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Exchange in the social structure of the Orokaiva Schwimmer, Erik Gabriel 1970

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EXCHANGE IN THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF THE OROKAIVA BY ERIK GABRIEL SCHWIMMER M.A.,  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Ph .D. in  the Department of  S o c i o l o g y and Anthropology  We accept t h i s required  t h e s i s as conforming to the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1970  In p r e s e n t i n g  this  thesis  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the L i b r a r y I  further  for  agree  scholarly  by h i s of  shall  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  tha  it  written  freely  permission  thesis  for  It  fulfilment  of  of  Columbia,  British  available  gain  shall  that  not  requirements  reference  I agree and  copying o f  this  copying or  study. thesis  Department o f  Sociology  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8 , Canada  April  30.  1970  -  Anthropology  Columbia  or  publication  permission.  GABRIEL  for  that  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  ERIK  Date  the  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  is understood  financial  for  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  representatives.  this  in p a r t i a l  SCHWIMMER  i i i  ABSTRACT  Chairman;  Professor  Most ing  the  range  of  strong  have  corporate  work  a  resident  the  may  be  the  same  ical  level the  i n Melanesia,  aware  i n that  upon on  of  the  my  of  area,  and,  ethnographic  of  in this as  society  descent.  culture  that as  a  I have  which  of  social  scope  the  reciprocity. of. t h e  Papua.  reciprocity, structural  I  or  have  exchange,  principle  with  that  The  Orokaiva,  d e v e l o p e d a method  i s consistent  and  in contrast,  study  i n the Northern D i s t r i c t  follow-  analysing  the l i m i t e d  principle  assumption  while  on  of theoret-  assumption.  the  what  i s based  treated  I of  groups  theoretical  describing  keenly  placed  present  made  Belshaw  d e s c e n t - b a s e d method  been  emphasis  tribe  S.  ethnographers working  traditional  structure,  Cyril  have  'exchange  Barth  exchange engage  and  cycle  in a  economic, contains purpose  used,  as  cycle ,  i s an  pairs  exchange,  complementary  have  event  or of  analytical  somewhat called  which  religious  opposition;  (b)  the concept  elaborate  i n which  ends.  as  device,  version  'transaction'.  may  elements:  are viewed  more a  sequence  exchange  political  of  main a  1  Belshaw  social  three  my  two  An  partners  simultaneously An  (a) t h e  exchange partners  standing  the objects  of  in a  of  serve cycle  who,  f o r the  relation  exchange,  of  which  iv  generally ties,  take  as i n t h e theory  mediation, purpose  which  part,  after  I have  exchange  cycles,  belief  studied  the  3)  Australian  objects  examined  symbolic  (chapter  part  (chapters  for social elements  land,  5 -  of  mirror  the third  networks  mediated  movement  of objects  upon  Orokaiva  since  The  by g i f t s  we  Orokaiva base I  have  institutions  the  i s concerned  pigs,  minor  examined  system;  f o r the making  part,  of  of mediation.  British-  social  move  in virtue  of  exchange are the  as k i n , they political  displayed  by  at i t sdeepest  individual for rules  are constrained, of their  their  transactions  of economic, patterns  with  and  in detail  symbolised  to the search  of mediation  foods  of mediation  structure from  chiefly  of the regular  The o b j e c t s  the s o c i a l  individuals  In the  the Orokaiva  developed  I have  of t h e exchange used  parts.  4 ) .  structure.  r e l i g i o u s statements. transfer  f o r the social  in traditional  and t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s  and  placed  both  taro,  9 ) .  simultaneously  In  on w h i c h  of the study  are  their  summary  s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the p r i n c i p a l types  partnerships  basic  three  the ' s t a r t i n g mechanisms'  in institutions  second  of  are offered  or r e s t o r i n g  i n the e f f i c a c y of objects  and  penal-  (c) objects  that  into  a brief  i . e . t h e myths  of mediation:  ornaments  cycles  i s divided  providing  conquest  The  and B l a u ;  or maintaining  ' s t a r t i n g mechanisms',  (chapter  or s o c i a l  partners.  ethnography  culture,  and  o f Homans  benefits  are the prestations  between  The  their  of s o c i a l  of e s t a b l i s h i n g  exchange  first  the form  level.  exchange by w h i c h  the  and which a r e  membership  of  some  V  corporate social  group.  structure  restricted  and  shown  this  of I  that  the  argued  that  social  an  account  by  present  theoretical obvious  the  as  ambivalent  i n my  phenomena. Homans,  Blau  'intrinsic' Blau  symbolic  as My  such  The  as  well  as  i n my  Barth  exchange  plausibly  .to  the  i s set  gifts  such  as  marriage  may  I  have  i s to  in  cycles and  Orokaiva  and  perhaps  discussed  exchange  of  Pouwer,  of  and  Malinowski,  valued  study  and  symbolic  i n some d e t a i l .  'primarily  my  Levi-Strauss  structure,  task.  generally,  movements.  works  fundamental  form  system  also  analysing  the  the  the  negative  of  then  have  changes  method  out  are  More  between  millennial  I  by  10)  exchange  concepts  maintains, is a  relations  debt  the  exchange.  and  i n the  principal  between  violent  positive  (11),  of  and  often  chapter  Orokaiva  determined  society  and  to  alternation  (chapter  social  use  approach  systems  of  key  marriage  is reflected  rules  the  is actually  between  concluding  debts.  reciprocity,  generalised  dramatic  f o r phenomena the  i n the  themselves,  This  while  In  found  that  exchange-oriented  relationships  Europeans  as  be  rules  i s marked  i n the  suggested  alternation  reciprocity.  also  is  may  complex  marriage  Orokaiva  of  I have  If as  the  in symbols',  underlying  vi  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS Pages  Abstract  i  List  of Tables  List  of Figures  and Maps  PART I:  x i x i i  I:  THE  OROKATVA  EXCHANGE  SYSTEM  Introduction  1  Footnotes Chapter  I I :  S e c t i o n 1: S e c t i o n 2: S e c t i o n 3: S e c t i o n 4: S e c t i o n 5: Footnotes Chapter  III:  S e c t i o n 1: S e c t i o n 2: S e c t i o n 3: S e c t i o n 4: Footnotes Chapter  IV:  Section Section Section Section  16 The S e t t i n g  Footnotes  17  Geography T e c h n o l o g y and A e s t h e t i c s Economics History Field Locations  The I d e o l o g y  17 21 37 47 62 69  of I n t e r t r i b a l  Exchange  Experiences with t h e Exchange Folk explanations of exchange Towards a model of exchange The S t a r t i n g Mechanism  The Exchange 1: 2: 3: 4:  i  ix  Acknowledgements  Chapter  i  System  a n d t h e New  C u l t u r a l Changes A new.starting mechanism New e x c h a n g e c y c l e s T h e new d a y , t h e m i s s i o n divine retribution  72  System  72 80 93 104 113  Age  114 114 119 129  and 141 151  vii  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS PART  Chapter  V:  1: 2:  Section  3:  Section Section  4: 5:  S e c t i o n 6: S e c t i o n 7: Footnotes VI:  Section Section Section Section Section  1: 2: 3: 4: 5:  VII:  S e c t i o n 1: S e c t i o n 2: S e c t i o n 3: S e c t i o n 4: S e c t i o n 5: S e c t i o n 6: S e c t i o n 7: Footnotes 1  Chapter  VIII:  Section Section  OBJECTS  OF  MEDIATION 152  Mediating elements L a n d and i t s t r a n s f e r : transactions between the sexes L a n d t r a n s a c t i o n s b e t w e e n men and spirits T r a n s f e r of u s e h o l d s between agnates T r a n s f e r s of land o u t s i d e the c o r p o r a t e group Case study of u t e r i n e l a n d i n h e r i t a n c e Conclusion  Taro  S e c t i o n 6: Footnotes Chapter  II:  Pages  Land  Section Section  Chapter  (Cont'd.)  1: 2:  S e c t i o n 3: S e c t i o n 4: S e c t i o n 5: S e c t i o n 6: Footnotes  160 16 6 173 18 3 195 205 209 210  Introduction Taro Ancestors T a r o as m e d i a t o r i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s A survey of taro g i f t s C l u s t e r s and C h a i n s : Two patterns of i n t i m a c y Structural implications  Pigs  210 216 227 239 249 258 264 265  Introduction The w i l d p i g : Marauder D o m e s t i c a t i o n of p i g s : Husbandry W i l d p i g s as v i c t i m s D o m e s t i c a t e d p i g as v i c t i m E x p i a t i o n and communion i n f e a s t i n g A model of p i g s a c r i f i c e  Coconut  152  and  Betelnut  T h e o r e t i c a l Intermezzo" The m i n o r f o o d s : O b j e c t s of m e d i a t i o n and p a i r e d s y m b o l s C o c o n u t as o b j e c t o f m e d i a t i o n A r e c a as o b j e c t o f m e d i a t i o n T h e m y t h o f c o c o n u t arid b e t e l n u t A n a l y s i s of the myth  265 270 273 278 28 3 293 308 318 320 320 325 327 330 333 343 34 7  v i i i  TABLE  OF  Chapter  CONTENTS  IX:  Section Section Section  1: 2: 3:  X:  III:  EXCHANGE  AND  SOCIAL  1: 2: 3:  Section Section  4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9:  S e c t i o n TO: Footnotes  XI:  Introduction P a t r i l i n e a l groups Williams' theory of Orokaiva marriage Elements of r e s t r i c t e d exchange Complementary o p p o s i t i o n i n v i l l a g e topography Kinship terminology Sex a f f i l i a t i o n The n a t u r e o f O r o k a i v a b r i d e w e a l t h A p p l i c a t i o n of the model to clan formation Conclusions  Epilogue  348 352 354 358 367 372 376 37 9  STRUCTURE  Marriage  Section Section Section  Chapter  348  Introduction The n a t u r e o f o t o h u ornaments Williams' account of the conferment of otohu A d d i t i o n a l d a t a on otohu The message o f t h e s a c r e d f l u t e s O t o h u a n d hambo c o m p a r e d The n a t u r e o f m e d i a t i o n  PART  Section Section Section Section  Pages  Ornaments  S e c t i o n 4: S e c t i o n 5: S e c t i o n 6: S e c t i o n 7: Footnotes  Chapter  (Cont'd;.)  380 380 386 39 0 394 399 404 412 417 4 22 427 432  433  Footnotes  454  Bibliography  457  Index  470  to Models  Statistical Maps  and  Tables  Figures  i.x  LIST  Northern  OF  TABLES  District:  Population  S i v e p e and I n o n d a : P o p u l a t i o n sex, m a r i t a l s t a t u s and c l a n  1966 by a g e ,  Changes i n house d e s i g n , house c o n s t r u c t i o n and d o m e s t i c a m e n i t i e s i n S i v e p e , 1 9 3 6 - 1 9 6 6 Food p l a n t s compared  per household:  Inonda  Monthly  rainfall  f o r Awala,  Monthly  rainfall  f o r Popondetta,  Sivepe:  the d i v i s i o n  A c q u i s i t i o n o f hambo Inonda compared  Sivepe  1955-62  of labour  D i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r between t h e O r o k a i v a i n 1923  and  1955-1961 by s e x  the sexes  and d_i: S i v e p e  among  and  S i v e p e : The g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of s u b s i s t e n c e p r o d u c e and l a b o u r service transac tions Enrollment i n primary schools of the Anglican mission i n the Northern District P u b l i c expenditure i n the T e r r i t o r y of P a p u a d u r i n g t h e y e a r s e n d e d 30 J u n e 1 9 6 1 to 1965 Revised Council  estimates of Higaturu Local f o r J u l y 1966 - J u n e 1967  Government  E d u c a t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e J e g a s e and Seho c l a n s o f S i v e p e c o m p a r e d Hohorita Sivepe:  male Taro  S i v e p e : Taro partners  adults  in skilled  t r a n s a c t i o n s by  occupations  household  t r a n s a c t i o n s between  preferential  X  Table  XVIII:  Areca  transactions:  Table  XIX:  Village  populations  Sivepe and  and  clan  Inonda  organisation  xi  MAPS  AND  FIGURES  Figure  1  Popondetta S u b - D i s t r i c t : land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  Figure  2  Census  Figure  3:  Construction  Figure  4  Inonda  Figure  5  Layout of H o h o r i t a station  Figure  6;  Village  Figure  7  Colocasia  Figure  8  Taro g i f t s i n Sivepe: sociogram preferential partnerships  Figure  9:  Village  Figure  10:  Sivepe  map  of Northern  layout  Orokaiva  house  layout village  of o l d  escuienta  layout and  District  of a modern  village  generalised  o f new  and  mission  Sivepe  (taro)  Sivepe  i t s neighbourhood  of  xii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This  research  as  an a s s i s t a n t  of  Oregon.  directed Study  I was  by P r o f .  in  the P a c i f i c .  to  visit  I  Mrs. Ziska  This  Research  Unit  mission  myself  f o r one y e a r .  I also  and t h e K i l l a m  Foundation.  i n this  encouraging Crocombe,  of valuable  wives;  research  valuable work.  and i n s p i r i n g executive Miss  Orokaiva mission  hospital;  a n d many  school;  other  who  were I  o f t h e New  White,  texts;  M r . C.  others  which  i n the f i e l d  officer  Nancy  as s h e n o t  observations  Among  a  M r . M. D r . A.  Searle,  individuals  my  should Guinea  missionary Lean,  head  Radford, a p l a n t e r of attached  to the  and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . My  informants  Papuan were  interpreters,  Harold  Heru,  Messrs.  Robert  Nanisi  Sivepe;  research  a s s i s t a n t s and  t h e f o l l o w i n g : Mr. S t e p h e n  Messrs.  of  and  to t h i s  o f the Saiho  their  wife  made  o f t h e Sasembata  director  Council  my  Schwimmer,  o f t h e A.N.U.;  collector  enabled  Communities  the c o n t r i b u t i o n which  incorporated  D r . R.  Comparative  i n Displaced  of Papua  i t b u t made many  mention:  'A  for a project  here  been  Awala;  commission  a report  acknowledge  have  teacher  and S t a b i l i t y  t h e Canada  with  and  Barnett  District  bore  kind,  University  and e n t i t l e d  only  helpful,  of Anthropology,  H.G.  from  should  appointment  to write  the Northern help  my  commissioned  Change  1  received  p o s s i b l e through  to the Department  of Culture  wife,  was made  John  Douglas  and L e o n  Rev. A l b e r t McLaren  and B r i a n  Bhagi  Oriri Orua  and M i s s  o f Sasembata  chief  of Inonda; of  Hohorita;  Patricia  mission  Jove,  station;  x iii  Mr.  Walter  Waki  Mr.  Cromwell  of  Popondetta.  Burau  who  communicated  to  me  some  culture;  to  Samuel  and  stayed of  I  owe  with  his  me  deep  Jovareka,  a very for  three  insight  our  special weeks  into  Orokaiva  debt  to  and  Orokaiva  father,  of  Sivepe. I for  better  this in  should  work  or by  also  like  f o r worse, their  Dr.  Carstens, would  thank  University  Kenelm  Dr.  Jan  the of  have  thank  0.  Dr. L.  Pouwer  Social  Toronto,  some  helped  encouragement,  a l p h a b e t i c a l order:  Belshaw,  to  Homer  Mr.  Sciences for  the  the  G.  and  Barnett, Dr.  Adrian  A.  scholars  Dr.  Cyril Dr.  S. Peter  Finally  Scarborough  excellent secretarial  of  information;  Capell,  Tanner.  Division,  who,  development  criticism  Burridge, and  in  of  I  College,  services.  PART  I:  THE  OROKAIVA  EXCHANGE  SYSTEM  CHAPTER  A and  great  deal  out  with  especially are  large  successful  these  accordingly  comparative  explained  be  explained,  social  groups.  i n societies scope.  groups  offered  Such  where  anthropol-  define  analysis  many their  groups  members' of  analytical  f o r anthropologists  was  simpler  to the p r i n c i p l e  an e x c e l l e n t  arising  corporate  In a great  reference  framework  by  may  t o r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s  corporate  o b l i g a t i o n s with  which  behaviour  i n corporate  and o f wide  societies and  been  reference  o f membership  INTRODUCTION  of s o c i a l  has t r a d i t i o n a l l y  ogists,  I:  rights  descent,  and  studying  these  societies. It action but  often  happens  do n o t b e h a v e  rather  that  the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a  a s members  as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  of d i f f e r e n t  purpose  of the a c t i o n  - opposed  arities  found  type  subject  of exchange  i n this  Levi-Strauss, in  political  this  theory  Blau,  , economic  Barth  a high  field  anthropologists  have  their  analysis  corporate  descent,  as t h i s  interesting  seemed  institutional  The  regul-  been the  notably  by  Mauss,  and c e r t a i n a u t h o r i t i e s anthropology.  