UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Kipling's literary reputation MacLeod, Beatrice Merrigold 1970

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KIPLING'S LITERARY REPUTATION by BEATRICE MERRIGOLD MACLEOD B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1934 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of A r t s i n the Department of E n g l i s h We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1970 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree tha permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or a by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A r p n^ J > ^ > ^ ° \ T O i ABSTRACT K i p l i n g ' s perplexed r e l a t i o n s h i p with h i s c r i t i c s -and e s p e c i a l l y with those whose opin i o n s mattered - has no p a r a l l e l i n the h i s t o r y of l e t t e r s . At every stage i n h i s career they made him the e p i c e n t r e of c o n t r o v e r s y . F r i e n d s and enemies a l i k e misrepresented him i n t h e i r b iased and c o n t r a d i c t o r y judgments. In the '90's the m a j o r i t y helped to set him up as a n a t i o n a l i d o l ; a f t e r 1899 they engineered h i s f a l l i n t o d i s r e p u t e . His f a t e at the hands of the pundits deserves to be s t u d i e d i n some d e t a i l . This i n q u i r y i n t o the s t a t e of h i s r e p u t a t i o n and the a b e r r a t i o n s of K i p l i n g c r i t i c i s m between 1889 and 1914 f o l l o w s the trend of the times and the s h i f t s of c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n , and deals with a s e r i e s of reviews p u b l i s h e d i n a s e l e c t e d group of e i g h t i n f l u e n t i a l j o u r n a l s . These i n c l u d e the Edinburgh Review, the Q u a r t e r l y , Blackwood's  Magazine, the Contemporary Review, the F o r t n i g h t l y Review, the Athenaeum, the Saturday Review and the Bookman. K i p l i n g achieved e a r l y and unprecedented success. His s t a r t l i n g presence was noted i n a spate of a r t i c l e s and reviews i n which he was r e c o g n i z e d as a formidable new t a l e n t . S i n g l e d out by Oscar Wilde, approved by the Times, he impressed a l l who chose to comment on h i s work, even those whose f i n d i n g s were unfavourable. Many were g r a t i f i e d and e n t h u s i a s t i c ; many temporized. The u l t r a - c o n s e r v a t i v e confessed to grave m i s g i v i n g s ; the l i b e r a l - r a d i c a l were f r a n k l y s u s p i c i o u s of h i s views. Within a very few years the c r i t i c s were responding to a supereminent K i p l i n g , r e v e a l e d as a prophet of Empire. D i d a c t i c and p e r s u a s i v e , he grew i n s t a t u r e as a p u b l i c f i g u r e , u n o f f i c i a l l a u r e a t e , spokesman f o r the I m p e r i a l i s t s . C r i t i c i s m became c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y p o l i t i c a l . The g e n e r a l chorus of p r a i s e reached a crescendo but v o i c e s of d i s s e n t were r a i s e d i n angry p r o t e s t . The l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s were busy c o u n t e r a c t i n g the e v i l s of K i p l i n g i s m by o u t r i g h t condemnation of the author's p r o s e , f i c t i o n and v e r s e . In 1899 the Boers' d e c l a r a t i o n of war c o i n c i d e d with the p u b l i c a t i o n of S t a l k y and Co., b o l s t e r i n g the case f o r the o p p o s i t i o n and e f f e c t i n g an abrupt change i n the c r i t i c a l c l i m a t e . There was a sudden h i g h l y emotional r e v u l s i o n . Of the e i g h t chosen p e r i o d i c a l s only the Athenaeum was pleased with S t a l k y . Of the a t t a c k s that ensued none was more savage than Robert Buchanan's a r t i c l e i n the Contemporary Review. Those who continued to support K i p l i n g l i k e Walter Besant were d r i v e n to defend and to a p o l o g i z e . During the war and the subsequent p e r i o d of r e c r i m i n a t i o n , even the T o r i e s began to give vent to t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . K i p l i n g h i m s e l f drew t h e i r censure by l a s h i n g out at govern-ment and o p p o s i t i o n a l i k e . Scathing reviews of Kim r e f l e c t e d the g e n e r a l resentment. More than ever K i p l i n g ' s well-wishers were p l a c e d on the d e f e n s i v e . Former a d m i r e r s j u s t i f i e d t h e i r a p o s t a s y by e x p l a i n i n g t h a t the a u t h o r ' s work had begun t o d e c l i n e w i t h S t a l k y and Co. Some d e c l a r e d t h a t the p o p u l a r j o u r n a l i s t had never been worthy of the a t t e n t i o n he had r e c e i v e d . Many l o s t i n t e r e s t and r e f r a i n e d f u r t h e r comment. In o t h e r q u a r t e r s t h e r e was c l e a r e v i d e n c e o f a d e l i b e r a t e move t o i g n o r e K i p l i n g ' s c l a i m t o s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . By 1905 the d e c l i n e of h i s r e p u t a t i o n reached i t s f i n a l phase. The C o n s e r v a t i v e p r o p a g a n d i s t no l o n g e r t h r e a t e n e d the L i b e r a l s . There was l e s s b i t t e r n e s s , l e s s p o l e m i c a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n . The r e v i e w s were o f t e n p e r f u n c t o r y , contemptuous, i r o n i c or g e n t l y d i s p a r a g i n g . Most of the c r i t i c s o f any s t a n d i n g had c o n v i n c e d themselves t h a t K i p l i n g ' s fame had been founded on e r r o r , t h a t h i s v e r y p o p u l a r i t y was s u f f i c i e n t p r o o f of h i s l a c k of m e r i t , t h a t he had never been a g r e a t w r i t e r . Among the new g e n e r a t i o n of r o m a n t i c s , they saw him as an anachronism, out of p l a c e and out o f f a s h i o n . He must i n every r e s p e c t be l a b e l l e d " i n a d m i s s i b l e . " K i p l i n g was an honest but t e n d e n t i o u s w r i t e r who met w i t h an e q u a l l y t e n d e n t i o u s but e s s e n t i a l l y d i s h o n e s t c r i t i c i s m . The r e p o r t s of h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s appear to have been seldom f r e e from some form o f s p e c i a l p l e a d i n g . T h e i r m o t i v a t i o n was too o f t e n q u e s t i o n a b l e and t h e i r l a c k of o b j e c t i v i t y was n o t o r i o u s . Because they c o u l d not t o l e r a t e i v h i s p o p u l a r i t y , h i s s u c c e s s , h i s u n f a s h i o n a b l e p h i l o s o p h y , h i s d i s c r e d i t e d p o l i t i c s , h i s s t u b b o r n , r e t r o g r e s s i v e P h i l i s t i n i s m and h i s r e f u s a l t o countenance what he c a l l e d the Gods of the Market P l a c e , the c r i t i c s were l e d t o r e j e c t K i p l i n g ' s a r t . CONTENTS Chapter Page I K i p l i n g and His C r i t i c s 1 II E a r l y Success 11 III The C e c i l Rhodes of L i t e r a t u r e -+6 IV R e c r i m i n a t i o n s 108 V The Inadmissible K i p l i n g 160 A S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y 202 1 CHAPTER I I had a whisper from a ghost, who s h a l l be nameless, that these commentators always kept i n the most d i s t a n t q u a r t e r s from t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s i n the lower world, through a consciousness of shame and g u i l t , because they had so h o r r i b l y misrepresented the meaning of those authors to p o s t e r i t y . G u l l i v e r ' s T r a v e l s Somewhere i n the Elysium of l e t t e r s the ghost of Rudyard K i p l i n g walks by h i m s e l f ; a throng of disembodied c r i t i c s keep t h e i r d i s t a n c e . These are the repentant shades of commentators who misrepresented t h e i r p r i n c i p a l to h i s own g e n e r a t i o n and to p o s t e r i t y , veterans of an e p i c word-war that was fought over and round him. They i n c l u d e both h i s f r i e n d s and h i s enemies, the image-makers on h i s b e h a l f and the i c o n o c l a s t s i n h i s d e s p i t e , who persevered i n t h e i r e f f o r t s from h i s f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n s to h i s l a s t and long a f t e r h i s death. By the time the mock-heroics of t h e i r c o n t r o v e r s y had passed i n t o durable myth, they had l e f t the r e p u t a t i o n of a major author so thoroughly aspersed as to be considered suspect even today. The case has no p a r a l l e l i n l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y . From hi s p r o d i g i o u s i r r u p t i o n i n t o London's p u b l i s h i n g c i r c l e s i n 1889, f o l l o w e d by h i s unprecedented popular success, K i p l i n g a t t r a c t e d c r i t i c a l a c c l a i m and c a l c u l a t e d abuse, the one r e a c t i o n to h i s work tending to provoke and i n t e n s i f y the other. For a decade t h e r e a f t e r , loud and o f t e n i n d i s c r i m i n a t e 2 l applause muffled the c r i e s of p r o t e s t but by 1899 h i s s e l f - a p p o i n t e d claque weakened and the o p p o s i t i o n grew clamourous. T h e r e a f t e r he faced a concerted and w e l l -d i r e c t e d a t t a c k that e f f e c t u a l l y destroyed h i s r e p u t a t i o n as a s e r i o u s w r i t e r . In the f i n a l phase of h i s ca r e e r he met with c a l c u l a t e d n e g l e c t . T h i s f a l l i n t o a d v e r s i t y and premature o b l i v i o n had almost nothing to do with h i s merit and a great d e a l to do with h i s v u l n e r a b l e and anomalous p o s i t i o n as a P u b l i c F i g u r e . Regarded from the f i r s t with both s p e c u l a t i v e i n t e r e s t and s u s p i c i o n , he was t r e a t e d as an i s s u e r a t h e r than as a p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o r y - t e l l e r and rhymer. His wide i n f l u e n c e , strong o p i n i o n s , d i d a c t i c purposes and per s u a s i v e enthusiasms i d e n t i f i e d him as a f o r c e . Circumstances and i n c l i n a t i o n made him a redoubtable p a r t i s a n . Instead of remaining a popular author with a known p o l i t i c a l b i a s , a u s e f u l party hanger-on or pamphleteer to be d i s c r e e t l y rewarded, he became a power i n h i s own r i g h t . As a Power he found h i m s e l f the embodiment of an Idea. When a man, however u p r i g h t and independent, has been turned i n t o an i n s t i t u t i o n and a symbol, he must expect to be e x p l o i t e d , to be a s s a i l e d , to be made the r a l l y i n g p o i n t and the prime o b j e c t i v e of i d e o l o g i c a l b a t t l e s . To a t r a g i - c o m i c extent t h i s was the f a t e that overtook K i p l i n g . His w r i t i n g s caused him to become the centre of 3 u n r e m i t t i n g p u b l i c debate but he h i m s e l f d e l i b e r a t e l y avoided most of the u s u a l concomitants of fame. Moreover, when set upon, he took no hand i n h i s own defence and, with regard to the c r i t i c i s m d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t him, he had l i t t l e to say - a r e t i c e n c e no doubt prompted by h i s awareness as a j o u r n a l i s t of the i m p o s s i b i l i t y of r e f u t i n g what has already been i n p r i n t . No modern author has enjoyed g r e a t e r p o p u l a r i t y or been more widely known. No one has been b e t t e r loved or more thoroughly hated. No one has r e c e i v e d higher p r a i s e or more savage v i l i f i c a t i o n . No one of h i s s t a t u r e has s u f f e r e d a more d i s a s t r o u s l o s s of r e p u t a t i o n . No one i s more d i f f i c u l t to c a t e g o r i z e . To compare him with other c o n t r o v e r s i a l w r i t e r s serves only to u n d e r l i n e the obvious d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s . Although mentioned with M i l t o n , Defoe, Dryden, and Byron, l i n k e d by Auden with C l a u d e l and Yeats, the suggested p a r a l l e l s are c o i n c i d e n t a l r a t h e r than s i g n i f i c a n t . S e t t i n g a s i d e h i s p o l i t i c a l and p r o p h e t i c r o l e , we cannot a s s o c i a t e him with any p a r t i c u l a r movement i n prose or v e r s e . We detect i n f l u e n c e s and name i m i t a t o r s but f a i l to f i n d him a place i n any school that w i l l r e l a t e him i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y manner to the h i s t o r y of modern l i t e r a t u r e . It i s e a s i e r to c l a s s i f y the c r i t i c s , who s o r t them-se l v e s i n t o r e a d i l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e groups. In a s e l e c t m i n o r i t y were the honest and u n a l i g n e d , who o f f e r e d a good measure of t h o u g h t f u l a p p r a i s a l but c o u l d not p i t c h t h e i r 4 moderate v o i c e s above the f u r y of what K i p l i n g c a l l e d "the d o g - f i g h t " . The m a j o r i t y , zealous f r i e n d s and enemies, were hacks, u n i d e n t i f i a b l e and unremembered. The remainder were minor poets, n o v e l i s t s and e s s a y i s t s , along with a few d i s -t i n g u i s h e d persons whose i n c l u s i o n among the r e c o g n i z e d agents of K i p l i n g ' s f a l l does them l i t t l e c r e d i t . The remarkable l e n g t h of the K i p l i n g b i b l i o g r a p h y bears witness to t h e i r i n d u s t r y . They were i n s p i r e d by t h e i r c o n t e n t i o u s s u b j e c t to wr i t e c o p i o u s l y and to use over-emphatic language. .Many expressed themselves with a l a c k of r e s t r a i n t t h at dishonoured t h e i r c a l l i n g , t h e i r c r i t i c a l o f f e r -ings p r o v i d i n g g r e a t e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r own f r a i l human con-d i t i o n than i n t o the piece of work under d i s c u s s i o n . Subject-i v e , p r e j u d i c e d , emotional, l a c k i n g i n candour, they were o f t e n i n c a p a b l e of measuring the a r t i s t r y of the performance. To read much of the adverse c r i t i c i s m i s to glimpse the author i n a s e r i e s of d i s t o r t i n g m i r r o r s , i n which the image i s wryed a c c o r d i n g to the nature and degree of the flaw i n the r e f l e c t i n g s u r f a c e . In 1915 an a p o l o g i s t wrote: "There i s so much envy and meanness among the l i v i n g t h a t K i p l i n g w i l l not be f a i r l y r a t e d u n t i l he has been dead f o r f i f t y y e a r s . M ^ 1R. .Thurston Hopkins, Rudyard K i p l i n g : A L i t e r a r y  A p p r e c i a t ion (New York: Stokes, 1915), p . v i . 5 What purported to be a defence of l i t e r a r y standards o f t e n betrayed i t s provenance i n p e r s o n a l enmity. K i p l i n g was i n s t i n c t i v e l y d i s l i k e d by many f o r h i s too e a r l y popu-l a r i t y and f a r too great success. He was m i s t r u s t e d because of h i s e x o t i c s non-English background and despised f o r h i s lack of e d u c a t i o n , and f o r h i s a p p r e n t i c e s h i p i n j o u r n a l i s m . " I t i s h i s ignorance, h i s want of edu c a t i o n , that dwarfs him," s a i d Frank H a r r i s . He was detested f o r h i s abundantly c r e a t i v e genius, termed "growth . . . of the tape-worm order - i n one d i r e c t i o n . . . l e n g t h . " He was condemned f o r h i s arrogance, f o r h i s " u n i f o r m l y low tone of moral f e e l i n g " and "hard and g r a t u i t o u s b r u t a l i t y . " 1 * He was resented because of h i s i n d i f f e r e n c e to and contempt f o r the l i t e r a t i , f o r h i s c h e e r f u l a n t i - a e s t h e t i c i s m and f o r h i s appeal to the lower m i d d l e - c l a s s , - he was "cuddled by the lewd people of the baser s o r t . " ^ F i n a l l y and e n d u r i n g l y , he was hated by l i b e r a l t h i n k e r s f o r h i s conservatism and h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Empire. Contemporary P o r t r a i t s : Second S e r i e s (New York: Published by the Author, 1919), p. 63. 3 Ernest Newman, "Mr. K i p l i n g ' s S t o r i e s , " The Free Review, Dec. 1893, p. 236. 4The Edinburgh Review, J u l y 1891, p. 141. 5The Bookman, Oct. 1891, p. 28. 6 This ambient antagonism bred c e r t a i n r e i t e r a t e d charges both r i d i c u l o u s and c o n t r a d i c t o r y . There were those who accused K i p l i n g of being a narrow-minded Englishman; others who found him dangerously cosmopolitan. He preached r a c i a l s u p e r i o r i t y ; he was a h a l f - c a s t e ; he was a s o c i a l l y i n f e r i o r u p s t a r t and a snobbish member of the establishment; an evan-g e l i c a l preacher, an a t h e i s t ; a prosy bore, a shallow enter-t a i n e r ; an effeminate weakling, a b r u t e . His s t y l e of w r i t i n g appeared at once too l u c i d and too obscure; p e d e s t r i a n , i n -sanely f a n c i f u l ; crude, mannered and a r t i f i c i a l . He pandered to low t a s t e s with h i s o f f e n s i v e r e a l i s m . His books purveyed hate, l i e s and propaganda; h i s verse was "not only execrable as a r t but . . . mendacious nonsense as w e l l . " ^ He i n s t i g a t e d v i o l e n c e and bloodshed; he was " a l t o g e t h e r v i l e and de-t e s t a b l e . H e was a p e r n i c i o u s i n f l u e n c e that would not l a s t , "as temporary as the moment's passion."8 To h i s more f a n a t i c a l supporters he was never otherwise than a u n i v e r s a l genius. "He does not belong to h i m s e l f , as. do you and I; he i s part of the country; . . . there i s only ^Hubert Bland, Essays by Hubert (London: Max Goschen L t d . , 191*4), p. 51. ^ F r a n c i s Adams, "Rudyard K i p l i n g , " The F o r t n i g h t l y Review, Nov. 1891, p. 697. 8A.C. Gardiner, Prophets, P r i e s t s and Kings (London: A l s t o n R i v e r s L t d . , 1908), p. 293. 7 one Rudyard K i p l i n g . " y He was "a F r i e n d , a Force, a F u t u r e , " 1 "a master of winged words,"''""'" "the young magician upon whose l i p s we hang." The worst of h i s work was s a i d to be " b e t t e r than the best of most other men."l3 He was d e s c r i b e d as "the master of us a l l , o n e who "turned common substances i n t o gold by the alchemy of h i s i m a g i n a t i v e genius.""'"'' His admirers were given to u n b r i d l e d eulogy, as noxious as and much more te d i o u s than the e q u i v a l e n t measure of d e t r a c t i o n . The e f f e c t on the p u b l i c of t h i s long drawn out campaign with i t s i n c r e d i b l e polemics was informed with i r o n y . The a r t i c u l a t e , a n t i - K i p l i n g f a c t i o n among the c r i t i c s f a i l e d to s h i f t the a l l e g i a n c e of the i n a r t i c u l a t e masses of K i p l i n g e n t h u s i a s t s . The Common Reader who made l i t e r a t u r e pay was f a r beyond the c r i t i c s ' sphere of i n f l u e n c e , knowing nothing of reviews and c r i t i c a l essays except f o r an o c c a s i o n a l s e l e c t e d b l u r b . The deeper or higher s i g n i f i c a n c e of f i c t i o n Q JG.F. Monkshood, Rudyard K i p l i n g : The Man and His Work (London: Greening and Co. , L t d . , 1902) , p. Z3~. l°Ibid., p. 38. H G r e a t Thoughts, Oct. 4, 1913, p. 3. ^Blackwood's Magazine, Nov. 1891, p. 728. 1 3 T h e Bookman, Dec. 1898, p. 350. i ^ D a v i d C h r i s t i e Murray, Guesses at Truth (London: Hurst and B l a c k e t t , 1908), p. 275. 8 d i d not concern him. N a i v e l y uncommitted to l i t e r a r y move-ments and p h i l o s o p h i e s , he was f r e e to enjoy what he read. On the other hand, the s e r i o u s , a n a l y t i c a l reader f e l l v i c t i m to the p u n d i t s , h i s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y being gauged i n terms of the p r e t e n s i o n s he had to support. He looked f o r reassurance from those who could t e l l him what to approve and what to condemn i n order to q u a l i f y as an i n i t i a t e . The simple-hearted reader might wander o f f without a guide, where the s u p e r i o r reader, f e a r i n g to be l e f t behind, would stumble along on the heels of the nearest a c c r e d i t e d wise man. Thus among such a s p i r a n t s K i p l i n g was soon d i s c o v e r e d to be unsound and unworthy of regard on both p o l i t i c a l and a e s t h e t i c grounds. By the '20's and '30's he had been r e p u d i a t e d by a l l earnest souls concerned f o r t h e i r c u l t u r a l s a l v a t i o n . For f e a r of being damned i n t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n s , they dared not express a m i l d i n t e r e s t i n or a q u a l i f i e d approval of h i s work - as w e l l confess a l i k i n g f o r G i l b e r t and S u l l i v a n or other V i c t o r i a n a . In f a c t K i p l i n g was f a r worse, hi s very name being accounted blasphemy. To H.E. Bates, the o l d I m p e r i a l i s t was "the most execrable famous poet the language has ever produced," "unacceptable as a s t y l i s t . . . a f a i l u r e as a man."^ "The n o t i o n that K i p l i n g was a great 1 6H.E. Bates, The Modern Short Story (Boston: The Writer Inc., 1941), p. 104. 9 17 w r i t e r i s a myth." Fashions i n l i t e r a t u r e and l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m w i l l always prove more ca p t i o u s and exigent than any other dated f o l l i e s . Today the s i t u a t i o n has been reassessed and once again i t i s p o s s i b l e to approve K i p l i n g . He has been r e d i s c o v e r e d and r e h a b i l i t a t e d by T.S. E l i o t and o t h e r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s the o l d blague s t i l l p e r s i s t s . Those s t i l l i n f l u e n c e d by the d i c t a of an e a r l i e r g e n e r a t i o n , remember with vague d i s a p p r o v a l the "White Man's Burden" and "Lesser breeds without the law." There i s p l e n t y of evidence of a c r i t i c a l l a g , a delayed r e a c t i o n to e a r l i e r c r i t i c i s m which may be the legacy of text-books and t e a c h e r s . K i p l i n g continues to f i g u r e u n s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y i n the h i s t o r y books. From sc h o o l a n t h o l o g i e s he has almost disappeared. In l i b r a r i e s h i s t a l e s , l i k e those of Dickens, have been catalogued f o r c h i l d r e n . The o l d p r e j u d i c e s are s t i l l being kept a l i v e and even i n the '60's we f i n d Robert Graves condemning h i s " v u l g a r bloody-mindedness," 1 8 i n proof of which he o f f e r s a mis-reading of one of the minor b a l l a d s . It w i l l be necessary f o r the purposes of t h i s d i s q u i s i t i o n i n t o the r i s e and f a l l of K i p l i n g ' s l i t e r a r y 1 7 B a t e s , p. 112. 18 Robert Graves, "Pretense on Parnassus," Horizon, May 1963, p. 83. 10 r e p u t a t i o n to f o l l o w the gen e r a l t r e n d of c r i t i c i s m between 1889 and 1914, a p e r i o d which i n e f f e c t c o i n c i d e s with the t r o u b l e d passage between l a t e V i c t o r i a n and modern times. D e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s and comparison of reviews and essays appear-ing i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p e r i o d i c a l s during those years of t r a n s -i t i o n w i l l give a c l o s e r look at the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and s h i f t s i n c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n from the *90's when the c r i t i c s voted t h e i r p r i n c i p a l a triumph to the new century when they s t r i p p e d away h i s honours. 11 CHAPTER II It may w e l l be unfortunate f o r a man's r e p u t a t i o n that he should have great success e a r l y i n l i f e . . . T.S. E l i o t : "Rudyard K i p l i n g " K i p l i n g was twenty-three when he a r r i v e d i n England i n the autumn of 1889. In India he had a l r e a d y won l o c a l fame with h i s short s t o r i e s and s a t i r i c a l b a l l a d s , which made good use of a p r e c o c i o u s knowledge of Indian and Anglo-Indian l i f e , a c q u i r e d at f i r s t hand during h i s seven-year a p p r e n t i c e s h i p i n j o u r n a l i s m . Before he was seventeen, he had become " f i f t y percent of the e d i t o r i a l s t a f f " of the C i v i l and M i l i t a r y  Gazette of Lahore.^ Soon a f t e r h i s appointment i n 1887 to an a s s i s t a n t e d i t o r s h i p of the Allahabad Pioneer, "India's g r e a t e s t and most important paper," he had p u b l i s h e d f o r t y of h i s " t u r n o v e r s " from the Gazette as P l a i n Tales from the H i l l s . His f i r s t important book of v e r s e , Departmental D i t t i e s , had •'•"So soon as my paper could t r u s t me a l i t t l e , . . . I was sent out, f i r s t f o r l o c a l r e p o r t i n g s , then to r a c e -meetings . . . . L a t e r I d e s c r i b e d openings of b i g bridges and s u c h - l i k e , . . . f l o o d s on r a i l w a y s , . . . v i l l a g e f e s t i -v a l s and consequent outbreaks of c h o l e r a and smallpox; communal r i o t s . . . , v i s i t s of V i c e r o y s to neighbouring P r i n c e s ; reviews of armies; r e c e p t i o n s of an Afghan Potentate . . . ( t h i s i n c l u d e d a walk i n t o the Khyber where I was shot a t , but without malice . ' . . ) ; murder and d i v o r c e t r i a l s , . . an i n q u i r y i n t o the percentage of l e p e r s among the butchers . . . " Rudyard K i p l i n g , Something of Myself (London: MacMillan, 1937), pp. 43-44. 12 been brought out two years e a r l i e r . By the end of 1888 he had s i x more l i t t l e paper-back volumes i n p r i n t . Whereupon, heralded by a few complimentary n o t i c e s of what i n the output of most w r i t e r s would be termed j u v e n i l i a , he made h i s way to London, where he r e c e i v e d an encouraging welcome - as he d e s c r i b e d i t long afterwards: "My small s t o c k - i n - t r a d e of books had become known i n c e r t a i n q u a r t e r s ; and there was an evident demand f o r my s t u f f . " 2 i n h i s subsequent a s t o n i s h -ing d e a l i n g s with g r a t i f i e d p u b l i s h e r s and e d i t o r s , i n the r e c e p t i o n of h i s s t o r i e s and rhymes by a d e l i g h t e d p u b l i c , whose approval was soon endorsed by the m a j o r i t y of the r e v i e w e r s , he scored a v i r t u a l l y immediate success. At the c l o s e of h i s long c a r e e r , remembering t h i s e a r l y triumph, he wrote: "In the autumn of '89 I stepped i n t o a s o r t of waking dream when I took, as a matter of course, the f a n t a s t i c cards that Fate was pleased to d e a l me."3 By 1890 he was l i s t e d among the b e s t - s e l l e r s . It was the heyday of the l a t e V i c t o r i a n s , the high p o i n t and the end of an e r a . B r i t a i n was powerful, prosperous and s t a b l e , p r e s e r v i n g a comfortable s t a t u s quo a f t e r more than a h a l f century of reform but f o s t e r i n g those d i s r u p t i v e f o r c e s of change that were soon to make a c l e a n sweep of the o l d •^Something of Myself, p. 78. 3 I b i d . , p. 77. 13 order of t h i n g s , s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l . The 1889 volume of Punch evokes the contemporary scene with some degree of immediacy. Punch's a r t i s t s recorded the c u r r e n t fads and f o l l i e s , s o c i a l r i t u a l s , f a s h i o n s , d w e l l i n g on snobbism and i n e p t i t u d e ; they sketched debutantes and dowagers, "mashers" and l o n g - h a i r e d a e s t h e t e s , l e a r n e d f e m i n i s t s , s t o u t , v u l g a r persons with money i n drawingrooms, c l u b s , country-houses, and on the h u n t i n g - f i e l d ; they noted the manners and dress of the lower o r d e r s , s e r v a n t s , shop-keepers, farmers, l a b o u r e r s . T h e i r f u l l - p a g e cartoons d e p i c t e d B r i t i s h pre-eminence abroad - John B u l l , b u r l y and a u t h o r i t a t i v e , rebuked Venezuela, c h a l l e n g e d France over the map of Egypt. The Queen and her navy discouraged German r i v a l r y and s t e r n l y admonished the s a i l o r - s u i t e d young K a i s e r , the l a t t e r having dropped h i s p i l o t , Bismarck. South A f r i c a was given due a t t e n t i o n , s i n c e gold had brought about a boom i n the T r a n s v a a l . At home the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n was analysed weekly. The l e a d e r of the O p p o s i t i o n Mr. Gladstone c e l e b r a t e d h i s golden wedding. The L i b e r a l Party had s p l i t over Home:'Rule f o r I r e l a n d . T o r i e s and L i b e r a l U n i o n i s t s marched t o g e t h e r , l e d by Lord S a l i s b u r y i n a Union Jack w a i s t -coat and by monocled Joseph Chamberlain. Randolph C h u r c h i l l , "Grandolpho", and Arthur B a l f o u r , r e b e l s a g a i n s t the "Old Gang" on the Front Bench, urged t h e i r p a r t y to adopt a modern, democratic Conservatism that would broaden i t s aims and i t s 14 appeal to the v o t e r s and give the word Imperialism a new meaning. Punch could only suggest how ominously d i v e r g e n t were the p o l i c i e s of the two f a c t i o n s . On the r i g h t , the r e j u v e -nated T o r i e s and t h e i r a l l i e s c a l l e d f o r g l o b a l awareness and c l o s e r l i n k s with the dominions. On the l e f t , L i t t l e Englanders and high-minded reformers condemned the Empire and a l l forms of c o l o n i a l i s m abroad and demanded vigorous s o c i a l a c t i o n at home. Among the more extreme L i b e r a l s and the i n t e l l e c t u a l s , s o c i a l i s m was i n vogue. The r a d i c a l views of t h i s m i n o r i t y - d e s c r i b e d by K i p l i n g as " p e r n i c i o u s v a r i e t i e s of safe s e d i t i o n " - were contained i n Fabian Essays p u b l i s h e d i n December, 1889. Regardless of part y d i f f e r e n c e s , the game of p o l i t i c s remained the b i r t h r i g h t and absorbing hobby of those designated by i n h e r i t a n c e , education or wealth as gentlemen. L i t t l e change i n t h i s connection had been brought about by the extended s u f f r a g e and the f r e e n a t i o n a l s c h o o l s , those measures that were to have r e s u l t e d i n e i t h e r anarchy or the mi l l e n i u m . N e v e r t h e l e s s , something of a r e v o l u t i o n had occurred that might w e l l be a t t r i b u t e d to e d u c a t i o n a l reform. There had never been so many readers and never before such a demand f o r r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l of a l l k i n d s . P u b l i s h e r s who s u p p l i e d the l i t e r a r y needs of the community at l a r g e were r e q u i r e d to a. Something of Myself, p. 91. 15 provide f o r the d i s p a r a t e t a s t e s of a p u b l i c which i n c l u d e d i n c r e a s i n g numbers of the s e m i - l i t e r a t e . The r e s u l t was a p r o l i f e r a t i o n not only of books but of p e r i o d i c a l s and news-papers of a l l shades of o p i n i o n and a l l l e v e l s of s t y l e . Many of these new p u b l i c a t i o n s were among the best of the century and r e s p e c t e d the highest standards; many more cate r e d d e l i b e r a t e l y to the mob. They ranged from models of c r e a t i v e a r t i s t r y l i k e the Yellow Book and the Savoy to penny weeklies of "low tone". A l l magazines r e l i e d on short s t o r i e s and s e r i a l i z e d novels to hold the i n t e r e s t of t h e i r r e a d e r s , whose i n s a t i a b l e a p p e t i t e f o r f i c t i o n kept book s a l e s booming, e s p e c i a l l y s a l e s of those cheap e d i t i o n s that brought popular l i t e r a t u r e to the masses. Among men of l e t t e r s the trend toward p o p u l a r i z a t i o n was d e p l o r e d . The " g u t t e r p r e s s " and "yellow j o u r n a l i s m " , synonymous with v u l g a r content and i n f e r i o r w r i t i n g , had become p a r t i c u l a r l y o f f e n s i v e to serious-minded c r i t i c s . The very word " j o u r n a l i s m " was a s s o c i a t e d with a conscious debas-ing of the language i n order to indulge the r a b b l e ; i t o f f e r e d a s i m p l i f i e d v o c a b u l a r y , and c u r t a i l e d sentences, and avoided r h e t o r i c . 5 The accepted standard of l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n c. "There has been a tendency to f o l l o w the t a s t e s of the vast number of people who can read at a l l r a t h e r than of those to whom reading means a very high standard of l i t e r a r y enjoy-ment. This has i n v o l v e d a l e s s l i t e r a r y s t y l e . . . i n t i d b i t s of i n f o r m a t i o n with an appeal to cruder sentiments." " J o u r n a l i s m , " Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a , 11th ed., XIX, 547. 16 remained fo r m a l , p o l i s h e d , and e l a b o r a t e i n the manner of Pater. The f a s h i o n a b l e approach to l e t t e r s was found i n the Aesthetic Movement, i n f l u e n c e d by the French I m p r e s s i o n i s t s and i n i t i a t e d i n England by W h i s t l e r and Pater. As a h i g h l y romantic and p r e c i o u s c i r c l e , i t a t t r a c t e d gloomy young poseurs out of the u n i v e r s i t i e s , whose r e c o g n i z e d hierophant was Oscar Wilde. T h e i r ranks i n c l u d e d numerous minor poets and a host of l i t t e r a t e u r s and hangers-on, given to s e n t i -mental a f f e c t a t i o n , h y p o t h e t i c a l s i n f u l n e s s and morbid s e l f -p i t y . In d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to t h i s f i n - d e - s i e c l e p o s t u r i n g , the Anglo-Saxon School r e j e c t e d d e s p a i r and decadence. T h e i r l e a d e r was the poet W.E. Henley, e d i t o r of the N a t i o n a l  Observer and an outspoken Tory I m p e r i a l i s t , a robust s o u l i n a c r i p p l e d body. He had done much to a s s i s t a number of promising w r i t e r s - Stevenson, B a r r i e and Yeats among others -and was one of the f i r s t to reco g n i z e K i p l i n g . There were other widely d i f f e r i n g c o t e r i e s , from the exponents of the new n a t u r a l i s m to the more mawkish of the romantics. D i s t i n g u i s h e d s u r v i v o r s of the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n i n c l u d e d Tennyson, Ruskin, Huxley, W i l l i a m Morris and Swinburne. Of those whose work f i g u r e d on recent p u b l i s h e r ' s l i s t s , one of the most r e s p e c t e d was George Meredith. Thomas Hardy's Wessex T a l e s , Mrs. Humphry Ward's Robert Elsmere - her f i r s t popular success - and Oscar Wilde's Happy Prince had 17 appeared i n 1888. In 1889 George G i s s i n g p u b l i s h e d The  Emancipated and The Nether World; George Moore, Mike F l e t c h e r ; Stevenson, The Master of B a l l a n t r a e ; Yeats, The Wanderings of  O i s i n and Henry James, The T r a g i c Muse. James and Mrs. Ward were c u r r e n t best s e l l e r s , s h a ring the l i m e l i g h t with such w r i t e r s as H a l l Gaine, Martin Maartens and Marie C o r e l l i . K i p l i n g j o i n e d them w i t h i n a year. A l l aspects of h i s h i s t o r i c a l context from the s o c i o -p o l i t i c a l to the l i t e r a r y are s i g n i f i c a n t i n any study of K i p l i n g . No author has ever been more deeply i n v o l v e d i n the a f f a i r s of h i s time. At no stage i n h i s career can he be detached from the background of events and t r e n d s . As a sub-j e c t f o r c r i t i c i s m he has always been measured a g a i n s t i t -a constant f a c t o r expressed i n terms of a v a r i a b l e . In 1889 he entered a world i n which he was not merely a newcomer but an o u t s i d e r - an Anglo-Indian of North Country and S c o t t i s h stock, Wesleyan and C o n s e r v a t i v e , the product of a second-rate s c h o o l , who lacked the advantages of higher e d u c a t i o n . His only l i n k with a r t s and l e t t e r s was Pre-R a p h a e l i t e ; h i s only t r a i n i n g i n the f i e l d , h i s work on obscure newspapers i n a remote l a n d . Robert Graves remembers hi s as "a Bombay-born j o u r n a l i s t without e i t h e r a s e t t l e d E n g l i s h background or a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , " and adds, " K i p l i n g ' s u n c e r t a i n t y i s explained by h i s sense of not 18 be l o n g i n g . " However a l i e n he may have seemed i n c e r t a i n c i r c l e s , he did not appear to s u f f e r from any awareness of inadequacy. In luck from the f i r s t , he made f r i e n d s , found i n f l u e n t i a l sponsors, acquired an agent and r e c e i v e d a warm welcome from e d i t o r s . "I do not r e c a l l t h a t I s t i r r e d a hand to help my-s e l f , " he wrote i n h i s autobiography. " . . . I considered the whole u n i v e r s e was a c u t e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n me only - j u s t as a man who s t r a y s i n t o a s k i r m i s h i s persuaded he i s the p i v o t of the a c t i o n . " Proposed by Andrew Lang, he became a member of the S a v i l e Club. He was adopted by Henley and approved by Walter Besant, Edmond Gosse and George S a i n t s b u r y . He r e c i p r o c a t e d t h e i r l i k i n g . He a l s o met w r i t e r s whose works and d o c t r i n e s he thoroughly d i s l i k e d . D i s r e g a r d i n g Besant's advice "to keep out of the d o g - f i g h t , " he a l l i e d h i m s e l f with the Anglo-Saxon group to do b a t t l e i n a good cause. He proved himsel f as eager as Henley to serve the Empire, the Conservative par t y and p u r p o s e f u l l i t e r a t u r e and to confound the L i b e r a l s and the Aesthetes. His work found favour with The Times; new e d i t i o n s of h i s Indian s t o r i e s were p u b l i s h e d ; a r t i c l e s , poems, and t a l e s appeared r e g u l a r l y i n magazines. He was endorsed by Andrew c "Pretense on Parnassus," Horizon, May 1963, p. 81. Something of Myself, p. 79. 19 Lang. His r e p u t a t i o n grew with the impressive volume of s a l e s and a spate of e x c i t e d reviews. Hubert Bland of the Sunday C h r o n i c l e , l o o k i n g back at K i p l i n g ' s phenomenal r i s e , r e c o l l e c t e d : About the end of 1889 we began to t a l k of him. Three years l a t e r he was out and away the b i g g e s t f i g u r e i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a r y l i f e . . . . He had the d i s t i n c t i o n of winning at once, the noisy applause of the mob and the high approval of the e l e c t . y The c r i t i c s acclaimed the young genius with only such r e s e r v a -t i o n s as became t h e i r d i g n i t y and t h e i r b i a s . P r a i s e whether generous or grudging could not be denied. In 1890 " h i s ac c l a i m was so tremendous that the d u b i e t i e s of a r e f i n e d c r i t i c i s m simply didn'-t count. " 1 0 K i p l i n g ' s own comment on h i s e a r l y success was made at the end of h i s l i f e : "I was p l e n t i f u l l y assured v i v a voce and i n the Press c u t t i n g s -which i s a drug that I do not recommend to the young - that "nothing s i n c e Dickens' compared with my 'meteoric r i s e to " At l a s t there comes (to India) an Englishman with eyes, with a pen e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y d e f t , an o b s e r v a t i o n m a r v e l l o u s l y r a p i d and keen." Essays i n L i t t l e (London: Henry and Co., 1891), p. 198. yHubert Bland "The Decadence of Rudyard K i p l i n g , " Essays by Hubert (London: Max Goschen L t d . , 1914), p. 35. 1 0 J . I . M . Stewart, E i g h t Modern Wr i t e r s (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963), p. 225. 20 fame. His powers were very great but f a r from easy to d e f i n e . Bonamy Dobree has analysed h i s s p e c i a l v i r t u e s and q u a l i t i e s i n the f i r s t chapter of Rudyard K i p l i n g : R e a l i s t and F a b u l i s t : . . . It i s d i f f i c u l t to get a u n i f i e d idea of Rudyard K i p l i n g ' s complex and enigmatic p e r s o n a l i t y . . . . His v a r i e t y i s astounding. I t i s of no use to read a few s t o r i e s of one kind and put him i n t o a c e r t a i n category. In the same volume a s t o r y of deep t r a g i c s i g n i f i c a n c e may be f o l l o w e d by one of outrageously extravagant f a r c e . What s e i z e s you con-t i n u a l l y i s the o v e r f l o w i n g v i t a l i t y t h a t gives you the sense of being j u s t t h e r e . And through the f i c t i o n , the l e c t u r e s and the l e t t e r s , there run threads of c e r t a i n dominating ideas or i n t u i t i o n s , each, perhaps simple i n i t s e l f , but which woven together form an i n t r i c a t e p a tterned t a p e s t r y . He was temperamentally imbued with an exuberant zest f o r l i f e . . . and an i n e x h a u s t i b l e i n t e r e s t and d e l i g h t i n men.^ Dobree noted f u r t h e r : His unusual power of empathy enabled him to peep through the shut door, and see i n t o people, t h e i r motives, t h e i r d e s i r e s , t h e i r bafflement . . . . These abnormal q u a l i t i e s would have been of l i t t l e a v a i l i f he had not been a w r i t e r b o r n . I 3 K i p l i n g h i m s e l f s a i d of h i s beginnings as a w r i t e r : -^Something of Myself, p. 88. onamy Dobree, Rudyard K i p l i n g : R e a l i s t and F a b u l i s t (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1967"T^ p~. 3*7 1 3 I b i d . , p. 9. 21 My young head was i n a ferment of new t h i n g s seen and r e a l i z e d at every turn and - that I might i n any way keep abreast of the f l o o d - i t was necessary that every word should t e l l , c a r r y , weigh, t a s t e and, i f need were, smell . . . . M e r c i f u l l y , the mere act of w r i t i n g was, and always has been, a p h y s i c a l p l e a s u r e to me. This made i t e a s i e r to throw away anything that d i d not turn out w e l l ; and to p r a c t i s e , as i t were, s c a l e s . ^ The e a r l y s t o r i e s , because of h i s s p e c i a l g i f t s , had a c l a r i t y of o u t l i n e , p r e c i s i o n , and economy of means that marked them as the products of c a r e f u l c r a ftsmanship. P u b l i s h e r s were eager to accept whatever he had to o f f e r . With no l a c k of m a t e r i a l and a d e l i g h t i n composition, he added twelve new t i t l e s to the l i s t of h i s works between 1889 and 1892. By the g e n e r a l i t y of the c r i t i c s , he was e x t o l l e d i n extravagant terms. Those w r i t i n g f o r the more important p e r i o d i c a l s had t h e i r a t t e n t i o n c a l l e d p e r f o r c e to the new-comer. What they found to say about him was i n many i n s t a n c e s p r e d i c t a b l e . Some who took a d o c t r i n a i r e approach a f f i r m e d or denied h i s t a l e n t on the b a s i s of a s t r i c t adherence to t h e i r a e s t h e t i c . Others, i g n o r i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of a r t , d e a l t with him a c c o r d i n g to the manner i n which h i s views soothed or i r r i t a t e d t h e i r moral, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s e n s i b i l i t i e s and commitments. The u l t r a - c o n s e r v a t i v e and p r e s t i g i o u s -^Something of Myself, pp. 205-206 . 22 expressed t h e i r doubts about him with d i g n i t y and r e s t r a i n t . A l l f e l t c o n s t r a i n e d to pay s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n to h i s books. One of the f i r s t and most i n f l u e n t i a l of the longer c r i t i q u e s was p u b l i s h e d i n a l e a d i n g a r t i c l e i n the Times on March 25, 1890. More than a f u l l column i n l e n g t h , i t h a i l e d K i p l i n g as a notable d i s c o v e r y . India has given us an abundance of s o l d i e r s and adminis-t r a t o r s , but she has seldom given us a w r i t e r . There i s no q u e s t i o n , however, t h a t she has done t h i s i n the person of the author of the numerous short s t o r i e s and verses of which 1 C I we give the t i t l e s b e l o w . A J The Times p r a i s e d him f o r h i s r e v e l a t i o n of the d i f f i c u l t c o n d i t i o n s under which the B r i t i s h Army operated i n India and of the hardships endured by Tommy A t k i n s , the h o r r o r s of the c l i m a t e , the e f f e c t of heat on the European. He had given a p e n e t r a t i n g account of v a r i o u s aspects of the world of the n a t i v e s . His humour could only be d e s c r i b e d as admi-r a b l e . The Simla s t o r i e s , although "not a l t o g e t h e r p l e a s a n t , " were the r e s u l t of shrewd o b s e r v a t i o n . In these he was "admirably d i r e c t , " while "comparatively wanting i n s t y l e . " But h i s more recent t a l e s showed "a d i s t i n c t advance i n a r t i s t i c power"; h i s verse too had improved. . . . We are f a r from a s s e r t i n g that Mr. K i p l i n g has yet made any c l a i m to a place i n the f r o n t rank of contemporary 1 5 T h e Times, March 25, 1890, p. 3. 23 w r i t e r s . He has given evidence of a knowledge of Indian l i f e which would be e x t r a o r d i n a r y i n any w r i t e r and i s phenomenal i n one so young. He has shown a t r u l y remarkable power of t e l l i n g a s t o r y d r a m a t i c a l l y and v i v i d l y . He has w r i t t e n a number of amusing o c c a s i o n a l v e r s e s , not without poin t and s t i n g . But he has not yet attempted "the long d i s t a n c e r a c e , " and the question i s whether he possesses s t a y i n g power. We s i n c e r e l y hope that he does, and that he w i l l show i t i n good tiirfe; but meanwhile i t i s to be hoped he w i l l not w r i t e him-s e l f out. Modern magazines and t h e i r eager e d i t o r s are a dangerous snare i n the way of a b r i g h t , c l e v e r and v e r s a t i l e w r i t e r , who knows that he has caught the p u b l i c taste.16 The Times 1 reviewer approved wholeheartedly of the subject matter, i n d i c a t e d q u a l i f i e d approval of the s t y l e and s t r e s s e d i t s d eveloping a r t i s t r y . This was generous r e c o g n i t i o n to be given to a very young w r i t e r w i t h i n a few months of h i s London debut. The only m i s g i v i n g s concerned h i s a b i l i t y to maintain h i s i n i t i a l high standard. Oscar Wilde, on the other hand, l i k e d n e i t h e r content nor s t y l e , but admitted the presence of a c u r i o u s l y a t t r a c t i v e q u a l i t y . In h i s long and g e n e r a l l y d u l l d i s s e r t a t i o n , "The True Nature and Function of C r i t i c i s m " , which took the form of a dialogue between " G i l b e r t " and " E r n e s t " on the s t a t e of contemporary l e t t e r s , he i n c l u d e d a f r e q u e n t l y quoted passage of w i t t y comment on K i p l i n g . He began by e x p l a i n i n g the new author's p o p u l a r i t y : He who would s t i r us now by f i c t i o n must give us an en-t i r e l y new background or r e v e a l to us the s o u l of man i n i t s innermost working. The f i r s t i s f o r the moment being done l 6 T h e Times, l o c . c i t . 17 f o r us by Mr. Rudyard K i p l i n g . According to Wilde, K i p l i n g o f f e r e d h i s readers the n o v e l t y of r e a d i n g about the under-bred members of a second-rate s o c i e t y i n an e x o t i c s e t t i n g . "As one turns over the pages o f . h i s P l a i n T a l e s from the H i l l s , one f e e l s as i f one were seated under a palm t r e e , r e a d i n g l i f e by superb f l a s h e s of v u l g a r i t y . " 1 8 A t o t a l l a c k of s t y l e l e n t "an odd j o u r n a l -i s t i c r e a l i s m " to the Indian scene. From the point of view of l i t e r a t u r e , Mr. K i p l i n g i s a genius who drops h i s a s p i r a t e s . From the p o i n t of view of l i f e , he i s a r e p o r t e r who knows v u l g a r i t y b e t t e r than any-one has ever known i t . . . . He i s our f i r s t a u t h o r i t y on the second-rate, and he has seen marvellous t h i n g s through keyholes, and h i s backgrounds are r e a l works of art.19 However ambiguous t h i s statement - and the tone was both admiring and s u p e r c i l i o u s , i ndulgent and f a i n t l y s n e e r ing -Wilde had re c o g n i z e d v i r t u e s that could not be ignored, and was genuinely impressed: "He t e r r i f i e s us by h i s t r u t h , and makes h i s s o r d i d subject matter marvellous by the b r i l l i a n c y 2 0 of i t s s e t t i n g . " Popular t a s t e demanded n o v e l t y and here was n o v e l t y of a s t r i k i n g k i n d . l^Oscar Wilde, "The True Nature and Function of C r i t i c i s m , " The Nineteenth Century, Sept., 1890, p. 455, 1 8 I b i d . 