UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Development of a measure for open-ended questions Wilson, Paricia Ann 1970

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DEVELOPMENT OF A MEASURE FOR OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS  by  PATRICIA B.A.,  University  ANN WILSON  of  A THESIS SUBMITTED  British  IN  Columbia,  1966  PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in  the  Department of  Anthropology  and  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s required standard  THE UNIVERSITY  as  Sociology  conforming to  OF B R I T I S H  August,  1970  COLUMBIA  the  In  presenting  an  advanced  the  Library  I  further  for  degree shall  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  this  thesis  in  at  University  the  make  that  representatives. for  freely  permission  purposes  thesis  it  partial  may  be  It  financial  of  of  Columbia,  British  available for  by  the  understood  gain  for  extensive  granted  is  fulfilment  shall  Head  be  permission.  V  7  L.  requirements  reference copying  that  not  the  of  agree  and  of my  I  this  or  allowed  without  that  study. thesis  Department  copying  for  or  publication my  i i ABSTRACT  As work  a first  focus  was f o r m u l a t e d  as i d e a l dicting  points  of  in  which  on a t i m e  developed to  provide  theoretical-ideas secondary  analysis  instrument,  however,  Questionnaire  d a t a were  and c o d e d a c c o r d i n g t o d i m e n s i o n were Statistical factors  of  tests  orientations  Testing generation generation, predictive  against  in  large  of  of  parents  from  between  behavior  study,  a s on and  indicators were of of  the  of  not.  the  proved there  two.  time  orientations*  showed c o d i n g  orientations  the  the  r e s p o n s e s as w e l l  r e g r e s s i o n the  a s m e a s u r e d by t h i s  that  questions  representing  s e x and e d u c a t i o n  of  error.  from a Vancouver  responses generating that  for  The measurement  by o p e n - e n d e d  rules  was  new t e c h n i q u e s  measuring p a r e n t a l  indicators  relationship  pre-  the  experimental  dollected  coding  to  but  by l i n e a r  testing  data.  s e x and e d u c a t i o n  l a n g u a g e were c r i t i c a l present  in  in  orientations  developing  generated  a set  on t h e  language,  of  and a s a m p l e o f  utilized  conceptualized  be u t i l i z e d  means f o r  for  resulted  Alternatives  were  frame-  behavior.  questionnaire  school population  population.  orientations  only  also  of  a theoretical  a measurement  not  but  study,  dimension to  second g e n e r a t i o n a l  As a s e c o n d f o c u s ,  urban  this  second first  is  no  i i i  An e v a l u a t i o n possible  directions  theoretical  of  the  for  study  further  and measurement  was u s e d t o  indicate  investigation  lines*  along  both  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  .  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST  .iv  OF TABLES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  viii  CHAPTERS: I.  II.  INTRODUCTION A.  Purpose of  B.  Construction  B.  of  1  an H y p o t h e s i s  2 9  Development  of  Measurements  to  P r e c i s i o n of the Instrument M e a s u r e O r i e n t a t i o n s o f G^ The T e s t o f t h e H y p o t h e s i s  . . . . 9 15 22 Used  to  CONCLUSIONS A.  B.  V.  Study  Test the Hypothesis B. C o l l e c t i o n of the Data ANALYSIS OF THE DATA A.  IV.  the  METHODOLOGY A.  III.  1  22 ...44 47  Regarding the P r e c i s i o n of the I n s t r u m e n t Used t o Measure t h e O r i e n t a t i o n s o f G. C o n c l u s i o n s Regarding the Test of the Hypothesis  CRITIQUE.  ....47 51 ..53  LITERATURE CITED  61  APPENDICES I. II. III.  ORIENTATION QUESTIONS BEHAVIOR QUESTIONS -  G ^  62  G ....  ...64  2  RULES FOR CODING RESPONSES TO OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS INTO ORIENTATION' CATEGORIES ON A TIME DIMENSION 1  68  T a b l e of  Contents  (cont'd)  v  APPENDICES IV.  RULES FOR CODING OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS INTO ORIENTATION * CATEGORIES ON A TIME DIMENSION ( ORDERED) 1  69  vi. LIST  OF TABLES  TABLE I.  Analysis in  II.  III.  IV.  VI.  VII.  VIII.  IX.  Variance Test  for  Variation ..24  D u n c a n ' s New M u l t i p l e Range T e s t D i f f e r e n c e s i n Coding  for 25  B a r t l e t t ' s Test for Homoscedasticity Among t h e F i v e C o d i n g S a m p l e s Bartlett's Among t h e  V.  of  C o d i n g and R e f e r e n c e s . . .  Test Four  for  27  Homoscedasticity  Coding Samples  .28  A F a c t o r i a l Design to Test Variation C a u s e d by L a n g u a g e , S e x D i f f e r e n c e s and R e f e r e n c e s  30  A n a l y s i s of Variance Test f o r Variation Among E n g l i s h - S p e a k i n g , N o n - E n g l i s h S p e a k i n g E x c l u d i n g I t a l i a n s and I t a l i a n Speaking. Groups.  32  D u n c a n ' s New M u l t i p l e Range T e s t f o r D i f f e r e n c e s Among E n g l i s h - S p e a k i n g , Non-English-Speaking Excluding I t a l i a n s and I t a l i a n - S p e a k i n g G r o u p s  33  A n a l y s i s of Variance Test for Educational D i f f e r e n c e s A f f e c t i n g T o t a l Responses of E n g l i s h - S p e a k i n g G r o u p s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 S a m p l e s f o r A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e by L a n g u a g e and L e v e l o f E d u c a t i o n . .  .......35  X.  A n a l y s i s of Variance Test for Differences i n References I n d i c a t i v e of Present O r i e n t a t i o n s Among L a n g u a g e G r o u p s w i t h D i f f e r e n t i a l . E d u c a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36  XI.  D u n c a n ' s New M u l t i p l e Range T e s t f o r D i f f e r e n c e s i n References I n d i c a t i v e of P r e s e n t O r i e n t a t i o n s Among L a n g u a g e G r o u p s with D i f f e r e n t i a l Education....................37  XII.  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Test f o r i n T o t a l A l t e r n a t i v e s Between N o n - I t a l i a n Immigrant Groups viewed Using T r a n s l a t o r s . . .  Differences I t a l i a n and Inter39  vii  List  of  Tables  (cont'd)  TABLE XIII.  XIV.  XV.  XVI.  XVII.  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Test f o r Differences i n References I n d i c a t i v e of Present O r i e n t a t i o n s B e t w e e n I t a l i a n and N o n - I t a l i a n Immigrant Groups Interviewed Using T r a n s l a t o r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C o m p a r i s o n o f Means f o r Using T r a n s l a t o r s . . . .  Two  39  Groups  Samples f o r A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e L a n g u a g e and L e v e l o f E d u c a t i o n  .  ,40  by ,41  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Test f o r Differences i n t h e Two L e v e l s o f P r e s e n t R e f e r e n c e s Among G r o u p s o f D i f f e r e n t i a l L a n g u a g e O r i g i n s and D i f f e r e n t i a l E d u c a t i o n . . . . . . . ,  ,42  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e Test f o r Differences i n t h e Two L e v e l s o f P r e s e n t R e f e r e n c e s Among G r o u p s o f D i f f e r e n t i a l L a n g u a g e O r i g i n s and D i f f e r e n t i a l E d u c a t i o n E x c l u d i n g t h e I t a l i a n Group  ,43  viii.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Professor support  during  investigation. The  the His  formulation  morel  the  last  The  financial  Anthropology  three  invaluable  support  advice  and e x e c u t i o n  guidance i s  Wednesday e v e n i n g  inspiration, over  Landauer o f f e r e d  greatly  seminar  group  provided spirit .  a s s i s t a n c e of  and S o c i o l o g y i s  this  appreciated.  and much c r i t i c a l  years.  of  and  the  Department  gratefully  of  acknowledged.  CHAPTER  I  THE INTRODUCTION A.  Purpose of  the  Survey of  behavior.  Study  data  may be u t i l i z e d  Such p a t t e r n s  prediction  of  individual  babilities  of  some b e h a v i o r  a number  of  by  techniques  costs  at  large  specific-purposed of  all  able, it  appears  would of for  Much d a t a  survey  useful  to  In  in  time  survey  data.  measuring  develop  questions,  (often  lacking  to  parametric  One means o f  would  adequate  amounts systems  a set  measuring  about  what  rather  say.  The p u r p o s e s  1  that  to  analyses.  assumptions than  costs  such q u e s t i o n s  ideas  imply  avail-  open-ended  might  questions  while  large  ended q u e s t i o n s by m a k i n g  extraction  research  a system f o r  construct  sciences  techniques  are  among  The, r e s u l t i n g  the,data,  these  pro-  questionnaire  maximize  allow  statistical  developing be t o  and  vaguely-worded)  measurements which  be s u b m i t t e d  social  minimize  analyses of  the  provide  and m o n e y ) . do not  to  patterns  appearing  the  measurement  Particularly  general  in  Much o f  order  encourage secondary  rather  (interview  analyses often  unused.  but  characteristic  possible information. remain  determine  necessarily allow  behaviors,  individuals.  have been c o l l e c t e d  do n o t  to  the  of  open-  theoretical  answers t o of  this  the study  are  to  construct  specific cal  a theoretical  measurement  tests  and t o  using survey  framework  subject  data  this  previously  which to  suggests a  some  statisti-  collected with  other  intent.  B.  Construction In  of  an H y p o t h e s i s  developing  open-ended q u e s t i o n s people to  u s e and t o  handle  stimuli  a theoretical  may be assumed t o  reflect —  with  the  the  answers  represent  references  i n d i v i d u a l .model p e r s o n s  enormous  must  amount  develop of  his  assumes t h a t  the  by m a p p i n g them o n t o dimension the  use  stimuli  own m o d e l f o r w i t h which  he  bombarded."" < - The m o d e l d e v e l o p e d and u s e d a s . a c a s e thesis  to  a decision-making model.  Each i n d i v i d u a l ing  framework,  individual  particular  individual  is  in  organizes incoming  d i m e n s i o n s and t h a t  h a s an i d e a l  point  cop-  this stimuli  on e a c h  which  exactly  a s an  orientation  2 fits As  his  preference,  hereafter  psychological distance  there  is  increasingly  from  less  referred the  to  orientation  ability  to  increases  discriminate  among  alternatives."" At  some p o i n t  along  the  dimension a c l u s t e r i n g  indiscrirainable  alternatives  into  and,  not  category  therefore,  stimuli tion,  or  that  cognized  relevant  alternatives is,  within  as i n d i v i d u a l  some n e g a t i v e l y  sufficiently  the  critical  alternatives  occurs. close  to  neighbourhood, (rather  evaluated  Only his  than  of  those  orientato  be  simply  repart  3 of  a category)  specific is  are considered relevant  decision-making process.  a means f o r  clustering tegories  of  for  handling  stimuli  some a l t e r n a t i v e s later the  quick  within  tives  equivalent  would  be c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t  cision-making orientation  critical to  what  has t h e  highest  The d e v e l o p m e n t the  individual's  the  acquisition  influence  of  model. of  travels  influenced  state  of  and u s e d i n  the  of  individual  allows  the  alterna-  those  to  as  alterna-  references)  a particular  alternative  closest  de-  to  the  priority. is  critical  to  a s s u m p t i o n s c a n be made  early  by p e r s o n s w i t h an i n p u t  (i.e.  referred  a major  channels v i a  is  this  Herein only  an o r i e n t a t i o n ,  may be a s s u m e d a l s o t h a t  provides  evaluated c a -  general  an o r i e n t a t i o n  It  This  into  Several  through  model  which  often  p r o c e s s where t h e  any  using a rule  neighbourhood is  in  The i n d i v i d u a l ' s  sorting.  