degree  generally  to  organise  and t h e p r i n c i p l e  explanations  phenomena.  Although  of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n ,  preferred  groups  to provide  group  and - f o r t h e  groups.  as d e v e l o p e d  and r e l i g i o u s  has a t t a i n e d  around  social  corporate  o f i n t e r a c t i o n have  theory,  Homans,  o f t h e same  social  When  of  f o r many  the workings  of  2.  the  'principle  ethnographers, ised on  areas  were  inquired  these  have  tended  inquiries  of the culture,  the assumption  'principle of  of r e c i p r o c i t y '  that  and have  only  the explanatory  of r e c i p r o c i t y '  might  into  t o be i n s p e c i a l -  rarely  value  equal  by  that  been  based  of the of the  'principle  descent'. Most  ethnographers  working  i n Melanesia,  following  the t r a d i t i o n a l  descent-based  of  social  structure  been  of  corporate  scope  groups  i n that  and, i n c o n t r a s t ,  principle has  , have  been  Pouwer,  the this  o n t h e same relative approach  ations, for  place  weight  Exchange which  the p r i n c i p l e s a n d some  to each  not clear  may  distinct  destinies  an a l l i a n c e  to this  upon t h e  situation  advocated  by  of descent, others  reci-  not  specif-  on t h e b a s i s But even  of ethnographic methods  we  of the p r i n c i p l e  oper-  may of  be v i e w e d  from  opposite  Let u s f i r s t  they  and p e r s o n a l  two  rely reci-  interests,  one a n o t h e r  who  f o r reasons  starting  consider  are strangers,  with decide  which  of  when  societies.  as though  with  limited  placed  principle.  on what  a r e complementary.  partners  analysis  extremely  societies  as a b a s i s  of  of the paucity  emphasis  approach'  of the working  exchange  seek  given  i n primitive  their  and compare  i s accepted  the analysis  points  level  aware  reaction  siblingship  i t i s still  procity  One  the 'configurational  procity , residence, ied,  area,  the strong  of r e c i p r o c i t y .  which, w o u l d  keenly  method  while  to  may  3.  range From  from this  social The  psychological viewpoint  been but  o f how  a subject also  i s always social  of s p e c u l a t i o n  the s t a r t i n g  presented  i n t h e form  gift  by a d e m i - g o d  in  made  motion.  emergence Once of  o f a new  because ship.  may  Ego  Husserl  that  based  have  they  culture  between  experience  (Schutz  a r e always  I f our method we  need  world  i f that  free was s e t  of g i f t s  culture  t h e two  partners.  phenomenological  of a s o c i a l  relationAs  relations;;are  126, 3 1 2 - 3 2 9 ) .  extent  of ethnography  call  composed  of the 'interchange-  1967:  to view  cycles.  as t r a n s c e n d a n t .  precarious i s t o go  exchange  also  analytical.  i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to conceive  except  exchange  out, social  t o some  shall  and r e c i p r o c a t i n g  system i s  cycle  i t i s actually  of exchange  pointed  viewpoint.which T  receiving  up new  on an i d e a l i s a t i o n  phenomenology,  viewpoint,  view  ego's  of standpoints'  reason  second  setting  of exchanges this  o f an e x c h a n g e  t h e exchange  i s started,  from  and S c h u t z  incomplete. pure  call  In the Orokaiva  i s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e  experiences alter's  necessarily ability  cycle  i t starts  change  has  scientists  r e c o u n t i n g a unique  by which  of a  get started  for social  themselves.  mechanism  demi-god  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  We  expediency.  and i n c o m p l e t e .  can ever  not only  o f a myth  Historical  a perpetual  problematical  exchange  f o r the Melanesians  folk-system  to economic  t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t and m a i n t e n a n c e  relationship  problem  attraction  by  For and  beyond from  From  a this  of the making, individuals  has c o n c e p t u a l i s e d  i n any  i n some  4 .  way of  the  complementarity  complementarity, i s  about work  giving I  ships and  shall  creditor  by  these used  of  to  custom,  Although  one  as  obligations  The  present  logical  as  I  of  am  the  work, well  study  might,  as  corporate  corporate  obligations. one  voluntary,  must  and  of  behaviour  that  A.  may  object  is  be often  social  a  aspects  a  more  to  of do  than  relationship).  the  with  dyads  been  laid  might  a  set  dyadic assume  exchange  exchanges  are  i t is  often  have  and  no  the  rights  each  other.  psycho-  relations. that by  systems, in  principle  more  (This  establishment are  of  commonly  wants.  I  give  determined  which  There  of  describe  s p e c i f y no  the  nature  economic  are  E.  friend, have  rules  what  and  vis-a-vis  must  of  husband  only  this  of  A.)  study  that  means  one  and  normative  induced no  In  with  relation-  Not  (1.95 7),  have  present  •int.the w o r d s  roles,  deals  (E.  assume  by  Nadel  merely  groups,  dyad  that  code  with  normative  son,  friend  these  implicit  partners  however,  the  exchange  sister's  notion  discourse  complementary  related  role  between  however,  the  in  vanquished.  the  concerned  exchanges  a  and  but  logically  that  instance,  and  This  a l l our  father-in-law,  victor  them.  dyads  from  about  brother and  describe  and  of  deal  receiver.  relationship linking  Orokaiva  impression  a  For  relationships i s already  these  In  good  mother's  debtor,  patterns  down  a  and  inseparable  ;son-in-law and  donor  receiving.  write  between  wife,  the  and  of  or  than  a  believed desired maintenance  positive  rules some in  obliging specific  later  magical tion  response.  change  Mauss, French  The  question  cases,  the  which  such  and  Salisbury  and  type  (Steiner)  or  tended  as  by  Mauss,  the  of  later same  others and  more  in  in  both  these  and  that  such one  another  engaged  more  receives  the  Firth,  ones  of  also in  also  be  who  and  even  set  of in  exchange an  by  simplest  train for  object  Steiner, between  called  (Bohannan). same  can  ex-  don  up  attention  exchange  distinguished  complex  follow  the  of  and  set  the  objects  in  'sphere'. have  In  gener-  persons  can  acts  translation."'" -  i s how  a  and  le  regu-  such  view  sur  authors  transactions  or  above  ques-  are  because  English  -  as  regulari-  which  Essai  the  Blau  one  social  in Malinowski  the  detail  giving  eliciting  the  than  to  'conversions' to  effective in  in  do not t h e r e b y  ends  relationships.  these  1  performs  shown of  acts  certain  reads  Homans  social  donor to  rather  acts  norms:  be. f o u n d  one  of  explaining  new  i f E.  reasons  devices.  in  very  obligations  i t was  belonging  this  that  wishes  think  about  may  E.'s For  contains  nothing  proffering the  norms  considered  viable  and  of  especially  is  prior  Malinowski  theory  be  to  obligating  original  sociologists  maintain  prefer  bring  provided  the  which  to  analysis,  no  I  than  to  There  of  liberality.  performed  ous  by  of  certainly  thought  have  act  importance  are  in  f i t in with  rather  Magic  larly  to  chapters,  the  ties.  A.  Bohannan, transactions  'translations'  Levi-Straussian  t r a d i t i o n , as  It  dealt  in  6.  great for  detail  women w h i l e  which  might  widen this  touching  the task  t h e range will  transactions  also  accorded  of objects  of exchange'  analysed  b y Homans  objects  of exchange,  as  Blau  'unilaterality')  service  will  goods, are  gain  We include  may  further  Now  i f these  be s e e n  that to  o f most  b u t :the  anthropologists, transactions  person  who  who  phenomena  which  the  Orokaiva  as being  The  Orokaiva  view  the concept  partners,  a similarity  etc.  which  receives  material  kind.  Conversions  of exchange  by p e o p l e  s i m i l a r i n nature  man a n d s p i r i t ,  he  exchange.  are explained  betelnut,  i f we  :such a s  to social  p i g and t a r o ,  exchange.  coconut and  as s i m i l a r t o exchange  they  a  a n y s e r v i c e he  of a d i f f e r e n t  man a n d p i g ,  gives  'gives' the  i n return;  i n status,  i n social  are treated  asymmetry ( o r  A person  influence  widen  as  power,  inferior  phenomenon  include  prestige,  of exchange.  a service  has to  influence,  him, n o t i n f l u e n c e , but perhaps  or perhaps  a normal  should  not available  'receive'  Being  we  that  behaviour  i tw i l l  influence,  cannot  service.  gives  objects  i n two d i r e c t i o n s , a n d  of s o c i a l  i s characteristic  receives  influence only  such  i t i s necessary to  types  a n d so o n .  i t , i n a term  exchanged 'by p u r c h a s e '  the importance First,  and B l a u :  as  marriage  of exchange  the. v a r i o u s  compliance,  puts  upon  undertaken  increase  authority,  women w e r e  conversion.  to 'conversions'.  'objects  involving  as a  I have  greatly  where  briefly  be c l a s s i f i e d  For  be  with  express  i n mythology,  philosophy, we  shall  applied on  ritual  by t h e O r o k a i v a  economic,  that  have  been  on  levels,  occurrences.  Clearly, / spirit,  each  of the partners Such  conversions,  they  have  widely  each  other.  relationship  o f exchange  payment  offended  inflicted  tend  each  partners  t o be  other  relationship  I shall  take  an o f f e n d e r  proble-  as to  opponents; offer  between  are:  as a  simple  and h i s v i c t i m .  misfortune  by t h e p e r s o n  This  frequent  order.  of exchange  which  has been  he h a s o f f e n d e d .  these case example The p u t down The  r e p a r a t i o n by t h e o f f e n d e r ( e . g .  o f a p i g ) and. f o r g i v e n e s s  party.  Radcliffe-  be e s t a b l i s h e d i n a n y g i v e n  h a s s u f f e r e d some  sorcery  There  between  face  objects  a social  actually  societies  more p e r v a s i v e l y , , f o  be o f a d i f f e r e n t  partners  on c o n t i n g e n c i e s .  objects by  will  Orokaiva  of the  are extremely  a t any l e v e l ,  different  Whether  even  Exchange  / p i g t h e p r e s t a t i o n s o f f e r e d by  would  The exchange  i n  i n t r a n s a c t i o n s between man  matical.  opposites  i t appears  too, conversions  a s man  to  botanical,  of the A f r i c a n  by a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s  Perhaps  such  former  but also  physiological,  i n some  book  explanation  on t h e s o c i a l ,  ritual,  appears  analysed  school.  a  of  as p e r v a s i v e l y as an e x p l i c a n s  Brownian  depends  not only  ecological,  as d e s c e n t  these  folk-models  of this  t e c h n o l o g i c a l , and p h i l o s o p h i c a l l e v e l s .  appears  culture  In the course  see exchange-oriented,  religious,  thus  and custom.  i s a highly  i s an i n t e r v e n i n g r i t u a l  t o be o f f e r e d b y t h e  problematical transaction.  that  must  take  place  before  8.  the  transaction  common  meal.  misfortune  Even  will  We  may  be  interrupted  it  follows  has  a  here  'gift' may  of a pig,  be compared  mediating ensure  may  links  its  here  than  will  may  closed,  the opponents remain  exchange  to f o r g i v e .  between Because  and t h e u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y o f ;  i n essence  n o t be a c c e p t e d  t h e common  meal  to a s a c r i f i c e . are often  efficacy.  between  a mere  i s far closer  o r may  which  i s not  They  and a w i l l i n g n e s s  that  a  whether the  I f the cycle  the l i n e .  implications  which  includes  of exchanges  relationship  along  the transaction  sacrifice  of a cycle  the s o c i a l  payment  ritual  removed.  i s involved  the magical  success,  be  a t any p o i n t .  More  This  i t i s not c e r t a i n  speak  somewhere  reparation  of  then  really  that  failed  enemies.  c a n be c o m p l e t e d .  to a  by a d e i t y .  and a l l t h e o t h e r We  may  inserted  Levi-Strauss  thus  The  ritual  speak of  i n a transaction  has used  to  the concept of 2  mediation I  think  and  i n h i s treatment  i t i s also  sacrifice  ificatory between  an  two r e a l  illusory In  intended  as l o n g  system  transactional  useful  a  here  as i t i s remembered  existents,  whereas  an  contains  self  and  'exchange three  class-  intermediary or  for establishing  other.  cycle'  pairs  in a  i n a sacrificial device  systems.  o f exchange  that  i s an a c t u a l  i t i s a magical  between  summary,  philosophic  i n the discussion  'mediator'  scheme  union  of primitive  i n the sense  of elements:  (a) t h e  9.  basic  elements  exchange  entering  mediating  different  or  moves  from  kind  in  the  objects  prestation  cycles  placed  transaction acts A  moves  developed  by  opposition;  to  from the  of  useful  explanation  the  institutions The  models  in  the  cycles  of  exchange. An  not  as  be  type  nology in  social  in  the the  be  given  field  might  the  of  prestation  of  a  models the  point  still  analysis a  material  greater  Let  us  or  'negative  i s paid  back  the  elements context  models  is  on  same  the  culture  as  exchange, eloped  than  the  the  with is  number varying  that  and is  most and  should  in  this tech-  customary obvious  father-in-  prospective  his  prospective  characterised  reciprocity':  father-in-law,  other  son-in-law  a  cycles.  similarity  place  take,  by  be  such  in  this  his  Orokaiva  in  these  of  i n e v i t a b l e that  far  marriage  as  culture  While  exchange  will  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  of  of  basis  patterns,  some  e s s e n t i a l exchange  his  a  material  i t is  abducted  call  abduction part  of  having  Sahlins  the  the  the a  institutions, at  (c)  of  as  Such  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  Here  on  far,  side;  conceptualisation  anthropology.  bride.  of  too  should  son-in-law  act  of  institutions.  ethnographical  example, law,  of  each  objects  interposed  as  A.  the  be  thought  their  their  elements  social  and to  appear  reveal  and  pushed  of  to  may  i n t e r e s t i n g consequence  they.place level  B  indigenous  tend  will  B  on  i n v e s t i g a t o r on  understanding in  that  (b)  the of  by  what  son-in-law's  hostile  according  acts to  the  power  of the l a t t e r ' s  services failing  and g i f t s which  relationship taro,  process  sacrifices,  i f we  of s a c r i f i c e ,  Mauss)  we  iating  links,  that with  the receiver. thus  symbolism, In  (developing  gift  objects  the theory  Our u n d e r s t a n d i n g  etc.  our a n a l y s i s ,  the marriage  i n exchange  cannot  be u n d e r s t o o d  we  material between these  objects persons  symbolise standing  symbolisations  ethnoscientific related analysis  notions,  of these  thus  i n given  arise  rituals  another  cycles.  know  of  from  of  taro-  i s repreThe  latter  how t h e  what  various  i n exchanges  relationships.  o u t o f a body  But  o f myths,  In the present  precedes  relationships,  med-  viewpoint,  and t e c h n o l o g i c a l  i n question.  and  of a l l these  contexts,  in specified  symbolisations  of s o c i a l  o f Hubert  know p r e c i s e l y  must  i n turn  to the objects  discussion  We  to  Levi-Strauss'  institution  by a s e t o f e l e m e n t s  are mediated.  cycle.  