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An appraisal of Mallarmé's debt to Baudelaire Rosenthal, Bessie Gertrude 1969

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.AN APPRAISAL OF MALLARME»S DEBT TO BAUDELAIRE  by  BESSIE GERTRUDE ROSENTHAL B.A. U n i v e r s i t y of Alberta, 1941 B. Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of Alberta, 1947  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the Department of FRENCH  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1969  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, the L i b r a r y s h a l l I  make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e  f u r t h e r agree tha  permission  for  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s  that  study. thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s of  this  written  representatives. thesis  It  for financial  i s understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n gain shall  permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada  Columbia  not be allowed without my  ii  ABSTRACT  This study represents an attempt t o determine the extent o f Mallarme's debt t o Baudelaire. I t i s generally recognized that Mallarme underwent the influence of Baudelaire i n the course of the development of h i s thought and expression. Mallarme' himself  recognized  t h i s debt and at one period of his l i f e referred to Baudelaire as h i s master. Yet, a great d i v e r s i t y of opinion exists as to the importance and duration of t h i s influence, a fact borne out by "une vue d'ensemble" of c r i t i c a l opinion. In order to bring Baudelaire's r o l e more c l e a r l y into i t s proper perspective, the f i r s t part of t h i s assessment contains a b r i e f discussion of divergent c r i t i c a l opinion, and a summary of other important influences to which Mallarme i s said t o have been subjected. Mallarme's poetry written p r i o r t o h i s encounter with poems of Les Fleurs du Mal i s also considered, p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s r e l i g i o u s poems and those i n the c o l l e c t i o n Entre quatre murs. In the second part of t h i s study we compare the aesthetic and metaphysical  concepts held by the two poets, and t h e i r attitudes  towards society, poetry, and the material world. Their physical and s p i r i t u a l worlds, and the s p e c i a l nature of each poet's i d e a l are also examined. In part I I I we examine some of Mallarme's poems written from 1861 to 1865 - the period i n which he i s generally believed to have been most completely  under the sway of Baudelaire - with a view to  iii  ascertaining i n more ,tangible form Malla-me*s debt to Baudelaire, i n terms of themes, imagery, and expression. We also mention certain. Baudelairian reminiscences i n poems written by Mallarme after 18&5: poems i n which the originality and characteristic Mallarmean traits are manifest and undisputed. This study, i t i s hoped, w i l l help not only to clarify certain concepts held by both great poets, but contribute to a greater understanding of the veritable nature of Baudelaire s role 1  in the development of Mallarme's unique contribution to French verse.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page INTRODUCTION  .'  ...  1  PART I: CRITICAL OPINION Chapter I: Mallarme's Early Years  8  Chapter II: Mallarme's Debt to Baudelaire  17  Chapter III: Other Influences  29  PART I I : AESTHETIC AND METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTS Chapter I: Attitudes of the Poet Toward Society and the World  49  Chapter II:,The Spiritual and Material Worlds of the Poet  56  Chapter III: The Poetic Ideal  61  PART III: BAUDELAIRIAN REFLECTIONS IN MALLARME'S POETRY  88  TABLE  99  CONCLUSION  112  BIBLIOGRAPHY  116  ACOOWLEDGHENTS  I wish to express my sincere thanks and heart-felt gratitude to Dr. Edward Bird for his most helpful advice and assistance throughout the work of this study. I am also grateful to Dr. Heather Franklyn for her many valuable suggestions for improving the manuscript. Most sincere thanks are also due to Mr. H.R. MacMillan for a Queen Elizabeth Scholarship awarded i n 1967-68, and to the University of B.C. for a Graduate Fellowship received i n 1963-69.  Finally, I would like to extend my thanks to Dr. L. Bongie, Head of the Department of French, for his advice and encouragement.  INTRODUCTION  It has been generally acknowledged that Baudelaire's work influenced the development of Mallarme's poetic thought and expression. "Tous les commentateurs", wrote Jean-Pierre Richard i n 1961, "ont signale le role fecondant de l'oeuvre baudelairienne, par rapport a celle de Mallarme. Mallarme lui-raeme a d'ailleurs maintes fois affirme sa dette."! Mallarme's debt to Baudelaire, however, has not been adequately appraised, and we do not have, as the same c r i t i c has pointed out, any comprehensive "travail d'ensemble" on the "rapports profonds" between these two poets. Earlier, in 1951, the c r i t i c , Henri Peyre, had remarked that "le sujet 'Mallarme et Baudelaire' a recu trop peu d'attention..."2 Wide reading reveals a remarkable divergence of c r i t i c a l opinion concerning the extent of Mallarme's indebtedness to Baudelaire. Part of the problem in achieving a meaningful appraisal of this debt lies i n the d i f f i c u l t y of carefully distinguishing between the purely Baudelairian influence and the other complex forces which combined to shape Mallarme's poetry. Another vexing problem i s that of delimiting the meaning of the term "influence". Joseph Chiari, for example, favours the theory of T.S. Eliot that "the problem of influence i s integrated into the vaster process of unavoidable growth, a process which, i n so far as what preceded unavoidably determines what followed, gives f u l l scope to direct and above a l l to indirect influence."3 Leon Cellier moreover, does not give an adequate answer to the question  2  he poses: "Mais ces mots de fraternity, parente, affinite (sans parler du plus vague de tous: influence), que signifient-ils au juste ?"V But, he points out, like Chiari, that one must f i r s t distinguish between "fond" and "forme", or between " l ' a r t " and "le reve".^ In addition to the d i f f i c u l t y of defining "influence", there i s the delicate task of determining the various contributions of nineteenth century thought which also form a part of this "debt". Referring to the various influences to which Mallarme was subjected at the time of his writing the collection of poems entitled Entre quatre murs. Henri Mondor sums them up i n the following terms: "... les unes imputables aux affinites electives, aux penchants exauces, les autres venues du hasard, du souvenir des lectures, de 1'atmosphere litteraire xle l'epoque, de l a rebellion d'un enfant prisonnier a qui l a poesie classique l a moins lyrique etait autoritairement et exclusivement imposee." It i s therefore an extremely delicate task to separate even 0  the a f f i l i a t i o n s of Mallarme with Baudelaire from those of Mallarme with other currents of nineteenth-century poetic thought or to state that Mallarme owed such and such an idea to Baudelaire rather than to an immediate or far-removed predecessor of Baudelaire. In his recent book, R.G. Cohn has thus summarized the evolution of Mallarme's verse: Mallarme's poems are the culmination of a long evolution of French lyricism which began i n the Middle Ages, took notable shape i n the sixteenth century, and after gathering subtle resources of articulation i n the classic period, leaped into Romanticism and i t s finer heir, Symbolism... ... on the whole, i n the nineteenth century, the seminal development from Lamartine through Hugo and Baudelaire to the Symbolists (with major stimulus from coeval English and German writers and the American, Poe) i s predominantly an intensification of romanticism, with classicism i n a supporting role.?  One  could, of course, trace the o r i g i n s of Mallarme's thought even  further back than the Middle Ages. I t i s often d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible, to determine the exact f i l i a t i o n of a c e r t a i n idea. For example, commenting on the theory of the oneness of the universe adopted by Mallarme, C h i a r i points out: "The  famous theory of the  oneness of the universe apprehended i n moments of mystical union with the great one i s as old as Plotinus, and again, i s only a d e r i v a t i v e of Plato's b e l i e f s . I t i s also Schelling's theory, i t f i t s with the Kantian theory of the 'noumenon' , and i t was quite widespread i n England and i n France too... These views are those of Swedenborg, Boehme, Blake and many others..."8 Y. Park, i n h i s t h e s i s of  1966,  traces Mallarme's thought to Plotinus rather than to Plato, and also to L e i b n i t z , but also points out that i t was not e n t i r e l y linked to any of these p h i l o s o p h i c a l v i s i o n s of the universe.^ For similar reasons Guy D e l f e l contends that neither Hegel's nor Plato's ideas had any r e a l influence on Mallarme, and that Mallarme*s aesthetics were of h i s own making: "Comment ne pas v o i r que, dans ce cas, s i Mallarme a t i r e toute son esthetique de l u i meme, e l l e devient une vivante confirmation de l a logique de 1 ' a t t i tude i d e a l i s t e en art ? Cette confrontation devient a l o r s une  verita-  ble experience philosophique et une des plus b e l l e s preuves de l a force, de l a logique et de l'ampleur de l a pensee mallarmeenne."^ The r o l e of e x t e r i o r influence i s also minimized by Jean-Pierre Richard who  wrote i n 1961: " S i Mallarme d ' a i l l e u r s a subi bien des influences  (de Baudelaire a Wagner, en passant par Poe, Manet, Hegel et l e s danseuses),  c e l l e s - c i l'ont moins modifie qu'approfondi."H  Mallarme himself affirmed i n 1893 i n h i s "Sur 1'Ideal a Vingt Ans"  4  the minimal importance of "l'apport hasardeux exterieur qu'on recueille... sous le nom d'experience" compared with "sa native i l l u mination."^ He also  stated i n precise and clear terms the source  from which he drew his inspiration: Le poete puise en son Individuality secrete et anterieure plus que dans les circonstances.13 By "Individuality secrete" Mallarme i s no doubt referring to that collectivity of personal, intimate feelings which hide behind the poet's images; and by "anterieure" that particular conception which constituted his personal vision of the world prior to certain events, or, as Mme  Ayda has explained, "anterieurement  au choc ou chocs qui  ont entralne l a formation dans son ame, de complexes et de symboles."14 The nature of these events or incidents w i l l be taken up i n the next chapter. One might ask why one should study the influence to which a great poet has been subjected. Such a study does not seek to undermine his merits, but t r y to show how the poet developed and arrived at his essential originality. The growth of the creative mind i s extremely interesting - i n Henri Mondor's opinion i t i s "plus i n teressante que celle du corps ou du coeur quand i l s'agit des e c r i vains..."-^ Mallarme himself gave an excellent commentary on his early poetry and on what distinguished i t from his mature work: II [Taine] ne croit pas qu'un ecrivain puisse entierement changer de maniere, ce qui est faux; je 1'ai observe sur moi... J'avais une prolixite violente et une enthousiaste diffusion, ecrivant tout du premier jet, bien entendu et croyant k l'effusion, en style. Qu'y a - t - i l de plus d i f f e rent que 1' ecolier d'alors, vrai et primesautier, avec le litterateur d'a present qui a horreur d'une chose dite sans etre arrangee.  5  The idea that a great poet assimilates, fuses or transmutes the different elements which have influenced him or contributed to. his originality has been expressed by many c r i t i c s . Paul Valery perhaps over-simplified the problem when he wrote in 1930; "C'est ainsi que Mallarme developpant en soi quelques-unes des qualites des poetes romantiques et de Baudelaire, observant en eux ce qu'ils contenaient de plus exquisement accompli... a peu a peu deduit une ,/maniere toute particuliere, et finalement une doctrine et des problemes tout nouveaux, prodigieusement etrangers aux modes memes de sentir et de penser de ses peres et freres en poesie."^ Jean Starobinski expressed a similar idea i n an article of 194-8: "Les materiaux herites de Baudelaire subiront une etrange transmutation, selon l a l o i d'evolution interne de l a production mallarmeenne."-^ From the foregoing remarks, i t i s apparent that many factors are involved i n the complex task of arriving at a just assessment of Mallarme's debt to Baudelaire. It would be impossible i n this brief study to attempt to trace and adequately relate a l l the influences which could have contributed to Mallarme's poetic growth or evolution. However, major problems related to this complex question w i l l be discussed together with the comments of major c r i t i c s before a f i n a l appraisal i s attempted.  NOTES TO INTRODUCTION  1. Jean-Pierre Richard, L'Univers Imaginaire de Mallarme. p.75. . 2. Henri Peyre, Connaissance de Baudelaire, p. 161. 3. J. Chiari, Symbolisme from Poe to Mallarme. The Growth of a Myth, p. 3; theory of T.S. Eliot propounded i n Eliot's Introduction to the Selected Poems of Ezra Pound, Faber and Faber, 1928, pp. x-xi. 4. Leon Cellier, Mallarme et l a morte qui parle. p. 47. 5. Ibid.. p. 48; cf. J. Chiari op.cit.. pp. 171-172. 6. Henri Mondor, Mallarme lyceen. p. 240. 7. R.G. Conn, Towards the Poems of Mallarme. pp. 1-2. 8. J. Chiari, op. c i t . . p. 41. 9. Y. Park, L'idee chez Mallarme. p. 98. 10. G. Delfel, L'Esthetioue de Stephane Mallarme. p. 70. 11. J.-P. Richard, op. c i t . . p. 34. 12. Stephane Mallarme, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de la Pieiade, p. 883. 13. Ibid.. p. 876 14. A. Ayda, Le drame interieur de Mallarme ou l'origine des symboles mallarmeens, p. 94. 15. H. Mondor. op. c i t . . p. 8. 16. From a letter to Eugene Lefebure of February 1865. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. pp. 154-155. 17. P. Vaiery, Variete II. "Lettre sur Mallarme", p. 215. 18. J. Starobinski, "Mallarme et l a Tradition Poetique Franchise", i n Les Lettres. t . I l l , p. 44.  PART I CRITICAL OPINION  CHAPTER I MALLARME'S EARLY YEARS  Certain events i n the l i f e of the young Mallarme deeply affected the development of h i s thought. L£on C e l l i e r , among other critics,  such as Mine Ayda and Charles Mauron, has i n s i s t e d on the  c a p i t a l importance of Mallarme's early years. "A mesure que l a b i o graphie de Mallarme est mieux connue," asserts C e l l i e r , " i l apparait que l e s premieres annees de sa v i e ont joue dans son d e s t i n de poete un r o l e c a p i t a l . Comme tout poete lyrique i l connaissait l a place e s s e n t i e l l e que tiennent dans 1' imagination l e s souvenirs d'enfance, les  extases, l e s amours et l e s douleurs enfantines."^- The following  l i n e s from Mallarme's "Conference  sur V i l l i e r s de 1*Isle-Adam",  written 1889-1890, reveals the large part Mallarme a t t r i b u t e d , i n l i t e r a r y creation, to personal memories and to intimate experiences: ... Sait-on ce que c'est qu'Scrire... C'est... s'arroger... quelque devoir de tout recreer avec des reminiscences.... Un a, un, chacun de nos o r g u e i l s , l e s susciter dans leur ante>iorite et voir.2 Mallarme•s correspondance and early works r e v e a l a pious, devout and m y s t i c a l young Stephane. His childhood and youth, however, were marked by three major events: the death of h i s mother i n 1847 when Mallarme was f i v e years o l d , of h i s s i s t e r , Maria, i n 1857,  and  that of a dear f r i e n d , Harriet Smyth, i n 1859. A f t e r the death of Mallarme's mother, the notion of r e l i g i o n was henceforth t o be linked to her image and memory. Proof of t h i s can be found i n passages of the poems, "La Cantate pour l a premiere munion"3, written i n 1858,  four years a f t e r h i s f i r s t communion,  com-  9  and "La Priere d'une Mere"4, one year later. If the pious content of these poems evokes the memory of his mother, declares Mme Ayda, "Ctest parce que, pour Mallarme 'piet£' signifiera psychiquement 'fidelite ,au souvenir de l a mere' que plus tard, ayant perdu l a f o i religieuse, i l ne cessera d'etre poursuivi par l e remords d'etre'hante par l'Azur'."5 These poems and two narrations written by the young Mallarme i n 1854, namely, "La Coupe d'or" and "l'Ange gardien"^, reveal his f i r s t allusion to the invisible world inhabited by angels and saints, presided- over by a powerful, protective and good God - a world i n which his mother was present. This world was i n constant relationship with the real world. In the dream world i n which the young orphan took refuge, he found goodness, purity, harmony and beauty. The mystic years of the young Stephane, those from 1854 to 1857, play an important role in Mallarme s future development and T  offer valuable clues to our understanding of his subsequent thought. These years help c l a r i f y the ardour with which the poet was later to deny the existence of God. Furthermore, declares Mine Ayda, Mallarme would do his utmost to find i n the practice of his poetry the serenity he had enjoyed during his mystic years.7 Certainly, as Mallarme wrote i n 1864, he wished to reach " l a plus haute cime de serenite ou 8 nous ravisse l a beaute" , but whether i t was because he had already enjoyed "serenity" i n his childhood i s an interesting interpretation of the facts. The death of his beloved sister, Maria, August 31, 1857, was a staggering blow to the young Mallarme, and henceforth he would l i v e haunted by the memory of the untimely event.^ Charles Mauron,  like many other c r i t i c s , attributes great importance to this loss i n that he considered i t v i t a l to "1*explication des Poesies, les confidences, les lettres ou les 'premiers etats' les plus suggestifs."-^ The anguish and sorrow of the young Mallarme after Maria's death can be f e l t i n the cycle of the "Reveries" i n the collection of poems Entre quatre murs.^" His sentiments and impressions at the funeral of Maria are expressed i n his prose poem entitled "Plainte d'Automne", written i n 1863 and f i r s t entitled "Orgue de B a r b a r i e " . M a r i a ' s name i s mentioned three times, but the image of the g i r l remains indistinct. Some time after the death of Maria, Mallarme wrote a story which was inspired by the desire to see his sister return to earth even i n the form of a "fantome". This story or "conte" i s usually referred to by the t i t l e , "Ce que disaient les trois cigognes" 13 and i s , according to Mme Ayda, of extreme importance - i t i s "le document le plus important qui existe pour l a connaissance de Mallarme, l a clef l a plus u t i l e , l a plus efficace dont nous disposions pour dechiffrer son oeuvre." ^ Her chapter entitled " l a genese des symboles" 1  shows how the poignant memory of his sister, " l a blanche creature" of the narration w i l l continue to nourish the imagination of Stephane Mallarme and w i l l inspire i n him "bien des images et bien des strophes imperissables..."^5 Moreover, the incomprehensibility of the young man at the death of his sister, and his desire for an explanation of the absurdity of the acts of Providence l i e s at the origin of the metaphysical curiosity that w i l l remain with the poet throughout his life.  1 6  Although H. Mondor attributed this "conte" to an earlier  11  • period (1857-1853) to the "epoque s£raphique du poete"  17 , L.J. Austin  suggests that i t was written i n i860 when Mallarme" became acquainted with Baudelaire's work. In addition to the f a c t that the style of t h i s narration appears to be superior to the writing of many of the poems i n the c o l l e c t i o n , Entre quatre murs. written 1859-1860, Austin asserts 18 that i t also contains Baudelairian echoes.  S i m i l a r l y P.O.  Walzer:  has pointed out some Baudelairian reminiscences i n t h i s "conte"19 which would seem to bear out Austin's contention. I t does however seem rather contradictory, i n view of the above statement, that Austin could not f i n d i n any of the poems of Entre quatre murs. some of which were written i n 1860^any trace of a knowledge, even s u p e r f i c i a l , of 20 Baudelaire. Another t r a g i c event which had a marked effect on the young Mallarme was the death i n 1859  of h i s f r i e n d , Harriet Smyth,  to whom he had become greatly attached  since the death of h i s s i s t e r .  In terms of i t s far-reaching influence on h i s work, t h i s was  perhaps  the most important c r i s i s through which Mallarme p a s s e d . ^ It  was  only with Mondor's discovery of some of Mallarme's notebooks, published i  n  Mallarme lyceen i n 195422, that the f a c t became known that the  heroine  celebrated i n the two  "Sa tombe est fermee" ,was  elegies, "Sa fosse est creusee" and  r e a l l y known and loved by Mallarme. It i s  i n t e r e s t i n g to note that i n 1938  Kurt Wais expressed the hypothesis  - at a time when the heroine of the two poems was  not known - that  one can f i n d i n these two works the germ of a l l Mallarme's poetry, and that the tragedy they contained  caused the poet to lose f a i t h i n  r e l i g i o n and therefore l i e s at the.root of h i s subsequent longing f o r a "paradis ant£rieur".23 j  n  a  subsequent work on Mallarme, Wais  12  abandoned t h i s hypothesis,  one with which Mme  Ayda finds h e r s e l f i n agree-  ment. The psychic and moral upheaval caused by the deaths of Maria and H a r r i e t ,  she states, "determinera l e s conditions dans l e s q u e l l e s  s ' e d i f i e r a 1*architecture du symbolisme mallarmeen".2h The word "anterieur" which occurs frequently i n Mallarme's poetry i s used with the meaning "anterieur au doute" or "anterieur aux evenements qui ont provoque l e doute" or "anterieur de l a perte de l a foi".25 The depth of the moral c r i s i s which shook Stephane Mallarme i n the year 1859  can be more j u s t l y measured when one reads the  i n the c o l l e c t i o n Entre quatre murs. Five months a f t e r he had the long poem " P r i e r e d'une mere"  poems  written  (1859) i n which he had expressed  the f e e l i n g that prayers alone could save him from danger, and i n which he asked God to leave h i s f a i t h i n t a c t , Mallarme wrote a poem i n which he expressed h i s indignation that h i s prayer had not been granted. In "Colere d'Allah", written December 7, 1859,  we f i n d such  l i n e s as, A l l a h l e regardait d'un  o e i l indifferent  and A l l a h l e regardait f r o i d comme un Dieu de marbre.^''' With Harriet's death, the i n t e r i o r universe of Mallarme underwent a deep transformation. The pious c h i l d i s seen emancipating himself from the moral and d o c t r i n a l constraints that had dominated him  until  then. Henceforth, other themes appear i n h i s work. In Entre quatre murs. writes L.J. Austin, "une  o r i e n t a t i o n toute nouvelle apparait... a  cote des p l a i n t e s elegiaques des fanfaronnades bacchiques et bientot, des reveries erotiques et des e c l a t s blasphematoires. Ce sont vers d'un  adolescent  t r o u b l e . . . " ^ The c r i s i s of 1859  des  brought about  a revolt against God, and loss of f a i t h . •a- /;  *•  # 29  Entre quatre murs contains over 1400 l i n e s . quantity  Of the large  the young Mallarme composed i n such a short time (1859-  1860), L . J . Austin has observed, "Ce r e c u e i l . . . s u f f i t a i n s i a. battre en breche l a legende imbecile de sa st£rilit£ hative, de.son imT  puissance'. I I faut d i r e pourtant, que c e s t Mallarme l e premier qui T  a imprudemment cree cette legende; mais i l ne f a l l a i t pas prendre au pied de l a l e t t r e ses nombreuses a l l u s i o n s , dans ses poemes et ses l e t t r e s de jeunesse, a. sa ' s t e r i l i t e ' et a. son impuissance' ."30 T  Thus, when Mallarme complained of " s t e r i l i t e " or "impuissance" i t was not due to the fact that he could not write poetry, but that he could not write the kind of poetry he wished. Both H. Mondor and L . J . Austin, who have made a c a r e f u l study of the poems of t h i s c o l l e c t i o n , state that the q u a l i t y i s rather mediocre, and does not presage the exquisite verse t o come.