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The baptism of the Holy Spirit : a study of the meaning of religious experience. Lythgoe, Mariann June Catherine 1969

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THE BAPTISM OF THE HOLY  SPIRIT:  A STUDY OF THE MEANING OF RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE  by MARIANN JUNE CATHERINE LYTHGOE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  1963  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED I N P A R T I A L FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master o f Arts i n t h e Department of Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA August,  1969  In p r e s e n t i n g an  this  thesis  in partial  advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y  the  Library  I further for  shall  make i t f r e e l y  agree that  permission  f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r of British  available  Columbia,  I agree  that  f o r r e f e r e n c e and S t u d y .  for extensive  copying of this  thesis  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r  by  h i s representatives.  of  this  written  thesis  It i s understood  forfinancial  shall  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  August  31.  1969  and S o c i o l o g y  Columbia  c o p y i n g o r pub 1 i c a t i o n  n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Department o f Anthropology  Date  gain  that  ABSTRACT This study i s of the baptism  of the Holy S p i r i t ,  r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e p o p u l a r l y known a s s p e a k i n g i n Our  concern  witness to i t .  while deeply  The  baptism of  embedded i n C h r i s t i a n  has u n t i l r e c e n t l y been a r e l a t i v e l y is  tongues.  i s w i t h i t s r o l e as a t r a n s f o r m i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n  t h e l i v e s o f t h o s e who Holy S p i r i t ,  a  the  tradition,  r a r e phenomenon.  There  c u r r e n t l y a marked i n c r e a s e i n i t s o c c u r r e n c e . The  sample s e l e c t e d f o r the purpose o f t h i s  c o n s i s t s of ten respondents,  study  o f whom f i v e a r e members o f  the  P e n t e c o s t a l assembly w h i l e f i v e are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h other e s t a b l i s h e d denominations the baptism.  but t e s t i f y  to the experience  M o s t a r e p e o p l e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s who  i n t h e i r middle years.  T h a t t h i s i s s o may  in itself  i n d i c a t i v e of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the contemporary surge of the The As  little  of are  be up-  experience. i n t e r v i e w s w e r e t a p e r e c o r d e d and  d i r e c t i o n a s p o s s i b l e was  g i v e n by t h e i n t e r v i e w e r  i n an e f f o r t t o g l e a n i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was s p o n s e on t h e p a r t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t o r t i o n of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . to the general concern e x p e r i e n c e and  The  transcribed.  a voluntary re-  f r e e from the  i n t e r v i e w e e was  o f t h e s t u d y and  asked  introduced  to relate h i s  a s much o f h i s b a c k g r o u n d a s he f e l t was  n i f i c a n t i n p o i n t i n g him toward i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n was  regarded  dis-  sig-  his spiritual destiny. A l l a s s i g n i f i c a n t and was  not  edited  i n transcription.  certain theoretical for  t h e work.  The s t u d y  begins with  a review o f  o b s e r v a t i o n s w h i c h p r o v i d e a framework  Chapter  I I p r o v i d e s an o v e r a l l  introduction  t o p a s t and p r e s e n t  e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e phenomenon, t o i t s  theological  and s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  lineation tion  origins  and d e f i n i t i o n  of a typical  a public  context  the respondents  complexity,  of the experience,  f o r the experience. and t r a c e s t h e i r  he  I I I introduces  careers.  v i a w h i c h t h e p e o p l e move f r o m  the person  that creates  i n t e r m s o f a number o f p a t h s ,  entry to a point of s p i r i t u a l the path  Chapter  spiritual  destiny.  encounters  These ranging  a point of  A t v a r i o u s p l a c e s on  t u r n i n g p o i n t s o r moments when  r e c o g n i z e s t h a t he h a s c h a n g e d .  tempt t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e p a t h s  de-  and t o a d e s c r i p -  c h a r i s m a t i c s e r v i c e o f worship  c a r e e r s may be s e e n in  t o an a t t e m p t e d  In this  s e c t i o n we a t -  c h o s e n by o u r r e s p o n d e n t s  by  means o f a map and t o i s o l a t e t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l moments and t h e b a s i c m o t i v a t i n g s t a t e s common t o a l l o u r r e s p o n d e n t s . Chapter  IV d e a l s with  a more d e f i n i t i v e  analysis of specific  motivating states i n relation to overall  influences,  major  c o n t i n u i n g themes, t r a n s i t i o n a l moments and t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of the i n t r o d u c t i o n  t o the experience.  the relationships of the experience t o r s t h a t have been i s o l a t e d is  to identify  solution eral  Finally,  i n Chapter  V  to the motivational fac-  are explored.  i n what way t h e e x p e r i e n c e  i n t h e eyes o f t h e respondent.  Our c o n c e r n has served  here  as a  In conclusion  o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e made on t h e b a s i s o f t h e p r e s e n t  sevstudy  which might c o n s t i t u t e p r o p o s a l s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . The were found ences,  b a c k g r o u n d f a c t o r s l e a d i n g up t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l s o v e r a l l f  influx  t o a sense o f i s o l a t i o n i n p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  a  general d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the circumstances of t h e i r lives,  a marked s p i r i t u a l c o n c e r n  and a d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  how s p i r i t u a l n e e d s w e r e b e i n g met t h r o u g h t i o n a l means.  The e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e H o l y  routine i n s t i t u Spirit resolves  t h e s e d i l e m m a s by ( a ) e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l of a s p i r i t u a l  and s o c i a l  with  community, ( b ) a t o t a l  a s a member transforma-  t i o n o f p e r s p e c t i v e and hence o f t h e m e a n i n g o f e x i s t i n g commitments, and ( c ) a s e n s e o f d i r e c t and immediate t i o n s h i p w i t h the Holy S p i r i t .  rela-  T h e e x p e r i e n c e was s e e n by  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s as a ' h e a l i n g * e x p e r i e n c e i n t h a t i t o f f e r e d a n a n s w e r t o t h e i r p r o b l e m s and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s .  T h e mean-  i n g o f t h e b a p t i s m o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t was f o u n d t o d i f f e r b e t w e e n t h o s e who h a d h a d a c o n t i n u o u s  association with the  P e n t e c o s t a l c h u r c h and t h o s e who h a d n o t .  For the l a t t e r  group t h e e x p e r i e n c e c o n s t i t u t e d a r a d i c a l moral t i o n whereas i n t h e case o f t h e former step i n a continuing r e l i g i o u s career.  transforma-  t h e e x p e r i e n c e was a  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter X II  Page 1  Introduction  12  The E x p e r i e n c e o f Pentecost The  Holy  12  Spirit  What I t I s :  New T e s t a m e n t O r i g i n s  A Historical  Review  Birth  Charismatic  The  L o c a l Movement  Tentative  .  .  1 6 19  and Growth o f t h e P e n t e c o s t a l  The  .  Renewal Movement  Sect .  .  .  28  .  32  .•  Observations Regarding the Act .  P u b l i c W o r s h i p : A D e s c r i p t i v e Response Impressions o f a P a r t i c u l a r Service  .  40  .  41 47  The Mapping o f S p i r i t u a l  Careers  .  .  .  .  52  P o r t r a i t s o f t h e Respondents  52  The  79  Map  Points  o f Reference  80 86  Types o f Careers IV  33  .  Summary Comments III  24  Analysis  92  Introduction  92  Overall  93  Table  Influences  Major C o n t i n u i n g The  93  I Themes  T r a n s i t i o n a l Moments  100 I l l  TABLE OF CONTENTS  (Cont.)  Chapter  Page  IV  V  Motivational States  118  C o n c l u d i n g Remarks  133 136  The Meaning o f t h e E x p e r i e n c e  136  T h e Moment How I t Changes VI  Conclusions  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  137 145  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  My t h a n k s a r e e x t e n d e d S m i t h , w i t h o u t whose p a t i e n t  t o Dr. Dorothy prompting  this  p a p e r would n e v e r have been u n d e r t a k e n , l e t alone  completed.  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION T h i s s t u d y h a s t o do w i t h t h a t r e l i g i o u s  experience  w h i c h i s known t o t h o s e who h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d i t a s t h e b a p t i s m o f t h e Holy S p i r i t .  The meaning o f t h i s e x p e r i e n c e i s  r o o t e d i n t h e C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n and has b i b l i c a l r e f e r e n c e . T h e moment o n t h e d a y o f P e n t e c o s t when t h e a p o s t l e s , ered a t Jerusalem  gath-  f o l l o w i n g t h e events surrounding t h e death  o f J e s u s C h r i s t , w e r e v i s i t e d by t h e H o l y S p i r i t a n d d i s covered  themselves  s p e a k i n g i n t o n g u e s i s an o r i g i n a l  that i s scripturally enacted iginal  recorded.  T h i s event  event  i s not merely r e -  s y m b o l i c a l l y b u t o c c u r s a g a i n and a g a i n i n i t s o r f o r m t o t h o s e who h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d t h e b a p t i s m  Holy S p i r i t .  What i t means a s an e x p e r i e n c e , a s an  of the event  w h i c h t r a n s f o r m s t h e l i v e s o f t h o s e who h a v e p a r t i c i p a t e d i n it,  c a n o n l y b e l e a r n e d f r o m t h o s e who h a v e h a d t h e e x p e r i -  ence. its  O n l y t h e y c a n a p p r o x i m a t e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f what i s  significance. My i n t e r e s t i n t h e b a p t i s m o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t , a n d  more p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g s i g n o f s p e a k i n g i n tongues, unusual  arose i n p a r t from a n a t u r a l c u r i o s i t y  concerning  r e l i g i o u s experience, a conviction that not nearly  e n o u g h a t t e n t i o n i s b e i n g g i v e n by s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s t o t h e r e l e v a n c e o f r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e t o t h e c r e a t i o n and d i r e c tion of the individual,  and f r o m h a v i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o  2  h a v e c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h s e v e r a l p e o p l e who w i t n e s s e d t o h a v i n g had t h e e x p e r i e n c e . of  I t seemed t o me t h a t t h e g r a f t i n g  t h i s experience, which belonged  t o t h e g o s p e l r e c o r d s and  appeared t o be p a r t o f a h i s t o r i c a l l y  distant l i f e  a somewhat a l i e n mode o f r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e , o n t o of  contemporaries  attention.  a r o u s i n g i n c r e a s i n g and c r o s s - s e c t a r i a n i n t e r e s t i n t h e  The  informed  and a c t i v e  circles.  i m p r e s s i o n g a i n e d f r o m my c o n t a c t w i t h t h o s e  h a d t h e e x p e r i e n c e was t h a t t h e y f e l t  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n had been produced of  worthy o f  emphasizes t h e e x p e r i e n c e as a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e  phenomenon among r e l i g i o u s l y  had  as a problem  the lives  The more s o i n t h a t t h e c u r r e n t s p r e a d o f a  movement w h i c h is  presented i t s e l f  s t y l e and  who  that a radical  i n t h e i r l i v e s as a r e s u l t  having p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s unusual  experience.  The  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n d i d n o t appear t o t a k e t h e form o f a change in  external circumstances but rather allowed the i n d i v i d u a l  to  r e i n t e r p r e t t h o s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n t h e l i g h t o f a new  understanding.  What he h a d e x p e r i e n c e d was a r e a l i t y  c o u l d n o t be e r a s e d from h i s awareness. p e r s p e c t i v e and t r a n s f o r m e d  t h e moral  which  I t had a l t e r e d h i s  quality of h i s l i f e .  L u t h e r P. G e r l a c h a n d V i r g i n i a H i n e i n an a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y the necessary  elements  i n t h e s u c c e s s f u l spread o f  a m o d e r n r e l i g i o u s movement p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e c u r r e n t  Pente-  c o s t a l movement i s n o t l i m i t e d t o a n y p a r t i c u l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t y p e o r s o c i a l c l a s s b u t draws on p a r t i c i p a n t s from a wide range o f socio-economic,  religious,  e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l  3 backgrounds. used  They s u g g e s t  t h a t t h e r e f o r e p r e v i o u s models  t o e x p l a i n movement g e n e s i s a r e i n a d e q u a t e  t i o n s must be s o u g h t  elsewhere.  a t i o n with regard to the potency change i s t h a t identity  change.  difficult etical and  o f commitment  One  of r e l i g i o u s experience  e x p e r i e n c e s as they  relate  t h i s i s an  a r e a t o examine because o f d e f i n i t i o n a l "The  explana-  of the areas f o r explor-  They acknowledge t h a t  ambiguities.  n a t u r e o f commitment  t h e p r o c e s s e s by w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l  them h a s  and  been s u b j e c t t o t o o much d e b a t e  to to  extremely and  theor-  experiences  c a n be l e d i n t o t o be  clearly  understood. A major statement  concerning the process of  f o r m a t i o n h a s b e e n c o n t r i b u t e d by  Erik  views t h e p r o c e s s as developmental. the l i f e  time  dividual  critical  society permits has  he d o e s p o i n t o u t  character of l a t e  possible lines  and m e a n i n g s and  adolescence.  through  t r y i n g out  of development without  In E r i k s o n * s account  Our  crisis  and  his past  making a f i n a l  commit-  the making o f major l i f e  commit-  characteristic  of  resolution  of  adolescence.  sample o f t e n c a s e s i n c l u d e s t h r e e d i f f e r e n t «•  types of combinations cycle,  At  alternative  ments i s t a k e n as i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e s u c c e s s f u l the i d e n t i t y  emphasizes  a moratorium d u r i n g which the i n -  an o p p o r t u n i t y o f s i f t i n g  identifications  ment.  While  Erikson  l o n g n a t u r e o f t h e i n t e g r a t i v e p r o c e s s he  the p a r t i c u l a r l y this  Erikson.  identity  of ideological  the p o i n t of i d e n t i t y  integration,  crisis.  Three  the  life  (identified  4 by  the letters  F . G. and I . i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s ) h a v e been  members o f t h e P e n t e c o s t a l c h u r c h appear t o have e x p e r i e n c e d kind  Spirit  i s an i m p o r t a n t  a l r e a d y mapped o u t f o r them. conversion  and t h e b a p t i s m  adolescent/early  adulthood  in  F o r them t h e b a p t i s m o f  step i n a s p i r i t u a l  Spirit  their lives.  experienced during the  crisis.  The remaining  t h e baptism  i t as a s i g n i f i c a n t  moral transformation i s the continuing  character o f the process of i d e n t i t y  In t h e case  of the l a s t  order p r i o r  t o making t h e i r  The  'epigenetic the  t o E r i k s o n s view which a r e T  secondly, tegrated  p l a c e d on t h e  foundation of the integrative process;  emphasis on e g o - i n t e g r a t i o n as a r e s u l t  of b i o l o g i c a l  by t h e i r  Spirit.  t o our purpose a r e t h e importance 1  potential  given  commitments b u t r a t h e r t h e com-  two themes c e n t r a l  significant  integration.  h a s n o t been  h a v e a l r e a d y made a r e g i v e n o r d e r  experience o f t h e Holy  Spirit  commitments h a d b e e n  What must be s t r e s s e d h e r e  group t h e w o r l d  f i v e (A.,  o f t h e Holy  problematic  mitments they  career  p e r i o d which E r i k s o n marks o u t a s  y e a r s , a f t e r major l i f e  made a n d e x p e r i e n c e d  o f a major  Two (D. and H.)  ( J . , E . and J.) e x p e r i e n c e d t h e i r middle  crisis  o f t h e Holy  t h e p e r i o d o f major i d e n t i t y  in  c h i l d h o o d , and do n o t  an i d e n t i t y  a t any p e r i o d i n t h e i r l i v e s .  the Holy  B.,  from  and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  that i s ,  of a synthesis e x p e r i e n c e , and  t h e r o l e o f i d e o l o g y i n g i v i n g c o h e s i o n t o an i n identity  and p r o v i d i n g t h e b a s i s f o r o t h e r  commitments made by t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  major  5 The  theme o f t h e r o l e o f i d e o l o g y , w i t h  particular  reference to r e l i g i o n ,  i n the integrative process also  c e r n s Anthony W a l l a c e ,  who p o i n t s o u t t h a t  relatively  a t t e n t i o n h a s b e e n p l a c e d by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s upon standing r e l i g i o n solutions, that  orientation,  rejected  He  as a " c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t  with  society  and an e x p e r i -  and i t s t r a d i t i o n a l  and u n i t e s t h e  v a l u e s has had  l e s s i n f l u e n c e than t h e mainstream o f i t s c e n t r a l that  religious  justify."  experience i s p o s i t i v e l y  Wallace  n i t i v e dissonance  notes  While  premise;  t h e r a p e u t i c would  the p o s s i b l e relevance o f cog-  theory to r e l i g i o u s  p r o p o s a l t h a t where m u t u a l l y entertained,  analysts  tendencies,  ence which a t once i n t e g r a t e s t h e p e r s o n a l i t y individual  under-  suggests  by o r t h o d o x  b e c a u s e o f i t s m y s t i c a l and d o g m a t i c  which views r e l i g i o n  the individual  experience i ni t s  contradictory  cognitions are  must a c t t o r e d u c e  dissonance.  t h e r e a r e numerous a l t e r n a t i v e s i n d e a l i n g w i t h  lems o f t h i s  sort,  little  t h e p o i n t o f view o f p r o v i d i n g  r a t h e r than p r o j e c t i n g problems.  the Jungian  largely  from  con-  including the p o s s i b i l i t y  prob-  o f changing the  r e a l world  i n some r e s p e c t s o a s t o r e o r g a n i z e i n c o m i n g i n -  formation,  t h e same e f f e c t  "perceptions of self that  one h o r n  an  and o f t h e r e a l  o f t h e dilemma  Anton Boisen, mental  may a l s o be a c h i e v e d by m o d i f y i n g world  i n such  a way  i s no l o n g e r r e c o g n i z e d . " ^  a clergyman  who u n d e r w e n t  severe  d i s t u r b a n c e and who a t t r i b u t e s h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t o  i n t e n s e r e l i g i o u s experience proposes  that  religious  6 experience  provides  conflicts. the  a r e s o l u t i o n of otherwise  What i t d o e s i s t o move t h e  c e n t e r o f h i s d e b i l i t a t i n g dilemma  solution  by  effecting  perience  and  the d i r e c t i o n  on  a basis conceived  the person hierarchy  into of  The  individual and  out  o f f e r s him  which enables  of inner u n i f i c a t i o n as u n i v e r s a l . " ^  "harmony w i t h  and  him  social  In doing  ex-  to  grow  adaptation  so i t b r i n g s  t h a t w h i c h i s supreme i n h i s  loyalties."-* integrative effect  of r e l i g i o u s  experience  c e i v e s c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n f r o m W i l l i a m James, who conversion self  as  "the process,  h i t h e r t o d i v i d e d , and  unhappy, becomes u n i f i e d quence w i t h  the  gradual  of alterations  and  consciously right,  o c c u r r i n g i n the  i n emotional  and  realities."^ individual  excitement;  that  as  another.  occurs  expel  a  i s , when  energy*, t h a t group o f  grows so s t a b l e a s t o  a  i n conse-  w h i c h demand h i s commitment i s r e p l a c e d by aim  views  c o n s c i o u s l y wrong, i n f e r i o r  c e n t e r o f man's ' p e r s o n a l  "when one  re-  o r s u d d e n , by w h i c h  i t s f i r m e r h o l d upon r e l i g i o u s  James s e e s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n result  of a  "a s y n t h e s i s between t h e c r i s i s  h i s subsequent l i f e  in  unsolvable  ideas Change  definitive-  7 ly  i t s previous  rivals  from the  ing  t o James some p e o p l e  and  are not prone to t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  others,  the  subject  to  'sick  are  individual's l i f e . "  'healthy minded'or experiences  unambivalent whereas  s o u l s ' whose s e l v e s a r e d i v i d e d , may  such experiences  which serve  state of i n t e g r a t i o n or unity.  Accord-  be  t o b r i n g them t o  a  7 What i s d i s t i n c t i v e does n o t t r e a t  religious  a b o u t James* v i e w i s t h a t he  experience p r i m a r i l y  as a s o l u t i o n  t o s e c u l a r problems but r a t h e r emphasizes t h e r e l a t i o n o f religious resolutions to basically  r e l i g i o u s problems.  happens i n r e l i g i o u s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , s a y s  James, i s t h a t  r e l i g i o u s m o t i o n s w h i c h h a v e f o r m e r l y been k e p t iphery  of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s consciousness  position  of central  importance  on t h e p e r -  now move i n t o a  and s o become what he  the h a b i t u a l center o f the person*s  tion  as t h e r e s u l t  o f a conscious decision.  does p l a y a r o l e i n p r e c i p i t a t i n g  is  of greater significance.  at  the l e v e l  calls  energy.  A c c o r d i n g t o James, t r a n s f o r m a t i o n u s u a l l y occur  What  While  c h a n g e , new  does n o t informaawareness  The c e n t e r o f c h a n g e i s l a r g e l y  o f the subconscious  and i t i s o f t e n n o t u n t i l  c o n s c i o u s c o n t r o l h a s b e e n g i v e n up t h a t t h e p r o c e s s o f transformation persistently resist,  c a n be c o m p l e t e d .  r e f u s e s t o come u n t i l  o r make an e f f o r t  " I n many c a s e s the person  i n the d i r e c t i o n  relief  ceases t o  he d e s i r e s t o  8  go."  James s e e s t h e r e a s o n  surrender two  f o r the importance  of s e l f -  i n t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s h a v i n g t o do w i t h  m a j o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s on t h e m i n d s o f t h o s e who a r e  undergoing  t h e change; n a m e l y , t h e s e n s e  ness or 'sin* positive ideal  from  which t h e r e i s a wish  t o w a r d s w h i c h he y e a r n s .  emphasis i n t h e mind o f t h e p e r s o n little  awareness granted  of present  t o e s c a p e and a I n most c a s e s t h e  i s on t h e f i r s t  t h e second.  wrong-  with  T h e r e a r e two ways o f  8 overcoming problems, suggests James; namely the replacement o f one  set o f commitments by another and by  a c t of s e l f - s u r r e n d e r , or g i v i n g up, son.  conscious  on the p a r t of the p e r -  I t i s o n l y when t h i s happens t h a t change can  place.  an  take  James notes the outcome of most c o n v e r s i o n  experi-  ences as i n c l u d i n g a l o s s of worry or a w i l l i n g n e s s to  be  r e g a r d l e s s of whether or not outer circumstances change or remain the same, a sense of p e r c e i v i n g new one  t r u t h s of which  has p r e v i o u s l y been unaware, a sense t h a t the world  undergone a change and  an e c s t a c y of happiness.  t h i s i s the f e e l i n g i n the hour of c o n v e r s i o n higher  Central  to  of a sense of  control. There i s no way  transforming  o f d i s c e r n i n g the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f a  experience other  meant to the person who no  has  Since there  are  adequate c r i t e r i a f o r measuring the v a l i d i t y o f the  ex-  perience  has  than i n terms o f what i t has  been changed.  the u l t i m a t e t e s t remains the new  l e v e l of  spiritu-  a l i t y a t t a i n e d by the i n d i v i d u a l . In review of the f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n the  points  which are p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t t o our study i n c l u d e : 1.  The  importance o f assuming an i d e o l o g i c a l stance i n  the i n t e g r a t i v e p r o c e s s o f i d e n t i t y formation,  es-  p e c i a l l y as i t r e l a t e d to the making of major  life  commitments ( E r i k s o n ) . 2.  The  view t h a t r e l i g i o u s experience opens up  native perspectives  alter-  of which the i n d i v i d u a l has  been unaware to t h a t moment.  9 3.  The  importance  religious  of the p o s s i b i l i t y  experience  r a t h e r than  of  seeing  i n terms o f a s o l u t i o n  a p r o j e c t i o n of the  to  individual's  problems (Wallace). 4.  The  means o f r e s o l u t i o n b e i n g a c h a n g e f r o m  r a t h e r than ( W a l l a c e and 5.  The  change o f e x t e r n a l  6.  circumstances  James).  characteristic  of r e l i g i o u s  allowing the i n d i v i d u a l of  within  experience  in  to rearrange h i s 'hierarchy  loyalties!*(Boisen).  The  importance  o f the element o f s e l f - s u r r e n d e r t o  moral t r a n s f o r m a t i o n brought  on  by  religious  exper-  ience. 7.  The  relationship  o f t h e w e a k e n i n g o f one  ideas to the strengthening of another.  set of As  the  one  weakens t h e o t h e r moves i n t o t a k e i t s p l a c e . As cerned  stated earlier,  i n this  study  known a s t h e b a p t i s m experience.  The  the i n d i v i d u a l of the presence  has  t h e p r o b l e m w i t h w h i c h we  t o do w i t h t h e r e l i g i o u s  of the Holy  significance of t h i s  of the s p i r i t  himself.  event,  The  and  experience  at which  time  awareness  i s marked by  of speaking  experience the person  s c i o u s c o n t r o l o f h i s speech than  o f God,  con-  or the P e n t e c o s t a l  f e e l s h i m s e l f overwhelmed w i t h t h e  companying s i g n i n t h e form religious  Spirit  are  i n tongues.  an  acIn  i s r e q u i r e d t o g i v e up  this con-  s u r r e n d e r t o a power g r e a t e r  e n t i r e being i s i n v o l v e d i n the  experience.  10 Those who have had t h e experience t e s t i f y not only t o t h e moment o f t h e experience i t s e l f but t o t h e accompanying change t h a t has taken p l a c e i n t h e i r l i v e s .  The baptism  o f t h e Holy S p i r i t has p r o v i d e d them w i t h a s o l u t i o n , i t has brought them s a l v a t i o n . something  I t i s hoped t h a t i n t h i s  study  may be l e a r n e d from our respondents as t o how and  why they f e e l t h i s change has come about  and i n what way  they see t h e experience as a s o l u t i o n f o r them.  Notes L u t h e r P. F a c t o r s C r u c i a l To ment," J o u r n a l F o r V I I , No. 1, S p r i n g  G e r l a c h and V i r g i n i a H. H i n e , " F i v e T h e Growth Of A Modern R e l i g i o u s MoveT h e S c i e n t i f i c S t u d y Of R e l i g i o n . V o l . 1968, 32.  ^ A n t h o n y W a l l a c e , R e l i g i o n ; An A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l (New Y o r k : Random House, 1959), p . 13. 3  World  Ibid.,  p . 29.  ^ A n t o n T. B o i s e n , T h e E x p l o r a t i o n Of T h e I n n e r (New Y o r k : H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s ) , p . i x . %bid.,  ence  Vxew.  p. i x .  ^ W i l l i a m James, T h e V a r i e t i e s Of R e l i g i o u s E x p e r i ( L o n d o n : Longmans, G r e e n and Co., 1935)> p . 190. 7  Ibid.,  p . 191.  8  Ibid.,  p.  208.  CHAPTER I I THE  EXPERIENCE OF  PENTECOST:  Until recently l i t t l e  PAST AND  PRESENT  emphasis has been p l a c e d  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e P e n t e c o s t a l movements on an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and Spirit.  d e f i n i t i o n of the concept  by  intellectual  of the  Holy  A more t h e o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n h a s b e e n d e v e l o p i n g  d u r i n g t h e p a s t s e v e r a l m o n t h s a s t h e movement i s f i n d i n g i t s way church.  into the e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  c i r c l e s o f t h e Roman C a t h o l i c  H o w e v e r , among l a y p a r t i c i p a n t s v e r b a l r e f e r e n c e t o  t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s u s u a l l y couched i n m e t a p h o r i c a l r a t h e r than a n a l y t i c a l terms. baptism of the Holy  Credence i s g i v e n to the experience of  the  S p i r i t by c o n s e q u e n t i a l c h a n g e s o f p e r -  s p e c t i v e and b e h a v i o u r .  F o r t h e r e a d e r t o c o m p r e h e n d some-  t h i n g of the relevance of the experience to the i n d i v i d u a l i t is  i m p e r a t i v e to attempt  noted  t h e o l o g i c a l comment.  ( i t should  t h a t w h i l e t h e comments a r e d e l i b e r a t e l y made f r o m  P e n t e c o s t a l p o i n t o f v i e w t h e y do n o t i n f a c t  be a  authentically  represent that position.) The  concept  'ruah*, which ing of  of s p i r i t ,  r o o t e d i n t h e Hebrew  d e n o t e s b o t h w i n d and  b r e a t h , had  term  evolved  the course of Hebraic t r a d i t i o n to i m p l y i n g both a p o w e r and  an i n t i m a t e p r e s e n c e .  dursource  P r o p h e t i c p r e p a r a t i o n had  b e e n made f o r t h e b i r t h o f a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l a t some f u t u r e p o i n t i n t i m e who p o w e r and p r e s e n c e  w o u l d be t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f  of the s p i r i t .  The  Old Testament  the  promises  13  that " . . .  t h e r e s h a l l come f o r t h a r o d o u t o f t h e s t e m  J e s s e , a n d a B r a n c h s h a l l grow o u t o f h i s r o o t s and S p i r i t o f Yahweh s h a l l r e s t o n him."-*a n t i c i p a t e d M e s s i a h was f o r C h r i s t i a n s i t was  the  T h i s b e i n g so  i n the person of Jesus C h r i s t that  a b s t r a c t concept of S p i r i t The  the  For C h r i s t i a n s  Jesus of Nazareth.  f o u n d i t s f o c u s and  realization.  fundamental t e n e t s of  h e l d by f o l l o w e r s o f t h i s p e r s u a s i o n :  faith  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  t h e h i s t o r i c a l J e s u s w i t h the p r o p h e s i e d Messiah as t h e  of  son  and a s t r o n g b e l i e f i n t h e a c t u a l r e s u r r e c t i o n o f t h e  body o f J e s u s C h r i s t f r o m t h e dead. first  the  dynamic potency o f t h e S p i r i t t o P e n t e c o s t a l  u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s e f f e c t e d by two  o f God  of  The  s i g n i f i c a n c e of the  l i e s i n the underlining of the ultimate authority  t h e s o u r c e o f power e v i d e n c e d i n t h e s p i r i t o f  Christ.  M e s s i a n i c p r o p h e s i e s had been p o s i t i v e t h a t t h e " S p i r i t Y a h w e h " (God)  would  of  r e s t on t h e f o r t h c o m i n g M e s s i a h .  of  Christ,  t h e n , b e i n g t h e p r o m i s e d M e s s i a h , was  endowed w i t h t h e  o f God;  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Jesus  namely, the Holy S p i r i t .  The  Spirit  a s t h e M e s s i a h i s v e r i f i e d by t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l f a c t o f t h e p h y s i c a l r e s u r r e c t i o n o f C h r i s t from t h e dead. i n d i c a t e t h a t he was  The  records  s e e n and r e c o g n i z e d by a number o f h i s  f o l l o w e r s d a y s a f t e r h i s d e a t h h a d b e e n c o n f i r m e d and  that  t h e tomb i n w h i c h h i s b o d y h a d b e e n p l a c e d was m y s t e r i o u s l y empty on t h e t h i r d day a f t e r h i s b u r i a l .  The  s o u r c e o f power  apparent i n the being of C h r i s t i s thus not only a u t h e n t i c a t e d but i s g i v e n a sense o f immediacy.  Power and  presence  are  s y n t h e s i z e d and Rooted  operationalized.  i n t h e above f o u n d a t i o n s o f fundamental  bib-  l i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e t h e o l o g i c a l c o n v i c t i o n s h e l d by of  P e n t e c o s t a l p e r s u a s i o n e n h a n c e an a w a r e n e s s o f a  p r e s e n c e which i s a t once t o t a l l y able authority.  I t i s this  those  spiritual  i n t i m a t e and o f u n q u e s t i o n -  combination that undergirds the  dynamic p o t e n t i a l o f t h e P e n t e c o s t a l e x p e r i e n c e f o r r a d i c a l m o r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The  reality  of the Holy S p i r i t  binds  t h e m i n f a i t h t o t h e l i v i n g C h r i s t whose b e i n g r e q u i r e s n o t h ing  l e s s than t o t a l  commitment.  e n c i n g t h e S p i r i t o f God God  c o m i n g t o me  warrants a t o t a l  and l e t t i n g me  s c i o u s n e s s o f J e s u s l i v i n g i n me to  me  The p o s s i b i l i t y  do t h i s was  of  response.  He w o u l d  testify  w i t h me  "Imagine  . . . the great  the overwhelming  . . . s i n c e then I've found i n s c r i p t u r e t h a t  s a i d t h a t when He w o u l d  experi-  send t h e C o m f o r t e r , t h e Holy and y o u ' d know i t . . .  con-  thing Jesus Spirit,  I t was  so  2  real  I was  a l m o s t amazed t o f i n d  i t i n the B i b l e . "  The  Holy  S p i r i t i s e x p e r i e n c e d as a P e r s o n a l i t y , a t r a n s f o r m i n g f r i e n d s h i p , a s communion w i t h o n e ' s C r e a t o r , a s an e x p e r i e n c e w i t h God  i n H i s dynamic a s p e c t . Of c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e t o P e n t e c o s t a l s i n s p e c i f y i n g  t h e event of the Holy S p i r i t tion  t h a t u n l e s s "one  i s C h r i s t ' s recorded  be b o r n o f w a t e r and t h e S p i r i t he  n o t e n t e r t h e k i n g d o m o f God." that Christ told to  proclama-  Furthermore  H i s f o l l o w e r s t h a t i t was  l e a v e them f o r i f He  can  i t i s recorded  e x p e d i e n t f o r Him  d i d n o t " t h e S p i r i t w o u l d n o t come.  B u t when He, t h e S p i r i t , forever.  d i d come, He w o u l d s t a y w i t h t h e m  He w o u l d g u i d e a n d t e a c h a n d s t r e n g t h e n a n d i n H i s  p o w e r t h e y w o u l d do g r e a t e r t h i n g s even t h a n C h r i s t h a s done."  4  Baptism  i s t h e d e s c r i p t i v e term  when t h e p e r s o n  g i v e n t o t h a t moment  f e e l s h i m s e l f most f u l l y  a w a r e o f and r e s p o n -  s i v e t o the experience of d i r e c t contact with the Creator. I t i s a moment o f o n e n e s s , o f s p i r i t u a l u n i o n , o f  unprece-  dented  and i r r a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f s e l f and g r e a t e r t h a n  self.  P e n t e c o s t a l s i n s i s t t h a t t h e y do n o t s e e t h e b a p t i s m  o f t h e Holy S p i r i t  a s an e x c l u s i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e S p i r i t  b u t r a t h e r r e g a r d i t a s b e i n g on a c o n t i n u u m a l o n g w i t h other r e l i g i o u s experiences of C h r i s t i a n o r i g i n . lical  imagery suggests t h a t s a l v a t i o n i s a w e l l o f water  whereas t h e baptism never  "The b i b -  of the S p i r i t  i s a river.  So t h e i m a g e r y  a l l o w s y o u t o do a n y t h i n g more t h a n s a y i t ' s more o f  t h e same t h i n g o n l y i t ' s more d y n a m i c more f u l l y  to the Spirit,  . . .  i t opens t h e door  because every born again  Christian  i s i n d w e l t by t h e S p i r i t . " - * Although of the S p i r i t ,  n o t r e c o g n i z e d a s an e x c l u s i v e e x p e r i e n c e  P e n t e c o s t a l s do r e g a r d t h e o c c a s i o n o f t h e  baptism o f t h e Holy S p i r i t as a unique  and d e f i n i t i v e  event,  i s o l a t e d i n t i m e and i d e n t i f i e d by t h e accompanying a c t o f speaking i n tongues;  the glossolalic act.  understanding t h e r e l a t i o n of t h e Holy  Significant i n  Spirit to the experi-  ence o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t h e n o t i o n o f g i f t .  The awareness  16 described part for  by t h e b a p t i s m i s a c k n o w l e d g e d a s b e i n g  b e y o n d human a b i l i t y  t o command.  The main p r e r e q u i s i t e  r e c e i v i n g t h e g i f t of the Holy S p i r i t  conviction that soul's  i t i s p o s s i b l e t o do s o .  