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A cultural geography of northern Foxe Basin, N.W.T. Crowe, Keith Jeffray 1969

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A CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY NORTHERN  FOXE  OF  B A S I N , NW.T.  by KEITH JEFPRAY CROWE B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Geography  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1969  ii  In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study.  I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s  t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of Department or by h i s representatives.  my  I t i s understood that copying  or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  Department of Geography The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date  October  1969.  iii  ABSTRACT  The shallow post g l a c i a l sea o f northern Foxe Basin contains a large walrus herd.  Complemented by other game resources, the herd has  supported human settlement f o r about four thousand years. During sequent occupance o f the region by d i f f e r e n t p r e h i s t o r i c hunting cultures there was adaptation to changes i n climate, game resources and land forms.  Despite v a r i a t i o n s i n environment, there  was remarkable continuity i n the c o a s t a l settlement pattern.  From a  "core" area o f r e l a t i v e l y dense and permanent settlement, concentric areas decreased i n v i a b i l i t y towards the regional margins, where  adverse  i c e conditions were a major deterrent to settlement. Whaling f l e e t s v i s i t e d the regions adjacent to northern Foxe Basin from about 1840 to 1910.  Although the region i t s e l f was barred  to whaling ships by pack i c e , the whole Melville-Borden culture t e r r i t o r y , i n c l u d i n g northern Foxe Basin, suffered from the s o c i a l and e c o l o g i c a l disequilibrium caused by whaling a c t i v i t y .  At the end  of the whaling era the r i f l e and whaleboat had been added to the hunting technology, but the population of the region was reduced. In the 1930's the establishment of a mission and l a t e r a trading post i n the core area.brought new focus to settlement i n the region.  Immigration  from neighbouring regions, and natural increase  i n the population resulted i n expansion o f settlement.  Following a  period o f experimentation, population d i s t r i b u t i o n s t a b i l i z e d i n a series of contiguous areas, each supporting an e c o l o g i c a l and economic  iv  unit.  The trapping and hunting settlement of the "camp system"  adhered c l o s e l y to the ancient regional pattern. Although the camp system appeared to be a return to the p r e h i s t o r i c subsistence equilibrium, technological innovation  threatened  the game resources, and the proceeds of f u r sales could not meet the consumer demand of a growing population. establishments, commencing i n Foxe Basin. 1960's  1 9 5 5 *  The construction of defence  broke the long i s o l a t i o n of northern  Government a c t i v i t y In the region increased through the  and subsidy became the economic base of the region. In 1 9 6 6 the f e d e r a l government introduced a large-scale  r e n t a l housing scheme, which p r e c i p i t a t e d the collapse of the hunting settlement system.  I g l o o l i k and H a l l Beach changed from being service  centres serving dispersed regional settlements, to nodal centres of tutelage, containing almost the e n t i r e population of the region.  The  Iglulingmiut Eskimos entered a r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t phase of s o c i a l and economic t r a n s i t i o n , and are now attempting to work out a compromise between t r a d i t i o n a l and superimposed s o c i a l forms. The Iglulingmiut, i n the r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n of t h e i r region, have been able to absorb change slowly, u n t i l recently.  Their sense of  i d e n t i t y , t h e i r symbiotically-based s o c i a l structure and  hunting  t r a d i t i o n are sources of strength and pride.  Compared to many other  Eskimo groups they appear well prepared to meet future changes.  Much  w i l l depend, however, on the willingness of government planners to b u i l d upon e x i s t i n g c u l t u r a l foundations, and to proceed a t a pace which permits Eskimo p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  R e s e a r c h i n r e g i o n a l geography draws upon t h e t i m e a n d knowledge o f many p e o p l e .  I am i n d e b t e d t o more i n d i v i d u a l s t h a n c a n be l i s t e d h e r e ,  b u t my p r i n c i p a l d e b t s a r e owed t o : A t I g l o o l i k ; C o r p o r a l W. Donahue, R.C.M.P. a n d h i s w i f e P a t . F a t h e r L. F o u r n i e r o f M i s s i o n S t . E t i e n n e , Mr. J i m H a i n i n g , Area A d m i n i s t r a t o r . Rev. Noah Nassuk, A n g l i c a n M i n i s t e r . M e s s r s . J . Uyara, P. Kunnuk, E. Kunnuk, J . Angutautuk, N. Kamanerk a n d S. I t u k s h a r d j u a k . I n Ottawa a n d elsewhere; Mr. G. Anders, a u t h o r o f t h e I g l o o l i k A r e a Survey, and my f i e l d companion. Mr. D. B i s s e t , f o r m e r Area A d m i n i s t r a t o r , H a l l Beach. Mr. B. L e w i s , f o r m e r S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l , I g l o o l i k . Mrs. L. C l a r k , Community Teacher, H a l l Beach. M i s s M. S t . H i l a i r e a n d M i s s H a l f p e n n y , f o r m e r A d u l t E d u c a t o r s a t H a l l Beach a n d I g l o o l i k . M e s s r s . K. Honda a n d F. F u j i k i , a u t h o r s o f a r e p o r t on t h e Ussuakjuk Eskimos. Mrs. E i k o Peche, who t r a n s l a t e d from t h e Japanese. A s p e c i a l d e b t i s owed t o M e s s r s . A . J . K e r r , C h i e f o f t h e N o r t h e r n S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h Group, a n d A.D. Simpson, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , A r c t i c D i s t r i c t f o r making f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o me f o r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s . Mr. P. Usher, R e s e a r c h O f f i c e r vrith t h e N o r t h e r n S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h Group,gave me v a l u a b l e a d v i c e . Dr. J.K. S t a g e r , A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r o f Geography a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, s u p e r v i s e d t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s w i t h a b l e n d o f encouragement and c r i t i c i s m . Dr. J . L . Robinson, f o r m e r Head o f t h e Department o f Geography, UT.'B.C., o f f e r e d d e t a i l e d a d v i c e f o r t h e revision of drafts.  vi TABLE OF CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  .  Location of the northern Foxe Basin Previous studies o f the region . Nature and scope of the study . Method and chapter o u t l i n e .  region . . . . . .  .  .  xi x i i  .  Page  Chapter I  SETTLEMENT AND REGIONAL:.ENVIRONMENT.. Physiography Oceanography Ice Conditions . Wildlife C o n c e n t r i c i t y of Settlement Boundaries of Settlement . Summary . . . .  II  2 3 5 6 11 14 14  19  SEQUENT OCCUPANCE FROM PREHISTORIC TIME TO EARLY CONTACT Time Before Man Pre-Dorset People Dorset People Thule (Eskimo) People Pre-contact Eskimos . Summary  III  30 32  41  CHANGES IN POPULATION AND LOCATION, 1823 - 1966 Population Size Population D i s t r i b u t i o n  IV  19 22 27  .  .  .  THE ATROPHY OF AN ECOLOGY  47 57  .  THE CAMP SYSTEM - ECONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL DIVISIONS WITHIN THE REGION Ussuakjuk, a case study  47  .  65  .  .  .  .  .  76  .  .  .  .  .  94  . .  95 98  Agents of Contact 1822 - I960 The Changing Resource Base Technological Change Subsistence to Subsidy Society and Settlement Religion . Authority . Summary .  . 103  . 108  . 113 . 116 . 119 . 121  vii  CHAPTER  P a  NEW COMMUNITIES, 1968  VI  SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY  e  127  Igloolik . . . . . . H a l l Beach DEWline Sites Rental Housing Scheme . . . . Transformation of the Settlement Pattern . Agencies of Tutelage . . . . . . The Eskimo Position . . . . . . VII  §  . ' .  .  .  127 131 131 132 137 138 152  .  . .  .  -16^ 167  .  APPENDIX - Glossary of Eskimo Words  .  .  .  .  .  175  .  LIST OF MAPS Map  Page  1.  Location of Northern Foxe Basin Region  .  .  .  .  1  2.  Physical C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Region  .  .  .  .  4  1  3.  Game D i s t r i b u t i o n  4.  Maximum Post-Glacial Marine Submergence .  5.  Jens Munk Archeological Site  .  .  .  .  .  .  25  6.  Pre-Dorset and Dorset Sites  .  .  .  .  .  .  29  7.  Thule and Pre-Parry Eskimo Sites  8.  Foxe Basin and Neighbouring Modern Centres  9.  Changes i n Pattern of Settlement,  .  .  .  .  .  .  13  . .  21  .  .  .  .  1921-1968 .  .  .  .  .  Approximate  1930-1966  .  11.  The Country of the Ussuakjuk People  12.  Wintering Sites of an Iglulingmiuk,  13.  Camp Settlement by Religious A f f i l i a t i o n  14.  Sketch Map of I g l o o l i k Community  15.  Sketch Map of H a l l Beach Community  .  .  .  10.  Camp Areas,  .  .  . .  .  1935-1968 .  33  .  37  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  58 6  7 75  Ilk 117 128 130  viii  LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1.  Comparative U p l i f t o f North-West and N o r t h - E a s t Foxe B a s i n  2.  Graph o f P o p u l a t i o n ,  3.  P o p u l a t i o n Pyramid, Ussuakjuk, 1965  .  .  4.  P l a n o f A i p i l e e l s ; Karngmak  .  .  5.  Graph o f S e a s o n a l C y c l e , U s s u a k j u k P e o p l e  .  .  .  86  6.  Approximate A t r o p h y and A d o p t i o n o f Technology  .  .  102  7.  Average P r i c e s P a i d t o I g l u l i n g m i u t , F u r and I v o r y  8.  S k e t c h e s o f Implements, S u r v i v a l s o f A n c i e n t Technology  107  9.  S o u r c e s o f Income, Eskimos o f N o r t h e r n Foxe B a s i n .  .  110  Community O r g a n i z a t i o n s , I g l o o l i k ,  .  139  10.  1800-1968  23 49  .  . .  1967-1968  .  83  .  1920-67  .  78  105  LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  1.  Game S p e c i e s K i l l e d by One H u n t e r , 1965 - 1 9 6 6  2.  F a m i l y Movements, 1 9 4 9 - 1 9 6 5  3.  Houses P r o v i d e d f o r Eskimos by F e d e r a l Government,  .  . I l l  .  116  1962-1967  4.  Comparative p o p u l a t i o n s , K a d l u n a t and Eskimos, by A g e n c i e s and C e n t r e s , March 1968 . . .  134  .  157  ix:  LIST OF PLATES  Plate  Page  1.  Escarpment, Jens Munk Island .  2.  The Offshore Lead, Parry Bay, i n May  .  .  .  .  9  3.  Male Walrus K i l l e d on Loose Ice .  .  .  .  .  15  4.  Polar Bear Skins Drying, I g l o o l i k  .  .  .  .  15  5.  Thule Dancing-Ring, North Ooglit Island  .  .  40  6.  Thule House Ruin, North Ooglit Island  .  .  40  7.  Eskimo Women of I g l o o l i k , drawn by G.F. Lyon, 1 8 8 2  8.  I n t e r i o r of Kaernerk's Karngmak, 1 9 6 3 .  9.  I n t e r i o r of Aivilingmiut Snowhouse, 1 9 2 1  .  .  .  .  . .  .  . .  9  .  .  42  .  .  55  .  .  55  10.  Skinning a Caribou  11.  Hauling Walrus from Shore Lead  12.  Spearing F i s h a t Weir, 1962  13.  Javagiak a t H a l l Beach with Bladder Darts, 1 9 6 6 .  .  97  14.  Merkoktuit and Serparpik a t Pingerkalik, May 1926  .  123  15.  Kadlutsiak with her Son Samuilly a t Ussuakjuk, 1 9 6 3  .  123  16.  Delegates to the Housing Conference, I g l o o l i k , 1967  .  136  17.  One-bedroom House of Type B u i l t  18.  Three-bedroom Rental House  19.  Panoramic View of I g l o o l i k Looking Seaward  .  .  .  160  20.  Panoramic View of H a l l Beach Looking Inland .  .  .  160  .  .  .  .  .  . .  .  71  .  .  .  .  71 97  .  1965-1966  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  136  150  .  INTRODUCTION  Location of the Northern Foxe Basin Region  This study concerns the region situated between the 67th and 71st p a r a l l e l s longitude west.  o f l a t i t u d e north; the ?4th and 89th meridians  of  The main population centre, I g l o o l i k , i s about 1.750  miles o f Toronto, Ontario. Map 1 shows the location of the region i n r e l a t i o n to southern Ontario, Map 8 shows adjacent regions and centres o f population, to which occasional reference i s made i n the text. The boundaries of the northern Foxe Basin region coincide c l o s e l y with those o f the I g l o o l i k Administrative Area, an administrative u n i t of the f e d e r a l Department o f Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development. This coincidence of regional boundaries f a c i l i t a t e d the gathering of s t a t i s t i c a l data. The region has two nodal communities, located approximately i n the centre o f the region.  The two communities are H a l l Beach, adjacent  to a DEWline station and a i r p o r t , and I g l o o l i k , the administrative c a p i t a l , 60 miles to the north.  Previous Studies o f the Region The physiography  and biology o f northern Foxe Basin have been  well documented i n a r t i c l e s , monographs and reports during the past t h i r t y years.  The e c l e c t i c accounts o f Parry, 1821-23, and the  m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y reports o f the F i f t h Thule Expedition 1921-24,  xi give d e t a i l e d i n s i g h t into the entire regional ecology during e a r l y contact. Meldgaard's work i n archeology between 1 9 5 4 and 1 9 6 5 has p r o d d e d a history of p r e h i s t o r i c sequent occupance. Eskimo kinship  1 9 6 0 - 6 1 ,  Daraas' study of  contains much data on the size and d i s t r i b u t i o n  of population i n northern Foxe Basin. An economic survey o f the region by Anders, i n completes the l i s t o f substantive works.  1 9 6 5 »  A l l studies i n p h y s i c a l and  s o c i a l science precede the sudden termination, i n 1 9 6 6 ,  of the  t r a d i t i o n a l settlement pattern.  Nature and Scope of the Study Northern Foxe Basin i s a shallow sea containing a large walrus herd and other sea mammals.  For about  4 , 0 0 0  years its coasts were s e t t l e d  by people o f successive hunting cultures. During the long history of sequent occupance there has been s t r i k i n g continuity i n the c u l t u r a l landscape, c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y and c u l t u r a l ecology o f the region. Despite accelerating s o c i a l and economic change, the general i s o l a t i o n o f the region permitted a pattern o f dispersed hunting settlement to p e r s i s t u n t i l 1 9 6 6 .  In that year the provision of  government housing i n two nodal communities gave the coup de grace to the ancient settlement pattern. This study attempts to b u i l d upon e x i s t i n g knowledge o f northern Foxe Basin, examining the symbiosis o f people and land throughout known history, with location as the dependent variable. p r i n c i p a l problems provided the themes o f the thesis.  Two  The f i r s t i s  continuity i n size and shape of settlement during changes i n the physical  xii  and c u l t u r a l environment.  The second i s the e f f e c t s of complete  social  and s p a t i a l change since 1 9 6 6 . The region has marked c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and long history.  It i s  an excellent theatre f o r the study of i n t e r a c t i o n between people, t h e i r culture and t h e i r regional resources.  Although i t i s important that the  region be studied as a contribution to knowledge, there i s a need f o r the application o f s o c i a l science to regional problems. There are almost a thousand Eskimo inhabitants of northern Foxe Basin.  They have l i v e d c o l l e c t i v e l y through r a d i c a l change i n t h e i r  society and ecology.  I t i s hoped that t h i s thesis w i l l f a c i l i t a t e  understanding o f the Iglulingmiut and t h e i r land.  Only through deep  understanding o f t h e i r past can r a t i o n a l guidance be given f o r t h e i r future.  Method The study i s based on f i e l d work done by the writer while engaged i n an "Area Economic Survey" f o r the I n d u s t r i a l D i v i s i o n , Northern Administration Branch, Department o f Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources, during the summer o f 1 9 6 5 . to northern Foxe Basin i n J u l y  A subsequent f i e l d t r i p was made  1966.  Other data has been gathered by research i n the l i b r a r i e s o f the University o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, and the Department o f Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, Ottawa.  Sustained correspondence has  been maintained with residents o f the region since completion o f the f i e l d work.  The w r i t e r has also drawn upon data and experience gathered during  four years o f residence and s i x years o f t r a v e l i n the A r c t i c .  xiii Most of the f i e l d enquiry was conducted i n the Eskimo language, and a b r i e f glossary of Eskimo terms i s included as an appendix to the thesis.  The orthography used i s not an attempt to improve on any e x i s t i n g  system, but seeks to represent Eskimo sounds as accurately as possible to readers whose f i r s t language i s English. The contents of the t h e s i s by chapters are as follows* Chapter I  The core, periphery and l i m i t s of the region are  i d e n t i f i e d i n terms of p o t e n t i a l f o r settlement by hunters.  The  criteria  are drawn from the symbiotic r e l a t i o n s h i p of climate, landforms, marine conditions, w i l d l i f e and human technology. Chapter I I  Archeological and g l a c i o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s are used and  compared i n t r a c i n g the past g l a c i a l emergence of the region.  The  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of settlement are examined during sequent occupance through p r e h i s t o r i c time and f i r s t contact. Chapter I I I  Major patterns of growth and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Eskimo  population are analysed f o r the period of gradual contact and the increased contact of recent decades.  Fluctuations i n size and  d i s t r i b u t i o n of population are r e l a t e d to Intrusion by non-Eskimo influences i n t o the regional ecology. Chapter IV  The eastern A r c t i c camp system of settlement by s o c i a l  and economic u n i t s i s examined In the context of northern Foxe Basin. The annual cycle of one t y p i c a l camp group i s described i n d e t a i l , as a record, and to provide a b a s i s f o r understanding Chapter V  of succeeding  chapters.  The workings of the process of change are traced through  the spheres of technology,  resource use, economy and s o c i a l organization,  using the yardstick of the settlement pattern.  Accumulative change i s  shown to have l e d up to the c e n t r i p e t a l movement of  1966.  xi.v.  Chapter V I  I g l o o l i k and H a l l Beach are studied as service centres  whose r o l e s changed from regional service to a dispersed population, to tutelage centres f o r a nodal population.  The adaptation o f Eskimo  hunting society i s discussed i n the context of a subsidized regional economy. Chapter V I I  The theme o f long continuity broken by sudden change i s  summarized, and recommendations are made f o r a use o f human and other regional resources that w i l l b e n e f i t the Eskimo population.  1  Map  1  2 CHAPTER I SETTLEMENT AND THE REGIONAL ENVIRONMENT  In the a r c t i c there are none of the conditions which have made for of  protracted settlement elsewhere i n the world - no oases, no i n t e r s e c t i o n important trade routes, no f e r t i l e d e l t a s .  The hunters o f what i s now  the Canadian A r c t i c , l i k e hunting peoples everywhere, made l i t t l e demand upon the stone, earth and vegetation of t h e i r land.  They scattered f o r  the most part, moving with the seasons and the game they hunted. of  The story  t h e i r occupation of various regions i s written sparingly i n l i t t l e  piles  of weathered stone and i n buried a r t i f a c t s . The northern Foxe Basin region contains evidence of continued human occupance over some f o r t y centuries.^" People of several neo-Eskimo and Eskimo cultures have succeeded each other a t favourite s i t e s along an arc  of the Foxe Basin coast.  Few, i f any A r c t i c regions have such an  ancient and d e f i n i t e pattern o f human settlement.  This chapter shows  the p r i n c i p a l p h y s i c a l and b i o t i c conditions which permitted and shaped man's occupance.  Physiography Some t h i r t y physiographic d i v i s i o n s have been i d e n t i f i e d within the region, but these have l i t t l e significance f o r discussion o f  2 the regional ecology.  The d i v i s i o n s do however, i n d i c a t e the  physiographic v a r i e t y o f the region, from the pond-strewn coastal lowlands to the l o f t y f i o r d s of the northeast and the bouldery uplands of M e l v i l l e Peninsula. The i s l a n d s of Foxe Basin, over one hundred o f them^are almost a l l i n the northern half o f the basin.  Most o f them average l e s s than a  hundred f e e t i n elevation, and are gravelly, with sparse vegetation.  3  The more c e n t r a l islands are d i f f i c u l t to reach by sea because of heavy f l o a t i n g i c e a t a l l seasons. i s about  6 , 0 0 0  The l a r g e s t of them, Prince Charles Island,  square miles i n area, but i t i s so f l a t and low that i t 3  was unknown to cartographers u n t i l 1948. 4 to have v i s i t e d the i s l a n d ,  Only a few Eskimos are known  and probably most of i t d i d not emerge from  the sea u n t i l the end of the Dorset period.^ The land mass of the region i s an approximate horseshoe some 7 0 0 miles i n length, comprised of M e l v i l l e Peninsula and the western slope of B a f f i n Island.  The horseshoe begins a t the Barrow River i n the south  west, and ends i n the v i c i n i t y of Wordie Bay i n the south-east.  About  two-thirds of the region i s glaciated plateau and upland, between 5 0 0 1 , 5 0 0 f e e t above sea-level.  and  The curve of t h i s upland around the shallow  water of Foxe Basin i s the essence of the regional character.  From a  crescent of coastal settlements hunters of successive cultures worked the resources of sea, land and r i v e r . Oceanography The maximum depth of water recorded i n northern Foxe Basin Is about 5 5 0 feet, a t the mouth of G i f f o r d F i o r d .  Excluding t h i s extreme,  the average depth i s l e s s than 1 5 0 feet, decreasing annually due to 6  continuing i s o s t a t i c u p l i f t .  The shallow marine water i s i d e a l f o r  molluscs, and f o r the walrus and bearded seal that feed upon them.  The  attractiveness of the Foxe Basin waters to these two marine mammals has been a prime f a c t o r i n determining the pattern of human settlement. There are two important sea-currents, one flowing eastward through Fury and Hecla S t r a i t into Foxe Basin.  I t moves south close to  the east coast of M e l v i l l e Peninsula a t about four knots.  A counter -  clockwise current c i r c l e s i n northern Foxe Basin, and together with windj:  to  5  and t i d e , i t moves pack i c e a t a l l seasons among the i s l a n d s .  Where the  western arc of the current joins the one from Fury and Hecla S t r a i t , an open lead i s maintained close to shore, and about one hundred miles long. This lead, g i v i n g access to walrus and seal f o r shore based hunters, i s the true focus of settlement within the region.  Ice  Conditions  During the summer months loose i c e moves eastward  through  Fury and Hecla S t r a i t into Foxe Basin, where much of i t stays.  It i s  perhaps an equal asset and l i a b i l i t y to hunters and marine mammals.  Foxes  and people are said to have used wind-blown i c e to reach the Islands. Bearded seals and walrus use i c e pans on which to rest, and the heavy i c e cover of the Basin, averaging between 20% and 70% according to the  o mildness of the summer , has protected the walrus herd from over exploitation. Heavy masses of i c e , c a r r i e d against the land near Cape Penrhyn, break o f f the landfast i c e , making hunting or t r a v e l l i n g difficult..  Other aggregations of rough i c e may run aground and freeze  i n the bays, s p o i l i n g the environment f o r seals and men.  The shoreward  movement of i c e masses i n the Cape Penrhyn area has helped to discourage settlement and to make the area a regional margin. An increase i n year-round i c e cover during the cold cycle of the eighteenth century may have reduced the number of whales frequenting northern Foxe Basin, and thus have brought about the decline of the Q whale-based Thule c u l t u r e .  7  In t h i s century the pack i c e of the region  has impeded navigation, and supply ships were unable to reach the I g l o o l i k Hudson's Bay post from 1 9 4 1 to 1946.,,.. The post had to be closed, and t h i s had a marked e f f e c t on the settlement pattern of the region.; ,  6  The landfast i c e , a t i t s May maximum, extends from the coast almost everywhere seaward up to ten miles.  For seven months of the year  i t o f f e r s the easiest and f a s t e s t sled routes between settlements around the coastal crescent. A l l winter long, walrus and seal can be hunted a t the edge of the f a s t i c e , and i n spring  seals are taken a t breathing or  basking holes c l o s e r to land.  1930's the  U n t i l the  Eskimos of northern  Foxe Basin b u i l t v i l l a g e s of snow houses on the f a s t i c e , near to the edge of the i c e - often c a l l e d the " f l o e edge" hunting ground.  Wildlife In terms of a v a i l a b i l i t y of game, and v a r i e t y of species, the region has been excellent f o r hunters of several cultures, judging from the evidence of ancient middens and more recent records.  The number of  Greenland whale s k u l l s around Thule s i t e s indicate that these whales were common to the region. A probable change i n i c e conditions and  subsequent  depredation by commercial whalers i n southern Foxe Basin have made Greenland whales rare, but a l l other main species have survived i n northern Foxe Basin. Walrus were probably important even to the Thule whale hunters, and have been a constant i n determining settlement by people of a l l cultures.  Although walrus were dangerous prey, they were r e l a t i v e l y  easy to stalk, and when taken they offered large quantities of meat, f a t f o r lamps, ivory f o r t o o l s and skins f o r roofing o r dog-food.  Increased  b o a t - t r a f f i c and hunting pressure have driven the walrus from Richards Bay and other former haunts, eastward to the l e s s accessible islands.  10 The e x i s t i n g herd i s estimated a t from four to f i v e thousand. Landfast i c e i s most important to the ringed seal population. In sheltered bays, and i n areas of low t i d a l range, the landfast i c e i s  7  o f even t h i c k n e s s and l o n g d u r a t i o n . .  Here t h e female  s e a l s can make b i r t h  l a i r s , and t h e young s e a l s grow under optimum c o n d i t i o n s .  The B a f f i n  I s l a n d c o a s t o f n o r t h e r n Foxe B a s i n h a s many bays, and i n t h e west, a t l e a s t , t h e d a i l y - t i d a l range i s f o u r f e e t .  I f McLaren's summer and w i n t e r  a v a i l a b i l i t y i n d i c e s a r e combined, t h e n o r t h e r n Foxe B a s i n environment for  r i n g e d s e a l r a n k s second among r e g i o n s o f t h e e a s t e r n A r c t i c ."^ A l t h o u g h r i n g e d s e a l p r e f e r t o a v o i d c o n t a c t w i t h w a l r u s , and  s t a y c l o s e r t o t h e f a s t i c e , t h e y a r e an i m p o r t a n t r e s o u r c e i n t h e c o r e area.  T h e i r numbers beyond t h i s a r e a have p e r m i t t e d s e t t l e m e n t away  from t h e c o r e , a s a t Agu Bay where t h e r e a r e no w a l r u s .  Ringed  seal  a r e u b i q u i t o u s i n t h e r e g i o n , b u t a r e now most numerous i n t h e under e x p l o i t e d a r e a o f F u r y and H e c l a S t r a i t , where groups o f up t o e i g h t surround t h e many b r e a t h i n g h o l e s i n s p r i n g . The p r a c t i c e o f s e a l i n g a t " b l o w - h o l e s " , where f a s t c u r r e n t s keep open w a t e r a l l  tidal  w i n t e r , has a f f e c t e d the settlement p a t t e r n .  Such h o l e s p e r m i t t e d s e t t l e m e n t away from t h e main f l o e edge, though s t a r v a t i o n might r e s u l t i f t h e h o l e f r o z e o v e r d u r i n g a severe w i n t e r . They e x i s t a t t h e e a s t e r n end o f F u r y and H e c l a S t r a i t , t h e western e n t r a n c e t o Murray Maxwell Bay, and i n t h e p e r i p h e r a l l o c a t i o n s o f B e r l i n g u e t I n l e t and C l a r k e Sound. C a r i b o u s t i l l range o v e r most o f t h e r e g i o n away from t h e administrative centres.  U n t i l t h i s c e n t u r y t h e y were speared a s t h e y 12  swam t o J e n s Munk I s l a n d from S i o r a r s u k P e n i n s u l a ,  and t h e t a l u n  stone h u n t i n g b l i n d s may s t i l l be seen a t t h e base o f A m i t i o k e P e n i n s u l a , o r t h e head o f Steensby I n l e t .  C a r i b o u a r e s a i d t o have abandoned Rowley  I s l a n d a f t e r a w i n t e r o f heavy, c r u s t e d snow e a r l y i n t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y , 13 and n e v e r r e t u r n e d . ^ The meat o f t h e c a r i b o u i s p r e f e r r e d by most Eskimos t o any  8  other kind, and i n a region where the annual mean wind c h i l l i s approximately that of Saskatoon i n January, caribou skin clothing  was  14 necessary to the survival of hunting people.  Because of the mobility  of caribou, and ( u n t i l recently) t h e i r wide d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h i s resource d i d not " p u l l " settlement away from the coastal core.  The one possible  exception i s the P i l i n g Bay Area, inhabited during a t l e a s t two centuries by groups who r e l i e d heavily on caribou meat, and whose fortunes v a r i e d d r a s t i c a l l y with the movements of the herds. The bearded seal or ukjuk t h r i v e s i n shallow, mollusc-bearing water and amid f l o a t i n g i c e - conditions which e x i s t i n northern Foxe Basin, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the core area.  Bearded seal are important out of  proportion to t h e i r numbers as a source of extremely strong skin l i n e , boot-leather, meat and f a t . During 1965 i n the region,^"^  about 150 bearded seals were shot  and they have been yet another important element i n the  t o t a l game resource that supported human settlement.  Parry noted that  during the dark winter months bearded seal, hunted a t breathing holes or the floe-edge, were the p r i n c i p a l source of meat f o r the Eskimos of Igloolik.^ There are lake trout i n several lakes within the region, and torn cod are jigged by children i n spring through the sea i c e . Neither of these species, however, has any r e a l place i n the hunting ecology compared to a r c t i c char.  Char are d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the region, with some  noteworthy exceptions.  The Barrow River, f o r instance, i s barred to  migrating char by a 90 foot f a l l near the sea, and t h i s increases the marginal character of that area f o r settlement.  Because of the general  a v a i l a b i l i t y of char, the spring and summer f i s h i n g d i d not disrupt the settlement pattern, though i n certain marginal areas f i s h i n g was done to create winter stocks.  A* the Mogg Bay, Saputing and other f i s h weirs, a  9  P L A T E 2 - T h e offshore lead in M a y , Parry B a y , (photo T . F u j i k i ) A s a h i Shimbun 1963  10  thousand f i s h might be speared i n one day and cached f o r human or dog 17 food. Needles of fox-bone have been found i n the houses of the e a r l i e s t inhabitants of the region, and the skins were used f o r c l o t h i n g p r i o r to the era of commercial trapping.: Because of the even d i s t r i b u t i o n of foxes within the region, and the adherence of the Iglulingmlut Eskimos to hunting rather than trapping, fox-trapping brought no appreciable change i n the land-use and settlement pattern. Polar bears are s t i l l ubiquitous along the coast of the region, though r a r e l y seen near the two main centres, H a l l Beach and I g l o o l i k . Because of t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y small numbers and t h e i r mobility, they were not generally a f a c t o r i n the l o c a t i o n of settlement, but have always been important as prestige game, and as a source of meat, c l o t h i n g or bedding.  The Agu Bay hunters, being on the verge of country with a large  polar bear population, traded an average of f i f t e e n skins a year during the mid 1960's.  This was about h a l f the regional t o t a l , and at a time  when sealskin p r i c e s were low, i t made polar bear an important f a c t o r i n 18 the survival of the Agu settlement. Although ptarmigan and sea b i r d s provided a welcome change of d i e t , and formerly skins f o r clothing, they are ubiquitous within the region and were not a l o c a t i o n a l f a c t o r during the trapping era, with one possible exception.  The area at the mouth of G i f f o r d F i o r d was  settled  a f t e r 1930 by a small group of i n d i f f e r e n t hunters, and being rather f a r away from the best walrus hunting t h i s group made exceptionally heavy use  19 of sea b i r d s i n t h e i r d i e t . Rabbits, weasels, wolverines, wolves and the ground s q u i r r e l s of M e l v i l l e Peninsula a l l added v a r i e t y to d i e t or clothing, but they were minor species i n r e l a t i o n to long term survival and to l o c a t i o n of settlement.  11  C o n c e n t r i c i t y o f Settlement The area from Siorarsuk Peninsula i n the north (see Map 2) t o Cape Jermain i n the south has an accumulation o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s favourable t o settlement by human hunters.  The p r e v a i l i n g westerly wind  and the s o u t h - s e t t i n g sea current maintain a long open l e a d close t o the land, a t t r a c t i v e t o walrus, bearded s e a l and ringed s e a l .  Sea b i r d s  a r r i v e e a r l y a t the l e a d , and i n summer they are p l e n t i f u l on the ponds of the c o a s t a l lowland.  Caribou were formerly taken a l l along the coast  and can s t i l l be hunted a day o r two's journey i n l a n d . The g e n t l y - s l o p i n g beaches o f limestone shingle are i d e a l f o r hauling out boats, f o r p i t c h i n g t e n t s o r digging storage p i t s .  The  beaches r i s e high enough from the sea on eastern M e l v i l l e Peninsula to give a leeward l o c a t i o n f o r houses o r t e n t s .  The low t i d a l range and  offshore wind u s u a l l y gives smooth f a s t i c e , and w i t h the low r e l i e f , there i s l i t t l e deposit o f deep, s o f t snow by eddying winds. Moving out from the "core area", the area o f next Importance for  settlement has been the north-eastern p a r t o f Foxe B a s i n , around the  mouth o f Steensby I n l e t .  Here the i c e c o n d i t i o n s are l e s s favourable f o r  sea t r a v e l and walrus-hunting, but s e a l and walrus can be t a k e n , a n d caribou can s t i l l be hunted a t the coast.  The head o f Steensby I n l e t  was a f a v o u r i t e area f o r summer f i s h i n g and caribou hunting, and a winter s l e d route passed through, l i n k i n g the E c l i p s e Sound and Foxe Basin regions. Fury and Hecla S t r a i t , w i t h i t s winter "blow holes" and e x c e l l e n t spring s e a l i n g , has several settlement s i t e s .  L t . Reid o f 20  Parry's party saw two o l d houses i n Whyte I n l e t i n 1823,  and during  t h i s century Eskimo f a m i l i e s have wintered i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the s t r a i t . Parry noted however that the s t r a i t was r a r e l y i n h a b i t e d i n summer, and t h i s has been true o f more recent settlement.  The area on the whole has  12  been an important seasonal adjunct to the I g l o o l i k "core", r a t h e r than a v i a b l e a l l - y e a r area. The P i l i n g Bay area supported a large p e r i p h e r a l settlement during Parry's v i s i t , and has been occupied i n t e r m i t t e n t l y since. Because sea-mammal hunting i s often hampered by adverse i c e , wind and t i d e conditions, settlement a t P i l i n g was always based on f i s h and caribou t o a degree higher than elsewhere i n the region.  F l u c t u a t i o n s i n the  a v a i l a b i l i t y of caribou, coupled with poor s e a l i n g c o n d i t i o n s , have brought frequent s t a r v a t i o n t o the P i l i n g communities. The Agu Bay area i s outside the crescent o f settlement i n northern Foxe B a s i n , but during the period of known human occupation i t has been economically and ethnographically a part o f the region.  Because  of good s e a l i n g and an adequate balance of other resources, t h i s area can be classed i n the "second degree" of importance f o r settlement, despite the l a c k of walrus. Two other small settlement s i t e s have been occupied, a t l e a s t during recorded time, but both are a t a stage s t i l l f u r t h e r removed i n permanence and i s o l a t i o n from the core area.  Garry Bay, w i t h i t s i s l a n d s  and indentations, o f f e r s an area of sheltered f a s t ice,, bleak west coast o f M e l v i l l e Peninsula.  