Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Idealized world of Malory's "Morte Darthur" : a study of the elements of myth, allegory, and symbolism.. 1970

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1970_A1 W45.pdf
UBC_1970_A1 W45.pdf [ 14.3MB ]
UBC_1970_A1 W45.pdf
Metadata
JSON: 1.0102272.json
JSON-LD: 1.0102272+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0102272.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0102272+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0102272+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0102272+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0102272.ris

Full Text

THE IDEALIZED WORLD OF MALORY'S "MORTE DARTHUR": A Study of the Elements of Myth, Allegory, and Symbolism i n the Secular and Religious Milieux of Arthurian Romance by MURIEL A. I. WHITAKER A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n the Department of English We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1970 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I ag ree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Depar tment o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l no t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depar tment o f Date 7 T ABSTRACT Towards the end o f the M i d d l e Ages, S i r Thomas Malory s y n t h e s i z e d the d i v e r s e elements o f B r i t i s h c h r o n i c l e h i s t o r y , C e l t i c myth, Fr e n c h c o u r t o i s i e , and C a t h o l i c t h e o l o g y which o v e r a p e r i o d o f s i x hundred y e a r s o r more had g a t h e r e d about the l e g e n d a r y f i g u r e o f K i n g A r t h u r . Furthermore, Malory p r e s e n t e d i n d e f i n i t i v e form the k i n d o f i d e a l i z e d m i l i e u t h a t l a t e r w r i t e r s i n E n g l i s h came to r e g a r d as r o m a n t i c . M a l o r y ' s Morte D a r t h u r p r e s e n t s d r a m a t i c a l l y the a c t i v i t i e s o f a mythic a r i s t o c r a t i c s o c i e t y l i v i n g i n a go l d e n age. I t p r e s e r v e s the " h i s t o r y " o f a B r i t i s h k i n g who d e f e a t s the Emperor o f Rome and e s t a b l i s h e s an empire s t r e t c h i n g from I r e l a n d and S c a n d i n a v i a t o the E a s t e r n M e d i t e r r a n e a n . I t p o r t r a y s the adventures o f h e r o i c k n i g h t s whose prowess i s i n s p i r e d by i d e a l i z e d l a d i e s and whose achievements a r e h e l p e d o r h i n d e r e d by such s u p e r - n a t u r a l agents as f a y s , m a g i c i a n s , g i a n t s , dwarfs, a n g e l s and d e v i l s . The a c t i o n s of the k n i g h t s conform t o a r i t u a l i s t i c p a t t e r n o f quest and combat determined by s t e r e o t y p e d c h i v a l r i c c o n v e n t i o n s and performed i n a symbol-studded environment. C o l o u r s , numbers, costumes, m e t a l s , arms, armour, and h o r s e s have s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e s which may be h i e r a r c h i c , emotive o r moral. C a s t l e s and p e r i l o u s f o r e s t s r e p r e s e n t the a n t i t h e t i c a l v a l u e s of s e c u r i t y and danger, peace and combat, c i v i l i z a t i o n and p r i m i t i v i s m , l o v e and h a t e . In t h i s a n t i p o d a l environment o c c u r e n c o u n t e r s which o f t e n adumbrate a s t r u g g l e between f o r c e s o f good and f o r c e s o f e v i l . In the r e l i g i o u s m i l i e u o f the G r a i l q u e s t , elements of the s e c u l a r m i l i e u a r e adopted f o r the purpose o f e x p r e s s i n g t r u t h s o f i i C a t h o l i c f a i t h and m o r a l i t y . The G r a i l K n i g h t ' s s e a r c h f o r C o r b e n i c i s an a l l e g o r y o f the s o u l ' s s e a r c h f o r God. Arms and armour, d r e s s and c o l o u r s , animals and p l a n t s have s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e s drawn from B i b l i c a l e x e g e s i s and C h r i s t i a n a r t . The u n i f y i n g element i n the h i s t o r i c a l , r o m a n t i c and r e l i g i o u s m i l i e u x i s the quest m o t i f ; i t i s the means by which the i d e a l s of the M a l o r i a n w o r l d are r e v e a l e d . The h i s t o r i c a l quest f o r the crown of Rome shows Malory's view o f s o v e r e i g n t y and the i d e a l o f the good k i n g . The r o m a n t i c quest f o r fame and f a i r l a d i e s shows h i s view d f c h i v a l r y and the i d e a l o f the good knight. The s p i r i t u a l quest f o r the H o l y G r a i l shows h i s view o f r e l i g i o n and the i d e a l o f the good C h r i s t i a n . I t i s a measure of M a l o r y ' s a r t t h a t the w i s h f u l f i l l i n g dream w o r l d o f romance p r o j e c t s an i l l u s i o n o f r e a l i t y . I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my t h a n k s t o a l l t h o s e who so v a l i a n t l y a s s i s t e d on t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s ; i n p a r t i c u l a r t o P r o f e s s o r ¥ . M. Thompson o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E n g l i s h and t o P r o f e s s o r R i c h a r d Holdaway o f t h e De- p a r t m e n t o f F r e n c h a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I The H i s t o r i c a l Quest: The Road to Rome... 9 I I The Romantic Quest: C a s t l e s and P e r i l o u s F o r e s t s 43 I I I The Romantic Quest: The Journey to the Centre 87 IV The R e l i g i o u s Quest: The Way of S a l v a t i o n 143 C o n c l u s i o n 205 B i b l i o g r a p h y 217 Appendix A Medieval Views of Time and H i s t o r y 236 Appendix B Me d i e v a l Views of Pl a c e 257 A b b r e v i a t i o n s Commonly Used i n Documentation Works — The Works of S i r Thomas M a l o r y , ed. Eugene V i n a v e r . ALMA — A r t h u r i a n L i t e r a t u r e i n the M i d d l e Ages, ed. R.S. Loomis HRB — G e o f f r e y o f Monmouth,.Historia Regum B r i t a n n i a e , ed. Act o n Griscom.. M.A. — a l l i t e r a t i v e Morte A r t h u r e , ed. Edmund Brock. Sommer — The V u l g a t e V e r s i o n of A r t h u r i a n Romance, ed. H.O. Sommer. INTRODUCTION M a l o r i a n s c h o l a r s h i p , which r e c e i v e d much of i t s i n i t i a l s t imulus from the p u b l i c a t i o n of H. Oskar Sommer's Le Morte Darthur (London, l 8 8 9 - 9 l ) ? gained f r e s h impetus from Eugene V i n a v e r ' s 19^7 e d i t i o n of the manuscript d i s c o v e r e d t h i r t e e n years e a r l i e r i n the F e l l o w s ' L i b r a r y of Winchester C o l l e g e . Yet, as J . A. W. Bennett, the e d i t o r of Essays on Malory (Oxford, 1963) p o i n t s out, "'a l a r g e f i e l d i s yet l e f t unto sharper d i s c e r n e r s . ' " The c o l l a b o r a t i v e h i s t o r y e d i t e d by R. S. Loomis, A r t h u r i a n L i t e r a t u r e i n the Middle Ages (.Ox- ford, 1959)» i n d i c a t e s t hat s t u d i e s of l i t e r a r y sources and analogues continue to occupy the paramount p o s i t i o n i n A r t h u - r i a n s c h o l a r s h i p . The number of books devoted e x c l u s i v e l y to Malory i s not l a r g e . G. L. K i t t r e d g e ' s Who Was S i r Thomas Malory? (Bos- ton, 1897), E. K. Chambers' S i r Thomas Malory (London, 1922) and Edward H i c k s 1 S i r Thomas Malory^His T u r b u l e n t Career: A Biography (Cambridge, 1928), have concentrated on biography. More r e c e n t l y , W i l l i a m Matthews' The I l l - F r a m e d Knight (Berke- l e y and Los Angeles, 1966) has proposed t h a t the author of the Morte Darthur was a Y o r k s h i r e Malory r a t h e r than the War- w i c k s h i r e " f e l o n " who i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d to be the " k n i g h t — p r i s o n e r " of the Winchester manuscript. In the area of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , V i d a D. Scudder's Le Morte Darthur of S i r Thomas Malory: A Study of the Book and I t s Sources (London and New York, 1921) f l e e t i n g l y mentions 1 2 a r c h e t y p a l m a t e r i a l b u t i t s e m p h a s i s i s on l i t e r a r y s o u r c e s ; t h e a u t h o r c o n c l u d e s t h a t a l t h o u g h A r t h u r ' s k n i g h t s o c c a s i o n - a l l y d i s p l a y " d i s c o n c e r t i n g f a i r y h a b i t s , " y e t i n t h e m a i n " t h e y a n d t h e l i f e t h e y s h a r e r e f l e c t w i t h e x t r a o r d i n a r y a c - c u r a c y t h e v a r i e d a s p e c t s , m a t e r i a l and p s y c h o l Q g y c a i f o l o f i o n - t e m p o r a r y E u r o p e ( p . 8 ) . " Eugene V i n a v e r , t o o , i n h i s M a l o r y ( O x f o r d , 1 9 2 9 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e a u t h o r i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o n t e m p o r a r y r e a l i t y and t h a t he s u b s t i t u t e s f o r t h e r emote i d e a l i s m o f t h e F r e n c h r o m a n t i c w r i t e r s " t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f a p r a c t i c a l a n d r i g h t e o u s f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y g e n t l e m a n ( p . 1 0 9 ) - " V i n a v e r ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t " i t i s n o t M a l o r y who c a n l e a d us b a c k t o t h e e n c h a n t e d r e a l m o f A r t h u r and L a n c e l o t " r e p r e - s e n t s a p o s i t i o n c o n t r a r y t o t h a t t a k e n i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . I n an e f f o r t t o d i s p r o v e V i n a v e r ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t M a l o r y w r o t e e i g h t s e p a r a t e b o o k s , a number o f s c h o l a r s h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d e s s a y s t o M a l o r y ' s O r i g i n a l i t y , e d i t o r R. M. L u m i - a n s k y ( B a l t i m o r e , 1 9 6 4 ) . T h e s e d e a l w i t h t h e theme, s t r u c - t u r e and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e M o r t e D a r t h u r i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s s o u r c e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o c o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r o b l e m o f u n i t y , C h a r l e s Moorman's The Book o f K i n g A r t h u r ( L e x i n g t o n , I965) i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e themes o f l o v e , r e l i g i o n , and c h i v a l r y . However, Moorman's emphasis on t h e f a i l u r e s o f t h e Round T a b l e d i s t o r t s t h e M a l o r i a n v i s i o n and c o n t r a d i c t s t h e v i e w t h a t M a l o r y i s p r e s e n t i n g an i d e a l w o r l d . A n o t h e r c r i t i c , Edmund R e i s s i d e s c r i b e s h i s S i r Thomas M a l o r y (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 6 ) as a " f u l l - l e n g t h , u n i f i e d c r i t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f M a l o r y ' s work, e m p h a s i z i n g t h e a r t i s t i c and t h e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s " ; R e i s s p u r p o s e l y e x c l u d e s any e x a m i n a t i o n o f " t h e b a c k g r o u n d s 3 of A r t h u r i a n romance." There i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e body of p e r i o d i c a l m a t e r i a l devoted to Malory, much of i t l i s t e d i n V i n a v e r ' s b i b l i o g - raphy (Works I, c x x x i i — c x l i i ) . A d d i t i o n a l t i t l e s may be gleaned from the B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l B u l l e t i n of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l A r t h u r i a n S o c i e t y , e d i t e d by Lewis Thorpe. So f a r as can be a s c e r t a i n e d , no one has a n a l y s e d e x t e n s i v e l y the elements of myth, a l l e g o r y , and symbolism i n Malory's work or shown how they are r e l a t e d to the p r o j e c t i o n of an i d e a l i z e d world. S e v e r a l c r i t i c a l works have p r o v i d e d suggestions f o r the approach which I have taken. Rosamund Tuve's A l l e g o r i c a l Imagery ( P r i n c e t o n , 1 9 6 6 ) , a study of some medieval sources of s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a l l e g o r y , e l u c i d a t e s the p h i l o s o p h i c a l and a e s t h e t i c bases of a l l e g o r i c a l romance. Her chapter on "Romances" i s o f t e n p e r t i n e n t to Malory though i t i s d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y toward Spenser's F a e r i e Queene. Angus F l e t c h e r ' s A l l e g o r y ( I t h a c a , 1 9 6 4 ) shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a l l e g o r i c a l mode of e x p r e s s i o n and r i t u a l i s t i c p a t t e r n s of s t r u c t u r e such as the progress and the b a t t l e . The work i s e c l e c t i c and does not focus on the medieval p e r i o d i n p a r t i c u - l a r . Northrop Frye's Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m (New York, 1 9 6 6 ) proposes t h a t myth i s the a r c h e t y p a l source of romance and d e s i g n a t e s the quest as i t s b a s i c m o t i f . H i s a n a l y s i s of a p o c a l y p t i c , demonic, and a n a l o g i c a l imagery i s r e l e v a n t to A r t h u r i a n m a t e r i a l but he seldom c i t e s examples drawn from medieval works. The bases of the G a l f r i d i a n myth of A r t h u r as c o n t i - n e n t a l conqueror have been d i s c u s s e d by R. H. F l e t c h e r i n The A r t h u r i a n M a t e r i a l i n t h e C h r o n i c l e s , s e c o n d e d i t i o n (New Y o r k , 1966), R. W. H a n n i n g i n The V i s i o n o f H i s t o r y i n E a r l y B r i t a i n (New Y o r k and London, 1966) a n d J . S- P. T a t l o c k i n The L e g e n d - a r y H i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n ( B e r k e l e y a n d L o s A n g e l e s , 1950). None o f them s e e s A r t h u r ' s j o u r n e y a s a q u e s t . On t h e c o n t r a r y , H a n n i n g f i n d s t h a t t h e Wheel o f F o r t u n e metaphor c o n t r o l s t h e v i s i o n o f h i s t o r y i n G e o f f r e y ' s work w h i l e T a t l o c k c i t e s t h e l e g e n d s o f A l e x a n d e r as p r o v i d i n g an i m p o r t a n t p r e c e d e n t f o r t h e i m p e r i a l i s t i c theme. Many s c h o l a r s h a v e f o u n d i n C e l t i c m y t h o l o g y t h e s o u r c e s o f A r t h u r i a n m a r v e l s , b o t h s e c u l a r and r e l i g i o u s . L u c y A. P a t o n ' s S t u d i e s i n t h e F a i r y M y t h o l o g y o f A r t h u r i a n Romance, s e c o n d e d i t i o n (New Y o r k , i 9 6 0 ) , H. R. P a t c h ' s The O t h e r W o r l d A c c o r d i n g t o D e s c r i p t i o n s i n M e d i e v a l L i t e r a t u r e ( C a m b r i d g e , Mass., 1950) a n d R. S. L o o m i s ' numerous books and a r t i c l e s were p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l . Y e t none o f t h e s e c r i t i c s g i v e s M a l o r y more t h a n a p a s s i n g g l a n c e . A l l M a l o r y c i t a t i o n s i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n r e f e r t o Eugene V i n a v e r ' s monumental s e c o n d e d i t i o n o f t h e W i n c h e s t e r m a n u s c r i p t , The Works o f S i r Thomas M a l o r y , t h r e e v o l u m e s (Ox- f o r d , 1967). Some d i r e c t c o m p a r i s o n s h a v e b e e n made between t h e M o r t e D a r t h u r and s u c h s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s a s t h e a l l i t e r a t i v e M o r t e A r t h u r e , e d i t o r Edmund B r o c k (London, 1865) a n d t h e V u l - g a t e V e r s i o n o f A r t h u r i a n Romance, e d i t o r H. 0. Sommer (Wash- i n g t o n , 1909-13)- To a l a r g e e x t e n t , however, I h a v e r e l i e d on V i n a v e r ' s Commentary ( V o l . I l l ) i n d e t e r m i n i n g how M a l o r y d i f f e r s f r o m h i s s o u r c e s . 5 K i n g A r t h u r h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d as "a shadowy a p p a r i - t i o n c l o t h e d i n t h e m i s t s o f l e g e n d and s t a l k i n g a t h w a r t t h e p a t h o f h i s t o r y t o d i s t r a c t a n d m y s t i f y t h e s o b e r c h r o n i c l e r . " The h i s t o r i c i t y o f A r t h u r i s a p u z z l i n g p r o b l e m w h i c h does n o t 2 c o n c e r n us h e r e . The " h i s t o r i c a l " A r t h u r known t o t h e M i d d l e 3 A g e s was n o t a dux b e l l o r u m o f t h e C e l t s b u t an i d e a l i z e d t y p e o f Anglo-Norman c o n q u e r o r d e p i c t e d by G e o f f r e y o f Mon- mouth i n h i s H i s t o r i a Regum B r i t a n n i a e ( c a . 1137)- E v e n i n t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , h i s t o r i a n s were c o m p l a i n i n g o f t h e m y t h i c e l e m e n t s t h a t h a d i n f i l t r a t e d t h e " h i s t o r y . " The nugae B r i t o - 5 num t h a t W i l l i a m o f M a l m e s b u r y condemned and t h e f a b u l o s i B r i t o n e s t o w h i c h G i r a l d u s C a m b r e n s i s ^ r e f e r r e d were p r o d u c t s o f t h e C e l t i c i m a g i n a t i o n . G e o f f r e y h i m s e l f d i d n o t i g n o r e 7 t h e w o r l d o f myth and m a g i c i n h i s f a b u l o u s h i s t o r y . W. L. J o n e s , K i n g A r t h u r i n H i s t o r y and L e g e n d (Cam- b r i d g e , 1933), p. 2. 2 The b e s t s h o r t summary o f e v i d e n c e i s K. H. J a c k s o n ' s "The A r t h u r o f H i s t o r y , " ALMA, pp. 1-11. 3 On t h i s t h e o r y , see R. G. C o l l i n g w o o d , Roman B r i t a i n a n d t h e E n g l i s h S e t t l e m e n t s ( O x f o r d , 1937), PP- 3 2 1 f f ; G e o f f r e y A s h e , From C a e s a r t o A r t h u r (London, i960) and The Q u e s t f o r A r t h u r ' s B r i t a i n (London, 1968). E d . A c t o n G r i s c o m w i t h t r a n s , by R. E . J o n e s ( L o n - don, 1929). 5 C h r o n i c l e s o f t h e K i n g s o f E n g l a n d , ed. J . A. G i l e s (London, 18^7), p. 11. ^"Speculum E c c l e s i a e , " O pera, ed. J . S. Brewer and J . F. Dimoch (London, l 8 6 l - 9 l ) , V o l . IV, p. k7. 7R. H. F l e t c h e r , op. c i t . , pp. 8 5 - I O 8 and J . S. P. T a t l o c k , op. c i t . , p a s s i m . 6 A n o t h e r s t r a i n e n t e r e d t h e A r t h u r i a n m a t e r i a l f r o m F r a n c e where i d e a l s o f c h i v a l r y a n d c o u r t l y l o v e were em- b o d i e d i n romances o f A r t h u r and h i s k n i g h t s . C h r e t i e n de T r o y e s ' I v a i n , f o r example, d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t m i n g l i n g o f m a g i c , c h i v a l r i c p r o w e s s and c o u r t o i s i e w h i c h i s f o u n d i n most s u b s e q u e n t A r t h u r i a n romances i n c l u d i n g t h e M o r t e D a r - t h u r . The f i n a l s t a g e i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e i d e a l w o r l d was t h e a s s i m i l a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e . The v a l u e s o f C a t h o l i c t h e o l o g y were p r e s e n t e d i n t e r m s o f a c h i v a l r i c q u e s t f o r t h e H o l y G r a i l . The w o r l d o f t h e M o r t e D a r t h u r i s a m i n g l i n g o f d i - v e r s e e l e m e n t s — C e l t i c , C h r i s t i a n , c l a s s i c a l , c o u r t l y , h i s - t o r i c a l a n d p s e u d o - h i s t o r i c a l — a n d t h e s e e l e m e n t s d e r i v e w h a t e v e r u n i t y t h e y m i g h t p o s s e s s f r o m t h e u s e o f c h i v a l r i c i m a g e r y and t h e q u e s t m o t i f . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n s p i t e o f many r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l s , t h e w o r l d i n M a l o r y ' s M o r t e D a r - t h u r , as i n most A r t h u r i a n l i t e r a t u r e , i s e s s e n t i a l l y i d e a l - i s e d . I t i s a w o r l d t h a t e x i s t s f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f a r o - m a n t i c i z e d a r i s t o c r a t i c s o c i e t y e n j o y i n g f o r t h e most p a r t t h e p e a c e f u l v i o l e n c e o f a c h i v a l r i c g o l d e n age. I t i s f r e - q u e n t e d b y m y t h i c a g e n t s b o t h C e l t i c a nd C h r i s t i a n — f a y s and t h e w i z a r d M e r l i n , a n g e l s a n d d e v i l s . I t s s e t t i n g c o n s i s t s c h i e f l y o f c a s t l e s and p e r i l o u s f o r e s t s t h a t r e p r e s e n t t h e C f . D o r o t h y Van Ghent, The E n g l i s h N o v e l (New Y o r k , 196l), pp. 52-3: Myth a p p e a r s i n a n o v e l when t h e a c t i o n and t h e p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f manners r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e book a r e o r g a n i z e d i n a t o t a l s y m b o l i c c o n s t r u c t o f s u c h a k i n d t h a t i t n o t o n l y r e f l e c t s t h e a s p i r a t i o n s and i d e a l s , t h e a t t i t u d e s and customs o f a l a r g e s o c i a l g r o u p , b u t a l s o seems t o g i v e t h e s e a t t i t u d e s and customs t h e s a n c t i o n o f some h i g h e r a u - t h o r i t y . 7 a n t i p o d e s o f t h e c h i v a l r i c w o r l d . C a m e l o t i s t h e s y m b o l i c c e n t r e o f l a c h e v a l e r i e t e r r i e n n e , C o r b e n i c and S a r r a s t h e a p o c a l y p t i c g o a l s o f l a c h e v a l e r i e c e l e s t i e n n e , Rome t h e em- b l e m o f i m p e r i a l power. Though t h e h i s t o r i c a l a nd r e l i g i o u s q u e s t s p r o c e e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l i n e a r t i m e scheme o f u n i - 9 v e r s a l C h r i s t i a n h i s t o r y , t h e u s e o f t h e s e a s o n a l and l i t u r - g i c a l c y c l e i mposes on l i n e a r t i m e a s y m b o l i c t i m e scheme c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f myth and romance. I t w o u l d be e r r o n e o u s t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e M o r t e P a r — t h u r s h o u l d be r e a d a s a c o n s i s t e n t a l l e g o r y . The l i t e r a l m e a n ing i s t h e c h i e f a n d o f t e n t h e o n l y m a t t e r o f i n t e r e s t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n t h e s e c u l a r m i l i e u we a r e i n t e r m i t t e n t l y aware o f t h e l a r g e r s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n good and e v i l t h a t i s t h e b a s i s o f t r o p o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The Round T a b l e i s a m o r a l i n s t i t u t i o n and i t s k n i g h t s a r e a g e n t s o f r i g h t . I n t h e r e l i g i o u s m i l i e u , on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e a l l e g o r y i s p e r v a s i v e . The q u e s t f o r t h e G r a i l i s n o t m e r e l y a l i t e r a l j o u r n e y f r o m C a m e l o t t o C o r b e n i c . I t i s t h e s o u l ' s j o u r n e y t o w a r d s t h e C i t y o f God. P s y c h o m a c h i a e i n t e r r u p t i t s p r o - g r e s s , g i v i n g a t r o p o l o g i c a l a s w e l l a s an a n a g o g i c a l i m p o r t . The e x p l a n a t i o n s o f h e r m i t s , s a i n t l y women, and o t h e r r e p r e - s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e D e i t y e n s u r e t h a t we do n o t m i s s t h e s i g - n i f i c a n c e o f t h e a l l e g o r y i m p o s e d b y t h e C h r i s t i a n a u t h o r o r a u t h o r s . M o t i f s o f t h e r e l i g i o u s q u e s t f o r t h e G r a i l r e c u r i n t h e f i n a l book i n o r d e r t o p r e s a g e and e x p l a i n t h e u l t i m a t e s a l v a t i o n o f L a n c e l o t and G u i n e v e r e . See A p p e n d i x A. 8 We may s uppose t h a t M a l o r y ' s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s a p p r o a c h e d t h e M o r t e D a r t h u r i n much t h e same way as S i r J o h n H a r r i n g t o n r e a d O r l a n d o F u r i o s o : F i r s t o f a l l f o r t h e l i t t e r a l l s e n c e (as i t were t h e u t m o s t b a r k e o r r y n e ) t h e y s e t downe i n manner o f an h i s t o r i e , t h e a c t s and n o t a b l e e x p l o i t s o f some p e r s o n s w o r t h y memorie, t h e n i n t h e same f i c - t i o n , as a s e c o n d r i n e and somewhat more f i n e , as i t were n e a r e r t o t h e p i t h and marrow, t h e y p l a c e t h e M o r a l l s e n c e , p r o f i t a b l e f o r t h e a c t i v e l i f e o f man, a p p r o v i n g v e r t u o u s a c t i o n s and condemning t h e c o n t r a r i e . M a n i e t i m e s a l s o u n d e r t h e s e l f e s a m e words t h e y comprehend some t r u e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f n a t u r a l l P h i l o s o p h i e , o r sometimes o f p o l i t i k e gov- ernement, and now a n d t h e n o f d i v i n i t i e : and t h e s e same s e n c e s t h a t comprehend so e x c e l l e n t knowledge we c a l l t h e a l l e g o r i e . 1 0 Though t h e r e a d e r m i g h t g i v e h i s a t t e n t i o n p r i m a r i l y t o t h e o u t e r r i n d , he w o u l d r e t a i n an a w a r e n e s s o f l a r g e r i m p l i c a t i o n s — i d e a l s b e h i n d t h e r e a l i t i e s , c o s m i c s t r u g g l e s b e t w e e n good a n d e v i l , m i r r o r e d i n t h e q u e s t s t h a t A r t h u r and h i s k n i g h t s a c h i e v e d i n a w o r l d g o v e r n e d b y r i t u a l and s y m b o l . O r l a n d o F u r i o s o (London, 1 5 9 1 ) , r e p r i n t e d i n G. G r e g o r y S m i t h , E l i z a b e t h a n C r i t i c a l E s s a y s , 2 v o l s . , ( L o n - don, 1 9 3 7 ) , V o l . 2 , pp. 2 0 1 - 2 . CHAPTER I THE HISTORICAL QUEST: THE ROAD TO ROME Whether t h e o r i g i n a l A r t h u r was a god, a c u l t u r e h e r o , o r a dux b e l l o r u m o f t h e B r y t h o n i c C e l t s who f o u g h t a g a i n s t t h e S a x o n s i n t h e l a t e f i f t h c e n t u r y , t h e A r t h u r o f M a l o r y ' s M o r t e D a r t h u r i s a r o m a n t i c h e r o i n a h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t . When G e o f f r e y o f Monmouth f i r s t p r e s e n t e d A r t h u r a s a m e d i e v a l mon- 2 a r c h and a c o n t i n e n t a l c o n q u e r o r , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t h i s c o n - c e p t o f t h e B r i t i s h k i n g may have b e e n i n f l u e n c e d by t h e f i g u r e 3 o f C h a r l e m a g n e i n F r e n c h h i s t o r y and l e g e n d . I t may a l s o h a v e b e e n i n f l u e n c e d by t h e c h a r a c t e r and a c h i e v e m e n t s o f 4 W i l l i a m t h e C o n q u e r o r . The a u t h o r o f M a l o r y ' s i m m e d i a t e B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l on t h e o r i g i n s o f A r t h u r may be f o u n d i n J . D. B r u c e , The E v o l u t i o n o f A r t h u r i a n Ro- man c e, 2 n d ed. ( G l o u c e s t e r , Mass., 1 9 5 8 ) , I I , pp. 3 8 1 - 3 9 8 ; A r t h u r i a n L i t e r a t u r e i n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , ed. R. S. L o o m i s — ( O x f o r d , 1 9 5 9 ) j p a s s i m ; E . K . C h a m b e r s , A r t h u r o f B r i t a i n , 2 n d ed. (Cambridge, 1 9 6 4 ) , pp. 2 8 3 - 2 9 4 . R e c e n t works on t h e h i s t o r i c a l A r t h u r i n c l u d e G e o f f r e y A s h e ' s The Qu e s t f o r A r - t h u r 's B r i t a i n (London, 1 9 6 8 ) and Beram S a k l a t v a l a ' s A r t h u r : Roman B r i t a i n ' s L a s t Champion (Newton A b b o t , 1 9 6 7 ) - 2 H i s t o r i a Regum B r i t a n n i a e , ed. A c t o n G r i s c o m , t r a n s . R. E . J o n e s ( L o n d o n , 1 9 2 9 ) ; V a r i a n t V e r s i o n , ed. J a c o b Ham- mer ( C a m b r i d g e , Mass., 1 9 5 1 ) - 3 On C h a r l e m a g n e a s a s o u r c e f o r A r t h u r s ee J . D. B r u c e , I , p. 2 4 ; E . K. Chambers, 3 8 , 7 2 , 8 6 e t a l . ; R. H. F l e t c h e r , The A r t h u r i a n M a t e r i a l i n t h e C h r o n i c l e s (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 84; J . S. P. T a t l o c k , The L e g e n d a r y H i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n ( B e r k e l e y and L o s A n g e l e s ^ 1 9 5 0 ) , pp. 3 1 0 - 3 1 1 ; G. H. G e r o u l d , " K i n g A r t h u r and P o l i t i c s , " S p e c u l u m I I ( 1 9 2 7 ) , 3 8 f f . L F l e t c h e r , pp. 1 0 9 - 1 1 2 ; T a t l o c k , pp. 3 0 8 - 3 0 9 . 9 5 s o u r c e , t h e a l l i t e r a t i v e M o r t e A r t h u r e , may have t a k e n as a model Edward I I I / and M a l o r y h i m s e l f may h a v e i d e a l i z e d 7 i n A r t h u r t h e p r e s t i g i o u s H e n r y V o r h i s own i m m e d i a t e o v e r - l o r d , R i c h a r d Beauchamp, E a r l o f Warwick, u n d e r whom t h e War- g w i c k s h i r e k n i g h t s e r v e d a t t h e s i e g e o f C a l a i s . H i s t o r i c a l 9 a n a l o g i e s may w e l l a c c o u n t f o r t h e r e a l i s m w h i c h sometimes c h a r a c t e r i z e s M a l o r y ' s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e c h r o n i c l e m a t e r i a l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , r o m a n t i c e l e m e n t s a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y i m p o r t a n t t o p e r m i t u s t o t r e a t A r t h u r as a r o m a n t i c h e r o and h i s p r o - g r e s s t o Rome as an e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t m o t i f . I n t h e M o r t e D a r t h u r , as i n many " h i s t o r i e s " o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s , we f i n d t h a t " c l o s e u n i o n o f t h e p r i m e v a l and m a g i c a l w i t h h a r d — h e a d e d p o l i t i c s " w h i c h f o r F r i e d r i c h H e e r c o n s t i t u t e d 10 t h e a t m o s p h e r e o f c o u r t l y romance. L o r d R a g l a n ' s h e r o p a t t e r n o f r o y a l a n c e s t r y , m y s t e r i - 5 E d . Edmund B r o c k , EETS OS ,8 (London, l 8 7 l ) and J o h n F i n l a y s o n ( E v a n s t o n , 1967)- v x S e e o W i i l i a m ^ M a t t h e v s V The T r a g e d y o f A r t h u r ( B e r k e - l e y a n d L o s A n g e l e s , i 9 6 0 ) , pp. 184-192. 7 V i n a v e r ' s I n t r o d u c t i o n t o The Works o f S i r Thomas M a l o r y ( O x f o r d , 1967), I 5 x x x i - x x x i i . g C f . P a g e a n t o f t h e B i r t h , L i f e , and D e a t h o f R i c h - a r d Beauchamp, E a r l o f Warwick, ed. V i s c o u n t D i l l o n and W. H. S t . J o h n Hope (London, 1914). 9 See N e l l i e S l a y t o n A u r n e r , " S i r Thomas M a l o r y — H i s t o r i a n ? " PMLA, x l v i i i (1933), 360-391. 10 The M e d i e v a l W o r l d : E u r o p e 1100-1350, t r a n s . J a n e t S o n d h e i m e r ( L o n d o n , 1 9 6 2 ) , p . l j k . O n m e d i e v a l v i e w s o f h i s - t o r y see A p p e n d i x A. 11 ous c o n c e p t i o n and b i r t h , p r o t e c t e d c h i l d h o o d , m a g i c a l r e c o g - n i t i o n , p r e l i m i n a r y s u c c e s s e s , c r u c i a l s t r u g g l e , v i c t o r y , a n d a p o t h e o s i s i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l i f e o f A r - t h u r . I t i s t h e s e a s p e c t s o f t h e b i o g r a p h y t h a t may be r e g a r d e d 11 as m y t h i c . T h r o u g h h i s f a t h e r , K i n g U t h e r P e n d r a g o n , he i s l i n k e d t o t h e l e g e n d a r y k i n g s o f B r i t a i n , d e s c e n d a n t s o f t h e 12 T r o j a n p r i n c e , B r u t u s . T h r o u g h h i s mother, I g r a i n e , he i s 13 r e l a t e d t o t h e C e l t i c e n c h a n t r e s s , M o r gan l e F a y . H i s i l l i c i t c o n c e p t i o n i s c o n t r i v e d b y M e r l i n , t h e m a g i c i a n who b r i n g s Ik U t h e r t o I g r a i n e i n t h e g u i s e o f h e r h u s b a n d . S p i r i t e d away a t b i r t h f o r h i s own p r o t e c t i o n , t h e c h i l d i s b r o u g h t up s e c r e t l y . H i s r i g h t t o t h e t h r o n e i s p r o v e d a t the- a p p o i n t e d t i m e by t h e m a g i c a l t e s t o f t h e sword i n t h e s t o n e . H i s v i c t o r i e s o v e r t h e r e b e l l i o u s k i n g s a r e e f f e c t e d w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f Mer- l i n a n d t h r o u g h t h e p o t e n c y o f h i s own m a g i c a l weapons. I n a c r u c i a l s t r u g g l e he k i l l s f i r s t t h e g i a n t o f S t . M i c h a e l ' s Mount, t h e n t h e Roman Em p e r o r . He m a r r i e s a p r i n c e s s , Guene- v e r e , a n d r e c e i v e s a m a r v e l o u s w e d d i n g p r e s e n t , t h e Round T a b l e . n L o r d R a g l a n , The H e r o (London, 1936), pp. 178-180, 188. Some c r i t i c s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e l e g e n d s o f A r t h u r d e r i v e f r o m t h o s e o f A l e x a n d e r . C f . T a t l o c k , pp. 312, 320; Matthews, pp. 32-67, and G e o r g e C a r e y , The M e d i e v a l A l e x a n d e r ( C a m b r i d g e , 1956). 12 On T r o j a n g e n e a l o g y , see A p p e n d i x A. 13 On t h e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f Morgan i n F r e n c h romance see L u c y A. P a t o n , S t u d i e s i n t h e F a i r y M y t h o l o g y o f A r t h u r i - a n Romance (New Y o r k , I 9 6 0 ) , pp. 162-166. Ik C f . t h e c l a s s i c a l myth o f J u p i t e r and A l c m e n a . F i n a l l y , a f t e r a f a t a l b a t t l e , he i s t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e 15 C e l t i c O t h e r w o r l d , A v a l o n , t o be h e a l e d o f h i s wounds. 16 From t h e r e he w i l l r e t u r n t o save h i s p e o p l e . S u c h i s 17 t h e m y t h i c c o r e t h a t M a l o r y i n h e r i t e d . I n t h e c e n t u r i e s p r e c e d i n g M a l o r y ' s , t h e c h a r a c t e r o f A r t h u r h a d b e e n s u b j e c t t o d i v e r s e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . The A r t h u r o f C e l t i c myth h a d b e e n a t r i b a l h e r o who l e d h i s band o f w a r r i o r s on O t h e r w o r l d q u e s t s and m o n s t e r - s l a y i n g a d v e n - t u r e s ( a s i n Kulhwch and Olwen o r The S p o i l s o f Annwfn, f o r l 8 e x a m p l e ) . The A r t h u r o f t h e L a t i n V i t a e was a l o c a l t y r a n t " w i t h an u n d i s c i p l i n e d c h a r a c t e r w h i c h o c c a s i o n a l l y c a l l s f o r 19 s a i n t l y c o r r e c t i o n . " I n t h e F r e n c h romances he was a r o i 20 f a i n e a n t , a " b a n a l m a i t r e de c e r e m o n i e s . " I n t h e P e r l e s - 15 On A v a l o n a s a C e l t i c O t h e r w o r l d , see R. S. L o o m i s , "The L e g e n d s o f A r t h u r ' s S u r v i v a l , " ALMA, pp. 6 4 - 6 7 ; H. R. P a t c h , The O t h e r W o r l d ( C a m b r i d g e , Mass., 1 9 5 0 ) , pp. 2 8 4 f f ; P a t o n , p a s s i m . On t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f A v a l o n and G l a s t o n - b u r y , see G e o f f r e y A s h e , K i n g A r t h u r ' s A v a l o n (London, 1 9 5 7 ) . l 6 The " B r i t o n h o p e , " a c c o r d i n g t o T a t l o c k (pp. 2 0 4 - 205) i s t h e o n l y e v i d e n c e o f p o p u l a r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h A r t h u r b e f o r e HRB. 17 On s o u r c e s o f t h e m y t h o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l see Cham- b e r s , pp. 2 0 5 - 2 3 2 ; F l e t c h e r , p a s s i m . 18 K u l h w c h and Olwen and The S p o i l s o f Annwfn a r e gen- e r a l l y r e g a r d e d a s P r e - G a l f r i d i a n . C f . ALMA pp. 15, 3 2 . T a t - l o c k d i s a g r e e s , op. c i t . , pp. 194-9- On e v i d e n c e s o f t h e A r - t h u r i a n l e g e n d b e f o r e 1139, see R. S. L o o m i s , W a l e s and t h e A r t h u r i a n L e g e n d ( C a r d i f f , 1 9 5 6 ) , pp. 1 7 9 - 2 2 0 . 19 y E . K. Chamb e r s , op. c i t . , p. o l . 20 J . B e d i e r , Revue des deux mondes L V I I ( l 8 9 l ) 5 P- 8 6 0 , c i t e d b y P. R i c k a r d , B r i t a i n i n M e d i e v a l F r e n c h L i t e r a t u r e ( C a m b r i d g e , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 76 , f n . 1. 