1 9 I b i d . 2 0 I b i d . 25 K i p l i n g ' s progress through the columns of the l i t e r a r y j o u r n a l s began i n triumph, and, although the a c c l a i m was f a r from unanimous, even Wilde acknowledged that the author of P l a i n Tales from the H i l l s was possessed of genius, however m i s a p p l i e d . An a n a l y s i s of c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n i n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p e r i o d i c a l s r e v e a l s the grounds f o r g e n e r a l approval and a l s o i n d i c a t e s the sources and nature of d i s s e n t . To f o l l o w and compare the sequence of reviews i n e i g h t p u b l i c a t i o n s of widely d i f f e r i n g e d i t o r i a l p o l i c i e s i s to understand the pro-cesses by which K i p l i n g ' s r e p u t a t i o n was to be made and unmade. Of the j o u r n a l s chosen f o r t h i s study of the v a g a r i e s of c r i t i c i s m , two were unmistakably Tory, three were L i b e r a l and the remainder o s t e n s i b l y u n a l i g n e d . I f these were grouped a c c o r d i n g to rank and s e n i o r i t y , the f i r s t named must be the Edinburgh Review and the Q u a r t e r l y . The former, venerable and s c h o l a r l y , r e presented G l a d s t o n i a n L i b e r a l i s m i n p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l i s s u e s but took a very t r a d i t i o n a l stand with regard to l i t e r a t u r e . From 1855 to 1895 i t was e d i t e d by Henry Reeve, a r e a c t i o n a r y and a p u r i s t i n matters of s t y l e . A f t e r h i s death i t became l e s s of a l i t e r a r y review. The Q u a r t e r l y , of great p r e s t i g e and a u t h o r i t y , expressed an austere Conservatism i n a l l departments. It was d e l i b e r a t e , c a u t i o u s and, to judge from the emphasis i n i t s a r t i c l e s , was more i n t e r e s t e d i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s than i n l e t t e r s . The e d i t o r from 1867 to 1893 was a contemporary of Reeve's, S i r W i l l i a m Smith, a c l a s s i c a l and e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s c h o l a r and a l e x i c o g r a p h e r . 26 On the subject of K i p l i n g the Q u a r t e r l y remained s i l e n t u n t i l J u l y , 1892. Blackwood 1s Magazine, p u b l i s h e d monthly, was noted f o r i t s extreme Tory p a r t i s a n s h i p and i t s e n t h u s i a s t i c promotion of Imperialism, but had a p r o g r e s s i v e a t t i t u d e toward l i t e r a -t u r e . The F o r t n i g h t l y Review, a l s o appearing monthly, was by c o n t r a s t an organ of the l e f t - w i n g l i b e r a l s and i n c l i n e d to r a d i c a l i s m , i t s p o l i t i c a l b i a s being f u l l y as marked as that of Blackwood's. Referred to by K i p l i n g as "a monthly review of s o r t s " , 2 1 i t was n e v e r t h e l e s s a p e r i o d i c a l of some im-portance, and was e d i t e d to 1894 by the redoubtable Frank H a r r i s , who had very e a r l y d i s c o v e r e d h i s d i s l i k e of the Anglo-Indian o u t s i d e r . The monthly Contemporary Review, another L i b e r a l organ, was devoted to s o c i a l reform and was s t r o n g l y r e l i g i o u s i n tone. Except f o r o c c a s i o n a l a r t i c l e s , i t was not at f i r s t a l i t e r a r y j o u r n a l but began to p u b l i s h r e g u l a r reviews a f t e r 1900, c h i e f l y of n o n - f i c t i o n . It f e a t u r e d signed essays p r e s e n t i n g o p i n i o n s on c o n t r o v e r s i a l t o p i c s . The e d i t o r from 1882 to 1911 was S i r Percy Bunting, grandson of the founder of the Methodist Church. The Athenaeum, e s p e c i a l l y prominent i n the f i e l d of l i t e r a t u r e , appeared weekly. I t s c o n t r i b u t e r s were d i s -t i n g u i s h e d and knowledgeable and the q u a l i t y of w r i t i n g was s u p e r i o r . The e d i t o r to 1900 was Norman MacColl, who 2 1Something of Myself, p. 83. 27 a c t i v e l y upheld K i p l i n g i n h i s c o p y r i g h t a l t e r c a t i o n i n 1890^ F u l l y h a l f the space of another w e l l known weekly, The  Saturday Review was given over to c r i t i c i s m . Walter H e r r i e s P o l l o c k , a f r i e n d of K i p l i n g ' s , was e d i t o r u n t i l 1894, when the paper came under the c o n t r o l and e d i t o r s h i p of Frank H a r r i s . During t h i s p e r i o d the s t a f f i n c l u d e d such outstand-ing w r i t e r s as George Bernard Shaw and Max Beerbohm. The Bookman, p u b l i s h e d monthly, d i d not appear u n t i l the f a l l of 1891. T o t a l l y u n l i k e the other seven p e r i o d i c a l s with t h e i r bleak, o l d - f a s h i o n e d pages and small p r i n t , i t was new, modern i n format, a t t r a c t i v e l y and p r o f u s e l y i l l u s t r a t e d , and r e f l e c t e d a r a t h e r more popular approach to l i t e r a t u r e and a r t than that of the other seven j o u r n a l s . Only the Athenaeum, the Saturday Review and the Bookman brought out r e g u l a r c r i t i q u e s of new books promptly a f t e r p u b l i c a t i o n . The Edinburgh Review, Q u a r t e r l y , F o r t n i g h t l y , Blackwood's and the Contemporary provided o c c a s i o n a l reviews and lengthy c r i t i c a l essays and were s e l e c t i v e i n t h e i r c h o i ce of m a t e r i a l to be c o n s i d e r e d . The e a r l i e s t n o t i c e to appear i n any of the eight p e r i o d i c a l s preceded K i p l i n g ' s a r r i v a l i n London ( i n October, 1889). The Saturday Review commented f a v o r a b l y on two of the Indian books, I_n Black and White and Under the Deodars, on August 10, 1889. The reviewer prefaced h i s remarks with: "Mr. K i p l i n g i s a new w r i t e r . . . so c l e v e r , so f r e s h and so c y n i c a l t h at he must be young.!' 22 He was found to be l e a s t c y n i c a l i n h i s t a l e s of n a t i v e l i f e . There was a resemblance i n s t y l e to Bret Harte i n h i s " e l l i p t i c a l and a l l u s i v e manner," but h i s grammar was "much b e t t e r . " The young author was s a i d to d i s p l a y "wit, humour, o b s e r v a t i o n " and the a b i l i t y to t e l l a s t o r y . The p u b l i c would expect n o v e l s , although K i p l i n g might prove best at short s t o r i e s and sketches. The anonymous c r i t i c concluded: "A new and enjoy-able t a l e n t i s at work." 2 3 In 1890 the Athenaeum j o i n e d i n with a d e t a i l e d and h i g h l y complimentary review of Departmental D i t t i e s and S o l d i e r s Three. Here was "a new w r i t e r , with something new both to say and s i n g . " K i p l i n g was "a s a t i r i s t whose eye i s 2 4 keen but whose touch i s seldom other than k i n d l y . " "Mr. K i p l i n g ' s verse i s c l e v e r , " the review went on, "but i t i s as a p r o s e - w r i t e r , i n our judgment, that he w i l l make h i s 2 5 permanent r e p u t a t i o n . " He was "a born s t o r y - t e l l e r . " His s o l d i e r s were types but l i v i n g types: They p o s i t i v e l y p a l p i t a t e with a c t u a l i t y and we make 22 The Saturday Review, Aug. 10, 1889, p. 165. 23 I b i d 166. . , p. The Athenaeum, Apr. 26, 1890, p. 527. 25 I b i d . 29 bold to say there has never been anything l i k e them, i n l i t e r a t u r e before . . . . What p o s i t i o n Mr. K i p l i n g may u l t i m a t e l y a t t a i n to i t i s i m p o s s i b l e , upon h i s present performance, to p r e d i c t with any c e r t a i n t y ; yet i f he should prove capable of f i l l i n g a l a r g e r canvas than he has yet assayed, he might c o n c e i v a b l y become a second Dickens. He must now, however, show himself capable of t r e a t i n g more important themes than even "the amusing v a g a r i e s of Tommy Atki n s and the r i s k y s i t u a t i o n s of Simla s o c i e t y . " 2 7 A few months l a t e r the Athenaeum expressed the view that The Story of the Gadsbys was not as good as S o l d i e r s Three, although i t had humour and pathos. The "smoking-room 2 8 t a l k " l e f t "a d i s a g r e e a b l e impression." I_n Black and  White, however, had a very d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t and K i p l i n g might "unreservedly be c o n g r a t u l a t e d on the r e s u l t . " The reviewer p r a i s e d h i s " s i n g u l a r g i f t f o r v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n , " adding, " I t i s so pleasant to f i n d t h i n g s happening i n a book." 2 y He then p r e d i c t e d that i f K i p l i n g f a i l e d to become an Anglo-Indian Dickens, he would "at a l l events, occupy a high place i n the l i t e r a t u r e of our day." In December the The Athenaeum, Apr. 26, 1890, p. 528. 2 7 I b i d . . 2 8 I b i d . , J u l y 5, 1890, p. 32. 2 9 I b i d . , Sept. 13, 1890, p. 3H8. 3 0 I b i d . 30 Athenaeum d e a l t with h i s Wee W i l l i e Winkie and Under the  Deodars, having "no d e s i r e to s h i r k the task h i s v e r s a t i l e a c t i v i t y imposes on h i s c r i t i c s , " and found the former c o l l e c t i o n of t a l e s "admirably n a t u r a l and true to l i f e . " P l a y i n g t e n n i s with the Seventh Commandment, however, as i n the adventures of Mrs. Hawksbee, l e f t "a d i s a g r e e a b l e t a s t e i n the mouth." On the other hand "Only a S u b a l t e r n " O "I was "an e x c e l l e n t s t o r y . " In 1891 the Saturday Review j o i n e d the Athenaeum i n p r i n t i n g r e g u l a r n o t i c e s of K i p l i n g ' s c u r r e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s ; the monthly reviews, i n c l u d i n g the new Bookman examined h i s work f o r the f i r s t time; the Edinburgh Review was moved to provide a s u b s t a n t i a l c r i t i q u e . Only the Q u a r t e r l y continued to ignore h i s presence. A r t i c l e VI of the Edinburgh Review of J u l y , 1891, gave a lengthy a n a l y s i s of h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to contemporary l i t e r a t u r e . Like Wilde, the anonymous c r i t i c began by accounting f o r the young author's i n c r e d i b l e p o p u l a r i t y and e x p l a i n e d that i t was the r e s u l t of newness of s u b j e c t and s t y l e . Any w r i t e r who s t r i k e s upon a f r e s h v e i n of thought or treatment secures an eager welcome and achieves an immediate, o f t e n an exaggerated r e p u t a t i o n , . . . . The only necessary c o n d i t i o n i s that the thought or the treatment should be 3 1 T h e Athenaeum, Dec. 27, 1890, p. 887. 31 r e a d i l y understood by the people. Mr. Rudyard K i p l i n g o f f e r s t h i s p r e c i o u s g i f t of n o v e l t y and he presents i t i n a popular form, which i s e x a c t l y adapted to a marked f l u c t u a t i o n i n l i t e r a r y f a s h i o n . K i p l i n g gave h i s readers a new experience, i n t r o d u c i n g them to a new world, presented i n a manner that was " f r e s h , s t r o n g , r a p i d and v i v i d l y p i c t u r e s q u e . " N e v e r t h e l e s s , the c r i t i c s e r i o u s l y questioned the e x c e l l e n c e of the work. Was i t 3 3 "absolute or merely r e l a t i v e " ? Next he considered the moral and s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the content. A popular n o v e l i s t i s a power to be reckoned with . . . . The advent of a popular n o v e l i s t i s a matter of p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and n a t i o n a l concern. The novel i s one of the most powerful agencies i n mental, moral and s o c i a l education, and i t i s of the f i r s t importance that so great an instrument f o r good or e v i l should be administered by s e l f - r e s p e c t i n g hands . . . . Mr. K i p l i n g ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s p r o p o r t i o n e d to h i s power and i t i s to be r e g r e t t e d t h a t , so f a r , he has shown l i t t l e r e s p e c t f o r h i m s e l f or f o r h i s r e a d e r s . S t o r i e s which adopt a u n i f o r m l y low tone of moral f e e l i n g , or which t r e a t a d u l t e r y as the measles of married l i f e , are not c a l c u l a t e d to r a i s e the standard of s o c i e t y . Nor does i t answer the ends of m o r a l i t y to mete .out p o e t i c a l j u s t i c e i n the l a s t chapter or the c o n c l u d i n g s e n t e n c e . ^ This admonition was followed by a d i s c u r s i v e h i s t o r y of the novel and i t s i n f l u e n c e on s o c i a l mores. Three pages l a t e r the c r i t i c r e turned to K i p l i n g to commend h i s g i f t f o r o z T h e Edinburgh Review, J u l y 1891, p. 132. 3 3 I b i d . 3 4 I b i d . , p. 133. 32 s t o r y - t e l l i n g and at the same time to deprecate h i s moral l a x i t y . Mr. K i p l i n g . . . i s a born s t o r y - t e l l e r . . . . He adopts a method of p i c t o r i a l treatment, of which daring d i r e c t n e s s , sharpness of o u t l i n e and naked r e a l i t y , are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and which only e r r s i n the opposite d i -r e c t i o n to a p r u d i s h d e l i c a c y . His b o l d , dashing sketches of r e a l nature, with t h e i r masses of c o l o u r concentrated on e x a c t l y the r i g h t . s p o t , enable him to make o b j e c t s p i c t u r e s q u e which more f i n i s h e d work would r e v e a l i n t h e i r true ungainlir-ness and squalor . . . . The g i f t of t e l l i n g a short s t o r y which i s complete i n i t s e l f and does not seem to be a fragment of a l a r g e r whole, i s a r a r e one, and Mr. K i p l i n g possesses i t to a very remarkable degree of p e r f e c t i o n . 3 5 Here p r a i s e f o r h i s s k i l l and blame f o r h i s b a c k s l i d i n g were i m p a r t i a l l y d i v i d e d . But the passage that followed r e i t e r a t e d the charge of h i s l a c k of " e t h i c a l purpose". Art having been weighed a g a i n s t i m p r o p r i e t y and found wanting, the c r i t i c a r r i v e d at t h i s c o n c l u s i o n : "The p r a i s e bestowed upon Mr. K i p l i n g ' s work has been extravagant . . . . His work has been p r a i s e d to excess, p a r t l y because h i s t a l e n t s are i n d i s p u t a b l y g r e a t , p a r t l y and mainly because he caught the t i d e at the t u r n . " 3 6 At t h i s p o i n t the matter of K i p l i n g ' s s t y l e was brought up as another aspect of h i s w r i t i n g f o r which he was to be taken to t a s k . It was a l l " h i t or miss", marred by j e r k y 3 5 T h e Edinburgh Review, J u l y 1891,pp. 136-137. 3 5 I b i d . , p. 138. 33 sentence s t r u c t u r e and tiresome mannerisms. Besides h i s o b j e c t i o n a b l e turn of phrase, h i s a t t i t u d e toward h i s m a t e r i a l betrayed the j o u r n a l i s t , who could not help " t r e a t -ing s o c i e t y as . . . copy." The t a l e s were r e p u l s i v e because of t h e i r cheap s e n s a t i o n a l i s m and "the f r i v o l o u s , s o r d i d , v i c i o u s meanness of the l i f e t h a t they d e p i c t . " 3 7 As f o r the v e r s e , i t was nothing but "the parerga of a man whose s e r i o u s business of l i f e i s prose f i c t i o n . " 3 8 The "Anglo-Indian s c a n d a l s " had deeply offended the author of A r t i c l e VI. Yet he approved of the s o l d i e r t a l e s - "some of t h e ; s t r o n g e s t and f r e s h e s t work that has appeared f o r s e v e r a l years i n E n g l i s h f i c t i o n . " And with regard to h i s p i c t u r e s of Indian l i f e he b e l i e v e d that K i p l i n g had no equal. But another major f a u l t was h i s i n c l i n a t i o n to "hard and q q g r a t u i t o u s b r u t a l i t y . " 3 This unpleasant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , however, might be simply an a f f e c t a t i o n , the r e s u l t of a strong r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t " e x i s t i n g a r t i s t i c p r o ducts." The c r i t i c summed up h i s f i n d i n g s by s t a t i n g t h a t the work showed " i n some r e s p e c t s , e x t r a o r d i n a r y promise:," but t h a t the a c t u a l performance had been " e x t r a v a g a n t l y p r a i s e d . " His powers w i l l be comparatively wasted i f he does not abandon h i s mistaken m i s s i o n of c o n v i n c i n g the B r i t i s h p u b l i c that a l i t e r a l coarseness of treatment and a g r a t u i t o u s l y 3 7 T h e Edinburgh Review, J u l y 1891, p. 138. 3 8 l b i d . 3 9 I b i d . , p. 141. 34 rough touch are necessary to emancipate a r t from the l e a d i n g s t r i n g s of pedantry. This a r t i c l e , l o n g , r e p e t i t i v e and f u l l of d i g r e s s i o n s c l e a r l y belonged to the earnest, high-minded V i c t o r i a n i s m of the mid-century. It expressed an honest d i s t r u s t of what i t b e l i e v e d to be popular and d i s r e p u t a b l e t r e n d s , while g i v i n g due r e c o g n i t i o n to undeniable m e r i t . There was no h i n t that p o l i t i c s might have coloured the c r i t i c a l judgment. Tory enthusiasms prompted the paean of p r a i s e i n Blackwood's Magazine. Written i n the guise of a review of L i f e ' s Handicap, i t o f f e r e d nothing i n the way of c r i t i c i s m i n any l i t e r a r y sense. Again the f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n was K i p l i n g ' s amazing p o p u l a r i t y : We know of no recent success i n the world of l i t e r a t u r e which i s at a l l equal to that of the young man who came to us from India a few years ago with a name unknown, and i n that very short p e r i o d has made himself such a r e p u t a t i o n that e v e r y t h i n g he w r i t e s i s not only looked f o r with eagerness by r e a d e r s , but i s enough to make the temporary fortune of any newspaper or cheap p r i n t whic.h i s f o r t u n a t e enough to secure the blazon of that name. His popular triumph, Blackwood's a s s e r t e d , might be a t t r i b u t e d to l i v e l y i n t e r e s t i n I n d i a , i n the l i f e of Indian c i v i l i a n s and of p r i v a t e s o l d i e r s of the Indian army. Although i n "these r e v e l a t i o n s of a new world, pure gold of genius and 4 0 T h e Edinburgh Review, J u l y 1891, p. 151. ^Blackwood's Magazine, Nov. 1891, p. 728. 35 p o e t i c i n s i g h t " there was an a l l o y of " d i s t a s t e f u l v i s i o n s of something odious," no moral d e n u n c i a t i o n was f e l t to be necessary but i n s t e a d a l y r i c a l passage of pa n e g y r i c . It i s f a r from the best of a l l p o s s i b l e worlds which he r e v e a l s to us; but i t i s something b e t t e r . It i s a world i n which every c r u e l i l l i s confronted by that s t r u g g l i n g humanity which i s c o n t i n u a l l y overborne, yet always v i c t o r i o u s -v i c t o r i o u s i n d e f e a t , i n d o w n f a l l , and i n death: the s p i r i t of man made, even when he knows i t not, i n the image of God. K i p l i n g was di s c o v e r e d to have the highest moral purpose i n w r i t i n g of "the t e r r i b l e and s p l e n d i d warfare of e v e r l a s t i n g 14 3 good a g a i n s t overwhelming yet temporary e v i l . " The reason f o r t h i s p e r f e r v i d prose was soon made c l e a r : Perhaps the hig h e s t r e s u l t of Mr. Rudyard K i p l i n g ' s work i s to r o l l away f o r us the v e i l which covers that v a s t , teeming world, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of which, f o r good or e v i l , before God, the B r i t i s h n a t i o n has taken upon i t s s h o u l d e r s , - I n d i a , i n so many of i t s d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n s and phases, and what i s going on w i t h i n i t . 4 At t h i s p o i n t the a r t i c l e ceased to be a review and the w r i t e r took advantage of K i p l i n g ' s a s s o c i a t i o n with India to preach the g l o r y of s e l f - s a c r i f i c e and devotion to duty i n the s e r v i c e of Empire. He then re t u r n e d to " t h i s wonderful y o u t h " 4 5 f o r another two pages of eulogy, i n the course of which he gave Lord S a l i s b u r y ' s m i n i s t r y a remarkable piece of a d v i c e : 4 2 Blackwood's Magazine, Nov. 1891, p. 729. H 3 I b i d . ^ I b i d . , p. 730. 4 5 I b i d . , p. 733. 36 If her Majesty's M i n i s t e r s w i l l be guided by us . . . they w i l l bestow a Star of India without more ado upon t h i s young man of genius, who has shown us a l l what the India empire means. He added s i g n i f i c a n t l y of "the young magician upon whose l i p s U 7 we hang" that "no p a t r i o t l e a d e r could do a b e t t e r work."^ The t r i b u t e ended b r i e f l y with a c o n f e s s i o n - "We dwell upon none of the l i t e r a r y q u a l i t i e s of the a c h i e v e -4 8 ment." - and an e x p r e s s i o n of t h a n k f u l n e s s that K i p l i n g ' s readers were capable of r e c o g n i z i n g true greatness: He has proved that the p u b l i c , though apt to be b e g u i l e d by Mr. Jerome K. Jerome and "The Mystery of the Hansom Cab," has yet sense enough to r e c o g n i z e something b e t t e r when i t sees i t - f o r which we are much beholden to him: i t r e s t o r e s our f a i t h i n human n a t u r e . ^ 9 Blackwood's l i b e r a l - r a d i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t , the F o r t n i g h t l y Review appeared to be e q u a l l y l a c k i n g i n d i s -p assionate judgment. In the November i s s u e F r a n c i s Adams, an able and i n c i s i v e c r i t i c , reviewed L i f e ' s Handicap. He i n t r o d u c e d h i s s u b j e c t generously enough by d e c l a r i n g that K i p l i n g was "not merely a w r i t e r of f i c t i o n but an a r t i s t , " and that h i s scenes from Anglo-Indian l i f e were n e i t h e r v u l g a r nor immoral but "drawingroom comedy of a high o r d e r . " ^ u g Blackwood's Magazine, Nov. 1891, p. 734. I b i d . * 8 I b i d . 4 9 I b i d . 5 0 The F o r t n i g h t l y Review, Nov. 1891, p. 697. 37 On the other hand, Adams found the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n poor and complained that " a l l speakers are K i p l i n g . " Worse s t i l l the author was o b v i o u s l y a spokesman f o r "the s i g h t l e s s t r a d i t i o n of the o l d , hide-bound, j i n g o i s t i c Anglo-Saxon" who was incapable of seeing "the miserable a l i e n ' s p o i n t of view."5"'' Such t a l e s as "Namgay Doola" were d e s c r i b e d as " v i l e and d e t e s t a b l e " ; "The I n c a r n a t i o n of Krishna MulvaneyV could be c a l l e d nothing but " r u b b i s h . " "The Story of Muhammed Din," however, deserved high p r a i s e . According to Adams, K i p l i n g had no s t y l e , f o r h i s mode of e x p r e s s i o n was simply j o u r n a l i s m . No one can c l a i m f o r Mr. K i p l i n g the po s s e s s i o n of a r e a l prose s t y l e , o r , indeed, of anything approaching to i t . . . . Such s t y l e qua s t y l e as he has i s mere ephemeral and j o u r n a l i s t i c smartness. But undoubtedly he had a way with words i n phrase and s i m i l e . "His v e r b a l magic of t h i s s o r t " was d e s c r i b e d as that "of the poet." Most u n f o r t u n a t e l y he d i d not owe h i s great p o p u l a r i t y to h i s r e a l t a l e n t . Must a man ever owe t h r e e - f o u r t h s of h i s temporary success to h i s d e f e c t s and l i m i t a t i o n s ? Smartness and s u p e r f i c i a l i t y , j i n g o i s m and ag g r e s s i v e cocksureness, rococo f i c t i o n a l types and over-loaded pseudo-prose, how much too much have these helped to make the name of our young Anglo-Indian s t o r y - t e l l e r f a m i l i a r to the readers of the E n g l i s h -speaking race a l l over the e a r t h . 5 3 5 1 T h e F o r t n i g h t l y Review, Nov. 1891, p. 697. 5 2 I b i d . , pp. 697-698. I b i d . , p. 699. 38 Here the c r i t i c suggested t h a t , s i n c e the "ascending f o r c e " of K i p l i n g ' s work was very s l i g h t , he would soon l o s e ground. "His vogue may pass - i t seems to be passing somewhat a l r e a d y . " ^ His work was "on a small s c a l e ; h i s f a u l t s , r e a l 5 5 and grave." In the Contemporary Review, the H e n l e y i t e James B a r r i e , a hard-working j o u r n a l i s t about to p u b l i s h h i s f i r s t n o v e l , c o n g r a t u l a t e d K i p l i n g ' s readers on t h e i r good judgment. K i p l i n g had "given the r e a d i n g p u b l i c a r i g h t not to f e e l ashamed of i t s e l f on second thoughts, which i s a p r i v i l e g e i t seldom enjoys." He deserved h i s p o p u l a r i t y . B a r r i e supported t h i s o p i n i o n by c i t i n g Mark Twain, an admirer of K i p l i n g ' s s t y l e , who d e c l a r e d that i t was "the p e r f e c t i o n of what i s 5 6 c a l l e d j o u r n a l e s e . " Having thus hinted an apology f o r the manner, he s t r e s s e d the o r i g i n a l i t y of the matter. K i p l i n g owed "nothing to any other w r i t e r , " although he most c l o s e l y resembled Bret Harte. Admittedly he could not d e p i c t women, but, B a r r i e maintained, he r e v e a l e d i n The L i g h t that F a i l e d "the great g i f t of c h a r a c t e r drawing by means of 5 7 d i a l o g u e . " 5 4 The F o r t n i g h t l y Review, Nov. 1891, p. 700. I b i d . 5 6 "Mr. K i p l i n g ' s S t o r i e s , " The Contemporary Review March 1891, p. 366. 5 7 I b i d . , p. 371. 39 The a r t i c l e continued with some comments on h i s s h o r t -comings: "His c h i e f d e f e c t i s ignorance of l i f e . . . . At present he i s a r a r e workman with a contempt f o r the best m a t e r i a l s . " There was every hope t h a t he would c o r r e c t such weaknesses, s i n c e he possessed " l a t e n t c a p a b i l i t i e s " that 5 8 would show him "by-and-by grown out of knowledge." Compar-ing the new f a v o u r i t e with major w r i t e r s of the day, B a r r i e s t a t e d : Mr. Meredith and Mr. Hardy s p e l l the g r e a t e s t ideas b e s t . Doubtless Mr. Stevenson i s c o r r e c t more o f t e n than any of h i s contemporaries, c e r t a i n l y a dozen times to Mr. K i p l i n g ' s once; but on the other hand, i t should be s a i d that the younger w r i t e r t r i e s to s p e l l the bigger i d e a s . This a p p r e c i a t i o n was at once temperate, reasonable and s u f f i c i e n t l y generous, acknowledging K i p l i n g ' s great promise, h i s present worth and h i s obvious d e f e c t s . The Athenaeum p r i n t e d a long review of The L i g h t that F a i l e d on the f i r s t page of i t s A p r i l 18 i s s u e . The reviewer mentioned the f a c t t h at the novel had been s e r i a l i z e d - a p r a c t i c e to be deplored - i n L i p p i n c o t t ' s Magazine, and "judging from the s w i f t l y succeeding i s s u e s that contained i t , must have proved even a more paying s p e c u l a t i o n f o r the p r o p r i e t o r s than Mr. Oscar Wilde's much debated 'Dorian Gray.'" Aside from h i s d i s l i k e of the a l t e r n a t i v e happy 5 8 The Contemporary Review, March 1891, p. 371. 5 9 I b i d . , p. 366. 40 ending, the c r i t i c had nothing but p r a i s e to bestow on K i p l i n g f o r h i s f i r s t n o v e l . If he had w r i t t e n only h i s short s t o r i e s , he would have had the s a t i s f a c t i o n of knowing that he had permanently en-r i c h e d our l i t e r a t u r e ; but we were the f i r s t of those who b e l i e v e d t h at i t was i n him to produce more imposing, i f not more enduring work. "The L i g h t that F a i l e d " i s an o r g a n i c whole - a book with a backbone - and stands out b o l d l y among the n e r v e l e s s , f l a c c i d , i n v e r t e b r a t e t h i n g s c a l l e d novels that enjoy an expensive but ephemeral e x i s t e n c e i n the c i r c u l a t i n g l i b r a r i e s . 6 ^ The c h a r a c t e r s were s a i d to be " a l l i n s t i n c t with v i t a l i t y , " presented with "strong c o n t r a s t s and v i v i d word-painting." The author was to be f o r g i v e n any l i t t l e touch of b r u t a l i t y or " a p t i t u d e to trample on the p u b l i c " because he had 6 2 "enlarged the sum t o t a l of our experience." The Athenaeum saw L i f e ' s Handicap as having "more g r a i n and l e s s c h a f f " than P l a i n T a l e s from the H i l l s . The best s t o r i e s were "The C o u r t i n g of Dinah Shadd,1! "Head of the D i s t r i c t , " "The Man Who Was," "On Greenhow H i l l " and "Without B e n e f i t of C l e r g y . " These were d e s c r i b e d as being of " e x t r a o r d i n a r y e x c e l l e n c e " and "true to l i f e i n the s m a l l e s t p a r t i c u l a r , . . . aglow with an i m a g i n a t i o n which lends d i s t i n c t i o n to the most commonplace sayings and doings." Had K i p l i n g w r i t t e n nothing e l s e , "they would have gained 6 0 T h e Athenaeum, A p r i l 18, 1891, p. 497. 6 1 I b i d . 6 2 I b i d . , p. 498. 1+1 him a r e p u t a t i o n as a b r i l l i a n t and o r i g i n a l w r i t e r . " Of the remaining t a l e s i n the c o l l e c t i o n , "The Mark of the Beast" was " f a s c i n a t i n g " but passed "the bounds of decorum." The s a t i r e s on the I r i s h - "The Mutiny of the Mavericks" and "Namgay Doola" - were pure comedy. The Saturday Review, i n an a r t i c l e on The L i g h t t h at F a i l e d , found K i p l i n g at h i s best i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of war. As long as he i s out of reach of c i v i l i z a t i o n (and more e s p e c i a l l y of women), and i s d e a l i n g with human nature i n i t s naked form or with the r e l i c s of bygone ages, Mr. K i p l i n g i s wonderfully true and i n v a r i a b l y interesting.°S Despite f i n e d e s c r i p t i v e passages and other undeniable m e r i t s , the novel could not be c a l l e d a success. The book has undoubtedly good touches of c h a r a c t e r , e x c e l l e n t b i t s of d e s c r i p t i o n , deep knowledge of a c e r t a i n kind of l i f e . But i t a l s o has a l a c k of cohesion, a want of p o i n t , and a c e r t a i n tone of r e c k l e s s exaggeration . . . . It i s r a r e , indeed, that a man whose t a l e n t c o n s i s t s i n engraving a gem can produce with equal p e r f e c t i o n a c o l o s s a l s t a t u e , and w r i t e r s of short s t o r i e s seldom give us good novels . L i f e ' s Handicap was w e l l r e c e i v e d , two of the s t o r i e s being s i n g l e d out f o r s p e c i a l p r a i s e : "At the End of the Passage" and "The Mark of the Beast" are each of them f a r more de s e r v i n g of separate and c a r e f u l reviewing than t h r e e - q u a r t e r s or n i n e - t e n t h s of the t h r e e -volume novels that are p u b l i s h e d . 6 7 6 3 T h e Athenaeum, Aug. 29, 1891, p. 279. 6 4 I b i d . 6 5 T h e Saturday Review, Apr. 4, 1891, p. 417. 6 6 I b i d . , p. 418. 6 7 I b i d . , Sept. 12, 1891, p. 304. 42 The best work was contained i n the f i r s t h a l f of the book; t r i c k s and mannerisms were evident i n the weaker t a l e s . The reviewer noted p l e n t y of power and l e s s humour, and a r e l i a n c e f o r e f f e c t "on the h o r r i b l e , . . . the h o r r i b l e which i s a l s o the u g l y . " There was a l s o apparent "a sombre C Q f a t a l i s m " i n the treatment of the themes. The f i r s t copy of the Bookman provided i n i t s "News Notes" some i n f o r m a t i o n of a p r a c t i c a l s o r t with regard to K i p l i n g ' s p u b l i c image. Mr. K i p l i n g ' s p o p u l a r i t y i s growing. " L i f e ' s Handicap" has f a r exceeded i n s a l e any previous s i x - s h i l l i n g by the author, two l a r g e e d i t i o n s having been c a l l e d f o r i n l e s s than three weeks . . . . E d i t i o n s at 3 s 6 d s e l l r e a d i l y . 6 9 An a r t i c l e on K i p l i n g ' s work as a whole f o l l o w e d , making p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to L i f e ' s Handicap. The reader was assured that "nothing he may yet do i s l i k e l y to a l t e r , to enhance or impair the rank he has already taken as an Observer and Recorder of what he has seen of Nature and Man." His fame was s e c u r e l y e s t a b l i s h e d . It was pointed out that he was "not r e a l l y an I m p r e s s i o n i s t but a S e l e c t o r " who added 7 0 "magic touches" and made the p i c t u r e l i v e . The Bookman 1s only h i n t of adverse c r i t i c i s m had to do with the n a r r a t i v e s t y l e which might " l a c k symmetry and t a s t e " 6 8 T h e Saturday Review, Sept. 12, 1891, p. 304. 6 9 T h e Bookman, Oct. 1891, p. 3. 7 0 I b i d . , p. 28. 43 but which contained phrases of " n a t i v e f o r c e and beauty." K i p l i n g had "a s t y l e of p r e s e n t a t i o n wholly p e r s o n a l and i n d i -7 1 v i d u a l . " It was suggested that t h i s q u a l i t y might owe some-t h i n g to j o u r n a l i s m but omitted to say that such a debt might be i n v i d i o u s . These a r t i c l e s , intended f o r the guidance of d i s -c r i m i n a t i n g r e a d e r s , d i f f e r e d widely i n t t o n e and purpose. But the c r i t i c s j u d i c i o u s , admiring, e x u l t a n t , d i s a p p r o v i n g , or d i s p a r a g i n g - a l l admitted K i p l i n g ' s powers - r e a d i l y or r e l u c t a n t l y . Not one d i s p u t e d the f a c t of h i s e s s e n t i a l genius. They a l l expected t h e i r r a t h e r l i m i t e d p u b l i c to f i n d the new author of c o n s i d e r a b l e , even absorbing i n t e r e s t but were d i v i d e d on the question of h i s worth. When they o f f e r e d t h e i r advice to K i p l i n g and h i s r e a d e r s , t h e i r commendation and censure were as di v e r g e n t as the most com-p l e t e l y d i s s i m i l a r of cur r e n t a t t i t u d e s r e g a r d i n g manners, morals, r e l i g i o n and s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y among the s u p e r i o r c l a s s e s . The c r i t i c s were d i s t u r b e d by K i p l i n g ' s e x c e s s i v e p o p u l a r i t y , u n w i l l i n g to allow merit to a w r i t e r so widely and immoderately p r a i s e d . What was unduly popular might w e l l be v u l g a r . The good o p i n i o n of the mob was an obvious d i s -advantage to the s e r i o u s a r t i s t . This d i f f i c u l t y posed by 7 1 T h e Bookman, Oct. 1891, p. 29. 44 u n i v e r s a l appeal had been r e s o l v e d i n two ways; some o f f e r e d the p u b l i c t h e i r c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s f o r knowing a good t h i n g when they saw i t , while o t h e r s , s t r o n g l y t r a d i t i o n a l , r e -mained s u s p i c i o u s , contemptuous or r e s e n t f u l of such p o p u l a r i t y and attempted to e x p l a i n i t away. To the l a t t e r i t r e s u l t e d from nothing more than the groundling's d e s i r e f o r n o v e l t y and excitement or i t stemmed from a change i n t a s t e , from a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the c u l t of decadence, from a trend toward r e a l i s m . Obviously K i p l i n g knew what would take with the unenlightened. He represented another tempo-r a r y f a d . A l l agreed that he was a g i f t e d s t o r y - t e l l e r . The m a j o r i t y were convinced t h a t h i s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n was weak, that h i s men and e s p e c i a l l y h i s women were no b e t t e r than types and puppets. Regarding h i s s t y l e , some c r i t i c s would not allow him to have any - at i t s best i t was m a g n i f i c e n t j o u r n a l e s e ; at i t s worst, mere j o u r n a l e s e . But then he had a way with words and f i g u r a t i v e language and h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s were works of a r t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y he had, i n the eyes of some, debased h i s a r t . He had taken l i t e r a t u r e i n t o the mean suburbs of v u l g a r i t y . The s t i c k l e r s i n s i s t e d t h at h i s low moral tone represented a t h r e a t to s o c i e t y , at the same time as the pro-K i p l i n g e n t h u s i a s t had him f i g h t i n g the good f i g h t of "ever-l a s t i n g good a g a i n s t temporary e v i l . " There were those f o r whom h i s b r u t a l i t y and coarseness, h i s r e a l i s m and d e l i g h t i n war, cut him o f f from c i v i l i z e d human beings. In a number of i n s t a n c e s , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l over-tones could be detected i n the reviews. The great power of a popular w r i t e r was suspect. K i p l i n g might be a boon to the new T o r i e s but he represented a t h r e a t to L i b e r a l p r i n c i p l e s . He was to be judged dur i n g h i s l i f e t i m e and a f t e r h i s death by c r i t i c a l assessments made i n the e a r l y N i n e t i e s . These were as much at v a r i a n c e as the c r o s s c u r r e n t s of informed t h i n k i n g that produced them. Yet a r e c o g n i z a b l e p a t t e r n of c r i t i c i s m had been e s t a b l i s h e d during the f i r s t phase of h i s career and would p e r s i s t , a l t e r i n g only i n degree and i n emphasis. 46 CHAPTER I I I Mr. K i p l i n g i s the C e c i l Rhodes of L i t e r a t u r e . A_ K i p l i n g Primer K i p l i n g ' s long and impressive t r i u m p h a l progress was as remarkable as h i s i n s t a n t good f o r t u n e . The thronging host of r e a d e r s , E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g and European, were not to be d i s a p p o i n t e d i n h i s s t a y i n g power. And d e s p i t e prophecies of o b l i v i o n - such as F r a n c i s Adam's suggestion i n 1891 that the unfortunate vogue might a l r e a d y be passing - h i s p o p u l a r i t y and i n f l u e n c e continued to grow and to be confirmed and en-hanced by each new volume. In 1898 the Edinburgh Review s t a t e d only h a l f i r o n i c a l l y t h a t he had at that time "the best chance of a l l men l i v i n g of u l t i m a t e l y becoming a Solar Myth." 1 The many months spent i n t r a v e l and four years r e s i d e n c e i n Vermont d i d not i n any way remove him from the f o r e f r o n t of the l i t e r a r y scene. Having g r e a t l y augmented h i s p r e s t i g e with a steady, workmanlike output of t a l e s and v e r s e , e n t e r -t a i n i n g , o r i g i n a l , v a r i e d , and a p p a r e n t l y durable, he retu r n e d to England i n 1896, where h i s work was everywhere acclaimed and h i s r e p u t a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d . The f o l l o w i n g year, before he had reached the age of t h i r t y - t w o , he was e l e c t e d to the 1The Edinburgh Review, Jan. 1898, p. .228. 47 Athenaeum and became the c l u b ' s youngest member, numbered among " a r t i s t s of eminence" and d i s t i n g u i s h e d patrons of s c i e n c e , l i t e r a t u r e and the a r t s , not to mention cabi n e t m i n i s t e r s , bishops, and judges. He him s e l f d e s c r i b e d t h i s event as "a g r e a t , but f r i g h t e n i n g honour." It c o n s t i t u t e d a formal r e c o g n i t i o n of h i s l i t e r a r y achievement and had a l l the s i g n i f i c a n c e of an a c c o l a d e . It was the year of the J u b i l e e and of " R e c e s s i o n a l " . K i p l i n g , the nation's u n o f f i c i a l l a u r e a t e (he had d e c l i n e d the l a u r e a t e s h i p i n 1895), r e c e i v e d t r i b u t e s of p r a i s e f o r h i s treatment of themes of n a t i o n a l and i m p e r i a l importance. Among h i s f r i e n d s were such e m p i r e - b u i l d e r s as Lord M i l n e r , C e c i l Rhodes, Moberly B e l l of the Times, and Joseph Chamberlain. He dined with c o l o n i a l premiers. He v i s i t e d the Channel F l e e t and returned to hymn sea-power. He sent a copy of "The White Man's Burden" to Theodore Roosevelt. In 1899, l i k e the m i n s t r e l i n "The Last Rhyme of True Thomas," he r e f u s e d a knighthood. His s e r i o u s i l l n e s s was l i n k e d i n newspaper he a d l i n e s with that of the Pope. The Kaiser i n q u i r e d a f t e r h i s h e a l t h . P u b l i c prayers were o f f e r e d f o r h i s r e c o v e r y . These consequences of h i s world-wide fame were noted i n the Review of Reviews: The i n c i d e n t s of Mr. K i p l i n g ' s i l l n e s s are of c e r t a i n and l e g i t i m a t e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t because of the r e v e l a t i o n they gave of the place h i s s t o r i e s and poems have a l r e a d y won i n the hearts of the Anglo-Saxon people . . . . This 48 2 u n i v e r s a l a p p r e c i a t i o n of genius i s something q u i t e new. That h i s genius was a l s o being r e c o g n i z e d i n a p r a c t i c a l way was i n d i c a t e d i n the same p e r i o d i c a l . The new " S t a l k y " s t o r i e s were s a i d to be appearing "at somewhere near a d o l l a r per word." In h i s own b r i e f memoirs, he had l i t t l e to say about h i s " n o t o r i e t y " , beyond the r e f e r e n c e to the " f a n t a s t i c c a r d s " of Fate. Of h i s eminence as a p u b l i c f i g u r e he wrote only i n d i r e c t l y , now and then o f f e r i n g an aside such as: "During the South A f r i c a n War my p o s i t i o n among the rank and f i l e (at the Cape) came to be u n o f f i c i a l l y above that of most 14 Generals." To h i s devotees h i s words were the i n s p i r e d u t t e r a n c e of a n a t i o n a l o r a c l e . As one of h i s enemies expressed i t : "The smart young Anglo-Indian s t o r y - t e l l e r i s now a prophet. His fame i s a c h u r c h . " 5 Very e a r l y i n h i s c a r e e r , success had caused him to r e f l e c t on the nature of h i s m i s s i o n : " I t seemed easy enough to knock 'em but to what end beyond the heat of the e x e r c i s e ? 9 " K i p l i n g i n America," The Review of Reviews, A p r i l 1899 p. 420. 3 I b i d . , p. 421. ^Something of Myself, p. 150. 5 R i c h a r d Le G a l l i e n n e , Rudyard K i p l i n g : A C r i t i c i s m (London: John Lane, The Bodley Head"^ 1900 ), p. 1. Something of Myself, p. 89. 49 It was then that what S.R. C r o c k e t t termed "the preaching s t r a i n i n the background of h i s s o u l " 7 came to the f o r e , a p r o p e n s i t y viewed by the c r i t i c s with i n t e r e s t and growing i r r i t a t i o n . "Mr. K i p l i n g cannot r e s i s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s of p o l i t i c a l a l l u s i o n . His love of p l a y i n g the schoolmaster grows on him." A stubborn d i d a c t i c impulse, i n h e r i t e d Wesleyan z e a l , and u n l i m i t e d enthusiasm combined with a f o r c e f u l s t y l e and a ready-made audience encouraged him to set f o r t h some very strong n o t i o n s of h i s own i n the form of p a r a b l e s , f a b l e s , a l l e g o r i e s and t r a c t s . He began to t u r n s e r i o u s lessons i n t o l i t e r a t u r e . At f i r s t h i s design was simply to " t e l l the E n g l i s h something about the world beyond England," but, as he e x p l a i n e d many years l a t e r : "My o r i g i n a l n o t i o n grew i n t o a v a s t , vague conspectus . . . of the whole sweep and meaning of t h i n g s and e f f o r t s and o r i g i n s throughout the Empire." 9 His i m p e r i a l i s m , i m a g i n a t i v e l y conceived, was never-t h e l e s s fundamentally r e a l i s t i c . He had t r a v e l l e d the world over, v i s i t i n g the d i v e r s e lands that made up the Empire, and f e l t the need f o r c l o s e and coherent r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n i t s framework. He expressed s u b t l e and complex views concerning 7The Bookman, Feb. 1895, p. 140. 8The Bookman, J u l y 1894, p. 116. 9Something of Myself, pp. 90-91. 50 i m p e r i a l g o a l s , i d e a l s of government, and concepts of law. Compelled by h i s nature to preach, he expounded a way of l i f e and d e s c r i b e d the necessary s t o i c v i r t u e s by which to l i v e . I n e v i t a b l y h i s b e l i e f s l e d him to i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f with the Imperial wing of the Union P a r t y , then i n the ascendant. Sharing Henley's "organic l o a t h i n g of Mr. Gladstone and a l l L i b e r a l i s m , " he stood f o r the e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e r , l o y a l t y to t r a d i t i o n and to proved i n s t i t u t i o n s and laws. In other words, he was a thorough-going Conservative at a time when most i n t e l l e c t u a l s were exuberantly L i b e r a l and even S o c i a l i s t i n t h e i r sympathies. Rebecca West has remarked that " K i p l i n g looked odd i n h i s time i n h i s acceptance of Church and S t a t e , " and that although "most of the E n g l i s h people were of h i s way of t h i n k i n g i n t h i s matter . . . the r e s t of contemporary l i t e r a t u r e was p r o c l a i m i n g that these i n s t i t u t i o n s were now held i n contempt by a l l save a few f i n a n c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d reactionaries.""'"^ From the f i r s t he made no attempt to conceal h i s d i s -t r u s t of and contempt f o r l e f t - w i n g t h e o r i s t s i n p o l i t i c s and i n the a r t s . He denounced the p r o j e c t o r s of Utopias and a l l t h e i r works, the f a s h i o n a b l e trends i n i d e a s , and the r e f i n e -ments of a e s t h e t i c ism. He d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f a staunch P h i l i s t i n e . In "A Song of the E n g l i s h " he warned h i s readers ^ T h e Court and the C a s t l e (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y P ress, 1957), p. 209. 51 ag a i n s t "whoring . . . with v i s i o n s . " In"Tomlinson" he wrote what one c r i t i c d e s c r i b e d as "an earnest sermon on the emptiness of culture.""'" 1 He d i d not speak w e l l of i n t e l -l e c t u a l s , comparing them with the Bandar-log of the j u n g l e , whose behaviour was f o o l i s h , l a w l e s s , and dangerous. This r e v e l a t i o n of u l t r a - c o n s e r v a t i s m i n a popular i d o l must have d e l i g h t e d the Union P a r t y . It came at a most f o r t u n a t e time f o r the promoters of Empire, when t h e i r "windy pass i o n f o r annexation swelled up . . . from the conquest of 12 Matabeleland to the South A f r i c a n War." A r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the L i b e r a l s had set i n because of t h e i r inept f o r e i g n p o l i c y . Weakened by the s p l i t over Home Rule f o r I r e l a n d , they were overwhelmingly defeated i n 1895 and a powerful c o a l i t i o n of Cons e r v a t i v e s and L i b e r a l U n i o n i s t s , headed by Lord S a l i s b u r y , formed the most e f f e c t i v e Tory government i n many y e a r s . Brought i n t o the cab i n e t as C o l o n i a l Secretary was Joseph Chamberlain, the Birmingham " r a d i c a l " and I m p e r i a l i s t , whose slogan "Think I m p e r i a l l y " became the party watchword. In an i n t e r v a l of peace and booming t r a d e , the new m i n i s t e r i n s t i t u t e d h i s i m p e r i a l i s t p o l i c i e s , romantic i n s p i r i t but p r a c t i c a b l e and a t t r a c t i v e to the e l e c t o r a t e . He had the 1 1G.A. Simcox, "Barrack Room B a l l a d s , " The Bookman, June 1892, p. 90. 1 2 S i r Robert Ensor, England: 1870 - 1914 (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1963), p. 332. 