t w e e n p a r e n t - p r e s e n t and p a r e n t - s e p a r a t e d c h i l d r e n , and b e t w e e n f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d , m o t h e r - s e p a r a t e d , and b o t h -s e p a r a t e d c h i l d r e n , h o l d s p r o m i s e f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . P e r h a p s t h e mean l e v e l o f s y m p a t h e t i c n e r v o u s s y s t e m a c t i v i t y i s h i g h e r f o r s e p a r a t e d c h i l d r e n t h a n i t i s f o r c h i l d r e n f r o m i n t a c t homes. The p h y s i o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h may be a f r u i t f u l f u t u r e m e t h o d f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t . p REFERENCES A l p e r , T . G . , and G r e e n b e r g e r , E l l e n . R e l a t i o n s h i p o f p i c t u r e s t r u c t u r e t o a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n i n c o l l e g e women. J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 7 , 7, 3 6 2 - 3 7 1 . A l t u s , W i l l i a m D. B i r t h o r d e r and s c h o l a s t i c a p t i t u d e . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l . , 1 9 6 5 , 29_, 2 0 2 - 2 0 5 . A l t u s , W i l l i a m D. P e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s o f v e r b a l -q u a n t i t a t i v e d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s on t h e S c h o l a s t i c A p t i t u d e T e s t . J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 9 , 4 8 , 2 1 9 - 2 2 2 . ~ Amos , J . R., B r o w n , F. L . , and M i n k , 0 . G. S t a t i s t i c a l  C o n c e p t s . New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1 9 6 5 . B a c h , G e o r g e R. F a t h e r - f a n t a s i e s and f a t h e r - t y p i n g i n f a t h e r - s e p a r a t e d c h i l d r e n . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 4 6 , J2, 6 3 - 8 0 . B a e r , D a n i e l J . and R a g o s t a , T e r e s a A. R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p e r c e i v e d c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s and v e r b a l and m a t h e m a t i c a l a b i l i t y . J o u r n a l o f G e n e t i c P s y c h o l . , 1 9 6 6 , 1 0 8 , 1 0 5 - 1 0 8 . B a l d w i n , A l f r e d L. S o c i a l i z a t i o n and t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 4 8 , j_9 , 1 2 7 - 1 3 6 . B a r c l a y , A . and Cu sumano , D. R. F a t h e r - a b s e n c e , c r o s s - s e x i d e n t i t y , and f i e l d - d e p e n d e n t b e h a v i o u r i n m a l e a d o l e s c e n t s . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 967 , 3_8, 2 4 3 - 2 5 0 . B a u m r i n d , D i a n a , and B l a c k , A l l e n E. S o c i a l i z a t i o n p r a c -t i c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i m e n s i o n s o f c o m p e t e n c e i n p r e s c h o o l boys and g i r l s . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 6 7 , 3 8 , 2 9 1 - 3 2 7 . B e i e r , E. G . , and R a t z e b u r g , F. The p a r e n t a l i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n s o f m a l e and f e m a l e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l and S o c i a l P s y c h o l . , 1 9 5 3 , 4 8 , 5 6 9 - 5 7 2 . B e l l , R. 0 . R e t r o s p e c t i v e a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s o f p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 5 8 , 2 9 , 3 2 3 - 3 3 8 . B i n g , E l i z a b e t h . E f f e c t o f c h i l d r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s on d e v e l o p m e n t o f d i f f e r e n t i a l c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 963 , 34_, 631 - 6 4 8 . 101 B r o n f e n b r e n n e r , U. F r e u d i a n t h e o r i e s o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and t h e i r d e r i v a t i v e s . