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Tom Price (c.1860-1927) : the art and style of a Haida artist. Glatthaar, Trisha Corliss 1970

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TOM PRICE ( c . 1 8 6 0 - 1 9 2 7 ) : THE ART AND STYLE OF A HAIDA ARTIST by TRISHA CORLISS GLATTHAAR B.F.A., Tulane University, 1 9 6 8 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of FINE ARTS We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1 9 7 0 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree tha p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y pu rpo se s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . T r i s h a C o r l i s s G l a t t h a a r Department o f F i n e A r t s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l . 1970 . i i ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s thesis i s to i d e n t i f y the art work of the Haida Indian a r t i s t Tom Price (c . l 8 6 0 - 1927). It i s not yet generally r e a l i z e d that Haida art was predominantly the product of only a small number of a r t i s t s whose individual styles are d i s t i n c t l y recognizable. Much of the d i v e r s i t y i n l o c a l and regional styles within Haida art can be explained by i s o l a t i n g and examining the works of the dozens of p r a c t i s i n g a r t i s t s - discovering where and when they worked, how much they influenced the art around them, how t r a d i t i o n a l they were in t h e i r a r t , or how innovative. The immediate problem i s to document these in d i v i d u a l s t y l e s . Art has been collected from the Northwest Coast Indian t peoples since the late Eighteenth Century when the f i r s t explorers made trading contacts with the native people. But i t was co l l e c t e d sporadically and at f i r s t only as a c u r i o s i t y or souvenir a r t . In the late Nineteenth Century ethnologists began to c o l l e c t the Northwest Coast Indian art f o r museums of anthropology and natural history. They recorded the names of a r t i s t s but r a r e l y i n connection with t h e i r works of a r t . Only recently has Northwest Coast Indian art been shown i n major a r t exhibits i n Paris, Montreal, Vancouver, etc. And only recently have a r t historians r e a l i z e d the significance of the i n d i v i d u a l a rt styles within the a r t . The work of a few Nineteenth Century masters stands out. Museums in North America and Europe unknowlingly col l e c t e d only the works of the best a r t i s t s working at the time. Tom Price was one of these outstanding a r t i s t s . He worked i n the late Nineteenth and early Twentieth Centuries. Chapter III i s a discussion of the complex and ancient t r a d i t i o n of Haida art with which Tom Price would have been f a m i l i a r , and how i t was modified i n the Nineteenth Century due to increasing contact with the white man. The role of the a r t i s t in Haida society i s also discussed i n Chapter II I , emphasizing the point that personal innovation was inherent i n the art t r a d i t i o n . Chapter IV deals with the documented information on the l i f e and works of Tom Price. My chief informant i s Tom Price's daughter-in-law. She and other Haida people remember Tom Price as one of the a r t i s t s working i n Skidegate up u n t i l 1927. They remember the c o l l e c t o r s who purchased his work, and that he went to V i c t o r i a to s e l l work quite frequently. But published information on Haida a r t i s t s and t h e i r works, such as the descriptive works of Marius Barbeau on a r g i l l i t e and totem poles, are inaccurate and confused. This i s partly because his informants were not f a m i l i a r enough with the a r t i s t s or the a r t st y l e s about which he was writing. Documented information from a c q u i s i t i o n f i l e s and museum records i s equally as disappointing because the material was not co l l e c t e d by art h i s t o r i a n s . There i s very r a r e l y an entry i n the information catalogues f o r the name of the a r t i s t . The exact o r i g i n of the works i s often not known because museums purchased i n bulk from central bargaining points such iv as Port Simpson or V i c t o r i a , or they purchased complete private c o l l e c t i o n s . They r a r e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the place of manufacture and the purchasing point in the records. Furthermore, the date i n museum records may refer to the date of a c q u i s i t i o n rather than to the date of manufacture. The significance of t h i s i s that very few Haida works of art are r e l i a b l y documented and two or three sources should be consulted before an a t t r i b u t i o n i s made based on the document-ation which does e x i s t . Chapter V i s a series of comparisons of works of art by Tom Price and other Haida a r t i s t s , some of which are documented, showing the wide range of styl e s possible i n Haida a r t . In Chapter VI, I begin with documented pieces by Tom Price, and I i s o l a t e design elements, or d i s t i n c t i v e motifs from these works. Then I compare the documented works with other s i m i l a r works i n terms of the design elements, the compositional arrangement of those elements, the types of crests and myths i l l u s t r a t e d , the method of carving or painting, the dates, and the places where the works were collected, and by whom. S t y l i s t i c a l l y the works form a coherent group and the documented information tends to reinforce the hypothesis that they were a l l done by the same man, Tom Price. In addition to c l a r i f y i n g the role of the a r t i s t i n Haida society, and the significance of in d i v i d u a l a r t i s t s * s t y l e s i n Haida a r t , t h i s thesis highlights the a r t i s t i c achievements of one man. This has never been done i n depth V before, and i t i s necessary that i t he done before a more r e a l i s t i c aesthetic appreciation of the art i s possible. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I. PREFACE 1 I I . INTRODUCTION 6 I I I . HAIDA ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY 11 IV. DOCUMENTED INFORMATION ON THE LIFE AND WORKS OF TOM PRICE 23 V. THE DISTINCTIVENESS OF INDIVIDUAL STYLES IN HAIDA ART 32 VI. WORKS ATTRIBUTED TO TOM PRICE ^0 VII. WORKS OF A STYLE SIMILAR TO THAT OF TOM PRICE 86 VIII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 9^ IX. CATALOGUE OF WORKS ATTRIBUTED TO TOM PRICE 98 X. INDEX TO THE CATALOGUE 153 XI. BIBLIOGRAPHY 156 I . PREFACE The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o i d e n t i f y t h e a r t work o f t h e H a i d a I n d i a n a r t i s t Tom P r i c e (c.1860-1927). I t i s n o t y e t g e n e r a l l y r e a l i z e d t h a t H a i d a a r t was p r e d o m i n a n t l y t h e p r o d u c t o f o n l y a s m a l l number o f p r o d u c t i v e a r t i s t s whose i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e s a r e d i s t i n c t l y r e c o g n i z a b l e . T h i s r e a l i z a t i o n became e s p e c i a l l y c l e a r i n 1967 when t h e V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l e r y p r e s e n t e d a c o m p r e h e n s i v e e x h i b i t i o n o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n a r t e n t i t l e d A r t s o f t h e Raven. P r o f e s s o r W i l s o n D u f f o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , B i l l Holm o f t h e Thomas B u r k e M e m o r i a l W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e Museum, and B i l l R e i d who i s h i m s e l f a H a i d a a r t i s t and an a u t h o r i t y on N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n a r t , were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a s s e m b l i n g t h e a r t works f o r t h e show. The l o a n s came f r o m d o z e n s o f museums and p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . When a l l t h e a r t o b j e c t s were b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e show, s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s between some o f t h e works became e v i d e n t . B i l l R e i d s t a t e d i n t h e c a t a l o g u e t o t h e e x h i b i t i o n t h a t * The r e c u r r e n t l y s i m i l a r s t y l e s c a n l e a d o n l y t o t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e h i g h a r t o f t h e r e g i o n was a p r o d u c t o f a few men o f g e n i u s , many o f whom a p p a r e n t l y had l o n g , s l o w l y m a t u r i n g c a r e e r s , , Much c o m p a r a t i v e work must be done t o c o n f i r m o r d i s p r o v e t h i s and o t h e r s p e c u l a t i o n s , b u t a t a w i l d g u e s s i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t d u r i n g t h e N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y , t h e t i m e o f t h e g r e a t e s t f l o w e r i n g o f t h e a r t ,.., t h e g r e a t works came f r o m t h e hands o f t w e n t y o r t h i r t y men, and t h e number c o u l d be much l o w e r . The s u p p o r t o f an a p p r e c i a t i v e community w h i c h gave t h e i r t a l e n t s a n h o n o u r e d p l a c e a s s u r e d 2 time and resources f o r t h e i r impressive output. The names of a few i n d i v i d u a l Haida a r t i s t s (but rarely examples of t h e i r a rt works) had long been recorded in ethno-graphical material from the Northwest Coast; and Marius Barbeau's book, Haida Carvers i n A r g i l l i t e , i s an e a r l i e r study which attempts (unfortunately in a confusing manner) to document the l i v e s and works of several Haida a r t i s t s . But no one before Duff, Holm, and Reid had concentrated primarily on the various styles themselves. The si g n i f i c a n c e of t h e i r ideas i s not only that s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l styles existed, but that the styles of only a few major a r t i s t s dominated Haida ar t . The art st y l e of one man, f o r instance, could influence the a r t of a region f o r decades. Wilson Duff began extensive research into the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of personal styles a f t e r the Arts of the Raven exhibit, focusing his attention on the a r t of Charles Edenshaw, the most well known and outstanding Haida a r t i s t of the l a t e Nineteenth Century. In t h i s thesis I have gathered together several examples of Haida works of a r t which are s t y l i s t i c a l l y s i m i l a r . Since some of these are documented as the work of Tom Price, a known Haida a r t i s t who worked from the 1880's to 1927, I believe that a l l of them are by him. Assuming that B i l l Reid's statement i s correct, Tom Price would appear to be one of the i n d i v i d u a l masters who produced the best Haida a r t . 1Wilson Duff, B i l l Holm, and B i l l Reid, Arts of the Raven (Vancouver! Vancouver Art Gallery, 19^7)• 2Marius Barbeau, Haida Carvers i n A r g i l l i t e (Ottawai National Museum of Canada"^ B u l l e t i n 139, 1957). 3 When I began t h i s thesis, Wilson Duff and B i l l Holm each gathered a number of photographs of Haida art which seemed to them to i l l u s t r a t e the sty l e of Tom Price as they recognized i t at the time. On closer examination I found that t h e i r examples did"not form a s t y l i s t i c a l l y coherent group, but could be broken down into sub groups and probably included works by at l e a s t one a r t i s t i n addition to Tom Price. Working from Marius Barbeau's a t t r i b u t i o n s , from Wilson Duff's a t t r i b u t i o n s , and from B i l l Holm's a t t r i b u t i o n s , I quickly discovered that a common denominator did exist i n some of the pieces and proceed-ed on the basis of t h i s groundwork to gather many other examples to i l l u s t r a t e the st y l e of Tom Price. Assembling the examples of Tom Price's a rt was d i f f i c u l t since Northwest Coast Indian art i n museum c o l l e c t i o n s i s rar e l y documented as to the name of the a r t i s t . That meant that c r i t e r i a f o r i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n of styles had to be determined beforehand. I isolated a set of s p e c i f i c design elements from the small number of works I began with, and i n examining various museum storage c o l l e c t i o n s and exhibits I found these elements i n works which also compared well with my core sample i n terms of composition and subject matter. This study involved t r a v e l l i n g to the B r i t i s h Museum in London, the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde i n Leiden, the Rijks-museum voor Volkenkunde in Rotterdam, the American Museum of Natural History i n New York, the Museum of Primitive Art i n New York, the Heye Foundation Museum of the American Indian i n New York, the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n i n Washington D.C, the 4 U n i v e r s i t y Museum a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a i n P h i l a d e l p h i a , t h e McCord Museum o f M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y i n M o n t r e a l , t h e N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada i n O t t a w a , t h e Thomas B u r k e M e m o r i a l W a s h i n g t o n S t a t e Museum i n S e a t t l e , t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum i n V i c t o r i a , t h e G l e n b o w - A l b e r t a I n s t i t u t e i n C a l g a r y , A l b e r t a , and t h e V a n c o u v e r C e n t e n n i a l C i t y Museum, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y . O t h e r museums were c o n t a c t e d by w r i t i n g , and i n some c a s e s I o b t a i n e d p h o t o g r a p h s o f p i e c e s i n o t h e r museums f r o m t h e p h o t o a r c h i v e s o f t h o s e museums w i t h s u c h f a c i l i t i e s . I n t h i s manner I g a t h e r e d examples f r o m t h e Museum and L a b o r a t o r i e s o f E t h n i c A r t s and T e c h n o l o g i e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , t h e Museum o f t h e Hudson Bay Company i n W i n n i p e g , t h e P e a r s a l l C o l l e c t i o n i n M i a m i , F l o r i d a , t h e S t a d t Museum i n Bremen, Germany, and t h e C h i c a g o F i e l d Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y . Once t h e body o f s t y l i s t i c -a l l y s i m i l a r w o r k s was a s s e m b l e d , i t became e v i d e n t f r o m t h e a v a i l a b l e d o c u m e n t a t i o n t h a t many o f t h e works were c o l l e c t e d i n t h e same p e r i o d , and o r i g i n a t e d i n S k i d e g a t e , w h i c h r e i n f o r c e s t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e y were done by t h e same a r t i s t . I am g r a t e f u l t o P r o f e s s o r W i l s o n D u f f o f t h e D e p a r t -ment o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and D r . Mary M o r e h a r t o f t h e Depar tment o f F i n e A r t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a who a c t e d as t h e s i s a d v i s o r s and who h e l p e d me a g r e a t d e a l i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e f i e l d s o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and F i n e A r t s . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o A u d r e y 5 Hawthorn, Curator of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology f o r a l l o w i n g me constant access to the museum c o l l e c t i o n and f i l e s . The f o l l o w i n g people deserve s p e c i a l mention f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e help i n assembling inform a t i o n f o r the t h e s i s : Dr. Stanley Freed of the American Museum of Natural H i s t o r y , Peter Macnair of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, E l i z a b e t h Carmichael of the B r i t i s h Museum, Lome E. Render of the Glenbow-Alberta I n s t i t u t e , Barbara Chadwick of the McCord Museum of M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , Dr. B a r r i e Reynolds and Dr. W. E. Ta y l o r of the N a t i o n a l Museum of Canada, Dr. Ted Brasser of the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde i n Leiden, J . J . B u f f a r t of the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde i n Rotterdam, B i l l Holm of the Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, George Metcalf and George Phebus of the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n . I am of course a l s o g r a t e f u l to the owners of i n d i v i d u a l works of Haida a r t , who allowed me to use t h e i r possessions as examples i n the t h e s i s . P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s represented are the Charnley c o l l e c t i o n i n S e a t t l e , the Holm c o l l e c t i o n i n S e a t t l e , and the M o f f a t t c o l l e c t i o n i n Vancouver. Above a l l I must thank my Haida informants, some of whom wished to remain anonymous, but e s p e c i a l l y Mrs. Minnie C r o f t , and Mrs. Peter K e l l y who i s the widow .of Tom P r i c e ' s step-son, Rev. Peter K e l l y . Mrs. K e l l y was an e n t h u s i a s t i c and r e l i a b l e informant whose i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and comments were most appreciated. 6 I I . INTRODUCTION Very l i t t l e work has been done on i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t s and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e in Northwest Coast Indian a r t . Much of the d i v e r s i t y i n l o c a l and regional styles can be explained by i s o l a t i n g and examining the works of the dozens of p r a c t i s i n g a r t i s t s - discovering where and when they worked, how much they influenced the art around them, how t r a d i t i o n a l they were in t h e i r a r t , or how innovative. The immediate problem i s to document these i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e s . Appropriately James Ackerman in an a r t i c l e on s t y l e wrote: Because works of art are preserved f o r reasons other than t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l or biographical s i g n i f i c a n c e , they often lose a l l e x t r i n s i c evidence of t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l p o sition so that no record survives of the a r t i s t ( s ) , era, or locale which produced them. But i s o l a t e d fragments of evidence may be extended into a credible h i s t o r i c account by conclusions based.on s t y l e . One signed work may be s u f f i c i e n t to construct the oeuvre of an a r t i s t . ^ Tom Price was an a r t i s t well known to his contempor-a r i e s . He was a Haida Indian of the Queen Charlotte Islands of B r i t i s h Columbia. Because his name and the names of other a r t i s t s are known, and because in d i v i d u a l art styles are evident in the works of Haida art that have been preserved, and because the p o s i t i o n of the a r t i s t within Haida society was one of prestige, i t seems evident that t h i s was not i n any way the "anonymous" art usually associated with "Primitive" peoples. That i s , not every Haida man was an a r t i s t , and not every 3James S. Ackerman, "A Theory of Style", Journal of Aesthetics, 20 (Spring, 1962), p.227. 7 a r t i s t worked i n p r e c i s e l y the manner handed down to him from his elders. Recognized a r t i s t s were commissioned to do a l l major works of a r t , such as totem .poles. Haida a r t , a very sophisticated and varied regional or t r i b a l a r t , i s enriched by a l l the complexities of i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t s ' s t y l e s . This emphasis on i n d i v i d u a l a r t styles i s a very recent phenomenon. Northwest Coast material culture i s being intensely re-evaluated i n terms of i t s purely aesthetic value i n such books as Robert Bruce Inverarity's Art of the Northwest  Coast Indians, and i n B i l l Holm's book, Northwest Coast Indian  Ar.ti An Analysis of Form; and i n such comprehensive art exhibits as the Vancouver Art Gallery's Arts of the Raven, 1967, the Paris exhibit at Musee de l'Homme, Masterpieces of  Canadian Indian and Eskimo Art, 1969 ("this was exhibited i n Ottawa at the National Gallery of Art i n the same year), and the University of B r i t i s h Columbia's exhibit at Man and his World i n Montreal, People of the Potlatch, 1969/70. Scholars are beginning to look f o r information concerning the a r t i s t s in Northwest Coast Indian society but they f i n d l i t t l e r e l i a b l e and documented information on the subject. The reasons f o r the lack of information are h i s t o r i c a l . Art objects have been col l e c t e d from the Northwest Coast Indian t r i b e s since the l a t e Eighteenth Century and the attitudes concerning the art of "Primitive" peoples and the aesthetics involved have changed r a d i c a l l y since that time. Explorers, including Captain James Cook, took large quantities of a r t away as souvenirs. S a i l o r s co l l e c t e d native carving as schrimshaw. Traders recognized the 8 value of the art and espe c i a l l y that of the a r g i l l i t e carvings and sold what they could to private c o l l e c t o r s . Anthropolo-g i s t s did not begin serious c o l l e c t i o n s from t h i s area u n t i l well into the Nineteenth Century. By that time much material was in private c o l l e c t i o n s i n Europe, Russia, and New England. By the turn of the Century the large museums - the American Museum of Natural History i n New York, the National Museum of Canada i n Ottawa, the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n i n Washington D.C, and the Chicago F i e l d Museum of Natural History - were a c t i v e l y accumulating vast quantities of Northwest Coast Indian items for. t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s . But often the material was purchased at a central bargaining point such as Port Simpson or V i c t o r i a , and while items were labeled according to place of o r i g i n , place of o r i g i n unfortunately r a r e l y meant "place where made" but only "place where purchased". Thus the Haida people carved and painted boxes or chests and sold them to several t r i b e s up and down the coast. A Tsimshian person may have sold one of his Haida boxes to a museum c o l l e c t o r , which would r e s u l t in'the box being labeled "Tsimshian" i n the museum records. S i m i l a r l y the T l i n g i t people made Chilkat blankets and traded them extensively. A Tsimshian person may have owned a Chilkat blanket, but i f i t was co l l e c t e d by a museum agent at Port Simpson, i t was ea s i l y mislabeled, again, "Tsimshian". This would not be a serious problem i f records pertaining to items i n the museum c o l l e c t i o n s were complete enough to c l e a r l y state that a piece was made by one t r i b e then sold to and used by another. But gaps i n recorded information 9 lead to f a u l t y implications concerning the true o r i g i n of much of t h i s regional a r t work. Many art works col l e c t e d by the early s a i l o r s and fur traders ended up in museums and private c o l l e c t i o n s labeled simply "Northwest Coast Indian". A r g i l l i t e , the rare black slate which only the Haida had access to and carved, was the most frequently c o l l e c t e d material. But rar e l y , even when a r g i l l i t e carvings were sold by the Indians d i r e c t l y to museum personnel, was information about the a r t i s t himself recorded. This i s b a s i c a l l y because the people who co l l e c t e d f o r the museums in the l a t e Nineteenth Century were anthropologists rather than art h i s t o r i a n s . Their concern was f o r the meanings of the myths and crests i l l u s t r a t e d in the carvings, the functions of the items within the culture, or the types of technology necessary f o r the manufacture of such items. It i s s i g n i f i c a n t that museums of anthropology and natural history and not art museums were c o l l e c t i n g the material. "Primitive a r t " always was, and quite often s t i l l i s , displayed in an anthropological context i n museums of science and natural history. I t was not u n t i l 1939 that Northwest Coast Indian art was exhibited in an art display f o r the f i r s t time i n the Golden Gate International Exposition i n San Francisco.