sincere desire  . . . that's  at least i n  i s t h e d e s i r e and " I f prayer  i s the  what y o u ' v e g o t when fi  you're a candidate f o r the baptism o f t h e Holy  Spirit."  C o n f e s s i o n s o f p e o p l e who w i t n e s s t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e indicate that  i t i s not tied  mood o r p h y s i c a l at  human e x p e r i e n c e .  an i n t e n s e  into ing  state but rather  i t appears to occur  will.  The only  and d e p t h s  apparent p r e r e q u i s i t e  A s t h e symbol o f w a t e r s i g n i f i e s  t h e community o f C h r i s t i a n b e l i e v e r s s o t o n g u e s , to Pentecostals,  spiritual  serves  awareness.  tongues as symbolic w o u l d seem t h a t i s that  What I t I s :  entry accord-  t o i n d i c a t e t h e moment o f f u l l  I t must b e n o t e d t h a t  divergence of opinion  als  that  random; i t may happen b o t h a t t i m e s o f h e i g h t s  of ordinary is  t o any p a r t i c u l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l  as t o t h e n e c e s s i t y  there  i s some  o f speaking i n  of the baptism o f t h e Holy S p i r i t  t h e most commonly h e l d  but i t  v i e w among P e n t e c o s t -  t h e a c t almost i n v a r i a b l y accompanies t h e event. New T e s t a m e n t  Origins  R e f e r e n c e s t o t h e phenomenon o f s p e a k i n g i n t o n g u e s can  be l o c a t e d  larly the in  t h r o u g h o u t t h e New T e s t a m e n t b u t a r e p a r t i c u -  prominent  Corinthians.  i n t h e Book o f A c t s  and i n P a u l ' s L e t t e r s t o  The c e n t r a l r e f e r e n c e  t o tongues i s found  t h e s e c o n d c h a p t e r o f t h e Book o f A c t s .  In relating the  e v e n t s t h a t o c c u r r e d on t h e day  of Pentecost  Luke, t h e  author  o f A c t s , comments: And when t h e day o f P e n t e c o s t was f u l l y come, t h e y w e r e a l l w i t h one a c c o r d i n one p l a c e . And s u d d e n l y t h e r e was a s o u n d f r o m h e a v e n a s o f a m i g h t y r u s h i n g w i n d , and i t f i l l e d a l l t h e h o u s e w h e r e t h e y w e r e s i t t i n g . And t h e r e a p p e a r e d t o them c l o v e n t o n g u e s l i k e a s o f f i r e , and i t s a t upon e a c h o f t h e m . And t h e y w e r e f i l l e d w i t h t h e H o l y G h o s t , and t h e y b e g a n t o s p e a k w i t h o t h e r t o n g u e s , a s t h e S p i r i t g a v e them u t t e r a n c e . 7 Throughout the h i s t o r y of the C h r i s t i a n church of the story of Pentecost the debate,  has provoked c o n t r o v e r s y .  i t i s g e n e r a l l y understood  that historic  on  a s o r t of  An u n n a t u r a l s e n s e o f o n e n e s s i s  b e l i e v e d t o have overwhelmed a l l t h o s e p r e s e n t , o f c u l t u r e and  Whatever  t h a t what happened  occasion represents something unique,  m i r a c l e of communication.  diversity  interpretation  conflict  superseding  of perspective.  By t h e t i m e P a u l w r o t e h i s l e t t e r s t o t h e y o u n g churches,  s p e a k i n g i n t o n g u e s had  become p r o b l e m a t i c ; i n s t e a d  o f f u n c t i o n i n g a s a u n i f y i n g medium i t had fragmentation  and  conflict.  become a s o u r c e  P a u l , t h e r e f o r e , appears to  s k e p t i c a l c o n c e r n i n g t h e p u b l i c u s e o f t o n g u e s and in  h i s l e t t e r s to the church  e s t a b l i s h e d to determine While  be  suggests  i n C o r i n t h t h a t c o n t r o l s be  t h e a c c e p t a b l e use o f  tongues.  P a u l a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e phenomenon as  g e n u i n e s p i r i t u a l e x p r e s s i o n , i n f a c t d e c l a r i n g t h a t he self  s p o k e i n t o n g u e s , he n e v e r t h e l e s s r e p e a t e d l y  t h e need f o r  restraint.  of  a  him-  emphasized  With the events of  exception  o f t h e day  glossolalia  has  of Pentecost  in  isolated  the  context  morality.  religious of  i n i t i a l inexplicable  the C h r i s t i a n  historically  work o f d o c t r i n e and a s an  of the  experience  been s e t w i t h i n a I t has  experience  not  but  been  has  frame-  regarded  been  enmeshed  ideology.  I f one r e a d s t h e New T e s t a m e n t n a r r a t i v e w i t h o b j e c t i v i t y , he f i n d s t h a t i t t e l l s s t o r i e s a b o u t men who r e c e i v e d n o t o n l y e t h i c s b u t a new l i f e w h i c h was g i v e n f r o m b e y o n d t h e i r ordinary capacities. When t h i s d i v i n e power was g i v e n t o man, h i s c h a r a c t e r i m p r o v e d , h i s l o v e and f a i t h and p a t i e n c e i n c r e a s e d and he was a l s o g i v e n g r e a t e r wisdom and perception of s p i r i t u a l things. Receiving t h i s d i v i n e power was known as b e i n g f i l l e d with the Holy S p i r i t . I t was f u r t h e r b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e S p i r i t s p o k e d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h t h e man whom i t had i n d w e l t , who had b e e n f i l l e d . It c o u l d speak a l o u d , i n t e l l i g i b l y o r u n i n t e l ligibly . . . i n t h e t o n g u e s o f men and angels.8  Recorded limited  evidence to the  of  ecstatic  glossolalic  utterances  a r e by no  a c t as u n d e r s t o o d  i n the  tradition.  What i s u n i q u e a b o u t t h e C h r i s t i a n  of  i n t o n g u e s i s , on  speaking  given  to the  the other, perience. .  spiritual  the  ethical  source  t h e one  means  hand, t h e  Christi  experience definition  o f t h e phenomenon and,  i m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s i n g from the  on ex-  A Historical  Review  Historical  evidence suggests that  s p e a k i n g i n tongues emphasized centuries.  by  I t appears well  the S p i r i t  by  relatively  i n the early  sophisticated  i t rarely received  b e e n made t h a t  least i n part  to  gain  due  acceptance  to the  from  itself  t h i s lack  struggle  and  de-  seventeenth  o f the g i f t s  of  Christian  mention.  The  o f emphasis  of the early  a h o s t i l e non-Christian  as a r e a s o n a b l e  of  church t h e phen-  a c c e p t e d a s one  intellectually  at  by p r e s e n t i n g  that  known and  but t h a t  s u g g e s t i o n has  and  t h e c h u r c h between t h e f i r s t  omenon was  theologians  were s p o r a d i c  outbursts  was  church  society  intellectual  stance.  The b a s i c f a c t t h a t t h e c h u r c h was h a r d p r e s s e d , f i r s t f r o m w i t h o u t and l a t e r f r o m w i t h i n , and t h e c h u r c h f a t h e r s were w r i t i n g t o g a i n accept-rance from a h o s t i l e g e n t i l e world. As P a u l p o i n t s o u t , t o n g u e s p e a k i n g i s n o t meant as a s a l e s p i t c h f o r a r e s i s t a n t buyer,' b u t f o r p r i v a t e w o r s h i p and e d i f i c a t i o n ; when u s e d i n t h i s way, i t i s a s i g n w h i c h c a n be s e e n . B u t s i n c e most p e o p l e were a l r e a d y irrational enough a b o u t C h r i s t i a n i t y , d e s c r i b i n g g l o s s o l a l i a w o u l d h a v e b e e n enough t o m a g n i f y t h i s s i g n i n t o w i l d rumour . . . T a l k i n g a b o u t t o n g u e s would have added f u e l t o t h e f i r e t h a t flamed i n t o i r r a t i o n a l r e j e c t i o n of C h r i s t i a n s as monsters, o r , a t l e a s t , queer people.9  20  One recorded church up  outstanding i n c i d e n c e o f tongue speaking i s  i n t h e Martyrdom o f Polycarp, a l e t t e r  i n Smyrna, r e l a t i n g  to the execution of their  that  the authorities  allowed  b e f o r e h e was t o be b u r n e d came s o ' f i l l e d ried  i n 155 A . D .  Bishop  Polycarp  the Montanists, converted  from  I t notes  time  f o r two h o u r s . " ^  a Phrygian mystery  a priest  cult  who h a d b e e n  a n d who w a s s u p p o s e d  have h a d an e x p e r i e n c e where h e became " b e s i d e suddenly  and  began t o babble  i n a sort and u t t e r  Other  include references t o  f o l l o w e r s o f Montanus,  being  he be-  o f God' t h a t h e "became c a r -  o f tongue speaking  and  leading  an hour t o pray  and t h a t d u r i n g t h i s  with the grace  episodes  o f t h e events  bishop  away a n d c o u l d n o t b e s t o p p e d  recorded  to  an account  from t h e  himself,  o f frenzy and ecstacy he strange  raved,  things, prophesying i n  a m a n n e r c o n t r a r y t o t h e c u s t o m o f t h e church."•*-•*The Irenaeus, second of  abuse o f t h i s  Bishop  Marcus f o r t h e misuse t h e promise  ofthe  H i s approach  appar-  w a s t o e n c o u r a g e a woman who w a s s k e p t i c a l  occurred  prophetic  just  utterances.  of being  t o open h e r mouth, speak  t o h e r and she would Irenaeus  find  to  quarter ofthe  t o have used  women o f m e a n s .  able to receive the gift ever  became a p r o b l e m  during thelast  Marcus i s s a i d  t o seduce g u l l i b l e  ently  gift  c e n t u r y , who a t t a c k e d a c e r t a i n  thegift.  gift  o f Gaul  so-called  herself  making  comments:  She t h e n , p u f f e d up a n d e l a t e d b y t h e s e w o r d s , a n d g r e a t l y e x c i t e d i n s o u l by t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a ti t  what-  21 i s h e r s e l f who i s t o p r o p h e s y , h e r h e a r t b e a t i n g v i o l e n t l y (from emotion), reaches the r e q u i s i t e p i t c h o f a u d a c i t y and i d l y a s w e l l a s i m p u d e n t l y u t t e r s some n o n s e n s e a s i t h a p p e n e d t o o c c u r t o h e r , s u c h a s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d o f t h o s e h e a t e d by an empty s p i r i t . . . H e n c e f o r t h s h e r e c k o n s h e r s e l f a p r o p h e t e s s , and e x p r e s s e s h e r t h a n k s t o M a r c u s f o r h a v i n g i m p a r t e d t o h e r o f h i s own Charis.12  Perhaps the l a s t a l l u s i o n to tongues before the s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y was A f r i c a n l a w y e r who tanism. it  undertaken  by T e r t u l l i a n ,  l a t e r i n h i s l i f e was  a North  converted to  Mon-  D u r i n g t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y M o n t a n i s m f a d e d and  came t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e  o f men  who  knowledge c o n c e r n i n g the e x p e r i e n c e . became i n c r e a s i n g l y s k e p t i c a l .  had  any  first  with  hand  Christian philosophers  O r i g e n , C h r y s o s t o m and  Aug-  u s t i n e a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e n i a l o f g l o s s o l a l i a as authentic Christian expression. phenomenon m o u n t e d u n t i l  Suspicion regarding the  i n t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y i t came t o  be r e g a r d e d as e v i d e n c e o f d i a b o l i c p o s s e s s i o n . t o a r a t i o n a l weltanschau  an  Commitment  i n h e r e n t i n t h e A r i s t o t e l i a n mode  p r e v e n t e d t h e o l o g i c a l t h i n k e r s a s , f o r e x a m p l e , Thomas Aquinas,  from i n t e g r a t i n g t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f tongue  i n t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y conceptual  speaking  framework.  I s o l a t e d i n s t a n c e s c o n t i n u e d t o e r u p t b u t i t was until any  the r e v o c a t i o n of the E d i c t o f Nantes,  mass o u t b r e a k was  t i o n t h e H u g u e n o t s who  recorded.  i n 1685,  not  that  As a r e s u l t o f t h e r e v o c a -  were t a k i n g r e f u g e i n t h e Cevennes  mountains of southern France turned to a contemplation of  22 the  Scriptures.  The  belief  were e s p e c i a l l y c a l l e d they  c o n s t i t u t e d the  festations. and  W i t h an  by  God.  elite  was  increase  e n t h u s i a s m came an  ious persecution  s p r a n g up  conviction  a c c o m p a n i e d by  mystical  in their religious i n the  fervour  a m e t a m o r p h o s i s c h a n g i n g them i n t o t h e While the  f a i t h of the  E u r o p e a n s and buted to the cussion.  in  movement became t h e  t o be  J e s u i t s and  t h e i r midst  in  During the its  religlittle  Gami-  succeeded  spread. the  in  The  courage  i n t e r e s t of  of s p i r i t u a l i t y  focus  of considerable  reverberations  a lack of  were f e l t ;  an  spirituality  outburst  dis-  the  morality  o f t o n g u e s was  recorded  1731. nineteenth  century  Edward I r v i n g , a r e m a r k a b l e and was  what  and  a p p e a r a n c e i n E n g l a n d among t h e  c l e r g y m a n who  the  attri-  a Catholic holiness sect, revolted against  considered  among t h e  captured  unusual expression  In France i t s e l f  Jansenites, they  the  the  revolutionary  f o r c e of the persecution  C e v e n n o l s had  mani-  Cevennes underwent  e x t i n g u i s h i n g t h e movement, i t s fame had and  that  experience  o f the  v i c t i m i z e d them u n t i l  Huguenot tongue s p e a k i n g p e a s a n t s o f the  sards.  they  This intense  increase  w h i c h had  among them t h a t  Irvingites,  Scotland.  His  curiosity  personally  and  what he  reputed  l e d him  discovered  followers  him  Irving  concerning  t o have o c c u r r e d  to i n v e s t i g a t e the so  of  Presbyterian  o f Thomas C a r l y l e .  rumours r e a c h i n g  m i r a c u l o u s h e a l i n g w h i c h was  phenomenon made  charismatic  a close friend  became i n t r i g u e d w i t h  the  impressed  him  a in  case that  23 he  tried  t o i n d u c e h i s c o n g r e g a t i o n t o e x p l o r e t h i s new  spiritual  dimension.  found  I r v i n g promoted s p e a k i n g i n tongues  among members o f h i s c o n g r e g a t i o n b u t when h e became aware o f t h e magnitude o f t h e i r cess,  he attempted,  t o impose l i m i t a t i o n s on i t s u s a g e .  period  o f t i m e t o n g u e s had g a i n e d  devotees and  response  that h i s public  suc-  Within a short  s u c h p r o m i n e n c e among h i s  s e r v i c e s o f worship  I r v i n g was excommunicated  without  became c h a o t i c  by t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n a l  hier-  archy. A b o u t t h e same t i m e t o n g u e s made t h e i r among t h e S h a k e r s taneously shortly  significant penings  and Mormons i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  an o u t b r e a k  thereafter  i n Armenia.  E a r l y M e t h o d i s m a l s o had a  i n c i d e n c e and r e p o r t s o f u n u s u a l  i s thought  that  i t was p e r h a p s  uprising of the Pentecostal sects. w i t h i n Methodism i n response  spiritual  o f t h e Wesleyan  o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e towards tongues t h a t  aroused  revivals.  John Wesley's f a v -  laid  the basis f o r the  H o l i n e s s groups had r i s e n  to the controversy that  Using t h e concept  'progressive s a n c t i f i c a t i o n * ;  growth toward  perfection,  the p o s s i b i l i t y of love.  h a d been  allowed  that i s , a gradual  and f o r * e n t i r e  sanctification* or  o f a t t a i n i n g i m m e d i a t e and t o t a l  T h o s e o f h i s f o l l o w e r s who  doc-  as one o f t h e  c o r n e r s t o n e s o f h i s t h e o l o g y , W e s l e y seems t o h a v e both  hap-  by t h e a m b i g u i t i e s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f W e s l e y ' s  trine of sanctification.  for  Simul-  was r e c o r d e d i n R u s s i a i n 1855 and  i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e impact It  appearance  perfection  stressed the l a t t e r  24 understanding of the d o c t r i n e organized r e v i v a l s designed lead people  to the experience of e n t i r e  movement grew t o s u c h Methodist  an  extent that  l e a d e r s of the time  b e t w e e n h o l i n e s s and  and  sanctification.  i t caused  resulted  The  concern  i n an open  to  among split  non-holiness factions just p r i o r  to  the  turn of the twentieth century.  Birth  and  Growth o f t h e P e n t e c o s t a l S e c t  The  Pentecostal sect,  t h e c e n t u r y , was  related  movements w h i c h had Methodism.  The  i s m were known a s  f  being entire  Spirit,  faith  The  Methodist  biblical  Gospel  sanctification,  clergyman  1  and  one  i n nineteenth century  funda-  of the  coming o f  C h a r l e s F. Parnham, a of the Bethel  Bible  Spirit.  of g l o s s o l a l i a .  t u r n e d t o p r a y e r and eral  The  e v i d e n c e w h i c h c o u l d be r e p e a t e d l y  group,  out  was  on r e a c h i n g t h i s c o n c l u s i o n ,  contemplation  o f the s t u d e n t s broke  Upon -  unanimous agreement among  found with r e f e r e n c e to the occurrence of the baptism that  at  of researching  of the Holy  c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e s t u d y t h e r e was  Holy  Christ.  students i n attendance  reference to the baptism  t h e one  their  the baptism  been g i v e n t h e assignment  the students that  of Pentecostal-  revivals;  founder  The  the turn of  from t h e h o l i n e s s  the p r e m i l l e n n i a l  shape around  C o l l e g e i n Topeka, Kansas. t h e C o l l e g e had  after  s i g n a l i n g the onset  h e a l i n g and  movement t o o k  former  their origins  Foursquare  mentals  shortly  t o , but d i s t i n c t  found  revivals  born  with the r e s u l t that  i n tongues.  sev-  Parnham h i m s e l f  had  the experience  and  joined  with h i s students i n spreading  t h e word by means o f e v a n g e l i s t i c movement had 1905  spread  from  1903  By  K a n s a s t o M i s s o u r i and  T e x a s and  B i b l e School  spiritual  were r e p o r t e d by  g a t i o n i n Los Angeles iosity  aroused  extend  an  former  student  preach  on  by  who  visited  J . Seymour, an  subject of the Holy  received the g i f t  but  was  convinced  the congregation  of the baptism  t h a t i t was  an  the experience  and  sequently  and  f o l l o w e d h i s example.  stimulated the i n t e r e s t  o f the Holy  to the Baptist  began t o s p e a k i n  The  Spirit  congretongues.  of the surrounding caught.  i n g o f t h e movement t o b o t h n a t i o n a l  and  The  s u d d e n mushroom-  international  history prior  Pentecostalism i n the present and  spread.  I t must be  community  resultant  In c o n t r a s t to the sporadic outbursts of  flourish  con-  e x t r a o r d i n a r y subsequent  to the  century  and  Seymour h i m s e l f  free advertising contributed greatly  i n Christian  to  authentic Christian experi-  t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e p r e s s was  omenon r e c o r d e d  Cur-  e v a n g e l i s t and  Spirit.  During the course of h i s v i s i t had  congre-  s u b s t a n t i a l number o f t h e members o f t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n  events  the  Houston  the i n s t i t u t i o n .  at the s c h o o l , to v i s i t  not  g a t i o n he  at the  a member o f a B a p t i s t  had  i n v i t a t i o n t o W.  the  occurrences  t h e r e p o r t prompted t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n  had  ence.  in  institution. News o f u n u s u a l  to  the  Parnham o p e n e d a B i b l e s c h o o l i n H o u s t o n s i m i l a r t o  Topeka  A  campaigns.  to the  c e n t u r y has  fame.  thepphentwentieth continued-  underlined that  the  26  movement h a s  a wider  c o n c e r n t h a n i t s e m p h a s i s on t h e  o f the Holy  Spirit  is,  a t h e o l o g y c e n t e r i n g around  rather,  ence,  a s e v i d e n c e d by t h e g l o s s o l a l i c  couching i t i n both a moral  work.  While  t h e main stream  and  that  C h r i s t i a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  about  a g r a d u a l p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n and  H o l i n e s s movements, and p a r t i c u l a r l y  has  insight  e l a t i o n or r e l i g i o u s  The  toward  moral  Christian  a u t h e n t i c a t e d by  perfection  love ethic.  In t h e i r  as b a s e d Attainment  on  i n the  a resultant  of p e r f e c t  ized  by t h e H o l i n e s s movements a s t h e  fact  the Wesleyan i n t e r p r e t a t i o n the b e l i e f  grew t h a t  Spirit,  an  trans-  neces-  striving  l o v e was  a third  seen 'grace*.  blessing*,  in  sanctification.  e x p e r i e n c e was  e x p e r i e n c e which c a r r i e d  the  institutional-  * second  of entire  this  Christian  t o C h r i s t i a n b e l i e v e r s i n t h e form o f t h e baptism Holy  a  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  a w a r e n e s s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f g r a c e was  Gradually  stress  event o f r e v -  a s b e i n g p o s s i b l e o n l y by means o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f The  the  view  r e g a r d e d as a  sary p r e r e q u i s i t e to p a r t i c i p a t i n g f u l l y I t was  Their  awareness o f such  f o r m a t i o n o r c o n v e r s i o n e x p e r i e n c e was  community.  brought  maturation,  t a k e s t h e f o r m o f an  insight.  was  t h e P e n t e c o s t a l move-  a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from w i t h i n .  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n most o f t e n  frame-  emphasized  ment, h a v e p r o v i d e d an a l t e r n a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t y . h a s b e e n on  It  experi-  a metaphysical  t h e view by  act.  t h i s unique  of C h r i s t i a n i t y  baptism  of  the b e l i e v e r  an o v e r w h e l m i n g p e r c e p t i o n o f suprahuman l o v e .  open the into  Description  27 of t h i s  state defied rational  communicated  by  means o f  Pentecostalism,  ecstatic with  of the baptism  of the Holy  throughout the  first  pockets  ing localities teristically brackets. ally  regional  i t s e m p h a s i s on  Spirit,  the  continued  of the present  enthusiasm erupted  to  spread  century  and  although  repeatedly  in  their  H i n e p o i n t out  was  considered  s t y l e of worship that  s e c t s , the l a r g e s t  'sects  1  are described  or  being the Assemblies  in sociological  class  intellectu-  socially  some t w e n t y - f i v e  vary-  charac-  w i t h i n t h e bounds o f l o w e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  and  be  experience  inferior.  thirty  o r n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s were encompassed by  Pentecostal These  could only  utterance.  Pentecostal r e l i g i o s i t y  and  and  t h e f e r v o u r o f t h e movement r e m a i n e d  unacceptable  Gerlach  half  of Pentecostal  expression  the  of  literature  God. as:  appealing to the s o c i a l l y or economically deprived (Pope, 1942; Johnson, 1961; Harper, 1963; Elinson, 1 9 6 5 ) ; t o the s o c i a l l y d i s o r g a n i z e d ( H o l t , 1940; Cohn, 1 9 5 7 ) O'Dea, I 9 6 0 ; T a l m o n , 1 9 6 2 ) ; and, p o s s i b l y to the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y disadvantaged (Cutton, 1927; Alland, 1961).!3  However d u r i n g t h e l a s t dramatic are  While the  e x p e r i e n c i n g an  outstrip and  change.  a l l other  South America,  decade t h i s t r e n d has  undergone  established Pentecostal  churches  i n c r e a s e i n membership t h a t i s s a i d denominations i n both the Charismatic  the United  to  States  Renewal M o v e m e n t — a n o t h e r  p h e n o m e n o n — i s g a i n i n g momentum i n t h e r o u t i n e [ t h i s t e r m i s unsatisfactory  t o t h e w r i t e r but  has  adequate a l t e r n a t i v e s ] denominations.  been used f o r l a c k  of  28 The  C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal Movement  T h i s new movement, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e e x p e r i e n c e of the baptism sectarian churches lectual  o f t h e Holy  context  Spirit,  and i s s p r e a d i n g t h r o u g h  apparently undeterred disdain.  has broken o u t o f i t s  by c l a s s  barriers or i n t e l -  Communal n e t w o r k s t i e d  s t a n d i n g and e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e c h a r i s m a  the organized  by a common u n d e r o f the Holy  are p e n e t r a t i n g the d i v i s i o n s o f denomination. a r e coming i n t o Traditional  being.  New p o l a r i t i e s  Spirit  New  are being  liaisons  formed.  patterns of circumscribing varying theological  p e r s p e c t i v e s a r e d i s i n t e g r a t i n g a n d new o n e s a r e e m e r g i n g . While  the l i n e s  unlikely  ecumenical  rearranged  and  The Christian witness Spirit  o f f a i t h a r e b e i n g r e d r a w n and f o r m e r l y are created, d i v i s i o n s too are  accentuated.  C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal Movement i s by  renewal  based  of the charisma,  on a r e t u r n t o t h e New the grace,  o f God a s r e p r e s e n t e d  to h i s followers. cern  groupings  Testament  favour or g i f t  by J e s u s C h r i s t  It i s a spiritual  definition  renewal,  and  of the promised  having a  con-  f o r t h e u n i f i c a t i o n o f man w i t h h i s C r e a t o r and t h u s  initiating  a transcendental transformation of being.  The f u n c t i o n o f t h e S p i r i t a n d t h e c h u r c h i s t o make C h r i s t , who l i v e s a t t h e r i g h t hand o f t h e F a t h e r , a s y m b o l f o r h i s u n i t y w i t h t h e God-head; t o make C h r i s t p r e s e n t a l s o i n t h e p l u r a l , so that t h e l i v i n g a c t i o n o f C h r i s t , t h e redeeming l o v e o f C h r i s t , can procure throughout h i s t o r y  29  and c a n t r a n s f o r m t h e w o r l d . T h i s i s the testimony, b a s i c a l l y , of the S c r i p t u r e . The S p i r i t i s s e n t i n t h e p r i m i t i v e g r o u p o f b e l i e v e r s , who a r e k i n d o f f r i g h t e n e d and s c a r e d a b o u t t h e w h o l e t h i n g and h u d d l e d t o - g e t h e r i n t h e u p p e r room f o r f e a r o f what s o c i e t y w i l l t h i n k o f them. And t h e S p i r i t d e s c e n d s on them, and r e c e i v i n g t h e S p i r i t t h e y are t r a n s f o r m e d from a group o f f r i g h t e n e d p e o p l e i n t o a v i b r a n t v i t a l community w h i c h i s no l o n g e r j u s t a g r o u p o f i n d i v i d u a l s b u t i s now c a l l e d t h e body o f C h r i s t ; t h a t i s , an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p e r s o n o f C h r i s t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y i n h i s t o r y , made up o f t h e members o f H i s body, t h e p e o p l e who b e l i e v e i n Him and a r e f i l l e d w i t h H i s S p i r i t . Thus i t can be s a i d t h a t t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e S p i r i t i s t o a c t a s t h e m y s t i c a l body o f C h r i s t , as t h e s o u l o f t h e c h u r c h , t o g i v e i t l i f e , t o g i v e i t power s o t h a t J e s u s c a n work t h r o u g h t h e c h u r c h and c o n t i n u e t o a p p e a l t o and s p e a k t o a l l men.14  The  Charismatic Revival,  gained  sufficient  headlines porary  sequentially  t h r u s t s of t h e renewal was  known as  Neo-Pentecostalism,  p r o p o r t i o n s t o b e g i n making newspaper  i n the 1 9 5 0 ' s .  t o be  attention  also  first  While  i t s history  o r g a n i z e d and  movement c a n be  i s too  contem-  documented t h e main isolated.  Public  drawn t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e C h a r i s m a t i c  R e n e w a l Movement when T i m e m a g a z i n e p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e Father Dennis largest  Bennett,  at that  E p i s c o p a l churches  Bennett's  interest  i n the Diocese  who  tongues.  been s t i r r e d  connected  Bennett,  couple  the  Angeles.  a c c o m p a n i e d by  f o r study.  by h i s a c q u a i n t -  of speaking i n  a f e l l o w clergyman  l a y people, Bennett  ex-  with h i s congregation,  to h a v i n g r e c e i v e d the g i f t  a s a number o f i n t e r e s t e d with t h i s  had  a couple, loosely  testified  o f Los  of  i n t h e phenomenon o f t o n g u e s as an  perience of r e v i t a l i z a t i o n ance with  t i m e R e c t o r o f one  on  began t o meet recalls  that  as  well  regularly  his  30 ambivalence his  own  initial He  into to  regarding the experience p e r s i s t e d  after  experience.  c l a i m s he d i d n o t ,  the g l o s s o l a l i c  the event.  even  He  at the onset  a c t , a t t a c h any  recalls,  of his  particular  however, t h a t  initiation  significance  suddenly  I r e a l i z e d what I was d o i n g . I t became c l e a r , perfectly clear. I knew God t h e H o l y S p i r i t whom I h a d n e v e r d i r e c t l y e x p e r i e n c e d i n my l i f e b e f o r e was p u t t i n g t h e s e words on my l i p s . He was g u i d i n g and I was l e t t i n g Him. He was n o t t a k i n g o v e r ; I had l e t t h e w o r d s come and I c o u l d s t o p a t any t i m e . . . t h e s e words were b e i n g f o r m e d i n a l a n g u a g e I had n e v e r h e a r d , s a y i n g and e x p r e s s i n g t o God t h e F a t h e r , t h r o u g h C h r i s t , a l l t h e t h i n g s I had a l w a y s wanted t o say t o God b u t had n e v e r been a b l e t o s a y . I had n o t known how t o s a y them i n my own l a n g u a g e . Somehow t h i s l a n g u a g e seemed more e l o q u e n t . 1 5  The  effect  of Bennett's  e x p e r i e n c e was  t h a t many o f h i s  gregation,  w i t h h i s e n c o u r a g e m e n t , b e g a n ,to s p e a k i n  Eventually  t e n s i o n mounted between t h e t o n g u e s p e a k i n g  non-tongue speaking f a c t i o n s w i t h i n the c o n g r e g a t i o n Bennett  submitted  his resignation.  retreat,  d u r i n g which time he  received  an  appeared  and  and  F o l l o w i n g an i n t e r i m  of  he  appointment to S t . Luke's E p i s c o p a l church  on  t h a t he  a small decaying congregation  c o u l d do  no  n o t h i n g about h i s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h h i s new  tongues.  reassessed h i s position,  the o u t s k i r t s of Seattle, it  con-  flock  his  arrival  was  established.  but  harm.  until]  i t was  resolved to  he was  only a matter  t h a t t h e Time a r t i c l e Curiosity  He  appeared  where  say  well established o f weeks and  on t h e p a r t o f t h e  his  after  identity  congregation  forced  him  est  evoked  he  within  t o make a p u b l i c  a few  warranted  statement.  The  immediate  the formation of a study  months s e v e r a l o f t h e members a l s o  speak i n tongues.  Bennett  has  stated that  ment t o S t . L u k e ' s t e n y e a r s ago  Spiritual  renewal,  a l s o made i t s a p p e a r a n c e One  of the i n i t i a l  occurred cent  on  more t h a n t e n  thousand  but mention  various university  N o t r e Dame u n i v e r s i t i e s .  must be made o f t h e u p s u r g e  two  Catholic  t h e y d i s c o v e r e d and  of and  immediately  c h a r i s m a t i c study of the baptism.  group  sixties.  Not  More r e -  a l l the current  In 1967  By M a r c h 1 9 6 7  fifty  a t Duquesne u n i v e r of recent  They were a t t r a c t e d  t o what  b e g a n t o meet w i t h an  Angli-  i n whose m i d s t t h e y r e c e i v e d in this  to include approximately i t had  been c a r r i e d  shared the experience consisted  people.  recorded  o f t h e movement i n  by J u n e o f t h a t y e a r t h e community on t h a t t h o s e who  c a n be  The movement g i v e n b i r t h  Duquesne s p r e a d r a p i d l y  individuals. and  has  campuses.  l a y m e n came a c r o s s d o c u m e n t a t i o n  experiences o f the Holy S p i r i t .  at  receive  e x p r e s s i o n s o f t h e phenomenon  i n the early  t h e r a n k s o f Roman C a t h o l i c i s m .  gift  to  a c c o m p a n i e d by g l o s s o l a l i a ,  i n c i d e n c e s o f c l u s t e r s o f c h a r i s m a t i c renewal  can  began t o  o u t p o u r i n g s have been r e p o r t e d from M i c h i g a n S t a t e ,  Duquesne, and  sity  and  Spirit.  contemporary  at Yale u n i v e r s i t y  group  since h i s appoint-  i n d i v i d u a l s have been l e d t h r o u g h h i s m i n i s t r y t h e experience of the Holy  inter-  the  group  thirty  t o N o t r e Dame  campus made up o f one  hundred  M e a n w h i l e t h e number i n P i t t s b u r g h  32  had  climbed  t o s i x t y and a t Michigan  so were i n v o l v e d .  S t a t e another  f i f t y or  With t h e g a t h e r i n g o f a wide r e p r e s e n t a -  t i o n o f t h e Roman C a t h o l i c e c c l e s i a s t i c a l community a t summer s c h o o l a t Notre Dame t h a t year t h e news o f c h a r i s m a t i c r e newal was d i s t r i b u t e d across t h e country and by A p r i l o f 1969 a Congress o f C a t h o l i c P e n t e c o s t a l s took p l a c e a t Notre Dame w i t h a t l e a s t t h r e e hundred persons,  mostly members o f  r e l i g i o u s o r academic communities, i n attendance. The  L o c a l Movement Comments r e g a r d i n g t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e movement i n  Vancouver a r e s p e c u l a t i v e .  Perhaps t h e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  statement t h a t can be made i s t h e r e t i c u l o s e nature o f t h e movement which makes any attempt a t d e f i n i t i o n o r l o c a t i o n v i r t u a l l y impossible.  As elsewhere t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p r e -  sent a spectrum o f denominational of  affiliation.  An i n d i c a t i o n  t h e ecumenical scope o f t h e movement can be i l l u s t r a t e d by  p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t with C a t h o l i c , A n g l i c a n , B a p t i s t , Lutheran, Mennonite, S a l v a t i o n Army and U n i t e d Church p a r t i c i p a n t s - b y the w r i t e r .  The cohesion o f t h e movement i s a t t a i n e d by  meetings o f a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s m a l l p r a y e r groups as w e l l as by means o f s t a g i n g c h a r i s m a t i c events which a r e attended by the e n t i r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g community. s i b l e t o estimate t h e numerical  While i t i s impos-  s t r e n g t h of t h e movement i t  i s noteworthy t h a t i n May 1969 t h e a u d i t o r i u m o f John O l i v e r H i g h School, with a s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y o f f i f t e e n hundred was filled  f o r the occasion o f a v i s i t i n g charismatic  convert.  33 The and  movement i s s t i m u l a t e d by t h e a b l e l e a d e r s h i p  personalities of several  conviction  are persuasive.  e f f o r t s by a l o c a l in  Mention  must be made o f u n t i r i n g  Pentecostal minister.  her e f f o r t s both  nominations  i n d i v i d u a l s whose c o n c e r n and  by c h a r i s m a t i c c o l l e a g u e s o f o t h e r d e -  and by t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n s h e s e r v e s .  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n g r e g a t i o n adheres costal  She i s s u p p o r t e d  Assemblies  i t i s unique  P e n t e c o s t a l s stream  through  Although  to the organized  i n composition.  t h e church  Pente-  'Hidden*  and i t i s a r a r e  o c c a s i o n when t h e i n d i g e n o u s c o n g r e g a t i o n i s n o t s p r i n k l e d with  ecumenical  however, t h a t  representation.  t h e movement  organizationally not  based  t o be d e f i n e d .  I t must be e m p h a s i z e d ,  i s 'Spirit  centered' r a t h e r than  a n d so t h e l o c u s o f t h e movement i s  Consequently  movement one must l o o k t o w a r d  when s e e k i n g t o l o c a t e t h e  i n d i v i d u a l s r a t h e r than  insti-  tutions.  T e n t a t i v e Observations Regarding  Glossolalia,  a d e r i v a t i v e o f t h e Greek t e r m s " g l o s s a "  m e a n i n g t o n g u e s and " l a l i a " t a k e s two f u n d a m e n t a l l y proclamation. is  second, of  to  primarily  used  forms:  These d i s t i n c t i o n s  p r a y e r and  f o rprivate  t o as ' s p e a k i n g - i n tongues'  f u n c t i o n i n g as a s o c i a l  tongues'.  ulated  which r e f e r s t o t h e a c t o f speech,  distinguishable  The f i r s t ,  commonly r e f e r r e d  the Act  purposes,  while the  a c t , i s known a s ' t h e g i f t a r e n o t always c l e a r l y  artic-  by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s b u t a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e phenomenon u n d e r  discussion.  34 The  prime importance  o f t h e use  v e h i c l e o f communication w i t h the Holy intercession  a r e seen  as t h e  essence  o f p r a y e r i s as Spirit.  Praise  a and  of tongues p r a y e r .  . . . t h e l a n g u a g e , I was p e r s u a d e d , was p r a i s e . . . . I found t h a t I c o u l d express e m o t i o n - - f e e l i n g — t h r o u g h i t that I never c o u l d with conscious language. T h a t I wasn't a l l t i e d up w i t h my cons c i o u s m a n - t o l d p r o c e s s e s and t h a t I was a b l e t o pour out i n a very f l u e n t tongue j u s t a r e a l f e e l i n g o f p r a i s e f o r God, j u s t a r e a l j o y i n t h i s e x p e r i e n c e . J-6 The  act of speaking  i n tongues i n the  form  of  prayer  assumes s e v e r a l i d e n t i f i a b l e v a r i a t i o n s o f e x p e r i e n c e  and  expression.  