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An aspect of naturalism : plant and animal illustration in Italian manuscript art from the thirteenth… Zimon, Kathy Elizabeth 1970

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AN ASPECT OF NATURALISM: PLANT AND ANIMAL ILLUSTRATION IN ITALIAN MANUSCRIPT ART FROM THE THIRTEENTH TO THE EARLY FIFTEENTH CENTURIES by Kathy E. Zimon THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF FINE ARTS We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard: Faculty Advisor Head, Fine Arts THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1970 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f F I N E A R T S  T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e April 3 0 , 1970 ABSTRACT The subject of this study is the phenomenon of plant and animal illustration as an aspect of naturalism in Italian manuscript art from the mid thirteenth century to the early fifteenth century. •Naturalism' in the context of this.study is defined as the accurate representation of natural objects, within the given.limitations of period and style. In addition, the term is also applied to the phenomenon of the more frequent occurrence of natural objects like plants and animals in.manuscript art. Chief among the factors that gave rise-to this type of illustration were the demands of medieval,, science, in terms of practical works like herbals and hunting treatises. Secondly, the secular interests of the courts, in particular Frederick II's court.in the thirteenth century, and the courts,of the North Italian ..despots in the fourteenth and fifteenth, centuries encouraged the pastimes that generated a need for naturalistic illustration. Although Eraneiscanism has traditionally been credited with stimulating, naturalism in Italian art, there,-is-no solid evidence to suggest that the limited aspect of naturalism,-discussed here was directly.influenced by the movement. The accurate portrayal of both plants, and animals can be documented in a number of manuscripts dating from the thirteenth, fourteenth,' and early.fifteenth centuries. The concentration on accurate portrayal of isolated natural objects resulted in a more sophisticated and at the same time more naturalistic recording of facts about both plants and animals. Eventually, this close observation of nature contributed to certain rudimentary developments toward the mastery of landscape and pictorial space. These developments coincided with, or perhaps even encouraged, the acceptance of the International Gothic Style in Italy. This style incorporated some of the aspects of naturalism discussed, in this study, and introduced them into a part of the mainstream^ of Italian art in the "fifteenth century. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION . 1 I CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO NATURALISM 6 II ANIMALS AND PLANTS IN MANUSCRIPT ILLUSTRATION 20 III CONTRIBUTIONS OF THIS ASPECT OF NATURALISM 45 CONCLUSION 63 FOOTNOTES 68 BIBLIOGRAPHY 78 INTRODUCTION The subject of this study is the origin and development of plantaand animal illustration in Italian manuscript art as an aspect of naturalism from the thirteenth to the early fifteenth centuries. •Naturalism' is a popular term in art historical scholarship, but it is seldom defined with precision. In fact, the very free:use of the words 'naturalism1 and 'naturalistic' suggests that their meanings are sufficiently ambiguous and relative that they can be used with impunity to describe the most varied and contradictory phenomena, chronologically ranging from Paleolithic cave painting through Gothic sculpture to the Flemish primitives, and from Renaissance painting to the nineteenth century and Courbet. A precise explanation may be lacking because, •naturalism1 is considered self-explanatory, needing no definition.. Jet on reconsideration, only two facts appear to be obvious about the term: it can only be applied to representational art, and it always denotes an opposition to that which is abstract, geometric, idealized, or purely symbolic in form. Normally, naturalism implies an attempt to accurately represent nature, including man and his works, especially as to their 2 visible appearance and observable behaviour. In this sense, naturalism is sometimes identified with realism, while at other times, it is distinguished from it, favourably as being more objective about appearances, and unfavourably as being less sensitive to symbolic or poetic realism which can depart from superficial appearances, to express a deeper level of reality. Of course, the application of this meaning depends on one's conception of nature and reality as well as of the aim and value of the art of the period under discussion. During the Romanesque period, art tended toward symbolic abstraction and the distortion of natural appearances for the sake of spiritual expressiveness. During the Gothic period, however, there began a shift in