^ It i s my intention i n t h i s study to c l a r i f y the role of the a r t i s t in Haida society, and the significance of in d i v i d u a l a r t i s t s ' s tyles i n Haida art , but i t w i l l also highlight the a r t i s t i c Erna Gunther, Art i n the L i f e of the Northwest Coast Indian (Portland,'Oregon: Portland Art Museum, 1966) p . v i i i . achievements o f one man. T h i s has n e v e r been done i n depth b e f o r e , and i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t i t be done b e f o r e a more r e a l i s t i c a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the a r t i s p o s s i b l e . 11 I I I . HAIDA ART IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY Tom Price worked i n the l a t e Nineteenth and the early-Twentieth Centuries. His art i s generally t y p i c a l of Haida a r t of that period, but Haida art had changed s i g n i f i c a n t l y during the Nineteenth Century due to increasing contact with white culture. Northwest Coast Indian art was not terminated by the drastic e ffects of white contact, but i n some respects a c t u a l l y thrived because of the contact. That statement must be q u a l i f i e d , however, because many t r a d i t i o n a l elements of the art were l o s t , and the art did change i n form and content, yet new forms did evolve based on the t r a d i t i o n a l ones and the r e s u l t was highly successful. What follows i s a b r i e f description of t r a d i t i o n a l Haida a r t with which Tom Price was f a m i l i a r , and then a discussion of the Nineteenth Century modifications of t h i s a r t . Included i n t h i s chapter i s a description of the t r a d i t i o n a l role of the a r t i s t i n Haida society so that one may see exactly i n what s o c i a l as well as a r t i s t i c context Tom Price worked. The Haida people of B r i t i s h Columbia l i v e d i n v i l l a g e s situated i n bays and i n l e t s along the coastline of the Queen Charlotte Islands. They enjoyed a prosperous f i s h i n g economy. Food was e a s i l y acquired and stored f o r an entire year, so there was time f o r a complex development of the a r t s . The Haida l i v e d i n permanent dwellings of impressive size and structure. Large family groups l i v e d i n each cedar house. The most conspicuous art form was that of the totem poles which stood i n front of the houses as v i s u a l symbols of the hereditary 12 and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n of the family within. Each person belonged to either the Eagle or the Raven clan. The clans were m a t r i l i n e a l (a c h i l d inherited membership i n his mother's clan at b i r t h ) and exogamous (one married a member of the opposite clan), and a l l rights to s o c i a l rank and property were inext r i c a b l y bound up i n them. The animal figures carved on the totem poles were clan crests, and the r i g h t to use them was inherited. Like European coats of arms, the crests were not narrative, but were symbolic of the wealth, rank, and status of the family. Canoes, spoons, headdresses, robes, f i s h i n g gear -almost a l l u t i l i t a r i a n and ceremonial objects might be decorated with these crest designs. S u p e r f i c i a l l y i t might seem that t h i s emphasis on s o c i a l representation i n Haida a r t would be r e s t r i c t i n g to the a r t i s t . But there were no r i g i d rules of representation except that a crest figure be recognizable. For the beaver a l l that was required was that the i n c i s o r teeth and t a i l be obvious. A bear was t y p i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d by prominent ears and teeth and claws. A raven's beak was long and straight, a hawk's beak was turned down and under so that i t touched i t s face (which was often shown as a human face), and an eagle's beak was simply turned down. A whale was recognizable because of i t s dorsal f i n and blow hole. Even purely decorative designs without clan symbolism implied were derived from animal forms. But the animal forms were abbreviated. That i s , obvious symbolic elements (the Beaver's t a i l and i n c i s o r teeth etc.) were exaggerated and less important elements were omitted. Objects ranging i n size and 13 shape from a spoon to a totem pole were a l l decorated with the same i d e n t i f i a b l e crest forms, or with decorative patterns based on them. The kind of d i s t o r t i o n necessary to adapt f i g u r a t i v e designs to grounds of a l l sizes and shapes led to s p l i t representation of forms, abstraction of forms, d i s l o c a -t i o n of parts, and multiple v a r i a t i o n s on symmetrical compositions. A pronounced c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Haida art was compositional adaptation to any given ground. As many parts of the animals as possible were depicted at once, including inner organs. Although designs might be so abstracted that they l o s t any coherent representational content, they s t i l l contained elements of animal forms. For example, painted and carved wooden chest designs often seemed purely decorative, yet eye forms and hands (remnants of f i g u r a t i v e designs with symbolic content) can usually be discerned i n the compositions. The f a c t that these chests were often made to s e l l to other t r i b e s may explain t h e i r decorative rather than symbolic value, f o r a s p e c i f i c Haida crest would not have been appropriate f o r an object owned by A tsimshian chief. Not u n t i l the Nineteenth Century did a r g i l l i t e carving become s i g n i f i c a n t . The only source of a r g i l l i t e suitable f o r carving was discovered near Slatechuck Creek at Skidegate Inlet, probably i n the second decade of the Nineteenth Century. It : i s a unique material which i s soft when f i r s t quarried and i s thus e a s i l y worked. But i t hardens with exposure to the a i r and w i l l take a high p o l i s h . ^ A r g i l l i t e was f i r s t used Sutherland Brown, Geology of the Queen Charlotte Islands, 14 fo r schrimshaw carvings which had flourished from the early decades of the century because of contact and trade with European and American s a i l o r s . The work produced in a r g i l l i t e was quite d i s t i n c t from that of the t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t art just discussed. The Haida a r t i s t s such as Tom Price, Charles Edenshaw, John Cross, and others whose names have been recorded a l l l i v e d i n the late Nineteenth and early Twentieth centuries and worked primarily i n a r g i l l i t e . It i s important to understand that these a r t i s t s were aware of and a c t u a l l y s t i l l part of the Haida c u l t u r a l and a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n or heritage (Tom Price and Charles Edenshaw were both chiefs and had made t r a d i t i o n a l objects such as totem poles) but that they were also by 1890 converted Christians who had given up much of the old Haida ways. Then they worked f o r new patrons and each i n his own way strayed considerably from the T r a d i t i o n a l s t y l i s t i c norms. ( B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, B u l l e t i n 54, 1968), p.l?6. "The slate or a r g i l l i t e used f o r carvings by the Haidas i s a f a i r l y unique rock composed of s i l t - s i z e d fragments of k a o l i n i t e and less montmorillonite in a macerated very f i n e carbonaceous clay matrix that forms some k-0% to 75f° of the rock. There i s no d e t r i t a l quartz, and any d e t r i t a l feldspar appears to be altered to k a o l i n i t e . In addition, crudely barrel-shaped grains of k a o l i n i t e with a d i f f e r e n t texture appear to be porphyroblasts that have grown out of the f i n e matrix. The rock has a well-developed f i n e f o l i a t i o n but i s compact unless sharply h i t ... A s i m i l a r rock without the low-grade metamorphism induced by the f o l d i n g and metamorphism by the adjacent Masset Formation would be u n l i k e l y to have the same subtle c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that make the rock desirable for carving." 15 Erna Gunther in her a r t i c l e on a r g i l l i t e noted that these carvings "flourished in a period of s o c i a l disorganization and had no place i n the culture".^ Because i t was art made f o r the outside world i t was not bound by t r a d i t i o n . For example, panel pipes were among the f i r s t objects made of a r g i l l i t e . They were i n t r i c a t e l y carved tobacco pipes, but not at a l l functional. They are c a l l e d panel pipes because they look l i k e carved plaques or panels rather than pipes. In these and other l i t t l e carvings sold as schrimshaw, three-dimensional carvings of white s a i l o r s or mythical animals were incorporated f r e e l y into the compositions. There was great va r i e t y i n subject matter, i n realism, and i n the degree of action represented. They were usually d e l i g h t f u l l y t h e a t r i c a l , and great emphasis was placed on portraiture or caricature of white men. Often white men's faces were carved separately of ivory and glued or pegged on a r g i l l i t e bodies. But i n addition to t h i s , plates, compotes, and p l a t t e r s based on s i l v e r and china patterns that the Indians saw in the white communities were carved i n a r g i l l i t e . Some of the e a r l i e r examples of these were decorated with f l o r a l and geometric designs. Later ones tended to be adorned with the more t r a d i t i o n a l animal motifs and designs. These a r g i l l i t e objects were e a s i l y sold to white people as they were exquisitely done, and they were made as trade objects. Later i n the Nineteenth Century more Erna Gunther, "The Social Disorganization of the Haida as Reflected i n Their A r g i l l i t e Carving", Davidson Journal of  Anthropology, Vol. 2 (1956), p.1^9. 16 emphasis was placed on narrative sculptures based on the Haida mythology. Then, too, there was a sudden appearance of model a r g i l l i t e totem poles, shaman figures, and small a r g i l l i t e chests and boxes. Erna Gunther suggests that t h i s was partly due to the prevalence of museum c o l l e c t o r s i n the late Nine-teenth Century who wanted "authentic" native objects and were w i l l i n g to pay f o r them. Tom Price and his contemporaries carved primarily a r g i l l i t e totem poles, plates, and boxes of t h i s type. The following two examples i l l u s t r a t e a t r a d i t i o n a l Haida art form and an a r g i l l i t e example based on the same art form but which shows a new experimentation with l i n e and with composition. The comparison i s of a large wooden painted and carved box dating probably from the second half of the Nine-teenth Century, and a smaller a r g i l l i t e box approximately 20 by 30 centimeters in size which was probably c o l l e c t e d i n the .1880's. The wooden box i l l u s t r a t e s the very t r a d i t i o n a l painted form of early Haida a r t . There i s horizontal compositional symmetry, an easy t r a n s i t i o n from form to form, and a continuous c u r v i l i n e a r pattern giving a constant i l l u s i o n of movement. Here, as i n most compositions of th i s nature, colours were s t r i c t l y arranged so that black was the primary colour, used only f o r o u t l i n i n g the most important features or the most important part of the design. Red was the secondary B i l l Holm, Northwest Coast Indian Art: An Analysis of Form (Seattlei University o f Washington Press, 1965). p.68. FIGURE 1 Wooden carved and painted "box Photograph courtesy of Wilson Duff National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Catalogue number VII-B-457 The box was collected in Masset in 1901 from Charles Edenshaw by Dr. C. F. Newcombe FIGURE 2 A r g i l l i t e box front Photograph courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History Catalogue number l 6 / l l / 4 9 Negative number 320365 18 colour used f o r areas of less importance. Usually a l l designs were painted i n red and black c o u r v i l i n e a r patterns, as the wooden box i n Figure 1 i s painted, and blue or green, i f used at a l l , were only f o r highl i g h t i n g the most deepset background Q areas. This use of colouring was consistently used in t r a d i t i o n a l Haida art before the l a t t e r half of the Nineteenth Century, whether the objects were painted totem poles, painted canoes, painted boxes, painted masks, or painted garments. On a totem pole the painting accentuates the sculp t u r a l form. In the wooden box i n Figure 1, areas subordinate to the black and red formlines are excavated down so that the formlines stand out i n r e l i e f . The sculpture here accentuates the painted form. The basic design elements or "type forms" i n the wooden box design are the heavy formlines. which loop into large c i r c u l a r areas or ovoids, or which bend into rather squared "U"  shapes. Since the designs on boxes of t h i s type are abstracted so that there are no recognizable crest symbols in the compositions, and since the designs consist repeatedly of arrangements of these same type forms, i t i s quite d i f f i c u l t to di s t i n g u i s h i n d i v i d u a l styles i n these objects. No two boxes are i d e n t i c a l , but they are c e r t a i n l y s i m i l a r i n composition, colouring, and s i z e . The design on the a r g i l l i t e box front in Figure 2 i s B i l l Holm, Northwest Coast Indian Artt An Analysis of Form, p.29. 19 based on the t r a d i t i o n a l form of the painted and carved wooden box designs. But the composition, although i t employs the same design elements, i s not a continuous c u r v i l i n e a r construction based on the movement of the formlines, even though the heavy wide formlines i n t h i s design dominate the composition. The formlines do not inter-connect. They merely outline the ovoids. The arrangement of these isolated shapes becomes more important than the f l u i d i t y of the form-l i n e structure. The only r e l i e f carving i n the a r g i l l i t e box design i s around the eyes. The rest of the design i s delineated by incised l i n e s and cross hatching. Because a r g i l l i t e boxes were trade items there were no r e s t r i c t i o n s placed on the a r t i s t . T r a d i t i o n a l r e l i e f carving, that i s , the clear d e f i n i t i o n and separation of sculpt u r a l planes as seen in the wooden box i n Figure 1 r a r e l y occured i n a r g i l l i t e works. In the l a t e Nineteenth Century many Haida a r t i s t s worked i n s i l v e r and gold jewelry and became experts i n the art of engraving. This i s quite evident i n the scrollwork i n border designs and i n the extensive use of cross-hatching i n much of the l a t e r a r g i l l i t e . The t r a d i t i o n a l c l e a r l y executed r e l i e f sculpture was replaced by graphic design i n most a r g i l l i t e works. A r g i l l i t e was worked as i f i t were a jeweller's a r t . Some t r a d i t i o n a l wooden box designs were painted and not carved. The designs i n that case were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from carved and painted designs except that the dominant formlines were not accentuated by r e l i e f carving. What i s s i g n i f i c a n t about the painted designs i s 20 that the l i n e s (formlines) were the thickness of the brush. The tendency towards graphic design i n l a t e r Nineteenth Century a rt and esp e c i a l l y i n a r g i l l i t e carving meant that p e n c i l - t h i n l i n e s began to dominate Haida design. More often than not the f l u i d i t y of the broad painted l i n e was l o s t i n an interpretation of t r a d i t i o n a l Haida design involving the incised l i n e . Linear angularity, a feature a t y p i c a l of Haida ar t , appeared i n much l a t e Nineteenth Century work i n a r g i l l i t e . I t i s inter e s t i n g that Charles Edensahw mastered techniques of engraving and not only retained the sense of c u r v i l i n e a r compositions of e a r l i e r Haida works but so developed t h i s , even though he worked b a s i c a l l y with incised linework, that his work represents a climax i n Haida a r t . Sim i l a r l y , Tom Price retained the c l a r i t y of t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i e f sculpture, yet his designs are very segmented and angular. Their work i s i n some respects t r a d i t i o n a l , and in some respects not. I prefer to view t h e i r work, which i s the best of t h i s period, as a successful modification and extension of the t r a d i t i o n a l form, rather than a deterioration of that form. It i s important i n studying these i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t s ' s tyles to r e a l i z e that Haida a r t i s t s were s p e c i a l i s t s working within an established t r a d i t i o n of craftsmanship. Alfred Adams, a Haida of Masset, related the following information concerning t h i s to Marius Barbeau i n 1939* Among our people, the Haidas, the same carvers made both the masks, the s p i r i t s (narhnorh), and the totems. There was no difference among them. A 21 good craftsman could undertake anything he wanted. The a r t , however, was not the p r i v i l e g e of common folk ; i t had to be inherited in high society. A carver had to t r a i n his successors to continue his work, but as long as he was able it was his exclusive r i g h t to carve. A carver of totems was a high man. In former times there were men f o r every c a l l i n g ; as some were good speakers, others were makers of totem poles.9 Harry Hawthorn in his a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d , "The A r t i s t i n T r i b a l Society: The Northwest Coa s t " , 1 0 explained that North-west Coast Indian a r t i s t s had no d i s t i n c t i v e dress and no c r a f t language. They did not need to possess supernatural powers as a shaman did. They engaged i n other l i v e l i h o o d s besides carving or painting, except when they were commissioned to do cer t a i n pieces, or when they were working at t h e i r l e i s u r e . Every Haida a r t i s t did have d i s t i n c t i v e tools and templates which he usually manufactured himself. A set of templates, or cut out shapes of large and small ovoids, "U" shapes, and eye forms were standard equipment f o r an a r t i s t (see B i l l Holm, Northwest Coast Indian Art: An Analysis of  Form, page 31» Figure 22 and page 39, Figure 29. f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s of sets of templates). To paint a wooden box, fo r example, the a r t i s t would trace the outlines of the ovoids ^Marius Barbeau, Totem Poles Vol. 2 (Ottawa: National Museum of Canada, B u l l e t i n 119, 1964), p.824. l^Harry Hawthorn, "The A r t i s t i n T r i b a l Society: The Northwest Coast", i n Proceedings of a Symposium at the Royal Anthropological I n s t i t u t e , ed. by Marion Smith (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 196l). 22 and perhaps the eye shapes inside the main ovoids. Then he would connect and define these shapes "by painting the form-l i n e s free hand, t w i r l i n g the brush to accomodate each curve and recurve i n the design. For the most part, only the "U's" and ovoids and eyes would be traced. These are the ubiquitous type forms i n Haida a r t . But the arrangement of these forms within a composition was always a spontaneous creative act. No two sides of a single box design and c e r t a i n l y no two box designs, even by the same a r t i s t , are i d e n t i c a l i n compositional arrangement. That there are no exact copies i n Haida art reinforces the idea that i n d i v i d u a l styles are prevalent in Haida a r t , i n that personal innovation i s inherent i n the art i t s e l f . In the l a t e Nineteenth and early Twentieth Centuries when Boas, Newcombe, Swan, and Swanton were c o l l e c t i n g material f o r the large Eastern museums, there was more than ever a f l o u r i s h i n g a rt trade because of the competition f o r sales to white c o l l e c t o r s as well as f o r l o c a l commissions. Tom Price worked i n t h i s context. His work i s well represented in museum c o l l e c t i o n s i n North America and in Europe, even though i t was never labeled as h i s . But museums repeatedly chose his work (and the work of Charles Edenshaw) from t h e i r bulk of "anonymous" Haida or Northwest Coast Indian material to display, as i n the main case of a r g i l l i t e i n the American Museum of Natural History i n New York which contains predominantly his work. Unconsciously museum workers were s i n g l i n g out the best i n d i v i d u a l styles i n Haida a r t . 