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The baptism of the Holy Spirit : a study of the meaning of religious experience. Lythgoe, Mariann June Catherine 1969

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THE BAPTISM OF THE HOLY SPIRIT: A STUDY OF THE MEANING OF RELIGIOUS EXPERIENCE by MARIANN JUNE CATHERINE LYTHGOE B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M a s t e r o f A r t s i n t h e Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r pub 1 i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date August 31. 1969 ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y i s o f t h e b a p t i s m o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t , a r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e p o p u l a r l y known as s p e a k i n g i n tongues. Our c o n c e r n i s w i t h i t s r o l e as a t r a n s f o r m i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e l i v e s o f t h o s e who w i t n e s s t o i t . The b a p t i s m o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t , w h i l e d e e p l y embedded i n C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n , has u n t i l r e c e n t l y been a r e l a t i v e l y r a r e phenomenon. There i s c u r r e n t l y a marked i n c r e a s e i n i t s o c c u r r e n c e . The sample s e l e c t e d f o r t h e purpose o f t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t s o f t e n r e s p o n d e n t s , o f whom f i v e a r e members o f t h e P e n t e c o s t a l assembly w h i l e f i v e a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o t h e r e s t a b l i s h e d d e n o m i n a t i o n s but t e s t i f y t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e b a p t i s m . Most a r e p e o p l e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s who a r e i n t h e i r m i d d l e y e a r s . That t h i s i s so may i n i t s e l f be i n d i c a t i v e o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e contemporary up-s u r g e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e . The i n t e r v i e w s were t a p e r e c o r d e d and t r a n s c r i b e d . As l i t t l e d i r e c t i o n as p o s s i b l e was g i v e n by t h e i n t e r v i e w e r i n an e f f o r t t o g l e a n i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t was a v o l u n t a r y r e -sponse on t h e p a r t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l and f r e e from t h e d i s -t o r t i o n o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The i n t e r v i e w e e was i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e g e n e r a l c o n c e r n o f t h e s t u d y and asked t o r e l a t e h i s e x p e r i e n c e and as much o f h i s background as he f e l t was s i g -n i f i c a n t i n p o i n t i n g him toward h i s s p i r i t u a l d e s t i n y . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n was r e g a r d e d as s i g n i f i c a n t and was not e d i t e d i n t r a n s c r i p t i o n . The study begins w i t h a review o f c e r t a i n t h e o r e t i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s which p r o v i d e a framework f o r the work. Chapter I I p r o v i d e s an o v e r a l l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o p a s t and p r e s e n t e x p r e s s i o n s o f the phenomenon, t o i t s t h e o l o g i c a l o r i g i n s and s i g n i f i c a n c e , t o an attempted de-l i n e a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n o f the experience, and t o a d e s c r i p -t i o n o f a t y p i c a l c h a r i s m a t i c s e r v i c e of worship t h a t c r e a t e s a p u b l i c context f o r the expe r i e n c e . Chapter I I I i n t r o d u c e s t h e respondents and t r a c e s t h e i r s p i r i t u a l c a r e e r s . These c a r e e r s may be seen i n terms of a number o f paths, r a n g i n g i n complexity, v i a which the people move from a p o i n t o f e n t r y t o a p o i n t o f s p i r i t u a l d e s t i n y . At v a r i o u s p l a c e s on the path the person encounters t u r n i n g p o i n t s or moments when he r e c o g n i z e s t h a t he has changed. In t h i s s e c t i o n we a t -tempt t o i l l u s t r a t e the paths chosen by our respondents by means of a map and to i s o l a t e t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l moments and the b a s i c m o t i v a t i n g s t a t e s common to a l l our respondents. Chapter IV d e a l s with a more d e f i n i t i v e a n a l y s i s o f s p e c i f i c m o t i v a t i n g s t a t e s i n r e l a t i o n t o o v e r a l l i n f l u e n c e s , major c o n t i n u i n g themes, t r a n s i t i o n a l moments and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the experience. F i n a l l y , i n Chapter V the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the experience to the m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c -t o r s t h a t have been i s o l a t e d are e x p l o r e d . Our concern here i s t o i d e n t i f y i n what way the experi e n c e has served as a s o l u t i o n i n the eyes o f t h e respondent. In c o n c l u s i o n sev-e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s are made on the b a s i s o f the pr e s e n t study w h i c h might c o n s t i t u t e p r o p o s a l s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . The background f a c t o r s l e a d i n g up t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e were found t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l f s o v e r a l l i n f l u x e nces, t o a sense o f i s o l a t i o n i n p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a g e n e r a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e i r l i v e s , a marked s p i r i t u a l c o n c e r n and a d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h how s p i r i t u a l needs were b e i n g met t h r o u g h r o u t i n e i n s t i t u -t i o n a l means. The e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t r e s o l v e s t h e s e dilemmas by (a) e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l as a member o f a s p i r i t u a l and s o c i a l community, (b) a t o t a l t r a n s f o r m a -t i o n o f p e r s p e c t i v e and hence o f t h e meaning o f e x i s t i n g commitments, and ( c ) a sense o f d i r e c t and immediate r e l a -t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e H o l y S p i r i t . The e x p e r i e n c e was seen by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s as a ' h e a l i n g * e x p e r i e n c e i n t h a t i t o f f e r e d an answer t o t h e i r p roblems and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s . The mean-i n g o f t h e b a p t i s m o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t was found t o d i f f e r between t h o s e who had had a c o n t i n u o u s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e P e n t e c o s t a l c h u r c h and t h o s e who had n o t . F o r t h e l a t t e r group t h e e x p e r i e n c e c o n s t i t u t e d a r a d i c a l m o r a l t r a n s f o r m a -t i o n whereas i n t h e c a s e o f t h e former t h e e x p e r i e n c e was a s t e p i n a c o n t i n u i n g r e l i g i o u s c a r e e r . TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page X I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 I I The Experience o f Pentecost 12 The Holy S p i r i t 12 What I t I s : New Testament O r i g i n s . . . 1 6 A H i s t o r i c a l Review 19 B i r t h and Growth of the P e n t e c o s t a l Sect . 24 The C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal Movement . . . 28 The L o c a l Movement .• 32 T e n t a t i v e Observations Regarding the Act . 33 P u b l i c Worship: A D e s c r i p t i v e Response . 40 Impressions o f a P a r t i c u l a r S e r v i c e . . 41 Summary Comments 47 I I I The Mapping o f S p i r i t u a l C a r e e r s . . . . 52 P o r t r a i t s o f the Respondents 52 The Map 79 P o i n t s o f Reference 80 Types of Care e r s 86 IV A n a l y s i s 92 I n t r o d u c t i o n 92 O v e r a l l I n f l u e n c e s 93 T a b l e I 93 Major C o n t i n u i n g Themes 100 The T r a n s i t i o n a l Moments I l l TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont.) Chapter Page IV M o t i v a t i o n a l S t a t e s 118 C o n c l u d i n g Remarks 133 V The Meaning o f the Experience 136 The Moment 136 How I t Changes . . . . . . . . . 137 VI C o n c l u s i o n s 145 ACKNOWLEDGMENT My thanks are extended t o Dr. Dorothy Smith, without whose p a t i e n t prompting t h i s paper would never have been undertaken, l e t alone completed. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION T h i s s t u d y has t o do w i t h t h a t r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h i s known t o t h o s e who have e x p e r i e n c e d i t as t h e bap-t i s m o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t . The meaning o f t h i s e x p e r i e n c e i s r o o t e d i n t h e C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n and has b i b l i c a l r e f e r e n c e . The moment on t h e day o f P e n t e c o s t when t h e a p o s t l e s , g a t h -e r e d a t J e r u s a l e m f o l l o w i n g t h e e v e n t s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e d e a t h o f J e s u s C h r i s t , were v i s i t e d by t h e H o l y S p i r i t and d i s -c o v e r e d t h e m s e l v e s s p e a k i n g i n tongues i s an o r i g i n a l event t h a t i s s c r i p t u r a l l y r e c o r d e d . T h i s event i s not mer e l y r e -ena c t e d s y m b o l i c a l l y but o c c u r s a g a i n and a g a i n i n i t s o r -i g i n a l form t o t h o s e who have e x p e r i e n c e d t h e b a p t i s m o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t . What i t means as an e x p e r i e n c e , as an event w h i c h t r a n s f o r m s t h e l i v e s o f t h o s e who have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n i t , can o n l y be l e a r n e d from t h o s e who have had t h e e x p e r i -ence. Only t h e y can ap p r o x i m a t e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f what i s i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e . My i n t e r e s t i n t h e b a p t i s m o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t , and more p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e accompanying s i g n o f s p e a k i n g i n to n g u e s , a r o s e i n p a r t from a n a t u r a l c u r i o s i t y c o n c e r n i n g u n u s u a l r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t n o t n e a r l y enough a t t e n t i o n i s b e i n g g i v e n by s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s t o t h e r e l e v a n c e o f r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e t o t h e c r e a t i o n and d i r e c -t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , and from h a v i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o 2 have c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h s e v e r a l p e o p l e who w i t n e s s e d t o h a v i n g had t h e e x p e r i e n c e . I t seemed t o me t h a t t h e g r a f t i n g o f t h i s e x p e r i e n c e , w h i c h b e l o n g e d t o t h e g o s p e l r e c o r d s and appeared t o be p a r t o f a h i s t o r i c a l l y d i s t a n t l i f e s t y l e and a somewhat a l i e n mode o f r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e , onto t h e l i v e s o f c o n t e m p o r a r i e s p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f as a problem worthy o f a t t e n t i o n . The more so i n t h a t t h e c u r r e n t s p r e a d o f a movement which emphasizes t h e e x p e r i e n c e as a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e i s a r o u s i n g i n c r e a s i n g and c r o s s - s e c t a r i a n i n t e r e s t i n t h e phenomenon among r e l i g i o u s l y i n f o r m e d and a c t i v e c i r c l e s . The i m p r e s s i o n g a i n e d from my c o n t a c t w i t h t h o s e who had had t h e e x p e r i e n c e was t h a t t h e y f e l t t h a t a r a d i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n had been produced i n t h e i r l i v e s as a r e s u l t o f h a v i n g p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s u n u s u a l e x p e r i e n c e . The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n d i d n o t appear t o t a k e t h e form o f a change i n e x t e r n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s but r a t h e r a l l o w e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o r e i n t e r p r e t t h o s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n t h e l i g h t o f a new u n d e r s t a n d i n g . What he had e x p e r i e n c e d was a r e a l i t y which c o u l d n o t be e r a s e d from h i s awareness. I t had a l t e r e d h i s p e r s p e c t i v e and t r a n s f o r m e d t h e m o r a l q u a l i t y o f h i s l i f e . L u t h e r P. G e r l a c h and V i r g i n i a H i n e i n an attempt t o i d e n t i f y t h e n e c e s s a r y elements i n t h e s u c c e s s f u l s p r e a d o f a modern r e l i g i o u s movement p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e c u r r e n t P e n t e -c o s t a l movement i s n o t l i m i t e d t o any p a r t i c u l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l t y p e o r s o c i a l c l a s s but draws on p a r t i c i p a n t s from a wide range o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c , r e l i g i o u s , e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l 3 backgrounds. They suggest t h a t t h e r e f o r e p r e v i o u s models used to e x p l a i n movement genesis a r e inadequate and explana-t i o n s must be sought elsewhere. One o f the areas f o r e x p l o r -a t i o n w i t h regard to the potency o f r e l i g i o u s e xperience to change i s t h a t o f commitment exp e r i e n c e s as they r e l a t e t o i d e n t i t y change. They acknowledge t h a t t h i s i s an extremely d i f f i c u l t area to examine because of d e f i n i t i o n a l and t h e o r -e t i c a l a m b i g u i t i e s . "The nature o f commitment experiences and the p r o c e s s e s by which the i n d i v i d u a l can be l e d i n t o them has been s u b j e c t t o too much debate to be c l e a r l y understood. A major statement c o n c e r n i n g the p r o c e s s of i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n has been c o n t r i b u t e d by E r i k E r i k s o n . E r i k s o n views the p r o c e s s as developmental. While he does p o i n t out t h e l i f e l o n g nature o f the i n t e g r a t i v e p r o c e s s he emphasizes th e p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f l a t e adolescence. At t h i s time s o c i e t y p e r m i t s a moratorium d u r i n g which the i n -d i v i d u a l has an o p p o r t u n i t y of s i f t i n g through h i s p a s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s and meanings and t r y i n g out a l t e r n a t i v e p o s s i b l e l i n e s of development without making a f i n a l commit-ment. In E r i k s o n * s account the making o f major l i f e commit-ments i s taken as i n d i c a t i v e of t h e s u c c e s s f u l r e s o l u t i o n of t h e i d e n t i t y c r i s i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f adolescence. Our sample o f t e n cases i n c l u d e s t h r e e d i f f e r e n t «• t y p e s of combinations o f i d e o l o g i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , the l i f e c y c l e , and the p o i n t o f i d e n t i t y c r i s i s . Three ( i d e n t i f i e d 4 by t h e l e t t e r s F. G. and I . i n the i n t e r v i e w s ) have been members of the P e n t e c o s t a l church from c h i l d h o o d , and do not appear t o have experienced an i d e n t i t y c r i s i s o f a major k i n d at any p e r i o d i n t h e i r l i v e s . For them the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t i s an important step i n a s p i r i t u a l c a r e e r a l r e a d y mapped out f o r them. Two (D. and H.) experienced c o n v e r s i o n and the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t d u r i n g the a d o l e s c e n t / e a r l y adulthood p e r i o d which E r i k s o n marks out as t h e p e r i o d o f major i d e n t i t y c r i s i s . The remaining f i v e (A., B., ( J ., E. and J.) experienced the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t i n t h e i r middle y e a r s , a f t e r major l i f e commitments had been made and experienced i t as a s i g n i f i c a n t moral t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n t h e i r l i v e s . What must be s t r e s s e d here i s the c o n t i n u i n g p r o b l e m a t i c c h a r a c t e r o f the pro c e s s o f i d e n t i t y i n t e g r a t i o n . I n the case o f the l a s t group the world has not been given o r d e r p r i o r t o making t h e i r commitments but r a t h e r the com-mitments they have a l r e a d y made are given order by t h e i r e x perience o f the Holy S p i r i t . The two themes c e n t r a l t o E r i k s o n T s view which are s i g n i f i c a n t t o our purpose are the importance p l a c e d on the ' e p i g e n e t i c 1 f o u n d a t i o n o f the i n t e g r a t i v e p r o c e s s ; t h a t i s , t h e emphasis on e g o - i n t e g r a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f a s y n t h e s i s o f b i o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l and s o c i o - c u l t u r a l experience, and secondly, t h e r o l e of i d e o l o g y i n g i v i n g cohesion t o an i n -t e g r a t e d i d e n t i t y and p r o v i d i n g the b a s i s f o r other major commitments made by the i n d i v i d u a l . 5 The theme of the r o l e o f i d e o l o g y , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to r e l i g i o n , i n the i n t e g r a t i v e p r o c e s s a l s o con-c e r n s Anthony Wallace, who p o i n t s out t h a t r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been p l a c e d by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s upon under-s t a n d i n g r e l i g i o n from the p o i n t o f view of p r o v i d i n g s o l u t i o n s , r a t h e r than p r o j e c t i n g problems. He suggests t h a t the Jungian o r i e n t a t i o n , r e j e c t e d by orthodox a n a l y s t s l a r g e l y because of i t s m y s t i c a l and dogmatic t e n d e n c i e s , which views r e l i g i o n as a " c u l t u r a l product and an e x p e r i -ence which a t once i n t e g r a t e s the p e r s o n a l i t y and u n i t e s the i n d i v i d u a l w i t h s o c i e t y and i t s t r a d i t i o n a l values has had l e s s i n f l u e n c e than the mainstream o f i t s c e n t r a l premise; t h a t r e l i g i o u s experience i s p o s i t i v e l y t h e r a p e u t i c would j u s t i f y . " W a l l a c e notes the p o s s i b l e r e l e v a n c e o f cog-n i t i v e d i ssonance theory to r e l i g i o u s e xperience i n i t s p r o p o s a l t h a t where mutually c o n t r a d i c t o r y c o g n i t i o n s are e n t e r t a i n e d , the i n d i v i d u a l must a c t to reduce dissonance. W h i l e t h e r e are numerous a l t e r n a t i v e s i n d e a l i n g w i t h prob-lems o f t h i s s o r t , i n c l u d i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y o f changing the r e a l world i n some r e s p e c t so as to r e o r g a n i z e incoming i n -fo r m a t i o n , the same e f f e c t may a l s o be achieved by m o d i f y i n g " p e r c e p t i o n s o f s e l f and of the r e a l world i n such a way t h a t one horn o f the dilemma i s no l o n g e r r e c o g n i z e d . " ^ Anton Boisen, a clergyman who underwent severe mental d i s t u r b a n c e and who a t t r i b u t e s h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t o an i n t e n s e r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e proposes t h a t r e l i g i o u s 6 experience p r o v i d e s a r e s o l u t i o n o f otherwise u n s o l v a b l e c o n f l i c t s . What i t does i s t o move the i n d i v i d u a l out of t h e c e n t e r of h i s d e b i l i t a t i n g dilemma and o f f e r s him a s o l u t i o n by e f f e c t i n g "a s y n t h e s i s between the c r i s i s ex-p e r i e n c e and h i s subsequent l i f e which enables him to grow i n the d i r e c t i o n of i n n e r u n i f i c a t i o n and s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n on a b a s i s c o n c e i v e d as u n i v e r s a l . " ^ In d o i n g so i t b r i n g s t h e person i n t o "harmony w i t h t h a t which i s supreme i n h i s h i e r a r c h y of l o y a l t i e s . " - * The i n t e g r a t i v e e f f e c t o f r e l i g i o u s experience r e -c e i v e s c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n from W i l l i a m James, who views c o n v e r s i o n as "the p r o c e s s , gradual or sudden, by which a s e l f h i t h e r t o d i v i d e d , and c o n s c i o u s l y wrong, i n f e r i o r and unhappy, becomes u n i f i e d and c o n s c i o u s l y r i g h t , i n conse-quence wi t h i t s f i r m e r h o l d upon r e l i g i o u s r e a l i t i e s . " ^ James sees t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o c c u r r i n g i n the i n d i v i d u a l as a r e s u l t o f a l t e r a t i o n s i n emotional excitement; t h a t i s , when the c e n t e r o f man's 'personal energy*, t h a t group o f i d e a s which demand h i s commitment i s r e p l a c e d by another. Change o c c u r s "when one aim grows so s t a b l e as to expel d e f i n i t i v e -7 l y i t s p r e v i o u s r i v a l s from the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e . " Accord-i n g to James some people are 'healthy minded'or unambivalent and are not prone t o t r a n s f o r m a t i o n experiences whereas o t h e r s , the ' s i c k s o u l s ' whose s e l v e s are d i v i d e d , may be s u b j e c t to such experiences which serve to b r i n g them t o a s t a t e o f i n t e g r a t i o n or u n i t y . 7 What i s d i s t i n c t i v e about James* view i s t h a t he does not t r e a t r e l i g i o u s e xperience p r i m a r i l y as a s o l u t i o n t o s e c u l a r problems but r a t h e r emphasizes the r e l a t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s r e s o l u t i o n s t o b a s i c a l l y r e l i g i o u s problems. What happens i n r e l i g i o u s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , says James, i s t h a t r e l i g i o u s motions which have f o r m e r l y been kept on the p e r -i p h e r y o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s consciousness now move i n t o a p o s i t i o n o f c e n t r a l importance and so become what he c a l l s t h e h a b i t u a l c e n t e r o f the person*s energy. A c c o r d i n g t o James, t r a n s f o r m a t i o n u s u a l l y does not occur as the r e s u l t o f a con s c i o u s d e c i s i o n . While i n f o r m a -t i o n does p l a y a r o l e i n p r e c i p i t a t i n g change, new awareness i s o f g r e a t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e . The c e n t e r o f change i s l a r g e l y a t the l e v e l o f the subconscious and i t i s o f t e n not u n t i l c o n s c i o u s c o n t r o l has been given up t h a t t h e pro c e s s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n can be completed. "In many cases r e l i e f p e r s i s t e n t l y r e f u s e s t o come u n t i l the person ceases t o r e s i s t , or make an e f f o r t i n the d i r e c t i o n he d e s i r e s t o 8 go." James sees the reason f o r the importance o f s e l f -s u r r e n d e r i n the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s h a v i n g t o do wit h two major c o n s i d e r a t i o n s on the minds of those who are undergoing the change; namely, the sense of prese n t wrong-ness or ' s i n * from which t h e r e i s a wish t o escape and a p o s i t i v e i d e a l towards which he yearns. In most cases the emphasis i n the mind of the person i s on the f i r s t w ith l i t t l e awareness granted the second. There are two ways o f 8 overcoming problems, suggests James; namely the conscious replacement of one set of commitments by another and by an act of self-surrender, or g i v i n g up, on the part of the per-son. I t i s only when t h i s happens that change can take place. James notes the outcome of most conversion experi-ences as i n c l u d i n g a l o s s of worry or a willingness to be regardless of whether or not outer circumstances change or remain the same, a sense of perceiving new truths of which one has previously been unaware, a sense that the world has undergone a change and an ecstacy of happiness. Central to t h i s i s the f e e l i n g i n the hour of conversion of a sense of higher c o n t r o l . There i s no way of discerning the authenticity of a transforming experience other than i n terms of what i t has meant to the person who has been changed. Since there are no adequate c r i t e r i a for measuring the v a l i d i t y of the ex-perience the ultimate test remains the new l e v e l of s p i r i t u -a l i t y attained by the i n d i v i d u a l . In review of the foregoing discussion the points which are p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t to our study include: 1. The importance of assuming an i d e o l o g i c a l stance i n the integrative process of i d e n t i t y formation, es-p e c i a l l y as i t related to the making of major l i f e commitments (Erikson). 2. The view that r e l i g i o u s experience opens up a l t e r -native perspectives of which the i n d i v i d u a l has been unaware to that moment. 9 3 . The importance o f the p o s s i b i l i t y of s e e i n g r e l i g i o u s experience i n terms o f a s o l u t i o n t o r a t h e r than a p r o j e c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s problems ( W a l l a c e ) . 4. The means o f r e s o l u t i o n b e i n g a change from w i t h i n r a t h e r than change of e x t e r n a l circumstances (Wallace and James). 5. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f r e l i g i o u s experience i n a l l o w i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l to rearrange h i s ' h i e r a r c h y o f l o y a l t i e s ! * ( B o i s e n ) . 6. The importance o f the element of s e l f - s u r r e n d e r to moral t r a n s f o r m a t i o n brought on by r e l i g i o u s exper-i e n c e . 7. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the weakening o f one s e t o f i d e a s to the s t r e n g t h e n i n g of another. As the one weakens the o t h e r moves i n to take i t s p l a c e . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , the problem with which we are con-cerned i n t h i s study has to do w i t h t h e r e l i g i o u s experience known as the baptism of the Holy S p i r i t o r the P e n t e c o s t a l e x p e r i e n c e . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s event, at which time the i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s h i m s e l f overwhelmed with the awareness o f the presence o f the s p i r i t o f God, i s marked by an ac-companying s i g n i n the form of speaking i n tongues. In t h i s r e l i g i o u s experience t h e person i s r e q u i r e d to g i v e up con-s c i o u s c o n t r o l o f h i s speech and s u r r e n d e r to a power g r e a t e r than h i m s e l f . The e n t i r e b e i n g i s i n v o l v e d i n the experience. 10 Those who have had the experience t e s t i f y not only to the moment of the experience i t s e l f but to the accompanying change that has taken place i n t h e i r l i v e s . The baptism of the Holy S p i r i t has provided them with a solution, i t has brought them salvation. I t i s hoped that i n t h i s study something may be learned from our respondents as to how and why they f e e l t h i s change has come about and i n what way they see the experience as a solution f o r them. Notes Lut h e r P. G e r l a c h and V i r g i n i a H. Hine, " F i v e F a c t o r s C r u c i a l To The Growth Of A Modern R e l i g i o u s Move-ment," J o u r n a l For The S c i e n t i f i c Study Of R e l i g i o n . V o l . V I I , No. 1, S p r i n g 1968, 32. ^Anthony Wallace, R e l i g i o n ; An A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Vxew. (New York: Random House, 1959), p. 13. 3 I b i d . , p. 29. ^Anton T. Boisen, The E x p l o r a t i o n Of The Inner  World (New York: Harper and B r o t h e r s ) , p. i x . % b i d . , p. i x . ^ W i l l i a m James, The V a r i e t i e s Of R e l i g i o u s E x p e r i -ence (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1935)> p. 190. 7 I b i d . , p. 191. 8 I b i d . , p. 208. CHAPTER I I THE EXPERIENCE OF PENTECOST: PAST AND PRESENT U n t i l r e c e n t l y l i t t l e emphasis has been p l a c e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e P e n t e c o s t a l movements on an i n t e l l e c t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t . A more t h e o l o g i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n has been d e v e l o p i n g d u r i n g t h e p a s t s e v e r a l months as t h e movement i s f i n d i n g i t s way i n t o t h e e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c i r c l e s o f t h e Roman C a t h o l i c c h u r c h . However, among l a y p a r t i c i p a n t s v e r b a l r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s u s u a l l y couched i n m e t a p h o r i c a l r a t h e r t h a n a n a l y t i c a l t e rms. Credence i s g i v e n t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e b a p t i s m o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t by c o n s e q u e n t i a l changes o f p e r -s p e c t i v e and b e h a v i o u r . F o r t h e r e a d e r t o comprehend some-t h i n g o f t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t o attempt t h e o l o g i c a l comment. ( i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t w h i l e t h e comments a r e d e l i b e r a t e l y made from a P e n t e c o s t a l p o i n t o f view t h e y do n o t i n f a c t a u t h e n t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t t h a t p o s i t i o n . ) The concept o f s p i r i t , r o o t e d i n t h e Hebrew term ' r u a h * , w h i c h denotes b o t h wind and b r e a t h , had e v o l v e d d u r -i n g t h e c o u r s e o f H e b r a i c t r a d i t i o n t o i m p l y i n g b o t h a s o u r c e o f power and an i n t i m a t e p r e s e n c e . P r o p h e t i c p r e p a r a t i o n had been made f o r t h e b i r t h o f a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l a t some f u t u r e p o i n t i n t i m e who would be t h e p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f t h e power and p r e s e n c e o f t h e s p i r i t . The O l d Testament p r o m i s e s 13 t h a t " . . . t h e r e s h a l l come f o r t h a r o d out o f t h e stem o f J e s s e , and a Branch s h a l l grow o u t o f h i s r o o t s and t h e S p i r i t o f Yahweh s h a l l r e s t on him."-*- F o r C h r i s t i a n s t h e a n t i c i p a t e d M e s s i a h was J e s u s o f N a z a r e t h . T h i s b e i n g so f o r C h r i s t i a n s i t was i n t h e p e r s o n o f J e s u s C h r i s t t h a t t h e a b s t r a c t c oncept o f S p i r i t found i t s f o c u s and r e a l i z a t i o n . The dynamic p o t e n c y o f t h e S p i r i t t o P e n t e c o s t a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s e f f e c t e d by two fundamental t e n e t s o f f a i t h h e l d by f o l l o w e r s o f t h i s p e r s u a s i o n : t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l J e s u s w i t h t h e p r o p h e s i e d M e s s i a h as t h e son o f God and a s t r o n g b e l i e f i n t h e a c t u a l r e s u r r e c t i o n o f t h e body o f J e s u s C h r i s t from t h e dead. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e f i r s t l i e s i n t h e u n d e r l i n i n g o f t h e u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e s o u r c e o f power e v i d e n c e d i n t h e s p i r i t o f C h r i s t . M e s s i a n i c p r o p h e s i e s had been p o s i t i v e t h a t t h e " S p i r i t o f Yahweh" (God) would r e s t on t h e f o r t h c o m i n g M e s s i a h . C h r i s t , t h e n , b e i n g t h e p r o m i s e d M e s s i a h , was endowed w i t h t h e S p i r i t o f God; namely, t h e H o l y S p i r i t . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f J e s u s as t h e M e s s i a h i s v e r i f i e d by t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l f a c t o f t h e p h y s i c a l r e s u r r e c t i o n o f C h r i s t from t h e dead. The r e c o r d s i n d i c a t e t h a t he was seen and r e c o g n i z e d by a number o f h i s f o l l o w e r s days a f t e r h i s d e a t h had been c o n f i r m e d and t h a t t h e tomb i n w h i c h h i s body had been p l a c e d was m y s t e r i o u s l y empty on t h e t h i r d day a f t e r h i s b u r i a l . The s o u r c e o f power app a r e n t i n t h e b e i n g o f C h r i s t i s t h u s n o t o n l y a u t h e n t i -c a t e d but i s g i v e n a sense o f immediacy. Power and p r e s e n c e a r e s y n t h e s i z e d and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d . Rooted i n t h e above f o u n d a t i o n s o f fundamental b i b -l i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e t h e o l o g i c a l c o n v i c t i o n s h e l d by t h o s e o f P e n t e c o s t a l p e r s u a s i o n enhance an awareness o f a s p i r i t u a l p r e s e n c e w h i c h i s a t once t o t a l l y i n t i m a t e and o f u n q u e s t i o n -a b l e a u t h o r i t y . I t i s t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n t h a t u n d e r g i r d s t h e dynamic p o t e n t i a l o f t h e P e n t e c o s t a l e x p e r i e n c e f o r r a d i c a l m o r a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The r e a l i t y o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t b i n d s them i n f a i t h t o t h e l i v i n g C h r i s t whose b e i n g r e q u i r e s n o t h -i n g l e s s t h a n t o t a l commitment. The p o s s i b i l i t y o f e x p e r i -e n c i n g t h e S p i r i t o f God w a r r a n t s a t o t a l r e s p o n s e . "Imagine God coming t o me and l e t t i n g me do t h i s . . . t h e g r e a t c o n -s c i o u s n e s s o f J e s u s l i v i n g i n me was t h e overwhelming t h i n g t o me . . . s i n c e t h e n I've found i n s c r i p t u r e t h a t J e s u s s a i d t h a t when He would send t h e C o m f o r t e r , t h e H o l y S p i r i t , He would t e s t i f y w i t h me and you'd know i t . . . I t was so 2 r e a l I was a l m o s t amazed t o f i n d i t i n t h e B i b l e . " The H o l y S p i r i t i s e x p e r i e n c e d as a P e r s o n a l i t y , a t r a n s f o r m i n g f r i e n d -s h i p , as communion w i t h one's C r e a t o r , as an e x p e r i e n c e w i t h God i n H i s dynamic a s p e c t . Of c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e t o P e n t e c o s t a l s i n s p e c i f y i n g t h e event o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t i s C h r i s t ' s r e c o r d e d p r o c l a m a -t i o n t h a t u n l e s s "one be b o r n o f water and t h e S p i r i t he can n o t e n t e r t h e kingdom o f God." F u r t h e r m o r e i t i s r e c o r d e d t h a t C h r i s t t o l d H i s f o l l o w e r s t h a t i t was e x p e d i e n t f o r Him t o l e a v e them f o r i f He d i d not " t h e S p i r i t would n o t come. But when He, t h e S p i r i t , d i d come, He would s t a y w i t h them f o r e v e r . He would g u i d e and t e a c h and s t r e n g t h e n and i n H i s power t h e y would do g r e a t e r t h i n g s even t h a n C h r i s t has done . " 4 B a p t i s m i s t h e d e s c r i p t i v e term g i v e n t o t h a t moment when t h e p e r s o n f e e l s h i m s e l f most f u l l y aware o f and r e s p o n -s i v e t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e C r e a t o r . I t i s a moment o f oneness, o f s p i r i t u a l u n i o n , o f unprece -d e n t e d and i r r a t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f s e l f and g r e a t e r t h a n s e l f . P e n t e c o s t a l s i n s i s t t h a t they do not see t h e b a p t i s m o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t as an e x c l u s i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e S p i r i t b u t r a t h e r r e g a r d i t as b e i n g on a continuum a l o n g w i t h o t h e r r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s o f C h r i s t i a n o r i g i n . "The b i b -l i c a l imagery s u g g e s t s t h a t s a l v a t i o n i s a w e l l o f water whereas t h e b a p t i s m o f t h e S p i r i t i s a r i v e r . So t h e imagery n e v e r a l l o w s you t o do a n y t h i n g more t h a n say i t ' s more o f t h e same t h i n g o n l y i t ' s more dynamic . . . i t opens t h e door more f u l l y t o t h e S p i r i t , because every b o r n a g a i n C h r i s t i a n i s i n d w e l t by t h e S p i r i t . " - * A l t h o u g h n o t r e c o g n i z e d as an e x c l u s i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e S p i r i t , P e n t e c o s t a l s do r e g a r d t h e o c c a s i o n o f t h e b a p t i s m o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t as a unique and d e f i n i t i v e e v e n t , i s o l a t e d i n t i m e and i d e n t i f i e d by t h e accompanying a c t o f s p e a k i n g i n tongues; t h e g l o s s o l a l i c a c t . S i g n i f i c a n t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t t o t h e e x p e r i -ence o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s t h e n o t i o n o f g i f t . The awareness 16 d e s c r i b e d by the baptism i s acknowledged as b e i n g at l e a s t i n p a r t beyond human a b i l i t y t o command. The main p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r r e c e i v i n g t h e g i f t of the Holy S p i r i t i s t h e d e s i r e and c o n v i c t i o n t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o do so. " I f p r a y e r i s the s o u l ' s s i n c e r e d e s i r e . . . t h a t ' s what you've got when fi you're a c a n d i d a t e f o r the baptism o f t h e Holy S p i r i t . " C o n f e s s i o n s o f people who witness t o the experience i n d i c a t e t h a t i t i s not t i e d t o any p a r t i c u l a r p s y c h o l o g i c a l mood or p h y s i c a l s t a t e but r a t h e r t h a t i t appears to occur at random; i t may happen both a t times o f h e i g h t s and depths o f o r d i n a r y human expe r i e n c e . The onl y apparent p r e r e q u i s i t e i s an i n t e n s e w i l l . As the symbol of water s i g n i f i e s entry i n t o the community o f C h r i s t i a n b e l i e v e r s so tongues, a c c o r d -i n g t o P e n t e c o s t a l s , s e r v e s t o i n d i c a t e the moment of f u l l s p i r i t u a l awareness. I t must be noted t h a t t h e r e i s some di v e r g e n c e o f o p i n i o n as to t h e n e c e s s i t y o f speaking i n tongues as symbolic of the baptism o f t h e Holy S p i r i t but i t would seem t h a t the most commonly h e l d view among Pe n t e c o s t -a l s i s t h a t the a c t almost i n v a r i a b l y accompanies the event. What I t I s : New Testament O r i g i n s References t o the phenomenon of speaking i n tongues can be l o c a t e d throughout the New Testament but are p a r t i c u -l a r l y prominent i n the Book o f A c t s and i n Paul ' s L e t t e r s t o the C o r i n t h i a n s . The c e n t r a l r e f e r e n c e to tongues i s found i n the second chapter o f the Book o f A c t s . In r e l a t i n g t he e v e n t s t h a t o c c u r r e d on t h e day o f P e n t e c o s t Luke, t h e a u t h o r o f A c t s , comments: And when t h e day o f P e n t e c o s t was f u l l y come, they were a l l w i t h one a c c o r d i n one p l a c e . And sud-d e n l y t h e r e was a sound f r o m heaven as o f a mighty r u s h i n g wind, and i t f i l l e d a l l t h e house where they were s i t t i n g . And t h e r e appeared t o them c l o v e n tongues l i k e as o f f i r e , and i t s a t upon each o f them. And t h e y were f i l l e d w i t h t h e H o l y Ghost, and t h e y began t o speak w i t h o t h e r t o n g u e s , as t h e S p i r i t gave them u t t e r a n c e . 