emphasis from abstract and symbolic representation to a more accurate observation of the physical world. ...This change accelerated during the two centuries under discussion Jiere, and for the purpose of this study, •naturalism' will therefore.be considered to mean the.attempt to more accurately represent the visible, world within the ..given limitations of the period and style. , The term will also imply_..a.. strpng preoccupation with the rendering of factual observation of nature and natural objects for their own sake. During, the greater part of this period of change, the bulk of artistic, production was still in some way related to religion and the Church, and its object was the exposition of the Christian dogma. Th§ representation of man and his life on earth amid, his natural environment tended to be incidental to the main purpose of art. Gradually, however, the incidental subject of man's surroundings became more frequently represented and was depicted i n more d e t a i l and with keener observation than previ o u s l y . Therefore, i n the context of t h i s study the term ^Naturalism' w i l l denote not only the more accurate representation of the natural world, but also the phenomenon of the more frequent representation of natural obgects^and man's greater i n t e r e s t i n the world and i t s creatures about him. . While i t i s pos s i b l e to define what we today, understand to be naturalism, the problem remains whether such a concept was ever formulated during the two centuries i n question, and i f so, what was meant by i t . The sources to in v e s t i g a t e are few: Ghiberti's^Commentarii ( p o s s i b l y written toward the end of h i s l i f e , i.e.,,near 1455)» generally concerned with the naturalism of the human f i g u r e , appears too l a t e to c l a r i f y the concepts of an e a r l i e r period.,. S i m i l a r l y , A l b e r t i ' s D e l l a P i t t u r a , f i n i s h e d i n 1436, does, not f u r n i s h any clues to the ideas concerning nature or naturalism i n the 14th century, but already foreshadows the concerns of the quattrocento proper. The ..only a v a i l a b l e source, therefore, is~CenninO Cennini's I I L i b r o dell'-Arte^ w r i t t e n around 1390 or a l i t t l e l a t e r , which i s r e a l l y ,the e a r l i e s t t e c h n i c a l t r e a t i s e on painting, and i n i t one f i n d s traces of what may p o s s i b l y be inte r p r e t e d as a mention of naturalism. In a chapter e n t i t l e d "How more than from the master, you should draw continuously from nature", the following passage occurs: Remember that the most perfect guide that you can have and the best course is the triumphal gateway of drawing from nature; i t i s before a l l other example, and with a bold heart you may always trust to it.° One must remember that Cennini was a practising painter, and his book is a technical treatise intended to instruct in the practical art of painting, and not a statement of artistic theory. Specifically because i t has notliterary pretensions, Cennini's statement attests to the value that his age placed on studying nature. His advice to draw from nature i s not qualified by any references to^ideals of beauty or antique examples as in Ghiberti's and ^ AlbertiJs.twri tings. Cennini even prefers nature first-hand rather than through the eyes of a master* presumably because of the greater accuracy of the former method. Although he believed that the human body should be.drawn 7 according to certain measurements, i.e. i t should be nine heads t a l l , he believed that 'irrational animals' had to be drawn from nature 8 in order for- the artist to achieve a good style;. When one comes to a passage in chapter 86 that«advisespvon5the painting of trees, to "let the leaves shoot above (the branches) and then put the fruits, 9 and scatter a few flowers and birds on the green grassyM i t i s possible to draw a parallel between this description and the evidence of late Gothic.painting in northern Italy around the turn of the fifteenth .century. Considering examples of, say, Lombard manuscript illustration, i t i s possible to deduce that Cennini's •naturalism' refers to what I have earlier called ah attempt to more accurately represent natural appearances, and that a part of this attempt included the keener and closer observation of detail. Minor points, such as the advice on how to draw mountains "so that they appear natural" by copying large rough stones, also are indications that his type of artistic vision was content to let the minutiae of nature represent the features of the macrocosm. It would be dangerous to speculate further on Cennini's meaning, since it is too easy to read selectively between the lines and to arrive at an 'a priori' conclusion that supports our own understanding of the term 'naturalism'. The indications are there, however, and the, frequent mention of detail, as well as the numerous exhortations to observe 