UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An analysis of conservation easements as a means of preserving open space Caldow, Douglas Kennedy 1969

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AN ANALYSIS OP CONSERVATION EASEMENTS AS A MEANS 0 ? PRESERVING OPEN SPACE by • DOUGLAS KENNEDY CALDOW B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF . MASTER OF ARTS i n the S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u rposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l , I969 i i ABSTRACT Open s p a c e i s one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t a n d most n e g -l e c t e d p a r t s o f t h e u r b a n f a b r i c . The r u s h o f r a p i d u r b a n -i z a t i o n h a s consumed much l a n d w h i c h m i g h t b e t t e r h a v e b e e n l e f t o p e n t o e x p l o i t i t s v a l u e s t o s o c i e t y f o r r e c r e a t i o n , f o o d p r o d u c t i o n , f l o o d p r e v e n t i o n , a e s t h e t i c s , a n d e v e n f o r s h a p i n g u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t . I n o r d e r f o r o p e n s p a c e t o f u l f i l l t h e s e f u n c t i o n s t h e u s e o f t h e l a n d must be p l a n n e d i n a d v a n c e o f d e v e l o p m e n t , a n d o pen l a n d w h i c h h a s n a t u r a l q u a l i t i e s t h a t a r e v a l u a b l e t o s o c i e t y s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d . One m e thod w h i c h i s b e i n g u s e d t o p r e s e r v e t h i s l a n d i s t h r o u g h t h e use o f c o n -s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s a r e a n e f f e c t i v e means o f p r e s e r v i n g o p e n s p a c e , a n d w h i c h l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t i s b e s t a b l e t o u s e t h e m . T h e r e f o r e , t h e h y p o t h e s i s was p o s e d t h a t , C o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s a r e a n e f f e c t i v e means o f p r e -s e r v i n g o p e n s p a c e , a n d t h e y s h o u l d be i m p l e m e n t e d by l o c a l p u b l i c a g e n c i e s . To r e a c h a c o n c l u s i o n a b o u t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s a n e x h a u s t i v e r e v i e w o f a l l t h e a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e s u b j e c t o f c o n -s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s was c o n d u c t e d . T h i s was f o l l o w e d b y c o r -r e s p o n d e n c e a n d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f s e v e r a l p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e b o d i e s w h i c h w ere known t o h a v e b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f e a s e m e n t s , o r w e r e known t o h a v e c o n s i d -e r e d t h e use o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s . The a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e s u c c e s s f u l u s e o f c o n -s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s , t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e b y b o t h p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s i i i a n d p r i v a t e l a n d o w n e r s , a n d t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h a r e i n e v i t a b l e i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a d e v e l o p i n g c o n c e p t , a r e e v i d e n c e t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s a r e a n e f f e c t i v e means o f p r e s e r v i n g o p e n s p a c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e a n a l y s i s shows t h a t v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n t h e u s e o f c o n s e r -v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s m i t i g a t e f o r d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n s a s t o w h i c h l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t c a n b e s t i m p l e m e n t them. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t o n l y some c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s s h o u l d be i m -p l e m e n t e d b y l o c a l p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , a n d t h a t t h e c h o i c e a s t o w h i c h l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t o r p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s most s u i t a b l e s h o u l d be b a s e d on a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e e a s e m e n t ' s p u r -p o s e s a n d t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s u n d e r w h i c h i t i s t o be a c q u i r e d a n d h e l d , a s w e l l a s on a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e v a r i o u s p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e b o d i e s . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I t i s my p l e a s u r e t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e a i d I h a v e r e c e i v e d i n t h e ' p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . S e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s a n d g r o u p s d e s e r v e my s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e f o r t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t h e y h a v e made. P r o f e s s o r B r ahm Welsman s u p e r v i s e d t h e o v e r a l l c o n d u c t o f t h i s s t u d y , a n d was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n l e n d i n g h i s s u p p o r t a n d a d v i c e o n k e y d e c i s i o n s . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k M r . W i l l i a m L a n e who was o f s p e c i a l h e l p i n c o n t r i b u t i n g h i s l e g a l k n o w l e d g e f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f my w o r k . The s t a f f s o f t h e P i n e A r t s , G o v e r n m e n t P u b l i c a t i o n s , a n d S c i e n c e D i v i s i o n s o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y a l s o h ave e a r n e d my g r a t i t u d e f o r t h e i r h e l p i n l o c a t i n g , a c q u i r i n g , a n d r e c o m m e n d i n g r e f e r e n c e s w h i c h w e r e v i t a l t o my r e s e a r c h . A l s o a p p r e c i a t e d a r e t h e many i n d i v i d u a l s who g a v e t h e i r t i m e a n d e x p r e s s e d t h e i r v i e w s t o me i n i n t e r v i e w s a n d t h r o u g h c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . My w i f e , N a n c y , d e s e r v e s my d e e p e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r h e r t y p i n g a n d e d i t i n g w o r k , a n d , most o f a l l , f o r t h e t i m e a n d e f f o r t a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g she o f f e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o n d u c t o f t h i s t h e s i s , a n d t h e r e s t o f my c o u r s e o f s t u d y . F i n a l l y , g r a t i t u d e i s e x t e n d e d t o t h e R i c h a r d K i n g M e l l o n F o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e i r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e d u r i n g t h e p a s t two y e a r s . TABLE OP CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . 1 1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * v L I S T OP TABLES v i i L I S T OP FIGURES v i i INTRODUCTION . . . . . 1 CHAPTER I . OPEN SPACE . 4 The E f f e c t o f U r b a n G r o w t h . 4 F u n c t i o n s 5 E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o r r i d o r s a n d P h y s i o g r a p h i c D e t e r m i n i s m 7 F o o t n o t e s 10 I I . METHODS OP PRESERVING OPEN SPACE 11 P o l i c e P o w e r H T a x a t i o n 13 " C o m p e n s a b l e R e g u l a t i o n " . 14 Pee S i m p l e A c q u i s i t i o n 15 L e s s Than Pee A c q u i s i t i o n 15 F o o t n o t e s 17 I I I . HISTORY AND USES OP CONSERVATION EASEMENTS'. . . 18 C o n s e r v a t i o n . 20 R e c r e a t i o n 21 S c e n i c P r e s e r v a t i o n . . . . . . . 24 S t r u c t u r i n g U r b a n G r o w t h . . . . 26 P u b l i c S e r v i c e s ; 31 F o o t n o t e s 34 I V . LEGAL ASPECTS OP CONSERVATION EASEMENTS . . . . 36 S o u r c e s o f L e g a l P o w e r s 38 L e g a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s 43 T r a n s f e r s a n d A s s i g n a b i l i t y 44 E x t i n g u i s h m e n t 45 The E a s e m e n t Deed 46 P r i v a t e C o n s e r v a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n s 49 F o o t n o t e s 51 v i CHAPTER Page V. ACQUISITION OP CONSERVATION EASEMENTS 54 A p p r a i s a l T e c h n i q u e s a n d C o s t s . . . . . . . . . 54 N e g o t i a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s . . . . . 61 . C o s t s o f E a s e m e n t s 66 G i f t s o f E a s e m e n t s 71 F o o t n o t e s . . . . . . . . . . 74 V I . TAXATION AND CONSERVATION EASEMENTS 77 Income T a x e s 77 E s t a t e T a x e s 81 P r o p e r t y T a x e s 82 F o o t n o t e s 87 V I I . P R I V A T E CONSERVATION ORGANIZATIONS . 89 The R o l e o f P r i v a t e C o n s e r v a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n s 89 T y p e s o f O r g a n i z a t i o n s 91 F o o t n o t e s 94 V I I I . ENFORCEMENT OF CONSERVATION EASEMENTS . . . . . 95 P r o b l e m s . 95 S o l u t i o n s 96 F o o t n o t e s . . . . 100 IX. A C C E P T A B I L I T Y OF CONSERVATION EASEMENTS . . . . 101 The E x p e r t s 101 P u b l i c A g e n c i e s 103 L a n d o w n e r s . . 108 F o o t n o t e s . . . . . . . 111 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 113 APPENDICES . . 123 BIBLIOGRAPHY . 154 L I S T 0 ? TABLES TABLE Page 1 . L o s s i n V a l u e o f L a n d C o v e r e d b y S c e n i c E a s e m e n t s . 58 2. C o s t H i s t o r y o f New Y o r k S t a t e P i s h i n g E a s e m e n t s . 69 L I S T OP FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 . A r e a t o Be C o v e r e d b y S c e n i c E a s e m e n t s 27 2. C l u s t e r S u b d i v i s i o n 30 INTRODUCTION O b j e c t i v e s The many i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s w h i c h open s p a c e s e r v e s i n d i c a t e why i t s h o u l d be p r e s e r v e d , a n d t h e u s u r p a t i o n o f t h i s much n e e d e d r e s o u r c e b y r a p i d u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t i s e v i d e n c e o f t h e u r g e n t n e e d f o r m e t h o d s o f p r e s e r v a t i o n . C o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y a means o f p r e s e r v i n g o p e n s p a c e . They a r e n o t t h e o n l y way, a n d t h e y may n o t e v e n be t h e b e s t way. H o w e v e r , i t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y a r e a n e f f e c t i v e means o f p r e s e r v i n g o pen s p a c e , a nd w h i c h l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t i s b e s t a b l e t o u s e c o n -s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . To t h i s e n d t h e h y p o t h -e s i s i s p o s e d t h a t , CONSERVATION EASEMENTS ARE AN E F F E C T I V E MEANS OF PRESERVING OPEN SPACE, AND THEY SHOULD BE IMPLEMENTED BY LOCAL PUB L I C AGENCIES. Sc o p e The s c o p e o f t h e s t u d y e x t e n d s t o a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n a l -y s i s o f what c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s a r e , and how t h e y w o r k . The b a s i s f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s was a n e x h a u s t i v e r e v i e w o f a l l t h e a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e s u b j e c t . T h i s was f o l l o w e d b y c o r -r e s p o n d e n c e a n d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f s e v e r a l p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e b o d i e s w h i c h w e r e known t o have b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s , o r were known t o have c o n s i d e r e d t h e u s e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s . Due t o t h e t i m e a n d r e s o u r c e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h i s s t u d y a n d t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h h a v e a t l e a s t s t u d i e d t h e u s e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s , t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s a n d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e were l i m i t e d t o c e n t r a l C a l i f o r n i a w h e r e most o f t h e g r o u p s on t h e West C o a s t w h i c h have e x p e r i e n c e a n d k n o w l e d g e o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e a r e l o c a t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e s u b j e c t comes a l m o s t e n t i r e l y f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s due t o t h e l a c k o f C a n a d i a n e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s . No a t t e m p t was made t o p r e s e n t a d e t a i l e d c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s and o t h e r a c c e p t e d a n d p r o p o s e d m e t h o d s o f p r e s e r v i n g o pen s p a c e . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s s t u d y d o e s n o t a t t e m p t t o d e f i n e t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h p a r t i c u l a r m e t h o d s o f p r e s e r v i n g o pen s p a c e a r e s u p e r i o r t o o t h e r m e t h o d s , a l t h o u g h i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t a n y l a r g e s c a l e o p e n s p a c e p r e s e r -v a t i o n p r o g r a m c a n b e s t be i m p l e m e n t e d t h r o u g h a n i n t e l l i g e n t i n t e g r a t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e c o n c e p t o f c o n s e r -v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s a s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y d o es n o t i n c l u d e t h e w i d e l y a c c e p t e d t e c h n i q u e o f u s i n g e x i s t i n g u t i l i t y e a s e m e n t s t o p r o v i d e l i n e a r o p e n s p a c e n e t w o r k s . F i n a l l y , t h e q u e s t i o n o f f i n a n c i n g t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s , i m p o r t a n t a s i t i s , i s c o n s i d e r e d a s e x t e r n a l t o t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y . T h e r e f o r e i t i s n o t d i c s u c c e d , a l t h o u g h t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e c o s t s o f e a s e m e n t s i s t h o r o u g h l y a n a l y z e d . O r g a n i z a t i o n The s u b j e c t o f t h i s s t u d y , c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s , a n d t h e h y p o t h e s i s t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d , a r e t h e p o i n t s i m m e d i a t e l y b r o u g h t t o a t t e n t i o n i n t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n . These a r e f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s c o p e a n d l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y , a s w e l l a s a n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r e v i e w . The d e f i n i t i o n o f o pen s p a c e , a d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f i t s v a l u e a n d t h e n e e d f o r i t s p r e s e r v a t i o n , a s w e l l a s m e t h o d s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g I t s v a l u e , a r e i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h e s u b j e c t . C o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s a r e t h e n p l a c e d i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e o t h e r m e t h o d s o f p r e s e r v i n g o p e n s p a c e t o s e r v e a s t h e b a s i s f o r a g e n e r a l d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n a p p r o a c h -e s . The d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s w h i c h f o l l o w s c o n t a i n s c h a p t e r s on i m p o r t a n t i n d i v i d u a l a s p e c t s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s . F i r s t t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d a n d h i s t o r y a r e r e l a t e d . Then t h e r e i s a r esume o f what c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s a r e u s e d f o r , where t h e y . a r e u s e d , a n d who u s e s t h em. The l e g a l t e c h n i c a l i t i e s a r e n e x t b r o u g h t t o l i g h t , f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n o f how e a s e m e n t s a r e a c q u i r e d a n d how much t h e y c o s t . T a x a t i o n i s t h e n e x t s u b j e c t o f i n q u i r y , a n d t h e n t h e r o l e o f p r i v a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a -t i o n s i n a c q u i r i n g e a s e m e n t s . The p r o b l e m s a n d s o l u t i o n s o f e n f o r c e m e n t a r e f o l l o w e d by a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f e a s e m e n t s t o t h e p e o p l e most d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d . F i n a l l y t h e s t u d y i s s u m m a r i z e d a n d t h e c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e -n e s s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s a r e r e a c h e d . CHAPTER I OPEN SPACE T i t l e V I I o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s H o u s i n g A c t o f 1961 d e f i n e s o p e n s p a c e a s m e a n i n g , " . . . a n y u n d e v e l o p e d o r p r e d o m -i n a t e l y u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d i n a n u r b a n a r e a w h i c h h a s v a l u e f o r ( a ) p a r k and r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s , ( b ) c o n s e r v a t i o n o f l a n d a n d o t h e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , o r ( c ) h i s t o r i c o r s c e n i c p u r p o s e s . Open s p a c e " . . . i s n o t a s e p a r a b l e e l e m e n t o f t h e u r b a n o r g a n i s m b u t , i n r e a l i t y , i s a f o r m o f l a n d u s e a n d a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e u r b a n s t r u c t u r e . " ^ T hese c o n c e p t s p o i n t o u t t h e f u n c t i o n s o f o p e n s p a c e a s a v i t a l l a n d u s e , a n d t h e y r e l a t e t h e s e f u n c -t i o n s t o t h e u r b a n s t r u c t u r e . B e c a u s e o f t h i s t h e y have p a r -t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e c u r r e n t p r o b l e m s o f u r b a n g r o w t h f a c e d b y c i t y a n d r e g i o n a l p l a n n e r s . The E f f e c t o f U r b a n G r o w t h S i n c e W o r l d War I I U n i t e d S t a t e s m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s have e x p a n d e d a t a n e s t i m a t e d r a t e o f 3,000 a c r e s p e r day.3 T h i s c o n s u m p t i o n o f v a s t amounts o f l a n d f o r h o u s i n g , i n d u s t r i e s , s h o p s a n d r o a d s h a s i m p o r t a n t I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f o p en s p a c e . The p r o b l e m i s n o t t h a t t h e r e i s t o o l i t t l e l a n d s i n c e , " T o g e t h e r , o u r m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s t a k e t h i r t y t h o u s a n d s q u a r e m i l e s — l e s s t h a n two p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l l a n d a r e a o f t h e c o u n t r y . " 4 - The p r o b l e m i s t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t , b r o u g h t a b o u t b y a n i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n i s p e r m i t t e d t o consume l a n d w h i c h s h o u l d r e m a i n u n b u i l t t o s e r v e some o f t h e v i t a l f u n c t i o n s o f o p e n s p a c e . One reason t h i s has been allowed to occur i s that open space i s often regarded as a negative concept. Many people "...think of "open space' as unused, unproductive, absorbing tax money, and as something "that the community cannot afford.5 In many cases these feelings have been j u s t i f i e d . Due la r g e l y to the effects of urban scatteration and leap-frog development almost half the land Inside U.S. metropolitan areas i s unused.6 Thousands of r e l a t i v e l y small, vacant, unkempt parcels of land scattered throughout the metropolitan area l i e as testimony to the negative view of open space. This open land i s unproductive and unused because I t exists not through conscious planning to take advantage of i t s natural open space q u a l i t i e s , but rather i t l i e s empty and open through man's i n a b i l i t y to cope with the rapid urbanizing process. Functions This does not have to be the case. Open space can be used as a productive part of the urban f a b r i c . For example, open space i s used f o r a wide range of outdoor recreation a c t i v i t i e s from playgrounds and playing f i e l d s to c i t y and regional parks. Every plaza or small urban park forms a func-t i o n a l part of the t o t a l open space system. They provide a resting or s o c i a l i z i n g place, and can give some v i s u a l r e l i e f from continuous urban development, by bringing out a sense of spaciousness or scale. Changes i n s p a t i a l arrangement, among other things, may provide the variety that eliminates the sameness that would cause us to become v i s u a l l y satiated by our surroundings. The masses of buildings contrasted by t h e i r open spaces and the a c t i v i t y and movement that takes place i n these spaces i n an area of intensive use, no doubt, benefit the psyche.7 6 Open space i s also productive in.an economic sense. A recent study i n the San Francisco Bay Area stated that businesses and i n s t i t u t i o n s which are free to choose t h e i r locations are at-tracted to an area whose environment has been preserved through open space. This gives an area a competitive advantage over areas whose environment has not been preserved.8 Metropolitan areas which propose to use open space to shape urban development such as Washington, D.C, also expect to produce economic advantages from the concentration of urban services and u t i l i t i e s . The same San Francisco Bay Area study concludes that, ...the proposed open space program would produce dramatic savings i n governmental and u t i l i t y costs r e s u l t i n g from concentrating urban development and preventing suburban sprawl. The projected differences between the cost of serving the growth patterns that would r e s u l t without an open space program and the more compact pattern with open space i s approximately $300 m i l l i o n f or municipal services and |835 m i l l i o n for gas, e l e c t r i c , and telephone u t i l i t i e s over a 30-year period.9 Open space surrounding urban areas also has valuable uses which are v i t a l l y linked to the interests of the developed areas. Here transportation corridors, additional parks, hunting pre-serves, and food producing areas are found. Open space i n the . outlying areas acts as a catch basin f or the urban water supply and soaks up run o f f to prevent flooding. And i t can preserve unique natural c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as swamps, for e s t s , water bodies, and w i l d l i f e habitat. Another idea which has been d i s c u s s e d ^ i s the use of open space as a means of reserving land for future urban uses such as s i t e s f or public buildings, parks, i n d u s t r i a l reservations, and expanded r e s i d e n t i a l areas. 7 Environmental Corridors and Physiographic Determinism In order f o r open space to assume the role that i t should, the use of the land must be planned i n advance of development, and those areas which are to serve open space functions must be preserved. I t i s the task of c i t y and regional planners to determine how the land can best be used. In the case of open space i t has been suggested that the e x i s t i n g natural features have already established l o g i c a l plans. P h i l i p H. Lewis, J r . , a landscape a r c h i t e c t , has been one of the chief proponents of t h i s concept. A few years ago Lewis was asked to analyze the landscape and resources of Wisconsin for the state's open space program. He examined a few key elements that were thought to be worthy of protection and enhancement; water, wetland, flood p l a i n s , sand s o i l s , and slopes. Each of these elements was i n d i v i d u a l l y charted throughout the state. Then the charts of each element were l a i d one on top of the other, and a pattern emerged. The combined elements defined a series of natural corridors which were termed "environmental corridors." Each of these corridors was not only a key resource element i n i t s e l f ; together they formed a system that linked the parts of the state. "At the end of the f i r s t year of inventory," says Lewis, " i t was apparent that the elements, and g l a c i a l action, through the ages, have etched l i n e a r patterns on the face of the Wisconsin landscape. The f l a t , r o l l i n g farmlands and the expansive forests have t h e i r share of beauty. But i t i s the stream v a l l e y s , the b l u f f s , ridges, roaring and quiet waters, mellow wetland, and sandy s o i l s that com-bine i n elongated designs, tying the land together i n regional and statewide corridors of outstanding landscape q u a l i t i e s . " 1 1 8 In addition to locating the areas of scenic a t t r a c t i v e -ness, these corridors, when examined i n d e t a i l , designate the flood plains (where intensive development should not he allowed), and areas of steep topography (which i s d i f f i c u l t to b u i l d on). Corridor patterns can also serve as urban "form-determinants" to guide the future gro^.rth of c i t i e s . "These could give the growing c i t y a b u i l t - i n system of open spaces and recreational and scenic a r e a s . A n d within urban areas the corridors can divide the c i t y into various land uses. Besides the corridor resources, 220 additional natural and c u l t u r a l resources which occupy a lira i t e d space i n the land-scape were i d e n t i f i e d . I t was found that more than 90 percent of such i n t e r e s t i n g features as h i s t o r i c a l buildings, b a t t l e -f i e l d s , chasms, swimming beaches, w a t e r f a l l s , and natural bridges lay within the l i n e a r system of the corridors, often clustered i n "nodes of i n t e r e s t . " 1 3 By determining which cor-r i d o r s contained the most resources, a system of p r i o r i t i e s could be established f or t h e i r development as open space or parks, and for planning highway system improvements. As f a r as highways are concerned Lewis f e e l s t h i s approach enables them ...to understand the f a b r i c of the land, with i t s patterns of resources arranged i n t h e i r natural corridors, and then to f i t the highway system into t h i s f a b r i c i n such a way as to create v a r i e t y , surprise, and v i s u a l experiences which otherwise would be lacking. In t h i s way our high-ways surely w i l l become much more valuable to us than they are i f they are conceived and planned merely to move t r a f f i c . 1 ^ Ian McHarg, head of the Department of Landscape Archi-tecture and Regional Planning at the University of Pennsylvania, i s an advocate of an approach s i m i l a r to environmental corridors i n i t s emphasis on natural features, "physiographic determinism" stresses the importance of the functions which nature performs f o r man. "The forests of the 'upland sponge,' for example help moderate flood's. Underground formations store water for us to drink. Prime s o i l s produce food for us to eat. Marshes provide spawning grounds f o r f i s h and w i l d l i f e . 1 , 1 5 McHarg says, " I f we want a development plan that makes sense we should look to nature f i r s t . The aquifiers,. the slopes, the wetlands, and the other elements should be i d e n t i f i e d and mapped and the design that comes through should be the core of any plan."**^ Both of these approaches, "environmental corridors" and "physiographic determinism," emphasize the significance of Identifying and preserving open space i n a manner consistent with the natural c a p a b i l i t i e s of the land to serve and enhance man's own environment. I f these or s i m i l a r approaches are employed to es t a b l i s h and locate nature's c a p a b i l i t i e s , then a l l that remains i s to devise the means f o r preserving the v i t a l areas. 10 FOOTNOTES U.S. H o u s i n g A c t . 1961, s e c . 706. 2D.A. C o t t o n , "Open S p a c e : I t s V a l u e a n d C o n s e r v a t i o n i n t h e U r b a n E n v i r o n m e n t , " - . S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a Law R e v i e w , V o l . 37 > Ho. 2, (1964), p. 305* ^ L a w r e n c e L e v i n e , " L a n d C o n s e r v a t i o n i n M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s , " J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , V o l . 30, No. 3> ( A u g u s t , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 204, q u o t i n g "The C i t y ' s T h r e a t t o Open L a n d , " A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum, V o l . 108, No. 1, ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 87 . ^ W i l l i a m H. Whyte, The L a s t L a n d s c a p e , ( G a r d e n C i t y , New Y o r k : D o u b l e day a n d Co., I n c . , 196TD, p. 9 . ^ M a r i o n C l a w s o n , " P o s i t i v e A p p r o a c h t o Open Space P r e s e r v a t i o n , " J o u r n a l o f t h e A . I . P . , V o l . 28, No. 2, ( K a y , 1962), p. 125. % h y t e , The L a s t L a n d s c a p e , p p . 9 -10. " ^ C o t t o n , p. 317. P e o p l e f o r Open S p a c e , The Case f o r Open S p a c e , ( S a n F r a n c i s c o : 1968;, p. 12. 9 l b i d . *°For e x a m p l e s e e C o t t o n p. 315; a n d C l a w s o n p p . 125 - 126 . 1 1 W h y t e , The L a s t L a n d s c a p e , p. 192. l 2 P h i l i p H. L e w i s , J r . , "The E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o r r i d o r , " C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g s - - S c e n l c E a s e m e n t s i n A c t i o n , ( M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n : U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , December, 1966), p. 30 . ^ i b i d . , p p . 30-31; Whyte, The L a s t L a n d s c a p e , p p. 192-193. ^ L e w l s , "The E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o r r i d o r , " p p . 33-34. ^whyte, The L a s t L a n d s c a p e , p. 182. t 6 I b l d . , p. 183. CHAPTER I I METHODS OF PRESERVING OPEN SPACE There are many differ e n t approaches to preserving open space and recreational areas. These techniques can be class-i f i e d into f i v e general c a t e g o r i e s — p o l i c e power, taxation, compensable regulations, fee simple a c q u i s i t i o n , and less than fee a c q u i s i t i o n . I t i s important to understand where conser-vation easements f i t into the range of methods of a c q u i s i t i o n , and how an integration of techniques i s essential for a success-f u l program of open space preservation. Police Power The police power i s the power to l e g i s l a t e for the pro-motion of the public health, safety, morals and general welfare. Since the beginning of the century, the scope of the police power has been expanding with society's changing attitudes toward i n d i v i d u a l versus community i n t e r e s t s . However, i n the U.S. t h i s power i s subject to the co n s t i t u t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s of due process of law, and the guarantee of equal protection under the law. 1 Sometimes the borderline between the use of the police power and the power of eminent domain, where compensation must be paid, i s very d i f f i c u l t to draw. Zoning and subdivision regulations are the most common methods of preserving open space through the police power. "Since both are ways of shaping land-use patterns without any payment to landowners, they are l i m i t e d i n the extent to which they may be used. They also are frequently subject to pressures 12 from developers and others f o r r e l a x a t i o n , and thus o f f e r no c e r t a i n t y that land which comes under t h e i r p r o v i s i o n s w i l l remain open permanently."^ There are s e v e r a l types of zones which have been d e v e l -oped f o r p r e s e r v i n g open space under various circumstances. E x c l u s i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l zoning attempts to keep land open and i n a g r i c u l t u r a l production by s e t t i n g l a r g e l o t requirements and p r o h i b i t i n g uses which are incompatible w i t h farming. Flood-p l a i n zoning r e s t r i c t s b u i l d i n g on the f l o o d p l a i n s of streams. This not only i s ins t r u m e n t a l i n reducing f l o o d damage, but a l s o o f t e n preserves a t t r a c t i v e scenic areas. L a r g e - l o t zoning p r o h i b i t s the c r e a t i o n of p a r c e l s of l e s s than one or even up to twenty ac r e s . This can oft e n provide areas of v i s u a l open space, "...land i t i s regarded a l s o as a means to c o n t r o l the tim i n g and l o c a t i o n of development."-^ C l u s t e r zoning permits developers to keep p o r t i o n s of t h e i r s u b d i v i s i o n s i n permanent open space by e s t a b l i s h i n g a maximum den s i t y f o r an area, then p e r m i t t i n g c l u s t e r s of higher d e n s i t i e s so long as the o v e r a l l d e n s i t y does not exceed the maximum allowed i n the d i s t r i c t . Of a l l the zoning techniques now i n use, only f l o o d -p l a i n zoning and c l u s t e r zoning o f f e r promise f o r keeping land i n permanent open space. I m p o s i t i o n of e i t h e r does not c o n s t i t u t e a t a k i n g ; f l o o d p l a i n s are not safe f o r development i n any case, and the market value of land subject to c l u s t e r p r o v i s i o n s w i l l not be diminished by them. L a r g e - l o t and a g r i c u l t u r a l zoning can only spread out or postpone development.^" S u b d i v i s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s can help achieve open space objec-t i v e s by preventing development where l a c k of p u b l i c sewerage and water systems would make r e s i d e n t i a l use unhealthy and unsafe. They can a l s o r e q u i r e developers to dedicate a s p e c i f i e d -13 proportion of land i n subdivisions to the l o c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n f o r open space, or pay an equivalent amount of money to be used fo r t h i s purpose. The o f f i c i a l map device offers a temporary means of pro-tecting land from development by pre-mapping park and recreation areas. Land f o r public purposes may be reserved by the use of t h i s device for a l i m i t e d length of time during which the l o c a l government must acquire i t or l e t the r e s t r i c t i o n lapse.5 Taxation While the main purpose of the taxing power i s to raise revenue, i t has also been found to be a useful tool f o r pre-serving open space. In the United States, most state constitu-tions provide that property subject to taxation must be assessed at i t s f u l l value or at i t s market value.^ This often means that land which i s desirable for open space, such as farm land on the o u t s k i r t s of urban areas and land held open within sub-d i v i s i o n s , i s taxed as though i t was ready f o r development. These taxes make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r farmers to remain i n a g r i c u l -t u r a l production. In fact they provide an incentive for the farmer and the developer with open space within his subdivision to put t h i s open land to more intensive use. In the past, l o c a l taxing a u t h o r i t i e s have been l i m i t e d i n what they could do to a l l e v i a t e t h i s s i t u a t i o n since the taxing power i s subject to the l i m i t a t i o n s of due process, and therefore there must be no a r b i t r a r y discrimination or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . ? Recently, however, several techniques have been devised which make i t easier for desirable land to remain open while not 14 v i o l a t i n g the due process l i m i t a t i o n . B a s i c a l l y these methods of tax r e l i e f Involve forms of tax exemption, tax d e f e r r a l , and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n permitting low assessment. In some states^ the l e g i s l a t u r e can wholly or p a r t i a l l y exempt from r e a l property taxes open space, such as parks, golf courses, and green spaces within c l u s t e r subdivisions, provided there i s a public benefit involved. Tax d e f e r r a l i s another method which i s being t r i e d . I t s advantage i s that i t reduces the temptation to s e l l open land by requiring that the amount of the tax reduction allowed must be paid back to the government when and i f the land i s committed to development. Under the p r e f e r e n t i a l assessment idea farm land and other open areas are taxed only on t h e i r farming or open space values, not on t h e i r r e a l estate market value. "Compensable Regulation" This approach was developed by Jan Krasnowiecki, James Paul, and Ann Louise Strong,9 however, there i s no Indication that i t has ever been t r i e d . "Compensable regulation" involves imposing r e s t r i c t i o n s consistent with open space purposes on land development. A value i s established f o r the property before the r e s t r i c t i o n s are imposed, and the owner i s guaranteed that he w i l l receive a price equal to t h i s value when he s e l l s the property on the open market. Thus, no compensation i s paid at the time the r e s t r i c t i o n s are applied. Although the guarantee remains attached to the property f o r l a t e r owners, It i s reduced by the amount, i f any, by which the sale price of the property f a l l s below the guaranteed value. "Compen-sable regulations" are designed to bridge the gap between 15 g o v e r n m e n t s ' e x e r c i s e o f t h e p o l i c e p o w e r a n d the. p o w e r t o a c q u i r e l a n d . " ^ Fee S i m p l e A c q u i s i t i o n Whyte s a y s , "The b e s t way t o s a v e l a n d i s t o b u y i t o u t r i g h t — o r i n l e g a l p a r l a n c e , b u y t h e f e e s i m p l e . " ' * How-e v e r , due p r i m a r i l y t o t h e f i n a n c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s on g o v e r n -m e n t s t h i s i s n o t a l w a y s t h e most f e a s i b l e way o f p r e s e r v i n g o p e n s p a c e . O w n e r s h i p i n f e e c a n be a c q u i r e d by p u r c h a s e by v o l u n t a r y a g r e e m e n t , c o n d e m n a t i o n u n d e r t h e p o w e r o f e m i n e n t d o m a i n , t a x f o r e c l o s u r e , o r g i f t . U n d e r v o l u n t a r y p u r c h a s e a g r e e m e n t s , f u n d s must g e n e r a l l y be a v a i l a b l e t o p a y p r e v a i l -i n g r e a l e s t a t e p r i c e s , u n l e s s some f o r m o f d o n a t i o n o r d e f e r r e d payment a g r e e m e n t i s w o r k e d o u t . T h i s i s a l s o t r u e i n t h e c a s e o f e x p r o p r i a t i o n where j u s t c o m p e n s a t i o n i s g u a r a n t e e d t h e l a n d o w n e r . E m i n e n t d o m a i n p r o c e e d i n g s a r e f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t e d i n t h a t p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y s h a l l n o t be t a k e n e x c e p t f o r a " p u b l i c p u r p o s e . " ( T h i s c o n c e p t i s more f u l l y d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r IV.) Tax f o r e c l o s u r e s o f f e r a d d i t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a n o p e n s p a c e l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n p r o g r a m . F r e q u e n t l y g o v e r n m e n t s c a n f o r e c l o s e on v a c a n t t a x d e l i n q u e n t p r o p e r t y a n d c o n v e r t i t t o r e c r e a t i o n a n d o p e n s p a c e use.12 L e s s Than Fee A c q u i s i t i o n T h e r e a r e two o r t h r e e v a r i a t i o n s o f a p p r o a c h e s u n d e r t h e l e s s t h a n f e e a c q u i s i t i o n m e t hod o f p r e s e r v i n g o pen s p a c e . One o f t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s i s f o r a g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c y t o p u r c h a s e " . . . l a r g e t r a c t s o f u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d e s s e n t i a l l y a l l o c a t e d f o r p r i v a t e o c c u p a n c y a n d s e l l o r l e a s e t h e s e l a n d s b a c k t o t h e 16 o r i g i n a l owners, subject to r e s t r i c t i o n s designed to secure open-space objectives."*^ Another approach i s the use of conservation easements which also f a l l s w ithin the category of less than fee ac-q u i s i t i o n . E s s e n t i a l l y an easement i s the a c q u i s i t i o n of ri g h t s i n the land without acquiring the fee simple t i t l e . These rights or Interests might be that the land remain open and un-developed, or that the public be allowed to f i s h from the banks of a p r i v a t e l y owned stream, or that the vegetation not be cut or destroyed. I t i s possible to obtain these r i g h t s i n the land by g i f t , by voluntary purchase agreement, or by condem-nation, and they may exist f o r a given number of years or i n perpetuity, i . e . run with the land. In spite of the many att r i b u t e s of each of these tech-niques i t i s important not to view them as mutually exclusive i n an open space, preservation program. In d i v i d u a l l y they don't possess the c a p a b i l i t i e s to be effective when applied i n a wholesale manner to preserve large open space areas. The at-tributes of each approach should be recognized, and then each technique should be u t i l i z e d i n the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n for which i t i s best suited. As Whyte says: "The point i s com-bination. Alone, any single device i s l i m i t e d ; together they strengthen each other."'^ 17 FOOTNOTES 1Lucie G. Krassa, "Retaining Open Space i n Maryland," Studies i n Business and Economics, Vol 15» No. 1 , (University of Maryland: Bureau of Business and Economic Research, June, 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 4 . Ann Louise Strong, Open Space i n the Penjerdel Region, Nov?  or Never, (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware Metropolitan Project, Inc., 1963)» p. 3 8 . ^ S h i r l e y Adelson Siegel, The Law of Open Space, (New York: Regional Plan Association, Inc., January, 1 9 6 0 ) ' , p. 3 9 . ^Ann Louise Strong, Open Space i n the Pen.jerdel Region, Now  or Never, p. 4 0 . ^Krassa, p. 6 ; Lawrence Levine, "Land Conservation i n Metropolitan Areas," Journal of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, Vol. 3 0 , No. 3 , (August, 1 9 6 4 ) , "p. 2 1 0 . ^Krassa, p. 8. 7 I b i d . ft Examples are Delaware, New Jersey, and Maryland. ^For a detailed discussion of t h e i r proposal see Jan Z. Krasnowiecki and James C.N. Paul, "The Preservation of Open Space i n Metropolitan Areas," University of Pennsylvania Law  Review, Vol. 1 1 0 , No. 2, (December, 1961), pp. 179 -239. - r *°Levine, l o c . c i t . ; Ann Louise Strong, Open Space i n the  Pen.jerdel Region, Now or Never, p. 4 1 ; Cuyahoga County Regional Planning Commission, Open Space for Our C i t i f i e d County, (Cleveland, Ohio: 19*64), p. 8 1 . 1 1 W i l l i a m H. Whyte, The Last Landscape, (Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday and Co., Inc., 1 9 6 8), p. 5 4 . 1 2 S i e g e l , p. 8 . ^Krasnowiecki and Paul, p. 196. 