tives  and u t i l i z e d  evaluated  behavior  power  to  one-being  of  individual his  evaluated alternatives may be r e f e r r e d  to  that  alternatives.  an  sanction  about  behavior.  and  as a  in  receptor  information. In  order  authority.to which  are  to  maximize i n f l u e n c e  sanction  formally  behavior,  part  of  situations  school.  America,  North  with  persons are l o c a t e d  a social structure,  institutionalized In  by p e r s o n s  such as t h e  family  family  in  groups  that  is,  and  the  and s c h o o l s a r e t h e  foci  4.  of  child-rearing.  influence  The p a r e n t s  during  the  first  (G^)  six  are  years  the  of  main s o u r c e  a child's  of  (Gg)  development. It the  is  parents'  havior,  further  orientations  which  includes  havior.  If  then  parents'  the  child's occurs  assumed f o r  a child  is  as a f i r s t  orientations (positively sented  also sanctioning  of  the  influenced  (0) w i l l  may be s e t  >  B  child's  parents,  be r e f l e c t e d which  be-  in  the  this  down a s :  G1  :> G2 B  development  begins,  s h o u l d be a r e f l e c t i o n sanctioned)  own b e -  by t h e  The c h a n n e l s t h r o u g h  effect  generally  behaviors.  of  the  its  This  child's  primary  own. r e i n f o r c e d  channel i s  repre-  by:  °G1 — •nee the for  their  (B).  cognitive  that  in  completely  °G1 As  study  are r e f l e c t e d  orientations  behaviors  this  >  B  G1  > G2  G^ o r i e n t a t i o n  parental  influence °G1  > °G2  B  has been e s t a b l i s h e d i t to  travel  different  *°G2  is  possible  c h a n n e l s , such a s :  > G2 B  or  0 As can  G 1  "> B  a simple case, be u s e d f o r  w  the  ^ 0 obvious  illustrating  ^  G 2  example of these  B  Q 2  smoking  channels.  patterns  G.'s  smoking  5.  behaviors  and v e r b a l  alternatives behavior tives.  collected  is For  example,  a state  formation,  by  b e c a u s e he i s  an a l t e r n a t i v e .  model,  will  the  in  alternative,  skills  the  ^  develop  in  At  favor  this  where  he  according  of  point of  in-  must to  and/or  his  conflicting  may be r e p e a t e d such  B  >  •  smoking,  orientation.  alternatives,  0 1  to  alterna-  generator  a position  above c h a n n e l s  evaluated  new source  disregarded by G g .  present  smoking  8  against  be l a b e l l e d  closest  cognitive  appear,  new s o u r c e s o f  put This  be l o c a t e d  As G 2 * s  but  might  t^'  f r o m among t h e s e  o b s e r v e d smoking  which  smoking  by G g .  G^ may be v e r b a l l y  select  influences  and s o r t e d  collected  s i n c e G^ i s  &2 e n t e r s  regarding  b a s e d on s e l e c t i o n  an a l t e r n a t i v e smoking  behaviors  G2  with  as:  >  °G2  or  0  \  new source  Q~  The s m o k i n g c a s e s e r v e s  again  here,  from exposure to  tions.  conflicting  with  orientations  the  ence  (usually  parent).  of  stability  tuation  to  the of  peer  where  child  obtained In  this  new  influences  behaviors  influences,  orientations  another.  r  G2  may o r i g i n a t e Later  v. B _ J G2  r  ;>  and  however, from the  there  is  and t r a n s f e r e n c e  orienta-  must first  an  compete influ-  assumption  f r o m one  s i -  6.  tions. sion  An o r i e n t a t i o n  may be m o d i f i e d  The m a p p i n g  incoming  and a g a i n s t  organization as m e d i a t o r  of of  references ego's  is  assumed t h a t  G2  is  involved  when G 2 will  in  the  sanctions  s e r v e s G2  and t h e  orientation  state  behaviors. his  than  tively  by  making  situation  that  his  he i s  to  In  source  arising  influence  modification  suggest  summary,  that of  utilized  Thus,  a generator  a source of lead  parents.  if  the  influence by t h a t  for  out  of to  of the  of  an  to  Specifically, tionship  this  exists  notions  and i f  orientation.of  the  known, over  and i f time,  posi-  a decision  as w e l l  as  behaviors  of  orientations  only a  the  here  one  dimension orientations  then  it  that  individual.  study, hypothesizes t h a t G^  authori  generated  were e x p o s e d t o  between  also  a w a r e n e s s may  individual  related  and  becomes aware  self,  and t h i s  theoretical  s o u r c e were  predict  to  G2  in  he  orientation.  and b e h a v i o r s w e r e c o n s i s t e n t possible  powers  sanctioned  conflict.  others,  locatable  positioned  information  of  s a n c t i o n e d by  behaviors  he i s  when  becomes a w a r e  sanctioning  ties  parents  acts  orientations  as a g e n e r a t o r  G2  he may h a v e b e e n n e g a t i v e l y his  for  becomes m o d i f i a b l e  situations  responsible for  a dimen-  model  s h o u l d be e m p i r i c a l l y  others'  condi-  as a b a s i s  and o t h e r s '  aware t h a t other  along  individual's  behaviors  conflict  This  be h e l d  past  certain  alternatives  an o r i e n t a t i o n  It  information.  of  under  would  a direct  and G 2  be  rela-  behavior  7.  as  long  as G  constraining addition, is  in institutionalized  him t o a c t as a r e c e p t o r  as G  2  hypothesized  i s relocated  t o a c t as a g e n e r a t o r  collected  f o r other  lationship, a  i s located  i t i s further  modified  him  2  number  that  that  In  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  i n situations constraining  will  be u s e d  i s , t o see i f such  o f i n d i v i d u a l s drawn f r o m  population.  of information.  of information.  purposes  situations  Survey to test  a pattern the North  data this re-  exists American  among  8 .  FOOTNOTES TO THE INTRODUCTION  b a s e d on S i m o n s p r i n c i p l e o f Bounded R a t i o n a l i t y * which assumes t h a t man t r i e s t o be r a t i o n a l and makes up a s i m p l i f i e d m o d e l t o c o p e w i t h as many a l t e r n a t i v e s a s he i s c a p a b l e o f d e a l i n g w i t h , t h e number b e i n g situationally determined. H . A . S i m o n s , M o d e l s o f M a n : S o c i a l and R a t i o n a l . New Y o r k , J o h n W i l e y and S o n s , I n c . , 1 9 5 7 , p p . 1 9 8 199. 1  1  I t i s u n c l e a r i n Coomb's w r i t i n g s whether the alternatives make t h e d i m e n s i o n o r w h e t h e r t h e r e i s an u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n o n t o w h i c h a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e mapped. I t a p p e a r s t o be more p r o d u c t i v e t o u s e t h e l a t t e r n o t i o n t h a t t h e d i m e n s i o n and t h e i d e a l p o i n t a r e s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e alternatives s i n c e t h i s a l l o w s an o r d e r i n g and r e - o r d e r i n g o f alternatives without a f f e c t i n g the i d e a l p o i n t . C H . Coombs, A T h e o r y o f D a t a . New Y o r k , J o h n W i l e y and S o n s , I n c . , 1 9 6 4 .  3 b a s e d on C o o m b ' s work w h i c h c o n c e r n s i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n t i a l choice behavior. He f o u n d t h a t a l t h o u g h i n d i v i d u a l s , g i v e n s e v e r a l s t i m u l i , show g r e a t v a r i a t i o n i n p r e f e r e n c e o r d e r i n g s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r one u n d e r l y i n g d i m e n s i o n f o r each i n d i v i d u a l (Coomb's u n f o l d i n g t h e o r y ) . Coombs claims t h i s i n d i c a t e s that i n d i v i d u a l s perceive the stimuli as s i m i l a r b u t h a v e d e f i n i t e p r e f e r e n c e among t h e m . He c l a i m s t h e i n d i v i d u a l has an e x a c t p r e f e r e n c e w h i c h may be l a b e l l e d ' i d e a l p o i n t on a d i m e n s i o n o f a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ' . There i s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l space along the dimension such t h a t t h e p e r c e i v e d d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n s t i m u l i v a r i e s among individuals. S t i m u l i w i t h s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are seen n e a r e r t h e i d e a l p o i n t and more p o s i t i v e l y t h a n stimuli with increasingly different characteristics. Those s t i m u l i to which the i n d i v i d u a l responds p o s i t i v e l y , are c o n s i d e r e d t o be w i t h i n t h e c r i t i c a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d . Discrimination among s t i m u l i i s p o s s i b l e o n l y w i t h i n t h i s n e i g h b o u r h o o d , so t h a t o u t s i d e t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t i m u l i a r e i n d i s c r i m i n a b l e and l u m p e d t o g e t h e r i n one g e n e r a l c a t e g o r y . C H . Coombs, A T h e o r y o f D a t a . New Y o r k , J o h n W i l e y and S o n s , I n c . , 1 9 6 4 , pp. 8-12.  9 CHAPTER  II  METHODOLOGY  A.  Development  of  Measurements t o  The t e s t i n g  of  an h y p o t h e s i s  the  measurements i n v o l v e d .  are  developed to  correlation also  a dependent  direct given  certain  tested  using  to  is  test  sion the  the  However,  orientation.  the  time  categories  a past where future  that  or  past, the  with  orientation  for  required  there  a  that  there and G  both for  but is  2  a  behavior  will  be  techniques, the  the This  thus  X and Y a x e s . present study  pur-  intends  using  one a r b i t r a r i l y  chosen dimen-  It  recognized that  there  is  d i m e n s i o n s may a l s o be  here  c o n s i d e r e d most three  present  where  the  In  a present  situational concern i s  exists relevant  efficacious  areas are  orientation  orientation, present  broad  and f u t u r e .  individual's  traditional  concern i s  is,  orientations.  other  dimension  the  is  of  above  and G., b e h a v i o r  that  scales  dimension along which  representing  only  G^ o r i e n t a t i o n s  measurement  hypothesis  possibility  not  notions  The a b o v e h y p o t h e s i s  interval  of  Hypothesis  demands e x p l i c a t i o n  regression s t a t i s t i c a l  an i n d i c a t o r  for  a time  between  linear  A first poses  relationship,  conditions.  making r e q u i s i t e  that  G^ o r i e n t a t i o n s  relationship  the  The t h e o r e t i c a l  demonstrate  between  Test  specified  one o f  is  these  located  —  orientation  constraints  with  is  and a  expectations.  10.  The c r i t i c a l might  neighbourhood,  be one t i m e  gories  category  d e p e n d i n g on b o t h  dimension  and t h e  limits  the  of  the  a combination orientation's  from  theoretical  notions  the  orientation  are  the  references  above,  given  the  generated i n  these  references  of  time  with  is  to  the  the  assumed h e r e  to that  questions  highest  indicators  to  closest  open-ended  the  on  according  alternatives it  cate-  location  Since,  answer t o  are thus  orientation  orientation  priority,  perceived alternatives  and t h a t  the  neighbourhood.  the  are the  or  distance  critical  encompassing the  priorities  of  the  orien-  tation. The measurement the  references  per  ended a t t i t u d i n a l signed to  give  time  used i n  this  category  given  and b e h a v i o r a l  no c u e s a s t o  study in  is  answer  questions;  categories  a count  in  to  open-  questions which  to  of  de-  answer  (see Appendix I ) . References sidered  to  indicate  assumed t h a t originated present  these  norms  traditional  and i n s t i t u t i o n s  orientations  are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e generations  of  are  since i t  modes o f  con-  is  behavior  and p a s s e d on t o  the  generation.  