-^ It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that i n Mallarme's poem "Cloche des Morts"32  >  0  n e f i n d s the quadruple r e p e t i t i o n of " H e i a s " , a device  subsequently used by Mallarme i n "L'Azur" and which has been gener a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o the influence of Poe.33 Moreover, L . J . Austin d i d not  f i n d any trace of Baudelaire's influence i n the poems of Entre  quatre murs.-^ Although one can f i n d numerous references to such Baudelairian terms as "chevelure", "tresses", and "parfum"-^  , these,  according to H. Mondor, preceded Mallarme's acquaintance with Baudel a i r e ' s work. Mondor seems anxious not to a t t r i b u t e any influence to Baudelaire at t h i s stage. He argues i n favour of Hugo's influence  14  regarding, f o r example, the use of " f l e u r d e l i s e " : " l a l e c t u r e de 1' a d j e c t i f f l e u r d e l i s e m*ayant rappele dans Spleen de Baudelaire que Mallarme r e c o p i a i t en i860, l e vers "Son l i t f l e u r d e l i s e se transforme en tombeau" je crus d'abord a cette influence; mais i l est plus vraisemblable que l e s deux poetes cadets avaient l u , dans Hugo ( l e s Contemplations): "Et f a u t - i l qu'a, jamais pour moi, quand vient l e s o i r Au l i e u de s ' e t o i l e r l e l i t se fleurdelise..."36 The major influences on Mallarme at the time he wrote Entre quatre murs were, as both H. Mondor, L.J. Austin and others have pointed out, those of Lamartine, de Musset and above a l l of V i c t o r Hugo. I t i s as a d i s c i p l e of Musset, declares Austin, that Mallarme opens h i s c o l l e c t i o n , but t h i s influence was not l a s t i n g , and the l a s t borrowing from Musset seems to date from J u l y 1859.37 Mallarme himself recognized the presence of "l'ame lamartinienne" i n himself: ... puis j ' a i traverse bien des pensions et lyc£es, d'ame lamartinienne avec un secret d e s i r de remplacer, un jour, Beranger...33 Leon C e l l i e r points out that "l'ame du jeune Mallarme e t a i t l a m a r t i nienne parce que sa priere e t a i t c e l l e de 1'enfant a son revel 1."^ The influence of Lamartine i s also to be found i n the pious poems written preceding the c o l l e c t i o n Entre quatre murs. Mme  Ayda also  argues f o r the influence of Lamartine, as well as that of V i c t o r Hugo, i n the two elegies, "Sa fosse est creuseV , and "Sa tombe est fermee".40 1  From February 1859, Mallarme reveals himself a f a i t h f u l d i s c i p l e of V i c t o r Hugo.  This major influence which w i l l be taken up  again i n a l a t e r chapter, p e r s i s t s throughout the c o l l e c t i o n of poems, even when other elements are included.41  15  There were other minor influences of the Romantic p o e t s ^ ; s u r p r i s i n g l y , Vigny i s the only one (according to L.J. Austin) of a l l the great Romantic poets who does not seem to have influenced Mallarme. The influence of these poets, contends Mme Ayda, was to remain with Mallarme throughout h i s l i f e : "Des sa tendre adolescence Mallarme s*etait nourri des merveilles du Romantisme et son esprit e t a i t imbu des themes romantiques. I I ne fera que chanter ces themes jusqu'a l a f i n de sa v i e . . . Le jeune Mallarme empruntera aux Romantiques non settlement leurs themes, l e u r s images, mais aussi leur terrainologie, leurs symboles. Le vocabulaire du jeune Chretien s'en trouvera transforme."^ Mallarme wrote of h i s personal preferences and of h i s i d e a l i n A p r i l I860 : Moi, quand j ' e t a i s p e t i t et que j ' e t a i s classique J ' e t a i s a parler franc, f o r t peu melancolique J'aimais l e sucre d'orge et l e s vers de Racine. Des f l e u r s ?... je connaissais l e s f l e u r s de papier peint: Les f l e u r s de rhetorique et l e s f l e u r s du Parnasse. Mon i d e a l e t a i t ces vieux coqs etames Qui grincent betement sur l e s clochers ruines: (Reponse a une Piece de Vers)44 Thus, Mallarme traces h i s passage from classicism to Parnassianism, and then to Romanticism. As e a r l y as 1859 Mallarme appears to recognize the mediocrity of h i s poetry f o r he wrote i n one of h i s poems: "Ces vers sont bien mauvais."^-* Accordingly, he set out to improve h i s poetry by copying out certain works of h i s favourite poets. Three notebooks containing Mallarme's copyings, each dated I860 and e n t i t l e d "Glanes", were found by Mondor at the same time as the notebook containing Entre quatre murs. The t i t l e s of the poems that appear i n these notebooks are l i s t e d i n  Mallarme lyceerr , and the number of lines transcribed i s given as .more than  Why did Mallarme copy so many lines ? Mondor ex-  plains that i t was because Mallarme, dissatisfied with his volume of poetry, f e l t the necessity of studying other poetry "et d'abord en III  artisan. ** L.J. Austin expresses a similar opinion, "... l'on peut se demander s i Mallarme n'avait pas cesse sa production personnelle pour etudier de plus pres son metier."49 In his personal anthology of I860, Mallarme included nine poems by Poe and twenty-nine by Baudelaire; many poems by 16th century poets were also included. Regarding his choice of Baudelaire's poems, Mondor commented that i t represented "toutes les cordes baudelairiennes", especially "les plus specifiques, morbides et sinistres: le romantisme noir herite de 1820, l a recherche d'etrangete pronee par Gautier, le gout du macabre et le sublime du familier dus a Sainte-Beuve."^ What a contrast between this selection and Mallarme's "Cantate pour l a premiere communion" or his "Priere d'une mere" '. L.J. Austin agrees with Mondor that the poems chosen from Baudelaire were among "les plus virulents"^ , but he claims that "toutes les 1  cordes baudelairiennes" are not represented: "Ce qui frappe dans ce choix, ce sont les omissions autant que les poemes retenus... tous ces elements essentiels du recueil echappant pour l e moment au jeune lyceen qui bientot pourtant devait assumer pleinement 1'heritage de Baudelaire."52 Thus, i t was the romanticism of Baudelaire that f i r s t impressed Mallarme. Indeed, i f Mallarme had such a fervent admiration for Baudelaire, i t was no doubt because he considered him the last of the great Romantics.  CHAPTER II MALLARME'S DEBT TO BAUDELAIRE  Most c r i t i c s agree that the reading of Baudelaire's poems .had a very great influence on Mallarme. After reading les Fleurs du Mal. wrote Mondor i n 1954, Mallarme realized the weaknesses of his volume of poetry Entre quatre murs and abandoned any idea of publishing i t : "Apres l a lecture des Fleurs du Mal. en effet, tout ce premier volume  que les ouvrages non decourageants de Victor Hugo avaient a l a  fois inspire et f a c i l i t e dut l u i paraitre tout a. fait pueril."-^*It was Baudelaire who, according to the same c r i t i c , liberated Mallarme's spirit and indicated the path he was to follow. 55 In an article of 1956, L.J. Austin echoed Mondor's opinion that Baudelaire, and then Poe, "mettent Mallarme... dans la voie qu'il cherchait jus-  56 qu'alors en vain." It was the following lines by Baudelaire written i n 1857, that, i n Mondor's opinion, turned Mallarme away from Victor Hugo: ... toute ame eprise de poesie pure me comprendra quand je d i r a i que parmi notre race poetique, Victor Hugo serait . moins admire, s ' i l etait parfait, et qU'il n'a pu se faire pardonner tout son genie lyrique qu' en introduisant de force et brutalement dans l a poesie ce qu'Edgar Poe considerait comme.l'her£sie moderne capitale: l'enseignement.^' A different explanation for Mallarme's turning away from Hugo's poetry was given by Albert Thibaudet, namely, that i n his two poems, "Sa fosse est .creusee" and "Sa tombe est fermee"-which Thibaudet published for the f i r s t time-^- Mallarme.tried to attain Hugo's oratorical style, and that he failed so completely that any further attempt was  out of the question.  7  Thibaudet goes on to say that the author of  these two poems had, i n 1859, much to unlearn; that i t was,  f i r s t of  a l l , the influence of Baudelaire, which was to govern him u n t i l  1870,  and afterwards i t was e s p e c i a l l y that of the English poets that "mit f i n chez l u i a. toute v e l l e i t e hugolienne et qui nous aide a v o i r dans ces vers q u ' i l e c r i v a i t a dix-sept ans une maniere de rougeole poetique."  60  The viewpoint expressed by Thibaudet i s not shared by many other c r i t i c s . Gardner Davies wrote i n 1947: "This harsh judgment does not seem altogether j u s t i f i e d and i s of l i t t l e value as an explanation of Mallarme's swing toward Baudelairian p o e t r y . " ^ It i s i n t e r e s t i n g that almost every statement made by Thibaudet i n the a r t i c l e of has been c r i t i c i z e d by others. With the exception of Mme  1933  Ayda and  62 Leon C e l l i e r l  e  s  , the c r i t i c s seem to agree that with the reading of  Fleurs du Mal. Mallarme transferred h i s allegiance from Hugo to  Baudelaire, although the d e c i s i v e cult of Baudelaire co-existed f o r a short time with that of Hugo i n Mallarme's mind.^3 •*  #  *  From the s l i g h t evidence a v a i l a b l e , we can i n f e r that there was nothing i n the way of a friendship, or personal r e l a t i o n s h i p , between Mallarme and Baudelaire.  6/+  The statement made by Leon Leraonnier i n 1923 that there  was  no d i r e c t personal influence of Baudelaire on Mallarme seems to be highly p l a u s i b l e : " I I ne semble pas que Baudelaire et Mallarme aient jamais eu une entrevue de quelque importance,  n i q u ' i l s aient jamais  echange de l e t t r e ; i l n'y a done point eu d'influence personnelle d i r e c t e et c'est l a seule comparaison de leurs ouvrages qui peut r e v e l e r leurs r e l a t i o n s i n t e l l e c t uelles."^-> The fact that Baudelaire evinced l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n Mallarme's poetry i s suggested by the following two excerpts from Mallarme's correspondence. Both l e t t e r s were written A p r i l 1864,  the  f i r s t being taken from a l e t t e r from Emmanuel des Essarts to Mallarme: J'ai montre tes vers a Mery, a Vacquerie et a Baudelaire. Baudelaire l e s a ecoutes sans disapprobation ce qui est un t r e s grand signe de faveur. S ' i l ne l e s avait pas goutes, i l m'eut interrompu.°6 The following l i n e s are included i n a l e t t e r from H. Cazalis to Mallarme: Nous [Emmanuel et Henri ] avons dine avec Baudelaire; une cousine q u i . . . m'a demande tous tes vers, a f a i t l i r e a Emmanuel Les Fenetres et 1'Azur. l e maitre a ecoute avec une t r e s f i n e attention, mais selon l'usage... n'a r i e n dit.°7 In a l e t t e r of December 1864 Cazalis wrote to Mallarme that Baudelaire appeared to hate him: I I parait que ton dieu Baudelaire te h a i t , et c'est bien mal recompenser, t u me l'avoueras, l a r e l i g i o n , l e culte pur de son croyant l e plus f i d e l e . ^ 0  Mallarme's f e e l i n g s f o r Baudelaire do not seem to have been modified to any extent by the above l i n e s from Cazalis. Up t i l l 1867  he  expressed great admiration for h i s master. He r e f e r r e d to the poet as " l e grand B a u d e l a i r e " * ^ and "cet extraordinaire et pur genie"70. In his review of poems by Des Essarts, i n "Le Senonais", March 22, 1862, Mallarme r e f e r r e d to l e s Fleurs du Mal and B a n v i l l e ' s l e s Odes funambulesques as " l e s derniers chefs-d'oeuvre  du siecle".'''  1  In a l e t t e r to Cazalis of July 1864, Mallarme praised Baudelaire's poetry and indicated the q u a l i t i e s he most admired:  Car t u est un f i e r poete, mon ami... T o i seul, Edgar Poe et Baudelaire e t i e z capables de ce poeme qui, comme cert a i n s regards de femme, contient des mondes de pensees et. de sensations... Tout y est merveilleusement dispose pour 1'effet a produire, et malgre cet a r t , l e tableau reste simple et vivant. Je suis fou de ces vers parce q u ' i l s r^sument toute mon esthetique...72 I t was the " e f f e t " produced, the sensation caused by the c a r e f u l arrangement of words and ideas that Mallarme l i k e d i n Baudelaire's poetry. In a l e t t e r t o Lefebure, regarding a recently published drama, Ellin by V i l l i e r s de 1*Isle-Adam, there i s another such reference: Vous ressentirez une sensation a. chacun des mots, comme en l i s a n t Baudelaire. I I n'y a pas la. une syllabe qui n'ait ete pesee pendant une nuit de reverie.73 In the same l e t t e r Mallarme writes of h i s d i s l i k e f o r Des Essarts' book Les Elevations, and declares that the words are "mis souvent au hasard" and added that "On ne ressent a. cette lecture aucune sensation neuve"74 Other than such scattered fragments culled from Mallarme's correspondence, we do not have a precise statement of Mallarme*s opinion of Baudelaire's q u a l i t y as an a r t i s t . As t o Mallarme's poetic theory, he a t t r i b u t e d i t t o Poe. In a l e t t e r t o A. Albert Collignon, A p r i l 11, 1864, Mallarme had expressed the i n t e n t i o n o f publishing an a r t i c l e "sur l e spleen de Paris et sur l'oeuvre de ce maitre"75, but t h i s a r t i c l e was either not written or has not come down t o us. He had also expressed the intention of w r i t i n g a t h e s i s dedicated t o Baudelaire and t o Poe.7° The only a r t i c l e Mallarme devoted t o Baudelaire was the second movement of h i s prose poem "Symphonie Litteraire"'' '^ and the only 7  poem was "Le Tombeau de Baudelaire" 78 Although Mallarme alluded, i n a l e t t e r of May 14, 1867 to Cazalis, to a c e r t a i n detachment from Baudelaire's influence79  >  we  may  nevertheless conclude that the d i s c i p l e always admired and  venerated h i s master's poetry from the time of h i s f i r s t encounter . 80 with i t i n i860  , even i f a f t e r 1867 he evolved a more unique and  personal expression. I t i s noteworthy that Mallarme never openly expressed c r i t i c i s m of Baudelaire, and that a f t e r 1867 h i s d i r e c t a l l u s i o n s to him  cease. •a-  #  #  Mallarme was regarded by h i s friends as Baudelaire's d i s c i p l e . 8 1 When they wanted to praise h i s poems, they likened these to Baudelaire's. In June 1862 Lefebure wrote to Mallarme (probably r e f e r r i n g to "Le Sonneur" and "Spleen p r i n t a n i e r " ) : "Baudelaire s ' i l r a j e u n i s s a i t pourrait signer vos sonnets."^ A f t e r reading "L'Azur", Armand Renaud, i n a l e t t e r of February 12, 1864,  assured Mallarme  that i t was a poem "de l a f a m i l l e de Poe et de Baudelaire mais avec plus de spiritualisme."^3 i  n  h i s Vie de Mallarme Henri Mondor c i t e s  a surprising remark, which he declares, Mendes attributed to Charles Cros: "Mallarme est un Baudelaire casse dont l e s morceaux n'ont pu se r e c o l l e r . " ^ In h i s book of 1920, Ernest Raynaud had, on two d i f f e r e n t i n s t a n c e s ^ , also quoted the above statement which Charles Cros was  supposed to have made. But Raynaud had commented that t h i s  remark should not be taken too seriously, although he had affirmed that Mallarme continued to revere Baudelaire. In a recent a r t i c l e (1967) L.J. Austin contends that Cros d i d not make the above statement: "Cette boutade amusante, mais excessive et i n j u s t e , est considered comme apocryphe et invraisemblable de l a part de Cros par  L. F o r e s t i e r et Pascal Pia dans l e u r e d i t i o n des Oeuvres completes de Charles Cros."°° Another surprising comment on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Mallarme and Baudelaire was made by Charles Coligny and appeared i n 1'Artiste of June 15, 1865: "Stephane Mallarme est un l y r i q u e forcene et sera toujours un hyper-lyrique: Shakespeare et Edgar Poe sont ses dieux, et i l d i t que ses dieux l e conduisent a M. Charles B a u d e l a i r e . " ^ 8  -a-  *  -si-  C r i t i c s have seldom agreed as to the importance, duration and d u r a b i l i t y of Baudelaire's influence on Mallarm6. The number of errors or prejudices concerning t h i s problem of influence was underl i n e d by Mrae A y d a  88  who blamed Henri Mondor f o r the legend of the  abrupt and overhelming discovery of Baudelairian poetry by Mallarme i n the year 1861. But Mondor i n h i s Vie de Mallarme ' ' wag 8  7  quoting  from an a r t i c l e by Henry C h a r p e n t i e r ^ i n which the l a t t e r related the anecdote about Mallarme buying the second e d i t i o n of l e s Fleurs du Mal when he was very young: the year "1861" i s stated i n the footnote. Thus the year "1861" was generally accepted as the date of Mallarme's acquaintance with Baudelaire's poetry.  7  Of course,  with the discovery of the notebooks of " l e s Glanes", i t became known that Mallarme was already copying some of Baudelaire's poems i n I860, and he could have been acquainted with h i s poetry even as e a r l y as 1859.  92  As to the importance or value of Mallarme's a f f i l i a t i o n s with Baudelaire, the d i f f e r e n c e s of opinion are often perplexing.  23  In 1923 Leon Lemonnier attributed great importance to the a r t i s t i c a f f i n i t i e s between Baudelaire and Mallarme i n the literary history of France: "L*influence de Baudelaire sur Mallarme est le lien qui unit les differents mouvements litteraires du siecle dernier."^ Mallarme's debt to Baudelaire was also considered important by Paul Valery who wrote i n 1930 that " l a plus grande gloire de Baudelaire... est sans doute d'avoir engendre quelques tres grands poetes. Ni Verlaine, ni Mallarme, n i Rimbaud n'eussent ete ce qu'ils furent sans la lecture qu'ils firent des Fleurs du Mal a I'age decisif."94 For L.J. Austin, writing in 1967, Valery owed his poetic awakening to Mallarme, who, in turn, owed his to Baudelaire.95 . The majority of c r i t i c s , while conceding that Baudelaire had a great influence on Mallarme, claim that this influence did not prove lasting. In his article of 1923 Leon Lemonnier restricted Baudelaire's influence to the poems that appeared i n the Parnasse Contemporain of 1866*^ and which were written before Mallarme was twenty-five. He concludes, "C'est done en sa jeunesse que Mallarme fut le disciple de Baudelaire."97 Mme Noulet, i n her work of 1940, expressed agreement with Lemonnier and gave reasons why Baudelaire's influence on Mallarme could not be lasting. She would restrict the influence of Baudelaire even further than did Lemonnier: "II faut oser £tablir une demarcation plus precise. Si l'on a quelque raison de croire, ainsi que je l ' a i montre, qu'Aumone, Angoisse. Tristesse d'Ete ont ete ecrits, comme Le Guignon et Le Sonneur. avant ou pendant 1862, 1'influence de Baudelaire s'arrete cette annee-la; avant les vingt ans, a l'age ou l'on refait les vers des autres. Pas au dela. A partir de 1863, elle s'attenue s i elle n'est pas completement  dominie ou r e n i e e . " "L'Art Pour Tous  ,l9<7  9 8  Mme Noulet contends that Mallarme s a r t i c l e 1  , written i n 1862,  already expresses the  original  ideas of the author and shows that Mallarme was even at that time r e j e c t i n g the influence of Baudelaire. Henri Mondor, i n h i s Vie de Mallarme. concedes that Baudel a i r e ' s influence on Mallarme was "massive, imperieuse", but that i t lasted f o r only three or four years. He claims that when A. Thibaudet i n h i s a r t i c l e of 1933 ("A l'Ombre des Contemplations") had fixed 1870 as the date up t i l l which Baudelaire's influence was t o dominate, he  '(Thibaudet) had a r b i t r a r i l y lengthened the d u r a t i o n . - ^ Mondor,  moreover, takes at face value the remark made by Mallarme i n the l e t t e r t o C a z a l i s , that he had separated from Baudelaire: "Le l i v r e de Dierx est un beau developpement de Leconte de L i s l e . S'en s£parer a - t - i l comme moi de Baudelaire ?"101 In an a r t i c l e of 1926,  "De Stephane Mallarme", Henry Char-  pentier had written that even e a r l i e r than 1867, "Symphonie litteraire"^- - 2 (  ,  Mallarme i n h i s  bidding Baudelaire (and also B a n v i l l e  and Gautier) f a r e w e l l : "... i l [Mallarme] rend a. Baudelaire, a. Gautier et a B a n v i l l e l e s honneurs q u ' i l l e u r d o i t , mais qui sonnent comme un  adieu."103  j  n  a recent and noteworthy a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Mallarme  sur Baudelaire", Austin G i l l presents a convincing argument that Mallarme d i d not present Baudelaire i n a very favourable l i g h t i n his "Symphonie l i t t e r a i r e " and that Mallarme's poems "Le Guignon" and "Les Fleurs"104 express an anti-Baudelairian b i t t e r n e s s . This point of view, however, has not found wide acceptance. Many other c r i t i c s have followed the opinion of Lemonnier, Charpentier, Noulet, and Mondor that the influence of Baudelaire  on Mallarme was l i m i t e d . Thus Jacques Scherer wrote i n 1947: "Au reste 1 i n f l u e n c e de Baudelaire sur Mallarme n'a £te importante que pendant !  un t r e s p e t i t nombre d'ann£es; l e jeune bachelier hugolatre ne decou- . vre l e s Fleurs du Mal qu'en 1861 et des 1867, Baudelaire'."106  i l se d i r a ' separ<S de  Henri Peyre wrote i n 1851 that Mallarm6 appeared  very Baudelairian i n h i s beginning works, but that very quickly he went beyond Baudelaire i n metaphysical boldness and i n a magicianly o r i g i n a l i t y of syntax: " l a r£elle influence de son aine se decele dans d i v e r s aspects de l'homme et de sa pensee mais assez peu sur l'oeuvre accomplie."l - 7 Both Wallace Fowlie and Guy Michaud, i n t h e i r t  )  respective works, published i n 1953,  express the view that Baudelaire's  influence on Mallarm6 was l i m i t e d ; Fowlie r e s t r i c t e d i t t o s i x y e a r s - ^ ^ Michaud t o a period described as "not very long."-'--9 i (  )  n  a work e n t i t l e d  The Symbolist Aesthetic i n France (1950), A.G. Lehman has minimized the influence of Baudelaire on Mallarme. "From the very s t a r t " , he wrote, "there i s nothing to be gained by t r e a t i n g Mallarm^ as the 'successor' of Baudelaire, a t . l e a s t i n what concerns h i s philosophy of a r t . " - ^  0  Rene Wellek i n a l a t e r c r i t i c a l work, A History of Modern  C r i t i c i s m (1965), stressed important differences between the two poets: Mallarme shares with Baudelaire the views common to Poe, but does not believe i n the creative Imagination, i n the mastery and'assimilation of r e a l i t y . In that i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of subject and object which i s the central ultimately romantic core of Baudelaire's aesthetics. Though Mallarme occasiona l l y speaks of correspondences and analogies and c e r t a i n l y uses the methods i n h i s poems, he neither shares Baudelaire's general philosophy of a universe of symbols or hieroglyphics, nor i s p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned \-fith a r h e t o r i c or metamorphoses ... I n t r u t h , independent of Poe or Baudelaire, Mallarme develops several other o l d ideas to t h e i r l o g i c a l or i l l o g i c a l extremes.^-'' Some c r i t i c s , on the contrary, have argued f o r a l a s t i n g influence of  26  Baudelaire. A f t e r pointing out that Mallarme's s t y l e was not influenced by e i t h e r Baudelaire or Poe, Deborah Aish, i n her work of 1938, mentions that Mallarme took as h i s point of departure •the Baudelairian theory of correspondances.^? Jean Starobinski i n an a r t i c l e published i n 1948, expressed the opinion that the 'materialMallarme •transmutation,  i n h e r i t e d from Baudelaire "subiront une etrange  selon l a l o i d e v o l u t i o n interne de l a production  •mallarmeenne"^3 ^  T  a n c  i therefore i t subsists i n Mallarme* s f i n a l  -work and thought. L.J. Austin, i n h i s a r t i c l e of 1956, pointed out, -as we have noted e a r l i e r , that Mallarme was at f i r s t interested i n the "romanticism of Baudelaire", that the influence of the l a t t e r which i s s t r i k i n g i n the,poems o f Mallarme's youth and which remains v e r y apparent i n those of the Premier Parnasse i s quite e x t e r i o r : " I I s'agit l a bien plus d'une i m i t a t i o n magistrale, que d'une i n f l u e n ce proprement dite."