i n the otherwise  The i c e and summer water o f  Garry Bay are protected from the constant pack i c e of Committee Bay, and from the onshore winds.  F i s h i n g i s good i n the r i v e r s that d r a i n t o the  bay, and caribou are p l e n t i f u l i n l a n d .  Summer camps and occasional year  round settlements have been made i n various l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n the Bay. The second " t h i r d degree" l o c a t i o n i s on the very margin of the region, on the kayak o r s l e d route which f o l l o w s a s e r i e s o f long narrow lakes from Agu Bay to the head o f Admiralty I n l e t .  Tremblay found a small  group o f Eskimos who had wintered here, r e l y i n g h e a v i l y on f i s h , some  14 21 caribou and occasional s e a l from the blow-hole i n E c l i p s e Sound.  The Boundaries o f Settlement On M e l v i l l e Peninsula the rugged Barrow Peninsula w i t h i t s d e e p l y - i n c i s e d Barrow River and i t s i c e - b a t t e r e d coast, forms the southern boundary o f settlement i n the region.  T r a f f i c between the  region and Repulse Bay moved by s l e d o r boat along the coast, o r i n l a n d by s l e d between Parry Bay and Lyon I n l e t . The extreme westerly boundary o f the region i s the f l a t B e r l i n g u e t P l a i n , beyond Agu Bay.  The p l a i n i s dotted with many shallow  ponds among moraine ridges,and there are few caribou.  The coast i s exposed  to the p r e v a i l i n g wind, w i t h few indentations t o permit development o f fast ice. The h i l l s o f B a f f i n I s l a n d , traversed only by occasional caribou hunters, form the northern and eastern boundary o f the region. Sled routes pass through the h i l l s along the G i f f o r d River, the head o f Steensby I n l e t , and Rowley River. South o f P i l i n g Bay the c o n d i t i o n s f o r sea mammal hunting become very poor, w i t h m i l e s o f offshore shallows and a t i d a l range o f 22 over 25 f e e t .  The p l a i n i n l a n d i s f l a t and swampy i n summer, bleak and  exposed i n winter,  tfordie  Bay c o n s t i t u t e s the l i m i t even of seasonal  settlement, but there are o l d routes by sea and l a n d from there to N e t s i l l i n g Lake, and thence t o Cumberland Sound. Summary The shallow water and p r e v a i l i n g c u r r e n t s i n northern Foxe Basin have made a very favourable environment f o r bearded s e a l , walrus and formerly the Greenland whale.  Conditions f o r ringed s e a l , caribou  15  P L A T E 4 - Polar Bear skins drying, Igloolik. (photo, K. Crowe) 1966  16  and other game have a l s o been good, and the combination o f p o s i t i v e l o c a t i o n f a c t o r s has permitted sustained, r e l a t i v e l y dense human settlement by hunters i n a "core" area from the eastern end o f Fury and Hecla S t r a i t to Parry Bay. Away from the core the v a r i e t y o f game species decreases, and general hunting c o n d i t i o n s are l e s s favourable.  A second degree o f  settlement w i t h smaller numbers and w i t h l o c a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s d i s c e r n i b l e i n such areas a s Agu Bay, Steensby I n l e t and P i l i n g Bay. C e r t a i n i s o l a t e d areas o f f e r enough advantages i n terms o f game a v a i l a b l e and favourable i c e c o n d i t i o n s t o permit a t h i r d degree of small and sporadic settlement, as a t Garry Bay. Permanent settlement by peoples o f p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e s and by modern hunters a l i k e does not appear t o have been p o s s i b l e away from the coast, and the i n l a n d h i l l s have c o n s t i t u t e d a boundary due t o l a c k of resources, r a t h e r than as a physiographic o b s t a c l e .  The r e a l b a r r i e r  to expansion o f settlement w i t h i n the region has been the v a r i e t y o f adverse i c e conditions found i n eastern Foxe Basins around Cape Penrhyn on eastern M e l v i l l e Peninsula, along the west coast o f the Peninsula and the east coast o f the Gulf o f Boothia.  17  FOOTNOTES  •*-J. Meldgaard, " P r e h i s t o r i c Culture Sequence", Selected papers of the 5th I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of Anthropological and E t h n o l o g i c a l Sciences, P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1956. 2 J . B r i a n B i r d , M. Marsden et a l , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , Montreal, C o l l a t e d reports f o r the Rand Corporation, numbers RM 2837: - PR and RM 2706-1-PR, January 1963 3 J.K. Fraser, "Discovery of Two Islands i n Eastern Foxe Basin A r c t i c C i r c u l a r , 1-3. 1948 - 50, p. 73. 4  Mr. Jack Uyara of I g l o o l i k t o l d the w r i t e r that a hunter was blown to Prince Charles I s l a n d on f l o a t i n g i c e , and Mr. Noah Piugatuk r e l a t e s that h i s grandfather hunted caribou there. "'with an average i s o s t a t i c u p l i f t of about 3 f e e t per century (elaborated i n Chapter 3)i " d a mean height of l e s s than 50 f e e t above sea l e v e l , the greater part of the i s l a n d probably emerged a f t e r 200 A.D. a  6 E.M. Grainger and J.G. Hunter, S t a t i o n L i s t 1955 - 1958, Calanus S e r i e s No. 20, Montreal, F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada,  1963.  7  P. Freuchen, "Mammals", Report of the 5th Thule Expedition, 1921-24, Copenhagen, V o l . 2 Nos. 5 and 6, 1935. p. o l : G.M. Rousseliere, Eskimo, December 1955, V o l . 38, p. 18. 8 Canadian Hydrographic Service, P i l o t of A r c t i c Canada, Queens P r i n t e r , f i g u r e s 7 and 8; a l s o Department of Transport Meteorological Branch A e r i a l Ice Observation Booklet C-l-R 4080, ICE - 15, J u l y 28, 1964.  1959,  9 For s p e c i f i c reference to the " L i t t l e Ice Age", see W.E. Taylor J r . , "An A r c h e o l o g i c a l Perspective on EskimoEconomy", A n t i q u i t y , V o l . 15, 1966, p 117. A.¥. Mansfield, "The Walrus i n Canada's A r c t i c " , Canadian Geographical J o u r n a l , V o l . 72, March 1966, p. 90. 10  r . A . McLaren, "The Economics of Seals i n the Eastern Canadian A r c t i c , Montreal, F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, A r c t i c U n i t C i r c u l a r No. 1, November 1958, p. 32 and 33. i:L  18  T. Mathiassen, Report on the Expedition, Report o f the 5th Thule Expedition, 1921-24, Copenhagen, V o l . No. 1. 1927, p. 55. •^Fraser, op. c i t . , p. 15. *M.K. Thomas, and D.W. Boyd, "Wind C h i l l i n Northern Canada" The Canadian Geographer, No. 10, 1957, p. 35. 1Z  "^G. Anders, Northern Foxe Basin, An Area Economic Survey, Ottawa, I n d u s t r i a l D i v i s i o n , Northern Administration Branch, Department of Northern Affair's'& N a t i o n a l Resources, 1965, p. 40.  16 W.E. Parry, Journal o f Second Voya-ge f o r Discovery o f a North-West Passage, London, Murray, 1824, Appendix, p. 337. 17 P. Schulte, The F l y i n g P r i e s t Over the A r c t i c , New York, Harper, 1940, p. 2 6 l . W. Donahue, R.C.M.P. Game Reports, I g l o o l i k , 1965 t o 1968. 19 The tendency o f t h i s group, w e l l known i n the region, was noted by W.G. Ross i n "The I g l o o l i k Eskimo", S c o t t i s h Geographical Magazine, No. 76, I960, p. l 6 l . 2 0  P a r r y , 0 £ . c i t . , p. 38I  21 A. Tremblay, Cruise o f the Minnie Maud, Quebec 1921, p. 95.  22 N.J. Campbell & A.E. C o l l i n s , "Recent Oceanographic A c t i v i t i e s of the A t l a n t i c Oceanographic Group i n the Eastern A r c t i c " , Progress Report No. 69 o f the A t l a n t i c Coastal S t a t i o n , Ottawa, F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, May 1958, p. 33.  19  CHAPTER I I  SEQUENT OCCUPANCE FROM PREHISTORIC TIME TO EARLY CONTACT  The known history of human occupance i n northern Foxe Basin goes back about four thousand years.  Up to the time when Europeans f i r s t  a r r i v e d , the region had supported three d i s t i n c t cultures and a fourth was developing. M e l v i l l e Peninsula was i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d a>main route f o r migrations that peopled northern B a f f i n Island, Ellesraere Island and Greenland.  The major movements, emanating from the southwest, brought  new cultures to northern Foxe Basin, but each culture group adhered quite c l o s e l y to a pattern of settlement having i t s focus around the norths west coast and the walrus herd. The known evidence of a r t i f a c t s , bones and dwellings, l i k e the accuracy of f o l k l o r e , decreases as we go back i n time.  The e a r l i e s t  inhabitants of the region may have been as advanced, as numerous and as widespread as the Eskimos met by Parry, but we have I n s u f f i c i e n t data to prove t h i s .  The e x i s t i n g evidence i n d i c a t e s a s l i g h t spread of settlement  away from the core with each succeeding culture, and a general progression i n material c u l t u r e . Whether or not such expansion and evolution took place, the outstanding feature of early human settlement i n northern Foxe Basin appears to be continuity i n numbers, d i s t r i b u t i o n , and i n broad terms, of culture.  This chapter w i l l attempt to show how human occupance, based on  r e l a t i v e l y constant resources, progressed over changes i n time, climate and to a l e s s e r extent, land forms.  The Time Before  Man  The end moraine systems of B a f f i n Island and M e l v i l l e Peninsula  2 0  demarcate the i c e sheet of the l a t e Wisconsin Period which i n i t s Cockburn Phase some  to  9 , 0 0 0  years ago, centred over Foxe B a s i n .  1 0 , 0 0 0  1  Gradually  the centre of i c e dispersal moved east to B a f f i n Island, and some  8 , 0 0 0  years ago the sea inundated the Basin to a depth, i n the north west, of about 5 0 0  feet.  2  The waning i c e persisted longer on B a f f i n Island and projected i n t o the waters of Foxe Basin on the eastern side.  I t then retreated to  the heads of the f i o r d s and bays of the B a f f i n Island coast.^  It i s  probable that f i n a l deglaciation of the eastern l i t t o r a l took place about 5 , 0 0 0  to  6 , 0 0 0  years ago.  Ice lobes r e s i s t e d the encroachment of the sea,  so that maximum marine submergence was approximately 3 5 0 feet, considerably 4  l e s s than on M e l v i l l e Peninsula. J.D. Ives has used the radiocarbon dates of f i v e marine Mollusc samples to draw a preliminary curve of p o s t - g l a c i a l land u p l i f t i n north east Foxe Basin, beginning  6 , 7 2 5  i  2 5 0  years before present.  The mollusc  dates Indicate rapid u p l i f t of about 2 5 f e e t per century, slowing to a rate of approximately  1 . 5  f e e t per century over the past  4 , 0 0 0  years, and  continuing now."* A s i m i l a r pattern of emergence i s shown f o r northwest Foxe Basin by Meldgaard, who has examined radio-carbon dates f o r a r t i f a c t s l e f t by three successive cultures.^  Heldgaard's f i g u r e s show a t o t a l  u p l i f t f o r the pre-Dorset period of some 7 . 5 f e e t per century, slowing during the Dorset culture to some 2 . 5 f e e t per century, and accelerating s l i g h t l y i n the Thule - modern period to a rate of about 3 . 2 5 f e e t .  The  graph ( F i g . l ) shows an apparent anomaly, as the area f i r s t deglaciated, the north western Foxe Basin, i s shown to have emerged almost  2 , 0 0 0  l a t e r than the north east. Much more d e f i n i t e f i e l d evidence i s needed, as Ives has  years  21  Baffin Island  MAXIMUM  POST-GLACIAL  MARINE  S U B M E R G E N C E , FOXE B A S I N N W.T after Ives & Andrews 1 9 6 3 , Sim 1 9 6 0 . Miles 50  Map k  50  100  22  stressed,  before the p o s t g l a c i a l prehistory o f the region i s known with  any degree o f certainty.  With the present evidence, however, o f perched  boulders; undisturbed ground-marine; strand l i n e s ; molluscs! bones and a r t i f a c t s , a comprehensive picture can be made of man occupying an emerging land. Today the houses of the p r e h i s t o r i c inhabitants have r i s e n well above and away from the sea they once bordered. Lake, as Mathlessen pointed out i n 1922,  The Eskimos name f o r H a l l  i s Tasiuyak, meaning "looks l i k e  g a lake", a common name f o r marine i n l e t s with narrow entrances.  The  r i v e r flowing from the lake i s c a l l e d Ikerasak, meaning a t i d a l s t r a i t . Eskimo t r a d i t i o n asserts that a kayak could a t one time be paddled into H a l l Lake through the s t r a i t . Henry C o l l i n s , writing i n 1956» expressed h i s b e l i e f that new discoveries i n the study o f marine submergence would resolve an apparent c o n f l i c t with archeological theory concerning the Hudson Bay l i t t o r a l , and  9 would substantiate an e a r l i e r date f o r the a r r i v a l o f pre-Dorset man. I f we include the Foxe Basin within the Hudson Bay l i t t o r a l , then the c o r r e l a t i o n o f evidence from glaciology and archeology has proven C o l l i n s to be r i g h t .  The d i s t i n c t i v e raised beaches o f northern Foxe Basin are  i n e f f e c t chronological steps, y i e l d i n g evidence that early man, preceded by animal l i f e , followed the retreat of the g l a c i e r s  and took up  residence around a new sea. The Pre-Dorset People Our knowledge o f the e a r l i e s t human Inhabitants o f the region derives almost e n t i r e l y from the work o f Jorgen Meldgaard.  He has c a l l e d  the pre-Dorset culture o f northern Foxe Basin the Sarqaq culture, a f t e r s i m i l a r discoveries i n western iSreenland.  10  FEET ABOVE PRESENT HIGH TIDE LEVEL  0  1000  2.000 YEARS  3,000 BEFORE  PRESENT  4.000  5.000  24  The remnants of Sarqaq m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e i n d i c a t e o r i g i n s i n the west and a f f i n i t i e s w i t h the o l d e r Alaskan and S i b e r i a n m e s o l l t h i c cultures.  1 1  Radio carbon d a t i n g of bones and a r t i f a c t s shows that they  probably a r r i v e d i n the region about 2,000 B.C.,  to b u i l d three, perhaps  f o u r , settlements on t i n y emerging I s l a n d s or on p o i n t s of land. From t h e i r e a r l i e s t houses the Sarqaq hunters probably looked out over waters about 150 f e e t deeper than they are today.  As the land  rose, succeeding generations b u i l t houses a t lower e l e v a t i o n s , close, the sea. (Map 5)  to  Although no evidence of Sarqaq boats or sleds has been  found, the obvious preference of these hunters f o r a waterside l o c a t i o n makes i t l i k e l y t h a t i c e and water transport were both used. F l i n t , soapstone and i r o n p y r i t e s are a l l to be found i n northern Foxe B a s i n , and were used by the Sarqaq people. f o r shaping bone t o o l s , and f o r weapon p o i n t s .  F l i n t was used  P y r i t e s were probably  used, as i n l a t e r c u l t u r e s , f o r making f i r e f o r the round, o i l - b u r n i n g lamps o f soapstone.  The Sarqaq houses had c e n t r a l f i r e p l a c e s o f f l a t  stone, perhaps an i n d i c a t i o n o f r e l a t i v e l y m i l d c o n d i t i o n s which permitted the use o f t u r f or brush as f u e l . The middens o f Sarqaq settlements contain bones of animals common to the r e g i o n now.  With bows and arrows, w i t h harpoons very much  l i k e contemporary ones, and w i t h the probable help o f dogs, the Sarqaq 12 hunters k i l l e d caribou, s e a l , fox and walrus.  Meldgaard b e l i e v e s t h a t  walrus were important i n the Sarqaq economy, ^ and the three proven s i t e s 1  are grouped around what even today, i s the best area f o r walrus hunting. The l a r g e s t known settlement o f Sarqaq time i s on Jens Munk I s l a n d , where 108 houses are grouped w i t h i n a r a d i u s o f one h a l f m i l e , (see Map 5)  A l l the houses are on the westward slope of a p o i n t , l o o k i n g  seaward, and the number o f contiguous houses a t lower l e v e l s i n d i c a t e s .a  HOUSE RUINS, SARQAQ, CULTURE " •  "  , DORSET CULTURE  OLD BEACH RIDGES OF GRAVEL COAST LINES AT THE CLOSE OF FOUR CULTURE STAGES: (27m), MIDDLE SARQAQ (22m), LATE SARQAQ (I9m), EARLY DORSET (6m) , FINAL DORSET ROCKS  '  26  l a r g e community i n terms o f an A r c t i c hunting ecology. ; Such a concentration of population was probably made p o s s i b l e by p l e n t i f u l game resources, and perhaps by co-operative s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The two other proven settlements on I g l o o l i k I s l a n d and South Calthorpe I s l a n d are smaller, and do not cover a f u l l time span o f the c u l t u r e as the Jens Munk s i t e does.  Without more exhaustive research and  radio carbon d a t i n g i t i s impossible to say which houses were occupied contemporaneously a t each l e v e l , and f o r how long each house was occupied before i t became too noisome and too f a r from the sea. The s i z e o f houses, the general pattern o f settlement and the technology o f the Sarqaq do not appear t o d i f f e r g r e a t l y from those of succeeding c u l t u r e s r i g h t upo t o the present century.  I f a technology  and resource base general t o the h i s t o r y o f the region are assumed, and the p o s s i b l e number o f Sarqaq houses occupied contemporaneously i s considered, a very t e n t a t i v e estimate would put the maximum Sarqaq population o f northern Foxe B a s i n a t about 200. The exact f a t e o f the Sarqaq people i s not known.  According  to the a r c h e o l o g i c a l evidence there may have been a break i n occupance o f the region between them and t h e i r Dorset c u l t u r e successors, but l e s s than 100 years.  Whether p h y s i c a l contact between the two peoples was made  or n o t , l i t t l e o f the Sarqaq c u l t u r e appears t o have been transmitted t o the Dorset people.  The d e c l i n e i n workmanship o f Sarqaq implements towards  the end o f t h e i r p e r i o d may have been the r e s u l t o f i s o l a t i o n and stagnation.  27  The Dorset People The Dorset c u l t u r e may have evolved w i t h the a i d o f new ideas and techniques d i f f u s e d from Alaska, o r from the p r e h i s t o r i c Indian c u l t u r e s of the Great Lakes.  A r c h e o l o g i s t s are not yet agreed on the o r i g i n s , hut  whether by e v o l u t i o n , d i f f u s i o n o r migration a new way o f l i f e replaced the  Sarqaq c u l t u r e i n northern Foxe B a s i n about 8G0  B..G.  C e r t a i n elements of the Sarqaq c u l t u r e , such as the needle, stone lamp, harpoon head and micro blade appear i n the Dorset c u l t u r e , but i n d i f f e r e n t forms, probably indigenous. The bow and arrow do not a appear i n Dorset technology, perhaps another i n d i c a t i o n o f a complete c u l t u r e break.  Other elements were Dorset innovations, i n c l u d i n g the  barbed f i s h spear, sledge shoe of countersunk bone, snowknife and i c e 16  creeper t i e d underfoot.  The number of a r t i f a c t s developed f o r hunting  over i c e and snow i n d i c a t e s an adaptation to the i n c r e a s i n g l y c o l d climate o f Dorset p e r i o d .  C;  The Dorset hunters experimented w i t h c u t t i n g t o o l s o f s l a t e , but returned to the use o f f l i n t f o r gouging holes and shaping p o i n t s . The s i t e s are r i c h i n carvings, personal ornaments and evidence of shamanistic r e l i g i o n , none of which appear i n the Sarqaq remains.  The  explanation may l i e i n the greater degree o f decay i n Sarqaq a r t i f a c t s , but i t may a l s o i n d i c a t e a superior e x p l o i t a t i o n of resources which permitted a r t i s t i c and r e l i g o u s development. Eskimo legends go back to the l a t e r stages o f Dorset c u l t u r e , and i n many d e t a i l s substantiate the a r c h e o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s .  The s t o r i e s  describe the Dorset people as Toonit, a p h y s i c a l l y powerful people l i v i n g i n rectangular stone houses w i t h f r o n t a l f i r e p l a c e s , o r i n walled skin t e n t s .  The Toonit hunted caribou, u s i n g bone tipped spears, and  harpooned seal a t breathing moles, crouching f o r warmth over small o i l lamps.  Having no dogs, they hauled walrus on short sleds, but despite  28  t h e i r strength they were l e s s t r u c u l e n t than the Thule encroachers. Nine Dorset s i t e s have been proven i n northern Foxe B a s i n , and as many others are i d e n t i f i e d i n current Eskimo f o l k l o r e .  Most of them  are grouped around the core walrus-hunting area, and each Sarqaq settlement has an adjacent Dorset settlement a t a lower e l e v a t i o n . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s have been made o f the impact by the organized and t e c h n i c a l l y superior Thule people upon the Dorset i n h a b i t a n t s o f 17 northern Foxe B a s i n .  The s i z e o f the l a r g e s t Dorset settlements,  however, c a l l s f o r caution against assuming that the Dorset people lacked numbers and s o c i a l organization. *• At Alamgnak, f o r instance, the l a r g e s t lft  p r e h i s t o r i c settlement known i n the eastern A r c t i c ,  208 houses have  been found, i n d i c a t i n g an average construction r a t e o f 11 o r 12 per century.  The l a r g e s t Thule settlement i n the region, a t Quarman P o i n t ,  has only 12 houses. For the Dorset c u l t u r e , as w i t h the Sarqaq, the degree o f population movement between settlement s i t e s , and the length o f occupance of i n d i v i d u a l houses, are unknown q u a n t i t i e s .  Acknowledging that the  Dorset period was longer by some e i g h t centuries, the s i z e and extent of.; Dorset settlement s t i l l appears greater than that o f the Sarqaq period. The s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n portrayed i n Dorset a r t and r e l i g i o u s symbols appears to have been b e t t e r developed than i n the previous c u l t u r e , and the maximum population during the Dorset p e r i o d may t e n t a t i v e l y be estimated between 250 and 300. The Dorset people may have had to reduce the s i z e o f t h e i r settlements a s they adapted t o the i n c r e a s i n g c o l d o f t h e i r period.  The  houses a t Alarngnak become smaller towards the end o f the occupation, and m o d i f i c a t i o n s appear, probably to meet the demands o f a colder c l i m a t e . ^ 1  Perhaps a t t h i s time there was some dispersement out from the core area,  M  P R E —D O R S E T  & DORSET  7  ^  7  W ~1I) W  J  J U ,•  •  P R E - DORSET S I T E S .  SOURCE..  SITES  1.  KALAGUSERK  MELDGAARD..  r  2.  KAPUIVIK"  3.  KAERSUIT  4.  NUVUIT  £  DORSET SITES".. 5.  TASERKJUAGUSERr  6 . . IKERASAK  SOURCE. ROUSSELIERE; ARNGNAKJUAB:..  7-  OOGLIT  MELDGAARD..  8.  ERIKSMriTCOVIS:  ROUSSELIERE.  9.  ALARNGNAK  MELDGAARD..  1 0 . ARNGNAKOATSHAT  3  •8 ON  fi> rf?  IT.  NUVULIK.  • ^ l "  12..  KALAGUSERr  s  . ~ IT.  ^  14. ('^  ABVADJAK.  ROWLEY'.  ALARNGNAKJUr  ROUSSELIERE.  15- KAERSUIT  MELDGAARD.  16.  SHARTUX.  17.  KAPUIVIE"  MELDGAARD..  18..  TASIUYAP TAIMA.  ROUSSELIERE.-  19.  KARNGMAMINIL.  KUTOIU.  20;  IPIUTir  ROUSSELIERE;.  21-  FEELIX-  B  too m i l e s  ROUSSELIERE..  30  though t h i s may have been a r e s u l t of pressure from the Thule people. During the c l o s i n g c e n t u r i e s of the Dorset period, despite a general trend towards i n c r e a s i n g s e v e r i t y o f the climate, a temporary 20 amelioration occurred, about 900 to 1100 A.D.  Immigrants o f Alaskan  o r i g i n moved during the period o f r e l a t i v e mildness, and between 1100 and 1200 A.D. a r r i v e d i n northern Foxe Basin. of  the modern Eskimo.  These were the d i r e c t ancestors  Both f o l k l o r e and archeology show t h a t the  comers were able to d i s p l a c e or absorb the Dorset people.  new  A f t e r some  co-existence and c u l t u r a l exchange, the Dorset c u l t u r e ceased to e x i s t i n the region by about 13Q0  A.D.  The Thule (Eskimo) People The Eskimos of I g l o o l i k r e f e r to the Thule stone houses as those o f t h e i r shivudleet, o r ancestors, and the Eskimo words w r i t t e n down by Middleton a t Wager Bay i n 17^2 are s t i l l i n use, i n d i c a t i n g r o o t s 21 back i n t o the Thule period. The Thule people had to adapt t h e i r c u l t u r e to an i n c r e a s i n g l y severe climate i n northern Foxe Basin, and appear to have learned the use of  snow knives and snow houses from the Dorset hunters.  The o r i g i n a l  Thule technology was r i c h i n i t s e l f , i n c l u d i n g the use of kayak and umiak, harpoon f l o a t and drogue f o r whale and walrus, bow and arrow, bow b i r d dart and b o l a s .  drill,  Mathiassen found implements of n a t i v e copper and 22  meteoric i r o n i n the Thule houses o f Repulse Bay,  probably c a r r i e d  from f u r t h e r west.,. The Thule settlements are e a s i l y discerned by a t r a v e l l e r i n northern Foxe Basin.  The whale-rib r a f t e r s of t h e i r houses were taken by  l a t e r Eskimos f o r use as s l e d shoeing, but the w a l l s o f stone and t u r f s t i l l show on the s k y l i n e .  Great whale s k u l l s l i t t e r the ground near the houses,  31  l o o k i n g incongruous where the emergence o f the land, has place them hundreds of yards i n l a n d . E x p l o i t a t i o n of the Greenland whale resource d i d not b r i n g about any change i n the r e g i o n a l pattern o f settlement.  The Thule people  b u i l t close t o the o l d Sarqaq and Dorset v i l l a g e s , staying c l o s e t o the east coast o f M e l v i l l e Peninsula, where the year-round open water probably exceeded that o f the present day. Despite the emphasis on whale hunting, the Eskimo, as Taylor has pointed out, was " r a r e l y a neat s p e c i a l i s t , hemmed i n t o a murderously 23 narrow e c o l o g i c a l niche".  The Thule middens and a r t i f a c t s show that  they harvested a l l game resources t o some degree.  Walrus, s e a l , caribou,  f i s h and b i r d s were a l l e x p l o i t e d . The possession o f dog teams must, as with l a t e r Eskimos, have f a c i l i t a t e d the p u r s u i t o f d i f f e r e n t species f o r considerable distances from the permanent settlements. The r a p i d spread o f the Thule c u l t u r e through the A r c t i c was probably due i n large measure t o dog team t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Eskimo descendants,  As with t h e i r  the Thule people probably maintained more frequent  communications w i t h other regions than had been p o s s i b l e f o r the o l d e r on cultures.  This f a c t o r complicates estimates o f the population o f northern  Foxe Basin during Thule time, f o r as a t the time o f Parry's v i s i t , a high proportion o f the population might have moved between Foxe B a s i n , Repulse Bay and E c l i p s e Sound. The eleven Thule v i l l a g e s o f northern Foxe Basin are small. During f o u r o r more c e n t u r i e s o f Thule c u l t u r e , no s i n g l e s i t e accumulated more than twelve houses, and the average i s about s i x . I t seems doubtful that the Thule population o f the region esrer exceeded 250. The Thule c u l t u r e o f northern Foxe Basin changed by degree  32  from the " c l a s s i c " umiak and whale hunting model to a form t r a n s i t i o n a l between Thule and Central Eskimo culture.  Damas has suggested that an  almost t o t a l lack of wood f o r umiaks probably accounted f o r the d i s p e r s a l oh from sedentary Thule v i l l a g e s ,  but t h i s prompts one to ask how whale  hunting was c a r r i e d on during the centuries p r i o r to dispersion.  There  has been t a c i t agreement among writers that the Greenland whale i t s e l f 25 disappeared from northern Foxe Basin,  but Eskimo s t o r i e s are t o l d of  whales hunted from kayaks before Parry's v i s i t , and a t the beginning of the  present century. ^ 2  The e s s e n t i a l t r a n s i t i o n from Thule to modified Central Eskimo culture appears to have been made during a period of extreme cold i n the 17th century.  The heavy i c e cover that no doubt resulted may have  forced many whales to leave the waters of the region, and would i n any case have made the use o f skin umiaks d i f f i c u l t and hazardous. The decreasing depth o f the sea may have been another f a c t o r i n the decline i n numbers of Greenland whales. The Pre-Contact Eskimos The Eskimos that Parry met i n Foxe Basin i n 1822 s t i l l occupied the  o l d Thule houses occasionally, and b u i l t s i m i l a r ones.  The Thule  kayak and heavy harpoon were used i n the walrus hunt, and the material culture sustained was r i c h e r than that of other Central Eskimo groups, p a r t i c u l a r l y those f u r t h e r west. The people of northern Foxe Basin were part of a l a r g e r l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l group inhabiting the regions now known as Pond I n l e t , A r c t i c Bay, Repulse Bay and Wager Bay.  Although any one group would  be i d e n t i f i e d by i t s region of residence, t r a v e l between the regions was very frequent, and most o f the adults Parry knew had l i v e d i n several or  THULE  &PRE  PAR R Y E SKI M O  SIT E S  16. ARTTGNAKO AT3H AT  MATHIASSEN.  17.MAYUKTOLIS  PARRY.  18. KAPumK:  SITE.  \  1.  PITOKAK  2.  TASERKJOAGUSERK  3.  ANANOIAKJUr  4. TIKERAE [  5 . AMI TDK  \ 6.  J  7.  KAERSUIT:  PARRY..  20..  KARNGMAMIKIL-  KUNNU..  21.  KATGEUYAK  MATHIASSEN..  22.  MAKER STOE  23.  ISLUKJUAT.  24.  KANGER3SHIM AYUX. KUNNU.  25.  NUVUIT:  PEELIE  PARRY.  29.  ISSINGUT:  ROUSSELIERE., ,  30.  SHIORARKJOX.  11  H  31- NAUYAGULUIT  n  n  32.. IKALUIP. ASIA..  SHAHARAYAK  11.  KRINGMIKTOGTIE  12.  PIN GER KALIS  13-  ALARUGHAK  14.  IGLULIK  15.  UNGALUYAT  HALL..  28.  OOGLITJAKJOE  00GLIT  MATHIASSEN...  KRINGAKJUAK.  KRTNGAErUAK  10.  n ft  MATHIASSEN..,  27-  8. KARNGMAT 9.  MELDGAARD.  19-  26. IRKRIT;  "  a si  miles  MASKING.  it  n  34  a l l o f the main locations. Ungerdlak o f Repulse Bay, who had met Parry, was able i n 1866 27 to draw f o r H a l l a most accurate map of north eastern Foxe Basin.  The  whole l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l group d i d not, and do not have a c o l l e c t i v e name f o r themselves.  For the purposes o f c l a r i t y i n t h i s thesis, the  entire l i n g u i s t i c and c u l t u r a l groupo w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as the M e l v i l l e Borden group, and the people who inhabit northern Foxe Basin w i l l be c a l l e d the Iglulingmiut. The term'pre-contact' must be used with q u a l i f i c a t i o n i n the case of the Iglulingmiut. During the eighteenth century a t l e a s t s i x separate voyages had been made to the southwestern border of the region 28 by captains of the B r i t i s h Navy and the Hudson's Bay Company.  Parry  found f i l e s , copper k e t t l e s and an axe i n use by Eskimos - obtained, he thought, from the trading post a t C h u r c h i l l . made from a sawblade marked "Wild and Sorby",  He saw a woman's k n i f e 29 and on the Calthorpe  Islands he found glass beads i n a stone house... Eskimo v i s i t o r s to I g l o o l i k from Pond I n l e t rode a s l e i g h with cross-pieces made of b a r r e l staves, obtained from whalers s a i l i n g out of L e i t h or H u l l . Most o f the manufactured a r t i c l e s that preceded Parry however, were acquired i n d i r e c t l y , and h i s was the f i r s t European group Jo make prolonged contact with the Iglulingmiut. His armourer made knives f o r them, and they were introduced to a v a r i e t y of novelties, including 30 flogging and pet cats.  In general, however, Parry's d i s c i p l i n e d crews  made l i t t l e impact upon native culture, compared to the whalers a few decades l a t e r . The Iglulingmiut used a complex technology to exploit every resource i n t h e i r region.* Large dog teams were rare i n the A r c t i c p r i o r to the introduction of r i f l e s , but Lyon noted teams o f eight to ten dogs  3 5  In excellent condition.  The dogs were f e d l a r g e l y on walrus hide, which  had few other uses, and the meat was thus conserved f o r human consumption. The sleds o f the Iglulingmiut were about eight f e e t long - the maximum possible using whalebone and the few pieces of driftwood that reached the region through barter.  Parry notes that umiaks were known  32 to the Iglulingmiut, but were not used,  perhaps because o f the lack o f  wood. Two kinds o f kayak were used by the Eskimos o f the region. was an inland type, resembling skin.  One  the present day Keewatin kayak of caribou  These were used on inland lakes and r i v e r s , f o r t r a v e l and f o r  spearing swimming caribou.  The inland type was already passing out o f  use - perhaps the atrophy of a Barren ground heritage no longer needed by a people possessing r i c h sea resources, and with few navigable inland waterways.v Taboos governed the use o f kayaks, and a special jacket o f eider duck skin was worn by the paddlers. kayaks,using  The b i r d dart was thrown from  a throwing board, and the heavy whaling harpoon was used f o r  walrus, thrown from a greater distance.  Kayaks were often lashed together  i n groups during the pursuit o f whale and walrus. The Iglulingmiut had perfected> technique  s t i l l used i n the  region, of hunting walrus as they broke through new thin i c e to breathe while feeding.  The unique regional character of t h i s way o f hunting i s  i l l u s t r a t e d by the story o f a murderer who f l e d from vengence a t Pond Inlet near the end o f the 18th century, taking several f a m i l i e s with him.  They  t r a v e l l e d v i a the Steensby I n l e t route and b u i l t winter homes a t Issingut, i n the south west point of Koch Island.  Although one woman who bad l i v e d  at I g l o o l i k explained the technique o f hunting walrus through thin i c e ,  36  the men were r e l u c t a n t to t r y i t .  Most of the p a r t y starved and the s i t e  33 has not been occupied since. Bows and arrows were used, traps of stone and bone, and a v a r i e t y of lances and harpoons f o r d i f f e r e n t game or c o n d i t i o n s . Dogs c a r r i e d packs during the summer expeditions i n l a n d f o r caribou.  Musk ox  had formerly occupied M e l v i l l e Peninsula, but had been exterminated or driven south of Rae Isthmus. close to  Caribou, geese and bears were a l l k i l l e d  I g l u l i k during Parry's v i s i t .  In general, game resources were  more than adequate f o r the I g l u l i n g m i u t , and Parry, l i k e l a t e r v i s i t o r s , noted gluttony as the c h i e f v i c e of the people,  the men i n p a r t i c u l a r  eating to the p o i n t of i n s e n s i b i l i t y . The Eskimos of northern Foxe B a s i n had three main v i l l a g e s , i n a d d i t i o n to many seasonal camp s i t e s .  The two l a r g e s t were the  v i l l a g e a t I g l u l i k ( s e v e r a l miles east of the modern settlement of I g l o o l i k ) and P i n g e r k a l i k , a few hours journey away. Both v i l l a g e s had permanent houses with s k i n r o o f s , but e a r l y i n the new year the populations moved to snow houses on the f a s t i c e f o r walrus hunting. Parry described one house made completely of i c e b l o c k s , b u i l t s h o r t l y a f t e r freeze up.-^ With the m o b i l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the pre-contact Eskimos, most of the I g l u l i n g m i u t moved to Repulse Bay when Parry f i r s t a r r i v e d there during the summer of 1821.  He counted 219 Eskimos during the  winter of 1821 - 22, a f i g u r e which included most of the I g l u l i n g m i u t and the A i v i l i n g m i u t of Repulse Bay. and h i s men aboard the ships Turton Bay, I g l o o l i k I s l a n d .  The f o l l o w i n g winter was spent by Parry  Fury and Hecla?frozen i n t o the i c e of  37  Foxe Approximate  Basin & Neighbouring  Former  Scale  Culture  Modern  Centres  B o u n d a r y , M e l v i l l e - B o r d e n Eskimos  1 • • zrzJiL«J!= Map  8  150  Smiles  38  At I g l u l i k 155 Eskimos l i v e d a l l winter near Parry's ships.  36 During t h a t time there were 9 b i r t h s and 18 deaths.  Ten v i s i t o r s came  from the settlement a t P i l i n g Bay - the t h i r d major settlement of the region.  Prom Parry's notes and from the subsequent p a t t e r n o f population  a t P i l i n g Bay, i t i s probable t h a t about s i x f a m i l i e s , o r 30 people, l i v e d there.  The t o t a l I g l u l i n g m i u t population i s the s p r i n g o f 1823  would therefore be about 175* The remains o f the o l d e r c u l t u r e s i n d i c a t e a former population considerably greater than t h a t o f the I g l u l i n g m i u t o f Parry's time. C e r t a i n l y the resources o f the region could support more people, and the causes o f underpopulation appear t o have been c u l t u r a l .  The I g l u l i n g m i u t  were p a r t o f a k i n s h i p group embracing s e v e r a l regions,and were not bound to northern Foxe Basin by any p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l l o y a l t y .  There was no  t r a d i n g post o r other r e g i o n a l focus other than the a t t r a c t i o n o f the core walrus hunting area.  