1 4 w h y t e , The Last Landscape, p. 8 0 . CHAPTER I I I HISTORY AND USES OP CONSERVATION EASEMENTS Easements are not a new d e v i c e . P r o p e r t y has never been a b s o l u t e or i n d i v i s i b l e nor can the landowner do a n y t h i n g he p l e a s e s w i t h h i s l a n d . In medieva l t i m e s , a great l o r d would grant a man a t r a c t of l a n d to use i n r e t u r n f o r which the man would be o b l i g a t e d to perform c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s , o r f e e s . The l a n d w i t h the fewest s t r i n g s a t tached—the s i m p l e s t f e e , you might say—was the c l o s e s t to o u t r i g h t ownersh ip . But there were always s t r i n g s . 1 P r o p e r t y i s not an i n d i v i s i b l e e n t i t y , but r a t h e r i t i s bundle of r i g h t s — t h e r i g h t to s e l l , the p r o p e r t y , f o r example, o r to encumber i t , or to b u i l d upon i t or to farm i t . A p r o p e r t y owner does not have a l l the r i g h t s i n the l a n d . He cannot b u i l d a n y t h i n g he wishes on the l a n d , or dam a stream w h i c h f l o w s across h i s l a n d w i t h i m p u n i t y . The community a t l a r g e a l s o has i n t e r e s t s i n h i s l a n d , and a l l of h i s r i g h t s are sub jec t to the eminent domain of the s t a t e . S ince p r o p e r t y can be viewed as composed of a bundle of r i g h t s i t i s not necessary to purchase the whole bundle of r i g h t s — t h e fee simple—when o n l y one or a few of these r i g h t s may be needed. The r i g h t s which are needed can be bought i n the form of an easement, and the r e s t of the bundle and the t i t l e l e f t w i t h the owner. ' The a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s concept of p r o p e r t y ownership as a means of p r e s e r v i n g open space has o n l y r e c e i v e d a t t e n t i o n s ince 1959 when W i l l i a m H . Whyte pub-l i s h e d a r e p o r t d e a l i n g w i t h the use of c o n s e r v a t i o n easements. M r . Whyte, however, was not the f i r s t to recommend the 19 use of easements for conservation purposes. In 1927 Frederick Law Olmsted, J r . , presented arguments f o r what he c a l l e d "scenic easements" i n the C a l i f o r n i a State Park Survey.^ A number of easements were acquired there, and the following year, l a r g e l y at his i n s t i g a t i o n , Congress, i n the Federal Rights i n Land Act (4 0 USC, Section 7 2 A ) , enlarged the powers of the National Capital Park and Planning Commission to give i t authority to acquire r i g h t s i n the land. Even before that i n 1893 the Boston Metropolitan Park Commission was authorized by the Massachusetts l e g i s l a t u r e to acquire r i g h t s i n land. In 1898 the l e g i s l a t u r e added further powers "to acquire by agreement or otherwise, the right forever or for such period of time as said board may deem expedient, to plant, care f o r , maintain or remove trees, shrubs and growth of any kind within said regulated spaces /along or near r i v e r s and pond_7. (Chapter 4 6 3 , Act of 1 8 9 8 . ) " 4 During the 1930's the National Park Service acquired scenic easements along many stretches of the Blue Ridge Park-way i n North Carolina and V i r g i n i a , and the Natchez Trace Park-way i n M i s s i s s i p p i , Alabama, and Tennessee. The New York Conservation Department also began acquiring f i s h i n g easements during the 1930's, and since 1933 the C a l i f o r n i a State D i v i s i o n of Beaches and Parks has from time to time acquired scenic easements from landowners immediately adjacent to state parks.5 By and large, however, there were only a very few attempts to acquire easements u n t i l the 1 9 5 0 's. In 1952 YJisconsin began a program of easement a c q u i s i t i o n along the Great River Road which borders the M i s s i s s i p p i River. This continuing program 20 a n d Mr. W h y t e ' s p u b l i c a t i o n have b e e n t h e m a i n i m p e t u s b e h i n d t h e " g r o w i n g i n t e r e s t o f o t h e r p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e b o d i e s i n t h e u s e o f e a s e m e n t s c O v e r t h e y e a r s , a s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c o n c e p t o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s h a s e v o l v e d , i t h a s b e e n f o u n d t h a t t h e r e i s a w i d e r a n g e o f a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h i s t o o l . T h e r e a r e f i v e g e n e r a l ways i n w h i c h l a n d p r e s e r v e d by t h e u s e c f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s i s u s e d : f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n , f o r r e c -r e a t i o n , f o r s e r v i n g a p u b l i c u t i l i t y o r f a c i l i t y , f o r p r e s e r -v i n g s c e n i c a r e a s , a n d f o r s t r u c t u r i n g u r b a n g r o w t h . B u t i t s h o u l d be k e p t i n m i n d t h a t t h e m u l t i p l e u s e c o n c e p t w h i c h i s b e c o m i n g more p r o m i n e n t i n l a n d a n d r e s o u r c e management c i r c l e s i s c a u s i n g ' i n c r e a s e d o v e r l a p p i n g o f t h o s e u s e s on a s i n g l e p i e c e o f l a n d , so t h a t e a c h u s e s h o u l d n o t be v i e w e d a s i s o l a t e d o r d i s c r e e t . C o n s e r v a t i o n One o f t h e ways i n w h i c h c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s h a v e b e e n u s e d i s i n p r o t e c t i n g w a t e r s h e d l a n d . T h e s e a r e a s a c t as g r e a t c a t c h b a s i n s w h i c h g a t h e r a n d r e t a i n t h e r a i n f a l l f o r f u t u r e d o m e s t i c u s e . By a b s o r b i n g l a r g e a m o unts o f w a t e r i n t o t h e s o i l n a t u r a l w a t e r s h e d s a l s o a c t t o m o d i f y t h e f l o o d i n g a f f e c t o f h e a v y r a i n f a l l . Thus t h e y s e r v e a d u a l p u r p o s e o f r e t a i n i n g w a t e r f o r d o m e s t i c u s e , a n d p r e v e n t i n g f l o o d s . To c o n s e r v e t h e s p o n g e - l i k e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e s e w a t e r s h e d l a n d s , e a s e m e n t s c a n be a c q u i r e d t o p r e v e n t b u i l d i n g a n d , t h u s , a h i g h e r r a t e o f r u n - o f f f r o m t h e m . The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t i s a n o t h e r way i n 21 which conservation easements are being used. In the pothole country of Minnesota and the Dakotas the Pish and W i l d l i f e Service of the U.S. Department of the I n t e r i o r has been purchas-ing easements as well as the fee simple. This i s the great breeding area for the ducks of North America. The thousands of l i t t l e holes l e f t by gla c i e r s make a unique habitat. Unfortu-nately the farmers regarded these wet patches as a waste of crop land and began f i l l i n g them i n . To counteract t h i s the Congress passed l e g i s l a t i o n permitting the sale of duck stamps with the revenue derived from the sales to be used to conserve these wet-lands. Now the Pish and W i l d l i f e Service i s purchasing outright the large wetlands as "nucleus areas," and obtaining easements fo r the smaller wetlands. The easement agreements (See Appen-dix A) stipulat e that the farmers won't burn, f i l l , or drain the wetlands on t h e i r property. So f a r 102,000 acres of wetland have been bought outright and 500,000 acres covered by easements.^ Recreation Some states, notably Wisconsin and New York, purchase easements along the banks of p r i v a t e l y owned streams to acquire f i s h i n g r i g h t s f o r the public. In New York the easement includes the bed of the stream plus a s t r i p 33 feet wide along each bank. The agreement also gives the Conservation Department the right to carry out stream improvement programs. In order to do t h i s they t r y to obtain easements along both banks.*? By t h i s time there are over 1000 miles of public f i s h i n g r i g h t s easements on over 70 major trout streams i n New York.$ 22 In addition to the streambank easements, i t has been found desirable to obtain numerous easements f o r parking of fishermen's cars and footpath rights-of-way from the highway to the stream. Parking areas for s i x cars are normally 50' x 6 0 ' . Footpaths are four feet i n width and normally run along a property l i n e between a highway and the stream. We try to get parking area easements wherever a bridge crosses the stream, and i f possible, at about half mile i n t e r v a l s between bridges. Footpaths are always obtained i n the v i c i n i t y . o f the parking areas. Occasionally a vehicle right-of-way i s purchased with the parking area near the stream, i f the distance from the highway i s great.° In September, 1961 Wisconsin started t h e i r f i s h i n g ease-ment a c q u i s i t i o n program. The easements consist of a s t r i p of land 66 feet from the bank of the stream or lake, and most of them include both sides of a stream. A standard form f o r f i s h i n g easements i s used (See Appendix E) which grants i n perpetuity to the State of Wisconsin the public f i s h i n g r i g h t and the right of the state to protect and improve f i s h habitat by stream channel and bank devices. From September, 1961 through June, 1963 a t o t a l of 715 acres or 475,183 frontage feet of easement had been acquired.' 0 In addition to the above mentioned easements Wisconsin acquired, i n one form or another, hunting, f i s h i n g , trapping, drainage and flowage r i g h t s on 3»774 acres of land between September, 1961 and June, 1963.^1 A standard form f o r game management easements was used (See Appendix C ) which granted i n perpetuity to the State of Wisconsin the drainage, f i l l i n g and burning r i g h t s to wetland areas. In addition, public f i s h i n g , hunting and trapping r i g h t s were acquired. The Wisconsin game management easement i s an example of an easement whose use f a l l s into more than one of the general categories of application previously outlined. This may well be 23 the beginning of a trend toward the integration of several ob-jectives into a single easement agreement. However t h i s w i l l only be true when agencies with diff e r e n t objectives communicate with one another and coordinate t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . The development of a t r a i l system i s another valuable use fo r conservation easements. In t h i s sort of easement the property owner grants the right of access f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose such as hiking, r i d i n g , and cy c l i n g . The agency acquiring the easement constructs and maintains the t r a i l which i s established along property l i n e s or elsewhere to avoid disrupting the owner's use of his property. Provision i s made f o r the property owner to avoid l i a b i l i t y f o r accidents on the t r a i l unless he creates a hazardous condition. The State D i v i s i o n of Beaches and Parks has used easements for the C a l i f o r n i a Riding and Hiking T r a i l , and Marin County, C a l i f o r n i a has required the dedication of an eques-t r i a n and hiking easement through new subdivisions as a condition of approval.12 ^ s ±s stated i n the agreement of dedication (See Appendix D),' however, the equestrian and hiking easements are expressly not dedicated to public use since the county couldn't afford to maintain them. Instead they are reserved f o r the ex-clusive use of the residents of the subdivision. I t i s to the advantage of the county to have these t r a i l easements because they may want to take over the t r a i l system l a t e r , and the ease-ment Insures that the area w i l l be reserved.'3 Another way i n which easements can preserve open space for recreation i s for p r i v a t e l y owned golf courses to give an easement to a public body guaranteeing that the land w i l l not be developed. In.this way the property taxes on the gol f course can 24 be held down to a point where i t remains economic to operate. Unless an easement i s granted the taxes which are based on the highest and best use p r i n c i p l e may increase to the point where the course cannot afford to remain i n existence. Naturally the ease-ment would only be accepted by the public agency i f the golf course conformed to the community open space objectives. Scenic Preservation One of the ways i n which conservation easements were f i r s t used was for scenic preservation near state parks i n C a l i f o r n i a and along the Natchez Trace and Blue Ridge National Parkways. Scenic preservation i s also the goal of one of the most outstanding examples of a large scale easement a c q u i s i t i o n program—the Wisconsin Great River Road program. The states of C a l i f o r n i a and New York have made use of "scenic easements" on land located near state parks i n order to protect the scenic amenities of the area surrounding the park. C a l i f o r n i a uses a f a i r l y standard easement agreement (See Appen-dix E ) , by which the landowner gives up the right to put up any buildings on the land without state approval, erect b i l l b o a r d s , and the l i k e . In New York the State Division of Parks has i n a few cases acquired easements by condemnation, to prevent the construction of commercial f a c i l i t i e s opposite the entrance to state p a r k s . ^ As noted above scenic easements have been used to conserve sections of natural landscape along the r i g h t s of way of the Blue Ridge and Natchez Trace National Parkways. These easements are defined as "a servitude devised to permit land to remain i n 25 private ownership f o r i t s normal a g r i c u l t u r a l or r e s i d e n t i a l use and at the same time placing a control over the future use of the land to maintain i t s scenic value for the parkway." 15 The highway departments of the various states involved purchased the easements, and then conveyed them to the National Park Service who l a i d down the general standards. Normally they covered an area extending out 350 feet on both sides from the center l i n e of the roadway. 1f*> Under the agreements only farm and r e s i d e n t i a l buildings could be located on the land, no mature trees or shrubs were to be removed without the consent of the Park Service. Furthermore, ashes, trash, or other offensive material could not be placed on the land, nor could billboards except those adver-t i s i n g the sale of the property or products raised upon It. 1""' The: Wisconsin Great River Road scenic easement a c q u i s i t i o n program i s the best and most thoroughly studied example of the use of conservation easements f o r the preservation of scenic values. The Wisconsin Highway Commission has been acquiring easements along the Great River Road, which runs along the eastern banks of the M i s s i s s i p p i River, since 1952. In an attempt to preserve the scenic beauty of t h i s route the Highway Commission purchased easements which prohibited dumping of any refuse, erection of b i l l b o a r d s , destruction of trees and shrubs, fur farms, erection of or a l t e r a t i o n of buildings, and commercial and indus-. t r i a l uses of lands and buildings (See Appendix F f o r deed). These easements used to extend 350 feet from the center l i n e on either side of the -highway. l a t e l y , however, the r i g i d structure of the deed, as well as the area to be covered by the easements has been changed to recognize the d i f f e r i n g scenic q u a l i t i e s and 26 n a t u r a l a n d man-made f e a t u r e s o f t h e l a n d . ( S e e C h a p t e r V, N e g o t i a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s s e c t i o n , f o r a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e c hange i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e d e e d , a n d F i g u r e 1 on t h e f o l l o w i n g page f o r t h e a r e a t o he c o v e r e d by s c e n i c e a s e m e n t s . ) I n s t e a d o f a c q u i r i n g a u n i f o r m s t r i p 3 5 0 ' on e i t h e r s i d e , t h e y now- t a i l o r t h e e a s e m e n t s t o t h e c o n t o u r o f t h e v i e w . , I f a n e a r b y r i d g e f o r e s h o r t e n s i t , t h e y buy no f u r t h e r ; i n o t h e r c a s e s t h e y may e x t e n d t h e e a s e m e n t a g a i n s t u n -u s u a l s i t u a t i o n s o r v e r y h i g h - c o s t l a n d . I n a r e a s j u s t b e y o n d t o w n l i m i t s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e y do n o t t r y t o buy a l l t h e d e v e l o p m e n t r i g h t s b u t s e c u r e a n " u r b a n s c e n i c e a s e m e n t " p e r m i t t i n g h o u s e s s p a c e d t h r e e h u n d r e d f e e t a p a r t . Where t h e r e i s m e r c h a n t a b l e t i m b e r , t h e y w i l l b u y t h e f u l l f e e s i m p l e , and w i l l do t h e same w i t h l a n d t h a t i s o f so l i t t l e u s e t h a t e v e n t h e f e e c o s t i s n o m i n a l . 1 " Whyte c o n c l u d e s t h a t , "Had t h e r e n o t b e e n an e a s e m e n t p r o g r a m , many s t r e t c h e s o f t h i s r o a d w o u l d l o n g s i n c e h a v e become r u r a l s l u m s . . . . B u t t h e d e s e c r a t i o n h a s n o t t a k e n p l a c e , s a v e i n s t r e t c h e s w i t h i n t o wn l i m i t s / w h e r e t h e H i g h w a y C o m m i s s i o n i s n o t p e r m i t t e d t o a c q u i r e e a s e m e n t s / . " 1 9 S t r u c t u r i n g U r b a n G r o w t h I n t h i s age o f r a p i d u r b a n e x p a n s i o n some se e p o t e n t i a l i n one o f t h e most a m b i t i o u s , a n d l e a s t t r i e d a p p l i c a t i o n s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s w h i c h i s t h e i r u s e a s a n a i d i n s h a p i n g u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t . E s s e n t i a l l y p r o p o n e n t s o f t h i s a p p r o a c h a r g u e t h a t by p u r c h a s i n g e a s e m e n t s w h i c h p r o h i b i t d e v e l o p m e n t on l a n d s u r r o u n d i n g u r b a n a r e a s d e v e l o p m e n t w i l l be f o r c e d t o o c c u r w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s o f t h e u r b a n a r e a . I n t h i s way e a s e m e n t s a r e v a l u a b l e , n o t j u s t f o r t h e l a n d t h e y s a v e b u t a l s o f o r t h e way t h e y h e l p c o n c e n t r a t e d e v e l o p m e n t . The W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. Y e a r 2 0 0 0 P o l i c i e s P l a n p r o p o s e d a s e r i e s o f c o r r i d o r s o f u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t r a d i a t i n g away f r o m t h e c e n t r a l c i t y , w i t h wedges o f FIGURE 1 AREA TO BE COVERED BY SCENIC EASEMENTS line of sight A DOWNHILL B UPHILL line of sight i 4 i C FLAT LAND road Raw-Not more "Than 300' D HEAVY TIMBER 28 open space between the corridors. One of the primary functions of these open space wedges i s to shape urban development i n the metropolitan region and i t was suggested that, "The entire 7 0 0 , 0 0 0-acre wedge area would be secured permanently by outright purchase, donations, or purchase of scenic or conservation ease-ments and development r i g h t s . " ?P This reservation of land around urban areas also has the additional benefit of providing the community with future options as to what to do with the land. There i s good f i s c a l sense i n preserving open land now, at present-day values, for future public use such as schools, f i r e and police stations, parks and playgrounds, and other public uses, before encroaching urban development sends land values soaring. Outright purchase of large units of open land would soon deplete the County's budget, but pur-chase of conservation easements with the option to buy.the land twenty years hence would cost considerably l e s s . 21 Another form of structuring urban development through the use of conservation easements has evolved as cluster development and planned unit development have become more prevalent. In areas where these sorts of developments are being b u i l t and where the public also has an interest i n maintaining some open spaces i t has been possible to convince the developer to leave open part of his land l y i n g In the most scenic areas i n exchange for a higher building density i n the remainder. By deeding a conservation easement on the open space to the municipality, guaranteeing that i t w i l l forever remain open, the public i n t e r -est i n preserving the open space i s protected. In many cases parts of the developer's land such as steep h i l l s i d e s or streams are not worth building on at a l l or may be very expensive to develop through extensive grading, diking, or f i l l i n g . However, 29 these same pieces of land may have great value as open space. I f the developer can concentrate his building on the buildable parts, i t i s to his s e l f - i n t e r e s t to keep the land as an open space and recreation area, and he should be more than w i l l i n g to dedicate an easement to the public. Whyte describes t h i s ap-proach i n the High Meadow development plan at Carmel, C a l i f o r n i a : The High Meadows tract adjoins a developed area but i s v i r g i n land with forests of Monterey pine and oak dotted meadows. Set high on the slope of a large ridge i t dominates the landscape, and a c i t i z e n s ' group, f e a r f u l of i t s desecration, had been vigorously opposing the owners on various zoning and development issues. When the owners decided to try the cluster approach, however, there was a sur p r i s i n g l y enthusiastic public response. Had the owners stuck to a conventional subdivision pattern the bulk of the open space would have been covered. Under the cluster plan (See Figure 2 ) the housing i s t a i l o r e d to the natural features, and the bulk of the land l e f t open.... To guarantee the i n t e g r i t y of the open space f o r the larger community, easements w i l l be deeded to the county. The development rig h t s to a l l open space, both natural and landscaped, beyond the 416 units i n the present plan, w i l l be dedicated to the county, with the fee simple re-maining i n private hands. This w i l l be assurance that no increase i n density w i l l be sought l a t e r , and that the designated area w i l l be open i n perpetuity.... 2 2 Santa Clara County, C a l i f o r n i a has also had some exper-ience with the use of conservation easements within t h e i r zones for cluster development and r e s i d e n t i a l planned development. In th i s case the county does not require dedication i n fee simple because they do not have the- funds to maintain the open space. By requiring the dedication of an easement the public interest i n preserving open space i s protected, yet no public funds are expended since the areas are maintained by the developer or a home owners association. The "Cluster Permit" section of the county zoning ordinance states that: 30 FIGURE 2 CLUSTER SUBDIVISION 31 The Planning Commission s h a l l require open space that w i l l be adequate f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l and l e i s u r e use of the population that w i l l occupy the c l u s t e r development and which w i l l enhance the present or p o t e n t i a l value of abut-t i n g or surrounding development. Insofar as possible the Commission s h a l l assure that natural features of the land are preserved and landscaping i s provided. In order to assure that open space w i l l be permanent, dedication of development rig h t s to such open space to the County of Santa Clara may be required . 2 3 Within t h e i r Residential Planned Development zoning d i s t r i c t i t i s stated that "The ordinance contemplates consider-able open space and requires that t h i s open space be assured by deeding the development r i g h t s to the County."^ E s s e n t i a l l y the developer i s r e l i n q u i s h i n g the r i g h t to b u i l d any more buildings on the area which i s designated f o r open space, a l -though the deed (See Appendix G) may also p r o h i b i t o f f - s t r e e t parking and the dumping of trash on the open space land. Public Services There has been considerable experience i n the use of easements fo r such purposes as the reservation of highway and u t i l i t y r i g h t s of way. Wisconsin and Ohio have both used ease-ments to conserve future r i g h t s of way at r e l a t i v e l y low cost,, and many C a l i f o r n i a highways are b u i l t on easements. 25 And of course, almost every piece of property has u t i l i t y easements of one sort or another running through i t . Quite often easements are needed at a i r p o r t s to protect the approach areas o f f the runways. Easements are acquired which r e s t r i c t the height of structures and vegetation so that they do not penetrate into the f l i g h t path of the a i r c r a f t . , The right of entry to enforce these r e s t r i c t i o n s i s also generally acquired. 32 One o t h e r u s e o f e a s e m e n t s w h i c h has become more p r e -v a l e n t i n r e c e n t y e a r s w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e i n l a r g e s c a l e p u b l i c w o r k s f l o o d c o n t r o l a n d i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s i s t h e p u r c h a s e o f t h e r i g h t t o f l o o d p r i v a t e l y owned l a n d , e i t h e r t e m p o r a r i l y o r p e r m a n e n t l y . The M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r f l o o d c o n t r o l s y s t e m i n c l u d e s p r o v i s i o n f o r s p e c i a l e m e r g e n c y s p i l l w a y s . H e r e t h e l a n d i s l e f t i n p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p a n d n o r m a l l y i n a g r i c u l t u r a l u s e , b u t s u b j e c t t o a p u b l i c r i g h t t o f l o o d t h e s e a r e a s i n t i m e o f emer-g e n c y i n o r d e r t o e a s e t h e p r e s s u r e on t h e l e v e e s . 2 ^ E a s e m e n t s h a v e a l s o b e e n a c q u i r e d a r o u n d l a r g e p u b l i c r e s e r v o i r s w here t h e l a n d i s s u b j e c t t o p e r i o d i c i n u n d a t i o n . I n t h i s way t h e l a n d r e m a i n s i n p r i v a t e u s e y e t t h e p u b l i c r e t a i n s t h e r i g h t t o f l o o d i t when n e c e s s a r y . (See A p p e n d i x H f o r e x a m p l e o f f l o w a g e e a s e m e n t d e e d . ) S i n c e t h e e x p a n d e d u s e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s i s a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t phenomenon, i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t u s e s o f e a s e m e n t s i s somewhat l i m i t e d . I n many c a s e s t h e r e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e how s u c c e s s f u l t h e y h a v e b e e n w i t h r e g a r d t o a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f a p p l i c a t i o n . I t s h o u l d n o t be a s s u m e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l u s e s o f e a s e m e n t s a r e u n l i m i t e d . The q u e s t i o n a t l a w o f t h e b o u n d s f o r t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f e a s e m e n t s h a s n o t b e e n r e s o l v e d . B renneman q u o t e s U.S. S u p r e m e , C o u r t J u s t i c e T.C. C l a r k a s s a y i n g , " i t i s n o t t h e n o v e l t y o f a n i n t e r e s t w h i c h makes i t o b j e c t i o n a b l e . R a t h e r i t i s t h e c o m p a r a t i v e i n u t i l i t y o f t h e i n t e r e s t a s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h i t s power t o r e n d e r t i t l e u n m a r k e t a b l e . T h i s w o u l d seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t w h i l e t h e d o o r i s n o t c l o s e d i n t h e f a c e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n 33 easements by reason of t h e i r being novel or not f a l l i n g within set categories, i t i s at least questionable as to whether there w i l l be l e g a l acceptance of a l l new applications of conservation easements. 34 FOOTNOTES ' • W i l l i a m Ho W h y t e , The L a s t L a n d s c a p e , ( G a r d e n C i t y , New Y o r k s D o u b l e d a y a n d Co., I n c . , 1968), p. 78• 2 W i l l i a m H. W h y t e , " S e c u r i n g Open S p a c e f o r U r b a n A m e r i c a : C o n s e r v a t i o n E a s e m e n t s , " U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n , No. 36, (1959). ^ " C i t y a n d R e g i o n a l P a r k s a n d P l a y g r o u n d s : P r e s e r v a t i o n o f Open S p a c e s , " L a n d s c a p e A r c h i t e c t u r e , V o l . 48, No. 2, ( J a n u a r y , 1958), p. 86 . ^Whyte, The L a s t L a n d s c a p e , p. 11. ^Whyte, " S e c u r i n g Open S p a c e f o r U r b a n A m e r i c a : C o n s e r v a t i o n E a s e m e n t s , " p. 12. ^Whyte, The L a s t L a n d s c a p e , p . 93 . ^ J a c o b H. B e u s c h e r , " C o n s e r v a t i o n E a s e m e n t s a n d t h e Law," P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n E a s e m e n t s a n d Open Space  C o n f e r e n c e , ( M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n : W i s c o n s i n D e p a r t m e n t o f R e s o u r c e D e v e l o p m e n t , 1961), p p . 43-44. §Whyte, The L a s t L a n d s c a p e , p. 94. ^ B e u s c h e r , " C o n s e r v a t i o n E a s e m e n t s a n d t h e Law," p. 44 . ^ H a r o l d C. J o r d a h l , J r . , " C o n s e r v a t i o n a n d S c e n i c E a s e m e n t s : An E x p e r i e n c e Resume," L a n d E c o n o m i c s , V o l . 39, (November, 1963), p p . 345-346. 1 1 I b i d . , p. 354. 1P W a l t e r S. H o r c h l e r , P l a n n e r , M a r i n C o u n t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , San R a f a e l , C a l i f o r n i a , I n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e W r i t e r , J a n u a r y 3> 1969. '^Edward R o s s P a r k e r s o n , P l a n n e r , M a r i n C o u n t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , San R a f a e l , " C a l i f o r n i a , I n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e W r i t e r , J a n u a r y 3, 1969. l 4 W h y t e , " S e c u r i n g Open S p a c e f o r U r b a n A m e r i c a : C o n s e r v a t i o n E a s e m e n t s , " p. 12. ' 5 i b i d . , q u o t i n g N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e , R e q u i r e m e n t s a n d  P r o c e d u r e t o G o v e r n t h e A c q u i s i t i o n o f L a n d f o r N a t i o n a l  P a r k w a y s , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e ) , 1^Norman W i l l i a m s , L a n d A c q u i s i t i o n f o r O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n — A n a l y s i s o f S e l e c t e d L e g a l P r o b l e m s . R e p o r t t o t h e O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s R e v i e w C o m m i s s i o n , S t u d y R e p o r t No. 16, ( W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1962), p. 44 . 35 1 7 R o s s D. N e t h e r t o n a n d M a r i o n Markham, R o a d s i d e D e v e l o p m e n t  a n d B e a u t l f i c a t i o n : L e g a l A u t h o r i t y a n d M e t h o d s . P a r t I , ' ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : H i g h w a y R e s e a r c h B o a r d , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 6 8 . ^ W h y t e , The L a s t L a n d s c a p e , p . 8 8 . ^ I b i d . 2 0 N a t i o n a l C a p i t a l R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l , The R e g i o n a l  D e v e l o p m e n t G u i d e 1 9 6 6 - 2 0 0 0 , ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 6 6 J . P I c F a i r f a x C o u n t y P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n , The V a n i s h i n g L a n d - -P r o p o s a l s f o r Open S p a c e P r e s e r v a t i o n , " ( F a i r f a x C o u n t y , V i r g i n i a : T9G2), p. 46. " c W i l l i a m H. Whyte, Open S p a c e A c t i o n . R e p o r t t o t h e ORRRC, S t u d y R e p o r t No. 15» ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 103. ^ C o u n t y o f S a n t a C l a r a Z o n i n g O r d i n a n c e , S e c t i o n 7 - 8 . 2 . 1 1 : Open S p a c e , S u p p l e m e n t #3, ( S a n J o s e , C a l i f o r n i a : December 3 1 , 1 9 6 4 ) . ^ C o u n t y o f S a n t a C l a r a P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t , R e s i d e n t i a l  P l a n n e d D e v e l o p m e n t P r o c e s s a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r o c e d u r e s , ( S a n J o s e , C a l i f o r n i a : J u n e 1, 1 9 6 4 ) , mlmeo., p . 2. 2 ^ W h y t e . " S e c u r i n g Open S p a c e f o r U r b a n A m e r i c a : C o n s e r v a t i o n E a s e m e n t s , p« 14. 2 ^ N o r m a n W i l l i a m s , p. 4 0 . 2 7 H u s s e l l L . B r e n n e m a n , P r i v a t e A p p r o a c h e s t o t h e . P r e s e r v a t i o n  o f Open L a n d , (The C o n s e r v a t i o n a n d R e s e a r c h F o u n d a t i o n : 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 2 4 . CHAPTER IV LEGAL ASPECTS OP CONSERVATION EASEMENTS Throughout the history of the United States, the concept of private property has always played an important r o l e . There i s nothing which so generally s t r i k e s the imagina-t i o n and engages the affections of mankind, as the right of property; or that sole and despotic dominion which one man claims and exercises over the external things of the world, i n t o t a l exclusion of the right of any other i n -divi d u a l i n the universe.' The notion that individuals had rights of privacy and property became important during the English c o n s t i t u t i o n a l revolution of the 17th century, and was expressed i n English c o n s t i t u t i o n a l law. The colonists brought these ideas to North America and incorporated them as " r i g h t s " i n the federal and state con s t i -t u t i o n s . 2 During the 19th century the status of private property i n the law was further strengthened. In order to develop the vast resources of t h i s continent the governments transferred public lands into private ownership. Transportation networks were b u i l t and land was opened up fo r development. In t h i s process property law was an active instrument f o r encouraging t h i s release of private energy, and the i n t e r -pretations which 19th century courts and l e g i s l a t u r e s gave to the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l guarantees regarding private property were i n accord with the evident economic necessities of the nation at that time.3 There was a pr e v a i l i n g " p r a i r i e psychology" attitude of general unconcern for the rate at which the land was consumed or the manner i n which i t was developed. 37 As the 20th century has progressed new f o r c e s are i n -f l u e n c i n g the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n given to the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l guar-antees of p r i v a t e property. These are (1) the tra n s f o r m a t i o n of the United States i n t o an urban i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n , w i t h a l l of the attendant economic and s o c i a l problems; (2) the i n c r e a s i n g shortage of land i n many s e c t i o n s of the country, w i t h a consequent sharpening of competition to develop the remainder; (3) a steady increase i n the cost of b u i l d i n g and maintaining p u b l i c improve-ments; (4) the increased r e c o g n i t i o n of the p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r planning and c o n t r o l l i n g community development. 4 Under the pressure of these f o r c e s , the scope of p u b l i c c o n t r o l over the p r i v a t e uses of property has s t e a d i l y widened. The e v o l u t i o n of the l e g a l viewpoint has been summed up t h i s way: As one looks back along the h i s t o r i c road t r a v e r s e d by the law of land i n England and i n America, one sees a change from the viewpoint that one who owns may do as he pleases w i t h what he owns, to a p o s i t i o n which h e s i t a t i n g l y em-bodies an i n g r e d i e n t of stewardship; which grudgingly but steadily.broadens the recognized scope of s o c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the u t i l i z a t i o n of t h i n g s . . . . These adjustments have been guided by a g e n e r a l l y pre-v a i l i n g d e s i r e to preserve the r i g h t s of i n d i v i d u a l s as f a r as they prove to be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the welfare of the group by the n e c e s s i t i e s of d i s t r i b u t i n g n a t u r a l r e -sources as e f f e c t i v e l y as p o s s i b l e among m u l t i p l e claimants; and by the u n d e r l y i n g e f f o r t to promote the s o c i a l and economic p o l i c i e s f i n d i n g current acceptance,5 Thus, i t can"be seen that a slow but steady s h i f t i n emphasis toward the i n t e r e s t of s o c i e t y as a whole i s o c c u r r i n g . I t i s i n the l i g h t of t h i s new emphasis that the l e g a l viewpoint of conservation easements and t h e i r r o l e i n f u r t h e r i n g the i n t e r e s t s of s o c i e t y w i l l be examined. 38 Sources of.Legal Powers The f i r s t step i n a discussion of the l e g a l aspects of the use of conservation easements as a means of preserving open space and recreational areas should be to discover the sources of power for public bodies to acquire land for such purposes. Apparently the law i s very clear on t h i s matter as pointed out by Siegel: "The public purpose of adequate parks and recreational f a c i l i t i e s i s now so clear that, understandably there i s no issue as to the fundamental l e g a l power to spend money fo r land acquis-i t i o n , or to condemn land, for such programs. In the early days of the United States, condemnation was authorized i n urgent cases although no express c o n s t i t u t i o n a l powers existed. The power of eminent domain i s often thought of as inherent i n sovereignty, however i t was not part of the o r i g -i n a l common law. The term "eminent domain" was not used i n England. As used i n early times i n the United States, "the term was intended to express both the di r e c t i o n of governmental powers and the l i m i t a t i o n s placed upon the exercise of that power. So Justice Shaw i n Jeduthun Wellington, P e t i t i o n e r s 16 Pick. 87, 102 (Mass. 1834) expressly read Into i t the l i m i t a -tions based on the requirement.that the taking be for public 7 purposes." Constitutional provisions generally always contain a negative phrase which prohibits the taking of private property f o r a private use, as well as a po s i t i v e command for just compensation. The U.S. Constitution does not s p e c i f i c a l l y provide the Federal Government with the eminent domain power, but the Supreme Court has held that i t i s a power inherent i n a sovereign 39 state and does not depend upon c o n s t i t u t i o n a l or l e g i s l a t i v e mandate for i t s existence. The f i f t h amendment does state that private property may not be taken f o r public use without just compensation, but the Supreme Court has stated that t h i s ex-presses the l i m i t of the eminent domain power rather than the source of the power.^ The States also do not need c o n s t i t u t i o n a l or l e g i s l a t i v e sanction before they can exercise the eminent domain power. A State i s also a sovereign power, and therefore, has the inherent right of eminent domain. However, i t i s subject to the l i m i t s of the fourteenth amendment which states that no State s h a l l . . . "deprive any person of l i f e , l i b e r t y , or property without due process of law...." A State i s also subject to any applicable provisions within i t s own co n s t i t u t i o n . I t appears also that governments at the l o c a l l e v e l have the power of eminent domain subject to the same con s t i t u t i o n a l constraints as the States. Williams writes, "Since, /at the State and local7 l e v e l s of government the power to provide rec-reation f a c i l i t i e s i s so clear, i t does not make any substantial difference what means i s used to that end--i.e., whether the land i s acquired by purchase or by eminent domain."^ The area i n which a l o c a l agency can exercise the power i s determined by the delegation of authority from the State l e g i s l a t u r e . Unless the statute delegating the authority states otherwise, i t i s appl i c -able only within the l o c a l t e r r i t o r i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n . However, e x t r a t e r r i t o r i a l power i s sometimes granted. State and l o c a l governments are permitted to purchase land outside of t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n i n any event i f they can f i n d a 40 w i l l i n g s e l l e r . H o w e v e r , i n s i t u a t i o n s o f t h i s n a t u r e t h e s e g o v e r n m e n t s a r e t r e a t e d l i k e a n y o t h e r p r o p e r t y owner a n d a r e t h e r e f o r e , s u b j e c t t o t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e g o v e r n i n g b o d y , i n -c l u d i n g t h e e x e r c i s e o f e m i n e n t domain.'0 Of p r i m a r y c o n c e r n t o t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s t h e s i s i s w h e t h e r t h e power o f e m i n e n t d o m a i n may be u s e d t o p u r c h a s e p a r t i a l i n t e r e s t s i n l a n d a s w e l l a s t h e c o m p l e t e f e e s i m p l e i n t e r e s t . The c o n c l u s i o n i s r e a c h e d t h a t a s l o n g a s a p u b l i c p u r p o s e i s a c h i e v e d by t h e p u r c h a s e , t h e r e i s no c o n s t i t u t i o n a l o b j e c t i o n t o s u c h a t a k i n g . 1 1 I n t h e r e c e n t K a m r o w s k i v . S t a t e c a s e , d e a l i n g w i t h a p a r t o f W i s c o n s i n ' s e a s e m e n t p r o g r a m a l o n g t h e G r e a t R i v e r R o a d , a g r o u p o f l a n d o w n e r s a r g u e d t h a t t h e e a s e m e n t s were o n l y f o r a e s t h e t i c g o a l s a n d t h a t t h i s was no p r o p e r p u b l i c p u r p o s e s i n c e t h e p u b l i c d i d n ' t g e t t o u s e t h e l a n d . The Supreme C o u r t o f W i s c o n s i n h e l d t h a t t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s c e n i c e a s e m e n t s by e m i n e n t d o m a i n was c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y v a l i d b e c a u s e t h e r e was a l e g i t i m a t e p u b l i c p u r p o s e - - t h e e a s e m e n t s p r o -v i d e " V i s u a l o c c u p a n c y . " The c o u r t a l s o f e l t t h a t a s t r o n g e r a r g u m e n t c a n be made t o s u p p o r t t h e u s e o f e m i n e n t d o m a i n t o f u l f i l l a e s t h e t i c g o a l s t h a n by t h e u s e o f z o n i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s . The c o u r t c o n s i d e r e d t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a s c e n i c c o r r i d o r a n d r u r a l s c e n e r y a l o n g a p a r k w a y , by p r e v e n t i n g u n s i g h t l y u s e s , a s u f f i c i e n t l y d e f i n i t e a n d m e a n i n g f u l p u b l i c p u r p o s e , so l o n g a s t h e r e a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y d e s c r i b e d s t a n d a r d s t o g u i d e t h e s t a t e a g e n c y . 