13 v a u s h i s s l o t h h a d u n d e r m i n e d t h e Round T a b l e a n d e n e r v a t e d t h e whole kingdom. I n R o b e r t de B o r o n ' s M o r t d ' A r t h u r h i s c o n t i n e n t a l e x p e d i t i o n was a m i n o r a d v e n t u r e u n d e r t a k e n t o h e l p L a n c e l o t r e g a i n h i s l a n d s f r o m a u s u r p e r . I n t h e P r o s e L a n c e l o t he was so weak t h a t he c o u l d n o t p r o t e c t h i s v a s s a l 21 Ban n o r avenge h i s d e a t h . He was p o w e r l e s s t o p r e v e n t t h e t h e f t o f h i s g o l d e n cup i n L i C o n t e s d e l G r a a l o r t h e a b d u c - t i o n o f h i s queen i n L e C h e v a l i e r de l a C h a r r e t t e . None o f t h e s e v e r s i o n s o f t h e A r t h u r i a n m a t e r i a l e x c e p t t h e W e l s h t r e a t s A r t h u r as a h e r o . T h e r e f o r e , M a l o r y t u r n e d t o t h e E n g l i s h c h r o n i c l e t r a d i t i o n w h i c h d e p i c t e d A r t h u r a s a g r e a t B r i t i s h k i n g , c o n - t i n e n t a l c o n q u e r o r , and C h r i s t i a n champion. I t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t f o r M a l o r y and most o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s A r t h u r was a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s o n a g e . T h a t t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l h i s - t o r y was r e g a r d e d e v e n i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y as M a l o r y ' s p r i m a r y p u r p o s e i s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e s u b t i t l e t h a t W i l l i a m S t a n s b y gave h i s 1©3^ e d i t i o n o f L e M o r t e D a r t h u r : The most a n c i e n t a n d Famous H i s t o r y o f t h e r e - nowned p r i n c e A r t h u r , K i n g o f B r i t a i n e , . . . w h e r e i n i s d e c l a r e d h i s L i f e and D e a t h w i t h a l l h i s g l o r i o u s B a t t a i l e s a g a i n s t t h e S a x o n s , S a r a - c e n s , a n d Pagans, w h i c h ( f o r t h e h o n o u r o f h i s C o u n t r y ) he most w o r t h i l y a c h i e v e d . . . . A t t e m p t s t o d i s c r e d i t t h e h i s t o r i c i t y o f A r t h u r were r i g o r o u s - l y r e s i s t e d f o r h u n d r e d s o f y e a r s a f t e r t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f G e o f — E l s p e t h M. Kennedy, " K i n g A r t h u r i n t h e F i r s t P a r t o f t h e P r o s e L a n c e l o t , " A M e d i e v a l M i s c e l l a n y p r e s e n t e d t o Eugene V i n a v e r , ed. F. W h i t e h e a d , A. H. D i v e r r e s , F. E . S u t - c l i f f e ( M a n c h e s t e r and New Y o r k , 1965), pp. 186-195. Ik fray's H i s t o r i a . The fourteenth-century Scalacronlea of S i r Thomas Gray includes "a hole Chapitre speking agayne them 22 that believe not Arthure to have beene King of B r i t a i n e , " 23 Caxton, too, f i r m l y condemns those who deny that there "was suche a noble Kyng named Arthur, and reputed one of the nine worthy, and f y r s t and chyef of the Cristen men." As proof of Arthur's h i s t o r i c i t y he offers not only the numerous chronicles, but his tomb at Glastonbury, 2^ his seal i n West- minster Abbey, Gasain's s k u l l and Gradoc's mantle i n Dover 2 6 Castle, the Round Table at Winchester and Lancelot's sword 27 and many other things " i n other places." F i n a l l y , as an pp John Leland, Assertio A r t u r i i , c i t e d by Fletcher, pp. 8-9. 2^Among the doubters of Geoffrey's r e l i a b i l i t y were William of Newburgh, Giraldus Cambrensis, Ralph Higden and his translator Trevisa, and Polydore V i r g i l ; cf. Fletcher pp. 178-185, 260. 2 ^ I n 1190, at a time when Henry II's C e l t i c subjects were cherishing the hope of Arthur's return, the grave of Arthur and Guenevere was conveniently found at Glastonbury soon af t e r the discovery of a leaden cross bearing the i n s c r i p t i o n , "Hie jacet Sepultus Inclytus Rex Arturus i n Insula Avallonla," cf . Giraldus Cambrenses, De Principes Ins true tione v i i i , 126-9 (ca. 119U). See also C. A. Ralegh Radford's "Glastonbury Abbey t" The Quest f o r Arthur ? s B r i t a i n , ed. Geoffrey Ashe (London, 196b), pp. 119-138. ^ C f . Malory's a l l u s i o n to the b u r i a l of Gawain at Dover, Works, p. 1232. 2o"Arthur's Round Table," f i r s t described by the chroni- c l e r Hardyng ca. 1U50, may s t i l l be seen at Winchester; c f . R. S. and L. H. Loomis, Arthurian Legends i n Medieval Art (New York and London, 1938) I, p. 1+0. ^Caxton's preface i s reproduced i n Vinaver's e d i t i o n , pp. c x / i i i - c x l v i i . i n d i c a t i o n t h a t M a l o r y h i m s e l f p r o b a b l y a c c e p t e d t h e h i s t o r - i c i t y o f A r t h u r t h e r e i s h i s c o l o p h o n a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e Roman Wars e p i s o d e : H e r e e n d y t h t h e T a l e o f t h e N o b l e Kynge A r t h u r e t h a t was Emperoure h y m s e l f t h o r o w d y g n y t e o f h i s hond y s ( 2 ^ 7 ) . M e d i e v a l v i s i o n s o f h i s t o r y s y n t h e s i z e d t h r e e p a s t s — t h e J u d e o - C h r i s t i a n , t h e Graeco-Roman and t h e n a t i o n a l b a r - 28 b a r i a n . The l i f e o f a n a t i o n a l h e r o was p a r t o f t h e l i n e a r p r o g r e s s o f w o r l d h i s t o r y . M a l o r y a c c e p t s t h i s f r a m e , r e l a t - i n g i t t o t h e b i o g r a p h y o f A r t h u r by means o f g e n e a l o g y . A r - t h u r 1 s f a t h e r , U t h e r P e n d r a g o n , i s a p s e u d o — h i s t o r i c a l son o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l C o n s t a n t i n e t h e G r e a t who p r o c l a i m e d h i m s e l f Roman Emperor a t Y o r k i n 306 A.D., removed t h e s e a t o f empire t o t h e s h o r e s o f t h e B o s p h o r u s and a c c e p t e d t h e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h , e a r n i n g f o r h i m s e l f " e v e r y a t t r i b u t e o f a h e r o , and 29 e v e n o f a s a i n t . " M a l o r y ' s A r t h u r c i t e s t h i s a n c e s t r y , a s w e l l a s h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a earlier p a i r o f B r i t i s h c o n q u e r o r s B e l y n and B r y n e , i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h h i s r i g h t t o u n d e r t a k e t h e q u e s t f o r Rome ( l 8 8 ) . The message w h i c h t h e s e n a t o r s de- l i v e r t o L u c i u s a s s e r t s A r t h u r ' s b e l i e f t h a t Ye h a v e o c c u p y e d t h e Empyre w i t h g r e t e wronge, f o r a l l h i s [ i . e . A r t h u r ' s ] t r e w a u n c e t t r y e s s a u f f h i s f a d i r U t h e r were E m p e r o u r e s o f Rome ( 1 9 2 ) . 28 R. W. H a n n i n g , The V i s i o n o f H i s t o r y i n E a r l y B r i t - a i n (New Y o r k and London, 1966) , p~I kO. See a l s o A p p e n d i x A. 29 Edward G i b b o n , The D e c l i n e and F a l l o f t h e Roman E m p i r e , a b r i d g . D. M. Low (London, I 9 6 0) , p~! 266. 16 G e n e a l o g y , an i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t i n b o t h p s e u d o - h i s t o r y and romance, i s u t i l i z e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e s t a t u r e o f t h e l e g e n d a r y h e r o and t o p l a c e h i m i n t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f w o r l d h i s t o r y de- v i s e d by C h r i s t i a n h i s t o r i o g r a p h e r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , M a l o r y ' s d e s c r i p t i o n ( n o t i n h i s s o u r c e ) o f C o n s t a n t i n e a s "dame E l y - n e y s s o n " ( l 8 8 ) and t h e a l l u s i o n t o t h e r e c o v e r y o f t h e T r u e C r o s s p r o d u c e t h e s y n t h e s i s o f n a t i o n a l , c l a s s i c a l a nd C h r i s - t a i n " h i s t o r y " t h a t t h e f i g u r e o f C o n s t a n t i n e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e M i d d l e A g e s . A r t h u r , t h e n , b e l o n g s c l e a r l y t o t h e t r a - d i t i o n o f " C h r i s t i a n i s s i m u s r e x , " an i d e a l i z e d t y p e c r e a t e d 30 by m e d i e v a l h i s t o r i o g r a p h e r s . As a g r a n d s o n o f t h e f o u r t h - c e n t u r y emperor, A r t h u r must be presumed t o have f l o u r i s h e d d u r i n g t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y i n t h e t r o u b l o u s t i m e s o f t h e Saxon i n v a s i o n s . M a l o r y , how- e v e r , b a r e l y m e n t i o n s t h e Sa x o n s , and t h e n o n l y a s enemies 31 o f Mark, n o t A r t h u r (619-626). The e t h o s o f h i s h i s t o r i c a l v i s i o n i s r a t h e r t h a t o f t h e H i g h M i d d l e A g e s . The r e l u c t a n c e o f t h e b a r o n s t o a c c e p t A r t h u r a s h e i r t o t h e t h r o n e r e s e m b l e s t h e c o n t e n t i o u s n e s s t h a t s u r r o u n d e d t h e a c c e s s i o n o f s u c h h i s - t o r i c a l E n g l i s h k i n g s a s S t e p h e n and H e n r y V I . A f t e r h i s s u c - c e s s i o n , t h e young A r t h u r seems t o r e f l e c t t h e image o f t h e a m b i t i o u s a n d e n e r g e t i c A n g e v i n s whose d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o u n i t e t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s t o o k them i n t o t h e f a s t n e s s e s o f S c o t l a n d and W a l e s . H i s e f f o r t t o m a i n t a i n p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y t a k e s 3 0 C f . A s s e r ' s A l f r e d , S u g e r ' s S a i n t L o u i s , and Bede's Oswald. 31 C o n t r a s t t h e r o l e o f t h e Saxons i n Layamon's B r u t . 17 on i r o n i c o v e r t o n e s i n i t s f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y c o n t e x t when what A. N. M y e r s c a l l s " t h e n e m e s i s o f L a n c a s t e r " h a d r e - s u l t e d f r o m t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e Crown t o r e s i s t and c o n t r o l 3 2 t h e magnates' u s u r p a t i o n o f r o y a l p owers. I n m i n o r d e t a i l s , a l s o , M a l o r y ' s a t t e m p t s a t r a t i o n - a l i z a t i o n a nd l o c a l i z a t i o n may be s e e n . He c r e a t e s an a i r o f a u t h e n t i c i t y a b o u t t h e m a r v e l o u s e v e n t s l e a d i n g t o t h e h e r o ' s c o n c e p t i o n by a d d i n g a p p a r e n t l y u n n e c e s s a r y s p e c i f i - c a t i o n s t o t h e s t o r y o f I g r a i n e ' s s e d u c t i o n . The c a s t l e o f T i n t a g e l i s d e s c r i b e d a s b e i n g " b u t t e n myle h e n s " ( 9 ) ; U t h e r ' s s e d u c t i o n o f I g r a i n e i s made t o o c c u r "more t h a n t h r e h o u r e s " a f t e r h e r h u s b a n d ' s d e a t h . S i r E c t o r , t o whom t h e c h i l d ' s u p b r i n g i n g i s e n t r u s t e d , i s n o t t h e "pas t r o p r i c h e s horn" o f t h e F r e n c h s o u r c e b u t a " l o r d o f f a i r l y v e l o d e i n many p a r t y e s i n E n g l o n d and W a l y s " (10). The sword t e s t i s l o c a l i z e d i n t h e c h u r c h y a r d o f " t h e g r e t t e s t c h i r c h o f L o n - d o n — w h e t h e r i t were P o w l i s o r n o t t h e F r e n s s h e booke maketh no mencyon" ( 1 2 ) . And Morgan l e F a y l e a r n s h e r magic a r t s n o t i n t h e C e l t i c O t h e r w o r l d b u t i n a n u n n e r y (10). E v e n t h e p e r v a s i v e myth o f t h e u n d y i n g A r t h u r i s c o u n t e r p o i s e d i n M a l o r y ' s M o r t e D a r t h u r , as i t was i n L a M o r t l e R o i A r t u , by t h e " h i s t o r i c a l " d e a t h and b u r i a l o f t h e C h r i s - t i a n k i n g i n t h e A r c h b i s h o p ' s c h a p e l a t G l a s t o n b u r y . The c o n - c l u s i o n o f t h e s t o r y o f A r t h u r i s r e c o u n t e d i n words t h a t a r e M a l o r y ' s own c o n t r i b u t i o n a n d t h a t r e p r e s e n t h i s a t t e m p t a t E n g l a n d i n t h e L a t e M i d d l e Ages (Harmondsworth, 1963), pp. l O l f f . 18 r e c o n c i l i n g t h e C e l t i c myth o f A r t h u r ' s r e t u r n w i t h t h e C h r i s t i a n v i e w o f h i s t o r y as a u n i q u e l i n e a r p r o g r e s s f r o m t h e C r e a t i o n t o t h e L a s t Judgment: " Now more o f t h e d e t h o f kynge A r t h u r c o u d e ^ I I n e v e r f y n d e , b u t t h a t t h e s l a d y e s b r o u g h t hym t o h y s g r a v e , a n d s u c h one was e n t y r e d t h e r e whych t h e ermyte b a r e w y t n e s t h a t sometyme was B y s s h o p o f C a u n t u r b y r y . But y e t t h e ermyte knew n a t i n s e r t a y n e t h a t he was v e r y l y t h e b o d y o f kynge A r t h u r : f o r t h y s t a l e s i r Bede- were, a k n y g h t o f t h e T a b l e Rounde, made h i t t o be w r y t t e n . Y e t som men s a y i n many p a r t y s o f I n g l o n d e t h a t kynge A r t h u r e y s n a t dede, b u t h a d b y t h e w y l l o f o u r e L o r d e J e s u i n t o a n o t h e r p l a c e ; and men s a y t h a t he s h a l l com agayne, a n d he s h a l l wynne t h e H o l y C r o s s e . Y e t I w o l l n a t s a y t h a t h i t s h a l l be so, b u t r a t h e r I w olde .s«y: h e r e i n t h y s w o r l d e he c haunged h y s l y f f . A nd many men s a y t h a t t h e r e y s w r y t t e n uppon t h e tumbe t h y s : H i e I a c e t A r t h u r u s , Rex Quon- dam Rexque F u t u r u s (12&2).33 I t i s p o s s i b l e t o see t h e i n f l u e n c e n o t o n l y o f t h e s t y l i z e d m e d i e v a l h i s t o r i c a l v i e w b u t a l s o o f a u t h e n t i c B r i t - i s h h i s t o r y i n t h e M o r t e D a r t h u r . To a g r e a t e r e x t e n t , we a r e aware o f a u t h e n t i c B r i t i s h g e o g r a p h y i n M a l o r y ' s work as compared w i t h t h e v a g u e n e s s a n d i n a c c u r a c y o f t h e F r e n c h r o - 34 35 mances and t h e u n e v e n n e s s o f t h e c h r o n i c a l m a t e r i a l . I n A s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y e n g r a v i n g i n Camden's B r i t a n - n i a o f t h e c r o s s s a i d t o h a v e b e e n f o u n d i n A r t h u r ' s g r a v e de- p i c t s a f o r m o f l e t t e r s p r o p e r t o t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y o r e a r l e r , r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y when t h e g r a v e was d i s - c o v e r e d . See C. A. R a l e g h R a d f o r d , op. c i t . , p. 126. 3 4 / C f . J . F r a p p i e r , E t u d e s u r L a M o r t Le R o i A r t u ( P a r i 1 9 6 l ) , p. 22, F. L o t , E t u d e " s u r l e L a n c e l o t en p r o s e ( P a r i s , 195i4)i PP' l 4 6 - 7 ; R i c h a r d , op. c i t . , pp. l O O f f . 3 5 On G e o f f r e y ' s B r i t i s h g e o g r a p h y see T a t l o c k , pp. 7- 8 4 . A s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e i s t h e l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f p l a c e s w i t h Roman a s s o c i a t i o n s . t h e f i r s t s e n t e n c e o f M o r t e D a r t h u r , U t h e r i s d e s c r i b e d as "kynge o f a l l E n g l a n d " ( M a l o r y ' s a d d i t i o n ) . E n g l a n d o r L o g r e s , as i t was f r e q u e n t l y c a l l e d , was a kingdom o f u n d e f i n e d l i m i t s i n G e o f f r e y ' s work and i n t h e F r e n c h r o mances. F o r M a l o r y i t h a s s p e c i f i c b o u n d a r i e s . I t e x t e n d s i n l e n g t h f r o m S a n d w i c h t o C a r l i s l e ( 1 2 0 0 ) . I t s g e o g r a p h i c d i v i s i o n s a r e marked by g r e a t r i v e r s , t h e Humber i n t h e n o r t h ( 1 2 7 , 1 2 9 , 7 0 0 ) , t h e T r e n t ( 2 5 ) , t h e Thames ( 1 0 9 4 - 5 , 1 1 2 5 ) , and t h e S e v e r n ( 8 8 7 ) . 3 7 L o c a l i z a t i o n i s t h e c h i e f f e a t u r e o f M a l o r y ' s g e o g r a p h y . Came- l o t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h W i n c h e s t e r ( 2 8 6 , 1 0 5 0 , O Q 1 2 2 7 ) , t h e o l d c a p i t a l o f t h e S a x o n k i n g s ; J o y o u s G a r d w i t h A l n w i c k o r Bamborough ( 1 2 5 7 ) , A s t a l o t w i t h G u i l d f o r d ( I O 6 5 ) ; kl t h e c a s t l e o f Magouns w i t h A r u n d e l . T h e r e a r e a l s o o l d names 1 f\ C f . t h e maps o f Matthew P a r i s . 37 I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o a c c e p t Beram S a k l a t v a l a ' s s t a t e - ment t h a t " f r o m M a l o r y ' s t e x t we do n o t even know i n what p l a c e s h i s [ i . e . A r t h u r ' s ] a d v e n t u r e s b e f e l l h i m . " A r t h u r : Roman B r i t a i n ' s L a s t Champion, p . l 8 . o o W i l l i a m I p e r p e t u a t e d t h e r o y a l a s s o c i a t i o n by h o l d i n g E a s t e r c o u r t t h e r e . 39 M a l o r y may have b e e n p r e s e n t a t t h e s i e g e s o f t h e s e c a s t l e s i n 1 4 6 2-3- C f . V i n a v e r , Works, p. x x v . 4 0 On t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n see G. R. S t e w a r t , " E n g l i s h G e o g r a p h y i n M a l o r y ' s M o r t e D ' A r t h u r , " MLR, v o l . XXX (.1935), PP- 2 0 4 - 2 0 9 . kl T h i s c a s t l e was t h e s e a t o f t h e Y o r k i s t F i t z A l a n s , enemies o f t h e L a n c a s t r i a n s whom M a l o r y s u p p o r t e d . 2 0 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Roman B r i t a i n and s t i l l f a m i l i a r t o f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y r e a d e r s — W a t l i n g S t r e e t down w h i c h t h e Roman env o y s h u r r y t o t h e i r e m b a r c a t i o n a t S a n d w i c h , t h e w a l l e d c i t y o f Y o r k , C a r l e o n - o n - U s k where A r t h u r i s crowned, London, t h e c a p i - t a l o f U t h e r P e n d r a g o n , C a r l i s l e , a Roman s t a t i o n t h a t i s t h e s e a t o f A r t h u r ' s c o u r t i n t h e l a t e r b o o k s o f M o r t e D a r t h u r . Many o f M a l o r y ' s p l a c e names b e l o n g t o t h e f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y w o r l d , some o f them a s s o c i a t e d f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e w i t h A r t h u r i a n r o m a n c e — W e s t m i n s t e r w i t h i t s tombs, t o u r n a m e n t s and t r i a l s , t h e r o y a l f o r e s t o f W i n d s o r w i t h i t s h u n t e r s and h e r - m i t a g e s , S t . P a u l ' s i n London, G l a s t o n b u r y where t h e monks h a d d e v e l o p e d a t h r i v i n g t o u r i s t i n d u s t r y w i t h t h e i r l e g e n d s o f A r t h u r ' s g r a v e and J o s e p h ' s t h o r n , Amesbury where t h e r e h a d b e e n a f o u n d a t i o n o f nuns s i n c e c a . 98O. Some l o c a l e s s u c h as t h e Thame&side s e t t i n g where L a n c e l o t swims h i s h o r s e a c r o s s t h e r i v e r t o Lambeth and where E l a i n e o r d e r s t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f h e r f u n e r a l b a r g e a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f f i r s t — h a n d k n o w l e d g e . The r e a l i s t i c i m p r e s s i o n c r e a t e d b y M a l o r y ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f i n a l e v e n t s i n t h e c h r o n i c l e o f A r t h u r g a i n s n o t a l i t t l e f r o m t h e c a r e f u l u s e o f s u c h p l a c e names as C a n t e r b u r y , W i n c h e s t e r , t h e Tower o f London, D o v e r , B a r e o n Down and S a l i s b u r y . I n M a l o r y ' s t r e a t m e n t o f c o n t i n e n t a l g e o g r a p h y t h e Many t r i a l s , i n c l u d i n g t h a t o f S i r Thomas More, were c o n d u c t e d i n W e s t m i n s t e r P a l a c e . From t h e t i m e o f Edward I I I m e d i e v a l p a r l i a m e n t s met t h e r e . On M a r c h 4, l 4 6 l , Edward I V s e a t e d h i m s e l f on t h e t h r o n e i n W e s t m i n s t e r and was h a i l e d a s k i n g b y h i s s u p p o r t e r s and t h e p o p u l a c e . C f . t h e p o p u l a r a c - c e p t a n c e o f M o r d r e d . c o n v e n t i o n a l c h r o n i c l e m a t e r i a l i s s i m i l a r l y i n f u s e d w i t h r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l s s u g g e s t i n g p e r s o n a l k n o w l e d g e . V i n a v e r p e r - s u a s i v e l y a r g u e s t h a t M a l o r y a l t e r e d A r t h u r ' s i t i n e r a r y so t h a t i n s t e a d o f g o i n g s t r a i g h t s o u t h and e a s t t h r o u g h Luxem- b o u r g , M e t z , and L u c e r n e , he m i g h t t u r n n o r t h t o w a r d s F l a n - d e r s i n i m i t a t i o n o f t h e r o u t e f o l l o w e d by H e n r y V on h i s way 44 f r o m Fecamp t o A g i n c o u r t . The g e o g r a p h y o f L a n c e l o t ' s l a n d s seems t o b e a r a r e l a t i o n t o t h e c o n d i t i o n o f F r a n c e d u r i n g t h e H u n d r e d Y e a r s ' War b e f o r e t h e r e c o n q u e s t o f A q u i t a i n e and N o r - mandy i n l453« So s m a l l a r e some o f t h e f i e f d o m s w h i c h L a n c e - l o t d i s t r i b u t e s t h a t t h e i r names c o u l d o n l y h a v e b e e n known, 45 i t i s t h o u g h t , t o someone who h a d s e r v e d i n t h e a r e a . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h o u g h M a l o r y a t t e m p t e d t o make t h e ex- p l o i t s o f A r t h u r c r e d i b l e b y r e l a t i n g them t o a p a r t i c u l a r tem- p o r a l and s p a t i a l s e t t i n g , A r t h u r ' s Roman e x p e d i t i o n i s no l e s s r o m a n t i c t h a n t h e s e c u l a r q u e s t s o f t h e R o u n d - T a b l e k n i g h t s o r 46 t h e G r a i l k n i g h t s ' s e a r c h f o r C o r b e n i c . S i n c e Rome was t h e w o r l d e m p i r e b e s t known t o m e d i e v a l h i s t o r i o g r a p h e r s , i t s crown 43 J C f . T a t l o c k , pp. 8 5 - 1 1 5 - 44 V i n a v e r , Works, p . 1396-8. 4=5 ^P. 1670, no. 1204, 27-32. On M a l o r y ' s k nowledge o f F r a n c e see a l s o Edward H i c k s , S i r Thomas M a l o r y ( C a m b r i d g e , 1928), pp. l 6 f f ; N. L. A u r n e r , " S i r Thomas M a l o r y — H i s t o r i a n ? " PMLA X L V I I I (1933), PP- 3 6 2 r 391; W i l l i a m Matthews, The I l l - F r amed K n i g h t ( B e r k e l e y , 1966), pp. 147-150. 46 On m e d i e v a l v i e w s o f Rome see A p p e n d i x B. I t was G e o f f r e y who f i r s t d e p i c t e d A r t h u r a s c o n q u e r o r o f Roman t e r r i - t o r y . A c c o r d i n g t o F l e t c h e r , pp. 50, 8 2 f f , 126ff a t r a d i t i o n o f f o r e i g n c o n q u e s t s a l r e a d y e x i s t e d b e f o r e t h e w r i t i n g s o f HRB. 2 2 s y m b o l i z e d u n e q u a l e d power and g l o r y i n t h e t e m p o r a l s p h e r e . F a r f r o m b e i n g an example o f " u n f o r t u n a t e i m p e r i a l i s m " a s i t kl _was i n G e o f f r e y ' s H i s t o r i a , t h e j o u r n e y t o Rome i s t h e most g l o r i o u s e v e n t i n M a l o r y ' s b i o g r a p h y o f A r t h u r . N o t o n l y does i t p r o v e A r t h u r ' s power and w o r t h i n e s s a s n a t i o n a l h e r o b u t i t r e f l e c t s M a l o r y ' s c o n c e p t s o f c h i v a l r y a nd s o v e r e i g n t y a s w e l l . I t i s an i d e a l i z a t i o n o f h i s t o r y embodying t h e dream o f c o n - t i n e n t a l supremacy w h i c h E n g l i s h c l a i m s t o F r e n c h l a n d s h a d f o s t e r e d s i n c e t h e Norman C o n q u e s t . When The T a l e o f t h e N o b l e K i n g A r t h u r b e g i n s , more t h a n t w e n t y y e a r s have p a s s e d s i n c e t h e y o u t h f u l h e r o h a d . drawn t h e sword f r o m t h e s t o n e . L a n c e l o t , whom M e r l i n d h a d s e e n a s an i n f a n t i n t h e l a n d o f Benwick ( 1 2 5 ) , h a s now grown up and come t o c o u r t . A r t h u r h a s f u l f i l l e d t h e d e s t i n y p r o - c l a i m e d b y M e r l i n a t t h e c o r o n a t i o n f e a s t : . . .he s h a l be k y n g and overcome a l l e h i s enemyes, and o r he deye he s h a l l e be l o n g kynge o f a l l E n g l o n d and have u n d e r h i s o b e y s s a u n c e W a l y s , Y r l a n d , and S c o t l a n d , and moo reames t h a n I w i l l now r e h e r c e (l8; M a l o r y ' s a d d i t i o n ) . H i s t e r r i t o r i e s have b e e n e x t e n d e d t o t h e c o n t i n e n t b y t h e a c - q u i s i t i o n o f "many F a y r e c o n t r a y e s t h a t A r t h u r e h a d wonne b e - f o r e o f t h e myghty kynge C l a u d a s " ( 1 9 ^ ; M a l o r y j s s a d d i t i o n ) . The Round T a b l e h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d a s A r t h u r ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arm, s e t t l i n g d i s p u t e s , r i g h t i n g wrongs and m a i n t a i n i n g p e a c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e kingdom. M e r l i n , t h e a r c h i t e c t o f A r t h u r ' s e a r - l y s u c c e s s e s , h a s l o n g b e e n i m p r i s o n e d u n d e r " t h e g r e t e s t o n e . " The s t r u c t u r e o f M o r t e D a r t h u r demands a c l i m a c t i c v i c t o r y b e - H a n n i n g , p. 1 5 5 - 23 f o r e t h e h i s t o r y o f A r t h u r i s i n t e r r u p t e d b y t h e c y c l i c a d - v e n t u r e s o f k n i g h t - e r r a n t r y . The s t o r y o f A r t h u r ' s Roman Wars w h i c h M a l o r y f o u n d i n t h e a l l i t e r a t i v e M o r t e A r t h u r e p r o - v i d e s t h e means o f t e s t i n g t h e k i n g ' s h e r o i c q u a l i t i e s a n d d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e i d e a l s w h i c h he embodies. The h i s t o r i c a l q u e s t i s i n i t i a t e d by a r o m a n t i c c o n - 48 v e n t i o n . As A r t h u r i s p r e s i d i n g o v e r "a r y a l f e e s t e and T a b l e Rounde" , t h e c e r e m o n i e s a r e i n t e r r u p t e d b y s t r a n g e r s who p r e s e n t a c h a l l e n g e t h a t c a n n o t be i g n o r e d : '. . .the g r e t i s w e l l e L u c i u s , t h e Emperour o f Roome, and commaundis t h e uppon payne t h a t w o l l f a l l e t o sende hym t h e t r e w a g e o f t h i s r e a l m e t h a t t h y f a d i r U t h e r P e n d r a g o n payde, o t h e r e l l y s he w o l l b e r e v e t h e a l l t h y r e a l m y s t h a t t h o u w e l d y s t , and t h o u a s r e b e l l e , n o t knowynge hym as t h y s o v e r a y n e , w i t h h o l d e s t and r e t e y n e s t c o n - t r a r y t o t h e s t a t u t e s and d e c r e e s maade by t h e n o b l e and w o r t h y J u l i u s C e z a r , c o n q u e r o u r o f t h i s r e a l m e ' ( l 8 6 ) ; ( t h e a l l u s i o n s t o U t h e r and C a e s a r a r e M a l o r y ' s a d d i t i o n ) . I n t h e w o r l d o f c h i v a l r i c romance, a c h a l l e n g e r e - s u l t s i n t h e i m m e d i a t e d e p a r t u r e f r o m c o u r t o f a s i n g l e k n i g h t o f t h e Round T a b l e o r a s m a l l g r o u p o f k n i g h t s . A d i f f e r e n t r i t u a l i s p u r s u e d i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l q u e s t . Though A r t h u r h i m - s e l f c o n t r o l s t h e a c t i o n a n d i s t h e c h i e f p a r t i c i p a n t , he must h a v e t h e a p p r o b a t i o n and m i l i t a r y s u p p o r t o f a l l t h o s e who 49 owe h i m f e u d a l a l l e g i a n c e . He c a l l s a c o u n c i l o f n o b l e l o r d s 48 The same m o t i f f o r i n i t i a t i n g q u e s t s i s u s e d i n t h e m i l i e u o f c o u r t l y romance and i n t h e s t o r y o f t h e G r a i l . 49 On t h e p a r a l l e l h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n u n d e r t h e Ange- v i n s see G. 0 . S a y l e s , The M e d i e v a l F o u n d a t i o n s o f E n g l a n d (London, 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 325 -329- and " t h e moste p a r t y o f t h e k n y g h t e s o f t h e Rounde T a b l e " ( l 8 7 ; M a l o r y ' s a d d i t i o n ) . "The C o n q u e r o r , " as he i s d e s i g - n a t e d i n t h i s t a l e , i s s u p p o r t e d b y l o r d s o f E n g l a n d , C o r n - w a l l , L i t t l e B r i t a i n , West W a l e s , I r e l a n d , A r g y l e , t h e O u t e r I s l e s a n d F r a n c e . Though A r t h u r h a d d e f e a t e d t h e K i n g o f Denmark i n t h e War w i t h t h e F i v e K i n g s and p r e s u m a b l y h a d g a i n e d t h e a l l e g i a n c e o f S c a n d i n a v i a , t h e N o r t h e r n a l l i e s m e n t i o n e d by G e o f f r e y (HRB IX, X I X ) and t h e a l l i t e r a t i v e p o e t (11. 44-47) a r e o m i t t e d b y M a l o r y , no doubt b e c a u s e he w anted t h e g l o r y o f t h e a c h i e v e m e n t t o f a l l e n t i r e l y on A r t h u r and " o u r e n o b l e k n y g h t e s o f mery I n g e l o n d e " (209; M a l o r y ' s a d d i - t i o n ) . I n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f h i s q u e s t , two f u r t h e r a s p e c t s o f M a l o r y ' s o r i g i n a l i t y s h o u l d be n o t e d . The a g g r a n d i z e m e n t 50 o f L a n c e l o t w h i c h o c c u r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e Roman Wars i s i n i - t i a t e d a t t h e c o u n c i l o f war where he i s p r e s e n t e d a s a n a r - d e n t y o u ng k n i g h t a n d a s a s u b s t a n t i a l f e u d a l l o r d o f F r a n c e . W h i l e L a n c e l o t ' s r o l e i s i n c r e a s e d , t h a t o f M o r d r e d i s o m i t t e d The k i n g ' s n e p h e w — o r s o n — h a d t r a d i t i o n a l l y f u l f i l l e d t h e 51 f u n c t i o n o f r e g e n t d u r i n g A r t h u r ' s a b s e n c e , b u t M a l o r y ' s A r t h u r a p p o i n t s as c o — r e g e n t s S i r Baudwen o f B r i t a g n e and S i r C o n s t a n t i n e , A r t h u r ' s d e s i g n a t e d h e i r . V i n a v e r s e e s t h e h i s t o r i c a l a n a l o g y o f H e n r y V's a p p o i n t m e n t o f B i s h o p B e a u f o r t 52 and t h e Duke o f B e d f o r d as t h e s o u r c e o f M a l o r y ' s change. 50 J C f . M a r y E . Dichmann, "The T a l e o f K i n g A r t h u r a n d t h e E mperor L u c i u s , " M a l o r y ' s O r i g i n a l i t y , ed. R. M. Luminan- s k y ( B a l t i m o r e , 1964), pp. 74-79. 5 1 H R B X, i i ; a l l i t . M.A. 11. 644-692. 5 2 p p . 1367-8. 2 5 I t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l q u e s t a s an e v e n t t h a t d e m o n s t r a t e d A r t h u r ' s i n v i n c i b i l i t y and e a r t h l y g l o r y p r e c l u d e d t h e m e n t i o n o f h i s n e m e s i s . The r o m a n t i c q u e s t s o f t h e k n i g h t - e r r a n t o c c u r i n a v a g u e l y d e f i n e d w o r l d o f c a s t l e s a nd p e r i l o u s f o r e s t s . The s p i r i t u a l q u e s t s o f t h e G r a i l k n i g h t s t a k e p l a c e i n a l l e g o r i - c a l l a n d s c a p e s t h a t r e f l e c t t h e c o n d i t i o n o f man. I n c o n t r a s t , t h e h i s t o r i c a l q u e s t f o l l o w s a c l e a r l y marked r o u t e t h a t h a d l o n g b e e n f a m i l i a r t o l e g i o n a r i e s , c r u s a d e r s , m e r c h a n t s and 5 3 p i l g r i m s . S y m b o l i c a l l y , t h e env o y s o f t h e Roman Emperor l e a d t h e way: Thu s t h e y p a s s e d f r o C a r l e y l e u n t o Sandwyche - warde. . . . A n d so t h e same n y g h t t h e y t o k e t h e w a t i r and p a s s e d i n t o F l a u n d r e s , Almayn, and a f t i r t h a t o v e r t h e g r e t e mountayne t h a t h y g h t G o darde, and so a f t i r t h o r o w Lumbardy and t h o r o w T u s k a y n e , and sone a f t i r t h e y come t o t h e Emperour L u c i u s ( 1 9 1 ) . I t i s t h e way t h a t A r t h u r w i l l t a k e . B a r f l e e t , P a r i s , S o i s — s o n s , C o l o g n e , L u c e r n e , M i l a n , P o n t r e m o l i , S p o l e t o , V i t e r b o , and t h e v i r t u o u s v a l e o f V y s e c o u n t e w i t h "vynys f u l l " a r e s t a g e s o f t h e p r o g r e s s t o " t h e c i t e o f Syon t h a t i s Rome c a l l y d " ( 2 4 4 ) . T h e r e A r t h u r i n t e n d s "by t h e r e v e r o f Rome £to] h o l d e my Rounde T a b l e " ( 1 9 0 ) as e v i d e n c e o f t h e q u e s t ' s s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n . I t i s t h e n a t u r e o f a q u e s t t o i n v i t e i n t e r r u p t i o n . The f i n a l g o a l c a n n o t be r e a c h e d u n t i l t h e h e r o ' s p r o w e s s h a s G e o r g e B. P a r k s , " K i n g A r t h u r and t h e Roads t o Rome," JEGP XLV ( 1 9 ^ 6 ) , 1 6 4 - 1 7 0 . b e e n p r o v e n i n combat and b i s power o f r e s t o r i n g o r d e r demon- 54 s t r a t e d . The i d e a o f t h e q u e s t as a r e d e m p t i v e p r o c e s s i s r e f l e c t e d i n A r t h u r ' s e n c o u n t e r s w i t h t h e g i a n t o f S t . M i - c h a e l ' s Mount and w i t h t h e E mperor L u c i u s , b o t h s o u r c e s o f e v i l i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . The h e r o ' s v i c t o r i e s a r e s i g n i f i - c a n t b e c a u s e t h e y d e m o n s t r a t e h i s s u p e r i o r i t y and e n a b l e h i m t o e f f e c t t h a t improvement o f s o c i e t y w h i c h i s t h e h e r o ' s t r u e f u n c t i o n . As A r t h u r p a s s e s o v e r t h e w a t e r f r o m t h e known w o r l d 55 o f B r i t a i n t o t h e unknown w o r l d o f t h e c o n t i n e n t , an a l l e - g o r i c a l dream p r e p a r e s h i m f o r t h e f e a r f u l s t r u g g l e s t h a t l i e 56 a h e a d . F o r e k n o w l e d g e g a i n e d t h r o u g h w a r n i n g and p r o p h e c y i s a c o n v e n t i o n a l a t t r i b u t e o f t h e q u e s t i n g k n i g h t . I t c r e a t e s an a t m o s p h e r e o f foreboding and, a t t h e same t i m e , e s t a b l i s h e s f a i t h i n t h e h e r o ' s p r o w e s s . The m a g n i f i c e n t d r a g o n t h a t sym- b o l i z e s A r t h u r i s f u r t h e r e m b e l l i s h e d by M a l o r y ' s a d d i t i o n o f c l a w s " l y k e c l e n e g o l d e " and a " t a y l e . . . f u l l e o f t a t y r s , " 5k On t h e r e d e m p t i v e r o l e o f t h e m y t h i c h e r o see J o s e p h C a m p b e l l , The H e r o w i t h a T h o u s a n d F a c e s (New Y o r k , 1961). 55 C f . t h e k n i g h t — e r r a n t ' s movement f r o m t h e known w o r l d o f t h e c o u r t t o t h e unknown w o r l d o f t h e f o r e s t . 56 On t h e b e l i e f t h a t dreams f o r e t e l l f u t u r e e v e n t s and on t h e r o l e o f a l l e g o r y i n p r o p h e t i c dreams see Con- s t a n c e B. H i e a t t , The R e a l i s m o f Dream V i s i o n s (The H a l H e - P a r i s , 1967)- A r t h u r ' s dream, an e n d u r i n g p a r t o f t h e c h r o n i - c l e t r a d i t i o n , o c c u r s i n HRB, X, i i , Wace, XX 11, 5 2 8 f f . L a y - amon 25, 5 0 0 f f , R o b e r t o f G l o u c e s t e r 4 l 4 6 f f . M a l o r y ' s v e r - s i o n f o l l o w s h i s s o u r c e c l o s e l y — a l l i t M.A. 11. 758,- 831. 27 s i g n i f y i n g t h e k n i g h t s o f t h e Round T a b l e . The h o r r i b l e b e a r t h a t r e p r e s e n t s "som t y r a u n t e t h a t t u r m e n t i s t h y p e p l e " o r "som g y a u n t " i s p r e s e n t e d i n demonic i m a g e r y — " a l l b l a k , i n a c l o w d e , " " h i s pawys were a s b y g as a p o s t e , " " a l l t o - r o n g e l e d w i t h l u g e r a n d e l o k y s , " " t h e f o w l y s t b e s t e t h a t e v e r ony man s y e . " I t s " g r y s l y t u s k e s " t e a r t h e d r a g o n ' s f l e s h so v i o l e n t - l y t h a t t h e s e a becomes b l o o d r e d (196-197)- The images a r e a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e g i a n t o f S t . M i c h a e l ' s Mount and t h e de- m onic s e t t i n g i n w h i c h he i s f o u n d . The e p i s o d e o f A r t h u r ' s f i g h t w i t h t h e g i a n t "goes bac 57 t o v e r y r e m o t e m y t h i c a l a n t i q u i t y . " M a l o r y a d o p t s t h e g r e a t l y e xpanded v e r s i o n o f t h e s t o r y w h i c h he f o u n d i n t h e a l l i t - e r a t i v e M o r t e A r t h u r e and g i v e s i t a m o r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t G e o f f r e y ' s a c c o u n t l a c k e d (HRB, X, i i i ) . No s o o n e r h a s A r t h u r l a n d e d i n Normandy t h a n he i s t o l d o f a g r e a t g i a n t t h a t h a s b e e n t o r m e n t i n g A r t h u r ' s s u b j e c t s f o r more t h a n s e v e n y e a r s ; m o r e o v e r , he h a s j u s t c a r r i e d o f f t h e D u c h e s s o f B r i t t a n y . As h e r o i c k i n g and c o n q u e r o r , i t i s A r t h u r ' s d u t y t o e r a d i - c a t e t h e e v i l . A d o p t i n g t h e m e taphor o f a p i l g r i m a g e , t h a t i s , o f a r e l i g i o u s q u e s t , A r t h u r s e t s o u t w i t h B e d e v e r e a n d 58 Kay i n s e a r c h o f " t h e s a i n t " (199)- From a " b l y t h e c o n t r a y f u l l o f many m y r r y b y r d i s " A r t h u r c l i m b s a l o n e t o t h e c r e s t o f t h e c r a g w i t h i t s c o l d w i n d , f l a m i n g f i r e s , w a i l i n g widow, 57 F l e t c h e r , p. 90. T a t l o c k ' s c o n t r a r y v i e w , pp. 87- 88, i s n o t r e a l l y c o n v i n c i n g i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t g i a n t - k i l l i n g o r m o n s t e r — k i l l i n g seems t o h a v e b e e n a p r i m a r y m o t i f i n a g r e a t many m y t h o l o g i c a l t r a d i t i o n s . 58 The i r o n i c m e t aphor i s r e p e a t e d on p. 20k, 1. 