The people came and went from and to the  v i l l a g e s o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e s north and south, and any one year the population might gain o r l o s e 20 percent by the movement o f a few f a m i l i e s . Damas has suggested t h a t the low r a t i o o f c h i l d r e n t o a d u l t s among the I g l u l i n g m i u t i n 1823 may r e f l e c t i n f a n t i c i d e as w e l l as low 37  fecundity among the women.  Parry d i d not record any knowledge o f  i n f a n t i c i d e , but blamed the l a c k o f increase on deaths due t o v i s c e r a l t r o u b l e s brought on by g l u t t o n y .  Since he and Lyon make repeated reference  to the gorging o f meat among the I g l u l i n g m i u t , h i s observation regarding the l a c k o f population increase may w e l l be accurate.  I t i s a reflection  of the r e l a t i v e wealth o f resources i n northern Foxe Basin t h a t Eskimos, so often a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p r i v a t i o n , should l i t e r a l l y eat themselves t o death! From the northern t o the southern margins o f the Melville-Borden  39  c u l t u r a l area was about 600 miles, t r a v e l l e d f r e q u e n t l y by members o f the group.o  Small groups o f the Melville-Borden people l i v e d a t Wager Bay,  a t the head o f Committee Bay and i n the Clyde I n l e t area on the east coast o f B a f f i n I s l a n d . The Clyde I n l e t people were known to the I g l u l i n g m i u t as the "Seardlermiut", Parry's s p e l l i n g o f the name that meant "people o f the place opposite".  Manning has proposed that t h i s term designated the  people o f Bray and Rowley Islands, which l i e i n the same e a s t e r l y 38  d i r e c t i o n from I g l o o l i k , and a r e both c a l l e d Shadlerk i n Eskimo.  The  i s l a n d s were o c c a s i o n a l l y inhabited by I g l u l i n g m i u t , however, and i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t any people so l i t t l e known as the "Seardlermiut" could have l i v e d there. The settlement pattern o f the I g l u l i n g m i u t followed c l o s e l y t h a t o f the three previous c u l t u r e s , with noticeable concentration around the core area.  Despite the apparent drop i n population from that  of e a r l i e r c u l t u r e s , the I g l u l i n g m i u t during the e a r l y 1 9 t h century expanded settlement w e l l beyond the core, t o an extent greater than the Dorset expansion.  The e v o l u t i o n o f small group hunting r a t h e r than  Thule type communal hunting, and the m o b i l i t y afforded by dog teams, may have permitted small f a m i l y groups to experiment with new l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n the region. The I g l u l i n g m i u t maintained l i n k s with people beyond the Melville-Borden c u l t u r a l t e r r i t o r y .  Legends l i k e that o f Ayuki describe  journeys and feuds as f a r a s C h e s t e r f i e l d I n l e t .  The I t k r e l i t  or  Chipewyan Indians, were known to the I g l u l i n g m i u t , and an uneasy r e l a t i o n ship was maintained with the N e t s l l i n g m i u t Eskimos whose country bordered the Melville-Borden t e r r i t o r y west o f Committee Bay. The Nesilingmiut, who l a t e r moved east and i n t o Melville-Borden land, were feared f o r t h e i r  ^  40  P L A T E 5 - T h u l e D a n c i n g r i n g , North O o g l i k I s l a n d , (photo. K. C r o w e ) 1965  P L A T E 6 - Thule  H o u s e r u i n , North O o g l i k I s l a n d ,  {photo, K . C r o w e ) 1965  41  truculence and propensity f o r w i t c h c r a f t . Boas recorded s t o r i e s among the Eskimos o f Cumberland Sound that r e f l e c t a g e n e r a l l y f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p with the I g l u l i n g m i u t , and i l l u s t r a t e the marginal character o f the country between the two group territories.  From the "outpost" settlement a t Mirage Bay on N e t s i l l i n g  Lake, p a r t i e s t r a v e l l e d t o northern Foxe Basin on f o u r occasions during the 19th century, and one group spent three prosperous years i n the P i l i n g Bay area.  Kutukuk, a leader from the N e t s i l l i n g settlement, v i s i t e d Bray  I s l a n d by kayak about 18?0 and found an occupied stone house. Two o f the expeditions s u f f e r e d from hunger, but one woman, Amarok, who Boas r e p o r t s d i e d o f s t a r v a t i o n , reached I g l u l i k .  There she  married an I g l u l i n g m i u t , Inukee, and t o l d her s t o r y to H a l l i n I867. The 300 mile journey o f her party by umiak from N e t s i l l i n g t o I k p i k Bay v i a the Koukdjouak River, had taken e i g h t days, with poor going over extensive t i d e f l a t s .  The umiaks were portaged over the isthmus o f  39  B a i r d Peninsula.  Summary A study o f the sequent occupance o f northern Foxe Basin by pre-contact peoples r e v e a l s two s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s . F i r s t i s the v a r i e t y and r i c h n e s s , judged by A r c t i c standards, o f game resources, w i t h the walrus herd as a prime f a c t o r .  Second i s the temporal and s p a t i a l c o n t i n u i t y i n  human settlement, made p o s s i b l e by the s t a b i l i t y o f the game resources. The pattern o f concentrated settlement around the eastern end of Fury and Hecla S t r a i t and the northeast coast o f M e l v i l l e Peninsula*, i n d i c a t e s t h a t sea mammals were p l e n t i f u l , and c o n d i t i o n s f o r human hunters were favourable throughout 4,000 years o f the r e g i o n a l ecology. The pattern survived p h y s i c a l changes i n the depth o f the sea, changes i n  42  43  climate and i c e c o n d i t i o n s . I t remained e s s e n t i a l l y the same despite the d i f f e r e n t technologies employed by successive c u l t u r a l groups, and perhaps because o f the adaptations made by each group to p h y s i c a l change o f the environment. I t i s not known whether the Sarqaq o r Dorset people maintained the extensive e x t r a - r e g i o n a l contacts of the pre-contact Eskimo, but i t i s apparent t h a t movement o f population d i d not b l u r the o u t l i n e s of the region.  T r a v e l between regions was made along a few p r i n c i p a l routes  which pierced i n each case a "no mans land" o f scanty game resources o r poor hunting c o n d i t i o n s . Besides c o n t i n u i t y i n a r e a l p a t t e r n , i t appears that the s i z e of the human population o f northern Foxe Basin remained roughly the same during sequent occupance.  Any serious q u a n t i t a t i v e study would require  f a r more research, but from the present evidence I t seems that the e c o l o g i c a l balance o f the region, u s i n g non-mechanical technology, favoured a population o f 2 0 0 to 2 5 0 . During the hundred years a f t e r Parry's v i s i t to northern Foxe B a s i n , the more a c c e s s i b l e outer regions o f the Melville-Borden t e r r i t o r y underwent extensive changes, due l a r g e l y to the v i s i t s of whaling crews. The t e c h n o l o g i c a l and demographic changes a f f e c t e d northern Foxe B a s i n , but i n the r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n o f the region the c u l t u r e observed by Parry continued without e s s e n t i a l change,and the ancient settlement pattern p e r s i s t e d .  44  FOOTNOTES  "*"G. Falconer et a l , "Major end moraines i n Eastern and Central A r c t i c Canada", Geographical B u l l e t i n , V o l . 7, No. 2 , 1965, p. 147. 2  V i c t o r W. Sim, "Maximum p o s t - g l a c i a l marine submergence i n northern M e l v i l l e Peninsula", A r c t i c , V o l . 1 3 , No. 3 , p. 1 9 1 . 3  J.D. Ives and J.T. Andrews, "Studies i n the p h y s i c a l geography of North C e n t r a l B a f f i n I s l a n d , N.W.T.", Geographical B u l l e t i n , No. 1 9 , May 1963, p. 5 . 4  J.D. Ives, "Deglaciation and land emergence i n North Eastern Foxe Basin, N.W.T.", Geographical B u l l e t i n , No. 2 1 , 1964, p. 5 7 . "£p_. c i t . , p. 62 ^Jorgen Meldgaard, P r e h i s t o r i c Culture Sequence", Selected Papers of the 5 t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of Anthropological and E t h n o l o g i c a l Sciences, P h i l a d e l p h i a , September 1 - 9 , 1956, p. 588 - 5 9 1 . 7  J.D. Ives, op_. c i t . , p. 6 3 .  Q T, Mathiassen, M a t e r i a l Culture of the I g l u l i k Eskimos, Report of the 5 t h Thule Expedition 1921-24, Copenhagen, V o l . 6 , 1927, p. 7 3 . 9  H.B. C o l l i n s , "Archeological research i n the North American A r c t i c " , A r c t i c Research, S p e c i a l P u b l i c a t i o n No. 2 of the A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e of North America, December 1955» P« 1 9 2 . 10  1 1  op. c i t . , p. 590  I b i d , p. 5 9 1 .  12  Jorgen Meldgaard, "On the formative period of the Dorset Culture", Technical Paper No. 11 of the A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e of North America, December 1962, p. 9 5 .  45  13  Personal  communication.  "^Jorgen Meldgaard, "Origin and evolution of Eskimo cultures i n the Eastern A r c t i c " , Canadian Geographical Journal, February I960, p. 7 5 . "^Meldgaard, 1962, op_. c i t . , p. 9 2 . 16  Ibid, p. 9 6 .  ^ G . Anders, Northern Foxe Basin, An Area Economic Survey, Ottawa, Industrial D i v i s i o n , Northern Administration Branch, Department of Northern A f f a i r s & National Resources, 1965, p. 5 0 . 18 Meldgaard, 1956, op_. c i t . , p. 5 8 8 . 19 Meldgaard,  I960, o£. c i t . , p. 6 9 .  20 W.E. Taylor J r . , "Hypotheses on the o r i g i n of Canadian Thule culture", American Antiquity, V o l . 2 8 , No. 4 , A p r i l 1963, p. 4 6 2 . 21 A. Dobbs, An Account of the Countries Adjoining Hudson's Bay, London, J . Robinson, The Golden Lion, Ludgate Street, 1744, p. 2 0 3 . ^  22 op. c i t . , p. 1 3 0 . 23  op. c i t . , p. 119.  24  D. Damas, Iglulingmiut Kinship and Local Groupings, Ottawa, National Museum of Canada, B u l l e t i n No. 196» Department of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources, 1963, p. 3 1 . 25 26  Anders, op_. c i t . , p. 5 0 . G.M. Rousseliere, Eskimo, December 1955, P. 18.  27  J . E . Nourse, (Ed) Narrative of the 2nd A r c t i c Expedition Made by Charles Francis H a l l , Washington, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1879. r  46  June 1949,  P.D.Baird, "Expeditions to the Canadian A r c t i c " The Beaver, p. 45. 29 op. c i t . , p. 503  G. F. Lyon, The P r i v a t e Journal of Thomas Davidson W h i t e f r i a r s , 1824, p. 288.  e t c . , Londom,  31 I b i d , p.  349.  32 op. c i t . , p.  413.  33 Rousseliere, op_. c i t . , December 1954,  34 1889,  V o l . 34, p. 9.  H. Morley,(Ed) Parry's T h i r d Voyage, London, Cassel,  p. 188.  35 Parry, op_. c i t . , p. 285. 3 6  I b i d , p. 408  37 op. c i t . , p. 20. T.H. Manning,"Eskimo Stone Houses i n Foxe Basin" Vol. 3, No. 2, August 1950, p. 110.  39  1964, p. 24.  Arctic,  F. Boas, The Central Eskimos, L i n c o l n , Un. of Neberaska Press,  47  CHAPTER I I I  CHANGES IN POPULATION AND LOCATION. 1 8 2 3 - 1966  Between Parry's departure from Foxe Basin i n 1 8 2 3 and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the l o w - r e n t a l housing scheme f o r Eskimos i n 1 9 6 6 , the I g l u l i n g m i u t were a f f e c t e d by changes i n economic a c t i v i t y , r e l i g i o n and government.  D i r e c t contact w i t h the i n d u s t r i a l world was s l i g h t during  the 1 9 t h century, and f o r the f i r s t h a l f of the 2 0 t h century, the o l d settlement p a t t e r n , based on a hunting ecology, p e r s i s t e d . A concise a n a l y s i s of one and a h a l f c e n t u r i e s of  socio-economic  change i s d i f f i c u l t even i n the r e l a t i v e s i m p l i c i t y of an A r c t i c region. The measurable stages and e f f e c t s of t r a n s i t i o n must be r e c o n c i l e d with the causal process i t s e l f as i t works a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s , and i n d i f f e r e n t r e l a t e d spheres such  as custom, trade and  technology.  This chapter w i l l examine the two most measurable aspects of t o t a l change - population s i z e and d i s t r i b u t i o n .  Population s i z e Although the marine "core" and the p h y s i c a l margins of northern Foxe Basin r e t a i n a f i x e d r e g i o n a l character, the Eskimo population between 1 8 2 3 and 1 9 6 5 moved across the r e g i o n a l boundaries.  The  s i g n i f i c a n c e of population changes w i t h i n the northern Foxe Basin region can only be studied i n the context of the Melville-Borden Eskimo group territory. Manning has deduced from Parry's notes that i n 1823 the t o t a l Melville-Borden population was about 5 4 0 .  1  Parry's estimate of the  northern groups was t e n t a t i v e , and the a d d i t i o n of the small P i l i n g Bay  48  settlement, omitted by him, does not c a l l f o r a r e v i s i o n of Manning's figure. In the mid-nineteenth century H a l l saw 42 women a t I g l u l i k , and 2 counted 23 snowhouses.  The text indicates that he counted only women,  but i f the r a t i o of adults to children (2 to l ) and males to females ( l to l . l l ) noted by Parry i s added, a t o t a l of 126 seems l i k e l y .  This  shows a decline since Parry's count. The whaling ships then a t Repulse Bay probably drew population away from northern Foxe Basin.  H a l l r e f e r s to the inducements of  3 employment and trade offered to Eskimo f a m i l i e s by the whalers.  He also  mentions the a v a i l a b i l i t y of l i q u o r which contributed to a general decline i n the Eskimo population by the end of the century.,  Diseases  introduced by the whalers were another probable cause of population decline, and Rae recorded the death by influenza o f 21 Eskimos a t 4 I g l u l i k , as early as 1846. One whaling captain, Captain Comer, was greatly interested i n the a f f a i r s and well-being o f the Eskimos.  His d e t a i l e d count of 1898  reports 102 Aivilingmiut, the Repulse Bay branch o f the Melville-Borden group.  This t o t a l includes eight o f the so-called Kinipitungmiut of  Chesterfield I n l e t . ^  The i n c l u s i o n shows the general f l u i d i t y of d i a l e c t  and kin-group boundaries, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the presence of e x t r i n s i c f a c t o r s such as the whalers. The reports made by low on the f i r s t government p a t r o l were compiled from the logs of various whaling captains, and these were some times contradictory.  Low's f i g u r e s f o r 1903 show 144 Eskimos a t Pond  I n l e t , 40 a t A r c t i c Bay, 138 between F u l l e r t o n and Repulse Bay, and 60  6 at I g l o o l i k .  Captain Comer confirmed the I g l o o l i k count, and added that  t h i s group was not increasing.  I f , as seems l i k e l y from Comer's notes,  j  i  R.C.M.P. MALAURIE CALDER  —  CO  TREBAOL  S  0  ROBINSON  a  KERR MATHIASSEN  ;> H M  o  MURRAY LOW  tr  1  M I tt  0 » 0  COMER  H  0 Z oo to to  HALL  I  CO  PARRY  T  6+7  r  0  50  there was only one settlement l n northern Foxe B a s i n , then the region had l o s t population t o a degree not i n d i c a t e d during p r e h i s t o r i c time, (see F i g . 2) Low noted t h a t a branch of the Melville-Borden group, the Sinermiut of Committee Bay, had been absorbed i n t o the N e t s i l i k people, who were spreading east.  He observed a disproportionate death-rate among  the Eskimos f o r c h i l d r e n fathered by the whalers, due perhaps to neglect. He a l s o noted the probable c o n t r i b u t i o n o f s y p h i l i s to a d e c l i n e i n numbers of the Melville-Borden group. The R.N.W.M.P. r e p o r t s o f 1906 mention the abandonment of a S c o t t i s h whaling s t a t i o n a t I g l o o l i k , but Eskimos who l i v e d i n the area a t t h a t time do not remember any depot i n northern Foxe Basin, and the report probably r e f e r s i n c o r r e c t l y to the Pond I n l e t whaling s t a t i o n . Constable S e l l e r s reported 125 I g l o o l i k people t r a d i n g to Captain Mutch 7 a t Pond I n l e t - double the f i g u r e given by Comer f o r 1903.  Sellers  probably i n c l u d e d the A r c t i c Bay group i n t h i s count, and r a t h e r than assume a l a r g e migration t o northern Foxe Basin between 1903 and  1906,  i t seems reasonable to accept Comer's f i g u r e s . S e l l e r s describes the I g l o o l i k people as being of l i g h t e r b u i l d , l i g h t e r complexion and more European i n f e a t u r e s than other Eskimos, but such impressions vary according to the I n d i v i d u a l s seen, the c l o t h i n g of the season, and the p r e d i s p o s i t i o n of the observer. Captain Murray, a whaler, reported to the R.N.W.M.P. a t o t a l o f 271 Eskimos who were i n v i t e d aboard h i s ship near Repulse Bay, a t 8 Christmas i n 1906.  The t o t a l included 9 people from F u l l e r t o n , and 20  who had been e x i l e d to V a n s i t t a r t I s l a n d f o r cannibalism during a famine a t Wager Bay.  Murray a l s o mentions 40 N e t s i l i k Eskimos camped a t  5 1  Milakshusitak, near Repulse Bay.  He described them as a bold and sturdy  people - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that were probable f a c t o r s i n t h e i r i n t r u s i o n into Melville-Borden t e r r i t o r y . The estimates of population made by Arthur Tremblay i n 1913 f o r 9 the Melville-Borden group are u n r e a l i s t i c ,  but he witnessed the A p r i l  exodus from I g l o o l i k o f people to trade a t Pond I n l e t o r i n a few oases, at Repulse Bay.  Mathiassen saw the same seasonal movement, and made the  f i r s t serious count of population f o r the four regions. Mathiassen's party counted 1 6 5 Avilingmiut a t Repulse Bay, 146 Iglulingmiut i n Foxe Basin, and a combined t o t a l f o r Pond I n l e t and A r c t i c 10 Bay o f 1 9 3 .  Damas was able to corroborate Mathiassen's count during  his kinship study o f the I g l u l i n g m i u t ,  11  and a comparison with Parry's  figure i s interesting. The proportion of children i n the Melville-Borden population wa considerably lower i n 1922 than i n 1822,  roughly 1 c h i l d to 2 adults.  This would appear to support Mathiassen's b e l i e f that drink, s y p h i l i s and s o c i a l d i s o r i e n t a t i o n during the whaling 'boom' had caused a decrease i n the whole group population.  The f i g u r e s c i t e d by Low, Comer and the  R.N.W.M.P. i n d i c a t e that there had been such a decline, but by the time of Mathiassen's census the Melville-Borden population was i n general increasing, (see F i g . 2) Mathiassen's f i g u r e s both f o r the Iglulingmiut and the t o t a l group are s l i g h t l y l e s s than Parry's. A Hudson's Bay Company post was b u i l t on Southampton Island i n the 1920's, and Eskimos from many regions were induced to migrate there. Several f a m i l i e s from I g l o o l i k went to Southampton Island, but Aiyilingmlut migrants to northern Foxe Basin more than made up t h i s l o s s of population. Today there i s l i t t l e contact between the ex-Iglulingmiut of Southampton Island and t h e i r r e l a t i v e s i n the home r e g i o n .  1 2  52  The p a t r o l s of the R.C.M.P. i n 1927  and 1929 produced no f u l l  census of northern Foxe Basin, though Inspector Wilcox counted 83 13 i n two of several settlements mentioned, cached.  Constable Margetts, i n 1929,  people  and saw huge q u a n t i t i e s of meat  commented that the n a t i v e s of Foxe  Basin and Admiralty I n l e t came to the Pond I n l e t post only once a year 14 because of t r a v e l l i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The 1931  Canadian census i s vague f o r Foxe Basin, but Mr.  Kerr of Ottawa made the p o l i c e p a t r o l i n 1930,  W.  and counted some 55 snowhouses  i n three settlements of northern Foxe B a s i n . T h i s i n d i c a t e s a population of between 220 and 260, and the continuing increase w i t h i n the region r e f l e c t s a probable recovery from the extraneous p u l l f a c t o r of whaling fleets. In 1939  the Hudson's Bay Company opened a t r a d i n g post a t I g l o o l i k ,  a t the mouth of Turton Bay, where Parry had wintered.  The migration of  several f a m i l i e s to northern Foxe Basin from Repulse Bay, C h e s t e r f i e l d I n l e t and A r c t i c Bay was probably a response to the opening of a store i n a resourcerich region. ^ 1  The 1941  census, which Robinson has questioned, shows 709 17  people i n the Melville-Borden t o t a l , and 349 I g l u l i n g m i u t . The t r a d i n g post closed i n 1943 due to adverse i c e c o n d i t i o n s , and d i d not reopen u n t i l 1947.  A population count made by the Roman C a t h o l i c  missionary a t I g l o o l i k i n June 1945 people.  showed f i v e main groups t o t a l l i n g 238  Another count made on August 31, 18  settlements.  1949  showed 301 people i n eleven  The apparent sharp drop i n population from 1941  shown i n F i g . 2, and the slow r i s e from 1945 to 1949, to the closure of the s t o r e .  to  were probably  1945 due  The compensating r i s e i n population elsewhere  i n the Melville-Borden t e r r i t o r y seems to confirm t h i s . The 1949 f i g u r e included 99 Eskimos who had immigrated t o northern Foxe Basin a f t e r 1922.  Daraas has pointed out that apart from immigration  5 3  the indigenous population of I g l u l i n g m i u t almost doubled between 1 9 2 2 and 1949.  He a t t r i b u t e s most o f t h i s increase to the medical help given by  the m i s s i o n a r i e s and traders, together with the i s o l a t i o n o f the region, 1 9  which may have i n h i b i t e d the spread o f contagious diseases.  The period  between 1 9 2 2 and 1949 was one o f r e t u r n to r e g i o n a l ecology, though with new elements, and i n that sense can be compared to the time of Parry's visit.  I n a d d i t i o n to the p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s mentioned by Damas, i t i s  possible that the atrophy o f the l i m i t i n g p r a c t i c e s of overeating, and perhaps i n f a n t i c i d e , a l s o contributed to the increase i n population. More f a m i l i e s moved i n t o northern Foxe Basin a f t e r the store was r e - e s t a b l i s h e d . and e a s i e r .  Motor driven whaleboats made walrus hunting s a f e r  The walrus o f Repulse Bay had been decimated during the  whaling era, and f o r the A i v i l i n g m i u t , whose name means "people of the walrus area", the good hunting i n northern Foxe Basin may have been a strong p u l l f a c t o r .  I n 1 9 5 9 - 6 0 Malaurie recorded a t o t a l of 4 9 1 people 2 0  i n northern Foxe B a s i n , comprising 1 0 6 f a m i l i e s .  The N e t s i l i n g m i u t had begun to move i n t o Repulse Bay during the whaling period, and having l i t t l e o r no experience i n walrus hunting, the l o s s o f that resource would probably not prevent them from continued migration.  The 1 9 6 7 R.C.M.P. d i s c l i s t shows N e t s i l i n g m i u t migrants to  be the m a j o r i t y o f 1 5 1 people a t Repulse Bay.  Excluding the N e t s i l i n g m i u t  enclave, the t o t a l Melville-Borden population i n 1 9 6 7 was 1 , 3 7 3 i n c l u d i n g 680 I g l u l i n g m i u t . Whaling f l e e t s wintered i n the north o f the Melville-Borden t e r r i t o r y i n E c l i p s e Sound, and i n the south, i n Roes Welcome Sound.  The  l a t t e r f l e e t was the most numerous and had the greatest e f f e c t upon the Eskimo population, both i n terms of numbers and migration. The whalers o f f e r e d employment, trade and novelty.  They disrupted  5 4  the various regional ecologies and the seasonal rhythms of the Eskimos. Once the c e n t r i p e t a l force of the whaling f l e e t disappeared there was a gradual reversion to a balanced population within various regions of the Melville-Borden t e r r i t o r y .  New  c e n t r i p e t a l forces appeared however, none  as dramatic i n e f f e c t as the whaling f l e e t , but they were to bring about a new degree of regional i d e n t i t y and hegemony. The Roman Catholic mission a t I g l o o l i k began i n 1 9 3 1 ,  and as  I t became established within the s o c i a l pattern of i t s convert f a m i l i e s , became an increasingly strong c e n t r i p e t a l force In settlement.- Such a force could not sustain settlement, but i t was f a c i l i t a t e d by p l e n t i f u l resources and the complimentary forces of a trading post and l a t e r , government administration. The establishment of the Hudson* s Bay Company post a t I g l o o l i k i n 1 9 3 9 marked the beginning of a new kind of regional i d e n t i t y .  The post,  complemented by the mission, became a service centre f o r the Iglulingmiut. The a t t r a c t i o n of a service centre i n a region with ample game resources brought some immigration to northern Foxe Basin, and the growth of s i m i l a r service centres i n other regions reduced the degree of i n t e r - r e g i o n a l movement that had been common. A f t e r 1 9 5 6 new elements were added to the c e n t r i p e t a l q u a l i t y of the service centre.  The DEWline station was the nucleus f o r a centre  a t H a l l Beach; the nursing stations, administrative o f f i c e s and the Anglican Mission became a d d i t i o n a l f o c a l influences within the o l d regional hunting and settlement pattern. In northern Foxe Basin immigration and natural Increase played an approximately equal part i n determining the growth of population between 1 9 2 0 and 1 9 5 0 .  By 1 9 5 0 the main immigration had ended, and natural  increase became the single impressive f a c t o r .  By natural increase alone  55  P L A T E 9 - Interior of A i v i l i n g m i u t Snowhouse, 1921. (photo, Publ ic A r c h i v e s of Canada)  56  the regional population doubled i n the 15 years from 1950  to  1965.  The story of decimation of population through introduced disease and vices i s f a m i l i a r from the western A r c t i c and the P a c i f i c . 1900  Since about  the decimation phase i n northern Foxe Basin has been replaced by  processes s i m i l a r those observed i n developing countries. Infanticide and gorging, i f they were i n f a c t controls on population growth, were gradually abandoned i n the face of new moral and e t h i c a l codes.  Despite the general richness of game resources, occasional  deaths by starvation had been a control element i n northern Foxe Basin,  21 p a r t i c u l a r l y i n peripheral areas. welfaare f a c i l i t i e s ,  With improved communications and  the incidence of starvation decreased, ending i n  Both Parry i n 1822  22  and Mathiassen i n 1923  23  1948.  commented on the  low number of b i r t h s among the Iglulingmiut, and the high proportion of i n f a n t deaths.  In view of the present degree of fecundity i t seems  l i k e l y that i n f a n t i c i d e , concealed from observers, rather than a low rate of f e r t i l i t y , was responsible.  Poor d i e t lowers f e r t i l i t y , but t h i s  does not appear to have been a f a c t o r i n northern Foxe Basin, and both 24 2*; Parry and Rousseliere r e l a t e d o l d age among the Iglulingmiut to an abundance of meat. In addition to the medical care given by the missionary and the trader during the 1930's, 40's and 50's, the h o s p i t a l a t C h s t e r f i e l d I n l e t cared f o r patients from northern Foxe Basin, and the f i r s t evacuation  by  26 a i r was made i n 1938.  Deaths by accident, disease and c h i l d b i r t h were  reduced by the use of these f a c i l i t i e s ,  and the nurses now resident a t  H a l l Beach have f u r t h e r reduced the medical l i m i t s on population growth. The Eskimo custom of breast feeding children f o r several years has been changed by the increased use of b o t t l e feeding, permitting more frequent conceptions.  Public health teaching and medical care have reduced  57  infant mortality, and children, l i k e o l d and disabled people^have become assets as r e c i p i e n t s of allowances.  Population D i s t r i b u t i o n Reliable censuses of the Eskimo population of northern Foxe Basin were few u n t i l the mid point of the present century-. Four censuses that are accurate with respect to numbers and l o c a t i o n have been juxtaposed on Map 9» 'but they are not separated by equal periods of time.  The following  summary i s intended to amplify the movements of population that are apparent from the maps.  The information on s i t e s occupied between censuses  was obtained from a v a r i e t y of written accounts, and from Eskimos of the region. 1822 -  1922  A century elapsed between the censuses of Parry and  Mathiassen,  but as we have seen, the population of northern Foxe Basin a t each count was about the same.  The I g l u l i k s i t e , being the best all-round location,  continued to have the l a r g e s t v i l l a g e .  The pingerkalik s i t e  immediately  south of I g l u l i k , had settlement as i n Parry's time. No comment seems necessary on the Steensby I n l e t and Parry Bay settlements, since these were favourite s i t e s before Parry's time, only s l i g h t l y l e s s strategic i n terms of walrus and other game than the I g l u l i k area. The P i l i n g Bay settlement was not occupied between 1970 and 1922,. perhaps because of i t s uncertain hunting conditions and history of 27 starvation.  The "blow-hole" a t the eastern end of Fury and Hecla S t r a i t  had attracted settlement, but was again deserted.  Garry Bay, an i s o l a t e d  but f a i r l y a t t r a c t i v e s i t e , had been settled, and Tremblay recorded settlement a t Agu Bay i n 1911 and  1913.  58  Mathiassen.Winter  1921-22  ^  Trebaol,  June  y Damas,  Jan-May  1961  CHANGES IN NORTHERN 1-20 ^  21-40 0  41-60 0  6h80 ^|  )  Q%  Donahue,  THE PATTERN FOXE BASIN 81 100 2-300  ^-J  1949  January  1968  OF SETTLEMENT. 1921-1968.  400 +  w  „  occupied  Q between  ^ Map 9  )  59  The move to Agu Bay,which was to become more permanent, represents a d i s t i n c t break i n the pre-contact p a t t e r n , and may have been a' r e s u l t o f the a c q u i s i t i o n o f r i f l e s , which f a c i l i t a t e d s e a l i n g , enabling people to leave the r e l a t i v e s e c u r i t y o f the walrus area. During the whaling era, which had only ended a few years before Mathiassen's census, movement between I g l u l i k and Repulse Bay was probably frequent. . An overland s l e d t r a i l meets the sea i c e a t the ancient Pitokak s i t e i n Freuchen Bay, f o r north o f there the broken sea i c e and the i n l a n d h i l l s make t r a v e l d i f f i c u l t .  The Pitokak settlement o f 1922 was perhaps  p a r t l y i n f l u e n c e d by i t s proximity to the whaling f l e e t , and i t was abandoned a few years l a t e r . 1922 - 1949  Between Mathiassen's and Trebaol's population counts, the subsistence hunting economy o f the I g l u l i n g m i u t continued, and i n f a c t regained some o f the e q u i l i b r i u m l o s t during the whaling era.  New elements  entered the economy however, f o r now t r a d i n g posts bought f o x s k i n s and sold the whaleboats which became the nucleus f o r new hunting u n i t s , t i e d by k i n s h i p and f u n c t i o n . The increase i n population,along with m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n the economy expanded settlement out from the core area. ?  Several marginal s i t e s  were t r i e d , and some 70 people wintered a t I n g n e r i t i n the north-east, i n 29  1941.  I n 1942 the p o l i c e moved a group o f I g l u l i n g m i u t away from P i l i n g  Bay,where they had wintered almost s o l e l y on the proceeds o f caribou hunting.  The p o l i c e b e l i e v e d that people and dogs e a t i n g caribou meat  alone would soon decimate the herds.^°  I n 1949 there was death by  s t a r v a t i o n a t the s i n g l e f a m i l y camp o f Kaershukat, north o f P i l i n g , and no f u r t h e r settlement o f the eastern coast was attempted.^ The core area gained i n population, and the Parry Bay settlement 1  60  at the southern end of the great offshore l e a d , r i v a l l e d I g l o o l i k in: s i z e As w i l l be discussed i n succeeding chapters, changes i n l e a d e r s h i p and other s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s were often as important as l o g i s t i c and economic f a c t o r s i n determining the permanence and s i z e of settlements. 1949  -  1961  The marginal east coast of Foxe Basin was uninhabited during t h i s period, except f o r seasonal camps, and the steady growth of population was absorbed mainly i n the hunting settlements of the core area, parfcieularly i t s southern extremity. The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e centre of I g l o o l i k by now exceeded i n s i z e the o l d Eskimo v i l l a g e s e v e r a l m i l e s away, but as yet the smaller a d m i n i s t r a t i v e centre of H a l l Beach, near the DEWline radar s i t e , had not a t t r a c t e d many f a m i l i e s . The Agu Bay settlement (which c o n s i s t e d of several seasonal camps i n one area), had become permanent, based on a s e a l i n g economy and powered canoes r a t h e r than the walrus and whaleboat crew p a t t e r n of the settlements of Foxe Basin. 1961  -  1968  During t h i s short p e r i o d the t o t a l population increased by some k0%,  w i t h a very small proportion of immigration.  U n t i l 1966 the pattern  of settlement e s t a b l i s h e d during the 1950*s continued, though w i t h a s l i g h t l o s s to the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e centres of I g l o o l i k  and  H a l l Beach.  The s e a l s k i n 'boom* of the e a r l y 1960's r e s u l t e d i n considerable investment i n canoes and outboard motors, and i n a few hunting settlements, i n small mechanical  snow v e h i c l e s . These items of technology loosened the  hegemony of the whaleboat - owning leaders, and introduced a l e v e l of c a p i t a l i z a t i o n t h a t the hunting economy could not maintain.,. n  As s o c i a l and economic pressures were s t e a d i l y working towards  61  the atrophy of hunting settlements, the government provided subsidizedO rental housing on a large scale at  Igloolik  and  H a l l Beach,  precipitating  a major movement of people to the administrative centres, and the v i r t u a l abandonment of a l l other settlements.  62  FOOTNOTES  T.H. Manning, "Notes on the Coastal D i s t r i c t of the Eastern Barren Grounds & M e l v i l l e Peninsula from I g l o o l i k to Cape Fullerton", Geographical Journal, February 194-3, XXVI, p. 103. 2 , , J.E. Nourse, (Ed) Narrative of the 2nd A r c t i c Expedition Made by Charles Francis H a l l , Washington, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1879, p. 301. 3  op. c i t . , p. 101. Also confirmed by W.G. Ross, "American Whaling i n Hudson Bay; The voyage of the Black Eagle, 1866-1867", Canadian Geographical Journal, December 1967, Vol. LXXV No. 6, p. 202. 4 Dr. J . Rae, Expedition to the Shores of the A r c t i c Sea, 1846 - 47, London, Boone, I850, p. 121. "'Franz Boas, The Eskimos of B a f f i n Land and Hudson Bay, B u l l e t i n No. 15 of the American Museum of Natural History, 1901, p. 7. Mr. John Ayaruak of Rankin I n l e t informed the author that the name Kinipi.tungmiut "the wet people", was recorded through the misunderstanding by a whaling captain, and the f a l s e name was used l a t e r by Boas. ^A.P.Low, Cruise of the Neptune, Ottawa, Government P r i n t i n g Office, 1906, p. 134.  7 L.E. S e l l a r s , "Patrol Report, Fullerton to Lyon Inlet, May 1, 1906", R.N.W.M.P. Reports, p. 116-127. 8  I b i d , p. 222  0 'A. Tremblay, Cruise of the Minnie Maud, Quebec, 1921, p. 129. 10 T. Mathiassen, Material Culture of the I g l u l i k Eskimos, Report of the 5th Thule Expedition 1921-24, Copenhagen, Vol. 6, No. 1. 11 D. Damas, Iglulingmiut Kinship and Local Groupings, Ottawa, National Museum of Canada B u l l e t i n No. 196, Department of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources, 1963, p. 23.  63  12  D e t a i l s of the Iglulingmiut movement are to be found i n A. Thiberts "Le Journal Quotidien d'un Esquimau de l ' I s l e Southampton, 1926- 2 7 . Anthropologica No. 1, 1955, PP. 144-148, also h i s Journal de 1'Esquimau Makik, Southampton Island 1925-1931"> Vol. 2 , No. 2 , i 9 6 0 , pp. 190 - 2 1 1 , and Vol 3 . No. 1, 1961, pp. 9 5 - HO. 13 Inspector Wilcox P a t r o l Report, Pond I n l e t to Foxe Basin 1927- 28, R.C.M.P. Reports, p. 7 4 . 14 Ibid, Constable Margetts p a t r o l Pond I n l e t to Foxe Basin, February 26 to A p r i l 7, 1929, p. 7 7 . 15 W. Kerr, personal communication. 16 Damas, op_. c i t . , p. 26-27. 17 J.L. Robinson, "Eskimo Population i n the Canadian Eastern A r c t i c " , Canadian Geographical Journal, Sept. 1944, p. 1 2 9 . 18 From the records of Mission St. Etienne, I g l o o l i k . 19 Damas, op_. c i t . , p. 28. 20 Jean Malaurie, "Preliminary Report from an Anthropological Mission f o r Demographic and Economic Research c a r r i e d out i n I g l o o l i k , N.W.T. D i s t r i c t Canada", Ottawa, Unpublished manuscript, Northern Co-ordination & Research Centre, Northern A f f a i r s & National Resources, 1962, p. 7 . 21 Starvation and a t times cannibalism were known i n : 1820 1840 1846 1873 1905 1906 1922 1948  at at at at at at at at  Anangiakjuk ( i g l o o l i k ) Rousseliere and Mathiassen I p i u t i k (Peelik) Boas Igloolik Rae Tugak (Pond Inlet) Tremblay Inuktokvik (Pond I n l e t / l g l o o l i k ) Freuchen and Tremblay Wager Bay R.N.W.M.P. Shimig (Admiralty Inlet) Tremblay and Freuchen Peelik "' Manning 22 Parry, op_. c i t . , p. 492. 