52 support of three e n t h u s i a s t i c aides - Donald Smith, the Canadian High Commissioner, C e c i l Rhodes of Cape Colony and Rudyard K i p l i n g . H a i l e d as "the C e c i l Rhodes of l i t e r a t u r e , " K i p l i n g undertook to i n t e r p r e t the Empire to the people and to prepare them f o r t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Imperial t h i n k i n g prompted most of h i s t o p i c a l verse p u b l i s h e d i n the Times, o c c a s i o n a l p i e c e s l i k e "Our Lady of the Snows," and "Hymn Before A c t i o n " with i t s r e f e r e n c e to the Jameson Raid. He a l s o wrote many t a l e s and a r t i c l e s , c oloured by h i s c o n v i c t i o n s and having a c e r t a i n propaganda v a l u e . By 1900 he was working very c l o s e l y with Chamberlain and had become i n v o l v e d to some extent i n l o c a l as w e l l as n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s . Yet even when he served the government with h i s pen, he remained a f r e e agent. He r e f u s e d to accept any of the us u a l rewards f o r h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y s e r v i c e s , he supported Conserva-t i v e p o l i c i e s only on h i s own terms and followed them only as they c o i n c i d e d with h i s own o p i n i o n s . He went his. own way, which i n l a t e r years was not always that of h i s p a r t y , and there were occasions when h i s approach to n a t i o n a l i s s u e s f a i l e d to p l e a s e . The p e r i o d of mutual disenchantment, dur-ing and immediately a f t e r the South A f r i c a n War, saw strong Tory d i s a p p r o v a l of h i s cu r r e n t v e r s e , which i n c l u d e d such de n u n c i a t i o n s of smugness, i n e f f i c i e n c y and p o l i t i c a l bungl-ing i n the War O f f i c e as "The House of Rimmon." The Con-s e r v a t i v e Laureate wrote as he pleased and, although "hated 53 by the m i d d l e - c l a s s l e f t , was not understood by the Blimps." Under the circumstances, i t was i n e v i t a b l e that p o l i t i c s should q u a l i f y the c r i t i c i s m of t h i s p e r i o d . No one could ignore h i s bent or mistake h i s message. Few reviewers with p o l i t i c a l commitments co u l d a v o i d b i a s i n r e p o r t i n g on h i s work. He had made h i m s e l f a q u a s i - o f f i c i a l spokesman f o r the C o l o n i a l O f f i c e and was thus f u l l y i d e n t i f i e d with Imperialism. Everyone now knew e x a c t l y what to expect of him. With each new p u b l i c a t i o n he f u l f i l l e d the hopes of the ma-j o r i t y and r e i n f o r c e d the m i s g i v i n g s of a s i g n i f i c a n t m i n o r i t y . The c r i t i c s responded v o l u b l y a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r a f f i l i a t i o n s , and rushed i n t o p r i n t with an endless s e r i e s of reviews, essays and f u l l - l e n g t h books. Valuable space was r e s e r v e d f o r a r t i c l e s on K i p l i n g both i n the popular press and i n the j o u r n a l s of the i n t e l l i g e n s i a . Sometimes two and even three sets of c r i t i c a l comments would appear i n a s i n g l e copy of a 14 given p e r i o d i c a l . But l i t t l e of a l l that was w r i t t e n could be d e s c r i b e d as o b j e c t i v e or i m p a r t i a l . Favourable c r i t i c i s m continued to be e n t h u s i a s t i c and g e n e r a l l y u n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g . Hyperbole was a commonplace. In comparison with other w r i t e r s , wrote one of h i s admirers, 13 George O r w e l l , C r i t i c a l Essays (London: Seeker, 1946), p. 70. 14 The American Bookman f o r December, 1898, contained two separate essays, " K i p l i n g ' s Men" and "Mr. K i p l i n g at the Crossroads," as w e l l as an e d i t o r i a l e v a l u a t i o n . 15 K i p l i n g "shines as a god to a pigmy." He was "the one w r i t e r of E n g l i s h . . . proof a g a i n s t c r i t i c i s m . " Of those moved to l y r i c a l modes of a p p r e c i a t i o n , none was more eloquent than Andre C h e v r i l l o n i n La_ Revue de P a r i s when he de s c r i b e d the young author "qui a s e d u i t et m a i t r i s e l e p u b l i c a n g l a i s . " I c i nous sommes en p l e i n e poesie - poesie f r e m i s s a n t e , dont l e s rhythmes h a r d i s battent comme des p u l s a t i o n s v i v a n t e s avec chaque a f f l u x de d e s i r et de v o u l o i r . . . . C'est une p o e s i e . C'est l a plus profonde et l a plus p h i l o s o p h i q u e des p o e s i e s . 1 7 As f o r the poet, a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f i g u r e among h i s people, "on s'etonne quand on constate l a f e r v e u r , l a r i c h e s s e , l'audace et l e mysticisme e x a l t e de son r e v e . " 1 8 Some of the t r i b u t e s r e c a l l "The Wrong Thing," K i p l i n g ' s i r o n i c t a l e of a Renaissance craftsman, to whom " a l l a r t was one a r t , " who was rewarded by the k i n g , not f o r h i s a r t i s t r y but f o r having saved the s t a t e money. I t was o f t e n the wrong t h i n g that charmed the reviewers -e s p e c i a l l y among those who set a higher value on h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s as a propagandist than on h i s l i t e r a r y m e r i t . An u n i d e n t i f i e d Tory e n t h u s i a s t w r i t i n g i n Blackwood's g l o a t e d over the d i s c o m f i t u r e of the Op p o s i t i o n at the hands 15 W i l l M. Clemens, A Ken of K i p l i n g (New York: New Amsterdam Book Co., 1899), p. 51. 1 6 " R u d y a r d K i p l i n g , " La Revue de P a r i s , M a r s - A v r i l 1899, p. 63. 1 7 I b i d . , p. 54. 1 8 I b i d . , p. 62. 55 of the t r u e - b l u e champion and expressed h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n a s t y l e worthy of E a t a n s w i l l : The shameless l i e s , by which the f r i e n d s of d i s a f f e c t i o n and devotees of s o - c a l l e d p h i l a n t h r o p y have never s c r u p l e d to f o r t i f y t h e i r cause, crumble to atoms at the touch of the a r t i s t . 1 9 L i b e r a l c r i t i c s , whose p r o f e s s i o n a l t a l e n t s were employed i n c o u n t e r i n g h i s p e r s u a s i v e r h e t o r i c , were s u i t a b l y 2 0 abusive. Some of them had suspected him from the f i r s t . Others who had once regarded him, i f not with approval at l e a s t with detachment, now j o i n e d i n the a t t a c k , as he added the scandal of r e a c t i o n a r y a t t i t u d e s and Imperialism to the e a r l i e r o f f e n c e s of p o p u l a r i t y , j o u r n a l i s m , b r u t a l i t y and P h i l i s t i n i s m . Moral i n d i g n a t i o n and l a c k of r e s t r a i n t marked t h e i r arguments, angry censure o c c a s i o n a l l y g i v i n g way to heavy-handed s a t i r e . The Free Review, e d i t e d by J.M. Robertson, complained that K i p l i n g wrote too much and that h i s work d i d not improve i n q u a l i t y - i t was "a tapeworm growth." In h i s c a n t i n g Imperialism he had shown h i m s e l f to be "pugnaciously s e n t i m e n t a l over the E n g l i s h f l a g , " that unacceptable symbol of o p p r e s s i o n . 19 Blackwood's Magazine, Nov. 1897, p. 474. 2 0 "My normal output," K i p l i n g noted, "seemed to have the g i f t of a r r i d i n g per se the very people I most d i s l i k e d . " Something of Myself, p. 92. 56 He w r i t e s h e r o i c s about the E n g l i s h f l a g , which as the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of our c o l o n i z i n g p o l i c y , i s the l i v i n g symbol of more and g r e a t e r infamy than a l l the seas i t l o r d s i t over can ever wash o u t . 2 1 Hewas g u i l t y of war-mongering and xenophobia i n h i s hatred of I r e l a n d and Russia and of " d i a b o l i c a l l y i n f l u e n c i n g h i s readers i n 'The Man Who Was.'" Besides t h i s "egregious j i n g o i s m " , h i s s t o r i e s were f i l l e d with b l o o d - t h i r s t y b r u t a l i t y . His so fundamentally b a r b a r i c i n h i s emotions that he r e v e l s i n d e s c r i p t i o n s of human s u f f e r i n g t h at can only p a i n a more c i v i l i z e d i n t e l l i g e n c e . . . . Our humanity i s being d e g r a d e d . 2 2 He was i n f a c t best at d e p i c t i n g abnormal s t a t e s , " a l l o w i n g f o r the f a c t t h at h i s own mental processes are abnormal r a t h e r than anything e l s e . " 2 3 His deranged i n t e l l e c t would account f o r h i s "egregious f a i l u r e as a p a i n t e r of c i v i l i z e d and normal men and women." The reviewer then summed up h i s w r i t -ing as "a f a c i l e and deceptive impressionism . . . undeniably c l e v e r and p i c t o r i a l , " but " d e s t i t u t e of prot o p l a s m i c i m a g i n a t i o n . " But i t i s , a f t e r a l l , ungracious work q u a r r e l i n g with a man f o r being no b e t t e r than he i s . S c i e n t i f i c c r i t i c i s m has simply to e x p l a i n the phenomena of l i t e r a t u r e ; and we may p r o f i t a b l y sum Mr. K i p l i n g up i n the phrase that he i s l e s s an i n t e l l i g e n c e than a bundle of s e n s a t i o n s , more or l e s s "Mr. K i p l i n g ' s S t o r i e s , " The Free Review, 241. 2 1 Ernest Newman, Dec. 1893, p. 248. 2 2 I b i d . , pp. 240-2 3 I b i d . , p. 247. 57 2 4 v i v i d and g e n e r a l l y of a b a r b a r i c o r d e r . Whether h o s t i l i t y stemmed from c o n v i c t i o n or e d i t o r i a l p o l i c y , the a r t i c l e s had a l l the vehemence of p o l i t i c a l debate. Although an u n f r i e n d l y c r i t i c might temper h i s s e v e r i t y with r i d i c u l e , he seldom f a i l e d to take K i p l i n g and hi s t r a n s g r e s s i o n s s e r i o u s l y . Richard Le G a l l i e n n e , whose own poetry and prose 2 5 f a n t a s i e s had been reviewed u n c h a r i t a b l y , produced a f u l l -l e n g t h volume i n which, more a d r o i t l y than some of h i s contemporaries, he a s s a i l e d the e v i l s of K i p l i n g i s m with mocking disparagement. While acknowledging K i p l i n g ' s c l e v e r n e s s and appeal, he underrated h i s a r t . The s t o r i e s were ephemeral, t h e i r " e x c e p t i o n a l r e a l i t y " enduring "only 2 6 while you read them." He objected to the preaching tendency i n "A Song of the E n g l i s h , " which sounded "the f i r s t note of Mr. K i p l i n g ' s l a t e r M e t h o d i s t i c a l j i n g o i s t i c 2 7 manner," and warned the p u b l i c not to mistake him f o r a 2 8 great poet, f o r " i n him the banjo has found i t s A p o l l o . " 2tfNewman, p. 248. 2 5 T h e Saturday Review (August 1, 1896), p. 129, questioned h i s t a l e n t - "Has Mr. Le G a l l i e n n e a f u t u r e or i s he merely the b e a u t i f u l decay of h i s f i r s t s p r i n g ? " - and commented (May 14, 1898), p. 530, on h i s "mastery of p u e r i l i t y and dulness." 2 6 L e G a l l i e n n e , p. 92. 2 7 I b i d . , p. 51. 2 ^ I b i d . , p. 65. 58 But i t was K i p l i n g , "the u n o f f i c i a l M.P. f o r B r i t i s h 2 9 P o s s e s s i o n s , " whom Le G a l l i e n n e denounced and whom he blamed o u t r i g h t f o r the r i s e of Imperialism. It was he who 3 0 had "roused the s l e e p i n g nerve c e n t r e " and "strengthened 31 i t s n a t u r a l h y p o c r i s y . " Like any other n a t i o n we conquer c o u n t r i e s f o r the pur e l y s e l f i s h and n a t u r a l purpose of extending our t r a d e , but i t i s not a C h r i s t i a n proceeding and we are the only C h r i s t i a n n a t i o n that pretends i t i s . 3 2 When i t came to I m p e r i a l i s t expansion, h i s was "the most 3 3 r e s p o n s i b l e v o i c e . . . the voi c e of the t i d e at i t s h e i g h t . " He a l s o represented a t h r e a t to s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n : For p r o g r e s s i v e thought there has been no such dangerous i n f l u e n c e f o r many y e a r s . Of a l l that our best poets, p h i l o s o -phers and s o c i a l economists have been working f o r , he i s d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y a powerful enemy. 3 4 Not only was he g u i l t y of "contempt f o r Democracy, the woman movement, the. education of the masses" but a l s o of a " c y n i c a l l y inpudent," a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l b i a s , i n which "the th i n g s of the mind are at a d i s c o u n t . " As proof of t h i s i n c u r a b l e P h i l i s t i n i s m , Le G a l l i e n n e c i t e d , from the s t o r y "To Be F i l e d f o r Reference," a passage s t a t i n g that education had made a man's mind "a p e r f e c t rag-bag of u s e l e s s t h i n g s " 3 S a n d then assured the author that "to be able to quote Horace i s more 2 9 L e G a l l i e n n e , p. 64. 3 0 I b i d . , p. 128. 3 1 I b i d . , p. 129. 3 2 I b i d . 3 3 I b i d . , p. 140. 3 1 + I b i d . , p. 160. 3 5 I b i d . , p. 125. 59 important, from any broad human st a n d p o i n t , than to be an i n i t i a t e of the engine-room of the g r e a t e s t l i n e r . " 3 6 Not a l l those who impeached K i p l i n g f o r h i s m a l e f i c e n t i n f l u e n c e undervalued h i s accomplishments. Henry Austen, w r i t i n g i n The D i a l deplored h i s p o p u l a r i t y , which he termed "the K i p l i n g H y s t e r i a . " He had been d i s t u r b e d by the recent g l o b a l concern f o r the n a t i o n a l i d o l ' s h e a l t h . To t h i s h y s t e r i a of unreasoned admir a t i o n , to t h i s toy tempest of f l a t u l e n t a d u l a t i o n , the dangerous i l l n e s s of the f o r c e f u l and b r i l l i a n t w r i t e r has n a t u r a l l y given i n c r e a s e . But a l r e a d y signs of r e a c t i o n are appearing. Trained minds are beginning to quest i o n the new gospel . . . of f o r c e p e r n i c i o u s i n the extreme . . . a g a i n s t democracy. 3 7 Austen d i d not quest i o n K i p l i n g ' s genius, i n s p i t e of being soured by the extravagant p r a i s e accorded " R e c e s s i o n a l " and convinced that "Henley or Renne l l Rodd could do b e t t e r . " In f a c t he expressed the hope that t h i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d author might "break away from f a l s e i d e a l s and renounce bad l i t e r a r y manners," being yet " g l o r i o u s l y y o u n g . " 3 8 Between 1892 and 1899 the whole trend of K i p l i n g c r i t i c i s m would appear to have been determined by three con-s i d e r a t i o n s -.the tendentious nature of the content of h i s w r i t i n g , h i s f o r c e f u l s t y l e , and the a u t h o r i t y of h i s r e p u t a t i o n , whether the c r i t i c s were f a v o u r a b l y disposed or 3 6 L e G a l l i e n n e , p. 125. 3 7 H e n r y Austen, "The K i p l i n g H y s t e r i a , " The D i a l , May 1899, p. 327. 3 8 I b i d . 60 u n f r i e n d l y , t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s of h i s work were i n f l u e n c e d by these f a c t o r s . In the major p e r i o d i c a l s under examination there i s no mistaking t h e i r importance. This undue i n f l u e n c e , however, was not apparent i n the Q u a r t e r l y ' s f i r s t a r t i c l e on K i p l i n g , p u b l i s h e d i n 1892. Preeminent among reviews and u l t r a - c o n s e r v a t i v e i n i t s judgments i t weighed i t s pronouncements c a r e f u l l y . The j o u r n a l ' s spokesman was not impressed by the young w r i t e r ' s growing fame but was i n s t e a d aggrieved by h i s p o p u l a r i t y and was prepared to deny him any messianic r o l e to which he might a s p i r e . Let us c o n s i d e r i f the l a t e s t and, i n some r e s p e c t s , the most popular of our s t o r y - t e l l e r s f u l f i l s the idea C o f a man of genius^ or whether he i s not a f r e s h i n s t a n c e of i n d i v i d u a l -ism run w i l d . I f applause, loud and vehement, were a t e s t of greatnes s , the question i s answered. Mr. K i p l i n g has made a name to which every b o o k s t a l l i n the B r i t i s h Empire bears witness. He i s famous, i f to be read and t a l k e d about wherever the E n g l i s h language i s spoken can make him so. According tb.;the Q u a r t e r l y , he d e l i b e r a t e l y courted the favour of the mob with h i s s e n s a t i o n a l i s m and d e l i g h t i n v i o l e n c e and e x p l o i t e d the p a t r i o t i c f e e l i n g of the p u b l i c as a whole. His "war-realism" was a p p a l l i n g . He saw i n man "the f i g h t i n g a n i m a l . " 4 0 In s t r u c t u r e and scope h i s t a l e s were l i t t l e b e t t e r than anecdotes, " i d y l l s of the smoking-room," t o l d with a r e a l i s m 3 9"Mr. K i p l i n g ' s T a l e s , " The Q u a r t e r l y Review, J u l y 1892, p. 134. 1 + 0 I b i d . , p. 135. 61 t h a t was not a r t but "mimicry, a kind of e v e r l a s t i n g present tense by which the whole scene i s enacted over again with sounds and c o l o u r i n g complete."1'-'' Treatment of the m a t e r i a l was s u p e r f i c i a l ; he painted "only the s u r f a c e " of h i s scenes. His use of words, the nature of h i s d i a l o g u e , and h i s i n s i s t -ance on reproducing d i a l e c t s , which were " f a r from being exact," represented s e r i o u s flaws i n h i s w r i t i n g . But, f o r the Q u a r t e r l y , the most d i s t r e s s i n g aspect of h i s work was not h i s s t y l e . It was the moral atmosphere of h i s s t o r i e s . We cannot t u r n over Mr. K i p l i n g ' s pages without being offended by the coarseness of t h e i r tone . . . . V i t a l i t y . . . keeps at a safe d i s t a n c e from refinement. It cannot t r u s t i t s e l f i n the s o c i e t y of good women or of courteous and s e l f -r e s p e c t i n g men . . . . He s a c r i f i c e s the i d e a l to h i s passion f o r v i t a l i t y . 4 2 I t was conceded that some of h i s Simla sketches were powerful, f o r a l l t h e i r "laughable, hideous, c y n i c a l , smart, v i v a c i o u s , f a s h i o n a b l e f r i v o l i t y . " 4 3 Other t a l e s of India had both "power and pathos" and there were "the elements of a great poem s c a t t e r e d through these f i n e r s t o r i e s . " 4 4 It was a p i t y i n such cases that the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n was l i m i t e d to types, that motives were never s a t i s f a c t o r i l y developed and that the moods expressed were "simple and v i o l e n t . " "Without B e n e f i t 4 1 T h e Q u a r t e r l y Review, J u l y 1892, p. 137. 4 2 I b i d . , p. m o . 4 3 I b i d . , p. 141. 4 4 I b i d . , p. 143. 62 of C l e r g y , " "a weird and touching love s t o r y , " had been w e l l done. It i s one of the most p e r f e c t t h i n g s he has w r i t t e n . . . . To p r a i s e i t there i s no need, f o r who could f o l l o w the s t o r y and not f e e l i t s t r u t h , i t s sadness, i t s human t o u c h e s . 5 The message f o r Empire, however, was found wanting. It lack e d " f a i t h i n an i d e a l which can r e s i s t furnace-heat." K i p l i n g i n s i s t e d too much on the dangers f o r Europeans of l i f e i n I n d i a and wrote f a r too many s t o r i e s of madness and s u i c i d e to be accepted as an Imperial o r a c l e . He was n e v e r t h e l e s s a s k i l l e d and a r t i c u l a t e s t o r y - t e l l e r . The Q u a r t e r l y had no doubts about h i s a b i l i t y : "That Mr. K i p l i n g had the a r t of w r i t i n g short s t o r i e s as w e l l as Hawthorne, Edgar Poe or Bret Harte was c l e a r from the f i r s t . 1 , 1 + 7 But as a n o v e l i s t he was a disappointment. The L i g h t that F a i l e d must be c a l l e d a pagan tragedy s i n c e i t was not C h r i s t i a n and "not so human by a great deal as i t ought to be." 1* 8 He was advised to go back to the n a t i v e experiences "which brought out h i s g i f t f o r sympathy i n i t s most pe r s u a s i v e form. 1 , 1 + 9 And once again he was warned a g a i n s t i n d u l g i n g i n v i o l e n c e , f o r i t was not a si g n of strength! and i t r e p e l l e d the s e n s i t i v e reader, and l 4 5The Q u a r t e r l y Review, J u l y 1892, p. 146. t f 6 I b i d . , p. 154. 4 7 I b i d . * * 8 I b i d . , p. 156. 4 9 I b i d . , p.159. 63 a g a i n s t s t r e s s i n g t r u c u l e n t cynicism and coarseness. "We should h e s i t a t e , " the c r i t i c added, "to put h i s s t o r i e s i n t o the hands of a woman, . . . n e i t h e r do we thin k the best women (and we mean such as have b r a i n s ) would f e e l any ple a s u r e i n readi n g them." 5 <^ To redeem h i s work, the author must "surrender to the i d e a l . " His f u t u r e r e p u t a t i o n would "depend on the s u b o r d i n a t i o n of other q u a l i t i e s , however 51 b r i l l i a n t , to a b e l i e f i n the best t h i n g s about God and Man." The Q u a r t e r l y 1 s appeal to r e l i g i o n and m o r a l i t y echoed that of the Edinburgh Review. In V i c t o r i a n eyes K i p l i n g was too c y n i c a l , too ready to be c l e v e r , too much given to crude r e a l i s m and v i o l e n c e , and too l i t t l e of a m o r a l i s t . Acceptable f i c t i o n i n c u l c a t e d a wholesome l e s s o n and t h i s g i f t e d but unsound young man lacked the necessary s e r i o u s n e s s and i d e a l -ism to make h i s s t o r i e s the v e h i c l e f o r a r t on the highest plane. The Q u a r t e r l y had nothing to say at t h i s time about h i s ve r s e , although Barrack-Room B a l l a d s had appeared i n May and was being reviewed with great enthusiasm. The Athenaeum a c c l a i m -ed " t h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y product of our time," with a l l i t s "power of e p i t h e t and of d e s c r i p t i v e language." K i p l i n g was de c l a r e d to be "unapproachable i n 'Barrack-Room B a l l a d s ' 5 0 T h e Q u a r t e r l y Review, J u l y 1892, p. 159. 5 1 I b i d . 64 proper."52 The Saturday Review p r e d i c t e d the e a r l y "foundation C O of a K i p l i n g S o c i e t y . " The reviewer commended "Danny Deever," "Oonts," "Fuzzy-Wuzzy," and "Mandalay" f o r "the a b s o l u t e l y g l o v e - l i k e f i t of every word upon every t h o u g h t . " 5 4 He con-s i d e r e d "Mandalay" as "a work of very high a r t i n d e e d . " 5 5 There were occasions when the poet dropped h i s d i a l e c t and the l i n e s l o s t t h e i r power and when h i s muse s u f f e r e d from "the exuberance of youth." But "The B a l l a d of East and West" was "one of the g r e a t e s t p i e c e s of e p i c n a r r a t i v e which i s to be found i n our l i t e r a t u r e . " In the Bookman, G.A. Simcox was somewhat l e s s generous, when he d e s c r i b e d the verse as 5 7 " s p a r k l i n g , vigourous, but d i s a p p o i n t i n g . " Very d i f f e r e n t from the admiring t r i b u t e s was a second essay on K i p l i n g w r i t t e n by F r a n c i s Adams f o r the F o r t n i g h t l y  Review• He had s t a t e d i n 1891 that the new author, d e s p i t e c e r t a i n grave f a u l t s , must be r e c o g n i z e d as an a r t i s t . Two years l a t e r he q u a l i f i e d h i s e a r l i e r judgment i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "Mr. K i p l i n g ' s Verse." He confessed that he had once experienced "a keen pleasure . . . i n r e a d i n g 5 2 T h e Athenaeum, May 14, 1892, p. 629. The Saturday Review, May 14, 1892, p. 580. 5 4 I b i d . , p. 581. 5 5 I b i d . 5 6 I b i d . 5 7 T h e Bookman, June 1892, p. 90. 65 Barrack-Room B a l l a d s " but that "a reading of h i s other verses had checked that p l e a s u r e and c h i l l e d i t to the bone." The preludes and envoys of the new volume he saw as unnecessary and even i n s u l t i n g , remarking that "Mr. K i p l i n g does not seem to b e l i e v e i n the i n t e l l i g e n t r e a d e r . " ^ The poetry was no more than "a f e a s t of p a t t e r - s o n g s , dispensed to the twang of the banjo i n the b i b u l o u s atmosphere of the p o s t - p r a n d i a l smoke c o n c e r t , " and c o n t a i n i n g nothing but "more or l e s s d i s c r e e t v a r i a t i o n s on the e v e r - f e r t i l e s ubject of a d u l t e r y . " ^ 9 Adams detected weak i m i t a t i o n s of Browning and Tennyson but no evidence of o r i g i n a l i t y . Admittedly over a t h i r d of these poems were "good of t h e i r k i n d , l i g h t , b r i g h t and r e a d a b l e , " 6 0 but they must not be taken s e r i o u s l y . K i p l i n g was merely a g i f t e d j o u r n a l i s t : "We s h a l l f i n d no conscious and c r i t i c a l development i n t h i s man. He begins as a j o u r n a l i s t of genius, and as a j o u r n a l i s t of genius he seems f a t e d to end." Not only had he shown a l l the f a i l i n g s and i d i o s y n c r a c i e s of j o u r n a l i s m but he had made i t very c l e a r that he despised " c u l t u r e and a r t . " J u s t i f y i n g h i s o r i g i n a l estimate of K i p l i n g ' s v e r s e , Adams commented on i t s wide appeal but r e f e r r e d to that 5 8"Mr. K i p l i n g ' s Verse," The F o r t n i g h t l y Review, Nov. 1893, p. 185. I b i d . 6 0 I b i d . , p. 189. 6 1 I b i d . , p. 193. 66 p o p u l a r i t y i n the past tense. His vogue was the most u n i v e r s a l one of our time. His popular l i m i t a t i o n s were p l e n t i f u l enough, h i s cheap e f f e c t s were g l a r i n g enough, to win him the applause of the i n t e l l e c t u a l g r o u n d l i n g s , the no i s y imperious " p i t " of our contemporary t h e a t r e of a r t . Yet h i s achievement was so r e a l and s t r i k i n g , h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to l i t e r a t u r e was so undeniable that no one possessed of candour and i n t e l l i g e n c e could r e f u s e to take him s e r i o u s l y . z His b a l l a d s were undoubtedly a t t r a c t i v e but they were u n l i k e l y to l a s t . "They have a l r e a d y had an ample, perhaps too ample a measure of j u s t i c e done to them," f o r they were mere "doggerel, c l e v e r d o g g e r e l , a t t r a c t i v e doggerel, i n s p i r e d d o g g e r e l . " The more one reads these B a l l a d s , the t h i n n e r and t h i n n e r appear the worst of them, the more and more dubious a l l but one or two of the very best; and as f o r the "other v e r s e s , " the twenty poems that f o l l o w them up, there are some of them so a p p a l l i n g l y bad that they p a r a l y s e a l l e f f o r t s at c o n s i d e r -a t i o n . 6 3 O b s c u r i t y was another o c c a s i o n a l f a u l t , as i n "The Three C a p t a i n s " and " u n c e r t a i n t y of touch" was p e r p e t u a l . "The B a l l a d of East and West" was l e a s t l i k e a f a i l u r e and "Gunga Din" came "near to being a l i t t l e masterpiece of i t s k i n d " but was s p o i l e d by " s u p e r f i c i a l l y smart t h i n g s . " Adams found the Anglo-Indian K i p l i n g i n every r e s p e c t i n f e r i o r to the A u s t r a l i a n Adam Lindsay Gordon, who was "a The F o r t n i g h t l y Review, Nov. 1893, p. 201. I b i d . , p. 204. 67 poet of an a l t o g e t h e r l a r g e r and broader c a l i b r e . " U n l i k e Gordon, K i p l i n g c o n t r i b u t e d "no a p p r e c i a b l e body of work." It was "mostly tour de f o r c e " and d i d not "wear as twenty or t h i r t y percent of Gordon's work wears." The only poem l i k e l y to s u r v i v e was "Mandalay," an example of "powerful impression-i s t d o g g e r e l . " 6 5 A hundred years hence some a p p r e c i a t i v e and e n q u i r i n g person may be s e a r c h i n g the B r i t i s h Museum f o r any other work done by the man who wrote "Mandalay."66 Adams had atoned f o r the mistaken g e n e r o s i t y of h i s f i r s t a r t i c l e by c o n f e s s i n g h i s e r r o r and showing K i p l i n g h i s place among c o l o n i a l p o e t a s t e r s . Nothing more could be expected of a j o u r n a l i s t whose appeal was to the mob and -one, moreover, who openly despised the a r t s . No d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e was made to h i s r e a c t i o n a r y and I m p e r i a l i s t views, the c r i t i c i s m being kept on a l i t e r a r y plane. But the F o r t n i g h t l y Review, i n the words of the e d i t o r , "had c e r t a i n r a d i c a l fi 7 t r a d i t i o n s and l e a n i n g s " and Frank H a r r i s had d i s l i k e d K i p l i n g ever s i n c e r e a d i n g h i s a n t i - I r i s h verses on the P a r n e l l case. "Our disagreement," he wrote many years l a t e r , "went 6 4 T h e F o r t n i g h t l y Review, Nov. 1893, p. 211. 6 5 I b i d . , p. 213. 6 6 I b i d . , p. 214. fi 7 Frank H a r r i s , Contemporary P o r t r a i t s , Second S e r i e s (New York: Published by the author, 1919), p. 48. 68 6 8 f a r deeper than words." And K i p l i n g too had h i s memories of "a monthly review of s o r t s e d i t e d by a Mr. Frank H a r r i s , whom I d i s c o v e r e d to be the one human being that I could on 6 9 no terms get on with." Where the F o r t n i g h t l y was concerned, he had offended by exce s s i v e p o p u l a r i t y and impudent a n t i -i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m . That he had a l s o t r a n s g r e s s e d the f a s h i o n -able code of p o l i t i c a l i d e a l i s m was c l e a r l y understood. A f t e r Barrack-Room B a l l a d s came Many In v e n t i o n s , a c o l l e c t i o n of short s t o r i e s . The Athenaeum, observing that K i p l i n g was "not at h i s best i n the n o v e l , " adjudged him to be outstanding " w i t h i n the narrower l i m i t s of the b a l l a d and the conte," i n which h i s s p e c i a l t a l e n t s of " s w i f t i n t u i t i o n and s t e r n r e p r e s s i o n " were p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e . "This b r i l l i a n t book" contained "one of the most masterly things i t s 70 author has yet done," a st o r y of the Indian army e n t i t l e d "Love 0' Women," The Saturday Review s e l e c t e d "A Matter of Fa c t " as the most s t r i k i n g of the new t a l e s . It held the a t t e n t i o n "from f i r s t to l a s t as i n a v i c e . " Of the others "The D i s t u r b e r of T r a f f i c " and "In the Rukh" were good; "Brugglesmith" was " r o l l i c k i n g f a r e " and "The F i n e s t Story i n the World," " e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y s u c c e s s f u l . " Some of the author's o l d f a u l t s of coarseness and bad t a s t e might s t i l l 6 8 H a r r i s , p. 5 3. 6 9 Something of Myself, p. 83. 7 0 T h e Athenaeum, J u l y 8, 1893, p. 55. 69 be i n evidence but h i s merits showed "no s i g n of d i m i n u t i o n . " There i s an immense deal of humour, any q u a n t i t y of good sense and discernment, and a l l that true and e x c e l l e n t appreci-^ a t i o n of the E n g l i s h . . . and England, which i s the honourable d i s t i n c t i o n of a l l Mr. K i p l i n g ' s work.' 1 In the Bookman p r a i s e was tempered by the dubious comment: "Mr. K i p l i n g a l t e r s s c a r c e l y at a l l . " It was f u r t h e r q u a l i f i e d by the a s s e r t i o n that the t a l e s i n Many Invent ions were "not equal to h i s e a r l i e r masterpieces," the reason being that the w r i t e r t o o k " " l e s s p a i n s . " The c r i t i c Y.Y. was of the o p i n i o n that he was u n l i k e l y to improve on h i s e a r l i e r achievements. Mr. K i p l i n g has h i s own sphere and i n that he i s never l i k e l y to e x c e l h i m s e l f . He has done enough . . . . A dozen of h i s short p i e c e s w i l l stand as a masterpiece probably never to be r i v a l l e d . 7 2 He had not attempted to c o r r e c t h i s f a u l t s - " i n t e n t i o n a l o b s c u r i t y " being one of the worst. He s t i l l remained " i n d i v i d u a l and beyond r u l e s . " From Y.Y.'s p o i n t of view, K i p l i n g had reached h i s high-est standard with "In the Rukh." "A Matter of F a c t , " while " o r i g i n a l and p i c t u r e s q u e , " had i t s epilogue "very c o a r s e l y and o b s c u r e l y worked out." In the E n g l i s h scenes the " t a i n t of j o u r n a l i s m " s p o i l e d e v e r y t h i n g and, as a r e s u l t , "The F i n e s t Story i n the World1.' was a "dead f a i l u r e . " For the same reason 7 1 T h e Saturday Review, June 17, 1893, p. 669. 7 2 T h e Bookman, J u l y 1893, p. 113. 7 3 I b i d . 70 "Brugglesmith" was "poor." But the a l l e g o r i c a l " C h i l d r e n of the Zodiac" had turned out to be " h i g h l y o r i g i n a l and i n some pa r t s very s t r i k i n g ? " And ".The Record of B a d a l i a Herodsfoot," i n which Zola's i n f l u e n c e was unmistakable, was "the best p i e c e of Zolaism . . . any Englishman has yet done." B a d a l i a was a "grand c r e a t i o n . " I t s grim humour i s t e r r i b l e . . . . Mr. K i p l i n g sees . . . how hideous i s the h e l l i n which p u l l u l a t e the misbe-gotten, u n t r a i n e d , v i c i o u s c h i l d r e n , whom we c a l l Men and Women of the unemployed and c r i m i n a l c l a s s e s . 7 4 When f i r s t of the Jungle Books appeared i n 1894, the Athenaeum's reviewer d e s c r i b e d i t as " i n i m i t a b l e " and was c e r t a i n that none of K i p l i n g ' s "numerous i n v e n t i o n s " would prove more popular. It was " i n every r e s p e c t a most d e s i r a b l e p o s s e s s i o n a l i k e f o r c h i l d r e n and t h e i r e l d e r s . ? Best of a l l the "queer s t o r i e s " with t h e i r " c l e v e r v e r s e s " was "Toomai of the E l e p h a n t s . " 7 5 The Saturday Review complimented the author on h i s l a t e s t book. I t was a memorable achievement. The new volume . . . helps us to en t e r , by the power of the i m a g i n a t i o n , i n t o the very nature of the c r e a t u r e s ( b i r d s and b e a s t s ) . . . . In t h i s l a t e s t evidence of h i s t a l e n t , Mr. K i p l i n g shows us how c l o s e an observer he i s , how l i t t l e escapes h i s a t t e n t i o n when once he r i v e t s i t upon an o b j e c t , and with what b r i l l i a n t i n t u i t i o n he c r e a t e s a p l a u s i b l e and coherent i m p r e s s i o n . / D 7 4 T h e Bookman, J u l y 1893, p. 114. 7 5 The Athenaeum, June 16, 1894, p. 766. 76 The Saturday Review, June 16, 1894, pp. 639-640. 71 Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t were " R i k k i - T i k k i i T a v i " and "Servants of the Queen," the l a t t e r s t o r y being "more b o l d l y fabulous than the r e s t . " The verse too was admirable - "Shiv and the Grasshopper" e x h i b i t e d a " r a r e magic of p l a i n t i v e c o l l o q u i a l -ism." Mr. K i p l i n g i s to be c o n g r a t u l a t e d on a very genuine success i n a f i e l d where, even f o r a man of great powers, f a i l u r e might reasonably have been a n t i c i p a t e d . 7 7 But i n the Bookman the reviewer G.Y. showed a tendency to c a v i l at K i p l i n g ' s d i d a c t i c i s m . He disapproved of "The White S e a l , " "Servants of the Queen," and " R i k k i - T i k k i - T a v i " on the grounds of p o l i t i c a l a l l u s i o n and sermonizing. The author seemed unable to r e s i s t these i n a r t i s t i c p r o c l i v i t i e s . His love of p l a y i n g the schoolmaster grows on him. It i s t h i s q u a l i t y that i s at the bottom of the imperfect sympathy - which runs p a r a l l e l i n many readers * minds with a warm admira-t i o n f o r him. The pedagogue i n him hides under f r e e and vigourous and unconventional speech, but he i s mostly t h e r e . 7 8 This u n p l e a s a n t l y d i d a c t i c element, however, d i d "not g r e a t l y o f f e n d i n 'The Jungle Book,'" f o r the t a l e s were " r i c h i n v i t a l i t y and i m a g i n a t i o n . " There was "something s t e r n l y grand about a l l the Mowgli s t o r i e s , " i n which "Rousseau-like i d e a l s i n a beast communityV were d e s c r i b e d . The poetry too, G.Y. p o i n t e d out, had s p e c i a l m e r i t s . Every time a verse occurs as the heading of a chapter one i s i n c l i n e d to t h i n k that Mr. K i p l i n g should w r i t e nothing 7 7 T h e Saturday Review, June 16, 1894, p. 640. 7 ft The Bookman, J u l y 1894, p. 116. 72 e l s e , so i n s t i n c t i v e i s h i s power over vigourous rhythm, and so v i v i d are h i s b a l l a d p i c t u r e s . 7 9 E a r l y i n 1895 S.R. C r o c k e t t , the popular S c o t t i s h n o v e l i s t , d i s c u s s e d K i p l i n g ' s prose f o r the Bookman, : He was w e l l aware of the preaching v e i n but made no o b j e c t i o n to the use of a l l e g o r y . In "Some Tales of Mr. K i p l i n g " he had only p r a i s e to o f f e r and the assurance that "men of the book and pen read K i p l i n g f o r t h e i r own p l e a s u r e . " 8 0 Nothing exceeded hi s "magic" and h i s power to d e l i g h t , f o r he c r e a t e d a "new world" f o r h i s r e a d e r s . The Second Jungle Book came out i n October, 1895. The Athenaeum gave the new s t o r i e s a c o n g r a t u l a t o r y review: The 'Jungle Books' rank among Mr. K i p l i n g ' s best p r o d u c t i o n s . Large ideas inform them, and something of that e p i c imagination to which we have before r e f e r r e d as Mr. K i p l i n g ' s most p r e c i o u s g i f t . 8 1 They were " p a r t l y c h i l d ' s book and p a r t l y a l l e g o r y . " In t h i s volume, the c r i t i c p o inted out, "the a l l e g o r y - or, l e t us say, poetry - p r e v a i l s , " as i n "The Spring Running," the theme being "the awakening of the human s o u l " or " ' p e r v i g i l i u m V e n e r i s . ' " The S a turd a y Review, now c o n t r o l l e d by Frank H a r r i s , experienced c e r t a i n m i s g i v i n g s and d e s c r i b e d the book as "a disappointment." Whereas the f i r s t volume had deserved high 7 9 T h e Bookman, J u l y 1894, p. 116. 8 0 I b i d . , Feb. 1895, p. 139. 8 1 T h e Athenaeum, Feb. 29, 1896, p. 278. 73 commendation i n 1894, the second was now s a i d to l a c k "the f r e s h n e s s of i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s . " 8 2 The best s t o r y i n the c o l l e c t i o n was unquestionably "Red Dog." "The King's Ankus" was "made i n Germany f o r a moral s t o r y on the u n d e s i r a b l e n e s s of r i c h e s . " On the whole i t was "perhaps the worst book Mr. K i p l i n g has produced." In the same is s u e and on the same page a review of The S t o l e n B a c i l l u s and Other I n c i d e n t s l a b e l l e d K i p l i n g ' s humour "a f a l s e g a i e t y " when compared with that of H.G. W e l l s . The Bookman came to the c o n c l u s i o n that the books were "very good" but that they had r e c e i v e d i n d i s c r i m i n a t e p r a i s e . They were "not w i t h i n the comprehension of one c h i l d i n a thousand," and were merely designed to i l l u s t r a t e the author' own n o t i o n s of s o c i a l order: The t a l e s of the f o r e s t i n h a b i t a n t s have given him a welcome, to us s l i g h t l y t e d i o us o p p o r t u n i t y of f o r m u l a t i n g Mr. K i p l i n g ' s i d e a l human code i n which a kind of m i l i t a r y obedience forms one c h i e f a r t i c l e . 8 3 N e v e r t h e l e s s , some of the s t o r i e s "have notes of a w i l d grandeur that h a r d l y one of the poets of the day could equal, e s p e c i a l l y " L e t t i n g i n the J u n g l e " and "The M i r a c l e of Purun Bhagat" with i t s "wonderful i n s i g h t . " When K i p l i n g spoke "of t h i n g s at the back of common l i f e , " he always had "a r i n g of g r e a t n e s s . " 8 2 T h e Saturday Review, Dec. 1895, p. 843. 8 3 T h e Bookman, Feb. 1896, p. 158. 8 4 I b i d . 74 The year 1896 saw the p u b l i c a t i o n of a t h i r d book of v e r s e , The Seven Seas. It was a t t a c k e d by the Saturday Review i n an unsigned a r t i c l e , w r i t t e n i n a low-keyed, arch and i r o n i c s t y l e , which expressed a strong d i s l i k e of the poetry and a frank animosity toward the poet. The c r i t i c - i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y Max Beerbohm - accused K i p l i n g of d e l u d i n g both the press and the p u b l i c and of cunningly l e a d i n g them to accept whatever he chose to o f f e r : A new volume of poems by Mr. Rudyard K i p l i n g i s an a p p a r i t i o n of very c o n s i d e r a b l e moment. It can h a r d l y be questioned that among E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g authors of l e s s than . t h i r t y - f i v e years of age he i s by neck and shoulders the most prominent. His v i t a l i t y and f o r c e are so e x t r a o r d i n a r y that they sweep the goddess C r i t i c i s m o f f her l e g s . A new book of Mr. K i p l i n g ' s i s r e c e i v e d nowadays by a throng of e u l o g i s t reviewers whose unanimity would do c r e d i t to the chorus at the opera. There i s no doubt that Mr. K i p l i n g , who i s as a d r o i t as he i s m a s t e r f u l , encourages and determines t h i s c h o r a l b u r s t of p r a i s e . We do not mean to suggest that he leads the claque i n any s e c r e t way (he i s f a r too b i g a person f o r that ) but he very a s t u t e l y l a y s down the l i n e which the reviews are to take i n d i s c u s s i n g h i s p u b l i c w r i t -i n g s . In the present volume, f o r i n s t a n c e , the c y n i c a l reader w i l l t u r n to a l i t t l e group of l i t e r a r y a l l e g o r i e s with p e c u l i a r p l e a s u r e . - "The Last Rhyme of True Thomas," "In the N e o l i t h i c Age," "The Story of Ung," "The Three-Decker" - a l l e x c e s s i v e l y c l e v e r and a l l w r i t t e n to i n s t r u c t the reviewer what he i s to say, to t e l l him what h i s a t t i t u d e must be. He i s to i n s u r e the c r e a t o r , the manly maker of music . . . a g a i n s t " c r i t i c i s m , " by which Mr. K i p l i n g i n v a r i a b l y means malignant and envious a t t a c k , s i n c e no other form of c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s seems ever to have occurred to him. 8 F r a n t i c p o p u l a r i t y and a d u l a t i o n had encouraged him to palm o f f i n f e r i o r work on h i s r e a d e r s : The Saturday Review, Nov. 21, 1896, p. 549. 75 . . . Mr. K i p l i n g i s now on the verge of f i n d i n g h i m s e l f able to put o f f the E n g l i s h world with anything he l i k e s , how-ever blunt and ragged and u n d i s t i n g u i s h e d . "There are nine and s i x t y ways of c o n s t r u c t i n g t r i b a l l a y s , " he shouts over and over a g a i n . No, dear Mr. K i p l i n g , there i s only one way, which " a l l your great f o r e f a t h e r s used from Homer down to Ben." (We beg pardon, i t i s now s p e l t 'Omer'.) You had mastered that way once. How have you unlearned i t ? 8 6 His present verse, the c r i t i c was convinced, was f a r below the standard achieved i n 1892, d e s p i t e the " r i c h n e s s of v o c a b u l a r y , " the r e f r e s h i n g s t y l e , and the " v e r b a l melody". The blame f o r h i s d e c l i n e l a y i n h i s p o l i t i c a l i n c l i n a t i o n s , h i s d e s i r e "to i n d i t e l i t t l e t r a c t s i n verse f o r the i n s t r u c t -8 7 ion of the War O f f i c e " and h i s "abuse of t e c h n i c a l t e r m i -nology." Another weakness of the c u r r e n t work was o b s c u r i t y - "so r e g r e t t a b l e a tendency to t u r b i d e x p r e s s i o n . " We w i l l r e f r a i n from pouring any more drops of g a l l i n t o "the cup that the Press i s h o l d i n g up i n the enchanged F l e e t S t r e e t F o r e s t , " as S h e l l e y might say . . . . The -public have determined that Mr. K i p l i n g i s d e l e c t a b l e e_n mas s e . 8 8 Popular, o v e r - p r a i s e d , obscure, steeped i n t e c h n i c a l jargon and p o l i t i c s , K i p l i n g could not expect to be endorsed by the Saturday Review, however indulged he might be by the F l e e t S t r e e t j o u r n a l i s t s . 8 6 T h e Saturday Review, Nov. 21, 1896, p. 5"+ 9. 8 7 I b i d . At t h i s p o i n t the reviewer parodied one of K i p l i n g ' s f a v o u r i t e metres i n " H o s p i t a l Hymn," with such l i n e s as "The i n s p i s s a t e d a l k a l o i d s with eczema contend." 8 8 I b i d . , p. 550. 76 The Bookman d e a l t with The Seven Seas i n an unusual d o u b l e - b a r r e l l e d review provided by the c r i t i c s Y.Y. and A.M. The tone of the former was s a r d o n i c . The "Seven Seas" i s a garland of poems and songs more or l e s s n a u t i c a l , to which i s hung a pendant of over a dozen new "Barrack-room B a l l a d s . " I have examined i t with wonder, r e l u c t -ant a d m i r a t i o n , r e p u l s i o n , dismay. And, worse, I have promised to w r i t e about i t - to w r i t e about admitted masterpieces which are e n t i r e l y out of my l i n e , which I can n e i t h e r understand nor a p p r e c i a t e ; which v i o l a t e the l i t e r a r y p r i n c i p l e s which I hold most d e a r . 8 9 Y.Y. had admired the Anglo-Indian short s t o r i e s but found K i p l i n g ' s more recent volumes r e p u l s i v e . His e a r l i e r prose works down to Many Invent i o n s , I s t u d i e d with enthusiasm and e u l o g i z e d i n these columns. Of h i s l a t e prose I have read n o t h i n g ; of h i s poetry but a few fragments. And now I f i n d i t j u s t what I f e a r e d - as c l e v e r , as powerful, as u t t e r l y i n a d m i s s i b l e , beyond my comprehension and remote from my sympathies. 9^ The c r i t i c c o uld not admire the "New Poetry" e i t h e r i n form or i n content and was a p p a l l e d by the dangerously a t t r a c t i v e specimens provided by K i p l i n g . His p e c u l i a r province . . . i s the Brute-Man, or Man-Brute. . . . He i s going and w i l l go too f a r , c a r r y i n g the p u b l i c along with him. . . . His marvellous p i c t u r e s . . . must p e r f o r c e tend to make us not only condone, but p o s i t i v e l y admire the lawless f o r c e , the f u r i o u s p a s s i o n s , the s o r d i d The Bookman, Dec. 1896, p. 65. I b i d . , pp. 65-66. 1 77 v u l g a r i t y , the w i l d l y p i c t u r e s q u e s i n s of the Brute-Man. 9 1 His proper v e h i c l e , Y.Y. continued, was prose, f o r "poetry should never r e f l e c t the s o r d i d ideas and coarse expressions of v u l g a r minds." In the second part of the review, A.M. reproached those c r i t i c s who took K i p l i n g ' s verse too s e r i o u s l y . His doggerel b a l l a d s were unquestionably " w e l l made" but to f e e l "bound to admire them" was "an a f f e c t a t i o n . " 9 3 T h e poet was " i n h i s most o b j e c t i o n a b l e mood" when he wrote of "that u n d i s c i p l i n e d love of h i s f o r law and order , . . . the law and order of the nursery maid." But he had upon o c c a s i o n the power to l i f t "our hearts with . . . homage f o r the d i g n i t y of man." 9 4 K i p l i n g ' s p o p u l a r i t y was at i t s height i n 1897, the year of the J u b i l e e and of " R e c e s s i o n a l . " At t h i s time the Q u a r t e r l y , which had r e j e c t e d him i n 1892, bestowed i t s b l e s s -ing on h i s e f f o r t s and Blackwood's nominated him to succeed Tennyson as the na t i o n ' s l e a d i n g poet, not as l a u r e a t e but as a s p i r i t u a l guide by r i g h t of h i s achievement and i n s p i r i n g message. In October, 1897, the Q u a r t e r l y ' s s u b s t a n t i a l review of The Seven Seas began with the q u e s t i o n : "Is Mr. Rudyard K i p l i n g a poet?" and at once s u p p l i e d the answer: "The 9 1 T h e Bookman, Dec. 1896, p. 66. 9 2 I b i d . 9 3 I b i d . , p. 67. 9 4 I b i d . 78 a f f i r m a t i v e i s i n c o n t e s t a b l e . " His whole u t t e r a n c e v i b r a t e s w i t h an a u d i b l e , i f somewhat c o a r s e , p u l s e of f e e l i n g , i s q u i ckened by a b o l d , i f somewhat bravado, p a s s i o n , i s i n s t i n c t w i t h a buccaneer's d a r i n g , an i m p e r i a l i s t ' s i d e a l i s m , a man's f i b r e and f l e s h and b l o o d . And i t i s r e s o n a n t w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g l i l t and rhythm. I t swings e f f e c t s on i t s r e a d e r by i t s f l a s h i n g , d a s h i n g r e f r a i n s . N e i t h e r s e n s a t i o n nor cadence are ever s u s t a i n e d and both are seldom d e l i c a t e . They are e a r t h l y but not e a r t h y , compact of the w o r l d but not of c l a y . 3 5 K i p l i n g might l a c k d e l i c a c y but was not d e f i c i e n t i n i d e a l i s m . H i s books were f i l l e d w i t h s a l u t a r y moral t e a c h i n g s and i n s p i r a -t i o n a l themes . He has g r i p p e d l i f e as he found i t ; and wherever he has found h e r o i s m , or f i d e l i t y , or s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , or d u t y , or a s e e k i n g a f t e r God, he has w o r t h i l y r e p e a t e d i t . His whole message i s informed w i t h a s c o r n of the p e t t y and the s o r d i d , the s i c k l y and the m a u d l i n , as w e l l as w i t h a most s i g n a l humour. 