individual  to  rules,  by p r e v i o u s  References  fic  to  must  to  act  persons, places, indicate  present  present  conditions  (situational objects  within  constraints)  and a c t i v i t i e s  orientations.  which  and t o  are  the speci-  considered  11.  References are  goals  form  check  paired and t e s t  as t h e  split-test  duction kind  of  ences  are  of  references these with  question  the  Orientations  ego's  (that  is,  situations  or  those  assumed t o  is,  found  in  testing,  test,  give  could  are the  same,  and w h e t h e r havior.  determined  are  the  present on t h e tions  or  are  testing available  with the  of  for  the  indicate  analysis  instance,  in  from  reference  see Appendix  separ-  I.  analysis  of  kinds  references  of  parental of  is  that  behaviors  this  II)  groups be-  c a n be  of of  judges. behavior.  which  study  (see Appendix  variqnce  Gj's  indicators  Severe l i m i t a t i o n s  hypothesis  refer-  abstract  among a number  measurement  oriented. the  of  agreement  to  both  intro-  c a n be  or  good p r e d i c t o r s  reliability  required  future  general  such  another  be f e e d b a c k  differentiate  equally  A second c r i t i c a l Questions  be more  they  by t e s t i n g  this  questions with  evidence whether  both  of  personal experience)  starting  whether  Also,  assumed t o in  test,  possible  groups in  is  their  as a g a i n s t  the  attittide*questions)  Statistical  for  same t h i n g ,  found  from  (that  whether  quo  orientations.  a well-known  of  of  status  according to  by one k i n d about  the  these i n d i c a t o r s  testing  orientations.  ated  of  This  indicators  specific  future  method.  inference  behavior  of  reliability  between  bias  allows  for  groups  source  to  and c h a n g e s i n  designated representative •ne  to  to  are  were as t h e were  past,  put ques-  12  generated one t i m e sis  in  for  other  p u r p o s e s and l e n t  category.  terms  of  The q u e s t i o n s  Thus,  this  attempt  new t h e o r e t i c a l  utilized  themselves to at  notions  G2 b e h a v i o r  for  only  secondary  had t o  be  analy-  modified.  were l a r g e l y  repeate  4 from the  Stinchcombe study  outlined  above argue  .  The t h e o r e t i c a l  against  some o f  the  ideas  original  as  Stinch-  combe p r e m i s e s . Stinchcombe i s since  he r e f e r s  he s e e s  this  main of  difficulty  in  division  Stinchcombe  skipping  then  used t h e s e  classes,  a few  transgression* According  will  to  into  to  sent  future,  but  dimension  nor  however,  if  his  c h o i c e of  but  e v e n more  c a u s e and  out  items  on  effect.  of  the  flunk-  classroom.  various this  use  critical  rebellion;  be c o n s i d e r e d by  The  his  of  behaviors  study  He of  (his  indicators)^. the  above t h e o r e t i c a l  and t h e  other  a high  behaviors  relationship  framework,  correlation  there  between  he e x a m i n e s and  a s c e r t a i n e d by S t i n c h c o m b e ' s f i n d i n g s .  dependent  time  and g e n e r a t i o n s .  predict  Stinchcombe*s study  indicators  of  and t h e  a continuous  indicators  being  indicators  •rule  is  of  indicators^  indicators  only  be i n  present  1  for  of  importance  S t i n c h c o m b e s work  which  his  terms  selected three  ingi'j  should  the  Wheeler q u e s t i o n s  questionnaire his  in  to  the  across i n s t i t u t i o n s  indicators.  the is  so o f t e n  neither  a transference  aware o f  c a n be q u e s t i o n e d ,  However, because  the  his  this  13.  indicators of both rebellion and expressive alienation (that i s , 'rule transgression' behaviors) are actually indicators of 'expedient' or present-oriented behaviors which should be dependent upon and, therefore, predictable from G^ present orientations (that i s , where parents are concerned with situational constraints). Stinchcombe also uses indicators designated  'age-  grade orientations' which he tests against certain behaviors.  The present study does not quarrel with his findings  but finds i t more convenient and precise to translate his work to the time dimension nation of orientations and timeoriented behaviors examined within one generation.  Since  Stinchcombe's indicators of adult orientation (O.K. for girls to marry young, do not disagree on smoking rights, agreedcarcis necessary) are seen here as indicators of present orientations, because they show concern with expedient behavior and situational constraints, the high correlation with rebellious behavior, non-college preparatory behavior, lower grades, more dating (all directed toward present expediency and not future or traditional behaviors) in Stinchcombe's findings are thus seen as supporting the theoretical ideas of the present study.  That i s , Stinch-  combe's indicators of age-grade orientations (e.g. adultoriented, adolescent-oriented) which he claims are related  14.  to rebellion may be translated into the terminology of this study where  (present orientations) predicts B2  (present-expedient behavior). A Y-axis interval scale is simply a count from a set of questions regarding different behaviors (see Appendix II).  A  position on this scale is found by  counting the number of questions demonstrating the presence of a behavior belonging to a certain time category. It is expected that where Gg is completely a receptor of information a straight-line relationship holds showing an increase in  8  particular behavior as an i n -  crease in dominance of a particular time category of G^ occurs. The institutionalized situations, utilized for this study, where G^ is assumed to be constrained to act as receptor of information are home and school.  Peer group  leadership evidenced by sociograms is assumed to indicate the switch to the new, and possibly conflict-creating, role of generator of information. The socializing agents and institutionalized sources of influence associated with home and school are parents (referred to as G,) and teachers.  15. B.  C o l l e c t i o n of  the  Data  The t h e o r e t i c a l , f r a m e w o r k developed to  utilize  material  presented  f r o m two  one had b e e n a d m i n i s t e r e d  completely  Thus,  were  than  both to  questionnaires  test  represents  the  high  trast  to  other  after  partially.  purposes and t h i s  school.  of  a reproduction  some a d d i t i o n s , The p a r t i c u l a r  area i n  ethnic  which  groups,  it  other study  had a c c e s s  to  the  of  was a d m i n i s t e r e d i n s c h o o l c h o s e n was  was l o c a t e d  because i t  Stinchcombe's non-urban  searchers  notions  questionnaires,  plus  because the  diversity  and t h e  designed for  above t h e o r e t i c a l  the  Stinchcombe's,  ted  questionnaires  a secondary a n a l y s i s . ^  One o f  urban  a b o v e was  had  was u r b a n  selec-  great in  con-  s c h o o l and b e c a u s e t h e  school through  an  an  re-  interested  teacher. Before ers,  a team o f  British  with  chosen b y . t h e  sociology  of  ideas  possible purposes.  was c o m p o s e d , t h e  students  in  school counsellor.  the  following  which  s c h o o l was h e l d t o  about  additions  the  structure  they  from the  interviews  several students  constructed,  teachers their  questionnaire  C o l u m b i a , had t a p e d  interest  then  the  of  University  about  grades  research-  their  of  area  e l e v e n and  twelve  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e  was  a discussion with  the  stimulate the  and  collect  questionnaire  p e r c e i v e d as u s e f u l  for  of  their  and own  16  The questionnaire was then examined by the principal of the school and the head of psychological testing at the school board and both gave the necessary authorization to proceed with the administration of the questionnaire* On the day of administration, just before the Easter holidays began, the home-room period was extended.  The  instructions were announced over the public address system (as well as printed on the first page of the questionnaire). One student from each home-room picked up the papers which were administered by the home-room teacher.  The papers  were collected by the researchers and removed from the school on the same day. The other questionnaire was designed to serve the needs of several persons including a geographer, a townplanner, and several sociology graduate students.  The ques-  tionnaire was, therefore, the result of a composite of i n terests and theories.  The questions themselves varied from  demographic to attitudinal and frop structured to non-structured.  Again, some of the questions were taken from  Stinchcombe's original questionnaire.  The questionnaire  was pre—tested, then redesigned end shortened to approximately three hours.  17.  It naire  in  tested  was d e c i d e d t o  the  with  done i n  community respect  order  to  were  completely selected ing,  sources  to  the  Accordingly,  r a n d o m i z e d by order  that  the  whole  that  the  sample i s  b i a s e d by  but  standardize  the  method  comparative  results  parents  age,  of  of  the  list  the  all  for  not  is  two stu-  names  were  interviewas  recognized and  seemingly  n o n - r e s p o n s e and  a large  re-  and r e s i d e n c e .  was d e v i s e d ,  in  were  represented  parenthood  interviewing  was  the  p r o c e s s as l o n g It  been  This  The r e s p o n d e n t s  reduce  even though  of  and t h e s e  area i s  procedure  designed to  had a l r e a d y  studies  available.  Vancouver urban  An i n t e r v i e w i n g complicated,  of  be a c o n t i n u o u s were  question-  questionnaire.  the  top  second  students  computer.  interviewing  the  population  from t h e  was t o  for  the  first  s e l e c t e d as t h e  in  which  where  allow-co-ordinated  questionnaires. dents  administer  order  number  to  to  allow  of  inter-  8  viewers  participated. The p r o c e d u r e  A letter would  was s e n t  be c a l l i n g ,  underway  and t h a t  involved  explaining that  four  that  contacts  the  undersigned  university-sponsored  buying  and s e l l i n g  with  respondents. persons  r e s e a r c h was  was d e f i n i t e l y  not  9 involved. letter  A personal  had b e e n s e n t  second c a l l  call  to  was made f o r  was made a few  arrange the  for  days a f t e r  an a p p o i n t m e n t .  interview  itself.  A  the A  thank-you  18.  letter then concluded the contact with respondents. A strategy seldom employed in survey studies was attempted.^  A pair of interviewers visited the respon-  dents' house end requested that the female question the wife while the male interviewer questioned the husband at the same time but in different rooms.  Thus, two sets  of data were obtained from G^ of each family allowing poss i b i l i t y of internel comparison, (as well as comparison with that of G£ already obtained from the school study). The questions were read off the questionnaire by the interviewers who were instructed to record verbatim the replies.  Where structured questions presented alter-  natives for choice or rank ordering, cards were given to the respondent listing the alternatives, in an attempt to avoid simple memory problems.  Unstructured questions with  limited or no cues were just repeated unless a 'probe' was specified, whereupon interviewers noted the first response and their probe as well as the following response. Over a two year period, the interviewers included first year sociology students, graduate students and persons outside the university interested in the study.  Inter-  viewers were given training to standardize the procedure and an interviewer information sheet was prepared to allow study and comparison of the different conditions resulting from the uncontrolled environments within which interviewing took place.  