1 3 I n s i t u a t i o n s where t h e p u b l i c h a s some f o r m o f r i g h t o f e n t r y on t h e l a n d , s u c h as I s t h e c a s e w i t h h u n t i n g and f i s h i n g e a s e m e n t s , 41 S t a t e a n d l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s h a v e t h e same pow e r t o a c q u i r e s u c h l e s s e r i n t e r e s t s a s t h e y do t o a c q u i r e t h e f e e so l o n g a s t h e f o r m o f p u b l i c r i g h t o f e n t r y i s s u f f i c i e n t t o s a t i s f y t h e t e s t o f p u b l i c u s e . So l o n g a s p u b l i c u s e c a n be p r o v e d , i t i s i r r e l e v a n t w h e t h e r what i s a c q u i r e d i s t h e f e e o r a n e a s e m e n t o r some o t h e r l e s s e r i n t e r e s t . A t t h e . l e a s t , no p r o b l e m a r i s e s f r o m t a k i n g l e s s r a t h e r t h a n m o r e . 1 4 The p r o b l e m o f p r o p e r s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i z a t i o n i s a n o t h e r v e r y i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f a l e g a l a n a l y s i s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e -m e n t s . I n U.S. v . B u t l e r 1 ^ t h e U.S. Supreme C o u r t r u l e d t h a t C o n g r e s s h a d t h e p o w e r t o t a x a n d l e g i s l a t e f o r t h e g e n e r a l w e l f a r e . And i n t h e c o u r s e o f i t s o p i n i o n i n t h e c a s e o f Berman  v . P a r k e r t h e U.S. Supreme C o u r t made t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t r e g a r d i n g t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l v a l i d i t y o f l e g i s l a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g a e s t h e t i c o b j e c t i v e s : The c o n c e p t o f t h e p u b l i c w e l f a r e i s b r o a d a n d i n c l u s i v e . . . . The v a l u e s i t r e p r e s e n t s a r e s p i r i t u a l a s w e l l a s p h y s i c a l , a e s t h e t i c a s w e l l a s m o n e t a r y . I t i s w i t h i n t h e power o f t h e l e g i s l a t u r e t o d e t e r m i n e t h a t t h e c o m m u n i t y s h o u l d be b e a u t i f u l a s w e l l a s h e a l t h y , s p a c i o u s a s w e l l a s c l e a n , w e l l - b a l a n c e d a s w e l l a s c a r e f u l l y p a t r o l l e d . 1 ° C a l i f o r n i a was t h e f i r s t s t a t e t o a u t h o r i z e t h e u s e o f e a s e m e n t s f o r o p e n s p a c e p u r p o s e s . T h i s a c t , w h i c h was a d o p t e d i n 1959, came a b o u t a s much t h r o u g h t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f l a n d -o w n i n g g r o u p s i n M o n t e r e y C o u n t y a s t h r o u g h p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s . I n M o n t e r e y C o u n t y , C a l i f o r n i a , a number o f l a n d o w n e r s , a l a r m e d a t t h e t h r e a t t o t h e i r m a g n i f i c e n t c o a s t l i n e , warmed t o t h e i d e a o f g i v i n g e a s e m e n t s on k e y s c e n i c t r a c t s t o t h e C o u n t y . T h e r e was some d o u b t , h o w e v e r , a s t o w h e t h e r t h e C o u n t y c o u l d a c c e p t s u c h e a s e m e n t s , a n d t h e r e was a f e e l -i n g some s o r t o f l e g i s l a t i o n w o u l d p r o b a b l y be n e c e s s a r y . . . . T h e i r s t a t e s e n a t o r , F r e d F a r r , was a n a r d e n t c o n s e r -v a t i o n i s t , a n d w i t h s t a t e p l a n n e r W i l l i a m L i p m a n , he w o r k e d up a b i l l f o r t h e C a l i f o r n i a l e g i s l a t u r e . 1 7 The f i r s t two s e c t i o n s o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a A c t (See A p p e n d i x I. f o r e n t i r e A c t ) r e a d : 42 I t i s the intent of the Legislature i n enacting t h i s chapter to provide a means whereby any county or c i t y may acquire, by purchase, g i f t , grant, bequest, devise, lease or otherwise, and through the expenditure of public funds, the fee or any lesser interest or right i n r e a l property i n order to preserve, through l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e i r future use, open spaces and areas for public use and enjoyment. The Legislature finds that the rapid growth and spread of urban development i s encroaching upon, or eliminating, many open areas and spaces of varied size and character, including many having s i g n i f i c a n t scenic or esthetic values, which areas and spaces i f preserved and maintained i n t h e i r pre-sent open state would constitute important physical, s o c i a l , esthetic or economic assets to exi s t i n g or impending urban and metropolitan development. 18 Within a short time af t e r the passage of t h i s act several other states enacted s i m i l a r l e g i s l a t i o n . New York, Maryland, New Jersey, and Wisconsin were among these states. (See Appendix J for copies of these a c t s ) . The states which have passed statutes authorizing the ac q u i s i t i o n of land for recreation, aesthetic, and other purposes t y p i c a l l y authorized the a c q u i s i t i o n of the fee or of any "lesser i n t e r e s t " i n land. The Maryland and New York acts add the words "development r i g h t , easement, covenant or any other contractual r i g h t . " 1 9 New Jersey adds the words "or ri g h t consisting, i n whole or i n part, of a r e s t r i c t i o n on the use of land by others including owners of other interest therein; such interest or ri g h t sometimes known as a 'conservation easement.'"20 These references to "lesser i n t e r e s t s , " "development r i g h t s , " "covenants," " r e s t r i c -t i o n s , " and "conservation easements" are a l l designed to confirm a power which was not c l e a r l y granted before. Of those acts mentioned New York's, Wisconsin's and New Jersey's provide for a c q u i s i t i o n by condemnation. The C a l i f o r n i a and Maryland Acts provide only f o r consensual a c q u i s i t i o n . There are several precedents for statutes which provide the power to 43 condemn conservation easements. Statutes exist which, permit the "state or l o c a l government to condemn scenic easements f o r highway purposes,21 easements to prevent the erection of b u i l d -ings, or billboards i n the v i c i n i t y of parks,22 easements f o r paths and t r a i l s to scenic places,23 and easements to plant and maintain shrubs and trees along r i v e r s and ponds.24 Legal O l a s s i f i c a t i o n s An examination of the use of conservation easements i s not complete without a discussion of the common law technical-i t i e s which have an important bearing upon the success of an easement program. These l e g a l t e c h n i c a l i t i e s can perhaps best be discussed within the framework of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of easements. B a s i c a l l y easements are c l a s s i f i e d as being either affirmative or negative and appurtenant or i n gross. An affirmative easement i s a l i m i t e d r i g h t to make use of land owned i n fee by someone else: hunting and f i s h i n g ease-ments, hiking and r i d i n g t r a i l easements, and flowage easements are good examples. A negative easement i s a r i g h t to prevent a property owner from using his land i n spe c i f i e d ways. Some examples of negative easements are: scenic easements, watershed protection easements, and airport runway clearance easements. The other basic d i s t i n c t i o n i n classes of easements i s between easements appurtenant and easements i n gross. Appur-tenant easements must confer a benefit upon the ownership of nearby land. The most common example i s the right-of-way ease-ment across one piece of land. The land subject to the r i g h t - o f -way i s known as the "servient" tenement; and the land adjacent, 4 4 whose owner gets the benefit of the right-of-way, i s known as the "dominant" tenement. The p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of an appur-tenent easement i s that there must be a dominant tenement. An easement i n gross, on the other hand, i s a personal interest i n or right to use another's land without any connection to the occupancy of nearby land. Transfers and A s s i g n a b i l i t y These c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are of great significance when considering the d u r a b i l i t y of the easement or the problems of transferring the dominant or servient tenement or the easement i t s e l f . Rules about the t r a n s f e r a b i l i t y of easements could be awkward i n situations where i t i s decided to s h i f t adminis-t r a t i o n of a conservation easement program from one governmental agency to another, or where the t i t l e to the servient tenement changes hands. In the t r a d i t i o n a l English view easements are created f or the benefit of the holder of the easement, and, therefore, are said to be appurtenant to that land. Therefore, easements, which were i n gross were not recognized i n England, or at leas t the burden would not run to subsequent owners of the burdened land.25 The majority rule In the United States i s broader. In those American j u r i s d i c t i o n s which have decided the ques-t i o n , i t i s generally held that the burden of an easement i n gross passes with the servient estate. Most American j u r i s d i c t i o n s recognize the easement i n gross as creating a v a l i d interest i n land to the extent of holding that i f the servient land i s transferred i t does not terminate the rights of the holder of the easement.... The question of the a s s i g n a b i l i t y of an easement i n gross presents very much more d i f f i c u l t problems, and there i s an . enormous amount of confusion i n the a u t h o r i t i e s . The general rule i s that easements i n gross are not assignable, but there are so many c o n f l i c t s i n the authorities that i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to generalize . 2 6 • 45 Further problems are encountered when examining the l e g a l position of negative easements i n gross. There i s v i r t u a l l y no case law on negative easements i n gross. What authority there i s does not recognize such a conveyance. The American Lav; of Property states as a matter of defin-i t i o n that a negative easement must be appurtenant. A D i s t r i c t Court, overruled on c o n s t i t u t i o n a l grounds, held that the United States had no authority to condemn an ob-s t r u c t i o n easement for an a i r p o r t because i t had no pro-perty interest i n the a i r p o r t . 2 7 I t i s obvious from the above discussion that, due to the confused l e g a l p o s ition of easements i n gross, they should be employed only when absolutely necessary, and only when enabling l e g i s l a t i o n authorizes t h e i r use to benefit the community at large. On the other hand since conservation and preservation of the natural landscape i s recognized as a public purpose a conser-vation easement, i f held to be a f f i r m a t i v e , should be assignable and thereby generate fewer l e g a l problems.28 Extinguishment Another important point which planners should keep i n mind i s the ways i n which easements may be extinguished. For one thing i f the dominant and servient tenements come under the same ownership the easement w i l l be extinguished. I f the owner of the easement grants a release i n proper form to the owner of the servient tenement, the easement i s extinguished. An i n t e n t i o n a l abandonment of the easement, accomplished by an action, not merely consisting of words, indi c a t i n g an intent to abandon the easement w i l l also work i t s e x t i n c t i o n . "Non-use by i t s e l f does not constitute abandonment.in the absence of any adverse acts on the part of the landowner, even i f the easement i s not used for 46 the prescribed period of time f o r adverse possession." 2^ An-other way i n which an easement w i l l be extinguished i s i f the adjoining land which the easement i s designed to benefit were to be no longer conserved. I t i s also necessary to consider the effect of any applicable marketable t i t l e act or other statute founded on the policy of ridding t i t l e s of obsolete i n t e r e s t s . These laws may have the effect of extinguishing any easement afte r the passage of a stipulated period of time.30 The Easement Deed The law does not always require that an easement be drawn up i n a written l e g a l document since i t i s an incorporeal i n t e r -est i n land. However, l e g a l conservatism suggests that i t i s a good idea to have an instrument i n wr i t i n g under seal and execu-ted by the owner of the servient tenement. The physical space to be subjected to the easement should be described' with c l a r i t y . Ths use of the word "heirs" or such other language as may be appropriate to the creation of a corporeal interest of unlimited duration i n land should probably be used to make i t absolutely certain that there i s an intention to create such an i n t e r e s t . . . . I t should be unnecessary to add that the precise scope of the easement should be defined with care, the.conveyancer remembering that the constructional i n c l i n a t i o n i s for a narrower int e r p r e t a t i o n of the scope of an easement i n the case of a gratuitous transfer than where consideration i s paid.3' Due to the non-use nature of many kinds of conservation easements i t would be wise to include language i n the easement deed to the effect that mere non-use of the easement s h a l l not be deemed to constitute an abandonment. Furthermore, i n cases where a conservation easement has been granted to a public or private body, safeguards should be incorporated into the easement deed to prevent the untimely release of the in t e r e s t contrary to 47 the grantor's i n t e n t . One way of doing t h i s i s to create an executory inte r e s t i n another conservation agency which would take e f f e c t upon any attempt to release the easement by the holder of i t . (For further discussion of the untimely release of easements see Chapter VII.) There should be a reverter clause which st i p u l a t e s that i f there i s l a t e r condemnation of the property f o r another pur-pose, the easement becomes n u l l and void. This can be very important i n situations where a highway department f o r example i s thinking of using the green space kept open by easements as a r i g h t of way f o r a new highway. Since i t i s undeveloped t h i s sort of land i s very a t t r a c t i v e to highway departments who think i t should be inexpensive and easy to b u i l d on. The re-verter clause would however, require the highway department to pay the going market price f o r the land without r e s t r i c t i o n s , and i n t h i s way might discourage them from u t i l i z i n g the pro-tected area.32 A reverter clause can also protect the land-owner when the purpose f o r which the easement was acquired i s abandoned. The easement w i l l then automatically be voided and a l l r i g h t s w i l l return to the owner of the fee simple. Although i f the purpose Is to preserve the open area without regard to the type of land use which may someday surround i t , the creating instrument should so indicate.53 Since there can be some l e g a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the courts with a negative easement, i t would be h e l p f u l I f some affirmative rig h t s were included. The right of entry to protect the natural habitat from trespassers and f o r minor management purposes are useful affirmative r i g h t s which can often be included i n what 48 are otherwise e s s e n t i a l l y negative easements. A s i m i l a r s i t u -ation arises when the courts t r y to determine whether an i n t e r e s t i n land i s i n fact benefitted by an easement. I f i t i s the i n -tent of the parties that an easement should be appurtenant, then t h i s should be c l e a r l y stated. And i f the burden i s to run with the land or i s to be assignable, even with easements i n gross, i t might be helpful to stage t h i s . Whyte suggests that, "The purpose must be stated c l e a r l y . In the case of open space easements, i t i s , simply, the preser-vation of open space f o r the public benefit, but i t w i l l be wise to buttress t h i s statement with the notation of a l l the benefits that may be involved—the preamble of the C a l i f o r n i a b i l l i s an excellent model i n t h i s respect."34 (see Appendix K.) In .Wisconsin the highway department has included i n t h e i r easement deeds the power to grant a variance or special permit to take care of unforeseen contingencies or expansions of non-conforming uses. To get a permit, the landowner must show that what he proposes does not c o n f l i c t with the basic easement pur-pose. I t i s necessary i n Wisconsin to include t h i s power i n the deed. I f i t i s not included then the granting of a variance, i s i n effect the g i f t back to the landowner of a property i n t e r -est that had previously been purchased from him, and the State Constitution forbids g i f t s of state property.35 This f l e x i b i l i t y can be very helpful i n retaining public support f o r an easement program since the landowner i s no longer absolutely bound to the status quo. However, as Whyte points out:. "The danger here, of course, i s the one so present i n zoning matters; variances can make a sieve out of a community plan, and t h i s could be the case with easements."36 49 An important question when dealing with the dedication of open space easements i n c l u s t e r subdivisions i s when the deed becomes e f f e c t i v e . In most cases the f i l i n g and recordation of a subdivision plat constitutes a dedication to the public of a l l the common areas shown on the p l a t . However, i n the United States the dedication of an easement i s not normally complete u n t i l formal acceptance by the l o c a l public authority. The l o c a l authority need not accept Immediately, and i n fact may possibly withhold acceptance for periods up to twenty years.37 Moreover, while dedication may be formally withdrawn before any l o t s are sold i f t h i s i s not v i o l a t i v e of l o c a l sub-d i v i s i o n regulations, a f t e r the sale of one or more l o t s by reference to the plat there are cases which hold, that the dedication becomes irrevocable and, i n any event, a revocation must have the assent of each and every l o t owner i n the subdivision.38 Private Conservation Organizations . Non-profit corporations and trusts are usually allowed to hold l e g a l t i t l e to land, although there may be a l i m i t to the length of time i t may be held. In I l l i n o i s and Wisconsin not-f o r - p r o f i t corporations have express authorization to purchase a less than fee i n t e r e s t , and The Nature Conservancy, a private non-profit conservation organization, has purchased conservation easements i n Connecticut and Ohio.39 However, the l e g a l i t y of a conservation easement held by a non-profit corporation has never been tested i n the courts. I t may even be possible f o r a non-profit corporation organized f o r the purpose of acquiring and preserving open space fo r the public welfare to exercise the power of condemnation. 50 In a 1 9 4 5 I l l i n o i s case a grant of the power of eminent domain to Neighborhood Redevelopment Corporations was up-held, " i t must be conceded that Neighborhood Redevelopment Corporations organized under the act are private corpor-ations. Neither have they any of the a t t r i b u t e s of public corporations." But r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of slum and blight areas was held to constitute a s u f f i c i e n t public use or purpose to support the l e g i s l a t i o n allowing eminent domain. (Zwin v. Chicago, 3 8 9 1 1 1 . 1 1 4 , 5 9 N.E.2d 18 ( 1 9 4 5 ) . ) 4 0 The power to s e l l land i s enjoyed by a l l forms of non-p r o f i t corporations, foundations, and associations, and some states s p e c i f i c a l l y authorize non-profit corporations to make charitable donations. "The powers of a trust to s e l l , lease, or give away land are, f o r the most part, more l i m i t e d than those of a corporation. But, i t would seem that i f the trust i n s t r u -ment so provided, the trust could be given extensive powers i n t h i s respect. "41 51 FOOTNOTES 'Ross D. Netherton and Marion Markham, Roadside Development  and B e a u t i f i c a t i o n : Legal Authority and Methods, Part I I , (Washington, D.C: Highway Research Board, 1965). p. 5 , quoting 2 Blackstone, Commentaries 1-2. 2Netherton and Markham, Part I I , p. 5 . 5 I b i d . , p. 6 . 4 I b i d . ^ I b i d . , pp. 6 - 7 , quoting 5 Powell, Real Property, sec 7 4 6 . ^Shirley Adelson Siegel, The Law of Open Space, (New York: Regional Plan Association, Inc., January, 1960), p. 3. 7Jacob H. Beuscher, Land Use Controls—Cases and Materials, (Madison, Wisconsin: 1964), p. 5257 ^S. David Levy, "The Law of Open Space i n the National Capital Region," National Capital Open Space Program Technical  Report, No.. 2, (Washington, D.C : September, 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 2. ^Norman Williams, Land Ac q u i s i t i o n f o r Outdoor Recreation-- Analysis of Selected Legal Problems. Report to the Outdoor Recreation Research Review Commission, Study Report No. 16 , (Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g Office, 1962), p. 2. 1 0Levy, pp. 4 - 5 . 1 1 I b i d . , pp. 6 -7 . 1 2Kamrowski v. State, 31 Wisconsin 2d.2456; 1966. 13william H. Whyte, The Last Landscape, (Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday and Co., Inc., 1968), p. 8 9 ; Jacob H. Beuscher, "Scenic Easements and the Law," Conference Proceedings—Scenic  Easements i n Action, (Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin, December, 1966), pp. 5 2 - 5 3 . ^Horman Williams, p. 46. 15u.S. v. Butler, 2 9 7 U.S. 1 (1936). 1 6Berman v. Parker, 348 U.S. 26, 33 (1954). ^Whyte, The Last Landscape, pp. 8 4 - 8 5 . ^ C a l i f o r n i a Government Code, ch. 1658, Statutes 1959. ^Maryland Annotated Code, a r t . 66C, sec. 357A, 1960; New  York Municipal Law, sec. 2 4 7 . 1960. 52 2 0Green Acres Land Acquisition Act, New Jersey Sess. Laws 1961, c h . 45, sec. 12b. 2 1 For example 23 U.S.C., sec. 319 (1958); Wisconsin Statutes  Annotated, sec. 84:09 (1 ) (1957). 2 2 F o r example General Outdoor Advertising Co. v. City of  Indianapolis, 202 _Indiana, 85, 175 N.E. 309 (1930). 2^Por example Massachusetts General Laws, Annotated, ch. 132, sec. 38, (1958). 2 4 I b i d . , ch. 92, sec. 79. 2^Peter Ames Eveleth, "An Appraisal of Techniques to Preserve Open Space," Villanova Law Review, Vol. 9, No. 4, (summer, 1964), P- 569. 2 ^ R u s s e l l L. Brenneman, Private Approaches to the Preservation  of Open Land, (The Conservation and Research Foundation, 1967), p. 30. 2?0akes A. Plimpton, Conservation Easements--Legal Analysis  of "Conservation Easements' ras a Method of P r i v a t e l y Conserving  and Preserving Land, (Washington, D.G.: The Nature Conservancy), mimeo., p~! 14. " 2 ^ I b i d . ; For a more complete discussion of the implications of these l e g a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of easements see: Brenneman, pp. 22-23, 28-33; Plimpton, Bp. 3-8, 10-21; and Norman Williams, PP. 49-53. 29pnmpt on, p. 4. 3°Brenneman, pp. 27-28. 5 1 I b i d . , pp. 25-26. •^William H. Whyte, | ("Securing Open Space f o r Urban America: Conservation Easements, Urban Land I n s t i t u t e Technical B u l l e t i n , No. 36, (1959), p. 45. .33Brenneman, pp. 27-28. "54 II Whyte. Securing Open Space for Urban America: Conservation Easements, p. 44. 3 5Conf erence Proceedings—Scenic Easements i n Action, (Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin, December, 1966), pp. (D)7-8. 3%hyte, "Securing Open Space for Urban America: Conservation Easements," p. 45. -^"The Homes Association Handbook," Urban Land I n s t i t u t e  Technical B u l l e t i n , No. 5 0 , ( 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 3 0 4 . 38 I b i d . 3 9 i n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n No. 3 3 , (Washington, D.C.: The Nature Conservancy, June, 19^5) 4^Thomas Gose, Manual for Conference Workshops—Scenic  Easements i n Action"" (Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin, December, 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 3 0 - 3 1 . 4 l I b i d . , p. 3 1 . 53 0 CHAPTER V ACQUISITION OF CONSERVATION EASEMENTS One o f t h e p r i m a r y q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s i s , how much do t h e y c o s t ? I n t h e o r y e a s e m e n t s a r e w o r t h what t h e l a n d o w n e r i s g i v i n g u p . B u t i n p r a c t i c e t h e c o s t s o f e a s e m e n t s r e f l e c t a c o m p l e x s e t o f f a c t o r s w h i c h i n c l u d e s : 1) t h e t e c h n i q u e s a n d c o s t s o f a p p r a i s a l , 2) t h e s k i l l a n d e n t h u s i a s m o f t h e n e g o t i a t o r , 3) t h e e f f e c t o f t h e eas e m e n t on l a n d v a l u e s , 4.) t h e t y p e o f e a s e m e n t a n d t h e r e s t r i c -t i o n s i t i m p o s e s , a n d 5) t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r g i f t s o f e a s e m e n t s . A p p r a i s a l T e c h n i q u e s a n d C o s t s A s h a s b e e n p o i n t e d o u t i n C h a p t e r I V , t h e F i f t h Amendment t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p r o v i d e s t h a t p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y s h a l l n o t be t a k e n f o r p u b l i c u s e w i t h o u t " j u s t com-p e n s a t i o n . " ...where a t a k i n g i s " p a r t i a l " t h e f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a n d a r d o f j u s t c o m p e n s a t i o n r e c o g n i z e s a n d i n c l u d e s a n y d i m i n u t i o n i n t h e m a r k e t v a l u e o f t h e o w n e r ' s r e m a i n i n g l a n d r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e t a k i n g . T h a t i s t o s a y , j u s t c o m p e n s a t i o n i n c l u d e s n o t o n l y t h e m a r k e t v a l u e o f t h a t w h i c h t h e c o n d e m n i n g a u t h o r i t y a c t u a l l y h a s t a k e n o r a c q u i r e d b u t a n y r e s u l t i n g d i m i n u t i o n i n t h e m a r k e t v a l u e o f t h e condemnee's r e m a i n i n g p r o p e r t y . T h i s e l e m e n t o f j u s t c o m p e n s a t i o n i s known g e n e r a l l y a s " s e v e r a n c e damages." I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h i s e l e m e n t o f j u s t com-p e n s a t i o n i s a p p l i c a b l e w h e t h e r t h e t a k i n g i s p a r t i a l i n t h e s e n s e o f t h e k i n d o f e s t a t e a c q u i r e d . T h u s , t h e t a k i n g o f a n e s t a t e l e s s t h a n t h e f e e i n some o r a l l o f a p r o p e r t y u n i t i s p a r t i a l t a k i n g a n d r a i s e s a n i s s u e o f s e v e r a n c e damages, a s does a t a k i n g i n f e e o f p a r t o f a p r o p e r t y u n i t . I n s h o r t , a l l e a s e m e n t t a k i n g s a r e p a r t i a l t a k i n g s a n d , i f a n y d i m i n u t i o n r e s u l t s i n t h e m a r k e t v a l u e o f what r e m a i n s t o t h e condemnee, he i s e n t i t l e d t o r e c o v e r s u c h d i m i n u t i o n . . . a s a p a r t o f t h e j u s t c o m p e n s a t i o n g u a r a n t e e d b y t h e f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u t i o n . 1 55 In most easement cases compensation i s not based on the separate value of the easement. Rather, i t i s based on the damage to or diminution i n the value of the owner's remaining property attributable to the taking of the easement and to the prospective use to be made of i t by the taker. We have then what i s c a l l e d the "before and a f t e r " method of estimating the loss or damage as a r e s u l t of the taking for an easement. In t h i s case the appraiser determines just compensation by meas-uring the difference i n the f a i r market value of the property immediately p r i o r to the taking of the easement and immediately a f t e r i t has been taken. The difference between the two ap-p r a i s a l s represents the value of the easement, and i f i t i s the exercise of eminent domain, t h i s difference represents the loss and damage for which compensation must be paid.2 The " f a i r market value" i s the amount a w i l l i n g s e l l e r would take and a w i l l i n g purchaser would pay i f the property was v o l u n t a r i l y sold on the open market. In estimating t h i s amount, The appraiser must put himself i n the p o s i t i o n of a w i l l i n g buyer and ask himself, "How much less (or more) would I pay for t h i s property subject to the easement than I would with-out i t ? " He must also put himself i n the position of the w i l l i n g s e l l e r and ask himself, "How much less (or more) would I take for t h i s property giving consideration to the 'property right involved i n the easement? The careful weighing and consideration of a l l of the factors involved i n the w i l l i n g buyer and s e l l e r concept and the ap p l i c a t i o n of seasoned experience and judgment by the ap- : praiser i s perhaps the most important step i n the valuation of easements.3 In s t r i c t l y r u r a l areas, away from any development pres-sures, the appraisal of f i s h i n g , hunting, and scenic easements i s quite easy. The factors which influence the price of f i s h i n g 56 easements include l o c a l land values, size and flow of the stream, f i s h ' p r o d u c t i v i t y , f i s h i n g pressure, a c c e s s i b i l i t y and distance from centers of population.^ On the other hand hunting easements can l a r g e l y be based on established lease payments f o r hunting r i g h t s , plus a nuisance value to compensate the landowner for the potential unrestricted public hunting pressure.5 The value of scenic easements i s generally based on the loss of a few dollars of income per year from b i l l b o a r d rental payments, and the inconvenience of the meetings leading up to the f i n a l nego-t i a t i o n s of the easement. In areas subject to more intense development pressures, however, appraisal becomes more complex. Here probable future use of the land takes on increasing importance. Careful judgment must be exercised i n predicting future development and the pres-ent value of the property based on possible future uses such as i n d u s t r i a l , commercial, and r e s i d e n t i a l . In these cases, however, the purchasing agent cannot assume that a l l properties are pot e n t i a l motel or other commercial s i t e s . There w i l l be i n s u f f i c i e n t business f o r such t o t a l commercial development for many years to come. Consequently, damages are paid for a percentage of future development value based on the number of commercial units (or r e s i d -e n t i a l units) that forseeable future demand w i l l support and the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of the p a r t i c u l a r property to such development, keeping i n mind that unrestricted development . can be carried out behind the... easement s t r i p . . . . 6 Another factor to be considered by the appraiser i s the effect of the taking on the t o t a l property. This i s the measurement of the detriment or damage to the owner. This i s especially important i n smaller and more urban properties since they may be completely covered by the r e s t r i c t i o n and thus have no area behind the easement for unrestricted use. In r u r a l 57 areas where large l o t s predominate and where development pres-sures are not great the taking of a conservation easement on part of the property probably won't have much effect on the value of the balance of the land.7 There i s also the p o s s i b i l i t y i n both urban and r u r a l areas that taking a conservation easement i n part.of an owner's land may confer a benefit on the remainder of his property, such as the benefit of abutting scenic open land permanently r e s t r i c t e d as to development. In such a case, the value of the benefit might be subracted from the damages i n determining com-pensation. There are, however, only a very few studies which have been carried out to determine the effect of conservation easements upon land values. One ;study of the Great River Road carried out under the d i r e c t i o n of Ann Louise Strong showed that sales prices for small parcels of land (under 3 acres) close to an urban area were adversely affected by easement r e s t r i c t i o n s . While i n r u r a l areas where the parcels were larger (over 3 acres) and there was l i t t l e development pressure the land subject to scenic easements had a s l i g h t l y higher average sale price per acre than the unrestricted land. While admitting that the sample was too small f o r s t a t i s t i c a l r e l i a b i l i t y , Mrs. Strong concluded that, " . . . . i n an area such as t h i s one, which i s f a r from development pressure, i t r e a l l y was not necessary to pay at a l l for the re-s t r i c t i o n s since they had no effect on market value."^ Another study of the Great River Road by the Wisconsin Department of Transportation lends some support to Strong's study. They state that, TABLE 1 LOSS IN VALUE OP LAND COVERED BY SCENIC EASEMENTS Land Use Examples Pound Indicated Loss i n Value Building s i t e s and yards 2 10% Improved pasture 5 \0% to ?0% Native pasture 5 5% to 20% Woods and brush 6 15% to 8K% Source: Howard L. Williams and W.D. Davis, "Effect of Scenic Easements on the Market Value of Real Property," .Appraisal Journal, Vol. 33, No. 1, January, 19*68, p. 24. 59 I n g e n e r a l , t h e i n t e r v i e w s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s c e n i c e a sement was n o t a f a c t o r i n t h e o w n e r ' s d e c i s i o n t o buy o r t h e p r i c e he p a i d . Many p r o p e r t y o w n e r s d i d n o t a s s o -c i a t e t h e e a s e m e n t a s a n e l e m e n t of»property v a l u e . I t was o n l y i n t h e s a l e , o f v a c a n t r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s . c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e e a s e m e n t ' s 300 f o o t f r o n t a g e r e s t r i c t i o n t h a t a n y e f f e c t c a u s e d b y t h e ea s e m e n t c o u l d be m e a s u r e d . . . . The m e a s u r a b l e d e c r e a s e i n v a l u e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e s c e n i c e a s e -ment i s minimal....° W i l l i a m s a n d D a v i s , i n a s t u d y c o n d u c t e d a l o n g t h e B l u e R i d g e P a r k w a y , 1 0 o b t a i n e d s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s t h a n t h e p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d s t u d i e s . H e r e a g a i n t h e s a m p l e s i z e was v e r y s m a l l , h o w e v e r i t d o e s g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n o f how b u y e r s a n d s e l l e r s c o n s i d e r t h e e f f e c t o f t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f s c e n i c e a s e m e n t s on p a r t i c u l a r p a r c e l s o f l a n d . T h e i r f i g u r e s (See T a b l e 1) show a s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s i n v a l u e on l a n d r e s t r i c t e d by s c e n i c e a s e m e n t s . ( S e e C h a p t e r I I I , S c e n i c P r e s e r v a t i o n s e c t i o n , f o r a n o u t l i n e o f t h e e a s e m e n t r e s t r i c t i o n s i m p o s e d a l o n g t h e B l u e R i d g e P a r k w a y . ) However, I n t h e t r a n s a c t i o n s s t u d i e d , t h e a p p r a i s e r s f o u n d no i n d i c a t i o n o f s e v e r a n c e damage c a u s e d by t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f t h e s c e n i c e a s e m e n t s . T h u s , t h e r e w e r e no l o s s e s i n v a l u e s u f f e r e d by t h e u n e n c u m b e r e d a r e a s o f t h o s e p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h i n c l u d e d l a n d s u b j e c t t o s c e n i c e a s e m e n t s . However t h e r e may be p r o p e r t i e s where s e v e r a n c e i s a p r o b l e m , b e -c a u s e i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s i z e a n d shape o f t h a t p o r t i o n o f a p r o p e r t y r e m a i n i n g u n e n c u m b e r e d w i l l be s u c h t h a t s e v e r a n c e damage m i g h t o c c u r . 1 1 The r e s u l t s o f t h e s e t h r e e s t u d i e s a r e n o t c o n c l u s i v e e n o u g h t o p e r m i t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a n y r u l e s r e g a r d i n g t h e p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e e f f e c t o f e a s e m e n t s on p r o p e r t y v a l u e s . B u t , t h e y do n o t e l i m i n a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t e a s e m e n t s m i g h t c o n f e r a b e n e f i t o n t h e u n e n c u m b e r e d p o r t i o n s o f p r o p e r t y w h i c h i n c l u d e s l a n d r e s t r i c t e d b y s c e n i c e a s e m e n t s . One p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m s o f ea s e m e n t v a l u -a t i o n w o u l d be t o s e t a f l a t r a t e f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f a 60 p a r t i c u l a r type of easement with s i m i l a r r e s t r i c t i o n s : i . e . set a per-foot or per-acre price and make i t the going rate f o r a l l purchases. As has been pointed out, t h i s technique i s already used by the New York Conservation Department f o r acquiring f i s h -ing easements. The problem with t h i s solution i s that near urban areas where land valuation i s subject to a great many variables and each parcel of r e a l estate i s unique, i t might be struck down by the courts as being i n v i o l a t i o n of the "just compensation" r u l e . I t might be possible to get around t h i s problem i f the l e g i s l a t u r e or the department i n charge of the ac q u i s i t i o n created f l a t rates for various types of t e r r a i n and locations; that i s , set a value which the state w i l l presume i s a f a i r and equitable price to pay. This puts the burden on the landowner to show that the amount thus arrived at i s too low. The advantage of having the department i n charge set the rate i s that once the l e g i s l a t u r e sets a price, i t has a tendency to re-main unchanged for several years. And then the courts would say that the rates are obsolete and do not equal just compensation. 1 2 For situations involving valuation along scenic corridors, mass appraisal practice might be the best solut i o n . " I t i s t o t a l l y impractical to require detailed i n d i v i d u a l parcel ap-pra i s a l s for a lengthly corridor project i f controls are to be by scenic area easement.13 The mass appraisal technique involves establishing from previous appraisals the basic land value f o r various types of land along an entire project. And then ap-plying these values i n awarding compensation to landowners f o r the taking of an easement. 61 The mass a p p r a i s a l a n d f l a t r a t e t e c h n i q u e s f o r e a s e m e n t v a l u a t i o n may h e l p t o c u t down c o s t s , b u t a s Whyte p o i n t s o u t , A p p r a i s a l c o s t s , o f f e e p u r c h a s e s a s w e l l a s e a s e m e n t s , seem t o have g o t t e n o u t o f h a n d . The / W i s c o n s i n / h i g h w a y d e p a r t m e n t h a s r e c e n t l y p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d i t s a p p r a i s a l s t a f f a n d one r e s u l t i s s u c h a d i s p l a y o f z e a l i n s u r v e y a n d d o c u m e n t a t i o n t h a t i t f r e q u e n t l y c o s t s a s much o r more t o f i g u r e o u t w h a t a n o f f e r t o a l a n d o w n e r s h o u l d be a s t h e o f f e r a mounts t o i t s e l f . 1 4 I n W i s c o n s i n t h e c o s t o f s c e n i c e a sement a c q u i s i t i o n i n c l u d e s : c h e c k i n g t h e m e r c h a n t a b i l i t y o f t i t l e by e x a m i n i n g l o c a l p u b l i c r e c o r d s ; c a r r y i n g o u t p r e c i s e e n g i n e e r i n g s u r v e y s f o r p r e p a r -a t i o n o f a d e t a i l e d p l a t a n d a p r e c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n ; a n d t h e a p -p r a i s a l f e e s a n d c o s t s o f n e g o t i a t i o n . An e s t i m a t e o f t h e s e i d e n t i c a l e x p e n s e s a m o u n t e d t o $88,000 f o r 184 m i l e s o f e a s e m e n t p r o t e c t i o n a l o n g t h e G r e a t R i v e r R o a d o r a n a v e r a g e c o s t p e r m i l e o f $483.00.15 H o w e v e r , i t s h o u l d be r emembered t h a t compa-r a b l e e x p e n s e s a r e i n v o l v e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h f e e a c q u i s i t i o n s a s w e l l . N e g o t i a t i o n T e c h n i q u e s A s h a s b e e n p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d i n C h a p t e r I I I , t h e U.S. B u r e a u o f S p o r t s F i s h e r i e s a n d W i l d l i f e i s c a r r y i n g on a s u c -c e s s f u l e a s e m e n t p r o g r a m f o r p r o t e c t i n g w e t l a n d s i n M i n n e s o t a , a n d N o r t h a n d S o u t h D a k o t a . The f i e l d p e r s o n n e l who n e g o t i a t e w i t h t h e l a n d o w n e r s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y h a v e l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n a c q u i r i n g e a s e m e n t s . 1 ^ The t e c h n i q u e t h e y u s e t o n e g o t i a t e f o r e a s e m e n t s i n v o l v e s a n e x p l a n a t o r y b r o c h u r e t o a c q u a i n t l a n d -o w n e r s w i t h t h e l e g a l a s p e c t s o f s i g n i n g a n o p t i o n f o r m , a n d a l s o c o n t a i n s p h o t o g r a p h s i l l u s t r a t i n g s e v e r a l t y p e s o f w e t l a n d . How-e v e r , t h e r e i s no b r o a d - s c a l e p u b l i c i t y p r o g r a m t o p r o m o t e t h e 62 acceptance of wetland easements. "The-negotiator normally makes three contacts: f i r s t , to determine landowner i n t e r e s t ; second, to confer regarding price and merchantability of t i t l e ; and t h i r d , to sign the agreement." 1 7 Generally about one-half the landowners agree to s e l l an easement. Since t h i s high success r a t i o i s acquiring the desirable acreage, i t i s not necessary for negotiators to invest any appreciable amount of time with reluctant landowners. Also, i t has been found that an owner w i l l often change his mind at a l a t e r date, so i t i s predicted that the success r a t i o w i l l ultimately be above 50 percent. More-over, on the average, land changes ownership every eight years i n t h i s region. Thus, new landowners continually enter the scene and present renewed opportunities f o r acquiring choice wetlands. In 1961 the Bureau t e s t i f i e d before Congress, when an accelerated program was pending, that condemnation would not be used. In keeping with t h i s testimony, the p o l i c y i s not to condemn easements or even to mention t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i n nego-t i a t i o n s with owners. During the negotiations a l e g a l description i s drawn up which covers the entire farm and includes a l l wetlands on the property. . A map locating a l l of the wetlands i s also prepared. Owners are then offered a price which approximates the appraised value of the easement. Normally the prices offered per acre to various owners ave very s i m i l a r since a c q u i s i t i o n areas have a high degree of homogeneity. Where variations in. per acre o f f e r -ing prices do exist the differences between wetlands are rea d i l y explained to. landowners. "The Bureau has also found that once ac q u i s i t i o n begins i n an area, the knowledge spreads rap i d l y amon owners. In-general, t h i s has been an advantage to negotiators,." 