-*--^ The lessons Mallarme learned from Baudelaire were "notamment c e l l e qui touche a. 1'effort magistral de 1'Imaginat i o n desireuse, non seulement de se s a t i s f a i r e par l e symbole eclatant dans l e s spectacles du monde, mais d ' e t a b l i r un l i e n entre ceux-ci et l a parole chargee de 1' exprimer."^-^ i n the wake of Baudelaire, Mallarme was t o say i n 1894: Le tour de t e l l e phrase ou l e l a c d'un d i s t i q u e , copies sur notre confirmation, aident 1'eclosion en nous, d'apercus et de correspondances.Ho Mallarme, indeed, f e l t the need to shake o f f the hold of Baudelaire, and to a f f i r m  h i s own o r i g i n a l i t y , but as Austin affirms,  f o r a long time a f t e r Mallarme stopped i m i t a t i n g Baudelaire, and a f t e r Mallarme had thought himself separated from him, the influence of the master would continue to act on him through h i s theory of correspon-  dances.  ' This profound influence of Baudelaire w i l l be discussed  i n Part II. R.G. Conn, i n a work published i n 1966,  has pointed out  •affinities between Mallarme and Lamartine, Hugo, Nerval, Poe and Baudelaire whom he calls Mallarme*s spiritual forebears: "He [Mallarme] shares their belief i n the universal analogy, i n the ultimate harmony or connectivity of a l l reality. The things of the world can rise... to membership in a paradisiacal order, akin to Plato's realm of pure essence.. .»- -° LJ  From the above c r i t i c a l opinion, we may conclude that most •critics agree that Baudelaire did exert an influence on Mallarme, but that there i s considerable divergence of thought as to how deep i t went and how decisive or lasting i t proved to be. An attempt to assess this influence i n terms of' a f f i n i t i e s and divergences of thought regarding certain concepts held by the two poets w i l l be taken up i n a later Chapter.  *  tt  tt  A brief discussion of the indirect influences of Baudelaire on Mallarme and the c r i t i c a l opinion surrounding this question leads us to the assumption that Mallarm6 derived his concept of certain authors from Baudelaire. Mallarm£ owed to Baudelaire not only his veneration for Theodore de Banville, but also his admiration for Edgar Poe.  119  Mallarme certainly did not share a l l the opinions of  his great predecessor regarding Poe, but i t does seem that both agreed as to the greatness of the American,. Poe was, according to Baudelaire,  28  "Un des plus grands heros l i t t e r a i r e s , l'homme de genie. -^ ,,J  U  For  Mallarme, Poe was "le prince spirituel de cet a g e " ^ l and "l'ame poetique l a plus noble qui jamais vecut."122 Baudelaire had expressed a very high opinion of Poe's work; he lauded Poe for "... son admirable style pur et bizarre... serre comme les mailles d'une armure;" ^ 1  and he described his poetry as "... quelque chose de profond et de miroitant comme l e reve, de mysterieux et de parfait comme le cristal."^-24 The above remarks by Baudelaire might, as Henri Mondor suggested, have inspired i n Mallarme a poetic aim to which he himself should aspire.^5 Most c r i t i c s agree with Lemonnier's opinion that Mallarme 126  owed his veneration for Poe to Baudelaire.  In transmitting this  cult to Mallarme, Baudelaire was to influence the l i f e and work of the latter, for i t was because of his admiration for the American author that Mallarme found his practical vocation. Mallarme earned his living teaching the native language of Poe, and in order to continue the work of Baudelaire, Mallarme undertook to give a French version of Poe's poems thus pursuing the work initiated by Baudelaire. Despite i t s plausibility, this explanation acceptable to H. Mondor and Mme Noulet  although  that' Mallarme had discovered  the American poet through Baudelaire, i s opposed by certain c r i t i c s . Mme Ayda,for example, attributes Mallarme's sudden passion for English to his acquaintance with Harriet Smyth during the holidays of 1857 and further argues that i t i s likely that Mallarme knew Poe* s works i n translation, well before those of Baudelaire, and that Mallarme could have read s t i l l other translations of Poe's works.'^7' *  *  •»•  29  CHAPTER I I I OTHER INFLUENCES  Mme  Ayda also d i f f e r s with most c r i t i c s as t o the l i m i t e d  duration of the influence of V i c t o r Hugo, according to which, a f t e r reading l e s Fleurs du Mal. Mallarme transferred h i s allegiance from Hugo to Baudelaire."""^ In an a r t i c l e published i n 1 9 5 3  129 Mme  Ayda  compiled a long l i s t of Mallarme's borrowings from V i c t o r Hugo and claimed that they were so abundant as t o place Hugo side by side with Baudelaire as a major influence. Lloyd J . Austin, i n 1956, expressed doubts about the extent of these borrowings, and contended that  Mme  Ayda's a r t i c l e exaggerated a great d e a l "par des rapproche-  ments souvent peu convaincants l a duree de l'etendue de 1*influence 130 de Hugo sur Mallarme."  Austin also very c l e a r l y shows that the  e s s e n t i a l f a c t was that Mallarme's poetic i s founded on concentration and condensation l i k e Baudelaire's, whereas Hugo r e l i e s on the opposite  131 p r i n c i p l e s of enumeration and expansion.  To t h i s L^on C e l l i e r  retorted, i n 1959, that Mallarme does indeed practice a Baudelairian form of concentration, but that which i s concentrated i n h i s poems  132 suggest V i c t o r Hugo.  J  C e l l i e r , moreover, agrees with Mme  Ayda as  to the d u r a b i l i t y of influence of Hugo on Mallarme. He blames what he c a l l s " l a formule stupide de Thibaudet" (that i s , Thibaudet's r e f e r r i n g to Mallarme's poetry composed under the influence of Hugo as "une maniere de rougeole poetique"^-^) f o r the fact that every study devoted to Hugo's influence on Mallarme n a t u r a l l y tends to minimize t h i s influence.  He takes exception to Austin's statement  30  that the work of Baudelaire  exerted an influence "en profondeur" on  Mallarme -^ while that of Hugo d i d not, and he poses the 1  question:  "Mais precisement, l ' i d e e qu'Hugo puisse exercer une influence profondeur', e s t - e l l e done inconcevable exaggerating, Mme  'en  ?" He concludes that f a r from  Ayda errs "par defaut plus que par exces." C e l l i e r ' s  statement that "Ce r£seau d'images qui subsiste d'un  bout a l'autre de  l'oeuvre de Mallarme est incontestablement d'origine hugolienne" i s no doubt an exaggeration. Leon C e l l i e r , l i k e Mme  Ayda, L.J. Austin and  H. Mondor, among other c r i t i c s , have indeed provided an i n t e r e s t i n g debate; however, Hugo's influence on Mallarme i s such that i t cannot be ignored or refuted.  #  *  #  C r i t i c a l opinion on the influence of Poe on Mallarme varies considerably, and the subject i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n that c r i t i c s usually compare the influence of Baudelaire to that of the American on Mallarme. Leon Lemonnier, i n an a r t i c l e i n Revue Mondiale (1929) and i n a book, Edgar Poe et l e s Poetes Francais (1932), concluded that Poe*s influence was  f e l t at the beginning and that i t acted as a stimulant to Mallarme.  Lemonnier also pointed out that closer a f f i n i t i e s existed between Poe and Mallarme than between Baudelaire and Mallarme. However, he also asserted that the differences between Poe and Mallarme are important, and that Mallarme's aesthetics are f a r from being contained i n those of Poe. Moreover, the influence on Mallarme of Stuart M i l l ' s idealism, that of C a r l y l e , and above a l l , that of Hegel are f a r more important than that of Poe. The influence of Poe,  concludes Lemonnier, was more  31  l i k e l y f e l t i n Mallarme's l i f e than i n h i s work, f o r the traces of Poe that are found i n h i s poems are few and quite s u p e r f i c i a l i n nature.. Paul Valery, i n 1930,  gave h i s explanation of the great  a t t r a c t i o n which Poe had exercised over him, as w e l l as over Baudel a i r e and Mallarme: "Poe montrait une voie, i l enseignait une doctrine t r e s se*duisante et t r e s rigoureuse dans l a q u e l l e une sorte de mathematique et une sorte de mystique s ' u n i s s a i e n t . " ^ 7 Mallarme, himself, revered Poe, and he a t t r i b u t e d h i s poetic theory to Poe rather than to Baudelaire. In a l e t t e r of  January 1864,  Mallarme wrote to H.  Cazalis: Toutefois, plus j ' i r a i , plus je serai f i d e l e a ces severes idees que m'a leguees mon grand maitre Edgar Poe.--' J  Mme  Noulet pointed out, i n 1940,  that although Mallarme admired  Baudelaire, he never c a l l e d him "grand maitre", a t i t l e reserved f o r Poe alone, whose influence was more l a s t i n g : "... i l est bien v r a i que 1' influence de Baudelaire fut t r e s passagere et c e l l e d' Edgar Poe plus d u r a b l e . " ^  9  H. Mondor expressed a s i m i l a r b e l i e f i n 1940-41 that  Mallarme's veneration f o r Poe which replaced that for Baudelaire  had  a more l a s t i n g i n f l u e n c e . C h a r l e s Mauron, however, r e j e c t s t h i s view; he f e l t that even without  Poe, the production of Mallarme would  not have been very d i f f e r e n t . - ^ - Henri Peyre, w r i t i n g i n  1951,  believed that the celebrated declarations of Mallarme i n reply to -iip  Jules Huret  were not i n s p i r e d but helped by Poe; i t was Poe's 143  idea "to suggest" rather than "to describe" Jones, i n h i s work of 1951,  . Professor Mansell  has, on the other hand, attempted to  minimize the debt to Poe i n so f a r as the cult of perfection i s attributed to him.^*" Joseph C h i a r i , who  i n h i s Symbolisme from Poe  32  to Mallarme (1956), attempted an extensive investigation of the question of Poe's influence on Mallarme, came to the conclusion that i t was "very small, very insignificant indeed."-^ Mallarme may have advocated the doctrines of poetic theory suggested i n Poe's writings, but as Chiari points out, "the practice i s different both i n the theorist and the one who admires the theory. The facts show that i n either case, theory and poetry are two different things." Chiari concludes that we find very few traces of Poe's influence i n the poetry of Mallarme who.like Baudelaire and Valery, has insisted that Poe was the poet who had influenced him most. ^ In his History of Modem Criticism 1  (1965),  6  Rene Wellek while acknowledging a greater influence of Poe  on Mallarme, asserts Mallarme's independence from both of them: "As a theorist Mallarme derives from Poe and Baudelaire, but radically differs from them on central points... The link with Baudelaire's aesthetics i s far more tenuous than with Poe's... In truth, independent of Poe or Baudelaire, Mallarme develops several other old ideas -11  n  to their logical or i l l o g i c a l extremes..."  N  From the foregoing examination of c r i t i c a l opinion we cannot assess with accuracy the true nature and extent of Mallarme's debt to Poe, nor can we determine conclusively whether Baudelaire's or Poe's influence was the greater. It would certainly appear incontestable that Poe's doctrines as expressed i n such works as The Poetic Principle. The Philosophy of Composition, and Marginal!s. and as expounded by Baudelaire i n , for example, Notes Nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. did indeed influence Mallarme i n the formation of his poetic theory, although he later diverged markedly from both Poe and Baudelaire as his poetry became more personal and exclusive.  •*  •*  . . .  *  33  The question of whether Mallarme read Hegel and was influenced directly or indirectly by this German philosopher has been keenly debated. On the one hand, c r i t i c s like H. Mondor, Mme Ayda, Charles Mauron, M. Antoine-Adam, Jean-Pierre Richard and Y. Park, claim that Mallarme read Hegel, or that he was influenced by his US thought.  L.J. Austin claims that although Mallarme probably did not  read Hegel i n the text, he was acquainted with his general ideas with which he could have become familiar i n his discussions with his friends Lefebure and V i l l i e r s de 1'Isle-Adam.^-"'' A probable source of the 7  Hegelianism  of Mallarme was, according to Austin, the article i n  the Revue des Deux Mondes of February 1361 by Edmond Scherer entitled "Hegel et 1'hegelianisme", from which Mallarme may well have taken ideas - ideas that were to be transformed and given a central place i n his personal meditations. Mallarme identified himself with the 150  absolute Spirit of Hegel  , and completed the Baudelairian doctrine  of correspondances by incorporating i t into Hegelian idealism; he also asserted his originality with regard to Hegel, as Austin contends, "dans l a conclusion qu'il a t i r e des premisses du philosophe, a savoir que 'tout l'univers existe pour aboutir a. un livre' . " - ^ l On the other hand, c r i t i c s like G. Delfel and R. Wellek, argue that Mallarme did not read Hegel and that he was not influenced by his philosophy. Thus Delfel asserts i n his work of 1951 that i t would be an error to link Mallarme's thought to that of Hegel: "Rien n'est plus vrai, dans l a mesure ou i l n'y a pas eu d'influence directe, ni de Hegel, n i de Platon sur l u i . Je suis convaincu que Mallarme n'avait pas l u une ligne de Hegel en depit de V i l l i e r s qui l u i en conseillait l a lecture et qu'il n'avait de Platon que quelques souve-  nirs scolaires." ^ In his work of 1965, R. Wellek also minimizes the influence of Hegel: "It seems unlikely that he [Mallarme] had more than a bowing acquaintance with Plato or Hegel, with whom he has been associated. Nothing more i s required at least to explain Mallarme's poetic theories than the atmosphere of 19th century atheistic pessimism and some knowledge of the general ideas of the Neoplatonic tradition in aesthetics."^53 While the evidence does not support the view that Mallarme's knowledge of Hegel was great, i t would seem reasonable to assume that the intellectual atmosphere i n which he lived must have brought him into a contact with some of the ideas of the great German philosopher. But although i t i s highly doubtful that Mallarme read or studied Hegel, i t must be admitted that i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to establish a f f i n i t i e s between the latter's philosophy and certain aspects of the poet's ultimate thought-^4 which can be equally well explained i n terms of the Neoplatonic tradition.  .*  •*  In addition to the role played by certain events i n the early l i f e of Mallarme, and to the contributions made to the growth of his creative s p i r i t by the works of Victor Hugo, Edgar Poe, and Hegel, as well as by those of Baudelaire, the c r i s i s of 1366 must be considered i n order to understand more completely the development of Mallarme's thought. M. Antoine Adam, i n an interesting article written i n 1948, "Premieres Etapes d'un Itineraire", has underlined the fact that the  35  p r e c i s i o n o f dates i s e s s e n t i a l to an exact understanding of Mallarme's poetry, and that i t i s not so much h i s philosophy that we must study as h i s experiences: those that produced the c r i s i s of 1866. The Mallarme' before 1866 i s to be distinguished from the Mallarme a f t e r the c r i s i s : "Or l e Mallarme r e e l manifeste, jusqu'en 1866, non pas du tout des t  preoccupations de metaphysicien, mais des ambitions t r e s exigeantes d'artiste."155 The poems written before what Jacques Scherer c a l l s " l a grande c r i s e metaphysique" have "pour caractere commun d'etre de"pourvu  de cette ambition metaphysique qui ne cessera de tourmenter  Mallarme depuis 1866 jusqu'a sa mort. 5^ nl  The c r i s i s which lasted t i l l the middle of the year 1866 had two phases: the f i r s t i n which Mallarme found himself confronted by the "vide" or the "neant" (as described i n a l e t t e r written to Cazalis 157 the end of A p r i l 1866  ), and the second i n which he discovered the  Absolute. A l e t t e r t o Cazalis written May 1866 shows Mallarme's new orientation: Je suis en t r a i n de l e Beau. Mon esprit plusieurs f r i s s o n s , muable.158 We have reached, as  j e t e r l e s fondements d'un l i v r e sur se meut dans l ' E t e r n e l et en a eu s i l'on peut parler a i n s i de 1'ImL.J. Austin points out, " l e nadir de 159  1'evolution s p i r i t u e l l e de Mallarme."  Henceforth, Mallarme w i l l  deny r e a l i t y "pour e d i f i e r une construction f i c t i v e dont l a beaute sera l a garantie."" " ^ Mallarme affirms the superiority of the "Reve" 1  6  as he wrote to Cazalis i n A p r i l 1866: ... s'elancant forcenement dans l e Reve... chantant l'Ame et toutes l e s divines impressions p a r e i l l e s . . . et proclamant devant l e Rien qui est l a v e r i t e , ces glorieux mensongesllkl And i n an a r t i c l e on Theodore de B a n v i l l e , Mallarme declared i n 1892:  36  La divine transposition pour 1'accomplissement de quoi existe l'homme, va du f a i t a. 1*ideal. 1 ° , 2  However, Mallarm6's ideal was not born of the c r i s i s of 1866, i t was the culmination of a l l Mallarme's questionings since the deaths of his mother and sister and that of his friend, Harriet Smyth. It was i n order to comprehend these losses as Mme that  Ayda has pointed out,  Mallarme sought to "simplifier le monde" and to " l e reduire a .  quelques principes i n t e l l i g i b l e s . " ^ ^ . O f  the many lesser influences on Mallarme's thought and  •  expression, we should like to mention briefly two. F i r s t l y , the importance of the influence of Theophile Gautier and secondly, the influence of the English poets. L4on Cellier, in a chapter of his work of 1959, has pointed out that Mallarme shared Gautier's "hantises de l a mort", and that Mallarme could have been influenced by Gautier rather than by Baudelaire i n certain aspects of his work. Moreover, Cellier has also shown how Gautier's analysis or definition of Baudelaire's poetry greatly influenced Mallarme's "Tombeau de Baudelaire". In a work of 1927 G. Turquet-Mines emphasized the importance of the influence of the English poets: "Baudelaire... was Mallarme's great master but only because he reinforced this English influence, because, he indeed was the most English of French poets."-^ Later, in 1933, A. Thibaudet rated the English poets as a greater influence than that of Baudelaire i n ridding Mallarme's poetry of certain weaknesses.^* In 1947, Gardner Davies expressed a similar, but more reserved opinion: "Mallarme's a f f i n i t i e s with Anglo-Saxon poets are well-known and often exaggerated."^''' C r i t i c a l opinion i s also at variance concerning the importance of the English language on Mallarme  who was a professor of English; however, no complete study of this subject has yet appeared although some shorter studies and articles have treated some aspects of i t . ^  8  We may nevertheless conclude that Baudelaire's role was indeed a major,one i n the poetic development of Mallarme, i n spite of his avowed predilection for Poe's poetic ideas. Certain a f f i n i t i e s and divergences i n thought between Baudelaire and^Mallarme w i l l be taken up i n the following pages.  NOTES TO PART I  1. Leon Cellier, Mallarme et l a morte qui parle. p. 13. 2. Stephane Mallarme, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade (henceforth referred to as M. Oj_c.), p. 481. 3. Ibid., pp. 3-4. U. Ibid., pp. 10-U. 5. A. Ayda, Le drame interieur de Mallarme ou l'origine des symboles mallarmeens, p. 22. 6. cf. H. Mondor, Mallarme plus intime. pp. 16 and 18. 7. cf. A. Ayda, op. c i t . . pp. 33-34.  8. M. O.c., p. 262. 9 . cf. L. Cellier, op. c i t . . p. 15. 10. Charles Mauron, Mallarme 1'obscur. p. x i i . 11. Henri Mondor, Mallarme lyceen. pp. 173-185.  12. M. O.c.. p. 270. 13. It i s called "La Jeune morte" by Mme Ayda; cf. op. c i t . , p. 48. 14. A. Ayda, op. c i t . . p. 49. 15. Ibid., p. 57. 16. Ibid., p. 79. 17. H. Mondor, Mallarme plus intime. p. 119 and 136. 18. L.J. Austin, "Les Annees d'Apprentissage de Stephane Mallarme", R.H.L.F., 56e annee, no. 1, jan.-mars, 1956, pp. 82-33. 19. Pierre-Olivier Walzer, Essai sur Stephane Mallarme. Paris. Editions P. Seghers, "Poetes d'Aujourd'hui", no 94, 1963, p. 17. 20. L.J. Austin, op. c i t . . p. 83. 21. cf. Mme Ayda. op. c i t . . p. 77  NOTES TO PART I (Continued)  22. How Mondor found these notebooks i s discussed i n his book, Mallarme lyceen. pp. 112-113. There i s a note, after "Sa tombe est fermee", p. 169 of Mallarme lyceen written by Mallarme as follows: "Ces deux dernieres pieces sont a. l a memoire d'Harriet Smyth, morte de l a poitrine dans 1*ete de 1859. Une larrae sur sa tombe, ce n'est pas trop pour tous les sourires angeliques qu' elle nous donnait." 23. Kurt Wa2s i n his Mallarme. ein Dichter de3 Jahrundertendes. Munich, Bech, 1938; cited i n "Stephane Mallarme, "Fifty Years of Research", French Studies. Vol. 1, no. 1, January 1947, by Gardner Davies, p. 8. 24. A. Ayda, op. c i t . . p. 91. 25. Ibid., p. 90. 26. M. 0^., pp. 10-11.  27. In H. Mondor Mallarme lyceen. pp. 137-138. 28. L.J. Austin, op. c i t . . p. 73. 29. Ibid., p. 73. 30. Ibid., p. 68. 31. cf. H. Mondor, Mallarme lyceen. p. 238 and L.J. Austin, op. c i t . p. 74. 32. H. Mondor, i b i d . . p. 175. 33. Referring to the use of the quadruple repetition i n Mallarme's "L'Azur", Mme Noulet writes, "L'idee de l a quadruple repetition a, l'interieur d'un meme vers a peut-etre ete inspiree au poete par Edgar Poe dont i l etait en train de traduire "Les Cloches", p. 71, L'Oeuvre poetioue de Mallarme; cf. J. Chiari, Symbolisme from Poe to Mallarme. p. 73: "On that specific problem even M. Scherer concedes that Mallarme may have been influenced by Poe through Baudelaire." See also J. Scherer, 1'Expression l i t teraire dans l'oeuvre de Mallarme. p. 218. 34. L.J. Austin, op. c i t . . 35. In H. Mondor Mallarme lyceen. p. 125, 128, 129, 138, 141, 144, 146, etc.  NOTES TO PART I (Continued)  36. Ibid.. p. 263. 37. L.J. Austin, op. c i t . . p. 69. 38. M. O.c., p.  662.  39. L. Cellier, op. c i t . . p. 19. 40. A. Ayda, op. c i t . . p. 98. 41. L.J. Austin, op. c i t . . p. 70-71. 42. Ibid., p. 73. 43. A. Ayda, op. c i t . . p. 218. 44. In H. Mondor, Mallarme' lyceen. p. 220. 45- Ibid.. p. 198. 46. Page3 297-310 i n H. Mondor, Mallarme lyceen. 47. Ibid., p. 295. 48. Ibid., p. 277. 49- L.J. Austin, op. c i t . . p. 66. 50. H. Mondor, op. c i t . . pp. 318-319. 51. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme Disciple de Baudelaire: 'Le Parnasse Contemporain'" i n Revue d'Histoire Litteraire de l a France, t. 67, 1967, p. 438. 52. L.J. Austin, "Les Annees d'Apprentissage de Stephane Mallarme", pp. 79-80.  53. cf. H. Mondor, Mallarme lyceen. pp. 318-319; L.J. Austin, "Les Annees d'Apprentissage de Stephane Mallarme", p. 80; and A. Ayda op. c i t . . p. 217. 54. H. Mondor, Mallarme lyceen. p. 114. 55. H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. pp. 28-29. 56. L.J. Austin, "Les Annees d*Apprentissage de Stephane Mallarme", p. 78. 57. C. Baudelaire, Notes nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. p. 24-  NOTES TO PART I (Continued)  58. Published for the f i r s t time i n Nouvelle Revue Francaise. t . 40, let- juin 1933, pp. 876-880. 59. C f . A. Thibaudet, "A 1'Ombre des Contemplations: Baudelaire et Mallarme", i n Nouvelle Revue Francaise, t . 40, ler juin 1933, p. 871. 60. Ibid., p. 872. 61.  G. Davies, op. c i t . . p. 8.  62. See pages 63. Cf. H. Mondor, Mallarme lyceen. p. 318. 64. Cf. E. Raynaud, En Marge de l a Melee symboliste. second edition, 1936, pp. 41-42; cited i n A. G i l l , "Mallarme on Baudelaire" i n Currents of Thought i n French Literature, p. 94, Note 21. Ernest Raynaud reported that Mallarme told him that he (Mallarme) had never met Baudelaire except once on the street. On the other •hand, Des Essarts states, i n an article frequently mentioned i n bibliographies but apparently, seldom read, that they met at Mme Lejosne's. On this meeting, Austin G i l l , i n a recent article (1965) writes that Des Essarts might very well be misremembering thirty years after. 65. L. Lemonnier, "Baudelaire et Mallarme" i n l a Grande Revue, juillet-octobre 1923, p. 16. 66. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 114, Note 2. 67.  Ibid.. p. 114, Note 3.  68. Ibid.. p. 146, Note 1. 69. M. O.c., p. 223.  70. S. Mallarme, Propos sur l a poesie. p. 179. 71. M. O.c.. p. 255.  72. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. pp. 122-123. 73.  Ibid., p. 154.  74.  Ibid., p. 153.  75. Ibid.. p. 113.  42  NOTES TO PART I (Continued)  76. c f . H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. pp. 295-296. 77. M. O i C . , pp. 263-264. 78. I b i d . . p. 70. The note on p. 1540 o f t h i s work reads as follows: "C'est assez etrangement l e seul temoignage que Mallarme a i t l a i s s e de son oeuvre, avec l e sonnet: l e Tombeau de Baudelaire, de son admiration pour l'auteur des Fleurs du Mal dont l e s debuts de son oeuvre poetique revelent encore s i nettement ,meme apres des modifications, son influence." 79- "Le l i v r e de Dierx est un beau deVeloppement de Leconte de L i s l e . S'en s e p a r e r a - t - i l comme moi de Baudelaire ?" (Correspondance. p. 244). 80. On hearing of Baudelaire's i l l n e s s and death, Mallarme expressed sadness and g r i e f ( c f . Correspondance. pp. 209 and 259); furthermore, i n a l e t t e r of September 9, 1867, Lefebure wrote to Mallarme of "notre cher et venere Baudelaire". (Correspondance. p. 259, Note 1). 81. c f . A. G i l l , op. c i t . . p. 91, Note 8. 82. H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. p. 52. 83. S. Mallarm6, Correspondance. p. 108, Note 2. 84. H. Mondor, op. c i t . . p. 238, Note 2. 85. E. Raynaud, La MeLse Symboliste. t.2, pp. 137 and 151. 86. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme D i s c i p l e de Baudelaire: 'Le Parnasse Contemporain'", p. 437, Note 1. 87. Cited i n W.T. Bandy and C. Pichois, Baudelaire devant ses contemporains. 1957, p. 199. 88. A. Ayda. op. c i t . . p. 215. 89. H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. p. 29. 90. H. Charpentier, "De Stephane Mallarme" i n Nouvelle Revue Francaise. t . 27, j u i l l e t - d e c . , 1926, pp. 537-545. " I I e t a i t bien jeune encore l o r s q u ' i l acheta cette deuxieme e d i t i o n des Fleurs du Mal que l u i confisquerent a deux reprises son pere et sa belle-mere et dont i l ne conserva, lecteur obstine, qu'un troisieme exeraplaire, q u ' i l completa en y ajoutant, de sa main, l e s s i x pieces condamnees et q u ' i l garda toute sa v i e . "  43  NOTES TO PART I (Continued)  91. Even as l a t e as 1966, Y. Park i n h i s thesis gives "1861" as the year when Mallarme "a ete bouleverse par l a decouverte des Fleurs du Mal." (p. 64). 92. c f . A. Ayda, op. c i t . . p. 216, Note 7: "Mallarme f u t , des 1859 en correspondance avec des camarades parisiens, t e l s qu'Espinas. I I avait done 1'occasion d'etre informe des evenements l i t t e r a i r e s de l a c a p i t a l e . Or Baudelaire p u b l i a i t a l o r s depuis longtemps des vers et de l a prose dans differentes revues, signant Baudelaire-Dufays..." 93. L. Lemonnier, "Baudelaire et Mallarme", p. 16. 94. P. Valery, Variete I I . "Situation de Baudelaire", p. 173. 95. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme D i s c i p l e de Baudelaire: 'Le Parnasse Contemporain'". p. 437. 96. M. 0 ^ , pp. 32-40. 97. L. Lemonnier, op. c i t . . p. 31. 98. E. Noulet, L'Oeuvre poetique de Mallarme. p. 82. 99. M. O.c.. p. 257. 100. H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. p. 29. 101. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 244. 102. M. O.c.."Symphonie l i t t e r a i r e " , p. 261, written i n 1864 and published i n 1865. 103. In Nouvelle Revue Francaise. t . 27, j u i l l e t - d e c . , 1926, pp. 537-545. 104. I b i d . . "Le Guignon", pp. 28-30, written i n 1862 and revised i n 1887; "Les F l e u r s " , pp. 33-34, 1364. 105. A. G i l l , op. c i t . . pp. 104 and 112. 106. S. Scherer, L'Expression l i t t e r a i r e dans l'oeuvre de Mallarme. pp. 217-218. 107. H. Peyre, Connaissance de Baudelaire, p. 161. 108. W. Fowlie, Mallarme. p. 74.  NOTES TO PART I (Continued)  109.  G. Michaud, Mallarme. Translated by Marie C o l l i n s and Bertha Humez, p. 10.  110. A.G. Lehman, The Symbolist Aesthetic i n France, p. 60. 111. R. Wellek, A History of Modern C r i t i c i s m . The Later Nineteenth Century, (Vol. 4) pp. 453-454. 112. c f . D. Aish. La metaphore dans l'oeuvre de Mallarme. pp. 9 and 13. 113. J . Starobinski, "Mallarme et l a T r a d i t i o n Poetique Francaise", *- Les Lettres. t . I l l , pp. 43-48. n  114. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme et l e Reve du ' l i v r e ' " , p. 84. 115. L.J. Austin, "Les Annees d'Apprentissage de Stephane Mallarme", p. 80. 116. M. O.c.. p. 646. 117. L.J. Austin, "Les Annees d'Apprentissage de Stephane Mallarm^", p. 80. 118. R.G. Cohn, Toward the Poems of Mallarme. pp. 2-3. 119. L. Lemonnier, op. c i t . . p. 16. 120. C. Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes. V. Preface Edgar Poe: Sa Vie et Ses Oeuvres. p. 15. 121. c f . H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. pp. 104, 228 and 531. 122. M. (Xc., p. 531. 123. C. Baudelaire, Edgar Poe: Sa Vie et Ses Oeuvres. p. 29. 124. C. Baudelaire, Notes nouvellles sur Edgar Poe. p. 23. 125. H. Mondor, Mallarme lyceen. p. 325: " C e l u i - c i [Baudelaire^ avait donne, de l a poesie d'Edgar Poe,... une d e f i n i t i o n qui parait aujourd'hui, en son tour magistral, convenir s i parfaitement a c e l l e de Mallarme que l'on peut se demander s i sa lecture n'a pas e c l a i r e pour toute sa v i e , l e but incomparable a. v i s e r au plus t o t . . . " 126. H. Mondor, i b i d . . p. 319 and E. Noulet, op. c i t . . p. 319. 127. c f . A. Ayda, op. c i t . . pp. 72-72, and 216-217.  NOTES TO PART I (Continued)  Mme Ayda points out that "Edgar Poe avait ete revele\ au public francais en 1845 par Alphonse Borghers qui avait public, dans l a Revue britannique. une traduction du 'Scarabee d'or'. Le 15 octobre 1846, une longue etude sur Poe etait publiee par Emile Daurand-Forgues, dans l a ""Revue des Deux mondes*." (p.217) 128.  cf. H. Mondor, Mallarme lyceen. p. 318.  129.  A. Ayda, "L'Influence de Victor Hugo sur Stephane Mallarme", Dialogues. Istambul, Cahier 3, j u i l l e t 1953.  130.  L.J. Austin, "Les Annies d'Apprentissage de Stephane Mallarme", p. 78, Note 4. Austin writes, "Sur l a permanence de 1*admiration vouee par Mallarme a. Hugo, voir notre article sur Mallarme. Victor Hugo et Richard Wagner (R.H.L.F., 1951, pp. 156-157).  131.  Ibid., p. 78, Note 4.  132.  cf. Leon Cellier, op. c i t . . p. 61.  133.  A. Thibaudet, op. c i t . . p. 872.  134. L. Cellier, op. c i t . . pp. 42-43. 135.  L.J. Austin, op. c i t . . p. 80.  136.  cf. L. Lemonnier, "Influence d'Edgar Poe sur Mallarme" i n Revue Mondiale. t . 84, 1929, fevrier 15, p. 370, 368; also L. Lemonnier, Edgar Poe et les poetes francais. p. 105, 96-97, and 103-104.  137.  P. Vaiery, Variete I I . "Situation de Baudelaire", p. 143.  138.  S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 104.  139.  E. Noulet, op. c i t . . p. 150.  140.  H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. p. 9 and p. 197.  141.  Charles Mauron, Mallarme I'obscur. Preface, p. x i i i - x i v .  142. M. O.c.  143.  pp. 866-883.  cf. H. Peyre, op. c i t . . pp. 114-115.  144. M. Jones, The Background of Modern French Poetry. Cambridge University Press, 1951; cited i n J. Chiari, Symbolisme from Poe to Mallarme. p. 70.  46  NOTES TO PART I (Continued)  145. J . Chiari, op. c i t . . p. 158. 146. Ibid.. pp. 161-162, 167 and 240; cf. with the following statement by P. Mansell Jones i n his article "Poe, Baudelaire and Mallarme" (Modern Language Review, vol. XXXIX, 1944) p. 240: "The whole aesthetic system of the most influential of modern French poets, says Ferran (A. Ferran, L'Esthetique de Baudelaire). was founded on suggestions from Poe's The Poetic Principle." 147. R. Wellek, op. c i t . . pp. 453-454. 143. cf. Charles Mauron, Mallarme l'obscur. p. xix: "Sans doute Mallarme a l u Hegel des Tournon..." A. Ayda, op. c i t . . p. 79: "Dans ce but, i l etudiera ou f e u i l l e tera les ouvrages philosophiques de Hegel." A. Adam, "Premieres etapes d'un itineraire", i n Les Lettres, t. I l l , p. 127""... i l est certain que Mallarme l i t alors Hegel." J.P. Richard, op. c i t . . p. 185: "En 1886 Mallarme, nous l e savons, d£couvre avec enthousiasme l a pensee de Hegel." p. 233: "Hegel intervenait pourtant i c i pour un esprit deja marque par 1'influence de Baudelaire, et surtout de Poe." Y. Park, thesis, 1966, p. 97: "L*influence de Hegel sur Mallarme est done incontestable." As proof that Mallarme read Hegel, ' Y. Park cites the following excerpt from a letter of V i l l i e r s de 1*Isle-Adam to Mallarme, September 11, 1866: "Quand paraitra l e Traite des Pierres Precieuses ?... Quant a. Hegel je suis vraiment heureux que vous ayez accorde quelque attention a. ce miraculeux genie..." (S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 231) 149. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme et le Reve du 'Livre'", p. 91. 150. Ibid.. p. 93. 151. Ibid.. p. 100; cf. M. O^c., p. 378 152. G. Delfel, L'Esthetique de Stephane Mallarme. p. 70. 153. R. Wellek, op. c i t . . p. 461. 154. Cf. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme et l e Reve du 'Livre'", pp. 95-IOO. 155. A. Adam, op. c i t . . p. 126. 156. J. Scherer, Le "Livre" de Mallarme. p. 7.  47  NOTES TO PART I (Continued)  .157. S.Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 207: "Malheureusement, en creusant l e vers a ce point, j'ai rencontre deux abxmes, qui me d^sesperent. L'un est le Neant auquel je suis arrive sans connaitre l e Bouddhisme et..." 158. Ibid., p. 216. 159. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme et le Reve du 'Livre'", p. 8 5 . :160. Ibid., p. 86. 161. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. pp. 207-208. 162. M. O.c., p. 522.  163. A. Ayda. op. c i t . . p. 79; cf. M. O.c.. p. 647 164. L. Cellier, op. c i t . . pp. 63-74. 165. Stephane Mallarme i n English Verse. Translated by Arthur E l l i s . With an Introduction by G. Turquet-Milnes, pp. 12-15. 166. A. Thibaudet, "A L'Ombre des Contemplations: Baudelaire et Mallarme" i n Nouvelle Revue Frangaise« t. 40, l e r juin 1933, p. 872. 167. G. Davies, op. c i t . . p. 10. 168. Cf. J. Scherer, op. c i t . . pp. 29-30; E. Noulet, op. c i t . . pp. 159-160; J. Chiari, op. c i t . . pp. 77-79; H. Mondor, Autres precisions sur Mallarme et Inedits. pp. 80-81.  PART II  AESTHETIC AMD METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTS  CHAPTER I ATTITUDES OF THE POET TOWARDS SOCIETY AND THE WORLD  From Baudelaire, Mallarme inherited a certain concept of the poet and of his attitude toward society and the world. Mallarme shared Baudelaire's conviction that the artist or poet was a superior being, whose very superiority condemned him to a l i f e of unhappiness on this earth. In Baudelaire's "L'Albatros" the condition of the poet i s stated with remarkable clarity: Le Poete est Qui hante l a Exile sur le Ses ailes de  semblable au prince des nuees tempete et se r i t de 1'archer; sol au milieu des huees, geant 1'empechent de marcher.  A similar feeling of anguish i s reflected i n Mallarme's "L'Azur": Le poete impuissant qui maudit son genie A travers un desert sterile de douleurs. Both Baudelaire and Mallarme had a disdain for the common people, for society - for " l a foule". For Baudelaire, the poet was "maudit" i n a "mauvais monde... un monde goulu, affame de mat^ria-  3  lit£s."  Mallarme had a similar opinion to that of Baudelaire that  " l a foule" should be scorned: II est a propos de dire i c i que certains ecrivains, maladroitement vail"1 ants, ont tort de demander compte a. l a foule de 1' ineptie de son gout et de l a nullite de son imagination. Outre "qu'injurier l a foule, c'est s*encanailler soi-meme" comme d i t justement Charles , Baudelaire, 1'inspire doit dedaigner ces sorties contre le P h i l i s t i n . . In Baudelaire's remarkable poem "Elevation" the poet i s described as one "Qui plane sur l a vie..."? Mallarme used a similar image when he  50  -wrote of the poet's soaring above the mob: -Rappelons-nous que le poete... n'est pas le niveau -au-dessus duquel rampent les autres hommes; c'est l a foule qui est le niveau et i l plane. 0  ;  For Baudelaire, the poet's superiority expressed i t s e l f i n  'what he called "dandysme" i n his article "Le Dandy".''' Baudelaire's . dandysm arose from the artist's need to adorn himself i n so special -and personal a way that he would stand apart from other men. Material elegance, however, declared Baudelaire, i s but a symbol of the •aristocratic superiority of his mind: Le dandysme n'est meme pas, comrae beaucoup de personnes peu reflechies paraissent le croire, un gout immodere -de l a toilette et de 1'elegance materielle. Ces choses ne sont pour l e parfait dandy qu'un symbole de l a superiority aristocratique de son e s p r i t . 8  Although Mallarme did not use the term "dandy", he adopted an intellectual attitude analagous to that of Baudelaire who had written of "cette attitude hautaine de caste provocante" . In 1862 9  in an a r t i c l e entitled "L'Art pour Tous", Mallarme echoed Baudelaire' s idea that the artist should keep aloof from the common people: L'homme peut etre democrate, 1'artiste se dedouble et doit rester aristocrate. The dandyism of Baudelaire, which was i n f i n i t e l y more profound than a mere pose, states Fowlie, "was bequeathed to Mallarme i n a somewhat altered, but s t i l l recognizable form." There i s , - he continues, "certainly something of the dandy i n Mallarme's composed and serene manner; i n his speech... i n his general a t t i tude of sage and high priest and martyr. But much more than Baudelaire, although here he was initiated and directed by the example of Baudel a i r e , Mallarme became the dandy as an a r t i s t . . . If meticulousness  51  of dress was f o r Baudelaire a sign of a r i s t o c r a c y and d i s t i n c t i o n of s p i r i t , the verbal and exterior communication o f a poem was f o r Mallarme the symbol of an idea and the a r t i f i c e r e s u l t i n g from the e f f o r t to t r a n s l a t e or adorn the i d e a . "  1 1  Baudelaire's sense of remoteness, of i s o l a t i o n from h i s fellow human beings was keener than Mallarme s i n a s o c i a l sense. 1  The author of Les Fleurs du Mal said that he f e l t a "sentiment de solitude des mon enfance. Malgre l a famille-et au m i l i e u des camaradea, surtout, - sentiment de destined eternellement s o l i t a i r e . " ^ Mallarm6' s desire to exclude the public from h i s work l e d to the esoterism which colours h i s aesthetics. In h i s a r t i c l e on "Le Dandy", Baudelaire wrote that dandys are representative of "ce q u ' i l y a de meilleur dans l ' o r g u e i l humain."13 Not unlike h i s great predecessor, Mallarme wrote i n 1862 that i n addition to being proud, poets must become d i s d a i n f u l : "0 poetes, vous avez toujours. et6 orgueilleux; soyez plus, devenez dedaigneux."^ Baudelaire, moreover, considered " l e dandysme" as "une espece de r e l i g i o n . " - ' This idea of the sacred character of the poet's nature 1  and c a l l i n g was carried even further by Mallarme when he expressed h i s famous creed that everything sacred - a r t as w e l l as r e l i g i o n should be invested with mystery: Toute chose sacree et qui veut demeurer sacree s'enveloppe de mystere. Les r e l i g i o n s se retranchent a. 1'abri d'arcanes deVoiles au seul predestine: l ' a r t a l e s siens.l° Mallarme, therefore, would exclude the masses from poetry by the invention of an exclusive form of expression, which he described as'"une langue  immaculee".  17  Like Baudelaire, Mallarme saw the a r t i s t and poet as having  52  unique qualities which distinguished him from the common man and his conventions. As early as 1862, when he was only twenty, Mallarme viewed the poet's domain as sacred, a domain which should be protected from intruders and into which only the elite would be permitted to enter. Thus, the principle of "dandysme" which Baudelaire had applied mainly to the poet i s reflected i n the lofty role accorded to poetry by Mallarme, a role which helped to determine the hermetic quality of his poetic expression. The poet, then, also sees himself as an exile i n the t e r r e s t r i a l world, and aspires to free himself from i t s material ties by striving to attain the world of the ideal. For example, i n Baudelaire's poem "Benediction", the poet i s presented as "1*enfant desherite"  18  while i n "L'Albatros" he i s "exile sur l e sol".19  Similarly, i n Mallarme's early poem "Le Guignon", the poets are called "Derisoires martyrs de hasards tortueux." ^ In "Elevation", 2<  Baudelaire expresses the wish to escape from "ces miasmes morbides" and "les ennuis et les vastes chagrins" to another world, situated: Par deli, le s o l e i l , par dela. les ethers Par dela les confins des spheres etoiiees. ^2  Mallarme, Like Baudelaire seeks another sphere, Au c i e l interieur ou f l e u r i t l a Beaute.  22  Reality, or our earthly existence, i s considered ugly and imperfect. Mallarme also shared Baudelaire's disgust and repugnance of the material world, although for somewhat different reasons. For Baudelaire, Nature i s the symbol of e v i l . According to M. A. Ruff, " A l l of hispaudelaire's] works were governed by his awareness of sin."  23  In his Notes Nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. Baudelaire expressed  his belief i n the natural wickedness of man: "... nous sommes tous n£s marques pour le mal." "* For Baudelaire this spiritual torment arose 2  from two postulations which oppose each other radically: "II y a dans tout homme, a toute heure, deux postulations simultanees, 1*une vers Dieu, 1'autre vers Satan. L'invocation a Dieu ou spirituality est un d e s i r de monter en grade; celle de Satan ou animalite est une joie de descendre." -* The problem of good and e v i l did not present i t s e l f as 2  such to Mallarme: earthly existence i s repugnant to him because of i t s formless aspect, i t s disorder, i t s impurity, i t s inconstancy. ° Jean-Pierre Richard summarizes the reason for Mallarme's disgust of matter i n these terms: "... l a negativite fonciere de 1'objet, ce qui l e rend pour Mallarme hostile et haSssable, se resume en deux grands attributs malefiques: 1*eparpillement  et l a lourdeur."27  For Baudelaire, the material world, as he conceived i t , could never be completely eliminated as i t was linked to the spiritual. There i s a constant relationship between the two as exemplified by the soul and the body: La correlation perpetuelle de ce qu' on appelle l'ame avec ce qu'on appelle le corps explique tres bien comment tout ce qui est materiel ou effluve du spirituel represente et representera toujours le spirituel d'ou i l d e r i v e . 28  For Mallarme, on the other hand, i t was only by abolishing the real, or material, that one could attain the ideal. This refusal of matter i s fundamental to Mallarme's whole aesthetics, as Jean-Pierre Richard has succinctly stated: "Au depart de toute son esthetique se place un refus existentiel de l a matiere. Des sa jeunesse son ' odeur de cuisine' provoquait en l u i une nausee; plus tard i l attenue sa repugnance... mais toujours et tres fidelement elle survit en l u i . " Although Mallarme's repugnance for the material world was,  2 9  as we have noted, based on a premise different from that of Baudelaire nevertheless both express a similar view of terrestrial existence. In his prose poem "Anywhere Out of the World", for example, Baudelaire likens this l i f e to a hospital: '  Cette vie est un hopital ou chaque malade est possede du desir de changer de l i t . Celui-ci voudrait souffrir en face du poele, et celui-la croit qu'il guerirait a cot6 de l a fenetre.^ 0  Similarly, i n Mallarme's "Les Fenetres"-^, the hospital i s very much like that of Baudelaire .  Both present the image of our imperfect  world where man i s imprisoned. In fact, the world of matter as -presented by Mallarme i n this instance appears more revolting than that of Baudelaire:/' Las du t r i s t e hopital, et de 1*encens fetide Qui monte en l a blancheur banale des rideaux Vers l e grand crucifix ennuye du mur vide, Le moribond sournois redresse un vieux dos, Baudelaire, to a far greater extent than Mallarme, had expressed a keen awareness of the duality of the body and the soul. For Baudelaire, the soul during i t s terrestrial exile, cannot escape i t s prison, the body, or " l e Reel": . Ce reveur que l'horreur de son logis reveille Voila bien ton embleme, Ame aux songes obscurs, Que l e Reel etouffe entre ses quatre murs.32 In "Un Voyage a. Cythere", Baudelaire expresses a feeling of disgust for the body, a feeling from which God alone can deliver him: Ah'. Seigneur'. donneznnoi l a force et le courage De contempler mon coeur et mon corps sans degout'.-^ Mallarme echoes a similar repugnance for corporal existence i n "Les Fenetres": Ainsi pris du degout de l'homme a l'ame dure Vautre dans le bonheur, ou ses seuls appetits Mangent, et qui s'entete a chercher cette ordure  ..Unlike Baudelaire, Mallarme does not look for any outside support to sustain him. Though he realized with regret that "Ici-bas est maitre", he cannot resign himself to " l e vomissement impur de l a Betise". The ^disgust of the material, therefore, i s not as absolute i n Baudelaire <as i n Mallarme. Baudelaire, while aspiring to an almost religious -spirituality, never loses his keen appetite for l i f e , a fact which •he asserts i n his Journaux Intime3; "... gout tres v i f de l a vie et -du plaisir,"35 a taste for l i f e and pleasure which i s s t i l l present i n "Chant d'automne" at the moment when he feels death approach: Ah! laissez-moi, mon front pose sur vos genoux, Gouter, on regrettant 1'ete blanc et torride. De l'arriere saison le rayon jaune et doux',36 -Mallarme, on the other hand, speaks ironically of the worthless nature of the happiness of this world i n a letter of June 3, 1863 to Henri Cazalis: ... nous autres malheureux que l a terre degoute et qui n avons que l e Reve pour refuge. 0 mon Henri, abreuvet o i d*ideal. Le bonheur ici-bas est ignoble - i l faut avoir les mains bien calleuses pour l e ramasser.37 1  In his poem "Las de l'amer repos", written i n February 1864, Mallarme reaffirms his refusal of the material; he chooses " l e terrain avare et froid de ma cervelle" i n preference to "1'enfance adorable des bois de roses sous l'azur naturel."^ The latter suggests the 8  "paradis perdu" of Baudelaire's "Moesta et Errabunda" (le paradis parfume, 1'innocent paradis"39), a paradise situated on the moral level. Mallarme abandons this childhood paradise, whereas Baudelaire simply regrets i t with a feeling of nostalgia. The implication of this fundamental divergence and the relationship between the spiritual and material worlds of the two poets i s examined i n the following chapter.  CHAPTER II THE SPIRITUAL AND MATERIAL WORLDS OF THE POET  Mallarme, l i k e Baudelaire, believed that the  observable  universe was but a d i s t o r t i o n of the i d e a l and transcendant  absolute  that the m a t e r i a l world was imperfect and incoherent. But i f he accepted the Baudelairian dualism which placed the Ideal and the Real i n opposition, he soon went beyond i t , as L.J. Austin has pointed out, "par son horreur de l a v i e et par son pere."^  idealisme exas-  0  As e a r l y as 1863 Mallarme showed a major divergence of thought from that of Baudelaire with regard to the r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l worlds, or between "1'Ideal" and " l e Reel". In a l e t t e r to H. C a z a l i s (June 3, 1863), Mallarme wrote regarding Emmanuel des Essarts: I I confond trop 1'Ideal avec l e R6el. La s o t t i s e d'un poete moderne a ete jusqu'a se desoler que " l ' A c t i o n ne fut pas l a soeur du Reve." Mon Dieu, s ' i l en e t a i t autrement, s i l e Reve e t a i t a i n s i d e f l o r i et abaisse, ou done nous sauverions-nous, nous autres malheureux que l a t e r r e degoute et qui n'avons que l e Reve pour refuge.41 The "poete moderne" r e f e r r e d to i s Baudelaire who had written i n "Le Reniement de S a i n t - P i e r r e " (1844-1843)^ : 2  Certes, je s o r t i r a i quant a moi, s a t i s f a i t d'un monde ou 1'action n'est pas l a soeur du reve.^3 The " s o t t i s e " of the "poete moderne" l i e s i n h i s taking r e a l i t y seriously, i n r e g r e t t i n g that we l i v e i n a world where the r e a l and the i d e a l do not dwell together i n harmony.