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 6 0 , 31, 1 5 - 4 0 . B r o v e r m a n , D. M . , K l a i b e r , E. L . , K o b a y a s h i , Y . , and V o g e l , !•!. R o l e s o f a c t i v a t i o n and i n h i b i t i o n i n s ex d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s . P s y c h o l . R e v i e w , 1 9 6 8 , 7 5 , 2 3 - 5 0 . B u c k l e y , G e o f f r e y J . R e a d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t i n g r a d e f i v e and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p a r e n t a l o c c u p a t i o n , v e r b a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , and c e r t a i n e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s . U n p u b l i s h e d Ed.D t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , 1 967 . B u r t o n , R. V . , and W h i t i n g , J . W. M. The a b s e n t f a t h e r and c r o s s - s e x i d e n t i t y . M e r r i l l - P a l m e r Q u a r t e r l y o f  B e h a v i o u r and D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 6 1 , 7 , 8 5 - 9 4 . C a r l s m i t h , L y n n . E f f e c t o f e a r l y f a t h e r a b s e n c e on s c h o l -a s t i c a p t i t u d e . H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l R e v i e w , 1 9 6 4 , 3 4 , 3 - 2 1 . C a v a , E s t h e r L . , and R a u s h , H a r o l d . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and t h e a d o l e s c e n t b o y ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s f a t h e r . J o u r n a l  o f A b n o r m a l and S o c i a l P s y c h o l . , 1 9 5 2 , £ 7 , 8 5 5 - 8 5 6 . C h a n c e , J u n e E. I n d e p e n d e n c e t r a i n i n g and f i r s t - g r a d e r s a c h i e v e m e n t . J o u r n a l o f C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l . , 1 9 6 1 , 2 5 , 1 4 9 - 1 5 4 . C i c i r e l l i , V i c t o r G. S i b l i n g c o n s t e l l a t i o n , c r e a t i v i t y , I .Q . , and a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 6 7 , 3 8 , 4 8 1 - 4 9 0 . C r a n d a l l , V. A c h i e v e m e n t . In H. S t e v e n s o n ( e d . ) , The  S i x t y - S e c o n d Y e a r b o o k o f t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r  t h e S t u d y o f E d u c a t i o n " ^ C h i c a g o : U n i v . o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 . C r a n d a l l , V . J . e t a l . P a r e n t s a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r s and q r a d e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n ' s a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t s . J o u r n a l o f G e n e t i c P s y c h o l . , 1 9 6 4 , 1_04, 5 3 - 6 6 . D r e w s , E l i z a b e t h , and T e a h a n , J . E. P a r e n t a l a t t i t u d e s and a c a d e m i c a c h i e v e m e n t . J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l  P s y c h o l . , 1 9 5 7 , 13, 3 2 8 - 3 3 2 . F e l d , S. C. L o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f t h e o r i g i n s o f a c h i e v e -ment s t r i v i n g s . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and S o c i a l  P s y c h o l . , 1 9 6 7 , 7 , 4 0 8 - 4 1 4 . 102 F o w l e r , W. C o g n i t i v e l e a r n i n g i n i n f a n c y and e a r l y c h i l d -hood . P s y c h o l . B u l l e t i n , 1 9 6 2 , £ 9 , 1 1 6 - 1 5 2 . F r e e b e r g , N o r m a n , and P a y n e , D o n a l d . P a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e on c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d : A r e v i e w . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 6 7 , 3 8 , 6 5 - 8 7 . F r e n c h , E . , and L e s s e r , G. S. Some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v e i n women. J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l  and S o c i a l P s y c h o l . , 1 9 6 4 , 68, 119 - 128 . F r e u d , S i g m u n d . An O u t l i n e o f P s y c h o a n a l y s i s . T r a n s l a t e d by James S t r a c h e y . New Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1 9 4 9 . G o l d f a r b , W i l l i a m . E m o t i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f p s y c h o l o g i c d e p r i v a t i o n i n i n f a n c y . In E. Hoch and J . Z u b i n ( e d s . ) , P s y c h o p a t h o l o g y i n C h i l d h o o d . New Y o r k : G rune and S t r a t t o n , 195 5. G u i l f o r d , J . P. F u n d a m e n t a l S t a t i s t i c s i n P s y c h o l o g y and  E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co . I n c . , 1 956 . H a y s , W i l l i a m L. S t a t i s t i c s f o r P s y c h o l o g i s t s . New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1 9 6 5 . H e i l b r u n , A l f r e d ( J r . ) , and H a r r e l , S a m u e l . P e r c e i v e d m a t e r n a l c h i l d - r e a r i n g p a t t e r n s and t h e e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l n o n r e a c t i o n upon a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 6 7 , 3 8 , 2 6 7 - 2 8 0 . H e i n i c k e , C. M . , and W e s t h e i m e r , I. B r i e f S e p a r a t i o n s . New Y o r k : I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 . H e s s , R. D., and S h i p m a n , V i r g i n i a . E a r l y e x p e r i e n c e and t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f c o g n i t i v e modes i n c h i l d r e n . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 6 5 , 3 6 , 8 6 9 - 8 8 6 . H e t h e r i n g t o n , E. M a v i s . E f f e c t s o f p a t e r n a l a b s e n c e on s e x - t y p e d b e h a v i o u r i n Neg ro and w h i t e p r e a d o 1 e s c e n t m a l e s . 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S o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s c h o o l a c h i e v e m e n t i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . E l e m e n t a r y E n g l i s h , 1 9 6 3 , •40, 2 6 5 - 2 7 0 . H o f f m a n , L o i s W. The f a t h e r ' s r o l e i n t h e f a m i l y and t h e c h i l d ' s p e e r - g r o u p a d j u s t m e n t . M e r r i 1 1 - P a I m e r  Q u a r t e r l y o f B e h a v i o u r and D e v e l o p m e n t , 1961 , 7 , 97-m. y — t  H o n z i k , M a r j o r i e P. E n v i r o n m e n t a l c o r r e l a t e s o f m e n t a l g r o w t h : p r e d i c t i o n f r o m t h e f a m i l y s e t t i n g a t 21 m o n t h s . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 967 , 3_8, 3 3 7 - 3 6 4 . I l g , F r a n c e s , and Ames , L o u i s e . D e v e l o p m e n t a l t r e n d s i n a r i t h m e t i c . J o u r n a l o f G e n e t i c P s y c h o l . , 1 9 5 1 , 7 9 , 3 - 2 8 . K a g e n , J . The c o n c e p t o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . 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New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , I n c . , 1 967 . M i l n e r , E. A . A s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n r e a d i n g r e a d i n e s s i n g r a d e one s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and p a t t e r n s o f p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s . C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 5 1 , 22, 9 5 - 1 1 2 . M i l t o n , G. A. The e f f e c t s o f s e x - r o l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n upon p r o b l e m - s o 1 v i n g s k i l l . J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l and  S o c i a l P s y c h o l . , 1 957 , 5_5, 208 -21 2 . : ~ M o s s , H. A . , and K a g a n , J . M a t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s on e a r l y I .Q. s c o r e s . P s y c h o l . R e p o r t s , 1 9 5 8 , 4_, 655 -661 . M u s s e n , P a u l . The P s y c h o l o g i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C h i l d . New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e -Ha11 , I n c . , 1 9 6 3 . M u s s e n , P a u l , and D i s t l e r , L u t h e r . 