'nature', are clues that at the very least suggest that if the term 'naturalism' had existed at the time, its meaning may not have been too far from what we understand by it today. CHAPTER I CONTRIBUTING FACTORST.OIM.TURALISM During the two centuries under discussion here, the phenomenon of naturalistic plant and animal illustrations in manuscripts occurred with increasing frequency. While a number of factors can be isolated as causes for this phenomenon, the empirical science of the Middle Ages, and its requirements, has to be singled out as an important initial stimulus to the naturalistic representation of plants and animals. It is in what we would today call the biological sciences (biology, botany, and zoology) that the empirical method of the Middle Ages made its significant contribution to the cause of naturalism. Until the thirteenth century, the chief interest of western Christendom in plants had been for their medicinal properties, and.in animals for their symbolism in moral and 1 spiritual (teaching. The writings of St. Augustine, perhaps the most important influence in forming the mind of medieval man before the thirteenth century, looked on the natural world as a sacrament, an outward and visible sign of supernatural significance: the moon was the image of the Church reflecting the divine light; the wind was a symbol of the holy s p i r i t ; the sapphire bore a resemblance to divine contemplation. The preoccupation with symbols was reinforced.by the allegorical zoology of such texts as the Physiologus t a Greek work of Alexandrian origin written i n the second century A.D. i n which stories about animals were used to i l l u s t r a t e points of Christian doctrine. To name just, one example, the phoenix,,was, a symbol of the risen Christ because i t roseooutoof i t s own ashes. ,The Physiologus was translated into Latin i n the f i f t h century.and became the primary source of a l l i l l u s t r a t e d 2 bestiaries i n the western world. Scientific biology became established i n the thirteenth century, alongside this world of symbols. By the early, twelfth century, a, .writer lik e Adelard of Bath could consider authority as a restraint, and God an explanation of natural causes only when 3 a l l others^have been eliminated. The main source for this new, scientific,and r e a l i s t i c temper was the recovery of Greek and Arabic texts, such as the works of Aristotle, which had become available i n Latin translations (by way of Arabic and Hebrew,) by the beginning.of. the thirteenth century. Of, the, s c i e n t i f i c writings of the thirteenth.century, those of Albertus Magnus (1193? 1205-1280) on botany and zoology are outstanding examples. Besides containing accurate, descriptions of the anatomy:and habits of plants and animals, including insects and birds, they also attempt to answer general biological questions of ecology and reproduction, based on experience rather than authority. These writings probably did more than those of any other doctor of his day to introduce the natural sciences into the course of public and private studies.5 Albert's scientific spirit was not unique, but he was perhaps closer than any of his contemporaries to the modern view. For example, he ascribes the deluge to God's will, but believes that God acts through natural causes iriithescasel.ofo:.natu£al phenomena, and that these natural causes (divine instruments) could be investigated freely. His interest in specific things is also more keen: ."it is, not enough to know in terms of universale sbuttwe seek to know each object's own peculiar characteristics, for this is the best and perfect, kind of science."^ Albert, like all medieval writers of his period, draws on previous sources, especially on Aristotle, but he goes beyondtthem, especially in his work on animals. Where he discusses the general natures and common characteristics of animals he follows, Aristotle closely, but in those books where.he lists and describes particular animals, he makes numerous allusions to recent experience,and criticizes past authorities. Albert, himself felt that the desire to describe particular objects precisely was not in accord with traditional philosophic methods of ..presentation, but it was obviously a desire.that many of his contemporaries shared with him. At the beginning of his, sixth book on vegetables and plants, where he lists particular herbs and trees, he explains: "we satisfy the curiosity of our students rather 7 than philosophy, for philosophy cannot deal with particulars."' With Albert, personal observation and experience, the basic requirements 9 of scientific inquiry, are alone reliable concerning particular natures. . , The early thirteenth century writings of Thomas of Cantimpre also show a trace of this scientific spirit. In his De Natura Rerum, he includes his own observations alongside the more conventional book about fabulous beasts. Frederick the Second's own text on