19. Discussions  were held with  groups of i n t e r v i e w e r s  a f t e r t h e i r i n t e r v i e w s had taken place, at which time e f f o r t s were made t o d i s c e r n d i s c r e p a n c i e s and v a r i a t i o n s from the p r e s c r i b e d procedure and t h e i r p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s on the data.  The l a r g e number of i n t e r v i e w e r s , the m a j o r i -  ty o f which experienced  t h e i r f i r s t i n t e r v i e w , indeed had  c e r t a i n e f f e c t s on the i n t e r v i e w skipped  questions)  response.  (e.g. some i n t e r v i e w e r s  and perhaps a l s o on the s i z e of the non-  That some were more committed than others  became  apparent i n the d i s c u s s i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , the time over which i n t e r v i e w i n g took place had e f f e c t s but a l s o brought out some i n t e r e s t i n g patterns.  There were a l a r g e number of moves from the area  ( i n c r e a s i n g non-response) i n t h i s two year p e r i o d .  Most  n o t i c e a b l e was the movement of nearly a l l women on the samp l e who were without husbands.  Another occurence during  t h i s time period which was f e l t t o i n c r e a s e the number of r e f u s a l s was the appearance (and disappearance) of a s a l e s crew through the area, a f t e r which the i n t e r v i e w e r s were greeted with  h o s t i l i t y and s u s p i c i o n that they  represented  another s a l e s gimmick - an a t t i t u d e that was not apparent i n the e a r l i e r period of i n t e r v i e w i n g . was that some questions  Another time e f f e c t  based on current events were not  20. remembered i n usually  detail.  elicited  Wording  the  other the  procedures  of  p e r s o n s and t h e  latter  the  questions,  however,  environments  introduced  variations  a response.  The u n c o n t r o l l e d to  of  situation  interviewing, handling often  of  s u c h as p r e s e n c e  of  language problems.  an o l d e r  child  in  the  In  family  translated.^ It viewers, trolled tors, ble  the  recognized that long  period  environments  but  were  tative  is  of  it  is  felt  applied this  of  time  possibly that  and t h a t  sample.—  the  large  involved,  intorudced  controls the  number  of  inter-  and t h e  large  error  as s t r i n g e n t  data c o l l e c t e d  uncon-  are  as  fac-  possi-  represen-  21.  FOOTNOTES TO THE METHODOLOGY  A . L . Stinchcombe, R e b e l l i o n i n a High 5 c h o o l . Quadrangle Books, 1964, pp. 2 1 4 - 2 3 0 .  Chicago,  * " 5 . W h e e l e r , book r e v i e w o f R e b e l l i o n i n a H i g h S c h o o l by A r t h u r S t i n c h c o m b e , i n A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , v o l . 3 2 , (December 1 9 6 7 ) , n o . 6 , p . 1 0 2 0 .  6 The s e l e c t i o n o f o n l y p a r t o f S t i n c h c o m b e ' s work i s t o a v o i d b e i n g c a u g h t up i n d e f i n i t i o n s o r r e d e f i n i t i o n s of c l a s s s t r u c t u r e w h i c h he u s e s e x t e n s i v e l y b u t w h i c h a r e \ o u t s i d e the scope of t h i s study. ^The s o u r c e o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n e d t o s t u d y t h e a t t i t u d e s o f h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s was A p p e n d i x I I o f A . L . S t i n c h c o m b e ' s R e b e l l i o n i n a High 5 c h o o l . C h i c a g o . Quadrangle Books, 1964, pp. 2 1 4 - 2 3 0 . Additional questions w e r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h a t s t u d y t o meet f u r t h e r n e e d s o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r s and t h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e s c h o o l . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n e d as a community s t u d y originated i n a s e m i n a r g r o u p w h i c h met r e g u l a r l y u n d e r P r o f e s s o r Landauer's guidance. g The u s e and d e v e l o p m e n t o f b o t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and t h e t r a i n i n g o f i n t e r v i e w e r s w e r e done u n d e r t h e a u s p i c e s o f P r o f e s s o r Landauer, S o c i o l o g y Department, at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , who m a i n t a i n s u n i v e r s i t y r e s e a r c h must a l s o be a h e u r i s t i c d e v i c e as w e l l as a r e s e a r c h t o o l .  g D u r i n g t h e two y e a r s t h a t i n t e r v i e w i n g was done i n t h e a r e a , a number o f s a l e s m e n went t h r o u g h t h e same a r e a using techniques of s e l l i n g which r e s u l t e d i n s u s p i c i o n and h o s t i l i t y and c e r t a i n l y a f f e c t e d t h e r e c e p t i o n and r e sponse the i n t e r v i e w e r s r e c e i v e d . Where n o n - r e s p o n s e had been a l m o s t n i l , a f t e r t h e s a l e s m e n had been t h r o u g h t h e a r e a t h e number o f n o n - r e s p o n s e s r o s e s h a r p l y . " " ^ B . S . P h i l l i p s , S o c i a l R e s e a r c h ; S t r a t e g y and T a c t i c s . New Y o r k , The M a c M i l l a n Company, 1 9 6 6 , p . 1 2 7 . •Where t r a n s l a t o r s w e r e n o t a v a i l a b l e t h e i n t e r v i e w s h a v e n o t y e t been o b t a i n e d and t h u s h a v e been l o s t f r o m t h e sarastudy. pie for this particular  22.  CHAPTER III  ANALYSIS OF THE DATA A* Precision of the Instrument Used to Measure Orientations of G^. The aim of this study was to develop a measurement through secondary analysis of data, e.g. to produce a useful X-axis — one which allowed scaling of parents' orientations against which children's behavior could be .... plotted.  The use of the questionnaire technique to obtain  these G^ orientations introduced much imprecision.  It was  felt, however, that i f much of the variability in the data could be accounted for and despite this variability the X-axis demonstrated u t i l i t y regarding prediction within the theoretical framework above, then the use of open-ended survey questions was justified, and further, would indicate that secondary analysis of previously accumulated survey material might be more profitably utilized than i t is at present. The variability introduced by the interviewing technique and attempts et its control have already been noted.  It was felt that analysis of the actual data to be  used for the X-axis might reveal differences other than theorized variation, that i s , the locating of orientations  23. differentially along a dimension by particular persons* Examination of the data for sources of variation caused by coding procedures, language difficulties including translator problems, differences inherent in the questions themselves and varied responses because of sex and/or differential educational levels was undertaken. Several analysis of variance tests were carried out to locate the sources of variability which produced significant differences in the G^ data.  The first analy-  sis of variance test was designed to check the differences in coding - - over time and by different persons.  Five  samples were selected: Sample 1.  the first coding  Sample 2.  different" coder - same time as sample 1  Sample 3.  coded two weeks after sample 1 - after ordering of rules giving priorities  Sample 4.  coded two weeks after sample 3  Sample 5.  coded one day after sample 4  From each of these samples, by using a random numbers table, eleven sets of deta were chosen.  The refer-  ences reflecting present orientations, the main concern of the X-axis, were tabulated for each individual on a l l  24  seventeen are  orientation  shown i n  Table  questions.  The r e s u l t s  of  the  test  I*  TABLE  I  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE TEST FOR VARIATION IN CODING AND REFERENCES  Source of Variation  SS  df  MS  F  961.576  4  240.394  21.8102**  1897.224  16  118.576  10.7581**  Error  706.424  64  11.022  Total  3565.224  84  tabulated  F.05  (4,64) » 2.5252 (1.6,6.4)- 1.8364  F.01  (4,64) - 3.6491 (16,64)= 2.3523  Samples Replications  There are  highly  which  sources of  One s o u r c e i s  different  coders  source i s  indicated  differences  among t h e  replications  orientation  questions,  be j u s t i f i c a t i o n  references  into  the  references  b a s e d on  two  for  among t h e  by t h e  experience.  —  times  of  signifi-  represent  that  dividing  abstract  which  samples  highly  which  suggesting  theoretically  groups  variation  and d i f f e r e n t  Another  seventeen might  be two  significant.  represent  coding. cant  appears to  the  there the  references  and  25. .. A D u n c a n ' s New means o f t h e f i v e indicated  Multiple  samples.  Range T e s t  The r e s u l t s  was  done  of this  on t h e  test  are  i n Table I I . TABLE I I DUNCAN'S NEW M U L T I P L E RANGE T E S T FOR D I F F E R E N C E S IN CODING  5ample  Mean  TV.05  SSR.05  l  D  2  D  3  4  15.352  3.14  2.52  9.235*  5  15.117  3.08  2.47  2.94*  9.00*  1  13.411  2.98  2.39  1.94  2.70*  7.29*  3  12.411  2.B3  2.27  1.70  1.00  2  6.117  EMS 4  -  1  .235  with 3  4  •  6.29*  64 d . f . 2  13.411 12.411  15.117  .  D  6.117  significant  (Samples Sample only  2,  with  shared  the only  sample  ples. the  = 11.022  5  15 .352  *  D  This  lines  one  are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  coded  by  an o u t s i d e  significantly  different  suggests  imprecision  instrument  that  from  by t h e u s e o f d i f f e r e n t  coder,  different) i s the  a l l the other  i s introduced coders,  that  sam-  into i s , that  26. the translation from empirical data to rule categories by manual coders introduces subjectivity.  (It is to be hoped  the increasing use of computers for coding open-ended questions will reduce this problem.) Duncan's test also showed that samples 4 and 5 were not significantly different from sample 1, and that sample 1 was not significantly different from sample 3.  This sug-  gests that variability among the samples was not explained by possible changes in coding occurring over time nor by changes which might have been introduced by giving p r i o r i ties to the rules. A belated Bartlett's Test for homogeneity of variances among the five samples was done.  This test was under-  taken to test the hypothesis that a l l the samples were drawn from the same population — an assumption of homoscedasticity which requires fulfillment before parametric statistics, including the analysis of variance tests, may legitimately be used.  The results of this test, as shown in Table III, 2  with its very large X indicated that the samples did not have the same variance and were, therefore, not drawn from the same population. A second Bartlett's Test was done, after eliminating sample 2, that of the outside coder. in Table IV.  The results are shown  27. TABLE  III  B A R T L E T T ' S T E S T FOR H O M O S C E D A S T I C I T Y AMONG THE F I V E CODING S A M P L E S  Sample Number  SS  DF 0  1/J  log S  2  0 log S  2  2  1  580.118  16  1/16  36.25  1.55931  24.94896  2  39.765  1.6  1/16  2.48  .39533  6.32528  3  736.118  16  1/16  46.00  1.66276  26.60416  4  569.883  16  1/16  35.61 1.55157  24.82512  5  969.765  16  1/16  60.61  28.52064  Sum  80  2895.649  1/80  K = 2.3026  111.22416  36.195  1.55859  3/10  Difference  X =  1.78254  5/16  Pooled  2  S  (13.46304)  30.99995/1.025  *  30.99995  • 30.2434*with  tabulated  highly  significant  X  2  124.68720  13.46304  L =  .30/3(4)  =,.025  4 df  .05 w i t h  4 d f .-  9.48733  .01 w i t h  4 d f =11.1433  28. TABLE IV B A R T L E T T ' S T E S T FOR HOMOSCEDASTICITY AMONG THE FOUR CODING S A M P L E S  Sample Number  SS  DF J  1/J  S  log S  Z  0 log S  2  1  580.118  16  1/16  36.25  1.55931  24.94896  3  736.48  16  1/16  46.00  1.66276  26.60416  4  569.883  16  1/16  35.61  1.55157  24.82512  5  969.765  16  1/16  60.61  1.78254  28.52064  Sum  4/16=1/4  Pooled  2865.884  64  Difference  1/64  44.7794  2.3026  X =  3.14212/1.026  (1.3646)  L =  = 3.0624 * * n  with  S  X X  -  105.6633  1.3646  = 3.14212  tabulated  n.s.  1.65099  15/64=.234  K 2  104.2987  non-significant  2  2  .234/3(3) =  .026  3 df  .05 w i t h  3 df »  .01 with  3 d f =11.3449  7.81473  29. 