7 Throughout t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e C h r i s t i a n c h u r c h i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s t o r y o f P e n t e c o s t has p r o v o k e d c o n t r o v e r s y . Whatever t h e d e b a t e , i t i s g e n e r a l l y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t what happened on t h a t h i s t o r i c o c c a s i o n r e p r e s e n t s something u n i q u e , a s o r t o f m i r a c l e o f communication. An u n n a t u r a l sense o f oneness i s b e l i e v e d t o have overwhelmed a l l t h o s e p r e s e n t , s u p e r s e d i n g d i v e r s i t y o f c u l t u r e and c o n f l i c t o f p e r s p e c t i v e . By t h e t i m e P a u l w r o t e h i s l e t t e r s t o t h e young c h u r c h e s , s p e a k i n g i n tongues had become p r o b l e m a t i c ; i n s t e a d o f f u n c t i o n i n g as a u n i f y i n g medium i t had become a s o u r c e o f f r a g m e n t a t i o n and c o n f l i c t . P a u l , t h e r e f o r e , appears t o be s k e p t i c a l c o n c e r n i n g t h e p u b l i c use o f tongues and s u g g e s t s i n h i s l e t t e r s t o t h e c h u r c h i n C o r i n t h t h a t c o n t r o l s be e s t a b l i s h e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a c c e p t a b l e use o f tongues. W h i l e P a u l acknowledged t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e phenomenon as a g e n u i n e s p i r i t u a l e x p r e s s i o n , i n f a c t d e c l a r i n g t h a t he him-s e l f spoke i n t o n g u e s , he n e v e r t h e l e s s r e p e a t e d l y emphasized t h e need f o r r e s t r a i n t . With the e x c e p t i o n of t h e i n i t i a l i n e x p l i c a b l e events o f the day o f Pentecost the C h r i s t i a n experience of g l o s s o l a l i a has h i s t o r i c a l l y been s e t w i t h i n a frame-work o f d o c t r i n e and m o r a l i t y . I t has not been regarded as an i s o l a t e d r e l i g i o u s experience but has been enmeshed i n the context of i d e o l o g y . I f one reads t h e New Testament n a r r a t i v e w i t h o b j e c t i v i t y , he f i n d s t h a t i t t e l l s s t o r i e s about men who r e c e i v e d not o n l y e t h i c s but a new l i f e which was g i v e n from beyond t h e i r o r d i n a r y c a p a c i t i e s . When t h i s d i v i n e power was given t o man, h i s c h a r a c t e r improved, h i s l o v e and f a i t h and p a t i e n c e i n c r e a s e d and he was a l s o g i v e n g r e a t e r wisdom and p e r c e p t i o n o f s p i r i t u a l t h i n g s . R e c e i v i n g t h i s d i v i n e power was known as b e i n g f i l l e d w i t h the Holy S p i r i t . I t was f u r t h e r b e l i e v e d t h a t the S p i r i t spoke d i r e c t l y through the man whom i t had i n d w e l t , who had been f i l l e d . I t c o u l d speak alo u d , i n t e l l i g i b l y o r u n i n t e l -l i g i b l y . . . i n the tongues o f men and angels.8 Recorded evidence o f e c s t a t i c u t t e r a n c e s are by no means l i m i t e d t o the g l o s s o l a l i c a c t as understood i n the C h r i s t i t r a d i t i o n . What i s unique about the C h r i s t i a n experience o f s peaking i n tongues i s , on the one hand, the d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n to the s p i r i t u a l source of the phenomenon and, on the o t h e r , the e t h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s i n g from the ex-p e r i e n c e . . A H i s t o r i c a l Review H i s t o r i c a l evidence suggests t h a t o u t b u r s t s o f s p e a k i n g i n tongues were s p o r a d i c and r e l a t i v e l y de-emphasized by the church between the f i r s t and seventeenth c e n t u r i e s . I t appears t h a t i n the e a r l y church the phen-omenon was w e l l known and accepted as one o f the g i f t s o f t h e S p i r i t by i n t e l l e c t u a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g i a n s but t h a t i t r a r e l y r e c e i v e d mention. The s u g g e s t i o n has been made t h a t t h i s l a c k of emphasis was at l e a s t i n p a r t due to the s t r u g g l e o f the e a r l y church t o g a i n acceptance from a h o s t i l e n o n - C h r i s t i a n s o c i e t y by p r e s e n t i n g i t s e l f as a reasonable i n t e l l e c t u a l s t a n c e . The b a s i c f a c t t h a t the church was hard pressed, f i r s t from without and l a t e r from w i t h i n , and t h e church f a t h e r s were w r i t i n g t o g a i n accept-r-ance from a h o s t i l e g e n t i l e world. As Paul p o i n t s out, tongue speaking i s not meant as a s a l e s p i t c h f o r a r e s i s t a n t buyer,' but f o r p r i v a t e worship and e d i f i c a t i o n ; when used i n t h i s way, i t i s a s i g n which can be seen. But s i n c e most people were a l r e a d y i r r a t i o n a l enough about C h r i s t i a n i t y , d e s c r i b i n g g l o s s -o l a l i a would have been enough to magnify t h i s s i g n i n t o w i l d rumour . . . T a l k i n g about tongues would have added f u e l t o the f i r e t h a t flamed i n t o i r r a t i o n a l r e j e c t i o n of C h r i s t i a n s as monsters, or, a t l e a s t , queer people.9 20 One o u t s t a n d i n g i n c i d e n c e o f t o n g u e s p e a k i n g i s r e c o r d e d i n t h e M a r t y r d o m o f P o l y c a r p , a l e t t e r f r o m t h e c h u r c h i n S m y r n a , r e l a t i n g a n a c c o u n t o f t h e e v e n t s l e a d i n g up t o t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e i r b i s h o p i n 155 A.D. I t n o t e s t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t i e s a l l o w e d B i s h o p P o l y c a r p a n h o u r t o p r a y b e f o r e h e was t o b e b u r n e d a n d t h a t d u r i n g t h i s t i m e he b e -came s o ' f i l l e d w i t h t h e g r a c e o f God' t h a t h e "became c a r -r i e d away a n d c o u l d n o t b e s t o p p e d f o r two h o u r s . " ^ O t h e r r e c o r d e d e p i s o d e s o f t o n g u e s p e a k i n g i n c l u d e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e M o n t a n i s t s , f o l l o w e r s o f M o n t a n u s , a p r i e s t who h a d b e e n c o n v e r t e d f r o m a P h r y g i a n m y s t e r y c u l t a n d who was s u p p o s e d t o h a v e h a d an e x p e r i e n c e w h e r e h e became " b e s i d e h i m s e l f , a n d b e i n g s u d d e n l y i n a s o r t o f f r e n z y a n d e c s t a c y h e r a v e d , a n d b e g a n t o b a b b l e a n d u t t e r s t r a n g e t h i n g s , p r o p h e s y i n g i n a manner c o n t r a r y t o t h e c u s t o m o f t h e church."•*-•*-T h e a b u s e o f t h i s s o - c a l l e d g i f t became a p r o b l e m t o I r e n a e u s , B i s h o p o f G a u l d u r i n g t h e l a s t q u a r t e r o f t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y , who a t t a c k e d a c e r t a i n M a r c u s f o r t h e m i s u s e o f t h e g i f t . M a r c u s i s s a i d t o h a v e u s e d t h e p r o m i s e o f t h e g i f t t o s e d u c e g u l l i b l e women o f means. H i s a p p r o a c h a p p a r -e n t l y was t o e n c o u r a g e a woman who was s k e p t i c a l o f b e i n g a b l e t o r e c e i v e t h e g i f t j u s t t o o p e n h e r mo u t h , s p e a k w h a t -e v e r o c c u r r e d t o h e r and s h e w o u l d f i n d h e r s e l f m a k i n g p r o p h e t i c u t t e r a n c e s . I r e n a e u s comments: She t h e n , p u f f e d up and e l a t e d b y t h e s e w o r d s , and g r e a t l y e x c i t e d i n s o u l b y t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t i t 21 i s h e r s e l f who i s t o p r o p h e s y , h e r h e a r t b e a t i n g v i o l e n t l y ( f r o m e m o t i o n ) , r e a c h e s t h e r e q u i s i t e p i t c h o f a u d a c i t y and i d l y as w e l l as i m p u d e n t l y u t t e r s some nonsense as i t happened t o o c c u r t o h e r , such as might be e x p e c t e d o f t h o s e h e a t e d by an empty s p i r i t . . . H e n c e f o r t h she r e c k o n s h e r -s e l f a p r o p h e t e s s , and e x p r e s s e s h e r t h a n k s t o Marcus f o r h a v i n g i m p a r t e d t o h e r o f h i s own C h a r i s . 1 2 Perhaps t h e l a s t a l l u s i o n t o tongues b e f o r e t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y was u n d e r t a k e n by T e r t u l l i a n , a N o r t h A f r i c a n l a w y e r who l a t e r i n h i s l i f e was c o n v e r t e d t o Mon-t a n i s m . D u r i n g t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y Montanism f a d e d and w i t h i t came t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f men who had any f i r s t hand knowledge c o n c e r n i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e . C h r i s t i a n p h i l o s o p h e r s became i n c r e a s i n g l y s k e p t i c a l . O r i g e n , Chrysostom and Aug-u s t i n e a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e n i a l o f g l o s s o l a l i a as an a u t h e n t i c C h r i s t i a n e x p r e s s i o n . S u s p i c i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e phenomenon mounted u n t i l i n t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y i t came t o be r e g a r d e d as e v i d e n c e o f d i a b o l i c p o s s e s s i o n . Commitment t o a r a t i o n a l w e l t a n s c h a u i n h e r e n t i n t h e A r i s t o t e l i a n mode p r e v e n t e d t h e o l o g i c a l t h i n k e r s a s , f o r example, Thomas A q u i n a s , from i n t e g r a t i n g t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f tongue s p e a k i n g i n t o a s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n c e p t u a l framework. I s o l a t e d i n s t a n c e s c o n t i n u e d t o e r u p t but i t was n o t u n t i l t h e r e v o c a t i o n o f t h e E d i c t o f Nantes, i n 1685, t h a t any mass o u t b r e a k was r e c o r d e d . As a r e s u l t o f t h e r e v o c a -t i o n t h e Huguenots who were t a k i n g r e f u g e i n t h e Cevennes mountains o f s o u t h e r n F r a n c e t u r n e d t o a c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f 22 t h e S c r i p t u r e s . The b e l i e f sprang up among them t h a t they were e s p e c i a l l y c a l l e d by God. T h i s i n t e n s e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t they c o n s t i t u t e d the e l i t e was accompanied by m y s t i c a l mani-f e s t a t i o n s . With an i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r r e l i g i o u s experience and enthusiasm came an i n c r e a s e i n the f e r v o u r o f the r e l i g -i o u s p e r s e c u t i o n which had v i c t i m i z e d them u n t i l the l i t t l e Huguenot tongue speaking peasants of the Cevennes underwent a metamorphosis changing them i n t o the r e v o l u t i o n a r y Gami-s a r d s . While the f o r c e of t h e p e r s e c u t i o n succeeded i n e x t i n g u i s h i n g the movement, i t s fame had spread. The courage and f a i t h o f the Cevennols had captured the i n t e r e s t of the Europeans and the unusual e x p r e s s i o n of s p i r i t u a l i t y a t t r i -buted t o the movement became the f o c u s of c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s -c u s s i o n . In France i t s e l f r e v e r b e r a t i o n s were f e l t ; the J a n s e n i t e s , a C a t h o l i c h o l i n e s s s e c t , r e v o l t e d a g a i n s t what they c o n s i d e r e d to be a l a c k o f s p i r i t u a l i t y and m o r a l i t y among the J e s u i t s and an o u t b u r s t of tongues was recorded i n t h e i r midst i n 1731. D u r i n g the n i n e t e e n t h century the phenomenon made i t s appearance i n England among the I r v i n g i t e s , f o l l o w e r s of Edward I r v i n g , a remarkable and c h a r i s m a t i c P r e s b y t e r i a n clergyman who was a c l o s e f r i e n d of Thomas C a r l y l e . I r v i n g became i n t r i g u e d w i t h rumours r e a c h i n g him c o n c e r n i n g a m i r a c u l o u s h e a l i n g which was reputed t o have o c c u r r e d i n S c o t l a n d . H i s c u r i o s i t y l e d him to i n v e s t i g a t e t h e case p e r s o n a l l y and what he d i s c o v e r e d so impressed him t h a t 23 he t r i e d t o induce h i s congr e g a t i o n t o expl o r e t h i s new found s p i r i t u a l dimension. I r v i n g promoted speaking i n tongues among members of h i s congregation but when he became aware o f t h e magnitude o f t h e i r response he attempted, without suc-c e s s , to impose l i m i t a t i o n s on i t s usage. W i t h i n a s h o r t p e r i o d o f time tongues had gained such prominence among h i s devotees t h a t h i s p u b l i c s e r v i c e s o f worship became c h a o t i c and I r v i n g was excommunicated by the denominational h i e r -a r c h y . About the same time tongues made t h e i r appearance among t h e Shakers and Mormons i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s . Simul-t a n e o u s l y an outbreak was recorded i n Rus s i a i n 1855 and s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r i n Armenia. E a r l y Methodism a l s o had a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c i d e n c e and r e p o r t s o f unusual s p i r i t u a l hap-penings i n c r e a s e d w i t h t h e impact o f the Wesleyan r e v i v a l s . I t i s thought t h a t i t was perhaps John Wesley's f a v -o u r a b l e a t t i t u d e towards tongues t h a t l a i d the b a s i s f o r the u p r i s i n g o f the P e n t e c o s t a l s e c t s . H o l i n e s s groups had r i s e n w i t h i n Methodism i n response to the c o n t r o v e r s y t h a t had been aroused by t h e a m b i g u i t i e s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Wesley's doc-t r i n e o f s a n c t i f i c a t i o n . U s i n g t h e concept as one o f the c o r n e r s t o n e s o f h i s theology, Wesley seems to have allowed f o r both ' p r o g r e s s i v e s a n c t i f i c a t i o n * ; t h a t i s , a gradual growth toward p e r f e c t i o n , and f o r * e n t i r e s a n c t i f i c a t i o n * o r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a t t a i n i n g immediate and t o t a l p e r f e c t i o n o f l o v e . Those o f h i s f o l l o w e r s who s t r e s s e d the l a t t e r 24 u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the d o c t r i n e o r g a n i z e d r e v i v a l s designed t o l e a d people to the experience o f e n t i r e s a n c t i f i c a t i o n . The movement grew t o such an extent t h a t i t caused concern among Methodist l e a d e r s of the time and r e s u l t e d i n an open s p l i t between h o l i n e s s and n o n - h o l i n e s s f a c t i o n s j u s t p r i o r t o the t u r n o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . B i r t h and Growth o f the P e n t e c o s t a l Sect The P e n t e c o s t a l s e c t , born s h o r t l y a f t e r the t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , was r e l a t e d t o , but d i s t i n c t from the h o l i n e s s movements which had found t h e i r o r i g i n s i n n i n e t e e n t h century Methodism. The r e v i v a l s s i g n a l i n g t h e onset o f P e n t e c o s t a l -ism were known as fFoursquare G o s p e l 1 r e v i v a l s ; t h e i r funda-mentals b e i n g e n t i r e s a n c t i f i c a t i o n , the baptism of the Holy S p i r i t , f a i t h h e a l i n g and the p r e m i l l e n n i a l coming o f C h r i s t . The movement took shape around one C h a r l e s F. Parnham, a former Methodist clergyman and founder of the B e t h e l B i b l e C o l l e g e i n Topeka, Kansas. The s t u d e n t s i n attendance at t h e C o l l e g e had been given t h e assignment o f r e s e a r c h i n g b i b l i c a l r e f e r e n c e to the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t . Upon -c o n c l u s i o n of the study t h e r e was unanimous agreement among t h e students t h a t the one evidence which c o u l d be r e p e a t e d l y found w i t h r e f e r e n c e to the o c c u r r e n c e of the baptism was t h a t o f g l o s s o l a l i a . The group, on r e a c h i n g t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , t u r n e d to p r a y e r and contemplation with the r e s u l t t h a t sev-e r a l of the s t u d e n t s broke out i n tongues. Parnham h i m s e l f had the experience and j o i n e d w i t h h i s students i n s p r e a d i n g t h e word by means of e v a n g e l i s t i c campaigns. By 1 9 0 3 the movement had spread from Kansas to M i s s o u r i and Texas and i n 1 9 0 5 Parnham opened a B i b l e s c h o o l i n Houston s i m i l a r t o t h e Topeka i n s t i t u t i o n . News of unusual s p i r i t u a l o c currences a t the Houston B i b l e School were r e p o r t e d by a member of a B a p t i s t congre-g a t i o n i n Los Angeles who had v i s i t e d the i n s t i t u t i o n . Cur-i o s i t y aroused by the r e p o r t prompted th e c o n g r e g a t i o n to extend an i n v i t a t i o n t o W. J . Seymour, an e v a n g e l i s t and former student at the s c h o o l , to v i s i t the congregation and preach on the s u b j e c t of the Holy S p i r i t . Seymour h i m s e l f had not r e c e i v e d the g i f t o f the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t but was convinced t h a t i t was an a u t h e n t i c C h r i s t i a n e x p e r i -ence. D u r i n g the course of h i s v i s i t t o the B a p t i s t congre-g a t i o n he had the experience and began to speak i n tongues. A s u b s t a n t i a l number of the members of the c o n g r e g a t i o n con-s e q u e n t l y f o l l o w e d h i s example. The e x t r a o r d i n a r y subsequent events s t i m u l a t e d the i n t e r e s t o f the s u r r o u n d i n g community and the a t t e n t i o n o f the p r e s s was caught. The r e s u l t a n t f r e e a d v e r t i s i n g c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y t o the sudden mushroom-i n g o f the movement t o both n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l fame. In c o n t r a s t t o the s p o r a d i c o u t b u r s t s o f thepphen-omenon reco r d e d i n C h r i s t i a n h i s t o r y p r i o r t o the t w e n t i e t h century P e n t e c o s t a l i s m i n the p r e s e n t c e n t u r y has continued-t o f l o u r i s h and spread. I t must be u n d e r l i n e d t h a t the 26 movement has a wider concern than i t s emphasis on the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t as evidenced by the g l o s s o l a l i c a c t . I t i s , r a t h e r , a theology c e n t e r i n g around t h i s unique e x p e r i -ence, couching i t i n both a moral and a metaphysical frame-work. While the main stream o f C h r i s t i a n i t y has emphasized the view t h a t C h r i s t i a n u n derstanding and i n s i g h t was brought about by a gradual p r o c e s s o f education and maturation, the H o l i n e s s movements, and p a r t i c u l a r l y the P e n t e c o s t a l move-ment, have p r o v i d e d an a l t e r n a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t y . T h e i r s t r e s s has been on a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from w i t h i n . In t h e i r view t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n most o f t e n takes the form o f an event o f r e v -e l a t i o n or r e l i g i o u s i n s i g h t . The awareness of such a t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n or c o n v e r s i o n experience was regarded as a neces-sary p r e r e q u i s i t e to p a r t i c i p a t i n g f u l l y i n the C h r i s t i a n community. I t was a u t h e n t i c a t e d by a r e s u l t a n t s t r i v i n g toward moral p e r f e c t i o n as based on an understanding of t h e C h r i s t i a n l o v e e t h i c . Attainment of p e r f e c t l o v e was seen as b e i n g p o s s i b l e o n l y by means of the experience of 'grace*. The awareness o f the e x p e r i e n c e of grace was i n s t i t u t i o n a l -i z e d by the H o l i n e s s movements as the * second b l e s s i n g * , i n f a c t the Wesleyan i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e n t i r e s a n c t i f i c a t i o n . G r a d u a l l y the b e l i e f grew t h a t a t h i r d experience was open to C h r i s t i a n b e l i e v e r s i n the form o f the baptism of the Holy S p i r i t , an experience which c a r r i e d the b e l i e v e r i n t o an overwhelming p e r c e p t i o n o f suprahuman l o v e . D e s c r i p t i o n 27 o f t h i s s t a t e d e f i e d r a t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n and c o u l d only be communicated by means o f e c s t a t i c u t t e r a n c e . P e n t e c o s t a l i s m , w i t h i t s emphasis on the experience o f the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t , continued to spread throughout t h e f i r s t h a l f o f the p r e s e n t century and although pockets of P e n t e c o s t a l enthusiasm erupted r e p e a t e d l y i n v a r y -i n g l o c a l i t i e s the f e r v o u r o f t h e movement remained c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c a l l y w i t h i n the bounds o f lower socio-economic c l a s s b r a c k e t s . P e n t e c o s t a l r e l i g i o s i t y was c o n s i d e r e d i n t e l l e c t u -a l l y unacceptable and t h e i r s t y l e o f worship s o c i a l l y i n f e r i o r . G e r l a c h and Hine p o i n t out t h a t some t w e n t y - f i v e or t h i r t y r e g i o n a l or n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s were encompassed by the P e n t e c o s t a l s e c t s , the l a r g e s t b e i n g the Assemblies o f God. These ' s e c t s 1 are d e s c r i b e d i n s o c i o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e as: a p p e a l i n g to the s o c i a l l y or economically d e p r i v e d (Pope, 1 9 4 2 ; Johnson, 1 9 6 1 ; Harper, 1 9 6 3 ; E l i n s o n , 1 9 6 5 ) ; to the s o c i a l l y d i s o r g a n i z e d ( H o l t , 1940 ; Cohn, 1957) O'Dea, I 9 6 0 ; Talmon, 1 9 6 2 ) ; and, p o s s i b l y to the p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y disadvantaged (Cutton, 1 9 2 7 ; A l l a n d , 1 9 6 1 ) . ! 3 However d u r i n g the l a s t decade t h i s t r e n d has undergone dramatic change. While the e s t a b l i s h e d P e n t e c o s t a l churches are e x p e r i e n c i n g an i n c r e a s e i n membership t h a t i s s a i d t o o u t s t r i p a l l o t h e r denominations i n both the U n i t e d S t a t e s and South America, the C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal Movement—another phenomenon—is g a i n i n g momentum i n the r o u t i n e [ t h i s term i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y t o the w r i t e r but has been used f o r l a c k of adequate a l t e r n a t i v e s ] denominations. 28 The C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal Movement T h i s new movement, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the experi e n c e o f the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t , has broken out o f i t s s e c t a r i a n context and i s s p r e a d i n g through the o r g a n i z e d churches a p p a r e n t l y undeterred by c l a s s b a r r i e r s o r i n t e l -l e c t u a l d i s d a i n . Communal networks t i e d by a common under-s t a n d i n g and experience o f the charisma o f the Holy S p i r i t a r e p e n e t r a t i n g the d i v i s i o n s o f denomination. New l i a i s o n s a r e coming i n t o b e i n g . New p o l a r i t i e s are b e i n g formed. T r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f c i r c u m s c r i b i n g v a r y i n g t h e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s a re d i s i n t e g r a t i n g and new ones are emerging. While the l i n e s o f f a i t h a re b e i n g redrawn and for m e r l y u n l i k e l y ecumenical groupings are c r e a t e d , d i v i s i o n s too are rearra n g e d and accentuated. The C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal Movement i s by d e f i n i t i o n C h r i s t i a n renewal based on a r e t u r n t o the New Testament wit n e s s of the charisma, the grace, favour o r g i f t o f the S p i r i t o f God as rep r e s e n t e d by Jesus C h r i s t and promised t o h i s f o l l o w e r s . I t i s a s p i r i t u a l renewal, having a con-c e r n f o r the u n i f i c a t i o n o f man w i t h h i s C r e a t o r and thus i n i t i a t i n g a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f b e i n g . The f u n c t i o n o f the S p i r i t and the church i s to make C h r i s t , who l i v e s a t t h e r i g h t hand o f the Fat h e r , a symbol f o r h i s u n i t y w i t h the God-head; to make C h r i s t present a l s o i n the p l u r a l , so t h a t t h e l i v i n g a c t i o n o f C h r i s t , the redeeming l o v e o f C h r i s t , can procure throughout h i s t o r y 2 9 and can t r a n s f o r m the world. T h i s i s the testimony, b a s i c a l l y , of the S c r i p t u r e . The S p i r i t i s sent i n the p r i m i t i v e group of b e l i e v e r s , who are k i n d of f r i g h t e n e d and scared about t h e whole t h i n g and huddled t o - g e t h e r i n the upper room f o r f e a r of what s o c i e t y w i l l t h i n k o f them. And the S p i r i t descends on them, and r e c e i v i n g t h e S p i r i t they are transformed from a group o f f r i g h t e n e d people i n t o a v i b r a n t v i t a l community which i s no l o n g e r j u s t a group of i n d i v i d u a l s but i s now c a l l e d the body of C h r i s t ; t h a t i s , an e x t e n s i o n o f the p e r -son o f C h r i s t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y i n h i s t o r y , made up of the members of H i s body, th e people who b e l i e v e i n Him and are f i l l e d w i t h H i s S p i r i t . Thus i t can be s a i d t h a t the purpose o f the S p i r i t i s t o a c t as t h e m y s t i c a l body o f C h r i s t , as the s o u l of the church, to g i v e i t l i f e , t o g i v e i t power so t h a t Jesus can work through t h e church and c o n t i n u e to appeal to and speak t o a l l men.14 The C h a r i s m a t i c R e v i v a l , a l s o known as Neo-Pentecostalism, gained s u f f i c i e n t p r o p o r t i o n s t o begin making newspaper h e a d l i n e s i n the 1 9 5 0 ' s . While i t s h i s t o r y i s too contem-po r a r y to be s e q u e n t i a l l y o r g a n i z e d and documented the main t h r u s t s of t h e renewal movement can be i s o l a t e d . P u b l i c a t t e n t i o n was f i r s t drawn t o the e x i s t e n c e of the C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal Movement when Time magazine p u b l i s h e d an a r t i c l e on F a t h e r Dennis Bennett, at t h a t time Rector o f one o f the l a r g e s t E p i s c o p a l churches i n t h e Diocese of Los Angeles. Bennett's i n t e r e s t i n the phenomenon of tongues as an ex-p e r i e n c e o f r e v i t a l i z a t i o n had been s t i r r e d by h i s a c q u a i n t -ance w i t h a couple, l o o s e l y connected w i t h h i s congregation, who t e s t i f i e d to having r e c e i v e d the g i f t o f speaking i n tongues. Bennett, accompanied by a f e l l o w clergyman as w e l l as a number o f i n t e r e s t e d l a y people, began to meet r e g u l a r l y with t h i s c o u p l e f o r study. Bennett r e c a l l s t h a t h i s 30 ambivalence r e g a r d i n g the e x p e r i e n c e p e r s i s t e d even a f t e r h i s own i n i t i a l e xperience. He c l a i m s he d i d not, a t the onset o f h i s i n i t i a t i o n i n t o the g l o s s o l a l i c a c t , a t t a c h any p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the event. He r e c a l l s , however, t h a t suddenly I r e a l i z e d what I was d o i n g . I t became c l e a r , p e r f e c t l y c l e a r . I knew God the Holy S p i r i t whom I had never d i r e c t l y experienced i n my l i f e b e f o r e was p u t t i n g these words on my l i p s . He was g u i d -i n g and I was l e t t i n g Him. He was not t a k i n g over; I had l e t the words come and I c o u l d stop at any time . . . these words were b e i n g formed i n a language I had never heard, s a y i n g and express-i n g t o God the Father, through C h r i s t , a l l the t h i n g s I had always wanted to say t o God but had never been a b l e to say. I had not known how to say them i n my own language. Somehow t h i s language seemed more e l o q u e n t . 1 5 The e f f e c t o f Bennett's experience was t h a t many o f h i s con-g r e g a t i o n , with h i s encouragement, began ,to speak i n tongues. E v e n t u a l l y t e n s i o n mounted between the tongue speaking and non-tongue speaking f a c t i o n s w i t h i n the congregation and Bennett submitted h i s r e s i g n a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g an i n t e r i m o f r e t r e a t , d u r i n g which time he r e a s s e s s e d h i s p o s i t i o n , he r e c e i v e d an appointment to S t . Luke's E p i s c o p a l church on t h e o u t s k i r t s of S e a t t l e , a s m a l l d e c a y i n g congregation where i t appeared t h a t he c o u l d do no harm. He r e s o l v e d to say n o t h i n g about h i s experience u n t i l ] he was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h h i s new f l o c k but i t was only a matter of weeks a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l t h a t t h e Time a r t i c l e appeared and h i s i d e n t i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d . C u r i o s i t y on t h e p a r t of the c o n g r e g a t i o n f o r c e d him to make a p u b l i c statement. The immediate i n t e r -e s t he evoked warranted the f o r m a t i o n of a study group and w i t h i n a few months s e v e r a l o f t h e members a l s o began to speak i n tongues. Bennett has s t a t e d t h a t s i n c e h i s appoint-ment to S t . Luke's t e n years ago more than ten thousand i n d i v i d u a l s have been l e d through h i s m i n i s t r y t o r e c e i v e t h e experience of the Holy S p i r i t . S p i r i t u a l renewal, accompanied by g l o s s o l a l i a , has a l s o made i t s appearance on v a r i o u s u n i v e r s i t y campuses. One of the i n i t i a l contemporary e x p r e s s i o n s o f the phenomenon o c c u r r e d at Y a l e u n i v e r s i t y i n the e a r l y s i x t i e s . More r e -cent outpourings have been r e p o r t e d from Michigan S t a t e , Duquesne, and Notre Dame u n i v e r s i t i e s . Not a l l the c u r r e n t i n c i d e n c e s of c l u s t e r s o f c h a r i s m a t i c renewal can be recorded but mention must be made of the upsurge of the movement i n t h e ranks of Roman C a t h o l i c i s m . In 1 9 6 7 at Duquesne u n i v e r -s i t y two C a t h o l i c laymen came a c r o s s documentation of r e c e n t e x p e r i e n c e s o f the Holy S p i r i t . They were a t t r a c t e d t o what they d i s c o v e r e d and immediately began to meet w i t h an A n g l i -can c h a r i s m a t i c study group i n whose midst they r e c e i v e d the g i f t o f the baptism. The movement given b i r t h i n t h i s group a t Duquesne spread r a p i d l y t o i n c l u d e approximately t h i r t y i n d i v i d u a l s . By March 1 9 6 7 i t had been c a r r i e d t o Notre Dame and by June of that y e a r the community on t h a t campus made up o f those who shared the experience c o n s i s t e d o f one hundred and f i f t y p e o p l e . Meanwhile the number i n P i t t s b u r g h 32 had climbed to sixty and at Michigan State another f i f t y or so were involved. With the gathering of a wide representa-t i o n of the Roman Catholic e c c l e s i a s t i c a l community at summer school at Notre Dame that year the news of charismatic re-newal was d i s t r i b u t e d across the country and by A p r i l of 1969 a Congress of Catholic Pentecostals took place at Notre Dame with at lea s t three hundred persons, mostly members of r e l i g i o u s or academic communities, i n attendance. The Local Movement Comments regarding the expression of the movement i n Vancouver are speculative. Perhaps the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c statement that can be made i s the re t i c u l o s e nature of the movement which makes any attempt at d e f i n i t i o n or loc a t i o n v i r t u a l l y impossible. As elsewhere the par t i c i p a n t s repre-sent a spectrum of denominational a f f i l i a t i o n . An in d i c a t i o n of the ecumenical scope of the movement can be i l l u s t r a t e d by personal contact with Catholic, Anglican, Baptist, Lutheran, Mennonite, Salvation Army and United Church participants-by the writer. The cohesion of the movement i s attained by meetings of a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of small prayer groups as well as by means of staging charismatic events which are attended by the entire p a r t i c i p a t i n g community. While i t i s impos-s i b l e to estimate the numerical strength of the movement i t i s noteworthy that i n May 1969 the auditorium of John Oliver High School, with a seating capacity of f i f t e e n hundred was f i l l e d f o r the occasion of a v i s i t i n g charismatic convert. 33 The movement i s s t i m u l a t e d by the a b l e l e a d e r s h i p and p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s whose concern and c o n v i c t i o n a re p e r s u a s i v e . Mention must be made o f u n t i r i n g e f f o r t s by a l o c a l P e n t e c o s t a l m i n i s t e r . She i s supported i n her e f f o r t s both by c h a r i s m a t i c c o l l e a g u e s o f ot h e r de-nominations and by the congr e g a t i o n she s e r v e s . Although t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n g r e g a t i o n adheres to the or g a n i z e d Pente-c o s t a l Assemblies i t i s unique i n composition. 'Hidden* P e n t e c o s t a l s stream through t h e church and i t i s a r a r e o c c a s i o n when the indigenous c o n g r e g a t i o n i s not s p r i n k l e d w i t h ecumenical r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . I t must be emphasized, however, t h a t the movement i s ' S p i r i t c e n t e r e d ' r a t h e r than o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y based and so the l o c u s o f the movement i s not to be d e f i n e d . Consequently when s e e k i n g t o l o c a t e the movement one must look toward i n d i v i d u a l s r a t h e r than i n s t i -t u t i o n s . T e n t a t i v e Observations Regarding the Act G l o s s o l a l i a , a d e r i v a t i v e o f t h e Greek terms " g l o s s a " meaning tongues and " l a l i a " which r e f e r s t o the a c t of speech, takes two fundamentally d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e forms: p r a y e r and p r o c l a m a t i o n . The f i r s t , p r i m a r i l y used f o r p r i v a t e purposes, i s commonly r e f e r r e d t o as 'speak i n g - i n tongues' w h i l e the second, f u n c t i o n i n g as a s o c i a l a c t , i s known as 'the g i f t o f tongues'. These d i s t i n c t i o n s are not always c l e a r l y a r t i c -u l a t e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t s but are n e v e r t h e l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t t o an und e r s t a n d i n g o f the phenomenon under d i s c u s s i o n . 