Falconry is a compendium of^ empirical knowledge, and does not hesitate to describe other treatises .on the subject as "lying and inadequate". The treatise is based on Aristotle (whom Frederick called a man of books) and various Moslem sources, but goes on to describe the anatomy and habits of birds, the rearing and feeding of falcons, the training of dogs for hunting with, them, the various types of falcons, as well, as the cranes, her,ons,. and other birds that were hunted. Frederick watched and questioned Saracen falconers, observed the nests of herons, cuckoos and vulturesand exploded the popular legend that barnacle g geese were, hatched from barnacles on trees. The circle of natural philosophers and, magicians who were kept at Frederick's court can also claim a.treatise on horse diseases.^  Other biological works of the period were also written to be useful. WaitercSf•WflenjLyxrorbfce on agriculture,... as did Peter of Crescenzi early in the, fourteenth 10 century, whose..,work remained a standard for three hundred years. Herbals, the main purpose of which was to describe medically, valuable plants in a way that they could be easily recognized, also belong to this category of useful scientific works. The thirteenth century 1 1 herbal of Rufinus is an outstanding example. Travellers to foreign lands also,contributed to the pool of knowledge about plants and animals. Albertus Magnus himself, who travelled long distances on 12 1 ? foot , gave an account of whaling and fishing in his De Animalibusx"'. The Icelandic Speculum Regale also describes whales, seals and walruses. , Famous travellers like Marco Polo also brought back descriptions of new creatures such as the wild asses of Siberia, of fat-tailed sheep, and of new plants such as rice and ginger.. .At least a few of the texts that resulted from this type of knowledge and investigation were generally illustrated, especially the herbals, and occasionally the practical treatises like.Frederick's, of falconry. However, because of the way in which books were reproduced for copying, the illustrations included in both botanical and zoological works were often stylized copies of earlier versions, which, in the case of herbals, often went back even to classical times. As early as the twelfth century, there are instances '.>!" of naturalistic attempts at illustrating manuscripts. . The Herbal . of Apuleius Barbarus^ written perhaps at Bury St. Edmunds about 1120, contains for example, a painting of a bramble, decoratively disposed in an S shape on the page, which appears to be drawn from 16 nature. A. late twelfth century manuscript has a drawing of an ants' nest,among wheat which shows an attempt at observing nature first-hand, in spite of the discrepancy in size between wheat stalk and insect, and the schematic character of the drawing. •From the thirteenth century on, drawings and paintings of living creatures increased both in quantity and accuracy, both as illustrations in scientific works and as decorations in the borders of various manuscripts that had no relation to the subject of the texts. Such, an isolated example as Villard de Honnecourt's sketch-book also contains drawings of animals and birds, although often posed in heraldic groupings.^ The famous lion "fut contrefais al 1 fi viff,' is rather, too confined by the artist's attempt to make its 19 parts conform,to geometry, while the rendering of two parrots on a perch is. .more, successful.^ . . . .For. the most part, the naturalistic illustration of animals made in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries were decorative,, in intention, and accompanied no text as scientific exposition..„ In many instances, the close and accurate observation of nature might...have been directly inspired by religious symbolism, but the symbols tended to be less specific, and the religious motive found expression in the contemplation of nature as a whole.. Vincent of Beauvais,.the, medieval encyclopedist, less a personal observer of nature, and.less, discriminatory in his scientific attitudes.than Albertus Magnus, said in the prologue to his Speculum .Maius: "I am moved with a spiritual sweetness towards the Creator and Ruler of this world, .because I behold the magnitude and beauty^ arid 21 permanence .of his creation." The beautiful naturalistic carvings of plants on the capitals of Gothic cathedrals (Notre Dame,-Sens, Laon, Rheims) where the forms are simplified but not distorted, and many of which Emile Male has been able to identify as the native flora and fauna of the Ile-de-France region, reflect the same spirit that is expressed by Vincent of Beauvais. As Mile says, ' 22 the Middle,, Ages "gazed at every blade of grass with reverence." Animals appear similarly without didactic :purposeo.on various parts of the cathedrals, and are carefully observed and given their bharacteristicf:movements.23 The cathedral of the Middle Ages was an epitome of the world; on and within