2 3 IV. DOCUMENTED INFORMATION ON THE L I F E AND WORKS OF TOM PRICE T h e r e i s some documented i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e l i f e o f Tom P r i c e , t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t o f w h i c h i s h i s t i t l e o f c h i e f o f N i n s t i n t s s i n c e he r e p e a t e d l y u s e d themes and c r e s t s r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o N i n s t i n t s i n h i s work, and h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h p e o p l e l i k e D r . C. F. Newcombe who owned some o f h i s work s i n c e t h i s h e l p s i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f h i s work. The p h o t o g r a p h i n F i g u r e 3 i s l a b e l e d " S k i d e g a t e I n d i a n s Tom P r i c e and J o h n Robson a s c h i e f s , O c t . , 1 9 0 1 . " and " S k i d e g a t e and N i n s t i n t s men Tom P r i c e and J o h n Robson i n C h i l k a t b l a n k e t s and h e a d d r e s s e s . Flemming." The s e c o n d l a b e l i s f r o m l a n t e r n s l i d e X22 i n t h e Newcombe C o l l e c t i o n i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l Museum i n V i c t o r i a . "Flemming" p r o b a b l y r e f e r s t o H a r o l d and E d g a r Flemming who were p h o t o -g r a p h e r s i n V i c t o r i a a t t h e t i m e t h e p i c t u r e was t a k e n . S i n c e t h r e e s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t p h o t o g r a p h s were t a k e n a t t h i s s i t t i n g , a nd s i n c e t h e men were o b v i o u s l y p o s e d a g a i n s t a s t a g e d b a c k d r o p , i t does a p p e a r t o be t h e work o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l p h o t o g r a p h e r . The A m e r i c a n Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y has a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v i e w (A.M.N.H. N e g a t i v e number 4 5 6 0 8 ) i n w h i c h t h e c a r v e d r a v e n r a t t l e i s i n Tom P r i c e ' s hand. The f o l l o w i n g i s a p o s s i b l e r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p h o t o g r a p h . I t i s a l e t t e r t o D r . C. F. Newcombe f r o m J o h n Robson d a t e d May 2 5 » 1 9 0 4 , i n w h i c h Robson s a i d t I want y o u t o s e n d me two o l d f a s h i o n e d P h o t o s t h a t a man on Government S t r e e t ( V i c t o r i a ) 24 took of myself a long time ago. Si m i l a r l y i n another l e t t e r to Dr. Newcombe from John Robson dated August 2k, 1907, Claxton, B r i t i s h Columbia, John Robson said: I want to send you a l e t t e r to t e l l you about the Indian curios picture made f o r you. I ' l l take your o f f e r , that you offered me @ 500 a picture. Please send me two picture that you taken of me with Thos. Price. Please send me the money as soon as you can ... ^ 2 This photograph was p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d by Mrs. Peter K e l l y , Tom Price's daughter-in-law, as being Tom Price and John Robson i n old ceremonial dress. Tom Price was born on Anthony Island at the t i p of Moresby Island, and the Indian name of the place was "Gwai" according to his daughter-in-law. This was near "Skunggwai" which means "red cod island", and there was a v i l l a g e there s i m i l a r l y c a l l e d "red cod island v i l l a g e " . But according to the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum's Anthony Island report: European traders followed the practice of naming each v i l l a g e a f t e r i t s chief. In recent years the main chief of the v i l l a g e was Ninstints (person equal to two) and his name i s the one which has most commonly been used f o r the v i l l a g e . * 3 1 1 L e t t e r , John Robson to Dr. C. F. Newcombe, May 25, 1904, Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n , Correspondence F i l e of "John Robson". 1 2 L e t t e r , John Robson to Dr. C. F. Newcombe, August 24, 1907, Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n , Correspondence F i l e of "John Robson". l^Wilson Duff and Michael Kew, Anthony Island, A Home of the Haidas ( V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c i a l Museum Report f o r the Year 1957), p . C 4 0 . 2 5 FIGURE 3 Left: Tom Price Right: John Robson Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Pro v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. C. F. Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n , Negative number E 1^9. 26 The t i t l e of the chief, that i s , the name "Ninstints", was handed down from uncle to nephew. In t h i s case i t was a t i t l e belonging to the Eagle clan. Again according to the reporti Before the v i l l a g e was deserted i n the 1880's a bearer of the name Ni n s t i n t s was to become one of the two greatest Haida chiefs, sharing with Edenshaw of Masset the unique d i s t i n c t i o n of having given ten p o t l a t c h e s . ^ Edenshaw was also an Eagle chief's t i t l e which was handed down from uncle to nephew. Thus there was more than one. chief Edenshaw and more than one chief N i n s t i n t s . To give ten potlatches would require tremendous wealth and s o c i a l p o s i t i o n , such as few men, even chiefs, possessed. In 1862 a smallpox epidemic which originated i n V i c t o r i a swept the coast of B r i t i s h Columbia. The effect on Indian communities was devastating. By the 1880's the v i l l a g e of Ninstints and the surrounding areas were abandoned completely, and people from Skidegate took i n the survivors. The Anthony Island report again records thati Their chief at that time was E l i j a h Ninstints, successor to the great Ninstints who had given ten potlatches. Dr. Peter K e l l y remembers v i s i t i n g Anthony Island with E l i j a h Ninstints who showed him his wife's remains i n the small b u r i a l house. The old chief's name passed to a nephew, Tom Price, Peter Kelly's step-father. Later i t passed to Timothy T a i t , although some say he never did properly assume the name. On T a i t ' s death nobody claimed the name. 15 Ibid., p.059. Ibid., p.C62. Mrs. Kelly remembers that Tom Price took the name Ninstints sometime a f t e r her marriage i n 1906. That i s , he had long been a resident of Skidegate and a converted Ch r i s t i a n when he assumed the hereditary t i t l e of chief Ninstints. Tom Price worked as a fisherman and boat builder i n Skidegate. There i s also a record of his having been appointed v i l l a g e constable of Skidegate i n 1916. This information i s based on a l e t t e r i n the records of the Indian agency at Masset to Mr. Gibson from Tom Price dated Skidegate, February 3» 1916, i n which Tom Price thanks Mr. Gibson f o r the appointment. But Tom Price also continually worked on a r g i l l i t e carvings and whatever else appealed to him, and he often went to V i c t o r i a and Prince Rupert to s e l l things. One informant said he and John Cross used to go to V i c t o r i a together to s e l l t h e i r things. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g that these two men knew each other and perhaps worked together because t h e i r a rt styles are very s i m i l a r . Tom Price married Sarah, a woman who had a c h i l d by a previous marriage, and they had no children of t h e i r own. Tom Price's step-son was Peter Kelly, who became a very successful 17 and i n f l u e n t i a l Indian minister i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Mrs. Peter K e l l y l i v e s i n Vancouver now and has graciously given me a great deal of information about Tom Price, as she and her 1 DBarbeau, Haida Carvers i n A r g i l l i t e , p.33« 1?Alan Palmer Morely, Roar of the Breakers (Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1967)« This book i s a biography of Rev. Peter Kelly. 28 husband l i v e d i n the same house with Tom Price and his wife Sarah f o r the f i r s t f i v e years of t h e i r marriage, 1906-1910. The photograph below i s a d e a i l from a large group p o r t r a i t taken in Skidegate when Mrs. Kelly was a young g i r l (c.1900). She i d e n t i f i e d nearly every person i n the photograph, and th i s she i d e n t i f i e d as Tom Price. The photograph i s from a miscellaneous c o l l e c t i o n of old photographs in the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology c o l l e c t i o n . FIGURE 4 Photograph of Tom Price Skidegate c.1900 Photograph courtesy of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology 29 Mrs. K e l l y described Tom Price as a very f r i e n d l y , warm person who "never got mad". She also said, "When you talked to him when he was carving he didn't hear you." Other informants referred to his dignity. Although he had no children of his own, he was i n ' e f f e c t the honorary grandfather and was a f f e c t i o n a t e l y c a l l e d "Chee-ni Tom" which means grand-father Tom. He died at Prince Rupert i n 1927 at an estimated age of 66, and he was buried at Skidegate. More p a r t i c u l a r l y , Mrs. Kel l y remembered Dr. C. F. Newcombe and Mr. Landsberg as c o l l e c t o r s of Tom Price's work. Mrs. K e l l y saw the C. P. Smith c o l l e c t i o n i n V i c t o r i a , and i n i t recognized pieces by Tom Price (the Glenbow-Alberta In s t i t u t e a r g i l l i t e poles, 62-62-61, Figure 42, and 62-62-54, Figure 47, came from that c o l l e c t i o n ) . She remembered that Tom Price was fond of whale designs and f i s h designs, and that he frequently used ivory, s h e l l , and abalone inlay i n the eyes and teeth of animals. She described a bear bowl i n accurate d e t a i l to me, then l a t e r i d e n t i f i e d my photograph of a bowl which i s i n the B r i t i s h Museum (1944. Am.2.136, Figure 40) as being that bowl, carved by Tom Price. Other pieces which she i d e n t i f i e d without hesitat i o n as being "his work" were the Glenbow-Alberta Ins t i t u t e plate, 55-6-12, Figure 23? two a r g i l l i t e plates from the National Museum of Canada i n Ottawa, VII-B-762, Figure 14, and VII-B-825, F i g u r e l l ; and an a r g i l l i t e box from the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n , 88998, Figure 9, although she didn't remember ever seeing him carve such boxes. She seemed to think that the Newcombe 30 drawings were by Tom Price as well, Figures 1 9 , 2 1 , 2 2 , 24 - 3 0 , 3 2 , and 3 3 . It must be remembered that Mrs. K e l l y i s an elderly woman r e c a l l i n g things from up to s i x t y years ago. Even so, her information tends to reinforce that from other sources (she was espe c i a l l y accurate with dates), and when she was unsure about anything she asked me not to record i t f o r fear that i t might be incorrect. For example, she thought that the term "daughter-in-law" was not e x p l i c i t because Tom Price was her husband's step-father, and therefore not a blood r e l a t i o n , and the term implied to her a family r e l a t i o n s h i p . I am gra t e f u l f o r her attempts to i d e n t i f y his s t y l e , but I r e a l i z e that she i s not a q u a l i f i e d art c r i t i c of thi s a r t . Another source of information on the l i f e and works of Tom Price are the publications of Marius Barbeau. In his book, Haida Carvers i n A r g i l l i t e , he attempts to record documented information on the l i v e s of Haida a r t i s t s , showing examples of t h e i r works. His at t r i b u t i o n s i n t h i s book and i n his Haida 1 fi Myths I l l u s t r a t e d i n A r g i l l i t e Carvings were based p a r t l y on the opinions of Haidas to whom he showed photographs i n 19^ -7» and p a r t l y on his own impressions. But Barbeau's works contain numerous inaccuracies and inconsistencies. In his section on Tom Price there works which are s t y l i s t i c a l l y so d i s s i m i l a r that i t i s highly u n l i k e l y that they are a l l by the same man. One 'Marius Barbeau, Haida Myths I l l u s t r a t e d i n A r g i l l i t e Carvings (Ottawa* National Museum of Canada, B u l l e t i n 139, 1957). 31 of these i s an a r g i l l i t e plate which Wilson Duff has firmly-attributed to Charles Edenshaw (Haida Carvers i n A r g i l l i t e , Page 4 5 , Figure 5 6 ) . Elsewhere in his book Barbeau has i l l u s t r a t e d works by Tom Price but has attributed them to other carvers. The Smithsonian a r g i l l i t e box which I have i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 9» Barbeau has i l l u s t r a t e d i n Haida  Carvers i n A r g i l l i t e , Page 60, Figure 65. This he has said i s by "Peter Kelly's father" (Tom P r i c e ) . On the page facing t h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n i s the a r g i l l i t e box which I have i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 39 (Barbeau, Page 61 , Figure 6 6 ) . The two boxes are almost i d e n t i c a l in d e t a i l . But Barbeau attr i b u t e s the second box to George Smith. In general Barbeau's summary descriptions of a r t i s t s ' s tyles have some basis of truth. But his sources of information were at times unreliable (he would ask Haida people who did not know the a r t i s t s well and who were not themselves i n any way trained i n art f o r s t y l i s t i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s ) , or else the facts were confused, and he was unsuccessful i n substant-i a t i n g his at t r i b u t i o n s with coherent s t y l i s t i c evidence. With these facts i n mind I w i l l proceed with my own s t y l i s t i c comparisons. 32 V. THE DISTINCTIVENESS OF INDIVIDUAL STYLES IN HAIDA ART There i s a wide range of styl e s i n Haida a r t , some of which are very s i m i l a r to one another, and some of which are d i s t i n c t l y d i s s i m i l a r . The a r g i l l i t e plates i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures 5 and 6 are s t y l i s t i c a l l y very s i m i l a r to each other. They are of s i m i l a r dimensions and proportions. Although the central figures are not of the same subject matter, the unusual placement of them i n a recessed rectangle i s the same i n both plates. One plate i s set i n a wooden frame or base which i s unusual, and the elongated hexagonal forms are also a t y p i c a l of Haida a r t , so that the s i m i l a r i t y between the two plates i s a l l the more s t r i k i n g . Unit f o r unit the two outer compositions are arranged i n an almost i d e n t i c a l fashion. The incised designs are very l i n e a r and somewhat angular. The formlines, ovoids, and "U" shapes are not carved i n r e l i e f but are accentuated only by occasional excavated areas as seen around the eyes of the faces at the top and bottom of each rectangle. One never finds two i d e n t i c a l compositions i n Haida a r t unless they were meant as a pa i r . The close s i m i l a r i t y of the compositional elements and compositional arrangement i n these two plates i s uncommon. There are l o c a l and regional Haida art styles i n which one finds c e r t a i n s t y l i z e d design elements and p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l crests or myths prevalent i n a l l the art of the area. But i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e s s t i l l p e r s i s t . Some styles are l i n e a r and angular while some are c u r v i l i n e a r . Some a r t i s t s carved more deeply than others, and some used only 33 graphic i n c i s i o n . The plates i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures 5 and 6 are unusually s i m i l a r i n technical execution as well as i n design. I would guess that they are by the same a r t i s t , since the styles of John Cross and Tom Price who worked i n close proximity to each other, using the same angular design elements, and often i l l u s t r a t i n g the same themes in t h e i r a r t , are less a l i k e than the styles of these two plates. FIGURE 5 A r g i l l i t e plate in wooden base Photograph courtesy of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology Catalogue number A6973 Central figure i s a shaman FIGURE 6 A r g i l l i t e plate Photograph by courtesy of the B r i t i s h Museum Catalogue number 196l.Am.4.3 Central figure i s a salmon 3k The drawing i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 8 i s of a tattoo design that was done fo r John R. Swanton by John Cross of Skidegate. In t h i s design the eye of the whale, the f i n s , and the t a i l are f i r m l y drawn, but the i n t e r i o r and connective l i n e s of the design are somewhat sketchy and sparse i n d e t a i l . In view of the f a c t that Haida a r t i s t s often began a compo-s i t i o n by tracing the ovoids- and "U's" from templates, i t seems possible that the traced forms could dominate the design unless the o v e r a l l composition were developed around these forms. Here these traced forms do dominate the composition. The r i b s of the whale in the drawing are not at a l l attached to any formline, and the stomach i s defined by a single l i n e . Usually the parts of Haida designs, even in drawings, are interconnected with a great deal of complexity and f l u i d i t y . The painted drum i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 7 contains a f u l l e r composition, and t h i s i s probably p a r t l y due to the medium, as the drum i s painted and the tattoo design i s done i n pencil or crayon. The basic ovoids and "U" shapes i n the two designs are quite s i m i l a r i n shape and proportion. Likewise the s t r u c t u r a l arrangement of these shapes to form the head, f i n and t a i l of each animal i s s i m i l a r . In a case such as t h i s with one piece being c l e a r l y documented and attributed to a s p e c i f i c a r t i s t , I f e e l j u s t i f i e d i n a t t r i b u t i n g the other piece to the same a r t i s t on the basis of the comparison. It i s int e r e s t i n g to compare the John Cross drawing to the drawing qf the k i l l e r whale i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 28, which I believe to be by Tom Price. The basic format of the two 35 d e s i g n s i s q u i t e s i m i l a r . The e l o n g a t e d r e c t a n g u l a r "U" s h a p e s o f t h e f i n s o f "both a n i m a l s , and t h e e l o n g a t e d f l a t t e n e d o v o i d s i n t h e t a i l s and f i n s a r e v e r y s i m i l a r d e s i g n e l e m e n t s , b u t t h a t i s where t h e s i m i l a r i t y e n d s . The i n n e r p o r t i o n o f t h e Tom P r i c e k i l l e r w hale i s f i l l e d w i t h a c o n t i n u o u s p a t t e r n o f s h a p e s c o n n e c t e d by f o r m l i n e s . The d e s i g n e l e m e n t s f l o w f r o m one i n t o t h e n e x t , and t h e r e a r e no a b r u p t j u n c t u r e s a s e a c h f o r m l i n e t a p e r s t o a p o i n t j u s t b e f o r e m e e t i n g a n o t h e r l i n e . The J o h n C r o s s d r a w i n g i s l i n e a r and s p a r s e i n d e t a i l i n c o m p a r i s o n . I have n o t i l l u s t r a t e d any examples o f J o h n C r o s s ' a r g i l l i t e , b u t h i s p l a t e s and model t o t e m p o l e s a r e o f t e n s u p e r f i c i a l l y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f Tom P r i c e , i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r as w e l l as i n d e s i g n e l e m e n t s and c o m p o s i t i o n . I t i s b a s i c a l l y Tom P r i c e ' s d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m p o s i t i o n and f u l l n e s s o f f o r m w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s them. The a r g i l l i t e box s e e n i n F i g u r e 1 0 w h i c h f o l l o w s i s a t t r i b u t e d t o C h a r l e s Edenshaw by P r o f e s s o r W i l s o n D u f f , and by H i l l Holm. I t i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n B i l l Holm's book, N o r t h w e s t  C o a s t I n d i a n Art> An A n a l y s i s o f Form, F i g u r e 2 . I t e x e m p l i -f i e s i n t r i c a t e l i n e work and a s t r o n g c u r v i l i n e a r c o m p o s i t i o n . The i n c i s e d l i n e s r e t a i n t h e f l u i d s e n s e o f movement t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e d t r a d i t i o n a l c o m p o s i t i o n s ( F i g u r e 1 ) b a s e d on f o r m -l i n e s t r u c t u r e . The c o m p o s i t i o n f i l l s t h e r e c t a n g u l a r g r o u n d i n an i n g e n i o u s manner. I t i s b a s i c a l l y a g r a p h i c s t y l e , however, and has s t r o n g o v e r t o n e s o f t h e j e w e l l e r ' s a r t o f e n g r a v i n g . The c r o s s h a t c h i n g i s so f i n e as t o be a l m o s t i m p e r c e p t i b l e . The a r e a s i n h i g h r e l i e f s w e l l up o u t o f t h e 36 FIGURE ? Painted drum, red and black Photograph courtesy of the University of British Columbia Museum of Anthropology Catalogue number A4257 Eagle and ki l ler whale design FIGURE 8 Drawing of a tatoo design Plate XX, Figure 11 of Swanton's Contributions to  The Ethnology of the Haida Ki l ler whale design f l a t ground and the sculptural forms are subtle and rounded, being consistent with the o v e r a l l composition. Tom Price's solution to a s i m i l a r a r t i s t i c problem i s seen i n Figure 9» The box i s attributed to "Peter Kelly's father" i n the records of the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n and i s s i m i l a r l y attributed to Tom Price i n Barbeau's Haida Carvers  i n A r g i l l i t e (Figure 65, Page 60). It i s possible that the museum labeled the box on the basis of Barbeau's a t t r i b u t i o n . But Mrs. Peter K e l l y also i d e n t i f i e d the box as being "his work". No one of these a t t r i b u t i o n s i s e n t i r e l y r e l i a b l e , but three such a t t r i b u t i o n s tend to confirm the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . In t h i s box Tom Price has conspicuously used the t r a d i t i o n a l design elements or type forms of the ovoid, the "U" shape, and the s p l i t "U" shape (those "U" forms with a d i v i d i n g l i n e inside them). On the end of the box a face i n low r e l i e f i s defined by the grouping of these ovoids and "U's" and a double row of teeth which are outlined by strong formlines which gracefully intersect each other. Tom Price's composition i s d e f i n i t e l y an additive arrangement of angular shapes rather than one of c u r v i l i n e a r s p i r a l i n g . There i s a clear and consistent d e f i n i t i o n of sculptural planes. The design i s handled i n terms of low r e l i e f sculpture, not graphic design. Rather than a high r e l i e f figure emerging from an incised surface design as i n the hawk's beak i n Figure 10, Tom Price has a high r e l i e f figure boldly j u t t i n g out from a low r e l i e f ground. Tom Price's work seems to be quite unique i n Haida a r t because of i t s angularity and i t s tendency toward a FIGURE 9 A r g i l l i t e box Photograph courtesy of the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n Catalogue number 88998 The projecting figure i n front i s a bear FIGURE 10 A r g i l l i t e box Photograph courtesy of Wilson Duff B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia C a t a l o g u e number 10622 geometrical patterning of shapes. Haida art i s traditionally-spontaneous i n f e e l i n g , and i s usually completely c u r v i l i n e a r . In t h i s repsect Edenshaw*s box design i s more t r a d i t i o n a l . But Tom Price adheres to the t r a d i t i o n a l low r e l i e f sculpture of the painted and carved wooden chests which, as seen i n Figure 1, was o r i g i n a l l y to accentuate the heavy black form-l i n e s which dominated that kind of composition. Each a r t i s t has developed an i n d i v i d u a l s t y l e based on the t r a d i t i o n a l a r t which he was f a m i l i a r with, but each has created a new and unique form i n so doing. I agree with B i l l Holm that: I t seems that every Haida a r t i s t of any consequence was an innovator and each developed his own d i s t i n c t i v e handling of form and space within the prescribed system.19 These examples i l l u s t r a t e the distinctiveness of the in d i v i d u a l styles within the framework of that system. B i l l Holm, Northwest Coast Indian Art: An Analysis of Form, p.24. 