34 The prime importance o f t h e use of p r a y e r i s as a v e h i c l e of communication w i t h the Holy S p i r i t . P r a i s e and i n t e r c e s s i o n are seen as the essence o f tongues p r a y e r . . . . the language, I was persuaded, was p r a i s e . . . . I found t h a t I c o u l d express e m o t i o n - - f e e l -i n g — t h r o u g h i t t h a t I never c o u l d with c o n s c i o u s language. That I wasn't a l l t i e d up with my con-s c i o u s man-told pr o c e s s e s and t h a t I was a b l e to pour out i n a very f l u e n t tongue j u s t a r e a l f e e l i n g o f p r a i s e f o r God, j u s t a r e a l j o y i n t h i s e x p e r i e n c e . J-6 The a c t o f speaking i n tongues i n the form of p r a y e r assumes s e v e r a l i d e n t i f i a b l e v a r i a t i o n s o f experience and e x p r e s s i o n . The predominant use i s the i n i t i a l event s i g -n i f y i n g the moment o f baptism. Although the i n i t i a l event may occur e i t h e r i n i s o l a t i o n o r i n community i t u s u a l l y f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of a group. D e s c r i b i n g the experience one commentator e x p l a i n s . . . the group moved c l o s e r around me. I t was almost as i f they were formi n g a f u n n e l w i t h t h e i r b o d i es through which was c o n c e n t r a t e d the flow of t h e S p i r i t t h a t was p u l s i n g through the room. I t flowed i n t o me as I s a t t h e r e , l i s t e n i n g to the s p i r i t - s o n g around me. Now the tongues s w e l l e d to a crescendo, musical and l o v e l y . i 7 Tongues are o f t e n m a n i f e s t c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h the a c t o f 'the l a y i n g on of hands', a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p e c u l i a r to t h e P e n t e c o s t a l movements. Emphasis i s p l a c e d on the phys-i c a l communication of the S p i r i t by means o f p l a c i n g hands on t h e i n d i v i d u a l who i s the f o c u s of a t t e n t i o n . E i t h e r the 35 l e a d e r o r some member o f t h e group who i s 'strong i n the S p i r i t ' puts h i s hands on e i t h e r s i d e o f the head or on the sho u l d e r s o f the s u b j e c t and o f f e r s p r a y e r f o r the p a r t i c u l a r needs o f the person. The d o c t r i n e o f the l a y i n g on o f hands as recorded i n the Book of Hebrews i s a c e n t r a l component i n the s t y l e o f P e n t e c o s t a l i s m . P o i n t s of view d i f f e r as t o whether speaking i n tongues i s the r e s u l t o f an a c t of w i l l o r whether i t i s a response t o a f o r c e which i s beyond the c a p a c i t y o f i n d i v i -d u a l c o n t r o l . One a u t h o r i t y i n s i s t s t h a t "the t r u t h of the matter i s t h a t i t i s always an a c t o f w i l l , whether they know i t o r not . . . l i k e you're not be i n g compelled beyond your w i l l . P a u l says 'I w i l l speak' . . . i n other words I de-c i d e d what i t i s I'm going t o do, and the sooner people understand t h a t the sooner they get l i b e r t y t o r e l a x i n t o i t all."-*-® Another commentator o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g de-s c r i p t i o n : With a sudden b u r s t o f w i l l I t h r u s t my hands i n t o t h e a i r , turned my f a c e f u l l upward and at the top o f my v o i c e I shouted: ' P r a i s e the Lord ! ' I t was the f l o o d g a t e opened. From deep i n s i d e me, deeper than I knew v o i c e c o u l d go came a t o r r e n t o f j o y -f u l sound. I t was not b e a u t i f u l l i k e the tongues around me. I had the impression t h a t i t was ugly, e x p l o s i v e and g r u n t i n g . I d i d n ' t c a r e . I t was h e a l i n g , i t was f o r g i v e n e s s , i t was l o v e too deep f o r words and i t b u r s t from me i n wordless sound. A f t e r t h a t one s h a t t e r i n g a ct o f w i l l , my w i l l was r e l e a s e d , f r e e d t o soar i n t o union w i t h Him. No f u r t h e r c onscious e f f o r t was r e q u i r e d o f me at a l l , not even c h o o s i n g the s y l l a b l e s w i t h which t o express my j o y . The s y l l a b l e s were a l r e a d y t h e r e formed f o r my use, more abundant than my e a r t h -3 6 bound l i p s and tongue c o u l d g i v e shape t o . I t was not t h a t I f e l t out o f c o n t r o l o f the s i t u a t i o n : I had never f e l t more t r u l y master of myself, more i n t e g r a t e d and at peace w i t h the w a r r i n g f a c t i o n s i n s i d e myself. I c o u l d stop the tongues at any i n s t a n t but who would? I wanted them never to s t o p . And so I prayed on, l a u g h i n g and f r e e . 1 9 D e l i b e r a t e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the event may or may not have been made. While a l l those who embark on the experience have had some p r e v i o u s knowledge c o n c e r n i n g the content o f the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t may not have been w i t h i n t h e i r frame of r e f e r e n c e . Consequently c e r t a i n p e o p l e enter i n t o the experience w i t h l i t t l e or no a n t i c i p a -t i o n and f i n d themselves the o b j e c t of t h e i r own and other p e o p l e ' s s u r p r i s e . . . . t h i s guy i n our church not l o n g ago; he came q u i t e by a c c i d e n t . H i s w i f e had been on the f r i n g e s o f the C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal and she got him t o b r i n g her to t h e meeting . . . He thought w e l l , he wouldn't s i t o u t s i d e . But he wasn't the s l i g h t e s t - b i t i n t e r e s t e d . . . but anyway, we were g e t t i n g on toward the end of our s e r v i c e and t h i s man, s i t t i n g a l i t t l e b i t i n f r o n t of me, got red a l l over and looked as though he were going to explode, and then he began t o speak i n very s t r a n g e s o r t of sounds. They weren't coming out very c l e a r l y and i t was a l i t t l e b i t odd . . . and then i t came out, flowed j u s t c l e a r l y out . . . I understand she'd been speaking about t h i s a l l and he was q u i t e open to the i d e a t h a t whatever God was d o i n g God was doing and so f i n e and dandy, but he wasn't about t o get on the band wagon and she s a i d he came i n t h a t n i g h t and she thought w e l l , he wouldn't be ready f o r a n y t h i n g l i k e t h i s , and t h a t n i g h t he had a very dramatic baptism, and we were a l l a b s o l u t e l y shocked because i t came at a m o s t — l o u d — y o u k n o w — t h c t ' s one of the most r e c e n t examples o f somebody t h a t d i d n ' t come i n a n t i c i p a -t i o n at a l l . 2 0 37 F o l l o w i n g the f i r s t experience i n i t i a t e s may use tongues r e p e a t e d l y o r they may never a g a i n p a r t i c i p a t e i n the phenomenon. . . . through i t I've found p r a y e r a r e a l t h e r a -p e u t i c experience, t h a t any time I'm r e a l l y up-t i g h t about a n y t h i n g or have a problem t h a t I can't work through o r a n y t h i n g I ' l l get o f f by myself and maybe f o r h a l f an hour or an hour o r something I ' l l pray i n a tongue and I can express a l l t he emotion I want through i t . . . I can pray f o r h a l f an hour o r so and i t ' l l go from involvement t o i n t e r c e s s i o n t o a d o r a t i o n and f i n a l l y peace and then suddenly i t ' l l be as i f someone had got up and s a i d good-bye and l e f t , and l e f t you f e e l i n g as though t h a t was a very p l e a s -ant and worthwhile v i s i t and you f e e l l i k e you've spent h a l f an hour o r so wit h a dear f r i e n d , no r e g r e t s on l e a v i n g at a l l , i t was j u s t over and I c o u l d stop l i k e that.^-*-The i n i t i a l e xperience may occur i n p r i v a t e . I t may come as a sudden overwhelming happening. I went home and I j u s t k n e l t down very b r i e f l y b e f o r e I got i n t o bed and prayed . . . and I l a y down i n bed and s t a r t e d t o t a l k i n tongues . . . and I went on and on and when I s t a r t e d t a l k i n g i n t h i s language . . . then i t was j u s t l i k e the Holy S p i r i t came through and cl e a n s e d me.22 On the o t h e r hand i t may be a gradual p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g a s k i l l . I s t i l l hadn't s a i d a n y t h i n g and I c e r t a i n l y hadn't spoken i n tongues which I would l i k e to have done . . . I decided i t was now o r never because I j u s t c o u l d n ' t take t h i s anymore, wanting t h i s and not having i t . I t r i e d i t by myself and found out I c o u l d speak i n tongues too i f I t r i e d . I wasn't sure f o r a few days and then I was sure 38 because people l i k e me j u s t do a b i t to begin with, a few words, and as you use i t i t ' s better.2 3 Tongues used i n p r a y e r may be sung i n chorus; a s t y l e known as s i n g i n g i n the S p i r i t . The content of t h i s form i s always p r a i s e . Soon th e whole room was s i n g i n g a complicated harmony without a s c o r e , c r e a t e d spontaneously. I t was e e r i e but e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y b e a u t i f u l . The song l e a d e r was no l o n g e r t r y i n g to d i r e c t the music, but l e t the melodies c r e a t e themselves: without prompting one q u a r t e r o f t h e room would suddenly s t a r t to s i n g very l o u d l y w h i l e the o t h e r s subsided. Harmonies and counter-harmonies wove i n and out of each other.24 V a r i a t i o n s of tongues f o r the purpose o f p r a y e r i n c l u d e : p r i -v a t e p r a y e r spoken i n i s o l a t i o n , p r i v a t e p r a y e r spoken i n pub-l i c , i n d i v i d u a l and unco-ordinated communal ex p r e s s i o n , i n -a u d i b l y mouthed u t t e r a n c e s , and l y r i c a l common exp r e s s i o n as i n s i n g i n g i n the S p i r i t . The ' g i f t o f tongues' as d i s t i n c t from 'speaking i n tongues' takes the form of p u b l i c p r o c l a m a t i o n ; the essence o f i t s content b e i n g a message from God t o H i s people. A p u b l i c tongues statement i s b e l i e v e d to c o n t a i n a comment which i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e l i f e o f t h e community. While any i n d i v i d u a l who has r e c e i v e d the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t i s e l i g i b l e t o r e c e i v e the g i f t o f tongues not every-one i n f a c t becomes a r e c i p i e n t . The use o f tongues f o r purposes o f p r o c l a m a t i o n i s an i n d i v i d u a l a c t . E x p r e s s i o n assumes a preeminent p o s i t i o n i n the g a t h e r i n g and the speaker i s accorded the a t t e n t i o n of the e n t i r e gcoup 39 i n t e n t i s t o address the innermost concerns of e i t h e r some i n d i v i d u a l p r e s e n t or the gathered assembly i t s e l f . Use o f t h e p u b l i c ' g i f t ' i s s u b j e c t to c e r t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s . I t i s a r e a f f i r m a t i o n o f a Word a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e to the congrega-t i o n i n order to e f f e c t p e r s o n a l s p i r i t u a l r e c r e a t i o n . I t must not c o n t a i n new concepts and i s p r o p h e t i c o n l y i n so f a r as i t r e v e a l s the w i l l o f God f o r the p a r t i c u l a r o c ca-s i o n . Emphasis o f content i s l i m i t e d to ' e d i f i c a t i o n , ex-h o r t a t i o n , p r a i s e and c o m f o r t 1 . The g i f t o f tongues may assume one of two forms: known o r unknown tongues. P r o c l a m a t i o n i n a known language which i s u n f a m i l i a r to the speaker i s not common although i t i s g iven credence by numerous recorded instances. — t o l d o f an example where he was p a s t o r and the p a s t o r a l f u n c t i o n i s to see t h a t n o t h i n g unseemly tak e s p l a c e ; t h a t i n t h e middle o f a l l t h i s b e l i e f i n New Testament occurrences you don't get o f f i n t o extremes and i r r e s p o n s i b l e t h i n g s , because a f t e r a l l you're d e a l i n g with people . . . Anyway t h i s person spoke and he thought 'Oh boy, we've got guests t h i s morning and l i s t e n to t h a t ' . But i t t u r n e d out that what d i d n ' t sound l i k e a l a n -guage to him was i n f a c t an A f r i c a n d i a l e c t and somebody was t h e r e who i d e n t i f i e d the language.^ 5 Most p u b l i c tongues statements are made i n an unknown l a n -guage; t h a t i s , v e r b a l p a t t e r n s h a v i n g no c o g n i t i v e order. When the g i f t i s expressed i n t h i s manner i t i s mandatory t h a t i t be accompanied by an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , most o f t e n g i v e n by someone o t h e r than the person who has spoken i n tongues. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are r e s t r i c t e d i n content and 40 f u l f i l t h e i r f u n c t i o n when they are a b l e to s t i m u l a t e an awareness of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s most i n t i m a t e and p r e s s i n g concerns. "He comes i n and he hears the s e c r e t s o f h i s h e a r t expounded." Someone has been s i t t i n g a l l day l o n g and they've had a problem and i t ' s j u s t d r i v i n g them up the w a l l and they walk i n t o the s e r v i c e and some simple l i t t l e person they've never met b e f o r e g i v e s out a message and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and i t t u r n s out to touch e x a c t l y on t h e i r problem.2 6 The form of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f a meta-p h o r i c a l comment having b i b l i c a l r e f e r e n c e . P u b l i c Worship t A D e s c r i p t i v e Response D i f f e r e n c e s i n the s t y l e o f P e n t e c o s t a l worship are determined both by the composition o f the group and the p a r -t i c u l a r o c c a s i o n . V a r i a t i o n s e x i s t i n forms of worship, r a n g i n g from o l d - l i n e P e n t e c o s t a l s at the one extreme, whose worship i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y a c t i v e , l o u d and i n f o r m a l , t o t h e newer independent Neo-Pentecostal groupings, at the o t h e r , whose p u b l i c e x p r e s s i o n i s comparatively subdued and l i t u r g i c a l . S p o ntaneity b e i n g o f key importance i n Pente-c o s t a l worship, an unusual degree o f i n t u i t i o n i s r e q u i r e d on the p a r t o f the l e a d e r s i n a s s e s s i n g the atmosphere or S p i r i t o f the group. P u b l i c worship i s regarded as a com-munal response to the movement o f the Holy S p i r i t but t h e r e a r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s , c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s imposed i n order to p r e s e r v e and s t i m u l a t e group i d e n t i t y . Worship 41 i s not expressed as a response t o p r e - s e t l i t u r g i c a l d i c -t a t e s . I n s t e a d a l i t u r g i c a l p a t t e r n i s spontaneously evolved from the e x i s t e n t i a l a c t . In a t t e m p t i n g to d e s c r i b e the worship event m u s i c a l metaphors come to the f o r e . A m o t i f i s p r o v i d e d by s e v e r a l s e t c o n s t i t u e n t s : communal s i n g i n g , p r a y e r , testimony, s c r i p t u r e r e a d i n g and sermon. Weaving around t h i s b a s i c theme i s a f u g a l p a t t e r n o f spontaneous v o c a l e x p r e s s i o n , at times i n chorus and a t o t h e r times as s o l o . While the beat changes wi t h the thematic v a r i a t i o n s the rhythm remains con-t i n u o u s and i s not allowed to i n t e r r u p t the flow of the s e r -v i c e by coming to a f u l l h a l t u n t i l the very end. There i s a rhythmic ebb and flow t o t h e s e r v i c e , each climax s e r v i n g t o r e i n f o r c e the p r e v i o u s one. Ornamentation i s p r o v i d e d by spontaneously i n t e r j e c t e d r i p p l e s of u t t e r a n c e s o f p r a i s e a r i s i n g from the c o n g r e g a t i o n . The f i n a l climax i s g e n e r a l l y r e s e r v e d t i l l t h e end of the s e r v i c e and may b u r s t i n t o a p l e t h o r a of P e n t e c o s t a l e x p e r i e n c e s : c o n v e r s i o n s , healings,, p r a y e r and baptism. Impressions o f a P a r t i c u l a r S e r v i c e The church, a simple, f l a t r o o f e d s t r u c t u r e , i s i d e n t i f i a b l e o n l y by an u n p r e t e n t i o u s s i g n e r e c t e d i n f r o n t o f the b u i l d i n g . As I enter I am greeted by a s m e l l of f r e s h p a i n t , a young man g r i n n i n g a welcome and the sound of the u n f a m i l i a r combination of a c c o r d i a n , piano and e l e c t r i c organ 42 i m p r o v i s i n g on an o l d gospel hymn tune. The chorus i s r e -peated time and again as the congregation d r i f t s i n t o the sanctuary. The p u l p i t i s s e t i n the c e n t e r f r o n t o f the chan c e l a g a i n s t a backdrop o f a c o l o u r f u l p a i n t i n g d e p i c t i n g a p a s t o r a l scene. Immediately behind the p u l p i t are s e t s e v e r a l rows of s e a t s f a c i n g the congr e g a t i o n . As the room f i l l s I become aware of b e i n g i n the midst o f an u n u s u a l l y heterogeneous s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g : o l d and young—even i n f a n t s ; i n t e l l e c t u a l s and the i g n o r a n t ; h e a l t h y and d i s a b l e d ; p r o -f e s s i o n a l and u n s k i l l e d ; upper and lower c l a s s , as w e l l as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from a v a r i e t y o f other denominations. E v e n t u a l l y the c h o i r , the prea c h e r s , and a few ot h e r s who a r e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the l e a d e r s h i p o f the s e r v i c e f i l e i n t o the s e a t s behind the p u l p i t . The music i s i n t e r r u p t e d by a v o i c e s i n g i n g ' p r a i s e the Lord, p r a i s e the Lord'. A t a l l young man s t e p s i n t o the p u l p i t and i n v i t e s the con g r e g a t i o n to stand w i t h me as we begin our s e r v i c e t o n i g h t -p r a i s e the L o r d — I t h i n k we ought to look to the Lord r i g h t at the b e g i n n i n g and ask Him to be wit h us i n a mighty way. I'm l o o k i n g forward to the moving o f God i n the meeting t o n i g h t — p r a i s e H i s w i n d e r f u l name (echoes and amens) p r a i s e the name of Jesus, p r a i s e the name of Jesus, p r a i s e God, p r a i s e God! Brother — w i l l you l e a d us i n pray e r ? An o l d e r man, d i g n i f i e d i n appearance, o f f e r s up an impromptu i n v o c a t i o n . H i s p r a y e r i s s e t to a background of i n t e r -s persed phrases o f p r a i s e r i s i n g at random from v a r i o u s 4 3 members of the c o n g r e g a t i o n . The p a r t i c i p a n t s appear un-s e l f c o n s c i o u s and t o t a l l y absorbed i n the a c t of worshipping. They seem not the s l i g h t e s t concerned as to whether o r not they are d i s p l a y i n g a p p r o p r i a t e s o c i a l behaviour. The prayer ends with a request t h a t "everyone w i l l be b l e s s e d o f God t h i s n i g h t , i n Jesus name. Amen." The next song i s enthu-s i a s t i c a l l y i n t r o d u c e d w i t h an a f f i r m a t i o n of i t s message, I've b e l i e v e d the True Report, H a l l e l u j a h to the Lamb. You know i t i s a t r u e r e p o r t . The Lord Jesus i s R i s e n from the grave and t h a t i s the hope we b u i l d our s a l v a t i o n o n — i s t h a t Jesus i s a l i v e today and He's a l i v e i n our h e a r t s . Many people have f e l t the power of the LIVING God i n t h e i r l i v e s and t h a t has broken the c h a i n of s i n which n o t h i n g e l s e c o u l d b r e a k — n o other person c o u l d break—'but the Lord Jesus C h r i s t , the LIVING power of the LIVING God has done t h i s . So t o n i g h t we've b e l i e v e d the t r u e r e p o r t — p r a i s e the name of J e s u s . The s i n g i n g i s i n t e r r u p t e d by an i n v i t a t i o n f o r the congrega-t i o n to stand up so t h a t they can p a r t i c i p a t e with g r e a t e r v i g o u r . As t h e melody p r o g r e s s e s the people begin to j o i n i n c l a p p i n g out the rhythm. The song i s f o l l o w e d by another o u t b u r s t of p r a i s e u t t e r a n c e s and an unannounced chorus o f "The Wonder of I t A l l , the Wonder of I t A l l , J u s t t o Think That Jesus Loves Me." A l o n g e r i n t e r j e c t i o n o f p r a i s e f o l -lows with the l e a d e r r e p e a t i n g the phrase " p r a i s e the name of J e s u s " at l e a s t eighteen times. Another a f f i r m a t i o n o f the f a i t h and a statement o f g r a t i t u d e f o r the o p p o r t u n i t y t o worship God. The song " I W i l l S i n g of My Redeemer" i s announced; again preceded by an i n t r o d u c t i o n u n d e r l i n i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the message contained i n the song. The chorus i s repeated s e v e r a l times. Next t h e c h o i r c o n t r i b u t e s a number which i s m e l o d i c a l l y s i m i l a r to the p r e v i o u s m u s i c a l e x p r e s s i o n s , thus r e i n f o r c i n g the h y p n o t i c e f f e c t of the r e p e t i t i o u s melodies and rhythms. The mood of s e l f abandoned communal p a r t i c i p a t i o n c r e a t e d by the i n t e r t w i n i n g o f a f f i r -mations and rhythms i s now a b r u p t l y d i s r u p t e d by a c h a l l e n g -i n g i n v i t a t i o n f o r anyone who had "a word f o r the L o r d " to share i t w i t h the group. The-response, though not immediate-l y e n t h u s i a s t i c , gains momentum as more and more i n d i v i d u a l s b egin to c o n t r i b u t e . A middle aged man w i t h a n o t a b l e Euro-pean accent i s the f i r s t t o t e s t i f y . He i s f o l l o w e d by the i n c o h e r e n t m u t t e r i n g s of a p a r a p l e g i c s i t t i n g a t the r e a r o f t h e room i n h i s wheelchair. H i s w i f e i n t e r p r e t s h i s e f f o r t s s a y i n g , "He wants to thank the Lord . . ." Another r i p p l e o f p r a i s e , a few i n f o r m a l comments and an e n t h u s i a s t i c round o f " H a l l e l u j a h , I want t o S i n g A l l About I t . . . P r a i s e God." More t e s t i m o n i e s — a n i n c i d e n t o f f a i t h h e a l i n g — a c l o s e harmony t r i o by t h r e e teenaged g i r l s e n t i t l e d "Jesus Holds the Key." Then the m i n i s t e r , who has u n t i l t h i s p o i n t p a r t i c i p a t e d s i l e n t l y , moves i n t o the p u l p i t to take over the remainder of the s e r v i c e . J u s t as she i s about to b e g i n speaking a v o i c e , o b v i o u s l y e x p r e s s i n g the g i f t o f tongues, i n t e r r u p t s . The m i n i s t e r immediately moves to one s i d e , thereby i n d i c a t i n g the preeminence of the tongues speaker. 45 The u t t e r a n c e seems to be an e x p l o s i o n of emotional i n t e n s i t y . The s t y l e o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r episode i s r e m i n i s c e n t of a com-p l e x German sentence, c o n t a i n i n g numerous c l a u s e s and s t r e t c h -i n g t o paragraph l e n g t h . I t i s u n u s u a l l y e x p r e s s i v e , both i n tone and i n t e n s i t y . V e r b a l i z a t i o n i s f r e e f l o w i n g and mod-e r a t e l y r a p i d . A young man s i t t i n g i n the c h o i r l o f t immedi-a t e l y r i s e s t o h i s f e e t t o i n t e r p r e t . H i s eyes c l o s e d , h i s hands clenched and keeping time to the rhythm o f h i s own speech with the upper p a r t of h i s body he r e p e a t s : I am the r e s u r r e c t i o n and the l i f e , Though ye were dead y e t s h a l l ye l i v e . Yea I can quicken your s p i r i t s t h a t ye may see s p i r i t u a l t r u t h s , So t h a t ye can hear my S p i r i t speak to your h e a r t s , So t h a t you can understand My word, I repeat, I am the r e s u r r e c t i o n and the l i f e and I can g i v e unto you My S p i r i t . For I have c r e a t e d you f o r My g l o r y and f o r My That I may f i l l you with My j o y honour and with My peace and w i t h My freedom, s a i t h the L o r d . A c o n g r e g a t i o n a l response of " p r a i s e God, g l o r y t o God." A r e q u e s t t h a t the c o n g r e g a t i o n c o n t i n u e to l o o k f o r the S p i r i t t o move as they j o i n i n the s i n g i n g of the hymn "He Arose, He Arose, H a l l e l u j a h C h r i s t Arose." The hymn i s f o l l o w e d by. a f e r v e n t chorus of "Thou A r t Worthy" and then an unannounced and spontaneous e v o l u t i o n i n t o s i n g i n g i n the S p i r i t l e d by t h e m i n i s t e r , whose melodic e x p r e s s i o n moves wit h ease be-tween o r d i n a r y E n g l i s h and tongues. The organ p l a y s s o f t l y , p r o v i d i n g a base f o r the otherwise f r e e melodic l i n e . The 46 c o n g r e g a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e s , each i n d i v i d u a l s i n g i n g h i s own words or tongues and c r e a t i n g h i s own tune w i t h i n the con-t e x t o f the simple harmonic p a t t e r n s e t by the l e a d e r . The e f f e c t i s t h a t of a f r e e , simple, but c o n t r a p u n t a l i n t e r -t w i n i n g of melody. The t o n a l range u t i l i z e d i s narrow, g e n e r a l l y not exceeding i n t e r v a l s l a r g e r than f i f t h s . An-o t h e r p r o c l a m a t i o n i n tongues i s given; t h i s time seemingly l e s s i n t e n s e and exuding a sense o f assurance and i n t e g r a -t i o n . The s y l l a b i c s t r u c t u r e and s t y l e of the u t t e r a n c e i s q u i t e d i s t i n c t from the p r e v i o u s tongues speaker. Again an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o l l o w s , the tone of t h a t too b e i n g g e n t l e r than t h e f i r s t . The m i n i s t e r g i v e s a comment o f r e i n f o r c e -ment, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i f t h e message i s meant f o r anyone i n the c o n g r e g a t i o n they are i n v i t e d to respond to i t . At t h i s p o i n t t h e mood of s p i r i t u a l i t y i s once again broken by a x s e r i e s o f announcements co n c e r n i n g t h e events o f the coming week. The temper of the meeting has s l i p p e d e a s i l y i n t o a r e l a x e d , somewhat amusing ' v i s i t * d e a l i n g with the domestic e s s e n t i a l s o f the c o n g r e g a t i o n a l l i f e . The announcements a r e l e n g t h y , c h a t t y , i n f o r m a l l y and humourously p r e s e n t e d . The o f f e r i n g i s i n t r o d u c e d by an i n s t r u c t i o n t o a member o f t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n to l e a d i n p r a y e r . D u r i n g the t a k i n g o f t h e o f f e r i n g the piano, a c c o r d i a n and organ f i l l t he i n t e r -l u d e w i t h an i m p r o v i z a t i o n on a hymn tune. Next a v o c a l s o l o f o l l o w e d by choruses o f "He's A l i v e For Evermore" and "I've Got Something That the World Can't Give and the World 47 Can't Take I t Away." Another o u t b u r s t of tongues, q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from e i t h e r of the former e x p r e s s i o n s and accom-panied by a l e n g t h y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . More c o n g r e g a t i o n a l s i n g i n g , t h i s time subdued, and the sermon begins with very l i t t l e preamble. The theme i s r e s u r r e c t i o n . The s c r i p t u r e l e s s o n i s taken from the Book o f A c t s . The sermon i s w e l l o r g a n i z e d and presented i n a s t r a i g h t forward manner. I t i s i n essence a restatement o f t h e f a i t h , emphasizing the i d e n -t i f i c a t i o n o f the h i s t o r i c a l Jesus as the Son of God and d e c l a r i n g the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t he was r a i s e d from the dead. A c l o s i n g p r a y e r , a hymn and an i n v i t a t i o n f o r p r a y e r r e -q u e s t s . S e v e r a l o f the men l e a v e t h e i r s e a t s t o arrange the c h a i r s i n an adjacent s e c t i o n of the sanctuary and c l o s e o f f f o l d i n g w a l l thereby i m p r o v i s i n g a s e p a r a t e p r a y e r room. Almost the e n t i r e c ongregation moves to the p r a y e r room. As they r e t u r n to the main p a r t of the sanctuary they j o i n t h o s e who have remained behind, and c l u s t e r s o f c o n v e r s i n g p e o p l e pause b e f o r e l e a v i n g the s a n c t u a r y . ^ 7 Summary Comments I t must be remembered t h a t the P e n t e c o s t a l experience i s b i b l i c a l l y based and not a s e c t a r i a n a c c r e t i o n . What i s ambiguous i s t h e t e x t u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . P e n t e c o s t a l s tend t o i n t e r p r e t and put s t r e s s on the events of Pentecost as s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t u a l o ccurrences and understand the b i b l i c a l r e f e r e n c e s t o T o t h e r tongues' as p o i n t i n g to e c s t a t i c u t t e r -48 ances s i g n i f y i n g the event of the presence o f the Holy S p i r i t . Other C h r i s t i a n t h e o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s l e a n toward a l e s s l i t e r a l understanding. Whatever the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e documentation c o n c e r n i n g the o r i g i n s of the e x p e r i e n c e can be b i b l i c a l l y l o c a t e d and i s t h e r e f o r e a v a i l -a b l e to any i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n . I t i s not c o n t i n g e n t on the acceptance o f a p a r t i c u l a r s e c t a r i a n dogma. H i s t o r i c a l o u t b u r s t s o f the phenomenon a t t e s t t o i t s a v a i l a b i l i t y . I t i s an experience, an a c t , and i s not en-cased i n a s p e c i a l mode of b e l i e f . A ccess to the Holy S p i r i t by means of t h i s experience i s d i r e c t and immediate. I t breaks through the bounds o f d o c t r i n e t o touch the source i n an e x p e r i e n c e . The baptism o f t h e Holy S p i r i t i s a channel to the power and presence o f the C r e a t o r . The contemporary e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s experience i s not unique but can be t r a c e d throughout the h i s t o r y of the C h r i s t i a n church. What i s h i s t o r i c a l l y unique i s the magni-tude of the c u r r e n t e x p r e s s i o n . I t has become one o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e s i n the c r e a t i o n o f new p a t t e r n s and s t r u c t u r e s i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l church and i s the f o c u s o f much c o n t r o v e r s i a l s p e c u l a t i o n . What makes t h i s p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s experience so a t t r a c t i v e f o r study i s t w o f o l d : the experience i s commonly accompanied by an a c t which i s immediately observable and i t b r i n g s w i t h i t changes i n p e r s p e c t i v e and b e h a v i o u r a l p a t -t e r n s which a u t h e n t i c a t e i t . 49 The a c t i t s e l f i s both s u b j e c t i v e , i n t h a t the person d i s c o v e r s h i m s e l f g i v i n g e x t r a o r d i n a r y v o c a l e x p r e s s i o n to an e x p e r i e n c e he i s undergoing, and o b j e c t i v e , i n t h a t i t i s an a u d i b l e p h y s i c a l a c t which i s o b s e r v a b l e t o the bystander. I t s f u n c t i o n s a r e thus both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , s e r v i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y to renew the i n d i v i d u a l and t o r e i n f o r c e t h e f a i t h o f the community. The change i n p e r s p e c t i v e w i t h c o n t i n g e n t b e h a v i o u r a l changes make p o s s i b l e a review o f the m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s l e a d i n g t o the e xperience. The person now views h i s l i f e h i s t o r y from the p o i n t of view o f the experience. A l l p r e -v i o u s a c t i o n i s seen as l e a d i n g up to and c u l m i n a t i n g i n the event. A l l f u t u r e experience i s regarded as a r e f l e c t i o n of i t . The P e n t e c o s t a l experience becomes a p i v o t a l p o i n t from which the person t r a c e s the c o u r s e o f h i s h i s t o r y . He has a t t a i n e d h i s d e s t i n y . 50 Notes •'•Bible, K i n g James V e r s i o n , I s a i a h I I , v s . 1-2, p. 562. 2 I n t e r v i e w , No. F. 3 J o h n L. S h e r r i l l , Thev Sneak W i t h Other Tongues (New Y o r k : Pyramid Books, 1964) , p. 107. 4 I b i d . , p. 107. ^ I n t e r v i e w , No. H. ^ I n t e r v i e w , No. H. 7 B i b l e , K i n g James V e r s i o n , A c t s I I , v s . 1-4. o M o r t o n K e l s e y , Tongue S p e a k i n g , an Experiment i n S p i r i t u a l E x p e r i e n c e (New Y o r k : Doubleday & Co., I n c . , 1964), P . 15. 0 7 I b i d . , p. 33. l O i b i d . , p. 37. ^ E r a r i k S t a g g , E. Glenn H i n s o n , Wayne E. Oates, G l o s s o l a l i a (New Y o r k : Abingdon P r e s s , 1967), p. 47. 1 2 K e l s e y , p. 49 . 1 3 G e r l a c h and H i n e , " F i v e F a c t o r s C r u c i a l I n The Growth and Spread o f A Modern R e l i g i o u s Movement," i n J o u r n a l  F o r The S c i e n t i f i c Study Of R e l i g i o n . V o l . V I I , No. 1, S p r i n g 1968, 24. " ^ Q u o t a t i o n t a k e n from u n p u b l i s h e d t r a n s c r i p t o f a t a p e r e c o r d i n g o f a l e c t u r e g i v e n a t U.B.C. i n Jan u a r y 1968 by F a t h e r K e v i n Ranaghan o f No t r e Dame U n i v e r s i t y , on t h e t o p i c "Renewal o f t h e Ho l y S p i r i t among Roman C a t h o l i c s . " 1 5 K e l s e y , p. 100. """^Interview, No. E. 1 7 S h e r r i l l , p. 122. 18 I n t e r v i e w , No. H. 51 1 9 S h e r r i l l , p. 123. ^ I n t e r v i e w , No. H. 2 1 I n t e r v i e w , No. E. 2 2 I n t e r v i e w , No. A. 2 3 I n t erview, No. B. 2 4 S h e r r i l l , p. 118. 