9 6 He was t o be compared w i t h Wordsworth i n h i s r e v e l a t i o n of " c e r t a i n c l a s s e s o f our f e l l o w c r e a t u r e s i n t h e i r h a b i t as they l i v e . " And i n h i s honest c r a f t s m a n s h i p , he proved h i m s e l f a t r u e p o e t , "though o f t e n a s w a s h b u c k l e r . . . never a c h a r l a t a n . " 9 7 He had w r i t t e n v e r s e t h a t was " w o n d e r f u l , " "sudden and s u b t l e . " The Seven Seas, which d i s c l o s e d "a t h o u g h t f u l n e s s f a r i n advance of h i s o t h e r poems," c o n t a i n e d 9 5 T h e Q u a r t e r l y Review, Oct. 1897, p. 324. 9 6 I b i d . , p. 325. 9 7 I b i d . , p. 327. 79 i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e s that were outstanding f o r t h e i r s u b t l e t y , pathos and buoyant humour. K i p l i n g found favour with the Q u a r t e r l y as a r e s u l t of h i s verve and h i s moral earnestness. The previous charges of b r u t a l c y n i c i s m and crude v i o l e n c e and s e n s a t i o n a l i s m had been f o r g o t t e n . He i s the only one of our modern poets who, with a l l h i s emphatic i n d i v i d u a l i t y and robust v i o l e n c e , has h a b i t u a l l y abandoned h i m s e l f to h i s c h a r a c t e r s , to i d e a l s , to p a t r i o t i s m . . . . He i s good f o r the f l a b b i n e s s , f o r the c r i t i c a l u n c r e a t i v e n e s s of our g e n e r a t i o n . . . . We b e l i e v e that h i s energy w i l l r i p e n and deepen, f o r h i s standard i s n e i t h e r poor nor common. 9 8 The Q u a r t e r l y as an organ of the higher Toryism, was w e l l pleased with the e d i f y i n g t u r n that h i s l a t e r work had taken. But f o r I m p e r i a l i s t Tory enthusiasm c a r r i e d to the p o i n t of a b s u r d i t y , no p u b l i c a t i o n could outdo Blackwood's Magazine. The manifest d e l i g h t of the f i r s t a r t i c l e on K i p l i n g had turned i n t o extravagant panegyrics by 1898. In November, 1897, an essay on Tennyson concluded with a d i s c u s s i o n of the problem of f i n d i n g a worthy successor to the l a t e Poet Laureate -A l f r e d Austen being a n e g l i g i b l e q u a n t i t y . "We . . . scan the h o r i z o n to catch the f a r o f f coming l i g h t of the foreheads of a new g e n e r a t i o n of p o e t s . " y y The outlook was d i s c o u r a g i n g , with exponents of a e s t h e t i c i s m and subversive i d e o l o g i e s every-where i n evidence. 9 ft The Q u a r t e r l y Review, Oct. 1897, p. 330. " B l a c k w o o d 1 s Magazine, Nov. 1897 , p. 629. 80 Upon what are the poets of today engaged? . . . A cunning mixture of blasphemy and immorality, . . . cloudy v i s i o n s of n e u r o t i c R a d i c a l i s m i n the d i c t i o n of Bedlam, or . . . . the cant of an arrogant a g n o s t i c i s m i n s u p e r i o r and s n i f f i n g s t a n z a s . Is there nothing to r e l i e v e the ominous darkness of the p r o s p e c t ? 1 0 0 Blackwood's regarded K i p l i n g as the only l i g h t i n a great darkness; he represented the only hope f o r s a n i t y and the s u r v i v a l of t r a d i t i o n a l and s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s . We venture to p r e d i c t that E n g l i s h poetry w i l l be permas n e n t l y enriched by Mr-. K i p l i n g ' s pen more s i g n a l l y than by any other l i v i n g w r i t e r . . . . We t u r n to that memorable " R e c e s s i o n a l , " which alone of a l l the poems that have appeared s i n c e the l a t e Laureate's death made an instantaneous and a deep impression on the p u b l i c i n t e l l e c t and conscience.^-'-K i p l i n g alone could be depended on to undertake the great quest and " f o l l o w the G l e a m . " 1 0 2 When Captains Courageous appeared on the autumn book l i s t , the Athenaeum took the view that the new book was a s o c i o l o g i c a l novel with "a s l i g h t and somewhat obvious moral." "Li k e Middlemarch," i t d e s c r i b e d a s t a t e of s o c i e t y , c r e a t i n g an "atmosphere and tone of a strange mode of l i f e . " The t e c h n i c a l terms were new and strange but comprehensible when i n c o ntext. The sea p i e c e s showed " a r t i s t r y and s u b t l e s k i l l " and the s t o r y as a whole could be considered "a decided success as regards the aim which the author appears to have 1 0 0 B l a c k w o o d ' s Magazine, Nov. 1897, p. 629. 1 0 1 I b i d . 1 0 2 I b i d . 81 had before h i m . " l ° 3 For the f i r s t time, however, the Athenaeum's reviewer had not been e n t i r e l y s a t i s f i e d . He warned K i p l i n g that the s p i r i t of s a t i r e was not compatible with p a t r i o t i c f e r v o u r . Mr. K i p l i n g , i t would appear, a s p i r e s to be the Hogarth as w e l l as the Tyrtaeus of the B r i t i s h Empire; and that he has the q u a l i t i e s to play the former r o l e , h i s Anglo-Indian sketches and the present book amply t e s t i f y . But L i t e r a t u r e i s a j e a l o u s m i s t r e s s and har d l y allows of a d i v i d e d a l l e g i a n c e . Whatever p a t r i o t i s m may gain from books l i k e the present i t i s to be fe a r e d l e t t e r s must lose.-'- 0 1* The Bookman, i n a b r i e f c r i t i q u e of the same work, complained of the author's t e d i o u s d i d a c t i c i s m : "We have met Mr. K i p l i n g the e d u c a t i o n i s t before now, but have never q u a i l e d under h i s eye f o r so long at a t i m e . " x The book had been made a v e h i c l e f o r the author's q u e s t i o n a b l e philosophy and c o n s t i t u t e d "a paean to what seems to be the s t r o n g e s t con-v i c t i o n that Mr. K i p l i n g holds - the value of s t r i c t , unreason-ing d i s c i p l i n e . " As a d e s c r i p t i o n of the l i f e of the Grand Banks fishermen, i t was "more i n s t r u c t i v e than e n t i c i n g " ; i t a l l sounded "very a c c u r a t e " but made "very d u l l " r e a d i n g . The L i b e r a l Edinburgh Review, i n the January i s s u e of 1898, d i d not f i n d K i p l i n g d u l l and made no o b j e c t i o n to e i t h e r h i s philosophy or h i s p o l i t i c s . He was i n f a c t t r e a t e d with 1 Q 3 T h e Athenaeum, Oct. 30, 1897, p. 589. 1 0 4 I b i d . , pp. 589-590. 1 Q 5 T h e Bookman, Nov. 1897, p. 47. 82 c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s p e c t , p r a i s e d f o r h i s " e x t r a o r d i n a r y f a c u l t y of o b s e r v a t i o n " and f o r h i s " v a r i e d and v i v i d " d e s c r i p t i v e passages. His present work was s a i d to f a r surpass h i s e a r l i e r e f f o r t s , which had been u n p l e a s a n t l y c y n i c a l . And, i n s t e a d of being r e j e c t e d f o r Imperialism, he was commended f o r the s i n c e r i t y of h i s views. One of the best q u a l i t i e s i n Mr. K i p l i n g ' s work i s the s e r i o u s and p a t r i o t i c i n t e r e s t he e v i d e n t l y f e e l s i n the p o s i t i o n of England i n I n d i a , and h i s thorough b e l i e f i n the greatness of h i s country, i n s p i t e of governmental and depart-mental weaknesses and b l u n d e r s . 1 0 6 The merits of v a r i o u s s t o r i e s were touched on a p p r e c i a t -i v e l y . The author, however, was cautioned to a v o i d the " p i t -f a l l of s e n s a t i o n a l i s m and 'shockers' of an exaggerated and p e r n i c i o u s stamp" to be found i n h i s "nightmare l i t e r a t u r e . " Although The L i g h t That F a i l e d and Captains Courageous had been o v e r r a t e d , The Jungle Book was "most remarkable and o r i g i n a l " and o f f e r e d "the best promise of r e t a i n i n g a perma-nent plac e i n our l i t e r a t u r e . " Whereas the t a l e s were "wonderfully w e l l t o l d , the verses were "unequal." In poetry the use of "broken language" and slan g must always be considered h i g h l y o b j e c t i o n a b l e . The poems might have been a p p r e c i a b l y b e t t e r w r i t t e n i n standard E n g l i s h . K i p l i n g was warned a g a i n s t the degrading e f f e c t of c o l l o q u i a l i s m s and s l a n g , and reminded that slang was an " e v i l 1 0 6 T h e Edinburgh Review, Jan. 1898, p. 209. 83 and d e s t r u c t i v e i n f l u e n c e " and that "those who a s s i s t i n b r i n g i n g about such bathos of l i t e r a r y language w i l l h a r d l y 107 deserve w e l l of t h e i r country." D i a l e c t might be p e r m i s s i -ble but slang was "a d e l i b e r a t e l y concocted c o r r u p t i o n and debasement of language, the o f f s p r i n g , not of s i m p l i c i t y but of v u l g a r i t y of mind." Unless the author could c o r r e c t t h i s very grave f a u l t , h i s fame would not l i v e . The question f o r Mr. K i p l i n g to c o n s i d e r i s whether he * wishes f o r a f u t u r e i n l i t e r a t u r e or whether he i s content to i n t e r e s t h i m s e l f and us by b r i l l i a n t and piquant s t u d i e s of episodes i n l i f e and nature. I f he wishes f o r f u t u r e fame, f o r a permanent place i n the world's l i b r a r y , we b e l i e v e he has i t w e l l w i t h i n h i s c h o i c e , i f he would go to work s e r i o u s l y and aim at g i v i n g us h i s best, i n s t e a d of being content to please and i n t e r e s t us f o r the moment.1 8 In 1891 the Edinburgh Review had complained of h i s b r u t a l i t y , low moral tone, poor s t y l e , and d i s p l e a s i n g j o u r n a l i s t i c t r a i t s . A f t e r seven y e a r s , the venerable j o u r n a l assured him a place i n h i s t o r y , provided he adhered to standard E n g l i s h . The October copy of Blackwood's i n 1898 greeted the p u b l i c a t i o n of K i p l i n g ' s c o l l e c t e d works ( i n twelve volumes) with a fulsome eulogy. The author was h a i l e d as "the most remarkable w r i t e r of h i s g e n e r a t i o n , " one who had become u n i v e r s a l l y p opular. The -Edinburgh Review, Jan. 1898 , p. 212. I b i d . , pp. 225-226. 84 It has been h i s p o r t i o n to gain the ear of the great non-l i t e r a r y r eading p u b l i c , and at the same time to win the e n t h u s i a s t i c applause of that l i m i t e d body of men whose pleasure i n a work of a r t i s d e r i v e d from a p e r c e p t i o n of the means as w e l l as of the end. Such good f o r t u n e f a l l s to f e w . 1 0 9 There might be those who were capable of p o i n t i n g out flaws " r e a l or imaginary," i n h i s work, but they could not, "being i n f u l l p o s s e s s i o n of t h e i r senses, pass him b y . V 1 1 0 In h i s wide appeal he was s a i d to resemble Stevenson; i n h i s v e r s a t i l i t y he could be compared only with Shakespeare. In imagination he had no equal. The a r t i c l e gave amply documented evidence of h i s v e r s a t i l i t y and d e t a i l e d proof of h i s amazing mastery of s p e c i a l i z e d knowledge and t e c h n i c a l vocabulary r e l a t i n g to s c i e n c e s , t r a d e s , p r o f e s s i o n s and a r t s . What Blackwood's co n s i d e r e d h i s g r e a t e s t achievement was acknowledged with solemn emphasis: It i s merely h i s due to a t t r i b u t e to him the c h i e f share among men of l e t t e r s i n that r e v i v a l of the Imperial sentiment. . . . To have reawakened a great people to a sense of i t s d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , to have fanned the drooping flame of an e n l i g h t e n e d but f e r v e n t p a t r i o t i s m - these are a c h i e v e -ments of which few indeed can boast . . . . It has been Mr. K i p l i n g ' s e n v i a b l e task to b r i n g down p a t r i o t i s m from the c l o s e t to the s t r e e t , and to d i f f u s e i t s b e n e f i c e n t i n f l u e n c e among m i l l i o n s who had h i t h e r t o remained untouched. 1 1 1 A lengthy d i s c u s s i o n of p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s f o l l o w e d , d e a l i n g with the L i b e r a l s ' mismanagement of f o r e i g n a f f a i r s between x Blackwood's, Oct. 1898, p. 470. 1 1 0 I b i d . , p. 471. i : L 1 I b i d . , p. 473. 85 1880 and 1885 and naming Majuba H i l l and Khartoum as " s p e c i -mens of the a p p l i c a t i o n of L i b e r a l p r i n c i p l e s to f o r e i g n p o l i t i c s . " Because of such i n e p t i t u d e "the nobler elements i n the L i b e r a l Party were f o r e v e r severed from the baser."-'- 1 2  Blackwood 1s noted that the J u b i l e e of 1887 had awakened the s p i r i t of the n a t i o n and t h a t the c e l e b r a t i o n s of 1897 had shown "ideas and a s p i r a t i o n s of a l o f t i e r order . . . to have taken r o o t i n the n a t i o n ' s h e a r t . " But not even K i p l i n g ' s i n s p i r i n g message could make an impression on the L i b e r a l l e a d e r : "The emotions of p a t r i o t i s m and the f i n e sense of n a t i o n a l honour were, unhappily, s t r a n g e r s to the bosom of W i l l i a m Ewart G l a d s t o n e . " 1 1 3 It must be considered p r o v i d e n t i a l t h a t K i p l i n g i n t e r e s t e d h i m s e l f i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s and that h i s "most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c work" was " r e a l l y s a t u r a t e d with p o l i t i c s . . . the p o l i t i c s of true statesmanship." Proof of h i s commitment to the Tory cause was the b a l l a d " C l e a r e d , " which passed censure on the P a r n e l l Commission with such l i n e s as "We are not r u l e d by murderers but only by t h e i r f r i e n d s . " It was "one of the most trenchant pieces of r h e t o r i c i n any language." The author had become a powerful champion of Conservative p r i n c i p l e s : "No more f o r m i -dable a t t a c k has been d e l i v e r e d upon L i b e r a l i s m i n the present 1 1 2 B l a c k w o o d ' s , October 1898 , p. 474. 1 1 3 I b i d . 86 ge n e r a t i o n that Mr. K i p l i n g ' s work taken as a whole."1-'-4' Blackwood's was p a r t i c u l a r l y pleased with those t a l e s that em-bodied u s e f u l p o l i t i c a l l e s s o n s , and noted that "Mr. K i p l i n g has taken the pains to set f o r t h h i s opin i o n s i n d i r e c t and almost d i d a c t i c shape." He had been e s p e c i a l l y e f f e c t i v e i n reducing " L i b e r a l p r i n c i p l e s ad absurdum" i n matters r e l a t i n g to India by r e v e a l i n g that great land to h i s r e a d e r s , f a m i l i a r -i z i n g them with the people and the country and g i v i n g them b r i l l i a n t glimpses of everyday l i f e . The m i l i t a r y s t o r i e s were "very f i n e . " A h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t and c l e v e r p o l i t i c a l parable was contained i n "The Man Who Would Be King." The f a b l e s of the Jungle Books were " m a g n i f i c e n t . " The poetry deserved to be re c o g n i z e d f o r i t s unique q u a l i t i e s : His h i g h e s t f l i g h t s are high indeed and i t i s true of h i s best work, as of a l l the world's g r e a t e s t poetry, that i t can be read and r e - r e a d without l o s i n g i t s f r e s h n e s s . . . , His r e c o r d as a poet i s one of steady and r a p i d p r o g r e s s . " R e c e s s i o n a l " assured him a place among the immortals, f o r i t "seemed to concentrate i n i t s e l f the glowing p a t r i o t i s m of a Shakespeare, the solemn p i e t y of a M i l t o n , and the measured s t a t e l i n e s s of a Dryden. " X- L But then K i p l i n g was f a r more 1 1 4 B l a c k w o o d ' s , Oct. 1898, p. 475. That the L i b e r a l s were aware of the s e r i o u s n e s s of the t h r e a t posed by K i p l i n g was apparent i n Richard Le G a l l i e n n e ' s f u l l - s c a l e a t t a c k . 1 1 5 I b i d . , p. 480. 1 1 6 I b i d . , p. 481. 87 than a poet and s t o r y t e l l e r - he must be re c o g n i z e d as a s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r and t e a c h e r . It i s w e l l f o r us that a great w r i t e r should be i n our midst, s t r e n g t h e n i n g our weak hands and c o n f i r m i n g the f e e b l e knees. . . . The constant burden of h i s song teaches the l e s s o n which i t most behoves the younger ge n e r a t i o n to l e a r n . "But the head and the hoof of the Law And the haunch and the hump i s - O b e y . " 1 1 7 In p r o c l a i m i n g him a paragon among w r i t e r s , Blackwood's paid t r i b u t e to a p e e r l e s s crusader a g a i n s t the e v i l s of L i b e r a l i s m . P o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s d i d not weigh with the Athenaeum, which r e a c t e d r a t h e r c o o l l y to the 1898 c o l l e c t i o n of short s t o r i e s , The Day's Work. These t a l e s were "not as a 1 1 8 whole up to h i s best l e v e l " and could not compare with "The I n c a r n a t i o n of Krishna Mulvaney" or "The Man Who Would Be King." The best were "The Tomb of His A n c e s t o r s " and "The Maltese Cat." "The Bridge B u i l d e r s " and " W i l l i a m the Conqueror" s u f f e r e d from being too long; "The Walking Delegate" was t e d i o u s , and ".007" was overloaded with b o r i n g t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s . At the same time, the reviewer added, these s t o r i e s must be r a t e d " w e l l ahead of the l a r g e mass of such things c o l l e c t e d f o r us by competing p u b l i s h e r s , and we ask f o r m o r e . " 1 1 9 The Bookman thought h i g h l y of "The Bridge B u i l d e r s . " 1 1 7 Blackwood's Oct. 1898, p. 482. 1 1 8 T h e Athenaeum, Oct. 15, 1898, p. 521. 1 1 9 I b i d . , p. 522. 88 The volume opens with a d i s p l a y of Mr. K i p l i n g ' s best f o r c e . "The Bridge B u i l d e r s " i s a magnificent s t o r y and a kind of summary of h i s s t r e n g t h . His consummate s k i l l i n using t e c h n i c a l knowledge; hi s robust and i n t e l l i g e n t a p p r e c i a t i o n of work and heroism; h i s sense of the great and l a s t i n g t h i n g s above man's l i t t l e l i f e , seem now and then through r i f t s i n the cloud-smoke of the day's work, have seldom been given b e t t e r 120 e x p r e s s i o n . The reviewer then quoted at l e n g t h the f i n e passages d e s c r i b -ing the approach of the f l o o d and commented a d m i r i n g l y on the treatment of the opium dream of the c o u n c i l of the gods. One must l i n g e r over t h i s strange and f a s c i n a t i n g t a l e of the utmost s t r e n g t h of man and the watchfulness and l a s t i n g -ness of the gods, a t a l e where both human and d i v i n e f e a r s are r e v e a l e d s h u d d e r i n g l y , i n an i n d e s c r i b a b l e medley of r e a l i s m and mysticism that never r e v o l t s the i m a g i n a t i o n . The t a l e i s enough to redeem any book. U n f o r t u n a t e l y The Day's Work was i n need'of "some redemption." Readers were t o l d that they "would be w e l l a d v i s e d " to c l o s e the book at page 44, f o r seven of the remaining s t o r i e s , l i k e "The Ship that Found H e r s e l f " and "The Maltese Cat," belonged to the category of "Moral T a l e s . " These "are good i f you can 12 2 read them" but "are otherwise i n t o l e r a b l e . " A year l a t e r , the annual K i p l i n g volume r a i s e d a storm of c r i t i c a l i n v e c t i v e and b i t t e r c o n t r o v e r s y that was without precedent or p a r a l l e l . The p u b l i c a t i o n of S t a l k y and Co. i n October, 1899, which c o i n c i d e d i n a u s p i c i o u s l y with the Boers' d e c l a r a t i o n of war, met with an unaccountable degree of x The Bookman, Nov. 1898, p. 52. l 2 1 I b i d . 1 2 2 I b i d . , p. 53. 89 h o s t i l i t y . It i s not easy to dec i d e , at a d i s t a n c e of seventy years and i n a s t a t e of c o n d i t i o n e d i n s e n s i t i v i t y , what i t was about the book that c r i t i c s found d i s t u r b i n g . Why a s e r i e s of innocuous school-boy s t o r i e s should have been widely condemned 12 3 as " i r r e v e r e n t , not true to l i f e and . . . b r u t a l " was a que s t i o n that puzzled K i p l i n g and i s today almost unanswerable. The adventures of B e e t l e , S t a l k y and McTurk were not u n l i k e those of the heroes of the Boys' Own Annual i n 1899. The d i f f e r e n c e l a y i n the s k i l l with which the t a l e s were con-s t r u c t e d , the degree of r e a l i s m , the a p p l i c a t i o n of boy-psychology and p e r i p h e r a l p h i l o s o p h y . The K i p l i n g v e r s i o n d i d not r e p r e s e n t a new approach to the genre. Young readers of the l a t e '90's were not r e s t r i c t e d to m o r a l i z i n g " E r i c i s m " and app a r e n t l y d i d not s u f f e r from any l a c k of popular e n t e r t a i n s ment i n book form. In 1899 the Christmas supplement of the Saturday Review approved a s u b s t a n t i a l number of new p u b l i -c a t i o n s f o r boys. (The l i s t d i d not i n c l u d e S t a l k y and Co. ) The reviewer of "Yarns of School and Sea" was convinced that "the morbild and mawkish s t u f f one f i n d s i n s t o r i e s of the E r i c type are best away." 1 2 4 He was i n complete sympathy with the more robust tone of the new f i c t i o n f o r j u v e n i l e reading but complained that i n f a r too many i n s t a n c e s the c h a r a c t e r s were 1 2 3 S o m e t h i n g of Myself, p. 135. 1 2 l 4 T h e Saturday Review, Dec. 9 , 1899 , p. v i i i . 90 s u p e r f i c i a l l y drawn. He saw the need of a school s t o r y that would i n t e r e s t both boys and a d u l t s , one that would d e s c r i b e l i f e at school with r e a l i s m . The Boys of the P r i o r y School, i n which the d e l i n a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r was good, was "the study of a milksop" who turned out to be a hero. Wynport C o l l e g e developed i t s theme of "the metamorphosis of a s p o i l t c h i l d i n t o a p u b l i c s chool boy" with " p l e n t y of fun and go." The  Boys of Dormitory Three, the "adventures of a sex t e t of cheeky young r a s c a l s , " d i s p l a y e d a good deal of s p i r i t and was " w e l l put t o g e t h e r . " In S t a l k y and Co. the "boys of Study No. 5" were a t r i o of cheeky young r a s c a l s . However, when the r e c o r d of t h e i r escapades had been examined by The Saturday Review i n November, the comments had been h e a v i l y d i s a p p r o v i n g . And there were other c r i t i c s who hastened to press charges of b r u t a l i t y , coarseness and moral d e p r a v i t y . Yet a l l belonged to a gener-a t i o n that s t i l l read Marryat without a qualm. The s u s p i c i o u s searchings and determined f a u l t - f i n d i n g of p o l i t i c a l opponents were behind much of the o u t c r y . Nevertheless the source of offence seemed to go deeper than p o l i t i c s , f o r a number of the author's former well-wishers were a f f r o n t e d by the book, Per-haps i t was because they took t h e i r K i p l i n g very s e r i o u s l y or because they r e f u s e d to accept a degree of r e a l i s m i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the a c t i v i t i e s of the unregenerate young. Per-haps, they had r e t a i n e d a Wordsworthian v i s i o n of boyhood. 91 Whatever the reason f o r t h e i r d i s g u s t , they had a great d e a l to say i n the way of r e p r o b a t i o n . The book's outrageous f e a t u r e s were not soon f o r g o t t e n , the e f f e c t of i t s arraignment p e r s i s t i n g i n t o the new century. In 1905 the well-known educator A.C. Benson r e f e r r e d to S t a l k y i n The Upton L e t t e r s . He had found great l i t e r a r y merit i n the s t o r i e s but s a i d t h at they d i d not give a f a i r p i c t u r e of school l i f e , t h a t the boys were very unusual boys, " h i g h l y -c o l o u r e d , f a n t a s t i c , h o r r i b l y human and yet somehow grotesque," given to "lawlessness u n b r i d l e d and yet o b v i o u s l y wholesome and manly."- 1- 2 5 He acknowledged that i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the masters K i p l i n g "portrayed with remorseless f i d e l i t y the f a u l t s and f o i b l e s of my own c l a s s . " On the other hand he d e c l a r e d , the book was "unjust to school-masters," reducing them to mere "usherdom."- 1- 2 6 In 1911 the Encyclopaedia  B r i t a n n i c a mentioned i t as "a l u r i d account"-'- 2 7 of school l i f e . K i p l i n g ' s s o c i a l i s t c o u n t e r p a r t , H.G. Wells, i n whose memory Sta l k y and Co. had f e s t e r e d f o r twenty ye a r s , c i t e d the s t o r i e s i n h i s O u t l i n e of H i s t o r y as h o r r i d examples of I m p e r i a l i s t propaganda. He a t t r i b u t e d a p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n i s t e r s i g n i f i c a n c e to them, f i n d i n g on every page evidence of "a new scorn f o r the 1 2 5 T h e Upton L e t t e r s (London: Smith, E l d e r and Co., 1905), p. 98. 1 2 6 I b i d . , p. 101. 1 2 7 " R u d y a r d K i p l i n g , " 11th ed., XV, 825. 92 ideas of democracy that had r u l e d the e a r l i e r n i neteenth century, and a r e v i v e d admiration f o r the overbearing and the c r u e l . " It was q u i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the times that Mr. K i p l i n g should lead the c h i l d r e n of the middle and up p e r - c l a s s B r i t i s h p u b l i c back to the Jungle to l e a r n "the law','" and that i n h i s book Sta l k y and Co. he should give an a p p r e c i a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n of the t o r t u r e of two boys by three others . . . . 1 2 8 This i n c i d e n t epitomized a l l the e v i l s of a re t r o g r a d e p o l i t i -c a l system. Before r e s o r t i n g to t o r t u r e , the tea c h i n g seems to be, see that you can pump up a l i t t l e j u s t i f i a b l e moral i n d i g n a t i o n and a l l w i l l be w e l l . I f you have the a u t h o r i t i e s on your s i d e , then you cannot be to blame. Such a p p a r e n t l y , i s the simple d o c t r i n e of t h i s t y p i c a l i m p e r i a l i s t . 1 2 9 Wells' o p i n i o n seemed to be borne out i n Stal k y and Co., i n which he detected a cunning p l o t i n v o l v i n g both church and s t a t e . Headmaster and clergyman t u r n a deaf ear to the complaints of an indig n a n t mother . . . . In t h i s we have the key to the u g l i e s t , the most r e t r o g r e s s i v e , and f i n a l l y f a t a l idea of a t a c i t c o n s p i r a c y between the law and i l l e g a l v i o l e n c e . 3 0 In 1920, f r e e l y i n t e r p r e t e d as p o l i t i c a l a l l e g o r y of the most d e p l o r a b l e k i n d , S t a l k y was i d e n t i f i e d as the crude text-book of what was d e s c r i b e d as " K i p l i n g i s m . " When, a f t e r being s e r i a l i z e d , i t appeared i n book form i n October, 1899, i t provoked a c l i m a c t i c exchange between two 1 2 8 0 u t l i n e of H i s t o r y (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1920), I I , 423. 1 2 9 I b i d . 1 3 0 I b i d . ,p.424. 93 well-known men of l e t t e r s , Robert Buchanan and S i r Walter Besant. The encounter took place i n the Contemporary Review i n three stages - a t t a c k , defense and renewed a s s a u l t . Buchanan's f i r s t abusive a r t i c l e was p u b l i s h e d i n November, 1899, Besant's mild r e p l y i n January, 1900, and the former's savage r e b u t t a l i n February. T h i s word-battle c o i n c i d e d with the h u m i l i a t i n g e a r l y phase of the South A f r i c a n War, which had broken out i n October and was to be a s s o c i a t e d with K i p l i n g almost as i n e v i t a b l y as with Chamberlain, M i l n e r , and Rhodes. Buchanan, a c r o s s - g r a i n e d Glasgow s o c i a l i s t a g e n e r a t i o n o l d e r than K i p l i n g , was the author of many n a r r a t i v e poems, p l a y s , and novels now f o r g o t t e n . He had a l s o a g i f t f o r w r i t -ing damaging c r i t i q u e s , being s t i l l remembered f o r an a r t i c l e i n the Contemporary i n 1871 on "The F l e s h l y School of Poetry" which had brought r e t a l i a t i o n from Swinburne and R o s s e t t i . Almost t h i r t y years l a t e r , when he turned h i s c h o l e r i c a t t e n t i o n to the author of S t a l k y and Co. i n "The Voice of the Hooligan," h i s s t r i c t u r e s were worded i n a manner so f o r c e f u l and unparliamentary that Besant was moved to p r o t e s t . Buchanan at once prepared a second attack intended to demolish both the " h o o l i g a n " and h i s a l l y . Then i l l n e s s put an end to the p o s s i b i l i t y of f u r t h e r passages of arms between the two c r i t i c s , both of whom died i n 1901. P u b l i s h e d subsequently i n pamphlet form as The Voice of the "Hooligan": A D i s c u s s i o n of K i p l i n g i s m , the f i r s t a r t i c l e 94 i n d i c t e d K i p l i n g as the very i n c a r n a t i o n of a l l t h a t was p e r n i c i o u s and abominable i n contemporary s o c i e t y . Buchanan made no s e c r e t of h i s p o l i t i c a l stand. He began by expressing h i s r e g r e t that Gladstone, that " u n s e l f i s h and c o n s c i e n t i o u s statesman," was no longer present to redeem the degeneracy of the age. "Fashionable s o c i e t y , " was, i n h i s o p i n i o n , " r o t t e n - r o o t and branch" and i n i t could be found " n e i t h e r p u r i t y nor decency." S i m i l a r l y popular l i t e r a t u r e had "run to seed i n f i c t i o n of the baser s o r t . " I t s most e x t r a o r d i n a r y f e a t u r e at t h i s moment i s the e x a l t a t i o n to a p o s i t i o n of almost unexampled p o p u l a r i t y of a w r i t e r who i n h i s s i n g l e person adumbrates, I t h i n k , a l l that i s most d e p l o r a b l e , a l l that i s most r e t r o g r a d e and savage, i n the r e s t l e s s and u n i n s t r u c t e d Hooliganism of the time. 1 3-L K i p l i n g ' s r e p u t a t i o n bore no r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s i n c o n s i d e r a b l e l i t e r a r y output of " b r i e f a n e c d o t a l s t o r i e s and o c c a s i o n a l v e r s e s " d e a l i n g with a romantic country i n " l i t t l e kodak-glimpses" - " l i t t l e t a l e s and smoking-room anecdotes seasoned 13 2 with . . . s o c i a l i m p r o p r i e t y . " These were concerned "almost e n t i r e l y with the baser aspects of our c i v i l i z a t i o n . " The author's only merit l a y i n the f a c t that he was " b r i g h t and c l e v e r . " To account f o r such undeserved fame, Buchanan suggested that the average reader had become too l a z y to read longer and 1 9 1 The Contemporary Review, Nov. 1899, p. 778. 1 3 2 I b i d . 95 more s e r i o u s works. In a d d i t i o n to t h i s indolence and apathy, c e r t a i n other f a c t o r s had i n f l u e n c e d p u b l i c o p i n i o n - "the growth of m i l i t a n t and m i l i t a r y s p i r i t , " "Primrose League 13 3 a g g r e s s i o n , " i n d i f f e r e n c e to r e l i g i o n , " and Imperialism. In Barrack-Room B a l l a d s , "Mr. K i p l i n g ' s estimate of him-s e l f as a poet was a d e l u s i o n . " His s t y l e ranged from the "lowest Cockney v u l g a r i t y " to "the very height of what Americans c a l l ' h i g h - f a l u t i n *." The content of " b r u t a l v i o l e n c e . . . h o r r i b l e savagery, unmitigated barbarism" was as r e p u l s i v e as the "tone of v u l g a r i t y and t r i v i a l i t y unredeemed by a touch of human tenderness and p i t y . " The Seven Seas was more v a r i e d and l e s s v u l g a r , but evinced the same " b r u t a l i t y and l a t e n t baseness." Only i n the Jungle Books had the author "got near 13 4 to a r e a l l y i m a g i n a t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n of f i n e m a t e r i a l . " "How, then," Buchanan asked, "are we to account f o r the e x t r a o r d i n a r y p o p u l a r i t y of works so contemptible i n s p i r i t and so barbarous i n e x e c u t i o n ? " Undoubtedly K i p l i n g had been welcomed as a n o v e l t y by a r e a d i n g p u b l i c that had t i r e d of "the i n s i n c e r i t i e s and a f f e c t a t i o n s of the p r o f e s s i o n a l poets" and had been c o n d i t i o n e d by the " v u l g a r i t y , f l i p p a n c y and . . . r a d i c a l u n i n t e l l i g e n c e " of cheap j o u r n a l i s m . In c o n j u n c t i o n with these f a v o r a b l e circumstances he "had the good, or bad, 13 3 The Contemporary Review, Nov. 1899, p. 780. 1 3 4 I b i d . 96 f o r t u n e to come at the very moment when the wave of f a l s e 13 5 Imperialism was c r e s t i n g most s t r o n g l y upward." In Buchanan's e s t i m a t i o n , K i p l i n g , being " i n c a p a b l e of s e r i o u s thought or of deep f e e l i n g " r e presented the v o i c e of the mob: He r e p r e s e n t s , with more or l e s s accuracy, what the mob i s t h i n k i n g , and f o r t h i s reason he i s l i k e l y to be f o r g o t t e n as s w i f t l y and summarily as he has been applauded, nay to be judged and condemned as mean and i n s i g n i f i c a n t on grounds q u i t e as hasty as those on which he has been h a i l e d as important and high m i n d e d . 1 3 6 Buchanan s e i z e d upon Stalky and Co. as i r r e f u t a b l e proof of K i p l i n g ' s "moral baseness." He designated the book " r e p u l s i v e and d i s g u s t i n g , . . . a savage c a r i c a t u r e of boy-hood." S t a l k y and h i s f r i e n d s were i n c r e d i b l y v i c i o u s : It i s simply impossible to show by mere quotations the h o r r i b l e v i l e n e s s of the book d e s c r i b i n g the l i v e s of these three small f i e n d s i n human l i k e n e s s ; only a p e r u s a l of the whole work w i l l convey to the reader i t s t r u l y r e p u l s i v e c h a r a c t e r and to read the pages through, I f e a r , would s u r e l y t e s t the stomach of any s e n s i t i v e r e a d e r . 1 3 7 Here s e v e r a l passages from the episode of the dead cat i n the dormitory were c i t e d to provide examples of "the v u l g a r i t y , the b r u t a l i t y , the savagery" that reeked "on every page." The book was undoubtedly p r o p h e t i c of "recent p o l i t i c a l developments," the war i n South A f r i c a . It r e f l e c t e d the times. Only the s p o i l e d c h i l d of an u t t e r l y b r u t a l i z e d p u b l i c could p o s s i b l y have w r i t t e n S t a l k y and Co. or, having w r i t t e n The Contemporary Review, Nov. 1899, p. 785. 1 3 6 I b i d . 137 T, . . I b i d . 97 i t , have dared to p u b l i s h i t . . . . The heroes of t h i s d e p l o r -able book . . . j o i n i n no honest play or manly s p o r t s , they lounge about, they d r i n k , they smoke, they curse and swear. The s t o r i e s represented the very epitome of Hooliganism, d e p i c t i n g the morals and manners of the s t r e e t r u f f i a n , connot-ing only v i o l e n c e and barbarous outrage and t h r e a t e n i n g "to 13 9 c o r r u p t the pure s p r i n g s of our l i t e r a t u r e . " To t h i s t i r a d e , Walter Besant r e p l i e d promptly but with d i g n i f i e d r e s t r a i n t i n the January i s s u e of the Contemporary, "Is It the Voice of the Hooligan?" He had been d i s t r e s s e d by Buchanan's rancorous a s s a u l t : The most melancholy chapter i n the H i s t o r y of L i t e r a t u r e i s that which r e l a t e s to the a t t a c k s made upon authors by t h e i r contemporaries. Among a l l the p r o f e s s i o n s that of l e t t e r s i s the only one i n which i t s members are permitted to a t t a c k , to d e r i d e , to abuse, to misrepresent each o t h e r . 1 4 0 Having expressed h i s concern at t h i s s t a t e of a f f a i r s , he lamented the absence of true c r i t i c i s m ; "The c r i t i c a l f a c u l t y , always r a r e , i s at the present moment, when i t i s so much wanted . . . more r a r e l y found than any ot h e r . " He reminded Buchanan that a man had no r i g h t to c a l l h i m s e l f a c r i t i c simply because he knew how to w r i t e . The true c r i t i c must be a judge. 13 8 The Contemporary Review, Nov. 1899, p. 785. 13 9 I b i d . , p. 788. The S t a l k y t a l e s were, as K i p l i n g termed them, " t r a c t s or parables on the education of the young." Buchanan was not alone i n f i n d i n g them shocking and b r u t a l . The c r i t i c a l r e a c t i o n to the book caused the author "to wonder, not f o r the f i r s t time, at which end of t h e i r c a r c a s s e s grown men keep t h e i r s c h o o l memories." 1 4 0 I b i d . , Jan. 1900, p. 27. 98 A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g the i d e a l approach to c r i t i c i s m , Besant went on to j u s t i f y the p o p u l a r i t y of K i p l i n g , whose "vast f o l l o w i n g . . . may not be c r i t i c a l , yet does not with one consent give i t s admiration and a f f e c t i o n except f o r good and s u f f i c i e n t 14-1 reasons." He then enumerated some of K i p l i n g ' s s p e c i a l q u a l i t i e s as a" w r i t e r : h i s intense r e a l i s m , h i s a b i l i t y to t e l l a s t o r y i n the r i g h t words, h i s enthusiasm f o r humanity, h i s power of a t t r a c t i n g and i n t e r e s t i n g a l l c l a s s e s of r e a d e r s , h i s amazing v a r i e t y and wealth of m a t e r i a l , h i s great g i f t s of o b s e r v a t i o n and sympathy, h i s o r i g i n a l i t y and d a r i n g . K i p l i n g ' s world-wide audience was an i n d i c a t i o n of h i s s t a t u r e as a w r i t e r . But what an audience i t i s l The people s i t i n a t h e a t r e of which the f r o n t seats are at h i s f e e t ! a n d the f a r t h e s t t i e r s are twelve thousand miles away. He could be compared only with Scott and Dickens but " i n t h e i r 14 2 l i f e t i m e t h e i r audience was s m a l l e r . " Rudyard K i p l i n g i s the f i r s t of the s t o r y t e l l e r s to whom i t has been granted to speak, while he yet l i v e s , to the hundred m i l l i o n s of those who read the Anglo-Saxon t o n g u e . 1 4 3 Defending him a g a i n s t Buchanan's charges of i r r e s p o n s i b l e empirerJxiilding and g l o r i f i c a t i o n of v i o l e n c e , Besant maintained that K i p l i n g was a "son of the Empire, . . . the poet of the Empire," not a "Jingo-Rhymer," and quoted a number of l i n e s 141 The Contemporary Review, Jan. 1900, p. 35. 1 4 2 I b i d . l 4 3 I b i d . 99 from " R e c e s s i o n a l " and passages from other works that demons;: s t r a t e d h i s i n s p i r a t i o n a l q u a l i t i e s . I f he dwelt on scenes of warfare, i t was because "war r e s t o r e s a sense of duty, s a c r i f i c e and p a t r i o t i s m . " He might be a promoter of Empire but h i s motives were above s u s p i c i o n . It i s not on the side of those who are r u l e d and l e d by . . . l u s t ( f o r gold) that K i p l i n g stands: nor i s i t f o r b a r b a r i c conquest and the subjugation of f r e e peoples that he sings . Buchanan had maligned K i p l i n g when he accused him of v u l g a r i t y and t r i v i a l i t y . In Besant's view, he had achieved great t h i n g s i n h i s d e p i c t i o n of the Common Man, r e v e a l i n g "below the rough and coarse e x t e r i o r the manhood of s o l d i e r and s a i l o r , of engmeman and lighthouseman and fisherman." Whereas Buchanan had been f r a n k l y abusive, Besant had conducted h i s c o u n t e r o f f e n s i v e impersonally and reasonably. Now, i n February, 1900, the former r e t u r n e d to the attack and st r u c k out at K i p l i n g and Besant i n a b e l l i g e r e n t a r t i c l e , "The E t h i c s of C r i t i c i s m . " With the symptomatic b i t t e r n e s s of a d i s a p p o i n t e d man, he remarked that Besant's "own career had been sunny . . . and so i t was f i t t i n g and n a t u r a l that he should uphold the ways of L i t e r a t u r e as ways of pleasantness l u fi and pr o f i t . 1 . ' n o He accused h i s opponent, "that good o l d cust o d i a n of the C i t y ' s peace," of p r o c l a i m i n g him' "a rogue 1 4 4T_he_ Contemporary Review, Jan. 1900, p. 38. 1 4 5 I b i d . 1 4 6 I b i d . , Feb. 1900, p. 221. 100 and a l i a r " and a l l because he had "wantonly a s s a u l t e d a good young genius of C h r i s t i a n d i s p o s i t i o n . " Buchanan once again charged K i p l i n g with J i n g o -Imperialism and repeated h i s condemnation of war i n a l l i t s forms as "simply murder with another name." As he moved to the a t t a c k , he commented u n c h a r i t a b l y on a mixed metaphor i n one of Besant's most eloquent passages and mocked the l a t t e r ' s concern f o r the amenities of c r i t i c i s m : Our good S i r Walter, so f u l l of a n x i e t y f o r h i s f e l l o w craftsman, so shocked and shamed when one of those craftsmen p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t h o m i c i d a l mania and J i n g o - p a t r i o t i s m i n a n o t h e r . 1 I + ' He admonished Besant f o r h i s "enthusiasm f o r Mr. Rudyard K i p l i n g " and f o r h i s attempt to j u s t i f y h i s protege' "on the score of a l e g i o n of omnivorous r e a d e r s . " R e g r e t t i n g that he had "to speak so roundly to a harmless s o u l , " he turned h i s a t t e n t i o n from S i r Walter to i n v e i g h a g a i n s t "the egregious Mr. K i p l i n g ' s e v i l i n f l u e n c e " ; and to denounce the a r c h -I m p e r i a l i s t f o r the part he had played i n encouraging " b e n e f i -cent homicide" i n South A f r i c a . The angry and i r r e p r e s s i b l e Buchanan was to have the l a s t word i n the c o n t r o v e r s y f o r years to come. The q u a r r e l which he r e l i n q u i s h e d would be taken up by a younger g e n e r a t i o n of c r i t i c s and, i n many i n s t a n c e s , with the same lack of moder-a t i o n . But the most s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of t h i s debate had nothing to do with Buchanan's thundering i n v e c t i v e . What was 1 4 7 The Contemporary Review, Feb. 1900, p. 226. 101 remarkable was the f a c t t h a t Besant, i n the r o l e of K i p l i n g ' s champion, had been put on the d e f e n s i v e . L i k e Mafeking and Ladysmith, Imperialism and the poet-prophet of Empire hadecome under s i e g e . From 1899 on, K i p l i n g c r i t i c i s m was more l i k e l y to be concerned with manoeuvres of attack and defence than with a simple alignment of opposing f o r c e s . In the three j o u r n a l s that reviewed S t a l k y and Co., there was an i n t e r e s t i n g divergence of o p i n i o n . The Athenaeum gave the book u n h e s i t a t i n g and d e l i g h t e d a p p r o v a l . The Saturday  Review s t r o n g l y p r o t e s t e d i t s f a l s e n e s s and b r u t a l i t y . The Bookman i n v i t e d two schoolmasters to take the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of judging i t s m e r i t . The f i r s t of these guest c r i t i c s , from Charterhouse, denounced the s t o r i e s o u t r i g h t ; the o t h e r , from K i p l i n g " s own school Westward Ho, succeeded i n remaining t a c t -f u l l y noncommittal. The two a r t i c l e s , under the t i t l e " K i p l i n g at S chool," were i l l u s t r a t e d with two new p o r t r a i t s of the author and a cartoon d e p i c t i n g " B e e t l e . " The Athenaeum expressed a s a t i s f a c t i o n t h at was u n q u a l i -f i e d by any doubt. S t a l k y and Co. was an outstanding a c h i e v e -ment. Most E n g l i s h boys - and most Englishmen who have anything of the boy s t i l l i n them - w i l l r e j o i c e i n " S t a l k y and Co." . . . Mr. K i p l i n g . . . has every reason to f e e l proud of the success with which he has photographed the E n g l i s h p u b l i c -s c h o o l boy's t a l k and sentiments.^- 4 8 1 4 8 T h e Athenaeum, Oct. 14, 1899, p. 515. 102 K i p l i n g ' s r e a l i s m was e n t i r e l y admirable - the book contained "no i d e a l i z i n g h a l o . " He sees the B r i t i s h boy with h i s i n f i n i t e c a p a c i t y f o r fun, h i s f i n i t e c a p a c i t y f o r i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n , h i s coarseness i n word and a c t , modified by an u l t r a s e n s i t i v e d e l i c a c y of f e e l i n g i n c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n s . 1 1 + 9 The s t o r i e s had a fundamentally s e r i o u s purpose and an "eminently d i d a c t i c " tone. The author "not only d e s c r i b e s , he defends; the i m p l i c a t i o n of the whole book i s a g l o r i f i c a t i o n of the p u b l i c - s c h o o l method of t r a i n i n g c h a r a c t e r . " In "The 'Flag of t h e i r Country," the boys were shown to despise cheap appeals to t h e i r p a t r i o t i s m and to f e e l r e v u l s i o n and embarrassment i n the presence of "the y e l l o w - b e l l i e d f l a g -f l a p p e r . " The reviewer commented: "Mr. K i p l i n g e v i d e n t l y does not b e l i e v e i n what i s known as appealing toaa.boy's higher f e e l i n g s . " The t a l e s c l e a r l y made up "an organic whole," and i n d i c a t e d a "true a r t i s t r y such as has not been d i s p l a y e d by Mr. K i p l i n g i n h i s previous e f f o r t s . " The book was read by boys with d e l i g h t and pronounced " S p i f f i n g ! " 1 5 0 A f a v o u r i t e t a l e was "The Moral Reformers," with i t s " t o r t u r e " scene. The reviewer, a p p a r e n t l y knowledgable about boys, mentioned i t s b r u t a l f e a t u r e s without d i s a p p r o v a l : " I t has a touch of c r u e l t y i n i t which appeals to the savage elements of t h a t age." 1 4 9 T h e Athenaeum, Oct. 14, 1899, p. 515. 150 I b i d . , p. 516. 103 The Saturday Review took a s e r i o u s and m o r a l i s t i c approach to S t a l k y . The s t o r y of s c h o o l l i f e i s too o f t e n a s u p e r f i c i a l and h i g h l y p e r s o n a l , e p i c of b u l l y i n g , sneaking, smoking and venturing-; out of bounds. None of these o c c u p a t i o n s , not even the f i r s t , i s e s s e n t i a l to the p i c t u r e . 1 1 A l l t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e d the community s p i r i t of a s c h o o l was ignored: The one t h i n g which l i e s i n every boy's experience, . . . namely the s e a r c h i n g domination of the corporate mind . . . i s n e g l e c t e d by the s t o r y t e l l e r , c l e a n omitted, or misunderstood, or n o t i c e d as i f i t were a iok e , only i n one of i t s l e a s t important m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . 1 5 2 Among the e s s e n t i a l s which K i p l i n g had l e f t out of the s t o r i e s were " p u b l i c s p i r i t , i n d i s s o l u b l y bound up with the supremacy of games, . . . the a l l - p e r v a d i n g r i g o u r of good form, . . . the immense sense of p r o p r i e t y , . . . the s o c i a l s c a l e , c a l c u l a t e d on an a t h l e t i c b a s i s , " and "the p e c u l i a r , and f a m i l i a r , i d e a l s of s u c c e s s . " A l l such f a c t s of s t a t e and s o c i e t y must be omitted by the s t o r y t e l l e r , to leave h i s p i c t u r e of s c h o o l a f a n t a s t i c and unrecognizable medley of c h i l d i s h n e s s and c r u e l t y . 1 5 3 Thus anyone expecting a true account of the corporate a c t i v i t i e s of a s c h o o l would be d i s a p p o i n t e d i n and more than l i k e l y r e -v o l t e d by S t a l k y and Co. The r e b e l l i o u s t r i o , S t a l k y , B e e t l e , and McTurk, had been made to " f i l l the canvas," the school be-ing r e l e g a t e d to the background. What, then, was K i p l i n g ' s 1 5 1 The Saturday Review, Nov. 4, 1899, p. i i i . 1 5 2 I b i d . 1 5 3 I b i d . 104 purpose? If the author . . . was not a t t r a c t e d by school l i f e , What i s i t f i r e s h i s i n t e r e s t ? For the book i s w r i t t e n with an almost f e v e r i s h r e l i s h . 1 5 1 + I t was the reviewer's b e l i e f t h a t these slangy d e s c r i p t i o n s of stupendous p r a c t i c a l jokes must have been intended "to make the reader ' f e e l warm i n s i d e , 1 " and that the p u b l i c was, no doubt, expected to a p p r e c i a t e t h i s kind of unpleasant non-sense. The c r i t i q u e ended on a note of w i t h e r i n g i r o n y : And the reader . . . who does not f e e l warm i n s i d e when Mr. K i p l i n g gives the word i s no tr u e B r i t o n . On that head, at l e a s t , the book seems a b s o l u t e l y c o n v i n c i n g . 