of the i n s t i t u t i o n  sented  exchanges  pig,  i n the  on o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  pig-symbolism,  unless  as  c a n be i d e n t i f i e d ,  and, from  vitally  such  as analogous  and adopt  links  recognise the  links  an exchange  i n the case  the giver  depends  not even  Thus  object  acts,  a c t as m e d i a t i n g  objects  suggested,  each  of r i t u a l  as m e d i a t i n g  such  to demonstrate,  viewpoint,  marriage  appear  regard  as I have  need  one.  of e s t a b l i s h i n g  theory  with  types  the f a t h e r - i n - l a w would as an a f f i n a l  Now,  A number  of s p e c i f i e d  f e a t h e r ornaments  hazardous  one  anger.  practices book t h e  the systematic  as i t i s found  that  thes|e  relationships of  material  former the  of  can  consequences  The first  Orokaiva of  we  3)  (chapter  the  land, In  study taro,  the  the  is  preceding  this  the  part  focus  here  in  my the  differs  work  from  in  If  of i t s  of  the  study  by  three  general  In  sketch  of  mechanisms'  traditional  institu-  developed 4) .  The  to  objects  the  since  second  ornaments,  the  parts.  'starting  with  shifts  light  of  fresh  evidence.  types  of  groupings whose  i s not  that  earlier  Earlier  into  the  and  presentation  there  exclusively  latter.  one  the  of  the part  mediation: 5-9).  (chapters  relations  between  prestations analysed  in  chapters.  of  group)  the  upgrading  brief  both  foods  and  emblem  a  chiefly  mediated  transfer  about  favour,  (chapter  focus  the  clear  about  institutions  conquest  be  by  anthropologists.  examine  cycles,  the  partners  sharp  is divided  minor  part  a  social  concerned  Although in  be  providing  and  pigs,  third  exchange  any  finds  shall  exchange  to  here  after I  have much  ethnography  culture,  we  mediated  understand  will  British-Australian of  invariably  that  c u l t u r e by  part,  Orokaiva  tions  so  advocated  material  the  almost  objects  before  method  major  are  of  Orokaiva  intended earlier  f i n d i n g s had Orokaiva  (clan,  local  members,  recruited  of  on  the  i n v e s t i g a t o r s have  to  be  ethnographies be  of  emphasised  to  and  questioned  group,  according  structure  controversial,  society contains  clan  basis  to  social  in  several  lineage,  plant  informants,  agnatic these  the  are  descent.  patrilineal  characteristics group,  a  and  by  irregular  and  non-agnates are  of  norms  not  are  but  that  rather  groups  whose  argument within thus a  is  which  to  the  range  structure.  we  extend  we  not  through  non-social  but  mediaries. mother's  also Thus,  brother  observe  through in  the  there  is  kinship that  relation  the  analysis  used  objects between  intermediary  is  as  and  smaller of  this  operate,  beyond carried  as  and  system  or  as  the on pres-  inter-  sister's who  an  scope  gifts  used  to  agnatic  effect  exchange  mediation  objects  social  an  of  try  shall  a l l i a n c e s between  corporations  grou-  but  intrinsically  of  the  agnatic  I  limits  family,  tations,  system.  The  social  that  shall  deviance,  affinal.  patrilineal  between  supposed  was  importance  as  a l l I  link  narrow  and  agnatic  of  the  with  shows  out  conjugal only  not  the  soon  or  will  group,  connection  the  kinship  are  emblem  evidence  from  something  fissions,  above  clan  however,  putatively  But  emblem  local  as  arose  Orokaiva  p r i n c i p l e of  My  irregularity  clans  original show  plant  these  Orokaiva  they  emphasise  As  of  of  group  and  agnatic  departures  normally  to  the  kin.  clan  analysis,  fusions  for  and  segments clan  own  groups.  uterine  of  that  My  into  these  be  local  clan  clan  cases  part  the  lineage  to  within  recuited  that  both  evidence  mostly  the  clan.  with  local  establish  suggest  a  more  lack  lineages  integral  of  recruitment  the  pings  them  treating  segment  be-.concerned  with  equating  proclaiming  groups, like  be  son  i s mother  and of  one  of the partners  the  relation  woman who also these  between  i s wife  often  o f t h e one a n d s i s t e r  a c t as mediators  cases  maintain  a social social  a r e male  non-agnatic  Men  partners  when  t h e exchange  be a man.  In e i t h e r  mediation  E.  h a d some  implies exclusive  'transferred' claim  passes  The  most  exchange  between  o f a woman  non-agnatic case,  of mediation, that  with  the concept  upon  t h e man  both  i t .  E. and  I f E. and  must  kinsmen,  at the beginning  claim  establish or  the mediator  f a m i l i a r example i s 'given'  husband.  this  identified  b u t as t h e r e s u l t  be a  the mediator  o f an  object  of the transaction  o r woman who i s  of the t r a n s a c t i o n  type  theory  a transfer i s  by h e r b r o t h e r  of social  of transaction  two m a l e from  of such  When L e v i - S t r a u s s  or 'alliance'  discussed  i s so chosen  In both  t o A.  o f a woman who  prospective  that  a r e t h e same w h e t h e r t h e  The o b j e c t  kinsmen,  are female  of  fer  - closely  i f they  ionship  exchange  E . a n d A. who  or non-social,  A.  that  by a  of the other.  or non-social.  relationship.  a r e - o r become  this  be s o c i a l  a r e two p a r t n e r s ,  A.  being  i s mediated  o r when  p r i n c i p l e s o f exchange  there  woman;  by k i n s h i p ,  of mediation  whether  between  Similarly,  are female. The  objects  of the other.  two b r o t h e r s - i n - l a w  are not linked  partners  must  and s i s t e r  partners  the control  toher  developed the structure,  whereby  he  a social  i s created  mainly  relat-  by t h e t r a n s -  o f one t o t h e o t h e r .  It  i s  clear,  however,  that  tionship  i s also  in-law.  In  man  the  in  from two  and  significant  sister. by by  man  c r e a t e d between  a very  ways:  sister,  f o r every  The  the  the  of  sense,  of  a  marries,  women who  Orokaiva  gift  term  who  the  address  wife  by  b_i (=  new  become  the  rela-  sisters-  has  acknowledge  p i g made  a  taken  the  this  aspect  wife  to  the  penis)  used  between  as  product  sisters-in-law. We a  web  very  of  may  thus  mediation.  much  on  the  institutionally Among  the  between  sisters  and  kinship  groups of  elements  of  (Chapter  would of ing,  clearly  the  be  thus  methodology, omenon',  as  (Chapter  We  as  as  link  a  of  of  The  one,  complex  of  network  affected  size.  and  The  generalised understood  society  a brief the  as  containing  Orokaiva  without  ex-  patrilineal  is fully  Orokaiva  study  however,  i t has  of  wives,  small  a viable  marriage  workings  As  very  of  depends  partners.  intermediaries in  the  as  concept  of  i n t e r m e d i a r i e s are  involved  well  friendship  stand  exchange consideration  system  of  rank-  recent Orokaiva-Australian  11).  return,  to Mauss'  i n the  these  units  system  basic  such  articulated.  rather  revealed.  independent  relations  is a  adequate,  especially  well  social  this  the  roles  they  restricted  10),  not  are  into  which  of  the  i n d e a l i n g s between  their  mothers  Once  to  involved  men  structure  usefulness  extent  marriage  exchange.  fairly  as  social  The  Orokaiva,  changes  system  see  sense  though concept  that  we  with of  a  slightly  ex-change  posit  the  as  more a  specific  'total  interrelations  phenof  notions  of  isation, iveness  utions  social of  evidence,  exchange  such  and  occurring  non-social.  notions  f o r i t s power  any  level, of  conceptual-  I t i s i n the very  throughout  f o r i t s dominance  and  at  the  culture  that  i n Orokaiva  thought  and  to mould  social  life.  pervaswe  find  instit-  FOOTNOTES  Cunnison's t r a n s l a t i o n C1954) s u p p r e s s e s i n many p a s s a g e s M a u s s ' - c o n c e r n with, e c o n o m i c and psycho-^ logical factors. T h e t o n e i s s e t b y t h e way h e r e n d e r s Mauss' f o r m u l a t i o n of t h e q u e s t i o n h i s essay i n t e n d s to answer; ' Q u e l l e e s t l a r e g i e de d r o i t e t d ' i n t e r S t q u i , d a n s l e s s o c i e t e s de t y p e a r r i e r e on a r c h a i q u e , f a i t que l e p r e s e n t recu est ohligatoirement rendu?' (19 66; 1 4 8 ) C u n n i s . o n translates: 'In pri-njitiye or a r c h a i c types o f s o c i e t y what i s t h e p r i n c i p l e w h e r e b y t h e g i f t r e c e i v e d h a s t o be r e p a i d ? ' ( 1 9 5 4 : 1 ) . Compare a l s o ; Vce t y p e de d r o i t et d ' e c o n o m i e ' (Mauss p, 153; C u n n i s o n p. 5 ) , o m i s s i o n o f t h e l a s t p a r a g r a p h o f Mauss p, 173, ' c e s c o n c e p t s de d r o i t et d ' e c o n o m i e ' (Mauss p , 267, C u n n i s o n p . 7 0 ) , 'en r & g l e s d e d r o i t e n m y t h e s , e n - y a l e u r s . e t e n p r i x ' CMauss p . 275 , C u n n i s o n p, 7 7 ) , e t c .  Tor L e y i — S t r a u s s ' d i s c u s s i o n o f the n o t i o n o f m e d i a t i o n , c f . L a P e n s e e S a u y a g e , p a s s i m . : He d e a l s w i t h m e d i a t i o n i n s a c r i f i c e i n c h a p t e r V I I I o f t h a t b o o k ( 1 9 62; 2 9 4 - 3 0 2 ) .  CHAPTER  Section  1:  environment  of  Williams  west  administrative  air  may  study  District  from  the only  b y t h e Owen o f New  Moresby,  communications  range,  Guinea.  Orokaiva is  on t h e  Although  Popondetta,  there  with  The  sketch  This- d i s t r i c t  Stanley  of the d i s t r i c t , Port  a brief  convenient.  o f Papua.  Territory  centre  be  1968),  are available  i s no  lies  road  the outside  the only  connection  world  a r e by  and s e a . Orokaiva  on t h e p l a i n s  This  region  nature  i s , b y New  Guinean  and east  with  surrounding a mild  of the largest  country'  (ibid. One  logical  to land Mount  degree  tracts  o f New  o f Mount  of these  standards,  resources  of l i m i t a t i o n s  territory  cultivation 'some  on t h e f o o t s l o p e s  to the north  of the n a t u r a l  degree  large  live  as B r o o k f i e l d r e c e n t l y emphasised  fication the  of the Orokaiva  of this  150 p i l e s  The and  culture  on t h e s o u t h - w e s t  that  SETTING  d e s c r i p t i o n s of the p h y s i c a l  and K r i n k s  by t h e M a n d a t e d  about  good  1930, W a d d e l l  i n the Northern  bounded  so  several  and g e n e r a l  the s e t t i n g  live  THE  Geography  Although  (e.g.  II:  highly (1966). Guinea  Lamington  footslopes. favoured In a  by  classi-  according  to  use"'', B r o o k f i e l d d e s c r i b e s Lamington  as  'suitable for  of l i m i t a t i o n ' .  of such  good  land  a  This  comprises  i n the whole  47-48).  distinguishing feature  composition:  there  of the region  i s an abundance  i s i t s litho-  o f P l e i s t o c e n e and  Recent and  volcanic  lava  deposits.  deposits  fertile.  found  100-150  becomes  permanently  hand,  during  the  which  terrain, relief  soil  region  good  paints  tion:  'the  greatest  to  per  60  sq.  mile,  little-dissected topography (ibid.  is  sq.  mile I  (Sivepe)  and  i s not  so  lacks  extensive As  somewhat  on  idyllic  with  the of  of  density  concentration lies  out.  areas  for  best Mount  fertile  the  of  the  seasons regard  and  as  land On  dry  With  low  picture  of  region  waterlogged.  dry  ash  notably  the  that  well-marked  rapidly  footslopes  are  in not  surveyed,  to  moderate  population, needs  correc-  population,  rising  locally  land  area  the  in  that  the  Lamington, soils  135  sustain  The  sample  happened  to  that  agriculture unsuitable  with he  110  I  local  and  -  where  good  a l l rare  d e n s i t i e s of  (Rimoldi  (Hohorita).  Rimoldi's  density present (50  is dose  of  these This  to  technology persons  under-average  alone. for  at  that  population  chose  have  fact,  found  population  can  shows  This  high  recent  but  r a i n f a l l of  would  has  small,  annual  mostly  combined  find,  villages  Sivepe  is  such  smooth  drainage'  64). We  per  a  Guinea  of  the  drainage.  Brookfield  area  semi-permanently  region  the  the  and  inches. or  total  i n New  B r o o k f i e l d maps  between  other  The  acres  are  for  analysis  the  the  upper  social  and In  two  be  180  shows limit  more  that the  the  land  organisation.  Jegase  and  Timumu  holdings,  138  acres.  Rimoldi  subsistence  shifting  needed  hardly bush  4).  d e n s i t i e s to  and  land  leaves  cultivation,  of  1966:  200  for  any  land  margin needed  for as  a  clans)  land source  of  building as  materials  between  in  which  10-22  imately 8,211  contain  and  detail  This  sub-region  division per  by  sq.  are  as  a  probably  the  Northern  District.  of  what  a  of  land  we  the The  of  more only  per  a  of  The  by  call  been  the  languages densely  language  this  of  Inoda, in  (1954).  census of  about  dispersed. Orokaiva used  tribal by  Orokaiva  Wurm  populated of  fertility  CSIRO  criteria  (see  cultiv-  discussed  more  criteria.  Here  domains  density  the  first,  soils  Sohe-Popondetta  may  The  the  good  quoting  and  approx-  plains.  special  population  range  mile.  village  have  rich  population  sq.  east  them-  soil,  subsoils  had  slopes.  1963,  linguistic  group  top  utilisable the  two  foothills  improvable  have  into  coincides  and  Most  smaller  determined  namely  Binandere  i n most  the  has  the  brown  55  north  readily  Hogbin  whole,  best  the  sub-region,  of  of  which  about  mountain  and  of  of  not  V i l l a g e s are  part  spoken  the  Orokaiva  sub-region  sparser.  does  part  boundaries  dark  division  to  by  up  immediately  this  forms  themselves,  is  distribution  fine-textured  This  but  of  Crocombe  mile.  The  much  on  in  very  density  this  loam  Papuans of  a  drained  even  i s made  census  fraction  which,  The area  unequal  occupied  inch  situated  situated  much  20  Saiho  i s very  volcanic  village  first  depth.  giving  a  land  8-12  in  poorly  only  land  the  for  phosphorus.  the  population  ation  an  sub-region, of  the  The  inches  1966  consists  a  and  with  in  second  the  divide  have  nitrogen  from  of  may  sub-regions.  selves  or  families.  We broad  etc.,  1960)  parts  group  of  for  the is which the  which  a  reasonably f u l l  been  published  spoken Other  around  lary  i s Binandere the  languages  Huniara,  description  Yema,  lower  of  between  resemblance  i n grammar  make  limited  (Chinnery  and  Capell).  We  languages  except It  Orokaiva (Beaver  do  not  and  1916  and  that  1916,  W i l l i a m s 1930)  idea  of  the  boundaries  obtained  by  identifying  tered  the  ate  the  by  Saiho  Orokaiva listing but be  Higaturu Local  and  most  language  speakers  are  observed  bark-cloth  are  land  used  on  minor  have are  about  Gira  there  rivers. Aiga,  is a  the  close  possible.  divisions  rather  area with  the  (notably may,  within  the times  fairly  accur-  a r e a may  district  adminis-  which  census to  tribal  divisions.  distinguish  and  modern  c e r e m o n i a l o c c a s i o n s when  be  covers  groupings  i n dress  under  A  of  1968).  language  attempts  other  group  at various  Council  Sohe-Popondetta  by  (Grace  minor.  Orokaiva  157-159)  Binandere  noted  vocabu-  i n v o c a b u l a r y to  grouping.  been  the  and  language  unpublished manuscript  Papuan  from  has  considerable  resemblance  Government  differences  rather  only  Prior was  the  (1930:  these  ment  of  Williams  cultural  an  of  this  a  and  are  languages,  dialect  area which  1927),  intercommunication  i t is a  t o me  language  there  enough of  King  dictionary)  O r o k a i v a , Notu,  know much m o r e  that  seems  are:  these  and  t h e Mambare  While  degree  Beaver  of  group  Taindaware.  differences  a very  (Copland  part  this  (grammar  the  by  ornaments)  conditions,  headgear  and  worn. to  European  i n hamlets  contact,  containing  for shifting  6-12  agriculture.  