2 The X was close to zero and certainly well outside the c r i t i c a l region, indicating similar variances, that i s , that the four samples represented the same population of coded responses. As a result of Duncan's and Bartlett's tests, the data from Sample 2 were considered unrepresentative of the same population as the other four samples due to coding by a different coder, and therefore, they were eliminated. The rest of the data was pooled for further testing. After the data from the four samples were pooled, a factorial design was devised to test for variability of data among the factors of language, sex and references. The data were divided first into categories of persons born in English-speaking countries as against those born in non-English-speaking countries (the latter included persons born in English-speaking countries who emigrated as children and whose mother tongue was not English).  A sam-  ple from the former category was drawn by using the random numbers table to equate the sample sizes.  These two cate-  gories were each divided into male and female categories, which were then divided into abstract references and references based on experience.  A count was again taken of  present references and located in the eight cells.  The  results of the factorial analysis are shown in Table V.  3 0 .  J  TABLE V A FACTORIAL DESIGN TO TEST VARIATION CAUSED BY LANGUAGE, SEX DIFFERENCES AND REFERENCES  Sources  of  Variation  SS  . df  MS  Language  1  1161.62  1161.62  Sex  1  27.38  27.38  References  1  343.22  343.22  L  x S  1  14.58  14.58  L  x R  1  444.02  444.02  S  x R  1  44.18  44.18  193  8311.78  199  10346.78  Error  (Residual)  Total  t a b u l a t e3 d  **  - highly  significant  F  (l,193)*  0 5  F  (1,193)-  0 1  43.066  -•  3,8415 6.6349  F  26.9730 * * .6357 7.9696 * * .3385 10.3102 * * 1.0258  31.  There was  a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between  language and r e f e r e n c e s which d i s a l l o w e d drawing c o n c l u s i o n s from the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between means of the l a n guage and r e f e r e n c e s main e f f e c t s *  This i n t e r a c t i o n  sug-  gested that language a b i l i t y a f f e c t e d the answers obtained from the o r i e n t a t i o n q u e s t i o n s .  Examination of sources of  t h i s v a r i a b i l i t y was  E i t h e r some questions were  necessary.  more e a s i l y understood, perhaps a f f e c t i n g the t o t a l number of a l t e r n a t i v e s , or persons from other c o u n t r i e s have d i f ferences i n outlook which a f f e c t t h e i r present o r i e n t a t i o n s . A second c o n c l u s i o n drawn from t h i s t e s t was  that  there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n responses between the two sexes.  Also, there was  n e i t h e r i n t e r a c t i o n between  sex and language nor between sex and r e f e r e n c e s , that i s , the sexes d i d not respond d i f f e r e n t l y to the language t i o n or by r e f e r e n c e s .  situa-  Thus, t h e r e appeared no need f o r  s e p a r a t i o n of the sexes during f u r t h e r t e s t i n g . S e v e r a l a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e t e s t s were then done to d i s c e r n whether language d i f f i c u l t i e s alone produced s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n the data or whether other f a c t o r s such as education, e t h n i c o r i g i n or the use of t r a n s l a t o r s could account f o r the v a r i a t i o n i n responses. encountered at t h i s point was  One  problem  the discrepancy among numbers  of persons with p a r t i c u l a r years of education and  language  32.  origins. ferent for  the  T h u s by  sample s i z e s different A first  of  were  that  test  test  level are  making  comparisons,  from the  available  dif-  data  tests.  Italians)  educational  for  drawn  was done t o  English-speaking persons,  (excluding  of  necessity,  compare t o t a l  non-English-speaking  and I t a l i a n  (1 t o  7 years  shown i n  responses  of  Table  TABLE  immigrants  at  a  schooling).  persons given  The  results  VI.  VI  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE TEST FOR VARIATION AMONG E N G L I S H - S P E A K I N G , N 0 N - E N G L I S H - 5 P E A K I N G (EXCLUDING I T A L I A N S ) AND I T A L I A N - S P E A K I N G GROUPS  Source  of  Variation  df  Among g r o u p s  SS  2  MS  3825.389  Error  34  7268.25  Total  35  11093.639  tabulated  F^  2  3 4  1912.69  indicates  that  a difference to  the  in  significant  despite the  questions.  similar  total  8.947**  213.77  )«05 .01  The h i g h l y  F  =  3.1504  -  4.9774  differences  among t h e  educational  levels  alternatives  generated  groups  there in  is  response  33.  A Duncan's shows  that  speaking  the  from the  but  excluding  that  Italian A check  responses  both these  group  to  the  on e d u c a t i o n a l  and 12 y e a r s  of  strates  there  persons  Italians  was made b e t w e e n  that  Range T e s t  English-speaking  persons  different  New M u l t i p l e  are  groups  (Table  and  non-English-  not  significantly  responded  differences  The t a b l e  was no s i g n i f i c a n t TABLE  differently  questions. affecting  English-speaking  education.  VII)  (Table  total  persons  with  VIII)  demon-  differences  8  between  VII  DUNCAN'S NEW MULTIPLE RANGE TEST FOR DIFFERENCES AMONG E N G L I S H - S P E A K I N G , NON-ENGLISH-SPEAKING (EXCLUDING I T A L I A N S ) A N D . I T A L I A N - S P E A K I N G GROUPS  Group  y  T V  .05  S S R  .05  D  l  D  Englishspeaking  50.83  3.04  12.828  25.25  Non-Eng.sp.(excl. Italians)  40.41  2.89  12.195  10.42  Italianspeaking  25.58  with Eng. - s p .  » _ significant  EMS «  2 1 3 . 7 7 and  nOn-Eng.-sp. (excl. It.)  34  2  *  df  Italian  14.83 *  34. TABLE  VIII  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE TEST FOR EDUCATIONAL DIFFERENCES AFFECTING TOTAL RESPONSES OF E N G L I S H - S P E A K I N G GROUPS  Source  of  Variation  df  SS  MS  1  258.781  258.781  Error  30  15133.179  504.439  Total  31  15391.96  Between groups  F  the  groups  suggesting  the  amount  of  (l,30)  that  response to  -  0  5  4  '  1  education  7  0  F  .513 * * n  s  9  alone  did  not  the  open-ended q u e s t i o n s  the  differences  affect on  this  survey. A test,  examining  dicative  of  present  language  of  origin  were eight  used,  available  above e i g h t results Table sent  of  and y e a r s  as shown i n  replications  no d a t a  orientations,  years the  per for to  Italians  which  a highly  with  resulted  test  significant groups.  above  in  are  difference  the  only  there  groups.  which  in-  samples  an e d u c a t i o n a l  the  variance  among t h e s e  Seven  Unfortunately,  compare w i t h of  references  was d e s i g n e d n o t i n g  education.  IX,  sample;  analysis  X indicate references  Table  of  in  in  were  level The shown  in  the  pre-  35 TABLE IX SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE BY LANGUAGE AND LEVEL OF EDUCATION  Sample  Language  Years  Education  12 or mare  1  . E n g l i s h - s p e aking  2  English-speaking^  12.  3  English-speaking  9-11  4  English-speaking  0-8  5  non-English-speaking (excluding Italian)  9-12  6  non-English-speaking (excluding Italian)  0-8  7  Italian  0-8  A Duncan s New M u l t i p l e Range Test was done t o 1  f i n d which groups c o n t r i b u t e d to the d i f f e r e n c e s i n references . The  The r e s u l t s are shown i n Table XI. rank ordering of the means themselves i n d i -  cated that present r e f e r e n c e s are not n e c e s s a r i l y a funct i o n of education.  Except  f o r the English-speaking  group  with 9-11 years of education, however, the English-speaking groups appear to be s l i g h t l y more p r e s e n t - o r i e n t e d than  36. TABLE X ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE TEST FDR DIFFERENCES IN REFERENCES I N D I C A T I V E OF PRESENT ORIENTATIONS AMONG LANGUAGE GROUPS WITH D I F F E R E N T I A L EDUCATION  Source  of  Variation  df  SS  MS  6  869.054  144.842  Error  105  3932.375  37.451  Total  111  4801.429  Among g r o u p s  tabulated  F^  F  f i  6 Q  j  .05 =  2.2540  .01  3.1187  (6,120)-  0 5  .01  **  -  highly  significant  F  « =  »  2  '  1  7  5  0  2.9559  3.867**  37  T A B L E XI DUNCAN'S NEW M U L T I P L E RANGE T E S T FDR D I F F E R E N C E S IN R E F E R E N C E S I N D I C A T I V E OF PRESENT O R I E N T A T I O N S AMONG LANGUAGE GROUPS WITH D I F F E R E N T I A L EDUCATION  Group  y  T V  SSR  05  Q 5  D  D  l  D  2  3  D  4  14.68  3.19  4.877  9.56*  1  12.62  3.15  4.816  5.62*  7.50*  2  11.37  3.09  4.724  4.93  3.56  6.25* —  5  10.37  3.02  4.617  4.31  2.87  2.31  6  9.75  2.92  4.464  3.31  2.25 1.62  3  9.06  2.77  4.235  2.06  1.25  7  5.12  with Groups:  -  significant  4  1  EMS • 2  4  D  6  1.31 4.65 *  1.00  6  D  -—  5.25*  .62  .69 3.94  37.451 and 105 d f 5  5  3  7  38.  non-English-speaking  groups.  According t o the t e s t , the  English-speaking group with 0-B years of education i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from both the I t a l i a n group and the English-speaking group with 9 - 1 1 years of education. l a t t e r two groups are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t each other.  The remaining  The  from  groups are s i g n i f i c a n t l y  dif-  f e r e n t from the I t a l i a n group, but not the English-speaking group with 9 - 1 1 years o f s c h o o l i n g .  It i s d i f f i c u l t to  suggest why the l a t t e r group should f a l l where i t does s i n c e i t s mean i s not n o t i c e a b l y below that of the higher means, whereas the meen of the I t a l i a n group i s n o t i c e a b l y below a l l the o t h e r s . The e f f e c t of using t r a n s l a t o r s  ( i n the cases where  t h i s was necessary), u s u a l l y b i l i n g u a l teen-agers i n the f a m i l y being interviewed, as a source of v a r i a t i o n i n r e sponses was examined.  Two groups who used  I t a l i a n and n o n - I t a l i a n immigrants,  translators,  were compared;  first  f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t o t a l a l t e r n a t i v e s , secondly f o r present references.  Tables XII and XIII demonstrate that there i s  not only a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups regarding t o t a l a l t e r n a t i v e s generated i n response t o the open-ended questions under d i s c u s s i o n , but a l s o a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups regarding r e f e r e n c e s i n d i c a t i v e of present o r i e n t a t i o n s .  This d i f f e r -  ence i s n o t i c e a b l e when the means of the two groups are  1 39. TABLE  XII  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE TEST FOR DIFFERENCES IN TOTAL ALTERNATIVES BETWEEN I T A L I A N AND N O N - I T A L I A N IMMIGRANT GROUPS INTERVIEWED USING TRANSLATORS  Source  df  SS  1  640.03  640.03  Error  24  2654.00  110.58  Total  25  3294.03  tabulated  ^)  Between  of  Variation  groups  MS  -  0  5  .01  °  4.2597  »  7.8229  F  5.78^  * _ significant TABLE  XIII  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE TEST FOR DIFFERENCES IN REFERENCES I N D I C A T I V E OF PRESENT ORIENTATIONS BETWEEN I T A L I A N AND N O N - I T A L I A N IMMIGRANT GROUPS INTERVIEWED USING TRANSLATORS  Source  df  SS  1  456.97  456.97  Error  24  568.00  23.66  Total  25  1024.97  Between  of  Variation  groups  tabulated  F ^  ^  MS  F  19.309**  .05  =  4.2597  .01  m 7.8229  4G. compared as shown in Table XIV. TABLE XIV COMPARISON OF MEANS FOR TWO GROUPS USING TRANSLATORS  Italian Immigrants  Non-Italian Immigrants  References  21.84  31.76  Present References  6.84  Total  15.2  The mean of the non-Italian immigrant group is more than double that of the Italian group but only for present references. The testing for sources of variation inherent in the questions themselves proved more difficult.  