1 63 Another part of the a c q u i s i t i o n procedure i s the pre-paration of a "memorandum of t i t l e " by an abstract company under contract to the Bureau for each parcel. The t i t l e f i l e i s re-viewed by the o f f i c e the the United States Attorney General, and the costs of t h i s review are borne by the government.- The negotiators point out the advantages of having a thorough t i t l e review at no cost and use t h i s as one s e l l i n g point. 1 9 In New York negotiators for f i s h i n g easements have found that i t i s important to o f f e r the same price per mile to each owner along a stream i n order to maintain good w i l l . Once a tentative price has been selected, the negotiator t r i e s to iden-t i f y the i n f l u e n t i a l ".landowners along the stream. F i r s t contacts are made with these people, and the program i s c a r e f u l l y ex-plained to ;them. The negotiator then attempts to purchase the f i s h i n g r i g h t s from them at the selected price. I f evidence i n support of a higher price i s submitted the price o f f e r may be Increased provided no other purchases have as yet been made to establ i s h the price. Occasionally i t i s necessary to obtain a right-of-way easement f o r a footpath to the stream. Since the price on the stream easement i s i n f l e x i b l e , the negotiator can sometimes use the footpath to give the- landowner a s l i g h t l y higher p r i c e . Condemnation i s not used to acquire these f i s h -ing easements. Generally several return t r i p s are necessary for the negotiator to " s e l l himself" to the owner before he can get a purchase contract signed. This often involves spending several evenings s o c i a l i z i n g and answering questions. During t h i s time he points out that i n f l u e n t i a l neighbors have already signed 64 agreements to s e l l f i s h i n g easements. As soon as the owner indicates a willingness to s e l l the negotiator t r i e s to close the deal quickly. I f possible he has the purchase agreement a l l prepared and ready to sign i n advance. I t also saves time i f the negotiator i s q u a l i f i e d to notarize documents such as a f f i d a v i t s . A f t e r purchase agreements are signed they are submitted to the Law Department, which conducts a t i t l e examination and prepares the deed and other closing papers. These papers are sent back to the f i e l d representative who gets them signed and notarized and attempts to clear any t i t l e objections or ques-tions which have been raised.2 0 The Wisconsin Highway Commission i s the agency with by f a r the most extensive experience i n negotiating for the ac-q u i s i t i o n of scenic easements. Negotiating personnel note that landowners are not generally very enthusiastic about s e l l i n g r i g h t s i n t h e i r land when f i r s t approached. Farmers can understand the need for new highways which res u l t s i n a fee condemnation of part or a l l of t h e i r land. They can see more and more cars t r a v e l i n g older, inadequate roads, and they read about predicted future needs. But a farmer who spends a great part of his time i n wide open space has trouble understanding why i t s use needs to be r e s t r i c t e d . In addition, a surprising number of r u r a l landowners have at least a vague hope that t h e i r lands may have a development p o t e n t i a l , r e s u l t i n g i n a r i c h un-earned increment. Such a person sees the granting of an easement i n perpetuity as a destruction of his c a p i t a l gains dream.21 As an aid to the negotiator i n explaining what easements are, how they work, and the need'for them, a brochure has been prepared. This brochure and the a b i l i t y of the negotiator to answer the landowner's questions regarding payment for the easement, the rights he i s giving up, the cloud on his t i t l e , 65 and the e f f e c t of the easement on land values and property taxes are -important factors i n c l a r i f y i n g the issues involved i n ease-ment a c q u i s i t i o n . As a further aid i n c l a r i f y i n g the issues the highway commission redrafts the easement deed, eliminating a l o t of l e g a l jargon, and s t a t i n g p l a i n l y the uses of the property which w i l l or w i l l not be permitted i n the future (See Appendix L f o r a copy of the new deed). F i e l d personnel are permitted to look at each parcel of land and make the judgment as to what ri g h t s should be conveyed. A l i s t of r e s t r i c t i o n s i s provided as a guide i n developing the p a r t i c u l a r combination best suited f o r a p a r t i c u l a r setting (See Appendix M for a copy of t h i s guide). Also, additional provisions not included i n the guide may be added i f they w i l l help accomplish the objectives. This f l e x i -b i l i t y i n r e s t r i c t i o n s i s the focus of most of the negotiations since the highway commission adheres pretty well to the price established i n the appraisal. I f an agreement cannot be reached with the landowner, the property i s condemned. The power and the willingness to condemn easements can also be used by the negotiator as an inducement f o r the property owner to s e l l an easement. He can assure the owner that i f he gives up an easement as part of a conservation area, his flanks w i l l be protected since his neighbors must do the same. There i s no danger that other landowners w i l l reap the benefit of what he has done by coramercializing or p r o f i t i n g . Due to the delicate nature of the negotiations and the desire to maintain good public r e l a t i o n s to promote the easement ac q u i s i t i o n program, Bernard Mullen, Director of the Wisconsin 66 Highway Commission's Right of Way D i v i s i o n , suggests the use of "top men, /the/ i n t e l l i g e n t r i g h t of way agents who have the background and know the business of a c q u i s i t i o n . These are the people who w i l l help make a success of /the/ job."22 Indeed, t h i s point seems to be we l l taken. As Whyte notes, ...some of the easement programs have worked s i g n i f i c a n t l y better than others. Many factors are involved, but i t i s evident that the s k i l l and enthusiasm of the personnel involved are probably the most important of a l l . Occupational bias i s important. The attitude that agencies take towards easements depends a great deal on whether or not they have been used to working on a continuing basis with landowners. In most states the highway engineers want to buy land i n fee and be done with i t . Recreation and park o f f i c i a l s tend to f e e l the same way. Forest service and fish-and-game people, by contrast, have been more used to working with landowners and tend to be re-ceptive to any t o o l which helps them i n t h i s mutual re-l a t i o n s h i p . They have been responsible for some of the most successful easement programs, though the news not always seems to reach other conservation agencies down the h a l l i n various c a p i t a l s . 2 3 Costs of Easements One of the most commonly held notions about conservation easements i s that they cost as much as the fee simple. Whyte • says, "This i s simply not true, but i t has been repeated so often i n the l i t e r a t u r e , accumulating footnotes along the way, that i t has become a fact i n i t s e l f . " 2 ^ He fe e l s that t h i s misconception i s the major reason why there has not been more widespread use of easements. The greatest mistake i n considering easement costs i s the f a i l u r e to di s t i n g u i s h between types of easements. The assump-t i o n that easements generally cost almost as much as the fee i s lar g e l y based on the experience of r i g h t of way easements or 67 flood easements. I t is' true that these easement costs are l i k e l y to run to about 80 percent of the cost of the fee.2""' However, i t i s one thing to ask a landowner to keep his land looking nice and r e s t r i c t certain types of development, as i n a scenic easement, and quite another to get permission to inun-date the land p e r i o d i c a l l y or to build a highway through i t , as i n the cases of flood and r i g h t of way easements. The int e r e s t s taken i n the l a t t e r two types of easements are ob-viously much greater, and therefore should cost more, than the interests which are taken i n a scenic easement. I t i s necessary, therefore, when discussing easement costs to speak i n terms of s p e c i f i c types of easements. There has been considerable experience i n Wisconsin and In the Federal Government as well as elsewhere, i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of various types of easements, and cost information i s a v a i l a b l e . One of the most well documented cases of the cost of scenic easements i s Wisconsin's Great River Road easement program. Between 1951 and 1961, easements were secured along f i f t y - t h r e e miles of the road covering 1,579 acres. Prices paid to land-owners averaged $19.17 an acre, versus §41.29 for comparable land i n the fee simple. Between 1961 and 1964 an additional 2,645 acres of easements were purchased along f i f t y - n i n e miles of the Great River Road, and the average payment to the landowners i n t h i s period was §20.50; very l i t t l e more than the figure f o r the e a r l i e r p e r i o d . 2 ^ The average payment to landowners f o r scenic easements taken for the protection of other highways i n Wisconsin during the period 1961 to 1964 was §53.50 per acre. "The higher price 68 of these easements seems to have resulted from the fact that to a large extent they were taken In developing areas, whereas those taken along the Great River Road were i n areas where development pressures were less intensive." 27 None of the f i g -ures quoted above include the administrative costs incurred during the a c q u i s i t i o n procedure, however, as mentioned pre-viously, these would l i k e l y be s i m i l a r i n the case of fee simple a c q u i s i t i o n . I t should also be pointed out that condemnation has been resorted to i n about 10 percent of the cases, "...but ju r i e s can be extremely generous at times; one recently upped a §250 award to §6,000. The highway department would l i k e the option of disengaging from the purchase when ju r i e s ask that kind of money, but under present law i t has to go through with the d e a l . " 2 8 In 1961 Wisconsin's Conservation Department began acquir-ing f i s h i n g easements along the banks of lakes and streams. Since that time, "They have secured easements on 200 miles of lake and r i v e r frontage and at a f r a c t i o n of the fee simple cost. For each d o l l a r they get about three and a half feet of frontage with easements; only a half foot with fee simple." 29 The ease-ments cost about 30 cents per foot of frontage, as opposed to §2.38 f o r the fee simple." 5 0 i t should be recognized, however, that the areas acquired by fee a c q u i s i t i o n may have other con-servation values besides control over watercourses. New York State's Conservation Department has been buying f i s h i n g easements along trout streams for quite a number of years. They have a long history of cost figures, and the i n -creasing price of these easements can be seen from the following table. 69 TABLE 2 COST H I S T O R Y OP NEW YORK S T A T E ' P I S H I N G E A S E M E N T S Year Average Cost/Mile 1936 §114 1940 525 1950 735 1960 940 ource: William H. Whyte, Open Space Action. Report to the Outdoor Recreation Resource Review Commission, Study Report No. 15, (Washington. D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g Office, 1962), p. 90. 70 Since 1950, New York has secured easements along 1000 miles of stream; a c q u i s i t i o n costs are currently running about $1,000 a mile.31 Wisconsin's Conservation Department has also been pur-chasing game management or hunting easements since 1961. These easements grant i n perpetuity the drainage, f i l l i n g and burning rig h t s to wetland areas, as well as public f i s h i n g , hunting and trapping r i g h t s . Since the beginning of the program they have "...covered some 9000 acres with wetland and hunting easements at an average cost of $8.30 an acre. (Comparable fee simple costs; $26.00 an acre. )"32 The United States Bureau of Sports Fisheries and W i l d l i f e program to preserve duck nesting and rearing habitat i n Minne-sota, and North and South Dakota began i n 1959. Since the i n -ception of the program through June 30, 1963, the Bureau had acquired the fee on 51,893 acres at an average cost of $27.45 per acre and wetland easements on 19,371 acres at an average cost per acre of $6.41.33 They now have easements covering 500,000 acres f o r which they paid an average price of $11.50 an acre.34 Thus f a r i n t h i s discussion the examples of easement costs have been drawn primarily from r u r a l areas. I t has long been assumed that i n urban areas easements would be extremely expensive. This conclusion would seem to be obvious, based upon the very high average cost of open land i n urban areas. However, as Whyte points out, the. land i t s e l f has to be looked at. 71 . . . I f you do, you w i l l f i n d that average land costs can be highly misleading, f o r they mask a l l sorts of variations •and unexpected opportunities.... Let us take a closer look at the land. Assume a t r a c t of 100 acres f o r which a developer paid § 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 . The average ' value was § 5 , 0 0 0 an acre. But Is each acre worth §5 ;000? This figure i s only an arithmetic average, and i t covers 'a wide v a r i a t i o n i n the value of dif f e r e n t parts of the t r a c t — - v a r i a t i o n assessors usually take into account as a matter of routine. I t i s the frontage land, the highly buildable part that the developer was a f t e r , and i n some cases only a t h i r d of the t r a c t may account for the bulk of the value. The chances are that some of the property i s not worth building.on at a l l — a patch of swamp, perhaps, a' stream, or an extremely steep h i l l . What i s the development value of these acres? They may have no development value; and i f there i s any value, the bulk of i t w i l l have to be r e a l i z e d by the developer through extensive grading, diking, f i l l i n g , and.such; and t h i s costs him a great deal of money.35 Whyte suggests that i t i s t h i s same land which has l i t t l e value f o r development which may be very desirable as open space. And he concludes that, " . . . i t has become apparent that i n the urban areas we may f i n d some of the best opportunities of a l l , f o r less-than-fee a c q u i s i t i o n . Here i s where the pressure f o r more intensive land .use i s strongest, but i t i s because of t h i s f a c t , not despite i t , that a l l the ingredients f o r some excellent bargains are at hand."36 G i f t s of Easements I t has been demonstrated above that the cost of conser-vation easements i s su b s t a n t i a l l y below the cost of the fee simple i n most instances. Another a t t r i b u t e of the easement concept, which again r e f l e c t s on costs, i s the g i f t p o t e n t i a l for easements. As Whyte points out, "The g i f t p o t e n t i a l f o r easements has been stronger than was generally expected, and i t has turned out to be strongest i n the urban areas."37 The 72 willingness of developers to donate an easement on open land i n exchange for permission to cluster t h e i r development on the most buildable areas has already been i l l u s t r a t e d . Many other land-owners are quite w i l l i n g to donate easements to public or private conservation agencies, most of which are authorized to accept such g i f t s . An example of the potential f or g i f t s of easements has occurred along the Sudbury River. The r i v e r winds through a lovely v a l l e y on the out-s k i r t s of Boston. Along i t s banks l i e be a u t i f u l expanses of marshlands, which from e a r l i e s t times have tempered the floods, nourished wild l i f e , and delighted the eye. In the 1950's developers began eying i t , and the Massachusetts l e g i s l a t u r e passed an act envisioning t h e i r protection by a combination of state and federal action. The key wet-lands were being bought i n fee simple by federal Pish and W i l d l i f e Service. The rest of the job would be up to the state.; The then Conservation Commissioner of Massachusetts, Charles Poster... suggested that maybe the l o c a l people could work up a scheme that would preserve a l l of the wet-lands. He wasn't too concerned what devices they used just as long as there was a r e a l guarantee of permanence.... The response was almost instantaneous. Within a matter of weeks a l l the owners who had land along a key stretch had v o l u n t a r i l y given easements on the wetland portions to the l o c a l land trust.39 There are certain types of landowners who are more sus-ceptible to the idea of giving easements than others. Landowners who l i v e i n large estate type areas are often extremely i n t e r e s t -ed i n and concerned about the preservation of the scenic a t t r a c -tiveness of the area. These people are usually wealthy, and they generally own the most desirable land on the o u t s k i r t s of urban areas. When they see that the donation of scenic easements can help to preserve the beauty of the area, and provide t h e i r pro-perty with flank protection from undesirable development they 73 c a n o f t e n be i n d u c e d t o g i v e e a s e m e n t s . A g a i n t h i s p o i n t s up t h e n e c e s s i t y o f h a v i n g t h e p o w e r o f e m i n e n t d o m a i n t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e r e a r e no h o l d o u t s who w o u l d e x p l o i t t h e i r n e i g h b o r s . L a n d o w n e r s , s u c h a s f a r m e r s , on whose p r o p e r t y t a x e s a r e i n c r e a s i n g m i g h t a l s o see a d v a n t a g e s i n t h e d o n a t i o n o f c o n s e r -v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e n e a r u r b a n a r e a s where d e v e l o p m e n t p r e s s u r e s a r e i n c r e a s i n g . H o t o n l y w i l l t h e l a n d c o n t i n u e t o be a s s e s s e d a t i t s o p e n s p a c e v a l u e , r a t h e r t h a n on t h e b a s i s o f i t s d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e n t i a l , b u t t h e l a n d -owner c a n d e d u c t t h e v a l u e o f t h e e a s e m e n t f r o m h i s f e d e r a l i n c o m e t a x . ( F o r a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e t a x b e n e f i t s o f e a s e m e n t g i f t s s e e C h a p t e r V I . ) 74 FOOTNOTES ! j . B . W e s t , " C o n d e m n a t i o n o f L i m i t e d U s e E a s e m e n t s , " P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e S i x t h A n n u a l I n s t i t u t e o n E m i n e n t D o m a i n ,  A p r i l 30-May 1, 1 9 b 4 , ( D a l l a s , T e x a s : S o u t h w e s t e r n L e g a l F o u n d a t i o n , 1 9 6 4 ) , p> 1 1 4 . 2 F o r a m o r e d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e " b e f o r e a n d a f t e r " m e t h o d o f e a s e m e n t a p p r a i s a l , s e e W e s t , p p . 109-133. 3william H. C r o u c h , " A p p r a i s a l o f E a s e m e n t s a n d R i g h t s i n L a n d , " C o n s e r v a t i o n E a s e m e n t s a n d O p e n S p a c e C o n f e r e n c e , ( M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n : W i s c o n s i n D e p a r t m e n t o f R e s o u r c e D e v e l o p m e n t , 1961 ) , pp.. 57-58. 4 R .B. C o l s o n , "New Y o r k ' s T r o u t S t r e a m E a s e m e n t P r o g r a m , " C o n s e r v a t i o n E a s e m e n t s a n d O p e n S p a c e C o n f e r e n c e , ( M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n : W i s c o n s i n D e p a r t m e n t o f R e s o u r c e D e v e l o p m e n t , 1961), p p . 43-44. " ^ H a r o l d C. J o r d a h l . J r . , " C o n s e r v a t i o n a n d S c e n i c E a s e m e n t s : A n E x p e r i e n c e R e s u m e , L a n d E c o n o m i c s , V o l . 39, ( N o v e m b e r , 1963), p p . 348-349. ^ T h o m a s G o s e , M a n u a l f o r C o n f e r e n c e W o r k s h o p s - - S c e n i c  E a s e m e n t s I n A c t i o n , ( M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n : U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , D e c e m b e r , 1966), p p . 17 -18. 7 l b i d . , p . 1 8 . 8 H i g h w a y R e s e a r c h B o a r d , " R o a d s i d e D e v e l o p m e n t L a n d A c q u i s i t i o n , " H i g h w a y R e s e a r c h C i r c u l a r , N o . 23, ( A x > r i l , 1966), p p . 8, 10. ^ W i s c o n s i n D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , "A M a r k e t S t u d y o f P r o p e r t i e s C o v e r e d b y S c e n i c E a s e m e n t s A l o n g t h e G r e a t R i v e r R o a d i n V e r n o n a n d P i e r c e C o u n t i e s , " S p e c i a l R e p o r t , N o . 5, ( M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n : O c t o b e r , 1967), p . 22. 1 0 H o w a r d L . W i l l i a m s a n d W.D. D a v i s , " E f f e c t o f S c e n i c E a s e m e n t s o n t h e M a r k e t V a l u e o f R e a l P r o p e r t y , " A p p r a i s a l  J o u r n a l , V o l . 38, No- 1, ( J a n u a r y , 1968), p p . 15-24*1 1 1 I b i d . , p . 2 4 . 1 2 G o s e , p p . 17 -18 . '"^Highway R e s e a r c h B o a r d , " H i g h w a y C o r r i d o r P l a n n i n g a n d L a n d A c q u i s i t i o n , " H i g h w a y R e s e a r c h R e c o r d , N o . 1 6 6 , (1967) p p . 45 - 46 . l 4 W i l l i a n i H. W h y t e , The L a s t L a n d s c a p e , ( G a r d e n C i t y , New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y a n d C o . , I n c . , 1968), p . 88. 75 ^ G o s e , p. 15. 1 ^ D u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f t h e p r o g r a m t h e B u r e a u was a t t e m p t i n g t o n e g o t i a t e a 2 0 - y e a r e a s e m e n t . H o w e v e r , t h e y c h a n g e d t h i s p o l i c y when i t became a p p a r e n t t h a t l a n d o w n e r s were j u s t a s w i l l i n g t o s e l l a n e a s e m e n t i n p e r p e t u i t y a t a h i g h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 1 7 J o r d a h l , p. 358. 1 8 I b i d . , p . 359. i 9 I b i d . , p p . 356-359. 2 0 C o l s o n , pp. 43-45 . 2 1 G o s e , p. 19. 2 2 C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d i n g s — S c e n i c E a s e m e n t s i n A c t i o n , ( M a d i s o n W i s c o n s i n : U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , December, 1966), p. ( B ) - 8 . 2-^Whyte, The L a s t L a n d s c a p e , p p. 92-93. 2 4 I b i d . , p. 86. 25ihe U.S. Army C o r p s o f E n g i n e e r s h a s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t t h e a v e r a g e p r i c e p a i d by them f o r f l o o d e a s e m e n t s a r o u n d r e s e r v o i r s was 79 p e r c e n t o f t h e f e e v a l u e o f t h a t l a n d ; W i l l i a m H. Whyte,. Open S p a c e A c t i o n . R e p o r t t o t h e O u t d o o r R e c r e a t i o n R e s o u r c e s R e v i e w C o m m i s s i o n , S t u d y R e p o r t No. 15, ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1962), p. 1 8 . 2 ^ J a m e s A. O l s o n , " P r o g r e s s a n d P r o b l e m s i n W i s c o n s i n ' s S c e n i c a n d C o n s e r v a t i o n E a s e m e n t P r o g r a m , " W i s c o n s i n Law R e v i e w , (1965), p. 354; G o s e , p. 15. 2 7 G o s e , p. 15. 28whyte, The L a s t L a n d s c a p e , p . 88 . 2 9 I b l d . , p. 92 . 3°Ibid., p. 94. 3 1 I b i d . 3 2 I b l d . , p . 92. 33o i son , p. 359. 34w i l l i am H. W h y t e , " S e c u r i n g Open S p a c e f o r U r b a n A m e r i c a : C o n s e r v a t i o n E a s e m e n t s , " U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e T e c h n i c a l B u l l e t i n , 76 35vjhyte, The Last Landscape, pp. 95-96. 3 6 I b i d . , p.. 95. 3 7 i b i d . , p. 97. 3 8 i b i d . , pp. 100-101. C H A P T E R V I T A X A T I O N AND C O N S E R V A T I O N E A S E M E N T S I t h a s b e e n n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y t h a t d o n a t i n g o r s e l l i n g a n e a s e m e n t c r e a t e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e c e i v i n g t a x a d v a n t a g e . T h e s e t a x a d v a n t a g e s a r e a n i n c e n t i v e t o t h e l a n d o w n e r s t o h a v e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e n t i a l o f t h e i r l a n d r e s t r i c t e d . T h e y a l s o p r o v i d e a n i n d u c e m e n t f o r t h e g i f t s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s . T a x b r e a k s c a n be a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h o n e o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f a d v a n t a g e s o f f e r e d i n r e a l p r o p e r t y t a x e s , e s t a t e t a x e s a n d i n c o m e t a x e s . E a c h o f t h e s e t a x a d v a n t a g e s i s a n a l y z e d b e l o w . I n c o m e T a x e s T h e U n i t e d S t a t e s I n t e r n a l R e v e n u e S e r v i c e i n a r e c e n t r u l i n g h a s c l a r i f i e d w h a t w a s p r e v i o u s l y a v e r y c o n f u s e d p i c t u r e w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i n c o m e t a x a d v a n t a g e s o f g i v i n g a n e a s e m e n t a s a g i f t . A f e w y e a r s a g o s e v e r a l l a n d o w n e r s i n t h e W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. a r e a o f f e r e d t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t s c e n i c e a s e m e n t s o n l a n d a l o n g t h e h e i g h t s a b o v e t h e P o t o m a c R i v e r . One o f t h e d o n o r s a s k e d f o r a r u l i n g o n w h e t h e r t h e v a l u e o f t h e e a s e m e n t . c o u l d b e e n t e r e d a s a c h a r i t a b l e d e d u c t i o n o n h e r i n c o m e t a x r e t u r n . I n r e p l y t h e I n t e r n a l R e v e n u e S e r v i c e s a i s t h a t , " . . . a s c e n i c e a s e m e n t g r a n t e d t o t h e g o v e r n m e n t r e s t r i c t i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f o n e ' s p r o p e r t y , i n c l u d i n g t h e t y p e a n d h e i g h t o f b u i l d i n g s , t h e c u t t i n g o f t r e e s , a n d o t h e r m a t t e r s , w o u l d c o n -s t i t u t e a c h a r i t a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f a v a l u a b l e p r o p e r t y r i g h t . " 1 L a t e r t h e S e r v i c e b r o a d e n e d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f i t s d e c i s i o n b y c o v e r i n g t h e m a t t e r i n a n o f f i c i a l r u l i n g w h i c h s t a t e s : 78 A g r a t u i t o u s conveyance to the United States of America of a r e s t r i c t i v e easement i n r e a l property to enable the •Federal Government to preserve the scenic view a f f o r d e d c e r t a i n p u b l i c p r o p e r t i e s i s a c h a r i t a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n . . . . The grantor i s e n t i t l e d to a deduction f o r the f a i r market value of the r e s t r i c t i v e easement...; however, the ba s i s of the property must be adjusted by e l i m i n a t i n g t h a t part of the t o t a l basis which i s pr o p e r l y a l l o c a b l e to the r e s t r i c - • t i v e easement g r a n t e d . 2 Brenneman f e e l s t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s set f o r t h i n t h i s r u l i n g are a p p l i c a b l e to c o n t r i b u t i o n s made to n o n - p r o f i t or-g a n i z a t i o n s — a s defined i n Sec. 501(c)(3) of the I n t e r n a l Revenue Code—as w e l l as to donations to the United States Government.3 Plimpton a l s o f e e l s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r u l i n g should apply e q u a l l y to the donation of a conservation easement to a c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n . 4 And Latcham and Pin d l e y extend t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r u l i n g to in c l u d e donations to a "govern-mental u n i t , " not j u s t the f e d e r a l government."" An i n d i v i d u a l who makes a c o n t r i b u t i o n of a conservation easement to a government agency or to c e r t a i n n o n - p r o f i t organ-i z a t i o n s i s e n t i t l e d to deduct up to 30 percent of h i s adjusted gross income i n any tax year as a c h a r i t a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n . I f the c o n t r i b u t i o n i s i n excess of 3° percent of the donor's adjusted gross income f o r the year, he may c a r r y the excess over f o r a per i o d of f i v e y ears. That i s i n each of the f i v e suc-ceeding years a deduction i s permitted f o r the p o r t i o n of the excess not p r e v i o u s l y deducted.6* On the other hand, a developer who dedicates an easement to a l o c a l p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y i s allowed a deduction of not more than 5 percent of h i s adjusted gross income f o r the taxable year. The excess of the c o n t r i b u t i o n made i n any taxable year may be c a r r i e d forward to the next two suc-ceeding years." 7 79 To be d e d u c t i b l e , however, the r e s t r i c t i v e easement must be made i n p e r p e t u i t y . Although the r u l i n g i t s e l f does not mention t h i s , i t i s explained by the I n t e r n a l Revenue Service i n a l a t e r • d i s c u s s i o n of the r u l i n g . 8 The subject of income taxes i s important not only w i t h regard to g i f t s of easements, but a l s o when de a l i n g w i t h the sale of easements. Unfort u n a t e l y there are no d i r e c t r u l i n g s by the I n t e r n a l Revenue Service on the income tax e f f e c t s of s a l e s of conservation easements. B a s i c a l l y though the income tax t r e a t -ment of easements depends on whether the amount r e c e i v e d as pay-ment i s cl a s s e d as ordi n a r y income or c a p i t a l gains. The I n t e r n a l Revenue Code provides f o r a lower tax rate f o r c a p i t a l gains than the r a t e f o r ordinary income so i t i s important to decide how the payment should be c l a s s i f i e d . In order t o ' q u a l i f y f o r cap-i t a l gains tax treatment i t f i r s t must be determined that there was a sale and, second, that the sale was of property. The f i r s t requirement i s that of a s a l e . The only c r i t e r i a to be met here i s that the easement granted should be per-p e t u a l i n d u r a t i o n . I f the t r a n s f e r of the easement i s f o r a term of years, the payment w i l l be looked on as ordinary income i n the form of rent f o r the l a n d , and w i l l be taxed as such. Thus the grantor should be anxious to grant a perpetual easement to s a t i s f y the sale requirement . 9 The 'type of easement granted may be determinative i n the d e c i s i o n on the second requirement, as to whether the easement i s property. The f e d e r a l tax court r u l i n g s i n d i c a t e the grant-in g of a f f i r m a t i v e easements w i l l be viewed as sales of property so that i s f a i r l y c l e a r cut. Un f o r t u n a t e l y there have been no d i r e c t r u l i n g s on the tax treatment of the proceeds of sales of negative easements, however, " I t appears that even i f the easements are considered negative easements the c a p i t a l gains 80 procedure w i l l be a v a i l a b l e to the taxpayer r e c e i v i n g compen-s a t i o n . 1 0 In cases of condemnation the problem of whether the ease-ment i s property i s e l i m i n a t e d , since the f a c t that the t r a n s -a c t i o n i s an i n v o l u n t a r y conversion a u t o m a t i c a l l y means that the payment.will be given c a p i t a l gains treatment. The tax computation i s r e l a t i v e l y easy i f the payment i s found to be ordinary income. I t i s i n c l u d e d i n the tax r e t u r n w i t h other ordinary income and taxed at the same r a t e . I f , however, as i s most l i k e l y , the proceeds of a sale of a conserva-t i o n easement are to be t r e a t e d under the c a p i t a l gains pro-v i s i o n s of the I n t e r n a l Revenue Code, then i t i s necessary to determine how to compute the c a p i t a l g a i n or l o s s i n v o l v e d i n the t r a n s a c t i o n . ...The taxable gain i s the d i f f e r e n c e between the payment re c e i v e d f o r the easement and the b a s i s of the easement r i g h t s . The general r u l e f o r determination of the b a s i s of property i s that the b a s i s i s equal to the o r i g i n a l cost to the taxpayer. In the normal s i t u a t i o n the landowner has purchased the e n t i r e t i t l e i n fee to the l a n d , and thus there may be some d i f f i c u l t y i n computing what p o r t i o n of the b a s i s should be a l l o c a t e d to the easement r i g h t s . 1 1 There are at l e a s t two methods which can be used f o r a l l o c a t i n g the b a s i s of the e n t i r e property between the easement r i g h t s conveyed to a p u b l i c or p r i v a t e agency and the remaining r i g h t s held by the fee owner. .When the e n t i r e property i s a f f e c t e d by the easement, the r a t i o of current easement value to the current value of the f u l l fee i n t e r e s t can be a p p l i e d to the b a s i s of the f u l l fee i n t e r e s t of the property to a r r i v e at a b a s i s f o r the easement r i g h t s . 81 The second aiethod of b a s i s a l l o c a t i o n can be used when the easement a f f e c t s only a p o r t i o n of the taxpayer's property and places severe l i m i t a t i o n s on the b e n e f i c i a l use of that p o r t i o n . "This can be t r e a t e d as a sale of fee t i t l e to the p o r t i o n of the land encumbered. The e n t i r e part of the cost of the fee represented by that p o r t i o n can be considered as the b a s i s a n d be a p p l i e d against the payment f o r the easement." 1 2 In s i t u a t i o n s where no l o g i c a l method f o r computing the b a s i s of easement r i g h t s e x i s t s , the I n t e r n a l Revenue Code allows the taxpayer to t r e a t the e n t i r e payment as a deduction from the b a s i s of the e n t i r e property. In t h i s way the tax i s postponed u n t i l the time when the e n t i r e fee i s s o l d . Estate Taxes The m a j o r i t y of s t a t e s and the f e d e r a l government have taxes on t r a n s f e r s at death, as w e l l as on l i f e t i m e g i f t s i n contemplation of death. G e n e r a l l y , however, there i s a p r o v i s i o n f o r exemption from tax of the value of land t r a n s f e r r e d to government f o r p u b l i c purposes, or to a p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r a c h a r i t a b l e purpose. Furthermore, the I n t e r n a l Revenue Code sets no l i m i t a t i o n s on the amount of the deduction which may be taken under the g i f t or estate tax laws. While the l i t e r a t u r e does not s p e c i f i c a l l y discuss the estate tax s i t u a t i o n w i t h regard to easements, presumably, since other I n t e r n a l Revenue Service r u l i n g s recognize easements as a l e g i t i m a t e deduction, they Would permit the exemption under the g i f t and estate tax laws as o u t l i n e d above. 1^ 82 Property Taxes The e f f e c t of easements on r e a l property t a x a t i o n i s an extremely important f a c t o r since property taxes recur a n n u a l l y . Real estate taxes are based upon the market value of taxable property. A conservation easement may lower the market value of land by r e s t r i c t i n g i t s use. I f t h i s occurs, the assessor should measure the decrease, and then reduce the assessed v a l u a t i o n of the land by an amount proportionate to the measured decreasd i n land value. Whyte argues, In most s t a t e c o n s t i t u t i o n s , there are guarantees against assessment at more than f a i r market value. I f a man gives an easement on c e r t a i n p o r t i o n s of his l a n d , the assessor should recognize t h i s i n computing market value. He cannot r i g h t l y value i t as developable land i f there i s a binding agreement that i t i s not d e v e l o p a b l e . 1 4 This may be a d i f f i c u l t argument f o r an assessor to agree w i t h , e s p e c i a l l y when an area i s developing r a p i d l y and i s i n need of revenue. However, a group of property.owners i n Maryland has made some progress i n convincing the county tax assessor that land r e s t r i c t e d by easements should o b t a i n s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . And the s t a t e assessor has s p e c i f i c a l l y pointed out that easements should be taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when determining the value of land f o r assessment purposes. 15 In other cases there has been l e s s success. The Harvard Law Review notes, "Although i t seems s e l f - e v i d e n t that a property tax cannot be l e v i e d upon development values which have been s o l d or condemned, neve r t h e l e s s s u b d i v i d e r s who dedicate permanent easements to the p u b l i c sometimes s t i l l are assessed f o r the f u l l value of the l a n d . " 1 ^ And i n Wisconsin, Olson reported on two l i m i t e d observations. 83 There have been s i x p a r c e l s encumbered by f i s h i n g easements i n Dane County. A l l of these p a r c e l s except one e i t h e r — have the same or a higher assessed v a l u a t i o n than before the grant of the easement. The one exception i s only s l i g h t l y l e s s and does not r e f l e c t the c o n s i d e r a t i o n p a i d f o r the easement. In 1962 the State Highway Commission attempted to determine whether l o c a l assessors made a de-duction on t h e i r tax r o l l s on p r o p e r t i e s encumbered by sce n i c easements on the Great R i v e r Road. The two asses-sors who were contacted responded that they had not r e -duced the assessed v a l u a t i o n of any property because of the presence of a scenic easement. 1 7 U n f o r t u n a t e l y i t was not discovered why the assessments i n these cases were not reduced. A subsequent study by the Wisconsin Highway Commission i n 1967 found t h a t i n three townships border-i n g the Great R i v e r Road scenic easements were s t i l l not an I n -f l u e n c i n g f a c t o r i n assessment p r a c t i c e s . ^ 8 In order to encourage l o c a l tax assessors to take the a f f e c t of easements i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when e s t a b l i s h i n g the assessment value of land , the state l e g i s l a t u r e should i n c l u d e i n the enabling act a p r o v i s i o n to l i m i t taxes. New York's open space s t a t u t e has such a p r o v i s i o n which s t a t e s : " A f t e r a c q u i s i t i o n of any such i n t e r e s t pursuant to t h i s act the v a l u a t i o n placed on such an open space or area f o r the purposes of r e a l estate t a x a t i o n s h a l l take i n t o account and be l i m i t e d by the l i m i t a t i o n on f u t u r e use of the l a n d . 1 9 Maryland has a l s o passed a law p e r m i t t i n g landowners i n f i v e counties to grant scenic easements on open space, and r e c e i v e tax c r e d i t i n r e t u r n . 2 0 l e g i s l a t i o n a u t h o r i z e s county governments to accept easements, and, by r e s o l u t i o n or ordinance, provide tax c r e d i t to the landowners. The tax c r e d i t and easements granted would be p e r p e t u a l . Land named as e l i g i b l e f o r tax c r e d i t i n -cluded r i v e r b a s i n l a n d , conservation areas, country c l u b s , 84 commercial golf courses, driving ranges and land along streams. The act further recognized that "granting of scenic easements by-property owners provides the most economical way to preserve the II p 1 maximum of open space at a minimum cost. S t r i c t l y speaking, however, i t i s the opinion of most e x p e r t s 2 2 that no new l e g i s l a t i o n should be required. As has been pointed out above, most state constitutions guarantee against assessment at more than f a i r market value. " I f the assessor disregards the easement and values the land on i t s market value as subdivision land, the landowner has clear l e g a l redress; since he cannot market i t as subdivision land the going rate f o r such land i s patently not i t s f a i r value."23 Even without additional l e g i s l a t i o n land subject to the r e s t r i c t i o n s of an easement should not be taxed as though i t were not subject to these r e s t r i c t i o n s . However, i t should be kept i n mind that i n order to receive favorable property tax treatment, as i n the case of income taxes, the easement must be i n perpetuity. Other-wise" i t w i l l be very d i f f i c u l t to persuade the assessor to over-look the development p o t e n t i a l . The argument has been advanced that i f land covered by an easement receives a tax advantage, everyone who wants his taxes reduced w i l l o f f e r an easement, and t h i s , i n turn, w i l l place an additional burden, upon the remaining landowners. I t should be remembered, however, that a public agency must agree to accept the easement, and that they would not accept the easement unless there was a clear public benefit involved. On the other hand, th i s argument may have some merit for easements held by private organizations. Interests may be accepted by private agencies on 85 land which i s not suitable i n the o v e r a l l planning, of the area for open space purposes. Less concern might be given to f u l -f i l l i n g a v a l i d public benefit. However, t h i s problem can be e a s i l y eliminated by adopting l e g i s l a t i o n l i m i t i n g the tax exemption or reduction to land approved for open space use by an appropriate government agency. Furthermore, although-it i s true that a landowner whose property i s r e s t r i c t e d by an easement i s not taxed as much as unrestricted property, i t i s also true that his demands fo r municipal services and f a c i l i t i e s are not great. Indeed, studies have shown that since r e s i d e n t i a l areas quite often require more i n services than they contribute i n taxes, some communities would be better off f i n a n c i a l l y i f t h e i r land was not f u l l y developed into r e s i d e n t i a l uses.24 Siegel goes so far as to suggest that lower tax rates on open space may, i n the long run, improve values for the community and result i n greater taxable value. 