6-15- 28 new marked grave, captive maidens, spitted children and gnawed bones. This i s "the world that desire t o t a l l y re- jects: the world of the nightmare and the scapegoat, of da bondage and pain and confusion." The demonic nature of the giant and the heroic q u a l i - ty of Arthur are conveyed not only by means of the landscape associated with each but also by t h e i r appearance. Arthur i n his jesserant, bascinet, and broad shield i 3 "clenly arayed." His sovereignty Is s i g n i f i e d by his crown, his chivalry by his sword, and his C h r i s t i a n i t y by his dagger, a symbol of t r u s t i n God. The giant, i n contrast, i s a satanic figure that i l l u s t r a t e s Tuve's suggestion that " a l l e - g o r i c a l elements enter the imagery i n the form farthe s t re - moved from ordinary realism and closest to 'realized idea.'" His physical ugliness r e f l e c t s his e v i l d i s p o s i t i o n . Animal images denote his b e s t i a l i t y . Like the bear i n Arthur's dream, he i s "the foulyst wyghte that ever man sye" (202); "there was never d e v i l i n h e l l e more horryblyer made." He i s a "doggys son" with teeth l i k e a greyhound. He gnaws on the limb of a man and the f l e s h of C h r i s t i a n children. He i s a murderer, a r a p i s t , a cannibal. Instead of a sword he carries an iron club, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c weapon of giants and a symbol of b r u t a l i t y and s o c i a l i n f e r i o r i t y . He fights ac- cording to no r u l e s , r e l y i n g on his physical strength to crush ^Northrop Prye, Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m (New York, 1966), p. 1U7. P. 189. Rosamund Tuve, A l l e g o r i c a l Imagery (Princeton, 1966), 29 h i s v i c t i m . I n a d d i t i o n t o h i s p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e an d b e s t i a l h a b i t s , f i r e i m a g e r y e v o k e s a demonic a s s o c i a t i o n . On t h e t o p o f t h e c r a g A r t h u r f i n d s "two f y r e s f l a m a n d f u l l h y g h e . " B e s i d e one i s t h e new g r a v e o f t h e D u c h e s s ; by t h e o t h e r t h e b r e e c h l e s s g i a n t warms h i m s e l f w h i l e h i s macabre meal i s p r e p a r e d — " t w e l v e c h y l d i r b u t l a t e b o r n e , and t h e y were b r o c h e d i n maner l y k e b i r d e s ( 2 0 2 ) . " The emphasis on p h y s i c a l dismemberment r e i n f o r c e s s t i l l f u r t h e r t h e demonic a t m o s p h e r e . The g i a n t ' s g e n i t a l s a r e "swapped i n s u n d e r , " h i s f o r e h e a d c l o v e n t o t h e b r a i n , h i s b e l l y c u t " t h a t o u t e went t h e g o r e , t h a t t h e g r a s s e and t h e g r o u n d e a l l f o u l e was b e gone" ( 2 0 2 ) . The g i a n t d e f i l e s t h e s c e n e i n much t h e same way as do t h e d e v i l s i n t h e m i l i e u o f t h e G r a i l q u e s t . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e g i a n t f i g h t may be an ex- ample o f i m p o s e d a l l e g o r y . Y e t t h e e x t e n s i v e n e s s o f M a l o r y ' s t r e a t m e n t h e r e i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h g i a n t k i l l i n g e p i s o d e s i n t h e r o m a n t i c c y c l e s u g g e s t s t h a t , l i k e t h e a u t h o r o f t h e a l — 6 l l i t e r a t i v e M o r t e A r t h u r e , he a t t a c h e d m o r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s t o t h e o l d myth, a v i e w s u p p o r t e d by t h e e n d i n g . The k i n g ' s v i c - t o r y i s marked by t h e p u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n o f t h e g i a n t ' s h e a d , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t r e a s u r e t o t h e k n i g h t s ( M a l o r y ' s a d d i - t i o n ) , and t h e b u i l d i n g o f a c h u r c h on t h e m o u n t a i n t o s i g n i - 62 f y t h e t r i u m p h o f good o v e r e v i l . I n t h i s way t h e p r i m i t i v e See J o h n F i n l a y s o n , ed. M o r t e A r t h u r e (London, 1967), pp. l 6 - l 8 and " A r t h u r and t h e G i a n t o f S t . M i c h a e l ' s Mount," Medium Aevum, x x x i i (1963), 112-120. 62 I n HRB, X, i i i , t h e c h u r c h i s b u i l t as a m e m o r i a l t o H o e l ' s n i e c e . 30 c o n c e p t o f t h e c u l t u r e h e r o r i d d i n g t h e l a n d o f m o n s t e r s i n o r d e r t o b e n e f i t mankind i s a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o t h e m e d i e v a l v i e w o f t h e s o v e r e i g n ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f law and o r d e r . The b e a r " o u t e o f t h e O r y e n t " i n A r t h u r ' s dream s i g - n i f i e s n o t o n l y t h e m y t h i c a l enemy b u t a l s o t h e " h i s t o r i c a l " f o e . The r i v a l r y b e t w e e n t h e E a s t e r n E m p i r e o f B y z a n t i u m ( s u r v i v i n g t h e W e s t e r n b y a t h o u s a n d y e a r s ) and W e s t e r n E u r o p e w h i c h h a d b e e n p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o b a r b a r i a n s u c c e s s o r s t a t e s d e t e r m i n e s t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e o p p o s i n g f o r c e s . The Emperor summons a l l i e s f r o m t h e r e a c h e s o f t h e G r a e c o — Roman w o r l d ( t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e A l e x a n d e r l e g e n d s and o f t h e C r u s a d e s may be s e e n h e r e ) — A l e x a n d r i a , I n d i a , A r m e n i a , A s s y r i a , A f r i c a , " E urope t h e l a r g e , " t h e O u t e r I s l e s , A r a b i a , Damascus, E g y p t , D a m i e t t a , C a p p a d o c i a , T a r s u s , T u r k e y , P e r - 64 s i a , P a m p h y l i a , S y r i a , t h e l a n d o f P r e s t e r J o h n , f r o m N e r o t o N a z a r e t h , f r o m G r e e c e t o G a l i l e e , C y p r u s , M a c e d o n i a , C a l a b r i a , C a t a l o n i a , P o r t u g a l and S p a i n . M a l o r y ' s a d d i t i o n o f t h e l a s t two c o u n t r i e s t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c a t a l o g u e i n d i c a t e s t h a t b y t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e g e o g r a p h i c f o c u s h a d s h i f t e - X f . T a t l o c k , pp. 113ff; C a r e y , The M e d i e v a l A l e x - a n d e r , p a s s i m . A c c o r d i n g t o S a k l a t v a l a , op. c i t . , p~. 4 9 , t h e l i s t o f A r t h u r ' s enemies i s a n a l a g o u s t o t h e a l l i e s o f T h e o d o s i u s who h e l p e d t h e Emperor o f t h e E a s t d e f e a t Maximus a t A q u i l e i a i n 388 A.D. S a k l a t v a l a r e g a r d s Maximus, who was p r o c l a i m e d Emperor by t h e army i n B r i t a i n i n 383 A.D. and t h e n i n v a d e d t h e c o n t i n e n t , a s a p r o t o t y p e o f A r t h u r . 64 On t h e m i n g l i n g o f f a c t a nd f a n c y i n m e d i e v a l ge-o g r a p h y , see A p p e n d i x B. 31 t o t h e west a s a r e s u l t o f P o r t u g e s e v o y a g e s and t h e S p a n i s h e x p u l s i o n o f t h e M o o r s . As t h e g i a n t o f S t . M i c h a e l ' s Mount g r e a t l y s u r p a s s e d A r t h u r i n s i z e , so t h e number and r e s o u r c e s o f L u c i u s ' army, c o n s i s t i n g n o t o n l y o f k i n g s and dukes w i t h t h e i r " h o r r y b l e p e p l e " b u t a l s o o f f i f t y g i a n t s , e n g e n d e r e d by f i e n d s , f a r o u t w e i g h s A r t h u r ' s f o r c e s . I t i s a r o m a n t i c c o n v e n t i o n t h a t s e e m i n g l y i n s u p e r a b l e b a r r i e r s s h o u l d impede t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e q u e s t . Y e t a Roman s e n a t o r i s f o r c e d t o a d m i t what e v e r y r e a d e r o f romance knows, " F o r t h i s day one o f A r t h u r ' s k n y g h t e s was w o r t h i n b a t a y l e an h o n d r e d o f o u r e s " (218; M a l o r y ' s a d d i t i o n ) . The demonic n a t u r e o f L u c i u s ' army i s r e v e a l e d b y i t s c o m p o s i t i o n (demon-bred g i a n t s and S a r a c e n s ) a n d by i t s a c - t i o n s . A t t h e c o u n c i l o f s t a t e p r e c e d i n g t h e q u e s t , K i n g Ang— wysh r e m i n d s A r t h u r : And S c o t l o n d e h a d n e v e r s c a t h e syne ye were crowned Kynge, and whan t h e Romaynes r a y n e d e uppon us t h e y raunsomed o u r e e l d - e r s and r a f f t e us o f o u r l y v e s (188). Now, as L u c i u s makes h i s way w estward, f a i r c o u n t r i e s a r e d e s t r o y e d , c o n q u e r e d c a s t l e s i n C h r i s t i a n l a n d s a r e manned by p a g a n s , i n n o c e n t p e o p l e a r e m u r d e r e d . "Where t h a t he r y d y t h a l l he d e s t r o y e s " (205) t h e m a r s h a l o f F r a n c e r e p o r t s and L u c i u s h i m s e l f a n n o u n c e s , " f o r t h e d o u c h e r y o f B r i t a y n e I s h a l l t h o r o w l y d y s t r o y h i t " ( 1 9 4 ) . A r t h u r i s e q u a l l y i m p l a c a b l e i n h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o w i p e o u t t h e enemy. No g o l d u n d e r God w i l l s a v e t h e i r l i v e s . I t i s b e t t e r t h a t t h e Emperor and h i s l o r d s s i n k i n t o h e l l t h a n t h a t a Round T a b l e k n i g h t be wounded (211). T h o s e t h a t "accompany them w i t h S a r e z e n s " do n o t d e s e r v e t o l i v e (224; 32 M a l o r y ' s a d d i t i o n ) . The t h e o l o g i c a l a l l u s i o n s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e d e p i c t i o n o f A r t h u r a s a C h r i s t i a n Champion. The u s e o f a n i m a l i m a g e r y c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e B r i t o n s and Romans. I n " t h e t h y c h e s t e o f t h e p r e s " A r t h u r "raumped doune l y k e a l y o n many s e n a t o u r s n o b l e " (22k). S i r B o r s and S i r B e r r e l l f i g h t l i k e two b o a r s (209). P r i a m ' s S a r a c e n s f o l l o w h i m "as shepe o u t e o f a f o l d e , " so w i l l i n g a r e t h e y t o d e s e r t t h e Romans and j o i n A r t h u r (238). When S i r Kay i s wounded, C l i g e s and B e d i v e r e " f a r e d w i t h t h e Romaynes as g r a y h o u n d i s d o t h w i t h h a r y s " (222). I n each c a s e i t i s A r t h u r and h i s k n i g h t s who e x h i b i t t h e n o b i l i t y , s t r e n g t h and s k i l l o f t h e l i o n , b o a r , and hound w h i l e t h e enemy i s e q u a t e d w i t h t h e weaker and more t i m i d a n i m a l s . W h i l e L u c i u s and h i s f o r c e s s y m b o l i z e e v i l , t h e y a l s o 65 embody t h e power and g l o r y t h a t A r t h u r c l a i m s . R i c h i m a g e r y i s u s e d t o evoke t h e Roman i m p e r i u m . The envoys s e n t b y L u - c i u s t o A r t h u r ' s c o u r t a r e " x i j a n c y e n men b e r y n g e eche o f them a b r a u n c h e o f O l y v e i n t o k e n t h a t t h e y cam as Embassa- t o u r s " ; ^ i n t o k e n , t o o , o f t h e pax Romana t h a t S t . A u g u s t i n e 65 A c c o r d i n g t o H a n n i n g , p. 4.9, t h e n a t i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s o f W e s t e r n E u r o p e , e. g. J o r d a n e s and G r e g o r y o f T o u r s , s o u g h t t o d i g n i f y t h e i r own n a t i o n s b y s h owing them t o be w o r t h y i n - h e r i t o r s o f t h e Roman E m p i r e and c u l t u r e . G e o f f r e y ' s A r t h u r may be t h e p r o d u c t o f a s i m i l a r m o t i v a t i o n . ^ C a x t o n ' s t e x t , Bk. V, Ch. 1. T h i s d e t a i l does n o t o c c u r i n t h e A l l i t e r a t i v e M o r t e A r t h u r e b u t i s f o u n d i n G e o f - f r e y ' s HRB IX, XV. 33 h a d p r a i s e d . When t h e A r t h u r i a n k n i g h t s a p p r o a c h e t h e ^ Roman camp f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e y see many prowde p a v y l y o n s o f s y l k e o f d y v e r s e c o l o u r e s t h a t were s e t t e i n a medow b e s y d e a r y v e r , and t h e E m p e r o u r e s p a v y l y o n was i n t h e myddys w i t h an e g l e d i s p l a y e d on lof-^- f t e (206). S i r B o r s i s o p p o s e d b y "a gay k n i g h t . . . a l l f l o r y s h e d i n g o l d e " a n d b y "a b o l d e baiowne a l l i n p u r p u l l a r a y e d " (208). S i r P r i a m w e a r s a h a u b e r k o f m a i l s t u d d e d w i t h r u b i e s . The s y m b o l i c e a g l e and t h e i m p e r i a l c o l o u r s on t h e b a t t l e f i e l d c r e a t e t h e a u r a o f Roman m a g n i f i c e n c e t o w h i c h A r t h u r l a t e r p a y s t r i b u t e i n t h e f u n e r a r y a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e dead Emper- o r , h i s a l l i e s and s e n a t o r s : The kynge l e t bawme a l l t h e s w i t h many good gummys and s e t t h e n l e t t e l a p p e hem i n s y x t y f o l d e o f s e n - d e l l l a r g e , and t h a n l e t e l a p p e hem i n l e d e t h a t f o r c h a u f f y n g e o t h e r chongyng t h e y s h o l d e n e v e r s a - v o u r e , and s y t t h e n l e t e c l o s e them i n c h e s t y s f u l l c l e n l y a r a y e d , and t h e i r b a n e r s a b o v y n on t h e i r b o d y e s , and t h e i r s h y l d y s t u r n e d upwarde, t h a t e v i r y man myght knowe o f what c o n t r a y t h e y were (225). When t h e Roman Ambassadors h a d r e p o r t e d b a c k t o L u c i u s a f t e r t h e i r h a s t y r e t r e a t f r o m A r t h u r ' s c o u r t , t h e y h a d de- s c r i b e d t h e B r i t i s h M o n a r c h as " t h e r o y a l l y s t k ynge t h a t l y v y t h on e a r t h e " and t h e k n i g h t s o f t h e Round T a b l e a s n o n - p a r e i l s ; " o f wysedome and o f f a y r e s p e e c h e and a l l r o y a l t e and r y c h e s s e t h e y f a y l e o f none" (192). M a l o r y o m i t s t h e l e n g t h y d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e C h r i s t m a s Day F e a s t w h i c h i n t h e a l l i t e r a t i v e M o r t e A r t h u r s u g g e s t s t h e b r i l l i a n c e a nd s o p h i s - t i c a t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h c o u r t . I n s t e a d , he r e l i e s on t h e i r a - C o n f e s s i o n s V, x i x . 34 a g e r y o f t h e b a t t l e f i e l d t o c o n v e y t h e c h i v a l r i c s t a t u r e o f A r t h u r and h i s k n i g h t s : L a n c e l o t ' s b a n n e r s , Gawain's "bower- l y b r o n d e t h a t b r y g h t semed" (207), A r t h u r ' s " c l e n e " arms w i t h t h e i r " d o l e f u l d r a g o n , " Uwayne's b r i g h t sword t h a t s t r i k e s down t h e E m p e r o r ' s s t a n d a r d , E x c a l i b u r c u t t i n g t h e g i a n t G a l a p a s " o f b y t h e k n e i s c l e n l y , " and f i n a l l y c l e a v i n g t h e Emperor "frome t h e c r e s t e o f h i s helme u n t o t h e b a r e p a p p y s . " The h y p e r b o l e t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s romance i s a p p a r e n t i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e b a t t l e . Kay, C l e g i s , and B e d e v e r e i n one e n c o u n t e r k i l l more t h a n f i v e h u n d r e d . S i r L a n c e l o t and h i s f r i e n d s s l a y so many t h a t " t h o u s a n d i s i n an hepe l a y ttrumbelyng t o g e d i r " ( 2 2 4 ) . A r t h u r h i m s e l f , " raumping doune l y k e a l y o n " ' k i l l s a h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d . "Was n e v e r k y n g n o t h e r k n y g h t e s dud b e t t i r s y n God made t h e w o r l d e " ( 2 2 l ) . The g l o r i f i c a t i o n o f A r t h u r i s m o r a l as w e l l as p o l i t i - c a l and m i l i t a r y . T h e r e i s a c o n f l i c t n o t o n l y o f n a t i o n s b u t o f i d e a s and i d e a l s , o f C h r i s t i a n i t y a g a i n s t p a g a n i s m , good r u l e a g a i n s t bad, j u s t i c e and m ercy a g a i n s t b r u t a l i t y and a r - r o g a n c e , t h e c h i v a l r i c c o n d u c t o f t h e few A r t h u r i a n k n i g h t s a g a i n s t t h e r u t h l e s s f o r c e o f t h e enemy h o r d e s . T h e r e i s no m o r a l c o n f u s i o n r e g a r d i n g f r i e n d s and f o e , no d i s p a r i t y b e - tween a p p e a r a n c e and r e a l i t y , as t h e r e so o f t e n i s i n t h e w o r l d o f k n i g h t — e r r a n t r y . The enemy i s r i g o r o u s l y s u p p r e s s e d ; o n l y t h e j o u s t between Gawain and P r i a m u s ends i n t h e r o m a n t i c way, w i t h t h e c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e enemy and h i s a b s o r p t i o n i n t o t h e Round T a b l e . 3 5 Many o f M a l o r y ' s o r i g i n a l a d d i t i o n s a r e d e s i g n e d t o e l u c i d a t e t h e c o n t r a s t s b e t w e e n t h e f o r c e s o f good and t h e f o r c e s o f e v i l . When t h e army o f L u c i u s i n v a d e s F r a n c e , de- s t r o y i n g t h e c o u n t r y and s l a u g h t e r i n g t h e p e o p l e , A r t h u r s e n d s t h e Emperor a message: '. . .sey I bydde hym i n h a s t e t o remeve o u t e o f my l o m d y s . And y f he w i l l m>t, so bydde hym d r e s s e h i s b a t a y l e and l e t t e us r e d r e s s e o u r e r y g h t e s w i t h o u r e h a n d i s , and t h a t i s more wor— shyppe t h a n t h u s t o o v e r r y d e m a y s t e r l e s s e men' ( 2 0 6 ) . On t h e b a t t l e f i e l d a man s h o u l d be g o v e r n e d by h i s v i r t u e s , n o t h i s v i c e s . E x c e s s i v e h a r d i n e s s i s f o o l i s h "whan k n y g h t e s bene o v e r m a c c h e d " ( 2 1 7 ) - A d e s i r e f o r fame s h o u l d n o t overcome one's f e e l i n g s o f h u m a n i t y : f o r o f t e t y m e s t h o r o w envy g r e t e h a r d y n e s s e i s shewed t h a t h a t h bene t h e d e t h o f many k y d k n y g h t e s ; f o r t h o u g h e t h e y speke f a y r e many one u n t o o t h e r , y e t whan t h e y be i n b a t a y l e < L e y t h e r wolde b e s t e be p r a y s e d ( 2 2 3 ) - A d e s i r e f o r g o l d a n d s i l v e r s h o u l d n o t p e r s u a d e one t o s p a r e God's enemies; " t h e man t h a t w o l d e save them were l y t y l l t o p r a y s e " ( 2 2 4 ) . W h i l e a d d i n g p a s s a g e s w h i c h r e v e a l h i s i d e a o f a good k n i g h t , M a l o r y o m i t s e p i s o d e s i n h i s s o u r c e w h i c h de- t r a c t f r o m t h e i d e a l i t y o f A r t h u r and h i s Round T a b l e . The i n s u l t s w h i c h Gawain h u r l s a t L u c i u s , A r t h u r ' s v i o l e n t r a g e s , t h e r a v a g i n g o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e b y t h e k n i g h t s , t h e t a k i n g o f c h i l d r e n as h o s t a g e s , t h e m o t i v e o f r e v e n g e , and t h e h a r s h t r e a t m e n t o f t h e v a n q u i s h e d a r e among t h e o m i s s i o n s w h i c h en- a b l e M a l o r y t o m a i n t a i n t h e i d e a l i t y o f t h e q u e s t . F u r t h e r m o r e , i d e a l i z a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e q u e s t ' s m i l i e u . I s o l a t e d images r a t h e r t h a n t h e l e n g t h y r h e t o r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s o u r c e a r e t h e means o f d e p i c t i n g t h e 36 b a t t l e f i e l d s , u n c h a n g i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e e p i s o d i c combats t h a t i n t e r r u p t t h e p r o g r e s s t o Rome. Trumpets and t a b o u r s , s e v e r e d h e a d s , s p i l l i n g g u t s , swords s t a i n e d w i t h g o r e and b r a i n s , c o r p s e s l y i n g on t h e b a r e e a r t h , swords s t r i k i n g s p a r k s f r o m h e l m e t s , and c o u r s e r s c h a r g i n g a c r o s s t h e f i e l d evoke t h e v i o l e n c e ^ and e x c i t e m e n t o f t h e s c e n e . As i n 69 m e d i e v a l t a p e s t r i e s and i l l u m i n a t i o n s , t h e d e s i g n i s crowded w i t h armed men, h o r s e s , swords, s h i e l d s , and s t a n d a r d s . The monotonous r e p e t i t i o n o f s t y l i z e d images t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d Romanesque a r t i s a p p a r e n t i n l i t e r a r y b a t t l e s c e n e s o f t h e 70 , M i d d l e A g e s . M e l e e s a l t e r n a t e w i t h s i n g l e combats, t h e p a i r e d w a r r i o r s o c c u p y i n g t h e f o r e g r o u n d w h i l e bowmen, k n i g h t s , g i a n t s , c o u r s e r s engage i n "a s t r o n g e b a t a y l e on e v e r y s y d e " (220). T h e s e engagements a r e t h e " h i s t o r i c a l " c o u n t e r p a r t s o f t h e j o u s t s and t o u r n a m e n t s w h i c h f i l l t h e r o m a n t i c m i l i e u . An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f M a l o r y ' s o r i g i n a l i t y i n The T a l e o f K i n g A r t h u r and t h e Emperor L u c i u s i s t h e s t r u c t u r a l change e f f e c t e d b y h i s l o n g p o s t p o n e m e n t o f t h e denouement. I n o t h e r c h r o n i c l e s o f A r t h u r , t h e k i n g i s r e c a l l e d t o E n g l a n d b y M o r d r e d ' s r e b e l l i o n b e f o r e Rome h a s b e e n r e a c h e d . A s p e e d y r e v e r s a l o f f o r t u n e f o l l o w s t h e k i n g ' s c o n t i n e n t a l s u c c e s s e s , ^ M a l o r y a c t u a l l y o m i t s many o f t h e g r i m d e t a i l s i n h i s s o u r c e . 6 9 C f . " K i n g s i n B a t t l e " f r o m t h e P i c t u r e B i b l e ( M 6 3 8 f l l ) , F r e n c h , c a . 1250 r e p r o d u c e d i n L a u r a H i b b a r d L o o m i s ' M i n i a t u r e s M i e d i e v a l V i s t a (New Y o r k , 1953), pl« 6, i l l u s t r a - t i o n s f r o m Le Roman de L a n c e l o t du L a c e t de l a M o r t e du ro.L.; A r t u , B r i t i s h Museum Ms. Ad. 1029^, f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , r e p r o - d u c e d i n G e o f f r e y A s h e ' s The Q u e s t f o r A r t h u r ' s B r i t a i n , i l l . 21; T r o j a n War t a p e s t r i e s . 70 C f . W y l i e S y p h e r , F o u r S t a g e s o f R e n a i s s a n c e S t y l e ( G a r d e n C i t y , 1955), PP- 2 0 f f . 37 d e p r i v i n g h i m o f queen, kingdom, k n i g h t s and l i f e . A r t h u r ' s d o w n f a l l i s a t t r i b u t e d t o h u b r i s , t h e wag i n g o f u n j u s t w a r s , and t h e t u r n o f F o r t u n e ' s w h e e l . From a s t r u c t u r a l p o i n t o f vie w , t h e E m p e r o r ' s d e a t h , 71 w h i c h o c c u r s i n t h e v a l e o f S o i s s o n s i n May, l e a v e s M a l o r y w i t h a l a r g e d i s t a n c e s p a t i a l l y a nd t e m p o r a l l y , t o be c o v e r e d b e f o r e A r t h u r c a n be crowned i n Rome a t C h r i s t m a s . F o r t h e a u t h o r o f t h e M o r t e A r t h u r e , t h e d e a t h o f L u c i u s i s a p i v o t a l p o i n t m a r k i n g A r t h u r ' s t u r n i n g f r o m a j u s t war a g a i n s t pagans and Roman o p p r e s s o r s t o wars o f a g g r e s s i o n a g a i n s t C h r i s t i a n n a t i o n s . The p h i l o s o p h e r who i n t e r p r e t s A r t h u r ' s dream o f F o r t u n e condemns h i s v i o l e n c e : Thow h a s schedde myche b l o d e and s c h a l h e s d i s t r o y e d e , S a k e l e s i n c i r q u y t e i n s e r e k y n g e s l a n d i s . . . I r e d e t h o u r e k h y n a n d r e h e r s e u n r e s o n a b l e d e d i s , Or t h e r e p e n t l e s f u l l r a t h e a l l t h i newthe w e r k e s . (11. 3398-9; 3^52-3) A r t h u r ' s t r e a t m e n t o f c o n q u e r e d p e o p l e s and h i s u n b r i d l e d am- b i t i o n a r e t h e c a u s e o f h i s d o w n f a l l . M a l o r y must t r e a t s u b s e q u e n t e v e n t s i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e y w i l l n o t d e n i g r a t e t h e h e r o o r weaken t h e Round T a b l e . The a c t i o n must move t o w a r d s t h e c l i m a c t i c c o r o n a t i o n i n Rome, a t t e n d e d by a l l t h e g r e a t k n i g h t s . K ay and B e d e v e r e , who h a d b e e n k i l l e d by t h e Romans i n t h e M o r t e A r t h u r e ; a r e t h e r e f o r e p r e s e r v e d i n M a l o r y ' s v e r s i o n . The w a r l i k e a c t i v i - t i e s o f t h e k n i g h t s a r e p r e s e n t e d a s e x e r c i s e s i n s e l f - d e f e n c e . I n a p a s s a g e w i t h o u t p a r a l l e l i n t h e s o u r c e P r i a m warns: On t h e p o s s i b l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s o f S o i s s o n s see V i n a v e r , p. I389, n . 2 l 8 . 2 0 . 38 'ye s h a l l f y n d e i n y o n d i r woodys many p a r e l l u s k n y g h t e s . T h e y w o l l p u t t e f u r t h b e y s t y s t o b a y t e y o u o u t e o f n u m b i r , and ye a r f r a y k i s i n t h i s f r y t h n a t p a s t e s e v e n h o n d r e d , and t h a t i s f e y t h f u l l y t o fewe t o f y g h t w i t h so many, f o r h a r o t t y s and haynxmen w o l h e l p e us b u t a l y t y l l , f o r t h e y w o l l hyde them i n h a s t e f o r a l l t h e i r hyghe w o r d y s ' ( 2 3 5 ) ' The i m b a l a n c e o f t h e f o r c e s i n f a v o u r o f t h e enemy j u s t i f i e s t h e A r t h u r i a n k n i g h t s ' engagement i n combat. A s i m i l a r p a t - t e r n i s f r e q u e n t l y o b s e r v e d i n t h e r o m a n t i c m i l i e u . The a t m o s p h e r e o f romance i s a l s o e v o k e d by t h e t r e a t - ment o f t h e G a w a i n - P r i a m u s a d v e n t u r e w i t h i t s r i t u a l o f c h a l - l e n g e and r e s p o n s e , t h e c o u r t o i s i e o f t h e c o m b a t a n t s , t h e i d e a l s p r i n g l a n d s c a p e , t h e m a r v e l o u s h e a l i n g w a t e r s o f P a r a - d i s e t h a t c u r e t h e t e r r i b l e wounds. The k i n g ' s a n g e r a t t h e d e f i a n c e o f t h e T u s c a n c i t y i s b a l a n c e d by h i s g r a c i o u s n e s s t o t h e s u p p l i a n t l a d i e s who " k n e l e d downe u n t o t h e kynge and b e s o u g h t hym o f h i s g r a c e " (242; n o t i n t h e s o u r c e ) . Many v i o l e n t war s c e n e s a r e g r e a t l y r e d u c e d o r o m i t t e d 72 a l t o g e t h e r . I n M o r t e A r t h u r e t h e r a v a g i n g o f T u s c a n y i s de- s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l : T h u s t h y s p r y n g e n e a n d s p r e d e , and s p a r i s b u t l y t t i l l e , S p o y l l e s d i s p e t o u s l y e and s p i l l i s t h e i r e v y n e s ; S p e n d i s u n - s p a r e l y , t h a t s p a r e d e was l o n g e , S p e d i s theme t o S p o l e t t w i t h s p e r i s inewe! (11. 3158-3161) M a l o r y p o r t r a y s T u s c a n y as an i d y l l i c s e t t i n g where A r t h u r s o - j o u r n s " w i t h sola:cee a t h i s h a r t e " i n a " v e r t u o u s e v a l e amonge v y n y s f u l l " (244). The e f f e c t o f i m a g e r y i n c o n v e y i n g atmos- p h e r e i s i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e c o n t r a s t between t h e t r a m p l e d v i n e - 2 C f . M.A. 11. 2948-2988; 3034-3043. 39 y a r d s o f t h e f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n a nd t h e f l o u r i s h i n g v i n e s o f t h e s e c o n d . By t r e a t i n g t h e c o n t i n e n t a l e x p e d i t i o n n o t as e p i c o r t r a g e d y b u t as c h i v a l r i c q u e s t , M a l o r y c a n c o n d u c t A r t h u r t o Rome and a l l o w h i m t o r e t u r n t o t h e a c c l a m a t i o n o f h i s c o u r t i n L o ndon, u t i l i z i n g t h e same s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n o f w i t h d r a w a l and r e t u r n t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e a d v e n t u r e s i n t h e r o m a n t i c and r e l i g i o u s m i l i e u x . A l t h o u g h he may have r e a d t h e d e s c r i p - t i o n o f A r t h u r ' s c o r o n a t i o n i n J o h n H a r d i n g ' s C h r o n i c l e ( c a . 1^35)5 t h e o n l y c h r o n i c l e i n w h i c h A r t h u r r e a c h e s Rome, i t i s n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e t o su p p o s e t h a t M a l o r y h i m s e l f d e v i s e d t h e Roman ceremony as a f i t t i n g c o n c l u s i o n t o t h e wars and one w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e d A r t h u r ' s s u p e r i o r i t y a s k n i g h t and C h r i s - t i a n k i n g . He h a d b e e n p r e c e d e d t o Rome by t h e l e g a t e s , who ha d a n n o u n c e d h i s i m p e r i a l d e s i g n s , and b y t h e t r i b u t e o f c o r p s e s , " t h e t a n e and t h e t r e w a g e o f t e n s c o r e w y n t e r s b o t h e o f I n g e l o n d e , I r e l o n d e , a n d o f a l l t h e E s t l o n d y s " ( 2 2 6 ) . He h a d d e m o n s t r a t e d on t h e r o a d t o Rome h i s w o r t h i n e s s t o h o l d i m p e r i a l power. The g i a n t o f S t . M i c h a e l ' s Mount h a d b e e n overcome, t h e Romans and t h e i r p a g an a l l i e s d e f e a t e d , t h e l a d i e s o f T u s c a n y p r o t e c t e d , t h e k i n g ' s v a l o u r , j u s t i c e , mercy, m o d e r a t i o n , and a f f e c t i o n f o r h i s k n i g h t s d e m o n s t r a t e d . The c o n q u e r e d h a d p r o m i s e d t o "make homage u n t o A r t h u r e a l l h i s l y f f t ymes." C h u r c h and S t a t e i n t h e p e r s o n s o f c a r d i n a l s and s e n a t o r s h a d b e s o u g h t h i m t o be crowned i n Rome " k y n d l y , w i t h c r y s e m e d hondys, w i t h s e p t u r e , f o r s o t h e , a s an Emperoure s h o l d e " (2kk). The symbols o f s o v e r e i g n t y a r e c o n f e r r e d "by t h e P o o pys h o n d i s , w i t h a l l t h e r o y a l t e i n t h e w o r l d e t o w e l d e 4o f o r e v e r . " I t r e m a i n s o n l y t o e s t a b l i s h " a l l t h e l o n d y s f rome Rome u n t o F r a u n c e , " f o r t h e i d e a l o f s o v e r e i g n t y i s e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h a p e a c e f u l and o r d e r l y e m p i r e . M a l o r y ' s i d e a o f good government i s c o n v e y e d i n A r t h u r ' s words t o L a n c e l o t and B o r s : 'Loke t h a t ye t a k e s eynge i n a l l y o u r b r o d e l o n d i s , and c a u s e y o u r e l y e g e men t o know y o u a s f o r t h e i r kynde l o r d e , and s u f f i r n e v e r y o u r s o v e r a y n t e t o be a l l e d g e d w i t h y o u r sub— j e c t e s , n o t h e r and s o v e r a y n g e o f y o u r p e r s o n e and l o n d y s (24.5; n o t i n t h e s o u r c e ) . The q u e s t f o r Rome, t h e n , may be r e g a r d e d as a symbolic a c t i o n d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e i d e a l o f s o v e r e i g n t y . The good k i n g i s one who o v e r c o m e s e v i l and e s t a b l i s h e s p e a c e . Though as h i s t o r y t h e q u e s t f o r Rome o c c u p i e s s e v e n y e a r s o f l i n e a r t i m e , t h e u s e o f t h e s e a s o n a l c y c l e p r o d u c e s a s y m b o l i c t i m e scheme w h i c h seems t o encompass t h e e v e n t s w i t h i n a s i n g l e y e a r . The Roman l e g a t e s demanding t r i b u t e a r r i v e when A r t h u r i s c e l e b r a t i n g t h e New Y e a r ' s Day f e a s t w i t h " n i n e k y n g i s , and t h e f a y r y s t f e l y s h i p o f k n y g h t e s . . . t h a t d u r y s on l y v e " ( 1 9 2 ) . A r t h u r c a l l s f o r a p a r l i a m e n t a t Y o r k " a f t e r t h e u t a s o f S e y n t e H y l l a r y " — J a n u a r y 2 1 s t — a n d p r o p o s e s t h a t h i s army a s s e m b l e a t S a n d w i c h w i t h i n f i f t e e n d a y s ( 1 9 4 ) . L u c i u s p l a n s t o c r o s s Germany and be i n F r a n c e b y E a s t e r . R i d i n g t o w a r d s S t . M i c h a e l ' s Mount, A r t h u r p a s s e s t h r o u g h a s p r i n g t i m e s e t t i n g — " a b l y t h e c o n t r a y f u l l o f many m y r r y b y r d i s . " Gawain and h i s companions f i r s t see t h e Ro- man camp t h r o u g h t h e " g r e n e wood." The s e n a t o r s announce t o t h e P o t e s t a t e i n Rome t h a t t h e i r Emperor h a s b e e n k i l l e d i n t h e month o f May ( 2 2 6 ) . When A r t h u r and h i s k n i g h t s r e a c h T u s - 4 1 c a n y , S i r F l o r e n s and h i s f e l l o w s h i p t i e t h e i r h o r s e s i n a l o w meadow f u l l o f sweet f l o w e r s , s u g g e s t i v e o f e a r l y sum- mer ( 2 2 8 ) . Lammas ( t h e f i r s t o f A u g u s t ) f i n d s A r t h u r a t L u c e r n e where he l i e s a t l e i s u r e b e f o r e d e s c e n d i n g i n t o Lom- b a r d y . I n V y s e c o u n t e t h e v i n e s a r e f u l l , l o a d e d f o r t h e g r a p e h a r v e s t w h i c h o c c u r r e d i n O c t o b e r ( 2 4 4 ) . Soon a f t e r , on a S a t u r d a y as M a l o r y i n d i c a t e s , t h e Roman s e n a t o r s beg A r t h u r t o g r a n t them s i x weeks i n w h i c h t o p r e p a r e f o r t h e c o r o n a t i o n . The k i n g g r a c i o u s l y a g r e e s t o be crowned a t 7 3 C h r i s t m a s , t h e end o f t h e s e a s o n a l c y c l e . The c o r o n a t i o n c o m p l e t e s t h e q u e s t , b o t h s p a t i a l l y and t e m p o r a l l y . As t h e k n i g h t s remark, "worshyp be C r y s t e , t h i s j o u r n e y i s w e l l o v e r - corn" ( 2 4 6 ) . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t M a l o r y ' s K i n g A r t h u r i s an i d e a l i z e d c h a r a c t e r p e r f o r m i n g s y m b o l i c a c t s i n a s e t t i n g t h a t i s o n l y i n t e r m i t t e n t l y r e a l i s t i c . A r t h u r e x h i b i t s many a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e m y t h i c h e r o . The son o f a l e g e n d a r y k i n g , he i n h e r i t s t h e t h r o n e b e c a u s e o f h i s s u c c e s s i n a m a g i c a l t e s t . He o v e r - comes h i s i n s u l a r enemies w i t h t h e a i d o f a m a g i c i a n and an O t h e r w o r l d weapon. He g i v e s e v i d e n c e o f h i s h e r o i c q u a l i t y b y d e f e a t i n g two n o n - h i s t o r i c a l o p p o n e n t s — t h e G i a n t o f S t . M i c h a e l ' s Mount and t h e Emperor L u c i u s . A t t h e end o f h i s l i f e C f . t h e c o r o n a t i o n o f C h a r l e m a g n e a t Rome on C h r i s t - mas Day, 8 0 0 A.D. W e a r i n g t h e c h l a m y s and s a n d a l s o f a p a t r i - c i u s Romanus, he r e c e i v e d t h e crown f r o m t h e h a n d s o f Pope Leo I I I and was a n o i n t e d w i t h t h e o i l t h a t s y m b o l i z e d t h e s a n c t i t y o f t h e k i n g . The p o p u l a c e c o n f i r m e d t h e c o r o n a t i o n w i t h t h e r i t u a l c r y h a i l i n g C h a r l e s as A u g u s t u s , crowned by God t h e p e a c e — b r i n g i n g Emperor o f t h e Romans. I n a d d i t i o n , he was o f - f e r e d t h e a c t o f homage t h a t h a d b e e n r e s e r v e d s i n c e 4 7 6 f o r t h e E a s t e r n emperor. k2 he i s e s c o r t e d t o A v a l o n by a gro u p o f s u p e r n a t u r a l l a d i e s . No a d v e n t u r e more c l e a r l y r e v e a l s h i s h e r o i c s t a t u r e t h a n t h e s t o r y o f h i s Roman e x p e d i t i o n . S t r u c t u r a l l y , i t f o l - l o w s t h e q u e s t p a t t e r n o f d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h e f a m i l i a r w o r l d o f t h e c o u r t , movement i n t o an unknown e n v i r o n m e n t , e p i s o d i c c o n f r o n t a t i o n s w i t h a s e r i e s o f enemies whom t h e h e r o i n e v i t a b l y o v e r c o m e s , c l i m a c t i c v i c t o r y , r e c o g n i t i o n , and r e t u r n t o t h e f a m i l i a r w o r l d . The c y c l i c movement o f t h e q u e s t i s i m p o s e d on t h e l i n e a r movement t o w a r d s a g o a l . S i m i l a r l y , i n t h e t e m p o r a l s p h e r e , t h e s y m b o l i c c y c l e o f t h e s e a s o n s i s imp o s e d on t h e l i n e a r p r o g r e s s o f h i s t o r y . B e c a u s e o f t h e s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n good and e v i l i m p l i c i t i n A r t h u r ' s combats w i t h t h e g i a n t and w i t h t h e Romans, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o g i v e t h e s t o r y an a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f A r t h u r a s t h e t y p e o f c h r i s t i a n i s s i m u s r e x , t h e s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e g i v e n t o h i s a c t i o n s , and t h o s e o f h i s k n i g h t s , and t h e u s e o f a l l e g o r i c a l i m a g e r y c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i d e a l i t y o f t h e work. M a l o r y ' s b i o g r a p h y o f A r t h u r i s a dream o f h i s t o r y r a t h e r t h a n h i s t o r y i t s e l f . CHAPTER I I THE ROMANTIC QUEST: CASTLES AND PERILOUS FORESTS I n t h e w o r l d o f c h r o n i c l e , as we have s e e n , t h e h e r o i c A r t h u r , K i n g o f B r i t a i n , i s made t o c o n f r o n t dang g e r s and u n d e r t a k e m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n s f r o m m o t i v e s o f n a t i o n a l a g g r a n d i s e m e n t and p e r s o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t . The q u e s t f o r t h e crown o f Rome i s a q u e s t f o r g l o r y and power i n t h e p o l i t i c a l s p h e r e . I t s a c h i e v e m e n t employs t h e combined e f f o r t s o f A r t h u r , h i s a l l i e s , a nd h i s k n i g h t s who r e c e i v e s u c h m a t e r i a l r e w a r d s as t h e g i a n t ' s t r e a s u r e and t h e Romans' c o n q u e r e d l a n d s . The e x t e n s i o n o f b o u n d a r i e s , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t e r r i t o r i e s , t h e r e - c e i p t o f t r i b u t e , a nd t h e s w e a r i n g o f a l l e g i a n c e a r e mundane r e w a r d s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a t i m e a n d p l a c e s p e c i - f i e d i n B r i t i s h c h r o n i c l e t r a d i t i o n . The m y t h i c b i o g r a p h y o f A r t h u r i s made a p a r t o f u n i v e r s a l h i s t o r y s e t i n l i n - e a r t i m e ; A r t h u r ' s empire i s a p a r t o f t h e u n i v e r s a l em- p i r e e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e Roman s t a t e . T h e r e i s u n i t y o f v i s i o n i n b o t h t h e t e m p o r a l and s p a t i a l s p h e r e s w h i c h g i v e s c o n s i s t e n c y t o t h e h i s t o r i c a l myth. I n A r t h u r i a n romance, on t h e o t h e r hand, t h e k i n g - dom o f L o g r e s , a s d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e B r i t a i n o f c h r o n i c l e , i s a r o i a u m e a v e n t u r e u x f o r K i n g A r t h u r and h i s k n i g h t s . I n s t e a d o f b e i n g p r e s e n t e d a s t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e , 43 f o r an e x t e n s i v e e m p i r e , A r t h u r ' s c o u r t i s a p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e f o r t h e h e r o e s . Lone q u e s t e r s , t h e y seek t h r o u g h t h e p e r i l o u s f o r e s t s , sombre w a s t e s , and t e m p e s t - t o s s e d w a t e r s o f L o g r e s t h e a d v e n t u r e s w h i c h w i l l t e s t i n i s o l a t i o n t h e i r c h i v a l r i c q u a l i t i e s . U n l i k e t h e " h i s t o r i c a l " w o r l d , t h e r o m a n t i c m i l - i e u c o n s i s t s o f a n t i t h e t i c a l e l e m e n t s w h i c h a r e n o t com- b i n e d i n a u n i f i e d v i e w b u t r a t h e r a r e b a l a n c e d and a l t e r n a t e d . The k n i g h t - e r r a n t s e t s o u t f r o m t h e s o p h i s t i c a t e d i d e a l i z e d , and h o s p i t a b l e w o r l d o f c o u r t and c a s t l e w i t h i t s g r a c i o u s l o r d a nd l o v e l y l a d y . He e n t e r s t h e s t r a n g e m a r v e l o u s , d a n g e r o u s f o r e s t t o s e e k a d v e n t u r e s w h i c h w i l l p r o v e h i s p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e h i g h e s t c h i v a l r i c v i r t u e s — p r o w e s s a n d l o y a l t y . S i n c e h o n o u r , g l o r y , and amorous t r i b u t e a r e i t s m o t i v a t i o n s , t h e q u e s t i s n o t c o m p l e t e u n t i l t h e k n i g h t h a s r e t u r n e d t o t h e c e n t r e o f t h e s e c u - l a r w o r l d , A r t h u r ' s c o u r t . T h e r e d e f e a t e d k n i g h t s a n d r e s c u e d l a d i e s t e s t i f y t o h i s p r o w e s s w h i l e k i n g and c o u r t a c c l a i m h i s a c h i e v e m e n t s . The r i t u a l o f d e p a r t u r e and r e t u r n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n The N o b l e T a l e o f S i r L a u n c e l o t du L a k e . T i r i n g o f t h j o u s t s and t o u r n a m e n t s a t c o u r t , S i r L a u n c e l o t t h o u g h t h y m s e l f t o p r e v e i n s t r a u n g e a d v e n - t u r e s , and bade h i s nevew, s i r L y o n e l l , f o r t o make hym r e d y , ' f o r we muste go seke a d - v e n t u r e s . ' So t h e y mounted on t h e i r h o r s e s , armed a t a l l r y g h t e s , and r o d e i n t o a depe f o r e s t e . . . ( 2 5 3 ) A f t e r many a d v e n t u r e s w i t h w i t c h e s and g i a n t s , d i s t r e s s e d 45 d a m s e l s , e v i l k n i g h t s a n d members o f t h e Round T a b l e , L a n c e l o t com home two d a y e s b e f o r e t h e f e s t e o f P e n t e - c o s t e , and t h e kynge and a l l t h e c o u r t e were p a s s y n g f a y n e . And whan Gawayne, s i r Uwayne, s i r Sagramoure, and s i r E c t o r de Mares sye s i r L a u n c e l o t i n K a y e s armour, t h a n t h e y w y s t e w e l l t h a t h i t was he t h a t smote hem downe a l l w yth one s p e r e . T h a n t h e r e was lawghyng and sm y l y n g amonge them, and e v e r now and now com a l l t h e k n y g h t e s home t h a t were p r e s o n e r s w i t h s i r T e r - quyn, and t h e y a l l h o n o u r e d s i r L a u n c e l o t (286). T h e n e v e r y k n i g h t whom t h e h e r o h a s d e f e a t e d " b e a r s r e c - o r d " o f L a u n c e l o t ' s e x p l o i t s and a l a d y whose l o v e r was wounded b r i n g s h i m a l o n g t o be made a k n i g h t o f t h e Round T a b l e , " a t t h e r e q u e s t e o f s i r L a u n c e l o t . " And so a t t h a t tyme s i r L a u n c e l o t h a d t h e g r e t t y s t e name o f ony k n y g h t o f t h e w o r l d e , and moste he was h o n o u r e d b y hyge and lowe (287). J u s t a s k n i g h t l y p r o w e s s i n c r e a s e s t h e g l o r y and j o y o f A r t h u r ' s c o u r t and o f t h e Round T a b l e , so t h e f a i l u r e t o a c c e p t a n a d v e n t u r e and b r i n g i t t o c o m p l e t i o n b r i n g s d i s h o n o u r , a s M e r l i n r e m i n d s t h e k i n g a t h i s w e d d i n g f e a s t . The g u e s t s a r e a l r e a d y s e a t e d when a w h i t e h a r t r u n s i n t o t h e h a l l , f o l l o w e d s u c c e s s i v e l y b y a w h i t e b r a t c h e t , t h i r t y c o u p l e o f b l a c k hounds i n f u l l c r y , a w a i l i n g l a d y on a w h i t e p a l f r e y , and a r a p a c i o u s k n i g h t on a g r e a t h o r s e . The n o i s e and c o n f u s i o n a r e m i t i - g a t e d when a w e d d i n g g u e s t r u n s o f f w i t h t h e b r a t c h e t and t h e mounted k n i g h t k i d n a p s t h e l a d y : 46 So whan she was gone the kynge was gladde, f o r she made such a noyse. 'Nay,' seyde M e r l i o n , 'ye may nat l e v e h i t so, thys adventure, so l y g h t l y , f o r these adven- t u r e s muste be brought to an ende, other e l l i s h i t w o l l be disworshyp to you and to youre f e s t e i ' ( 1 0 3 ) . The scene w e l l i l l u s t r a t e s the a n t i t h e t i c a l elements which comprise the romantic s e t t i n g . The c o u r t ' s har- monious and r i t u a l i s t i c enjoyment of A r t h u r ' s wedding f e a s t i s i n t e r r u p t e d by c h a o t i c , mysterious and com- p e l l i n g f o r c e s from the f o r e s t . The ambivalence r e - s u l t s from the d i f f e r e n c e s between the French and C e l t i c elements of romance. The one i s concerned w i t h the ceremonial conduct of an a r i s t o c r a t i c s o c i e t y , the other w i t h the impact of magic on the i n d i v i d u a l . The m i l i e u of c o u r t o i s i e i s a world s t r i c t l y r e g u l a t e d by the codes of c h i v a l r y and c o u r t l y l o v e . Here the l a d i e s are b e a u t i f u l , g r a c i o u s , worthy of worship, the k i n g i s noble and generous, the k n i g h t s brave, courteous, and l o y a l . I t i s what Northrop Frye 1 c a l l s a world of innocence r a t h e r than of experience. Here are no c u l t i v a t e d farmlands l i n k e d economically to the neighbouring c a s t l e , no c i t y s t r e e t s b u s t l i n g w i t h a c t i v i t y grounded i n commercial r e a l i t y , no 2 b a t t l e f i e l d s sought f o r p o l i t i c a l and economic p r o f i t . Northrop Frye, The Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m (New York, 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 1 5 1 . 2 Auerbach p o i n t s out that "the s t r i k i n g l y r e a l i s t i c workroom i n Yvai n . . .was not e s t a b l i s h e d because of concrete economic c o n d i t i o n s but because the young k i n g of the I s l a n d of Maidens had f a l l e n i n t o the hands of two e v i l gnomelike 47 I n s t e a d t h e r e a r e f o r e s t — g i r t c a s t l e s w h i c h o f f e r h o s - p i t a l i t y , l o v e and r e s t a t t h e end o f a d v e n t u r e - f i l l e d d a y s , c o u r t s where t h e p r i m a r y o c c u p a t i o n i s n o t g o v e r n - ment b u t e n t e r t a i n m e n t , t o u r n a m e n t g r o u n d s where k n i g h t s c o n t e n d t o g l o r i f y l o r d and l a d y b y w i n n i n g p e r s o n a l fame. T h i s i s t h e w o r l d t h a t i m p o s e s t h e s t a n d a r d s b y w h i c h t h e k n i g h t l i v e s , a w o r l d f i l l e d w i t h t h e images and symbols o f t e r r e s t r i a l c h i v a l r y and t h e r i t u a l s o f r i g h t c o n d u c t . I n t h e e q u a l l y u n r e a l i s t i c C e l t i c w o r l d , t h e c o n - t r o l l i n g e t h i c o f t h e c h i v a l r i c code i s r e p l a c e d b y t h e m o r a l l y 3 ambiguous power o f m a g i c . I t , t o o , i s r i t u a l i s t i c and t h e b r o t h e r s and had ransomed h i m s e l f b y p r o m i s i n g t h a t once a y e a r he w o u l d d e l i v e r t o them t h i r t y o f h i s m a i d e n s t o p e r f o r m l a b o r . " See E r i c h A u e r b a c h , M i m e s i s , t r a n s . W i l — l a r d R. T r a s k ( P r i n c e t o n , 1953), P- 133- I n M a g i c , S c i e n c e and R e l i g i o n ( G a r d e n C i t y , 1948), p. 90, B r o n i s l a w M a l i n o w s k i a s s e r t s t h a t magic s u p p l i e s man w i t h a t e c h n i q u e f o r s o l v i n g p r o b l e m s t h a t he c a n n o t cope w i t h by n a t u r a l means. A l t h o u g h most c r i t i c s a t t r i - b u t e A r t h u r i a n m a r v e l s t o C e l t i c s o u r c e s , C. B. L e w i s f i n d s many a n a l o g u e s i n t h e c l a s s i c s . See C l a s s i c a l M y t h - o l o g y a n d A r t h u r i a n Romance ( E d i n b u r g h , 19.32) . On c l a s s i - c a l s o u r c e s o f F r e n c h A r t h u r i a n romance see a l s o F. E . G u y e r , Romance i n t h e M a k i n g : C h r e t i e n de T r o y e s and t h e E a r l i e s t F r e n c h Romances (New Y o r k , 1 9 5 4 ) . 48 f e e l i n g o f c o n f i d e n c e w h i c h i t e n g e n d e r s when p r a c t i s e d b y a b e n e f i c e n t a g e n t i s a n a l o g o u s t o t h a t p r o d u c e d by a c o u r t - l y c o d e . I n t h e h ands o f a m a l e f i c e n t daemon t h e o p e r a t i o n o f m agic p r o d u c e s f e a r w h i c h , a l o n g w i t h wonder, i s t h e emo- t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f C e l t i c myth-making. The m o r a l a m b i v a - l e n c e o f C e l t i c myth i s a p p a r e n t i n M e r l i n , t h e b e n i g n a n t s o n o f a d e v i l , M organ l e Fay, b o t h h e a l e r and d e s t r o y e r , and N i n e v e who i m p r i s o n s f o r e v e r A r t h u r ' s s u p e r n a t u r a l g u i d e and t h e n t a k e s h i s p l a c e a s p r o t e c t o r o f t h e k i n g . The m a r v e l o u s l a c k s t h e d u a l i s t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e s o f t h e c o u r t l y and C a t h o l i c . I n t h e C e l t i c w o r l d s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e i s f a t e d r a t h e r t h a n e a r n e d . B r a m b l e s , w i l d a n i m a l s and d a n g e r o u s w a t e r s o b s t r u c t t h e p a t h o f t h e q u e s t i n g k n i g h t ; g i a n t s , w i t c h e s , s i r e n s , and i n v i s i b l e k n i g h t s r a t h e r t h a n c a s t l e g a r r i s o n s a n d a r m o u r e d c h a l l e n g e r s t h r e a t e n h i s s a f e t y . E v e n t h e mood e v o k e d b y t h e two e n v i r o n m e n t s i s d i f f e r - e n t . The t a l e s o f c o u r t o i s i e a r e imbued w i t h n o s t a l g i a , " t h e 4 f r a g r a n c e o f a n i r r e t r i e v a b l e p a s t , " w h i l e a s e n s e o f immanent doom h a n g s o v e r t h e t a l e s o f C e l t i c m a g i c . I t i s , i n f a c t , a t m o s p h e r e t h a t c h i e f l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e C e l t i c f r o m t h e c o u r t - l y . "Magic i s t h e word t o i n s i s t u pon," s a y s Matthew A r n o l d 5 i n d e f i n i n g t h e p e c u l i a r q u a l i t y o f C e l t i c l i t e r a t u r e . W. P. K e r i s more e x p l i c i t : A. B. F e r g u s o n , The I n d i a n Slimmer o f E n g l i s h C h i v a l r y (Durham, i960), x i v . ^Matthew A r n o l d , On t h e S t u d y o f C e l t i c L i t e r a t u r e ( London, 1910), p. 122. 4-9 I n C h r e s t i e n e v e r y t h i n g i s c l e a r and p o s i t i v e ; i n t h e s e p r o s e r o m a n c e s , and even more i n M a l o r y ' s E n g l i s h r e n d e r i n g o f h i s " F r e n c h book" i s t o be h e a r d t h e i n d e s c r i b a b l e p l a i n t i v e m elody, t h e s i g h o f t h e w i n d o v e r t h e e n c h a n t e d g r o u n d , t h e s p e l l o f p u r e Romance.6 No s t o r i e s b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b etween t h e two k i n d s o f r o m a n t i c s e t t i n g t h a n B a l i n l e Sauvage o r t h e K n i g h t w i t h t h e two Swords and The T a l e o f S i r G a r e t h o f O r k - n e y t h a t was C a l l e d Bewmaynes. The Book o f B a l i n b e g i n s r e a l i s t i c a l l y w i t h a r e t r o - s p e c t i v e c h r o n o l o g y t h a t f i x e s i t s e v e n t s w i t h i n t h e l i n e a r 7 d e v e l o p m e n t o f A r t h u r ' s h i s t o r y and w i t h a r e p o r t o f t h e p o - l i t i c a l a nd m i l i t a r y d i s t u r b a n c e s w h i c h b e s e t t h e k i n g . When t h e c o u n c i l o f war i s i n t e r r u p t e d by a damsel f r o m A v a l o n g i r t w i t h a b e w i t c h e d sword, we a r e t r a n s p o r t e d f r o m t h e r e a l w o r l d o f p o l i t i c a l u p h e a v a l t o a w o r l d o f romance where h e r o e s a r e t r i e d n o t by f e a t s o f arms b u t by m a g i c a l t e s t s d e v i s e d b y s u p e r n a t u r a l a g e n t s . L i k e t h e e a r l i e r t e s t o f t h e sword i n t h e s t o n e t h a t p r o v e d t h e l e g i t i m a c y o f A r t h u r a n d t h e l a t e r t e s t o f t h e sword i n t h e f l o a t i n g s t o n e w h i c h p r o v e d t h e w o r t h i n e s s o f G a l a h a d , t h i s t e s t c a n o n l y be a c h i e v e d b y W. P. K e r , E p i c a n d Romance (New Y o r k , 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 3 3 5 - 7 The Book o f B a l i n i s t h e most p r o p h e t i c i n M o r t e P a r — t h u r . Thomas L . W r i g h t ' s "The T a l e o f K i n g A r t h u r " i n M a l o r y ' s O r i g i n a l i t y , ed. R. M. L u m i a n s k y ( B a l t i m o r e , 1 9 6 4 ) , shows how t h e p r o p h e t i c m o t i f s i n t h i s t a l e e s t a b l i s h l i n k s w i t h l a t e r e p i s o d e s . 50 Q the knight fated to break the s p e l l . As often happens i n f a i r y t a l e s , the v i c t o r i o u s contender i s he who appears least 9 l i k e l y to succeed: Than h i t b e f e l l e so that tyme there was a poore knyght with kynge Arthure that had bene presonere with hym h a l f a yere for sleyng of a knyght which was cosyne unto kynge Arthure. And the name of thys knyght was c a l l e d Balyne. . . . And so he wente pryvaly into the courte and saw thys adven- ture whereoff h i t reysed h i s herte, and wolde assay- de as othir knyghtes ded. But for he was poore and poorly arayde he put hymselff nat far i n prees ( 6 2 - 3 ) . Nevertheless aft e r the f a i l u r e of the other knights he e a s i l y draws the sword from i t s scabbard. The p e c u l i a r l y C e l t i c nature of the adventure i s re- vealed i n the sequel. B a l i n i n s i s t s on keeping the sword de- spite the damsel's warning that with i t he w i l l slay the man he loves most. He decapitates the Lady of the Lake, who had k i l l e d h i s mother, and he i s banished from court. As i s shown 10 by his Northern origins, his poor appearance, h i s fated suc- cess, h i s adherence to the code of vengeance, and h i s condem- nation by Arthur and the Round Table, he i s no denizen of the courtly milieu but belongs to a mysterious world ruled not by The sword test was a f a m i l i a r motif i n I r i s h l i t e r a - ture. Cf. Tom Peete Cross, Motif Index of Early I r i s h L i t e r - ature (Bloomington, 1 9 3 9 ) , D 1 0 8 l . 9 Other unprepossessing heroes i n Arthurian legend are Gareth, Perceval, Torre, La Cote Mai T a i l l e , and the young Ar- thur himself. 10 The north, the region of Merlin's master Blaise, was associated with magic, violence, barbarism and treachery. Cf. F r o i s s a r t ' s description of the Scottish knights i n Northumbria. the " v i r t u o u s " code of c h i v a l r y but by the i n e x p l i c a b l e opera- t i o n of f a t e . B a l i n ' s u l t i m a t e reward f o r succeeding i n the sword t e s t and i n the quest f o r the i n v i s i b l e k n i g h t i s not honour and acceptance but condemnation, r e j e c t i o n , and death. There i s no accommodation between de s e r t and d e s t i n y , no guar- antee of success and a happy ending. Fate alone determines man's a c t i o n s and end. Le c h e v a l i e r mescheant i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the deaths of Lanceor and h i s la d y , of Berbeus and Peryne de Mounte, and of Ga r n i s h , a l l of whom he was t r y i n g to h e l p . Defending h i m s e l f a g a i n s t e v i l , he s t r i k e s the dolorous blow and a c c e p t i n g a strange s h i e l d , he k i l l s h i s b r o t h e r and i s h i m s e l f k i l l e d . The temper of t h i s t a l e i s u n c h i v a l r i c . The Round Tabl e k n i g h t s are j e a l o u s and m a l i c i o u s ( 6 3 , 6 5 , 6 8 ) , A r t h u r d i s c o u r t e o u s and u n g r a t e f u l . King Pellam, though keeper of the hallows and Joseph of Arimathea' s descendant, i s n e i t h e r pious nor courteous. He g i v e s a f e a s t to which a kn i g h t can- not be admitted "but he brynge hys wyff w i t h hym o t h i r hys paramoure" and both he and h i s b r o t h e r ignore the laws of 1 h o s p i t a l i t y by a t t a c k i n g a guest i n h i s h a l l . In the source, B a l i n had been the f i r s t o f f e n d e r because he r e f u s e d to eat i n the h a l l where he had come as a guest. For t h i s reason G a r l o n i n s u l t s him. The f o r c e s which oppose B a l i n are s u p e r n a t u r a l powers r a t h e r than human c h a r a c t e r s who can be overcome by prowess and v a l o u r . The Lady of the Lake and her damsel are m a l e f i - Le Roman de B a l a i n , ed. M. D. Legge (Manchester, 1 9 4 2 ) , p. 7 6 ^ 52 c e n t w a t e r f a y s who "com n e v e r i n f e l y s h i p o f w o r s h i p f f u l f o l k e f o r t o do good, b u t a l l w a y e s g r e t e harme" ( 6 8 ) . G a r - I o n i s a " t r a y t o u r e k n y g h t t h a t r y d i t h i n v i s i b l e " ( 8 l ) , k i l l - i n g s i l e n t l y o r d e l i v e r i n g wounds t h a t c a n o n l y be h e a l e d w i t h h i s own b l o o d . The f o r c e s w h i c h r i v e P e l l a m ' s c a s t l e , k i l l B a l i n ' s d a m s e l and l a y w a s t e t h r e e c o u n t r i e s have no r a t i o n a l e x p l a n a t i o n . U n l i k e t h e k n i g h t s o f c o u r t l y romance, B a l i n i s o p p o s e d b y powers w h i c h he c a n n o t d e f e a t w i t h o u t c a u s i n g g r e a t e r harm. M a l o r y o m i t s many o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l and c o u r t l y a s - p e c t s o f h i s s o u r c e , L a S u i t e du M e r l i n , t h e l y r i c a l n a t u r e p a s s a g e s , b a t t l e s c e n e s i n t h e war a g a i n s t R i o n s , M e r l i n ' s c o u n s e l t o A r t h u r a b o u t K i n g L o t , s c e n e s i n v o l v i n g A r t h u r and h i s c o u r t , Morgan's c o u r t l y amours, and t h e f r i e n d s h i p s o f 12 v a r i o u s A r t h u r i a n k n i g h t s . T h i s e l i m i n a t i o n o f r e a l i s t i c m a t e r i a l e n a b l e s h i m t o p r o d u c e a p o w e r f u l a t m o s p h e r e o f won- d e r , s u s p e n s e , and doom. The magic sword, t h e m a r v e l o u s s p e a r i n t h e t a b l e o f g o l d , and t h e c u r i o u s l y wrought tombs w i t h t h e i r g o l d e n l e t t e r s a nd f l i c k e r i n g t a p e r s a r e wondrous e l e m e n t s o f romance. F r i g h t e n i n g and awesome a r e t h e p r o p h e - c i e s and w a r n i n g s o f M e r l i n , t h e d a m s e l s and t h e d w a r f . S u s p e n s e i s c r e a t e d b y t h e i n t e r p l a y b etween t h e d i r e w a r n i n g s o f t h e s e s u p e r n a t u r a l c r e a t u r e s and t h e f a t e d a c t i o n o f t h e human p r o t a g o n i s t . As B a l i n r i d e s , l i k e C h i l d e R o l a n d , F o r a c o m p a r i s o n o f M a l o r y ' s book w i t h i t s s o u r c e s , see L . H. L o o m i s , " M a l o r y ' s Book o f B a l i n , " i n A d v e n t u r e s i n t h e M i d d l e A g e s (New Y o r k , 1962),pp. 51-65, r e p r i n t e d f r o m M e d i e v a l S t u d i e s i n Memory o f G e r t r u d e S c h o e p p e r l e L o o m i s ( P a r i s a nd New Y o r k , 1927), pp. 175-195- to h i s l a s t rendezaro.us, the c o n c a t e n a t i o n i s overwhelming. F i r s t he comes to a c r o s s , on which i s w r i t t e n i n l e t t e r s of g o l d (Malory's a d d i t i o n ) : " ' i t i s not f o r no knyght alone to ryde toward t h i s c a s t e l ' ." Next there i s the " o l d hore gentyl- 13 man" who c a l l s the k n i g h t by name, admonishes him to t u r n back, then vanishes suddenly. The damsel, too, w i t h her c a l l - 14 i n g of B a l i n ' s name and her warning about h i s s h i e l d , seems a s u p e r n a t u r a l messenger. Perhaps the most c h i l l i n g e f f e c t i s the sound of the h u n t i n g horn blowe as i t had ben the dethe of a b e s t . 'That b l a s t , ' s a i d Balyn, ' i s blowen f o r me, f o r I am the pryse, and yet am I not dede.' (88, Malory's a d d i t i o n ) , He i s powerless to a v o i d h i s f a t e : 'Me r e p e n t e t h . . .that ever I cam w i t h i n t h i s countrey; but I maye not torne now ageyne f o r shame, and what adventures'shalle f a l l e to me, be i t l y f or dethe, I w i l l e take the adventure that s h a l l e come to me. ' (89*, Malory's a d d i t i o n ) . Probably the most important c h a r a c t e r i n the C e l t i c m i l i e u i s M e r l i n who combines the powers of metamorphosis and prophecy w i t h the a b i l i t y to c r e a t e marvelous a r t i f a c t s . The b e n e f i c e n t p r o t e c t i o n which guards A r t h u r i s a l s o extended to B a l i n whom he exonerates at A r t h u r ' s court (67) and rescues from the r i v e n G r a i l c a s t l e (85). One of M e r l i n ' s c h i e f f u n c - t i o n s i n the s t o r y i s to prepare f o r the G r a i l quest not o n l y by means of p r o p h e t i c u t t e r a n c e s but a l s o by ensuring that Ba- 13 T h i s i s a f a m i l i a r Otherworld c h a r a c t e r . Cf. the o l d man i n Chaucer's Pardoner's T a l e . 14 The f a t a l e f f e c t of "death naming" i s a l s o a b a l l a d m o t i f . 54 l i n ' s sword a n d s c a b b a r d w i l l be p r e s e r v e d f o r G a l a h a d . I n a d r i t i a d d i t i o n , he a c c o m p l i s h e s A r t h u r ' s v i c t o r y o v e r K i n g L o t and K i n g R i o n s . Thus t h e most i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e i n t h e m i l i e u o f C e l t i c romance i s a l s o t h e means o f l i n k i n g i t w i t h t h e h i s - t o r i c a l a nd r e l i g i o u s m i l i e u x . The most s i g n i f i c a n t p l a c e s i n t h e T a l e o f B a l i n , a s i d e f r o m t h e f o r e s t , a r e K i n g P e l l a m ' s c a s t l e and t h e i s l a n d g u a r d - ed b y t h e Red K n i g h t . A t f i r s t P e l l a m ' s c a s t l e seems p a r t o f t h e c o u r t l y s e t t i n g a nd i t s l o r d one o f t h o s e h o s p i t a b l e b a r o n s who d e l i g h t i n f e a s t s , t o u r n e y s and t h e company o f l a d i e s . When B a l i n a r r i v e s a t t h e c a s t l e he i s r e c e i v e d i n t h e manner c h a r - a c t e r i s t i c o f c o u r t l y romance: B a l y n e was w e l l r e c e y v e d and b r o u g h t u n t o a ch a m b i r and unarmed hym. And t h e r e was b r o u g h t hym r o b i s t o h i s p l e s u r e o , , and wolde h a v e h a d B a l y n l e v e h i s Swerde behynde hym (83). C o n t r a r y t o c o u r t l y p r a c t i c e , B a l i n k e e p s h i s sword w i t h h i m . When he b r e a k s i t i n h i s f i g h t w i t h P e l l a m , he r u n s 15 t h r o u g h t h e c a s t l e , l o o k i n g f o r a n o t h e r weapon : And a ^ f a s t he e n t e r d e i n t o a c h a m b i r w h i c h was m e r v a y l o u s l y d y g h t and r y c h e , and a bedde a r a y e d w i t h c l o t h o f g o l d e , t h e r y c h i s t e t h a t myght be, a n d one l y y n g t h e r e i n . And t h e r e b y s t o o d e a t a b l e o f c l e n e g o l d e w i t h f o u r p e l o u r s o f s y l v e r t h a t b a r e up t h e t a b l e , and uppon t h e t a b l e s t o o d e a m e r v a y l o u s s p e r e s t r a n g e l y w rought (85)- T h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o i n d i c a t e t h a t B a l i n h a s v i o l a t e d a C h r i s t i a n s h r i n e . M a l o r y m e n t i o n s n e i t h e r t h e G r a i l v e s s e l n o r t h e d i s e m b o d i e d v o i c e s t h a t i n t h e F r e n c h s o u r c e warn B a l i n 15 N e i t h e r M a l o r y n o r h i s s o u r c e s e x p l a i n s why B a l i n d i d n o t u s e h i s s e c o n d sword. See E . V i n a v e r , "The D o l o r o u s S t r o k e , " Medium Aevum, x x v (1957) 5 P- 179, n o t e 1. 55 a g a i n s t t h e s i n o f t o u c h i n g t h e l a n c e — " N e l a t o u c h i e , 16 p e c h i e r e z ! " We have a l r e a d y b e e n t o l d (p. 72) t h a t B a l i n i s d e s t i n e d t o s t r i k e t h e D o l o r o u s B low as p u n i s h m e n t f o r f a i l i n g t o save Columbe r a t h e r t h a n f o r c o m m i t t i n g s a c r i l e g e . The c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e D o l o r o u s B l o w — t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e c a s t l e , t h e d e a t h o f many o c c u p a n t s and t h e w a s t i n g o f t h r e e c o u n t r i e s — a r e n o t made t o seem a d i v i n e p u n i s h m e n t as t h e y a r e i n t h e S u i t e du M e r l i n . The a t m o s p h e r e r e m a i n s r o m a n t i c r a t h e r t h a n r e l i g i o u s and m o r a l ; t h e c h a p e l w i t h i t s g o l d e n f u r n i t u r e a n d s t r a n g e l y wrought s p e a r seems p a r t o f an O r i - 17 e n t a l p a l a c e o r an O t h e r w o r l d c a s t l e o f I r i s h myth. Though t h e O t h e r w o r l d a s p e c t s o f t h e G r a i l C a s t l e h a v e a t t r a c t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n , no c r i t i c seems t o h a v e n o t e d t h e O t h e r w o r l d c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p l a c e w h i c h Balari- g u a r d s . I t i s d o m i n a t e d b y a c a s t l e where B a l i n i s receiv>ed more h o s - p i t a b l y t h a n e v e r b e f o r e : C a m bridge ms. o f t h e S u i t e du M e r l i n f270 d. C f . H. 0. Sommer, The V u l g a t e V e r s i o n o f t h e A r t h u r i a n Romances ( W a s h i n g t o n , 1909), v o l . 1^ pT 290 ( L e s t o i r e d e l S a i n t G r a a l ) where B r u l a n s c a u s e s t h e Waste L a n d by s t r i k i n g Lambor w i t h a sword t h a t he h a s t a k e n f r o m Solomon's s h i p . 17 On t h e r e s e m b l a n c e s b e t w e e n t h e G r a i l C a s t l e and t h e O t h e r w o r l d f o r t r e s s , C u r o i , see R. S. L o o m i s , C e l t i c M y th and A r t h u r i a n Romance (New Y o r k , 1927), PP- 1 5 8 f f a n d W. A. N i t z e , "The C a s t l e o f t h e G r a i l — a n I r i s h A n a l o g u e , " i n S t u d i e s i n Honor o f A. M a r s h a l l E l l i o t t ( B a l t i m o r e , 1911), pp. 19-51- C e l t i c a n a l o g u e s o f t h e G r a i l C a s t l e a r e a l s o d i s - c u s s e d i n A. C. L. Brown's The O r i g i n o f t h e G r a i l L e g e n d ( C a m b r i d g e , Mass., 19^3) l l 6 f f and 3 5 8 f f and i n H. R. P a t c h ' s The O t h e r W o r l d ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . 1 9 5 0 ) , p. 3 0 9 f f - 56 Aiione w i t h a l he sawe a n h o n d e r d l a d y e s and many k n y g h t e s t h a t welcommed hym w i t h f a y r semb 1aunt and made hym p a s s y n g good c h e r e u n t o h i s s y g h t , and l e d d e hym i n t o t h e c a s t e l , and t h e r was daun— synge a n d m y n s t r a l s y e a n d a l l e maner o f j o y e ( 8 8 ) . T h i s c a s t l e b y a r i v e r i s r u l e d b y a l a d y ; i t s t o w e r s " s t a n d f u l o f l a d y e s " d u r i n g t h e b a t t l e b e t w e e n B a l i n and B a l a n . T h a t i t i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e C e l t i c C a s t l e o f M a i d e n s , an l 8 O t h e r w o r l d s e t t i n g , i s a r e a s o n a b l e a s s u m p t i o n . To meet h i s o p p o n e n t , B a l i n and h i s h o r s e must t r a v e l " i n a g r e t e b o o t e " t o an i s l a n d . I n C e l t i c m y t h o l o g y t h e l o c a t i o n o f 1 9 t h e O t h e r w o r l d o n an i s l a n d i s common w h i l e t h e a s s o c i a - t i o n o f b o a t s and d e a t h i s f o u n d a l s o i n C l a s s i c a l a n d T e u - 20 t o n i c t r a d i t i o n . The k e e p e r o f t h e i s l a n d w ears r e d a r - mour and i s mounted on a h o r s e " t r a p p e d a l l r e e d " — a n O t h e r - w o r l d c o l o u r . The j o u s t on t h e i s l a n d , l i k e d e a t h , c a n n o t be a v o i d e d b y anyone " f o r t h e r may no man p a s s e t h i s way b u t he must j u s t e o r he p a s s e , " (88) and t h e v i c t o r i s f a t e d f o r - e v e r t o d e f e n d t h e e n t r a n c e , a s B a l a n r e v e a l s t o h i s b r o t h e r : 1 8 T h i s i s a common m o t i f i n A r t h u r i a n romance. F o r o t h e r o c c u r r e n c e s see A. C. L . Brown, op. c i t . pp. 109-117 , 1 3 8 - 1 4 0 , 153 e t c . 1 9 C f . t h e I s l e o f A v a l o n , B r a n ' s I s l a n d o f L a u g h t e r and I s l a n d o f M a i d e n s , as w e l l a s t h e i s l a n d s r e a c h e d i n t h e Voyage o f M a e l d u i n and t h e Voyage o f t h e H u i C o r r . See H. R. P a t c h , op. c i t . Ch. 2 and A. C. L. Brown, op. c i t . Ch. 11. 20 O d y s s e u s , A r t h u r , B r a n and S a i n t B r e n d a n a l l t r a v e l l e d b y w a t e r t o t h e O t h e r w o r l d . B u r n i n g s h i p s and b u r i e d s h i p s f o r m e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f T e u t o n i c f u n e r a r y c u s t o m s . 5 7 f o r I h a d n e v e r g r a c e t o d e p a r t e f r o hem s y n t h a t I cam h y t h e r , f o r h e r e i t h a p p e d me t o s l e e a k n y g h t t h a t k e p t t h i s i l a n d , and s y n myght I n e v e r d e p a r t e , and no more s h o l d y e , b r o d e r , and ye myght have s l a y n e me as ye ^ have and e s c a p e d y o u r s e l f w i t h t h e l y f . ( 9 0 ) The c o m p u l s o r y s e r v i c e w h i c h t h e v i c t o r must r e n d e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e t o w e r on t h e i s l a n d i s a n a l o g o u s t o t h e D o l o r o u s Tower, f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d i n C e l t i c myth w i t h a C a s t l e o f 2 2 M a i d e n s - Of t h e t w e n t y m o t i f s t h a t Brown f i n d s i n I r i s h s t o r i e s o f t h e j o u r n e y t o t h e O t h e r w o r l d , more t h a n h a l f o c - 2 3 c u r i n t h e s c e n e u n d e r d i s c u s s i o n . F i n a l l y , t h e b r i d g e o f i r o n and s t e e l "but h a l f a f o o t e b r o d e " t h a t M e r l i n b u i l d s and makes a t e s t o f v i r t u e r e s e m b l e s i n i t s n a r r o w n e s s t h e 2 4 r o p e , sword, a n d t h r e a d b r i d g e s o f I r i s h myth and o f C h r e - t i e n ' s romance as w e l l as t h e a l l e g o r i c a l b r i d g e s o f t h e p a - 21 C f . M e r a u g i s de p o r t l e s guez w h i c h d e s c r i b e s an O t h e r w o r l d c a s t l e t h a t no k n i g h t c a n l e a v e u n l e s s a n o t h e r e n t e r s . 2 2 C f . A. C. L . Brown, op• c i t . , pp. l 6 , 46, 5 4 , 5 9 , e t c , 2 3 The h e r o i s summoned t o f a i r y l a n d a n d s e t s o u t . He c r o s s e s w a t e r by b o a t . He i s p r o t e c t e d ( i . e . warned) by a wo- man. On t h e i s l a n d i s a tower a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t y r a n n y . The h e r o i s f e a s t e d and e n t e r t a i n e d i n a C a s t l e o f M a i d e n s . The f e a s t i s a b u n d a n t . A b a t t l e h a s b e e n a r r a n g e d . The opponent i s d r e s s e d i n r e d . The h e r o c o n q u e r s and s l a y s t h e o p p o n e n t . The r e t u r n o f t h e h e r o t o h i s own c o u n t r y i s i m p o s s i b l e . C f . Brown, p. 2 5 - 2 4 The b r i d g e i s one o f t h e commonest O t h e r w o r l d m o t i f s . C f . P a t c h , p a s s i m , and T. P. C r o s s , op. c i t . , F 1 5 2 . 58 25 t r i s t i c w r i t e r s . D e s p i t e t h e manner i n w h i c h M a l o r y and t h e a u t h o r s o f h i s s o u r c e s C h r i s t i a n i z e t h e d e a t h o f t h e b r o t h e r s and t h e a r t i f a c t s o f t h e I s l e de M e r v i l l e s , t h e a t m o s p h e r e o f wonder and f e a r w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s p a gan C e l t i c romance i s r e t a i n e d t o t h e end. L i k e t h e T a l e o f B a l i n , t h e T a l e o f G a r e t h b e g i n s a t A r t h u r ' s c o u r t b u t t h e a t m o s p h e r e i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t . F a r f r o m b e i n g an i n s e c u r e t r i b a l k i n g h a r a s s e d by e nemies, A r t h u r i s now an e s t a b l i s h e d k i n g a n d emperor who h o l d s t h e h i g h f e a s t o f P e n t e c o s t w i t h " t h e Rounde T a b l e moste p l e n o u r e . " T h e s e a r e t h e palmy days o f c h i v a l r y b e f o r e a d u l t e r y , j e a l o u s y and f a m i l y f e u d s have c o r r o d e d t h e f a b r i c . A r t h u r ' s c o u r t i s a p l a c e o f r i t u a l i s t i c ceremony and c o u r t e o u s c o n d u c t where 26 t h e k i n g must see a g r e a t m a r v e l b e f o r e he c a n "go t o mete," where L a n c e l o t " o f h i s g r e t e j a n t y l e s s e and c u r t e s y " b e f r i e n d s l e B e l I n c o n n u and where a d e s i r e f o r h o r s e and armour i s a s i g n o f n o b l e b i r t h . I n t h i s m i l i e u t h e k n i g h t s ' m o t i v a t i o n s a r e l o v e and c h i v a l r y n o t f a t e and v e n g e a n c e . The c o n t r o l l i n g a g e n t s o f F r e n c h romance a r e n o t m a g i c i a n s , f a y s , and f a t e b u t t h o s e g o d d e s s e s o f c o u r t l y l o v e , t h e l a d i e s whom t h e k n i g h t s s e r v e . G a r e t h ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e L a d y L y o n e s s e and h e r s i s t e r 25 E . g . G r e g o r y t h e G r e a t , D i a l o g u e s , ed. E . G. G a r d - n e r (London, 1906). G r e g o r y o f T o u r s , H i s t o r y o f t h e F r a n k s , ed. 0. M. D a l t o n ( O x f o r d , 1927). 26 C f . p. 293 and S i r Gawain and t h e G r e e n K n i g h t . The s u b j e c t i s d i s c u s s e d b y J . R. R e i n h a r d , The S u r v i v a l o f G e i s i n M e d i e v a l Romance ( H a l l e , 1933), PP• l 8 8 f f . 59 L y n e t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c o d e s o f c o u r t l y l o v e and c h i v a l r i c p r a c t i c e w h i c h p e r m e a t e t h e r o m a n t i c s c e n e d o m i n a t e d by women. The k n i g h t r i d e s i n t o t h e f o r e s t t o r e s c u e "a l a d y o f g r e t e w o r s h yp and o f g r e t e l o n d y s " whose c a s t l e i s b e - s i e g e d b y a t y r a n t , The Red K n i g h t o f t h e Red L a n d s . Whether by t a u n t s o r e n t r e a t i e s , t h e h e r o ' s p r o w e s s i s i n c r e a s e d b e - c a u s e o f t h e l a d i e s ' p r e s e n c e ( 3 1 3 5 3 2 3 ) . B o t h j u s t i c e a n d mercy depend on f e m i n i n e whim (307,310,314,325). I t i s t h e l a d y who d e f i n e s t h e c h i v a l r i c v i r t u e s a nd t h e i r r e w a r d s 2 7 ( 3 2 7 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e code o f amour c o u r t o i s , h e r de- c i s i o n s must n e v e r be q u e s t i o n e d . When t h e L a d y L y o n e s s e d e c r e e s t h a t t h e C a s t l e P e r i l o u s w i l l r e m a i n i n a c c e s s i b l e t o h e r champion u n t i l he h a s l a b o u r e d " i n worshyp t h i s t w e l v e - monthe," G a r e t h must obey. The a r m i n g o f V t h e c a s t l e a g a i n s t G a r e t h , t h e r a i s i n g o f t h e d r a w b r i d g e and d r a w i n g o f t h e p o r t - c u l l i s may seem t h e p r e c a u t i o n a r y m e a s u r e s c o n v e n t i o n a l l y 28 t a k e n t o p r e s e r v e t h e l a d y ' s v i r g i n i t y . B ut G a r e t h , de- p r i v e d o f s h e l t e r , h o s p i t a l i t y a nd t h e j o y s o f l o v e , i s t u r n e d away t o wander i n t h e d a r k , t r a c k l e s s f o r e s t b e c a u s e h i s w o r t h - i n e s s h a s n o t y e t b e e n p r o v e n . I n c h i v a l r i c s o c i e t y , p r o w e s s The code o f c o u r t l y l o v e was f i r s t s y s t e m a t i z e d b y A n d r e a s C a p e l l a n u s i n De A r t e H o n e s t e Amandi (1174-1190). I t s r e l a t i o n t o A r t h u r i a n l e g e n d i s w e l l d i s c u s s e d b y G a s t o n P a r i s i n " L a n c e l o t du L a c , " Romania j x i i (1883). 