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C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t , 1 9 6 3 , 3 4 , 5 8 9 - 6 0 7 . 105 New A r t s One a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; A " S e c o n d I n t e r i m R e p o r t . A r e p o r t p r e p a r e d by t h e New A r t s One C o m m i t t e e . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 6 8 . P a l m e r , R o b e r t . B i r t h o r d e r and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . J o u r n a l  o f C o n s u l t i ng P s y c h o l . , 1 966 , 3_0, 1 29-1 35 . P a y n e , D. E . , and M u s s e n , P. H. P a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s and f a t h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n among a d o l e s c e n t b o y s . J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l and S o c i a l " P s y c h o l • , 1 9 5 6 , 5 2 , ' 3 5 8 - 3 6 2 . R o s e n b e r g , B. G . , and S u t t o n - S m i t h , B. F a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t s on m a s c u l i n i t y - f e m i n i n i t y . 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F a t h e r R e l a t i o n s o f W a r b o r n C h i l d r e n . P a l o A l t o : S t a n f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1 954 . T e r m a n , L. M. P s y c h o l o g i c a l sex d i f f e r e n c e s . In L. C a r m i c h a e l ( e d . ) , Manua l o f C h i l d P s y c h o l o g y . New Y o r k : W i l e y , 1946 . T i l l e r , P. 0 . F a t h e r a b s e n c e and p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e l o p m e n t i n s a i l o r f a m i l i e s . In N. A n d e r s o n ( e d . ) , S t u d i e s  o f t h e F a m i l y . V o l . I I . G o t t i n g e n : V a n d e n h o e c k and R u p r e c h t , 1 957 . W a r n e r , W. L . , M e e k e r , M . , and E e l l s , K. S o c i a l C l a s s i n  A m e r i ca . C h i c a g o : S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t e s , 1 9 4 9 . W a t s o n , G. Some p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e n r e l a t e d t o s t r i c t o r p e r m i s s i v e p a r e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e . J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 7 , 4 4 , 2 2 7 - 2 4 9 . W h i t i n g , J . W. M . , and C h i l d , I. L. C h i l d T r a i n i n g and  P e r s o n a l i t y . New H a v e n : Y a l e , 1 953 . W i t k i n , H. A . , Dyk , R. B . , F a t e r s o n , H a n n a , G o o d e n o u g h , D. R., and K a r p , S. A . P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n : S t u d i e s  o f D e v e l o p m e n t . New Y o r k : W i l y , 1 9 6 2 . Woman 's B u r e a u , D e p t . o f L a b o u r . F i e l d s o f Work f o r Women. O t t a w a : D e p t . o f L a b o u r , 1 9 6 4 . Y a r r o w , L. J . S e p a r a t i o n f r o m p a r e n t s d u r i n g e a r l y c h i l d -h o o d . In M. L. H o f f m a n and L o i s W. H o f f m a n ( e d s . ) , R e v i e w o f C h i l d D e v e l o p m e n t R e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1 9 6 4 . Z u n i c h , M. R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m a t e r n a l b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f G e n e t i c  P s y c h o l . , 1 9 6 2 , JMDO, 1 55-1 65 . APPENDIX A SAMPLING PROCEDURE The number o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n e a c h o f t h e r e s p e c t i v e f i r s t y e a r p rog rammes a t U . 