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An appraisal of Mallarmé's debt to Baudelaire 1969

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.AN APPRAISAL OF MALLARME»S DEBT TO BAUDELAIRE by BESSIE GERTRUDE ROSENTHAL B.A. University of Alberta, 1941 B. Ed., University of Alberta, 1947 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of FRENCH We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1969 In presenting th i s thes i s in pa r t i a l f u l f i lment of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r ee l y ava i l ab le for reference and study. I fu r ther agree tha permission for extensive copying of th i s thes i s fo r scho lar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th i s thes i s f o r f i nanc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permiss ion. Department of The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i i ABSTRACT This study represents an attempt to determine the extent of Mallarme's debt to Baudelaire. It i s generally recognized that Mallarme underwent the influence of Baudelaire i n the course of the development of his thought and expression. Mallarme' himself recognized this debt and at one period of his l i f e referred to Baudelaire as his master. Yet, a great diversity of opinion exists as to the importance and duration of this influence, a fact borne out by "une vue d'ensemble" of c r i t i c a l opinion. In order to bring Baudelaire's role more clearly into i t s proper perspective, the f i r s t part of this assessment contains a brief discussion of divergent c r i t i c a l opinion, and a summary of other important influences to which Mallarme i s said to have been subjected. Mallarme's poetry written prior to his encounter with poems of Les Fleurs du Mal i s also considered, particularly his religious poems and those i n the collection Entre quatre murs. In the second part of this study we compare the aesthetic and metaphysical concepts held by the two poets, and their attitudes towards society, poetry, and the material world. Their physical and spi r i t u a l worlds, and the special nature of each poet's ideal are also examined. In part III we examine some of Mallarme's poems written from 1861 to 1865 - the period i n which he i s generally believed to have been most completely under the sway of Baudelaire - with a view to i i i ascertaining in more ,tangible form Malla-me*s debt to Baudelaire, in terms of themes, imagery, and expression. We also mention certain. Baudelairian reminiscences in poems written by Mallarme after 18&5: poems in which the originality and characteristic Mallarmean traits are manifest and undisputed. This study, i t is hoped, will help not only to clarify certain concepts held by both great poets, but contribute to a greater understanding of the veritable nature of Baudelaire1s role in the development of Mallarme's unique contribution to French verse. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION .' ... 1 PART I: CRITICAL OPINION Chapter I: Mallarme's Early Years 8 Chapter II: Mallarme's Debt to Baudelaire 17 Chapter III: Other Influences 29 PART II: AESTHETIC AND METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTS Chapter I: Attitudes of the Poet Toward Society and the World 49 Chapter II:,The Spiritual and Material Worlds of the Poet 56 Chapter III: The Poetic Ideal 61 PART III: BAUDELAIRIAN REFLECTIONS IN MALLARME'S POETRY 88 TABLE 99 CONCLUSION 112 BIBLIOGRAPHY 116 ACOOWLEDGHENTS I wish to express my sincere thanks and heart-felt gratitude to Dr. Edward Bird for his most helpful advice and assistance throughout the work of this study. I am also grateful to Dr. Heather Franklyn for her many valuable suggestions for improving the manuscript. Most sincere thanks are also due to Mr. H.R. MacMillan for a Queen Elizabeth Scholarship awarded in 1967-68, and to the University of B.C. for a Graduate Fellowship received in 1963-69. Finally, I would like to extend my thanks to Dr. L. Bongie, Head of the Department of French, for his advice and encouragement. INTRODUCTION It has been generally acknowledged that Baudelaire's work influenced the development of Mallarme's poetic thought and expression. "Tous les commentateurs", wrote Jean-Pierre Richard in 1961, "ont signale le role fecondant de l'oeuvre baudelairienne, par rapport a celle de Mallarme. Mallarme lui-raeme a d'ailleurs maintes fois affirme sa dette."! Mallarme's debt to Baudelaire, however, has not been adequately appraised, and we do not have, as the same critic has pointed out, any comprehensive "travail d'ensemble" on the "rapports profonds" between these two poets. Earlier, in 1951, the critic, Henri Peyre, had remarked that "le sujet 'Mallarme et Baudelaire' a recu trop peu d'attention..."2 Wide reading reveals a remarkable divergence of critical opinion concerning the extent of Mallarme's indebtedness to Baudelaire. Part of the problem in achieving a meaningful appraisal of this debt lies in the difficulty of carefully distinguishing between the purely Baudelairian influence and the other complex forces which combined to shape Mallarme's poetry. Another vexing problem is that of delimiting the meaning of the term "influence". Joseph Chiari, for example, favours the theory of T.S. Eliot that "the problem of influence is integrated into the vaster process of unavoidable growth, a process which, in so far as what preceded unavoidably determines what followed, gives f u l l scope to direct and above a l l to indirect influence."3 Leon Cellier moreover, does not give an adequate answer to the question 2 he poses: "Mais ces mots de fraternity, parente, affinite (sans parler du plus vague de tous: influence), que signifient-ils au juste ?"V But, he points out, like Chiari, that one must first distinguish between "fond" and "forme", or between "l'art" and "le reve".^ In addition to the difficulty of defining "influence", there is the delicate task of determining the various contributions of nineteenth century thought which also form a part of this "debt". Referring to the various influences to which Mallarme was subjected at the time of his writing the collection of poems entitled Entre quatre murs. Henri Mondor sums them up in the following terms: "... les unes impu- tables aux affinites electives, aux penchants exauces, les autres venues du hasard, du souvenir des lectures, de 1'atmosphere litteraire xle l'epoque, de la rebellion d'un enfant prisonnier a qui la poesie classique la moins lyrique etait autoritairement et exclusivement imposee."0 It is therefore an extremely delicate task to separate even the affiliations of Mallarme with Baudelaire from those of Mallarme with other currents of nineteenth-century poetic thought or to state that Mallarme owed such and such an idea to Baudelaire rather than to an immediate or far-removed predecessor of Baudelaire. In his recent book, R.G. Cohn has thus summarized the evolution of Mallarme's verse: Mallarme's poems are the culmination of a long evolution of French lyricism which began in the Middle Ages, took notable shape in the sixteenth century, and after gathering subtle resources of articulation in the classic period, leaped into Romanticism and its finer heir, Symbolism... ... on the whole, in the nineteenth century, the seminal development from Lamartine through Hugo and Baudelaire to the Symbolists (with major stimulus from coeval English and German writers and the American, Poe) is predominantly an intensification of romanticism, with classicism in a supporting role.? One could, of course, trace the origins of Mallarme's thought even further back than the Middle Ages. It i s often d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible, to determine the exact f i l i a t i o n of a certain idea. For example, commenting on the theory of the oneness of the universe adopted by Mallarme, Chiari points out: "The famous theory of the oneness of the universe apprehended in moments of mystical union with the great one i s as old as Plotinus, and again, i s only a derivative of Plato's beliefs. It i s also Schelling's theory, i t f i t s with the Kantian theory of the 'noumenon' , and i t was quite widespread i n England and i n France too... These views are those of Swedenborg, Boehme, Blake and many others..."8 Y. Park, in his thesis of 1966, traces Mallarme's thought to Plotinus rather than to Plato, and also to Leibnitz, but also points out that i t was not entirely linked to any of these philosophical visions of the universe.^ For similar reasons Guy Delfel contends that neither Hegel's nor Plato's ideas had any real influence on Mallarme, and that Mallarme*s aesthetics were of his own making: "Comment ne pas voir que, dans ce cas, s i Mallarme a t i r e toute son esthetique de l u i - meme, ell e devient une vivante confirmation de l a logique de 1'atti- tude idealiste en art ? Cette confrontation devient alors une verita- ble experience philosophique et une des plus belles preuves de l a force, de l a logique et de l'ampleur de l a pensee mallarmeenne."^ The role of exterior influence i s also minimized by Jean-Pierre Richard who wrote i n 1961: " S i Mallarme d'ailleurs a subi bien des influences (de Baudelaire a Wagner, en passant par Poe, Manet, Hegel et les danseuses), c e l l e s - c i l'ont moins modifie qu'approfondi."H Mallarme himself affirmed i n 1893 i n his "Sur 1'Ideal a Vingt Ans" 4 the minimal importance of "l'apport hasardeux exterieur qu'on re- cueille... sous le nom d'experience" compared with "sa native i l l u - mination."^ He also stated in precise and clear terms the source from which he drew his inspiration: Le poete puise en son Individuality secrete et anterieure plus que dans les circonstances.13 By "Individuality secrete" Mallarme is no doubt referring to that collectivity of personal, intimate feelings which hide behind the poet's images; and by "anterieure" that particular conception which constituted his personal vision of the world prior to certain events, or, as Mme Ayda has explained, "anterieurement au choc ou chocs qui ont entralne la formation dans son ame, de complexes et de symboles."14 The nature of these events or incidents will be taken up in the next chapter. One might ask why one should study the influence to which a great poet has been subjected. Such a study does not seek to un- dermine his merits, but try to show how the poet developed and arrived at his essential originality. The growth of the creative mind is extremely interesting - in Henri Mondor's opinion i t is "plus in- teressante que celle du corps ou du coeur quand i l s'agit des ecri- vains..."-^ Mallarme himself gave an excellent commentary on his early poetry and on what distinguished i t from his mature work: II [Taine] ne croit pas qu'un ecrivain puisse entierement changer de maniere, ce qui est faux; je 1'ai observe sur moi... J'avais une prolixite violente et une enthousiaste diffusion, ecrivant tout du premier jet, bien entendu et croyant k l'effusion, en style. Qu'y a - t - i l de plus diffe- rent que 1' ecolier d'alors, vrai et primesautier, avec le litterateur d'a present qui a horreur d'une chose dite sans etre arrangee. 5 The idea that a great poet assimilates, fuses or transmutes the different elements which have influenced him or contributed to. his originality has been expressed by many critics. Paul Valery perhaps over-simplified the problem when he wrote in 1930; "C'est ainsi que Mallarme developpant en soi quelques-unes des qualites des poetes romantiques et de Baudelaire, observant en eux ce qu'ils con- tenaient de plus exquisement accompli... a peu a peu deduit une ,/maniere toute particuliere, et finalement une doctrine et des pro- blemes tout nouveaux, prodigieusement etrangers aux modes memes de sentir et de penser de ses peres et freres en poesie."^ Jean Starobinski expressed a similar idea in an article of 194-8: "Les materiaux herites de Baudelaire subiront une etrange transmu- tation, selon la l o i d'evolution interne de la production mallar- meenne."-̂ From the foregoing remarks, i t is apparent that many factors are involved in the complex task of arriving at a just assessment of Mallarme's debt to Baudelaire. It would be impossible in this brief study to attempt to trace and adequately relate a l l the influences which could have contributed to Mallarme's poetic growth or evolution. However, major problems related to this complex question will be discussed together with the comments of major critics before a final appraisal is attempted. NOTES TO INTRODUCTION 1. Jean-Pierre Richard, L'Univers Imaginaire de Mallarme. p.75. . 2. Henri Peyre, Connaissance de Baudelaire, p. 161. 3. J. Chiari, Symbolisme from Poe to Mallarme. The Growth of a Myth, p. 3; theory of T.S. Eliot propounded in Eliot's Introduction to the Selected Poems of Ezra Pound, Faber and Faber, 1928, pp. x-xi. 4. Leon Cellier, Mallarme et la morte qui parle. p. 47. 5. Ibid.. p. 48; cf. J. Chiari op.cit.. pp. 171-172. 6. Henri Mondor, Mallarme lyceen. p. 240. 7. R.G. Conn, Towards the Poems of Mallarme. pp. 1-2. 8. J. Chiari, op. ci t . . p. 41. 9. Y. Park, L'idee chez Mallarme. p. 98. 10. G. Delfel, L'Esthetioue de Stephane Mallarme. p. 70. 11. J.-P. Richard, op. cit.. p. 34. 12. Stephane Mallarme, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de la Pieiade, p. 883. 13. Ibid.. p. 876 14. A. Ayda, Le drame interieur de Mallarme ou l'origine des symboles mallarmeens, p. 94. 15. H. Mondor. op. cit.. p. 8. 16. From a letter to Eugene Lefebure of February 1865. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. pp. 154-155. 17. P. Vaiery, Variete II. "Lettre sur Mallarme", p. 215. 18. J. Starobinski, "Mallarme et la Tradition Poetique Franchise", i n Les Lettres. t. I l l , p. 44. PART I CRITICAL OPINION CHAPTER I MALLARME'S EARLY YEARS Certain events i n the l i f e of the young Mallarme deeply affected the development of his thought. L£on Celli e r , among other c r i t i c s , such as Mine Ayda and Charles Mauron, has insisted on the capital importance of Mallarme's early years. "A mesure que l a bio- graphie de Mallarme est mieux connue," asserts C e l l i e r , " i l apparait que les premieres annees de sa vie ont joue dans son destin de poete un role capital. Comme tout poete lyrique i l connaissait l a place essentielle que tiennent dans 1' imagination les souvenirs d'enfance, les extases, les amours et les douleurs enfantines."^- The following lines from Mallarme's "Conference sur V i l l i e r s de 1*Isle-Adam", written 1889-1890, reveals the large part Mallarme attributed, i n l i t e r a r y creation, to personal memories and to intimate experiences: ... Sait-on ce que c'est qu'Scrire... C'est... s'arroger... quelque devoir de tout recreer avec des reminiscences.... Un a, un, chacun de nos orgueils, les susciter dans leur ante>iorite et voir.2 Mallarme•s correspondance and early works reveal a pious, devout and mystical young Stephane. His childhood and youth, however, were marked by three major events: the death of his mother i n 1847 when Mallarme was five years old, of his sister, Maria, i n 1857, and that of a dear friend, Harriet Smyth, i n 1859. After the death of Mallarme's mother, the notion of religion was henceforth to be linked to her image and memory. Proof of this can be found i n passages of the poems, "La Cantate pour l a premiere com- munion"3, written i n 1858, four years after his f i r s t communion, 9 and "La Priere d'une Mere"4, one year later. If the pious content of these poems evokes the memory of his mother, declares Mme Ayda, "Ctest parce que, pour Mallarme 'piet£' signifiera psychiquement 'fidelite ,au souvenir de la mere' que plus tard, ayant perdu la foi religieuse, i l ne cessera d'etre poursuivi par le remords d'etre'hante par l'Azur ' ."5 These poems and two narrations written by the young Mallarme in 1854, namely, "La Coupe d'or" and "l'Ange gardien"^, reveal his fi r s t allusion to the invisible world inhabited by angels and saints, presided- over by a powerful, protective and good God - a world in which his mother was present. This world was in constant relationship with the real world. In the dream world in which the young orphan took refuge, he found goodness, purity, harmony and beauty. The mystic years of the young Stephane, those from 1854 to 1857, play an important role in MallarmeTs future development and offer valuable clues to our understanding of his subsequent thought. These years help clarify the ardour with which the poet was later to deny the existence of God. Furthermore, declares Mine Ayda, Mallarme would do his utmost to find in the practice of his poetry the sere- nity he had enjoyed during his mystic years.7 Certainly, as Mallarme wrote in 1864, he wished to reach "la plus haute cime de serenite ou 8 nous ravisse la beaute" , but whether i t was because he had already enjoyed "serenity" in his childhood is an interesting interpretation of the facts. The death of his beloved sister, Maria, August 31, 1857, was a staggering blow to the young Mallarme, and henceforth he would live haunted by the memory of the untimely event.^ Charles Mauron, like many other critics, attributes great importance to this loss in that he considered i t vit a l to "1*explication des Poesies, les confi- dences, les lettres ou les 'premiers etats' les plus suggestifs."-^ The anguish and sorrow of the young Mallarme after Maria's death can be felt in the cycle of the "Reveries" in the collection of poems Entre quatre murs.^" His sentiments and impressions at the funeral of Maria are expressed in his prose poem entitled "Plainte d'Automne", written in 1863 and first entitled "Orgue de Barbarie".Maria's name is mentioned three times, but the image of the g i r l remains indistinct. Some time after the death of Maria, Mallarme wrote a story which was inspired by the desire to see his sister return to earth even in the form of a "fantome". This story or "conte" is usually referred to by the t i t l e , "Ce que disaient les trois cigognes" 13 and i s , according to Mme Ayda, of extreme importance - i t is "le document le plus important qui existe pour la connaissance de Mallarme, la clef la plus utile, la plus efficace dont nous disposions pour de- chiffrer son oeuvre."1^ Her chapter entitled "la genese des symboles" shows how the poignant memory of his sister, "la blanche creature" of the narration will continue to nourish the imagination of Stephane Mallarme and will inspire in him "bien des images et bien des strophes imperissables..."^5 Moreover, the incomprehensibility of the young man at the death of his sister, and his desire for an explanation of the absurdity of the acts of Providence lies at the origin of the metaphysical curiosity that will remain with the poet throughout his l i f e . 1 6 Although H. Mondor attributed this "conte" to an earlier 11 • 17 period (1857-1853) to the "epoque s£raphique du poete" , L.J. Austin suggests that i t was written i n i860 when Mallarme" became acquainted with Baudelaire's work. In addition to the fact that the style of this narration appears to be superior to the writing of many of the poems i n the collection, Entre quatre murs. written 1859-1860, Austin asserts 18 that i t also contains Baudelairian echoes. Similarly P.O. Walzer: has pointed out some Baudelairian reminiscences i n this "conte"19 which would seem to bear out Austin's contention. It does however seem rather contradictory, i n view of the above statement, that Austin could not find i n any of the poems of Entre quatre murs. some of which were written i n 1860^any trace of a knowledge, even superficial, of 20 Baudelaire. Another tragic event which had a marked effect on the young Mallarme was the death i n 1859 of his friend, Harriet Smyth, to whom he had become greatly attached since the death of his sister. In terms of i t s far-reaching influence on his work, this was perhaps the most important c r i s i s through which Mallarme passed.^ It was only with Mondor's discovery of some of Mallarme's notebooks, published i n Mallarme lyceen i n 195422, that the fact became known that the heroine celebrated i n the two elegies, "Sa fosse est creusee" and "Sa tombe est fermee" ,was really known and loved by Mallarme. It i s interesting to note that i n 1938 Kurt Wais expressed the hypothesis - at a time when the heroine of the two poems was not known - that one can find i n these two works the germ of a l l Mallarme's poetry, and that the tragedy they contained caused the poet to lose faith i n religion and therefore l i e s at the.root of his subsequent longing for a "paradis ant£rieur".23 jn a subsequent work on Mallarme, Wais 12 abandoned this hypothesis, one with which Mme Ayda finds herself i n agree- ment. The psychic and moral upheaval caused by the deaths of Maria and Harriet, she states, "determinera les conditions dans lesquelles s'edifiera 1*architecture du symbolisme mallarmeen".2h The word "anterieur" which occurs frequently i n Mallarme's poetry i s used with the meaning "anterieur au doute" or "anterieur aux evenements qui ont provoque le doute" or "anterieur de l a perte de l a foi".25 The depth of the moral c r i s i s which shook Stephane Mallarme i n the year 1859 can be more justly measured when one reads the poems in the collection Entre quatre murs. Five months after he had written the long poem "Priere d'une mere" (1859) in which he had expressed the feeling that prayers alone could save him from danger, and in which he asked God to leave his faith intact, Mallarme wrote a poem i n which he expressed his indignation that his prayer had not been granted. In "Colere d'Allah", written December 7, 1859, we find such lines as, Allah le regardait d'un o e i l indifferent and Allah le regardait froid comme un Dieu de marbre.^''' With Harriet's death, the interior universe of Mallarme underwent a deep transformation. The pious child i s seen emancipating himself from the moral and doctrinal constraints that had dominated him u n t i l then. Henceforth, other themes appear i n his work. In Entre quatre murs. writes L.J. Austin, "une orientation toute nouvelle apparait... a cote des plaintes elegiaques des fanfaronnades bacchiques et bientot, des reveries erotiques et des eclats blasphematoires. Ce sont des vers d'un adolescent trouble..."^ The c r i s i s of 1859 brought about a revolt against God, and loss of faith. •a- /; *• # 29 Entre quatre murs contains over 1400 lines. Of the large quantity the young Mallarme composed i n such a short time (1859- 1860), L . J . Austin has observed, "Ce recueil... su f f i t ainsi a. battre en breche T l a legende imbecile de sa st£rilit£ hative, de.son im- puissance'. II faut dire pourtant, que c Test Mallarme le premier qui a imprudemment cree cette legende; mais i l ne f a l l a i t pas prendre au pied de l a lettre ses nombreuses allusions, dans ses poemes et ses lettres de jeunesse, a. sa ' s t e r i l i t e ' et a. son Timpuissance' ."30 Thus, when Mallarme complained of " s t e r i l i t e " or "impuissance" i t was not due to the fact that he could not write poetry, but that he could not write the kind of poetry he wished. Both H. Mondor and L . J . Austin, who have made a careful study of the poems of this collection, state that the quality i s rather mediocre, and does not presage the exquisite verse to come.