40 V I . WORKS ATTRIBUTED TO TOM PRICE The p l a t e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 11 i s a documented p i e c e by Tom P r i c e . I t i s i n t h e N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada i n Ottawa and i s a t t r i b u t e d t o Tom P r i c e i n t h e museum c a t a l o g u e r e c o r d s . I t i s s i m i l a r l y a t t r i b u t e d t o Tom P r i c e by B a r b e a u i n H a i d a C a r v e r s i n A r g i l l i t e , F i g u r e 57» Page 46. The s h e l l o r i v o r y i n l a y a r o u n d t h e b o r d e r i s a f e a t u r e w h i c h Mrs. K e l l y m e n t i o n e d as b e i n g common i n Tom P r i c e ' s work. T h i s was one o f t h e p l a t e s she i d e n t i f i e d a s b e i n g " h i s work". The c o m p o s i t i o n i s s t r u c t u r e s i n a v e r y g e o m e t r i c a l f a s h i o n . T h e r e i s a d i s t i n c t a n g u l a r i t y and c l a r i t y o f s h a p e s w i t h i n t h e c o m p o s i t i o n , b u t t h e y a r e a r r a n g e d i n a c o n n e c t i v e and i n t e r -l o c k i n g p a t t e r n . The f o r m l i n e s sometimes a l m o s t d i s s o l v e b etween t h e s h a p e s , b u t one c a n f o l l o w t h e u n b r o k e n f o r m l i n e s t h r o u g h . t h e l a b y r i n t h e o f s h a p e s . E a c h f o r m y i e l d s and merges i n t o t h e n e x t , two l a r g e c i r c l e s a t t h e t o p o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n merge i n t o t h e f o r m l i n e s a r o u n d t h e e y e s . The f o r m l i n e s t h a t d e f i n e t h e "U's" and s p l i t "U's" t a p e r down a t t h e ends so t h a t t h e y merge i n t o t h e f o r m l i n e s t h a t t h e y meet. T h i s v e r y s o p h i s t i c a t e d b l e n d i n g o f s h a p e s r e s u l t s i n a s u c c e s s f u l f l u i d i t y o f d e s i g n w h i c h i s a l l t h e more r e m a r k a b l e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e a n g u l a r i t y o f t h e components o f t h e d e s i g n . The box i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 9 » a l s o a documented p i e c e by Tom P r i c e , i s s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r t o t h e p l a t e i n F i g u r e 11 i n d e s i g n e l e m e n t s , c o m p o s i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , and i n t h e method o f low r e l i e f c a r v i n g e mployed. A g a i n , t h e d e s i g n s a r e h a n d l e d i n t e r m s o f low r e l i e f s c u l p t u r e , n o t g r a p h i c FIGURE 11 A r g i l l i t e plate with s h e l l or ivory-inlay border Photograph courtesy of the National Museums of Canada Catalogue number VII-B-825 42 i n e i s i o n . The plate i n Figure 11 i s quite l i k e t r a d i t i o n a l wooden carved box fronts i n composition. The following are design elements, or type forms, which appear to be basic, taken from the documented pieces i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures 9 and 11. They are unique elements which can be described as diagnostic of Tom Price's s t y l e . The raised s p l i t "U" form i n which the l i n e i t s e l f becomes a sculptural shape, i s a t y p i c a l of Haida a r t i n general, as are the elongated ovoids and the angular rather than rounded "U" shapes. Angularity i n design elements or i n compositional structure was rare, even i n t h i s late period of Haida a r t i n which innovation was quite common. The three a r g i l l i t e plates i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures 13 i 14 and 15 are quite s i m i l a r to one another i n composition and in.subject matter. Those i n Figures 13 and 14 were both c o l l e c t e d f o r the National Museum of Canada by Dawson in 1885. The angular s p l i t "U" forms, the crescent c i r c l e s (even used i n the eyes), the elongated ovoids reliev e d by crescents, and the p r o f i l e faces within the ovoids are a l l quite s i m i l a r elements to the ones i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 12. Each of these composi-tions i s structured by the careful arrangement of exactly these type forms. There i s considerable v a r i e t y i n proportions of the ovoids and "U's", i n the numbers of these shapes used i n each design,.and i n the placement of the various shapes. This i s a complex and i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d a r t style evidenced by the endless v a r i e t y i n handling of even the most s i m i l a r types of compositions. On the basis of the comparison of these plates A. C r e s c e n t c i r c l e m o t i f B. P r o f i l e f a c e w i t h i n an o v o i d C. E l o n g a t e d o v o i d r e l i e v e d D. R a i s e d s p l i t "U" shape by a c r e s c e n t shape E . A n g u l a r s p l i t "U" shape F. E l o n g a t e d a n g u l a r s p l i t "U" shape FIGURE 12 D e s i g n e l e m e n t s o r t y p e f o r m s t a k e n f r o m documented c o m p o s i t i o n s by Tom P r i c e FIGURE 13 A r g i l l i t e plate, wasco design (mythical sea wolf) Photograph courtesy of the National Museum of Canada Catalogue number VII-B-76O FIGURE 14 A r g i l l i t e plate, k i l l e r whale design Photograph courtesy of Wilson Duff National Museum of Canada Catalogue number VII-B-762 45 FIGURE 15 A r g i l l i t e plate, k i l l e r whale design Photograph courtesy of the Museum and Laboratories of Ethnic Arts and Technologies, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles Catalogue number X65-7478 with the documented pieces i n Figures 9 and 11, I would attr i b u t e these to Tom Price. The plate i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 16 was collected by E. G. Salmon in V i c t o r i a i n 1882. The plate i n Figure 17 was collected by Dr. J. W. Powell between 1880 and 1883. These designs are again made up of the same angular "U" shapes and elongated ovoids. But the compositions are quite d i f f e r e n t from the examples just seen i n Figures 13» 14, and 15, which were c l e a r l y f i g u r a t i v e . The round plate i n Figure 17 i s decorated with a sculpin design (a sculpin i s a small spiny f i s h ) . The animal's head i s recognizable, but the rest of the body i s disjointed and spread out around the rosette i n the 46 FIGURE 16 A r g i l l i t e plate, double whale design Photograph courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History Catalogue number T/22712 FIGURE 17 A r g i l l i t e plate, sculpin design Photograph courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History Catalogue number 16/882 center i n much the same way as painted hat designs conform to the conical shape of the hat (one such hat i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 31) . The large crescent c i r c l e s used i n the t a i l f i n of the sculpin are used also as eyes i n the two whales i n the 47 plate i n Figure 16. The rows of teeth i n the facing heads of the two whales are the only non-abstract components of the t o t a l design. .The whales meet face on, t h e i r "bodies go around the outside rim of the plate on each side, and t h e i r t a i l f i n s turn up and meet in the center under t h e i r heads. The e a s i l y recognizable animals just seen i n Figures 13, 1 4 , and 15, B i l l Holm would describe as "configurative". These compositions i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures 16 and 17 he would describe as "expansive": When an animal i s distorted, s p l i t , and rearranged to f i t the given space, but the i d e n t i t y of the e s s e n t i a l parts i s apparent and to some extent t h e i r anatomical r e l a t i o n s h i p to one another i s maintained, the r e s u l t i n g arrangement can be considered an example of expansive d e s i g n . 2 0 Again, because of the s i m i l a r i t y between the design elements i n the plates i n Figures 16 and 17 and those of the documented pieces i n Figures 9 and 11, and because of the d i s t i n c t i v e arrangement of only these design elements to form the bodies of animals, these too can be attributed to Tom Price. Two a r g i l l i t e plates which I could not i l l u s t r a t e are also from the American Museum of Natural History c o l l e c t i o n , and are very s i m i l a r i n design and composition to the plates i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures 15 and 1 7 . A.M.N.H. 16/605 i s a round a r g i l l i t e plate with a whale design very nearly l i k e that of the whale i n the plate i n Figure 15, wrapped around the inside rim of the c i r c u l a r ground. It i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Franz Boas* B i l l Holm, Northwest Coast Indian Art: An Analysis of Form, p. 2 1 . 48 2 1 P r i m i t i v e A r t , F i g u r e 240, Page 2 3 4 , and i n B a r b e a u ' s H a i d a  C a r v e r s i n A r g i l l i t e , F i g u r e 4 l , Page 51. A.M.N.H. 1 6 / 6 1 1 i s a r o u n d a r g i l l i t e p l a t e w i t h a s e a b e a r d e s i g n a r r a n g e d much l i k e t h e s c u l p i n d e s i g n i n F i g u r e 1?. I t i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n B o a s ' P r i m i t i v e A r t . F i g u r e 246, Page 258, and i n B a r b e a u ' s H a i d a C a r v e r s i n A r g i l l i t e . F i g u r e 42, Page 52. B o t h p l a t e s were c o l l e c t e d b etween 1880 and I 8 8 3 by P o w e l l , a s was t h e p l a t e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 17. B o t h were a t t r i b u t e d t o Tom P r i c e by B a r b e a u , as was t h e p l a t e i n F i g u r e 17. Dr . C. F. Newcombe o f V i c t o r i a , an a m a t e u r a n t h r o p o l -o g i s t and n a t u r a l i s t who i n h i s l i f e t i m e a c c u m u l a t e d a n i m p r e s s i v e c o l l e c t i o n o f N o r t h w e s t C o a s t I n d i a n m a t e r i a l , had among h i s c o l l e c t i o n a s k e t c h book o f d e s i g n s done i n c o l o u r e d p e n c i l by J o h n Robson ( J o h n Robson's name was on t h e c o v e r a n d t h e book i s c a t a l o g u e d i n t h e Newcombe C o l l e c t i o n a s b e i n g by h i m ) . Dr. Newcombe had w i t h t h e s e d r a w i n g s a n o t h e r s k e t c h book c o n t a i n i n g t w e l v e H a i d a c r e s t d e s i g n s , r e c o g n i z a b l y by a hand o t h e r t h a n J o h n Robson's. I n t h e Newcombe C o l l e c t i o n c a t a l o g u e t h i s book i s l a b e l e d a s b e i n g f r o m S k i d e g a t e b u t t h e r e i s no o t h e r documented i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e d r a w i n g s . The u n l a b e l e d s e t o f d r a w i n g s owned by D r . C. F. Newcombe a r e s i m i l i a r l y composed o f a n g u l a r "U" s h a p e s and e l o n g a t e d o v o i d s , b u t t h e f o r m s a r e more d e l i c a t e and t h e l i n e s t h i n n e r and more a t t e n u a t e d t h a n i n t h e a r g i l l i t e c o m p o s i t i o n s a t t r i b u t e d t o Tom P r i c e . T h i s c o u l d be due t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e medium, a s t h e s e 2 l F r a n z B o as, P r i m i t i v e A r t (New Y o r k i D o v e r P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1955)* 49 are p e n cil drawings. I think i t i s f a i r to a t t r i b u t e the drawings to Tom Price on a s t y l i s t i c basis since they seem to be cle a r statements of the kinds of compositions thus f a r discussed. The photograph of John Robson and Tom Price i n Figure 1 was probably arranged f o r by Dr. Newcombe as John Robson's l e t t e r to him suggested. I t confirms the fac t that Newcombe knew both men. He also l e f t scattered notes concerning works he commissioned John Robson to do f o r him, as well as notes about Tom Price's lineage and relat i o n s h i p to Ninstints. I t i s not un l i k e l y then that Newcombe would have in his possession works of art by both men. The subject matter reinforces the impression that Newcombe's unlabeled drawings are by Tom Price because the drawings i l l u s t r a t e predominantly Eagle clan crests and one s p e c i f i c crest from Ninstints (the f i v e finned black k i l l e r whale). Tom Price as Eagle chief of Ninstints may have had a strong preference f o r such crests. On the basis of a l l t h i s information I att r i b u t e the drawings to Tom Price. The covered a r g i l l i t e compote i n the shape of an eagle, i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 18, i s unusual f o r i t i s c e r t a i n l y a foreign or non-Indian form, but i t has been adapted to t r a d i t i o n a l Haida design. The sea bear design on the l i d i s a clear example of "expansive" composition. The n a t u r a l i s t i c eagle form i s covered with abstract " d i s t r i b u t i v e " design ( B i l l Holm's term f o r t o t a l l y d i s j o i n t e d and abstracted compositions). Oddly, a face decorates the eagle's t a i l . The genius of the composition i s that these heterogeneous elements are t i e d 50 together by a continuous sense of pattern and design. (The wing t i p s have been broken and f i l e d smooth - the completed design i s severed and would never have ended as abruptly as t h i s . ) The angular "U's", p r o f i l e faces, and raised s p l i t "U's" are the same as those elements abstracted from the documented pieces by Tom Price, seen i n Figure 12. Tom Price seems to use the same design units repeatedly but with great var i e t y i n "configurative" or " d i s t r i b u t i v e " or "expansive" compositions. In a l l his compositions and designs he shows a great preference f o r oversized faces shown f r o n t a l l y , with large eyes, squared ears, and broad grins. The drawing i n Figure 19 and the s i l v e r brooch i n Figure 20, both of which are beaver designs, and which are s i m i l a r i n d e t a i l and composition to one another, exemplify the predominance of faces i n Tom Price's compositions. As i n the sea bear design on the l i d of the compote i n Figure 18, the beavers' faces are more than half the size of the bodies. The drawings i n Figures 21 and 22 are also examples of "expansive" compositions. The type of s p l i t representation used i n the compositions i s that frequently used i n other works which I believe to be by Tom Price. The faces are shown f r o n t a l l y , but the bodies are s p l i t along the backbone. The faces are also consistently very much larger than the other parts of the bodies. Again, as seen i n Figures 23» 24 and 25, faces dominate the compositions. These designs are a l l s i m i l a r examples of s p l i t representation. The handling of the eyes i n Figures 23 and 25 i s almost i d e n t i c a l . In these and i n previous examples, FIGURE 18 A r g i l l i t e eagle compote with sea bear design on l i d Photograph courtesy of the National Museums of Canada Pearsall C o l l e c t i o n , Miami, F l o r i d a Red and black pencil drawing, beaver design Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia Catalogue number 1166, Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n 52 FIGURE 20 S i l v e r brooch with gold inlay eyes, beaver design Photograph courtesy of Mrs. Robert Davidson Skeena Treasure House, Hazelton, B.C. whether the eyes are small and round or long and sleek, the formline surrounding the ovoid containing the eye always drops down at the cheek and loops around to define the mouth as well. The long tapered "fingers" on a l l three animals are quite s i m i l a r . In the a r g i l l i t e plate in Figure 23 the negative space between the hands (the cross hatched area) i s a c a r e f u l l y designed shape. This i s an exceptionally well designed composition because of i t s c l a r i t y , balanced symmetry, and strong angular rhythm. The design elements are exactly the same as the ones which I abstracted from the documented works by Tom Price and i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 12. This plate i s one of the ones which Mrs. Kelly described as "his work". FIGURE 21 Red and black pencil drawing, dog f i s h or shark design (note the g i l l s l i t s i n the cheeks) Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Pr o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Catalogue number 1166, Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n FIGURE 22 Red and black p e n c i l drawing labeled as "zom oose" or " l i v i n g log" Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Pr o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Catalogue number 1166, Newcombe C o l l e c t i o n FIGURE 23 A r g i l l i t e plate, sea bear or dragon f l y design (variously attributed to d i f f e r e n t animals) Photograph courtesy of Wilson Duff Glenbow-Alberta In s t i t u t e , Calgary Catalogue number 55-6-12 FIGURE 24 Red and black pencil drawing, sea g r i z z l y bear design Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Provincial Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Catalogue number 1 1 6 6 , Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n FIGURE 25 Red and black pencil drawing, frog design Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Provincial Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Catalogue number 1 1 6 6 , Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n What follows i s a closer examination of the drawings done f o r Dr. C. F. Newcombe. It i s apparent that the unfinished drawing i n Figure 26 was begun by tracing templates of ovoids. The formlines of the body outline and of the f i n s are done free hand. This i s an unfinished outline of a f i v e -finned black k i l l e r whale. The f i v e f i n s are simply very elongated "U's". These proportionately long and thin shapes, as well as the elongated ovoids resemble the design elements of the documented works of Tom Price, i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 12. The completed drawing i n Figure 27 has a si m i l a r outline or formline structure which has then been f i l l e d i n with inner ovoids, p r o f i l e faces, and inner "U's". These secondary forms are drawn i n red, ..whereas the formlines are i n t r a d i t i o n a l black. The crescent shape i n the ovoid of the eye of the animal i n Figure 29 i s again s i m i l a r to previous examples. The completed drawing i s of a sea otter, so an ear and teeth have been added, and there are no f i n s . But the compositions are very close regardless of subject matter. These drawings well i l l u s t r a t e the a r t i s t ' s method of constructing a design. The drawings i n Figures 28, 29» and JO are very s i m i l a r to one another i n composition. Figures 28 and 29 are drawings of whales, as i s evident i n the rendering of spouting blow holes. In Figure 28 the teeth are accurately depicted as baleen, whereas the sharp teeth of the whale i n Figure JO indicates that i t i s a k i l l e r whale. The creature i l l u s t r a t e d in Figure 29 i s a sculpin, It i s int e r e s t i n g that an upside down face with d i s t i n c t eyes, ears and a pointed nose i s used 57 FIGURE 26 Red and black pencil drawing, five-finned black k i l l e r whale Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Pr o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Catalogue number 1166, Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n FIGURE 27 Red and black pencil drawing, sea otter design Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Pr o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Catalogue number 1166, Newcombe Col l e c t i o n as a f i l l e r design within the body of the sculpin. These animals are leaping and diving, and the f i n s and especially the t a i l f i n s emphasize the whiplash movement. In the sculpin design each spine stabs back at the next one, then the t a i l f i n makes the c i r c l e complete by d i r e c t i n g the v i s u a l thrust back to the head. A s i m i l a r d i r e c t i o n a l thrust occurs in the f i n back design, but here the powerful impact i s due to 58 FIGURE 28 Red and black pencil drawing, whale design Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Pr o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Catalogue number 1 1 6 6 , Newcombe Colle c t i o n FIGURE 2 9 Red and black pencil drawing, sculpin design Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Pr