25jnterview, No. H. ^ I n t e r v i e w , No. H. ^ Q u o t a t i o n s d e s c r i b i n g the s e r v i c e of worship are taken from a tape r e c o r d i n g made by the w r i t e r at a l o c a l P e n t e c o s t a l church. CHAPTER I I I THE MAPPING OF SPIRITUAL CAREERS P o r t r a i t s o f the Respondents No. A: A s p i n s t e r i n her m i d - f o r t i e s , a stenographer by p r o f e s s i o n and a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the Lutheran church. She accompanied her f a m i l y i n e m i g r a t i n g from England i n 1948 and i s now r e s i d i n g with her p a r e n t s and an unmarried s i s t e r . A. r e c a l l s t h a t when she was about n i n e o r t e n years of age she was asked by her f a t h e r , who had r e c e n t l y been co n v e r t e d , whether she too would l i k e t o " g i v e her h e a r t to the L o r d . " She s a i d t h a t she would l i k e to do so and made a commitment t o t h a t e f f e c t . S e v e r a l i n c i d e n t s t h a t she r e c a l l s h a v i n g o c c u r r e d s h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s o c c a s i o n assured her t h a t her commitment must have been r e a l o r she would have behaved d i f f e r e n t l y under the circumstances. When A. reached adolescence she entered a p e r i o d d u r i n g which she became very anxious c o n c e r n i n g the v a l i d i t y o f her c h i l d h o o d d e c i s i o n , f e e l i n g t h a t she d i d i n f a c t 'belong to the Lord' but not b e i n g a b l e t o r e c a l l the s p e c i f i c circumstances o f the o c c a s i o n o f her commitment. She remembers wanting d e s p e r a t e l y t o ask her f a t h e r r e g a r d i n g the d e t a i l s o f the moment)but not having t h e courage t o do so. When she d i d f i n d the courage t o q u e s t i o n him h i s response d i d not s a t i s f y 53 h e r c u r i o s i t y . H e r a n x i e t y was f i n a l l y q u i e t e d when s h e came a c r o s s a b o o k c o m p a r i n g t h e e v e n t o f s p i r i t u a l b i r t h t o t h a t o f p h y s i c a l b i r t h . A . ' s p a r e n t s , who w e r e o f W e l s h M e t h o d i s t b a c k g r o u n d , h a d e x p e r i e n c e d a c o n v e r s i o n s h o r t l y a f t e r h e r b i r t h . A s a r e s u l t o f a c o n t r o v e r s y r e g a r d i n g t h e d o c t r i n e o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t a m ongst members o f t h e i r c o n g r e -g a t i o n t h e y became a l i e n a t e d a n d l e f t t h e c h u r c h . A. r e c o l -l e c t s t h a t d u r i n g t h i s t i m e h e r f a t h e r t o o k h e r away f r o m t h e m u s i c t e a c h e r w i t h whom s h e was s t u d y i n g , who h a p p e n e d t o b e l o n g t o t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n i n q u e s t i o n a n d p u t h e r u n d e r t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f someone e l s e . H e r l o v e f o r m u s i c a t t h i s p o i n t t u r n e d t o i n t e n s e d i s l i k e a n d h e r m u s i c a l e d u c a t i o n was s h o r t - c i r c u i t e d . R e g a r d i n g h e r home e n v i r o n m e n t A. com-m e n t s t h a t i t was ' t h e k i n d o f home w h e r e c h i l d r e n w e r e s e e n b u t n o t h e a r d ' . S h e d o e s n o t remember h a v i n g any c l o s e f r i e n d s a n d f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o s h a r e m a t t e r s o f i n t i m a t e c o n c e r n w i t h any o t h e r p e r s o n . A t t h e t i m e h e r f a m i l y came t o Canada A. h a d b e e n e m p l o y e d f o r f i v e y e a r s . S he h a d b e e n v e r y happy w h i l e a t -t e n d i n g c o l l e g e a n d t h o r o u g h l y e n j o y e d h e r c h o s e n p r o f e s s i o n . S h e h a d no d e s i r e w h a t s o e v e r t o e m i g r a t e b u t f e l t s h e h a d no c h o i c e . " I mean, i f my f a t h e r came, we a l l came, t h i s was t h e k i n d o f home we w e r e b r o u g h t up i n , y o u know." A f t e r t h e i n i t i a l m o s t t r y i n g y e a r i n e a s t e r n C a n a d a t h e f a m i l y moved t o t h e p r a i r i e s . A. h a d h a d a l o n g s t a n d i n g a m b i t i o n t o a t t e n d B i b l e S c h o o l a n d s o , a f t e r w o r k i n g f o r a f e w y e a r s , 54 she enrolled i n a Bible School sponsored by the Lutheran denomination. The two years spent there were among the most enjoyable of her l i f e and as a r e s u l t of t h i s happy associa-t i o n A. decided to j o i n the Lutheran church. Not knowing what to do with her l i f e a f t e r completing Bible School she applied for overseas mission work. She was sure the Lord was ' c a l l i n g * her to t h i s work. Being so convinced of the authenticity of her c a l l she was quite unprepared for the r e j e c t i o n of her application with no further explanation than that they had 'prayed about i t and they f e l t i t wasn't the Lord's w i l l ' . She accepted the decision of the author-i t i e s and, though hurt, did not pursue her plans any further. Her parents had meanwhile moved west, leaving her with a younger brother who was at that time engaged to be married to a g i r l of Pentecostal background. A. next re-ceived an i n v i t a t i o n to f i l l a p o s i t i o n i n the southern United States. Her year there was most worthwhile and when she was forced to return at the end of the year to help her s i s t e r care f o r her aging parents she l e f t with great r e l u c -tance. Once i n Vancouver A. s e t t l e d into an orderly routine of working, teaching Sunday School and sharing the domestic r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the home. She r e c a l l s no i n t e r e s t i n g interludes during t h i s period and f e e l s that her l i f e became increasingly s t e r i l e . Her most rewarding relationship was to the young pastor who was serving the congregation to which she belonged and h i s wife. 5 5 A. questioned the p a s t o r c o n c e r n i n g r e p o r t s she had come across r e l a t i n g unusual s p i r i t u a l o c c u r r e n c e s t a k i n g p l a c e among adherents of the C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal Movement. She was amazed t o f i n d t h a t both he and h i s w i f e had had the experie n c e o f the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t and c o u l d speak i n tongues. On d i s c o v e r i n g t h i s she decided immediately t h a t i f they were p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h i s experience she too wanted i t . S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s i t was brought t o her a t t e n -t i o n t h a t an e v a n g e l i s t , a former Lutheran p a s t o r who had been d i s m i s s e d from h i s p a s t o r a l f u n c t i o n s as a r e s u l t o f h i s open a f f i r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the use o f g l o s s o l a l i a , was t o appear a t a s e r i e s o f meetings. A. attended the e n t i r e s e r i e s and tw i c e responded t o the a l t a r c a l l . Both times she was 'blessed* but d i d not r e c e i v e the g i f t o f speaking i n tongues. She was however assured t h a t she would i n due co u r s e . The f o l l o w i n g week she prayed w i t h the p a s t o r and h i s w i f e t h a t she too would r e c e i v e the g i f t . Again she found i t i m p o s s i b l e to respond but was not concerned about i t . That evening, a f t e r she had gone t o bed, she suddenly began to speak and found t h a t she c o u l d not stop, nor d i d she want t o s t o p . The f o l l o w i n g summer she attended camp meetings at which the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned e v a n g e l i s t was the theme speaker. There she r e c e i v e d the evidence o f h e a l i n g , both o f p h y s i c a l a f f l i c t i o n s and of the 'memories*. A. i n s i s t s e m p h a t i c a l l y t h a t her e n t i r e o u t l o o k has been changed. Her 56 c o n n e c t i o n s with the Lutheran church have been maintained but are i n t e r s p e r s e d with v i s i t s t o P e n t e c o s t a l g a t h e r i n g s . No. B: A housewife i n her m i d - t h i r t i e s , married to a lawyer and mother o f t h r e e c h i l d r e n . She was born, r a i s e d and r e s i d e s i n Vancouver. B.'s p a r e n t s were o f i n t e l l e c t u a l bent who had r e j e c t e d the r e l i g i o u s t e a c h i n g s o f t h e i r p a r -e n t s . They were f i r m l y convinced t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e g r i t y r e q u i r e d o p p o s i t i o n to r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . N e v e r t h e l e s s they sent t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o Sunday School i n an e f f o r t t o appease t h e grandparents. B. appeared to be h i g h l y i n t e l l i g e n t and was g i v e n every o p p o r t u n i t y t o develop her i n t e l l e c t u a l po-t e n t i a l . She was an extremely l o n e l y c h i l d , always b e i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l l y ahead and c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y behind her peers. She does not r e c a l l b e i n g c l o s e to any a d u l t s and while she belonged to a v a r i e t y of g i r l s ' groups she remembers c h i e f l y •simply b e i n g very l o n e l y ' . Upon g r a d u a t i n g from h i g h s c h o o l B. e n r o l l e d i n a music school f o r t r a i n i n g and then proceeded t o u n i v e r s i t y . Here she d i s c o v e r e d a number o f c l o s e f r i e n d s and a happy and f u l f i l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e . She p o i n t s out t h a t she d i d not i d e n t i f y with people o f r e l i g i o u s o r i e n t a t i o n and was d i s g u s t e d w i t h o r d i n a r y s e r v i c e s d f worship. Ex-ponents of l i b e r a l theology, she f e l t , d i d not e x p l o i t t h e i n h e r e n t myth and mysticism of the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . At the end o f her t h i r d y e a r she was married and was f o r c e d to l e a v e u n i v e r s i t y . T h i s was a great disappointment to her as she r e g r e t t e d l e a v i n g the f r i e n d s h i p s she had c u l t i v a t e d t h e r e . Her husband was a d e v o u t l y . r e l i g i o u s person as w e l l as b e i n g h i g h l y i n t e l l e c t u a l . B. found t h i s combination d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e g r a t e and was convinced t h a t she would be a b l e to d i s -suade him from h i s r e l i g i o u s i n t e r e s t s . R e a l i z i n g t h a t i n order t o accomplish t h i s g o a l she would have to be b e t t e r versed r e g a r d i n g r e l i g i o u s matters than she was she began to read e x t e n s i v e l y i n the f i e l d of theol o g y and to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e o l o g i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s . Much to her s u r p r i s e she found a great d e a l o f p l e a s u r e i n t h i s endeavour. A c l o s e r e a d i n g o f Robinson's Honest t o God convinced her t h a t i f God c o u l d be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as b e i n g i n the depth o f t h i n g s then i t might a f t e r a l l be p o s s i b l e t o experience God r a t h e r than merely t o absorb f a c t u a l knowledge c o n c e r n i n g Him. Her i n t e r e s t i n mysticism l e d her t o e x p l o r e the f i e l d s o f psy-c h i c phenomena and o c c u l t as a means of e x p e r i e n c i n g God. She became p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t r i g u e d with the w r i t i n g s o f Edgar Caycey, whose work appeared t o her to be a s y n t h e s i s o f m y s t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s i n s i g h t . As a r e s u l t o f her study o f E a s t e r n r e l i g i o n s she was c a p t i v a t e d by t h e emphasis p l a c e d on m e d i t a t i o n and s e t out t o f i n d a group with whom she c o u l d share her enthusiasm. At the same time she was teased by the concept o f the ' l a y i n g on o f hands' as p r a c t i c e d i n Buddhist i n i t i a t i o n procedures. She d i s c u s s e d these matters w i t h a c l o s e f r i e n d and tog e t h e r they decided to i n i t i a t e a group to d e a l with t o p i c s r e l a t e d t o these i n t e r e s t s . The group was or g a n i z e d and an assortment of i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i -c i p a t e d . Meanwhile B, was s e a r c h i n g f o r a worshipping com-munity t h a t would share her p a r t i c u l a r concerns. She j o i n e d a group l e d by a c l a i r v o y a n t whom she had met but the asso-c i a t i o n d i d not l a s t l o n g as "he d i d n ' t l i k e p e o p l e l i k e me around because I knew too?:much." Her next f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n was f a i t h h e a l i n g and she began t o look f o r a group i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s s u b j e c t . Her s k e p t i c i s m r e g a r d i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n a l church and p a r -t i c u l a r l y t he denomination with which she was a s s o c i a t e d i n c r e a s e d . At the same time she was d e s p e r a t e l y i n need of a community. " A l l I wanted was a group!" Meanwhile one o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s o f the i n i t i a l group s t a r t e d by B. and her f r i e n d had made c o n t a c t with her. Being s t r o n g l y a t t r a c t e d t o t h i s person, who was of P e n t e c o s t a l p e r s u a s i o n , B. decided t h a t i t was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r her to attend her f r i e n d ' s church a t l e a s t as a gesture of f r i e n d s h i p . She had had no p r e v i o u s c o n t a c t with P e n t e c o s t a l i s m and knew very l i t t l e about i t . Her response on f i r s t a t t e n d i n g was most f a v o u r a b l e . She r e c a l l s t h a t the a l i v e n e s s was "something r e a l and happy, somehow whatever i n a r t i c u l a t e i n s t i n c t I had f e l t t h a t God was t h e r e . " S i n c e that time she has a l l i e d h e r s e l f i n c r e a s -i n g l y w i t h the group and has had numerable s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i -ences. I t was a c o n s i d e r a b l e time a f t e r her i n t r o d u c t i o n to t h e P e n t e c o s t a l group t h a t B. r e c e i v e d the g i f t o f tongues. The experience f o r her was one o f gradual l e a r n i n g r a t h e r 59 than a sudden dramatic e x p e r i e n c e . She sees the experience as having made a r a d i c a l d i f f e r e n c e to her l i f e and pe r -s p e c t i v e . The s m a l l weekly p r a y e r group i n which she p a r t i -c i p a t e s she f i n d s most s t i m u l a t i n g and f u l f i l l i n g . No. C: A housewife i n her l a t e t w e n t i e s , mother of t h r e e c h i l d r e n , born, r a i s e d and r e s i d e s i n Vancouver. She i s a member of the Un i t e d Church o f Canada. C. r e c a l l s t h a t her c h i l d h o o d was pro b a b l y 'happy 1 although her f a t h e r was at home very l i t t l e and she d i d not f e e l c l o s e t o her mother. I t was a no m i n a l l y C h r i s t i a n home, th e f a m i l y attended worship s e r v i c e s r e g u l a r l y , the c h i l d r e n were sent t o Sunday School and a b s t i n e n c e from the s o - c a l l e d 'worldly p l e a s u r e s * was advocated. C. comments t h a t her s i s t e r r e j e c t e d t h e church as soon as she was p e r m i t t e d t o do so. The f a c t t h a t she h e r s e l f d i d not she a t t r i b u t e s t o a * n a t u r a l r e l i g i o u s bent*. She was a m u s i c a l l y g i f t e d c h i l d and was pushed t o such an extent by her tea c h e r t h a t she began having h e a l t h problems and was f o r c e d t o drop her mus-i c a l e d u c a t i o n . f o r a p e r i o d . When she resumed i t again l a t e r she d i s c o v e r e d thet she had to r e l e a r n a l l t h a t she had p r e -v i o u s l y known. A f t e r g r a d u a t i n g from h i g h s c h o o l she found p a r t time employment and conc e n t r a t e d on f u r t h e r i n g her mus-i c a l c a r e e r . She then entered Teacher T r a i n i n g at U n i v e r s i t y and was married immediately a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g the course. She began t e a c h i n g but found i t most unenjoyable and was f o r c e d 60 to leave before the end of the term because of pregnancy. C. f e e l s now that she rushed into her marriage and that she would not have done so i f she had been given any discourage-ment by either family or frie n d s . She had three children i n l e s s than three years and during t h i s period was h o s p i t a l -ized for severe depression. While at university C. met a g i r l who was a committed C h r i s t i a n and who gave her reading material dealing with r e-l i g i o u s issues. C. says she remembers a time when she de-cided to make a conscious commitment to Christ but that she f e l t no change as a re s u l t of the decision. As her children grew older she began to look f o r a way out of her misery by becoming involved and concerned with other people. This con-cern l e d her into a relat i o n s h i p which she now sees as having been destructive, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r the other person involved. When t h i s relationship terminated C. f e l t more i s o l a t e d and unhappy than ever before. Meanwhile she had heard about a woman with whom she was casually acquainted who had undergone a r a d i c a l transformation. Her si s t e r - i n - l a w had informed her that t h i s woman had "found something that had r e a l l y changed her and made her r e a l l y great." C. promptly contacted the woman to ask her which church she attended and whether i t would be possible for her to go. They made arrangements f o r C. to accompany the woman to the Pentecostal church. How-ever due to vacation interferences the plans had to bejpost-poned. 61 In the meantime C. sought out a g i r l h o o d f r i e n d with whom she had l o s t c o n t a c t . She d i s c o v e r e d t h a t they were as c l o s e as they had been as a d o l e s c e n t s but t h a t the g i r l was now married to a man of P e n t e c o s t a l background and she h e r -s e l f had become a convinced P e n t e c o s t a l . Her f r i e n d asked her to read S h e r r i l l ' s They Speak With Other Tongues. C. was i n t r i g u e d with the book but f e l t t h e experience was not f o r her. S h o r t l y a f t e r her v i s i t t o her f r i e n d C. and the woman mentioned p r e v i o u s l y attended t h e P e n t e c o s t a l church. C. was impressed, r e c a l l i n g t h a t " I j u s t thought, f o r t h e f i r s t time i n my l i f e , t hese people are r e a l l y w o r s h i p p i n g — you know—worshipping a God as though every one o f them t h i n k He's r e a l l y t h e r e . . . " F o l l o w i n g the s e r v i c e she went t o the p r a y e r room where she r e c e i v e d the baptism o f t h e Holy S p i r i t . Her experiences o f the evening were so overwhelming t h a t when she r e t u r n e d home she f e l t h e r s e l f c a p a b l e , f o r t h e f i r s t time, of l o v i n g her husband and break-i n g the b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n t h a t had developed between them. Her husband was so alarmed by her r e p o r t s t h a t he immediately c o n t a c t e d t h e m i n i s t e r o f the church with which they had been a f f i l i a t e d i n o r d e r that he might t r y t o reason with h i s w i f e . C. witnesses to the experience as h a v i n g been l i f e changing f o r her; her r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h her husband i s g r e a t l y im-proved, she now enjoys her c h i l d r e n , she i s capable of e n t e r i n g i n t o 'healthy* r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s whereas b e f o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s she had were ' s i c k ' and she p a r t i -62 c i p a t e s i n a group which she f i n d s both meaningful and t h e r a p e u t i c . While she i s unable t o share her experiences w i t h o t h e r members o f the church she attends she has main-t a i n e d her c o n n e c t i o n s with the congregation and a t t h i s p o i n t does not f e e l drawn to become a formal P e n t e c o s t a l . Her husband, n o t i n g the change i n her, i s most sympathetic a l t h o u g h he does not i d e n t i f y w i t h the experience. No. D: In h i s e a r l y twenties, unemployed and u n t i l very r e c e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h 'hippy' l i f e s t y l e . He was born i n Europe, emigrated t o Canada w i t h h i s f a m i l y when he was f i v e y e a r s o l d and came to Vancouver at the age o f s i x t e e n . The o n l y r e c o l l e c t i o n s mentioned by D. of the p e r i o d p r i o r t o coming t o Canada are episodes r e l a t i n g t o d i s o b e d i -ence and the consequences o f t h e s e a c t s . He observes t h a t perhaps the h a p p i e s t time of h i s l i f e were the few weeks spent on h i s u n c l e ' s farm upon a r r i v a l i n Canada. "I remem-ber t h e g r e a t e s t times I ever had were j u s t s p r e a d i n g the c o r n f o r the c h i c k e n s . " He r e c a l l s spending a c o n s i d e r a b l e time i n h i s e a r l y teens i n f a n t a s y about how t o escape from h i s unhappy s i t u a t i o n and twice made attempts, both of which were thwarted, t o run away "to a p l a c e where t h e r e were no a d u l t s . " The t r i p a c r o s s Canada, when the f a m i l y moved west, was a most memorable time. Upon a r r i v a l the f a m i l y made sev-e r a l moves b e f o r e they became e s t a b l i s h e d and D. was f o r c e d t o t r a n s f e r s c h o o l s a number of times. E v e n t u a l l y he got completely 'fed up* and dropped out of s c h o o l i n grade e l e v e n . A s u c c e s s i o n of j o b s f o l l o w e d but a l l ended i n d i s s a t i s f a c -t i o n f o r one reason or another. " I don't t h i n k I r e c o g n i z e d i t as f r u s t r a t i o n at the time but t h i n g s j u s t d i d n ' t seem t o be going. There was s t i l l some k i n d of v o i d t h a t needed f i l l i n g . " A f r i e n d at the time suggested t h a t D. t r y L.S.D. He d i d so and found h i s t r i p s t h oroughly e n j o y a b l e u n t i l the f o u r t h one he 'freaked out', h a v i n g some most unusual thoughts about h i m s e l f , about h i s r e l a t i o n to t h i s p l a n e t , about the u n i v e r s e and about God. The a b s t r a c t i o n s he ex-p e r i e n c e d under the i n f l u e n c e of a c i d were i n p a r t f i l l e d i n by 'more grass r o o t s types of f e e l i n g s ' when he turned t o the use of marijuana and o t h e r r e l a t e d drugs. A l o n g with a f r i e n d D. decided to go i n t o the i m p o r t i n g b u s i n e s s . The success of t h e i r f i r s t venture encouraged them to make a second t r i p i n s e a r c h of t h e i r goods. T h i s time, however, they ran i n t o a number of o b s t a c l e s and D. was f o r c e d to complete the t r i p alone, l e a v i n g h i s f r i e n d camping en r o u t e w h i l e he took h i s f r i e n d ' s c a r a c r o s s the border to p i c k up t h e s u p p l i e s . A s e r i e s of u n c a l c u l a t e d m i s f o r t u n e s d e t a i n e d him so t h a t he was unable to r e t u r n at the appointed time. When he d i d r e t u r n he found a warrant f o r h i s a r r e s t t h a t had been sworn by h i s f r i e n d w a i t i n g f o r him. As a r e s u l t he was j a i l e d f o r a month, a p e r i o d which he now sees as a bene-f i c i a l e x p erience. " I t d i d me a l o t of good. I was a b l e to 64 do a l o t of t h i n k i n g . " When he was r e l e a s e d from p r i s o n he h i t c h - h i k e d back to Vancouver where he became thoroughly i n v o l v e d i n the drug s u b - c u l t u r e , b e i n g i n drug space f o r extended p e r i o d s o f time. He e v e n t u a l l y became d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h i s l i f e s t y l e , r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e r e were as many problems among the 'heads 1 as t h e r e were i n the ' s t r a i g h t ' s o c i e t y which he had r e j e c t e d . At t h i s time he moved back to l i v e with h i s p a r e n t s but found h i s mother's r e l e n t l e s s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t he go to church and read h i s B i b l e most i r r i t a t i n g . About a month a f t e r r e t u r n i n g to h i s parent's home he and h i s c o u s i n dropped some a c i d . As a r e s u l t of t h e d i s c u s s i o n they had w h i l e they were high D. experienced an e n t i r e r e - f o r m u l a t i o n of h i s r e l i g i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e . The change i n o u t l o o k i n f a c t amounted t o a r e v e r s a l of the p o s i -t i o n he had f o r m e r l y h e l d . He came to some ' b a s i c ' r e a l i z a -t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g r e a l i t y and the p l a c e of the person of C h r i s t i n terms of t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n . The new stance prompted him to i n v e s t i g a t e v a r i o u s churches, one of the f i r s t b e i n g t h e P e n t e c o s t a l church h i s s i s t e r attended. There he made a p u b l i c p r o c l a m a t i o n of f a i t h and w i t h i n a s h o r t time r e c e i v e d t h e baptism of the Holy S p i r i t . The experience has made a fundamental d i f f e r e n c e t o h i s view of r e a l i t y and conse-q u e n t l y to the shape of h i s l i f e . No. E: A t h e o l o g i c a l student i n h i s m i d - f o r t i e s , married and f a t h e r of two c h i l d r e n . He was born and r a i s e d on 65 t h e p r a i r i e s i n "what you c o u l d c a l l a C h r i s t i a n home." H i s p a r e n t s , though b e l i e v e r s , d i d not atte n d church because of g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t a n c e . E. however had some Sunday School i n s t r u c t i o n and d i d not q u e s t i o n the p r e c e p t s o f the f a i t h u n t i l he was i n h i s twenties, when he " c o n s c i o u s l y put a l l matters o f r e l i g i o u s concern" out of h i s mind. Most of h i s youth, with the e x c e p t i o n o f t h e time spent i n the armed s e r -v i c e s d u r i n g the war, was spent working on h i s f a t h e r ' s farm, i n l o g g i n g camps or i n mining. H i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the p a t t e r n o f the l i f e he was l e a d i n g i n c r e a s e d as time went on and he became most anxious about the prospect o f h a v i n g t o l i v e a l l h i s l i f e i n i s o l a t i o n , without f a m i l y or purpose. He read c o n s i d e r a b l y but does not r e c a l l any s i g n i f i c a n t l y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S e v e r a l c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t s on h i s p a r t to form an a s s o c i a t i o n with the o p p o s i t e sex f a i l e d , i n t e n s i -f y i n g h i s s t a t e o f l o n e l i n e s s . On r e a d i n g a book by F u l t o n O u r s l e r E. came to see h i s way of l i f e as condemned. He en-countered what t o him re p r e s e n t e d the wholesomeness of the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h when two female B i b l e School students v i s i t e d t h e i r home. H i s a t t r a c t i o n caused him to approach them con-c e r n i n g the essence o f C h r i s t i a n i t y and they a d v i s e d him to rea d a book they had n o t i c e d i n the bookshelves o f h i s p a r -ent's home. He read the p r e s c r i b e d book at one s i t t i n g and immediately committed h i s l i f e t o God. H i s commitment was f o l l o w e d by a s t a t e o f 'extreme euphoria' and a new moral o u t l o o k which he had o c c a s i o n t o put to the t e s t d u r i n g the 66 next few days. He decided to prepare h i m s e l f f o r enrollment a t the s c h o o l r e p r e s e n t e d by the g i r l s who had so i n f l u e n c e d him. He was married the summer p r i o r t o h i s f i n a l term a t t h e s c h o o l and was f o r c e d to drop out d u r i n g t h a t term as a r e s u l t o f a severe stomach u l c e r . The f o l l o w i n g w i n t e r was spent as a l a y m i n i s t e r with the i n t e n t i o n of u n d e r t a k i n g t h e o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s . H i s p l a n s were somewhat delayed by an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y experience i n h i s f i e l d work. I t was f e l t t h a t i t would be b e n e f i c i a l f o r him to t r y f u r t h e r f i e l d work b e f o r e e n t e r i n g theology. Again he experienced d i f f i -c u l t y but a f t e r a two year p e r i o d he e n r o l l e d t o take the p r e r e q u i s i t e f i r s t y e a r of A r t s . H i s academic attempt was s u c c e s s f u l but the f o l l o w i n g summer he again had problems which l e d to h i s b e i n g a d v i s e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the church h i e r a r c h y t h a t he would not be recommended as a can-d i d a t e f o r the m i n i s t r y . H i s disappointment was enormous and h i s domestic s i t u a t i o n p r e c a r i o u s as he had no means of s u p p o r t i n g h i s f a m i l y at t h i s p o i n t . F o r t u n a t e l y he obtained work i n a mine and somehow the f a m i l y s u r v i v e d the w i n t e r . By t h i s time he had d i s a s s o c i a t e d h i m s e l f with the p a r t i c u l a r denomination i n q u e s t i o n and had once again a f f i l i a t e d him-s e l f w i t h a s m a l l e v a n g e l i s t i c s e c t with whom he had p r e -v i o u s l y had a very happy r e l a t i o n s h i p . When the mine where he had been employed c l o s e d down he moved h i s f a m i l y to an-o t h e r l o c a t i o n where he again changed denominational t i e s . Not l o n g a f t e r t h e i r move t h e i r i n f a n t daughter was h o s p i t a l -i z e d and s e r i o u s l y i l l as the r e s u l t of an a c c i d e n t . E. c o n f e s s e s t h a t t h e i r s i t u a t i o n by t h i s time was desperate and t h e i r need f o r support enormous. The congregation w i t h which they had e s t a b l i s h e d t i e s showed no i n d i c a t i o n of b e i n g aware o f t h e i r needs. As a l a s t r e s o r t E. contacted the min-i s t e r o f the denomination which had e a r l i e r r e j e c t e d him. An immediate r a p p o r t between E. and t h i s man l e d to h i s r e t u r n t o a s s o c i a t i o n with t h i s denomination, becoming very a c t i v e i n t h e work of the l o c a l c o n g r e g a t i o n . Meanwhile both E. and h i s w i f e were becoming convinced t h a t t h e i r i n f a n t daugh-t e r was not r e c e i v i n g adequate care where she was and, a f t e r much s o u l s e a r c h i n g , decided a g a i n s t d o c t o r ' s o r d e r s to r e -move her and take her to Toronto f o r treatment. C o i n c i d e n t -a l l y they d i s c o v e r e d when they a r r i v e d t h e r e t h a t an opera-t i o n had r e c e n t l y been p e r f e c t e d which was b e i n g used i n the east but had not y e t been attempted i n western Canada. The o p e r a t i o n was performed and was s u c c e s s f u l . Because of the prolonged recovery p e r i o d E. was f o r c e d to l e a v e h i s w i f e behind w h i l e he r e t u r n e d t o the west i n search of another j o b . He managed to get a job as a c a r p e n t e r but s h o r t l y a f t e r he s t a r t e d working he f e l l and broke h i s back. On r e c o v e r i n g from the a c c i d e n t he had no c h o i c e but to f i n d l i g h t e r work which would not harm h i s i n j u r e d back. The community where he f i n a l l y found employment happened to be i n the same area where he had f i r s t been r e j e c t e d as a can-d i d a t e f o r the m i n i s t r y . In the i n t e r i m a change i n p a s t o r a l 68 r e l a t i o n s had taken p l a c e and two e n e r g e t i c young clergymen had moved to the v i c i n i t y . With t h e i r encouragement E. , a p p l i e d once again f o r admission to t h e o l o g y . T h i s time he was s u c c e s s f u l and E. entered f i r s t y e a r theology the f o l -l o w i n g y e a r . A t u r n i n g p o i n t seemed to have been reached and E. notes an improvement i n h i s circumstances. He was, however, s t i l 1 uneasy with h i s apparent l a c k o f a b i l i t y t o communicate h i s f a i t h . He was convinced t h a t somewhere t h e r e was a m i s s i n g l i n k and h i s s t u d i e s l e d him to b e l i e v e i t had something to do w i t h the Holy S p i r i t . He was d e t e r -mined to seek the dimension he f e l t was l a c k i n g i n h i s l i f e "even i f i t meant going to the P e n t e c o s t a l s to get i t . " He noted t h a t members of the I n t e r - F a i t h M i n i s t r y , an ecumenical t r a v e l l i n g team r e p r e s e n t i n g the C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal Move-ment, were to address a s e r i e s of meetings on campus. A f t e r a t t e n d i n g s e v e r a l o f the meetings and becoming convinced t h a t what they were t a l k i n g about was h i s m i s s i n g l i n k he went t o one of t h e i r p r ayer meetings and requested t h a t they pray t h a t he would r e c e i v e the Holy S p i r i t so t h a t h i s min-i s t r y might be e n r i c h e d . They d i d so, l a y i n g hands on him, and w i t h some encouragement r e a l i z e d t h a t he too c o u l d speak i n tongues. The experience has s t i m u l a t e d a change i n the p a t t e r n o f h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; he i s now a b l e to communicate w i t h ease, f e e l s t h a t h i s m i n i s t r y has been given power and t h a t he no l o n g e r has to push h i m s e l f i n order to be j u s t i -f i e d . H i s w i f e does not share i n the experience w i t h H•":..<?. 69 him and they r e f r a i n from d i s c u s s i n g i t . He f e e l s i t un-necessary to encourage h i s f e l l o w t h e o l o g i c a l s t u d e n t s to seek the experience s i n c e "Pentecost i s on the other s i d e o f C a l v a r y . " The most s i g n i f i c a n t dimension of change, he f e e l s , i s the t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e d e r i v e d from the use o f tongues i n h i s p r i v a t e p rayer l i f e . No. F: I n her l a t e t w e n t i e s , m arried but without c h i l d r e n and a s c h o o l t e a c h e r by p r o f e s s i o n . She was born and r a i s e d i n r u r a l B r i t i s h Columbia. Her mother was a s t r o n g P e n t e c o s t a l b e l i e v e r and her f a t h e r d i d not i d e n t i f y w i t h any r e l i g i o u s e x p r e s s i o n . F. r e c a l l s t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between the p a r e n t s was e x c e p t i o n a l l y c l o s e and t h a t her f a t h e r encouraged the c h i l d r e n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e i r moth-e r ' s church a c t i v i t i e s i n s p i t e o f h i s own l a c k o f i n t e r e s t . F. had a happy c h i l d h o o d i n a l l r e s p e c t s bar one: she s u f -f e r e d from a severe asthmatic c o n d i t i o n which caused her a gr e a t d e a l o f d i s c o m f o r t and f r u s t r a t i o n . Because of t h i s c o n d i t i o n she missed much o f her e a r l y s c h o o l i n g and so d i d not form c l o s e peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s . However she was one of f i v e s i b l i n g s and f e l t c l o s e t o a l l o f them with a p a r t i c u l a r bond e x i s t i n g between h e r s e l f and one younger b r o t h e r who a l s o had a s i c k l y c h i l d h o o d . She remembers when she was f i v e y e a r s o l d becoming suddenly and i n t e n s e l y aware of the b r e v i t y o f l i f e on the o c c a s i o n o f her u n c l e ' s f i f t i e t h b i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n . Her 70 new awareness caused her deep a n x i e t y and she began to q u e s t i o n her mother c o n c e r n i n g matters o f l i f e and death. S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s o c c a s i o n she remembers her Sunday School t e a c h e r t e l l i n g a s t o r y about "the p r e p a r a t i o n s Jesus made f o r us" and she de c i d e d then and t h e r e to commit her l i f e to C h r i s t . She f e l t completely s a t i s f i e d with the s o l u t i o n s p r o v i d e d by the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h t o her f e a r s and problems and a t the age of about t e n she r e c e i v e d the baptism of the Holy S p i r i t and spoke i n tongues. From the ages o f twelve to f i f t e e n she was very concerned w i t h her asthmatic c o n d i -t i o n s i n c e i t r e s t r i c t e d her a c t i v i t i e s and i s o l a t e d her from her p e e r s . At about f i f t e e n she attended a summer camp where she r e c e i v e d the g i f t o f h e a l i n g . Her c o n d i t i o n began to recede and by now has l e f t her completely, f r e e i n g her to f u n c t i o n without any r e s t r i c t i o n s . When she f i n i s h e d h i g h s c h o o l she was employed as a telephone o p e r a t o r i n her l o c a l town f o r approximately one and a h a l f y e a r s . She then a t -tended a P e n t e c o s t a l B i b l e School where she met her husband. They had a prolonged c o u r t s h i p w h i l e both attended u n i v e r s i t y and taught t o pay back the debts they had accumulated. They a r e very happy i n t h e i r marriage and share many i n t e r e s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e to t h e i r s p i r i t u a l e x periences. They a s s o c i a t e almost e x c l u s i v e l y with people o f C h r i s t i a n o r i e n t a t i o n and are r e g u l a r a t t e n d e r s o f a P e n t e c o s t a l con-g r e g a t i o n where both are members o f the c h o i r . The d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r involvements i s unambivalent with a l l t h e i r energy-b e i n g focused on t h e i r t e a c h i n g c a r e e r s and t h e i r church work. No. G: A woman e v a n g e l i s t i n her l a t e f o r t i e s , married but without c h i l d r e n . She was born and r a i s e d i n a s m a l l p r a i r i e c i t y . Her f a t h e r , a P r e s b y t e r i a n who was con v e r t e d a t a P e n t e c o s t a l r e v i v a l meeting, i n t r o d u c e d her t o the P e n t e c o s t a l s t y l e o f worship when she was seven y e a r s o f age. He continued to encourage her as w e l l as the other c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y to become C h r i s t i a n s . She responded f a v o u r a b l y and f e e l s t h a t the r e l i g i o u s experiences she had as a c h i l d were unusual f o r one so young. Her course has been a p r o g r e s s i o n o f C h r i s t i a n e x p e r i e n c e s and commitments and she has never l o s t i n t e r e s t i n the f a i t h . When she graduated she j o i n e d her s l i g h t l y o l d e r s i s t e r i n evangel-i s t i c work. T h e i r e v a n g e l i s t i c c a r e e r began when they were i n v i t e d t o r e p l a c e e v a n g e l i s t s who c o u l d not meet t h e i r s p e a k i n g commitments. From t h e r e on they r e c e i v e d i n v i t a -t i o n s t o appear i n s e v e r a l communities and so commenced a p a t t e r n t h a t continued f o r approximately s i x t e e n y e a r s . D u r i n g the course of t h e i r t r a v e l s they covered c o n s i d e r a b l e t e r r i t o r y i n c l u d i n g Canada, the Un i t e d S t a t e s , Great B r i t a i n , South America, the West I n d i e s , p a r t s o f Europe and the Mid-d l e E a s t . The l o n g e s t time spent i n any one p l a c e was i n the i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia where they 'pastored' a church f o r a p e r i o d o f f i v e y e a r s . Episodes r e l a t i n g to 72 t h e i r e v a n g e l i s t i c e x p e d i t i o n s are too numerous t o r e l a t e but through them a l l t h e i r s p i r i t u a l l i v e s continued to 'mature* and t h e i r f a i t h remained s t r o n g . G. l e f t the t r a v -e l l i n g m i n i s t r y when she ma r r i e d a widowed gentleman. At the p r e s e n t she r e s i d e s w i t h him, her mother and a f r i e n d i n Vancouver. She accompanies her f r i e n d i n m i n i s t e r i n g t o a r a p i d l y growing P e n t e c o s t a l c o n g r e g a t i o n which they i n i t i a t e d a few y e a r s ago. No. H: An unmarried woman m i n i s t e r i n her m i d - f o r t i e s . She was born and r a i s e d i n r u r a l B r i t i s h Columbia and now r e s i d e s w i t h G. and her f a m i l y . H. was adopted as an i n f a n t by an I n d i a n f a m i l y . When she was two y e a r s o l d her ad o p t i v e mother d i e d , l e a v i n g her i n the care o f the f a t h e r and the o l d e r sons of the f a m i l y . While she spent extended p e r i o d s with r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s i n the community she was f o r the most p a r t r a i s e d by her adopt i v e b r o t h e r s , a s s i s t e d a t i n t e r i m s by a s e r i e s of housekeepers. Not too many c h i l d -hood i n s t a n c e s are r e c a l l e d by H. but she does mention how d e s p e r a t e l y she needed t o f e e l t h a t she belonged, p a r t i c u -l a r l y a f t e r she d i s c o v e r e d t h a t she was adopted. She a l s o r e c a l l s s e v e r a l episodes which she f e e l s l e d her to ask b a s i c q u e s t i o n s about l i f e and death. A s i s t e r o f the f a t h e r , who belonged t o a C a t h o l i c order, took i t upon h e r s e l f to en-courage some r e l i g i o u s education f o r the c h i l d , s e nding l i t e r a t u r e and on one o c c a s i o n coming t o spend her v a c a t i o n 7 3 w i t h the f a m i l y . H. remembers her d i s t u r b a n c e when t h i s aunt d i e d . She r e c a l l s another s i g n i f i c a n t event when two c h i l d r e n were drowned i n the r i v e r i n f r o n t o f t h e i r home and i t was up to the boys of the f a m i l y t o d r a g the r i v e r f o r t h e i r b o d i e s . The home environment l e f t a great d e a l t o be d e s i r e d by present s o c i a l standards. When H. was t h i r t e e n two women e v a n g e l i s t s h e l d a s e r i e s o f meetings i n the l o c a l s chool house. I t was H.'s f i r