6 . C . i n t h e a c a d e m i c y e a r 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 i s o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e X X I I I . The s t u d e n t s who d i d n o t w r i t e t h e S c h o o l and C o l l e g e A b i l i t y T e s t ( SCAT) we re o m i t t e d f r o m t h e p o p u l a t i o n p r i o r t o s a m p l i n g . T a b l e XX IV p r e s e n t s t h e r e v i s e d number o f s t u d e n t s i n e a ch d i s c i p l i n e who we re c h o s e n as t h e p o p u l a t i o n t o be s a m p l e d . F o r p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n s a s a m p l e of one t h o u s a n d s t u d e n t s was s e l e c t e d by a s t r a t i f i e d s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e . Of t h i s g r o u p 570 a r e m a l e s and 430 f e m a l e s ( t h i s i s t h e r a t i o o f m a l e s t o f e m a l e s i n f i r s t y e a r ) . T h e s e s t u d e n t s we re s e l e c t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r : 1. T h o s e d i s c i p l i n e s c o n t a i n i n g r e l a t i v e l y f ew s t u d e n t s w e r e s e l e c t e d i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y . In a d d i t i o n a l l t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e New A r t s I P r o j e c t were i n c l u d e d . O m i t t i n g t h e s t u d e n t s who d i d n o t w r i t e t h e SCAT, o r t h o s e f o r whom a d d r e s s e s c o u l d n o t be o b t a i n e d , 449 s t u d e n t s we re s e l e c t e d ( H . E . , n = 4 9 ; P . E . , n = 7 7 ; M u s i c , n = 5 8 ; A g r i c u l t u r e , n = 3 9 ; A r t s I P r o j e c t , n = 2 2 6 ) . The number o f m a l e s i n t h i s g r o u p i s 209 ( 4 6 . 5 p e r c e n t ) , f e m a l e s 240 ( 5 3 . 5 p e r c e n t ) . 2 . The r e m a i n i n g 551 s t u d e n t s ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 361 m a l e s and 190 f e m a l e s ) we re s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e f a c u l t i e s o f A r t s , TABLE X X I I I TOTAL NUMBER OF 1ST YEAR STUDENTS IN EACH FACULTY ( 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 ) F a c u 1 t y T o t a l En ro1 l e d % M a l e s 0/ lo Fema1es % A r t s ( l e s s P r o j e c t ) 1322 3 5 . 8 7 689 5 2 . 1 2 633 4 7 . 8 8 S c i e n c e 1339 3 6 . 3 4 1091 81 .47 248 18 .52 E d . ( E l e m . ) 398 1 0 . 8 0 21 5 .28 377 94 . 72 E d . ( Sec .) 159 4.31 68 4 2 . 7 7 91 5 7 . 2 3 A r t s I P r o j . 241 6 .54 119 49.3:8 122 5 0.6;2 H .E . 49 1 .33 • - - 49 1 0 0 . 0 0 P . E . 79 2 . 14 49 6 2 . 0 2 30 3 7 . 9 7 M u s i c 58 1 .57 27 4 6 . 5 5 31 5 3 . 4 5 A g r . 40 1 .08 30 7 5 . 0 0 10 2 5 . 0 0 T o t a l s 3685 2094 5 6 . 8 2 1591 4 3 . 1 8 109 TABLE XXIV NUMBER OF STUDENTS IN EACH FACULTY COMPLETING U . B . C . TEST BATTERY ( 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 ) Number * % o f T o t a l F a c u l t y ( 1 s t y e a r ) F a c u l t y A r t s ( l e s s P r o j e c t ) 1264 95.61 S c i e n c e 1288 96.1 9 Ed . ( E l em .) 381 9 5 . 73 E d . ( S e c . ) 155 9 7 . 4 8 A r t s I P r o j . * * 237 98 . 34 H.E. 47 9 5 . 9 2 P . E . 70 88 .61 M u s i c 52 8 9 . 6 5 A g r i . 35 8 7 . 5 0 T o t a l s 3529 9 5 . 7 5 * T h e p r o p o r t i o n o f m a l e s t o f e m a l e s i n t h i s t a b l e i s a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l t o T a b l e X X I I I , h ence we re n o t r e p e a t e d . * * T h e s t u d e n t s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e a c t u a l l y r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e F a c u l t y o f A r t s . B e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e programme i t was c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e t o s t u d y t h i s g r o u p as a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y . n o S c i e n c e and E d u c a t i o n . The t o t a l number of s t uden t s i n these t h r e e f a c u l t i e s c o m p l e t i n g the t e s t b a t t e r y