sig-  The  predominant use  n i f y i n g t h e moment o f b a p t i s m . may  occur  finds the  either i n isolation  i s the i n i t i a l Although  event  the i n i t i a l  o r i n community i t u s u a l l y  e x p r e s s i o n w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f a group.  e x p e r i e n c e one  commentator  event  Describing  explains  . . . t h e g r o u p moved c l o s e r a r o u n d me. I t was a l m o s t a s i f t h e y were f o r m i n g a f u n n e l w i t h t h e i r b o d i e s t h r o u g h w h i c h was c o n c e n t r a t e d t h e f l o w o f t h e S p i r i t t h a t was p u l s i n g t h r o u g h t h e room. It f l o w e d i n t o me a s I s a t t h e r e , l i s t e n i n g t o t h e s p i r i t - s o n g a r o u n d me. Now t h e t o n g u e s s w e l l e d t o a c r e s c e n d o , m u s i c a l and l o v e l y . i 7  Tongues a r e o f t e n m a n i f e s t of  ' t h e l a y i n g on  o f hands', a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p e c u l i a r  t h e P e n t e c o s t a l movements. ical on  communication  the i n d i v i d u a l  concurrently with the  E m p h a s i s i s p l a c e d on  of the S p i r i t who  the  act  to phys-  by means o f p l a c i n g hands  i s the focus of a t t e n t i o n .  Either  the  35 leader  o r some member o f t h e g r o u p who i s ' s t r o n g  Spirit'  p u t s h i s hands on e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e head o r on t h e  shoulders  of the subject  needs o f t h e person. as  recorded  the  and o f f e r s p r a y e r  f o r the p a r t i c u l a r  T h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e l a y i n g on o f h a n d s  i n t h e Book o f Hebrews i s a c e n t r a l component i n  style of  Pentecostalism.  Points  o f view d i f f e r  as t o whether s p e a k i n g i n  t o n g u e s i s t h e r e s u l t o f an a c t o f w i l l  o r whether i t i s a  r e s p o n s e t o a f o r c e w h i c h i s beyond t h e c a p a c i t y dual  control.  matter i s that it  cided  Paul  i n s i s t s that  'I w i l l  speak'  whether they  c o m p e l l e d beyond  . . . i n other  all."-*-®  get l i b e r t y  know  your  words I d e -  what i t i s I'm g o i n g t o do, and t h e s o o n e r t h e sooner they  of indivi-  "the t r u t h of the  i t i s a l w a y s an a c t o f w i l l ,  says  understand that it  One a u t h o r i t y  or not . . . l i k e you're not being  will.  i n the  people  to relax  into  A n o t h e r commentator o f f e r s t h e f o l l o w i n g d e -  scription:  W i t h a s u d d e n b u r s t o f w i l l I t h r u s t my hands i n t o t h e a i r , t u r n e d my f a c e f u l l upward and a t t h e t o p o f my v o i c e I s h o u t e d : 'Praise the Lord!' I t was t h e f l o o d g a t e opened. From deep i n s i d e me, d e e p e r t h a n I knew v o i c e c o u l d go came a t o r r e n t o f j o y f u l sound. I t was n o t b e a u t i f u l l i k e t h e t o n g u e s a r o u n d me. I h a d t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t i t was u g l y , e x p l o s i v e and g r u n t i n g . I didn't care. I t was h e a l i n g , i t was f o r g i v e n e s s , i t was l o v e t o o deep f o r words and i t b u r s t f r o m me i n w o r d l e s s s o u n d . A f t e r t h a t o n e s h a t t e r i n g a c t o f w i l l , my w i l l was r e l e a s e d , f r e e d t o s o a r i n t o u n i o n w i t h Him. No f u r t h e r c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t was r e q u i r e d o f me a t a l l , n o t even c h o o s i n g t h e s y l l a b l e s w i t h which t o e x p r e s s my j o y . T h e s y l l a b l e s were a l r e a d y t h e r e f o r m e d f o r my u s e , more abundant t h a n my e a r t h -  36  bound l i p s and t o n g u e c o u l d g i v e s h a p e t o . I t was not t h a t I f e l t out o f c o n t r o l o f the s i t u a t i o n : I had n e v e r f e l t more t r u l y m a s t e r o f m y s e l f , more i n t e g r a t e d and a t p e a c e w i t h t h e w a r r i n g f a c t i o n s i n s i d e myself. I c o u l d s t o p t h e t o n g u e s a t any i n s t a n t b u t who would? I wanted them n e v e r t o stop. And so I p r a y e d on, l a u g h i n g and f r e e . 1 9 D e l i b e r a t e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e e v e n t may  o r may  not  have  b e e n made. While had  a l l t h o s e who  embark on t h e e x p e r i e n c e h a v e  some p r e v i o u s k n o w l e d g e c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n t e n t o f  Christian  faith  the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t  been w i t h i n t h e i r  frame o f r e f e r e n c e .  people  the experience with l i t t l e  tion  enter into  and  people's  find  themselves  may  not  Consequently  the o b j e c t of t h e i r  o r no own  the have  certain anticipa-  and  other  surprise.  . . . t h i s guy i n o u r c h u r c h n o t l o n g ago; he came q u i t e by a c c i d e n t . H i s w i f e h a d b e e n on t h e f r i n g e s o f t h e C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal and she g o t him t o b r i n g h e r t o t h e m e e t i n g . . . He t h o u g h t w e l l , h e w o u l d n ' t s i t o u t s i d e . But he wasn't t h e s l i g h t e s t - b i t i n t e r e s t e d . . . b u t anyway, we were g e t t i n g on t o w a r d t h e end o f o u r s e r v i c e and t h i s man, s i t t i n g a l i t t l e b i t i n f r o n t o f me, g o t r e d a l l o v e r and l o o k e d a s t h o u g h he were g o i n g t o e x p l o d e , and t h e n he began t o speak i n v e r y s t r a n g e s o r t o f sounds. They w e r e n ' t c o m i n g o u t v e r y c l e a r l y and i t was a l i t t l e b i t odd . . . and t h e n i t came o u t , f l o w e d j u s t c l e a r l y o u t . . . I u n d e r s t a n d s h e ' d b e e n s p e a k i n g a b o u t t h i s a l l and he was q u i t e open t o t h e i d e a t h a t w h a t e v e r God was d o i n g God was d o i n g and so f i n e and dandy, b u t he wasn't a b o u t t o g e t on t h e band wagon and s h e s a i d he came i n t h a t n i g h t and she t h o u g h t w e l l , he w o u l d n ' t be r e a d y f o r a n y t h i n g l i k e t h i s , and t h a t n i g h t he had a v e r y d r a m a t i c b a p t i s m , and we w e r e a l l a b s o l u t e l y s h o c k e d b e c a u s e i t came a t a most—loud—you k n o w — t h c t ' s one o f t h e most r e c e n t e x a m p l e s o f somebody t h a t d i d n ' t come i n a n t i c i p a t i o n at all.20  37 Following the f i r s t  e x p e r i e n c e i n i t i a t e s may u s e t o n g u e s  r e p e a t e d l y o r t h e y may n e v e r  again p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  phenomenon. . . . through i t I've found p r a y e r a r e a l t h e r a p e u t i c e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t any t i m e I'm r e a l l y u p t i g h t about a n y t h i n g o r h a v e a p r o b l e m t h a t I c a n ' t work t h r o u g h o r a n y t h i n g I ' l l g e t o f f by m y s e l f a n d maybe f o r h a l f an h o u r o r an h o u r o r s o m e t h i n g I ' l l p r a y i n a t o n g u e and I c a n e x p r e s s a l l t h e e m o t i o n I want t h r o u g h i t . . . I c a n p r a y f o r h a l f an h o u r o r s o and i t ' l l go f r o m i n v o l v e m e n t t o i n t e r c e s s i o n t o a d o r a t i o n and f i n a l l y p e a c e and t h e n s u d d e n l y i t ' l l be as i f someone h a d g o t up and s a i d good-bye and l e f t , and l e f t y o u f e e l i n g a s t h o u g h t h a t was a v e r y p l e a s a n t and w o r t h w h i l e v i s i t and y o u f e e l l i k e y o u ' v e s p e n t h a l f an hour o r s o w i t h a d e a r f r i e n d , no r e g r e t s on l e a v i n g a t a l l , i t was j u s t o v e r and I c o u l d s t o p l i k e that.^-*-  The  initial  e x p e r i e n c e may o c c u r i n p r i v a t e .  a sudden overwhelming  I t may come a s  happening.  I went home and I j u s t k n e l t down v e r y b r i e f l y b e f o r e I g o t i n t o b e d and p r a y e d . . . and I l a y down i n b e d and s t a r t e d t o t a l k i n t o n g u e s . . . and I went on and on and when I s t a r t e d t a l k i n g i n t h i s l a n g u a g e . . . t h e n i t was j u s t l i k e t h e H o l y S p i r i t came t h r o u g h and c l e a n s e d me.22 On t h e o t h e r hand i t may b e a g r a d u a l p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g a skill. I s t i l l hadn't s a i d a n y t h i n g and I c e r t a i n l y hadn't spoken i n tongues which I would l i k e t o h a v e done . . . I d e c i d e d i t was now o r n e v e r b e c a u s e I j u s t c o u l d n ' t t a k e t h i s anymore, w a n t i n g t h i s and n o t h a v i n g i t . I t r i e d i t by m y s e l f and found o u t I c o u l d speak i n tongues t o o i f I t r i e d . I wasn't s u r e f o r a few d a y s and t h e n I was s u r e  38 b e c a u s e p e o p l e l i k e me j u s t do a b i t t o b e g i n w i t h , a few words, and a s y o u u s e i t i t ' s b e t t e r . 2 3 Tongues used as  i n p r a y e r may  s i n g i n g i n the S p i r i t .  always  be  sung i n chorus;  The  content  a style  of t h i s  form  known  is  praise.  Soon t h e w h o l e room was s i n g i n g a c o m p l i c a t e d harmony w i t h o u t a s c o r e , c r e a t e d s p o n t a n e o u s l y . I t was e e r i e b u t e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y b e a u t i f u l . The s o n g l e a d e r was no l o n g e r t r y i n g t o d i r e c t t h e music, but l e t the melodies c r e a t e themselves: w i t h o u t p r o m p t i n g one q u a r t e r o f t h e room w o u l d suddenly s t a r t to s i n g very l o u d l y while the others subsided. H a r m o n i e s and counter-harmonies wove i n and o u t o f e a c h o t h e r . 2 4  V a r i a t i o n s of tongues f o r the purpose o f p r a y e r i n c l u d e : vate prayer lic,  spoken i n i s o l a t i o n ,  individual  and  unco-ordinated  a u d i b l y mouthed u t t e r a n c e s , and in  s i n g i n g i n the The  tongues'  'gift  public  of tongues'  Spirit one  purposes  common e x p r e s s i o n  as d i s t i n c t  who  as  of proclamation  'speaking i n the  essence  to His people.  o f t h e community.  r e c e i v e d the baptism  becomes a r e c i p i e n t . i s an  assumes a p r e e m i n e n t p o s i t i o n i s accorded  from  A  i s b e l i e v e d t o c o n t a i n a comment  to the l i f e  has  God  i s e l i g i b l e to r e c e i v e the g i f t  i n fact  speaker  lyrical  of p u b l i c proclamation;  tongues statement  individual  communal e x p r e s s i o n , i n -  b e i n g a message f r o m  which i s s i g n i f i c a n t any  spoken i n pub-  Spirit.  t a k e s t h e form  of i t s content  private prayer  pri-  The  of the  Holy  o f tongues not use  individual  every-  o f tongues f o r act.  Expression  i n t h e g a t h e r i n g and  the a t t e n t i o n  While  the  o f t h e e n t i r e gcoup  39  intent  i s to address  the innermost  i n d i v i d u a l present or the the public  'gift'  a reaffirmation tion  far  effect  c o n t a i n new  personal  concepts  p r a i s e and  The  itself.  gift  and  to  i n so occa-  'edification,  ex-  1  o f t o n g u e s may  assume one  which i s u n f a m i l i a r to the  speaker  by  It  comfort .  Proclamation  given credence  of  It is  recreation.  f o r the p a r t i c u l a r  known o r unknown t o n g u e s .  is  Use  congrega-  i s prophetic only  i s limited  some  restrictions.  spiritual  o f God  Emphasis o f c o n t e n t  hortation,  assembly  i s subject to c e r t a i n  as i t r e v e a l s t h e w i l l  sion.  of either  o f a Word a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e  i n order to  must n o t  gathered  concerns  o f two  forms:  i n a known l a n g u a g e  i s not  common a l t h o u g h i t  numerous r e c o r d e d i n s t a n c e s .  — t o l d o f an example where h e was p a s t o r and t h e p a s t o r a l f u n c t i o n i s t o see t h a t n o t h i n g unseemly takes place; that i n the middle of a l l t h i s b e l i e f i n New T e s t a m e n t o c c u r r e n c e s y o u d o n ' t g e t o f f i n t o e x t r e m e s and i r r e s p o n s i b l e t h i n g s , b e c a u s e a f t e r a l l y o u ' r e d e a l i n g w i t h p e o p l e . . . Anyway t h i s p e r s o n s p o k e and he t h o u g h t 'Oh boy, we've g o t g u e s t s t h i s m o r n i n g and l i s t e n t o t h a t ' . But i t t u r n e d o u t t h a t what d i d n ' t sound l i k e a l a n guage t o h i m was i n f a c t an A f r i c a n d i a l e c t and somebody was t h e r e who i d e n t i f i e d t h e l a n g u a g e . ^ 5  Most p u b l i c  tongues statements  a r e made i n an unknown  guage; t h a t i s , v e r b a l p a t t e r n s h a v i n g no When t h e that  gift  i t be  g i v e n by tongues.  i s expressed  a c c o m p a n i e d by  cognitive  lan-  order.  i n t h i s manner i t i s m a n d a t o r y an  someone o t h e r t h a n  interpretation, the person  who  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are r e s t r i c t e d  most o f t e n  has  spoken i n  i n content  and  40 fulfil  their  f u n c t i o n when t h e y  a r e a b l e t o s t i m u l a t e an  a w a r e n e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s most i n t i m a t e and concerns. heart  "He  comes i n and  pressing  he h e a r s t h e s e c r e t s o f h i s  expounded."  Someone h a s b e e n s i t t i n g a l l day l o n g and t h e y ' v e had a p r o b l e m and i t ' s j u s t d r i v i n g them up t h e w a l l and t h e y w a l k i n t o t h e s e r v i c e and some s i m p l e l i t t l e p e r s o n t h e y ' v e n e v e r met b e f o r e g i v e s o u t a message and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and i t t u r n s o u t t o t o u c h e x a c t l y on t h e i r p r o b l e m . 2 6  The  form o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  phorical  usually  c o n s i s t s o f a meta-  comment h a v i n g b i b l i c a l r e f e r e n c e .  P u b l i c Worship t A D e s c r i p t i v e  Response  D i f f e r e n c e s i n the s t y l e o f P e n t e c o s t a l worship determined ticular  b o t h by  occasion.  t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e group  and  Variations  worship,  r a n g i n g from o l d - l i n e worship  other,  whose p u b l i c  liturgical. costal on  Spirit  Neo-Pentecostal  l o u d and  e x t r e m e , whose informal,  groupings,  at  degree  importance  of intuition  in  to  the  e x p r e s s i o n i s c o m p a r a t i v e l y subdued  an u n u s u a l  par-  and  Pente-  i s required  o f t h e l e a d e r s i n a s s e s s i n g t h e atmosphere o r  o f t h e group.  munal r e s p o n s e  Public  worship  i s regarded  t o t h e movement o f t h e H o l y  are, nevertheless, certain in  active,  S p o n t a n e i t y b e i n g o f key  worship,  the part  i n forms o f  P e n t e c o s t a l s a t t h e one  i s characteristically  t h e newer i n d e p e n d e n t  exist  the  are  o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e and  structural  as a com-  Spirit  limitations  s t i m u l a t e group  identity.  but  there  imposed Worship  41 is  not  expressed  tates.  Instead  as a r e s p o n s e a liturgical  from the e x i s t e n t i a l  p a t t e r n i s spontaneously  to d e s c r i b e the worship  m e t a p h o r s come t o t h e f o r e . constituents:  dicevolved  act.  In attempting  set  to pre-set l i t u r g i c a l  A motif  i s provided  communal s i n g i n g , p r a y e r ,  s c r i p t u r e r e a d i n g and  sermon.  event by  musical several  testimony,  Weaving around t h i s  basic  theme i s a f u g a l p a t t e r n o f s p o n t a n e o u s v o c a l e x p r e s s i o n , times  i n chorus  changes w i t h  and  at other times  the thematic  tinuous  and  v i c e by  coming to a f u l l  a rhythmic  i s not  ebb  to interrupt  halt  arising  plethora prayer  interjected  the  and  flow of the  the very  end.  conser-  There i s  each climax  serving  Ornamentation i s provided  The  final  o f t h e s e r v i c e and  of Pentecostal experiences:  by  climax may  i s generally  burst into  a  conversions, healings,,  baptism.  Impressions  The identifiable  of a Particular  church,  a y o u n g man  Service  a simple,  o n l y by  of the b u i l d i n g . paint,  end  the  beat  r i p p l e s of utterances of p r a i s e  from the c o n g r e g a t i o n .  reserved t i l l  until  flow to the s e r v i c e ,  t o r e i n f o r c e t h e p r e v i o u s one. spontaneously  While the  v a r i a t i o n s t h e rhythm remains  allowed  and  as s o l o .  at  As  flat  roofed structure, i s  an u n p r e t e n t i o u s I e n t e r I am  sign erected i n front  greeted  g r i n n i n g a welcome and  u n f a m i l i a r combination  of accordian, piano  by  a smell of  t h e sound o f and  electric  fresh the organ  42 i m p r o v i s i n g on an o l d g o s p e l hymn t u n e . peated  time  sanctuary.  The chorus  and a g a i n a s t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n d r i f t s The p u l p i t  into the  i s s e t i n the center front  ofthe  c h a n c e l a g a i n s t a backdrop o f a c o l o u r f u l p a i n t i n g a pastoral several fills  scene.  Immediately  behind  the pulpit  rows o f s e a t s f a c i n g t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n .  I become aware o f b e i n g i n t h e m i d s t  heterogeneous s o c i a l intellectuals fessional  gathering:  depicting  are set A s t h e room  o f an u n u s u a l l y  o l d and y o u n g — e v e n  infants;  and t h e i g n o r a n t ; h e a l t h y a n d d i s a b l e d ; p r o -  and u n s k i l l e d ;  representatives Eventually  i s re-  from  the choir,  u p p e r and l o w e r  a variety  o f other  the preachers,  class,  as w e l l as  denominations.  and a few o t h e r s who  are p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the leadership of the service f i l e the seats behind  the pulpit.  T h e m u s i c i s i n t e r r u p t e d by a  voice s i n g i n g 'praise the Lord, p r a i s e the Lord'. y o u n g man s t e p s i n t o  into  the pulpit  A  tall  and i n v i t e s t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n  to  s t a n d w i t h me a s we b e g i n o u r s e r v i c e t o n i g h t p r a i s e t h e L o r d — I t h i n k we o u g h t t o l o o k t o t h e L o r d r i g h t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d a s k Him t o be w i t h u s i n a m i g h t y way. I'm l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o t h e m o v i n g o f God i n t h e m e e t i n g t o n i g h t — p r a i s e H i s w i n d e r f u l name ( e c h o e s and amens) p r a i s e t h e name o f J e s u s , p r a i s e t h e name o f J e s u s , p r a i s e God, p r a i s e God! B r o t h e r — w i l l you l e a d us i n prayer?  An  o l d e r man, d i g n i f i e d  invocation.  i n appearance, o f f e r s  up an  impromptu  H i s p r a y e r i s s e t t o a background o f i n t e r -  spersed phrases  of praise rising  a t random f r o m  various  4 3  members o f t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n . s e l f c o n s c i o u s and  totally  The  participants  absorbed  seem n o t t h e s l i g h t e s t  concerned  they  are d i s p l a y i n g appropriate s o c i a l "everyone Amen."  un-  i n the a c t of worshipping.  They  ends w i t h a r e q u e s t t h a t  appear  as t o whether o r not  will The  behaviour. be b l e s s e d next  The of  prayer God  t h i s night,  i n J e s u s name.  song i s enthu-  siastically  i n t r o d u c e d w i t h an a f f i r m a t i o n o f i t s message,  I've b e l i e v e d the True Report, H a l l e l u j a h to the Lamb. You know i t i s a t r u e r e p o r t . The L o r d J e s u s i s R i s e n f r o m t h e g r a v e and t h a t i s t h e hope we b u i l d o u r s a l v a t i o n o n — i s t h a t J e s u s i s a l i v e t o d a y and He's a l i v e i n o u r h e a r t s . Many p e o p l e h a v e f e l t t h e power o f t h e LIVING God i n t h e i r l i v e s and t h a t h a s b r o k e n t h e c h a i n o f s i n w h i c h nothing else could break—no other person could b r e a k — ' b u t t h e L o r d J e s u s C h r i s t , t h e LIVING power o f t h e L I V I N G God h a s done t h i s . So t o n i g h t we've b e l i e v e d t h e t r u e r e p o r t — p r a i s e t h e name o f Jesus.  The  singing i s interrupted  tion  t o s t a n d up  vigour. in  so t h a t  by  f o r the  congrega-  they can p a r t i c i p a t e with g r e a t e r  A s t h e melody p r o g r e s s e s t h e p e o p l e b e g i n t o  c l a p p i n g out the rhythm.  outburst  an i n v i t a t i o n  The  s o n g i s f o l l o w e d by  o f p r a i s e u t t e r a n c e s and  join another  an u n a n n o u n c e d c h o r u s  "The Wonder o f I t A l l ,  t h e Wonder o f I t A l l ,  Just to  T h a t J e s u s L o v e s Me."  A longer interjection  of praise  lows w i t h t h e l e a d e r r e p e a t i n g t h e p h r a s e of  Jesus" at l e a s t  the  faith  to  worship  and  eighteen times.  a statement  God.  The  of  Think fol-  " p r a i s e t h e name  Another  affirmation  of  of gratitude f o r the opportunity  song " I W i l l  S i n g o f My  Redeemer" i s  announced;  again preceded  by  an i n t r o d u c t i o n u n d e r l i n i n g t h e  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e message c o n t a i n e d i n t h e s o n g . chorus  i s repeated  several times.  The  Next t h e c h o i r c o n t r i b u t e s  a number w h i c h i s m e l o d i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o t h e p r e v i o u s expressions,  thus  r e i n f o r c i n g the hypnotic  r e p e t i t i o u s melodies  and  communal p a r t i c i p a t i o n m a t i o n s and  share i t w i t h the group.  i s the  of praise, of  "Hallelujah,  God."  participated  . . ."  the remainder speaking  t h r e e teenaged  moves i n t o  of the s e r v i c e .  Another  girls  The  round  healing—a  entitled until  the p u l p i t  m i n i s t e r immediately  ripple  . . . Praise  has  she  the  efforts  enthusiastic  of f a i t h  J u s t as  Euro-  at the r e a r of  "Jesus  this  to take  of  moves t o one  i n d i c a t i n g the preeminence of the tongues  point  over  i s about t o  a voice, obviously expressing the g i f t  interrupts. thereby  an  Then t h e m i n i s t e r , who  silently,  individuals  His wife interprets h i s  More t e s t i m o n i e s — a n i n c i d e n t  t h e Key."  immediate-  i s f o l l o w e d by  I want t o S i n g A l l A b o u t I t  by  affir-  with a notable  He  i n f o r m a l comments and  c l o s e harmony t r i o Holds  more  of a paraplegic s i t t i n g  wants t o t h a n k t h e L o r d a few  abandoned  a challeng-  though not  aged man  to t e s t i f y .  t h e room i n h i s w h e e l c h a i r . "He  the  "a word f o r t h e L o r d " t o  The-response,  A middle  first  incoherent mutterings  saying,  had  g a i n s momentum a s more and  begin to c o n t r i b u t e . pean accent  mood o f s e l f  a b r u p t l y d i s r u p t e d by  f o r anyone who  enthusiastic,  The  of  c r e a t e d by t h e i n t e r t w i n i n g o f  r h y t h m s i s now  ing invitation  ly  rhythms.  effect  musical  begin  tongues, side, speaker.  45 The  u t t e r a n c e seems t o be  The  style of t h i s particular  plex ing  German s e n t e n c e , to paragraph  tone  and  erately ately  rapid.  e p i s o d e i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f a com-  Verbalization  i s f r e e f l o w i n g and mod-  sitting  i n the c h o i r  r i s e s to h i s feet to i n t e r p r e t .  speech  H i s eyes  part  A c o n g r e g a t i o n a l r e s p o n s e o f " p r a i s e God,  to  fervent and  closed,  glory  hearts, e My honour  t o God."  i n t h e s i n g i n g o f t h e hymn "He  H a l l e l u j a h C h r i s t Arose."  The  the minister,  evolution into  whose m e l o d i c  tween o r d i n a r y E n g l i s h  and  Spirit  Arose,  t h e n an  He  unannounced  s i n g i n g i n the S p i r i t  l e d by  e x p r e s s i o n moves w i t h e a s e tongues.  A  hymn i s f o l l o w e d by. a  c h o r u s o f "Thou A r t W o r t h y " and  spontaneous  his  own  that the congregation continue to look f o r the  move as t h e y j o i n  Arose,  immedi-  o f h i s body he r e p e a t s :  I am t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n and t h e l i f e , T h o u g h y e were d e a d y e t s h a l l y e l i v e . Yea I can q u i c k e n y o u r s p i r i t s t h a t y e may s e e s p i r i t u a l t r u t h s , So t h a t y e c a n h e a r my S p i r i t s p e a k t o y o u r So t h a t y o u c a n u n d e r s t a n d My word, I r e p e a t , I am t h e r e s u r r e c t i o n and t h e l i f and I c a n g i v e u n t o y o u My S p i r i t . For I h a v e c r e a t e d you f o r My g l o r y and f o r T h a t I may f i l l y o u w i t h My j o y and w i t h My p e a c e and w i t h My f r e e d o m , s a i t h the Lord.  request  loft  k e e p i n g t i m e t o t h e rhythm o f h i s  with the upper  stretch-  I t i s u n u s u a l l y e x p r e s s i v e , both i n  A y o u n g man  h a n d s c l e n c h e d and  intensity.  c o n t a i n i n g numerous c l a u s e s and  length.  intensity.  an e x p l o s i o n o f e m o t i o n a l  The  organ p l a y s  p r o v i d i n g a base f o r the otherwise f r e e melodic  line.  be-  softly, The  46 congregation p a r t i c i p a t e s , w o r d s o r t o n g u e s and text  each i n d i v i d u a l  c r e a t i n g h i s own  singing his  tune w i t h i n the  own con-  o f t h e s i m p l e h a r m o n i c p a t t e r n s e t by t h e l e a d e r .  effect  i s that of a free,  t w i n i n g o f melody. g e n e r a l l y not  exceeding  other proclamation less  i n t e n s e and  tion.  The  The  simple,  tonal  i n t e r v a l s l a r g e r than  exuding  a sense  of assurance  s t r u c t u r e and  from  interpretation  f o l l o w s , the tone  inter-  i s narrow, fifths.  i n tongues i s given; t h i s time  syllabic  the f i r s t .  contrapuntal  range u t i l i z e d  quite distinct  than  but  An-  seemingly  and  integra-  s t y l e of the utterance i s  the previous tongues speaker.  The  The  of t h a t too  Again  an  being gentler  m i n i s t e r g i v e s a comment o f  reinforce-  ment, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i f t h e message i s meant f o r anyone i n the congregation point  they  are i n v i t e d  t h e mood o f s p i r i t u a l i t y  to respond  i s o n c e a g a i n b r o k e n by  s e r i e s o f announcements c o n c e r n i n g t h e week.  The  relaxed,  temper o f t h e m e e t i n g h a s  somewhat a m u s i n g  'visit*  events o f the  slipped  are lengthy, chatty, informally offering  i s i n t r o d u c e d by  the congregation  to l e a d  the o f f e r i n g the piano, lude with solo "I've  an  Got  The  instruction  a  x  coming into  a  domestic  presented.  t o a member o f  During the t a k i n g of organ  a hymn t u n e .  o f "He's  this  announcements  humourously  a c c o r d i a n and  choruses  Something That  and  i n prayer.  i m p r o v i z a t i o n on  f o l l o w e d by  an  easily  d e a l i n g with the  e s s e n t i a l s of the c o n g r e g a t i o n a l l i f e .  The  to i t . At  Alive  fill  the  inter-  Next a v o c a l  For Evermore"  the World Can't Give  and  and  the World  47 C a n ' t T a k e I t Away."  Another o u t b u r s t of tongues,  different  from  panied  a lengthy interpretation.  by  singing,  this  e i t h e r of the  time  little  preamble.  lesson  i s taken  o r g a n i z e d and in  essence  subdued, and The  from  e x p r e s s i o n s and  t h e sermon b e g i n s w i t h  t h e Book o f A c t s .  presented  i n a straight of the  of the h i s t o r i c a l  Jesus  c l o s i n g prayer,  quests.  a hymn and  S e v e r a l o f t h e men  c h a i r s i n an  adjacent  f o l d i n g wall thereby  an  they  as t h e Son  Summary  and  iden-  and  the  dead.  f o r prayer  re-  seats t o arrange and  moves t o t h e p r a y e r  pause b e f o r e l e a v i n g the  clusters of  sanctuary.^  the  close off room. room.  they  join  conversing  7  Comments  biblically  remembered t h a t t h e P e n t e c o s t a l  based  and  ambiguous i s t h e t e x t u a l to  from  improvising a separate prayer  have remained behind,  I t must be is  raised  It i s  the  o f God  r e t u r n t o t h e main p a r t o f t h e s a n c t u a r y  t h o s e who people  manner.  of the sanctuary  Almost the e n t i r e congregation As  scripture  emphasizing  invitation  very  sermon i s w e l l  forward  leave their  section  The  The  faith,  d e c l a r i n g t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t he was A  accom-  More c o n g r e g a t i o n a l  theme i s r e s u r r e c t i o n .  a restatement  tification  former  quite  interpret  significant  and  put  factual  references to  T  not  a sectarian  accretion.  interpretation.  s t r e s s on occurrences  o t h e r tongues'  the and  events  experience What i s  P e n t e c o s t a l s tend of Pentecost  understand  the  as  biblical  as p o i n t i n g t o e c s t a t i c  utter-  48  ances s i g n i f y i n g the Other  clear  understanding.  Whatever the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  c a n be b i b l i c a l l y  a b l e t o any i s not dogma.  individual  c o n t i n g e n t on Historical  availability.  the  less  i t is  direct  and  of the Holy  acceptance  experience,  to the Holy immediate.  Spirit  i n an  i s a channel  The  contemporary  i s not unique  but  can  church.  of the  of a p a r t i c u l a r  an  a c t , and  It  sectarian to i t s  i s not  through  en-  experience.  The  What i s h i s t o r i c a l l y I t has  s t r u c t u r e s i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  i s the  become one  church  o f new and  of  experience  the h i s t o r y  unique  features i n the c r e a t i o n  baptism  presence  expression of t h i s  be t r a c e d t h r o u g h o u t  experience  t h e bounds o f  t o t h e power and  current expression.  most s i g n i f i c a n t  i s therefore avail-  by means o f t h i s  I t breaks  the Creator.  Christian  the  belief.  the source  Spirit  l o c a t e d and  o u t b u r s t s o f t h e phenomenon a t t e s t  I t i s an  d o c t r i n e to touch  and  Spirit.  w i t h i n the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n .  i n a s p e c i a l mode o f Access  tude  o f the Holy  t h a t the documentation concerning the o r i g i n s of  experience  is  of the presence  C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s l e a n toward a  literal  cased  event  of  of  the  magnithe  patterns  i s the  focus  o f much c o n t r o v e r s i a l s p e c u l a t i o n . What makes t h i s p a r t i c u l a r attractive  f o r study  a c c o m p a n i e d by brings with  i s twofold:  religious  the experience  an a c t w h i c h i s i m m e d i a t e l y  i t c h a n g e s i n p e r s p e c t i v e and  t e r n s which a u t h e n t i c a t e i t .  experience  so  i s commonly  observable behavioural  and i t pat-  49 The discovers  act i t s e l f  himself  e x p e r i e n c e he  i s both s u b j e c t i v e , i n that  giving extraordinary  i s u n d e r g o i n g , and  vocal  the  person  expression  objective, i n that  to  i t is  an  a u d i b l e p h y s i c a l a c t which i s o b s e r v a b l e t o the  bystander.  Its  serving  functions  are  simultaneously faith  of the The  t h u s b o t h p u b l i c and  t o renew t h e  i n d i v i d u a l and  change i n p e r s p e c t i v e  l e a d i n g to the  vious  it.  experience.  from the  p o i n t of  The  A l l future  The  which the  the  motivating  the  view o f  the  factors  experience.  t o and  life  A l l pre-  culminating  in  the  a reflection  e x p e r i e n c e becomes a p i v o t a l p o i n t  person t r a c e s the destiny.  behavioural  views h i s  e x p e r i e n c e i s regarded as  Pentecostal  attained his  with contingent  p e r s o n now  a c t i o n i s s e e n as l e a d i n g up  event.  to reinforce  community.  c h a n g e s make p o s s i b l e a r e v i e w o f  history  private,  an  course of h i s h i s t o r y .  He  of  from has  50 Notes •'•Bible, K i n g James V e r s i o n , I s a i a h I I , v s . 1-2, p . 562.  2  I n t e r v i e w , No. F.  J o h n L. S h e r r i l l , T h e v Sneak W i t h O t h e r T o n g u e s Y o r k : P y r a m i d Books, 1964), p . 107. 3  (New  4  Ibid.,  p . 107.  ^ I n t e r v i e w , No. H. ^ I n t e r v i e w , No. H.  7 B i b l e , K i n g James V e r s i o n , A c t s I I , v s . 1-4.  o  Spiritual  P.  15.  M o r t o n K e l s e y , T o n g u e S p e a k i n g , an E x p e r i m e n t i n E x p e r i e n c e (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y & C o . , I n c . , 1 9 6 4 ) ,  0 7  I b i d . , p. 33.  l O i b i d . , p . 37. ^ E r a r i k S t a g g , E. G l e n n H i n s o n , Wayne E. O a t e s , G l o s s o l a l i a (New Y o r k : A b i n g d o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 4 7 . K e l s e y , p. 49. 1 2  G e r l a c h and H i n e , " F i v e F a c t o r s C r u c i a l I n The G r o w t h a n d S p r e a d o f A M o d e r n R e l i g i o u s Movement," i n J o u r n a l F o r T h e S c i e n t i f i c S t u d y Of R e l i g i o n . V o l . V I I , No. 1, S p r i n g 1968, 24. 1 3  "^Quotation taken from unpublished t r a n s c r i p t o f a t a p e r e c o r d i n g o f a l e c t u r e g i v e n a t U.B.C. i n J a n u a r y 1968 by F a t h e r K e v i n R a n a g h a n o f N o t r e Dame U n i v e r s i t y , o n t h e t o p i c " R e n e w a l o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t among Roman C a t h o l i c s . " 1 5  Kelsey,  p. 100.  " " " ^ I n t e r v i e w , No. E. 1 7  Sherrill,  p. 122.  18  I n t e r v i e w , No. H.  51  1 9  Sherrill,  ^Interview,  p.  123.  No.  H.  Interview,  No.  E.  Interview,  No.  A.  2 3  I n t erview,  No.  B.  2 4  Sherrill,  21 2  2  p.  25jnterview, No.  118.  H.  ^ I n t e r v i e w , No. H. ^ Q u o t a t i o n s d e s c r i b i n g the s e r v i c e of worship are t a k e n f r o m a t a p e r e c o r d i n g made by t h e w r i t e r a t a l o c a l Pentecostal church.  CHAPTER I I I  THE  MAPPING OF SPIRITUAL CAREERS  P o r t r a i t s o f t h e Respondents  No. A:  She  A spinster  i n her mid-forties,  profession  and a f f i l i a t e d  a stenographer  with the Lutheran  accompanied h e r f a m i l y i n e m i g r a t i n g from  1948  and i s now r e s i d i n g w i t h h e r p a r e n t s  by church.  England i n  and an  unmarried  sister. A. of  r e c a l l s t h a t when s h e was a b o u t n i n e o r t e n y e a r s  a g e s h e was a s k e d  converted, the Lord."  by h e r f a t h e r ,  whether she t o o would l i k e She s a i d  her  after  t h i s occasion  t h a t h e r commitment must h a v e b e e n r e a l  reached  adolescence  became v e r y a n x i o u s decision, but  t o do so and made  S e v e r a l i n c i d e n t s t h a t she  having occurred shortly  have behaved d i f f e r e n t l y  she entered  When A.  a p e r i o d d u r i n g which she  concerning the v a l i d i t y  f e e l i n g t h a t she d i d i n f a c t  of her childhood  'belong t o t h e Lord'  the s p e c i f i c  t h e o c c a s i o n o f h e r commitment.  assured  o r she would  under t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  not being able to r e c a l l  been  to "give her heart to  t h a t she would l i k e  a commitment t o t h a t e f f e c t . recalls  who h a d r e c e n t l y  circumstances of  She remembers w a n t i n g  d e s p e r a t e l y t o ask h e r f a t h e r r e g a r d i n g t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e moment)but n o t h a v i n g t h e c o u r a g e t o do s o . find  t h e courage t o q u e s t i o n him h i s response  When s h e d i d d i d not s a t i s f y  53 her  curiosity.  came a c r o s s to  H e r a n x i e t y was f i n a l l y  a book  comparing t h e event  that of physical birth.  Methodist after  As a r e s u l t  d o c t r i n e o f t h e Holy gation lects the to the  Spirit  that during this  belong  of a controversy  turned  shortly  regarding the  amongst members o f t h e i r  time  t h e church.  h e r f a t h e r took  A. r e c o l -  h e r away  o f someone  i n question  else.  to intense dislike  short-circuited.  not heard'.  Her love f o r music a t t h i s and h e r m u s i c a l  Regarding  education  h e r h o m e e n v i r o n m e n t A. c o m -  S h e d o e s n o t remember  friends  and found  concern  with At  employed  i tdifficult  any o t h e r  t h e time  f o rf i v e  having  t o share  of intimate  h e r f a m i l y came t o C a n a d a A. h a d b e e n  years.  She had been very enjoyed  happy w h i l e a t -  h e r chosen p r o f e s s i o n . but f e l t  s h e had no  " I m e a n , i f my f a t h e r c a m e , we a l l c a m e , t h i s  the  k i n d o f home we w e r e b r o u g h t  the  initial  most t r y i n g y e a r  moved t o t h e p r a i r i e s . attend  Bible  seen  any c l o s e  matters  She h a d no d e s i r e w h a t s o e v e r t o e m i g r a t e  to  were  person.  t e n d i n g c o l l e g e and thoroughly  choice.  from  and p u t h e r under  m e n t s t h a t i t w a s ' t h e k i n d o f home w h e r e c h i l d r e n but  congre-  w i t h whom s h e w a s s t u d y i n g , who h a p p e n e d  t o t h e congregation  instruction  birth  who w e r e o f W e l s h  a conversion  became a l i e n a t e d a n d l e f t  music teacher  point was  they  of spiritual  A.'s p a r e n t s ,  background, had experienced  her birth.  