s t exposure t o the C h r i s t i a n message and she knew immedi-a t e l y t h a t i f what they were s a y i n g were t r u e i t was an a p p r o p r i a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f her s t a t e and t h a t she wanted t h e s o l u t i o n s o f f e r e d by C h r i s t i a n i t y . She decided t h a t i f she were giv e n an o p p o r t u n i t y she would make a p u b l i c p r o -f e s s i o n o f her new found f a i t h . A f t e r she had done so a t th e l a s t meeting she d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the news of her a c t i o n s had reached her home ahead o f her and she was s t r o n g l y r i d i -c u l e d by her b r o t h e r s . The C h i l d r e n ' s W e l f a r e were sent out d u r i n g the next few weeks t o i n v e s t i g a t e her s i t u a t i o n w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t she was removed from the home and sent, a f t e r a sh o r t i n t e r l u d e w i t h her e v a n g e l i s t f r i e n d s , to the orphanage i n Vancouver. To her amazement she found t h a t the myth o f orphanages as propagated by ' L i t t l e Orphan Annie' was q u i t e unfounded and t h a t time she spent t h e r e d i d not de v a s t a t e her. She was p a r t i c u l a r l y aware of her new C h r i s -t i a n a u t h o r i t y which she t e s t e d whenever the o p p o r t u n i t y a r o s e . L a t e r she was t r a n s f e r r e d to a f o s t e r home i n the 74 i n t e r i o r o f the p r o v i n c e . The f a m i l y was o f fundamental C h r i s t i a n o r i e n t a t i o n . W i t h i n a y e a r she was moved to anoth-er f o s t e r home and embarked on a s e r i e s of attempts to es-t a b l i s h her i d e n t i t y . To her s u r p r i s e she r e c e i v e d a r e p l y not o n l y a f f i r m i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p and g i v i n g her f u l l de-t a i l s c o n c e r n i n g her f a m i l y but i n v i t i n g her t o be an a t -tendant at her s i s t e r ' s f o r t hcoming marriage. An e x c i t i n g p e r i o d of becoming acquainted w i t h v a r i o u s members o f her f a m i l y f o l l o w e d . The t h r e e g i r l s , who had formed a v o c a l t r i o , decided t o embark on an e v a n g e l i s t i c t o u r which turned i n t o a s i x t e e n y e a r journey. T h e i r threesome was d i s r u p t e d when the e l d e r s i s t e r e v e n t u a l l y accepted a marriage p r o p o s a l , l e a v i n g G. and H. to c o n t i n u e on t h e i r own. T h i s l i a i s o n , however, was a l s o i n t e r r u p t e d by G.'s d e c i s i o n t o marry. H. then r e t u r n e d t o Vancouver and f o l l o w e d her e a r l i e r ambitions o f e n t e r i n g u n i v e r s i t y where she completed an M.A. i n E n g l i s h , at the same time u n d e r t a k i n g a demanding and d i v e r s i f i e d campus and community m i n i s t r y . She i s a t p r e s e n t known and r e s p e c t e d i n a wide range o f denominations as an o u t s t a n d i n g l e a d e r and t h e o l o g i a n . No. I : In her l a t e t w e n t i e s , married and mother of two small c h i l d r e n . She was an only c h i l d , born and r a i s e d i n i n t e r i o r B r i t i s h Columbia. She observes t h a t w h i l e she l o v e d her p a r -ents d e a r l y she remembers her mother as a dominant type of person and her f a t h e r as somewhat l e s s f o r c e f u l . S i n c e r h e r 75 mother was of Lutheran background and her f a t h e r a Roman C a t h o l i c a s i t u a t i o n was c r e a t e d where they chose not to i d e n t i f y themselves w i t h any p a r t i c u l a r denomination. In s p i t e of t h i s d i s s o c i a t i o n from o r g a n i z e d r e l i g i o n I . com-ments t h a t her mother i n s t i l l e d a deeply r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g i n her as a young c h i l d . She was encouraged to a t t e n d Sunday School and enjoyed i t although she was very uncomfortable w i t h the c l o s e p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t with o t h e r c h i l d r e n which i t r e q u i r e d . S i n c e her f a m i l y moved s e v e r a l times when she was a c h i l d she d i d not e s t a b l i s h any l o n g s t a n d i n g f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h her p e e r s . She remained e s s e n t i a l l y alone throughout most of her c h i l d h o o d and f e e l s t h a t she was u n u s u a l l y r e -s e r v e d due to b e i n g an only c h i l d . Her a s s o c i a t i o n with r e l i g i o u s groups continued under v a r i o u s denominational a u s p i c e s throughout her teens. She remembers p a r t i c u l a r l y c l e a r l y the i n f l u e n c e of a P r e s b y t e r i a n deaconess who came to the area to work wit h teen aged g i r l s . I . was t r o u b l e d by her i n a b i l i t y t o make any p u b l i c p r o f e s s i o n of f a i t h a l -though she was convinced t h a t she had i n f a c t committed her l i f e to f o l l o w i n g C h r i s t . She r e c a l l s i n t e n s e l y s p i r i t u a l e x p e r i e n c e s which always o c c u r r e d i n p r i v a t e . Perhaps the most v i v i d of t h e s e experiences f o l l o w e d the death o f her f a t h e r when she was f i f t e e n y e a r s o l d . A f t e r g r a d u a t i n g from h i g h s c h o o l I . spent a year a t u n i v e r s i t y p r e p a r i n g f o r a t e a c h i n g c a r e e r . Her mother accompanied her to the c i t y and they continued t o l i v e 7 6 t o g e t h e r . D u r i n g t h i s time I . r e j e c t e d t h e value s which she had p r e v i o u s l y accepted and d i r e c t e d her e f f o r t s towards her own p l e a s u r e s . She f e e l s t h a t a t t h i s time she became t o t a l l y s e l f - c e n t e r e d and cared f o r no one e l s e . In order t o make a break with her mother she accepted a t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n i n a n o r t h e r n community where she met her f u t u r e husband. Together they d e c i d e d t h a t t h e i r s e c u l a r l i f e s t y l e was l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r y and they s e t out to l o o k f o r an a l t e r n a t i v e p a t t e r n . I n do i n g so they turned t o t h e church and s i n c e her f i a n c e was of P e n t e c o s t a l background t h i s i s where they made t h e i r i n i t i a l c o n t a c t . I . was hes-i t a n t about P e n t e c o s t a l i s m but on a t t e n d i n g found h e r s e l f immediately a t t r a c t e d t o what she observed. The f o l l o w i n g summer they were married and moved t o the c o a s t where I . taught w h i l e her husband co n t i n u e d h i s s t u d i e s . Once s e t -t l e d they a g a i n e s t a b l i s h e d c o n t a c t w i t h the l o c a l Pente-c o s t a l c o n g r e g a t i o n and were immediately b e f r i e n d e d by a young couple o f the congr e g a t i o n who had i n t e r e s t s s i m i l a r t o t h e i r own. When Father Dennis Bennett was i n v i t e d t o th e area to speak t h e i r new f r i e n d s i n s i s t e d t h a t they a t -tend. I . was enormously impressed with Father Bennett's manner and through h i s ministry, r e c e i v e d the g i f t o f the Holy S p i r i t and spoke i n tongues. I . t e s t i f i e s t o the meaning of t h i s experience to her ou t l o o k and f a i t h . She has had o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t s p i r i t u a l e xperiences s i n c e t h i s time, i n c l u d i n g the g i f t o f h e a l i n g , but l o o k s back t o t h i s event as the moment of change f o r her. No. J : In h i s e a r l y t h i r t i e s , a teacher by p r o f e s s i o n and married t o No. I . J . was r a i s e d i n s m a l l northern l o g g i n g communities. He was one o f e i g h t c h i l d r e n . H i s mother was a s t r o n g P e n t e c o s t a l and h i s f a t h e r had no r e l i g -i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n . The f a m i l y was r a i s e d predominantly by t h e mother, the f a t h e r h a ving an a l c o h o l problem and l i v i n g a t home only a t i n t e r v a l s . The f a m i l y moved c o n t i n u o u s l y and was s u b j e c t to constant economic f l u c t u a t i o n . J . ob-s e r v e s t h a t he was the o l d e s t c h i l d and very c l o s e to h i s mother. By the age o f twelve he was working p a r t time to h e l p support the f a m i l y . At about t h i s time he was s t r i c k e n w i t h p o l i o and flown t o the c i t y f o r medical treatment. He was h o s p i t a l i z e d f o r a p e r i o d o f n i n e months d u r i n g which time he d i d not see h i s mother at a l l . The d o c t o r s r e f e r r e d t o J . as the 'phoney' because whereas he entered the hos-p i t a l w i t h e x t e n s i v e p a r a l y s i s he l e f t w ith very l i t t l e t r a c e o f any d i s a b i l i t y . I t was never e s t a b l i s h e d whether h i s m iraculous recovery was s t i m u l a t e d by determined p a r t i -c i p a t i o n i n p h y s i o t h e r a p y or whether i t was a r e s u l t of the two week c o n t i n u a l p r a y e r meeting h e l d f o r him by the l o c a l P e n t e c o s t a l c o n g r e g a t i o n . At any r a t e J . made an unusual r e c o v e r y and by the time he graduated from hi g h s c h o o l was honoured not o n l y as the top s c h o l a r but as the most out-s t a n d i n g a t h l e t e . H i s f a t h e r , i t must be mentioned, was an a v i d a t h l e t e and encouraged J . t o f o l l o w h i s example i n t h i s f i e l d . 78 When J . was about twelve he and h i s f r i e n d made f a d e c i s i o n f o r C h r i s t * . At f i f t e e n he r e c e i v e d the g i f t o f t h e Holy S p i r i t and spoke i n tongues. J . had always had r e s e r v a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the demonstrative n a t u r e o f Pente-c o s t a l e x p r e s s i o n , but a t t r i b u t e s h i s a t t r a c t i o n t o the experie n c e mainly t o h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with h i s mother, who, i n h i s e s t i m a t i o n , was a profound C h r i s t i a n and d i d not express h e r s e l f i n an o b j e c t i o n a b l e manner. By the -time J . was eigh t e e n he had become q u i t e c y n i c a l and to a l l i n t e n t s l e f t the church. While at u n i v e r s i t y he l i v e d with an e l d e r l y P e n t e c o s t a l couple whose r e l i g i o u s v e r b o s i t y r e -p e l l e d him. He d i d however a t t e n d the P e n t e c o s t a l s e r v i c e s , mostly because o f h i s a t t r a c t i o n t o t h e young people i n the co n g r e g a t i o n . By the time he began t e a c h i n g he had stopped a t t e n d i n g the s e r v i c e s and was i n t e n t on ha v i n g a good time. I t was onl y a f t e r he met I . and w i t h her began to r e f l e c t about the meaning o f l i f e t h a t he was drawn t o r e c o n s i d e r t h e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h as a view o f l i f e t o be taken s e r i o u s l y . Upon r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s t i e s w i t h the P e n t e c o s t a l church he a g a i n began to p r a c t i c e h i s c h a r i s m a t i c g i f t o f tongues. J . i s convinced t h a t h i s l i f e has been immeasurably e n r i c h e d by t h i s s p i r i t u a l dimension. He enjoys h i s f a m i l y , i s happy i n h i s C h r i s t i a n community and f u l f i l l e d i n h i s c a r e e r . POINTS OF ENTRY MOTIVATIONAL STATES TRANSITIONAL 79 MOMENTS E x i t $ 80 The Map The map has emerged from a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f the i n t e r v i e w m a t e r i a l . The experience o f the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t , when viewed as a s p i r i t u a l d e s t i n y , p r o v i d e s a p o i n t o f view from which the person i n t e r p r e t s h i s past and determines h i s f u t u r e . Consequently i t becomes p o s s i b l e t o c h a r t the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s p i r i t u a l c a r e e r up to the moment o f the experience. I t i s d e s c r i p t i v e o f h<a>w they view t h e i r h i s t o r i e s i n r e t r o s p e c t . The purpose of the map i s to p r o -v i d e a framework t h a t f a c i l i t a t e s t he discernment o f i n d i -v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t assume commonality and p o i n t t o e v o l v i n g p a t t e r n s . The c a t e g o r i e s chosen t o r e p r e s e n t the rudimentary g u i d e l i n e s f o r the d e l i n e a t i o n of t h e c a r e e r p a t t e r n s have been s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s o f common f e a t u r e s found i n the l i f e s t o r i e s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . The map de-s c r i b e s the paths o f a l l the respondents and p o r t r a y s a t l e a s t i n p a r t the e x p e d i t i o n o f any i n d i v i d u a l embarked on a s p i r i t u a l quest i n contemporary s o c i e t y . P o i n t s o f Reference The p o i n t s o f r e f e r e n c e s e l e c t e d as s i g n p o s t s i n p l o t t i n g t he s p i r i t u a l c a r e e r s o f t h e respondents admit t e d l y l e a n toward an emphasis o f the r e l i g i o u s aspects o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c a r e e r and de-emphasize t h e n o n - r e l i g i o u s dimen-s i o n s . However, s i n c e the primary concern of t h i s e n t e r -p r i s e , as i s t h a t o f the respondent, i s the re l e v a n c e o f the 81 s p i r i t u a l to the e v o l u t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e h i s t o r y such apparent d i s p r o p o r t i o n i s not o n l y d i s t i n c t i v e i n terms o f our sample but a l s o f u n c t i o n a l f o r the purposes o f the p r e s e n t u n d e r t a k i n g . I n f o r m a t i o n not d i r e c t l y concerned with t h e r e l i g i o u s dimension i s important o n l y i n so f a r as i t enhances comprehension of the s p i r i t u a l c a r e e r s . The f e a t u r e s designated as the u n d e r l y i n g p o i n t s o f r e f e r e n c e i n the attempt t o c h a r t t h e course o f t h e s p i r i t u a l j o u r n e y s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p r e s e n t two fundamental con-c e r n s : m o t i v a t i o n a l s t a t e s and t r a n s i t i o n a l p o i n t s . Those m o t i v a t i o n a l s t a t e s seen as s i g n i f i c a n t i n c l u d e e a r l y r e -l i g i o u s l i f e , s e c u l a r l i f e , l a t e r r e l i g i o u s l i f e and an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the P e n t e c o s t a l experience. T r a n s i t i o n a l p o i n t s r e f e r t o l a p s e s , j o i n i n g a church and the experience o f the Holy S p i r i t ( t he P e n t e c o s t a l e x p e r i e n c e ) . T r a n s i t i o n s a r e l a r g e l y determined by m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . A predomin-a n t l y s a t i s f a c t o r y response on the p a r t o f the person t o a p a r t i c u l a r m o t i v a t i o n a l s t a t e i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s l i k e l y t o remain a c o n t i n u i n g condition^,whereas an e x p r e s s i o n of d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n suggests a p o t e n t i a l t h r u s t towards a d i f f e r e n t s t a t e . The d i r e c t i o n of the movement i s i n d i c a t e d by f e a -t u r e s mentioned by the respondent. M o t i v a t i o n a l s t a t e s take i n t o account t h e s e f e a t u r e s s p e c i f i e d by the i n d i v i d u a l which c o u l d be seen as p r o p e l l i n g him from one p o i n t t o another i n terms of n e g a t i v e o r p o s i t i v e response to the s t a t e i n ques-t i o n . These pushes away from one s t a t e and p u l l s towards 82 another are giv e n d e f i n i t i o n i n terms o f problems and a t -t r a c t i o n s . P o i n t s o f t r a n s i t i o n r e f e r to those p e r i o d s when the i n d i v i d u a l comes to the awareness t h a t a t r a n s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s has taken p l a c e and the o c c a s i o n c e l e b r a t e s t h a t awareness by a word or deed. These are moments of the evidence o f change, e i t h e r i n the form of a sudden t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o r the con-s c i o u s n e s s o f having undergone a gradual metamorphosis. I t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t the s e l e c t i o n o f c r i t e r i a f o r es t a b -l i s h i n g e i t h e r m o t i v a t i o n a l s t a t e s o r p o i n t s o f t r a n s i t i o n i s determined e x c l u s i v e l y on the b a s i s o f e i t h e r e x p l i c i t comment or i m p l i c i t s u g g e s t i o n found i n the data. I n d i v i d u a l s enter the map v i a one of two main p o i n t s o f e n t r y : church and non-church. Those people who g i v e no i n d i c a t i o n o f having been s u b j e c t t o e a r l y r e l i g i o u s i n f l u -ence, e i t h e r by having had p a r e n t s who have had some a s s o c i a -t i o n s w i t h o r g a n i z e d r e l i g i o n or by ha v i n g been encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e i n some form of r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t y , are c l a s s i -f i e d as non-church. Those, on the other hand, who mention -e a r l y r e l i g i o u s c o n t a c t s and comment c o n c e r n i n g r e l i g i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s on the p a r t o f t h e i r p a r e n t s o r other s i g n i f i -c ant a d u l t s are seen as e n t e r i n g v i a t h e church. F u r t h e r d i s t i n c t i o n s are made i n the l a t t e r group between those who s p e c i f y P e n t e c o s t a l i n f l u e n c e s i n t h e i r backgrounds and those who do n o t . References to e a r l y r e l i g i o u s l i f e are simply meant to i n d i c a t e r e l i g i o u s experiences o c c u r r i n g i n c h i l d h o o d which are r e c o l l e c t e d by the i n d i v i d u a l . These may take the form o f i s o l a t e d i n c i d e n c e s or o f r o u t i n e p a t t e r n s o f asso-c i a t i o n s . For example, No. F. comments t h a t she f e e l s she had a very unusual r e l i g i o u s experience as a young c h i l d on t h e o c c a s i o n o f b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d to the P e n t e c o s t a l s t y l e of worship f o r the f i r s t time. No. C. had a more r o u t i n e ex-p e r i e n c e r e f l e c t i n g t h a t " i t was q u i t e a happy c h i l d h o o d . . . P u r i t a n e t h i c and a l l t h a t . . . work hard, t h r i f t , go to church on Sundays . . . " These e a r l y r e l i g i o u s experiences may be seen as b e i n g e i t h e r s a t i s f a c t o r y o r u n s a t i s f a c t o r y from the p o i n t o f view of the respondent. No. F. i n d i c a t e d t h a t she f e l t v e r y p o s i t i v e about her e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e with r e l i g i o n i n t h a t her mother, whom she l o v e d d e a r l y , was a devout church member and encouraged her p a r t i c i p a t i o n , whereas No. B. i n s i s t s t h a t she was sent t o Sunday School merely as an e f f o r t t o appease her grandparents who were not h e l d i n high r e g a r d by her p a r e n t s and t h a t i t was not an e n j o y a b l e ex-p e r i e n c e f o r her. S e c u l a r l i f e i s meant to p o i n t to those domestic and s o c i a l arrangements which do not p e r t a i n to s p i r i t u a l c a r e e r s i n any d i r e c t manner but are n e v e r t h e l e s s seen as r e l e v a n t i n d e s c r i b i n g the d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e h i s t o r y . A s a t i s f a c t o r y s e c u l a r l i f e experience would be 84 i l l u s t r a t e d by No. B. who found the a s s o c i a t i o n s she formed w h i l e a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l the most enjoyable ones she had known. In c o n t r a s t No. E. r e c a l l s the l o n e l i n e s s o f h i s circum-s t a n c e s p r i o r t o h i s a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h the church. L a t e r r e l i g i o u s l i f e a p p l i e s to the s t a t e o f i n v o l v e -ment i n r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s which are the consequence o f an independent d e c i s i o n to become a s s o c i a t e d with the church o r with some form o f org a n i z e d r e l i g i o n . Again a p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e response t o the e x i s t i n g s t a t e may be engendered f o r a v a r i e t y o f reasons. Such persons as f i n d t h e i r r e l i g -i o u s l i f e s a t i s f a c t o r y would tend to c o n t i n u e i n t h i s s t a t e without m o t i v a t i o n t o seek f u r t h e r r e l i g i o u s experience o r to r e t u r n to a s e c u l a r l i f e s t y l e . Persons who f i n d t h e i r r e l i g i o u s l i f e p r o b l e m a t i c a r e more l i k e l y t o seek deeper s p i r i t u a l e x p r e s s i o n or to d i s s o c i a t e themselves with r e l i g -i o u s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s . A t y p i c a l example o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h r e l i g i o u s l i f e i s given by No. A. who f e e l s impotent i n her e f f o r t s t o t e s t i f y t o the importance o f the f a i t h i n her l i f e . I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the P e n t e c o s t a l experience i s an e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t u a l e x p e r i -ence. At some p o i n t the i n d i v i d u a l must be made aware t h a t t h e phenomenon known as the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t e x i s t s and i s b e i n g experienced by o t h e r people b e f o r e he h i m s e l f can become a ca n d i d a t e f o r the experience. The i n t r o d u c t i o n becomes a m o t i v a t i n g p r o c e s s as i t evokes e i t h e r a t t r a c t i o n s o r problems. Often, as i n the case of No. H., i t i s i d e n t i -f i e d w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s and i s an experience which i n i t i a t e s t he person i n t o the community to which he d e s i r e s t o belong. In oth e r cases the i n d i v i d u a l i s a t t r a c t e d by what he c o n s i d e r s to be the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f the experi e n c e as based on s c r i p t u r a l r e f e r e n c e and i s motivated t o seek th e experience independently. No. E. i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the l a t t e r , remarking t h a t he had found r e f e r e n c e t o the baptism o f the S p i r i t i n h i s s t u d i e s and had decided t h a t t h i s was the dimension t h a t was l a c k i n g i n h i s e x p r e s s i o n of f a i t h . .Three p o i n t s o f t r a n s i t i o n have been chosen as b a s i c t o c h a r t i n g s p i r i t u a l c a r e e r s . The f i r s t i s a l a p s e t h a t can be observed i n the l i v e s o f c e r t a i n respondents whose e a r l y r e l i g i o u s experience has been l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r y . A l a p s e i n d i c a t e s a movement away from a r e l i g i o u s emphasis toward s e c u l a r involvement. M o t i v a t i o n e f f e c t i n g a l a p s e may be seen i n terms of p r o b l e m a t i c elements i n t h e former s t a t e o r a t t r a c t i v e aspects o f the prese n t s e c u l a r s t a t e . Whatever the m o t i v a t i o n , l a p s e s imply a r e j e c t i o n o f f a c t o r s o f p a s t r e l i g i o u s experience. No. E. i s a case i n p o i n t , i n -d i c a t i n g t h a t when he was i n h i s twe n t i e s he made a conscious d e c i s i o n to l e a v e a l l matters o f r e l i g i o u s concern behind him, hoping i n t h i s way to be l i b e r a t e d from any e x t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y . 86 The second important p o i n t o f t r a n s i t i o n has been d e s i g n a t e d as the a c t o f .joining the church. What i s meant by t h i s category i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the act o f becoming an o f f i c i a l member o f an org a n i z e d r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n but some i n d i c a t i o n o f a s s o c i a t i o n o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e community o f b e l i e v e r s . I t serves t o i l l u s t r a t e t he r e -l i g i o u s i n t e n t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l . F i n a l l y the P e n t e c o s t a l experience p r o v i d e s the p o i n t o f d e s t i n y f o r the map. The baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t , as evidenced by the g l o s s o l a l i c a c t , i s t h e moment sought f o r and a t t a i n e d by our respondents. H i s t o r y does not end with t h e experience but i s shaped and r e d e f i n e d thereby. The c o n t i n u a l i n t e r p l a y between the p o i n t s o f t r a n s i -t i o n and m o t i v a t i o n a l s t a t e s must be noted. T r a n s i t i o n a l moments become i n i t i a t o r s o f m o t i v a t i o n and m o t i v a t i o n a l s t a t e s p r o v i d e impetus f o r t r a n s i t i o n s . Types of Care e r s The paths f o l l o w e d by the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the sample a r e v a r i e d and range from a s t r a i g h t forward u n i n t e r r u p t e d p r o g r e s s i o n from t h e p o i n t o f entry t o the moment of d e s t i n y , t o a d i s r u p t e d complex l a b y r i n t h through which the i n d i v i d u a l stumbles. S i n c e p e o p l e are at once ' a l l men, some men and no man' the routes taken may be fundamentally s i m i l a r w h i l e the d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s a re d i s s i m i l a r . 87 The most d i r e c t r o u t e i s the one b e g i n n i n g with a P e n t e c o s t a l p o i n t o f entry c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s a t i s f a c t o r y e a r l y r e l i g i o u s experience and p r o c e e d i n g d i r e c t l y t o the P e n t e c o s t a l experience. T h i s i s the p a t h taken by respond-ents F. and G. i n our sample. Both have P e n t e c o s t a l back-grounds, both had e a r l y p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h r e l i g i o u s e xperience, both made c o n s c i o u s commitments at an e a r l y age and both proceed without d i s r u p t i o n to a P e n t e c o s t a l e x p e r i -ence i n c h i l d h o o d which has remained constant s i n c e t h a t time. The second most d i r e c t r o u t e begins with a Pente-c o s t a l p o i n t of entry as w e l l but t h e e a r l y r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i -ences c o n t a i n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y elements which p o i n t the i n d i -v i d u a l towards a l a p s e . However s e c u l a r l i f e i s found t o be u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and the person r e t u r n s t o a r e l i g i o u s l y motivated path, p r o c e e d i n g d i r e c t l y to the p o i n t of d e s t i n a -t i o n i n the form o f the P e n t e c o s t a l experience. No. J . i s t h e o n l y t r a v e l l e r a l o n g t h i s r o u t e r e p r e s e n t e d i n our sample. He stems from a background where h i s mother i s a devout P e n t e c o s t a l and h i s f a t h e r has no r e l i g i o u s t i e s . J . l a p s e s , i f not i n terms of a c t u a l church a s s o c i a t i o n s at l e a s t as f a r as he adheres to the e x p e c t a t i o n s and i n t e r e s t s o f the r e l i g i o u s community. A t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e i s the r o u t e b e g i n n i n g i n a church other than P e n t e c o s t a l but with f o r c e f u l and p o s i t i v e r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . In t h i s case the 88 i n d i v i d u a l does not sway from a p a t h which i s s i n g u l a r l y r e l i g i o u s l y o r i e n t e d . At some p o i n t , however, the r e l i g i o u s l i f e o f the i n d i v i d u a l assumes u n s a t i s f a c t o r y elements and t h e person i s motivated to r e s o l v e the d i s s o n a n t s t a t e . He i s i n t r o d u c e d t o the P e n t e c o s t a l experience and f i n d s i t a t t r a c t i v e as a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n t o h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . E v e n t u a l l y he comes to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the d e s i r e d end. Our example here i s No. A. whose o r i g i n s were deeply imbedded i n Methodism of h o l i n e s s p e r s u a s i o n . Her e a r l y r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s remain v i v i d i n her memory and although she s h i f t s denominational a l l e g i a n c e she does not q u e s t i o n the v e r a c i t y o f her r e l i g i o u s t r u s t . N e v e r t h e l e s s f a c t o r s occur which d e t r a c t from the complete s a t i s f a c t i o n of her r e l i g i o u s l i f e . Consequently when she i s i n t r o d u c e d to the baptism of t h e Holy S p i r i t she i s convinced t h a t t h i s e x p r e s s i o n holds the key to her r e l i g i o u s f u l f i l l m e n t . She t h e r e a f t e r ap-proaches the experience w i t h s i n g l e minded d e t e r m i n a t i o n . A f o u r t h course i s p r o v i d e d f o r those i n d i v i d u a l s who do not enter v i a a church background but are immediately i n i t i a t e d i n t o a s e c u l a r l y o r i e n t e d ethos. They e v e n t u a l l y encounter d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s which p r o p e l them to move towards a d i f f e r e n t s t a t e . They are a t t r a c t e d t o the p o s s i b i l i t y o f a r e l i g i o u s s o l u t i o n t o t h e i r problems and a s s o c i a t e them-s e l v e s with a r e l i g i o u s community. They are f u r t h e r a t t r a c -t e d on i n t r o d u c t i o n to the P e n t e c o s t a l experience and s i n c e t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r search has a l r e a d y been s e t move 89 e a s i l y i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n . I l l u s t r a t i o n s are p r o v i d e d by No. H. and D. N e i t h e r mention r e l i g i o u s f a m i l y backgrounds nor e a r l y r e l i g i o u s l i f e . Both encounter d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s i n t h e i r s e c u l a r s t a t e s . Both undergo c o n v e r s i o n experiences which are f o l l o w e d by an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the P e n t e c o s t a l ex-p e r i e n c e and once convinced o f i t s v a l i d i t y do not r e s i s t movement towards i t . A f i f t h p o s s i b i l i t y i s o f f e r e d by those whose entry i s a g a i n v i a the church but whose e a r l y r e l i g i o u s experiences a r e not s u f f i c i e n t l y s a t i s f a c t o r y to ma i n t a i n t h e i r continued commitment. T h e i r path i s marked by a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d l a p s e t o a predominantly s e c u l a r l i f e which t u r n s out t o be un-s a t i s f a c t o r y . Circumstances motivate them to r e t u r n t o the church but t h i s t r a n s i t i o n too tak e s on u n s a t i s f a c t o r y c h a r -a c t e r i s t i c s . Upon i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the P e n t e c o s t a l experience t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s are moved i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n . The two mem-bers of our sample who proceed a l o n g these l i n e s a re No. C. and No. J . Both come from n o m i n a l l y C h r i s t i a n backgrounds, both have some e a r l y r e l i g i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n from which they l a p s e . Both r e t u r n to the church i n hopes of f i n d i n g r e s o l u -t i o n s t o t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s . N e i t h e r i s s a t i s f i e d by r o u t i n e r e l i g i o u s e x p r e s s i o n . No. J . proceeds more d i r e c t l y from t h i s p o i n t on, due to her more i n t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n with t h e experience s i n c e her r e t u r n t o the church has been d i r e c t -l y t o the P e n t e c o s t a l p e r s u a s i o n , whereas C. r e t u r n s through non-Pentecostal church channels. Another r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f 90 t h i s r o u t e i s No. E. He too ente r s as a non-Pentecostal p a r t i c i p a n t , has e a r l y r e l i g i o u s e x p e r iences, l a p s e s , j o i n s t h e church and e v e n t u a l l y moves towards the experience. E.'s course d e v i a t e s somewhat from the o t h e r s i n t h a t he i s s h o r t -c i r c u i t e d en r o u t e and as a r e s u l t r o t a t e s between j o i n i n g v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s groups and e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h i s r e l i g i o u s l i f e . The p a t t e r n i s e v e n t u a l l y broken and E., i n an e f f o r t t o d e a l w i t h h i s remaining problems, seeks out t h e baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t as a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n . A s i x t h r o u t e r e p r e s e n t e d by our respondents begins w i t h a non-church p o i n t of entry and has n e g a t i v e r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n • r e s u l t s i n movement towards a s e c u l a r s t a t e which i s predominantly s a t -i s f a c t o r y . Circumstances however s t i m u l a t e a r e t u r n to the church and a r e l i g i o u s l i f e which i s h i g h l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . Rather than becoming d i s s o c i a t e d the i n d i v i d u a l becomes i n -c r e a s i n g l y motivated t o e x p l o r e r e l i g i o u s experience. H i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n e v e n t u a l l y l e a d s him to i n s i g h t s which causes him to l o o k i n the d i r e c t i o n of s p i r i t u a l s o l u t i o n s . When i n t r o d u c e d t o the P e n t e c o s t a l experience t h i s too becomes a s p i r i t u a l t e r r i t o r y worth e x p l o r i n g . No. B. i s our case i n p o i n t . Her p a r e n t s were a n t i - r e l i g i o u s but encouraged her p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r t h e i r own ends. Her e a r l y r e l i g i o u s ex-p e r i e n c e s were h i g h l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and she r e c e i v e d g r e a t s a t i s f a c t i o n out o f her s e c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n adolescence. Circumstances o f her marriage f o r c e d her to r e c o n s i d e r her p e r s p e c t i v e . She e v e n t u a l l y j o i n e d the church but her n e g a t i v e response t o o r g a n i z e d r e l i g i o n p e r s i s t e d . At the same time her c u r i o s i t y was aroused and she began to ex p l o r e s p i r i t u a l dimensions. Her search became i n t e n s e and pene-t r a t e d numerous r e l i g i o u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , none of which she found e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . When she was i n t r o d u c e d to the P e n t e c o s t a l experience she was immediately impressed both w i t h i t s s p i r i t u a l p o t e n t i a l and wit h the people who r e p r e -sented i t . Her d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o a t t a i n the experience i n -c r e a s e d and p e r s i s t e d u n t i l i t was accomplished. These are the r o u t e s t h a t d e p i c t the p r o g r e s s i o n of the s p i r i t u a l c a r e e r s of the respondents. Other a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e e q u a l l y c o n c e i v a b l e . The proposed map should, however, be adequate t o p r o v i d e a b l u e p r i n t f o r the e s s e n t i a l p o i n t s o f r e f e r e n c e common to a l l who are embarked on s p i r i t u a l c a r e e r s l e a d i n g t o the P e n t e c o s t a l experience. CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS I n t r o d u c t i o n The key q u e s t i o n s i n understanding p e r s o n a l i t y t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n , as p o i n t e d out by James, are the 'whys* and the 'hows'; the motives and the t r a n s i t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . The o n l y t e s t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the a u t h e n t i c i t y of the t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n i s i n terms of how the person h i m s e l f p e r c e i v e s t h e change: how he sees the world as changed and how he sees h i m s e l f as changed i n r e l a t i o n to the world. In the l i g h t of the p o i n t s of r e f e r e n c e set out i n the p r e v i o u s chapter i t i s t o t h e s e concerns t h a t we s h a l l address our-s e l v e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n . To begin with i t i s necessary to l o o k a t the o v e r a l l i n f l u e n c e s suggested by the respondents t h a t s e t the stage f o r the i n d i v i d u a l ' s entry i n t o h i s s p i r i t u a l c a r e e r . A t t e n -t i o n w i l l be focused on the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the f a m i l y to the church and on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between members of the f a m i l y as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the primary o v e r a l l i n f l u e n c e s . Next, t h e major c o n t i n u i n g themes t h a t can be i s o l a t e d from t h e accounts o f the respondents w i l l be t r a c e d . F o l l o w i n g t h i s t h e r e w i l l be an account of how the moves between the v a r i o u s s t a t e s are accomplished and how the moments of t r a n s i t i o n are seen i n terms o f the map. F i n a l l y t h e r e w i l l be an examina-t i o n o f the m o t i v a t i o n a l s t a t e s ; that i s , i n what way the i n d i v i d u a l s d e s c r i b e themselves as s a t i s f i e d o r d i s s a t i s f i e d and move or do not move to the next s t a t e . 