the  normal  houses  and  Through  mode  of  settle-  surrounded  Monckton  by  reports  a  few l a r g e  villages  i n the early  only  r e c e n t l y i n response  clan  villages,  become  common.  district  have  supported drawn  Popondetta, forces  Section  2:  We industry  on t h e s e  Technology  possess  that  my now  replaced  women  Northern  ex-servicemen have  been  to jobs i n  the p o l i c e , Such  t h e armed migration  o f t h e male  village  i n order are s t i l l  description  of  1930).  Although  has  must  has been  needs  tools  by W i l l i a m s  by t h e u b i q u i t o u s and female.  to emphasise used  made  of pots.  Most  such  only  of the various  a r e no l o n g e r i n  knife wielded i s worth  of dontinuity:  of coconuts  (poma),  by noting* cockle  and f o r  of the needles  f o x bones  to  The  most  One e x c e p t i o n  f o r the scraping  of f l y i n g  bush  an e l e m e n t  additional  transformed  be f r a g m e n t a r y .  described  Orokaiva  I did collect  of steel;  and d e c o r a t i n g  are s t i l l  the b r i e f e s t  i n u s e a r e made  and o l d , male  shaping  i n the  the the d i s t r i c t .  technology  data  use,  shells  multi-  and A e s t h e t i c s  only  cutting  only  i s  100 - 5 0 0 , h a v e  of Orokaiva  to s e r v i c e with  the p r o p o r t i o n  that  i t  g r o u p . ~2  stone-made  if  A number  plantations, others  outside  reduced  and adzes  young  loans.  again  the t r a d i t i o n a l  being  from  of the p l a n t a t i o n s found  ( i n Williams  extent  ranging  e s t a b l i s h e d by A u s t r a l i a n  or employers  population  axes  been  others  substantially  an  Most  period,  to A u s t r a l i a n pressure  populations  by government  t o work  data,  with  post-contact  even  used  the  by  though  a  few  needles  files  wood,  still etc.  serve The  stick  but a l s o  spears  (with  traditional gun.  tips),  devices  have  life:  the making  Certain string  other bags)  important  as  gifts  An a  find and  fishing  For hunting,  entirely  musical  feminine  produced  r e p l a c e d by t h e  basically  intact  made  stopped  objects  b y some  such  at the time  everyday  b u t we Orokaiva  condiments:  (mats,  technology  times. pots  able  meal  decor-  They  milk,  Orokaiva  was  trade  to see o n l y  consists  coconut  of the  spear  as a r e s t i l l  of marriage.  were  baskets,  much  this  While  drums.  i s traditional.  (armlets,  though  headas  o f t h e o l d e r men.  pots,  in  ceremonial  such  and i n use, w h i l e  making  purposes,  instruments  artefacts  house-building  down  the digging  feather  weaponry,  rough  i s found  cloths,  reasons,  few v e g e t a b l e  nets  snorkels.  i s still  industry i n pre-contact  sentimental  hand  almost  f o r ceremonial  t o women  still  tools  and d e c o r a t i n g o f l o i n  Orokaiva  f o r everyday  smoothing  to  are s t i l l  almost  we  While  of s t e e l ,  related  etc.)i s s t i l l  women h a v e  used  been  specifically  wickerwork  ations,  but also  which  made  are d i r e c t l y  ceremonial  contemporary Fine  and f i s h i n g :  The o l d t e c h n o l o g y  few i n d u s t r i e s  the M i s s i o n .  i n the use of b a s i c  the axe; t r a d i t i o n a l  steel  from  f o r scraping pots,  mixture  hunting,  obtained  are necessarily  as t o o l s  those  dresses,  been  tools  same  agriculture,  shot  at times  f o r sharpening  leaves  in  have  an goods a r e  made  serve  are kept f o r very  of taro, cordyline  few.  often  with  tips,  or  3 edible  pitpit,  supposed  o r one o f a number  medicinal virtue.  Much  of herbs,  care  sometimes o f  i s devoted  to the  cooking  of  the  many  taro  and  varieties  season,  any  variety of  of  a  taro,  yam,  may  added  to  is  eaten  like  only  tea,  salt  were  trade  Plates, people  don't  ing,  always  later.  main  A  most  of  I would eggs  valued  and  and  during  the  deal  of  the  especially lice. dry  meals  plant  Foraged season  tropical  plant when  foods roots,  daily  rule  be  were  food rain  Among  grubs,  most  smok-  against but  discussed  consisting  herbs  animal  but  breadfruit  by  to  are  of  cooked.  is  obtained  forest  foraged  frogs,  on  course.  strictly,  soup  District.  mention  making  depends  and  very  is a and  such  i s the  is a  fish  Foods  of  one  preserved  reasons  and  i n the  than  yams  i s kept  religious  Northern  methods  boiling  There  vegetables  especially  the  this  or  a l l households  bananas,  periods.  others) Meat  mainly  dry  potato,  reserved^ f o r  by  i s often  drink with  good  foraging,  foods  f o r long  i n which  Foraging:  covers  food,  (sweet  from  the  occasions.  more  While  In  several  housewife of  choice  further.  also  owned  preparing  for traditional  water  from  are  Meat  and  festive  consist  them.  'in lent'  The  the  a  gardens.  traditional  use  roasted.  meat  probably  bush  spoons  sometimes  eating  the  and  of  usually  t o me,  on  by  foods  stretch  are  several  never  forks  taro  salt  Meals  i n most  subsidiary  usually  bread,  described  common way are  rarely,  provided  breadfruit  the  Although  salt.  of  banana,  make  sugar,  occasions.  growing  number  German be  taro  is partly  which animal  snails,  rats,  especially  leaves  and  fern  fronds  may  however,  make  are  up  collected  plants,  though  so  that  the  as  h a r v e s t i n g than  tauga  and  part  growing  of  herbs  any  time  of  the  year.  in  the  forest,  are  owned  these  p l a n t s may  collecting.  nut,  Savoury  at  h a r v e s t i n g of  puga  a meal.  sago,  The  most  breadfruit,  be  and Some  by  food  individuals  better  important  wild  leaves,  described  are  f i g , and  the  fruiting  4 pandanus. Hunting: hours hrs.  According  weekly by  is  done  virgin and  bush.  other  hand,  firing  guns  the  escape.  usual  a pig  kunai  in  Such  either  grass.  a  so  retrieved. surrounding  quarry  has  a  On  claim  man-  and  Lamington  alluvial  plains  foothills,  of  0.3  hunting  areas  small  of  marsupials  i t is invariably to  The  exterminated  after  introdu-  In  country,  the  animals  requires a only  large  the  a  carcase.  the  means  two  men  limited  consists  that  Not  the  i n very  by  Mount  the  i s abundant.  g u n f i r e or no  on  about  hrs.  the  land  area.  By  and  1950's.  hunt  by  those  virtually  the  kunai  on  i s encountered,  owner  hunting  burnt-over  killed,  from  Krinks, (3.7  patterns  i s widespread.  p o p u l a t i o n was of  over  If  p i g whose  ction  are  The  and  hunting  i n r e v e r t e d gardens  village  the  widely  grass  birds.  game  on  Hunting  differ  kunai  Waddell  spent  women).  foothills where  are  to  kunai The can  by  being  a l l animals  Fires  tend  to  get  bush  land  which  out then  be  shot of  but  killed  in  to  be  they ring  pigs  the  and  by  who  alive  hand  tends  men  the  is  when  also  roasted  of  on  technique  number  marsupials  the  to  in  are the  fire spread  covered  with  kunai  grass  and  i s thus  useless  of  has  f o r purposes  of  culti-  vation. Fishing: u,he  The  introduction  this  equipment  almost  rivers  Girua,  Crocombe man  and  have  very  rivers in  Williams Animal pigs, dogs  week  the  small  Husbandry:  fowls. uses  are  a l l ultimately  has  likewise  as  on  a  supply  are  of  of used  huge  Kumusi, studied  Krinks  (1968),  mostly  with  meat' a n d  mountain,  a  few  2  inch as  the  f o r consumption  trade  the  three  Every  Orokaiva  man  eels  a  and  long  but  bush  such  as  Sivepe  crabs,' the  fishes  scoop.  40  more  but  f o r the or  less  in Sivepe).  meat  and  kinds  still  domestic  destined  remained  source  only  an  village  and  fishing,  also  from  for hunting  i n Inonda,  on  rivers  is still of  as  caught  (See  description.)  There  discussion  30  Apart  the  war,  their  reaches  Waddell  near  s m a l l hand-net  his  only  villages  fish. a  spent  out  Districe:  Inonda,  following  world  Fish  lower  Northern  people  fish  time.  i s used"not  (Inonda  a  he  are  product  of  and  the  greatly  second  to  i n the  and  1930:5 3 f o r  which  about  however,  (1963)  little  dogs  short  Hogbin  per  with  very  In  contained  April  in a  the  Orokaiva  etc.  the  Many  the  through  for trade.  eggs.)  suffered  Sambogo,  and  hours  spears, also  enabled  run  fish  snorkels after  resource,  which  Ambogo,  3.8  of  completely  important  by  supply  eggs,  of  has  which,  one as  animals pot.  but  (1930:  more  fowl  of  are  little says  in  60-63), population  f o r some  birds also  or  livestock  Williams  The  constant The  domestic  time  useful  cockerel  (e.g not  feathers  which  dresses,  spears,  longer  purely  with  a  Rhode A  ment  are  etc.  few a  indigenous  years  Orokaiva  villages,  hygiene.  Though  where  I  stayed.  left  to  with  pieces  forage  pawpaw, but  of  free  link  keepers, reared be  roam. by  was  boars  this  a  close  was  discussed The  tant  'work'  English factory, work,  which  Orokaiva  combine  they  and  also To  pure  'where  action  of  the  the  bush.  between by  the  taboos  on  of  succes-  villages  they  were  also  fed  well  as  houses,  c a s t r a t e d and  Techniques  the  word  two  borrow  children,  pure  has We  females  A  close  pig  and  eating  quasiits  a  pig  domestication  are  at  do  notions,  which  contain  laborare.  conception  under  'garden'.  these  facere, is  as  emphasised  l a b o r a t o r y , a l l of  while  food,  in  from  below.  Horticulture: meanings:  the  were  exist  relative.  from  but  time  govern-  very  the  roaming  crossed  village  animals  were  no  husbandry  g e n e r a l l y not  slept  are  the  improving  left-over  head-  1950's.  fieldwork,  of  on  been  domestic  mostly  to  have  disappeared  of  Males  assumed  and  by  They  they  fowls  eliminate pig  was  other  other  the  i n the  purpose  most  decoration  dogs,  to  a l l but the  for  d i d my  campaign  and  etc.  to  the  food  taro  fertilised  kinship  will  for  I  campaign  had  Like  coconut  were  were  pigs  the  introduced  for  this  used  variety:  before  vigorous  domestic  and  Unlike  I s l a n d Reds  began  ful,  plucked  least  have  e.g.  places  i s ' .  modern  Sexual  adultery.  where  in  people  words:  expression,  activity:  Religious  words  impor-  workshop,  generalised action another  two  work, a  courtship,  activity:  drawing  the  obtaining placing  food  with  nine  the a  the  minor  produce  into  living,  a  newborn  pacifying  platform.  exceptions  i s grown,  also  of  product  the  found:  to  i n an  (Xantosoma), tomatoes,  also  planted  be  garden  areea.  has  i s taro  area.  But  banana,  apples,  and  ancestor  sacrificial  few  main  tenths  taro  the  an  child,  the  dead,  Industrial be  noted  irregular  later,  array,  in  pure. The  are  on  vegetable  the  of  blessings for  activity: all  spirit  a  sugar  beans,  though been  some  these  there  i f the  gardener  is a  a  great  cane,  will  many  of  are  occupies variety  edible  bear  some  professional these.  Yams  Some  medicine are  as  long  n  e  ~  may  after  coconut,  and  medicines,  man  grown  p i  trees  tauga,  herbs  plants  German  such  until  breadfruit, always  other  pitpit,  potato.  not  perhaps  of  vegetables  sweet  abandoned:  addition  be  great  few. i n t r o d u c e d  In  will  a  which  there  in  separate  gardens. Very been  provided  (1966). and  a  never and most and  A  full by  data  on  the  size  Crocombe  and  Hogbin  household  half  to  two  used  f o r more  consumption of  a  final  sugarcane  year,  of  tends  acres than the  almost  abandonment. to  reach  of  to  taro two  maturity  (1963)  per  taro each  years  This  these  establish  garden  one  of  too.  year.  to  elapse  gives  time Once  and  a  A  but be  has  Rimoldi  something  season, tend  gardens  like  garden as  one is  planting  stretched  over  between  the  for  bananas  the  garden  is  clearing and  abandoned,  it  i s n o t used  usual  swidden  clearing, burning  taro  process,  is  of corm-bearing  made  This  no m e a s u r e s  out of tree  i s usually  expedition,  throughout  season  enough 'A  there  cultivates  remains  of the f i r e d  aware.'  a fact  draw  of which  (Geertz  Territory.  its  On  cultivators  f o r their  probably  1966: 22-23)  growth  so t h a t  i s a crucial  first  almost variations  t h e Mount  i s comparatively  of the mineral  forest,  i s burnt  breaking i n .  seasonal  f o r a s u c c e s s f u l burn  proportion  fence  the p i g entered.  but i t i s usually  Here  a  no  i s a d r y and a wet  the dry season  o f September.  a plot  Sometimes  a p i g h a s made  There  Orokaiva  or drainage,  from  are important  undependable,  swidden  The  and h a r v e s t i n g p r o c e e d s  the Northern  dry weather  yield,  after  pigs  growing  of mature  garden.  parasites.  on t h e s i d e w h e r e  foothills,  significant  which  only  periodic  around  of terracing  t o keep  n o t be i g n o r e d .  somewhat  beginning  form  after the  of petioles  i n a new  against  planting  throughout  Lamington and  done  the year  should  no  trunks  and o n l y  While  that  and p l a n t i n g  The  burning,  stick,  up o f e a r t h  bases  or so.  remaining  a digging  and h e a p i n g  no i r r i g a t i o n ,  manuring,  with  years  a r e used,  of 'rubbish'  planting  f o r removal  eight  techniques  removal  to weeding  removal  practise  f o r at least  agriculture  careful  attention taro,  again  over  must prior energy comes  short  by t h e  be s u r e to  planting.  upon from  which the ash  the completeness  factor  with  i n determining i t s  a l l swidden Furthermore,  to have  cultivators are i t i s unwise to  leave  the  burn  soil  has  taro  plants  be  until  dried  short  out  shoots  very  substantial  done  between  produce The  same  such out we  nine  as  find to  the  June,  the  principal  we  can  see  that  out.  later,  the  dry  tropics),  gardener I was  planting  i s thus  i . e . from  a  needs  flush  April  season  of  the  much  may  told,  the  soil  season  to  be  June. coast,  drying  longer.  feasting  a  of  to  areas, nearer  danger  this  f o r i f the  i n the  the  and  Orokaiva that  season,  Hence,  in drier  there  and  so  There  applies  because  dry  quickly  clearing  months  greater  that  of  and'August.  also  Inonda,  i t does  for planting  ten  rhythm  i s even  April  or  i n the  fex^ ' s h o o t s ,  amount  June  late  (which  develop  of  too  When is  is ecologically  from  deter-  5 mined,  as  i t i s then  While the  taro  never  be  most  garden, grown  individual  that  subsidiary  i t is a  other  than  and  dame  in  are  taro  and  time  next  dry  gardens  and  used  f o r the  should by  harvested  by  the  main  stored  season.  yam  in  grown  as  usually  grown  and  i s usually  the  the  Yam  storage  for  houses of  taro  no  are  crop  yams. Although  betelnut  i n the  taro  around  yams  normally  that  until  A r b o r 1 cuIt'ure: coconut,  rule  planted  h a r v e s t , but  i n yam  are  are  planting  built  plentiful.  yams  groups,  months  crops  While  co-operative  several  i s most  fixed  together.  households,  and  taro  bush,  comparison  to  and  a  the few  Orokaiva other  trees  their  arboriculture  their  precise  and  traditionally i n gardens,  used  to  detailed  be  planted villages  rudimentary  attention  to  tubers, hardly  especially taro. established  press  the  yield  a  (No.  121,  grow  a  the  were acres  work.  adapted  in  of  'company  the  trees',  in  on  established  the  I  holdings. estimate  i  Hohorita, 15,000,  from  are  further  ideology  of  half  detail  society  how  lacking assets  to  They  are  known  as  the  cash,  and  will  be  land  transactions  contemporary  the  i l l -  established,  any  to in  was  1964.  