28 C f . t h e r o l e o f Shame, Danger, F e a r and M a l e b o u c h e who s t a n d g u a r d a t t h e f o u r g a t e s o f t h e c a s t l e i n G u i l l a u m e de L o r r i s ' Romance o f t h e R o s e . S i m i l a r l y , Doubt, D e l a y and Danger p r o t e c t Amoret i n t h e Temple o f Venus i n S p e n s e r ' s F a e r i e Queene ( l v . x. 12,13,17). 6o must be c o u p l e d w i t h h i g h l i n e a g e . As L y o n e s s e t e l l s h e r b r o t h e r : 1 . . . t y l l t h a t I know what i s h i s r y g h t name and o f what k y n r e d e he i s commyn s h a l l I n e v e r be m y r r y a t my h e r t e 1 (328). The good h o r s e t r a p p e d i n c l o t h o f g o l d and t h e r i c h g e a r t h a t s e t t h e c o u r t m a r v e l i n g (297) a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t p r o o f o f n o b i l i t y . But when h i s dwarf r e v e a l s t h a t G a r e t h i s a k i n g ' s son, L y n e t i s n o t s u r p r i s e d : ' T r u l y , madam,' se y d e L y n e t u n t o h i r s i s t i r , ' w e l l may he be a k y n g y s son, f o r he h a t h many, good t a c c h i s : f o r he i s c u r t y e s e and mylde, and t h e most s u f f e r y n g e man t h a t e v e r I m e t t e w i t h - a l l . F o r I d a r e s e y t h e r e was n e v e r j a n t y l l - woman r e v y l e d man i n so f o u l e a manner as I h a v e r e b u k e d hym. And a t a l l tymes, he g a f f me g o o d l y and meke answrs agayne' (330)- Though G a r e t h e x e m p l i f i e s s u c h c o n v e n t i o n a l v i r t u e s 29 o f t h e c o u r t l y m i l i e u as g e n t i l i t y , p r o w e s s , h u m i l i t y , l o y a l t y , d e v o t i o n t o h i s l a d y , and o b e d i e n c e , he i s n o t g i v e n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l r e w a r d . A number o f c r i t i c s h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e F r e n c h d o c t r i n e o f amour c o u r t o i s b a s e d on a d u l t e r y 30 was u n c o n g e n i a l t o M a l o r y . The h o p e l e s s d e v o t i o n o f t h e Red K n i g h t i s r i d i c u l e d i n s t e a d o f a p p l a u d e d b y G a r e t h when h i s o p p o n e n t c i t e s t h e "many s t r a n g e b a t a y l e s " he h a s u n d e r - t a k e n t o w i n L a d y L y o n e s s e : ^ C f . L a n c e l o t ' s e u l o g y o f G a r e t h I O 8 8 - I O 8 9 . 30 C f . R. T. D a v i e s , " M a l o r y ' s V e r t u o u s e L o v e , " S t u d i e s i n P h i l o l o g y ( N o r t h C a r o l i n a ) , v o l . I l l ( 1 9 5 6 ) , p p . 4 5 9 - 6 9 ; C h a r l e s Moorman, " C o u r t l y L o v e i n M a l o r y , " ELH, XXVII ( I 9 6 0 ) , pp. 1 6 3-70; P. E . T u c k e r , " C h i v a l r y i n t h e M o r t e , " E s s a y s on M a l o r y , ed. J . A. ¥ . B e n n e t t ( O x f o r d , 1 9 6 3 ) , pp. 6 4 - 1 0 3 • I n h i s d i s l i k e o f c o u r t l y l o v e , M a l o r y was p r o b a b l y i n a c c o r d w i t h E n g l i s h t r a d i t i o n . C f . D. Van de V o o r t , L o v e and M a r r i a g e i n t h e E n g l i s h M e d i e v a l Romance; (Na s h v i 1 1 e , 1 9 3 8 ) . 61 ' G e f f t h o u so have done,' seyde Bewmaynes, 'mesemyth h i t was b u t wa s t e l a b o u r e , f o r she l o v y t h none o f t h y f e l y s h y p , a n d t h o u t o l o v e t h a t l o v y t h n a t t h e i s b u t g r e t e f o l y . . .' ( 3 2 2 ) . M a g i c i s i n t r o d u c e d t o t h w a r t t h e p r e m a r i t a l consummation o f 31 G a r e t h ' s l o v e , w i t h L y n e t a c t i n g a s t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l a g e n t . F o r once t h e m a r v e l o u s h a s a m o r a l p u r p o s e , a l i e n t o i t s C e l t i c o r i g i n . G a r e t h must w i n h i s l a d y a s t h e p r i z e a t a t o u r n a m e n t i n s t e a d o f t a k i n g h e r i n t h e c a s t l e h a l l and he must wed h e r a t A r t h u r ' s c o u r t " w i t h g r e t e s o l e m p n y t e . " I n a d d i t i o n t o r e v e a l i n g t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e c o u r t l y m i l i e u o f l o v e , n o b i l i t y and p r o w e s s , t h e T a l e o f G a r e t h a l s o p r e s e n t s t h e r i t u a l s o f c h i v a l r i c p r a c t i c e . He who i s n o b l y b o r n c a n r e c e i v e k n i g h t h o o d p r o v i d i n g he r e v e a l s h i s name and l i n e a g e (299)- H i s f i t n e s s f o r t h e h o n o u r must be 3 2 a t t e s t e d b y a p p r o p r i a t e a r r a y (297)• The r e f u s a l t o r e v e a l one's i d e n t i t y i s s u f f i c i e n t e x c u s e f o r a j o u s t . H o r s e a n d h a r n e s s a r e t h e v i c t o r ' s p r i z e ( 3 0 4 , 3 4 l ) . The v a n q u i s h e d p a y s homage t o t h e v i c t o r and o f f e r s h i m h o s p i t a l i t y (307, 310,314). An i n s u l t t o l a d i e s and t o good k n i g h t s must a l w a y s be a v e n g e d . I n c h i v a l r i c romance, c h a l l e n g e i s f r e q u e n t l y c o n v e y e d L u c y P a t on, op. c i t . , p. 70 and A. C. L. Brown-^ I w a i n (New Y o r k , 1965),pp" l 5 f t f f . i n t e r p r e t t h e Book o f G a r e t h as a v e r s i o n o f t h e f a i r y m i s t r e s s theme. The e v e n t s i n G r i n g a m o r e ' s c a s t l e i n v o l v i n g t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l k n i g h t , t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e c a s t l e a t A v a l o n and L y o n e s s e ' s magic r i n g de- r i v e f r o m t h i s myth. 3 2 C o n t r a s t B a l i n ' s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t " w o r s h i p and h a r d y - n e s s e y s n o t i n a r a y m e n t e " (63)* 62 by means o f s e t t i n g . As G a r e t h e n t e r s t h e domain o f t h e Red K n i g h t o f t h e Red L a n d s , t h e s c e n e r e v e a l s b o t h t h e power and t h e i n f a m y o f Beawmaynes' o p p o n e n t : T h e y t o k e t h e i r h o r s i s and r o d e t h o r o w o u t e a f a y r e f o r e s t e . And t h a n t h e y com t o a p l a y n e and saw where was many p a v y l o n s and t e n t y s and a f a y r e c a s t e l l , a n d t h e r e was muche smoke and g r e t e n o y s e . And whan t h e y com n e r e t h e sege s i r Bewmaynes a s p y e d on g r e t e t r e e s , as he r o d e , how t h e r e hynge f u l l g o o d l y armed k n y g h t e s by t h e n e c k e , and t h e i r s h y l d i s and g y l t e s p o r y s uppon t h e i r h e l y s (319). The smoke, n o i s e and h a n g e d k n i g h t s a r e demonic images t h a t f o r m an ominous c o n t r a s t t o t h e f a i r c a s t l e , gay p a v i l i o n s and r i c h a c c o u t r e m e n t s . The c l o s e r G a r e t h comes t o t h e c a s t d e , t h e g r e a t e r i s t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f s t r e n g t h and w e a l t h . R o m a n t i c c o n v e n t i o n demanded t h a t a n enemy must be w o r t h y , f o r '. . .the more he i s o f worshyp t h e more s h a l l be my worshyp t o h a v e ado w i t h hym' (311)- T h e d o u b l e - d i k e d w a l l s , t h e n o i s e o f m i n s t r e l s y , t h e a s s e m b l e d a l l i e s , t h e p o u n d i n g s e a s i g n i f y d e f i a n c e . And a l s o t h e r e was f a s t e by a sygamoure t r e , a n d t h e r e o n hynge an h o r n e , t h e g r e t t y s t t h a t e v e r t h e y s y e , o f an o l y v a u n t e s bone, and t h i s K n yght o f t h e Rede Launde h a t h h onged h i t up t h e r e t o t h i s e n t e n t e , t h a t y f t h e r e com ony a r r a u n t e k n y g h t e he muste blowe t h a t h o r n e and t h a n w o l l he make hym r e d y and com t o hym t o do b a t a y l e (320). To t h e Red K n i g h t ' s m a t e r i a l a d v a n t a g e s s i s c o d d e d - t h e / m y t h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s o l a r s t r e n g t h . S i n c e G a r e t h r e f u s e s t o w i t h h o l d h i s c h a l l e n g e u n t i l h i g h noon, even t i m e becomes h i s enemy. But t h e h e r o o f c o u r t l y romance d i f f e r s f r o m h i s r e a l - l i f e c o u n t e r p a r t i n b e i n g i n v i n c i b l e . 63 The paramount r i t u a l o f r o m a n t i c c h i v a l r y was t h e 33 t o u r n a m e n t w h i c h , l i k e a f o o t b a l l game, combined team e f f o r t ( o f t e n r e g i o n a l i n b a s i s ) w i t h i n d i v i d u a l f e a t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t e n a b l e d a k n i g h t t o c o m p l i m e n t h i s l a d y i n t h e most p u b l i c manner. The f o r m o f t h e t o u r n a m e n t i n t h e T a l e o f G a r e t h t y p i - f i e s t h e m a r t i a l combats o f romance. C o n v i n c e d a t l a s t o f G a r e t h ' s w o r t h i n e s s , t h e L a d y L y o n e s s e , a t h e r k n i g h t ' s s u g - g e s t i o n , o f f e r s h e r s e l f as t h e p r i z e o f a t o u r n a m e n t . I f t h e w i n n e r i s a l r e a d y m a r r i e d : he s h a l l have a c o r o n a l l o f g o l d e s e t t e w i t h s t o n y s o f v e r t u t o t h e "iValew o f a t h o u s a n d pound, and a whyght j a r f a w c o n ^ ( 3 4 l ) . The d a t e and p l a c e o f t h e t o u r n a m e n t h a v i n g b e e n c r i e d t h r o u g h - o u t t h e l a n d two months p r e v i o u s l y , t h e teams a s s e m b l e a t t h e a p p o i n t e d t i m e . The e n t e r t a i n m e n t i s l a v i s h f o r t h i s l a d y , dame L y o n e s s e , o r d a y n e d g r e t e a r a y uppon h i r p a r t y f o r h i r n o b l e k n y g h t y s , f o r a l l maner o f l o d g y n g e and v y t a y l e t h a t cam b y l o n d e and b y w a t i r , t h a t t h e r e l a c k e d n o t h y n g e f o r h i r p a r t y , n o t h e r f o r t h e o t h i r p a r t y , b u t t h e r e was p l e n t e t o be h a d f o r g o l d e and s y l v e r f o r Kynge A r t h u r e and a l l e h i s k n y g h t e s ( 3 4 5 ) . T h a t r e a l t o u r n a m e n t s o f t h e l a t e r m i d d l e a g e s were b a s e d on l i t e r a r y a n t e c e d e n t s i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h e t i t l e o f a f i f t e e n t h — c e n t u r y m a n u s c r i p t : "La forme quon t e n o i t des t o u r — n o y s e t a s s e m b l e e s au temps du r o y u t e r p e n d r a g o n e t du r o y a r - t u s e n t r e l e s r o y s e t p r i n c e s de l a g r a n t b r e t a i g n e e t c h e v a - l i e r s de l a t a b l e r o n d e , " ed. E . Sandoz, S p e c u l u m XIX (1944), 389-420. C f . a l s o R. H. C l i n e , "The I n f l u e n c e o f Romances on T o u r n a m e n t s o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s , " S p e c u l u m XX (194.5), 204-211 and S i d n e y P a i n t e r , F r e n c h C h i v a l r y ( B a l t i m o r e , 1940), p. 52. 34 Tournament p r i z e s i l l u s t r a t e t h e c o m b i n a t i o n i n t h e M o r t e D a r t h u r o f m a t e r i a l i s m and romance: a c i r c l e t o f g o l d ( l 6 6 ) , a g e r f a l c o n and a w h i t e s t e e d t r a p p e d w i t h c l o t h o f g o l d ( 1 7 6 ) , a f a i r m a iden and a g e r f a l c o n (872), a diamond (1153)• 64 A f t e r t h e c e l e b r a t i o n o f mass e a c h m o r n i n g , t h e t r u m p e t s sound and t h e j o u s t s b e g i n . D i s g u i s e c o n t r i b u t e s t o s u s p e n s e an d s u r p r i s e . On each day G a r e t h ' s c h a m e l e o n armour p r o d u c e s t h e m y s t i f i c a t i o n w h i c h i n e v i t a b l y a t t r a c t s t h e a t t e n t i o n o f 35 t h e a s s e m b l y . When h i s i d e n t i t y h a s a t l a s t b e e n r e v e a l e d and h i s p r o w e s s a c c l a i m e d , t h e h e r o i s n o t c o n t e n t t o r e s t on h i s l a u r e l s b u t w i t h d r a w s i n t o t h e f o r e s t t o p u r s u e o t h e r q u e s t s u n t i l t h e c y c l e o f t i m e a n d p l a c e b r i n g s h i m b a c k t o A r t h u r ' s c o u r t . The l a n d o f romance i n t h e M o r t e D a r t h u r i s t h e k i n g - dom o f L o g r e s w i t h i t s f o r e s t s , c a s t l e s and e n c i r c l i n g s e a s . W h i l e t h e w h o l e o f L o g r e s i s a r o i a u m e a v e n t u r e u x , c e r t a i n a r e a s w i t h i n i t s bounds a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o p i t i o u s f o r t h e q u e s t i n g k n i g h t . I n t h e west i s Morgan's l a n d , t h e c o u n t r y o f G o r e w i t h i t s s t r o n g c a s t l e s and towns (152). I t i n c l u d e s n o t o n l y t h e A v a l o n o f C e l t i c myth b u t t h e G l a s t o n b u r y o f C h r i s t i a n myth, w i t h K i n g Bagdemagus' abbey and t h e tomb o f J o s e p h o f A r i m a t h e a ' s s o n (1026). The m a r v e l o u s a t m o s p h e r e o f S i r G r i n g a m o r e ' s c a s t l e depends n o t a l i t t l e on i t s l o c a - t i o n — t h e I s l e o f A v a l o n ( 3 4 2 ) . C o r n w a l l , t h e k i n g d o m o f Mark, and W a les w i t h i t s w i t c h e s and P e r i l o u s F o r e s t (490) a r e a l s o 3 5 I n M a l o r y ( O x f o r d , 1929), p. 3, V i n a v e r s u g g e s t e d , as K i t t r e d g e and S c h o f i e l d a l s o n o t e d , t h a t G a r e t h ' s e x p l o i t s r e f l e c t e d a t o u r n a m e n t a t C a l a i s when R i c h a r d Beauchamp s e n t t h r e e s u c c e s s i v e c h a l l e n g e s t o t h e F r e n c h c o u r t . W e a r i n g e a c h t i m e a d i f f e r e n t s u i t o f armour, he d e f e a t e d h i s o p p o n e n t s u n d e r t h e s t y l e o f t h e "Green K n i g h t " and " l e C h e v a l i e r A t t e n - d a n t . " I n h i s s e c o n d e d i t i o n o f The Works o f S i r Thomas M a l o r y , p . l 4 4 0 , V i n a v e r a c c e p t s R. S. L o o m i s ' v i e w t h a t t h e w e a r i n g o f a d i f f e r e n t d i s g u i s e on t h r e e s u c c e s s i v e days was a c o n v e n t i o n a l r o m a n t i c m o t i f . C f . R. S. L o o m i s , " M a l o r y ' s B eaumains," PMLA L I V (1939), 656-668. 65 p l a c e s o f a d v e n t u r e . When "a c o n t r a r y o u s wynde" h a s b l o w n T r i s t r a m o n t o t h e c o a s t o f N o r t h W a l e s , he t e l l s B r a n g w a i n . . i n t h y s f o r e y s t e a r many s t r a n g e a d v e n t u r e s , as I have h a r d e s e y , and som o f hem I c a s t e t o p r e v e o r t h a t I d e p a r t e . . .' ( 4 8 l ) . I t i s i n t o t h i s f o r e s t , t o o , t h a t A r t h u r i s l u r e d b y t h e s o r - c e r e s s , Auenowre, who i s d e t e r m i n e d t o h a v e h i s l o v e o r h i s l i f e ( 4 9 0 ) . I n t h e e a s t i s t h e c o u n t r y o f A r r o y , famous f o r " s t r a n g e a d v e n t u r e s " ( 1 6 2 ) , a s M a r h a u l t p r o m i s e s . A f t e r s e v e n a d v e n t u r e l e s s d a y s , he r i d e s w i t h Gawain and Y w a i n i n t o t h e f o r e s t o f A r r o y and e n c o u n t e r s a t once t h e e p i t o m e o f r o m a n t i c s c e n e r y : And so t h e y r o d e and cam i n t o a depe v a l e y f u l l o f s t o n y s , and t h e r e b y t h e y sawe a f a y r e s t r e i n e o f w a t i r . Abouen t h e r e b y was t h e hede o f t h e s t r e m e , a f a y r e f o u n t a y n e , and t h r e e d a m s e l s s y t t y n g e t h e r e b y ( 1 6 2 ) , The t o p o g r a p h y o f t h e r o m a n t i c f o r e s t i s d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e a maximum number o f a d v e n t u r e s i f t h e k n i g h t — e r r a n t c a n f i n d t h e r i g h t way. Chance, w h i c h we m i g h t c a l l c h i v a l - r i c d e s t i n y , o f t e n p r o v i d e s a g u i d e — a d a m s e l , dwarf, i n - s c r i b e d c r o s s , o r c o u n t r y m a n who w i l l d i r e c t t h e h e r o t o a w e l l , a f o u n t a i n , a d e f e n d e d f o r d , a c r o s s r o a d o r a b e s i e g e d c a s t l e where h i s p r o w e s s w i l l be t e s t e d . I g n o r a n c e o f t h e way may l e a d t o s u c h d i f f i c u l t i e s a s G a r e t h e n c o u n t e r e d i n p u r s u i t o f h i s dwarf (329) b u t a k n i g h t i s n e v e r l o s t f o r l o n g . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h e r o m a n t i c f o r e s t combines v a s t ex- p a n s e s o f w i l d e r n e s s w i t h numerous h a b i t a t i o n s t h a t f o r t u i - t o u s l y a p p e a r a t n i g h t f a l l . L a n c e l o t ' s e x p e r i e n c e i s t y p i c a l : 66 And so he r o d e i n t o a g r e t e f o r e s t e a l l t h a t day, and n e v e r coude f y n d e no hygheway. And so t h a t n y g h t f e l l on hym, and t h a n was he ware i n a s l a d e o f a p a v y l y o n o f r e d e s e n d e l e (259). P a v i l i o n s a r e a d e l i g h t f u l f e a t u r e o f t h e r o m a n t i c l a n d s c a p e . W i t h t h e i r b r i g h t c o l o u r s and r i c h m a t e r i a l s t h e y d e n o t e t h e c h i e f c h i v a l r i c p l e a s u r e s — t o u r n a m e n t s , a d v e n t u r e s , h o s p i t a l i t y a nd l o v e . As f a r a s p o s s i b l e , however, M a l o r y 37 a v o i d s a s s o c i a t i n g t h e f o r e s t s e t t i n g w i t h a l o v e i d y l l . I t i s a p l a c e f o r l o v e ' s v i c t i m s , t h e h e a r t s i c k P e l l e a s and P a l o m i d e s who make t h e woods r i n g w i t h t h e i r moans, t h e mad L a n c e l o t a n d T r i s t r a m who r u n w i l d l y t h r o u g h a d i s o r d e r e d l a n d s c a p e t h a t r e f l e c t s t h e i r s t a t e o f mind. When t h e Queen sends B o r s , E c t o r and L i o n e l a f t e r L a n c e l o t , t h e y s e e k i n w y l d i r n e s s y s and i n w a s t y s . . .a n a k e d man i n h i s s h u r t e w i t h a swerde i n h y s honde (808). M e r l i n , b e s o t t e d w i t h l o v e f o r Neneve f i n d s i n t h e f o r e s t h i s r o c k y tomb (126). H u n t i n g , an a r i s t o c r a t i c p a s t i m e , o f t e n p r o v i d e s t h e k n i g h t w i t h a m o t i v e f o r e n t e r i n g t h e f o r e s t where he may en- c o u n t e r v i o l e n c e and m a g i c . K i n g M e l i o d a s , "a g r e t e c h a c e r o f d e r e " ( 3 7 l ) , d i e s b e c a u s e o f h i s p a s s i o n f o r h u n t i n g , a s does t h e f a t h e r o f L a C o t e M a l e T a y l e (469). When S i r P a l o - m i d e s t r e a c h e r o u s l y w i n s I s o l d e f r o m Mark, T r i s t r a m c a n n o t be 3 6 C f . Works, pp. 53, 169, 311, 314, 557, 698. 37 I n t h i s r e s p e c t , h i s t r e a t m e n t o f t h e T r i s t a n l e g e n d d i f f e r s m a r k e d l y f r o m t h o s e o f M a r i e de F r a n c e , B e f o u l , E i l h a r t , Thomas, G o t t f r i e d , t h e P r o s e T r i s t a n , a nd S w i n b u r n e . 6 7 summoned t o r e s c u e h e r " f o r he was i n t h e f o r e s t e a n h u n t y n g e ; f o r t h a t was a l l w a y e s h y s custom, b u t y f he u s e d armes, t o c h a c e and t o h u n t e i n t h e f o r e s t e s " ( 4 2 2 ) . L a n c e l o t 1 s e n c o u n t e r s w i t h h u n t e r s o f t e n p r o v e h a z a r d - o u s . When he c l i m b s a t r e e t o r e s c u e a l a d y ' s f a l c o n , he i s ambushed by h e r h u s b a n d . A wound i n f l i c t e d b y a h u n t r e s s i s so s e v e r e t h a t i t k e e p s h i m f r o m t h e t o u r n a m e n t g r o u n d f o r s e v e r a l months. The v i v i d l y d e p i c t e d b o a r h u n t may a s s o c i a t e L a n c e l o t w i t h an a n c i e n t C e l t i c t r a d i t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o Anne t h e s a c r e d C e l t i c a n i m a l w h i c h was r i t u a l l y h u n t e d and s l a i n was t h e b o a r . The a n i m a l seems t h e n t o h a v e b e e n s y m b o l i c o f f e r t i l i t y ( a g r i c u l t u r a l and s e x u a l ) and o f war. I n i t were c o n t a i n e d a l l t h e p a s s i o n s o f t h e C e l t i c p e o p l e s — h u n t i n g , f e a s t i n g , f i g h t i n g . . . . I t was an a n i m a l f o r m a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e gods, a f o o d f i t t i n g f o r t h e O t h e r w o r l d f e a s t s o f t h e C e l t i c h e r o i c w o r l d . T h u s L a n c e l o t ' s k i l l i n g o f t h e b o a r as w e l l as b e i n g a r e a l i s - t i c e p i s o d e may adumbrate t h e t r i u m p h o f a m y t h i c h e r o and h i s w o u n d i n g by t h e b o a r t h e s u f f e r i n g t h a t a h e r o u n d e r g o e s i n o r d e r t o b e n e f i t m a n k i n d. The f o r e s t o f romance c o n t a i n s many s t r a n g e a n i m a l s o f w h i c h t h e s t r a n g e s t i s t h e q u e s t i n g b e a s t t h a t h a d i n shap l y k e a s e r p e n t i s h<ede and a body l y k e a l y b u d , b u t t o k k e d l y k e a l y o n and f o o t e d l y k e an h a r t e . And i n h y s body t h e r e was s u c h a n o y s e as h i t h a d bene t w e n t y c o u p l e o f h oundys q u e s t y n g , and s u c h e n o y s e t h a t P a gan C e l t i c B r i t a i n (London, 1 9 6 7 ) , p- 3 2 1 . 68 3 9 b e s t e made wheresomever he wente ( 4 8 4 ) . E a r l y i n h i s r e i g n , A r t h u r p u r s u e s a g r e a t h a r t t h a t l e a d s h i m t o a f o u n t a i n where h i s h o r s e d r o p s dead. As t h e k i n g s i t s " i n g r e t e t h o u g h t " he s e e s coming t o d r i n k a t t h e w e l l " t h e s t r o n g e s t e b e s t e t h a t e v e r he saw o r h e r d e o f . " I t i s t h e q u e s t i n g b e a s t w i t h K i n g P e l l i n o r i n h o t p u r s u i t . A r - t h u r b e g s t o u n d e r t a k e t h e q u e s t b u t h i s w i s h i s s c o r n f u l l y r e j e c t e d : 'A f o o l e ! . . . h i t y s i n vayne t h y d e s i r e , f o r h i t s h a l l n e v e r be e n c h e v e d b u t b y me o t h e r b y my n e x t e kynne' ( 4 3 ) - W h i l e he i s s t i l l p o n d e r i n g t h e meaning o f t h e m a r v e l , M e r l i n i n t h e d i s g u i s e f i r s t o f a c h i l d t h e n o f an o l d man r e v e a l s t o A r t h u r h i s p a r e n t a g e a n d t h e s e e d s o f h i s d e s t r u c t i o n ( 4 4 ) . The q u e s t i n g b e a s t seems b o t h a c o n c r e t e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f an i m p o s s i b l e i d e a l ( f o r t h e q u e s t o f t h e b e a s t i s n e v e r a c h i e v e d ) and a b e a s t o f i l l — o m e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t r a g i c d e s t i n i e s o f P e l l i n o r and A r t h u r . When P e l l i n o r i s m u r d e r e d b y L o t ' s f a m i l y , S i r P a l o m i d e s , a S a r a c e n , i n h e r i t s t h e q u e s t . By s w e a r i n g t o a c h i e v e t h e q u e s t b e f o r e he w i l l be c h r i s t e n e d he i m p l i e s t h a t t h e b e a s t s y m b o l i z e s t h e C h r i s t i a n v i r t u e s t h a t he must a c q u i r e . He, t o o , i s an u n f o r t u n a t e k n i g h t , h i s b r a i n d i s o r d e r e d b y a h o p e l e s s l o v e f o r G u e n e v e r e , h i s h o n o u r l o s t t h r o u g h a f a l s e deed done t o L a n c e l o t . 39 S u c h c o m p o s i t e m y t h o l o g i c a l a n i m a l s were p a r t o f t h e m e d i e v a l b e s t i a r y t r a d i t i o n . C f . t h e g r i f f i n ( l i o n and e a g l e ) , b o n n a c o n ( b u l l a n d h o r s e ) , l e u c r o t a ( s t a g , l i o n , h o r s e ) , m a n t i c o r a (man, l i o n , s c o r p i o n ) . T h e i r a l l e g o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i s e x p l a i n e d i n T. H. W h i t e ' s Book o f B e a s t s ( L o n d o n , 1954). S p e n s e r i n c l u d e s t h e q u e s t i n g b e a s t i n h i s r o m a n t i c f o r e s t , F a e r i e Queene, Books V and V I . The r e c u r r e n t a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e b e a s t i s a m o t i f t h a t a c c e n t u a t e s t h e c y c l i c movement o f romance. A r t h u r h a d s e e n i t n e a r C a r l e o n i n W a les ( 4 3 ) ; P a l o m i d e s e n c o u n t e r s K i n g Mark w h i l e f o l l o w i n g t h e b e a s t between C o r n w a l l and C a m e l o t ( 5 9 0 ) . T r i s t r a m s e e s t h e s t r a n g e a n i m a l n e a r t h e J o y o u s G a r d (683) and S i r P a l o m i d e s f o l l o w s i t n o r t h u n t i l he r e a c h e s t h e Hum- b e r ( 7 1 1 ) . The d e l i v e r a n c e o f t h e Red C i t y t u r n s h i m o n l y m o m e n t a r i l y f r o m h i s q u e s t . To t h e c i t i z e n s he i s " t h e good k n y g h t t h a t f o r t h e moste p a r t y he f o l o w y t h t h e b e s t e g l a t y s - s a u n t e " ( 7 l 6 ) . E v e n a f t e r he i s b a p t i z e d , t h e a n i m a l s t i l l e l u d e s h i m (845). When t h e k n i g h t s o f t h e Round T a b l e s e p a r a t t o p u r s u e t h e G r a i l , two g r e a t k n i g h t s eschew t h e q u e s t . T r i s t r a m r e t u r n s t o I s o l d e a t t h e J o y o u s G ^ r d "and s i r Palomydes f o l o w e d a f t i r t h e q u e s t y n g e b e s t e . " W h i l e t h e q u e s t i n g b e a s t i s l i n k e d t o t h e C h r i s t i a n b e s t i a r y t r a d i t i o n , t h e l i o n s i n t h e A r t h u r i a n f o r e s t a r e 40 c l a s s i c a l i n o r i g i n . W i t h l i t t l e r e g a r d f o r d i f f e r e n c e s o f e c o l o g y and c l i m a t e , t h e y roam t h e N o r t h e r n f o r e s t s t o de- v o u r u n f o r t u n a t e k n i g h t s and l a d i e s ( l l 8 ) o r t h e y e s c a p e f r o m s t o n e t o w e r s t o f r i g h t e n G u e n e v e r e (460). Of C e l t i c o r i g i n a r e t h e w h i t e h a r t s and hounds t h a t o f t e n i n i t i a t e m a g i c a l a d v e n t u r e s . T h e y a r e commonly a s s o - 4 l e l a t e d i n I r i s h f o l k l o r e w i t h j o u r n e y s t o t h e O t h e r w o r l d . E . R. C u r t i u s , E u r o p e a n L i t e r a t u r e and t h e L a t i n M i d d l e A g e s , t r a n s . W. R. T r a s k (New Y o r k and E v a n s t o n , 1 9 6 3 ) 5 p i l 8 4 a t t r i b u t e s N o r t h e r n l i o n s t o e p i c s t y l i z a t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m t t h e r h e t o r i c a l s c h o o l e x e r c i s e s o f L a t e A n t i q u i t y . 4 l C f . Tom P e e t e C r o s s , M o t i f I n d e x o f E a r l y I r i s h L i t - e r a t u r e ( B l o o m i n g t o n , 1939)? S t i t h Thompson, M o t i f I n d e x o f " K o i k - L i t e r a t u r e (Copenhagen, 1956), v o l . I , 3 8 l ; H. R. P a t c h , op. c i t . 2 4 6 f f , 2 5 6 f f . 70 As we h a v e s e e n , A r t h u r ' s w e d d i n g f e a s t i s marked by "a s t r a u n g e and a m e r v a i l o u s a d v e n t u r e " i n v o l v i n g a w h i t e b r a t c h e t and a w h i t e h a r t . On a n o t h e r o c c a s i o n t h e p u r s u i t o f a h a r t i n a g r e a t f o r e s t l e a d s t h e k i n g i n t o one o f h i s most p e r i l o u s e n c o u n t e r s , t h e j o u s t w i t h A c c a l o n t h a t Morgan a r r a n g e s i n an e f f o r t t o d e s t r o y h e r b r o t h e r . L i k e A r t h u r , M e l i o d a s o f L i o n e s i s l u r e d by a h a r t i n t o t h e h ands o f an e n c h a n t r e s s and he, t o o , i s d e l i v e r e d b y a s u p e r n a t u r a l a g e n t (371-3)- The h a r t i s e v i d e n t l y a m e s s e n g e r o f a f a i r y m i s - t r e s s . W h i l e a n i m a l s h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n m e d i e v a l r o - mance, m a r v e l o u s p l a n t s a r e o f l i t t l e i n t e r e s t t o M a l o r y . I n C e l t i c myth g o l d e n t r e e s and boughs t h a t n e v e r f a d e a r e im- p o r t a n t O t h e r w o r l d f e a t u r e s . O n l y one example o f O t h e r w o r l d f l o r a i s r e t a i n e d i n M o r t e D a r t h u r . The a p p l e t r e e u n d e r w h i c h L a n c e l o t f a l l s i n t o an e n c h a n t e d s l e e p i s an O t h e r w o r l d t r e e a s s o c i a t e d p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h A v a l o n . W a t e r i s one o f t h e i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t s i n t h e r o m a n t i c s e t t i n g f o r t h e f o u n t a i n s , w e l l s , l a k e s , and s t r e a m s a r e n o t o n l y f a v o r i t e m e e t i n g p l a c e s b u t sometimes have m a g i c a l a s s o - c i a t i o n s a s w e l l . A r t h u r p r o c u r e s h i s famous sword E x c a l i - b u r f r o m "a l a a k e t h a t was a f a y r e w a t i r and b r o d e . " And i n t h e m y d d i s A r t h u r e was ware o f an arme c l o t h e d i n whyght samyte, t h a t h e l d e a f a y r e swerde i n t h a t honde ( 5 2 ) . On t h e l a k e w a l k s a w a t e r f a y whose home i s a f a i r p a l a c e i n a g r e a t r o c k u n d e r t h e waves. F o u n t a i n s were linked w i t h t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l i n C e l t i c and c l a s s i c a l myth and i n m e d i e v a l geo- The I n s u l a Pomorum o f V i t a M e r l i n i v s s . 908ff. 71 43 g r a p h i c a l l o r e . When A c c a l o n wakens f r o m h i s magic s l e e p b e s i d e a m a r v e l o u s l y wrought f o u n t a i n w i t h i t s p i p e o f s i l v e r a nd b a s i n o f m a r b l e , he knows a t once t h a t he h a s b e e n p u t u n d e r a s p e l l ( l 4 0 ) . Not o n l y w e l l s and f o u n t a i n s b u t f o r d s , l a k e s , and r i v e r s , t o o , a r e p o r t e n t o u s m e e t i n g p l a c e s . A t t h e P e r e l o u s L a k e Mark, a l l i n b l a c k on a b l a c k h o r s e , ambushes Kay a n d j o u s t s w i t h h i m w h i l e " t h e moon shone as t h e b r y g h t day" (l48). A l a d y i n d i s t r e s s o r a k n i g h t s e e k i n g a j o u s t w a i t s 44 b y a w e l l , c e r t a i n t h a t a champion w i l l a p p e a r . G i a n t s l u r k u n d e r t r e e s (500), h a p l e s s l o v e r s make moan o r a t t e m p t s u i c i d e (485,689), and T r i s t r a m , p u t t i n g o f f h i s h e l m e t a t a " b u r b e l y w e l l e , " s e e s t h e q u e s t i n g b e a s t coming t o d r i n k ( 6 8 3 ) . The s e a as w e l l as t h e f o r e s t i s T r i s t r a m ' s r o m a n t i c m i l i e u f o r he i s a g r e a t v o y a g e r . He s a i l s t o F r a n c e f o r h i s e d u c a t i o n , t o an i s l a n d f o r h i s b a t t l e w i t h Marhaus, t o I r e - l a n d f o r t h e h e a l i n g o f h i s wound, t o M a r k ' s c o u r t i n C o r n - w a l l , t o E n g l a n d by c h a n c e when he was s a i l i n g t o I r e l a n d , t o C o r n w a l l a g a i n w i t h a b r i d e f o r h i s u n c l e , t o B r i t t a n y f o r war and m a r r i a g e . The sea i s a medium o f a d v e n t u r e and e s c a p e . 43 C f . A. C. L . Brown, I w a i n , pp. 1 2 6 f f ; C. B. L e w i s , C l a s s i c a l M y t h o l o g y a n d A r t h u r i a n Romance ( E d i n b u r g h , 1932), pp. 5 0 f f ; J . K. W r i g h t , G e o g r a p h i c a l L o r e o f t h e Time o f t h e C r u s a d e s (New Y o r k , 1925), p. 203; T. P. C r o s s , op. c i t . D "926. 44 C f . Works, pp. 481,484,492,500,553,588,720,776. 72 When a tempest d r i v e s T r i s t r a m ' s s h i p t o t h e c o a s t o f E n g l a n d , he s e t s up h i s p a v i l i o n n e a r C a m e l o t , hangs up h i s s h i e l d and e n c o u n t e r s A r t h u r i a n k n i g h t s (403). A n o t h e r f o r c e d l a n d i n g i n t h e F o r e s t P e r e l o u s e n a b l e s h i m a g a i n t o e n j o y t h e j o u s t s and t o u r n e y s o f t h e Round T a b l e (44l). S e n t e n c e d t o d e a t h b y Mark, T r i s t r a m e s c a p e s b y j u m p i n g f r o m a c h a p e l window o n t o " t h e c r a g g y s i n t h e s e a " (432). The s e a i s a g r a v e f o r t h e v i c t i m s o f t h e May Day m a s s a c r e a n d f o r L a m e r o c k ' s crew. M a l o r y makes no e f f o r t t o u s e t h i s s e t t i n g f o r a t m o s p h e r i c e f f e c t s . The e m o t i o n a l a n d s y m b o l i c r o l e t h a t we a t t r i b u t e t o i t i n t h e T r i s t r a m s t o r y comes f r o m Thomas, S w i n b u r n e , Wag- n e r , M a s e f i e l d and R o b i n s o n , n o t f r o m M a l o r y . Movement i n t h e f o r e s t p r o d u c e s a c y c l i c a l r a t h e r t h a n a l i n e a r e f f e c t . The r i v e r Humber and t h e e n c i r c l i n g s e a s l i m i t t h e m i l i e u o f t h e k n i g h t s — e r r a n t t o t h e r e a l m o f L o g r e s . C i r c u m f e r e n t i a l movement i s b a l a n c e d by movement t o w a r d s t h e s y m b o l i c c e n t r e C a m e l o t . I n t h i s way c i r c u l a r m o t i o n i n a t i m e l e s s w o r l d i s combined w i t h l i n e a r movement t o w a r d s a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e a t a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e , P e n t e c o s t . K n i g h t s c u s t o m a r i l y s e t o u t f r o m a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e on t h e p e r i m e t e r o f a l a r g e c i r c l e — f o r example, C a e r l e o n , T i n t a g e l , L ondon, J o y o u s G©rd, C a r l i s l e — w h e r e k i n g s h o l d c o u r t and l a d i e s w a i t f o r t h e k n i g h t s ' r e t u r n . W i t h i n t h e l a r g e c i r c l e a r e s m a l l e r ones, c e n t r e d on a w e l l , a b e s i e g e d c a s t l e , a h e r m i t a g e . S i n c e some k n i g h t s move c l o c k w i s e and o t h e r s c o u n t e r - c l o c k w i s e , t h e m e e t i n g s r e s e m b l e t h o s e i n t h e " a l l e m a n d e l e f t " o f a s q u a r e dance, w i t h one j o u s t s u c c e e d i n g a n o t h e r u n t i l t h e h e r o i s r e u n i t e d w i t h h i s o r i g i n a l companion. 7 3 A s e r i e s o f i n c i d e n t s i n The Book o f S i r T r i s t r a m i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s k i n d o f movement. T r i s t r a m i s t r a v e l i n g f r o m B r i t t a n y t o T i n t a g e l on t h e o u t e r c i r c l e when he i s p r o j e c t e d b y a s t o r m i n t o t h e F o r e y s t e P e r e l u s . T e l l i n g Brangwan and G o v e r n a i l t o w a i t t e n d a y s , he r i d e s o f f w i t h K e h e d i n . T h e y have gone o n l y a m i l e w i t h i n t h e f o r e s t when t h e y see "a l y k e l y k n y g h t s y t t y n g armed by a w e l l " ( 4 8 l ) . He wounds K e h e d i n and f i g h t s T r i s t r a m t o a draw b e f o r e r e - v e a l i n g t h a t he i s S i r Lamerok. T h e i r c h i v a l r i c i n t e r c h a n g e i s i n t e r r u p t e d by a n o t h e r p a i r o f t r a v e l e r s on t h e c i r c u i t , t h e q u e s f i n g b e a s t and P a l o m i d e s : And t o b r e f f t h y s m a t e r , he smote down s i r T r y s t r a m y s and s i r Lamarak b o t h e w i t h one s p e a r e , and so he d e p a r t e d a f t i r t h e B e s t e G l a t y s s a u n t e . . . ( 4 8 4 ) . A f t e r t a k i n g K e h e d i n t o a f o r e s t e r ' s l o d g e , T r i s t r a m and Lamerok r i d e o f f i n o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s t o l o o k f o r P a l o m i d e s . Lamerok meets, i n s u c c e s s i o n , M e l e a g r a n c e making " w o f u l l com— p l a y n t e " o v e r G u e n e v e r e , two k n i g h t s "hovyng u n d i r t h e wood— shaw" t o ambush L a n c e l o t , and L a n c e l o t h i m s e l f . M o v i n g on, he meets f o r t h e s e c o n d t i m e M e l e a g r a n c e and t h e n L a n c e l o t ( t h e r e i s a p a u s e w h i l e t h e y a l l f i g h t t o p r o v e t h e s u p e r i - o r i t y o f t h e i r l a d i e s ) and f i n a l l y A r t h u r who h a s b e e n en- 45 t i c e d i n t o t h e f o r e s t b y t h e e n c h a n t r e s s A n n o u r e . M e a n w h i l e , i n a n o t h e r p a r t o f t h e f o r e s t S i r T r i s t r a m e n c o u n t e r s s u c c e s s i v e l y Kay, B r a n d e l i s , T o r , t h e L a d y o f t h e T h i s e p i s o d e i s a l a t e v e r s i o n o f t h e m o t i f . C f . L. A. P a t o n , pp. 1 9 - 2 1 . S i r W a l t e r o f T r i e r m a i n i s a n o t h e r v e r s i o n o f t h e s t o r y . f a i r y m i s t r e s s S c o t t ' s B r i d a l 7 4 L a k e , A r t h u r whom he r e s c u e s f r o m A n n o u r e and h e r k n i g h t s , and f i n a l l y E c t o r . And t h a n a t a day s e t t e s i r T r y s t r a m y s r i a n d i s i r Lamerok m e t t e a t a w e l l e , and t h a n t h e y t o k e s i r K e y h y d y n s a t t h e f o s t e r s h o u s e , and so t h e y r o d e w i t h hym t o t h e s h i p where t h e y l e f f t e dame Brangwayne an d G o v e r n a y l e . And so t h e y s a y l e d i n t o C o r n u a y l e a l l h o l e t o g y d i r s ( 4 9 2 ) . A l t h o u g h a l l may seem c h a n c e and c o n f u s i o n i n t h e f o r e s t , a c y c l i c p a t t e r n s i m i l a r t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d c a n o f t e n be d i s - c e r n e d . The d e v i c e o f s e n d i n g k n i g h t s i n q u e s t o f a q u e s t i n g k n i g h t i s commonly u s e d . E c t o r , B o r s and L i o n e l s e e k L a n c e - l o t ( 8 0 8 ) . M e s s e n g e r s f r o m A r t h u r ' s c o u r t h u n t f o r Gawain, Y w a i n and M a r h a l t " w e l l n y g h e a t w e l v e - m o n t h e t h o r o w o u t e a l l I n g e l o n d e , W a l l s and S c o t l o n d e " ( 1 7 9 ) > S i r D i n a d a n s e e k s S i r T r i s t r a m and S i r T r i s t r a m s e e k s S i r P a l o m i d e s " b u t o f f a l l t h a t q u a r t e r o f somer s i r T r y s t r a m coude n e v e r mete w i t h s i r P a l o m y d e s " ( 7 8 4 ) . The e f f e c t o f t h e c y c l i c movement i n 46 s p a c e i s i n c r e a s e d b y l i n k i n g i t t o t h e s e a s o n a l c y c l e . The s h i p s and h o r s e s w h i c h e n a b l e t h e k n i g h t t o move f r o m p l a c e t o p l a c e a r e t r e a t e d q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y . M a l o r y ' s h o r s e s a r e r e a l i s t i c . T h e y n e i g h when t h e y h e a r o t h e r h o r s e s a p p r o a c h i n g , d r i n k a t w e l l s , and r u n away i n t o t h e f o r e s t whenever t h e y c a n . T h e r e seems no t r a c e o f t h e m a g i c a l o r The c y c l i c a l t i m e scheme w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chap- m y t h i c q u a l i t i e s common i n romance. 