o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Catalogue number 1 1 6 6 , Newcombe Col l e c t i o n FIGURE 3 0 Red and black pencil drawing, f i n back or black f i s h (that i s , a k i l l e r whale with two dorsal f i n s ) Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Pr o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Catalogue number 1 1 6 6 , Newcombe Col l e c t i o n 59 the compact compositional arrangement of the f i n s and t a i l . The formline that defines the backbone of the f i n back i s a strong t i g h t arc, whereas i n the other two drawings the body formlines are more gra c e f u l l y curved l i n e s . There i s deliberate and ingenious v a r i e t y i n these very s i m i l a r compositions. Using the Newcombe drawings f o r comparison, i t i s then easy to i d e n t i f y painted works by Tom Price. The painted design elements and the compositional arrangement of those elements i n the hat i n Figure 31 i s quite s i m i l a r to the drawing i n Figure 32. The comparison of the wasco drawing i n Figure 32 with the painted wolf design on one of the hats i s exceptionally close. They are almost i d e n t i c a l i n form and d e t a i l , except that the wasco holds a whale on i t s back. The wasco i s a mythical sea monster, or sea wolf which was large enough to capture whales i n i t s teeth. It i s usually depicted with a whale i n i t s teeth and a whale held on i t s back by i t s wolf-li k e t a i l . I would c e r t a i n l y a t t r i b u t e the hat in Figure 31 to Tom Price on the basis of t h i s comparison. Tom Price was evidently very consistent i n his method of composition and i n his choice of design units . But the f a c t that no two designs are i d e n t i c a l i s s i g n i f i c a n t . Each design i s a new arrangement, a new v a r i a t i o n on a theme. The drawings here are i n t e r n a l l y ordered, and the t r a d i t i o n a l colour symbolism holds true i n that black i s the primary colour and red i s the colour used f o r inner forms and secondary elements i n the designs. • His i s a very expressive and l i v e l y a r t form, i n spite FIGURE 31 Red and black and blue painted spruce root hat, wolf design Photograph courtesy of B i l l Holm Charnley C o l l e c t i o n , Seattle FIGURE 32 Red and black pencil drawing, wasco design (mythical sea wolf) Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Pr o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Catalogue number 1166, Newcombe Coll e c t i o n 61 of the formal a b s t r a c t i o n . The tension of l i n e and the m u l t i p l i c i t y of compositional arrangements make i t so. The f o l l o w i n g i s an e x c e l l e n t example of t o t a l l y a b s t r a c t forms expressing the l i v i n g essence of the animal depicted. Two sinuous l i n e s define the f l e s h y sides of the skate, merge with the cur v i n g spine, then are ab r u p t l y h a l t e d by the f l a t t e n e d ovoid, and the jagged l a s t j o i n t , the s t i n g , lashes back around. Just a few l i n e s express the undulating movement the animal's body would make i n the water. The slender, g r a c e f u l body l i n e s c o n t r a s t sharply with the t h r u s t of the t a i l . FIGURE 33 Red and black p e n c i l drawing, skate design Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C., Catalogue number 1166, Newcombe C o l l e c t i o n FIGURE 34 A r g i l l i t e box, sea bear design Photograph courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History Catalogue number 1 6 / 6 8 7 This box has again the squarish "U" shapes, s p l i t "U" shapes, elongated ovoids relieved by crescents, and crescent c i r c l e motifs which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Tom Price's work. The sea bear design i s quite s i m i l a r i n d e t a i l to that of the a r g i l l i t e plate in Figure 23, e s p e c i a l l y i n the tapered "fingers" and the curled nose. The careful structuring of the geometric shapes and the strong r e l i e f carving produces a rhythmic v i t a l i t y . And here again, an oversized face dominated the otherwise abstract composition. Therefore I attr i b u t e t h i s , too, to Tom Price. FIGURE 35 A r g i l l i t e box, front and back, abstracted design t y p i c a l of t r a d i t i o n a l wooden carved boxes Photographs courtesy of Wilson Duff American Museum of Natural History Catalogue number T/22717 64 FIGURE 36 Carved wooden chief's seat, belonged to Captain Gold of Gold Harbour, Skidegate, back and one side, abstracted box design Photographs courtesy of Wilson Duff Chicago F i e l d Museum of Natural History Catalogue number 79595 F I G U R E 37 A r g i l l i t e b o x , f r o n t a n d b a c k , a b s t r a c t e d d e s i g n t y p i c a l o f t r a d i t i o n a l c a r v e d wooden b o x e s P h o t o g r a p h s c o u r t e s y o f t h e S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t e C a t a l o g u e number 89002 66 FIGURE 38 A r g i l l i t e box Photograph courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History Catalogue number 16/686 The compositions of the boxes i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures 351 371 and 38 are very s i m i l a r to one another. It takes careful observation to r e a l i z e that the boxes seen i n Figures 35 and 38 are not i d e n t i c a l . The type forms, again l i k e those from documented works by Tom Price i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 12, are i d e n t i c a l ; i t i s only in the arrangement of forms that there are differences. In a l l three of these boxes the cross hatching i s the same. It i s firm, and the l i n e s are widely spaced and intersect always at right angles. These are excellent examples of the i n f i n i t e v a r i a t i o n of pattern and composition within what seems only s u p e r f i c i a l l y to be a r i g i d a r t s t y l e . The carving of the wooden chief's seat appears to be heavier and the design elements are bolder than those of the a r g i l l i t e boxes. This i s probably due to the medium since 67 a r g i l l i t e can be worked i n minute d e t a i l . But the compositions of the a r g i l l i t e box f r o n t i n F i g u r e 35 and the c h i e f ' s seat back i n F i g u r e 36 are n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l i n d e t a i l and arrange-ment. On the b a s i s of t h i s s e r i e s of comparisons I a t t r i b u t e the c h i e f ' s seat and the three boxes i n F i g u r e s 35. 37, and 38 to Tom P r i c e . FIGURE 39 A r g i l l i t e box, f r o n t and top, bear and f r o g p r o j e c t i n g f i g u r e s Photographs courtesy of B i l l Holm Holm C o l l e c t i o n , S e a t t l e 68 The box i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 39 i s a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l t o t h e S m i t h s o n i a n box i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 9, w h i c h i s l a b e l e d i n t h e museum r e c o r d s as b e i n g by " P e t e r K e l l y ' s f a t h e r " . The c r e s c e n t c i r c l e s , t h e e l o n g a t e d o v o i d s r e l i e v e d by l o n g c r e s c e n t - s h a p e d s l i t s , t h e r a i s e d s p l i t " U ' s " , a r e a l l d e s i g n e l e m e n t s u sed i n b o t h b o x e s , and a r e t h e same as t h o s e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 12 as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Tom P r i c e ' s w o r k . The p r o j e c t i n g b e a r f a c e s a r e a l s o n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l i n b o t h b o x e s . T h e r e c a n n o t be much doubt i n t h e a t t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s box t o Tom P r i c e , ba sed on a d i r e c t c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e documented b o x . I n t h e boxes i n F i g u r e s 9 and 39. t h e p r o j e c t i n g f a c e s a r e t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f t h e o t h e r w i s e f l a t g e o m e t r i c d e s i g n . I n s m a l l a r g i l l i t e t o t e m p o l e s t h e e n t i r e f o r m i s c o n s t r u c t e d o f f a c e s and f i g u r e s , w i t h o n l y o c c a s i o n a l f l a t a r e a s , s u c h as t h e e a r s and f i n s o f a n i m a l s , w h i c h a r e d e c o r a t e d w i t h l o w r e l i e f o r i n c i s e d p a t t e r n s o f o v o i d s and " U " s h a p e s . I t i s w i t h a knowledge o f t h e k i n d s o f f a c e s and f u l l f i g u r e s u sed by Tom P r i c e i n i d e n t i f i a b l e w o r k s , t h a t one c a n t h e n i d e n t i f y h i s s c u l p t u r a l w o r k s . The a r g i l l i t e b o w l i n t h e shape o f a b e a r i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 40 was i d e n t i f i e d by M r s . K e l l y as b e i n g by Tom P r i c e . She seemed t o remember h a v i n g s een t h i s p i e c e many y e a r s a g o . The f o r m o f t h e b o w l i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y H a i d a , as b o w l s and boxes o f t e n t o o k t h e shape o f an a n i m a l . The p r o j e c t i n g b e a r ' s f a c e i s a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l t o t h e f a c e s o f t h e b e a r s on t h e a r g i l l i t e boxes i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e s 9 and 39« The d e s i g n e l e m e n t s on 69 FIGURE 40 A r g i l l i t e bowl with abalone and ivory-inlay, bear design Photograph by courtesy of the B r i t i s h Museum Catalogue number 1944.Am.2.136 the legs and ears of the bowl are t y p i c a l of Tom Price's work, as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 12. The seeming ease with which the sculptor p u l l s the powerful snout out of the decorated walls of the bowl i s quite admirable. This man's sty l e remains quite the same regardless of media, scale, or subject matter. The bear's face on the bowl in Figure 40 i s very s i m i l a r to the face on the hat of the shaman figure i n Figure 4 l . The d e t a i l s and proportions are very close, especially in the treatment and shape of the nose. The shaman i s wearing a t r a d i t i o n a l conical hat s i m i l a r i n shape to the one i l l u s t r a t e d 7 0 FIGURE 41 A r g i l l i t e shaman figure, p r o f i l e , d e t a i l of hat, and back view Photograph courtesy of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology Moffat C o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver 71 i n Figure 31• The shaman was believed to actually transform himself physically into the s p i r i t world of animals. Here the neck and face are distorted and the hands appear to be claws. There i s tension i n the arched neck, as i f the human being i s a c t u a l l y in the process of transformation into perhaps a sea otter. The sculptural design of the hat i s extremely unusual. The shape of a t y p i c a l Haida hat here becomes the complete face of a bear. This too may be i n d i c a t i v e of the shaman's powers of transformation. The hocker figure with v i s i b l e intestines, which merges into the bear's snout, i s equally strange. The hocker motif i s not unknown i n Northwest Coast Indian a r t , but i t i s rare. The shaman's long braided hair i s shown as an accurate d e t a i l of his ceremonial dress. The excellent composition and the f l u i d movement within the anatomical form are outstanding. If t h i s too i s the work of Tom Price, which i t seems ce r t a i n l y to be on the basis of the previous compari-sons, then i t i s one of his sculptural masterpieces. The animal faces at the top and bottom of the a r g i l l i t e pole i n Figure 42 are nearly i d e n t i c a l to the faces of the bears on the boxes i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures 9 and 39. and to the face on the bear bowl i n Figure 40. The bridges of the noses form an arc which curves down and out and ends in a s c r o l l . The l i p s and eyebrows are wide bands, as c l e a r l y defined as a formline. The area around the eyes i s modeled to accentuate the structure of the face. A l l l i n e s lead from the face to the t i p of the nose. To be noticed also are the crescent c i r c l e s , elongated ovoids, and "U" forms i n several areas (on the ears, f i n s , and FIGURE 42 Argill ite totem pole Figures from top to bottom are a k i l ler whale holding a human figure, and a sea bear holding its own ta i l f in. Photograph courtesy of the Glenbow-Alberta Institute, Calgary, Alberta Catalogue number 62-62-61 73 t a i l f i n s of the animals) on the totem pole. They are design elements l i k e those i l l u s t r a t e d in Figure 12 as being t y p i c a l of Tom Price's work. The totem pole i s i n the s t y l e of Tom Price considering these comparisons. The myth related here, (not a l l a r g i l l i t e totem poles r e f e r to myths, but most depict a series of crest figures) i s that of Gunarhnesemgyet, a young man whose wife was kidnapped 22 by a k i l l e r whale. The myth i s usually represented by the wife r i d i n g the k i l l e r whale, holding onto the dorsal f i n as she i s carried out to sea. The k i l l e r whale i n Figure H-2 (the top figure) i s shown with a bear's head but with a dorsal f i n between i t s ears which i d e n t i f i e s i t . It holds the wife of Gunarhnesemgyet with i t s f i n s , and i t s flukes (made of two ovoids with "U's" extending upwards from them) are folded up about her feet. The bottom figure i s a sea bear which may represent one of the characters who helps Gunarhnesemgyet rescue his wife, as he dives into the sea and enters the under-2 3 2H-water world of the sea creatures. ' J. R. Swanton, "Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida", Vol . 5 of the Jesup North P a c i f i c Expedition, ed. by J. R. Swanton (New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1905-1909), p.202. 'J. R. Swanton, Haida Texts: Skidegate Dialect (Washington D.C: Bureau of American Enthnology, B u l l e t i n 29, 1905), p.33°. Marius Barbeau, Haida Myths I l l u s t r a t e d in A r g i l l i t e Carvings, p.269. FIGURE 43 A r g i l l i t e totem pole, figures from top to bottom are a beaver, a raven, and a bear Photograph courtesy of the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n Catalogue number 88981 75 The S m i t h s o n i a n a r g i l l i t e t o t e m p o l e i n F i g u r e 43 i s q u i t e e a s y t o r e a d b e c a u s e o f t h r e e d i s t i n c t d i v i s i o n s "between t h e a n i m a l s . T h e r e a r e no c o n f u s i n g o v e r l a p p i n g f o r m s ( t h a t i s n o t t o s a y i t i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y more p l e a s i n g h o w e v e r ) . The f i g u r e on t h e t o p i s a b e a v e r , o b v i o u s b e c a u s e o f i t s c r o s s h a t c h e d t a i l , and i t s v e r y p r o m i n e n t i n c i s o r s . The f o u r c y l i n d e r s on i t s he a d a r e " c h i e f ' s r i n g s " t o i n d i c a t e r a n k , o r t h e number o f p o t l a t c h e s h e l d by a c h i e f . A c h i e f ' s h a t o r h e l m e t o f t e n had r i n g s w h i c h l o o k e d l i k e t h e s e a t t a c h e d t o t h e t o p . Below t h e b e a v e r i s a r a v e n . The b o t t o m f i g u r e i s a b e a r . The f a c e s and b o d i e s o f t h e b e a v e r and t h e b e a r a r e v e r y s i m i l a r . O n l y s m a l l i d e n t i f i a b l e " s y m b o l s " l i k e t h e b e a v e r ' s t a i l a nd i n c i s o r s r e n d e r t h e two d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . The d e e p l y s c u l p t e d f a c e s and c u r l e d n o s e s o f t h e b e a v e r and t h e b e a r a r e q u i t e l i k e t h e f a c e s o f t h e k i l l e r whale and s e a b e a r i n t h e a r g i l l i t e p o l e i n F i g u r e 42, and t o t h e f a c e s o f t h e b e a r s on t h e boxes i n F i g u r e s 9 and 39. On t h i s b a s i s I a t t r i b u t e t h i s t o Tom P r i c e a s w e l l . The f a c e s o f t h e b e a r and t h e s e a b e a r i n t h e a r g i l l i t e p o l e i n F i g u r e 44 a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e f a c e s o f t h e a n i m a l s i n t h e p o l e s i n F i g u r e s 42 and 43, a s w e l l a s t o t h e f a c e s o f t h e b e a r s i n t h e a r g i l l i t e b o xes i n F i g u r e s 9 and 39. The f i r m s h ape o f t h e eyebrows and t h e shape o f t h e c u r l e d n o s e s a r e t h e same i n a l l o f t h e s e e x a m p l e s . The e y e s h e r e , a s i n t h e o t h e r e xamples, a r e i n a p l a n n e d d e p r e s s i o n w h i c h a c c e n t u a t e s t h e r o u n d n e s s o f t h e e y e s and t h e h i g h b r i d g e o f t h e n o s e . The f r o g i n t h e r a v e n ' s beak i n t h e p o l e i n F i g u r e 44 i s v e r y much FIGURE k-k A r g i l l i t e totem p o l e , f i g u r e s from t o p t o bottom a r e a b e a r , a bear cub, a r a v e n w i t h a f r o g i n i t s beak, and a sea bear h o l d i n g a human f i g u r e Photograph c o u r t e s y o f t h e American Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y C a t a l o g u e number l 6 / l l 6 6 77 l i k e the frogs from the top of the box i n Figure 39« The human face i n front of the sea bear here i s probably a decorative and p l a y f u l motif used simply to f i l l out the composition. It i s very s i m i l a r to the face of the wife of Gunarhnesemgyet on the a r g i l l i t e pole i n Figure 42. The str u c t u r a l arrangement and the r e l a t i v e placement of the sea bear's t a i l here i s the same as i n the t a i l s of the sea bear and k i l l e r whale i n the pole i n Figure 42. Tom Price's sculptural s t y l e i s quite consistent i n d e t a i l . On the twin a r g i l l i t e poles i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 45, the top figure i s a wasco, or mythical sea wolf. Here the wasco has prominent teeth and ears l i k e a bear, but a t a i l f i n doubled up which also has a furry dog-like t a i l attached to i t i d e n t i f i e s i t as the wasco. The tiny creature between the wasco's ears i s a whale i t has caught, recognizable because of i t s dorsal f i n . Below the wasco i s a raven with a f i s h i n i t s beak. Below them i s a bear with i t s cubs and a frog. These figures are probably crest figures. On the basis of the treatment of the bear and wasco faces as compared to previous examples, and on the clear arrangement of the same elongated ovoids (on the t a i l of the wasco and on the wing of the raven) and angular "U" shapes (on the ears of the wasco, raven, and bear), these can be attributed as well to Tom Price. The t a i l feathers of the raven are done i n a s i m i l a r fashion as those on the eagle compote in Figure 18. The frog i s s i m i l a r to the frog on the pole i n Figure 44 and to the frogs on the top of the a r g i l l i t e 78 FIGURE 45 Twin a r g i l l i t e totem poles, figures from top to bottom are a wasco with a whale between i t s ears, a raven with a f i s h in i t s mouth, and a bear with two cubs and a frog. Photograph courtesy of Wilson Duff B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Catalogue numbers 4785 and 4786 box i l l u s t r a t e d in Figure 39. The c l a r i t y of shapes i n the twin poles in Figure 45 i s equally evident in the drawings and painting and low r e l i e f sculptures by Tom Price. He seems to always construct compositions with the same type forms, and c l e a r l y defined shapes, and he overlaps them and combines groups of them with great s k i l l . These are superior a r g i l l i t e totem poles and they stand out among works 79 by other Haida a r t i s t s p artly because of the a r t i s t ' s under-standing of sculptural form. He does not engrave a cylinder. He builds three-dimensional forms with projecting shapes and overlapping planes. Forms f o l d i n on themselves and merge with other forms. There i s strong rhythmic movement i n t h i s type of compositional structuring of shapes. The following are d i r e c t comparisons of these twin poles to many other pieces showing compositional s i m i l a r i t y and nearly i d e n t i c a l d e t a i l s of form and subject matter. On t h i s basis I at t r i b u t e these other a r g i l l i t e totem poles to Tom Price. The Bremen pole i n Figure 46 shows s t r i k i n g composi-t i o n a l s i m i l a r i t y with the twin V i c t o r i a poles as seen i n the comparison of the two i n Figure 46. The human face on the bear's stomach i s quite l i k e the human face on the Glenbow-Alberta In s t i t u t e pole i n Figure 42, and to the face on the American Museum of Natural History pole i n Figure 44. Not shown here are two other poles, also i n the Bremen Stadt Museum which are nearly i d e n t i c a l i n s t y l e and composition to the one i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 46. A l l three German poles were col l e c t e d by Krause i n 1881-2. They are i l l u s t r a t e d together 25 i n i n Fuhrman's T l i n k i t und Haida, Plates 39• 40, 4 l , and 43. The wasco i s represented i n Figures 47 and 48, and was represented i n the twin V i c t o r i a poles, and was placed at the ^ E r n s t Fuhrman, T l i n k i t und Haida (Darmstadt Hageni Folkwang-Verlag G.M.B.H., 1922). 