the  in  shows  corporate  to  rubber  stand  yielded  as  a  would  sharing  describes  to  such one  supposedly  trees,  that  to  villages  ranging  these  began  regulations'  a l l Papuan  who  had  its this  dis-  involved  Orokaiva  movements.  i n the  applied  villages  a  not  below  'Communal'  as  stands  'native  Three  men  86-93),  they  trees.  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  have  detail  light  rubber Sivepe,  voluntarily, in  cooperative  ions  (1966:  before  early  a l l village  Nonetheless,  quite  of  authorities  arboriculture  compelled  at  rubber  for  Papua  the  e x p l o i t a t i o n of  communal  members.  cussed  area,  Rimoldi  institutions  cast  of  1903),  established  vicissitudes  time  in  in  extensive  One  s t i p u l a t e d number  stands three  into  income.  passed  Australian  themselves  population  cash  The  to  visited  village Northern rubber, had  plantings  would  say  while  that  villages Inonda,  on on  District but  been  First  two  plantations  for  coffee  under  the  a l l producing  grown were  on  same  trees  regulatin  the  quasi-individual  around  1955.  the  number  the  foothills,  alluvial  were  of  trees  plains,  were had  On  a  in  Sivepe  3,500 800.  rough and  and Coffee  is  one  crop  that  reliable true on  to  and a  has  substantial  very  a major  actually  minor  scale,  extent  coast.  The  factory  as  parchment,  more  hullers.  one  or  built down  in and  the  Clothing: women Boys  and  a  went  perineal  after  puberty  cloth  obtained  for  this  round This  of  Orokaiva  trade  stores for  time  before  were  is  style  rather  still and  with  Villages  are  is  promoted near  villages  be  dried  i n Inonda  was  the  own  in  driers  had  in  broken  and  painted  a mixture  of  made  for  also  in  so  that  (such  where  is  special as  the  today.  decorations  clearings  from  dress  other  traditional  gardens  shrouds.  Traditional  with  bark-  wrapping  for  i n gardens  until  of  universally  and  for  32-34)  girls  1950's,  almost  skirt  grown  used  the  infrequently  a  1930:  were  bark-cloth trees  in flat  This  cooperative  puberty,  were  weather,  clothes  being  a  mostly  ceremonies  found  to  to  garments  garments  reason  crop  especially  (Williams  initiation  are  Housing:  f o r men.  dances,  this  cash  costume  bazaars.  For  a  some y e a r s .  many  saw  with  repaired.  abandoned  their  I  at mission  Bark-cloth tional  one  and  occasions. a j imo)  buy  sent  Orokaiva  cold  was  grown  purpose  trees which  in  for third  and  These  Larger  dress  today  used  from  Orokaiva  i s supposed  be  some  seclusion.  shoulders  mode  was  the  to  band  until  purpose.  the  but  traditional  naked  the  f o r which  unlikely  The  for  which  Copra  the  income  i s processed  villages,  seems  cash  copra,  coffee  provided  in  tradi-  and  trade  dyes.  the  grass  is  kept  scrupulously  cut  away  rubbish.  each  house  The  roof  pole.  laid  shingles,  becoming  in  as  the much  small  as  of  much  Lamington this  For  These older  Though own  house,  brothers, changes nails,  i t is  are  tuned  number  of  tree  species  of  house.  reverted  have  though sizes;  the  and  number  of  to  be  the  subject each to  for  measures  to  call to  are  help have a  On  of  the  Trees  Mount of  as  below. to  build  especially  construction.  b e e n:  the  remarkable  construction  'improve  areas  exchange  discussed  with  with  considered  scarce.  helpers,  used  contain  from  gift  to  taken  trees  responsibility on  in wall  of  in  be  gardens.  very  being  are  which  obtained  are  be  man's  to  wood  subject  flooring;  change  be  must  large  reverted  areas  construction  not  purposes  usual  such  usual  i n house  of  gardens  slow-growing  brothers-in-law  house a  they  Materials  mid-  vertically  show  the  i t is  and'  to  trees  families, a  areas  are  the  since  sago-branch  thick  number  to  some  ridge-  styles  set  rows,  family.  central  various  vertically in  nuclear a  sweep  facing  in.  from  foothills,  one  two  3/8  desiring  than  tend  5"  in  from  in  regularly  and  high-quality  quality  between  a  x  by  down  been  today  6'  great  possible  has  women  built  occupied  fashioned  various. parts  essential. bush  A  trees.  trunks  about  the  are  slopes  but  old  villages  modern, l i f e . for  thatch  contact,  are  adopted  (bande)  construction  ribs  which  normally  sago  Wall  from  Houses  being  of  Australian  and  hygiene:  sons, Recent  increasing increase already  his  use  of  in mentioned  lavatories,  rubbish  holes,  innovation are  pens  for  promoted  considered  too  Accordingly,  they  timber  can  which  by  chickens, the  government  uncomfortable are  always  always  windows.  be  in  windows,  combat wind  or  over  with  pieces  i f the  an  tuberculosis  cold,  covered  removed  to  The  patrol  rain. of  officer  6 insists. Bachelors' size  and  construction  prominent  men  platforms,  of  just  of  houses below  roof the  at  Yams  night.  starting  point  decoration  of  an  in  the  every  the  or  decoration ornaments. the  teeth,  armlets.  is  by  dances  The  under  the  96)  face are  from  are  with full  painting, worn ears  on and  a  but  same  more  small  meeting  for  a  the  we  find  platform,  garden  sometimes  houses  sleep  there  roof. suggested,  plastic the no  taken  the  The  gardens,  these  has  though  is  the  walls,  sit in  Williams  that  latter  suspended  no  They  especially  seen:  In  day.  Even  bande.  lacking walls,  d e s c r i p t i o n of  opportunity  other,  ceremonial  floor,  p r e c i s e l y the  themselves  but  (1967:  body.  day  of  (arara).  stored  Mauss  the  build  roof  the  As  are  ordinary  People  of  are  described  some way  a  earth  level.  dressings wear,  the  village  with  heat  Arts:  as  (oro)  visitors  with  Ch'ara-u) i n  Plastic  the  covered  entertainment small  houses  arts  seen  decorate  few  feather  as  the  for  the  every  hair It  is  in at  body  head-dresses,  forehead,  nose,  best  hair  feathers.  r e p e r t o i r e of  the  is  elaborate  longer  to  the  held  necklets  in and  as  The themselves is  head-dresses artistic  composed  strand are  of  some  consisting  tied  of  the  to  the  A  two  dozen  a  dozen  the  by  making custom  decorator,  effect a  he  who  of  crocodile  skin,  decorator  aims  the  effect  relation objects  of  to  at  a  the  be  were  the  these  decorations.  rather  Women a r e some  hambo  in  as  body  is  rather I  surmise  inhere specific  in  the  reserved female, sexes.  for  composed pieces  the  etc.  of  of  men. males  of  in While  di  and to  hambo me  objects  component Though  parts.  there  and  are  of  efficacy is  these  only  the and  significance  of  decorations  The  aware  talking  magical  beauty  of  significance  occult  qualities as  in  of  precise  wearer.  symbolism  the  that  decorated  the  the  interested than  sense  decoration  magical  more  extent  always  have  are  between  but  seed,  undoubtedly  far  arrangement  the  shells,  banana  the  may  often  of  about  colours  some  out  body  lavishly  which  teeth,  as  and  artistic  are  strands  shaped  and  to  work  hambo  design  object  is  and  to  the  order  each  The  artfully  the to  of  feathers,  striking  The  are  head-dress  feathers.  of  by  dogs'  face  characteristically  changeable  -  of  from  days  pleasing  aesthetics  than  mainly  (hambo)  feather  headdress  spend  skin,  thought  the  but  total  about  actually  up  discovered  informants  more  down  special kind  themselves  much m i g h t  or  short  objects  the  strands  S i m i l a r l y the  a  full  feathers.  may  wants.  variety  of  ornaments  sometimes  while  tips  strands  determined  are  creations.  c a r e f u l l y composed,  be  my  and  of  trimmed.feathers,  of  (di)  others  usually  are that inter-  One mask.  may  A person  spirits.  Nobody  recognise  him.  regard  the headdress  i n t h e same  wearing  a headdress  is identified  would  Painting regarded, same drums  body.  While  song,  have  Dupeyrat  festivals  a l l the  i n the  and c l u b s ,  of the  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e b y no m e a n s e t c . ,they  Historically,  under  from  coastal  the Maisina  do  i t would  (Yega)  absent  tend seem  to that  as dance  influence  cultural  carved  Orokaiva  to the adornment  o f d e c o r a t i o n , as w e l l  and Song:  The  performed  - Christmas,  dates  traditional  major  virtually  be  and  which  tradition  (viz.  1965).  i s mainly  tend  t o be  Orokaiva  the beginning Christmas  occasions  c o i n c i d e nowadays  close  a n d name  calendar.  cycles  body  with  to the r i t u a l s  these  are performed,  tubers great  decor-  Christian  periods  For instance, Easter  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  I t i s on  when  day o f s a i n t s .  to the f e s t i v e  out of the taro  the r a i n s . dance  great  Easter,  i s close  the f i l l i n g  before  Thus,  related  with the  also  Almost  spears  place.  derived  ation  while  decoration.  pottery, architecture,  developed  may  decorated  aesthetic  Dance  around  clothing  as a  or profess to  class  are closely  Music  these  h i m b y name  to bark  as. body  and t e c h n i q u e s  i n turn  late  may  a secondary  styles  is  arts  Orokaiva  take  we  and so f o r t h .  plastic  in  applied  i n a sense,  category  address  way  feasting  i n the occurs  season  performed planted  to  stimu-  i n the p e r i o d  o c c a s i o n s .that  accompanied  by  But  the  entirely  traditional these  songs  performances  Christmas,  and  Lent,  a l l this  again  go  this,  one  from  back  the  without its  and  the  to  taro  two  occur  week  in  the  two  tend  to  start  midnight.  upward,  poets.who  months  in  Some  the of  But  group  mustered.  can  be  The other,  forming  persons  of  permanent in  Orokaiva  some  the  detail would  to  up  three  final  be  some  somewhat In  each  by  of  the  say  different  major  about  there clans,  the  of  the  who  a  always  their  until  had  the  dance  when  large  the  consist more are  less  attempted  and  drama  of  Binandere).  l e a d e r s , one partners.  or  useful  not  Aiga,  of  described  whose  i f he  body  after  behind  form  XIV),  as  They  i f a  one  themselves  dance  a  decorations only  has Dance  times  continue few  Ch.  danced  programme;  four  a performance.  (Orokaiva,  two  or  year.  s y n t h e s i s of  were  with  every  valuable  tribes  village,  songs  women, who  (1930:  the  but  village  pairs  dances  in  In  that  year  drum,  in pairs  The  the  male  occur  or  more of  time  and  men  Williams  kind  Sivepe  The  June.  every  wear  dance  of  while  before  evening  file.  sex,  even  new  'practices'  partnerships.  account make  same  so  mostly  double  songs  end  for  after  and  f o r reasons  ablebodied  dancers  these  any  the  f r e q u e n t l y , about  or  the  before  and  practising  of  early  practising.  At  compose  rather  'practising'  prohibited,  every  accompaniment  'practices'  Easter  magic.  almost  But  f o r months  between  is strictly  of  original  music.  proceeds  again  hears age  drum  from  They  movements  had  were  were  more  extravagant  they  were  allowed,  flourishes to  the  that  spirit  the  dances  the  part  are  thought  munity. the  the  Section  very  women  death.  labour  the  i s obvious  between  men  work doing  Krinks  occupied  age  to  show  notable  extra  dance  and  impress  on  dancing  of  as  of  animals  and  off their  true  feature  wellbeing  who  others;  remaining  spirits  not  the  for  i n drumming  do  t o men  the  com-  partners, attractions  them.  and at  a  show  i n terms  of  until  they  are  capable  has  been  Krinks.  A  even  where  sex  same  are of.  in  common of  job.  the  Orokaiva  the  number  of  the  to  actually  weekly  make  by  division the  of  charts  'shared' each  they  Calculations are  to  of  enquiry  as  see  task;  day  of  the  are  ways,  division  s u b j e c t of basis  the  expected The  activities  aspect  i n some  almost  activities,  i t i s most  the  old  the  g r e a t many  different  that  walk very  women,  actually  can  involves,  the  in a But  force  and  sexes and  work  they  young  Waddell  show.^  and  signs  Orokaiva  very  clearly  both  chance  contribution  Williams,  group  give  with  of  line  still A  f o r the  women  those  of  while  Mistakes  and  a  the  between  labour  men  out  dance.  inauspicious  The  from  The  whatever  of  than  Economics  Production: everybody  fancy  type  dancers.  g i v e men  3:  d i d , break  identification  Although  dances  while  the  exciting  their  each  i s the  of  and  took  of  and  by  are  rarely  Waddell  fairly  working  sex  fully  hours.  Their ogy  calculations  and s o c i a l  slack  activities The  occupied  old  and or  from  are also  a house,  total  planting  village  fishing feasting  tend  men  the  bulk  the  producer.  good the  o f goods  part  actually  only  that  only  i s twice changes  they  sister'shunting  o r more  e.g. f o r making  men  roofing  Cooperation  of  are cooperative  activities  a subsistence  related  work,  percentage  exchange  take  to  of everyday  i n a n y way.  or barter.  While  this  of  up a  produce  Waddell  i n Sivepe  network  where  to state at  produced  i n Inonda,  i n the economic  will  i t i s necessary  system  economy  by t h e h o u s e h o l d  o f exchange  4.1% o f t a r o  as h i g h  to r e c e i v e  also.  patterns  gift  toge-  Although  during  of five  a r e consumed  a small  tend  common  but there  have  t h e exchange  o f by s a l e ,  portion recent  that  enters  estimates posed  Though  of the present  outset  groups  expeditions, while  produced  work  and sometimes  i s also  rarely,  D i s t r i b u t i o n : ' .. T h e O r o k a i v a  cash  household,  i n turn.  a n d h a r v e s t i n g yams.  t o be communal  little  up b y  relatives  other  occasionally,  i s seen  and h u n t i n g  close  gardens,  Cooperative seen  be t a k e n  frequently the  sons-in-law  between  technol-  scale.  h e l p i n g each own  the present  i s comparatively  could  Sometimes  sons,  Cooperation  women  given  i s most  their  housebuilding.  for a  tasks,  do m a i n t a i n help  that  group  i n t h e pure.'•  frequent sons.  week  on a m a j o r  working  on l a r g e r men  that,  organisation, there  i n the working  cropping  ther  suggest  i s dis-  the pro-  i s due t o q u i t e  i n that  area.  One i s  bound  to  agree  their  economic  resources. only  a  196 7,  At  always  5%  good  the  the  ritual  any  number  of of  of  a  guests the  course  principle  of  limitation  shown  impressive, physically  carry  looks  the  of  Waddell with  the  away.  the  guests, by  Though  crops  to  the  most  5%  is  afte  good,  later  quote  at a l l . basic  of  of  this  limitations  restricting  custom  the  the  observer,  on  can  the  and  food  the  most  guests  lying  of  but  Secondly,  outwardly  feastin  the  after  guests a  minor.  interestingly  (taro,  least  the  village.  food  Is  i f  inviting  amount  impact  are  even  shall  very  village,  amount  the  heroic  economic  remarks  i  in  one  though  the  the  season  custom  the  Inonda at  at  i s usually present.  carrying a  main  the  as  of  two  inhabitants  size  inexhaustible  overall  be  i t is  plantings  feast  many v a r i a t i o n s t o  is restricted  capable  feast,  to  to  in  away,  growing  a  network  where  saw  surplus  hold  Orokaiva  survival  f o r which  seem  the  I  As  for  the  First,  same  of  generosity  to  there  to  a  Unless  feast.  about  be  prohibition  case,  village  production.  will  on  whatever  exchange  giving  there  size  platform  was  i s poor,  season.  