23  Mathiassen, op_. c i t . , p. 15 - 21  64  ?4  Parry, op. c i t . , p. 305.  OK  G.M. Rousseliere, Eskimo, March 1957, p. 4 .  26  P. Schulte, The F l y i n g P r i e s t Over the A r c t i c , New York, Harper, 1940, p. 242. 27  There was s t a r v a t i o n a t I p i u t i t i n 1840, and the l a s t confirmation o f settlement a t P e e l i k , 1870, i s i n Freuchen, Mammals, Report of the 5 t h Thule Expeditions 1921-24, Copenhagen, V o l . 2 Nos. 4 and 5, 1935, p. 127. 28 Tremhlay, op_. c i t . ^W.G. Ross, "The I g l o o l i k Eskimos", Journal, No. 7 6 , I960, p. 160. 2  S c o t t i s h Geographical  ^°J.K.Fraser, "The voyage o f the C.G.M.V. Nauya to Foxe Basin i n 1949", A r c t i c C i r c u l a r , Sept. 1950, pp. 2 6 - 3 1 . 31  Ibid.  65 CHAPTER IV  THE CAMP SYSTEM - ECONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL DIVISIONS WITHIN THE REGION  The preceding discussion o f population growth and movement was concerned with the theatre o f the Melville-Borden t e r r i t o r y and the northern Foxe Basin region.  I f the scale of enquiry i s made l a r g e r however, a s e r i e s  of sub-regions o r areas can be i d e n t i f i e d i n northern Foxe Basin.  These  have some physical i d e n t i t y , but i n the main they are distinguished as the hunting t e r r i t o r i e s o f p a r t i c u l a r Eskimo groups from the 1 9 3 0 ' s to the 1 9 6 0 ' s . The d i v i s i o n of a r c t i c regions i n t o hunting and trapping areas by economic and k i n s h i p groups was common to the Canadian Eastern A r c t i c i n the f i r s t h a l f o f t h i s century.  The areas and the s o c i a l  groupings  often resembled o r duplicated those o f pre-contact time, but there were innovations i n technology and economy. The settlement subdivisions and s o c i a l groupings o f the f u r trading era were almost u n i v e r s a l l y described by the l a b e l "the camp system". The camp system governed the s p a t i a l and s o c i a l a c t i v i t y o f the Iglulingmiut during 3 5 years, and i t shaped the ethos of Eskimos now grappling with new  semi-urban problems.  worthy o f examination.  For t h i s reason alone i t i s  David Damas has studied the camps o f Iglulingmiut  with especial reference to kinship p a t t e r n s , but on the whole the camp 1  system, now defunct, has received surprising l i t t l e attention from social scientists. The camp system varied i n the A r c t i c from region to region, but i n general the following c r i t e r i a were common: l)  A membership o f two to twelve nuclear f a m i l i e s based on kinship and economic co-operation, often with a whaleboat as the co-operative focus.  6 6  2)  A d e c i s i o n maker, the Issumatak or Angayukak, c a l l e d by whitemen "the camp boss".  3)  A blend of pre-contact subsistence hunting and a simple cash economy based on the f u r trade.  4)  A number of recognised but loosely defined hunting areas, served by a trading post.  W.G.  Ross has suggested that the grouping of settlements i n  northern Foxe Basin i s a r e s u l t of innate understanding of conservation 2 principles.  Whether innate, learned during centuries of hunting, or just  common sense, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of camps d i d place each settlement group i n an area which offered a f u l l range of animal species and a f u l l c y c l e of seasonal a c t i v i t i e s . Damas has proposed that access to the walrus resource brought c e r t a i n camps i n northern Foxe Basin to the status of v i l l a g e s , a t a  3 c u l t u r a l l e v e l c l o s e l y resembling the c l a s s Thule or Neo Eskimo. Certainly the terra 'camp' may be inappropriate f o r the v i l l a g e s Damas described i n I960 and 1 9 6 1 ,  with t h e i r stone and t u r f houses.  The main  v i l l a g e a t the eastern end of I g l o o l i k Island was home to several whaleboat units, and i t s influence " s p i l l e d over" i n t o  other camp  In general, however, the camp system of northern Foxe Basin from 1 9 3 0 to 1 9 6 6 adhered f a i r l y c l o s e l y to the Eastern A r c t i c prototype. No r i g i d boundaries can be drawn f o r the camp areas but an approximate d i v i s i o n of the region can be made, and Map 1 0 shows seven areas. seven are s i m i l a r to those proposes by Malaurie, from the f i v e described by Anders.^  The  and have been refined  The ephemeral P i l i n g Bay  settlement  i s added, but not described i n the n a r r a t i v e . In each case the description of resources i s based on conditions during the early  1960*s  and the  p> xi  M o  6 8  6  population f i g u r e s are those recorded by Damas,  1 9 6 0 - 6 1 .  Agu Bay The Agu Bay area i s the only one o f the seven without walrus. Seals, necessary f o r lamp-fuel, are p l e n t i f u l , and maullrkpok sealing a t breathing holes was continued longer i n t h i s area than others.  Without  the need f o r group walrus-hunting by boat o r a t the f l o e edge, the Agu Bay group separated during some winters to a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s i n Agu Bay, Kimaktok Peninsula, Crown Prince Frederick Island and Dybol Harbour. For caribou the Agu people moved mainly on to northwest M e l v i l l e Peninsula, sometimes combining the move with spring o r summer sealing a t Garry Bay.  Bear hunting, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the uninhabited area  northwest o f Agu Bay, was an important source of income, and since foxes follow the bears, trapping was good.  White whale, and occasionally  narwhal, frequent the western end o f Fury and Hecla S t r a i t , and were a valuable source o f dog food to the Agu group.  F i s h i n g i s good i n the  r i v e r s of Agu and Garry Bays, and while bearded seal are not p l e n t i f u l as i n the eastern end of the S t r a i t , the Agu hunters were well supplied with skins f o r l i n e s and boats. The Agu Bay group were a loosely-knit kinship unit, mainly immigrants from Admiralty I n l e t , where game was scarce. numbered 4 3 .  In  1 9 6 0 / 6 1  they  Though they had no whaleboat, t h i s group enjoyed a favourable  r a t i o o f population to resources, and hardship was rare.  I g l o o l i k Island This area i s the most complex o f the seven.  I t includes the  eastern h a l f o f Fury and Hecla S t r a i t , where bearded-seal hunting i s good i n spring around the i s l a n d o f Shaglarkjuk (Amherst Island).  The campsites  69  of Kakalik and Maneetok, on the north and south shores respectively of the eastern end of the s t r a i t , are near the winter sealing 'hole' o f f Ormond ; Island, and both locations are favourable f o r seals and white whales i n summer. The east shore of I g l o o l i k Island i s a centuries-old vantage point f o r walrus hunting? bearded seal are numerous north and south of I g l o o l i k Island, and t h i s l o c a l i t y has a f a i r incidence of ringed seal, bears, white whale and b i r d s . A small lake on I g l o o l i k Island i s f i s h e d during the winter f o r lake trout, and there are substantial char runs i n the r i v e r s of Mogg and Quilliam Bay.  Caribou were formerly found inland from the north shore of  Fury and Hecla S t r a i t , but from about 1950 caribou hunting was concentrated inland from Hooper I n l e t on M e l v i l l e Peninsula, and well beyond the area to Steensby I n l e t .  Caribou hunting was often combined with fox trapping,  and despite the r e l a t i v e smallness of the area, i t produced a 7  disproportionately high percentage of the regional f o x - f u r take. Two main groups occupied the area during the trapping era 1930 - I 9 6 0 , divided roughly along kinship and r e l i g i o u s l i n e s .  The most  numerous group was the Roman Catholic one, whose main winter camp was a t K r i k i l t a k j u k on the eastern end of I g l o o l i k Island.  This group included  several whaleboat crews, and occupied the s i t e s i n Fury and Hecla S t r a i t . The other group was Anglican, based a t the I g l o o l i k settlement. Immigrants to the region made up a large percentage of the group, and Anders appears i n c o r r e c t i n h i s suggestion that the Catholic camp a t K r i k i l t a k j u k constituted an attempt to gain a foothold i n Anglican g dominated hunting ground.  I f anything, the reverse was true, and  Anglicans were the latecomers. The Anglican group, based furthest away from the winter  70  f l o e edge, made l e s s use of walrus, p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r the walrus were depleted or driven from Hooper I n l e t i n the 1940*s.  Both the C a t h o l i c  and Anglican groups included i n d i v i d u a l trappers and hunters who remained generally independent of the whaleboat crews, p a r t i c u l a r l y when canoes and outboard motors became common. Both groups a l s o included a high proportion of incompetent hunters and others who f o r v a r i o u s reasons stayed near the welfare f a c i l i t i e s of I g l o o l i k . In 1960/61 the t o t a l population of the I g l o o l i k I s l a n d area was 163.  At l e a s t two-thirds of these l i v e d by hunting and trapping, and  the resources of the area were being depleted.  Sevigny P o i n t This small area i n c l u d e s an o l d f i s h i n g s i t e a t the entrance to G i f f o r d F j o r d , and access to small caribou herds on e i t h e r side of the Fjord.  Summer s e a l i n g i s good o f f Sevigny P o i n t , and the area shares  with the I g l o o l i k area access to the winter s e a l i n g hole near Ormond I s l a n d . The p o t e n t i a l f o r trapping, white whale and bearded seal hunting i s good, but the area, squeezed i n between two other longer-established camp areas, i s small. The area was r a r e l y a s i t e of permanent settlement u n t i l the 1950's, when migrants from Repulse Bay began to winter a t Nauyaguluit (Sevigny P o i n t ) .  The winter f l o e edge and the northern l i m i t of walrus  were some 30 miles away, and the Sevigny P o i n t group were f r e q u e n t l y i n need of meat and f a t .  F i s h , geese and ducks were used more than i n other  areas, and although the camp-population was r a r e l y higher than the 22 people counted i n 1960/61, t h i s area was only marginal i n v i a b i l i t y .  71  P L A T E 10 - Skinning C a r i b o u . (photo, D . B i s s e t ) 1962  P L A T E 11 - H a u l i n g walrus from shore l e a d . (photo T . F u j i k i , A s a h i Shimbun) 1963  72  Jens Munk I s l a n d Cape Elwyn on Jens Munk I s l a n d , and the Calthorpe Islands were each occupied during a l l the p r e h i s t o r i c c u l t u r e phases.  A strong camp  group s e t t l e d i n t h i s area during the 1940's. By k i n s h i p and hunting area t h i s camp group was the most d i s t i n c t and homogeneous o f the region. The winter camp a t Kapuivik on Cape Elwyn was close to the f l o e edge, and the spring walrus hunt was g e n e r a l l y c a r r i e d out by boat from the Kaersult camp on the southernmost o f the Calthorpe Islands. The f l o e edge around the south and west Jens Munk I s l a n d gives good s e a l i n g , and the narrows a t the western entrance t o Murray Maxwell Bay are open f o r s e a l i n g throughout some winters.  Hunting a t aglus f o r  whitecoats, and uktuk hunting l a t e r i n the s p r i n g , i s e s p e c i a l l y good i n the f a s t i c e o f Murray Maxwell Bay.  White whale pass through the area  i n small groups, and bearded s e a l are p l e n t i f u l enough f o r l o c a l needs. Large c o l o n i e s o f e i d e r duck and other seabirds nest on the i s l a n d s of the area. Caribou were o c c a s i o n a l l y k i l l e d on Jens Munk I s l a n d , but most hunts were made north o f Murray Maxwell Bay and o c c a s i o n a l l y f a r to the southeast on B a i r d Peninsula, a r e l a t i v e l y unexploited "no mans l a n d " . F i s h i n g was done mainly i n s p r i n g a t the lake and r i v e r d r a i n i n g Skeoch Bay, and l a t e r i n the summer a t the mouths o f r i v e r s f l o w i n g i n t o Murray Maxwell Bay. Fox t r a p p i n g and caribou hunting journeys were made throughout the winter from Kapuivik, but i n summer the group dispersed t o three o r f o u r separate s i t e s .  Occasional winter trapping and s e a l i n g camps were  made by members o f the group on Sioraksuk Peninsula on the north shore o f Murray Maxwell Bay.  I n 1960/61 the Jens Munk group had 63 people i n two  c l o s e l y associated kin-groups, owning three l a r g e boats.  With the p o s s i b l e  7 3  exception of caribou, t h i s area had a favourable ecological balance.  Steensby  Inlet  The area of Steensby I n l e t and the northeast coast of Foxe Bain as f a r south as Eqe Bay has a history of occupation back to pre Dorset time, and the Manerktok s i t e , on an i s l e t o f f the north coast of Koch Island, remained occupied from Mathiassen's census of 1 9 2 2 to 1 9 6 6 .  The Iglukjuat camp group was established about 1 9 ^ 5 when a a  group of hunters acquired a whaleboat.  Iglukjuat i s only 1 5 miles  from Manerktok across the s t r a i t , and the two camps were c l o s e l y associated. Winter camps were occasionally made near the mouth of Rowley River, r e i v i n g mainly on summer supplies of walrus and seal, or i n Grant Suttie Bay, where the distance to the f l o e edge i s about equal to that from Iglukjuat and Manerktok.  In winter t h i s area lacks the favourable  current of the more westerly "walrus" camps, and open leads are l e s s common, r e s t r i c t i n g the winter catch.  The area i s r a r e l y completely i c e - f r e e i n  summer, and walrus follow the i c e north of Koch Island; but the i c e , currents and winds combine to make hunting by boat d i f f i c u l t . Spring and winter sealing i s adequate, and caribou, found mostly east of Steensby Inlet, are more numerous than i n any other area. Wolves, associated with the caribou, were valuable f o r thelfc skins as trade items.  Bears, bearded seals, white whales, and foxes are common i n  the caribou country a t the head of Steensby I n l e t . coast has numerous good f i s h  The nearby B a f f i n Island  streams.  The Iglukjuat-Manerktok group numbered  3 7  in  1 9 6 0 / 6 1 .  Their  area i s the l e a s t accessible from I g l o o l i k due to moving i c e throughout  74  much of the year.  These i c e conditions have occasionally meant poor  walrus hunting and resultant hardship f o r men and dogs.  In general  however, the game resources of the area are varied and abundant.  The  fortunes of the group declined l a r g e l y through want of leadership.  Foster Bay The t e r r i t o r y and the group membership f o r t h i s area were the most f l u i d of the seven. and Mathiassen's  From the ancient Pingerkalik s i t e of Parry's  time, settlement moved to Akungnerk i n Foster Bay.  Following conversion to C h r i s t i a n i t y there was a d i v i s i o n along denomination l i n e s . In 196o/6l the Foster Bay group was d i s t r i b u t e d among three main winter s i t e s , Kringmiktogvik being the l a r g e s t .  The small camp  of Nuksangnakjuk was some s i x miles west, and the "shanty town" of Napakut about s i x miles south, adjacent to the administrative centre of H a l l Beach. The Foster Bay group comprised both Anglicans and Catholics, linked by an i n t e r - r e l i g i o u s marriage, but i n general operating separate whaleboat u n i t s .  The Catholic a f f i l i a t i o n s were primarily north with the  I g l o o l i k Island Catholics while among the Anglicans there was  interaction  with the a l l - A n g l i c a n group to the south i n the Parry Bay area. The area had the best year-round walrus-hunting conditions of the region,  offshore from Pingerkalik and H a l l Beach.  The North Ooglit  Islands were an excellent spring outpost f o r walrus, ringed seal and bearded s e a l .  The lake-dotted p l a i n inland has many b i r d s i n summer,  and caribou hunting was usually successful north and west of H a l l Lake. F i s h were taken by net and spear i n the Ikarktorlak and Shagvak r i v e r s flowing i n t o Foster Bay, and t r a p - l i n e s generally ran inland around and  7 5  T H E  C O U N T R Y  U S S U A K J U K  SCALE  10  1 1  T H E  P E O P L E  30  20 Map  O F  40  MILES  $6  north o f H a l l Lake. Following the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the DEWline i n 1955 and 1956, the F o s t e r Bay area became the route f o r constant boat, dog-sled and snow-vehicle t r a f f i c between I g l o o l i k and H a l l Beach.  The pressure on  game resources increased,and the area became l e s s v i a b l e a s a d i s t i n c t u n i t o f human occupance based on hunting and t r a p p i n g . The population o f i t s three w i n t e r settlements i n 1960/61 was 97.  Parry Bay The study o f t h i s camp group has been expanded i n t o a d e t a i l e d essay i n c u l t u r a l geography, an i n t i m a t e case study t h a t may provide the reader w i t h a deeper understanding o f hunting l i f e i n northern Foxe Basin d u r i n g the e a r l y 1960*s. The i n s i g h t s may f a c i l i t a t e the reading o f subsequent chapters and the account i t s e l f w i l l record a discontinued way of l i f e . The s t a t i s t i c s o f population are taken from the a c t u a l B.C.M.P. d i s c l i s t o f 1965, b u t the seasonal a c t i v i t i e s have been generalized f o r the p e r i o d i960 t o 1965.  The names of the group have been s u b s t i t u t e d  to preserve p r i v a c y . The Ussuakjuk camp group hunt along a c o a s t l i n e o f about one hundred and f i f t y m i l e s , sharing the northern p a r t o f t h e i r t e r r i t o r y w i t h another c l o s e l y r e l a t e d group - the two groups, i n f a c t , come together f o r the two summer months.  The general area i s one occupied d u r i n g pre-contact  and e a r l y contact time by the Amitogmiut, the group named a f t e r the Amitioke Peninsula (so m i s p e l l e d on the maps).  The Ussuakjuk winter camp group o f  recent years was founded by one energetic hunter who a t t r a c t e d a number of families.  With marriage i n and out o f the group and f o r a v a r i e t y of  other reasons, the number and i d e n t i t y o f f a m i l i e s has changed by the year  77  or season.  The l e a d e r and one o r two 'core' f a m i l i e s have remained a t  Ussuakjuk, and the average population over some twenty-years has been about t h i r t y - f i v e . For  most o f the year the landscape, both sea and land, i s  white.. In the Ussuakjuk area there are no high h i l l s o r c l i f f s to break the  monotony, and l i k e the y e a r l y c y c l e o f w i l d l i f e and seasons, the  landscape i s unmathematical.  There are no s t r a i g h t l i n e s , no r i g h t  angles, no r e g u l a r punctuations o f time, space o r sound.  Hundreds o f  people w i t h i n the region are known i n t i m a t e l y - t h e i r bodies and mannerisms - the land too, i s i n t i m a t e l y known.  In a world where there  i s apparently l i t t l e to explore, speculation has l i t t l e value, and i n fact., i t i s unmannerly to ask questions. The winter v i l l a g e i s on the point of l a n d c a l l e d Ussuakjuk or " l i t t l e penis", on the south shore of Parry Bay.  There i s a small hut  f o r s t o r i n g f u r s , and the houses are o f scrap wood obtained from the DEWline garbage dump. They are p a r t i a l l y banked w i t h peat, and by mid winter w i l l be almost buried i n snow.  The r o o f s are of canvas over a  s l i g h t l y arched wooden frame, with moss between.  The w a l l s are papered  w i t h newspaper and magazine paper stuck on with f l o u r paste, and l i g h t * ;< comes from a small overhead window of p l a s t i c sheeting.  A low bed-  platform across the r e a r o f the house, measurimg about seven by t h i r t e e n f e e t , accommodates from s i x to ten people, l y i n g naked under a v a r i e t y of skin and c l o t h covers, i n a prescribed order according to sex, age and degree of k i n s h i p to the f a m i l y . The houses are heated by blubber-lamps, by people and o c c a s i o n a l l y by primus stoves. During the dark days and n i g h t s , the blubber-lamp g i v e s a l i g h t s u f f i c i e n t f o r much o f the d a i l y round, but f o r card-playing and more i n t r i c a t e sewing o r carving, candles are used, and  78  POPULATION  —  PYRAMID  USSUAKJUK  60  FEMALE  MALE —  1965  50  40 AGE —  30  —  20  IN  YEARS  10  00 3  Total  population  2  35.  1 NUMBERS Active  Fig. 3  1 2  3  hunters  9  79  naptha lamps when supplies are on hand.  The a i r i n the houses i s usually  thick with cigarette smoke and kudlik smoke, and there i s incessant coughing.  The houses grow cold during the night when the kudlik goes out,  and ten o f the people i n the camp have spent months o r years with tuberculosis i n hospitals of the south. Each house o f f e r s about twenty-five square f e e t o f l i v i n g space per person, and t h i s i n the coldest of climates. Privacy i s impossible, and with dogs roaming i n packs outdoors i t i s unpleasant and dangerous to defecate anywhere but i n the houses i n winter-time. Everyone uses the cans that serve as chamber pots - even the young woman reading the scriptures during the Sunday gathering may c a l l f o r the pot and carry on with the r e c i t a l .  The cramped space o f tents and karngmat  d i c t a t e s ways o f s i t t i n g , of eating, sleeping and i n some respects o f thinking. Only three of the Ussuakjuk children have been to school - one term a t I g l o o l i k .  They cannot count beyond ten, and they remember l i t t l e  of t h e i r encounter with books that show father with a briefcase, o r with the awesome 'please and thank you* of the kadlunat.  The g i r l s of the  camp begin a t an early age to assume household tasks, and expect to marry early.  Unless they marry one o f the few employed young men,  they  anticipate another tent o r karngmat with t h e i r place on the r i g h t as one enters, the t r a d i t i o n a l corner o f the woman of the house.  The boys learn  the a r t o f the hunt which i s both l i v i n g and recreation, the most worthy thing a man can do. There are sewing machines, t r a n s i s t o r radios and record-players a t Ussuakjuk, but by the standards o f most Canadians i n 1965, material needs are few.  Pood i s the ovdr-rlding concern, i t i s the only t r u l y  communal property, i f cigarettes are Included.  Tea i s one of the few  80  store foods t h a t must l a s t f o r use each day between t r a d i n g journeys.  Sugar  i s s t i l l regarded and used as an e x o t i c item - when Annanack r e t u r n s from spending h i s pension cheques, an a l l - n i g h t gossip party ensues, and cup a f t e r cup i s heaped w i t h sugar, s a t u r a t i n g the t e a , u n t i l h i s whole bag i s gone.  The people s t i l l enjoy the s h e l l f i s h from the stomachs of walrus, or  the s k i n of h i n d f U p p e r s .  New caribou-horn, the grubs of w a r b l e - f l y , and  the e y e b a l l s of s e a l s , are other d e l i c a c i e s .  The order of food p r e f e r r e d  by one of the group, A i p i l e e , i s : caribou...rabbit...char...eider duck... 19 seal,,,ptarmigan...bearded seal...bear...walrus. No great shock of t r a n s i t i o n has come upon the people of Ussuakjuk;? so f a r . There are c e n t u r i e s behind the patterns of l i f e i n t i n y houses o r i n great space outdoors.  There are c e n t u r i e s behind the  deep interdependence of people i n an unmeasured world.  The settlements  have l i n e a r s t r e e t s , houses w i t h separate places f o r e a t i n g , sleeping, t o i l e t , b i r t h and death.  The l i f e of the settlements i s regulated; with c l o c k ,  calender, radio and balance-sheet.  The move from Ussuakjuk to "urban"  l i f e w i l l b r i n g changes hard to a r t i c u l a t e f o r the people, hard to i d e n t i f y f o r observers, but extremely important. In t h i s camp of t h i r t y - f i v e people, the r e l a t i v e youth of the f a m i l y heads i s r e f l e c t e d i n the absence of second-generation f a m i l i e s , for  there are no married sons or sons-in-law to form an extended f a m i l y  u n i t under the a u t h o r i t y of the o l d e s t hunter.  The number of a c t i v e hunters  i s one per two-point-eight others - a favourable r a t i o .  Three boys are of  an age to marry, but t h e i r absence on b r i d e service i n other camps would be balanced by the a r r i v a l of the husbands of the three marriageable g i r l s . The population of Ussuakjuk has a s l i g h t l y higher r a t i o of a d u l t s to^,children under sixteen years o l d , than does that of the region as a whole.  81  In 1 9 6 5 ,  the population o f the camp, by f a m i l i e s , was as f o l l o w s :  Family 1 ;  Fapak,  aged 40,  family-head.  Tukilkee,  3 7 1 wife  Aivingoyak,  20,  Monamee,  1 8 , son  Kilabvak,  1 7 , son  Merkotikulu,  14, son  Pameolik,  1 1 , daughter  son (In h o s p i t a l with t u b e r c u l o s i s , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 )  Kudluguktok,  6 , daughter  Tuktu,  2 , son  Papak i s the camp leader, strong, a c t i v e , humorous and a c q u i s i t i v e . He owned a whaleboat and engine, but l o s t i t i n the i c e i n 1 9 6 4 .  He has  ordered a similar, boat through the government subsidy scheme, to be d e l i v e r e d i n the f a l l ,  He has a canoe and an.-eighteen horse-power outboard motor; a  winter house o r karngmat1 a summer t e n t , and with h i s sons, two s l e d s and twenty dogs.  He i s one o f the most s u c c e s s f u l f o x trappers o f the region,  and has on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e used s e a l nets f o r several years.  His kinship  connections w i t h the area, h i s a b i l i t y and character, p l u s the favourable number o f grown sons i n h i s f a m i l y , are the f a c t o r s making him the recognized issumatak o r general leader o f the Ussuakjuk group.  Family 2 :  Aipilee,  aged 3 3 , f a m i l y head  Uviluk,  3 4 , wife  Immerkotailak  1 6 , daughter  Pakoyak,  1 2 , son  Komoaktok,  8, daughter  Akpaliakjuk,  5 , son  Inusilk,  4 , daughter  82  A l p i l e e i s second i n prestige and authority; an average but a catechist and i n t e l l e c t u a l .  hunter,  This family i s the only one of the group  which has not l o s t children through tuberculosis o r other disease. has a winter house, a summer tent, a sled and sixteen dogs.  Aipilee  He p r i z e s a  metric tape measure, obtained from a DEWline employee, with which he pretends to measure walrus.  H i s wife Uviluk i s a s i s t e r o f Papak, and t h i s , with  more d i s t a n t kinship t i e s , i s the main reason f o r A i p i l e e ' s membership o f the group.  As i s sometimes the case, the daughter Komoaktok i s singled out  f o r e s p e c i a l l y favourable treatment by parents, receiving the best choice of food, g i f t s and clothing.  Family 3  Annanack,  aged 6 2 , family-head  Papigaitok  17» foster-son  Supuyuk  1 4 , daughter  This family l i v e adoptive father.  i n A i p i l e e ' s house, as Annanack i s A i p i l e e ' s  The o l d man was p a r t i a l l y disabled when he l o s t h i s toes  due to f r o s t b i t e , and he receives a monthly pension which i s an important part o f the group income, making up f o r Annanacks rather low status.  He has  few children, and even before h i s accident, was not a well-known hunter.  He  has been widowed twice - h i s second wife survived starvation and cannibalism i n 1 9 4 8 , but died during the measles epidemic o f 1 9 6 2 . She was the mother of Supuyuk.  Within the dual household, Supuyuk performs certain duties f o r  her f a t h e r and step-brother, but receives poor treatment from Uviluk, the woman o f the house.  83  o shelf  o ./.  ) bed  platform  o o  (  wife's turf wall  -chamber  bench  -pots-  •CD  blubber wooden  place  lama  floor  X  i  watex spare bed & storage  storage  o  window over door  door food  ^rum^^  &  harness  snowporch  c  PLAN OF AIPILEE'S KARNGMAR after  Honda &  Fujiki  Fie. 4  SCALE IN FEET  84  Ikalukjuak,  aged 37,  Ningiuapik,  33,  wife  Anahatuk,  17,  daughter  Keenainak,  13,  daughter  Pudlat,  10,  daughter  Family 4:  family-head  Tiriganeak,  5 , a d o p t e d son  Ala,  1, son  Ulimautalik,  27, b r o t h e r o f I k a l u k j u a k  I k a l u k j u a k i m m i g r a t e d from A r c t i c Bay,  H i s marriage t o Tukilkee's  c o u s i n g i v e s him t h e s t a t u s o f b r o t h e r - i n - l a w t o Papak, i n I g l u l i n g m i u t terms.  The s u c c e s s i o n o f d a u g h t e r s i n h i s f a m i l y e x p l a i n s h i s a d o p t i o n o f  a son. (The i n c i d e n c e o f a d o p t i o n s i n t h e U s s u a k j u k group i s r a t h e r l o w b y Eastern A r c t i c rifle-shot.  standards).  I k a l u k j u a k i s a c h e e r f u l man, a n d an e x c e l l e n t  He has a home-made s k i f f ; a w i n t e r house; summer t e n t , s l e d  arid f o u r t e e n dogs.  Titanark,  aged 4 5 , f a m i l y - h e a d  Pogutak,  44,  Pitsiolark,  19, son  Nauyuyakvik  17, d a u g h t e r  wife  Amearut,  9, son  Ugaq,  5,  Kagitak,  6 , a d o p t e d son  Komangapik,  2, son  daughter  T i t a n a r k and h i s w i f e a r e b o t h o r i g i n a l l y from Pond I n l e t .  He i s  i n poor h e a l t h , a n d h a v i n g no c a p a b l e sons o f h u n t i n g age ( P i t s i o l a r k i s m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d ) , T i t a n a r k c o n t r i b u t e s l i t t l e t o t h e group h u n t i n g a n d trapping.  He i s a g i f t e d mechanic, however, a n d owns a n e i g h t e e n  horse-power  85  outboardinmotor.  He has a s l e d , a summer tent and eleven dogs.  H i s wife i s  an outgoing woman, one of a c l a n with high p r e s t i g e , and despite the r e l a t i v e poverty of the f a m i l y , her t e n t i s host to v i s i t o r s to the camp more often than that o f Tukilkee, who i s l e s s hospitable.  This f a m i l y  wintered during 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 i n the karngmat belonging to a r e l a t i v e , M i t t u k s a l i k , who had gone to l i v e a t H a l l Beach.  The annual c y c l e of a c t i v i t y f o r the people o f Ussuakjuk v a r i e s a l i t t l e from year to year according to Ice c o n d i t i o n s , the number and h e a l t h of the members of the group, the movements o f w i l d l i f e , and the economy.  The environment sets f i r m l i m i t s upon such v a r i a t i o n , and the  e s s e n t i a l s - walrus; s e a l ; caribou; f o x ; winter and summer, boat and s l e d remain the same. A t y p i c a l year during the 1960's might be summarized as follows: January  The group are l i v i n g i n karngmat a t Ussuakjuk.  The days are  e n t i r e l y dark, o r a t l e a s t sunless: w i t h ample walrus meat cached, there i s l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e to hunt a t the f l o e edge several miles east.  For the most p a r t the men v i s i t the caches a t Tikerak to the north,  and a t Ingnertok, on t h e i r way to the t r a p l l n e s that extend along the eastern shore of H a l l Lake.  Papak has a l i n e i n l a n d from Ussuakjuk to  Sarcpa Lake, where u n t i l 1 9 6 3 , when the s i t e closed, he was sure of dog food a t the garbage dump o f a small DEWline s i t e .  He v i s i t s t h i s l i n e  twice while the moonlight i s good, and b r i n g s back caribou from caches made the previous f a l l .  The women c l e a n and sew s k i n s taken r e c e n t l y o r  remaining from the f a l l hunt, and the men carve i n stone or i n i v o r y taken V '^ 7  the year before l a s t .  86  ANNUAL CYCLE USSUAKJUK CAMP  SOURCES. THICKNESS OF I O K . . . D E P A R T M E N T OF TRANSPORT CIRCULARS *  3711,  *9l8,  4153,  3537.  MEAN MONTHLY TEMPERATURES...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT M E T ' L BRANCH, HALL BEACH. ESKIMO M O N T H S . . . T . M A T H I A S S E N , THE MATERIAL C U L T U R E . . . BIRTHS. . .FROM 1965 DISC L I S T , ALL BIRTHS SINCE 19*1. ALMOST IDENTICAL TO THE REOIONAL ONE.  Fig.  5  1928. USSUAKJUK PATTERN  IS  87  February  Trapping continues, and about mid-month a caribou hunt i s made up the Jenness River, Inukshukjuak.  The men  spend two nights  i n snow houses, and with two teams bring i n f i f t e e n caribou. A l l the hunters wear caribou c l o t h i n g i n t h i s cold month, and the women stay indoors but f o r occasional v i s i t s .  Even the children seldom play  outdoors, they tumble from hut to hut i n l i t t l e groups, according to age.  March  The sun has returned, showing b r i e f l y each day, and the seals under the i c e of the bay are hunted a t t h e i r breathing holes, with several men and dogs, f o r c i n g the seal to use the one  hole where the hunter waits.  Later i n the month, dogs are used to smell  out the aglus under i c e - s l a b s or d r i f t e d snow, where new-born seals can be taken.  The wind has blown from the north-east f o r two days, bringing  pack i c e against the f l o e edge, and the men  go out, f i n d i n g walrus.  Two  walrus are k i l l e d , but the wind s h i f t s , blowing the loose i c e out to sea, and the party are almost set a d r i f t .  For the r e s t of the month the traps  along the coast are the main focus of a c t i v i t y .  April  L i g h t and darkness are equal now,  but-the cold i s s t i l l enough  to permit piaksaut or i c e sheathing on the sled i r o n s .  Some  sealing and walrus hunting i s done a t the f l o e edge, and a few jftktuk or basking seals are stalked and shot.  A caribou  hunt i s made  inland up the r i v e r that flows i n t o Naulingiyakvik lake, and when the teams return, three of them t r a v e l north along the coast. i s picked up a t the f a r t h e s t cache, near Ingnertok.  Caribou meat  I t i s the t a s t i e s t  f a l l meat, to be sold to employed Eskimos a t I g l o o l i k .  A few carvings  are sold to DEWline employees a t H a l l Beach, and a t the Hudson's Bay Company store at I g l o o l i k fox skins are traded.  The family allowances  88  f o r the whole camp, and Annanack's pension, have accumulated since the December t r i p , and the three teams return with good loads. Only one woman accompanies the teams as f a r as H a l l Beach, to see the nurse there and wait f o r the teams to r e t u r n from I g l o o l i k . Titanark and a few of the o l d e r boys stay behind a t Ussuakjuk, where they hunt s e a l , c l o s e the t r a p l i n e s , and b r i n g home a few of the e i d e r ducks that are a r r i v i n g a t the f l o e edge.  May  This the best month f o r uktuk s e a l i n g .  Papak and A i p i l e e  p r e f e r to s t a l k as do most I g l u l i n g m i u t hunters - creeping up to the s e a l with no cover.  Ikalukjuak uses the screen o f t e n , but although he i s  u s u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l , the I g l o o l i k way i s as good when done e x p e r t l y .  A  three day walrus hunt i s made, with the biggest canoe hauled on a s l e d to the f l o e edge ( made i n d e f i n i t e by d r i f t i n g i c e ) . F i v e walrus and a female ukjuk with young are k i l l e d , and on the r e t u r n journey P a k i t j u k , the weak 'whipping dog' of A i p i l e e ' s team, i s crushed under the s l e d and  left  to d i e . Squawducks and sea-pigeons are massed along the f l o e edge, with other seabirds w a i t i n g f o r the c o a s t a l ponds to c l e a r .  Another  caribou hunt i s made towards the Barrow (Kugaluk) River, and Papak sets h i s s e a l net i n a b i g crack in-the i c e of the bay, a mile from the camp. U l i m a u t a l i k and Monamee k i l l an a d u l t bear that, l i k e them, was s t a l k i n g seals.  June  During t h i s month Annanack and h i s foster-son make t h e i r usual journey by s l e d to I g l o o l i k .  The o l d man f o l l o w s the custom of  e a r l i e r time, and d i s t r i b u t e s most of h i s purchases to each household on h i s r e t u r n .  This i s a busy month,but there i s no caribou  89  hunting a f t e r the f i r s t week, f o r the snow i s melting o f f the land, and the young caribou are being born.  The seabirds are n e s t i n g around ponds, and  the falcons,longspurs and other land b i r d s have a r r i v e d Papak takes several s e a l s i n h i s net u n t i l the i c e c l o s e s the, ; crack completely, and he must hope to r e t r i e v e the net l a t e r .  Basking  seals are k i l l e d every day, and t h i s i s the time f o r the boys to l e a r n the a r t .  The f l o e edge has moved c l o s e r to camp, and walrus, ringed s e a l  or bearded s e a l are brought home during a one day hunt.  Oneone hunt,  Ikalukjuak sees a dead walrus f l o a t i n g among the d r i f t i c e . He r e t r i e v e s i t by harpooning i t w i t h a bladder d a r t , and f i n d s that i t i s one that he wounded two days ago. By mid-June the i c e i s breaking up, and the whole camp moves by dog team to the summer s i t e a t Tikerak, about twenty miles north.  Normally,,  the whaleboat i s stored there during the winter, but i t was l o s t i n a storm last f a l l .  At Tikerak the Ingnertok f a m i l i e s j o i n the Ussuakjuk group.  Of the f o u r f a m i l i e s from Ingnertok, K a e r o l i k i s Annanack*s f o s t e r - s o n , P i t i t s e r a k i s a cousin of Papak through adoption, and h i s son has married an o l d e r woman, the recent widow of Kongasirut, an Ussuakjuk man who died of t u b e r c u l o s i s . She has f o u r c h i l d r e n , making the t h i r d family^and the f o u r t h i s that of Keenainak, who owns a canoe and outboard motor.  