8 0 FIGURE 46 A r g i l l i t e totem pole, figures from top to bottom are a wasco with a whale between i t s ears, or perhaps a sea bear with i t s cub between i t s ears, and a bear with a human face on i t s stomach Photograph courtesy of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology Bremen Stadt Museum, Germany top of the pole i n a l l four examples. The myth of Gunarhnesemgyet i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the poles in Figure 42 and i s seen here again i n Figure 49. The subject matter as well as the form, the d e t a i l s , and the compositions are being repeated. The wasco was a fa v o r i t e theme or crest of Skidegate, which i s perhaps why i t i s so frequently used in Tom Price's a r t . The University of B r i t i s h Columbia's house post i n Figure 50 i s s i m i l a r l y attributed to Tom Price, based on the 81 FIGURE 4? A r g i l l i t e totem pole, figures from top to bottom are a wasco, a sea bear, and a bear holding a frog Photograph courtesy of the Glenbow-Alberta Inst i t u t e , Calgary, Alberta Catalogue number 62-62-54 FIGURES 48 ( l e f t ) and 4 9 (right A r g i l l i t e totem poles L e f t i figures from top to bottom are a wasco, a bear cub and a bear holding a human Righti figures from top to bottom are a human holding the dorsal f i n of a k i l l e r whale, and a beaver Photograph courtesy of the National Museumsof Canada Museum of the Hudson Bay Company, Winnipeg, Manitoba 82 design elements and composition. He has used the t r a d i t i o n a l red and black painting scheme. The flukes of the whale are again c l e a r l y constructed of two t y p i c a l l y elongated ovoids with two long angualr "U's" connected to them. The crescent i n the ovoid that forms the whale's eye i s again t y p i c a l of Tom Price's work. The complex assemblage of shapes on the hawk's wings, and on the shark's f i n s are s i m i l a r to other compositions by Tom Price on f l a t surface areas. These areas of designs can be compared quite successfully with any of the designs on the a r g i l l i t e plates or on the boxes or on the other poles. The f i n e l y modeled face of the bear i n which a soft depression around the eyes compliments the bulbous form of the nose, i s a good example of the a r t i s t ' s sense of sculptural form. The house post i n Figure 51 o r i g i n a l l y belonged to Paul Jones of Tanu, and the crests were those of his wife. It i s possible that because of the same design elements i n the t a i l f i n of the sea bear, and the s i m i l a r composition of the figures to that on many of the poles previously discussed, that t h i s too may be by Tom Price. The eyes of the animals are bulging out. The areas around the eyes are reliev e d by a carved recessed plane that seeps up to the nose. The noses are s c r o l l - l i k e forms. The l i p s are clear wide bands, again as i f the mouth were a shape outlined by a formline. The overlapping t a i l f i n and the overlapping of the sea bear's f i n with the bear's ear are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features i n Tom Price's scu l p t u r a l style as i l l u s t r a t e d in the totem poles in Figures 42-50. On the basis of the comparisons I at t r i b u t e t h i s to Tom Price. 83 FIGURE 50 I n t e r i o r wooden house post, figures from top to bottom are a hawk, a shark, a whale, and a bear Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology Catalogue number A 5 0 0 2 5 / 5 9 84 FIGURE 51 Interior wooden house post, from Paul Jones* house in Tanu, figures from top to "bottom are a sea bear with a small creature between i t s ears, possibly i t s cub, and a bear with a human face on i t s stomach (the bushes are too t a l l to see the face) Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Chicago F i e l d Museum of Natural History Catalogue number 79786 (now, due to an accident, in the possession of the Salvation Army) 85 FIGURE 52 Carved wooden wasco (the figure i n i t s t a i l and mouth are whales) Photograph courtesy of the National Museums of Canada B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Catalogue number 238 The carved wasco i n Figure 52 i s a strong and bulbous form. The small whale held i n the wasco's t a i l i s very s i m i l a r to the creature between the ears of the sea bear on the Tanu house post in Figure 51» and to the whales held between the ears of the wascos on the a r g i l l i t e poles i n Figures 47 and 48. The face of the wasco i s very l i k e the face of the bear i n the bear bowl in Figure 40, and of the bears' faces on the a r g i l l i t e boxes i l l u s t r a t e d in Figures 9 and 39. The angular "U" forms of the ears of the wasco are s i m i l a r to those of the ears of the bear bowl i n Figure 40. On the basis of the comparisons th i s also seems to be in the st y l e of Tom Price. 86 V I I . WORKS OF A STYLE SIMILAR TO THAT OF TOM PRICE I n C h a p t e r V I I g a t h e r e d a s t y l i s t i c a l l y c o h e r e n t g r o u p o f works, o r a c o r e sample o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e w h i c h I b e l i e v e t o be t h a t o f Tom P r i c e . The p i e c e s i l l u s t r a t e d i n C h a p t e r V I a r e t h e most e x p l i c i t examples o f what I b e l i e v e h i s s t y l e t o be. T h e r e a r e a d d i t i o n a l p i e c e s , however, w h i c h a r e i n c e r t a i n a s p e c t s s i m i l a r t o some o f t h e s e i l l u s t r a t e d works and c a n n o t be i g n o r e d . I b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s l a r g e g r o u p o f s i m i l a r works o f a r t may i n d i c a t e a v i l l a g e " s c h o o l " o r v i l l a g e s t y l e , s h a r e d by more t h a n j u s t one o r two l o c a l a r t i s t s . I b e l i e v e t h e b e s t work was t h e p r o d u c t o f j u s t a few o u t s t a n d i n g a r t i s t s . B u t t h e r e were c e r t a i n l y many o t h e r H a i d a a r t i s t s w o r k i n g a t t h e same t i m e as t h e w e l l known m a s t e r s . Much o f t h e work t h a t i s s i m i l a r t o Tom P r i c e ' s i n s t y l e may be t h e work o f o t h e r a r t i s t s w o r k i n g c l o s e by who were e i t h e r i m i t a t i n g h i s s t y l e o r who were i n f l u e n c e d by i t . As m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r V J o h n C r o s s was one s u c h a r t i s t w o r k i n g i n a s t y l e v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f Tom P r i c e . I w i l l l i s t b e low t h o s e works w h i c h seem t o me s i m i l a r i n s t y l e t o t h e works i l l u s t r a t e d i n C h a p t e r V I , w i t h o u t i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e y a r e by Tom P r i c e , a l t h o u g h some i n d e e d may be by him. 1. A r g i l l i t e and i v o r y f l u t e , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , C a t a l o g u e number A250. I l l u s t r a t e d i n B a r b e a u * s H a i d a C a r v e r s i n A r g i l l i t e , Page 7» F i g u r e 3» and i n A u d r e y Hawthorn's P e o p l e o f t h e P o t l a t c h , F i g u r e 47. The f l u t e has a n e a g l e , two f r o g s , and a human f i g u r e c a r v e d i n r e l i e f on t h e u p p e r s i d e . The u n d e r s i d e i s c o v e r e d w i t h p a t t e r n s o f c o n n e c t i n g e l o n g a t e d o v o i d s and "U" s h a p e s . 87 2. Wooden walking s t i c k s or canes, B r i t i s h Columbia Pr o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, Catalogue numbers 6382 and 6383. The carved design on these s t i c k s i s nearly i d e n t i c a l to that on the f l u t e just mentioned. 3. R i f l e , University of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology, Catalogue number A1584. The butt and stock are carved i n a manner nearly i d e n t i c a l to the f l u t e and walking s t i c k s mentioned above. 4. Red a r g i l l i t e ( c a t l i n i t e ? ) eagle, University of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology, Catalogue number A8010. This very small sculpture i s carved completely i n the round. Only the backs of the wings and the t a i l are decorated with patterns of angular "U" shapes and a p r o f i l e face motif within an ovoid which i s also found in the carving on the f l u t e mentioned above. 5. A r g i l l i t e plate, salmon design, University of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology, Catalogue number A4455* On the bottom of t h i s plate there i s a l a b e l which says: "Tom Price Carver, Skidegate 5i Q.C.I.". The plate was collected by Dr. Raley in the early Twentieth Century (which does not mean that i t was made then). The r e l i e f carving i s bolily defined as i s t y p i c a l of Tom Price's sculptural style,but the piece lacks the angularity of design elements which I associate with his work. 6. A r g i l l i t e raven bowl, McCord Museum, McGill University, Montreal, Catalogue number 1199* I l l u s t r a t e d i n Barbeau's Haida Carvers i n A r g i l l i t e , Page 27» Figure 36. This was collected by Dawson in 1880-85 as were several pieces which I at t r i b u t e to Tom Price. The salmon trout head motif and the angular "U" shapes on the wings are s i m i l a r to design elements i n compositions which I believe to be by Tom Price. 7. A r g i l l i t e plate, i l l u s t r a t i n g the "Man Inside the Salmon" myth or "Mouldy Forehead". University of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology, Catalogue number A251. I l l u s t r a t e d in Barbeau's Haida Myths I l l u s t r a t e d i n  A r g i l l i t e Carvings, Page 3^5» Figure 287 (also a reference to the myth). Some of the angular "U" shapes are i d e n t i c a l to those I i l l u s t r a t e d as "type forms" from 88 examples of Tom Price's work. The heads, eyes, and t a i l f i n s of the whales are s i m i l a r to Tom Price's elements i n whale designs, hut the bodies of the whales i n t h i s plate are l i n e a r and disproportionately small. The peculiar overlapping of the dorsal f i n i s not found i n any examples I believe to be by Tom Price. The p r o f i l e face motifs within the ovoids are the same as those found on the University of B r i t i s h Columbia f l u t e and red a r g i l l i t e eagle. 8. A r g i l l i t e plate, i l l u s t r a t i n g the "Man Inside the Salmon" myth or "Mouldy Forehead". Washburn Coll e c t i o n , Seattle. I l l u s t r a t e d i n B i l l Holm's Northwest Coast Indian Art; An  Analysis of Form, Page 22, Figure 16. The p r o f i l e face i n the ovoids i s again l i k e those of the f l u t e and red a r g i l l i t e eagle, and of the preceding plate. The l i n e a r d i s j o i n t e d composition seems unlike Tom Price's compositions in spite of the angularity of the design elements. 9. A r g i l l i t e plate, sculpin design, Thomas Burke Memorial Washington State Museum, Catalogue number 1-10753. I l l u s t r a t e d i n Barbeau*s Haida Carvers in A r g i l l i t e , Page 44, Figure 55• and Barbeau attr i b u t e s i t to Tom Price. This composition i s quite s i m i l a r to the shark drawing i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 21 of t h i s chapter. The p r o f i l e face within the ovoids of the t a i l f i n s i n the upper part of the design are l i k e those i n the a r g i l l i t e plate i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 15 which I at t r i b u t e to Tom Price. 10. A r g i l l i t e plate, octopus design, National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Catalogue number VII-B-1420. I l l u s t r a t e d i n Barbeau's Haida Carvers i n A r g i l l i t e , Page 11, Figure 7. The face of the sea bear i s almost i d e n t i c a l to the face of the " l i v i n g log" in the Tom Price drawing i l l u s t r a t e d in Figure 22 of t h i s Chapter. But the p r o f i l e face motifs within the ovoids, and the l i n e a r composition are quite s i m i l a r to the design on the Washburn plate mentioned above. 11. A r g i l l i t e plate, sea bear design, Vancouver Centennial Museum, Catalogue number 1322. The p r o f i l e faces here are close to those found i n examples attributed to Tom Price. The face dominates the composition as i s t y p i c a l of many Tom Price examples I think. The face i s almost i d e n t i c a l to the face of the " l i v i n g log" drawing i l l u s t -rated i n Figure 22. 89 12. Carved wooden box, Chicago F i e l d Museum of Natural History, Catalogue number 79711. Collected by Dr. C. F. Newcombe in Skidegate. This i s a peculiar composition because the front of the box i s divided into two sections. The composition on the r i g h t hand section i s nearly i d e n t i c a l to the composition of Captain Gold's chief seat i l l u s t r a t e d in Figure 36, and to that of the two a r g i l l i t e boxes i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures 35 and 37. The design on the l e f t hand section seems to be very heavy and the face i s more si m i l a r to the faces i n the drawings by John Cross i n Plate XX of Swanton's Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida, than to any-thing I believe to be by Tom Price. 13« Carved wooden c o f f i n , Chicago F i e l d Museum of Natural History, Catalogue number 79712. Belonged to Captain Gold of Gold Harbour, Skidegate. Collected by Dr. C. F. Newcombe in V i c t o r i a . The angularity of the component parts of the design, and the composition are very si m i l a r to the preceding box, and to Captain Gold's chief seat. Ik, A r g i l l i t e plate, t r a d i t i o n a l box front design, National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Catalogue number VII-B-1552. Unit f o r unit the composition i s nearly i d e n t i c a l to that of the plate attributed to Tom Price by the museum records, i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 11 of Chapter VI. This composi-t i o n i s quite l i k e those i n the wooden boxes just mentioned, especially i n the extreme angularity of elements. 15. Painted wooden box, National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Catalogue number VII-B-929* The painted composition i s much l i g h t e r than the carved examples just discussed, but the l i n e s are very angular. The composition i s si m i l a r to those of the boxes i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures 35 and 36. 16. Painted wooded chief's seat, National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Catalogue number VII-B-910. The angular but l i g h t , elegant composition i s almost exactly l i k e that of the preceding painted composition. The claw motifs i n these two examples are thinner than those i n the Captain Gold chief seat, but there does seem to be a s i m i l a r i t y . The round crescent c i r c l e motifs which I i l l u s t r a t e d as a type form from Tom Price's work are seen i n t h i s composition done in exactly the same manner. This i s on display at the National Museum in Ottawa. 90 17. Painted house front. Captain Gold's house, Gold Harbour, Skidegate. The house no longer stands. I l l u s t r a t e d i n Yakutat South (Art Institute of Chicago, 1964, an exhibition catalogue) Page 11. The l i n e a r painted composition i s very much l i k e the chief's seat design and the painted box design from the National Museum of Canada. 18. Painted and carved wooden bow, American Museum of Natural History, Catalogue number l 6 . l / 3 7 2 a . The patterns of carved decoration and especially the claw motif are s i m i l a r to the designs of the chief's seat and painted box mentioned above. 19. Two painted wooden paddles, University of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology, Catalogue numbers A7461 and A7462. The sleek, angular designs and the claw motif are s i m i l a r to the design on the bow just mentioned. 20. Carved and painted wooden paddle. M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, San Francisco, Catalogue number 67.10, i l l u s t r a t e d i n the Arts of the Raven Catalogue, Figure 333• The patterns of design and the claw motif are s i m i l a r to the composition on Captain Gold's chief seat i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 36 of t h i s chapter. This i s the heavy claw, not at a l l l i k e the painted claw motifs of the Ottawa chief's seat and painted box, or of the paddles from the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. 21. Wooden painted model canoe, B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C., Catalogue number 12010. The p r o f i l e face motifs within the ovoids are seen also i n Captain Gold's house front design, and i n several pieces of a r g i l l i t e which I have attributed to Tom Price such as the plate i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 15. 2 2 . Wooden painted model canoe, University of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology, Catalogue number A1532. This i s almost a duplicate of the canoe mentioned above, as i f they were made as a pair. The same p r o f i l e faces as seen in Figure 15 are seen here. 91 23. Model wooden totem pole, approximately one meter i n height. Koerner C o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver. A claw motif dominates the center of the design and i t i s exactly the same as the claw on Captain Gold's chief seat, and on the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum canoe paddle. The mountain goat head at the bottom of the pole i s quite l i k e the heads on the Bremen a r g i l l i t e pole i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 4 5 . The two a r g i l l i t e pieces i n Figures 53 a n d 5^ are examples of an angular abstracted s t y l e , which when compared with the a r g i l l i t e plate i n Figure 11 i s s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r . I w i l l assume that these pieces represent a possible development i n Tom Price's l a t e r works. There i s considerable elegance i n the rendering of the design units and i n the connective l i n e s i n the composition of the a r g i l l i t e box i n Figure 53- The p r o f i l e face motif compares equally well with the p r o f i l e face i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 12 as being t y p i c a l of Tom Price's s t y l e . The large table top i n Figure 5^ i s a s l i g h t l y confused assemblage of angular design units, but i t i s the largest piece of a r g i l l i t e ever carved and the a r t i s t may have been uncomfortable working i n large scale with the medium. This piece was sold at an Indian bazaar i n V i c t o r i a , presumably i n the early 1900*s. There i s no record of who bought i t or where i t i s now. These examples do compare well with the examples of a r g i l l i t e carving in Chapter VI. But they are strange compositions and there i s no documentation concerning them. They are presented as comparisons, not as a t t r i b u t i o n s to his s t y l e as are the examples l i s t e d i n Chapter VI. p F I G U R E 53 A r g i l l i t e box, front and one side, projecting figure i s a raven Photographs courtesy of B i l l Holm Lanphere C o l l e c t i o n 93 FIGURE 54 A r g i l l i t e t a b l e top or plaque Sold at an Indian bazaar i n V i c t o r i a Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. 9 4 V I I I . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION I n t r y i n g t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e t h e o r y t h a t t h e b e s t examples o f H a i d a a r t came f r o m t h e hands o f o n l y a few o u t -s t a n d i n g a r t i s t s , I g a t h e r e d a g r o u p o f some o f t h e b e s t examples o f l a t e N i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y H a i d a a r t w h i c h seemed t o r e p r e s e n t one c o h e r e n t s t y l e . I s t a r t e d w i t h o n l y a s m a l l number o f p i e c e s , some o f w h i c h were documented as b e i n g by Tom P r i c e . S i n c e t h e documented i n f o r m a t i o n was q u i t e o f t e n u n r e l i a b l e I c h e c k e d s e v e r a l s o u r c e s s u c h as p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l , a c q u i s i t i o n f i l e s and museum r e c o r d s , and p h o t o a r c h i v e s b e f o r e a c c e p t i n g an a t t r i b u t i o n . I a l s o c h e c k e d w i t h i n f o r m a n t s t o see i f t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n m a t c h e d t h a t o f t h e w r i t t e n r e c o r d s . Then I i s o l a t e d d i s t i n c t i v e m o t i f s f r o m t h e documented p i e c e s . I compared t h e documented w o r k s w i t h o t h e r s i m i l a r w o r k s i n t e r m s o f t h e s e m o t i f s , t h e c o m p o s i t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s , t h e t y p e s o f c r e s t s and myths i l l u s t r a t e d , t h e method o f c a r v i n g o r p a i n t i n g , and I came up w i t h a l a r g e number o f examples w h i c h matched t h e s t y l e o f t h e documented w o r k s . These examples a r e p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r V I a s a s e r i e s o f c o m p a r i s o n s w h i c h show t h a t t h e s e a r e i n t h e same s t y l e , and a r e p r o b a b l y by t h e same man, Tom P r i c e . A f t e r t h e body o f w o r k s r e p r e s e n t i n g Tom P r i c e ' s s t y l e was a s s e m b l e d , I f o u n d t h a t some o f t h e documented i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t came w i t h t h e examples r e i n f o r c e d t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e y were by Tom P r i c e , b e c a u s e many were c o l l e c t e d i n S k i d e g a t e . 