1 5 5 For the Bookman, Mr. T.E. Page, a master at Charterhouse, wrote an a r t i c l e on Sta l k y and Co. which s t r e s s e d the d e p l o r -able a t t i t u d e of K i p l i n g ' s schoolboys toward the masters. He de s c r i b e d the p r o t a g o n i s t s as "three boys who are at war with the masters, despise the p r e f e c t s and sneer at a l l school 15 6 games.V T h e i r v i c e s i n c l u d e d "a t a s t e f o r s u r r e p t i t i o u s tobacco." With a school-master's touch of s a t i r e , he pointed out a passage i n one of the t a l e s that d i s c u s s e d " e v i l s m e l l s " with "admirable and a p p r e c i a t i v e s k i l l . " But he denounced the l a t e n t r i b a l d r y of an i n c i d e n t i n which Beetle suggested an i n d e l i c a t e rhyme f o r "stenches," and s t r o n g l y o b j e c t e d to the episode d e a l i n g with the t o r t u r e of the school b u l l i e s . In the The Saturday Review, Nov. 1899, p. i i i . 1 5 5 I b i d . , p. i v . 1 5^"Mr. K i p l i n g ' s Schoolmasters and Schoolboys," The Bookman, Nov. 1899, p. 44. 105 f i n a l e x p l o i t of "Study No. 5," which found the t r i o b r i b i n g a g i r l to k i s s a weak p r e f e c t , he detected "a very q u e s t i o n -able tone" which aggravated the extravagant i m p o s s i b i l i t y " and "palpable a b s u r d i t i e s " of the s t o r y . Page's moral i n d i g n a t i o n was f u r t h e r roused by the manner i n which the author d e l i n e a t e d h i s c h a r a c t e r s : Space f o r b i d s me to d w e l l , as I might wish, on the gross c a r i c a t u r e s which Mr. K i p l i n g presents not only of boys but of m a s t e r s . 1 5 7 The headmaster lacked d i g n i t y and the other masters were merely there to have t r i c k s played on them. But the worst example was to be found i n K i p l i n g ' s shocking treatment of Mr. Prout who had been " a c c i d e n t l y drawn as a human being and a gentleman" and who was made the v i c t i m of h i s p u p i l s . In the author's own words, "The boys knew w e l l how to f l i c k him on the raw." 1 ° This kind of t h i n g , Mr. Page d e c l a r e d , was a " d e l i b e r a t e malignancy" that was "wholly v i l e . " In s p i t e of Mr. K i p l i n g , experience shows that boys who set themselves to " f l i c k " a weak but k i n d l y master "on the raw" are very r a r e l y the boys who t u r n out brave o f f i c e r s or d i s t i n -guished men. Happily too they are very r a r e i n P u b l i c Schools. If Mr. K i p l i n g ' s own experiences were indeed such as he d e p i c t s , he would w i s e l y have l e f t them to a kind o b l i v i o n . On the other hand, as a r e c o r d of o r d i n a r y s c h o o l l i f e , h i s book, apart from other d e f e c t s , i s a gross and absolute t r a v e s t y of f a c t s . - 1 - 5 9 A more o b j e c t i v e view was taken by Arthur H. Walker, X 5 / T h e Bookman, Nov. 1899, p. 46. 1 5 8 I b i d . 1 5 9 I b i d . 106 B.A., Headmaster's A s s i s t a n t at the United S e r v i c e s C o l l e g e , Westward Ho. The s e t t i n g of S t a l k y and Co. being h i s own s c h o o l , h i s p o s i t i o n was a t r i f l e awkward, f o r he could n e i t h e r d i r e c t l y approve K i p l i n g ' s supposed reminiscences nor could he condemn so i l l u s t r i o u s an "Old Boy." It i s hardly f a i r to r a i s e the d i r e c t q u e s t i o n of the t r u t h or f a l s i t y of the p i c t u r e s drawn i n the book. Apart from the necessary predominance of "the imaginative element" i n an avowed work of f i c t i o n , the p o i n t of view presented i s that of a b o y . 1 6 0 He saw the background of the s t o r i e s as being "obscured by the foreground" and f e l t that the book might prove dangerous read-ing f o r a schoolboy, "because h i s masters are not l i k e those i n the book and he i s no S t a l k y . " He concluded s e n s i b l y that the work was not to be c r i t i c i z e d as a p i c t u r e of s c h o o l l i f e and r e f u s e d to make any attempt to pronounce on i t s l i t e r a r y m e r i t s : The schoolmaster w i l l , f o r the most p a r t , d e c l i n e to regard i t as i n any way a f f e c t i n g him or h i s work. It i s o u t s i d e h i s province and f o r e i g n to a l l h i s e x p e r i e n c e . 1 1 Walker's statement was c a r e f u l l y and t a c t f u l l y i n e x p r e s s i v e but h i s p e r s o n a l d i s t a s t e f o r the book was c l e a r l y i m p l i e d . By the l a t e '90's K i p l i n g ' s v i r t u a l apotheosis by popular consent had n o t i c e a b l y a f f e c t e d the trend of s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m . The c r i t i c s had been c o n s t r a i n e d to pay him the 1 6 Q T h e Bookman, Nov. 1899, p. 46. 1 6 1 I b i d . 107 r e s p e c t of u n r e m i t t i n g a t t e n t i o n . The m a j o r i t y had taken a hand i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n . The more c o n s e r v a t i v e and c o n s c i -entious had come to speak w e l l of him. Those once i n d i f f e r e n t had been nudged by h i s p o p u l a r i t y i n t o showing an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n h i s work. Others who had l e a r n e d to d i s l i k e him and who d i s t r u s t e d h i s p o p u l a r i t y were kept busy attempting to n e u t r a l i z e h i s i n f l u e n c e . The m i l i t a n t and f a c t i o u s had been impelled to p r e d i c t a b l e c r i t i c a l extremes. The era c l o s e d i n the o r d e a l of a mismanaged war that put to the t e s t the whole concept of Imperialism. A decade of K i p l i n g c r i t i c i s m ended i n noisy polemics. 108 CHAPTER IV When my I m p e r i a l i s t i c i n i q u i t i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d a f t e r the Boer War . . . Something of Myself Mr. K i p l i n g and the p u b l i c have had a magnificent run together, and now there i s a n a t u r a l h a l t , and a mood of qu i e t and surmise. The Bookman, 1903 "Natur a l h a l t " and "mood of surmise," terms t h a t , judg-ing from the b e s t - s e l l e r l i s t s , a f f e c t e d K i p l i n g ' s p u b l i c very l i t t l e , should r a t h e r have been a p p l i e d to the s t a t e of mind of the c r i t i c s . Among these " P r i e s t s and P o n t i f f s , " whom the author n e i t h e r r e s p e c t e d nor attempted to c o n c i l i a t e , 1 the general d e c l i n e of h i s r e p u t a t i o n set i n with the p u b l i c a t i o n of S t a l k y and Co. i n the autumn of 1899. The book came on the market j u s t as the Boers d e c l a r e d war. At t h i s juncture evidences of h o s t i l i t y m u l t i p l i e d i n the l i t e r a r y j o u r n a l s -the anger of rec o g n i z e d enemies, the estrangement of committed f r i e n d s , the c a r p i n g a d j u d i c a t i o n , the grudging h a l f - p r a i s e , the i n t i m a t i o n s of boredom, the d e l i b e r a t e s l i g h t s . The trend p e r s i s t e d and turned i n t o a move to end the K i p l i n g c u l t and v put the i d o l i n h i s r i g h t f u l and u n d i s t i n g u i s h e d p l a c e . That there should be r e v i s i o n s and r e v e r s a l s of o p i n i o n about him was i n e v i t a b l e . The span of c l o s e c r i t i c a l a t t e n t i o n -'•Something of Myself, p. 211. 109 c o i n c i d i n g with almost u n i v e r s a l a c c l a i m , had a l r e a d y l a s t e d f o r ten y e a r s . The reviewers were u n l i k e l y to prolong such f l a t t e r i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n or to maintain t h e i r i n t e r e s t at the high l e v e i of the '90's. But the process by which a vogue g r a d u a l l y wanes was a c c e l e r a t e d by the events of h i s t o r y . The K i p l i n g - f a s h i o n i n l i t e r a t u r e was c l o s e l y l i n k e d with the Chamberlain-fashion i n p o l i t i c a l economy. Both f e l l i n t o d i s -repute as a r e s u l t of the war. Imperialism l o s t ground during the c o n f l i c t and never afterwards recovered i t s v i g o u r . Had that u n p r o f i t a b l e i n t e r -lude i n South A f r i c a been b r i e f , e f f i c i e n t l y conducted, d e c i s i v e and without p a i n f u l a s s o c i a t i o n s , i t would have d i s -turbed - i n England at l e a s t - only the o p p o s i t i o n , the Pro-Boers, the L i t t l e Englanders and the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a . It was however, a h u m i l i a t i n g and uncomfortable b u s i n e s s , f u l l y p u b l i c i z e d i n the p r e s s , domestic and f o r e i g n , and i n the end most of those r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p o l i c i e s that promoted i t were d i s c r e d i t e d . From 1899 on the I m p e r i a l i s t s were every-where embattled. Chamberlain came under heavy and continuous a t t a c k , although as C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y he could n e i t h e r d i r e c t war p o l i c y nor c o n t r o l m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n s . And by the time the war ended, the I m p e r i a l i s t movement, that had so r e c e n t l y r a d i a t e d an optimism i n which business prospered and the stock-market boomed, had l o s t i t s f o l l o w i n g ; i t s c h i e f proponents, t h e i r p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e . Well-known f i g u r e s disappeared 110 from the scene of a c t i o n . C e c i l Rhodes died i n 1902; i n the same year Lord S a l i s b u r y was r e p l a c e d by Arthur B a l f o u r as leader of the U n i o n i s t s . In 1903 Chamberlain, who f o r more than seven years had been the power behind the Prime M i n i s t e r , r e s i g n e d from the Cabinet, having been defeated by the r i g h t -wing C o n s e r v a t i v e s over the t a r i f f i s s u e of Imperial P r e f e r -ence. The embarrassed U n i o n i s t government l i n g e r e d u n t i l the l a s t days of 1905. In the subsequent e l e c t i o n the L i b e r a l s triumphed - even the Tory leader f a i l e d to r e t a i n h i s seat. K i p l i n g ' s day as a government spokesman was over. And as Imperial g l o r i e s had i n f l a t e d h i s fame, so t h e i r e c l i p s e tended to d i m i n i s h h i s claims to r e s p e c t . The A r t i s t s u f f e r e d with the I m p e r i a l i s t . K i p l i n g h i m s e l f , d i s i l l u s i o n e d by war, took a hand i n h i s own undoing. He d i r e c t e d angry, unsubtle verse a g a i n s t a l l whom he considered g u i l t y of d e r e l i c t i o n of t h e i r n a t i o n a l d u t i e s . He struck at m i l i t a r y i n e p t i t u d e , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e back-s l i d i n g , complacency, i n d i f f e r e n c e , p u b l i c apathy and the mani-f o l d s t u p i d i t i e s of t h e o e n t i r e n a t i o n . The admonitory rhymes vented h i s d i s g u s t and i n d i g n a t i o n - "There's somethin' gone small with the l o t , " i n the words of the e x - s o l d i e r i n "Chant Pagan." His most m e r c i l e s s s a t i r e , "The I s l a n d e r s , " was p u b l i s h e d i n the Times e a r l y i n 1902. I t s i r o n i e s spared no one. It was a wholesale d e n u n c i a t i o n that was c e r t a i n to r a n k l e and to provoke an o b s t i n a t e resentment. I l l "The I s l a n d e r s " and other rhymed sermons deepened the c r i t i c s ' "mood of surmise" u n t i l with many i t amounted to a c o n v i c t i o n that K i p l i n g had long been o v e r - r a t e d . He was not a great w r i t e r but an i n c r e d i b l y s u c c e s s f u l popular j o u r n a l i s t of v u l g a r t a s t e s who appealed p r i m a r i l y to the lower c l a s s e s . Too busy with p o l i t i c a l concerns f o r h i s own good, he had de-graded h i s genius. It was therefore almost impossible to admire h i s j work. Ever since S t a l k y and Co., moreover, h i s w r i t i n g had been d e t e r i o r a t i n g . His wartime doggeral had a very o b j e c t i o n a b l e tone. In the c o t e r i e s where p o l i t i c s and l i t e r a t u r e over-lapped, K i p l i n g by now had c o n t r i v e d to a l i e n a t e the u l t r a -C o n s e r v a t i v e s while p e r p e t u a l l y i n f u r i a t i n g the L i b e r a l s . The l a t t e r kept up t h e i r abusive a r t i c l e s i n "various j o u r n a l s , not at a l l badly w r i t t e n , with a most e n v i a b l e genius f o r p e r v e r t i n g or mistaking anything that d i d not s u i t o t h e i r b i l i o u s d o c t r i n e . " The former now began to take the brash I m p e r i a l i s t to task f o r h i s lack of d i g n i t y . In December, 1900, the Anglo-Saxon Review 3 contained an a r t i c l e by Arthur Waugh, "The Poetry of the South A f r i c a n Campaign." The preamble was e s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . o ^Something of Myself, p. 92. 3A s h o r t - l i v e d q u a r t e r l y m i s c e l l a n y of expensive format, e d i t e d and p u b l i s h e d by Randolph C h u r c h i l l ' s widow, Mrs. George C o r n w a l l i s West. 112 There i s . . . no moment so dangerous to c r i t i c i s m as that of the r e a c t i o n from a f i r s t popular acclamation . . . . C r i t i -cism so seldom keeps i t s head, e i t h e r i n the hour of enthusiasm or i n that of r e a c t i o n . The c a p r i c e of cu r r e n t c r i t i c i s m may w e l l be the d e s p a i r of the c r e a t i v e a r t i s t . Over-praise i s fol l o w e d i n an hour by over-blame.^ The c r i t i c s , Waugh went on, had been " g r i e v o u s l y d i s a p p o i n t e d " by the q u a l i t y of the poetry which had come out of the war and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , had been d i s s a t i s f i e d with K i p l i n g ' s con-t r i b u t i o n . Mr. K i p l i n g has, by popular consent, taken rank among us as the poet of the l a r g e r Imperialism and i t was to him that we n a t u r a l l y looked to support the o c c a s i o n . His " R e c e s s i o n a l , " a brave and d i g n i f i e d p i e c e of r h e t o r i c r a t h e r than a great poem, had proved him able to stand above the surging excitement of the hour, and to po i n t a moral that would have fo l l o w e d w e l l upon the c a l l to arms. For i t must be remembered that the country had been spared f o r a long while from a c o n s i d e r a b l e campaign, that a new generat i o n had a r i s e n to whom war meant l i t t l e beyond the glamour of bugles and banners, and f o r whom some search i n g sense of the d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of power was of paramount importance. We were going f o r t h to crush a r e b e l l i o u s s t a t e i n the name of progress and humanity. It was necessary that the blow should be stru c k with no u n c e r t a i n hand; but i t was a l s o r i g h t t h a t i t should be struck with d i g n i t y and s e l f - r e s p e c t . 5 R e g r e t t a b l y , K i p l i n g had neglected to uphold e i t h e r the d i g n i t y of l i t e r a t u r e or of the n a t i o n . He might have w r i t t e n a " P r o c e s s i o n a l " which would have c a r r i e d a burning message to the heart of every s o l d i e r „in the army of which he i s the accepted l a u r e a t e . In the place of t h i s , he wrote "The Absent-Minded Beggar." 6 ^Arthur Waugh, "The Poetry of the South A f r i c a n Campaign," The Anglo-Saxon Review, Dec. 1900, p. 42. 5 I b i d . , p. 46. 6 I b i d . , p. 47. ) 113 The w r i t e r was aware that K i p l i n g had not produced that "remarkable piece of banjo-and-kettledrum v i v a c i t y " b e l i e v i n g i t to be p o e t r y . He explained the purpose of the composition - to r a i s e money f o r c h a r i t a b l e purposes. The v e r s e s , which were patterned on m u s i c - h a l l songs and " f i l l e d . . . with the nudging s p i r i t of v u l g a r i t y , " had r a i s e d l a r g e sums f o r s o l d i e r s ' wives and c h i l d r e n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however, the song appealed to "the rampant passion of commercialism" at a time when high i d e a l s should have been maintained and i t had allowed "the few opponents of the war" to suspect that the campaign might have been undertaken f o r "commercial a c q u i -s i t i o n s . " K i p l i n g ' s appeal had been made on the b a s i s of an " i g n o b l e sentiment" with i t s r e f r a i n "pay, pay, pay" i n d i c a t -ing a "lower code of m o r a l i t y . " Worse s t i l l , the song's c a l c u l a t e d v u l g a r i t y showed that the poet had become i n f e c t e d with the p e r n i c i o u s demagogy of popular j o u r n a l i s m . Year a f t e r year the power of the newspaper has been grow-ing i n England; i t was always a menace to l i t e r a t u r e and i s now a triumphing r i v a l , . . . i n t e l l e c t u a l food f o r an e n t i r e l y new body of r e a d e r s : i t f i l l s the h a l f - e d u c a t e d with f a l s e i d e a l s , and sends the squeamish empty away. 7 It a l s o encouraged "the spread of lower m i d d l e - c l a s s ambition." And K i p l i n g , i n s t e a d of making a stand a g a i n s t t h i s t h r e a t , had with h i s "shouting song handed over the poetry of the hour, s c r i p and scrippage i n t o the hands of s e n s a t i o n a l j o u r n a l i s m . " 8 Waugh complained that K i p l i n g ' s i m i t a t o r s 7Waugh, p. 48. 8 I b i d . , p. 49. 114 f o s t e r e d cockneyism, c y n i c i s m , and the "omnipotent commercial-ism of F l e e t S t r e e t . " Such s c r u p l e s and f e a r s were those of a high Tory convinced that popular j o u r n a l i s m a l l i e d with commercial i n t e r e s t s would lower standards both c u l t u r a l and moral, u n s e t t l e the masses, t h r e a t e n the very i n t e g r i t y of l i t e r a t u r e , and present to the world an i n g l o r i o u s image of B r i t a i n ' s i m p e r i a l m i s s i o n . K i p l i n g the j o u r n a l i s t was accused not merely of being popular but of d e l i b e r a t e l y c o u r t i n g p o p u l a r i t y . In Fame and 9 F i c t i o n : An Enquiry i n t o C e r t a i n P o p u l a r i t i e s , Arnold Bennett examined the v a r i o u s r e c i p e s f o r e x c i t i n g the e n t h u s i -asm of the "average re a d e r , " and noted that an i n f a l l i b l e p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r success was a "d e p l o r a b l e sentimentalism." It was h i s b e l i e f that nothing had " c o n t r i b u t e d more s u r e l y to the vogue of Mr. Rudyard K i p l i n g among the m a j o r i t y than h i s constant abuse and f a l s i f i c a t i o n of s e n t i m e n t . " 1 0 Another unworthy method of c u r r y i n g favour with the p u b l i c was "that of obsequious pampering of mental l a z i n e s s and apathy which marks the most s u c c e s s f u l j o u r n a l i s m . " It was an expedient that K i p l i n g had "not d i s d a i n e d to modify . . . to h i s own ends."-*•-*-9 Bennett undoubtedly had K i p l i n g ' s fame i n mind when he s t a t e d that the only "sound r e p u t a t i o n of an a r t i s t i s o r i g i -n a l l y never due to the p u b l i c but to the c r i t i c s , . . . those persons who have genuine c o n v i c t i o n s about an a r t . " Fame and  F i c t i o n : ( L o n d o n : Grant R i c h a r d s , 1901), p. 197. 1 0 I b i d . , p. 15. i : L I b i d . , p. 135. 115 With the U n i o n i s t s s t i l l i n power and K i p l i n g a p o l i t i -c a l t h r e a t , the f e a r s of the l e f t - w i n g w r i t e r s l e d them to marshal a g a i n s t him a l l the o l d charges and to add to these such new a c c u s a t i o n s as might i n h i b i t h i s undeserved popular-i t y and i n f l u e n c e . A.G. Stephens had t h i s purpose i n mind i n The Red Pagan and f r a n k l y a d v e r t i s e d h i s i n t e n t i o n s . This note of some of K i p l i n g ' s short-comings i s w r i t t e n to a s s i s t i n p u t t i n g him where he belongs, and to serve as a c o u n t e r b l a s t to the a d u l a t i o n of the mob. According to Stephens, l a c k of ma t u r i t y made i t impossible f o r K i p l i n g to w r i t e a novel. He had no i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y but a c h i l d ' s view of l i f e , "the p r e r o g a t i v e of a narrow, un-developed b r a i n . " 1 3 He could not wr i t e of love but i n s t e a d expressed a c h i l d ' s d e l i g h t i n machinery. He was knowing and s u p e r f i c i a l - h i s work was f i l l e d with e r r o r s - and he saw l i f e "as a s e r i e s of disconnected impressions." Stephens went to some t r o u b l e to accuse him of being a shameless p l a g i a r i s t : " I t i s a good t h i n g f o r l i t e r a t u r e t h a t there are few w r i t e r s as unscrupulous as K i p l i n g . " 1 1 + His " R e c e s s i o n a l , " f o r example, could be t r a c e d to at l e a s t three sources. " K i p l i n g took emotion and a t t i t u d e from Newman, metre from Quarles, the l i n e Dominion over palm and pine from 1 2 T h e Red Pagan (Sidney: B u l l e t i n Newspaper Co., L t d . , 1904), p. 138. 1 3 I b i d . , p. 118. 1 4 I b i d . , p. 124. 116 Emerson, and the r e s t from h i s memory and the d a i l y news-p a p e r s . " ^ And y e t , Stephens was f o r c e d to admit, d e s p i t e a l l h i s f a u l t s K i p l i n g was "good." It i s a l l the more p i t y that he should become o f f i c i a l pander to the baser m i l i t a r y and commercial s p i r i t , a l l the more p i t y that h i s w r i t i n g s should be marked by l a p s e s of t a s t e and e x e c u t i o n , of t r u t h and h o n e s t y . 1 6 The same purpose and many of the same arguments were to be found i n the pamphlet Rudyard K i p l i n g : A_ C r i t i c i s m w r i t t e n by John M. Robertson, e d i t o r of the Free Review and a crusad-ing a n t i - I m p e r i a l i s t . Acknowledging that K i p l i n g had the g i f t of " v i v i d v i s u a l i z a t i o n and t e r s e l y v i v i d e x p r e s s i o n , " Robertson denied that h i s work added any " t o t a l and enveloping t r u t h to i t s primary t r u t h i n the matter of v e r i s i m i l i t u d e of 17 d e t a i l . " In other words, "the sense of r e a l i t y i n h i s w r i t -i n g s " was i l l u s o r y f o r a l l " t o t a l c o n g r u i t y was l a c k i n g . " K i p l i n g was " f a l s e to human nat u r e , " morally f a l s e . He d e a l t i n the i n c o n s i s t e n t and the improbable and even h i s p i c t u r e s of Indian l i f e were untrue. Kim was a "bogus miracle."IS The s o l d i e r s i n h i s s t o r i e s were merely the author's mouthpieces and u t t e r e d h i s h e r e s i e s . l 5A.G. Stephens, p. 129. 1 6 I b i d . , p. 137. 1 7 R u d y a r d K i p l i n g : A C r i t i c i s m Reprinted from The  Indian Review, Madras, 1905, p. 5. 1 8 I b i d . , p. 12. 117 He hates a l l opponents of the recent war, and hates S i r Henry Campbell-Bannerman as o f f i c i a l l y t y p i f y i n g them; so h i s Cockney s o l d i e r s must needs v o i c e h i s malice and h i s p a r t i s a n -s h i p , and s n a r l at S i r Henry as "Old B a r b a r i t y " on the score of h i s censure of the p o l i c y of t e r r i t o r i a l d e v a s t a t i o n . The p i c t u r e i s l u d i c r o u s l y f a l s e . The B r i t i s h s o l d i e r i n the f i e l d i s not a p r a t i n g deputy of Lord M i l n e r and Mr. K i p l i n g and the D a i l y Mail.19 Robertson considered him "a man of no t h i n k i n g power, as apart from v i s u a l i z a t i o n and i m a g i n a t i o n . " His treatment of an a g n o s t i c who s u f f e r e d aphasia was proof that he was incapable of c r e a t i n g such a c h a r a c t e r . He a n g r i l y r e s e n t s . . . the p r e t e n s i o n of anybody to r e j e c t the normal r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s which Mr. K i p l i n g emotion-a l l y , i f vaguely, c h e r i s h e s . 2 0 He was a shallow conformist whose i n t o l e r a n c e betrayed h i s "want of i n t e l l e c t . " Turning to the i s s u e of Imperialism, Robertson charged him with preaching the r a c i a l s u p e r i o r i t y of the Anglo-Saxon. It i s q u i t e i n the p r e v a i l i n g t a s t e thus to l e t r a c i a l s e l f - e x a l t a t i o n serve as a c o v e r i n g f o r any multitude of s i n s . Yet i t i s c r i t i c a l l y i n c o n c e i v a b l e that any author's r e p u t a t i o n can be permanently maintained on such a b a s i s . 2 1 K i p l i n g was f u l l of "vaunting" and " v a i n - g l o r y " and "vulgar hatred f o r other r a c e s . " Thus i t i s that Mr. K i p l i n g with h i s underbred swagger and brawling i m p e r i a l i s m , h u m i l i a t e s h i s own race i n the act of g l o r i f y i n g i t . He turns a great l i t e r a r y g i f t to i l l i t e r a r y use, making h i s s t y l e and h i s imagination the instruments of the s p i r i t of Jingo j o u r n a l i s m of a l l r a c e s . 2 2 1 9J.M. Robertson, p. 13. 2 0 I b i d . , p. 14. 2 1 I b i d . , p. 17. 2 2 I b i d . , p. 20. 118 In the o p i n i o n of t h i s L i b e r a l j o u r n a l i s t h i s a t t a c k s on the o p p o s i t i o n showed him to be a stubborn p a r t i s a n , narrow-minded, immature and l a c k i n g i n judgment. A l l t h i s i s p e r f e c t l y i n keeping with Mr. K i p l i n g ' s past r e c o r d . He v i l i f i e s the present L i b e r a l leader as he v i l i f i e d Mr. Gladstone i n the past.. He t r e a t s Boers and Pro-Boers as he t r e a t e d Home Rulers i n previous s t o r i e s . 2 3 Robertson was i n complete agreement with Stephens on the sub-j e c t of K i p l i n g ' s a r t i s t i c d e f i c i e n c i e s . He i s f i n a l l y beyond the pale of great a r t , with a l l h i s g i f t , because of h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l i m i t a t i o n s , which keep him s c h o o l - b o y i s h , p a r o c h i a l , morally v u l g a r i n h i s t o t a l r e l a t i o n -ship to l i f e and to h i s f e l l o w men,^ As an a r t i s t he was "st r o n g only on the temperamental and t e c h n i c a l s i d e . . . and weak to the l a s t degree i n the moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l . " 2 5 The a s s a u l t s of the l e f t - w i n g i n these and s i m i l a r e x e r c i s e s i n pamphleteering were countered by e q u a l l y b i a s e d works devoted to K i p l i n g ' s defence. In Rudyard K i p i n g : The  Man and His Work, G.F. Monkshood and George Gamble undertook h i s v i n d i c a t i o n . The r e s u l t was an absurd c o l l e c t i o n of such u n r e s t r a i n e d t r i b u t e s as "The Empire was a map; Rudyard K i p l i n g made i t a f a c t " ; 2 6 "He i s not only a p a t r i o t h i m s e l f , he i s 2 3 J.M. Robertson, p. 25. 2 4 I b i d . , p. 27. 2 5 I b i d . , p. 29. o c Z DG.F. Monkshood and George Gamble, Rudyard K i p l i n g : The  Man and His Work (London: Greening and Co., L t d . , 1902 ), p. 3i+ 119 a cause of p a t r i o t i s m i n o t h e r s ' 1 ; 2 7 "He i s a F r i e n d , a Force, a F u t u r e . " 2 8 The s l u r s of h i s d e t r a c t o r s , Monkshood and Gamble e i t h e r m e t h o d i c a l l y c o n t r a d i c t e d or r a t i o n a l i z e d . C e r t a i n l y , they acknowledged, he d i d not w r i t e f o r women but f o r men. And while applauding the r e a c t i o n a r y anti-feminism a t t r i b u t e d to him, they condemned "the r e v o l t i n g daughters and s h r i e k i n g s i s t e r h o o d of our day." He was n e i t h e r mad nor u n - E n g l i s h . His work showed t h a t he was e n t i r e l y E n g l i s h , not an " h y s t e r i -c a l C e l t " or " n e u r o t i c Norman," but "Saxon to the marrow, . . . preeminently wholesome and u n c o n v e n t i o n a l l y sane." His views on r a c i a l s u p e r i o r i t y were undoubtedly j u s t i f i e d . It i s a rooted o p i n i o n of h i s that the a r i s i n g of the Englishman i s the f i n e s t t h i n g that has happened i n a l l the world; and there are records not a few, set down i n the p r i n t e d books of H i s t o r y , that r a t h e r go to warrant h i s b e l i e f . 3 0 Commenting on the imputations that h i s education was d e f e c t i v e and h i s i n t e l l e c t i n f e r i o r , Monkshood and Gamble admitted that K i p l i n g was not "academical" and that t h i s a l l e g e d d e f i c i e n c y was "the rock upon which so many of h i s c r i t i c s - f r i e n d l y or otherwise - have foundered." He had no need to prove h i m s e l f a great s c h o l a r ; he was a great a r t i s t . 27 G.F. Monkshood and George Gamble, p. 35. 2 8 I b i d . , p. 38. 2 9 I b i d . , p. 44. 3 0 I b i d . , p. 45. 120 He has been l a b e l l e d as the E n g l i s h Maupassant. This i s the f i n e s t compliment ever p a i d to - Maupassant: one t h i r d of whose work i s unmitigated f i l t h . 3 1 B r u t a l he might be o c c a s i o n a l l y but never "base." His s t y l e might be compressed but i t was not " c o n t o r t e d . " He was not perhaps a prose s t y l i s t but " h i s manner f i t t e d h i s matter" with "none of the long-windedness of e a r l i e r w r i t e r s . " 3 2 He must always be numbered "among the g r e a t e s t of the t e l l e r s of t a l e s . " The a s p e r s i o n s a g a i n s t h i s poetry, h i s a p o l o g i s t s i n d i g -n a n t l y r e f u t e d . A few there are who a s s e r t that Rudyard K i p l i n g cannot write poetry at a l l . Such a s s e r t i o n i s not a mistake; i t i s a f a l s e - h o o d born of malice and envy, or of ignorance and apathy, or a mere love of the conventional. 3§ There was no denying that he was sometimes j o u r n a l i s t i c , and that he used slang upon o c c a s i o n . But h i s work remained "true as w e l l as c l e v e r " and was "brave, i n s p i r i t i n g and manly." That h i s w r i t i n g s were tendentious must be accepted as past d i s p u t e . His f i c t i o n had a s e r i o u s purpose. Rudyard K i p l i n g i s not only a w r i t e r , he i s a propagandist. . . . He has endeavoured to w r i t e across the s k i e s the word Imperialism, and thus to t u r n g e l i d r a t e - p a y e r s i n t o f e r v e n t p a t r i o t s . And he has p a r t l y succeeded. 3 - 4 He had not invented the Imperial idea but had done much to promote the welfare of the Empire. 3J-G.F. Monkshood and George Gamble, p. 47. 3 2 l b i d . , p. 49. 3 3 I b i d . , p. 61. 3 t * I b i d . , p. 274. 121 Imperialism was by him merely e x p l o i t e d - f o r a l l i t was worth which happened to be a great d e a l and happens to be a great d e a l more. 3 5 He had done h i s country an i n v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e by s t r e s s i n g the need f o r preparedness and exposing the a n t i - I m p e r i a l i s t s at home. More than any one p a r t i c u l a r man he has taught us that as t h i n g s are at present ordained, the l i t t l e Englander i s an enemy of h i s c o u n t r y . 3 6 But not even Monkshood and Gamble could f o r g i v e K i p l i n g f o r having w r i t t e n "The I s l a n d e r s , " although they condoned h i s bad t a s t e by e x p l a i n i n g the nature of the p r o v o c a t i o n . The poem i s a c o l l e c t i o n of h a l f - t r u t h s d e l i v e r e d with doubled f o r c e . The poet sang so l o u d l y that he f a i l e d to hear h i m s e l f . That i s one of the s e v e r a l disadvantages of having to shout a g a i n s t an impertinent l i a r l i k e Mr. Lloyd-George, and a j u g g l i n g f a t - w i t l i k e S i r Henry Campbell-Bannerman; above a l l a g a i n s t an i r r e s p o n s i b l e zany l i k e Mr. Labouchere, and an unscrupulous m o r a l i s t l i k e Mr. Stead; every one of whom d i d as much to prolong the Boer war . . . as Steyn, De Wet, Botha and a l l the i r r e c o n c i l a b l e s put t o g e t h e r . 3 7 He should not, however, have condemned the people but the r u l e r s . At the same time i t was a l l the f a u l t of the Op p o s i t i o n and Rudyard K i p l i n g remained "one of the g r e a t e s t f r i e n d s of the B r i t i s h Empire that have stepped to the f r o n t i n t h i s our d a y . " 3 8 3 5G.F. Monkshood and George Gamble, p. 274. 3 6 I b i d . , p. 285. 3 7 I b i d . , pp. 286-287. 3 8 I b i d . , p. 287. 122 There were o t h e r s , more r a t i o n a l and more moderate than Monkshood and Gamble, who came to K i p l i n g ' s defence. An a r t i c l e i n The E n g l i s h I l l u s t r a t e d Magazine i n December, 1903, put forward a reasonable e x p l a n a t i o n of the c u r r e n t c r o s s - f i r e of adverse c r i t i c i s m . Mr. K i p l i n g i s a f o r c e i n p o l i t i c s as i n l e t t e r s . But t h i s makes i t harder to judge him f a i r l y . , . . . '[He] i s very E n g l i s h . . . He l o v e s the d i d a c t i c ; he d a l l i e s g l a d l y with a l l e g o r y ; he has, l i k e Defoe, p r a c t i c a l ends. He i s an a r t i s t born, but a l s o a born preacher, though i t i s f a i r to say, that he does not make hi m s e l f a m i s s i o n a r y , and h i s m i n i s t r a t i o n s are c o n f i n e d to h i s own people who have need of h i s a d v i c e . 3 y J The merits of h i s prose were touched upon, together with h i s t e c h n i c a l e x c e l l e n c e , h i s powers of o b s e r v a t i o n , h i s simple but r a r e a r t i s t r y . His verse showed c e r t a i n weaknesses but was "vigorous and s i n c e r e . " We do not look to him to r i v a l the work of t h i n k e r s l i k e Mr. Meredith, to walk with dreamers l i k e Mr. Yeats or A.E. . . . Mr. K i p l i n g ' s work may s a f e l y be l e f t to speak f o r i t s e l f . . . . He has deserved w e l l of England and w e l l of the Empire. He has never h e s i t a t e d to speak p l a i n l y to h i s country-men . . . . He has been f a i t h f u l to Art a l s o . Perhaps no E n g l i s h man of l e t t e r s s i n c e Byron has seen his ideas and h i s manner of conveying them so widely welcomed among the r e a d i n g p u b l i c . . . . He commands the a t t e n t i o n of the p u b l i c because he can be e a s i l y understood, because h i s manner i s that which h i s age admires and r e c o g n i z e s and be-cause he has something new to say which he must say p l a i n l y and does say well. 1 + (- 1 3 9 F . York Powell, "Rudyard K i p l i n g , " The E n g l i s h I l l u s t r a t e d  Magazine, Dec. 1903, p. 295. 4 0 I b i d . , p. 296. 123 But the a p o l o g i s t s , no matter how eager or how a b l e , had no e f f e c t on the general d r i f t of c r i t i c i s m . A number of w r i t e r s a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r censure to a n o t i c e a b l e d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n the q u a l i t y of h i s work. They p r o f e s s e d to admire h i s e a r l i e r s t o r i e s and poems but could not t o l e r a t e the new K i p l i n g . Hubert Bland of the Sunday C h r o n i c l e remarked on "the obvious, the lamentable, the almost i n e x p l i c a b l e d e c l i n e of h i s l i t e r a r y power" 4 1 a f t e r 1899, and saw i n the post-war years a "dismal s t o r y of decadence." Other c r i t i c s blamed the c o r r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e s of Imperialism. G.K. Chesterton excused K i p l i n g ' s attachment to m i l i t a r i s m on the grounds of h i s love f o r d i s c i p l i n e , order and e f f i c i e n c y . However, he considered the "cosmopolitanism" of the I m p e r i a l i s t a danger-ous i n f l u e n c e . "He admires England but does not love h e r . " 4 2 Arthur Q u i l l e r Couch found him at h i s worst i n j i n g o i s t i c verse that g l o r i f i e d the Empire. Mr. K i p l i n g i n h i s g r e a t e r moments cannot help but see that he, with every i n s p i r e d s i n g e r , i s by r i g h t the prophet of a law and order compared with which a l l the m a j e s t i c law and order of the B r i t i s h Empire are but rags and trumpery. 1 + 3 An anonymous appeal to K i p l i n g to r e t u r n to h i s former s t y l e of w r i t i n g and a h i n t t hat he should avoid Imperial entanglements came presumably from S i r Henry Newbolt, who had 4 1 H u b e r t Bland, Essays by Hubert, p. 46. 4 2G.K. Che s t e r t o n , H e r e t i c s (London: John Lane, 1905 ), p Arthur Q u i l l e r Couch, From a Cornish Window ( B r i s t o l : J.W. Arrowsmith, 1906), p. 2 7 2 ^ 124 been a f a i t h f u l admirer and i m i t a t o r . The Monthly Review, of which he was e d i t o r , i n February, 1903 p u b l i s h e d as an e d i t o r i a l a m i l d l y s a t i r i c "Essay of C r i t i c i s m " w r i t t e n i n h e r o i c c o u p l e t s d e s c r i b i n g the consequences when Imperialism had taken to war and to ve r s e . A p o l l o had deserted Olympus, And i n the forum now h i s a r t employs And what he l a c k s i n knowledge giv e s i n noise. 1* 1* K i p l i n g had not d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f on that o c c a s i o n nor afterwards. "The Indian Drummer has but r a i s e d a boom." A phrase borrowed from "The I s l a n d e r s " appeared i n one couplet with i r o n i c i m p l i c a t i o n . The l o r d l i e s t l i f e ( s i n c e B u l l e r made such hay) Is k i l l i n g men two thousand yards away. 4 5 K i p l i n g had intended "the l o r d l i e s t l i f e " to r e f e r to the or d i n a r y l i f e of a c i v i l i a n 4 6 but the expression was con-s i s t e n t l y i n t e r p r e t e d to mean l i f e i n the army and quoted as proof that he was g u i l t y of j i n g o i s m . But England smiled and l i g h t l y pardoned him For was he not her Mowgli and her Kim. 1* 7 The p a r o d i s t concluded by a p o s t r o p h i z i n g the e r r i n g poet -0 Rudyard, Rudyard, i n our hours of ease (Before the War) you were not hard to p l e a s e . 4 8 44' ' I b i d . , p. 3. *The Monthly Review, Feb. 1903, p. 2, 45. 4 fi Something of Myself, p. 22. 4 7 T h e Monthly Review, Feb. 1903, p. 3. 4 8 I b i d . , p. 4. 125 and urged him to forsake h i s present e v i l ways and r e t u r n to h i s true c a l l i n g . To your Own People you the law could preach, And even now and then without o f f e n c e To Lesser Breeds expose t h e i r l a c k of s e n s e . 1 + 9 Before t u r n i n g to the l i t e r a r y j o u r n a l s under s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i t may be of some i n t e r e s t to examine the caut i o u s views of Edmund Gosse i n h i s a r t i c l e on " E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e " w r i t t e n f o r the Tenth E d i t i o n of the Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a i n 1902. Here K i p l i n g f i g u r e d c o n s p i c u o u s l y among contemporary men of l e t t e r s but no c o n c l u s i v e assessment of h i s work was given. He was the only new poet mentioned by name and was d e s c r i b e d as "the f o u n t a i n and the o r i g i n " of the " I m p e r i a l i s t or N a t i o n a l i s t school of p o e t r y . " 5 0 Although h i s t a l e n t had been much "d i s c u s s e d and d i s p u t e d , . . . the most adverse c r i t i c i s m could not dream of denying h i s i n f l u e n c e as a f o r c e i n recent E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . " T h i s kind of poetry, about which i t i s not u n f a i r to say that - f o r b e t t e r or f o r worse - i t abandoned the slopes of Parnassus f o r the hustings and the m u s i c - h a l l has a t t r a c t e d to i t s p r a c t i c e s e v e r a l w r i t e r s of t a l e n t and a host that have no t a l e n t at a l l . 5 - 1 -In prose f i c t i o n , a c c ording to Gosse, much was being w r i t t e n that seemed q u i t e u n r e l a t e d to cu r r e n t h i s t o r y except 4 9 T h e Monthly Review, Feb. 1903, p. 4. 5 0 Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a , 10th ed., IV, 256. 5 1 I b i d . 126 f o r "the l i t e r a t u r e of c o l o n i a l i m p e r i a l i s m , i n s p i r e d by the extension of the B r i t i s h Empire." Here, at any r a t e , we have a movement which bears a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n to the h i s t o r y of the time. In the f o r e -f r o n t of t h i s moving army stands the f i g u r e of Mr. Rudyard K i p l i n g , whose l i t e r a r y appearance i n England, i n 1890, was so n o v e l , so vigourous, so overwhelming i n i t s sense of i n d i v i d u a l i t y and young l i f e , as to r a i s e him at once to a p o s i t i o n i n the p u b l i c gaze b r i l l i a n t enough almost to discountenance c r i t i c i s m . 5 3 With h i s e a r l y books, h i s Indian s t u d i e s , "so d a z z l i n g i n t h e i r n o v e l t y , " that "perverse romance," The L i g h t that F a i l e d , and the " b r i l l i a n t s u c c e s s , " the Barrack-Room B a l l a d s , he won wide a c c l a i m . The y o u t h f u l Anglo-Indian swept e v e r y t h i n g before him; no such world-wide n o t o r i e t y had, perhaps, ever been obtained by an author so r a p i d l y or so e a r l y i n l i f e . 5 1 1 " Since then, however, h i s p o s i t i o n had come to be l e s s prominent and c r i t i c a l m i s g i v i n g s were apparent. Mr. K i p l i n g ' s work, from Many Inventions of 1893 and The  Jungle Book of 1894, down to Kim of 1901, has been poured f o r t h with great p r o f u s i o n , but has caused l e s s c r i t i c a l amaze-ment. I t has n a t u r a l l y f a l l e n i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e , and taken i t s pla c e i n the g e n e r a l scheme. The picturesqueness of a new landscape, the persuasiveness of a new manner, have l o s t t h e i r f i r s t b e w i l d e r i n g g l i t t e r , and c r i t i c i s m has not f a i l e d to note that these q u a l i t i e s are sometimes achieved at the cost of l i t e r a r y tone and moral d i s t i n c t i o n . 5 5 ^ G o s s e , p. 258 . 5 4 I b i d . 5 3 I b i d . 5 5 I b i d . 127 Nevertheless among the new-comers to the l i t e r a r y scene, K i p l i n g f i l l e d "incomparably the most conspicuous p l a c e , " and " h i s i n f l u e n c e upon the t a s t e and thought of the mass of h i s countrymen" was " u n p a r a l l e l e d among that of a c t i v e men of l e t t e r s at the opening of the 20th c e n t u r y . " 5 7 Gosse s a i d nothing about the recent unpopular verse, nor d i d he a s s o c i a t e the f o r t u n e s of war with the change i n the c r i t i c a l c l i m a t e . An a r t i c l e which appeared i n the Bookman i n January, 1903 c l e a r l y expressed the "mood of surmise" - the disenchant-ment and the l o s s of confidence f e l t by many reviewers and t h e i r d e termination to put K i p l i n g i n h i s p l a c e . In "Mr. K i p l i n g : Where does He Stand?" W i l f r e d Whitten questioned "the v a l i d i t y of h i s claims to d i s t i n c t i o n " : What i s the true nature of h i s achievement? . . . One must not judge of Mr. K i p l i n g ' s l i t e r a r y value by the n o i s e and r a c k e t of h i s progress . . . 5 8 His e s s e n t i a l l a c k was s a i d to be h i s i n a b i l i t y to p o r t r a y i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r ; he could only d e s c r i b e types. Thus he appealed to h i s readers only i n a c o l l e c t i v e sense. His t a l e s have h e l d us spell-bound; h i s songs have possessed us; and yet i t would seem h i s message has always Other contemporary n o v e l i s t s whom Gosse mentioned b r i e f l y were Meredith, Hardy, Stevenson, Shorthouse, Mrs. Humphrey Ward, Besant and Payn. The r i s i n g g e n e r a t i o n was ignored. 5 7 G o s s e , p. 258. 58 The Bookman, Jan. 1903, p. 141. 128 been to the s t r e e t r a t h e r than to the house, to the r a t e -payer r a t h e r than to the man. 5 9 In some r e s p e c t s he resembled Byron; but " K i p l i n g captured us i n the mass," not s i n g l y , whereas Byron "touched men as men." There was another " f a t a l l a c k " i n K i p l i n g ; h i s work f a i l e d to "permanently haunt and b l e s s . " Whitten admitted that he had great powers of o b s e r v a t i o n and an amazing a b i l i t y to a s s i m i l a t e f a c t s . But . . . l i t e r a t u r e does not l i v e by f a c t s alone, how-ever new and strange and p i c t u r e s q u e l y woven. . . . Mr. K i p l i n g ' s g r e a t e s t p o s s e s s i o n must not be confused with true l i t e r a r y power over t h i n g s seen . . . . I f t r u e l i t e r a t u r e i s something more than m a s t e r f u l d i c t i o n and plenteous v i s i o n . . . then i t may be suggested that Mr. K i p l i n g ' s w r i t i n g s are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a l l other of our time i n g i v i n g so much to the reader and so l i t t l e to the man. 6 0 Not even as an I m p e r i a l i s t d i d he s a t i s f y those who hoped f o r the highest i d e a l i s m . Mr. K i p l i n g ' s s e r v i c e s to the Empire . . . have been very great . . . . Great t h i n g s have been done but not the g r e a t e s t or the f i n e s t . . . . His p a t r i o t i s m . . . i n moral depth . . . w i l l not compare with the formative p a t r i o t i s m that breathes through the w r i t i n g s of Mr. M e r e d i t h . 6 1 Whitten's essay was a p p r o p r i a t e l y i l l u s t r a t e d with a r e p r o -d u c t i o n of the famous Punch cartoon of the " R u d d i k i p p l e " , a s m a l l , s p o t t e d , f r o g - l i k e c r e a t u r e . There was a sardonic 59 Whitten, The Bookman, Jan. 1903 141. 5 P-60 I b i d . , p. 142. 61 I b i d . 129 c a p t i o n : This l i t t l e animal i s very strong and vigourous and knows e v e r y t h i n g . I f anybody t r i e s to beat i t , i t b r i n g s out a f r e s h t a i l and then nobody can't touch that e i t h e r . It s t i r s every-body up so i t would make a pew-opener want to die f o r h i s c o u n t r y . 6 2 The changing a t t i t u d e toward K i p l i n g was c l e a r l y r e -f l e c t e d i n the p e r i o d i c a l s , fewer a r t i c l e s being devoted to s e r i o u s a n a l y s i s of h i s work and r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e space given to reviews. He was more l i k e l y to be d i s c u s s e d and compared with others i n gen e r a l essays on poetry and f i c t i o n . Whether the a t t e n t i o n he r e c e i v e d was r e s p e c t f u l or i n s u l t i n g , there was l e s s of i t as time went on - f a r l e s s i n 1905 than i n 1900, when moral i n d i g n a t i o n was at i t s h e i g h t . Not i n f r e q u e n t l y he was ignored a l t o g e t h e r . From the end of the century, the F o r t n i g h t l y Review made only b r i e f r e f e r e n c e s to h i s w r i t i n g s or h i s p o l i t i c s ; a f t e r 1901 Blackwood's seemed to have l o s t i n t e r e s t i n h i s e x c e l l e n c e ; the Edinburgh Review and the Q u a r t e r l y began to c o n s i d e r him unworthy of t h e i r n o t i c e . And although the Contemporary had introduced r e g u l a r reviews, i t did not o f t e n evaluate f i c t i o n and seldom remarked on a new book by K i p l i n g . The Athenaeum, Saturday Review and the Bookman, although they d i f f e r e d on p o i n t s of c r i t i c i s m , showed sign s of t i r i n g of h i s presence, tended to snub h i s recent p r o d u c t i o n s , recanted previous good o p i n i o n s and were disposed to r e l e g a t e him, as being out of favour and out of f a s h i o n , to 6 2 W h i t t e n , The Bookman, Jan. 1903, p. 142. 130 the background of the l i t e r a r y scene. Despite the f a c t t h at the war-time verse was not f o r m a l l y reviewed u n t i l the g r e a t e r part of i t had been c o l l e c t e d with l a t e r poems i n The F i v e Nat ions i n 1903 , some o c c a s i o n a l p i e c e s met with strong d i s a p p r o v a l when they f i r s t appeared. "The Absent Minded Beggar" w r i t t e n to p u b l i c i z e a f u n d - r a i s i n g scheme promoted by the D a i l y M a i l had given o f f e n s e to the f a s t i d i o u s minded. From January to A p r i l , 1900 the Saturday Review p r i n t e d i n i t s correspondence s e c t i o n a s e r i e s of i n d i g n a n t l e t t e r s p r o t e s t i n g a g a i n s t that "miserable p r o d u c t i o n . " These undoubtedly were i n sympathy with e d i t o r i a l views, s i n c e only two l e t t e r s w r i t t e n i n K i p l i n g ' s defence were p u b l i s h e d . . Many of the charges were merely v a r i a t i o n s on f a m i l i a r themes. One correspondent accused the author and the p u b l i s h e r of the song of "having an eye to the commercial sid e of the matter even i n the d i n of war," and entered a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t " K i p l i n g ' s continued degradation of the s o l d i e r s of the Queen." He was a "vulgar Rhymester" of "low i n t e l l e c t u a l standards." Can we not devise something more e l e v a t i n g , more sane, more i n s p i r i n g , more true? Lying on the parched v e l d t of the A f r i c a n s o i l they look up c o n f i d e n t l y to a m e r c i f u l C r e a t o r , before whom they have done t h e i r duty, and t h e i r l a s t sob i s consecrated to mother, or s i s t e r , or w i f e . Surely such men are worthy of a b e t t e r p o e t . 