i s 3088. The F a c u l t y of A r t s c o n s t i t u t e s 40.9 per cen t of t h i s t o t a l , S c i e n c e 41.7 per c e n t , and E d u c a t i o n 17.3 per cen t ( E l emen ta r y D i v i s i o n 12.3 per cen t and Secondary D i v i s i o n 5.0 per c e n t ) . The f o l l o w i n g c a l c u l a t i o n s were made to o b t a i n the 551 s t uden t s needed from each of the above t h r e e f a c u 1 t i es : S c i e n c e 41 .7 per c en t of 551 = 229 (number of s t uden t s r e g i s t e r e d i n 1 s t y ea r 1 339 -H 229 = 6 S c i e n c e who comp le ted t e s t b a t t e r y ) Every s i x t h s t u d e n t was chosen from the u n i v e r s i t y r e c o r d s of those S c i e n c e s t u d e n t s who - comp le ted the t e s t b a t t e r y . The names of those who comp le ted the b a t t e r y a re a r ranged a l p h a b e t i c a l l y on c a r d s . E l ementa r y E d u c a t i o n 12.3 per cen t of 551 = 58 Because t h e r e were o n l y 21 males r e g i s t e r e d i n E lementa ry E d u c a t i o n d u r i n g the academic s e s s i o n 1967-68, eve ry second male was s e l e c t e d from t h i s male group by means of the a l p h a b e t i z e d ca rd s (two s e l e c t e d males were s u b s e q u e n t l y o m i t t e d because no addre s se s were a v a i l a b l e ) . The r ema i n i n g 60 f ema le s were s e l e c t e d by choo s i n g every s i x t h fema le I l l • f r o m ' t h e a l p h a b e t i z e d c a r d s o f E l e m e n t a r y E d u c a t i o n f e m a l e s t u d e n t s b a s e d upon t h e f o l l o w i n g c a l c u l a t i o n : ( number o f f e m a l e s r e g i s t e r e d i n 1 s t y e a r 377 ± 60 = 6 E l e m . E d . who c o m p l e t e d t e s t b a t t e r y ) S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n 5.0 p e r c e n t o f 551 = 28 ( number o f s t u d e n t s r e g i s t e r e d i n 1 s t y e a r 159 i . 30 = 5 S e c . E d . who c o m p l e t e d t e s t b a t t e r y ) E v e r y f i f t h s t u d e n t was c h o s e n f r o m t h e a l p h a b e t i z e d c a r d s o f t h o s e S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s who had c o m p l e t e d t h e t e s t b a t t e r y . A r t s 4 0 . 9 p e r c e n t o f 551 = 225 To f u l f i l l t h e i n i t i a l r e q u i r e m e n t o f s e l e c t i n g a s a m p l e o f m a l e s and f e m a l e s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e r a t i o o f m a l e s t o f e m a l e s i n f i r s t y e a r (56 p e r c e n t t o 43 p e r c e n t ) , 150 m a l e s and 75 f e m a l e s a r e r e q u i r e d f r o m t h e F a c u l t y o f A r t s ( o m i t t i n g A r t s I P r o j e c t and D e p t . o f M u s i c ) . The t o t a l number o f m a l e s r e g i s t e r e d i n f i r s t y e a r a r t s i n 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 who c o m p l e t e d t h e t e s t b a t t e r y i s 6 8 7 ; t h e t o t a l number o f f e m a l e s i s 6 3 5 . To s e l e c t t h e r e q u i r e d 150 m a l e s t h e f o l l o w i n g c a l c u l a t i o n d e t e r m i n e s t h e n e c e s s a r y r a t i o : 687 r 150 = 4 . 5 From t h e a l p h a b e t i z e d c a r d s o f m a l e s t u d e n t s i n f i r s t y e a r 112 a r t s t h e f o u r t h , n i n t h , t h i r t e e n t h s t u d e n t e t c . we re s e l e c t e d (a 4 : 5 r a t i o ) . The 75 f e m a l e s were s e l e c t e d i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n : 635 -r 75 = 8 .5 The e i g h t h , s e v e n t e e n t h , t w e n t y - f i f t h f e m a l e e t c . we re s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e a l p h a b e t i z e d l i s t o f g i r l s i n f i r s t y e a r A r t s ( an 8 : 9 r a t i o ) . APPENDIX B NEW ARTS I PROJECT The "New A r t s One P r o g r amme " o f f e r s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e