q u i e t e d when s h e  School  up i n , y o u know."  was  After  i n e a s t e r n Canada t h e f a m i l y  A. h a d h a d a l o n g s t a n d i n g and s o , a f t e r  working  ambition  f o r a few years,  54 she e n r o l l e d i n a B i b l e School sponsored by the Lutheran denomination.  The two y e a r s spent t h e r e were among the most  e n j o y a b l e o f her l i f e and as a r e s u l t of t h i s happy a s s o c i a t i o n A. d e c i d e d t o j o i n the Lutheran church.  Not knowing  what t o do w i t h her l i f e a f t e r completing B i b l e School a p p l i e d f o r overseas m i s s i o n work. was  ' c a l l i n g * her t o t h i s work.  a u t h e n t i c i t y o f her c a l l  She was  she  sure the Lord  Being so convinced o f the  she was  q u i t e unprepared  f o r the  r e j e c t i o n o f her a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h no f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n than t h a t they had  'prayed about i t and they f e l t i t wasn't  t h e Lord's w i l l ' .  She accepted the d e c i s i o n of the author-  ities  and, though h u r t , d i d not pursue her p l a n s any  further.  Her p a r e n t s had meanwhile moved west, l e a v i n g her w i t h a younger b r o t h e r who married to a g i r l  was  of P e n t e c o s t a l background.  c e i v e d an i n v i t a t i o n t o f i l l United States. she was  at that time engaged t o be A. next r e -  a p o s i t i o n i n the southern  Her year t h e r e was most worthwhile  and when  f o r c e d t o r e t u r n at the end of the year t o help her  s i s t e r c a r e f o r her aging p a r e n t s she l e f t w i t h great r e l u c tance. of  Once i n Vancouver A. s e t t l e d i n t o an o r d e r l y r o u t i n e  working,  t e a c h i n g Sunday School and s h a r i n g the domestic  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the home.  She r e c a l l s no  interesting  i n t e r l u d e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d and f e e l s t h a t her l i f e became increasingly s t e r i l e . to  the young p a s t o r who  which she belonged  Her most rewarding r e l a t i o n s h i p was  s e r v i n g t h e congregation to  and h i s w i f e .  was  55  A.  q u e s t i o n e d t h e p a s t o r c o n c e r n i n g r e p o r t s s h e had  come a c r o s s r e l a t i n g u n u s u a l  spiritual  occurrences  taking  p l a c e among a d h e r e n t s o f t h e C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal Movement. She  was amazed t o f i n d  t h a t b o t h he and h i s w i f e had had t h e  experience o f t h e baptism in  tongues.  that  o f t h e Holy  On d i s c o v e r i n g t h i s  she decided  i f t h e y were p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s  wanted i t . t i o n that  Shortly  after this  an e v a n g e l i s t ,  h i s open a f f i r m a t i o n appear  and c o u l d speak immediately  e x p e r i e n c e she t o o  i t was b r o u g h t  a former  been d i s m i s s e d from h i s p a s t o r a l  to  Spirit  L u t h e r a n p a s t o r who h a d f u n c t i o n s as a r e s u l t o f  concerning t h e use o f g l o s s o l a l i a ,  a t a s e r i e s o f meetings.  s e r i e s and t w i c e r e s p o n d e d  tongues.  course.  to the altar  call.  She was however a s s u r e d t h a t  it.  Both  times  of speaking  s h e would i n due  T h e f o l l o w i n g week s h e p r a y e d w i t h t h e p a s t o r and  his wife that found  was  A. a t t e n d e d t h e e n t i r e  s h e was ' b l e s s e d * b u t d i d n o t r e c e i v e t h e g i f t in  to her atten-  she t o o would r e c e i v e t h e g i f t .  i t i m p o s s i b l e t o respond That  evening, a f t e r  b e g a n t o s p e a k and f o u n d  Again she  b u t was n o t c o n c e r n e d  about  s h e h a d gone t o b e d , s h e s u d d e n l y that  she c o u l d n o t stop, nor d i d  s h e want t o s t o p . The  f o l l o w i n g summer s h e a t t e n d e d camp m e e t i n g s a t  which t h e p r e v i o u s l y mentioned speaker.  There  of physical emphatically  she r e c e i v e d  afflictions that  e v a n g e l i s t was t h e theme  the evidence o f healing,  and o f t h e 'memories*.  her entire  A.  both  insists  o u t l o o k has been changed.  Her  56  connections with the Lutheran  church  but  are interspersed with v i s i t s  No.  B:  A housewife and  and  who  ents.  rejected  children  the  grandparents.  was  g i v e n every She  does not  belonged •simply  to  university. a happy and  she  d i d not  and  was  integrity  to  child,  always  behind  g r o u p s she  while  she  chiefly  high  then  po-  peers.  remembers  Upon g r a d u a t i n g f r o m  and  being  her  a d u l t s and  they  appease  school  proceeded  H e r e s h e d i s c o v e r e d a number o f c l o s e f r i e n d s fulfilling  identify  experience.  with people  She  p o i n t s out  of r e l i g i o u s  ponents of l i b e r a l i n h e r e n t myth and  theology, mysticism  of her t h i r d year T h i s was  she  felt,  d i d not  of the C h r i s t i a n  s h e was  married  and  was  a great disappointment  that  orientation  disgusted with ordinary s e r v i c e s df worship.  university.  par-  intellectual  i n a m u s i c s c h o o l f o r t r a i n i n g and  and  intellectual  effort  her  chronologically  being very l o n e l y ' .  raised  highly intelligent  lonely  of g i r l s '  lawyer  Nevertheless  i n an  b e i n g c l o s e t o any  to a variety  enrolled  beliefs.  t o be  extremely  a h e a d and  recall  B.  end  an  born,  that i n t e l l e c t u a l  opportunity to develop  was  intellectually She  convinced  appeared  was  to a  teachings of t h e i r  t o Sunday S c h o o l B.  She  p a r e n t s were o f  o p p o s i t i o n to r e l i g i o u s  sent t h e i r  tential.  B.'s  the r e l i g i o u s  They were f i r m l y  required  to Pentecostal gatherings.  mother o f t h r e e c h i l d r e n .  had  maintained  i n her m i d - t h i r t i e s , married  r e s i d e s i n Vancouver.  bent  have been  Ex-  exploit  faith.  At  forced to to her  as  the the leave she  regretted Her  l e a v i n g t h e f r i e n d s h i p s she had c u l t i v a t e d  h u s b a n d was a d e v o u t l y . r e l i g i o u s p e r s o n  highly  intellectual.  integrate  B. f o u n d  and was c o n v i n c e d  suade him from  this  t h i s combination  interests.  in  extensively i n the f i e l d  theological  discussions.  than  interest  factual  i n mysticism  Eastern religions  intrigued  by  insight.  Buddhist with  w i t h t h e w r i t i n g s o f Edgar  As a r e s u l t  o f her study o f  s h e was c a p t i v a t e d by t h e e m p h a s i s p l a c e d  share h e r enthusiasm.  t h e concept  Her  t o h e r t o be a s y n t h e s i s o f  on m e d i t a t i o n and s e t o u t t o f i n d could  than  a s a means o f e x p e r i e n c i n g God.  C a y c e y , whose work a p p e a r e d and r e l i g i o u s  God r a t h e r  l e d her t o explore the f i e l d s o f psy-  became p a r t i c u l a r l y  mystical  o f things then i t  k n o w l e d g e c o n c e r n i n g Him.  c h i c phenomena and o c c u l t She  A close reading  h e r t h a t i f God c o u l d  a l l be p o s s i b l e t o e x p e r i e n c e  t o absorb  and t o p a r t i c i p a t e  endeavour.  c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as b e i n g i n t h e depth  merely  s h e was s h e b e g a n t o  Much t o h e r s u r p r i s e s h e f o u n d  o f R o b i n s o n ' s H o n e s t t o God c o n v i n c e d  might a f t e r  Realizing that i n  of theology  a great deal of pleasure i n t h i s  be  d i f f i c u l t to  g o a l she would have t o be b e t t e r  versed regarding r e l i g i o u s matters read  as w e l l as b e i n g  t h a t s h e w o u l d be a b l e t o d i s -  his religious  order to accomplish  there.  a group w i t h whom s h e  A t t h e same t i m e  s h e was  teased  o f t h e ' l a y i n g on o f h a n d s ' a s p r a c t i c e d i n  i n i t i a t i o n procedures.  a close friend  group t o d e a l with  and t o g e t h e r  She d i s c u s s e d t h e s e they  matters  decided to i n i t i a t e  topics r e l a t e d t o these i n t e r e s t s .  The  a  g r o u p was o r g a n i z e d cipated.  and an a s s o r t m e n t o f i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i -  M e a n w h i l e B, was s e a r c h i n g  munity t h a t would s h a r e  f o r a worshipping  her p a r t i c u l a r  concerns.  com-  She j o i n e d  a g r o u p l e d by a c l a i r v o y a n t whom s h e had met b u t t h e a s s o ciation  d i d not l a s t  l o n g a s "he d i d n ' t l i k e p e o p l e l i k e  me  a r o u n d b e c a u s e I knew too?:much." Her  n e x t f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n was f a i t h  she  began t o l o o k  Her  skepticism regarding  ticularly  f o r a group i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s the institutional  t h e denomination with  increased.  h a d made c o n t a c t  i t was a p p r o p r i a t e  at l e a s t contact Her  w h i c h s h e was a s s o c i a t e d  with  as a g e s t u r e with  her.  Being  r e s p o n s e on f i r s t  M e a n w h i l e one o f  of friendship.  strongly attracted  persuasion,  f o r her to attend  Pentecostalism  She had h a d no  and knew v e r y  little  ingly ences.  with  instinct  Pentecostal  The  experience  She  t h a t God  herself increas-  t h e g r o u p and h a s h a d n u m e r a b l e s p i r i t u a l  the  previous  and happy,  I had f e l t  that time she has a l l i e d  I t was a c o n s i d e r a b l e  decided  about i t .  a t t e n d i n g was most f a v o u r a b l e .  somehow w h a t e v e r i n a r t i c u l a t e Since  B.  her f r i e n d ' s church  r e c a l l s t h a t t h e a l i v e n e s s was " s o m e t h i n g r e a l  was t h e r e . "  i n need o f  g r o u p s t a r t e d by B. and h e r  t h i s p e r s o n , who was o f P e n t e c o s t a l  that  c h u r c h and p a r -  " A l l I wanted was a g r o u p ! "  the p a r t i c i p a n t s of the i n i t i a l  to  subject.  A t t h e same t i m e s h e was d e s p e r a t e l y  a community.  friend  h e a l i n g and  experi-  time a f t e r her i n t r o d u c t i o n to  g r o u p t h a t B. r e c e i v e d t h e g i f t f o r h e r was o n e o f g r a d u a l  o f tongues.  l e a r n i n g rather  59 than  a sudden d r a m a t i c  experience.  a s h a v i n g made a r a d i c a l spective.  She s e e s  the experience  d i f f e r e n c e t o h e r l i f e and p e r -  The s m a l l weekly p r a y e r group i n which she p a r t i -  c i p a t e s s h e f i n d s most s t i m u l a t i n g and f u l f i l l i n g .  No.  C:  A housewife children,  She  i n her l a t e  born,  raised  t w e n t i e s , mother o f t h r e e and r e s i d e s i n V a n c o u v e r .  i s a member o f t h e U n i t e d C h u r c h o f C a n a d a . C.  although feel the  recalls  t h a t h e r c h i l d h o o d was p r o b a b l y  family attended  I t was a n o m i n a l l y C h r i s t i a n  worship  w e r e s e n t t o Sunday S c h o o l  services regularly, and a b s t i n e n c e f r o m  ' w o r l d l y p l e a s u r e s * was a d v o c a t e d .  do a  so.  r e j e c t e d t h e church The f a c t  t h a t she h e r s e l f  was p u s h e d t o s u c h  the children the so-called  C. comments t h a t h e r  d i d n o t she a t t r i b u t e s t o  S h e was a m u s i c a l l y g i f t e d  she  education.for a period.  known.  part  time  ical  career.  and  After  employment  g r a d u a t i n g from and c o n c e n t r a t e d  She t h e n  was m a r r i e d  entered Teacher  immediately  began t e a c h i n g but found  h e r mus-  When s h e resumed i t a g a i n  d i s c o v e r e d thet s h e h a d t o r e l e a r n  viously  child  an e x t e n t by h e r t e a c h e r t h a t s h e  b e g a n h a v i n g h e a l t h p r o b l e m s and was f o r c e d t o d r o p ical  home,  a s s o o n a s s h e was p e r m i t t e d t o  * n a t u r a l r e l i g i o u s bent*.  and  1  h e r f a t h e r was a t home v e r y l i t t l e a n d s h e d i d n o t  c l o s e t o h e r mother.  sister  'happy  later  a l l t h a t she had p r e h i g h s c h o o l she found on f u r t h e r i n g h e r musTraining at University  a f t e r completing t h e course.  i t most u n e n j o y a b l e  She  and was f o r c e d  60  to  l e a v e b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e term because o f pregnancy.  C. f e e l s now t h a t she rushed i n t o her marriage  and t h a t she  would not have done so i f she had been given any d i s c o u r a g e ment by e i t h e r f a m i l y o r f r i e n d s .  She had t h r e e c h i l d r e n i n  l e s s than t h r e e y e a r s and d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was h o s p i t a l i z e d f o r severe d e p r e s s i o n . While a t u n i v e r s i t y C. met a g i r l who was a committed C h r i s t i a n and who gave h e r r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l d e a l i n g with r e ligious issues.  C. says she remembers a time when she de-  c i d e d t o make a conscious commitment t o C h r i s t but t h a t she f e l t no change as a r e s u l t o f t h e d e c i s i o n .  As her c h i l d r e n  grew o l d e r she began t o l o o k f o r a way out o f her misery by becoming i n v o l v e d and concerned  w i t h o t h e r people.  T h i s con-  c e r n l e d h e r i n t o a r e l a t i o n s h i p which she now sees as h a v i n g been d e s t r u c t i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e o t h e r person i n v o l v e d . When t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p terminated C. f e l t more i s o l a t e d and unhappy than ever b e f o r e .  Meanwhile she had heard about a  woman with whom she was c a s u a l l y acquainted who had undergone a r a d i c a l transformation.  Her s i s t e r - i n - l a w had informed h e r  t h a t t h i s woman had "found something t h a t had r e a l l y changed her and made her r e a l l y g r e a t . "  C. promptly  contacted t h e  woman t o ask h e r which church she attended and whether i t would be p o s s i b l e f o r her t o go. They made arrangements f o r C. t o accompany t h e woman t o t h e P e n t e c o s t a l church.  How-  ever due t o v a c a t i o n i n t e r f e r e n c e s t h e p l a n s had t o b e j p o s t poned.  61 In  t h e meantime C.  whom s h e h a d  lost  c l o s e as t h e y now  married  self  had  had  sought  contact.  She  out  a girlhood  discovered that  been as a d o l e s c e n t s but t h a t  t o a man  h e r t o r e a d S h e r r i l l ' s They  Her  Speak W i t h O t h e r  was  i n t r i g u e d w i t h t h e book b u t  for  her.  felt  a f t e r her v i s i t  the  to her  with  t h e y were the g i r l  o f P e n t e c o s t a l b a c k g r o u n d and  become a c o n v i n c e d P e n t e c o s t a l .  Shortly  friend  she  friend  was her-  asked  Tongues.  C.  e x p e r i e n c e was f r i e n d C.  as  not  and  the  woman m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y a t t e n d e d t h e P e n t e c o s t a l c h u r c h . C.  was  first you  impressed, time  i n my  r e c a l l i n g that  l i f e , these people  k n o w — w o r s h i p p i n g a God  t h i n k He's  "I just  really  there  Spirit.  Her  overwhelming that capable,  . . . "  f o r the  worshipping— o f them  F o l l o w i n g the s e r v i c e  she  r e c e i v e d the baptism  of  e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e e v e n i n g were so  when she  f o r the f i r s t  are r e a l l y  as t h o u g h e v e r y one  went t o t h e p r a y e r room where she the Holy  thought,  r e t u r n e d home s h e  time,  the behavioural pattern that  Her  h u s b a n d was  by  herself  o f l o v i n g h e r h u s b a n d and  ing  so a l a r m e d  felt  had  developed  her r e p o r t s t h a t  break-  between them. he  immediately  c o n t a c t e d t h e m i n i s t e r o f t h e c h u r c h w i t h w h i c h t h e y had affiliated C. for  i n order that  witnesses  proved,  s h e now  entering into  he m i g h t t r y t o r e a s o n w i t h h i s w i f e .  t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e a s h a v i n g been l i f e  her; her r e l a t i o n s h i p  been  changing  w i t h her husband i s g r e a t l y  enjoys her c h i l d r e n ,  she  i s capable  im-  of  ' h e a l t h y * r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s whereas  b e f o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s she  had  were ' s i c k '  and  she  parti-  62 cipates  i n a g r o u p w h i c h she  therapeutic.  While  she  f i n d s both meaningful  i s unable  w i t h o t h e r members o f t h e c h u r c h tained point Her  her  she  does not  feel  D:  does not  was  born was  identify  In h i s e a r l y recently  with the  i s most  at  this  with  emigrated  f i v e y e a r s o l d and  sympathetic  experience.  t w e n t i e s , u n e m p l o y e d and  identified  i n Europe,  and  main-  drawn t o become a f o r m a l P e n t e c o s t a l .  husband, n o t i n g t h e change i n h e r ,  No.  experiences  a t t e n d s she has  connections with the congregation  a l t h o u g h he  he  to share her  and  until  'hippy' l i f e  very  style.  He  t o Canada w i t h h i s f a m i l y when  came t o V a n c o u v e r a t t h e age  of  sixteen. The prior  o n l y r e c o l l e c t i o n s m e n t i o n e d by D.  t o c o m i n g t o Canada a r e  e n c e and  episodes  the consequences o f these  spent ber  on  h i s u n c l e ' s farm  the greatest times  corn  f o r the chickens."  time  i n his early  his  were thwarted, adults." was  teens  unhappy s i t u a t i o n  The  t o run trip  upon a r r i v a l  I e v e r had He  r e l a t i n g to disobedi-  acts.  perhaps the happiest time of h i s l i f e  He  observes  were t h e few i n Canada.  were j u s t  recalls  that  weeks " I remem-  spreading  spending  i n f a n t a s y a b o u t how  and  of the period  the  a considerable t o escape  t w i c e made a t t e m p t s ,  both of  from which  away " t o a p l a c e where t h e r e were  no  a c r o s s Canada, when t h e f a m i l y moved w e s t ,  a most memorable t i m e .  e r a l moves b e f o r e t h e y  Upon a r r i v a l  t h e f a m i l y made  became e s t a b l i s h e d and  D.  was  sev-  forced  to  transfer  completely  s c h o o l s a number o f t i m e s . ' f e d up*  and  f o r one  reason or another.  it  as f r u s t r a t i o n  be  going.  filling." He  A friend  d i d so and  f o u r t h one thoughts  at the time  T h e r e was  he  still  a l l ended i n " I don't  but  suggested  h i s t r i p s thoroughly  'freaked out',  recognized  d i d n ' t seem t o  t h a t D.  h a v i n g some most  a b o u t God.  The  t r y L.S.D.  enjoyable u n t i l  about h i m s e l f , about h i s r e l a t i o n  a b o u t t h e u n i v e r s e and  dissatisfac-  think I  things just  eleven.  some k i n d o f v o i d t h a t needed  at the time  found  got  dropped out o f s c h o o l i n grade  A s u c c e s s i o n of jobs f o l l o w e d but tion  E v e n t u a l l y he  the  unusual  to t h i s planet,  a b s t r a c t i o n s he  ex-  p e r i e n c e d u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a c i d were i n p a r t f i l l e d  in  by  the  'more g r a s s r o o t s t y p e s o f f e e l i n g s ' when he  use  of marijuana  f r i e n d D. success second they  and  decided  of t h e i r trip  t o go i n t o first  the  venture  i n search of t h e i r  ran i n t o  w h i l e he t o o k the supplies.  Along with  goods.  T h i s time, D.  was  however,  forced to  c a m p i n g en  to r e t u r n at the appointed  found  a warrant  for his arrest  h i s f r i e n d w a i t i n g f o r him.  jailed  f o r a month, a p e r i o d w h i c h he now  ficial  experience.  " I t d i d me  As sees  a l o t o f good.  route  to p i c k  A series of uncalculated misfortunes  When he d i d r e t u r n he  The  e n c o u r a g e d them t o make a  alone, l e a v i n g h i s f r i e n d  unable  a  importing business.  h i s f r i e n d ' s car across the border  so t h a t he was  b e e n sworn by  drugs.  a number o f o b s t a c l e s and  complete the t r i p  him  other related  turned to  up  detained time. that  a result  he  had was  as a b e n e I was  able to  64 do  a l o t of t h i n k i n g . "  hitch-hiked  When he was  b a c k t o V a n c o u v e r where he  involved  i n the drug  extended  p e r i o d s o f time.  with t h i s l i f e  He  'heads  to  w i t h h i s p a r e n t s but  e v e n t u a l l y became  rejected.  At  go  irritating.  a month a f t e r  to church  had  for  dissatisfied  and  'straight'  relentless  read h i s B i b l e  r e t u r n i n g to h i s As  most parent's  a result  were h i g h D.  of  experienced  e n t i r e r e - f o r m u l a t i o n of h i s r e l i g i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e .  tion  he  had  Christ  i n terms o f t h i s  to investigate  public proclamation  He  and  his sister  of f a i t h  of the Holy  and  Spirit.  The one  new  E:  prompted being  T h e r e he made a  e x p e r i e n c e has  fundamental d i f f e r e n c e t o h i s view of r e a l i t y q u e n t l y t o the shape of h i s  stance  w i t h i n a short time The  of  of the f i r s t  attended.  posi-  realiza-  the p l a c e of the person  recognition.  The  of the  came t o some ' b a s i c '  v a r i o u s churches,  the Pentecostal church  the baptism  amounted t o a r e v e r s a l  formerly held.  tions concerning r e a l i t y  No.  space  he moved b a c k  h i s mother's  w h i l e they  change i n o u t l o o k i n f a c t  him  time  h i s c o u s i n d r o p p e d some a c i d .  t h e d i s c u s s i o n they an  this  found  i n s i s t e n c e t h a t he  and  thoroughly  as t h e r e were i n t h e  1  w h i c h he h a d  home he  p r i s o n he  r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e r e were a s many  society  About  became  sub-culture, being i n drug  style,  p r o b l e m s among t h e  live  r e l e a s e d from  and  received made a  conse-  life.  A theological  student  i n h i s m i d - f o r t i e s , married  f a t h e r o f two  children.  He  was  born  and  raised  on  and  65 the p r a i r i e s parents,  though b e l i e v e r s ,  geographical instruction until  i n "what y o u c o u l d c a l l  distance.  d i d not attend church  youth,  His  because o f  E . however had some Sunday  School  and d i d n o t q u e s t i o n t h e p r e c e p t s o f t h e f a i t h  he was i n h i s t w e n t i e s ,  matters  a C h r i s t i a n home."  of religious  concern"  when he " c o n s c i o u s l y p u t a l l out o f h i s mind.  with t h e exception o f t h e time  spent  Most o f h i s  i n t h e armed  ser-  v i c e s d u r i n g t h e war, was s p e n t  w o r k i n g on h i s f a t h e r ' s f a r m ,  in  H i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the  l o g g i n g camps o r i n m i n i n g .  pattern of the l i f e and  h e was l e a d i n g i n c r e a s e d a s t i m e  he became most a n x i o u s  live  a l l hislife  about t h e p r o s p e c t  i n isolation,  without  to  Several concerted  f o r m an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  E . came t o s e e h i s way o f l i f e what t o h i m r e p r e s e n t e d  Christian  faith  home.  His attraction  ent's  a book t h e y home.  immediately followed outlook  intensi-  He e n -  t h e wholesomeness o f t h e  caused  of Christianity  students  visited  h i m t o a p p r o a c h them and t h e y  con-  a d v i s e d him t o  had n o t i c e d i n t h e bookshelves  He r e a d  on h i s p a r t  a s condemned.  when two f e m a l e B i b l e S c h o o l  c e r n i n g t h e essence read  efforts  On r e a d i n g a book by F u l t o n  countered  their  any s i g n i f i c a n t l y  the opposite sex f a i l e d ,  fying h i s state of loneliness. Oursler  of having to  f a m i l y o r purpose.  He r e a d c o n s i d e r a b l y b u t d o e s n o t r e c a l l close relationships.  went on  of h i s par-  t h e p r e s c r i b e d book a t o n e s i t t i n g and  committed h i s l i f e  t o God.  H i s commitment  by a s t a t e o f 'extreme e u p h o r i a '  was  and a new m o r a l  w h i c h he h a d o c c a s i o n t o p u t t o t h e t e s t  during the  66  next at  few  days.  He  decided to prepare  t h e s c h o o l r e p r e s e n t e d by  him. the  He  was  married  s c h o o l and  result spent  the g i r l s  t h e summer p r i o r  f o r c e d t o drop  studies.  experience  but  after  prerequisite successful  a two  The  f o r him  Again  of A r t s .  h i e r a r c h y t h a t he  be  supporting h i s family at t h i s p o i n t .  this  t i m e he had  denomination self  with a small evangelistic  viously he  had  had  was  the  had  no  means o f  F o r t u n a t e l y he  obtained  winter. particular  s e c t w i t h whom he had  him-  pre-  When t h e mine where  b e e n employed c l o s e d down he moved h i s f a m i l y t o  long after  a g a i n changed d e n o m i n a t i o n a l  t h e i r move t h e i r  infant  can-  enormous  once a g a i n a f f i l i a t e d  a v e r y happy r e l a t i o n s h i p .  o t h e r l o c a t i o n where he Not  was  d i s a s s o c i a t e d himself with the had  the  problems  somehow t h e f a m i l y s u r v i v e d t h e  i n q u e s t i o n and  diffi-  recommended a s a  s i t u a t i o n p r e c a r i o u s a s he  work i n a mine and  field  to take  a g a i n had  an  felt  experienced  H i s disappointment  was  by  I t was  enrolled  a  undertaking  representatives of  would n o t  didate f o r the m i n i s t r y . h i s domestic  as  H i s academic attempt  w h i c h l e d t o h i s b e i n g a d v i s e d by church  of  work.  he  t h e f o l l o w i n g summer he  at  f o l l o w i n g winter  to t r y f u r t h e r  y e a r p e r i o d he  f i r s t year  but  term  d u r i n g t h a t term  in his field  i t w o u l d be b e n e f i c i a l  culty  so i n f l u e n c e d  H i s p l a n s were somewhat d e l a y e d  work b e f o r e e n t e r i n g t h e o l o g y .  By  had  as a l a y m i n i s t e r w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n  unsatisfactory  and  who  enrollment  to his f i n a l  out  o f a s e v e r e stomach u l c e r .  theological  that  was  himself f o r  daughter  was  an-  ties. hospital-  ized  and  seriously  ill  confesses that t h e i r and  as t h e r e s u l t  s i t u a t i o n by  t h e i r need f o r support  which they  had  ister  needs.  As  The  resort  w h i c h had  i m m e d i a t e r a p p o r t between E. and  denomination,  in  t h e work o f t h e l o c a l  congregation.  h i s w i f e were b e c o m i n g c o n v i n c e d  t e r was  not  and  ally  they  tion  had  had  o p e r a t i o n was prolonged  to Toronto  rejected  becoming very  was  r e c o v e r y p e r i o d E. was  i n western  successful.  started  in  and  t h e a c c i d e n t he had  t h e same a r e a where he  d i d a t e f o r the m i n i s t r y .  had  The the  another shortly  b r o k e h i s back. no  c h o i c e but  work w h i c h w o u l d n o t harm h i s i n j u r e d found  i n the  f o r c e d to leave h i s wife  he  finally  opera-  Because o f  after  fell  re-  Canada.  managed t o g e t a j o b as a c a r p e n t e r b u t  community where he  after  b e i n g used  He  lighter  daugh-  and,  t h e r e t h a t an  job.  r e c o v e r i n g from  E.  Coincident-  w h i l e he r e t u r n e d t o t h e west i n s e a r c h o f  w o r k i n g he  An  active  Meanwhile both  f o r treatment.  not y e t been attempted and  him.  that their infant  arrived  min-  l e d to h i s return  b e e n p e r f e c t e d w h i c h was  performed  being  against doctor's orders to  d i s c o v e r e d when t h e y recently  east but  behind  take her  with  E. c o n t a c t e d t h e  r e c e i v i n g a d e q u a t e c a r e where s h e was  much s o u l s e a r c h i n g , d e c i d e d move h e r  desperate  i n d i c a t i o n of  t h i s man  association with t h i s  E.  congregation  earlier  to  and  accident.  t i m e was  showed no  a last  o f the denomination  this  enormous.  established ties  aware o f t h e i r  o f an  to  back.  On find The  employment happened t o  first  been r e j e c t e d  In the i n t e r i m  as a  be can-  a change i n p a s t o r a l  68 r e l a t i o n s had had  t a k e n p l a c e and  moved t o t h e  applied was  vicinity.  lowing year. E. n o t e s  e n e r g e t i c young  With t h e i r  once a g a i n f o r admission  s u c c e s s f u l and  and  two  E. e n t e r e d  e n c o u r a g e m e n t E. ,  to theology.  first  had  the  A t u r n i n g p o i n t seemed t o h a v e been  He  a missing link  was  and  mined t o seek t h e dimension  that  he  felt  He  was,  Spirit. was  to  somewhere  h i s s t u d i e s l e d him  s o m e t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e H o l y  fol-  lack of a b i l i t y  convinced  he  reached  an improvement i n h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  communicate h i s f a i t h .  it  T h i s time  year theology  however, s t i l 1 u n e a s y w i t h h i s a p p a r e n t  t h e r e was  clergymen  He  to b e l i e v e was  deter-  lacking i n his l i f e  " e v e n i f i t meant g o i n g t o t h e P e n t e c o s t a l s t o g e t i t . " noted  t h a t members o f t h e I n t e r - F a i t h M i n i s t r y ,  an  He  ecumenical  t r a v e l l i n g team r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal Movement, were t o a d d r e s s  a s e r i e s o f m e e t i n g s on campus.  After  a t t e n d i n g s e v e r a l o f t h e m e e t i n g s and  becoming  t h a t what t h e y  his missing link  went t o one pray  and in  o f t h e i r p r a y e r m e e t i n g s and  t h a t he  istry  would r e c e i v e t h e H o l y  m i g h t be  with  were t a l k i n g a b o u t was  enriched.  some e n c o u r a g e m e n t r e a l i z e d  tongues.  The  experience  has  pattern of h i s relationships;  he  that  he  l o n g e r has  able to  him, speak  communicate  b e e n g i v e n power  t o p u s h h i m s e l f i n o r d e r t o be share  they  so t h a t h i s m i n -  l a y i n g h a n d s on  i s now  f e e l s t h a t h i s m i n i s t r y has  H i s w i f e does not  he  s t i m u l a t e d a change i n t h e  ease,  fied.  that  t h a t he t o o c o u l d  with  no  requested  Spirit  They d i d s o ,  convinced  i n the  and  justi-  e x p e r i e n c e w i t h H•":..<?.  69  him  and t h e y  necessary  r e f r a i n from d i s c u s s i n g i t .  t o encourage h i s f e l l o w t h e o l o g i c a l s t u d e n t s to  seek t h e e x p e r i e n c e s i n c e of  Calvary."  feels,  "Pentecost  value derived  tongues i n h i s p r i v a t e prayer  a school  Pentecostal  from t h e use o f  but without  t e a c h e r by p r o f e s s i o n .  r a i s e d i n r u r a l B r i t i s h Columbia.  strong  b e l i e v e r and h e r f a t h e r  any r e l i g i o u s e x p r e s s i o n .  ship  b e t w e e n t h e p a r e n t s was e x c e p t i o n a l l y  er's F.  She was b o r n  F. r e c a l l s  d i d not i d e n t i f y that close  the relationand t h a t h e r  e n c o u r a g e d t h e c h i l d r e n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r moth-  church a c t i v i t i e s  i n s p i t e o f h i s own l a c k o f i n t e r e s t .  h a d a happy c h i l d h o o d  i n a l l respects  fered  from a severe asthmatic c o n d i t i o n  great  deal  condition not  children  H e r m o t h e r was a  with  father  side  life.  In her l a t e twenties, married and  and  i s on t h e o t h e r  The most s i g n i f i c a n t d i m e n s i o n o f c h a n g e , he  i s the therapeutic  No. F :  He f e e l s i t u n -  of discomfort  b a r one:  which caused h e r a  and f r u s t r a t i o n .  s h e m i s s e d much o f h e r e a r l y  form c l o s e peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  she suf-  Because o f t h i s  schooling  and so d i d  However s h e was one o f  five  s i b l i n g s and f e l t  bond  e x i s t i n g between h e r s e l f and one y o u n g e r b r o t h e r  also  had a s i c k l y She  c l o s e t o a l l o f them w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r who  childhood.  remembers when s h e was f i v e y e a r s o l d b e c o m i n g  suddenly  and i n t e n s e l y  aware o f t h e b r e v i t y o f l i f e  occasion  of her uncle's f i f t i e t h  birthday  on t h e  celebration.  Her  70 new a w a r e n e s s c a u s e d  h e r deep a n x i e t y and s h e b e g a n t o  q u e s t i o n h e r mother c o n c e r n i n g m a t t e r s Shortly  after  a story  about  u s " and s h e d e c i d e d t h e n  Christ.  She f e l t  provided  by t h e C h r i s t i a n  and  to  completely  a t t h e age o f a b o u t  Holy  Spirit  fifteen  tion  she  A t about  received the g i f t  recede  tended  of the  with her asthmatic  her a c t i v i t i e s  and i s o l a t e d  she attended  condih e r from  a summer camp where  H e r c o n d i t i o n began t o  her completely,  freeing her to  When s h e f i n i s h e d  s h e was employed a s a t e l e p h o n e  high  operator i n her l o c a l  one and a h a l f y e a r s .  She t h e n a t -  a P e n t e c o s t a l B i b l e S c h o o l where s h e met h e r h u s b a n d .  taught  c o u r t s h i p w h i l e both  t o pay back t h e d e b t s  a r e v e r y happy i n t h e i r m a r r i a g e particularly They  and p r o b l e m s  From t h e a g e s o f t w e l v e  any r e s t r i c t i o n s .  They had a p r o l o n g e d and  to her fears  of healing.  town f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y  with the solutions  t e n she r e c e i v e d t h e b a p t i s m  and by now h a s l e f t  f u n c t i o n without school  satisfied  faith  fifteen  made  and t h e r e t o commit h e r l i f e t o  s h e was v e r y c o n c e r n e d  since i trestricted  School  "the preparations Jesus  and s p o k e i n t o n g u e s .  her peers.  and d e a t h .  t h i s o c c a s i o n s h e remembers h e r Sunday  teacher t e l l i n g for  of l i f e  orientation  exclusively  university  they had accumulated. and s h a r e many  with reference to t h e i r  a s s o c i a t e almost  attended  spiritual  They  interests, experiences.  with people o f C h r i s t i a n  and a r e r e g u l a r a t t e n d e r s o f a P e n t e c o s t a l c o n -  g r e g a t i o n where b o t h a r e members o f t h e c h o i r .  The d i r e c t i o n  of their being No.  involvements i s unambivalent with  focused  G:  on t h e i r t e a c h i n g  A woman e v a n g e l i s t i n h e r l a t e without  small p r a i r i e converted  children.  city.  age.  forties,  revival  meeting, introduced her  and f e e l s t h a t t h e r e l i g i o u s  as  were u n u s u a l f o r one s o y o u n g .  and  graduated istic  Their  to replace  speaking  and commitments When s h e  older sister  evangelistic career  i n evangel-  began when t h e y  e v a n g e l i s t s who c o u l d n o t meet  commitments.  From t h e r e  s h e had  Her course has  i n the faith.  she j o i n e d her s l i g h t l y  work.  invited  interest  She r e s p o n d e d  experiences  o f C h r i s t i a n experiences  she has never l o s t  years  t o encourage h e r as w e l l as t h e o t h e r  favourably  been a p r o g r e s s i o n  married but  She was b o r n and r a i s e d i n a  i n t h e f a m i l y t o become C h r i s t i a n s .  a child  c h u r c h work.  s t y l e o f w o r s h i p when s h e was s e v e n  He c o n t i n u e d  children  and t h e i r  energy-  H e r f a t h e r , a P r e s b y t e r i a n who was  at a Pentecostal  to the Pentecostal of  careers  a l l their  on they  were  their  received  invita-  t i o n s t o a p p e a r i n s e v e r a l c o m m u n i t i e s a n d s o commenced a pattern that During  continued  the course  territory  the  of their  t r a v e l s they  i n c l u d i n g Canada, t h e U n i t e d  South America, dle East.  f o r approximately  covered States,  years. considerable  Great  Britain,  t h e West I n d i e s , p a r t s o f E u r o p e and t h e M i d -  The l o n g e s t  interior  sixteen  t i m e spent  i n any o n e p l a c e was i n  o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a where t h e y  church for a period of f i v e years.  Episodes  'pastored'  a  relating to  72 their but  evangelistic expeditions  t h r o u g h them a l l t h e i r  'mature*  and t h e i r  e l l i n g ministry  faith  a r e t o o numerous t o r e l a t e  spiritual  lives  remained s t r o n g .  when s h e m a r r i e d  continued G. l e f t  to  the trav-  a widowed g e n t l e m a n .  At  the present  s h e r e s i d e s w i t h h i m , h e r m o t h e r and a f r i e n d i n  Vancouver.  She a c c o m p a n i e s h e r f r i e n d i n m i n i s t e r i n g t o a  rapidly a  growing P e n t e c o s t a l  congregation which they  few y e a r s a g o .  No. H:  An u n m a r r i e d woman m i n i s t e r  i n her m i d - f o r t i e s .  was b o r n and r a i s e d i n r u r a l now r e s i d e s w i t h G. and h e r f a m i l y . infant  by an I n d i a n  adoptive and  for  C o l u m b i a and  H. was a d o p t e d a s an  l e a v i n g her i n t h e care  of the father  W h i l e she spent  extended  w i t h r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s i n t h e community  interims  desperately  r a i s e d by h e r a d o p t i v e  by a s e r i e s o f h o u s e k e e p e r s .  