25 Since r e a l property taxes are usually based on the market value of land, the question again arises of how to measure the effect of the easement upon the market value. I t would seem l o g i c a l that the price paid f o r the easement i s the amount by which the market value of the land i s reduced, and, therefore, the assessed value should then be decreased by t h i s amount. In certain instances, however, t h i s would not hold true. For example, i t would be d i f f i c u l t to determine how much the value of land r e s t r i c t e d by an easement has decreased, when the ease-ment prohibits development of a sort which was never intended. Also, bargaining power, or compensation for negotiating, or for 86 a nuisance factor incurred from the easement may have had a bearing upon the amount paid f o r an easement. I t i s apparent, therefore, that the price i s not always i n d i c a t i v e of the value of the grant. In these cases the best solution i s for the assessor to conduct a reevaluation of the property a f t e r the sale of the easement.2^ Whyte sums up his feelings on the impact of easements on a landowner's property taxes i n t h i s statement: " i f a man gives an easement, he w i l l not necessarily get a reduction i n his present taxes; i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , the assessor has been valuing the land only at i t s open-space value. What the ease-ment does i s ensure that he w i l l keep on valuing i t that way and not raise the assessment on the basis of the development po t e n t i a l . " 2 " 7 87 FOOTNOTES ^Northern V i r g i n i a Regional Planning and Economic Development Commission, "Open Space Easements," National Capital Open Space  Project Technical Report, No. 4, (September, 1965), p. 13, quoting Letter from the Internal Revenue Service to A l f r e d H. Moses, attorney, f o r Joanne B. Bross, donor of the easement i n question, A p r i l 10, 1964. 2U.S. Internal Revenue Service Ruling 64-205. -^Russell L. Brenneman, Private Approaches to the Preservation  of Open Land, (The Conservation and Research Foundation, 1967), P. 70 . 4 Oakes A. Plimpton, Conservation Easements—Legal Analysis of  "Conservation Easements" as a Method of P r i v a t e l y Conserving and  Preserving Land"", (Washington, D.C.: The Nature Conservancy), mimeo., p. 29. "^Franklin C. Latcham and Roger W. Findley, "Influence of Taxation and Assessment P o l i c i e s on Open Space," i n Frances W. Herring, ed., Open Space and the Law, (University of C a l i f o r n i a at Berkeley: I n s t i t u t e of Governmental Studies, 1965), p. 67. ^Internal Revenue Code, sec. 170(b ) (5) ; For a detailed discussion of how an i n d i v i d u a l can maximize his deduction see Brenneman, pp. 72-73. 7lnternal Revenue Code, sec. 170(b ) (2) ; For a detailed discussion of how a developer can maximize his deduction see "The Homes Association Handbook," Urban Land I n s t i t u t e Technical  B u l l e t i n , No. 50, (1964), pp. 351, 354-355"" ~"~ 8See Internal Revenue B u l l e t i n , No. 1964-30, (July 27, 1964), pp. 6 -7. 9 J a cob H. Beuscher, "Scenic Easements and the Law," Conference Proceedings—Scenic Easements i n Action, (Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin, December, 1966), p. 54. *°Thoraas Gose, Manual for Conference Workshops—Scenic Easements i n Action"" (Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin, December, 1966), p. 56. 1 1 I b i d . 1 2 I b i d . '"^Ibid., pp. 31-32; Brenneman pp. 74-75 . l 4 W i l l i a m H. Whyte, The Last Landscape, (Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday and Co., Ltd. ,~~1968), p. 32. 88 1^Northern V i r g i n i a Regional Planning and Economic Development Commission, Open Space Easements, p. 14. ^"Techniques for Preserving Open Spaces," Harvard Law  Review, Vol. 75 , No. 8, (June, 1962), p. 1637. 1 7James A. Olson, "Progress and Problems i n Wisconsin's Scenic and Conservation Easement Program," Wisconsin Law Review, (1965), PP. 364-365. 1 8Wisconsin Department of Transportation, "A Market Study of Properties Covered by Scenic Easements Along the Great River Road i n Vernon and Pierce Counties," Special Report No. 5 , (Madison, Wisconsin: October, 1967), p. 12. ^New York M l n i c i p a l Law, sec. 247 (3) . 2 0Laws of Maryland, 1965, ch. 669. 2 1 I b i d . , ch. 668. 2 2 F o r example Siegel, Whyte, and Latcham and Pindley. 2-*William H. Whyte, "Securing Open Space f o r Urban America: Conservation Easements," Urban Land I n s t i t u t e Technical B u l l e t i n , No. 36, (1959), P. 38. 24por example see Ruth Rusch, "Look How Open Space Can Hold Down Your Taxes," Planning and C i v i c Comment, Vol. 28, No. 3, (September, 1962), pp. 24-26^ 2 ^ s h i r l e y Adelson Siegel, The Law of Open Space, (New York: Regional Plan Association, Inc., January, 1960), p. 43 . 2^Por further information on the effect on r e a l property taxes of a reduction i n market value due to easement r e s t r i c t i o n s see Olson, pp. 366-372. 27 Whyte, The Last Landscape, p. 82 . CHAPTER VII. PRIVATE CONSERVATION ORGANIZATIONS Private conservation organizations have been discussed above with regard to taxation and property r i g h t s . The focus i n t h i s section w i l l be upon t h e i r role i n acquiring easements and t h e i r organization. H i s t o r i c a l l y , private groups have been extremely successful i n preserving open.land, but they have generally dealt with the a c q u i s i t i o n of the fee simple t i t l e . Lately, however, they too have turned some of t h e i r attention to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of obtaining conservation easements. A l -though public agencies have the most experience i n the use of conservation easements, private conservation organizations also have an important r o l e . The Role of Private Conservation Organizations Private conservation organizations have a unique role to play i n preserving open spaces. For example, they can act to acquire easements on open land i n situations where the l o c a l government refuses to do so. They are also capable of acting s w i f t l y when there i s a need f o r speed, while the more cumbersome processes of government might miss opportunities for important ac q u i s i t i o n s . "There are many indications that important re-sources are being l o s t while the slow r e a l i z a t i o n of the 'quiet c r i s i s ' i s coming to the minds of the public and p o l i t i c i a n s and the t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n into l e g i s l a t i v e and administrative action i s taking place." 1 The Nature Conservancy, a private conservation organization i n the U.S., has often stepped i n to acquire land when swift action was needed or when 90 public agencies didn't have funds a v a i l a b l e . They maintain a revolving fund to buy land public agencies would l i k e to have. When the governmental agency secures the necessary public funds, the Nature Conservancy s e l l s the land to them and puts the pro-ceeds back into the revolving fund. There are other reasons for the need for private action. I t may be desirable to impose s t r i c t e r controls over the easement areas than public o f f i c i a l s deem necessary or p o l i t i c a l l y pos-s i b l e . Private groups can also focus on certain types of areas, such as marshes, i n which public agencies may not be interested. Or, l i k e the Midwest Open Land Association i n the greater Chicago area, they can make a un i f i e d coordinated e f f o r t to preserve open spaces over a large area which may cross state and l o c a l boundaries. Another j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r private control i s the protection i t offers against p o l i t i c a l or administrative pressures to divert the open space into other uses such as high-ways or public buildings. Private conservation organizations can also be important to landowners who wish to ensure that t h e i r land w i l l remain . open aft e r t h e i r death. In some areas the public agencies may not be authorized or are not prepared to accept easements. By granting an-easement to a private group, the landowner's wishes can be maintained and his successors w i l l be compelled to keep the land open. In another s i t u a t i o n the landowner may want to convey an easement to a public agency and ensure that the re-s t r i c t i o n s imposed by the easement are maintained. Sometimes he can do t h i s by conveying the t i t l e d i r e c t l y to the public agency, and creating a right of enforcement i n a private corporation. 91 But t h i s i s not always possible. For t h i s reason the most l e g a l l y e f f e c t i v e procedure i s f o r the landowner to convey an unrestricted interest to a private organization. This group can then transfer these interests to the government agency for open space purposes and reserve to i t s e l f the private right of enforcement.3 Private groups might increase t h e i r effectiveness by q u a l i f y i n g for direct state or federal grants for acquiring easements on open space and recreation lands. Not much has been written on t h i s subject, however, public f i n a n c i a l support i s already being used i n the case of private schools and hos-p i t a l s . As the demand for open space and recreation increases perhaps the r o l e of private conservation organizations w i l l be o f f i c i a l l y recognized and encouraged by making funds available f o r t h e i r preservation a c t i v i t i e s . The role of private conservation organizations has been concisely summed up by Brenneman who says: The ..powers and reactions of government, as a h i s t o r i c a l f a c t , have by and large proved inadequate, or at the least untimely. As a consequence, there i s a very r e a l need for private action to Insure the preservation of selected areas of open land, whether i t be for r e c r e a t i o n a l , conservation or purely aesthetic purposes. Private programs for the preservation of open land need not clash with the compre-hensive programs of government, but rather they can and should be important supplements to these programs.4 Types of Organizations E s s e n t i a l l y a private conservation organization i s a l e g a l person with perpetual existence. Presumably i t i s managed by a s e l f perpetuating board which selects as I t s successors persons with s i m i l a r conservation objectives. Within t h i s con-cept there are several alternative types of association for 9 2 p e r s o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f o p e n s p a c e . E a c h o f t h e s e t y p e s h a s I m p o r t a n t a t t r i b u t e s a n d r e s t r i c t i o n s -which must be c o n s i d e r e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e g o a l s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o be f o r m e d . F o r e x a m p l e , a n u n i n c o r p o r a t e d v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n , e v e n i f o p e r a t i n g w i t h a f o r m a l p r o c e d u r e , i s n o t r e c o g n i z e d i n most s t a t e s a s a l e g a l e n t i t y a b l e t o h o l d t i t l e t o o r i n t e r e s t s i n l a n d . I n most c a s e s t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a c o r p o r a t i o n o r a t r u s t o r some c o m b i n a t i o n o f b o t h i s t h e b e s t c h o i c e . I f one o f t h e g o a l s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t o h o l d t i t l e t o l a n d l i k e l y t o be u s e d by t h e p u b l i c , t h e l i m i t e d l i a b i l i t y f e a t u r e s o f t h e c o r p o r a t e f o r m w i l l p r o b a b l y make i t p r e f e r a b l e . The p o w e r s t o be h e l d by a c o r p o r a t i o n o r a t r u s t a r e l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d by t h e c r e a t o r s t h e m s e l v e s , a n d , a s n o t e d a b o v e i n C h a p t e r I V , t h e r e a r e o n l y a f e w r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e p o w e r s a s s i g n a b l e t o e i t h e r . 5 A u n i q u e p u b l i c - p r i v a t e c o o p e r a t i v e e x p e r i m e n t now e x i s t s i n t h e L a k e G e o r g e a r e a o f New Y o r k . An a r e a e x t e n d i n g one m i l e b a c k f r o m t h e l a k e h a s b e e n p l a c e d u n d e r t h e L a k e G e o r g e P a r k C o m m i s s i o n . T h i s i s a p u b l i c b ody w i t h p o w e r s t o a c t t o p r e s e r v e t h e a m e n i t i e s a n d n a t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e a r e a . The C o m m i s s i o n r e l i e s m o s t l y on v o l u n t a r y a g r e e m e n t s t o a c h i e v e t h e s e e n d s . E v e n t h e i r z o n i n g p o w e r i s s u b j e c t t o t h e a g r e e m e n t o f a l l l a n d o w n e r s w i t h i n t h e p r o p o s e d z o n e . H o w e v e r , t h e y a r e empowered t o " a c q u i r e i n t e r e s t s o r r i g h t s i n r e a l p r o p e r t y . . . f o r t h e p u r -p o s e o f p r o h i b i t i n g , r e s t r i c t i n g , o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h e use o f s u c h r e a l p r o p e r t y f o r c o m m e r c i a l p u r p o s e s . T h e s u c c e s s o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n h a s n o t y e t b e e n assessed.''" 93 A n o t h e r t y p e o f p u b l i c - p r i v a t e a r rangemen t f o r p r e s e r v i n g open space i s commonly f ound i n p l a n n e d u n i t deve lopmen ts l i k e c l u s t e r h o u s i n g . As has been d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I I , t he d e v e l o p e r g r a n t s an easement t o a p u b l i c agency t o I n s u r e t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the open s p a c e . A p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p r o p -e r t y owners i s o r g a n i z e d t o manage and keep up t he open s p a c e . T h i s a p p r o a c h has a l r e a d y been t r i e d i n C a l i f o r n i a , bu t i t i s t oo e a r l y t o a s s e s s t h e r e s u l t s . 94 FOOTNOTES Russell L. Brenneman, Private Approaches to the Preservation  of Open Land, (The Conservation and Research FoundationT~"ll^>7)» p. 91 . 2 W i l l i a m H. Whyte, The Last Landscape, (Garden Cit y , New York: Loubleday and Co. Inc., 1968), p. 62. ^Thomas Gose, Manual f or Conference Workshops—Scenic  Easements i n Action, (Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin, December, 1966), pp. 28-29. ^Brenneman, p. 81. ^Gose, p. 30. ^New York Conservation Law, sec. 843. 7Gose, pp. 33-34; Brenneman, pp. 89-90. CHAPTER VTII ENFORCEMENT OF CONSERVATION EASEMENTS A program of conservation easement ac q u i s i t i o n i s not complete without dealing with the problems of enforcing the r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed by the easements. The best possible a c q u i s i t i o n program would be rendered useless i f the controls established i n the agreement were not adhered to. The National Park Service had the e a r l i e s t experience with easement enforce-ment along the Natchez Trace and Blue Ridge Parkways, and i t was here that many of the problems f i r s t became apparent. The Wisconsin Highway Commission has drawn from that experience as well as t h e i r own, and altered t h e i r enforcement procedures to make them more workable. This additional experience has lent i t s e l f to suggestions for even more improvements, and these are para l l e l e d by unique enforcement methods i n other areas. Problems The National Park Service began t h e i r scenic easement ac q u i s i t i o n program along the Natchez Trace and Blue Ridge Parkways i n the 1930's. The problems which ensued originated from the method used to acquire the easements. The purchase of the easements was negotiated by state highway personnel, and once the easement was granted the National Park Service took over r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the enforcement of the r e s t r i c t i o n s . Since the state agent was only concerned with getting the land-owner's signature on the conveyance, he did not take the time to c a r e f u l l y explain the conditions of the agreement or create 96 an understanding of the landowner's pos i t i o n . Consequently there have been frequent misunderstandings between the govern-ment and the landowners as to the meaning of the r e s t r i c t i o n s . The lack of understanding was compounded when succeeding owners came along who had not signed the agreement, and did not f e e l bound by i t , or who did not even know about i t . 1 • Although there has been r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e l i t i g a t i o n , the Park Service has experienced considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n enfore--Ing the r e s t r i c t i o n s . The Park Rangers were responsible for enforcement, and they attempted to be f a m i l i a r with a c t i v i t i e s i n the easement area. However, they had no ef f e c t i v e authority except on land owned by the federal government i n fee simple. For t h i s reason the Rangers t r i e d to discourage misuse of the easement area through personal contact, by pointing out the possible penalties f o r v i o l a t i o n . In addition, the l o c a l and U.S. D i s t r i c t Courts were reluctant to issue injunctions i n advance to prevent v i o l a t i o n s of the agreement. Although i n at least two cases enforceable injunctions were issued (See Appendix N) . 2 As a r e s u l t of these problems experienced by the National Park Service, the Department of I n t e r i o r discontinued i t s policy of acquiring scenic easements except i n rare cases. They turned instead to a f u l l fee purchase program for both parkways. Solutions The Wisconsin Highway Commission scenic easement program, which began i n the early 1'950's has also had i t s share of enforce-ment problems. However, these problems have been minimized by 97 examining the previous experience of the National Park Service, and by administrative action which i s receptive to new ideas and techniques for aiding enforcement. They have found that almost a l l of the v i o l a t i o n s which have occurred are the r e s u l t of the landowner misunderstanding the terms of the agreement, not of w i l l f u l transgression. To remedy t h i s they have re-drafted the conveyance to state p l a i n l y , without l e g a l jargon, the uses of the property which w i l l or w i l l not be permitted. Then the negotiator must "...state, restate, c l a r i f y and re-c l a r i f y the r i g h t s and duties of a l l parties to the agreement at the time of negotiation."3 As a further aid to enforcement a l l of the state purchasing agents keep a "negotiator's diary." In i t are summaries of every conversation with the landowner, signed by the agent and t e l l i n g i n d e t a i l exactly what was discussed at the meeting or during the telephone c a l l . In addition, some highway d i s t r i c t s maintain complete records showing the lo c a t i o n , terms and conditions of each easement, and a history of each property. As changes are made, or variances granted, they are noted i n these records. Much of the success of the easement enforcement along the Great River Road i s due to the Highway Commission s t a f f who "...are obviously conscientious i n i d e n t i f y i n g v i o l a t i o n s early before they get out of control. A l l of the men seem aware of the importance of the program and are imbued with a sense of r e s p n s i b i l i t y to do the best job p o s s i b l e . " 4 Enforcement re-s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are assigned to ind i v i d u a l s so that responsi-b i l i t y i s s p e c i f i c . These men carry out periodic inspections of the easement areas, and report any v i o l a t i o n s . I f any are 98 found the landowner i s given notice to correct the v i o l a t i o n , and i f he f a i l s to do so a court injunction i s obtained. Occa-s i o n a l l y , under the terms of the easement, state agents enter the property to remove the v i o l a t i o n . The l o c a l courts have been f u l l y informed of the easement program, and have been more cooperative i n issuing injunctions than was the case with the National Park Service. The most common type of easement v i o l a t i o n i s the erection of new bi l l b o a r d s . Under a statutory procedure land-owners get notice to remove the v i o l a t i n g signs. I f they do not comply a f t e r a second notice, the road crews enter the pro-perty and remove the signs. The signs are held f o r 30 days and i f not claimed, they are destroyed.5 To insure success a systematic program of communications between agencies and owners whose land i s encumbered was estab-l i s h e d . Landowners are encouraged to contact the Commission for information at any time. I f a variance i s requested, the decision i s made on the basis of the effect of the proposed use upon the scenic attractiveness of the environment. I f i t i s decided there w i l l be no detrimental e f f e c t , then the use i s permitted even i f i t i s not allowed under the easement. Sometimes i n re-turn the Highway Commission barters with the landowners to re-move objectionable items or discontinue objectionable uses. •R.C. Leverich, D i s t r i c t Chief of Right of Way reports, "Generally, we are having excellent r e s u l t s by t h i s common sense type of approach."^ To further aid the enforcement agent who must be f a m i l i a r with varying provisions of each easement deed, i t has been 9 9 suggested that a book of plats be provided which shows the r e s t r i c t i o n s on each parcel. Another suggestion to simplify the-problems of p o l i c i n g i s to standardize the easements into three or four groups.. However, t h i s l a t t e r suggestion would mean surrendering the f l e x i b i l i t y sought e a r l i e r to enable the ease-ment to conform to the i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each s i t e . • Just as the easement should f i t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each s i t e , so should the methods of enforcement be adapted to the requirements of diffe r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . For example, the U.S. Fish and W i l d l i f e Service has adopted a unique method of checking to see that the r e s t r i c t i o n s of t h e i r wetland easements i n the pothole country are being maintained. P e r i o d i c a l l y , f i e l d men f l y over the area and take a e r i a l photographs. By checking previous photos they can quickly spot where wetland has been f i l l e d i n or protective cover removed."7 The problems involved i n enforcing conservation easement agreements have been well documented, as have the solutions to these problems. I t can be seen that a certain amount of admin-i s t r a t i v e e f f o r t i s required f or adequate enforcement, however i t should be kept i n mind that easements are not alone i n t h i s respect. A l l the other methods, of preserving open space and recreation areas, including fee simple acquisiton also require expenditures for maintenance and enforcement. 100 FOOTNOTES Thomas Gose, Manual f o r Conference Workshops—Scenic  Easements i n Action, (Madison Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin, December 1966), pp. 11-12; Norman Williams, Land Acq u i s i t i o n f or Outdoor Recreation—Analysis of Selected Legal  Problems. Report to the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, Study Report No. 1 6 , (Washington, D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g Office, 1962), p. 44. 2Howard L. Williams and W.D. Davis, "Effects of Scenic Easements on the Market Value of Real Property," Appraisal  Journal, Vol. 38, No. 1, (January, 1968), pp. 16-19; Norman Williams, pp. 44-45. ^Gose, p. 23. 4 I b i d . 5 l b i d . 6Robert C Leverich, "Appraisal, Communication, Negotiation, Administration," Conference Proceedings—Scenic Easements i n  Action, (Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin, December, 1966), p. 47. 7 W i l l i a m H. Whyte, The Last Landscape, (Garden C i t y , New York: Double day and Co., Inc., 1 968 J~, P. 93. CHAPTER ,12 ACCEPTABILITY OF CONSERVATION EASEMENTS The question of whether the conservation easement device i s an acceptable means of preserving open space and recreation areas i s not unanimously resolved. Experts i n the f i e l d most intimately connected with conservation easements disagree; public agencies who have used, or are considering the use of easements for t h e i r recreation and open space programs disagree; and landowners who are or may be affected by the taking of rights i n t h e i r land disagree. Obviously there i s no unanimity of opinion on t h i s matter. However, there does appear to be a clear consensus among these groups that there are some values attached to the use of conservation easements which make t h e i r use an acceptable means of preserving open space and recreation areas. In order to better understand these d i f f e r i n g viewpoints, each group w i l l be examined separately. The Experts Most of the people who are knowledgable i n the f i e l d of conservation easements are w i l l i n g to concede"the o v e r a l l value of the approach. Siegel says: Acquiring less than a fee, the whole bundle of property r i g h t s i n land, has been common for centuries, and there can be no objection to i t i n p r i n c i p l e . . . . In our opinion, public a c q u i s i t i o n of such easements i n appropriate cases i s a public purpose warranting both the expenditure of tax funds and the exercise of the eminent domain power against r e c a l c i t r a n t s . 1 And the Harvard Lav; Review lends i t s support, saying: "Perhaps 102 the most s i g n i f i c a n t proposal f o r the preservation of open space contemplates the a c q u i s i t i o n of development or conservation easements."2 However, the les s enthusiastic experts are careful to q u a l i f y t h e i r approval by pointing out many of the technical d i f f i c u l t i e s which have or might possibly a r i s e . For example, Krasnowiecki and Strong say, "Although the a c q u i s i t i o n of development rights has great merit and we see for i t some functions..., as a means of shaping the character, d i r e c t i o n , and timing of community development i t suffers from a number of defects...."-* Quite often the analysis which follows seems to revolve almost e n t i r e l y around the problems, which have been discussed i n previous sections of t h i s work, thereby emphasizing the negative aspects. 4 I t should be noted, however, that these sorts of analyses are most often found i n the writings of the early 1960's when the technique was less well developed. Since that time many of the problems have been resolved through.ex-perience and l e g a l and administrative findings. For example, as has been demonstrated i n the previous section, many of the pro-blems of enforcement have been resolved i n the past few years through experience, and cases such as Kamrowski v. State and the Internal-Revenue Service r u l i n g 64-205 have c l a r i f i e d much of the uncertainty which previously existed i n l e g a l and taxation issues involving easements. William Whyte, perhaps the leading proponent of conser-vation easements, i s also one of the most thoroughly objective students of the subject. His experience and knowledge of the f i e l d have enabled him to place the use of t h i s technique 103 within i t s proper perspective. To understand the benefits of the easement approach, i t i s important to understand i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . One of the reasons some observers have been c r i t i c a l of the device i s that they have asked too much of i t . They have consi-dered i t as a means for sweeping control of whole regions. In t h i s scheme of things, a public agency would acquire easements f o r a l l the open land, not merely to keep i t open but to stage development....But the problem i s not the l i m i t a t i o n s of the easement device; i t i s the expan-siveness of the goal.5 . Public Agencies Local public agencies also generally agree as to the v a l i d i t y of the conservation easement approach to open space preservation. That i s , they agree i n the published portions of th e i r recreation and open space plans, a great many of which include proposals for the use of easements. For example, a 1965 report by the San Mateo County Planning Commission i n C a l i f o r n i a says: Portions of the Skyline area which need more protection than can be afforded through regulatory ordinances i n order to maintain t h e i r scenic q u a l i t i e s should be kept i n t h e i r present state through the ac q u i s i t i o n of scenic easements or development ri g h t s by a governmental agency or private non-profit corporation." And the Marin County, C a l i f o r n i a "Program Statement on Parks and Recreation" adopted by the Board of Supervisors i n January, 1966 says: In addition to outright purchase by public funds, strong and continuing e f f o r t s w i l l be made to acquire park areas and/or reserve green belts and open spaces by negotiation or g i f t s , scenic easements and development rights.7 And, furthermore, the implementation section of an Alameda County, C a l i f o r n i a study which was adopted by the Board of Supervisors i n May, 1966, suggests: 104 1. Application of existing l e g i s l a t i v e programs and development policy f or additional l e g i s l a t i v e tools to acquire land, open space easements or development rights i n scenic corridors. 2. Application to state and federal government bodies by the County Board of Supervisors and c i t y councils f o r grants for a c q u i s i t i o n of property, or open space easement or development rig h t s i n the scenic corridor, and f o r landscaping along a l l routes i n the county.° b However, i n practice the attitudes of many of these agencies undergo substantial changes from what they publish i n th e i r plans. In the case of San Mateo County i t was learned that no scenic easements had been acquired i n spite of the rec-omendations of the plan, which went so far as to include maps ind i c a t i n g the areas to be covered by easements. When asked why no easements had been acquired one planning s t a f f member replied that, " i t probably was not p o l i t i c a l l y feasible to buy the easements, and the property owners were not w i l l i n g to donate them."9 i n response to another question, t h i s s t a f f member also indicated that funds would be hard to raise i n the county for purchasing easements, although they had not checked into the p o s s i b i l i t y of getting a federal grant for t h i s purpose. The following year af t e r the county planning department study was published a c i t i z e n s ' study committee was appointed by the Board of Supervisors. The committee produced a report 10 (See Appendix 0) recommending the prompt a c q u i s i t i o n of scenic easements. At the same time they placed such severe r e s t r i c -tions on these acquisitions " i n order to prevent any hardships to property owners,"•that the o r i g i n a l recommendation f o r prompt a c q u i s i t i o n was v i r t u a l l y rendered void. One committee-man reported that the study group was composed mostly of 105 p r o p e r t y o w n e r s I n t h e a f f e c t e d a r e a who were c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e r e s a l e v a l u e o f t h e i r l a n d . He a l s o m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e c o u n t y h a d n o t o f f e r e d a n y money t o t h e p r o p e r t y o w n e r s f o r t h e i n t e r e s t s i n t h e i r l a n d , a n d t h e q u e s t i o n o f how t h e r e s t r i c t e d l a n d w o u l d be a s s e s s e d was u n c l e a r . 1 1 I n t h e f a c e o f r e s i d e n t a t t i t u d e a n d t h e p r o b l e m o f r a i s i n g t h e f u n d s t o a c q u i r e t h e e a s e m e n t s t h e B o a r d o f S u p e r v i s o r s h a s a p p a r e n t l y f o u n d i t more p o l i t i c n o t t o a c t . I n M a r i n C o u n t y t h e r e h a s b e e n a s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e . I n s p i t e o f t h e i r a d o p t e d p o l i c y t o make " s t r o n g a n d c o n t i n u i n g e f f o r t s " t o a c q u i r e e a s e m e n t s i n a r e a s o u t l i n e d i n t h e i r p l a n , none h a v e b e e n a c q u i r e d — e x c e p t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f s u b d i v i s i o n . The h e a d o f t h e r e c r e a t i o n s e c t i o n o f t h e M a r i n C o u n t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t ; g i v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n : I n a n a r e a s u c h a s o u r s ( s u b j e c t t o e x t r e m e l y h e a v y p r e s s u r e f o r u r b a n d e v e l o p m e n t ) t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e c o s t o f e a s e m e n t s v s f e e a c q u i s i t i o n i s so m i n i m a l t h a t a n y t h i n g l e s s t h a n f e e c a n h a r d l y be j u s t i f i e d . The m a i n r e a s o n i s M a r i n ' s m e d i o c r e s o i l s a r e u n s u i t a b l e t o more i n t e n s i f i e d a g r i c u l t u r e w h i c h c o u l d o f f s e t i n c r e a s i n g a s s e s s m e n t v a l u e s . I t l e a d s t o t h e p l a i n l y d i s c e r n a b l e a t t i t u d e by l a r g e l a n d o w n e r s t o y i e l d t o d e v e l o p m e n t a s s o o n a s t h e b r e a k i n g p o i n t b e t w e e n a s s e s s m e n t v a l u e a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l c o s t s i s r e a c h e d . To c o v e r s u c h l a n d w i t h a c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t ( o r p u r c h a s e o f d e v e l o p m e n t r i g h t s ) w i l l remove a l l l o n g - r a n g e p o t e n t i a l s , f o r c i n g t h e owner t o a n e a r f e e p r i c e u n l e s s s u c h r e s t r i c -t i o n b u i l d s up l a n d v a l u e s I n a d j a c e n t p a r c e l s u n d e r t h e same o w n e r s h i p . V o l u n t a r y " s c e n i c " e a s e m e n t s have b e e n r e c o r d e d i n some s u b d i v i s i o n maps where d o i n g so p l a i n l y e n h a n c e d t h e m a r k e t v a l u e o f t h e home s i t e s . Where t h e ob-j e c t i v e i s s c e n i c h i g h w a y o r t r a i l c o r r i d o r p r e s e r v a t i o n ( w h i c h c a n o b v i o u s l y be i n i t i a t e d o n l y b y g o v e r n m e n t ) t h e e n d e a v o r f a c e s n o t o n l y c o n g l o m e r a t i o n s o f s m a l l p a r c e l s b u t t h e v e r y j u x t a p o s e d i n t e n t o f s t r i p c o m m e r c i a l o r dense r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t . 1 2 A p p a r e n t l y t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e a b o v e e x p l a n a t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e c o s t o f t h e e a s e m e n t s i s b a s e d upon a c t u a l a p p r a i s a l s by t h e 106 County Assessor's Office i n situations where the county had a r e a l " interest i n acquiring an easement.1"5 The r e s u l t s of the Alameda County experience have been the same as the previous two counties--no conservation easements have been acquired i n the areas suggested by t h e i r plans. The main reason easements haven't been implemented here i s the lack of money—although the Board of Supervisors had o f f i c i a l l y ap-proved the application to higher governmental l e v e l s for grants "for a c q u i s i t i o n of property, or open space easements or de-velopmental r i g h t s . " Other reasons given were an erroneous one concerning the lack of state and federal enabling l e g i s l a t i o n , and the rather nebulous one that the public and law makers were not educated i n the easement concept. 1 4 Not ; a l l l o c a l experience with conservation easements has been so unproductive as the above three cases. For example, Monterey County, C a l i f o r n i a as of October 1, 1968 had acquired scenic easements covering 771.00 acres (318.14 acres i n perpetu-i t y , and 452.86 acres v a l i d u n t i l 1992) outside of subdivisions. Within approximately a dozen subdivisions the county now holds permanent easements covering 546.71 acres, and they have approved tentative maps of subdivisions with an- additional 180.30 acres of easements to be dedicated. 15 In addition to Monterey County's success with t h e i r ease-ment program at least two other Bay Area counties, Santa Clara and Marin, are acquiring easements dedicated by developers through subdivision. Thus far they have only acquired small numbers of easements covering small areas. However, these programs are r e l a t i v e l y new and some growth i s expected. 1^ 107 State governments, i n spite of Wisconsin's success with conservation easements, and New York's and Minnesota's continuing a c q u i s i t i o n programs for f i s h i n g easements, have shown no i n d i c a -t i o n of acceptance and implementation of the concept. Several states have investigated the p o s s i b i l i t e s of the use of easements however only a few i f any have actu a l l y acquired easements. . C a l i f o r n i a , i n the l a s t two or three years, has obtained about $2^ m i l l i o n of federal funds f o r the purchase of scenic easements along federal aid highways. So far they have located and made up a l i s t of easement a c q u i s i t i o n projects i n areas throughout the state. This has been a r e l a t i v e l y slow procedure because of the lack of experience i n the use of conservation easements among the right of way agents. At t h i s time there are no completed a c q u i s i t i o n s . 1 8 The federal government i n spite of the National Park Service's problems with the use of. conservation easements, has not given up i n i t s use of this device. In 1964 The Department of I n t e r i o r condemned an easement on the 47 acre Merrywood estate located along the Palisades of the Potomac River near Washington, D.C. at a cost to the government of $745,000. 1 9 Besides t h i s the Pish and W i l d l i f e Service i s s t i l l acquiring wetland easements, and the.federal grants are available to state and l o c a l agencies under various a c t s 2 0 f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of interests i n land. Two recent studies at the federal l e v e l have also added weight to the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the use of conservation easements. The President's National Commission on Urban Problems, which re-cently released the r e s u l t s of i t s two year study, recommends 108 that, "...states and l o c a l i t i e s , with the assistance of the federal government, use public land purchase and compensation techniques for the control of development i n situations where such approaches would accomplsih better r e s u l t s than t r a d i -t i o n a l police power r e g u l a t i o n s . " 2 1 The findings of President Johnson's Council on Recreation and Natural Beauty i n t h e i r report From Sea to Shining Sea,  A Report on Our National Heritage are even more e x p l i c i t . The council finds that since potential park and other rec-reati o n a l lands i n and around metropolitan areas are d i s -appearing at an alarming rate and land costs are continu-ing to r i s e , open space and recreational funds should be devoted primarily to a c q u i s i t i o n or reservation of new areas rather than immediate development of e x i s t i n g areas. Purchase of land or development rights or use of easements instead of f u l l t i t l e represent the most ef f e c t i v e ways of preserving open space i n the path of urban sprawl.22 Landowners Land developers, as has been discussed above, have found the dedication of conservation easements advantageous to certain forms of development, especially c l u s t e r development. The Homes  Association Handbook has pointed t h i s out to developers by saying, "The best way of assuring that the preservation of open space i s encouraged and that the interests of a l l parties are protected i s the device of granting open space easements to the l o c a l author-i t y . " 2 3 Developers l i k e the idea and have been helping to Oh spread l t . ^ However, a study conducted by the Wisconsin Highway Commission revealed that i n at least one area along the Great River Road, small developers who were building homes "...within the easement area contended that they could have sold more l o t s than the easement allowed. This, coupled with the loss of p r o f i t 109 from the additional homes they could have constructed, made them d i s s a t i s f i e d with the scenic easements."25 Commercial property owners who were interviewed along another part of the Road often expressed complete d i s s a t i s f a c -t i o n with the easement provisions. They especially objected to the sign r e s t r i c t i o n s l i m i t i n g the s i z e , l o c a t i o n , and use of signs within the easement area. These owners believed that signs were necessary to a t t r a c t motorists traveling along the highway. "Many owners were also d i s s a t i s f i e d with the easement provisions r e s t r i c t i n g the expansion or rebuilding of e x i s t -ing commercial establishments. They asserted that i t was necessary to allow f o r commercial expansion compatible with l o c a l needs and development."26 Residential landowners on the other hand, generally had a di f f e r e n t view. In interviews with a number of them i n one county the Highway Commission found that: New property owners affected by the easement revealed a f e e l i n g of apathy or indifference toward the easement r e s t r i c t i o n s . Many of the property owners indicated that although they were aware of certain frontage and use re-s t r i c t i o n s , they were unable to relate t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n with the stated intent of the scenic easement. This range of indifference may be a r e s u l t of the property owners' i n a b i l i t y to associate the preservation of the scenic beauty i n his area with the public i n t e r e s t . Thus the • property owner reveals a passive but guarded acceptance of the easement program.2? The study further concluded that some of the property owners' apathy toward scenic easements was due to the presence of undesirable development immediately outside of the easement area. I t was also noted that respondents to a questionnaire sent to non-resident owners approved of the easements, and a l l 110 o f the r e s i d e n t i a l landowners interviewed i n another area also approved of the easements. Other landowners have expressed t h e i r acceptance of the concept through t h e i r willingness to donate g i f t s o f conser-vation easements to public and private a u t h o r i t i e s . In the Washington, L.C. area there has been no " . . . i n d i c a t i o n that homeowners i n the area, upon whose property... easements have been imposed, f e e l that the government's action has had a de-trimental effect on t h e i r property."28 111 FOOTNOTES 1 Shirley Adelson Siegel, The Law of Open Space, (New Yorks Regional Plan Association, Inc., January, 1960), p. 29. 2 nTechniques for Preserving Open Spaces," Harvard Law Review, Vol." 75, No. 8, (June, 1962), p. 1635. ^Jan Krasnowiecki and Ann Louise Strong, "Compensable Regulations f or Open Space a Means of Controlling Urban Growth," Journal of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, Vol. 29, No. 2, TMay,.1963), p. 90. 4 For example see Norman Williams, Land Ac q u i s i t i o n for  Outdoor Recreation—Analysis of Selected Legal Problems. Report to the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, Study Report No. 16, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g Office, 1962), pp. 37-55. ^William H. Whyte, The Last Landscape, (Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Co., Inc.., 1968 ), "pp. 79-80. 