The  Ingnertok group t h i s year t o t a l s twenty-three people, s i x of whom are a c t i v e hunters.  K a e r o l i k owns the whaleboat used by the group, and he i s  the leader i n most respects, though P i t i t s e r a k , who owns the engine, i s close i n s e n i o r i t y and a u t h o r i t y . The two camps work together during the summer hunt f o r walrus and sealmeat.  Papak i s u s u a l l y the o v e r a l l leader, but t h i s year he must  be content to work w i t h a canoe r a t h e r than a whaleboat.  The char are  running out of the lake behind Tikerak, and nets are set through the i c e  90  near camp.  The c h i l d r e n , who have been j i g g i n g f o r sculpins and torn-cod,  now have bigger game, and some f i s h are speared f o r sport.  The ptarmigan  are moving i n f l o c k s i n l a n d , and there i s always someone walking i n t o camp with a white bundle o f b i r d s .  July  I n t h i s month, and i n August, the wind sets from the north, completing the removal o f shore-ice.  Newly separated i c e i s  constantly moving south along the coast, but t h i s f l o w may be i n t e r r u p t e d a t any time i f the wind blows s t e a d i l y from the east f o r a few days.  This season o f moving ice, i s the best time f o r walrus and bearded  seal hunting and the hunters t r a v e l as f a r a f i e l d as the Kingukshat, o r Manning I s l a n d s .  I n previous years caches were made a t Quarman Point, but  l a s t year too much meat was taken by the men o f H a l l Beach, and t h i s years caches w i l l be made close to home. F i s h nets are set near the r i v e r mouth, and the r e d f l e s h o f s p l i t f i s h i s hanging everywhere i n the camp. The e i d e r ducks are n e s t i n g and eggs are added to the l a r d e r .  This i s the time o f year when most  babies are b o m t o the I g l u l i n g m i u t , and A i p i l e e * s wife has a son.  August  I t i s now three months since the main shopping t r i p t o I g l o o l i k , The whaleboat and two canoes are taken f o r the summer t r a d i n g , and t h i s time three women and f i v e c h i l d r e n go along, to v i s i t  a t H a l l Beach and I g l o o l i k .  Two young dogs go i n t o the whaleboat, promised  to Kananginak a t H a l l Beach.  With v i s i t i n g and hunting along the way, the  round t r i p takes s i x days. The men l e f t behind'hunt walrus and bearded seal u n t i l the wind takes a l l the i c e f a r out to the east; then they concentrate on ringed s e a l , shot i n open water.  The i c e i s s t i l l w e l l out when the t r a d i n g party  91  returns, and three canoes go up the Aigotadlik River as f a r as the rapids. Prom there the party goes inland with pack-dogs a f t e r caribou.  Twelve  caribou, including two b u l l s s t i l l with new horns i n velvet, are k i l l e d , and a l l that cannot be c a r r i e d back to the canoes i s cached under stones.  September  The long days are ending, and the seabirds begin to gather along the coast, preparing f o r the f l i g h t south.  The pack-ice moves  i n again, and there i s another intensive s p e l l of walrus hunting. The coats o f the caribou are now a t t h e i r best f o r clothing, and another hunt i s made with pack-dogs i n l a n d from the o l d campsite a t Krlngakjuak. As with a l l the hunts t h i s year the caribou are seen i n small bands, never more than twenty together. On t h i s hunt twelve are k i l l e d , and most of the meat i s cached, to be c o l l e c t e d when sledding i s resumed. The supply-ships are a t H a l l Beach and I g l o o l i k , but only Keenainak, who needs cash, goes to help with the unloading.  Papak's new  boat a r r i v e s , and i s stored a t I g l o o l i k , to be launched there next summer. The other men continue to hunt, and as i c e begins to "form i n the small bays, the  two groups separate, the Ussuakjuk people returning by boat to t h e i r  winter s i t e .  Some repairs are made to the karngmat, and by the time the  snow comes each family i s s e t t l e d i n , with the women working on the skin -v.  clothing and bedding f o r the coming winter.  October  Just before the mating season o f the caribou another hunt i s made on foot from Ussuakjuk, while the older men hunt walrus by boat. For about two weeks a f t e r the walrus hunt the i c e forms i n the  bay, not thick enough to bear sled t r a f f i c , but too thick f o r boating from camp.  The wind blows strongly a t t h i s time, and but f o r short caribou-hunts  a c t i v i t y slows a f t e r a busy summer.  92  November  The hay i c e i s now t h i c k enough to t r a v e l on, and about f o u r miles offshore walrus are feeding, breaking through the new i c e to breathe.  The men p r a c t i c e the p a r t i c u l a r l y l o c a l a r t of the  region, harpooning and shooting the walrus as they break through.  The  trapping season opens, and the l i n e s are set out along the coast, or up the i n l a n d routes where caribou may be seen.  The snow i s deep enough  f o r s l e d t r a v e l , and the l a s t caribou hunt of the year i s made i n from Anangiakjuk, south o f the Jenness River.  December  There i s no shortage of meat, f o r the summer hunt was good u n l i k e 1 9 6 3 , when winds kept the whole of Parry Bay blocked w i t h i c e , and the dogs had l i t t l e food by spring.  With caches  f u l l a t Ussuakjuk and Tikerak, there are only two short t r i p s to the f l o e edge e a r l y i n the month.  Papak and Titanark, while r e t r i e v i n g a  walrus, are blown out to sea, and have a d i f f i c u l t time working t h e i r way back a g a i n s t wind and skim i c e forming o f f the f l o e edge. A few days before Christmas, A l p i l e e , Papak, Kilabvak and Titanark take t h e i r teams to I g l o o l i k to trade. T i t a n a r k ' s f i v e year o l d daughter  Ugak  has an abscessed tooth, and goes w i t h the party to  H a l l Beach, looked a f t e r by her o l d e r s i s t e r Nauyuyakvik.  Aipilee's sled  i s d e c r e p i t , and a t I g l o o l i k he makes a new one before r e t u r n i n g home. Rather than make do w i t h second-hand orssrap m a t e r i a l , he buys the specially-sawed twenty-foot wooden runners and s t e e l sheathing from the store, a t a c o s t of over one hundred d o l l a r s .  The party stay a t I g l o o l i k  f o r the Christmas church service and the dancing, before the hundred and f o r t y m i l e journey home through t w i l i g h t that w i l l end t h e i r year.  93  FOOTNOTES  D. Damas, Iglulingmiut Kinship and Local Groupings, Ottawa, National Museum of Canada B u l l e t i n No. 196, Department of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources, 1963.  2 tf.G. Ross, "The I g l o o l i k Eskimos", Journal, No. 76, I960, p. 154.  Scottish Geographical  3 op. c i t . , p. 3 2 . Jean Malaurie, "Preliminary Report from an Anthropological Mission f o r Demographic and Economic Research c a r r i e d out i n I g l o o l i k , N.W.T. D i s t r i c t Canada", Ottawa, Unpublished manuscript, Northern Co-ordination & Research Centre, Northern A f f a i r s & National Resources. Anders, Northern Foxe Basin, An Area Economic Survey, Ottawa, I n d u s t r i a l D i v i s i o n , Northern Administration Branch, Department o f Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources, 1965t pp. 57 -67.  6 pj>. c i t . , pp. 71 - 97. ^Camp groups usually sold f u r communally. Of 46 i n d i v i d u a l Eskimos s e l l i n g f u r s i n 1964, the 10 most successful were from the I g l o o l i k Island area. Q op. c i t . , p. 6 4 . 9 'Damas, oj>. c i t . , p. 27. K. Honda and T. F u j i k i , Report on the l i f e o f the Eskimos i n the Canadian A r c t i c , Tokyo, Asahl Shimbun, 1963, p. 73.  94  CHAPTER V  THE ATROPHY OF AN ECOLOGY  The h i s t o r y o f human settlement i n northern Foxe Basin p r i o r to about 1800 has one p r i n c i p a l constant - a general long-term e q u i l i b r i u m between people and the animal resources which sustained them.  As Sonnenfeld  has pointed out, the p r e - r i f l e hunting technology o f the Eskimos e s t a b l i s h e d i t own l i m i t s o f resource-use, a c o n t r o l as e f f e c t i v e as t h a t o f the environment.^ Two main elements o f d i s e q u i l i b r i u m entered the ecology of northern Foxe Basin e a r l y i n the 1 9 t h century. manufactured  One was the adoption o f  (imported) items o f technology, and the o t h e r , i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o  an e x t e r n a l l y based cash economy.  Technological Innovation expanded  production of f u r and meat towards o r beyond the l i m i t s of the resource base, and the i n c r e a s i n g c o s t o f consumer goods couldnnot be met from the sale o f hunting produce. Compared t o other A r c t i c regions such as Ungava o r the Mackenzie Delta, the e c o l o g i c a l balance o f northern Foxe Basin survived f o r a long time - a century and a h a l f a f t e r i n i t i a l contact,  To some observers the  camp system o f the 1 9 3 0 ' s t o e a r l y 1960's appeared t o be a v a l i d and v i a b l e socio-economic system based on a r e g i o n a l ecology.  Damas i n h i s p r e d i c t i o n  f o r the f u t u r e o f camp settlement omits the " r e v o l u t i o n o f r i s i n g 2 expectation" and i n March 1 9 5 6 the f o l l o w i n g note was given t o an o f f i c i a l v i s i t i n g I g l o o l i k from Ottawa: "So f a r these people have not been g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by the DEWline. Mr. has purposely not encouraged them t o take employment. This i s one o f the areas where very few problems a r i s e . These people obtain a l l the country food they need and continue to l i v e a q u i t e p r i m i t i v e existence. Walrus have always been very numerous i n t h i s area, but i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o know i f there are any r e p o r t s o f any d e c l i n e i n t h i s resource i n recent years" 3  95  D e s p i t e t h e appearance o f e q u i l i b r i u m , t h e h u n t i n g economy, s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e were a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y doomed by t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l and economic elements mentioned e a r l i e r .  The two p r e c e d i n g  c h a p t e r s have d e a l t w i t h p a t t e r n s e a s i l y d i s c e r n e d and measured - t h e d e c l i n e and growth o f p o p u l a t i o n ; t h e e x p a n s i o n and c o n t r a c t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t , a n d a system o f t e r r i t o r i a l s u b - d i v i s i o n . T h i s c h a p t e r  will  examine more c l o s e l y t h e p r o c e s s o f change, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o settlement patterns.  The a n a l y t i c a l model r e q u i r e s an u n r e a l f r a c t i o n i n g  o f t h e u n i v e r s a l i t y t h a t i s change, b u t w i t h t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f method i n mind one c a n f o l l o w changes i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n o f I g l u l i n g m i u t v i a changes i n t h e i r m a t e r i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c u l t u r e .  A g e n t s o f C o n t a c t , 1823 - I960 The I g l u l i n g m i u t had c o n t a c t w i t h w h a l e r s o u t s i d e t h e i r r e g i o n , but f o r a century a f t e r Parry's departure, recorded v i s i t s t o northern Foxe B a s i n by w h i t e man were few. and Tremblay i n 1 9 1 3 .  H a l l reached  I g l u l i k i n 1867 and 1868,  The f o r m i d a b l e i c e p a c k s d i s c o u r a g e d w h a l e r s and  whales f r o m t h e r e g i o n , and d e l a y e d c o n t a c t w e l l i n t o t h e 2 0 t h  century.  The w h a l i n g s h i p s were m o s t l y American and B r i t i s h , and Norwegian e x p l o r e r s posed a l a t e r t h r e a t t o Canadian s o v e r e i g n t y i n t h e A r c t i c Archipelago. 1903  Nominal t i t l e was a c q u i r e d b y Canada i n 1880, and i n  t h e f i r s t a r c t i c p a t r o l was made b y t h e S.S.Neptune. A p o l i c e p o s t was e s t a b l i s h e d a t F u l l e r t o n on t h e s o u t h west  margin o f M e l v i l l e - B o r d e n Eskimo t e r r i t o r y .  Intermittent police patrols  were made t o s o u t h e r n M e l v i l l e P e n i n s u l a u n t i l 1922, when t h e f i r s t A r c t i c P a t r o l was made.  Eastern  The P a t r o l o f 1923 reached P i n g e r k a l i k i n n o r t h e r n  Foxe B a s i n w i t h a crew o f p o l i c e , s u r v e y o r s , d o c t o r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , b u t no permanent p o s t was e s t a b l i s h e d .  L a v o i e and Tremblay o f t h e A r c t i c  96  patrol made longer contact i n 1910 and 1913. sledging south from A r c t i c Bay. The patrol post a t Pond I n l e t was established i n 1922, and from there annual p a t r o l s v i s i t e d northern Foxe Basin.  Nokadlak, who k i l l e d a  trader, was apprehended near I g l o o l i k and t r i e d a t Pond I n l e t .  Captains  Spicer and Comer s a i l e d close to H a l l Beach near the end o f the 19th century, and the Danish 5th Thule Expedition spent three years, from 1921 to 1924, i n south and north Foxe Basin,  i n 1927 and 1928 the Putnam and  MacMillan expeditions ships v i s i t e d the H a l l Beach area b r i e f l y , and Father Bazin of the Abvadjak mission wrote of an u n i d e n t i f i e d schooner that v i s i t e d I g l o o l i k i n 1933.^ The B r i t i s h Canadian A r c t i c Expedition spent the years 1937 and 1938 i n the region, and one member, Graham Rowley, returned i n 1939 to do archeological work a t Abvadjak.  Another member, T.H. Manning,  s a i l e d with h i s wife around the entire Basin i n 1940.  Canon Turner of  Moffet I n l e t v i s i t e d the region i n 1938 and i n 1941 by dog-team.  In the  l a t t e r year the Eskimo population were given i d e n t i f i c a t i o n discs, and entered the Canadian s t a t i s t i c a l scene. Throughout the war there was l i t t l e communication between northern Foxe Basin and the outside world.  The Hudson's Bay Company and  Roman Catholic Mission boats v i s i t e d I g l o o l i k intermittently during the l a t e 30's,  but from 1940 to 1947 no ship could navigate through the i c e .  The Roman Catholic misson p i l o t , Father Schulte, made mercy f l i g h t s to firetic  Bay and I g l o o l i k i n 1938, to be followed by others during the war  years, when the mission acquired a transceiver set.  The Roman Catholic  hospital a t Chesterfield I n l e t had been treating the I g l o o l i k Eskimos since 1931. but i c e conditions delayed u n t i l a f t e r 1945 the tuberculosis campaign of the f e d e r a l health a u t h o r i t i e s - a campaign that helped to stem a high death rate,but had adisjunctlve e f f e c t on Eskimo f a m i l i e s when one o r both married couples were taken to southern sanatoria f o r extended stays.  97  P L A T E 12 - Spearing fish at weir, 1962 (photo D. Bisset)  P L A T E 13 - Javagiak at Hall Beach with bladder darts 1966 (photo K. Crowe)  98  Between 1945 a n d 1 9 5 5 a s e r i e s o f s c i e n t i f i c e x p e d i t i o n s were made t o n o r t h e r n Foxe B a s i n , i n c l u d i n g t h e c r u i s e s o f t h e r e s e a r c h v e s s e l s , Nauya a n d C a l a n u s .  Two American i c e - b r e a k e r s i n 1 9 4 8 made t h e f i r s t l a r g e  v e s s e l passage o f F u r y and H e c l a S t r a i t f r o m t h e G u l f o f B o o t h i a , and I n 6  1956  t h e Canadian v e s s e l L a b r a d o r made t h e passage westward. From 1822 t o 1 9 5 5 v i s i t o r s t o n o r t h e r n Foxe B a s i n from o u t s i d e  the A r c t i c were few i n number a n d i n f r e q u e n t i n appearance. 1955  t h e r e were n e v e r more t h a n t h r e e r e s i d e n t whitemen.  From 1 9 3 1 t o  The  accumulative  e f f e c t o f t h e c o n t a c t s may have had l o n g term s o c i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t s , b u t up t o 1 9 5 5 i t had n o t a p p r e c i a b l y a f f e c t e d t h e h u n t i n g e c o l o g y and t h e p a t t e r n o f d i s p e r s e d camp s e t t l e m e n t . I n 1955»  ' 5 6 a n d '57 t h e DEWline was b u i l t , c r e a t i n g s i x modern  communities w i t h a i r - s t r i p s from e a s t t o west a c r o s s n o r t h e r n Foxe B a s i n . S e v e r a l Eskimo f a m i l i e s came t o t h e r e g i o n f r o m t h e w e s t e r n A r c t i c a s DEWline employees, b r i n g i n g w i t h them t h e a t t i t u d e s and h a b i t s o f the"more a c c u l t u r a t e d " Eskimo.  A f t e r some i n s t a n c e s o f p r o s t i t u t i o n , t h e abuse o f  l i q u o r and t h e i l l e g a l s a l e o f i v o r y , Eskimos o t h e r t h a n t h e few employees were banned f r o m DEWline b u i l d i n g s , and i n g e n e r a l t h e d i s p e r s e d camp system was n o t i m m e d i a t e l y  affected.  D e s p i t e t h e l a c k o f immediate s o c i a l o r a r e a l e f f e c t , t h e s i z e , n o v e l t y and p r o d i g i o u s w e a l t h o f t h e DEWline must have had a g r e a t i m p a c t on t h e I g l u l i n g m i u t . was i n e v i t a b l e .  Some fundamental change i n t h e psyche o f t h e Eskimo  A f t e r i 9 6 0 t h e growth o f two a d m i n i s t r a t i v e communities  a t H a l l B e a c h and I g l o o l i k b r o u g h t a g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n c u l t u r a l and economic c o n t a c t , a n d t h e camp e c o l o g y went i n t o s w i f t d e c l i n e . The Changing Resource Base Before t h e 1 9 t h century the o n l y major e f f e c t o f hunting I n  99  northern Foxe Basin was the e x t i n c t i o n of musk-ox on M e l v i l l e Peninsula. The whaling captains employed t h e i r own f i f l e m e n and supplied Eskimos w i t h r i f l e s i n order to obtain meat, f u r s and i v o r y . I n 1 8 6 7 the ship Black Eagle took on board a t Repulse Bay 20 tons o f walrus, musk-ox, and caribou 7 meat.  I n 1903 the U.S.S. E r a took 3 5 0 musk-ox hides, and the A r c t i c 1 5 0 .  8  9  Captain Comer, i n 1 9 0 5 took 3 8 musk-ox hides and 1 1 Greenland Whales. The slaughter o f game by o r f o r the whalers took place on the periphery o f northern Foxe Basin, but the region v/as a f f e c t e d . By about 1930 the migration of caribou across Rae Isthmus had ended,  10  and the  shortage o f game i n Repulse Bay was a key f a c t o r i n the emigration o f A i v i l i n g m i u t to northern Foxe Basin. R i f l e s were f i r s t acquired by the I g l u l i n g m i u t about 1 8 4 0 , but 11  i t was not u n t i l 1900 that they had e n t i r e l y d i s p l a c e d bows.  The whalers  sold r i f l e s f o r f u r s , and Superintendent Moodie o f the R.N.W.M.P. c i t e d a case where a $ 1 0 . 0 0 gun was s o l d f o r $ 7 5 0 . 0 0 worth of f u r s .  Use o f  r i f l e s meant journeys beyond the region f o r ammunition u n t i l the I g l o o l i k store was b u i l t , and b u l l e t s f o r muzzle loaders were o c c a s i o n a l l y made o f soapstone. The new need f o r skins and i v o r y as a r t i c l e s o f trade made f o r increased use o f game resources.  Eskimo hunters with r i f l e s could and d i d  k i l l more caribou than had been p o s s i b l e w i t h spears and arrows.  The caribou 14 herds which remained on M e l v i l l e Peninsula were g r e a t l y reduced, and i n 1937 the I g l u l i n g m i u t were so short o f caribou s k i n c l o t h i n g that f a m i l i e s migrated to the marginal east coast o f Foxe Basin, where caribou a t l e a s t 15  were p l e n t i f u l .  I n 1 9 5 3 the Hudson's Bay Company imported skins t o the  region from Baker Lake f o r sale to I g l u l i n g m i u t . ^ 1  By 1 9 2 5 s t e e l spring fox traps were f a s t r e p l a c i n g stone d e a d f a l l s and other p r i m i t i v e t r a p s .  Fox f u r s were r e p l a c i n g walrus i v o r y as a major  100  item of trade, and had to he taken to Pond I n l e t or Repulse Bay u n t i l 1939 (when the I g l o o l i k store opened).  Damas has pointed out that the  I g l u l i n g m i u t never trapped as d i l i g e n t l y as, say, the Holman I s l a n d e r s , and t h a t once the i n i t i a l investment i n whaleboats was made, the economic 17 emphasis was on meat hunting. Despite i t s small r o l e r e l a t i v e to some other regions, f o x trapping "became the economic base of Eskimo l i f e from about 1920 to a t l e a s t 1950•  I t was the r a i s o n d'etre of the t r a d i n g posts, and provided  f o r the purchase of r i f l e s , boats, stoves, canvas and an i n c r e a s i n g number of other goods.  Although f o x trapping p o t e n t i a l v a r i e d l i t t l e w i t h i n the  region, the r e l a t i v e l y scarce d i s t r i b u t i o n of foxes required more d i s p e r s i o n of settlement than d i d sea-mammal hunting.  The increased  emphasis on winter trapping was a f a c t o r i n the expansion of camp settlement d u r i n g 1930's and  1940's.  Despite some e a r l y experimentation w i t h r i f l e - t r a p s ,  maulirkpok  s e a l i n g a t breathing holes d e c l i n e d i n importance i n favour of the shooting of uktuk s e a l s basking on the i c e . Increased y i e l d s of seal through the use of r i f l e s may have been the c h i e f f a c t o r p e r m i t t i n g settlement of the Agu Bay area, where walrus are r a r e . Whether on the i c e , a t the f l o e edge or from boats, many more s e a l s could be struck by r i f l e f i r e than by harpoon, and the t o t a l y i e l d of seal meat or seal s k i n was r a i s e d .  Losses  by s i n k i n g or the escape.of wounded weals increased g r e a t l y i n the process. Anders has estimated t h a t the r e g i o n a l s e a l p o t e n t i a l was under-used by 18 some 25% i n 1 9 & 5 .  F u l l use, however, assumes an even d i s t r i b u t i o n of  hunting throughout the region, and Eskimo informants noted a general d e c l i n e i n the population of both ringed and bearded s e a l s near the camps of the "core" area. Although the sale of raw f u r and i v o r y was l i m i t e d by l e g i s l a t i o n  101  a f t e r 1913,  the k i l l i n g of walrus f o r i v o r y continued, and i n 1931 an a c t  was passed on "behalf of the Department of F i s h e r i e s p r o h i b i t i n g the export of unworked i v o r y from the N.W.T. The I g l u l i n g m i u t resumed subsistence hunting f o r walrus, but the number of hunters increased, and the wastage of walrus shot without being harpooned was considerable. on the waste of walrus i n 1923  19  Freuchen commented  and i n 1966 Mansfield estimated l o s s e s by  20  s i n k i n g a t J>0% of a l l k i l l s . of Hooper I n l e t dangerous  The walrus whose numbers made boat c r o s s i n g were driven from there or exterminated by 1 9 4 8 ,  and settlement on the i s l a n d of Abvadjak ended as a r e s u l t . The main herd i n northern Foxe Basin was protected to a considerable extent by f l o a t i n g i c e . Anders c a l c u l a t i o n of the permissible sustained y i e l d  22  d i f f e r s from those of Loughrey and Mansfield,  i n d i c a t e over-predation since about 1 9 5 6 .  23  who  Whether or not the r a t i o of  human population to walrus population was favourable to hunters i n theory, i n f a c t the frequency of walrus i n the main settlement areas  decreased  s t e a d i l y a f t e r 1955 due to increased hunting pressure and boat t r a f f i c . With the proceeds of fox-trapping, hunters could buy r i f l e s and boats, and with increased k i l l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y of walrus, could feed l a r g e dog teams, which i n turn f a c i l i t a t e d t r a v e l along trap l i n e s .  No accurate  count of dogs i n northern Foxe Basin was made p r i o r to 1 9 6 5 , but teams increased i n s i z e from the 8 to 10 of Lyon's time to 16 or 17 i n the and 1930's.  1920's  As Damas has suggested, there may have been occasional d i v i s i o n  of teams between f a t h e r and son as more wood became a v a i l a b l e f o r sleds. This would make team s i z e a doubtful c r i t e r i o n of t o t a l dog p o p u l a t i o n . ^ 2  Despite epidemics i n 1936 and 1 9 4 9 ,  the dog population probably had a long  term increase, and i n 1965 the w r i t e r counted about 730 dogs owned by 100 f u l l time hunting f a m i l i e s . The year round d a i l y average of meat consumed by a s l e d dog  was  102  1850 I  1950 I  1900 I  YAK INLAND KA BOW BIRD- DART KAYAK STONE TRAP FAMILY SNOWHOUSE SKIN TENT STONE & BONE HOUSE SKIN FLOAT BLADDER DART RIFLE SPRING TRAP CANVAS TENT PRIMUS WHALEBOAT INBOARD DRUM FLOAT OUTBOARD HOUSE SKIDOO APPROXIMATE  &  ADOPTION  1825  ATROPHY  IN  TECHNOLOGY  1875  1925 Fig. 6  103  about 2 l b s , and the same was tame of the I g l u l i n g m i u t u n t i l about 1 9 6 5 1 This r u l e o f thumb f i g u r e agrees w i t h B i s s e t t ' s estimate f o r the region i n 1963  25  26  and w i t h Usher's c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r Coppermine - Holman Eskimos.  Bisseti-- wrote that 8 5 to 90% o f I g l u l i n g m i u t food requirements were obtained through hunting walrus, s e a l and caribou.  Using the 1 9 6 5 population f i g u r e s  f o r people and dogs, the meat requirement f o r that year was 8 8 5 , 5 0 0 l b s . Anders t a b l e shows 7 9 8 , 9 0 0 l b s a c t u a l l y obtained.  H i s f i g u r e shows a  possible increase i n the harvest o f a l l species, up to a t o t a l o f 27 988,900 lbs.  The above t o t a l r e g i o n a l sustained y i e l d i s based on t o t a l game reserves, and does not take i n t o account a c c e s s i b i l i t y to settlement a t the time.  I t i s based too, on resources that i n 1 9 6 5 were s t a t i c , compared to  a burgeoning human population.  I n terms o f the r a t i o o f people to meat  a v a i l a b l e , the game resources o f northern Foxe Basin were marginal by 1 9 6 5 . i g v e r a l years before 1 9 6 5 the need f o r cash input had made the subsistence economy i n t o a subsidy economy. Technological Change In the p r e - r i f l e days, groups o f men, women and c h i l d r e n cooperated a t goose d r i v e s and caribou d r i v e s , o r t o f r i g h t e n seals i n t o r i s i n g a t one c e n t r a l breathing hole. became more and more a male s p e c i a l t y .  With the use o f r i f l e s ,  hunting  The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f f i s h nets reduced  the incidence o f group f i s h i n g with spears a t the shaputit dams. Men w i t h bigger dog teams and longer sleds could "work" a hunting area r a d i a l l y from a c e n t r a l camp, and the use o f primus stoves meant that the stone k u d l i k lamp coud be l e f t , with i t s female tender, a t the sajae camp.  The decrease i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f caribou s k i n s coupled  w i t h changes i n f a s h i o n , meant that fewer women were equipped with s k i n  104  t r a v e l l i n g clothes. coldest months.  Dressed i n d u f f l e cloth, they stayed home during the  The d i s t i n c t i v e pouched hoot of the Melville-Borden  culture group was adapted f o r sled t r a v e l , f o r the women could draw her foot up i n t o the pouch f o r warmth while r i d i n g .  This type of boot went  out of use during the 1930's. The summer family expeditions inland with pack dogs were replaced by marine expeditions i n whaleboats to the islands to c o l l e c t b i r d s eggs, but i n general the changes i n technology and c l o t h i n g increased the sedentary r o l e of women and c h i l d r e n .  From observations made by the  writer i n northern Foxe Basin and other A r c t i c regions, the misery experienced by underclad camp f a m i l i e s may well have been one unarticulated reason f o r abandonment of the camp system.  The substitution of manufactured  clothing f o r caribou skin, enforced by circumstances or done by choice, was probably a main reason f o r the abandonment of snowhouses as winter quarters on the sea i c e . Walrus hunting a t sea had usually been c a r r i e d out by men i n pO  kayaks lashed together f o r safety.  With the advent of wooden whaleboats,  a new form of group hunt developed, under the leadership of one man usually owned a l l or part of the boat.  who  The boats increased y i e l d s of  walrus meat, and i c e permitting, could carry enough supplies i n the f a l l to  see a remote camp through the winter. Whaleboats were a key element i n the expansion of camp settlement  during three decades.  The f i r s t boats entered the region i n the l a t e 1920's  During the 1940's the Jens Munk Island and Iglukjuat camps were established 30 by f a m i l i e s with newly acquired boats.  In the f a l l of 1965 there were 12  whaleboats or boats of s i m i l a r size d i s t r i b u t e d i n the camps of northern Foxe Basin, though three were u n f i t f o r use. During the 1950's, canoes and outboard motors became a  new  2  105  i.  AVERAGE FUR  Sources—  PRICES  PAID  TO  IGLULINGMIUT.  A N D IVORY . 1 9 2 0 - 1967-  Harington.  Cantley  Fig. 7  Anders.  Donahue.  106  t e c h n o l o g i c a l element i n northern Foxe Basin.  By 1 9 6 5 there were 38 canoes  and 4 4 outboard motors owned by Eskimos i n the region.  Roughly h a l f of  these were operated from H a l l Beach and I g l o o l i k , the remainder from camp. The innovative r o l e o f the powered canoe seems to have been overlooked by students o f recent A r c t i c developments.  The speed o f the  canoes powered by outboard motors, and the p o s s i b i l i t y of r i v e r navigation, g r e a t l y increased the d a i l y range o f hunters, and wind c o n d i t i o n s .  a t l e a s t under adequate i c e  From one to three men can launch and l a n d almost any  canoe, and i f c a r r i e d on a s l e d to the f l o e edge, a canoe extends the boating season to 6 o r 7 months ( i n Foxe Basin) compared to 3 months f o r whaleboats. Powered canoes a f t e r about 1955 permitted I n d i v i d u a l hunting f a m i l i e s o r p a i r s of men to operate on an annual c y c l e independent of the whaleboat crew camps.  A few f u l l time hunters began to l i v e i n t h i s way,  v i s i t i n g various camp t e r r i t o r i e s from t h e i r home bases a t I g l o o l i k o r H a l l Beach.  Wage earning Eskimos d i d the same on weekends and during holidays,  or provided the c a p i t a l and operating money f o r a r e l a t i v e to hunt f u l l time by canoe i n exchange f o r meat. Anders has commented on the expense of canoe hunting i n terms of 31  gasoline used, shots wasted and time spent c r u i s i n g .  Heavy outboard motor  t r a f f i c i n any area a l s o d r i v e s away s e a l s , walrus and sea b i r d s . era  The camp  ended too q u i c k l y f o r the f u l l e f f e c t s of powered canoes to be measured.  I t appears however that the high cost of canoe operation, the adverse e f f e c t of the motors on w i l d l i f e , and the challenge to the whaleboat-based communities would have been another powerful f o r c e f o r d i s e q u i l i b r i u m . The m e c h a n i c s l e d , o r skidoo as i t i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d , a f t e r the f i r s t successful model, made i t s f i r s t appearance i n northern Foxe Basin i n 1963.  By 1965 s i x skidoos were owned by I g l u l i n g m i u t , only one of them by  107  ITEMS AT  OF TECHNOLOGY  IM USE  U S S U A K J U K .1965  Fig. 8  108  a f u l l time hunter.  The camps closed before the e f f e c t of skidoos upon  hunting settlement could be assessed. Modifications i n housing hadd l i t t l e or no e f f e c t on settlement u n t i l 1966.  Canvas replaced skins as roofing or l i n i n g i n karngmat houses  or snowhouses, but the karngmat i n p a r t i c u l a r survived as a house form u n t i l the close of the camps.  Scrap wood, mainly from the DEWline, influenced  house construction i n favour of "whlteman's s t y l e " housing, but again no location f a c t o r was involved. Minor items of technology survived unchanged from Parry's time, (see P i g . 6 and 7, Plates 12 and 13) and other a r t i f a c t s were substituted, for  example the ten gallon drum i n place of a sealskin f l o a t .  As with  housing, these changes were minor i n terms of the settlement pattern, but they i l l u s t r a t e the continuity of the hunting culture up to 1966.  Subsistence to Subsidy The whaling era was characterized by i n s t a b i l i t y i n population movement, game harvesting and commodity p r i c e s .  With the establishment of  Hudson's Bay Company trading posts during the 1920*s and 1930's, the Iglulingmiut were able to return to a modified version of the ancient regional pattern of a c t i v i t y and settlement. R i f l e s and whaleboats, the two most s i g n i f i c a n t items i n the "new"  ecology, were e a s i l y acquired i n terms of fox f u r s , the currency of  the a r c t i c In the early twentieth century.  Damas has shown that i n the  32 mid 1920's a whaleboat cost about 85 fox f u r s small group of hunters to trap.  - r e l a t i v e l y easy f o r a  In the mid 1960's the boat with i t s  essential motor would cost about 230 f u r s . * ^ A f t e r the i n i t i a l c a p i t a l outlay f o r a boat, the Iglulingmiut before 1950 had low operational costs, and tended to s e t t l e the camp areas  109  by hunting r a t h e r than trapping p o t e n t i a l .  Trapping was always a f a c t o r ,  however, and the post manager exerted what pressure he could to increase f u r production.  In 1945 Family Allowances were introduced, followed w i t h i n  a few years by other pensions and allowances.  The camps now had r e g u l a r  sources of Income which made them s t i l l more independent of t r a p l i n e l o c a t i o n and f u r p r i c e f l u c t u a t i o n s .  Old, d i s a b l e d and very young  I g l u l i n g m i u t now became assets to the hunting settlements r a t h e r than the l i a b i l i t i e s t h a t they had often been w i t h an unsubsidized economy. U n t i l the 1 9 5 0 ' s the demand f o r consumer goods was small.  The  t r a d i n g post c a r r i e d l i t t l e except r i f l e s , traps, ammunition, gasoline, tea,  f l o u r , tobacco, sled-timber, matches and c l o t h .  The I g l u l i n g m i u t  maintained a balance o f payments i n terms of f u r exported and goods imported. Figure 9 shows no subsidy f o r 1 9 4 0 . - 41. This state of e q u i l i b r i u m was threatened by a creeping increase i n the use of consumer good.  From 1 9 3 5 to 1966 an average of 4 4 c h i l d r e n  per year attended the C h e s t e r f i e l d school from I g l o o l i k .  From I960 the  f e d e r a l h o s t e l and day school a t I g l o o l i k had s t e a d i l y expanded, and i n the f a l l of 1 9 6 4 the f i r s t students went to the v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g school i n C h u r c h i l l , Manitoba.  Even more than the inmates of h o s p i t a l s , these  students learned s k i l l s , t a s t e s and a s p i r a t i o n s incompatible w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l ones; t h e i r needs could not be met from the f u r economy. In 1 9 5 6 , when the I g l u l i n g m i u t were being a c t i v e l y discouraged from t a k i n g DEWline employment i n order to preserve t h e i r s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t hunting way of l i f e , almost h a l f of t h e i r consumer needs were met by d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t subsidy from government.  The b r i e f s e a l s k i n "boom" of 1962 to  1964 r e s u l t e d i n investment i n both luxury goods and hunting equipment, such as bigger outboard motors. f u r t h e r out of e q u i l i b r i u m .  The end of the boom l e f t the economy s t i l l  110  SOURCES OF INCOME E s k i m o s o f N'th'n Foxe Basin  150000  150000  MO-  BO-  120 CRAFTS 110  100000  SOCIAL WAGES  •  90-  80  ASSISTANCE 100000  ALLOWANCES  &  PENSIONS  FURS G]  TOTAL  70-  60-  50 0 0 0  50000  40-  30-  20-  10-  00000 1940-41  Sources  - Ma/au  1964  1959-60  ri e.  Anders.  Donahue.  Fig. 9  i  1965-66  00000  Ill  One example may i l l u s t r a t e the situation of most f u l l  time  hunters and trappers i n 1 9 6 5 : Towkee has been f a i r l y consistent i n f i l l i n g i n game report forms f o r the R.C.M.P. Like most Eskimos of h i s generation, jhis numerical concepts are inexact, and during some months he forgot to f i l l i n the form. Nevertheless the following table gives a f a i r l y accurate picture of the resources of h i s camp area, and the emphases dictated by h i s equipment, h i s group and h i s personal Inclination.34  TABLE 1  Month Caribou July 1 / 6 5 Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May June 3 0 / 6 6  1 2 3 2 0  7  11 9  Ukjuk  J a r seal  2  1 3  6  6  1 1  4 8  --  1  -  --  77  11  4 2  Fox  -  -  4  -1  1  -  1  -  2  2 5  41  -  6  Wolf  Walrus  3  -  -  -  l  -  -  i  -  5  -  Bear  Whale  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  --  --  -  This hunter k i l l e d more than the regional average of caribou, as h i s camp i s i n the area nearest to caribou herds.  He hunted with a  small group consisting of h i s f i f t e e n year o l d son and another married hunter.  