^ For Mallarme, as f o r Baudelaire, there i s a sharp d u a l i t y between the m a t e r i a l  and the s p i r i t u a l worlds; but whereas f o r the l a t t e r there exists a secret communication between these two universes, f o r the former, the r e a l world must be eliminated or ignored. This f e e l i n g  was  expressed by Mallarme i n an a r t i c l e of 1862 devoted to a work by h i s f r i e n d Des E s s a r t s : Les sentiments de l a Vie parisienne p r i s au serieux et vus a. t r a v e r s l e prisme de l a poesie, un i d e a l qui n' existe point par son propre reve et s o i t l e lyrisme de l a r e a l i t e . t e l l e est 1'intention des "Poesies Parisiennes".45 As Georges Poulet has pointed out, i f one reverses these terms, one obtains a perfect d e f i n i t i o n of Mallarme's poetry: " E l l e £sa poesie] veut exprimer un i d e a l qui existe par son propre reve et qui ne s o i t pas l e lyrisme de l a r e a l i t e V ^  0  This d e f i n i t i o n d i f f e -  r e n t i a t e s the poetry of Mallarme from that of Baudelaire, which has r e a l i t y f o r i t s s t a r t i n g point. For Mallarme no action can l i n k those two worlds, which cannot exist together. Thus, writes Georges Poulet, "des 1863, Mallarme condamne-t-il et r e j e t t e - t - i l l e baudelairisme, non comme on 1'a d i t , a. cause de son  dualisme, mais au contraire  parce q u ' i l n'a pas mis un abime assez vaste entre deux mondes qu'aucune a c t i o n ne peut r e l i e r . "47 Contrary to Mallarme, Baudelaire had wished  to show the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the material and the s p i r i t u a l worlds. In spite of the impurity of matter, i t has i t s value as a sign, as a symbol of the s p i r i t u a l universe from which i t emanates. The mystic theory of correspondances  i s very important i n the poetic and aesthetic  doctrines of Baudelaire. Nature i s the symbol of a d i v i n e or transcendant r e a l i t y . Everything that we see i n t h i s world i s r e l a t e d to another world that we do not see; the i n v i s i b l e world manifests  i t s e l f i n the visible one. For Baudelaire, "Tout l'unlvers visible n'est qu'un magasin d'images et de signes auxquels l'imagination donnera une place et une valeur relative."4^ Like Baudelaire, Mallarme aspired to a world beyond, to the "au-dela". But unlike his predecessor, he repulsed matter as being contingent, disordered, impure.^ Mallarme felt the necessity of liberating himself from matter which destroys the unity of the ideal universe. The world to which he aspired was one of perfection, coherence and unity; a world that he had lost and wanted to recapture. In the world of his childhood there had been harmony and unity. "Entre terre et c i e l point i c i de distance n i d'obstacle..." wrote Jean-Pierre Richard. "L'ame enfantine... v i t en contact immediat et permanent avec une realite spirituelle qui tout a l a fois l a comble et l a soutient."5° In his thesis of 1966 Y. Park contends, "C'est ce monde de l'unite parfaite et originelle que Mallarme croit avoir perdu et q u ' i l s'efforcera de retrouver. Cette vision de l'unitd du monde est a l a fois le point de depart et le point f i n a l de son aventure 51 s p i r i t u e l l e . . S i n c e matter i s incoherent and represents a rupture i n the unity of the universe, i t i s to be rejected or eliminated. The theme of "Herodiade" expresses the refusal of corporal l i f e and of earthly things; Herodiade says: 52 Du reste, je ne veux rien d'humain. Baudelaire's aesthetic idealism can thus be distinguished from that of Mallarme  - the former seek3 to satisfy his aspiration for the Infinite  and the eternel without breaking the ties which link mind to matter, while the latter denies any such relationship. The doctrine of corresppndances, writes Georges Blin, "aboutit chez Baudelaire a l a p a r t i c i -  59  rpation esthetique, c'est-a-dire 1'aspiration vers l ' i n f i n i traduite par l e truchement des objets, l a volonte d'exprimer '1'infini dans l e f i n i ' . •.. sans se s^parer de l'appui du monde concret."-^ For -Mallarme, on the other hand, poetic creation consists i n abolishing ^matter. He did not aim at revealing the hidden reality, as did Baudel a i r e , but sought to replace the phenomenal world by i t s mental image, ;the abstracted essentialised aspects which evoke the idea, or " l a ^notion pure".54 Hence, the flower he would evoke i s not present i n "any bouquet: Je d i s : une fleur'. et, hors de l'oubli ou ma voix relegue aucun contour, en tant que quelque choue d'autre que les calices sus, musicalement se leve, idee meme et suave, l'absente de tous bouquets.55 The vehicle for the attainment of Mallarme's ideal was to be the,province of the word i t s e l f . Whereas Baudelaire's poetics are grounded ultimately upon metaphysically oriented correspondances. and analogies between the visible and the invisible worlds i n which empirical phenomena are the symbolical referents to a supra-terrestrial reality, Mallarme's, on the other hand, relies upon the magically evocative nature of words. The poet yields his place to the importance of language and allows poetic expression to dominate, as Mallarme suggests i n a passage i n "Crise de Vers": L'oeuvre pure implique l a disparition elocutoire du poete, qui cede 1'initiative aux mots, par le heurt de leur inegalite mobilis£e; i l s s'allument de reflets reciproques comme une virtuelle trainee de feux sur des pierreries, remplagant l a respiration perceptible en l'ancien souffle lyrique ou La direction personnelle enthousiaste de l a phrase.5° For Mallarme, reality was to be realized by a notion of i t , not by a concrete relative:  A 1*egal de creer: l a notion d'un objet, echappant, qui fait defaut. W  Thus, the main difference between the two poets l i e s ultimately on the basis of their poetics i n relation to an absolute reality - that i s , i n their metaphysics, rather than i n their poetics, as William W. King has underlined i n a recent a r t i c l e : "The referents of Mallarme's symbols are other symbols; the referents for Baudelaire's are immediate correspondences to the Absolute. The immediacy of the Absolute for Baudelaire allows his metaphysics to inform his poetics; the o b l i queness of Reality for Mallarme allows his poetics to retain signification on purely poetic grounds."^  8  61  CHAPTER III. THE POETIC IDEAL '  Mallarme, like Baudelaire, felt compelled to seek for a ^supra-terrestrial ideal. In his prose poem "Laquelle est l a Vraie ?"59 Baudelaire t e l l s of a certain very beautiful g i r l "Benedicta" "Qui remplissait 1'atmosphere d*ideal, et dont les yeux repandaient l e desir de l a grandeur, de l a beaute, de l a gloire et de tout ce qui f a i t croire a 1'immortalite." After this g i r l had died and the author had buried her, he saw a small person who ressembled the deceased -and who claimed she was the true Benedicta. The poet at f i r s t furiously replied, "Non! non! nonV, but he concluded, "comme un loup pris au piege, je reste attache, pour toujours peut-etre, a l a fosse de 1'ideal." In the poem "L Azur"^ Mallarme tries to flee from T  "1'eternel azur" which represents the Ideal for him: he would seek in " l a matiere" L'oubli de 1'Ideal cruel... But he cannot renounce his aspiration: En vain l'Azur triomphe Je suis hante. L'Azur! l'Azurl l'Azurl l'Azurt What i s the nature of the Ideal which so obsessed the poet ? For Baudelaire, as he expressed i t i n "Elevation" , i t was 61  to be found i n the world beyond this one, i n "l'iramensite profonde", "1'air superieur", "les champs lumineux et sereins" to which his spirit could f l y to purify i t s e l f and drink, ... comme une pure et divine liqueur Le feu c l a i r qui remplit les espaces limpides  62  and where h i s thoughts Vers l e s cieux l e matin prennent un Libre essor, and where the poet ...plane sur l a v i e et comprend sans e f f o r t Le langage des f l e u r s et des choses muettes. However, i t was only at p r i v i l e g e d moments that the poet could catch glimpses of the Ideal; i n h i s Journaux intimes. Baudelaire  describes  the state of mind necessary for t h i s : Dans certains etats de 1*ame presque surnaturels, l a profondeur de l a v i e se revele tout entiere dans l e spectacle, s i o r d i n a i r e q u ' i l s o i t , qu'on a sous l e s yeux.°2 The Imagination has a supreme r o l e i n deciphering the meaning of the symbols that are present reine des f a c u l t 4 s " ^ 3  >  i n the world around us. I t i s " l a  the intermediary between the material and  the s p i r i t u a l worlds, and i s the means by which the a r t i s t i s enabled to discover s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y through physical appearances and sensations. For Baudelaire the imagination i s not fantasy, nor s e n s i b i l i t y but une f a c u l t e quasi divine qui percoit tout d'abord en dehors des methodes philosophiques, l e s rapports i n times et secrets des choses, l e s correspondances et l e s analogies.°4 Like Baudelaire, Mallarme aspired t o an Ideal world, a world which was the a n t i t h e s i s of the material world which the poet could not accept. The term "Ideal" appears f o r the f i r s t time i n Mallarme's poetry i n "Le Sonneur"°5 written i n 1862: J ' a i beau t i r e r l a cable a. sonner 1*Ideal. In a l e t t e r to Henri Cazalis dated January 3, 1863, Mallarme also used the term "Ideal": I I [Emmanuel des Essarts] confond trop 1'Ideal avec l e Reel.66  63  The poem "Les Fenetres"^ , written i n May 1863, does not clarify the 7  notion of the Ideal but describes the climate i n which i t exists; i t i s the place Que dore le matin chaste de l'Infini • ••  Au c i e l anterieur ou fleurit l a Beaute. It was Baudelaire, who, i n emphasizing the doctrine of universal analogy, contributed to the clarification of the Mallarmedri aspiration and the vision of the universe for which Mallarme was vaguely searching. As a result of contact with the Baudelairian theory of correspondances . around the year 1861, Mallarme f e l t with more assurance that a coherent, unified universe existed behind an: incoherent and disordered nature. Baudelaire revealed to Mallarme above a l l , writes Park^, "cette vision geometrique de 1'univers dans le sens ou l a geometrie se fond sur un caractere structural et sur une entiere rigueur." But, adds Park, "cette revelation n'a pas change 1'aspiration. Elle ne l ' a pas modified, elle l ' a simplement approfondie et precised." In the poem "L'Azur"^ written i n January 1864, Mallarme does not further clarify his conception of the Ideal; but he expresses his obsession with "l'Azur" which symbolises i t , and which he cannot renounce even though he feels incapable of attaining i t . Like the unattainable, the inimitable beauty of flowers, the blue of the azure mocks the poet who feels incapable of reproducing such purity and who must remain  impotent i n the awareness of his genius. The Ideal appears  as something pure, transparent, immortal and eternal, as reflected i n "l'azur". The Ideal i s also Beauty, for the poet, i n "Les Fenetres" ^ 7  aspires A renaxtre portant mon reve en diademe Au c i e l anterieur ou f l e u r i t l a Beaute.  64  However, the ideal i s not linked to the material world, as i n Baudel a i r e ; Mallarme sees i t i n the absence of material contingencies. Mallarme's Ideal, as Georges Poulet has described i t , i s analogous to mental reality, which i s completely cut off from concrete, material reality: "La realite" n'est pas un point de depart. I I faut l a retrancher ou l ' i g n o r e r . " ^ Contrary to Baudelaire, Mallarme* looks for his ideal only i n the mind, i n thought conceived as the opposite of the material i n art. In 1863 when he was only twenty-one, Mallarme expressed a firm conviction that was to guide the writing of his poetry for years to come: II n'y a de vrai, d'immuable, de grand et de sacre" que l'art.72 It was no doubt the following lines of Baudelaire which, according to H. Mondor, he recited with Lefebure, that inspired the above credo: II y a dans le Verbe quelque chose de sacre qui nous defend d'en faire un jeu de hasard... Relativement au reve pur, 1*impression non analysee, l'art d ^ f i n i , l'art positif est un blaspheme.73 Mallarme thus took poetry as the means of access to his ideal, as did Baudelaire. Mallarme replaced the term "Ideal" by that of "Idee" from about the year 1866, and then he replaced the term "Idee" by that of "Beau"^ although he s t i l l continued to use "Idee". It i s interesting to note, as Park has pointed out, that i n 1894 Mallarme used "Idee" with the meaning of "1'essence l a plus.essentielle du monde, de l'Etre ontologique l e plus transparent'^^ that i s , with almost the same meaning as that of Baudelaire's "Idee" i n his poem "L'Irremediable":  Une Idee, une Forme, un Etre Parti de l'Azur et tombe Dans un Styx bourbeux et plombe Ou nul o e i l du Ciel ne penetre; " 7  Although Baudelaire did not attempt to free the spiritual - or things emanating from the spirit - from the material world, as did Mallarme, he believed i n the eternity of the essence, of the Idea which maintains an existence autonomous from that of Matter. This idea i s expressed i n the following lines from Journaux Intimes; Toute idie est, par elle-meme, douee d'une vie immortelle, comme une personne. Toute forme creee, meme par l'homme, est immortelle. Car la forme est independante de l a matiere et ce ne sont pas l e s molecules qui constituent l a forme.77 and also i n the last stanza of "Une Charogne": Alors, o ma beaute, dites a l a vermine Que j ' a i garde l a forme et 1'essence divine De mes amours decomposes'. ^ 7  For Mallarme i t was the essence, or "l'idee" alone, that counted, while for Baudelaire who , while admitting the superiority of mind over matter ("Ce qui est cred par 1' esprit est plus vivant que l a matiere" ?), never completely separated the object from i t s essence. 71  Thus his Ideal, unlike Mallarme's, i s never completely disembodied. Mallarme's Ideal existed only i n the non-material; f i n a l l y , i t was the perfect and t o t a l coherence of the world which exists under the AO  very appearance of the disorder of phenomena.  ou  *  *  *  For Mallarme as for Baudelaire the Ideal which each sought became synonymous with Beauty. The pursuit of Beauty i s the primary  66  goal of a l l a r t i s t i c expression. According t o Baudelaire, the poet cannot separate himself from t h i s i d e a l because " l e Beau" i s an innate i n s t i n c t , an immortal appetite. In the following famous passage, Baudelaire reaffirms, i n terms suggested by Poe's "Poetic Principle" -*-, the s p i r i t u a l and transcendant nature of poetry, and 8  i t s a b i l i t y t o r e v e a l the beauty and mystery o f the i n v i s i b l e world: C'est cet admirable, cet immortel i n s t i n c t du Beau qui nous f a i t considerer l a t e r r e et ses spectacles comme un apercu, comme une correspondance du C i e l . La s o i f i n s a t i a b l e de tout ce qui est au-dela, et que revele l a v i e , est l a preuve l a plus vivante de notre immort a l i t y . C'est a l a f o i s par l a poesie, et a travers l a poesie, par et a. travers l a musique que l'ame ent r e v o i t l e s splendeurs situ^es derriere l e tombeau.82 For Mallarme poetry i s the noblest a c t i v i t y and the highest expression of which man i s capable. In a l e t t e r t o M. Leo d'Orfer of June 27, 1884, Mallarme' wrote: La poesie est 1'expression par l e langage humain ramene a. son rythme e s s e n t i e l du sens mysterieux des aspects de l'existence; e l l e doue a i n s i d'authenticity notre sejour et constitue l a seule tache s p i r i t u e l l e . 83 Baudelaire had established i n 1857 the a s p i r a t i o n toward Beauty - a superior beauty - as the very p r i n c i p l e of poetry: A i n s i l e principe de l a poesie est strictement et simplement 1'aspiration humaine vers une beaute superieure. 4 3  Mallarray went even further than Baudelaire by declaring that Beauty i s the aim of poetry and of l i f e  itself:  I I n' y a que l a Beaute et e l l e n'a qu'une expression p a r f a i t e - l a Poysie. ^ 8  Thus, the two poets sought a common goal; however, t h e i r concepts of Beauty d i f f e r e d considerably. For Baudelaire, "La dualite de l ' a r t est une consequence f a t a l e de l a dualite de l'homme".  80  Beauty i s envisaged simultaneously as an emanation of the supra-  t e r r e s t r i a l Ideal and as a concrete r e a l i t y immediately perceptible i n the d i v e r s i t y of l i f e . Beauty i s thus composed of a v a r i a b l e , t r a n s i t o r y element and of an eternal, invariable element which represents c e l e s t i a l and eternal Beauty. In h i s "Salon de 1846" Baudelaire wrote: "Toutes l e s beautes contiennent, comme tous l e 3 phenomenes possibles quelque chose d'eternel, et quelque chose de t r a n s i t o i r e - d'absolu et de part I c u l l e r . " * * The p a r t i c u l a r element 7  of each beauty comes from the passions, and,continued Baudelaire: "comme nous avons nos passions p a r t i c u l i e r e s , nous avons notre beaute."83; moreover, "La beaute absolue et e t e r n e l l e n'existe pas ou plutot e l l e n'est qu'une abstraction ecremee a l a surface generale des beautes d i v e r s e s . " ^ For Mallarme, however, Beauty contained nothing of a t r a n s i t o r y nature, nothing of the passions, o r of the material. Beauty was an Absolute, as indicated i n a l e t t e r of January 12, 1864 i n which Mallarme wrote to Henri Cazalis regarding the poem "L'Azur" (which he forwarded with the l e t t e r ) : L' e f f e t produit sans une dissonance, sans une f i o r i t u r e , meme adorable qui d i s t r a i t - v o i l a ce que j e cherche. L'autre cote a. envisager, l e cote esthetique - Est-cebeau ? Y a - t - i l un r e f l e t de l a Beaute?90 Mallarme thus sought t o incorporate a r e f l e c t i o n of Absolute Beauty i n t o h i s poetry. The following passage from a l e t t e r written by Lefebure t o Mallarme i n 1867 further attests t o t h i s concept o f Beauty held by Mallarme: C'est la. j e c r o i s l'idee qui a du vous conduire a. r e j e t e r de votre Oeuvre tous l e s filaments qui l i e n t l a Beauts a l a partie grossiere de l'homme et 1'alourdissement de l a matiere... Mais mon cher ami, et c'est la, votre g l o i r e , pour eprouver l e grand fremissement de l'Inconnu... Vous vous trouvez a un moment unique ou i l vous est impossible de condenser l a quintessence du Beau...  Thus i t was " l a quintessence du Beau" that Mallarme sought t o incorporate i n t o h i s poetry; h i s concept of Beauty i s detached from anything material - "a l a p a r t i e grossiere de l'homme et l'alourdissement de matiere." For Mallarme the search f o r h i s i d e a l can be described as an adventure. Beauty i s to be found only a f t e r t r a v e l l i n g i n unknown countries, i n high cold a l t i t u d e s , away from t o r r i d r e a l i t y , i n the purest g l a c i e r s of Aesthetics. Here i s an account of h i s discovery of " l e Beau" contained i n a l e t t e r to H. Cazalis of J u l y  1366:  Imagine que je suis en voyage et que, par ce s o l e i l , l'encre des auberges est sech£e. En vei-ite, je voyage, mais dans des pays inconnus et s i , pour f u i r l a r e a l i t e t o r r i d e , je me p l a i s a evoquer des images f r o i d e s , je te d i r a i que je suis depuis un mois dans l e s plus purs g l a c i e r s de l'Esthetique - qu'apres a v o i r trouve l e Neant, j ' a i trouve l e Beau - et que t u ne peux t'imaginer dans quelles a l t i t u d e s lucides je ra'aventure.92 Although Baudelaire had also affirmed h i s b e l i e f i n an Absolute Beauty, he d i d not t h i n k i t could be r e a l i z e d i n t h i s world. Thus he stated: "Quoique l e principe u n i v e r s e l s o i t un, l a nature ne donne r i e n d'absolu, n i merae de complet; je ne vois que des i n d i v i d u s . " ^ Since the poet can never a t t a i n absolute Beauty, 9  the i d e a l becomes tinged with sadness; i t i s a mysterious inaccessible i d e a l whose essence i s unknown. In h i s Joumaux Intimes Baudelaire expressed h i s d e f i n i t i o n of " l e Beau": J ' a i trouve l a d e f i n i t i o n du Beau, de mon Beau. C'est quelque chose d'ardent et de t r i s t e , quelque chose d'un peu vague, l a i 3 s a n t c a r r i e r e a. l a conjecture.94 His Beauty i s , therefore, considered as something variable rather than absolute; i t s character i s determined to a large extent by the temperament or s e n s i b i l i t y of the a r t i s t . ^ According to Baudelaire 9  a l l beauty has some element of strangeness: "... 1'etrangete... est  comme l e condiment indispensable de toute beaute.""  Baudelaire also  contended that " l e beau" i s always a s t o n i s h i n g ^ and that the h o r r i b l e , 7  a r t i s t i c a l l y expressed, becomes beauty: "C'est un des p r i v i l e g e s prodigieux de l ' A r t que 1'horrible, artistement exprime, devienne beaute u98 Here Baudelaire i s , of course, speaking of Beauty as he thinks i t can be r e a l i z e d on t h i s earth, o f the " p a r t i c u l a r element of each beauty"99 - an element not present i n the Mallarmean conception of Beauty. For Mallarme, then, Beauty was an Absolute, an abstract, immaterial and pure, whereas f o r Baudelaire, i t had an element of the t r a n s i t o r y as w e l l as of the e t e r n a l . For the l a t t e r , Beauty, which i s a manifestat i o n o f the c e l e s t i a l element i n t e r r e s t r i a l and t r a n s i t o r y sensations, may be described as one of those Innate ideas contained i n the soul and grasped by an immediate i n t u i t i o n o f the mind. In h i s "Salon de 1846" Baudelaire stated: "En f a i t d'art j e suis s u r n a t u r a l i s t e . Je c r o i s que 1 ' a r t i s t e ne peut trouver dans l a nature tous ses types, mais que l e s p l u 3 remarquables l u i sont reveles dans son ame comme l a : symbolique innee des idees innees et au meme i n s t a n t . " ^ 1  The t r a n s p o s i t i o n of material objects into a superior order so that they represent symbolically the s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y from which they proceed i s operated by the imagination. For Mallarme the imagination does not play the r o l e or have the importance i t does f o r Baudelaire. I t i s the i n t e l l e c t that i s able t o abstract from perceptions of the senses an absolute beauty, the idea of beauty freed from material contingencies. Baudelaire, i t should be noted, admitted the existence of a transcendant  idea of Beauty. He recognized i n Beauty an absolute  of a metaphysical order, indispensable t o the s p i r i t u a l designs of the  poet who stated i n h i s "Paradis A r t i f i c i e l s " : "L'idee de beaute doit naturellement s' emparer d'une place vaste dans un temperament s p i r i t u e l t e l que j e 1*ai suppose." ^ The conquest 1  1  of absolute Beauty i s  an Icarian temptation .which Baudelaire d i d not always r e s i s t . His poem "Les P l a i n t e s d'un Icare" shows t o what s p i r i t u a l p e r i l the a r t i s t exposes himself when y i e l d i n g t o the temptation t o a t t a i n to i d e a l Beauty: Et brule par 1' amour du beau Je n'aurai pas 1*honneur sublime De dormer mon nom a. l'abime Qui me s e r v i r a de tombeau.^ 2  Mallarme, on the other hand, never gave up the attempt t o r e a l i z e absolute Beauty i n his poetry. As early as 1866 i n a l e t t e r t o Cazalis he voiced h i s ambition: Je suis en t r a i n de j e t e r l e s fondements d'un l i v r e sur l e Beau. Mon e s p r i t se meut dans l ' E t e r n e l . et en a eu plusieurs f r i s s o n s . s i l'on peut parler a i n s i de l ' l m muable. - ^ LU  In another l e t t e r t o Cazalis, also written i n May 1866, Mallarme expressed h i s i n t e n t i o n of r e v i s i n g the poems he had already written because they had not been conceived i n the l i g h t of Beauty as he now perceived i t : Sentant que, bien qu'aucun de ces poemes n'ait ete, en r e a l i t e , concu en vue de l a Beaute, mais plutot comme autant d ' i n t u i t i v e s revelations de mon temperament,... pour l e s publier t e l s , je consacrai des nuits consecutives a l e s c o r r i g e r . . .