6San Mateo County Planning Commission, Proposed Plan f or the  Skyline Scenic Route, (Redwood City , C a l i f o r n i a : November" 1965), p. 18" "'Marin County Planning Department, Parks and Recreation  Plan 1990, (San Rafael, C a l i f o r n i a : 1965), p. 547 ^Alameda County Planning Commission, Scenic Route Element of the General Plan, (Hayward, California"! May, 1966), p. 23. Dalton, Planner, San Mateo County Planning Department, Redwood Ci t y , C a l i f o r n i a , Interview with the Writer, December 27, 1968. 1 0Report of the Skyline Study Committee, (San Mateo County, C a l i f o r n i a : February 26, 1966), mimeo. ^Donald Aitken, Member Skyline Study Committee, San Mateo County, C a l i f o r n i a , Interview with the Writer, December 27, 1968. ' 2Walter S. Horchler, Planner, Marin County Planning Department, San Rafael, C a l i f o r n i a , Letter to the Writer, November 7, 1968. r c h l e r , Reply to a Questionnaire sent by the Writer, November 7, 1968. l 4 B e t t y Croly, Planner, Alameda County Planning Department, Hayward, C a l i f o r n i a , Interview with the Writer, December 31, 1968. 112 ^Beth Schardt, Chief Administrative Assistant, County of Monterey Planning Department, Salinas, C a l i f o r n i a , Letter to the Writer, November 7, 1968. 1 (\ Duane R. Ellwood, Planner, Ordinance Administration Section, Santa Clara County Planning Department, San Jose, C a l i f o r n i a , Interview with the Writer, January 2, 1969; Edward Ross Parkerson, Planner, Marin County Planning Department, San Rafael, C a l i f o r n i a , Interview with the Writer, January 3, 1969. 1 7 F o r examples C a l i f o r n i a , Georgia, New York and Rhode Island. 1ft Donald P. Van Riper, P r i n c i p a l Landscape Architect, C a l i f o r n i a D i v i s i o n of Highways, Sacramento, C a l i f o r n i a , Interview with the Writer, December 30, 1968. ^whyte, The Last Landscape, p. 99 . 2 0 F o r example the W i l d l i f e Restoration Act, 50 STAT 917 (1937) as amended; the Pish Restoration Act, 64 STAT 430 as amended; the Housing Act, sec. 702, (1961) as amended 1967; the Highway Be a u t i f i c a t i o n Act, sec. 319, (1965); the Food and Agriculture  Act sec. 103, (1962). 2 1 Quoted from ASPO Planning. Vol. 35, No. 1, January, 1969, p. 4 . 2 2 I b i d . , p.- 8 . 2^"The Homes Association Handbook," Urban Land I n s t i t u t e  Technical B u l l e t i n , No. 50, (1964), p. 225. 24 •Whyte, The Last Landscape, p. 96. ^Wisconsin Department of Transportation, "A Market Study of Properties Covered by Scenic Easements Along the Great River Road i n Vernon and Pierce Counties," Special Report, No. 5, (Madison, Wisconsin: October, 1967), p. 20. 2 6 I b i d . , p. 14. 2 7 I b i d . , p. 11. 9 f t ^°Ross D. Netherton and Marion Markham, Roadside Development  and 'Beautification: Legal Authority and Methods, Part I, (Washington, D.C: Highway Research Board, 1965), p. 69. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Open space i s one of the most important and most ne-glected parts of the urban f a b r i c . I t has often been viewed only i n i t s negative aspects, without seeing the v i t a l functions that well planned and c a r e f u l l y preserved open space i s capable of performing. The rush of rapid urbanization has consumed much land which might better have been l e f t open to exploit i t s values to society f o r recreation, food production, flood pre-vention, aesthetics, and even f o r shaping urban development. In order for open space to f u l f i l l these functions the use of the land must be l o g i c a l l y planned i n advance of development. Two methods for determining which lands should be l e f t open have been advanced i n recent years; one method i s termed environ-mental corridors, and the other method i s called physiographic determinism. Both of these approaches stress the importance of id e n t i f y i n g the natural q u a l i t i e s of the land, and then, control-l i n g development so these values are not l o s t . The pattern of land q u a l i t i e s which emerges from the use of these methods c l e a r l y shows the rela t i o n s h i p between the land that should re-main open and the natural features of the landscape. Conservation easements are only one of several techniques f o r preserving open space and recreational areas. Various ap-proaches involving the use of the police power, the power of taxation, compensable, regulations, fee and less than fee simple a c q u i s i t i o n have been i l l u s t r a t e d . Conservation easements f i t into the l a t t e r category, however, i t should be remembered that these techniques must be used i n concert for an effective open space preservation program. 114 Conservation easements are not a new idea, although, i n spite of use by the National Park Service i n the 1930's and the Wisconsin Highway Commission since 1952, they were not widely known u n t i l 1959. Since they were f i r s t applied they have evolved into a wide range of applications to serve the interests of society i n conservation, recreation, public services, aesthetics and i n structuring urban growth. During the 19th century the l e g a l concept of the i n d i v -idual's r i g h t s i n private property was very strong. The 20th century has seen a s h i f t i n emphasis toward the interests of society as a whole i n c o n t r o l l i n g the use of property. This has had an important bearing on the l e g a l aspects of conser-vation easements. In order for governments to acquire land or interests i n land they must be able to show that I t i s for a public purpose. Since the courts' interpretations of a public purpose have been broadening, the way has been paved f o r a f u l l e r use of the conservation easement technique. Also, as the use of t h i s technique has spread, valuable experience and reinforcement has been gained through l e g a l decisions involving the use of easements. One of the most widely held misconceptions about con-servation easements i s that they cost almost as much as the fee simple t i t l e . In f a c t , the cost of an easement Is very lar g e l y a function of the kind of easement and the r e s t r i c t i o n s i t im-poses., i . e . whether i t i s a scenic easement or a flood easement. The cost also r e f l e c t s the techniques of appraisal and nego-t i a t i o n , the p o s s i b i l i t y of a g i f t , the effect of the easement on land values, and to a large extent the enthusiasm of the 115 a c q u i s i t i o n personnel. The experience, thus far,'with most kinds of conservation easements, c l e a r l y indicates that a substantial savings can be r e a l i z e d through the purchase of easements rather than the fee simple. The use of conservation easements has very great tax im-p l i c a t i o n s to landowners involved i n an easement program. I t has been c l e a r l y established that g i f t s of easements to a public agency or a private non-profit group are deductible from federal income and estate taxes. In the case of a sale of an easement to a public body i t has not been d e f i n i t e l y determined whether t h i s should receive favorable tax treatment by being classed as c a p i t a l gains or whether i t should be treated as ordinary income. However, the weight of opinion seems to be that income from the sale of an easement w i l l be treated as c a p i t a l gains. Another important tax concern of an owner of land r e s t r i c t e d by an ease-ment i s the property tax. In theory i f the value of the property i s reduced by the easement the assessment should be reduced ac-cordingly. However i n practice, l i m i t e d studies have shown that easements were not considered i n most assessment procedures. Private conservation organizations, u n t i l t h i s time have not been very active i n acquiring conservation easements. How-ever, there i s an important place for them i n an easement ac-q u i s i t i o n program, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n situations where public agencies cannot act s w i f t l y enough to make an a c q u i s i t i o n or don't have s u f f i c i e n t available funds. They also provide a valuable service i n that t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s are not bound by j u r i s d i c t i o n a l boundaries, and they are not as subject to p o l i t -i c a l pressures as public agencies. In addition they can act as 116 a perpetual enforcement agency to see that the r e s t r i c t i o n s are maintained on easements w i l l e d to public agencies. The form of organization adopted by the private group has important i m p l i -cations f or i t s capacity to participate i n an easement program. The problems of enforcing the r e s t r i c t i o n s imposed by easements have larg e l y centered on the landowner's confusion as to the conditions of the agreement. I t has been found that by c l a r i f y i n g the terms of the agreement, and by i n s t i t u t i n g a systematic program of communications between the agencies and owners, many of the enforcement problems have been eliminated. F i n a l l y , the question of whether conservation easements are an accepted means of preserving open space i s subject to d i f f e r i n g views. Most experts i n the f i e l d are w i l l i n g to concede the values of the aproach, however many are careful to point out the problems. Governments have not shown any wide-spread acceptance of the technique, although there does appear to be an increasing use of i t and int e r e s t i n i t . Landowners too are not united i n t h e i r views. Owners of commercial proper t i e s and some small developers are d i s s a t i s f i e d with the re-s t r i c t i o n s imposed by conservation easements. Residential land owners and other developers, on the other hand, are either apathetic towards the.easements or favor them. The findings of t h i s analysis of conservation easements can now be brought to bear on the focus of the study: the effe tiveness of the use of conservation easements as a means of preserving open space. Perhaps the best way of demonstrating that conservation easements are i n fact an ef f e c t i v e means of preserving open 117 s p a c e i s t o p o i n t t o t h e e x i s t i n g s u c c e s s f u l e a s e m e n t p r o g r a m s b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t i n W i s c o n s i n , a n d New Y o r k , a n d by t h e f e d e r a l F i s h a n d W i l d l i f e S e r v i c e a s w e l l a s b y a f e w l o c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n C a l i f o r n i a a n d e l s e w h e r e . The u n s u c c e s s f u l e a s e m e n t p r o g r a m o f t h e N a t i o n a l P a r k S e r v i c e a n d t h e u n t r i e d p r o p o s a l s o f s e v e r a l s t a t e a n d l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s s h o u l d n o t d e t r a c t f r o m a n a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . The P a r k S e r v i c e f a i l u r e was due l a r g e l y t o t h e l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e o f how t o c a r r y o u t a n e a s e m e n t p r o g r a m i n t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e u s e o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e . A n d t h e r e a s o n many e a s e m e n t p r o g r a m s h a v e n e v e r b e e n I m p l e m e n t e d i s t h e l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n p u b l i c a g e n c i e s o f what c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s a r e a n d how t h e y f u n c t i o n . N o t o n l y h a v e t h e s u c c e s s f u l p r o g r a m s shown t h a t c o n s e r -v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s c a n be u s e d e f f e c t i v e l y , b u t a l s o t h e y h a v e b e e n i n s t r u m e n t a l i n c l a r i f y i n g t h e i s s u e s a n d s o l v i n g t h e p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r e i n e v i t a b l e i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a d e v e l o p -i n g c o n c e p t . The e v o l u t i o n o f t h e t e c h n i q u e h a s now p r o g r e s s e d t o t h e p o i n t w h e r e e n o u g h a n s w e r s h a v e b e e n f o u n d a n d i m p r o v e -m e n t s made i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n , t a x a t i o n a n d e n f o r c e m e n t p r o c e ~ d u r e s t o make e a s e m e n t a c q u i s i t i o n a v a l u a b l e a s s e t t o o p e n s p a c e p r o g r a m s . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h r o u g h t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e b y t h e p e o p l e who a r e r e s p o n -s i b l e f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g o r r e c o m m e n d i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e , a s w e l l a s by many o f t h e l a n d o w n e r s who a r e a f f e c t e d by a n e a s e m e n t p r o g r a m . A l l o f t h e s e p e o p l e l o o k a t a t e a s e -m e n t s f r o m t h e i r own v i e w p o i n t a n d i n t r o d u c e t h e i r own c o n c e r n s a n d p r e j u d i c e s i n t o t h e i r a t t i t u d e s a b o u t e a s e m e n t s . N o t a l l 118 o f them e n d o r s e t h e u s e o f e a s e m e n t s , h o w e v e r t h e r e i s e n o u g h s u b s t a n c e I n t h e a p p r o a c h t o p r e s e n t a t l e a s t some a p p e a l t o b o t h p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s a n d l a n d o w n e r s . Thus i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s h a s b e e n p r o v e n c o r r e c t , i . e . CONSERVATION EASEMENTS ARE AN EFFECTIVE MEANS OF PRESERVING OPEN SPACE. S i n c e i t h a s b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e -ments a r e e f f e c t i v e i n p r e s e r v i n g o pen s p a c e t h e a n a l y s i s s h o u l d now be e x t e n d e d t o d e t e r m i n e a t what l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t t h e y c a n b e s t be i m p l e m e n t e d . The l a n d w h i c h s h o u l d r e m a i n a s o p e n s p a c e t o s e r v e s o c i e t y ' s n e e d s c a n l o g i c a l l y be d e t e r m i n e d b y a s t u d y o f t h e n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . These n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s a r e n o t r e s t r i c t e d b y l o c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s , a n d t h e r e f o r e l a r g e s c a l e c o n t i g u o u s open s p a c e l a n d o f t e n e x t e n d s t h r o u g h s e v e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s . S i n c e e a c h j u r i s d i c t i o n I s m o t i v a t e d by i t s own c o n c e r n s a n d p r e j u d i c e s , w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o o t h e r s , a n o p e n s p a c e p r o g r a m u s i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s b a s e d on n a t u r a l f e a t u r e s c a n b e s t be i m p l e m e n t e d b y a l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t w i t h j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r t h e e n t i r e a r e a p r e s e r v e d f o r open s p a c e f u n c t i o n s . T h i s i s t r u e e v e n i n s i t u a t i o n s w h ere a v a r i e t y o f o p e n s p a c e p r e s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a r e t o be u s e d . A l t h o u g h t h e m e t h o d s o f p r e s e r v i n g o p e n s p a c e w h i c h i n v o l v e t h e u s e o f t h e p o l i c e p ower o r o f f e r r e a l p r o p e r t y t a x a d v a n t a g e s a r e p r i m a r i l y u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s , n e v e r -t h e l e s s i t i s t h e i m p o r t a n t i n t e g r a t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s b e t w e e n j u r i s d i c t i o n s w h i c h c a n b e s t come f r o m a h i g h e r l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t s . 119 A n a n a l y s i s o f t h e u s e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s shows t h a t - s t a t e a n d f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t s h a v e h a d t h e m o s t e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r u s e , h o w e v e r i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r e a r e s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s s e r v e d b y o p e n s p a c e w h i c h c a n b e s t be r e a l i z e d a n d p r e s e r v e d t h r o u g h a c t i o n by o n l y one o f t h e l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t i s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f w e t l a n d e a s e m e n t s a s a p a r t o f t h e I n t e r s t a t e a nd i n t e r n a t i o n a l w a t e r f o w l c o n c e r n . A n o t h e r e x a m p l e i s t h e l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s ' u s e o f e a s e m e n t s t o p r e s e r v e open s p a c e w i t h i n s u b d i v i s i o n s , s i n c e t h e y a r e t h e l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s u b d i v i s i o n c o n t r o l . The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f s c e n i c b e a u t y t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f s c e n i c e a s e m e n t s a l o n g s t a t e h i g h w a y s i s a n e x a m p l e o f t h e l o g i c a l s e l e c t i o n o f s t a t e l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t f o r t h a t p u r p o s e . The s t a t e g o v e r n m e n t s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a u t h o r i z i n g t h e u s e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s f o r p r e s e r v i n g o p e n s p a c e t h r o u g h t h e c p a s s a g e o f e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . By a l l o w i n g t h e s t a t e a g e n c i e s t o a c q u i r e t h e e a s e m e n t s i n s t e a d o f t h e l o c a l g o v e r n -ments t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a l l t h e l o w e r l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t m a k i n g i n d e p e n d e n t d e c i s i o n s a n d p a s s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n o f t h e i r own t o a c q u i r e e a s e m e n t s w o u l d be o b v i a t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e l e g a l k n o w l e d g e o f t h e w o r k i n g s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s may n o t be a v a i l a b l e i n many l o c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s w h e r e a s a t h i g h e r g o v e r n -m e n t a l l e v e l s t h i s k n o w l e d g e c a n be r e t a i n e d i n f e w e r h a n d s w h i c h a r e e f f e c t i v e o v e r b r o a d e r a r e a s . A p p r a i s i n g a n d n e g o t i a t i n g f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s r e q u i r e s t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l . A s a r g u e d a b o v e , t h i s t r a i n i n g m i g h t n o t be a v a i l a b l e i n l o c a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s , b u t a t h i g h e r 120 l e v e l s a f e w s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s c a n h a n d l e a p p r a i s a l a n d n e g o t i a t i o n o v e r a w i d e r a r e a . T h i s t r a i n i n g a n d more c e n t r a l c o n t r o l o v e r a p p r a i s a l w o u l d a l s o e n s u r e more f a i r a n d u n i f o r m c o m p e n s a t i o n t o t h e l a n d o w n e r s . S i n c e t h e e n f o r c e m e n t o f e a s e m e n t r e s t r i c t i o n s h a s b e e n shown t o be so v i t a l l y c o n -n e c t e d w i t h a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e d u r e t h e same a g e n c i e s w h i c h do t h e a c q u i r i n g s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e n f o r c e m e n t a t w h a t e v e r g o v e r n m e n t a l l e v e l t h a t m i g h t b e . A s h a s b e e n p o i n t e d o u t w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c o s t s o f a c q u i r i n g e a s e m e n t s , t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t w i l l p a y up t o 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o s t o f t h e a c q u i s i t i o n . H o w e v e r , i n a l a r g e s c a l e e a s e m e n t a c q u i s i t i o n p r o g r a m t h i s m i g h t s t i l l i n v o l v e c o n s i d e r a b l e sums o f money f o r l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t s . F o r t h a t r e a s o n I t w o u l d be b e t t e r t o s p r e a d t h e c o s t s o v e r a s l a r g e a t a x b a s e a s p o s s i b l e w i t h i n t h e a r e a b e n e f i t e d b y t h e p r o g r a m . I t h a s b e e n shown t h a t t a x a d v a n t a g e s p r o v i d e i n c e n t i v e s f o r t h e g i f t s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s , and t h a t t h e y c a n e n s u r e t h a t t h e p r o p e r t y owner who s e l l s an-.easement I s t r e a t e d f a i r l y . E a c h l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t h a s i t s own t a x p o l i c i e s , a n d e a c h one c a n make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o w a r d t h e s u c c e s s o f a c o n s e r -v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s p r o g r a m by s e e i n g t o i t t h a t - p r o p e r t y o w n e r s . y who s e l l o r g i v e e a s e m e n t s a r e a f f o r d e d f a i r t a x t r e a t m e n t . I t h a s n o t b e e n d e t e r m i n e d w h i c h l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t i s i n t h e b e s t p o s i t i o n t o p r o m o t e t h e u s e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s t h r o u g h o f f e r i n g t a x a d v a n t a g e s . The r o l e o f p r i v a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h o u l d n o t be o v e r l o o k e d . They h a v e a v e r y i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o p l a y i n a c q u i r i n g e a s e m e n t s . As f a r a s c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s 121 w i t h v a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t s i s c o n c e r n e d i t c a n p e r h a p s be c o n -c l u d e d t h a t t h i s w o u l d be e a s i e r a t h i g h e r l e v e l s o f g o v e r n -ment w h e r e t h e r e a r e n o t so many j u r i s d i c t i o n s t o cope w i t h . F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s d e p e n d o n t h e s t a t e s f o r t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a u t h o r i z a t i o n , c l o s e r l i a i s o n w i t h t h i s l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t m i g h t p r o m o t e t h e a u t h o r i z a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s more c o n d u c i v e t o e a s e m e n t a c q u i s i t i o n . The a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e u s e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s h a s n o t b e e n o v e r w h e l m i n g a t a n y l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t , o r by p r o -p e r t y o w n e r s e i t h e r . By a n d l a r g e t h i s h a s b e e n t h e r e s u l t o f a l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e a n d m i s c o n c e p t i o n s a b o u t w h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s a r e a n d how t h e y w o r k . The e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f t h e u s e o f e a s e m e n t s c a n b e s t be a c c o m p l i s h e d b y p l a c i n g t h e m i n t h e h a n d s o f k n o w l e d g a b l e p e o p l e who c a n d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r v a l u e t o p r o p e r t y o w n e r s a n d o t h e r o f f i c i a l s . S i n c e t h i s r e q u i r e s a d e g r e e o f s p e c i a l i z e d k n o w l e d g e i t i s p r o b a b l y m o s t p r a c t i c a l t o c a r r y o u t a t h i g h e r l e v e l s o f g o v e r n m e n t . T h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s i t c a n be s e e n t h a t v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n t h e s t u d y m i t i g a t e f o r d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n s a s t o w h i c h l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t c a n b e s t i m p l e m e n t c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t p r o g r a m s , l l o s i n g l e l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t i s i d e a l l y e q u i p p e d t o c a r r y o u t s u c h p r o g r a m s f o r a l l p u r p o s e s a n d u n d e r a l l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . E a c h l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t a s w e l l a s p r i v a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e a s p e c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t h e y c a n make d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e p u r p o s e s t h e e a s e m e n t i s t o s e r v e a n d t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s u n d e r w h i c h i t i s t o be a c q u i r e d a n d h e l d . T h e r e f o r e , i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t o n l y some c o n s e r v a t i o n e a s e m e n t s SHOULD BE IMPLEMENTED BY LOCAL PUB L I C AGENCIES; a n d t h a t t h e c h o i c e a s t o w h i c h l e v e l o f g o v e r n m e n t o r p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n c a n b e s t i m p l e m e n t a p r o g r a m s h o u l d be b a s e d o n a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e e a s e m e n t s * p u r p o s e s a n d t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g i t , a s w e l l a s on a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e v a r i o u s p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e b o d i e s . 123 APPENDIX A EASEMENT RIGHTS ACQUIRED BY THE U.S. BUREAU OP SPORTS FISHERIES, AND WILDLIFE "The parties of the f i r s t part, for themselves and f o r t h e i r h e i r s , successors and assigns, covenant and agree that they w i l l cooperate i n the maintenance of the aforesaid lands as a waterfowl production area by not draining or permitting the draining, through the transfer of appurtenant water rights or otherwise, of any surface water including lakes, ponds, marshes, sloughs, swales, swamps, or potholes, now e x i s t i n g or recurring due to natural causes on the above-described t r a c t , by ditching o r any other means: by not f i l l i n g i n with earth or any other material or l e v e l i n g , any part or portion of the above-described t r a c t on which surface water or marsh vegetation i s now e x i s t i n g o r hereafter reoccurs due to natural causes; and by not burning any areas covered with marsh vegetation. I t i s understood and agreed that t h i s indenture imposes no other obligation or r e s t r i c t i o n s upon the parties of the f i r s t part and that neither they nor t h e i r successors, assigns, lessees, or any other person o r party claiming, under them s h a l l i n any way be r e s t r i c t e d from carrying on farming practices such as grazing, hay cutting, plowing, working and cropping wetlands when the same are dry of natural causes, and that they may u t i l i z e a l l of the subject lands i n the customary manner except for the draining, f i l l i n g , l e v e l i n g , and burning provisions metioned above." 124 APPENDIX B WISCONSIN PISHING AND HUNTING EASEMENT THIS INDENTURE made this day of 19 by and between ...and , his wife, of County, Wisconsin, Grantor..; and the State of Wis-consin (Conservation Commission), Grantee. WHEREAS, the Grantor the owner . . in fee simple of certain real estate which is in, near to, or adjacent to a Wisconsin Conservation Depart-ment project area now known as and located in County, Wisconsin, and WHEREAS, the Grantee, through its State Conser-vation Commission, desires -to develop, operate and maintain such lands as a public hunting and/or public fishing area for use and benefit of the general public, NOW, THEREFORE, WITNESSETH: For and in consideration of the sum of $ paid by the Grantee to the Grantor . . , receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, and in consideration of the covenants hereinafter con-tained, the Grantor.. hereby agree . . to sell, transfer, grant, and convey to the Grantee, upon acceptance by said Grantee, an easement and right in perpetuity to develop, operate and maintain a public hunting and/or fishing area on the following described real estate, which acceptance must be made by the Grantee within months from the date hereof: the location of said easement is shown on Exhibit " A " attached, hereto, and made a part hereof. The price to be paid to Grantor.. by Grantee for such easement is $ The purpose and intent of this instrument is to create an casement for the use of the above described premises by the general public for fishing and hunting. It is mutually covenanted and agreed by and between the parties hereto that the use of premises as a fishing and hunting area, for the use and benefit of the general public shall include the following rights, privileges and easements: 1. The general public shall have the right to hunt game on said premises and to catch and take fish in the waters thereon by legal means and for this purpose to travel in and along such' waters and to utilize the lands above described to the extent necessary for the full enjoyment of this right, privilege and easement. 2. The Grantee shall have the right: (a) To develop such waters by installation and maintenance of current deflectors, covers, and retarders and any other means deemed necessary by the Grantee for the purpose of fostering, improving and enhancing fishing therein without inter-ference with Grantor..use of land; and (b) To post such signs and posters along said lands as are deemed necessary and suitable to de-lineate the above lands and locate them for public use; and (c) To protect from erosion the land above described by mechanical means such as fencing and crossovers or by the planting of trees, plants or shrubs where and to the extent deemed necessary for the protection of the stream or lake. 3. The Grantor . . reserve .. to themselves, their heirs and assigns, the right (a) to the use of the said land, including the right of fishery in said stream, insofar as such right is not inconsistent with the use of the same as a public fishing and hunting area and with the rights, privileges and easements hereby granted, and (b) to use the water in the stream for domestic purposes in-cluding watering cattle and other stock. The Grantee agrees to assist the Grantor.. in correcting any conditions which are detrimental to the Grantor . . resulting from such use, within six months following receipt of a written request for such assist-ance made to it by the Grantor . . , within six months from the time the alleged damage occurred. The Grantor . . further agree . . to release the Grantee from any claims of damage which may arise as a result of floods and flash floods on the lands described on the previous page. To have and to hold the said easement hereby granted, unto the Grantee forever. A covenant is hereby made with the State of Wis-consin that the Grantor . . hold.. the premises de-scribed on the previous page included in the "re-stricted area" by good and perfect title; having good right and lawful authority to . sell and convey the same; that the premises are free and clear from all liens and encumbrances whatsover except as herein-after set forth. The Grantor.., for themselves, their heirs, ex-ecutors, administrators, grantees, successors, and assigns, further covenant and agree that they will neither lease nor convey any other easement in any way affecting said "restricted area" without first securing the written permission of the State Con-servation Commission of Wisconsin or its successor or successors. And being the owner . . and holder . . of certain lien which is (Insert detail concerning lien) against said premises, do..hereby join in and con-sent to said conveyance free of said lien. WITNESS the hands and seals of the Grantor . . and of any person joining in and consenting to this con-veyance on the day and year hereinbefore written. APPENDIX C WISCONSIN WETLANDS EASEMENT 125 THIS INDENTURE made this day of ', 19 by and between and his wife, of County, Wisconsin, Grantor . . ; and the State of Wis-consin (Conservation Commission), Grantee. WHEREAS, the Grantor the owner . . in fee simple of certain real estate which is in, near to, or adjacent to a Wisconsin Conservation Depart-ment project area now known as and located in County, Wisconsin, and WHEREAS, the said lands contain and include wet-land, marsh and water areas which the Grantee desires to obtain, protect and preserve. NOW, THEREFORE, WITNESSETH: For and in consideration of the sum of$ paid by the Grantee to the Grantor . . , receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, and in con-sideration of the covenants hereinafter contained, the Grantor . . hereby agree . . to sell, transfer, grant, and convey to the Grantee, upon acceptance by said Grantee, an easement and right in perpetuity to any and all portions of the following described real estate, in-cluding the right of access thereto, which acceptance must be made by the Grantee within months from the date hereof: the location of said easement being shown on Exhibit " A " attached, hereto, and made a part hereof. The price to be paid to Grantor . . by Grantee for such easement is $ The Grantor . . , for themselves and for their heirs, successors and assigns, covenant and agree that they will cooperate in the maintenance of the aforesaid land as wetland, including streams, springs, lakes, ponds, marshes, sloughs, swales, swamps, or potholes, now existing or hereafter occurring on the above-described tract by not draining or permitting the draining, through the transfer of appurtenant water rights or otherwise, of any of said wetlands by ditching or any other means; by not filling in with earth or any other material, any low areas or said wetlands; and by not burning any areas covered with marsh vegetation. It is understood and agreed that this indenture imposes no other obligations or restrictions upon the parties of the first part and thai neither they nor their heirs, successors, assigns, lessees, licensees, or any other person or party claiming under them shall in any way be restricted from carrying on farming practices such as grazing, hay cutting, plowing, working and cropping wetlands when the same are dry of natural causes, and that they may utilize all of the subject lands in the customary manner except for the draining, filling, and burning provisions mentioned above. To' have and to hold the said easement hereby granted, unto the Grantee forever. A covenant is hereby made with the State of Wis-consin that the Grantor . . hold.. the premises de-scribed on the previous page included in the "re-stricted area" by good and perfect title; having good right and lawful authority to sell and convey the same; that the premises are free and clear from all liens and encumbrances whatsoever except as hereinafter set forth. The Grantor.., for themselves, their heirs, ex-ecutors, administrators, grantees, successors, and assigns, further covenant and agree that they will neither lease nor convey any other easement in any way affecting said "restricted area" without first securing the written permission of the State Conser-vation Commission of Wisconsin or its successor or successors. AND • being the owner.. and holder . . of certain l ien . . . which is (Insert detail concerning lien) against said premises, do..hereby join in and con-sent to said conveyance free of said lien. 126 APPENDIX D MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA SUBDIVISION EASEMENT DEED The undersigned also hereby dedicates for public use a l l Drainage Easements, Public U t i l i t i e s Easements, and View Easements as shown on said map, such easements as shorn to be kept open and free from permanent buildings and structures of any kind. The Equestrian and Hiking Easements shown upon Lots 7 and 13 are expressly not dedicated to public use but are reserved f o r the exclusive use of the undersigned, i t s successors and assigns. That the subscribers to t h i s statement are a l l who are necessary to pass clear t i t l e to the lands shown upon t h i s map-exclusive of streets already dedicated. 127 APPENDIX E CALIFORNIA SCENIC EASEMENT DEED 'Approved as to form by Attorney General October 23, 1946 THIS INDENTURE, made this day of , 194 , by and between as Grantors and State of California, Grantee, WITNESSETH: WHEREAS, the said Grantors, are the owners in fee of the real property, hereinafter described, situate in Tuolumne County, California, in the Town of Colum-bia, and within the boundaries of the proposed Town of Columbia State Park; and WHEREAS, the said State of California owns certain real property adjoining the said property of the said Grantors, or adjacent thereto, which property con-stitutes a portion of Town of Columbia State Park, and which park is a part of the State Park System of the State of California; and WHEREAS, the State Park Commission of California has determined that the greatest use and benefit to be derived from said State Park by the people of the State of California is through the maintenance and preservation of said State Park and the surrounding area in its present natural state of scenic and his-torical attractiveness; and WHEREAS, the said land of said Grantors likewise has certain attractive scenic features; and WHEREAS, it has been determined by the said State Park Commission of California that the preservation and conservation of the scenic, and historical area adjacent to lands owned by the State in the park and the securing, by the State, of a scenic easement, over, across and upon the said lands of the said Grantors is necessary to the extension and development of said State Park System; and WHEREAS, the said Grantors are willing, for the consideration hereinafter named, to grant to the State of California the scenic use as hereinafter ex-pressed of their said land and thereby the protection to the present scenic attractiveness of said area which will result in the restricted use and enjoyment by the Grantors of their said property because of the im-position of the conditions in connection therewith hereinafter expressed; Now THEREFORE, for and in consideration of the premises and the sum of One Dollar to the Grantors in hand paid, the receipt whereof is hereby acknowl-. edged, said Grantors do hereby grant and convey unto the State of California, an estate, interest and scenic easement in said real estate of said Grantors, of the nature and character and to the extent herein-after expressed to be and to constitute a servitude upon said real estate of the Grantors, which estate, interest, easement and servitude will result from the restrictions hereby imposed upon the use of said property of said Grantors, and to that end and for the purpose of accomplishing the intent of the parties hereto said Grantors covenant on behalf of them-selves, their heirs, successors and assigns, with the said Grantee, its successors and assigns to do and refrain from doing, severally and collectively, upon the Grantor's said property, the various acts herein-after mentioned it being hereby agreed and expressed that the doing and the refraining from said acts, and each thereof, upon said property is and will be for the benefit of the said State Park hereinbefore mentioned, of the State of California, and will help preserve the Town of Columbia as a Historic Site. The restrictions hereby impose upon the use of said property of the Grantors, and the acts which said Grantors so covenant to do and refrain from doing upon their said property in connection therewith are and shall be as follows: 1. That no structures of any kind will be placed or erected upon said described premises until appli-cation therefor, with plans and specifications of such structures, together with a statement of the purpose for which the structure will be used, has been filed with and written approval obtained from the said State Park Commission; 2. That no advertising of any kind or nature shall be located on or within said property without written approval being first obtained from the State Park Commission; 3. That no painting or exterior surfacing which, in the opinion and judgment of the said State Park Commission, are inharmonious with the landscape and general surroundings, shall be used on the ex-terior of any structures now located on such prop-erty, or which may, as hereinbefore provided be constructed thereon; 4. That no structual changes or additions shall be made to any of the buildings on said property until an application therefor has been made to and written approval thereof obtained from said State Park Commission; 5. That all new plantings by the Grantors shall be confined to native plants characteristic of the Columbia State Park region, except flowers, vege-tables, berries, fruit trees and farm crops; 6. That the general topography of the landscape shall be maintained in its present condition and that no excavation or topographic changes shall be made without the written approval of the State Park Commission; 7. That no use of said described property, which, in the opinion and judgment of said State Park 128 Commission, will or does materially alter the land-scape or other attractive scenic features of said land, or will be inconsistent with State Park rules and regulations, or with the proper operation of a State Park, other than those specified above shall be done or suffered without the written consent of the said State Park Commission. 8. The land of the Grantors, hereinabove referred to and to which the provisions of this instrument apply, is situate in the County of Tuolumne, State of California, and is particularly described as follows, to-wit: EXCEPTING AND RESERVING to the Grantor: a. The right to maintain all of the buildings now existing and if all or any of them shall be destroyed or damaged by fire, storm, or other casualty, to re-store the same in conformity with the design and type of building of the historic period which the State Park has been established to commemorate; the plans to be submitted and approved by the State Park Commission as provided in Paragraph 1 hereof; b. Nothing in this instrument shall be construed to affect the right of the Grantors to construct on said premises wells, cistern, cellars, and septic tanks necessary to the maintenance of the property now being constructed or may hereafter be approved for construction by the State Park Commission. c. If at any time the State of California shall abandon the Town of Columbia State Park, then on the happening of such event all the rights and privileges and easements by this instrument granted and given to the State shall cease and determine to the same effect as though this instrument had never been executed by the Grantors. To HAVE AND TO HOLD unto the said State of Cali-fornia, its successors and assigns forever. This grant shall be binding upon the heirs and assigns of the ' said Grantors and shall constitute a servitude' upon the above described land. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the Grantors have hereunto set their hands the day and year in this instrument .first above mentioned. STATE OF CALIFORNIA ) COUNTY OF J ss. On this day of , 19 , before me, , a Notary Public in and for said County, duly commissioned, personally •appeared ^ known to me to be the person whose name subscribed to the foregoing instru-ment, and acknowledged to me that he executed the same. WITNESS my hand and official seal: Notary Public in and for the County of State of California. BE IT RESOLVED, that Newton B. Drury and Everett E. Powell be, and they are each hereby, authorized to accept in writing deeds or grants conveying to the State of California, as Grantee, real estate or any interest therein, or easements thereon, the purchase of which is authorized by the State Park Commission and thereby consent, for and on behalf of said Grantee, to the recordation thereof in accordance with the provisions of Section 27281 of the Govern-ment Code of the State of California. I HEREBY CERTIFY the foregoing is a full, true and correct copy of the resolution adopted by the Cali-fornia State Park Commission at its meeting held August 30, 1952. Executive Secretary In accordance with.the foregoing resolution, I, the undersigned, hereby accept the conveyance hereto attached from ___ to the State of California day of ~- _• i 9 — ; . . 129 APPENDIX P WISCONSIN SCENIC EASEMENT DEED THIS CONVEYANCE made on the .day of "" . . . , 19 . . . , between [name deleted].... of Town of Holland, La Crosse County, State of j Wisconsin, hereinafter called FIRST PARTIES, and the State of Wisconsin, hereinafter called SECOND PARTY, acting through the State Highway Commission of Wisconsin, ! WITNESSETH: WHEREAS, the FIRST PARTIES are the owners in fee simple of certain real estate which is near to or adjacent to a certain highway now known as S.T.H. 93, which real estate is located in La Crosse County, Wisconsin, and is more particularly described as follows: | The NE-l/4 - NW-l/4 and the NW-l/4 - NW-l/4, ! Sec. 36, T 18 N, R 8 W. ; Now being used for building site and agriculture or horticulture uses, all conforming to permitted uses. AND WHEREAS, the said highway is so located as j to be a logical portion of the proposed Mississippi j River National Parkway, the SECOND PARTY, through its State Highway Commission, desires to construct the said highway to standards appropriate for such Parkway, and therefore desires to preserve, insofar as reasonably is possible, the natural beauty of the roadsides, and to prevent any unsightly developments that will tend to mar or detract from such natural beauty or to degrade the character of the project as constructed, or result in danger to travel on the high- j way, and to that end to exercise such reasonable con- j trols over the lands within the restricted areas j described hereinafter as may be necessary to accom- j plish such objectives, [ NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the sum j of $150.00 paid by the. SECOND PARTY to the FIRST j PARTIES, receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, j the FIRST PARTIES hereby sell, transfer, grant, and , convey to .the SECOND PARTY an easement and right in perpetuity to any and all portions of the real estate hereinbefore described (exclusive of any acquired and recorded highway right of way) described as follows: Beginning in Sec. 25, said town and range, on the west line approximately 12.7 feet north of the south-west corner thereof; thence along a reference line S 89° 48' E, 1989.5 feet (this portion of restricted area being 35.0 feet in width lying to the south of the above described reference line); thence S 13° 44' E, 1362.0 feet (this portion of restricted area being 350 feet in width, lying to the east of the above described reference line and being bounded on the north and south Toy the respective boundaries of said NE-l/4 - i .NW-l/4 which portion is hereby designated as j tte^'restricte^area'^ within.which: . i " (1) no building or premises shall be used and no building shall hereafter be erected or structurally altered except for one or more of the following uses: (a) Single family residences or tracts of not less than 5 acres. . • i (b) General farming, including farm buildings, except fur farms and farms operated for j the disposal of garbage, rubbish, offal or ! sewage. (c) Telephone, telegraph or electric lines or pipes or pipe lines or micro-wave radio relay structures for the purpose of trans-mitting messages, heat, light or power. (d) Uses incident to any of the above permitted uses, including accessory buildings. (e) Any use existing on the premises at the time of the execution of this easement. Existing commercial and industrial uses of lands and buildings may be continued, maintained and'repaired, but may not be expanded nor shall any structural altera-tion be made. (2) No dump of ashes, trash, sawdust or any un-sightly or offensive material shall be placed upon such restricted area except as is incidental to. the occupation and use of the land for normal agricultural or horticultural purposes. (3) No sign, billboard, outdoor advertising struc-ture or advertisement of any kind shall be erected, displayed, placed or maintained upon or within the restricted area, except one sign of not more than 8 square feet, in area to advertise the sale, hire or lease of the property or the sale of any such products as are produced upon the premises. (4) The conditions of this easement shall not prevent any permanent excavation or works necessary to the occupation or use of the restricted area for. purposes of the permitted uses. (5) No trees or shrubs shall be removed or destroyed on the land covered by this easement, ex-cept as may be incidental to the permitted uses. (6) The grant of this easement does in no way grant the public the right to enter such area for any purpose. To have and to hold the said easement hereby granted, unto the SECOND PARTY forever. A covenant is hereby made with the State of Wis-consin that the FIRST PARTIES hold the above-described premises, included in the "restricted area" by good and perfect title; having good right and lawful authority, to sell and convey the same; that the premises are free and clear from all liens and encumbrances whatsoever except as hereinafter set forUi. / The FIRST PARTIES, for themselves, their heirs, executors, administrators, grantees, successors, and assigns, further covenant and agree that they will neither lease nor convey any other easement in any way affecting said "restricted area" v/ithout first securing the written permission of the State High-way Commission of Wisconsin or its successor or successors. And [name deleted] being the •  owner 77 and holder . . . of a certain mortgage lien which is . . . against said prem-(Insert detail concerning lien) ises, does hereby join in and consent to said con-veyance free of said lien. WITNESS the hands and seals of the FIRST PARTIES and of any persons joining in and consenting to this conveyance on the day and year hereinbefore written. 130 APPENDIX G SANTA CLARA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA EXAMPLE FORMAT FOR DEDICATION OF DEVELOPMENT RIGHT EASEMENT ON COMMON OPEN SPACE THIS INDENTURE made t h i s _ _ _ _ _ _ day o f " " by and between ________^____________________ as G r a n t o r and the C o u n t y o f Sa n t a C l a r a , a p o l i t i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n o f t h e S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a , as G r a n t e e ; WHEREAS, t h e r e a l p r o p e r t y d e s c r i b e d i n E x h i b i t "A", w h i c h i s a t t a c h e d h e r e t o and by r e f e r e n c e i n c o r p o r a t e d h e r e i n , i s i n a R e s i d e n t i a l P l a n n e d Development Z o n i n g D i s t r i c t ; and WHEREAS, t h e O f f i c i a l Development P l a n f o r s a i d R e s i d e n t i a l P l a n n e d D e v e l o p -ment Z o n i n g D i s t r i c t , w h i c h was adop t e d by t h e Board o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f t h e County o f S a n t a C l a r a on , i s f i l e d i n t h e o f f i c e o f t h e C l e r k o f t h e B o a r d o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f t h e County o f S a n t a C l a r a ; and WHEREAS, s a i d O f f i c i a l Development P l a n i s t h e z o n i n g f o r s a i d d i s t r i c t ; and WHEREAS, the i n t e n t o f s a i d z o n i n g i s , i n p a r t , t o c r e a t e open s p a c e t h a t i s t o be m a i n t a i n e d and c o n t r o l l e d by t h e owners o f s a i d p r o p e r t y and t h e i r s u c c e s -s o r s i n i n t e r e s t , b u t t h a t i s t o be a c c e s s i b l e and a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e l e i s u r e and r e c r e a t i o n a l use o f the o c c u p a n t s o f t h e R e s i d e n t i a l P l a n n e d Development D i s t r i c t ; and WHEREAS, t h e r e a l p r o p e r t y d e s c r i b e d i n E x h i b i t "B", w h i c h i s a t t a c h e d h e r e t o and by r e f e r e n c e i n c o r p o r a t e d h e r e i n , i s d e s i g n a t e d o n t h e O f f i c i a l D e v e l o p -ment P l a n as open s p a c e ; and WHEREAS, such open s p a c e i s f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e l a n d i n t h e R e s i d e n t i a l P l a n n e d Development D i s t r i c t d e s c r i b e d i n E x h i b i t "A". 131 NOW, THEREFORE, G r a n t o r g r a n t s , d e d i c a t e s , and c o n v e y s t o G r a n t e e and i t s s u c c e s s o r i n i n t e r e s t a c o n t i n u i n g r i g h t and easement t o r e s t r i c t the use o f t h e p r o p e r t y d e s c r i b e d i n E x h i b i t "S11 i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the O f f i c i a l Development P l a n and t o t a k e any a c t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o p r e v e n t any o f the f o l l o w i n g : 1) t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s , s t r u c t u r e s , a d v e r t i s i n g s i g n s , and o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s on s a i d p r o p e r t y n o t shown on s a i d O f f i c i a l Development P l a n j o r 2) the use o f s a i d p r o p e r t y f o r o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g and l o a d i n g p u r p o s e s ; o r 3) the dumping o f t r a s h , weeds, o r any u n s i g h t l y o r o f f e n s i v e m a t e r i a l on s a i d p r o p e r t y ; or k) any o t h e r use n o t c o n t e m p l a t e d by t h e O f f i c i a l Development P l a n and ". t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e R e s i d e n t i a l P l a n n e d Development Z o n i n g O i s t r i c t . G r a n t o r r e t a i n s a l l r i g h t s n o t d e d i c a t e d i n c l u d i n g : 1) t h e r i g h t t o m a i n t a i n , p r e s e r v e , p r o t e c t , and c o n t r o l s a i d r e a l p r o p -e r t y ; and 2) t h e r i g h t t o l a n d s c a p e , t o p r o v i d e r e c r e a t i o n a l u s e s , and t o m a i n t a i n s a i d open s p a c e ; and 3) t h e r i g h t t o use and d e v e l o p the p r o p e r t y i n any way b o t h c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s h e r e i n imposed and c o n t e m p l a t e d by t h e O f f i c i a l Development P l a n and t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the R e s i d e n t i a l P l a n n e d Development Zoning D i s t r i c t . W i t h o u t l i m i t i n g t h e f o r e g o i n g G r a n t o r c o v e n a n t s , p r o m i s e s , and agrees t h a t the r e a l p r o p e r t y d e s c r i b e d i n E x h i b i t "B" s h a l l be l e f t v a c a n t , f r e e , and open as an easement and s e r v i t u d e between G r a n t o r and G r a n t e e and i t s s u c c e s s o r i n i n t e r e s t and t h a t no p a r t o f s a i d p r o p e r t y s h a l l be b u i l t on i n any way w h a t s o e v e r n o t shown on s a i d O f f i c i a l Development P l a n a d o p t e d by t h e B o a r d o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f t h e County o f S a n t a C l a r a . 132 G r a n t o r f u r t h e r c o v e n a n t s , p r o m i s e s , and a g r e e s t h a t G r a n t o r s h a l l n o t a t any t i m e b u i l d o r c a u s e t o be b u i l t any b u i l d i n g s , s t r u c t u r e s , a d v e r t i s i n g s i g n s , o r o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s on t h e p r o p e r t y d e s c r i b e d i n E x h i b i t "B" n o t shown on s a i d O f f i c i a l Development P l a n a d o p t e d by t h e Board o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f the C o u n t y , o f S a n t a C l a r a , nor s h a l l G r a n t o r use s a i d p r o p e r t y f o r o f f - s t r e e t l o a d i n g o r p a r k i n g p u r p o s e s , o r f o r dumping o f t r a s h , weeds, o r any u n s i g h t l y o r o f f e n s i v e m a t e r i a l on s a i d p r o p e r t y . I f , a t any t i m e t h e p r o p e r t y d e s c r i b e d i n E x h i b i t "B" o r any p o r t i o n t h e r e o f , s h a l l be h e r e a f t e r condemned by any p u b l i c agency, i n c l u d i n g t h e G r a n t e e , then and i n t h a t e v e n t t h i s c o n v e y a n c e , i n s o f a r as i t a f f e c t s t h e p o r t i o n condemned, s h a l l become n u l l and v o i d and a l l r i g h t , t i t l e , i n t e r e s t and e s t a t e o f t h e G r a n t e e i n the p o r t i o n condemned s h a l l r e v e r t t o and be r e v e s t e d i n the G r a n t o r , i t s s u c c e s s o r s and a s s i g n s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d and a g r e e d t h a t t h e s e d e d i c a t i o n s , g r a n t s , c o n v e y a n c e s , easements, s e r v i t u d e s , p r o m i s e s , c o v e n a n t s , and agreements s h a l l be b i n d i n g upon t h e a g e n t s , h e i r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , e x e c u t o r s , a s s i g n s , and s u c c e s s o r s i n i n t e r e s t o f G r a n t o r s t h a t t h e s e d e d i c a t i o n s , g r a n t s , c o n v e y a n c e s , easements, s e r v i t u d e s , p r o m i s e s , c o v e n a n t s , and agreements s h a l l r u n w i t h t h e l a n d , and t h a t f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s i n s t r u m e n t , t h e l a n d d e s c r i b e d i n E x h i b i t "B" s h a l l be the s e r v i e n t tenement and t h e l a n d b u i l t on under t h e O f f i c i a l Development P l a n a d o p t e d by t h e B o a r d o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f S a n t a C l a r a County s h a l l be t h e dominant t e n a n t . . 135 T h i s d e d i c a t i o n s h a l l be f o r e v e r , but i f t h e p r o p e r t y d e s c r i b e d i n E x h i b i t "B" i s no l o n g e r i n a R e s i d e n t i a l P l a n n e d Development Z o n i n g D i s t r i c t o r under any s i m i l a r r e g u l a t i o n imposed by t h e P u b l i c body h a v i n g j u r i s d i c t i o n t h e G r a n t o r o r h i s s u c c e s s o r s i n i n t e r e s t s h a l l have t h e r i g h t t o r e - e n t e r and power t o t e r m i n a t e t h i s d e d i c a t i o n , and t o t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f the l a n d t o h o l d , own, and p o s s e s s the same i n the same manner and t o t h e same e x t e n t as i f t h i s c o n v e y a n c e had n e v e r been made. E x e c u t e d t h i s day o f G r a n t o r STATE OF CALIFORNIA ) ) s s . COUNTY OF SANTA CLARA ) On t h i s day o f , 19 , b e f o r e me, "a N o t a r y P u b l i c i n and f o r s a i d County and S t a t e , r e s i d i n g t h e r e i n , d u l y c o m m i s s i o n e d and sworn, p e r s o n a l l y appeared known t o me t o be t h e p e r s o n d e s c r i b e d i n and whose name s u b s c r i b e d t o t h e a t t a c h e d i n s t r u m e n t , and acknowledged t o me t h a t he e x e c u t e d t h e same. IN V/ITilESS WHEREOF, I have h e r e u n t o s e t my hand and a f f i x e d my o f f i c i a l s e a l , t h e day and y e a r i n t h i s c e r t i f i c a t e f i r s t above w r i t t e n . N o t a r y P u b l i c i n and f o r t h e County o f S a n t a C l a r a , S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a 134 T h i s i s t o c e r t i f y t h a t the i n t e r e s t i n r e a l p r o p e r t y c o n v e y e d by the Development R i g h t Easement d a t e d ' from t o t h e C o u n t y o f S a n t a C l a r a , a p o l i t i c a l s u b d i v i s i o n o f the S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a , i s h e reby a c c e p t e d by o r d e r o f t h e Board o f S u p e r v i s o r s o f t h e C o u n t y o f S a n t a C l a r a on ^ , and t h e G r a n t e e c o n s e n t s t o r e c o r d a t i o n t h e r e o f . DATED: By Chairman o f t h e B o a r d o f S u p e r v i s o r s L JA:DE:ra 5-12-64 APPENDIX H WISCONSIN FLOWAGE EASEMENT 135 THIS INDENTURE made this day of , 19 . . . . , by and between and his wiferof County, Wisconsin, Grantor..; and the State of Wis-consin (Conservation Commission), Grantee. WHEREAS, the Grantor the owner . . in fee simple of certain real estate which is in, near to, or adjacent to a Wisconsin Conservation Depart-ment project area now known as and located in County, Wisconsin, and WHEREAS, the Grantee, through its State Conser-vation Commission, desires to flow said lands with water by means of dams, dikes and other works, for the use and benefit of the general public. NOW, THEREFORE, WITNESSETH: For and in consideration of the sum of $ paid by the Grantee to the Grantor . . , receipt whereof is hereby acknowledged, and in consideration of the covenants hereinafter con-tained, the Grantor . .hereby agree . . to sell, transfer, grant, and convey to the Grantee, upon acceptance by said Grantee, the perpetual right, power, privilege and easement at any and all times hereafter to cause by the erection of dams, dikes or other works the water of the river, creek or water-course to flow back on, over and under or be with-drawn from the following described lands, together with all the rights, easements, privileges, and ap-purtenances which will be required or needed for the right of backing and flowage and also all riparian rights of every kind in the fast and unflowed lands described herein, including the right for all of the general public to go upon and across said lands for any lawful purpose, which acceptance must be made by the Grantee within months from the date hereof: the location of said easement being shown on Exhibit " A " attached, hereto, and made a part hereof.. The price to be paid to Grantor.. by Grantee for such easement is $ To have and to hold the said easement hereby granted, unto the Grantee forever. A covenant is hereby made with the State of Wis-consin that the Grantor . . hold . . the above-described premises included in the "restricted area" by good and perfect title; having good right and lawful authority to sell and convey the same; that the premises are free and clear from all liens and encumbrances what-soever except as hereinafter set forth. The Grantor . . , for themselves, their heirs, exec-utors, administrators, grantees, successors, and as-signs, further covenant and agree that they will neither lease nor convey any other easement in any way affecting said "restricted area" without first securing the written permission of the State Conservation Com-mission of Wisconsin or its successor or successors. And being the owner . . and holder . . of certain l ien . . . which is (Insert detail concerning lien) against said premises, do..hereby join in and con-sent to said conveyance free of said lien. 136 A P P E N D I X I C A L I F O R N I A EASEMENT ACT CHAPTER 1658, STATUTES 1959 • An act to add Chapter 12 (commencing at Section 6950) to Division 7 of Title 1 of the Government Code, relating to the purchase of interests in real property by counties and cities and to the preservation of open spaces and areas for public use and enjoyment. The people of the State of California do enact as follows: SECTION 1. Chapter 12 (commencing at Section 6950) is added to Division 7 of Title 1 of the Govern-ment Code, to read: CHAPTER 12. PURCHASE OF INTERESTS AND RIGHTS IN REAL PROPERTY 6950. It is the intent of the Legislature in enacting this chapter to provide a means whereby any county or city may acquire, by purchase, gift, grant, bequest, devise, lease or otherwise, and through the expendi-ture of public funds, the fee or any lesser interest or right in real property in order to preserve, through limitation of their future use, open spaces and areas for public use and enjoyment. 6951. The Legislature finds that the rapid growth and spread of urban development is encroaching upon, or eliminating, many open areas and spaces of varied size and character, including many having significant scenic or esthetic values, which areas and spaces if preserved and maintained in their present open state would constitute important physical, social, esthetic or economic assets to existing or impending urban and metropolitan development. 6952. The Legislature hereby declares that it is necessary for sound and proper urban and metro-politan development, and in the public interest of the people of this State for any county or city to expend or advance public funds for, or to accept by, purchase, gift, grant, bequest, devise, lease or otherwise, the fee or any lesser interest or right in real property to acquire, maintain, improve, protect, limit the future use of or otherwise conserve open spaces and areas within their respective jurisdictions. 6953. The Legislature further declares that the acquisition of interests or rights in real property for the preservation of open spaces and areas consti-tutes a public purpose for which public funds may be expended or advanced, and that any county or city may acquire by purchase, gift, grant, bequest, devise, lease or otherwise, the fee or any lesser interest, development right, easement, covenant or other con-tractual right necessary to achieve the purposes of this chapter. Any county or city may also acquire the fee to any property for the purpose of conveying or leasing said property back to its original owner or other person under such covenants or other contractual arrangements as will limit the future use of the property in accordance with the purposes of this chapter. 6954. For the purposes of this chapter an "open space" or "open area" is any space or area charac-terized by (1) great natural scenic beautyor (2) whose existing openness, natural condition, or present state of use, if retained, would enhance the present or po-tential value of abutting or surrounding urban develop-ment, or would maintain or enhance the conservation of natural or scenic resources. 137 APPENDIX J NEW JERSEY GREEN ACRES LAND ACQUISITION ACT OP 1961 INTRODUCED MARCH 27, 10C1 R'-.ferred to Committed on Agriculture, Conservation and Economic Development AN ACT concerning the acquisition of lands for recreation and conservation purposes, govern-ing the expenditure of moneyfor such purposes, appropriating $60,000,000.00 from the State Recreation and Conservation Land Acquisition Fund for such expenditure, and supplementing Title 13 of the Revised Statutes. DE IT ENACTED by the Senate and General As-sembly of the State of New Jersey: 1. This act may be cited as the "New Jersey Green Acres Land Acquisition Act of 1961." 2. The Legislature hereby finds that: (a) The provision of lands for public recreation and the conservation of natural resources promotes the public health, prosperity and general welfare and is a proper responsibility of government; (b) Lands now provided for such purposes will not be adequate to meet the needs of an expanding popula-tion in years to come; (c) The expansion of population, while increasing the need for such lands, will continually diminish the supply and tend to increase the cost ofpublic acquisi-tion of lands available and appropriate for such purposes; (d) The State of New Jersey must act now to ac-quire and to assist local governments to acquire sub-stantial quantities of such lands as are now available and appropriate for such purposes so that they may be used and preserved for use for such purposes; and (e) The sum of $60,000,000.00 is needed now to make such acquisition possible. (f) Such sum will be made available by the sale of bonds authorized by the New Jersey Green Acres Bond Act of 1961, if the same be approvedby the people; (g) It is desirable to appropriate said sum for prompt use and to specify the manner in which the Legislature now proposes that such sum, and such other funds as may be appropriated, shall be used for such purposes. 3. Except as the context may otherwise require: (a) "Commissioner" means the Commissioner of Conservation and Economic Development or his des-ignated representative; (b) "Local unit" means a municipality, county or other political subdivision of this State, or any agency thereof. (c) "Recreation and conservation purposes" means use of lands for parks, natural areas, forests, camping, fishing, water reserves, wildlife, reservoirs, hunting, boating, winter sports and similar uses for public outdoor recreation and conservation of natural resources; and (d) "Land" or "lands" means real property, in-cluding improvements thereof or thereon, rights of way, water, riparian and other rights, easements, privileges and all other rights or interests of any kind or description in, relating to or connected with real property. 4. The commissioner shall use the sum appro-priated by this act from the proceeds of the sale of bonds under the New Jersey Green Acres Bond Act of 1961, and such other sums as may be appropriated from time to time for like purpose, to acquire lands for recreation and conservation purposes and to make grants to assist local units to acquire lands lor such purposes, subject to the conditions and limitations prescribed by this act. 5. In acquiring lands and making grants to assist local units to acquire lands the commissioner shall: (a) seek to achieve a reasonable balance among all areas of the State in consideration of the relative adequacy of area recreation and conservation facili-ties at the time and the relative anticipated future needs for additional recreation and conservation facilities; (b) insofar as practicable, limit acquisition to pre-dominantly open and natural land to minimize the cost of acquisition and the subsequent expense necessary to render land suitable for recreation and conservation purposes; (c) wherever possible, select land for acquisition which is suitable for multiple recreation and conserva-tion purposes; (d) give due consideration to co-ordination with the plans of other departments of State Government with respect to land use or acquisition. For this purpose, the commissioner is authorized to use the facilities of any interdepartmental committee or other agency suitable to assist in such co-ordination. 6. Lands acquired by the State shall be acquired by the commissioner in the name of the State. They may be acquired by purchase or otherwise on such terms and conditions as the commissioner shall deter-mine, or by the exercise of the power of eminent domain in the manner provided in chapter 1 of Title 20 of the Revised Statutes. This power of acquisition shall extend to lands held by any local unit. At least 60 days prior to any acquisition the com-missioner shall submit a statement of any such in-tended acquisition to each of the following bodies in the Department of Conservation and Economic De-velopment: the Water Policy and Supply Council, the Planning and Development Council, the Fish and Game Council and the Shell Fisheries Council. 7. The commissioner shall prescribe rules and regulations governing the administration, operation and use of lands acquired by the State under this act to effect the purpose of this act. 8. Lands approved by the commissioner for ac-quisition by a local unit with State assistance shall be acquired by and in the name of the local unit and may be acquired in any manner authorized by law for the acquisition of lands for such purposes by the local unit. 138 9. A grant to assist a local unit to acquire lands for recreation and conservation purposes shall not be made under this act until: (a) The local unit has applied to the commissioner on forms prescribed by him describing the land ac-quisition for which a grant is sought, stating the rec-reation and conservation purpose or purposes to which such lands will be devoted, stating the facts which give rise to the need for such lands for such purpose, enclosing a comprehensive plan for the development of the local unit approved by its governing body, and stating such other matters as the commissioner shall prescribe: (b) The commissioner shall have prescribed the terms and conditions under which the grant applied for will be made; and (c) The local unit shall have filed with the com-missioner its acceptance of such terms and conditions, and has otherwise complied with the provisions of this act. 10. A grant may not be made under this act until the local unit has adopted regulations governing the' administration, use and development of the lands in question, and until the commissioner shall have ap-proved such regulations. No such regulation may be altered thereafter without the approval of the com-missioner. 11. Grants under this act shall be made by the State Treasurer upon certification of approval by the commissioner. Each grant shall be in an amount equal to 50% of the actual price to be paid for the lands in question. 12. Without limitation of the definition of "lands" herein, the commissioner may acquire, or approve grants to assist a local unit to acquire: (a) lands subject to the right of another to occupy the same for a period measured in years or other-wise; or (b) an interest or right consisting, in whole or in part, of a restriction on the use of land by others including owners of other interests therein; such in-terest or right sometimes known as a "conservation easement." 13. (a) Lands acquired by a local unit with the aid of a grant under this act shall not be disposed of or diverted to a use for other than recreation and conservation purposes without the approval of the commissioner and the State House Commission. Such approval of the State House Commission shall not be given unless the local unit shall agree to pay an amount equal to 50% of the value of such land, as determined by the commission, into the State Recreation and Con-servation Land Acquisition Fund, if the original grant shall, have been made from that fund, or, if not, then into the State Treasury. Money so returned to said fund shall be deemed wholly a part of the portion of that fund available for grants to local units under this act. (b) Lands acquired by the State under this act with money from the State Recreation and Conserva-tion Land Acquisition Fund shall not be disposed of or diverted to use for other than recreation and con-servation purposes without the approval of the State House Commission. Such approval shall not be given unless the commissioner shall agree to pay an amount equal to the value of such land, as determined by the commission, into said fund. Money so returned to said fund shall be deemed wholly a part of the portion of' that fund available for land acquisition by the State under this act. (c) If land acquired by the State under this act with money from the State Recreation and Conserva-tion Land Acquisition Fund is subsequently developed for any water supply projects, the commissioner shall pay an amount equal to the value of the land so developed, as said value is determined by the State House Commission, into said fund. Money so returned to the fund shall be deemed wholly apart of the portion of that fund available for land acquisition by the State under this act. The commissioner shall make said payment from any funds available for such purpose in the State Water Development Fund or other water development moneys appropriated and available for such purpose. 14. Use of lands acquired under this act by the State or with State assistance shall not be restricted by any conditions of race, creed, color or nationality, and shall not be restricted by any condition of residence except by direction of or with the approval of the commissioner. 15. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, lands to be acquired by the State under this act from any local unit may be sold to the State by the unit at private sale. 16. The commissioner, in executing this act, may do all things necessary or useful and convenient in connection with the acquisition of lands by the State or with the assistance of the State, including the following: (a) Make arrangements for and direct (i) engi-neering, inspection, legal, financial, geological, hy-drological and other professional services, estimates and advice; (ii) and organizational, administrative and other work and services; (b) Enter on any lands for the purpose of making surveys, borings, soundings or other inspections or examinations; (c) Prescribe rules and regulations to implement any provisions of this act. 17. The money in the State Recreation and Con-servation Land Acquisition Fund created by the New Jersey Green Acres Bond Act of 1961 is hereby ap-propriated to the Department of Conservation and Economic Development for use in executing the pro-visions of this act, according to the following division: (a) with respect to acquisition of lands by the State under this act, $40,000,000.00; (b) with respect to State grants under this act to assist local units to acquire lands, $20,000,000.00. 18. Section 17 of this act shall take effect upon approval by the people at a general election of the New Jersey Green Acres Bond Act of 1961, and the re-mainder of this act shall take effect immediately. 139 C H A P T E R 427, LAWS OP 1961, W I S C O N S I N AN ACT. . .relating to the creation of a state rec-reation committee, authorizing the improvement of the state-wide recreational facilities of the state and making an appropriation. The people of the state of Wisconsin, represented in senate and assembly, do enact as follows: . SECTION 1. 15.60 of subchapter VI of chapter 15 of the statutes is created to read: 15.60 STATE RECREATION COMMITTEE. (1) (a) The purpose of this section is to promote, encourage and co-ordinate a long-range plan to acquire, maintain and develop for public use those areas of the state best adapted to the development of a comprehensive system of recreational facilities in all fields, including without limitation: parks; forests; camping grounds; fishing and hunting grounds; scenic areas, waters and high-ways; boat landings, beaches and other areas of public-access to navigable waters; and to facilitate and en-courage the fullest public use thereof. (b) It is the legislative intent in the passage of this act to authorize the expenditure of approximately $50,000,000 over the next 10 years for an outdoor rec-reation and resource development program to be al-lotted approximately as follows: $33,000,000, state park and forest recreation areas; $9,000,000, fish and game habitat; $2,500,000, youth conservation camps; $2,000,000 to protect scenic resources along highways; $1,500,000, for creation of new lakes under the federal small watershed program; $1,000,000 in state aids to help metropolitan areas acquire rural recreation lands; $500,000 in state aids to help counties owning lands entered under the forest crop law develop recreational facilities; $392,000 for tourist informa-tion centers; $270,000 for careful planning of future projects and priorities: and $50,000 for a survey of the Lake Superior region recreational potential. (2) There is created a state recreation advisory committee consisting of the governor as chairman ex officio, the director of the conservation department, the chairman of the state highway commission, the director of public welfare, the chairman of the state soil and water conservation committee, and the rec-reation specialist in the department of resource de-velopment. The committee shall meet as often as necessary upon the call of the governor and at least quarterly. Members of the committee shall receive no salary as such members, and any expenses in-curred in the performance of their duties shall be charged against their respective departments. (3) The advisory committee shall: (a) Recommend to each successive legislature the appropriations necessary to accomplish the priorities established for the following biennium, provided that such recommendations include all projects listed in sub. (6) which have been activated and for which funds have been allotted, and which have not been completed during the preceding biennium; (b) Co-ordinate the development by its member agencies of a long-range plan for the acquisition and capital improvement of areas necessary for a state-wide system of recreational facilities to be recom-mended to the legislature; (c) Develop and disseminate a long-range plan for the fullest utilization of all the recreational assets of the state. (4) The committee may reimburse other state agencies for necessary services. When it appears to the committee that there is an overlapping of authority or responsibility between member agencies in the completion of any priority the committee shall nego-tiate a co-operative agreement for completing the priority among the agencies concerned. The com-mittee may retain necessary consulting services. The committee is attached to the executive office for administrative purposes only. (5) In the fulfillmentof its purposes, the committee may receive such gifts and grants of money or property or services as are not otherwise provided for in the statutes. The proceeds of such gifts or grants of money or property may be expended for the purpose of the gift or grant. (5b) In a county containing 4,500 acres or more of state park lands on January 1, 1961, no lands or interest therein for new state parks shall be acquired by the state unless the county board of such county first approves the proposed state park. (6) Projects for the biennium July 1, 1961 to June 30, 1963, shall be limited to the following list of high priorities (the order of listing within priority cate-gories is for identification purposes only): (a) State park system and state forest recreation areas. New land control, existing projects: 1. Kettle Moraine state forest 2. Governor Dodge state park 3. High Cliff state park 4. Terry Andrae state park 5. Wildcat Mountain state park (Lake area to be studied in 1961-63 and activated if feasible) 6. Apostle Islands state forest 7. Black River state forest 8. Brule River state forest 9. American Legion state forest 10. Northern Highland state forest 11. Flambeau River state forest (b) State park system and state forest recreation areas. New land control, new projects: 1. Europe Lake state park 2. Lake Wissota state recreation area 3. Mirror Lake state recreation area 4. Pike Lake unit of the Kettle Moraine state forest 5. Sugar Creek recreation area 6. " I " highway recreation areas (3) 7. Whitefish Bay state park (c) State park system and state forest recreation areas. Areas to be studied and activated if feasible: 1. Lac du Flambeau Pines 2. Raspberry Bay 3. Menominee Indian reservation 140 (d) State parks system and state forest recreation areas. Capital improvements, No. 1 priority: 1. State parks a. Blue Mounds i . . Pattison b. Copper Falls J- Peninsula c. Devils Lake k. Perrot d. Governor Dodge L. Potawatomi e. High Cliff m. Rocky Arbor f. Interstate n. Wyalusing g. Lost Dauphin 0. Amnicon Falls h. Nelson Dewey 2. State forest recreation areas a. American Legion d. Kettle Moraine b. Black River e. Northern c. Brule River Highland (e) State parks system and state forest recreation areas. Capital improvements, No. 2 priority: 1. State parks system a. Aztalan state park b. Big Foot Beach state park c. Brunet Island state park d. Copper Culture Mounds state park e. Cushing Memorial state park f. First Capitol state park fH- Lizard Mound state park li. Lucius Woods state park i . Merrick state park J. Mill Bluff state park k. New Glarus state park L. Ojibwa state park • m. Old Wade House state park n. Rib Mountain state park o. Roche-a-Cri state park P- Terry Andrae state park q- Tower Hill state park r. Wildcat Mountain state park s. Yellowstone Lake recreation area 2. State forest recreation areas a. Apostle Islands c. Flambeau River b. Council Grounds d. Point Beach (0 Game habitat. 1. New land control, existing projects: a. Avon Bottoms u. Mud Lake (Dodge b. Allenton Marsh county) c. Bakkens Pond v. Mullet Creek d. Brandon Marsh w. New Munster Marsh e. Brooklyn Marsh x. Pensaukee Marsh f. Blue River y. Peshtigo Harbor g. Collins Marsh z. Pine Island . h. Deansville Marsh aa. Poygan Marsh i . Eldorado Marsh ab. Princess Point J. Grand River ac. Rome Pond k. Honey Creek ad. Scuppernong L. Karsher Marsh Marsh m. Killsnake Marsh ae. Sensiba Marsh n. Lake Mills af. Shaw Marsh o. Liberty Creek ag. Theresa Marsh P- IfOd Marsh ah. Tichigan Marsh q. Mazomanie Marsh ai. Vernon Marsh r. McMillan Marsh aj. Westford Marsh s. Mead Area ak. Waterloo Marsh t. Mud Lake (Columbia aL. Waunakee Marsh county) 2. New land control, new projects: a. Bong Air Force Base Acquisition and Devel-opment b. Brillion Marsh c. Evansville Marsh d. Goose Lake e. Jefferson Marsh f. Klemme Marsh g. Mud Lake (Dunn county) h. Paris Marsh i . Richmond Marsh j . Scattered wetlands k. Silver Creek L. Swan Lake m. White River n. Wildcat Marsh 0. Wolf River (g) Fish habitat. 1. New land control, existing projects: a. Big Roche-a-Cri b. Camp Lake Marsh c. Cedar Springs d. Chaffee Creek e. Dell Creek _ f. Dorn Creek Marsh g. Eagle Lake Marsh h. Elk Creek 1. Emmons Creek , j . Kinnickinnic River k. LaBudde Creek L. La Crosse River m. Little Plover River n. Little Wolf River o. Mecan River p. Milwaukee River q. Nace Creek r. Peterson Creek s. Pine River t. Prairie River u. Radley Creek v. Remnant Fish Habitat Areas w. Sawyer Creek x. Silver Lake Marsh y. Soules Creek z. Turtle Creek aa. Upper Tomorrow River ab. Upper Waubesa Marsh ac. Wedde Creek ad. White River (Waushara county) ae. White River, South Branch (Bayfield county) af. Willow Creek ag. Wind Lake Marsh 2. New land control, new projects: a. Bean Brook i . Moose Ear Creek b. Big Brook j . Mt. Vernon Creek c. Big Sioux River k. Oconto River, South d. Bluff Creek Branch e. Bolen Creek L. Osceola Creek f. Devils Creek m. Plum Creek g- Evergreen River n. Remnant Fish Habi-h. Leech Creek tat Areas 0. Upper Neenah Creek (h) Youth conservation c: imps. 1. Establishment • of a camp at Interstate park during the summer of 1961. 2. Establishment of a camp in the Rhinelander area during the summer of 1962. 141 3. Lease of land and facilities for temporary conservation camps pending completion of the perma-nent camps. (i) Scenic easements. 1. First priority will be given to completing scenic casements along the Great River road. Easements will also be acquired on high-ways along Lake Michigan and Green Bay, Lake Superior; along the Chippewa, Wisconsin, Fox, Mil-waukee and Wolf rivers; in the lake and forest country of northern Wisconsin; and through the Menominee Indian reservation and the Kettle Moraine area. j . Tourist information centers. 1. A permanent tourist center shall be established in 1961 near the Illinois border, adjacent to the interstate highway between Chicago and Milwaukee. Two mobile centers shall be purchased and tried at various experimental locations near Hudson, Beloit and other points adjacent to the interstate highway system. SECTION 2. 