They had only a canoe with a small motor, and d i d no walrus  hunting that year.  The fox cycle that year was a t a low p o i n t . ^  His t o t a l income f o r the year, with h i s son, Fur sales Family Allowance Social Assistance Stevedoring  was:  5 5 0 . 0 0 4 3 2 . 0 0 2 7 7 . 0 0  141.00 1,400.00,  or 2 0 0 . 0 0 f o r each member of the family.  112  In a d d i t i o n to l i v i n g expenses of h i s f a m i l y (seven i n c l u d i n g h i m s e l f ) , the hunter was making payments on the canoe, which he purchased i n 1965 f o l l o w i n g the wreck of h i s whaleboat.  The l o s s of the whaleboat  was a major misfortune, but not an uncommon one i n the i c e - f i l l e d waters of the region. In 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 , poor fox-trapping was general throughout the region, and the example given above i s a f a i r representation of the economic dilemma of most camp Eskimos i n northern Foxe Basin.  The minimum y e a r l y  v  cash requirement f o r f u e l ; food; tobacco; ammunition and equipmentmaintenance was about $ 1 , 7 5 0 during the 1 9 6 0 ' s f o r a f a m i l y of f i v e l i v i n g i n camp.  The minimum per c a p i t a income needed was therefore $ 3 5 0 ,  much more than the a c t u a l average o f $205 from 1959 to 1 9 6 5 .  Even i f the  I g l u l i n g m i u t had money enough f o r ammunition, meat and skins f o r subsistence l i v i n g , t h i s d i d not s a t i s f y other t a s t e s acquired o r t h r u s t upon them. With b e t t e r organized and more d i l i g e n t l y - pursued trapping, the gap between r e g i o n a l " r e a l " income and the cost of imported goods might have been closed b r i e f l y .  This however, would have meant a decrease  i n meat-hunting f o r human consumption, and a corresponding increase i n r e l i a n c e on store food and c l o t h i n g . another turn.  Thus the s p i r a l would have taken  Hunting and trapping from dispersed camp l o c a t i o n s could  not continue, but movement to the settlements o f H a l l Beach and I g l o o l i k has not r e a l l y solved theseconomic problem.  Almost a l l the wages shown  f o r 1 9 6 4 and 1 9 6 5 i n Figure 9 were earned on the construction of Eskimo housing, a short term and subsidized source of income.  The r e g i o n a l economy,  apart from a minor output of c r a f t s and f u r s , has become one of t a k i n g i n i t s own washing.  113  Society and Kinship  Settlement  The i s o l a t i o n of northern Foxe Basin was disturbed slowly and late.  Once the store a t I g l o o l i k was e s t a b l i s h e d , contact even  with the other regions of the c u l t u r a l - l i n g u i s t i c t e r r i t o r y was reduced. The immigrants of the e a r l y fur-trade days joined the I g l u l i n g m i u t whole, and today there are few " f o r e i g n " Eskimos i n the region compared to most others. I g l u l i n g m i u t s o c i e t y i s s t i l l d i s t i n c t , i t s f u n c t i o n i n g and shaped around a network of k i n s h i p t i e s .  Damas discerned two  important  s t r u c t u r a l elements i n the s o c i e t y , the ungayuk r e l a t i o n s h i p s of a f f e c t i o n and co-operation, and the narlaktok r e l a t i o n s h i p s of s e n i o r i t y and 37  obedience.  Within these two sets of r o l e s there are u n i v e r s a l and  complex systems of marriage, adoption and economic a c t i v i t y . A l l f a c e t s of the s o c i a l system i n t e r r e l a t e , and the p a r t each person plays i n s o c i e t y i s defined i n f a i r l y exact terms.  On the whole,  status and r o l e are determined by sex, age and a b i l i t y , and i n most s i t u a t i o n s an I g l u l i n g m i u t knows e x a c t l y who he o r she can and should be f a m i l i a r with, give orders to, or a s s i s t . The avoidance-relationships are s t i l l observed though to a l e s s e n i n g degree, and a woman i n t e r p r e t i n g f o r an a d u l t educator i n 1 9 6 7 was loathe to pass on i n s t r u c t i o n to her a d u l t 38  brother. Arranged marriage i s s t i l l prevalent among the I g l u l i n g m i u t , and 39  a s s i s t e d s u i c i d e has been recent.  In keeping w i t h the trend of s o c i a l  change i n other f o l k s o c i e t i e s , t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n i v a t i o n has been accepted f a s t e r than new  s o c i a l forms.  The recent termination of the camp era and  the i n s t r u c t i o n of c h i l d r e n In "Western" ways, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n boarding schools, w i l l probably reduce the strength of k i n s h i p i n the s o c i a l and economic system.  ! l  114  Map 12  115  A large f a m i l y was an asset to any camp leader.  Sons  e s p e c i a l l y , ensured extra, hands i n the group economy, and a l l c h i l d r e n might make u s e f u l a l l i a n c e s , through marriage, f o r r e c i p r o c a l exchange "between camps.  T r a v e l l e r s or v i s i t o r s moving w i t h i n the region were  sure of lodging, dog-food and other assistance from t h e i r extended or near k i n .  By 1962 however, some marriageable g i r l s were r e l u c t a n t to  marry i n t o camp f a m i l i e s , p r e f e r r i n g l i f e i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  centres,  40 and young men  had to seek b r i d e s beyond the region.  Movement w i t h i n the region between e s t a b l i s h e d camp areas - and o c c a s i o n a l l y to new  "outpost" areas - was common throughout the camp  settlement era, i . e .  1925 - 1 9 6 5 .  These were some of the most common  reasons f o r movement: 1) Customary b r i d e - s e r v i c e of one or more years given by a young man to h i s wife's immediate f a m i l y . 2)  Attachment to a strong leader, a wage earner, a boat crew or an o l d e r r e l a t i v e - sometimes on command.  3) Movement to b e t t e r hunting and  trapping.  4) Movement away from an area f o l l o w i n g hardship or d i s a s t e r . 5)  Grouping of r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s , or d i s p e r s a l through quarrels.  6)  Wage-employment a t DEWline s i t e s or the two main  7)  Loss of wife or husband.  settlements.  Mapl2 shows the movements of one immigrant f a m i l y , perhaps more unsettled than most.  The f o l l o w i n g table i l l u s t r a t e s the degree of movement  by I g l u l i n g m i u t f a m i l i e s i n general:  1 1 6  TABLE  2  TABLE OF FAMILY MOVEMENTS ACCORDING TO LOCATIONS SHOWN ON 1949(Mission) and 1965 (RCMP) CENSUSES Families shown on 1949 census Stayed a t same s i t e 1949-65 Stayed i n same general area Moved to another area within region Families added by marriage e t c . since 1949 Families added since 1949 by immigration Total f a m i l i e s added 1949-65  Anglican 44 6 10 24 20 1 3 33  Catholic 3 2 9 17 10 17 8 2 5  Total 7 6 1 5 27 3 37 21 28 L  The table shows the r e l a t i v e l y sedentary nature of the " o l d I g l o o l i k " Catholic f a m i l i e s close to the core of the region.  On the whole,  however, mobility was high, and even the sedentary period mentioned by Damas from 1 9 3 0 to 1940,  was f a r from absolute.**  the table averaged several moves between the  Religion  1  The f a m i l i e s shown i n  two census dates.  Conversion to C h r i s t i a n i t y had a l a s t i n g e f f e c t upon the s o c i a l organization and s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the  Iglulingmiut.  In 1 9 2 9 the Roman Catholic mission came to Pond Inlet,  where the p r i e s t met the Abvadjak group from northern Foxe Basin. Conversions were made, and i n 1 9 3 1 Father Bazin moved to the i s l a n d of Abvadjak to begin the regional mission.  The i n f l u e n t i a l woman Attagutarluk  42 was baptized by him i n 1 9 3 1 » her husband Itukshardjuak i n 1 9 4 0 .  Both  Umik, the forerunner of the Anglican church i n northern Foxe Basin, and Itukshardjuak the Roman Catholic convert were strong leaders, and conversion o f t h e i r adherents divided the Eskimo society into two d i s t i n c t factions, a new and permanent separation of the Iglulingmiut. The sheltered s i t e a t Ikpiakjuk, i n Turton Bay on I g l o o l i k Island, had not been used as a winter v i l l a g e since Dorset time, but the Roman Catholic mission was moved there from Abvadjak i n 1 9 3 7 ,  so as to be  NORTHERN SETTLEMENT  80  BY  o  scale e  FOXE  RELIGIOUS  BASIN AFFILIATION  1965  118  closer to the main Eskimo hunting camps.  The Anglican missionary from Pond  I n l e t paid occasional v i s i t s to the region, and i n 1959 the Reverend Noah Nassuk, an I g l u l i n g m i u t , "became r e s i d e n t m i n i s t e r a t Ikpiakjuk, ( i g l o o l i k ) . About 60% of the Eskimo population of the region are Anglican, the remainder C a t h o l i c . Within the settlement, u n t i l the i n t r o d u c t i o n of l a r g e r - s c a l e r e n t a l housing, two nodes of population centred around the two missions.  In the region a t l a r g e , the p r i n c i p a l settlements adhered to a  pattern i n which C a t h o l i c camps were c l o s e s t to Ikpiakjuk, extending south to H a l l Beach and west halfway up Fury and Hecla S t r a i t .  The Anglican  camps were f u r t h e r out, along, three r a d i a l arms from Ikpiakjuk to Agu, Iglukjuak and Ussuakjuk. (see Map 13)  Immigration to the region adhered to  the area described according to the r e l i g i o u s persuasion of the migrants. The reasons f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n of camps by r e l i g i o u s adherence was i n part because the o r i g i n a l Roman C a t h o l i c converts were a l a r g e , powerful f a m i l y group who had, before conversion, occupied the Abvadjak and I g l o o l i k area.  Another, l e s s important reason was that the C a t h o l i c missions have  u s u a l l y encouraged proximity to church and p r i e s t .  The Anglican camps  had a greater percentage of immigrants to the region, people who had to occupy p e r i p h e r a l hunting grounds.  D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n was f a c i l i t a t e d by the  Anglican i n s t i t u t i o n of n a t i v e c a t e c h i s t s , who conducted prayers i n camp. This p o s i t i o n was o f t e n , though not always held by the p r i n c i p a l man,  or  issumatak of the camp R e l i g i o u s d i v i s i o n a f f e c t s the s o c i a l and geographical m o b i l i t y of the Eskimos.  R e l i g i o u s endogamy i s the r u l e , thus reducing by h a l f the  number of p o t e n t i a l marriage a l l i a n c e s , and the number of camps a t which a t r a v e l l e r can f i n d k i n , or a migrant can s e t t l e .  The attendance of C a t h o l i c  c h i l d r e n a t the boarding school of C h e s t e r f i e l d I n l e t from 1955 was an  1 1 9  educational and geographical l i n k with other regions not shared by the Anglican groups.  While t r a v e l l i n g with members of one persuasion i n  the author was often t o l d anecdotes derogatory  1 9 6 5 »  to the other group.  Despite the s o c i a l and s p a t i a l l i m i t a t i o n s imposed upon the Iglulingmiut by r e l i g i o u s d i v i s i o n , things go more smoothly than i n many other parts of the A r c t i c s i m i l a r l y s p l i t .  A strong sense of regional  Identity and former kinship t i e s help to maintain cooperation between the two f a c t i o n s , and there are several firm friendships that ignore the religious difference.  Local leadership of both groups has tended towards  ecumenical rather than f a c t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s .  Authority  The Catholic missionaries were i n residence i n the region f o r twenty-four years before the DEWline came, and  Hudson's Bay Company post managers f o r thirteen years.  the  The former had a  s l i g h t c e n t r i p e t a l e f f e c t on the pattern of population, the l a t t e r a more pronounced c e n t r i f u g a l e f f e c t , but neither posed a threat to the c u l t u r a l security of the Eskimos - defined by Plucke as "the a b i l i t y of the group  43 to c6pe with i t s environment'.* Indeed, i t was during the period when p r i e s t , trader and Eskimos l i v e d together i n i s o l a t i o n that native leadership and socio-economic organization reached the highest degree of the whole contact period. "king" Itukshardjuak  The  made the major decisions f o r a l l members of h i s large  v i l l a g e a t Abvadjak, and was able to send meat when o u t l y i n g communities such as the one a t Steensby Inlet, were i n need.  His widow Attagutarluk  continued the organization of group a c t i v i t y , keeping a record i n s y l l a b i c script of each man's hunt, and "taxing" a l l - even the mission - to provide a communal working c a p i t a l of food f o r people and d o g s . ^  120  The degree of a u t h o r i t y exercised by the "King and Queen", or a t l e a s t the number of people gathered under that a u t h o r i t y , was not  equalled  i n the other main aggregates, but the Eskimo s o c i e t y functioned w e l l at.', the f o u r l e v e l s of organization discerned by Damas - nuclear f a m i l y , extended f a m i l y , whaleboat crew and v i l l a g e . At H a l l Beach, employment with the nursing s t a t i o n , and  later  with the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e post, was the nucleus of two quasi-camp groups, C a t h o l i c and Anglican r e s p e c t i v e l y .  In these two groups a u t h o r i t y  was  shared i n some respects by the two employing agencies, who by v i r t u e of t h e i r functions became involved i n economic, moral and l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . Wage-earning a t the two agencies, or DEWline employment, f u r t h e r changed the status system w i t h i n the kin-group.  Thus the young employee might l i v e i n  a modern house and be p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n an advanced exchange economy; h i s uncle might be wholly w i t h i n the t r a d i t i o n a l subsistence economy, and problems of status and cooperation  new  arose.  A p a r a l l e l s i t u a t i o n emerged a t I g l o o l i k , where the Hudson's Bay 6ompany r e c r u i t e d i t s help from the Anglican Eskimo group, and workers a t the C a t h o l i c mission formed the nucleus of a second C a t h o l i c group.  In  1960-61 the Anglican "camp" numbered 40 people, i n c l u d i n g employee of the Department of Northern A f f a i r s , agencies who  Authority was shared with the two employing  supplied.some housing and f u e l , and who were a source of wood  and other a r t i c l e s .  The Anglican group a l s o used the Hudson's Bay Company  boat f o r t h e i r hunts, b r i n g i n g the store manager i n t o the conduct of the hunt and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of gains.  The t i t l e issumatak was a p p l i e d to the  store manager, passing to the area administrator when he took c o n t r o l of welfare i s s u e s , statutory allowances and the mechanical p l a n t .  The  title  however, had a s p e c i f i c meaning embracing the Eskimo-white complex of the  121  e n t i r e community.  Within the Anglican Eskimo k i n s h i p group the Anglican  deacon was the issumatak and the l i f e of the group was c o - e x i s t e n t but e s s e n t i a l l y separate from that of the "establishment".  Wage income was  adjunctive to the " r e a l " business of hunting and of sharing the catch. The Roman C a t h o l i c group a t I g l o o l i k i n 1 9 6 1 - 6 2  numbered 5 4 ,  and two boats were owned. L i k e the Anglicans, the C a t h o l i c k i n s h i p group included several pensioners, but had only one employed member, a part-time helper a t the mission.  This group was therefore c l o s e r to hunting-camp  economy and a u t h o r i t y than the neighbouring one, and more autonomous. The p r i e s t exercised some a u t h o r i t y , but of a type c l o s e r to the n a t i v e pattern than that of the other white r e s i d e n t s , not being founded on c o n t r o l of m a t e r i a l resources.  Summary During the long period of l i m i t e d contact p r i o r to 1 9 4 5 ,  and  during the DEWline c o n s t r u c t i o n phase, there was no profound change i n the I g l o o l i k region Eskimos as subsistence hunters, adhering to an ancient settlement-pattern, and i n possession of a workable s o c i a l system rooted firmly i n tradition.  Innovations i n technology, economy, r e l i g i o n and the  degree of c o n t r o l by o f f i c i a l Canada were a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o or modified the t r a d i t i o n a l way of l i f e , but d i d meaning.  not appear to threaten i t s i.form. o r  By the mid 1 9 5 0 ' s however, decreasing i s o l a t i o n , expanding  population and growing consumer needs were making the hunting settlements untenable. During the 1960's, the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and l e g a l machinery of government made i n c r e a s i n g inroads i n t o n a t i v e autonomy.  Construction  brought money i n t o new prominence, and the employment disrupted seasonal  122  groupings and hunting a c t i v i t i e s .  A i r c r a f t p a t r o l s to the camps extended  the influence o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e centres, and more frequent v i s i t s to the centres from camps became necessary f o r medication, out of the region.  t r a d i n g and t r a v e l  Improved medical care boosted the rate of population  increase i n the c l a s s i c manner of underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s , and together with more Eskimos, more southern Canadians took t h e i r places i n the s o c i a l f a b r i c o f the northern Foxe Basin.  They came as r e s i d e n t s f o r a few  years, o r as part of a bewildering succession o f s c i e n t i s t s , p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l , o f j o u r n a l i s t s and o f f i c i a l s , each one an agent of change. In these l a t t e r years of accelerated change, e f f o r t s were made to adapt Eskimo t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s to the demands o f modern settlement l i f e and to a cash economy. The Eskimo Council, the Community Development Fund, and the Co-operative were operating with some success i n the two s t e a d i l y growing centres, when the Rental Housing Scheme brought s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n and the end of an e r a .  123  P L A T E 14 - Merkhohtuit, leader of the P i n g e r k a l i k group, and h i s wife Serpapik, May 1926 (photo by L . T . B u r w a s h , in I.A. & N . D . Library)  P L A T E 15 - K a d l u t s i a k & her son Samuelli May 1963 (photo T . F u j i k i , A s a h i Shimbun)  124  FOOTNOTES  J . Sonnenfeld, "Changes i n an Eskimo Hunting Technology, An Introduction to Implement Geography", Annals o f the A.A.G., No. 5 0 ( 2 ) , June I 9 6 0 , p. 1 8 3 . 2  D. Damas, I g l u l i n g m i u t Kinship and L o c a l Groupings, Ottawa, National Museum of Canada, B u l l e t i n No. 1 9 6 , Department of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources, 1 9 6 3 , p. 3 1 . 3  F i l e 2 0 1 - 1 , Northern Administration & Lands Branch, Ottawa, March 14, 1 9 5 6 .  4 R.A.J. P h i l l i p s , "The Eastern A r c t i c P a t r o l " , Canadian Geographical Journal, May 1 9 5 7 , p. 5 . ^P. Schulte, The F l y i n g P r i e s t Over the A r c t i c , New York, Harper, 1 9 4 0 , p. 2 6 1 . ^N.J. Campbell, and A.E. C o l l i n s , Recent Oceanographic A c t i v i t i e s Of the A t l a n t i c Oceanographic Group i n the Eastern A r c t i c , Ottawa, Progress Report No. 6 9 o f the A t l a n t i c Coastal Station, F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, May 1 9 5 8 . 7  W.G. Ross, "American Whaling i n Hudson Bay, The Voyage o f the Black Eagle", Canadian Geographical Journal, December 1 9 6 7 , V o l . 7 5 , No. 6 , p. 2 0 3 . 8  J.D. Moodie, R.N.W.M.P. Reports, 1 9 0 6 - 1 6 , p. 6 .  9  L.E. S e l l e r s , " P a t r o l , F u l l e r t o n t o Lyons R.N.W.M.P. Reports, 1 9 0 6 - 1 6 , p. 124.  Inlet",  10  T. Manning, "Notes on the Coastal D i s t r i c t o f the Eastern Barren Grounds & M e l v i l l e Peninsula from I g l o o l i k t o Cape F u l l e r t o n " , Geographical Journal, February 1 9 4 3 , p. 1 0 3 . 11  T. Mathiassen, "Report on the Expedition", Report o f the 5 t h Thule Expedition, 1921-24, Copenhagen, 1 9 2 7 , V o l . 1 , p. 5 5 . J.D. Moodie, op_. c i t . , p. 1 1 .  125  ^F. Boas, "The Eskimos of B a f f i n Land and Hudson Bay", B u l l e t i n 15_ of the American Museum of Natural History, 1901, p. 469. (Contains notes by Captain Comer). 14 Manning, pj>. c i t . , p. 103. 1 5  Jbid.  16 G. Anders, Northern Foxe Basin, An Area Economic Survey, Ottawa, I n d u s t r i a l Division, Northern Administration Branch. Department of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources, 1965, P. 32. 17 0£.  c i t . , p. 29.  18 o£. c i t . , p. 134. 19 P. Freuchen, "Mammals", Report of the 5th Thule Expedition, 1921-24, Copenhagen, V o l . 2, Nos. 4 and 5, 1935, p. 242. 20 A.W. Mansfield, "The Walrus i n Canada's A r c t i c " , Canadian Geographical Journal, V o l . LXXII, No. 3, March 1966, p. 95. 2 1  22  Schu»e,  op_. c i t . ,  c i t . , p. 261. p. 134  23 A.G. Loughrey, "Preliminary Investigation of the A t l a n t i c Walrus", W i l d l i f e Management B u l l e t i n No. 14. Ottawa, Canadian W i l d l i f e Service, Department o f Northern A f f a i r s & National Resources, 1954, p. 38. Loughrey's increment rate f o r management purposes i s 15%t Mansfield's (op. c i t . , p. 95), i s 6§#, based on deeper research. 24  , op. c i t . , p. 26.  25 D. B i s s e t t , "Recent Changes i n the L i f e of the I g l u l i k Eskimos',' The Albertan Geographer, No. 1, 1964 - 65, p. 13. 26 P.J. Usher, Economic Basis and Resource Use of the Coppermine Holman Region, N.W.T., Ottawa, Northern Co-ordination & Research Centre-65-2, Department of Northern A f f a i r s & National Resources, 1965, pp. 188-190. 27  op. c i t . , p. 134.  126  28  J . Uyara and other o l d Eskimos have witnessed t h i s : personal communication. 29  W. Kerr, personal communication. 30 Damas, op_. c i t . , p. 27.  ^ 22- c i t . , p. 83. 1  3 o£. c i t . , p. 24. 33 The estimate f o r the 1960's i s based on p r i c e s used a t Pangnirtung and Coral Harbour, and i s supported by Jenness' study Eskimo Administration i n Canada, Technical Paper No. 14, A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e o f North America, 1964, p. 104. 2  3** The name o f the informant i s withheld to ensure a measure o f privacy. 35 Personal  communication.  3^ Calculated with the author i n 1967 by f i v e classes o f Eskimo students a t C h u r c h i l l , representing many Eastern A r c t i c regions, including I g l o o l i k . The answers f e l l within a range o f $1,750 and $1,850.  Damas, o£. c i t . , p. 48. 38M. St. H i l a i r e , personal communication. 39 The l a s t case recorded was i n 1962. **°Jean Malaurie, "Preliminary Report from an Anthropological Mission f o r Demographic and Economic Research c a r r i e d out i n I g l o o l i k , N.W.T. D i s t r i c t Canada". Ottawa, Unpublished manuscript, Northern Co-ordination & Research Centre, Northern A f f a i r s & National Resources, 1962, p. 7. 41  22'  P« 32.  G.M. Rousseliere, "Monica Ataguvtaluk, Queen o f I g l o o l i k " , Eskimo, March 1950, V o l . 16, and September 1955. PP. H-14. 43 A. Flucke, "Whither the Eskimo", North, Jan. - Feb. 1963, p. 18. 44 W. Kerr, personal communication. G.M. Rousseliere, op_. c i t . -  12?  CHAPTER VI  NEW COMMUNITIES. 1 9 6 8  The modern settlement o f I g l o o l i k dates back t o the 1930's, and the H a l l Beach settlement t o 1957» when the n u r s i n g s t a t i o n was b u i l t . Since 1 9 6 2 the two communities have changed considerably due t o new construction and a steady i n f l u x o f Eskimos from the camps o f the region. Some 400 Eskimos have come t o l i v e i n I g l o o l i k o r H a l l Beach during the past three years.  Almost a l l o f them have r e l a t i v e l y modern housing, and both  communities a r e e s s e n t i a l l y new i n terms o f s i z e , character and f u n c t i o n s . The purpose o f t h i s chapter i s t o o u t l i n e the government housing scheme c h i e f l y responsible f o r the emergence o f the present v i l l a g e s ; t o d i s c u s s changes i n the r e g i o n a l symbiosis, and to assess the e f f e c t s o f quasi-urban l i f e upon the I g l u l i n g m i u t .  The f o l l o w i n g overview  i s included t o provide the s e t t i n g i n which socio-economic change i s t a k i n g place.  Igloolik The v i l l a g e o f I g l o o l i k , as shown on the s i t e - p l a n , borders a small bay on the north-west shores o f Turton Bay, I g l o o l i k I s l a n d .  It is  known i n Eskimo a s Ikpiakjuk. The g r a v e l o f former beaches r i s e s evenly i n l a n d to some 800 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n a t the widest p a r t . A b e l t o f marshy tundra separates the beach from a limestone escarpment that s h e l t e r s the v i l l a g e from p r e v a i l i n g northwesterly winds. The f i r s t b u i l d i n g s were l o c a t e d near the sea a t the centre o f the bay-shore, where the beach i s widest and the gradient l e a s t .  Subsequent  construction has extended the v i l l a g e i n l a n d and along the beach to north and south.  Most o f the 100-odd b u i l d i n g s are on the coarse, w e l l - d r a i n e d  M A P  SCALE  200  400  600  800  FEET  ©  ESKIMO  ©  LAND.  ®  SCHOOL  ©  NURSING  ©  BULK  ©  ANGLICAN  ©  HUDSON'S  ©  R.CM.POLICE  ©  ADMINISTRATION  STATION  ®  R.C. CHURCH  @  TANKS  ©  R.C. MISSION  ©I.A.&N.D.  CHURCH  @ & @  HOUSING STAFF  HOUSING  HOSTELS  OIL  BAY  ESKIMO  CO.  STORE  BUILDINGS*' OFFICE  HOUSES ©  CO-OP  FEDERAL  BUILDINGS GARAGES DAY  SCHOOL  129  shingle.:: or g r a v e l , with about 4 , 0 0 0 f e e t separating the northern and southern extremes of the v i l l a g e . was about 4 3 0 .  The t o t a l population i n March 1968  1  E l e c t r i c a l power i s supplied to the whole community by d i e s e l generators operated by the f e d e r a l Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development.  Bulk o i l storage tanks supply heating o i l ,  other s p i r i t f u e l s are stored i n drums.  and  Garbage and sewage are taken  onto the bay i c e , o r to a c o a s t a l dump during the summer months.  Several  small lakes w i t h i n a radius of f i v e miles are the source of most of the water and i c e used.  The c a r r y i n g and d e l i v e r y i s done by tracked v e h i c l e s .  The bay provides shallow and sheltered anchorage f o r some two months of the year, though loose pack-ice i s a threat a t any Occasionally, as i n 1967,  time.  i c e conditions i n Turton Bay and Hooper I n l e t  prevent supply ships from reaching I g l o o l i k .  A i r c r a f t can land on the sea  i c e close to the v i l l a g e from l a t e November to mid-June, and a landing s t r i p f o r l i g h t planes has been made one mile north of I g l o o l i k , between the escarpment and the beach. M a i l , small f r e i g h t and passenger t r a f f i c leave the region from . I g l o o l i k v i a H a l l Beach, some 60 miles south.  Transportation i n c l u d e s  plane, snow v e h i c l e , dog team, canoe and l o n g l i n e r .  During breakup and  freeze up, a combination of land, i c e and water transport may be used. The B e l l Telephone Company maintains a l o c a l telephone  system  and a r e g u l a r radio telephone l i n k to the outside world v i a the DEWline system.  Telegrams are sent or received through the Hudson's Bay Company  transceiver, and the Area Administrator maintains a r e g u l a r radio schedule with the nursing s t a t i o n a t H a l l Beach.  The RCMP and the Roman C a t h o l i c  mission a l s o have r e g u l a r radio contact w i t h t h e i r colleagues i n other communities.  S K E T C H  M A P  OF  HALL  BEACH  Ml <»7-»  300  FEET  O  MINING  (D  ESKIMO  (D  ANGLICAN  (£)  NURSING  (D  HUDSON'S  (?)  SCHOOL  COY.  BUILDING  3 - BEDROOM  HOUSES  CHURCH STATION BAY  co.  STORE  (D  I.A.&  (D  TRANSIENT  ®  R.C .  ®  IGLOOLIK  ®  ESKIMO  3-BEDROOM  ®  POWER  HOUSE  N.D.  WAREHOUSE CENTRE  CHURCH CO-OP  BUILDING HOUSES  131  H a l l Beach The administrative and r e s i d e n t i a l v i l l a g e o f H a l l Beach, c a l l e d Shanarayak i n Eskimo, i s situated on a straight, unindented part o f the east coast of M e l v i l l e Peninsula.  The community i s l i n e a r i n form, confined  to a shingle "beach that slopes up to a maximum elevation of about 30 feet, and ends some 400 f e e t inland a t the commencement o f a f l a t , marshy p l a i n . As a t I g l o o l i k , the shingle provides excellent b u i l d i n g s i t e s , but the H a l l Beach location i s much more bleak and exposed.  The population  i n March 1968 was about 260, and a t o t a l of some 60 b u i l d i n g s extend roughly 3,000 f e e t along the beach.  The conditions f o r small boat landings and  anchorage are good except i n high winds, and early i n spring canoes can e a s i l y be taken to the shore lead close by. E l e c t r i c a l power i s supplied by the Department o f Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, and a l o c a l telephone system i s linked to the Fox Main DEWline base one mile south.  Water and i c e are taken from several  small lakes close to the v i l l a g e .  Sewage and garbage are disposed of as a t  Igloolik.  Heating o i l i s delivered i n b a r r e l s a t present, but the 2  construction o f bulk o i l storage i s planned. Small a i r c r a f t equipped with f l o a t s o r s k i s use a lake near the Fox Main a i r s t r i p , which i s i t s e l f suitable f o r most standard transport aircraft.  Scheduled commercial passenger f l i g h t s go to Montreal, and the  Federal E l e c t r i c Corporation f l i e s DEWline s t a f f regularly to Winnipeg. DEWline S i t e s The Nordair passenger a i r l i n e route between Resolute Bay and Frobisher Bay, v i a H a l l Beach, i s aligned roughly north-west and south-east. I t i s intersected a t H a l l Beach by the DEWline axis, east-north-east and west-south-west.  The DEWline s i t e s , from west to east, are:  1 3 2  (Cam. 5) fCam. F) now closed (Fox Main) (Fox 1 ) (Fox A) now closed (Fox 2 )  Cape Sibbald Sarcpa Lake H a l l Beach Rowley I s l a n d Bray I s l a n d Longstaff B l u f f  The o u t l y i n g s i t e s employ s e v e r a l Eskimo f a m i l i e s , most of them Iglulingmiut or related Avilingmiut.  There i s l i t t l e contact between these  s i t e s and the v i l l a g e s of I g l o o l i k and H a l l Beach.  The Fox  Main s i t e i s  the r e g i o n a l DEVfline headquarters, and the entrepot f o r the e n t i r e r e g i o n . Fox  Main has both sea-docking and a i r c r a f t hangar f a c i l i t i e s .  The t o t a l establishment i n c l u d e s employees of the Nordair a i r l i n e , Department o f Transport r a d i o and weather technicians, and employees of the American Federal E l e c t r i c Corporation manning the DEWline. t r a n s i e n t s pass through Fox  Numerous  Main, but the s t a f f o f the various organizations  u s u a l l y t o t a l s about 1 0 0 , almost e x c l u s i v e l y male. Some seven Eskimos are permanent employees a t Fox there with t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n government-owned housing.  Main, and l i v e  Most of them are  I g l u l i n g m i u t , and have strong s o c i a l and economic t i e s with the people o f H a l l Beach and I g l o o l i k . 3 The Kadlunat  r e s i d e n t s o f Fox  Main are s e l f - c o n t a i n e d i n terms  of entertainment and accommodation, l i v i n g l a r g e l y indoors i n modules.  A  f a i r amount o f s o c i a l and business exchange takes place however, w i t h the Kadlunat of H a l l Beach, and the a i r p o r t i s a common ground. Although two communities are d i s t i n c t , H a l l Beach e x i s t s because o f the Fox  Main s i t e .  The possession o f f a c i l i t i e s f o r heavy sea and a i r transport may make H a l l Beach an eventual r i v a l to I g l o o l i k a s the r e g i o n a l ' c a p i t a l ' . The Rental Housing Scheme o f the Federal Government In previous chapters the decreasing v i a b i l i t y of the hunting and  133  trapping economy has been stressed.  When the market f o r s e a l s k i n s collapsed  a f t e r 1964, very l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e was needed f o r Eskimo f a m i l i e s to move t o the " b r i g h t l i g h t s " o f H a l l Beach and I g l o o l i k .  That i n c e n t i v e was supplied  by the implementation o f a comprehensive housing scheme - a scheme that i s perhaps equal t o the f e d e r a l day school programme i n i t s massive p o t e n t i a l f o r change. Ever since government a c t i v i t y i n the Canadian A r c t i c increased i n the wake o f the DEWline, there has been concern over the c o n d i t i o n o f Eskimo housing.  Some o f the comments made have focussed on the ( d i s p a r i t y  between Eskimo snowhouses, tents and shacks on one hand, and the r e l a t i v e l y good housing provided f o r non-Eskimo r e s i d e n t s , on the other. health a u t h o r i t i e s concentrated  Public  on the absolute shortcomings of Eskimo  housing, and a report published i n I960 gave  graphic i l l u s t r a t i o n o f a  dreadful I n f a n t and neo-natal m o r t a l i t y r a t e , o f t u b e r c u l o s i s and r e l a t e d diseases, a l l r e l a t e d c l o s e l y to wretched housing.  The shack dwellings  b u i l t from construction waste were a p a r t i c u l a r threat t o health, hygiene and human d i g n i t y . Government a c t i o n was taken t o improve conditions and to counter criticism.  Beginning i n 1959, the f e d e r a l government provided housing on  a slowly i n c r e a s i n g scale through a s a r l e t y o f f i n a n c i a l arrangements.  On  October 12th, 1965, a bold new programme was approved a l l o w i n g some 1,560 houses t o be sent to Eskimo communities over a f i v e year period.  The  c a p i t a l cost would be $12,500,000, and the cost o f operation and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n almost $2,000,000. The r e n t a l housing scheme incorporated a l l those habitable houses that were provided under previous schemes,  I t i s designed t o provide  adequate housing f o r Eskimos who f o r the most part cannot pay f o r both c a p i t a l cost and upkeep o f a house.  Rents are scaled according t o the  134  a b i l i t y o f the tenant to pay, and the r e n t a l agreement i n c l u d e s the p r o v i s i o n of b a s i c f u r n i t u r e , e l e c t r i c i t y ; water o r i c e ; f u e l o i l , d i s p o s a l o f sewage  and garbage. For those who do not want to rent i n d e f i n i t e l y , the scheme has a b u i l t - i n c r e d i t system towards eventual ownership, and there are mortgage and loan arrangements f o r Eskimos who want to purchase houses d i r e c t l y from government o r p r i v a t e sources.  With the exception of s t a f f housing f o r  Eskimo employees, the t o t a l number of houses provided f o r Eskimos a t H a l l Beach and I g l o o l i k i s as follows:''  TABLE 3 Year 1962 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1966 1967 1967  Design Rigid-frame No. 370 No. 370 No. 370 No. 4 2 4 No. 439 No. 4 3 6 No. 4 3 9 No;  436  F l o o r area 192 sq. f t .  Igloolik 2  L\#  1 2  1  1  2  1 10  288 288 288  II  11  II  llll  II  II  384 700  II  II  II  II  700  II  II  29 12 12 4 4 70  700  II  II  700  II  II  H a l l Beach  7 7 1 1 31  *includes one house b u i l t a t Nauyaguluit camp. The housing scheme to date provides about 70 square f e e t per person.  The standard i s thus f a r below t h a t o f Canadian middle-class homes,  but s u p e r l a t i v e i n the l i g h t o f previous c o n d i t i o n s , and considering the heavy subsidy and the remoteness ©f th© E©fi©a. The r e n t a l housing scheme has brought most o f the I g l u l i n g m i u t q u i c k l y from a domestic environment o f t i n y dwellings o f sod, canvas and fafe¥> o f s e a l - o i l lamps and communal sleeping platforms, to one of separate rooms, e l e c t r i c a l o u t l e t s , t a b l e s and c h a i r s .  As a tenant the Eskimo takes  on new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and l e a r n s new concepts. increases t e n f o l d i n s i z e and complexity.  The scale of h i s community  135  Thus, an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of the housing scheme i s the development of l o c a l government.  To f a c i l i t a t e the emergence of  representative l o c a l government the scheme provides f o r a gradual k  t r a n s f e r of management from an a d m i n i s t r a t o r to an executive e l e c t e d by the Eskimo tenants from among t h e i r number.  The group w i l l  rents, c a r r y out maintenance and negotiate the s e r v i c e s .  determine  A Housing  Association i s formed as soon as houses are ordered, and the executive begins i t s work under the tutelage of the area a d m i n i s t r a t o r . A programme of a d u l t education i s p a r t of the housing scheme, much of i t p a i d f o r by a grant made by the C e n t r a l Martgage and Corporation.  Housing  In the I g l o o l i k region housing education began l a t e i n  1 9 6 5 , and continued u n t i l 1 9 6 8 .  