s t a n d a r d f i v e c o u r s e f i r s t y e a r A r t s p r o g r a m m e . The new programme s t r e s s e s l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n s , t u t u o r i a l s and i n d i v i d u a l p r o j e c t s . L e c t u r e s i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s e n s e a r e a l m o s t n o n - e x i s t a n t . A t t e m p t s a r e made t o i n t r o d u c e t h e s t u d e n t t o o t h e r means o f c o m m u n i c a -t i o n b e s i d e s t h e p r i n t e d w o r d , i . e . f i l m s , p l a y s , f i e l d t r i p s , e t c . : . . . t h r o u g h t h e medium o f t h e t u t o r i a l , s t u d e n t s and p r o f e s s o r s g o t t o know e a c h o t h e r by f a c e t o f a c e e x c h a n g e , t a l k i n g a b o u t e s s a y s and o t h e r p r o j e c t s r e c o m m e n d i n g r e a d i n g , b u i l d i n g up m u t u a l i n t e r e s t and t r u s t on t h e b a s i s o f a common i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g . (New A r t s One S e c o n d I n t e r i m R e p o r t , 1 9 6 8 , page 5 ) . The s t u d e n t s who v o l u n t a r i l y e n r o l l e d i n t h e New A r t s One p rog ramme we re awa re t h a t t h e e m p h a s i s w o u l d be upon d i s c u s s i o n , r e p o r t s , d e b a t e s and t u t o r i a l s . Hence one w o u l d h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s who c h o o s e t h i s programme w o u l d be a s e l e c t g r o u p , more p r o f i c i e n t i n v e r b a l p u r s u i t s t h a n i n n u m e r i c a l e n d e a v o r s . APPENDIX C QUESTIONNAIRE The p u r p o s e o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a -t i o n f o r a g r a d u a t e t h e s i s . I t has l o n g been known t h a t many s t u d e n t s who a c h i e v e h i g h ma rk s i n t h e v e r b a l - 1 i t e r a r y a r e a s q u i t e o f t e n have d i f f i c u l t y w i t h m a t h e m a t i c s and v i c e v e r s a . Some r e s e a r c h has been done i n t h i s a r e a and c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t o r s have been s u g g e s t e d as p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y i n a b i l i t i e s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d i n an a t t e m p t t o c o n t r i b u t e s o m e t h i n g t o t h i s a r e a o f r e s e a r c h , and i n l i n e w i t h t h i s y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n i s r e q u e s t e d . Wou ld you p l e a s e a n s w e r a l l q u e s t i o n s t o t h e b e s t o f y o u r k n o w l e d g e . P l e a s e be a s s u r e d t h a t a l l a n s w e r s w i l l r e m a i n c o n f i d e n t i a l . I. GENERAL INFORMATION NAME: AGE: SEX: FACULTY: YEAR COMPLETED: FAMILY STATUS: FATHER L I V I N G : IF NOT, YEAR OF DEATH: • MOTHER L I V I N G : IF NOT, YEAR OF DEATH: IF YOUR PARENTS WERE EVER SEPARATED OR DIVORCED, G IVE YEAR: DID YOUR MOTHER REMARRY: YEAR: NUMBER OF S I STERS : A G E ( S ) : NUMBER OF BROTHERS: AGE ( S ) FATHER ' S OCCUPATION: EDUCATION (FATHER) AGE: MOTHER 'S OCCUPATION EDUCATION (MOTHER) AGE: BEFORE YOUR 6TH BIRTHDAY WERE YOU EVER SEPARATED FROM EITHER PARENT FOR THREE MONTHS OR LONGER: WHICH PARENT: YOUR AGE WHEN SEPARATION OCCURRED: ( t o n e a r e s t m o n t h , ' e . g . , 3 y e a r s 8 m o n t h s ) LENGTH OF SEPARATION ( t o n e a r e s t mon th ) ( a p p r o x i m a t e i f n e c e s s a r y ) REASON FOR SEPARAT ION: I I . EDUCATION IN HIGH SCHOOL WHICH SUBJECTS DID YOU L I KE THE MOST: THE LEAST : IN WHICH SUBJECTS DID YOU RECE IVE YOUR BEST GRADES: WHAT IS YOUR VOCATIONAL GOAL: Thank you f o r y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n . R i c h a r d S i m p s o n A s s i s t a n t C o u n s e l l o r U. B. C. 115 V E R I F I C A T I O N LETTER TO PARENTS NAME: ' i n d