drain  feast  sufficient  are  son  Inonda  mythological •charter,  There  large  exchanges,  the  the  scale  is a  usually  are  leaves  i t s annual  growing  the  great  entering  comparatively  on  no  food  a  In to  produce  that  that  are  proportion  of  made  harvest  there  the  I estimated  utmost,  a  a  Waddell  utility,  Of  minute  grown.  with  bananas,  that,  in  sugarcane),  comparia  far  higher  proportion  network. sweet but  This  are  small-change for  the  trade  on  meal  to  eaten  instance  considered  ducing food'  some in  our In  their  own  is  former taken  sago  a  is a  kind  between  as  and  are  betelnut  'puga  is  a  the stored  traditional  i s nowadays  considered  Popondetta than  animal  food  enter  a  or  gift  invited. the  improper gift  to  as  Meat  part  have  the  far  villages  to  eat  exchange,  the  of  a  festive  i s ceremonial  settlement  take  only  record  for  gift  cultivated regard  the  no  any  of  meat very  wood  I have  obtaining  houses.  gifts  create  return  areas  nuts,  function  produce  people  concerns  between  With as  The  materials  distinction The  of  general,  wood  discuss  a  food,  quarrel.  without much  It  intro-  like  'party  society.  land.  involving building  own  as  mark  somewhat  element  tauga  barter  for  are  to  Both  exchange  breadfruit,  not  and  the  foothills.  either  guests  does  produce  or  i s 'customary  which  sago,  friends  while  enter  V i l l a g e s near  sell  Lamington  network,  for  to  shortage  marketing.  Mount  exchange  given  to  to  Waddell  A l l vegetable  for  It  is  of  crops  especially  sociability.  opportunity  the  season  yams.  often  season  suitable more  and  of  item.  dry  applies  potatoes  these  of  of  My  bush  of  they of  need  from  transactions  less  informants  common made  a  clear  of  sago.  trees  and  gifts  debt  but  whenever  specific  i s expected,  because,  I was  sago  told,  plant. to  where  feathers raw  and  materials  hambo, are  attitudes  plentiful  differ  and  areas they  where  they  rarely  are  enter  generation,  rare.  the  during  a  On  the  exchange ceremony  Mount  network of  Lamington  -  perhaps  uncommon  foothills  once  a  importance.  On  .8  the  alluvial  other the  items  most  lime and  plains, of  i s made  i s , therefore  chewing  i s as  i t is  plant the  called  hills,  position  The  with the  partly  for  this  animal  products By  a  far  these  Krinks small  members  are  a  and  betie)  a  minority  of  motive  their  these  of  neighbouring  for  grows  a  the A  village  as  of  at  with  the  they  to  produce be  accumulate  trade. occur  within  occurring  as  Intertribal  or  on  communities.  important  along  I t may  exchanges  communities, 9  terminating,  peppery  the  accustomed  of  betelnut  bargaining  land.  objects  as  Orokaiva  best  poor  transactions  politically  and  with  was,  other,  chewed  complex  own  as  demonstrated.  was  in  are  number  different  clearly  are  they  lime  along  betelnut  from  largest  again  It  the  among  are  foothills;  seashore.  always  exchanged  the  the  for  Of  lime  Indonesia.  is  This  plains  use  i n volume,  provided  Guinea  and  usually  have  activity  that  the  v i l l a g e , only  between  social  reason to  the  with  alluvial  ingredients  on  item.  and  on  together  a  to  only  only  often  regard  grows  one  (piper  i t is  betelnuts  exchange  ingredients.  that  betelnuts.  trade,  trade  to  New  hingi  two  so  of  chewed  popular  frequent  collected  common  throughout  other  none  be  a  Betelnut  of " s h e l l s  can  are  traditional  important.  betelnut  as  they  in least  Even  Waddell  trade, that  and  though  i t  interrupting  warlike  disputes.  products, certain in  artifacts  Yega  which  feathers,  conditions, i t may  take be  Orokaiva  Money: esian this where The find  and  there  has  i n many  been  have  traditionally  argument  need  not  only  the  Orokaiva  of  Thus, would  would  be  betelnuts. numerals  rudiments  concept  i s that  arise  a  In  higher  of  relating exchange to  give  have  an  idea  absence  than  2),  of  form  and  the  that  was  'small'  (isapa),  such  a  i f the  judgment  equivalence.  But  determined  quite  by  an  sale  Melan-  'money', Orokaiva  cannot  be  found.  been of  able  this  example,  certain  quantity implied  be  lime of  had  no  rough,  received  that  exchange between independent  is  the  quantity  Orokaiva only  to  work  q u a n t i t y of  (the  among  Melanesia.  some  of  realistic  for a  of  the  most  e q u i v a l e n c e would  said  was  which  or  clearly  whether  of  modern  exchange  parts  concept  numerals  be  feathers  to  return  still  true  case  concerning  i t could  no  a  as  c o n v e r s i o n I have  but  been  a  simple  reasonable the  such  cycles a  known  supply  barter  gift  other  i n the  to  from  exchanged  under  ever  argument  peoples  even  was  differentiated case  may,  exchange,  quality  were  could  animal  and  high  pots  people  barter  in  hambo, of  exchanges  gift  whether  i s the  Although  devoted.  that  as  of  be  Binandere  Such  form  doubted  to  mountain  etc.  mainly  feathers,  known  e.g.  only  the  institutionalised the  were  districts,  loincloths;  cassowary  but  t r a d e was  betelnut ingredients,  particular  for  Intertribal  there lime  had and  conventions;  an  exchange  occurred, economy  between  would  was  of course  other  two  terms  different  at a l l ,the t h i r d  determined  i n t h e modern  as S a l i s b u r y  concerned  with  three  have  treasure  boxes,  special  brideprice,  The t h r e e  f o r the  along  purposes giving  which  (payment  trade  stores are mostly  which  the Orokaiva  use o n l y  entertained  (tinned  cartridges,  kerosene),  as h i l l  meat  when  and f i s h ,  tobacco  are c l a s s i f i a b l e people  u s e them  notes i n them  (payment  Purchases  of  in  i . e . objects  are guests  sugar,  etc.  The  donations), but  items,  there  social  the Siane,  and t o keep  of taxes).  f o r luxury  of  nexuses.  t o s t o r e pound  and c h u r c h  third  involve  types  are.often ceremonial  of feasts  and a  do n o t  a s among  d i a n d hambo,  One i s  consumption  goods  different  role  Salisbury  and  and c e r e m o n i a l  tendency with  sometimes^ u t i l i t a r i a n  luxury  the  t h e same  of a c t i v i t y .  the Orokaiva  the luxury  describe  (1962).  nexuses  but also  among  t h e same  and f l o u r  nexuses  another  goods.  into  Orokaiva  people,  I f the  transaction  i n much  with  money,  enters  economy  goods,  c a t e g o r i e s o f goods  bread  of  rates  could  distribution  only  for  type  the production  ceremonial  Now  one  f o r the Siane  with  mainly  again.  by t h e g o i n g  Orokaiva  used  between  subsistence  groups.  conventions  a few r e s e r v a t i o n s ,  distinguishes  of  be  and f e a t h e r s , i f i t e v e r  types.  With money  have  monetised  would  of  betelnut  t o be  tea, batteries,  Foods  such  as l u x u r i e s exclusively  as  among  rice, the  as guest  hill  foods.  It  i s plain,  that  on t h e a l l u v i a l  flour is  however,  i s bought  i n short  place  from  Waddell  plains  i n f a r greater  supply.  These  of subsidiary  crops.  cash  crops  their  on s u p p l e m e n t a r y  Salisbury's research,  of  staple  attention.  as  before  esting  While  forth.  watches,  and when  taro  taking the  area  prefer  and t o spend  The S i a n e , on c a s h  goods  to  some o f  at the as a  time  source  capital  i n respect  they  because exist.  of monetary  i n the sphere  agricultural,  have  items  sewing  everyday  mentioned. the  of c a p i t a l  such  and c o o k i n g  - radios,  It i s inter-  outside  largely  innovations  hunting  lamps,  been  or  cash  goods  that  wholly  as t r a d e  store  implements  flashlights,  machines,  clothing  'produce'  input,  just  while  classed  and  they  goods,  in  are  Houses  of c a p i t a l  of  consumption  g e n e r a l l y remained  by c a s h - p u r c h a s e d  new  direct  some  used  and implements  while  industries  pressure  from  1  i t i s precisely  merits  as a s t o c k  of p r o d u c t i o n .  and t h e types  Totally  capital  Tools  owners  have  goods  a c t i s performed,  consumer's  for their  traditional  clothing, so  defines  instruments  the former  replaced  staples.  'immobilised'  t o compare,  economy,  and s e r v i c e s  a productive  are called  consumer  the  and  'durable  services  i n this  for capital  act i s i n progress.  etc.,  a r e thus  d i d n o t depend  u s e o f money Salisbury  production the  rice  food.  The  present  statistics  q u a n t i t y i n months  People  from  of  Popondetta,  products  make m o n e y cash  near  and K r i n k s '  guitars  and  wrist  have  been  added. a  Locked  very  be  popular  a vexing  item,  storage  indicating  of these  or g i f t  clothes)  of valuables, are  pass  but other  hardly  made  due  the l a t t e r  among  resident  local  men  these  sources  on the  like  the sale supply  problems largely local  employment  o f jobs  inhibit  employment  Hohorita,  to close  as a  depends does  f o r residents  vary:  i t may b e  and c a s h  cash  I have  listed A  to a s i g n i f i c a n t so t o t h e e x t e n t  extent that  and l a n d  which  or to  from  preference.  cropping,  to large  cropping  remittances  Sivepe,  food  risen  ordinarily  i s limited  cropping.  close  has  the v i l l a g e .  of Orokaiva  studies  income  still  or to increased  or to s e l l  situated  the various  The s o u r c e s  surpluses  on r e m i t t a n c e s  but only  i n Salisbury's  or to increased  which  cash  ( e . g .r a d i o s ) a r e  village  of persons  i n the order  of food  and  b y way o f  be c l a s s i f i e d  from  total  away f r o m  Inonda,  by  kitchenware  context,  should  the Orokaiva.  employed  the' v i l l a g e  to another  whether,  emerging  i s that  surpluses  (e.g.  of g i f t s  type  i n the v i l l a g e  of food  village  used to  item.  conclusion  to outside  sale  types  i n a ceremonial  i n t h e 1960's  rapidly  safe  enter  types  one v i l l a g e  or a ceremonial One  made  goods  I am n o t a t a l l s u r e  terminology, luxury  Some  from  brideprice, ever  capital  exchange.  may  kinsmen.  that  problem.  Most gift  s u i t c a s e s , f o r the storage  title  depends  i s unable  to  surpluses.  A village  European  plantations,  find like is-  much  less  dependent  One a  kind  it.  on  fell  rather soon  i s either  done,  accounts  the p r i n c i p l e such  volatile  became  somewhat  t o an  European  worthless.  10  concept  clans  i t away  or v i l l a g e s  The  many  scheme  enterprise,  and  save  indivi-  societies  government  Orokaiva  floated  and bought  as  who  and Loan'  union.  because  investment  o f money  s t e a l t h i l y , by  or "Savings  partly  Sivepe.  to store  of a c r e d i t  savings  fictims  than  of the Orokaiva  c o l l e c t i v e l y by  savings  encourages time  consequence  or else  establish based  remittances  of v a l u a b l e i s a tendency  Saving  duals,  on  a t one  by a  shares  which  47.  Section  4:  History  The  main  background between  the  study  tribes  and  between  Orokaiva  physical  to  be  the  Papuan  elements,  'midway  evidence  Mountain  that  n o t i c e s more among  In most  notable  structed  east. the  These  common  Beaver  own  1916;  Crocombe  and  just  has  from upon  the the  who  spread  to  in  and  Williams  the  1930:  1963:  (1965)  'basically  of  Polyno-melanesian to  the  features  Northern true  along  the  occupation,  that  can  population  to  be  on  populations  especially  the  upon  the  less  borders.  152-4;  north  14-16).  fertile  country Chinnery  1921:  and  gives  sparser  Monckton  Mount  surrounding  still  (See  the  recon-  the  ( t o whom W i l l i a m s  still  eastern  the  and  is certainly  history  populations  dwelling  Papuan  European  sparser  pressed  the  inland.  dense  but  considered  Orokaiva with  than  especially  recently  mixed  Orokaiva  Sauaha)  Hogbin  who  prior  a l l sides,  northern  typical  It  some  Europeans.  Williams  Manigela.  Yega)  of  sparser  name  populations their  on  and  the  provide  exchange,  Polyno-melanesian  period  aspect  but  i s to  the  i n Papua,  the  foothills  mountain  between  and  i s pressure  Lamington the  the  Orokaiva  considers  late-comers  (e.g.  section  Orokaiva  type',  via Maisina  coast  of  Dupeyrat  District one  this  constitution,  Melanesian'.  surveyed the  of  for  In  typical  object  Ch.  on and XXIV;  In British Sir  1888,  government  William  itions  in  while  the  river  Mambare  gold  78;  in  to  i n Papua  movement  District.  from  beginning  sides. the of  In  Yodda  and  gold.  shed,  1900  of  was  for  some The  Australians written  by  district  memorable through  he of  This  was  major  the  numerous  150  miners  In  were  places  along  years  the  access  rout  may  relationships  be  Monckton his  eased  out  gleaned who  was  of  the was  country  the  to  the  led  were  bad  river;  15,000 the  Ioma,  Kumusi  and  both  Yodda  stop  Orokaiva  oz.  bloodalong  river  Yodda  of  the  by  produced  three  which  field. and of  memoirs  resident magistrate  in  the  punitive expeditions  led  service in the  to  on  between the  to  1921  books  immoderate  achievement  Orokaiva  from  to  discovery  killings  the  existence  Papuans  s t a t i o n e d at  two  few  prospects,  the  order  a  the  miners  together  ascended  (Monckton  first  and  exped-  unknown  point,  river.  the  to  goldfields  vast  discovered  prospectors  were  administrator,  McGregor  commercial  1912 :. 3 3 3 ) .  early  this  navigable  at  until  being  in  the  exploratory  expeditions  shores  leading  Gira  and  rule  where  resident magistrates  Mambare  first  Relationships with  there  (Murray  the  his  had  The  arduous  i t s highest  326-8).  Northern the  his  creek,  which  Papua.  these  sand' and  1912:  a major  of  Tamata the  Murray  gold to  above  one  to. A u s t r a l i a n p r e s s u r e ,  made many  establishing On  of  annexed  McGregor,  territory.  miles  response  building  Kokoda,  1907. of  near  a the  His  most  road  from  to  Buna  goldfields.  This  road,  slightly  communication the  in  the  road  was  built  Monckton  and  the  place  that  so  1922  were  ; 142)'  Northern  (1904),  Dobodura  government  circumspection. Lamington  modernised,  and  the  others  had  p a t r o l s were the  comments  on  the  battles  road  time  taken  with  around  of  between  already  Kilkenny the  line  By  treated  tribes  like  main  today.  sanguinary  'fighting  Monckton's  still  District  the  Nonetheless still  is  much  Mount  cats' are  (Monckton  interesting:  'Yodda Road i s t a b u t o t h e t r i b e s and i s t r a v e r s e d i n p e r f e c t s a f e t y b y s i n g l e w h i t e men and their unarmed c a r r i e r s . Never s i n c e I broke the Dobudura and S a n g a r a has t h e r e e v e r b e e n a t h e f t upon i t . I t i s a s a n c t u a r y f o r any and e v e r y o n e ; t h e w i l d e s t t r i b e s o n l y v i s i t i t i n peace to t r a d e food and goods to p a s s i n g t r a v e l l e r s . They r a t h e r l i k e i t , a s s m a l l p a r t i e s o f h o s t i l e t r i b e s c a n move f r e e l y a b o u t on i t i n s a f e t y w i t h t h e i r women a n d children.* (1934:41) While place (ibid. but  the  between 63).  also  my  road  working  I t was  by  was  thus  being  built  p a r t i e s and described  Lieutenant-Governor  'no  the  not  Murray  hostilities  local  only who  by  took  inhabitants' Monckton,  wrote:  'The W a s i d a a n d S a n g a r a h a v e b e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y a c t i v e i n forming markets a l o n g the road which l e a d s f r o m Buna Bay t o t h e Y o d d a G o l d f i e l d , and i n s u p p l y i n g c a r r i e r s w i t h t a r o and other food i n exchange f o r a r t i c l e s of t r a d e , such as t o b a c c o and g l a s s b o t t l e s , w h i c h a r e much p r i z e d f o r the m a n u f a c t u r e of r a z o r s . ' (1912:105) The Australian by  the  Protectorate territory  Commonwealth  administration the  Monckton  by  of  British  New  the  passing  of  Government  adopted  type  of  a  policy  massacres  of  Guinea the  Papua  Australia.  