i t the sculptors wished to represent ,everyvlivirig thing, both real and observed from nature, and those .that lived only in their imagination. .Another contributing factor to the phenomenon of naturalistic plant and ,animal illustration was the cultural milieu .of the courts, in particular in the southern realm of Frederick II Hohenstaufen, and later on attthe courts of the despots in the North Italian states. Basically these courts had a wide range of secular interests, especially scientific interests, that often centered on hunting and allied sports that generated curiosity and knowledge about animals. During the reign of Frederick, the court at Palermo was the leading cultural centre. In many ways, Frederick, could .be considered as the prototype of the later Renaissance despots who patronized the arts to enhance their own glory. Frederick,-however, was not merely a patron but a participant as well, and his inquiring and intransigent mind dominated the scholars who were attracted to his court. Chief among his interests were law, astrology, medicine, literature.and hunting, with the latter interest resulting in his oh, famous treatise on falconry. This treatise, still an excellent introduction to.falconry, proves that Frederick was a keen observer of nature,..and contributed toward dispelling some popular misconceptions about the habits, of birds. He also collected a zoo, andkkept exotic animals like lions, elephants, and even giraffes. He ..was insatiably curious, and experimented both with humans and animals, although these generally did.not result in significant discoveries. .The real contributions, aside from his own falconry treatise, were made by some of the,scholars he attracted to his court from as far afield as Moslem Africa and the Greek speaking east. Since he himself spoke many languages,.had friendly relations with the Sultan, and,tolerated both Jews and Moslems, the atmosphere at his court was particularly receptive ,to the enlightening influence of Arabic science. . This .variety of interests led of course to literary production._ Whether Frederick was as prolific a patron of the visual arts as of.vernacular poetry and science, has not been sufficiently documented, but .the -above mentioned falconry treatise.suggests that the commissioning of illustrated manuscripts may not have, been uncommon. , The northern Italy of circa 1400 shared some common characteristics with the nearly oriental splendour and variety of Frederick's court at Palermo. The two cultural spheres had,a greater affinity to each other than to the intervening Gothic period.^ The cosmopolitan court of the Visconti in Milan and the smaller feudal lords of the neighbouring regions had similar secular preoccupations, and were prolific art patrons. The Visconti can be taken as representative of the type of rulers who could afford to sponsor art. The dynasty was established early in the fourteenth century, when the condottiere Francesco Sforza usurped control. The height of Milanese power and territorial expansion under Gian Galeazzo Visconti (1385-1.402), who purchased the t i t l e of duke from Emperor Wenceslas in 13952^i and aspired by means of violence and treachery to control I t a l y 2 7 , was accompanied by considerable artistic production. Especially secular art was produced on an unprecedented scale, both in quantity and quality. No doubt the wealth:of Milan under the businesslike administration of the Visconti, particularly 29 of Gian Galeazzo, was an important factor. That the secular arts should be .emphasized at despotic courts, where the aggrandizement of the ruler was a necessary expense, comes as no surprise. Calculated magnificence, as an investment in power, included at this period (as even in the.fifteenth century) the maintenance of scholars, and poets, the collection,of libraries and the production, copying and. illustration..of books. Lombard miniaturists specialized in.the illustration of secular books, and this category of art. gradually established new aesthetic canons that opened the way for new artistic pursuits, such as specialization in the portrayal of animals. Medieval science, and the pseudo-scientific and secular interests of the courts and cultural centres both were contributing factors in the development of naturalism. In addition, earlier medieval art of course contains numerous examples of accurately observed, naturalistic detail, especially in the sculptured foliated capitals of the previously mentioned cathedrals. Arabic art, too, jmay have furnished examples in manuscript form, probably in herbals. or in other medical texts, that may have served as models for naturalistic illustrations of plants or animals, but it is difficult to ascertain just how many of these manuscripts were in fact available..., We know that Arabic texts began to be translated in the twelfth„and thirteenth centuries, but little attention has been paid ,tp whether these texts were