-^A I t should be pointed that although Baudelaire conceived of Beauty i n n a t u r e ^ 5  a  s  dual, some of the a t t r i b u t e s of Mallarme's  absolute Beauty were already present i n h i s poem "La Beaute"^^, namely: mystery ("Je trone dans l'azur comme un sphinx incompris"), p u r i t y ("J'unis un coeur de neige a, l a blancheur des  cygnes"),  impassivity ("Et jamais je ne pleure et jamais je ne r i s " ) , and eternity ("Eternel et..."). True lovers of Beauty cannot give up the search for the essential eternal element that transposes reality into Beauty. In this same  poem Beauty speaks:  Car j ' ai pour fasciner ces dociles amants De purs miroirs qui font toutes choses belles: Mes yeux, mes larges yeux aux clartes eternelles. In "L'Hymne a. l a Beaute", Baudelaire pays tribute to the power that Beauty has to open the doors of Infinity, to raise the poet to another sphere, to make l i f e on this earth less hideous: Que t u viennes du c i e l ou de 1'enfer, qu'importe 0 Beautei... S i ton o e i l , ton souris, ton pied, m'ouvrent l a porte D'un Infini que j'aime et n'ai jamais connu ?107 Similarly, for Mallarme, Beauty had the power to elevate him to another sphere. In his remarks on Theophile Gautier i n 108 "Symphonie Litteraire"  , the poet speaks of reaching " l a plus  haute cime de serenite ou nous ravisse l a Beaute." But although Beauty as personnified by Baudelaire has the serenity and austerity of the Mallarmean ideal, Baudelaire s aspirations were not carried 1  to the same extreme as Mallarme's. Baudelaire unlike Mallarml, did not attempt to eliminate relative beauty from his ideal; i t was through earthly phenomena that he sought to catch glimpses of the world beyond. The Ideal for Mallarme as for Baudelaire thus resides i n the creation of Beauty. However, Mallarme's concept of Beauty differs considerably from that of Baudelaire.  Here Poe's ideas on Beauty  are said to have intervened. "Poe," asserts Margaret Gilman, "had a more unearthly, ethereal, half-mystical conception of Beauty, a supernal Beauty, whereas Baudelaire's beauty has never been and never  entirely ceases to be of this earth."109 p  o e  showed Mallarme that  the Ideal, i n the form of " l e Beau" constitues a form not only sacred (as Baudelaire thought), but one that i s also crystalline and purified. It was Hegel who, according to Jean-Pierre Richard"^ and Y. P a r k , m among many other c r i t i c s , revealed to Mallarme with clarity the synthetic aspect of " l e Beau" summarized by the totality of the universe. "Le Beau" as Mallarme ultimately conceived i t was the Universe i n i t s veritable aspect, i t s essence. A letter from Lef6bure to Mallarme written i n 1867 attests very clearly how much the latter was preoccupied with the Reality of the Universe: J'ai suffisamment compris votre theorie poetique du raystere qui est tres vraie et confirmee par l'histoire. Jusqu'a. present, toutes les fois que l'homme a entendu le vrai, c'est-a-dire l a constitution logique de 1'univers, II s'est rejete avec horreur vers 1'illusion infinie et comme dit Baudelaire, n'a peut-etre invente le Ciel et raeme l'Enfer que pour echapper au Nevermore des Lucrece et des Spinoza. For Mallarme " l e Beau" and "l'Idee" represent essentially the same thing, the image of the logical synthesis of the Universe. The word "Idee" emphasized the aspect of pure Reality of the vision of the Cosmos, and the word "Beau" that of the aesthetic structural nature 113 of this vision.  For the c r i t i c Delfel, "L'aspect transcendant du  r e e l , n'est pas une personne, mais un cosmos organise sous l e signe de l a Beauts."^4 The Essence of the Universe may be considered "1' Idee" when i t i s seen as supreme Reality, and as Beauty when i t i s incarnated i n Poetry. Mallarme has been described by Park as an architect aspiring to a perfect form of the structure of the universe. 1  From this point of view Mallarme i s far from Baudelaire - described as a moralist or a mystic - whose only problem was spiritual salvation. "Le Beau" as Mallarme conceived i t i s the Universe i n i t s  veritable aspect, i t s essence. Mallarme thus pushed Baudelaire's concept of the universal analogy to i t s logical conclusion, as L.J. Austin has pointed out i n his article, on the formulation of Mallarme' s definitive ideal^-^, and in which he draws on Mallarme's remarkable letter to Aubanel (1366) to show how Mallarme rejoined this Baudelairian doctrine: J'ai voulu te dire simplement que je venais de jeter le plan de mon oeuvre entier, apres avoir trouve l a clef de moi-meme, clef de voute ou centre, s i tu veux, pour ne pas brouiller de metaphores, centre de moi-meme, ou je me tiens comme une araignee sacree sur les principaux f i l s deja. sortis de mon esprit, et a l'aide desquels je tisserai aux points de rencontre de merveilleuses dent e l l e s , que je devine, et qui existent deja. dans le sein de ia Beaute.H7 This letter reveals that one of Mallarme*s guiding principles was "1'universelle analogie" with i t s relationship between a l l things and which therefore constitutes an extension of Baudelaire's doctrine 113  of correspondances. • Regarding "le Livre" which Mallarme contemplated, the poet affirmed i n 1395: Les qualites, requises en cet ouvrage, a coup sur le genie, m'epouvantent un parmi les denues: ne s'y arreter et, admis le volume ne comporter aucun signataire, quel e s t - i l : l'hymne, harmonie et joie, comme pur ensemble groupe dans quelque circonstance fulgurante, des relations entre tout.119 y  Mallarme sees the Universe and "le Beau" from the point of view of relationships, a fact to which he draws our attention i n "La Musique et les Lettres": ( • ;"'>  Tout l'acte disponible, a jamais et seulement reste de saisir les rapports, entre temps, rares ou multiplies; d'apres quelque etat interieur et que l'on veuille a son gre etendre, simplifier le monde.  In other words, "le Beau" may be described as the "ensemble"logically  74  deduced from the varied relationships which constitute the universe. Within this system, as Mallarm£ has said, i t i s possible that, by virtue of the poetic act, "1'univers retrouve en moi son identite."121 •The "Beau" therefore expresses relationships between a l l things. We may therefore conclude that by continuing the Baudelairian theory of correspondances i n his vast project which he described as " l e Livre", Mallarme never entirely freed himself from the influence of Baudelaire. Paradoxically, writes L.J. Austin, "c'est apres qu'il [jMallarmeQ crut avoir secoue ce joug que 1'influence profonde de Baudelaire devait •:agir sur l u i , non plus celle du poete du peche, mais celle du theoricien des correspondances• Ce Baudelaire-la 1'avait marque pour l a vie."  1 2 2  tt  #  tt  Mallarme received from Baudelaire a certain conception of art - the negation of immediate reality and the aspiration toward an ideal of beauty which i s the very aim of poetry. Both poets were greatly opposed to didactic poetry, or to verse which had any u t i l i t a r i a n aim. In his "Notes nouvelles sur Edgar Poe",  Baudelaire  expressed clearly the aim of poetry: La poesie... n'a pas d*autre but qu'elle-raeme; elle ne peut en avoir d'autre, et, aucun poeme ne sera s i grand, • s i noble, s i veritableraent digne du nom du poeme que celui qui aura ete ecrit uniquement pour le plaisir d' 6crire un poeme.123 Mallarme, writing with regard to Banville, declared his faith i n the doctrine of art i n terms which r e c a l l those of Baudelaire:  Que tout poeme compose autrement qu' en vue d' obeir au. vieux genie du vers n'en est pas un.^24 Baudelaire was very much against what he called "l'heresie de 1*enseignement" which included as inevitable corollaries "l'heresie de l a passion, de l a verite et de l a morale." 5 This idea was taken 12  from Poe's "Poetic P r i n c i p l e "  126  where Poe had divided the world of  the mind into Pure Intellect, Taste, and the Moral Sense, each of which had a different aim: The pure intellect aims at truth, taste shows us beauty, and the moral sense teaches us our duty. But whereas for Poe, the ultimate u t i l i t y of art was unacceptable, for Baudelaire a certain morality i s implicit i n a l l great art - i t i s almost inevitably a by-product of poetry, as he stated i n "Notes Nouvelles.." Je ne veux pas dire que l a poesie n'ennoblisse pas les raoeurs - que son resultat f i n a l ne soit pas d'elever l'homme au-dessus du niveau des interets vulgaires.127 1  Mallarme's article "L'Art pour Tous"  oft uses Baudelaire's  term "heresies" for part of the subtitle: "Heresies Artistiques"; Mallarme also speaks of "1' heresie de 1' enseignement" but i n slightly different terms: "profanes par 1'enseignement". Although not concerned with any ultimate u t i l i t y for art, Mallarme adopted the view that poetry has no other aim but i t s e l f ; i t should not be philosophical, descriptive, or moral. However, i n November 1855 Mallarme expressed his ambition to write a book which would be "1'explication orphique de l a Terre": ...un l i v r e , bonnement, en maints tomes, un livre qui soit un l i v r e . . . j ' i r a i plus loin, je d i r a i : le Livre, persuade qu'au fond, i l n'y en a qu'un... L'explica( tion orphique de la Terre, qui est le seul devoir du poete et le jeu l i t t e r a i r e par excellence.^9 Both Baudelaire and Mallarme opposed the conception of art as the servile reproduction of nature. For Baudelaire, untouched  76  Nature which i s u g l y ^ , which participates i n original sin i s "un 1  0  amas incoherent de materiaux que 1' artiste est invite a associer et a mettre en ordre."---^ The artist utilises the raw materials of nature, but he must subject them f i r s t to the creative w i l l of the mind. It i s the artist's function to decompose natural creation and to recreate i t s elements i n order to create a new world. The principle of recreation must be informed by the agent of creativity, that i s , the imaginative faculty. In his "Salon de 1859" Baudelaire explained, Elle [l'imagination] decompose toute l a creation et, avec les materiaux amasses et disposes suivant des regies dont on ne peut trouver l'origine que dans le plus profond de l'ame, elle cree un monde nouveau, elle produit l a sensation du neuf.^32 For Mallarme the world of matter was also one of incoherence, and the artist must re-create a new one, but instead of relying on the intuitive faculty, the imagination, Mallarme relied on the intellect to evoke his dream-world. He sought to create " l e l i v r e " , a great work "qui soit un l i v r e , architectural et premedite, et non un recueil des inspirations de hasard, fussent-elles merveilleuses."133 Art, for Mallarme, arises from a voluntary act, not from an intuitive process. As Mr. Fowlie commented, "un sonnet de Mallarme est 1'expression d'une volonte,"134 For Baudelaire " l e hasard" also had no place i n art. In his "Salon de 1846" he had stated: "II n'y a pas de hasard dans l'art"- -35 1  and i n an a r t i c l e devoted toTheophile Gautier he had written i n 1859: "II y a dans le mot, dans le verbe. quelque chose de sacre qui nous defend d'en faire un jeu de hasard."^  0  For Baudelaire, " l a volonte"  was also extremely important i n the creative process. For him, the creative process i s not a passive act, but the result of consciousness,  e f f o r t , of imagination functioning within the phenomenal world; a c a r e f u l l y controlled s i t u a t i o n i n which successive f l i g h t s of the mind nourish the creative process. In h i s poem "Reve P a r i s i e n " Baudelaire l i k e n s h i s task t o the taming "of'an ocean so as t o cause i t t o flow through a tunnel: Architecte de mes f e e r i e s , Je f a i s a i s , a ma volonte Sous un tunnel de p i e r r e r i e s Passer un ocean dompte.^-37 Here, will-power i s directed toward moral ends, the c o n t r o l and t r a n s p o s i t i o n o f nature which i s a symbol of e v i l . For Mallarme, as we have noted, nature was a symbol of disorder and incoherence; but f o r Baudelaire " l a volonte" had an aesthetic function as w e l l . He uses the term i n t h i s s p e c i a l sense i n h i s a r t i c l e on "Le Dandy" ... toutes l e s conditions materielles compliquees auxquelles i l s se soumettent... ne sont qu*une gymnastique propre a f o r t i f i e r l a volonte et a d i s c i p l i n e r 1'ame.138 Baudelaire and Mallarme both saw i n will-power a force necessary to the creative a r t i s t f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of h i s dream. The work of art i s superior t o nature as Baudelaire affirmed i n h i s prose poem " I n v i t a t i o n au Voyage": Bays s i n g u l i e r , superieur aux autres, comme l ' A r t l ' e s t a, l a nature ou c e l l e - c i est reformee par l e reve ou e l l e est corrigee, embellie, refondue.139 But a work o f a r t must, according t o Baudelaire, contain the object (nature) and the subject (reve); hence, h i s famous d e f i n i t i o n of pure a r t : C e s t creer une magie suggestive contenant a l a f o i s 1*objet et l e sujet, l e monde exterieur a l a r t i s t e et 1 ' a r t i s t e lui-meme.-^O f  The "reve" or s p i r i t u a l part of the a r t i s t i c work i s thus linked  c l o s e l y to the r e a l , to matter. This i s not so f o r Mallarme, f o r whom the. phenomenal world disappears and i s replaced by the poetic act which i s language. "For the whole symbolist movement", states C h i a r i , "as w e l l as f o r the aesthetic movement, Mallarme excepted, a r t was a r e l i g i o n and the poet was the p r i e s t revealing the mystery of l i f e . . . He ^MallarmeJ was a l l i n one, the p r i e s t without temple who  has  projected a l l and himself i n h i s song... he has provided himself very modestly with most of God's a t t r i b u t e s , the most important being the power of s e l f - c r e a t i o n , that i s source of h i s own transcendance."^!  to say, of being the  For Baudelaire, the work of  a r t i s at the same time the coherent expression of nature and the expression of the mind, whereas f o r Mallarme i t i s but the expression of the mind. However, f o r Mallarme as f o r Baudelaire the aim of poetry was to create "une magie s u g g e s t i v e " ^ . In t h i s respect Mallarme went 2  much further than Baudelaire i n h i s ardent desire to invest the object with mystery. In h i s "Reponses a des Enquetes", he explained h i s creed which was to govern the writing of h i s most celebrated poetry: Nommer un objet, c'est supprimer l e s t r o i s - q u a r t s de l a jouissance du poeme qui est f a i t e de deviner peu a. peu; l e suggerer, voila. l e reve. C'est l e p a r f a i t usage de ce mystere qui constitue l e symbole: evoquer p e t i t a. p e t i t un objet pour montrer un etat d'ame, ou, i n v e r sement, c h o i s i r un objet et en degager un etat d'ame, par une s e r i e de dechiffrements.U3 Mallarme* s poetic technique of suggesting and never describing i s a tendency i n l i n e with Baudelaire's r e j e c t i o n of the photographic i n a r t arid h i s praise of the i n f u s i o n s of imagination. Both Baudelaire and Mallarme wrote on the d i f f i c u l t y of a t t a i n i n g the Ideal, which the poet must nevertheless struggle to r e a l i z e . For Baudelaire, the fact that the i d e a l was  unattainable  79  was fortunate f o r both the poets and the human race: S i l a c l e f de l ' i d e a l etait donnee immediateraent, l e poete n'aurait plus besoin d'operer cette concentration de toutes ses forces a laquelle se mesurent 1' elevation de sa pensee et l a densite s p i r i t u e l l e de son oeuvre. Les poetes, l e s a r t i s t e s et toute l a race humaine, seraient bien malheureux s i 1'ideal, cette absurdite, cette i m p o s s i b i l i t e , etait t r o u v e . ^ 1  In h i s "L Aube s p i r i t u e l l e " B a u d e l a i r e writes of "1'Ideal rongeur" ,  and "1' i n a c c e s s i b l e azur". The quest f o r Beauty i s never accompanied by the s e r e n i t y and detachment that characterized Mallarme's pursuit of h i s goal i n h i s l a t e r years. For Baudelaire i t supposes an i n t e r i o r c o n f l i c t , a s p i r i t u a l combat with matter. In h i s "Confiteor de 1 ArT  t i s t e " , Baudelaire describes the study of the B e a u t i f u l as a duel: L'etude du beau est un duel ou 1 ' a r t i s t e c r i e de frayeur avant d'etre vaincu.146 For Mallarme, a l s o , the Ideal was, at the beginning, impossible t o a t t a i n . Thus, i n h i s poem "L'Azur"-^ , written i n 7  1864,  "1'azur" which symbolizes the i n a c c e s s i b l e i d e a l , overwhelms  the poet with i t s "sereine i r o n i e " and i t s gaze of "un remords a t terant". In h i s l e t t e r t o Henri Cazalis written at the time he was forwarding t o h i s f r i e n d accopy o f "L'Azur", Mallarme expressed the anguish through which he had passed t o achieve his goal: .... Et c'a ete une t e r r i b l e d i f f i c u l t e de combiner, dans une juste harmonie 1'element dramatique h o s t i l e a. l'idee de poesie pure et subjective avec l a serenite et l e calme de l i g n e s necessaires a l a Beaute.148  NOTES TO PART I I  1. Charles Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade (Henceforth referred to as B. O.c.). p. 86. 2. St£phane Mallarme, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade (henceforth referred to M. O.c.). p. 37. 3. C. Baudelaire, Preface to Nouvelles H i s t o i r e s Extraordinaires d Edgar Poe. Traduction de Charles Baudelaire. Notes Nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. p. 4. 1  r  }  4. M. O.c.. p. 258. 5. B. O.c., p. 86. 6. M. O.c.. p. 259. 7. Written 1859 or 1860, i n B. O.c.. pp. 906-909. 8. I b i d . , p. 907. 9. I b i d . . p. 908. 10. M. O.c.. p. 259. 11. V/. Fowlie, Mallarme. pp. 64-65. 12. B. (he., p. 1210. 13. I b i d . . p. 908. 14. M. (he., p. 260. 15. B. (he., p. 907. 16. M. (he., p. 257. 17. I b i d . . p. 257. 18. B. (he., p. 83. 19. I b i d . , p. 86. 20. M. (he., p.18. 21. B. Che., pp. 87-7. 22. M. (he., p. 33  ^  NOTES TO PART II (Continued)  23. M.A.' Ruff, Baudelaire. p. 141. 24. C. Baudelaire, Notes nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. p. 6. 25. B. O.c., p. 1211.  26. cf. Y. Park, thesis, 1966, pp. 38-39, and Jean-Pierre Richard, L'Univers imaginaire de Mallarme. pp. 376-377. 27. Jean-Pierre Richard, ibid.. p. 376. 28. B. O.c., p. 893.  29. J.-P. Richard, Op. c i t . . p. 376. 30. B. (Xc., p. 355. 31. M. O^c., pp. 32-33. 32. B. O.c., p. 228.  33. Ibid., p. 189. 34. M. O^c., p. 32. 35. B. O^c., p. 1210.  ,  36. 'Ibid.. p. 131. 37. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 90. 38. M. Che., p. 35. 39. B. O^c., p. 137.  40. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme et l e Reve du 'Livre'", p. 83. 41. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 90. 42. See C. Baudelaire, Les Fleurs du Mal. Editions Garnier Freres, p. 420 for dates. 43. B. O.c., p. 191.  44. cf. Austin G i l l , "Mallarme on Baudelaire", i n Currents of Thought i n French Literature, p. 96. 45. M. O.c., p. 256.  NOTES TO PART II (Continued)  46. G. Poulet, Etudes sur le Temps Humain. II. La Distance Interieure. Chapitre IX, p. 298.  f  47. Ibid., p. 304. 43. B. O.c., Cur. Esth.,  p.J'7f,  49. cf. Y. Park, op. c i t . . p. 5350. J.-P. Richard, op. c i t . . p. 41. 51. Y. Park, op. c i t . . p. 11. 52. M. Che., p. 47.  53. Georges Blin, Baudelaire. pp. 189-191; cited i n M. Eigeldinger, Le Platonisme de Baudelaire, p. 68. 54. M. (he., p. 857.  55. W.W. King, "Baudelaire and Mallarme: Metaphysics or Aesthetics" p.. 122. 56. M. O.c.. p. 366. 57. M. (he., p. 647.  58. W. King, op. c i t . . p. 123. 59. B. (he., pp. 342-343. 60. M. (he., pp. 37-38. 61. B. (he., pp. 86-87.  62.  Ibid., p. 1197.  63. C. Baudelaire, Notes Nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. p. 13. 64. Ibid., pp. 13-14. 65. M. O.c., p. 36.  66. S. Mallarme. Correspondance. p. 90. 67. M. (he., pp. 32-33.  68. Y. Park, op. c i t . .  p. 65.  83  NOTES TO PART II (Continued)  69. M. Che., pp. 37-38.  70. Ibid.. p. 32. 71. G. Poulet, op. c i t . . p. 299. 72. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 94. 73. B. O^c., p. 1035; cited i n H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. p. 200. 74. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 220. 75. Y. Park, op. c i t . . p. 112. 76. B. O^c., p.151. 77. Ibid., p. 1230. 78. Ibid.. p. 107. 79. Ibid.. p. 1189. 80. cf. Y. Park, op. c i t . . p. 89. 81. cf. Edgar Allan Poe, Le Principe de l a Poesie. pp. 48-53. 82. C. Baudelaire, Notes Nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. p. 20* 83. S. Mallarme, Propos sur l a poesie. p. 118. 84. C. Baudelaire, Notes nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. p. 20; cf. E.A. Poe, Le Principe de l a Poesie. p. 56. 85. S. Mallarme, Propos sur l a poesie. p. 79. 86. B. O.c.. p. 883.  87. Ibid.. p. 677. 88. Ibid., p. 67789. There i s a contradiction i n the role played by the passions i n the creation of Beauty as expressed i n the above passage and i n the one i n Notes nouvelles sur Edgar Poe (p. 20) where Baudelaire had written that the principle of poetry manifests i t s e l f "dans un enthousiasme, une excitation de l'ame - enthousiasme tout a fait independant de l a passion qui est 1'ivresse du coeur et de l a verite qui est l a pature de l a raison." cf. E.A. Poe, bp. c i t . . p. 48.  NOTES TO PART I I (Continued)  89. I b i d . , p. 677. 90. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. pp. 103-104. 91. H. Mondor, V i e de Mallarme. pp. 241-242. 92. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. pp. 220-221. 93. B. (he., p. 643. 94. B. (he., p. 119595. Baudelaire as a L i t e r a r y C r i t i c . Selected Essays Introduced and Translated by L.B. Hyslop and Francis E. Hyslop, J r . , p. 15. 96. C. Baudelaire, Notes nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. p. 22. 97. B. (he., p. 769. 93. I b i d . . p. 1040. 99. Ibid., p. 677. 100. I b i d . . p. 621. 101. I b i d . , p. 468. 102. I b i d . . pp. 244-245. 103. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 216. 104. I b i d . . p. 215. 105. B. (he., p. 883. 106. B. (he., p. 107.  I b i d . . p. 99.  103. M. O.c., p. 109.  96. 262.  M. Gilman, Baudelaire, the C r i t i c , p. 111.  110. J.-P. Richard, op. c i t . . p. 233111.  Park, op. c i t . . p. 94.  112. H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme\ pp. 238-239.  NOTES TO PART I I (Continued)  113. c f . Y. Park, op. c i t . . p. 97. 114. G. D e l f e l , L'Esthetique de Stephane Mallarme. p. 80. 115. c f . Y. Park, op. c i t . . p. 70; 116. L.J. Austin,"Mallarme et l e Reve du ' Livre''* i n Mercure de France, t . 317, 1953, j a n . - a v r i l , p. 84. 117. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. pp. 224-225. 118. L.J. Austin, op. c i t . . p. 88; c f . J.-P. Richard, op. c i t . . p. 233 and Y. Park, op. c i t . . p. 97. 119. M. pvc., p. 378. 120. I b i d . , p. 647 (written 1894). 121. H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. p. 237. 122. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme et l e Reve du ' L i v r e ' " , p. 84. 123. C. Baudelaire, Notes nouvelles sur Edgar Poe, p. 44; c f . E.A. Poe, Le Principe de l a Poesie. pp. 46-47. 124.. Cited i n Leon Lemonnier, "Baudelaire et Mallarme" i n La Grande Revue, j u i l l e t - o c t o b r e , 1923, p. 20. 125. C. Baudelaire, Notes J i o u v e l l e s sur Edgar Poe. pp. 18-19. 126.  c f . E.A. Poe, Le Principe de l a Poesie. pp. 48-49.  127. C. Baudelaire, Notes nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. p. 19. 128. M. O^c.,' pp. 257-260. 129. I b i d . . pp. 662-663. 130. B. CLc., p. 772. 131. I b i d . , p. 863. 132. I b i d . , p. 773. 133. M. (he., pp. 662-663. 134. W. Fowlie, Mallarme. p. 25.  NOTES TO PART II (Continued)  135. B. O.c., p. 261.  136. cf. i b i d . , p. 1035. 137. Ibid., p. 174. 138. Ibid., p. 907. 139. Ibid.. p. 306. 140. Ibid.. p. 926. 141. J . Chiari, Symbolisme from Poe to Mallarme., The Growth of a Myth, p. 46. 142. B. O^c., p. 306. 143. M. O.c.. p. 869.  144. B. (h_c., pp. 642-643. 145. Ibid., p. 120. 146. Ibid.. p. 284. 147. M. CLc., p. 37.  148. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 105.  PART III BAUDELAIRIAN REFLECTIONS IN MAUARME'S POETRY  PART I I I '-BAUDELAIRIAN REFLECTIONS IN MALLARME'S POETRY  Baudelaire's influence i s p a r t i c u l a r l y evident i n themes, imagery, and vocabulary i n c e r t a i n poems written by Mallarme from 1861 to 1865.  