i c a t e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t when he/ she was o l d ( age t o n e a r e s t mon th ) h e/ she was s e p a r a t e d f r o m h i s / h e r f o r a p e r i o d o f NOTE: O n l y s e p a r a t i o n s o f t h r e e month s o r l o n g e r b e f o r e t h e c h i l d i s s i x y e a r s o l d a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r t h i s s t u d y . The a b o v e i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o r r e c t " OR The a b o v e i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n c o r r e c t . The c o r r e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n i s APPENDIX D TABLE XXV SUMMARY OF F IRST YEAR TEST STAT I ST IC S ON THE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE A B I L I T Y TEST ( 1 9 6 7 - 6 8 ) * S c h o o l and C o l l e g e A b i l i t y T e s t F a c u l t y V e r b a l A b i l i t y Q u a n t i t a t i v e A b i l i t y N Mean M e d i a n S.D. Mean M e d i a n S.D. A r t s 4 2 . 0 4 2 . 2 8 .7 3 9 . 0 3 9 . 7 6 .5 1264 S c i e n c e 4 0 . 7 4 0 . 7 9 .0 4 3 . 3 4 3 . 3 5.0 1288 Ed . ( E l em.) 3 7 . 3 3 7 . 4 8 .4 35.1 3 5 . 6 6 .0 381 E d . ( S e c . ) 3 8 . 6 3 8 . 7 7.9 3 6 . 2 3 9 . 4 6.8 155 A r t s P r o j . 4 6 . 8 4 7 . 0 7.6 39.1 3 9 . 7 6 .8 237 H.E . 4 0 . 6 3 9 . 4 7.6 3 9 . 3 3 9 . 9 6 .2 47 P . E . 3 3 . 3 3 2 . 9 8 .7 3 7 . 6 37.1 6.6 70 M u s i c 3 9 . 6 3 9 . 3 7 .5 3 6 . 6 36.1 5.2 52 A g r . 37.1 3 6 . 6 8 .6 3 9 . 8 39.1 5.8 35 * R e p r o d u c e d by p e r m i s s i o n f r o m t h e o f f i c e o f S t u d e n t S e r v i c e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . APPENDIX E CONVERSION OF SCAT SCORES TO T-SCORES The f o u r d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f SCAT s c o r e s we re c o n v e r t e d i n t o f o u r T S c a l e d i s t r i b u t i o n s . T h e s e f o u r d i s t r i b u t i o n s a r e : m a l e s - v e r b a l , f e m a l e s - v e r b a l , m a l e s - q u a n t i t a t i v e and f e m a l e s - q u a n t i t a t i v e . The T - s c a l e i s b a s e d upon a n o r m a l c u r v e w h i c h e x t e n d s f r o m -5 t o +5. Each u n i t on t h e T s c a l e i s o n e - t e n t h o f a d e v i a t i o n , o r 100 u n i t s i n a l l . The c a l c u l a t e d T s c o r e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o SCAT s c o r e s a r e p l o t t e d i n F i g u r e s 1, 2 , 3 , and 4 . The d a t a f o r m a l e s ( v e r b a l ) and f e m a l e s ( v e r b a l ) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e s e d i s t r i b u -t i o n s a r e a l m o s t p e r f e c t l y n o r m a l . The d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r m a l e s ( n u m e r i c a l ) and f e m a l e s ( n u m e r i c a l ) a r e skewed n e g a t i v e l y , hence some c u r v a t u r e i s e v i d e n t . F o r any i n t e g r a l SCAT s c o r e ( l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e h o r i z o n t a l a x i s ) , t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g T s c o r e ( l o c a t e d a l o n g t h e v e r t i c a l a x i s ) i s f o u n d f r o m t h e g r a p h . 118 GRAP HIC TO F I G U R E 1 M E T H O D OF SCAL ING S C A T T - S C O R E S (MALES V E R B A L ) SCORES 119 80 n o S C A T S C O R E S ( V E R B A L ) F l G U R E 2 G R A P H I C M E T H O D O F S C A L I N G S C A T S C O R E S T O T - S C O R E S ( F E M A L E S V E R B A L ) 1 2 0 70 - 1 S C A T S C O R E S N U M E R I C A L F I G U R E 3 G R A P H I C M E T H O D O F S C A L I N G S C A T S C O R E S T O T - S C O R E S ( M A L E S N U M E R I C A L ) 121 S C A T S C O R E S N U M E R I C A L G R A P H IC T O F I G U R E 4 M E T H O D O F S C A L I N G S C A T S C O R E S T - S C O R E S ( F E M A L E S N U M E R I C A L ) 

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