A further  test examining the differences in present references among groups noting their language of origin and educational levels wqs devised - a test which included the division of present references into the two theoretical groups - those based on personal experience and those based on abstract notions. the  samplB  Five groups were included in this test (to increase size) as described in Table XV.  41. TABLE XV SAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE BY LANGUAGE AND LEVEL OF EDUCATION  Sample  Language  Years Education  1  English-speaking  2  English-speaking  9-1.1  3  English-speaking  0-8  4  non-English-speaking (excluding Italian)  0-8  5  Italian  0-8  The r e s u l t s shown i n  Table XVI,  action  between  nating  the  of  the  main e f f e c t s  of  references.  that  the  present  data  and t h e  c o n c l u s i o n s about  done,  excluding  the  basic data  two  abstract  questions  than  interaction Italian  Table  In  the  it  appears the  effect. sample.  XVII.  Italian  The t e s t  kinds  showed  generated  Thus,  elimi-  significance  Italians,  reverse.  shown i n  the  excluding  for  the  the  inter-  questions  and' between  of  test,  significant  orientation  b a s e d on e x p e r i e n c e .  caused the  variance  a highly  among g r o u p s  groups,  showed t h e  are  a n a l y s i s of  An e x a m i n a t i o n  group  test  of  references  questions  the  indicated  groups  drawing  four  of  12  ,  for  more the  group  the  Italian was t h e n  The r e s u l t s  of  this  re-  42.  TABLE  XVI  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE TEST FOR DIFFERENCES IN THE TWO KINDS OF PRESENT REFERENCES AMONG GROUPS OF D I F F E R E N T I A L LANGUAGE ORIGINS AND D I F F E R E N T I A L EDUCATION  Source  of  Variation  df  5S  MS  groups  4  1219.46  Replications  1  319.74  Interaction  4  3972.433  993.108  Error  140  2761.867  19.727  Total  149  8273.5  Among  tabulated  tabulated  **  -  highly  significant  (F^  4  1 4 4  j  F,. ...» (1,144)  .05  304.865 319.74  »  2.3719  .01  =3.3192  .05  •> 3 . 8 4 1 5  .01  m 6.6349  50.342"  43. TABLE  XVII  ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE TEST FOR DIFFERENCES IN THE TWO KINDS OF PRESENT REFERENCES AMONG GROUPS OF D I F F E R E N T I A L LANGUAGE ORIGINS AND D I F F E R E N T I A L EDUCATION EXCLUDING THE I T A L I A N GROUP  Source  Among  of  Variation  df  MS  SS  F  groups  3  231.3  Replications  1  537.633  537.633  11.315**  Interaction  3  967.433  322.477  6.786**  112  5321.601  47.514  119  7057.967  i  Error Total,  :  ,  tabulated  F  (3,60)  *  0  5  .01 tabulated  F  (l,60)  ' °  5  .01 tabulated  F  (3,120)*  77.1  at  2.7581  SB  4.1259  S3  4.0012  SI  7.0771 2.6802  0 5  .01 tabulated  F  (l,120)'  0  5  .01  -  highly  significant  3.9493  = 3.4201 83  6.8510  1.622  44.  There remains among the four groups a highly significant interaction between the groups and the questions, suggesting that removal of the Italian group reduced the interaction effect between respondents and the questions but not significantly.  This also indicates that the theoretical  division of questions into the two kinds of references does not account for variability in responses and that perhaps individual questions themselves e l i c i t different amounts or kinds of responses. B.  The Test of the Hypotheeis Although the assumptions of linear regression re-  quire that X be measured without error, this is often not possible with empirical data and the analysis is executed accepting some error.  It is recognized that in this study  a large experimental error was present in the measurement of the X-axis used to test the hypothesis that there is a relation between G^ orientations and G^ behavior as long as &2 is located in institutionalized situations contraining him to act as receptor of information; and that the relationship is modified as G^ is relocated in situations constraining him to act as a generator of information. Seventeen open-ended questions generated alternatives which were coded along a time-scale.  A percentage  45. of reference indicative of present orientations per G^ individual was used to locate that individual on the Xaxis.  Fifteen questions representing present or not-  present oriented behavior taken from Stinchcombe s ques1  tionnaire were used to locate the G individuals on the 2  Y-axis. The analysis was undertaken by computer and the results demonstrated conclusively no relationship whatsoever.  The amount of variability explained by the re2  gression line was very close to zero (R  = .0392 where  F-probability = .1070 and the standard error of the estimate = 2.7391).  The regression equation (y = 4.376 +  .049x) indicated that the slope of the line was also close to zero. Since the hypothesis was so completely  rejected,  i t seemed t r i v i a l to examine the condition of leadership whereby an individual becomes empirically located in a generator of information situation to account for more of the variability about the regression line. Two checks on the X-axis run through the computer showed almost negligible differences from the first results.  First, an X-axis was derived from raw scores of 2  present orientations.  The result showed R » .0989 where  F = .0098 and the standard error of the estimate = 2.6526.  46. Secondly, an X-axis was derived from total alternatives 2 generated by the family.  The results showed R  = .0638  where F = .0386 and the standard error of the estimate • 2.7038. A further check for confounding factors was done by separating factors and then plotting them.  Such fac-  tors were: 1.  boys/girls  2.  Italians  3.  immigrants excluding Italians  4.  single parents/both parents  5.  years of education - as the X-axis  In no case did any pattern present i t s e l f which would i n dicate a regression, that i s , a linear relationship between X and Y•  47. CHAPTER IV  CONCLUSIONS  A.  R e g a r d i n g t h e P r e c i s i o n o f t h e I n s t r u m e n t Used t o M e a s u r e O r i e n t a t i o n s o f G^ R e s u l t i n g from t h e a n a l y t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s used  e x a m i n e t h e G^  to  d a t a s e v e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s were drawn.  C o d i n g o f t h e open-ended q u e s t i o n s on t h e G^ t i o n n a i r e was  more d i f f i c u l t  than a n t i c i p a t e d .  d e n t s had been a s k e d t o g e n e r a t e t h e i r own  The  quesrespon-  categories,  but  had n o t been p r o b e d f o r t h e r e f e r e n c e s t h e y u s e d i n g e n e r ating these categories. pirical  Thus, the t r a n s l a t i o n of the  d a t a i n t o t i m e c a t e g o r i e s d e l i n e a t e d by t h e  set  of r u l e s  for  more v a r i a t i o n i n a n s w e r s  em-  first  ( s e e p. 10 ) and l a t e r e x p a n d e d t o a c c o u n t (see Appendix  I I I ) proved  p r o b l e m a t i c , i n t h a t t h e coder c o u l d not t a k e p h r a s e s at f a c e v a l u e b u t had t o ' i n t e r p r e t ' t h e p h r a s e s i n t e r m s references.  T h a t t h i s was  b e i n g done was  of  not i m m e d i a t e l y  a p p a r e n t , b u t an i n f o r m a l t e s t on r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y u s i n g s e v e n c o d e r s showed t h a t a p h r a s e was  not t a k e n  b u t was  For example,  to  g i v e n meaning by t h e c o d e r s .  q u e s t i o n 102  (see Appendix  "I'm  I) stated,  a l l f o r more power".  literally a reply  48  Several arguments are possible; each supporting a different time category: a) this requires change (a reference related to the future) b) i t implies acceptance of the authority structure (a traditional reference) c) i t implies s maintenance of the status quo (a present reference) To handle ambiguous phrases, such as this example, the rules were ordered on a priority basis, that i s , the phrase would be tested against each rule category (moving down the page) until one was selected as the correct one (see Appendix IV).  It was recognized that the ordering was arbitrary  and accounted only for increased precision of the instrument, not validity.  It was also felt that a further increase in  r e l i a b i l i t y could be obtained i f the coding were done by computer, and that, in the future, as programs for coding open-ended questions become more sophisticated, this re12 source will be more generally available. The coding procedure also allowed a check on interviewer variability in a small number of cases.  Where only  one spouse was available (a result of change over the twoyear period) and responses were recorded by two interviewers, both interviews were coded.  One case showed similar  totals of 31 and 33 alternatives generated, but due to the way they were committed to writing there were 11 differ-  49.  ences in the coded categories. Although coding of open-ended questions remains for the present a major problem, i t is felt that, for the purposes of this study, a consistent measurement of references indicative of orientations has been attained. The accounting for variability in responses arising from the questions themselves has not been satisfactory. Something more than the postulated theoretical division between abstract references and references basedoon experience affected the responses of respondents. Differential response based on sex has not been shown to be significant.  It was felt, therefore, there was  no reason not to combine both parents' responses into a family total for delineation of the X-axis needed to test the hypothesis. Differential response based on varied educational level also has not been demonstrated as a significant tor regarding orientations on a time dimension.  fac-  Thus, in  the derivation of the X-axis education was not considered. Regarding demonstrated differential response as a result of language and translation problems, i t was felt that these were not the cause of variability p e r se.  The  Italian immigrants appeared to be a group distinctive from a l l other (analytical) groups, but as a conclusion from  50  the above tests, i t did not seem justified to ascribe their divergence to language, education or the use of translators.  It was felt that although the Italians  represented a distinct group, their dissimilarity was a result of their orientations indicated by a lack of present references, and that they, therefore, belonged on the X-axis which would be used in testing whether or not the orientations of G^ predicted the behavior of Gg. In terms of the specific aim of this study to develop a general measurement for open-ended questions, whatever was measured and analyzed had the serendipitous result of demonstrating patterns of behavior which produced a descriptive study of the Italian community.  The  analysis of variance tests regarding language (Table VI) and education (Table XI) suggest that the Italian group appears distinctly different from groups with both language problems and similar education and can be identified as a group for more reasons than language alone.  Table XIV  demonstrates that the Italians are a group distinctive from the other -groups particularly in their lack of references indicative of present orientations.  Thus, i t can  be concluded that the measurement generated for this study had definite u t i l i t y for discriminating among groups*  51. B.  