UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The influences of the Holy Sepulchre on architecture in the Mediterranean basin from the fourth to the.. Schutt, Karl Robert 1970

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THE INFLUENCES OJT THE HOLY SEPULCHRE ON ARCHITECTURE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN BASIN FROM THE FOURTH TO THE END OF THE SEVENTH CENTURIES  by KARL ROBERT SCHUTT B.F.A. U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, 1964  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In the Department of Art History  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1970  In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  Library  further  for  degree shall  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  this  thesis  in  at  University  the  make  that  it  purposes  for  freely  permission may  representatives. thesis  partial  be  It  financial  for  of  Columbia,  British  gain  Department Columbia  for  extensive by  the  understood  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  of  available  granted  is  fulfilment  shall  Head  be  requirements  reference copying  that  not  the  of  agree  and  of my  I  this  or  allowed  without  that  study. thesis  Department  copying  for  or  publication my  ABSTRACT  The  Holy Sepulchre  t i n e from 327 t o 3 3 5 .  i n Jerusalem  was b u i l t by Constan-  I t c o n s i s t e d of a b a s i l i c a , the Martyrion,  and a s m a l l e d i c u l a over the tomb o f C h r i s t , known as the Tegurium.  By t h e end o f the f o u r t h c e n t u r y a Rotunda was b u i l t  over t h e e d i c u l a .  T h i s complex was q u i t e unique i n C h r i s t i a n  a r c h i t e c t u r e from t h e f o u r t h t o t h e end o f seventh  c e n t u r i e s but  t h i s paper r e v e a l s t h a t i t was n o t a p o p u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r a l group t o serve as a model f o r o t h e r churches basin.  i n the Mediterranean  Only one b u i l d i n g , t h e C a t h e d r a l o f Ravenna, b u i l t by  U r s i a n and d e d i c a t e d t o t h e " R e s u r r e c t i o n " , can be termed a "copy", and i t o n l y d u p l i c a t e d c e r t a i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s from t h e M a r t y r i o n , w h i l e the Rotunda was c o m p l e t e l y Only t h r e e b u i l d i n g s , a l l r o t u n d a s ,  ignored.  seemed t o have been  d e r i v e d from t h e A n a s t a s i s Rotunda; S. Stefano Rotondo i n Rome, SS, Karpos and P o l y k a r p o s o f the Rock i n Jerusalem.  i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e and the moslem Dome Although  Medieval  copies of t h i s  build-  i n g were o c t a g o n a l i n p l a n , no o c t a g o n a l c o p i e s o f the Rotunda were c o n s t r u c t e d b e f o r e the moslem i n v a s i o n s i n the seventh century. No  a r c h i t e c t u r a l r e p r o d u c t i o n s o f t h e Tegurium a r e known  but the b u i l d i n g may have s e r v e d as a model f o r r e l i q u a r i e s . The  n i n t h c e n t u r y complex o f S.. Stefano  (San S e p o l c r o )  i n Bologna d u p l i c a t e d the group o f b u i l d i n g s a t the Holy Sepu l c h r e and, a l t h o u g h a number o f f i f t h t o e i g h t h c e n t u r y  church  complexes have b u i l d i n g s grouped i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , no c o p i e s  from the B y z a n t i n e p e r i o d are known. B u i l d i n g s on the s i t e o f C h r i s t ' s tomb were examined i n t u r n by s t u d y i n g  illustrations  and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f them.  Churches throughout the M e d i t e r r a n e a n b a s i n were then compared t o the r e s t o r a t i o n s o f the b u i l d i n g s i n J e r u s a l e m t o determine i f t h e r e were any resemblances.  I f a b u i l d i n g only d u p l i c a t e d a  number o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s o r the d e d i c a t i o n from the H o l y Sepulchre i t was c o n s i d e r e d  t o be a d e r i v a t i v e .  copy, both f e a t u r e s had t o be e v i d e n t  To be a  i n the secondary s t r u c t u r e .  TABLE OF CONTENTS  L I S T OF ILLUSTRATIONS  i  INTRODUCTION CHAPTER  I.  CHAPTER I I .  i  i 1 ,6  The Tegurium The M a r t y r i o n  18  CHAPTER I I I . The A n a s t a s i s  32  CHAPTER IV.  The Holy Sepulchre  CONCLUSIONS  63  Complex  73  .  77  FOOTNOTES... SOURCES OF ILLUSTRATIONS  99  BIBLIOGRAPHY  105  APPENDIX  115 A Square P l a n . B Square P l a n w i t h C i r c u l a r C Cross  Interior.  Plan.  D Rotunda P l a n E Octagonal F Basilica  Plan. Plan.  G B u i l d i n g Complex. MAP. J e r u s a l e m . ILLUSTRATIONS  500-700 A.D  137 138  ILLUSTRATIONS  Figure 1.  Illustration..  V i e w o f t h e modern  2.  Ivory. Aries.  Buckle  of St. Cesarius.  3.  Ivory.  Casket panel.  4.  Ivory.  Trivulzio  5.  Ivory.  Panel.  6.  Illustration. "La Conocchia", Santa Maria Vetere, I t a l y .  7.  Plan. T e g u r i u m drawn i n 1586 f r o m Z u a l l a r d o , I I d e v o t i s s i m o v i a g g i o d i Gerusalemme, (Roma, 1 5 8 7 p . 1 8 9 .  8.  Plan.  British  diptych.  Tegurium. N o t r e Dame-la M a j o r  Museum, L o n d o n .  Milan.  N a t i o n a l Museum, M u n i c h .  Arculf's plan  of the Holy  Sepulchre.  a)  V i e n n a Codex ( C o d . 4 5 8 , f o 4 v ) .  b)  P a r i s Manuscript  c)  Scheme o f A r c u l f ' s p l a n b y H e i t z .  9.  Wood.  10.  Manuscript. Florence.  11.  Silver.  12.  Medalion.  13.  Metal.  Coptic  14.  Stone.  Stone R e l i e f .  15.  Lead.  Reliquary.  ( B . N . L a t . 13-048, f o 4 c ) .  S a n c t a S a n c t o r u m , Rome.  R a b b u l a Codex.  Perm P l a t e . Sacrifice  Laurentian  Hermitage, of Isaac.  Monza.  d)  Bobbio.  e)  Monza.  Mosaic.  Trier.  Ampullae. b)  17.  Leningrad.  Dumbarton Oaks, Washington.  Monza.  Glass.  Library,  censor.  a)  16.  Capus  Cup.  B a r d o Museum,  c)  Tunis.  S. A p o l l i n a r e N u o v o , R a v e n n a .  Monza.  (ii") ILLUSTRATIONS  (continued)  Figure 18.  19.  Coins and R e l i e f . a)  Divus Romulus (309) b)  Trebonianus G a l l u s and V a l u s i a n  c)  Maximianus.  d)  Maxentius i n honor Constantius Chlorus.  e)  Maxentius - "Tomb" of Maximianus.  f)  Roman r e l i e f ,  Sacred  Portal.  a)  Mosaic.  Beth A l p h a , b)  Painting.  20.  Plan.  S. John.  Ephesus.  21.  Plan.  Martyrium  o f Sichem by A r c u l f .  22.  Plan.  S. S a v i o u r .  23.  Plan.  Church No. 3.  24.  Illustration.  25.  Plan.  Plataniti,  Greece.  i l Anderin.  Tomb a t Hass.  Tomb o f B i z z o s  a)  Elevation  b)  Plan.  26.  Illustration.  Tomb a t A l i f .  27.  Illustration.  Necropolis.  28.  Illustration.  Tomb.  29.  Metal.  30.  The s i t e o f the Holy Sepulchre  31.  Dura Europus.  Reliquary.  Bagawat,  Kharga,  Section.  Egypt.  Egypt.  Aachen.  a)  P l a n made i n 1937.  b)  P l a n made i n 1893  c)  P l a n made i n 1962.  Reconstructions  c)  i n Jerusalem.  o f t h e Holy Sepulchre  plan.  a)  R e c o n s t r u c t i o n by Conant, c a . 335.  b)  R e c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h Rotunda by Conant.  c) ;  R e c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r 614-1009 by V i n c e n t .  ILLUSTRATIONS  (continued)  Figure '  32.  33.  d)  R e c o n s t r u c t i o n by Krautheimer, c a . 3 3 5 .  e)  R e c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h Rotunda by Krautheimer.  f)  R e c o n s t r u c t i o n by W i l l i s .  g)  R e c o n s t r u c t i o n by De Vogue.  Mosaic.  S. Pudenziana.  Rome.  a)  Apse view.  b)  D e t a i l of l e f t  c)  R e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r t i s t ' s p o s i t i o n f o r the mosaic.  Mosaic.  side.  Map o f J e r u s a l e m .  Madaba.  a)  F u l l map.  b)  D e t a i l o f Holy  c)  Conant's r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f view.  34-.  Stone.  35.  Mosaic.  Sarcophagus.  Sepulchre.  L a t e r a n Museum, Rome.  Views o f Jerusalem.  a)  S. V i t a l e , Ravenna  b)  S. M a r i a Maggiore, Rome.  c)  S. G i o v a n n i L a t e r a n , Rome.  d)  S. Lorenzo l e Mura  e)  S t . P e t e r ' s , Rome.  fuori  36.  Illustration.  37.  Reconstruction of the Martyrion  Hemisphairion.  38.  Plan.  Bethlehem.  a)  E x t e r i o r view.  Basilica,  Church o f t h e N a t i v i t y . P l a n o f 4-th C. w i t h 6 t h C. a d d i t i o n s .  39.  Plan.  40.  P l a n ( I s o m e t r i c ) . S. Croce P l a c i d i a , Ravenna.  S. Croce  b)  i n Gerusalemme.  Trier.  Elevation Rome.  and Mausoleum o f G a l l a  cm ILLUSTRATIONS  (continued)  Figure 41.  Plan. a)  42.  Stone.  B a s i l i c a Ursiana  (Cathedral).  Plan.  b)  Elevation.  b)  Southern G a u l , A r i e s  Sarchopagi.  a)  Vatican B a s i l i c a , Rome.  c)  Sarcophagus o f S. C e l s o . Milan.  43.  Ivory. Basilewsky London.  44.  Plan.  Situla.  V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum,  A r c u l f ' s p l a n o f t h e Church o f t h e A s c e n s i o n .  a)  V i e n n a Codex (Cod. 458, f o I I v ) .  b)  P a r i s Manuscript  (B.N. L a t . 13.048, f o 1 4 r ) .  45.  Plan.  Church o f the A s c e n s i o n .  46.  Plan.  C i r c u l a r Roman b u i l d i n g s .  c)  Roman.  b)  Tholos.  c)  Roman  d)  Roman.  Plan.  Rotunda.  Beisan.  48.  Plan.  Rotunda.  Fa'lui.  49.  Plan.  Damous e l - K a r i t a .  50.  Plan.  Rotunda.  51.  Plan.  S. C o s t a n z a .  a)  Epidaurus.  Cartage.  Algezares. Rome.  Plan  b)  P l a n and I l l u s t r a t i o n . Nocera I n f e r i o r e . a)  53.  Mount o f O l i v e s .  a)  47.  52.  Ravenna.  Plan  B a p t i s t r y o f S. M a r i a b)  I l l u s t r a t i o n and P l a n . a)  C o r r i d o r view.  b)  Plan.  Rotunda.  Elevation.  Engraving  Baptistry.  Djemila  Maggiore.  from ca.1770. (Cuicul).  ILLUSTRATIONS  (continued)  Figure 54.  Plan.  S. S t e f a n o R o t o n d o .  55.  Plan.  Domus a u r e a .  56.  Rome.  Antioch.  a)  M o s a i c o f Domus a u r e a .  b)  Plan.  Plan.  Tomb o f t h e V i r g i n .  Yakto.  V a l l e y of Joshaphat,  Jerusalem. 57.  Plan.  Church o f Theodokos.  58.  Plan.  Octagon.  59.  Plan.  S. S i m e o n S t y l i t e s .  Tell  P l a n c a . 470.  b)  Reconstruction  Plan.  61.  Plan  62.  Plan.  Mir'ayeh.  63.  Plan.  Midjleyya.  64.  Plan.  S. G e o r g e .  SS. S e r g i u s (Isometric).  a) 65.  Plan.  Plan.  67.  and Bacchus.  a)  b)  Elevation.  b)  Plan.  Boara.  Plan.  Gerasa. b)  and P l a n .  68.  Plan.  S. S t e f a n o .  69.  Plan.  Church Complex.  70.  Illustration.  71.  Plan.  Elevation.  Dome o f t h e R o c k .  E x t e r i o r view  Basilica  Ravenna.  Ezra.  Elevation  Illustration  Sem'an.  Constantinople.  S. V i t a l e .  S t . John t h e B a p t i s t . a)  Kal'at  (Isometric).  Plan. Cathedral.  a) 66.  Hum.  a)  60.  Garizim.  b)  (S. Sepolcro).  Jerusalem.  Plan. Bologna.  Gerasa.  View from t h e a i r . and complex.  Djemila..  Tipasa.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would l i k e t o thank Mr. I a n McNairn f o r t h e h e l p he has g i v e n me i n c a r r y i n g out t h i s study and t o my mother, who,  through f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , has made t h i s work p o s s i b l e .  -1-  INTRODUCTION The Holy Sepulchre, b u i l t i n Jerusalem over C h r i s t ' s tomb, was one of the most important church complexes to be constructed i n the Byzantine Period from the fourth to the eighth centuries.  B u i l t i n the fourth century as a martyrium  or monument to the death and r e s u r r e c t i o n of C h r i s t , the Holy Sepulchre, though a l t e r e d today, marks the s i t e of the tomb cave.  Por sixteen centuries the tomb and Calvary have been pro-  tected f o r v i s i t s by p i l g r i m s , and, to t h i s day, C h r i s t i a n s from around the world, continue to t r a v e l to the Holy Land just to see t h i s great C h r i s t i a n monument. Por the C h r i s t i a n world of the fourth century i t not only stood as a symbol of C h r i s t ' s v i c t o r y over death but also of the v i c t o r y of C h r i s t i a n i t y over years of persecution by the Romans.  L e g a l i z a t i o n of C h r i s t i a n i t y i n 313 not only per-  mitted the adherents to p r a c t i s e t h e i r f a i t h without fear of punishment, but they could now b u i l d proper sanctuaries i n which to worship t h e i r  God.  I t was Constantine the Great who was responsible f o r f i n d ing the tomb and having a church b u i l t around i t , but there i s some reason to believe that h i s actions were not as devout as the construction of such a great monument might  suggest.  His struggle to power was not easy and upon becoming sole emperor he was faced with a major task of u n i f y i n g the empire.  -2-  Since C h r i s t i a n i t y was popular and widespread,  i t s legaliz-  ation would, and d i d , help secure h i s p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n . In the process of gaining power, Constantine had to defeat Emperors Maximian and Galerius. feated Maximian's son, Maxentius,  Achieving that, he de-  at the M i l v i a n Bridge i n 312.  Even then he was not sole r u l e r , not u n t i l the d e a t h s o f l L i c i h i u s i n 324.  A f t e r that Constantine was  g l o r i f i e d by both the r e -  l i g i o u s and the secular elements of s o c i e t y as a great r u l e r . Shortly a f t e r Constantine had gained power, he to mark the great r e l i c s and s i t e s of Christendom.  sought  One  of these  s i t e s was the tomb, another the place of C h r i s t ' s b i r t h and a t h i r d , the place of C h r i s t ' s ascension.  Construction on these  s i t e s probably began i n 327 and by 335 the Holy Sepulchre  was  ready f o r i t s dedication. Believers must have come from a l l parts of the C h r i s t i a n world f o r September 13, 335> to see the great event. Of course there was no way  of knowing i f the tomb of  C h r i s t had been found when Constantine's workmen f i r s t discovered it.  For two centuries the cave had been covered by a pagan  temple.  In the process of destroying t h i s temple the cave  was  found below the ground and was declared to be the one used to contain C h r i s t ' s body.  I t may very w e l l have been so.  I t seems  u n l i k e l y that the C h r i s t i a n community i n Jerusalem would have forgotten such a sacred spot and yet, even today, the a u t h e n t i c i t y of t h i s cave as the tomb of C h r i s t i s disputed. Once the tomb was marked by the Holy Sepulchre, i t was recognized as the s p i r i t u a l centre of the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h , as  -3-  w e l l as t h e p h y s i c a l c e n t r e o f God's u n i v e r s e .  Prom t h e  seventh t o e l e v e n t h c e n t u r i e s the exact c e n t r e of the u n i v e r s e was marked by a s p o t known as t h e "Omphalos" on t h e f l o o r between t h e A n a s t a s i s and t h e M a r t y r i u m So i t was  church  (Pig.  31c).  t h a t C h r i s t i a n s t h r o u g h o u t the w o r l d l o o k e d t o  J e r u s a l e m as t h e c e n t r e o f t h e i r p h y s i c a l and s p i r i t u a l w o r l d s . I t i s not d i f f i c u l t S e p u l c h r e was  t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e n , why  the Holy  such an i m p o r t a n t b u i l d i n g i n t h e M i d d l e Ages  o r why  t h e Crusades  were l a u n c h e d t o f r e e i t from t h e A r a b s .  I t was  d u r i n g t h e M e d i e v a l P e r i o d t h a t c h u r c h e s were b u i l t  t h r o u g h o u t Europe i n t e n t i o n a l l y d e s i g n e d t o copy t h e i n Jerusalem.  R i c h a r d K r a u t h e i m e r i n an a r t i c l e  " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o an  'Iconography  church  titled  of Mediaeval A r c h i t e c t u r e ' "  p u b l i s h e d by t h e Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e i n  1942  has i d e n t i f i e d many o f t h e s e c o p i e s d e r i v e d from t h e H o l y S e p u l c h r e and p a r t i c u l a r l y from t h e A n a s t a s i s .  His research,  however, does n o t c o n s i d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e s o f t h e H o l y S e p u l c h r e on a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n a r e a p r i o r t o t h e e i g h t h century.  T h i s t h e n , i s the reason f o r u n d e r t a k i n g the p r e s e n t  study. Because t h e H o l y S e p u l c h r e was  such an i m p o r t a n t  church  i n t h e C h r i s t i a n w o r l d and because c h u r c h c o n s t r u c t i o n a f t e r t h e l e g a l i z a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n i t y was  flourishing  throughout  t h e Empire i t w o u l d seem t h a t a r c h i t e c t s would have l o o k e d t o C o n s t a n t i n e ' s c h u r c h as a model f o r t h e i r own plans.  designs  and  H o p e f u l l y , t h i s paper w i l l h e l p c l a r i f y t h i s t h e o r y . The p e r i o d o f t i m e u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n e x t e n d s  from  the c o n s t r u c t i o n of C o n s t a n t i n e s church i n Jerusalem t o the 1  end of the seventh c e n t u r y when most of the C h r i s t i a n w o r l d was  i n the hands o f the moslems.  by them i n 637  or 638  J e r u s a l e m had been o c c u p i e d  and by the middle of the c e n t u r y S y r i a ,  p a r t o f A s i a Minor and Upper Mesopotamia, P a l e s t i n e ,  Egypt,  and p a r t of the B y z a n t i n e p r o v i n c e s i n N o r t h A f r i c a were under Arabian occupation.  The n o r t h e r n b o r d e r s of the B y z a n t i n e  Empire were a l s o j e o p a r d i z e d , not by Arabs but by S l a v s and Bulgarians.  By the end of the seventh c e n t u r y church  con-  s t r u c t i o n had come t o a n e a r s t a n d s t i l l and the C h r i s t i a n w o r l d was  s u f f e r i n g a p e r i o d of s e r i o u s c o n t r a c t i o n i n s i z e .  'The: g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a c o v e r e d by t h i s paper  ranges  from the c o a s t of Prance t o the h e a r t of the Middle E a s t . The b o r d e r s of the B y z a n t i n e Empire a c t as a guide  line  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the r e g i o n s around the M e d i t e r r a n e a n b a s i n , and i n the e a s t .  S y r i a , J o r d a n , Mesopotamia,  and s u r r o u n d i n g areas are i n c l u d e d .  Capadocia  Except f o r s p e c i a l  r e f e r e n c e s , n o r t h e r n Prance, i n l a n d S p a i n and Europe have been e x c l u d e d . The Holy Sepulchre complex w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n s b e g i n n i n g w i t h the f i r s t b u i l d i n g on the s i t e , Tegurium.  the  A f t e r c o n s i d e r i n g the M a r t y r i o n and the A n a s t a s i s  the e n t i r e complex w i l l be compared w i t h a number of church complexes found throughout the M e d i t e r r a n e a n a r e a .  A brief  examination of each p a r t of the Holy S e p u l c h r e w i l l be  under-  t a k e n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o d e s c r i p t i o n s and v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o determine  how  the p u b l i c g e n e r a l l y v i s u a l i z e d t h a t  of the b u i l d i n g complex i n J e r u s a l e m .  part  Other b u i l d i n g s w i t h  s i m i l a r a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d  together  w i t h r e f e r e n c e s t o churches c l a i m e d t o be c o p i e d from the church  i n Jerusalem. U n f o r t u n a t e l y many o f t h e s t r u c t u r e s s t u d i e d i n the  paper do n o t e x i s t above the f o u n d a t i o n church  level.  A study o f  elevations therefore i s largely speculative.  hampering a study o f t h i s type  Also  i s t h e l a c k o f documentation  t o e i t h e r c o n f i r m o r negate t h e o r i e s o f c o p i e s put f o r t h . But  l a c k o f supplementary evidence  does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean  t h a t a b u i l d i n g which appears t o be a copy i s , i n f a c t , n o t .  -6-  CHAPTER I  THE TEGURIUM The  Tegurium o f t h e Holy Sepulchre  was a s m a l l  c h a p e l - l i k e s t r u c t u r e b u i l t by G o n s t a n t i n e ' s  architects  over what they b e l i e v e d t o be the Tomb o f Christ." " 1  b u i l d i n g no l o n g e r e x i s t s . Persians.  That  I t was d e s t r o y e d i n 614 by the  The one which o c c u p i e s t h e s i t e today was c o n s t r u c t e d  i n t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y a f t e r a seventh  century r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  o f t h e o r i g i n a l was d e s t r o y e d by the mad moslem k h a l i f , Hakem ( F i g . l ) .  S i n c e t h a t r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n the e l e v e n t h  c e n t u r y r e p a i r s have been made p e r i o d i c a l l y b u t a l l o f the b u i l d i n g s p r e s e n t l y on t h e s i t e  a r e i n need o f r e p a i r .  most r e c e n t d i s a s t e r was a f i r e  i n 1808 which b u r n t the dome  of t h e Rotunda and caused  i t to f a l l  The  on t h e Tegurium d e s t r o y i n g  2 the c u p o l a o r l a n t e r n which stood on t o p . P r i o r t o t h e l e g a l i z a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n i t y by C o n s t a n t i n e , a pagan temple had covered t h e spot which i s now o c c u p i e d by the Tegurium.  A f t e r Constantine  had become s o l e monarch and  had r e c o g n i z e d t h e C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n , he o r d e r e d the temple removed so t h a t n o t h i n g o f i t would remain.  While c a r r y i n g  out h i s o r d e r s a cave was d i s c o v e r e d below the ground I t was immediately  h e r a l d e d as t h e Tomb o f C h r i s t .  level.  H i s Tomb  had t r a d i t i o n a l l y been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s i t e , b u t whether t h i s was a c t u a l l y t h e one i s s t i l l  a matter o f c o n j e c t u r e .  E x c a v a t i o n s were begun immediately and stone around the cave. to  the elements.  c a l l e d a tegurium  i n 327  Thus a stone  t o remove the e a r t h s h e l l was  exposed  To p r o t e c t i t a s m a l l r e c t a n g u l a r b u i l d i n g o r e d i c u l a was  b u i l t around i t t o a c t as  a r e l i q u a r y f o r the s a c r e d r e l i c .  Constantine  s p a r e d no expense t o d e c o r a t e i t s e x t e r i o r .  seems t o have  His  architects  added columns and a r c h i t e c t u r a l m o t i f s t o i t s w a l l s t o enhance what would otherwise be a p l a i n stone box. when the Church o f the Holy S e p u l c h r e was 335. at  Eusebius  saw i t  being dedicated i n  I n c l u d e d i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the b u i l d i n g s c o n s t r u c t e d the Holy S e p u l c h r e , r e c o r d e d i n h i s L i f e o f C o n s t a n t i n e ,  E u s e b i u s makes the f o l l o w i n g r e f e r e n c e t o the Tegurium: T h i s f i r s t , as c h i e f p a r t o f the whole ( c h u r c h ) , the l i b e r a l i t y o f the emperor b e a u t i f i e d w i t h c h o i c e columns and w i t h much ornament,^ d e c o r a t i n g i t v/ith a l l k i n d s o f adornments. Eusebius  does not mention the ground p l a n of the  e d i c u l a but a c c o r d i n g t o i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n a number o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s from the f i f t h square  or r e c t a n g u l a r .  The  and s i x t h c e n t u r i e s the base  was  d e p i c t i o n s of the Tegurium on a  number of i v o r i e s are p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d from the a c t u a l  structure.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y i t i s not known where the i v o r i e s were c a r v e d , b u t , because t h e y are a l l so s i m i l a r , the a r t i s t s must have seen the Tegurium or c a r e f u l l y drawn s k e t c h e s of i t .  These  i v o r i e s are p r e s e n t l y l o c a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t c o l l e c t i o n s Europe.  At Notre  b e l t buckle to  throughout  Dame-la Major i n A r i e s t h e r e i s a s m a l l i v o r y  (2" x 4 1 / 8 " )  which was  a B i s h o p , S t . C e s a r i u s , who  supposed t o have  d i e d i n 5^-2  (Pig. 2).  the Tegurium i s shown as a s m a l l r e c t a n g u l a r I b u i l d i n g  belonged On i t with  -8a l a n t e r n on t o p . asleep.  Two s o l d i e r s l e a n on t h e i r l a n c e s , apparently-  The two s o l d i e r s a l s o appear on t h e B r i t i s h Museum  ivory.  A g a i n t h e Tegurium i s shown as a r e c t a n g u l a r o r  square s t r u c t u r e b u t here t h e l a n t e r n i s s o l i d and b u i l t of stone  (Fig.3).  a l s o shown.  The columns r e f e r r e d t o b y E u s e b i u s a r e  No columns o r p i l a s t e r s a r e shown on t h e  T r i v u l z i o i v o r y i n M i l a n b u t a g a i n i t would seem t h a t t h e 7  Tegurium was r e c t a n g u l a r ( F i g . 4 ) . '  The e n c l o s e d l a n t e r n o f  b r i c k a p p e a r s a g a i n t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e two s o l d i e r s i n t h e upper h a l f of the p a n e l .  A f o u r t h i v o r y i s kept i n the  N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y o f Munich.  A g a i n t h e Tegurium i s r e c t a n g u l a r , Q  w i t h a v e r y o r n a t e c l a s s i c a l l a n t e r n ( F i g . 5 ) . The l a n t e r n on t h i s l a s t example r e s e m b l e s t h e t o p o f an I t a l i a n monument .  known as "La C o n o c c h i a "  q  (Fig.6).  P r o b a b l y a Roman b u i l d i n g  such as t h i s was a f o r e r u n n e r o f t h e Tegurium i n J e r u s a l e m . The west end o f t h e modern Tegurium i s s e m i c i r c u l a r , b u t i t i s n o t known i f t h e o r i g i n a l f o l l o w e d t h e same p l a n . T h i s f e a t u r e may have been added by Monomachus i n 1048 when t h e Tegurium was r e b u i l t  (Fig.7)."^  The e a r l i e s t p l a n o f t h e H o l y S e p u l c h r e  and Tegurium  was made i n t h e l a t e s e v e n t h c e n t u r y b y a F r e n c h monk, A r c u l f . On h i s p l a n t h e Tegurium i s shown as a c i r c l e i n s i d e a number o f c o n c e n t r i c c i r c l e s i n t e n d e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e Rotunda. I n s i d e t h e Tegurium c i r c l e , t h e s e p u l c h r e , i n w h i c h C h r i s t ' s body was l a i d , was r e p r e s e n t e d b y a r e c t a n g l e - b u t t h e r e i s no s u g g e s t i o n o f a r e c t a n g u l a r shaped Tegurium w h a t s o e v e r ! (Fig.8a,b,c).  -9The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a r e c t a n g u l a r s t r u c t u r e b y a c i r c l e c e r t a i n l y seems t o be an anomaly.  But probably A r c u l f  saw t h e c i b o r i u m around t h e Tegurium when he s t o o d i n s i d e t h e Rotunda and s u b s e q u e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d t h a t p a r t o f t h e c h u r c h as one u n i t when he d i c t a t e d t h e p l a n t o h i s s c r i b e , Adamnanus. T h i s u n i t was r e f e r r e d t o by him as t h e "memoratum rotundum t e g u r i u m " - t h e round t e g u r i u m . n o t mentioned  1 1  The c i b o r i u m p r o p e r was  i n h i s t e x t , b u t , a c c o r d i n g t o E. B a l d w i n  Smith,  t h e c i b o r i u m was f r e q u e n t l y c a l l e d a t e g u r i u m and, t h e r e f o r e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t A r c u l f meant t h e r o u n d c i b o r i u m b y t h e words "rotundum t e g u r i u m " - n o t a r o u n d e d i c u l a o r t e g u r i u m c o n t a i n i n g t h e Tomb.  12  A r c u l f d i d not o r i g i n a t e t h i s ciborium-tegurium I t appears  concept.  on an i l l u s t r a t i o n d a t e d t o t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y  p a i n t e d on t h e t o p o f a r e l i q u a r y i n t h e S a n c t a Sanctorum o f the Lateran ( P i g . 9 ) . " ^  Here t h e p o l y g o n a l c i b o r i u m i s c o v e r e d  by a p y r a m i d a l t e n t r o o f w i t h t h e f i g u r e o f an a n g e l t o t h e r i g h t and two women t o t h e l e f t .  Above i t i s t h e dome o f t h e  Rotunda w i t h a number o f windows i n i t s drum.  I n the middle o f  t h e o p e n i n g between t h e two c e n t r e columns i s an a l t a r w h i c h was 14  p l a c e d before t h e entrance o f the cave.  Between t h e columns  on each s i d e o f t h e e n t r a n c e a s o l i d w a l l i s shown r i s i n g way  t o the top.  half-  The o t h e r h a l f i s c l o s e d w i t h l a t t i c e - w o r k t o  p r o t e c t t h e Tegurium b u t i t s t i l l p e r m i t t e d t h e p i l g r i m s t o see  inside. T h i s t y p e o f c i b o r i u m - t e g u r i u m c o n c e p t was common t o  illustrations  o f t h e Tomb o f C h r i s t .  B a s i c a l l y the a r c h i t e c t -  -10Q  u r a l elements lintels  which were used were:  on t h e columns and a canopy.  f o u r columns, arches o r But a l l o f them do n o t  n e c e s s a r i l y appear i n the same p i c t u r e .  The f o u r columns how-  e v e r , seem t o be t h e most common f e a t u r e used. are t h e Rabbula the Hermitage  Two e x c e p t i o n s  Codex o f 5 8 6 ( F i g . 1 0 ) , and a s i l v e r p l a t e i n  from the s i x t h o r seventh c e n t u r y ( F i g . 1 1 ) . " ^  A p p a r e n t l y b o t h o f these examples o r i g i n a t e d i n G y r i a .  The  canopy o f t h e l a t t e r , composed o f a t r i a n g l e c i r c u m s c r i b i n g a s e m i c i r c l e , i s j u s t the o p p o s i t e o f a canopy shown on a g l a s s medallion at T r i e r ( F i g . 1 2 ) . " ^  But i n a l l o t h e r cases f o u r  columns - p l a c e d i n such a way as t o suggest an octagon - h o l d up an u m b r e l l a dome o r t e n t canopy.  A r i c h f a b r i c seems t o have  been s t r e t c h e d l o o s e l y over r i b s o r ropes drawn t o a peak a t the c e n t r e .  Examples o f such i l l u s t r a t i o n s appear  c e n s o r ( F i g . 1 3 ) , a stone r e l i e f  on a c o p t i c  ( F i g . 1 4 ) , and s e v e r a l  ampullae  from Monza ( F i g . 1 5 b , c, e ) , a l l from the s i x t h c e n t u r y . l a n t e r n on t h e A r i e s b u c k l e a l s o f i t s The  i n t o t h i s group  The  (Fig. 2 ) .  columns on the c e n s o r , t h e stone plaque and t h e i v o r y  A r i e s a l l suggest t h a t the s u p p o r t s were s t o n e .  from  They are t h i c k e r  than the columns on the ampullae, b u t c a p i t a l s were shown on b o t h s e t s .  There  i s o n l y one i l l u s t r a t i o n o f a c i b o r i u m  w i t h o u t a canopy - on an ampulla i n t h e abbey o f S t . Columban a t Bobbio  i n the province of Piacenza ( F i g . l 5 d ) .  The o m i s s i o n ,  i n t h i s case, may have been due t o a l a c k o f space on the ampulla, o r p o s s i b l y , t h e canopy may have been But n o t a l l o f t h e ampullae  removable.  from the Holy Land show the c i b o r i u m .  -11-  Some show o n l y t h e r e c t a n g u l a r tegurium  (Fig.15a,b).  At  S. A p o l l i n a r e Nuovo i n Ravenna, a s i x t h c e n t u r y mosaic o f the Tomb shows the c i b o r i u m v e r y d i s t i n c t l y as a c i r c u l a r s t r u c t u r e  (Fig.17).  The canopy here  i s more s u g g e s t i v e o f a dome than  a t e n t and the base i s o b v i o u s l y c i r c u l a r . c o n c e i v e d by t h e a r t i s t  I t was p r o b a b l y  as a s m a l l c i r c u l a r temple rather:"  than a c i b o r i u m w i t h a f a b r i c  cover.  But here  once a g a i n ,  the a l t a r i s shown between the c e n t r e columns. it  i s l o c a t e d behind  t h e columns proves  The f a c t t h a t  that t h i s  s t r u c t u r e i s the c i b o r i u m n o t a m o d i f i e d tegurium the a l t a r was l o c a t e d a t the Tomb entrance and t h e c i b o r i u m .  round because  between t h e Tegurium  A l l o f these i l l u s t r a t i o n s , t h e n ,  belong  t o the same group as the Sancta Sanctorum r e l i q u a r y and Arculf's circular plan. The  ancestory of t h i s ciborium-tegurium  i l l u s t r a t i o n i s b o t h Roman and J e w i s h . by Divus Romulus ( F i g . 1 8 a )  type o f  Roman c o i n s minted  and o t h e r important Romans  ( F i g . l 8 b - e ) , show s m a l l domed s t r u c t u r e s w i t h f o u r columns on t h e i r f a c e s . reliefs  C i r c u l a r t e g u r i a a l s o appear on Roman  (Fig.LSf).  A p p a r e n t l y t h i s type o f s t r u c t u r e was  q u i t e p o p u l a r i n Roman t i m e s .  I n Jewish  a r t there i s a  " s a c r e d p o r t a l " t r a d i t i o n which i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a r i c h l y d e c o r a t e d s e t o f doors below a t r i a n g u l a r o r s e m i c i r c u l a r 19 gable mounted on two o r t h r e e columns  (19a,b).  Both o f  these t r a d i t i o n s seemed t o a n t i c i p a t e t h e c i b o r i u m - t e g u r i u m illustrations and  seventh  o f t h e Tegurium made by a r t i s t s i n t h e s i x t h  centuries.x  -12-  The  exact  date o f t h e c i b o r i u m ' s  c o n s t r u c t i o n i s not  known, b u t i t appears i n d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e Holy S e p u l c h r e as e a r l y as c a . 530. A r e f e r e n c e "Short  i n the "Breviary" or  D e s c r i p t i o n o f Jerusalem" a t t h a t time s t a t e d t h a t  "Above the s e p u l c h r e  itself  g o l d " which, a c c o r d i n g  i s a v a u l t e d r o o f o f s i l v e r and  t o t h e t e x t , was surrounded by g o l d  (Super i p s o s e p u l c r o t r a n s v o l a t i l e argenteum e t aureum e t 20 i n c i r c u i t u omne de aurum). Lateran b a p t i s t r y , a ciborium  Apparently  i n Rome, a t the  was i n s t a l l e d by Pope Sextus  21 i n c a . 432-440. Holy S e p u l c h r e , time.  P o s s i b l y i t s e r e c t i o n preceded t h a t o f t h e b u t most l i k e l y b o t h were, b u i l t a t t h e same  The c i b o r i u m  i n the Holy S e p u l c h r e may have been an  a d d i t i o n t o t h e Tegurium i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the hundredth anniversary But the  c e l e b r a t i o n s i n 435* even t h i s e a r l y date i s n o t e a r l y enough t o predate  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c i b o r i u m - t e g u r i u m type c h u r c h a t 22  Ephesus, d e d i c a t e d was  built  t o S t . John ( P i g . 2 0 ) .  i n the f o u r t h c e n t u r y , . p o s s i b l y  "Peace o f t h e Church", a c c o r d i n g f i f t h century  This small  church  even b e f o r e the  t o Andre Grabar.  In the  i t was expanded by t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f f o u r  arms - much l i k e A r c u l f ' s p l a n o f t h e martyrium o f Sichem (Pig.21). ^ a ciborium  T h i s martyrium a t Sichem a l s o seems t o have had i n the c e n t r e  o f the c r o s s i n g .  But o t h e r  small  s t r u c t u r e s such as these need n o t have depended on t h e Holy S e p u l c h r e f o r a model i f one, indeed, ciborium  were n e c e s s a r y .  was q u i t e a common f e a t u r e over s a c r e d r e l i c s ,  and b a p t i s m a l  fonts.  The altars,  An a r c h i t e c t c o u l d have found such a  -13s t r u c t u r e c l o s e a t hand t o serve as a model i f need be c e r t a i n l y c l o s e r than the Holy S e p u l c h r e .  I n any case  t h e r e i s no example o f a c i b o r i u m o r c i b o r i u m - t e g u r i u m type of s t r u c t u r e which c o u l d be d e f i n i t e l y c a l l e d a copy o f t h e Tegurium. I l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the Tegurium  p r o p e r may be d i v i d e d  i n t o two groups; t h e s i n g l e s t o r y c a b i n type common t o t h e ampullae  (Fig.15) and t h e two s t o r y type t y p i c a l o f the i v o r i e s  mentioned e a r l i e r  (Fig.2-5).  The c a b i n type i s e s s e n t i a l l y  r e c t a n g u l a r w i t h a gable and l a t t i c e - w o r k on b o t h s i d e s o f a c e n t r a l opening b e l i e v e d t o be t h e door. on t h e ampullae  Besides appearing  kept a t Monza and Bobbio, t h e r e i s a l s o a  cup from Carthage  showing this-.type o f Tegurium.  The facade  i l l u s t r a t e d on the cup has a gable end, a c e n t r a l opening, and 24u n l i k e t h e ampullae,  f o u r columns on the f r o n t .  U n l i k e any o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the Tegurium  (Fig.16) this  illust-  r a t i o n on the g l a s s cup shows a s i d e o f the b u i l d i n g . A p p a r e n t l y t h e e d i c u l a a t Jerusalem had no a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s on the s i d e s , b u t , o f c o u r s e , t h i s may n o t be absolutely accurate.  