illustrated, and if they were, whether they represented an important influence. Often the, only clue available ,is_a trace of oriental sjtiyle that occurs in. some, western manuscript, as in that of Cybo d'Hyeres, discussed in,the next chapter. ! f stylistic qualities could be transmitted, then, content as well, in.the,,form of realistic plant and animal studies.may also have been .transmitted, but whether the Arabic manuscript illustrations were in fact, more naturalistic than their contemporary western counterparts is.a debatable point, and only a thorough and exhaustive comparative examination could resolve it . Similarly, it would be very difficult to ascertain if any classical .or late classical illustrated manuscripts had served as models or.stimuli for.'more naturalistic plant or animal studies in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Here the only evidence is to be found in herbals, discussed in the next chapter. A few isolated examples like the Anicia Juliana Codex suggest, but cannot adequately ...prove, that other classical herbals might have influenced plant portrayal ...during the period in question. Although Pliny^ makes numerous references to the degree of naturalism attained in animal portrayal in classical times, at least in the media of bronze and marble,, ther,e is no evidence that enough examples survived to be emulated-,,.,, TheA capitoline wol-f f and the horse of the Marcus Aurelius monument are two examples that come to mind, but these are isolated, ;andrin the case of the Marcus Aurelius at least, the emulation ;did...not come until well into the fifteenth century. Moreover, lit would be dangerous to use the evidence of,, surviving statuary to. support naturalistic illustration in manuscripts, since the two media-make rather different, if not sometimes..incompatible, requirements of .the artist. • .Aside .from medieval science and the other factors discussed above, one.,other has to be assessed as a possible contribution to the aspect of naturalism under discussion, if only because it has traditionally been linked to the whole concept of naturalism and the birtheof Renaissance art. .Since 1864, when Hippolyte Taine^1 first tried to, explain the serenity of Rapahael's madonnas by the influence of Perugia and Assisi, St. Francis and his movement as a determining factor in Renaissance art seems to have fascinated art historians., Following Taine, both Ruskin and Hermann Hettner linked the influence of. St. Francis and the florescence of Italian painting. Hettner in, particular, stressed the influence of Franciscan, literature, on the fine arts and iconography.^2 : . .; 33 In, the 1880* s, Ernest Renan in an essay, ^ and ..Henry Thode in an extensive study,3^ enlarged upon the theme of Franciscanism as a foundation of Renaissance art. Basically, Thode1s thesis rested on two maintpoints: f i r s t , that Franciscan thought and teaching was the spiritual foundation and necessary complement to the expansion of the burgher classes and the rise of the towns, and second, that St. Francis, in changing the religious outlook of medieval man, helped to establish the new, world-affirming atmosphere that made 35 Renaissance art possible. Although Thode1s thesis is well known, and the influence of Franciscanism upon Italian civilization cannot be evaded, its specific influence upon the fine arts has not been satisfactorily demonstrated, either by Thode himself or by other scholars who have dealt with the subject. That St. Francis did have a novel and extraordinary love for nature and its creatures is beyond question, as his legends amply prove. But whether this attitude could actually have influenced specific artists, or inspired specific naturalistic works, would be almost impossible to prove. No scholar i n recent years has applied himself to demonstrating, by c i t i n g actuallexamples of works commissioned for Franciscan churches, that such a connection resulted i n more accurate representations of nature, or had induced the a r t i s t s to include more plants and animals of landscape elements than the subject c a l l e d f o r . I t 'is f a r easier to prove the Franciscan influence i n the realm of l i t e r a t u r e , especially inepoetry ? than i n the v i s u a l a r t s . The i n t e n s i t y of Franciscan piety created the form of the 'laude', characterized by deep r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g , mysticism, realism and s i m p l i c i t y , that could appeal to a l l men, the p l a i n men as well as 37 the educated.