hood i n s t a n c e s  she needed t o f e e l  several  questions  that  that  assisted  Not t o o many  childhow  she belonged, p a r t i c u -  s h e was a d o p t e d .  She a l s o  e p i s o d e s which she f e e l s l e d h e r t o ask b a s i c  about l i f e  and d e a t h .  belonged t o a C a t h o l i c order,  A sister of the father,  and on o n e o c c a s i o n  who  t o o k i t upon h e r s e l f t o e n -  c o u r a g e some r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n literature  brothers,  s h e was  a r e r e c a l l e d by H. b u t s h e does m e n t i o n  a f t e r she d i s c o v e r e d  recalls  British  She  When s h e was two y e a r s o l d h e r  sons o f t h e f a m i l y .  t h e most p a r t  larly  family.  mother d i e d ,  the older  periods  at  initiated  f o r the child,  sending  coming t o spend h e r v a c a t i o n  73  with the family. aunt d i e d .  H. remembers h e r d i s t u r b a n c e  She r e c a l l s a n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t  c h i l d r e n were drowned i n t h e r i v e r  i t was up t o t h e b o y s o f t h e f a m i l y  for  their  t o be d e s i r e d  e v e n t when two  i n front of their  and  bodies.  social  home  to drag the r i v e r  T h e home e n v i r o n m e n t l e f t  by p r e s e n t  when t h i s  a great  deal  standards.  When H. was t h i r t e e n two women e v a n g e l i s t s h e l d a s e r i e s o f meetings i n t h e l o c a l  school  house.  I t was H.'s  first  e x p o s u r e t o t h e C h r i s t i a n message and s h e knew immedi-  ately  that  appropriate  i f what t h e y were s a y i n g were t r u e d e s c r i p t i o n o f h e r s t a t e and t h a t  the  s o l u t i o n s o f f e r e d by C h r i s t i a n i t y .  she  were g i v e n  fession  an o p p o r t u n i t y  i t was an s h e wanted  She d e c i d e d  that i f  s h e would make a p u b l i c  o f h e r new f o u n d f a i t h .  A f t e r s h e h a d done s o a t  the  last  had  r e a c h e d h e r home ahead o f h e r and s h e was s t r o n g l y  culed  by h e r b r o t h e r s .  during the  meeting she d i s c o v e r e d  t h e next  r e s u l t that  after  a short  tian  s h e was removed f r o m t h e home and s e n t ,  i n t e r l u d e with her evangelist  arose.  Later  friends, to the  To h e r amazement s h e f o u n d t h a t t h e  q u i t e unfounded and t h a t  authority  ridi-  T h e C h i l d r e n ' s W e l f a r e were s e n t o u t  myth o f o r p h a n a g e s a s p r o p a g a t e d  devastate her.  t h a t t h e news o f h e r a c t i o n s  few weeks t o i n v e s t i g a t e h e r s i t u a t i o n w i t h  orphanage i n Vancouver.  was  pro-  by ' L i t t l e  Orphan A n n i e '  time she spent t h e r e  S h e was p a r t i c u l a r l y which she t e s t e d  did not  aware o f h e r new C h r i s -  whenever t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  s h e was t r a n s f e r r e d t o a f o s t e r home i n t h e  74 i n t e r i o r of the p r o v i n c e . Christian orientation. er  foster  home and  t a b l i s h her not  The  f a m i l y was  Within  a year  embarked on  identity.  To  her  c o n c e r n i n g her  tendant  at her  she was  surprise  f a m i l y but  sister's  fundamental moved t o  a s e r i e s of attempts  only a f f i r m i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p  tails  of  she  and  to  received a  g i v i n g her  i n v i t i n g her  An  family  followed.  to  embark on  year  an  journey.  who  evangelistic  eventually accepted  and  t o c o n t i n u e on  also to  i n t e r r u p t e d by  V a n c o u v e r and  university same t i m e  t o u r which turned  decision  followed her  where s h e  She  proposal, leaving  t o marry.  then  an M.A.  H.  ambitions  was  returned  of entering  i n English, diversified  i s a t p r e s e n t known and  a wide range o f denominations  G.  however,  u n d e r t a k i n g a d e m a n d i n g and  community m i n i s t r y .  a sixteen  This liaison,  earlier  completed  into  decided  d i s r u p t e d when t h e e l d e r  a marriage  t h e i r own.  G.'s  her  formed a v o c a l t r i o ,  T h e i r t h r e e s o m e was  sister H.  had  de-  exciting  o f b e c o m i n g a c q u a i n t e d w i t h v a r i o u s members o f  three g i r l s ,  reply  an a t -  period  The  es-  full  t o be  forthcoming marriage.  anoth-  at  the  campus  and  respected i n  a s an o u t s t a n d i n g l e a d e r  and  theologian.  No.  I:  In her l a t e twenties, married  children. British  She  was  Columbia.  an o n l y c h i l d , She  observes  born  and and  m o t h e r o f two raised  in  interior  t h a t w h i l e she l o v e d her  e n t s d e a r l y s h e remembers h e r m o t h e r a s a d o m i n a n t t y p e person  and  her  f a t h e r a s somewhat l e s s  forceful.  small  parof  Sincerher  75 m o t h e r was  of Lutheran  b a c k g r o u n d and  Catholic  a s i t u a t i o n was  identify  themselves  w i t h any  particular  from  ments t h a t her mother i n s t i l l e d her  School with  as a young c h i l d . and  enjoyed  required. a child  S i n c e her  she d i d not  w i t h her p e e r s . most o f her served  due  religious  She  In  I . com-  a deeply  feeling  was  religious  e n c o u r a g e d t o a t t e n d Sunday  she  was  very  uncomfortable  o t h e r c h i l d r e n which i t  f a m i l y moved s e v e r a l t i m e s when she establish  any  remained  long standing  essentially  t o b e i n g an o n l y c h i l d . groups continued  Her  her teens.  She  throughout  unusually re-  association  under v a r i o u s  with  denominational  remembers  particularly  t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a P r e s b y t e r i a n d e a c o n e s s who  by  her  inability  t h o u g h she  was  t o make any  convinced  public  t h a t she  to f o l l o w i n g C h r i s t .  She  I . was  of these  had  i n fact  recalls  f a t h e r when s h e was After university  experiences  came  troubled  p r o f e s s i o n of f a i t h a l committed  intensely  e x p e r i e n c e s which always o c c u r r e d i n p r i v a t e . most v i v i d  was  friendships  alone  f e e l s t h a t s h e was  t h e a r e a t o work w i t h t e e n aged g i r l s .  at  to  denomination.  to  life  chose not  organized r e l i g i o n  contact with  c h i l d h o o d and  auspices throughout clearly  She  i t although  the c l o s e p h y s i c a l  f a t h e r a Roman  c r e a t e d where t h e y  s p i t e of t h i s d i s s o c i a t i o n  in  her  her  spiritual  Perhaps  followed the death  of  the her  f i f t e e n years o l d .  g r a d u a t i n g from  h i g h s c h o o l I . spent  preparing for a teaching career.  accompanied her t o the  city  and  they  a  Her  continued to  year mother  live  76  together. had  During t h i s time  p r e v i o u s l y accepted  own p l e a s u r e s . totally to  and d i r e c t e d  t h e v a l u e s which she  h e r e f f o r t s towards h e r  She f e e l s t h a t a t t h i s t i m e  self-centered  and c a r e d  s h e became  f o r no one e l s e .  make a b r e a k w i t h h e r m o t h e r s h e a c c e p t e d  position husband.  for  Together than  they  decided that t h e i r  satisfactory  an a l t e r n a t i v e p a t t e r n .  church this  and t h e y  secular  s e t out to look  attracted  summer t h e y  were m a r r i e d  initial  contact.  costal  again  t o what s h e o b s e r v e d .  their  and moved t o t h e c o a s t where I .  and were i m m e d i a t e l y  When F a t h e r D e n n i s B e n n e t t  I . was e n o r m o u s l y  manner and t h r o u g h Spirit  Once  impressed  experience  had o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t  I. testifies  Bennett's  including the g i f t  event  a s t h e moment o f c h a n g e f o r h e r .  of the  tothe  and f a i t h .  experiences  time,  similar  t h a t they a t -  Father  to her outlook spiritual  Pente-  was i n v i t e d t o  h i s ministry, r e c e i v e d the g i f t  and s p o k e i n t o n g u e s .  meaning o f t h i s  with  set-  b e f r i e n d e d by a  t h e a r e a t o s p e a k t h e i r new f r i e n d s i n s i s t e d  has  The f o l l o w i n g  o f t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n who h a d i n t e r e s t s  own.  hes-  herself  established contact with the l o c a l  congregation  young couple  Holy  I . was  w h i l e h e r husband c o n t i n u e d h i s s t u d i e s .  they  tend.  turned t o t h e  a b o u t P e n t e c o s t a l i s m b u t on a t t e n d i n g f o u n d  taught  life  and s i n c e h e r f i a n c e was o f P e n t e c o s t a l b a c k g r o u n d  immediately  tled  a teaching  I n d o i n g so t h e y  i s where t h e y made t h e i r  itant  In order  i n a n o r t h e r n community where s h e met h e r f u t u r e  s t y l e was l e s s  to  I . rejected  since  She this  o f h e a l i n g , b u t l o o k s back t o t h i s  No.  J:  In h i s e a r l y t h i r t i e s , married to  logging  communities.  m o t h e r was ious the  a strong  affiliation. mother, the  a t home o n l y and  was  serves  that  help  By  I. He  was  he  one  Pentecostal The  family  at i n t e r v a l s .  was  the  age  support the  of  t o J . as pital  d i d not  At  the  child  two  was  recovery  and  honoured not standing  was  very  by  the  only  as t h e  athlete.  field.  t i m e he  His  top  any  left  close to  his  time  was  to  stricken  entered  with  by  whether  determined  from high as  parti-  a r e s u l t of  f o r him  but  hos-  little  by  r a t e J . made an  scholar  referred  the  very  He  which  doctors  never e s t a b l i s h e d  graduated  father,  living  f o r medical treatment.  stimulated  At  by  ob-  working part  meeting held  congregation.  a v i d a t h l e t e and  this  and  i n p h y s i o t h e r a p y o r w h e t h e r i t was  Pentecostal  relig-  J.  o f n i n e months d u r i n g  I t was  week c o n t i n u a l p r a y e r  no  continuously  a b o u t t h i s t i m e he  p a r a l y s i s he  disability.  His  r a i s e d predominantly  'phoney' b e c a u s e w h e r e a s he  h i s miraculous recovery cipation  h i s f a t h e r had  h i s m o t h e r a t a l l . The  with extensive  t r a c e o f any  children.  f a m i l y moved  city  and  northern  a l c o h o l p r o b l e m and  t w e l v e he  flown to the  see  profession  economic f l u c t u a t i o n .  hospitalized for a period  t i m e he  of eight  was  oldest  family.  by  raised i n small  and  The  to constant  the  w i t h p o l i o and  an  J . was  f a t h e r h a v i n g an  subject  mother.  was  No.  a teacher  the  the  the  local  unusual  school most  i t must be m e n t i o n e d ,  was  outwas  e n c o u r a g e d J . t o f o l l o w h i s example i n  78 When J . was about decision  for Christ*.  the Holy S p i r i t  t w e l v e he and h i s f r i e n d made a f  At f i f t e e n  he r e c e i v e d  and spoke i n t o n g u e s .  the gift of  J . had always had  r e s e r v a t i o n s concerning t h e demonstrative nature o f Pentecostal  expression, but a t t r i b u t e s h i s a t t r a c t i o n  experience mainly  to h i sidentification  who, i n h i s e s t i m a t i o n , was a p r o f o u n d not  express h e r s e l f  w i t h h i s mother, Christian  i n an o b j e c t i o n a b l e manner.  t i m e J . was e i g h t e e n h e h a d become q u i t e c y n i c a l intents left an  elderly  pelled  the church.  While  at university  P e n t e c o s t a l c o u p l e whose r e l i g i o u s  him.  tothe  and d i d By t h e and t o a l l  he l i v e d  with  verbosity r e -  He d i d however a t t e n d t h e P e n t e c o s t a l s e r v i c e s ,  m o s t l y because  of h i sattraction  t o t h e young people i n t h e  congregation.  By t h e t i m e he b e g a n t e a c h i n g he h a d s t o p p e d  a t t e n d i n g t h e s e r v i c e s and was i n t e n t o n h a v i n g a good It  was o n l y a f t e r  about  he met I . a n d w i t h h e r began t o r e f l e c t  t h e meaning o f l i f e  the Christian  time.  faith  that  as a view  h e was drawn t o r e c o n s i d e r of l i f e  t o be t a k e n  seriously.  Upon r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s t i e s w i t h t h e P e n t e c o s t a l c h u r c h he a g a i n began t o p r a c t i c e h i s c h a r i s m a t i c g i f t is  convinced that  this his  spiritual  h i sl i f e  dimension.  C h r i s t i a n community  o f tongues.  J.  has been immeasurably  e n r i c h e d by  He e n j o y s h i s f a m i l y ,  i s happy i n  and f u l f i l l e d  i n his career.  POINTS OF ENTRY  Exit  $  MOTIVATIONAL STATES  TRANSITIONAL MOMENTS  79  80 The  Map The  interview  map h a s emerged f r o m a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f t h e  material.  Holy S p i r i t , point  The e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e baptism o f t h e  when v i e w e d  chart  histories  i n retrospect.  a  rudimentary patterns found  least  view  their  f a c i l i t a t e s t h e discernment o f i n d i assume c o m m o n a l i t y  The c a t e g o r i e s  and p o i n t t o  chosen t o represent t h e  h a v e b e e n s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f common stories of the participants.  features  T h e map d e -  t h e p a t h s o f a l l t h e r e s p o n d e n t s and p o r t r a y s a t  i n part  spiritual  Points  up t o t h e moment o f  guidelines f o rthe delineation of the career  i n the l i f e  scribes  career  T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e map i s t o p r o -  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that  evolving patterns.  the expedition  o f any i n d i v i d u a l embarked on  quest i n contemporary  society.  o f Reference The  points  of reference  plotting the spiritual lean  provides  i t becomes p o s s i b l e t o  I t i s d e s c r i p t i v e o f h<a>w t h e y  a framework t h a t  vidual  a  Consequently  the individual's spiritual  experience.  vide  destiny,  o f v i e w f r o m w h i c h t h e p e r s o n i n t e r p r e t s h i s p a s t and  determines h i s future.  the  as a s p i r i t u a l  careers  s e l e c t e d as s i g n posts i n o f t h e respondents  admittedly  t o w a r d an e m p h a s i s o f t h e r e l i g i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e  individual's career sions. prise,  and d e - e m p h a s i z e t h e n o n - r e l i g i o u s  However, s i n c e t h e p r i m a r y c o n c e r n o f t h i s as i s that  dimen-  enter-  o f t h e respondent, i s t h e relevance  of the  81  spiritual  to the evolution of the individual's l i f e  such apparent d i s p r o p o r t i o n i s not only  distinctive  history i n terms  o f o u r sample b u t a l s o f u n c t i o n a l f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e present the  undertaking.  Information  not d i r e c t l y  r e l i g i o u s dimension i s important only  enhances comprehension o f t h e s p i r i t u a l The reference journeys cerns:  features  ligious life, introduction  of are  s t a t e s and t r a n s i t i o n a l p o i n t s .  secular l i f e ,  later  to the Pentecostal  refer to lapses,  experience.  motivational  remain a continuing satisfaction state.  experience).  Transitions A predomin-  c o n d i t i o n ^ , w h e r e a s an e x p r e s s i o n  of d i s -  suggests a p o t e n t i a l t h r u s t towards a d i f f e r e n t  The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e movement i s i n d i c a t e d by f e a -  account these f e a t u r e s  Motivational  specified  states  take  by t h e i n d i v i d u a l w h i c h  be s e e n a s p r o p e l l i n g h i m f r o m one p o i n t  terms o f negative tion.  factors.  experience  state indicates that i t i s l i k e l y to  t u r e s m e n t i o n e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t .  could  a n d an  s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s p o n s e on t h e p a r t o f t h e p e r s o n t o a  particular  into  Those  Transitional  j o i n i n g a c h u r c h and t h e  (thePentecostal  con-  include early r e -  religious l i f e  l a r g e l y d e t e r m i n e d by m o t i v a t i o n a l  antly  points of  two f u n d a m e n t a l  s t a t e s seen as s i g n i f i c a n t  the Holy S p i r i t  careers.  the course o f the s p i r i t u a l  of the p a r t i c i p a n t s represent motivational  with  i n so f a r as i t  as t h e u n d e r l y i n g  i n t h e attempt t o c h a r t  motivational  points  designated  concerned  t o another i n  o r p o s i t i v e response to t h e s t a t e i n ques-  T h e s e p u s h e s away f r o m one s t a t e and p u l l s  towards  82 another are given  definition  i n t e r m s o f p r o b l e m s and a t -  tractions. Points of transition individual has  comes t o t h e a w a r e n e s s t h a t  taken place  a word o r d e e d . either  r e f e r to those  and t h e o c c a s i o n  periods  a transitional  celebrates that  o f having  undergone a gradual  is  either motivational  determined  metamorphosis.  Individuals of  entry:  ence,  organized  participate fied early  suggestion  found i n t h e data.  been s u b j e c t t o e a r l y r e l i g i o u s had p a r e n t s  religion  o r by h a v i n g  been e n c o u r a g e d t o  activity,  and comment c o n c e r n i n g  specify  Pentecostal  who do n o t .  religious  or other  a d u l t s a r e seen as e n t e r i n g v i a t h e church.  d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e made i n t h e l a t t e r  are c l a s s i -  hand, who m e n t i o n -  a s s o c i a t i o n s on t h e p a r t o f t h e i r p a r e n t s cant  influ-  who h a v e h a d some a s s o c i a -  T h o s e , on t h e o t h e r  r e l i g i o u s contacts  points  T h o s e p e o p l e who g i v e no  i n some f o r m o f r e l i g i o u s  as non-church.  explicit  e n t e r t h e map v i a o n e o f two main  e i t h e r by h a v i n g  t i o n s with  states or points of transition  c h u r c h and n o n - c h u r c h .  i n d i c a t i o n o f having  It  f o r estab-  e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e b a s i s o f e i t h e r  comment o r i m p l i c i t  o f change,  o r t h e con-  must b e s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e s e l e c t i o n o f c r i t e r i a lishing  process  a w a r e n e s s by  T h e s e a r e moments o f t h e e v i d e n c e  i n t h e form o f a sudden t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  sciousness  when t h e  signifiFurther  g r o u p between t h o s e  influences i n their  b a c k g r o u n d s and  who those  References to  indicate religious  which are  recollected  form of i s o l a t e d For  had  unusual  a very  the occasion worship  go  by  the  example, No.  F.  religious  first  reflecting  . . Puritan ethic to church  on  of  time.  No.  t h a t " i t was and  a l l that  Sundays  very p o s i t i v e that  respondent. about her  insists  to the  Pentecostal  C.  a more r o u t i n e  q u i t e a happy  was  experiences  No.  F.  early experience  regard  by  and  t h a t i t was  a r r a n g e m e n t s w h i c h do  in  direct  manner b u t  ex-  thrift,  seen  as point  not  a devout  whereas No. m e r e l y as  an  felt  religion  were n o t  satisfactory  not  in  church B. an  held i n high  enjoyable  ex-  domestic  p e r t a i n to s p i r i t u a l  are n e v e r t h e l e s s  d e s c r i b i n g the determining A  be  i s meant t o p o i n t t o t h o s e  social  history.  of  her.  Secular l i f e  any  with  s e n t t o Sunday S c h o o l g r a n d p a r e n t s who  for  may  l o v e d d e a r l y , was  t o appease h e r  perience  style  i n d i c a t e d t h a t she  effort  her p a r e n t s  on  childhood  . . . work h a r d ,  encouraged her p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  t h a t she  she  as a young c h i l d  had  the  asso-  feels  or u n s a t i s f a c t o r y from the  h e r m o t h e r , whom s h e  member and  take  ..."  either satisfactory  view of the  T h e s e may  comments t h a t s h e  experience  These e a r l y r e l i g i o u s being  meant  occurring i n childhood  individual.  of being introduced  f o r the  perience  experiences  are simply  incidences or of r o u t i n e patterns of  ciations.  .  to e a r l y r e l i g i o u s l i f e  f a c t o r s of the  secular l i f e  s e e n as  careers  relevant i n  individual's  experience  and  would  life be  84 illustrated  by No. B. who  found  t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s she formed  w h i l e a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l t h e most e n j o y a b l e o n e s s h e h a d known. In  c o n t r a s t No. E . r e c a l l s  stances p r i o r  the l o n e l i n e s s o f h i s circum-  to h i s a f f i l i a t i o n  Later religious l i f e ment i n r e l i g i o u s independent with  some f o r m  a variety  ious l i f e without to  a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f an  of organized r e l i g i o n .  Again  o f reasons.  Such p e r s o n s  would t e n d  as f i n d  return to a secular l i f e  style.  Persons  p r o b l e m a t i c a r e more l i k e l y  with r e l i g i o u s  life  A typical  state  who  find  their  t o seek deeper with  relig-  example o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  i s g i v e n by No. A. who  efforts to testify  relig-  experience or  expression or t o d i s s o c i a t e themselves  ious identifications.  their  to continue i n t h i s  m o t i v a t i o n t o seek f u r t h e r r e l i g i o u s  spiritual  a positive or  t o t h e e x i s t i n g s t a t e may be e n g e n d e r e d  satisfactory  religious life  her  applies to the state of involve-  d e c i s i o n t o become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c h u r c h o r  negative response for  with the church.  t o the importance  feels  impotent i n  of the faith  i n her  life. Introduction t o the Pentecostal experience essential ence.  prerequisite to participation  i s an  i n the actual experi-  A t some p o i n t t h e i n d i v i d u a l must be made aware t h a t  t h e phenomenon known a s t h e b a p t i s m  o f the Holy  and  i s being experienced  by o t h e r p e o p l e  can  become a c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e e x p e r i e n c e .  becomes a m o t i v a t i n g p r o c e s s  Spirit  exists  b e f o r e he h i m s e l f The i n t r o d u c t i o n  as i t evokes e i t h e r  attractions  or problems. fied  with  Often,  as i n t h e case  significant  initiates  the person  to belong.  o f No. H.,  o t h e r s and i s a n e x p e r i e n c e into  t h e community  In other cases the i n d i v i d u a l  the  on s c r i p t u r a l  experience  the l a t t e r , baptism  remarking  of the S p i r i t  t h i s was t h e d i m e n s i o n  i s attracted  by  of the experience  r e f e r e n c e and i s m o t i v a t e d  independently.  which  t o w h i c h he d e s i r e s  what he c o n s i d e r s t o be t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y as based  i ti s identi-  t o seek  No. E . i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f  t h a t he had f o u n d  reference to the  i n h i s s t u d i e s and h a d d e c i d e d  that  t h a t was l a c k i n g i n h i s e x p r e s s i o n o f  faith. .Three p o i n t s o f t r a n s i t i o n to c h a r t i n g s p i r i t u a l can  be o b s e r v e d  early  religious  careers.  i n the lives  h a v e been c h o s e n a s b a s i c  The f i r s t  of certain  i s a lapse that  respondents  e x p e r i e n c e has been l e s s t h a n  whose  satisfactory.  A l a p s e i n d i c a t e s a movement  away f r o m  toward  Motivation effecting a lapse  s e c u l a r involvement.  may b e s e e n  i n terms o f p r o b l e m a t i c  state or attractive  aspects of the present  experience.  emphasis  elements i n t h e former  Whatever t h e m o t i v a t i o n , l a p s e s imply of past r e l i g i o u s  a religious  secular  a rejection  state. of factors  No. E . i s a c a s e i n p o i n t , i n -  d i c a t i n g t h a t when he was i n h i s t w e n t i e s he made a c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n to leave a l l matters him,  hoping  authority.  of religious  i n t h i s way t o be l i b e r a t e d  concern  from  behind  any e x t e r n a l  86 The designated by  this  second  important  point of transition  as t h e a c t o f .joining t h e c h u r c h .  category i s not n e c e s s a r i l y  official  member  h a s been  What i s meant  t h e a c t o f b e c o m i n g an  o f an o r g a n i z e d r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n b u t  some i n d i c a t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  with the  community o f b e l i e v e r s .  the r e -  ligious  I t serves t o i l l u s t r a t e  intention of the individual. Finally  the Pentecostal experience provides the point  o f d e s t i n y f o r t h e map. evidenced  The b a p t i s m  by t h e g l o s s o l a l i c  o f the Holy  a c t , i s t h e moment  attained  the  e x p e r i e n c e b u t i s s h a p e d and r e d e f i n e d t h e r e b y .  tion  continual  interplay  History  as  sought f o r  and  The  by o u r r e s p o n d e n t s .  Spirit,  d o e s n o t end w i t h  between t h e p o i n t s o f t r a n s i -  and m o t i v a t i o n a l s t a t e s must be n o t e d .  Transitional  moments become i n i t i a t o r s o f m o t i v a t i o n and m o t i v a t i o n a l s t a t e s p r o v i d e impetus f o r t r a n s i t i o n s . Types o f Careers The are varied progression  paths  f o l l o w e d by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s a m p l e  and r a n g e from  from  a straight  forward u n i n t e r r u p t e d  t h e p o i n t o f e n t r y t o t h e moment o f d e s t i n y ,  t o a d i s r u p t e d complex l a b y r i n t h t h r o u g h  which t h e i n d i v i d u a l  stumbles.  men, some men and no  Since people  a r e a t once  'all  man' t h e r o u t e s t a k e n may b e f u n d a m e n t a l l y determining factors are dissimilar.  s i m i l a r while the  87 The  most d i r e c t  r o u t e i s t h e one  beginning with  P e n t e c o s t a l p o i n t o f e n t r y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by early  religious  experience  Pentecostal  experience.  e n t s F.  G.  and  grounds, both experience, and  i n our had  and  a  satisfactory  proceeding d i r e c t l y  This i s the path taken  sample.  the  respond-  Both have P e n t e c o s t a l back-  early positive  without  to  by  associations with  b o t h made c o n s c i o u s commitments a t an  both proceed  a  religious early  age  d i s r u p t i o n to a Pentecostal e x p e r i -  e n c e i n c h i l d h o o d w h i c h has  remained  constant  since that  time. The  second  c o s t a l point of  most d i r e c t  e n t r y as w e l l b u t  ences c o n t a i n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y v i d u a l towards a l a p s e . unsatisfactory motivated tion  and  path,  least  i f not  of the r e l i g i o u s A third church  indi-  i s found  to  be  religiously  to the p o i n t of d e s t i n a -  route represented  No.  J. i s  i n our  a b a c k g r o u n d where h i s mother i s a h i s f a t h e r has  no  religious ties.  church  a s s o c i a t i o n s at  a d h e r e s t o t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s and  J.  interests  community. alternative  other than  religious  returns to a  i n terms of a c t u a l  a s f a r a s he  Pente-  religious experi-  However s e c u l a r l i f e  along t h i s  stems from  a  elements which p o i n t the  the person  d e v o u t P e n t e c o s t a l and lapses,  early  with  of the Pentecostal experience.  the only t r a v e l l e r He  the  proceeding d i r e c t l y  i n the form  sample.  route begins  i s the route beginning i n a  P e n t e c o s t a l but  experiences  i n early  with  forceful  childhood.  and  positive  In t h i s case  the  88 individual  does not  religiously life  oriented.  At  of the i n d i v i d u a l  the person is  sway f r o m  a path which i s s i n g u l a r l y  some p o i n t , however, t h e  assumes u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  i s motivated  elements  to resolve the dissonant  introduced to the Pentecostal experience  and  Eventually  he comes t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e s i r e d end.  in  A.  experiences shifts  remain v i v i d  denominational  veracity  o f her  life.  Consequently  the Holy t h e key  Spirit to her  proaches  allegiance  the  she  do  she  that t h i s  i s provided  the  factors  of her  occur  religious  She  expression  holds  thereafter  ap-  determination.  f o r those  background but  individuals are  immediately  into  encounter  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s w h i c h p r o p e l them t o move t o w a r d s state.  a religious solution  o r i e n t e d ethos.  of  initiated  a different  a secularly  she  question  Nevertheless  fulfillment.  enter v i a a church  religious  i s i n t r o d u c e d to the baptism  i s convinced  religious  Our  imbedded  although  does n o t  t h e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h s i n g l e minded  not  early  complete s a t i s f a c t i o n  when she  A fourth course who  Her  i n h e r memory and  religious trust.  which d e t r a c t from  dissatisfaction.  whose o r i g i n s were d e e p l y  Methodism o f h o l i n e s s p e r s u a s i o n .  He  finds i t  as a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n  i s No.  and  state.  attractive  example h e r e  to h i s  religious  They a r e a t t r a c t e d  ted  on  introduction  the direction  to the p o s s i b i l i t y  t o t h e i r p r o b l e m s and  s e l v e s w i t h a r e l i g i o u s community.  They e v e n t u a l l y  a s s o c i a t e them-  They a r e f u r t h e r  to the P e n t e c o s t a l experience  of t h e i r  s e a r c h has  of  and  attracsince  a l r e a d y b e e n s e t move  89 easily  i n that direction.  No. H. and D. nor in  early their  Illustrations  a r e p r o v i d e d by  N e i t h e r mention r e l i g i o u s f a m i l y backgrounds  religious l i f e . secular states.  Both encounter  dissatisfactions  Both undergo c o n v e r s i o n  w h i c h a r e f o l l o w e d by an i n t r o d u c t i o n p e r i e n c e and o n c e c o n v i n c e d  experiences  t o t h e P e n t e c o s t a l ex-  of i t s validity  do n o t r e s i s t  movement t o w a r d s i t . A fifth is  possibility  again v i a the church  are not s u f f i c i e n t l y commitment. to  satisfactory. church  these  secular l i f e  Circumstances  both  tions  B o t h come f r o m  to their  the ly  continued  defined lapse  w h i c h t u r n s o u t t o be u n them t o r e t u r n t o t h e  t o o t a k e s on u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  nominally  Christian  religious association  dissatisfactions. expression.  experience  a r e No. C.  backgrounds,  from which  they  i n hopes o f f i n d i n g  resolu-  Neither i s s a t i s f i e d  No. J . p r o c e e d s  char-  T h e two mem-  along these l i n e s  Both r e t u r n t o t h e church  routine religious from  their  a r e moved i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n .  h a v e some e a r l y  lapse.  experiences  Upon i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e P e n t e c o s t a l  individuals  No. J .  to maintain  motivate  b e r s o f o u r s a m p l e who p r o c e e d and  religious  i s marked by a c l e a r l y  but t h i s t r a n s i t i o n  acteristics.  by t h o s e whose e n t r y  b u t whose e a r l y  satisfactory  Their path  a predominantly  i s offered  more  by  directly  t h i s p o i n t o n , due t o h e r more i n t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n experience  s i n c e her r e t u r n t o t h e church  h a s been  t o t h e P e n t e c o s t a l p e r s u a s i o n , w h e r e a s C. r e t u r n s  non-Pentecostal  church  channels.  with  direct-  through  Another r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f  90 this  r o u t e i s No. E .  participant, the church course  has e a r l y  religious  non-Pentecostal  experiences,  lapses,  joins  and e v e n t u a l l y moves t o w a r d s t h e e x p e r i e n c e . E . ' s  d e v i a t e s somewhat  circuited  from  t h e o t h e r s i n t h a t he i s s h o r t -  en r o u t e and a s a r e s u l t  various religious  religious l i f e .  E.,  i n an e f f o r t  out t h e baptism A sixth  r o t a t e s between j o i n i n g  g r o u p s and e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n  his  with  He t o o e n t e r s a s a  The p a t t e r n i s e v e n t u a l l y b r o k e n and  t o d e a l with h i s remaining problems, o f t h e Holy  Spirit  as a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n .  r o u t e r e p r e s e n t e d by o u r r e s p o n d e n t s  a n o n - c h u r c h p o i n t o f e n t r y and h a s n e g a t i v e  experiences  i n early  childhood.  seeks  begins  religious  Dissatisfaction•results i n  movement t o w a r d s a s e c u l a r s t a t e w h i c h i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y isfactory.  Circumstances  church  and a r e l i g i o u s  Rather  than  however s t i m u l a t e a r e t u r n t o t h e  life  which i s h i g h l y  becoming d i s s o c i a t e d  c r e a s i n g l y motivated  sat-  satisfactory.  the i n d i v i d u a l  to explore r e l i g i o u s  becomes i n -  experience.  His  i n v e s t i g a t i o n e v e n t u a l l y l e a d s him t o i n s i g h t s which  causes  him  When  to look i n the d i r e c t i o n  of s p i r i t u a l  solutions.  introduced t o the Pentecostal experience t h i s spiritual point.  territory  worth e x p l o r i n g .  t o o becomes a  No. B. i s o u r c a s e i n  H e r p a r e n t s were a n t i - r e l i g i o u s b u t e n c o u r a g e d h e r  participation  f o r t h e i r own  ends.  Her e a r l y  p e r i e n c e s were h i g h l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y satisfaction Circumstances  ex-  and s h e r e c e i v e d g r e a t  out o f her s e c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s o f her marriage  religious  i n adolescence.  forced her to reconsider her  perspective.  She e v e n t u a l l y j o i n e d  negative response  h e r c u r i o s i t y was a r o u s e d  spiritual  dimensions.  found  At the  a n d s h e began t o e x p l o r e  H e r s e a r c h became i n t e n s e and p e n e -  numerous r e l i g i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , none o f w h i c h s h e entirely  Pentecostal with  but her  t o organized r e l i g i o n persisted.  same t i m e  trated  t h e church  satisfactory.  experience  s h e was i m m e d i a t e l y  i t s spiritual potential  sented creased  i t .  When s h e was i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e  and w i t h t h e p e o p l e  Her determination t o a t t a i n  and p e r s i s t e d  until  impressed  i t was  who  both repre-  the experience i n -  accomplished.  These a r e t h e routes that d e p i c t t h e p r o g r e s s i o n o f the  spiritual  careers of the respondents.  are  equally conceivable.  The proposed  Other  alternatives  map s h o u l d ,  however,  be  adequate t o p r o v i d e a b l u e p r i n t  of  r e f e r e n c e common t o a l l who a r e embarked on s p i r i t u a l  careers leading to the Pentecostal  f o rthe essential  experience.  points  CHAPTER  IV  ANALYSIS Introduction The formation,  key  questions  as p o i n t e d  out  'hows'; t h e m o t i v e s and only  test  formation the  how as  influences the  tion  c h u r c h and as  the person himself world  reference  to the  set out  shall  with  i t i s necessary the  focused the  on  the  to look  respondents that into his spiritual  accounts of the  states  are  be  an  respondents w i l l account  accomplished  s e e n i n t e r m s o f t h e map. tion  he  In  the  previous our-  at the  overall  set the  stage  career.  of the m o t i v a t i o n a l  o f how and  how  be  be  influences. isolated  traced.  Atten-  family to  r e l a t i o n s h i p between members o f t h e  t h e m a j o r c o n t i n u i n g themes t h a t c a n  will  how  address  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the primary o v e r a l l  there  The  trans-  world.  i n the  the  perceives  a s c h a n g e d and  c o n c e r n s t h a t we  s u g g e s t e d by  on  'whys* and  section.  begin  be  the  a u t h e n t i c i t y of the  changed i n r e l a t i o n  i n d i v i d u a l ' s entry  will  James, a r e  personality trans-  t r a n s i t i o n a l processes.  sees the  i t i s to these  selves i n t h i s  for  he  of the p o i n t s of  To  the  i s i n t e r m s o f how  sees himself  chapter  by  i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the  change:  light  i n understanding  family Next,  from  Following  t h e moves between t h e  the this various  t h e moments o f t r a n s i t i o n  Finally  there  states; that  will  be  an  the  are  examina-  i s , i n what way  the  individuals describe  themselves as s a t i s f i e d  and  move o r do n o t move t o t h e n e x t  1.  Overall  or dissatisfied  state.  Influences  The  key f a c t o r s t h a t  undergird  a person's  spiritual  c o u r s e h a v e t o do w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o his or  family other  tive  and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e f a m i l y  forms o f r e l i g i o u s e x p r e s s i o n .  