I n any case t h e r e are no p a n e l e d  doors  on these c a b i n type i l l u s t r a t i o n s ; n o t l i k e the doors on .the i v o r i e s which seem t o be made o f wood o r m e t a l .  The two  s t o r y type on t h e i v o r i e s has been r e f e r r e d t o by N e i l as t h e "western temple 25 temples  xn I t a l y . ^  t y p e " because  o f i t s resemblance t o  The a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h i s type w i t h  "La Conocchia" i n I t a l y has a l r e a d y been made.  But n o t a l l  of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s shown on the d i f f e r e n t are i d e n t i c a l .  Brooks  ivories  F o r example, the l a n t e r n drums o f the B r i t i s h  -14Museum ( F i g . 3 ) and T r i v u l z i o  ( F i g . 4 ) i v o r i e s appear  were d e s i g n e d t o be out o f d o o r s .  as i f t h e y  Both o f them were a p p a r e n t l y  c o n s t r u c t e d o f c u t s t o n e , w i t h windows c o v e r e d w i t h a t r a n s l u c e n t ot t r a n s p a r e n t m a t e r i a l . be c o v e r e d w i t h l e a d .  The r o o f s appear t o  Whereas t h e l a n t e r n s on t h e o t h e r two  examples seem t o have been c o n s t r u c t e d f o r i n d o o r s .  Parti-  c u l a r l y t h e Munich i v o r y w i t h i t s f i n e l y f i n i s h e d marble cupola or l a n t e r n ( F i g . 5 ) .  And common t o t h i s i v o r y and t h e  A r i e s b u c k l e ( F i g . 2 ) a r e the columns shown around t h e l a n t e r n . The  f a c t t h a t a b r i c k w a l l can be seen b e h i n d t h e c l a s s i c a l  work on the Munich l a n t e r n suggests t h a t the o l d s t r u c t u r e shown on the B r i t i s h Museum and M i l a n i v o r i e s was c o v e r e d by l a t e r r e n o v a t i o n s .  Another  f e a t u r e which d i s t i n g u i s h e s  the Munich and A r i e s i v o r i e s from the o t h e r two i s the door which stands s l i g h t l y agar. adopted  T h i s d e t a i l seems t o have been  from t h e Roman memoria on e a r l y coinage ( F i g . 1 8 a , c ) ,  but i t was n o t r e p e a t e d on t h e Munich and A r i e s I t does n o t appear Codex  ivories.  a g a i n u n t i l 586, and then i n t h e Rabbula  (Fig.10). I f r e n o v a t i o n s were made t o the l a n t e r n , they  date t o the r e i g n o f Theodosius  I I , t h e Younger  likely  (408-450).  I t was d u r i n g h i s r e i g n t h a t t h e H o l y S e p u l c h r e c e l e b r a t e d its  one hundredth  a n n i v e r s a r y (435)•  f o r t h e o c c a s i o n Theodosius  To prepare the c h u r c h  may have o r d e r e d the r e n o v a t i o n  of the l a n t e r n and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the c i b o r i u m . , He was a man i n t e r e s t e d i n the monastic  life,  and i n the d u p l i c a t i o n  of o l d m a n u s c r i p t s , thus', he was a p p a r e n t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n b o t h a r t and r e l i g i o n .  And w i t h such an important event as  -15the a n n i v e r s a r y d u r i n g h i s r e i g n , he i s l i k e l y t o have f i n a n c e d the d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e Holy S e p u l c h r e f o r the h o l y day September  13, 4-35. In searching the Mediterranean b a s i n f o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t r u c t u r e s which might as i t appears  have been c o p i e d from t h e Tegurium  on the i v o r i e s , one would expect t o f i n d a  b u i l d i n g s i m i l a r t o the Church  o f the S a v i o u r a t P l a t a n i t i on 27  the s o u t h e r n t i p o f the P e l o p o n n e s i s ( P i g . 2 2 ) . ' T h i s c h u r c h , built  i n the e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y , may have been a copy o f the  the Tegurium  - a t l e a s t t h e d e d i c a t i o n t o the S a v i o u r seems t o  a s s o c i a t e the two.  -^ut o t h e r t h a n the d e d i c a t i o n and t h e r e -  semblance o f the two t h e r e i s no o t h e r evidence t o c o n f i r m t h i s hypothesis.  However, t h e c h u r c h was s m a l l enough (7,30 x 5?55 m.)  t o l o o k l i k e the Tegurium, and an o c t a g o n a l l a n t e r n o r c u p o l a w i t h windows was mounted on i t s r o o f .  And a l l these f e a t u r e s  suggest t h a t t h i s church a t P l a t a n i t i might have been d e r i v e d from the b u i l d i n g i n J e r u s a l e m .  No church o r mausoleum from  the f o u r t h t o t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r i e s , however, can be found which d u p l i c a t e these f e a t u r e s .  The c l o s e s t a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f such  a b u i l d i n g i n t h i s p e r i o d i s Church No. 3 a t i l A n d e r i n dated 28 558/9 ( P i g . 23).  However, i t was l a r g e r than b o t h the Church  of the S a v i o u r and t h e Tegurium, and i t s dome was r a t h e r than b u i l t its  cone-shaped  on a drum w i t h a low p i t c h e d r o o f .  Thus,  s i m i l a r i t i e s are r a t h e r remote - p r o b a b l y t o o remote t o be  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Tegurium Because the Tegurium  i n any way  whatsoever.  was more c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  tomb memorials than i t was w i t h c o n g r e g a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s , i t seems p l a u s i b l e t h a t c o p i e s o r d e r i v a t i o n s o f i t s a r c h i t e c t u r a l  -16f e a t u r e s would be churches.  found i n o t h e r tomb monuments r a t h e r than i n  In S y r i a t h e r e  are t h r e e  tombs which are  the Tegurium i n t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n ,  but  the  s i m i l a r to relation-  s h i p i s j i n o t c l o s e enough t o c l a i m them d e r i v a t i o n s of the stantinian structure. was  a two  The  Con-  tomb at Hass f o r example ( F i g . 24),  s t o r i e d s t r u c t u r e w i t h the  second s t o r y l e v e l  de-  29 signed  t o i m i t a t e a temple.  A pediment, p i l a s t e r s and  s m a l l c e n t r a l door c o n s t i t u t e d the i n g the  the  l o c a t e d near the  g l a s s cup one  (Fig. 2 5 ) , ^  not  tomb, i t was  two.  from Carthage.  just described,  A second tomb  known as the  smaller  a l s o of the  and  Tomb of  f r e e of windows.  c a b i n t y p e , but  A t h i r d tomb, at A l i f  (Elif,  s i z e does not  Like  o n l y one  F i g . 26), was  s t o r i e d , w i t h a dome, doorway and p i l a s t e r s , but no however, i t s g r e a t  was  Both tombs were covered by a dome w h i l e  t h i s second example was first  suggest-  c a b i n type o f Tegurium i l l u s t r a t i o n found on the Monza  ampullae and  Bizzos  facade i n a f a s h i o n  a  the  story,  also  two  pediment,  commend i t as a d e r i v a t i v e of  31 the  Tegurium.  t o be  In f a c t none of these S y r i a n tombs are known  d e s i g n e d a f t e r the b u i l d i n g over C h r i s t ' s Tomb.  r a t h e r , p a r t of the mausoleum t r a d i t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by Romans i n the  area  had  of  f a d e d out  and  are,  the  m a i n t a i n e d l o n g a f t e r the Roman Empire  existence.  B u i l d i n g s i n North A f r i c a which resemble o f the  They  Tegurium are not  illustrations  l i k e l y d e r i v e d from i t e i t h e r .  s m a l l c a b i n type o f mausolea i n the C h r i s t i a n n e c r o p o l i s  The at  Bagawat, Egypt ( F i g . 2 7 ) , may v e r y w e l l be p a r t of a l o c a l 32 tradition. The s m a l l tomb at Kharga, i n Egypt, west of Luxor  -17-  ( F i g . 28),  seems t o have been based on a Roman model such  as  33 "La C o n o c c h i a " . lantern The  on the  A l t h o u g h i t s s m a l l c u p o l a resembles Munich i v o r y , the  relationship i s  are  also l i k e l y  which are  a r c h i t e c t u r a l form of the  t h e n , are  known t o be  mementoes.  Any  structures  architecture  which seem t o  A f a c t o r which may c o p i e s of the was  neither  Tegurium was  l i q u a r i e s were not  the  function  a r e l i c , namely the subject  of another r e l i q u a r y .  Tomb of C h r i s t .  of i t i s r e c o r d e d .  i n the  The  form  Jean may same  Unfortunately explain  the  lack  no of  Tegurium must have been seen as a r e l i q u a r y  eyes of C h r i s t i a n a r c h i t e c t s - not  monument.  i n the  Tegurium i n much the 35  T h i s may  re-  i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l form.  known t o Andre Grabar  a r e l i q u a r y at Aachen does ( F i g . 29).  de-  And  T h e r e f o r e , a r e l i q u a r y found by and  It  a reliquary  i t would l i k e l y be  have been d e s i g n e d t o r e p r e s e n t the  Tegurium c o p i e s .  since  Byzantine world  of the b u i l d i n g .  to d u p l i c a t i o n  Maspero at B a o u i t i n c a . 1932  description  area,  Tegurium.  a c h a p e l , i t was  I f a r e l i q u a r y were d u p l i c a t e d  way  resemble  have d i s c o u r a g e d making a r c h i t e c t u r a l  a mausoleum, nor  signed to protect  of the  con-  different  were l i k e l y d e s i g n e d a f t e r a Roman monument i n the  s i m i l a r t o the  from  Tegurium, e i t h e r as i t was  Roman monuments were b o t h common throughout the and  there  derived  s t r u c t e d by C o n s t a n t i n e , or as i l l u s t r a t e d on the  it  St.  ciborium-tegurium type,  Mediterranean basin,  architectural structures  i v o r i e s and  and  unrelated.  Nowhere i n the  the  coincidental.  s m a l l m a r t y r i a o f S t . Menas at Abou^Mina, L i b y a  F e l i x at N o l a , A l g e r i a , though of the 34-  the  as an  architectural  -18-  CHAPTER I I THE MARTYRION Once the rock s h e l l of C h r i s t ' s Tomb had been properlyp r o t e c t e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Tegurium, work could commence on a c o n g r e g a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g .  U n t i l a b a s i l i c a had  been b u i l t there was no place where the congregation of C h r i s t i a n s could gather and worship.  This church must have been  p a r t of the o r i g i n a l p l a n prepared by C o n s t a n t i n e s a r c h i t e c t s . 1  Whether the plans were prepared i n Rome o r i n Jerusalem i s not known but Constantine h i m s e l f i n s i s t e d t h a t the b u i l d i n g be the 'Tinest i n the world" when completed."'"  Those were h i s  words w r i t t e n t o the Bishop o f Jerusalem, Macarius, as recorded by Eusebius.  Most l i k e l y they were c a r e f u l l y complied w i t h  but a l a c k of e a r l y d e s c r i p t i o n s f a i l s t o confirm the f u l f i l m e n t of C o n s t a n t i n e s i n t e n t i o n s . 1  Only very s m a l l b i t s of the o r i g i n a l f o u n d a t i o n , o r what i s b e l i e v e d t o be the o r i g i n a l f o u n d a t i o n s , have been found, but i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o r e c o n s t r u c t the o r i g i n a l Constantine 2  b a s i l i c a from them.  I n s t e a d , a r t h i s t o r i a n s have assumed  t h a t the plans and foundations of l a t e r b u i l d i n g s on the s i t e tended t o f o l l o w the o r i g i n a l foundations.  Therefore, a c a r e f u l  examination of plans of the present s i t e have been made by a number of h i s t o r i a n s .  Using such plans as the one made i n  1937 p u b l i s h e d by K. Conant ( P i g . 30a) o r an e a r l i e r example made i n 1890 ( P i g . 30b), K. Conant ( P i g . 31a, b ) , R. Kraut-  -19heimer ( F i g . 3 1 d ,  e ) , H. V i n c e n t ( F i g . 3 1 c ) ,  De Vogue ( F i g . 31g)  and  Willis  o t h e r s have drawn what t h e y b e l i e v e  to be the p l a n s of the b a s i l i c a of C o n s t a n t i n e .  The  differ-  ences i n these r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s are as numerous as the made.  I t i s next t o i m p o s s i b l e , then, t o determine  where or how  31f),  (Fig.  attempts  exactly  the o r i g i n a l f o u n d a t i o n s were p l a c e d but r e c e n t  p l a n s of the Holy Sepulchre p r e p a r e d by K. Conant ( F i g . 31  a,b)  p r o b a b l y are the most a c c u r a t e t o d a t e . The  scheme of the complex p r e p a r e d by A r c u l f i n the  seventh c e n t u r y was  not i n t e n d e d t o t r a c e the a c t u a l  a t i o n s of C o n s t a n t i n e s b a s i l i c a . 1  d e c i d e d t o i n c l u d e were the two 8a, b, c ) .  No  attempt  was  The  found-  o n l y d e t a i l s which A r c u l f  openings  i n i t s west end. ( F i g .  made t o draw the Rotunda and  basilica,  known as the M a r t y r i o n (Martyrium), i n the same s c a l e .  The  Rotunda, t h e r e f o r e , i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a c o n c e n t r i c group of c i r c l e s l a r g e r than the r e c t a n g l e r e p r e s e n t i n g : i t h e M a r t y r i o n , even though the b a s i l i c a was  actually larger i n size.  Arculfs  scheme of the M a r t y r i o n t h u s , i s not v e r y u s e f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g the d e s i g n of the o r i g i n a l church b u i l t  i n the f o u r t h c e n t u r y .  E l e v a t i o n s of the M a r t y r i o n are more numerous than p l a n s o f i t i n the p e r i o d from the f o u r t h t o the e i g h t h c e n t u r i e s , but t h e i r a c c u r a c y i n d e f i n i n g d e t a i l s such as windows, columns and o t h e r a r c h i t e c t u r a l m o t i f s i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . The mosaic d e c o r a t i n g the apse of Santa Pudenziana  in  Rome i s the o l d e s t work of a r t b e l i e v e d t o show C o n s t a n t i n e * s Martyrion.  A Roman bishop-,- S i r i c i u s ,  d i r e c t e d the c o n s t r u c t i o n  of t h i s b u i l d i n g i n 'ca. 390  a t the expense of p r e s b y t e r s from  Illyricum  c h u r c h was  (Dalmatia).  The  built  on the s i t e  of the  -20ZL  house of Pudens, a f r i e n d of S t . P a u l , by o r d e r of the Pope. No  e a r l y documents d e s c r i b e the c o n t e n t s of the mosaic, b u t ,  a c c o r d i n g t o Conant and o t h e r s , the b u i l d i n g s r e p r e s e n t e d here  are i n t e n d e d t o r e p r e s e n t important  Land, i n c l u d i n g the Holy Sepulchre c i r c u l a r s t r u c t u r e t o the l e f t  s t r u c t u r e s i n the  ( P i g . 32a).  The  Holy  semi-  of C h r i s t ' s r i g h t hand i s be-  l i e v e d t o be the apse of the M a r t y r i o n which E u s e b i u s p r e f e r r e d to arm  call  the h e m i s p h a i r i o n .  of the t r a n s e p t .  tinues,  The  " J u s t t o the l e f t  D i r e c t l y t o the l e f t  i t s t h r e e doors  of the t r a n s e p t , the e a s t end  f u r t h e r t o the l e f t ,  i s t o be  north  d e s c r i p t i o n advanced by Conant con-  the n o r t h c l e r e s t o r y of the nave appears, headed windows; s t i l l  i s the  w i t h two  square-  the P r o p y l a e a  seen, the colonnades o f the  32b).  6  have been o m i t t e d "  (Pig.  t h e r e - a l l except  the Rotunda.  of  with  atrium  A l l of the b u i l d i n g s are shown I t s absence i s i n e x p l i c a b l e .  While t h e r e i s some q u e s t i o n about what b u i l d i n g s are r e p r e s e n t e d on the Santa Pudenziana mosaics, t h e r e i s no  question  t h a t the M a r t y r i o n and Rotunda are r e p r e s e n t e d on the mosaic known as the Madaba "Map ification  o f Jerusalem"  of d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the map  ( P i g . 33a,  b, c ) .  Ident-  i s a s s u r e d by Greek i n -  s c r i p t i o n s . . The map, found by chance i n 1896 on the f l o o r o f an orthodox church, was r e s t o r e d by a B e n e d i c t i n e monk, M a u r i c i u s n  G i s l e r , 1912. c e n t u r y or one The  The  o r i g i n a l i s s a i d t o date from the  sixth  hundred y e a r s a f t e r the Santa Pudenziana mosaic.  f r o n t of the M a r t y r i o n i s shown w i t h the top of the Rotunda  d i r e c t l y b e h i n d the b a s i l i c a r o o f . the church f a c a d e .  To the l e f t  An a t r i u m i s shown b e f o r e  of the b a s i l i c a and Rotunda a  -21lozenge-shaped baptistry.  r o o f marks the s i t e o f t h e Holy S e p u l c h r e  There a r e t h r e e e n t r a n c e s i n t h e f r o n t o f t h e church  and a number o f windows i n t h e drum o f t h e Rotunda. can be determined,  a l l o f t h e d e t a i l s i n c l u d e d i n the map are  authentic, p a r t i c u l a r l y the l o c a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t (Map  1).  As f a r as  buildings  N o t h i n g i n t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the M a r t y r i o n , how-  e v e r , would suggest t h a t t h i s b a s i l i c a was any d i f f e r e n t  from  any o t h e r church o f t h i s type and without a d u p l i c a t i o n o f s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s o r m o t i f s i n a second church i t i s v e r y ficult  t o determine  dif-  i f t h e two b u i l d i n g s are i n any way r e l a t e d .  Both 0. W u l f f and j?. van d e r Meer have suggested  that  the Holy Sepulchre complex i s r e p r e s e n t e d on a sarcophagus i n the L a t e r a n Museum, Rome ( F i g . 3 4 ) . ^  The f o u r t h c e n t u r y s a r c o p h -  agus i l l u s t r a t e s the d e n i a l o f S t . P e t e r on the l e f t the woman w i t h t h e i s s u e o f b l o o d on the r i g h t .  s i d e and  Behind S t .  P e t e r t h e r e a r e a number o f b u i l d i n g s i n c l u d i n g a r o t u n d a to  be the A n a s t a s i s o f the Holy S e p u l c h r e .  thought  F o l l o w i n g the i n -  t e r p r e t a t i o n advanced by the two a r t h i s t o r i a n s , t h e middle b u i l d i n g would be the M a r t y r i o n w h i l e t h a t t o the r i g h t would be S t . P e t e r i n G a l l i c a n t u .  But a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e c o r d o f  P e t e r ' s d e n i a l i n Mark 14:30, t h e l o c a t i o n o f the event was Gethsemane.  A c l o s e examination o f Map 1 i n the a r e a o f Geth-  semane suggests t h a t i f a p e r s o n were t o s t a n d a t t h e p o i n t known as "the p i n n a c l e o f t h e Temple" and t o l o o k n o r t h - e a s t , he would see a r o t u n d a — the V i r g i n .  n o t t h e A n a s t a s i s , b u t the Tomb o f  The B a s i l i c a i n t h e middle would be t h e Church  of  Gethsemane w i t h i t s apse p r o p e r l y l o c a t e d t o the e a s t , and  to  the r i g h t , t h e o t h e r b a s i l i c a , the E l e o n a on the Mount o f  -22-  Olives.  The M a r t y r i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s n o t r e p r e s e n t e d on t h e  sarcophagus. I t i s n o t r e p r e s e n t e d . o n t h e wooden d o o r s o f S t . S a b i n a ( c a 430) e i t h e r .  A c c o r d i n g t o E m i l e M a l e , c h u r c h e s v/ith t w i n  towers e x i s t e d only i n the r e g i o n o f A n t i o c h a t t h i s time."^ The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f J e r u s a l e m f o u n d i n m o s a i c s a t Rome and Ravenna f a i l t o show a b u i l d i n g e l e v a t i o n w h i c h c o u l d be c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d as t h e M a r t y r i o n .  The f i f t h c e n t u r y  mosaic i n S a n t a M a r i a M a g g i o r e , Rome, ( F i g . 35^) > shows what appears t o be Greek o r Roman t e m p l e s w i t h i n t h e c i t y w a l l s o f 11 Jerusalem.  A second c h u r c h i n Rome, San G i o v a n n i i n L a t e r a n o  ( S t . John L a t e r a n , F i g . 3 5 c ) i l l u s t r a t e s a c u p o l a t y p e b u i l d i n g r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e Tegurium o f Rotunda b u t no b a s i l i c a r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e M a r t y r i o n c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d .  No M a r t y r i o n c a n be  seen i n t h e d i a g r a m o f t h e m o s a i c s i n O l d S t . P e t e r ' s made by G. G. C i a m p i n i and p u b l i s h e d i n 1693 i n De S a c r i s a e d i t i c i i s a 12  C o n s t a n t i n o Magno c o n s t r u c t i s h i s t o r i a ( P i g . 3 5 c ) .  I t does.  n o t appear i n t h e m o s a i c s o f San L o r e n z o f u o r i l e Mura ( P i g . 35d) o r San V i t a l e , Ravenna, ( F i g . 3 5 a ) , e i t h e r , a l t h o u g h b o t h c h u r c h e s 13  have r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f J e r u s a l e m on t h e i r  walls.  The e a r l i e s t w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e b a s i l i c a was made by E u s e b i u s b u t he f a i l e d t o e l a b o r a t e on t h e s t r u c t u r e e x 14 c e p t f o r a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e west end.  Besides a r e f e r -  ence t o t w e l v e columns l o c a t e d t h e r e , he r e f e r s t o a "hemisp h a i r i o n " o r "hemisphere", b e l i e v e d t o be t h e apse.''"''  T h i s term  i s n o t u s e d e l s e w h e r e i n r e f e r e n c e t o an a r c h i t e c t u r a l  feature,  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e apse end o f t h e M a r t y r i o n was u n i q u e i n  design.  I t would seem, however, t h a t the d e s i g n was  the G o n s t a n t i n i a n  b a s i l i c a at T r i e r  based  ( F i g . 36), b u i l t by  on  Con16  s t a n t i n e w h i l e he was  Caesar i n t h a t c i t y from 305  Both b u i l d i n g s were a p p r o x i m a t e l y the b u i l d i n g was t o be  some 200  about the  f e e t w h i l e the  same d i s t a n c e 17  eastern p o r t i c o .  The  Martyrion  was  312.  same l e n g t h ; the  from the  Martyrion  to  Trier  was  believed  apse t o the  f r o n t of  the  wider, however, by some  18 27 f e e t .  The  apse w a l l s of the  p o i n t near the r o o f of the two  T r i e r b a s i l i c a rose t o a  s t o r y nave.  than the normal s e m i c i r c u l a r apse. r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the  Thus i t was  This being  apse i s p r o b a b l y too  low  the  higher  c a s e , Conant'  (Fig. 37).  Krautheimer's p l a n showing a more c i r c u l a r s t r u c t u r e a l s o seems t o be  o n l y one An  story (Fig.  elaborate  31d).  apse end  at T r i e r or t o the M a r t y r i o n . Bethlehem ( F i g . 38a,  was  not unique t o the  The  basilica  Church of the N a t i v i t y at  b) a l s o f o l l o w e d  this pattern.  Eusebius  would have us b e l i e v e t h a t S t . Helena, widow of C o n s t a n t i n e ' s 19 f a t h e r , was  responsible  for i t s erection.  T h i s may  I n any  case i t i s l i k e l y t h a t r o y a l consent was  plan.  Here the  site  apse took the  true.  given to  the  form of an octagon marking  the  of C h r i s t ' s b i r t h p l a c e . The  b a s i l i c a was  attached  p o s s i b l y a f t e r the g r o t t o had same o r d e r was  be  t o the  east  been e n c l o s e d  s i d e of i t , - f o l l o w i n g i n the  of c o n s t r u c t i o n as at Jerusalem where the  built first,  f o l l o w e d by the M a r t y r i o n .  tween the Bethlehem b u i l d i n g and  The  Tegurium  difference  be-  the Holy Sepulchre i s t h a t  at Bethlehem the Holy S i t e was c o v e r e d by a rotunda l i k e s t r u c t u r e a t t a c h e d t o the c h u r c h from the v e r y b e g i n n i n g , whereas  -24-  at Jerusalem the Rotunda, b u i l t later.  The  over the Tegurium, was  Tomb of C h r i s t remained  b a s i l i c a u n t i l the Crusades.  added  a s e p a r a t e u n i t from the  I t would a l s o appear t h a t the  s e p a r a t i o n of b u i l d i n g s at Jerusalem and the i n t e g r a t i o n of them at Bethlehem was  i n t e n t i o n a l , t h a t i s , one was  tended t o be a copy of the o t h e r because structed simultaneously. complete,  The Church  not i n -  t h e y were b o t h  con-  of the N a t i v i t y was  i f not e n t i r e l y , when the Bordeaux P i l g r i m  nearly  visited  20 it  i n 333.  I n the same y e a r t h i s p i l g r i m had w r i t t e n t h a t  the Holy S e p u l c h r e was  a l s o complete  but of c o u r s e , i t had not  21 yet  been d e d i c a t e d .  I t would seem, t h e n , t h a t b o t h the  c h u r c h at Bethlehem and the M a r t y r i o n a t Jerusalem were based on a common a r c h i t e c t u r a l s o u r c e , p o s s i b l y the b a s i l i c a at T r i e r . Upon the c o m p l e t i o n of these two b u i l d i n g s the seems t o have come t o an end.  There  tradition  are no o t h e r b a s i l i c a  churches i n the M e d i t e r r a n e a n b a s i n which have an u n u s u a l l y l a r g e c i r c u l a r apse  end.  A s e a r c h f o r b u i l d i n g s v/hich might have c o p i e d the of twelve columns i n the h e m i s p h a i r i o n mentioned a l s o proves  group  by E u s e b i u s  futile.  S i n c e the method of f i n d i n g d u p l i c a t e s of the M a r t y r i o n o r of some of i t s p e c u l i a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by an examination of o t h e r church p l a n s has been u n s u c c e s s f u l , another approach i s warranted.  R i c h a r d Krautheimer  i n h i s w e l l known a r t i c l e  the iconography of M e d i e v a l a r c h i t e c t u r e a t i o n of an e d i f i c e the two  s t a t e s t h a t the d e d i c -  s i m i l a r t o the d e d i c a t i o n of another 22  t o g e t h e r as source and d e r i v a t i o n .  f o r the B y z a n t i n e p e r i o d .  Two  on  The  linked  same i s t r u e  churches d e d i c a t e d t o the same  -25s a i n t were i n t i m a t e l y connected.  I n the' M e d i e v a l p e r i o d  such  churches a l s o tended t o be s i m i l a r i n p l a n , i f n o t o v e r a l l , then i n c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s . d i s c u s s e d by Krautheimer  Only i n one i n s t a n c e i n the p e r i o d does he f i n d a church d e d i c a t e d t o  the H o l y Sepulchre (San S e p o l c r o , B a r l e t t a ) which, does n o t seem t o reproduce  any a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s found i n the com23  p l e x at Jerusalem.  Assuming t h e n , t h a t churches d e d i c a t e d  t o the Holy S e p u l c h r e i n the p e r i o d from the f o u r t h t o t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r i e s would a l s o t e n d t o d u p l i c a t e c e r t a i n t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s , t h e y s h o u l d be sought  archi-  out and t h e i r p l a n s  examined. Two o f t h e most w i d e l y known b a s i l i c a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the name o f the Holy Sepulchre are l o c a t e d i n I t a l y .  One o f  them i s t h e p a l a c e c h u r c h i n Rome, S. Croce i n Gerusalemme, a l s o r e f e r r e d t o as t h e B a s i l i c a H i e r u s a l e m i n S e s s o r i a n o ( F i g . 3 9 )  .24 The  it  c h u r c h , as i t now s t a n d s , xvas r e b u i l t i n 174-3» b u t  was o r i g i n a l l y a huge r e c t a n g u l a r h a l l c o n s t r u c t e d a t t h e  start  of the t h i r d century.  C r o s s by S t . Helena, a r e l i c  A f t e r t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e True o f i t was t a k e n by h e r t o Rome and 25  p l a c e d . i n t h e newly r e n o v a t e d h a l l . ^ Helena may have added an apse end, b u t , otherwise the h a l l p r e d a t e s t h e M a r t y r i o n and, t h e r e f o r e , cannot be c o n s i d e r e d an a r c h i t e c t u r a l copy o f i t . The  o t h e r b a s i l i c a i s commonly known as t h e B a s i l i c a  U r s i a n a ( F i g . 41a, b ) .  I t was n o t l o c a t e d i n Rome, but i n  Ravenna and was d e d i c a t e d t o t h e A n a s t a s i s .  B u i l t by Bishop  U r s i a n p r o b a b l y b e f o r e h i s death i n 384, i t s e r v e d as t h e 26 C a t h e d r a l o f Ravenna. An examination o f i t s apse end proves  -26t o be r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g . of the c h u r c h . a t i o n and may  F i r s t , the apse i s at the e a s t  T h i s i s the e a r l i e s t  i n s t a n c e of such an  orient-  have been d e s i g n e d t o a s s o c i a t e i t w i t h the  S e p u l c h r e which l a y t o the e a s t from Ravenna.  we  are reminded of the Church  the apse of the M a r t y r i o n may  Holy  Second, i t i s  a l s o the e a r l i e s t example of an e x t e r n a l p o l y g o n a l Immediately  end  apse.  of the N a t i v i t y , but'  a l s o have been o c t a g o n a l on the  27 outside.  S i n c e the h e m i s p h a i r i o n seems t o have been an  import-  ant f e a t u r e o f the M a r t y r i o n , a s e m i o c t a g o n a l e x t e r n a l apse w a l l may  r e p r e s e n t an i n t e n t i o n a l copy of the apse i n Jerusalem. The  apse w i t h f i v e p a n e l s of an octagon composing i t s  e x t e r n a l w a l l r a p i d l y became a common f e a t u r e on f i f t h and c e n t u r y churches throughout t h i s f e a t u r e was  the M e d i t e r r a n e a n .  sixth  Whether o r not  d e r i v e d from the M a r t y r i o n i s s p e c u l a t i v e but  examples are t o be found i n Capp.adocia,  v/ith a s m a l l e r number  i n P a l e s t i n e , S y r i a , South A s i a Minor, Mesopotamia, Rhodes, 27 C r e t e , C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , the Crimea and G e o r g i a .  .  But none o f  the examples are otherwise a s s o c i a t e d w i t h C o n s t a n t i n e ' s in  basilica  Jerusalem. S e v e r a l o t h e r churches are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  Holy  S e p u l c h r e o r , a t l e a s t , t o the C r o s s by t h e i r d e d i c a t i o n . Ravenna, f o r example, t h e r e was  another church b e s i d e s the Bas-  i l i c a U r s i a n a v/ith such a d e d i c a t i o n . Croce b u i l t by G a l l a P l a c i d i a basilica,  i t w&s  church s u r v i v e s .  In  I t v/as the Church  ( F i g . 40).  d e s i g n e d as a c r o s s .  o f S.  But i t v/as not a  Only the nave of the  The mausoleum of G a l l a P l a c i d i a , d e d i c a t e d t o  S t . Lawrence and c o n t a i n i n g the sarcophagus moved the c a p i t o l t o t h a t c i t y , was  of Honorius  who  a t t a c h e d t o the south s i d e  -27o f the church n a r t h e x .  The use of a c r o s s p l a n f o r the and 4-25  s t r u c t i o n of t h i s c h u r c h between 4-02 It  was  not  con-  unique.  seems t o have been used f o r a church w i t h a s i m i l a r d e d i c -  a t i o n i n Gaza, south of J e r u s a l e m . The  church at Gaza, known as the Eudoxiana, was  built  on  50 the s i t e  of the temple  of Marneion.  A l t h o u g h the date of  i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n has been d i s p u t e d i t seems t o have been d e d i 30 c a t e d on the day of the R e s u r r e c t i o n i n 4-07 t o Holy E a s t e r . The suggestion'.that the r o y a l household sent the p l a n s f o r the 32 church t o R u f i n u s , an a r c h i t e c t from A n t i o c h , i s l i k e l y The r o y a l household was  quite involved with  true.  ecclesiastical  a r c h i t e c t u r e throughout the e n t i r e B y z a n t i n e P e r i o d .  But the  g r a n t i n g of r o y a l s a n c t i o n t o a c r o s s p l a n f o r a church d e d i c a t e d t o E a s t e r seems strange when the b u i l d i n g s of the Holy Sepu l c h r e a t t h i s time were b o t h r e c t a n g u l a r ( M a r t y r i o n ) and circular was  ( A n a s t a s i s Rotunda).  Possibly a r e l i c  of the C r o s s  d e p o s i t e d t h e r e and determined the shape of the b u i l d i n g  de-  signed to contain i t . Moving now  from the f i f t h t o the s i x t h c e n t u r y and  the Middle E a s t and I t a l y , t o Prance, we  l e a r n t h a t a church  " i n modum c r u c i s " and d e d i c a t e d t o the True Cross was 33 on the s i t e of Saint-Germain-des-Pres,  Paris.  by K i n g C h i l d e b e r t I , son of C l o v i s , and was C r o s s and t o S t . Y i n c e n t on December 23 and 559  by S t . Germain, Bishop of P a r i s .  located  I t was  founded  d e d i c a t e d t o the  between the y e a r s C l o v i s had  of the True C r o s s was  ^57  collected  the r e l i c s of S t . V i n c e n t of Saragossa from t h a t c i t y i n I t i s not known when the r e l i c  from  54-2.  obtained  but a g a i n i t seems t o have determined the p l a n of the church as  -28-  a cross.  A f t e r t h e time o f d e d i c a t i o n i n t h e m i d s i x t h  century,  t h e c h u r c h s e r v e d as t h e b u r i a l s i t e f o r t h e M e r o v i n g i a n  royal  family. The churches  Merovingians  were a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h r e e  w i t h t h e same d e d i c a t i o n .  other  T h e i r p l a n s a r e unknown  but we assume t h e y were s i m i l a r t o t h e c h u r c h a t P a r i s .  The  C h u r c h o f S t e . C r o i x a t P o i t i e r s was b u i l t by Radegund, t h e r e 34pudiated Thuringian wife of Chlotar I . Ste. Croix of Chelles was l o c a t e d t o t h e e a s t o f t h e tomb o f B a t h i l d e , s i m i l a r t o t h e 35  r e l a t i o n s h i p of the Martyrion t o the Anastasis. ^  Bathilde,  mother o f C h l o t h a r I I I and C h i l d e r i c h , was an A n g l o - S a x o n war c a p t i v e , made w i f e o f a M e r o v i n g i a n Mayor o f t h e P a l a c e .  Known  f o r h e r p a t r o n a g e t o t h e C h u r c h , B a t h i l d e had g i v e n l a r g e e s t a t e s t o t h e abbey o f t h e N e u s t r i a n M e r o v i n g i a n s  at S a i n t Denis.  B e f o r e h e r d e a t h i n 658 she w i t h d r e w t o t h e monastery she founded on t h e r o y a l demesne a t C h e l l e s where she b u i l t h e r C h u r c h o f 36 the C r o s s . The t h i r d c h u r c h was a l s o l o c a t e d i n t h e N o r t h o f 37 Prance.  I t v/as b u i l t a t O r l e a n s .  churches  p r o b a b l y c o n t a i n e d p i e c e s o f wood b r o u g h t from J e r -  1  A l l of these  Merovingian  u s a l e m i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e y were from t h e True C r o s s , i n t h e same way t h a t a s m a l l e d i c u l a i n t h e L a t e r a n B a p t i s t r y , d e d i c a t e d t o t h e C r o s s , c o n t a i n e d a p i e c e o f wood c l a i m e d t o be from  Jerusalem A l t h o u g h t h e p l a c e where'the C r o s s was f o u n d was under  t h e M a r t y r i o n , t h e r e seems t o be no c o n n e c t i o n between t h a t s t r u c t u r e and t h e p l a n u s e d t o b u i l d c h u r c h e s of the r e l i c . the churches  Except  to contain pieces  f o r S. Croce i n Gerusalemme, Rome, a l l o f  d e d i c a t e d t o t h e C r o s s were b a s e d on a L a t i n  Cross  -29-  plan.  I t would seem, t h e n , t h a t o n l y the B a s i l i c a U r s i a n a  at Ravenna c o u l d have been planned t o s i m u l a t e t h e M a r t y r i o n . I t i s the o n l y church a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Holy Sepulchre by d e d i c a t i o n t o have a b a s i l i c a p l a n w i t h an e l a b o r a t e apse end. Common t o b o t h t h e M a r t y r i o n and t h e C a t h e d r a l i n Ravenna was  t h e f i v e a i s l e nave.  This p a r t i c u l a r  common and wide spread, e s p e c i a l l y  f e a t u r e was b o t h  among l a r g e r c h u r c h e s .  examples date back t o the C a t h e d r a l s a t Tyre ville C),  Early  (318) and 0 r l 6 a n s -  (324), b u t o t h e r examples a r e S. T e c l a , M i l a n ( l a t e 4 t h the C a t h e d r a l a t T r i e r  the Church  ( c a 380), S t . P e t e r ' s i n Rome ( 4 t h C ) ,  o f t h e S a v i o u r i n N a p l e s , t h e Church  o f the N a t i v i t y  i n Bethlehem (333), the c h u r c h known as E l e o n a on the Mount o f O l i v e s (333)? S t . E u s e b i u s o f V e c e i l ,  St. Paul outside the Walls,  §t. F e l i x o f N o l a , a church o f f i v e a i s l e s a t Hippone and t h e 39  C a t h e d r a l o f Navara.  Because o f the s i z e  these f i v e a i s l e d churches  and importance o f  i t would appear t h a t the b a s i c p l a n  must have o r i g i n a t e d i n the r o y a l c o u r t .  An a t r i u m i n f r o n t  of t h e b a s i l i c a , w i t h a p r o p y l a e a a l o n g the s t r e e t ,  also  con-  s t i t u t e d p a r t o f t h e r o y a l p l a n b u t these f e a t u r e s were not p a r t o f the C a t h e d r a l o f Ravenna.  Still,  i t , t o g e t h e r w i t h the  M a r t y r i o n , must be c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f the r o y a l t r a d i t i o n o f large f i v e a i s l e d The  churches.  f a c t t h a t the church a t Ravenna and the M a r t y r i o n  b o t h had f i v e a i s l e s alone does n o t l i n k the two as source and copy b u t t h e s i m i l a r i t y i n the number o f columns used t o compose t h e colonnades  c o n f i r m s such a b e l i e f .  