95 It i s i n t e r e s t i n g that pieces c o l l e c t e d i n the same period are s t y l i s t i c a l l y s i m i l a r , and d i s s i m i l a r to those col l e c t e d i n other periods. The a r g i l l i t e plates which I have i l l u s t r a t e d together p r e c i s e l y because they are s t y l i s t i c a l l y s i m i l a r , i n Figures 13» 14, 16 and 17, were a l l c o l l e c t e d between 1880 and 1885. Three were coll e c t e d by Powell f o r the American Museum of Natural History and two were coll e c t e d by Dawson f o r the National Museum of Canada. S i m i l a r l y , of the a r g i l l i t e boxes i l l u s t r a t e d in Figures 9, 3^, 37, and 38. the two American Museum of Natural History boxes were coll e c t e d between 1880 and I883 by Powell, and the two Smithsonian boxes were col l e c t e d i n I883 by Swan. The a r g i l l i t e totem pole which i s perhaps closest i n s t y l e to the Smithsonian box i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 9, was also co l l e c t e d f o r the Smithsonian by Swan i n I 8 8 3 . The a r g i l l i t e plate i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 11 i s of a l a t e r date. It was in the Aaronson C o l l e c t i o n before i t was acquired by the National Museum of Canada, and was dated 1899 i n the museum records. Although that may be the date of a c q u i s i t i o n rather than the date of manufacture, i t i s probable that i t was made l a t e r than the plates c o l l e c t e d i n the l880*s. It i s a considerably more abstract design, and the design elements are arranged i n a manner which i s t o t a l l y unrelated to the t r a d i t i o n a l type of formline compositions. The increasing formalized abstraction may be a feature of Tom Price's l a t e r work, which i s why I included the pieces i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures 53 and 5^ as possible examples of a l a t e r development i n Tom Price's work. That works representing d i f f e r e n t aspects of Tom 96 Price's s t y l e were collected in d i f f e r e n t periods strengthens my argument that s t y l i s t i c a l l y s i m i l a r pieces may indicate personal sty l e s , and even personal va r i a t i o n s within one sty l e i n t h i s a r t . I believe that the works assembled i n Chapter VI define the sty l e of Tom Price. By i d e n t i f y i n g t h i s work i t becomes apparent that i n d i v i d u a l styles dominate what we know of Haida art i n museum c o l l e c t i o n s . Museums consistently exhibit the works of Charles Edenshaw, Tom Price, and John Cross as examples of the best Haida art , without l a b e l i n g them as to the a r t i s t and without r e a l i z i n g that often t h e i r exhibits represent the work of two or three men rather than a cross section of Haida a r t . . The American Museum of Natural History in New York i s a case i n point, because, as mentioned i n Chapter III, t h e i r display or a r g i l l i t e i s primarily work by Tom Price. By i d e n t i f y i n g the works of Tom Price i t also becomes apparent that the work of one man influenced the work of a r t i s t s i n his lo c a l e . That there are s u f f i c i e n t works of a style s i m i l a r to that of Tom Price (yet which are not d e f i n i t i v e examples of that style) to warrant a separate chapter i n t h i s discussion perhaps indicates that several l o c a l a r t i s t s who were contemporary with Tom Price were influenced by his s t y l e . I have isolated the works of one of the major Haida a r t i s t s working i n the la t e Nineteenth and early Twentieth i Centuries. Recognition of his art and his sty l e reveals much about the productivity and the innovative capacity of Haida a r t i s t s of that period. His work, with that of Charles Edenshaw, John Cross, and one or two others, represents an extended development of and a climax i n t r a d i t i o n a l Haida a rt in the late Nineteenth and early Twentieth Centuries. 98 IX. CATALOGUE OF WORKS ATTRIBUTED TO TOM PRICE T h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e documented i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e m a t e r i a l i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s c a t a l o g u e . A l l a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on e a c h p i e c e , w h i c h i n most c a s e s comes d i r e c t l y f r o m museum r e c o r d s o b t a i n e d w h i l e d o i n g r e s e a r c h on t h i s t h e s i s , i s e n t e r e d b e n e a t h e a c h p h o t o g r a p h i n l i s t f o r m . Works t h a t have been a t t r i b u t e d t o Tom P r i c e i n s u c h r e c o r d s a r e so l a b e l e d . Any a t t r i b u t i o n s t o Tom P r i c e , even i f t h e y a r e f o u n d i n museum r e c o r d s , a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b a s e d on r e l i a b l e s o u r c e s . O f t e n museums u s e d B a r b e a u ' s works as a s o u r c e . I have i n d i c a t e d t h e p i e c e s he a t t r i b u t e s t o Tom P r i c e and i n t h e s e examples I b e l i e v e h i s a t t r i b u t i o n s a r e c o r r e c t . B u t I must a g a i n s t r e s s t h a t my a t t r i b u t i o n s a r e n o t b a s e d on t h i s t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n a l o n e b e c a u s e i t i s t o o o f t e n i n a c c u r a t e . R e f e r e n c e s t o s o u r c e s i n w h i c h some o f t h e works have been i l l u s t r a t e d a r e i n c l u d e d . The C a t a l o g u e i s i n d e x e d f o r t h e c o n v e n i e n c e o f t h o s e u s i n g i t . P l a t e s 1 - 1 2 a r e a s e r i e s o f t w e l v e p e n c i l d r a w i n g s w h i c h were f o u n d i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f D r . C. F. Newcombe o f V i c t o r i a . They were i n a s k e t c h book w h i c h was n o t l a b e l e d a s t o t h e a r t i s t , b u t w h i c h was l a b e l e d a s b e i n g f r o m S k i d e g a t e . I t was w i t h a n o t h e r s k e t c h book l a b e l e d a s b e i n g by J o h n Robson. The s t y l e s o f t h e a r t i s t s o f t h e two s k e t c h books a r e n o t a t a l l s i m i l a r . T h e r e were no a c c o m p a n y i n g n o t e s w i t h e i t h e r s e t o f d r a w i n g s . I g u e s s t h a t t h e y d a t e f r o m c . 1 9 0 0 , s i n c e i n Newcombe's c a t a l o g u e t h e y a r e l i s t e d a f t e r works d a t e d 1897, and since there i s a l e t t e r from John Robson to Dr. Newcombe dated 1904 in which Robson refers to "one book of pictures" which he 26 sent to Newcombe the previous winter. John Robson was a r e l a t i v e of Tom Price's and in 1900 they both l i v e d i n Skidegate. It i s possible, since Dr. Newcombe knew both men and commissioned John Robson to'do a sketch book, that he also commissioned Tom Price to do one and that t h i s i s i t . This set of twelve drawings are crest designs and are possibly tattoo designs si m i l a r to those done f o r Swanton and Boas of the American Museum of Natural H i s t o r y , ^ and f o r Swan op of the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n . ^ L e t t e r , John Robson to Dr. C. F. Newcombe, May 25. 1904, Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia, Newcombe Col l e c t i o n , Correspondence F i l e of "John Robson". 2?Swanton, Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida, Vol .5 of the Jesup North P a c i f i c Expedition, Plates XX and XXI. James G. Swan, "The Haidah Indians of the Queen Charlotte Islands, B r i t i s h Columbia", Smithsonian Contributions to  Knowledge 267 (1874), Plate 3. 100 PLATE 1 OBJECTi Drawing DIMENSIONS: Red and Black Pencil DIMENSIONS: Approximately 2 7 . 5 by 3 2 . 5 centimeters LOCATION: B r i t i s h Columbia Pr o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Catalogue number 1166, Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n COLLECTOR: Dr. C. F. Newcombe of V i c t o r i a DATE: c.1900 Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Provincial Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Labeled as a drawing of "zom oose" or " l i v i n g log". This i s the f i r s t in the series of twelve drawings found in Dr. Newcombe's c o l l e c t i o n . It i s a Raven clan crest design. 101 PLATE 2 OBJECT : Drawing MEDIUM: Red and Black Pencil DIMENSIONS: Approximately 2 7 . 5 by 3 2 . 5 centimeters LOCATION: B r i t i s h Columbia Provincial Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Catalogue number 1 1 6 6 , Newcombe C o l l e c t i o n COLLECTOR: Dr. C. F. Newcombe of V i c t o r i a DATE: c . 1 9 0 0 Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Pro v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. This i s the second in the series of twelve Newcombe drawings. I t i s labeled as "scar na" or "Fin back" or "Black f i s h " which i s an Eagle clan crest design. For references to this crest and the myth of the scar na see Swanton, Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida, V o l . 5 of the Jesup North P a c i f i c Expedition, American Museum of Natural History, p.2 3 1 , and Barbeau, Totem Poles, V o l . 1 , National Museum of Canada, pp.2 9 0 - 2 9 4 . 102 PLATE 3 OBJECTi Drawing M E D I U M J Red and Black Pencil DIMENSIONS! Approximately 2 7 . 5 by 3 2 . 5 centimeters LOCATION: B r i t i s h Columbia Pr o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C., Catalogue number 1166, Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n COLLECTOR! Dr. C. F. Newcombe of V i c t o r i a DATE! c .1900 Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Pr o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. This i s the t h i r d in the series of twelve Newcombe drawings. It i s labeled as "ga yay" or "Bu l l head" which i s a sculpin, or a small spiny f i s h . I t i s an Eagle clan crest design. According to the Haida myth, when the waters receded a f t e r the "great flood" a b u l l head was trapped in a newly formed inland lake on a plateau. The people came to look at the f i s h and took i t as t h e i r crest. For references to the crest and myth see Barbeau, Totem Poles, V o l . 1 , p .9 l» and Barbeau, Haida Myths I l l u s t r a t e d i n A r g i l l i t e Carvings, p.189. 101 rw uv. 104 PLATE 4 OBJECT : Drawing MEDIUM: Red and Black Pencil DIMENSIONS: Approximately 27.5 by 32.5 centimeters LOCATION: B r i t i s h Columbia Pr o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C., Catalogue number 1166, Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n COLLECTOR: Dr. C. F. Newcombe of V i c t o r i a DATE: c.1900 Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Pr o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Labeled as " z i n " or "beaver" which i s an Eagle clan crest. This i s the fourth i n the series of twelve drawings in the Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n . The beaver crest was brought back from Tsimshian country by Property-Making-a-Noise, a mythological character. For references to the crest and myth see Swanton, Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida, pp 109 and 115i and Barbeau, Totem Poles, Vol.1, p.127. The scaly t a i l and prominent i n c i s o r teeth are exaggerated features so that the crest i s e a s i l y recognizable as the beaver crest. 105 PLATE 5 OBJECTi Drawing MEDIUMi Red and Black Pencil DIMENSIONS: Approximately 2 7 . 5 by 3 2 . 5 centimeters LOCATION: B r i t i s h Columbia Pro v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C., Catalogue number 1 1 6 6 , Newcombe C o l l e c t i o n COLLECTOR: Dr. C. F. Newcombe of V i c t o r i a DATE: c . 1 9 0 0 Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Labeled as a "wasco" or "sea dog" which i s a mythical creature large enough to catch whales and to carry them in i t s mouth or wrapped i n i t s furry dog-like t a i l . It i s an Eagle clan crest. The smaller figure represented here i s a whale. For references to the crest and the myths concerning the wasco see Swanton, Contributions to the Ethnology of the  Haida, pp . 1 1 0 and 1 1 5 . and Barbeau, Totem Poles, V o l . 1 , pp. 316-3 1 9 . and Barbeau, Haida Myths I l l u s t r a t e d in A r g i l l i t e Carvings, pp. 3 0 5 and 3 1 3 . 106 PLATE 6 OBJECT s Drawing MEDIUMi Red and Black Pencil DIMENSIONS! Approximately 2 7 . 5 by 3 2 . 5 centimeters LOCATION: B r i t i s h Columbia Pro v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C., Catalogue number 1 1 6 6 , Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n COLLECTOR! Dr. C. F. Newcombe of V i c t o r i a DATE: c . 1 9 0 0 Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Provincial Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. This i s the sixth of the twelve drawings in the Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n . I t i s labeled "gan go slau" or "frog" which i s one of the oldest and most frequently used Eagle clan crests. According to a Skidegate myth the o r i g i n of the crest had to do with a time when l i v e frogs were thrown into a f i r e in sport, and the frog-people sought revenge and v i o l e n t l y punished the cruel offenders of t h e i r race. For references to this and other frog myths and the o r i g i n of the crest see Swanton, Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida, pp. 1 0 9 , 1 1 1 , and 1 1 5 , and Barbeau, Totem Poles, V o l . 1 , pp. 65 and 7 1 . 107 PLATE 7 OBJECT: Drawing MEDIUM: Red and Black Pencil DIMENSIONS: Approximately 27.5 by 32.5 centimeters LOCATION: B r i t i s h Columbia Pr o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C., Catalogue number 1166, Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n COLLECTOR: Dr. C. F. Newcombe of V i c t o r i a DATE: c .1900 Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Pr o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. This i s the seventh of the series of twelve drawings in the Newcombe Colle c t i o n , labeled as "Rhun" or "whale" which i s an Eagle clan crest. For a reference to the crest see Swanton, Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida, p.115. 108 PLATE 8 OBJECT« Drawing MEDIUM: Red and Black P e n c i l DIMENSIONS: Approximately 27.5 by 32.5 centimeters LOCATION: B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C., Catalogue number 1166, Newcombe C o l l e c t i o n . COLLECTOR: Dr. C. F. Newcombe of V i c t o r i a DATE: c.1900 Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. This i s the eighth of the s e r i e s of twelve drawings i n the Newcombe C o l l e c t i o n , l a b e l e d "Coo-a-gee" or Sea G r i z z l y Bear, which i s a Raven c l a n c r e s t . For references to the c r e s t see Swanton, C o n t r i b u t i o n s to the Ethnology of the  Haida, p. 114, and Barbeau, Totem Poles, V o l . 1 , p. 239. 1 0 9 PLATE 9 OBJECT» Drawing MEDIUMi Red and Black Pencil DIMENSIONS! Approximately 27.5 by 32.5 centimeters LOCATION: B r i t i s h Columbia Pro v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C., Catalogue number 1 1 6 6 , Newcombe Col l e c t i o n COLLECTOR! Dr. C. F. Newcombe of V i c t o r i a DATEi c . 1 9 0 0 Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Pro v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. This i s the ninth i n the series of drawings in the Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n , labeled as "ceep" or "sea otter". 110 PLATE 10 OBJECT: Drawing MEDIUM: Red and Black Pencil DIMENSIONS: Approximately 2 7 . 5 by 3 2 . 5 centimeters LOCATION: B r i t i s h Columbia Provincial Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C., Catalogue number 1166, Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n COLLECTOR: Dr. C. F. Newcombe of V i c t o r i a DATE: c . 1 9 0 0 Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Provincial Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. This i s the tenth in the series of twelve drawings i n the Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n , labeled as "ceet-ga" or "skate", which i s an Eagle clan crest. For references to the crest see Swanton, Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida, pp. 110 and 115. PLATE 11 OBJECTi Drawing MEDIUM: Red and Black Pencil DIMENSIONS: Approximately 2? .5 by 32.5 centimeters LOCATION: B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C., Catalogue number 1166, Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n COLLECTOR: Dr. C. F. Newcombe, of V i c t o r i a DATE: c .1900 Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Pro v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. This i s the eleventh in the series of twelve drawings in the Newcombe Col l e c t i o n , labeled as "ga-ha-da" or "dogfish" (shark).which i s an Eagle crest but which originated in Skidegate. For references see Swanton, Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida, pp. 109 and 115. 112 PLATE 12 OBJECT: Drawing MEDIUM* Black Pencil DIMENSIONS: Approximately 32.5 by 27.5 centimeters LOCATION: B r i t i s h Columbia Pro v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C., Catalogue number 1166, Newcombe Co l l e c t i o n COLLECTOR: Dr. C. F. Newcombe DATE: c . 1900 Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia Provincial Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C. This i s the twelfth i n the series of twelve drawings i n the Newcombe Col l e c t i o n , labeled as "ga-kwy" or "Black f i s h ( k i l l e r whale) with f i v e f i n s " , which according to the mythology l i v e d under a small island near the v i l l a g e of Ninstints and was destroyed by Stone Ribs, a mythological hero. It was an Eagle crest of the Gi t i ' n s family i n Ninstints, and l a t e r became an Eagle crest of the G i t i ' n s i n Skidegate when the surviving population of Ninstints moved to Skidegate. The 113 drawing i s unfinished. The ovoid shapes were traced from templates but the connecting l i n e s were drawn free hand. For references to the crest and myths associated with i t s o r i g i n . see Swanton, Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida, pp. 110 and 115, and Barbeau, Haida Myths I l l u s t r a t e d i n  A r g i l l i t e Carvings, p. 314. PLATE 13 OBJECT« P a i n t e d S p r u c e Root Hat MEDIUM: Red, B l a c k and B l u e P a i n t LOCATION: C h a m e l y C o l l e c t i o n , S e a t t l e P h o t o g r a p h c o u r t e s y o f B i l l Holm T h i s i s a p a i n t e d w o l f d e s i g n , w h i c h i s a Raven c l a n c r e s t . 115 PLATE 14 OBJECT« BROOCH MEDIUMi S i l v e r with Gold inlay eyes DIMENSIONS: Approximately 6 centimeters i n diameter LOCATION! Skeena Treasure House, Hazelton, B r i t i s h Columbia Photograph courtesy of Mrs. Robert Davidson, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. This i s a beaver design, recognizable because of the prominent i n c i s o r teeth. Thus i t i s an Eagle clan crest. For a reference to the crest see Swanton, Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida, p. 1 1 5 » 1 1 6 PLATE 1 5 OBJECTi Round Plate MEDIUMi A r g i l l i t e LOCATIONi American Museum of Natural History, New York, Catalogue number 16/882, Negative number 320372 COLLECTOR: It was a g i f t from H. R. Bishop which means that i t was probably collected by Powell DATE: 1880-83 Photograph courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History. I l l u s t r a t e d and attributed to Tom Price i n Barbeau's Haida  Carvers i n A r g i l l i t e , Page 43, Figure 53» Also i l l u s t r a t e d i n Franz Boas' Primitive Art, Page 248, Figure 262. This i s a sculpin design, which i s an Eagle clan crest, and one which Barbeau mentioned as being a Skidegate Eagle crest. For references to the crest see Swanton, Contributions to the  Ethnology of the Haida, pp. 115 and 110. 117 PLATE 16 OBJECT J Oval Plate MEDIUM: A r g i l l i t e LOCATIONi Glenbow-Alberta Institute, Calgary, Alberta. Catalogue number 55-6-12. COLLECTOR:, O r i g i n a l l y in the Frank Smith C o l l e c t i o n , Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia I l l u s t r a t e d in Robert Bruce Inverarity's Art of the Northwest  Coast Indians, Figure 191• It has variously been labeled a dragonfly design (in which case i t i s an Eagle clan c r e s t ) , and a sea bear (which i s a Raven clan c r e s t ) . Photograph courtesy of Wilson Duff, Vancouver. 118 PLATE 1? OBJECT: Oblong Plate MEDIUM: A r g i l l i t e LOCATION: American Museum of Natural History, New York. Catalogue number T/22712, Negative number 320368 COLLECTOR: E. G. Salmon acquired i t i n V i c t o r i a DATE: 1882 I l l u s t r a t e d i n Barbeau's Haida Carvers in A r g i l l i t e , Page 18, Figure 2 0 . Photograph courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History. It i s a double whale design. The heads and teeth of the two whales are facing at the top of the compositions, the bodies follow the outer rim on each side, and the t a i l s or flukes turn up and meet in the center beneath the teeth of each whale. 119 PLATE 18 OBJECT : Oval Plate MEDIUMS A r g i l l i t e DIMENSIONS* 40 centimeters by 25 centimeters LOCATION: National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Catalogue number VII-B-760, Negative number J - 6 8 3 8 . COLLECTOR: Dawson DATE: 1885 Photograph courtesy of the National Museums of Canada. I l l u s t r a t e d i n Barbeau's Haida Carvers i n A r g i l l i t e , Page 371 Figure 47, and attributed to Tom Price by him. This i s a wasco design which i s an Eagle crest (Eagles of Skidegate). For references to the crest see Swanton's Contributions to  the Ethnology of the Haida, pp. 110 and 115» and Barbeau's Totem Poles, V o l . 1 , pp 316 - 319. PLATE 19 OBJECT: Round Plate MEDIUM: A r g i l l i t e with s h e l l inlay LOCATION: Museum and Laboratories of Ethnic Arts and Technology, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, Catalogue number X 6 5-7478. Photograph courtesy of the Museum and Laboratories of Ethnic Arts and Technology, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles. This i s a k i l l e r whale design, which i s a Raven clan crest. PLATE 2 0 OBJECT« Oblong Plate MEDIUMi A r g i l l i t e DIMENSIONS: 52 .5 centimeters by 32 .5 centimeters LOCATION: National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Catalogue number VII-B-?62 COLLECTOR: Dawson DATE: 1885 0 I l l u s t r a t e d i n Barbeau's Haida Carvers i n A r g i l l i t e , Page 38, Figure 48, and i s attributed to Tom Price by Barbeau. This i s a k i l l e r whale design. The s c r o l l work i n the border design shows evidence of jeweller's engraving techniques, and i t i s d e f i n i t e l y not of native o r i g i n . Photograph courtesy of Wilson Duff, Vancouver, B.C. PLATE 21 OBJECT: Oval Plate MEDIUM: A r g i l l i t e with s h e l l inlay LOCATION: National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Catalogue number VII-B-825, Negative number 88959 COLLECTOR: Aaronson DATE: 1899 (acquisition date) Contd... 123 Photograph courtesy of the National Museums of Canada. Attributed to Tom Price i n the museum records. I l l u s t r a t e d and a t t r i b u t e d to Tom Price by Barbeau i n Haida Carvers i n  A r g i l l i t e , Page 4 6 , Figure 5 7 . The abstract design resembles t r a d i t i o n a l wooden box front compositions. PLATE 20 OBJECTS: Two carved Boxes or Chests MEDIUM: A r g i l l i t e LOCATION: American Museum of Nat u r a l H i s t o r y , New York LEFT: Catalogue number 16/688, Negative number 320364 COLLECTOR: I t was a g i f t of H. R. Bishop and was probably c o l l e c t e d by Powell DATE: 1880-83 I l l u s t r a t e d and a t t r i b u t e d to Tom P r i c e i n Barbeau's Haida  Carvers i n A r g i l l i t e , Page 63 , Figure 69. Also i l l u s t r a t e d i n Boas' P r i m i t i v e A r t , Page 249, Figure 263, Page 247, Figure 259, and Page 233, Figure 238. RIGHT: Catalogue number 16/686, Negative number 320364 COLLECTOR: G i f t of H. R. Bishop, c o l l e c t e d by Powell DATE: 1880-83 Cont... 125 I l l u s t r a t e d and attributed to Tom Price i n Barbeau's Haida  Carvers i n A r g i l l i t e , Page 6 3 , Figure 6 9 . Photograph courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History, New York. 126 P L A T E 23 OBJECTSt F r o n t a n d B a c k o f a C a r v e d Box o r C h e s t MEDIUM: A r g i l l i t e L O C A T I O N : A m e r i c a n Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , New Y o r k , C a t a l o g u e number T/22717, N e g a t i v e number 320365 I l l u s t r a t e d a n d l a b e l e d a s b e i n g f r o m S k i d e g a t e i n B a r b e a u * s H a i d a C a r v e r s i n A r g i l l i t e , Page 6 4 , F i g u r e 71. P h o t o g r a p h s c o u r t e s y o f t h e A m e r i c a n Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , New Y o r k . 