6 3 The Saturday Review, Jan. 20, 1900, p. 79. 131 Another l e t t e r - w r i t e r complained: "Mr. K i p l i n g . . . has done e v i l i n debasing the tone of Imperial f e e l i n g , and i n present-6 4 ing an u t t e r l y f a l s e p i c t u r e of the B r i t i s h army." Several inveighed a g a i n s t the supposed e x p l o i t a t i o n of the p r i v a t e s o l d i e r by the D a i l y M a i l . It i s l i t t l e l e s s than a scandal and an outrage that the s o l d i e r s of the Queen should be e x p l o i t e d and made r i d i c u l o u s f o r the g l o r i f i c a t i o n of a prancing p o e t a s t e r and the pushing p u b l i s h e r of a halfpenny d r e a d f u l . " A , S o l d i e r " p r o f e s s e d h i m s e l f g r a t i f i e d by " p r o t e s t s i n your j o u r n a l . " An "Anglo-Indian C i v i l i a n " backed t h i s " r i g h t e o u s l y indignant p r o t e s t . " The f i r s t complainant wrote again to announce that " K i p l i n g i s m " was "poison, u n c h r i s t i a n , indecent and immoral." He made r e f e r e n c e to other champions of the good cause. Let me say'that i t i s encouraging and comforting to pe r c e i v e day a f t e r day s p r i n g up "heroes" i n t h i s s t r i f e a g a i n s t l i b e r t i n i s m and r e c k l e s s n e s s , the Clement S c o l e s , the Robert Buchanans, the E d i t o r s of Reviews l i k e yours and many o t h e r s , the very Bayards of l i t e r a t u r e and a r t without f e a r and without r e p r o a c h . May you a i d them i n the s t r i f e with t h i s hydraheaded m o n s t e r . 6 6 Of the two correspondents who attempted to exonerate K i p l i n g , the f i r s t p r a i s e d him " f o r b r i n g i n g home the great-ness of our i n h e r i t a n c e " and reminded the p u b l i c t h a t a l l 64 The Saturday Review, Jan. 27, 1900, p. 106. 5 5 I b i d . , Feb. 3, 1900, p. 139. 6 6 I b i d . , A p r i l 7, 1900, p. 427. 132 proceeds of the song went to the "A.M.B." f u n d . 6 7 The other had been i r k e d by " s e n t i m e n t a l u n v e r a c i t i e s " i n one of the o r i g i n a l l e t t e r s and suggested that the w r i t e r study "the fi Q f i g h t i n g man i n h i s t o r y . " In J u l y , 1900, the Q u a r t e r l y , which three years before had bestowed i t s formal b l e s s i n g on K i p l i n g , d e c l a r e d him "the poet of the Imperial i d e a , of the sense of Imperial r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s , and of the romance of Imperial e x p a n s i o n , " 6 9 but i n t i m a t e d , that h i s p o e t i c genius had "many l i m i t a t i o n s " and that he f a i l e d to give adequate expr e s s i o n to "the deeper e f f e c t s of Imperialism." This l a s t phrase r e c a l l e d the s t i r c r e a t e d by "The Absent-Minded Beggar" and s i m i l a r l i g h t v e r s e . Again i n October, 1900, an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " E n g l i s h P a t r i o t i c Poetry," which d e a l t with K i p l i n g ' s b a l l a d s and the work of other poets whose theme was love of country, noted the power of h i s d i c t i o n and rhythm. "Never were words so emphatic strung together i n so emphatic a m e t r e . " 7 0 The p o l i t i c a l e f f i c a c y of such poems could not be d i s p u t e d . No more b i t t e r punishment f o r L i t t l e Englanders, i f any s u r v i v e , could be devised than to set them to paraphrase and annotate Mr. K i p l i n g ' s b a l l a d of "The E n g l i s h F l a g . " 7 1 6 7 T h e Saturday Review, Feb. 10, 1900, p. 173. 6 8 I b i d . , A p r i l 7, 1900, p. 428. 6 9 " T h e C o n d i t i o n s of Great Poetry," The Q u a r t e r l y , J u l y , 1900, p. 170. 7 0 I b i d . , Oct., 1900, p. 527. 7 1 I b i d . , p. 528. 133 Much of what he wrote was, of course, " g l o r i f i e d v u l g a r i t y , " 7 2 and had proved extremely popular. The eleemosynary success that has attended Mr. K i p l i n g ' s song, "The Absent-Minded Beggar," and S i r Arthur S u l l i v a n ' s s e t t i n g , proves that these a r t i s t s have more e x a c t l y gauged (than d i d Tennyson) the mind of the lower middle c l a s s . 7 3 The next year, on J u l y 29, 1901, the Times p u b l i s h e d "The Lesson," which summed up i n an u n d i g n i f i e d j i n g l e what the n a t i o n had l e a r n e d as a r e s u l t of the war. Promptly on August 3, i n "Mr. K i p l i n g ' s Descent," the Saturday Review exclaimed a g a i n s t the abominable e f f r o n t e r y of the poet. Verse so bad and treatment of a s u b j e c t of such high moment so coarse, i n combination, are enough to make the gorge r i s e even of those who possess by no means a very d e l i c a t e stomach.'" 4 He was capable of something b e t t e r . Although h i s short s t o r i e s were notas w e l l w r i t t e n as Mr. Bret Harte's they were s t i l l "uncommonly good." His " R e c e s s i o n a l " was " f i n e . " But these vers e s were "contemptible as l i t e r a t u r e . " "What i s s e r i o u s i s the d e t e s t a b l e v u l g a r i z a t i o n . . . by Mr. K i p l i n g of a su b j e c t of great concern to the n a t i o n . " 7 5 An i n e v i t a b l e "lowering e f f e c t " was to be f e a r e d , the l i n e s having been produced by a w r i t e r with the r e p u t a t i o n of being an Imperial spokesman. 7 9 "The C o n d i t i o n s of Great Poetry," The Q u a r t e r l y , Oct. 1900, p. 534. 7 3 I b i d . , p. 535. 7 i 4The Saturday Review, Aug. 3, 1901, p. 135. 7 5 I b i d . , p. 136. 134 Mr. K i p l i n g has something of a world-wide vogue -ephemeral i t c e r t a i n l y i s but s t i l l world-wide - and we b e l i e v e that there i s a general i d e a , not by any means confine d to t h i s l a n d , that he u t t e r s the v o i c e of Empire i n these matters of Imperial concern . . . . Mr. K i p l i n g ' s verses go f o r t h as the Voice of the n a t i o n . . . . F o r e i g n n a t i o n s cannot f a i l to n o t i c e an e x h i b i t i o n such as t h i s . To them i t i s not Mr. K i p l i n g speaking but England; and they may n o t i c e . . . that even i n h i s h u m i l i a t i n g c o n f e s s i o n s of f a i l u r e and muddle, John B u l l must s w e l l a l i t t l e as he dwells on the f a c t that Heaven has accorded to h i s favoured race a more complete and v a l u a b l e l e s s o n than any other country has had the advantage o f . 7 6 But the Saturday Review d i d not b e l i e v e him to be an " i r r e -mediably l o s t mind" and f e l t that he might yet be capable of redeeming h i m s e l f i f he were warned i n time. It was not u n t i l J u l y , 1902, that the Edinburgh Review r e p o r t e d on K i p l i n g ' s r e c e n t v e r s e . A s u b s t a n t i a l a r t i c l e on "War and Poetry" o u t l i n e d the h i s t o r y of poems i n s p i r e d by war and considered the l i t e r a r y aftermath of South A f r i c a . (The f i n a l Boer surrender had taken p l a c e i n June.) This p o e t i c output had been d i s a p p o i n t i n g - K i p l i n g ' s e f f o r t s among the r e s t . 7 7 Mr. K i p l i n g ' s verses upon the departure f o r Table Bay of the f i f t y thousand men, who were so e a s i l y and r a p i d l y to conquer the Dutch Republics had some go and r i n g but were e p h e m e r a l . 7 8 7 6 T h e Saturday Review, August 3, 1901, p. 135. 7 7 The unlucky Poet Laureate, A l f r e d A u s t i n , had w r i t t e n " e x h o r t a t i o n s hardly e x h i l a r a t i n g enough to animate the g e n t l e s t charge." 7 8 T h e Edinburgh Review, J u l y 1902, p. 42. 135 K i p l i n g , i n being a l l o t t e d a place among poets who wrote of scenes of b a t t l e , must be recognized as an o r i g i n a l genius who had p o p u l a r i z e d h i s a r t . Mr. K i p l i n g suddenly brought down poetry from the high c l i f f s upon which i t had been kept by the Tennyson school to the f a m i l i a r l e v e l s of the s t r e e t , and b a r r a c k s , and s h i p -decks; he won the heart of an immense p u b l i c and he extended the i n f l u e n c e of p o e t r y . He d i d i n poetry that which Macaulay di d i n h i s t o r y , making h i s themes seem l i k e p l a i n and v i s i b l e l i f e . Mr. K i p l i n g has not much used h i s l y r e (he would probably p r e f e r to c a l l i t h i s banjo) to c e l e b r a t e s p e c i f i c deeds of o l d or b a t t l e s of today. He has t r a n s l a t e d i n t o verse with e x t r a -o r d i n a r y f i d e l i t y and s k i l l the view taken of l i f e by the u n l e t t e r e d Englishman of the r o v i n g d i s p o s i t i o n » ... a rough i d e a l i s t i n h i s way, . . . the new U l y s s e s . 7 9 He was an i n n o v a t o r , i n that he saw war not as Byron saw i t i n "The Eve of Waterloo" but i n a l l i t s u g l i n e s s and h o r r o r . Mr. K i p l i n g i s strong as a war r e a l i s t . . . He i s not a mere g l o r i f i e r . He has ventured to d e s c r i b e . . . a shame-f u l rout of B r i t i s h s o l d i e r s . . . . He t e a r s aside the v e i l of p o e t i c weaving by which the b e a u t i e s and g l o r i e s of war are made to appear, the d e f e c t s or u g l i n e s s hidden. This i s something new. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r v a r i e t y of r e a l i s m was new but i t a l s o had something r e p r e h e n s i b l e about i t . Mr. K i p l i n g ' s i s not the f r a n k , c h i l d i s h p leasure i n blood and carnage of o l d Norse, or Welsh, or Afghan bards r e c i t i n g before barbarous audiences. He i s the modern r e a l i s t i c a r t i s t c o n s c i o u s l y d e s c r i b i n g f i g h t s i n which he has not taken part f o r the amusement of a p u b l i c which has a l s o not taken p a r t , but which l i k e s to have i t s s e n s a t i o n s e x c i t e d i n a novel manner. The g r a t e f u l p u b l i c , one may add, rewards i t s favoured bard not l i k e the barbarous c h i e f , with cups or chains of g o l d , /yTh_e Edinburgh Review, J u l y 1902 , p. 48. 8 0 I b i d . , p. 49. 136 but by the purchase of thousands of c o p i e s of cheaply p r i n t e d volume s. 8 1 The modern purveyer of the v i c a r i o u s p l e asures of v i o l e n c e was amply rewarded. But i n thus removing the i d e a l from poetry he dragged i t down to a very low l e v e l of m o r a l i t y . It may be that poetry . . . passes . . . through three stages, those of u n c i v i l i z a t i o n , c i v i l i z a t i o n and d e c i v i l i -z a t i o n - and that the l a s t resembles the f i r s t with an immense moral d i f f e r e n c e . I f Mr. K i p l i n g ' s lower treatment, f o r he had a much higher one at h i s command, a n t i c i p a t e s or founds the war-poetry of the f u t u r e , some w i l l look back with r e g r e t to the s t y l e of "Hohenlinden" and "The Eve of W a t e r l o o . " 8 2 F i n a l l y , the "sad misfortune of war was a theme unworthy of the a r t i s t whose "true and e t e r n a l business i s to express, not the darkness of the world, but the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of love and wisdom." K i p l i n g with a l l h i s o r i g i n a l i t y and r e a l i s m was a disappointment to the Edinburgh Review. K i p l i n g ' s f i r s t book of the 20th century was Kim, a pica-resque novel of which he h i m s e l f approved. "My Daemon," he wrote i n h i s memoirs, "was with me i n the Jungle Books, = Kim 8 3 and both Puck books." The g r e a t e r number of the c r i t i c s , however, were with him only i n t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n of the Jungle  Books. When, preceded by the usual p u b l i s h e r ' s f a n f a r e , Kim 8 1 T h e Edinburgh Review, J u l y 1902, p. 50. 8 2 I b i d . , p. 51. 8 3Something of Myself, p. 210. "And so much f o r Kim which has stood up f o r t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s . There was a good deal of beauty i n i t , and not a l i t t l e wisdom." p. 142. 137 reached the reviewers e a r l y i n October, 1901, they were s t i l l u n e a s i l y mindful of S t a l k y and Co. and aware of the j a r r i n g echoes of "The Absent-Minded Beggar" and other war-time v e r s e . T h e i r response was not, on the whole, encouraging; the a r t i c l e s were sketchy and b r i e f . Even Blackwood's which r e c e i v e d the book with thorough-going a p p r o v a l , reminded i t s p u b l i c of the author's recent l a p s e s of t a s t e . "Having, we c o n f e s s , shied at Stalky and Co., we f e l l with a double p o r t i o n of a l a c r i t y upon 'a new K i p l i n g 1 . " The Q u a r t e r l y a u s t e r e l y deprecated the "not very l u c i d or b r i l l i a n t poems i n the 'Times'," 8 5 and although c o n s i d e r i n g Kim an improvement, expressed impatience and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the author: "One i s i n c l i n e d to wish that Mr. K i p l i n g . . . would cease to play what a c r i t i c l a t e l y c a l l e d h i s r o l e of Inspector-General of the B r i t i s h Empire and would devote a l l the work of h i s remaining days to I n d i a . " The Athenaeum, expressing a g r a t i f i e d s u r p r i s e , took note of the q u a l i t y of "cunning enchantment" d i s p l a y e d by K i p l i n g , "which one had scarce expected of him." The Bookman took up more than h a l f of a s h o r t , c a s u a l review with an a n a l y s i s of the Small Boy Hero i n recent f i c t i o n , c i t i n g Stevenson and other w r i t e r s who had introduced that i m p l a u s i b l e c h a r a c t e r . The Contemporary Review was not i n the l e a s t 8 4Blackwoods, Dec. 1901, p. 793. 8 5 " T h e Romance of I n d i a , " The Q u a r t e r l y Review, J u l y 1902, p. 53. 138 impressed w i t h Kim: "The t a l e . . . i s not of a b s o r b i n g i n t e r e s t , . . . but i t i s beyond comparison b e t t e r than ' S t a l k y and Co. '"86 -r/ n e Saturday Review had some ha r s h t h i n g s to say and wasted no space i n doi n g so, e x p r e s s i n g s u c c i n c t d i s a p p r o v a l i n l e s s than a t h i r d o f a column i n a two-column page and lumping Kim w i t h e q u a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e new works by G i l b e r t P a r k e r and Max Pemberton, The R i g h t o f Way and The  G i a n t ' s Gate. The Q u a r t e r l y ' s c r i t i c c o n c l u d e d t h a t Kim was f a r from b e i n g a noteworthy achievement: "The s t o r y i s n o t h i n g t o speak o f , and comes t o an end, i t seems, because i t i s l o n g ft 7 enough." 0 I t s o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e s were " l i v e l y p i e c e s of d e c r i p t i o n " and the way i n which i t c r e a t e d "the atmosphere i of I n d i a . " A l t h o u g h "not much of a s t o r y , " i t had some m e r i t s , f o r one can r e c o g n i z e "an a l l e g o r y o f a l l l i f e i n the j o i n t 8 8 t r a v e l s of Kim and the lama." Blackwood's, on the o t h e r hand, acknowledged K i p l i n g ' s preeminence: as a w r i t e r o f f i c t i o n . In d i s c u s s i n g a few of the n o v e l s of the l a s t s i x months or so, i t i s r i g h t and p r o p e r , on many accounts which i t were s u p e r f l u o u s t o s p e c i f y , t h a t due precedence s h o u l d be awarded to Mr. K i p l i n g . 8 9 1 8 6 T h e Contemporary Review, Nov. 1901, p. 7 54. 8?The Q u a r t e r l y Review, l o c . c i t . 8 8 I b i d . , p. 55. " B l a c k w o o d ' s Magazine, Dec. 1901, p. 793. 139 The reader was assured that he would not be d i s a p p o i n t e d i n Kim. "Mr. K i p l i n g has d e c i d e d l y "acquired merit by t h i s h i s l a t e s t essay. There i s a f a s c i n a t i o n , almost magic i n every page of the d e l i g h t f u l volume." 9 0 A f t e r g i v i n g a d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e of the s t o r y , the reviewer commended "a p o r t r a i t g a l l e r y of unusual extent and i n t e r e s t " and i n p a r t i c u l a r the c h a r a c t e r study of Kim, "from f i r s t to l a s t a masterly"con-c e p t i o n " and as a p i c t u r e of adolescence "incomparably f r e s h and true." 9- 1- Only the two E n g l i s h c h a p l a i n s , shown to be obtuse i n t h e i r d e a l i n g s with Kim and the lama, were not con-s i d e r e d to be w e l l drawn or b e l i e v a b l e . Obviously the value of the novel l a y i n i t s i m p e r i a l message. Its s e c r e t l i e s i n the wonderful panorama i t u n r o l l s before us of the l i f e of the great P e n i n s u l a over whose government England has now p r e s i d e d f o r more than a century. Z e a l o u s l y , Blackwood* s emphasized the p o l i t i c a l import of the work. We may not leave Mr. K i p l i n g ' s book without b r i e f r e f e r e n c e to the sense of e x h i l a r a t i o n with which i t cannot but be read by a l l B r i t o n s who are l o v e r s of t h e i r country. The episode of the Russian and the French e x p l o r e r whose d i s c o m f i t u r e i s so d e x t e r o u s l y engineered by Hurree, i s to us one of the most p l e a s i n g , as i t i s c e r t a i n l y one of the most e n t e r t a i n i n g i n the book. To the d e s p i c a b l e m i n o r i t y of our country - men who i n v a r i a b l y l a v i s h t h e i r sympathy and y uBlackwood's Magazine, Dec. 1901, p. 793. 9 1 I b i d . , p. 794. 9 2 I b i d . , p. 795. 140 support upon the king's enemies, the whole tone of the work w i l l be as g a l l and wormwood. Mr. K i p l i n g l i f t s the v e i l and r e v e a l s a wheel or two at work ni g h t and day f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of our Indian Empire.93 The F o r t n i g h t l y Review f a i l e d to mention Kim but i n August, 1902, a l l u d e d b r i e f l y to the Indian t a l e s i n "Some Phases i n F i c t i o n . " The c r i t i c , Walter S i c h e l , s t a t e d that the author possessed "no f i n e r sense of the e x t e r n a l and s p i r i t u a l , " a judgment app a r e n t l y intended to i n d i c a t e a lack of true p e r c e p t i o n and i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y . Mr. K i p l i n g had recourse to the u n d i s c i p l i n e d , unmechani-c a l E a s t , to the c l a s h of war and the tragi-comedies of the camp f o r h i s v i v i d presentments - presentments too o f t e n p i t c h e d i n the modern twang of the banjo; presentments so j e r k y and r a p i d that the breath i s o f t e n taken away - v o c a l a l s o with the p a t t e r of the s t r e e t u r c h i n , f o r poet as he undoubtably i s , he remains the "Gavroche" of f i c t i o n . 9 1 * This passage conveyed s e v e r a l of that K i p l i n g ' s s t y l e was abrupt, emphatic and that he h i m s e l f was a s t r e e t u r c h i n among w r i t e r s . the customary o b j e c t i o n s -h i g h l y coloured and over-i n n a t e l y v u l g a r and immature, The Contemporary Review pointed out that the c r i t i c s were by no means i n agreement i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n of Kim. There has been an agreeable d i v e r s i t y of o p i n i o n among the reviewers concerning Mr. Rudyard K i p l i n g ' s new s t o r y 'Kim,' . . . One t e l l s us i t i s unredeemed t r a s h , another that i t i s nothing l e s s than a masterpiece. N e i t h e r statement i s t r u e . Blackwood's Magazine, Dec. 1901, p. 793. 9 ^ F o r t n i g h t l y Review, Aug. 1902, p. 290. 141 Without Mr. K i p l i n g ' s name on the t i t l e page the book would a t t r a c t l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n ; but such as might by chance take i t up would f i n d i t i n p a r t s wonderfully v i v i d and p i c t u r e s q u e , i f i n others g r i e v o u s l y heavy and d u l l . 9 5 Only the passages of d e s c r i p t i o n redeemed the book, which was nothing more than "a s e r i e s of short sketches." Mr. K i p l i n g observes with uncommon sharpness and d e s c r i b e s with abounding v i g o u r , but h i s i s not the imagination that can s e i z e and mould l a r g e and complicated i s s u e s , whether of circumstance or of c h a r a c t e r . Kim contained "nothing h a l f so good as 'The Drums of the Fore and A f t ' or 'Krishna Mulvaney'," two of the e a r l y t a l e s of the Indian army. The book i n some r e s p e c t s exceeded the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the Athenaeum. There was a-new s e n s i t i v i t y i n the w r i t i n g . , To us i t seems to c o n t a i n evidence of a higher q u a l i t y of o b s e r v a t i o n and d i v i n a t i o n , of something more of s p i r i t u a l beauty and a s p i r a t i o n u n d e r l y i n g phenomena than we had reckoned o n . 9 7 The p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r s were given due p r a i s e , the " p i l g r i m lama" being o u t s t a n d i n g . Kim, although a "complete boy," was i n c l i n e d to prove too c l e v e r . C e r t a i n scenes showed a " r a t h e r b r u t a l energy," i n p a r t i c u l a r the f i g h t with the s p i e s . But, u n f o r t u n a t e l y the w r i t i n g had d e t e r i o r a t e d . The s t y l e I s , we are s o r r y to f i n d , not good. It i s not necessary, or indeed d e s i r a b l e , to t o r t u r e the E n g l i s h language i n order to be v i v i d . 9 8 9 5 T h e Contemporary Review, Nov. 1901, p. 754. 9 6 I b i d . 9 7 T h e Athenaeum, Oct. 26, 1901, p. 552. 9 8 l b i d . 142 No examples of the supposed barbarisms were quoted i n the a r t i c l e . The Saturday Review's b r i e f n o t i c e contained nothing t h a t could be c a l l e d complimentary, and much that might have been intended as a c a l c u l a t e d i n s u l t . Once again the d i s t i n c t i v e , mocking s t y l e was suggestive of Max Beerbohm. The r e a d i n g of a long s t o r y by Mr. K i p l i n g i n s p i r e d the r e f l e c t i o n that h i s proper sphere i s the short s t o r y , j u s t as the reading of h i s short s t o r i e s o f t e n provokes a d e s i r e that he would r e f r a i n from w r i t i n g a l t o g e t h e r . " The n o v e l , the anonymous reviewer went on m a l i c i o u s l y , was "not a l t o g e t h e r without m e r i t s , f o r the author has e v i d e n t l y t r i e d very hard to f e e l i n sympathy with the s p i r i t of the O r i e n t . . . . But the g e n e r a l e f f e c t i s one of intense weariness." As a r e s u l t of c u r s o r y r e a d i n g or d e l i b e r a t e mis-r e a d i n g , the reviewer gave a f a l s e p i c t u r e of Kim, who was accused of "not being so savoury a c h a r a c t e r as Mr. K i p l i n g e v i d e n t l y b e l i e v e s . " I 0 0 Kimball 0 1Hara p i c k s up a l i v i n g as a pander with a l l the p r e c o c i t y of a young O r i e n t a l and . . . i s e a s i l y turned i n t o one of the shrewdish s p i e s of the Indian Government. The tone of the review was s p i t e f u l ; the purpose, d e r i s o r y and i t s hasty c o n c l u d i n g sentences betrayed the same i l l - w i l l . Fear takes p o s s e s s i o n of us l e s t the author should be so i l l - a d v i s e d as to p u b l i s h a s e q u e l . The i l l u s t r a t i o n s are o r i g i n a l but s c a r c e l y c o n v i n c i n g , and we must p r o t e s t a g a i n s t " T h e Saturday Review, Oct. 12, 1901, p. 466. 1 0 0 I b i d . 143 the author's i r r i t a t i n g h a b i t of p r e f a c i n g each chapter with a p i e c e of h i s own dogg e r e l , n e a r l y always p o i n t l e s s and p e r p l e x i n g . 1 0 1 This l a s t piece of und i s g u i s e d animosity could s c a r c e l y q u a l i f y as l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m and was not much d i f f e r e n t , except i n s t y l e , from s i m i l a r a t t a c k s of the '90's. Y.Y. of the Bookman d i d not e n t e r t a i n a very high o p i n i o n of Kim. In a p e r f u n c t o r y review, he p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t the j u v e n i l e hero "the small boy who acts by i n t u i t i o n p r e c i s e l y l i k e a b i g , b o l d , c r a f t y , experienced man." He deplored the a l l too frequent appearances of t h i s " i n c r e d i b l e young imposter" i n c u r r e n t f i c t i o n and warned that " t h i s f r e a k " would soon be "exaggerated to i t s d e a t h . " 1 0 2 Never-t h e l e s s he conceded that novels i n which the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r was a boy d i d serve to counteract an u n d e s i r a b l e trend i n contemporary w r i t i n g . The s t r o n g e s t charm of these books i s that they s i m p l i f y humanity by e l i m i n a t i n g one of i t s c o m p l i c a t i o n s - a sexual p a s s i o n . . . . It i s because such books have done and are doing much to f o s t e r the h e a l t h i e s t and manliest i n s t i n c t s and to s p o i l the f l a v o u r of p r u r i e n t novels and the problem-p l a y s , that we choose d e l i b e r a t e l y to be b l i n d to the i m p r o b a b i l i t y of 'Kim', nay even to i t s i n c i d e n t a l c o a r s e -n e s s . 1 0 3 Y.Y.'s c a r e l e s s reading of the s t o r y r e s u l t e d i n some c u r i o u s c o n c l u s i o n s and misapprehensions concerning the precocious 1 0 1 T h e Saturday Review, Oct. 12, 1901, p. 467. 1 0 2 T h e Bookman, Nov. 1901, p. 18. 1 0 3 I b i d . 1-44 u r c h i n (Kim was t h i r t e e n , not eleven, when he f i r s t met the lama). The whole book, Y.Y. decided, had a good many f a u l t s - an i n c r e d i b l e hero, an "absurd r e v i s i o n of 'Jew F a g i n , ' " i n Mr. Lurgan, and s e c r e t s e r v i c e marvels s c a r c e l y to be b e l i e v e d by the s e n s i b l e reader. But there was st r e n g t h shown i n the d e l i n e a t i o n of the n a t i v e c h a r a c t e r s , who were " a l i v e , d i s t i n c t i v e and . . . r a c y . " Above a l l there was "the d e l i g h t f u l o l d lama." "But what held the book together seemed to be the s k i l f u l use of l o c a l c o l o u r " and the "sympathetic f l a s h e s that are Mr. K i p l i n g ' s p e c u l i a r g l o r y , " e f f e c t s which gave the novel i t s p r i n c i p a l c l a i m to d i s t i n c t i o n . I t s charm l i e s i n i t s t r a v e l p i c t u r e s , peopled with a l i f e so strange to our eyes, yet as he p a i n t s i t , so near to our h e a r t s . And i t s g l o r y i n those magic touches, those l i g h t n i n g f l a s h e s which f o r an i n s t a n t l i g h t up some s e c r e t h i d i n g p l a c e of the Common World-Soul, and show the t r e a s u r e w i t h i n to be pure, b r i g h t gold.-*- 0 4 T h i s f i n a l f l o u r i s h of hermetic a l l u s i o n was q u i t e i n c o n s i s t e n t with the g i s t of the review, which d i d not recommend Kim to the reader. K i p l i n g had yet another book ready i n the autumn of 1902, a c o l l e c t i o n of t a l e s f o r young c h i l d r e n . The Just So  S t o r i e s were w e l l r e c e i v e d i n modest reviews by the Athenaeum and the Bookman and dismissed i n ei g h t l i n e s by the Saturday  Review. 1 0 4 T h e Bookman, Nov. 1901, p. 19. 145 The Athenaeum int i m a t e d that K i p l i n g met with a gr e a t e r degree of success i n w r i t i n g f o r c h i l d r e n than i n i n t e r f e r i n g i n p o l i t i c a l matters. He understands young folk's as few w r i t e r s do, and b e t t e r than other mysteries which he has attempted to t a c k l e with expert h a s t e . 1 ° 5 The new work should r e g a i n f o r him "the favour which he has l o s t i n some quart e r s by i n d i f f e r e n t v e r s e . " It was an "outstanding book." The Saturday Review objected to the "slangy, c a r e l e s s w r i t i n g , " considered the s t o r i e s "vague and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , " except f o r "The Cat that Walked by Himself" and "The B u t t e r f l y that Stamped." 1 0 6 G.K. Chesterton reviewed the J u s t So S t o r i e s f o r the Bookman. Mr. Rudyard K i p l i n g i s a most e x t r a o r d i n a r y and bewilder-ing genius. Some of us have r e c e n t l y had reason to p r o t e s t a g a i n s t c e r t a i n phases of h i s l a t e r development, and we p r o t e s t e d because they were pert and cockney and c r u e l and f u l l of that p r e c o c i o u s o l d age which i s the worst t h i n g i n t h i s d i f f i c u l t cosmos, a t h i n g which combines the b r u t a l i t y of youth with the d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t of a n t i q u i t y , which i s o l d age without i t s c h a r i t y and youth without i t s hope.-'-07 A f t e r v o i c i n g t h i s r a t h e r obscure complaint, which was probably l e v e l l e d at S t a l k y and Co., he paid a generous lO^The Athenaeum, Oct. 4, 1902, p. 447. 1 0 6 T h e Saturday Review, Dec. 6, 1902, p. v i i i . 1 0 7 " M r . K i p l i n g ' s J u s t So S t o r i e s , " The Bookman, Nov. 1902, p. 57. 146 t r i b u t e to the l a t e s t work, " t h i s superb t h i n g . " The s t o r i e s were "new legends" and read " l i k e f a i r y - t a l e s t o l d to men i n the morning of the w o r l d . " 1 0 8 When e a r l y i n 1903 a dramatized v e r s i o n of The L i g h t  t hat F a i l e d was produced i n London, "Max" of the Saturday  Review took the o p p o r t u n i t y to f l e e r at the author. " K i p l i n g ' s E n t i r e " was a f o r c e d and unpleasant l i t t l e essay, which had no other purpose than to a d v e r t i s e Beerbohm's obsessive d i s l i k e of Rudyard K i p l i n g . The author's name, he a s s e r t e d , was " o b v i o u s l y a pseudonym f o r a woman," f o r the t y p i c a l K i p l i n g heroes - among them Dick Heldar, "a brute and a bounder" - were "so i n s i s t e n t on t h e i r manliness that t h e i r c r e a t o r must be f e m i n i n e . " 1 0 9 The p e t t i n e s s of Beerbohm's attack was unredeemed by the usual w i t t y i n s u l t s . Influenced more by envy and p r e j u d i c e than by a concern f o r l i t e r a r y standards, "Max" r a i l e d on f o r many years i n cartoon and i n p r i n t a g a i n s t the i n t o l e r a b l e o u t s i d e r , who had f o r so long held the foremost place i n popular f a v o u r . By October the c r i t i c s were hard at work on The Jive Nations, a c o l l e c t i o n of uneven v e r s e , some of which had a l r e a d y been roughly handled. They r e j e c t e d i t almost unanimously, such of the new p i e c e s as had merit having l O ^ C h e s t e r t o n , p. 57. It was t h i s same copy of the Bookman that contained Whitten's s c e p t i c a l essay, "Mr. K i p l i n g : Where Does He Stand?" 10 9 The Saturday Review, Feb. 14, 1903, p. 199. 147 s u f f e r e d from contamination with those p r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d . The F o r t n i g h t l y Review d i d not review The F i v e Nat ions but p r i n t e d an essay by G.K. Chesterton on "The P o l i t i c a l Poetry of Mr. W i l l i a m Watson," i n which K i p l i n g was c i t e d as a f o i l f o r Watson, a poet known f o r h i s pro-Boer sympathies. Chesterton r e f e r r e d to the former's " f o r e i g n n e s s , " a n o t i o n which he seemed to c h e r i s h and which he developed f u r t h e r i n H e r e t i c s . K i p l i n g was u n - E n g l i s h ; h i s methods were French. He resembled Zola and Maupassant and the French decadents who wrote poetry i n the argot of the slums. His very O r i e n t a l i s m must be c a l l e d French. Moreover h i s s t o r i e s were unquestionably " s u l t r y . " His was "an a l i e n landscape," whereas that of Mr. Watson was E n g l i s h - not popular perhaps, but " M i l t o n i c and W o r d s w o r t h i a n . " x l Q The French i n f l u e n c e was what made K i p l i n g ' s " s p l e n d i d r e a l i s m and p i c t u r e s q u e n e s s " seem e s p e c i a l l y o r i g i n a l . The Contemporary Review, i n summing up The Five Nat i o n s , compared K i p l i n g and W i l l i a m Watson, to the former's d i s -advantage. It was K i p l i n g ' s work that had d e t e r i o r a t e d , not that of h i s r i v a l . We f i n d no f a l l i n g - o f f i n those q u a l i t i e s that have given Mr. Watson so high a p o s i t i o n among l i v i n g w r i t e r s of E n g l i s h v e r s e . i i l 1 1 0 T h e F o r t n i g h t l y Review, Nov. 1903, p. 765. 1 1 1The_ Contemporary Review, Nov. 1903 , p. 758. 148 K i p l i n g , of course, would always f i n d an audience among the u n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g p u b l i c . Those who l i k e t h i s s o r t of book w i l l f i n d . t h i s the s o r t of book they l i k e . . . . Popular a c c l a i m has enthroned Mr. K i p l i n g as the Poet of Empire, our one great n a t i o n a l s i n g e r . But i s he a Poet? Is he not r a t h e r an a n t i - p o e t v i s i t e d at r a r e moments by i n e x p l i c a b l e p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n s . The popular a t t i t u d e toward h i s w r i t i n g was i n s u f f e r a b l e , It has come to t h i s - you must be touched to ecstasy by Mr. K i p l i n g ' s muse, or you are a L i t t l e Englander, a pro-Boer, an a n t i - I m p e r i a l i s t . . . . Much as I admire c e r t a i n phases of Mr. K i p l i n g ' s genius, the i d e a l s of manhood and nationhood t h a t f i n d u t t e r a n c e i n h i s verse are as repugnant to me as t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n i s exacerbating.-'' 1 3 Much of h i s output was o f f e n s i v e , h i s verse on the South A f r i c a n War was e x e c r a b l e ; "The Lesson," " v u l g a r , i n c r e d i b l e d o g g e r e l . " H ^ He d i d not r e f l e c t honour on h i s countrymen. When a n a t i o n chooses an a n t i - p o e t as the i n t e r p r e t e r and, i f he be strong enough, as the moulder of i t s highest a s p i r a t i o n s , i t must s u r e l y be a matter of grave concern to every t h i n k i n g member of the community.1-'-5 The Athenaeum found f a u l t with the tiresome d i d a c t i c i s m of the poems. We hate poetry, s a i d a great poet, that has a p alpable design upon us. The most f a m i l i a r part of t h i s volume i s open 1 1 2T_he Contemporary Review, Nov. 1903 , p. 758 . 1 1 3 I b i d . 1 1 4 I b i d . , p. 759. 1 1 5 I b i d . < l>+9 to such a v e r s i o n ; we have Mr. K i p l i n g ' s lessons concerning k i n s h i p , geography, war, and p o l i t i c s so dinned i n t o our ears by h i s and other f o r c i b l e means that they now seem s t a l e i n n o v a t i o n s which have become trui s m s , a b e l a t e d second h e l p -ing to a not always p a l a t a b l e dish.116 Admittedly K i p l i n g had done "much f o r the idea of i m p e r i a l i s m , perhaps more than any other l i v i n g man," and " R e c e s s i o n a l " and two or three other p a t r i o t i c poems of recent date were admirable, but "The F i v e Nations" i n c l u d e d some very bad v e r s e , "sad d o g g e r e l " which was "unworthy of him and g r o s s l y unworthy of the B r i t i s h people." The worst of i t was "the i n t e l l e c t u a l v u l g a r i t y of 'The Lesson;*" There were, however, a few signs of b e t t e r poetry and a more s p i r i t u a l approach. The Saturday Review condemned the book o u t r i g h t , and expressed the b e l i e f t h a t K i p l i n g ' s h a c k - w r i t i n g career had destroyed h i s t a l e n t f o r p o e t r y . Unhappily, whatever of the poet there was i n Mr. K i p l i n g was gnarled and t w i s t e d from i t s r i g h t growth . . . by h i s d e l i b e r a t e c h oice of the q u a l i t i e s of j o u r n a l i s m above the q u a l i t i e s of l i t e r a t u r e . 7 "The Sea and the H i l l s " was "ruined by the emphasis on language," by " i n e x p l i c a b l e v u l g a r i s m s " and "bathos of thought." As the "Imperial p u l p i t e e r " he had been g u i l t y of p e r p e t r a t i n g "The Lesson" and "The I s l a n d e r s . " Journalism had encouraged h i s bad t a s t e and coarseness. 1 1 6 T h e Athenaeum, Oct. 10, 1903, p. 474. 1 1 7 " M r . K i p l i n g , J o u r n a l i s t , " The Saturday Review, Oct. 31, 1903, p. 548. 150 He has f a l l e n i n t o a v u l g a r i t y of c o n c e i t which, as a l i e i n the s o u l , i n t e n t i o n a l l y k i l l s the c l e a n e r i n s p i r a t i o n . Mr. K i p l i n g may be many t h i n g s ; he i s not a p o e t . 1 1 8 The November Bookman i n c l u d e d The Fi v e Nat ions among the "books most i n demand during the month" and, at the same time, gave i t a very d i s p a r a g i n g review. In "To Poets - Two P a t r i o t i s m s , " Y.Y. c o n t r a s t e d K i p l i n g with W i l l i a m Watson. In g l e a n i n g i n t o a l i t t l e volume h i s p a t r i o t i c e f f u s i o n s of the l a s t few ye a r s , Mr. Watson, not a l i t t l e to h i s advantage, has j u s t been f o r e s t a l l e d by Mr. K i p l i n g . Even i n j u s t i c e to the l a t t e r , be sure to read them i n t h e i r due order, otherwise you may be engulfed i n a h o r r i b l e doubt whether any of Mr. K i p l i n g ' s volume, even the " R e c e s s i o n a l " i s true poetry at a l l . 1 1 9 Watson, s a i d the reviewer, was a true poet and although d i s -p l a y i n g "a narrowness of p r a c t i c a l view," and "whimsical p r e p o s s e s s i o n s , " he i n v a r i a b l y gave proof of a " c o n s c i e n t i o u s refinement of c r a f t s m a n s h i p . " K i p l i n g , on the other hand, was "the f e a r l e s s and exuberant genius," who could "do a few t h i n g s s u p e r l a t i v e l y , most t h i n g s c l e v e r l y , and always i n a way of h i s own. 1 2 0 From the very f i r s t we reco g n i z e d i n Mr. K i p l i n g some-t h i n g g r e a t e r than a popular t a l e w r i t e r , and s t i l l b e l i e v e that he w i l l s u r v i v e as the most o r i g i n a l , most wonderful l i t e r a r y phenomenon of the l a t e s t V i c t o r i a n generation.- 1-^ 1 1 8 T h e Saturday Review, Oct. 31, 1903 , p. 54 9-; 1 1 9 T h e Bookman, Nov. 1903, p. 90. 1 2 0 I b i d . 1 2 1 I b i d . 151 But he had been demoralized by h i s popular and commercial success: VTo amuse h i m s e l f and h i s p u b l i c , and to make money, he has l a t e l y produced much i n f e r i o r work." 1 2 2 At f i r s t , Y.Y. continued, he had seemed to possess many p o e t i c g i f t s - i m a g i n a t i o n , f o r c e f u l d i c t i o n , d e s c r i p t i v e powers, a s p e c i a l t a l e n t f o r rhythm and rhyme. He had been, as a r u l e , "rough and coarse" and yet had shown o c c a s i o n a l "pathos and l i t e r a r y refinement."123 In s p i t e of t h i s e a r l y promise The Seven Seas had o f f e r e d nothing remarkable except f o r a few " j i n g l i n g songs," and now The Five Nat ions had put an end to any hope of h i s becoming a s e r i o u s poet. Why had he f a i l e d as a poet? Because of " i n f l u e n c e s f a t a l to the development of p o e t i c g i f t s . " He d i d not lead a poet's l i f e of contemplation but was always "gadding about." There was much that was ugly i n h i s verse - i t was p o s s i b l e that he did not care f o r beauty. nothing new and much that had al r e a d y been over-emphasized: Mr. K i p l i n g preaches ( i n verse) more u n m e r c i f u l l y than ever on C o l o n i a l i s m , N a t i o n a l I n e f f i c i e n c y , S o l d i e r s and the r e s t . 1 2 4 Y.Y. commented on the o b s c u r i t y i n "The Dykes" and i n "some and n o i s y e p i t h e t s , " and examples of bathos i n "The Sea and The g r e a t e r p a r t of the volume gave the readers p i e c e s which we f e e l are a l l e g o r i c a l , " a tendency to " f o r c e d 122 The Bookman, Nov. 1903 » P. 90 . 1 2 3 I b i d . , p. 91. 12^Ibid. 152 12 5 the H i l l s . " The t r i c k of r e p e t i t i o n and r e f r a i n was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of some of h i s poems. "The o v e r - p r a i s e d ' R e c e s s i o n a l ' owes e v e r y t h i n g to i t s 'Lest we F o r g e t , ' " 1 2 6 f o r the ideas were obvious, l i k e those i n p r o f e s s i o n a l hymn-writing. Y.Y. regarded the " S e r v i c e Songs" of the army as "a v u l g a r , sentimental bore." "As f o r the jargon - the bad grammar and studious e l i s i o n of every a s p i r a t e - we are s i c k of i t . " 1 2 7 In c o n t r a s t with The Five Nations Mr. Watson's For England was "true poetry." I t s " p e l l u c i d s i m p l i c i t y " made i t unnecessary to read a l i n e t wice. And with t h i s " f e l i c i t o u s l u c i d i t y , " the poet never l o s t h i s d i g n i t y and s e l f - r e s p e c t . Notwithstanding the f a c t that these poems "were a l l i n s p i r e d by the pro-Boer movement," Y.Y. had read h i s work with "warmest sympathy and c o r d i a l g r a t i t u d e . " 1 2 8 Mr. Watson might now and then be mistaken i n h i s views; but "he does not obtrude f a c t s - only great moral p r i n c i p l e s . " Mr. K i p l i n g f o r g e t s , Mr. Watson remembers, that the bard i s concerned not with the hard f a c t s of h i s t o r y , but with the m o r a l i t i e s and p o e t r i e s of l i f e . 1 2 9 In e f f e c t , the post-war K i p l i n g had been r e p u d i a t e d and termed an a n t i - p o e t by a number of r e s p o n s i b l e c r i t i c s , some of whom s l i g h t e d even h i s once h i g h l y e x t o l l e d " R e c e s s i o n a l . " 1 2 5 T h e Bookman, Nov. 1903, p. 91. 1 2 6 I b i d . , p. 92. 1 2 7 I b i d . 1 2 8 I b i d . , p. 94. 1 2 9 I b i d . 153 A year l a t e r he f a r e d badly as a w r i t e r of prose. In 1904 when the Contemporary, the Athenaeum, the Saturday Review, and the Bookman gave t h e i r o p i n i o n on T r a f f i c s and D i s c o v e r i e s , t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s amounted to an unequivocal r e j e c t i o n of K i p l i n g the short s t o r y w r i t e r . The Contemporary Review could not share K i p l i n g ' s too obvious d e l i g h t i n mechanical c o n t r i v a n c e s . "They had been s p o i l e d by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the car and some of the other t a l e s , by the jargon of the mechanic and the engineer. Mr. K i p l i n g ' s love of t e c h n i c a l terms and exaggerated slang has so grown upon him t h a t there are many passages i n these sketches that are almost u n i n t e l l i g i b l e to anyone who has not been brought up i n an enginetroom.i30 His s t y l e and h i s subject matter were not merely d i s t a s t e f u l but dangerous i n t h e i r b r u t a l i z i n g and d e c i v i l i z i n g e f f e c t . As a w r i t e r Mr. K i p l i n g seems to have d e l i b e r a t e l y turned h i s back on the f i n e r i n s t i n c t s of humanity, to have l o s t a l l d e l i c a c y of touch and v i s i o n , and to have set h i m s e l f the task of i n c u l c a t i n g an i d e a l of manhood and human l i f e that cannot be too s t r o n g l y condemned and opposed by those who hope f o r the u l t i m a t e humanizing of the w o r l d . 1 3 1 He was condemned i n t h i s instance with so l i t t l e r e f e r e n c e to the s t o r i e s that the judgment would seem.to have been based on a predetermined p o l i c y of c r i t i c a l a t t r i t i o n . The comments of the Athenaeum were c o n c i s e , frank and u n p r o p i t i o u s . 1 3 0 T h e Contemporary Review, Nov. 1904, p. 764. 1 3 1 l b i d . 154 A l l the best s t o r i e s are w e l l worth r e a d i n g . . . . as p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s . . . . Not more than two of the s t o r i e s would q u a l i f y as l i t e r a t u r e . 1 3 2 "A Sahib's War" and "The C a p t i v e " were to be commended, but "Mrs. B a t h u r s t " was "hardly worth i n c l u d i n g anywhere" and the ghost s t o r y , "They," although charming and d e l i c a t e , must be considered " t h i n . " The review ended a b r u p t l y with a q u e l l i n g d i s m i s s a l , which was s c a r c e l y warranted by the circumstances: We get too s t r o n g l y from t h i s book the impression that Mr. K i p l i n g t h i n k s h i s l i g h t e s t word should by no means be s u f f e r e d to f a l l to the g r o u n d . 1 3 3 I t was evident from t h i s r e b u f f that he was to be taught a l e s s o n . The c r i t i c who wrote "Reform and Mr. K i p l i n g " f o r the Saturday Review was more generous i n h i s assessment of T r a f f i c s  and D i s c o v e r i e s than might have been expected. He vouched f o r the f o r c e f u l n a r r a t i v e q u a l i t i e s of the l a t e s t s t o r i e s : "We cannot t r a c e , as some have t r a c e d , any l o s s of power i n the t e l l i n g . " 1 3 4 The author's i d ioms were " r i g h t " and he had demonstrated h i s a b i l i t y to catch "turns of speech and phrase," e s p e c i a l l y i n "The Bonds of D i s c i p l i n e " and "The C a p t i v e . " On the other hand h i s s t y l e s t i l l s u f f e r e d from mannerisms, t e c h n i c a l j a r g o n , and d i a l e c t . And h i s urgent s p e c i a l p l e a d -ing i n the cause of Empire had done him no good as an a r t i s t . 1 3 2 T h e Athenaeum, Oct. 8, 1904, p. 476. 1 3 3 I b i d . 1 3 4 T h e Saturday Review, Oct. 15, 1904, p. 494. 155 Mr. K i p l i n g has allowed h i s d e l i g h t e d enjoyment of t e c h n i c a l phrase and t r a n s - l i t e r a t e d brogue to dominate h i s n a t u r a l power. He has a l s o another master, an unfortunate d e s i r e to preach army reform and what we may perhaps c a l l " E m p i r i c s " through some s o r t of dramatic form; and between the Charybdis of Empire and the S c y l l a of h i s own mannerism, Mr. K i p l i n g , much wandering and w i l y t r a v e l l e r though he i s , f i n d s no way of escape. 1- 3 5 But although i t was "not a f i n e book," T r a f f i c s and D i s c o v e r i e s had "some admirable b i t s . " The s k i l l i n p i c t o r i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n and such t a l e s as "They" deserved to be applauded. As l i t e r a t u r e , however, the work was s c a r c e l y v i a b l e . Why i s i t that these f l a s h e s of a power which now and again suggest genius - a word we use d e l i b e r a t e l y - should lead to the p r o d u c t i o n of so l i t t l e work good enough to l i v e . 1 3 The Bookman had, i n t h i s c o n n ection, something more e x p l i c i t and r e v e a l i n g to o f f e r i n Y.Y.'s " T r a f f i c s and M a f f i c k s or the Strange Case of Mr. K i p l i n g . " This essay on c r i t i c i s m , f u l l y h a l f of which was i n t r o d u c t o r y , opened with an i n t e r e s t i n g but somewhat i n c o n s i s t e n t f a b l e , w r i t t e n i n a parody of a K i p l i n g s t y l e . Once upon a time . . . the c r u e l World, hounded on by r e l e n t l e s s I n q u i s i t o r s c a l l e d C r i t i c s , presumed to persecute the C h i l d r e n of Genius, e v i l l y e n t r e a t i n g them f o r t h e i r l apses and b a c k s l i d i n g s , and i f they repented not, h a i i h g j them to the d r e a d f u l dungeons of O b l i v i o n . . . . When summoned by some Big B i r d to behold him s o a r i n g and screaming g l o r i o u s l y a g a i n s t the sun, they would h a i l him f o r a l l time as a born Eagle. And so he might have remained - n e s t i n g snugly on h i s l a u r e l s ; but when he grew too o l d , or too f a t 1 3 5 T h e Saturday Review, Oct. 15, 1904, p. 494. 1 3 6 I b i d . 156 and l a z y to soar, sometimes he would t i r e of p r i v a c y , and c a l l out, "Come, a l l the World! and hear me c a c k l e , and behold me waddling m a j e s t i c a l l y to the horsepond" . . . . And then the C r i t i c s - the impudent c r i t i c s - would c r y out: "You an Eagle! We know b e t t e r now. At your best you were never more than a very b i g , very strong-winged Goose! And because you once managed to b e g u i l e us, we have a good mind to wring your ugly neck." Of course the people wanted to shy stones at him, but t h e i r c r a f t y guides s a i d : "Stop! You are p e l t i n g him with r o s e s . J u s t take no n o t i c e . Ignore him - that i s what he dreads worst." So i n those bad times, the very Biggest Bird s were t e r r o r i z e d i n t o unseemly c a u t i o n s . . . . Once they had been acclaimed as Swans or Eagles, they cunningly suppressed every anserine i n s t i n c t ; . . . and above a l l they knew how to r e t i r e with d i g n i t y - and i n t i m e . 