Apparently both 40  churches had 65 columns i n the nave and a i s l e s . of columns may seem t o be a r a t h e r unimportant  The number f e a t u r e b u t the  -30-  number and q u a l i t y o f columns was important enough t o be ment i o n e d i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of b u i l d i n g s before anything e l s e .  For  example, E u s e b i u s mentions t h a t Emperor C o n s t a n t i n e sent "choice 4-1  columns" t o Jerusalem t o d e c o r a t e the c h u r c h . a l s o sent twelve  Constantine  s i l v e r c a p i t a l s f o r the tops o f twelve c o l 4-2  umns s u r r o u n d i n g the h e m i s p h a i r i o n .  Empress Eudoxiana  sent  no l e s s than 3 2 columns t o t h e church i n Gaza named i n h e r honour. 4-3 Four o f these were e s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d from K a r y s t o s marble. No o t h e r d e t a i l s o f h e r church are r e c o r d e d .  I n the M e d i e v a l  p e r i o d c o p i e s o f the Holy Sepulchre d u p l i c a t e d t h e number o f 4-4columns i n the o r i g i n a l as p a r t o f t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e s i g n . T h e r e f o r e , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the d u p l i c a t i o n o f t h e number o f columns i n t h e A n a s t a s i s was p r a c t i s e d i n l a t e r y e a r s and t h a t d e s c r i p t i o n s take s p e c i a l note  o f the number o f columns i n  the churches b e i n g d e s c r i b e d , i t i s q u i t e p r o b a b l e t h a t the number o f columns i n t h e C a t h e d r a l a t Ravenna was based  on t h e  number i n t h e M a r t y r i o n . A l t h o u g h R. Krautheimer  s t a t e s t h a t the f i r s t  Church  o f Hagia Sophia i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e ( c a . 360) had double  aisles  and g a l l e r i e s l i k e t h e M a r t y r i o n , the two b u i l d i n g s are n o t r e lated.  4 5  I n a church a t E p i d a u r o s t h e row o f s u p p o r t s a l o n g the nave are columns w h i l e those i n the a i s l e s a r e p i e r s .  This  p a t t e r n was a l s o f o l l o w e d i n the M a r t y r i o n , b u t , a g a i n , t h e two 4-6 churches  are n o t r e l a t e d .  Such d e t a i l s were t o o common t o  be a t t r i b u t e d t o one p a r t i c u l a r s o u r c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e source happens t o be the M a r t y r i o n .  -31-  I t would appear, then, t h a t t h e r e was o n l y one church which seems t o have c o p i e d the M a r t y r i o n b u i l t by C o n s t a n t i n e s 1  architects.  That was the C a t h e d r a l a t Ravenna known as the  B a s i l i c a Ursiana. Because the M a r t y r i o n was o n l y designed t o serve as a c o n g r e g a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , i t was n o t l i k e l y l o o k e d upon as b e i n g a v e r y e x c e p t i o n a l b u i l d i n g , even though i t was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l o c a t i o n o f C h r i s t ' s Tomb.  Except  f o r the hemis-  p h a i r i o n and i t s columns t h e r e were no a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s which seemed t o capture the a t t e n t i o n o f p i l g r i m s such as Eusebius.  Even he does not spend t o o much time d e s c r i b i n g the  basilica.  I t was c o n s i d e r e d t o be j u s t one more g r e a t  Christ-  i a n Church. The Persians. funds.  o r i g i n a l M a r t y r i o n was d e s t r o y e d i n 614 by the Modestus r e s t o r e d i t but he was hampered by l a c k o f  He had sought a i d i n Ramula, T i b e r i a s , Tyre and Damascus.,  but the P e r s i a n s had l e f t 47 a f f o r d to give a i d .  the c o u n t r y i n r u i n and no one c o u l d  Had f i n a n c i a l a i d n o t been  forthcoming  from the P a t r i a r c h o f A l e x a n d r i a , John the C h a r i t a b l e , A r c u l f may n o t have seen a n y t h i n g but r u i n when he v i s i t e d some y e a r s l a t e r . back i n s e r v i c e .  Jerusalem  But a i d d i d come and by 630 the b a s i l i c a was W i t h i n seven o r e i g h t y e a r s the Moslems had 48  i n v a d e d the Holy C i t y and g a i n e d c o n t r o l o f the c h u r c h .  It  was n o t burned a t t h a t time b u t i t d i d s u f f e r from a f i r e  i n 967.  I t was r e s t o r e d o n l y t o be d e s t r o y e d a g a i n i n 1009 o r 1010 by K h a l i f Hakim.  T h i s time  i t was n o t r e b u i l t .  T h e r e f o r e , no  c o p i e s o r drawings o f i t were made i n the M e d i e v a l p e r i o d .  -32-  CHAPTER I I I  THE ANASTASIS  The A n a s t a s i s o f the Holy Sepulchre was a c i r c u l a r s t r u c t u r e b u i l t b e h i n d o r t o the west o f the M a r t y r i o n .  Be-  cause o f i t s c i r c u l a r shape, the A n a s t a s i s i s commonly known as the Rotunda o r the Rotunda o f the A n a s t a s i s .  The  original  b u i l d i n g i s no l o n g e r s t a n d i n g but the p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e i s bel i e v e d t o f o l l o w the o r i g i n a l ground p l a n s r a t h e r c l o s e l y . Judging from the modern s t r u c t u r e , the o r i g i n a l b u i l d i n g e n t l y measured some 36,52 meters i n diameter. e q u a l l y as h i g h . Sepulchre  To those who  No,reference  probably  came as p i l g r i m s t o see the Holy  i t must have been a v e r y imposing  would s u r e l y have remembered  I t was  appar-  a l l their  sight.  One  they  lives.  i s made t o the A n a s t a s i s Rotunda by E u s e b i u s  when he d e s c r i b e d the Holy Sepulchre  i n h i s V i t a Constantini.^"  We assume, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i t d i d not e x i s t i n 337 when Constantine died.  P o s s i b l y C o n s t a n t i n e had p l a n s p r e p a r e d but  t h e r e i s no documentory evidence  of such.a  The date, o f c o n s t r u c t i o n i s a matter  theory. of contention.  i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t the Rotunda was b u i l t  It  at the middle  o f the f o u r t h c e n t u r y , p o s s i b l y ' b y 348, and t h e r e are documents which may be i n t e r p r e t e d t o support t h i s e a r l y d a t e , but i t i s e q u a l l y p o s s i b l e t h a t the b u i l d i n g was not b u i l t u n t i l the  -33-.  r e i g n o f Theodosius ( 3 7 8 - 3 9 5 )  or j u s t b e f o r e i t .  Kenneth Conant and R i c h a r d Krautheimer b o t h c l a i m t h a t 2 the Rotunda was presented  i n use  by Conant.  by 3 5 0 .  The  He bases h i s t h e o r y  L e c t u r e s g i v e n by C y r i l o f Jerusalem i n 34-8. taught  case f o r such a date i s on the C a t e c h e t i c a l  t o a group of h i s p u p i l s  These p u p i l s were a s p i r i n g c h u r c h members who  the c a t e c h i s m  by v i s i t i n g the s i t e s s a c r e d t o the  i n the p r e c i n c t s of the H o l y S e p u l c h r e .  In Lecture  XIV  r e f e r s t o " t h i s v e r y p l a c e of the R e s u r r e c t i o n : and Church o f the R e s u r r e c t i o n o f God s i l v e r and ivrought w i t h g o l d . . . " are ambiguous.  The  the S a v i o u r ,  church Cyril  "this  sheathed  But b o t h o f these  holy  with  references  "place of the R e s u r r e c t i o n " c o u l d mean the  a r e a around the Tegurium known as the c o u r t o f the w h i l e the  were  Anastasis,  " h o l y Church of. the R e s u r r e c t i o n " c o u l d be the  i t s e l f which C o n s t a n t i n e  had  l a v i s h l y decorated,  Tegurium  according  to  Li.  the words of E u s e b i u s .  As f u r t h e r evidence  Conant r e f e r s t o L e c t u r e  XVIII,  of h i s  theory,  " A f t e r E a s t e r ' s H o l y Day  v a t i o n ye s h a l l come on each s u c c e s s i v e d a y . . . a f t e r the  of  Sal-  assembly  i n t o the Holy P l a c e o f the R e s u r r e c t i o n , and t h e r e , i f God 5 permit,  ye s h a l l hear o t h e r L e c t u r e s " .  A g a i n Conant assumes  t h a t the catechumens moved i n t o the Rotunda - "the H o l y P l a c e of the R e s u r r e c t i o n " - but t h e r e i s no b u i l d i n g i n t h i s Lecture  either.  The  s p e c i f i c reference to a date of 3 4 8 t h e n i s  l a r g e l y s u p p o s i t i o n , based on b r i e f and u n c l e a r passages from a t e x t not i n t e n d e d  t o d e s c r i b e the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the  Church.  But the Rotunda must c e r t a i n l y have been i n use by end  o f the f o u r t h c e n t u r y .  the  In c a . 3 8 3 - 8 5 A e t h e r i a ( E t h e r i a ,  -34a l s o known as S t . S i l v i a  of A q u i t a i n e ) v i s i t e d the Holy  •  Sep-  6 u l c h r e w h i l e on a p i l g r i m a g e from Gaul.  She  wrote, "Those  days are c a l l e d the days o f D e d i c a t i o n , on which the h o l y i n Golgotha,  church  c a l l e d the Martyrium, and the h o l y church of the  A n a s t a s i s , where the l o r d rose a f t e r H i s p a s s i o n , were r a t e d t o God"  and  elsewhere i n the same t e x t ,  consec-  " a l l doors are 7  opened and the whole crowd streams i n t o the A n a s t a s i s . "  Both  o f these passages r e f e r t o the A n a s t a s i s Rotunda i n c l e a r  un-  debatable  terms.  T h e r e f o r e , the b u i l d i n g must have e x i s t e d i n  385. E x a c t l y when the A n a s t a s i s might have been b u i l t , t o 385,  is difficult  to determine.  Church of the A s c e n s i o n was  b u i l t b e f o r e 378,  hand Theodosius, of churches Papylos)  who  suggests  I t s s i m i l a r i t y t o the  a s i m i l a r d a t e , and t h a t  p o s s i b l e as e a r l y as 370. came t o power i n 378,  The  On the  also b u i l t  i n c l u d i n g SS. Karpos and P o l y k a r p o s  i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e which bears  Rotunda.  prior  church  other  a number  (SS. Carpos  and  some resemblance t o the  problem i s d e f i n i t e l y p e r p l e x i n g .  Certainly a  l a t e date i s not a t a l l out of q u e s t i o n , even though most a r t h i s t o r i a n s would p r e f e r t o p l a c e the date b e f o r e C y r i l ' s (348).  Lectures  I l l u s t r a t i o n s and d e s c r i p t i o n s c o u l d a p p l y t o e i t h e r  p e r i o d a l t h o u g h t h e y a l l appear i n a p e r i o d soon a f t e r  the  l a t e r date, t h a t i s , i n or a f t e r the l a s t q u a r t e r of the f o u r t h century. date  On these grounds, though not f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d , a  i n the e a r l y l a s t  q u a r t e r of the f o u r t h c e n t u r y seems  preferable. The  term " A n a s t a s i s " o r i g i n a l l y r e f e r r e d t o the  the s u r r o u n d i n g  c o u r t and the cave at the time  Tegurium,  of C y r i l ' s  and  -35-  A e t h e r i a ' s w r i t i n g i n the f o u r t h c e n t u r y .  I t was n o t u n t i l  the e a r l y s i x t h c e n t u r y t h a t mention i s made o f a c i r c u l a r structure b u i l t  on the s i t e  of the A n a s t a s i s .  The r e f e r e n c e  appears i n t h e " B r e v i a r y " o r Short D e s c r i p t i o n o f Jerusalem" ( c a 5 3 0 ) and reads  "Supra ipsum e s t e c c l e s i a i n rotundo," 8  t h a t i s "Above i t a church i s b u i l t A r c u l f was t h e f i r s t c r i p t i o n o f the Rotunda. was  i n a round form."  p i l g r i m t o make a c a r e f u l des-  The Rotunda, however, seen by him,  the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n made by Modestus a f t e r the P e r s i a n s had  d e s t r o y e d the o r i g i n a l i n 614.  But l i k e l y , i t d u p l i c a t e d the  original. H i s d e s c r i p t i o n reads as f o l l o w s : T h i s v e r y l a r g e church, a l l o f i t b u i l t o f stone, i s w o n d e r f u l l y round on every s i d e , r i s i n g from i t s f o u n d a t i o n s i n t h r e e w a l l s , by which one r o o f i s e l e v a t e d t o a g r e a t h e i g h t , h a v i n g a broad space f o r passage between each w a l l and the next; i n t h r e e i n g e n i o u s l y c o n s t r u c t e d p l a c e s o f the middle w a l l there are a l s o three a l t a r s . Twelve stone columns of wonderful magnitude s u s t a i n t h i s round and l e f t y church, which has the a l t a r s above mentioned, one l o o k i n g t o the south, another t o the n o r t h , and t h e t h i r d towards the west. I t has twice f o u r gates (two f o u r f o l d g a t e s ) ; t h a t i s f o u r means o f entrance through t h r e e s o l i d w a l l s , the space-passages b e i n g i n t e r s e c t e d i n s t r a i g h t l i n e s ; o f these f o u r p l a c e s o f e x i t l o o k towards the n o r t h - e a s t (which i s a l s o c a l l e d the " C a e c i a s " wind), and the o t h e r f o u r l o o k towards the south-east.9 A r c u l f does n o t d e a l w i t h a r c h i t e c t u r a l m o t i f s o r d e c o r a t i o n t o any g r e a t e x t e n t . ific  I n s t e a d , he c o n s i d e r s the l o c a t i o n o f spec-  f e a t u r e s such as t h e e n t r a n c e s  and a l t a r s which he i n d i c -  a t e d on h i s accompanying p l a n ( P i g . 8a, b, c ) . No i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e Rotunda have been found t o date from the middle  of the f o u r t h century.  I t i s n o t u n t i l the end  of t h a t c e n t u r y t h a t r e l i e f s were c a r v e d on the s i d e o f c e r t a i n sarcophagi.  The e a r l i e s t  o f t h r e e examples dates from the  -36second h a l f o f t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y a c c o r d i n g t o N e i l C . Brooks. I d e n t i f i e d as the sarcophagus from Rome ( P i g . 42a), i t i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the o t h e r two by t h e window which p i e r c e s the w a l l o f the Rotunda i l l u s t r a t e d on i t . " " ^ 1  The dome i s shaped  l i k e a lemon c u t through the c e n t r e so t h a t the l i t t l e t r u s i o n on the end forms t h e peak. lacking.  Otherwise, d e t a i l s are  The sarcophagus o f S. C e l s o i n M i l a n ( F i g . 42c) i s  d a t e d by Brooks as l a t e f o u r t h o r e a r l y f i f t h left  century."^  To t h e  o f a c i r c u l a r s t r u c t u r e two f i g u r e s l o o k i n t o i t s open -  door as i f i n s e a r c h o f a body. of  pro-  D i r e c t l y above, the upper  half  an a n g e l ' s body appears from out o f a c l o u d and p o i n t s t o t h e  open door.  To the r i g h t o f the c y l i n d e r two female  meet f a c e t o f a c e w i t h the r i s e n L o r d .  figures  No windows appear i n  t h i s example but the dome i s s i m i l a r t o the Rome r e l i e f , a l t h o u g h it the  seems t o have been c o v e r e d w i t h metal s h e e t i n g n o t shown on e a r l i e r example.  The t h i r d sarcophagus i s from Southern  12 Gaul ( F i g . 42b).  The c y l i n d r i c a l Rotunda i n t h i s example i s  s i m i l a r t o the one seen i n the M i l a n sarcophagus. though n o t q u i t e as t a l l , b o t h are s i m i l a r . in  The door, J  i s a l s o round arched and t h e domes i n  The r o o f o f metal s h e e t i n g i s n o t v i s i b l e  t h e Southern Gaul sarcophagus.  k n e e l b e f o r e the r i s e n C h r i s t .  As i n the Rome r e l i e f , women  A p p a r e n t l y two guards, one on  each s i d e o f the A n a s t a s i s , were a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d , a c c o r d i n g t o Brooks, b u t the drawing o f the sarsophagus made by G a r r u c c i , who discovered i t , i s not too c l e a r .  A l l t h r e e o f these  sarcophagus  r e l i e f s r e p r e s e n t t h e Rotunda i n a s i m i l a r way, as a s i m p l e , u n d e c o r a t e d , c y l i n d r i c a l b u i l d i n g w i t h a dome r o o f . L a t e r i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the same b u i l d i n g i n r e l i e f are  -37-  quite d i f f e r e n t .  The Rotunda  shown on the B a s i l e w s k y s i t u l a ,  f o r m e r l y i n the Church o f San Ambrogio and nov; i n the C a t h e d r a l T r e a s u r y i n M i l a n , i s two s t o r i e d  (Pig. 4 - 3 ) . I n  where i t i s guarded by f o u r s o l d i e r s , the Rotunda  the scene i s b u i l t of  b r i c k w i t h the base a r o t u n d a , l a r g e r than the second s t o r y drum. is  A window p i e r c e s the second s t o r y w h i l e a two f o l d  shown on the ground l e v e l . i s a g a i n shown.  I n the scene o f the r i s e n  the  Rotunda  The guard obscures the f i r s t  but  the second s t o r y can be seen.  door Christ, story  The window now stands open.  C l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f the second s t o r y r e v e a l s t h a t i t i s v e r y s i m i l a r i n appearance t o the r e l i e f s on the s a r c o p h a g i made in  the l a t e f o u r t h o r e a r l y f i f t h  c e n t u r y , even though the s i t u l a  would seem t o date from the n i n t h c e n t u r y .  The Rotunda, as  r e p r e s e n t e d on t h i s s i t u l a , i s t y p i c a l o f the M e d i e v a l p e r i o d when a r t i s t s showed i t as a two s t o r y b u i l d i n g w i t h an ambulatory. Por some unknown r e a s o n the Rotunda  i s not shown on the  f o u r t h c e n t u r y mosaic o f Santa Pudenziana i n Rome ( P i g . 3 2 a , b ) . 14Its  absence has been e x p l a i n e d by Conant.  the  Rotunda was t o o f a r t o the r i g h t t o be i n c l u d e d i n the scene.  In the  r e c o n s t r u c t i n g the l o c a t i o n o f the a r t i s t  A c c o r d i n g t o him  and the view  which  a r t i s t would have seen, Conant p l a c e d him j u s t o u t s i d e the  c h u r c h p r e c i n c t s on the n o r t h s i d e and j u s t west o f the middle of  the complex.  The a r t i s t  f r o n t o f the Church.  l o o k e d e a s t s o u t h - e a s t towards the  The Rotunda,  a c c o r d i n g t o Conant, was,  t h e r e f o r e , too f a r west f o r the a r t i s t t o see i t . ( P i g . 3 2 c ) . Such a view was n e c e s s i t a t e d due t o the placement o f C a l v a r y i n the  c e n t r e o f the mosaic.  But t h e r e may a l s o be a second  -38-  explanation. century  I f the Rotunda was  i t may  prepared  built  at the end  of the  not have been i n e x i s t e n c e when sketches  f o r the mosaic.  fourth were  Sketches f o r the work c o u l d have  e x i s t e d f o r some time b e f o r e  the c h u r c h and w a l l s were ready  15 for  the  tesserae. F i f t h c e n t u r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the Rotunda do not  to  exist.  I n t e r e s t , i n s t e a d , seems t o have been f o c u s e d  the Tegurium.  I t was  i n the f i f t h  d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I were c a r v e d . was  considered  t h i s time.  to be  centurj^ t h a t the Apparently,  seem  on  ivories  the  Tegurium  of g r e a t e r importance than the Rotunda at  I f such a s u s p i c i o n i s c o r r e c t , then,  i t i s not  l i k e l y t h a t a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t r u c t u r e s i n t e n d e d t o copy the Rotunda would have been c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h i s c e n t u r y . fifth  c e n t u r y was  a r c h i t e c t u r e was The  u n s e t t l e d p o l i t i c a l l y and  appears i n i l l u s t r a t i o n s .  Sanctorum, L a t e r a n  different.  The  the Madaba mosaic ( F i g . 33b)  The  the  religiously,  church  and 16  (Fig. 9).  number o f windows are t o be below the base of the r o o f . late  Rotunda  case.  again  most i n t e r e s t i n g examples are the r e l i q u a r y i n the  Sancta  In both examples the dome  a s m a l l p o r t i o n of the drum are v i s i b l e and  building  since  not c a r r i e d on w i t h g r e a t f e r v o r i n any  s i x t h c e n t u r y was  In the  And  i n b o t h cases  and a  seen opening i n t o . t h e Rotunda j u s t Otherwise d e t a i l s are l a c k i n g .  seventh c e n t u r y A r c u l f made h i s p l a n o f  ( F i g . 8a, b, c) but no  i l l u s t r a t i o n s from t h a t  the  century  are knovm. Reconstruction  of the Rotunda from i l l u s t r a t i o n s  r e l i e f s i s almost i m p o s s i b l e  due  t o l a c k of m a t e r i a l .  and And  the  l a c k o f p h y s i c a l remains from the o r i g i n a l s t r u c t u r e f u r t h e r  -39hampers attempts t o v i s u a l i z e what the o r i g i n a l b u i l d i n g like.  G e n e r a l l y speaking,  a r t h i s t o r i a n s have a c c e p t e d  n i n t h c e n t u r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , such as the one s i t u l a , as b e i n g c o r r e c t . a c c o r d i n g l y ( F i g . 31b,  on the  looked the  Basilewsky  Conant has made h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s  33c).  B r i e f l y , the h i s t o r y of the Rotunda i s as f o l l o w s . o r i g i n a l b u i l d i n g was  The  burned i n 614- by the P e r s i a n k i n g , Choroes  17 11 (591-628) but i t may not have been l e v e l l e d . The annales o f E u t y c h i u s (876-939) r e c o r d the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n undertaken by Modestus i n 628. and i n 936  18  In 812  t h e r e was  the Arabs sacked the Holy  Sepulchre  a second f i r e but the g r e a t e s t havoc  was  19 caused  by K a l i f Hakem i n 1009  passed b e f o r e a new  or 1010.  Rotunda was  taken by C o n s t a n t i n e  Over f o r t y  constructed.  The  years  t a s k was  Monomachus and completed i n 104-8.  t w e l f t h c e n t u r y the Rotunda was  added t o c r e a t i n g the  as i t now  a g a i n a t t a c k e d the  stands.  In 1808  b u i l d i n g s , and a l t h o u g h are s t i l l  fire  I n the complex  ancient  some r e p a i r s were made, the b u i l d i n g s 20  i n v e r y poor c o n d i t i o n .  A r c u l f ' s p l a n of the Rotunda ( P i g . 8a, b) i s v e r y t o the p l a n he made of the Church of the A s c e n s i o n known as the ca 385). one  side.  under-  similar  ( F i g . 4-4-a, b ) ,  "Imbomon" or "Inbomon" (from the time of A e t h e r i a  Both p l a n s have an i n n e r c i r c l e w i t h an opening In the case of the A n a s t a s i s t h i s c i r c l e  the c i b o r i u m and i t i s l i k e l y t r u e f o r the c i r c l e Imbomon p l a n as w e l l . ( P a r i s manuscript;  represents  i n the  Next t o t h i s r i n g i s a l i g h t e r  A n a s t a s i s , ( F i g . 8b); A s c e n s i o n ,  which r e p r e s e n t s a colonnade. resenting a s o l i d wall.  The  to  ring  ( F i g . 4-4-b)  Then t h e r e i s a s o l i d r i n g  rep-  "middle w a l l " as A r c u l f r e f e r s t o  -40-  it  i n h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the Rotunda, today, i s the  of the o u t e r w a l l of the A n a s t a s i s .  The  location  same w a l l c o n t a i n s  the t h r e e apses o r areas f o r a l t a r s at the c a r d i n a l p o i n t s of 21 n o r t h , west and s o u t h .  The  s o l i d w a l l shown on the A s c e n s i o n  p l a n seems t o be the i n n e r w a l l of an ambulatory around the c h u r c h .  travelling  F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s an o u t e r r i n g but i n the  case of the Rotunda i t i s not s o l i d w h i l e i n the case of the A s c e n s i o n i t i s . A p p a r e n t l y , the l a t t e r was s o l i d w a l l w h i l e the former v/as n o t .  But, i n a c t u a l  t h i s seems u n l i k e l y s i n c e the Rotunda was s o l i d w a l l on the f i r s t  story.  surrounded by a fact,  i l l u s t r a t e d v/ith a  Both b u i l d i n g s t h e n , were b a s i c -  a l l y the same i n t h e i r g e n e r a l p l a n . Only r e c e n t l y have e x c a v a t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h a t the of the A s c e n s i o n was F o r y e a r s i t was  Church 23 a c t u a l l y c i r c u l a r l i k e the A n a s t a s i s .  b e l i e v e d t h a t the o r i g i n a l church was  octagonal  24 ( F i g . 45). the Crusade  But the o c t a g o n a l p l a n now period.  Recent  i s b e l i e v e d t o date  from  measurements have shown t h a t the 25  octagon was  l a r g e r than the o r i g i n a l rotunda by some 4  meters.  The r a d i u s of the r o t u n d a i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 18 meters - almost i d e n t i c a l t o the r a d i u s of the "middle w a l l " of the A n a s t a s i s (18,26 m e t e r s ) . be expected because  But t h i s c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p of r a d i i was  to  of r e f e r e n c e s made t o the s i z e of the tv/o  churches by an Armenian p i l g r i m . . He had w r i t t e n , "On the p l a c e of the R e s u r r e c t i o n , a v e r y b e a u t i f u l cupola-shaped c h u r c h , of the A s c e n s i o n i s27e r e c t e d , a f t e r the l i k e n e s s of the Church 100  e l l s i n width."  A n a s t a s i s he wrote,  In the same t e x t but r e f e r r i n g t o t h "In the colonnaded  cupola-shaped  church  -4-1( w h i c h was b u i l t ) on t h i s  100 e l l s  i n h e i g h t a n d 100 e l l s  i n breadth,  12 c o l u m n s b e l o w  and t h a t side ( a r e found)(or stand) 28  12 c o l u m n s a b o v e . "  and  churches  w e r e t h e same s i z e  The before It  a n d t h e same  Church o f the Ascension  that  both  "likeness".  was b u i l t  sometime  shortly  3 7 8 , p o s s i b l y as e a r l y as 370 a c c o r d i n g t o Krautheimer.  1  was f i n a n c e d b y a r i c h woman f r o m Rome named P o e m e n i a .  Since  i t i s n o t known f o r c e r t a i n i f t h e . A n a s t a s i s was  b u i l t before if  The A r m e n i a n , t h e n , f e l t  or after the 370's,  i ti sdifficult  t o know  one b u i l d i n g c o p i e d t h e p l a n o f t h e o t h e r o r i f b o t h  b u i l d i n g s h a d a p l a n i n common a n d w e r e b u i l t The (Pig.32a)  left  simultaneously.  s i d e o f t h e S. P u d e n z i a n a m o s a i c i n Rome  has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d .  On t h e r i g h t  h i s t o r i a n s b e l i e v e t h e Imbomon a n d E l e o n a ,  on t h e t o p o f t h e  mount o f O l i v e s , a r e r e p r e s e n t e d , h o w e v e r , c l o s e will  show t h a t t h e r o t u n d a 30  round but polygonal.  side  examination  t a k e n t o be t h e Imbomon i s n o t  The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s  building  a s t h e Imbomon was a c c e p t a b l e w h i l e i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e church found  was o r i g i n a l l y  o c t a g o n a l b u t now t h a t e x c a v a t i o n s  have  t h a t i t was a c t u a l l y r o u n d t h e t h e o r y m u s t be d i s p e l l e d .  I n s t e a d t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n may be o f t h e C h u r c h o f t h e N a t i v i t y i n Bethlehem w i t h i t s octagonal  apse.  T h e r e w e r e , a c t u a l l y , n o t a g r e a t number o f r o t u n d a b u i l d i n g s i n t h e r e g i o n o f P a l e s t i n e and S y r i a a t t h e end o f the  fourth century.  T h e r e w a s , o f c o u r s e , t h e Imbomon a n d t h e  A n a s t a s i s , and' b y t h e b e g i n n i n g and such  beliefs  of the f o u r t h century  associated with domical  ideas  shapes and s t r u c t u r e s  a s t h e t h o l o s , mundus, herob'n, s a c r e d b a e t y l ,  omphalos  -42-  and  so on were p o p u l a r and widespread, but they bore  little 31  fruit  i n the way  E. Baldwin  of monumental rotunda a r c h i t e c t u r e .  Smith w r i t e s t h a t "The  domical mortuary t r a d i t i o n ,  ... l i k e the domical b a p t i s t r y , was  not n a t i v e t o S y r i a , f o r  n e i t h e r i n S y r i a nor f a r t h e r e a s t i n Mesopotamia and P e r s i a were t h e r e any round tombs whose domical 32 p r e s e r v e d the memory of an a n c i e n t house." earliest  shape  Indeed, the  extant f r e e s t a n d i n g tomb i n the r e g i o n i s the  m o n o l i t h i c , c y l i n d r i c a l s t e l e at  'Amrith b u i l t d u r i n g or 33  b e f o r e the r e i g n of Herod the G r e a t . ^ Except  for this  Smith c l a i m s t h a t a l l domical tombs from the f i r s t B.C.  ancient  t o the f o u r t h c e n t u r y A.D.  d e s i g n on Roman models m  century  i n P a l e s t i n e , based 34  Egypt.  No  stele,  their  doubt he would have  i n c l u d e d the tombs of Absalom w i t h i t s f u n n e l r o o f and t h a t of  Zacharias with a pyramidal  not l i s t  any monuments as examples.  seems t o be o n l y one in  top i n the group, but he 35  other completely  B e s i d e s the s t e l e cylindrical  Built  d e d i c a t e d t o a sky god, 402. said  Before  i n the second c e n t u r y  Marnas, i t was  It is and  d e s t r o y e d by f i r e  i t burned Mark the Deacon d e s c r i b e d i t .  'it'was round, b e i n g supported by two  w i t h i n t h e ^ o t h e r , and i n the c e n t r e was 36  there  building  the r e g i o n p r i o r t o the C h r i s t i a n c o n s t r u c t i o n s . 36  the Marneon at Gaza.  does  colonnades,  a dome,  in  He one  puffed-up  and r i s i n g on h i g h . ' ^  A c c o r d i n g t o the d e s c r i p t i o n made by  Mark, the Marneon was  somewhat s i m i l a r t o the A n a s t a s i s but  i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t the a r c h i t e c t s of the Holy Sepulchre would Rotunda t i n o p l ehave would or been M i l have a n .sent based I t aa l yp l was a t hn e ifrom ra b l p el a the n t o onro of yfi aet lr. a c More o wide u r t li ivnka eConstanrliye t yt h e y  -43of  c i r c u l a r p l a n s f o r such a monument. (Fig.4-6 a-d)  of  p o s s i b l e b u i l d i n g s might i n c l u d e the Tomb o f C e c i l i a M e t e l l a ,  the temple o f T i v o l i ,  known as t h e "Tor de' S c h i a v a "  so on. At the end o f the seventh  five two at  list  and the temple o f V e s t a i n Rome, the  mausoleum o f t h e Gordians and  A  c e n t u r y t h e r e were o n l y  c i r c u l a r C h r i s t i a n b u i l d i n g s i n t h e Middle  east, the  f o u r t h c e n t u r y b u i l d i n g s mentioned above, the Theodokos B e i s a n (Beth Sean, a n c i e n t S c y t h o p o l i s ) ,' ~a martyrium a t  F a ' l u i , and t h e Church o f t h e V i r g i n a t A n t i o c h . The  Church o f t h e V i r g i n a t A n t i o c h was b u i l t by  Justinian m  the middle  o f the f i f t h  century.  c e n t u r y i t was d e s c r i b e d as 'a round c h u r c h ,  37 ' I n the t e n t h and one o f t h e  wonders o f the world f o r t h e beauty o f i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n and 38 its  height.No  but  i t s p l a n was p r o b a b l y based on the Tomb o f the V i r g i n  built  o t h e r d e t a i l s o f t h e church are known  i n J e r u s a l e m , i n the middle  o f the f o u r t h c e n t u r y ,  though i t was o c t a g o n a l r a t h e r than The  rotunda  at Beisan  circular.  ( F i g . 4 7 ) was b u i l t  i n the f i f t h  39 or s i x t h c e n t u r y . I t v/as composed o f two o r p o s s i b l y t h r e e c o n c e n t r i c w a l l s , t h e ' c e n t r e one a c t u a l l y b e i n g a c o l o n n a d e 4-0 r  if The  i t was c i r c u l a r and not a square  as A b e l  suggests.  o u t e r f o u n d a t i o n s measured some 38,8 meters i n diameter  and t h e i n s i d e w a l l o f the ambulatory 27,44 meters.  I f there  was an inn&e colonnade i t might be e q u a l i n width t o the f r o n t of  the apse a t the e a s t end ( 1 0 , 0 4 meters).' "  of  the o u t e r colonnade o f the A n a s t a s i s v/as ca.50,40 meters.  4  1  The  diameter  -4-4--  The  "middle  w a l l " and p r e s e n t e x t e r i o r of the A n a s t a s i s i s 4-2  ca.36,52 meters i n diameter.  The  Theotokos at B e i s a n  t h e r e f o r e , s m a l l e r than the Rotunda i n Jerusalem  was,  and i t s p l a n ,  w i t h an apse at the e a s t end and a n a r t h e x a t the west, v/as not at a l l l i k e the l a r g e r b u i l d i n g . . The  Church of S t . M i c h a e l a t F a * l u i ( P a l o u l , Fig.4-8) 4-3  i n S y r i a , was  b u i l t by Diogenes i n 526-7.  of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c h u r c h was  a triple  At the e a s t  end  apse c o n s t r u c t e d of  s o l i d marble w i t h the c e n t r a l apse t e r m i n a t i n g i n a s e m i c i r c l e . A n a r t h e x at the west end The  diameter  s e r v e d as a p o r t c h f o r t h r e e 4-4-  of the e x t e r i o r w a l l was  entrances.  14-,95 meters.  O b v i o u s l y t h i s rotunda i s not r e l a t e d t o the A n a s t a s i s i n any  way.  ; was  To the n o r t h , i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e , a c i r c u l a r built  at the end of the f o u r t h c e n t u r y and d e d i c a t e d 4-5  t o SS. Karpos and P o l y k a r p o s . ' I t was and was The  built  composed o f a c e n t r a l room surrounded  entrance was  suggest  church  a second  l o c a t e d i n the s o u t h . story.  by an  Evidence  A c h a n c e l and apse a l s o  p a r t of the p l a n which Krautheimer doubt t h a t the church was  over a c r y p t  feels  "leaves  ambulatory.  of  stairs  constituted little  a c o m p a r a t i v e l y e a r l y copy of the  4-6 Anastasis."  On h i s a u t h o r i t y t h i s i s the f i r s t  church which  has been g i v e n the honour of b e i n g a copy of the Rotunda i n Jerusalem  and I see no reason f o r d o u b t i n g such a c l a i m ,  a l t h o u g h i t i s o n l y based  on a r c h e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e .  There are no b u i l d i n g s d e s i g n e d as rotundas n o r t h e r n c o a s t a l r e g i o n s of the M e d i t e r r a n e a n t o c l a i m the A n a s t a s i s as t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r .  i n the  east of I t a l y I t a l y hov/ever,  -4-5is different. around Rome.  C i r c u l a r mausolea are common t o the r e g i o n In f a c t , K.A.C. O r e s w e l l c l a i m s t h a t the  "Church of the Holy Sepulchre b u i l t by C o n s t a n t i n e seems t o have been d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y from the rotunda of Santa  .  47  Costanza ( F i g . 51a,b)!  ' And t h e r e are s i m i l a r i t i e s i n i t s  p l a n t o the b u i l d i n g i n Jerusalem, namely, the dome s u p p o r t e d on a r i n g of columns and a c i r c u l a r ambulatory between i t and the o u t e r w a l l .  There was  a l s o an o u t e r ambulatory  similar  i n l o c a t i o n t o the o u t e r r i n g drawn by A r c u l f on h i s p l a n 48 t o r e p r e s e n t an e x t e r n a l ambulatory  around the Rotunda.  C r e s w e l l notes p a r t i c u l a r l y the arrangement colonnade.  I t , l i k e the colonnade  of the i n n e r  o f the A n a s t a s i s , was  d e s i g n e d t o r e f l e c t a c r u c i f o r m , a l t h o u g h i t marked the c a r d i n a l p o i n t s by i n c r e a s i n g the space between columns a t t h a t p o i n t r a t h e r than r e s o r t t o the i n s e r t i o n of p i e r s , was  the case i n the second b u i l d i n g .  as  I t s h o u l d a l s o be noted  here t h a t a s i m i l a r g r o u p i n g of columns, i n t o q u a r t e r s o f the c i r c l e , was  f o l l o w e d i n the p l a n of the seventh c e n t u r y  moslem Dome of the Rock, b u i l t  i n the c i t y of Jerusalem not 4-9  too f a r from the Holy S e p u l c h r e .  T h i s was  one of the  f e a t u r e s which the moslem a r c h i t e c t s undoubtedly d e r i v e d from the A n a s t a s i s .  There were a l s o n i c h e s i n the w a l l s of Santa  C o s t a n z a a t the f o u r p o i n t s .  The diameter of the b u i l d i n g  from w a l l t o w a l l i-s 22,30 meters  or about 1 meter l a r g e r  than the i n n e r colonade of the A n a s t a s i s .  I t may  very well  be, then, t h a t the mausoleum of Santa Costanza (324—6) was a model f o r the A n a s t a s i s .  I t d i d serve such a purpose  i n the  p l a n n i n g of the Church of S. M a r i a Maggiore at Nocera 50 (Nocera d e i P a g a n i , F i g . 5 2 a , b ) . The same may be t r u e f o r the  -46Church o f S. S e v e r i n a n e a r C a t a n z a r o i n C a l a b r i a . ^ 5  There were, o f c o u r s e , o t h e r c i r c u l a r mausolea i n Rome i n c l u d i n g t h e two v/hich were a t t a c h e d t o t h e Church P e t e r , now  d e s t r o y e d , known as S t . P e t r o n i l l a and S.  of S t . Andrea;  t h e mausoleum o f S t . H e l e n a , t h e Tor P i g n a t t r a and t h e eum  o f Romulus.  Any o f t h e s e b u i l d i n g s may  mausol-  have i n s p i r e d t h e  c i r c u l a r design f o r the A n a s t a s i s . They may,  i n d e e d , have i n s p i r e d t h e a r c h i t e c t s i n N o r t h  A f r i c a t o b u i l d a number o f r o t u n d a s t h e r e .  In A l g e r i a ,  a t T i p a s a ( 4 t h c e n t u r y ) and a t D j e m i l a ( 5 t h c e n t u r y , P i g . 