1. O v e r a l l I n f l u e n c e s The key f a c t o r s t h a t u n d e r g i r d a person's s p i r i t u a l c o u r s e have t o do with the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the i n d i v i d u a l t o h i s f a m i l y and the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the f a m i l y to the church o r o t h e r forms o f r e l i g i o u s e x p r e s s i o n . I t i s the c o r r e l a -t i v e o f these two s e t s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t s t i m u l a t e s the d i r e c t i o n o f the person's s p i r i t u a l c a r e e r . While r e c o g n i z -i n g t h a t t h e r e a re innumerable v a r i a t i o n s i n experience which w i l l determine i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p a t t e r n s o f s p i r i t u a l c a r e e r s , the f o l l o w i n g f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e s r e p r e -sented by the t a b l e may be seen as the most fundamental d e t e r m i n a t i v e i n f l u e n c e s . TABLE 1 Ch a r a c t e r o f Family T i e s C l o s e o r P o s i t i v e Weak or C o n f l i c t u a l Family - Church R e l a t i o n s h i p S t r o n g Weak A.F.G. 3 4 B.D.H. As i n d i c a t e d by the t a b l e t h r e e of our respondents suggested c l o s e f a m i l y t i e s and a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the f a m i l y t o the church. Of these respondents, which i n c l u d e d A., F. and G., two have P e n t e c o s t a l backgrounds w h i l e t h e 9 4 t h i r d comes from a background of Methodist fundamentalism w i t h a l e a n i n g towards h o l i n e s s d o c t r i n e . A., who r e p r e s e n t s the Methodist t r a d i t i o n , suggests a p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g bond w i t h her f a t h e r who was i n s t r u -mental i n c h a l l e n g i n g her to make a r e l i g i o u s commitment when she was a young c h i l d . She both t r u s t e d and f e a r e d her f a t h e r . . . . but my f a t h e r asked me . . . and I s a i d I would ( g i v e my heart t o the L o r d ) . I knew t h a t I belonged to the Lord, r e a l l y deep down, but I c o u l d n ' t remember the day o r the hour—how I'd done i t — s o I s t a r t e d t o worry and I thought, ' w e l l , I c o u l d ask my f a t h e r about i t * — b u t then I thought, 'well t h a t ' s s i l l y because i f I ask my f a t h e r h e ' l l say, "Well you should know, why ask me"' . . . so f i n a l l y I d i d p l u c k up enough courage-to ask my f a t h e r i f I'd g i v e n my h e a r t t o the Lord. She a l s o expresses warmth towards her mother who, w h i l e not n e a r l y as dominant as her f a t h e r , shared a s i m i l a r r e l i g i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e . Perhaps the most apparent i n d i c a t i o n of the c l o s e n e s s of the f a m i l y t i e s i s the f a c t t h a t they emigrated t o Canada as a f a m i l y u n i t i n s p i t e o f t h e m a t u r i t y and p r o -f e s s i o n a l independence of the c h i l d r e n . F. notes very c l o s e f a m i l y t i e s which were acc e n t u -ated f o r her by the i s o l a t i o n brought on by her asthmatic c o n d i t i o n . Her mother, wi t h whom F. i d e n t i f i e d s t r o n g l y , was an a c t i v e P e n t e c o s t a l . Her f a t h e r , w h i l e not a s s o c i a t i n g h i m s e l f w i t h any r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n , supported the moth-e r ' s encouragement t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n do so. F. f e e l s t h a t t h e r e was a warm r e l a t i o n s h i p between her pa r e n t s with t h e o n l y p o i n t o f disagreement b e i n g with r e f e r e n c e to r e l i g i o u s views. F. f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t to understand her f a t h e r ' s s t a n c e s i n c e from her p e r s p e c t i v e "he was so very much more C h r i s t i a n than many people I knew who p r o f e s s e d t o be C h r i s -t i a n s , but h i s c o n f e s s i o n , o r h i s p r o f e s s i o n of C h r i s t i a n i t y was never an open t h i n g and I found t h a t r a t h e r d i s a p p o i n t -i n g . " G. too was i n t r o d u c e d to t h e church by her f a t h e r and was encouraged i n her r e l i g i o u s development by both p a r e n t s . When G. was young both p a r e n t s had had a c o n v e r s i o n e x p e r i e n c e i n the P e n t e c o s t a l p e r s u a s i o n and so had s t r o n g t i e s with t h a t group. G. has onl y a f f e c t i o n a t e memories of her p a r e n t s who "never p r e s s e d us . . . they j u s t encouraged us to pray and to seek God and to l o v e Him and i n t h i s way th e r e came a hunger i n our h e a r t s f o r God." G. f u r t h e r expresses a p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e bond with her s i s t e r , two ye a r s her s e n i o r , who shared her r e l i g i o u s i n t e r e s t s . S t r o n g f a m i l y - c h u r c h r e l a t i o n s and weak or c o n f l i c -t u a l i n t e r n a l f a m i l y t i e s are re p r e s e n t e d by C , E., I . and J . Family t i e s may be weak as a r e s u l t of e i t h e r i n t e r n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s ; i . e . p r o b l e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s , or e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s ; i . e . d i s r u p t i o n s caused by m o b i l i t y . No. C. comments t h a t she c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h her f a m i l y . 9 6 I don't t h i n k mom was wit h i t at a l l , you know we wouldn't have wanted t o c o n f i d e i n her and we s t i l l wouldn't t e l l her h a l f the t h i n g s t h a t go o n — i t would j u s t s h a t t e r her n i c e l i t t l e cozy w o r l d — a n d my dad worked s h i f t s and he had j u s t b l a c k and white i d e a s . There was never any i d e a o f p a r e n t a l c h i l d d i s c u s s i o n s about something . . . dad thought I was r e a l l y great but I d i d n ' t r e c i p r o c a t e t h i s , I don't know why. At the same time t h e f a m i l y attended church r e g u l a r l y and l i v e d by "the P u r i t a n e t h i c and a l l t h a t . " She f e e l s t h a t she was u n u s u a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n r e l i g i o u s matters and th a t t h i s was perhaps j u s t a n a t u r a l i n c l i n a t i o n t o " b e l i e v e i n the s u p e r - n a t u r a l . " E. makes no r e f e r e n c e t o e a r l y f a m i l y t i e s . He does mention t h a t when he a s s o c i a t e d h i m s e l f w i t h the church a f t e r h i s i n i t i a l c o n v e r s i o n experience t h a t t h e congregation accepted him and t h a t i t was the f i r s t time he had ever f e l t accepted. T h i s would i n d i c a t e t h a t the f a m i l y t i e s he f e l t were not s t r o n g . He does remark t h a t he grew up i n a C h r i s -t i a n home. I . i n s i s t s t h a t she l o v e d her mother very much as a c h i l d but t h a t she d i d not f e e l p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e t o her s i n c e she was a "loud, dominant person." She tended to con-f i d e i n her f a t h e r who was "the s t r o n g , s i l e n t t ype." She observes t h a t she was always a r e s e r v e d shy c h i l d and t h a t she found i t i m p o s s i b l e to be i n t i m a t e with her p a r e n t s . I notes t h a t whereas her mother was not a r e l i g i o u s person she d i d manage to i n s t i l l i n her "a r e a l f e e l i n g f o r God. I 97 remember b e i n g a very young c h i l d and her t e l l i n g me t h a t He was a t my s i d e and I remember t o u c h i n g my s i d e and want-i n g t o sense H i s presence and b e i n g r e a l l y g l a d t h a t He was t h e r e . " The p a r e n t s were not a s s o c i a t e d with the church at t h e time I . was a c h i l d but they encouraged her t o a t t e n d . I . r e c a l l s t h a t her mother was ' d e l i g h t e d * when a neighbour took i t upon h e r s e l f to see to i t t h a t I . was taken to Sunday School because "her aim was t h a t I should go." J . admits to a d i s r u p t e d home background, r e s u l t i n g both from numerous moves and from a t r a n s i e n t f a t h e r . H i s f a t h e r was "a very, very heavy d r i n k e r " who would l e a v e the care of h i s e i g h t c h i l d r e n to h i s w i f e w h i l e he disappeared f o r extended p e r i o d s . In s p i t e of what J . now c o n s i d e r s to be h i s f a t h e r ' s i r r e s p o n s i b l e l i f e - s t y l e , as a young c h i l d he admired him g r e a t l y , e s p e c i a l l y because he "was q u i t e an a t h l e t e , encouraged us i n a t h l e t i c s and a t h l e t i c s became one o f my l o v e s . " J . was enormously fond o f h i s mother and a t -t r i b u t e s h i s r e l i g i o u s a c t i v i t i e s to h i s mother's example of f a i t h f u l n e s s . H i s mother was a s t r o n g P e n t e c o s t a l and a r e g u l a r church a t t e n d e r , except when her shame c o n c e r n i n g t h e f a m i l y circumstances kept her away. Notwithstanding the a m b i g u i t i e s i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the f a m i l y to the church t h e predominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was a s t r o n g bond w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n . The combination of weak f a m i l y - c h u r c h r e l a t i o n s and c l o s e f a m i l y t i e s i s not r e p r e s e n t e d i n our sample. 98 Weak f a m i l y - c h u r c h r e l a t i o n s and c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y weak or c o n f l i c t u a l f a m i l y t i e s are r e p r e s e n t e d by B., D. and H. B. expresses complex e a r l y r e l a t i o n s to both f a m i l y and church. She was not c l o s e to her f a m i l y or, f o r t h a t matter, to any a d u l t . Her p a r e n t s valued e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e -ment and encouraged B.'s apparent i n t e l l e c t u a l a p t i t u d e . B. f e e l s t h a t her mother was envious of t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l -a b l e t o her t h a t she had not had. Both p a r e n t s regarded r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s with d i s d a i n , b e l i e v i n g t h a t they c o u l d not be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e g r i t y . At the same time B. was sent t o Sunday School i n o r d e r t h a t the grand-p a r e n t s , "who were not h i g h l y thought o f " and who were r e -l i g i o u s , might be p a c i f i e d . B. d i d not enjoy her e a r l y r e l i g i o u s c o n t a c t s and shared her p a r e n t ' s d e r i s i o n f o r r e l i g i o u s p eople. D. makes no comment co n c e r n i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f h i s f a m i l y to the church d u r i n g h i s c h i l d h o o d . He does p o i n t t o s e v e r a l i n c i d e n c e s t h a t suggest c o n f l i c t u a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the f a m i l y . He r e c a l l s t h r e e episodes o f d i s o b e d i e n c e i n h i s e a r l y c h i l d h o o d t h a t stand out as s i g n i f i c a n t i n h i s memory. " I don't know why, d i s o b e d i e n c e s always stand out i n my mind more than obediences." H i s youth was a l s o d i s -r u p t e d by a s e r i e s of moves; from Europe to Canada, between v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s i n e a s t e r n Canada, from e a s t e r n to western Canada and f i n a l l y between v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s i n Vancouver. 99 H. mentions numerous complex and uns a t i s f a c t o r y -c h i l d h o o d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Her own mother d i e d i n c h i l d b i r t h and her a d o p t i v e mother d i e d when she was an i n f a n t . T h i s l e f t H. i n the care o f her f o s t e r f a t h e r whom she regarded w i t h both f e a r and a f f e c t i o n , her f o s t e r b r o t h e r s , a s e r i e s o f housekeepers, members o f t h e community and a v a r i e t y o f f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s . H. r e c a l l s t h a t as a c h i l d she was "so b l e s s e d a f f e c t i o n a t e . . . every one of those b l e s s e d housekeepers, no matter how they drank or what they d i d , when they l e f t I bawled and s q u a l l e d l i k e I was l o s i n g my c l o s e s t f r i e n d . " The p a t t e r n o f her e a r l y l i f e was even more d i s r u p t e d when she was removed from the home and p l a c e d i n a s u c c e s s i o n o f f o s t e r homes. There was no r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e f a m i l y H. l i v e d w i t h as a c h i l d and the church. However one s i s t e r o f her f o s t e r f a t h e r ' s , who was a Roman C a t h o l i c nun, took i t upon h e r s e l f to see t o i t t h a t H. should a t l e a s t r e c e i v e a rudimentary edu c a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the matters o f the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . In review, i t may be emphasized t h a t the r e l a t i o n -s h i p s w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y as w e l l as those between f a m i l y and church are seen as the most important o v e r a l l i n f l u e n c e s i n g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n to the S p i r i t u a l m o t i v a t i o n s o f the i n d i v i -d u a l . Of our respondents A., F. and G. i n d i c a t e d c l o s e f a m i l y t i e s and s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s of the f a m i l y t o the church. C , E. and I . and J . re p r e s e n t e d weak f a m i l y t i e s and s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s t o the church. B., D. and H. suggested weak or 100 c o n f l i c t u a l f a m i l y t i e s and l i t t l e o r no r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the f a m i l y to the church. I I . Ma.ior C o n t i n u i n g Themes C e r t a i n f e a t u r e s can be seen to appear r e p e a t e d l y throughout the accounts of the respondents t h a t suggest com-mon p a t t e r n s among i n d i v i d u a l s whose s p i r i t u a l paths l e a d t o t h e P e n t e c o s t a l experience. Perhaps the most p r e v a l e n t r e -a p p e a r i n g theme i s the e x p r e s s i o n of a sense o f i s o l a t i o n ; a f e e l i n g of not b e l o n g i n g , e i t h e r i n c h i l d h o o d or i n l a t e r l i f e . T h i s sense of i s o l a t i o n was most o f t e n expressed as a f e e l i n g of r e l a t i o n a l d i s j u n c t i o n . For any number of reasons the person f e l t t h a t he was cut o f f from s a t i s f y i n g r e l a t i o n -s h i p s w i t h other people. I t should be noted t h a t the o n l y respondents who do not i n d i c a t e t h i s awareness o f r e l a t i o n a l d i s j u n c t i o n are the t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g a Pente-c o s t a l background. A l l the r e s t communicate some m o d i f i c a -t i o n o f t h i s theme. No. A. notes t h a t she f e e l s she does not communicate w e l l on any matter and i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e t i c e n t about s h a r i n g i n t i m a c i e s . She emphasizes again and again how d i f f i c u l t t h i s i s f o r her. "For y e a r s and years I would never t a l k to anybody, t e l l them an y t h i n g about any of my problems . . . I kept e v e r y t h i n g to myself f o r y e a r s and y e a r s and years . . , ; No. C. mentions s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s but with p a r t i -c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the f a m i l y . She was not 101 c l o s e to her pa r e n t s and was envious o f her s i s t e r who was "the popular gorgeous t y p e . " The p a t t e r n was repeated i n her marriage with the s t r e s s o f her u n s a t i s f a c t o r y communi-c a t i o n with her husband becoming acute. E. remembers the deep concern he f e l t about the p o s s i b i l i t y of l i f e l o n g l o n e l i n e s s . H i s worry was accentu-ated by s e v e r a l u n s u c c e s s f u l c o u r t s h i p s and by t h e s p e c t r e o f t he l o n e l y embittered o l d men with whom he worked i n the l o g g i n g camps. He p o i n t s to a gene r a l sense o f unaccept-a b i l i t y and an i n a b i l i t y t o communicate with o t h e r s about t h e t h i n g s t h a t are o f most concern t o him. I . remarks t h a t she b a s i c a l l y was r e s e r v e d , probably as t h e r e s u l t o f b e i n g an onl y c h i l d , and th a t she r e s i s t e d both c l o s e p h y s i c a l and emotional c o n t a c t with o t h e r s . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c reappears i n d i f f e r e n t forms throughout her h i s t o r y . She r e c a l l s as a c h i l d e x p e r i e n c i n g i n t e n s e d i s -comfort i n circumstances demanding c l o s e c o n t a c t and d i s -l i k e d g o i ng t o Sunday School because she "hated b e i n g mashed a g a i n s t a bunch o f l i t t l e k i d s . " As she got o l d e r she found i t i m p o s s i b l e t o share her f a i t h with her p a r e n t s and took p a i n s t o p r e s e r v e her p r i v a c y . She c o u l d not b r i n g h e r s e l f t o admit t o the r e l i g i o u s worker whom she so admired t h a t she had made an a c t of commitment i n s p i t e o f knowing how much t h i s would mean to her f r i e n d . In t a l k i n g about her expe r i e n c e o f the baptism of the Holy S p i r i t she con f e s s e s t h a t what allowed h er to respond was Father Dennis Bennett's 1 0 2 assurance t h a t the "Holy S p i r i t i s a sane, l o v i n g God who would never embarrass you or cause you t o a c t i n some way t h a t wouldn't be i n c h a r a c t e r f o r you . . . " As a l r e a d y mentioned B. f e l t i s o l a t e d as a c h i l d , without c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h e i t h e r a d u l t s o r peers. She found i t d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y with the groups i n which she p a r t i c i p a t e d and when she was removed from her u n i v e r s i t y f r i e n d s , whom she had found s o c i a l l y f u l f i l l i n g , she again experienced the sense of i s o l a t i o n she had known as a c h i l d . Her immense l o n e l i n e s s was continuous and u n d e r l i n e d her s e a r c h f o r a group where she c o u l d share her i n s i g h t s . At one p o i n t she comments " A l l I wanted was a group." Another v a r i a t i o n of t h i s theme of a sense o f i s o l a -t i o n may be i d e n t i f i e d as a f e e l i n g o f moral d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . A., F. and G. a l l make r e f e r e n c e to the awareness t h a t they f e l t m o r a l l y separated from t h e i r peers and r e c a l l p a r t i c u l a r moments when t h i s f e e l i n g was p a r t i c u l a r l y r e c o g n i z a b l e . These moments o f acute awareness are seen as s e r v i n g to r e -i n f o r c e t h e i r own moral stance and to u n d e r l i n e t h e boundar-i e s t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e d them from others who d i d not share t h e i r p o i n t o f view. One such moment i s r e c a l l e d by A. . . . I can remember I l o v e d a t h l e t i c t h i n g s and t h i s k i n d o f t h i n g , and when they had d a n c e s — i t was a mixed c o l l e g e — I wanted so badly t o go down t h e r e and dance. I'd been brought up to t h i n k t h a t dancing was wrong, you see, and we shouldn't — a n d I was j u s t — w e l l I c o u l d n ' t f e e l t h a t i t was wrong and I co u l d n ' t f e e l t h a t i t would hurt me at a l l and I j u s t wanted t o go down so badly, and 103 t h i s music was j u s t underneath where I was l i v i n g i n the h o s t e l and i t made i t much worse of course . . . But I r e a l l y wanted the Lord's w i l l so f i n a l l y I got down on my knees and I j u s t prayed t o God and I s a i d 'Lord, you've got to g i v e me a reason i f I can't go down the r e . . . t h a t was the answer t h a t the Lord gave me and the d e s i r e went r i g h t away and I never wanted t o go down t h e r e anymore. F. comments t h a t " I remember even h a v i n g a great consciousness i n my e a r l y s c h o o l l i f e t h a t when other k i d s d i d t e r r i b l y naughty t h i n g s I j u s t d i d n ' t want to do them because I'd r a t h e r p l e a s e Jesus than be l i k e t h a t . " G. had a s i m i l a r experience, remarking "and you know neighbourhoods — y o u grow up w i t h a l o t o f k i d s and you d e c i d e ' w e l l , i n -s t e a d of going t h a t d i r e c t i o n I'm going i n t h i s other d i r e c t i o n ' . " A c t u a l i s o l a t i o n , as d i s t i n c t from a sense of i s o l a -t i o n , i s a l s o a c o n t i n u i n g theme. One form o f a c t u a l i s o l a -t i o n i s d i s p l a y e d by F. and J . , both of whom had p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s a t c e r t a i n stages o f t h e i r l i f e . F. was ex-c l u d e d from peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s because o f the r e s t r i c t i o n s p l a c e d on her by her asthmatic c o n d i t i o n . She was f o r c e d to miss a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of s c h o o l and c o u l d not p a r t i c i -p a t e i n o r d i n a r y c h i l d h o o d a c t i v i t i e s . When she was a b l e t o a t t e n d s c h o o l she r e c a l l s t h a t "the f r u s t r a t i o n of g e t t i n g back i n t o s c h o o l with the gang and the group again was very unhappy." J . was s t r u c k by p o l i o m y e l i t i s at t h e age of twelve and consequently h o s p i t a l i z e d f o r a p e r i o d o f n i n e months. He d e s c r i b e s h i s predicament, 104 So here I was, my mother's s o r t of p i l l a r , and I was taken away on the emergency f l i g h t from the v i l l a g e t o Vancouver and I d i d n ' t see her f o r n i n e months . . . I was suddenly f r i g h t e n e d by the f a c t o f b e i n g p h y s i c a l l y i n c a p a c i t a t e d be-cause I d i d n ' t walk f o r s i x months . . . I had l o s t p a r t i a l c o n t r o l o f one arm; t h a t i s , the use o f one arm, and a l s o my l e g s were a f f e c t e d , o b v i o u s l y , and my s p i n e . In o t h e r cases where the i s o l a t i o n i s both a c t u a l and p e r c e i v e d i t may take the form o f c u l t u r a l d i s l o c a t i o n . D., w h i l e not making e x p l i c i t r e f e r e n c e to h i s d i s l o c a t i o n , suggests t h a t the e f f e c t s o f h i s em i g r a t i o n and c o n t i n u a l moves have been profound. He remarks t h a t he has always seen h i m s e l f as a ' t r a v e l e r l o o k i n g f o r a l o n g ago home'. The most p r o b l e m a t i c example of d i s l o c a t i o n and the ensuing s t r u g g l e t o a t t a i n an i d e n t i t y i s found i n No. H. She was o f Scandanavian background and was adopted by a f a m i l y o f French-Indian o r i g i n with whom she c o u l d not i d e n t i f y . At the same time she f e l t r e j e c t e d by the community at l a r g e and was aware of the c r i t i c i s m d i r e c t e d towards her a d o p t i v e f a m i l y . So the i d e a o f h a v i n g your own p a r e n t s was t e r -r i b l y important t o me and I suppose i t ' s important t o everybody. . . when I found t h a t I d i d n ' t be-l o n g t o — t h a t was u p s e t t i n g t o me. As a matter o f f a c t , when I, at an e a r l i e r stage—when o l d Grandma E., who was one hundred p e r c e n t I n d i a n — when I found out she wasn't my grandma t h a t was u p s e t t i n g t o me. I was so d e s p e r a t e l y needing somebody t o be f o r r e a l , you know, e i t h e r grandma or something. I had a genuine sense of unworthi-ness as f a r as the community was concerned. The community wasn't a l l t h a t wonderful but I d i d wonder where I came from as a person. 105 The second major r e c u r r i n g theme has t o do with metaphysical needs: q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to death, the meaning of l i f e and the quest f o r the s u p e r n a t u r a l i n r e l a -t i o n t o the problems of e x i s t e n c e . A l l the respondents, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of A. and G. express an awareness of o n t o l o g i c a l problems. I t i s noteworthy t h a t i n both t h e s e cases the p a r e n t s were s t r o n g b e l i e v e r s . J . and I . both v o i c e t h e i r concerns i n terms of • l i f e must mean more than t h i s 1 . J . r e c a l l s t h a t he and I . , came t o "a r e a l u nderstanding of each other and then we d i d a s o r t o f resume, you know, i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , and i t was j u s t some f e e l i n g o f the l i f e we'd been l e a d i n g up to t h a t p o i n t . . . w e l l , we though l i f e meant more than t h a t . " D. and E. c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e i r weltangst i n terms of q u e r i e s r e g a r d i n g the purpose of l i f e . D. d e s c r i b e s v i v i d l y t h e o c c a s i o n o f h i s l a s t " a c i d t r i p " when he and h i s c o u s i n came to some very b a s i c r e a l i z a t i o n s a g r e e i n g t h a t "Okay, we r e a l l y are l o s t . We don't r e a l l y know where we're going. The s t r u c t u r e o f what's around us i s not r e a l l y where i t ' s a t . . ." E. w o r r i e d t h a t he f a c e d a f a t e s i m i l a r to the l o n e l y o l d men i n the l o g g i n g camps. He read c o n s i d e r a b l y i n the area of philosophy and admits t h a t he was always " r a t h e r l o o k i n g f o r an answer i f t h e r e was an answer and I wasn't too sure t h e r e was but I never r e a l l y found i t . " F. and H. both mention t h e i r f e a r of death as c h i l d r e n . F. r e c a l l s t h a t on the o c c a s i o n of her u n c l e ' s 1 0 6 f i f t i e t h b i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n she woke up at n i g h t with the overwhelming awareness of the b r e v i t y of l i f e . Her anxiety p e r s i s t e d and she questioned her mother about r e l a t e d mat-t e r s . S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s event when her Sunday School t e a c h e r proposed an e x p l a n a t i o n by way of d e s c r i b i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n s t h a t Jesus was making to p r o v i d e f o r l i f e a f t e r death she responded by ' g i v i n g her l i f e t o J e s u s ' . H. r e -members s e v e r a l t r a u m a t i c experiences with death as a c h i l d . The q u e s t i o n s t h a t were r a i s e d i n her mind as a r e s u l t con-c e r n i n g the meaning o f l i f e r e c e i v e d no s a t i s f a c t o r y explan-a t i o n . A quest f o r the s u p e r n a t u r a l may be most c l e a r l y seen i n the l i v e s of C. and B. C. acknowledges t h a t she was always i n t e r e s t e d i n r e l i g i o n and sees t h i s as stemming from what she f e e l s was an unusual c u r i o s i t y r e g a r d i n g r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s . B. t e s t i f i e s to an e x t r a o r d i n a r y d r i v e towards s p i r i t u a l r e a l i z a t i o n and comprehension. She e x p l a i n s t h a t she was always i n t e r e s t e d i n "a s o r t o f sense o f mystery i n t h i n g s and myth.** Her f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h mysticism i s i n d i -c a t e d by her e x p l o r a t i o n of o c c u l t and p s y c h i c phenomena. She became i n t r i g u e d with the i d e a t h a t i f God c o u l d be seen as b e i n g i n the depth o f t h i n g s " i t might a f t e r a l l be p o s s i b l e t o e x p e r i e n c e something." The l a s t apparent theme t h a t emerges time and again i s a sense of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with how s p i r i t u a l needs are  r e a l i z e d . The d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s expressed both as something 107 t h a t i s l a c k i n g i n the p e r s o n a l s p i r i t u a l l i f e o f the i n d i -v i d u a l or i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e which p r o v i d e s f o r p u b l i c r e l i g i o u s e x p r e s s i o n . A., E. and I . a l l note t h e i r concern w i t h t h e i r f e e l i n g s of inadequacy i n w i t n e s s i n g t o t h e i r f a i t h . T h i s t o them i n d i c a t e s not only a problem i n communication with o t h e r s but a p o s s i b l e weakness i n t h e i r own r e a l i z a t i o n of t h e f a i t h . They a l l seem to f e e l t h a t i f t h e i r f a i t h were s t r o n g e r they should not be e x p e r i e n c i n g the d i f f i c u l t i e s they a p p a r e n t l y a r e . A. was aware t h a t she d i d not communi-c a t e w e l l under any circumstances but she was p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n s c i o u s of her weakness i n w i t n e s s i n g to her f a i t h . ". . . so i t wasn't j u s t hard f o r me t o witness to C h r i s t , i t was hard f o r me to do a n y t h i n g t h a t way . . . but I f e l t I should be a s t r o n g e r witness, t h i s was t h e one t h i n g I l a c k e d . " E. says he was open to a n y t h i n g " t h a t would g i v e me a f i r m e r grasp o f the f a i t h and t h a t I c o u l d communicate i t i n some way or other which I seemed to have f a i l e d to do i n any o f my p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . " I . found i t i m p o s s i b l e t o make a p u b l i c p r o f e s s i o n of f a i t h . She remembers b e i n g asked by a r e l i g i o u s worker f o r whom she had a great d e a l of r e s p e c t whether she would commit her l i f e t o C h r i s t . Her response was t h a t "I would not g i v e her a commitment. I was always t h i s type of person; I d i d n ' t want to hurt anybody but I was too r e s e r v e d , too t i m i d t o admit t h i s type o f t h i n g . " Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t theme found i n the i n d i v i d u a l s was a d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the r o u t i n e church. A l l the respondents who approach the P e n t e c o s t a l experience by t h a t path suggest areas o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the i n s t i t u t i o n a l church. A. avoids making any s p e c i f i c c r i t i c a l comment r e -g a r d i n g the church of which she i s a member but i n r e f e r r i n g t o t h e p a s t o r and h i s w i f e comments t h a t " I got on wonder-f u l l y with them and we h a d — t h e same as every other c h u r c h -t r o u b l e and they'd had a hard time and I'd always f e l t t h a t they were i n the r i g h t and we weren't g i v i n g them a chance." She had had an e a r l i e r experience of disappointment t h a t was determined by the church. She had f e l t t h a t she was c a l l e d t o becomesa m i s s i o n a r y but on s u b m i t t i n g her a p p l i c a t i o n was r e f u s e d without any d i r e c t e x p l a n a t i o n o t h e r than ". . . they f e l t , they had prayed about i t , and they f e l t t h a t i t wasn't t h e Lord's w i l l . " T h i s had been an enormous disappointment f o r her but she had accepted i t as a d i r e c t i o n from 'the L o r d ' and d i d not proceed f u r t h e r with her m i s s i o n a r y ambi-t i o n s . B. was not a t t r a c t e d t o t h e church e i t h e r as a c h i l d o r as an a d u l t . She f e l t t h a t the c l e r g y o f l i b e r a l o r i e n t a -t i o n l a c k e d s p i r i t u a l i t y and she found t h e i r attempts t o i n t e r p r e t t h e B i b l e without what she c o n s i d e r e d i t s i n h e r e n t m y s t i c i s m most u n s t i m u l a t i n g . 109 The s o r t o f Sunday School t e a c h e r s we got were very l i b e r a l and very unmysterious and they were q u i t e sure t h a t a n y t h i n g the B i b l e s a i d t h a t was mysterious, o b v i o u s l y we know b e t t e r now. I t d i d n ' t happen, they j u s t thought i t d i d . I c h i e f l y remember when I d i d get t o church on Sunday n i g h t h e a r i n g sermons about the l a t e s t b e s t s e l l e r , i n a d u l l s o r t of way. I d i d n ' t t h i n k much of the whole t h i n g . She r e c a l l s one o c c a s i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e when a group of t h e o l o g i c a l l y i n c l i n e d i n d i v i d u a l s had gethered f o r a d i s c u s s i o n . Something about the evening made her i l l : "a room f u l l o f people who d i d n ' t b e l i e v e as much as I d i d and f e l t q u i t e happy i n t h a t s i t u a t i o n . " She a l s o remarks t h a t she f e e l s the m i n i s t e r o f the church which she had attended f o r t e n ye a r s d i d n ' t r e a l l y c a r e whether o r not she belonged. C. comments t h a t she doesn't t h i n k t h a t the Sunday School she attended as a c h i l d " d i d much to make i t i n t e r -e s t i n g or help i n c l i n e anyone to want t o go very badly but I j u s t had the i n t e r e s t which Sunday School d i d n ' t manage to s q u e l c h . At a time o f great s t r e s s C. turned t o the church t o look f o r s o l u t i o n s to her problems. The s o l u t i o n she f e l t was suggested was to become i n v o l v e d w i t h other p e o p l e . She d i d so and found t h a t her problems were m u l t i p l i e d . When she found an answer i n the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t h er m i n i s t e r d i d not r e c o g n i z e i t as an a u t h e n t i c experience and she found i t i m p o s s i b l e to share w i t h the other members o f the c o n g r e g a t i o n . E. had a s u c c e s s i o n of u n s a t i s f a c t o r y experiences w i t h the r o u t i n e church when as a young l a y m i n i s t e r h i s 110 r e l a t i o n s h i p both to the congregations he served and to the church a u t h o r i t i e s became p r o b l e m a t i c . At t h e time he was r e j e c t e d as a candidate f o r the m i n i s t r y he l e f t the r o u t i n e church and once more a s s o c i a t e d h i m s e l f with s m a l l funda-m e n t a l i s t groups with whom he had e a r l i e r had a s a t i s f y i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . However t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n a l s o e v e n t u a l l y be-came d i s s a t i s f y i n g and he again r e t u r n e d t o the denomination where he had experienced the e a r l i e r r e j e c t i o n . T h i s time he was accepted and allowed to continue w i t h h i s p l a n s to enter t h e m i n i s t r y . He was s t i l l aware o f problems and came to see them as h i s own. He no lo n g e r a t t r i b u t e d h i s d i f f i -c u l t i e s to the i n s t i t u t i o n but t o h i s person. I . comments t h a t she was r e p e l l e d by the s o c i a l r a t h e r than s p i r i t u a l emphasis she encountered i n her church. Her mother, who had never been a r e l i g i o u s person and wit h whom I . d i d not i d e n t i f y , j o i n e d the church when I . was an a d o l e s c e n t . She observes t h a t "my mother, g e t t i n g r i g h t i n l i n e w i t h the community s p i r i t j o i n e d the church and r e a l l y found an o u t l e t f o r her energies . . . so the church was j u s t a s o c i a l o u t l e t f o r her r e a l l y . . . " In a l l cases what u n d e r l i n e d the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the r o u t i n e church was the apparent l a c k of a s p i r i t u a l emphasis, the l a c k of f a i t h and the consequent emptiness o f p u b l i c e x p r e s s i o n s o f worship. The foremost response when i n t r o d u c e d t o the charisma o f those 'who worship i n the S p i r i t ' was an overwhelming awareness o f the depth o f meaning I l l w i t h which these people approached the act of worship. T h i s awareness i s perhaps most e l o q u e n t l y v e r b a l i z e d by No. C. who exclaims . . . I j u s t thought f o r the f i r s t / t i m e i n my l i f e , these people are w o r s h i p p i n g — y o u know, worshipping a God as though everyone o f them r e a l l y t h i n k s He's t h e r e . . . t h i s was a very unique experience because i t was o f f e r e d t o God and nobody cared what the person next t o them thought or what they were d o i n g . I l l . The T r a n s i t i o n a l Moments C e r t a i n p a t t e r n s emerge as the i n d i v i d u a l paths of the respondents are t r a c e d i n terms o f the suggested map. The s i m p l e s t r o u t e i s taken by those people whose s p i r i t u a l o r i g i n s were P e n t e c o s t a l . F., G. and J . moved d i r e c t l y from a f a m i l y t o the P e n t e c o s t a l experience without d e f l e c t i o n s en r o u t e . They express no s p e c i f i c m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , i n terms of problems or a t t r a c t i o n s , but move wit h ease from t h e i r p o i n t of e n t r y t o t h e i r p o i n t o f s p i r i t u a l d e s t i n y . For them i t was a f u l f i l l m e n t o f p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s . I t cannot be regarded as an e s s e n t i a l l y t r a n s f o r m i n g experience f o r them but r a t h e r as a reinforcement o f t h e i r i d e n t i t y . With r e f e r e n c e t o the d i s c u s s i o n i n Chapter I i t i s noteworthy t h a t these respondents had the experience b e f o r e making t h e i r major l i f e commitments and i t does not neces-s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t a r e s o l u t i o n of a d i s s o n a n t s t a t e . By W i l l i a m James' d e f i n i t i o n they would seem t o belong among the 'healthy-minded' r a t h e r than among the ' s i c k s o u l s ' , 112 whose ambivalence c a l l e d f o r a r e s o l u t i o n . They are the a l r e a d y committed. As such they cannot be t r e a t e d as r e p -r e s e n t a t i v e o f i n d i v i d u a l s who have found a s o l u t i o n i n the exp e r i e n c e o f the Holy S p i r i t which r e s u l t s i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . 1. Lapse; The c l e a r e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f a l a p s e may be observed i n the l i v e s o f B., C , E. and I . A l l i n d i c a t e movement away from e a r l i e r r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e s t o s e c u l a r involvement. B. c o n t r a s t s her e a r l y n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s about the church with l a t e r p o s i t i v e r e a c t i o n s to her s e c u l a r crowd. For example, commenting about church attendance i n a d o l e s -cence she remarks " I d i d n ' t t h i n k much of the whole t h i n g . " On the other hand she r e c a l l s " I knew about twenty people, a gang o f people who had o r i g i n a l l y been — , although they s a i d what they l i k e d about — - was t h a t you d i d n ' t have t o b e l i e v e a n y t h i n g to be one. T h i s made them very happy . . . i t was i d e a l from my p o i n t of view . . . At t h a t time i n u n i v e r s i t y nobody I knew would have been caught dead with a r e l i g i o u s person." For C. the movement focused i n her unhappy marriage and i n her r e j e c t i o n o f p a r e n t a l v a l u e s . Her pa r e n t s tended t o judge people i n accordance w i t h what they c o n s i d e r e d t o be w o r l d l y and C. was s t r o n g l y opposed to t h e i r judgmental s t a n c e . C. d e s c r i b e s her mother as 'not with i t at a l l * . Her m a r i t a l s i t u a t i o n was so u n s a t i s f a c t o r y t h a t C. l o s t 113 i n t e r e s t i n l i v i n g f o r a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l y e a r s . E.'s movement away from e a r l i e r r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e s i s most c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d when, i n h i s twenties, he decided t o put away a l l matters o f r e l i g i o u s concern and f o r the f i r s t time he f e l t l i b e r a t e d from an e x t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y . The l i f e s t y l e he assumed was s e c u l a r . H i s employment was t r a n s i e n t , he f e l t t h a t he was spending h i s money i r r e s p o n -s i b l y and he developed a d r i n k i n g problem. I . , who had been deeply s p i r i t u a l as a c h i l d , d r i f t e d away from her f a i t h w h i l e a t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y . She began to smoke, d r i n k , date as much as p o s s i b l e and s t a t e s t h a t her primary i n t e n t i o n at t h a t time was to enjoy h e r s e l f without c o n s i d e r i n g the f e e l i n g s o f o t h e r s . 2. J o i n i n g the Church: Symbolizes the d e c i s i o n t o become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a community of b e l i e v e r s . J o i n i n g the church i n d i c a t e s e i t h e r a r e a c t i v a t i o n o f e a r l i e r r e l i g i o u s i n t e r -e s t s or a commitment brought on by a c o n v e r s i o n experience. Of our respondents, B., C. and I . are examples of those who r e j o i n e d the church w h i l e E., D. and H. p o i n t to a p r e c i p i -t a t i n g c o n v e r s i o n experience. A., F., G., and J . r e t a i n e d t h e i r church a s s o c i a t i o n s at l e a s t u n t i l a f t e r they had r e -c e i v e d the baptism. B. r e a s s o c i a t e d h e r s e l f w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n as a r e s u l t of her marriage. At the same time she remained nega-t i v e i n her a t t i t u d e towards i t . C. looked to t h e church f o r s o l u t i o n s t o her problems as a s o r t p f l a s t r e s o r t . She 1 1 4 had r e c e i v e d both medical and p s y c h i a t r i c a s s i s t a n c e but n e i t h e r had been s a t i s f a c t o r y . I . p e r c e i v e d her d e c i s i o n t o r e t u r n t o the church as a se a r c h f o r a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e t o the s e c u l a r l i f e s t y l e she had assumed and which she had found h i g h l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . E. j o i n e d the church a f t e r he had committed h i s l i f e t o C h r i s t . As t h e r e s u l t o f a c o n v e r s a t i o n d e a l i n g with matters o f the f a i t h and the book t h a t he was advised to read E. says he "asked God to take over the r e i n s o f my l i f e t o do with what He wanted" s i n c e he hadn*t managed too suc-c e s s f u l l y on h i s own up to th a t p o i n t . As a consequence of t h i s a c t he made c o n t a c t w i t h a s m a l l e v a n g e l i c a l congrega-t i o n . D. underwent a t o t a l r e v e r s a l o f p e r s p e c t i v e w h i l e on an L.S.D. t r i p . H i s immediate response to t h i s about t u r n i s to *shop around f o r a church*. H. f i r s t heard the C h r i s t i a n message from two v i s i t i n g e v a n g e l i s t s and found t h e i r words so addressed her predicament t h a t she immediately d e c i d e d she wanted t o be a b e l i e v e r and made a consequent c o n f e s s i o n of her f a i t h . From t h a t moment on she i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the church and was t o t a l l y committed t o her new found s a l v a t i o n . A. r e t a i n e d her church a f f i l i a t i o n but made a s h i f t i n denominational i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . She moved from a Methodist background through a Lutheran a s s o c i a t i o n t o t h e P e n t e c o s t a l 115 e x p e r i e n c e . F., G. and J . remained committed w i t h i n the p e r s u a s i o n of t h e i r background. 3. I n t r o d u c t i o n to the P e n t e c o s t a l Experience: Without an i n t r o d u c t i o n people cannot e n t e r i n t o the experience as i t i s known. The experience i s c o n t i n g e n t upon the awareness t h a t i t e x i s t s . An e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i s an e s s e n t i a l p r e -r e q u i s i t e . The experience i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d ; i t can be named, i t can be shared with o t h e r s , i t has a h i s t o r y and i t c a r r i e s with i t an i d e o l o g y . I f i t c o u l d not be i n t e r -p r e t e d i n the l i g h t of t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n i t would l o s e i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . T h i s i s not t o say t h a t s i m i l a r f e e l i n g s and p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s c o u l d not be experienced without the accompanying knowledge co n c e r n i n g them but i t i s t o say t h a t as such they would not s u f f i c e as a t u r n i n g p o i n t . Because the passage from m a i n l i n e church t o t h e experience has not been f o r m a l i z e d c o a c h i n g becomes a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n t h e p r o c e s s . The process o f i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the experience o f the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t , e s p e c i -a l l y the r o l e of the coach or model, warrants focused study as G e r l a c h and Hine have p o i n t e d out. I t cannot be over-emphasized t h a t the i n t r o d u c t i o n i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e i n understanding the movement of c h a r i s m a t i c renewal. The process o f education i n v o l v e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n i n c l u d e s t h r e e c e n t r a l f e a t u r e s : the spread of i n f o r m a t i o n , a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h a person who a c t s as coach, and a sense o f the a b i l i t y to perform the a c t . The candidate has to 116 know about i t , has to want i t , and has to be convinced t h a t he too can do i t . Of our sample, Nos. F., G. and J . move u n i n t e r r u p t e d -l y t o the e x p e r i e n c e . They are i n t r o d u c e d to i t at an e a r l y age by t h e i r p a r e n t s . T h e i r p a r e n t s are warmly regarded and s e r v e as e x c e l l e n t coaches and they have no reason to ques-t i o n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o be r e c i p i e n t s of the experience as i t i s not an uncommon event i n t h e i r r e l i g i o u s community. A l l the r e s t , with the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of D., e n t e r v i a another church. A. was i n t r o d u c e d by her b r o t h e r , who became a P e n t e c o s t a l m i n i s t e r , but d i d not s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r i t as a p o s s i b i l i t y f o r her u n t i l she read an a r t i c l e i n V o i c e magazine commenting on the e f f e c t s of the C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal Movement. She then d i s c o v e r e d t h a t her p a s t o r and h i s wife spoke i n tongues. Consequently she attended a s e r i e s of e v a n g e l i s t i c meetings f e a t u r i n g a speak-er who was both a member o f the denomination with which she was a s s o c i a t e d and had a l s o had the experience. B. became f r i e n d l y with a P e n t e c o s t a l m i n i s t e r who gave her r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l and encouraged her a l o n g the way. She was f i n a l l y c o n v i nced t h a t she too c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e as a r e s u l t of r e a d -i n g a book which "had a d o - i t - y o u r s e l f chapter i n the end." C. heard o f a person who had undergone a n o t i c e a b l e change. She made c o n t a c t with her. She was then given John Sher-r i l l ' s They Speak With Other Tongues by a f r i e n d who had had t h e experience. F o l l o w i n g t h i s she was taken to the Pente-117 c o s t a l church. E. knew he l a c k e d something. On the b a s i s o f the t h e o l o g i c a l e d u c a t i o n he had r e c e i v e d he f e l t t h a t h i s l a c k had something to do w i t h the Holy S p i r i t . He a t -tended s e v e r a l meetings sponsored by t h e C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal Movement. He asked f o r p r a y e r . D u r i n g the p r a y e r he was t o l d t h a t he too c o u l d do i t i f he wanted. He b e l i e v e d and responded. H. went t o l i v e with f o s t e r p a rents who were s t r o n g P e n t e c o s t a l s . She was s c e p t i c a l but read the New Testament to see whether the experience was s c r i p t u r a l l y v a l i d a t e d . I t was. She r e c e i v e d the g i f t on the o c c a s i o n o f an e v a n g e l i s t i c meeting i n the l o c a l P e n t e c o s t a l church. I . heard about i t through her f i a n c e who was of P e n t e c o s t a l background. She was i n t r o d u c e d to the community by him. While she became f a m i l i a r i z e d w i t h the experience she d i d not respond q u i c k l y and i t was not u n t i l a v i s i t i n g c l e r i c a s sured her t h a t her person would not be invaded or t h a t she would have to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a n y t h i n g t h a t was f o r e i g n t o her c h a r a c t e r t h a t she f e l t a b l e to r e l a x i n t o i t . What have been d i s c u s s e d as t r a n s i t i o n a l moments are not intended n e c e s s a r i l y to r e p r e s e n t s p e c i f i c p o i n t s i n time. Rather they are meant to symbolize those times o f r e c o g n i t i o n when the person acknowledges h i s s t a t e , e i t h e r by word or a c t . They are i n d i c a t o r s t h a t a change has taken p l a c e . 118 I I I . M o t i v a t i o n a l S t a t e s M o t i v a t i o n i s a t t r i b u t e d to t h e person on l y from the p o i n t o f view o f how he p e r c e i v e s h i m s e l f to be motivated. I t w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d on the b a s i s o f e i t h e r e x p l i c i t comment or i m p l i c i t s uggestion on the p a r t o f t h e respondent; t h a t i s , i n terms o f problems or a t t r a c t i o n s and i n terms o f n e g a t i v e o r p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t h a t are apparent i n the responses. S a t i s f a c t o r y responses to a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e are not seen as m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s i n moving towards a d i f f e r e n t s t a t e . U n s a t i s f a c t o r y responses are seen t o produce a change, e i t h e r by changing the s t a t e i t s e l f or by moving t o another. 1. O v e r a l l I n f l u e n c e s In terms of the o v e r a l l i n f l u e n c e s as m o t i v a t i n g s t a t e s f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t F. and G. are s a t i s f i e d with both t h e i r r e l i g i o u s experiences and with t h e i r i n t e r - f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . They are not motiva-t e d t o move t o another s t a t e but only to become more f u l -f i l l e d i n the prese n t one. F. t e s t i f i e s t h a t her f a i t h p r o v i d e d a l l the s o l u t i o n s t o any problems she had ever had and t h a t her c e n t r a l o b j e c t i v e i s f t o seek Jesus'. G. too expresses complete s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h her e a r l y experiences and f e e l s t h a t her c h i l d h o o d r e l i g i o u s l i f e was u n u s u a l l y meaningful. She a t t r i b u t e s her r e l i g i o u s u n f o l d i n g t o her p a r e n t s who " . . . never pressed us e i t h e r . They j u s t en-couraged us to pray and to seek God and to l o v e Him and i n 119 t h i s way t h e r e came a hunger i n our h e a r t s f o r God . . . " J., a l though he remained i n the church u n t i l a f t e r h i s baptism experience, had a more p r o b l e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p t o both church and f a m i l y i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . H i s p a r e n t s were not c l o s e ; h i s mother was f a i t h f u l to both church and f a m i l y w h i l e h i s f a t h e r was t r u e to n e i t h e r . Yet J . was drawn to both p a r e n t s and expresses a c e r t a i n amount of ambivalence about h i s e a r l y r e l i g i o u s experiences and about t h e people who r e p r e s e n t e d the P e n t e c o s t a l mode. In d e s c r i b -i n g h i s experience of the Holy S p i r i t J . emphasizes the importance of h i s mother's example. The o t h e r respondents a l l p o i n t out n e g a t i v e elements i n t h e i r e a r l y experiences which can be seen as s i g n i f i c a n t i n p r o p e l l i n g them towards a d i f f e r e n t s t a t e . No. A. d i d not l a p s e to a s e c u l a r s t a t e but moved from one r e l i g i o u s s t a t e t o another. She p o i n t s out both her t r u s t and f e a r of her f a t h e r and her doubt c o n c e r n i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f her e a r l y e xperience. She i n d i c a t e s r e -p e a t e d l y t h a t she d i d not q u e s t i o n her f a t h e r ' s a u t h o r i t y . When she e v e n t u a l l y moved to j o i n a d i f f e r e n t denomination she again met d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the form of a rej"ection to her a p p l i c a t i o n t o serve the church f u l l time. She found both her domestic and s p i r i t u a l l i f e b a rren i n the years j u s t p r i o r t o her experience. Her d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was apparent. 120 B. *s antagonism to the church as a c h i l d was e x p l i c i t and r e i n f o r c e d by her parents* n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards i t . Her c h i l d h o o d was exceedingly l o n e l y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s she formed w h i l e at u n i v e r s i t y f u l f i l l e d both her i n t e l l e c t u a l a p p e t i t e and her s o c i a l needs. Her a s s o c i a t e s enjoyed t h e i r s e c u l a r awareness and B. was s a t i s f i e d . B. was not s a t i s -f i e d i n her c h i l d h o o d e i t h e r by her r e l i g i o u s experience or by her r e l a t i o n s h i p to her f a m i l y . C. d i d not have a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p with her f a m i l y nor with; the church. Her p a r e n t s were very a c t i v e church members. C. however does f e e l she had a n a t u r a l s p i r i t u a l tendency as a c h i l d which the Sunday School d i d not manage to e l i m i n a t e . She does not mention any p a r t i c u l a r a t t r a c -t i o n s about the s e c u l a r s t a t e and seems to have d r i f t e d i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n because of a l a c k o f s t i m u l i she a s s o c i a t e d w i t h her e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e . D. remarks t h a t the only s i g n i f i c a n t events he can r e c a l l from h i s e a r l y c h i l d h o o d are i n c i d e n c e s of d i s o b e d i -ence. He s p e c i f i e s t h r e e examples. He was not c l o s e to h i s p a r e n t s . The f a m i l y moved r e p e a t e d l y . E v e n t u a l l y h i s d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n became so i n t e n s e t h a t he made s e v e r a l attempts t o run away. H i s o r i e n t a t i o n towards a s e c u l a r s t a t e i s f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d by h i s a t t r a c t i o n to the drug s u b - c u l t u r e . E. makes l i t t l e mention of h i s f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s but i m p l i e s t h a t they were q u i t e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . H i s r e -l i g i o u s l i f e too was not what he wanted and he made a 1 c o n s c i o u s d e c i s i o n to l e a v e a l l matters of r e l i g i o u s c o n s i d -e r a t i o n behind him i n an attempt to become l i b e r a t e d . The s e a r c h f o r l i b e r a t i o n from a u t h o r i t y i s what seems to draw E. towards the s e c u l a r . H. had no e a r l y r e l i g i o u s i n f l u e n c e but her s e c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s were h i g h l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . I . was s p i r i t u a l and r e s e r v e d as a c h i l d i n c o n t r a s t t o her mother's s o c i a b i l i t y and l a c k o f r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s between members of the f a m i l y were d i s t a n t and the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the f a m i l y to the church was non-e x i s t e n t . I . found n e i t h e r s a t i s f y i n g . 2. Movement from S e c u l a r S t a t e to J o i n i n g the Church S i n c e A., F., G. and J . remain on a predominantly r e l i g i o u s course and do not l a p s e to a s e c u l a r s t a t e we do not need to be concerned with them at t h i s p o i n t . T h e i r problems are p e r c e i v e d as e s s e n t i a l l y s p i r i t u a l and must be t r e a t e d as such. Those moving from s e c u l a r s t a t e to church are B., C. D., E., H. and I . B. alone i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a p o s s i b l e movement from one s t a t e to another i n s p i t e of her s a t i s f a c -t i o n with a former s t a t e . The s e c u l a r s t a t e she had known was one of g r e a t s a t i s f a c t i o n and had r e s o l v e d both her e a r l i e r l o n e l i n e s s and r e j e c t i o n o f the church. However w h i l e i n t h i s frame of mind she was married t o a man whose a u t h o r i t y and i n t e l l e c t she r e s p e c t e d . Her husband had s t r o n g r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s which B. r e j e c t e d and from 122 which she thought he c o u l d be swayed. Her i n t e n t i o n s t o do so were not t o be as e a s i l y r e a l i z e d as she had expected. She j o i n e d the church c h i e f l y because o f her husband's i n t e r -e s t and i n s p i t e of her c o n t i n u e d n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s towards i t . She began to read t h e o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i n order to be s u f f i c i e n t l y knowledgeable to enter i n t o debate with her husband. In d o i n g so she found h e r s e l f becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r e s t e d i n r e l i g i o u s s p e c u l a t i o n s and as a r e s u l t was drawn i n t o an i n t e n s e and complex s p i r i t u a l quest i n l i n e w i t h her former i n t e r e s t i n mysticism. In time she became f u l l y absorbed i n her quest and l o s t a l l i n t e r e s t i n r e -g a i n i n g s e c u l a r s a t i s f a c t i o n s . D., E. and I emphasize both t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r s e c u l a r s t a t e and t h e i r u n f u l f i l l e d s p i r i t u a l quest. I . had been i n v o l v e d i n a s t r o n g but not wholly s a t i s f a c t o r y quest throughout her c h i l d h o o d and adolescence. She was unable at t h a t time t o make the p u b l i c p r o f e s s i o n o f f a i t h she p e r c e i v e d as a s p i r i t u a l t e s t . At the same time she r e a c t e d a g a i n s t the s o c i a l emphasis of the r o u t i n e church and i m p l i e s t h a t she questioned her mother's motives, f o r j o i n i n g the church. However the s e c u l a r s t a t e she as-sumed became l e s s meaningful with time. I t o f f e r e d no s o l u -t i o n s and she decided t h a t she must loo k f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s to make l i f e more meaningful f o r her. In l i n e with her p r e v i o u s i n t e r e s t s she focused on r e l i g i o n as a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n to her emptiness. 124 D. expresses deep concern with the meaning o f l i f e and remembers t h i n k i n g t h a t t h e r e must be more to i t than j u s t "going to s c h o o l and working f o r t h e r e s t of your l i f e f o r some k i n d of s e c u r i t y t h a t can f a l l a p a r t every time the g o l d standard dropped a twenty-seventh o f a p o i n t . " D. e v e n t u a l l y turned to drugs as a p o s s i b l e s a l v a t i o n . He comments on h i s q u e s t s I had always thought t h a t I was a t r a v e l e r , a wanderer i n space at t h i s time and b e f o r e t h i s , s e a r c h i n g f o r a l o n g ago home, a p l a c e I once knew t h a t I had l o s t and t h a t must be r e g a i n e d at a l l c o s t s . I don't r e a l l y know where i t i s o r where i t ' s a t . And so we got to the peak of our a c i d t r i p and I'd been through t h i s many:times and i t always l e f t me with a k i n d of p u z z l e d t h i n g i n my mind, not q u i t e knowing what had happened but knowing t h a t i t was so c l o s e to what I was l o o k i n g f o r and hoping maybe t h a t I would f i n d i t on the next t r i p . He began to n o t i c e t h a t the problems f a c i n g the s u b - c u l t u r e w i t h which he i d e n t i f i e d were the same as those i n the r e s t o f s o c i e t y and t h a t they were not r e c e i v i n g any more i d e a l treatment than they would r e c e i v e i n i t . On h i s l a s t L.S.D. t r i p D. underwent a complete r e v e r s a l <£ h i s former perspec-t i v e . Whereas b e f o r e he had not been ab l e to c o n c e p t u a l i z e God as a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y he now " r e a l i z e d t h a t I was so much a se p a r a t e c r e a t i o n , a separate e n t i t y , t h a t I was r e a l l y p r e c i o u s i n the s i g h t o f God . . . t h a t f o r every good t h i n g God has to o f f e r Satan has a c o u n t e r f e i t . . . f o r i n s t a n c e , God o f f e r s the baptism of the Holy S p i r i t . T h i s i s k i n d of God's t u r n on. Satan c o u n t e r f e i t s i t i n L.S.D., hashesh 125 and marijuana . . . " As a r e s u l t of t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n D. d e c i d e d to shop around f o r a church. E. p o i n t s t o t h e main problem of h i s s e c u l a r l i f e b e i n g h i s f e e l i n g of i s o l a t i o n and h i s sense of p u r p o s e l e s s -ness. He was a f r a i d of becoming one of the l o n e l y o l d men he observed i n the l o g g i n g camps, he was d i s t u r b e d by h i s f a i l u r e to enter i n t o s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the o p p o s i t e sex, and he was p e r t u r b e d about h i s i n a b i l i t y to communicate e f f e c t i v e l y . The t o t a l r e s u l t was a sense of w o r t h l e s s n e s s and f a i l u r e . In the course o f h i s r e a d i n g he happened a c r o s s a book which convinced him of the r e a l i t y of t h e h i s t o r i c a l J e s u s . He t h e r e f o r e f e l t he owed i t to him-s e l f t o f i n d out more about t h e C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . He turned t o the B i b l e , which he read without understanding but which convinced him f u r t h e r t h a t h i s way of l i f e was 'condemned*. The g i r l s from the B i b l e s c h o o l who v i s i t e d h i s p a r e n t s ' home at t h i s time r e p r e s e n t e d t o him a l l t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y was about and he determined to approach them f o r s p i r i t u a l guidance. At t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n he read Peace With God by B i l l y Graham and immediately gave h i s l i f e to God to "do w i t h as He p l e a s e d . " H i s c o n v e r s i o n prompted him to a s s o c i -a t e h i m s e l f with a s m a l l c o n g r e g a t i o n where, f o r the f i r s t time i n h i s l i f e , he f e l t accepted j u s t the way he was. C. and H. i l l u s t r a t e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h a t they p l a c e s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s t r e s s on t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r s e c u l a r s t a t e s than on any p o s i t i v e s p i r i t u a l quest. 1 2 6 C. was caught i n an unhappy marriage. She had f e l t t h a t i f she r e f u s e d her husband's p r o p o s a l she would never a g a i n have another chance. F u r t h e r , her f a m i l y and f r i e n d s a l l approved of the match and encouraged i t . She worked f o r a few months a f t e r her marriage but found i t exhausting. ". . . j u s t the s t r a i n of i t was d r i v i n g me c r a z y so I kept b u y i n g nerve t o n i c and t h i n g s . " She d i s c o v e r e d t h a t she was pregnant s h o r t l y a f t e r she had begun to work and w i t h i n a p e r i o d of t h r e e years she had t h r e e c h i l d r e n . The s t r a i n of t h e c h i l d r e n coupled with t h e unhappy m a r i t a l s i t u a t i o n was deeply d i s t u r b i n g . "I thought my k i d s were a drag and I hated e v e r y t h i n g . " During these y e a r s C. had no c l o s e r e l a -t i o n s h i p s . "Well, they were f r i e n d s , but one i s not a b l e to have a h e a l t h y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h anyone I t h i n k when one i s l o a d e d down with g u i l t and d e p r e s s i o n s and f e e l i n g s of i n -adequacy. T h i s i s a b l o c k to what f r i e n d s h i p i s supposed to be." In the course o f l o o k i n g f o r p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s she t u r n e d t o the r o u t i n e church. She became very a c t i v e , t h i n k -i n g t h a t the way out of her dilemma was through t o t a l i n v o l v e -ment wit h other people. E v e n t u a l l y she came to see t h a t t h i s was a t r a p r a t h e r than a s o l u t i o n f o r her, m u l t i p l y i n g i n -s t e a d o f r e d u c i n g her problems. I t i s h a r d l y p o s s i b l e to s p e c i f y any p a r t i c u l a r problem as s i n g u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n the case o f H. Her e n t i r e e x i s t e n c e was p r o b l e m a t i c . Perhaps the one unproblem-a t i c aspect of her c h i l d h o o d was the a f f e c t i o n she r e c e i v e d 127 from her adoptive f a t h e r and b r o t h e r s . The most p e r v a s i v e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r H. was her i n a b i l i t y t o come t o g r i p s w i t h who she was. " . . . t h e i d e a o f having your own p a r e n t s was t e r r i b l y important t o me . . . 1 had a genuine sense of unworthiness as f a r as the community was concerned . . . as I l o o k back on t h a t p a r t o f my c h i l d h o o d , i t was the k i n d o f t h i n g t h a t made me wish t o grow up and always be grown u p — the wish t h a t you never had t o be a c h i l d . " 3. Movement From Church To P e n t e c o s t a l Experience In v i e w i n g the movement o f i n d i v i d u a l s from a r o u t i n e church where the experience of the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t i s not r e c o g n i z e d to a p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the experience both n e g a t i v e and p o s i t i v e m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s must again be kept i n mind. Negative f a c t o r s p o i n t t o a d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h some aspect o f the r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n i n q u e s t i o n . Some need on the p a r t o f the person i s not b e i n g met adequately. P o s i t i v e f e a t u r e s can be seen i n the form of a t t r a c t i o n s . The i n d i v i d u a l must f e e l t h a t t h i s experience holds a r e -sponse t o a f e l t need. As p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r an i n t r o d u c -t i o n t o the experience i s an e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e . A s u c c e s s f u l i n t r o d u c t i o n must c o n s i s t o f an awareness, a d e s i r e and a c o n f i d e n c e . Again F., G. and J . do not concern us s i n c e they are born P e n t e c o s t a l s . D. moves d i r e c t l y from h i s s e c u l a r s t a t e t o a P e n t e c o s t a l church s i n c e t h a t "was where my l i t t l e s i s -t e r was b a p t i z e d . " H i s immediate baptism i n d i c a t e s how h i g h l y motivated he was. 128 Perhaps the most s t r a i g h t forward path from church t o experience i s i l l u s t r a t e d by H. She expressed no p a r t i -c u l a r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the church but circumstances determined t h a t she l i v e with a P e n t e c o s t a l f o s t e r f a m i l y , who i n t r o d u c e d her to the experience. She questioned i t s orthodoxy but s t u d i e d t h e B i b l e and found i t to be an auth-e n t i c a l l y recorded phenomenon. On the a u t h o r i t y of the s c r i p t u r e s she accepted i t as v a l i d . There was a c l o s e bond between h e r s e l f and the f a m i l y , i n f a c t they o c c a s i o n a l l y expressed the d e s i r e t o adopt her. Because o f her .inherent a n a l y t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n she d i d not r e l a x i n t o i t w i t h ease but i n time found t h a t she too c o u l d speak i n tongues. She r e c e i v e d the baptism through the m i n i s t r y of a v i s i t i n g e v a n g e l i s t . C.'s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the church stemmed from the f a c t t h a t she d i d not f i n d any s o l u t i o n s to her problems through i t . J u s t as she p r e v i o u s l y regarded Sunday Sch o o l as a detriment r a t h e r than an encouragement to her f a i t h so she now f e l t t h a t the s o l u t i o n s the church d i d o f f e r her served t o i n t e n s i f y her dilemma r a t h e r than e l i m i n a t e i t . She saw the church to which she belonged as encouraging doubt i n s t e a d of f a i t h . I t p r o v i d e d an a n t i t h e s i s t o s p i r i t -u a l i t y . Worship l a c k e d meaning. The forms were empty. She h e r s e l f was desperate i n her misery and t r i e d a l l c o n c e i v a b l e s o l u t i o n s t o her p l i g h t . While i n t h i s extremity she was t o l d of a woman who had undergone a r a d i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . 129 She d i d not know the source of the change but contacted the woman i n order to f i n d out what i t was t h a t changed her. I t was arranged t h a t they attend the P e n t e c o s t a l church. In the meantime C. sought out a c h i l d h o o d f r i e n d who had s i n c e m a r r i e d a P e n t e c o s t a l . The f r i e n d t e s t i f i e d t o her own change as a r e s u l t o f the experience and asked C. to read a book d e a l i n g with the s u b j e c t . G. d i d so but was not con-v i n c e d t h a t i t was f o r her. S h o r t l y a f t e r the v i s i t she attended the P e n t e c o s t a l church as p r e v i o u s l y arranged. Immediately she was overwhelmed by the atmosphere o f s i n c e r -i t y n o t i c e a b l e among the worshippers. She responded to the c a l l t o go to the p r a y e r room a f t e r the s e r v i c e and as hands were l a i d on her r e c e i v e d the baptism and spoke i n tongues. E. had a s u c c e s s i o n of i n t e r r u p t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the church, i n c l u d i n g both s a t i s f a c t o r y and u n s a t i s -f a c t o r y e xperiences. He became q u i t e n e g a t i v e towards a p a r t i c u l a r denomination when they r e j e c t e d him as a p o t e n t i a l clergyman. He l e f t the church as a r e s u l t and j o i n e d v a r i o u s churches of e v a n g e l i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . Here too he experienced d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and so i n a time o f great need r e t u r n e d f o r h e l p t o the denomination by which he was r e j e c t e d . T h i s time he r e c e i v e d s a t i s f a c t i o n , both to h i s immediate needs and i n terms of b e i n g r e i n s t a t e d as a c a n d i d a t e f o r the m i n i s t r y . S t i l l he p e r c e i v e d a l a c k — " a m i s s i n g l i n k " — b u t iMA a t t r i -buted t h i s l a c k t o h i s own person r a t h e r than to the i n s t i -t u t i o n . As e a r l i e r the problem was focused on h i s apparent 130 i n a b i l i t y t o r e l a t e . H i s need f o r acceptance p e r s i s t e d and he f e l t the need to j u s t i f y h i m s e l f by d o g m a t i c a l l y s p r e a d i n g t h e 'good news'. He d i d not see a s o l u t i o n to h i s problem i n t h e church of h i s c h o i c e , nor d i d he expect he s h o u l d . On t h e b a s i s of h i s r e a d i n g he c e n t e r e d on the Holy S p i r i t as h a v i n g something t o do with h i s i n a d e q u a c i e s . He determined t o f i n d 'the m i s s i n g l i n k ' even i f i t meant "going to the P e n t e c o s t a l s to get i t . " He was informed o f the work of the C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal Movement and when he d i s c o v e r e d t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the movement were to h o l d a s e r i e s of meetings i n the area decided to a t t e n t . He d i d so and at a p r a y e r meeting i n v i t e d t h e i r p r a y e r s t h a t he might have a f r u i t f u l m i n i s t r y . He d i d not expect to r e c e i v e the g i f t o f s p e a k i n g i n tongues but d u r i n g the course of the prayer the l e a d e r s , who had l a i d hands on him, assured him t h a t t h i s g i f t was a l s o f o r him and t h a t he too c o u l d have i t i f he so wished. He d i d and found t h a t he c o u l d speak i n tongues. A., l i k e E., has experienced a r e j e c t i o n by the church i n t h a t her a p p l i c a t i o n t o go i n t o m i s s i o n work was not accepted. She was not g i v e n any e x p l a n a t i o n about t h e r e j e c t i o n other than that i t had been c o n s i d e r e d and they had prayed about i t and d e c i d e d i t was not God's w i l l . She accepted t h e d e c i s i o n and made no f u r t h e r attempt to f o l l o w her m i s s i o n a r y ambitions. L i f e went on but e v e n t u a l l y be-came barren, both d o m e s t i c a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y . She remained 131 a c t i v e i n the church as a devoted Sunday School t e a c h e r but d i d not r e c e i v e any great s a t i s f a c t i o n from her continued e f f o r t s . Her r e l i g i o u s o b l i g a t i o n s became wearing. A s o l u -t i o n to her d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was sought f o r s o l e l y w i t h i n the framework of the church. Other a l t e r n a t i v e s d i d not e n t e r her frame of r e f e r e n c e . Her only b r o t h e r had married i n t o t h e P e n t e c o s t a l p e r s u a s i o n and had h i m s e l f become a Pente-c o s t a l m i s s i o n a r y . Through him she had been i n t r o d u c e d to t h e experience but at the time of the i n t r o d u c t i o n d i d not c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i t h e l d any answers f o r her. L a t e r , i n the midst of her i n c r e a s i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , she happened a c r o s s an a r t i c l e i n V o i c e magazine commenting on t h e work of the C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal Movement. Her i n t e r e s t was aroused and she questioned her p a s t o r c o n c e r n i n g the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t . To her s u r p r i s e she d i s c o v e r e d t h a t both he and h i s w i f e had r e c e i v e d the g i f t and spoke i n tongues. She was very fond of the couple and mentions t h a t they were b e i n g g i v e n a hard time by the c o n g r e g a t i o n . As soon as she made t h i s d i s c o v e r y she knew t h a t " i f they had i t I wanted i t t o o . " Not l o n g a f t e r t h i s she n o t i c e d an announcement i n t h e church b u l l e t i n c o n c e r n i n g the coming v i s i t o f a clergyman r e p r e s e n t i n g the denomination i n which she p a r t i c i p a t e d as guest e v a n g e l i s t at a s e r i e s o f C h a r i s -matic meetings. T h i s clergyman had f a l l e n out of favour w i t h denomination a u t h o r i t i e s as a r e s u l t of h i s c h a r i s m a t i c e x p e r i e n c e and emphasis. She attended every s e s s i o n and 132 t w i c e went to the f r o n t i n