1 3 7 Now one of the Biggest Bir d s had ceased to p r a c t i c e a c a u t i o u s r e s t r a i n t . And the C r i t i c s were f i n d i n g i t d i f f i c u l t to take e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n - here Y.Y. s h i f t e d h i s metaphor, but made h i s i n t e n t i o n s q u i t e p l a i n . The dear o l d Ages of F a i t h have r e t u r n e d . Once we have canonized our l i t e r a r y s a i n t s , we are t h e i r devotees f o r l i f e ; they do what they l i k e with us, feed us on dry husks or garbage, f l o u t us, t o r t u r e us - even bore us. . . . In our spacious indulgence we judge a w r i t e r by h i s best alone; h i s worst we condone as l e g i t i m a t e 1 p o t - b o i l i n g . '138 In such cases the author's asset was "no longer h i s genius but h i s name" which he had proceeded to e x p l o i t . He knows that p u b l i s h e r s , e d i t o r s , c r i t i c s and p u b l i c w i l l snatch eagerly at the f e e b l e s t d r i v e l signed by him . . . . So he makes h i s hay while the sun s h i n e s . 1 8 9 - L J / " T r a f f i c s and M a f f i c k s , " The Bookman, Nov. 1904, p. 76. 1 3 8 I b i d . , p. 77. 1 3 9 I b i d . 157 Y.Y. then a p p l i e d these o b s e r v a t i o n s to K i p l i n g and to the present s t a t e of h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with the c r i t i c s , who were being f o r c e d to spend t h e i r time and i n g e n u i t y on a p a l t r y o b j e c t , h i s most recent work. Today, every reviewer has to exhaust h i m s e l f by concoct-ing some columns of c o n v e n t i o n a l c i v i l i t y , c o l d compliment and v e i l e d d e p r e c i a t i o n of Mr. K i p l i n g ' s new book, while f a r b e t t e r work from l e s s famous pens can c l a i m but a few l i n e s . 1 4 u T r a f f i c s and D i s c o v e r i e s d i d not deserve to be compared with h i s e a r l i e r prose. Mr. K i p l i n g ' s books are s o l d by s i z e and weight. His l a s t one i s of the usual s i z e , p r i c e d at s i x s h i l l i n g s . Well, I should value i t at something l e s s than sixpence. On the other hand, many of the s o r t t a l e s i n h i s e a r l i e r volumes would be cheap at a guinea to any reader of t a s t e . i l + i How, Y.Y. demanded, could he " s t e e l h i m s e l f to p r i n t such a volume as h i s l a s t ? " - 1 - 4 2 The best s t o r y , "A Sahib's War" was a r e l i c of the Boer War p e r i o d . The remainder were a l l u n p l e a s a n t l y " r e d o l e n t with p e t r o l and machine o i l . " " W i r e l e s s " was not only " p o i n t l e s s " but " n e e d l e s s l y r e p u l s i v e . " K i p l i n g dragged the c a r , h i s "hideous toy" i n t o the ghost s t o r y "They," which " i n more d e l i c a t e hands" might have been worthy of n o t i c e . Many of these t a l e s d i s p l a y e d a "decadent 1 4 0 T h e Bookman, Nov. 1904, p. 77. 1 4 1 I b i d . l-+2ibid. 158 tendency to o b s c u r i t y and m y s t i f i c a t i o n , " and were marred by abrupt and rambling beginnings. Y.Y. expressed h i s d i s t r u s t of the author's s o - c a l l e d " r e a l i s m " and held the view that h i s use of jargon and " p a t t e r " was simply "bad a r t . " The e f f e c t - on me at l e a s t - i s at f i r s t e x a s p e r a t i o n , then a c r e e p i n g sadness, and at l a s t a profound gloom.-*-43 The reviewers had c a l l e d a h a l t - even though the cry had been heard only w i t h i n t h e i r own ranks and the o f f e n d i n g book s t i l l d e f i e d t h e i r concerted e f f o r t s by remaining on the b e s t - s e l l e r l i s t . Those whose l i v e l i h o o d r e q u i r e d them to. produce a c r i t i q u e as each new volume appeared had t i r e d of the i n v a r i a b l e success of the p r o l i f i c and p e r s i s t e n t K i p l i n g , who had never been one of them and who gave them no r e s p i t e . - Some, l i k e Le G a l l i e n n e had hoped to win approval f o r t h e i r own work and had f a i l e d . - K i p l i n g had grown too great and must be humbled. There were other w r i t e r s and new schools of thought to occupy the j o u r n a l s and to take h i s p l a c e . He had done nothing i n recent years to endear h i m s e l f to the c r i t i c a l establishment and h i s themes had ceased to a f f o r d p l e a s u r e . The war had hastened the obsolescence of h i s subject matter and the p o l i c i e s of the I m p e r i a l i s t s . The commentators were weary and r e s e n t f u l of h i s presence, a.fading comet i n t h e i r s k i e s . 1 4 3The_ Bookman, Nov. 1904, p. 77. 159 To persuade h i s readers of t h e i r e r r o r i n judgment, the reviewers e i t h e r dwelt on h i s i m p e r f e c t i o n s or i m p l i e d t h e i r censure by n e g l e c t . There were v a r i o u s approaches to the undertaking - K i p l i n g had never been a poet and a w r i t e r of d i s t i n c t i o n - or, a l t e r n a t i v e l y , he might have become a poet and had once w r i t t e n great prose, but he had been l e d a s t r a y by the p o l i t i c i a n s , the p u b l i c and h i s own love of money and h i s a r t i s t r y had d e t e r i o r a t e d . The content of h i s books was of no permanent i n t e r e s t and had become i n c r e a s i n g l y s t a l e , as w e l l as b r u t a l , o v e r - s e n t i m e n t a l , b a t h e t i c and u n - E n g l i s h . He was obsessed by the grotesque p h y s i o l o g y of machines. He preached i n c e s s a n t l y a f a l s e and p e r n i c i o u s d o c t r i n e - or he f a i l e d to preach w o r t h i l y and on the highest plane what he p r o f e s s e d . The sentiments he v o i c e d were d e l i b e r a t e l y p o p u l a r i z e d , v u l g a r , coarse and u n d i g n i f i e d , a p p e a l i n g shamelessly to the lower m i d d l e - c l a s s and the semi-l i t e r a t e r e a d e r s . His moral standards were low. His ugly r e a l i s m l e d him to d e p i c t scenes that were indecent, i n d e l i c a t e and c r u e l . In s t y l e he betrayed h i m s e l f as a cheap j o u r n a l i s t , h i s sentences being choppy, r a p i d , c a r e l e s s and over-emphatic, f i l l e d with slang and t e c h n i c a l jargon. His verse was mere doggerel. His f i n e s t g i f t s of o b s e r v a t i o n and v i v i d reportage were i n s u f f i c i e n t to redeem h i s d e f e c t s . There had once been a touch of true genius i n h i s t a l e s and i n some of h i s verse but i t had degenerated and i n h i s c u r r e n t w r i t i n g had been a l t o g e t h e r l o s t . 160 CHAPTER V The n o t i o n of K i p l i n g as a popular e n t e r t a i n e r i s due to the f a c t t h a t h i s works have been popular and that they e n t e r t a i n . However, i t i s permitted to express popular -views of the moment i n an unpopular s t y l e : i t i s not approved when a man holds unpopular views and expresses them i n some-t h i n g very r e a d a b l e . T.S. E l i o t : "Rudyard Kipling." Y.Y. of the Bookman sounded the keynote f o r much of the adverse c r i t i c i s m t h a t f o l l o w e d . A t t i t u d e s and o p i n i o n s , r e v e a l e d with e x c e p t i o n a l candour i n " T r a f f i c s and M a f f i c k s , " were e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e i n other a r t i c l e s - the tone of ex a s p e r a t i o n , the c a r e f u l l y phrased " c o n v e n t i o n a l c i v i l i t y , c o l d compliment and v e i l e d d e p r e c i a t i o n . " Apart from n e g l e c t , disparagement r a t h e r than i n v e c t i v e was the s t r a t e g y by which an unacceptable author was to be put down and h i s monopoly of p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n ended. The campaign proceeded to the evident s a t i s f a c t i o n of the c r i t i c s , without having any n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t on the s a l e of the books that were s l i g h t e d or condemned. Between 1904 and 1914, K i p l i n g made fewer demands on the time and pat i e n c e of h i s re v i e w e r s , o f f e r i n g them only three new c o l l e c t i o n s of short s t o r i e s and verse, Puck of Pook's H i l l , with i t s companion p i e c e , Rewards and F a i r i e s , i n 1906 and 1910, and i n 1909 A c t i o n s and Re a c t i o n s . His remarkable s e r i e s of annual p u b l i c a t i o n s had been broken a f t e r 1904. Before that time at l e a s t one book had come o f f the press each 161 year - except f o r 1900 - ever s i n c e h i s London debut i n 1889. Such c r i t i c s as had deplored h i s p r o l i f i c past noted the lapse i n c r e a t i v i t y as a proof of f a i l i n g powers. The u n f l a t t e r i n g n o t i c e s of t h i s p e r i o d were u s u a l l y w r i t t e n from one of two r e a d i l y j u s t i f i a b l e p o s i t i o n s : e i t h e r that K i p l i n g ' s n a t u r a l g i f t s had d e t e r i o r a t e d or that h i s fame had been from the beginning a myth o r i g i n a t i n g i n specious a t t r a c t i o n s and f o s t e r e d through misapprehension and i n a d -v e r t a n c e . Those who s u b s c r i b e d to the l a t t e r s chool of thought were convinced t h a t he had never been more than a v u l g a r , mediocre t a l e n t masquerading as a genius of the f i r s t o r d e r . Y.Y. had managed to e n t e r t a i n both notions at once i n h i s f a b l e of the goose. According to George Moore, K i p l i n g ' s i n f l a t e d r e p u t a t i o n had been founded on e r r o r , the c r i t i c s having been misl e d by sheer n o v e l t y . They had taken s k i l l f u l d e s c r i p t i o n and use of l o c a l c o l o u r f o r great l i t e r a t u r e . There was not one c r i t i c i n London who was not deceived i n the e i g h t i e s , when Mr. K i p l i n g came with h i s P l a i n Tales  from the H i l l s . His s t o r i e s are f i l l e d with hookahs and elephants, parakeets and c r o c o d i l e s ; they are as amusing as the z o o l o g i c a l gardens with beer ad_ l i b . As a r e s u l t , h i s fame was so outrageously exaggerated that "the name of Shakespeare was; introduced a propos of Mr. K i p l i n g . " Now Moore and others e q u a l l y p e r c e p t i v e knew b e t t e r , "'"'Avowals," P a l l M a l l Magazine, J u l y 1908 , p. 375 . 162 f o r the Anglo-Indian's world was before them, "rough, harsh, c o a r s e - g r a i n e d . " It was c l e a r that he had never been worthy of the a d u l a t i o n he had r e c e i v e d . - Then there were those who confessed to having admired h i s e a r l y work but could see only a p i t i f u l s t a t e of d e c l i n e i n l a t e r p r o d u c t i o n s . In an a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n the New Age Arnold Bennett e x p l a i n e d how he had come to renounce K i p l i n g and a l l h i s l a t e r works, a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of S t a l k y and Co. and Kim. Nearly a quarter of a century has passed:since " P l a i n Tales from the H i l l s " d e l i g h t e d f i r s t Anglo-Indian, and then E n g l i s h s o c i e t y . There was nothing of permanent value i n that book, and i n my extremest youth I never imagined otherwise. But "The Story of the Gadsbys" impressed me. So d i d "Barrack-room B a l l a d s . " So d i d p i e c e s of ''Soldiers Three." So d i d " L i f e ' s Handicap" and "Many In v e n t i o n s . " So d i d "The Jungle Book," d e s p i t e i t s w i l d n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . And I remember my eagerness f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n of "The Seven Seas" . . . . And I remember the p e r s o n a l a n x i e t y which I f e l t when K i p l i n g l a y very dangerously i l l i n New York. For a f o r t n i g h t , then, K i p l i n g ' s temperature was the most important news of the day. I remember g i v i n g a party with a programme of music, i n that f o r t n i g h t , and I began the proceedings by reading aloud the programme, and at the end of the programme i n s t e a d of "God Save the Queen," I read, "God Save K i p l i n g , " and every body cheered. " S t a l k y and Co." cooled me, and "Kim" c h i l l e d me.2 Bennett's r e a c t i o n would appear to have been motivated, at l e a s t i n p a r t , by h i s p o l i t i c a l views: The New Age, Nov. 4, 1909, r e p r i n t e d i n Books and Persons: Being Comments on a Past Epoch, 1908-1911 (London: Chatto and Windus, 1917), pp. 160-161. 163 . . . K i p l i n g ' s astounding p o l i t i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n , c h i e f l y i n v erse, have shocked and angered me. As time has elapsed i t has become more and more c l e a r that h i s output was sharply d i v i d e d i n t o two p a r t s by h i s v i s i t to New York, and that the second h a l f i s i n f e r i o r i n q u a n t i t y , i n q u a l i t y , i n e v e r y t h i n g , to the f i r s t . It has been too p l a i n now f o r years that he i s a g a i n s t p r o g r e s s , that he i s the s h r i l l champion of t h i n g s that are r i g h t l y doomed, that h i s vogue among the hordes of the r e s p e c t a b l e was due to p o l i t i c a l reasons, and that he r e t a i n s h i s a u t h o r i t y over the s a i d hordes because he i s the bard of t h e i r p r e j u d i c e s and of t h e i r c l a y e y i d e a l s . A democrat of ten time's K i p l i n g ' s g i f t and power could never have charmed and held the governing c l a s s e s as K i p l i n g has done . . . 3 At the same time, Bennett acknowledged, K i p l i n g "at h i s worst" was "an honest and p a i n s t a k i n g a r t i s t . " When he went on to review A c t i o n s and R e a c t i o n s , how-ever, Bennett mentioned only two s t o r i e s - "An H a b i t a t i o n Enforced," which he claimed i d e a l i z e d the E n g l i s h land system, and was besides " s e n t i m e n t a l . . . unconvincing . . . and w i l d l y untrue to l i f e , " and "With the Night M a i l , " which he 5 c a l l e d "a g l i t t e r i n g essay on the sham t e c h n i c a l . " Over the whole c o l l e c t i o n l a y "a t h i n powder of d u l l n e s s . " He com-pared these recent t a l e s with "On Greenhow H i l l , " f i n d i n g the e a r l i e r work " s t i l l w e l l done," and quoted an admirable couplet from the epigraph: 3 Bennett, p. 161. 4. Books and Persons, pp. 162-163. 5 I b i d . , p. 164. 6 I b i d . , p. 165. 164 That she who f o r h i s [Love's] b i d d i n g would not stay At Death's f i r s t whisper rose and went away. Such l i n e s and such s t o r i e s , Bennett suggested, the o l d e r K i p l i n g could not equal. L i k e Bennett, W.L. Phelps found d i s t a s t e f u l e v e r y t h i n g p u b l i s h e d a f t e r the turn of the century. In Puck of Pook's  H i l l he considered a r t to be "conspicuous by i t s absence." It was lucky that P l a i n Tales from the H i l l s preceded Puck of Pook 1s H i l l and that The L i g h t that F a i l e d came before S t a l k y and Co. 7 These l a t e r books, he continued, might never have got i n t o p r i n t without K i p l i n g ' s p r e s t i g e . In the same v e i n , Hubert Bland, w r i t i n g i n the Sunday  C h r o n i c l e on "The Decadence of Rudyard K i p l i n g , " s t a t e d that he p r e f e r r e d "Wee W i l l i e Winkie" to Rewards and F a i r i e s ; he admitted that he had not read Puck of Pook's H i l l . For t h i s f a l l i n g - o f f he blamed the e v i l l a t e n t i n K i p l i n g ' s nature. What I suggest i s that c e r t a i n germs of e v i l . . . which were observable i n h i s mental and moral c o n s t i t u t i o n from the f i r s t have developed at the expense of other germs, germs of good, that were obvious i n equal, nay, i n much l a r g e r numbers. There was always i n h i s work, except i n the very best of i t , a c e r t a i n j a r r i n g , d i s c o r d a n t note of . . . brag and b l u s t e r , of sham m a s c u l i n i t y , of a f f e c t e d r o b u s t n e s s . Those of us who admired and b e l i e v e d i n him were o f t e n hard put to i t to defend him a g a i n s t the a c c u s a t i o n f r e e l y brought of b l i n d and flam-boyant j i n g o i s m . We excused him on the grounds that . . . he was a very young man, and that he s t i l l preserved the heart 7 E s s a y s on Modern N o v e l i s t s (New York: MacMillan, 1910), p. 210. 165 of a schoolboy. Time cures healthy schoolboys . . . but alas!- i t has not cured K i p l i n g . 8 Bland d i d not d i l a t e on the degree of noxious j i n g o i s m con-t a i n e d i n Rewards and F a i r i e s . He d i d not attempt to j u s t i f y h i s stand which, a f t e r a l l , was taken on a matter not of a r t i s t i c but of p o l i t i c a l decadence. S i m i l a r c r i t i c i s m based d i r e c t l y on strong o p p o s i t i o n to I m p e r i a l i s t p o l i t i c s was s t i l l p r e v a l e n t . K i p l i n g con-t i n u e d to be blamed f o r promoting the war, f o r having l e d a l u n a t i c p r o c e s s i o n of e m p i r e - b u i l d e r s to m i l i t a r y and moral d i s a s t e r . A.C. Gardiner wrote: Twenty years ago Mr. K i p l i n g went up i n the sky l i k e a rocket . . . A decade of d e l i r i u m was to culminate i n a great c a t a s t r o p h e , twenty thousand B r i t i s h dead on the South A f r i c a n v e l d t and the s a t u r n a l i a of Mafeking n i g h t i n London . . . The bard of the banjo marched ahead of the throng, shouting h i s songs of the barrack-room, t e l l i n g h i s t a l e s of the campfire and the j u n g l e , p r o c l a i m i n g the worship of the great god Jingo.9 His was the "heathen heart that puts i t s t r u s t i n r e e k i n g tube and i r o n shard." He "made men f e e l m a r t i a l and aggressive," f o r " i t was not the s o u l of England that he loved and sang, ' but the might of E n g l a n d . " 1 0 But however d e t e s t a b l e the s i n s of the pa s t , even more unnatural were h i s present b a c k s l i d i n g s , which i n c l u d e d h i s 8 E s s a y s by Hubert Bland, pp. 49-50. 9A.C. Gardiner, Prophets, P r i e s t s and Kings (London: A l s t o n R i v e r s , 1908), p. 293. 1 0 I b i d . , p. 298. 166 advocacy of i n c r e a s e d m i l i t a r y p r e p a r a t i o n and h i s r e f u s a l to rec o g n i z e the r e a l needs of the B r i t i s h people. Bland, a f t e r remarking on " h i s almost morbid love of s t r e n g t h , " d e c l a r e d that K i p l i n g had no sympathy with or concern f o r the p l i g h t of the masses. Given that f l a s h i n g sword and naught e l s e matters. The c o n d i t i o n of the masses of her sons and daughters, of the workers i n her f a c t o r i e s and her mines and the t o i l e r s i n her f i e l d s - these people . . . who are England, never come f o r a moment i n t o Mr. K i p l i n g ' s purview. The miserable r e s u l t of t h i s s e t t i n g up of a m a t e r i a l i s t i d e a l , t h i s l o s s of a s p i r i t u a l conception of l i f e , t h i s f o r -g e t t i n g of s o c i a l j u s t i c e , i s that Mr. K i p l i n g now wri t e s verse which i s not only execrable as a r t but which i s mendacious nonsense as w e l l . i l It was a complaint v o i c e d by many that he lacked a s o c i a l c o n s cience, that he gave to the worship of power what should have been devoted to " h i s own p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n and h e l p l e s s p e o p l e . " 1 2 Neither h i s d o c t r i n e nor h i s a r t was acceptable to these c r i t i c s . N evertheless some of the former b i t t e r n e s s and urgency of the s t r i c t l y p o l i t i c a l b a t t l e was d i s a p p e a r i n g from the a t t a c k s . The s i t u a t i o n had changed with the d e c i s i v e Tory defeat i n January, 1906 that made K i p l i n g i s m l e s s of a t h r e a t . The o l d Imperialism was v i r t u a l l y dead; i t s prophet was out of 1 : L B l a n d , pp. 51-52. 1 2 G r e a t Thoughts, Oct. 4, 1913, p. 2. 167 o f f i c e and i t was as an u n o f f i c i a l member of the O p p o s i t i o n that he denounced L i b e r a l p o l i c i e s and warned of the danger of German m i l i t a r i s m . Much of h i s o l d exuberance seemed to have gone and h i s v i s i o n was gloomy, h i s philosophy more determinedly s t o i c , h i s mood, as i n Puck and Rewards and  F a i r i e s , almost e l e g i a c . He kept on h i s o r i g i n a l course but with a l l the t w e n t i e t h century winds a g a i n s t him. It was K i p l i n g who, a n t i c i p a t i n g Huxley, borrowed the phrase "brave new world" and i n "The Gods of the Copybook Headings," a p p l i e d i t with t e l l i n g i r o n y to the new era of enlightenment promised by l i b e r a l t h i n k e r s . T h e i r i d e a l i s m represented the very a n t i t h e s i s of h i s own opinions and i n h i s view stood f o r e v e r y t h i n g that was wrong-headed and dangerous to the s t a t e . They were not simply a n t i -i m p e r i a l i s t , a n t i - p a t r i o t i c s o c i a l r eformers; they were i n every r e s p e c t a n t i - V i c t o r i a n , r e p u d i a t i n g the t r a d i t i o n s , standards, goals and i n s t i t u t i o n s , a r t s and l e t t e r s and even the heroes of the previous g e n e r a t i o n . They were adopting the psychology of Freud, the philosophy of Bergson and to some extent the p o l i t i c a l economy of Marx, v a r i o u s l y m o d i f i e d . They promoted an i n c r e a s i n g l y r e c o n d i t e and experimental l i t e r a t u r e addressed to the d i s c r i m i n a t i n g reader and r e f l e c t -ing an u l t r a - r o m a n t i c humanism. T h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with K i p l i n g was one of mutual a v e r s i o n . 168 The whole r a t i o n a l e of the q u a r r e l went f a r deeper than the i s s u e s over which they fought. T h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s were i d i o s y n c r a t i c and i r r e c o n c i l a b l e - the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a being romantics, and t h e i r opponent, at heart a c l a s s i c i s t . I t was T.S. E l i o t who r e c o g n i z e d K i p l i n g ' s c l a s s i c a l bent and compared him with Dryden. The suggested h i s t o r i c a l p a r a l l e l cannot be d e s c r i b e d as c l o s e but, without c a r r y i n g the com-pa r i s o n f u r t h e r , E l i o t p ointed out an i n t e r e s t i n g s i m i l a r i t y i n essent i a l s . They a r r i v e at poetry through eloquence; f o r both, wisdom has primacy over i n s p i r a t i o n ; and both are more concerned with the world about them than with t h e i r own joys and sorrows, and concerned with t h e i r own f e e l i n g s i n t h e i r l i k e n e s s to those of other men r a t h e r than i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r i t y . 1 3 That K i p l i n g was the very opposite of romantic - except f o r the d e t a i l s of s e t t i n g and i n c i d e n t i n h i s work - i s not d i f f i c u l t to prove. He saw man as a r a t i o n a l being given to i r r a t i o n a l behaviour; imperfect and i m p e r f e c t i b l e ; i n need of d i s c i p l i n e , a sense of duty, and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . He d i d not i d e a l i z e the u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d . He f e a r e d change, b e l i e v i n g that the s u r v i v a l of c i v i l i z a t i o n depended on t r a d i t i o n and the maintenance of o r d e r , that the law must come f i r s t f o r the good of s o c i e t y . To him, p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and the e x e r c i s e of common sense must preclude v i s i o n s and t h e o r i e s . 1 3 " R u d y a r d K i p l i n g , " A Choice of K i p l i n g ' s Verse,(London: Faber and Faber, 1941), p. 29. 169 He d i d not t r u s t the judgment of democracy. In g e n e r a l , whether d i r e c t l y or by way of f a b l e , he spoke to h i s readers as p l a i n l y and impersonally as Dryden or Pope, o f f e r i n g no s e l f -r e v e l a t i o n or c o n f e s s i o n s . An enemy of the s e n t i m e n t a l , he understated emotion and avoided any a n a l y s i s of "romantic" l o v e . Often s e n t e n t i o u s and almost i n v a r i a b l y d i d a c t i c , he could balance and po i n t a paradox or proverb and turn i t i n t o 14 an epigram - not always new but very o f t e n memorable. He handled s a t i r e w e l l and expressed h i m s e l f n e a t l y and v i g o r o u s l y at the expense of those whom he had the " g i f t of a r r i d i n g per s_e. " There can be no doubt that h i s feud with the i n t e l -l e c t u a l s was aggravated by the d e l i b e r a t e p h i l i s t i n i s m of h i s s a t i r e . He was never c o n c i l i a t o r y ; he took every o p p o r t u n i t y to i n s u l t the Bandar-log, h i s o l d enemies, who were "going to do some s p l e n d i d t h i n g s " ; to r i d i c u l e t h e i r most sacred a r t i c l e s of f a i t h and profane t h e i r f a v o r i t e catchwords. This comprehensive mockery had a s e r i o u s purpose. Convinced that i n misguided i d e a l i s m l a y a t h r e a t to order and decency, he preached c o n t i n u a l l y a g a i n s t " U p l i f t , V i s i o n and Breadth of Mind" and i l l u s o r y " S o c i a l P r o g r e s s . " He warned a g a i n s t the "Gods of the Market" who "promised p e r p e t u a l peace," "abundance f o r a l l " and the " F u l l e r L i f e . " 1 5 1 4 " T h e t r u t h f u l , well-weighed answer/that t e l l s the b l a c k e r l i e . " "Gehazi." 1 5 " T h e Gods of the Copybook Headings." 170 Thus i n the world of ideas he was stubbornly and r e p r e h e n s i b l y out of f a s h i o n and out of f a v o u r . A f t e r 1906 h i s c r i t i c a l r e p u t a t i o n continued to wane u n t i l among l i t e r -ary f i g u r e s he became almost an anachronism. Yeats, Galsworthy, Bennett and Wells, who were h i s exact contempor r a r i e s , seemed r a t h e r to belong to the r i s i n g g e n e r a t i o n -those who were s t r i k i n g a n t i - V i c t o r i a n l i t e r a r y a t t i t u d e s i n c o t e r i e s such as the Bloomsbury Group, a l l true b e l i e v e r s i n the "March of Mankind," c r i t i c s of empire and of the s o c i a l system with i t s m a t e r i a l i s m , r e p r e s s i o n and h y p o c r i s y . Yeats, s i x months o l d e r than K i p l i n g , assumed that the r e v o l t a g a i n s t V i c t o r i a n standards i n l i t e r a t u r e had begun with Pater and that the f o r c e s of r e a c t i o n had been overthrown by 1900. V i c t o r i a n i s m had been defeated, though two w r i t e r s dominated the moment who had never heard of that defeat or d i d not b e l i e v e i n i t ; Rudyard K i p l i n g and W i l l i a m Watson. Indian r e s i d e n c e and a s s o c i a t i o n s , had i s o l a t e d the f i r s t ; he was f u l l of o p i n i o n s , of p o l i t i c s , of i m p u r i t i e s - to use our word - and the word must have been r i g h t , f o r he i n t e r e s t s a c r i t i c a l audience today by the grotesque tragedy of "Danny Deever," the matter but not the form of o l d s t r e e t b a l l a d s , and by songs t r a d i t i o n a l i n matter and form l i k e the rtSt. Helena L u l l a b y . " ' 1 6 In the pre-war p e r i o d , K i p l i n g had become badly dated. Henry Newbolt, reviewing a volume of c o l l e c t e d verse i n the Book Monthly wrote of the e a r l i e r poems: They come back to us as i t were from a land beyond the sunset . . . . The young . . . can hardly imagine a world of W.B. Yeats, I n t r o d u c t i o n to The Oxford Book of Modern  Verse (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1936), pp. x i - x i i . 171 which these were the f a v o u r i t e songs: the world before the German f l e e t , b e f o r e the r i s e of Japan, before the Boer War 17 • * • For the current d e p r e c i a t i o n of h i s work, Newbolt f i r s t of a l l blamed h i s t o r y and the t r a n s i t i o n a l nature of the times and, i n the second p l a c e , the o c c a s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r of the su b j e c t matter, which would n e c e s s a r i l y have l o s t i t s appeal. He has put i n t o verse a great deal that was never intended f o r poetry but f o r argument, p o l i t i c s , i n v e c t i v e or admonition. . . Mr. K i p l i n g wasted on temporal things what was meant f o r e t e r n a l . 1 8 Here a former admirer and i m i t a t o r found him outmoded because he had always been f a r too topical.-'- 9 To others h i s w r i t i n g s were u n p a l a t a b l e because he lacked the r e q u i s i t e s e n s i b i l i t y , the t h o u g h t f u l discernment and the v i s i o n , to c r e a t e a work of a r t . Years o l d e r than K i p l i n g , George Moore, whose "new r e a l i s m " had been i n f l u e n t i a l but not widely s u c c e s s f u l , c o n t r a s t e d him with L o t i , d e c l a r i n g t hat "Mr. K i p l i n g has seen much more than he has f e l t and we 1 7 H e n r y Newbolt, " K i p l i n g the Poet," The Book Monthly, X (Jan. 1913), 234. 1 8 I b i d . , 235. l 9Where K i p l i n g was unmistakably up-to-date i n h i s i n t e r e s t i n machines he succeeded only i n g i v i n g o f f e n s e . There were innumerable p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t h i s i r r a t i o n a l d e l i g h t i n engine-rooms, w i r e l e s s telegraphy and automobiles. In the case of the motor-car, with r e f e r e n c e to "They" i n Act ions and  Reactions , he was warned by S c r i b n e r s a g a i n s t "making l i t e r a t u r e of gasolene." (Oct. 1907, p. 507). Mechanical d e v i c e s d i d not belong to the a e s t h e t i c of e i t h e r poetry or prose. 172 p r e f e r f e e l i n g to s e e i n g , " that he wrote "with an eye that a p p r e c i a t e s a l l the eye can see," but that "of the he a r t " he knew n o t h i n g . 2 0 Moore complained that the d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n i n Kim of evening on the Grand Trunk Road was "more e t h n o l o g i c a l than p o e t i c , " and added, "Was i t not a shame to observe that w i s t f u l hour so c l o s e l y ? " 2 1 He con-cluded that the author's coarse, j o u r n a l i s t ' s nature made him incapable of s u b t l e t y , f o r h i s was "the shoddy tune of the average man." 2 2 His p o p u l a r i t y was always o f f e n s i v e to the c r i t i c s . It was a problem f r e q u e n t l y debated and e x p l a i n e d . According to A.C. Gardiner, h i s e a r l y appeal was " p e r f e c t l y attuned to the temper of the t i m e s . " 2 3 Hubert Bland f e l t t h a t he had always purposely d i r e c t e d h i s message to the common man and considered that h i s fame was "due to the method and manner of hi s e x p r e s s i o n ; but more s t i l l has been due to the f a c t that he has given v o i c e to the thoughts and emotions of i n a r t i c u l a t e m i l l i o n s . " Frank H a r r i s i n s i s t e d that he was able to speak f o r the crowd because of h i s own innate v u l g a r i t y . "A great part of K i p l i n g ' s p o p u l a r i t y and consequent quick r i s e to 2 0 G e o r g e Moore, " K i p l i n g and L o t i , " P a l l M a l l Magazine, J u l y 1908, p. 376. 2 1 I b i d . . , p. 377. 2 2 I b i d . , p. 379. 2 3 P r o p h e t s , P r i e s t s and Kings, p. 296. 24 E ssays by Hubert, p. 41. 173 wealth and i n f l u e n c e are due d i r e c t l y to h i s p a s s i o n a t e , b l i n d h e r d - f e e l i n g . V 2 5 Clement K. Shorter of the Sphere thought f i t to mention, when int e r v i e w e d by Rudolph de Cordova, that "Mr. K i p l i n g was not di s c o v e r e d u n t i l he was p u b l i s h e d i n s h i l l i n g v o lumes." 2 6 His p o p u l a r i t y , Dixon Scott contended, was the c r i t i c s ' c h i e f source of complaint and the true cause of t h e i r t u r n i n g a g a i n s t him. The exasperating f e l l o w went popular . . . The p u b l i c ' s enjoyment of K i p l i n g was too true to be good. C r i t i c i s m grew querulous, q u a l i f i e d , hedged; c r i t i c i s m d i s c o v e r e d d e f e c t s . 2 7 Whatever t h e i r reasons f o r choosing to condemn K i p l i n g , the i n t e l l e c t u a l s made common cause a g a i n s t him and when, i n 1907, he became the f i r s t E n g l i s h r e c i p i e n t of the Nobel P r i z e f o r L i t e r a t u r e , they j o i n e d i n a chorus of s c a n d a l i z e d p r o t e s t . Mr. Rudyard K i p l i n g i s the f i r s t Englishman to be awarded the Nobel P r i z e f o r L i t e r a t u r e . . . . He i s chosen as our r e p r e s e n t a t i v e man of L e t t e r s , while George Meredith, Thomas Hardy, and Algernon Charles Swinburne are s t i l l amongst us. The goldsmiths are passed by and the l i t e r a r y b l acksmith i s e x a l t e d . We do not know the grounds of the d e c i s i o n ; but we do know that Mr. K i p l i n g i s not our king . . . . Where George Meredith s i t s i s the throne of E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . 2 8 2 5 F r a n k H a r r i s , Contemporary P o r t r a i t s, p. 60. 2 6 " T h e Present State of L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m i n England," Great Thoughts, Oct. 4, 1913, p. 240. ^ 7"The Meekness of Mr. Rudyard K i p l i n g , " Men of L e t t e r s (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1917), p. 51. 2 8 G a r d i n e r , p . 2 9 3 . 174 Those c r i t i c s who were s t i l l disposed to comment f a v o r a b l y seemed, as b e f o r e , to have been put on the d e f e n s i v e . More than ever they found themselves answering the same r e i t e r a t e d charges and complaints; and i n doing so some r e a d i l y admitted the presence of inexcusable f a u l t s but o f f e r e d i n extenuation c e r t a i n undoubted m e r i t s . G.H. Mair began by l i s t i n g a l l Kipling:':s f a i l i n g s i n c l u d i n g " v i o l e n t r h e t o r i c " and "the sentimental b r u t a l i s m which too o f t e n passes f o r p a t r i o t i s m i n h i s p o e t r y " 2 9 and then e x t o l l e d h i s more recent work, Puck of Pook's H i l l and Rewards and F a i r i e s f o r "the j u s t n e s s and saneness of i t s temper." On the other hand, Dixon S c o t t , while p r a i s i n g the p u b l i c a t i o n s a f t e r Kim as K i p l i n g ' s best, defended even h i s m i l i t a r i s m as "a l o n g i n g 3 0 f o r q u i e t comeliness and o r d e r . " An e d i t o r i a l i n Great Thoughts deplored the c r i t i c i s m that accused a great w r i t e r of "crude and harsh violence." 3-'- One a p o l o g i s t asked that K i p l i n g be "remembered by h i s achievements and not by h i s 3 2 f a i l u r e s . " Another blamed the war f o r h i s f a d i n g r e p u t a t i o n : On the imposing wave, whose c r e s t was the d i s a s t r o u s 2 9 G .H. Mair, Modern E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e (London: Williams and Norgate, 1911), p. 240. 3 0 D i x o n S c o t t , p. 59. 3 1 G r e a t Thoughts, Oct. 4, 1913, p. 3. 3 2 D a v i d C h r i s t i e Murray, Guesses at Truth (London: Hurst and B l a c k e t t , 1908), p. 272. 175 bubble of 1899, r o l l e d the best known l y r i c s of Mr. K i p l i n g , and i t was not h i s f a u l t t h a t t h e i r subject matter has become widely d i s t a s t e f u l or that h i s worst work has been c r i e d loudest i n the s t r e e t . 3 3 C y r i l F a l l s , author of Rudyard K i p l i n g : A_ C r i t i c a l  Study, had no doubt as to the cause of the l o s s of p r e s t i g e : The temporary f a l l i n g - o f f i n Mr. K i p l i n g ' s p o p u l a r i t y i s due merely to a temporary change of f a s h i o n s . It i s , indeed, a f a l l i n g - o f f r a t h e r i n the e s t i m a t i o n of the c r i t i c s than m that of the reading p u b l i c . F a l l s added d e f i a n t l y : "I do d e c l a r e , and w i l l maintain i n the face of a l l the 'high-brows' that ever sneered, that he q c i s a great w r i t e r of short s t o r i e s . " John Palmer, m h i s more p a r t i s a n Rudyard K i p l i n g , gave i t as h i s o p i n i o n that K i p l i n g was the v i c t i m of p o l i t i c a l and l i t e r a r y p r e j u d i c e s , h i s worst o f f e n s e being that he was not a l e f t - w i n g p a m p h l e t e e r . 3 6 The t r u t h of the matter was that he brought " p o l i t i c a l p r e j u d i c e i n t o h i s work l e s s than almost any l i v i n g contemporary." 3 7 R. Thurston Hopkins agreed with both these c o n c l u s i o n s and expressed the b e l i e f that K i p l i n g would 3 3 T r e v o r Blakemore, "Rudyard K i p l i n g : The Poet of R e a l i t y , " Poetry Review, A p r i l 1912, p. 165. 3 4 C y r i l F a l l s , Rudyard K i p l i n g (London: Martin Seeker, 1915), p. 205. 3 5 I b i d . , p. 207. 3 6 J o h n Palmer, Rudyard K i p l i n g (New York: H o l t , 1915), p. 35. 3 7 I b i d . , p. 33. 176 be r e d i s c o v e r e d a f t e r twenty y e a r s . He a t t r i b u t e d - m u c h of the e x i s t i n g antagonism to envy and malice on the part of the c r i t i c s . 3 8 The a r t i c l e "Rudyard K i p l i n g " i n the eleventh e d i t i o n of the Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a represented a cautious balance between extremes. A coolness and some degree of " v e i l e d d e p r e c i a t i o n " were i n d i c a t e d i n such comments as: "He was imbued with a type of i m p e r i a l i s m that r e a c t e d on h i s l i t e r a t u r e not a l t o g e t h e r to i t s advantage." The " i m p e r i a l sentiment" was s a i d to be l a r g e l y h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In h i s subsequent work h i s d e l i g h t i n the d i s p l a y of d e s c r i p t i v e and v e r b a l t e c h n i c a l i t i e s grew on him. His polemic a g a i n s t "the s h e l t e r e d l i f e " and " L i t t l e Englandism" became more d i d a c t i c . His t e r s e n e s s sometimes degenerated i n t o abruptness and o b s c u r i t y . 3 9 Nevertheless he was conceded to be "one of the r a r e masters i n E n g l i s h prose of the a r t of the short s t o r y . " 4 0 R. Thurston Hopkins, Rudyard K i p l i n g : A_ L i t e r a r y  A p p r e c i a t i o n (New York: Stokes, 1915), p. v i . 3 9 " R u d y a r d K i p l i n g , " Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a , 11th ed., (1910) XV, 826. " ^ I b i d . , 827. D e p r e c i a t i o n was no longer v e i l e d i n an a r t i c l e i n the 13th e d i t i o n , which d e a l t with h i s work a f t e r 1906. The tone was c a v a l i e r and the treatment of the author very d i f f e r e n t from that accorded h i s contemporaries. Rewards  and F a i r i e s was d e s c r i b e d as " n e i t h e r b e t t e r nor worse than i t s p redecessor." Another c o l l e c t i o n of s t o r i e s had turned out to be " i n the o l d manner, c l e v e r but not a t t r a c t i v e . " "His immense e f f i c i e n c y was never of the kind i n which genuine growth or development i s p o s s i b l e . . . . He had the j o u r n a l i s t ' s a b i l i t y to use with apparent mastery the 'cant' of many trades and c a l l i n g s : but t h i s g i f t though engaging, 177 Of the eight s e l e c t e d p e r i o d i c a l s only f i v e paid any a t t e n t i o n to K i p l i n g during the decade. The Q u a r t e r l y com-pared h i s romanceswith those of L o t i i n 1905 . 1 + 1 The Contemporary Review p u b l i s h e d a s i n g l e n o t i c e i n 1906 and nothing t h e r e a f t e r . The u s u a l reviews were given i n the Athenaeum, the Saturday Review and the Bookman. The remainder made no r e f e r e n c e to c u r r e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s . The Edinburgh Review had very l i t t l e more to say except f o r unfavourable mention of K i p l i n g ' s l a t e r verse i n Walter de l a Mare's "Popular Poetry" i n October, 1914. Blackwood's volu n t e e r e d no more p a n e g y r i c s , or comments of any k i n d , but g l o o m i l y p r e d i c t e d the end of Imperialism a f t e r the calamitous General E l e c t i o n of 1906. It was "an ill-omened c o n c l u s i o n , " and "the h e a v i e s t indictment ever made ag a i n s t the Democracy . . . I r e l a n d w i l l be given Home Rule and the r e s t of the Empire w i l l be f r e e d from any kind of r u l e whatsoever." i s a r t i s t i c a l l y unimportant." (13th ed. (1926) I I , 638). He was s a i d to have a f f e c t e d "a l a r g e , cloudy, o r a c u l a r u t t e r a n c e that appears more profound than i t i s . " (p. 639). 4 1 T h e Q u a r t e r l y Review, J u l y 1905, pp. 49-51. 4 2 T h e Edinburgh Review's next a l l u s i o n to K i p l i n g ' s work was contained i n "Anglo-Indian F i c t i o n " i n October 1925, which d e a l t with E.M. F o r s t e r ' s Passage to I n d i a . 4 3 " M u s i n g s without Method," Blackwood's Magazine, Feb. 1906 , p. 278. 178 The F o r t n i g h t l y Review ignored him completely. Even i n an a r t i c l e on the preferences of the r e a d i n g p u b l i c - from shop g i r l s and servants to " U n i v e r s i t y men" - based on a survey of l e n d i n g l i b r a r i e s , h i s name was not i n c l u d e d e i t h e r i n the l i s t s of f a v o u r i t e authors or elsewhere - although the lengthy r e p o r t a t t e s t e d to the p o p u l a r i t y of Annie Swan, V i c t o r i a Cross, "the authoress of East Lynne," Conan Doyle, H a l l Caine, Wells, Hichens, E.F. Benson, Galsworthy, E.V. Lucas, W.W. Jacobs, Lawrence Hope, Anthony Hope, Mrs. Humphrey Ward, Jack London, E l i n o r Glyn, Marie C o r e l l i , Hardy, and Meredith and many others. 1* 1* It was a strange omission, i n view of K i p l i n g ' s p e r e n n i a l appearance among the b e s t - s e l l e r s . When Puck of Pook's H i l l came out i n the autumn of 1906, the reviewers of the four i n t e r e s t e d p e r i o d i c a l s gave h i g h l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y estimates of i t s success. It a f f o r d e d the Contemporary nothing but p l e a s u r e , as "an i d e a l book f o r E n g l i s h s c h o o l c h i l d r e n the world o v e r . " 4 5 The harsh judgment passed on T r a f f i c s and D i s c o v e r i e s was f o r g o t t e n i n an e x p r e s s i o n of u n q u a l i f i e d s a t i s f a c t i o n : It i s l i t e r a t u r e i n both conception and execution and i t i s c a l c u l a t e d to give a t a s t e f o r good l i t e r a t u r e . . . It i s sound h i s t o r y - a s e r i e s of as b r i l l i a n t h i s t o r i c a l sketches, true to the very l i f e , as have ever been penned. But never-t h e l e s s there i s nothing d i d a c t i c about the book. 1* 6 4 4 " E n g l a n d ' s Taste i n L i t e r a t u r e , " The F o r t n i g h t l y Review, Jan. 1912, pp. 160-171. ^Contemporary Review, May 1907 , p. 760. 4 6 I b i d . 179 Not only d i d the book c o n t a i n " h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e of the f i r s t c l a s s " but the o c c a s i o n a l poems might w e l l "make modern rhymers j e a l o u s . " These a p p r e c i a t i v e comments were n u l l i f i e d by the Athenaeum which denounced the new volume- as s l y propaganda -although i t had welcomed and acclaimed S t a l k y and Co. as a f i n e work. In h i s new part - the missionary of empire - Mr. K i p l i n g i s l i v i n g the strenuous l i f e . He has f r a n k l y abandoned s t o r y -t e l l i n g and i s using h i s complete and powerful armoury i n the i n t e r e s t of p a t r i o t i c z e a l . We f i n d h i s design peeping out everywhere i n h i s w r i t i n g and here i t i s cunningly set to engage the f e e t of children. 1'' 7 He was accused of d e l i b e r a t e l y seeking to i n d o c t r i n a t e the young with Imperialism and love of country. The reviewer went on to grant him vigour and c o n f i d e n c e , but, a f t e r having charged him with cunning, d e s c r i b e d h i s approach to h i s subject as clumsy. There was not enough " s t o r y . " Only "Dymchurch F l i t " stood out " i n i t s method, s t y l e and p i c t u r e s q u e beauty" u o as an " e x q u i s i t e piece of work." The Saturday Review rebuked the author f o r o f f e r i n g the p u b l i c an i n f e r i o r work i n a genre unsuited to h i s t a l e n t s . He was t o l d t h a t i t was "not on such books as 'Puck of Pook's 4 7 T h e Athenaeum, Oct. 6, 1906, p. 404. 4 8 I b i d . 180 H i l l ' 4 a that one would wish him engaged." It was "a book f o r c h i l d r e n " and provided " l i t t l e scope f o r h i s e s p e c i a l v i r t u e s . " The s t o r i e s must be d e s c r i b e d as "at best but second-hand work" and the whole was nothing but "a patchwork," d i s p l a y i n g a too modern "touch of p r e v i s i o n . " 5 0 The s t y l e was good i n the t a l e s of the Normans, poor, i n those of the Romans. The review then concluded with mild p r a i s e f o r two of the poems, "Three Part Song" and "Harp Song of the Dane Women."51 A d i f f e r e n t r e p o r t came from the Bookman with A l f r e d Noyes 1 " K i p l i n g the M y s t i c . " Far from s u s p e c t i n g Puck of  Pook's H i l l of c o n c e a l i n g i m p e r i a l designs, Noyes saw i n i t evidence of a notable change, or a remarkable process of s p i r i t u a l r e g e n e r a t i o n on the p a r t of the author. K i p l i n g seemed at l a s t to have turned away from the e v i l courses of the e m p i r e - b u i l d e r s . "Chops, more chops, bloody ones with g r i s t l e i n them!" - the cry of the baser s o r t of I m p e r i a l i s t - has g e n t l y subsided i n t o a f a t s m i l e , a benevolent r a d i a t i o n of sweetness 4 9 K i p l i n g ' s own views concerning Puck of Pook's H i l l are found i n Something of Myself,: "Since the t a l e s had to be read by c h i l d r e n , before people r e a l i s e d that they were meant f o r grown-ups; and s i n c e they had to be a s o r t of balance t o , as w e l l as a s e a l upon, some aspect of my ' I m p e r i a l i s t i c ' output i n the p a s t , I worked the m a t e r i a l i n three or f o u r o v e r l a i d t i n t s and t e x t u r e s , which might or might not r e v e a l themselves a c c o r d i n g to the s h i f t i n g l i g h t of sex, youth and e x p e r i e n c e . " (>p. 190). 5 Q T h e Saturday Review, Oct. 6, 1906, p. 430. I b i d . 181 and l i g h t , s i n c e i t dawned upon the M a f f i c k i n g p a t r i o t t h at he must pay, pay, pay, and yet again pay, f o r even h i s most sanguinary and most human chops with h i s own yellow c o i n . We have not much b e l i e f i n the depths of e i t h e r of these common moods; but we b e l i e v e there are "the^makings of a blooming s o u l " somewhere behind them . . . . The germ of something b e t t e r was apparent i n these new s t o r i e s . We see, i n t h i s book, signs of a great change i n Mr. K i p l i n g . It i s not perhaps h i s best work; but i t looks l i k e the beginning of h i s best and g r e a t e s t work. It would c e r t a i n l y be the most i n t e r e s t i n g of a l l h i s w r i t i n g s i f i t were not f o r the f a c t that i t i l l u m i n a t e s and makes h i s former work even more a r r e s t i n g than i t was when he had "a v o i c e with which statesmen might have to r e c k o n . " 5 3 The b r u t a l m a t e r i a l i s m of the *90's had disappeared and i n i t s place was an understanding of human v a l u e s . In "Puck of Pook's H i l l " we suspect that Mr. K i p l i n g has f o r the f i r s t time dug through the s i l t of modern Imperialism. . . We know of no book i n the guise of f i c t i o n t h a t gives the pageant of our h i s t o r y with such breadth and n o b i l i t y of f e e l -ing and with so sure and easy a t o u c h . 5 4 Again Noyes s t r e s s e d the p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s behind these sketches from h i s t o r y by suggesting that "On the Great W a l l , " a t a l e of Roman B r i t a i n , might w e l l be proof that K i p l i n g saw "the w r i t i n g on a c e r t a i n modern w a l l . " Mr. K i p l i n g was, at the high t i d e of popular Imperialism, one of the very few popular I m p e r i a l i s t s who could e i t h e r have w r i t t e n or echoed the f e e l i n g of h i s " R e c e s s i o n a l " . . . . How 5 2 T h e Bookman, Nov. 1906, p. 81 5 3 I b i d . 