53) 52 r o u n d b u i l d i n g s were c o n s t r u c t e d from some unknown model. E a s t o f D j e m i l a , a t C a r t h a g e , A. K h a t c h a t r i a n r e c o r d s t h e c i r c 53 u l a r remains  of the Damous-el-Karita  (5th century, P i g . 49).  Rotundas i n t h i s r e g i o n were no more numerous t h a n t h e y were i n t h e a r e a o f P a l e s t i n e and S y r i a a l t h o u g h B a l d w i n S m i t h c l a i m e d t h a t i n t h e p r e - C o n s t a n t i n e e r a tomb d e s i g n s were t r a n s f e r r e d 54 t o t h e e a s t from E g y p t r a t h e r t h a n from I t a l y .  That may  s o , b u t i n t h e p o s t - C o n s t a n t i n e e r a i t seems t h a t I t a l y  be  was  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e x t e n s i o n and development o f r o t u n d a s throughout the  Empire.  T h i s h o l d s t r u e f o r t h e a r e a o f Prance and S p a i n as w e l l . P l a n s f o r t h e r o t u n d a s i n t h i s a r e a must have been s e n t from the r o y a l household i n I t a l y .  Rotundas a r e known t o have  e x i s t e d at S a i n t Germain-1 Auxerrois 1  i n Prance  (6th century),  as a b a p t i s t e r y a t A l j e z a r e s ( F i g . 5 0 ) , and as a mausoleum a t 55 Centcelles i n S p a i n . T h e s e  b u i l d i n g s are n o t a t a l l r e l a t e d  t o t h e Rotunda o f t h e H o l y S e p u l c h r e , n o r are t h o s e i n N o r t h Africa.  -47In  Italy  t h e r e i s o n l y one r o t u n d a w h i c h  have c l a i m e d a copy o f t h e A n a s t a s i s .  I t i s t h e Church o f  56 S. S t e f a n o R o t u n d o i n Rome ( F i g . 5 4 ) . i n the f i f t e e n  t o twenty  and at  served t h e Church Zeno t h e I s a u r i a n  last  Pope S i m p l i c i u s I ( 4 6 8 -  Italy  The s t r e n g t h o f t h e b a r b a r i a n s was a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a Roman  emperor  I n 4 7 6 t h e b a r b a r i a n c h i e f , Odovacar," d e p o s e d t h e  western  himself.  emperor, Romulus A u g u s t u l u s , t o t a k e t h e p o s i t i o n  Only through  the help o f Theodoric  was Zeno a b l e t o r e g a i n h i s p o s i t i o n . O s t r o g o t h i c kingdom o f I t a l y remained capital.  the Ostrogoth  A f t e r h i s death the w i t h Ravenna as t h e  Yet these u n s e t t l e d c o n d i t i o n s d i d not prevent the  construction of this With I t a l y and  of construction,  (474-491) s e r v e d as s o l e emperor.  t h e t i m e was r e s t l e s s .  will.  T h i s c h u r c h was b u i l t  f r o m Rome a t t h e t i m e  so g r e a t t h a t t h e y w e r e a l m o s t at  y  year p e r i o d o f poverty which f o l l o w e d  t h e s a c k i n g o f Rome b y t h e V a n d a l s . 483)  historians  interesting  i n s u c h a s t a t e o f t u r m o i l most o f t h e a r t i s t s  a r t i s a n s must h a v e l e f t .  architects  church.  i n Rome c a p a b l e  No d o u b t t h e r e w e r e v e r y f e w  o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a c h u r c h so g r e a t 57  a s t o m e a s u r e some 2 0 8 f e e t i n d i a m e t e r .  '  I t could very  well  be  t h a t p l a n s came f r o m J e r u s a l e m .  of  S t . S t e p h e n was d i s c o v e r e d i n 4 1 5 a n d i t was t h e r e t h a t t h e  earliest  o f churches  Eudoxia. for  I t was t h e r e t h a t t h e b o d y  d e d i c a t e d t o h i m was b u i l t b y E m p r e s s  S t . S t e p h e n ' s i n J e r u s a l e m , h o w e v e r , was n o t t h e m o d e l  t h e c h u r c h i n Rome s i n c e i t was a b a s i l i c a ,  not a rotunda.^  J e r u s a l e m must a l s o h a v e b e e n a camp f o r r e f u g e e s a t t h e t i m e and of  among t h e d i s p l a c e d p e r s o n s capable  t h e r e must h a v e b e e n . a n u m b e r  a r c h i t e c t s - a r c h i t e c t s who h a d become f a m i l i a r  with  -48-  the Rotunda o f the Holy  Sepulchre.  Richard Krautheimer  b e l i e v e s t h a t i t v/as t h r o u g h  such  a d o c u m e n t a s t h e "Commemoratorium de c a s i s D e i " ( c a 8 0 6 ) t h a t 59  t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s o f t h e A n a s t a s i s w e r e t r a n s f e r r e d t o Rome. T h i s document g i v e s t h e measurements o f t h e o u t e r  ambulatory  and  Based on  t h e c e n t r e room o f t h e R o t u n d a i n J e r u s a l e m .  12,76  t h e d o c u m e n t , t h e r a d i u s o f t h e c e n t r e r o o m w o u l d be  m e t e r s w h i l e t h e a c t u a l measurements a r e 12,02 m e t e r s i n t h e A n a s t a s i s , a n d 12,06 m e t e r s i n S. S t e p h a n o R o t o n d o . original the  (The  f i g u r e s i n t h e "Commemoratorium" a r e g i v e n i n d e x t e r i s ,  length o f which,  i n meters, i s not d e f i n i t e l y  known a n d  may e v e n h a v e v a r i e d i n l e n g t h when i n common u s e . 1,485 m e t e r s a c c o r d i n g t o V i n c e n t  and A b e l ; o r 1 d e x t e r i s =  1,51 m e t e r s a c c o r d i n g t o S c h m a l t z .  The c i r c u m f e r e n c e  i n n e r c i r c l e was g i v e n a s 54 d e x t e r i s o r c a . 8 0 , 2 0 The c i r c u m f e r e n c e  1 dexteris -  ofthe  meters).  of the outer ambulatory according t othe  d o c u m e n t s h o u l d b e 107 d e x t e r i s o r c a . 158,90 m e t e r s ( 1 d e x t e r i s = 1,485 m e t e r s ) a n d t h e r a d i u s w o u l d be c a . 2 5 , 3 0 m e t e r s . is  t h e measurement K r a u t h e i m e r  Anastasis  ( F i g . 31e).  u s e s t o draw h i s p l a n o f t h e  The r a d i u s o f t h e C h u r c h o f S.. S t e f a n o  R o t o n d o i s c a . 31,70 m e t e r s .  I t was, t h e r e f o r e , s e v e r a l meters  l a r g e r i n radius than the A n a s t a s i s . Krautheimer  has attempted  b u i l d e r s confused Jerusalem  This  This difference i n size  t o e x p l a i n by suggesting that the  t h e s c a l e s o f measurement b e i n g u s e d .  In  t h e d i s t a n c e from t h e i n n e r colonnade t o t h e outer  w a l l o r c o l o n n a d e was 1 4 , 8 5 m e t e r s o r 50 roman f e e t , w h i l e t h e 60 same d i s t a n c e a t S. S t e f a n o R o t o n d o was 22 m e t e r s o r 50 c u b i t s .  -4-9-  A p p a r e n t l y t h e p e r s o n who had p r e p a r e d t h e p l a n , had g i v e n t h e u n i t s b u t had f a i l e d t o s t a t e t h e s c a l e b e i n g u s e d .  Such  an o v e r s i g h t i s c e r t a i n l y p l a u s i b l e b u t whether t h e c h u r c h i n Rome i s t r u l y a copy o f t h e A n a s t a s i s o r n o t may s t i l l be a matter o f debate. There  i s no more e v i d e n c e f o r t h e c l a i m o f S. S t e f a n o  Rotondo b e i n g a copy o f t h e A n a s t a s i s t h a n t h e r e was f o r S S . Karpos and P o l y k a r p o s .  B u t how much e v i d e n c e i s n e c e s s a r y t o  c o n f i r m such a c l a i m i s a m a t t e r o f c o n j e c t u r e .  Ideally,  con-  f i r m a t i o n s h o u l d depend on documentary r e f e r e n c e s made a t t h e : t i m e o f c o n s t r u c t i o n b u t t h i s i s v e r y seldom t h e c a s e .  Similar-  i t y o f d e d i c a t i o n s s u p p o r t i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s i n p l a n s must be j u d g e d c o n c l u s i v e i n d i s c e r n i n g c o p i e s , b u t a g a i n , such examples are of  rare.  I f o n l y a resemblance, and, p o s s i b l y , a d u p l i c a t i o n  c e r t a i n measurements o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l f e a t u r e s a r e n e c e s s a r y ,  t h e n b o t h S. S t e f a n o Rotondo and SS. Karpos and P o l y k a r p o s must be c o n s i d e r e d c o p i e s o r p r o b a b l e c o p i e s . q u i r e d , t h e n t h e s e c l a i m s s t a n d i n doubt. former i s t r u e .  I f more i s r e -  B u t most l i k e l y t h e  Most l i k e l y b o t h c h u r c h e s were i n f l u e n c e d i n  t h e i r p l a n by t h e A n a s t a s i s Rotunda. C o p i e s o f t h e A n a s t a s i s made i n t h e M e d i e v a l p e r i o d were b o t h c i r c u l a r and o c t a g o n a l .  F o r example t h e d e r i v a t i o n s a t  F u l d a , L a n l e f f and Cambridge were round w h i l e t h o s e a t P a d e r b o r n , and P i s a . ( S . S e p o l c r o ) were o c t a g o n a l o r p o l y g o n a l .  The f a c t  t h a t a round b u i l d i n g was c o p i e d as an o c t a g o n i s q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n g and r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f p o s s i b l e o c t a g o n a l c o p i e s d a t i n g from t h e p e r i o d p r e s e n t l y u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . of  such p o s s i b i l i t i e s have been mentioned  A number  such as t h e Tomb o f  -50-  the V i r g i n a t Jerusalem,  t h e Church o f Theodokos on Mount  G a r i z i m and the Dome o f t h e Rock b u i l t by the moslems on t h e site  o f t h e temple o f Jerusalem. To c o m p l i c a t e t h e problem o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e source  of such o c t a g o n a l b u i l d i n g s , t h e r e were a number o f C h r i s t i a n and n o n - C h r i s t i a n s t r u c t u r e s which predate the A n a s t a s i s and which were c o n s t r u c t e d on o c t a g o n a l f o u n d a t i o n s .  The mausoleum  of D i o c l e t i a n a t S p o l a t o , f o r example, and t h e Domus aurea o r Golden Octagon a t A n t i o c h were based  on such a p l a n .  C o n s t a n t i n e ' s Church o f t h e N a t i v i t y a t Bethlehem. b u i l d i n g s c o u l d have s e r v e d as a model f o r f u t u r e  So was Any o f these  octagons.  But b e f o r e g i v i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o such octagons as the Tomb o f t h e V i r g i n l e t us l o o k a t the b a p t i s t r y o f t h e B a s i l i c a U r s i a n a i n Ravenna.  I t v/as t h i s church which v/as a s s o c -  i a t e d w i t h the Holy S e p u l c h r e by d e d i c a t i o n .  The church bap-  t i s t r y was o c t a g o n a l ( F i g . 41) and seems t o date from t h e e r e c t i o n of the b a s i l i c a  (384).  I t s shape i s q u i t e s i g n i f -  i c a n t because i t v/as one o f t h e e a r l i e s t tistries  o c t a g o n a l n i c h e d bap-  i n the C h r i s t i a n world except f o r S. T e c l a i n M i l a n  63 according to Spiro Kostof.  v  By the time o f t h i s b u i l d i n g ' s  c o n s t r u c t i o n the A n a s t a s i s must have been b u i l t but the l o c a t i o n of t h e b a p t i s t r y on the n o r t h s i d e o f the church seems t o negate the p o s s i b i l i t y o f i t b e i n g a copy o f the Rotunda i n J e r u s a l e m . I f i t was i n t e n d e d t o copy the A n a s t a s i s one would expect i t t o be l o c a t e d t o the e a s t o f the apse,  o r p o s s i b l e t o t h e v/est  of t h e b u i l d i n g , but somewhere on a x i s w i t h the church - n o t t o one s i d e .  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e l o c a t i o n may n o t be a de-  termining factor i n t h i s  case.  -51-  J u d g i n g by i n s c r i p t i o n s on t h e s i d e s o f t h e f o n t , t h i s b u i l d i n g and t h e H o l y S e p u l c h r e may  octagonal  have been  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each o t h e r , b u t t h e l i n k r e m a i n s t e n u o u s . P a r t o f the i n s c r i p t i o n r e a d s as f o l l o w s ; The  temple o f e i g h t n i c h e s r o s e up f o r h o l y u s e . The o c t a g o n a l f o u n t a i n i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h a t r i t e . I t was f i t t i n g t h a t the house o f h o l y b a p t i s m r i s e up i n t h i s number By w h i c h t r u e s a l v a t i o n r e t u r n e d f o r mankind W i t h t h e l i g h t of C h r i s t r i s i n g a g a i n , of C h r i s t who opens t h e g a t e s of Death And r a i s e s t h e dead from t h e i r tombs And f r e e i n g c o n f e s s e d s i n n e r s from the s t a i n of s i n C l e a n s e s them w i t h the w a t e r o f t h e pure f l o w i n g f o n t . 64 S u g g e s t i o n s t o C h r i s t ' s r e s u r r e c t i o n and the o p e n i n g o f " g a t e s of Death" are c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o the H o l y The  A n a s t a s i s was  sometimes i n t e r p r e t e d as the  l i f e " and the f o u n t a i n i s r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e  Sepulchre. " f o u n t a i n of  inscription.  But t h i s i s not s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o c o n f i r m a  theory  t h a t the b a p t i s t r y i s connected a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y w i t h b u i l d i n g i n Jerusalem.  the  N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e b a p t i s t r y of  the the  B a s i l i c a U r s i a n a became a model f o r o c t a g o n s a t A l b e n g a , B r e s c i a and P r e j u s , and p r o b a b l y  t h e L a t e r a n B a p t i s t r y as  r e b u i l t by S i x t u s I I I (4-32-44-0). The  Tomb o f t h e V i r g i n ( F i g . 56)  was  probably  the  first  o c t a g o n t o be b u i l t i n the a r e a o f P a l e s t i n e and S y r i a a f t e r the completion T e l l Hum  o f the/''Rotunda i n J e r u s a l e m .  ( T e l l Houm)(Fig. 58)  The  octagon at  b u i l t i n the m i d d l e of  the  f o u r t h c e n t u r y p r e d a t e s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the tomb, but i t i s t o o e a r l y t o be b u i l t a f t e r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e 65 Anastasis. I t was a t the C o u n c i l o f Ephesus t h a t r e c o g n i t i o n  -52was  g i v e n t o the V i r g i n f o l l o w e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f h e r tomb.  But  where t h e p l a n o r i g i n a t e d i s n o t known.  Grabar f e e l s t h a t  the Holy Sepulchre Rotunda o r the Imbomon were t h e source of i n s p i r a t i o n but t h e i n t e r n a l colonnade o f the tomb i s o n l y 4,50  meters i n diameter o r l e s s than h a l f o f t h a t o f the  R o t u n d a . ^ There i s a l s o an apse i n • t h e tomb (6,30 meters wide by 4-,40 meters deep) w h i l e t h e r e although there  was one i n t h e Imbomon.  i s none i n t h e Rotunda, Through t h e a p p l i c a t i o n  of the Mauss system, the e x t e r n a l w a l l measured 18,90 meters i n d i a m e t e r making i t almost t h e exact But  s i z e o f the A n a s t a s i s . ^  the l o c a t i o n o f t h i s w a l l i n t h e Tomb o f V i r g i n i s  h y p o t h e t i c a l and n o t supported on a r c h e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e . I t , • t h e r e f o r e , c o u l d be e i t h e r l a r g e r o r s m a l l e r than the diameter here suggested. f u r t h e r destroy  Such a d i f f e r e n c e i n s i z e would  any a s s o c i a t i o n t h e tomb might have w i t h the  Rotunda. A method o f comparing r o t u n d a s t r u c t u r e s has been found by F e l i x Kreusch and has been a p p l i e d t o the A n a s t a s i s and  the Tomb o f the V i r g i n v/ith i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s . But  the  conclusions  which might be drawn from the comparison  do n o t prove t h a t t h e o c t a g o n a l  b u i l d i n g dedicated  t o the  68 V i r g i n was based on t h e Rotunda o r o t h e r w i s e .  The method  used by Kreusch i s based on a B i b l i c a l passage taken from Revelations and  XXX:17; "He a l s o measured i t s w a l l s , a hundred  f o r t y - f o u r c u b i t s by a man's measure, t h a t i s , an a n g e l ' s . "  His research  has shown t h a t t h e number o f u n i t s employed  i n c o n s t r u c t i n g the circumference of the inner w a l l o r colonnade o f m a r t y r i a  octagonal  - n o t b a p t i s t r i e s - was 14-4.  -53-  o f 6 4 , 2 9 m.  The A n a s t a s i s , f o r example, w i t h a c i r c u m f e r e n c e i s e q u a l t o 144 roman e l l s The  6' (1 roman e l l = c a 44,36 - 44,6 m.).  i n s i d e c i r c u m f e r e n c e , e x c l u d i n g the space  f o r t h e apse,  of t h e Tomb o f the V i r g i n e q u a l s 44,10 m. o r 144 greek (1 greek  f o o t =. c a  30,60  - 30,83 m.).  feet  Other b u i l d i n g s x^hich  s a t i s f y t h i s c o n d i t i o n a r e : the T o r P i g n a t t r a ( 4 t h c e n t u r y ) ; S. A q u i l i n o , M i l a n ( 5 t h c e n t u r y ) ; S. Gregory,  Milan ( 5 t h  c e n t u r y ) ; the Theodokos, G a r i z i m (484); the martyrium a t Hierapolis tinople  ( 5 t h century);' SS. S e r g i u s and Bacchus,  (527);  Constan-  S. V i t a l e , Ravenna ( c a 5 3 8 ) ; t h e Domus a u r e a  of Nero, Rome ( 1 s t c e n t u r y ) ; the Mausoleum o f D i o c l e t i a n , Spalato  ( c a 300),  and the octagon  a t Aachen ( c a 800).  The  b a p t i s t r i e s o f the L a t e r a n , Rome ( 4 t h c e n t u r y ) ; t h e C a t h e d r a l i n M i l a n ( 4 t h c e n t u r y ) , and t h e Orthodox i n Ravenna 5 t h c e n t u r y ) d i d n o t have an i n t e r n a l colonnade  (early  or octagonal  70 w a l l w i t h a c i r c u m f e r e n c e o f 144 units.•  Apparently a l l  m a r t y r i a f o l l o w e d a s i m i l a r p l a n f o r the i n t e r n a l w i t h t h e source  octagon  o f the t r a d i t i o n o r i g i n a t i n g i n the f i r s t  c e n t u r y , p r o b a b l y i n Rome as suggested by the Domus aurea o f Nero.  And though both the Rotunda and the Tomb o f the V i r g i n  are p a r t o f t h e t r a d i t i o n i t does n o t mean t h a t the p l a n s f o r t h e l a t t e r were taken from the former. The  o c t a g o n a l Domus aurea a t A n t i o c h ( P i g . . 5 5 ) must  have s e r v e d as the model f o r the V i r g i n ' s tomb.  I t was a  C o n s t i n i a n s t r u c t u r e a p p a r e n t l y d e d i c a t e d t o Hormony i n 3 2 9 71 but i t \tfas n o t completed  u n t i l 341.'  No t r a c e s o f the  b u i l d i n g are t o be found today b u t t h e o r i g i n a l s t r u c t u r e seems t o have had two o c t a g o n a l colonnades  within i t s walls, a  -54g a l l e r y above, and Not  o n l y was  an apse much l i k e the. Tomb of the  the Domus at A h t i o c h a p p a r e n t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  the p l a n of the Tomb, but use  Virgin.  i t a l s o seems t o have i n s p i r e d the  Of the o c t a g o n a l p l a n o f S. Simeon S t y l i t e s  east of Antioch  ( F i g . 59), San  ( E a l ' a t Sein'an)  V i t a l e i n Ravenna ( F i g . 51) 72  and SS S e r g i u s and Bacchus i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e . '  Such an  i n f l u e n c e on a r c h i t e c t u r e might be e x p e c t e d from  Antioch  because i t was  the p a t r i a r c h a l s e a t v/hich s e r v e d the  of the H o l y Land and,  no  area  doubt, the P a t r i a r c h of A n t i o c h  a strong i n f l u e n c e i n determining  the  s t y l e and  form of  b u i l d i n g s and b u i l d i n g p l a n s i n the.immediate area and The  octagonal  c h u r c h of Theodokos at G a r i z i m  j u s t n o r t h o f Jerusalem  was  had  abroad. ( F i g . 57)'  most l i k e l y modeled on the Tomb  73 o f the V i r g i n . ^ the  The  i n t e r i o r o f t h i s c h u r c h i s much l i k e  i n t e r i o r o f the tomb, but the  square rooms on the  o f the octagon between the c a r d i n a l p o i n t s was new  feature.  These rooms o c c u p i e d  between the i n n e r octagon and o f t h i s church,  completely  the 12 meter wide space  the o u t e r w a l l .  b u i l t by Emperor Zeno, was  i n c l u d i n g the apse, and was  a  The  length  37,30 meters,  some 30 meters w i d e . ^  It  t h e r e f o r e , l a r g e r t h a n the Tomb o f the V i r g i n at c a . meters i n d i a m e t e r . 13 meters,  The  sides  d i a m e t e r of the  was, 18,90  i n n e r octagon v/as  only  making i t about seven meters s m a l l e r t h a n the same  d i a m e t e r i n the A n a s t a s i s .  The  d i a m e t e r at G a r i z i m ,  v/as c l o s e r t o the span of the i n n e r colonnade of the tomb at 11,10  meters.  a r c h i t e c t s at G a r i z i m  I t would seem, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t l o o k e d t o the t h i r t y year  then, VirginVs the  o l d Martyrium  -55i n Jerusalem b u i l t The was  f o r the V i r g i n as the b a s i s f o r t h e i r  plan. 59)  octagon at Kal'at. Sem'an ( Q a l ' a t Sem'an) ( P i g .  undoubtedly i n f l u e n c e d by the p l a n of the Domus aurea at 75  nearby A n t i o c h .  ( F i g . 55).  The  o r i g i n a l p l a n may  only  have e x i s t e d as an octagon r a t h e r than w i t h f o u r r a d i a t i n g arms, as i t had  later.  sky w i t h the p o l e the top  P o s s i b l y the  of S. Simeon i n the  of t h i s p o l e t h a t the  u n t i l h i s death i n 4-59.  No  Stylite  octagon was 76 centre.'  open t o I t was  the  on  sat f o r t h i r t y years  p r e c i s e date of c o n s t r u c t i o n  for  the b u i l d i n g i s known but because the Church of S. Phokas at Basufan  (4-91-2)  was  copied  from i t the  S t y l i t e s must date from the t h i r d q u a r t e r The  diameter of t h i s ; octagon, i s 27  at G a r i z i m The  suggestion w i t h the  t o the  Sergius  and  "Double-shell"  Golden Octagon at The  Sergius  and  60)  i n d e e d , i t s resemblance  seems q u e s t i o n a b l e ,  i n s i d e of a square or r e c t a n g u l a r  t h e i r place  therefore,  Bacchus (527-36, P i g .  and  o n l y h i s t o r i a n t o a s s o c i a t e the  Hagia S o p h i a or SS.  century  covered w i t h a dome.  l i n k e d t o the A n a s t a s i s ,  Krautheimer f e e l s t h a t the  "Had  I t was,  77  Anastasis.  octagon at A n t i o c h  Dynes i s not the  fifth  Simeon  of an a s s o c i a t i o n of t h i s c h u r c h or t h a t  Church of SS.  i s c e r t a i n l y not  of the  meters.  q u i t e l a r g e , p o s s i b l y too l a r g e t o be There i s no  church of S.  yet, two.^  p l a n of an  s t r u c t u r e such as  Bacchus i n  i n a r c h i t e c t u r e ever s i n c e  W.  octagon Justinian's  Constantinople, Constantine's  Antioch."'^  p l a n of SS.  Sergius  and  Bacchus, i n t u r n , seems  t o have i n f l u e n c e d the C h r y s o t r i l t l i n o s i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e  and  -56-  on the Church of S. V i t a l e i n Ravenna. Besides  the octagons a l r e a d y mentioned, t h e r e are  a  number of o t h e r s i n the Middle E a s t , none of which, however, c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  d e r i v i t i v e s o f the p l a n of the  Anastasis.  They a r e , r a t h e r , based on the Domus aurea or the Tomb of  the  V i r g i n , or p o s s i b l y , but u n l i k e l y , the o c t a g o n a l  apse of the  Church of the N a t i v i t y at Bethlehem.  characteristics  of the remainder of these apse; a f e a t u r e p r o b a b l y t o the r i g h t and of S y r i a .  left  octagonal  One  of the  b u i l d i n g s i s the  d e r i v e d from the a u x i l i a r y  triple chapels  of the main apse i n the b a s i l i c a  churches  These rooms were known as the p r o t h e s i s and  One  diaconicon.  such church i s a r a t h e r s m a l l c h a p e l at Mir'ayeh  i n north S y r i a ( E i g . 62).  Except f o r the two  rooms, the p l a n of t h i s c h a p e l of the Tomb of the V i r g i n . (Mondjelein)  ( E i g . 63)  auxiliary  i s almost i d e n t i c a l t o the  A s e m i o c t a g o n a l c h a p e l at  i n south  plan  Midjleyya  c e n t r a l S y r i a must a l s o have op  been designed  a f t e r one  A g a i n the t r i p l e  of the octagons t o the  apse i s used, but  south.  i n t h i s small b u i l d i n g  the apse i s moved i n t o the octagon so t h a t o n l y h a l f of i t remains.  B u t l e r c l a i m s t h i s b u i l d i n g was  b u i l t i n the  sixth  century At E z r a ( Z o r a h ) , the Church of S. George ( E i g . 64) 84 was  p l a n n e d s i m i l a r t o the  was  s m a l l e r than the C a t h e d r a l  three years 10,15  older.  meters.  The  The  chapel at Mir'ayeh. of Bosra,  v/hich was  This  (515)  church  some  i n n e r span of the church at E z r a  was  apse of t h i s c h u r c h v/as s e m i c i r c u l a r and  p r o j e c t e d t o the r e a r of the r e c t a n g u l a r b u i l d i n g .  -57The C a t h e d r a l of B o s r a ( F i g . 65)  f o l l o w e d the same  p l a n except f o r a more complex a p s i d a l a r e a and a c i r c u l a r , r a t h e r than an o c t a g o n a l , i n t e r i o r „ ^ 8  Bacchus and L e o n t i c u s , i t was  D e d i c a t e d t o SS. S e r g i u s ,  completed  i n 512-13.  room v/as l a r g e r than the octagon a t K a l ' a t Sem'an  The  central  measuring  86 some 36 m.  i n diameter.  I t v/as 50 meters l o n g .  of S t . John the B a p t i s t i n Gerasa  ( 5 3 1 ) ' ( F i g . 66)  The  Church  v/as o n l y h a l f  t h a t l e n g t h ( 2 5 , 5 0 meters) but otherwise i t f o l l o w e d the p l a n on  of the C a t h e d r a l a t B o s r a . But, as was  mentioned  e a r l i e r , these o c t a g o n a l b u i l d i n g s  are p a r t - o f a t r a d i t i o n which s k i r t s the Rotunda and o t h e r c i r c u l a r b u i l d i n g s , b e i n g d e r i v e d , i n s t e a d , from such  octagons  as the Domus aurea, the Tomb of the V i r g i n , the Mausoleum of D i o c l e t i a n a t S p a l a t o , and the Church Bethlehem.  of the N a t i v i t y a t  J u d g i n g by these examples i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t  any  C h r i s t i a n church w i t h an o c t a g o n a l p l a n , b u i l t b e f o r e the e i g h t h c e n t u r y , was  ever a t t e m p t i n g t o copy the A n a s t a s i s . "  There i s one  other octagonal structure b u i l t  i n the  p e r i o d from the f o u r t h t o the end of*'the seventh c e n t u r y i n the M e d i t e r r a n e a n b a s i n which i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the A n a s t a s i s . I t v/as not C h r i s t i a n but Moslem. - Known as the Dome of the Rock, ( F i g . 67a,  b ) , t h i s octagon was  b u i l t by K h a l i f abd a l - M a l i k a t  88 the end of the seventh c e n t u r y i n the Holy C i t y ,  Jerusalem.  C o n s t r u c t i o n p r o b a b l y began i n c a . 6 8 7 - 9 and c o n t i n u e d u n t i l OQ  691 (72nd y e a r of the H e g i r a ) . L i k e the A n a s t a s i s , i t v/as s u b j e c t e d t o a number of r e s t o r a t i o n s , b u t , u n l i k e i t s C h r i s t i a n p r e d e c e s s o r , i t v/as never t o t a l l y d e s t r o y e d .  90  Built  on the  -58summit of Mount Morian, from whence Muhammud was The  t h i s moslem b u i l d i n g marks the  stone  supposed t o have ascended i n t o heaven.  s e l e c t i o n of the s i t e was  not o n l y based  on  religious  grounds, but on p o l i t i c a l grounds as w e l l - a move which r e c a l l s the i n t e n t i o n s o f C o n s t a n t i n e Sepulchre.  Abd  a l - M a l i k was  i n c o n s t r u c t i n g the  Holy  s e e k i n g t o g a i n the support  of  f o l l o w e r s of Islam from a r i v a l k h a l i f o r r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r . The  s t o r y v/as r e c o r d e d b y Ya  'qubi i n  874:  Then 'Abd a l M a l i k forbade the people of S y r i a t o make the p i l g r i m a g e ( t o Mecca); and t h i s by reason t h a t 'Abd A l l a h i b n Z u b a i r was wont t o s e i z e on them d u r i n g the time of the p i l g r i m a g e , and f o r c e them t o pay him a l l e g i a n c e - v/hich, 'Abd a l M a l i k , h a v i n g knowledge o f , forbade the people t o journey f o r t h t o Makkah (Mecca). But the people murmured t h e r e a t , s a y i n g , 'How dost thou f o r b i d us t o make the p i l g r i m a g e to A l l a h ' s house, s e e i n g t h a t the same i s a commandment of A l l a h upon us?' But the K h a l i f answered them, 'Hast not Ibn Shihab az L u h r i (a c e l e b r a t e d n a t i o n a l i s t ) t o l d you how the A p o s t l e o f A l l a h d i d say - Men s h a l l j o u r n e y to but t h r e e m a s j i d s , A l M a s j i d Haram ( a t Mecca), my M a s j i d ( a t Madina), and the M a s j i d of the Holy C i t y (Jerusalem)? So t h i s l a s t i s now a p p o i n t e d f o r you i n l i e u of the M a s j i d a l Haram. And t h i s Rock, of which i t i s r e p o r t e d t h a t upon i t the A p o s t l e of A l l a h s e t h i s f o o t v/hen he ascended i n t o heaven, s h a l l be unto you i n the p l a c e of the Ka'abah (a s m a l l s a n c t u a r y i n Mecca which the moslems f a c e d i n p r a y e r ) . ' Then 'Abd a l M a l i k b u i l t above the Sakkrah a Dome (Dome of the Rock), and hung i t around w i t h c u r t a i n s of brocade, and he i n s t i t u t e d door-keepers f o r the same, and the people took the custom of circumambulating the Rock, even as t h e y had paced around the Ka'abah, and the usage c o n t i n u e d thus a l l the days of the dynasty of the Omayyads. 9  Abd  1  a l - M a l i k was  not the f i r s t moslem K h a l i f t o v i s i t  the Holy C i t y o r t o see the H o l y S e p u l c h r e . quered  Jerusalem  I n the accounts  The moslems con-  i n c a 637? f i v e y e a r s a f t e r the death of Mohammad, of E u t y c h i u s , K h a l i f Omar e n t e r e d the c i t y a t  t h a t time and came t o the A n a s t a s i s w i t h the C h r i s t i a n  Patriarch,  -59-  Sophronius.  The p a t r i a r c h i n v i t e d him t o p r a y on the s i t e o f  C h r i s t ' s tomb b u t the arab r e f u s e d and moved t o the p r o p y l a e a 92 for h i s devotions.  S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r Omar b u i l t  mosque i n the c i t y , on the s i t e mosque o f Omar remained No mention  o f Solomon's Temple.  the f i r s t 95 The  i n use u n t i l the new Dome v/as b u i l t .  o f the A n a s t a s i s i s made i n the n i n t h c e n t u r y  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e w r i t e r Ya 'qubi b u t i n the next c e n t u r y the arab w r i t e r Muqaddasi (985) suggests t h a t the a r c h i t e c t of  t h e Dome was a t t e m p t i n g t o o u t s h i n e Hie beauty o f t h e A n a s t a s i s : And i n l i k e manner the K h a l i f - ' A b d a l - M a l i k , n o t i n g the g r e a t n e s s o f the Church o f t h e Holy Sepulchre and i t s m a g n i f i c e n c e , was moved l e s t i t s h o u l d d a z z l e the minds o f the Muslims, and hence, e r e c t e d above the Rock the Dome which i s now t o be seen there.94  A l t h o u g h t h i s author makes no mention  o f the Dome c o p y i n g  features of the A n a s t a s i s there i s every reason t o b e l i e v e  that  the arab a r c h i t e c t s based some o f t h e i r p l a n on the n e i g h b o u r i n g C h r i s t i a n monument. i n n e r colonade colonnade  F o r example, the diameter o f the A n a s t a s i s  ( c a . 20,30 meters)' was t r a n s f e r r e d t o the i n n e r  o f the Dome (20,34 m e t e r s ) .  95 J  The drum o f the  96 moslem b u i l d i n g r e s t e d on f o u r p i e r s and twelve  columns.  L i k e t h e drum o f the A n a s t a s i s i t was p i e r c e d by a number o f windows, i n t h i s case s i x t e e n .  Here the resemblance  stops.  The moslem a r c h i t e c t s seemed t o have burrowed f e a t u r e s for  the Dome o f the Rock from o t h e r C h r i s t i a n b u i l d i n g s as  well.  Cresv/ell c l a i m s t h a t the doors o f the Dome a r e v e r y  s i m i l a r t o those on the C a t h e d r a l o f B o s r a and S t . George a t 97 Ezra.  And i t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e o c t a g o n a l c h a r a c t e r of.?  -60the p l a n v/as borrowed from the Tomb o f the V i r g i n i n t h e V a l l e y o f Joshaphat near J e r u s a l e m .  A l t h o u g h h i s t o r i a n s suggest  that the octagonal  p l a n seems t o have r e s u l t e d from borrowings  from t h e A n a s t a s i s  t o a t t r i b u t e t h i s p l a n t o t h e Rotunda  except f o r the i n n e r colonnade i s h i g h l y s u s p e c t . t r u e t h a t t h e Mauss system f o r d e t e r m i n i n g  It i s  the e x t e r n a l  diameter o f the b u i l d i n g from t h e diameter o f the i n n e r colonade does a p p l y t o the Dome o f t h e Rock j u s t as i t seems t o a p p l y t o t h e A n a s t a s i s , b u t t h i s does n o t e x p l a i n t h e octagonal  shape o f the moslem b u i l d i n g o r the c i r c u l a r  w a l l o f the Rotunda o f C h r i s t ' s tomb.  outer  I f t h e octagon v/as n o t  borrowed from the Tomb o f the V i r g i n , then p o s s i b l y from one of the o t h e r o c t a g o n a l  b u i l d i n g s such as S. Simeon S t y l i t e s  or the Theodokos a t G a r i z i m  a s h o r t d i s t a n c e t o the n o r t h .  Only one c o n c l u s i o n can be drawn from a study o f octagonal  structures b u i l t  i n t h e B y z a n t i n e p e r i o d from the  f o u r t h t o eighth centuries - there  are no o c t a g o n a l  d e r i v e d from the p l a n o f the A n a s t a s i s Medieval p e r i o d .  buildings  as t h e r e were i n the  The o n l y b u i l d i n g which c o u l d be an e x c e p t i o n  i s t h e Dome o f t h e Rock.  I t d i d borrow some f e a t u r e s from  the A n a s t a s i s b u t i t a l s o borrowed from o t h e r b u i l d i n g s and, t h e r e f o r e , was e c l e c t i c r a t h e r than a. d i r e c t copy o f any one building. As there  f a r as c i r c u l a r c o p i e s  o f the A n a s t a s i s  a r e concerned,  seem t o be no more t h a n two p o s s i b l e examples; t h e  Church o f S. S t e f a n o Rotondo, Rome and t h e Church o f SS. Karpos and P o l y k a r p o s i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e .  -61-  There were c e r t a i n l y no rotunda churches, c i r c u l a r o r o c t a g o n a l , i n the M e d i t e r r a n e a n  either  b a s i n which were  b u i l t w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f d u p l i c a t i n g the s i z e and shape of the A n a s t a s i s , and a l s o c o n f i r m the copy by d e d i c a t i n g i t to the R e s u r r e c t i o n . Briefly,  l e t us l o o k a t the M e d i e v a l  of t h e A n a s t a s i s once a g a i n .  octagonal copies  I t i s very i n t e r e s t i n g that there  i s no known o c t a g o n a l copy p r i o r t o t h a t a t Paderborn, 1036. was  dated  And even more i n t e r e s t i n g i s the f a c t t h a t the A n a s t a s i s  destroyed only t h i r t y - s i x or t h i r t y - s e v e n years before!  K h a l i f Hakem had t r i e d v e r y h a r d to. l e v e l the b u i l d i n g and remove any t r a c e o f i t . . Agreements were made t o p e r m i t t h e C h r i s t i a n s t o r e b u i l d i t i n 1012, two o r t h r e e y e a r s he had l e v e l e d i t , work on i t ,  b u t , e i t h e r t h e C h r i s t i a n s never  started  o r c o u l d n o t a f f o r d t o c o n t i n u e , because the  agreement had t o be renewed i n 1027 E z - Z a h i r and C o n s t a n t i n e V I I I . necessary.  after  I n 1037  w i t h the K h a l i f ' s son  Yet another  agreement was  a t h i r d agreement v/as made between K h a l i f 99  E l - M u s t a n s i r and Emperor M i c h a e l Paphlagon. earthquake  I n 1034  an  r o c k e d the c i t y and, p o s s i b l y , the A n a s t a s i s s u f f e r e d  more d a m a g e . ^ I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e 1  A n a s t a s i s was n o t i n e x i s t e n c e i n 1036, o r i n the twenty y e a r p e r i o d immediately Paderborn standing.  dedicated to i t !  But t h e Dome o f the Rock was  I n 1016 o n l y t h e dome had c o l l a p s e d and r e s t o r a t i o n s  were made i n remained.  b e f o r e the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the octagon a t  1022, 1027  and 1033.  101  The b u i l d i n g , however,  I t c o u l d v e r y w e l l be, then, t h a t the p e r s o n  sent t o  -62-  make c o p i e s o f t h e A n a s t a s i s p l a n used the Dome o f the Rock instead.  T h i s p e r s o n , Abbot Wino o f Helmershausen, was  asked by Bishop Meinwerk o f Paderborn  t o 'mensuras eiusdem  e c c l e s i e e t ... e t mensuras eiusdem e c c l e s i e e t s e p u l c h r i 102  sancti reliquas referente...  1  But, i f t h e A n a s t a s i s v/as  not t h e r e , w h i l e t h e Dome was, then Wino may have thought  simply  t h e A n a s t a s i s l o o k e d l i k e the moslem s t r u c t u r e and  c o p i e d the l a t t e r as a s u b s t i t u t e .  T h i s p l a n may then  have been used t o b u i l d the o c t a g o n a l b u i l d i n g a t Paderborn and e s t a b l i s h t h e M e d i e v a l t r a d i t i o n o f o c t a g o n a l c o p i e s o f the Ho l y  Sepulchre.  -63-  CHAPTER IV THE The  HOLY SEPULCHRE COMPLEX  Constantinian  complex o f t h e Holy S e p u l c h r e was  composed o f t h e Tegurium and the M a r t y r i o n . was  completed by the end o f t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y  group o f b u i l d i n g s d i d n o t change. separated  the b a s i c  The tomb a r e a was s t i l l  from t h e b a s i l i c a p r o p e r , c r e a t i n g an a x i a l  of two b u i l d i n g s . rectangular, was  When t h e Rotunda  plan  The shape o f t h e b a s i l i c a was, o f c o u r s e ,  while the Anastasis  quite d i s t i n c t i v e .  was c i r c u l a r .  The p l a n ,  then  I t seems p l a u s i b l e t h a t t h i s p l a n may  have been t r a n s p o s e d t o o t h e r  c h u r c h b u i l d i n g s , b u t i s such a  supposition a c t u a l l y true? There i s e v e r y r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e that, the g e n e r a l o f t h e Holy S e p u l c h r e complex was w e l l known. seen t h a t A r c u l f d e s c r i b e d and  and p r e p a r e d p l a n s  We have  plan already  o f the b a s i l i c a  r o t u n d a ( P i g . 8a, b ) , and he i s o n l y one o f many p i l g r i m s  to v i s i t  the s i t e i n the f i r s t  four centuries of i t s existence*.  H i s p l a n n o t o n l y showed t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e two major b u i l d i n g s , one t o t h e o t h e r , b u t i t a l s o l o c a t e d many o f the sacred the  spots w i t h i n t h e b u i l d i n g group.  exedra f o r t h e True C r o s s ,  t h e Chapel o f t h e V i r g i n  of C a l v a r y ) , the Chapel of Calvary Abraham on t h e n o r t h  (south  and t h e a l t a r d e d i c a t e d t o  side of the Anastasis  not have been a t a l l d i f f i c u l t in  Some o f t h e s e areas a r e ;  to construct  court.  1  I t would  a group o f b u i l d i n g s  some d i s t a n t c o u n t r y such as Prance from the b a s i c  \«/hich A r c u l f had p r e p a r e d f o r h i s t e x t .  plans  -64Only one  complex o f b u i l d i n g s composed of a r o t u n d a  and  a r e c t a n g u l a r b u i l d i n g i s known t o have been d e d i c a t e d  the  Holy Sepulchre.  to  I t i s the Church o f S. S t e f a n o i n 2  Bologna, a l s o known as San  Sepolcro.  The  date of  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s group o f b u i l d i n g s i s not and,  f i f t h century,  made u n t i l the  Since  no  end  no r e f e r e n c e  and  it  i s l i k e l y t h a t the complex i n t e n d e d  i n J e r u s a l e m was  not begun u n t i l the  Such a l a t e date would be  Sepolcro  thereafter.  o r i g i n a l p l a n took, t o reproduce the  e i g h t h or n i n t h  i n accord  w i t h the  o f C a r o l H e i t z on C a r o l i n g i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e and found t h a t the westwork, o r e l a b o r a t e  o f the H o l y S e p u l c h r e .  group  century. research He  a r c h i t e c t u r e of  I t was  He  Church of S. R e q u i e r a t C e n t u l a  at t h i s  F o n t a n e l l a , the C a t h e d r a l  Corvey, and,  was  same c e n t u r y  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  S. W a n d r i l l e  the  the  i n which S. S t e f a n o , Bologna,  complex i n J e r u s a l e m .  a r c h i t e c t u r a l p r a c t i s e s t o the n o r t h ,  period.  in  c h u r c h at Minden.  I t would,  t h e r e f o r e , appear t h a t t h i s I t a l i a n b u i l d i n g was by  held  the  l a s t example, a l l the b u i l d i n g s date from - the  end  o f Reims, the Abbey o f  from the t e n t h c e n t u r y ,  E x c e p t f o r the n i n t h century  includes i n his l i s t  (Fig. 73),  the  associated  o f such churches t h a t c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s , s i m i l a r t o those i n J e r u s a l e m , were p e r f o r m e d .  but  liturgy.  of a number o f C a r o l i n g i a n c a t h e d r a l s , was  w i t h the A n a s t a s i s  ancient  as  e a r l i e r remains of the b u i l d i n g o r complex are known,  i s d i f f i c u l t t o say what form the  west end  site  t o i t as San  o f the n i n t h c e n t u r y  it  has  d e f i n i t e l y known,  a l t h o u g h b u i l d i n g s seem t o have e x i s t e d on the  e a r l y as the was  the  during  influenced the  Carolingian  -65Since  h i s t o r y i s a continuum, and  i s a rather conservative  s i n c e the  Church  i n s t i t u t i o n , i t i s l i k e l y that  phenomenon of c o n s t r u c t i n g b u i l d i n g s t o reproduce the o f the Holy S e p u l c h r e , namely, the A n a s t a s i s i n the westwork and r e s p e c t i v e l y , was  not  or n i n t h c e n t u r y . o r i g i n a t e i n the  the  east  end  and  Not  have been i n f l u e n c e d by the  g r o u p i n g of the H o l y S e p u l c h r e .  o r i e n t e d i n a d i r e c t i o n opposite but  e n t r y was  atrium  was  the d e s i g n  The  made from the  The  5  over a f o u n t a i n . which a l s o , was  We  atrium, are  A small chapel  apse, a t Gerasa, may  have been i n t e n d e d  l o c a t i o n of C a l v a r y .  C a l v a r y was  arm  t o the  on the  An  duplicating basilica.  was  served  the  positioned  immediately reminded o f the  "fountain of l i f e . "  The  east.  S l i g h t l y to  and  was  Martyrion,  of the  a square c i b o r i u m  located i n a courtyard  o f the M a r t y r i o n ,  associated  basilica  same d i r e c t i o n - the  of the H o l y S e p u l c h r e a t t h i s end  of the  a group of  architectural  t o t h a t of the  Both c o u r t s were surrounded by p o r t i c o s .  apse.  was  l o c a t e d t o the west of the C a t h e d r a l ,  west o f c e n t r e  liturgical  Byzantine  b u i l d i n g s were  of Gerasa ( P i g . 69).  w i t h the C a t h e d r a l  well  Palestine.  f a r from J e r u s a l e m , i n f a c t , t h e r e  churches which may  very  f i f t h c e n t u r i e s , from the  Church complexes were not uncommon i n the period.  eighth  Roots f o r such a t r a d i t i o n may  t r a d i t i o n s of S y r i a and  Martyrion,  cathedrals  a sudden development of the  f o u r t h and  sites  the  of C a r o l i n g i a n  this  Tegurium  t o mark the  south side of  to duplicate  s t a t i o n e d i n the  the  the  transept  s o u t h o f the H e m i s p h a i r i o n o r  group o f b u i l d i n g s a t Gerasa, d a t i n g from  the  -66-  early f i f t h  c e n t u r y , almost d u p l i c a t e those o f the Holy  S e p u l c h r e - a l l except f o r the Rotunda.  I t would seem, t h e n ,  t h a t t h e r e iss a p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h i s group b e i n g a d e r i v a t i v e of  the Holy S e p u l c h r e complex. T h i s i s not the o n l y complex b u i l t  p e r i o d which may At  have been d e s i g n e d a f t e r the. Holy S e p u l c h r e .  Djemila ( C u i c u l , F i g . 70),  was  i n the B y z a n t i n e  i n south-east A l g e r i a , there  a l a r g e f i v e a i s l e d b a s i l i c a b u i l t next t o a s m a l l e r ,  e a r l i e r church.  I t was  a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r o t u n d a - the 6  b a p t i s t r y r e f e r r e d to e a r l i e r .  The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the  and more l a v i s h church i s r e c o r d e d as 411; decade or two  larger  that i s only a  a f t e r the date of the complex a t Gerasa.  No  e f f o r t s were s p a r e d t o make the i n t e r i o r o f the C a t h e d r a l one o f the most i m p r e s s i v e i n the r e g i o n .  F o r example,  i n s t e a d o f u s i n g o n l y one column t o form the colonnade a i s l e s , double columns were used.  This addition, f o r purely  d e c o r a t i v e purposes, must have c o n s t i t u t e d a s i z a b l e The c i r c u l a r b a p t i s t r y , though c h u r c h e s , was  i n the  expense.  l o c a t e d t o the e a s t of the  on a x i s w i t h the o l d e r and s m a l l e r of the  two  two  n  (Fig. of  53).  T h i s d e t a i l may  groups do have some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  common. The  a s s o c i a t i o n of the complex a t D j e m i l a w i t h the  complex i n J e r u s a l e m v/as f i r s t She  possibility  t h i s group b e i n g a d e r i v a t i v e o f the Holy S e p u l c h r e , b u t ,  n e v e r t h e l e s s , the two in  somewhat weaken the  a l s o a s s o c i a t e d two  suggested by C a r o l H e i t z .  o t h e r N o r t h A f r i c a n church groups  the Holy S e p u l c h r e , but n e i t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n stands Her examples were l o c a t e d a t Timgad and T i p a s a .  with  unquestioned.  -67-  The b u i l d i n g s a t T i p a s a ( F i g . 71) are t o o c o n f u s e d t o determine  i f t h e y resemble  the Holy Sepulchre complex.  The b a s i l i c a has n i n e a i s l e s - f a r more t h a n i n the M a r t y r i o n , and t h e r e i s no c o u r t o r a t r i u m b e h i n d t h e apse.  The  b a p t i s t r y was l o c a t e d t o t h e s o u t h o f the c h u r c h , a p o s i t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e b a p t i s t r y i n J e r u s a l e m , b u t here t h e resemblance  ends.  There i s no r o t u n d a p r e s e n t i n the group.  H e i t z does n o t d i s t i n g u i s h which church a t T i p a s a she i s r e f e r r i n g t o , b u t a second b a s i l i c a , S. S a l s a , i s a l s o u n r e l a t e d t o the Holy Sepulchre  complex.  An examination o f t h e b a s i l i c a a t Timgad  (ancient  11 Thamugadi) r e s u l t s i n t h e same c o n c l u s i o n s . - l a r g e church f o r N o r t h A f r i c a , measuring length.  I t was a r a t h e r  some 100 meters i n  A c o u r t was l o c a t e d t o t h e r e a r o f the apse, a t the  e a s t end, surrounded by p o r t i c o s on a l l f o u r s i d e s , b u t , o t h e r w i s e , t h e r e are no o t h e r f e a t u r e s which would commend it  as a d e r i v a t i v e o f t h e S e p u l c h r e complex. There i s y e t another c h u r c h complex i n N o r t h  a complex n o t mentioned r e a r o f the apse.  by H e i t z , b u t one w i t h a c o u r t t o the  I t was l o c a t e d i n the suburb 12  i n Damous-el-Karita.  Africa,  o f Carthage,  L i k e the b a s i l i c a a t Timgad, i t was v e r y  l a r g e - some 65 meters from f r o n t t o back. from end t o end, was 150 meters.  The e n t i r e  complex,  The b a s i l i c a v/as composed  o f e i g h t a i s l e s and was preceeded by a s e m i c i r c u l a r a t r i u m . A f o u r a i s l e d h a l l was l o c a t e d b e h i n d the apse, and i n t h i s h a l l t h e r e was a semi-subterranean r o t u n d a , c o v e r e d by a dome. The  o r i g i n o f the s t r u c t u r e s b e h i n d the apse may have been the  -68-  Sepulchre. derived  The  plan, according  from a C o n s t a n t i n i a n  to Richard  model, but  Krautheimer,  he  was  f a i l s t o mention  13 which b u i l d i n g he had  i n mind.  o f the H o l y S e p u l c h r e , but, of the  P o s s i b l y he was  the  information  c h u r c h at Damous-el-Karita i s not  thinking  regarding  sufficient  the  remains  to  c o n c l u s i v e l y l i n k i t as a d e r i v a t i v e of any p a r t i c u l a r a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t r u c t u r e whatsoever. O u t s i d e o f N o r t h A f r i c a and at S a l o n a , on the ( F i g . 72)  t o the e a s t  Dalmation c o a s t , t h e r e  which a l s o has  S e p u l c h r e complex, b u t ,  of  Italy,  i s a double  been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  cathedral  Holy 14-  a g a i n , w i t h o u t sound r e a s o n .  In the C a r o l i n g i a n p e r i o d documents r e c o r d how cathedral, with i t s elaborate the  s i t e s of J e r u s a l e m .  Easter  westwork, served  to  of  and L e n t , C a r o l i n g i a n c l e r g y performed s e r v i c e s s i m i l a r In J e r u s a l e m , c e r t a i n  s e r v i c e s were conducted at the tomb of C h r i s t and elsewhere, but  were not had  duplicate  D u r i n g the C h r i s t i a n f e s t i v a l  t o those h e l d at the H o l y S e p u l c h r e .  and  the  t o be  i n Centula,  a v a i l a b l e i n the created.  west end  of the  to place  a "Calvary"  a t S. R e q u i e r , such  same form and,  T h i s was  Calvary,  facilities  therefore,  substitutes  accomplished by d e v e l o p i n g  c h u r c h nave t o serve i n the  at  centre  as an  "Anastasis"  the and  o f the nave, near the  new  church entrance. C a r o l H e i t z , who has  compared the  has  brought t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n  l i t u r g i c a l o r d e r and  the  to  light,  l o c a t i o n of i t s  performance i n C a r o l i n g i a n t o t h a t i n B y z a n t i n e c h u r c h e s . From r e c o r d s  of the C a r o l i n g i a n w r i t e r , A n g i l b e r t , and  the  -69f o u r t h c e n t u r y accounts o f A e t h e r i a , t h e p i l g r i m from G a u l , H e i t z found t h a t s e r v i c e s on d i f f e r e n t days o f Holy Week were 15 h e l d i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s . ^ I n Holy Week, A e t h e r i a mentions t h a t on Monday and Tuesday, s e r v i c e s were h e l d i n the M a r t y r i o n and t h e A n a s t a s i s , on Ash Wednesday t h e y were performed at  a t E l e o n a , on t h e Mount o f O l i v e s , on Thursday  t h e A n a s t a s i s , on Good F r i d a y a t S i o n , and on Saturday a t  Calvary.  I n t h e C a r o l i n g i a n p e r i o d , f i v e hundred  years  l a t e r , A n g i l b e r t s t a t e s t h a t t h e westwork s e r v e d as t h e A n a s t a s i s , while s e r v i c e s a s s o c i a t e d with C a l v a r y i n J e r u s a l e m c e n t u r i e s e a r l i e r , were h e l d i n t h e nave o f t h e 16 church.  Thus, e a s t end, d e d i c a t e d t o S. R e q u i e r , seemed t o  serve i n the same c a p a c i t y as t h e M a r t y r i o n had i n t h e time of  A e t h e r i a ' s v i s i t i n the f o u r t h century. I f the l i t u r g i c a l  o r d e r s i n the n i n t h c e n t u r y were  s i m i l a r t o those i n the f o u r t h and f i f t h c e n t u r i e s , t h e n , i t i s f a i r t o assume t h a t churches o u t s i d e o f J e r u s a l e m had t o i m p r o v i s e an a r e a i n the c h u r c h d u r i n g L e n t t o serve as s i t e s 17 of  t h e H o l y S e p u l c h r e . ' T h i s may he t h e case w i t h such a  complex as t h a t i n S a l o n a o r o f those i n N o r t h  Africa.  But n o t h i n g can be determined from s i m p l y examining Other C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n s were borrowed from and used i n I t a l y i n t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y and p r o b a b l y For  example, a r e l i c  their plans. Jerusalem earlier.  o f the True C r o s s v/as c a r r i e d im p r o c e s s i o n  i n Rome, by t h e Pope, i n t h e same way a r e p l i c a o f t h e C r o s s was, and s t i l l The  i s , c a r r i e d along the V i a Dolorosa i n Jerusalem.  r e l i c was r e t u r n e d t o S. Croce i n Gerusalemme, i n Rome  -70-  a f t e r the annual j o u r n e y .  There were p r e c e d e n t s ,  then, f o r  the t r a n s f e r o f a l i t u r g i c a l t r a d i t i o n from S y r i a t o and  Italy  Europe. I n s e a r c h i n g f o r a c h u r c h , b u i l t p r i o r t o the  century, e s p e c i a l l y designed  f o r s e r v i c e s during Lent,  C a t h e d r a l of Ravenna, (the B a s i l i c a U r s i a n a ) comes t o mind.  The  eighth the  immediately  f e a t u r e s which commend i t as a copy of the  M a r t y r i o n have a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d .  They i n c l u d e the  d e d i c a t i o n , the o r i e n t a t i o n , the number o f a i s l e s , the number of columns and the semioctagonal two  apse.  But t h e r e are  o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s of t h i s church not  referred to.  One  o f the c h u r c h h a v i n g two  as y e t whether the main a l t a r was as suggested  formerly  i s the e x i s t e n c e o f an e l a b o r a t e ambon  i n the c e n t r e o f the nave, and the second i s the evidence  still  altars.  apparent  I t i s not  clear  l o c a t e d w i t h the ambon,  by R i c c i , or whether t h e r e were t w o . a l t a r s a t  t h a t p o i n t - one  d e d i c a t e d t o the  "Holy R e s u r r e c t i o n "  and  19 one  t o S. A n a s t a s i a .  l o c a t i o n of the two was  a precedent  I f f u t u r e r e s e a r c h does determine a l t a r s i t may  also f i n d that t h i s  the  church  f o r the C a r o l i n g i a n b u i l d i n g s d i s c u s s e d  by  Heitz. E . Baldwin Smith i n The Ideas p r e s e n t s found  Dome, A Study of the H i s t o r y  a l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n o f the ambon o r  pulpitum  i n the c e n t r e o f the nave of a number of b a s i l i c a s i n 20  the r e g i o n o f S y r i a .  v  T h i s must have been the source  ambon i n the c e n t r e of the B a s i l i c a U r s i a n a , imported S y r i a n s who  o f the by  the  formed a l a r g e c o l o n y i n Ravenna at the time of  the b a s i l i c a ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n .  Smith b e l i e v e s t h a t the ambon o f  -71-  the S y r i a n b a s i l i c a s i s r e l a t e d i n f u n c t i o n t o the bemas found i n m a r t y r i a churches (5th  C,  F i g . 75),  a t S. Babylus  (381), S e l e u c i a P i e r i a  S. S e r g i u s , R a s a f a  (mid 5th  C,  F i g . 74)  21 and Hagia Sophia a t Edessa  ( r e b u i l t 539).  His theory i s that  t h e y were d e s i g n e d t o serve b o t h as a p l a c e t o r e a d the l e s s o n s and t o h o l d "The L o r d ' s T a b l e " o r the "Place o f the Commemoration." ( F i g . 76)  T h i s f u n c t i o n , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the L a s t Supper and  the death and r e s u r r e c t i o n o f C h r i s t , may have developed  from  s e r v i c e s h e l d a t the Holy S e p u l c h r e , a t the a l t a r b e f o r e t h e tomb o f C h r i s t . Although  the C a t h e d r a l o f Ravenna does n o t resemble  the a x i a l p l a n o f t h e M a r t y r i o n and the A n a s t a s i s , t h e r e are a number o f C a t h e d r a l s which do. The C a t h e d r a l a t Parenzo ( F i g . 77)  bears the s t r o n g e s t  23  resemblance t o the group i n J e r u s a l e m .  y  An o c t a g o n a l  b a p t i s t r y i s l o c a t e d on a x i s w i t h the c h u r c h , a t the west end, b e f o r e the main e n t r a n c e .  A t r i c o n c h martyrium was l o c a t e d  t o t h e n o r t h s i d e o f the apse, i n a p o s i t i o n s i m i l a r t o s m a l l c h a p e l s on the s i d e o f S y r i a n c h u r c h e s .  A court with p o r t i c o s  j o i n e d the octagon t o the f r o n t o f t h e c h u r c h .  These f e a t u r e s  seem t o have come d i r e c t l y from t h e C a t h e d r a l o f A q u e l i a , built  some f i f t y y e a r s e a r l i e r , which, i n t u r n , may have 24  been i n f l u e n c e d by t h e Holy S e p u l c h r e .  The C a t h e d r a l , l i k e  S. P e t e r ' s a t B r e s c i a , had a p o l y g o n a l b a p t i s t r y i n the a t r i u m of t h e c h u r c h . ^ The  5  Cathedral of T o r c e l l o  ( F i g . 78),  i n the lagoon o f  V e n i c e , i s another example o f a c a t h e d r a l w i t h a c i r c u l a r  -72-  b a p t i s t r y at--the f r o n t o f the c h u r c h .  26  A l l o f these  Italian  churches may have been d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h e 27 l a y o u t o f b u i l d i n g s a t the H o l y S e p u l c h r e . O u t s i d e o f I t a l y t h i s b a s i l i c a - r o t u n d a p l a n i s not so common.  The c h u r c h o f S. L e o n i d a s ( F i g . 79), i n the harbour  of C o r i n t h , has a s e m i c i r c u l a r s t r u c t u r e t o t h e f r o n t o f the c h u r c h , b u t t h i s does n o t a s s o c i a t e i t v/ith t h e type o f p l a n 28 used a t J e r u s a l e m . A round martyrium was a t t a c h e d t o the f r o n t of the Church o f S. Eupheme a t Chalcedon. I t , however, v/as t o o 29 e a r l y i n date t o be a copy o f the H o l y S e p u l c h r e . In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e r e are no group  o f churches o r b u i l d -  i n g s b u i l t b e f o r e t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y which are known t o have dupl i c a t e d the Holy S e p u l c h r e complex. resemble  There a r e churches  which  the complex, and t h e r e are s e v e r a l groups o f churches  which may have s e r v e d t o s u b s t i t u t e as " s i t e s o f t h e Holy S e p u l c h r e " f o r L e n t e n s e r v i c e s , b u t such a s s o c i a t i o n s cannot be verified. I t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t the C a t h e d r a l o f Ravenna, b u i l t by U r s i a n , was a f o r e r u n n e r o f the C a r o l i n g i a n Churches.; use o f Lenten l i t u r g i e s .  The use o f a l i t u r g y w i t h s p e c i a l Lenten  " s i t e s " would be e n t i r e l y i n o r d e r , c o n s i d e r i n g the church's d e d i c a t i o n t o the R e s u r r e c t i o n . Undoubtedly  the B a s i l i c a was  i n t e n d e d t o d u p l i c a t e b o t h the form and the f u n c t i o n o f the Holy Sepulchre.  -73-  CONCLUSIONS  The  Holy S e p u l c h r e d i d not i n f l u e n c e the d e s i g n of  C h r i s t i a n church a r c h i t e c t u r e i n the M e d i t e r r a n e a n  basin during  the B y z a n t i n e p e r i o d as much as might have been expected such an important was  church.  The  of  l a c k of c o p i e s and d e r i v a t i o n s  not a r e s u l t of the c h u r c h b e i n g i s o l a t e d because i t was  not.  U n t o l d hundreds o f p i l g r i m s must have journeyed t o the  Holy Land, j u d g i n g by the number o f i t i n e r a r i e s which s t i l l main.  The  re-  f a c t t h a t d e s c r i p t i o n s of p i l g r i m a g e s were r e c o r d e d ,  w i t h maps and p l a n s upon o c c a s i o n , must have meant t h a t  persons  i n towns where the p i l g r i m s made t h e i r home were a b l e t o i n the e x p e r i e n c e s of the t r i p . Holy S e p u l c h r e  share  But a l l t h i s exposure t o the  d i d not seem t o i n c r e a s e i t s impact  or i n f l u e n c e  as an a r c h i t e c t u r a l monument on the c o n s t r u c t i o n of churches the M e d i t e r r a n e a n Only one  in  basin.  c h u r c h , the B a s i l i c a U r s i a n a i n Ravenna, can  c l a i m the honour o f b e i n g a p r o p e r copy of the Holy not o n l y because i t was  Sepulchre,  d e d i c a t e d t o the A n a s t a s i s or the  R e s u r r e c t i o n , but i t a l s o c o p i e d a number of a r c h i t e c t u r a l m o t i f s d i r e c t l y from C o n s t a n t i n e s b a s i l i c a . 1  I n c l u d e d i n these f e a t u r e s  were the number of columns i n the nave, the number of a i s l e s i n the nave, a semioctagonal  apse and the o r i e n t a t i o n t o the e a s t .  To enhance i t s c l a i m even:.!, f u r t h e r , t h e r e are s u g g e s t i o n s of two  a l t a r s w i t h d i f f e r e n t d e d i c a t i o n s i n t u r n , s u g g e s t i n g a use  of a l i t u r g y s i m i l a r t o the one  f o l l o w e d i n the  carolingian  -74-  churches o f France d u r i n g L e n t . the wes.twork was  I t was  i n these churches  that  d e s i g n e d t o d u p l i c a t e the l o c a t i o n o f the  Anastasis f o r Easter services.  With such a m u l t i t u d e of d e t a i l s  l i n k i n g the Holy Sepulchre and the C a t h e d r a l of Ravenna, i t must be c o n c l u d e d t h a t the l a t t e r was  i n t e n d e d t o copy the  former - even i f t h e r e was  made t o copy the Rotunda  no attempt  a t Ravenna. A l t h o u g h the Eudoxian  church a t Gaza shared the same  d e d i c a t i o n as the B a s i l i c a U r s i a n a and the Holy S e p u l c h r e , i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e was  not based on the complex i n J e r u s a l e m .  The  c r o s s p l a n , which the a r c h i t e c t from A n t i o c h employed, was  not  d e r i v e d from any b u i l d i n g on the s i t e of C h r i s t ' s tomb. The Tegurium though was  was  never c o p i e d as a church or c h a p e l even  i t s t o o d d i r e c t l y over the cave i n which C h r i s t ' s body  laid.  but s t i l l ,  True, i t was i t was  never used as a c o n g r e g a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e ,  able t o h o l d e i g h t or n i n e p e o p l e .  no means a s m a l l s t r u c t u r e  (Pig. 1).  I t was  by  But i t must have been  l o o k e d upon as a r e l i q u a r y and, s i n c e r e l i q u a r i e s never s e r v e d as models f o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t r u c t u r e s , i t i s u n l i k e l y  that  any c h u r c h o r c h a p e l would e v e r have been modeled on i t s d e s i g n . Attempts  t o f i n d d e r i v a t i o n s of the M a r t y r i o n have not  p r o v e d too s u c c e s s f u l .  I t s most d i s t i n c t i v e  f e a t u r e s seem t o  have been i t s f i v e a i s l e s , i t s 65 columns and i t s unique knovm as the h e m i s p h a i r i o n .  apse,  No c h u r c h p l a n s w i t h these f e a t u r e s  have been found o t h e r than the C a t h e d r a l o f Ravenna, a l t h o u g h , i n some p l a n s , one o r o t h e r o f the f e a t u r e s may ployed i n a church.  have been  I n such cases the a r c h i t e c t may  em-  have been  -75making r e f e r e n c e t o t h e Holy S e p u l c h r e hut i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t he was t r y i n g t o copy i t . There i s no c i r c u l a r b u i l d i n g which b o t h d u p l i c a t e s t h e form'of t h e A n a s t a s i s and i t s d e d i c a t i o n t o t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n . But, though t h e r e a r e no " c o p i e s " o f t h i s l a r g e  building,  d e r i v a t i o n s o f i t e x i s t i n t h e form o f the Church Rotondo i n Rome, the Church o f SS. Karpos  o f S. S t e f a n o  and P o l y k a r p o s i n  C o n s t a n t i n o p l e and t h e moslem Dome o f t h e Rock i n J e r u s a l e m . The m a j o r i t y o f r o t u n d a s , b u i l t  i n t h e p e r i o d from the f o u r t h t o  the e i g h t h c e n t u r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e octagons, must have been d e r i v e d from such examples as t h e Tomb o f the V i r g i n o r the Domus a u r e a , o r p o s s i b l y t h e mausoleum o f D i o c l e t i a n a t Spolato.  But the f a c t i s , t h a t t h e Rotunda was n o t as an i m p o r t -  ant a model f o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t r u c t u r e s i n t h i s p e r i o d  /as i t  would be d u r i n g t h e Middle Ages a f t e r t h e e i g h t h c e n t u r y , and p a r t i c u l a r l y a f t e r t h e Crusades. I t v/as n o t because  the B y z a n t i n e c h u r c h f a i l e d t o dup-  l i c a t e p l a n s o f churches w i t h t h e i r d e d i c a t i o n s , t h a t the A n a s t a s i s was n o t " c o p i e d " .  One need o n l y c i t e the churches d e d i c a t e d  t o t h e C r o s s t o see t h a t i t was q u i t e p o p u l a r t o "copy" a c h u r c h . Throughout  t h e M e d i t e r r a n e a n b a s i n and i n t o Prance,  churches  w i t h a c r o s s p l a n were d e d i c a t e d t o t h e "True C r o s s " .  The o n l y  e x c e p t i o n i s the c o n v e r t e d h a l l o f S. Croce i n Gerusalemme i n Rome.  S i m i l a r l y b u i l d i n g s a s s o c i a t e d v/ith the V i r g i n o r d e d i c a t e d  t o t h e Theodokos were e i t h e r c i r c u l a r o r o c t a g o n a l r o t u n d a s . But no such t r a d i t i o n e v e r developed around t h e p l a n o f t h e Anastasis.  -76There are a number of c h u r c h complexes which may been d e s i g n e d t o d u p l i c a t e the Holy S i t e s or the group i n g s a t the Holy S e p u l c h r e .  have of b u i l d -  They appear i n JJalmatia, i n N o r t h  A f r i c a , i n I t a l y and n o r t h of J e r u s a l e m , . a t Gerasa.  I t would  seem t h a t the c h u r c h l i t u r g y f o r L e n t e n s e r v i c e s needed a r e a s i n the church t o d u p l i c a t e c e r t a i n s i t e s found i n the Holy S e p u l c h r e , and p o s s i b l y these church complexes grew up the use o f t h i s l i t u r g i c a l o r d e r . ilarities  around  Except f o r the apparent  sim-  i n the g e n e r a l p l a n s o f some of these church complexes,  t h e r e i s no documentary evidence t o a s s o c i a t e the groups the Holy S e p u l c h r e . n i n t h century. t o as the "New  There was  with  such e v i d e n c e , however, i n the  The Church of S. S t e f a n o , Bologna, was  referred  J e r u s a l e m " i n t h a t c e n t u r y , and a l t h o u g h t h i s i s  the e a r l i e s t documented group t o copy the Holy S e p u l c h r e , t h e r e may  have been o t h e r s s t i l l unknown, from an e a r l i e r p e r i o d i n  history. I n the e x a m i n a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g groups which may  have  been d e r i v e d from the S e p u l c h r e , a number of churches w i t h a r o t u n d a on a x i s w i t h the b a s i l i c a were found and examined as d e r i v a t i v e s of the M a r t y r i o n and A n a s t a s i s g r o u p i n g , but a g a i n , no f i r m r e l a t i o n s h i p c o u l d be Why  established.  the Holy S e p u l c h r e seems t o have been such an unim-  p o r t a n t a r c h i t e c t u r a l i n f l u e n c e i n the B y z a n t i n e p e r i o d i s difficult  to e x p l a i n .  I t must have been the f o c u s o f e v e r y  C h r i s t i a n ' s a t t e n t i o n and y e t i t would appear t h a t  Christians  f a i l e d t o n o t i c e i t as a g r e a t a r c h i t e c t u r a l achievement the C h r i s t i a n  Church.  of  -77-  CHAPTER 1 FOOTNOTES 1  Eusebius, " L i f e of Constantine" ( V i t a C o n s t a n t i n i ) , t r a n s . , John H. Bernard, i n The Churches o f C o n s t a n t i n e a t Jerusalem: B e i n g T r a n s l a t i o n s from E u s e b i u s and t h e E a r l y P i l g r i m i T (London: P a l e s t i n e P i l g r i m s ' Text S o c i e t y , 1898), 111,24, p. 3.- Subsequently r e f e r r e d t o as E u s e b i u s , "Vita",111,24,p.3.  2..  Rev. R. W i l l i s , "The A r c h i t e c t u r e H i s t o r y o f t h e Holy S e p u l c h r e " , George W i l l i a m s , The Holy C i t y - H i s t o r i c a l T o p o g r a p h i c a l and A n t i q u a r i a n N o t i c e s o f Jerusalem, ( V o l . I I , ed. 2; London: John W. P a r k e r , 1849), p . 282 f .  3  L . E . Cox Evans, "The H o l y S e p u l c h r e , " P a l e s t i n e E x p l o r a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , (London: P a l e s t i n e E x p l o r a t i o n Fund, J u l y - December 1968), p . 112 f .  4  E u s e b i u s , " V i t a " , 111,34, p . 7.  5  A r i e s i v o r y b u c k l e . Notre Dame-la Major. N e i l C. Brooks, "The S e p u l c h r e o f C h r i s t i n A r t and L i t u r g y w i t h S p e c i a l Reference t o t h e L i t u r g i c a l Drama", U n i v e r s i t y , o f I l l i n o i s S t u d i e s i n Language and L i t e r a t u r e , V o l . V I I , 2, (May, 1921), p. 19 f .  6':  B r i t i s h Museum I v o r y . London. ( c a . 420, Conant). I b i d . ; Andre Grabar, Martyrium, Recherches s u r l e c u l t des r e l i q u e s e t l ' a r t C h r e t i e n a n t i q u e , (Limoges: C o l l e g e de Prance, 1946), p.227; Kenneth Conant, "The O r i g i n a l B u i l d i n g s a t t h e Holy S e p u l c h r e i n Jerusalem", Speculum, V o l . XXX, (October, 1956), p. 4. Conant has confused t h e B r i t i s h museum and t h e Munich works w i t h each o t h e r .  7,  T r i v u l z i o I v o r y . M i l a n , ( c a . 400, Conant). Brooks, op. c i t . , p.26; D. V. A i n a l o v , The H e l l e n i s t i c O r i g i n s o f B y z a n t i n e • A r t , t r a n s . E l i z a b e t h and Serge S o b o l e v i t c h , e d . C y r i l Mango. (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961), p. 144 f ; 0 . M. D a l t o n , B y z a n t i n e A r t and A r c h a e o l o g y , (New York: Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s I n c . , 1961, R e p r i n t o f O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1911), p.191; Oskar W u l f f , A l t c h r i s t l i c h e und Byzantinische Kunst (Handbuch d e r K u n s t w i s s e n s c h a f t ) , ( V o l . 1, 11; B e r l i n : Akademische V e r l a g s g e s e l l s c h a f t A t h e n a i o n , 1918), I , p . 187; Conant, l o c . c i t . ?  8  Munich I v o r y , ( c a . 415, Conant). Brooks, op. c i t . , p.22; L o u i s B r e h i e r . L a s c u l p t u r e e t l e s a r t s mineurs b y z a n t i n e s , ( P a r i s : L e s E d i t i o n s d ' a r t e t d * h i s t o i r e , 1936), p . 70; Conant, l o c . c i t .  9  G. T. R i v o i r a , Roman A r c h i t e c t u r e and i t s P r i n c i p l e s o f Constr u c t i o n under t h e Empire, t r a n s . G. McN. Ruchford, (Oxford: C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1925), p . 162; Grabar, op. c i t . , p.271-2.  -78Chapter I Footnotes  (continued)  10  G. T. R i v o i r a , Lombardic A r c h i t e c t u r e : I t s O r i g i n , Development and D e r i v a t i v e s , t r a n s . G. McN. Ruchford, ( V o l . I I , Oxf o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1933), p.15; Rev. W i l l i s , op. c i t , p. 2 . A c c o r d i n g t o the Rev. W i l l i s , the west end was enr l a r g e d a f t e r 1587. The p l a n of the Tegurium w i t h the ent r a n e e t o the e a s t and an apse a t the west resembles the bema found i n l a t e r S y r i a n c h u r c h e s . ( F i g . 7 2 ) . See note 20, c h a p t e r I I I .  11  Hugues V i n c e n t and F-M A b e l , "Jerusalem N o u v e l l e , " J e r u s a l e m . Recherches de t o p o g r a p h i e , d ' a r c h e o l o g i e e t d ' h i s t o i r e , V o l T II, fasc.II; Paris: J . Gabalda, 1914), p. 2 3 3 .  12  E . Baldwin Smith, The Dome: A Study i n the H i s t o r y of I d e a s , ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956), p. 54; Berna r d , op. c i t . , p. 30.  13  David T a l b o t R i c e , The B e g i n n i n g s of C h r i s t i a n A r t , (London: Hodder and Stought, 1957), P. 35; Grabar, op. ciTT, p. 276; Smith, op. c i t . , p. 98; W u l f f , op. c i t . , p. 115; The Sancta Sanctorum r e l i q u a r y has been dated by Grabar as 6th or 7th c e n t u r y w h i l e Wilhelm Nyssen (Das Zeugnis des B i l d e s im Fruhen Byzana., [Bd. I I ; B r e i s g a u : Lambertus V e r l a g , 1962j), C h a r l e s Rufus Morey ( E a r l y C h r i s t i a n A r t , An O u t l i n e o f the E v o l u t i o n of S t y l e and Iconography in S c u l p t u r e and P a i n t i n g from A n t i q u i t y t o the E i g h t h Century, L P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941J), and Oscar Wulff (op. c i t . ) date i t i n the 6th c e n t u r y .  14  Rev. W i l l i s , op. c i t . , p. 176. A r c u l f the a l t a r b e f o r e the Tegurium entrance made from h a l f of the stone door which the tomb e n t r a n c e . B e r n a r d , op. c i t . ,  15  The Rabbula Codex i s dated 586 by r e f e r e n c e s i n the t e s t . I t was w r i t t e n by a S y r i a n monk, Rabbula, i n a c l o i s t e r a t Zagbar i n Mesopotamia. Nyssen, op. c i t . , p. 77; Morey, op. c i t . , p . 116 f ; A i n a l o v , op. c i t . , p. 7 2 . The S y r i a n p l a t e found i n Perm p r o b a b l y dates from the 6th or 7th century. I b i d . , p. 257.  16  C a r l M a r i a Kaufman, Handbuch d e r g h r i s t l i c h e n A r c h a o l o g i e , (Paderborn: Druck und V e r l a g von F e r d i n a n d Schdningh, 1913), P. 309.  17  The C o p t i c Censor. 6th C. J . Formige, "Un p l a n du S a i n t S e p u l c h r e d e c o u r v e r t a l a b a s i l i q u e de S a i n t - D e n i s " , Monuments et Memoiries, V o l . X L V I I I , 2 (1954), p. 122; Grabar, op. c i t . , p. 89. ' :  made r e f e r e n c e t o c l a i m i n g t h a t i t was once s e r v e d t o c l o s e p. 3 2 .  1  The Dumbarton Oaks stone r e l i e f . P a u l A. Underwood, "The F o u n t a i n of L i f e i n M a n u s c r i p t s of the G o s p e l , " Dumbarton Oaks P a p e r s , No.5 (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  1950), p. 91.  -79Chapter  I Footnotes  (continued)  The ampullae. A i n a l o v , op. c i t . , p. 224—48; Morey, o p . c i t . , p. 269; D a l t o n , op. c i t . , p. 625. 18  The mosaics of S. A p o l l i n a r e Nuovo, Ravenna are dated 500520 A.D. by F. van der Meer and C h r i s t i n e Mohrmann, A t l a s o f The E a r l y C h r i s t i a n World, t r a n s , and ed. Mary F. Hedl u n d and H. H. Rowley, ( T o r o n t o : Thomas N e l s o n and Sons, P. 88, n. 231; Smith, op. c i t . , p. 24.  1959),  19  B e r n a r d Goldman, The S a c r e d P o r t a l , U n i v e r s i t y , 1966). p. 69-124.  