o f the person's s p i r i t u a l  i n g that there will  I t i s the correla-  o f t h e s e two s e t s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t  direction  to t h e church  career.  stimulates the While  recogniz-  a r e innumerable v a r i a t i o n s i n experience  which  determine i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e patterns o f  spiritual  careers,  the following four  alternatives  s e n t e d by t h e t a b l e may be s e e n a s t h e most determinative  repre-  fundamental  influences.  TABLE 1  Family - Church  Relationship  Strong  Character of Family T i e s  As suggested family A.,  Close or Positive  Weak 3  A.F.G.  Weak o r Conflictual  4 B.D.H.  i n d i c a t e d by t h e t a b l e t h r e e close family  t o t h e church.  ties  and a s t r o n g  o f our respondents relationship ofthe  Of t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s , w h i c h  F. a n d G., two h a v e P e n t e c o s t a l  included  backgrounds w h i l e t h e  9  third  comes f r o m a b a c k g r o u n d o f M e t h o d i s t  w i t h a l e a n i n g towards h o l i n e s s A.,  who  a particularly  represents strong  mental i n c h a l l e n g i n g when she her  was  the  fundamentalism  doctrine. Methodist t r a d i t i o n ,  bond w i t h h e r her  4  f a t h e r who  was  suggests instru-  t o make a r e l i g i o u s commitment  a young c h i l d .  She  b o t h t r u s t e d and  feared  father.  . . . b u t my f a t h e r a s k e d me . . . and I s a i d I w o u l d ( g i v e my h e a r t t o t h e L o r d ) . I knew t h a t I b e l o n g e d t o t h e L o r d , r e a l l y d e e p down, b u t I c o u l d n ' t remember t h e day o r t h e h o u r — h o w I ' d d o n e i t — s o I s t a r t e d t o w o r r y and I t h o u g h t , ' w e l l , I c o u l d ask my f a t h e r a b o u t i t * — b u t t h e n I t h o u g h t , ' w e l l t h a t ' s s i l l y b e c a u s e i f I ask my f a t h e r h e ' l l s a y , " W e l l y o u s h o u l d know, why a s k me"' . . . so f i n a l l y I d i d p l u c k up enough c o u r a g e - t o ask my f a t h e r i f I ' d g i v e n my heart to the Lord.  She  also  nearly  e x p r e s s e s warmth t o w a r d s h e r  a s d o m i n a n t as  perspective. closeness  of  t o Canada as fessional F. ated  was  an  himself er's  Perhaps the the  family  a family  notes very by Her  the  father,  fact  i n d i c a t i o n of that  unit i n s p i t e of the  close  b r o u g h t on  the  emigrated  maturity  and  pro-  Her  by  accentu-  her  asthmatic  identified  strongly,  f a t h e r , w h i l e not  r e l i g i o u s organization, the  they  t i e s w h i c h were  m o t h e r , w i t h whom F.  encouragement t h a t  not  children.  family  isolation  active Pentecostal. w i t h any  i s the  the  while  shared a s i m i l a r r e l i g i o u s  most a p p a r e n t  ties  independence of  f o r her  condition.  her  m o t h e r who,  c h i l d r e n do  associating  supported the so.  F.  moth-  f e e l s that  t h e r e was a warm r e l a t i o n s h i p o n l y p o i n t o f disagreement views.  F. f i n d s  Christian tians,  being with  i tdifficult  s t a n c e s i n c e from  between h e r p a r e n t s w i t h t h e reference to r e l i g i o u s  to understand  her father's  h e r p e r s p e c t i v e "he was so v e r y much more  t h a n many p e o p l e  I knew who p r o f e s s e d t o be C h r i s -  but h i s c o n f e s s i o n , o r h i s p r o f e s s i o n of C h r i s t i a n i t y  was n e v e r  an open t h i n g and I f o u n d  that rather disappoint-  ing. " G. t o o was i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e c h u r c h and  by h e r f a t h e r  was e n c o u r a g e d i n h e r r e l i g i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t by b o t h  parents.  When G. was y o u n g b o t h p a r e n t s h a d h a d a c o n v e r s i o n  experience  i n t h e P e n t e c o s t a l p e r s u a s i o n a n d so h a d s t r o n g  t i e s w i t h t h a t group.  G. h a s o n l y a f f e c t i o n a t e memories o f  h e r p a r e n t s who  p r e s s e d us . . . t h e y  us t o p r a y  "never  a particularly  her r e l i g i o u s  Strong family-church relations  J.  internal Family  are represented  two  by C ,  E., I . and  of either  internal  or external  by m o b i l i t y .  No. C. comments t h a t s h e c l o s e l y her family.  further  interests.  i . e . problematic relationships,  i . e . d i s r u p t i o n s caused  way  and weak o r c o n f l i c -  t i e s may be weak a s a r e s u l t  difficulties; conditions;  family t i e s  G.  c l o s e bond w i t h h e r s i s t e r ,  y e a r s h e r s e n i o r , who s h a r e d  tual  encouraged  and t o seek God and t o l o v e Him and i n t h i s  t h e r e came a h u n g e r i n o u r h e a r t s f o r God." expresses  just  identified  with  96  I d o n ' t t h i n k mom was w i t h i t a t a l l , y o u know we w o u l d n ' t h a v e wanted t o c o n f i d e i n h e r and we s t i l l w o u l d n ' t t e l l h e r h a l f t h e t h i n g s t h a t go o n — i t would j u s t s h a t t e r h e r n i c e l i t t l e cozy w o r l d — a n d my d a d worked s h i f t s and he h a d j u s t b l a c k and w h i t e i d e a s . T h e r e was n e v e r any i d e a o f p a r e n t a l c h i l d d i s c u s s i o n s about s o m e t h i n g . . . d a d t h o u g h t I was r e a l l y g r e a t b u t I d i d n ' t r e c i p r o c a t e t h i s , I d o n ' t know why.  At  t h e same t i m e t h e f a m i l y  lived she  by " t h e P u r i t a n  was u n u s u a l l y  e t h i c and a l l t h a t . "  a natural  She f e e l s  mention that  inclination  to "believe i n  initial  accepted.  conversion  This  himself  ties.  with t h e church  after  i t was t h e f i r s t  t i m e he had e v e r  the family  He does r e m a r k t h a t  t i e s he  felt felt  he grew up i n a C h r i s -  home. I.  insists  that  child  but that  since  s h e was a " l o u d ,  she loved  she d i d not f e e l  h e r mother v e r y  particularly  dominant p e r s o n . "  She t e n d e d t o c o n silent  observes that  shy c h i l d  s h e was a l w a y s a r e s e r v e d  found i t i m p o s s i b l e  I notes that  t o be i n t i m a t e  much a s a  close to her  f i d e i n h e r f a t h e r who was " t h e s t r o n g ,  she  He d o e s  experience that the congregation  would i n d i c a t e t h a t  were n o t s t r o n g . tian  to early family  when he a s s o c i a t e d  a c c e p t e d him and t h a t  she  that  super-natural." E . makes no r e f e r e n c e  his  c h u r c h r e g u l a r l y and  i n t e r e s t e d i n r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s and t h a t  t h i s was p e r h a p s j u s t the  attended  with  type."  and t h a t  her parents.  w h e r e a s h e r m o t h e r was n o t a r e l i g i o u s  d i d manage t o i n s t i l l  i n h e r "a r e a l  She  feeling  person  f o r God.  I  97  remember b e i n g a v e r y y o u n g c h i l d He  was  a t my  s i d e and  The  the time  I . was  I.  recalls  took  J. from  a child  but  encouraged her t o  periods.  aim  was  from  a transient  he  admired  athlete, o f my  greatly,  encouraged us  loves."  J . was  especially  enormously fond activities  faithfulness.  H i s m o t h e r was  r e g u l a r church  a t t e n d e r , except  family circumstances  ambiguities  and  kept  resulting His  considers to  "was  child  q u i t e an  a t h l e t i c s became  o f h i s m o t h e r and  i n the relationship  when h e r away.  of the  t h e p r e d o m i n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was  one at-  t o h i s m o t h e r ' s example o f  a s t r o n g P e n t e c o s t a l and  her  the  disappeared  as a y o u n g  b e c a u s e he  in athletics  tributes his religious  the  go."  would l e a v e  I n s p i t e o f what J . now  his father's irresponsible l i f e - s t y l e ,  to  father.  t o h i s w i f e w h i l e he  at  neighbour  taken  that I should  be  him  was  attend.  ' d e l i g h t e d * when a  v e r y heavy d r i n k e r " who  care of h i s eight c h i l d r e n extended  g l a d t h a t He  t o a d i s r u p t e d home b a c k g r o u n d ,  "a v e r y ,  want-  associated with the church  they  numerous moves and  that  s i d e and  t o s e e t o i t t h a t I . was  because "her  admits  f a t h e r was  for  being r e a l l y  t h a t h e r m o t h e r was  Sunday S c h o o l  both  and  p a r e n t s were n o t  i t upon h e r s e l f  h e r t e l l i n g me  I remember t o u c h i n g my  i n g to sense H i s presence there."  and  shame  a  concerning  Notwithstanding f a m i l y to the  a s t r o n g bond w i t h  the  church the  institution. The close  combination  family ties  i s not  o f weak f a m i l y - c h u r c h r e l a t i o n s represented  i n our  sample.  and  98 Weak f a m i l y - c h u r c h r e l a t i o n s weak o r c o n f l i c t u a l and  family ties  and  expresses  church.  matter,  feels  She  t o any  ment and  not  adult.  Her  had  parents  apparent envious not  convictions with  D.  B.  was "who  were n o t  ligious,  m i g h t be p a c i f i e d .  religious  c o n t a c t s and  religious  people.  D.  makes no  within  the family.  h i s early  memory.  integrity.  o f " and  could same  grand-  were r e -  her  early  derision for  during his childhood.  He  recalls  know why,  He  conflictual  three episodes  relations of  disobedience  was  also  Europe t o Canada,  v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s i n e a s t e r n Canada, from  in his  always stand  His youth  of  does p o i n t  as s i g n i f i c a n t  disobediences  a s e r i e s o f moves; f r o m  finally  who  enjoy  her parent's  mind more t h a n o b e d i e n c e s . "  C a n a d a and  At the  i n order that the  c h i l d h o o d t h a t s t a n d out  " I don't  r u p t e d by  b e l i e v i n g that they  d i d not  s e v e r a l i n c i d e n c e s t h a t suggest  B.  regarded  comment c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  f a m i l y to the church  my  Both parents  h i g h l y thought  shared  aptitude.  of the opportunities a v a i l -  disdain,  B.  educational achieve-  intellectual  had.  s e n t t o Sunday S c h o o l  family  f a m i l y or, f o r that  valued  reconciled with i n t e l l e c t u a l  parents,  in  r e l a t i o n s to both  c l o s e to her  t h a t h e r m o t h e r was  be  time  not  e n c o u r a g e d B.'s  religious  in  a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by B.,  complex e a r l y  was  a b l e t o h e r t h a t she  to  correspondingly  H. B.  his  and  e a s t e r n to  out dis-  between western  between v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s i n V a n c o u v e r .  99 H. m e n t i o n s numerous complex and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y childhood and  relationships.  her adoptive  left  H e r own m o t h e r d i e d  i n childbirth  m o t h e r d i e d when s h e was an i n f a n t .  H. i n t h e c a r e  o f her f o s t e r father  whom s h e r e g a r d e d  w i t h b o t h f e a r and a f f e c t i o n , h e r f o s t e r b r o t h e r s , of  h o u s e k e e p e r s , members o f t h e community  f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s . "so  blessed  H. r e c a l l s  that  This  a series  and a v a r i e t y o f  as a c h i l d  a f f e c t i o n a t e . . . every one o f those  s h e was blessed  h o u s e k e e p e r s , no m a t t e r how t h e y d r a n k o r what t h e y d i d , when t h e y l e f t closest  friend."  more d i s r u p t e d in  I b a w l e d and s q u a l l e d  a succession  The p a t t e r n  like  I was l o s i n g my  o f her early l i f e  was even  when s h e was removed f r o m t h e home and p l a c e d o f f o s t e r homes.  between t h e f a m i l y H. l i v e d  T h e r e was no r e l a t i o n s h i p  w i t h as a c h i l d  and t h e c h u r c h .  However o n e s i s t e r o f h e r f o s t e r f a t h e r ' s , who was a Roman Catholic should the  nun, t o o k i t upon h e r s e l f t o s e e t o i t t h a t  at least receive  a rudimentary  matters o f the C h r i s t i a n In review,  ships within  education  concerning  faith.  i t may b e e m p h a s i z e d t h a t  the family  as w e l l  the relation-  a s t h o s e between f a m i l y and  c h u r c h a r e s e e n a s t h e most i m p o r t a n t giving d i r e c t i o n to the S p i r i t u a l  overall influences i n  motivations  of the i n d i v i -  dual.  Of o u r r e s p o n d e n t s A., F. and G. i n d i c a t e d  family  ties  and s t r o n g  relations of the family  C , E . and I . a n d J . r e p r e s e n t e d r e l a t i o n s t o the church.  H.  weak f a m i l y  close  to the church.  ties  and s t r o n g  B., D. and H. s u g g e s t e d weak o r  100 conflictual family II.  family t i e s  to the  little  o r no  relationship  of  the  church.  Ma.ior C o n t i n u i n g Themes Certain  throughout mon  and  f e a t u r e s can  the accounts  be  seen  to appear r e p e a t e d l y  of the respondents  t h a t suggest  p a t t e r n s among i n d i v i d u a l s whose s p i r i t u a l  the Pentecostal experience. a p p e a r i n g theme i s t h e  life.  T h i s sense  the person  felt  either  was  ships with other people.  I t s h o u l d be  disjunction  are the three p a r t i c i p a n t s  background.  t i o n of t h i s  w e l l on  No.  A.  any  matter She  anybody, t e l l  cular  n o t e s t h a t she  i s f o r her.  and  number o f  satisfying  noted  as  a  reasons  relation-  that the  awareness o f  only  relational  representing a  Pente-  communicate some m o d i f i c a -  C.  feels  she  i s particularly  emphasizes a g a i n "For years  and  and  for years  mentions s i m i l a r  does n o t reticent  a g a i n how  years  them a n y t h i n g a b o u t any  e v e r y t h i n g to myself No.  rest  later  theme.  intimacies.  kept  indicate this  A l l the  any  c u t o f f from  who  this  not  For  respondents  costal  do  to  isolation;  most o f t e n e x p r e s s e d  disjunction.  t h a t he  of  i n childhood or i n  o f i s o l a t i o n was  f e e l i n g of r e l a t i o n a l  lead  P e r h a p s t h e most p r e v a l e n t r e -  e x p r e s s i o n of a sense  a f e e l i n g of not belonging,  paths  com-  communicate about  difficult  I would never o f my  and  r e f e r e n c e to r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the  problems  y e a r s and  difficulties  but  family.  sharing  talk  to  . . .  I  years with She  . . ,  partiwas  not  ;  101 close to her parents  and was e n v i o u s  "the popular  gorgeous type."  her  with  marriage  o f her s i s t e r  T h e p a t t e r n was r e p e a t e d i n  the stress of her unsatisfactory  c a t i o n with h e r husband becoming  of l i f e  communi-  acute.  E. remembers t h e deep c o n c e r n possibility  who was  long loneliness.  he f e l t  about t h e  H i s w o r r y was a c c e n t u -  a t e d by s e v e r a l u n s u c c e s s f u l c o u r t s h i p s and by t h e s p e c t r e of  thelonely  l o g g i n g camps. ability  embittered  o l d men w i t h whom he worked i n t h e  He p o i n t s t o a g e n e r a l s e n s e  and a n i n a b i l i t y  t o communicate w i t h o t h e r s  t h e t h i n g s t h a t a r e o f most c o n c e r n I.  both  characteristic history. comfort liked  and e m o t i o n a l  reappears  She r e c a l l s  i n circumstances  a bunch o f l i t t l e  i m p o s s i b l e t o share  and t h a t s h e r e s i s t e d  forms throughout her  experiencing intense  kids."  As she got o l d e r she found  her f a i t h with  herparents  and t o o k  She c o u l d n o t b r i n g h e r s e l f  had made an a c t o f commitment  that  o f t h e baptism  o f the Holy  what a l l o w e d h e r t o r e s p o n d  that  i n s p i t e o f k n o w i n g how  much t h i s w o u l d mean t o h e r f r i e n d . experience  dis-  b e i n g mashed  a d m i t t o t h e r e l i g i o u s w o r k e r whom s h e s o a d m i r e d  she  This  d e m a n d i n g c l o s e c o n t a c t and d i s -  pains to preserve her privacy. to  probably  contact with others.  i ndifferent  as a c h i l d  was r e s e r v e d ,  g o i n g t o Sunday S c h o o l b e c a u s e s h e " h a t e d  against it  o f b e i n g an o n l y c h i l d ,  close physical  about  t o him.  remarks t h a t she b a s i c a l l y  as t h e r e s u l t  o f unaccept-  I n t a l k i n g about h e r Spirit  she confesses  was F a t h e r D e n n i s  Bennett's  1 0 2  a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e "Holy S p i r i t  i s a s a n e , l o v i n g God who  w o u l d n e v e r e m b a r r a s s y o u o r c a u s e y o u t o a c t i n some way that  w o u l d n ' t be i n c h a r a c t e r As  without  already  f o r you . . . "  m e n t i o n e d B. f e l t  close r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  isolated  as a c h i l d ,  e i t h e r adults o r peers.  She  found i t d i f f i c u l t  she  p a r t i c i p a t e d and when s h e was removed f r o m h e r u n i v e r s i t y  friends,  t h e sense o f i s o l a t i o n  f o r a g r o u p where s h e c o u l d  point  A., felt  may be i d e n t i f i e d  of this  she again  and u n d e r l i n e d h e r  share  her insights.  At  morally  separated  f r o m t h e i r p e e r s and r e c a l l  they  particular  recognizable.  awareness a r e seen a s s e r v i n g t o r e -  own m o r a l s t a n c e  and t o u n d e r l i n e t h e b o u n d a r -  t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e d them f r o m o t h e r s  t h e i r p o i n t o f view.  differentiation.  t o t h e awareness t h a t  f e e l i n g was p a r t i c u l a r l y  T h e s e moments o f a c u t e inforce their  theme o f a s e n s e o f i s o l a -  as a f e e l i n g o f moral  F. and G. a l l make r e f e r e n c e  moments when t h i s  ies  fulfilling,  s h e comments " A l l I wanted was a g r o u p . "  Another v a r i a t i o n tion  t h e groups i n which  s h e h a d known a s a c h i l d .  immense l o n e l i n e s s was c o n t i n u o u s  search one  with  whom s h e had f o u n d s o c i a l l y  experienced Her  to identify  One s u c h moment  who d i d n o t s h a r e  i s recalled  by A.  . . . I c a n remember I l o v e d a t h l e t i c t h i n g s and t h i s k i n d o f t h i n g , and when t h e y h a d d a n c e s — i t was a m i x e d c o l l e g e — I wanted so b a d l y t o go down t h e r e and d a n c e . I ' d b e e n b r o u g h t up t o t h i n k t h a t d a n c i n g was wrong, y o u s e e , a n d we s h o u l d n ' t — a n d I was j u s t — w e l l I c o u l d n ' t f e e l t h a t i t was w r o n g a n d I c o u l d n ' t f e e l t h a t i t w o u l d h u r t me a t a l l a n d I j u s t wanted t o go down so b a d l y , and  103 t h i s m u s i c was j u s t u n d e r n e a t h where I was living i n t h e h o s t e l and i t made i t much w o r s e o f c o u r s e . . . But I r e a l l y wanted t h e L o r d ' s w i l l so f i n a l l y I g o t down on my k n e e s and I j u s t p r a y e d t o God and I s a i d ' L o r d , y o u ' v e g o t t o g i v e me a r e a s o n i f I c a n ' t go down t h e r e . . . t h a t was t h e answer t h a t t h e L o r d g a v e me and t h e d e s i r e went r i g h t away and I n e v e r wanted t o go down t h e r e anymore.  F.  comments t h a t  consciousness did  terribly  because I'd a  similar  i n my  " I remember e v e n h a v i n g  early school  life  naughty t h i n g s I j u s t rather please  experience,  —you  grow up  stead  of  with  going  a  great  t h a t when o t h e r  d i d n ' t want t o do  J e s u s t h a n be  like  that."  kids them G.  had  r e m a r k i n g "and  you  know n e i g h b o u r h o o d s  a l o t o f k i d s and  you  decide  that direction  I'm  going  'well, i n -  in this  other  direction'." Actual tion, tion  isolation,  as d i s t i n c t  i s a l s o a c o n t i n u i n g theme. i s d i s p l a y e d by  disabilities  F.  and  from a sense of  isola-  form o f a c t u a l  isola-  One  J . , b o t h o f whom had  at c e r t a i n stages  of t h e i r  life.  cluded  from peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s because o f the  placed  on  her  by  her  miss a considerable pate i n ordinary attend  school  she  back i n t o school  asthmatic amount o f  childhood  the  unhappy."  J . was  t w e l v e and  consequently  months.  He  school  and  activities.  recalls that with  condition.  "the  g a n g and  s t r u c k by  F. was  She  was  forced  could not When s h e  of  to  partici-  was  group a g a i n  p o l i o m y e l i t i s at t h e  able  to  getting was  age  h o s p i t a l i z e d for a period of  describes h i s predicament,  ex-  restrictions  frustration the  physical  very  of nine  104 So h e r e I was, my m o t h e r ' s s o r t o f p i l l a r , and I was t a k e n away on t h e emergency f l i g h t f r o m t h e v i l l a g e t o V a n c o u v e r and I d i d n ' t s e e h e r f o r n i n e months . . . I was s u d d e n l y f r i g h t e n e d by the f a c t o f being p h y s i c a l l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d bec a u s e I d i d n ' t walk f o r s i x months . . . I h a d l o s t p a r t i a l c o n t r o l o f one arm; t h a t i s , t h e u s e o f o n e arm, and a l s o my l e g s were a f f e c t e d , o b v i o u s l y , and my s p i n e .  In and  other  perceived  c a s e s where t h e i s o l a t i o n  The  of  to h i s d i s l o c a t i o n ,  He r e m a r k s t h a t  as a ' t r a v e l e r l o o k i n g  most p r o b l e m a t i c  struggle  reference  the e f f e c t s of h i s emigration  moves h a v e b e e n p r o f o u n d . seen h i m s e l f  actual  i t may t a k e t h e f o r m o f c u l t u r a l d i s l o c a t i o n .  D., w h i l e n o t m a k i n g e x p l i c i t suggests that  i s both  and c o n t i n u a l he h a s a l w a y s  f o r a long  ago home'.  example o f d i s l o c a t i o n and t h e e n s u i n g  t o a t t a i n an i d e n t i t y i s f o u n d i n No. H.  She was  S c a n d a n a v i a n b a c k g r o u n d and was a d o p t e d by a f a m i l y o f  French-Indian o r i g i n  w i t h whom s h e c o u l d  the  same t i m e s h e f e l t  and  was aware o f t h e c r i t i c i s m  not i d e n t i f y .  r e j e c t e d by t h e community  At  at l a r g e  d i r e c t e d towards h e r  adoptive  family.  So t h e i d e a o f h a v i n g y o u r own p a r e n t s was t e r r i b l y i m p o r t a n t t o me and I s u p p o s e i t ' s i m p o r t a n t t o e v e r y b o d y . . . when I f o u n d t h a t I d i d n ' t b e long to — t h a t was u p s e t t i n g t o me. As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , when I , a t an e a r l i e r s t a g e — w h e n o l d Grandma E . , who was o n e h u n d r e d p e r c e n t Indian— when I f o u n d o u t s h e w a s n ' t my grandma t h a t was u p s e t t i n g t o me. I was s o d e s p e r a t e l y n e e d i n g somebody t o b e f o r r e a l , y o u know, e i t h e r grandma or something. I had a g e n u i n e s e n s e o f u n w o r t h i n e s s a s f a r a s t h e community was c o n c e r n e d . The community wasn't a l l t h a t w o n d e r f u l b u t I d i d wonder where I came f r o m a s a p e r s o n .  105 The  second  metaphysical  needs:  meaning of l i f e tion  m a j o r r e c u r r i n g theme h a s  and  the quest  w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f A. o n t o l o g i c a l problems.  and  G.  a  sort  o f resume, you  . . well, D.  we and  an  1  respondents, awareness o f  of  concerns  though l i f e  J. recalls  t h a t he  e a c h o t h e r and  b e e n l e a d i n g up  meant more t h a n  queries r e g a r d i n g the purpose of l i f e . "acid  D.  and  t h e n we i t was  I., did just  to that p o i n t  that."  E. c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e i r w e l t a n g s t  the occasion of h i s l a s t  these  i n terms o f  know, i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , and we'd  rela-  believers.  this .  understanding  some f e e l i n g o f t h e l i f e .  express  I . both v o i c e t h e i r  "a r e a l  A l l the  I t i s noteworthy t h a t i n both  • l i f e must mean more t h a n came t o  the  f o r the supernatural i n  c a s e s t h e p a r e n t s were s t r o n g and  with  q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to death,  to the problems of e x i s t e n c e .  J.  t o do  i n terms  describes  t r i p " when he  and  vividly  his cousin  came t o some v e r y b a s i c r e a l i z a t i o n s  a g r e e i n g t h a t "Okay,  we  know where we're  The at  really  We  don't  really  s t r u c t u r e o f what's a r o u n d us i s n o t . . ."  lonely in  are l o s t .  E. w o r r i e d t h a t he  o l d men  the area  and  admits  He  F. children.  s u r e t h e r e was and F.  H.  but  I never  both mention t h e i r  r e c a l l s t h a t on  to  the  read considerably  t h a t he  " r a t h e r l o o k i n g f o r an answer i f t h e r e was wasn't t o o  going.  where i t ' s  faced a fate similar  i n t h e l o g g i n g camps.  of philosophy  really  of  an  really  was  always  answer and found  f e a r of death  t h e o c c a s i o n o f her  it." as uncle's  I  1 0 6  fiftieth  birthday celebration  s h e woke up  overwhelming awareness o f t h e b r e v i t y persisted ters.  and  she  questioned  Shortly after this  teacher proposed  an  death  she  when h e r  e x p l a n a t i o n by way  responded  by  anxiety  Sunday  mat-  School  making to p r o v i d e f o r l i f e  experiences  q u e s t i o n s t h a t were r a i s e d  c e r n i n g the meaning o f l i f e  Her  the  of d e s c r i b i n g the  'giving her l i f e  members s e v e r a l t r a u m a t i c The  of l i f e .  h e r mother a b o u t r e l a t e d  event  p r e p a r a t i o n s t h a t J e s u s was  at night with  to Jesus'.  with death  after  H.  as a  rechild.  i n h e r mind as a r e s u l t  r e c e i v e d no  satisfactory  con-  explan-  ation . A quest seen  f o r t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l may  i n the l i v e s  o f C.  always i n t e r e s t e d  B.  spiritual  realization  things cated She  testifies  and  always i n t e r e s t e d and  myth.**  by h e r  Her  became i n t r i g u e d  The a sense  realized.  last  t h i s a s stemming regarding  extraordinary drive  comprehension. i n "a s o r t  fascination  She  o f sense  from  religious towards  o f mystery  with mysticism and  was  explains that in  i s indi-  p s y c h i c phenomena. c o u l d be  o f t h i n g s " i t might a f t e r  seen  a l l be  something."  apparent  theme t h a t emerges t i m e  of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n The  sees  w i t h t h e i d e a t h a t i f God  p o s s i b l e to experience  clearly  acknowledges t h a t she  curiosity  exploration of occult  as b e i n g i n t h e depth  is  t o an  C. and  an u n u s u a l  matters.  was  B.  in religion  what s h e f e e l s was  she  and  be most  dissatisfaction  w i t h how  spiritual  i s expressed  both  and  again  needs  are  as  something  107 that  i s l a c k i n g i n the personal  vidual  or i n the  religious  social  E. and  them i n d i c a t e s n o t  o t h e r s but  apparently  be  f o r me  he was  grasp  my  t o do  A.  experiencing the  was  aware t h a t she  hard  f o r me  but  she  to witness  a n y t h i n g t h a t way t h i s was  open t o a n y t h i n g  of the  previous  f a i t h and  d i d not  was  I . found She had  w o u l d commit h e r l i f e  t h i s type of person; reserved,  too  communi-  particularly faith.  to C h r i s t ,  ".  i t  I felt  I  . .  was should  thing I lacked."  E.  a firmer  t h a t I c o u l d communicate i t i n some  experience."  t h a t " I would not  of  difficulties  . . . but  t h e one  with  f a i t h were  " t h a t w o u l d g i v e me  w o r k e r f o r whom she  whether she  This  realization  o r o t h e r w h i c h I seemed t o h a v e f a i l e d t o do  religious  too  faith.  weakness i n w i t n e s s i n g t o h e r  p u b l i c p r o f e s s i o n of f a i t h .  was  own  be  circumstances  a stronger witness,  says  way  of her  their  o n l y a problem i n communication  are.  i t wasn't j u s t  hard  indi-  for public  with  i n witnessing to t h e i r  should not  c a t e w e l l u n d e r any  so  concern  T h e y a l l seem t o f e e l t h a t i f t h e i r  s t r o n g e r they  conscious  their  a p o s s i b l e weakness i n t h e i r  faith.  they  s t r u c t u r e which p r o v i d e s  I . a l l note  f e e l i n g s of inadequacy  the  of the  expression.  A.,  to  spiritual life  g i v e her  i n any  i t i m p o s s i b l e t o make a  remembers b e i n g a s k e d a great deal of to Christ.  a commitment.  t o admit t h i s  by  a  respect  Her I was  response always  I d i d n ' t want t o h u r t anybody b u t  timid  of  type of t h i n g . "  I  was  P e r h a p s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i v i d u a l s was All by  who  path suggest  institutional A.  areas of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  a v o i d s m a k i n g any  w i t h them and we  t r o u b l e and  with  the  church. specific  critical  t h e y ' d had  had—the  " I g o t on  wonder-  same as e v e r y o t h e r  a hard time  and  and  She  experience of disappointment  had  determined to  an by  earlier  the church.  felt,  t h e y had  any  She  prayed  the Lord's w i l l . " for  her but  L o r d ' and  direct  had  felt  that  s h e was  they f e l t  T h i s had  b e e n an  enormous  that  was  called  e x p l a n a t i o n o t h e r t h a n ". i t , and  was  . . they  i t wasn't  disappointment  a c c e p t e d i t as a d i r e c t i o n  d i d not proceed  that  submitting her a p p l i c a t i o n  about  s h e had  that  w e r e n ' t g i v i n g them a c h a n c e . "  becomesa m i s s i o n a r y b u t on  refused without  church-  I'd always f e l t  t h e y were i n t h e r i g h t had  we  comment r e -  i s a member b u t i n r e f e r r i n g  t h e p a s t o r and h i s w i f e comments t h a t  fully  church.  approach the P e n t e c o s t a l experience  g a r d i n g t h e c h u r c h o f w h i c h she to  i n the  a d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the routine  the respondents that  theme f o u n d  from  'the  f u r t h e r w i t h h e r m i s s i o n a r y ambi-  tions. B. was or  a s an a d u l t .  tion  not  attracted  She  felt  lacked s p i r i t u a l i t y  interpret  to the church  that and  the B i b l e without  the c l e r g y  she  as a  of l i b e r a l  found t h e i r  what she  m y s t i c i s m most u n s t i m u l a t i n g .  either  attempts  child  orientato  considered i t s inherent  109 The s o r t o f Sunday S c h o o l t e a c h e r s we g o t were v e r y l i b e r a l and v e r y u n m y s t e r i o u s and t h e y were q u i t e s u r e t h a t a n y t h i n g t h e B i b l e s a i d t h a t was m y s t e r i o u s , o b v i o u s l y we know b e t t e r now. I t d i d n ' t happen, they j u s t t h o u g h t i t d i d . I c h i e f l y remember when I d i d g e t t o c h u r c h on Sunday n i g h t h e a r i n g s e r m o n s a b o u t t h e l a t e s t b e s t s e l l e r , i n a d u l l s o r t o f way. I didn't t h i n k much o f t h e w h o l e t h i n g . She  r e c a l l s one o c c a s i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r  group o f t h e o l o g i c a l l y a discussion. room f u l l felt  inclined  s i g n i f i c a n c e when a  i n d i v i d u a l s had gethered f o r  S o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e e v e n i n g made h e r i l l :  of people  "a  who d i d n ' t b e l i e v e as much a s I d i d and  q u i t e happy i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n . "  She a l s o  remarks t h a t  she  f e e l s t h e m i n i s t e r o f t h e c h u r c h w h i c h s h e had a t t e n d e d  for  t e n years didn't r e a l l y C.  School  comments t h a t s h e d o e s n ' t  she attended  esting or help I  just  to  incline  At a time  t h i n k t h a t t h e Sunday  " d i d much t o make i t i n t e r -  anyone t o want t o go v e r y b a d l y b u t w h i c h Sunday S c h o o l  was s u g g e s t e d  t o the church  The s o l u t i o n she  was t o become i n v o l v e d w i t h o t h e r  d i d s o and f o u n d  When s h e f o u n d  d i d n ' t manage t o  o f g r e a t s t r e s s C. t u r n e d  look f o r s o l u t i o n s t o her problems.  felt She  as a c h i l d  had t h e i n t e r e s t  squelch.  c a r e whether o r n o t she b e l o n g e d .  t h a t h e r p r o b l e m s were  an answer i n t h e b a p t i s m  multiplied.  o f t h e Holy  h e r m i n i s t e r d i d n o t r e c o g n i z e i t a s an a u t h e n t i c and of  she found  people.  Spirit  experience  i t i m p o s s i b l e t o s h a r e w i t h t h e o t h e r members  the congregation. E. h a d a s u c c e s s i o n o f u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  experiences  w i t h t h e r o u t i n e c h u r c h when a s a y o u n g l a y m i n i s t e r h i s  110 relationship church  b o t h t o t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n s he s e r v e d and t o t h e  a u t h o r i t i e s became p r o b l e m a t i c .  rejected  A t t h e t i m e he was  as a candidate f o r t h e m i n i s t r y  c h u r c h and o n c e more a s s o c i a t e d mentalist  groups  relationship.  he l e f t  himself with small  w i t h whom he h a d e a r l i e r  However t h i s  came d i s s a t i s f y i n g  the routine  association  funda-  had a s a t i s f y i n g  also  eventually be-  and h e a g a i n r e t u r n e d t o t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n  where he h a d e x p e r i e n c e d t h e e a r l i e r  rejection.  This  time  he was a c c e p t e d and a l l o w e d t o c o n t i n u e w i t h h i s p l a n s t o enter t h em i n i s t r y . to  He was s t i l l  s e e them a s h i s own.  culties  He no l o n g e r a t t r i b u t e d  to the institution I.  rather than  comments t h a t spiritual  aware o f p r o b l e m s a n d came  s h e was r e p e l l e d  by t h e s o c i a l  emphasis she e n c o u n t e r e d  i n her church.  been a r e l i g i o u s p e r s o n  whom I . d i d n o t i d e n t i f y ,  joined  She o b s e r v e s t h a t  l i n e w i t h t h e community found just  an o u t l e t a social  diffi-  but t o h i s person.  H e r m o t h e r , who h a d n e v e r  adolescent.  his  and w i t h  t h e c h u r c h when I . was an  "my mother,  spiritjoined  getting right i n  t h e church and r e a l l y  f o r h e r e n e r g i e s . . . s o t h e c h u r c h was  outlet  f o r her r e a l l y . . . "  I n a l l c a s e s what u n d e r l i n e d t h e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e r o u t i n e c h u r c h was t h e a p p a r e n t emphasis, t h e l a c k o f f a i t h public  Spirit'  and t h e c o n s e q u e n t  expressions o f worship.  introduced t o t h e charisma  lack of a s p i r i t u a l  The foremost  o f those  emptiness o f  response  'who w o r s h i p  when  i n the  was a n o v e r w h e l m i n g a w a r e n e s s o f t h e d e p t h o f m e a n i n g  Ill  w i t h which  t h e s e p e o p l e approached  awareness i s perhaps who  the act of worship.  most e l o q u e n t l y v e r b a l i z e d  This  by No. C.  exclaims . . . I j u s t t h o u g h t f o r t h e f i r s t / t i m e i n my l i f e , t h e s e p e o p l e a r e w o r s h i p p i n g — y o u know, w o r s h i p p i n g a God a s t h o u g h e v e r y o n e o f them r e a l l y t h i n k s He's t h e r e . . . t h i s was a v e r y u n i q u e e x p e r i e n c e b e c a u s e i t was o f f e r e d t o God and nobody c a r e d what t h e p e r s o n n e x t t o them t h o u g h t o r what t h e y were d o i n g .  Ill.  The T r a n s i t i o n a l  Moments  C e r t a i n p a t t e r n s emerge a s t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a t h s o f the  respondents  The  simplest  are traced  i n terms  o f the suggested  r o u t e i s t a k e n by t h o s e p e o p l e whose  o r i g i n s were P e n t e c o s t a l .  in  terms  their For  of entry to t h e i r point  them i t was  cannot for  point  or attractions,  a fulfillment  be r e g a r d e d as an e s s e n t i a l l y  noteworthy  that  sarily  from  destiny.  expectations.  It  transforming experience identity.  r e f e r e n c e t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter  I i t i s  t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s had t h e e x p e r i e n c e b e f o r e  making t h e i r major l i f e  commitments and i t d o e s n o t n e c e s -  represent a resolution  W i l l i a m James' d e f i n i t i o n the  of spiritual  them b u t r a t h e r a s a r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e i r With  factors,  b u t move w i t h e a s e  of parental  from  deflections  T h e y e x p r e s s no s p e c i f i c m o t i v a t i o n a l o f problems  spiritual  F., G. and J . moved d i r e c t l y  a family t o the P e n t e c o s t a l experience without en r o u t e .  map.  'healthy-minded'  of a dissonant state.  By  t h e y w o u l d seem t o b e l o n g among  rather  t h a n among t h e ' s i c k  souls',  112 whose a m b i v a l e n c e already  called  committed.  for a resolution.  As such they  cannot  They a r e t h e  be t r e a t e d  as r e p -  r e s e n t a t i v e o f i n d i v i d u a l s who h a v e f o u n d a s o l u t i o n experience o f the Holy  Spirit  which r e s u l t s  i nthe  i n personality  transformation. 