response to the a l t a r c a l l . She was g r e a t l y b l e s s e d but s t i l l d i d not r e c e i v e the g i f t o f spe a k i n g i n tongues. When she f i n a l l y asked why she cou l d n ' t have t h i s g i f t she was assured t h a t she would r e c e i v e i t but t h a t i t would come i n God's good time. A l l t h a t was r e q u i r e d o f her was t h a t she r e l a x i n the c o n f i d e n c e t h a t she would r e c e i v e i t . The f o l l o w i n g week she v i s i t e d the p a s t o r and h i s w i f e who i n s i s t e d on p r a y i n g f o r her. She p a r t i c i p a t e d but was not at a l l anxious, f e e l i n g t h a t she would r e c e i v e the g i f t when she was intended t o . That evening a f t e r she was i n bed she suddenly began to speak w i t h tongues. B.'s movement from church to t h e baptism experience i s c o m p l icated and d i f f i c u l t . Her n e g a t i v e stance towards t h e church has a l r e a d y been d e a l t w i t h at some l e n g t h . N e i t h e r her s o c i a l nor her s p i r i t u a l needs r e c e i v e d response i n the r o u t i n e church. She f e l t t he church was s p i r i t u a l l y v o i d and s o c i a l l y c o l d . She was r e p e l l e d by the apparent l a c k o f s p i r i t u a l i t y on the p a r t o f her a s s o c i a t e s who were t h e o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d and who, i n her e s t i m a t i o n , d i d not b e l i e v e as much as she d i d . Her s e a r c h was i n t e n s e and p r o -longed, c e n t e r i n g around the tw o f o l d o b j e c t i v e s of f i n d i n g s p i r i t u a l t r u t h s and a f u l f i l l i n g community. She moved from p s y c h i c phenomena t o o c c u l t t o e a s t e r n r e l i g i o n s t o Edgar Cayce to h e a l i n g groups and f i n a l l y , by a c c i d e n t , to Pente-c o s t a l i s m . She met and was a t t r a c t e d t o a P e n t e c o s t a l woman e v a n g e l i s t who was a p a r t i c i p a n t i n one of the study groups 133 B. attended. A f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p developed between the two women and e v e n t u a l l y B. f e l t t h a t she ought t o v i s i t t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n her f r i e n d served as m i n i s t e r as a token o f r e s p e c t . She went and was i n s t a n t l y a t t r a c t e d by the atmosphere of warmth and s p i r i t u a l i t y . She began to at t e n d w i t h some r e g u l a r i t y . Her f r i e n d s u p p l i e d her with l i t e r a -t u r e r e l e v a n t t o the experience. At the suggestion of her f r i e n d she i n v i t e d a mutual f r i e n d to accompany her to a P e n t e c o s t a l meeting. The othe r woman responded so w e l l t h a t on her second v i s i t she r e c e i v e d the g i f t . T h i s both f r u s -t r a t e d and s t i m u l a t e d B. She was now more determined than ever to get i t . She f i n a l l y became convinced that perhaps i t was not f o r her and th a t she had a l r e a d y r e c e i v e d as much b l e s s i n g as some people ever c l a i m . At t h i s p o i n t she was giv e n a book with i n s t r u c t i o n s as t o how to go about r e c e i v -i n g t he g i f t on your own. B. t r i e d i t and found she c o u l d do i t . L i t t l e by l i t t l e she ac q u i r e d s k i l l i n speaking i n tongues and i s now a most f l u e n t speaker. Not only i s she ab l e to use i t f o r p r a y e r but she has the a d d i t i o n a l g i f t o f tongues f o r p u b l i c p r o c l a m a t i o n which not everyone i s g i v e n . C o n c l u d i n g Remarks The f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n prompts s e v e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s . The d i s t i n c t i o n s between the modes of s p i r i t u a l c a r e e r s ap-pear to be at l e a s t i n p a r t c o n t i n g e n t on the o v e r a l l i n f l u -ences oft the i n d i v i d u a l . For i n s t a n c e , those people r e p r e -134 s e n t i n g s t r o n g f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s as w e l l as s t r o n g f a m i l y -church t i e s remained on course and pro g r e s s e d s t e a d i l y t o -wards t h e i r p o i n t o f s p i r i t u a l d e s t i n y . Those wi t h weak or c o n f l i c t u a l f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and s t r o n g f a m i l y - c h u r c h t i e s l a p s e d and r e t u r n e d to the church w h i l e those i n d i c a t i n g weak f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and weak f a m i l y - c h u r c h t i e s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which d i r e c t e d them onto t h e i r s p i r i t u a l course. A f u r t h e r comparison can be drawn between the l a t t e r two groups. Both p o i n t t o a d i f f u s e or acute c r i s i s or s t a t e o f a n x i e t y i n t h e i r l i v e s which p r e c i p i t a t e s t h e i r i n t e r e s t . There seems to be a sugg e s t i o n t h a t the way i n which they a r r i v e on course d i f f e r s . The d i f f e r e n c e c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f t h e d i s t i n c t i o n made by W i l l i a m James between v o l i t i o n a l and s e l f - s u r r e n d e r types of c o n v e r s i o n e x p e r i e n c e s . On the tenuous b a s i s o f t h i s minute sample i t c o u l d be specu-l a t e d t h a t those i n d i v i d u a l s who re p r e s e n t weak f a m i l y r e -l a t i o n s h i p s and s t r o n g f a m i l y - c h u r c h t i e s tend towards a v o l i t i o n a l r e t u r n to the church. Even i n the case o f r a d i c a l c o n v e r s i o n experiences they a re a r e s u l t o f i n t e n t . These people are p u l l e d onto a s p i r i t u a l course when t h e i r s e c u l a r l i v e s become d i s s o n a n t . They l o o k f o r s o l u t i o n s v i a r e l i g -i o u s s o u r c e s . T h e i r p r o g r e s s i o n towards t h e i r s p i r i t u a l course i s marked by a s e r i e s o f j e r k s and s t o p s s i m i l a r t o James* d e s c r i p t i o n o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f v o l i t i o n a l con-v e r s i o n . On the other hand, those who had t h e i r o r i g i n s i n 1 3 5 weak f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s as w e l l as weak f a m i l y - c h u r c h t i e s move much more r a p i d l y towards t h e i r r e l i g i o u s experiences once they become aware of them as p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n s t o t h e i r concerns. Often they Thappen' a c r o s s an i n t r o d u c t i o n and i n response surrender wholly to t h e i r new found s a l v a -t i o n . The predominant common c r i s e s demonstrated by our respondents were r e l a t e d t o problems of p e r c e i v e d or a c t u a l i s o l a t i o n , c u l t u r a l d i s l o c a t i o n and a sense o f moral d i f f e r -e n t i a t i o n . The l a t t e r i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f those people who remain c o n t i n u a l l y on course. In s h o r t , some sense of es-trangement, e i t h e r from s e l f or o t h e r s , may be observed. M e t a p h y s i c a l needs are r e p e a t e d l y v e r b a l i z e d a l o n g w i t h a sense o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n as to how these needs are b e i n g r e a l i z e d . T h i s apparent d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s expressed i n both p e r s o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l termsj t h a t i s , a l a c k i s experienced e i t h e r w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f or w i t h the r o u t i n e church. While b a s i c m o t i v a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s may be a s c e r t a i n e d , as i l l u s t r a t e d by the major c o n t i n u i n g themes, the p r o c e s s e s are h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and r e l a t e t o a p a r t i c u l a r problem o r c r i s i s f a c i n g the i n d i v i d u a l . The person i s motivated t o -wards a r e s o l u t i o n o f h i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a t e . A l l of our respondents f i n d a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n i n the experience o f the baptism of the Holy S p i r i t . In what way t h i s i s accomplished becomes our next focus f o r a t t e n t i o n . CHAPTER V THE MEANING OF THE EXPERIENCE TO THE RESPONDENT The Moment Only the d e s c r i p t i o n of the one who has been t h e r e and had the experience can adequately d e s c r i b e j u s t how i t f e l t . . . . i t was an odd experi e n c e f o r m e — I c e r t a i n l y had n o t h i n g t o compare i t wit h and y e t the l a n -guage I was persuaded was p r a i s e and i t was a r e a l 'turned on* experience . . . I was ab l e to pour out i n a very f l u e n t tongue j u s t a r e a l f e e l i n g of p r a i s e f o r God and j u s t a r e a l j o y i n t h i s ex-p e r i e n c e . (No. E.) I t was a r e a l experience. And I went on t a l k i n g and I thought I was making i t up. I thought I was j u s t t r y i n g t o copy these people I'd heard but then I went on and on and I knew I c o u l d n ' t be cop y i n g them and then I thought I c o u l d n ' t t a l k i n E n g l i s h . You know I went t o t a l k i n E n g l i s h and I j u s t went on t a l k i n g i n tongues . . . i t was j u s t such a wonderful e x p e r i e n c e . . . j u s t l i k e the Holy S p i r i t came through me and c l e a n s e d me. (No. A.) . . . i t was l i k e a c u r r e n t o f e l e c t r i c i t y , I c o u l d r e a l l y f e e l i t — j u s t a sudden warmth, you know, go i n g through you and I opened my mouth and s t a r t e d t o pray and I h a r d l y s a i d a n y t h i n g . . . but I s a i d a few words anyway and then I f e l t r e a l l y — y o u know those hymns about 'The burdens o f your s i n s r o l l e d away?' t h i s i s e x a c t l y how I f e l t . . . to f e e l y o u r s e l f r e a l l y f o r g i v e n from the bottom of your toes up i s r e a l l y something and t h a t ' s how I f e l t . (No. C.) I t j u s t was a tremendous sense o f God's presence . . . I do not r e c a l l ever changing t o another language. I r e c a l l speaking i n the other language and t h i n k i n g 'How marvelous, imagine God coming to me and l e t t i n g me do t h i s ! ' (No. F.) 137 They say everybody has a p r a y e r language and once you have i t I guess t h a t ' s i t and mine seemed to be a very p r i m i t i v e * - - t o me—an A f r i c a n type of d i a l e c t — v e r y p r i m i t i v e and sloppy. T h i s bothered me g r e a t l y . . . w i t h the experience t h e r e i s an e n v e l o p i n g of God's l o v e around me and peace, a very p e n e t r a t i n g peace and I can reach t h i s and r e a c h t h i s s o r t of t r e m b l i n g of the mouth . . . when I do speak i n tongues it's s t i l l a very sloppy l a n g u a g e — s a l i v a a l l over the p l a c e . (No. I.) . . . I r e a l l y d i d f e e l , and again I'm concerned w i t h the p h y s i c a l — I mean I l i k e t o see a w e l l -formed body, I l i k e t o see an a t h l e t e perform and so o n — I r e a l l y d i d f e e l l i f t e d r i g h t from the f l o o r and they t a l k about i t b e i n g s p i n e t i n g l i n g - - I don't know t h a t i t was s p i n e t i n g l i n g but t h i s — o r whether the h a i r stood up on the back o f my h e a d — b u t t h e r e was a p e c u l i a r s e n s a t i o n i n my body, throughout my muscles and so on, and a f t e r h a v i n g had p o l i o I was s o r t of muscle c o n s c i o u s , and I d i d begin to speak with o t h e r tongues and not p a r t i c u l a r l y l o u d l y but i n a d e f i n i t e way . . . I s o r t of l e t myself go and some oth e r f o r c e took h o l d of my tongue. I know my mouth r e a l l y d i d dry o u t — I f e l t very dry a f t e r t h e experience . . . but i t was an u p l i f t i n g e x perience. What r e a l l y impressed me about i t was t h a t i t wasn't j u s t f o r t h e moment—I mean—I f e l t — I guess you c o u l d say e c s t a t i c — I r e a l l y t h i n k I was e c s t a t i c . (No. J.) How I t Changes Each person experiences the change brought on by t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f the baptism of the S p i r i t i n a unique way. How he sees h i m s e l f i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s world i s d i f f e r e n t i n some way from what i t was b e f o r e . Some former d i s s a t i s f a c -t i o n has been r e s o l v e d . T h i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s now i n t e r -p r e t e d by the person i n the l i g h t of h i s experience so t h a t i t i s viewed from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . A.'s sense o f i s o l a t i o n was a r t i c u l a t e d r e p e a t e d l y d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w and was p e r c e i v e d by her as r e l a t i n g 138 t o her i n a b i l i t y t o communicate, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o matters o f i n t i m a t e concern and her f a i t h . She f e l t c ut o f f from o t h e r people as a r e s u l t o f t h i s l a c k . In a d d i t i o n she f e l t s p i r i t u a l l y b a r r e n . L i f e was u n i n t e r e s t i n g and her con t i n u e d e f f o r t s i n church work had become t e d i o u s . In d e s c r i b i n g what she f e e l s the d i f f e r e n c e i n her l i f e i s she comments: . . . i t ' s a r e a l m i r a c l e when you do speak i n an-o t h e r tongue so i t was something t a n g i b l e , and i t s o r t o f i n c r e a s e s your f a i t h a u t o m a t i c a l l y and . . . I c o u l d h a r d l y wait every n i g h t to go to bed and pray i n tongues a f t e r t h i s . And s i n c e t h i s e x perience, many t h i n g s have happened t h a t have changed many t h i n g s I thought b e f o r e . For one t h i n g I have a much g r e a t e r l o v e f o r people than I ever had b e f o r e . . . and now I j u s t don't see people from the o u t s i d e at a l l . . . l i k e my b r o t h e r s a i d I don't worry i n the same way e i t h e r , I j u s t t r u s t God f o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; I don't go wo r r y i n g whether I should t e l l — s p e a k t o t h i s person o r t h a t person . . . my out l o o k on h e a l i n g has changed . . . A. has had her f a i t h strengthened, has l o s t some o f her t i m -i d i t y i n approaching o t h e r s , can share her i n t i m a c i e s i n p r a y e r and her s p i r i t u a l l i f e has become r i c h , both i n her p r i v a t e d e v o t i o n s and i n her p u b l i c a s s o c i a t i o n with o t h e r s i n the C h a r i s m a t i c movement who have had a s i m i l a r experience. B. too f e l t i s o l a t e d , both s p i r i t u a l l y and s o c i a l l y , i n c h i l d h o o d and adulthood. Her i n t e l l e c t u a l bent and m y s t i -c a l o r i e n t a t i o n come tog e t h e r i n an i n t e n s e s p i r i t u a l quest. She wanted to experience t h e s p i r i t u a l i n a ' r e a l way'. In o t h e r words, she s t r i v e d to e m p i r i c a l l y v e r i f y her s p i r i t u a l 139 e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s became apparent i n her i n t e l l e c t u a l de-v o u r i n g o f p s y c h i c phenomena, her simultaneous i n t e r e s t i n o c c u l t and h e a l i n g . She sees h e r s e l f as f o r m e r l y b e i n g c o n t i n u o u s l y depressed. S i n c e her experience she has l e f t her p s y c h i c i n t e r e s t s , f i n d i n g t h at these i n v o l v e d . . . " d i d n ' t know Jesus the way I'd gotten to g r a d u a l l y . " She f i n d s an unusual amount of s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p s formed between members o f a s m a l l p r a y e r group i n which she p a r t i c i p a t e s . A l s o she f i n d s t h a t she i s no l o n g e r depressed; "ever s i n c e I've r e c e i v e d the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t t h e r e ' s t h i s s o r t of b a l l of j o y i n you. A l l I can remember a l l my l i f e i s b e i n g depressed and unhappy u n t i l the j o y s t a r t e d to come . . . " Perhaps the most important change f o r B. i s t h a t she has been r e l e a s e d from her u n r e m i t t i n g s p i r i t u a l quest. That what i t does i s change you. You don't have to work your way to heaven but t h e Holy S p i r i t w i l l renew you. I t ' s the g i f t o f l i f e promised i n the New Testament and I've seen i t happen to me. B. had f o r m e r l y been very g r a t i f i e d by her s e c u l a r e x p e r i e n c e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s . Now she has l o s t a l l i n t e r e s t i n s e c u l a r matters: What's happened to me s i n c e t h i s i s t h a t most of the t h i n g s I used to r e a l l y l i k e have gone dead on me. I used t o enjoy A r t f i l m s , I used t o have a great a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r c l a s s i c a l music, f o r good a r t , f o r p a r t i e s , f o r a n y t h i n g . And f r a n k l y what I l i k e to do now mostly i s go to church and wor-s h i p . . . A r t f i l m s and t h i n g s of t h i s s o r t seem to me e v i l . . . 1 4 0 B. i s no l o n g e r i s o l a t e d , her quest has eased, she can have a s p i r i t u a l experience and she has l o s t her i n t e r e s t i n s e c u l a r g r a t i f i c a t i o n . C.'s d i f f i c u l t i e s were focused i n her i n s o l v a b l e m a r i t a l circumstances. Not only d i d she have problems i n r e l a t i n g but she was encompassed by g u i l t and d e p r e s s i o n . She found no help anywhere and her problem was only aggra-vated by the supposed s o l u t i o n she found i n her involvement i n the r o u t i n e church. She c o u l d see no other a l t e r n a t i v e s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t i n s i g h t she r e c e i v e d as a r e s u l t o f her P e n t e c o s t a l experience was her sense of t o t a l f o r g i v e n e s s , "from the bottom of the toes up . . ." An immediate change took p l a c e i n the p a t t e r n of her r e l a t i o n s h i p t o her husband. For the f i r s t time she says "I d i d n ' t argue and I d i d n ' t c r y and I d i d n ' t run away and t h a t was probably a r e a l m iraculous t h i n g as f a r as I was c o n c e r n e d — t h a t i t wasn't something I had purpose t o do." The key t o C. was t h a t she was a b l e to get her mind o f f h e r s e l f ; she c o u l d surrender to something t h a t moved her r a t h e r than t h a t she c o n t r o l l e d . You know, b e f o r e when I had s a i d 'now, I am a C h r i s t i a n and I'm going to be l o v i n g and I'm going t o be k i n d and you know, i t j u s t doesn't work. The harder I t r i e d t o do those t h i n g s the more I would f a i l , and b e s i d e s , i f you're t r y i n g t o do those t h i n g s a l l on your own s t r e n g t h you get a l l worn o u t — y o u get headaches and you f e e l p u l l e d i n a dozen d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s and—anyway t h a t ' s been the change f o r me—has been a l o v e t h a t i s not of me. D. r e a l i z e s h i s i s o l a t i o n i n the form of c u l t u r a l d i s l o c a t i o n stemming from the many g e o g r a p h i c a l changes i n h i s youth. H i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s p a r e n t s was not c l o s e and he r e j e c t e d the values of s o c i e t y . At the same time he was concerned with the meaning o f h i s e x i s t e n c e i n r e l a t i o n t o c r e a t i o n . On the b a s i s o f i n s i g h t s gained under the i n -f l u e n c e of drugs he r e j e c t e d the n o t i o n o f God. S i m i l a r l y h i s c o n v e r s i o n took p l a c e w h i l e he was i n 'drug space'. H i t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a r e v e r s a l i n h i s con-c e p t u a l i z i n g o f the world. He has come to see t h a t the sub c u l t u r e with which he i d e n t i f i e d has no more answers to the problems than the r e s t o f s o c i e t y . F u r t h e r t h e answers cannot be found i n s o c i e t y . Regarding h i s new i n s i g h t s he comments: And we began to see e x a c t l y where Jesus C h r i s t was at when he s a i d 'I am the Way, the T r u t h , and the L i f e and no man comes unto t h e Father but by me'. We took i t t h a t he was b a s i c a l l y s a y i n g 'Okay, you're here, you don't know why you're here and you don't r e a l l y understand i t but t r u s t me t h a t I can take you out and take you back to t h e F a t h e r ' . T h i s was p r e t t y w e l l the way we took i t . . . and we began to see some o t h e r t h i n g s too; t h a t f o r every good t h i n g t h a t God has to o f f e r , Satan has a c o u n t e r f e i t , the Satan, the power, the r u l e r of t h i s p l a n e t . For i n s t a n c e , God o f f e r s the baptism o f the Holy S p i r i t . T h i s i s k i n d of l i k e God's t u r n on. Satan c o u n t e r f e i t s i n L.S.D., has h i s h , marijuana. You see, these t h i n g s are a s p i r i t u a l door. They open a door i n your mind i n t o the s p i r i t u a l world o f Satan which i s r e a l l y a very b e a u t i f u l , b e a u t i f u l world but i t goes o n l y so f a r and then i t comes down to the hard core of the matter and Satan demands a commitment, j u s t l i k e C h r i s t does, and t h i s commitment i s to admit t h a t you're r e a l l y o n l y i n a dream. That e v e r y t h i n g i s 142 not r e a l l y r e a l and t h a t you r e a l l y don't e x i s t anywhere . . . as f a r as I can see C h r i s t i a n i t y doesn't make any bones about e x i s t e n c e as such, about e x i s t e n c e on t h i s p l a n e t . I t doesn't p l a y games with you; i t says, i t puts i t r i g h t on the l i n e and says t h i n g s aren't any good . . . I found some t h i n g s i n the s c r i p t u r e s . For i n s t a n c e , d i d you ever hear any h i p p i e s t a l k about a white l i g h t t r i p ? W e l l , when a h i p p i e has a white l i g h t t r i p he comes i n t o the presence o f a great white l i g h t , l i k e he knows t h a t i n s i d e t h i s l i g h t i s the t h i n g he has been l o o k i n g f o r ; i s e t e r n a l l i f e and no matter how hard he t r i e s t o get i n t o i t , by g o i n g around i t and over i t and e v e r y t h i n g e l s e he j u s t can't do i t . . . the baptism of the Holy S p i r i t i s God's white l i g h t t r i p . D. no l o n g e r f e e l s l i k e a s t r a n g e r . Through C h r i s t he has been 'taken back to the f a t h e r ' . He has been recon-c i l e d with h i s p a r e n t s ' v a l u e s . The baptism of the Holy S p i r i t has brought him to the door o f t r u t h . He has d i s -c overed h i s p l a c e i n the u n i v e r s e . E. p o i n t s t o t h e sense of u n a c c e p t a b i l i t y t h a t has f o l l o w e d him a l l h i s l i f e as w e l l as a f a i l u r e to communicate. A f t e r h i s i n i t i a l c o n v e r s i o n he was s u b j e c t t o a number of disappointments r e l a t i n g t o h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the r o u t i n e c h u r c h . He was, however, r e c o n c i l e d t o the church p r i o r t o h i s e xperience o f the Holy S p i r i t . The two t h i n g s he notes as most s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s of h i s experience are the t h e r a -p e u t i c e f f e c t s of h i s prayer l i f e and h i s r e l e a s e from the need t o push h i m s e l f . With r e f e r e n c e to prayer he comments, "I can get o f f by myself f o r h a l f an hour o r so and pray i n tongue and I can express a l l the emotion I want through i t . . . and then suddenly i t ' l l be as i f someone had got up 143 and s a i d good-bye and l e f t you f e e l i n g as though t h a t were a very p l e a s a n t and. worthwhile v i s i t and you f e e l l i k e you've spent h a l f an hour or so w i t h a dear f r i e n d . " He adds "the l i n g e r i n g sense of having to prove myself, to push ray way i n t o get myself accepted by my own worth was gone from t h a t p o i n t on and I was f r e e l i k e I hadn't been p r e v i o u s l y . " Both h i s needs have been r e a l i z e d : he has been accepted and he has a f r i e n d with whom he can share h i s concerns. H i s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s have been improved and he has had sev-e r a l d e f i n i t e a f f i r m a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g h i s a b i l i t y t o communi-c a t e . No. H. does not comment s p e c i f i c a l l y about the e f f e c t s o f the baptism of the s p i r i t i n her l i f e . For her i t appears to have been another notch i n the l a d d e r of r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i -ences f o l l o w i n g her c o n v e r s i o n . Her r a d i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n was t i e d t o an e a r l i e r r e l i g i o u s experience and the baptism o f t h e Holy S p i r i t i s a p r o o f o f the a u t h e n t i c i t y of her f a i t h . H.'s i d e n t i t y i s t o t a l l y grounded i n her r e l i g i o u s s t a n c e . I . expressed her i s o l a t i o n as a r e s i s t a n c e to both, p h y s i c a l and emotional c o n t a c t w i t h other p e o p l e . She ex-p e r i e n c e d h e r s e l f as a very p r i v a t e and s e l f - c e n t e r e d person. She responded n e g a t i v e l y to the s o c i a l emphasis o f the r o u -t i n e church to which she belonged. She f e l t t h a t she was committed to C h r i s t but her s e l f consciousness made i t im-p o s s i b l e f o r her to make a p u b l i c p r o f e s s i o n to that e f f e c t . 144 Her experience o f the Holy S p i r i t has served t o f r e e her from her s e l f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . In the act o f p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i t she was a b l e to make a p u b l i c p r o f e s s i o n o f f a i t h . Her f a i t h has been g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d , both i n her own eyes and i n terms of o t h e r s . For F., G. and J . the experience has served t o r e -i n f o r c e t h e i r e a r l i e r a f f i r m a t i o n s . I t i s i n l i n e with o t h e r s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n i s expressed by G. W e l l a c t u a l l y , what people c a l l t he baptism i s r e a l l y on a continuum w i t h c o n v e r s i o n . I t ' s not something d i f f e r e n t , of a d i f f e r e n t k i n d . I t ' s j u s t a continuum; i t ' s the same, only more, and t h e best concept i s m a i n t a i n i n g a l i v i n g , a r e l a -t i o n s h i p w i t h a l i v i n g person. C h r i s t the Lord i s a l i v i n g Lord and so you got the same problems p r e c i s e l y and the same b e n e f i t s as m a i n t a i n i n g a good f r i e n d s h i p with somebody . . . a l o t o f pe o p l e t h i n k the P e n t e c o s t a l s are s a y i n g 'you speak i n tongues and That's I t , as though i t was a t h i n g , but i t ' s j u s t a l i t t l e symbol of some-t h i n g e l s e t h a t ' s happening. I t i s obvious that i n each of the cases d e s c r i b e d some aspect o f the experience i s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l e v a n t t o a p a r t i c u l a r problem c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the i n d i v i d u a l , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n , t h a t i s , o f the t h r e e respondents o f P e n t e c o s t a l background. In those cases the experience v a l i d a t e s t h e i r e a r l i e r e x periences. CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS I t must be remembered t h a t the c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t are proposed are based e x c l u s i v e l y on the minute sample used i n t h i s study and should be seen merely as i n d i c a t o r s and not as g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . The p r o p o s a l s made here c o u l d be r e -s t a t e d i n the form o f hypotheses i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . A much more r i g o r o u s methodological approach would have to be em-p l o y e d b e f o r e they c o u l d be viewed as v e r i f i a b l e g e n e r a l i z a -t i o n s . T h i s attempt might be seen as a next s t e p . In the meantime, on the b a s i s of the presen t study, I would propose t h a t : I . The c u r r e n t P e n t e c o s t a l movement draws on people who 1. have a l r e a d y made t h e i r major l i f e commitments. F i v e o f our t e n respondents were brought t o the experience v i a C h a r i s m a t i c Renewal i n f l u e n c e s . A l l o f these people had a l r e a d y made t h e i r major l i f e commitments. The ot h e r s who were brought d i r e c t l y i n t o the P e n t e c o s t a l church had p a r t i -c i p a t e d i n the experience p r i o r t o making major commitments. Of t h i s group o n l y one person i s a rec e n t c o n v e r t . 2. express an i d e n t i f i a b l e l a c k i n terms o f t h e i r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A l l o f our respondents who came to the exper-i e n c e from backgrounds o t h e r than P e n t e c o s t a l p o i n t to a sense of s e p a r a t i o n from o t h e r people. T h e i r i s o l a t i o n 146 t a k e s a v a r i e t y of forms but i n each i n s t a n c e t h e r e i s e v i -dence o f - s o c i a l d i s t a n c e . 3. express a d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h some aspect o f the way they view themselves. Again a l l those who were not brought i n v i a a P e n t e c o s t a l path suggest a sense o f d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r s e l f image. 4. express a d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r environmental c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Some i n d i c a t i o n o f e i t h e r an immediate c r i s i s o r a c o n t i n u i n g d i s - e a s e w i t h t h i n g s as they are can be seen i n the l i v e s o f a l l who entered v i a non-Pentecostal channels. 5. express a d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h how t h e i r s p i r i t u a l needs are b e i n g met through r o u t i n e i n s t i t u t i o n a l means. There i s evidence t h a t a l l those who move towards the e x p e r i -ence have a d i s t i n c t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the o r g a n i z e d church as a v e h i c l e f o r r e a l i z i n g s p i r i t u a l g o a l s . 6. have had p r e v i o u s r e l i g i o u s c o n t a c t s . The movement does not draw on p e o p l e with no p r e v i o u s r e l i g i o u s knowledge. I t i s not a matter of i n t r o d u c i n g an a l i e n concept t o the i n d i v i d u a l but r a t h e r of u n d e r l i n i n g n o t i o n s he a l r e a d y h o l d s . 7. a l r e a d y move i n r e l i g i o u s l y a c t i v e c i r c l e s . Rather than b r i n g i n g i n t o the c e n t e r o f the person's consciousness i d e a s t h a t have i n the p a s t been on the p e r i p h e r y , the move-ment a t t r a c t s i n d i v i d u a l s whose s p i r i t u a l concerns are a l -ready i n a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n and i n t e n s i f i e s them. 147 I I . The e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e b a p t i s m o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t i n t r o -duces t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o a s u p p o r t i v e community. 1. There i s a c l e a r c u t d i s t i n c t i o n between t h o s e who have had t h e e x p e r i e n c e and t h o s e who have n o t . T h i s marked d e l i n e a t i o n c u t s a c r o s s p r e v i o u s r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l d e f i n -i t i o n s and redraws t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f s p i r i t u a l community. 2. T h i s community p r o v i d e s a m a t r i x f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l where he can s h a r e h i s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h o t h e r s o f l i k e mind and so be s u p p o r t e d i n h i s new p e r s p e c t i v e . A t t h e same t i m e t h e community s e r v e s t o s e p a r a t e t h e i n d i v i d u a l from t h o s e who do n o t s h a r e h i s o u t l o o k . I n t h i s way t h e r e a l i t y o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e i s r e - i n f o r c e d . I I I . The b a p t i s m o f t h e H o l y S p i r i t i s a ' h e a l i n g * e x p e r i -ence. A l l our r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t h a t t h r o u g h t h i s e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r d e e pest needs were met. F o r t h o s e who were s t r a i g h t -t h r o u g h P e n t e c o s t a l s t h e e x p e r i e n c e was seen as a c u l m i n a t i o n o f e a r l i e r s a t i s f a c t o r y r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s . I t p r o v i d e d a f o c a l p o i n t f o r t h e i r u n i n t e r r u p t e d p r o c e s s o f r e l i g i o u s i n -t e g r a t i o n . Those who a r r i v e d from n o n - P e n t e c o s t a l s o u r c e s p o i n t e d t o t h e event as a d r a m a t i c s o l u t i o n t o t h e i r v a r i o u s needs. I n t h i s s e nse our s t u d y would s u p p o r t t h e v i e w s o f W a l l a c e , B o i s e n and James i n s t r e s s i n g t h e ' h e a l i n g ' p o t e n -t i a l o f r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . 1 4 8 IV. The transformation brought about by means of the experi-ence i s authentic. I f we see the c r i t e r i a f or what constitutes an authentic transformation as contingent on the understanding of the i n d i v i d u a l concerning the change he f e e l s within him-s e l f and the change i n the way he sees his world then on the basis of t h i s study we would conclude that the experience i s without doubt change producing. V. The experience has d i s t i n c t i v e features. . 1 . What i s unique about the baptism of the Holy S p i r i t i s that i n i t s p i r i t u a l experience i s re a l i z e d empirically. The i n d i v i d u a l can tes t his experience by the fac t that he has spoken i n tongues. This i s h i s evidence that he has been f i l l e d with the Holy S p i r i t . The experience i s immedi-ately convincing as an objective event. 2 . The event gives access to a source of ultimate authority. The i n d i v i d u a l has been v i s i t e d by the s p i r i t of God. He no longer f e e l s himself constrained by h i s im-mediate s o c i a l and personal circumstances. His boundaries have been broken and he i s propelled to a point of view from where he sees h i s world i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t . He re-int e r p r e t s and re-evaluates h i s secular commitments i n the l i g h t of t h i s experience. 1 4 9 V I . The dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the event are i n l i n e w i t h t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Holy S p i r i t . The l i f e g i v i n g p o t e n t i a l o f t h e experience seems to be r o o t e d i n the awareness o f u l t i m a t e a u t h o r i t y and i n t i m a t e presence. The respondents a t t r i b u t e t h e i r new found a b i l i t y t o ' l i v e v i c t o r i o u s l y ' t o a power g r e a t e r than themselves. At the same time t h e i r sense o f i s o l a t i o n i s l e s s e n e d by the c o n t i n u i n g awareness of the c o m f o r t i n g s p i r i t u a l p r e s -ence by whom they are known. The Holy S p i r i t , the b r e a t h and power g i v e n form i n the person o f Jesus C h r i s t i s always w i t h them i n s p i r i t . BIBLIOGRAPHY Becker, H. S. and A. L. S t r a u s s , "Careers, P e r s o n a l i t y , and A d u l t S o c i a l i z a t i o n , " I d e n t i t y and A n x i e t y . M. S t e i n , A. V i d i c h and D. White (eds.) New York: The Free Press, I960. Boisen, A. Out of the Depths. New York: Harper, I960. . The E x p l o r a t i o n o f the Inner World. New York: Harper, 1936. E r i k s o n , E. Ch i l d h o o d and S o c i e t y . New York; Norton, 1963. . I d e n t i t y and the L i f e C y c l e . New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s P ress, 1959. . I n s i g h t and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y . New York: Norton, 1964. G e r l a c h , L. P. and V. H. Hine. " F i v e F a c t o r s C r u c i a l t o the Growth and Spread o f a Modern R e l i g i o u s Movement," J o u r n a l f o r the S c i e n t i f i c Study of R e l i g i o n . V o l . V I I , No. 1, S p r i n g , 1968. James, W. The V a r i e t i e s o f R e l i g i o u s E x p e r i e n c e . London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1935. Ke l s e y , M. Tongue Speaking: An Experiment i n S p i r i t u a l E x p e r i e n c e. Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday, 1964. La i n g , R. D. The D i v i d e d Self., Chicago: Quadrangle Books, I960. L e v i t a , D. The Concept o f I d e n t i t y . P a r i s : Mouton, 1965. Ranaghan, R. and D. C a t h o l i c P e n t e c o s t a l s . New York: P a u l i s t P r e s s Deus Books, 1969. Ranaghan, K. "Renewal by the Holy S p i r i t among Roman Cath-o l i c s , " unpublished M.S. January 1968. Samarin, W. J . " G l o s s o l a l i a as Learned Behaviour," Canadian  J o u r n a l o f Theology. V o l . XV, January 1969. S h e r r i l l , J . They Speak with Other Tongues. New York: Pyramid Books, 1964. u S t a g g , F., E. Hinson and W. Oates. G l o s s o l a l i a : Tongue Speaking i n B i b l i c a l . H i s t o r i c a l and P s y c h o l o g i c a l  P e r s p e c t i v e . N a s h v i l l e : Abingdon P r e s s , 1967. 151 S t r a u s s , A. M i r r o r s and Masks; the Search f o r I d e n t i t y . Glencoe, 1 1 1 . : Free Press, 1 9 5 9 . W a l l a c e , A. R e l i g i o n : An A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l View. New York: Random House, 1 9 5 9 . 

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