20  Bernard, op. c i t . , p. 23; op. c i t . , p. 4. '  21  Underwood, op. c i t . , p.  22  Grabar, op. c i t . , pp. 66, 77. Smith, op. c i t . , pp. 55, 108, 111. The o l d e s t (ciborium e d i c u l a w i t h a square p l a n marks the tomb of two s a i n t s a t K a o s s i e ^ A h t i o c h . The c e n t r a l edi c u l a was f o u r rooms a t t a c h e d , one p e r s i d e . The mosaic pavement i s dated 387. Grabar, op. c i t . , p. 77.  23.  Smith, op. c i t . , p.  24  (Detroit:  Wayne S t a t e  V i n c e n t , op. c i t . , p. 216;  Conant,  53-  110.  The 4 t h c e n t u r y g l a s s cup now a t T u n i s i n the Bardo Museum v/as found i n the Baths of Antoninus at Carthage. Andre Grabar, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n A r t : From the R i s e o f C h r i s t i a n i t y to the Death of Theodosius, 200-395, t r a n s . S. G i l b e r t and ""J. Emmons, (New York: Odyssey P r e s s , 1968), p. 276. The 4 t h c e n t u r y date g i v e n the g l a s s by Grabar may prove t o be a c e n t u r y o r more too e a r l y j u d g i n g by the s i m i l a r i t y i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the m a r t y r i o n w i t h the ampullae at Monzo dated t o the 6 t h c e n t u r y .  25  Brooks, op. c i t . , p.  19.  26  A. A. V a s i l i e v , H i s t o r y of the B y z a n t i n e Empire, ( V o l . I j I I * , Madison and Milwaukee: U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin P r e s s , 1964), I , p.96 f .  27  A d o l f S t r u c k c l a i m s the Church of the S a v i o u r at P l a t a n i t i ( c a . 1000) was d e r i v e d from the tomb o f P e r i k l e a i n T e r m i s s o s . A d u l f S t r u c k , " V i e r B y z a n t i n i s c h e K i r c h e n der A r g o l i s : P l a t a n i t i , Chonika, Merbaka und A r e i a , " M i t t e i l t i n g e n des K a i s e r l i c h Deutschen A r c h a o l o g i s c h e n I n s t i t u t s , Athens, V o l . XXXIV (1909), PP. 191,195,196.  28  Smith, op. c i t . pp.49, 144; Jean E b e r s o l t , Monuments d e ' a r c h i t e c t u r e byzantine, (Paris: Les E d i t i o n s d ' a r t e t d ' h i s t o i r e ,  1934), p. 165 n. 120.  -80Chapter I F o o t n o t e s ( c o n t i n u e d ) 29  Smith, op. c i t . , p. 59; Grabar, Martyrium, p. 84. The d o m i c a l mortuary and d o m i c a l b a p t i s t r y t r a d i t i o n s were not n a t i v e t o S y r i a o r the r e g i o n t o the e a s t . The f i r s t f r e e s t a n d i n g , domed, c y l i n d r i c a l tomb s t i l l e x t a n t i s at "Amrith. T h i s m o n o l i t h i c s t e l e p o s s i b l y d a t e s from the p e r i o d o f Herod the G r e a t . Two o t h e r towered tombs e x i s t i n the a r e a of J e r u s a l e m , the .tomb of Absalom and the tomb o f Z a c h a r i a s . The former was a f u n n e l dome, the l a t t e r - a p y r a m i d a l dome. Smith, op. c i t . , p. 57.  30  Grabar, l o c . c i t . ; P.  31  J . S t f y g o w s k i , L ' a r i c i e n a r t C h r e t i e n de S y r i e , ( P a r i s : E . de B o c c a r d , 1936), p. 70; Grabar, Martyrium, p. 86-7.  32  Grabar, Martyrium, p.  33  Smith, op. c i t . ,  34  St. Menas i n Abou Mina was b u i l t c. 400-410. Ward P e r k i n s , Papers o f the B r i t i s h S c h o o l at Rome, V o l . XVII, (London, 1949), p. 40; Grabar, M a r t y r i u m , T T 82; Smith, op. c i t . , p. 59; A. K h a t c h a t r i a n , Les b a p t i s t e r e s p a l e o c h r e t i e n s , Plans, n o t i c e s et b i b l i o g r a p h i e , ( P a r i s : Centre n a t i o n a l de l a r e c h e r c h e s c i e n t i f i q u e , 1962), p. 61.  35  Grabar, Martyrium, p. 82. The r e l i q u a r y o f Aachen was made f o r a " s t r a t i g o s " o f A n t i o c h between 969 and 1080. Smith, op. c i t . , pp. 121, 122. A r e l i q u a r y o f the Holy S e p u l c h r e (Musee L a p i d a i r e , Narbonne) made from white Pyrenes marble, p o s s i b l y i n the 5th c e n t u r y and measuring 49 x 35 was found a t Narbonne i n the s u b s t r u c t u r e of a d e f e n s i v e t u r r e t on the c i t y w a l l s not f a r from the f i r s t c a t h e d r a l . Jean Hubert, Jean P o r c h e r and W. P. V o l b a c h , Europe i n the Dark Ages, (London: Thames and Hudson, 1969), p. 349, i l l u s t r a t i o n 17 on page 16. There was a l s o a s m a l l e d i c u l a s i m i l a r t o the Tegurium on the s i t e o f the p r e s e n t - d a y " c o n f e s s i o " e n c l o s i n g the tomb o f the A p o s t l e i n S t . P e t e r ' s B a s i l i c a and surrounded by a low " c a n c e l l i " . This structure, c l a i m e d by Van der Meer t o have e x i s t e d i n the f o u r t h c e n t u r y but i f so i t must be l a t e f o u r t h c e n t u r y , was the memoria P e t r i p r o p e r and was d e p i c t e d on an i v o r y r e l i q u a r y i n P o l a i n I s r e i a ( c a . 400'now i n the Museo Civico,'Rome). P. Van d e r Meer, op. c i t . , TD. 62, 147, no. 479.  59.  E b e r s o l t , op. c i t . ,  , .  p. 11;  Smith, op.  cit.,  82.  pp. 59,  105.  -81CHAPTER I I FOOTNOTES 1  E u s e b i u s , " L i f e of C o n s t a n t i n e " ( V i t a C o n s t a n t i n i ) , t r a n s . John H. B e r n a r d , i n The Churches of C o n s t a n t i n e a t J e r u s a l e m : B e i n g T r a n s l a t i o n s from E u s e b i u s and the E a r l y P i l g r i m s , (London: P a l e s t i n e P i l g r i m s ' Text S o c i e t y , 1896), 111,30, p. 4. Subsequently r e f e r r e d t o as E u s e b i u s , " V i t a : , 111,30, p. 4.  2  I n 1966, 4-th C. w a l l s were found on the n o r t h s i d e of the Rotunda i n the r e g i o n of 8, 9 and 12; and, 10 and 16 on the 1962 p l a n ( P i g . 3 0 c ) . "Jerusalem", Revue B i b l i q u e , V o l . LXIX(1962),. p. 100-109.  • .  3  4  Kenneth Conant, "The O r i g i n a l B u i l d i n g s a t the Holy S e p u l c h r e i n Jerusalem," Speculum, V o l . XXXI (October, 1956), p. 7 f . The source of the i l l u s t r a t i o n s i s g i v e n i n the index o f illustrations. Oskar W u l f f , A l t c h r i s t l i c h e und B y z a n t i n i s c h e Kunst (Handuch der K u n s t w i s s e n s c h a f t ) , ( B e r l i n : Academische V e r i a g s g e s e l l s c h a f t A t h e n a i o n , 1918), p. 328, G. J e f f e r y , "Papers on the Church of the Holy S e p u l c h r e " , J o u r n a l of the R o y a l I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h A r c h i t e c t s , V o l . XVII (October, 1910), p. 713.  5  Conant, op. c i t . , p. 9f^ E u s e b i u s , " V i t a " , 111,38, p . 9. The a r e a of the N o r t h t r a n s e p t has been r e s t o r e d a c c o r d i n g t o s t u d i e s o f the mosaic made by W i l p e r t . Conant, l o c . c i t .  6  Ibid.  7  Zev V i l n a y , the Holy Land i n O l d P r i n t s and Maps, ( J e r u s a l e m : Rubin Mass, 1965), p. 2; Conant, op. c i t . , p. y - 8.  8  Conant, I b i d ? , p. 44; F. van d e r Meer and C h r i s t i n e Mohrmann, A t l a s of the E a r l y C h r i s t i a n World, t r a n s . , Mary F. Hedlund and H. H. Rowley, ( T o r o n t o : Thomas N e l s o n and Sons, 1959) map  39.  9  0. W u l f f , op. c i t . , p. 115; p. n. 17T.  10  E m i l e Male, The E a r l y Churches o f Rome, t r a n s . D a v i d (London: E r n e s t Beun L i m i t e d , I960), p. 56.  11  Ibid., p. 60; W a l t e r Oakeshott, The Mosaics o f Rome from the T h i r d t o the F o u r t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s , (London: Thames and Hudson, 1967), pp. 16-17,73. The mosaics a c c o r d i n g t o E m i l e Male date from the p e r i o d of Pope Sextus I I I c a . 432 A.D.  12  V i l n a y , op. c i t . , p. 6, F i g . 11. volume I I I , p l a t e X I I I .  73  P. van d e r Meer, op.  cit.,  C i a m p i n i drawing was  Buxton,  in  -82-  Chapter I I Footnotes  (continued)  13  I b i d . , p. 5. The Church o f San Lorenzo, was e r e c t e d between 579 and 590. R i c h a r d Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n and B y z a n t i n e A r c h i t e c t u r e , (London: Penguin Books, 1965), p. 191; V i l n a y , op. c i t . , p. 5. Jerusalem was a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d i n m a n u s c r i p t s such as the Rossano Gospels ( 6 t h c e n t u r y ) , but the d e p i c t i o n s o f the M a r t y r i o n are u n c l e a r , , i f p r e s e n t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e y are a l s o u n s u i t a b l e f o r the p r e p a r a t i o n o f an e l e v a t i o n o f the c h u r c h b u i l t by Constantine.  14  E u s e b i u s , " V i t a " , 111,38, p. 9. Eusebius text reads: " o p p o s i t e t h e s e ( t h r e e gates f a c i n g the r i s i n g sun) was the 'hemisphere' ( h e m i s p h a i r i o n ) , the main p o i n t of the whole b u i l d i n g , s t r e t c h i n g out towards the r o o f o f the b a s i l i c a , which twelve columns surrounded, e q u a l i n number t o the a p o s t l e s o f the S a v i o u r , adorned on t h e i r summits w i t h g r e a t bowls ( c a p i t a l s . ) o f s i l v e r , which the emperor gave a s p l e n d i d o f f e r i n g - t o h i s God." The Greek t e x t i s found i n Hugues V i n c e n t and F-M A b e l , "Jerusalem N o u v e l l e . " Jerusalem. Recherches de t o p o g r a p h i e , d'arch§ologie e t d'histoire, (Vol. I, I I ; Paris: J . Bagalda, 1914, I I , i i , p. 208. The term h/noac*i>/d)v ( h e m i s p h a i r i o n ) i s n o t e d by V i n c e n t as " i n e x p l i c a b l e " . The word i s not a t e c h n i c a l . term used f o r e c c l e s i a s t i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e elsewhere. (See note 1 5 ) .  15  Rev. R. W i l l i s t r a n s l a t e s the word h e m i s p h a i r i o n as "apse" (Rev. R. W i l l i s , "The A r c h i t e c t u r e H i s t o r y o f the H o l y Sepu l c h r e " , George W i l l i a m s , The H o l y C i t y : H i s t o r i c a l , Topog r a p h i c a l and A n t i q u a r i a n . N o t i c e s ' o f - J e r u s a l e m , j V o l . I , I I , "ed. 2; London: John W. P a r k e r , 1849], I I , p. 245), w h i l e Besant and Palmer (W. Besant and E . H. Palmer, J e r u s a l e m , the C i t y of Herod and P a l e s t i n e , [1871; ed. 2, 1889J, 59) used the word hemisphere. R i c h a r d s o n a l s o used the term hemisphere. Richardson, "Euseius, L i f e of Constantine" i n A S e l e c t L i b r a r y o f Nic.ene and P o s t - N i c e n e F a t h e r s o f the C h r i s t i a n Church, e d i t e d by H. Wace and P. S c h a f f , [ O x f o r d : P a r k e r and Company and New York: The C h r i s t i a n L i t e r a t u r e Co., 1890), r e p r i n t e d i n Andre Grabar, ( E a r l y C h r i s t i a n A r t : From the R i s e o f C h r i s t i a n i t y t o the Death o f Theodosius7 200 - 395, t r a n s . S t u a r t G i l b e r t and James Emmons, £ N e w Yor-fc: Odyssey P r e s s , 1968], p. 284). R i c h a r d Krautheimer c o n s i d e r s the h e m i s p h a i r i o n t o be a r o t u n d a ( R i c h a r d Krautheimer, "The C o n s t a n t i n e B a s i l i c a " , Dumbarton Oaks P a p e r s , No. 21 Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967 J , p. 133) but i n h i s f o o t n o t e s r e f e r s t o Downey's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t as a h a l f domed apse. I b i d . , p. 133, n. 59 r e f e r r i n g t o G. Downey, "On Some P o s t - C l a s s i c a l Greek A r c h i t e c t u r a l Terms," T r a n s a c t i o n s o f the American P h i l o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , V o l . 77 (1946), p. 2 2 - 5 5 ) Kenneth Conant the t r a n s l a t i o n 'that p a r t of the b u i l d i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h a l f dome.'" Conant, op. c i t . , p. 9.  p.  [Washington:  *prefer.(s)  -83Chapter I I Footnotes (continued) 16  K r a u t h e i m e r , op. c i t ^ ,  17  Conant,  p.  117.  loc. c i t .  18 . I b i d . , p. 10.. 8 inches.  The w i d t h i s g i v e n as 39 meters o r 127  feet  19  "And f o r t h w i t h she ( S t . Helena) d e d i c a t e d two temples t o the God whom she worshipped, one a t the Cave o f the N a t i v i t y , and the o t h e r on the Mount o f the A s c e n s i o n " . E u s e b i u s , " V i t a " , 111,43, p. 12.  20  J . V / . Crowfoot, E a r l y Churches i n P a l e s t i n e , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941), p. 22.  21  (London:  B e r n a r d , op. c i t . , p. 22, c i t i n g "The P i l g r i m o f Bordeaux, 333 A.D. ( T o b l e r , p. 1 8 ) " . The l a t i n i s c i t e d by V i n c e n t : "...ibidem modo i u s s o C o n s t a n t i n i i m p e r a t o r i s b a s i l i c a f a c t a e s t , i d e s t dominicum". V i n c e n t , op. c i t . , p. 208 (taken from Geyer, I t i n e r a , p. 2 2 s . ) .  22  R i c h a r d Krautheimer, " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o an Iconography o f M e d i a e v a l A r c h i t e c t u r e : , Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e J o u r n a l , V o l . V (1942), p. 15.  23,  I b i d . , p.  24.  Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 27. Andre Grabar, Martyrium, Recherches s u r l e c u l t des r e l i q u e s e t 1' a r t c h r g t i e n a n t i q u e , (Limoges: C o l l e g e de Prance, 1946), p. 206; W a l t e r L o w r i e , A r t i n the E a r l y Church, ( e d . 2; Nexv York: Harper and Row, 1965), p. 107; V a n der Meer, op. c i t . , p. 62. A photograph o f the i n t e r i o r i s r e p r o d u c e d by van der Meer as i l l u s t r a t i o n 131.  25  The date o f r e n o v a t i o n by Empress Helena i s 337 a c c o r d i n g t o K r a u t h e i m e r . Krautheimer, "Iconography...*, p. 27 n. 28. I n 347 o r 34-8 S t . C y r i l l e o f J e r u s a l e m wrote i n h i s " C a t e c h i s t i c a l L e c t u r e s : t h a t " a l r e a d y the whole u n i v e r s e i s f i l l e d w i t h fragments of wood from the c r o s s " . The Greek t e x t i s found i n V i n c e n t , op. c i t . , I l l , I , i , p. 208 ( c i t i n g P. G. 33.IV,10 C y r . H.)  26  S p i r o K. H u s t o f , The Orthodox B a p t i s t r y o f Ravenna,(New Haven and London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p. 2 f f ; G. T. R i v o i r a . Lombardic A r c h i t e c t u r e : Its Origins, Development and D e r i v a t i o n s , t r a n s . G. McN. R u s h f o r t h , ( V o l . I , I I ; O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1933), I , p. 6 f ; K r a u t h eimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , pp. 334-, 138 n. 35.  16.  -84-  Chapter I I F o o t n o t e s ( c o n t i n u e d ) The exact date o f c o m p l e t i o n o f the B a s i l i c a U r s i a n a i s not known h u t Krautheimer p l a c e s i t b e f o r e 4 2 5 (Krautheimer, E a r l y ^ C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 158 n. 3 5 ) . R i v o i r a suggests a date 3 7 0 - 3 9 6 because Bishop U r s i a n a i s b e l i e v e d t o have d i e d i n 3 8 4 ( R i v o i r a , op. c i t . , p . 6 ) . Rivoira s u p p o r t s h i s t h e o r y through a comparison o f c a p i t a l s w i t h t a l l p u l v i n o s i n U r s i a n a t o examples found i n the B a s i l i c a S e v e r i a n a ( S . Georgio Maggiore) N a p l e s , b u i l t by the b i s h o p , Severus 3 6 7 - c a . 3 8 7 ( I b i d . , p . 8 ) . Ursian's B a s i l i c a may have been b u i l t i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r r e c e i v i n g the c a p i t o l o f t h e Western Empire moved t h e r e i n 4 0 4 from M i l a n by H o n o r i u s . P l a n s may have been p r e p a r e d by a S y r i a n who l i v e d i n the l a r g e S y r i a n c o l o n y a t Ravenna. E . Baldwin Smith, The Dome: A Study i n t h e H i s t o r y o f I d e a s , (Princeton: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 5 0 ) , p. 1 4 2 - 3 . 27  R i c h a r d Krautheimer p o i n t s out t h a t t h e c i r c l e and octagon were o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d t o be the same geometric shape. Krautheimer, *Iconography...", p . 7 f ,  28  The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o c t a g o n a l apse end:  o f churches known t o have a semi-  I t a l y - S t . Euphemie, Grado ( 5 7 9 ) The C a t h e d r a l o f P o l o A church a t B u t r i n t o Capadocia E s k i Andaval near Tyane ( b a s i l i c a o f C o n s t a n t i n e ) Panaghia de Goreme Tomarza Busluk Feseh Skupi Halvadere S i v r i Hissar St. Andre de T i l l Many churches at B i r B i r K i r c h e Palestine St. Theodore, Gerasa ( 4 9 4 - 6 ) St. John the B a p t i s t , Gerasa ( 5 3 1 ) S y r i a - Rasafa Sergopolis Church o f the temple o f Baalbeck Cathedral of Bosra ( 5 1 2 ) South A s i a Minor Meriamlek, c u p o l a c h u r c h Mesopotamia Mary Yaqub a l - H a b i s  -85Chapter I I F o o t n o t e s ( c o n t i n u e d ) Rhodes - B a s i l i c a A ( V i l l a g e Crete  d'Arnetha)  - B a s i l i c a A, Chersonese  of Crete  Constantinope S t . Irene Crimea - t h e b a p t i s t r y o f the T r i c o n q u e o f Cheronese G e o r g i a - t h e B a s i l i c a o f P i t z u n d i ( 6 t h c.) the C a t h e d r a l o f Ninozminda ( 6 t h c.) C h a r l e s Delvoye,^"Memoires e t documents, Etudes d' a r c h i t e c t u r e p a l e o c h r e t i e n n e e t b y z a n t i n e " , B y z a n t i o n , V o l . XXXII (1962), p . 306. 29  Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 137; Grabar, op. c i t . , pp. 407, 224; K o s t o f , op. c i t . , ' p . 3; C a r l - O t t o Norstrom, Ravennastudien, (Stockholm: A l m q u i s t and W i k s e l l , 1953), 12. R a i n a l d u s , w r i t i n g about t h e church s a i d i t was d e d i c a t e d t o the t r u e c r o s s : "a quo habet e t nomen e t formam". Grabar, op. c i t . , p . 497. R i v o i r a d a t e s t h e b u i l d i n g c a . 449, the mausloeum c a . 440. R i v o i r a , op. c i t . , p.  32.  30  E . Baldwin Smith, op. c i t . , pp. 14, 34, 39-40; C a r l Watzinger, Denkmaler P a l a s t i n a s ; exne E i n f t l h r u n g i n d i e Arch£ologie des H e i l i g e n Landes, ( V o l . I , I I : L e i p z i g : J . C. H i n r i c h s , 1933-5), I I , p . 130; G l a n v i l l e Downey, Gaza i n t h e E a r l y S i x t h Century, (Norman, Oklahoma: U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma P r e s s , 1963), p. -28; 0. P. F-M A b e l , "Gaza au V i e s i e c l e d'apres l e Rheteur C h o r i k i o s " , Revue B i b l i q u e V o l . XL (1931), p. 12 f ; K. A. C. C r e s w e l l , E a r l y Muslim A r c h i t e c t u r e , V o l . I , I I ; O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1932), I , p . 84. Baldwin Smith a s s o c i a t e s S. S e r g i u s w i t h t h e Eudoxiana because C h o r i c i u s d e s c r i b e s S. S e r g i u s as d o m i c a l w i t h a c r u c i f o r m p l a n when he made h i s "encomion" p r e s e n t a t i o n i n honour o f the b i s h o p , M a r c i e n . S. S e r g i u s was f o r m e r l y thought t o be d e d i c a t e d i n 532 (536 A.D., A b e l , bp. c i t . , p. 12) n o t 407, the date f o r E u d o z i a n a . Smith, op. c i t . , p. 39, 40. H. L e c l e r q had p r e f e r r e d t h e l a t e d e d i c a t i o n which i s now d i s puted. Ferdinand Cabrol, D i c t i o n n a i r e d'archeologie chretiene e t de l i t u r g i e , e d . F. C a b r o l and H. L e c l e r g , V o l . XIV ( P a r i s , 1907-37), c o l . 1496-1500. ?  31  Smith, op. c i t . , p. 40; C a b r o l , l o c . c i t .  32  Watzinger, l o c . c i t .  33  Grabar, op. c i t . , p . 160; Robert L a f f o n t , D i c t i o n n a i r e des E g l i s e s de F r a n c e , V o l . IV (1966), P t . IV,B 70.  -86Chapter I I F o o t n o t e s ( c o n t i n u e d ) 34  Cambridge M e d i e v a l H i s t o r y , ( V o l . I I ; New York and Cambridge; 1964), p . 147.  35  Grabar, op. c i t . , p . 495.  36  Margaret Deanesly, A H i s t o r y o f E a r l y M e d i e v a l Europe from 476 t o 911, (London! Methuen and Co., 1963), p . 277.  37  Grabar, op. c i t . , p .  38  I b i d . , p . 164.  39  Delvoye, op. c i t . , p . 264.  40  "In t h e c h i e f c h u r c h ( K a t o l i k e ) c a l l e d Maturn (/*<V**P' ), but a l s o I n v e n t i o n o f t h e C r o s s , 20 e l l s d i s t a n t from t h e c h u r c h o f the R e s u r r e c t i o n , a r e d i s p o s e ( d ) i n l i n e , 65 (var.75) columns above and below." T h i s q u o t a t i o n i s i n c o r r e c t l y a t t r i b u t e d t o Sophrone by Y i n c e n t (op. c i t . , p. 226) a c c o r d i n g t o R i v o i r a (op. c i t . , p . I 4 j t Vincent, op. c i t . , p . 233, ( D e s c r i p t i o n armenienne des L i e u x S a i n t s au V i l e S i e c l e , t r a d u i t e d'une t r a d u c t i o n r u s s e p a r R. N i s b e t B a i n , Q u a r t . Stat.., 1896, p . 347; c i t a t . 'Descr. armen.').  41  " T h i s f i r s t , as t h e c h i e f of the emperor b e a u t i f i e d much ornament, d e c o r a t i n g E u s e b i u s , " V i t a " , 111,34-,  527.  ov  p a r t o f t h e whole, t h e l i b e r a l i t y w i t h c h o i c e columns and w i t h i t w i t h a l l k i n d s o f adornments." p.  7.  42  See note 14.'  43  C a b r o l , op. c i t . , V o l . XIV, c o l . 1496.  44  Krautheimer, "Iconography", p . 10 f .  45.  Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p . 46.  46  I b i d . , p . 92. "And a t each s i d e o f the two p o r t i c o s , w i t h upper and lower r a n g e s , t w i n colonnades extended the whole l e n g t h o f t h e temple, -these a l s o have t h e i r c e i l i n g s o r n a mented w i t h g o l d . Of these t h e colonnades towards t h e f r o n t o f t h e b u i l d i n g s were s u p p o r t e d by columns o f the v e r y v a s t s i z e , b u t t h e i n n e r rows r e s t e d on p i e r s ; t h e ornamentation o f t h e s e p i e r s on the s u r f a c e was v e r y g r e a t . . . " E u s e b i u s , " V i t a " , 111,37, p . 8.  47  W i l l i a m s , op. c i t . , p . 173.  48  I b i d . , p . 204.  -87-  CHAPTER I I I FOOTNOTES 1.  Andre Grabar suggests t h a t E u s e b i u s f a i l e d t o mention the A n a s t a s i s because he d i d not t h i n k i t was o f any importance, but i f i t had e x i s t e d , E u s e b i u s i s not l i k e l y t o have o v e r l o o k e d i t . Andre" Grabar, Martyrium, Recherches sur l e c u l t des r e l i q u e s e t l ' a r t C h r e t i e n a n t i q u e , (Limoges: C o l l e g e de F r a n c e , 1946), p. 264.  2  Kenneth Conant, "The O r i g i n a l B u i l d i n g s a t the Holy S e p u l c h r e i n J e r u s a l e m " , Speculum, V o l . XXXI (October, 1956), p. 45 f . R. Krautheimer suggests t h a t the A n a s t a s i s was i n s e r v i c e by 350. R i c h a r d Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n and B y z a n t i n e A r c h i t e c t u r e ' , (London:. Penquin Books, 1965), p. 50 n. 11. Grabar s t a t e s t h a t "We s h a l l p r o b a b l y never know f o r c e r t a i n whether the r o t u n d a e n c l o s i n g the Holy S e p u l c h r e was b u i l t under C o n s t a n t i n e o r a l i t t l e after....However t h a t may be, the r o t u n d a o f the Holy S e p u l c h r e undoubtedly dates t o the f o u r t h c e n t u r y . " Grabar, op. c i t . , p. 163.  3  Conant, op. c i t . , p.  4  E u s e b i u s , " L i f e of C o n s t a n t i n e " ( V i t a C o n s t a n t i n i ) , t r a n s . John H. B e r n a r d , i n The Churches of C o n s t a n t i n e : B e i n g T r a n s l a t i o n s from E u s e b i u s and the E a r l y P i l g r i m s , (London: P a l e s t i n e P i l g r i m s ' Text S o c i e t y , 1898), 111,34, 35, p. 7. Subsequently r e f e r r e d t o as E u s e b i u s , " V i t a " , 111,34-, 35, p.7.  5  45.  Conant, op. c i t . , p. 46; Hugues V i n c e n t and P-M A b e l , "Jerusalem N o u v e l l e ; " J e r u s a l e m . Recherches de t o p o g r a p h i c , d ' a r c h e o l o g i e e t d ' h i s t o i r e , ( V o l . I,II'; P a r i s : J . Gabalda, . H , i i , p. 210. n  6  B e r n a r d , op. c i t . , p . x; G. J e f f e r y , "Papers on the C h i r c h of the Holy S e p u l c h r e " , J o u r n a l of the R o y a l I n s t i t u t e of British Architects, V o l . X V l I I (October, 1910), p. 827. Conant dates A e t h e r i a ' s t e x t t o 392-5 but o t h e r s g e n e r a l l y date i t about t e n y e a r s e a r l i e r . Conant, op. c i t . , p. 45.  7  Andre Grabar, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n A r t : From the R i s e of C h r i s t i a n i t y t o the Death of Theodosius, 200-595, t r a n s . S t u a r t G i l b e r t and James Emmons, (New York: Odyssey P r e s s , 1968), p. 291 c i t i n g "The P i l g r i m a g e of S. S i l v i a of A q u i t a n i a t o the Holy P l a c e s " , (The L i b r a r y of the P a l e s t i n e P i l g r i m s ; Text S o c i e t y , t r a n s . J . H. B e r n a r d , [ V o l . I ; London, 1897J, pp. 13-14, 47-48, 63-64, 76-77).  8  "The ' B r e v i a r y ' , o r S h o r t D e s c r i p t i o n of Jerusalem," op. c i t . , p. 24; V i n c e n t , op. c i t . , p. 216.  9  " A r c u l f , Concerning The Holy P l a c e s " , i b i d . , p. 29. A more complete t e x t , i n L a t i n , i s g i v e n by V i n c e n t , o p . c i t . , p.  233-4.  Bernard,.  -88Chapter I I I Footnotes (continued)  10  The Roman sarcophagus. N e i l C. Brooks, "The S e p u l c h r e o f C h r i s t i n A r t and L i t u r g y w i t h S p e c i a l Reference t o the L i t u r g i c a l Drama", U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s S t u d i e s i n Language and L i t e r a t u r e , V o l . VII,2 (May, p. 18; E . Baldwin Smith, The Dome: A Study i n the H i s t o r y of Ideas, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, p.23. The sarcophagus of S. C e l s o , M i l a n . Brooks, l o c . c i t . ; D. V. A i n a l o v , The H e l l e n i s t i c O r i g i n s of B y z a n t i n e A r t , t r a n s . E l i z a b e t h and Serge S o b o l e v i t c h , ed. ' C y r i l Mango, (New Brunswick, N.J.: R u t g e r s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961), P. 14-3.  1921), 19?6),  11  12.  The sarcophagus o f Southern G a u l . op. c i t . , p .  13  The B a s i l e w s k y s i t u l a . John Beckwith, The B a s i l e w s k y S i t u l a , (London: V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t Museum,  14-  Conant, op. c i t . , p.  15  The date o f S. Pudenziana, as g i v e n by W a l t e r L o w r i e , i s c a . 384-. W a l t e r L o w r i e , A r t i n the E a r l y Church, 2nd ed., r e v . , (New York: Harper and Row, p . 126. The mosaics have been d a t e d t o sometime a f t e r 400. P. van der Meer and C h r i s t i n e Mohrmann, A t l a s o f the E a r l y C h r i s t i a n World, t r a n s . Mary P. Hedlund and H. H. Rowley, ( T o r o n t o : Thomas N e l s o n and Sons, p. n.  185.  Brooks, l o c . c i t . ;  Vincent,  1963).  6.  1965),  1959),  157  525.  16  Madaba M o s a i c . Conant, op. c i t . , p. 7-8. Reliquary, Sancta Sanctorum, L a t e r a n . See note 13 c h a p t e r I .  17  R i c h a r d Krautheimer, " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o an 'Iconography o f M e d i a e v a l A r c h i t e c t u r e ' " Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e H p u r n a l , V o l . V (1942), p. 5 n. 2. :  18  E u t y c h i u s , " E u t y c h i i A n n a l s , " E x t r a c t s from A r i s t e a s , Hecataeus. O r i g e n and o t h e r E a r l y W r i t e r s , t r a n s . Aubrey Stewart, (London: P a l e s t i n e P i l g r i m s ' - Text S o c i e t y ,  1895),  p. 35-68.  1^  G. T. R i v o i r a , Lombardic A r c h i t e c t u r e : I t s O r i g i n , Development and D e r i v a t i v e s , t r a n s . G. McN. R u s h f o r d , ( V o l . I , I I ; Oxford: Clarendon Press, I , p. 14.  1933),  20  W. Harvey, " I n s p e c t i o n o f the Church o f the Holy S e p u l c h r e from to ( o f ) March and "The S t r u c t u r a l Decay o f the Church o f the H o l y S e p u l c h r e " , P a l e s t i n e E x p l o r ation Quarterly, (January, pp. 160-1, 156-60; Rev. R. W i l l i s , "Note B, on the C o n f l a g r a t i o n o f the Church o f  23rd  29th  1938", 1938),  -89Chapter  I I I Footnotes  (continued)  the Holy Sepulchre i n 1808", George W i l l i a m s , The Holy City: H i s t o r i c a l , T o p o g r a p h i c a l and A n t i q u a r i a n N o t i c e s of Jerusalem, (VoL 1,11, 2nd ed.; London? John W. P a r k e r , 184-9), I I , p . 2 8 2 - 9 . 21  See note 9 c h a p t e r I I I .  22  I t has been suggested by V i n c e n t (op. c i t . , p. 2 3 5 ) , Grabar (Martyrium, p . 258), and Conant (op. c i t . , p . 4-8) t h a t t h e o u t e r c i r c l e o f A r c u l f ' s--plan c o u l d r e p r e s e n t the g a l l e r y above t h e a i s l e s . R. Krautheimer, through a study o f the 9 t h c e n t u r y document t h e "Commemoratorium de O a s i s D e i " , was a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h the o u t s i d e diameter o f t h e Anastasis (Pig. 31e). R i c h a r d Krautheimer, "Santo Stefano Rotondo a Roma e L a C h i e s a d e l Santo S e p o l c r o a Gerusalemme", Revista d i Archeologia C r i s t i a n a , V o l . XII (1935), p. 9 0 - 2 . C a r o l H e i t z s u p p o r t s t h e t h e o r y o f t h e o u t e r ambulatory p r e s e n t e d by Krautheimer. C a r o l H e i t z , Recherches s u r l e s r a p p o r t s e n t r e a r c h i t e c t u r e e t l i t u r g i e a. l'epoque c a r o l i n g ienne, ( P a r i s : S.E.V.P.E.N., 1963), p. 116. The l a r g e r Rotunda w i t h an o u t e r ambulatory around the c e n t r a l core was n o t i l l u s t r a t e d p r i o r t o t h e e i g h t h o r n i n t h c e n t u r y .  23  J . T. M i l i k , "Jerusalem, Mount des O l i v i e r s " , Revue B i b I i q u e , V o l . LXVII ( I 9 6 0 ) , pp. 24-9 f , 557 f ; Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 51 n. 1 2 .  24-  V i n c e n t , op. c i t . , p . 360-4-19; Grabar, Martyrium, p . 2 8 2 - 9 ; Smith, op. c i t . , p. 1 0 2 . The " b a s i l i q u e d e l ' A s c e n s i o n " d e s c r i b e d by S. P a u l i n o f N o l a ( c a . 4-00) was n o t the Imbomon. Grabar, Martyrium., p . 286.  25  "Le mur o c t a g o n a l c r o i s e a p l u s de 4- m. de l a r g e u r , ^ m a i s l a rotonde b y z a n t i n e , e p a i s s e seulement d e ^ l j 5 6 m. e t a i t appuyee p a r des c o n t r e f o r t s dont deux ont e t e t r o u v e s dans la fouille." M i l i k , op. c i t . , p. 24-9-50. The "diameter o f r o u g h l y 18 m. (60 f t ) " c l a i m e d by Krautheimer s h o u l d r e a d " r a d i u s o f 18 m. (60 f t . ) . " ( Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 51). The diameter o f the o c t a g o n a l b u i l d i n g i s 4-1,10 m. a c c o r d i n g t o V i n c e n t (op. c i t . , f i g . 1 5 5 ) .  26  Krautheimer, R e v i s t a . . . , p . 9 1 . The 20,80 m. span o f the r o o f c i t e d by Smith (op. c i t . , p . 102) i s based on t h e octagonal, not the c i r c u l a r , p l a n .  27  V i n c e n t , op. c i t . , p. 4-13.  28  I b i d . , p. 235.  29  Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . • , p . 5 0 ; V i n c e n t , op. c i t . , p. 384-; Smith, l o c . c i t .  -90-  Chapter I I I F o o t n o t e s ( c o n t i n u e d ) 30  V i n c e n t , op. c i t . , p. 371-2.  31  Smith, op. c i t . , p. 8.  32  I b i d . , p.  33  Ibid.  34  I b i d . , p. 58.  35  I b i d . , p.  36  I b i d . , p. 14-5; K. A. C. C r e s w e l l , E a r l y Muslim A r c h i t e c t u r e , ( V o l . I , I I ; O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , l932),U,pp. 71* 84; G. T. R i v o i r a , Moslem A r c h i t e c t u r e : I t s O r i g i n s and D e v e l opment, t r a n s . G. McN. R u s h f o r d , (London, New York, e t c . : H. M i l f o r d , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1918), p. 127.  37  Smith, op. c i t . , p.  38  I b i d . , p.  39  Grabar, Martyrium, p. 312; Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 9 9 ; C a r l Watzinger, Denkmcller Palastin'as e i n e E i n f u h r u n g i n d i e A r c h a o l o g i e des H e i l i g e n Landes, ( V o l . I , I I ; L e i p z i g : J . 0. H i n r i c h s , 1933-5), I I , p. 13'4-5; Smith, op. c i t . , p. 9 9 .  40  I b i d . , n o t i n g P-M A b e l , "Les e g l i s e s de P a l e s t i n e recemment d§couvertes," A t t i d e l I I I Congresso i n t e r n a z i o n a l e d i a r c h e o l o g i a c r i s t i a n a , (1934J, p. 504.  41  Watzinger, op. c i t . , p.  42  The measurements f o r the A n a s t a s i s are t a k e n from Kraut h e i m e r 's p l a n i n R e v i s t a . . . , p. 86, reproduced as P i g . 31e.  43  Smith, l o c . c i t . ; Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 194; Hov/ard Crosby B u t l e r , S y r i a . P u b l i c a t i o n s o f the P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y A r c h a e o l o g i c a l E x p i d i t i o n t o S y r i a i n 1904-5 and 1909, ed. Edward R o y a l S t o e v e r , (Levden: E . J . B r i l l L t d . ,  57.  57.  99.  100.  135.  1930), p. 164 f f . 44  Smith, l o c . c i t .  45  Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 51; Krautheimer, 'Iconography', p. 14; Grabar, Martyrium, p. 146.  46  Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 51  47  K. A. C. C r e s w e l l , A S h o r t Account o f E a r l y Muslim A r c h i t e c t u r e , (Harmondsworth M i d d l e s e x : Penguin Books L t d . , 1 9 5 8 ) ,  =91-  Chapter I I I F o o t n o t e s ( c o n t i n u e d ) p. 34-. There i s no evidence t o support C r e s w e l l ' s c l a i m that Constantine b u i l t the Anastasis. 4-8  Krautheimer and Grabar b o t h a s s o c i a t e t h e p l a n s o f S. C o s t a n z a and t h e A n a s t a s i s . Krautheimer, 'Iconography', p. 26; Grabar, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n A r t , p. 165.  4-9  C r e s w e l l , A S h o r t Account..., p .  50  G. T. R i v o i r a , Roman A r c h i t e c t u r e and i t s P r i n c i p l e s o f C o n s t r u c t i o n under t h e Empire, t r a n s . G. McN. R u s h f o r d , ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1925), p p . 250, 253; Oskar W u l f f , A l t c h r i s t l i s h e und B y z a n t i n i s c h e Kunst (Handbuch d e r Kunstwissenschaft), ( B e r l i n : Akademische V e r l a g s g e s e l l s c h a f t , ; , Athemaion, 1918), p . 24-7; Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 14-7; A. K h a t c h a t r i a n , L e s b a p t i s t e r e s pal§ochr§tiensT plans, notices et bibliographie, (Paris: Centre n a t i o n a l de l a r e c h e r c h e scientifIque, 1962), p . 114-. The date o f S. M a r i a Maggiore i n the p r o v i n c e o f S a l e r n o i s u n c e r t a i n . R i v o i r a d a t e s i t as l a t e 4-th o r e a r l y 5th c e n t u r y (Roman A r c h i t e c t u r e , p . 250). W u l f f c l a i m s i t v/as a 4-th c e n t u r y b a p t i s t r y (op. c i t . , p . 24-7) and Krautheimer suggests t h a t i t was 6 t h c e n t u r y ( E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 14-7 r e f e r r i n g t o Nocera I n f e r i o r e ) , o r 5 t h c e n t u r y (|Iconography , p . 24-). The number o f double columns i n t h e b u i l d i n g v a r i e s from 14- t o 16, depending on t h e a u t h o r : - 14- columns, Krautheimer, 'Iconography', l o c . c i t . ; 15 columns, Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , l o c . c i t . ; 16 columns,'Wulff, l o c . c r F I Eight columns v/ere p l a c e d on t h e r i m o f the f o n t . The i n t e r n a l d i a m e t e r was 24- m. v/ith an o v o i d a l dome 15 m. h i g h . E n t r a n c e s were l o c a t e d t o the e a s t and west.  34—5.  0  51  The Church o f S. S e v e r i n a i n C a l a b r i a had f o u r r e c t a n g u l a r branches p r o j e c t i n g from t h e ambulatory " r e c a l l i n g S.Angelo i n P e r u g i a " and "S. S t e f a n o Rotondo", a c c o r d i n g t o Krautheimer ( E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . l o c . c i t . ) . K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . , p.126.  52  Tipasa. C a r l M a r i a Kaufmann, Handbuch d e r g h r i s t l i c h e n A r c h a o l o g i e , (Paderborn: Druck und V e r l a g von F e r d i n a n d Schoningh, P. 160, F i g . 37; K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . , p . 136, P i g . 261, 269. D j e m i l a . I b i d . , p . 83; Grabar, Martyrium, p . 128; Van d e r Meer, op. c i t . , pp. 128 n. 4-07, 131 n. 4-20.  1913),  53  K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . , p. 73.  54-  Smith, op. c i t . , p . 58.  55  S. Germain-1'Auxerrois. Andre M i c h e l , H i s t o i r e de l ' a r t d e p u i s l e s p r e m i e r s temps C h r e t i e n s jusqu'k nos j o u r s , V o l I , I I ; P a r i s : L i b r a i r e Armand C o l i n , 1905), IjP.104-. A l j e z a r e s i n M u r c i e , S p a i n . K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . , p. 63.  -92-  Chapter I I I F o o t n o t e s ( c o n t i n u e d ) Mausoleum a t C e n t e l l e s , S p a i n . A r t , pp. 168, 192.  Grabar, E a r l y  Christian  56  R i c h a r d Krautheimer, "The A r c h i t e c t u r e o f Sextus I I I : A F i f t h C e n t u r y Renascence", E s s a y s i n Honour o f E r w i n Panofsky, e d . " M i l l a r d M e i s s , (New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961), p. 295; Krautheimer, R e v i s t a . . . , p . 