Conclusions Regarding the Test of the Hypothesis The hypothesis of a linear relationship between  G^ orientations and G behavior, providing G is located 2  2  in institutionalized situations constraining G to act 2  as a receptor of information has been decisively rejected by the present methods of testing. of Bg  2  from  No predictability  appeared as based on a time scale here  represented by present references.  It must be emphasized  that the hypothesis was conclusively rejected, that i s , that the results (r = .19) did not define a range that could have been reached by chance alone ( r ^ . 5 0 ) .  Thus,  despite the problems of measuring the X and Y axes the measurements used had u t i l i t y in that they allowed a definite conclusion to be reached.  The test of the hypo-  thesis indicated that the theoretical ideas and the model generated above are suspect.  However, the notion of a  general measurement for open-ended questions found substantial encouragement.  FOOTNOTES TO THE CONCLUSIONS  B . F r i s b i e and S . Sudman, " T h e Use o f Computers Coding Free Responses, " P u b l i c Opinion Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 32 (Summer, 1 9 6 8 ) , n o . 2 , p p . 216-232.  53.  CHAPTER V  CRITIQUE The study attempted to develop a measurement for analyzing previously-collected survey data and i t seems valuable to examine some weaknesses (which became apparent during the execution of the study) inherent in both the measurement and the theoretical framework used in constructing en hypothesis, and to suggest possible ways of handling these problems. The endeavor to develop a means for measuring the X-axis was a main source of experimental error. pears there are several confounding factors.  It ap-  One obvious  factor was that data were taken from questionneires developed for other theoretical purposes and this limited the range for testing the hypothesis.  Another factor con-  tributing to large error was the inexperience of the student interviewers.  It seems clear from discussions  held after the interviews were completed that the training sessions were very c r i t i c a l .  However, the actual sessions  were found to be insufficient in that the questions which were discussed in general groups (e.g. structured, unstructured) should have been discussed individually prior to the interview.  54.  The recording of verbatim replies is an issue not yet adequately handled.  As mentioned earlier, i t is  possible for the same response to be written down entirely differently by two interviewers although each might claim to have written exactly what the respondent said. (The use of tape recorders had been considered as a means of eliminating this problem, but the cost proved prohibitive. ) A useful study might be undertaken in the small groups laboratory where many persons record replies of a single respondent followed by analysis on sources of error. Means for handling timing and length of responses might be developed and patterns of interviewer elimination or rewording of phraseology might be noted and hopefully corrected in training sessions for interviewers.  For feasi-  b i l i t y of secondary analysis, the development of a code to record original answers during the interview is not a sufficient solution to this problem of recording answers since only the original theorists who devise the code benefit. Coding i t s e l f proved to be a greater problem than anticipated.  It was felt that the notion of underlying  dimensions would avoid the problems of truth and degrees of intensity of feeling reflected in responses to openended questions.  Specifically, the time dimension was  felt to be generally applicable to a l l types of open-ended  55. questions what  and e a s i l y  possibly  happened  two-step  translation  example,  the  first  terms  procedure  of  allows  a one-step  easily in  phrase  this  during  " b e more to  more  generate  they  should  ther  persons  needs  ing  in  of  the  to  any  data.  then  A  be  two-step of  is  problem  This  their  paper  results  from a l a c k  of  categories  are  suggested  of  a re-analysis  the  kinds  in  error  not  encountered  not  questionnaire, respondents of  references  problem  this  was n o t e d  That  time  and a g a i n .  responses to  anaanswer-  themselves  scale,  that  Perhaps  this  among t h e  this  the  persons  Several types of  whe-  persons  during  that  of  situation  differentiate  on t h e  examination of  the  original  differentiation  generated. for  the  contends  did  again  G^  examination.  orientations  appeared  on t h e  themselves  answers  questions  answers  is  For  interpreted  would  categories  as t o  further  'typical*  similar  first  was a  introduction  basic  Perhaps the  differentiate  priority  according  tion  be  Coding e r r o r  the  what  no c u e s  utilize.  unstructured  kinds  which  that  response.  could  for  questions  discover  given  responded w i t h lysis  coded  and f u t u r e .  procedure.  and r e m a i n s  now a p p e a r s  study.  designed to  would  to  possibility  coding  it  coding,process  strict"  present  The u n s t r u c t u r e d were  the  discipline  past,  eliminated  However,  from-answer  as a r e f e r e n c e  coded i n  than  coded.  of  is,  basic investiga-  problem. open-ended  The  56.  questions f o r the kinds and numbers of c a t e g o r i e s generated.  (These might be examined against d i f f e r e n t  t i e s of persons).  proper-  A r e - a n a l y s i s might r e s u l t i n a d i c -  t i o n a r y of stereotyped answers which could then be used by researchers f o r developing codes u s e f u l i n computer a n a l y s i s of open-ended questions. generated  Secondly,  i f categories  do prove l i m i t e d and stereotyped, perhaps a par-  t i c u l a r question which e l i c i t s standard but opposing g o r i e s might be used.to dimension.  d i f f e r e n t i a t e persons  For example, question #29  cate-  along some  asks,  "What s o r t s of things do you expect of your c h i l d r e n ' s teachers?" I f most answers are i n terms of 'more d i s c i p l i n e ' 'understanding,  versus  and drawing the most out of the c h i l d r e n *  these c a t e g o r i e s might be used alone as i n d i c a t o r s of o r i e n t a t i o n s to t e s t against G  2  behavior.  Thirdly, further  t e s t s need to be done where o r i e n t a t i o n s derived from openended questions are t e s t e d against o r i e n t a t i o n s derived from s t r u c t u r e d questions as w e l l as G^'s  behavior.  V a l i d i t y , regarding the measurement of o r i e n t a t i o n s i n t h i s study, i s s t i l l  very much i n question.  done to check r e l i a b i l i t y .  Further t e s t i n g , such as sug-  gested above, i s r e q u i r e d f o r succeeding gation.  That the G  2  Tests were  stages of i n v e s t i -  data r e s t r i c t e d t h i s study to the  c a t e g o r i e s of present and not-present  orientations,  57. perhaps i n c r e a s e d problems of v a l i d i t y  since present  o r i e n t a t i o n s sometimes r e p r e s e n t e d a r e s i d u a l  category  f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s t h a t were d e f i n i t e l y n e i t h e r t r a d i t i o n a l nor f u t u r e .  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h e same s t u d y done w i t h  tra-  d i t i o n a l or f u t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n s along the X - a x i s would include less  error.  An u n e x a m i n e d f a c t o r o f e x p e r i m e n t a l e r r o r the p o s s i b i l i t y i n t o responses  was  o f t h e q u e s t i o n s programming t h e  respondent  w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r time category.  Testing  the three time c a t e g o r i e s against the o r i e n t a t i o n t i o n s through the presence  an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e t e s t m i g h t or absence of t h i s  I t seems c l e a r f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l method and study, t h a t i t i s unwarranted  quesindicate  factor.  examining  the weaknesses of  t e s t i n g used f o r the  present  t o d i s c a r d at t h i s p o i n t the  w h o l e n o t i o n on measurement o f o r i e n t a t i o n s .  This  author  b e l i e v e s that there i s d e f i n i t e value i n i n v e s t i n g i n the f u r t h e r work r e q u i r e d f o r r e f i n i n g t h e measurement  instru-  ments. Another  source of experimental e r r o r appears t o  be l o c a t e d i n t h e h y p o t h e s i s i n t h a t i t i s i n e x a c t does n o t s e t d e f i n i t e l i m i t s f o r t e s t i n g . confusion r e s t s with the  and  I t seems t h e  ' r e c e p t o r o f i n f o r m a t i o n ' and  'generator of i n f o r m a t i o n " conceptual f o r m u l a t i o n s .  These  58.  c o n c e p t s need more s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n i n o r d e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e two t e r m s c l e a r l y , persons i n these s t a t e s e m p i r i c a l l y . t h i s study that of i n f o r m a t i o n This  persons i n school  and t o l o c a t e  I t was assumed f o r  were e n t i r e l y  except f o r those i n l e a d e r s h i p  a s s u m p t i o n needs e x t e n s i o n  others'  positions.  f o r example, t o account  for the possible influence of non-leaders on  receptors  ( s u c h as  behaviors.  I t i s also necessary t o define  more p r e c i s e l y t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between g e n e r a t o r o f i n f o r m a t i o n of i n f l u e n c e .  This  and s o u r c e  might i n d i c a t e t h e degree o f importance  o f each t o d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g by s e l f a n d / o r o t h e r s . points  deviants)  m i g h t t h e n become r e l e v a n t ,  Other  s u c h as w h e t h e r i t i s  n e c e s s a r y t o d i s t i n g u i s h between i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  and n o n -  institutionalized  sources  of  o r l e g i t i m a t e and n o n - l e g i t i m a t e  influence. T h e r e i s a l s o need t o be more s p e c i f i c a b o u t  sanctioning and  of behavior - a l l possible  e f f e c t s o f rewards  p e n a l t i e s p e r s i t u a t i o n and a c r o s s s i t u a t i o n s and a l s o  effects of penalties  associated  with  alternatives closest  t o an o r i e n t a t i o n . P e r h a p s i t w o u l d be w o r t h w h i l e t o c o n s i d e r d i f f e r e n t c h a n n e l s f r o m 0, t o B  \  0  whether  d i f f e r e n t i a t e themselves  59. regarding  the behevior ef G . 2  Examination of the G^  data suggests use of the present data for a descriptive study of theoretical channels of influence.  The discus-  sion of the travel and selection of alternatives was presented via a hypothetical example of smoking (p. 4 ). Parallel situations worth examining were indicated by the data.  For instance, question #69 asks.  "What major events in your l i f e have caused changes in your style of l i f e or level of living?" and #25 asks, "When you stopped your schooling, what were the reasons?" (see Appendix I ) .  The G^ data indicate the sample group  was greatly affected by the economic conditions of a particular period (e.g. the depression).  The behavior of G^  since that time may not reflect G^'s orientations and G  2  may be exposed to both G^'s orientations and conflicting behaviors.  Since the data have indicated what should be  looked at, no testing is possible using these data but their use to examine the notion of conflict regarding channels might result in a worthwhile descriptive study. Consideration of the notion that orientations never change and that changes in behavior may be shifts on the dimension as a result of more alternatives becoming available including alternatives closer to the orientation,  60 may  a l s o have It  t h e s e and tical plicit  value.  