-̂ It i s interesting to note that i n Mallarme's poem "Cloche des Morts"32> 0ne finds the quadruple repetition of "Heias" , a device subsequently used by Mallarme i n "L'Azur" and which has been gene- r a l l y attributed to the influence of Poe.33 Moreover, L . J . Austin did not find any trace of Baudelaire's influence i n the poems of Entre quatre murs.-^ Although one can find numerous references to such Baudelairian terms as "chevelure", "tresses", and "parfum"-^ , these, according to H. Mondor, preceded Mallarme's acquaintance with Baude- lai r e ' s work. Mondor seems anxious not to attribute any influence to Baudelaire at this stage. He argues i n favour of Hugo's influence 14 regarding, for example, the use of "fleurdelise": " l a lecture de 1' adjectif fleurdelise m*ayant rappele dans Spleen de Baudelaire que Mallarme recopiait en i860, l e vers "Son l i t fleurdelise se transforme en tombeau" je crus d'abord a cette influence; mais i l est plus vraisemblable que les deux poetes cadets avaient lu, dans Hugo (les Contemplations): "Et f a u t - i l qu'a, jamais pour moi, quand vient le soir Au l i e u de s'etoiler le l i t se fleurdelise..."36 The major influences on Mallarme at the time he wrote Entre quatre murs were, as both H. Mondor, L.J. Austin and others have pointed out, those of Lamartine, de Musset and above a l l of Victor Hugo. It i s as a disciple of Musset, declares Austin, that Mallarme opens his collection, but this influence was not lasting, and the last borrowing from Musset seems to date from July 1859.37 Mallarme himself recognized the presence of "l'ame lamartinienne" i n himself: ... puis j ' a i traverse bien des pensions et lyc£es, d'ame lamartinienne avec un secret desir de remplacer, un jour, Beranger...33 Leon Ce l l i e r points out that "l'ame du jeune Mallarme etait lamarti- nienne parce que sa priere etait celle de 1'enfant a son revel 1."^ The influence of Lamartine i s also to be found i n the pious poems written preceding the collection Entre quatre murs. Mme Ayda also argues for the influence of Lamartine, as well as that of Victor Hugo, in the two elegies, "Sa fosse est creuseV 1, and "Sa tombe est fermee".40 From February 1859, Mallarme reveals himself a f a i t h f u l d i s - ciple of Victor Hugo. This major influence which w i l l be taken up again i n a later chapter, persists throughout the collection of poems, even when other elements are included.41 15 There were other minor influences of the Romantic poets^; surprisingly, Vigny i s the only one (according to L.J. Austin) of a l l the great Romantic poets who does not seem to have influenced Mallarme. The influence of these poets, contends Mme Ayda, was to remain with Mallarme throughout his l i f e : "Des sa tendre adolescence Mallarme s*etait nourri des merveilles du Romantisme et son esprit etait imbu des themes romantiques. II ne fera que chanter ces themes jusqu'a l a f i n de sa vie... Le jeune Mallarme empruntera aux Romantiques non settlement leurs themes, leurs images, mais aussi leur terrainologie, leurs symboles. Le vocabulaire du jeune Chretien s'en trouvera trans- forme."^ Mallarme wrote of his personal preferences and of his ideal i n A p r i l I860 : Moi, quand j'etais petit et que j'etais classique J'etais a parler franc, fort peu melancolique J'aimais le sucre d'orge et les vers de Racine. Des fleurs ?... je connaissais les fleurs de papier peint: Les fleurs de rhetorique et les fleurs du Parnasse. Mon ideal etait ces vieux coqs etames Qui grincent betement sur les clochers ruines: (Reponse a une Piece de Vers)44 Thus, Mallarme traces his passage from classicism to Parnassianism, and then to Romanticism. As early as 1859 Mallarme appears to recognize the mediocrity of his poetry for he wrote i n one of his poems: "Ces vers sont bien mauvais."^-* Accordingly, he set out to improve his poetry by copying out certain works of his favourite poets. Three notebooks containing Mallarme's copyings, each dated I860 and entitled "Glanes", were found by Mondor at the same time as the notebook containing Entre quatre murs. The t i t l e s of the poems that appear i n these notebooks are li s t e d i n Mallarme lyceerr , and the number of lines transcribed is given as .more than Why did Mallarme copy so many lines ? Mondor ex- plains that i t was because Mallarme, dissatisfied with his volume of poetry, felt the necessity of studying other poetry "et d'abord en III artisan. ** L.J. Austin expresses a similar opinion, "... l'on peut se demander si Mallarme n'avait pas cesse sa production personnelle pour etudier de plus pres son metier."49 In his personal anthology of I860, Mallarme included nine poems by Poe and twenty-nine by Baudelaire; many poems by 16th cen- tury poets were also included. Regarding his choice of Baudelaire's poems, Mondor commented that i t represented "toutes les cordes baude- lairiennes", especially "les plus specifiques, morbides et sinistres: le romantisme noir herite de 1820, la recherche d'etrangete pronee par Gautier, le gout du macabre et le sublime du familier dus a Sainte-Beuve."^ What a contrast between this selection and Mallarme's "Cantate pour la premiere communion" or his "Priere d'une mere" '. L.J. Austin agrees with Mondor that the poems chosen from Baudelaire were among "les plus virulents"^ 1, but he claims that "toutes les cordes baudelairiennes" are not represented: "Ce qui frappe dans ce choix, ce sont les omissions autant que les poemes retenus... tous ces elements essentiels du recueil echappant pour le moment au jeune lyceen qui bientot pourtant devait assumer pleinement 1'heritage de Baudelaire."52 Thus, i t was the romanticism of Baudelaire that first impressed Mallarme. Indeed, i f Mallarme had such a fervent admiration for Baudelaire, i t was no doubt because he considered him the last of the great Romantics. CHAPTER II MALLARME'S DEBT TO BAUDELAIRE Most critics agree that the reading of Baudelaire's poems .had a very great influence on Mallarme. After reading les Fleurs du Mal. wrote Mondor in 1954, Mallarme realized the weaknesses of his volume of poetry Entre quatre murs and abandoned any idea of publishing i t : "Apres la lecture des Fleurs du Mal. en effet, tout ce premier vol- ume que les ouvrages non decourageants de Victor Hugo avaient a la fois inspire et facilite dut lui paraitre tout a. fait pueril."-^*- It was Baudelaire who, according to the same critic, liberated Mallarme's spirit and indicated the path he was to follow. 55 In an article of 1956, L.J. Austin echoed Mondor's opinion that Baudelaire, and then Poe, "mettent Mallarme... dans la voie qu'il cherchait jus- 56 qu'alors en vain." It was the following lines by Baudelaire written in 1857, that, in Mondor's opinion, turned Mallarme away from Victor Hugo: ... toute ame eprise de poesie pure me comprendra quand je dirai que parmi notre race poetique, Victor Hugo serait . moins admire, s ' i l etait parfait, et qU'il n'a pu se faire pardonner tout son genie lyrique qu' en introduisant de force et brutalement dans la poesie ce qu'Edgar Poe considerait comme.l'her£sie moderne capitale: l'enseignement.^' A different explanation for Mallarme's turning away from Hugo's poetry was given by Albert Thibaudet, namely, that in his two poems, "Sa fosse est .creusee" and "Sa tombe est fermee"-which Thibaudet published for the first time-^- Mallarme.tried to attain Hugo's oratorical style, and that he failed so completely that any further attempt was out of the question. 7 Thibaudet goes on to say that the author of these two poems had, i n 1859, much to unlearn; that i t was, f i r s t of a l l , the influence of Baudelaire, which was to govern him u n t i l 1870, and afterwards i t was especially that of the English poets that "mit f i n chez l u i a. toute velleite hugolienne et qui nous aide a voir dans ces vers q u ' i l ecrivait a dix-sept ans une maniere de rougeole poetique." 6 0 The viewpoint expressed by Thibaudet i s not shared by many other c r i t i c s . Gardner Davies wrote in 1947: "This harsh judgment does not seem altogether j u s t i f i e d and i s of l i t t l e value as an explanation of Mallarme's swing toward Baudelairian poetry."^ It i s interesting that almost every statement made by Thibaudet i n the a r t i c l e of 1933 has been c r i t i c i z e d by others. With the exception of Mme Ayda and 62 Leon C e l l i e r , the c r i t i c s seem to agree that with the reading of l e s Fleurs du Mal. Mallarme transferred his allegiance from Hugo to Baudelaire, although the decisive cult of Baudelaire co-existed for a short time with that of Hugo i n Mallarme's mind.^3 •* # * From the slight evidence available, we can infer that there was nothing i n the way of a friendship, or personal relationship, between Mallarme and Baudelaire. 6 / + The statement made by Leon Leraonnier i n 1923 that there was no direct personal influence of Baudelaire on Mallarme seems to be highly plausible: "II ne semble pas que Baudelaire et Mallarme aient jamais eu une entrevue de quelque importance, ni qu'ils aient jamais echange de lettre; i l n'y a done point eu d'influence personnelle directe et c'est l a seule comparaison de leurs ouvrages qui peut reveler leurs relations in t e l l e c t uelles."^-> The fact that Baudelaire evinced l i t t l e interest i n Mallarme's poetry i s suggested by the following two excerpts from Mallarme's correspondence. Both letters were written A p r i l 1864, the f i r s t being taken from a letter from Emmanuel des Essarts to Mallarme: J'ai montre tes vers a Mery, a Vacquerie et a Baudelaire. Baudelaire les a ecoutes sans disapprobation ce qui est un tres grand signe de faveur. S ' i l ne les avait pas goutes, i l m'eut interrompu.°6 The following lines are included i n a letter from H. Cazalis to Mallarme: Nous [Emmanuel et Henri ] avons dine avec Baudelaire; une cousine qui... m'a demande tous tes vers, a f a i t l i r e a Emmanuel Les Fenetres et 1'Azur. le maitre a ecoute avec une tres fine attention, mais selon l'usage... n'a rien dit.°7 In a letter of December 1864 Cazalis wrote to Mallarme that Baudelaire appeared to hate him: II parait que ton dieu Baudelaire te hait, et c'est bien mal recompenser, tu me l'avoueras, l a religion, le culte pur de son croyant le plus f i d e l e . 0 ^ Mallarme's feelings for Baudelaire do not seem to have been modified to any extent by the above lines from Cazalis. Up t i l l 1867 he expressed great admiration for his master. He referred to the poet as " l e grand Baudelaire"*^ and "cet extraordinaire et pur genie"70. In his review of poems by Des Essarts, i n "Le Senonais", March 22, 1862, Mallarme referred to les Fleurs du Mal and Banville's les Odes funambulesques as "les derniers chefs-d'oeuvre du siecle".''' 1 In a le t t e r to Cazalis of July 1864, Mallarme praised Baudelaire's poetry and indicated the qualities he most admired: Car tu est un f i e r poete, mon ami... Toi seul, Edgar Poe et Baudelaire etiez capables de ce poeme qui, comme cer- tains regards de femme, contient des mondes de pensees et. de sensations... Tout y est merveilleusement dispose pour 1'effet a produire, et malgre cet art, le tableau reste simple et vivant. Je suis fou de ces vers parce qu'ils r^sument toute mon esthetique...72 It was the "effet" produced, the sensation caused by the careful arrangement of words and ideas that Mallarme liked i n Baudelaire's poetry. In a letter to Lefebure, regarding a recently published drama, Ellin by V i l l i e r s de 1*Isle-Adam, there i s another such reference: Vous ressentirez une sensation a. chacun des mots, comme en lisant Baudelaire. II n'y a pas la. une syllabe qui n'ait ete pesee pendant une nuit de reverie.73 In the same letter Mallarme writes of his dislike for Des Essarts' book Les Elevations, and declares that the words are "mis souvent au hasard" and added that "On ne ressent a. cette lecture aucune sensation neuve"74 Other than such scattered fragments culled from Mallarme's corres- pondence, we do not have a precise statement of Mallarme*s opinion of Baudelaire's quality as an a r t i s t . As to Mallarme's poetic theory, he attributed i t to Poe. In a lett e r to A. Albert Collignon, A p r i l 11, 1864, Mallarme had expressed the intention of publishing an a r t i c l e "sur le spleen de Paris et sur l'oeuvre de ce maitre"75, but this a r t i c l e was either not written or has not come down to us. He had also expressed the intention of writing a thesis dedicated to Baudelaire and to Poe.7° The only a r t i c l e Mallarme devoted to Baudelaire was the second movement of his prose poem "Symphonie Litteraire"'' 7'^ and the only poem was "Le Tombeau de Baudelaire" 78 Although Mallarme alluded, i n a letter of May 14, 1867 to Cazalis, to a certain detachment from Baudelaire's influence79 > we may nevertheless conclude that the disciple always admired and venerated his master's poetry from the time of his f i r s t encounter . 80 with i t i n i860 , even i f after 1867 he evolved a more unique and personal expression. It i s noteworthy that Mallarme never openly expressed criticism of Baudelaire, and that after 1867 his direct allusions to him cease. •a- # # Mallarme was regarded by his friends as Baudelaire's disciple.81 When they wanted to praise his poems, they likened these to Baudelaire's. In June 1862 Lefebure wrote to Mallarme (probably referring to "Le Sonneur" and "Spleen printanier"): "Baudelaire s ' i l rajeunissait pourrait signer vos sonnets."^ After reading "L'Azur", Armand Renaud, i n a letter of February 12, 1864, assured Mallarme that i t was a poem "de l a famille de Poe et de Baudelaire mais avec plus de spiritualisme."^3 i n his Vie de Mallarme Henri Mondor cites a surprising remark, which he declares, Mendes attributed to Charles Cros: "Mallarme est un Baudelaire casse dont les morceaux n'ont pu se r e c o l l e r . " ^ In his book of 1920, Ernest Raynaud had, on two different instances^, also quoted the above statement which Charles Cros was supposed to have made. But Raynaud had commented that this remark should not be taken too seriously, although he had affirmed that Mallarme continued to revere Baudelaire. In a recent a r t i c l e (1967) L.J. Austin contends that Cros did not make the above state- ment: "Cette boutade amusante, mais excessive et injuste, est consi- dered comme apocryphe et invraisemblable de l a part de Cros par L. Forestier et Pascal Pia dans leur edition des Oeuvres completes de Charles Cros."°° Another surprising comment on the relationship between Mallarme and Baudelaire was made by Charles Coligny and appeared i n 1'Artiste of June 15, 1865: "Stephane Mallarme est un lyrique forcene et sera toujours un hyper-lyrique: Shakespeare et Edgar Poe sont ses dieux, et i l dit que ses dieux le conduisent a M. Charles Baudelaire." 8^ -a- * -si- Cr i t i c s have seldom agreed as to the importance, duration and durability of Baudelaire's influence on Mallarm6. The number of errors or prejudices concerning this problem of influence was under- lined by Mrae Ayda 8 8 who blamed Henri Mondor for the legend of the abrupt and overhelming discovery of Baudelairian poetry by Mallarme i n the year 1861. But Mondor i n his Vie de Mallarme8'7' wag quoting from an a r t i c l e by Henry Charpentier^ i n which the latter related the anecdote about Mallarme buying the second edition of les Fleurs du Mal when he was very young: the year "1861" i s stated i n the footnote. Thus the year "1861" was generally accepted as the date of Mallarme's acquaintance with Baudelaire's poetry. 7 Of course, with the discovery of the notebooks of "les Glanes", i t became known that Mallarme was already copying some of Baudelaire's poems i n I860, and he could have been acquainted with his poetry even as early as 1859. 9 2 As to the importance or value of Mallarme's a f f i l i a t i o n s with Baudelaire, the differences of opinion are often perplexing. 23 In 1923 Leon Lemonnier attributed great importance to the artistic affinities between Baudelaire and Mallarme in the literary history of France: "L*influence de Baudelaire sur Mallarme est le lien qui unit les differents mouvements litteraires du siecle dernier."^ Mallarme's debt to Baudelaire was also considered important by Paul Valery who wrote in 1930 that "la plus grande gloire de Baudelaire... est sans doute d'avoir engendre quelques tres grands poetes. Ni Verlaine, ni Mallarme, ni Rimbaud n'eussent ete ce qu'ils furent sans la lecture qu'ils firent des Fleurs du Mal a I'age decisif ."94 For L.J. Austin, writing in 1967, Valery owed his poetic awakening to Mallarme, who, in turn, owed his to Baudelaire.95 . The majority of critics, while conceding that Baudelaire had a great influence on Mallarme, claim that this influence did not prove lasting. In his article of 1923 Leon Lemonnier restricted Baudelaire's influence to the poems that appeared in the Parnasse Contemporain of 1866*^ and which were written before Mallarme was twenty-five. He concludes, "C'est done en sa jeunesse que Mallarme fut le disciple de Baudelaire."97 Mme Noulet, in her work of 1940, expressed agreement with Lemonnier and gave reasons why Baudelaire's influence on Mallarme could not be lasting. She would restrict the influence of Baudelaire even further than did Lemonnier: "II faut oser £tablir une demarcation plus precise. Si l'on a quelque raison de croire, ainsi que je l'ai montre, qu'Aumone, Angoisse. Tristesse d'Ete ont ete ecrits, comme Le Guignon et Le Sonneur. avant ou pendant 1862, 1'influence de Baudelaire s'arrete cette annee-la; avant les vingt ans, a l'age ou l'on refait les vers des autres. Pas au dela. A partir de 1863, elle s'attenue si elle n'est pas completement dominie ou reniee." 9 8 Mme Noulet contends that Mallarme 1s a r t i c l e "L'Art Pour Tous , l 9 < 7, written i n 1862, already expresses the original ideas of the author and shows that Mallarme was even at that time rejecting the influence of Baudelaire. Henri Mondor, in his Vie de Mallarme. concedes that Baude- laire's influence on Mallarme was "massive, imperieuse", but that i t lasted for only three or four years. He claims that when A. Thibaudet in his a r t i c l e of 1933 ("A l'Ombre des Contemplations") had fixed 1870 as the date up t i l l which Baudelaire's influence was to dominate, he '(Thibaudet) had a r b i t r a r i l y lengthened the duration.-^ Mondor, moreover, takes at face value the remark made by Mallarme in the letter to Cazalis, that he had separated from Baudelaire: "Le l i v r e de Dierx est un beau developpement de Leconte de Lis l e . S'en s£pare- r a - t - i l comme moi de Baudelaire ?"101 In an a r t i c l e of 1926, "De Stephane Mallarme", Henry Char- pentier had written that even earlier than 1867, Mallarme i n his "Symphonie litteraire"^- (- ,2 bidding Baudelaire (and also Banville and Gautier) farewell: "... i l [Mallarme] rend a. Baudelaire, a. Gautier et a Banville les honneurs q u ' i l leur doit, mais qui sonnent comme un adieu."103 j n a recent and noteworthy a r t i c l e entitled "Mallarme sur Baudelaire", Austin G i l l presents a convincing argument that Mallarme did not present Baudelaire i n a very favourable light i n his "Symphonie l i t t e r a i r e " and that Mallarme's poems "Le Guignon" and "Les Fleurs"104 express an anti-Baudelairian bitterness. This point of view, however, has not found wide acceptance. Many other c r i t i c s have followed the opinion of Lemonnier, Charpentier, Noulet, and Mondor that the influence of Baudelaire on Mallarme was limited. Thus Jacques Scherer wrote i n 1947: "Au reste 1 !influence de Baudelaire sur Mallarme n'a £te importante que pendant un tres petit nombre d'ann£es; l e jeune bachelier hugolatre ne decou- . vre les Fleurs du Mal qu'en 1861 et des 1867, i l se dira ' separ<S de Baudelaire'."106 Henri Peyre wrote i n 1851 that Mallarm6 appeared very Baudelairian i n his beginning works, but that very quickly he went beyond Baudelaire i n metaphysical boldness and in a magicianly or i g i n a l i t y of syntax: " l a r£elle influence de son aine se decele dans divers aspects de l'homme et de sa pensee mais assez peu sur l'oeuvre accomplie."lt-)7 Both Wallace Fowlie and Guy Michaud, i n their respective works, published i n 1953, express the view that Baudelaire's influence on Mallarm6 was limited; Fowlie restricted i t to six years-^^ Michaud to a period described as "not very long."-'-(-)9 i n a work entitled The Symbolist Aesthetic i n France (1950), A.G. Lehman has minimized the influence of Baudelaire on Mallarme. "From the very start", he wrote, "there i s nothing to be gained by treating Mallarm^ as the 'successor' of Baudelaire, at.least i n what concerns his philosophy of a r t . " - ^ 0 Rene Wellek i n a later c r i t i c a l work, A History of Modern Criticism (1965), stressed important differences between the two poets: Mallarme shares with Baudelaire the views common to Poe, but does not believe i n the creative Imagination, i n the mastery and'assimilation of real i t y . In that identification of subject and object which i s the central ultimately romantic core of Baudelaire's aesthetics. Though Mallarme occasion- a l l y speaks of correspondences and analogies and certainly uses the methods i n his poems, he neither shares Baudelaire's general philosophy of a universe of symbols or hieroglyphics, nor i s particularly concerned \-fith a rhetoric or metamorphoses ... In truth, independent of Poe or Baudelaire, Mallarme develops several other old ideas to their l o g i c a l or i l l o g i c a l extremes.^-'' Some c r i t i c s , on the contrary, have argued for a lasting influence of 26 Baudelaire. After pointing out that Mallarme's style was not influenced by either Baudelaire or Poe, Deborah Aish, i n her work of 1938, mentions that Mallarme took as his point of departure •the Baudelairian theory of correspondances.^? Jean Starobinski i n an a r t i c l e published i n 1948, expressed the opinion that the 'materialMallarme inherited from Baudelaire "subiront une etrange •transmutation, selon l a l o i d Tevolution interne de l a production •mallarmeenne"^3 ̂  a n c i therefore i t subsists i n Mallarme* s f i n a l -work and thought. L.J. Austin, i n his a r t i c l e of 1956, pointed out, -as we have noted earlier, that Mallarme was at f i r s t interested i n the "romanticism of Baudelaire", that the influence of the latter which i s striking i n the,poems of Mallarme's youth and which remains very apparent i n those of the Premier Parnasse i s quite exterior: " I I s'agit l a bien plus d'une imitation magistrale, que d'une influen- ce proprement dite."-*--^ The lessons Mallarme learned from Baudelaire were "notamment celle qui touche a. 1'effort magistral de 1'Imagina- tion desireuse, non seulement de se satisfaire par le symbole eclatant dans les spectacles du monde, mais d'etablir un l i e n entre ceux-ci et l a parole chargee de 1' exprimer."