4 7 The w a t e r t r a n s p o r t , 46, t e r I I I . Y o r k , 1 9 5 8 ) See M. 0 . Howey, The H o r s e i n M a g i c and Myth (New on t h e c o n t r a r y , i s e s s e n t i a l l y r o m a n t i c and f r e q u e n t l y m a r v e l o u s f o r s h i p s h a v e a l w a y s b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t r a n g e 48 a d v e n t u r e s and s u p e r n a t u r a l j o u r n e y s . T h e r e i s no more de- l i g h t f u l d e s c r i p t i o n i n t h e M o r t e D a r t h u r t h a n t h a t o f t h e l i t t l e s h i p " a l l a p p a r a y l e d w i t h s y l k e " t h a t A r t h u r , U r i e n c e and A c c a l o n f i n d when t h e y a r e h u n t i n g t h e " g r e t e h a r t e . " Not o n l y does i t p r o v i d e l i g h t a n d f o o d ( w i t h o u t human a g e n - c y ) and t h e company o f b e a u t i f u l women who c a l l A r t h u r b y name, b u t i t i s a b l e t o t r a n s c e n d t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t i m e and s p a c e . F o r , a f t e r s l e e p i n g " m e r v e y l o u s l y s o r e a l l t h e n y g h t " i n r i c h chambers on t h e s h i p , U r i e n c e wakes i n C a m e l o t abedde i n h y s wyves armys, M organ l e F a y . And whan he woke he h a d g r e t e mer— v a y l e how he com t h e r e , f o r on t h e e v y n b e - f o r e he was two d a y e s j u r n e y frome C a m e l o t . ( 1 3 8 ) K i n g A r t h u r wakes i n t h e p r i s o n o f S i r D i n a s and S i r A c c a l o n f i n d s h i m s e l f b e s i d e a deep w e l l " w i t h i n h a l f a f o o t e , i n g r e t e p e r e l l o f d e t h " ( l 4 0 ) . As A c c a l o n q u i c k l y r e a l i z e s , t h e y a r e t h e v i c t i m s o f " f a l s e d a m y s e l s t h a t f a r y t h t h u s w i t h t h e i r e i n c h a u n t e m e n t e s . " The f a i r y s h i p m o t i f , a g a i n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Morgan, r e c u r s a t t h e end o f t h e s t o r y when t h e queens come f o r t h e d y i n g A r t h u r . Though i t i s p r o v i d e d w i t h o a r s , a s i g n o f h u - man a g e n c y , t h e b a r g e i s d e s t i n e d f o r A v a l o n , t h e C e l t i c O t h e r - w o r l d ( 1 2 4 0 ) . E l a i n e ' s b a r g e , a l s o , h a s t h e c h a r a c t e r o f an O t h e r w o r l d v e s s e l . M a l o r y c l e a r l y l o c a l i z e s t h e s c e n e t h r o u g h According to Thompson, op. c i t . I I , p. l 4 l , magic boats are found i n the f o l k l o r e of Ireland, Iceland, Arabia, Persia, India, China, Greenland, Canada, I s r a e l and the South Sea Islands. 7 6 w h i c h i t moves down t h e Thames t o W e s t m i n s t e r , b u t t h e b l a c k s a m i t e h a n g i n g s , t h e f a i r b ed, t h e r i c h c l o t h s o f g o l d , t h e b e a u t i f u l maiden, t h e s i n g l e male a t t e n d a n t who w i l l n o t s p e ak a r e f a i r y - t a l e f e a t u r e s . I n c o u r t l y romance, t h e h o s p i t a b l e c a s t l e i s t h e de- s i r e d a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e f o r e s t . H e r e t h e k n i g h t f i n d s warmth and s h e l t e r , f e a s t i n g and l o v e - m a k i n g , " a l l maner o f gamys and p l a y e s , o f daunsyng and s y n g y n g e " ( 3 3 1 ) - The v e r y names evoke " t h e m y s t e r y and t h e s p e l l o f e v e r y t h i n g remote and u n a t t a i n - 4 9 a b l e " — t h e C a s t e l l A d v e n t u r e s , t h e C a s t e l l o f L a d y e s , t h e J o y o u s G a r d , L a B e a l R e g a r d , t h e C a s t e l l B l a n k e , t h e C a s t l e o f M a i d e n s , C a m e l o t . A l t h o u g h M a l o r y d e s c r i b e s no c a s t l e en- t e r t a i n m e n t s t h a t c a n compare w i t h t h o s e e n j o y e d by Gawain a t t h e Green K n i g h t ' s C a s t l e o r b y E r e c and E n i d a t t h e i r c o r o n a - t i o n , n e v e r t h e l e s s C a m e l o t , Kyng Kenadowne, G r i n g a m o r e ' s c a s - t l e , and E t t a r d e ' s c a s t l e w i t h i t s p a v i l i o n s o u t s i d e t h e g a t e evoke an a u r a o f j o y and g l a m o u r . When a c a s t l e i s o c c u p i e d b y a l o r d o r l a d y who r e f u s e s t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e a u t h o r i t y o f A r t h u r and t h e Round T a b l e , i t i s a c h a l l e n g e t o be c a p t u r e d and r e s t o r e d t o t h e A r t h u r i a n o r d e r o r t o be d e s t r o y e d . Morgan's C a s t e l l Gharyot T a r q u i n ' s c a s t l e and t h a t o f t h e Duke o f S o u t h M a r c h e s , T i n t a g e l i n t h e h a nds o f g i a n t s , t h e s t r o n g h o l d o f Nabon l e N a y r e on t h e l i e o f S e r v a y g e , t h e C a s t e l l O r y u l u s , t h e C a s t l e o f M a i d e n s , t h e Red C i t e , P y l o u n e s , t h e C a s t l e o f C a r t e l l o i s e and M e l e a g r a n t ' s r e s i d e n c e o n l y s e v e n m i l e s f r o m W e s t m i n s t e r a r e s e t t i n g s c J W. P. K e r , E p i c and Romance (New Y o r k , 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 3 2 1 . 77 o f t h i s t y p e . To t e s t t h e h e r o ' s p r o w e s s , e v i l c a s t l e s must seem i m p r e g n a b l e and must o s t e n t a t i o u s l y d i s p l a y t h e i r s t r e n g t h and d e f i a n c e . Morgan's c a s t l e , Le B e a l e R e g a r d e , " f a y r e and r y c h e and a l s o p a s s y n g e s t r o n g e as ony was w i t h i n t h i s r e a l m e " was a g i f t f r o m A r t h u r t h e whyche he h a t h r e p e n t e d hym s y t t h y n a t h o u - s a n d tymes,. . . . And e v e r as she myght she made w a r r e on kynge A r t h u r e , and a l l d a u n g e r o u s k n y g h t e s she w y t h o l d y t h w i t h h e r f o r t o d y s t r o y a l l t h o s k n y g h t e s t h a t kynge A r t h u r e l o v y t h . And t h e r e s h a l l no k n y g h t p a s s e t h i s way b u t he muste j u s t e w i t h one k n y g h t o t h e r wyth two o t h e r w i t h t h r e e . And y f h i t hap t h a t kynge A r t h u r s k n y g h t be b e a t y n , he s h a l l l o s e h i s h o r s e and h a r n e s and a l l t h a t he h a t h , and h a r d e y f t h a t he e s c a p e b u t t h a t he s h a l l be p r e s o n e r e ( 5 9 7 ) - W h i l e t h e h a l l i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t room i n t h e h o s - p i t a b l e c a s t l e t h e p r i s o n i s more f a m i l i a r t o t h o s e k n i g h t s who f a l l i n t o e v i l h a n d s . I n Morgan's p r i s o n , L a n c e l o t s u f - f e r s f r o m c o l d and l i e s " a l l n y g h t w i t h o u t e ony c o m f o r t e . " T a r q u i n s t r i p s h i s p r i s o n e r s and h a s them b e a t e n w i t h t h o r n s . Navon l e N o y r e t e a r s them l i m b f r o m l i m b . E v e n K i n g A r t h u r , as a r e s u l t o f Morgan's enchantment, f i n d s h i m s e l f i n "a d u r k e p r e s o n , h e r y n g a b o u t e hym many c o m p l a y n t e s o f w o f u l l k n y g h t e s " ( 1 3 8 ) . The e v i l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s u c h c a s t l e s may t a k e t h e f o r m o f an inhuman o r i r r a t i o n a l d e m a n d — t h e "Custom" o f t h e C a s t l e . One c a s t l e r e q u i r e s o f e v e r y p a s s i n g m a i d e n a d i s h - f u l o f b l o o d f o r a s i c k p r i n c e s s . More t h a n s i x t y v i r g i n s , i n c l u d i n g P e r c e v a l ' s s i s t e r , d i e b e f o r e t h e s p e l l i s b r o k e n . L a s c i v i o u s l a d i e s demand l o v e a s t h e a l t e r n a t i v e t o i m p r i s o n - ment. L a n c e l o t , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s t o be k e p t i n t h e C a s t l e C h a r y o t u n t i l he c h o o s e s one o f t h e f a y s a s h i s paramour. 78 The giants who captured Tintagel make th e i r prisoners, three score ladies and damsels, work " a l l maner of sylke workys" even though they are gentlewomen. Having purged the e v i l by defeating the bad knights, enchantresses and giants, by emptying the prisons and by r e i n s t a t i n g the r i g h t f u l owners, the Arthurian knights make these castles hospitable harbours once more. The s o c i a l setting of romance, centred i n castle l i f e , i s not just a glamorized form of the r e a l s o c i a l scene with the draughts, d i r t , darkness, and dogs removed. Marvelous ar- t i f a c t s add excitements and dangers not found i n r e a l l i f e . Mantles, drinking horns, and r i c h scabbards sent as g i f t s to kings and queens turn out to be magical tests or supernatural dangers. A ri n g increases a lady's beauty or ensures a knight's safety. A sumptuous banquet presages capture by a fay. A noble wine i n a " l y t y l l f l a k e t t e of golde" induces a love which w i l l never depart in-the "dayes of th e i r l y f f . " A castle bed brings i t s occupant supernatural encounters. The cloth of s i l k protecting a corpse i s not a mundane cerement nor i s the chapel i n which a dead knight l i e s always a man- made shrine. It may be the Chapel Perelus, one of the most c h i l l i n g scenes of Arthurian romance, designed by the enchant- ress, Hallewes, lady of the Castle Nygurmous, as a trap for Lancelot and Gawain. The chapel contains the body and sword of S i r G i l b e r t the Bastard who has been k i l l e d by a knight of the Round Table, S i r Meliot de Logres. During the ba t t l e S i r Meliot has received a wound that can only be healed by the 79 sword and c l o t h o f t h e d ead k n i g h t . H i s s i s t e r b e g s S i r L a n c e l o t t o p r o c u r e t h e s e f r o m t h e c h a p e l . B e c a u s e t h e s c e n e combines many e l e m e n t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e r o m a n t i c s e t t i n g , i t i s w o r t h q u o t i n g a t l e n g t h : '. . . T h i s i s a m e r v e l o u s e t h y n g , ' seyde s i r L a u n c e l o t , 'but what i s y o u r b r o t h i r s name?' ' S i r , ' she s e y d e , ' s i r M e l y o t de L o g y r s . ' 'That me r e p e n t y s , ' s eyde s i r L a u n c e l o t t e , ' f o r he i s a f e l o w o f t h e T a b l e Rounde, and t o h i s h e l p e I w o l l do my power.' T h e n she s a y d e , ' S i r , f o l o w ye e v y n t h i s hygheway, and h i t w o l l b r y n g e y o u t o t h e C h a p e l P e r e l u s , . . . .' R y g h t so s i r L a u n c e l o t d e p a r t e d , and whan he come t o t h e C h a p e l l P e r e l u s he a l y g h t • • downe and t y e d h i s h o r s e u n t o a l y t y l l g a t e . And as sone as he was w i t h i n t h e c h y r c h e - y e r d e he sawe on t h e f r u n t e o f t h e c h a p e l many f a y r e r y c h e s h y l d i s t u r n e d up—so—downe, and many o f t h o s h y l d i s s i r L a u n c e l o t h a d sene k n y g h t e s b e r e b y f o r e h a n d e . W i t h t h a t he sawe by hym t h e r e s t o n d e a t h i r t y g r e t e k n y g h t e s , more by a y e r d e t h a n any man t h a t e v e r he h a d sene, and a l l t h e y g r e n n e d and g n a s t e d a t s i r L a u n c e - l o t . And whan he sawe t h e i r c o u n t e n a u n c e he d r e d d e hym s o r e , b u t so p u t h i s s h y l d e b e f o r e hym and t o k e h i s swerde i n h i s honde r e d y u n t o b a t a y l e . And t h e y a l l were armed a l l i n b l a k h a r n e y s e , r e d y w i t h h e r s h y l d i s and h e r s w e r d i s r e d y drawyn. And as s i r L a u n c e l o t w olde have gone t h o r o w them t h e y s k a t e r d on e v e r y syde o f hym and g a f f hym t h e way, and t h e r e w i t h he wexed b o l d e and e n t y r d i n t o t h e c h a p e l . And t h e r e he saw no l y g h t b u t a dymme lampe b r e n n y n g , an d t h a n was he ware o f a c o r p u s h y l l e d w i t h a c l o t h e o f s y l k e (280). As t h e g r o u n d t r e m b l e s L a n c e l o t c u t s o f f a p i e c e o f c l o t h a n d t a k e s S i r G i l b e r t ' s sword so t h a t he may a c c o m p l i s h t h e h e a l - i n g o f S i r M e l i o t . I n t h e y a r d " a l l t h e k n y g h t e s spake t o h i m w i t h g r y m l y v o y c e s and s e y d e , A c c o r d i n g t o p r i m i t i v e b e l i e f , a wound e s t a b l i s h e s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between a weapon and i t s v i c t i m . H e a l i n g c a n o n l y be e f f e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e weapon and i t s owner. C f . t h e u s e o f t h i s m o t i f i n t h e T a l e o f T r i s t r a m (p.384) and t h e T a l e o f B a l i n (82). 80 'Knyght, s i r L a u n c e l o t , l a y t h a t swerde frome ~~ t h e o r t h o u s h a t dye! '" A s e c o n d w a r n i n g i s u t t e r e d b y a f a i r d a m s e l : ' S i r L a u n c e l o t , l e v e t h a t swerde behynde t h e , o t h e r t h o u w o l t dye f o r h i t . ' 'I l e v e h i t n o t , ' s e y d e s i r L a u n c e l o t , ' f o r no t h r e t y n g . ' 'No,' s e y d e she, 'and t h o u d y d d y s t e l e v e t h a t swerde quene Gwenyvere s h o l d e t h o u n e v e r s e . ' ( 2 8 l ) The d a m s e l t u r n s o u t t o be H a l l e w e s t h e S o r c e r e s s who e x p l a i n s h e r r e a s o n f o r making t h e c h a p e l and demands a k i s s o f L a n c e - l o t . ('Nay. . . t h a t God me f o r b i d e ' answers t h e h e r o . ) S i n c e he w i l l n o t be u n f a i t h f u l t o t h e Queen, H a l l e w e s h a s d e t e r - m i n e d t o k i l l h i m and embalm h i s body so t h a t ' d a y l y I s h o l d e h a v e c l y p p e d t h e and k y s s e d t h e , d i s p y t e o f quene Gwenyvere.' R e j e c t e d b y t h e k n i g h t , she d i e s o f a b r o k e n h e a r t w i t h i n a f o r t n i g h t ( 2 8 l ) . A l t h o u g h t h e e p i s o d e i s p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d f r o m some v e r — 51 52 s i o n o f t h e P e r l e s v a u s , many d e t a i l s a r e M a l o r y ' s i n v e n t i o n and c o n s t i t u t e , p e r h a p s , h i s i d e a o f a t r u l y r o m a n t i c s c e n e . I n t h e P e r i l o u s C h a p e l e p i s o d e he combines many f a m i l i a r mo- t i v e s — t h e j o u r n e y f o r a l o n g t i m e i n a deep f o r e s t (278), t h e b l a c k b r a t c h e t t h a t l e a d s t h e k n i g h t t h r o u g h an ominous l a n d - s c a p e t o an e n c h a n t e d p l a c e , t h e l a d y i n d i s t r e s s , t h e i n j u r y done t o a k n i g h t o f t h e Round T a b l e , t h e c r e a t i o n o f a s e t t i n g b y s u p e r n a t u r a l means, t h e good d a m s e l who a c t s as g u i d e and t h e e v i l t e m p t r e s s who demands h i s l o v e o r h i s l i f e , demon 51 See R. H. W i l s o n , " M a l o r y and t h e P e r l e s v a u s , " Modern P h i l o l o g y , XXX(1932), 13-22 and V i n a v e r , Works, I I I , pp. 1423- 1425. . > y 5 2 C f . Works, I I I , pp. 1423-1425. 8 i o p p o n e n t s o f more t h a n n o r m a l s i z e , f e a r f u l t h r e a t s and w a r n i n g s and a m a r v e l o u s sword. By means o f s e t t i n g , an atmosphere o f wonder and t e r r o r i s c r e a t e d and t h e c h i v a l r i c v i r t u e o f t h e k n i g h t i s t e s t e d . L o v e i s t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r H a l l e w e ' s s o r c e r y as i t i s f o r L a n c e l o t ' s v a l o r a n d l o y a l t y w h i c h no power c a n overcome. C h i v a l r i c romance n a t u r a l l y e m p h a s i z e s s u c h k n i g h t - l y a c c o u t r e m e n t s as swords, s h i e l d s and h e r a l d i c d e v i c e s . The t r a d i t i o n o f naming a h e r o ' s p o s s e s s i o n s as i f t h e y were a n i m a t e o b j e c t s o c c u r s i n many c u l t u r e s . The M a b i n o g i o n t a l e o f C u l h w c h and Olwen, f o r i n s t a n c e , g i v e s t h e names o f A r t h u r ' s s h i p , Prydwen, h i s sword C a l e d f w l c h , h i s s p e a r Rhongomyniad, h i s s h i e l d W ynebywrthucher, and h i s d a g g e r Carnwennan. I n M o r t e D a r t h u r , o n l y t h e sword r e t a i n s i t s 53 p e r s o n a l i z a t i o n . C u r i o u s l y , t h e name E x c a l i b u r i s a p - p l i e d t o b o t h t h e sword i n t h e s t o n e and, t h e sword o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e L a d y o f t h e L a k e . I t s l i f e i n t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d c o i n c i d e s a l m o s t e x a c t l y w i t h t h e t e m p o r a l e x t e n t o f A r - 54 t h u r ' s r e i g n . I t s a c q u i s i t i o n marks t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 55 h i s s o v e r e i g n t y and i t s r e l i n q u i s h m e n t t h e end. I t f i r s t a p p e a r s i n t h e c h u r c h y a r d o f S t . P a u l ' s C a t h e d r a l on t h e C h r i s 5 3 O t h e r names a r e C a l i b u r n and M i r a n d o i s e . The L a d y o f t h e L a k e t e l l s A r t h u r t h a t E x c a l i b u r means K u t t e S t e l e ( 6 5 ) 54 I n t h e myth o f a s o l a r h e r o , h i s f o r t u n e s depend on a sword made f o r h i m b y a c e l e s t i a l a r t i s a n . The sword i t s e l f r e p r e s e n t s t h e r a y s o f t h e s u n . I t s powers a r e b o t h p r o c r e a t i v e and d e s t r u c t i v e . 55 C f . t h e G r e e k l e g e n d o f M e l e a g e r whose l i f e was t i e d t o t h e l i f e o f a b u r n i n g l o g . 82 mas f o l l o w i n g t h e d e a t h o f U t h e r b u t i t s h i s t o r i c a l a nd C h r i s t i a n s e t t i n g b a r e l y c o n c e a l s i t s a r c h e t y p a l n a t u r e . When A r t h u r u s e s i t i n b a t t l e i t s b r i l l i a n c e , l i k e t h e r a y s o f t h e sun, d a z z l e s t h e eyes o f h i s enemies (±9). M a g i c weapons a r e t a l i s m a n s t h a t p r o t e c t t h e i r owner and i n v a r i - a b l y a l l y i n j u r e h i s o p p o n e n t s . I n enemy h a n d s , t h e sword c a n be u s e d a g a i n s t i t s m a s t e r , as A r t h u r f o u n d i n h i s b a t t l e w i t h A c c a l o n (lk2). The h e a l i n g p r o p e r t y o f t h e sword h a s a l r e a d y b e e n n o t e d . When L a n c e l o t t o u c h e s t h e wounds o f S i r M e l i o t w i t h t h e sword f r o m t h e P e r i l o u s C h a p e l , "anone an h a l e r man i n h i s l y f f was he n e v e r . " F o r A r t h u r , t h e t a l i s m a n i c v i r t u e o f t h e s c a b b a r d s u r - p a s s e s t h a t o f E x c a l i b u r i t s e l f . When t h e k i n g h a s a c q u i r e d them f r o m t h e hand i n t h e l a k e , M e r l i n a s k s : 'Whethir l y k e ye b e t t e r t h e swerde o t h i r t h e s c a w b e r d e ? ' 'I l y k e b e t t i r t h e swerde,' seyde A r t h u r e . 'Ye a r t h e more unwyse, f o r t h e scaw- b e r d e y s w o r t h t e n o f t h e swerde, f o r w h y l e s ye ' h a v e t h e scawberde uppon y o u ye s h a l l l o s e no b l o o d , be ye n e v e r so s o r e wounded' (5^). T w i c e Morgan s t e a l s h e r b r o t h e r ' s s c a b b a r d ; t h e power o f h e r 7 m a l e v o l e n c e i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d b y h e r d i s p o s a l o f i t . The f i r s t t i m e , she g i v e s i t t o A c c a l o n a s p r o t e c t i o n i n t h e com- b a t she h a s a r r a n g e d a g a i n s t A r t h u r . The s e c o n d t i m e , when A r t h u r p u r s u e s h e r t o r e g a i n i t , she r o d e u n t o a l a k e t h e r e b y and seyde, 'What- s o e v e r com o f me, my b r o t h i r s h a l l n o t have t h i s s c a w b e r d e ! ' And t h a n she l e t e throwe t h e scaw- b e r d e i n t h e d e p p y s t o f t h e w a t i r . So h i t sanke, f o r h i t was h e v y o f g o l d e and p r e c i o u s s t o n y s . . . . ' ( 151) . Gawain, l i k e A r t h u r h e r o w i t h s o l a r a t t r i b u t e s , a l s o h a s a p e r s o n a l i z e d sword, G a l a n t i n e , w i t h w h i c h he p e r f o r m s 8 3 many wonders i n t h e Roman wars ( 2 1 0 , 2 3 0 ) , H i s c h i e f op- p o n e n t , P r i a m , warns Gawain t h a t he, t o o , h a s a m agic sword " f o r who t h a t i s h u r t e w i t h t h i s b l a a d e b l e e d s h a l l he e v e r " ( 2 3 0 ) . A f t e r t h e i r combat, b o t h k n i g h t s a r e m i r a c u l o u s l y h e a l e d b y w a t e r f r o m t h e r i v e r s o f P a r a d i s e , t h u s p r o v i n g t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f C h r i s t i a n m a gic o v e r pagan. No t a l i s m a n i s more w o n d e r f u l t h a n t h e r i n g w h i c h L a d y L y o n e s s e l e n d s t o G a r e t h : '. . . t h a t r y n g e e n c r e s y t h my beawte much more t h a n h i t i s o f m y s e l f . And t h e v e r t u o f my r y n g e i s t h i s : t h a t t h a t i s g r e n e w o l l t u r n e t o r e d e , and t h a t t h a t i s r e d e w o l l t u r n e i n l y k n e s s e t o g r e n e , and t h a t t h a t i s b lewe w o l l t u r n e t o whyghte, and t h a t t h a t i s whyght w o l l t u r n e i n l y k n e s s e t o blew, and so h i t w o l l do o f a l l manner o f c o l o u r e s ; a l s o who t h a t b e r y t h t h i s r y n g e s h a l l l o s e no b l o o d e . And f o r g r e t e l o v e I w o l l g y f f y o u t h i s r y n g e ' ( 3 ^ 5 ) . R o m a n t i c i n a c o u r t l y r a t h e r t h a n a m a g i c a l way a r e t h e a r m o r i a l t r a p p i n g s o f A r t h u r ' s k n i g h t s — t h e t i n c t u r e s o f g o l d and s i l v e r , a z u r e and g r e e n , t h e e n i g m a t i c b l a z o n s , t h e h e r a l d i c b a n n e r s , t h e d i s g u i s i n g armour and s h i e l d s . L a n c e - l o t a t t h e c a s t l e o f B l e a n t c a l l s h i m s e l f Le S h y v a l e r e Ma- f e t e a n d d e s i g n s a s h i e l d a l l o f s a b l e and a quene crowned i n t h e m y d d i s o f s y l v e r , and a k n y g h t c l e n e armed k n e l y n g e a f o r e h e r ( 8 2 7 ) • The t r o u b l e — m a k i n g Morgan l e F a y p e r s u a d e s T r i s t r a m t o c a r r y a t a t o u r n a m e n t where A r t h u r w i l l see i t a s h i e l d t h a t she h a s d e s i g n e d : t h e f y l d e was g o u l d e s w i t h a kynge and a quene t h e r e i n p a y n t e d , and a k n y g h t s t o n d y n g e a b o v e n them w i t h h y s one f o o t e s t a n d y n g e uppon t h e k y n g e s hede and t h e o t h i r uppon t h e quenys hede ( 5 5 4 ) . 84 I n b o t h c a s e s , r o m a n t i c a r t i f a c t s a r e r e l a t e d t o a s p e c t s o f p l o t and c h a r a c t e r . D i s g u i s e s e f f e c t e d b y c h a n g es o f armour a r e one o f M a l o r y ' s s t a p l e d e v i c e s f o r v a r y i n g t h e j o u s t a n d t o u r n e y theme. A t t h e t o u r n a m e n t a t L o n e z e p , f o r i n s t a n c e , T r i s t r a m a p p e a r s on s u c c e s s i v e days i n g r e e n (732), i n r e d (737), and i n b l a c k (750). L a n c e l o t , i n p a r t i c u l a r , makes f r e q u e n t u s e o f d i s g u i s e f o r when h i s r e a l i d e n t i t y i s known, k n i g h t l y en- c o u n t e r s a r e h a r d t o come by. T h e r e f o r e , he o f t e n b e a r s on h i s s h i e l d t h e arms o f C o r n w a l l , a c o u n t r y whose k n i g h t s a r e n o t n o t e d f o r p r o w e s s (5l6) o r he e x c h a n g e s arms w i t h Kay and h a s a s a t i s f y i n g day k n o c k i n g o v e r a t t a c k e r s who t h i n k t h a t he i s t h e weaker k n i g h t (274ff). H i s most i n g e n i o u s d i s g u i s e i s a c c o m p l i s h e d b y w e a r i n g E l a i n e ' s " r e d e s l y v e o f g o l d e . " We must n o t assume t h a t M a l o r y ' s a u d i e n c e r e g a r d e d t h e m a r v e l s as f i g m e n t s o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e m e d i e v a l r e a d e r , l i k e L e w i s C a r r o l l ' s W h i t e Queen, was c a p a b l e o f b e l i e v i n g as many as s i x i m p o s s i b l e t h i n g s b e f o r e b r e a k f a s t f o r n o t h i n g was r e a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . Any c o n c r e t e o b j e c t m i g h t be a metaphor o r s i g n o f t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l . E v e n s u c h i m p o r t a n t m e d i e v a l s c i e n t i s t s as R o g e r B a c o n and A l b e r t u s Magnus d i d n o t deny t h e m agic p r o p e r t i e s o f h e r b s , s t o n e s , 56 m e t a l s , and o t h e r t h i n g s . F u r t h e r m o r e , we s h o u l d n o t c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e m a r v e l s a r e t h e most i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f M a l o r y ' s s e t t i n g . H i s p r a c - t i c e was t o r a t i o n a l i z e them and n o r m a l i z e them whenever p o s — L y n n T h o r n d i k e , A H i s t o r y o f M a g i c and E x p e r i m e n t a l S c i e n c e (New Y o r k , 1929), I I , 664. 85 s i b l e — t o p r o v i d e r u d d e r l e s s s h i p s w i t h o a r s a n d f a i r y m i s - t r e s s e s w i t h m e d i e v a l c a s t l e s a n d c o u r t l y r e t a i n e r s so t h a t t h e y m i g h t be a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e r e a d e r . The r o m a n t i c m i l i e u o f A r t h u r i a n r omance h a s t o com- b i n e i n a n o t t o o i n c o n g r u o u s way e l e m e n t s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e two d i f f e r e n t w o r l d s o f C e l t i c m y t h o l o g y a n d F r e n c h c o u r t o i — s i e . The a c t i o n s o f t h e k n i g h t - e r r a n t may be c o n t r o l l e d b y m o r a l l y a m b i g u o u s power o f m a g i c o r b y t h e e t h i c o f t h e c h i v a l - r i c c o d e . The d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two k i n d s o f r o m a n t i c m i l i e u h a v e b e e n i l l u s t r a t e d b y c o m p a r i n g "The Book o f B a l i n " a n d t h e " T a l e o f G a r e t h . " The f o r m e r i s n o t p u r e l y C e l t i c n o r t h e l a t t e r p u r e l y c o u r t l y . Y e t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i f f e r - e n t i a t e b e t w e e n them i n r e s p e c t t o a t m o s p h e r e , a g e n c y , a n d l o c a l e . C e l t i c m a g i c e v o k e s a n a t m o s p h e r e o f w o n d e r , f e a r , a n d doom w h i l e c o u r t o i s i e c o n n o t e s t h e j o y s o f c o u r t l y l o v e a n d c h i v a l r i c p r o w e s s . C e l t i c a g e n t s c o n t r o l t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e k n i g h t b y means o f m a g i c a n d p r o p h e c y , c o u r t l y a g e n t s b y means o f t h e c h i v a l r i c c o d e . C e l t i c c a s t l e s r e t a i n t r a c e s o f t h e i r O t h e r w o r l d o r i g i n s , c o u r t l y c a s t l e s c o m b i n e t h e a n t i - t h e t i c a l p a r a l l e l i s m s o f g r e a t h a l l a n d g l o o m y d u n g e o n . The p r e g n a n t w o r l d o f romance i n M o r t e D a r t h u r i s t h e k i n g d o m o f L o g r e s w i t h i t s f o r e s t s , c a s t l e s , s t r e a m s , f o u n - t a i n s a n d e n c i r c l i n g s e a s . W i t h i n t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t t h e s t i m u - l u s f o r c h i v a l r i c a c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d b y f a b u l o u s b e a s t s , o t h e r - w o r l d m e s s e n g e r s , m a g i c s h i p s , e n c h a n t e d c h a p e l s , s t r a n g e a r t i - f a c t s , d i s g u i s e d k n i g h t s a n d l a d i e s i n d i s t r e s s . The a u t h o r o f r o m a n c e c r e a t e s what T o l k i e n c a l l s "a S e c o n d a r y W o r l d w h i c h 86 y o u r mind c a n e n t e r . I f t h i s w o r l d i s w e l l c o n s t r u c t e d , i t s e l e m e n t s w i l l h a v e a r e a l and l i t e r a l e x i s t e n c e . I t i s a t r i b u t e t o t h e s t o r y t e l l e r ' s a r t t h a t M a l o r y ' s i d e a l i z e d r o m a n t i c m i l i e u c o n v e y s t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f a r e a l w o r l d , t h e n a t u r e o f w h i c h h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d b y E r n e s t Rhys: I n t h a t charmed w o r l d , l y i n g b etween T i n t a g e l on t h e C o r n i s h c o a s t , and J o y o u s G a r d on t h e c o a s t o f N o r t h u m b e r l a n d , mapped o u t w i t h many a sombre w a s t e , s t r e t c h o f f o r e s t , l o n e l y h e r - m i t a g e , and h a u n t e d c a s t l e , romance seems t o f i n d i t s . m o s t p e r f e c t c i r c u m s t a n c e and o p p o r - t u n i t y . 5° 5 7 J . R. R. T o l k i e n , T r e e and L e a f (London, 1964), p . 36. 58 The Book o f M a r v e l l o u s A d v e n t u r e s , ed. E r n e s t Rhys (London, 1906), p . XXX . CHAPTER I I I THE ROMANTIC QUEST: THE JOURNEY TO THE CENTRE As t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r h a s i n d i c a t e d , t h e r o m a n t i c w o r l d p r o j e c t s a n i m p r e s s i o n o f l i t e r a l r e a l i t y . I n a d d i t i o n , i t i s i m b u e d w i t h m y t h i c , a l l e g o r i c a l a n d s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i - c a n c e s w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e d u a l i t y o f t h e m e d i e v a l c o n s c i o u s - n e s s . I n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f r e a l i s m a n d p l a u s i b i l i t y t h e c h r o n - i c l e r s o f t h e H i g h M i d d l e A g e s r e m o v e d f r o m t h e A r t h u r i a n " h i s - t o r y " many m y t h i c e l e m e n t s . H i g d e n , f o r e x a m p l e , d i s c a r d e d t h e s t o r i e s o f V o r t i g e r n ' s t o w e r a n d U t h e r ' s m a g i c a l l y f a c i l i - t a t e d amour w i t h I g r a i n e . He c a s t d o u b t a l s o on M e r l i n ' s a b i l i t y t o move S t o n e h e n g e f r o m I r e l a n d . E v e n t h e m y t h i c s t o r y o f A r t h u r ' s w i t h d r a w a l t o A v a l o n was e x p e d i e n t l y r a t i o n - a l i z e d b y t h e t w e l f t h - c e n t u r y " d i s c o v e r y " o f A r t h u r ' s tomb a t G l a s t o n b u r y , a n e v e n t t h a t b e n e f i t e d n o t o n l y t h e monks b u t t h e i r A r r g e v i n r u l e r s a s w e l l . The c o u r t l y r o m a n c e s , h o w e v e r , c o n t i n u e d t o p e r p e t u a t e m y t h s o f c l a s s a n d t i m e w h i l e t h e s t o r i e s o f C e l t i c o r i g i n p r e s e r v e d a my t h o f s u p e r n a t u r a l a g e n c y . By i d e a l i z i n g t h e a r i s t o c r a c y , s e p a r a t i n g i t s members f r o m t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a n d 1 e c o n o m i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d m o t i v a t i o n s , a n d e n d o w i n g them Gower a n d L a n g l a n d b o t h t r e a t e d t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e k n i g h t l y c l a s s r e a l i s t i c a l l y . C f . Gower, " M i r o u r de 1'Omme," W o r k s , I , 1 1 . 2 3 5 9 3 - 2 4 1 8 0 ; "Vox C l a m a n t i s , " Works I V , L i b e r V, Ch. 1 - v i , V I , x i i i - x i v , V I I , i i i i ; " I n P r a i s e o f P e a c e , " W o r ks I I I , 4 8 0 - 4 9 2 a n d L a n g l a n d ' s P i e r s Plowman B, P r o l . 1 1 . 1 1 7 - 1 2 2 ; V I I I 1 1 . 9 - 1 2 ; X I 2 8 5 - 2 8 8 ; C, V I , 7 2 - 7 5 . 8 7 88 w i t h t h e a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e c h i v a l r i c c o d e , t h e w r i t e r s o f r o m a n c e p r o j e c t e d a k i n d o f s o c i a l s c e n e t h a t f u l f i l l e d t h e r e a d e r ' s dream o f b l i s s a n d t h a t was q u i t e u n r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l h i s t o r y . I n r e a l l i f e , f o r i n s t a n c e , k n i g h t s p r o t e c t e d l a d i e s f o r p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c r e a s o n s r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h g a l l a n - t r y . T hough Raymond L u l l ' s B o ke o f t h e O r d r e o f C h y v a l r y a s - s e r t e d t h a t " t h o f f y c e o f a k n i g h t i s t o maynt e n e a n d d e f e n d e 2 wymmen w i d d o w e s a nd o r p h a n e s , " t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f M a r g a r e t o f A n j o u , J a c q u e l i n e o f H o l l a n d a n d M a r g a r e t P a s t o n i l l u s t r a t e 3 t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e i d e a l a n d t h e r e a l . I n A r t h u r i a n r o m a n c e t h e O r d e r o f t h e R o u n d T a b l e r e p r e - s e n t s t h e e x c l u s i v e p i n n a c l e o f t h e m y t h i c s o c i e t y . I t s mem- b e r s a r e k n i g h t s d e s t i n e d b y b i r t h a n d c h i v a l r i c v i r t u e t o s u c c e s s i n f e a t s o f a r m s . N o b i l i t y i s a s i n e qua n o n o f t h e m y t h . A y o u t h must be " o f j a n t i l l s t r e n e " (62) i n o r d e r t o be a c c e p t e d . A s i s e v i d e n t i n t h e c a s e s o f T o r r e a n d P e r c e v a l , e n v i r o n m e n t c a n n o t r e p r e s s h e r e d i t y . T h a t n o b l e b l o o d w i l l n a t u r a l l y t u r n t o k n i g h t l y p u r s u i t s i s r e v e a l e d when A r i e s t h e c o w h e r d b r i n g s h i s y o u n g e s t s o n t o c o u r t : ' F o r I s h a l l t e l l e y o u , I h a v e t h i r t e n e s o n n e s , a n d a l l t h e y w o l l f a l l e t o what l a b o u r e I p u t t e them a n d w o l l be r y g h t g l a d t o do l a b o u r e ; b u t t h y s c h y l d e w o l l n a t l a b o u r e f o r n o t h y n g e t h a t my w y f f a n d I may do, b u t a l l w e y he w o l l be s h o t — y n g e , o r c a s t y n g e d a r t e s , a n d g l a d f o r t o se b a t a y l e s a n d t o b e h o l d e k n y g h t e s . A n d a l l w a y e s d a y a n d n y g h t he d e s y r i t h o f me t o be made k n y g h t ' (100). 2 E d . A. T. P. B y l e s , EETS, O.S. l68 ( L o n d o n , 1926), p. 38. 3 See M a r g a r e t A. G i s t , L o v e a n d War i n t h e M i d d l e E n g l i s h Romances ( P h i l a d e l p h i a , 1947)- 89 The " u n n a t u r a l " b e h a v i o u r o f t h e c o w h e r d ' s s o n i s u n d e r s t o o d when M e r l i n r e v e a l s t h a t K i n g P e l l i n o r i s T o r r e ' s r e a l f a t h — k e r . O n l y t h e n o b l y b o r n m a l e i s w o r t h y t o s e e k a d v e n t u r e . Yeomen, d w a r f s , f o r e s t e r s , c o u n t r y m e n , a n d f i s h e r m e n c a n b e no more t h a n g u i d e s . The h e r o i s m y t h i c i n s o f a r a s he d e l i b - e r a t e l y s e e k s t h e d a n g e r s o f t h e p e r i l o u s f o r e s t a n d u n f a i l - i n g l y r e t u r n s t o t h e s o c i a l w o r l d w i t h p r o o f s o f v i c t o r y . The s e n s e o f r e n e w a l g e n e r a t e d b y t h e c y c l e o f q u e s t a n d r e t u r n a c c o u n t s f o r t h e a c c l a i m a n d j o y w i t h w h i c h t h e h e r o i s g r e e t e d . T h r o u g h h i s f e a t s , r e p o r t e d t o t h e c o u r t a t t h e s p r i n g t i m e F e a s t o f P e n t e c o s t , v i r t u e a n d e n e r g y i m p r e g n a t e t h e A r t h u r i a n w o r l d . The m o n s t e r - k i l l i n g p r o p e r t y o f s u c h m y t h i c h e r o e s a s P e r s e u s , H e r a c l e s , B e o w u l f , a n d S t . G e o r g e c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e c h i e f k n i g h t s o f r o m a n c e . A r t h u r ' s e p i c b a t t l e w i t h t h e g i a n t o f S t . M i c h a e l ' s Mount p u r g e s H o e l ' s c o u n t r y (198). By k i l l — 5 i n g t h e g i a n t s o f T i n t a g e l , f r e e i n g t h e c a p t i v e l a d i e s , a n d r e s t o r i n g t h e c a s t l e t o i t s r i g h t f u l owner, L a n c e l o t demon- s t r a t e s h i s power o f r e n e w i n g t h e e n v i r o n m e n t (27l). M a r h a u t d i s p a t c h e s t h e g i a n t T a u l h u r d who d e s t r o y s t h e l a n d s o f E a r l F e r g u s (175) a n d t h e mad T r i s t r a m k i l l s T a u l h u r d ' s b r o t h e r T a u l u s (^99)- An o t h e r w i s e i n c o n s p i c u o u s A r t h u r i a n k n i g h t , O t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l i n e a g e o c c u r i n W o r k s , pp. 131, 295, 328, 379, 8l0, 859, 865. 