of were  peaceful not  became  The  Act  1905  new  penetration  repeated.  and  Nonetheles  these In  early  the p e r i o d  example  of  measures though to  excesses  social  these  ever  of  They  of  'likely ations  days  with  ment,  o r an  between  influenced  at  apparently  least  ways  a s much  or  such  forceful  as  appointed  These  as  indigenous such  In  were  ' t o be  not  the  officials would  basic  paid  1925  assistants  to  any  were, by  of  or  judicial  people, as M a i r  Motu,  as  acquainin  by  one  employa  man's  or  the  more  village  t h e Crown  generally  subordinates. powers,  says,  consider-  of n a t i v e  had  i n the Crown.  such  alongside  they  the  and  onwards,  servants  I found  had  lead  the p e r i o d  government's  wide  was  i s gained  representatives  District  constables'  powers  taken  The  of  personality,  c o u n c i l l o r s ' were  regarded  were  regulations'  control  of P o l i c e  'village  the Northern  an  Many  a remarkably  latter  From  In  'native  servants  i n the v i l l a g e ' .  intended  III).  attached.  local  standing  were  Ch.  government  The  of E n g l i s h  the whiteman's  constable.  history  ' i n many w a y s  development of  over  paid  officers.  as knowledge  tance  applied  constables,  European  t o be  was  of McGregor,  intermediaries  by  form  a penalty was  1948:  native  the  of O r o k a i v a  presented  (Mair  took  part  field.  'village  were  chosen  the  Papua  economic  of which  widening From  hands  and  coercion  forever  rule'  invariably  the breach  and  followed  enlightened  of  principle  that  a r e now  but  opinion. been No  as M u r r a y  felt  corruption.  of Murray's  objective  was  rule to  (1907-1940),  turn  the Papuan  the into  a  keen  and  role,  efficient  he  tively  was  assiduously  minimised  recruitment, of  labour.  indentured  Murray  of  well-being.  available  schools  and  was  land  the  thus  and  serving  that  effec-  controlled  the  treatment Papuans'  f o r Papuans the  that  which  employer's  p l a n t a t i o n and  It  i s not  surprising,  to  public  education  improvement  programmes  inspections  at  tenance prison  were  which  imposed  sentences.  villages,  law by  'the  mining  were  ordered,  for  their  own  The  of  care  services a  education  were head  left tax  collected,  1921-1941,  was  was  to  medical  was  from  a  tax  to  to  to  work. on  the  to  best field'.  road  into  commercial missions;  upon  Papuans.  pounds  to  employers  of  were  tree  employers.  p.a.  funds  of  crops.  health  The  In  money  between  subsidise missions Further  main-  larger  Villages  or  was  Social  penalty  missions the  money  village  and  under  patrol.  plant  16,000  used  hygiene  consolidated  to  left  imposed  mostly  and  derived  good,  averaging  educational  were  no  rule.  confined  officers  easier  either  was  order,  patrol  that  Murray's  largely  and  Hamlets  these  therefore,  under  were  as  thus  measures  Papuan  wrote  the  by  In  362)  devoted  1919,  he He  are  of  wages  felt  spiritual  (1912:  protected  alienation  payment  p l a n t a t i o n worker.  for  for  labour.  education (Mair  1948:  62-64). By  a  gentlemen's  denominations,  a  agreement  specified  portion  between of  the  the  Protestant  Territory  of  Papua  was  given  to  the  e x c l u s i v e p a s t o r a l care  North-East-' Papua, became  Anglican  Dogura,  Milne  Guinea,  Montagu  That  year,  along Gona  the and  in  been  as  taken  mostly  Bay  of  had  the  priests  and  assisted  by  the  the  sent  the  to  'the  about  by  at  Cape  Mambare  laymen South  the  and  in  Sea  mission  flock.  very  these who  had  a  1911:  worked and  40).  These  education', the  knew  Northern  District  mission,  most  religious  teaching  was  by  i s l a n d e r s who  often  spread  the  mission add  to  as  in  Word  charge  i t s staff to  village Priests  sibility  to  which  The by  New  in  Deacons.  Papuans  very  In  the  secular  out  of  Guinea one  the the  most hope  The much  reach  of  Mission more  soon  advanced  promising that  Mission earlier  the  these thus than  of early  as  well  were  'out-stations' established  building  i t sent  schools, and  of  in villages  stations.  Dogura, the  put  men  languages  defective.  these  had  'bridge'  the  also  1898.  stations  years  done  New  Manigela,  their  as  at  stations a l l  as  about  very  of  Papua , w h i l e of  E n g l i s h was  was  in  Australia,  serve  nor  court  of  Islanders  formal  children  mission  Vogel,  charge  to  border,  Bishop  up  them.  River.  (Chignell  scantiest  teaching  the  first  set  of  German  of  p l a n t a t i o n s i n Queensland,  north  each  established his  diocese, as  to  centre  where  Stone-Wigg,  mission  nothing  The  District,  far north  sugar  between  Dulcie  territory.  coast  often  the  Cape  m i s s i o n a r i e s were  The were  from  of  to  main set  about  school  to  at  students  from  could  trained  offered any  be  respon-  other  White  institution  in  minister  Wanigela  at  the  Territory.  In  the  words  of  Rev.  Chignell  1907-1910:  ' I t may w e l l be c e n t u r i e s ... b e f o r e t h e o l d e r C h u r c h e s ... c a n d a r e t o l e a v e t h e n a t i v e d i o c e s e s t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d b y n a t i v e b i s h o p s a n d p r i e s t s . ( Y e t ) t h e New Guinea M i s s i o n , i n common w i t h a l l m i s s i o n a r y C h u r c h e s , h a s had to t r y and keep t h a t f a r d i s t a n t o b j e c t a l w a y s i n view, sometimes at the expense of p r e s s i n g and a p p a r e n t l y more p r o d u c t i v e work w h i c h e v e n now l i e s c l o s e at hand.' (1911: 81).  as  well  In  1967,  as  a  teachers  the  number  are  bishop of  Papuans,  of  the  Northern  priests  and  virtually  often  drawn  from  the  District  diocese  a l l mission  Northern  District  tribes. Experience the  Northern  with  District  miners,  led  government  rather  and  q u i c k l y to  mission  the  in  emergence 12  of  adjustment  arising Ch.  cults,  as  having  authorities. ship  between  Taro  Cult.  Christian  been  Baigona  in  1912  and  1914.  them  as  Cult  cults  the  and the  i s of  today  which  will  and  special  type,  in  of  great be  even  what  one  concern  discussed  in  he  bond never  Australian and  to  the  comradeto  the  from  the  with  Jesus  developed  years,  call  there  carg is  millennial  government  Chapters  (195 7  recognises  central  later may  Cults  Worsley  themselves  District  undercurrent which  a  the  were  Northern  classical  thinking,  dissociated  claimed  to  cooperation  tribes  Taro  Though  threat  unity,  hostile  leaders  missions  constant  of  and  non-millenarian,  political  formerly  Although  of  a  Doctrines  Christ.  a  the  respectively  I l l ) classifies  them  notably  4  and  even 12 11.  The  Second  when in  War:  the Japanese  June  the  World  A new  invaded  1942, l a n d e d  Moresby.  Australian Papuan the  and round  the A l l i e d  199).  were  navy  i n temporary The  large-scale Stanner  forces  return  soon  The d r a i n a g e  the  villages  to e s t a b l i s h  and  lasting  Guinea much  operators. Papuans very  new  of labour  n o t enough gardens  military  administration  T h e army Unit'  pay and r a t i o n  the t r a i n i n g I t opened  i n the face u s e f u l news  s e t up a n  scale  o f Papuan  a central  of Mission  to  they  plunder  resorted (Mair 1948:  where  they  taro.  followed  by  (Statistics i n was  serious i n  men w e r e  the Japanese  (ANGAU)  Mair  left i n  and r e b u i l d t h e  during  Administrative  began  because  labour.  and l o s t  benefits.  improved  ANGAU  was  by  from t h e  lines.  of the A l l i e s  District,  hand,  to which supply  Trail  bagan  to the bush  c o n s c r i p t i o n o f Papuan  abandoned  they  with  and t a k i n g  t o Lucy  German  Northern  the other  their  took  them  s h e l t e r s and grew  the  On  until  1942 a n d ,  Range  According  a course  mostly  1953: 7 9 ) .  villages  drove  began  District,  a t t h e Kokoda  1943.  blocked  i n January  Stanley  who  not unpopular  The O r o k a i v a  lived  checked  up p i g s ,  history  i n the Northern  t h e Owen  by J a n u a r y  were  Guinea  a t Buna,  and American  Japanese  when  They  mainland  gardens  the  New  intention of crossing  Port  e r a i n Papuan  which  occupation.  brought  major  ' A u s t r a l i a n New introduced  forplantation  a  labour.  d r i v e r s and w i r e l e s s  teacher  training  opposition.  and i n f o r m a t i o n  It  broadcasts  school f o r inaugurated i n Motu and  Pidgin  aimed a t Papuan and New G u i n e a n a u d i e n c e s .  training and  courses  f o r European  immeasurable  given  increased  to the indigenous  ANGAU, f u r t h e r m o r e , administrators  and n a t i v e m e d i c a l  the s c a l e of medical  population  opened  i n the T e r r i t o r y  care  school  - a school  for civil  which  developed  i n t o the A u s t r a l i a n School  for Pacific  tration.  (Mair  1953: 8 2 ) .  relations.  1948: Ch. X; S t a n n e r  Papuans, a p p l i e d e g a l i t a r i a n home  country.  Negro  introduced  A u s t r a l i a n troops,  American  soldiers,  created  by t h e i r  the impression  tools  and equipment  these  events  of  used  the Orokaiva  by g i f t s ,  in villages  not only of  of discarded today.  saw t h e p o r t e n t  t h e war, A u s t r a l i a  w h i c h was i n a mood t o make bered  with  ethical  responsibility imperatives  ment, i t c o m m i t t e d ments, i m p r o v e d for  treatment of  It i s i n  o f t h e coming  a new e r a . After  the  i n their  f r i e n d l i n e s s to  l u x u r i e s , but a l s o  still  with  The t r o o p s '  Papuans was t a n g i b l y e x p r e s s e d small  equal  i n human  racial barriers  the  that  society!  Adminis-  that  no p l a c e  and o t h e r  dealings  attitudes prevalent  troops,  later  a new t o n e  i n their  had  tobacco  i n their  personnel  by p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s .  a training  Army a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  I t s e t up  education  far-reaching  f o r the past  characteristic  itself  working  had a L a b o u r  i n various  changes.  actively  Unencum-  and i n f l u e n c e d by o f t h e L a b o u r move-  i n t e r n a t i o n a l agree-  conditions, raised  and h e a l t h ,  administration  appropriations  encouraged  cash  cropping  in  villages  political New  ment  A c t 1949) .  then  which  assumed  Eruption  occurred this  on Mount  eruption  sq. miles  and  there  tribe. and  maintained  comforts  officials Papuan  saw  model  i n this  their  merits,  because  danger  reduced  i n the view  were also,  Almost  provided  of  were  ardente  4,000  eruption  produced  a surrounding  with  sequence with  plans  were  villages  feared  by  people  food,  of further  up-to-date  forvillage  explosions  area were  the reforms  were  of killed  Sangara  medicines time  were  not at  as f u r t h e r  a chance  explo-  to create  reformation,  at that was  Some  socio-economic  time,  soon  old village  not favoured  whatpartly  greatly  o f v u l c a n o l o g i s t s , so t h a t to t h e i r  by  the a u t h o r i t i e s .  of events  not r e a l i s e d  Assembly,  today.  The e v a c u e e s  to t h e i r  a l l o w e d , t o go b a c k because  The nuee  camps.  communities These  of  t h e g o v e r n m e n t a n d f o r some  to r e t u r n  institutions. ever  by  i n the mountain  t h e House  any s u r v i v o r s o f t h e numerous  i n evacuation  allowed  sions  hardly  The C o u n c i l  I n 1951, a P e l e a n  devastated  The s u r v i v o r s were  other  once  Lamington.  govern-  s e t up b y t h e same  Councils  Lamington:  some  f o r Native  i n 1951.  Councils,  ( T a y l o r 1958).  were  Council  chanber,  Government  completely  Papuans  1953: Ch. V I I ; P a p u a -  in Australia  Village  o f Mount  to give  r e t a i n e d by t h e L i b e r a l  by by ah e l e c t e d  l e d to the L o c a l  The  68  The A d v i s o r y  power  1963.; t h e N a t i v e  Act,  steps  (Stanner  s e t u p , was  was•superseded in  the f i r s t  responsibility.  Guinea  Matters,  and took  the  sites; by t h e  people partly  Australian defeat  administration  of  the  Labour  Intensification expertly did  not  189).  of  planned start  When  which  Government  Development  social,  i n Papua  until  influenced  by  Trusteeship  Council  the  to  under  combined  a  see  In success on  the  economic  in  the  land. is  District scheme  was  of  1966-67. the  an  of  in  the  exerted The  have  1966: was  by  the  Council  since  a  major  1949  been  coffee  development  industry  largest  quantity  far  the  Highlands,  the  Orokaiva  year the  aided  any  the  any  $  to  a  work  coffee  who  greater  to  of  Northern  in  or  the  the  year  visited,  both  coffee.  resident lesser  this  growing  this  entered  I  train  own  of  the  producing  t r a i n i n g - s c h o o l was  agricultural  in  man  based  their  60-100,  able-bodied  development  in  yield  villages  p l a i n s , were  extension  A  like  a l l the  engage  District  Papuan  first  by  i n which  eruption.  Popondetta.  Parker  using  normally  Northern  (See  development  growers  that  Agricultural  after  of  something  factors  1960  Nations.  the  of  Several  the  sphere  income  would  scale,  political  territories  assure  village  of  United  to  activity  Large  indigenous  the  foothillsrarid  an  and  pressure  enough  During  the  A u s t r a l i a n government  b u i l d i n g up  While  grown  Policy:  the  mandated  after  administration.  production  coffee  was  the  was  village  on  the  power  1951.  around  the  undoubtedly  of  in  economic  i t happened,  desired  assumed  in  It a  extent.  industry. the  began set  up  a s s i s t a n t s were  population immediately in trained  to  give  basic  tants  d i d not  employed gone  instruction  by  back  spread  the  to  bute  to  ment  kept  and  villages  improvement  entirely  disputes. that  knowledge  agricultural  passed  aloof  time,  arboriculture unless  a  a  of  had  Kokoda  was  linked  to  the  of  access  in  villages.  except  made:  four  to  the  tenure  contrigovern-  problems  become  was  only  introduced  to  to  been  a  and  residual  attempts  had  land  obvious  developed  procedure  another  arterial and  this  necessary By  road  196 7  the rights  change in  1967  worked  out.  with  the  arterial  with in  economic the  not,  so  development  Northern  two  road  a s s i s t a n c e of  have  preliminary  between  coffee-producing villages  educational services  schools  coffee.  unsuccessful, i t looked  was  the  built  integrated  had  adjudicate in  first  development.  rebuilt  main  roads,  The closely  village  being  they  own  maintaining  the  still  work).  improvement  been  of  Though were  be  registry  satisfactory  this  significant  moves  land  principle  system  very  could  after  195 6,  indigenous  i t had  Road to  from  Until  assis-  were  beginning  however,  tenure  5  is- also  that  abandoned.  Ch.  their  By  l a n d was  (See  grew  i t to  in  though  and  enabling  Orokaiva  as  more  work  These  they  even  ordinances  extent  land  while  but  development.  traditional  the  only  seed.  no  commercial  limited  distribute  government,  their  Title  and  District  by  important Buna was a  and being  system  taxes  raised  f a r , been objectives. are  very A l l  conducted  by  the  Mission.  