^-^ i n the wake of Baudelaire, Mallarme was to say i n 1894: Le tour de t e l l e phrase ou l e lac d'un distique, copies sur notre confirmation, aident 1'eclosion en nous, d'apercus et de correspondances.Ho Mallarme, indeed, f e l t the need to shake off the hold of Baudelaire, and to affirm his own originality, but as Austin affirms, for a long time after Mallarme stopped imitating Baudelaire, and after Mallarme had thought himself separated from him, the influence of the master would continue to act on him through his theory of correspon- dances. ' This profound influence of Baudelaire will be discussed in Part II. R.G. Conn, in a work published in 1966, has pointed out •affinities between Mallarme and Lamartine, Hugo, Nerval, Poe and Baudelaire whom he calls Mallarme*s spiritual forebears: "He [Mallarme] shares their belief in the universal analogy, in the ultimate harmony or connectivity of a l l reality. The things of the world can rise... to membership in a paradisiacal order, akin to Plato's realm of pure essence.. .»-LJ-° From the above critical opinion, we may conclude that most •critics agree that Baudelaire did exert an influence on Mallarme, but that there is considerable divergence of thought as to how deep i t went and how decisive or lasting i t proved to be. An attempt to assess this influence in terms of' affinities and divergences of thought regarding certain concepts held by the two poets will be taken up in a later Chapter. * tt tt A brief discussion of the indirect influences of Baudelaire on Mallarme and the critical opinion surrounding this question leads us to the assumption that Mallarm6 derived his concept of certain authors from Baudelaire. Mallarm£ owed to Baudelaire not only his veneration for Theodore de Banville, but also his admiration for Edgar Poe. 1 1 9 Mallarme certainly did not share a l l the opinions of his great predecessor regarding Poe, but i t does seem that both agreed as to the greatness of the American,. Poe was, according to Baudelaire, 28 "Un des plus grands heros litteraires, l'homme de genie.,,J-^U For Mallarme, Poe was "le prince spirituel de cet age"^l and "l'ame poetique la plus noble qui jamais vecut."122 Baudelaire had expressed a very high opinion of Poe's work; he lauded Poe for "... son admira- ble style pur et bizarre... serre comme les mailles d'une armure;"1^ and he described his poetry as "... quelque chose de profond et de miroitant comme le reve, de mysterieux et de parfait comme le cristal."^-24 The above remarks by Baudelaire might, as Henri Mondor suggested, have inspired in Mallarme a poetic aim to which he himself should aspire.^5 Most critics agree with Lemonnier's opinion that Mallarme 126 owed his veneration for Poe to Baudelaire. In transmitting this cult to Mallarme, Baudelaire was to influence the l i f e and work of the latter, for i t was because of his admiration for the American author that Mallarme found his practical vocation. Mallarme earned his living teaching the native language of Poe, and in order to continue the work of Baudelaire, Mallarme undertook to give a French version of Poe's poems thus pursuing the work initiated by Baudelaire. Despite its plausibility, this explanation although acceptable to H. Mondor and Mme Noulet that' Mallarme had discovered the American poet through Baudelaire, is opposed by certain critics. Mme Ayda,for example, attributes Mallarme's sudden passion for English to his acquaintance with Harriet Smyth during the holidays of 1857 and further argues that i t is likely that Mallarme knew Poe* s works in translation, well before those of Baudelaire, and that Mallarme could have read s t i l l other translations of Poe's works.'^7' * * •»• 29 CHAPTER III OTHER INFLUENCES Mme Ayda also d i f f e r s with most c r i t i c s as to the limited duration of the influence of Victor Hugo, according to which, after reading les Fleurs du Mal. Mallarme transferred his allegiance from Hugo to Baudelaire."""^ In an a r t i c l e published i n 1 9 5 3129 Mme Ayda compiled a long l i s t of Mallarme's borrowings from Victor Hugo and claimed that they were so abundant as to place Hugo side by side with Baudelaire as a major influence. Lloyd J. Austin, i n 1956, expressed doubts about the extent of these borrowings, and contended that Mme Ayda's a r t i c l e exaggerated a great deal "par des rapproche- ments souvent peu convaincants l a duree de l'etendue de 1*influence 130 de Hugo sur Mallarme." Austin also very clearly shows that the essential fact was that Mallarme's poetic i s founded on concentration and condensation lik e Baudelaire's, whereas Hugo rel i e s on the opposite 131 principles of enumeration and expansion. To this L^on Ce l l i e r retorted, i n 1959, that Mallarme does indeed practice a Baudelairian form of concentration, but that which i s concentrated i n his poems 132 suggest Victor Hugo. J C e l l i e r , moreover, agrees with Mme Ayda as to the durability of influence of Hugo on Mallarme. He blames what he calls " l a formule stupide de Thibaudet" (that i s , Thibaudet's referring to Mallarme's poetry composed under the influence of Hugo as "une maniere de rougeole poetique"^-^) for the fact that every study devoted to Hugo's influence on Mallarme naturally tends to minimize this influence. He takes exception to Austin's statement 30 that the work of Baudelaire exerted an influence "en profondeur" on Mallarme 1-^ while that of Hugo did not, and he poses the question: "Mais precisement, l'idee qu'Hugo puisse exercer une influence 'en profondeur', est-elle done inconcevable ?" He concludes that far from exaggerating, Mme Ayda errs "par defaut plus que par exces." Cellier's statement that "Ce r£seau d'images qui subsiste d'un bout a l'autre de l'oeuvre de Mallarme est incontestablement d'origine hugolienne" i s no doubt an exaggeration. Leon C e l l i e r , l i k e Mme Ayda, L.J. Austin and H. Mondor, among other c r i t i c s , have indeed provided an interesting debate; however, Hugo's influence on Mallarme i s such that i t cannot be ignored or refuted. # * # C r i t i c a l opinion on the influence of Poe on Mallarme varies considerably, and the subject i s interesting i n that c r i t i c s usually compare the influence of Baudelaire to that of the American on Mallarme. Leon Lemonnier, i n an a r t i c l e i n Revue Mondiale (1929) and i n a book, Edgar Poe et les Poetes Francais (1932), concluded that Poe*s influence was f e l t at the beginning and that i t acted as a stimulant to Mallarme. Lemonnier also pointed out that closer a f f i n i t i e s existed between Poe and Mallarme than between Baudelaire and Mallarme. However, he also asserted that the differences between Poe and Mallarme are important, and that Mallarme's aesthetics are far from being contained i n those of Poe. Moreover, the influence on Mallarme of Stuart Mill's idealism, that of Carlyle, and above a l l , that of Hegel are far more important than that of Poe. The influence of Poe, concludes Lemonnier, was more 31 l i k e l y f e l t i n Mallarme's l i f e than i n his work, for the traces of Poe that are found i n his poems are few and quite superficial i n nature.. Paul Valery, i n 1930, gave his explanation of the great attraction which Poe had exercised over him, as well as over Baude- l a i r e and Mallarme: "Poe montrait une voie, i l enseignait une doctrine tres se*duisante et tres rigoureuse dans laquelle une sorte de mathe- matique et une sorte de mystique s'unissaient."^7 Mallarme, himself, revered Poe, and he attributed his poetic theory to Poe rather than to Baudelaire. In a le t t e r of January 1864, Mallarme wrote to H. Cazalis: Toutefois, plus j ' i r a i , plus je serai fidele a ces severes idees que m'a leguees mon grand maitre Edgar Poe.J--' Mme Noulet pointed out, i n 1940, that although Mallarme admired Baudelaire, he never called him "grand maitre", a t i t l e reserved for Poe alone, whose influence was more lasting: "... i l est bien vrai que 1' influence de Baudelaire fut tres passagere et celle d' Edgar Poe plus durable."^ 9 H. Mondor expressed a similar belief i n 1940-41 that Mallarme's veneration for Poe which replaced that for Baudelaire had a more lasting i n f l u e n c e . C h a r l e s Mauron, however, rejects this view; he f e l t that even without Poe, the production of Mallarme would not have been very different.-^- Henri Peyre, writing i n 1951, believed that the celebrated declarations of Mallarme in reply to - i i p Jules Huret were not inspired but helped by Poe; i t was Poe's 143 idea "to suggest" rather than "to describe" . Professor Mansell Jones, i n his work of 1951, has, on the other hand, attempted to minimize the debt to Poe i n so far as the cult of perfection i s attributed to him.^*" Joseph Chiari, who i n his Symbolisme from Poe 32 to Mallarme (1956), attempted an extensive investigation of the question of Poe's influence on Mallarme, came to the conclusion that i t was "very small, very insignificant indeed."-^ Mallarme may have advocated the doctrines of poetic theory suggested in Poe's writings, but as Chiari points out, "the practice is different both in the theorist and the one who admires the theory. The facts show that in either case, theory and poetry are two different things." Chiari concludes that we find very few traces of Poe's influence in the poetry of Mallarme who.like Baudelaire and Valery, has insisted that Poe was the poet who had influenced him most.1^6 In his History of Modem Criticism (1965), Rene Wellek while acknowledging a greater influence of Poe on Mallarme, asserts Mallarme's independence from both of them: "As a theorist Mallarme derives from Poe and Baudelaire, but radically differs from them on central points... The link with Baudelaire's aesthetics is far more tenuous than with Poe's... In truth, indepen- dent of Poe or Baudelaire, Mallarme develops several other old ideas -11 n to their logical or illogical extremes..." N From the foregoing examination of critical opinion we cannot assess with accuracy the true nature and extent of Mallarme's debt to Poe, nor can we determine conclusively whether Baudelaire's or Poe's influence was the greater. It would certainly appear incontestable that Poe's doctrines as expressed in such works as The Poetic Principle. The Philosophy of Composition, and Marginal!s. and as expounded by Baudelaire in, for example, Notes Nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. did indeed influence Mallarme in the formation of his poetic theory, although he later diverged markedly from both Poe and Baudelaire as his poetry became more personal and exclusive. . . . •* •* * 33 The question of whether Mallarme read Hegel and was influenced directly or indirectly by this German philosopher has been keenly debated. On the one hand, critics like H. Mondor, Mme Ayda, Charles Mauron, M. Antoine-Adam, Jean-Pierre Richard and Y. Park, claim that Mallarme read Hegel, or that he was influenced by his US thought. L.J. Austin claims that although Mallarme probably did not read Hegel in the text, he was acquainted with his general ideas with which he could have become familiar in his discussions with his friends Lefebure and Villiers de 1'Isle-Adam.̂ -"'7' A probable source of the Hegelianism of Mallarme was, according to Austin, the article in the Revue des Deux Mondes of February 1361 by Edmond Scherer entitled "Hegel et 1'hegelianisme", from which Mallarme may well have taken ideas - ideas that were to be transformed and given a central place in his personal meditations. Mallarme identified himself with the 150 absolute Spirit of Hegel , and completed the Baudelairian doctrine of correspondances by incorporating i t into Hegelian idealism; he also asserted his originality with regard to Hegel, as Austin contends, "dans la conclusion qu'il a tire des premisses du philosophe, a savoir que 'tout l'univers existe pour aboutir a. un livre' . " - ^ l On the other hand, critics like G. Delfel and R. Wellek, argue that Mallarme did not read Hegel and that he was not influenced by his philosophy. Thus Delfel asserts in his work of 1951 that i t would be an error to link Mallarme's thought to that of Hegel: "Rien n'est plus vrai, dans la mesure ou i l n'y a pas eu d'influence directe, ni de Hegel, ni de Platon sur l u i . Je suis convaincu que Mallarme n'avait pas lu une ligne de Hegel en depit de Villiers qui lui en conseillait la lecture et qu'il n'avait de Platon que quelques souve- nirs scolaires." ̂  In his work of 1965, R. Wellek also minimizes the influence of Hegel: "It seems unlikely that he [Mallarme] had more than a bowing acquaintance with Plato or Hegel, with whom he has been associated. Nothing more is required at least to explain Mallarme's poetic theories than the atmosphere of 19th century atheistic pessimism and some knowledge of the general ideas of the Neoplatonic tradition in aesthetics."^53 While the evidence does not support the view that Mallarme's knowledge of Hegel was great, i t would seem reasonable to assume that the intellectual atmosphere in which he lived must have brought him into a contact with some of the ideas of the great German philosopher. But although i t is highly doubtful that Mallarme read or studied Hegel, i t must be admitted that i t is not difficult to establish affinities between the latter's philosophy and certain aspects of the poet's ultimate thought-^4 which can be equally well explained in terms of the Neoplatonic tradition. .* •* In addition to the role played by certain events in the early l i f e of Mallarme, and to the contributions made to the growth of his creative spirit by the works of Victor Hugo, Edgar Poe, and Hegel, as well as by those of Baudelaire, the crisis of 1366 must be considered in order to understand more completely the development of Mallarme's thought. M. Antoine Adam, in an interesting article written in 1948, "Premieres Etapes d'un Itineraire", has underlined the fact that the 35 precision of dates i s essential to an exact understanding of Mallarme's poetry, and that i t i s not so much his philosophy that we must study as his experiences: those that produced the c r i s i s of 1866. The Mallarme' before 1866 i s to be distinguished from the Mallarme after the c r i s i s : "Or l e Mallarme reel manifeste, jusqu'en 1866, non pas du tout des t preoccupations de metaphysicien, mais des ambitions tres exigeantes d'artiste."155 The poems written before what Jacques Scherer calls " l a grande crise metaphysique" have "pour caractere commun d'etre de"pourvu de cette ambition metaphysique qui ne cessera de tourmenter Mallarme depuis 1866 jusqu'a sa mort. n l5^ The c r i s i s which lasted t i l l the middle of the year 1866 had two phases: the f i r s t i n which Mallarme found himself confronted by the "vide" or the "neant" (as described i n a let t e r written to Cazalis 157 the end of A p r i l 1866 ), and the second i n which he discovered the Absolute. A let t e r to Cazalis written May 1866 shows Mallarme's new orientation: Je suis en tr a i n de jeter les fondements d'un l i v r e sur le Beau. Mon esprit se meut dans l'Eternel et en a eu plusieurs frissons, s i l'on peut parler ainsi de 1'Im-muable.158 We have reached, as L.J. Austin points out, " l e nadir de 159 1'evolution s p i r i t u e l l e de Mallarme." Henceforth, Mallarme w i l l deny r e a l i t y "pour edi f i e r une construction f i c t i v e dont l a beaute sera l a garantie.""1"6^ Mallarme affirms the superiority of the "Reve" as he wrote to Cazalis i n A p r i l 1866: ... s'elancant forcenement dans le Reve... chantant l'Ame et toutes les divines impressions pareilles... et proclamant devant le Rien qui est l a verite, ces glorieux mensongesllkl And i n an a r t i c l e on Theodore de Banville, Mallarme declared i n 1892: 36 La divine transposition pour 1'accomplissement de quoi existe l'homme, va du fait a. 1*ideal. 1 ° 2 , However, Mallarm6's ideal was not born of the crisis of 1866, i t was the culmination of a l l Mallarme's questionings since the deaths of his mother and sister and that of his friend, Harriet Smyth. It was in order to comprehend these losses as Mme Ayda has pointed out, that Mallarme sought to "simplifier le monde" and to "le reduire a . quelques principes intelligibles."^^ . O f the many lesser influences on Mallarme's thought and • expression, we should like to mention briefly two. Firstly, the importance of the influence of Theophile Gautier and secondly, the influence of the English poets. L4on Cellier, in a chapter of his work of 1959, has pointed out that Mallarme shared Gautier's "hantises de la mort", and that Mallarme could have been influenced by Gautier rather than by Baudelaire in certain aspects of his work. Moreover, Cellier has also shown how Gautier's analysis or definition of Baudelaire's poetry greatly influenced Mallarme's "Tombeau de Baudelaire". In a work of 1927 G. Turquet-Mines emphasized the importance of the influence of the English poets: "Baudelaire... was Mallarme's great master but only because he reinforced this English influence, because, he indeed was the most English of French poets."-^ Later, in 1933, A. Thibaudet rated the English poets as a greater influence than that of Baudelaire in ridding Mallarme's poetry of certain weaknesses.^* In 1947, Gardner Davies expressed a similar, but more reserved opinion: "Mallarme's affinities with Anglo-Saxon poets are well-known and often exaggerated."^''' Critical opinion is also at variance concerning the importance of the English language on Mallarme who was a professor of English; however, no complete study of this subject has yet appeared although some shorter studies and articles have treated some aspects of i t . ^ 8 We may nevertheless conclude that Baudelaire's role was indeed a major,one in the poetic development of Mallarme, in spite of his avowed predilection for Poe's poetic ideas. Certain affinities and divergences in thought between Baudelaire and^Mallarme will be taken up in the following pages. NOTES TO PART I 1. Leon Cellier, Mallarme et la morte qui parle. p. 13. 2. Stephane Mallarme, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de la Pleiade (henceforth referred to as M. Oj_c.), p. 481. 3. Ibid., pp. 3-4. U. Ibid., pp. 10-U. 5. A. Ayda, Le drame interieur de Mallarme ou l'origine des symboles mallarmeens, p. 22. 6. cf. H. Mondor, Mallarme plus intime. pp. 16 and 18. 7. cf. A. Ayda, op. cit.. pp. 33-34. 8. M. O.c., p. 262. 9 . cf. L. Cellier, op. cit.. p. 15. 10. Charles Mauron, Mallarme 1'obscur. p. x i i . 11. Henri Mondor, Mallarme lyceen. pp. 173-185. 12. M. O.c.. p. 270. 13. It is called "La Jeune morte" by Mme Ayda; cf. op. cit., p. 48. 14. A. Ayda, op. cit . . p. 49. 15. Ibid., p. 57. 16. Ibid., p. 79. 17. H. Mondor, Mallarme plus intime. p. 119 and 136. 18. L.J. Austin, "Les Annees d'Apprentissage de Stephane Mallarme", R.H.L.F., 56e annee, no. 1, jan.-mars, 1956, pp. 82-33. 19. Pierre-Olivier Walzer, Essai sur Stephane Mallarme. Paris. Editions P. Seghers, "Poetes d'Aujourd'hui", no 94, 1963, p. 17. 20. L.J. Austin, op. cit.. p. 83. 21. cf. Mme Ayda. op. cit.. p. 77 NOTES TO PART I (Continued) 22. How Mondor found these notebooks is discussed in his book, Mallarme lyceen. pp. 112-113. There is a note, after "Sa tombe est fermee", p. 169 of Mallarme lyceen written by Mallarme as follows: "Ces deux dernieres pieces sont a. la memoire d'Harriet Smyth, morte de la poitrine dans 1*ete de 1859. Une larrae sur sa tombe, ce n'est pas trop pour tous les sourires angeliques qu' elle nous donnait." 23. Kurt Wa2s in his Mallarme. ein Dichter de3 Jahrundertendes. Munich, Bech, 1938; cited in "Stephane Mallarme, "Fifty Years of Research", French Studies. Vol. 1, no. 1, January 1947, by Gardner Davies, p. 8. 24. A. Ayda, op. cit . . p. 91. 25. Ibid., p. 90. 26. M. 0^., pp. 10-11. 27. In H. Mondor Mallarme lyceen. pp. 137-138. 28. L.J. Austin, op. cit.. p. 73. 29. Ibid., p. 73. 30. Ibid., p. 68. 31. cf. H. Mondor, Mallarme lyceen. p. 238 and L.J. Austin, op. cit. p. 74. 32. H. Mondor, ibid.. p. 175. 33. Referring to the use of the quadruple repetition in Mallarme's "L'Azur", Mme Noulet writes, "L'idee de la quadruple repetition a, l'interieur d'un meme vers a peut-etre ete inspiree au poete par Edgar Poe dont i l etait en train de traduire "Les Cloches", p. 71, L'Oeuvre poetioue de Mallarme; cf. J. Chiari, Symbolisme from Poe to Mallarme. p. 73: "On that specific problem even M. Scherer concedes that Mallarme may have been influenced by Poe through Baudelaire." See also J. Scherer, 1'Expression l i t - teraire dans l'oeuvre de Mallarme. p. 218. 34. L.J. Austin, op. cit.. 35. In H. Mondor Mallarme lyceen. p. 125, 128, 129, 138, 141, 144, 146, etc. NOTES TO PART I (Continued) 36. Ibid.. p. 263. 37. L.J. Austin, op. cit.. p. 69. 38. M. O.c., p. 662. 39. L. Cellier, op. c i t . . p. 19. 40. A. Ayda, op. c i t . . p. 98. 41. L.J. Austin, op. ci t . . p. 70-71. 42. Ibid., p. 73. 43. A. Ayda, op. c i t . . p. 218. 44. In H. Mondor, Mallarme' lyceen. p. 220. 45- Ibid.. p. 198. 46. Page3 297-310 in H. Mondor, Mallarme lyceen. 47. Ibid., p. 295. 48. Ibid., p. 277. 49- L.J. Austin, op. ci t . . p. 66. 50. H. Mondor, op. c i t . . pp. 318-319. 51. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme Disciple de Baudelaire: 'Le Parnasse Contemporain'" in Revue d'Histoire Litteraire de la France, t. 67, 1967, p. 438. 52. L.J. Austin, "Les Annees d'Apprentissage de Stephane Mallarme", pp. 79-80. 53. cf. H. Mondor, Mallarme lyceen. pp. 318-319; L.J. Austin, "Les Annees d'Apprentissage de Stephane Mallarme", p. 80; and A. Ayda op. cit.. p. 217. 54. H. Mondor, Mallarme lyceen. p. 114. 55. H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. pp. 28-29. 56. L.J. Austin, "Les Annees d*Apprentissage de Stephane Mallarme", p. 78. 57. C. Baudelaire, Notes nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. p. 24- NOTES TO PART I (Continued) 58. Published for the first time in Nouvelle Revue Francaise. t. 40, let- juin 1933, pp. 876-880. 59. Cf. A. Thibaudet, "A 1'Ombre des Contemplations: Baudelaire et Mallarme", in Nouvelle Revue Francaise, t. 40, ler juin 1933, p. 871. 60. Ibid., p. 872. 61. G. Davies, op. cit . . p. 8. 62. See pages 63. Cf. H. Mondor, Mallarme lyceen. p. 318. 64. Cf. E. Raynaud, En Marge de la Melee symboliste. second edition, 1936, pp. 41-42; cited in A. G i l l , "Mallarme on Baudelaire" in Currents of Thought in French Literature, p. 94, Note 21. Ernest Raynaud reported that Mallarme told him that he (Mallarme) had never met Baudelaire except once on the street. On the other •hand, Des Essarts states, in an article frequently mentioned in bibliographies but apparently, seldom read, that they met at Mme Lejosne's. On this meeting, Austin G i l l , in a recent article (1965) writes that Des Essarts might very well be misremembering thirty years after. 65. L. Lemonnier, "Baudelaire et Mallarme" in la Grande Revue, juillet-octobre 1923, p. 16. 66. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 114, Note 2. 67. Ibid.. p. 114, Note 3. 68. Ibid.. p. 146, Note 1. 69. M. O.c., p. 223. 70. S. Mallarme, Propos sur la poesie. p. 179. 71. M. O.c.. p. 255. 72. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. pp. 122-123. 73. Ibid., p. 154. 74. Ibid., p. 153. 75. Ibid.. p. 113. 42 NOTES TO PART I (Continued) 76. cf. H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. pp. 295-296. 