5 M a l o r y a s s o c i a t e s T i n t a g e l w i t h I g r a i n e a n d h e r h u s - b a n d (272). H i s m i s r e a d i n g o f t h e F r . T i n t a g u e l c r e a t e s a p r o b - l e m o f i d e n t i t y s i n c e i n t h e T r i s t r a m l e g e n d T i n t a g e l i s t h e s e a t o f K i n g M a r k . 90 S i r S e v e r a u s e , a l s o h a s a r e p u t a t i o n a s a g i a n t - k i l l e r ( l l A 8 ) T h o u g h i n a l l e g o r i c a l t e r m s g i a n t s may be u s e d t o r e p r e s e n t c r u e l t y , b e s t i a l i t y , l u s t , c u p i d i t y , a n d o t h e r v i c e s , M a l o r y p r o b a b l y v i e w e d t h e g i a n t s o f t h e r o m a n t i c c y c l e i n a m y t h i c s e n s e , t h a t i s , a s f o r m i d a b l e o p p o n e n t s whose d e s t r u c t i o n i n - c r e a s e d t h e h o n o u r o f h i s h e r o e s . The l a d y o f romance o c c u p i e s a n i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n i n t h e m y t h o f c l a s s . She i s e i t h e r a v i r g i n t o be d e l i v e r e d o r a g o d d e s s t o be s e r v e d . ^ L i k e t h e k n i g h t , she i s n o b l y b o r n a n d s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d . She h a s no d u t i e s b u t t h o s e o f p r e - s i d i n g a t t o u r n a m e n t s o r f e a s t s , e n t e r t a i n i n g q u e s t i n g k n i g h t i n s p i r i n g c h i v a l r i c v i r t u e a n d r e w a r d i n g c h i v a l r i c d e v o t i o n . The m y t h o f c l a s s i s i m p r o b a b l e m o r a l l y a s w e l l a s s o c i a l l y . P o l a r i z a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c l a s s c o u n t e r p o s e s g ood k i n g s a n d b a d k i n g s , g ood k n i g h t s a n d b a d k n i g h t s b u t move- ment f r o m t h e d e m o n i c t o t h e h e r o i c p o l e i s f r e q u e n t . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f a f e w a r c h e t y p a l v i l l a i n s l i k e M a r k , T a r q u i n a n d B r u n y s S a u n z e P i t e , b a d k n i g h t s when d e f e a t e d b y h e r o e s become good a n d a r e a d m i t t e d t o t h e O r d e r o f t h e R o u n d T a b l e . T h u s t h e c h i v a l r i c e n c o u n t e r s a r e r i t e s de p a s s a g e t h a t q u a l i f y a k n i g h t f o r m e m b e r s h i p . P r i a m u s (24l), M a r h a u l t ( l 7 9 ) i t h e R e d K n i g h t o f t h e R e d L a n d s (362), t h e Duke de l a Rowse (363), G a u t e r , G y l m e r e , a n d A r n o l d e (275,11^9), S i r B e l y a u n c e l e O r g u l u s (451,1150), P e r s a u n t , P e r t e l o p e , a n d P e r y m o n e s (362), N e r o v e u s , a n d P l e n o r y u s (475) h a v e a l l b e e n i n i t i a t e d A n dromeda i s t h e a r c h e t y p a l v i r g i n , G u i n e v e r e t h e a r c h e t y p a l m i s t r e s s . F o r a n a l l e g o r i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f A n d r o - meda, s e e C h r i s t i n e de P i s a n ' s fipitre d' O t h e a . C h r e t i e n de T r o y e s ' L e C h e v a l i e r de l a C h a r e t t e i s t h e l o c u s c l a s s i c u s f o r G u i n e v e r e a n d t h e code o f amour c o u r t o i s . i n t h i s way. The i d e a l i t y o f t h e c l a s s myth i s n o t a b r o g a t e d b y t h e e x i s t e n c e o f k n i g h t s who c h a l l e n g e t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e R o u n d T a b l e s i n c e t h e e v i l k n i g h t s a r e u l t i m a t e l y a b s o r b e d . The c a t a l o g u e o f Round T a b l e k n i g h t s a t t h e h e a l i n g o f S i r U r - r y c o n t a i n s t h e names o f many who f i r s t a p p e a r e d a s o p p o n e n t s o f L a n c e l o t , T r i s t r a m , G a w a i n , a n d G a r e t h . I t i s o n l y when t h e e v i l k n i g h t s c a n no l o n g e r be d e f e a t e d a n d a b s o r b e d , a n d when many R o u n d T a b l e k n i g h t s t h e m s e l v e s become v i c i o u s t h a t r o m a n c e g i v e s way t o c h r o n i c l e a n d t h e myth o f c l a s s t o r e a l - i s m . I n c o u r t l y r o m a n c e , t h e i d e a l i z a t i o n o f c l a s s g e n e r a t e d a s t a t i c i d e a l i z a t i o n o f t i m e , s i n c e t h e k n i g h t s a n d l a d i e s seemed t o l i v e i n a g o l d e n age o f c h i v a l r y . A l t h o u g h t h e l a - 7 8 b e i " g o l d e n a g e " h a s b e e n a s s o c i a t e d b y G a u t i e r a n d K i l g o u r 9 w i t h t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , b y C o u l t o n w i t h t h e t h i r t e e n t h a n d 10 b y L o r d B e r n e r s w i t h t h e f o u r t e e n t h , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o b e - l i e v e t h a t h i s t o r i c a l c h i v a l r y e v e r a p p r o a c h e d i d e a l i t y . The " p u r e " c h i v a l r y p r a i s e d b y G a u t i e r i s d e s c r i b e d i n o t h e r t e r m s b y P e t e r o f B l o i s ( c a . 1 1 3 5 — c a . 1205): 7 r L e o n G a u t i e r , C h i v a l r y , e d . J a c q u e s L e v r o n , t r a n s . D. C. D u n n i n g ( L o n d o n , 1 9 6 5 ) , p - 9' g R. L. K i l g o u r , The D e c l i n e o f C h i v a l r y ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . , 1937), PP- 4-5. 9 G. G. C o u l t o n , " K n i g h t h o o d a n d C h i v a l r y , " E n c y c l o - p a e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , 11th e d . ( L o n d o n , 1910), 15, 858. C o u l t o n p o i n t s o u t , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e r e was a g r e a t d i s p a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e i d e a l a n d h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y . 10 J e a n F r o i s s a r t , T h e C h r o n i c l e s , t r a n s . L o r d B e r n e r s , s e l e c t e d , e d i t e d a n d i n t r o d u c e d b y G i l l i a n a n d W i l l i a m A n d e r s o n ( L o n d o n , 1963). 9 2 I n t h e s e d a y s o f o u r s t h e O r d e r o f C h i v a l r y i s mere d i s o r d e r . F o r he i s a c c o u n t e d s t o u t e s t a n d most i l l u s t r i o u s among k n i g h t s whose mouth i s d e f i l e d w i t h t h e most f i l t h y l a n g u a g e , whose o a t h s a r e most a b o m i n a b l e a n d who most d e s p i s e s God, r e v i l e s h i m , a n d d e f i e s t h e C h u r c h . I n t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , t o o , C h r e t i e n de T r o y e s was a l r e a d y 12 l a m e n t i n g t h e p a s s i n g o f t h e g ood o l d d a y s . J o i n v i l l e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e C r u s a d e r s ' " c h i v a l r i c " b e h a v i o u r a t D a r a i - 13 e t t a i n 1 2 4 9 a n d t h e c h a r g e s t h a t b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e d o w n f a l l 14 o f t h e T e m p l a r s e a r l y i n t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y d i s p e l t h e i l l u s i o n t h a t t h e i d e a l s o f c h i v a l r y m a r k e d l y a f f e c t e d t h e e t h i c a l c o n d u c t o f m e d i e v a l k n i g h t s . No d o u b t , L o r d B e r n e r s saw F r o i s s a r t ' s f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y a s a g o l d e n age f i l l e d w i t h 15 " h i g h e n t e r p r i s e s , famous a c t s a n d g l o r i o u s d e e d s . " F r o i s — s a r t h i m s e l f c i t e s t h e o p i n i o n o f G a s t o n de F o i x t h a t t h e h i s t o r y t h a t I h a d b e g u n s h o u l d h e r e a f t e r be more p r a i s e d t h a n a n y o t h e r , a n d t h e r e a s o n he s a i d why, was t h i s how t h a t f i f t y y e a r p a s t t h e r e h a d b e e n done more m a r v e l l o u s d e e d s o f arms i n t h e ^ w o r l d t h a n i n t h r e e h u n d r e d y e a r b e - f o r e t h a t . 1 1 E p i s t o l a e , N o . 9 4 , c i t e d b y F. J . C. H e a r n s h a w , " C h i v - a l r y a n d I t s P l a c e i n H i s t o r y , " C h i v a l r y , e d . E d g a r P r e s t a g e ( L o n d o n , 1 9 2 8 ) , p . 2 0 . 1 2 Y v a i n , ed. T. B. ¥. R e i d ( M a n c h e s t e r , 1 9 4 2 ) , 1 1 . 1 - 3 3 . 13 The H i s t o r y o f S t . L o u i s , t r a n s . J o a n E v a n s ( L o n d o n , 1 9 3 8 ) , pp. 4 9 - 5 0 . 1 4 G. Legman e t a l . , The G u i l t o f t h e T e m p l a r s (New Y o r k , 1 9 6 6 ) . 15 P r e f a c e t o h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f The C h r o n i c l e s o f J e a n F r o i s s a r t , e d . G. a n d W. A n d e r s o n ( L o n d o n ^ 1 9 6 3 ) . 1 6 I b i d . , p. 1 8 0 . 93 I n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t h e n o t e o f d e s p a i r a n d d e - 17 j e c t i o n w h i c h p e r m e a t e s s e c u l a r l i t e r a t u r e l e d men t o e n - v i s i o n a g o l d e n age o f c h i v a l r y i n a n i d e a l i z e d p a s t . T h e y i m a g i n e d a t i m e when c h i v a l r y was n o t b r a n d e d w i t h t h e s t i g m a o f a l o s t c a u s e , a t i m e when k n i g h t s d i d more t h a n "go t o t h e l8 b a y n e s a n d p l a y e a t t e d y s e . " A r i s t o c r a t i c n o s t a l g i a f o r a n e a r l i e r t i m e when t h e k n i g h t was a n e f f e c t i v e f o r c e p o l i t i c a l - l y , s o c i a l l y a n d m i l i t a r i l y was c o m b i n e d w i t h a m i d d l e - c l a s s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o e x p r e s s s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c s u c c e s s e s b y means o f c h i v a l r i c i m a g e s . The f a c t t h a t c h i v a l r y was no l o n g - e r a p r a c t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n made i t a l l t h e more a t t r a c t i v e a s 19 a n " i d e a l o f t h e s u b l i m e l i f e . " I t was C a x t o n ' s v i e w t h a t t h e c h i e f a t t r a c t i o n o f t h e M o r t e D a r t h u r was i t s e v o c a t i o n o f a g o l d e n a ge: A n d I , a c c o r d y n g t o my c o p y e , h a v e doon s e t t e i t i n e n p r y n t e t o t h e e n t e n t e t h a t n o b l e men may s e e a n d l e r n e t h e n o b l e a c t e s o f c h y v a l r y e , t h e j e n t y l a n d v e r t u o u s d e d e s t h a t somme k n y g h t e s u s e d i n t h o d a y e s , b y whyche t h e y came t o h o n o u r , a n d how t h e y t h a t w e r e v y c i o u s w e r e p u n y s s h e d a n d o f t e p u t t o shame a n d r e b u k e ; h u m b l y b y s e c h y n g a l n o b l e l o r d e s a n d l a d y e s w y t h a l o t h e r e s t a t e s , o f what e s t a t e o r d e g r e e t h e y b e e n o f , t h a t s h a l s e e a n d r e d e i n t h i s s a y d b o o k a n d w e r k e , t h a t t h e y t a k e t h e g o od a n d h o n e s t a c t e s i n t h e i r r e m e m b r a u n c e , 17 J . H u i z i n g a i n The W a n i n g o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s ( G a r d e n C i t y , 1954) p. 33 a n a l y s e s t h e " i m p r e s s i o n o f immense s a d n e s s " a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s . 18 W i l l i a m C a x t o n , E p i l o g u e t o "The O r d e r o f C h y v a l - r y , " The P r o l o g u e s a n d E p i l o g u e s o f W i l l i a m C a x t o n , e d . W. J . B. C r o t c h , EETS, O.S. 176 ( L o n d o n , 1928). 19 H u i z i n g a , p. 31. 94 a n d t o f o l o w e t h e same, w h e r i n t h e y s h a l l f y n d e many j o y o u s a n d p l a y s a u n t h y s t o r y e s a n d n o b l e a n d r e nomed a c t e s o f h u m a n y t e , g e n t y l n e s s e , a n d c h i v a l r y e s . F o r h e r e i n may be s e e n n o b l e c h y v a l - r y e , c u r t o s y e , h u m a n i t e , f r e n d l y n e s s e , h a r d y - n e s s e , l o v e , f r e n d s h y p , c o w a r d y s e , m u r d r e , h a t e , v e r t u e , a n d s y n n e . Doo a f t e r t h e good a n d l e v e t h e e v y l , a n d ^ t s h a l b r y n g e y o u t o good fame a n d renommee. H e s i o d ' s g o l d e n age was a t i m e when men l i v e d l i k e g o ds w i t h h e a r t s f r e e f r o m c a r e , u n t r o u b l e d b y age o r t h e 21 n e c e s s i t y o f e a r n i n g a l i v i n g . The k n i g h t s a n d l a d i e s o f A r t h u r i a n r omance a l s o e n j o y good t h i n g s i n a b u n d a n c e i n a t i m e l e s s w o r l d immune t o t h e o n s l a u g h t o f age a n d d e a t h . A s V i d a S c u d d e r p u t s i t : The moment one t r i e s t o a n a l y z e , one i s t e m p t e d t o s a y , a n d be done w i t h i t , t h a t t h ^ s w o r l d o f r o m a n c e s u b s i s t s i n a n e t e r n a l Now. I n t o u r n a m e n t a f t e r t o u r n a m e n t t h e k n i g h t s f i g h t w i t h u n d i m i n - i s h e d v i g o u r . The l a d i e s ' b e a u t y i s u n t o u c h e d . D e a t h i t s e l f i s i n e f f e c t u a l . C a r a d o s a n d T a r q u i n a r e k i l l e d b y L a n c e l o t i n Book I I I (266—267) y e t p a r t i c i p a t e i n L a d y L y o n e s s ' t o u r n a m e n t i n Book I V ( 3 4 6 ) . S e v e r a l k n i g h t s who d i e d u r i n g t h e q u e s t o f 2 3 t h e G r a i l s u b s e q u e n t l y a t t e m p t t h e h e a l i n g o f S i r U r r y . W o r k s , c x l v - c x l v i . I n The I n d i a n Summer o f E n g l i s h C h i v a l r y (Durham, I 9 6 0 ) , A. B. F e r g u s o n s u g g e s t s t h a t C a x t o n a n d M a l o r y u n d e r t o o k t o r e a f f i r m c h i v a l r y a s a l i v i n g i d e a l a p - p l i c a b l e t o t h e i r own t i m e . 21 On t h e c l a s s i c a l g o l d e n age see A p p e n d i x A. 22 L e M o r t e D a r t h u r o f S i r Thomas M a l o r y ( L o n d o n , 1921), p. 215- 23 Many a s c h o l a r l y a r g u m e n t h a s b e e n b a s e d on t h e s e t e m p o r a l d i s c r e p a n c i e s . V i n a v e r c o n s i d e r s them p r o o f s o f t h e s e p a r a t e n a t u r e o f t h e t a l e s . J i n The Book o f K i n g A r t h u r , p. 5j C h a r l e s Moorman c a l l s them e x a m p l e s o f r e t r o s p e c t i v e n a r r a t i v e . T h e y a r e p r o b a b l y t h e r e s u l t o f c a r e l e s s n e s s . The m e d i e v a l v i e w o f t i m e was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m o u r s ( A p p e n d i x A) a n d n e i - t h e r M a l o r y n o r h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s w o u l d h a v e b e e n t r o u b l e d b y s u c h i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . 95 I n c r e a t i n g t h e mood o f a g o l d e n a g e , t h e o p e n i n g a n d c l o s i n g p a s s a g e s o f t h e m i d d l e b o o k s a r e i m p o r t a n t . The N o b l e T a l e o f S i r L a u n c e l o t du L a k e b e g i n s w i t h a s t a t e m e n t t h a t r e l e - g a t e s t h e t i m e o f t r o u b l e s t o t h e p a s t a n d a f f i r m s t h a t A r t h u r - i a n k n i g h t s a r e no l o n g e r e n g a g e d i n o r g a n i z e d w a r f a r e . T h r o u g h t h e p e a c e f u l v i o l e n c e o f j o u s t i n g a n d t o u r n e y i n g t h e y i n c r e a s e t h e i r " w o r s h y p " (253)- The b o o k ends w i t h a g r e a t s c e n e o f e x - u l t a t i o n b e c a u s e g o o d n e s s h a s t r i u m p h e d a n d e v i l h a s b e e n t h w a r t e d o r c o n v e r t e d (286-287)- The T a l e o f S i r G a r e t h o f O r k n e y t h a t was c a l l e d Bewmaynes, r e j e c t e d b y V i n a v e r a s i r r e l e — 2k v a n t , i s , i n f a c t , t h e most i m p o r t a n t d e p i c t i o n o f t h e h a l c y o n , d a y s . C o u r t e o u s c o n d u c t , c h i v a l r i c p r o w e s s , t h e ch a r m o f m a g i c a n d m y t h , t h e c o l o u r o f h e r a l d r y , t h e s y m b o l i s m o f r i t u a l , t h e j o y s o f f e a s t , t o u r n e y , a n d l o v e c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e e f f e c t o f "good t h i n g s i n a b u n d a n c e . " I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e t h i r d o f t h e c e n t r a l r o m a n c e s , The Book o f S i r T r i s t r a m de L y o n e s , i n t r o d u c e s t h e theme o f t r e a c h - e r y b u t i t i s a s s o c i a t e d c h i e f l y w i t h t h e c o u r t o f K i n g M a r k , a s e t t i n g p l a c e d i n d e l i b e r a t e c o n t r a s t t o t h a t o f A r t h u r . T r i s t r a m i s r e p e a t e d l y a t t r a c t e d i n t o t h e A r t h u r i a n m i l i e u so t h a t he may c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e g l o r y o f t h e g o l d e n a g e . M a l o r y , l i k e t h e a u t h o r o f h i s s o u r c e , m i n i m i z e s t h e e f f e c t o f t h e L o t - P e l l i n o r e f e u d b y d e l a y i n g i t s c l i m a x u n t i l a l m o s t t h e end o f t h e b o o k a n d b y m a k i n g L a m e r o k ' s m u r d e r o c c u r o f f s t a g e . I t i s a " h i s t o r i c a l " r a t h e r t h a n a r o m a n t i c e v e n t t h a t M a l o r y ( O x f o r d , 1929), p. 9k. 96 t e r m i n a t e s t h e age o f g l o r y . The q u e s t o f t h e G r a i l w i l l d e s t r o y t h e h a r m o n i o u s o r d e r , a s A r t h u r r e a l i s e s : ' A l a s ! ' s e y d e K y n g e A r t h u r e u n t o s i r Gawayne, 'ye h a v e n y g h s l a y n e me f o r t h e avow t h a t y e h a v e made, f o r t h o r o w y o u y e h a v e b e r a u f f t e me t h e f a y r s t a n d t h e t r e w y s t o f k n y g h t h o d e t h a t e v e r was sene t o g y d i r i n ony r e a l m e o f t h e w o r l d e . F o r whan t h e y d e p a r t e f r o m e h e n s e I am s u r e t h e y a l l s h a l l n e v e r mete more t o g y d i r i n t h y s w o r l d e , f o r t h e y s h a l l dye many i n t h e q u e s t e 1 (866). T i m o r m o r t i s p r o j e c t s u s f r o m r o m a n c e t o r e a l i t y . Y e t e v e n a f t e r " s l a n d e r a n d s t r i f e " h a v e become r a m p a n t , M a l o r y c o n t i n - u e s t o i d e a l i z e t h e p a s t . L o v e i n t h o s e d a y s was n o t a s i t i s now when men c a n n a t l o v e s e v e n n y g h t b u t t h e y m u s t e h a v e a l l t h e i r d e s y r e s . T h a t l o v e may n a t e n d u r e b y r e s o n , f o r w h e r e t h e y b e t h e sone a c c o r d e d a n d h a s t y , h e e t e sone h e e l y t h . A n d r y g h t so f a r y t h t h e l o v e n o w a d a y e s , sone h o t e sone c o l d e . T h y s y s no s t a b y l y t e . B u t t h e o l d e l o v e was n a t s o . F o r men a n d women co u d e l o v e t o g y d i r s s e v e n y e r y s , a n d no l y c o u r e s l u s t i s was b e t w y x t e them, a n d t h a n was l o v e t r o u t h e a n d f a y t h e f u l n e s . A n d so i n l y k e wyse was u s e d s u c h l o v e i n Kynge A r - t h u r s d a y e s . (1119-1120, M a l o r y ' s a d d i t i o n ) . A n d E c t o r ' s e u l o g y o f L a n c e l o t i s a l a m e n t n o t o n l y f o r a k n i g h t b u t f o r a t i m e t h a t h a s p a s s e d away (1259)- I n a d d i t i o n t o a m y t h o f c l a s s d e r i v e d f r o m F r e n c h r o - mance a n d a m y t h o f t i m e w h i c h h a d c l a s s i c a l o r i g i n s , t h e M o r t e D a r t h u r u t i l i z e s a m y t h o f a g e n c y f o u n d i n C e l t i c m y t h - o l o g y . M a g i c a f f e c t s t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d t h r o u g h s u p e r n a t u r a l 25 c r e a t u r e s . L i k e t h e G r e e k g o d s , t h e y a r e swayed b y human p a s s i o n s ; l i k e t h e N o r s e d e i t i e s , s u b j e c t t o f a t e . M e r l i n ' s m a g i c a l p o w e r s e n a b l e h i m t o foresee:., b u t n o t t o e s c a p e t h e A n g u s F l e t c h e r c a l l s them l o n g a e v i . See The D i s c a r d e d Image, daemon!, C. S. pp. 122-138. L e w i s 97 doom e n g e n d e r e d b y l o v e . U n l i k e t h e E l i z a b e t h a n f a i r i e s , C e l t i c f a y s r e s e m b l e d humans i n s i z e b u t were s u p e r i o r i n b e a u t y a n d power: . . . t h e f a y o f A r t h u r i a n romance i s e s s e n t i a l l y a s u p e r n a t u r a l woman, a l w a y s more b e a u t i f u l t h a n t h e i m a g i n a t i o n c a n p o s s i b l y f a n c y h e r , u n t o u c h e d b y t i m e , u n h a m p e r e d b y l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f h e r p l e a s u r e , s u p e r i o r t o human b l e m i s h , c o n t i n g e n c y , o r n e c e s s i t y , i n s h o r t , a l t o - g e t h e r u n l i m i t e d i n h e r p o w e r . 27 M o r g a n l e F a y i s t h e c h i e f s o u r c e o f b a l e f u l m a g i c i n t h e M o r t e D a r t h u r . By means o f s u c h a r t i f a c t s a s t h e h o r n o f c h a s t i t y (429), t h e m a n t l e (158), t h e m a g i c s h i p (137), t h e c o u n t e r f e i t s w o r d a n d s c a b b a r d ( l 4 2 ) , t h e a l l e g o r i c a l s h i e l d (554), a n d t h e b o i l i n g b a t h p r e p a r e d f o r E l a i n e (79l), she a t t a c k s t h e f o u n d a t i o n s o f c o u r t l y s o c i e t y . M o r g a n ' s m a g i c a l p o w e r s e n a b l e h e r a l s o t o e s c a p e f r o m h e r e n e m i e s b y b e c o m i n g p a r t o f t h e t o p o g r a p h y (151)- H e r f i n a l a p p e a r a n c e a s a t u t e - l a r y g o d d e s s who c o n d u c t s A r t h u r t o A v a l o n t o h e a l h i s wounds r a t h e r t h a n a s a m a l e v o l e n t e n c h a n t r e s s who s e e k s t o d e s t r o y t h e k i n g s u g g e s t s t h e a m b i v a l e n c e o f C e l t i c m y t h . H e r r o l e a s a d e s t r o y e r — h e a l e r i s e x e m p l i f i e d a l s o i n t h e s t o r y o f A l e x a n d e r t h e O r p h a n whose " s i x t e n e g r e t e w o u n d i s " a r e f i r s t e n f l a m e d a n d t h e n a s s u a g e d b y t h e f i c k l e f a y (692). T r a c e s o f h e r o r i g i n a l r o l e a s f a i r y m i s t r e s s o f t h e h e r o may be s e e n i n h e r c a p t u r e o f A r t h u r , L a n c e l o t , a n d A l e x a n d e r , i n L u c y A. P a t o n , p p . 4—5. 27 M o r g a n i s p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d f r o m t h e I r i s h w a r — g o d d e s s t h e M o r r i g a n . See P a t o n , p p . l 4 8 f f . On t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f h e r name f r o m M a t r o n a , s e e R. S. L o o m i s , W a l e s a n d t h e A r t h u r i a n L e g e n d ( C a r d i f f , 1956), pp. 99ff- 98 h e r l i a i s o n w i t h A c c a l o n , h e r j e a l o u s y o f G e n e v e r e , a n d h e r 28 s o j o u r n w i t h A r t h u r i n A v a l o n . I n f a c t , a l l t h e e v i l e n - c h a n t r e s s e s o f t h e M o r t e D a r t h u r — t h e Queen o f N o r t h W a l e s , t h e Queen o f E s t l o n d , t h e Queen o f t h e O u t e r I s l e s , H a l l e w e s t h e S o r c e r e s , a n d A u n o u r e — p l a y t h e u n h a p p y r o l e o f t h w a r t e d f a i r y m i s t r e s s e s . The b e n e f i c e n t f a y N i n e v e , i n c o n t r a s t , l i v e s h a p p i l y e v e r a f t e r w i t h t h e R o u n d T a b l e k n i g h t , P e l l e a s . L i k e M o r g a n , t h e L a d y o f t h e L a k e a n d N i n e v e h a v e am- b i g u o u s n a t u r e s . O r i g i n a l l y a w a t e r f a y who r e a r e d L a n c e l o t , l a Dame du L a c a p p e a r e d i n t h e P r o p h e c i e s o f M e r l i n ( l x x i ) a s an o p p o n e n t o f M o r g a n a n d t h e b e l o v e d o f M e r l i n . I n M a l o r y , she i s t h e d o n o r o f E x c a l i b u r a n d t h e f r i e n d o f A r t h u r y e t she i s a l s o t h e d e s t r o y e r o f B a l i n ' s m o t h e r a n d t h e v i c t i m o f h i s v e n g e a n c e . H e r p o s i t i o n a s c a p t o r o f M e r l i n a n d p r o t e c — 29 t r e s s o f A r t h u r i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o N i n e v e who i s a l s o t h e w i f e o f P e l l e a s , a d e t a i l o r i g i n a l i n M a l o r y . The a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e f a y w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t i s e v i d e n t i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f h e r p a l a c e a n d i n h e r a b i l i t y t o w a l k on 30 t h e w a t e r o f t h e l a k e (52). N i n e v e ' s t u t e l a r y c a p a c i t y i s e v i d e n t d u r i n g A r t h u r ' s b a t t l e w i t h A c c a l o n a n d h i s s e d u c t i o n b y A u n o u r e . The r o l e p Q C f . P a t o n , pp. lA5ff. 2 9 C f . P a t o n , p p . 204-227 a n d V i n a v e r ' s n . 65. 11-12, W o r k s , p. 1306. 30 V i n a v e r ' s c o n t e n t i o n i n M a l o r y , p.51, t h a t t h e a u - t h o r " i s i n d i f f e r e n t t o s u c h o b v i o u s a n d u n i v e r s a l a s p e c t s o f rom a n c e a s m a g i c a n d t h e u s e o f t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l " a n d f o r t h i s r e a s o n e l i m i n a t e s t h e m a g i c a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e L a d y o f t h e L a k e , i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . 99 o f i n f o r m a n t i n h e r i t e d f r o m M e r l i n i s e x h i b i t e d i n t h e P o i - s o n e d A p p l e e p i s o d e (1059)• F i n a l l y , she j o i n s t h e m a l i g - n a n t f a y s t o e s c o r t A r t h u r t o A v a l o n (1242). The r e l a t i o n o f M e r l i n t o t h e r o m a n t i c s e t t i n g h a s a l r e a d y b e e n s u g g e s t e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e T a l e o f B a l i n . He a f f e c t s t h e s p a t i a l s c e n e b y c r e a t i n g c r o s s e s a n d tombs, a p e r i l o u s b e d a n d a p e r i l o u s s i e g e , b y f i x i n g m a r v e l o u s s w o r d s i n s t o n e s , b y a p p e a r i n g s u d d e n l y i n d i s g u i s e t h e n v a n i s h i n g w i t h o u t a t r a c e . He a f f e c t s t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n o f t i m e b y p r o p h e s y i n g f u t u r e e v e n t s . He c r e a t e s a mood o f won- d e r a n d f e a r b y m a r v e l o u s c r a f t s m a n s h i p , s h a p e - s h i f t i n g , e n - c h a n t m e n t s a n d o m i n o u s u t t e r a n c e s . He i s t h e w i z a r d p a r e x - 31 c e l l e n c e o f t h e M i d d l e A g e s a n d R e n a i s s a n c e . The d w a r f s a n d d a m s e l s who a c t a s m e s s e n g e r s o f s u p e r - n a t u r a l a g e n t s h a v e a number o f s t r a n g e q u a l i t i e s . I n C e l t i c m y t h o l o g y , d w a r f s w e r e g i f t e d w i t h i m m o r t a l i t y , c l a i r v o y a n c e , 32 a n d t h e a b i l i t y t o d i s a p p e a r . The d w a r f s o f romance a r e g e n e r a l l y u g l y a n d m a l e v o l e n t l i k e t h e m e s s e n g e r " w i t h g r e t e mowthe a n d a f l a t t e n o s e " whom M o r g a n s e n d s t o A c c a l o n (l40) a n d t h e d w a r f f r o m C a m e l o t who t h r e a t e n s B a l i n (70—71) o r t h e s e r v a n t o f P h e l o t a n d P e t i p a c e who s t r i k e s T o r r e ' s h o r s e (109). I n c o n t r a s t , t h e d a m s e l s a r e y o u n g a n d b e a u t i f u l . F r e q u e n t l y , On M e r l i n ' s r e p u t a t i o n d u r i n g t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y , s e e R. F. B r i n k l e y , A r t h u r i a n L e g e n d i n t h e S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y ( B a l t i m o r e , 1932). I n J o u r n a l o f t h e P l a g u e Y e a r , D e f o e r n v c a l s r e v e a l s t h a t M e r l i n ' s h e a d was u s e d a s a s i g n b y f o r t u n e t e l l e r s . 3 2 V. J . Harwood, The D w a r f s o f A r t h u r i a n Romance a n d C e l t i c T r a d i t i o n ( L e i d e n , 1958). 100 t h e y a c t a s deae ex m a c h i n a who e f f e c t t h e h e r o ' s e s c a p e 33 f r o m t h e c a s t l e o f a n enemy. Th o u g h t h e y may p e r f o r m r e a l i s t i c d u t i e s s u c h a s b r i n g i n g f o o d t o t h e i m p r i s o n e d k n i g h t , t h e i r employment a s t u r n k e y s i s n e v e r e x p l a i n e d i n r e a l i s t i c t e r m s a n d t h e e a s e w i t h w h i c h t h e y a p p e a r o r d i s - a p p e a r s u g g e s t s s u p e r n a t u r a l p o w e r s . We a r e l e f t w i t h t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e d w a r f s a n d d a m s e l s a r e n o t r e a l c h a r a c - t e r s b u t r a t h e r m y t h i c a g e n t s i n t e n d e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p u r s u i t o f a d v e n t u r e b y b r i n g i n g t h e k n i g h t - e r r a n t t o a c h a l l e n g i n g s i t u a t i o n o r r e l e a s i n g h i m f r o m a r e s t r i c t i n g o n e. A s we s h o u l d e x p e c t , M a l o r y t e n d s t o d i s p l a c e C e l t i c m y t h a n d t o a s s o c i a t e i t s p a t t e r n s w i t h t h e w o r l d o f human e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s p r o c e s s h a d a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d t o some e x t e n t i n h i s F r e n c h s o u r c e s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e f a y o f U l r i c h v o n Z a t z i k o u e n ' s L a n z e l e t h a d become i n t h e P r o s e L a n c e l o t "une 'Dame' p a r f a i t q u i n'a n u l b e s o i n d'un f i l s a d o p t i f p o u r d e - l i v e r e r s o n e n f a n t tombe a u p o u v o i r d'un e n c h a n t e u r du r e s t e 34 s o n l a c n ' e s t qu'une a p p a r e n c e . " The f o u r r o y a l f a y s o f t h e M o r t e D a r t h u r , M o r g a n , t h e Queen o f N o r t h G a l y s , t h e Queen o f E a s t l o n d , a n d t h e Queen o f Oute I s l e s , become m e d i e v a l l a - d i e s who r i d e a b r o a d p r o t e c t e d f r o m t h e s u n b y a g r e e n s i l k c a n o p y a n d a t t e n d e d b y a r e t i n u e o f k n i g h t s (256). Though L a n c e l o t i s b r o u g h t t o t h e C a s t l e C h a r i o t u n d e r a s p e l l , he 3 3 C f . W o r k s , p p . 258, 465, 551, 643, 1136. 34 F e r d i n a n d L o t , E t u d e s u r l e L a n c e l o t en P r o s e ( P a r i s , 1954), p. 169. 101 i s r e a l i s t i c a l l y l a i d on h i s s h i e l d a n d c a r r i e d b y k n i g h t s on h o r s e b a c k ( 2 5 7 ) - He i s i m p r i s o n e d i n a " c h a m b i r c o l d e " t h a t i s t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f t h e O t h e r w o r l d c a s t l e s w h e r e t h e h e r o e n j o y e d w a r m t h , l i g h t , a n d d e l i g h t f u l e n t e r t a i n m e n t i n 35 t h e company o f h i s f a i r y m i s t r e s s . M o r g a n ' s c a s t l e s , o r - i g i n a l l y O t h e r w o r l d l y , a r e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n m e d i e v a l terms:. T w e l v e l o c k s b a r t h e p r i s o n e r s way i n t h e C a s t l e C h a r i o t (259)- L a B e a l e R e g a r d e i s n o t immune t o d e s t r u c t i o n b y f i r e ( 6 4 4 ) . A l e x a n d e r t h e O r p h a n , a n o t h e r v i c t i m o f t h e f a i r y m i s t r e s s , i s b r o u g h t i n t o h e r power t h r o u g h t h e r e a l - i s t i c d e v i c e o f d r u g g e d w i n e . H i s wounds a r e f i r s t i r r i t a t e d t h e n h e a l e d b y means o f mundane o i n t m e n t s (641-642) a n d he g a i n s r e l e a s e f r o m t h e c a s t l e b e c a u s e o f a m e d i e v a l s i e g e ( 6 4 4 ) . F i n a l l y , he r e p a y s t h e r e l e a s i n g m a i d e n n o t w i t h c o u r t l y d a l l i a n c e b u t w i t h f e a t s o f a r m s . F a r f r o m b e i n g a n o m n i p o t e n t f a y , M o r g a n i s n e v e r p e r m a n e n t l y e f f e c t i v e a g a i n s t M a l o r y ' s k n i g h t s . The d i s p l a c e m e n t o f C e l t i c m y t h a l s o o c c u r s t h r o u g h a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h C h r i s t i a n i t y . T h i s , t o o , M a l o r y d e r i v e d f r o m h i s s o u r c e s . No a s p e c t o f t h e A r t h u r i a n l e g e n d seems more t r u l y m y t h i c t h a n t h e k i n g ' s d e p a r t u r e f o r A v a l o n y e t t h e N o i r e C h a p e l l e o f L a M o r t A r t u h a s a n e q u a l c l a i m on A r - t h u r . A s F r a p p i e r p u t s i t , " A r t u s e s t p a r t i a v e c l e s f e e s . 3 6 On c r o i r a i t q u ' i l e c h a p p e a D i e u . " A n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f d i s - C f . P a t c h , pp. 55ff- E t u d e s u r L a M o r t l e R o i A r t u ( P a r i s , 196l), p.251. 1 0 2 p l a c e m e n t o c c u r s i n t h e c a s e o f one o f t h e most p r i m i t i v e m o t i f s , G a w a i n 1 s s o l a r s t r e n g t h , w h i c h M a l o r y d e s c r i b e s a s 3 7 "a g r a c e a n d g y f f t e t h a t a n h o l y man h a d g y v y n hym" ( l 2 l 6 ) . M a l o r y ' s p r e f e r e n c e f o r r e a l i s t i c t r e a t m e n t d o es n o t p r e c l u d e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a l l e g o r i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . The l a r g e r s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n g o o d a n d e v i l w h i c h i s t h e b a s i s o f t h e t r o p o l o g y a n d a n a g o g y i s p r e s e n t i n many e p i s o d e s o f t h e 39 r o m a n t i c q u e s t . Though M a l o r y n e v e r d i r e c t l y s t a t e s t h e d i d a c t i c p u r p o s e w h i c h C a x t o n i m p u t e s t o h i m , n e v e r t h e l e s s h i s t r e a t m e n t o f c h i v a l r y , p r o b a b l y t h e most o r i g i n a l a s p e c t o f h i s w o r k , s u p p o r t s C a x t o n ' s v i e w t h a t " a l i s w r y t o n f o r o u r d o c t r y n e " ( c x l v i ) . The t h e m a t i c b a s i s o f M a l o r y ' s a l l e g o r y i s h i s c o n — 3 7 I n t h i s c a s e , t h e i d e a i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e M i d d l e E n g l i s h L e M o r t e A r t h u r 1 1 . 2 8 0 2 - 7 a n d t h e M o r t A r t u , e d . F r a p - p i ' e r (Geneva, 1 9 5 4 ) , pp. 1 7 2 - 4 , 1 9 8 - 9 . See R. M. L u m i a n s k y , " G a w a i n ' s M i r a c u l o u s S t r e n g t h : M a l o r y ' s Use o f L e M o r t e A r t h u r a n d M o r t A r t u , " E t u d e s A n g l a i s e s X ( 1 9 5 7 ) , 9 7 - 1 0 Q . The f i r s t r e f e r e n c e t o G a w a i n ' s s t r e n g t h i n t h e M o r t e D a r t h u r ( l 6 l ) i s n o t r a t i o n a l i z e d . 3 8 I n t h i s c h a p t e r , a l l e g o r y means t r o p o l o g y , q u i d a g a s . A r e a d i n g o f M a l o r y d o e s n o t i n v i t e t h e k i n d o f c o n - s i s t e n t a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n p r o p a g a t e d b y D. W. R o b e r t - s o n , J r . who v i e w s a l l m e d i e v a l l i t e r a t u r e a s a n a l l e g o r y o f c h a r i t y . See "The D o c t r i n e o f C h a r i t y i n M e d i a e v a l L i t e r a r y G a r d e n s , " S p e c u l u m x x v i , 2 4 - 4 9 a n d "Some M e d i e v a l L i t e r a r y T e r - m i n o l o g y , " S t u d i e s i n P h i l o l o g y X L V I f l , 6 6 9 - 6 9 2 > The d i f f i - c u l t y o f a p p l y i n g R o b e r t s o n ' s a p p r o a c h t o a l l m e d i e v a l l i t - e r a t u r e i s d i s c u s s e d b y J e a n M i s r a h i , " S y m b o l i s m a n d A l l e g o r y i n A r t h u r i a n Romance," Romance P h i l o l o g y X V I I ( 1 9 6 4 ) , 5 5 5 - 5 6 9 . 3 9 F o r J o s e p h C a m p b e l l t h e q u e s t i s t h e monomyth u n d e r - l y i n g a l l m y t h o l o g i e s a n d r e l i g i o n s . S u c h modern a l l e g o r i s t s a s K a f k a a n d H e s s e a l s o u s e i t t o r e v e a l t h e t e s t i n g o f t h e h e r o a n d t o c r i t i c i z e t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y w o r l d . 