a p p e a r s t h a t t h e b e s t means f o r other  ideas. the  p r o b l e m s w o u l d be t o f o r m a l i z e t h e  This  assumptions used t o c o n s t r u c t  present hypothesis.  I n p a r t i c u l a r , i t w o u l d be  conditions  of o r i e n t a t i o n s , the c h a n n e l s and  f o r m a i n t e n a n c e and  conditions regarding  the c o n d i t i o n s  to generator s t a t e s .  about the  ex-  the  necessary  modification  d i r e c t i o n of  change f r o m  I t i s hoped t h a t new  hypotheses would r e s u l t from the theoretical  theore-  f o r m a l i z a t i o n w o u l d have t o make  implicit  to s t a t e the  clarifying  and  e l a b o r a t i o n of  receptor  useful the  framework.  None o f t h e i s s u e s i n t h i s c r i t i q u e have a t s e n t been e l a b o r a t e d is  possible.  This  pre-  t o t h e p o i n t where f u r t h e r t e s t i n g  d i s c u s s i o n was  weaknesses found i n the  intended  p r e s e n t s t u d y and  to i n d i c a t e to i n d i c a t e  f u r t h e r a v e n u e s o f e x p l o r a t i o n have been g e n e r a t e d . author intends  t o pursue s e v e r a l of t h e s e courses  i n v e s t i g a t i o n and bilities tical the  r e m a i n s e x c i t e d by t h e  p r o v o k e d by t h e  and  s t u d y has  been o f v a l u e  t h a t measurements can questions, by  be  secondary a n a l y s i s of  the  developed f o r general  thus r e s u l t i n g i n a reduction data.  The  numerous p o s s i -  Meanwhile, i t i s f e l t  i n supporting  how  of  present study i n both the  measurement f i e l d s .  the  theorethat  contention open-ended  of r e s e a r c h  costs  61.  LITERATURE CITED  1.  Coombs, C. H, A Theory of Data. New York, John Wiley &. Sons, Inc., 1957.  2.  Frisbie, B. and S. Sudman. "The Use of Computers in Coding Free Responses." Public Opinion Quarterly, vol. 32 (Summer, 1968), no. 2, pp. 216-232.  3.  Phillips, B. S. Social Research: Strategy and Tactics. New York, The MacMillan Company, 1966.  4.  Simon, H. A. Models of Man: Social and Rational. New York, John Wiley &. Sons, Inc., 1957.  5.  Stinchcombe, A. L. Rebellion in a High School. Chicago, Quadrangle Books, 1964.  6.  Wheeler, S. Book review of Rebellion in a High School by Arthur Stinchcombe, American Sociological Review, vol. 32 (December, 1967), no. 6, pp. 1018-1021.  62 APPENDIX I ORIENTATION QUESTIONS - G  x  A.number with (CARD) printed after i t indicates that the interviewer was given that question both verbally and printed on a card* A.  abstract (from attitude  questions)  78.  If you asked yourself who you are, how would you describe yourself?  97.  (CARD) Young people are said to be gathering in the Kitsilano area. They are often called "hippies". An increase in the number of these young people in that area is expected. What do you make of this situation? (PROBE FOR OPINIONS ON: DRESS: "BE-INs"; "LOVE-INS")  98.  (CARD) A high school student in Vancouver wrote a poem criticizing one of his teachers. He was suspended from school. Several Simon Fraser University students went to an area near the school and protested this action by the school authorities. The police came. There followed much activity. What did you make of that situation?  99.  (CARD) The United States is engaged in a war in Viet Nam. There have been various Canadian reactions to i t and activities in Vancouver concerning i t . What do you make of these activities? (PROBE FOR: OPINIONS ON DEMONSTRATIONS: PEOPLE AVOIDING THE DRAFT BY COMING TO CANADA: RELATIONS BETWEEN BIG AND LITTLE COUNTRIES: RELATIONS BETWEEN GOVERNMENTS AND PERSONS).  100.  (CARD) On Halloween evening, 1966, many youngsters gathered in a North Vancouver shopping centre. Certain activities began which the police sought to control. What did you make of that situation?  101.  (CARD) During the thalidomide crisis a woman from Arizona went to Sweden (under much publicity) to -have a legal abortion. Abortion is i l l e g a l in Canada and the U.S.A. What did you make of that situation?  102.  (CARD) The chief of police of Vancouver supported a brief requesting more powers for the police force to aid in solving crime. What did you make of that situation? (PROBE FOR: BUGGING: CENSORSHIP: POLICE POWER).  64.  APPENDIX II BEHAVIOR QUESTIONS - G  2  The first nine questions are reproduced from Stinchcombe's study except that the computer code numbers on the right hand side differ from Stinchcombe's. The last six questions are from the questions added to Stinchcombe's for the local urban study. The code developed for the present study follows the questions. Present-oriented behavior #15.  Not present-oriented behavior  Have you definitely decided whether or not to go to college or university? Definitely decided to g o . . . . . Definitely decided not to go Not decided Don't know  #16.  :  (If you are not decided, or don't know, answer this question.) What do you think you probably will do, go to college or university or not? Probably will go Probably will not go Don't know  #18.  -1 _-2 -3 -4  '-  :  . ;  If you could be any of these things you wanted, which would you most want to be? (Answer only i f male.) Jet' pilot Nationally famous athlete Missionary Atomic Scientist  #19.  -1 -2 -3  -1 -2 -3 -4  How many of your subjects this year would you say were pretty boring? All boring.... ; Only one or two i n t e r e s t i n g . . . . . . . About half and half ._ Only one or two boring All interesting Varies too much to say.. Don't know......  -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7  65.  Appendix  #21.  II  (cont'd)  How much homework  t i m e , on t h e a v e r a g e , outside school?  do  you  spend  None o r a l m o s t n o n e Less than hour a day..... A b o u t -J" h o u r a d a y About 1 hour a day..... A b o u t 1-1-J- h o u r s a d a y . . About 2 h o u r s a day 3 o r more h o u r s a d a y . . . . . #25.  How i m p o r t a n t w o u l d y o u y o u r own s a t i s f a c t i o n ?  say  When a new you change 1. 2.  3.  4. 5.  -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7  ;  your  Very important.. Quite important. Somewhat i m p o r t a n t Not v e r y i m p o r t a n t No i m p o r t a n c e a t a l l D o n ' t know #47.  doing  c l o t h i n g s t y l e comes t o t h e new style?  I'm u s u a l l y o n e o f t h e f i r s t i n my g r o u p t o c h a n g e I c h a n g e a b o u t t h e same t i m e t h a t m o s t o t h e r p e o p l e i n my group change I u s u a l l y don't change until m o s t o f my f r i e n d s have changed... I don't f o l l o w t h e change at a l l C l o t h i n g s t y l e s don't matter t o me .  grades  were  to  -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6  •  out,  how  soon  do  -1  -2  -3  -4 -5  6S. Appendix II #48-#52.  (cont'd)  Rank the five items below in terms of their importance to you on a job* Rank a l l items from 1 (least important) to 5 (most important). The security of steady work The opportunity for a rapid rise The enjoyment of the work i t s e l f Friendly people to work with A high income •  #58.  What age would you say was the earliest age at which a g i r l ought to consider getting married, supposing that she had been asked by a man she would like to marry? Any time She should be at least 16 At least 18 At least 20 At least 22 Over 22 No opinion  #4.  ; ; ;  -36 -37 -38  Now rank the following four items in terms of their importance for you: (Rank from 1 to 4, 1 = most im= portant, 4 = least important). Groups and activities outside school Activities associated with school Having a good time A good reputation  #6.  -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7  Different people strive for different things. Here are some things that you have probably thought about. Among the things you strive for during your high school days, just how_important is each of these? (Rank from 1 to 4, 1 = most important, 4 = least important). Pleasing my parents Learning as much as possible at school Living up to my principles Being accepted and liked by other students  #5.  -57 -58 .-59 -60 -61  -39 -40 -41  If school were not compulsory, and i t were completely up to you, would you Stay in school until graduation Leave school before graduating Don't know '  -1 -2 -3  Appendix II #7.  (cont'd)  67  If you had a hundred dollars, and you were completely free to do with i t whatever you wanted, what would you do with it? Spend i t a l l Spend most of i t Save most of i t Save i t a l l  #15.  Among the itBms below, what does i t take for a fellow i n your grade to be popular and looked up to by the other fellows in your grade? (Rank from 1 to 6; 1 is the most important, etc.) Coming from the right family Leader in activities Having a nice car High grades Being an athletic star  #17.  -1 -2 -3 -4  ;  -51 -52 -53 -54  Among the itBms below, what does i t take f o r a girl in your grade to be popular and looked up to by the other girls in your grade? (Rank from 1 to 4; 1 is most important, etc.) Coming .from the right family Leader in activities High grades Poise, "being able to handle herself in different situations" Friendly, good personality Keeps up with new clothing styles  -59 -60 -61 -62 -63  68. CODING FOR G  BEHAVIOR  2  (number i n box r e f e r s alternative)  QUESTIONS  t o dash and number f o l l o w i n g  Present-oriented Behavior  Not P r e s e n t - o r i e n t e d  3  4  1  #16  2  3  1  #18  1  2  3  4  2  6  7  3  4  5  #21  1  2  3  4  5  6  #25  4  5  6  1  2  3  #47  1  2  3  4  #48#52  59  60  61  57  58  2  3  7  4  5  #4  37  38  #5  39  40  41  #6  2  3  1  #7  1  2  3  4  #15  2  1  #19  #58  1  #15 #17  60  *  36  52  53  *  51  54  62  63  *  59  . 61  no code number f o r s p a c e on  questionnaire  7  5  6  each Behavior  63.  APPENDIX III RULES FOR CODING OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS INTO 'ORIENTATION' CATEGORIES ON A TIME DIMENSION (The unit to be coded ( i . e . , the reference) is each thought). This may necessitate reducing a sentence to phrases. In the case of l i s t s , each item is to be considered a separate reference. Present  Not-Present  No Response  Traditional  Future  ref. to:  ref. to:  ref. to:  situational constraints  rules  change  norms  need for change  conditions under which one operates - the way things are specific persons - by name - through personal contact specific places specific objects specific  activities  alternatives security notions maintenance of the status quo (e.g. financial concerns  institutions  goals status quo (i.e. way things should ref. to society's by (implying values) needed change from past or way things should present to somebe - re in terms thing else) of past ways of doing things aspirations (includes value judgments implicit comparison) persons - by position or role (i.e. place in society) (policeman) authority (the police) knowing one's place  70.  APPENDIX IV RULES FOR CODING OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS INTO •ORIENTATION' CATEGORIES ON A TIME DIMENSION (ORDERED) Present  Not-Present Traditional  No Response  Future aspirations goals consequences  values -value judgements -implicit comparisons -rules -norms authority structure -indication of acceptance of authority str. -indication of nonacceptance of authority str. ( i . e . that i t must be changed - not just increase or decrease of powers -but revamped)  4  5  6 alternatives  persons: by position or role or their place in society  Appendix  IV  (cont'd)  Present  Not Present Traditional  No Response Future  need for change - not in intensity but reorganization conditions under which one operates -the way things are (includes descriptive statements) -status quo and maintenance of the status quo (security notions e.g. financial, health) self: knowing one'8 place  10  specific persons, places, objects, activities  

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