77. M. OiC., pp. 263-264. 78. Ibid.. p. 70. The note on p. 1540 of this work reads as follows: "C'est assez etrangement le seul temoignage que Mallarme a i t laisse de son oeuvre, avec le sonnet: le Tombeau de Baudelaire, de son admiration pour l'auteur des Fleurs du Mal dont les debuts de son oeuvre poetique revelent encore s i nettement ,meme apres des modifications, son influence." 79- "Le l i v r e de Dierx est un beau deVeloppement de Leconte de Li s l e . S'en separera-t-il comme moi de Baudelaire ?" (Correspondance. p. 244). 80. On hearing of Baudelaire's i l l n e s s and death, Mallarme expressed sadness and grief (cf. Correspondance. pp. 209 and 259); furthermore, i n a letter of September 9, 1867, Lefebure wrote to Mallarme of "notre cher et venere Baudelaire". (Correspondance. p. 259, Note 1). 81. cf. A. G i l l , op. c i t . . p. 91, Note 8. 82. H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. p. 52. 83. S. Mallarm6, Correspondance. p. 108, Note 2. 84. H. Mondor, op. c i t . . p. 238, Note 2. 85. E. Raynaud, La MeLse Symboliste. t.2, pp. 137 and 151. 86. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme Disciple de Baudelaire: 'Le Parnasse Contemporain'", p. 437, Note 1. 87. Cited i n W.T. Bandy and C. Pichois, Baudelaire devant ses contem- porains. 1957, p. 199. 88. A. Ayda. op. c i t . . p. 215. 89. H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. p. 29. 90. H. Charpentier, "De Stephane Mallarme" i n Nouvelle Revue Francaise. t. 27, juillet-dec., 1926, pp. 537-545. "II etait bien jeune encore lo r s q u ' i l acheta cette deuxieme edition des Fleurs du Mal que l u i confisquerent a deux reprises son pere et sa belle-mere et dont i l ne conserva, lecteur obstine, qu'un troisieme exeraplaire, q u ' i l completa en y ajoutant, de sa main, les six pieces condamnees et q u ' i l garda toute sa vie." 43 NOTES TO PART I (Continued) 91. Even as late as 1966, Y. Park i n his thesis gives "1861" as the year when Mallarme "a ete bouleverse par l a decouverte des Fleurs du Mal." (p. 64). 92. cf. A. Ayda, op. c i t . . p. 216, Note 7: "Mallarme fut, des 1859 en correspondance avec des camarades parisiens, te l s qu'Espinas. I I avait done 1'occasion d'etre informe des evenements l i t t e - raires de l a capitale. Or Baudelaire publiait alors depuis longtemps des vers et de l a prose dans differentes revues, signant Baudelaire-Dufays..." 93. L. Lemonnier, "Baudelaire et Mallarme", p. 16. 94. P. Valery, Variete I I . "Situation de Baudelaire", p. 173. 95. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme Disciple de Baudelaire: 'Le Parnasse Contemporain'". p. 437. 96. M. 0 ^ , pp. 32-40. 97. L. Lemonnier, op. c i t . . p. 31. 98. E. Noulet, L'Oeuvre poetique de Mallarme. p. 82. 99. M. O.c.. p. 257. 100. H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. p. 29. 101. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 244. 102. M. O.c.."Symphonie l i t t e r a i r e " , p. 261, written i n 1864 and published i n 1865. 103. In Nouvelle Revue Francaise. t. 27, juillet-dec., 1926, pp. 537-545. 104. Ibid.. "Le Guignon", pp. 28-30, written i n 1862 and revised i n 1887; "Les Fleurs", pp. 33-34, 1364. 105. A. G i l l , op. c i t . . pp. 104 and 112. 106. S. Scherer, L'Expression l i t t e r a i r e dans l'oeuvre de Mallarme. pp. 217-218. 107. H. Peyre, Connaissance de Baudelaire, p. 161. 108. W. Fowlie, Mallarme. p. 74. NOTES TO PART I (Continued) 109. G. Michaud, Mallarme. Translated by Marie Collins and Bertha Humez, p. 10. 110. A.G. Lehman, The Symbolist Aesthetic i n France, p. 60. 111. R. Wellek, A History of Modern Criticism. The Later Nineteenth Century, (Vol. 4) pp. 453-454. 112. cf. D. Aish. La metaphore dans l'oeuvre de Mallarme. pp. 9 and 13. 113. J. Starobinski, "Mallarme et l a Tradition Poetique Francaise", *-n Les Lettres. t. I l l , pp. 43-48. 114. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme et le Reve du ' l i v r e ' " , p. 84. 115. L.J. Austin, "Les Annees d'Apprentissage de Stephane Mallarme", p. 80. 116. M. O.c.. p. 646. 117. L.J. Austin, "Les Annees d'Apprentissage de Stephane Mallarm^", p. 80. 118. R.G. Cohn, Toward the Poems of Mallarme. pp. 2-3. 119. L. Lemonnier, op. c i t . . p. 16. 120. C. Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes. V. Preface Edgar Poe: Sa Vie et Ses Oeuvres. p. 15. 121. cf. H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. pp. 104, 228 and 531. 122. M. (Xc., p. 531. 123. C. Baudelaire, Edgar Poe: Sa Vie et Ses Oeuvres. p. 29. 124. C. Baudelaire, Notes nouvellles sur Edgar Poe. p. 23. 125. H. Mondor, Mallarme lyceen. p. 325: "Celui-ci [Baudelaire^ avait donne, de l a poesie d'Edgar Poe,... une definition qui parait aujourd'hui, en son tour magistral, convenir s i parfaitement a celle de Mallarme que l'on peut se demander s i sa lecture n'a pas eclaire pour toute sa vie, le but incomparable a. viser au plus tot..." 126. H. Mondor, i b i d . . p. 319 and E. Noulet, op. c i t . . p. 319. 127. cf. A. Ayda, op. c i t . . pp. 72-72, and 216-217. NOTES TO PART I (Continued) Mme Ayda points out that "Edgar Poe avait ete revele\ au public francais en 1845 par Alphonse Borghers qui avait public, dans la Revue britannique. une traduction du 'Scarabee d'or'. Le 15 octobre 1846, une longue etude sur Poe etait publiee par Emile Daurand-Forgues, dans la ""Revue des Deux mondes*." (p.217) 128. cf. H. Mondor, Mallarme lyceen. p. 318. 129. A. Ayda, "L'Influence de Victor Hugo sur Stephane Mallarme", Dialogues. Istambul, Cahier 3, juillet 1953. 130. L.J. Austin, "Les Annies d'Apprentissage de Stephane Mallarme", p. 78, Note 4. Austin writes, "Sur la permanence de 1*admiration vouee par Mallarme a. Hugo, voir notre article sur Mallarme. Victor Hugo et Richard Wagner (R.H.L.F., 1951, pp. 156-157). 131. Ibid., p. 78, Note 4. 132. cf. Leon Cellier, op. cit.. p. 61. 133. A. Thibaudet, op. ci t . . p. 872. 134. L. Cellier, op. cit.. pp. 42-43. 135. L.J. Austin, op. cit.. p. 80. 136. cf. L. Lemonnier, "Influence d'Edgar Poe sur Mallarme" in Revue Mondiale. t. 84, 1929, fevrier 15, p. 370, 368; also L. Lemonnier, Edgar Poe et les poetes francais. p. 105, 96-97, and 103-104. 137. P. Vaiery, Variete II. "Situation de Baudelaire", p. 143. 138. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 104. 139. E. Noulet, op. c i t . . p. 150. 140. H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. p. 9 and p. 197. 141. Charles Mauron, Mallarme I'obscur. Preface, p. xi i i - x i v . 142. M. O.c. pp. 866-883. 143. cf. H. Peyre, op. ci t . . pp. 114-115. 144. M. Jones, The Background of Modern French Poetry. Cambridge University Press, 1951; cited in J. Chiari, Symbolisme from Poe to Mallarme. p. 70. 46 NOTES TO PART I (Continued) 145. J. Chiari, op. cit . . p. 158. 146. Ibid.. pp. 161-162, 167 and 240; cf. with the following statement by P. Mansell Jones in his article "Poe, Baudelaire and Mallarme" (Modern Language Review, vol. XXXIX, 1944) p. 240: "The whole aesthetic system of the most influential of modern French poets, says Ferran (A. Ferran, L'Esthetique de Baudelaire). was founded on suggestions from Poe's The Poetic Principle." 147. R. Wellek, op. cit.. pp. 453-454. 143. cf. Charles Mauron, Mallarme l'obscur. p. xix: "Sans doute Mallarme a lu Hegel des Tournon..." A. Ayda, op. cit . . p. 79: "Dans ce but, i l etudiera ou feuille- tera les ouvrages philosophiques de Hegel." A. Adam, "Premieres etapes d'un itineraire", in Les Lettres, t. I l l , p. 127""... i l est certain que Mallarme l i t alors Hegel." J.P. Richard, op. cit . . p. 185: "En 1886 Mallarme, nous le savons, d£couvre avec enthousiasme la pensee de Hegel." p. 233: "Hegel intervenait pourtant i c i pour un esprit deja marque par 1'in- fluence de Baudelaire, et surtout de Poe." Y. Park, thesis, 1966, p. 97: "L*influence de Hegel sur Mallarme est done incontestable." As proof that Mallarme read Hegel, ' Y. Park cites the following excerpt from a letter of Villiers de 1*Isle-Adam to Mallarme, September 11, 1866: "Quand paraitra le Traite des Pierres Precieuses ?... Quant a. Hegel je suis vraiment heureux que vous ayez accorde quelque attention a. ce miraculeux genie..." (S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 231) 149. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme et le Reve du 'Livre'", p. 91. 150. Ibid.. p. 93. 151. Ibid.. p. 100; cf. M. O^c., p. 378 152. G. Delfel, L'Esthetique de Stephane Mallarme. p. 70. 153. R. Wellek, op. cit . . p. 461. 154. Cf. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme et le Reve du 'Livre'", pp. 95-IOO. 155. A. Adam, op. cit . . p. 126. 156. J. Scherer, Le "Livre" de Mallarme. p. 7. 47 NOTES TO PART I (Continued) .157. S.Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 207: "Malheureusement, en creusant l e vers a ce point, j'ai rencontre deux abxmes, qui me d^sesperent. L'un est le Neant auquel je suis arrive sans connaitre le Boud- dhisme et..." 158. Ibid., p. 216. 159. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme et le Reve du 'Livre'", p. 85 . :160. Ibid., p. 86. 161. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. pp. 207-208. 162. M. O.c., p. 522. 163. A. Ayda. op. cit.. p. 79; cf. M. O.c.. p. 647 164. L. Cellier, op. cit . . pp. 63-74. 165. Stephane Mallarme in English Verse. Translated by Arthur E l l i s . With an Introduction by G. Turquet-Milnes, pp. 12-15. 166. A. Thibaudet, "A L'Ombre des Contemplations: Baudelaire et Mallarme" in Nouvelle Revue Frangaise« t. 40, ler juin 1933, p. 872. 167. G. Davies, op. cit . . p. 10. 168. Cf. J. Scherer, op. cit . . pp. 29-30; E. Noulet, op. cit.. pp. 159-160; J. Chiari, op. cit . . pp. 77-79; H. Mondor, Autres precisions sur Mallarme et Inedits. pp. 80-81. PART II AESTHETIC AMD METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTS CHAPTER I ATTITUDES OF THE POET TOWARDS SOCIETY AND THE WORLD From Baudelaire, Mallarme inherited a certain concept of the poet and of his attitude toward society and the world. Mallarme shared Baudelaire's conviction that the artist or poet was a superior being, whose very superiority condemned him to a l i f e of unhappiness on this earth. In Baudelaire's "L'Albatros" the condition of the poet is stated with remarkable clarity: Le Poete est semblable au prince des nuees Qui hante la tempete et se r i t de 1'archer; Exile sur le sol au milieu des huees, Ses ailes de geant 1'empechent de marcher. A similar feeling of anguish i s reflected in Mallarme's "L'Azur": Le poete impuissant qui maudit son genie A travers un desert sterile de douleurs. Both Baudelaire and Mallarme had a disdain for the common people, for society - for "la foule". For Baudelaire, the poet was "maudit" in a "mauvais monde... un monde goulu, affame de mat^ria- 3 lit£s." Mallarme had a similar opinion to that of Baudelaire that "la foule" should be scorned: II est a propos de dire i c i que certains ecrivains, maladroitement vail"1 ants, ont tort de demander compte a. la foule de 1' ineptie de son gout et de la nullite de son imagination. Outre "qu'injurier la foule, c'est s*encanailler soi-meme" comme dit justement Charles , Baudelaire, 1'inspire doit dedaigner ces sorties contre le Philistin.. In Baudelaire's remarkable poem "Elevation" the poet is described as one "Qui plane sur la vie..."? Mallarme used a similar image when he 50 -wrote of the poet's soaring above the mob: -Rappelons-nous que le poete... n'est pas le niveau -au-dessus duquel rampent les autres hommes; c'est la foule qui est le niveau et i l plane.0 ;For Baudelaire, the poet's superiority expressed itself in 'what he called "dandysme" in his article "Le Dandy".''' Baudelaire's . dandysm arose from the artist's need to adorn himself in so special -and personal a way that he would stand apart from other men. Material elegance, however, declared Baudelaire, i s but a symbol of the •aristocratic superiority of his mind: Le dandysme n'est meme pas, comrae beaucoup de personnes peu reflechies paraissent le croire, un gout immodere -de la toilette et de 1'elegance materielle. Ces choses ne sont pour le parfait dandy qu'un symbole de la su- periority aristocratique de son esprit. 8 Although Mallarme did not use the term "dandy", he adopted an intellectual attitude analagous to that of Baudelaire who had written of "cette attitude hautaine de caste provocante"9. In 1862 in an article entitled "L'Art pour Tous", Mallarme echoed Baude- laire' s idea that the artist should keep aloof from the common people: L'homme peut etre democrate, 1'artiste se dedouble et doit rester aristocrate. The dandyism of Baudelaire, which was infinitely more profound than a mere pose, states Fowlie, "was bequeathed to Mallarme in a somewhat altered, but s t i l l recognizable form." There i s , - he continues, "certainly something of the dandy in Mallarme's composed and serene manner; in his speech... in his general a t t i - tude of sage and high priest and martyr. But much more than Baudelaire, although here he was initiated and directed by the example of Baude- laire, Mallarme became the dandy as an artist... If meticulousness 51 of dress was for Baudelaire a sign of aristocracy and distinction of s p i r i t , the verbal and exterior communication of a poem was for Mal- larme the symbol of an idea and the a r t i f i c e resulting from the effort to translate or adorn the i d e a . " 1 1 Baudelaire's sense of remoteness, of isolation from his fellow human beings was keener than Mallarme 1s i n a social sense. The author of Les Fleurs du Mal said that he f e l t a "sentiment de solitude des mon enfance. Malgre l a famille-et au milieu des camara- dea, surtout, - sentiment de destined eternellement s o l i t a i r e . " ^ Mallarm6' s desire to exclude the public from his work led to the esoterism which colours his aesthetics. In his a r t i c l e on "Le Dandy", Baudelaire wrote that dandys are representative of "ce q u ' i l y a de meilleur dans l'orgueil humain."13 Not unlike his great predecessor, Mallarme wrote i n 1862 that i n addition to being proud, poets must become disdainful: "0 poetes, vous avez toujours. et6 orgueilleux; soyez plus, devenez dedaigneux."^ Baudelaire, moreover, considered " l e dandysme" as "une espece de religion." 1-' This idea of the sacred character of the poet's nature and calling was carried even further by Mallarme when he expressed his famous creed that everything sacred - art as well as religion - should be invested with mystery: Toute chose sacree et qui veut demeurer sacree s'enveloppe de mystere. Les religions se retranchent a. 1'abri d'arcanes deVoiles au seul predestine: l' a r t a les siens.l° Mallarme, therefore, would exclude the masses from poetry by the invention of an exclusive form of expression, which he described as'"une langue immaculee".17 Like Baudelaire, Mallarme saw the a r t i s t and poet as having 52 unique qualities which distinguished him from the common man and his conventions. As early as 1862, when he was only twenty, Mallarme viewed the poet's domain as sacred, a domain which should be protected from intruders and into which only the elite would be permitted to enter. Thus, the principle of "dandysme" which Baudelaire had applied mainly to the poet is reflected in the lofty role accorded to poetry by Mallarme, a role which helped to determine the hermetic quality of his poetic expression. The poet, then, also sees himself as an exile in the terrestrial world, and aspires to free himself from its material ties by striving to attain the world of the ideal. For example, in Baudelaire's poem "Benediction", the poet is presented as "1*enfant desherite" 1 8 while in "L'Albatros" he is "exile sur le sol".19 Similarly, in Mallarme's early poem "Le Guignon", the poets are called "Derisoires martyrs de hasards tortueux."2<^ In "Elevation", Baudelaire expresses the wish to escape from "ces miasmes morbides" and "les ennuis et les vastes chagrins" to another world, situated: Par deli, le soleil, par dela. les ethers Par dela les confins des spheres etoiiees.2^- Mallarme, Like Baudelaire seeks another sphere, Au ciel interieur ou fleurit la Beaute.22 Reality, or our earthly existence, i s considered ugly and imperfect. Mallarme also shared Baudelaire's disgust and repugnance of the material world, although for somewhat different reasons. For Baudelaire, Nature is the symbol of evil. According to M. A. Ruff, "A l l of hispaudelaire's] works were governed by his awareness of 23 sin." In his Notes Nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. Baudelaire expressed his belief in the natural wickedness of man: "... nous sommes tous n£s marques pour le mal."2"* For Baudelaire this spiritual torment arose from two postulations which oppose each other radically: "II y a dans tout homme, a toute heure, deux postulations simultanees, 1*une vers Dieu, 1'autre vers Satan. L'invocation a Dieu ou spirituality est un desir de monter en grade; celle de Satan ou animalite est une joie de descendre."2-* The problem of good and evil did not present itself as such to Mallarme: earthly existence is repugnant to him because of it s formless aspect, i t s disorder, i t s impurity, its inconstancy. ° Jean-Pierre Richard summarizes the reason for Mallarme's disgust of matter in these terms: "... la negativite fonciere de 1'objet, ce qui le rend pour Mallarme hostile et haSssable, se resume en deux grands attributs malefiques: 1*eparpillement et la lourdeur."27 For Baudelaire, the material world, as he conceived i t , could never be completely eliminated as i t was linked to the spiritual. There is a constant relationship between the two as exemplified by the soul and the body: La correlation perpetuelle de ce qu' on appelle l'ame avec ce qu'on appelle le corps explique tres bien comment tout ce qui est materiel ou effluve du spirituel represente et representera toujours le spirituel d'ou i l derive. 2 8 For Mallarme, on the other hand, i t was only by abolishing the real, or material, that one could attain the ideal. This refusal of matter i s fundamental to Mallarme's whole aesthetics, as Jean-Pierre Richard has succinctly stated: "Au depart de toute son esthetique se place un refus existentiel de la matiere. Des sa jeunesse son ' odeur de cuisine' provoquait en l u i une nausee; plus tard i l attenue sa repugnance... mais toujours et tres fidelement elle survit en l u i . " 2 9 Although Mallarme's repugnance for the material world was, as we have noted, based on a premise different from that of Baudelaire nevertheless both express a similar view of terrestrial existence. In his prose poem "Anywhere Out of the World", for example, Baudelaire likens this l i f e to a hospital: Cette vie est un hopital ou chaque malade est possede du ' desir de changer de l i t . Celui-ci voudrait souffrir en face du poele, et celui-la croit qu'il guerirait a cot6 de la fenetre.^ 0 Similarly, in Mallarme's "Les Fenetres"-^, the hospital is very much like that of Baudelaire . Both present the image of our imperfect world where man i s imprisoned. In fact, the world of matter as -presented by Mallarme in this instance appears more revolting than that of Baudelaire:/' Las du triste hopital, et de 1*encens fetide Qui monte en la blancheur banale des rideaux Vers le grand crucifix ennuye du mur vide, Le moribond sournois redresse un vieux dos, Baudelaire, to a far greater extent than Mallarme, had expressed a keen awareness of the duality of the body and the soul. For Baudelaire, the soul during i t s terrestrial exile, cannot escape i t s prison, the body, or "le Reel": . Ce reveur que l'horreur de son logis reveille Voila bien ton embleme, Ame aux songes obscurs, Que le Reel etouffe entre ses quatre murs.32 In "Un Voyage a. Cythere", Baudelaire expresses a feeling of disgust for the body, a feeling from which God alone can deliver him: Ah'. Seigneur'. donneznnoi la force et le courage De contempler mon coeur et mon corps sans degout'.-^ Mallarme echoes a similar repugnance for corporal existence in "Les Fenetres": Ainsi pris du degout de l'homme a l'ame dure Vautre dans le bonheur, ou ses seuls appetits Mangent, et qui s'entete a chercher cette ordure ..Unlike Baudelaire, Mallarme does not look for any outside support to sustain him. Though he realized with regret that "Ici-bas est maitre", he cannot resign himself to "le vomissement impur de la Betise". The ^disgust of the material, therefore, i s not as absolute in Baudelaire <as in Mallarme. Baudelaire, while aspiring to an almost religious -spirituality, never loses his keen appetite for l i f e , a fact which •he asserts in his Journaux Intime3; "... gout tres vif de la vie et -du plaisir,"35 a taste for l i f e and pleasure which is s t i l l present in "Chant d'automne" at the moment when he feels death approach: Ah! laissez-moi, mon front pose sur vos genoux, Gouter, on regrettant 1'ete blanc et torride. De l'arriere saison le rayon jaune et doux',36 -Mallarme, on the other hand, speaks ironically of the worthless nature of the happiness of this world in a letter of June 3, 1863 to Henri Cazalis: ... nous autres malheureux que la terre degoute et qui n1 avons que le Reve pour refuge. 0 mon Henri, abreuve- toi d*ideal. Le bonheur ici-bas est ignoble - i l faut avoir les mains bien calleuses pour le ramasser.37 In his poem "Las de l'amer repos", written in February 1864, Mallarme reaffirms his refusal of the material; he chooses "le terrain avare et froid de ma cervelle" in preference to "1'enfance adorable des bois de roses sous l'azur naturel."^ 8 The latter suggests the "paradis perdu" of Baudelaire's "Moesta et Errabunda" (le paradis parfume, 1'innocent paradis"39), a paradise situated on the moral level. Mallarme abandons this childhood paradise, whereas Baudelaire simply regrets i t with a feeling of nostalgia. The implication of this fundamental divergence and the relationship between the spiritual and material worlds of the two poets is examined in the following chapter. CHAPTER II THE SPIRITUAL AND MATERIAL WORLDS OF THE POET Mallarme, l i k e Baudelaire, believed that the observable universe was but a distortion of the ideal and transcendant absolute that the material world was imperfect and incoherent. But i f he accepted the Baudelairian dualism which placed the Ideal and the Real i n opposition, he soon went beyond i t , as L.J. Austin has pointed out, "par son horreur de l a vie et par son idealisme exas- pere."^ 0 As early as 1863 Mallarme showed a major divergence of thought from that of Baudelaire with regard to the relationship existing between the material and s p i r i t u a l worlds, or between "1'Ideal" and " l e Reel". In a letter to H. Cazalis (June 3, 1863), Mallarme wrote regarding Emmanuel des Essarts: I I confond trop 1'Ideal avec le R6el. La sottise d'un poete moderne a ete jusqu'a se desoler que "l'Action ne fut pas l a soeur du Reve." Mon Dieu, s ' i l en etait autrement, s i le Reve etait ainsi d e f l o r i et abaisse, ou done nous sauverions-nous, nous autres malheureux que l a terre degoute et qui n'avons que le Reve pour refuge.41 The "poete moderne" referred to i s Baudelaire who had written i n "Le Reniement de Saint-Pierre" (1844-1843)^2: Certes, je s o r t i r a i quant a moi, s a t i s f a i t d'un monde ou 1'action n'est pas l a soeur du reve.