127 PLATE 24 OBJECT: Back and Side of a chief's seat, belonged to Captain Gold, Gold Harbour, Skidegate MEDIUM: Wood LOCATION: Chicago F i e l d Museum of Natural History, Catalogue number 79595 COLLECTOR: Dr. C. F. Newcombe collected i t at Gold Harbour DATE: 1903 Photographs courtesy of Wilson Duff, Vancouver. I l l u s t r a t e d i n Holm's Northwest Coast Indian Art: An Analysis of Form, Page 71, Figure 57. 128 PLATE 25 OBJECTS: F r o n t and Back of a Carved Box o r Chest MEDIUM: A r g i l l i t e w i t h a b a l o n e i n l a y DIMENSIONS: 15 c e n t i m e t e r s by 25 c e n t i m e t e r s LOCATION: S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n , Washington, D.C, C a t a l o g u e number 8 9 0 0 2 , N e g a t i v e numbers 2375-A and 2375 COLLECTOR: Swan a c q u i r e d i t from F o r t Simpson but i t i s l a b e l e d as b e i n g from S k i d e g a t e DATE: I883 Photographs c o u r t e s y o f the S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n , Washington, D.C. 129 PLATE 26 OBJECT: Compote MEDIUM: A r g i l l i t e LOCATION: P e a r s a l l C o l l e c t i o n , Miami, F l o r i d a Photograph courtesy of the N a t i o n a l Museum of Canada, Ottawa, Negative number J - 5 8 O O . Although the design i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y Haida, the compote i t s e l f i s not a n a t i v e o b j e c t . The f a c t that much a r g i l l i t e was made to s e l l to white men exp l a i n s t h i s innovation i n form. The eagle design i s symbolic of the Eagle c l a n . The wings have been broken and f i l e d smooth. The design would not o r i g i n a l l y have ended so a b r u p t l y . 130 PLATE 27 OBJECTi Carved Box or Chest MEDIUM: A r g i l l i t e and abalone inlay DIMENSIONS: 29 centimeters i n length, 20 centimeters in width, 21 centimeters i n height LOCATION: Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n , Washington, D.C, Catalogue number 88998, Negative number 34725-G COLLECTOR: Swan collected the box i n Fort Simpson i n I883 DATE: 1884 (acquisition date) Attributed to Peter Kelly's Father, Tom Price, i n the museum records, and i l l u s t r a t e d and s i m i l a r l y attributed to "Peter Kelly's father" i n Barbeau's Haida Carvers in A r g i l l i t e , Page 60, Figure 65. Photograph courtesy of the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n , Washington, D.C 1 3 1 PLATE 28 OBJECT: Carved Box or Chest in Pieces MEDIUM: A r g i l l i t e with abalone inlay DIMENSIONS: 40 centimeters in length, 22.5 centimeters in height, 20 centimeters in width LOCATION: Holm Co l l e c t i o n , Seattle I l l u s t r a t e d i n Barbeau's Haida Carvers in A r g i l l i t e , Page 6 l , Figure 66. Boxes such as this were carved i n sections and glued together. Photograph courtesy of B i l l Holm, Seattle. 132 PLATE 29 OBJECT: Bear Bowl DIMENSIONS: 42.5 centimeters i n length, 20 centimeters i n width, and 15 centimeters i n height. It i s an unusually heavy and thick piece LOCATION: B r i t i s h Museum, London, Catalogue number 1944.Am.2. 136 COLLECTOR: It was o r i g i n a l l y the property of the Right Honourable The E a r l of Dartmouth, P.C, Woodside H a l l , according to the lab e l glued on the bottom of the bowl I l l u s t r a t e d i n Barbeau's Haida Carvers in A r g i l l i t e , Page 26, Figure 33. This bowl was i d e n t i f i e d by Mrs. Kelly, Tom Price daughter-in-law, as being his work. She seemed to remember having seen the piece many years ago. Photograph by courtesy of the B r i t i s h Museum. PLATE 30 OBJECT 1 Shaman Figure MEDIUM: A r g i l l i t e DIMENSIONS: Approximately 25 centimeters i n height LOCATION: Moffatt Co l l e c t i o n , Vancouver Photograph courtesy of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology. The Shaman was believed to be capable of communicating with animal s p i r i t s by undergoing transformation, mentally and physically, into animal form. Here the shaman figure i s represented with hands l i k e paws, the neck i s strained and the head i s distorted so that he seems to be in the act of transforming himself into perhaps a sea otter. The hat takes the form of a bear's snout. This v i v i d expression of the shaman's transformation i s unique. PLATE 31 OBJECT : Model Totem Pole MEDIUM: A r g i l l i t e LOCATION: Glenbow-Alberta Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Catalogue number 62-62-61 , Negative number FA 781 COLLECTOR: C. P. Smith in V i c t o r i a (Mrs. Kelly, Tom Price's 135 d a u g h t e r - i n - l a w , remembered M r . S m i t h as a c o l l e c t o r o f Tom P r i c e ' s works . , P h o t o g r a p h c o u r t e s y o f t h e G l e n b o w - A l b e r t a I n s t i t u t e , These a r e c r e s t a n i m a l s i n d i c a t i n g s o c i a l s t a t u s . The f i g u r e f r o m t o p t o b o t t o m a r e a k i l l e r w h a l e h o l d i n g a human f i g u r e i n f r o n t o f i t , and a s ea b e a r a t t h e b o t t o m w h i c h h o l d s i t s own t a i l f i n s . The k i l l e r w h a l e a t t h e t o p o f t h e p o l e i s r e c o g n i z a b l e because o f t h e d o r s a l f i n w h i c h s t i c k s up between i t s e a r s , and i t s f l u k e s w h i c h f o l d up o v e r t h e f e e t o f t h e human f i g u r e . These f i g u r e s may r e f e r t o t h e myth o f Gunarhnesemgyet , a young man whose w i f e was a b d u c t e d by a k i l l e r w h a l e . The myth i s an e p i c t a l e o f h i s a d v e n t u r e s on h i s j o u r n e y t o r e s c u e h e r . F o r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e myth see Swanton , C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e E t h n o l o g y o f t h e H a i d a , Page 202, and B a r b e a u ' s H a i d a Myths I l l u s t r a t e d i n A r g i l l i t e C a r v i n g s , Page 269. PLATE 32 OBJECT: Model Totem Pole MEDIUM: A r g i l l i t e LOCATION: American Museum of Natural History, New York, Catalogue number l 6 / l l 6 6 , Negative number 118402 COLLECTOR: Kirschberg Purchase DATE: I896 (acquisition date) Cont... 1 137 I l l u s t r a t e d i n Barbeau's Haida Myths I l l u s t r a t e d i n A r g i l l i t e  Carvings, Page 287, Figure 256. The figures from top to bottom are a bear holding a cub, a raven with a frog i n i t s beak, and a sea bear holding a human being against i t s stomach. The human figure i s i n t h i s case purely decorative. Photograph courtesy of the American Museum of Natural History. PLATE 3 3 OBJECT: Model Totem Pole MEDIUM: A r g i l l i t e DIMENSIONS: 36 centimeters in height LOCATION: Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n , Washington D.C, Catalogue number 88981, Negative number 3^722-D COLLECTOR: Swan acquired i t in Skidegate i n I883 DATE: 1884 (acquisition date) 139 Photograph courtesy of the Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n . I l l u s t r a t e d i n Barbeau's Haida Myths I l l u s t r a t e d i n A r g i l l i t e  Carvings, Page 384, Figure 305• The figures from top to bottom are a beaver, a raven, and a bear. A l l of these are Eagle clan crests. The Beaver crest was obtained from Tsimshian country by Property-Making-a-Noise, a mythological character. (See Swanton, pp .109 and 115. and Barbeau's Totem Poles, V o l . 1 , Page 127). The raven crest came from Tsimshian country as well when a man who had been poisoned by clams was given a Raven hat as a cure. The bear i s also an Eagle crest (see Swanton, Page 115 )• The four segmented additions on the beaver's head are chief's rings, each r i n g s i g n i f y i n g rank and wealth demonstrated i n a potlatch. 140 PLATE 34 OBJECTS: Model Totem Poles MEDIUM: A r g i l l i t e DIMENSIONS: Approximately 40 centimeters i n height LOCATION: B r i t i s h Columbia Provincial Museum, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, Catalogue numbers 4?85 and 4?86 COLLECTOR: E. G. Maynard acquired them in Masset i n 1935 Photograph courtesy of Wilson Duff, Vancouver. Cont... The figures from top to bottom are a wasco with a whale held between i t s ears (the wasco has a dog-like furry t a i l as well as f l u k e s ) , a raven with a f i s h i n i t s beak, and a bear with two cubs and a frog i n front of i t . The wasco i s s p e c i f i c a l l y a crest belonging to the Eagles of Skidegate. For references to the crest and to the myths associated with t h i s mythical sea dog, see Swanton, Contributions to the  Ethnology of the Haida, pp.110 and 115, and Barbeau's Haida  Myths I l l u s t r a t e d i n A r g i l l i t e Carvings, pp. 305 and 313 i and Barbeau's Totem Poles, Vol.1, pp 316 - 319. PLATE 35 OBJECTS: Model Totem Poles MEDIUM: A r g i l l i t e LOCATION: Museum of the Hudson Bay Company, Winnipeg Photograph courtesy of the National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Negative number 99^65. LEFT: Figures from top to bottom are a wasco with a whale between i t s ears, and another in i t s mouth, and another wrapped 143 i n i t s t a i l , and the bottom figures i s a bear with a cub between i t s ears and with a human figure clutched i n front of i t . The bear and human figure probably r e f e r to the myth of the bear mother, a g i r l who was taken away by the bears because she had offended them. She bore two half human, hal f bear children. (See Barbeau's Haida Myths I l l u s t r a t e d  i n A r g i l l i t e Carvings, pp 84 - 146.) These narratives are always m reference to clan symbols or crests. I t i s the p r i v i l e g e of an Eagle to i l l u s t r a t e c e r t a i n of these myths as crests, as i t i s the p r i v i l e g e of a Raven to i l l u s t r a t e c e r t a i n other myths. RIGHTs Figures from top to bottom are a k i l l e r whale with a human figure r i d i n g on i t s back holding on to the dorsal f i n , and the bottom figure i s a beaver with a chewing s t i c k and an obvious cross hatched t a i l . The upper group refers again to the myth of Gunarhnesemgyet whose wife was stolen by a k i l l e r whale. (See Swanton, Page 202, and Barbeau*s Haida Myths  I l l u s t r a t e d i n A r g i l l i t e Carvings, Page 269.) PLATE 36 OBJECT: Model Totem Pole MEDIUM: A r g i l l i t e LOCATION: Glenbow-Alberta Institute, Calgary, Alberta, Catalogue number 62-62-54, Negative number FA771 COLLECTOR: C. P. Smith i n V i c t o r i a (Mrs. Kelly, Tom Price's daughter-in-law, remembered Mr. Smith as a c o l l e c t o r of his work) Cont..• 145 The figures from top to bottom are a wasco with a whale between i t s ears and another whale wrapped i n i t s t a i l , a sea bear, and a bear holding a frog. For the Skidegate Eagle crest of the wasco see Swanton, pp. 110 and 115. and Barbeau's Haida Myths  I l l u s t r a t e d i n A r g i l l i t e , pp 305 and 313. and Barbeau's Totem  Poles, Vol.1, pp. 316 - 319. 146 PLATE 37 OBJECT: Model Totem Pole MEDIUM: A r g i l l i t e LOCATION: Stadt Museum, Bremen, Germany COLLECTOR: Krause DATE: 1881-1882 I l l u s t r a t e d in Furhman's T l i n k i t und Haida, plate 39. Cont.•. 14? This i s again perhaps a wasco with a whale between i t s ears, the Eagles of Skidegate crest, or possibly a sea bear with a cub between i t s ears, and the bottom figure i s a bear, also an Eagle crest. Photograph courtesy of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology. PLATE 38 OBJECT: Interior House post MEDIUM: Wood, Red and Black Paint DIMENSIONS: Approximately 3 meters in height LOCATION: University of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology, Catalogue number A50025/59 Cont... 149 COLLECTOR: James Peters Photograph courtesy of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology. The figures from top to bottom are a hawk, a dog f i s h or shark, a sea bear, and a bear. The arrangement of colours i s t r a d i t i o n a l so that black defines the most important features, and red defines secondary features. This was meant to stand inside a house and i s not of the same scale as large free standing poles. But the clan symbolism i s the same. Every crest figure c l a r i f i e s the s o c i a l p o s i t i o n of the family i n whose home t h i s would stand. PLATE 39 OBJECT: Carved Inte r i o r House Post MEDIUM: Wood, Red and Black and Blue Paint LOCATION: Chicago F i e l d Museum of Natural History, Catalogue number 7 9 7 8 6 (Now, due to an accident, in the possession of the Salvation Army) Cont... 151 Photograph courtesy of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia, Negative number E49» 1128, C. F. Newcombe photograph. The house post belonged to the house of Paul Jones in Tanu, and was sent to Chicago i n May, 1901. The top figure i s a sea bear. The lower figure i s a bear, which was the crest belonging to Paul Jones* wife. It i s i l l u s t r a t e d as an example of Haida carving i n G a r f i e l d and Wingert, The Tsimshian Indians and Their Arts, Page 83, Figure 10. PLATE 40 OBJECT: Carved Wasco (the small creatures in the mouth and t a i l are whales) MEDIUM: Wood LOCATION: B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B.C., Catalogue number 238 COLLECTOR: James Deans acquired i t in the Queen Charlotte Islands DATE: 1892 Photograph courtesy of the National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Negative number 73127. I l l u s t r a t e d in Barbeau's Haida Myths I l l u s t r a t e d in A r g i l l i t e  Carvings, Page 309, Figure 237. 153 X. INDEX TO THE CATALOGUE abalone 25, 27 - 29 American Museum of Natural History, New York 15, 17, 22, 23. 32 a r g i l l i t e 15 - 23, 2 5 , - 37 bear 27 - 30, 3 2 - 3 9 beaver (zin) 4, l 4 , 33, 35 black f i s h (scar na, or f i n back) 2, 17, 19. 20, 31, 35, (possibly 37, 38) black f i s h - k i l l e r whale - with f i v e f i n s (ga-kwy) 12 boxes 22, 23, 25, 27, 28 Bremen Stadt Museum, Germany 37 B r i t i s h Museum, London 29 B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Ceclumbia 1 - 12, 34, 40 b u l l head (ga yay, or sculpin) 3.15 ceep (sea otter) 9 ceet-ga (skate) 10 Charnley C o l l e c t i o n , Seattle 13 Chicago F i e l d Museum of Natural History 24, 39 coo-a-gee (sea g r i z z l y bear) 8, (possibly 16, 26, 31. 32, 36. 37, 38,) 39 dog f i s h (ga-ha-da, or shark) 11, 38 dragonfly 16 drawings 1 - 1 2 eagle 26 f i n back (scar na, or black f i s h ) 2, 17, 19. 20, 31, 35, (possibly 37, 38) 154 frog (gan go slau,or more probably gan go stan) 6, 28, 32, 34, 36, 38 ga-kwy (black f i s h - k i l l e r whale - with f i v e f i n s ) 12 gan go slatt, or more probably gan go stan (frog) 6, 28, 32, 34, 36, 38 ga-ha-da (dog f i s h , or shark) 11, 38 ga yay (b u l l head, or sculpin) 3 , 15 Glenbow-Alberta Institute, Calgary, Alberta 16, 31, 36 gold lk Gold, Captain, Gold Harbour, Skidegate 2k Gunarnhnesemgyet 31. 35 hat 13, 30, 33 hawk 38 hocker figure 30 Holm Coll e c t i o n , Seattle 28 house posts 38, 39 ivory 21, 29 k i l l e r whale 2, 12, 17, 19, 20, 31, 35 (possibly 37, 38) l i v i n g log (zom oose) 1 Moffatt C o l l e c t i o n , Seattle 30 Museum of the Hudson Bay Company, Winnipeg, Manitoba 35 Museum and Laboratories of Ethnic Arts and Technologies, University of C a l i f o r n i a at Los Angeles 19 National Museum of Canada, Ottawa 18, 20, 21 Ninstints (Nunstints) 12 opercula 19, 21, 29 painted hat 13 Pearsall C o l l e c t i o n , F l o r i d a 26 155 plates 15 - 21 raven 32, 33, 34 rhun (whale) 7 scar na ( f i n back, or black f i s h ) 2, 12, 17, 19, 20, 31, 35 (possibly 37, 38) sculpin (ga yay, or b u l l head) 3, 15 sea bear 8, (possibly 16), 26, 31, 32, 36, 37, (possibly 3 8 ) , 39 sea dog or sea wolf (wasco) 5, 18, 34, 35, 36, 40 sea g r i z z l y bear (coo-a-gee) 8, (possibly 16, 26, 31. 32, 36, 37, 38), 39 sea otter (ceep) 9 shaman 30 shark (dog f i s h or ga-ha-da) 11, 38 s i l v e r 14 skate (ceet-ga) 10 Skeena Treasure House, Hazelton, B r i t i s h Columbia 14 Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n , Washington D.C. 25, 27, 33 spruce root hat 13, 30 stone r i b s 12 totem poles 31 - 37 University of B r i t i s h Columbia Museum of Anthropology, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia 38 wasco (sea dog, or sea wolf) 5, 18, 3^, 35» 36, 40 whale (rhun) 7 wolf 13, 33 zin (beaver) 4, l 4 , 33, 35 zom oose ( l i v i n g log) 1 156 XI. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Ackerman, James S., "A Theory of Style", Journal of  Aesthetics, #20, no.3 (Spring, 1962), 227-23?. 2. Barbeau, Marius, Haida Carvers i n A r g i l l i t e . Ottawa: National Museum of Canada, B u l l e t i n 139, 1957. 3* » Haida Myths I l l u s t r a t e d i n A r g i l l i t e Carvings. Ottawa: National Museum of Canada, B u l l e t i n 127, 1953. 4. , "Indian Silversmiths on the P a c i f i c Coast", Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Series 3 , Volume 33. section 2 (1939), 23 - 28. 5. , Totem Poles, 2 Volumes. Ottawa: National Museum of Canada, B u l l e t i n 119, 1964. 6. Boas, Franz, Primitive Art. New York: Dover Publications, 1955. 7. , "The Decorative Arts of the Indians of the North P a c i f i c Coast". B u l l e t i n of the American Museum of  Natural History, IX (1897), 123 - 176. 8. Brown, A. Sutherland, Geology of the Queen Charlotte Islands. B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, B u l l e t i n 54, 1968. 9. Curtis, E. S., The North American Indian., Volume II. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The University Press, 1916. 10. Dawson, George M., Report on the Queen Charlotte Islands: Geological Survey of Canada. Montreal: Dawson Brothers,^ 1890. 157 11. Duff, Wilson, and Kew, Michael, Anthony Island, A Home of the Haidas. V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia: Pr o v i n c i a l Museum Report f o r the Year 1957• 12. j Holm B i l l ; and Reid, B i l l , Arts of the Raven: Masterworks of:the Northwest Coast Indians. Vancouver: Vancouver Art Gallery, 1967. 13« , The Indian History of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vol.1: The Impact of the White Man. V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia: P r o v i n c i a l Museum of B r i t i s h Columbia, Anthropology i n B r i t i s h Columbia Memoir no.5, 1964. 14. Drucker, P h i l i p , Cultures of the North P a c i f i c Coast. San Francisco: Chandler Publishing Company, 1965. 15• , Indians of the Northwest Coast. New York: American Museum of Natural History, 1956. 16. Eckholm, Gordon; Herskovitz, M e l v i l l e ; and Redfield, Robert, Aspects of Primitive Art. New York: Museum of Primitive Art, 1959. 17. F i r t h , Raymond, "The Social Framework of Primitive Art' 1. Elements of Social Organization. London: Watts and Company (1961), 155-182. 18. Fraser, Douglas, Primitive Art. New York: Doubleday, 1962. 19. , The Many Faces of Primitive Art. Englewood, New Jersey: Prentice H a l l , 1966. 20. Furhman, Ernst, T l i n k i t und Haida. Folkwang-Verlag G.M.B.H., Darmstadt Hagen, 1922. 158 21. Goddard, Pliny E a r l , Indians of the Northwest Coast. American Museum of Natural History Handbook Series 10, 1924. 22. G a r f i e l d , V i o l a E., and Wingert, Paul S., The Tsimshian  Indians and Their Arts. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1966. 23. Goldwater, Robert, Primitivism i n Modern Art. New York: Harper, 1938. 24. Gunther, Erna, Art i n the L i f e of the Northwest Coast Indian. Portland, Oregon: Portland Art Museum, 1966. 25. , "The So c i a l Disorganization of the Haida as Reflected i n Their Slate Carving". Davidson Journal  of Anthropology, Volume 2 (1956), 149 - 153. 26. Haag, William G., "The A r t i s t as a Reflection of His Culture". Essays i n the Science and Culture i n Honour  of L e s l i e A. White. Edited by Gertrude E. Dolo and Robert L. Carneiro (1962), 216 - 230. 27. Haeberlin, Herman K. "Principles of Esthetic Form i n the Art of the North P a c i f i c Coast". American Anthropolo- g i s t . Volume 20 (1918), 258 - 264. 28. Haselberger, Herta, "Method of Studying Ethnological Art". Current Anthropology, 2, Number 4 (October, 196l), 341 - 348. 29. Hawthorn, Audrey, People of the Potlatch: Native Arts and  Culture of the P a c i f i c Northwest Coast. Vancouver: Vancouver Art Gallery and the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1956. 159 30. , The Art of the Kwakiutl Indians and Other Northwest Coast Tribes. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1967. 31. Hawthorn, Harry, "The A r t i s t i n T r i b a l Society: The Northwest Coast". Proceedings of a Symposium at the Royal Anthropological I n s t i t u t e . The A r t i s t i n T r i b a l  Society ( l 9 6 l ) , 59 - 70. 32. Holm, B i l l , Northwest Coast Indian Art: An Analysis of Form. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1965. 33« Inverarity, Robert Bruce, Art of the Northwest Coast Indians. Berkeley: University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1967T 34. Leach, E. R., "Aesthetics". The Ins t i t u t i o n s of Primitive Society. Edited by F. E. Evans-Pritchard, et a l . (1954), 25 - 38. 35« Levi-Strauss, Claude, " S p l i t Representation i n the Art of Asia and America". Structural Anthropology (1963), Chapter V. 36. Morely, Alan Palmer, Roar of the Breakers. Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1967. 37« Schapiro, Meyer, "Style". Anthropology Today. Edited by A. L. Kroeber (1953), 287 - 311. 38. Swan, James G., "The Haidah Indians of the Queen Charlotte Islands, B r i t i s h Columbia", Smithsonian  Contributions to Knowledge 267 (1874), 23 - 28. 160 39. Swanton, John R., "Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida". Volume 5 of the Jesup North P a c i f i c Expedition. New Yorks American Museum of Natural History, 1905 -1909. 40. , Haida Texts! Skidegate D i a l e c t . Bureau of American "Ethnology, B u l l e t i n 29 (1905). 4 l . Taylor, Donna, "Anthropologists on Art". Readings on  Anthropology. Edited by Morton H. Fried, Volume 2 (1959), 178 - 190. 42. Wardell, A l l e n , Yakutat South, Indian Art of the Northwest  Coast. Chicago! Art Institute of Chicago, 1964. 43. Wingert, Paul S., Primitive A r t i Its Traditions and Styles. New York! World Publishing Company, 1965. 

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