1.  Lapse;  observed  The c l e a r e s t  i n the lives  movement away f r o m  i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f a l a p s e may be  o f B., C ,  earlier  E . and I .  A l l indicate  religious influences to secular  involvement. B. c o n t r a s t s h e r e a r l y church with l a t e r For  positive  reactions to her secular  example, commenting a b o u t  cence  n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s about t h e  she remarks " I d i d n ' t  church  " I knew a b o u t  g a n g o f p e o p l e who h a d o r i g i n a l l y what t h e y  liked  about  was i d e a l  university religious  f r o m my p o i n t  been — ,  twenty  thing." people, a  although  — - was t h a t y o u d i d n ' t  b e l i e v e a n y t h i n g t o be o n e . it  i n adoles-  t h i n k much o f t h e w h o l e  On t h e o t h e r hand s h e r e c a l l s  said  attendance  crowd.  have t o  T h i s made them v e r y happy  o f view  . . .  At that  nobody I knew w o u l d h a v e b e e n c a u g h t  to  dead w i t h a  person."  i n her r e j e c t i o n  of parental values.  judge people i n accordance  b e w o r l d l y and C. was s t r o n g l y stance. Her  . . .  time i n  F o r C. t h e movement f o c u s e d i n h e r unhappy and  they  marriage  Her parents  tended  w i t h what t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t o opposed t o t h e i r  judgmental  C. d e s c r i b e s h e r m o t h e r a s ' n o t w i t h i t a t a l l * .  marital  s i t u a t i o n was so u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  that  C.  lost  113 interest  in living E.'s  f o r a period  movement  i s most c l e a r l y  away f r o m  of several earlier  years.  religious influences  r e c o g n i z e d when, i n h i s t w e n t i e s , he d e c i d e d  t o p u t away a l l m a t t e r s o f r e l i g i o u s c o n c e r n first The  t i m e he f e l t  life  an e x t e r n a l  s t y l e he assumed was s e c u l a r .  transient, sibly  l i b e r a t e d from  he f e l t  that  a n d he d e v e l o p e d I.,  and f o r t h e authority.  H i s employment  he was s p e n d i n g h i s money a drinking  as a c h i l d ,  away f r o m h e r f a i t h w h i l e a t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y .  primary  considering 2.  d a t e a s much a s p o s s i b l e  i n t e n t i o n at that  t i m e was t o e n j o y h e r s e l f  Symbolizes  the decision  w i t h a community o f b e l i e v e r s .  indicates  either a reactivation of earlier  o r a commitment b r o u g h t  Of o u r r e s p o n d e n t s ,  tive for  religious inter-  on by a c o n v e r s i o n e x p e r i e n c e . who  to a p r e c i p i -  A., F., G., and J . r e t a i n e d  at least u n t i l  a f t e r t h e y had r e -  the baptism. B. r e a s s o c i a t e d  result  t o become  J o i n i n g the church  t h e c h u r c h w h i l e E . , D. and H. p o i n t  church a s s o c i a t i o n s  ceived  without  B., C. and I . a r e examples o f t h o s e  t a t i n g conversion experience. their  She began t o  and s t a t e s t h a t h e r  associated  rejoined  drifted  the f e e l i n g s of others.  J o i n i n g t h e Church:  ests  irrespon-  problem.  who had b e e n d e e p l y s p i r i t u a l  smoke, d r i n k ,  was  of her marriage.  herself with the i n s t i t u t i o n  as a  A t t h e same t i m e s h e r e m a i n e d  i n h e r a t t i t u d e towards i t .  nega-  C. l o o k e d t o t h e c h u r c h  s o l u t i o n s t o h e r p r o b l e m s as a s o r t p f l a s t  resort.  She  114  had  received  neither  b o t h m e d i c a l and p s y c h i a t r i c a s s i s t a n c e b u t  had been s a t i s f a c t o r y .  I . perceived  her decision  to  r e t u r n t o t h e c h u r c h as a s e a r c h f o r a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e  to  the secular l i f e  found highly  s t y l e s h e h a d assumed a n d w h i c h s h e h a d  unsatisfactory.  E . j o i n e d t h e c h u r c h a f t e r he h a d c o m m i t t e d h i s l i f e to Christ. matters read to  As t h e r e s u l t o f a c o n v e r s a t i o n  of the faith  and t h e book t h a t  E . s a y s he " a s k e d  this  with  he was a d v i s e d t o  God t o t a k e o v e r t h e r e i n s o f my  do w i t h what He w a n t e d " s i n c e he h a d n * t  cessfully  dealing  on h i s own up t o t h a t  a c t he made c o n t a c t  point.  with a small  life  managed t o o s u c -  As a consequence o f evangelical  congrega-  tion. D. u n d e r w e n t a t o t a l on  an L.S.D. t r i p .  turn  reversal of perspective  H i s immediate response  i s t o *shop a r o u n d  f o r a church*.  C h r i s t i a n message f r o m two v i s i t i n g their  words s o a d d r e s s e d  decided  to this  H. f i r s t  evangelists  her predicament  that  s h e wanted t o be a b e l i e v e r a n d made a  confession  of her faith.  From t h a t  w i t h t h e c h u r c h and was t o t a l l y  while  about  heard t h e and f o u n d  she immediately consequent  moment on s h e i d e n t i f i e d  c o m m i t t e d t o h e r new  found  salvation. A. in  retained  denominational  background  through  her church a f f i l i a t i o n  identification. a Lutheran  b u t made a  shift  She moved f r o m a M e t h o d i s t  association t o the Pentecostal  115 experience.  F.,  G.  persuasion of t h e i r 3.  and  background.  I n t r o d u c t i o n to the P e n t e c o s t a l Experience:  an  i n t r o d u c t i o n people  it  i s known.  that  The  i t exists.  requisite.  be  shared  i n the l i g h t  i t s potential  that  similar  experienced  them b u t  without  i t i s t o say  a turning point. to the  to  the  ally as  factor  and the  inter-  T h i s i s not  to  The  process of  of the Holy  o r model, w a r r a n t s  suffice  becomes a  especi-  focused be  a relationship  with a person  of the a b i l i t y  to perform  who  the  spread  significant  The  renewal.  introduction  of information,  a c t s as coach,  the a c t .  study  over-  t h e movement o f c h a r i s m a t i c  features:  as  church  Spirit,  I t cannot  i s t h e most  not  introduction  process of education i n v o l v e d i n the  includes three central  say  concerning  they would not  Hine have p o i n t e d out.  feature i n understanding  and  i t would  not been f o r m a l i z e d c o a c h i n g  emphasized t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n  The  be  be  manifestations could  t h a t as such  r o l e of the coach  G e r l a c h and  a history  accompanying knowledge  i n the process.  pre-  i t can  institutionalization  experience o f the baptism  the  essential  I f i t could not  physical  as  awareness  Because the p a s s a g e from m a i n l i n e  e x p e r i e n c e has  crucial  i s an  w i t h o t h e r s , i t has  for transformation.  feelings  experience  i s institutionalized;  of t h i s  Without  i s c o n t i n g e n t upon t h e  i t an i d e o l o g y .  lose  be  enter into the  educational process  experience  c a r r i e s with  preted  cannot  experience An  The  named, i t c a n it  J . remained committed w i t h i n t h e  and  candidate  a  has  sense to  116 know a b o u t i t , he  too  has  s a m p l e , Nos.  to the experience.  age  by  F.,  their parents.  tion  t o be  their  ability  an uncommon e v e n t All  the r e s t ,  enter v i a another who  consider article  e r who  and  as i t  in their  was  both  religious  community.  with the p o s s i b l e exception of A.  was  i n t r o d u c e d by d i d not  f o r her u n t i l  material  and  convinced  then  a l s o had  encouraged her  an  e f f e c t s of  Consequently  the  the  she  a do-it-yourself who  had  made c o n t a c t w i t h h e r . T h e y Speak W i t h O t h e r  B.  gave her  a l o n g t h e way.  her  speak-  with which  experience.  t h a t she t o o c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e  experience.  read  discovered that  a P e n t e c o s t a l m i n i s t e r who  of a person  brother,  e v a n g e l i s t i c meetings f e a t u r i n g a  had  i n g a book w h i c h "had heard  She  her  D.,  seriously  she  a member o f t h e d e n o m i n a t i o n  a s s o c i a t e d and  rill's  reason  and  r e c i p i e n t s of the experience  church.  a series of  early  ques-  h i s wife spoke i n tongues.  with  the  J . move u n i n t e r r u p t e d -  i n V o i c e m a g a z i n e commenting on t h e  friendly  She  that  to  i t as a p o s s i b i l i t y  attended  C.  and  t h e y h a v e no  C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal Movement.  was  G.  became a P e n t e c o s t a l m i n i s t e r , but  pastor  convinced  T h e i r p a r e n t s a r e warmly r e g a r d e d  c o a c h e s and  not  t o be  They a r e i n t r o d u c e d t o i t a t an  s e r v e as e x c e l l e n t  is  has  can do i t . Of o u r  ly  t o want i t , and  She  became  reading  was  finally  as a r e s u l t  chapter  she  of  i n the  read-  end."  undergone a n o t i c e a b l e change. She  was  then  T o n g u e s by  Following this  s h e was  g i v e n John a friend taken  who  to the  Sherhad  had  Pente-  117 costal  church.  E. knew he l a c k e d s o m e t h i n g .  of the t h e o l o g i c a l h i s l a c k had tended  had  He  t h a t he  responded.  r e c e i v e d he  s o m e t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e H o l y  s e v e r a l meetings sponsored  Movement. told  e d u c a t i o n he  asked  f o r prayer.  t o o c o u l d do H.  strong Pentecostals.  She  by  of  an  I t was.  foster  sceptical  He  but  background.  not  received the g i f t  about i t through She  was  respond  quickly  and  i t was  her t h a t her person  would have t o p a r t i c i p a t e c h a r a c t e r t h a t she  with the not  would not  was and  were New  scripturally on t h e  was  occasion church.  of Pentecostal by  experience  be i n v a d e d  him.  she d i d  a visiting  i n a n y t h i n g t h a t was  felt  Renewal  read the  community  until  at-  believed  Pentecostal  f i a n c e who  introduced to the  s h e became f a m i l i a r i z e d  assured  her  her  that He  p a r e n t s who  e v a n g e l i s t i c meeting i n the l o c a l  I . heard  While  She  felt  the Charismatic  T e s t a m e n t t o s e e w h e t h e r t h e e x p e r i e n c e was validated.  basis  D u r i n g t h e p r a y e r he  with  was  the  Spirit.  i t i f he w a n t e d .  went t o l i v e  On  cleric  or that  foreign  she  to  able to relax into i t .  What h a v e b e e n d i s c u s s e d as t r a n s i t i o n a l moments a r e not  intended n e c e s s a r i l y  time.  Rather  they  to represent s p e c i f i c p o i n t s i n  a r e meant t o s y m b o l i z e  r e c o g n i t i o n when t h e p e r s o n by  word o r a c t .  place.  those  times  acknowledges h i s s t a t e ,  of  either  They a r e i n d i c a t o r s t h a t a change has  taken  118 III.  Motivational  Motivation the  point  States  i s a t t r i b u t e d to the person only  o f v i e w o f how he p e r c e i v e s  be i d e n t i f i e d on t h e b a s i s  himself  from  t o be m o t i v a t e d .  It  will  or  implicit  in  terms o f problems o r a t t r a c t i o n s and i n terms o f n e g a t i v e  s u g g e s t i o n on t h e p a r t  or p o s i t i v e attitudes Satisfactory  Unsatisfactory  Overall In  states  itself  as m o t i v a t i n g  i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that  relationships.  t o move t o a n o t h e r s t a t e i n t h e p r e s e n t one.  but only  They a r e n o t m o t i v a t o become more  F. t e s t i f i e s  a l l the solutions  and  her central objective  that  meaningful. p a r e n t s who  t o any p r o b l e m s s h e had e v e r had  her childhood  i s t o seek J e s u s ' . f  religious life  was  " . . . never p r e s s e d us e i t h e r .  G. t o o  experiences unusually  She a t t r i b u t e s h e r r e l i g i o u s u n f o l d i n g  couraged us t o pray  ful-  her f a i t h  expresses complete s a t i s f a c t i o n with her e a r l y f e e l s that  F. a n d  w i t h b o t h t h e i r r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s and  provided  and  either  o r by m o v i n g t o a n o t h e r .  terms o f t h e o v e r a l l i n f l u e n c e s  f o r the participants  that  state.  Influences  with t h e i r inter-family  filled  are not seen  r e s p o n s e s a r e seen t o p r o d u c e a change,  G. a r e s a t i s f i e d  ted  are apparent i n t h e responses.  i n moving towards a d i f f e r e n t  changing the state  1.  that  comment  o f t h e respondent; that i s ,  responses to a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e  as m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s  by  of either explicit  t o her  They j u s t en-  and t o s e e k God and t o l o v e Him and i n  119 t h i s way  t h e r e came a h u n g e r i n o u r J., a l t h o u g h  his to  baptism both  remained i n the church  experience,  church  were n o t  he  and  close;  had  h i s mother was  f a m i l y w h i l e h i s f a t h e r was  ambivalence the people ing  expresses  about h i s e a r l y who  a l l p o i n t out  their  in  p r o p e l l i n g them t o w a r d s a d i f f e r e n t  from her  one trust  A.  e x p e r i e n c e s which can  d i d not  religious and  the v a l i d i t y  When s h e  early  d i d not  moved  p o i n t s out  her doubt  both  concerning  father's authority.  i n t h e form  a p p l i c a t i o n to serve the church spiritual  experience.  full  life Her  indicates  a different  her  apparent.  state.  question her  dissatisfaction  j u s t p r i o r t o her  significant  She  a g a i n met  and  as  elements  experience.  e v e n t u a l l y moved t o j o i n  her domestic  the  negative  seen  She  f a t h e r and  she  both  about  In d e s c r i b -  l a p s e t o a s e c u l a r s t a t e but  f e a r of her  p e a t e d l y t h a t she  be  s t a t e to another.  o f her  and  J . emphasizes  in  No.  was  example.  other respondents  early  J.  and  amount o f  experiences  Spirit  parents  church  Yet  a certain  religious  of the Holy  o f h i s mother's  The  to both  r e p r e s e n t e d t h e P e n t e c o s t a l mode.  h i s experience  importance  and  His  t r u e to n e i t h e r .  after  relationship  childhood.  faithful  ..."  until  a more p r o b l e m a t i c  family i n early  drawn t o b o t h p a r e n t s  h e a r t s f o r God  re-  denomination  of a rej"ection time.  barren  She  i n the  dissatisfaction  found years was  to  120 B. *s a n t a g o n i s m t o t h e and  r e i n f o r c e d by  her  Her  childhood  exceedingly  was  c h u r c h as  parents*  negative lonely.  formed w h i l e at u n i v e r s i t y f u l f i l l e d appetite secular fied by  and  childhood  d i d not  with; t h e  members.  Her  t i o n s about the  does not  early D.  she  the  only  He  run  s p e c i f i e s three  away.  family  but  ligious  life  active  a natural  satisor  family  church  spiritual manage  particular attrac-  s t i m u l i she  His  that too  significant are  examples.  intense  in  associated  that  e v e n t s he  incidences He  he  was  of  not  his a t t r a c t i o n to  drug  mention of h i s f a m i l y  not  what he  his  wanted and  his  dis-  attempts  state i s sub-culture.  relationships  t h e y were q u i t e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . was  c l o s e to  made s e v e r a l  the  can  disobedi-  Eventually  o r i e n t a t i o n towards a s e c u l a r  makes l i t t l e  implies  not  seems t o have d r i f t e d  moved r e p e a t e d l y .  became so  f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d by E.  had  a lack of  ence.  to  was  their  r e l i g i o u s experience  m e n t i o n any  from h i s e a r l y c h i l d h o o d  satisfaction  enjoyed  experience.  remarks t h a t  The  associates B.  she  intellectual  Sunday S c h o o l d i d n o t  recall  parents.  both her  r e l a t i o n s h i p with her  s t a t e and  d i r e c t i o n because of  with her  relationships  p a r e n t s were v e r y  which the  secular  explicit  family.  have a c l o s e  a child She  her  was  a t t i t u d e towards i t . The  satisfied.  however d o e s f e e l  eliminate.  that  was  Her  e i t h e r by  church.  C.  tendency as to  B.  r e l a t i o n s h i p to her C.  nor  s o c i a l needs.  a w a r e n e s s and  i n her  her  her  a child  His  he made a  re-  1 conscious d e c i s i o n to leave eration search E.  b e h i n d him  i n an  for liberation  towards the H.  had  attempt  to  her  t o become l i b e r a t e d .  from a u t h o r i t y  no  e a r l y r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e but  spiritual  and  reserved and  lack  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between members o f  and  the  2.  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  A.,  F.,  c o u r s e and  n e e d t o be  G. do  treated  as  State  and not  as  E.,  H.  and  earlier  of  I.  great  B.  lapse  the  contrast  f a m i l y were d i s t a n t  to the  c h u r c h was  to J o i n i n g the  non-  to  a  Church  predominantly  a secular  s t a t e we  them a t t h i s p o i n t .  state to  do  Their  and  must  state to  church are of  a  The  satisfaction  secular and  had  s t a t e she resolved  r e j e c t i o n of the  f r a m e o f mind she  authority  intellect  she  religious convictions  was  church.  married to  respected. w h i c h B.  Her  known her  However a man  husband  r e j e c t e d and  C.  satisfac-  had  both  B.,  possible  another i n s p i t e of her  while i n t h i s  strong  in  religious feeling.  alone i s representative  l o n e l i n e s s and  and  of  a child  essentially spiritual  t i o n with a former s t a t e . one  secular  such.  movement f r o m one  was  as  J . r e m a i n on  Those moving from s e c u l a r D.,  her  satisfying.  concerned with  problems are p e r c e i v e d be  family  Movement f r o m S e c u l a r  religious not  the  I . found n e i t h e r  Since  draw  unsatisfactory.  mother's s o c i a b i l i t y  existent.  i s what seems t o  The  secular.  r e l a t i o n s h i p s were h i g h l y I . was  a l l matters of r e l i g i o u s consid-  whose had from  122 w h i c h she  thought  s o were n o t t o be She  joined  est  and  it.  he  c o u l d be  as e a s i l y  realized  the church c h i e f l y  Her  intentions to  a s s h e had  because o f her husband's  began t o r e a d t h e o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e  sufficiently husband.  knowledgeable to enter i n t o  I n d o i n g so she f o u n d  interested  in religious  drawn i n t o  an i n t e n s e and  w i t h her former absorbed  interest  i n mysticism.  i n her quest  and  lost  towards  with  h e r s e l f becoming  increasingly  quest  In time  be  her  as a r e s u l t  complex s p i r i t u a l  inter-  i n order to  debate  s p e c u l a t i o n s and  do  expected.  i n s p i t e o f her c o n t i n u e d n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s  She  fully  swayed.  in line  she  a l l interest  was  became  in re-  gaining secular satisfactions. D., with t h e i r quest.  E . and  secular state  I . had  satisfactory She  was  faith she  and  quest throughout  unable  at that  spiritual wholly adolescence.  t i m e t o make t h e p u b l i c p r o f e s s i o n o f  implies that  she  j o i n i n g the church.  she d e c i d e d t h a t  make l i f e  more m e a n i n g f u l  interests  she  f o c u s e d on  test.  A t t h e same  time  emphasis o f t h e r o u t i n e  q u e s t i o n e d her mother's  motives,  However t h e s e c u l a r s t a t e s h e  t i o n s and  emptiness.  unfulfilled  h e r c h i l d h o o d and  reacted against the s o c i a l and  dissatisfaction  been i n v o l v e d i n a s t r o n g but n o t  sumed became l e s s m e a n i n g f u l  her  their  she p e r c e i v e d a s a s p i r i t u a l  church for  I emphasize both t h e i r  with time.  I t offered  no  assolu-  s h e must l o o k f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r her.  religion  In l i n e  with her  to  previous  as a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n  to  124 D. and  e x p r e s s e s deep c o n c e r n w i t h t h e  remembers t h i n k i n g t h a t  just for  "going to some k i n d  gold  standard  eventually comments on  school of  and  there  can  fall  r e s t of your  apart  dropped a twenty-seventh o f  turned his  t o d r u g s as  life  must be more t o i t t h a n  working f o r the  security that  meaning o f  a possible  life  every time  a point."  D.  salvation.  He  the  quests  I had a l w a y s t h o u g h t t h a t I was a t r a v e l e r , a w a n d e r e r i n s p a c e a t t h i s t i m e and b e f o r e t h i s , s e a r c h i n g f o r a l o n g ago home, a p l a c e I o n c e knew t h a t I had l o s t and t h a t must be r e g a i n e d at a l l c o s t s . I d o n ' t r e a l l y know where i t i s o r where i t ' s a t . And so we g o t t o t h e peak o f o u r a c i d t r i p and I ' d b e e n t h r o u g h t h i s many:times and i t a l w a y s l e f t me w i t h a k i n d o f p u z z l e d t h i n g i n my m i n d , n o t q u i t e k n o w i n g what had happened b u t k n o w i n g t h a t i t was so c l o s e t o what I was l o o k i n g f o r and h o p i n g maybe t h a t I w o u l d f i n d i t on t h e n e x t t r i p .  He  began t o n o t i c e  w i t h w h i c h he of  that the  identified  s o c i e t y and  that  problems f a c i n g the  were t h e  same as  t h e y were n o t  D.  Whereas b e f o r e  God  a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y he  a  in i t .  On  more  separate creation,  precious  i n the  God  has  God  o f f e r s the  he  had  now  been a b l e  to  s i g h t o f God  . . . that  a counterfeit  baptism of the  Holy  L.S.D.  perspec-  conceptualize  " r e a l i z e d that  a separate e n t i t y , that  t o o f f e r S a t a n has  God's t u r n on.  not  I was  I was  so  . . . for This  much  really  f o r e v e r y good  Spirit.  rest  ideal  his last  u n d e r w e n t a c o m p l e t e r e v e r s a l <£ h i s f o r m e r  tive. as  those i n the  r e c e i v i n g any  t r e a t m e n t t h a n t h e y would r e c e i v e trip  sub-culture  thing  instance,  i s kind  S a t a n c o u n t e r f e i t s i t i n L.S.D., h a s h e s h  of  125 and  marijuana  decided  . . . "  As  a result  t o shop a r o u n d f o r a  of t h i s transformation  church.  E . p o i n t s t o t h e main p r o b l e m o f h i s s e c u l a r being h i s f e e l i n g of i s o l a t i o n ness. he  He  was  observed  failure  afraid  and  h i s sense  o f b e c o m i n g one  o p p o s i t e sex,  and  he  satisfactory was  perturbed  communicate e f f e c t i v e l y . worthlessness  and  The  failure.  self to  to f i n d  convinced  him  The  from  w h i c h he further  a b o u t and  guidance. Billy with  he  Graham and a s He  about h i s i n a b i l i t y  total  r e s u l t was  ate himself with time  in his life, C.  and  significantly their  him  therefore felt  read without t h a t h i s way  H.  a sense  of  he  owed i t t o  faith.  He  understanding of l i f e  was  visited  of  him-  turned  but  which  'condemned*.  his parents'  a l l that  Christianity spiritual  r e a d P e a c e W i t h God  gave h i s l i f e  he  of the r e a l i t y  t o a p p r o a c h them f o r  s u g g e s t i o n he  immediately  by  t o God  to  "do  H i s c o n v e r s i o n p r o m p t e d him  to  associ-  a small congregation he  to  In the course of h i s reading  determined  pleased."  men  the  r e p r e s e n t e d t o him  At t h e i r  old  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  t h e B i b l e s c h o o l who  home a t t h i s t i m e was  He  purposeless-  his  o u t more a b o u t t h e C h r i s t i a n  the B i b l e ,  girls  Jesus.  life  d i s t u r b e d by  h a p p e n e d a c r o s s a book w h i c h c o n v i n c e d the h i s t o r i c a l  of  of the l o n e l y  i n t h e l o g g i n g camps, he was  to enter i n t o  D.  felt  accepted  illustrate  more s t r e s s on  s e c u l a r s t a t e s than  on  where, f o r t h e  just  t h e way  similarities their any  he  was.  i n t h a t they  dissatisfaction  positive  first  spiritual  place  with quest.  1 2 6  C. that  was  i f she  c a u g h t i n an unhappy m a r r i a g e .  r e f u s e d her  a g a i n have another all a  chance.  Further, her  a p p r o v e d o f t h e match and  few  ".  husband's p r o p o s a l  months a f t e r  . . just  buying  nerve  pregnant period  tonic  shortly  and  after  of three years  the c h i l d r e n coupled deeply hated  disturbing.  tionships.  loaded  adequacy. be."  guilt  out  three children.  my  were f r i e n d s ,  and  with  was  within a  The  strain  k i d s were a d r a g and  these years  C.  had  no  but  one  i s not  of was  I  close  rela-  able  anyone I t h i n k when one  depressions  She  and  to is  f e e l i n g s of i n i s supposed  problem as s i n g u l a r l y e x i s t e n c e was  became v e r y  E v e n t u a l l y she a solution  to  through  active,  think-  total  involve-  came t o s e e t h a t  this  f o r her, m u l t i p l y i n g i n -  problems.  i s hardly p o s s i b l e to  of her  kept  d i s c o v e r e d t h a t she  o f h e r dilemma was  a t r a p r a t h e r than  aspect  worked f o r  o f l o o k i n g f o r p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s she  stead of r e d u c i n g her  atic  friends  w i t h t h e unhappy m a r i t a l s i t u a t i o n  other people.  It  never  c r a z y so I  begun t o work and  to the r o u t i n e church.  ment w i t h  entire  had  She  T h i s i s a b l o c k t o what f r i e n d s h i p  i n g t h a t t h e way  was  she  During  In the course  turned  She  had  would  felt  i t exhausting.  things."  relationship  down w i t h  found  d r i v i n g me  she  "Well, they  have a h e a l t h y  but  had  f a m i l y and  o f i t was  "I thought  everything."  she  encouraged i t .  her marriage  the s t r a i n  She  significant problematic.  c h i l d h o o d was  specify i n the  any  particular  c a s e o f H.  P e r h a p s t h e one the  affection  she  Her unproblemreceived  127 from  her adoptive father  dissatisfaction w i t h who  and b r o t h e r s .  T h e most p e r v a s i v e  f o r H. was h e r i n a b i l i t y  s h e was.  " . . .  t o come t o g r i p s  t h e i d e a o f h a v i n g y o u r own  was t e r r i b l y  i m p o r t a n t t o me  unworthiness  a s f a r a s t h e community was c o n c e r n e d  l o o k b a c k on t h a t p a r t o f my t h i n g t h a t made me w i s h  . . .1  t o grow up and a l w a y s  Movement From C h u r c h  sense o f . . . as I  c h i l d h o o d , i t was t h e k i n d o f  t h e w i s h t h a t y o u n e v e r h a d t o be a 3.  had a genuine  be grown  up—  child."  To P e n t e c o s t a l E x p e r i e n c e  I n v i e w i n g t h e movement o f i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m c h u r c h where t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e b a p t i s m is  parents  not recognized to a p a r t i c i p a t i o n  a routine  o f the Holy  Spirit  i n the experience  both  n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s must a g a i n be k e p t i n mind.  Negative  factors point  some a s p e c t o f t h e r e l i g i o u s n e e d on t h e p a r t Positive The  individual  sponse tion  must f e e l  to a f e l t  institution  of the person  f e a t u r e s c a n be s e e n  need.  that  to a dissatisfaction i n question.  i s n o t b e i n g met  Some  adequately.  i n t h e form o f a t t r a c t i o n s . this  experience holds a r e -  As p o i n t e d o u t e a r l i e r  an i n t r o d u c -  t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s an e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e .  successful  with  i n t r o d u c t i o n must c o n s i s t  A  o f an a w a r e n e s s , a  d e s i r e and a c o n f i d e n c e . Again  F., G. and J . do n o t c o n c e r n u s s i n c e t h e y a r e  born Pentecostals. to  D. moves d i r e c t l y  a Pentecostal church s i n c e that  t e r was b a p t i z e d . "  from h i s s e c u l a r  "was where my  H i s immediate baptism  h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d h e was.  little  indicates  how  state sis-  128 Perhaps to  t h e most s t r a i g h t  experience i s i l l u s t r a t e d  forward p a t h from  by H.  She  e x p r e s s e d no  c u l a r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e c h u r c h but determined who  that  orthodoxy  but  s t u d i e d t h e B i b l e and  entically  r e c o r d e d phenomenon.  On  expressed  the family,  t h e d e s i r e t o adopt  analytical but  and  orientation  i n time found t h a t  received  the baptism  i t t o be  There  i n fact  her.  family,  questioned i t s  the authority  s c r i p t u r e s she a c c e p t e d i t as v a l i d . between h e r s e l f  She  found  parti-  circumstances  she l i v e w i t h a P e n t e c o s t a l f o s t e r  i n t r o d u c e d her to the experience.  church  was  they  an  of  auth-  the  a close  bond  occasionally  Because o f her .inherent  she d i d not r e l a x i n t o  i t with  ease  she too c o u l d speak i n tongues.  through the m i n i s t r y  of a  She  visiting  evangelist. C.'s the f a c t through  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e c h u r c h stemmed  that it.  she d i d n o t Just  find  served She  that  h e r dilemma r a t h e r t h a n  of f a i t h .  told  The  desperate i n her misery  s o l u t i o n s to her p l i g h t . o f a woman who  had  as  While  her  encouraging spirit-  f o r m s were empty.  and  in this  so  eliminate i t .  I t p r o v i d e d an a n t i t h e s i s t o  Worship l a c k e d meaning.  h e r s e l f was  School  encouragement t o her f a i t h  t h e c h u r c h t o w h i c h she b e l o n g e d  instead  uality.  r e g a r d e d Sunday  problems  the solutions the church did o f f e r  to i n t e n s i f y  saw  doubt  felt  s o l u t i o n s to her  as she p r e v i o u s l y  a s a d e t r i m e n t r a t h e r t h a n an s h e now  any  from  tried  She  a l l conceivable  e x t r e m i t y she  was  undergone a r a d i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n .  129  She  d i d n o t know t h e s o u r c e o f t h e c h a n g e b u t c o n t a c t e d t h e  woman i n o r d e r t o f i n d  o u t what i t was  was  attend the Pentecostal church.  arranged that  t h e meantime C. married  they  sought  The  friend  that  attended  Shortly  s h e was  on h e r r e c e i v e d  E . had  factory  clergyman. churches  left  and  tongues.  relationships and  unsatis-  t h e c h u r c h as a r e s u l t  and  joined various  orientation.  H e r e t o o he  potential  experienced  so i n a t i m e o f g r e a t n e e d r e t u r n e d f o r by w h i c h he was  satisfaction,  rejected.  This  time  b o t h t o h i s i m m e d i a t e n e e d s and as a c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e  he p e r c e i v e d a l a c k — " a  buted  t h i s l a c k t o h i s own earlier  hands  as a  Still  As  spoke i n  as  the  him  terms of being r e i n s t a t e d  tution.  to  became q u i t e n e g a t i v e t o w a r d s a  to the denomination  received  and  sincer-  when t h e y r e j e c t e d  of evangelical  dissatisfaction help  He  denomination He  arranged.  responded  i n c l u d i n g both s a t i s f a c t o r y  experiences.  particular  the baptism  conshe  t h e s e r v i c e and  a succession of interrupted  with the church,  not  overwhelmed by t h e a t m o s p h e r e o f  t o go t o t h e p r a y e r room a f t e r  were l a i d  own  a f t e r the v i s i t  She  since  to read a  d i d so b u t was  n o t i c e a b l e among t h e w o r s h i p p e r s .  call  he  f o r her.  G.  a s k e d C.  It  In  had  t o her  t h e P e n t e c o s t a l c h u r c h as p r e v i o u s l y  Immediately ity  i t was  testified  o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e and  book d e a l i n g w i t h t h e s u b j e c t . vinced  changed h e r .  o u t a c h i l d h o o d f r i e n d who  a Pentecostal.  c h a n g e as a r e s u l t  that  the problem  ministry. iMA  attri-  rather than to the  insti-  missing l i n k " — b u t  person  in  was  f o c u s e d on h i s  apparent  130 inability he  felt  to r e l a t e .  H i s need f o r a c c e p t a n c e  t h e need t o j u s t i f y He  h i m s e l f by  the  'good news'.  d i d not  the  c h u r c h o f h i s c h o i c e , n o r d i d he  t h e b a s i s o f h i s r e a d i n g he having to  s o m e t h i n g t o do  find  dogmatically  it."  expect  he  spreading  should.  c e n t e r e d on t h e H o l y  was  informed  C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal Movement and  He  as  determined the  o f t h e work o f  the  when he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e movement were t o h o l d a s e r i e s meetings i n the area decided  On  Spirit  e v e n i f i t meant " g o i n g t o He  and  a s o l u t i o n to h i s problem i n  with h i s inadequacies.  'the m i s s i n g l i n k '  P e n t e c o s t a l s to get  see  persisted  to a t t e n t .  He  d i d so  of  and  at a  p r a y e r meeting i n v i t e d  t h e i r p r a y e r s t h a t he m i g h t have a  fruitful  d i d not  of  ministry.  s p e a k i n g i n tongues but  t h e l e a d e r s , who this he  He  gift  was  so w i s h e d .  had  also He  laid  expect  to receive the  d u r i n g the  course of the  h a n d s on him,  f o r him d i d and  and  assured  him  gift prayer that  t h a t he t o o c o u l d h a v e i t i f  found  t h a t he  c o u l d speak i n  tongues. A., church not  E.,  i n that her  accepted.  rejection had  like  was  not  the decision  ambitions.  came b a r r e n , b o t h  the  i n t o m i s s i o n work  was  g i v e n any  e x p l a n a t i o n about  the  decided  and  a r e j e c t i o n by  t o go  t h a t i t had  a b o u t i t and  her missionary  experienced  application  other than  prayed  accepted  She  has  been c o n s i d e r e d and i t was  made no  not  further  God's w i l l . attempt  L i f e went on b u t  d o m e s t i c a l l y and  they  to follow  eventually  spiritually.  She  She  be-  remained  131 a c t i v e i n the church d i d not  r e c e i v e any  efforts. tion  Her  to her  as a d e v o t e d  great s a t i s f a c t i o n  dissatisfaction  frame o f r e f e r e n c e .  was  Other Her  costal missionary. experience  but  at the time  i n the midst  h a p p e n e d a c r o s s an  sought  for solely  aroused  baptism  she  he  tongues.  answers f o r h e r .  and  h i s w i f e had  She  was  To  her  an  surprise  received the  fond of the time  s o o n a s she made t h i s d i s c o v e r y s h e  had  i t I wanted i t t o o . "  Not  she  with  meetings.  couple by t h e  and  authorities  emphasis.  She  the  and  spoke  mentions  congregation.  knew t h a t " i f t h e y she n o t i c e d  concerning the  fallen  as a r e s u l t attended  on  interest  and  evangelist at a series  T h i s c l e r g y m a n had  denomination  experience  as guest  she  discovered  o f a clergyman r e p r e s e n t i n g the denomination  participated  matic  she  gift  long after this  announcement i n t h e c h u r c h b u l l e t i n  visit  Her  her p a s t o r concerning  t h a t t h e y were b e i n g g i v e n a h a r d As  Pente-  of the i n t r o d u c t i o n d i d not  questioned  very  into  i n V o i c e m a g a z i n e commenting  Spirit.  the  enter  increasing dissatisfaction,  article  o f the Holy  that both in  and  within  married  t h e work o f t h e C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal Movement. was  solu-  been i n t r o d u c e d t o  t h a t i t h e l d any  of her  A  h i m s e l f become a  she had  but  continued  a l t e r n a t i v e s d i d not  had  T h r o u g h him  consider the p o s s i b i l i t y Later,  her  o n l y b r o t h e r had  t h e P e n t e c o s t a l p e r s u a s i o n and  the  from  teacher  r e l i g i o u s o b l i g a t i o n s became w e a r i n g .  framework o f t h e c h u r c h . her  Sunday S c h o o l  out of  coming  i n which  of Charisfavour  of h i s charismatic  every  session  and  132  t w i c e went t o t h e f r o n t i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e a l t a r was g r e a t l y b l e s s e d  but s t i l l  speaking i n tongues. have t h i s that of  gift  d i dnot receive  When s h e f i n a l l y  s h e was a s s u r e d t h a t  receive  i t .  h i s wife  A l l that  but  was n o t a t a l l a n x i o u s ,  the  gift  f o r her.  f e e l i n g that  when s h e was i n t e n d e d  to.  That  is  She p a r t i c i p a t e d  s h e would  church has already  Neither in  and d i f f i c u l t .  her social  the routine  void  church.  and s o c i a l l y  cold.  lack of spirituality theologically  She f e l t  on t h e p a r t  oriented  towards  length.  needs r e c e i v e d  t h e c h u r c h was  response  spiritually  who were  and who, i n h e r e s t i m a t i o n ,  d i d not  centering  Her search  around t h e twofold  t r u t h s and a f u l f i l l i n g  was i n t e n s e  community.  g r o u p s and f i n a l l y ,  and p r o -  objectives of finding  phenomena t o o c c u l t t o e a s t e r n  costalism.  stance  o f her associates  longed,  Cayce t o h e a l i n g  experience  She was r e p e l l e d by t h e a p p a r e n t  a s much a s s h e d i d .  psychic  tongues.  