^3 The "sottise" of the "poete moderne" l i e s i n his taking r e a l i t y seriously, i n regretting that we li v e i n a world where the real and the ideal do not dwell together i n harmony.^ For Mallarme, as for Baudelaire, there i s a sharp duality between the material and the s p i r i t u a l worlds; but whereas for the latter there exists a secret communication between these two universes, for the former, the r e a l world must be eliminated or ignored. This feeling was expressed by Mallarme i n an a r t i c l e of 1862 devoted to a work by his friend Des Essarts: Les sentiments de l a Vie parisienne pris au serieux et vus a. travers le prisme de l a poesie, un ideal qui n' existe point par son propre reve et soit l e lyrisme de l a r e a l i t e . t e l l e est 1'intention des "Poesies Parisiennes".45 As Georges Poulet has pointed out, i f one reverses these terms, one obtains a perfect definition of Mallarme's poetry: " E l l e £sa poesie] veut exprimer un ideal qui existe par son propre reve et qui ne soit pas l e lyrisme de l a r e a l i t e V ^ 0 This definition d i f f e - rentiates the poetry of Mallarme from that of Baudelaire, which has r e a l i t y for i t s starting point. For Mallarme no action can link those two worlds, which cannot exist together. Thus, writes Georges Poulet, "des 1863, Mallarme condamne-t-il et r e j e t t e - t - i l le baudelairisme, non comme on 1'a d i t , a. cause de son dualisme, mais au contraire parce q u ' i l n'a pas mis un abime assez vaste entre deux mondes qu'au- cune action ne peut r e l i e r . "47 Contrary to Mallarme, Baudelaire had wished to show the relationship between the material and the s p i r i t u a l worlds. In spite of the impurity of matter, i t has i t s value as a sign, as a symbol of the s p i r i t u a l universe from which i t emanates. The mystic theory of correspondances i s very important i n the poetic and aesthetic doctrines of Baudelaire. Nature i s the symbol of a divine or transcen- dant re a l i t y . Everything that we see i n this world i s related to another world that we do not see; the invisible world manifests i t s e l f in the visible one. For Baudelaire, "Tout l'unlvers visible n'est qu'un magasin d'images et de signes auxquels l'imagination donnera une place et une valeur relative."4^ Like Baudelaire, Mallarme aspired to a world beyond, to the "au-dela". But unlike his predecessor, he repulsed matter as being contingent, disordered, impure.^ Mallarme felt the necessity of liberating himself from matter which destroys the unity of the ideal universe. The world to which he aspired was one of perfection, coherence and unity; a world that he had lost and wanted to recapture. In the world of his childhood there had been harmony and unity. "Entre terre et ciel point i c i de distance ni d'obstacle..." wrote Jean-Pierre Richard. "L'ame enfantine... vit en contact immediat et permanent avec une realite spirituelle qui tout a la fois la comble et la soutient."5° In his thesis of 1966 Y. Park contends, "C'est ce monde de l'unite parfaite et originelle que Mallarme croit avoir perdu et qu'il s'efforcera de retrouver. Cette vision de l'unitd du monde est a la fois le point de depart et le point final de son aventure 51 s p i r i t u e l l e . . S i n c e matter is incoherent and represents a rupture in the unity of the universe, i t is to be rejected or eliminated. The theme of "Herodiade" expresses the refusal of corporal l i f e and of earthly things; Herodiade says: 52 Du reste, je ne veux rien d'humain. Baudelaire's aesthetic idealism can thus be distinguished from that of Mallarme - the former seek3 to satisfy his aspiration for the Infinite and the eternel without breaking the ties which link mind to matter, while the latter denies any such relationship. The doctrine of corres- ppndances, writes Georges Blin, "aboutit chez Baudelaire a la partici- 59 rpation esthetique, c'est-a-dire 1'aspiration vers l ' i n f i n i traduite par le truchement des objets, la volonte d'exprimer '1'infini dans l e f i n i ' . •.. sans se s^parer de l'appui du monde concret."-^ For -Mallarme, on the other hand, poetic creation consists in abolishing ^matter. He did not aim at revealing the hidden reality, as did Baude- laire, but sought to replace the phenomenal world by i t s mental image, ;the abstracted essentialised aspects which evoke the idea, or "la ^notion pure".54 Hence, the flower he would evoke i s not present in "any bouquet: Je dis: une fleur'. et, hors de l'oubli ou ma voix relegue aucun contour, en tant que quelque choue d'autre que les calices sus, musicalement se leve, idee meme et suave, l'absente de tous bouquets.55 The vehicle for the attainment of Mallarme's ideal was to be the,province of the word itself. Whereas Baudelaire's poetics are grounded ultimately upon metaphysically oriented correspondances. and analogies between the visible and the invisible worlds in which empirical phenomena are the symbolical referents to a supra-terrestrial reality, Mallarme's, on the other hand, relies upon the magically evocative nature of words. The poet yields his place to the importance of language and allows poetic expression to dominate, as Mallarme suggests in a passage in "Crise de Vers": L'oeuvre pure implique la disparition elocutoire du poete, qui cede 1'initiative aux mots, par le heurt de leur ine- galite mobilis£e; i l s s'allument de reflets reciproques comme une virtuelle trainee de feux sur des pierreries, remplagant la respiration perceptible en l'ancien souffle lyrique ou La direction personnelle enthousiaste de la phrase.5° For Mallarme, reality was to be realized by a notion of i t , not by a concrete relative: A 1*egal de creer: la notion d'un objet, echappant, qui fait defaut. W Thus, the main difference between the two poets lies ultimately on the basis of their poetics in relation to an absolute reality - that i s , in their metaphysics, rather than in their poetics, as William W. King has underlined in a recent article: "The referents of Mallarme's symbols are other symbols; the referents for Baudelaire's are immediate correspondences to the Absolute. The immediacy of the Absolute for Baudelaire allows his metaphysics to inform his poetics; the obli- queness of Reality for Mallarme allows his poetics to retain signi- fication on purely poetic grounds."^8 61 CHAPTER III. THE POETIC IDEAL ' Mallarme, like Baudelaire, felt compelled to seek for a ^supra-terrestrial ideal. In his prose poem "Laquelle est la Vraie ?"59 Baudelaire tells of a certain very beautiful g i r l "Benedicta" "Qui remplissait 1'atmosphere d*ideal, et dont les yeux repandaient le desir de la grandeur, de la beaute, de la gloire et de tout ce qui fait croire a 1'immortalite." After this g i r l had died and the author had buried her, he saw a small person who ressembled the deceased -and who claimed she was the true Benedicta. The poet at first furiously replied, "Non! non! nonV, but he concluded, "comme un loup pris au piege, je reste attache, pour toujours peut-etre, a la fosse de 1'ideal." In the poem "L TAzur"^ Mallarme tries to flee from "1'eternel azur" which represents the Ideal for him: he would seek in "la matiere" L'oubli de 1'Ideal cruel... But he cannot renounce his aspiration: En vain l'Azur triomphe Je suis hante. L'Azur! l'Azurl l'Azurl l'Azurt What is the nature of the Ideal which so obsessed the poet ? For Baudelaire, as he expressed i t in "Elevation" 6 1, i t was to be found in the world beyond this one, in "l'iramensite profonde", "1'air superieur", "les champs lumineux et sereins" to which his spirit could fly to purify itself and drink, ... comme une pure et divine liqueur Le feu clair qui remplit les espaces limpides 62 and where his thoughts Vers les cieux le matin prennent un Libre essor, and where the poet ...plane sur la vie et comprend sans effort Le langage des fleurs et des choses muettes. However, i t was only at privileged moments that the poet could catch glimpses of the Ideal; i n his Journaux intimes. Baudelaire describes the state of mind necessary for this: Dans certains etats de 1*ame presque surnaturels, l a profondeur de l a vie se revele tout entiere dans le spectacle, s i ordinaire qu ' i l soit, qu'on a sous les yeux.°2 The Imagination has a supreme role i n deciphering the meaning of the symbols that are present i n the world around us. It i s " l a reine des facult4s"^3 > the intermediary between the material and the s p i r i t u a l worlds, and i s the means by which the art i s t i s enabled to discover s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y through physical appearances and sensations. For Baudelaire the imagination i s not fantasy, nor sensibility but une faculte quasi divine qui percoit tout d'abord en dehors des methodes philosophiques, les rapports i n - times et secrets des choses, les correspondances et les analogies.°4 Like Baudelaire, Mallarme aspired to an Ideal world, a world which was the antithesis of the material world which the poet could not accept. The term "Ideal" appears for the f i r s t time i n Mallarme's poetry i n "Le Sonneur"°5 written i n 1862: J'ai beau t i r e r l a cable a. sonner 1*Ideal. In a let t e r to Henri Cazalis dated January 3, 1863, Mallarme also used the term "Ideal": II [Emmanuel des Essarts] confond trop 1'Ideal avec le Reel.66 63 The poem "Les Fenetres"^7, written in May 1863, does not clarify the notion of the Ideal but describes the climate in which i t exists; i t i s the place Que dore le matin chaste de l'Infini • • • Au ciel anterieur ou fleurit la Beaute. It was Baudelaire, who, in emphasizing the doctrine of universal analogy, contributed to the clarification of the Mallarmedri aspiration and the vision of the universe for which Mallarme was vaguely searching. As a result of contact with the Baudelairian theory of correspondances . around the year 1861, Mallarme felt with more assurance that a coherent, unified universe existed behind an: incoherent and disordered nature. Baudelaire revealed to Mallarme above a l l , writes Park^, "cette vision geometrique de 1'univers dans le sens ou la geometrie se fond sur un caractere structural et sur une entiere rigueur." But, adds Park, "cette revelation n'a pas change 1'aspiration. Elle ne l'a pas modified, elle l'a simplement approfondie et precised." In the poem "L'Azur"^ written in January 1864, Mallarme does not further clarify his conception of the Ideal; but he expresses his obsession with "l'Azur" which symbolises i t , and which he cannot renounce even though he feels incapable of attaining i t . Like the unattainable, the inimitable beauty of flowers, the blue of the azure mocks the poet who feels incapable of reproducing such purity and who must remain impotent in the awareness of his genius. The Ideal appears as something pure, transparent, immortal and eternal, as reflected in "l'azur". The Ideal is also Beauty, for the poet, in "Les Fenetres"7^ aspires A renaxtre portant mon reve en diademe Au ciel anterieur ou fleurit la Beaute. 64 However, the ideal is not linked to the material world, as in Baude- laire; Mallarme sees i t in the absence of material contingencies. Mallarme's Ideal, as Georges Poulet has described i t , is analogous to mental reality, which is completely cut off from concrete, material reality: "La realite" n'est pas un point de depart. II faut la retran- cher ou l'ignorer."^ Contrary to Baudelaire, Mallarme* looks for his ideal only in the mind, in thought conceived as the opposite of the material in art. In 1863 when he was only twenty-one, Mallarme expressed a firm conviction that was to guide the writing of his poetry for years to come: II n'y a de vrai, d'immuable, de grand et de sacre" que l'art.72 It was no doubt the following lines of Baudelaire which, according to H. Mondor, he recited with Lefebure, that inspired the above credo: II y a dans le Verbe quelque chose de sacre qui nous defend d'en faire un jeu de hasard... Relativement au reve pur, 1*impression non analysee, l'art d^fini, l'art positif est un blaspheme.73 Mallarme thus took poetry as the means of access to his ideal, as did Baudelaire. Mallarme replaced the term "Ideal" by that of "Idee" from about the year 1866, and then he replaced the term "Idee" by that of "Beau"^ although he s t i l l continued to use "Idee". It is interesting to note, as Park has pointed out, that in 1894 Mallarme used "Idee" with the meaning of "1'essence la plus.essentielle du monde, de l'Etre ontologique le plus transparent'^^ that i s , with almost the same meaning as that of Baudelaire's "Idee" in his poem "L'Irremediable": Une Idee, une Forme, un Etre Parti de l'Azur et tombe Dans un Styx bourbeux et plombe Ou nul oeil du Ciel ne penetre;7" Although Baudelaire did not attempt to free the spiritual - or things emanating from the spirit - from the material world, as did Mallarme, he believed in the eternity of the essence, of the Idea which maintains an existence autonomous from that of Matter. This idea is expressed in the following lines from Journaux Intimes; Toute idie est, par elle-meme, douee d'une vie immortelle, comme une personne. Toute forme creee, meme par l'homme, est immortelle. Car la forme est independante de la matiere et ce ne sont pas les molecules qui constituent la forme.77 and also in the last stanza of "Une Charogne": Alors, o ma beaute, dites a la vermine Que j'ai garde la forme et 1'essence divine De mes amours decomposes'.7^ For Mallarme i t was the essence, or "l'idee" alone, that counted, while for Baudelaire who , while admitting the superiority of mind over matter ("Ce qui est cred par 1' esprit est plus vivant que la matiere"71?), never completely separated the object from its essence. Thus his Ideal, unlike Mallarme's, is never completely disembodied. Mallarme's Ideal existed only in the non-material; finally, i t was the perfect and total coherence of the world which exists under the AO very appearance of the disorder of phenomena.ou * * * For Mallarme as for Baudelaire the Ideal which each sought became synonymous with Beauty. The pursuit of Beauty is the primary 66 goal of a l l a r t i s t i c expression. According to Baudelaire, the poet cannot separate himself from this ideal because " l e Beau" i s an innate instinct, an immortal appetite. In the following famous passage, Baudelaire reaffirms, i n terms suggested by Poe's "Poetic Principle" 8-*-, the spi r i t u a l and transcendant nature of poetry, and i t s a b i l i t y to reveal the beauty and mystery of the invisible world: C'est cet admirable, cet immortel instinct du Beau qui nous f a i t considerer l a terre et ses spectacles comme un apercu, comme une correspondance du Ciel. La soif insatiable de tout ce qui est au-dela, et que revele l a vie, est l a preuve l a plus vivante de notre immor- t a l i t y . C'est a la fois par l a poesie, et a travers l a poesie, par et a. travers l a musique que l'ame en- trevoit les splendeurs situ^es derriere le tombeau.82 For Mallarme poetry i s the noblest ac t i v i t y and the highest expression of which man i s capable. In a letter to M. Leo d'Orfer of June 27, 1884, Mallarme' wrote: La poesie est 1'expression par le langage humain ramene a. son rythme essentiel du sens mysterieux des aspects de l'existence; e l l e doue ainsi d'authenticity notre sejour et constitue l a seule tache spiri t u e l l e . 83 Baudelaire had established i n 1857 the aspiration toward Beauty - a superior beauty - as the very principle of poetry: Ainsi l e principe de l a poesie est strictement et simplement 1'aspiration humaine vers une beaute superieure. 34 Mallarray went even further than Baudelaire by declaring that Beauty i s the aim of poetry and of l i f e i t s e l f : II n' y a que l a Beaute et ell e n'a qu'une expression parfaite - l a Poysie. 8^ Thus, the two poets sought a common goal; however, their concepts of Beauty differed considerably. For Baudelaire, "La dualite de l'art est une consequence fatale de l a dualite de l'homme".80 Beauty i s envisaged simultaneously as an emanation of the supra- t e r r e s t r i a l Ideal and as a concrete r e a l i t y immediately perceptible i n the diversity of l i f e . Beauty i s thus composed of a variable, transitory element and of an eternal, invariable element which represents c e l e s t i a l and eternal Beauty. In his "Salon de 1846" Baudelaire wrote: "Toutes les beautes contiennent, comme tous l e 3 phenomenes possibles quelque chose d'eternel, et quelque chose de transitoire - d'absolu et de part I culler."** 7 The particular element of each beauty comes from the passions, and,continued Baudelaire: "comme nous avons nos passions particulieres, nous avons notre beaute."83; moreover, "La beaute absolue et eternelle n'existe pas ou plutot e l l e n'est qu'une abstraction ecremee a l a surface generale des beautes diverses."^ For Mallarme, however, Beauty contained nothing of a transitory nature, nothing of the passions, or of the material. Beauty was an Absolute, as indicated i n a letter of January 12, 1864 i n which Mallarme wrote to Henri Cazalis regarding the poem "L'Azur" (which he forwarded with the le t t e r ) : L' effet produit sans une dissonance, sans une fi o r i t u r e , meme adorable qui d i s t r a i t - voila ce que je cherche. L'autre cote a. envisager, le cote esthetique - Est-ce- beau ? Y a - t - i l un ref l e t de l a Beaute?90 Mallarme thus sought to incorporate a reflection of Absolute Beauty into his poetry. The following passage from a letter written by Lefebure to Mallarme i n 1867 further attests to this concept of Beauty held by Mallarme: C'est la. je crois l'idee qui a du vous conduire a. rejeter de votre Oeuvre tous les filaments qui lient l a Beauts a l a partie grossiere de l'homme et 1'alourdissement de la matiere... Mais mon cher ami, et c'est la, votre gloire, pour eprouver le grand fremissement de l'Inconnu... Vous vous trouvez a un moment unique ou i l vous est impossible de condenser l a quintessence du Beau... Thus i t was " l a quintessence du Beau" that Mallarme sought to incorporate into his poetry; his concept of Beauty i s detached from anything material - "a l a partie grossiere de l'homme et l'alourdissement de matiere." For Mallarme the search for his ideal can be described as an adventure. Beauty i s to be found only after travelling i n unknown countries, i n high cold altitudes, away from t o r r i d r e a l i t y , i n the purest glaciers of Aesthetics. Here i s an account of his discovery of "le Beau" contained i n a let t e r to H. Cazalis of July 1366: Imagine que je suis en voyage et que, par ce s o l e i l , l'encre des auberges est sech£e. En vei-ite, je voyage, mais dans des pays inconnus et s i , pour f u i r l a realite torride, je me plais a evoquer des images froides, je te d i r a i que je suis depuis un mois dans les plus purs glaciers de l'Esthetique - qu'apres avoir trouve le Neant, j ' a i trouve le Beau - et que tu ne peux t'ima- giner dans quelles altitudes lucides je ra'aventure.92 Although Baudelaire had also affirmed his belief i n an Absolute Beauty, he did not think i t could be realized i n this world. Thus he stated: "Quoique le principe universel soit un, l a nature ne donne rien d'absolu, ni merae de complet; je ne vois que des individus." 9^ Since the poet can never attain absolute Beauty, the ideal becomes tinged with sadness; i t i s a mysterious inaccessible ideal whose essence i s unknown. In his Joumaux Intimes Baudelaire expressed his definition of " l e Beau": J'ai trouve l a definition du Beau, de mon Beau. C'est quelque chose d'ardent et de t r i s t e , quelque chose d'un peu vague, la i3sant carriere a. l a conjecture.94 His Beauty i s , therefore, considered as something variable rather than absolute; i t s character i s determined to a large extent by the temperament or sensibility of the a r t i s t . 9 ^ According to Baudelaire a l l beauty has some element of strangeness: "... 1'etrangete... est comme le condiment indispensable de toute beaute."" Baudelaire also contended that " l e beau" i s always astonishing^ 7 and that the horrible, a r t i s t i c a l l y expressed, becomes beauty: "C'est un des privileges pro- digieux de l'Art que 1'horrible, artistement exprime, devienne beaute u98 Here Baudelaire i s , of course, speaking of Beauty as he thinks i t can be realized on this earth, of the "particular element of each beauty"99 - an element not present i n the Mallarmean conception of Beauty. For Mallarme, then, Beauty was an Absolute, an abstract, immaterial and pure, whereas for Baudelaire, i t had an element of the transitory as well as of the eternal. For the latter, Beauty, which i s a manifesta- tion of the c e l e s t i a l element in t e r r e s t r i a l and transitory sensations, may be described as one of those Innate ideas contained i n the soul and grasped by an immediate intuition of the mind. In his "Salon de 1846" Baudelaire stated: "En f a i t d'art je suis surnaturaliste. Je crois que 1'artiste ne peut trouver dans l a nature tous ses types, mais que les p l u 3 remarquables l u i sont reveles dans son ame comme la: symbolique innee des idees innees et au meme i n s t a n t . " 1 ^ The transposition of material objects into a superior order so that they represent symbolically the s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y from which they proceed i s operated by the imagination. For Mallarme the imagination does not play the role or have the importance i t does for Baudelaire. It i s the i n t e l l e c t that i s able to abstract from perceptions of the senses an absolute beauty, the idea of beauty freed from material contingencies. Baudelaire, i t should be noted, admitted the existence of a transcendant idea of Beauty. He recognized i n Beauty an absolute of a metaphysical order, indispensable to the s p i r i t u a l designs of the poet who stated i n his "Paradis A r t i f i c i e l s " : "L'idee de beaute doit naturellement s' emparer d'une place vaste dans un temperament s p i r i - tuel t e l que je 1*ai suppose." 1^ 1 The conquest of absolute Beauty i s an Icarian temptation .which Baudelaire did not always resist. His poem "Les Plaintes d'un Icare" shows to what s p i r i t u a l p e r i l the a r t i s t exposes himself when yielding to the temptation to attain to ideal Beauty: Et brule par 1' amour du beau Je n'aurai pas 1*honneur sublime De dormer mon nom a. l'abime Qui me servira de tombeau.^ 2 Mallarme, on the other hand, never gave up the attempt to realize absolute Beauty i n his poetry. As early as 1866 i n a lett e r to Cazalis he voiced his ambition: Je suis en train de jeter les fondements d'un l i v r e sur le Beau. Mon esprit se meut dans l'Eternel. et en a eu plusieurs frissons. s i l'on peut parler ainsi de l'lm- muable. - L U^ In another letter to Cazalis, also written i n May 1866, Mallarme expressed his intention of revising the poems he had already written because they had not been conceived i n the light of Beauty as he now perceived i t : Sentant que, bien qu'aucun de ces poemes n'ait ete, en r e a l i t e , concu en vue de l a Beaute, mais plutot comme autant d'intuitives revelations de mon tempe- rament,... pour les publier t e l s , je consacrai des nuits consecutives a les corriger.. .