20.280 (71a), (71b), (73a), (74a) and (74b) of the statutes are created to read: 20.2S0 (71a) FISH MANAGEMENT; LAND AND LAND EASEMENTS. For the biennium beginning July 1, 1961, $1,000,000 for the acquisition of additional fish management land and land use easements, of which at least $250,000 shall be used for the acquisi-tion of land use rights as provided in s. 23.09 (16). At the end of each biennium any unencumbered balance in this appropriation shall revert to the appropriation made by s. 20.703 (41). (71b) GAME ; MANAGEMENT; LAND AND LAND EASEMENTS. For the biennium beginning July 1, 1961, $1,703,000 for additional game management lands and land rights under s. 23.09 (16), of which not more than $208,000 may be used for the acquisi-tion and development of Bong air base and of which . at least $300,000 shall be used for easements and land rights. At the end of this biennium any unencumbered balance of this appropriation shall revert to the ap-propriation made by s. 20.703 (41) (a). (73a) LAND FOR PARKS. For the biennium be-ginning July 1, 1961, $5,000,000 for additional ac-quisition and capital improvement of parks and rec-reation areas, of which $1,000,000 is for capital development of state parks and forest recreation areas; of which at least $500,000 shall be for the acquisition of easements and other public rights as provided in s. 23.09 (16); and of which the remainder shall be for park and recreation area land acquisition. At the end of the biennium any unencumbered balance of this appropriation shall revert to the appropriation made by s. 20.703 (41) (a). (74a) TOURIST INFORMATION CENTERS. For the biennium beginning July 1, 1961, $140,000 for the construction, acquisition and operation of tourist in-formation centers as provided in s. 23.092. At the end of the biennium any unencumbered balance of this appropriation shall revert to the appropriation made by s. 20.703 (41) (a). (74b) STATE AIDS FOR RECREATIONAL DE-VELOPMENTS IN COUNTY FOREST CROP LANDS. ' For the biennium beginning July 1, 1961, $100,000 for purposes set forth in s. 23.09 (17). At the end of the biennium any unencumbered balance of this ap-propriation shall revert to the appropriation made by s. 20.703 (41) (a). SECTION 3. 20.420 (80) of the statutes is created to read: 20.420 (86) EASEMENTS AND SITES. For the biennium beginning July 1, 1961, $253,000-us trans-ferred pursuant to s. 20.703 (41) (b) 3 for the ac-quisition of scenic easements and development- of historic markers, overlooks, waysides, and related purposes pursuant to ss. 84.04 and 84.09 (1). At the end of the biennium, any unencumbered balance of this appropriation shall revert to the appropriation made by s. 20.703 (41) (a). SECTION 4. 20.670 (43) of the statutes is created to read: 20.670 (48) YOUTH CAMPS. For the biennium beginning July 1, 1901, $525,000 for the construction and operation of youth conservation camps pursuant to s. 46.70. At the. end of the biennium, any unencum-bered balance of this appropriation shall revert to the appropriation made by s. 20.703 (41) (a). SECTION 5. 20.703 of the statutes is created to read: 20.703 RECREATION COMMITTEE, STATE. (41) RECREATION ALLOCATIONS, (a) All moneys col-lected under ss. 139.50 (2) (b) and 139.51 (2) (b) shall be paid within one week after receipt into the general fund, and are appropriated therefrom to the state recreation committee for purposes specified in s. 15.60 and as provided in ss. 20.280 (71a), (71b), (73a), (74a), (74b), 20.420 (86), 20.670 (48), 20.705 (42) and (43) and 20.750 (41). (b) The moneys available in the 1961-1963 bien-nium shall be transferred in accordance with the following allocations: 1. To the conservation commission $8,686,000 for deposit in the conservation fund for the following purposes: a. General. There shall be allocated $-193,000 to be used in place of certain miscellaneous conserva-tion fund revenues heretofore appropriated for park purposes. b. Parks and forest recreation areas. 1) Land control There shall be allocated $4,000,000 for the acquisition of land and rights in land of which not less than $500,000 shall be used to acquire land use ease-ments and rights in property as provided in s. 23.09 (16). 2) Capital improvement. There shall be al-located $1,000,000 for capital improvements, including campsites. 3) Maintenance and operation. There shall be allocated $250,000 for the normal operation and maintenance of parks and forest recreation areas. c. Fish and game. 1) Land control-fish manage-ment. There shall be allocated $1,000,000 for acquisi-tion of land or land easements, of which not less than $250,000 shall be used to acquire land use easements as provided in s. 23.09 (16). 2) .Land control-game management. There shall be allocated $1,703,000 for acquisition of land or land easements, of which not less than $300,000 shall be used to acquire land use ease-ments as provided in s. 23.09 (16) and of which not more than $208,000 may be used for the acquisition and development of Bong air base. d. Tourist information centers. There shall be allocated $140,000 for the construction, acquisition and operation of tourist information centers as pro-vided in s. 23.092. 142 e. Additional programs. The state recreation committee may authorize expenditures from funds allocated under b. 1) and c. of this subdivision for such appraisal, surveying, negotiation and legal costs as are directly and specifically related to the ad-ditional land acquisition programs herein described. f. County recreational project aids. As aids to the counties in the development of recreational projects on county-owned forest crop lands under s. 23.09 (17), $100,000. 2. To the state soil and water conservation com-mittee's appropriation made by s. 20.750 (41), $90,000 for the creation of lakes under s. 92.18. 3. To the highway commission for deposit in the highway fund, $293,000 for acquisition of scenic ease-ments and development of historic markers, over-looks, waysides, and related purposes as provided under s. 84.09 (1). 4. To the "department of public welfare's ap-propriation made by s. 20.670 (48), $525,000 for the construction and operation of youth conservation camps as provided under s. 46.70. 5. To the department of resource development's appropriations made by ss. 20.705 (42) and (43), $250,000 for the following purposes: a. Lake Superior. south shore study. There shall be allocated $50,000 for the conduct of a comprehen-sive study of the economic and recreational potential of the Lake Superior south shore area. b. Metropolitan park area land acquisition. There shall be allocated $200,000 for assistance to political subdivisions for park land acquisitions as provided in ss. 66.36 and 109.05 (3). 6. To the state recreation committee's appropria-tion made by sub. (42), $52,000 for the functions of the committee in establishing and coordinating a long-range recreational plan. (c) With the approval of the board on government operations, the committee may reduce, supplement or transfer between the allocations made in par. (b)when the committee finds that such action will expedite its program. (d) The moneys allocated by par. (b) may be transferred quarterly and the department of ad-ministration may approve allotment requests of the agencies receiving such allocations in anticipation of these transfers. (42) Biennially beginning July 1, 1961, $52,000 for the execution of its functions under s. 15.60. SECTION 6. 20.705 (42) and (43) of the statutes are created to read: 20.705 (42) AIDS FOR PARKS. For the biennium beginning July 1, 1961, $200,000 for the state's share of urban aids pursuant to ss. 66.36 and 109.05 (3). At the end of the biennium, any unencumbered balance of this appropriation shall revert to the appropriation made by s. 20.703 (41) (a). (43) SUPERIOR STUDY. For the biennium be-ginning July 1, 1961, $50,000 for the study of the Lake Superior region pursuant to s. 20.703 (41) (b) 5. SECTION 7. 20.750 (41) of the statutes is created to read: 20.750 (41) LAKE CREATION. For the biennium beginning July 1, 1961, $90,000 for the state's share of the cost of creating lakes pursuant to s. 92.18. At the end of the biennium, any unencumbered balance of this appropriation shall revert to the appropriation made by s. 20.703 (41) (a). SECTION 8. 23.09 (16) and (17) of the statutes are created to read: 23.09 (16) CONSERVATION EASEMENTS AND RIGHTS IN PROPERTY. Confirming all the powers hereinabove granted to the commission and in fur-therance thereof, the commission is expressly au-thorized to acquire any and all easements in the furtherance of public rights, including the right of access and use of lands and waters for hunting and fishing and the enjoyment of scenic beauty, together with the right to acquire all negative easements, restrictive covenants, covenants running with the land, and all rights for use of property of any nature whatsoever, however denominated, which may be lawfully acquired for the benefit of the public. The commission also may grant leases and easements to properties and other lands under its management and control under such covenants as will preserve and protect such properties and lands for the purposes for which they were acquired. (17) AIDS TO COUNTIES FOR THE DEVELOP-MENT OF RECREATION FACILITIES. (a) The county board of any county which, by resolution, indicates its desire to develop outdoor recreation facilities on county lands entered under the forest crop law may make application to the conservation commission for the apportionment of funds for state aids to counties for such purposes. (b) For the purposes of this subsection outdoor recreational facilities shall mean the development of picnic and camping grounds, nature trails, beaches and bath houses, toilets, shelters, Wells and pumps, and fireplaces. Costs associated with the operation and maintenance of recreational facilities shall not be eligible for aids under this section. (c) The state aids granted under this section shall be no greater than but may be less than one-half the cost of such project as determined by the commission. (d) Applications shall he made in the manner and on forms prescribed by the commission. The com-mission shall thereupon make such investigations as it deems necessary to satisfy itself that the project will best serve the public interest and need. Upon approval of the project the commission shall en-cumber a sum 'not more than one-half of the cost estimate of such project. When the project is com-pleted, the commission shall pay to the county not more than one-half the actual cost of such project. The commission is authorized to inform itself and to require any necessary evidence from the county to substantiate the cost before payment is made. (e) The commission in making its deliberations shall give careful consideration to whether or not the proposal is an integral part of an official comprehen-sive land and water use plan for the area as well as the relationship of the project to similar projects on other public lands. If requests for state aids exceed the funds allotted to the commission for this program, those requests which form an integral part of a com-prehensive plan shall be given first priority. (f) Recreation facilities developed under the as-sistance of this act shall not be converted to uses which are inconsistent with the purposes of this act 143 without the approval of the commission. The com-mission shall not issue such approval unless there is evidence that such other uses are essential to and in accordance with an official comprehensive plan for the area. The commission shall require that the proceeds from the disposal of facilities developed under this act shall be used to further the objectives of this act. SECTION 9. 23.092 of the statutes is created to read: . 23.092 INFORMATION CENTERS. The conserva-tion commission is authorized to establish information centers, permanent or mobile, in such manner as it directs. SECTION 10. 46.70 of the statutes is created to read: 46.70 YOUTH CAMPS. The department may es-tablish and operate youth conservation camps for boys in co-operation with the conservation commission. The camps shall be operated during summers in areas suitable for constructive employment in conservation projects. The department of public welfare is au-thorized to acquire by fee or by lease all lands and facilities necessary for the establishment of camps for such department. SECTION 11. 66.36 of the statutes is created to read: 66.36 AIDS TO MUNICIPALITIES FOR THE AC-QUISITION OF RECREATIONAL LANDS. (1) Anycity of the first and second class as defined by s. 62.05 (1) may apply for and accept state aids for the ac-quisition of recreational lands and rights in lands for the development of its metropolitan area park system under ss. 20.705 (42) and 109.05 (3). (2) In those counties having a population of 90,000 or more but less than 500,000 as determined by the last federal census, the county park commissions established under s. 27.02 are eligible for aid under this section if such county park commissions have mutually agreed with all cities of the first and second class located within such counties that the primary responsibility for providing urban citizens with rec-reation facilities is that of the county park com-missions. In such counties, where cities of the first and second class are located, and where mutual agreements between city park commissions and county park commissions do not exist, the county park com-missions shall not be eligible for aids under this sec-tion. In those counties having a population of 90,000 or more as determined by the last federal census where there are no cities of the first and second class, the county park commission shall be eligible for aid under this section. In counties having a population of 500,000 or more, the only unit of government eligible for aids under this section shall be the county park commission. (3) State aid under this section shall be limited to no more than 50 per cent of the cost of acquiring, through fee title or through easements, recreation lands which are essentially open in nature and which are located in areas which are not intensively de-veloped for homes or commercial establishments and which are open, or predominantly open, lands, in-cluding agricultural land, wetlands .flood plains, forest and wood lots in and around urban areas which be-cause of scenic, historic or aesthetic factors have outdoor recreation values such as sight-seeing, pic-nicking, hiking, nature study, swimming, boating, hunting, fishing and camping. Costs associated with development and maintenance of parks established under this section shall not be eligible for state aid. Costs of acquiring lands or land rights shall not be included in the "cost of land'.' eligible for state aid under this section. Title to lands or rights in lands acquired under this section shall vest in the local unit of government, provided that such land shall not be converted to uses inconsistent with this section without prior approval of the state and that proceeds from the sale or other disposal of such lands shall be used to promote the objectives of this section. SECTION 12. 92.18 of the statutes is created to read: 92.18 ADDITIONAL AIDS. Any soil and water conservation district which is eligible for aid under P.L. 83-566, as amended, is eligible for additional aids from the state as follows: up to 50 per cent of the cost incurred by the district for conservation development specified in s. 92.08 (3), meaning thereby the excess cost of the dam structure and additional land necessitated for fish and wildlife development, or meaning thereby the cost chargeable to the state or its agency when an artificial impoundment is part of an integrated flood control program. Applications for state aids under this section shall contain pro-vision for public access to the bodies of water to be created. SECTION 13. 109.05 (3) of the statutes is created to read: 109.05 (3) The department shall receive applica-tions for state aid in such manner as the department prescribes for metropolitan area park development submitted under's. 66.36 and allocate funds therefor within the limits of the. appropriation established by s. 20.705 (42) in accordance with priorities based on comprehensive plans submitted with the applica-tion and on the ratio of population density to available recreational lands in the area to be served. 144 MARYLAND EASEMENT ACT CHAPTER 631/ (House Bill 75) AN ACT to add new Section 357A to Article 66C of the Annotated Code of Maryland (1957 Edition), title "Natural Resources", sub-title "Forests and Parks—In General", to follow immediately after Section 357 thereof, relating to the purchase AND ACQUISITION BY CONTRACTOR GIFT of interests in real property by counties and cities, OR THE STATE DEPARTMENT. OF FORESTS AND PARKS, and to the preservation of open spaces and areas for public use and enjoyment. Whereas, It is the intent of the Legislature to pro-vide a means whereby any county or city, OR THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND PARKS, may acquire, by purchase, gift, grant, bequest, devise, lecrse- er ethe-r-wi-ae OR LEASE, and through the ex-penditure of public funds, the fee or any lesser in-terest or right in real property in order to preserve, through limitation of their future use, open spaces and areas for public use and enjoyment; and Whereas, The Legislature finds that the rapid growth and spread of urban development is encroach-ing upon, or eliminating, many open areas and spaces of varied size and character, including many having significant scenic or esthetic values, which areas and spaces if preserved and maintained in their present open state would constitute important physical, social, esthetic or economic assets to existing or impending urban and metropolitan developments; and; Whereas, The Legislature declares that it is nec-essary for sound and proper urban and metropolitan development, and in the public interest of the people of this State for any county or city, OR THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND PARKS, to expend or advance public funds for, or to accept by, purchase, gift, grant, bequest, devise, lease-er-efctte-i'wi-se OR LEASE, the fee or any lesser interest or right in real property to acquire, maintain, improve, protect, limit the future use of or. otherwise conserve open spaces and areas within their respective jurisdictions; now, therefore, Section 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Maryland, That new Section 357A be and it is hereby added to Article 66 C of the Annotated Code of Mary-land (1957 Edition), title "Natural Resources", sub-title "Forests and Parks—In General", to follow im-mediately after Section 357 thereof, and to read as follows: 357A. (a) The acquisition of interest or rights in real property for the preservation of open spaces and areas constitutes a public purpose for which public funds may be expended or advanced. Any county or city, AND THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND PARKS, may acquire, by purchase, gift, grant, bequest, devise, lease-er-ether-wise- OR LEASE, the fee or any lesser interest, development right, easement, covenant or other contractual right necessary to achieve this end. Any county or city, AND THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF FORESTS AND PARKS, may also aeqai-r-e PURCHASE OR ACQUIRE BY CONTRACT OR GIFT the fee to any property for the purpose of conveying or leasing said property back to its original owner or other person under such covenants or other contractual arrangements as will limit the future use of the property in accordance with the purposes of this section. THE COUNTY 6R~CITY SHALL NOT ACQUIRE ANY SUCH FEE OR ANY SUCH LESSER INTEREST IN REAL PROPERTY FOR THE PURPOSES AFORESAID, BY PURCHASE OR CONTRACT REQUIRING A MONETARY CONSIDERA-TION IN EXCESS OF $500.00, UNTIL AND UNLESS THE GOVERNING BODY OF SUCH COUNTY OR CITY SHALL ADOPT A RESOLUTION OR FORMAL ORDER DECLARING THE PU3LIC PURPOSE OR USE THERE-FOR AND AFTER HOLDING .A PUBLIC HEARING RESPECTING THE SAME. (b) For the purposes of this section, an "open space" or "open area" is any space or area charac-terized by (1) great natural scenic beautyor (2) whose existing openness, natural condition, or present state of use, if retained, would enhance the present or po-tential value of abutting or surrounding urban de-velopment, or would maintain or enhance the con-servation of natural or scenic resources. Sec. 2. And be it further enacted. That this Act shall take effect June 1, 1960. Approved March 23, 1960. -Sec. 357A italicized in original of bill to indicate new matter. CAPITALS indicate amendments to bill. ScHk-e-eufr indicates matter stricken out of bill. 145 NEW YORK EASEMENT ACT GENERAL MUNICIPAL LAW, BOOK 23, SECTION 247, 1960 ACQUISITION OF OPEN SPACES AND AREAS 1. Definitions. For the purposes of this chapter an "open space" or "open area" is any space or area characterized by (1) natural scenic beauty or (2) whose existing openness, natural condition, or present state of use, if retained,would enhance the present or po-tential value of abutting or surrounding urban develop-ment, or would maintain or enhance the conservation of natural or scenic resources. 2. The acquisition of interests or rights in real property for the preservation of open spaces and areas shall constitute a public purpose for which public funds may be expended or advanced, and any county, city, town, or village after due notice and a public hearing may acquire, by purchase, gift, grant, bequest, devise, lease or otherwise, the fee or any lesser interest, development right, easement, covenant, or other con-tractual right necessary to achieve the purposes of this chapter, to land within such municipality. 3. After acquisition of any such interest pursuant to this act the valuation placed on such an open space or area for purposes of real estate taxation shall take into account and be limited by the limitation on future use of the land. Added L. 1960, c. 945, S 2, eff. April 28, 1960. Legislative intent. Laws 1960, c. 945, S 1, eff. April 28, 1960, provided: "It is the intent of the legislature in enacting this chapter to provide a means whereby any county, city, town or village may acquire, by purchase, gift, grant, bequest, devise, lease or otherwise, and through the expenditure of public funds, the fee or any lesser interest or right in real property in order to preserve, through limitation of their future use, open spaces and areas for public use and enjoyment. "The legislature finds that the rapid growth and spread of urban development is encroaching upon, or eliminating, many open areas and spaces of varied size and character, including many having significant scenic or esthetic values, which areas and spaces if preserved and maintained in their present open state would constitute important physical, social, esthetic or economic assets to existing or impending urban and metropolitan development. "The legislature hereby declares that is is neces-sary for sound and proper urban and metropolitan development, and in the public interest of the people of this state for any county, city, town or village to expend or advance public funds for, or to accept by, purchase, gift, grant, bequest, devise, lease or other-wise, the fee or any lesser interest or right in real property to acquire, maintain, improve, protect, limit the future use of or otherwise conserve open spaces and areas within their respective jurisdictions." 146 APPENDIX K CALIFORNIA EASEMENT ACT CHAPTER 1658, STATUTES, 1959 An act to add Chapter 12 (commencing at Section 6950) to Division 7 of Title 1 of the Government Code, relating to the purchase of interests in real property by counties and cities and to the preser-vation of open spaces and areas for public use and enjoyment. The people of the State of California do enact as follows: SECTION 1. Chapter 12 (commencing at Section 6950) is added to Division 7 of Title 1 of the Gov-ernment Code, to read: CHAPTER 12. PURCHASE OF INTERESTS AND RIGHTS IN REAL PROPERTY 6950. It is the intent of the Legislature in enacting this chapter to provide a means whereby any county or city may acquire, by purchase, gift, grant, bequest, devise, lease or otherwise, and through the expendi-ture of public funds, the fee or any lesser interest or right in real property in order to preserve, through limitation of their future use, open spaces and areas for public use and enjoyment. 6951. The Legislature finds that the rapid growth and spread of urban development is encroaching upon, or eliminating, many open areas and spaces of varied size and character, including many having significant scenic or esthetic values, which areas and spaces if preserved and maintained in their present open state would constitute important physical, social, esthetic or economic assets to existing or impending urban and metropolitan development. 6952. The Legislature hereby declares that it is necessary for sound and proper urban and metro-politan development, and in the public interest of the people of this State for any county or city to expend or advance public funds for, or to accept by, purchase, gift, grant, bequest, devise, lease or other-wise, the fee or any lesser interest or right in real property to acquire, maintain, improve, protect, limit the future use of or otherwise conserve open spaces and areas within their respective jurisdictions. 6953. The Legislature further declares that the ac-quisition of interests or rights in real property for the preservation of open spaces and areas constitutes a public purpose for which public funds may be ex-pended or advanced, and that any county or city may acquire, by purchase, gift, grant, bequest, devise, lease or otherwise, the fee or any lesser interest, development right, easement, covenant or other con-tractual right necessary to achieve the purposes of this chapter. Any county or city may also acquire the fee to any property for the purpose of convey-ing or leasing said property back to its original owner or other person under such covenants or other contractual arrangements as will limit the future use of the property in accordance with the purposes of this chapter. 6954. For the purposes of this chapter an "open space" or "open area" is any space or area character-ized by (1) great natural scenic beauty or (2) whose existing openness,' natural condition, or present state of use, if retained, would enhance the present or potential value of abutting or surrounding urban de-velopment, or would maintain or enhance the con-servation of natural or scenic resources. APPENDIX L WISCONSIN'S NEW SCENIC EASEMENT DEED Form R-O-736-67 STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION OF WISCONSIN Document Number SCENIC EASEMENT WHEREAS, the State of Wisconsin d e s i r e s to preserve, p r o t e c t and Improve where necessary f o r s c e n i c purposes, and to prevent any future development which may tend to d e t r a c t therefrom. This Indenture, made by grant o r , hereby conveys and warrants to the State of Wisconsin, grantee, f o r the sum of ($ ) d o l l a r s , s c e n i c r i g h t s In p e r p e t u i t y as h e r e i n a f t e r p r e s c r i b e d , In and to the f o l l o w i n g described p a r c e l of r e a l e s t a t e In County, State o f Wisconsin, to w i t : (LEGAL DESCRIPTION OF SCENIC EASEMENT AREA) (POSITIVE OR SPECIFIC RIGHTS CONVEYED - EXHIBIT TS. A) (SPECIFIC RIGHTS RELINGUISHED - EXHIBIT TJZ B) P r o j e c t EXHIBIT 231 P e r c o l Nurabor 148 THE RIGHTS HERESY ACQUIRED DO NOT GRANT THE PUBLIC THE RIGHT TO ENTER THE ABOVE-DESCRIBE AREA FOR ANY PURPOSE. THE RIGHTS HEREBY ACQUIRED DO NOT GRANT THE STATE OF WISCONSIN, OR ITS AGENTS, THE RIGHT TO ENTER THE ABOVE-DESCRIBED AREA EXCEPT FOR THE PURPOSE OF INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT OF SAID RIGHTS, OR AS SPECIFICALLY SET FORTH HEREIN. IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the s a i d g r a n t o r . . . ha... hereunto s e t hand., and s e a l . , t h i s day o f . . A. D. , 19.... ALSO IN WITNESS WHEREOF being the owner., and h o l d e r . , of ... c e r t a i n l i e n . , a g a i n s t s a i d premises hereby j o i n i n and consent to s a i d easement f r e e of s a i d l i e n . SIGNED AND SEALED IN PRESENCE OF (SEAL) (SEAL) (SEAL) ' (SEAL) STATE OF WISCONSIN, ) County.) P e r s o n a l l y came before me t h i s ..... day of A.D., 19..., the above-named to me known to be the person., who executed the foregoing instrument and acknowledged the same. (NOTARY) ( SEAL ) • • • • • NOTARY PUBLIC, My commission ( e x p i r e s ) ( i s ) . .. County, Wis, Negotiated by This instrument was d r a f t e d by the St a t e Highway Commission of Wisconsin. o o c 3 re Crt IT ft> o ra re CO •d fa. W re • > • -• • a • 3 a. . M . Cu re o o >T o o-re IT (X • H> 3 * < o o m a •-• o ck APPENDIX M 149 WISCONSIN SCENIC EASEMENT RESTRICTION GUIDE POSITIVE OR SPECIFIC RIGHTS CONVEYED The specific rights and Interests hereby acquired are as follows: 1. The right for the State of Wisconsin, i t s agents and contractors, to enter upon the easement area; (a) To inspect for violations of the provisions of this easement and to remove or eliminate advertising displays, signs and billboards, stored or accumulated junk automobiles, farm implements or parts thereof, and other salvage materials or debris, and to perform such scenic restoration as may be deemed necessary or desirable. (b) To plant and/or selectively cut or prune trees and brush to improve the scenic view and to implement disease pre-vention measures. (c) To plant and/or selectively cut or prune trees and bruch to improve the scenic view and to implement disease pre-vention measures. The area excluded from this provision i s described as follows: (Then describe excluded area such as residence, etc.) 1 NOTE: ONLY THOSE PROVISIONS THAT APPLY TO THE SUBJECT PROPERTY ARE TO BE USED. 150 SPECIFIC RIGHTS RELINQUISHED The owner's rights to engage in specified a c t i v i t i e s are acquired as follows 1. The right to erect, display, place or maintain upon or within the scenic area any signs, billboards, outdoor advertising structures or advertisement of any kind, except that one (1) on-premise sign of not more than square feet in size may be erected and maintained to adver-tise the sale, hire or lease of the property, or the sale and/or manufacture of any goods, products or services upon the land. Any existing signs, other than the one on-premise sign, and/or advertisements as described above shall be terminated and removed on or before . 2. The right to dump or maintain a dump of ashes, trash, rubbish, sawdust, garbage, o f f a l , storage of vehicle bodies or parts, storage of farm implements or parts, and any other unsightly or offensive material. 3. The right to cut or remove any trees or brush. 4. The right to cut or remove any trees, except marketable timber and then only in compliance with local forest cropping practices, however, at no time w i l l the scenic area be denuded of trees. 5. The right to park t r a i l e r houses, mobile homes, or any portable livi n g quarters. 6. The right to quarry, or remove, or store any surface or subsurface minerals or materials. 7. A l l rights except general crop and/or livestock farming (agri-cultural) within the f i r s t feet of the scenic area as measured normal to the (center.line) (reference line) (nearest edge of pavement) (right of way line) of the highway. 8. A l l righto except general crop and/or livestock farming (agricultural). 9. The right to develop the easement area except for limited r e s i -dential development consistent with applicable state and local regulations. Such limited rights retained by the owner are as follows: (a) Each single family residential lot fronting on and abutting (Identify highway) shall be limited to a minimum width of feet as measured parallel to the highway; (b) A total of single family residential lots is the maximum number authorized for the easement area. 10. The right to change the uso of the easement area from residential to any other use. 11. Tho right to change the use of the easement area from commercial to any other use. NOTE: ONLY THOSE PROVISIONS THAT APPLY TO THE SUBJECT PROPERTY ARE TO BE USED. APPENDIX N INJUNCTIONS ISSUED ALONG THE BLUE RIDGE NATIONAL PARKWAY There have been two scenic easement cases from North Carolina, heard b y the federal court. T h e orders issued in these cases follow. United States of America v. Arclle Darnell This cause coming on for hearing and being heard by the court on Monday, M a y 23, 1949, the plaintiff and defendant being represented by legal counsel, the court finds that the easement under which the United States of America claims, and which easement is a good and valid lien against the lands of the defendant, to mean that the defendant can only remove seedling shrubbery or seedling trees such as may be grubbed up or cut down in accordance with good farm practice and residential maintenance, and that this clause means under-growth and excludes by its very terms trees that may be eight inches or more in diameter and which, according to the custom in the Wilkes County, North Carolina section, become merchantable timber, and the court finds that the defendant has stated that he will cut twenty-four trees, all of which are eight inches or more in diameter. It is, therefore, ordered, adjudged, and decreed that the defendant be and he is hereby permanently enjoined from cutting any trees upon his land which are subject to the easement of the plaintiff as set out in the petition in this cause without the consent of the Secretary of the Interior, except seedling shrubbery or seedling trees may be cut down or grubbed up if the same is in accordance with good farm practice and residential maintenance. It is further ordered, adjudged, and decreed that the defendant pay the costs of this suit, to be taxed by the clerk. This, the 30th day of May, 1949. (Signed) Johnson J. Hayes United States District Judge 152 United States of America v. Recce Bedsaul and wife, Gladys Bedsaid The cause coming on for hearing and being heard by the court on Saturday, December 8,1951, the plaintiff and defendants being represented by legal coun-sel, the court finds that the easement under which the United States of America claims, and which easement is a good and valid lien against the lands of the defendants, to mean that the defendants can only remove seedlings, shrubbery, or seedling trees such as may be grubbed up or cut down in accordance with good farming practice and residential maintenance. The court finds, after viewing the site of the scenic easement described in the complaint and designated as Section s-A, that certain white pines located on the lands burdened by said easement may be trimmed from the ground to heights of three or four feet and that certain other white pines should be re-moved from the said tract; and the court further finds that the fence row along the line of the scenic easement farthest removed from the Parkway should be cleared of small trees and shrubs in order that a new fence may be properly built; and the court further finds that the thicket along the creek running through said scenic easement should be cleared and put in grass according to good farming practice, and that the briers and bramble bushes should be re-moved from said tract in accordance with good farming practice. However, hone of said cutting, trimming, and removal should detract from the scenic .beauty of view of said tract as viewed from any point along the Parkway. _ The court further finds that the landscape architect for the Blue Ridge Park-way, Department of Interior, has consented to go up on said tract with the de-fendants and mark such mature and stable trees which he desires to have left intact, and to assist in any other way to carry out the findings and orders of this court in such a manner which will not interfere with the scenic value of the easement as viewed from the Blue Ridge Parkway. It is now, therefore, ordered that the defendants, with the permission and approval of the landscape architect of the Blue Ridge Parkway, Department of Interior, may cut, remove, or trim the trees, shrubs, fence line, and land as set out in the above findings of the court, and the defendants are hereby perma-nently enjoined from cutting, topping, mutilating, and heading stable or ma-ture trees and shrubs on their lands described in the complaint, without having obtained permission so to do from the Department of the Interior, except seed-ling shrubbery or seedling trees may be cut down or grubbed up, if the same is in accordance with good farming practices and residential maintenance. This cause is to remain open to abide the further orders of the court. This, the 19th day of December, 1951. (Signed) Johnson J. Hayes - United States District Judge 153 APPENDIX 0 REPORT OF THE SKYLINE STUDY COMMITTEE • SAN MATEO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA February 16, 1966 The S k y l i n e Study Committee recommends the County proceed promptly to acquire those areas f o r s c e n i c easements that w i l l enhance the beauty and u t i l i t y of a Scenic S k y l i n e Highway, a c q u i s i t i o n could be any of the f o l l o w i n g : a. Purchase b. Voluntary g i f t s c. In connection w i t h development In order to prevent any hardships to property owners, the Committee urges that immediate steps be taken as f o l l o w s : a. To provide the necessary funds f o r purchase and b. That a p r i o r i t y of a c q u i s i t i o n be e s t a b l i s h e d and c. That a high p r i o r i t y be given to a c q u i s i t i o n of any easements i n c l u d e d i n any development plans and d. That scenic easements not be designated u n t i l there i s reasonable prospect of having the necessary funds and e. That u n t i l a c q u i s i t i o n , the property owner has f u l l use of h i s property f o r any l a w f u l purpose. f . The landowner r e t a i n s mineral and water r i g h t s w i t h i n the easement. g. When l o t s become unbuildable because of easements, the State must purchase the e n t i r e property unless the owner wishes to r e t a i n the land . h. E x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s must be allowed to remain unless they become unsafe f o r occupancy. FAVOR 22 OPPOSED 1 ABSTAIN 1 ABSENT 3 CHAIRMAN d i d not vote BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Beuscher, Jacob H, ed. Land Use C o n t r o l s — C a s e s and M a t e r i a l s . Madison, Wisconsin: The College Typing" Co., 1964. Clawson, Marion, R. B u r n e l l Held and Charles H. Stoddard. Land f o r the Future. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Pre s s , I960. Clawson, Marion and Jack L. Knetsch. Economics of Outdoor Recr e a t i o n . Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins Press, T9U6-. Delafons, John. 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W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: H i g h w a y R e s e a r c h B o a r d , 1966. 157 N e t h e r t o n , R o s s D. a n d M a r i o n M a r k h a m . R o a d s i d e D e v e l o p m e n t a n d B e a u t i f i c a t i o n : L e g a l A u t h o r i t y a n d M e t h o d s , P a r t s I - a n d I I . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : H i g h w a y R e s e a r c h B o a r d , 1965-P e o p l e f o r O p e n S p a c e . T h e C a s e f o r O p e n S p a c e . S a n F r a n c i s c o : 1968. P l i m p t o n , O a k e s A . C o n s e r v a t i o n B a s e m e n t s — L e g a l A n a l y s i s o f " C o n s e r v a t i o n E a s e m e n t s " a s a M e t h o d o f P r i v a t e l y C o n s e r v i n g  a n d P r e s e r v i n g L a n d . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : T h e N a t u r e C o n s e r v a n c y , ( n o d a t e ) . S i e g e l , S h i r l e y A d e l s o n . T h e L a w o f O p e n S p a c e . New Y o r k : R e g i o n a l P l a n A s s o c i a t i o n , I n c . , J a n u a r y , 1960. S k y l i n e S t u d y C o m m i t t e e . R e p o r t o f t h e S k y l i n e S t u d y C o m m i t t e e . S a n M a t e o C o u n t y , C a l i f o r n i a : F e b r u a r y 2 6 , 1966. S t r o n g , A n n L o u i s e . O p e n S p a c e i n t h e P e n , j e r d e l R e g i o n , Now o r  N e v e r . P h i l a d e l p h i a : P e n n s y l v a n i a - N e w J e r s e y - D e l a w a r e M e t r o p o l i t a n P r o j e c t , I n c . , 1 9 6 3 . U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n . C o n f e r e n c e P r o c e e d l n g s - - S c e n l c E a s e m e n t s i n A c t i o n . M a d i s o n , W i s c o n s i n : D e c e m b e r , 1966• U n i v e r s i t y ; o f W i s c o n s i n . T h o m a s G o s e . M a n u a l f o r C o n f e r e n c e W o r k s h o p s — S c e n i c E a s e m e n t s I n A c t i o n . M a d ' i s o n j W i s c o n s i n : D e c e m b e r , 1966'. ~ ' U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e . " T h e Homes A s s o c i a t i o n H a n d b o o k . 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S c e n i c R o u t e E l e m e n t o f t h e G e n e r a l P l a r a . A l a m e d a C o u n t y , C a l i f o r n i a : M a y , i 9 6 0 . C a l i f o r n i a D e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c W o r k s . P l a n f o r S c e n i c H i g h w a y s  I n C a l i f o r n i a . M a r c h , 1963. 158 C u y a h o g a C o u n t y R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n . O p e n S p a c e f o r O u r C i t i f i e d C o u n t y . C u y a h o g a C o u n t y , O h i o : 1964. D a v i s , A r t h u r A. "The U s e s a n d V a l u e s o f O p e n S p a c e . " A P l a c e t o L i v e : T h e Y e a r b o o k o f A g r i c u l t u r e . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1963, p p . 330-336. F a i r f a x C o u n t y P l a n n i n g D i v i s i o n . The V a n i s h i n g L a n d — P r o p o s a l s -f o r O p e n S p a c e P r e s e r v a t i o n . F a i r f a x C o u n t y , V i r g i n i a , 1962. H o u s e , P e t e r . S t a t e A c t i o n s R e l a t i n g t o T a x a t i o n o f F a r m l a n d o n t h e R u r a l - U r b a n F r i n g e . U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , E c o n o m i c R e s e a r c h S e r v i c e . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , S e p t e m b e r , 1961. J o h n s o n , N o r a h a n d J o y c e T y r r e l l . " P r o b l e m s a n d T e c h n i q u e s o f L a n d A c q u i s i t i o n . " R e s o u r c e s f o r T o m o r r o w , V o l . 2, O t t a w a : T h e Q u e e n ' s P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 l T p p . 1009-1026. L e v y , S. D a v i d . " T h e L a w o f O p e n S p a c e i n t h e N a t i o n a l C a p i t a l R e g i o n . " N a t i o n a l C a p i t a l .Open S p a c e P r o g r a m T e c h n i c a l  R e p o r t , N o . 2, W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: S e p t e m b e r , f96"5. M a r i n C o u n t y P l a n n i n g D e p a r t m e n t . P a r k s a n d R e c r e a t i o n P l a n  1990. 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' M i m e o . - S a n J o s e , C a l i f o r n i a : J u n e f , 1 9 6 4 . S t r o n g , A n n L o u i s e . O p e n S p a c e f o r U r b a n A m e r i c a . U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f H o u s i n g a n d U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1965. . P r e s e r v i n g U r b a n O p e n S p a c e . U.S. U r b a n R e n e w a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , F e b r u a r y , 1963. U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e . P r e s i d e n t ' s C o u n c i l o n R e c r e a t i o n a n d N a t u r a l B e a u t y . A P r o p o s e d P r o g r a m f o r S c e n i c R o a d s  a n d P a r k w a y s . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C : U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , J u n e , 19 6 6 . U . S . I n t e r n a l R e v e n u e S e r v i c e . 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