51-102.  57  E m i l e Male, The E a r l y Churches o f Rome, t r a n s . D a v i d Buxton, (London: E r n e s t Beun L i m i t e d , i 9 6 0 ) , p. 69; Emerson H. S w i f t , Roman Sources o f C h r i s t i a n A r t , (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951), P. 44.  58  Kaufmann (op. c i t . , p . 221), Dehio and D a l t o n (O.M.Dalton, B y z a n t i n e A r t and A r c h e o l o g y , [ New York: Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s I n c . , 1961J, p. 95) a l l c o n s i d e r S. S t e f a n o Rotondo i n Rome t o be a copy o f t h e Church o f S. S t e f a n o i n J e r u s alem, b u t , a c c o r d i n g t o V i n c e n t (op. c i t . , p . 745 f ) and Krautheimer ( R e v i s t a . . . , p. 100), the Church o f S. S t e f a n o i n J e r u s a l e m was a b a s i l i c a , n o t a r o t u n d a .  59  I b i d . , p . 91; Krautheimer, 'Iconography , p . 12 n. 7 c i t i n g "Qommemoratorium de c a s i s , Dei v e l m o n a s t e r i s " , ( T . T o b l e r and M. M o l i n i e r , I t i n e r a H i e r o s o l y m i t a n a e t D e s c r i p t i o n e s T e r r a e Sanctae, [Geneva: 1 8 7 9 j , p. 299 f f . , e s p e c i a l l y p. 3 0 5 ) .  60  Krautheimer, R e v i s t a . . . , p . 97-  61  Krautheimer,  62  S p i r o K. K o s t o f , The Orthodox B a p t i s t r y o f Ravenna, (New Haven and London:" Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p . 49 f ; P a u l A. Underwood, "The F o u n t a i n o f L i f e i n - M a n u s c r i p t s of the G o s p e l , "Dumbarton Oaks P a p e r s , No. 5. (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1950), p . 81. ~  63  K o s t o f , l o c . c i t . The b a p t i s t r y o f S. T e c l a , M i l a n , i s d a t e d 378-86 A.D.  64  Underwood, l o c . c i t . .  65  Watzinger, op. c i t . , p. 131; Smith, op. c i t . , p. 102; K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . , p. 134.  66  Grabar, Martyrium, p . 326.  67  C r e s w e l l , E a r l y M u s l i ^ . . . , p . 48.  68  F e l i x Kreusch, "Das Mass des E n g l e s " , Vom Bauen, B i l d e n und Bewahren F e s t s c h r i f t f t i r W i l l y Weyres, e d . Joseph H o s t e r and A l b r e c h t Mann, ( K o l n : Greven V e r l a g , 1963), p . 61 f .  1  'Iconography', p . 5  -93Chapter I I I Footnotes (continued) 69  I b i d . , p. 65. Measurements such as the e l l o r the greek o r roman f o o t were not always u n i f o r m i n l e n g t h from c o u n t r y to country or b u i l d i n g to b u i l d i n g .  70  I b i d . , p.  71  Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 52; G l a n v i l l e Downey, A H i s t o r y o f A n t i o c h i n S y r i a from S e l e u c i u s t o the Arab Conquest, ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961), p. 342; Smith, op. c i t . , p. 29-30; J . S t r z y g o w s k i , O r i g i n of C h r i s t i a n Church A r t , t r a n s . O.M. D a l t o n and H.J. Braunh o l t z , ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1923), p. 66; Wayne Dynes, "The F i r s t C h r i s t i a n P a l a c e - C h u r c h Type", Marsyas, V o l . XI (1962-4), p. 1; J . W. Crowfoot, E a r l y Churches i n Palestine, (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941), p. 20; Grabar, Martyrium, p. 221; C h a r l e s Rufus Morey, M e d i e v a l A r t , (Hew York: W. W. Norton and Company I n c . , 1942), p. 83.  72  Downey, op. c i t . , p . 345; Dynes, l o c . c i t .  73  Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p .  74  Crowfoot, op. c i t . , p. 37; Smith, op. c i t . , p. 103; Watzinger, op. c i t . , p. 136; K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . , p. 89; Grabar, Martyrium, p. 312.  75  See note 71  76  A b r i e f resume o f the d i s c u s s i o n o f whether a dome e x i s t e d o r not i s g i v e n by Smith (op. c i t . , p. 3 5 ) .  77  The Church o f S. Simeon S t y l i t e s v/as p r o b a b l y c o n s t r u c t e d i n 460=490 A.D. Smith, op. c i t . , p. 34; Johannes H e i n r i c h Emminghaus, "Das Taufhaus von K a l a t Sim "an i n Z e n t r a l s y r i e n Baubeschreibung und - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " , T o r t u l a e : S t u d i e n zu A l t c h r i s t l i c h e n und B y z a n t i n i s c h e n Monumenten, (Rom, F r e i b e r g , Wien: Herder, 1966), p. 94; Georges Tchalenko, V i l l a g e s a n t i q u e s de l a S y r i e du Nord; l e m a s s i f du B e l u s a 1'epoque romaine~ ( V o l . I , I I ; P a r i s I n s t i t u t e f r a n c a i s d ' a r c h e o l o g i e de Beyrouth, L i b r a i r e O r i e n t a l i s t e , P a u l Geuthner, 1953), I , p. 231. '  64-5.  51  above.  1  78  Dynes, op. c i t . , p. I f ; David T a l b o t R i c e , The A r t o f Byzantium, (London: Thames and Hudson, p. 298; Jean E b e r s o l t , Monuments d ' a r c h i t e c t u r e b y z a n t i n e , ( P a r i s : Les E d i t i o n s d ' a r t e t d ' h i s t o i r e , 1934), p. 21.  79  Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p.  80  The C h r y s o t r i k l i n o ' s , C o n s t a n t i n o p i e . I b i d . , p. 167-8. S. V i t a l e , Ravenna. I b i d . , p. 169-70; Van d e r Meer, op.  1959),  167. cit.,  -94Chapter I I I F o o t n o t e s ( c o n t i n u e d ) p. 94- n. 258-61. The Church o f S. V i t a l e was a p p a r e n t l y commissioned by Bishops E c c l e s i u s (521-32) and V i c t o r • (538-45) and was completed i n 54-6-8. Foundations may have been l a i d a t the time o f the O s t r o g o t h i c K i n g , T h e o d o r i c (493-529), b u t i t i s not known i f he h e l p e d f i n a n c e the v e n t u r e . He may have been p r e o c c u p i e d by the c o n s t r u c t i o n of h i s tomb or the p a l a t i n e c h u r c h , S. A p o l l i n a r e Nuovo ( c a . 500-29). The o c t a g o n a l d o u b l e - s h e l l p l a n of S. V i t a l e has a number of f e a t u r e s i n common w i t h the c h u r c h o f SS. S e r g i u s and Bacchus, however, Krautheimer terms i t a "very independent v a r i a n t " . I b i d . , p. 169. 81  Smith, op. c i t . , p. 105; Emminghaus, op. c i t . , p. 92.  82  B u t l e r , op. c i t . , pp. 151, Emminghaus, l o c . c i t .  83 84  Smith, l o c . c i t . B u t l e r , op. c i t . , p. 122; K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . , p. 88; Smith, op. c i t . , p. 49; E b e r s o l t , op. c i t . , p. 22-3; Crowf o o t , op. c i t . , p. 94-; R i v o i r a , Moslem A r c h i t e c t u r e . . . , p.68.  85  J . W. Crowfoot, "The C a t h e d r a l o f B o s r a , A P r e l i m i n a r y Report", P a l e s t i n e E x p l o r a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , ( J a n u a r y , 1936), p . 8 f ; Crowfoot, E a r l y Churches..., p. 94—5; B u t l e r , op. c i t , . , p. 127; Smith, op. c i t . , p. 48.  86  Crowfoot, P.E.Q., p. 8.  87  S. John the B a p t i s t , Gerasa. Smith, op. c i t . , p. 107; K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . , p. 90; Crowfoot, E a r l y Churches..., p. 94 f ; Watzinger, op. c i t . , p. 136.  88  The f o l l o w i n g n o t e s are t a k e n from C r e s w e l l ' s E a r l y Muslim A r c h i t e c t u r e , p. 70; De Vogue, (Le Temple de J e r u s a l e m , 1864 , p. 8 2 ) , 'La d i s p o s i t i o n de 1 ' e d i f i c e (Dome o f the Rock), p r i s e dans son ensemble, e s t t o u t e b y z a n t i n e . ' A d l e r (Der Felsendom und d i e h e i l i g e G r a b e s k i r c h e zu J e r u s a l e m , 1873 , p. 22) cons i d e r s , the Dome t o be based on the p l a n of the A n a s t a s i s . Dehio and von B e z o l d (Die k i r c h l i c h e Baukunst des Abendl a n d e s , T e x t I , p. 35-9) s u p p o r t s the A d l e r t h e o r y .  89  C r e s w e l l , E a r l y Muslim..., p. 97.  90  R e p a i r s and r e s t o r a t i o n s t o the Dome o f the Rock were made i n 700, 831, 913, 1016 (new dome), between 1318 and 1319, 1448, between 1510 and 1566, 1776, between 1808 and 1839. R i v o i r a , Moslem A r c h i t e c t u r e . . . , p. 46 f .  91  C r e s w e l l , E a r l y Muslim..., p. 43 q u o t i n g from Ya'qubi, " H i s t o r y " (260 H., 874 A.D.), I I , p. 311 as t r a n s l a t e d by G. Le Strange i n P a l e s t i n e E x p l o r a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , (1887),  205; Smith, l o c . c i t . ;  -95Chapter I I I F o o t n o t e s ( c o n t i n u e d ) p. 9 3 , and i n P a l e s t i n e Under the Moslems, p. 116, by the same a u t h o r . C r e s w e l l , E a r l y Muslim.«.,  93  M i c h e l Join-Lambert, Jerusalem, t r a n s . C h a r l o t t e (London: E l e k Books, 1958), 'P. 165..  94  C r e s w e l l , A Short Account^...., p.  95  The diameter o f the domes are a l s o s i m i l a r . A S h o r t Account..., p"^' 3 5 .  96  "The dome of Santa Costanza r e s t s on an i n n e r r i n g o f supports c o n s i s t i n g of twelve p a i r s of columns arranged i n a c i r c l e ; a c r u c i f o r m e f f e c t i s produced by making the a r c h e s f a c i n g the c a r d i n a l p o i n t s wider than the r e s t . T h i s same e f f e c t i s produced i n the Holy S e p u l c h r e , which has an i n n e r r i n g of s u p p o r t s c o n s i s t i n g of twelve columns and e i g h t p i e r s so arranged t h a t a p a i r of p i e r s comes between every t h r e e columns." T h i s q u o t a t i o n i s t a k e n from C r e s w e l l , A S h o r t Account of E a r l y Muslim A r c h i t e c t u r e , p. 34--5. According to t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n , S. Costanza and the Holy S e p u l c h r e share the c r o s s p l a n of the columns i n the i n n e r r i n g ' w i t h the p a t t e r n of supports i n the Dome of the Rock.  97  C r e s w e l l , A Short account..., p.  98  Gregory of Nyssa d e s c r i b e d an o c t a g o n a l church i n a l e t t e r d a t e d 379-94. Octagons a l s o e x i s t e d a t A l e x a n d r i a (S. John the B a p t i s t ) and a t Tyre (The Theodokos). Smith, op. c i t . , p. 31; Kaufman, op. c i t . , p. 218; D a l t o n , E a r l y C h r i s t i a n A r t , p. 98.  99  H. T. F. Duckworth, The Church of the Holy S e p u l c h r e , (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1927), p. 204.  100 J:oin-Lambert, op. c i t . , p.  p.  25.  92  18. Creswell,  36.  210.  101 R i v o i r a , Moslem A r c h i t e c t u r e , p. 102  Haldane,  47.  Krautheimer, 'Iconography', p. 4 q u o t i n g from " V i t a Meinw e r c i e p i s c . P a t h e r b r u n e n s i s " , cap. 209 f f (second h a l f of 12th C ) , Lehmann-Brockhaus, S c h r i f t q u e l l e s f u r K u n s t g e s c h i c h t e des 11 und 12 J a h r h u n d e r t s , ( B e r l i n :  1 9 3 8 ) , nos. 1046-1050. .  -96' CHAPTER IV FOOTNOTES 1  C a r o l H e i t z , Recherches s u r l e s r a p p o r t s e n t r e a r c h i t e c t u r e e t l i t u r g i e a. 1'epoque c a r o l i n g i e n n e , ( P a r i s : S.E.V.P.E.N., 1963), p. 144 f .  2  R i c h a r d Krautheimer, " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o an 'Iconography o f Mediaeval A r c h i t e c t u r e , " Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e J o u r n a l , V o l . V (1942),.p. 18-19. R e f e r e n c e s t o S. S t e f a n o Bologna as "Jerusalem" were made i n 887, 973 and 1017.  3  Heitz,  4  I b i d . , p. 21-42.  5  R i c h a r d Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n and B y z a n t i n e A r c h i t e c t u r e , (London: Penguin Books, 1965), P« 120; H e i t z , op. c i t T , p . 90.  6  Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t a i n . . . , p. 142.  7  I b i d . , p. 90.  8  Heitz,  9  H. L e c l e r q , " T i p a s a " , D i c t i o n n a i r e d ' a r c h € o l o g i e c h r e t i e n n e et d e - l i t u r g i e , ed. P. C a b r o l and H. L e c l e r q , V o l . XV  op. c i t . , p. 21 f .  loc. Cit.  ( 1 9 0 7 - 1 9 3 7 ) , c o l . 2348 f .  10  I b i d . , c o l . 2366 f .  111 H. L e c l e r q ,  "Timgad", I b i d . , c o l .  2327-2330.  12  Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 144.  13  Ibid.  14  I b i d . , p. 135-6; H e i t z ,  15  I b i d . , p. 91 f .  16  I b i d . , p. 110.  17  I b i d . , p. 1Q1.  18  I b i d . , p. 96-7.  19  E . Baldwin Smith, The Dome: A Study i n the H i s t o r y o f I d e a s, (Princeton: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1950), pp. 142-3, 143 n. 39 c i t i n g C. R i c c i , " L ' A n t i c o duomo d i Ravenna", ( F e l i x Ravenna, V o l . XXXVII 1931 , p. 14 t a k e n from G. F. Buonamici, L a M e t r o p o l i t a n a d i Ravenna, 174-8), and I b i d . ,  op. c i t . , p.  90.  -97Chapter IV Footnotes  (continued)  p. 14-3 n. 30 ( C . R i c c i , Guido d i Ravenna, [1923] p. 37-41; . G. B e r t i , S u l l ' a n t i c o Duomo • d i Ravenna, (.18801, p . 15;. G. R o s s i , "Ghiesa d e l Duomo," F e l i x Ravenna, V o l . XXXVIII [1931], P. 29 f f ) . 20  I b i d . , p . 139-4-0. The r a i s e d p l a t f o r m s i n t h e c e n t r e o f the nave o f the b a s i l i c a churches mentioned by Smith were r e c t a n g u l a r w i t h a s e m i c i r c u l a r apse t o t h e e a s t and an entrance t o the west. They \^ere a p p a r e n t l y e n c l o s e d and p o s s i b l y housed t h e r e l i c s o f a s a i n t d u r i n g s e r v i c e s h e l d on t h e day d e d i c a t e d t o him.  21  I b i d . , p. 132.  22  I b i d . , pp. 14-5 f , 14-6 n. 4-7 ( I . H. Rahmani, Testamentum Domini N o s t r i J e s u C h r i s t i , 1899); C a b r o l , D i c t i o n n a i r e . . . , V o l . I l l , c o l . 2782; C a r l M a r i a Kaufman, Handbuch d e r c h r i s t l i c h e n A r c h a o l o g i e , (Paderborn: Druck und V e r l a g von F e r d i n a n d Schoningh, 1 9 1 3 ) , p . 175.  23  Ante Sonje, " I I B a t t i s t e r o d e l l a B a s i l i c a E u f r a s i a n a d i Parenzo Problema d i D a t a z i o n e . " A c t s du X I I congres i n t e r n a t i o n a l d' etudes b y z a n t i n e s , ( V o l . I l l ; B e l g r a d , 1961), p. 571-80; G. T. R i v o i r a , Lbmbardic A r c h i t e c t u r e : I t s O r i g i n , Development and D e r i v a t i o n s , t r a n s ; G. McN. R u s h f o r d , {Vol. I , I I ; O x f o r d : Clarendon P r e s s , 1933), I I , p . 98 f ; Oskar W u l f f , A J t c h r i s t l i c h e und B y z a n t i n i s c h e Kunst (Handbuch der Kunstwissenschaft),(Vol. I , I I ; B e r l i n : Akademische V e r l a g s g e s e l l s c h a f t A t h e n a i o n 1 9 1 8 ) , I I , p.'394-; A. K h a t c h a t r i a n , Les b a p t i s t e r e s paleochretiens; plans, n o t i c e s et bibliographie, (Paris: Centre n a t i o n a l d e • l a recherche s c i e n t i f i q u e , 1962), p. 116; Jean E b e r s o l t , Monuments d ' a r c h i t e c t u r e 'byzantine, ( P a r i s : Les E d i t i o n s d'art et d ' h i s t o i r e , T934), P- l l O ; Krauthe imer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p . 196-8. v  24-  K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . , p. 65-6. The o r i g i n a l C a t h e d r a l o f A q u e l i a was c o n s t r u c t e d by Theodore (308-19). The b a p t i s t r y a t t h a t time v/as l o c a t e d t o the n o r t h o f t h e vestibule. At t h e end of,,the 4-th o r e a r l y 5 t h c e n t u r y t h e n o r t h church o f the. double complex v/as r e p l a c e d by a l a r g e r b u i l d i n g . A new b a p t i s t r y - was a l s o c o n s t r u c t e d and l a t e r . t h e south b u i l d i n g was r e p l a c e d . Near t h e end o f t h e 5 t h c e n t u r y the s o u t h e r n b a s i l i c a was extended t o the west by a l o n g narthex preceded by an a t r i u m . A t t h a t time a b a p t i s t r y , square on t h e o u t s i d e and o c t a g o n a l on t h e i n s i d e was b u i l t on a x i s w i t h the - C a t h e d r a l a t r i u m .  25  I b i d . , p . 71.  26  I b i d . , p . 137; B.- S c h u l t z , Die K i r c h e n b a u t e n a u f d e r Ins e l T o r c e l l o , ( B e r l i n und L e i p z i g : W a l t e r de G r u y t e r , 1927), p. 10 f .  -98-  C h a p t e r IV F o o t n o t e s ( c o n t i n u e d ) 27  The P l a n o f the 4-th c e n t u r y monument o f J a n i c u l e i n Rome d e d i c a t e d t o the pagan S y r i a n god, B a a l , was s i m i l a r t o the p l a n o f the H o l y S e p u l c h r e . P o s s i b l y the c h u r c h e s of A q u e l i a , Parenzo and T o r c e l l o were i n f l u e n c e d by t h i s complex i f t h e y w e r e not by the H o l y S e p u l c h r e . Andre Grabar, Martyrium, Recherches s u r l e c u l t des r e l i q u e s et l ' a r t C h r e t i e n a n t i q u e , (Limoges: C o l l e g e de F r a n c e , 194-6), p. 262-3.  28  Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 99-101.  29  I b i d . , pp. 7 9 ,  132;  Grabar, op. c i t . , p.  338.  -99-. SOURCE 03? ILLUSTRATIONS AND  MAP  Figure 1.  M i c h e l Join-Lambert, Jerusalem, t r a n s . C h a r l o t t e (London: E l e k Books, 1958), F i g . 111.  Haldane,  2.  J u l e s Pormige, "Un p l a n du S a i n t - S e p u l c h r e decouvert a l a b a s i l i q u e de S a i n t - D e n i s " , Monuments e t Memoiries, V o l . X L V I I I , 2 (1954), F i g . 31. :  i  3.  Bernard Goldman, The S a c r e d P o r t a l , ( D e t r o i t : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966,) P i g . 4-0.  Wayne S t a t e  4-.  D. V. A i n a l o v , The H e l l e n i s t i c O r i g i n s o f B y z a n t i n e A r t , t r a n s . E l i z a b e t h and Serge S o b o l e v i t c h , ed. C y r i l Mango, (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers Universitj*- P r e s s , 1961), P i g . 69.  5.  C a r o l H e i t z , Recherches s u r l e s r a p p o r t s e n t r e a r c h i t e c t u r e et l i t u r g i e a l'epoque c a r o l i n g i e n n e , ( P a r i s : S.E.V.P.E.N., 1963), P l a t e XL.  6.  Carlo P e r o g a l l i , S t o r i a d e l l ' A r c h i t e t t u r a , (Vol. I , I I , G o r l i c h e d i t o r e , 1964-), I , p. 235 F i g . 7.  7.  G. T. R i v o i r a , Lombardic A r c h i t e c t u r e : I t s O r i g i n , Development and. D e r i v a t i v e s , trans. G. McN. R u s h f o r d , ( V o l . I ; Oxford: C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1918), P i g . 396.  Milan:  8a. H e i t z , op. c i t . , P l a t e XXIX A.  ' « 8 b  I b i d . , P l a t e XXIX B.  8c.  I b i d . , F i g . 34-.  9.  Wilhelm Nyssen, Das. Zeugnis des B i l d e s im Fruhen Byzanz,, (Bd. I I ; B r e i s g a u l Lambertus V e r l a g , 1962), T a f e l 2.  10.  Ainalov,  11.  I b i d . , P i g . 117.  op. c i t . , F i g .  s  39.  ' 12. E.' Baldwin Smith, The Dome: A Study i n the H i s t o r y o f Ideas, (Princeton: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1950), F i g . 9 7 . 13.  Formige, op. c i t . , F i g . 30.  14-. P a u l A. Underwood, "The F o u n d a t i o n o f L i f e i n M a n u s c r i p t s of the G o s p e l , " Dumbarton Oaks P a p e r s , No. 5 (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 0 ) , " F i g . 39.  -100Source o f I l l u s t r a t i o n s and Map ( c o n t i n u e d )  15a.  I b i d . , F i g . 51.  15b.  Formige, op. c i t . , F i g . 34  15c.  Andre Grabar, C h r i s t i a n Iconography: A Study o f i t s O r i g i n s , ( P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968), F i g . 317.  15<3-  I b i d . , F i g . 295.  15e.  I b i d . , F i g . 318.  16.  Andre Grabar, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n A r t : From the R i s e o f C h r i s t i a n i t y t o t h e Death o f Theodosius, 200-395, trans. S t u a r t G i l b e r t and James Emmons, (New York:. Odyssey P r e s s , 1968), F i g . 309.  17.  Grabar, C h r i s t i a n Iconography, F i g . 294.  18a.  Smith, op. c i t . . F i g . 19.  18b.  I b i d . , F i g . 109.  18c.  I b i d . , F i g . 17.  18d.  I b i d . , F i g . 18.  18e.  I b i d . , F i g . 20.  18f.  I b i d . , F i g . 24.  19a.  Goldman, op. c i t . , F i g . 6.  19b.  I b i d . , F i g . 16a.  20.  Andre Grabar, M a r t y r i u m Recherches s u r l e c u l t des r e l i q u e s e t l ' a r t Chretien a n t i q u e ^ (Limoges: College de F r a n c e , 1946), F i g . 26.  21.  Smith, op. c i t . , F i g . 26.  22.  Jean E b e r s o l t , Monuments d ' a r c h i t e c t u r e b y a a n t i n e , ( P a r i s : L e s E d i t i o n s d ' a r t e t d ' h i s t o i r e , 1934), P i g . 22.  23.  Smith, op. c i t . , F i g . 47.  2 4  -  ?  I b i d . , F i g . 81.  2  5.  I b i d . , F i g . 59-61.  26.  J . 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Recherched-de_topographie, d ' a r c h e o l o g i e e t d ' h i s t o i r e , ( V o l . 1, I I ; P a r i s : J . Gabalda, 1914), I I , i i , F i g . 119.  31d.  R i c h a r d Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n and B y z a n t i n e A r c h i t e c t u r e , (London"! Penquin Books, 1965), F i g . 16.  31e.  R i c h a r d Krautheimer, "Santo S t e f a n o Rotondo a Roma e L a C h i e s a d e l Santo S e p o l c r o a Gerusalemme," R e y i s t a d i A r c h e o l o g i a C h r i s t i a n a , V o l . XII F i g . 6.  3rd  III,d.  (1935),  31f.  John H. B e r n a r d , The Churches o f C o n s t a n t i n e a t J e r u s a l e m, (London: P a l e s t i n e P i l g r i m s ' Text S o c i e t y , 1896), p. x x i v .  31g.  Ibid.  32a.  H e i t z , op. c i t . , P l a t e XXX  32b.  Conant, op. c i t . , P l a t e X I I , e.  32c.  Author's  33a.  Zev V i l n a y j The H o l y Land i n O l d P r i n t s and Maps, ( J e r u s a l e m , : Rubin Mass, Fig.  33b.  I b i d . , F i g . 121.  33c.  Conant, op. c i t . , P l a t e X I I , b .  34.  Ainalov,  35a.  V i l n a y , op. c i t . , F i g .  35b.  I b i d . , F i g . 8.  35c  I b i d . , F i g . 7.  A."  reconstruction.  1963),  '  op. c i t . , F i g . 67. 10.  4.  -102Source o f I l l u s t r a t i o n s and Map ( c o n t i n u e d )  35d.  I b i d . , F i g . 9.  35e.  I b i d . , F i g . 11.  36.  R i c h a r d Krautheimer, "The C o n s t a n t i n e B a s i l i c a , " Dumbarton Oaks P a p e r s , .'Ho.2Li Washington: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967), p . 114 F i g . 1.  37.  Conant,  38a.  Grabar, Martyrium, F i g . 27.  38b.  Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , F i g . 15.  op. c i t . , P l a t e V I I , c .  39.  I b i d . , F i g . 10.  40.  I b i d . , F i g . 57.  41a.  S p i r o K. K o s t o f , The Orthodox B a p t i s t r y o f Ravenna, (New Haven and London: Yale U n i v e r i s t y P r e s s , 1965), P i g . 12.  41b.  R i v o i r a , o p . c i t . , P i g . 3.  42a.  Smith, op. c i t . ,  42b.  V i n c e n t , op. c i t . . F i g . 113.  42c.  A i n a l o v , op. c i t . , P i g . 68.  43.  John Beckwith, The B a s i l e w s k y S i t u l a , and A l b e r t Museum, 1963), P i g . 3.  44a.  H e i t z , op. c i t . , P l a t e XXX,B.  44b.  I b i d . , P l a t e XXX,C.  45.  Grabar, Martyrium, P i g .  46a.  G.T. R i v o i r a , Moslem A r c h i t e c t u r e : I t s O r i g i n s and Development, t r a n s . G. McW. R u s h f o r d , (London, New York, e t c . : H. M i l f o r d , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1918), F i g . 42.  46b.  I b i d . , F i g . 38.  46c.  I b i d . , F i g . 45.  46d.  I b i d . , F i g . 46.  47.  Smith, op. c i t . ,  48.  I b i d . , F i g . 48.  49..  F i g . 7.  Pig.  (London:  Victoria  25.  155.  A. 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T r a n s . G. McN. R u s h f o r d . London, New York, e t c . : H. M i l f o r d , O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1918. '— Roman A r c h i t e c t u r e and i t s P r i n c i p l e s o f C o n s t r u c t i o n under t h e Empire. T r a n s . G. McN. R u s h f o r d . Oxford Clarendon P r e s s , 1925. Rumpler, Marguerite.' L a couple dans 1 a r c h i t e c t u r e b y z a n t i n e e t musulmane. S t r a s b o u r g : E d i t i o n s Le T i l l e u l , 1956. 1  S c h u l t z , Bruno. Die K i r c h e n b a u t e n a u f d e r I n s e l T o r c e l l o . Berlin und L e i p z i g : Walter de G r u y t e r and Company, 1927. Smith, E . Baldwin. A r c h i t e c t u r a l Symbolism o f I m p e r i a l Rome and The Middle Ages. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956. The Dome: A Study i n t h e H i s t o r y o f I d e a s . P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1950. Stewart,  Princeton:  Aubrey. The Epitome o f S. E u c h e r i u s about Q e r t a i n Holy P l a c e s ( c a . 440) and The B r e v i a r y o r Short D e s c r i p t i o n o f Jerusalem ( c a . 550). London: P a l e s t i n e P i l g r i m s ' Text S o c i e t y , 1890. E x t r a c t s from A r i s t e a s , Hecataeus, O r i g e n and o t h e r ' E a r l y W r i t e r s . London: P a l e s t i n e P i l g r i m s ' Text S o c i e t y , 1895.  —  The L e t t e r of- P a u l a and Eustochium t o M a r c e l l a . London: P a l e s t i n e Pilgrims"' Text S o c i e t y , 1896. Of The Holy P l a c e s V i s i t e d by Antoninus M a r t y r ( c a . 560-570). London: P a l e s t i n e P i l g r i m s ' Text S o c i e t y , 1896.  S t r a u b , Johannas A. " C o n s t a n t i n e as Koinoe CTJ\o.OT\OC T r a d i t i o n and I n n o v a t i o n i n R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the F i r s t C h r i s t i a n Emperor's Magesty", Dumbarton Oaks Papers, No. 21. Washington: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967, p . 37-55. :  -113Bibliography  (continued)  Struck, Adolf. " V i e r B y z a n t i n i s c h e K i r c h e n der A r g o l i s : Plataniti, Chonika, Merbaka und A r e i a , " M i t t e i l u n g e n des K a i s e r l i c h - D e u t s c h e n A r c h a o l o g i s c h e n I n s t i t u t s , Athens, V o l . XXXIV, (1909), p. 189-236. Strzygowski, J . L ' a n c i e n t a r t chr§tien de S y r i e . P a r i s :  E . de  Boccard,  O r i g i n of C h r i s t i a n Church A r t . T r a n s . 0. M. D a l t o n and H. J . B r a u n h o l t z . O x f o r d : Clarendon P r e s s , 1923. Sukenik, E l e a z a r L. The A n c i e n t Synagogue of Beth A l p h a . U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1932. S w i f t , Emerson H. Roman Sources of C h r i s t i a n A r t . U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1951.  New  London:  York:  Oxford  Columbia  Tchalenko, Georges. V i l l a g e s a n t i q u e s de l a S y r i e du Nord: l e m a s s i f du B§lus a l'§poque romaine. Vol. I, I I . Paris: Institute f r a n c a i s d'arch§ologie de Beyrouth, L a b r a i r e O r i e n t a l i s t e , P a u l Geuthner, 1953. Underwood, P a u l A. . "The F o u n t a i n of L i f e i n M a n u s c r i p t s of the G o s p e l " , Dumbarton Oaks P a p e r s , No. 5. Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1950, p. 42-138. Van der Meer, F. and A t l a s of The Hedlund and and Sons, Vasiliev,  Vilnay,  Mohrmann, C h r i s t i n e . E a r l y C h r i s t i a n World. T r a n s . Mary F. H. H. Rowley. Toronto: Thomas N e l s o n 1959.  A.A. H i s t o r y o f the B y z a n t i n e Empire. V o l . I . Madison and Milwaukee: U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n P r e s s , 1964.  Zev. The Holy Land i n O l d P r i n t s Rubis Mass, 1963.  and Maps.  Jerusalem:  V i n c e n t , Hugues e t A b e l , F-M. J e r u s a l e m . Recherches de t o p o g r a p h i e , d ' a r c h e o l o g i e et d ' h i s t o i r e . Tome I I : J e r u s a l e m N o u v e l l e . fasc.II. Paris: J . Gabalda, 1914. V o l b a c h , Von Wolfgang F r i t z , and Hirmer, M. E a r l y C h r i s t i a n A r t . London: Thames and Hudson,  1958.  -114Bibliography  (continued)  V o l b a c h , Von Wolfgang F r i t z , and Lafontaine-Dosogne, J a c q u e l i n e . Byzanz und der C h r i s t l i c h e Osten. Berlin: Propylaen V e r l a g , 1968. Watson, C  M . F i f t y Years Work i n the Holy Land: A Record and a Summary 1865-1915. London: Committee of the P a l e s t i n e E x p l o r a t i o n Fund, H a r r i s o n and Sons, 1915.  Watzinger, C a r l . Denkmaler Pal£stinas: eine Einftihrung i n d i e A r c h a o l ogie des H e i l i g e n Landes. Vol. I I . Leipzig: J.C. H i n r i c h s , 1933-5. W i l l i a m s , George. The Holy C i t y : H i s t o r i c a l , T o p o g r a p h i c a l and A n t i q u a r i a n N o t i c e s of J e r u s a l e m . V o l T I I : The A r c h i t e c t u r e H i s t o r y o f t h e . H o l y S e p u l c h r e , by Rev. R. W i l l i s . 2nd ed. London: John W. P a r k e r , 1849. Wulff,  Oskar. A l t c h r i s t l i c h e und B y z a n t i n i s c h e Kunst (Handbuchyl der K u n s t w i s s e n s c h a f t ) . B e r l i n : Akademische V e r l a g s g e s e l l s c h a f t A t h e n a i o n , 1918.  REPORTS "Jerusalem",  Revue B i b l i q u e , V o l . L X I V , ( 1 9 5 7 ) , p. 226-228.  "Jerusalem",  Revue B i b l i q u e , V o l . LXIX, ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 100-109.  -115-  APPENDIX  The  appendix c o n s i s t s o f a number o f t h e b u i l d i n g s  d i s c u s s e d i n t h e t e x t f o l l o w e d by a b r i e f b i b l i o g r a p h y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e n t r y . .The o r d e r o f e n t r i e s i s based on the type  o f p l a n , f o l l o w e d by t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e b u i l d i n g and t h e  name o f t h e b u i l d i n g . A Square  Plan  Abou-Mina, L i b y a . S. Menas. The  church  o f S. Menas was b u i l t under Emperor  and was c o n s e c r a t e d between 4-00-410.  Arcadius  I t was square on t h e ex-  t e r i o r w i t h an i n t e r n a l octagon and a c i r c u l a r b a s i n i n the c e n t r e , p o s s i b l y covered by a b a l d o c h i n o . A. K h a t c h a t r i a n , L e s b a p t i s t e r e s p a l ^ o c h r e t i e n s ; plans, notices et bibliographie, (Paris; Centre N a t i o n a l de l a recherche s c i e n t i f i q u e , 1962), p. 61, P i g . 60 a, b . Alif  (Elif). The  Tomb. tomb a t A l i f  i s t y p i c a l o f l a r g e open w a l l e d heroon  a c c o r d i n g t o A. Grabar. Andre Grabar, Martyrium, Recherches s u r l e c u l t des reliques et l ' a r t c h r i t i e n antique" (Limoges: C o l l e g e de Prance, 194-6), p. 86. Bosra.  The C a t h e d r a l o f B o s r a . B u t l e r d i s c o v e r e d an i n s c r i p t i o n on t h e church  reads  as f o l l o w s :  "Under the most God b e l o v e d  I u l i a n o s , archbishop, of  and most h o l y  was b u i l t and completed the h o l y  S e r g i u s , Bacchus and L e o n t i o s , m a r t y r s ,  p r i z e and triumphed g l o r i o u s l y .  which  church  who r e c e i v e d the  I n t h e y e a r 4-07, s i x t h  indie-  -116Square P l a n ( c o n t i n u e d ) ation."  Based on t h i s i n s c r i p t i o n the church had been d a t e d  5.12/3. H. C. B u t l e r , E a r l y Churches i n S y r i a , ed. E . Baldwin Smith, ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1929), p. 127; E . Baldwin Smith, The Dome: A Study i n the H i s t o r y o f Ideas, ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956), p . 117-8; J . V/. Crowfoot, E a r l y Churches i n P a l e s t i n e , (London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941), E d e s s a , Macedonia.  Hagia S o p h i a .  The o r i g i n a l church was begun i n 313 and e n l a r g e d i n 327/8.' Sometime b e f o r e 345/6 i t became known as Hagia S o p h i a . Bishop Amidonius  r e p a i r e d damages t o the b u i l d i n g caused by a  f l o o d i n 524 w i t h a i d from J u s t i n i a n .  The church was p r a i s e d  i n the s e v e n t h c e n t u r y i n a S y r i a n hymn - the " S o u g i t h a " . A p p a r e n t l y the p l a n was square l i k e t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y martyrium o f S. Babylos a t A n t i o c h o r the o r i g i n a l s a n c t u a r y o f S. John at  Ephesus. Smith, op. c i t . , p . 91;  Grabar, op. c i t . , p . 327.  Ephesus. S. John. The c i b o r i u m type o f square monument p l a c e d over the r e l i c s o f S. John was b u i l t b e f o r e the Peace was  i n the f o u r t h c e n t u r y , p o s s i b l y  o f the Church, a c c o r d i n g t o Grabar.  The c h a p e l  e n l a r g e d i n the f i f t h e e n t u r y w i t h an a d d i t i o n o f f o u r arms,  one p e r s i d e . on the  I n the s i x t h c e n t u r y J u s t i n i a n b u i l t a new church  site. Grabar, op. c i t . , p . 66; Smith, op. c i t . , p . 55.  Hass. Tomb. Smith does not g i v e a date f o r the tomb a t Hass. I t was  a two s t o r y tomb modeled a f t e r a c l a s s i c Smith, op. c i t . , p . 59.  temple,  -117Square P l a n  il  Anderin.  (continued)  Church No. 3.  T h i s s m a l l church w i t h an i n s c r i b e d c r o s s p l a n i n a square  was b u i l t o f b r i c k l i k e t h e church o f Kasr I b n Wardan  (561-4) which B u t l e r r e s t o r e d .  Smith dates Church No. 3 as  558/9 A.D. Smith, Jerusalem.  op. c i t . ,  p. 46.  Tomb o f Absolom.  De Vogue b e l i e v e d t h i s tomb belonged c e n t u r y B.C. b u t o t h e r s date i t t o the f i r s t the C h r i s t i a n e r a .  t o t h e second h a l f century of  The tomb c o n s i s t e d o f a square base w i t h  a t t a c h e d columns and p i l a s t e r s , a p l a i n a t t i c and above, a drum and f u n n e l dome. G. T. R i v o i r a , Lombardic A r c h i t e c t u r e : I t s O r i g i n , Development and D e r i v a t i v e s , t r a n s . G. McN. Rushf o r d , ( V o l . I , I I , Oxford: Clarendon P r e s s , 1933), I , p . 24. Kharga, Egypt. The  Tomb.  tomb a t Kharga t o g e t h e r w i t h o t h e r square and  r e c t a n g u l a r tombs i n Egypt  a t Bawit and Bagawat date t o the  f o u r t h and f i f t h c e n t u r i e s . Nola, A l g e r i a .  S. P e l i x .  The martyrium o f S. P e l i x o c c u p i e s t h e same p l a c e as an a t r i u m b e f o r e a c h u r c h , and had' a c i b o r i u m s i m i l a r t o t h a t at  S. John, Ephasus.  fourth  The s a n c t u a r y dates t o the end o f t h e  century. Grabar,  op. c i t . , p . 59.  -118-  Square P l a n ( c o n t i n u e d ) Ruweha.  Tomb of B i z z o s . The tomb of B i z z o s i s s t i l l  s t a n d i n g and i s c o v e r e d  w i t h one o f the few masonry domes i n S y r i a .  Smith dates i t  as f i f t h c e n t u r y - t h a t i s one c e n t u r y e a r l i e r than the date proposed by Grabar. Smith, op. c i t . , p. 50; Syria.  Grabar, op. c i t . , p. 84.  Tomb of Z a c h a r i a s . The tomb of Z a c h a r i a s was  pyramidal roof.  a square monument w i t h a  The date o f i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n i s not known.  Smith, op. c i t . , p.  57.  B Square P l a n V/ith C i r c u l a r Centcelles, Spain.  Interior  Mausoleum.  The mausoleum a t C e n t e l l e s near Tarragona, S p a i n , i s b e l i e v e d t o be the b u r i a l s i t e of C o n s t a n t i n e * s youngest Constans I who  was  murdered i n the Pyrenees i n 350.  domed v/ith an octagon i n s c r i b e d i n the  son  I t was  interior.  Andre Grabar, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n A r t : From the R i s e of C h r i s t i a n i t y t o the Death o f T h e o d o s i u s , 200-595, t r a n s . S t u a r t G i l b e r t and James Emmons, (New York: Odyssey P r e s s , 1968), pp. 168, 192. E z r a (Zorah), North S y r i a .  Church of S.  The Church of S. George was interior.  I t was  modern t i m e s .  completed i n 515  I t was  George.  square v/ith an o c t a g o n a l  and has been r e s t o r e d i n  c o n s t r u c t e d of d r e s s e d stone except f o r  -119Square P l a n w i t h C i r c u l a r I n t e r i o r (Continued)  the c u p o l a . the  B u t l e r d i s c o v e r e d the f o l l o w i n g i n s c r i p t i o n at  site: " T h i s has become a house  o f God which (was  once)  a l o d g i n g p l a c e f o r demons....where (once were) idols'  s a c r i f i c e s , now  (are) c h o i r s of angels,  and where God was provoked t o wrath, now propitiated.  A c e r t a i n man,  God i s  C h r i s t l o v i n g , the  primate Ioannes, son o f Diomedes, a t h i s own expense, as a g i f t t o God, made o f f e r i n g o f ( t h i s ) n o b l e s t r u c t u r e , p l a c i n g h e r e i n the r e v e r e d r e l i c  of (the)  h o l y m a r t y r G e o r g i o s , the g l o r i o u s l y v i c t o r i o u s , who  appeared t o him, Ioannes, and not i n s l e e p , but  m a n i f e s t l y , i n ( i n d i c a t i o n ) 9,  y e a r 4-10  (515  B u t l e r , op. c i t . , p. 122; K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. p. 88; Smith, op. c i t . , p. 4-8. Gerasa, J o r d o n .  cit.,  S. John the B a p t i s t .  S. John the B a p t i s t was I t was  A.D.)."  completed i n 531.  the middle church o f t h r e e .  The Church of SS. Cosma and Domianus  a d j o i n e d i t t o the n o r t h w h i l e t o the s o u t h s t o o d the Church o f S. George. church, i n  The n o r t h c h u r c h was  d e d i c a t e d i n 533,  the s o u t h  529.  Crowfoot, op. c i t . , p. 94- f ; Smith, op. c i t . , p.  107  -120-  C Cross C h e l l e s , Prance.  Plan  Ste. Croix.  