-^A It should be pointed that although Baudelaire conceived of Beauty i n nature^5 a s dual, some of the attributes of Mallarme's absolute Beauty were already present i n his poem "La Beaute"^^, namely: mystery ("Je trone dans l'azur comme un sphinx incompris"), purity ("J'unis un coeur de neige a, l a blancheur des cygnes"), impassivity ("Et jamais je ne pleure et jamais je ne ri s " ) , and eternity ("Eternel et..."). True lovers of Beauty cannot give up the search for the essential eternal element that transposes reality into Beauty. In this same poem Beauty speaks: Car j ' ai pour fasciner ces dociles amants De purs miroirs qui font toutes choses belles: Mes yeux, mes larges yeux aux clartes eternelles. In "L'Hymne a. la Beaute", Baudelaire pays tribute to the power that Beauty has to open the doors of Infinity, to raise the poet to another sphere, to make l i f e on this earth less hideous: Que tu viennes du ciel ou de 1'enfer, qu'importe 0 Beautei... Si ton oeil, ton souris, ton pied, m'ouvrent la porte D'un Infini que j'aime et n'ai jamais connu ?107 Similarly, for Mallarme, Beauty had the power to elevate him to another sphere. In his remarks on Theophile Gautier in 108 "Symphonie Litteraire" , the poet speaks of reaching "la plus haute cime de serenite ou nous ravisse la Beaute." But although Beauty as personnified by Baudelaire has the serenity and austerity of the Mallarmean ideal, Baudelaire1 s aspirations were not carried to the same extreme as Mallarme's. Baudelaire unlike Mallarml, did not attempt to eliminate relative beauty from his ideal; i t was through earthly phenomena that he sought to catch glimpses of the world beyond. The Ideal for Mallarme as for Baudelaire thus resides in the creation of Beauty. However, Mallarme's concept of Beauty differs considerably from that of Baudelaire. Here Poe's ideas on Beauty are said to have intervened. "Poe," asserts Margaret Gilman, "had a more unearthly, ethereal, half-mystical conception of Beauty, a supernal Beauty, whereas Baudelaire's beauty has never been and never entirely ceases to be of this earth."109 p o e showed Mallarme that the Ideal, in the form of "le Beau" constitues a form not only sacred (as Baudelaire thought), but one that i s also crystalline and purified. It was Hegel who, according to Jean-Pierre Richard"^ and Y. Park , m among many other critics, revealed to Mallarme with clarity the synthetic aspect of "le Beau" summarized by the totality of the universe. "Le Beau" as Mallarme ultimately conceived i t was the Universe in its veritable aspect, its essence. A letter from Lef6bure to Mallarme written in 1867 attests very clearly how much the latter was preoccupied with the Reality of the Universe: J'ai suffisamment compris votre theorie poetique du raystere qui est tres vraie et confirmee par l'histoire. Jusqu'a. present, toutes les fois que l'homme a entendu le vrai, c'est-a-dire la constitution logique de 1'univers, II s'est rejete avec horreur vers 1'illusion infinie et comme dit Baudelaire, n'a peut-etre invente le Ciel et raeme l'Enfer que pour echapper au Nevermore des Lucrece et des Spinoza. For Mallarme "le Beau" and "l'Idee" represent essentially the same thing, the image of the logical synthesis of the Universe. The word "Idee" emphasized the aspect of pure Reality of the vision of the Cosmos, and the word "Beau" that of the aesthetic structural nature 113 of this vision. For the critic Delfel, "L'aspect transcendant du reel, n'est pas une personne, mais un cosmos organise sous le signe de la Beauts."^4 The Essence of the Universe may be considered "1' Idee" when i t is seen as supreme Reality, and as Beauty when i t is incarnated in Poetry. Mallarme has been described by Park as an architect aspiring to a perfect form of the structure of the universe. 1 From this point of view Mallarme is far from Baudelaire - described as a moralist or a mystic - whose only problem was spiritual salvation. "Le Beau" as Mallarme conceived i t is the Universe in its veritable aspect, its essence. Mallarme thus pushed Baudelaire's concept of the universal analogy to its logical conclusion, as L.J. Austin has pointed out in his article, on the formulation of Mallarme' s definitive ideal^-^, and in which he draws on Mallarme's remarkable letter to Aubanel (1366) to show how Mallarme rejoined this Baudelairian doctrine: J'ai voulu te dire simplement que je venais de jeter le plan de mon oeuvre entier, apres avoir trouve la clef de moi-meme, clef de voute ou centre, si tu veux, pour ne pas brouiller de metaphores, centre de moi-meme, ou je me tiens comme une araignee sacree sur les principaux f i l s deja. sortis de mon esprit, et a l'aide desquels je tisserai aux points de rencontre de merveilleuses den- telles, que je devine, et qui existent deja. dans le sein de ia Beaute.H7 This letter reveals that one of Mallarme*s guiding principles was "1'universelle analogie" with i t s relationship between a l l things and which therefore constitutes an extension of Baudelaire's doctrine 113 of correspondances. • Regarding "le Livre" which Mallarme contemplated, the poet affirmed in 1395: y Les qualites, requises en cet ouvrage, a coup sur le genie, m'epouvantent un parmi les denues: ne s'y arreter et, admis le volume ne comporter aucun signataire, quel e s t - i l : l'hymne, harmonie et joie, comme pur ensemble groupe dans quelque circonstance fulgurante, des relations entre tout.119 Mallarme sees the Universe and "le Beau" from the point of view of relationships, a fact to which he draws our attention in "La Musique et les Lettres": Tout l'acte disponible, a jamais et seulement reste de ( • saisir les rapports, entre temps, rares ou multiplies; ;"'> d'apres quelque etat interieur et que l'on veuille a son gre etendre, simplifier le monde. In other words, "le Beau" may be described as the "ensemble"logically 74 deduced from the varied relationships which constitute the universe. Within this system, as Mallarm£ has said, i t is possible that, by virtue of the poetic act, "1'univers retrouve en moi son identite."121 •The "Beau" therefore expresses relationships between a l l things. We may therefore conclude that by continuing the Baudelairian theory of correspondances in his vast project which he described as "le Livre", Mallarme never entirely freed himself from the influence of Baudelaire. Paradoxically, writes L.J. Austin, "c'est apres qu'il [jMallarmeQ crut avoir secoue ce joug que 1'influence profonde de Baudelaire devait •:agir sur l u i , non plus celle du poete du peche, mais celle du theo- ricien des correspondances• Ce Baudelaire-la 1'avait marque pour la v i e . " 1 2 2 tt # tt Mallarme received from Baudelaire a certain conception of art - the negation of immediate reality and the aspiration toward an ideal of beauty which is the very aim of poetry. Both poets were greatly opposed to didactic poetry, or to verse which had any utilitarian aim. In his "Notes nouvelles sur Edgar Poe", Baudelaire expressed clearly the aim of poetry: La poesie... n'a pas d*autre but qu'elle-raeme; elle ne peut en avoir d'autre, et, aucun poeme ne sera si grand, • si noble, si veritableraent digne du nom du poeme que celui qui aura ete ecrit uniquement pour le plaisir d' 6- crire un poeme.123 Mallarme, writing with regard to Banville, declared his faith in the doctrine of art in terms which recall those of Baudelaire: Que tout poeme compose autrement qu' en vue d' obeir au. vieux genie du vers n'en est pas un.^24 Baudelaire was very much against what he called "l'heresie de 1*enseignement" which included as inevitable corollaries "l'heresie de la passion, de la verite et de la morale."125 This idea was taken from Poe's "Poetic Principle" 1 2 6 where Poe had divided the world of the mind into Pure Intellect, Taste, and the Moral Sense, each of which had a different aim: The pure intellect aims at truth, taste shows us beauty, and the moral sense teaches us our duty. But whereas for Poe, the ultimate ut i l i t y of art was unacceptable, for Baudelaire a certain morality is implicit in a l l great art - i t is almost inevitably a by-product of poetry, as he stated in "Notes Nouvelles.." Je ne veux pas dire que la poesie n'ennoblisse pas les raoeurs - que son resultat final ne soit pas d'elever l'homme au-dessus du niveau des interets vulgaires.127 1 oft Mallarme's article "L'Art pour Tous" uses Baudelaire's term "heresies" for part of the subtitle: "Heresies Artistiques"; Mallarme also speaks of "1' heresie de 1' enseignement" but in slightly different terms: "profanes par 1'enseignement". Although not concerned with any ultimate ut i l i t y for art, Mallarme adopted the view that poetry has no other aim but itself; i t should not be philosophical, descriptive, or moral. However, in November 1855 Mallarme expressed his ambition to write a book which would be "1'explication orphique de la Terre": ...un livre, bonnement, en maints tomes, un livre qui soit un livre... j ' i r a i plus loin, je dirai: le Livre, persuade qu'au fond, i l n'y en a qu'un... L'explica- ( tion orphique de la Terre, qui est le seul devoir du poete et le jeu litteraire par excellence.^9 Both Baudelaire and Mallarme opposed the conception of art as the servile reproduction of nature. For Baudelaire, untouched 76 Nature which i s ugly 1^ 0, which participates in original sin is "un amas incoherent de materiaux que 1' artiste est invite a associer et a mettre en ordre."---^ The artist utilises the raw materials of nature, but he must subject them first to the creative will of the mind. It is the artist's function to decompose natural creation and to recreate it s elements in order to create a new world. The principle of recreation must be informed by the agent of creativity, that i s , the imaginative faculty. In his "Salon de 1859" Baudelaire explained, Elle [l'imagination] decompose toute la creation et, avec les materiaux amasses et disposes suivant des regies dont on ne peut trouver l'origine que dans le plus profond de l'ame, elle cree un monde nouveau, elle produit la sensation du neuf.^32 For Mallarme the world of matter was also one of incoherence, and the artist must re-create a new one, but instead of relying on the intuitive faculty, the imagination, Mallarme relied on the intellect to evoke his dream-world. He sought to create "le livre", a great work "qui soit un livre, architectural et premedite, et non un recueil des inspirations de hasard, fussent-elles merveilleuses."133 Art, for Mallarme, arises from a voluntary act, not from an intuitive process. As Mr. Fowlie commented, "un sonnet de Mallarme est 1'expres- sion d'une volonte,"134 For Baudelaire "le hasard" also had no place in art. In his "Salon de 1846" he had stated: "II n'y a pas de hasard dans l'art"-1-35 and in an article devoted toTheophile Gautier he had written in 1859: "II y a dans le mot, dans le verbe. quelque chose de sacre qui nous defend d'en faire un jeu de hasard."^ 0 For Baudelaire, "la volonte" was also extremely important in the creative process. For him, the creative process is not a passive act, but the result of consciousness, effort, of imagination functioning within the phenomenal world; a carefully controlled situation i n which successive fl i g h t s of the mind nourish the creative process. In his poem "Reve Parisien" Baudelaire likens his task to the taming "of'an ocean so as to cause i t to flow through a tunnel: Architecte de mes feeries, Je f a i s a i s , a ma volonte Sous un tunnel de pierreries Passer un ocean dompte.^-37 Here, will-power i s directed toward moral ends, the control and transposition of nature which i s a symbol of e v i l . For Mallarme, as we have noted, nature was a symbol of disorder and incoherence; but for Baudelaire " l a volonte" had an aesthetic function as well. He uses the term i n this special sense i n his a r t i c l e on "Le Dandy" ... toutes les conditions materielles compliquees auxquelles i l s se soumettent... ne sont qu*une gym- nastique propre a f o r t i f i e r l a volonte et a d i s c i - pliner 1'ame.138 Baudelaire and Mallarme both saw i n will-power a force necessary to the creative a r t i s t for the realization of his dream. The work of art i s superior to nature as Baudelaire affirmed i n his prose poem "Invitation au Voyage": Bays singulier, superieur aux autres, comme l'Art l'est a, l a nature ou c e l l e - c i est reformee par le reve ou el l e est corrigee, embellie, refondue.139 But a work of art must, according to Baudelaire, contain the object (nature) and the subject (reve); hence, his famous definition of pure art: C e s t creer une magie suggestive contenant a l a fois 1*objet et le sujet, le monde exterieur a l f a r t i s t e et 1'artiste lui-meme.-^O The "reve" or s p i r i t u a l part of the a r t i s t i c work i s thus linked closely to the real, to matter. This i s not so for Mallarme, for whom the. phenomenal world disappears and i s replaced by the poetic act which i s language. "For the whole symbolist movement", states Chiari, "as well as for the aesthetic movement, Mallarme excepted, art was a religion and the poet was the priest revealing the mystery of l i f e . . . He ^MallarmeJ was a l l i n one, the priest without temple who has projected a l l and himself i n his song... he has provided himself very modestly with most of God's attributes, the most important being the power of self-creation, that i s to say, of being the source of his own transcendance."^! For Baudelaire, the work of art i s at the same time the coherent expression of nature and the expression of the mind, whereas for Mallarme i t i s but the expression of the mind. However, for Mallarme as for Baudelaire the aim of poetry was to create "une magie suggestive"^ 2. In this respect Mallarme went much further than Baudelaire i n his ardent desire to invest the object with mystery. In his "Reponses a des Enquetes", he explained his creed which was to govern the writing of his most celebrated poetry: Nommer un objet, c'est supprimer les trois-quarts de l a jouissance du poeme qui est fa i t e de deviner peu a. peu; l e suggerer, voila. le reve. C'est le parfait usage de ce mystere qui constitue le symbole: evoquer petit a. petit un objet pour montrer un etat d'ame, ou, inver- sement, choisir un objet et en degager un etat d'ame, par une serie de dechiffrements.U3 Mallarme* s poetic technique of suggesting and never describing i s a tendency i n line with Baudelaire's rejection of the photographic i n art arid his praise of the infusions of imagination. Both Baudelaire and Mallarme wrote on the d i f f i c u l t y of attaining the Ideal, which the poet must nevertheless struggle to realize. For Baudelaire, the fact that the ideal was unattainable 79 was fortunate for both the poets and the human race: S i l a clef de l ' i d e a l etait donnee immediateraent, l e poete n'aurait plus besoin d'operer cette concentration de toutes ses forces a laquelle se mesurent 1' elevation de sa pensee et l a densite sp i r i t u e l l e de son oeuvre. Les poetes, les artistes et toute l a race humaine, seraient bien malheu- reux s i 1'ideal, cette absurdite, cette impossibilite, etait t r o u v e . 1 ^ In his "L,Aube s p i r i t u e l l e " B a u d e l a i r e writes of "1'Ideal rongeur" and "1' inaccessible azur". The quest for Beauty i s never accompanied by the serenity and detachment that characterized Mallarme's pursuit of his goal i n his later years. For Baudelaire i t supposes an interior conflict, a s p i r i t u a l combat with matter. In his "Confiteor de 1 TAr- t i s t e " , Baudelaire describes the study of the Beautiful as a duel: L'etude du beau est un duel ou 1'artiste crie de frayeur avant d'etre vaincu.146 For Mallarme, also, the Ideal was, at the beginning, impossible to attain. Thus, i n his poem "L'Azur"-^ 7, written i n 1864, "1'azur" which symbolizes the inaccessible ideal, overwhelms the poet with i t s "sereine ironie" and i t s gaze of "un remords at- terant". In his letter to Henri Cazalis written at the time he was forwarding to his friend accopy of "L'Azur", Mallarme expressed the anguish through which he had passed to achieve his goal: .... Et c'a ete une terrible d i f f i c u l t e de combiner, dans une juste harmonie 1'element dramatique hostile a. l'idee de poesie pure et subjective avec l a sere- nite et le calme de lignes necessaires a l a Beaute.148 NOTES TO PART II 1. Charles Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade (Henceforth referred to as B. O.c.). p. 86. 2. St£phane Mallarme, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade (henceforth referred to M. O.c.). p. 37. 3. C. Baudelaire, Preface to Nouvelles Histoires Extraordinaires d 1 Edgar Poe. Traduction de Charles Baudelaire. Notes Nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. p. 4. r } 4. M. O.c.. p. 258. 5. B. O.c., p. 86. 6. M. O.c.. p. 259. 7. Written 1859 or 1860, i n B. O.c.. pp. 906-909. 8. Ibid., p. 907. 9. Ibid.. p. 908. 10. M. O.c.. p. 259. 11. V/. Fowlie, Mallarme. pp. 64-65. 12. B. (he., p. 1210. 13. Ibid.. p. 908. 14. M. (he., p. 260. ^ 15. B. (he., p. 907. 16. M. (he., p. 257. 17. Ibid.. p. 257. 18. B. (he., p. 83. 19. Ibid., p. 86. 20. M. (he., p.18. 21. B. Che., pp. 87-7. 22. M. (he., p. 33 NOTES TO PART II (Continued) 23. M.A.' Ruff, Baudelaire. p. 141. 24. C. Baudelaire, Notes nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. p. 6. 25. B. O.c., p. 1211. 26. cf. Y. Park, thesis, 1966, pp. 38-39, and Jean-Pierre Richard, L'Univers imaginaire de Mallarme. pp. 376-377. 27. Jean-Pierre Richard, ibid.. p. 376. 28. B. O.c., p. 893. 29. J.-P. Richard, Op. cit.. p. 376. 30. B. (Xc., p. 355. 31. M. O^c., pp. 32-33. 32. B. O.c., p. 228. 33. Ibid., p. 189. 34. M. O^c., p. 32. 35. B. O^c., p. 1210. , 36. 'Ibid.. p. 131. 37. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 90. 38. M. Che., p. 35. 39. B. O^c., p. 137. 40. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme et le Reve du 'Livre'", p. 83. 41. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 90. 42. See C. Baudelaire, Les Fleurs du Mal. Editions Garnier Freres, p. 420 for dates. 43. B. O.c., p. 191. 44. cf. Austin G i l l , "Mallarme on Baudelaire", in Currents of Thought in French Literature, p. 96. 45. M. O.c., p. 256. NOTES TO PART II (Continued) 46. G. Poulet, Etudes sur le Temps Humain. II. La Distance f Interieure. Chapitre IX, p. 298. 47. Ibid., p. 304. 43. B. O.c., Cur. Esth., p.J'7f, 49. cf. Y. Park, op. cit.. p. 53- 50. J.-P. Richard, op. cit.. p. 41. 51. Y. Park, op. cit.. p. 11. 52. M. Che., p. 47. 53. Georges Blin, Baudelaire. pp. 189-191; cited in M. Eigeldinger, Le Platonisme de Baudelaire, p. 68. 54. M. (he., p. 857. 55. W.W. King, "Baudelaire and Mallarme: Metaphysics or Aesthetics" p.. 122. 56. M. O.c.. p. 366. 57. M. (he., p. 647. 58. W. King, op. cit . . p. 123. 59. B. (he., pp. 342-343. 60. M. (he., pp. 37-38. 61. B. (he., pp. 86-87. 62. Ibid., p. 1197. 63. C. Baudelaire, Notes Nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. p. 13. 64. Ibid., pp. 13-14. 65. M. O.c., p. 36. 66. S. Mallarme. Correspondance. p. 90. 67. M. (he., pp. 32-33. 68. Y. Park, op. cit . . p. 65. 83 NOTES TO PART II (Continued) 69. M. Che., pp. 37-38. 70. Ibid.. p. 32. 71. G. Poulet, op. ci t . . p. 299. 72. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 94. 73. B. O^c., p. 1035; cited in H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. p. 200. 74. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 220. 75. Y. Park, op. c i t . . p. 112. 76. B. O^c., p.151. 77. Ibid., p. 1230. 78. Ibid.. p. 107. 79. Ibid.. p. 1189. 80. cf. Y. Park, op. cit.. p. 89. 81. cf. Edgar Allan Poe, Le Principe de la Poesie. pp. 48-53. 82. C. Baudelaire, Notes Nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. p. 20* 83. S. Mallarme, Propos sur la poesie. p. 118. 84. C. Baudelaire, Notes nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. p. 20; cf. E.A. Poe, Le Principe de la Poesie. p. 56. 85. S. Mallarme, Propos sur la poesie. p. 79. 86. B. O.c.. p. 883. 87. Ibid.. p. 677. 88. Ibid., p. 677- 89. There is a contradiction in the role played by the passions in the creation of Beauty as expressed in the above passage and in the one in Notes nouvelles sur Edgar Poe (p. 20) where Baudelaire had written that the principle of poetry manifests itself "dans un enthousias- me, une excitation de l'ame - enthousiasme tout a fait independant de la passion qui est 1'ivresse du coeur et de la verite qui est la pature de la raison." cf. E.A. Poe, bp. cit.. p. 48. NOTES TO PART II (Continued) 89. Ibid., p. 677. 90. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. pp. 103-104. 91. H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. pp. 241-242. 92. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. pp. 220-221. 93. B. (he., p. 643. 94. B. (he., p. 1195- 95. Baudelaire as a Literary C r i t i c . Selected Essays Introduced and Translated by L.B. Hyslop and Francis E. Hyslop, Jr., p. 15. 96. C. Baudelaire, Notes nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. p. 22. 97. B. (he., p. 769. 93. Ibid.. p. 1040. 99. Ibid., p. 677. 100. Ibid.. p. 621. 101. Ibid., p. 468. 102. Ibid.. pp. 244-245. 103. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 216. 104. Ibid.. p. 215. 105. B. (he., p. 883. 106. B. (he., p. 96. 107. Ibid.. p. 99. 103. M. O.c., p. 262. 109. M. Gilman, Baudelaire, the C r i t i c , p. 111. 110. J.-P. Richard, op. c i t . . p. 233- 111. Park, op. c i t . . p. 94. 112. H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme\ pp. 238-239. NOTES TO PART II (Continued) 113. cf. Y. Park, op. c i t . . p. 97. 114. G. Delfel, L'Esthetique de Stephane Mallarme. p. 80. 115. cf. Y. Park, op. c i t . . p. 70; 116. L.J. Austin,"Mallarme et le Reve du ' Livre''* i n Mercure de France, t . 317, 1953, jan.-avril, p. 84. 117. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. pp. 224-225. 118. L.J. Austin, op. c i t . . p. 88; cf. J.-P. Richard, op. c i t . . p. 233 and Y. Park, op. c i t . . p. 97. 119. M. pvc., p. 378. 120. Ibid., p. 647 (written 1894). 121. H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. p. 237. 122. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme et l e Reve du 'Livre'", p. 84. 123. C. Baudelaire, Notes nouvelles sur Edgar Poe, p. 44; cf. E.A. Poe, Le Principe de la Poesie. pp. 46-47. 124.. Cited i n Leon Lemonnier, "Baudelaire et Mallarme" i n La Grande Revue, juillet-octobre, 1923, p. 20. 125. C. Baudelaire, Notes J i o u v e l l e s sur Edgar Poe. pp. 18-19. 126. cf. E.A. Poe, Le Principe de l a Poesie. pp. 48-49. 127. C. Baudelaire, Notes nouvelles sur Edgar Poe. p. 19. 128. M. O^c.,' pp. 257-260. 129. Ibid.. pp. 662-663. 130. B. CLc., p. 772. 131. Ibid., p. 863. 132. Ibid., p. 773. 133. M. (he., pp. 662-663. 134. W. Fowlie, Mallarme. p. 25. NOTES TO PART II (Continued) 135. B. O.c., p. 261. 136. cf. ibid., p. 1035. 137. Ibid., p. 174. 138. Ibid., p. 907. 139. Ibid.. p. 306. 140. Ibid.. p. 926. 141. J. Chiari, Symbolisme from Poe to Mallarme., The Growth of a Myth, p. 46. 142. B. O^c., p. 306. 143. M. O.c.. p. 869. 144. B. (h_c., pp. 642-643. 145. Ibid., p. 120. 146. Ibid.. p. 284. 147. M. CLc., p. 37. 148. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 105. PART III BAUDELAIRIAN REFLECTIONS IN MAUARME'S POETRY PART III '-BAUDELAIRIAN REFLECTIONS IN MALLARME'S POETRY Baudelaire's influence i s particularly evident i n themes, imagery, and vocabulary i n certain poems written by Mallarme from 1861 to 1865.1 Mallarme's "L'Enfant prodigue" ( l 8 6 l ) l a i s perhaps one of the most perfect poems "a l a maniere de Baudelaire qu'on a i t jamais composes." In addition to Baudelairian details^, two essential aspects of Baudelairian thought are present, namely, " l e gout de l ' l n f i n i " " * and "1'experience du Gouffre"5 which are strikingly condensed: J'ai cherche l ' I n f i n i qui f a i t que l'homme peche ^ Et n'ai rien trouve qu'un Gouffre ennemi du sommeil. Mallarme made no allusion to this poem i n his correspondence, and he made no attempt to publish i t . "Galanterie macabre"''' which was written by Mallarme i n 1861 8 was published only i n 1930. This poem borrows many details from o Baudelaire's work7, and has an earthy realism characteristic of his Petits poemes en prose1*"*. No doubt Mallarme realized the exaggerated Baudelairian flavour of thi3 poem, for despite Des Essarts' letter of March 3, 1864, i n which he asked him why he excluded "Galanterie ma- cabre" from publication 1 1, Mallarme continued to withold i t . "Le Guignon" was written by Mallarme in i t s entirety i n 1862, as a dated manuscript proves; however, the poem as i t appeared 89 in 1*Artiste in March 1862 was but a fragment of the whole, including only the first five stanzas of three lines each, and is very different from the definitive text which comprised twenty-one stanzas of three lines each and a last line* 2. The first version of the entire poem was published in 1883 and in its definitive form in ISS^1^, This work attests the double influence of Theophile Gautier 1^ and of Baudelaire To the latter i t no doubt owes its principal theme - the unhappy destiny of the man of letters - as well as its t i t l e , and certain elements of its imagery1-'. : . .s .. **" ' , v - 1 The reason for the publication in 1862 of only a fragment of "Le Guignon" i s , in Austin Gill's opinion, that the poem contained veiled criticism of Baudelaire, and that the editor of l'Artiste "was unwilling to publish what in 1862 the more discerning readers would recognize as an attack on Baudelaire...."^ Even though Mallarme had expressed some dissension with his master-1-7, many of the eleven poems composed between 1862 and 1865 and submitted to the first series of the Parnasse contemporain in 186618, showed the continued influence of Baudelaire, and at the same time the continuing development of Mallarme's originality. The eleven poems of this group were given the t i t l e "Angoisse" (in preference to that of "Atonies"19), but might well have been enti- tled "Spleen et Ideal", the t i t l e given by Baudelaire to the first section of Les Fleurs du Mal. E. Lefebure has noted that this "spleen" constituted the force of Mallarme as a poet and his grief as a man; he further added, "Je sens si bien cela... qu'il m'est impossible de vous lir e sans que cela me fasse de la peine."^ With Mallarme, as with Baudelaire, spleen was a complex emotional state in which were mixed i r r i t a t i o n and depression, disgust and lassitude, which drew i t s source from a double movement: the violent rejection of a r e a l i t y judged ugly and imperfect, and the ardent but unrealizable aspiration 21 ' toward the ideal. The Baudelairian spleen i s essentially metaphysical. Among "the evils which oppress the poet are physical suffering, coupled with the feeling of moral solitude: that the soul i s imprisoned i n a body from which i t cannot escape. Baudelaire wrote i n a let t e r to his mother i n 1857: Ce que je sens, c'est un immense d6couragement, une sensation d'isolement insupportable, une peur perp6- tuelle d'un malheur vague.... C'est le veritable es- prit de spleen. 2 2 Mallarme's sonnet "Renouveau"2^ composed i n 1862, could, according to the poet, be called "Spleen printanier", and describes his curious feeling of s t e r i l i t y or "impuissance". Regarding this poem, Mallarme wrote i n a letter of June 4, 1862 to his friend H. Cazalis: This sonnet shows the influence of Baudelaire not only i n the reformulation of a Baudelairian theme, but also i n the application of the Baudelairian technique of correspondances. namely, the linking of physical sensations to sentiments and ideas. It also illustrates the paradox by which the "spleen" or "impuissance" becomes the starting point for a new creation which overcomes this morbid Emmanuel t'avait peut-etre parle d'une s t e r i l i t e curieuse que le printemps avait installee en moi. Apres trois mois d*impuissance, j'en suis enfin debarrass^, et mon premier sonnet est consacre a l a decrire, c'est-a-dire k l a mau- dire. C'est un genre assez nouveau que cette poesie, ou feeling by giving expression to i t , as Baudelaire himself had done in 25 his four poems entitled "Spleen" . Mallarme, in."Renouveau", evokes similar sensations of "ennui", dejection, and confinement as had Baudelaire . It was to this sonnet that Eugene Lef£bure alluded when he wrote to Mallarme in June 25, 1862: "Et Baudelaire, s ' i l rajeunissait, pourrait signer vos sonnets."2''' The most Baudelairian poem of this series sent to the Par- 28 nasse contemporain of 1866 is perhaps the sonnet "Angoisse" composed by Mallarme in February 1864. In this poem, evasion from spleen is sought in love which becomes the 3earch for forgetfulness in a dream- l e s s sleep f r e e of remorse. The theme was i n s p i r e d by Baudelaire's poem "Le Lethe" (1850-52); other details are also reminiscent of Baude- l a i r e . 2 9 In "Les Fenetres",composed in London (May 1863).Mallarme's debt to the author of Les Fleurs du Mal is strikingly apparent in 30 terms of ideas, images, and vocabulary. This work evokes an expression of the nauseous invasion of the real world which the poet cannot escape, and that is reminiscent of Baudelaire: the theme of evasion, the desire 31 to escape from this world and to flee toward the ideal . In Mallarme's work, "les fenetres" which take, on a magic quality may be traced to 32 Baudelaire's prose poem of 1862, "Le Mauvais vitrier" , and to the 33 Leonardo stanza in his poem "Les Phares". In spite of the many Baudelairian reminiscences in "Les Fenetres", and the fact that the central theme of the poem came from Baudelaire , Mallarme goes beyond Baudelaire in his complete rejection of reality and his refusal to link his ideal to the material world. Thus, as Georges Poulet has so admirably stated, "Ce petit 92 poeme... est bien le premier ou. Mallarme depasse nettement le baudelai- risme... c'est un poeme authentiquement mallarmeen parce qu'ultra- baudelairien...."35 Whereas in "Les Fenetres" there was a violent rejection of reality to attain the sovereign ideal, in "l'Azur", a poem composed by Mallarme at Tournon in January 1864, there i s an opposite movement toward reality and away from the ideal. Here the poet's disgust for humanity is the same as in "Les Fenetres". 36 f a n ( i a feeling of "ennui" is evoked similar to that in Baudelaire's poem "Au Lecteur", and is expressed in similar imagery.37 An intense feeling of anguish i s suggested, a sentiment arising from the poet's desire to renounce the "eternel azur" which symbolizes the "Ideal cruel" and his inabi- l i t y to forgo the challenge. Mallarme's desperate position i s reminiscent of Baudelaire's dilemma contained in the last paragraph of "Le Confiteor de 1 'Artiste "38 where the sky, with i t s "profondeur" and "limpidite", like Mallarme's "Eternel azur",is a torment to the poet. The feeling of anguish in both poets is deep and intense. In Baudelaire i t is caused by the fear of his inability to achieve a work of artistic perfection, and the realization of the struggle involved in transposing the elements that Nature presents in order to create a work of beauty. In Mallarme, i t is the task of poetic creation itself that produces the anguish.39 Hence the despair of Mallarme, "le poete impuissant", "le poete de l'azur", i s perhaps greater than that of Baudelaire. "L'impuissance chez Mallarme," declares Georges Poulet, "tend en effet a. un desespoir pire que chez Baudelaire, ou elle est toujours teintee d'espoir, animee par des velleites d'action... car 1'ideal ne peut exister que dans un contraste insoutenable avec une r e a l i t e inverse qui l e dement et q u ' i l dement."40 The drama of Mallarme, and the principal reason of his "impuissance", reside i n the fact that the expression of the idea, which i s non-material, pre- supposes a material correspondant, and Mallarme wished to reject the material.4l Mallarme was keenly aware that matter i s a v i r t u a l l y insurmountable obstacle and that he i s "impuissant" since as a man he i s part of the material world. In M s poem MBrise marine""*2, composed at Tournon, May 1865, Mallarme gives expression to this feeling: "La chair est t r i s t e hulas'." He does not wish to contaminate the ideal with reality. When he speaks of " l e vide papier que l a blancheur defend", he i s again referring to his "impuissance" to attain the ideal - he implies that ideas by being embodied i n material forms on the paper, w i l l spoil the purity of the ideal, symbolized by " l a blancheur". This idea, of course, found no counterpart i n Baudelaire, for whom reali t y provided the means of discovering the in v i s i b l e , or ideal forms of beauty. The theme of escape from this world as expressed i n Mallarme's "Brise marine", however, i s one found not only i n Baudelaire^ t but i n many of the Romantic poets. When Baudelaire expressed his desire to flee "n'importe ou hors du monde" i n hi3 prose poem "Anywhere out of the world"44j he was echoing, for example, Lamartine's desire to be ...au-dela des bornes de sa sphere £du soleil]^5 This aspiration toward something other than this l i f e , to escape to the "au-dela" i s common to both Baudelaire and Mallarme, and as Leon Lemonnier pointed out, also suggests the link between " l e romantisme" and " l e symbol!sme".4° We may conclude therefore that Mallarme inherited the "mal Baudelairian", and i n the wake of the master, created remarkable verse from his deep inner feelings of "ennui" and horror of earthy existence, as well as from the anguish he suffered i n his desire to attain his ideal. # # *• v t o In the poem "Las de 1'amer repos" , written i n February 1864, Mallarme according to L.J. Austin's interpretation of this poem^, bade farewell to the poetry of anguished personal lyricism and announced his intention of adopting a new aesthetics, the serene and impersonal creation of beauty. Nevertheless, Mallarme took some time before carrying out his ambition. Concerning the poems submitted to the Parnasse contemporain. he wrote to H. Cazalis i n May 1866 that "Sentant que bien qu'aucun de ces poemes n' a i t ete en rea l i te concu en vue de l a beaute mais plutot comme autant d'intuitives revelations de mon temperament et de l a note q u ' i l donnerait... je consacrai des 49 nuits consecutives a les corriger...." "Soupir"^, a poem composed by Mallarme i n A p r i l 1864, i s Baudelairian i n technique, and i s based on the correspondance between a woman and a melancholy scene, and between an autumn season and an "et a t d'ame". The last l i n e of this poem. Se trainer l e s o l e i l jaune d'un long rayon contains several details to be found i n the last l i n e of Baudelaire's "Chant d'Automne":51 De l'arriere saison le rayon jaune et doux'. But the tone of Mallarme* s poem i s essentially his own. Mallarme's poem "Le Pitre chatie"^ 2, composed March 1864, may well have been suggested by Baudelaire's prose poem "Le Vieux Saltimbanque"53f first published November 1861. Of the poems written between 1861 and 1865, "Apparition"54 is the one in which the influence of Baudelaire is least apparent. Although i t was written in 1862 or 1863, Mallarme did not include i t with the poems sent to be published in the Parnasse contemporain in 1866, perhaps because of i t s personal content.55 "Apparition" shows the fundamental originality of Mallarme at this early date. "Le theme peut etre le meme que celui de Baudelaire", asserted Y. Park, but "la fagon de le manier et de l'envisager est differente."5° In Mallarme's "Herodiade"57, begun October 1864 and never completed, we have a mingling of the beautiful and the sad; or, as Fowlie has stated, "the romantic equation of beauty and death.... As pleasure and pain are inseparable, so any intense knowledge of 58 the beautiful is synthesized with a knowledge of suffering." This had also been the idea of Baudelaire, who had in some of his works, for example, "La Chevelure"59 and "Parfum exotique"°0 mingled voluptuousness and sadness. Moreover, the following lines of an untitled sonnet composed by Baudelaire also contains these same elements and must surely have been present in Mallarme's mind when he composed some lines of "Herodiade". Ses yeux polis sont faits de mineraux charmants Et dans cette nature etrange et symbolique Ou 1'ange invioie se mele au sphinx antique, Ou tout n'est qu'or, acier, lumiere et diamants, Resplendit a jamais, comme un astre inutile La froide majeste de la femme s t e r i l e . o l The last lines of the sonnet recalls Mallarme's HeVddiade: Observant l a froideur sterile du metal^ 2 Such words as "or", "acier", "a3tre", " i n u t i l e " , used by Baudelaire also reappear i n various lines of Mallarme's poem. Baudelaire's taste for diamonds was bequeathed to Mallarme, and as Jean-Pierre Richard has pointed out, "La reverie diamantaire domine enfin toute l'esth6- tique de Mallarme: l'art consistant a creer des 'pierreries l i t t e - raires* capables de b r i l l e r pour elles-memes et mettant en lumiere 'les joyaux de 1'homme'."̂ 3 "L'Apres-midi d'un Faune"°4 (June 1865) also owes something to Baudelaire i n that i t s sensuality i s reminiscent of the latter's "Lesbos" and "Femmes damnee s"65. Even i n poems recognized as extremely original and typic a l l y Mallarmean, a trace of Baudelaire can be found. Mallarme's sonnet, "Le vierge, l e vivace et le bel aujourd'hui" 6 6 (published March 1885), for example, was no doubt influenced by Baudelaire's "Le Cygne" 6 7 and "L'Albatros"°3. Mallarme's swan - "Tout son col secouera cette blanche agonie" - reminds us of Baudelaire's with i t s "cou convulsif tendant sa tete avide." The albatros i s described by Baudelaire as caught on the deck of a ship - i t symbolizes the poet trapped by the contingencies of l i f e and impeded i n his f l i g h t towards the ideal - whereas Mallarme's swan i s trapped i n the ice 69 and symbolizes the poet as a prisoner of the ideal. 7 The li n e , 70 Quand du st e r i l e hiver a resplendi 1'ennui' recalls one i n Baudelaire's poem "Paysage": 71 Et quand viendra 1'hiver , aux neiges monotones. In Mallarme's sonnet "Sur les bois oublies quand passe 1'hiver sombre"72f almost the same scene is evoked as in Baudelaire' poem, "La servante au grand coeur"^. In the sonnet "Quand 1'ombre menaca de la fatale l o i " ^ (1883) the image: Afflig£ de p£rir sous les plafonds funebres II a ploye son aile indubitable en moi is similar to that in Baudelaire's poem "Spleen" LXXVIII: S*en va battant les murs de son aile timide Et se cognant la tete a. des plafonds pourris;'-* However, there is a fundamental difference in thought between the poems of the two poets as has been underlined by Fowlie: "Whereas Baudelaire translates the despotism and cruelty of hope, Mallarme moves beyond the personal anguish of the creating artist and the living man, into the cosmic drama, into an almost abstract and depersonalized image of the poetic psychology. Baudelaire's bat beating i t s wings against the walls of i t s cell becomes in Mallarme' sonnet the bird unnamed which... folds its wings and accepts i t s fate."? 6 While we have thus far restricted ourselves to pointing out Baudelairian traits in some of Mallarme's poems, similar element could be traced in his prose poems. In fact, Mallarme's prose poems are, as Me Noulet has conceded, "un autre resultat de 1'influence de Baudelaire et comme genre et comme technique et comme theme."'''''' It i s interesting that even in Mallarme's last prose poem, "Un coup de des"'''8, some expressions may be traced to Baudelaire; for example, the lines: assouplie par la vague et soustraite aux durs os perdus entre les ais?? are reminiscent of Baudelaire's 80 Toi qui, magiquement assouplis les vieux os 98 Similarly, lines 7-3 of "Un coup de des": dans quelque proche tourbillon d Thilarite et d'horreur voltige autour du gouffre^l recall Baudelaire* s "un brillant oiseau voltigeant sur les horreurs d'un gouffre". 8 2 But, of course, by pointing out such Baudelairian reminiscences, we are not detracting from the fundamental originality of Mallarme who transposed the elements he inherited into typically Mallarmean expressions. T A B L E BAUDELAIRIAN DETAILS IN MALLARME'S POETRY "L'Enfant Prodigue"* Baudelaire's Works** "une orange seche" (line 1) "une v i e i l l e orange" ("Au. Lecteur", p. 81, line 20) "ennemi du sommeil" (line 4) "ennemi du sommeil" ("Tristesse de l a Lune", p. 139, line 11) "ainsi qu'un sable f i n " (line 6) "ainsi qu'un sable f i n " ("Les Chats", p. 140, line 13) Triple exclamation: "0 l a mystique, o l a sanglante, o l'amoureuse," (line 9) "0 serments! o parfumst o baisers i n f i n i s ! " ("Le Balcon", p. I l l , last line) * M. O.c, pp. 14-15? composed 1861, cf. p. 1386. ** A l l quotations are taken from C. Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade. TABLE (Continued) "Galanterie Macabre"* Baudelaire* s Works** "Dans un de ces faubourgs" (line 1) "Le long du vieux faubourg" ("Le S o l e i l " , p. 155, line l ) "vague e f f r o i " (line 6) "vague epouvante" (•'Spleen" LXXVI. p. 146, line 20) "Dont l e matin rougit l a flamme" (line 8) "La lampe sur le jour f a i t une tache rouge" ("Le Crepuscule du Matin", p. 175) "gesine" (line 12) "lesine" (line 15) Same words used i n ("Le Crepuscule du Matin", p. 175, lines 17-18) "Dans mon coeur ou 1*ennui pend se3 drapeaux funebres" (line 41) "Sur mon crane incline plante son drapeau noir" ("Spleen" LXXVIII, p. 147, last line) "Demon", "Satan" (lines 40 and 44) "Demons", "Satan" ("Au Lecteur", p. 81, lines 22 and 9) "Haine", "gehenne" (lines 45 and 47) "haine", "Gehenne" ("Benediction", p. 34, lines 17 and 19) * M. O.c, pp. 15-16. ** A l l quotations are taken from C. Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes, Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade. TABLE (Continued) "Le Guignon"* Baudelaire* s Works **** "Le Guignon" T i t l e from that of Baudelaire's poem "Le Guignon" (p. 92),** also used i n "Conseils aux jeunes litterateurs" (1846), p. 942. " I l s tettent l a Douleur comme i l s t^taient l e reve" (line 16) "Et tettent l a Douleur comme une bonne louve" ("Le Cygne", p. 159, lin e 47) " I l s courent sous le fouet d'une monarque rageur" (line 29) "Leur defaite, c'est par un ange tres puissant" (Une 13) "L'ange aveugle de 1'expiation s'est empare d'eux et les fouette a. tours de bras" (Preface to Histoires extraordinaires d'Edgar Poe, p. 3)*** " I l s mangent de l a cendre avec l e meme amour" (line 23) "Quand en face tous leur ont crach£ les dedains" (line 61) " I l s melent de l a cendre avec d'impurs crachats" ("Benediction", p. 84, line 34) "Nous soulerons d'encens le vainqueur dans l a fete" (line 58) "Et je me soulerai de nard, d'encens, de myrrhe" ("Benediction", line 41) * M. O.c, pp. 28-30; written 1862: cf. p. 1405. ** Written i n 1852 or perhaps even i n 1849; cf. Les Fleurs du Mal. Editions Gamier Freres, p. 287. *** Written i n 1852 and published as a preface to his translation of Poe's stories; cf. Oeuvres completes de Charles Baudelaire. V., pp. 3-32. **** A l l quotations are taken from C. Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade. TABLE (Continued) "Renouveau"* Baudelaire*s Works** "Renouveau" "Et dans mon etre a. qui le sang morne preside ' L'impuissance s'etire en un long balllement." (lines 3-4) "Mon arne mieux qu'au temps du tiede renouveau" ("Brunes et pluies", p. 172, line 7) "Et dans un baillement avalerait le monde ... c'est 1'Ennui..." ("Au Lecteur", p. 82, lines 36-37) "Des crepuscules blancs tiedissent sous mon crane Qu'un cercle de fer serre ainsi qu'un vieux tombeau" (lines 5 - 6 ) "D'envelopper ainsi mon coeur et mon cerveau D'un linceul vaporeux et d'un vague tombeau" ("Brumes et pluies", p. 172, lines 3-4) * M. O.c, p. 34; composed May, 1862. ** A l l quotations are taken from C. Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de' la Pleiade. TABLE (Continued) "Angoisse"* "Je demande It ton l i t l e lourd sommeil sans songes Planant sous les rideaux inconnus du remords" (lines 5-6) "ma native noblesse" (line 9) Baudelaire* s Works . "sommeil lourd" ("La Priere d'un PaSen", 1861, p. 253, linel2) "Je veux dormir! dormirtplutot que vivre Dans un sommeil aussi doux que l a mort" ("Le Lethe", pp. 215-216, lines 9-10) "Ces natives grandeurs" ("J'aime l e souvenir de ces £poque3 nues" , p. 88, line 16) "Ayant peur de dormir" "J'ai peur du"sommeil" (last line) ("Le Gouffre", 1862, p. 244, line 9) * M. O.c, p. 35; composed February 1864. A l l quotations are taken from C. Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade. TABLE ( "Les Fenetres"* "Las du t r i s t e hopital et de 1'encens fetide" • • • Vers le grand crucifix ennuye du mur vide" (lines 1 and 3) "Son o e i l a 1'horizon de lumiere gorge" (line 16) "Voit de3 galeres d'or, belles comme des cygnes" (line 17) "Dans un grand nonchaloir charge de souvenir" (line 20) "Je fuis et je m'accroche a toutes les croisees" • • • Je me mire et me vois angel et je meurs et j faime - Que l a v i t r e soit 1* art, soit l a mysticit£" (lines 25, 29-30) A) Baudelaire* s Works ** "Rembrandt, t r i s t e hopital tout rempli de murmures Et d'un grand crucifix d£cor£ seulement" ("Les Phares", 1857, p. 89, lines 9-10) "Quelquefois des 6chapp6es magnifiques, gorgdes de lumiere...." (Preface to Translation of Poe's Histoires extraordinaires) "Ou les vaisseaux glissant dans l'or et dans l a moire" ("La Chevelure", p. 101, line 18) "0 parfum charge de nonchaloir" • • * Des souvenirs..." ("La Chevelure", p. 101, lines 2 and 4) "Leonard de Vinci, miroir profond et sombre Ou des anges charmants avec un doux sourire Tout charge de mystere apparaissent a 1'ombre" ("Les Phares", 1857, p. 89, lines 5-7) TABLE (Continued) "Les Fenetres" (continued) "Que dore l e matin chaste de 1' Infirti" • • • "Au c i e l anterieur ou f l e u r i t l a Beaute^' (lines 28 and 32) " E s t - i l moyen, o. moi qui connais l'amertume D'enfoncer le c r i s t a l par l e monstre insulte Et de m' enfuir avec mes deux ailes sans plumes Au risque de tomber pendant 1* eternite" (last stanza) Baudelaire's Works "Vers les cieux le matin prennent un Libre essor" ("L«Elevation", line 18) "Nous voulons, tant ce feu nous brule l e cerveau Plonger au fond du gouffre, Enfer ou C i e l , quTimporte Au fond de 1' Inconnu pour trouver du nouveau" ("Le Voyage", 1854, p. 203, last stanza) *'M. O.C., pp. 32-33; composed May, 1863. ** A l l quotations are taken from C. Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de la.P l e i a d e . TABLE (Continued) "LfAzur"# "De l'^ternel azur l a sereine ironie Accable... Le poete impuissant..." (lines 1-2 and 3) "1»Ideal cruel" (line 22) "Encor! que sans repit les t r i s t e s chemin£es Fument et que de suie une errante prison Eteigne dans 1'horreur de ses noires trainees Le s o l e i l se mourant jaunatre a l'horizon" (Lines 17-20) Baudelaire's Works "Des Cieux spirituels 1*inaccessible azur" ("L'Aube s p i r i t u e l " , p. 120, li n e 5) "Et maintenant l a profondeur du c i e l me cons- terne, sa limpidite m'exaspere" ("Le Confiteor de 1'Artiste", p. 284) "Vers le s o l e i l ironique et cruellement bleu" ("Le Cygne", p. 158, line 26) "Quand l a pluie etalant ses immenses trainees d'une vaste prison imite les barreaux" ("Spleen" LXXVII, p. 147, lines 9-10) "Lugubrement b a i l l e r vers un trepas obscur" "Et dans un baillement avalerait le monde" (line 23) ("Au Lecteur", p. 81, li n e 36) •* M. O.C., pp. 37-38; composed January 1864. A l l quotations are taken from C. Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes, Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade. TABLE (Continued) "Brise Marine"* "Fuirt la-bas fuirl Je sens que des oiseaux sont ivres d'etre parmi l'ecume inconnue et les cieux" (lines 2-3) For rhythm and movement of above lines "refletes par les yeux" (line 4) "Leve l'ancre pour une exotique nature'. Un Ennui..." (lines 10 and l l ) . "Mais 5 mon coeur, entends le chant des matelots" (last line) Baudelaire's Works** "Par deli le soleil, par dela les ethers Par dela. les confins des spheres 6toilees • " * Envoles-toi bien loin..." ("Elevation", p.86, lines 3-4 and 9) "Emporte-moi,. wagon, enleve-moi fregate Loin*, loin', i c i la boue est faite de nos pleurs" ("Moesta et Errabunda", 1855, p. 137, lines 11-12) "reflete par mes yeux" ("La V^e anterieure", 1854-55, p. 93, line 8) "... levons l'ancrel Ce pays nous ennuie" ("Le Voyage", 1859, VIII, p. 203, lines 1-2) "Se mele dans mon ame au chant du marinier" ("Parfum exotique" , 1857, p. 100, last line) * M. O.c, p. 3 8 ; composed May 1865. ** A l l quotations are taken from C. Baudelaire, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de la Pleiade. 108 NOTES TO PART III 1. We have l i s t e d i n tabular form at the end of this part of the study (pp. 99-107) a number of interesting "rapprochements" i n the works of these two poets. l a . M.O.c.. pp. 14-15; see p. 1386 for date of manuscript. ?-2. H. Mondor, Vie de Mallarme. p. 30. 3. See Table, p. 99. 4. Baudelaire, Charles, Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de,1a Pleiade (henceforth referred to as B. O.c), pp. 437-440: "Le Poeme du Haschisch I - Le gout de l ' I n f i n i " . 5. Cf. B. OjC., p. 244, "Le Gouffre"; p. 151. "L*Irremediable"; and p. 107, "De Profundi Clamavi". See also C. Baudelaire, Les Fleurs du Mal. Editions Garnier Freres, notes by Antoine Adam, pp. 300 and 448, and B. Fondane's work, Baudelaire et 1'Experience du Gouffre: cf. A. Ayda, Le drame interieur de Mallarme, p. 144. 6. M. O.c, p. 14. 7. Ibid.. pp. 15-16. See p. 1387 for date of manuscript. 8. It was published by Dr. E. Bonniot i n l a Revue de France of January 1st, 1930; see M. OX., p. 1387. 9. See Table, p. 100. , 10. Cf. L.J. Austin, "Mallarme disciple de Baudelaire: Le Parnasse Contemporain" i n R.H.L.F.. tome 67, 1967, p. 438. 11. Cf. M. ( X c , p. 1387. 12. Ibid., pp. 28-30. 13. See i b i d . , p. 1405 and pp. 1408-1409. 14. See i b i d . . pp. 1406-1407. 15. See Table, p. 101. 16. A. G i l l , "Mallarme on Baudelaire", i n Currents of Thought i n French Literature, pp. 109-110. 17. See Part II, pp. 18. In M. O j C , pp. 32-40. NOTES TO PART III (Continued) 19. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 212. 20. M. O.c.. p. 1424, Letter is dated April 15, 1364. 21. Cf. L.J. Austin, op. cit.. p. 440. 22. Cited in A. Lagarde et L. Michard, XIXe siecle. p. 445. 23. M. O.c., p. 34. 24. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. pp. 30-31. 25. B. (he., pp. 144-146. 26. See Table. p. 102. 27. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 31, Footnote 1. 28. M. O.c., p. 35; see p. 1424 for other titles of this poem. 29. See Table, p. 103. 30. See Table. pp. 104-105. 31. See Part II. p. 52. 32. B. O.c.. pp. 290-292. 33. Ibid.. pp. 88-90. 34. Cf. L.J. Austin, op. cit . . p. 446. 35. G-. Poulet, Etudes sur le temps humain. II. La Distance interieure p. 305; cf. H. Mondor, Autres Precisions sur Mallarme et Inedits. p. 57. 36. See Part II. p. 54. 37. See Table, p. 106. 38. See Table, p. 106. 39. A different interpretation has been given by Charles Chass£ in his work Les Clefs de Mallarme; "... si on saisit que chez Mallarme ' impuissance' et 'sterilite' doivent etre tenus comme ayant une portee aussi bien physiologique qu'intellectuelle, on s'apercevra qu'ils conduisent a de tres curieuses interpreta- tions... Cette sterilite, c'est lui qui le declare, se manifeste chez lui par des signes qui sont d'abord d'ordre physique et qui ont un profond retentissement sur sa sexualite." (p. 60) NOTES TO PART III (Continued) 40. G. Poulet, op. cit.. p. 307. 41. Cf. L. Fiser, Le Symbole litteraire. p. 131. 42. M. Che., p. 38. - 43. See Table. p. 1 0 7 . 44. B. (he., pp. 355-356. 45. A. Lagarde et L. I'll chard, XIXe siecle. p. 9 5 . 46. L. Lemonnier, "Baudelaire et Mallarme", in La Grande Revue, juillet-octobre, 1923, p. 31. 47. M. (he., pp. 35-36. 48. Cf. L.J. Austin, op. cit.. pp. 448-449; for other interpretations of "Las de l'amer repos", see L. Cellier, Mallarme et la morte qui parle. pp. 103-116 and C. Chadwick, "Mallarme et la tenta- tion du lyrisme", in R.H.L.F., LX, I960, p. 188-199. 49. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 215. 5 0 . M. Che., p. 39. 51. B. O.c., p. 131. 52. M. Che., p. 31. 53. B. Che., p. 299. 54. M. Che., p. 30. 55. See ibid.. pp. 1410-1411. 56. Y. Park, L'idee chez Mallarme. p. 65- 57. M. (he., pp. 41-48. 58. W. Fowlie, Mallarme. p. 35. 59. B. O.c., p. 101. 60. Ibid., p. 100. 61. Ibid., p. 104. 62. M. O.c.. p. 45, line 10. I l l NOTES TO PART III (Continued) 63. J.-P. Richard, L'Univers imaginaire de Mallarme\ p. 235; cf. S. Mallarme, Correspondance. p. 137, and O.c.. p. 870. 64. M. Che., p. 50. . 65. B. Che., pp. 210 and 212. 66. M. (he., pp. 67-68. 67. B. O.c., p. 157. 68. Ibid., pp. 85-86. 69. Cf. E.Noulet, L'Oeuvre po6tique de Mallarme. p. 263. 70. Line 8 of Mallarme's sonnet, "Le vierge, l e vivace...." M. O.c., p. 68. 71. B. (he., p. 154, line 14. 72. M. O.c.. p. 69; poem published i n 1887. 73. B.(hc., p. 171. 74. M. (he., p. 67; published 1883. 75. B. (he., p. 147. 76. W. Fowlie, op. c i t . . pp. 185-186. 77. E. Noulet, op. c i t . . p. 146. 78. Published May 1897. 79. M. Che., p. 464, lines 15-16. 80. B. (h_c., p. 193: "Les Litanies de Satan", lin e 22. 81. M. O.c.. p. 467, lines 7-8. 82. B. O.c., p. 872. CONCLUSION In this survey we have attempted to clarify some of the more outstanding aspects of Mallarme's debt to Baudelaire. While the nature of this debt has been discussed by many critics, none of their findings can be considered as conclusive. It is clear that Mallarme's style underwent considerable change before reaching the complex perfection of his later poems. Mallarme's encounter with Baudelaire's poems in I860 (perhaps even in 1859) had a far-reaching effect on his thought and verse; this encounter pointed out the path he was henceforth to follow and gave him his first real impulsion which made i t possible for him to ultimately achieve his originality. Mallarme was influenced not only by Baudelaire's poetry, but also by his prose poems and his critic a l writings. There i s no doubt that i t was the Romantic aspect of Baudelaire - the sinister and the macabre elements - that first appealed to Mallarme. "Galanterie Macabre" and "L'Enfant prodigue", both composed in 1861, are very Baudelairian in subject, tone and expression. Yet, even in the latter poem, Mallarme's originality is evident. In other poems written between 1862 and 1865 Baudelaire's influence becomes less and less apparent. However, Baudelairian reminiscences, though rare in later poetry, never completely disappear. As early as 1862 Mallarme expressed an original doctrine in "L'Art pour Tous", and in the same year, his poem "Le Guignon" contains a veiled criticism of the "master". Moreover, in this same year, Mallarme" gave a definition of poetry which diverged from that of Baudelaire , namely that poetry should exist "par son propre reve" rather than reflect " l e lyrisme de l a rea l i t e " . Mallarme's poem "Les Fenetres", composed i n 1863, though containing several Baudelairian reminiscences, already goes beyond Baudelaire i n his t o t a l rejection of the material world. Mallarme's "Las de l'amer repos", composed 1864, may be interpreted as bidding farewell to anguished lyricism i n favour of a more serene and impersonal poetry. In 1867, when Mallarme declared he was detached from Baudelaire, his assertion was by no means a whim of the moment, for he really believed i t to be a fact. He did not believe, as did Baudelaire, that the real could be linked to the sp i r i t u a l or " l e reve". He f e l t that such an assumption would degrade the s p i r i t u a l element. Mallarme wished to eliminate the real or material. Language became a l l important to Mallarme. His poetics were grounded on aesthetic concepts, whereas Baudelaire's were grounded on metaphysical correspondences between the v i s i b l e and non-visible worlds. For Baudelaire, though matter was associated with sin, i t was necessary as a starting point i n order to be able to perceive glimpses of the world beyond. For Mallarme, however, there was no question of morality involved; matter must be abolished because i t destroyed the unity and coherence of the universe. Mallarme's poetic world was situated i n the non- phenomenal whereas Baudelaire's wa3 never entirely separated from real i t y . Other concepts held by the two*poets, however, present certain a f f i n i t i e s . For example, Mallarme shared Baudelaire's disgust for the material, and both viewed Externality as a distortion of a transcendant Absolute. By his theory of correspondances Baudelaire 114 also made Mallarme more aware of the existence of a world beyond, and helped clarify his notion of the Ideal. The contrast between this . aspiration and what this world represented gave rise in both poets to a feeling of "ennui" or "spleen", and a desire to escape to a world that lay beyond. The "mal" Baudelairian, an intense form of "le mal du siecle", was bequeathed to Mallarme and can be described as "1'angoisse". For Baudelaire this world offered certain pleasures, whereas for Mallarme earthly happiness was "ignoble". Mallarme's concept of the ideal was therefore more ethereal and transcended that of Baudelaire. From Baudelaire, Mallarme also inherited the concept of the poet's essential superiority, one whose very genius condemns him to a l i f e of unhappiness in this world. Mallarme carried Baude- laire' s intellectual "dandysme" into his work: he dreamed of creating a sophisticated language that would render his verse incomprehensible- to a l l but true poets. Baudelaire also bequeathed to Mallarme a certain conception of art as well as of l i f e . It is the poet's exalted role to reveal Beauty, and poetry must have no other aim but itself. Both poets had an uncomprising devotion to their task. Mallarme, like Baudelaire, was against didactic and descriptive poetry, and opposed to the lyric sentimentality of the Romantic poets. Like Baudelaire, Mallarme used imagery and symbolic expression to evoke an "etat d'ame". Baudelaire's concept of poetry as suggestion and as "sorcellerie evocatoire" became one of the corner-stones of Mallarme's poetics. From Baudelaire, Mallarme also inherited the concept of "art i f i c i a l i t y " construed as superior to reality. No less than Baudelaire, he appreciated the 115 necessity of hard work and the need for a lucid intelligence to transform "le reve" into a work of art. The impossibility of realizing the ideal gave rise to feelings of "spleen" and of anguish in the two poets. The most durable element of Baudelaire's influence, and indeed that which constitutes the essential of Mallarme* s debt to his great predecessor, was the role that the theory of correspon- dances played in the development arid formulation of Mallarme's poetic thought, an element which contributed to his unrealized dream to create "le livre", a project which haunted him until his untimely death. B I B L I O G R A P H Y WORKS BY CHARLES BAUDELAIRE Baudelaire, Charles. Les Fleurs du Mal. texte etabli et presente par Edouard Maynial, Editions Fernand Roches, Paris, 1929. - Les Fleurs du Mal. edition critique etablie par Jacques Crepet et Georges Blin, Librairie Jose Corti, Paris, 1942. - Les Fleurs du Mal. Editions Gamier Freres, Introduction, Releve de variantes et notes par Antoine Adam, Paris, 1961. -Oeuvres completes de Charles B a u d e l a i r e. V. Preface: Edgar Poe: Sa v i e et ses oeuvres (1856), pp. 3-32, 2nd ed.-, Calmann-Levy, P a r i s , 1873. -Oeuvres completes de Charles B a u d e l a i r e. V I . Preface: Notes n o u v e l l e s sur. Edgar Poe (1857), pp. 1-24, Calmann-Levy, P a r i s 1869. -Oeuvres completes. Bibliotheque de la Pleiade, texte etabli et annote par Y.-G. Le Dantec, Librairie Gallimard, Paris, 1954. WORKS IN TRANSLATION The Painter of Modern Life and Other Essays. Translated and edited by Jonathan Mayne, Phaidon Publishers Inc., Distributed by New York Graphic Society Publishers Ltd., Greenwich, Connecticut, 1963, pages 69-110. Baudelaire as a Literary Critic. Selected Essays Introduced and Translated by Lois Boe Hyslop and Francis E. Hyslop, Jr., The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsylvania', 1964, pages 1-34 and 89-135. 118 WORKS BY STEPHANE MALLARME Mallarme, Stephane. 0euvre3 completes, texte etabli et annote" par H. Mondor et G. Jean-Aubry, Bibliotheque de la Pleiade, Librairie Gallimard, Pari3, 1945. - Propos sur la poesie. recueillis et presented par H. Mondor, Editions du Rocher, Monaco, 1946. - Entre quatre murs. published by H. Mondor in Mallarme lyceen. Gallimard, Paris, 1954, pages 121-225. - Correspondance (1862-1871), recueillie, classee et annot£e par H. Mondor, avec la collaboration de Jean-Pierre Richard, Gallimard, Paris, 1959. WORKS IN TRANSLATION Stephane Mallarme in English Verse. Translated by Arthur E l l i s . With an Introduction by G. Turquet-Mines, London, Jonathan Cape Ltd., 1927. Poems of Mallarme. Translated by Roger Fry. With Commentaries by Charles Mauron, Chatto & Windus, London, 1938. Mallarme: Selected Prose Poems. Essays & Letters. Translated and with an Introduction by Bradford Cook, Baltimore, The John Hopkins Press, 1956. WORKS BY EDGAR ALLAN POE The Works of Edgar Allan Poe. edited by James A. Harrison, Kelmscott Society Publishers, N.Y., vol. 14, 1902. The Poetic Principle, pp. 266-292. IN TRANSLATION Poe, Edgar Allan. Le Principe de la Poesie. texte anglais. Traduction et notes de Charles Bellanger, Editions du Myrte, Paris, 1945. CRITICAL WORKS Aish, Deborah. La metaphore dans l'oeuvre de Mallarme. Droz, Paris, 1938. Austin, Llyod James. L'univers poetigue de Baudelaire. Symbolisme et Symbolique, Mercure de France, Paris, 1956. Ayda, Adile. Le drame interieur de Mallarme ou l'origine des sym- boles mallarmeens. Editions La Turquie Moderne, Istambul (et J. Corti, Paris), 1955. Bandy, W.T. et Pichois, C. Baudelaire devant ses contemporains. Monaco, Editions du Rocher, 1957. Barlow, Norman H. Sainte-Beuve to Baudelaire. A Poetic Legacy, Duke University Press, Durham, N.C., 1964. Beausire, P. Mallarme. Poesie et poetique. Mermod, Lausanne, 1950. Bennett, Joseph D. Baudelaire: A Criticism. Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 1946. Bertocci, Angelo Philipp. From Symbolism to Baudelaire. Southern I l l i n o i s University Press, 1964. Bird, Edward . L runivers poetique de Stephane Mallarme. Librairie A.G. Nizet, Paris, 1962. C e l l i e r , Leon. Mallarme et l a morte qui parle. Presses Universi- ta i r e s de France, Paris, 1959. Chasse, Charles. Les Clef3 de Mallarme. Editions Aubier-Montaigne, • Paris, 1954. Ch6rix, Robert-Benoit. Commentaire des Fleurs du Mal. Librairie E. Droz & Lib r a i r i e Minord, Geneve et Paris, 1962. Chiari, Joseph. Symbolisme from Poe to Mallarme. The Growth of a Myth. Rockliff, London, 1956. Chisholm, A.R. Mallarme's Grand Oeuvre. Manchester University Press, 1962 Cohn, R.G. Towards the Poems of Mallarme. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1965. - Mallarme's Masterwork. New Findings. Mouton & Co., The Hague Paris, 1966. 120 CRITICAL WORKS (Continued) Delfel, Guy. L'Esthetique de Stephane Mallarme. Flammarion, Paris, 1951. Eigeldinger, M. Le platonisme de Baudelaire. Paris, 57, rue de l'Universite, 1951. Fabureau, H. Stephane Mallarme. Son Oeuvre. Editions de la Nouvelle Revue Critique, Paris, 1933. F e r r a n , Andre. L'Esthetique de Bau d e l a i r e, L i b r a i r i e Hachette, P a r i s , 1933, pages 157-212. Fiser, E. Le Symbole litteraire. Librairie Jose Corti, Paris, 19U. Fondane, B. Baudelaire et 1'experience du Gouffre. Pierre Seghers, Paris, 1947. Fowlie, Wallace. Mallarme. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1953. Gengoux, J. Le Symbolisme de Mallarme, Nizet, Paris, 1950. Gilman, Margaret. Baudelaire the Critic. Columbia University Press, New York, 1943, pages 55-133. Lagarde, A., et Michard, L. XIXe Siecle. Editions Bordas, Paris, 1965, pages 429-454 and 530-539. Lehman, A.G. The Symbolist Aesthetic in France. Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1950. Lemonnier, Leon. Edgar Poe et les Poetes francais. Editions de la Nouvelle Revue Critique, Paris, 1932. Mauron, Charles. Mallarme 1*obscur. Editions Denoel, Paris, 1941. - Introduction a la psychoanalyse de Mallarme. La Baconniere, Neuchatel, 1950. - Stephane Mallarme. Poems translated by Roger Fry with com- mentaries by Charles Mauron, Chatto and Windus, London, 1956. Michaud, Guy. Mallarme. Connaissance des Lettres, Hatier, Paris,1953. - Mallarme. Translated by Marie Collins and Bertha Humez, New York University Press, 1965. - Message po^tique du Symbolisme. Librairie Nizet, Paris, 1961, pages 43-80 and 159-198. Mossop, D.J. Baudelaire's Tragic Hero. Oxford University Press, 1961. CRITICAL WORKS (Continued) Mondor, Henri. Vie de Mallarme. vol. 1, G a l l i m a r d P a r i s , 1940-41. -Mallarme plus intime. Gallimard, Paris, 1944. - Mallarme lyceen. Gallimard, Paris, 1954. -Autres precisions sur Mallarme et Inedits. Gallimard, Paris, 1961. Noulet, E. L'Oeuvre poetique de Mallarme. Librairie Droz, Paris, 1940. — V i n g t poemes de Stephane Mallarme. Exegeses, Librairie Droz, Geneve, 1948. Park, Y. L'Idee chez Mallarme. Ph. D. Thesis, Paris, 1966. Peyre, H. Connaissance de Baudelaire. Librairie Jose Corti, Paris, 1951. Plant, J.F. Charles Baudelaire et l a pensee l i t t e r a i r e d'Edgar Allan Poe. M.A. Thesis, U.B.C., 1967. Pommier, J. Dans les chemins de Baudelaire. Jose Corti, 1948. Poulet, Georges. Etudes sur le Temps Humain. II, La Distance Interieure. Librairie Plon, Paris, 1952, Chapitre IX, pages 298-355. Raymond, Marcel. From Baudelaire to Surrealism. Wittenborn Schultz Inc., New York, 1950. Raynaud, Ernest. La Meiee symboliste. La Renaissance du Livre, Paris, 1920, tome II. Richard, Jean-Pierre. L'Univers imaginaire de Mallarme. Editions du Seuil, Paris, 1961. Ruff, Marcel A. L Tesprit du mal et 1'esthetique baudelairienne. Lib r a i r i e Armand Colin, Paris, 1955. - Baudelaire, l'homme et l'oeuvre. Hatier-Boivin, Paris, 1955- - Baudelaire. Translated and slightly abridged by Agnes Kertesz, New York University Press, 1966. Scherer, Jacques. L'Expression l i t t e r a i r e dans l'oeuvre de Mallarme. Paris, Librairie Droz, 1947. - Le "Livre" de Mallarme. Preface d'Henri Mondor, Gallimard, Paris, 1957. CRITICAL WORKS (Continued) Starkie, Enid. Baudelaire. Faber and Faber, London, pages 213-219, and 294-306. Symons, Arthur. The Symbolist Novement i n Literature. E.P. Dutton and Co. Inc., New York, 1958. Thibaudet, Albert. La Poesie de Stephane Mallarme. Gallimard, Paris, 1926. Turquet-Milnes, G. The Influence of Baudelaire in France and England, London, 1913. Valery, Paul. Variete II. "Situation de Baudelaire", pages 141- 174; "Lettre sur 24allarme", pages 211-241, Gallimard, Paris, 1930. - Ecrits divers sur Stephane Mallarme. Editions de l a N.R.F., Paris, Gallimard, 1950. Wais, Kurt. Mallarme. Ein Dichter des Jahrundert-Endes, H. Bech*sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, MUnchen, 1938. Walzer, P.-0. Essai sur Stephane Mallarme. Paris, Editions P. Seghers "Poetes d'Aujourd'hui", No. 94, 1963. Wellek, Rene. A History of Modern Criticism. 1750-1950. Vol 4, The Later Nineteenth Century, New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 1965, pages 434-463. ARTICLES Adam, Antoine. "Premieres etapes d'un itineraire", in Lea Lettres. tome II, 1948, pages 125-134. Austin, L.J. "Mallarme et le Reve du 'Livre'", in Mercure de France tome 317, 1953, janvier-avril, pages 81-108. - Les "Annees d'Apprentissage de Stephane Mallarme", in Revue d'Histoire Litteraire de la France. 56e annee, no. 1, janvier-mars, 1956, pages 65-84. - "Mallarme disciple de Baudelaire: Le Parnasse Contemporain", in Revue d'Histoire Litteraire de la France, tome 67, 1967, pages 437-449. Charpentier, H. "De Stephane Mallarme", in Nouvelle Revue Francaise tome 27, 1926, juillet-dec, pages 537-545. Claudel,Pierre. "La Catastrophe d'Igitur", in Nouvelle Revue Francaise. tome 27, 1926, juillet-dec, pages 531-536. Davies G. "Stephane Mallarme. Fifty Years of Research", in French Studies. Jan. 1947, Vol. 1, no. 1, pages 1-26. G i l l , A. "Mallarme on Baudelaire", in Currents of Thought in French Literature. Essays in Memory of G.T. Clapton, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1965, pages 89-114. Jones, P.M. "Poe, Baudelaire and Mallarme: A Problem of Literary Judgement", in Modern Language Review. Cambridge, At the University Press, Vol. XXXIX, 1944, pages 236-246. King, W.W. "Baudelaire and Mallarme: Metaphysics or Aesthetics", In Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. Vol. 26, 1967, pages 115-123. Lemonnier L. "Baudelaire et Mallarme", in La Grande Revue, j u i l l e t - octobre, 1923, pages 16-31. - "Influence d'Edgar Poe sur Mallarme", in Revue Mondiale. tome 184, 1929, fevrier 15, pages 361-370. - "Baudelaire et Mallarme, Traducteurs d'Edgar Poe", in Les Langues Modernes. Janvier-fevrier, tome XLIII, 1949, pages 47-57. Roussel, Jean-Paul. "Les Themes poetiques de Mallarme", in Les Lettres. tome III, 1948, pages 114-124. ARTICLES (Continued) Starobinski, J. "Mallarme et la Tradition Poetique Francaise", in Les Lettres. tome III, 1943, pages 35-45. Thibaudet, A. "A 1'ombre des Contemplations: Baudelaire et Mallarm£" in Nouvelle Revue Francaise, tome 40, ler juin 1933, pages 865-872.


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