103 c e p t o f c h i v a l r y , e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e a r c h e t y p a l p a t t e r n s o f q u e s t a n d combat. I n s i m p l e s t t e r m s , t h e y r e p r e s e n t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f c h i v a l r i c i d e a l s t o human p r o b l e m s . The f o r - mer i n v o l v e s a n e p i s o d i c p r o g r e s s t o w a r d s a d e s i r e d g o a l , t h e l a t t e r a r i t u a l i s t i c e x c h a n g e o f b l o w s . A s i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l q u e s t , t h e p r o g r e s s e s a n d b a t t l e s o f romance a r e s y m b o l i c a c - t i o n s , f a c i l i t a t e d b y m y t h i c a g e n t s a n d e x p r e s s e d i n c o s m i c i m a g e s . The m e d i e v a l i d e a l s o f a r i s t o c r a t i c s u p e r i o r i t y a n d c h i v a l r i c v i r t u e w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d t o t h i s k i n d o f meta- p h o r i c a l e x p r e s s i o n . The q u e s t b e g i n s a t c o u r t , t h e s y m b o l i c c e n t r e o f t h e A r t h u r i a n w o r l d . I t may be i n i t i a t e d b y t h e g r a n t i n g o f a b o o n , t h e b a n i s h m e n t o f a k n i g h t — B a l i n , Y v a i n , T r i s t r a m — f o r o f f e n d i n g t h e k i n g , o r t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a s u p e r n a t u r a l a g e n t — a d w a r f , a d a m s e l , a d e e r — w h o may r e p r e s e n t " t h e d e m i u r g i c 4o p o w e r s o f t h e a b y s s . " I n a n y c a s e , t h e h e r o l e a v e s t h e f a m - i l i a r s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a n d e n t e r s t h e m y s t e r i o u s , d a n g e r - f i l l e d f o r e s t . I n romance " t h e p e r p e t u a l s e n s e o f t h e f o r e s t , kl t h e a b s e n c e o f h o r i z o n " s u g g e s t t h e l i m i t l e s s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a d v e n t u r e w h i c h a w a i t t h e q u e s t i n g k n i g h t . B e y o n d t h e f o r e s t t h a t he t r a v e r s e s l i e s y e t a n o t h e r f o r e s t . A s P a l o - m i d e s f o u n d when he p u r s u e d t h e q u e s t i n g b e a s t , t h e f i n a l g o a l ko J o s e p h C a m p b e l l , The H e r o W i t h a T h o u s a n d F a c e s (New Y o r k , 196l), p. 52. kl G e r v a s e M a t t h e w , " I d e a l s o f K n i g h t h o o d i n L a t e F o u r - t e e n t h C e n t u r y E n g l a n d , " S t u d i e s i n M e d i e v a l H i s t o r y P r e s e n t e d t o F r e d e r i c k M a u r i c e P o w i c k e ( O x f o r d , 1948) ,p.362. 1 0 4 i s n e v e r a c h i e v e d , t h e f o r e s t n e v e r s u b d u e d , t h e e n d u r i n g r e s t n e v e r e a r n e d . S o m e t i m e s t h e l a n d s c a p e seems c r o w d e d w i t h c a s t l e s , p a v i l i o n s a n d h e r m i t a g e s , w i t h b e l l i g e r e n t k n i g h t s a n d d a m s e l s i n d i s t r e s s met a t f o r d a n d f o u n t a i n . A t o t h e r t i m e s t h e r e i s a s e n s e o f l i m i t l e s s , u n o c c u p i e d s p a c e , deep shadow, a n d u n s e e n p r e s e n c e s . L i k e C h r e t i e n ' s B r o c e l i a n d e , D a n t e ' s s i n i s t e r f o r e s t a t t h e f o o t o f P u r g a - t o r y , S p e n s e r ' s " f a e r i e l a n d , " t h e o m i n o u s wood o f Cornus, t h e e n c h a n t e d g r o v e i n D r y d e n ' s K i n g A r t h u r , a n d t h e m y s t i c a l 4 2 "sea—wood" o f C h a r l e s W i l l i a m s , M a l o r y ' s f o r e s t s a r e p l a c e s o f m a g i c a n d myth t h a t c a n be g i v e n a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a - t i o n , t h o u g h i n M a l o r y ' s c a s e " d o c t r y n e " s h o u l d n o t be p r e s s e d t o o f a r . P e r i l o u s a n d m y s t e r i o u s , t h e f o r e s t c o n t i n u e s t o a t - t r a c t b e c a u s e i t i s t h e s o u r c e o f power a n d g l o r y ; l i k e t h e f o u n t a i n o f y o u t h i t r e n e w s t h e v i g o u r a n d fame o f a g e l e s s k n i g h t s b y p r e s e n t i n g them w i t h t h e c h a l l e n g e s t h a t mark t h e s t a g e s o f t h e q u e s t . T h e s e d i f f e r f r o m t h e c h a l l e n g e s o f t h e r e l i g i o u s q u e s t b y b e i n g e x t e r n a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n s o n l y . By o v e r c o m i n g e v i l k n i g h t s , g i a n t s , a n d s o r c e r e s s e s , t h e s e c u - l a r k n i g h t e x h i b i t s c h i v a l r i c v i r t u e s w h i c h he a l r e a d y knows t h a t he p o s s e s s e s . He d o es n o t g a i n g r e a t e r s e l f - k n o w l e d g e . The f o r e s t s r e v e a l h i s s t r e n g t h , n o t h i s w e a k n e s s . T h e y e n - a b l e h i m t o p r o g r e s s s o c i a l l y b u t n o t s p i r i t u a l l y . Of p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e a l l e g o r y o f t h e q u e s t See T a l i e s s i n T h r o u g h L o g r e s ( O x f o r d , 1 9 3 8 ) a n d The R e g i o n o f t h e Summer S t a r s ( L o n d o n , 1 9 4 4 ) . 105 43 i s t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e r i g h t way. B o t h C e l t i c and c l a s s i - c a l t r a d i t i o n r e g a r d e d t h e r i g h t h a n d way as t h e f o r t u n a t e way. C h r i s t i a n s a d d u c e d an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t made r i g h t n o t o n l y a d i r e c t i o n b u t a m o r a l c o n d i t i o n . F o r t h e k n i g h t - e r r a n t t h e r i g h t way i s t h e way w h i c h l e a d s t o a d v e n t u r e . The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e j o u r n e y , s e e m i n g l y a m a t t e r o f c h a n c e , i s a c t u a l l y c o n t r o l l e d b y a s u p e r n a t u r a l power. M e r l i n g u i d e s A r t h u r t o t h e l a k e where he f i n d s h i s t a l i s m a n i c sword. Mar- v e l o u s d e e r l u r e h e r o e s t o f a t e f u l m e e t i n g s . Damsels and d w a r f s p o i n t o u t t h e r i g h t way and warn o f i t s d a n g e r s . N a t u r - a l l y , t h e a d m o n i t i o n s n e v e r d e t e r t h e q u e s t e r s i n c e t h e d i f f i - c u l t way i s t h e one t h a t b e s t r e v e a l s h i s p r o w e s s . The k n i g h t s u n q u e s t i o n i n g l y a c c e p t t h e o f f e r e d g u i d a n c e w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r - i n g w h e t h e r i t i s good o r e v i l . S i r T r i s t r a m t r u s t i n g l y a l - lows a d a m s e l o f Morgan l e F a y t o l e a d h i m t o w a r d s a t r & p b e - c a u s e she p r o m i s e s h i m t h a t he s h o l d e wynne g r e t e worshyp o f a k n y g h t a d v e n t u r e s t h a t ded much harme i n a l l t h a t c o n - t r e y (510). So g o v e r n e d b y d e s t i n y i s t h e k n i g h t t h a t h i s i n t e n t i o n s c a n - n o t s u b v e r t h i s f a t e . T a k e t h e c a s e o f A l e x a n d e r t h e Orphan: So was A l y s a u n d i r p u r p o s e d t o r y d e t o London, by t h e c o u n c e y l e o f s i r T r y s t r a m , t o s i r L a u n c e - l o t . And by f o r t u n e he wente a f t i r t h e s e e s y d e , and r o d e wronge (639)• The change o f d i r e c t i o n b r i n g s h i m t o Morgan l e Fay, one o f A r t h u r ' s c h i e f e n emies. By e n c o u n t e r i n g and o v e r c o m i n g h e r e v i l d e s i g n s , A l e x a n d e r i s i n i t i a t e d i n t o a daemonic w o r l d J . R. R e i n h a r d , The S u r v i v a l o f G e i s i n M e d i e v a l Romance ( H a l l e , 1933), P- 1^4. 1 0 6 that proves h i s powers and enables him to restore moral order. Palomides rides "as adventures wolde gyde him" ( 7 6 9 ) or "whereas fortune lad hym" ( 7 8 4 ) , seeking Tristram or follow- ing the mysterious beast. Tristram more than once i s buffeted by a fortuitous storm which blows his ship to a propitious place. An obsessive reluctance to be diverted from the r i g h t way i s exhibited by Lancelot when he refuses to accom- pany Tristram to h i s castle: 'Wyte you well,' seyde s i r Launcelot, 'I may not ryde wyth you, for I have many dedis to do i n other placys, that at t h i s tyme I may nat abyde wyth you.' ( 7 7 8 ) The progress i n search of adventure may be f a c i l i t a t e d not only by creatures whose intent i s good or e v i l , but also by such symbolic a r t i f a c t s as crosses and tombs, shields hung from trees, and challenging basins or horns. The symbol- studded landscape i s one of the chief features of a l l e g o r i c a l expression. When Bagdemagus leaves court i n a rage, his squire finds a cross on which i t i s written that the knight s h a l l never return to court u n t i l he has won a knight of the Round Table "body for body" ( 1 3 2 ) . The words are a prophecy, a geasa and a challenge. The cross which warns Ba l i n against r i d i n g alone to the castle a c t u a l l y spurs him to the comple- tio n of his quest ( 8 8 ) . Gawain, with his guide, has only to wait at a cross i n the forest to become involved i n the p l i g h t of Pelleas ( l 6 4 ) . Obviously, i n secular romance the cross has a c h i v a l r i c rather than a r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e . S i m i l a r l y , Cf. the "chance" shipwrecks i n Swift's allegory, G u l l i v e r ' s Travels. 107 the s i g h t of a copper b a s i n hanging from the bole of a t r e e (255? 265), or an elephant's horn (320), or of great spears and s h i e l d s o u t s i d e a p a v i l i o n (109) e n j o i n s a d e f i n i t e and pr e o r d a i n e d response. I t i s immaterial that one would not f i n d such a p r o f u s i o n of c r o s s e s , tombs, horns, s h i e l d s , dwarfs, and damsels i n a r e a l f o r e s t . In a l l e g o r y , as F l e t c h - er p o i n t s out, "the progress need not be p l a u s i b l e as long as 45 the momentum of symbolic i n v e n t i o n i s g r e a t . " J u s t as the quest i n s e c u l a r romance i s not s p i r i t u a l , 46 the j o u s t s and tournaments are not n e c e s s a r i l y psychomachiae. The d i v i s i o n of combatants i s not always e f f e c t e d on moral l i n e s . I t i s true t h a t at Lonezep, L a n c e l o t and h i s k n i g h t s are opposed by "many knyghtes t h a t hath envy to us," enemies of the Round Table (682). However, c h i v a l r i c convention l e d great k n i g h t s to f i g h t on the side of A r t h u r ' s opponents so as to e q u a l i z e the f o r c e s (735» 1107). T h i s p r a c t i c e r e s u l t s i n the d i s c o m f i t u r e of L a n c e l o t during the G r a i l Quest when the conventions of t e r r e s t r i a l c h i v a l r y no longer apply. The s e c u l a r tournaments are ceremonial r i t u a l s t h a t concentrate c h i v a l r i c f o r c e s i n one p l a c e so that they may p u b l i c l y r e - v e a l t h e i r v i r t u e s . There p u b l i c a c c l a m a t i o n reaches i t s g r e a t e s t i n t e n s i t y f o r the commons j o i n the a r i s t o c r a c y i n an act of mass worship s a n c t i f i e d by the presence of k i n g and l a - d i e s . 45 46 On t h i s type of a l l e g o r y , see C. S. Lewis, The A l l e - gory of Love (New York, 1958), pp. 66-73* 108 J o u s t s l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n when t h e y a r e waged a g a i n s t e v i l k n i g h t s . M a l o r y ' s d e f i n i - t i o n o f a b a d k n i g h t i s w o r t h n o t i n g : 'What?' s e y d e s i r L a u n c e l o t , ' i s he a t h e f f a n d a k n y g h t ? A n d a r a v y s s h e r o f women? He d o t h shame u n t o t h e O r d e r o f K n y g h t h o d e , a n d c o n t r a r y u n t o h i s o t h . H i t i s p y t e t h a t he l y v y t h ! ' (269) The v i c t o r y o f t h e h e r o p u r g e s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t o f e v i l . A r c h e t y p a l v i l l a i n s s u c h a s T a r q u i n a n d B r e u z S a n s P i t i e a r e k i l l e d ; e v i l d o e r s o f a more p l i a b l e n a t u r e a r e c o n v e r t e d . The r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f o r d e r , p o l i t i c a l l y , s o c i a l l y , a n d mor- a l l y , r e s u l t s f r o m t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e q u e s t e r . The c h a n g e i s s y m b o l i z e d b y t h e o p e n i n g o f p r i s o n s , r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a n d s , a n d h o l d i n g o f f e a s t s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e s t o r y o f L a C o t e M a l e T a y l e c o n c l u d e s w i t h t h e f r e e i n g o f S i r P l e n o r y u s ' p r i s o n - e r s , t h e p r o m i s e o f t h e d e f e a t e d k n i g h t s t o a t t e n d t h e n e x t P e n t e c o s t a l f e a s t a t A r t h u r ' s c o u r t w h e r e t h e y w i l l b y " g y d e d a n d r u l e d " a s A r t h u r a n d L a n c e l o t r e q u i r e , a n d t h e b e s t o w a l o f C a s t l e P e n d r a g o n on L a C o t e M a l e T a y l e . When t h e d e f e a t e d k n i g h t s a r e a c c e p t e d a s k n i g h t s o f t h e R o u n d T a b l e , t h e h a r - mony a n d power o f t h e A r t h u r i a n w o r l d a r e i n c r e a s e d . A g r e a t many o f t h e j o u s t s i n t h e M o r t e D a r t h u r i n v o l v e e n c o u n t e r s b e t w e e n f e l l o w s o f t h e R o u n d T a b l e . T h r o u g h t h e i r 48 e x h i b i t i o n s o f p r o w e s s , t h e y p r o v i d e " e x e m p l a r y m o d e l s " o f 47 T h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e i r o n y i n M a l o r y ' s d e f i n i t i o n , i f t h e s u b j e c t o f H i c k s ' b i o g r a p h y i s t h e a u t h o r o f M o r t e D a r - t h u r . 48 The t e r m i s u s e d b y M i r c e a E l i a d e , M y t h a n d R e a l i t y ( L o n d o n , 1963), P- 8. 1 0 9 c h i v a l r i c behaviour. That prowess was the q u a l i t y most ad- mired i n the l a t e r Middle Ages may be i n f e r r e d from the i l l u s - t r a t i o n s i n manuscripts of the prose romances where j o u s t s and 49 tourneys f a r outweigh other s u b j e c t s . The quest and the j o u s t are r i t u a l forms c o n s i s t i n g of symbolic a c t i o n s i n symbol-studded environments. In the 50 f o r e s t , "a f e r t i l e w orld of r i t u a l , " the k n i g h t encounters a number of s i m i l a r o b s t a c l e s . He overcomes each i n the same way, by f e a t s of arms, u n t i l a c l i m a c t i c v i c t o r y enables him to r e t u r n home. Gareth s u c c e s s i v e l y c h a l l e n g e s and d e f e a t s the Black Knight, the Green Knight, the Red Knight and the Blue Knight b e f o r e overcoming the Red Knight of the Red Lands who d i f f e r s from the others o n l y i n being more powerful. A f t e r h i s r e l e a s e from p r i s o n , T r i s t r a m s u c c e s s i v e l y meets S i r Hemy- son, King A r t h u r , S i r Uwayne, the k n i g h t s of S i r Brunys Saunze Pyte, S i r Sagramore, and S i r Dodynas before h i s c l i m a c t i c en- counter w i t h S i r Launcelot ( 5 6 9 ) . The "custom" of a c a s t l e , the r e f u s a l to r e v e a l one's name, the h u r l i n g of i n s u l t s , the blowing of a horn, are stock m o t i f s f o r i n i t i a t i n g combat. The r e v e l a t i o n of i d e n t i t y , the opening of p r i s o n s , the abro- g a t i o n of e v i l customs, and the acceptance of A r t h u r ' s author- i t y r i t u a l l y conclude the combat j u s t as the r e c o g n i t i o n at A r t h u r ' s court r i t u a l l y concludes the quest. R i t u a l i n h i b i t s the e f f e c t s of v i o l e n c e . The great 4 9 See R. S. and L. H. Loomis, A r t h u r i a n Legends i n Medieval A r t , 2 vols. (London ••&nd New York, 19jj8). 50 Northrop Frye, o p . c i t . , p. I83. 110 wounds s u f f e r e d b y t h e h e r o e s a r e a c c e p t e d a s p a r t o f t h e p a t t e r n . T h e y a r o u s e i n t h e r e a d e r n e i t h e r p i t y n o r f e a r . I n t h e w o r l d o f romance t h e y l a c k t r a g i c i m p l i c a t i o n s . I n f a c t , t h e y o f t e n i n i t i a t e a n o t h e r r o u n d o f r i t u a l i s t i c a c - t i o n : T h a n s i r L a u n c e l o t a n d s i r L a C o t e M a l e T a y l e r e p o s e d them t h e r e u n t y l l t h e y w e r e h o l e o f h i r w o u n d i s , a n d t h e r e t h e y h a d mury c h e r e a n d g o o d r e s t e a n d many good gamys, a n d t h e r e w e r e many f a y r e l a d y e s (475)- The p a r a l l e l i s m a n d r e p e t i t i o n o f e p i s o d i c e n c o u n t e r s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e s t r u c t u r e o f romance a r e t h e d i s t i n g u i s h - i n g f e a t u r e s a l s o o f G o t h i c a r t , a r c h i t e c t u r e , a n d p h i l o s o p h y , a l l s y m b o l i c f o r m s . W y l i e S y p h e r p r o p o s e s t h a t a l l t h e a r t s i n c e r t a i n p e r i o d s f a l l u n d e r t h e d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f one a r t . I n t h e Romanesque e r a , a r c h i t e c t u r e was t h e c o n - t r o l l i n g mode. A s a r e s u l t , s c u l p t u r e , p a i n t i n g , a n d l i t e r a - t u r e w e r e d o m i n a t e d b y t h e d e c o r a t i v e p a t t e r n s o f m o n o t o n o u s - l y r e p e a t e d i m a g e s a r r a n g e d i n a h i g h l y s t y l i z e d s e r i e s o f u n i t s , a s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n w h i c h i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p a r e n t i n 51 M a l o r y ' s "Book o f S i r T r i s t r a m de L y o n e s . " I t i s t h e " r h y - t h m - p a t t e r n o f r e c u r r e n c e " w h i c h makes p o s s i b l e t h e a l l e g o r i - c a l a n d s y m b o l i c c o n t e n t o f l i t e r a t u r e a n d a r t . The r i t u a l n a t u r e o f q u e s t a n d combat i s e m p h a s i z e d b y c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y o f d i c t i o n . J o u s t i n g k n i g h t s a r e de- s c r i b e d i n s t e r e o t y p e d s i m i l e s o f t h e e p i c t r a d i t i o n . L i k e H o m e r i c h e r o e s , t h e y a r e a s f i e r c e a s l i o n s o r rams o r w i l d F o u r S t a g e s o f R e n a i s s a n c e S t y l e p p . 30ff. See a l s o E r w i n P a n o f s k y , G o t h i c S c h o l a s t i c i s m ( L a t r o b e , 1951),PP- 45ff. ( G a r d e n C i t y , 1955), A r c h i t e c t u r e a n d I l l b u l l s . L i k e T e u t o n i c h e r o e s , t h e y r u s h t o g e t h e r l i k e w i l d b o a r s a n d s c a t t e r t h e enemy a s a w o l f d o es s h e e p o r a g r e y - 52 h o u n d h a r e s . The c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y o f l a n d s c a p e d e s c r i p t i o n s a n d t h e p a r a t a c t i c m e t h o d o f n a r r a t i o n a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e r h y t h m o f r i t u a l f o r m . M a l o r y ' s f o r m u l a i c d e s c r i p t i o n s o f s c e n e r y , r a r e l y e n l i v e n e d b y a c t u a l o b s e r v a t i o n a n d p a r t i c u - l a r d e t a i l , a r e s e m a n t i c c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e s y m b o l i c a c t i o n s . The e x a m p l e s w i l l s u f f i c e t o show how p a r a t a x i s e m p h a s i z e s t h e s t y l i z e d n a t u r e o f a c t i o n a n d s c e n e : So S i r T r y s t r a m r o d e b y a f o r e y s t e a n d t h a n was he w a r e o f a f a y r e t o u r e b y a m a r y s on t h e t o n e s y d e , a n d on t h a t o t h e r s y d e was a f a y r e medow, a n d t h e r e he sawe t e n k n y g h t e s f y g h t y n g e t o g y — d y r s . . . . A n d t h a n w i t h i n a l y t y l l w h y l e he h a d s l a y n e h a l f f t h e i r e h o r s y s a n d u n h o r s i d them, a n d t h e i r h o r s y s r a n i n t o t h e f e l d y s a n d f o r e s t e s (560). A n d so t h e k n y g h t cam t o t h e w e l l a n d t h e r e he a l y g h t t o r e p o s e hym. A n d a s sone a s he was f r o m e h y s h o r s e t h i s g y a u n t e F a u l e a s com b e - t w y x t e t h y s k n y g h t a n d h y s h o r s e a n d t o k e t h e h o r s e a n d l e p e d u p p o n hym, a n d so f o r t h e w i t h he r o d e u n t o s i r D y n a u n t e a n d t o k e hym b y t h e c o l e r a n d p u l l e d hym a f o r e hym u p p o n h y s h o r s e , a n d w o l d e h a v e s t r y k e n o f h y s h e d e (500). The l a n d s c a p e i s m a r k e d b y c o n v e n t i o n a l i m a g e s t h a t d e n o t e t h e c o n f l i c t o f g ood a n d e v i l . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e p r e s e n c e o f e v i l f o r c e s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e m i s t r e a t m e n t o f v i r t u o u s l a d i e s a n d n o b l e k n i g h t s . The t h o r n s w i t h w h i c h T a r q u i n b e a t s h i s p r i s o n e r s , t h e s p u r t i n g b l o o d o f t h e h e r o e s , k n i g h t s b o u n d w i t h t h e b r i d l e s o f t h e i r own h o r s e s a n d c a r r i e d The l i o n image occurs on pp. 32, 33, 111, 224, 323, 527, 734, 760; the boar image 209, 295, 323, 4 l 5 , 486, 526, 6 4 l , 1070, 1193; the ram image 50, 382, 6 4 l ; b u l l s pp. 267, 474; sheep and wolves, 238, 551, 668, 734, 1211; hares and hounds 210, 222, 525- 112 u n d e r t h e h o r s e ' s b e l l y , s e v e r e d h e a d s h a n g i n g f r o m s a d d l e - bows, m u t i l a t e d b o d i e s i n t h e f o r e s t , k n i g h t s d a n g l i n g b y t h e f e e t f r o m t r e e s a r e r e c o g n i z a b l e m o d u l a t i o n s o f t h e d e - m o n i c w o r l d . T h e i r s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e r e q u i r e s no e x - p l a n a t i o n . The i m a g e s a r e i s o l a t e d , e a c h r e l e v a n t t o a p a r t i c u - l a r s c e n e w h i c h f o r m s a s t a g e i n a p r o g r e s s . T h e y do n o t c o n v e y t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f a s i n g l e d e m o n i c power r a n g e d a g a i n s t t h e R o u n d T a b l e a s do t h e d e m o n i c i m a g e s i n t h e r e - l i g i o u s s e t t i n g . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n i s M o r g a n l e F a y whose b a l e f u l a r t i f a c t s f o r m a r e c u r r i n g m o t i f . P a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h e i m a g e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e n c h a n t r e s s a p p e a r t o c o n n o t e j o y , l o v e , a n d l u x u r y . The m a g i c s h i p seems a p a r a d i s a l s e t t i n g ; t h e s h i e l d w h i c h T r i s t r a m c a r r i e s t o t h e t o u r n a m e n t a t D e u r e R o c k e i s a n a d m i r a b l e a c c o u t r e m e n t . I t i s o n l y when t h e y a r e t e s t e d t h a t t h e d e m o n i c n a t u r e o f M o r g a n ' s g i f t s become a p p a r - e n t . The g o r g e o u s m a n t l e s e t w i t h p r e c i o u s s t o n e s r e d u c e s i t s w e a r e r t o a h e a p o f c o a l s . The " f a y r e h o r n e h a r n e y s t e w i t h g o l d e " s p i l l s i t s c o n t e n t s on t h e a d u l t e r e s s . The c o u n t e r f e i t s w o r d a n d s c a b b a r d f a i l t o p r o t e c t A r t h u r . C l e a r - l y , i n t h e w o r l d o f m a g i c a s i n t h a t o f r e l i g i o n , t h e m o r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s y m b o l i c a r t i f a c t s i s n o t a l w a y s c l e a r t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t . The most c o n s t a n t l y r e c u r r i n g i m a g e s o f t h e r o m a n t i c s e t t i n g a r e t h e arms a n d a r m o u r t h a t s y m b o l i z e c h i v a l r y . K n i g h t h o o d i s c o n f e r r e d a n d a l l e g i a n c e vowed w i t h a s w o r d . L a n c e l o t ' s d i v i d e d l o y a l t y i s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t A r - t h u r k n i g h t e d h i m w h i l e G u e n e v e r e gave h i m h i s s w o r d ( I O 5 8 ) . 113 T r i s t r a m a n d L a n c e l o t i n d i c a t e t h e i r m u t u a l r e g a r d b y y i e l d - i n g t h e i r s w o r d t o one a n o t h e r (569)- The n a k e d s w o r d t h a t P e l l e a s l a y s a c r o s s t h e t h r o a t s o f G a w a i n a n d E t t a r d e i s a t o k e n o f u n f u l f i l l e d v e n g e a n c e (170). R e v e r s e d s h i e l d s l i k e t h o s e h a n g i n g b e f o r e t h e C h a p e l P e r i l o u s s y m b o l i z e d e f e a t a n d demand r e v e n g e (280). The v i c t i m s o f t h e R e d K n i g h t o f t h e R e d L a n d s h a n g f r o m t h e t r e e s w i t h t h e i r s w o r d s a n d s h i e l d s a b o u t t h e i r n e c k s a s a mark o f d i s h o n o u r (319)- T r i s t r a m ' s s h i e l d o u t s i d e h i s p a v i l i o n a n n o u n c e s h i s d e s i r e t o j o u s t 5 3 (403). L a C o t e M a l e T a y l e ' s a c c e p t a n c e o f a d e a d k n i g h t ' s s h i e l d d e n o t e s h i s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e d e a d k n i g h t ' s q u e s t . E a c h s y m b o l c a n be d e p e n d e d on t o e v o k e a r i t u a l i s t i c r e s p o n s e . No c o n v e n t i o n i s more common t h a n t h e u s e o f h e r a l d i c d e v i c e s a s s y m b o l s o f i d e n t i t y o r d i s g u i s e . The ch a n g e f r o m t h e age o f h e r o i s m t o t h e age o f c h i v a l r y b r o u g h t a b o u t a cha n g e i n c h i v a l r i c a r t : . . . f r o m t h e m a r t i a l a u s t e r i t y o f p r a c t i c a l u s e i t p a s s e d i n t o t h e d e c o r a t i v e r i c h n e s s o f a d o r n - ment a n d d i s p l a y . . . h e r a l d r y r e a c h e d a new s t a g e a s t h e mark gf t h e i n d i v i d u a l d i s p l a y i n g h i s i n - d i v i d u a l i t y . The s y m b o l o f a s h i e l d o f c h a l l e n g e h a n g i n g f r o m a t r e e a p p e a r s a s t h e h e r a l d i c m o t t o on t h e s e a l s o f Thomas, L o r d o f H o l a n d a n d Wake ( c a . 1353) a n d Thomas o f W o o d s t o c k (1385). 5 \ J o a n E v a n s , E n g l i s h A r t 1307-lA6l ( O x f o r d , 19^9), p. 56. I l k M a l o r y ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f a g r e e n s h i e l d w i t h a l i o n o f g o l d (515)) a s h i e l d o f s i l v e r a n d b l a c k b a n d s (587), a s h i e l d i n d e n t e d w i t h w h i t e a n d b l a c k (536), a b e n d e d s h i e l d o f a z u r e (721) r e f l e c t a d e v e l o p m e n t o f h e r a l d i c d e c o r a t i o n t h a t o c - 55 c u r r e d h i s t o r i c a l l y - When L a n c e l o t s e n d s G a h e r i s t o r e - l e a s e T a r q u i n ' s p r i s o n e r s , he a l r e a d y knows t h e i r i d e n t i t y f r o m t h e i r s h i e l d s h a n g i n g on a t r e e o u t s i d e t h e c a s t l e (268). A t t h e t o u r n a m e n t a t S u r l u s e , P a l o m i d e s " d i s g u i s e s " h i m s e l f b y b e a r i n g t h e q u e s t i n g b e a s t on h i s s h i e l d a n d t r a p - p i n g s (656). A l l e g o r i c a l s h i e l d s g ave a more d e v i o u s i n d i c a - 56 t i o n o f a k n i g h t ' s i d e n t i t y . H e r a l d i c s y m b o l i s m was c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o t h e s y m b o l - i s m o f c o l o u r s w h i c h h a d h i e r a r c h i c , r e l i g i o u s , m o r a l , a n d 57 e m o t i o n a l v a l u e s i n t h e l a t e M i d d l e A g e s . B l a c k was t h e c o l o u r o f m o u r n i n g . The K i n g o f F r a n c e a l o n e d e s i g n a t e d h i s r a n k a n d e m o t i o n a l s t a t e b y w e a r i n g r e d i n b e r e a v e m e n t . The b l a c k s h i e l d o f t h e C h e v a l i e r M a i F a i t a n d t h e b l a c k s a m i t e The f i n a l d e v e l o p m e n t was t h e i m i t a t i o n i n r e a l l i f e o f l i t e r a t u r e . See " L a f o r m e q uon t e n o i t d es t o u r n o y s e t a s - s e m b l e e s a u temps du r o y u r t e r p e n d r a g o n e t du r o y A r t u s , " e d . E. S a n d o z , S p e c u l u m X I X 19kk), 389-420, w h e r e l i n e d r a w- i n g s o f t h e one h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y s h i e l d s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e k n i g h t s o f t h e Round T a b l e a r e r e p r o d u c e d . M o r e t h a n a h u n - d r e d y e a r s e a r l i e r a t M o r t i m e r ' s R o u n d T a b l e a t D e d f o r d i n 1328, t h e k n i g h t l y p a r t i c i p a n t s h a d u s e d d e v i c e s a t t r i b u t e d t o A r t h u r ' s k n i g h t s . 56 R i c h a r d Beauchamp c a r r i e d a l l e g o r i c a l s h i e l d s i n t h e t o u r n a m e n t a t C a l a i s i n lk22. C a . 1458 t h e h e r a l d S i c i l y w r o t e a m a n u a l on t h i s s u b j e c t , L e B l a s o n d es C o u l e u r s . See H u i z i n g a , pp. 264-273- 115 c o v e r s o f E l a i n e ' s f u n e r a l b a r g e h a v e o b v i o u s e m o t i o n a l s i g - n i f i c a n c e . B l a c k was a l s o t h e c o l o u r o f e v i l . I n b l a c k a r - mour on a b l a c k h o r s e K i n g M a r k l u r k s a t t h e P e r i l o u s L a k e . The b l a c k f a c e o f G a r l o n c o n n o t e s h i s e v i l d i s p o s i t i o n . B l a c k arms a n d a r m o u r a r e w o r n b y t h e demon k n i g h t s a t t h e C h a p e l P e r i l o u s a n d b y P a l o m i d e s i n h i s p a g a n s t a t e . A n - o t h e r o m i n o u s c o l o u r was r e d , a c o l o u r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d e a t h 58 i n C e l t i c m y t h . G r e e n c o u l d be n o t o n l y t h e c o l o u r o f l i f e b u t t h e s y m b o l o f t e r r o r a n d d e c a y . M a l o r y ' s most b r i l l i a n t u s e o f c o l o u r o c c u r s i n t h e T a l e o f G a r e t h w here t h e v i v i d a c c o u t r e m e n t s o f t h e h e r o ' s s u c c e s s i v e o p p o n e n t s i n t h e q u e s t f o r L a d y L y o n e s s e a n d t h e m a g i c a l c o l o u r s o f h i s own a r m o u r a t t h e t o u r n a m e n t f o r m a n i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t h e a e s t h e t i c p a t t e r n . The c o l o u r s h a v e o b v i o u s s y m b o l i c i m p l i c a t i o n s . A f t e r L a n c e l o t h a s k n i g h t e d h i m , B e a u m a i n s r i d e s w i t h L y n e t u n t i l d a r k n e s s a p p r o a c h e s . So a t t h e l a s t e t h e y com t o a b l a k l a u n d e , a n d t h e r e was a b l a k h a u t h o r n e , a n d t h e r e o n h y n g e a b a n e r , a n d on t h e o t h e r s y d e t h e r e h y n g e a b l a k s h y l d e , a n d b y h i t s t o o d e a b l a k s p e a r e , g r e t e a n d l o n g e , a n d a g r e t e b l a k h o r s e c o v e r e d w y t h s y l k , a n d a b l a k s t o n e f a s t e b y . A l s o t h e r e s a t e a k n y g h t a l l armed i n b l a k h a r n e y s e , a n d h i s name was c a l l e d t h e K n y g h t o f t h e B l a k L a u n d i s (302- 303) - C f . A. C. L. B r o w n , The O r i g i n o f t h e G r a i l L e g e n d ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . 19^3), p. 171: "An i d e a t h a t t h e d e v i l i s r e d o r p e r h a p s b l a c k i s v e r y o l d , a n d t h e s y m b o l i s m o f t h e s e c o l o u r s i s w i d e s p r e a d . . . . R e d more commonly t h a n b l a c k i s a s y m b o l f o r t h e l a n d o f t h e d e a d . " Anne R o s s i n P a g a n C e l t i c B r i t a i n ( L o n d o n , 1967)5 P« 327 n o t e s t h a t i n C e l t i c m y t h r e d h o r s e m e n a r e omens o f d i s a s t e r . A r t h u r D i c k s o n f i n d s t h a t t h e r e d a n d b l a c k a r m o u r i n t h e D u t c h L a n c e l o t a r e mar- c h e n s y m b o l s f o r d e a t h . See V a l e n t i n e a n d O r s o n (New Y o r k , 1929)) S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h a n d C o m p a r a t i v e L i t e r a t u r e , X C I p, 9ty» 1 1 6 The s c e n e i s i n t e n d e d t o c h i l l b o t h t h e h e r o a n d t h e r e a d e r . The n e x t o p p o n e n t i s " a l l i n g r e n e , b o t h h i s h o r s e a n d h i s h a r n e y s e . " On a g r e e n h o r n he b l o w s " t h r e e d e d l y m o t i s " ( 3 0 5 ) . The t h i r d o p p o n e n t i s a l l i n r e d , t h e c o l o u r o f b l o o d , v i o l e n c e , a n d d e a t h . The f o u r t h w e a r s i n d i g o ; h i s p a v i l i o n a n d " a l l maner o f t h y n g t h a t t h e r e i s a b o u t e , men a n d women a n d h o r s i s , t r a p p e d s h y l d i s a n d s p e r y s , was a l l o f t h e c o l o u r e o f i n d e " (311), a s i g n o f e v i l . The f i n a l o p p o n e n t i s most t e r r i f y i n g o f a l l : Than'-.the Rede K n y g h t o f t h e Rede L a u n d i s armed hym h a s t e l y a n d t o o b a r o u n s s e t t e on h i s s p o r y s on h i s h e y l s , a n d a l l was b l o o d — r e d e : h i s a r - mour, s p e r e , a n d s h y l d e . . .and t h a n t h e y b r o u g h t hym a r e d e s p e r e a n d a r e d e s t e d e ( 3 2 1 ) . W h i l e e v i l k n i g h t s o r t h o s e who w i s h e d t o d i s g u i s e t h e m s e l v e s g e n e r a l l y w o r e b l a c k o r r e d , w h i t e was a c o l o u r f a v o u r e d b y t h e h e r o e s . I w a i n ' s w h i t e s h i e l d , d e f i l e d t h o u g h i t m i g h t be b y mud, m a r k s h i m a s one o f t h e e l e c t . The w h i t e s h i e l d s o f t h e Queen's k n i g h t s ( 1 1 2 1 ) i n d i c a t e t h e i r c h i v a l - r i c p r o m i s e . When L a n c e l o t f i r s t m e e t s T r i s t r a m , G u e n e v e r e ' s l o v e r i s " a l l i n w h y g h t " ( 5 6 8 ) . I n I r e l a n d L a B e a l I s o d e p r o v i d e s T r i s t r a m w i t h a w h i t e h o r s e a n d arms, "and he cam so i n t o t h e f e l d e a s h i t h a d bene a b r y g h t a n g e l l " ( 3 8 7 ) - The s y m b o l i s m o f c o l o u r was i m p o r t a n t i n t h e c o d e o f l o v e . G r e e n s i g n i f i e d new l o v e o r amorous p a s s i o n , b l u e 5 9 f i d e l i t y , g r e y a n d t a w n y s a d n e s s , a n d y e l l o w h o s t i l i t y . The f o u r q u e e n s who t r y t o s e d u c e L a n c e l o t a r e s h a d e d b y a J o a n E v a n s , D r e s s i n M e d i e v a l F r a n c e ( O x f o r d , 1 9 5 2 ) , pp. 4 2 - 4 3 . 117 c l o t h o f g r e e n s i l k (256). when t h e g r e a t l o v e r s T r i s t r a m a n d I s o l d e go w i t h t h e i r r e t i n u e t o L o n e z e p , t h e y a r e " a r - r a y e d a l l i n g r e n e t r a p u r s " (732). S e a s o n a l , h i e r a r c h i c a l , a n d a morous s y m b o l i s m a r e c o m b i n e d i n t h e c o s t u m e s t h a t Guene— v e r e d e c r e e s f o r t h e M a y i n g p a r t y : 'And I w arne y o u t h a t t h e r e be none o f y o u b u t he be w e l l h o r s e d , a n d t h a t y e a l l be c l o t h e d a l l i n g r y n e , o t h i r i n s y l k e o t h i r i n c l o t h e ' (1120). A h o r s e ' s c o l o u r h a d s y m b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e i n l i t e r a t u r e a n d l i f e . The d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r o f c o l o u r , a s s y m b o l s o f p r e s t i g e , was w h i t e , p i e b a l d , s k e w b a l d , h o r s e s w i t h w h i t e f a c e s and f e e t , h o r s e s o f o t h e r c o l o u r s . ^ H o w e v e r , war h o r s e s m i g h t be a n y c o l o u r s i n c e t h e i r s i z e a n d p u r p o s e w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c a - t i o n s o f c l a s s . A t t h e T o u r n a m e n t o f L o n e z e p t h e f a c t t h a t T r i s t r a m ' s p a r t y w e r e a l l d r e s s e d a l i k e i n g r e e n makes i t i m - p o s s i b l e f o r L a n c e l o t , t h e c a p t a i n o f t h e o p p o s i n g team, t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e them b y means o f t h e i r a r m s . He d o e s so b y r e f - e r e n c e t o t h e i r h o r s e s . He w i l l c o u n t e r w i t h t h e g r e e n k n i g h t on t h e w h i t e h o r s e , E c t o r w i t h t h e one on t h e dun h o r s e , a n d A r t h u r w i t h t h e r i d e r o f t h e g r e y h o r s e (735)- I n t h i s c a s e , M a l o r y ' s u s e o f c o l o u r i s r e a l i s t i c r a t h e r t h a n s y m b o l i c . He d o e s n o t f o l l o w t h e F r e n c h s o u r c e i n m o u n t i n g T r i s t r a m on a v e r t d e s t r i e r . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e w h i t e h o r s e s t h a t L a n - c e l o t a n d T r i s t r a m o f t e n r i d e may b e l o n g t o a n a l l e g o r i c a l m y t h i c t r a d i t i o n . "To r i d e a w h i t e h o r s e i s t o b r i n g a new 6l k i n g d o m on e a r t h o f j o y a n d w i s d o m . " ^ L e o n G a u t i e r , op. c i t . , p. 333- 6 i G e r t r u d e J o b e s , D i c t i o n a r y o f M y t h o l o g y , F o l k l o r e a n d S y m b o l s (New Y o r k , 196l), p. 1678. 118 A s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f c l a s s a n d o c c u p a t i o n t h e m e d i - e v a l h o r s e was a n a l o g o u s t o t h e modern a u t o m o b i l e . E u s t a c h e Deschamps i l l u s t r a t e d t h e u s a g e i n v e r s e : T r o i s m a n i e r e s t r u i s de c h e v a u x q u i s o n t : P o u r l a j o u s t e , l e s u n s nommez d e s t r i e r s ; H a u l z e t p u i s s a n s , e t q u i t r e s g r a n t f o r c e o n t E t l e s moyens s o n t a p p e l l e z c o u r s i e r s ; C e u l s v o n t p l u s t o t p o u r g u e r r e e t s o n t l e g i e r s , E t l e s d e r r a i n s s o n t r o n c i n s ; e t p l u s b a s C h e v a u l x communs q u i t r o p f o n t de d e b a s , C e u x l a b o u r s v o n t , c ' e s t de g e n r e v i l l a i n . No s y m b o l h a d g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e f o r M a l o r y t h a n g o l d . He o f t e n a d d s t o h i s s o u r c e s t h e q u a l i t a t