The Church o f S t e . C r o i x was the  founded by B a t h i l d a pn  r o y a l M e r o v i n g i a n demesne at C h e l l e s . Margaret Deanesly, A. H i s t o r y o f E a r l y M e d i e v a l Europe from 476 to.911, (London: Methuen and Company, 1963), p. 2 7 7 .  Constantinople.  Church o f The  Apostles.  A c c o r d i n g t o E u s e b i u s , C o n s t a n t i n e e r e c t e d h i s tomb i n the c e n t r e o f t h i s church and surrounded i t w i t h twelve columns symbolic o f the twelve A p o s t l e s .  Construction probably  began i n 330 and c o n t i n u e d a f t e r h i s death but the b u i l d i n g v/as complete  enough t o p e r m i t the f u n e r a l s e r v i c e o f C o n s t a n t i n e t o  take p l a c e i n 337. R. P. H o d d i n o t t , E a r l y B y z a n t i n e Churches i n Macedonia and Southern S e r b i a : A Study of the o r i g i n s and the I n i t i a l Development o f E a s t C h r i s t i a n A r t 7 (London: M a c M i l l a n and Company L i m i t e d , 1963), p . 43; Smith, op. c i t . , p. 33; R i c h a r d Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n and B y z a n t i n e A r c h i t e c t u r e , (London: Penguin Books, .1965), p. 46-7. Gaza.  The  Eudoxiana.  The  "Eudoxiana" was  d e d i c a t e d t o H o l y E a s t e r : o n the  day o f the R e s u r r e c t i o n , A p r i l 14, 407.  I t was b u i l t f o r  Empress E u d o x i a by R u f i n u s , an a r c h i t e c t from A n t i o c h . Smith, op. c i t . , p. 39-40; G l a n v i l l e Downey, Gaza i n the E a r l y S i x t h C e n t u r y , (Norman, Oklahoma: U n i v e r s i t y of Oklahoma P r e s s , 1963), p. 28 f . Orleans, Prance.  Ste. Croix.  Grabar mentions t h i s b u i l d i n g i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f  -121-  Cross Plan (continued) m a r t y r i a but f a i l s t o g i v e a date or d e t a i l s . Grabar, Martyrium, P o i t i e r s , Prance.  p.  527.  Ste. Croix.  Radegund, the w i f e o f C h l o t a r I , b u i l t t h i s c r o s s church at P o i t i e r s . "The R i s e o f the Saracens and the F o u n d a t i o n of the Western Empire", Cambridge M e d i e v a l H i s t o r y , ( V o l . I , I I ; Cambridge! Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964), I I , p. 14-7. Ravenna, I t a l y .  S.  Croce.  Only the nave of the Church t o the mausoleum of G a l l a P l a c i d i a . by h e r i n c a . 425 some twenty  of S. Croce s u r v i v e s next The  and the mausoleum was  or t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s  Krautheimer,  c r o s s church was  a t t a c h e d t o the n a r t h e x  later.  op. c i t . , pp. 58,  157.  P a r i s , F r a n c e . S t e . C r o i x , Sainte-Germain-des The Church was  built  Pres.  of S t e . C r o i x , a l s o d e d i c a t e d t o S. V i n c e n t ,  a double martyrium  built  in  557-9  Grabar, Martyrium, p. 160; V o l . I I , p. 147.  by C h i l d e b e r t I .  Cambridge M e d i e v a l H i s t o r y ,  D Rotunda P l a n Al,jezares, Spain.  Baptistry.  The b a p t i s t r y a t A l j e z a r e s was 802. K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . , p.  63.  b u i l t between 587  and  -122-  Rotunda F l a n ( c o n t i n u e d ) A n t i o c h , S y r i a . Church o f t h e V i r g i n . The Church o f the V i r g i n a t A n t i o c h was b u i l t by Justinian  (527-65)  late i n h i s reign.  Smith, op. c i t . , p. 99. Beisan, P a l e s t i n e .  The Theodokos.  The Theodokos a t B e i s a n o f f e r s t h e f i r s t the  solution to  c o m b i n a t i o n o f an apse, n a r t h e x and r o t u n d a i n the. same  church.  Only f o u n d a t i o n s o f t h i s c h u r c h remain.  i n the l a t e f i f t h  or e a r l y s i x t h century.  I t was b u i l t  The diameter o f t h e  r o t u n d a i s 5 8 , 8 0 meters. Grabar, Martyrium, p. 312; Smith, l o c . c i t . Carthage, N o r t h A f r i c a .  Rotunda a t D a m o u s - e l - K a r i t a .  The r o t u n d a a t Damous-el-Karita i s dated t o t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y and stands as p a r t o f a complex i n c l u d i n g h a l l and one o f A f r i c a ' s l a r g e s t  a four a i s l e d  churches.  K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . , p . 73. Catanzaro i n C a l a b r i a ,  Italy.  S. S e v e r i n a .  A s m a l l r o t u n d a a d j o i n s t h e C a t h e d r a l o f S. S e v e r i n a . S m a l l arms p r o j e c t  from i t s ambulatory  s i m i l a r t o S. Angelo i n  P e r u g i a and S. S t e f a n o Rotondo. Krautheimer, op. c i t . , p . 14-7. Constantinople.  SS Karoos and P o l y k a r p o s .  Only the c i r c u l a r s u b s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s domed church survives.  I t o r i g i n a l l y v/as composed o f a c e n t r a l room s u r -  rounded by an ambulatory.  A date o f c a . 4-00 i s suggested by  -123Rotunda F l a n  (continued)  by the masonry. Krautheimer, op. c i t . , p . 14; Grabar, Martyrium, p. 146. D.jemila ( C u i c u l ) , A l g e r i a , N o r t h A f r i c a .  Baptistry.  This c i r c u l a r b a p t i s t r y of the f o u r t h century r e p l a c e d on o l d e r s t r u c t u r e some 30 m. away.  I t has been p r e -  served i n t a c t with a f o u r lobed b a s i n i n the c e n t r e .  A wall  t a k e s t h e p l a c e o f t h e c i r c u l a r colonnade around t h e c e n t r e room. On t h e o u t s i d e o f t h i s w a l l t h e r e are twelve  n i c h e s and a c r o s s  the ambulatory, on the i n s i d e o f t h e e x t e r i o r w a l l t h e r e a r e twenty-four. K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . , p . 83. Fa  ' l u i , North S y r i a . The rotunda  S. M i c h a e l . o f S. M i c h a e l a t Fa ' l u i was b u i l t by t h e  "most g l o r i o u s Diogenes" i n  526/7.  B u t l e r b e l i e v e d the dome o f  t h i s . c h u r c h was masonry j u d g i n g by t h e d e b r i s i n t h e i n t e r i o r . Masonry domes a r e r a r e i n N o r t h S y r i a . rotunda  i s 14,95  The diameter o f t h e  meters.  Smith, l o c . c i t . Gaza, P a l e s t i n e , Marneon. The Marneon was c o n s t r u c t e d i n c a . 130 t o t h e s k y god Mamas.  and d e d i c a t e d  I n 402 i t was d e s t r o y e d by f i r e and  was r e p l a c e d w i t h the c r o s s church b u i l t by Eudoxiana i n 407. Smith, op. c i t . , p . 14.  -124-  Rotunda P l a n , Jerusalem,  Mount of O l i v e s , Imbomon (Church of the A s c e n s i o n ) .  The It was  was  (continued)  Imbomon was  b u i l t by Poemenia sometime b e f o r e  378.  d e s t r o y e d by the P e r s i a n s and r e b u i l t by Modestus.  It  o r i g i n a l l y c i r c u l a r according to recent archeology.  o c t a g o n a l p l a n i s now  c o n s i d e r e d t o be from the  The  Crusades.  M i l i k also b e l i e v e s that a small b a s i l i c a chapel dedicated to St.  E t i e n n e a l a S t o a was  l o c a t e d t o the r i g h t of the Imbomon  entrance. J . T. M i l i k . "Jerusalem, Mount des O l i v i e r s " , Revue B i b l i q u e , V o l . LXVII, ( I 9 6 0 ) , p. 557-8. Nocera I n f e r i o r e , I t a l y .  S. M a r i a Maggiore.  The b a p t i s t r y of S. M a r i a Maggiore i s dated R i v o i r a as l a t e f o u r t h , e a r l y f i f t h as p o s s i b l y f i f t h century.  The  or s i x t h c e n t u r y .  c e n t u r y and by  The  Krautheimer  Wulff c l a i m s i t was  fourth  c o n f u s i o n i n d e t e r m i n i n g the date i s no more con-  f u s i n g than d e t e r m i n i n g the number o f double interior.  by  Krautheimer  i n s i d e diameter  c l a i m s 14 and 15,  columns i n the  and Wulff c l a i m s  16.  i s some 24 meters.  R i v o i r a , op. c i t . , p. 11; Krautheimer, op. c i t . , p. 147; R. Krautheimer, " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o an 'Iconography of M e d i a e v a l A r c h i t e c t u r e ' " , Warburg and C o u r t a u l d I n s t i t u t e J o u r n a l , V o l . V, (1942), p. 24. Oskar W u l f f , A l t c h r i s t l i c h e und B y z a n t i n i s c h e Kunst (Handbuch d e r ~ K u n s t w i s s e n s c h a f t ) / ( B e r l i n : Akademi s c h e V e r l a g s g e s e l l s c h a f t A t h e n a i o n , 1918), p. 247. Rome, I t a l y . The  Santa  Costanza.  rotunda of S. Costanza was  e r e c t e d by  Constantine  in  324-6 and was  It  measures 22,30 meters i n diameter w i t h a drum 11,15  across.  c o n v e r t e d t o a b a p t i s t r y i n the f i f t h  century. meters  -125-  Rotunda P l a n . ( c o n t i n u e d )  G. T. R i v o i r a , Roman A r c h i t e c t u r e and i t s P r i n c i p l e s of C o n s t r u c t i o n under the Empire, t r a n s . G. McN. R u s h f o r d , ( O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1925), p. 244. Rome, I t a l y .  S. S t e f a n o Rotondo..  The Church o f S. S t e f a n o Rotondo, b u i l t by Pope S i m p l i c i u s I (468-483) r e f l e c t s a c l a s s i c a l s p i r i t b u t r e sembles no o t h e r b u i l d i n g i n Rome.  I t may have been c o p i e s  a f t e r the Church o f S. S t e f a n o i n Jerusalem b u i l t by Empress Eudoxiana.  I t measures some 208 f e e t i n d i a m e t e r .  R i c h a r d Krautheimer, "Santo S t e f a n o Rotondo a Roma a L a C h i e s a d e l Santo S e p o l c r o a Gerusalemme", R e v i s t a d i A r c h e o l o g i a C r i s t i a n a , V o l . X I I , (1935), P. 51 f . S y r i a . S t e l e o f 'Amrith The  f r e e s t a n d i n g c y l i n d r i c a l s t e l e o f 'Amrith dates  from the p e r i o d o f Herod the Great o r b e f o r e .  I t was two  s t o r i e d w i t h a s m a l l e r c y l i n d r i c a l drum under a dome mounted on t o p o f a l a r g e r round  base.  Smith, op. c i t . , p . 57. Tipasa, A l g e r i a , North A f r i c a .  Rotunda.  The r o t u n d a a t T i p a s a , b u i l t was c o n s t r u c t e d o f hewn s t o n e .  i n the f o u r t h c e n t u r y ,  The c e n t r a l c i r c l e o f columns,  f o r some unknown r e a s o n do n o t l i n e up w i t h t h e w a l l i n d e n t ations.  The e n t r a n c e open towards the s e a . C a r l M a r i a Kaufmann, Handbuch d e r c h r i s t l i c h e n A r c h a o l o g i e , (Paderborn: Druck und V e r l a g von F e r d i n a n d SchSningh, 1913), p. 160.  -126-  E Octagon P l a n Antioch, Syria. The 341.  Domus A u r e a.  Domus aurea was begun i n 3 2 ? and completed i n  I n 526 i t was d e s t r o y e d by an earthquake and a p p a r e n t l y  r e b u i l t t o be d e s t r o y e d l a t e r i n the same  century.  G l a n v i l l e Downey, A H i s t o r y o f A n t i o c h i n S y r i a from S e l e u c i u s t o the Arab Conquest, ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961), p . 342 f ; Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 52 f . Basufan, S y r i a . The date  date  S. Phokas. o f S. Simeon S t y l i t e s i s determined from the  o f S. Phokas because t h i s church was modeled on the l a r g e  octagon a t K a l ' a t Sem'an.  S. Phokas i s dated by i n s c r i p t i o n  t o 491-5 by B u t l e r but Krautheimer has narrowed the time  dif-  f e r e n c e down t o 491-2. H. G. B u t l e r , S y r i a . P u b l i c a t i o n s o f the P r i n c e t o n University Archaeological Expedition to Syria i n 1904-5 and 1909, ed. E . R. S t o e v e r , (Levden: E 7 J . B r i l l L t d . , 1930), 73; Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 167-8. Constantinople. C h r y s o t r i k l i n o s . The built  C h r y s o t r i k l i n o s was a g r e a t domed o c t a g o n a l  i n the r o y a l p a l a c e  suggests  i n Constantinople.  hall  Krautheimer  t h a t i t was b u i l t i n the e a r l y 580's but no exact  date  i s known. Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p . 167-8; 0. M. D a l t o n , E a s t C h r i s t i a n A r t : A Survey o f Monuments, ( O x f o r d : • > Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1925), p . 121. Constantinople. The  SS. S e r g i u s and Bacchus.  Church o f SS S e r g i u s and Bacchus was l o c a t e d  -127-  Octagon P l a n  (continued)  between t h e p a l a c e and t h e Church o f SS P e t e r and P a u l . I t was  b u i l t by J u s t i n i a n from  Garizim, P a l e s t i n e . The i n 484—5.  527 t o 536.  The Theodokos.  Theodokos a t G a r i z i m was b u i l t by Emperor Zeno  I t possessed  a relic  o f the C a l v a r y rock.  Crowfoot, op. c i t . , p . 37; Smith, op. c i t . , p . 103; K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . , p . 89; Grabar, Martyrium, P. 324. Jerusalem.  The Dome o f t h e Rock.  The 'Abd  Dome o f t h e Rock v/as b u i l t  i n 691 .by o r d e r o f  a l - M a l i k and i s t h e e a r l i e s t known monument o f moslem  architecture.  I t was o c t a g o n a l w i t h a c e n t r a l room o f 20,44  meters i n d i a m e t e r .  No one p a r t i c u l a r b u i l d i n g stands as i t s  p r e d e c e s s o r , b u t t h e A n a s t a s i s Rotunda seems t o have been an important  influence. K.A.C. C r e s w e l l , A S h o r t Account o f E a r l y Muslim A r c h i t e c t u r e , (Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1958), p . 17-40.  J e r u s a l e m , V a l l e y o f Joshaphat. The octagons  o c t a g o n a l tomb o f t h e V i r g i n was one o f t h e e a r l i e s t  t o be c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e a r e a o f Jerusalem  completion middle  Tomb o f t h e V i r g i n .  of the A n a s t a s i s .  o f the f i f t h Smith,  century.  loc. c i t .  a f t e r the  The tomb was c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e  -128-  Octagon P l a n  (continued)  K a l ' a t Sem'an, S y r i a . No  S. Simeon S t y l i t e s .  date of c o n s t r u c t i o n i s known f o r S. Simeon  S t y l i t e s but i t was  completed p r i o r t o the c o n s t r u c t i o n of  Phokas a t Basufan dated 4-91/2. octagon  may  S. Simeon d i e d i n 4-59 but  have been c o n s t r u c t e d w h i l e he  still  s a t on  S. the  the  p o l e i n the c e n t r e . Downey, A H i s t o r y of A n t i o c h . . . , p. 480-1; Smith, op. c i t . ,. p. 5 5 ; Georges Tchalenko, V i l l a g e s a n t i q u e s ' tie l a S y r i e du Nord: l e m a s s i f Bfelus a 1'epoque romaine, ( V o l . I , I I ; P a r i s : Institute franqais d * a r c h e o l o g i e de Beyrouth, L i b r a i r e O r i e n t a l i s t e , P a u l Geuthner, 1953), I , p. 224 f ; J . H. Emminghaus, "Das Taufhaus von K a l ' a t Sim'an i n Z e n t r a l s y r i e n Baub e s c h r e i b u n g und - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " , T o r t u l a e : S t u d i e n zu A l t c h r i s t l i c h e n und B y z a n t i n i s c h e n Monumenten^ (Rom, P r e i b e r g , Wein: Herder, 1966), p. 82-108. M i d j l e y y a , South C e n t r a l S y r i a .  Chapel.  B u t l e r dates t h i s semioctagonal century.  The  building i s partially  Smith, op. c i t . ,p. 105; p. 110. Milan, I t a l y .  c h a p e l t o the  sixth  conserved.  K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . ,  S. T e c l a . B a p t i s t r y .  The  o c t a g o n a l b a p t i s t r y , the e a r l i e s t known,  b u i l t a t the same time  as the c a t h e d r a l or s h o r t l y  was  after  ( c a . 578-86). Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 58; S p i r o K. K o s t o f , The Orthodox^Baptistry~~of Ravenna, (New Haven and London: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965), p. 49. Ravenna, I t a l y . The  San  Church of San V i t a l e was  t a r i u s a t the r e q u e s t and was  Vitale.  of A r c h b i s h o p  c o n s e c r a t e d i n 54-7.  b u i l t by J u l i a n u s Argen-  Ecclesius (522-32)  T h i s church, which was  in  526  very close  -129Octagon P l a n  (continued)  t o S. Croce, was  at one  time a t t a c h e d t o the p a l a c e of  Honorius.  Wayne Dynes, "The F i r s t C h r i s t i a n Palace-Church Type", Marsyas, V o l . XI, ( 1 9 6 2 - 4 ) , p. 7 ; R i v o i r a , Lombardic A r c h i t e c t u r e , p. '62 f . C Rome. L a t e r a n B a p t i s t r y . The p r e s e n t b u i l d i n g was  c o n s t r u c t e d i n 432-4-0 by  Sextus I I I but the l a r g e f o n t , the l a r g e s t known (28 f e e t i n d i a m e t e r ) , may the Cross was  be e a r l i e r .  In 461-8  an e d i c u l a d e d i c a t e d t o  c o n s t r u c t e d t o c o n t a i n a p i e c e of the r e l i c  of the  Cross. P a u l A. Underwood, "The F o u n t a i n of L i f e i n Manusc r i p t s o f the G o s p e l " , Dumbarton Oaks Papers, (No. 5; Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 0 ) , p. 45 f ; R i c h a r d Krautheimer, "The A r c h i t e c t u r e o f Sextus I I I : A F i f t h Century Renascence," E s s a y s i n 'i :Honor o f Erwin Panofsky, ed. M i l l a r d Meiss, (New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961), p. 292; Grabar, Martyrium, p. 16&-1 Spolato  ( S p l i t ) , Dalmatia. The  Mausoleum of D i o c l e t i a n .  octagon at S p o l a t o , o r i g i n a l l y p a r t of the  p a l a c e , v/as b u i l t i n the e a r l y f o u r t h c e n t u r y . p a r t of the C a t h e d r a l of S p o l a t o but v/hen i t was i t was  p a r t of a g r e a t complex measuring 215  I t i s now  (Capernaum), P a l e s t i n e .  ''  constructed  ni. by 180  C h a r l e s D i e h l , Manuel d ' a r t b y z a n t i n e , 2nd (Paris: August P i c a r d , 1925), p. 115-8. T e l l Hum  royal  m.  ed.,  Octagon.  Smith dates the octagon t o the middle of the f o u r t h c e n t u r y a l t h o u g h i t c o u l d be e a r l i e r a c c o r d i n g t o K h a t c h a t r i a n . Watzinger c l a i m s t h a t i t s t o o d i n the same r e l a t i o n s h i p t o i t s b a s i l i c a as the A n a s t a s i s d i d t o the M a r t y r i o n , v/hile Dalman suggests  t h a t i t was  connected  w i t h a p a l a c e i n the same  way  -130Octagon P l a n  (continued)  D i o c l e t i a n ' s tomb was  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s p a l a c e and the Domus  aurea v/as v/ith the p a l a c e at A n t i o c h . Smith, op. c i t . , p. 102; K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . , C a r l Watzinger, Denkm£ler P a l a s t i n a s : s i n e E i n ftihrung i n d i e A r c h a o l o g i e des H e i l i g e n Landes, ( V o l . I , I I ; L e i p z i g : J . C. H i n r i c h s , 1933-5), I I , p. 131 f ; G. Dalman, P a l a s t i n a j a h r b u c h , V o l . XVII-XIX, p. 64 f . "  (1922-3),  P Basilica  Aquelia, Italy. The  Plan  Cathedral of A q u e l i a .  c a t h e d r a l r e p l a c e d a "domus e c c l e s i a e " i n the  e a r l y f o u r t h century.  The  s i b l y as e a r l y as 313.  b u i l d i n g v/as completed i n 319,  pos-  There were t h r e e b u i l d i n g s on the  site  i n c l u d i n g a b a p t i s t r y , square on the o u t s i d e and o c t a g o n a l the i n s i d e w i t h a hexagonal f o n t , from the l a t e f i f t h Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , o p . c i t . , p. 65-6. Bethlehem.  Church of the  The t i n e and was it  Khatchatrian,  Nativity.  d e s c r i b e d by the Bordeauz P i l g r i m i n 333.  structure.  i n d i a m e t e r but may  The  ConstanIn  529  i n a Samarian r e v o l t and J u s t i n i a n  i t r e b u i l t with a t r e f o i l  octagonal  century.  Church o f the N a t i v i t y v/as c o n s t r u c t e d by  v/as damaged by a f i r e  ordered  p. 23;  on  apse r e p l a c i n g the  original  octagon had measured some 18 meters  have been too s m a l l t o accomodate the many  p i l g r i m s i n the s i x t h  century.  -131B a s i l i c a Plan (continued)  Croxtffoot, op. c i t . , p. 2 2 - 7 ; Smith, op. c i t . , p. 101; Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 38. Constantinople. The  Hagia S o p h i a .  first  Church  v/as f i n i s h e d i n 360  of Hagia Sophia i n C o n s t a n t i n o p l e  and except f o r the  seem t o have resembled  " h e m i s p h a i r i o n " would  the M a r t y r i o n i n J e r u s a l e m .  Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. Epidauros, Dalmatia.  Church  46.  of E p i d a u r o s .  The f i v e a i s l e d b a s i l i c a a t E p i d a u r o s i s d a t e d ca.400 and i s accompanied by a b a s i l i c a p l a n b a p t i s t r y on the west end of the n o r t h w a l l . Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 9 1 - 2 ; K h a t c h a t r i a n ; op. c i t . , p. 86. J e r u s a l e m , Mount of O l i v e s .  Eleona.  E u s e b i u s a s s o c i a t e d t h i s b a s i l i c a v/ith the Church the N a t i v i t y and the founder S. Helena.  The  church was  of  des-  t r o y e d by the P e r s i a n s and r e s t o r e d by Modestus but today a M e d i e v a l c h a p e l , the P a t e r N o s t e r , o c c u p i e s the s i t e .  The  orig-  i n a l b u i l d i n g v/as d e s i g n e d t o mark the cave i n which Jesus was  b e l i e v e d t o have taught h i s d i s c i p l e s about the l a s t  I t was  a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t the L a s t Supper was Crowfoot,  Ravenna, I t a l y .  days.  celebrated here.  op. c i t . , p. 3 2 .  B a s i l i c a Ursiana.  The B a s i l i c a U r s i a n a v/as d e d i c a t e d t o the A n a s t a s i s (the R e s u r r e c t i o n ) i n c a . 384.  The b u i l d i n g seems t o have been  i n t e n d e d t o copy the Holy S e p u l c h r e .  I t v/as r e s t o r e d or r e -  -132B a s i l i c a Plan  (continued)  c o n s t r u c t e d i n the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y and d e s t r o y e d i n 1748 apparently r e b u i l t .  The  and  B a p t i s t r y of the Orthodox, o c t a g o n a l  w i t h f o u r n i c h e s , a p p a r e n t l y was  c i r c l e d by an ambulatory  and  a t t a c h e d t o the b a s i l i c a by an a t r i u m s i m i l a r t o the complex at Aquelia.  The  d e s i g n of t h e b a p t i s t r y v/as d e r i v e d from  Milan  w h i l e the b a s i l i c a seems t o have been i n f l u e n c e d by S y r i a n church p l a n s . K o s t o f , op. c i t . , pp. 47, 124; K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . , p. 120; R i v o i r a , Lombardic A r c h i t e c t u r e , I , p."6-8. Resafa, North S y r i a . The  S. S e r g i u s .  f i r s t Church of S. S e r g i u s may  date from 434 when  the c i t y became an e p i s c o p a l s e a t w i t h the name S e r g i o p o l i s but f o r s t y l i s t i c reasons  i t has been dated by S a r r e and H e r z f e l d ,  and Spanner and Guyer as c a . 500. c e n t r e of the nave. q u a t r e f o i l p l a n was  A bema v/as l o c a t e d i n the .  I n the s i x t h c e n t u r y a martyrium w i t h a b u i l t i n the same a r e a .  Smith, op. c i t . , p. 126-9. Rome, I t a l y .  S. Croce  i n Gerusalemme.  A l a r g e r e c t a n g u l a r h a l l from c a . 200 by Helena a relic  was  renovated  t o serve as a p a l a c e c h a p e l or church and t o c o n t a i n  o f the C r o s s .  Duckworth c l a i m s t h a t p a r t of the  rock  of C a l v a r y v/as i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the f o u n d a t i o n s by the Empress. Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 27; H. T. P. Duckworth, The Church of the Holy S e p u l c h r e , (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1927), p. 275. T r i e r . Imperial B a s i l i c a The b a s i l i c a a t T r i e r was  not d e s i g n e d as a church  -133B a s i l i c a Plan  (continued)  when i t was b u i l t between 305 and 312. palace i n that c i t y .  I t was a h a l l f o r t h e  I t stands as one o f t h e b e s t p r e s e r v e d o f  Constantine*s b u i l d i n g s . R i c h a r d Krautheimer, "The C o n s t a n t i n e B a s i l i c a " , Dumbarton Oaks Papers, (No. 21,(Washington: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967), p. 117.  G B u i l d i n g Complex  Bologna, I t a l y . The Foundations  S. S t e f a n o  (S. Sepolcro).  e a r l y h i s t o r y o f S. S t e f a n o  i s rather  seem t o have been l a i d i n the f i f t h  mention i s made o f a c i r c u l a r s t r u c t u r e . the complex v/ith Jerusalem  obscure.  c e n t u r y but no  The a s s o c i a t i o n o f  was n o t made u n t i l 887 and a f t e r , t h e r e -  f o r e t h e copy o f t h e Holy S e p u l c h r e  complex may n o t have been  designed u n t i l l a t e r i n the e i g h t h o r n i n t h c e n t u r i e s .  The  r o t u n d a , though r a t h e r i r r e g u l a r i n p l a n , was n o t an octagon, but a c i r c l e . and  in  I n 903 t h e b u i l d i n g s v/ere damaged o r d e s t r o y e d  1150-60 t h e group  v/as r e b u i l t .  The l i f e  o f S. P e t r o n i o  (1162-1180) s t a t e s c l e a r l y t h a t S. P e t r o n i o r e b u i l t t h e complex to reproduce  t h e H o l y S i t e s i n Jerusalem  based on measurements  he h i m s e l f made v/hile i n the H o l y , C i t y . A r t h u r K i n g s l e y P o r t e r , Lombard A r c h i t e c t u r e , ( V o l . I , I I ; New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , and London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, I I , p. 124; R i v o i r a , Lombardic A r c h i t e c t u r e , I I , p. 648.  1917),  -134-  B u i l d i n g Complex  (continued)  B r e s c i a , N o r t h I t a l y . S. P e t e r ' s . A l a r g e rotunda in Brescia. it  i s one  Known as the  s t o o d at the west end of the  church  " o l d C a t h e d r a l " , the Duomo V e c c h i o ,  of the o l d e s t Lombard c i r c u l a r c h u r c h e s .  i s not known but the r o t u n d a may  Its history  hace been p a r t of the  buildings,  or the b u i l d i n g b u i l t by Queen T h e o d o l i n d and d e d i c a t e d i n 617  or the rotunda may  date from the C a r o l i n g i a n p e r i o d of  the l a t e e i g h t h c e n t u r y .  The b u i l d i n g l a c k s a r c h i t e c t u r a l  d e c o r a t i o n and the i n t e r i o r i s unadorned.  An i n t e r i o r  wall.  d i v i d e d i n t o t w e n t y - f o u r bays w i t h s m a l l s i n g l e round-arched c e s s e s c i r c l e s the c e n t r e room. i s 65 f e e t .  The  diameter  re-  of the i n n e r room  The b a p t i s t r y s t o o d t o the west of the p r e s e n t  church, across a ' s t r e e t . C h a r l e s Amos Cummings, A H i s t o r y of A r c h i t e c t u r e in Italy: Prom the Time" o f C o n s t a n t i n e t o the Dawn of the R e n a i s s a n c e , • ( V o l . I , I I ; London: E r n e s t Benn L i m i t e d , 1928), I , p. 156-8. Carthage,  North A f r i c a . The  Damous=el-Karjta.  complex a t Damous-el-Karita  feet i n length.  The  b a s i l i c a was  Krautheimer, Chalcedon,  Bithynia.  The o f two  A l a r g e h a l l and  E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p.  144.  S. Eupheme.  s t r u c t u r e s , the mausoleum and the  church. Grabar,  circular  church.  f o u r t h c e n t u r y complex of S. Eupheme was  distinctive  490  215 feet long with a large  s e m i c i r c u l a r a t r i u m and e i g h t a i s l e s . b u i l d i n g s t o o d b e h i n d the  measured some  Martyrium,  p.  338.  composed basilica  -135B u i l d i n g Complex ( c o n t i n u e d ) C o r i n t h , L e c h a i o n , Greece.  S. L e o n i d a s .  The d a t e s f o r the b a s i l i c a suggested by Krautheimer are 450-60 and 518-27.  The v e r y l a r g e s i z e o f the b u i l d i n g s ,  186 meters i n l e n g t h , must have t a k e n a number o f y e a r s t o complete. Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. 99-101. Djemila ( C u i c u l ) , A l g e r i a , North A f r i c a . P r i o r t o 400 a b a s i l i c a was w i t h a new west.  constructed at Djemila  b a p t i s t r y l o c a t e d i n an i r r e g u l a r quadrangle t o the  A l a r g e r b a s i l i c a was b u i l t  a l o n g s i d e i n the second  decade o f the f i f t h c e n t u r y by Bishop C r e s c o n i u s . Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n ; . . , p. 142; K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . , p. 83. Gerasa, J o r d a n .  Cathedral.  A group o f e i g h t churches composed the complex at G e r a s a . i n 611.  Except f o r the c e n t r a l p l a n church o f S.  John  the B a p t i s t and the c r o s s p l a n c h u r c h o f the A p o s t l e s , Prophets and M a r t y r s a l l the churches were b a s i l i c a s . was  The  cathedral  approached from the r e a r by a s t a i r c a s e which opened i n t o  a c o u r t y a r d where a s h r i n e t o S. Mary was  p l a c e d n e x t , t o the ap  Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p. Parenzo, I t a l y .  120.  C a t h e d r a l o f Parenzo.  The C a t h e d r a l o f Parenzo was b u i l t by Bishop Euphr a s i u s from 535 apse and two  t o 54-3.  The b a s i l i c a v/as composed o f a deep  aisles.  R i v o i r a , Lombardic  A r c h i t e c t u r e , I , p. 98  f.  -136B u i l d i n g Complex ( c o n t i n u e d )  Salona, Dalmatia.  Cathedral.  The double c a t h e d r a l a t S a l o n a was composed o f the Bishop's b a s i l i c a t o the south ( c a . 350) and the n o r t h b a s i l i c a built  i n 4-05-26.  The south church v/as r e p l a c e d i n 5 3 0 .  Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p . 135-6. Timgad, N o r t h A f r i c a .  Basilica.  B u i l d i n g s a t Timgad date from the f o u r t h t o the sixthcentury. K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . , p . 135-6. T i p a s a , A l g e r i a , North A f r i c a . C a t h e d r a l . The C a t h e d r a l o f T i p a s a dates t o the f i f t h  century.  I t was a l a r g e church, expanded by a d d i t i o n s onto the a i s l e s r a t h e r than t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a new b u i l d i n g . Krautheimer, E a r l y C h r i s t i a n . . . , p . 14-0; K h a t c h a t r i a n , op. c i t . , p . 136. Torcello^ Italy.  Cathedral of T o r c e l l o .  The C a t h e d r a l o f T o r c e l l o was begun i n 614-. The b a p t i s t r y , on a x i s w i t h the c h u r c h , v/as round w i t h a door t o the e a s t .  Two exedra were p l a c e d at 4-5 degrees t o each o t h e r  i n the e x t e r i o r b a p t i s t r y w a l l f a c i n g the c h u r c h . diameter o f the b a p t i s t r y v/as 1 2 , 6 ?  The i n t e r n a l  meters.  Bruno S c h u l t z , Die K i r c h e n b a u t e n auf d e r I n s e l Torcello, ( B e r l i n und L e i p z i g : Walter de G r u y t e r and Company, 1 9 2 7 ) , p . 10 f .  -137  Map 1 .  4-.  Ivory.  Trivulzio diptych.  Milan.  6.  Illustration. "La C o n o c c h i a " , S a n t a M a r i a Capus Vetere, I t a l y .  7.  P l a n . Tegurium drawn i n 1586 from Z u a l l a r d o , I I d e v o t i s s i m o v i a g g i o d i Gerusalemme, (Roma, 1587), p. 189.  5.  Ivory.  Panel.  N a t i o n a l Museum, Munich.  gccL&f\ccy-i-i  cl&cjuib-  irtf-try-tuf  m n ^ A o i  II  8.  Plan.  A r c u l f ' s p l a n of the Holy  Sepulchre.  a)  V i e n n a Codex (Cod. 458, f o 4 v ) .  b)  P a r i s Manuscript  (B.N. L a t . 13.048, f o 4c)  LE  SCHEMA  • APffCS  DU 5/UNT-SEPULCRE  tlANUSCRIT  LC  D€  PARIS  feeL.  PAR HAT.  ARCULFE  LAT.  13 043  f  18  18  1.  Edicole  2.  Colonnade  3.  Slur  4.  Porte  des  5.  Porte  royalo  du  extiritur  6-7-8. Mario 9.  Pierre /lute/.  11.  Ditoil  de  h  rotonde.  I'Ange.  in  .  Quo  lignta  dit in  Constant/(nic/no  ot  15. Golaatchana  afoncjte  18. Pouago  .Les  loco  Plan.  ecclesia  a/taris in  Habraham.  Quo Sub  domim  ecclesia  correspondent  on  ardent.  loco  Crux  terra  domim  cum  rep&rta  binis  ext.  .  col ice  marie  latin  Arculfs c)  lompoder  Crucibus  cum  Icy en des  node  basilica  latronum  17.  .  .  inditermine  16. Ene-dra  c/fomijmj,  .  1Z. Ptatkolo 13. Mensa  [sepulchrum .  ffyrrhophares  de  10.  K.  Tombeau inten'eurt  . .  Qu  grand  esco/ier  Sont  Cellet  du  meridional  manuJcrtf.  p l a n of the Holy  Scheme of A r c u l f s  .  Sepulchre,  p l a n by  Heitz.  EOL.  4?)  9.  Wood.  10.  Manuscript. Florence.  Reliquary.  S a n c t a Sanctorum, Rome.  Rabbula  Codex.  Laurentian Library,  . 20.  Plan.  S. John.  Ephesus.  21.  Plan.  Martyrium  o f Sichem by  22.  Plan.  S. S a v i o u r .  Plataniti,  Greece.  Arculf  23.  Plan.  Church No. 3 .  24.  Illustration.  i l Anderin.  Tomb a t Hass.  25.  Plan. a)  *  b)  Plan.  c)  Tomb o f B i z z o s  Elevation  Section.  26.  Illustration. Tomb a t A l i f .  27.  OP.  Illustration. ?omb, Kharga, E g y p t .  29.  Illustration. Necropolis. • Bagawat, E g y p t . Metal. Reliquary. Aachen.  30.  The s i t e  o f the H o l y S e p u l c h r e i n J e r u s a l e m .  a)  P l a n made i n 1 9 3 7 .  b)  P l a n made i n 1 8 9 3  •=ORUM AREA  econstructions a)  o f the H o l y S e p u l c h r e p l a n .  Reconstruction  by Conant, c a . 3 3 5 .  c)  Reconstruction  f o r 6 1 4 - 1 0 0 9 by  Vincent.  d)  Reconstruction  by K r a u t h e i m e r , c a .  e)  Reconstruction  w i t h Rotunda by  335.  Krauthei  PALESTINE PlLGRIMS'TEXT SOWETY.  Wl  LLIS,  R e c o n s t r u c t i o n by W i l l i s . g)  R e c o n s t r u c t i o n by De Vogue.  DE  VOGUE.  32.  Mosaic.  S. P u d e n z i a n a .  a)  Apse  b)  D e t a i l of l e f t  Rome.  view.  i  side.  32.  Mosaic. c)  S. P u d e n z i a n a . Reconstruction mosaic.  Rome. o f a r t i s t ' s p o s i t i o n f o r the  33.  Mosaic. '  a) b)  Map  of Jerusalem.  Madaba. .  F u l l map. ' D e t a i l o f Holy S e p u l c h r e . Conant' s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  o f viev;.  18.  C o i n s and R e l i e f . a)  D i v u s Romulus ( 3 0 9 )  b)  Trebonianus G a l l u s and V a l u s i a n  c)  Maximianus.  d)  Maxentius i n honor Constantius Chlorus  e)  Maxentius - "Tomb" of Maximianus.  f)  Roman  relief.  Sacred  Portal.  a)  Mosaic.  b)  Painting.  Beth Alpha. Dura E u r o p u s .  17.  Mosaic.  S. A p o l l i n a r e Kuovo, Ravenna.  14-.  Stone.  Stone R e l i e f .  Dumbarton Oaks,  Washington.  35.  Mosaic.  Viev/s o f J e r u s a l e m .  a)  S. V i t a l e , Ravenna  b)  S. M a r i a Rome.  c)  S. G i o v a n n i L a t e r a n , Rome.  d)  S. L o r e n z o l e Mura  e)  S t . P e t e r ' s , Rome.  Maggiore, fuori  37.  Reconstruction  38.  P l a n . • Church o f the N a t i v i t y . a)  o f the M a r t y r i o n  P l a n o f 4 t h C. w i t h 6 t h C. a d d i t i o n s .  Hemisphairion. Bethlehem.  38.  Plan. 1  Church of the N a t i v i t y . b)  Elevation  Bethlehem.  41.  Plan. a)  B a s i l i c a Ursiana Plan.  *  (Cathedral). b)  Ravenna.  Elevation.  42.  Stone.  Sarchopagi.  a)  Vatican B a s i l i c a , Rome.  b)  c)  S a r c o p h a g u s o f S. Milan.  Celso.  Southern  Gaul, Aries  Ivory. Basilewsky S i t u l a . London.  V i c t o r i a and  Albert  Museum,  44.  4-5.  Plan.  A r c u l f ' s p l a n o f the Church  a)  Vienna  b)  P a r i s Manuscript  Plan.  Church  o f the A s c e n s i o n ,  Codex (Cod. 458, f o I I v ) . (B.N. L a t . 13.043, f o 1 4 r ) ,  o f the A s c e n s i o n .  Mount o f O l i v e s .  Plan.  C i r c u l a r Roman b u i l d i n g s .  a)  Roman.  c)  Roman  • b) d)  Tholos. Roman.  Epidaurus.  4-7.  Plan.  4-9.  Plan.  Rotunda.  Beisan.  4-8.  Daraous e l - K a r i t a .  50.  Cartage.  Plan.  Rotunda.  Plan.  Rotunda.  *  .....  Aljezares.  Fa lui. 1  Plan. a)  S. C o s t a n z a .  Rome.  Plan  P l a n and I l l u s t r a t i o n . Nocera I n f e r i o r e . a)  Plan  b)  Elevation.  B a p t i s t r y o f S. M a r i a  Maggiore  52.  P l a n and I l l u s t r a t i o n . ITocera I n f e r i o r e . b)  53  Illustration a)  Engraving and  Plan.  Corridor  view.  Baptistry from  o f S. M a r i a  Maggiore.  ca.1770.  Baptistry.  Djemila  (Cuicul).  53.  Baptistry. b)  55.  Plan. Plan.  a)  54.  Djemila  Plan.  Rotunda. Domus a u r e a .  S. S t e f a n o Rome.  Antioch.  Mosaic o f Domus aurea*.  Yakto.  b) , P l a n .  Rotondo.  TOMBEAU D E L A VlgtCLE..  V l E R G E : JEGLLSE I  56.  Plan.  Tomb of the V i r g i n . Jerusalem.  57.  Plan.  Church o f Theodokos. Garizim.  ,j  JSUPERIEURE.  H A N RESTAURE,.  V a l l e y of J o s h a p h a t , 58.  Plan.  Octagon. T e l l Hum. .  60  60.  Plan.  61.  Plan  SS.  Sergius  (Isometric).  and  FEET  Bacchus.  S. V i t a l e .  Constantinople. Ravenna.  62.  Plan.  M i r ayeh.  64.  Plan.  S. George. a)  Plan.  63.  Plan.  Ezra.  Midjleyya. ^  b)  Elevation.  65.  Plan.  Cathedral. a)  66. . P l a n .  Boara.  Elevation St.. John the B a p t i s t .  a)  Plan.  b)  Plan.  Gerasa. b)  Elevation.  67.  Illustration 1  a)  and  Plan.  E x t e r i o r view  Dome of the Rock. . J e r u s a l e m , b)  Plan.  68.  Plan.  a  S. Stefano.: (S. S e p o l c r o ) .  Bologna.  O  69.  Plan.  O  o  •  •  •  Church.Complex.  •  o  a  •  Gerasa.  70.  Illustration. View from the a i r . Djemila.  71.  Plan. Basilica Tipasa.  and complex,  72.  Plan.  C a t h e d r a l complex.  Salona,  Dalmatia.  73.  Plan.  S. R e q u i e r and  area.  Centula.  3  76.  Plan.  "Place  S  •*  M  o f Commemoration",  a)  P l a n and e l e v a t i o n .  b)  Reconstruction  by S m i t h .  S. S e r g i u s .  Rasafa.  77.  Plan.  Cathedral.  Parenzo  75.  Plan.  Cathedral.  Torcello. 79.  (Porec)  Plan.  (  St.  Leonidas.  Corinth-Lechaion.  

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