1  Mallarme's "L'Enfant prodigue" ( l 8 6 l ) the  l a  i s perhaps one of  most perfect poems "a l a maniere de Baudelaire qu'on a i t jamais  composes."  In addition to Baudelairian d e t a i l s ^ , two e s s e n t i a l  aspects of Baudelairian thought are present, namely, " l e gout de l ' l n f i n i " " * and "1'experience du Gouffre"5 which are s t r i k i n g l y condensed: J ' a i cherche l ' I n f i n i q u i f a i t que l'homme peche ^ Et n ' a i r i e n trouve qu'un Gouffre ennemi du sommeil. Mallarme made no a l l u s i o n to t h i s poem i n h i s correspondence, and he made no attempt t o publish i t . "Galanterie macabre"''' which was written by Mallarme i n 1861 8 was published only i n 1930.  This poem borrows many d e t a i l s from  o Baudelaire's work , and has an earthy realism c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h i s 7  P e t i t s poemes en prose *"*. No doubt Mallarme r e a l i z e d the exaggerated 1  Baudelairian flavour of t h i 3 poem, f o r despite Des Essarts' l e t t e r of March 3, 1864, i n which he asked him why he excluded "Galanterie macabre" from p u b l i c a t i o n , Mallarme continued t o withold i t . 1 1  "Le Guignon" was written by Mallarme i n i t s entirety i n 1862, as a dated manuscript proves; however, the poem as i t appeared  89  in 1*Artiste i n March 1862 was but a fragment of the whole, including only the f i r s t five stanzas of three lines each, and i s very different from the definitive text which comprised twenty-one stanzas of three lines each and a last l i n e * . The f i r s t version of the entire poem 2  was published i n 1883 and i n i t s definitive form i n ISS^ ^, This work 1  attests the double influence of Theophile Gautier ^ and of Baudelaire 1  To the latter i t no  doubt owes i t s principal theme - the unhappy  destiny of the man of letters - as well as i t s t i t l e , and certain elements of i t s imagery -'. 1  :  . . .. s  **"  ',v-  1  The reason for the publication i n 1862 of only a fragment of "Le Guignon" i s , i n Austin G i l l ' s opinion, that the poem contained veiled criticism of Baudelaire, and that the editor of l'Artiste "was unwilling to publish what i n 1862 the more discerning readers would recognize as an attack on Baudelaire...."^ Even though Mallarme had expressed some dissension with his master- - , many of the eleven poems composed between 1862 and 1865 and 1  7  submitted to the f i r s t series of the Parnasse contemporain i n 18661 , 8  showed the continued influence of Baudelaire, and at the same time the continuing development of Mallarme's originality. The eleven poems of this group were given the t i t l e "Angoisse" (in preference to that of "Atonies"19), but might well have been entitled "Spleen et Ideal", the t i t l e given by Baudelaire to the f i r s t section of Les Fleurs du Mal. E. Lefebure has noted that this "spleen" constituted the force of Mallarme as a poet and his grief  as a man;  he further added, "Je sens s i bien cela... qu'il m'est impossible de vous l i r e sans que cela me fasse de l a peine."^ With Mallarme, as with Baudelaire, spleen was a complex emotional state i n which were  mixed i r r i t a t i o n and depression, disgust and lassitude, which drew i t s source from a double movement: the v i o l e n t r e j e c t i o n of a r e a l i t y judged ugly and imperfect, and the ardent but unrealizable a s p i r a t i o n  21  '  toward the i d e a l . The Baudelairian spleen i s e s s e n t i a l l y metaphysical. Among "the  e v i l s which oppress the poet are physical s u f f e r i n g , coupled with  the  f e e l i n g of moral solitude: that the soul i s imprisoned i n a body  from which i t cannot escape. Baudelaire wrote i n a l e t t e r t o h i s mother i n 1857: Ce que je sens, c'est un immense d6couragement, une sensation d'isolement insupportable, une peur perp6t u e l l e d'un malheur vague.... C'est l e v e r i t a b l e esp r i t de s p l e e n . 2 2  Mallarme's sonnet "Renouveau" ^ composed i n 1862, could, 2  according to the poet, be c a l l e d "Spleen printanier", and describes his  curious f e e l i n g of s t e r i l i t y or "impuissance". Regarding t h i s  poem, Mallarme wrote i n a l e t t e r of June 4, 1862 to h i s f r i e n d H. C a z a l i s : Emmanuel t ' a v a i t peut-etre parle d'une s t e r i l i t e curieuse que l e printemps avait i n s t a l l e e en moi. Apres t r o i s mois d*impuissance, j'en suis enfin debarrass^, et mon premier sonnet est consacre a l a d e c r i r e , c'est-a-dire k l a maud i r e . C'est un genre assez nouveau que cette poesie, ou  This sonnet shows the influence of Baudelaire not only i n the reformulation of a Baudelairian theme, but also i n the application of the Baudelairian technique of correspondances. namely, the l i n k i n g of physical sensations to sentiments and ideas. I t also i l l u s t r a t e s the  paradox by which the "spleen" or "impuissance" becomes the  s t a r t i n g point f o r a new creation which overcomes t h i s morbid  feeling by giving expression to i t , as Baudelaire himself had done i n 25 his four poems entitled "Spleen"  . Mallarme, in."Renouveau", evokes  similar sensations of "ennui", dejection, and confinement as had Baudelaire  . It was to this sonnet that Eugene Lef£bure alluded  when he wrote to Mallarme i n June 25, 1862: "Et Baudelaire, s ' i l rajeunissait, pourrait signer vos sonnets." ''' 2  The most Baudelairian poem of this series sent to the Par28 nasse contemporain of 1866 i s perhaps the sonnet "Angoisse"  composed  by Mallarme i n February 1864. In this poem, evasion from spleen i s sought i n love which becomes the 3earch for forgetfulness i n a dreaml e s s s l e e p f r e e o f remorse.  The theme was i n s p i r e d by B a u d e l a i r e ' s poem  "Le Lethe" (1850-52); other details are also reminiscent of Baudelaire.  2 9  In "Les Fenetres",composed i n London (May 1863).Mallarme's debt to the author of Les Fleurs du Mal i s strikingly apparent i n 30 terms of ideas, images, and vocabulary.  This work evokes an expression  of the nauseous invasion of the real world which the poet cannot escape, and that i s reminiscent of Baudelaire: the theme of evasion, the desire 31 to escape from this world and to flee toward the ideal . In Mallarme's work, "les fenetres" which take, on a magic quality may be traced to 32 Baudelaire's prose poem of 1862, "Le Mauvais v i t r i e r " , and to the  33 Leonardo stanza i n his poem "Les Phares". In spite of the many Baudelairian reminiscences i n "Les Fenetres", and the fact that the central theme of the poem came from Baudelaire  , Mallarme goes beyond Baudelaire i n his complete  rejection of reality and his refusal to link his ideal to the material world. Thus, as Georges Poulet has so admirably stated, "Ce petit  92  poeme... est bien l e premier ou. Mallarme depasse nettement l e baudelairisme... c'est un poeme authentiquement mallarmeen parce qu'ultrabaudelairien...."35 Whereas i n "Les Fenetres" there was a violent rejection of reality to attain the sovereign ideal, i n "l'Azur", a poem composed by Mallarme at Tournon i n January 1864, there i s an opposite movement toward reality and away from the ideal. Here the poet's disgust for humanity i s the same as i n "Les Fenetres". 36  f  a n (  i  a  feeling of "ennui"  i s evoked similar to that i n Baudelaire's poem "Au Lecteur", and i s expressed i n similar imagery.37 An intense feeling of anguish i s suggested, a sentiment arising from the poet's desire to renounce the "eternel azur" which symbolizes the "Ideal cruel" and his inabil i t y to f o r g o  the challenge. Mallarme's desperate position i s  reminiscent of Baudelaire's dilemma contained i n the last paragraph of "Le Confiteor de 1 ' A r t i s t e " 3 8 where the sky, with i t s "profondeur" and "limpidite", like Mallarme's "Eternel azur",is a torment to the poet. The feeling of anguish i n both poets i s deep and intense. In Baudelaire i t i s caused by the fear of his i n a b i l i t y to achieve a work of a r t i s t i c perfection, and the realization of the struggle involved i n transposing the elements that Nature presents i n order to create a work of beauty. In Mallarme, i t i s the task of poetic creation i t s e l f that produces the anguish.39 Hence the despair of Mallarme, "le poete impuissant", " l e poete de l'azur", i s perhaps greater than that of Baudelaire. "L'impuissance chez Mallarme," declares Georges Poulet, "tend en effet a. un desespoir pire que chez Baudelaire, ou elle est toujours teintee d'espoir, animee par des velleites d'action...  car 1'ideal ne peut exister que dans un contraste insoutenable avec une r e a l i t e inverse qui l e dement et q u ' i l dement."40 The drama o f Mallarme, and the p r i n c i p a l reason o f h i s "impuissance", reside i n the fact that the expression o f the idea, which i s non-material, presupposes a material correspondant, and Mallarme wished  t o r e j e c t the  material.4l Mallarme was keenly aware that matter i s a v i r t u a l l y insurmountable obstacle and that he i s "impuissant" since as a man he i s part of the material world. In M s poem MBrise marine""* , 2  composed a t Tournon, May  1865, Mallarme gives expression t o t h i s f e e l i n g : "La chair est t r i s t e hulas'." He does not wish t o contaminate the i d e a l with r e a l i t y . When he speaks of " l e vide papier que l a blancheur defend", he i s again r e f e r r i n g t o h i s "impuissance" t o a t t a i n the i d e a l - he implies that ideas by being embodied i n material forms on the paper, w i l l s p o i l the purity of the i d e a l , symbolized by " l a blancheur". This idea, of course, found no counterpart i n Baudelaire, f o r whom r e a l i t y provided the means of discovering  the i n v i s i b l e , or i d e a l forms of beauty.  The theme of escape from t h i s world as expressed i n Mallarme's "Brise marine", however, i s one found not only i n B a u d e l a i r e ^ but i n many t  of the Romantic poets. When Baudelaire expressed h i s desire to f l e e "n'importe ou hors du monde" i n h i 3 prose poem "Anywhere out o f the world"44  j  he was echoing, f o r example,  Lamartine's desire to be  ...au-dela des bornes de sa sphere £du s o l e i l ] ^ 5 This a s p i r a t i o n toward something other than t h i s l i f e , to escape to the "au-dela" i s common t o both Baudelaire and Mallarme, and as Leon Lemonnier pointed out, also suggests the l i n k between " l e romantisme" and " l e symbol!sme".4°  We may conclude therefore that Mallarme i n h e r i t e d the "mal Baudelairian", and i n the wake of the master, created remarkable verse from h i s deep inner f e e l i n g s of "ennui" and horror o f earthy existence, as w e l l as from the anguish he suffered i n h i s desire t o a t t a i n h i s ideal. #  #  *•  v  In the poem "Las de 1'amer repos"  to  , written i n February  1864, Mallarme according t o L.J. Austin's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s poem^, bade f a r e w e l l t o the poetry of anguished personal l y r i c i s m and announced h i s i n t e n t i o n of adopting a new aesthetics, the serene and impersonal c r e a t i o n of beauty. Nevertheless, Mallarme took some time before carrying out h i s ambition. Concerning the poems submitted t o the Parnasse contemporain. he wrote t o H. Cazalis i n May 1866 that "Sentant que bien qu'aucun de ces poemes n' a i t  ete en r e a l i t e concu  en vue de l a beaute mais plutot comme autant d ' i n t u i t i v e s revelations de mon temperament et de l a note q u ' i l donnerait... j e consacrai des 49 n u i t s consecutives a l e s c o r r i g e r . . . . " "Soupir"^,  a  poem composed by Mallarme i n A p r i l 1864, i s  Baudelairian i n technique, and i s based on the correspondance between a woman and a melancholy scene, and between an autumn season and an " e t a t d'ame". The l a s t l i n e of t h i s poem. Se t r a i n e r l e s o l e i l jaune d'un long rayon contains several d e t a i l s t o be found i n the l a s t l i n e o f Baudelaire's "Chant d'Automne":  51  De l ' a r r i e r e saison l e rayon jaune et doux'. But the tone o f Mallarme* s poem i s e s s e n t i a l l y h i s own.  Mallarme's poem "Le Pitre chatie"^ , composed March 1864, 2  may well have been suggested by Baudelaire's prose poem "Le Vieux Saltimbanque"53  f  f i r s t published November 1861.  Of the poems written between 1861 and 1865, "Apparition"54 i s the one i n which the influence of Baudelaire i s least apparent. Although i t was written i n 1862 or 1863, Mallarme did not include i t with the poems sent to be published i n the Parnasse contemporain i n 1866, perhaps because of i t s personal content.55 "Apparition" shows the fundamental originality of Mallarme at this early date. "Le theme peut etre l e meme que celui de Baudelaire", asserted Y. Park, but " l a fagon de le manier et de l'envisager est differente."5° In Mallarme's "Herodiade"57, begun October 1864 and never completed, we have a mingling of the beautiful and the sad; or, as Fowlie has stated, "the romantic equation of beauty and death.... As pleasure and pain are inseparable, so any intense knowledge of 58 the beautiful i s synthesized with a knowledge of suffering." This had also been the idea of Baudelaire, who had i n some of his works, for example, "La Chevelure"5 and "Parfum exotique"°0 mingled 9  voluptuousness and sadness. Moreover, the following lines of an untitled sonnet composed by Baudelaire also contains these same elements and must surely have been present i n Mallarme's mind when he composed some lines of "Herodiade". Ses yeux polis sont faits de mineraux charmants Et dans cette nature etrange et symbolique Ou 1'ange invioie se mele au sphinx antique, Ou tout n'est qu'or, acier, lumiere et diamants, Resplendit a jamais, comme un astre inutile La froide majeste de l a femme s t e r i l e . o l  The l a s t l i n e s of the sonnet r e c a l l s Mallarme's HeVddiade: Observant l a f r o i d e u r s t e r i l e du m e t a l ^  2  Such words as "or", " a c i e r " , "a3tre", " i n u t i l e " , used by Baudelaire also reappear i n various l i n e s of Mallarme's poem. Baudelaire's taste for diamonds was bequeathed t o Mallarme, and as Jean-Pierre Richard has pointed out, "La r e v e r i e diamantaire domine e n f i n toute l'esth6tique de Mallarme: l ' a r t consistant a creer des 'pierreries  litte-  r a i r e s * capables de b r i l l e r pour elles-memes et mettant en lumiere 'les  joyaux de 1'homme'."^3 "L'Apres-midi  d'un Faune"°4 (June 1865) also owes something  to Baudelaire i n that i t s sensuality i s reminiscent of the l a t t e r ' s "Lesbos" and "Femmes damnee s"65. Even i n poems recognized as extremely o r i g i n a l and t y p i c a l l y Mallarmean, a trace of Baudelaire can be found. Mallarme's sonnet, "Le vierge, l e vivace et l e b e l a u j o u r d ' h u i "  66  (published  March 1885), f o r example, was no doubt influenced by Baudelaire's "Le Cygne"  67  and "L'Albatros"°3. Mallarme's swan - "Tout son c o l  secouera cette blanche agonie" - reminds us of Baudelaire's with i t s "cou convulsif tendant  sa t e t e avide." The albatros i s described  by Baudelaire as caught on the deck of a ship - i t symbolizes the poet trapped by the contingencies of l i f e and impeded i n h i s f l i g h t towards the i d e a l - whereas Mallarme's swan i s trapped i n the i c e 69 and symbolizes the poet as a prisoner of the i d e a l .  The l i n e ,  7  70 Quand du s t e r i l e hiver a resplendi 1'ennui' r e c a l l s one i n Baudelaire's poem "Paysage": 71 Et quand viendra 1'hiver , aux neiges monotones. In Mallarme's sonnet "Sur l e s bois oublies quand passe  1'hiver sombre"72 almost the same scene i s evoked as i n Baudelaire' f  poem, "La servante au grand coeur"^. In the sonnet "Quand 1'ombre menaca de l a fatale l o i " ^ (1883) the image: Afflig£ de p£rir sous les plafonds funebres II a ploye son aile indubitable en moi i s similar to that i n Baudelaire's poem "Spleen" LXXVIII: S*en va battant les murs de son aile timide Et se cognant l a tete a. des plafonds pourris;'-* However, there i s a fundamental difference i n thought between the poems of the two poets as has been underlined by Fowlie: "Whereas Baudelaire translates the despotism and cruelty of hope, Mallarme moves beyond the personal anguish of the creating artist and the l i v i n g man, into the cosmic drama, into an almost abstract and depersonalized image of the poetic psychology. Baudelaire's bat beating i t s wings against the walls of i t s c e l l becomes i n Mallarme' sonnet the bird unnamed which... folds i t s wings and accepts i t s fate."?  6  While we have thus far restricted ourselves to pointing out Baudelairian t r a i t s i n some of Mallarme's poems, similar element could be traced i n his prose poems. In fact, Mallarme's prose poems are, as Me Noulet  has conceded, "un autre resultat de 1'influence  de Baudelaire et comme genre et comme technique et comme theme."'''''' It i s interesting that even i n Mallarme's last prose poem, "Un coup de des"''', some expressions may be traced to Baudelaire; 8  for example, the lines: assouplie par l a vague et soustraite aux durs os perdus entre les ais?? are reminiscent of Baudelaire's 80  Toi qui, magiquement assouplis les vieux os  98  Similarly, lines 7-3  of "Un coup de des":  dans quelque proche tourbillon d h i l a r i t e et d'horreur voltige autour du gouffre^l T  r e c a l l Baudelaire* s "un brillant oiseau voltigeant sur les horreurs d'un gouffre". 82  But, of course, by pointing out such Baudelairian reminiscences, we are not detracting from the fundamental originality of Mallarme who transposed the elements he inherited into typically Mallarmean expressions.  T A B L E BAUDELAIRIAN DETAILS IN MALLARME'S POETRY  "L'Enfant  Baudelaire's Works**  Prodigue"*  "une orange seche" ( l i n e 1)  "une v i e i l l e orange" ("Au. Lecteur", p. 81, l i n e 20)  "ennemi du sommeil" ( l i n e 4)  "ennemi du sommeil" ("Tristesse de l a Lune", p. 139, l i n e 11)  " a i n s i qu'un sable f i n " ( l i n e 6)  " a i n s i qu'un sable f i n " ("Les Chats", p. 140, l i n e 13)  Triple  exclamation:  "0 l a mystique, o l a sanglante, o l'amoureuse," ( l i n e 9)  * M. O . c , pp. 14-15? composed 1861,  "0 serments! o parfumst o baisers i n f i n i s ! " ("Le Balcon", p. I l l , l a s t l i n e )  c f . p. 1386.  ** A l l quotations are taken from C. Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade.  TABLE (Continued)  Baudelaire* s Works**  "Galanterie Macabre"*  "Dans un de ces faubourgs" ( l i n e 1)  "Le long du vieux faubourg" ("Le S o l e i l " , p. 155, l i n e l )  "vague e f f r o i " ( l i n e 6)  "vague epouvante" (•'Spleen" LXXVI. p. 146, l i n e 20)  "Dont l e matin rougit l a flamme" ( l i n e 8)  "La  "gesine" ( l i n e 12) " l e s i n e " ( l i n e 15)  Same words used i n ("Le Crepuscule du Matin", p. 175, l i n e s 17-18)  "Dans mon coeur ou 1*ennui pend se3 drapeaux funebres" ( l i n e 41)  "Sur mon crane i n c l i n e plante son drapeau n o i r " ("Spleen" LXXVIII, p. 147, l a s t l i n e )  "Demon", "Satan" ( l i n e s 40 and 44)  "Demons", "Satan" ("Au Lecteur", p. 81, l i n e s 22 and 9)  "Haine", "gehenne" ( l i n e s 45 and 47)  "haine", "Gehenne" ("Benediction", p. 34, l i n e s 17 and 19)  lampe sur l e jour f a i t une tache rouge" ("Le Crepuscule du Matin", p. 175)  * M. O . c , pp. 15-16. ** A l l quotations are taken from C. Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes, Bibliotheque de l a  Pleiade.  TABLE (Continued) Baudelaire* s Works ****  "Le Guignon"*  "Le Guignon"  T i t l e from that of Baudelaire's poem "Le Guignon" (p. 92),** also used i n "Conseils aux jeunes l i t t e r a t e u r s " (1846), p. 942.  " I l s t e t t e n t l a Douleur comme i l s t ^ t a i e n t l e reve" ( l i n e 16)  "Et t e t t e n t l a Douleur comme une bonne louve" ("Le Cygne", p. 159, l i n e 47)  " I l s courent sous l e fouet d'une monarque rageur" ( l i n e 29) "Leur d e f a i t e , c'est par un ange t r e s puissant" ( U n e 13)  "L'ange aveugle de 1'expiation s'est empare d'eux et l e s fouette a. tours de bras" (Preface t o H i s t o i r e s extraordinaires d'Edgar Poe, p. 3 ) * * *  " I l s mangent de l a cendre avec l e meme amour" ( l i n e 23) "Quand en face tous l e u r ont crach£ l e s dedains" ( l i n e 61)  " I l s melent de l a cendre avec d'impurs crachats" ("Benediction", p. 84, l i n e 34)  "Nous soulerons d'encens l e vainqueur dans l a f e t e " ( l i n e 58)  "Et  * M. O . c , pp. 28-30; written 1862:  j e me soulerai de nard, d'encens, de myrrhe" ("Benediction", l i n e 41)  c f . p. 1405.  ** Written i n 1852 or perhaps even i n 1849;  c f . Les Fleurs du Mal. Editions G a m i e r Freres, p. 287.  *** Written i n 1852 and published as a preface t o h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f Poe's s t o r i e s ; c f . Oeuvres completes de Charles Baudelaire. V., pp. 3-32. **** A l l quotations are taken from C. Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade.  TABLE (Continued) "Renouveau"*  Baudelaire*s Works**  "Renouveau"  "Mon arne mieux qu'au temps du tiede renouveau" ("Brunes et pluies", p. 172, line 7)  "Et dans mon etre a. qui l e sang morne preside ' L'impuissance s'etire en un long balllement." (lines 3-4)  "Et dans un baillement avalerait l e monde ... c'est 1'Ennui..." ("Au Lecteur", p. 82, lines 36-37)  "Des crepuscules blancs tiedissent sous mon crane Qu'un cercle de fer serre ainsi qu'un vieux tombeau" (lines 5 - 6 )  "D'envelopper ainsi mon coeur et mon cerveau D'un linceul vaporeux et d'un vague tombeau" ("Brumes et pluies", p. 172, lines 3-4)  * M. O.c, p. 34; composed May, 1862. ** A l l quotations are taken from C. Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de' l a Pleiade.  TABLE (Continued)  "Angoisse"*  "Je demande It ton l i t l e lourd sommeil sans songes Planant sous l e s rideaux inconnus du remords" ( l i n e s 5-6)  "ma native noblesse" ( l i n e 9) "Ayant peur de dormir" (last line)  * M. O.c,  Baudelaire* s Works  .  "sommeil lourd" ("La Priere d'un PaSen", 1861, p. 253, l i n e l 2 ) "Je veux dormir! dormirtplutot que v i v r e Dans un sommeil aussi doux que l a mort" ("Le Lethe", pp. 215-216, l i n e s 9-10) "Ces natives grandeurs" ("J'aime l e souvenir de ces £poque3 nues" , p. 88, l i n e 16) " J ' a i peur du"sommeil" ("Le Gouffre", 1862, p. 244, l i n e  p. 35; composed February 1864.  A l l quotations are taken from C. Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade.  9)  TABLE (  A) Baudelaire* s Works **  "Les Fenetres"*  "Rembrandt, t r i s t e h o p i t a l tout rempli de murmures Et d'un grand c r u c i f i x d£cor£ seulement" ("Les Phares", 1857, p. 89, l i n e s 9-10)  "Las du t r i s t e h o p i t a l et de 1'encens f e t i d e " •• •  Vers l e grand c r u c i f i x ennuye du mur vide" ( l i n e s 1 and 3) "Son o e i l a 1'horizon de lumiere gorge" ( l i n e 16)  "Quelquefois des 6chapp6es magnifiques, gorgdes de lumiere...." (Preface to Translation of Poe's H i s t o i r e s extraordinaires)  "Voit de3 galeres d'or, b e l l e s comme des cygnes" ( l i n e 17)  "Ou l e s vaisseaux g l i s s a n t dans l ' o r et dans l a moire" ("La Chevelure", p. 101, l i n e 18)  "Dans un grand nonchaloir charge de souvenir" ( l i n e 20)  "0 parfum charge de nonchaloir" • •*  Des souvenirs..." ("La Chevelure", p. 101, l i n e s 2 and 4)  "Je f u i s et je m'accroche a toutes l e s croisees" • • •  Je me mire et me v o i s angel et je meurs et j aime - Que l a v i t r e soit 1* a r t , s o i t l a mysticit£" ( l i n e s 25, 29-30) f  "Leonard de V i n c i , m i r o i r profond et sombre Ou des anges charmants avec un doux sourire Tout charge de mystere apparaissent a 1'ombre" ("Les Phares", 1857, p. 89, l i n e s 5-7)  TABLE (Continued)  "Les Fenetres" (continued)  "Que dore l e matin chaste de 1' I n f i r t i " • • •  Baudelaire's Works  "Vers l e s cieux l e matin prennent un Libre essor" ("L«Elevation", l i n e 18)  "Au c i e l anterieur ou f l e u r i t l a Beaute^' ( l i n e s 28 and 32) " E s t - i l moyen, o. moi qui connais l'amertume D'enfoncer l e c r i s t a l par l e monstre i n s u l t e Et de m' enfuir avec mes deux a i l e s sans plumes Au risque de tomber pendant 1* e t e r n i t e " ( l a s t stanza)  *'M.  