The programme i n c l u d e d several phases,  as f o l l o w s : Phase 1.  Explanation of the nature and i n t e n t of the housing scheme. P r e l i m i n a r y a l l o c a t i o n of houses and e l e c t i o n of housing-management o f f i c e r s .  Phase 2.  Education f o r f a m i l i e s i n housekeeping, budgeting and general maintenance.  Phase 3 .  Continuing guidance of the housing management committee.  Phase 4.  T r a i n i n g of l o c a l women to c a r r y on the home management teaching.  hygiene,  Although the education that was part of the "crash programme" i s completed i n a l l i t s phases, communal education continues i n many ways.  The housing scheme was the p r e c i p i t a n t f o r d r a s t i c change i n  almost every aspect of I g l u l i n g m i u t l i f e .  136  P L A T E 17 - One-bedroom house, type b u i l t 1965-66 (photo K. Crowe)  137  Transformation of the Settlement Pattern The themes of c u l t u r e area, c u l t u r a l landscape, c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y and c u l t u r a l ecology have teen e x p l i c i t thus f a r i n t h i s study of 6 northern Foxe B a s i n .  These are the elements of c u l t u r a l geography  and  they are p r e d i c t e d on a r e l a t i o n s h i p , however s o p h i s t i c a t e d , between  man  and land. U n t i l the 1960's, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the Eskimos of northern Foxe B a s i n and t h e i r land was simple and profound.  The  physio-  graphic region, the b i o t i c region and the s e t t l e d o r c u l t u r a l region were almost synonymous. I g l o o l i k , and to a l e s s e r degree H a l l Beach, were what F r i e d 7  has c a l l e d "outpost Service Settlements".  They served the camp  population of the region much as a small town might serve the farmers around i t .  The Eskimo populated and harvested t h e i r region.  Service  settlements e x i s t e d because of the people, who i n t u r n l i v e d according to r e g i o n a l resources.  The f a m i l i e s of Agu Bay and Ussuakjuk were a t  home i n t h e i r camps, they looked "inward" a t the c e n t r a l s e r v i c e settlements. The movement of dispersed r u r a l populations i n t o r e g i o n a l centres i s world-wide, and i n most instances i s s t r o n g l y Influenced by t e c h n o l o g i c a l change i n the use of r e g i o n a l resources.  Despite such  concentrations of population, however, the regions s t i l l e x i s t as regions, producing f o r the urban centres and being served by them The two centres of northern Foxe Basin do not e x i s t to process the resource-wealth of the region.  The r e n t a l housing scheme i s extraneous  to the r e g i o n a l symbiosis, but i n the absence of a v i a b l e economy, i t i s the only choice f o r the Eskimos. look "outward" a t t h e i r region.  For the f i r s t time i n t h e i r h i s t o r y they  138  The l i v e d - i n and lived-from region i s g r e a t l y reduced, to be extended again i n new forms.  perhaps  For the present the c u l t u r a l landscape  and the stage f o r the enactment of I g l u l i n g m i u t a f f a i r s are confined almost e n t i r e l y to two centres, and the coast between them.  Agencies of Tutelage With the occupation of government-owned housing by Eskimos, and the d e c l i n e i n the n a t i v e economy, the settlements of I g l o o l i k and H a l l Beach have changed i n f u n c t i o n .  U n t i l the mid-1960's they e x i s t e d ,  to paraphrase one d e f i n i t i o n of an urban centre, "to provide goods and 8  s e r v i c e s to people who l i v e outside the urban boundaries".  Like a l l  communities of the Eastern A r c t i c , much of the s e r v i c e given was p a t e r n a l i s t i c and c o n t r o l l e d from outside the region, but the accent was on e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s r a t h e r than socio-economic change. In t h e i r study of Eskimo l i f e i n F r o b i s h e r Bay, John and Irma 9  Honigmann r e f e r r e d to "people under tutelage".  The Eskimos of I g l o o l i k  and H a l l Beach are more homogeneous i n c u l t u r e than those of Frobisher Bay, and t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s are as yet stronger. Nevertheless they are very much a people under tutelage.  The primary f u n c t i o n of the new  communities i s the business of conscious s o c i a l change. Even a casual v i s i t o r to I g l o o l i k and H a l l Beach can discern a c l e a r d i v i s i o n of the community i n t o the I g l u l i n g m i u t , who  constitute  the raw material of change, and h a l f a dozen agencies or o r g a n i z a t i o n s that i n i t i a t e and c o n t r o l much of i t .  The agencies are discussed here i n  terms of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r r o l e s , using an imaginary d i v i s i o n of the community i n t o a s e r i e s of overlapping pyramids, the apex of each being an agency.  Figure 10 i l l u s t r a t e s the concept f o r I g l o o l i k , but i t i s two  dimensional.  I t cannot convey the very important r e c i p r o c a l a c t i o n between  Community  Organizations . Igloolik  1967-68  140  the agencies, the r o l e of Kadlunat wives and c h i l d r e n , o r a host of other tangible and i n t a n g i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  The Department o f Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development T h i s Department, represented a t I g l o o l i k and H a l l Beach by the combined establishment of i t s . N o r t h e r n Administration Branch, i s a r e l a t i v e late-comer to the region, but i t i s the most pervasive and powerful o f a l l the agencies.  This s i t u a t i o n i s recognized i n the use o f the term angayukak  or c h i e f , by Eskimos when r e f e r r i n g to the a d m i n i s t r a t o r . The s t a f f , headed by an area a d m i n i s t r a t o r , operates the schools, power-plants and Eskimo housing.  I t employs the greatest number o f permanent and seasonal  Eskimo workers.  The movement of Eskimo p a t i e n t s and t r a i n e e s i n and out  of the region i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f IA&ND, and a newly-appointed worker administers s o c i a l assistance and s t a t u t a r y allowances.  social  The area  administrator i s a l s o responsible f o r three types o f o r g a n i z a t i o n which were conceived as v e h i c l e s f o r s e l f government by Eskimos. The area a d m i n i s t r a t o r and h i s s t a f f handle the greater part o f the cash-flow i n t o the r e g i o n .  Their establishment i s the c h i e f medium o f  d i r e c t and i n c i d e n t a l tutelage. Now that the Eskimo population i s concentrated near the schools, school attendance i s s i m i l a r to that o f southern Canada, i n c l u d i n g about f i f t y c h i l d r e n a t the boarding school a t C h e s t e r f i e l d I n l e t , and f o u r a t the v o c a t i o n a l school, C h u r c h i l l .  I n terms  of Eskimo p a r t i c i p a t i o n , there i s no equivalent as y e t o f the southern home and school o r parent-teachers a s s o c i a t i o n s .  Several g i r l s from the  region have t r a i n e d as classroom a s s i s t a n t s , but there are no Eskimos with f u l l teacher q u a l i f i c a t i o n .  About s i x young a d u l t Eskimos from the region  took v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n various provinces during the winter o f 1967/68.  141  A.  The Housing A s s o c i a t i o n The tenants of government low-rental housing a t I g l o o l i k and  H a l l Beach comprise two housing a s s o c i a t i o n s , and the members e l e c t an executive on the b a s i s of one representative per ten houses.  When  incorporated, the executive has the l e g a l power to c o l l e c t rents, contract services, a l l o c a t e and r e q u i s i t i o n housing and perform other management functions.  The H a l l Beach a s s o c i a t i o n i s embryonic as yet, and  the  I g l o o l i k executive i s slowly taking up i t s d u t i e s . The f r u i t i o n of the Housing A s s o c i a t i o n management-role w i l l require a grasp of several new concepts such as rent and d e t a i l e d accounting. I t w i l l a l s o require a t r a n s f e r of funds and equipment, since both are c o n t r o l l e d a t present by the government o f f i c e r s .  In 1967  Igloolik  was  host to Eskimo delegates from several other regions, a t a housing conference which l a s t e d one week.  The theme of education f o r housing  occupance and management, used the housing scheme a t I g l o o l i k as i t s model. B.  The Eskimo Council A second organization sponsored and guided by the area  Administrator i s the Eskimo Council, an e l e c t e d group intended to be a voice f o r Eskimo residents i n community a f f a i r s .  The c o u n c i l i s not  incorporated and wields r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e power, but under the auspices  of  the Council of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , l o c a l by-laws have been put i n t o effect.  One example concerned the perennial northern problem of dog-control.  The I g l o o l i k Council i n s t i t u t e d a system of "ransoms", and anyone catching a wandering dog could keep i t unless the owner paid a fee to the catcher. The two Eskimo c o u n c i l s of H a l l Beach and I g l o o l i k were represented i n A p r i l 1968 i n Frobisher Bay.  a t a conference of a l l B a f f i n Region c o u n c i l s  In keeping with the trend i n such t r a n s i t i o n a l communities  142  as Port Chlmo and Frobisher Bay, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the present c o u n c i l s of northern Foxe Basin, c o n s t i t u t e d on an ethnic b a s i s , w i l l give way  to  c o u n c i l s representative o f the e n t i r e community. C.  The Community Development Fund In-1964 a Community Development Fund was set up by the (then)  Department of Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources.  The fund provides  money with which Eskimo c o u n c i l s , under the guidance of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r , can plan and execute l o c a l p r o j e c t s of construction o r economic development. The main purpose of the fund i s to stimulate community development and Eskimo,leadership,  but i t i s a l s o an i n g r e d i e n t of the subsidized economy.  A committee o f the Eskimo c o u n c i l plans and executes p r o j e c t s i n each community, but I g l o o l i k , where the a d m i n i s t r a t o r i s based and population i s greatest, has been by f a r the most a c t i v e i n using the fund. In the f i s c a l year 1967-1968 H a l l Beach and I g l o o l i k were a l l o c a t e d $1,000 and $9,000 r e s p e c t i v e l y , and a report f o r the period A p r i l 1966  to January  10  1967  D.  showed the f o l l o w i n g p r o j e c t s a t I g l o o l i k : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12)  Community clean-up P r o v i s i o n of summer water supply by pipe from lake Repair to community dog food shed Continuing garbage c o l l e c t i o n Repair and upkeep of dog c o r r a l s and chains Repair and maintenance of o i l ranges i n Eskimo housing Relocation of dog c o r r a l s to sea-ice and back Summer char f i s h i n g p r o j e c t f o r o l d e r men Community walrus hunt, using co-op boat on contract Extension of temporary power l i n e Salvage of c r a t e lumber a f t e r cargo season Winter i c e supply  13)  Winter f i s h i n g p r o j e c t  Indian and Northern Health Service Another d i r e c t arm of f e d e r a l government i n the region i s the  Indian and Northern Health Service of the Department of N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare.  The s e r v i c e operates nursing s t a t i o n s a t H a l l Beach and I g l o o l i k ,  and the c l i n i c s are as i n southern Canada, tutelage as w e l l as s e r v i c e centres.  143  Eskimo c u l t u r e has not been g r e a t l y concerned w i t h h e a l t h , hygiene o r f i r s t - a i d , and with a l a r g e Eskimo population now a t hand, the nurses are kept busy by constant cases o f impetigo and s i m i l a r t r o u b l e s .  Ironically,  the frequency o f such ailments prevents the nurses from expanding t h e i r p u b l i c h e a l t h work. The t r a i n i n g o f Eskimo community health workers should increase both the tutelage r o l e o f the nurses, and the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f l o c a l Eskimos i n the p r o v i s i o n o f h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . Although informal t r a i n i n g has been given to Eskimo a s s i s t a n t s i n the nursing s t a t i o n s , there are no q u a l i f i e d nurses o r t e c h n i c i a n s .  Some I g l u l i n g m i u t Eskimos,, g i r l s have  r e c e n t l y taken v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g as ward-aides, and may r e t u r n t o work i n t h e i r home region. E.  The R.C.M.P. The t h i r d f e d e r a l s e r v i c e i s the I g l o o l i k detachment o f the  Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e .  I n common w i t h most a r c t i c p o l i c e posts,  the d u t i e s o f the o f f i c e r i n northern Foxe Basin have been d i f f u s e .  Crime  was rare during the hunting-camp period, and deviance was u s u a l l y c o n t r o l l e d , condoned o r concealed by Eskimo s o c i e t y . Much o f the work o f the p o l i c e , and t h e i r educational r o l e , was concerned w i t h hunting and trapping, with the care o f dogs and w i l d - l i f e management. In the new communities, the j u x a p o s i t i o n o f Eskimo l e g a l concepts and mores with those o f urban Canada b r i n g s an increase i n the tutelage r o l e of the p o l i c e .  E a r l y i n 1968 the community newspaper - i t s e l f a product o f  the new era - published educational a r t i c l e s w r i t t e n by the p o l i c e , on safety i n boats, and on the i l l e g a l nature o f trespass i n vacant h o u s e s .  11  Dog-team t r a v e l and the need f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g s e r v i c e s are now decreased, while s o c i a l o r community problems are i n t e n s i f i e d .  In r e f l e c t i o n  of the change, the Eskimo s p e c i a l constable has not yet been replaced  144  f o l l o w i n g r e t i r e m e n t , a n d a Kadluna  c o n s t a b l e j o i n e d t h e detachment i n 19&7•  Hon Government A g e n c i e s o f T u t e l a g e A.  The Hudson's Bay Company The Hudson's Bay Company opened a new s t o r e a t H a l l Beach i n 1967,  making two w i t h i n t h e r e g i o n . the f u r - t r a d e .  The I g l o o l i k s t o r e was o r i g i n a l l y b u i l t f o r  F u r s a l e s t o t h e Hudson's Bay Company s t i l l a c c o u n t f o r  r o u g h l y one q u a r t e r o f t h e Eskimo c a s h income, b u t most o f t h e remainder o r i g i n a t e s from t h e f e d e r a l government.  Of t h i s h e a v i l y s u b s i d i z e d c a s h  f l o w , w e l l o v e r h a l f moves t h r o u g h t h e two s t o r e s o f t h e Hudson's Bay Company."^ As a b u s i n e s s c o n c e r n , t h e Hudson's Bay Company has no d i r e c t i n t e r e s t i n e d u c a t i o n f o r s o c i a l change, though some managers have permitted a d u l t educators t o use the s t o r e s f o r demonstrations o f budgeting and b u y i n g .  Much l e a r n i n g a l s o t a k e s p l a c e t h r o u g h t h e t r a d i n g pirocess,  and t h r o u g h exposure o f t h e Eskimos t o an i n c r e a s i n g v a r i e t y o f consumer goods. B o t h s t o r e s employ Eskimo c l e r k s and g e n e r a l workers. From t h e p r e c e d e n t s e t a t B a k e r Lake i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t E s k i m o s c o m p l e t i n g s c h o o l w i l l be e l i g i b l e f o r more s e n i o r p o s i t i o n s . . The p o i n t has o f t e n been made t h a t a p r i v a t e t r a d i n g company t a k e s money o u t o f r e g i o n a l c i r c u l a t i o n , and w i t h i t goes o p p o r t u n i t y f o r Eskimo i n v o l v e m e n t .  T h i s i s true, but the  Hudson's Bay Company s t o r e s i n I g l o o l i k and H a l l B e a c h a r e t h e most t a n g i b l e examples t o t h e Eskimos o f t h e i m p e r s o n a l , c o m p e t i t i v e and e f f i c i e n t business world.  S i n c e t h i s b u s i n e s s w o r l d i s a m a j o r p a r t o f t h e "Canadian  f a c t " t o be f a c e d by Eskimos,  t h e exemplary v a l u e o f t h e Hudson's Bay  Company s h o u l d n o t be o v e r l o o k e d .  145  B.  The Roman C a t h o l i c Mission The Oblate p r i e s t s of the Mission St. Etienne have been r e s i d e n t  a t o r near I g l o o l i k since 1 9 3 1 . Before the opening o f the f e d e r a l dayschool the p r i e s t s taught some l a y subjects, and prepared students f o r the boarding school a t C h e s t e r f i e l d I n l e t .  The p r i e s t s are f l u e n t i n the  Eskimo language, and without the d i s t r a c t i o n o f f a m i l i e s o f t h e i r own, perhaps the most, i n s i g h t o f a l l the Kadlunat r e s i d e n t s  have  i n t o the Eskimo  culture. Eskimo p a r i s h i o n e r s contributed labour and s k i l l to the b u i l d i n g of a stone church a t I g l o o l i k - an example of how f o r c e s w i t h i n the native c u l t u r e can be harnessed o r d i r e c t e d towards goals o r i g i n a t i n g from outside the region and the t r a d i t i o n a l value system.  I n keeping with the general  p o l i c y o f the Oblate m i s s i o n a r i e s , the p r i e s t a t I g l o o l i k has been concerned w i t h economic development, and i n i t i a t e d the I g l o o l i k  C.  Co-operative.  The Anglican Mission The Anglican mission a t I g l o o l i k i s i n the charge o f an Eskimo  m i n i s t e r , an IglulingmiuR. An Eskimo r e l a t i v e i s the c a t e c h i s t f o r the H a l l Beach s e c t i o n of the p a r i s h , where a new church was b u i l t i n 1 9 6 7 . The leadership of the Anglican church i n the region i s strong, but the leaders are representatives o f the contemporary Eskimo c u l t u r e , and the tutelage given i s aimed a t c u l t u r a l s u r v i v a l r a t h e r than the transformation i m p l i c i t i n the work o f the Kadlunat agencies.  The church  women's group, and the e l e c t i o n o f church o f f i c e r s are two examples o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n by Eskimo p a r i s h i o n e r s . L i k e the Oblate mission, the i n f l u e n c e of the Anglican mission goes beyond the p a r i s h t o the whole community, p a r t i c u l a r l y The Eskimo community, where there i s a common ground of language and k i n s h i p .  146  D.  The Pentecostal Mission A Pentecostal missionary began construction of a church a t  H a l l Beach i n 1 9 6 8 , but f i e l d work by the w r i t e r ended before the e f f e c t s 13  of a t h i r d mission could be noted.  E.  The Co-operative The I g l o o l i k Co-operative i s d i f f e r e n t from the other agencies  i n that i t i s not the f i e l d u n i t o f a d e f i n i t e organization based i n southern Canada.  The Co-op was i n i t i a t e d by the Oblate missionary  with  the endorsement o f the Northern Administration Branch o f f e d e r a l government. I t s current membership includes both Anglican and Roman C a t h o l i c Eskimos, a l s o s e v e r a l Kadlunat members who have l e f t the region. The f e d e r a l government continues t o give guidance to the co-op, and the Co-operative Union o f Canada has provided management t r a i n i n g . With the a i d o f government loans and some bargain purchases of surplus DEWline equipment, the co-operative has b u i l t up an impressive inventory of machinery, b u i l d i n g s and boats, though there were a s e r i e s 14  of t r a g i c l o s s e s i n the spring o f 1968.  The gross income of the  co-operative comes from contracts f o r stevedoring, house-erection o r municipal s e r v i c e s ; from boat r e n t a l s and charters; from the sale of f u r s and carvings; from r e t a i l store s a l e s , ^ a bakery and p o s t - o f f i c e . The majority o f co-op members are C a t h o l i c Eskimos, and the t o t a l membership i s l e s s than h a l f the a d u l t population of the region. Both these f a c t o r s l i m i t the r o l e o f the co-op i n community a f f a i r s , but i t i s p o t e n t i a l l y the most e f f e c t i v e v e h i c l e o f socio-economic t r a n s i t i o n f o r the Eskimo s o c i e t y .  Through the co-operative a t I g l o o l i k and the one  proposed by some Eskimos o f H a l l Beach, a d u l t Eskimos could achieve a maximum p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the two staple economic a c t i v i t i e s - the re a l l o c a t i o n of government funds, and the export of f u r s and h a n d i c r a f t s .  147  The pan-Eskimo aspects of the co-operative movement are a l s o important to socio-economic  progress.  The w r i t e r was present a t a conference of Eskimo  co-operatives i n which delegates from I g l o o l i k spent several days i n an interchange of knowledge and ideas,with representatives from eight other 16 communities. The work of the co-operative includes trapping and hunting, and the use of f a m i l i a r s k i l l s blended with the market economy i s one of the 17 18 educational strengths of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . V a l l e e  and Fournier  have  commented on the p a r a l l e l s between co-operative ideology and s t r u c t u r e , and the t r a d i t i o n a l k i n s h i p systems.  The p a r a l l e l s are there, but a co-  operative i s a business, and the February 1968  issue of the I g l o o l i k  newspaper contained a plea f o r co-op members to pay t h e i r debts. F.  Newspaper The newspaper, the Midnight Sun, or N i p i s h u i l a k , i s one of several  now being published i n the eastern A r c t i c ,  I t was o r i g i n a t e d as a volunteer  a c t i v i t y by teachers, w i t h some expenses paid by the Community Development Fund.  An Eskimo t r a n s l a t o r prepares a l l m a t e r i a l f o r  and Eskimo.  publication i n English  Subscriptions are s o l d to make the paper f i n a n c i a l l y independent. Newsletters from neighbouring regions are published r e g u l a r l y ,  and the paper contains a miscellany of news, anecdotes, advertisements o f f i c i a l announcements.  and  Despite the i n i t i a l f l a v o u r of exhortation by the  c o n t r o l agencies, the newspaper i s i n c r e a s i n g l y a n e u t r a l forum of community opinion.  G.  The Community A s s o c i a t i o n Another community endeavour that i s r e l a t i v e l y independent of  ethnic and agency c o n t r o l i s the Community A s s o c i a t i o n . The manager of  148  the Hudson's Bay Company store has been a c t i v e i n the a s s o c i a t i o n , and i t s f u n c t i o n s were i n i t i a l l y held i n f e d e r a l government b u i l d i n g s .  The  proceeds o f various entertainments go to purchase f a c i l i t i e s f o r the a s s o c i a t i o n , and the degree of Eskimo c o n t r o l and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s high.  H.  Scouts and Guides The Scout and Guide movement has been a c t i v e i n I g l o o l i k f o r  several years, and as e a r l y as 1 9 6 5 scouts attended a jamboree i n Ontario. A scout troop was begun i n H a l l Beach i n 1 9 6 7 . The leaders o f the troops and packs may be from any o f the Kadlunat agencies, but the c o n t i n u i t y o f the movement i s hampered by the frequent changes of s t a f f among the agencies.  So f a r , no Eskimo a d u l t has taken over a leadership r o l e , but  some have taught t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s such as snow-house construction, to scout classes - a change from the former f a t h e r and son l e a r n i n g situation. I.  Youth Group A youth group was begun i n 1 9 6 7 by Kadlunat residents of  I g l o o l i k to involve Eskimo young people who face boredom and lack o f function i n the new communities.  The group i s to some extent a t r a n s m i t t e r  of the 'pop* c u l t u r e o f southern Canada, but i t i n v o l v e s young Eskimos i n planning, and i s important i n i t s tutelage o f the teenagers.  Summary Seven major organizations have been reviewed, and seven minor organizations subsidiary t o , o r independent of, the major ones.  These  fourteen are the only f o r m a l l y - c o n s t i t u t e d i n t e r e s t groups i n the two communities, and without exception they are from outside the r e g i o n a l  lk-9  Eskimo t r a d i t i o n .  I n communities where the Eskimo population outnumbers  the Kadlunat by more than seventeen to one, not one of the fourteen organi z a t i o n s was created by Eskimos. The Eskimo patterns of a u t h o r i t y and f u n c t i o n from pre-contact time up to the d e c l i n e o f the hunting and trapping camps, were equal i n complexity and e f f i c i e n c y to the modern agencies of I g l o o l i k and H a l l Beach.  They evolved, howeve^as answers to a s p e c i f i c r e g i o n a l l i f e i n  which cause and e f f e c t worked simply, and the o l d wisdom was valuable. Under the new c o n d i t i o n s imposed by urban l i f e , the former patterns cannot survive i n t a c t . I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , i n view of the dramatic entry o f the I g l u l i n g m i u t i n t o "urban" l i f e , that no formal, purely Eskimo power structure has yet emerged.  Among the e x i s t i n g agencies there i s evidence  of i n c r e a s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n by Eskimos.  The Anglican mission i s the best  example, and the Co-operative i s a close second.. A s p e c i a l index would have t o be worked out i n order to assess the r e l a t i v e degree of Eskimo c o n t r o l and p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r a l l a c t i v i t i e s . Among the s u b s i d i a r y organizations, the Community A s s o c i a t i o n , the newspaper, the Councils and the Housing A s s o c i a t i o n s appear to represent a descending order o f Eskimo p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s o f the success o f Kadlunat - sponsored socio-economic groupings i s a s o c i o l o g i c a l matter, and deserves rigorous treatment.  Certain  p r i n c i p l e s however, do appear to have operated i n northern Foxe Basin.  The  Anglican mission i s the only formal structure completely "manned" by Eskimos. I t s ideology and r a i s o n d'etre are comprehensible.  I t s l o c a l leader  q u a l i f i e s by the t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a o f character, hunting a b i l i t y and kinship l i n k s .  The co-operative and economic o b l i g a t i o n s of membership are  simple and discernable i n terms o f the t r a d i t i o n a l forms.  P L A T E 18 - 3-bedroom rental house. (photo M . Halfpenny) 1968  151  The Co-operative, as has been mentioned, i s concerned w i t h the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f l o c a l resources, using t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s .  Older people  have been able t o contribute knowledge and s k i l l s t o f i e l d o r handicraft work.  The a d u l t management group have learned t o handle the mechanical  equipment, and young a d u l t s w i t h formal t r a i n i n g have kept accounts.  The  general ideology o f the co-op movement and the l o c a l economic a c t i v i t i e s are s e n s i b l e i n Eskimo terms, and there has been a strong core o f leadership based on k i n s h i p and r e l i g i o u s t i e s .  The obvious present l i m i t a t i o n o f the  co-operative i s the l a c k o f an Eskimo leader, o r leaders, w i t h adequate education, e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l s k i l l and knowledge o f the outside commercial world. The Community A s s o c i a t i o n and the newspaper deal e s s e n t i a l l y with day to day l o c a l business.  They are detached from the p a r t i s a n major  agencies, and by scope and philosophy they permit E s k i m o ^ p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A dance o r f i l m show can be planned and c a r r i e d out, and the proceeds c o l l e c t e d , without Kadlunat involvement.  The newspaper gives Eskimos a  unique opportunity t o comment p u b l i c l y on the new order, a s when one e l d e r l y correspondent equated schooling w i t h a l o s s o f a l l sense o f shame among 19  girls.  Both the a s s o c i a t i o n and the newspaper, however, a r e s t i l l  dependent f o r t h e i r existence on Kadlunat supervision. The Eskimo Council has been s u c c e s s f u l i n d e a l i n g with some problems t h a t have been community-wide, and amenable t o s o l u t i o n using l o c a l resources.  Dog c o n t r o l , and advice on the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s o c i a l  assistance, a r e two examples.  The c o u n c i l i s sanctioned i n such matters,  by both the Kadlunat and Eskimo groups, and there i s l i t t l e t e c h n i c a l o r economic complexity. The use o f the Community Development Fund by a committee o f the  152  C o u n c i l , and the operation of the Housing A s s o c i a t i o n have s e r i o u s handicaps as channels of tutelage and self-government.  The i d e o l o g i c a l base of both  schemes i s complex i n terms of Eskimo experience, and r e a l economic c o n t r o l i s e x e r c i s e d by unknown people outside the region. Both programmes operate under the veto power of the area administrator, whose d u t i e s r e q u i r e him to o s c i l l a t e c o n t i n u a l l y between an a u t h o r i t a r i a n management r o l e and a permissive developmental one.  The equipment a v a i l a b l e f o r e i t h e r  programme must be borrowed from Indian A f f a i r s or rented from another agency. The use of the Community Development fund has given Eskimo l e a d e r s valuable experience and t r a i n i n g i n the planning and conduct of separate short-term p r o j e c t s , but i t remains an adjunct to the area a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s establishment, and cannot have separate existence under present conditions. The housing management programme was planned as a slow, long term process of e v o l u t i o n towards comprehensive Eskimos.  l o c a l government by  The scheme i s too new f o r a n a l y s i s i n terms of success o r  f a i l u r e , but i f i t i s to have the e n t h u s i a s t i c and successful p a r t i c i p a t i o n of Eskimos as tenants and managers, several changes In emphasis appear to be necessary.  The Eskimo P o s i t i o n The preceding account of the formal s o c i a l and economic groupings concentrated d e l i b e r a t e l y on the educational and manipulative r o l e of these power-groups v i s - a - v i s the Eskimos.  But with a vigorous Eskimo m a j o r i t y  i n I g l o o l i k and H a l l Beach, there i s obviously a busy s o c i a l network apart from the c o u n c i l s , clubs and poster-decked w a i t i n g rooms. The employed Eskimos of the days before the housing scheme d i d not form a s p e c i a l - s t a t u s group i n the way t h a t V a l l e e observed i n Baker Lake.  The r o l e of c u l t u r a l - l i n g u i s t i c go-between was not h i g h l y developed,  153  and they remained c l o s e l y oriented to the land, with economic membership of hunting groups.  I g l u l i n g m i u t s o c i e t y i s s t i l l "camp" s o c i e t y trans-  planted, and hunting a b i l i t y i s s t i l l the ultimate measure o f a man's status.  Hunting continues from the v i l l a g e bases, even though i t i s  diminishing i n t o t a l . The camp groups that have moved to I g l o o l i k and H a l l Beach during the past two years r e t a i n much o f t h e i r former patterns o f co-operation and leadership, but i n the t r a n s i t i o n a l atmosphere and r e a l i t y of the v i l l a g e s , these groups appear to be d i s i n t e g r a t i n g o r r e a l i g n i n g .  Leader-  ship e x i s t s i n the ex-camp o r extended f a m i l y u n i t s . On a more i n c l u s i v e scale i t i s exercised by o l d e r men who are senior i n an i l a g i i t o r large kindred group.  At an even higher l e v e l o f i n t e g r a t i o n , the new  communities have an informal group of " e l d e r s " ,  This " c o u n c i l of e l d e r s "  may be d i f f e r e n t l y c o n s t i t u t e d f o r d i f f e r e n t problems, but i n general i t i s representative of the e n t i r e I g l u l i n g m i u t people and t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l law.  I n one instance a group of o l d e r Sskimps.visited one man to  remonstrate with him f o r excessive d r i n k i n g , and the man c a r r i e d h i s 20  b o t t l e s t o the p r i e s t to be broken. The e l d e r s have a v a r i e t y o f l i n k s with t h e i r k i n on the formal c o u n c i l s , and i n one o r two instances are represented d i r e c t l y .  Almost a l l  questions o f importance are relayed from the formal c o u n c i l s back through the various c o n s u l t i v e l e v e l s o f the " c o v e r t " o r t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y structure, and the d e c i s i o n s thus r e f l e c t the t o t a l Eskimo community. The f o l l o w i n g study i l l u s t r a t e s some aspects o f the leadership structure i n three formal Kadlunat - sponsored o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  21  154  Organization 1  Housing Executive  H a l l Beach  A - E l e c t e d leader, aged 3 5 . Self-taught i n E n g l i s h and mechanics. Long time DEWline employee, now employed by agency a t H a l l Beach. Brother of B. B - Elected o f f i c e r , aged 3 0 . Self-taught i n E n g l i s h and mechanical work. Son of i n f l u e n t i a l camp and r e l i g i o u s leader. Employed by a Kadlunat agency. Also o f f i c e r of c o u n c i l . C - E l e c t e d o f f i c e r , aged 4 3 .  Organization 2  Good average hunter, no formal education.  Co-operative  Igloolik  A - E l e c t e d leader, aged 4 2 . A capable mechanic, hunter and carver. No formal education other than a course i n mechanics. O r i g i n a l l y an immigrant, w i t h few k i n - t i e s , but strong church a f f i l i a t i o n . B - E l e c t e d second-in-command, aged 28. No formal education but w e l l t r a v e l l e d and competent i n both "camp" and "settlement" s k i l l s . Strong k i n - t i e s w i t h i n settlement. C - E l e c t e d o f f i c e r , aged 4 5 . Enjoys p r e s t i g e o f p h y s i c a l strength, descent from a famous leader, and s k i l l i n hunting o r t r a v e l l i n g . No formal education. D - E l e c t e d o f f i c e r , aged 4 1 . No formal education, but i s respected hunter and p i l o t , with close k i n - t i e s to B and C. E - E l e c t e d o f f i c e r , aged 4 0 . No formal education. Former camp-leader, with k i n - t i e s to B, C and D, and former camp-partner o f C. F - E l e c t e d o f f i c e r , aged 6 4 . No formal education. Son of famous woman leader, and head of large kin-group. Related c l o s e l y to a l l except A.  Organization 3  Eskimo Council  H a l l Beach  A - E l e c t e d leader, aged 3 4 . S e l f taught i n E n g l i s h , f a i r hunter and long-time employee of Kadlunat agency. Has extensive k i n connections. B - E l e c t e d second-in-command, aged 5 8 . No formal education. leader of camp group, known f o r astuteness. C - Elected o f f i c e r , aged 4 5 .  Former  Capable hunter, no formal education.  D - E l e c t e d o f f i c e r , aged 3 0 . No formal education but self-taught i n E n g l i s h and mechanical work. Son of i n f l u e n t i a l leader who was formerly an e l e c t e d o f f i c e r . Employed by a Kadlunat agency.  155  E - E l e c t e d o f f i c e r , aged 3 6 . No formal education. Formerly second i n a u t h o r i t y of a camp group. Capable hunter, strong church affiliation. F - E l e c t e d o f f i c e r , aged 3 0 . No formal education.  I s a capable hunter.  G - E l e c t e d o f f i c e r , aged 3 8 . No formal education. Was formerly leader of small camp group. I s a l s o member o f church c o u n c i l .  The three l i s t s o f e l e c t e d o f f i c e r s represent two communities, and organizations with d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s i n the economic sense o r i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h Kadlunat.  The c o n s t i t u t i o n of each i s l i k e l y t o change  from year to year, but despite these r e s e r v a t i o n s , some patterns can be abstracted. a)  There i s i n a l l three a d e f i n i t e choice of men who are o l d  enough to have proved themselves as parents and hunters, and who, though they have no formal education, have learned enough to "get along" with the Kadlunat.  I f the two o l d e s t men are excluded from the c a l c u l a t i o n , the  average age o f the remainder of the three groups i s 3 7 . b)  Old men, while respected i n t r a d i t i o n a l matters, are l e s s  apt to understand the new d u t i e s required o f formal groups, and while there are several young men who have attended school, they are u n t r i e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l s k i l l s and low i n s e n i o r i t y o r maturity.  Both the 'elder  statesmen' and the younger educated men are, i n p r a c t i c e , consulted when necessary. c)  The H a l l Beach Council has f o u r C a t h o l i c s to three Anglicans,  and the Housing Executive i s a l l C a t h o l i c , despite a majority of Anglicans i n the community.  