been d e a l t w i t h a t some  believe  spiritual  Her n e g a t i v e  nor her s p i r i t u a l  receive  evening a f t e r she  movement f r o m c h u r c h t o t h e b a p t i s m  complicated  the  s h e would  t h e p a s t o r and  was i n b e d s h e s u d d e n l y began t o s p e a k w i t h B.'s  i t but  was r e q u i r e d  that  T h e f o l l o w i n g week s h e v i s i t e d on p r a y i n g  the g i f t of  s h e would r e c e i v e  she r e l a x i n t h e c o n f i d e n c e  who i n s i s t e d  She  a s k e d why s h e c o u l d n ' t  i t w o u l d come i n God's good t i m e .  h e r was t h a t  call.  She moved f r o m  r e l i g i o n s t o Edgar  by a c c i d e n t ,  t o Pente-  She met and was a t t r a c t e d t o a P e n t e c o s t a l  e v a n g e l i s t who was a p a r t i c i p a n t i n o n e o f t h e s t u d y  woman  groups  133 B.  attended.  A friendly  two  women and e v e n t u a l l y  the  congregation  of  respect.  r e l a t i o n s h i p d e v e l o p e d between t h e B. f e l t  her friend  that  served  she ought t o v i s i t  as m i n i s t e r  S h e went a n d was i n s t a n t l y a t t r a c t e d by t h e  a t m o s p h e r e o f warmth and s p i r i t u a l i t y . with  some r e g u l a r i t y .  ture relevant friend  visit  she r e c e i v e d B.  was n o t f o r h e r and t h a t  given ing do  a book w i t h  the gift i t .  At t h e suggestion  of her  t o accompany h e r t o a  woman r e s p o n d e d s o w e l l the g i f t .  she had a l r e a d y  by l i t t l e  B. t r i e d  The  frusthan  received  a s much  s h e was receiv-  i t and f o u n d s h e c o u l d  she acquired  skill  i n speaking i n Not o n l y  i s she  b u t she has t h e a d d i t i o n a l g i f t o f  tongues f o r p u b l i c proclamation  The  that  perhaps  i n s t r u c t i o n s a s t o how t o go a b o u t  to use i t f o r prayer  Concluding  that  At t h i s point  t o n g u e s and i s now a most f l u e n t s p e a k e r . able  This both  became c o n v i n c e d  ever c l a i m .  on y o u r own.  Little  litera-  S h e was now more d e t e r m i n e d  She f i n a l l y  b l e s s i n g a s some p e o p l e  She began t o a t t e n d  supplied her with  friend  The o t h e r  and s t i m u l a t e d  ever t o get i t . it  a mutual  meeting.  h e r second  trated  Her f r i e n d  t o t h e experience.  she i n v i t e d  Pentecostal on  as a token  which n o t everyone i s g i v e n .  Remarks foregoing  d i s c u s s i o n prompts s e v e r a l  d i s t i n c t i o n s between t h e modes o f s p i r i t u a l  p e a r t o be a t l e a s t  i n part  e n c e s oft t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  observations. careers ap-  contingent  on t h e o v e r a l l  For instance,  those people  influrepre-  134 s e n t i n g s t r o n g f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s a s w e l l as s t r o n g church  ties  r e m a i n e d on c o u r s e  and p r o g r e s s e d  wards t h e i r  point of s p i r i t u a l  destiny.  conflictual  f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s t r o n g  ties  and r e t u r n e d  lapsed  t o the church  steadily t o -  Those w i t h  their  spiritual A  two  while  those  of  anxiety  ties  were  w h i c h d i r e c t e d them o n t o  c a n b e drawn between t h e l a t t e r  Both p o i n t t o a d i f f u s e o r acute  crisis  i n t h e i r l i v e s which p r e c i p i t a t e s t h e i r  T h e r e seems t o b e a s u g g e s t i o n a r r i v e on c o u r s e in  indicating  course.  f u r t h e r comparison  groups.  weak o r  family-church  weak f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and weak f a m i l y - c h u r c h c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  family-  differs.  or state  interest.  t h a t t h e way i n w h i c h  they  The d i f f e r e n c e c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d  t e r m s o f t h e d i s t i n c t i o n made by W i l l i a m James between  volitional  and s e l f - s u r r e n d e r t y p e s  of conversion  experiences.  On t h e t e n u o u s b a s i s o f t h i s m i n u t e s a m p l e i t c o u l d be s p e c u lated  that those  lationships volitional conversion people lives  and s t r o n g f a m i l y - c h u r c h  r e t u r n to the church. experiences  they  become d i s s o n a n t .  ties  weak f a m i l y r e tend  towards a  Even i n t h e c a s e  are a result  a r e p u l l e d onto a s p i r i t u a l  ious sources. course  i n d i v i d u a l s who r e p r e s e n t  They l o o k  course  of radical  of intent. when t h e i r  These secular  for solutions v i a relig-  T h e i r p r o g r e s s i o n towards t h e i r  spiritual  i s marked by a s e r i e s o f j e r k s and s t o p s  similar to  James* d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f v o l i t i o n a l version.  On t h e o t h e r  hand, t h o s e  who had t h e i r  con-  origins i n  135  weak f a m i l y  relations  as w e l l  move much more r a p i d l y  a s weak f a m i l y - c h u r c h t i e s  towards t h e i r  religious  o n c e t h e y become aware o f them a s p o t e n t i a l their and  concerns.  Often they  i n response  T  experiences  solutions  h a p p e n ' a c r o s s an  surrender wholly to t h e i r  new  to  introduction found  salva-  tion. The  predominant  respondents isolation,  were r e l a t e d cultural  entiation. remain  common c r i s e s d e m o n s t r a t e d  The  continually  trangement,  either  t o problems of p e r c e i v e d or  dislocation  latter on  and  course. self  In short,  differ-  of those people some s e n s e o f  o r o t h e r s , may  be  being realized. in  T h i s apparent  b o t h p e r s o n a l and  experienced  While  termsj  i s , a lack i s  individualistic  and  be a s c e r t a i n e d ,  The  state.  respondents  i n the  accomplished  a satisfactory  solution  Spirit.  becomes o u r n e x t  problem  person i s motivated t o -  wards a r e s o l u t i o n o f h i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  of the Holy  processes  relate to a particular  f a c i n g the i n d i v i d u a l .  of the baptism  himself  church.  by t h e m a j o r c o n t i n u i n g themes, t h e  find  are  i s expressed  that  b a s i c m o t i v a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s may  as i l l u s t r a t e d  or c r i s i s  dissatisfaction  institutional  es-  along  t h e s e needs  e i t h e r with reference to the i n d i v i d u a l  or with the routine  are h i g h l y  as t o how  who  observed.  M e t a p h y s i c a l needs are r e p e a t e d l y v e r b a l i z e d w i t h a sense o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  our actual  a sense o f moral  i s characteristic  from  by  I n what way  A l l of  our  experience this i s  focus f o r attention.  CHAPTER V  THE MEANING  The  Moment Only  and  OF THE EXPERIENCE TO THE RESPONDENT  the description  o f t h e o n e who h a s been t h e r e  had t h e e x p e r i e n c e can a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e j u s t  how i t  felt.  . . . i t was an odd e x p e r i e n c e f o r m e — I c e r t a i n l y had n o t h i n g t o compare i t w i t h and y e t t h e l a n guage I was p e r s u a d e d was p r a i s e and i t was a r e a l ' t u r n e d on* e x p e r i e n c e . . . I was a b l e t o p o u r out i n a very f l u e n t tongue j u s t a r e a l f e e l i n g o f p r a i s e f o r God and j u s t a r e a l j o y i n t h i s e x perience. (No. E.)  I t was a r e a l e x p e r i e n c e . And I went o n t a l k i n g and I t h o u g h t I was m a k i n g i t up. I t h o u g h t I was j u s t t r y i n g t o copy t h e s e p e o p l e I ' d h e a r d b u t t h e n I went on and on and I knew I c o u l d n ' t be c o p y i n g them a n d t h e n I t h o u g h t I c o u l d n ' t t a l k i n English. Y o u know I went t o t a l k i n E n g l i s h and I j u s t went o n t a l k i n g i n t o n g u e s . . . i t was j u s t such a wonderful experience . . . j u s t l i k e t h e H o l y S p i r i t came t h r o u g h me and c l e a n s e d me. (No. A.)  . . . i t was l i k e a c u r r e n t o f e l e c t r i c i t y , I c o u l d r e a l l y f e e l i t — j u s t a s u d d e n warmth, y o u know, g o i n g t h r o u g h y o u and I o p e n e d my mouth and s t a r t e d t o p r a y and I h a r d l y s a i d a n y t h i n g . . . b u t I s a i d a few words anyway and t h e n I f e l t r e a l l y — y o u know t h o s e hymns a b o u t 'The b u r d e n s o f y o u r s i n s r o l l e d away?' t h i s i s e x a c t l y how I f e l t . . . t o f e e l y o u r s e l f r e a l l y f o r g i v e n from t h e b o t t o m o f y o u r t o e s up i s r e a l l y s o m e t h i n g and t h a t ' s how I f e l t . (No. C.)  I t j u s t was a t r e m e n d o u s s e n s e o f God's p r e s e n c e . . . I do n o t r e c a l l e v e r c h a n g i n g t o a n o t h e r language. I r e c a l l speaking i n t h e other language and t h i n k i n g 'How m a r v e l o u s , i m a g i n e God c o m i n g t o me and l e t t i n g me do t h i s ! ' (No. F.)  137 T h e y say e v e r y b o d y has a p r a y e r l a n g u a g e and o n c e y o u h a v e i t I g u e s s t h a t ' s i t and m i n e seemed t o be a v e r y p r i m i t i v e * - - t o m e — a n A f r i c a n t y p e o f d i a l e c t — v e r y p r i m i t i v e and s l o p p y . T h i s bothered me g r e a t l y . . . w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e t h e r e i s an e n v e l o p i n g o f God's l o v e a r o u n d me and p e a c e , a v e r y p e n e t r a t i n g p e a c e and I c a n r e a c h t h i s and r e a c h t h i s s o r t o f t r e m b l i n g o f t h e mouth . . . when I do s p e a k i n t o n g u e s i t ' s s t i l l a v e r y s l o p p y l a n g u a g e — s a l i v a a l l over the p l a c e . (No. I.)  . . . I r e a l l y d i d f e e l , and a g a i n I'm concerned w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l — I mean I l i k e t o s e e a w e l l f o r m e d body, I l i k e t o s e e an a t h l e t e p e r f o r m and so o n — I r e a l l y d i d f e e l l i f t e d r i g h t from t h e f l o o r and t h e y t a l k a b o u t i t b e i n g s p i n e t i n g l i n g - - I d o n ' t know t h a t i t was s p i n e t i n g l i n g b u t t h i s — o r w h e t h e r t h e h a i r s t o o d up on t h e b a c k o f my h e a d — b u t t h e r e was a p e c u l i a r s e n s a t i o n i n my body, t h r o u g h o u t my m u s c l e s and so on, and a f t e r h a v i n g had p o l i o I was s o r t o f m u s c l e c o n s c i o u s , and I d i d b e g i n t o s p e a k w i t h o t h e r t o n g u e s and n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y l o u d l y b u t i n a d e f i n i t e way . . . I s o r t o f l e t m y s e l f go and some o t h e r f o r c e t o o k h o l d o f my t o n g u e . I know my mouth r e a l l y d i d d r y o u t — I f e l t very dry a f t e r the experience . . . b u t i t was an u p l i f t i n g e x p e r i e n c e . What r e a l l y i m p r e s s e d me a b o u t i t was t h a t i t w a s n ' t j u s t f o r t h e m o m e n t — I m e a n — I f e l t — I guess you c o u l d say e c s t a t i c — I r e a l l y t h i n k I was e c s t a t i c . (No. J . )  How  I t Changes Each person  experience How  he  experiences  of the baptism  sees  from  tion  been r e s o l v e d .  has  preted it  by  what i t was  the person  i s viewed from A.'s  of the S p i r i t  himself i n r e l a t i o n  some way  sense  the change brought i n a unique  to h i s world  before.  the  way.  i s different  Some f o r m e r  This dissatisfaction  i n the l i g h t  on by  dissatisfaci s now  of h i s experience  interso  that  a different perspective. o f i s o l a t i o n was  d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w and  was  articulated  p e r c e i v e d by  her  in  as  repeatedly relating  138 to  her i n a b i l i t y  to  matters  t o communicate, p a r t i c u l a r l y  of intimate concern  off  from  other people  she  felt  spiritually  continued  efforts  and h e r f a i t h .  as a r e s u l t barren.  i n church  with  of this  reference  She f e l t c u t  lack.  In addition  L i f e was u n i n t e r e s t i n g and h e r work had become t e d i o u s .  In  d e s c r i b i n g what s h e f e e l s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n h e r l i f e  i s she  comments:  . . . i t ' s a r e a l m i r a c l e when y o u do s p e a k i n a n o t h e r t o n g u e s o i t was s o m e t h i n g t a n g i b l e , and i t s o r t o f i n c r e a s e s y o u r f a i t h a u t o m a t i c a l l y and . . . I c o u l d h a r d l y w a i t e v e r y n i g h t t o go t o b e d and p r a y i n t o n g u e s a f t e r t h i s . And s i n c e t h i s e x p e r i e n c e , many t h i n g s h a v e happened t h a t have c h a n g e d many t h i n g s I t h o u g h t b e f o r e . F o r one t h i n g I h a v e a much g r e a t e r l o v e f o r p e o p l e t h a n I e v e r h a d b e f o r e . . . and now I j u s t d o n ' t s e e p e o p l e f r o m t h e o u t s i d e a t a l l . . . l i k e my b r o t h e r s a i d I d o n ' t w o r r y i n t h e same way e i t h e r , I j u s t t r u s t God f o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; I d o n ' t go w o r r y i n g whether I s h o u l d t e l l — s p e a k t o t h i s p e r s o n o r t h a t p e r s o n . . . my o u t l o o k on h e a l i n g has changed . . .  A.  has had h e r f a i t h  idity prayer  i n approaching  life  some o f h e r t i m -  h a s become r i c h ,  and i n h e r p u b l i c  both  isolated,  c h i l d h o o d and a d u l t h o o d .  cal  o r i e n t a t i o n come t o g e t h e r  She  wanted t o e x p e r i e n c e  o t h e r words, s h e s t r i v e d  both  i nher  a s s o c i a t i o n with  t h e C h a r i s m a t i c movement who h a v e had a s i m i l a r B. t o o f e l t  in  has l o s t  o t h e r s , can share her i n t i m a c i e s i n  and h e r s p i r i t u a l  p r i v a t e devotions in  strengthened,  spiritually  Her i n t e l l e c t u a l  experience.  and s o c i a l l y , bent  and m y s t i -  i n an i n t e n s e s p i r i t u a l  the spiritual to empirically  others  quest.  i n a ' r e a l way'. verify  In  her s p i r i t u a l  139 experiences.  T h i s became a p p a r e n t  v o u r i n g o f p s y c h i c phenomena, h e r occult  and  healing.  continuously  She  "didn't finds formed  there's t h i s  started for  B.  these involved  i n the  A l s o she  life  received  sort  of b a l l  i s that  she i s no  the baptism  Perhaps  and  i n which  longer  depressed;  remember  the joy  t h e most i m p o r t a n t from  she  Spirit  A l l I can  unhappy u n t i l  she has been r e l e a s e d  She  relationships  o f the Holy  of joy i n you.  i s being depressed  t o come . . . "  spiritual  finds that  left  . . .  gotten to gradually."  amount o f s a t i s f a c t i o n  "ever s i n c e I've  my  I'd  in  as f o r m e r l y b e i n g  between members o f a s m a l l p r a y e r g r o u p  participates.  all  f i n d i n g that  de-  interest  S i n c e h e r e x p e r i e n c e she h a s  know J e s u s t h e way  an u n u s u a l  simultaneous  sees h e r s e l f  depressed.  her p s y c h i c i n t e r e s t s ,  i n her i n t e l l e c t u a l  change  her u n r e m i t t i n g  quest.  T h a t what i t d o e s i s c h a n g e y o u . You d o n ' t h a v e t o work y o u r way t o h e a v e n b u t t h e H o l y S p i r i t w i l l renew y o u . I t ' s the g i f t of l i f e promised i n t h e New T e s t a m e n t and I ' v e s e e n i t h a p p e n t o me. B.  had  e x p e r i e n c e s and in  secular  f o r m e r l y been v e r y g r a t i f i e d associations.  Now  she has  by h e r lost  secular  a l l interest  matters:  What's h a p p e n e d t o me s i n c e t h i s i s t h a t most o f t h e t h i n g s I u s e d t o r e a l l y l i k e h a v e gone dead on me. I used t o enjoy A r t f i l m s , I used t o have a g r e a t a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r c l a s s i c a l m u s i c , f o r good art, f o r p a r t i e s , f o r a n y t h i n g . And f r a n k l y what I l i k e t o do now m o s t l y i s go t o c h u r c h and wors h i p . . . A r t f i l m s and t h i n g s o f t h i s s o r t seem t o me e v i l . . .  140  B.  i s no  longer  a spiritual secular  isolated,  experience  marital  difficulties  circumstances.  r e l a t i n g but  she  She  help  in  f o u n d no  The  by  the  and  quest  has  has  lost  she  e a s e d , she her  can  interest  have  in  gratification. C.'s  vated  her  the  was  Not  anywhere and  She  experience  was  "from the bottom of the  she  her  toes  up  the  first  and  I didn't  t i m e she run  f a r a s I was  had  p u r p o s e t o do."  get  her  key  see  no  only  . . ."  involvement  a result  An  immediate  a r g u e and  probably  of  her  forgiveness,  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o her  could  aggra-  other a l t e r n a t i v e s .  r e c e i v e d as  t o C.  r a t h e r than t h a t  depression.  found i n her  concerned—that The  and  p r o b l e m was  t h a t was  mind o f f h e r s e l f ; she  t h a t moved h e r  guilt  says "I d i d n ' t  away and  insolvable  have problems i n  sense of t o t a l  i n the p a t t e r n of her  For  t h i n g as  her  could  insight  i n her  d i d she  s u p p o s e d s o l u t i o n she  most s i g n i f i c a n t  took place  only  encompassed by  r o u t i n e church.  Pentecostal  were f o c u s e d  change husband.  I didn't  a real  cry  miraculous  i t wasn't s o m e t h i n g I  was  that  she  surrender  to  was  able  to  something  she c o n t r o l l e d .  You know, b e f o r e when I had s a i d 'now, I am a C h r i s t i a n and I'm g o i n g t o be l o v i n g and I'm going t o be k i n d and y o u know, i t j u s t d o e s n ' t work. The h a r d e r I t r i e d t o do t h o s e t h i n g s t h e more I w o u l d f a i l , and b e s i d e s , i f y o u ' r e t r y i n g t o do t h o s e t h i n g s a l l on y o u r own s t r e n g t h y o u g e t a l l worn o u t — y o u g e t h e a d a c h e s and y o u f e e l p u l l e d i n a dozen d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s and—anyway t h a t ' s been t h e change f o r m e — h a s been a l o v e t h a t i s not of me.  D.  realizes his isolation  i n the form o f  cultural  dislocation  stemming f r o m t h e many g e o g r a p h i c a l c h a n g e s i n  h i s youth.  His relationship  and  he r e j e c t e d  was  concerned  to  creation.  w i t h h i s p a r e n t s was  the values of society.  On  the b a s i s of i n s i g h t s he r e j e c t e d  A t t h e same t i m e  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was  characterized  c e p t u a l i z i n g of the world. c u l t u r e w i t h which  be f o u n d  He  he  by  Similarly  i n 'drug space'.  a reversal  Further the  R e g a r d i n g h i s new  Hi  i n h i s con-  h a s no more a n s w e r s t o  of society.  i n society.  the i n -  h a s come t o s e e t h a t t h e  he i d e n t i f i e d  than the r e s t  gained under  t h e n o t i o n o f God.  h i s c o n v e r s i o n t o o k p l a c e w h i l e he was  cannot  close  w i t h t h e meaning o f h i s e x i s t e n c e i n r e l a t i o n  f l u e n c e of drugs  problems  not  sub the  answers insights  comments: And we b e g a n t o s e e e x a c t l y where J e s u s C h r i s t was a t when he s a i d ' I am t h e Way, t h e T r u t h , and t h e L i f e and no man comes u n t o t h e F a t h e r b u t by me'. We t o o k i t t h a t he was b a s i c a l l y s a y i n g 'Okay, y o u ' r e h e r e , y o u d o n ' t know why y o u ' r e h e r e and y o u d o n ' t r e a l l y u n d e r s t a n d i t b u t t r u s t me t h a t I c a n t a k e y o u o u t and t a k e y o u b a c k t o t h e F a t h e r ' . T h i s was p r e t t y w e l l t h e way we t o o k i t . . . and we began t o s e e some o t h e r t h i n g s t o o ; t h a t f o r e v e r y good t h i n g t h a t God h a s t o o f f e r , S a t a n h a s a c o u n t e r f e i t , t h e S a t a n , t h e power, t h e r u l e r o f this planet. F o r i n s t a n c e , God o f f e r s t h e b a p t i s m of the Holy S p i r i t . T h i s i s k i n d o f l i k e God's t u r n on. S a t a n c o u n t e r f e i t s i n L.S.D., h a s h i s h , marijuana. You s e e , t h e s e t h i n g s a r e a s p i r i t u a l door. They open a d o o r i n y o u r mind i n t o t h e s p i r i t u a l world o f Satan which i s r e a l l y a very b e a u t i f u l , b e a u t i f u l w o r l d b u t i t goes o n l y so f a r and t h e n i t comes down t o t h e h a r d c o r e o f t h e m a t t e r and S a t a n demands a commitment, j u s t l i k e C h r i s t d o e s , and t h i s commitment i s t o a d m i t t h a t y o u ' r e r e a l l y o n l y i n a dream. That e v e r y t h i n g i s  he  142  n o t r e a l l y r e a l and t h a t y o u r e a l l y d o n ' t e x i s t anywhere . . . as f a r a s I c a n s e e C h r i s t i a n i t y d o e s n ' t make any b o n e s a b o u t e x i s t e n c e as s u c h , a b o u t e x i s t e n c e on t h i s p l a n e t . I t d o e s n ' t p l a y games w i t h y o u ; i t s a y s , i t p u t s i t r i g h t on t h e l i n e and s a y s t h i n g s a r e n ' t any good . . . I f o u n d some t h i n g s i n t h e s c r i p t u r e s . For i n s t a n c e , d i d y o u e v e r h e a r any h i p p i e s t a l k about a w h i t e light trip? W e l l , when a h i p p i e h a s a w h i t e l i g h t t r i p he comes i n t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f a g r e a t w h i t e l i g h t , l i k e he knows t h a t i n s i d e t h i s l i g h t i s t h e t h i n g he h a s b e e n l o o k i n g f o r ; i s e t e r n a l l i f e and no m a t t e r how h a r d he t r i e s t o g e t i n t o i t , by g o i n g a r o u n d i t and o v e r i t and e v e r y t h i n g e l s e he j u s t c a n ' t do i t . . . t h e b a p t i s m o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t i s God's w h i t e l i g h t t r i p .  D. he  has  ciled  no  been  longer feels l i k e  a stranger.  'taken back t o t h e f a t h e r ' .  with h i s parents' values.  Spirit  has  brought  him  The  to the door  He  Through  Christ  has been  recon-  baptism  of the Holy  of truth.  He  has  dis-  covered h i s place i n the universe. E. p o i n t s t o t h e sense o f u n a c c e p t a b i l i t y followed After  him  a l l his life  his initial  disappointments church. his  He  was,  however, r e c o n c i l e d  need t o push h i m s e l f . can  With  g e t o f f by m y s e l f  t o n g u e and . . and  communicate.  i n the  routine  to the church p r i o r The  two  t h i n g s he  r e s u l t s of h i s experience are the  e f f e c t s of h i s prayer l i f e  I can e x p r e s s a l l t h e then suddenly  and  h i s r e l e a s e from  r e f e r e n c e t o p r a y e r he  for half  it'll  be  has  s u b j e c t t o a number o f  r e l a t i n g to h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n  experience o f the Holy S p i r i t .  peutic  .  as a f a i l u r e t o  c o n v e r s i o n he was  a s most s i g n i f i c a n t  "I  as w e l l  that  an h o u r emotion  to  notes therathe  comments,  o r so and p r a y i n I want t h r o u g h i t  as i f someone had  got  up  143 and  said  g o o d - b y e and  left  you  v e r y p l e a s a n t and. w o r t h w h i l e spent h a l f  an h o u r  feeling  visit  as t h o u g h  and y o u  o r so w i t h a d e a r  feel  friend."  t h a t were a like  He  you've  adds  "the  l i n g e r i n g sense of having to prove myself,  t o p u s h ray way  to  gone f r o m  get myself  point Both and  on  and  a c c e p t e d by my I was  free l i k e  own  w o r t h was  I hadn't  h i s needs have been r e a l i z e d : he h a s  a friend  His social eral  w i t h whom he  been  he h a s  can  affirmations  that  previously." been a c c e p t e d  share h i s concerns.  r e l a t i o n s h a v e been i m p r o v e d  definite  in  and  he h a s  regarding h i s a b i l i t y  had  sev-  t o communi-  cate. No.  H.  of the baptism to  of the s p i r i t  i n her l i f e .  about  the  f o l l o w i n g her c o n v e r s i o n .  tied  t o an  earlier  of the Holy S p i r i t faith.  H.'s  religious  Her  i s totally  experi-  radical transformation  e x p e r i e n c e and  the  i s a proof of the a u t h e n t i c i t y  identity  effects  For her i t appears  have been a n o t h e r n o t c h i n t h e l a d d e r o f r e l i g i o u s  ences was  d o e s n o t comment s p e c i f i c a l l y  grounded i n her  baptism  of  her  religious  stance. I. physical perienced She  expressed her i s o l a t i o n  and  emotional contact with other people.  herself  responded  as a v e r y p r i v a t e  negatively  to Christ  and  to the s o c i a l  t i n e c h u r c h t o which she b e l o n g e d . committed  a s a r e s i s t a n c e t o both,  but her s e l f  p o s s i b l e f o r h e r t o make a p u b l i c  She  She  self-centered  person.  emphasis o f the felt  that  she  ex-  rouwas  c o n s c i o u s n e s s made i t i m profession to that  effect.  144 Her  experience  from in  her s e l f  o f t h e Holy  Spirit  consciousness.  has s e r v e d t o f r e e h e r  In the act o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g  i t s h e was a b l e t o make a p u b l i c p r o f e s s i o n o f f a i t h .  Her  faith  h a s been g r e a t l y  and  i n terms o f o t h e r s .  i n c r e a s e d , both  i n h e r own  eyes  F o r F., G. and J . t h e e x p e r i e n c e h a s s e r v e d t o r e inforce their  earlier  other similar  experiences.  by  affirmations.  I t i s i n line  Their orientation  with  i s expressed  G.  W e l l a c t u a l l y , what p e o p l e c a l l t h e b a p t i s m i s r e a l l y on a c o n t i n u u m w i t h c o n v e r s i o n . I t ' s not something d i f f e r e n t , o f a d i f f e r e n t k i n d . I t ' s j u s t a c o n t i n u u m ; i t ' s t h e same, o n l y more, and the best concept i s m a i n t a i n i n g a l i v i n g , a r e l a t i o n s h i p with a l i v i n g person. C h r i s t the Lord i s a l i v i n g L o r d and so y o u g o t t h e same p r o b l e m s p r e c i s e l y and t h e same b e n e f i t s a s m a i n t a i n i n g a g o o d f r i e n d s h i p w i t h somebody . . . a l o t o f p e o p l e t h i n k t h e P e n t e c o s t a l s a r e s a y i n g 'you s p e a k i n t o n g u e s and T h a t ' s I t , a s t h o u g h i t was a t h i n g , b u t i t ' s j u s t a l i t t l e symbol o f somet h i n g e l s e t h a t ' s happening.  It  i s obvious  t h a t i n each o f t h e cases d e s c r i b e d  some a s p e c t o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e  i s specifically  relevant to a  p a r t i c u l a r problem c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l , exception, background. earlier  that i s , o f the three respondents In those  experiences.  cases the experience  with the  of Pentecostal  validates  their  CHAPTER V I CONCLUSIONS  It proposed this as  must be remembered t h a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t a r e  a r e based  study  e x c l u s i v e l y on t h e m i n u t e s a m p l e u s e d i n  and s h o u l d  generalizations.  stated  be s e e n m e r e l y a s i n d i c a t o r s and n o t The p r o p o s a l s  i n t h e form o f hypotheses i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h .  more r i g o r o u s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l ployed tions.  made h e r e c o u l d be r e -  before  they  A much  a p p r o a c h w o u l d h a v e t o be em-  c o u l d be v i e w e d a s v e r i f i a b l e  generaliza-  T h i s attempt might be seen as a n e x t s t e p .  meantime, on t h e b a s i s o f t h e p r e s e n t  study,  In the  I would  propose  that:  I.  The c u r r e n t 1.  Pentecostal  movement draws on p e o p l e who  h a v e a l r e a d y made t h e i r  major l i f e  commitments.  F i v e o f o u r t e n r e s p o n d e n t s were b r o u g h t t o t h e via  Charismatic  already  Renewal i n f l u e n c e s .  made t h e i r  major l i f e  were b r o u g h t d i r e c t l y  i n the experience  Of  group o n l y  this 2.  commitments.  prior  p e o p l e had  The o t h e r s  who  c h u r c h had p a r t i -  t o making major  one p e r s o n i s a r e c e n t  e x p r e s s an i d e n t i f i a b l e  relationships.  A l l o f these  into the Pentecostal  cipated  experience  commitments.  convert.  l a c k i n terms o f t h e i r  social  A l l o f o u r r e s p o n d e n t s who came t o t h e e x p e r -  i e n c e from backgrounds o t h e r sense o f separation  than Pentecostal  from o t h e r  people.  Their  point to a isolation  146 takes  a variety  of forms but  i n each i n s t a n c e t h e r e i s e v i -  dence o f - s o c i a l d i s t a n c e . 3. way  express  they  brought  a dissatisfaction  view themselves.  Again  4.  with t h e i r  express  self  suggest  a sense  Some i n d i c a t i o n  with t h e i r  of either  a c o n t i n u i n g d i s - e a s e w i t h t h i n g s as they  in  t h e l i v e s o f a l l who  express  entered  There i s evidence  through  w i t h how  t h a t a l l t h o s e who  as a v e h i c l e  6.  h a v e had  does not It  individual 7. than  previous religious  a matter but  their  o f i n t r o d u c i n g an  with the  channels.  organized  contacts.  alien  The  concept  and  knowledge. to  the holds.  Rather  consciousness  t h e p e r i p h e r y , t h e move-  whose s p i r i t u a l c o n c e r n s  position  movement  already  circles.  the center of the person's  individuals  i n a central  seen  spiritual  w i t h no p r e v i o u s r e l i g i o u s  i d e a s t h a t h a v e i n t h e p a s t been on  ready  a r e c a n be  r a t h e r o f u n d e r l i n i n g n o t i o n s he  bringing into  crisis  move t o w a r d s t h e e x p e r i -  a l r e a d y move i n r e l i g i o u s l y a c t i v e  ment a t t r a c t s  immediate  f o r r e a l i z i n g s p i r i t u a l goals.  draw on p e o p l e  i s not  dis-  r o u t i n e i n s t i t u t i o n a l means.  ence have a d i s t i n c t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n church  of  v i a non-Pentecostal  a dissatisfaction  n e e d s a r e b e i n g met  not  environmental  an  or  5.  were  the  image.  a dissatisfaction  circumstances.  some a s p e c t o f  a l l t h o s e who  i n v i a a Pentecostal path  satisfaction  with  intensifies  them.  are a l -  147 II.  The e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e b a p t i s m o f t h e H o l y  Spirit  intro-  duces t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o a s u p p o r t i v e community. 1.  T h e r e i s a c l e a r c u t d i s t i n c t i o n between t h o s e  h a v e h a d t h e e x p e r i e n c e and t h o s e who  have n o t .  T h i s marked  d e l i n e a t i o n c u t s a c r o s s p r e v i o u s r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l i t i o n s and r e d r a w s t h e b o u n d a r i e s 2.  of s p i r i t u a l  defin-  community.  T h i s community p r o v i d e s a m a t r i x f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l  w h e r e he c a n s h a r e h i s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o t h e r s o f l i k e and  who  so be s u p p o r t e d  i n h i s new p e r s p e c t i v e .  A t t h e same  t i m e t h e community s e r v e s t o s e p a r a t e t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h o s e who  do n o t s h a r e h i s o u t l o o k .  mind  from  I n t h i s way t h e r e a l i t y  of h i s experience i s re-inforced. III.  The b a p t i s m  of t h e Holy S p i r i t  i s a 'healing*  experi-  ence. All  our respondents  t h e i r deepest through  felt  n e e d s w e r e met.  that through t h i s  F o r t h o s e who w e r e  experience straight-  P e n t e c o s t a l s t h e e x p e r i e n c e was s e e n a s a c u l m i n a t i o n  of e a r l i e r satisfactory r e l i g i o u s experiences.  I t provided a  f o c a l p o i n t f o r t h e i r uninterrupted process of r e l i g i o u s i n tegration.  T h o s e who  p o i n t e d t o t h e event needs. Wallace, tial  a r r i v e d from n o n - P e n t e c o s t a l as a dramatic  sources  solution to their  various  I n t h i s sense our study would support t h e views B o i s e n and James i n s t r e s s i n g t h e ' h e a l i n g '  of religious  experience.  of  poten-  148  IV.  The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n brought  about by means o f t h e e x p e r i -  ence i s a u t h e n t i c . I f we see t h e c r i t e r i a f o r what c o n s t i t u t e s an a u t h e n t i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as c o n t i n g e n t on the understanding o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n i n g t h e change he f e e l s w i t h i n hims e l f and t h e change i n t h e way he sees h i s world then on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s study we would conclude that t h e experience i s without doubt change p r o d u c i n g . V.  The experience has d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s . .1.  What i s unique about t h e baptism o f t h e Holy  i s t h a t i n i t s p i r i t u a l experience i s r e a l i z e d  Spirit  empirically.  The i n d i v i d u a l can t e s t h i s experience by t h e f a c t t h a t he has spoken i n tongues.  T h i s i s h i s evidence t h a t he has  been f i l l e d w i t h t h e Holy S p i r i t . a t e l y c o n v i n c i n g as an o b j e c t i v e 2.  event.  The event g i v e s access t o a source o f u l t i m a t e  authority. o f God.  The experience i s immedi-  The i n d i v i d u a l has been v i s i t e d by t h e s p i r i t  He no l o n g e r f e e l s h i m s e l f c o n s t r a i n e d by h i s im-  mediate s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . have been broken  H i s boundaries  and he i s p r o p e l l e d to a p o i n t o f view from  where he sees h i s world i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t .  He r e -  i n t e r p r e t s and r e - e v a l u a t e s h i s s e c u l a r commitments i n the l i g h t of t h i s experience.  149 VI.  The  dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e event a r e i n l i n e  with the c o n c e p t u a l i z e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Holy Spirit. The  life  giving potential  o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e seems t o  be r o o t e d i n t h e a w a r e n e s s o f u l t i m a t e presence.  The  respondents  attribute  authority  t h e i r new  found  intimate ability  to  'live  At  t h e same t i m e t h e i r s e n s e o f i s o l a t i o n i s l e s s e n e d by  the  v i c t o r i o u s l y ' t o a power g r e a t e r t h a n  and  themselves.  c o n t i n u i n g awareness o f t h e c o m f o r t i n g s p i r i t u a l  e n c e by whom t h e y a r e known. and power g i v e n f o r m w i t h them i n  spirit.  The H o l y  Spirit,  pres-  the breath  i n the person of Jesus C h r i s t  i s always  BIBLIOGRAPHY B e c k e r , H. S. and A. L . S t r a u s s , " C a r e e r s , P e r s o n a l i t y , and A d u l t S o c i a l i z a t i o n , " I d e n t i t y and A n x i e t y . M. S t e i n , A. V i d i c h and D. W h i t e ( e d s . ) New Y o r k : T h e Free Press, I960. B o i s e n , A. .  Out o f t h e D e p t h s . The E x p l o r a t i o n  New Y o r k : H a r p e r ,  o f the Inner World.  I960.  New  York:  H a r p e r , 1936. Erikson,  E.  C h i l d h o o d and S o c i e t y .  New Y o r k ; N o r t o n , 1963.  . I d e n t i t y and t h e L i f e C y c l e . New Y o r k : I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s , 1959. . I n s i g h t and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y . New Y o r k : N o r t o n , 1964. Gerlach,  L . P. and V. H. H i n e . "Five Factors Crucial to the Growth and S p r e a d o f a Modern R e l i g i o u s Movement," J o u r n a l f o r t h e S c i e n t i f i c Study o f R e l i g i o n . V o l . V I I , No. 1, S p r i n g , 1968.  James, W. The V a r i e t i e s o f R e l i g i o u s E x p e r i e n c e . Longmans, G r e e n and Co., 1935.  London:  K e l s e y , M. Tongue S p e a k i n g : An E x p e r i m e n t i n S p i r i t u a l Experience. G a r d e n C i t y , New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y , 1964. L a i n g , R. D. The D i v i d e d Self., I960. Levita,  D.  The Concept  Chicago: Quadrangle  of Identity.  Books,  P a r i s : Mouton, 1965.  Ranaghan, R. and D. Catholic Pentecostals. P a u l i s t P r e s s Deus Books, 1969.  New  York:  Ranaghan, K. "Renewal by t h e H o l y S p i r i t among Roman C a t h o l i c s , " u n p u b l i s h e d M.S. J a n u a r y 1968. S a m a r i n , W. J . " G l o s s o l a l i a as L e a r n e d B e h a v i o u r , " C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f T h e o l o g y . V o l . XV, J a n u a r y 1969. S h e r r i l l , J . They Speak w i t h O t h e r T o n g u e s . P y r a m i d Books, 1964. u  Stagg,  New  York:  F., E . H i n s o n and W. O a t e s . G l o s s o l a l i a : Tongue S p e a k i n g i n B i b l i c a l . H i s t o r i c a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l Perspective. N a s h v i l l e : A b i n g d o n P r e s s , 1967.  151 Strauss,  A. M i r r o r s and Masks; t h e S e a r c h f o r I d e n t i t y . Glencoe, 111.: Free Press, 1959.  Wallace,  A. R e l i g i o n : An A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Random House, 1 9 5 9 .  View.  New  York:  

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