O.C.,  pp. 32-33; composed May,  "Nous voulons, tant ce feu nous brule l e cerveau Plonger au fond du gouffre, Enfer ou C i e l , qu importe Au fond de 1' Inconnu pour trouver du nouveau" ("Le Voyage", 1854, p. 203, l a s t stanza) T  1863.  ** A l l quotations are taken from C. Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de l a . P l e i a d e .  TABLE (Continued)  Baudelaire's Works  "L Azur"# f  "De l ' ^ t e r n e l azur l a sereine i r o n i e Accable... Le poete impuissant..." ( l i n e s 1-2 and 3)  "Des  "1»Ideal c r u e l " ( l i n e 22)  "Vers l e s o l e i l ironique et cruellement ("Le Cygne", p. 158, l i n e 26)  "Encor! que sans r e p i t l e s t r i s t e s chemin£es Fument et que de suie une errante prison Eteigne dans 1'horreur de ses noires trainees Le s o l e i l se mourant jaunatre a l'horizon" (Lines 17-20)  "Quand l a pluie etalant ses immenses trainees d'une vaste prison imite l e s barreaux" ("Spleen" LXXVII, p. 147, l i n e s 9-10)  "Et maintenant l a profondeur du c i e l me consterne, sa l i m p i d i t e m'exaspere" ("Le Confiteor de 1'Artiste", p. 284)  "Lugubrement b a i l l e r vers un trepas obscur" ( l i n e 23)  •* M. O.C.,  pp. 37-38; composed January  Cieux s p i r i t u e l s 1*inaccessible azur" ("L'Aube s p i r i t u e l " , p. 120, l i n e 5)  bleu"  "Et dans un baillement a v a l e r a i t l e monde" ("Au Lecteur", p. 81, l i n e 36)  1864.  A l l quotations are taken from C. Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes, Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade.  TABLE (Continued) Baudelaire's Works**  "Brise Marine"* "Fuirt la-bas f u i r l Je sens que des oiseaux sont ivres d'etre parmi l'ecume inconnue et les cieux" (lines 2-3)  "Par d e l i le s o l e i l , par dela les ethers Par dela. les confins des spheres 6toilees  For rhythm and movement of above lines  "Emporte-moi,. wagon, enleve-moi fregate Loin*, loin', i c i l a boue est faite de nos pleurs" ("Moesta et Errabunda", 1855, p. 137, lines 11-12)  "refletes par les yeux" (line 4)  "reflete par mes yeux" ("La V^e anterieure", 1854-55, p. 93, line 8)  "Leve l'ancre pour une exotique nature'. Un Ennui..." (lines 10 and l l ) .  "... levons l'ancrel Ce pays nous ennuie" ("Le Voyage", 1859, VIII, p. 203, lines 1-2)  "Mais 5 mon coeur, entends le chant des matelots" (last line)  "Se mele dans mon ame au chant du marinier" ("Parfum exotique" , 1857, p. 100, last line)  • " *  Envoles-toi bien l o i n . . . " ("Elevation", p.86, lines 3-4 and 9)  * M. O.c, p. 3 8 ; composed May 1865. ** A l l quotations are taken from C. Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade.  108  NOTES TO PART I I I  1. We have l i s t e d i n tabular form at the end of t h i s part of the study (pp. 99-107) a number of i n t e r e s t i n g "rapprochements" i n the works of these two poets. l a . M.O.c.. pp. 14-15; see p. 1386 f o r date of manuscript. ?-2. H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. p. 3. See Table, p. 4.  30.  99.  Baudelaire, Charles, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de,1a Pleiade (henceforth r e f e r r e d to as B. O . c ) , pp. 437-440: "Le Poeme du Haschisch I - Le gout de l ' I n f i n i " .  5. Cf. B. OjC., p. 244, "Le Gouffre"; p. 151. "L*Irremediable"; and p. 107, "De Profundi Clamavi". See also C. Baudelaire, Les F l e u r s du Mal. Editions Garnier Freres, notes by Antoine Adam, pp. 300 and 448, and B. Fondane's work, Baudelaire et 1'Experience du Gouffre: c f . A. Ayda, Le drame i n t e r i e u r de Mallarme, p. 144. 6. M. O.c,  p. 14.  7. I b i d . . pp. 15-16. See p. 1387 f o r date of manuscript. 8. I t was published by Dr. E. Bonniot i n l a Revue de France of January 1st, 1930; see M. OX., p. 1387. 9. See Table, p. 100.  ,  10. Cf. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme d i s c i p l e de Baudelaire: Le Parnasse Contemporain" i n R.H.L.F.. tome 67, 1967, p. 438. 11. Cf. M. ( X c , p.  1387.  12. I b i d . , pp. 28-30. 13. See i b i d . , p. 1405 and pp. 1408-1409. 14. See i b i d . . pp. 1406-1407. 15. See Table, p.  101.  16. A. G i l l , "Mallarme on Baudelaire", i n Currents of Thought i n French L i t e r a t u r e , pp. 109-110. 17. See Part I I , pp.  18. In M. O j C , pp. 32-40.  NOTES TO PART III (Continued)  19. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 212. 20. M. O.c.. p. 1424, Letter i s dated April 15, 1364. 21. Cf. L.J. Austin, op. c i t . . p. 440. 22. Cited i n A. Lagarde et L. Michard, XIXe siecle. p. 445. 23. M. O.c., p. 34.  24. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. pp. 30-31. 25. B. (he., pp. 144-146.  26. See Table. p. 102. 27. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 31, Footnote 1. 28. M. O.c., p. 35; see p. 1424 for other t i t l e s of this poem. 29. See Table, p. 103. 30. See Table. pp. 104-105. 31. See Part I I . p. 52. 32. B. O.c.. pp. 290-292.  33. Ibid.. pp. 88-90. 34. Cf. L.J. Austin, op. c i t . . p. 446. 35. G-. Poulet, Etudes sur le temps humain. II. La Distance interieure p. 305; cf. H. Mondor, Autres Precisions sur Mallarme et Inedits. p. 57. 36. See Part I I . p. 54. 37. See Table, p. 106. 38. See Table, p. 106. 39. A different interpretation has been given by Charles Chass£ i n his work Les Clefs de Mallarme; "... s i on s a i s i t que chez Mallarme ' impuissance' et ' s t e r i l i t e ' doivent etre tenus comme ayant une portee aussi bien physiologique qu'intellectuelle, on s'apercevra qu'ils conduisent a de tres curieuses interpretations... Cette s t e r i l i t e , c'est l u i qui le declare, se manifeste chez l u i par des signes qui sont d'abord d'ordre physique et qui ont un profond retentissement sur sa sexualite." (p. 60)  NOTES TO PART III (Continued)  40. G. Poulet, op. c i t . . p. 307. 41. Cf. L. Fiser, Le Symbole l i t t e r a i r e . p. 131. 42. M. Che., p. 38.  -  43. See Table. p. 1 0 7 . 44. B. (he., pp. 355-356.  45. A. Lagarde et L. I'll chard, XIXe siecle. p. 9 5 . 46. L. Lemonnier, "Baudelaire et Mallarme", i n La Grande Revue, juillet-octobre, 1923, p. 31. 47. M. (he., pp. 35-36.  48. Cf. L.J. Austin, op. c i t . . pp. 448-449; for other interpretations of "Las de l'amer repos", see L. Cellier, Mallarme et l a morte qui parle. pp. 103-116 and C. Chadwick, "Mallarme et l a tentation du lyrisme", i n R.H.L.F., LX, I960, p. 188-199. 49. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 215. 50.  M. Che., p. 39.  51. B. O.c., p. 131. 52. M. Che., p. 31. 53. B. Che., p. 299. 54. M. Che., p. 30.  55. See ibid.. pp. 1410-1411. 56. Y. Park, L'idee chez Mallarme. p. 6557. M. (he., pp. 41-48. 58. W. Fowlie, Mallarme. p. 35. 59. B. O.c., p. 101. 60. Ibid., p. 100. 61. Ibid., p. 104. 62. M. O.c.. p. 45, line 10.  Ill  NOTES TO PART I I I (Continued)  63. J.-P. Richard, L'Univers imaginaire de Mallarme\ p. 235; cf. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 137, and O.c.. p. 870. 64. M. Che., p. 50. . 65. B. Che., pp. 210 and 212.  66. M. (he., pp. 67-68. 67. B. O.c., p. 157. 68. I b i d . , pp. 85-86. 69. Cf. E.Noulet, L'Oeuvre po6tique de Mallarme. p. 263. 70. Line 8 o f Mallarme's sonnet, "Le vierge, l e vivace...." M. O.c., p. 68. 71. B. (he., p. 154, l i n e 14. 72. M. O.c.. p. 69; poem published i n 1887. 73. B.(hc., p. 171. 74. M. (he., p. 67; published 1883. 75. B. (he., p. 147. 76. W. Fowlie, op. c i t . . pp. 185-186. 77. E. Noulet, op. c i t . . p. 146. 78. Published May 1897. 79. M. Che., p. 464, l i n e s  15-16.  80. B. (h_c., p. 193: "Les L i t a n i e s de Satan", l i n e 22. 81. M. O.c.. p. 467, l i n e s 7-8. 82. B. O.c., p. 872.  CONCLUSION  In this survey we have attempted to clarify some of the more outstanding aspects of Mallarme's debt to Baudelaire. While the nature of this debt has been discussed by many c r i t i c s , none of their findings can be considered as conclusive. It i s clear that Mallarme's style underwent considerable change before reaching the complex perfection of his later poems. Mallarme's encounter with Baudelaire's poems i n I860 (perhaps even i n 1859) had a far-reaching effect on his thought and verse; this encounter pointed out the path he was henceforth to follow and gave him his f i r s t real impulsion which  made i t possible for him to  ultimately achieve his originality. Mallarme was influenced not only by Baudelaire's poetry, but also by his prose poems and his c r i t i c a l writings. There i s no doubt that i t was the Romantic aspect of Baudelaire - the sinister and the macabre elements - that f i r s t appealed to Mallarme. "Galanterie Macabre" and "L'Enfant  prodigue",  both composed i n 1861, are very Baudelairian i n subject, tone and expression. Yet, even i n the latter poem, Mallarme's originality i s evident. In other poems written between 1862 and 1865 Baudelaire's influence becomes less and less apparent. However, Baudelairian reminiscences, though rare i n later poetry, never completely disappear. As early as 1862 Mallarme expressed an original doctrine i n "L'Art pour Tous", and i n the same year, his poem "Le Guignon" contains a veiled criticism of the "master". Moreover, i n this same year, Mallarme" gave a definition of poetry which diverged from that  of Baudelaire ,  namely that poetry should exist "par son propre reve"  rather than r e f l e c t " l e lyrisme de l a r e a l i t e " . Mallarme's poem "Les Fenetres", composed i n 1863, though containing several Baudelairian reminiscences, already goes beyond Baudelaire i n h i s t o t a l r e j e c t i o n of the material world. Mallarme's "Las de l'amer repos", composed 1864, may be interpreted as bidding f a r e w e l l t o anguished  lyricism  i n favour of a more serene and impersonal poetry. In 1867, when Mallarme declared he was detached from Baudelaire, h i s a s s e r t i o n was by no means a whim of the moment, f o r he r e a l l y believed i t t o be a f a c t . He d i d not believe, as d i d Baudelaire, that the r e a l could be linked t o the s p i r i t u a l or " l e reve". He f e l t that such an assumption would  degrade the s p i r i t u a l element. Mallarme wished  to eliminate the r e a l or material. Language became a l l important to Mallarme. His poetics were grounded on aesthetic concepts, whereas Baudelaire's were grounded on metaphysical correspondences  between  the v i s i b l e and non-visible worlds. For Baudelaire, though matter was associated with s i n , i t was necessary as a s t a r t i n g point i n order t o be able t o perceive glimpses of the world beyond. For Mallarme, however, there was no question o f morality involved; matter must be abolished because i t destroyed the unity and coherence of the universe. Mallarme's poetic world was situated i n the nonphenomenal whereas Baudelaire's wa3 never e n t i r e l y separated from reality. Other concepts held by the two*poets, however, present c e r t a i n a f f i n i t i e s . For example, Mallarme shared Baudelaire's disgust f o r the material, and both viewed E x t e r n a l i t y as a d i s t o r t i o n of a transcendant Absolute. By h i s theory of correspondances  Baudelaire  114  also made Mallarme more aware of the existence of a world beyond, and helped c l a r i f y his notion of the Ideal. The contrast between this . aspiration and what this world represented gave rise i n both poets to a feeling of "ennui" or "spleen", and a desire to escape to a world that lay beyond. The "mal" Baudelairian, an intense form of "le mal du siecle", was bequeathed to Mallarme and can be described as "1'angoisse". For Baudelaire  this world offered certain pleasures,  whereas for Mallarme earthly happiness was "ignoble". Mallarme's concept of the ideal was therefore more ethereal and transcended that of Baudelaire. From Baudelaire, Mallarme also inherited the concept of the poet's essential superiority, one whose very genius condemns him to a l i f e of unhappiness i n this world. Mallarme carried Baudelaire' s intellectual "dandysme" into his work: he dreamed of creating a sophisticated language that would render his verse  incomprehensible  -  to a l l but true poets. Baudelaire also bequeathed to Mallarme a certain conception of art as well as of l i f e . It i s the poet's exalted role to reveal Beauty, and poetry must have no other aim but i t s e l f . Both poets had an uncomprising devotion to their task. Mallarme, like Baudelaire, was against didactic and descriptive poetry, and opposed to the l y r i c sentimentality of the Romantic poets. Like Baudelaire, Mallarme used imagery and symbolic expression to evoke an "etat d'ame". Baudelaire's concept of poetry as suggestion and as "sorcellerie evocatoire" became one of the corner-stones of Mallarme's poetics. From Baudelaire, Mallarme also inherited the concept of " a r t i f i c i a l i t y " construed as superior to reality. No less than Baudelaire, he appreciated the  115  necessity of hard work and the need for a lucid intelligence to transform "le reve" into a work of art. The impossibility of realizing the ideal gave rise to feelings of "spleen" and of anguish i n the two poets. The most durable element of Baudelaire's influence, and indeed that which constitutes the essential of Mallarme* s debt to his great predecessor, was the role that the theory of correspondances played i n the development arid formulation of Mallarme's poetic thought, an element which contributed to his unrealized dream to create " l e l i v r e " , a project which haunted him u n t i l his untimely death.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  WORKS BY CHARLES BAUDELAIRE  Baudelaire, Charles. Les Fleurs du Mal. texte etabli et presente par Edouard Maynial, Editions Fernand Roches, Paris, 1929. - Les Fleurs du Mal. edition critique etablie par Jacques Crepet et Georges Blin, Librairie Jose Corti, Paris, 1942. - Les Fleurs du Mal. Editions Gamier Freres, Introduction, Releve de variantes et notes par Antoine Adam, Paris, 1961. -Oeuvres completes de C h a r l e s B a u d e l a i r e . V. P r e f a c e : Edgar Poe: Sa v i e e t ses oeuvres ( 1 8 5 6 ) , p p . 3-32, 2nd ed. , Calmann-Levy, P a r i s , 1873. -  -Oeuvres completes de C h a r l e s B a u d e l a i r e . V I . P r e f a c e : Notes n o u v e l l e s sur. Edgar Poe ( 1 8 5 7 ) , p p . 1-24, Calmann-Levy, P a r i s 1869.  -Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade, texte etabli et annote par Y.-G. Le Dantec, Librairie Gallimard, Paris, 1954.  WORKS IN TRANSLATION  The Painter of Modern Life and Other Essays. Translated and edited by Jonathan Mayne, Phaidon Publishers Inc., Distributed by New York Graphic Society Publishers Ltd., Greenwich, Connecticut, 1963, pages 69-110. Baudelaire as a Literary C r i t i c . Selected Essays Introduced and Translated by Lois Boe Hyslop and Francis E. Hyslop, Jr., The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsylvania', 1964, pages 1-34 and 89-135.  118  WORKS BY STEPHANE MALLARME  Mallarme, Stephane. 0euvre3 completes, texte etabli et annote" par H. Mondor et G. Jean-Aubry, Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade, Librairie Gallimard, Pari3, 1945. - Propos sur l a poesie. recueillis et presented par H. Mondor, Editions du Rocher, Monaco, 1946. - Entre quatre murs. published by H. Mondor i n Mallarme lyceen. Gallimard, Paris, 1954, pages 121-225. - Correspondance (1862-1871), recueillie, classee et annot£e par H. Mondor, avec l a collaboration de Jean-Pierre Richard, Gallimard, Paris, 1959.  WORKS IN TRANSLATION  Stephane Mallarme i n English Verse. Translated by Arthur E l l i s . With an Introduction by G. Turquet-Mines, London, Jonathan Cape Ltd., 1927. Poems of Mallarme. Translated by Roger Fry. With Commentaries by Charles Mauron, Chatto & Windus, London, 1938. Mallarme: Selected Prose Poems. Essays & Letters. Translated and with an Introduction by Bradford Cook, Baltimore, The John Hopkins Press, 1956.  WORKS BY EDGAR ALLAN POE The Works of Edgar Allan Poe. edited by James A. Harrison, Kelmscott Society Publishers, N.Y., vol. 14, 1902. The Poetic Principle, pp. 266-292.  IN TRANSLATION Poe, Edgar Allan. Le Principe de l a Poesie. texte anglais. Traduction et notes de Charles Bellanger, Editions du Myrte, Paris, 1945.  CRITICAL WORKS  Aish, Deborah. La metaphore dans l'oeuvre de Mallarme. Droz, Paris, 1938. Austin, Llyod James. L'univers poetigue de Baudelaire. Symbolisme et Symbolique, Mercure de France, Paris, 1956. Ayda, A d i l e . Le drame i n t e r i e u r de Mallarme ou l ' o r i g i n e des symboles mallarmeens. Editions La Turquie Moderne, Istambul (et J . C o r t i , P a r i s ) , 1955. Bandy, W.T. et Pichois, C. Baudelaire devant ses contemporains. Monaco, E d i t i o n s du Rocher, 1957. Barlow, Norman H. Sainte-Beuve to Baudelaire. A Poetic Legacy, Duke University Press, Durham, N.C., 1964. Beausire, P. Mallarme. Poesie et poetique. Mermod, Lausanne, 1950. Bennett, Joseph D. Baudelaire: A C r i t i c i s m . Princeton, New Princeton University Press, 1946.  Jersey,  B e r t o c c i , Angelo P h i l i p p . From Symbolism t o Baudelaire. Southern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1964. B i r d , Edward . L u n i v e r s poetique de Stephane Mallarme. L i b r a i r i e A.G. Nizet, P a r i s , 1962. r  C e l l i e r , Leon. Mallarme et l a morte qui parle. Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de France, P a r i s , 1959. Chasse, Charles. Les Clef3 de Mallarme. E d i t i o n s Aubier-Montaigne, • P a r i s , 1954. Ch6rix, Robert-Benoit. Commentaire des Fleurs du Mal. L i b r a i r i e E. Droz & L i b r a i r i e Minord, Geneve et P a r i s , 1962. C h i a r i , Joseph. Symbolisme from Poe to Mallarme. The Growth o f a Myth. R o c k l i f f , London, 1956. Chisholm, A.R. Mallarme's Grand Oeuvre. Manchester University Press, 1962 Cohn, R.G. Towards the Poems of Mallarme. University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1965. - Mallarme's Masterwork. New Findings. Mouton & Co., The Hague P a r i s , 1966.  120 CRITICAL WORKS (Continued) Delfel, Guy. L'Esthetique de Stephane Mallarme. Flammarion, Paris,  1951.  Eigeldinger, M. Le platonisme de Baudelaire. Paris, 57, rue de l'Universite, 1951. Fabureau, H. Stephane Mallarme. Son Oeuvre. Editions de l a Nouvelle Revue Critique, Paris, 1933. F e r r a n , Andre. L ' E s t h e t i q u e de B a u d e l a i r e , L i b r a i r i e H a c h e t t e , P a r i s , 1933, pages 157-212.  Fiser, E. Le Symbole l i t t e r a i r e . Librairie Jose Corti, Paris,  19U.  Fondane, B. Baudelaire et 1'experience du Gouffre. Pierre Seghers, Paris, 1947. Fowlie, Wallace. Mallarme. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, I l l i n o i s , 1953. Gengoux, J. Le Symbolisme de Mallarme, Nizet, Paris, 1950. Gilman, Margaret. Baudelaire the Critic. Columbia University Press, New York, 1943, pages 55-133. Lagarde, A., et Michard, L. XIXe Siecle. Editions Bordas, Paris, 1965, pages 429-454 and 530-539. Lehman, A.G. The Symbolist Aesthetic i n France. Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1950. Lemonnier, Leon. Edgar Poe et les Poetes francais. Editions de l a Nouvelle Revue Critique, Paris, 1932. Mauron, Charles. Mallarme 1*obscur. Editions Denoel, Paris, 1941. - Introduction a l a psychoanalyse de Mallarme. La Baconniere, Neuchatel, 1950. - Stephane Mallarme. Poems translated by Roger Fry with commentaries by Charles Mauron, Chatto and Windus, London, 1956. Michaud, Guy. Mallarme. Connaissance des Lettres, Hatier, Paris,1953. - Mallarme. Translated by Marie Collins and Bertha Humez, New York University Press, 1965. - Message po^tique du Symbolisme. Librairie Nizet, Paris, 1961, pages 43-80 and 159-198. Mossop, D.J. Baudelaire's Tragic Hero. Oxford University Press, 1961.  CRITICAL WORKS (Continued) Mondor, Henri. Vie de Mallarme. v o l . 1, G a l l i m a r d P a r i s , 1940-41. -Mallarme plus intime. Gallimard, Paris, - Mallarme lyceen. Gallimard, Paris,  1944.  1954.  -Autres precisions sur Mallarme et Inedits. Gallimard, Paris, 1961. Noulet, E. L'Oeuvre poetique de Mallarme. L i b r a i r i e Droz, Paris, 1940. — V i n g t poemes de Stephane Mallarme. Exegeses, L i b r a i r i e Droz, Geneve, 1948. Park, Y. L'Idee chez Mallarme. Ph. D. Thesis, Paris,  1966.  Peyre, H. Connaissance de Baudelaire. L i b r a i r i e Jose C o r t i , P a r i s , 1951. Plant, J.F. Charles Baudelaire et l a pensee l i t t e r a i r e d'Edgar A l l a n Poe. M.A. Thesis, U.B.C., 1967. Pommier, J . Dans l e s chemins de Baudelaire. Jose C o r t i ,  1948.  Poulet, Georges. Etudes sur l e Temps Humain. I I , La Distance Interieure. L i b r a i r i e Plon, Paris, 1952, Chapitre IX, pages 298-355. Raymond, Marcel. From Baudelaire to Surrealism. Wittenborn Schultz Inc., New York, 1950. Raynaud, Ernest. La Meiee symboliste. La Renaissance du L i v r e , P a r i s , 1920, tome I I . Richard, Jean-Pierre. L'Univers imaginaire de Mallarme. Editions du S e u i l , P a r i s , 1961. Ruff, Marcel A. L e s p r i t du mal et 1'esthetique baudelairienne. L i b r a i r i e Armand C o l i n , Paris, 1955. T  - Baudelaire, l'homme et l'oeuvre. Hatier-Boivin, Paris,  1955-  - Baudelaire. Translated and s l i g h t l y abridged by Agnes Kertesz, New York U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966. Scherer, Jacques. L'Expression l i t t e r a i r e dans l'oeuvre de Mallarme. P a r i s , L i b r a i r i e Droz, 1947. - Le " L i v r e " de Mallarme. Preface d'Henri Mondor, Gallimard, P a r i s , 1957.  CRITICAL WORKS (Continued)  Starkie, Enid. Baudelaire. Faber and Faber, London, pages 213-219, and 294-306. Symons, Arthur. The Symbolist Novement i n L i t e r a t u r e . E.P. Dutton and Co. Inc., New York, 1958. Thibaudet, A l b e r t . La Poesie de Stephane Mallarme. Gallimard, P a r i s , 1926. Turquet-Milnes, G. The Influence of Baudelaire i n France and England, London, 1913. Valery, Paul. Variete I I . " S i t u a t i o n de Baudelaire", pages 141174; "Lettre sur 24allarme", pages 211-241, Gallimard, P a r i s , 1930. - E c r i t s d i v e r s sur Stephane Mallarme. Editions de l a N.R.F., Paris, Gallimard, 1950. Wais, Kurt. Mallarme. E i n Dichter des Jahrundert-Endes, H. Verlagsbuchhandlung, MUnchen, 1938.  Bech*sche  Walzer, P.-0. Essai sur Stephane Mallarme. Paris, Editions P. Seghers "Poetes d'Aujourd'hui", No. 94, 1963. Wellek, Rene. A History of Modern C r i t i c i s m . 1750-1950. Vol 4, The Later Nineteenth Century, New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 1965, pages 434-463.  ARTICLES  Adam, Antoine. "Premieres etapes d'un itineraire", i n Lea Lettres. tome II, 1948, pages 125-134. Austin, L.J. "Mallarme et le Reve du 'Livre'", i n Mercure de France tome 317, 1953, janvier-avril, pages 81-108. - Les "Annees d'Apprentissage de Stephane Mallarme", i n Revue d'Histoire Litteraire de l a France. 56e annee, no. 1, janvier-mars, 1956, pages 65-84. - "Mallarme disciple de Baudelaire: Le Parnasse Contemporain", i n Revue d'Histoire Litteraire de l a France, tome 67, 1967, pages 437-449. Charpentier, H. "De Stephane Mallarme", i n Nouvelle Revue Francaise tome 27, 1926, j u i l l e t - d e c , pages 537-545. Claudel,Pierre. "La Catastrophe d'Igitur", i n Nouvelle Revue Francaise. tome 27, 1926, j u i l l e t - d e c , pages 531-536. Davies G. "Stephane Mallarme. F i f t y Years of Research", i n French Studies. Jan. 1947, Vol. 1, no. 1, pages 1-26. G i l l , A. "Mallarme on Baudelaire", i n Currents of Thought i n French Literature. Essays i n Memory of G.T. Clapton, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1965, pages 89-114. Jones, P.M. "Poe, Baudelaire and Mallarme: A Problem of Literary Judgement", i n Modern Language Review. Cambridge, At the University Press, Vol. XXXIX, 1944, pages 236-246. King, W.W. "Baudelaire and Mallarme: Metaphysics or Aesthetics", In Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. Vol. 26, 1967, pages 115-123. Lemonnier L. "Baudelaire et Mallarme", i n La Grande Revue, j u i l l e t octobre, 1923, pages 16-31. - "Influence d'Edgar Poe sur Mallarme", i n Revue Mondiale. tome 184, 1929, fevrier 15, pages 361-370. - "Baudelaire et Mallarme, Traducteurs d'Edgar Poe", i n Les Langues Modernes. Janvier-fevrier, tome XLIII, 1949, pages 47-57. Roussel, Jean-Paul. "Les Themes poetiques de Mallarme", i n Les Lettres. tome III, 1948, pages 114-124.  ARTICLES (Continued)  Starobinski, J. "Mallarme et l a Tradition Poetique Francaise", i n Les Lettres. tome III, 1943, pages 35-45. Thibaudet, A. "A 1'ombre des Contemplations: Baudelaire et Mallarm£" i n Nouvelle Revue Francaise, tome 40, l e r juin 1933, pages 865-872.  

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