This suggests that k i n s h i p and r e l i g i o u s considerations  come second t o an a b i l i t y i n terms of modern management, o r as a " c u l t u r a l broker". d)  The Co-operative o f f i c e r s have d e f i n i t e r e l i g i o u s and  156  i  kinship homogeneity,' r e f l e c t i n g the C a t h o l i c majority i n membership.  Since  the co-operative has a greater degree of choice i n i t s a c t i v i t i e s than the c o u n c i l o r housing executive, i t s o f f i c e r s may be chosen w i t h l e s s regard f o r i n t e r p r e t i v e a b i l i t y v i s - a - v i s the Kadlunat agencies. Of sixteen e l e c t e d leaders shown i n the preceding l i s t s , only three have permanent wage employment.  The sample i s important, as i t  r e f l e c t s the p o s i t i o n of the Eskimo a d u l t s i n terms o f education, incomes and power.  Table 4 shows some 3 3 permanently employed Eskimos a t Igloolik»  H a l l Beach and Foxe Main, compared to 1 2 5 Kadlunat.  With a population  r a t i o of roughly 5 Eskimos f o r each Kadluna, there a r e almost 4 Kadlunat employees f o r each employed Eskimo. i n v e r s i o n o f the r a t i o i s increased.  I n terms o f comparative income the The t o t a l annual income of the  Kadlunat, e x c l u s i v e o f f u e l , lodging e t c . , i s very roughly $ 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 , and that o f the employed Eskimos  about $ 1 3 0 , 0 0 0 .  22  With acfew exceptions, the r e g i o n a l job-structure has absorbed as many as i t can o f the a d u l t , unschooled Eskimo group.  The f i r s t  gsneration of school-educated I g l u l i n g m i u t i s j u s t entering the employment f i e l d , but even here there i s no simple s o l u t i o n .  Hot a l l of the educated  young a d u l t s r e t u r n t o the region from the schools "outside", but those t h a t do, f i n d t h a t most of the northern jobs require s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g and experience w e l l beyond t h e i r reach.  I n f u t u r e , Eskimo students w i l l no  doubt reach p r o g r e s s i v e l y higher l e v e l s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g , but even i f every permanent p o s i t i o n i n the region were f i l l e d immediately by Eskimos t h i s would b a r e l y create f u l l employment. The f u t u r e of education f o r the I g l u l i n g m i u t , and the economic future, are beyond the scope of t h i s study.  P r o j e c t i o n s are hazardous i n  the absence of comprehensive planning - i n the three years t h a t have elapsed since Anders' economic survey o f the region, the closure of the  157  TABLE  4  Comparative population, Kadlunat and Eskimo, by agencies and communities, March 1968 (approximate) Employed Kadlunat  Settlement  Agency  Igloolik  H, B, C, . 2 2 R. C M. P. Anglican Church R.C. Church 3 Co-op 8 I . A. & N. D. 2 I . & N.H. S.  -  H a l l Beach  Fox  Main  H. B. C. I . A. | N. D. I . & N. H. S.  F. E. C. D. 0. T. Nordair  Employed Eskimo  Total Kadlunat  3  -1  17  1 2 7 2 16"  3 3 _2_ 8  2 5 _2_ 9  100  28  "530"  10  230  100  38  30  Eskimo Camps T o t a l , excluding remote DEWline s i t e s  Total Eskimo  125  33  138  728  158  hunting camps and the commencement of the r e n t a l housing scheme have negated 23  most of h i s recommendations.  None of the remainder have been implemented.  The immediate problem, and probably f o r more than another decade, i s the continuing adaptation of the whole I g l u l i n g m i u t people to l i f e a t the centre of t h e i r region, to imported forms of s o c i a l organization, and to an economy that has a touch of A l i c e i n Wonderland. In sum,this i s a problem of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . One of the most valuable i n s i g h t s f o r a n a l y s i s of the Eskimo 24  p o s i t i o n i n c u l t u r a l change i s that of C.C. Hughes.  He has d i v i d e d  human techniques of adaptation to environment i n t o " r e a c t i v e " and " c r e a t i v e " s t r a t e g i e s of c o n t r o l .  The t r a d i t i o n a l Eskimo strategy,  with a p r i m i t i v e technology i n a severe environment, had to be one of r e a c t i v e adaptation.  The possession of firearms and other t e c h n o l o g i c a l  a i d s during several decades brought a s l i g h t increase incenvironmental c o n t r o l , but not enough to change the b a s i c approach to l i f e . The concept of r e a c t i v e adaptation i s one important clue to the often-quoted pragmatism and f a t a l i s m of the Eskimo. a c c u l t u r a t i o n and  In the context of  adaptation to l i f e i n H a l l Beach and I g l o o l i k , the  concept helps to e x p l a i n why adaptation proceeds q u i c k l y i n some spheres and slowly i n others.  When a man becomes expert with a skidoo, i t i s an  adaptive r e a c t i o n to a s i n g l e observable phenomena of immediate e f f e c t . The same man i s u n l i k e l y to plan an academic career f o r h i s c h i l d r e n , despite explanation of long-term b e n e f i t s .  The response cannot be  j u s t i f i e d i n the immediate r e a c t i v e context and c u l t u r a l Eskimo experience, Saul Arbess has recorded how one Eskimo community co-operative used t h e i r organized power to exert pressure f o r d i r e c t welfare a s s i s t a n c e , thus using a c r e a t i v e long-range i n s t i t u t i o n i n a r e a c t i v e o r short-range 25  way.  Despite the usefulness of the adaptation concept, i t i s p a t e n t l y  159  i n s u f f i c i e n t to e x p l a i n the spectrum of human motivation.  I f Eskimos are  not involved with the f u t u r e , n e i t h e r are they embedded i n t h e i r past.  There  are few c r o c o d i l e t e a r s f o r the o l d days, no i n s t i t u t i o n s perpetuating h i s t o r y , and as y e t no r e v i v a l movements of the type f a m i l i a r i n Indian reserve communities.  I t may be, as the Honigmann's have argued, that such 26  an o r i e n t a t i o n to the present i s p r o p i t i o u s f o r change. I t i s important that the nature of t r a d i t i o n a l I g l u l i n g m i u t c u l t u r e be understood, not f o r the purpose of preserving i t i n a limbo of sentiment, but to ensure t h a t change i s e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e r a t h e r than u t t e r l y d e s t r u c t i v e .  In the t r a d i t i o n a l c u l t u r e may l i e the clues to  d i f f i c u l t i e s with an i n t e r p r e t e r , to the alcoholism of a young Eskimo j u s t out of school o r the apparent i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of an elected executive. A.P. Flucke, i n "Whither the Eskimo", l i s t e d eloquently the changes that Eskimos'will almost c e r t a i n l y have to make i n order to become  27 c o n t r i b u t o r s t o , r a t h e r than wards of, government.  The l i s t of changes  i n c l u d e s a r e v e r s a l of a t t i t u d e s to plays learning} diet} hygiene, time and economy - almost every f a c e t of l i f e .  Without questioning the  i n e v i t a b i l i t y of many such changes, i t i s worth pausing to consider what i s being asked of the Eskimo people. The changes l i s t e d above took western man about t h i r t y thousand years, and the process continues.  No p r i m i t i v e hunting people has  success-  f u l l y completed t h i s t r a n s i t i o n during the recent century or so of modernization.  No immigrant o r v i c t i m of p o l i t i c a l brainwashing i s required  to undergo such a complete transformation. means t h a t the Eskimos must pass as a through " c u l t u r e shook".  P u l l i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o modernity  people, even i n t h e i r own homeland,  161  FOOTNOTES  R.C.M.P. census o f January 1 9 6 8 , amended.  1  From Department o f Indian A f f a i r s & Northern Development engineering f i l e s . 2  ^ L i k e V a l l e e , I have chosen t o use the term 'Kadlunat', s i g n i f y i n g those o f the general southern Canadian way o f l i f e , r a t h e r than other l a b e l s such a s 'non-Eskimo', o r 'white'. 4 Eskimo M o r t a l i t y and Housing, Ottawa, Indian & Northern Health Services, Department o f N a t i o n a l Health & Welfare, and Northern Administration Branch, Department o f Northern A f f a i r s & National Resources, I960.  From Department o f Indian A f f a i r s & Northern Development housing and engineering f i l e s , and from f i e l d count. ^P.L. Wagner and M.W. M i k e s e l l , U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago Press, 1 9 6 2 , p. 1 .  Readings i n C u l t u r a l Geography,  7  J . F r i e d , "Settlemt Types and Community Organization i n Northern Canada", A r c t i c , V o l . 1 6 , No. 2 , June 1 9 6 3 , p. 9 8 . 8  H.M. Mayer, 'Geography and Urbanism', Chapter i n Readings i n Urban Geography, H.M. Mayer & C.F. Kohn, U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago Press, 1959, P. 7 . 9  John J . & Irma Honigmann, Eskimo Townsmen, Canadian Research Centre f o r Anthropology, U n i v e r s i t y o f Ottawa, 1 9 6 5 , p. 1 5 7 . 10  From the Community Development Fund F i l e , Northern Administration Branch, Department o f Northern A f f a i r s & National Resources. 11  T h e Midnight Sun, I g l o o l i k , February and March 1 9 6 8 .  12  Based on the annual reports by the Area Administrator and R.C.M. P o l i c e . Since two t r a d i n g concerns are operating i n the region, no f i g u r e s f o r e i t h e r business are d i s c l o s e d i n t h i s report. 13  M. Halfpenny, personal communication, May, 1 9 6 8 .  162  14  On May 1 3 , 1 9 6 8 , the Co-operative store and Post O f f i c e turned down, w i t h most of the business f i l e s . L a t e r that month, the president of the co-operative was drowned when the b u l l d o z e r he was d r i v i n g broke through sea-ice. ^5 The co-operative store a t H a l l Beach closed l a t e i n 196? because of the opening of the new Hudson's Bay Company store. ^ A t Frobisher Bay, March 1 9 6 8 . 17 F.G. V a l l e e , "Notes on the Co-operative Movement and Community Organization i n the Canadian A r c t i c " , paper presented, to the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement of Science, Section *H', Montreal 3 0 / 1 2 / 6 4 , p. 6 . L. Fournier, " A r c t i c Co-operatives, Some Observations", Eskimo, V o l . 6 5 , September 1 9 6 3 , p. 1 3 . 1 9  The Midnight Sun, February, 1 9 6 8 .  20 21  B. Lewis, personal communication.  The d e t a i l s of the three organizations are from the Cooperative f i l e s , Ottawa, May 1 9 6 8 , from Miss M. Halfpenny, personal communication May 1968, and the w r i t e r ' s personal knowledge of the people i n v o l v e d . 22  The d e t a i l s of Eskimo and Kadlunat s a l a r i e s are from f i l e s i n the case of f e d e r a l government employees, and from estimates made on personal communication with other employing agencies or employees. 2  3Anders, op_. c i t . ,  pp.  121-130.  24 C.C. Hughes, "Observations on Community Change i n the North: An Attempt a t Summary", Anthropologica, V o l . V, No. 1, 1 9 6 3 , p. 7 6 . 25 •^S.E. Arbess, S o c i a l Change and the Eskimo Co-operative a t George River, Quebec, Ottawa, Northern Co-ordination & Research Centre, Department of Northern A f f a i r s & N a t i o n a l Resources August 1 9 6 6 . 26  27  op. c i t . , p. 240. A.F. Flucke, "Whither the Eskimo", North, Jan - Feb I963.  163  CHAPTER V I I  SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS  The preceding chapters have "built upon the theme o f northern Foxe Basin as a d i s t i n c t region o f human occupance.  Under c o n d i t i o n s o f  p r i m i t i v e subsistence the region has supported a s e r i e s o f populations s i m i l a r i n c u l t u r e and s t r i k i n g l y uniform i n d i s t r i b u t i o n . The I g l u l i n g m i u t Eskimos r e t a i n e d the e s s e n t i a l c u l t u r e and d i s t r i b u t i o n a l pattern o f p r e h i s t o r i c times during one and a h a l f centuries o f c u l t u r a l contact and economic change.  By 1966, the "push"  f a c t o r o f a government housing scheme completed a s i g n i f i c a n t change from dispersed to c e n t r a l population. The I g l u l i n g m i u t possess a d i s t i n c t c u l t u r e , with a comprehensive k i n s h i p system of co-operative and s o c i a l c o n t r o l , based on an ancient r e g i o n a l symbiosis.  In the new settlements the t r a d i t i o n a l  c u l t u r e c o - e x i s t s with forms imported from the southern Kadlunat world, and metamorphosis i s t a k i n g place. There i s a high degree o f p r i d e and sense o f c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y among the I g l u l i n g m i u t , and leadership i s both strong and progressive w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f i t s comprehension.  R e l a t i v e t o many other a r c t i c  communities, I g l o o l i k and H a l l Beach have been lucky i n the s t a b i l i t y and c a l i b r e o f the Kadlunat population.  Given a comprehensive and acceptable  plan f o r the f u t u r e o f the region, the I g l u l i n g m i u t are equipped to survive change without demoralization. I t appears that planning by f e d e r a l o r t e r r i t o r i a l government w i l l continue to be a prime f a c t o r i n the l i v e s o f the I g l u l i n g m i u t f o r several decades a t l e a s t .  In view o f the growing s o c i a l and economic  malaise o f many Eskimo communities, i t i s axiomatic that such planning be  164  guided by a new  philosophy.  The government a c t i v i t i e s which have most profoundly a f f e c t e d the Eskimo s o c i a l structure and ecology have been fragmentary.  No  comprehensive long term plan has yet been a r t i c u l a t e d f o r the development of the Canadian A r c t i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to i t s indigenous people. Planning and a c t i o n has been governed by l o g i s t i c a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p o l i t i c a l needs rather than those of the Eskimo population.  The advice of competent s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s and of experienced  f i e l d workers has never received more than token consideration.  The  r e n t a l housing scheme, f o r a l l i t s v i r t u e s , was conceived and executed without regard f o r the economic and s o c i a l matrices of the a f f e c t e d regions.  There i s abundant evidence from a l l over the world that where  p r i m i t i v e or f o l k s o c i e t i e s are i n t r a n s i t i o n , the superimposition  of  one-dimensional " s o l u t i o n s " i s d i s a s t r o u s . In the l i g h t of preceding observations,  several areas of a c t i o n  are recommended here to the Federal or T e r r i t o r i a l Governments.  The  a c t i o n might be taken w i t h i n a new plan of regional development, or w i t h i n the current day to day operation of the communities.  1.  ADULT EDUCATION Because of the s i g n i f i c a n t and sudden termination of the r e g i o n a l  camp economy, the a d u l t Eskimos could b e n e f i t from a c a r e f u l explanation, i n t h e i r own language, of the present, and probable f u t u r e , r e a l i t i e s . I f the nature of the s h i f t from t r a d i t i o n a l to subsidized l i f e were b e t t e r understood, i t i s l i k e l y that the proven adaptive capacity of the I g l u l i n g m i u t could f u n c t i o n more e f f i c i e n t l y . The economic a l t e r n a t i v e s of l o c a l development and r e l o c a t i o n  165  could be discussed, and community leaders o f both sexes would b e n e f i t from c a r e f u l l y explained v i s i t s t o southern Canada.  Such experience would give  them b e t t e r understanding o f the many e x t r a - r e g i o n a l sources o f change, and the type o f world f o r which t h e i r c h i l d r e n mast be prepared. The e s s e n t i a l matter would be t o make the Eskimo s o c i e t y a s a whole more aware of. i t s status i n t r a n s i t i o n a l and quasi-experimental communities.  2,  HOUSING MANAGEMENT Much o f the p o t e n t i a l f o r l o c a l government i s l o s t t o the  present housing management groups because o f confusion with the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e complex.  To give the housing scheme a d i s t i n c t i d e n t i t y  and c r e d i b i l i t y , the e n t i r e machinery o f management - executive meetings, book-keeping, house a l l o c a t i o n and maintenance, could be divorced unequivocally from the school, welfare and economic development f u n c t i o n s . Such separation would e n t a i l increased guidance and i n s t r u c t i o n , but i t would permit Eskimo housing o f f i c e r s and employees t o f u n c t i o n i n clear-cut roles.  An increase i n Eskimo c o n t r o l o f housing maintenance  would probably b r i n g proportionate increase i n c o s t s , but present expenditures on d i r e c t welfare could be d i v e r t e d i n t o the h e a l t h i e r channels o f employment and t r a i n i n g  3. GAME HARVESTING Despite the worthwhile attempts made  through the  Community  Development fund and other l o c a l programmes, the abandonment o f dispersed camps has l e f t a gap between the p o t e n t i a l and a c t u a l use o f game resources. Without c a p i t a l , many r e s i d e n t s o f I g l o o l i k and H a l l Beach are unable t o  166  secure s u f f i c i e n t game o r f i s h .  They have l i t t l e s k i l l i n s e l e c t i n g a  d i e t o f store food, l i t t l e preference f o r such a d i e t , and i n most cases 1  an inadequate income f o r purchasing food. A community-wide programme o f meat and f u r harvesting could be sponsored and underwritten by government. could be included on contract bases.  The co-operative resources  Such a scheme could ensure an adequate  d i e t f o r community r e s i d e n t s , provide meaningful and f a m i l i a r work f o r hunters now underemployed, and m a t e r i a l s f o r h a n d i c r a f t s . The process o f planning, execution, storage, d i s t r i b u t i o n and accounting could i n v o l v e Eskimo a d u l t s over a wide range o f age and education, approximating the t r a d i t i o n a l hierarchy o f meaningful  roles.  The programme might reduce welfare costs s u f f i c i e n t l y t o pay f o r i t s e l f . In any event, the long term b e n e f i t s i n terms o f community morale would probably j u s t i f y the attempt.  L i k e the two other recommendations, the  suggestion f o r game-harvesting i s based on the idea o f maximum i n v o l v e ment o f Eskimos i n the handling of government subsidy, minimum wastage of l o c a l human and animal resources, and the concept o f a s o c i e t y changing i n i t s own image.  FOOTNOTE "Mi ss Monique St. H i l a i r e , Home Economist, conducted a survey o f Eskimo f a m i l y d i e t i n I g l o o l i k , 1 9 6 7 arid 1 9 6 8 . Personal communication.  167  BIBLOGRAPHY Books Bernier, J.E., Master Mariner and A r c t i c Explorer, Montreal, Le D r o i t , 1 9 3 9 . Boas, P.,-  The Central Eskimos, L i n c o l n , U n i v e r s i t y o f Nebraska Press, 1 9 6 4 .  Dobbs, A.,  An Account o f the Countries Adjoining Hudson's Bay, London, J . Robinson, The Golden L i o n , Ludgate Street, 1 7 4 4 .  Freuchen, P., Book of the Eskimos, Cleveland, Ohio, The World P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 6 1 . 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"Eskimo Education, Danish and Canadian; A Comparison", Paper Read a t the American Anthropological A s s o c i a t i o n Meeting, Denver, November 20, U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , pp. 47-66. L a n t i s , M.  "Problems of Human Ecology i n the North American A r c t i c " , A r c t i c Research ( S p e c i a l P u b l i c a t i o n No. 2) A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e of North America, December 1955, pp. 195-207.  Meldgaard, J . " P r e h i s t o r i c Culture Sequence", In Selected Papers of the F i f t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of Anthropological and E t h n o l o g i c a l Sciences, P h i l a d e l p h i a , September 1-9, 1956, pp.. 588-595.  172  Meldgaard, J . "On the Formative Period of the Dorset Culture", Technical Paper No. 11, A r c t i c e I n s t i t u t e of North America, December, 19327 pp. 92-95. Vallee, F.G. "Notes on the Co-operative Movement and Community Organization i n the Canadian A r c t i c " , paper presented to the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement of Science, Section 'H', Montreal, 30/12/1964.  Reports Anders, G.  Northern Foxe Basin, An Area Economic Survey, Ottawa, I n d u s t r i a l D i v i s i o n , Northern Administration Branch, Department of Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources, 1965  Arbess, S.E. S o c i a l Change and the Eskimo Co-operative a t George River, Quebec, Ottawa, Northern Co-ordination and Research Centre, Department of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources, August, 1 9 6 6 . B a l i k o i , A.  Development of B a s i c Socio-Economic U n i t s i n Two Eskimo Communities, Ottawa, National Museum of Canada, B u l l e t i n No. 202,  1964.  B a n f i e l d , A.W.F. The Barren-Ground Caribou, Ottawa, Department of Resources and Development, Northern Administration and Lands Branch, 1 9 5 1 . B e m i e r , J.E. Report on the Dominion Government Expedition to the A r c t i c Archipelago, 1 9 1 0 , Ottawa, Department of Marine and F i s h e r i e s , 1912.  B i r d , J.B., Marsden, M. e t a l , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , Montreal, C o l l a t e d Reports f o r the Rand Corporation, January 196*3,  Boas, F.  Nos.  RM 2837-PR & RM 2706-1-PR,  The Eskimos of B a f f i n Land and Hudson Bay, B u l l e t i n 15 of the American Museum of Natural H i s t o r y , 1 9 0 1 .  Brack, D.M.  Southampton I s l a n d Area Economic Survey, Ottawa, I n d u s t r i a l D i v i s i o n , Department of Northern A f f a i r s and National Resources, September, 1 9 6 2 .  Campbell, N.J. and C o l l i n s , A.E. Recent Oceanographic A c t i v i t i e s of the A t l a n t i c Oceanographic Group i n the Eastern A r c t i c , Ottawa, Progress Report No. 6 9 ofthe A t l a n t i c Coastal S t a t i o n , F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, May 1 9 5 8 . Canada, Hydrographic Service, P i l o t of A r c t i c Canada, 1 9 5 9 , Queens P r i n t e r , f i g u r e s 7 and 8 , Canada, Department of Transport Meteorological Branch A e r i a l Ice Observation Booklet, C-l-R 4 0 8 0 , ICE - 1 5 , J u l y , 28, 1 9 6 4 .  173  Canada, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Annual Reports, 1906 to 1 9 5 0 , Ottawa. Damas, D.  Iglulingmiut,Kinship and Local Groupings, National Museum B u l l e t i n No. 1 9 6 , Ottawa, Department of Northern A f f a i r s & National Resources, 1 9 6 3 .  Dunbar, M.J.  The Calanus Expeditions i n the Canadian A r c t i c , 1 9 4 7 - 1 9 5 5 ,  Journal of the A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e of North America, No. 9 ( 3 ) i 1 9 5 6 . Freuchen, P. Mammals, Report of the 5 t h Thule Expedition, 1921-24, Copenhagen, Vol. 2 , Nos. 4 and 5« 1 9 3 5 . Grainger, E.M. and Hunter, J.G. Station L i s t 1 9 5 5 - 1 9 5 8 , Calanus Series No. 2 0 . Montreal, F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, 1 9 6 3 . Harrington, CR. "Some Data on the Polar Bear and i t s U t i l i z a t i o n i n the Canadian A r c t i c , Ottawa, Canadian W i l d l i f e Service, National Parks Branch, Department of Northern A f f a i r s & National Resources, December, 1 9 6 1 . Honigmann, J . J . and I. Eskimo Townsmen, Ottawa, Canadian Research Centre f o r Anthropology, 196~5~i Jenness, D.  Eskimo Administration: No. 2 . Canada, Technical Paper No. 14, of the A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e of North America, 1 9 6 4 .  Loughrey, A.G. "Preliminary Investigation of the A t l a n t i c Walrus ,' I "... : W i l d l i f e Management B u l l e t i n No. 14, Ottawa, Canadian W i l d l i f e Service, Department of Northern A f f a i r s & National Resources, 1  ;  :  1959.  Mansfield, A.W. The Walrus i n the Canadian Arctic,Montreal, C i r c u l a r No. 2 , F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, A r c t i c Unit, January 1 9 5 9 . Seals of A r c t i c and Eastern Canaday Ottawa, B u l l e t i n No. 1 3 7 , F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, 1 9 6 3 . Mathiassen, T. Archeology of the Central Eskimos, Report of the F i f t h Thule Expedition, 1921-24, Copenhagen, Vol. 4 , 1 9 2 7 . Material Culture of the I g l u l i k Eskimos, Report of the F i f t h Thule Expedition, 1921-24, Copenhagen, V o l . 6 , No. 1, 1 9 2 8 . Contributions to the Geography of B a f f i n Land and M e l v i l l e Peninsula, Report on the F i f t h Thule Expedition, 1921-24, Copenhagen, V o l . 1, No. 3 , 1 9 2 8 . McLaren, I.A. The Economics of Seals i n the Eastern Canadian A r c t i c , Montreal, C i r c u l a r No. 1, Fisheries Research Board of Canada, A r c t i c Unit, November, 1 9 5 8 . The Biology of the Ringed Seal i n the Eastern Canadian A r c t i c , Ottawa, B u l l e t i n No. 118, F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, A r c t i c Unit, 1 9 5 8 .  174  Rasmussen, K. I n t e l l e c t u a l Culture o f the I g l u l i k Eskimos, Report o f the F i f t h Thule Expedition, 1921-24, Copenhagen, V o l . 7 , No. 1 , 1 9 2 9 . Sergeant, D. The B i o l o g y o f Hunting Beluga o r White Whale i n the Canadian A r c t i c , C i r c u l a r No. 8 , F i s h e r i e s Research Board o f Canada, 1 9 6 2 . Usher, P.J.  Economic B a s i s and Resource Use o f the Coppermine-Holman Region, N.W.T., Ottawa, Northern Co-ordination & Research Centre 6 5 - 2 , Department of Northern A f f a i r s & National Resources, 1965,  PP. 1 8 8 - 1 9 0 .  V a l l e e , F.G. Kabloona and Eskimo I n the Central Keewatin, Ottawa,r.Northern Co-ordination and Research Centre, Department o f Northern A f f a i r s & N a t i o n a l Resources, May 1 9 6 2 . Vanstone, J.W. The Economy and Population S h i f t s o f the Eskimos o f Southampton Island, Ottawa, Northern Co-ordinati:on:and Research Centre, Department o f Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resources, 1 9 5 9 .  Unpublished M a t e r i a l s Malaurie, J.N. Preliminary Report from an Anthropological M i s s i o n f o r Demographic and Economic Research C a r r i e d out i n I g l o o l i k N.W.T. D i s t r i c t , Canada, Ottawa, Northern Co-ordination & Research Centre, Department o f Northern A f f a i r s & National Resources, 1 9 6 2 , Unpublished manuscript. Usher, P.J.  "Current Research Problems i n C u l t u r a l Geography i n the Canadian A r c t i c " , Unpublished Paper, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, A p r i l l 1 1 , 1 9 6 5 .  Wight, A.P. "Game Report, I g l o o l i k " , Ottawa, F i l e 1 0 0 0 - 1 3 8 , Northern Administration Branch, Department o f Northern A f f a i r s & N a t i o n a l Resources, June 1 9 6 2 . Donahue, W.  R.C.M.P. Game Reports, I g l o o l i k , 1 9 6 5 - 1 9 6 8 .  175  APPENDIX Glossary of Eskimo Words Several orthographies are In use f o r the representation of Eskimo words. Each r e f l e c t s to some extent the mother-tongue of i t s o r i g i n a t o r , and may r e q u i r e the reader to l e a r n new symbols. Without c l a i m i n g any improvement on e x i s t i n g systems, I have attempted here to represent the sounds most a c c u r a t e l y f o r the reader whose f i r s t language i s E n g l i s h . Wherever my imperfect knowledge of the Eskimo language permits, I have i n c l u d e d the meaning of Words. The names of l o c a l i t i e s , l a k e s e t c . , begin w i t h c a p i t a l s , and personal names are underlined. Abvadjak..... a s i t e a t the eastern end of the Coxe I s l a n d s . aggiatjut 'squaw ducks', people born i n summertime. aglu a s e a l s l a i r i n the i c e . Agu ' f a c i n g windward', a s i t e i n Foss F j o r d , Agu Bay. Aivilingmiut 'people o f the walrus-place', of Repulse Bay area. Aigotadlik or Ayugotadlik......a r i v e r f l o w i n g to P a r r y Bay. akhitgit 'ptarmigan', people born wintertime. Akimanerk. Dybol Harbour Akudlerk .'the middlemost', Committee Bay. A k v i s i o k v i k ..........'whale hunting place', a few miles south of Pinger P o i n t . Alarngnak. 'the s o r t of place where one turns from the wind', Arlagnuk P o i n t . Alarngakjuk ' the l i t t l e s o r t of place where one turns from the wind', s i t e of Hopkins I n l e t . Angmarktaktok. 'receives o r gets f l i n t ' , iiofcth shore of Murray Maxwell Bay Amarok ' w o l f , a woman from Cumberland Sound. amaut pouch and hood f o r baby-carrying parka. Amitok ' i t i s t h i n , narrow', Amitoke Peninsula. Anangiakjuk ' l i t t l e dung-fly', Cape Jermain. Anangilik 'has d u n g - f l i e s ' , s i t e on east coast of Agu Bay. Angmarkjuak. . . ' b i g f l i n t ' , I s l a n d i n mouth of Steensby I n l e t . angayukak c h i e f , leader. angakok shaman. Akungnerk camp on west side of Foster Bay. anauligarnerk .ball-game. Arngnakbatshat ' o l d women', a s i t e a t the southwest p o i n t of I g l o o l i k Island. Attagutarluk a l e a d i n g I g l u l i n g m i u t woman, 'the Queen'. atiaujarnerk a game resembling 'tag'. Aukanakjuak 'the b i g unfrozen place', a s t r a i t west of Ormond I s l a n d . Aukanakjuk 'the l i t t l e unfrozen place*, s t r a i t between Jens Munk I s l a n d and Siorarsuk Peninsula. Ayuki. 'undefeatable', Eskimo f o l k hero. Iblaurarluk 'big womb', an Eskimo of Rowley I s l a n d before Parry's visit. Iglukjuat 'big houses', s i t e a t Cape T h a l b i t z e r . igunak meat beginning to decompose. Iglulingmiut the people of I g l u l i k . Iglulik 'has houses', s i t e a t the eastern end of I g l o o l i k I s l a n d .  176  Ikaluit Ikarktoriak  'the f i s h e s ' , s i t e at Cape G r i f f i t h . .....'crossing place', r i v e r and lake draining into Foster Bay. Ikerasak 'a s t r a i t ' the Ikerasak River. Ikoik... 'a steep t a l u s slope*, a s i t e near the mouth of Drewry River Ikpikjuak 'a b i g t a l u s slope', a lake south-west of Parry Bay Ikpigatjuit ' l i t t l e steep t a l u s slopes', s i t e on west side of Steensby Inlet, Ikpiakjuk 'pocket, or bag', Eskimo name f o r I g l o o l i k Bay. Ikpikeetukjuak 'the b i g place with few slopes', a r i v e r mouth i n Steensby I n l e t . Ilagiit large k i n group. Illuilik 'inland or mainland', Prince Charles Island. Iligliak a point south of H a l l Beach. Ingnerit. 'pyrites, firestones', Ignerit Point. Inuktogvik 'place of cannibalism', Inuktorfik Lake. Inukshukjuak 'the b i g stone man', Jenness River. Inukshukat 'stone men', head of Jenness River, (caribou cairns) Ingnertok. ' s t r i k e s f i r e ' , Ingnertok Point. Ipiutit 'the handles', 'the s t r i n g s ' , isthmuses of Baird and Amitioke Peninsula. Irkrit 'corners of the mouth', Eqe Bay. Issingut 'appears smoky', south west point of Koch Island. issumatak thinker, leader. Issuktok * s i l t y water', IsortoqUFiordth. Itidjariak 'portage place', Point Elizabeth. Itkrelit 'people with lice-eggs*, Chipewyan Indians. Ivisaraktok Ivisarak Lake. ivalu sinew, used f o r thread. Itukshardjuak an Eskimo leader, 'the King'. Kabvialuk ..'the b i g wolverine', point on north shore of Parry Bay. kadlunat 'eyebrow people', whitemen and people of modern culture. Kaersuit .....' the rocks', South Calthorpe Islands. Kaershukat 'rocky', camp s i t e , east coast of Ikpik Bay. katgek a dance house. Katgeuyak.V. 'looks l i k e a dance house', s i t e on north coast of Koch Island. Kaglilik .....'has trousers', s i t e on west side of Steensby I n l e t . kartilik heavy harpoon with 'breaking' foreshaft. Kakalik 'has h i l l s ' , camp on north-east coast of Fury and Hecla S t r a i t . Kalaguserk 'the l e s s e r hump, or sore', h i l l behind I g l o o l i k . Kangerkshimayuk 'leads inland, or i s truncated' mouth of Rowley River. Kapuivik ' harpooning place *, Cape Elwyn. Karngmat 'houses of stone, t u r f and bone', at Quarman Point. Karngmaminil...; 'ancient houses*, north-central Rowley Island. kau walrus hide. kayak one man skin boat. kiligvak s t r i n g f i g u r e , of mammoth. Kimaktok 'ulu handle', Kimakto Peninsula. Kinipitungmiut........name used by Low and party to describe the people of Chesterfield Inlet, early 1900's. Kingukshat or Kingmigashut Manning Islands.  17?  Kogarluk Kokjuak kraurut Kridlak Kringmiktogvik Kringakjuak Krikilktakjuak Krikilrakjuk Krikilktarluk kudlik Maneetok Manerktok Maulirkpok Mayuktolik Mitilik Napakut... Napvak napariat Narnguak narlaktok Nauyaguluit Netsilik nerrigak Nigliviktuk Nerglingnaktok Nugsangnakjuk nugluktak Nuvuit Nuvukjakjukulu Okkosifeshalik ooglit Ooglitjakjuk padleriak Peelik Piakshaut Pingerklik Pitokak Puyaktok Sarqaq shaputit Shadlerk..... Sharlerkjuak Shartuk Shanarayak. Shadlermiut Shagvak Shaglarkjuk  'the b i g r i v e r ' , the Barrow River. 'the great r i v e r ' Koukdjuak River and another f l o w i n g i n t o Steensby I n l e t . 'thingnfor the forehead', a bone or brass headband. 'a tear i n c l o t h i n g , Eskimo who l e d a party by dogteam from north B a f f i n to Greenland. 'place where dogs died', Nugsanarsuk P o i n t . 'big nose', a point i n Parry Bay. 'great i s l a n d ' . ' l i t t l e i s l a n d ' , a t east side of I g l o o l i k I s l a n d , a l s o Deer I s l a n d . 'big i s l a n d ' , Foley and Crown Prince Frederick Islands. blubber lamp. 'rough land', head of Richards Bay. 'gets moss f o r lampwick', Maneetok I s l a n d . hunts seals a t breathing holes. 'place of going u p ' ( f i s h ) , Whyte I n l e t . 'has e i d e r ducks', i s l a n d of Sevigny P o i n t . 'something erect', camp north of H a l l Beach. 'a crack' lake a t head of Barrow River. handles of caribou horn, a t r e a r of s l e d . ' l i k e a stomach, a snowdrift', Naguaq Lake. obeys, l i s t e n s . 'the s i l l y o r bad s e a g u l l s ' , Sevigny P o i n t 'has s e a l s ' , N e t s i l l i n g Lake. Also generic name f o r the people west of the I g l u l i n g m i u t . contents of caribou or other animals stomach. s i t e on east side of Jens Munk I s l a n d . . . ' l i k e l y to have Canada geese*, Neerlonakto I s l a n d . camp on south side of Foster Bay. (the map i s i n e r r o r here game of p u t t i n g rods i n t o holes i n bone. 'points of land', Cape Jensen. 'the n i c e l i t t l e point', on east coast of Agu Bay. 'has stone f o r pots', Wager Bay. i s l a n d s or beaches where walrus haul out. 'the l i t t l e ooglit'. South O o g l i t Islands. i v o r y toggle on dog harness, permitting quick release f o r bear hunting. 'has something', P i l i n g Lake. 1  Ice sheathing on s l e d runners. place of mounds, Pinger Point. 'old t h i n g ' camp near Cape Wilson. 'greases', Eskimo murdered i n 1906. ' d i s t a n t landscape', l o c a t i o n i n West Greenland, where pre-Dorset c u l t u r e was found, stone f i s h weirs. 'the most opposite', Rowley, Bray and Southampton Islands. main t r a i l to Repulse Bay from Parry Bay. ' t h i n or f l a t ' , east side of Caps Konig. '.the apparent f l a n k ' , shoreline of H a l l Beach. 'people of the most opposite place', Rowley, Bray and Southampton Islands. rapids o r f a l l s , i . e . Saccpa Lake. Amherst I s l a n d .  178  Shadliaguserk shaniruak Shimig Shinak shivudleet Sigdjeriak Shiorarkjuk talun Taserkjuaguserk Tasiuyap taima Tasiuyak Tariuyak Tikerak Tikerakjuk, tivayuk Toonit Toonitjuat tuglerak Tununerk...Tununerguserk ulu Uadlinerk umiak umigek ungayuk uktuk ukjuk ukserk Ungaluyat Ungerdlat Ussuatjuk Uyara • Uyaragmiut y'apak  'the secondary one f a c i n g ' , Liddon I s l a n d , (also c a l l e d Shadierjuak). l a r g e i v o r y toggle f a s t e n i n g dog-traces to main t r a c e . 'a plug', Ormond I s l a n d , and a small i s l a n d i n Easter Sound. 'sweet', a lake d r a i n i n g t o the Barrow River. ancestors. 'shore b i r d ' , (Boas' s p e l l i n g ) woman from Cumberland Sound. ' f i n e sand', Tern I s l a n d , and a camp on mid west side of Siorarsuk Peninsula, stone caribou ambushes. 'the l e s s e r b i g l a k e ' lake near Cape Penrhyn. ' the end o f what looks l i k e a l a k e ' i n s i d e coast o f Murray Maxwell Bay. 'looks l i k e a l a k e ' , H a l l Lake. 'appears to be sea', upper part o f Steensby/ I n l e t . 'looks l i k e an index f i n g e r ' . point a t base of Amitioke Peninsula.  'looks l i k e a l i t t l e index f i n g e r ' , Tikerasuk P o i n t . wife-exchange dance. legendary pre-Eskimos, Dorset people. the b i g Toonit. s t i c k f o r p l a i t i n g h a i r round. 'place f a c i n g most away', Pond I n l e t area. ' l e s s e r place f a c i n g most away', A r c t i c Bay area. woman' s k n i f e . P i l i n g Bay area. woman's boat o f s k i n s , (now any boat) . stone trap (Freuchen's s p e l l i n g ) . i s attached t o , o r fond o f someone. a basking s e a l . s q u a r e f l i p p e r o r bearded s e a l . i v o r y fastener a t end o f dog trace. 'looks l i k e stone s h e l t e r s ' , o l d s i t e east side o f Turton Bay. ..sausage-like bundles o f walrus meat, wrapped i n hide. ' l i t t l e penis', point near Cape Jermain. 'a stone' Mr. J . Uyara o f I g l o o l i k . 'people o f stones' campsite near Cape Jermain. modern I g l u l i n g m i u t woman's parka with pouch.  

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