5 4 I b i d . , p. 82. 182 deep t h i s v e i n of mysticism goes i n him, i t i s impossible at present to judge. But l e t popular Imperialism beware of him. The day may come when he w i l l t u r n and rend them as he turned and r e n t l a r g e masses of h i s devoted readers i n that d e l i g h t -f u l onslaught which he c a l l e d "The I s l a n d e r s . " Mystics are always dangerous to m a t e r i a l i s t s . . . He was never more the i n t e r p r e t e r to the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g people than he i s i n t h i s book. 5 Perhaps Noyes hoped to j u s t i f y h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n of the book by d w e l l i n g on an e n t i r e l y s u p p o s i t i o u s disavowal on the part of K i p l i n g of h i s i m p e r i a l theme. Three years l a t e r - an unprecedented i n t e r v a l between p u b l i c a t i o n s - A c t i o n s and React ions met with the same mixed response. The Athenaeum's review was urbane i n tone but w r i t t e n i n the f a m i l i a r s t y l e that o f f e r e d disparagement d i s -guised as f a i r - m i n d e d commendation - an advocacy that had the e f f e c t of censure. This l a t e s t book was " r a t h e r l o o s e l y strung t o g e t h e r , " resembling "those c a s u a l c o l l e c t i o n s of t a l e s . . . which both good w r i t e r s and bad are ready to give to the p r e s s , and which i n number are probably l i m i t e d only by the l i m i t of p u b l i c p a t i e n c e . " In view of the f a c t t h a t , except f o r o c c a s i o n a l poems, Mr. K i p l i n g has given h i s hand a good d e a l of r e s t l a t e l y , the casualness of the present work may seem matter of complaint. But, a f t e r a l l , the complaint would be hardly f a i r , f o r the author i s judged by a standard which he, not another has given us: taken by i t s e l f , there i s hardly a t a l e i n t h i s volume which i s not unmatchable i n i t s k i n d , i n i t s a l e r t n e s s , knowledgeableness, the quick understanding of human nature r e v e a l e d i n every scrap of d i a l o g u e . A l l the o l d charms are 5 5 T h e Bookman, Nov. 1906, p. 82. 183 here: i s i t f a i r to grumble because we have not something more, because ( f o r t h i s must be confessed a l s o ) the years have not brought to t h i s b r i l l i a n t genius the weightiness and repose of the p h i l o s o p h i c mind? Mr. K i p l i n g ' s p o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n s have no doubt matured and strengthened; with them we have no concern. But h i s way of e n f o r c i n g h i s views smacks more of the p a r t i s a n and the j o u r n a l i s t than the p h i l o s o p h e r . 5 6 The reviewer then i m p l i e d that the author had reached the f i n a l stage of h i s c a r e e r and that the present a d j u d i c a t i o n might very w e l l be c o n c l u s i v e : If . . . Mr. K i p l i n g ' s genius has never matured as once we hoped i t might, the time has come when our judgment of h i s work may f a i r l y reach toward f i n a l i t y . 5 7 A number of the s t o r i e s were examined and m i l d l y p r a i s e d . None, however, was without flaw. "An H a b i t a t i o n E n f o r c e d " could not be d e s c r i b e d as being as "complete and r e a s o n a b l e " as Henry James' treatment of the same s u b j e c t ; "A Deal i n Cotton," which soared "beyond comparison" i n some of i t s "great moments," was weakened by the "jejune and bor-i n g " nature of " o s t e n s i b l e p l o t . " 5 8 " L i t t l e Foxes" was "a s t o r y r a t h e r poor i n i t s e l f and e x c e l l e n t only f o r i t s s i d e -l i g h t s . " In "The Mother Hive" the " l i t e r a r y m e r i t s " were not " e x c e s s i v e . " "With the Night M a i l , " although i t would "please some," "we could e a s i l y have s p a r e d . " 5 9 The c r i t i c soon came to t h i s u n p r o p i t i o u s c o n c l u s i o n : 5 6 T h e Athenaeum, Oct. 16, 1909, p. 453. 5 7 I b i d . 5 8 i b i d . 5 9 I b i d . 184 A great work 'Actions and R e a c t i o n s ' cannot be c a l l e d , But the e x p e c t a t i o n that Mr. K i p l i n g ' s g i f t s w i l l ever con-c e n t r a t e on some stupendous achievement must now be given up.60 The Saturday Review's "Vigour or Rant?" f i l l e d two columns with i r o n i c g i b e s : It i s the combination of s t r e n g t h and tenderness that makes Mr. K i p l i n g ' s work remarkable. Or would these v i r t u e s of h i s be more a c c u r a t e l y named b r u t a l i t y and s e n t i m e n t a l i t y ? It depends on the poin t of view; and the poi n t of view depends on whether the s t y l e of these three hundred pages appears to you v i g o r o u s , manly speech, or the r a n t i n g and whining of an u n p l e a s a n t l y accented unpleasant v o i c e . Both views are p o s s i b l e , and we propose to give a few examples from t h i s book which may s i m p l i f y the choice between the two.61 The reviewer exposed the sentimental core of "An H a b i t a t i o n E n f o r c e d , " summarized the p l o t to i t s disadvantage and added s c a t h i n g remarks about the f i n a l poem. And then the poem at the end i m p l i e s that E n g l i s h s o i l a c t u a l l y c a l l s American m i l l i o n a i r e s to come and s e t t l e on i t . . . . The verses ought to be i n v a l u a b l e to e s t a t e agents i n Kent, Sussex, and Surrey, e s p e c i a l l y on g r a v e l s o i l s . 6 2 Each s t o r y r e c e i v e d the same treatment with emphasis on the elements of the s e n t i m e n t a l and b r u t a l to be found on every page . 0 U T h e Athenaeum, Oct. 16, 1909, p. 454. 6lThe Saturday Review, Oct. 16, 1909, p. i i i . 6 2 I b i d . 185 . . . "A Deal i n Cotton," the best s t o r y , a l s o gives the purest examples of these l e a d i n g v i r t u e s of Mr. K i p l i n g , so b e a u t i f u l i n themselves, so exceeding b e a u t i f u l i n company. 6 3 In "The Magic of K i p l i n g " the Bookman devoted a l l but the f i n a l paragraph (almost two columns) of i t s review to one s t o r y , "An H a b i t a t i o n E n f orced." It i s a t a l e you read with a constant tender laughter f l u t t e r i n g round you, and a sob at the back of your t h r o a t . To c o n g r a t u l a t e the w r i t e r i s an impertinence - the s t o r y bears i t s own c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s . ^ "With the Night M a i l " was mentioned as c o n t a i n i n g "some genuine c o n s t r u c t i v e work that r i s e s to the verge of c r e a t i o n . " 5 5 There was no h i n t of s u p e r c i l i o u s n e s s but some-t h i n g of the s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d admiration found i n e a r l i e r c r i t ique s. In the case of Rewards and F a i r i e s , a year l a t e r , the Athenaeum spoke w e l l of some of the poems but was d i s s a t i s f i e d with the s t o r i e s . If you want him at h i s best, i t w i l l not be i n these prose s t o r i e s , but r a t h e r i n some of the verses l a v i s h l y s c a t t e r e d throughout the p a g e s . 6 6 In h i s prose i t was h i s " v i t a l i t y and modernity" that most 6 3 T h e Saturday Review, Oct. 16, 1909, p. i v . 6 4 W i l l i a m Hope Hodgson, "The Magic of K i p l i n g , " The  Bookman, Nov. 1909, p. 100. 6 5 I b i d . 66 The Athenaeum, Oct. 22, 1910, p. 483. 186 impressed the reviewer. But the l a t t e r rendered " t h i s medium improper f o r him" and, i n s p i t e of the f a c t that Rewards and  F a i r i e s had "more f r a n k l y a r t i s t i c l e a n i n g s " than Puck of Pook 1 s H i l l , i t seemed to l a c k "the f i n e r and r a r e r sense of f a n t a s y , " such as that of the C e l t i c s c h o o l . Instead i t was " i n v a r i a b l y and at a l l costs r e a l . " Mr. K i p l i n g ' s i s f o r t h r i g h t unconvincing Anglo-Saxon glamour which we could have done without. But he has chosen t h i s method of appearing before h i s p u b l i c and we must accept i t . . . Here are no f a i r i e s i n p o i n t of f a c t ; here i s a b l u n t , sturdy s e r i e s of h i s t o r i c a l p i c t u r e s , c o v e r i n g a survey of o l d E n g l a n d . 6 7 Unlike the Athenaeum, the Saturday Review p r e f e r r e d the prose to the verse but was f a r from being impressed by the work as a whole. One r e c o g n i z e d the usual K i p l i n g s t y l e : This i s the very v o i c e that resounded i n the best t a l e s . The s t y l e , as of o l d , i s a mixture of B i b l e , B a l l a d and Cockney E n g l i s h . Here are the same harsh s t r e n g t h and m e l t i n g s o f t n e s s . The i n v e n t i o n i s e x c e l l e n t . 6 8 On the other hand, the machinery of Puck and the c h i l d r e n was "tiresome and unnecessary" and " s t r a i n e d c r e d u l i t y . " The c h a r a c t e r s were u n r e a l and the s t o r i e s l i f e l e s s d e s p i t e " a l l the s t r i d e n c y and b u s t l e . " As f o r the v e r s e , the w r i t e r ' s power as a poet had " d i m i n i s h e d . " 6 9 6 7 T h e Athenaeum, Oct. 22, 1910, p. 483. 6 8 T h e Saturday Review, Oct. 15, 1910, p. 485. 6 9 I b i d . , p. 486. 187 One or two (of the poems) are vigorous i n Mr. K i p l i n g ' s usual c l e a r c u t a r c h a i c manner and i r o n s e n t e n t i o u s n e s s , but he f r e q u e n t l y s p o i l s h i s e f f e c t s by a mysterious kind of nonsense p e c u l i a r l y h i s own. 7 0 Here an o b j e c t i o n was r a i s e d to the o b s c u r i t y of "A St. Helena L u l l a b y , " i n which the reader had been given no clue to the speaker's i d e n t i t y . Added to t h i s there are many words used simply to f i l l up the l i n e , as f o r example, the l a s t . h a l f of "The South ac r o s s the water underneath a s e t t i n g s t a r " s a i d of St. Helena . . . There are numerous other a b s u r d i t i e s which we can only suppose are due to the j i g and rant of h i s verse g e t t i n g i n t o Mr. K i p l i n g ' s head to the detriment of h i s The c r i t i q u e which had begun i n a complacent mood ended with a degree of p e t u l a n c e . In the Bookman H.A. Hinkson took a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t of view from that of e i t h e r the Athenaeum or the Saturday Review and wrote of the r a r e q u a l i t y of enchantment that the book possessed, of "those d e l e c t a b l e c h i l d r e n , Dan and Una," 7 2 of the " v i v i d s t o r i e s . " 7 3 "The Looking G l a s s " was a I'fine s p i r i t e d poem" 7 4 and the t a l e of "The Knife and the Naked Chalk" deserved s p e c i a l mention. On the other hand "Mr. K i p l i n g , Magician," was showing signs of a gradual d e c l i n e reason. 71 7 0 The Saturday Review, Oct. 15, 1910, p. 486. 7 1 I b i d . The Bookman, Nov. 1910 , P. 97 . 7 3 I b i d . 74 I b i d . 188 i n h i s a r t i s t r y . ' ^ At times Mr. K i p l i n g ' s g r i p seems a l i t t l e l e s s sure than of o l d , h i s point of view l e s s d e f i n e d and one i s conscious of a f e e l i n g of o v e r s t r a i n . His meaning i s not i n f r e q u e n t l y obscure and with d i f f i c u l t y we d i s e n t a n g l e o u r s e l v e s from the meshes which he has woven f o r us. 7 6! Although c o n t r a d i c t o r y both i n general purport and i n d e t a i l , these reviews were, on the whole, i n d i c a t i v e of a s h i f t to a more moderate c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n . The approach had become one of m a t t e r - o f - f a c t accommodation to a f a m i l i a r presence that was e i t h e r tedious or merely commonplace. K i p l i n g , with a l l h i s panoply of p e r s u a s i v e r h e t o r i c and contentious o p i n i o n s , was now an o l d s t o r y . Expressions of antagonism and approval a l i k e had been to some extent con-t r o l l e d and m o d i f i e d , the one becoming more s u b t l e , the other l e s s generous. The Athenaeum and the Saturday Review continued to teach the r e s t to sneer but without r e s o r t i n g to abuse; the Contemporary and the Bookman responded with measured a p p r e c i a t i o n . The other four j o u r n a l s kept s i l e n t e i t h e r because they chose to snub K i p l i n g or because he was no longer of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to t h e i r r e a d e r s . Serious c r i t i c i s m had a l r e a d y begun to peter out; no o c c a s i o n a l a r t i c l e s of any length were being w r i t t e n . A f t e r 1910 s e v e r a l volumes of c r i t i c a l biography appeared, a l l of 7 5 T h e Bookman, Nov. 1910, p.98. 7 6 I b i d . 189 the s o r t that are u s u a l l y put together a f t e r an author's death. It was g e n e r a l l y assumed that K i p l i n g had reached the f i n a l phase of h i s c a r e e r . He p u b l i s h e d no new f i c t i o n between 1910 and 1917. Among the i n f l u e n t i a l c r i t i c s he had few admirers, the m a j o r i t y denying him any place i n the h i e r a r c h y of l i t e r a r y f i g u r e s . They dismissed him from the contemporary scene, r e l e g a t i n g him to the '90's which had witnessed h i s precocious r i s e to fame and h i s exaggerated vogue. His day of g l o r y and n o t o r i e t y had come to an end with the mismanaged South A f r i c a n c o n f l i c t and i t s t r o u b l e d denouement. The d e c l i n e of the o f f i c i a l r e p u t a t i o n of K i p l i n g the a r t i s t - i n no way a f f e c t i n g the p r e s t i g e of K i p l i n g the e n t e r t a i n e r - was announced i n most of the important j o u r n a l s by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e men of l e t t e r s . The o v e r - a l l r e c o r d of h i s encounters with the c r i t i c s •printed i n the eight p e r i o d i c a l s i n d i c a t e d a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d p a t t e r n of v a l u e s , s h i f t i n g from white, to black and i n d e t e r -minate grey, the dominant tone i n each area being checkered with d i s s e n t . Despite i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and v a r i e g a t e d judgments, there was no mistaking the trend of o p i n i o n . With c e r t a i n notable exceptions the i n d i v i d u a l sequences of reviews showed the same t e n d e n c i e s . The Edinburgh  Review had found K i p l i n g ' s e a r l y books worthy of a t t e n t i o n but deplored h i s j o u r n a l i s t i c s t y l e and i n s t a n c e s of b r u t a l i t y . By 1898, however, although he was warned a g a i n s t the use of 190 s l a n g , the expressed approval of h i s work amounted to whole-hearted acceptance. A few years l a t e r , he was d e s c r i b e d as a p o p u l a r i z e r who pandered to the t a s t e s of a t h r i l l - s e e k i n g p u b l i c . In 1914 h i s only c l a i m to greatness was s a i d to be h i s I m p e r i a l i s t a s s o c i a t i o n s . The Q u a r t e r l y , slow to accept new w r i t e r s , had s t r o n g l y disapproved the frank b a r b a r i t y of the f i r s t s t o r i e s yet i n 1897 was moved to set i t s s e a l of approval on K i p l i n g , g i v i n g him generous p r a i s e , only very m i l d l y q u a l i f i e d . The p a t r i o t i c verse of 1900 was s t i l l p l e a s i n g , but l i t t l e good was found i n Kim i n 1902 and not long afterwards the author was dismissed as a j o u r n a l i s t who wrote only f o r readers of "a c e r t a i n c l a s s . " From the f i r s t the l e s s f a s t i d i o u s Blackwood's had been d e l i g h t e d , even e c s t a t i c - the motives f o r such admiration being p o l i t i c a l r a t h e r than l i t e r a r y - and had no f a u l t to f i n d with K i p l i n g , except perhaps where he h i n t e d at i n e p t i t u d e i n the performance of the army c h a p l a i n s i n Kim. The F o r t n i g h t l y Review, with i t s very d i f f e r e n t b i a s , had seen him f i r s t as an a r t i s t having many f a u l t s but as e a r l y as 1893 was prepared to deny h i s a r t i s t r y and to a t t a c k him at a l l p o i n t s . No f u r t h e r a r t i c l e s were devoted e n t i r e l y to h i s work. In 1902 he was mentioned as l a c k i n g s p i r i t u a l i t y and the next year was compared unfavourably with W i l l i a m Watson the a n t i - I m p e r i a l i s t and pro-Boer. 191 At the beginning, the Contemporary had o f f e r e d r e s t r a i n e d commendation of the short s t o r i e s and l a t e r gave prominence to the Buchanan-Besant exchange over St a l k y and  Co. and the w r i t e r ' s work i n g e n e r a l , Buchanan s i g n i f i c a n t l y being given the l a s t word. Kim was reviewed i n 1901, on which o c c a s i o n i t was decided that the novel depended f o r i t s r e p u t a t i o n on K i p l i n g ' s name and h i s powers of c l e v e r d e s c r i p t i o n . In 1903 the e p i t h e t " a n t i - p o e t " was introduced i n the review of The Fiv e Nat i o n s ; " t e c h n i c a l j a r g o n " was considered to be the most s e r i o u s blemish i n T r a f f i c s and  D i s c o v e r i e s . In the f i n a l n o t i c e i n 1907 , Puck of Pook ' s  H i l l was termed a good c o l l e c t i o n of t a l e s f o r c h i l d r e n . The Athenaeum gave K i p l i n g i t s b l e s s i n g throughout the '90*s. Even The L i g h t that F a i l e d r e c e i v e d a f l a t t e r i n g c r i t i q u e and had i t s " b r u t a l " passages amply j u s t i f i e d . The j o u r n a l was t h r i l l e d with Barrack-Room B a l l a d s , d e s c r i b e d Many Inventions as " b r i l l i a n t " and the Jungle Books as " i n i m i t a b l e " and admired the "true a r t i s t r y " of S t a l k y and Co. Then between 1899 and 1901 came a sudden v o l t e - f a c e . Kim had a poor s t y l e , The Five Nat ions was a d u l l work, besides being u n s p i r i t u a l and d i d a c t i c , T r a f f r e s and D i s c o v e r i e s could not be c a l l e d l i t e r a t u r e . Puck of Pook's H i l l f l a u n t e d a dubious p a t r i o t i s m and was f u r t h e r marred by a v a r i e t y of clumsy d e v i c e s . A c t i o n s and Reactions must be considered as the work of an author who had reached the end of h i s c a r e e r , 192 and Rewards and F a i r i e s , while more a r t i s t i c than Puck, had,, no r e a l m e r i t . The Saturday Review expressed great s a t i s f a c t i o n with both s t o r i e s and verse u n t i l a f t e r 1894, when the e d i t o r , '. Walter P o l l o c k , was succeeded by Frank H a r r i s . The l a t t e r ' s known a n t i p a t h y to K i p l i n g was shared by a d i s t i n g u i s h e d member of h i s s t a f f Max Beerbohm. In 1896, a reviewer - he may w e l l have been "Max" - d i s g u s t e d by the usual chorus of p r a i s e , accused K i p l i n g of l e a d i n g the c r i t i c s by the nose and of f o i s t i n g second-rate work on the p u b l i c and d e c l a r e d that he was no longer an a r t i s t but a propagandist. S t a l k y  and Co. was a n g r i l y denounced i n 1899. Follo w i n g a b l a s t a g a i n s t the v u l g a r i t y of "The Lesson," Kim and The Just-So  S t o r i e s were s e v e r e l y handled. In 1903 Max, as drama c r i t i c , was unpleasant about the stage v e r s i o n of The L i g h t that  F a i l e d . The Fi v e Nat ions was r a t e d low f o r i t s j o u r n a l i s m and p o l i t i c a l d i d a c t i c i s m ; Puck of Pook's H i l l could only be looked upon as second-hand m a t e r i a l ; A c t i o n s and Reactions and Rewards and F a i r i e s proved merely tiresome. Of the e i g h t p e r i o d i c a l s , The Bookman contained the . most i n c o n s i s t e n t s e r i e s of reviews. In i t s f i r s t i s s u e s , K i p l i n g was f e a t u r e d as a great a r t i s t and " m a r v e l l o u s l y popular." I f Barrack-Room B a l l a d s proved somewhat d i s a p p o i n t -i n g , The Naulahka deserved to be h i g h l y commended. In 1893, however, the author was taken to task by Y.Y. f o r Many 193 Invent i o n s ; the next year he was r e c o g n i z e d as a f i n e w r i t e r but one who was too i n t e n t on s e r m o n i z i n g . The Second J u n g l e  Book r e c e i v e d an a d m i r i n g t r i b u t e whereas The Day's Work was s a i d t o c o n t a i n o n l y one w e l l - w r i t t e n s t o r y . S t a l k y and Co• r e v i e w e d by i n t e r e s t e d o u t s i d e r s , aroused n o t h i n g but h o s t i l i t y and d i s g u s t . Kim came i n f o r thorough punishment at the hands of Y.Y.; y e t i n 1902 The J u s t - S o S t o r i e s gave C h e s t e r t o n the g r e a t e s t enjoyment and he wrote of i t w i t h u n r e s e r v e d e x p r e s s i o n s of d e l i g h t . W i l f r e d W h i t t e n ' s s u b s t a n t i a l a r t i c l e of J a n u a r y , 1903, d e a l t w i t h the a u t h o r ' s d e f i c i e n c i e s as an a r t i s t . His s h o r t c o m i n g s as a poet o c c u p i e d the r e v i e w e r of The F i v e Nations,, who saw i n h i s work l i t t l e t h a t c o u l d compare w i t h t h a t of W i l l i a m Watson. The f o l l o w i n g y e a r Y.Y. condemned T r a f f i c s and D i s c o v e r i e s and f r a n k l y d e r i d e d the a u t h o r ' s c l a i m s to g r e a t n e s s . N everthe-l e s s i n 1906 the c r i t i c a l c l i m a t e a g a i n a l t e r e d as A l f r e d Noyes r e j o i c e d i n the m y s t i c i s m o f Puck of Pook's H i l l and i n K i p l i n g ' s e v i d e n t a b j u r a t i o n o f I m p e r i a l f o l l i e s . Rewards and  F a i r i e s too was judged to be q u i t e w e l l done, d e s p i t e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the o l d sureness of t o u c h had been l o s t . I f i t were p o s s i b l e to p l o t these r e v i e w s on a m u l t i p l e graph - the h o r i z o n t a l a x i s r e p r e s e n t i n g K i p l i n g ' s y e a r - t o -y e a r l i t e r a r y output and the v e r t i c a l , the c r i t i c s ' r esponse e s t i m a t e d i n degrees of warmth - the r e s u l t i n g p r o f i l e s would g i v e an i n t e r e s t i n g o v e r v i e w of contemporary e v a l u a t i o n . There 191+ would be a c o i n c i d e n c e of c e r t a i n curves, some c l o s e p a r a l l e l s , o c c a s i o n a l i n v e r s i o n s and laps e s i n c o n t i n u i t y . In a l l i n s t a n c e s but one, the trend would be downward, a gen e r a l low being recorded between 1899 and 1904 and r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e change apparent t h e r e a f t e r . The many c o n t r a d i c t i o n s r e v e a l e d by such a graph would be impossible to r e c o n c i l e . Nor could modern c r i t i c i s m agree with the values a l l o t t e d to each work, at times the very a n t i t h e s i s of those accepted today. Kim, now g e n e r a l l y l i s t e d among the best of the many p u b l i c a t i o n s , would be found at the lowest point on the diagram and the f i r s t Anglo-Indian volumes would be p l o t t e d unduly high. From a survey of the evidence i t would be absurd not to conclude that K i p l i n g was wronged by h i s contemporaries, that he was very o f t e n misrepresented by both h i s u n c r i t i c a l admirers and h i s d e t r a c t o r s , that he was set on a p e d e s t a l and adored beyond reason and that he s u f f e r e d an undeserved f a l l , that a great deal of what was w r i t t e n about him was such as no l i t e r a r y canon could j u s t i f y . Even H.G. Wells, who was no f r i e n d of h i s , was moved to comment on the strange v i c i s s i t u d e s of h i s r e p u t a t i o n . K i p l i n g has . . . been so m e r c i l e s s l y and e x h a u s t i v e l y mocked, c r i t i c i z e d and torn to shreds - never was a man so v i o l e n t l y e x a l t e d and then, himsel f a s s i s t i n g , so r e l e n t l e s s l y c a l l e d down. 7 7 7 7T_he New M a c h i a v e l l i (London: John Lane: The Bodley Head. l 9 l l ) , p. 128. 195 Throughout h i s career the c r i t i c s had done him l e s s than j u s t i c e because they made c r i t i c i s m serve ends that had l i t t l e or nothing to do with l i t e r a t u r e . T h e i r unusual degree of f a l l i b i l i t y cannot be a t t r i b u t e d simply to incompetence, f o r there were among them a number of able and p e r c e p t i v e men of l e t t e r s . It must t h e r e f o r e be assumed that the i r r a t i o n a l tendency of t h e i r reviews was determined i n part by v a r i a b l e f a c t o r s not o r d i n a r i l y r e l a t e d to matters of a e s t h e t i c s , by the e x i g e n c i e s of h i s t o r y , p o l i t i c s , and f a s h i o n a b l e philosophy. Besides these extraneous i n f l u e n c e s , the i n d i v i d u a l reviewer must be kept i n mind - h i s t r a i n i n g , t a s t e s , ambitions, achievements, p r e d i l e c t i o n s , and c a p a c i t y f o r o b j e c t i v e judgment or f o r p a r t i s a n s h i p . Where K i p l i n g was concerned, b i a s was always a good deal i n evidence. P o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s came before matters of a r t i s t r y i n the columns of Blackwood's and the F o r t n i g h t l y  Review. ' Possession of a s o c i a l conscience seemed to be a proof of merit r e q u i r e d by the Contemporary. Newer trends i n l i t e r a t u r e occupied the a t t e n t i o n of the Athenaeum and the Saturday Review. Personal p r e j u d i c e was a l s o conspicuous i n the l a t t e r - as i n the case of Max Beerbohm - and i n the Book-man , where Y.Y. could not t o l e r a t e K i p l i n g i s m i n any g u i s e . Both the Edinburgh Review and the Q u a r t e r l y sought to maintain e s t a b l i s h e d , f o r m a l , l i t e r a r y c r i t e r i a . T h e i r guarded approval of a popular j o u r n a l i s t d i d not extend beyond the end of the 196 century, when the war-time r e a c t i o n set i n . A l l were profoundly a f f e c t e d by the war which f u r t h e r upset the balance of judgment and made i t almost impossible f o r the c r i t i c s to separate K i p l i n g ' s w r i t i n g s from the d i s t u r b i n g events with which they seemed so p a i n f u l l y i n v o l v e d . Whatever form of p r e j u d i c e got i n the way of o b j e c t i v i t y , whatever the complex motives that shaped the more disingenuous reviews, the r e s u l t i n g c r i t i c i s m had i n i t s l a t e r phases a l l the appearance of a campaign, a concerted move to pass censure on K i p l i n g . There were i n d i v i d u a l a t t a c k s l i k e those of Beerbohm and J.M. Robertson that were almost o b s e s s i v e , as though the p r o v o c a t i o n were such that the w r i t e r could not help h i m s e l f . And there were other e x e r c i s e s i n d e t r a c t i o n , l e s s abusive but more i n f l u e n t i a l , provided by w r i t e r s adept at f a u l t - f i n d i n g and phrasing l e f t - h a n d e d compliments. These d e t r a c t o r s were f u r t h e r encouraged by t h e i r s u b j e c t , who stubbornly ran counter to the s p i r i t of the age as expressed by h i s peers, and placed h i m s e l f i n o p p o s i t i o n to t h e i r f a v o u r i t e p r o j e c t s and to t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s . Prophet, propagandist, debater i n verse and prose, preacher from h i s own t e x t s , he made what he wrote readable and persua s i v e and roused the worst i n h i s enemies. In the f i r s t place they d e t e s t e d the excessive p o p u l a r i t y by which h i s o l d - f a s h i o n e d and r e a c t i o n a r y philosophy of work, duty, and s e r v i c e to the Empire was perpetuated i n those b e s t - s e l l i n g , s i x - s h i l l i n g volumes. And next, they deplored on a e s t h e t i c grounds the 197 i n d i s p u t a b l e v u l g a r i t y of books that had so wide an appeal. There were, as one of h i s supporters expressed i t , "p l e n t y of people to di s p u t e Mr. K i p l i n g j s r i g h t to the place 7 8 which has been assigned to him by popular consent." Among them was Arnold Bennett, who saw the c r i t i c ' s f u n c t i o n as being s a c e r d o t a l and uncompromising. C r i t i c s , he a s s e r t e d , were " a l l those persons who have genuine c o n v i c t i o n s about an a r t , " to whom " a r t looms enormous" and whose views "amount to a creed . . . that . . . must be s p r e a d . " 7 9 They alone had the r i g h t to vouch f o r a r t i s t s and to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r fame. "The sound r e p u t a t i o n of an a r t i s t i s o r i g i n a l l y due never to the p u b l i c but to the c r i t i c s . " 8 0 K i p l i n g ' s r e p u t a t i o n could not be sound, having been too long i n the hands of the p u b l i c . Once the reviewers had concurred i n the popular e s t i m a t i o n of h i s worth. Then i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers they had turned a g a i n s t him. Some r e b e l l i o u s c r i t i c s , l i k e Y.Y., found nothing to approve i n h i s w r i t i n g a f t e r 1893. Others l i k e Bennett drew the l i n e at Stalky and Co. i n 1899. Asked to review The Seven Seas, Y.Y. pronounced the book " c l e v e r " and "powerful" but " u t t e r l y i n a d m i s s i b l e , " work that could not p r o p e r l y be allowed or r e c e i v e d by the 7 8 D a v i d C h r i s t i e Murray, Guesses at Truth (London: Hurst and B l a c k e t t , L t d . , 1908 ), p. 272 . 7 9 Fame and F i c t i o n : An Enquiry i n t o C e r t a i n P o p u l a r i t i e s (London: Grant Richards, 1901), pp. 197-198. 8 0 I b i d . , p. 197. 198 c o n s c i e n t i o u s c r i t i c without p r o t e s t . He followed t h i s judgment with a frank c o n f e s s i o n of in s u p e r a b l e and r i g h t -minded p r e j u d i c e . The kind of c r i t i c i s m meted out to K i p l i n g ' s l a t e r s t o r i e s and verse was f o r the most part the product of j u s t such laudable b i a s . It was as though the author had been placed i n a s p e c i a l category of i n a d m i s s i b l e w r i t e r s and was to be given none of the c o n s i d e r a t i o n that might be granted those of whom no p a r t i c u l a r harm was known. 8 1 Because K i p l i n g was i n a d m i s s i b l e and i n t o l e r a b l e , there was seldom a new, c l e a r - s i g h t e d survey of h i s work. Instead the u n f r i e n d l y reviewer would e i t h e r rake up the o l d o b j e c t i o n s or, t a k i n g a thematic approach, would s t r e s s only one f a m i l i a r aspect of K i p l i n g i s m and search the te x t f o r evidence. The book would be d i s c a r d e d with l i t t l e r e f e r e n c e to i t s worth but the author would once again have been set up as an e f f i g y f o r r i t u a l burning. The tone of the adverse c r i t i c i s m , which had begun i n anger and r i s e n to f u r y , subsided at l a s t to c o l d , censorious i r o n y , contempt, impatience and weariness. The substance of the c r i t i q u e s very o f t e n c o n s i s t e d e i t h e r of unsupported g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s f o l l o w i n g a d o c t r i n a i r e preamble or of picayune 8 1 T h e Bookman found Captains Courageous " d u l l " but de s c r i b e d J . Maclaren Cobham's W i l t Thou Have This Woman as "a good and even piece of work, . . . a thoroughly readable s t o r y . " Nov. 1897, p. 48. And i n 1898 the same p e r i o d i c a l p r a i s e d Edwin Pugh's Tony Drum: A Cockney Boy: "There i s not much book company now b e t t e r than i s to be found i n Tony  Drum." However, most of the s t o r i e s i n The Day's Work were considered "good i f you can read them . . . otherwise i n t o l e r a b l e . " Nov. 1898, p. 53. 199 f a u l t - f i n d i n g u n r e l a t e d to broader i s s u e s . At the same time the i n f e r e n c e s were p l a i n enough. On the score of a r t , K i p l i n g was d u l l , d i d a c t i c , m o r a l i z i n g o l d - f a s h i o n e d , v u l g a r , popular, i n s e n s i t i v e , r e a l i s t i c . M o r a l l y he was coarse, indecent, i n d e l i c a t e , r i b a l d , b r u t a l , s a d i s t i c , l a wless and given to " u n b r i d l e d p a s s i o n s . " In p o l i t i c s he was r e a c t i o n a r y and undemocratic. He was a J i n g o - I m p e r i a l i s t , an enemy of the p e o p l e , i n league with r e p r e s s i v e government. His philosophy was shallow, s c h o o l - b o y i s h , l a c k i n g i n s i g n i f i c a n c e and p r o f u n d i t y - h i s creed of duty and work, h i s preaching of s t o i c v i r t u e s , h i s pessimism, h i s mysticism belonged to the past. He was a p r o f e s s e d a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l . His s t y l e could only be termed unacceptable; i t was mannered, abrupt, f r e q u e n t l y obscure. He would always be a j o u r n a l i s t and an amateur of s l a n g , p r o f a n i t y , d i a l e c t , and t e c h n i c a l jargon. W r i t i n g thus flawed must be wholly d e s p i s e d . The success of the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a i n c o u n t e r a c t i n g h i s i n f l u e n c e was delayed among the u n i n s t r u c t e d r e a d e r s , but d i d a f f e c t those to whom c r i t i c a l dogma was of g r e a t e r consequence, to the extent that r e a d i n g K i p l i n g became a d i s c r e d i t a b l e occupation or a s e c r e t v i c e - what George Orwell d e s c r i b e d as 8 2 "almost a shamful p l e a s u r e . " To the neophytes of b e l l e s - l e t t r e s , K i p l i n g ' s very name was a reproach; he was the epitome of the r e c a l c i t r a n t 8 2 G eorge Orwell: C r i t i c a l Essays (London: Seeker, 19-46), p. 81 200 s p i r i t . Not o n l y had he r e f u s e d to f o l l o w the "March of Mankind" but he had l e d o t h e r s away from p r o g r e s s . He had been proved a f a l s e p r o p h e t ; what he had w r i t t e n was m a n i f e s t l y f a l s e d o c t r i n e b e s i d e s b e i n g o u t - o f = d a t e , u n r e a d a b l e , and l a c k i n g i n a r t i s t r y . He was b a n i s h e d t o the c h i l d r e n ' s s h e l v e s f o r a l o n g e x i l e . Denied any k i n d of i m m o r t a l i t y by the judgment of a p a n e l of h i s r e s p o n s i b l e c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , he somehow c o n t r i v e d to o u t l a s t them. O r w e l l , who had h i s own reasons f o r d i s -l i k i n g him y e t g e n e r o u s l y a d m i t t e d h i s s p e c i a l g i f t s , r e c o g n i z e d h i s e x c e p t i o n a l s t a y i n g power and observed d i s p a s s i o n a t e l y : K i p l i n g i s i n the p e c u l i a r p o s i t i o n of h a v i n g been a byword f o r f i f t y y e a r s . D u r i n g f i v e l i t e r a r y g e n e r a t i o n s every e n l i g h t e n e d person has d e s p i s e d him, and a t the end of t h a t time n i n e - t e n t h s of t h o s e e n l i g h t e n e d persons are f o r g o t t e n and K i p l i n g i s i n some sense s t i l l t h e r e . 8 3 P e t e r P o r t e r , the A u s t r a l i a n p o e t , s a i d of K i p l i n g t h a t he was "made of d u r a b l e s t u f f - r e a l emotions, r e a l c r a f t s m a n s h i p , r e a l l anguage, r e a l courage," and c o n c l u d e d : "I would bet a • O h l o t of money he w i l l s t i l l be r e a d i n 2065."°^ 8 3 0 r w e l l , p. 70. ft u The L i s t e n e r , Apr. 8, 1965, p. 515. 201 The c r i t i c s who fo l l o w e d h i s c a r e e r , who f i r s t made and then demolished h i s r e p u t a t i o n , d i d not l i v e to recognize the iro n y of t h e i r performance or to note the discrepancy between what they were impelled to w r i t e and what they might have w r i t t e n had t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n s been l e s s i n s i s t e n t and the circumstances l e s s perplexed. Now, much that stood i n the way of an i m p a r t i a l c r i t i c i s m has become i r r e l e v a n t . The unpopular views, so well-expressed and re a d a b l e , no longer r e q u i r e to be put down. As e a r l y as 1939, a poet who could s c a r c e l y be expected to sympathize with K i p l i n g s t a t e d the manifest t r u t h that i n the u l t i m a t e e v a l u a t i o n of any w r i t e r only the c r a f t -ing of language mattered. Time that i s i n t o l e r a n t Of the brave and innocent . . . Worships language and f o r g i v e s Everyone by whom i t l i v e s . . . Time that with t h i s strange excuse 8 5 Pardons K i p l i n g and h i s views . . . W.H. Auden, "In Memory of W.B. Yeats." 202 A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Contemporary Works 1889-1914: Adams, F r a n c i s . Essays i n Modernity. London: John Lane, The Bodley Head, 1899. Beerbohm, Max. A Christmas Garland. London: Heinemann, 1912. Bennett, A r n o l d . Books and Persons. London: Chatto and Windus, 1917. . Fame and F i c t i o n : An Enquiry i n t o C e r t a i n P o p u l a r i t i e s . London: Grant Ri c h a r d s , 1901. . L i t e r a r y Taste: How to Form I t . London: New Age Press, 1909. Benson, A.C. The Upton L e t t e r s . London: Smith, E l d e r £ Co., 1905 . Bland, E. N e s b i t . (ed.) Essays by Hubert Bland. London: Max Goschen L t d . , 1914. C h a r l e s , C e c i l . Rudyard K i p l i n g : His L i f e and Works. London: J . Hewetson and Son, 1913. (The Queen's Quartos). C h e s t e r t o n , G.K. H e r e t i c s . London: John Lane, The Bodley Head, 1905. Clemens, W i l l M. A Ken of K i p l i n g . New York: New Amsterdam Book Co., 1899. Couch, A.T. Q u i l l e r . From a_ Co r n i s h Window. B r i s t o l : J.W. Arrowsmith, 1906. F a l l s , C y r i l . Rudyard K i p l i n g : A C r i t i c a l Study. London: Martin Seeker, 1915. Gardiner, A.C. Prophets, P r i e s t s and Kings. London: A l s t o n R i v e r s L t d . , 1908. 203 Gosse, Edmund. Questions at Issue. London: Win. Heinemann, 1893, pp. 255-293. . " E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . " Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a . 10th ed. (1902), IV, 256-258. Hopkins, R. Thurston. A L i t e r a r y A p p r e c i a t i o n . New York: F r e d e r i c k A Stokes, 1915. James, W i l l i a m P r i c e . "Rudyard K i p l i n g . " Encyclopaedia B r i t a n n i c a . 11th ed. (1910), XV, 825-826 . Knowles, F r e d e r i c Lawrence. A K i p l i n g Primer. Boston: Brown £ Co., 1899. Lang, Andrew. Essays i n L i t t l e . London: Henry £ Co., 1891. Le G a l l i e n n e , R i c h a r d . Rudyard K i p l i n g : A_ C r i t i c i s m . London: John Lane, The Bodley Head, 1900. Mair, G.H. Modern E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . London: W i l l i a m and Norgate, 1911. Mansford, M.F. and A. Wessels. K i p l i n g i a n a . New York: Mansford and Wessels, 1899. Matthews, Brander. Books and Play-Books. London: Osgood, M c l l v a i n e £ Co., 1895. Monkshood, G.F. and George Gamble. Rudyard K i p l i n g : The Man  and His Work. London: Greening & Co., L t d . , 1902. Murray, David C h r i s t i e . Guesses at Truths . London: Hurst £ B l a c k e t t , 1908. Palmer, John. Rudyard K i p l i n g . New York: H o l t , 1915. Parker, W.B. The R e l i g i o n of Mr. K i p l i n g . New York: M a n s f i e l d and Wessels, 1899. Peddicord, W.J. Rudyard Reviewed. P o r t l a n d , Oregon: Press of Marsh P r i n t i n g Co., 1900. Phelps, W i l l i a m Lyon. Essays on Modern N o v e l i s t s . New York: The Macmillan Co., 1910. Robertson, John M. Rudyard K i p l i n g : A_ C r i t i c i s m . Madras: Reprinted from The Indian Review, 1905. 204 S c o t t , Dixon. Men of L e t t e r s . London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1917. Stephens, A.G. The Red Pagan. Sidney: B u l l e t i n Newspaper Co., L t d . , 1905. Wells, H.G. The New M a c h i a v e l l i . London: John Lane, The Bodley Head, 1911. Later Works: Baker, Ernest A. The Hd-story of the E n g l i s h Novel. New York: Barnes £ Noble, Inc., 1964 [1936], X, 105-156. Bates, H.E. The Modern Short Story. Boston: The Writer Inc., 1941. Bodelsen, C.A. Aspects of K i p l i n g ' s A r t . Manchester: U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1964. Bowra, CM. Poetry and P o l i t i c s : 1900 - 1960. Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966. Braybrooke, P a t r i c k . K i p l i n g and h i s S o l d i e r s . London: C.W. D a n i e l , 1925. B r i o n , Marcel. Rudyard K i p l i n g . P a r i s : LB. Nouvelle Revue C r i t i q u e , 1929. Brown, H i l t o n . Rudyard K i p l i n g : A New A p p r e c i a t i o n . London: Hamish Hamilton, 1945. C a r r i n g t o n , C.E. Rudyard K i p l i n g : His L i f e and Work. London: Macmillan £ Co. L t d . , 1955. C h e v r i l l o n , Andre. Three Studies i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . London: Heinemann, 1923. Cohen, Morton, (ed.) Rudyard K i p l i n g to Rider Haggard. The Record of a_ F r i e n d s h i p . London: Hutchinson £ Co., 1965 . Cooke, Rupert C r o f t - . Rudyard K i p l i n g . London: Home and Van Thai L t d . , 1948. C u n l i f f e , J.W. E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e during the Last Half Century. New York: Macmillan, 1923. 205 Daiches, David. A C r i t i c a l H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . V o l . I I . New York: Ronald Press, 1960. Dobree, Bonamy. The Lamp and the Lute. London: Frank Caro, 19 2 9 . . Rudyard K i p l i n g . London: Longman, Green £ Co., 1951. . Rudyard K i p l i n g : R e a l i s t and F a b u l i s t . London: Oxford, 1967. E l i o t , T.S. A Choice of K i p l i n g 1 s Verse. New York: Doubleday, 1962 [194177 Elwin, Malcolm. Old Gods F a l l i n g . London: C o l l i n s , 1939. Ensor, S i r Robert. England: 1870 - 1914, ed. S i r George C l a r k . Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1963 [1936]. The Oxford H i s t o r y of England. G i l b e r t , E l l i o t L. K i p l i n g and the C r i t i c s . New York: U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965. Graham, Walter. E n g l i s h L i t e r a r y P e r i o d i c a l s . New York: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1930. H a r r i s , Frank. Contemporary P o r t r a i t s . New York: P u b l i s h e d by the Author, 1919. Hart, Walter M o r r i s . K i p l i n g : The Story W r i t e r . Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1918. K i p l i n g , Rudyard. Something of Myself. London: M a c m i l l i a n , 1937 . Land, Myrick. The Fine A r t of L i t e r a r y Mayhem. New York: Rinehart and Winston, 1963. Leaud, F r a n c i s . La_ Poet ique de Rudyard K i l l i n g . E s s a i d' I n t e r p r e t a t i o n Generale de son Oeuvre. P a r i s ! STdTer, 1952 . Lucas, E.V. Post-Bag Divers i o n . London: Methuen £ Co., Ltd . , 1934. Maurois, Andre. Prophets and Poets . New York: Harper, 1935, Muddiman, Bernard. Men of the Ninet i e s . London: Danielson, 1920 . 206 O r w e l l , George. C r i t i c a l Essays. "Rudyard K i p l i n g . " London: Seeker, 1946. P i n t o , V i v i a n de S o l a . C r i s i s i n E n g l i s h Poetry: 1880 - 1940. London: Hutchinson, U n i v e r s i t y L i b r a r y , [19587"! Raymond, E.T. P o r t r a i t s of the New Century. London: Ernest Benn Ltd . , 1928 . • P o r t r a i t s of the N i n e t i e s . London: T. F i s h e r Unwin L t d . , 1921. Unc ensored C e l e b r i t i e s . London: T. F i s h e r Unwin L t d . , 1918. R u t h e r f o r d , Andrew, ed. K i p l i n g ' s Mind and A r t . Edinburgh £ London: O l i v e r £ Boyd, 1964. Sampson, George. "Rudyard K i p l i n g , " Encyclopaedia  B r i t a n n i c a . 13th ed. [1926], I I , 638-639. Shanks, Edward. Rudyard K i p l i n g : A Study i n .^Literature and  P o l i t i c a l Ideas. London: Macmillan, 1940. Stewart, J.I.M. E i g h t Modern W r i t e r s . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963. Stewart, James McG. A.W. Yeats, ed. Rudyard K i p l i n g : A B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l Catalogue. Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1959. Tomkins, J.M.S. The Art of Rudyard K i p l i n g . London: Methuen £ Co., 1959. Wells, H.G. The O u t l i n e of H i s t o r y . V o l . I I . New York: Macmillan, 1920. West, Rebecca. The Court and the C a s t l e . New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957. W i l l i a m s , C h a r l e s . Poetry at Present. Oxford: Clarendon Press, [1930]. General P e r i o d i c a l s : "The Automobile i n F i c t i o n . " S c r i b n e r s . XLII (Oct. 1907 ), 507 . 207 A u s t i n , Henry. "The K i p l i n g H y s t e r i a . " The D i a l , XXVI (May 16, 1899), 327. Blakemore, Trevor. "Rudyard K i p l i n g : The Poet of R e a l i t y . " The Poetry Review, A p r i l 1912, pp. 165-167. "The B r u t a l i n L i t e r a t u r e . " Great Thoughts. London: Smith's, Aug. 15, 1914, p. 186. Chesterton, G.K. "Books to Read." P a l l M a l l Magazine, Dec. 1901, p. 573. C h e v r i l l o n , Andre. "Rudyard K i p l i n g . " La_ Revue de P a r i s , P a r i s : Bureaux de l a Revtiew de P a r i s , M a r s - A v r i l 1899, I I , 34-74 and 621-653. De Cordova, Rudolph. "The Present State of L i t e r a r y C r i t i c i s m i n England." Great Thoughts. London, Nov. 1913, p. 240. Graves, Robert. "Pretense on Parnassus." Horizon, V (May 1963), 83-84. Hooker, B r i a n . "The Later Work of Mr. K i p l i n g . " North American Review. May 1911, pp. 721-732. Kennedy, J . "Anglo-Indian N o v e l i s t s and Hinduism." The East  and the West. A p r i l 1903, pp. 171-181. " K i p l i n g i n America." Anon. Review of Reviews. A p r i l 1899, pp. 420-421. Maurice, Arthur B a r t l e t t . " K i p l i n g ' s Men." The Bookman. New York: Dodd, Mead £ Co., Dec. 1898, pp. 348-350. . " K i p l i n g ' s Verse People." The Bookman. New York: Dodd, Mead £ Co., March 1899, pp. 57-62. . " K i p l i n g ' s Women." The Bookman. New York: Dodd, Mead £ Co., Jan. 1899, pp. 479-481. Moore, George. " K i p l i n g and L o t i . " P a l l M a l l Magazine. J u l y 1908, pp. 375-379. "Mr. Rudyard K i p l i n g ' s Writings." The Times. March 25 , 1890 , P. 3 . "Mr. K i p l i n g and London." Anon. Great Thoughts. London, Oct. 4, 1913, p. 82. 208 "Mr. K i p l i n g at the Crossroads." The Bookman. New York, Dec. 1898, pp. 350-351. Newbolt, S i r Henry. "An Essay on C r i t i c i s m . " The Monthly  Review, Feb. 1903, pp. 2-3. . " K i p l i n g the Poet." The Book Monthly, Jan. 1913, X, 234-235. Newman, E r n e s t . "Mr. K i p l i n g ' s S t o r i e s . " The Free Review, Dec. 1893, pp. 236-248. P l a t e r , C D . "The C u l t of K i p l i n g . " The Month. Jan. 1900, pp. 28-33. "Poet of the Empire," ( E d i t o r i a l ) Great Thoughts. Oct. 4, 1913, p. 3. Powell, F. York. "Rudyard K i p l i n g , " The E n g l i s h I l l u s t r a t e d  Magazine, Dec. 1903, XXX, 295-296. "The Present State of C r i t i c i s m i n England." Great Thoughts. Oct. 4, 1913, p. 240. "Rudyard K i p l i n g as Poet." Anon. Great Thoughts. Aug. 15, 1914, p. 312 and Aug. 22, 1914, p. 325. Sarath, Roy. "Rudyard K i p l i n g Seen Through Hindu Eyes." North American Review. CXCIX, (Feb. 1914), 271-281. Shepperson, George. "The World of Rudyard K i p l i n g . " Sunday  Times . May 6 , 1962 , p. 29. Warner, W. Lee-. "A Review of Kim." The Empire Review. ed. C. Kinlock Cooke, II (Nov. 1 9 0 T 7 , No. 10, 437-441. Wilde, Oscar. "The True Function and Value of C r i t i c i s m . " The Nineteenth Century. Sept. 1890 , p. 455. 209 S p e c i a l P e r i o d i c a l s : The a r t i c l e s and r e v i e w s s e l e c t e d f o r d e t a i l e d study have been l i s t e d i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r . The Athenaeum Apr. 26, 1890. pp. 527-528. Anon, r e v . , Departmental D i t t i e s and S o l d i e r s Three. J u l y 5, 1890 . P- 32. The S t o r y o f the Gadsbys. 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P. 268 . Apr. 7, 1900 . PP- 427-428. Aug. 3, 1901. pp. 135-136. "Mr. K i p l i n g ' s Descent." Oct. 12, 1901. PP . 466-467. Kim. Dec . 6, 1902 . P. v i i i . The Just So S t o r i e s . Feb. I 4 , 1903 . P- 199. Max Beerbohm, " K i p l i n g ' s E n t i r e . " Oct. 31, "Mr 1903. pp '. K i p l i n g . 548-549. Anon, r e v . , The Fiv e Nations J o u r n a l i s t . " Oct. 15, 1904. P- 494. "Reform and Mr. K i p l i n g . " 214 Oct. 6, 1906. p. 430. "Mr. K i p l i n g ' s L a t e s t Adventure." Oct. 16, 1909. pp. i i i - i v . "Vigour or Rant." Oct. 15, 1910. pp. 485-486. Rewards and E a i r i e s . 

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