schools staff  are  has  students provide school  s t i l l  only for  schooling assistance  Sivepe a  good  and  access  and  cannot  advance  secondary  ction  to  that  hope  or  to  elementary  have  any  do  The  do  prepare  level,  and  that  the  those become  category.  for  secondary  adequate  financial  Villages  opportunities,  but  Mission  Sasembata  within  years  As  not  them  students.  three  education.  grades  point  such  is English in a l l schools,  beyond  of  the  teaching  secondary  falls  to  of  the  examination  lacking  two  and  some  the  children  from  many  occupations.  available  only  schooling,  at  qualifying  Inonda,  to  training,  skilled  is usually  Hohorita  having  by  religious,  education  for  passing are  o b j e c t i v e s of  primarily  further  attended of  the  rudimentary  recruits  Chances  as  While  of  the  and  elementary brightest  language who  such  do  of  not  students instru-  advance  acquainted  with  13 concepts Local  relevant  Government  Council  which  Orokaiva, Saiho  building markets to  $2  were of at  provide  derived  development  Council:  The  formed  i n 1956  was  comprising  census  Council  to  the  divisions. road  revenue.  for. e v e r y  adult  tax  of  female.  the  improvement  some  head  about  15,000  main  1966  and  a  Government  In  aid posts,  extra  serves  Local  Sohe-Popondetta  Popondetta  from  Higaturu  Popondetta,  building,  medical  objectives.  $8  activities  of  maintaining  Saiho  and  the  Most p.a.  The  of  for  central  and  water of  of  the  supplies,  produce  operation  of  trucks  the  revenue  was  every  adult  male  and  government  paid  a  50%  subsidy  on c e r t a i n C o u n c i l  19.62,. t h e C o u n c i l operated to  f o r Orokaiva  the c o n t r o l  producers'  are  paid  the  Council  Council  detail  it  has o f f e r e d  The  the  of t h i s  Age:  Since  outside  world  have  in  already  addition,  converts After  Papuan  with  new  a  members  policy  with  political  departure  who  attached  to  in  are  analysed  the Coffee  Society,  participation  is vividly  limited  some  new  member,  recog-  elected  meetings  argument.  from  political  to attract  Lamington  of Orokaiva  o f t h e House  powers  ideas  the  to the Orokaiva.  began  t h e Mount  patterns  acting  many  a n d some  mission  majority  establishment  organisers  political  some  economic,  after  representatives  local  Together  communicated  the Anglican  giving  introduced the  mentioned  1964, t h e g r e a t  Moresby,  Society,  to the Council  t h e war, a g r e a t been  especially  The  transferred  people.  New  have  factory  adviser  to determine  1967.  the Orokaiva  the importance  Grower  o f 26 O r o k a i v a  attitudes  i n Schwimmer  was  A government  however,  Indigenous  processing  1959 a n d  f o r the purpose.  up  stipend.  Between  but this  Coffee  formed  i s made  appears,  in  by  producers,  o f an O r o k a i v a  a monthly  practice.  nised  ran the coffee  cooperative  The  and  also  projects.  I ideas;  many  disaster.  were  baptized.  of Assembly  i n Port  of p o l i t i c a l  d e c i s i o n to  by u n i v e r s a l  suffrage,  in village  with  f o r these  other  life:  The p e r s o n n e l  meetings  candidates,  candidates  and  of the l o c a l  has with  meetings presenting government  council and  tends  to t a l k  to be  about  During to  learn  that  that  they  that  they  have  radios, the  that  the Orokaiva  i n decisions They  difference  part  have  world.  become aware nations  services  relating  and to the  recognise  to the balance rulers,  i s not  of  although  great.  and t h e messages  greatly Through  increased their  and A f r i c a .  o f t h e modern  are beginning  fully  o f , and d i s c u s s ,  of Asia  villages.  i s conceivable  so f a r t h e d i f f e r e n c e  broadcasting  to f e e l  rule  politics  visiting  and t h e A u s t r a l i a n  of the outside  independent  i n national when  country.  by c o u n c i l l o r s  they  beginning  own  an immediate  Finally,  knowledge  some v o i c e  themselves  know  transmitted  discussions,  of their  between also  affairs  an end t o A u s t r a l i a n  "this makes  power  committed  political  such  will  independence  deeply  world.  their  transistor  the a f f a i r s They  of  a r e thus  Section  5: F i e l d  I I  spent  travelled  data  Locations  one y e a r  through  come m a i n l y  i n the Northern  the d i s t r i c t  from  three  a good  villages  District. deal,  my  Although  detailed  on w h i c h  brief  I visited.  I  notes  14 follow  here.  Inonda there  This  f o r 18 d a y s  periods. and  Hogbin,  houses there  Krinks  foothills  fifty was  years  laid  spaced rows  private  drying  Inonda,  distances. shruba  trees.  These  a slab  no  iron  There longer  of concrete  a number  lines  was  also  down b y  dwellings of  neat  the  family  where  a corrugated  i n use. Just laid  each  behind t h e army  some  villages,  interspersed  subdivided  shed,  from  tribe  the  had an A n g l i c a n  storage  represented  Orokaiva  There  borders  visit,  driven  with  so as t o g i v e  The v i l l a g e  services. plant,  herbal  clan  rectangle, were  Crocombe  dwelling  the Sangara other  brief  from  o f my  had been  by  like  and f l o r a l  the houses  space.  significant  Lamington  o u t i n an e l o g a t e d  of a corrugated  gives  was  earlier.  between  A t the time  who  on by  11 m i l e s  t o Oro Bay, h a s s e v e n o f 42.  stayed  f o r a few  reported  It lies  Andiriha  o f Mount  of palms,  area  namely  later  previously  one p o l i t i c a l l y  a t equal  flowing  out  only  there  and Waddell.  on t h e r o a d  the v i l l a g e ,  the  was  and a p o p u l a t i o n was  village  and r e t u r n e d  The v i l l a g e  Popondetta,  in  i s the f i r s t  with  central a  chapel,  semimade  a l a y preacher iron  copra  the v i l l a g e during  t h e war.  This was  was: u t i l i s e d being  built  Unlike  as t h e f l o o r  the other  Christanised,  Coffee  gardens  is  at least  family  only  i n wages  side. his  He was  but also  i s one o f a  which  forsocial  i n my  involved  that  cash  through  a l l forms  various  o f commun-  driver,  earned  v i l l a g e , not  The o n l y  o f t h e pagan of which  was  one  enterprises  as w e l l .  activities  purposes,  Inonda  o f t h e whole  the unwillingness  number  i n having  a government  income  i n 'modern'  by t h e C h r i s t i a n  families.  of v i r t u a l l y  i s only  pagan.  development  experience,  the l a y preacher  i n f l u e n c e was  become  club,  The l e a d e r ,  65% o f t h e t o t a l  being  only  i n control  organisation.  about  house  Inonda  established  e x c l u s i v e l y b y t h e same  also, u n u s u a l ,  ity  been  I visited,  o f the households  by t h e government  supported  leading  have  villages  four  a n d t h e women's  organised  club  at the time.  partly  families  o f a women's  on t h e limit  to  faction to h e was t h e  champion. Ecologically, alluvial 200-300 fall 42 per  plains  region  f t . above  and l o n g  people  Inonda  to the east  sea l e v e l ;  dry periods;  on a v i l l a g e  sq. mile).  i s characteristic  has a comparatively  o f 2850  The b e s t  Inonda  riverine  deposits,  textured  recent  regrowth  and l y i n g  beside  of the mountain.  i t s population  domain  of the  land  (less  with  and G i r u a  rain-  i s low: than  i s 580 a c . o f  covered  t h e Sambogo  low  density  acres  It lies  10  coarse  forest  or  rivers.  •'Honor i t a I  made  from  My  stay  several  return  Popondetta  houses  and  a  hamlets  Mount  Lamington  stayed  by  found.  edge run  the  By  of  the  in  to  of  358.  home  the  the the  before  reach  the  nuee  area  though  built  between  the  two  rows  coconut  and  betelnut  I  rectangles  would  the just  were  A  back a  a  hardly  section  short  to  and  they the  may  village at  were  been  founded  clans  were  the  They  later  this  conti-  had  195.  twelve  in  that  be  are  the  outer  still  able  searing  weeks  at  was  of  houses.  row  different  from  before  to  blast  Originally  a  been  back  built  arrival,  combined  to  feast  Inonda The  area  except  for  some  was  divided  The  front  and in  into and  different  the  half  both  The  than  care.  times  working the  village. my  bare,  village  anyone  the  same  The  I was  had  earlier  the  When  house of  houses  palms.  settled  feast  few  villages.  by  of  dominant.  meet  versa.  camp  much  b e a u t i f i e d with  were  3,000  before  not  clans  population  eruption,  was  part  dwelling  survived  clans  ardente  miles  who  about  so  41  13  Sangara  Sangara  (1957),  back  has  lies  them.  Hohorita,  two  village  though  three  about  the  month,  and  the  of  a  Hohorita  evacuation  remnants  for  Saiho,  The  from  devastation  from  of  strongest  homes,  This  road  eruption  far  the  away  the  disaster.  where  whose  could  are  together  Hohorita,  those  on  lasted  visits.  population  guous  reduced  in Hohorita  front  and  vice  in  the  front  feasts  had  been  entertain had  been  half  and held  neighbouring planned,  but  disagreement  had  the  village,  a  white  but  mission  teachers  who  contrast  with  school  and  were  even a  only  by  small  small  everyone  the  men  eruption coffee  than  teaching  a  result  Inonda. down  to  decisions was  -  member  of  for  years  one  was  a  of  growing  but  to  chapel  several  was  This  was  a  again  a  Papuan  removed  There  in  i t , with  services.  this  Christianised, Baptism.  that  had  was  a  from  a  woman's  supported  the  teachers crop  to  the  sharply  everyday  and  The  Government  coffee.  In  to  evacuated.  lucrative village.  As  from held  These  men  long-range  leading personality man  Council  Hohorita  Some men  the  prior  had  skills.  time,was a'well-educated  i t s chairman.  who  European  village.  Local  the  sense  of  while  - more  retired  the  number  in Hohorita  some  in  station  differed  men  together in  cash  pattern 20  A  mission  mission  them  some  Higaturu  been  and  mission.  lucrative  requiring  out  at  the  no  next  school  in a  become  many  required  probably,  a  through  educated  had  were  work  was  several miles  entirely  leadership  There  just  church  was  house,  gone  been  occupations  tended  was  became  the  which  of  There  minority.  and  When  mission  charge  club  had  had  a  i t .  station  f u r t h e r from  Hohorita  older  in  Inonda  with  that  mission  teacher,  club  a  prevented  worked  who  was  a  and  who  had  virtually in  the  every-  plantations  nearby. Ecologically, to  the  Mount  Lamington  Hohorita  may  foothills.  be  classified  Before  the  as  belonging  eruption,  the  concentration reaches higher the  of  of  the  population  tribal  there.  The  mountain,  was  domain  lower used  reoccupation  eruptions.  Hohorita  more  and  often  crops.  elevated  The  probably  top  range  135  per  the  Mount  sq.  mile.  Sivepe  stayed  I  24  1966  of  for  is a  been  in  until  June  miles  from  Popondetta,  time  of  year.  tion  of  some  (or This  to  direction  2,000  combines  road as  four Sivepe  Hembe) a n d side  by  deep  contours.  The  density  i s usual  the  about  nine  months,  Waddell.  this  distance  studies  Sivepe  lies  represents according  lies  on  a  side  serving  two  Kendata.  The  favourable loam,  time T  of  the  tributaries  main  volcanic  road,  valley  the  road  in  a  Sasembata ecological  of  to  Sivepe,  a  a  to  the  popula-  Sasembata the  Kumusi.  south-easterly -  Sohu  valley  conditions:  excellent drainage,  drove  the  from  intensive  and  the  on  indeed.  Landrover,  in  is  eruption  a  from  first  to  would  in  runs  most  rainfall  hours  rivers,  a l l the  rainfall,  but  prior  before,  subsistence  than  Previous  Rimoldi  living  as  for  villages.  Population  dense  1967.  Sohu  far  but  from  further  than  than  less  away  of  old  less  the  are  government  fear  the  little  little  very  Sivepe  than  loam;  higher  fertility  the  for  rather  the  territory,  But  year.  foothills,  have  the  land,  a  i n . per  there  two  of  is volcanic  made  of  and  down  coffee  been  drive  rainfall  this  lower  This  Lamington  on  portion  i s used  120-150  must  had  land  soil  population  September  is  i t i s used  as  entirely  for hunting.  discouraged  The  was  i t was  heavy  easy still  in  the on  dry season. a slightly  across ally  improved  i t , t h e sweet  i s strongly  atmosphere, on  which  Sivepe been  from  were  were  rows,  was  were  clans  to have  had been  and Inonda, established In other  layout  than  i n the other  horizontally  laid  shingles,  migrated Sivepe  such  the long  row, behind  respects,  however,  followed.  The  the  of which  site  t h e same houses  and had w a l l s  an i n n o v a t i o n  facing  supposedly  on t h e h i l l  villages  had  improvements  two  but a t h i r d  to  herbal  that  with  o f 137.  of  they  were  proud. Sivepe  station  impact.  and Seho, b u t  so t h a t  planned  shape  had been  roomier  rather  site  I t was  life-style  and a p o p u l a t i o n  though  a rectangular  planned.  of v i l l a g e  stay.  the  much: l e s s  (Garombi).  to the present  my  made  had r e c e n t l y  village  not yet established,  and a  right  incident-  pervading  are Jegase  clan  myself  built  (which,  vegetation,  houses  I found  villages  trees  had a p p a r e n t l y  the Sorovi  during  with  the Orokaiva)  dwelling  shifted  had been  standard  by  dominant  as i n H o h o r i t a  temporary,  tract,  of coffee  a neighbouring  started  village  that  h a s 24  from  recently  borders  aroma  the Europeans  families,  grass  the mainroad,  and l u x u r i o u s  two p o l i t i c a l l y  some  from  disliked  lush  Sivepe The  Turning  i s less  h a s no  chapel,  than  a quarter  The  school  conducted  the  Northern  District.  its  students  qualify  but the Anglican mile  on t h e s t a t i o n I t teaches  f o r admission  away  from  Mission the v i l l a g e .  i s one o f t h e b e s t up  to grade  to secondary  in  6 a n d many o f schools.  The  station  Papuan  also  assistant  serious  cases  used,  facility  but  a  Hohorita  were  Seho  clan  very  few  by  out  been  are  left  that  villages.  Money  ances  by  sent  respect  like  dense  i t  the  of  the  do  District, Tnoda.  about  not  form  coffee  outside  a  the  stand  i s rather two from  out more  other remitt-  village.  Sasembata-Sohu 180  several  who  the and  Today  political  between  of  the  1963.  residents  about  recently.  e r u p t i o n and  either  from  population -  was  like  very  e d u c a t i o n , but  the  Saiho  villages  until  lacks  working  most  at  a  more  Northern  only  i s shared  than  comes  For  with  frequently.  they  European  mainly  of  distant  Church  Sivepe  relatives  Sivepe, extremely  or  hospital  after  and  hospital,  i n charge.  Christianised  Leadership  wealth in  of  used  the  personalities.  field  while  until  join  faction.  superior  the  reach  baptisms  d i d not  homogeneous  an  of  small  government  however,  has  pagans  other  strong  no  large  a  officer  serving  people, Sivepe  or  medical  the  in practice  There  maintains  per  valley,  sq.  mile.  has  69.  FOOTNOTES B r o o k f i e l d u s e s t h e K l i n g e h i e l a n d M o n t g o m e r y (.1961) c l a s s ^ i f i c a t i o n o f l a n d w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s l a n d a r e a s by t h e d e g r e e o f l i m i t a t i o n t o l a n d u s e i m p o s e d by g e o g r a p h i c a l conditions. L i m i t a t i o n s may be due t o t e r r a i n , lithology, s o i l , or c l i m a t e , A l a r g e t e r r i t o r y s u r r o u n d i n g M.t, L a m i n g t o n f a l l s i n c l a s s e s I t o I I I ( w h i c h means i t i s s u i t a b l e f o r c u l t i v a t i o n wi