^' L a t i n gave way to the language of the people, and the f i r s t .hymn i n the 'lingua volgare' was St. Francis' own Cantico  d e l l o Frate Sole. The laude of Jacopone da Tbdi, s i m i l a r l y inspired and expressed i n the vernacular, followed .the Cantico.as the f i r s t great monuments of I t a l i a n l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s . a l s o easier to suggest a relationship,between Franciscanism and the new philosophy of Njominalism, than between Franciscanism and a r t . In the scholastic philosophy of the,Middle Ages, the vruling school of thought was Realism. Nominalism replaced realism when A r i s t o t l e had replaced Plato as the philosophical authority.. The Real i s t s had acknowledged the r e a l i t y , of the generic notions, while the Nominalists believed i n the r e a l i t y of the sp e c i f i c notions, a philosophy that was more receptive to the affirmation of the world. It was shortly after the appearance of St. Francis that the assimilation of Aristotelianism and Nominalism began.3® Franciscan!thinkers especially were instrumental in advocating Nominalism. Alexander of Hales, a Franciscan friar, introduced Aristotle as.an authority in the systematic exposition of Christian doctrine. Robert of Grosseteste, the founder of the Oxford Franciscan school, encouraged Roger Bacon, the English scholastic philosopher, to enter the Franciscan order. In particular, the Franciscan .order fostered Nominalist thought, and it was to, the Franciscan order that Nominalist philosophers were attracted. Franciscan thought, in embracing Nominalism, and in affirming the beauty of the world and the delight of corporeal vision, could perhaps be interpreted as having encouraged a philosophy that was receptive .to a naturalistic art. ,If any relationship can therefore be demonstrated,between Franciscanism and naturalism in art, then this relationship, appears to have been manifested indirectly through literature.and philosophy rather than by the direct inspirational effect on the visual imagination of either artists or patrons. CHAPTER II ANIMALS AND PLANTS IN MANUSCRIPT ILLUSTRATION In Italy, where Romanseque architecture and decoration persisted longer than in the northwest of Europe, the first traces of naturalism in the representation of plant and animal life appeared in manuscript illustration. Appropriately enough, the best and earliest example of accurately observed animal life occurs in a manuscript of southern origin, where the Arab and Moslem influences, so crucial to the revival of science in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, were always strong. The manuscript in question is a copy of the remarkable De Arte Venandi cum Avibus by •Frederick the Second. This manuscript (Palatino Latino 10?1), now in the Vatican in Rome, represents a rare instance where the quality and.significance of the visual material equals the originality and importance of the text illustrated. The manuscript, of parchment, has 111 folios, 360 x 250 mm., 1 and is inscribed in Italian Gothic, in two columns. - About two thirds of the total number of pages are illustrated, so that the marginal illustrations, nearly all in color, add up to approximately 900 representations of birds, animals, falconers, perches, and other 2 falconry equipment. The first folio is badly damaged, which makes it difficult to read the dedication but it has been deciphered as a 21 dedication to Manfred, the son of Frederick II.3 If the reading is correct, then the manuscript must date from after 1250 and possibly not later than 1265 or 1266^ when King Manfred died. This codex is already a revised edition, and it is still a matter of dispute whether the book originally had any illustration other than Frederick's portrait.^ In any case, by Manfred's time, at the latest, the pain-staking literary descriptions of the Emperor-author had been translated into visual language. Frederick's empirical approach to-nature bore fruit in the sphere of artistic representation and generated a kind of pictorial naturalism. It is not yet a fully naturalistic style, since the painter, is limited by a two-dimensional method of representation, and he resorts to nature observation almost exclusively, where his special,ornithological interest is involved.^ However, the illustrations are imbued with the spirit of an almost scientific .-nature observation that is not, to be found for another century. .The immediate problem in discussing this.document is the need for selectivity, since the illustrations are abundant., and, in spite of their.charm, often repetitive. One has the feeling.that the illustrator was carried away both by his passion for birds and his decorative.urge, as well as by the desire to repeatedly demonstrate his skill. Some general comments may be made before discussing individual pages-in detail. As has been mentioned above, the method of representation is two;dimensional—the birds are clearly outlined.against the un-specified background of the blank page (the exceptions will be discussed later) with the ground lines generally indicated, are drawn in p r o f i l e , and a r e b y f a r t h e b e s t o b s e r v e d . s u b j e c t s , showing a w i d e v a r i e t y o f t y p e s , w i t h p e r h a p s a p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f a q u a t i c b i r d s i n a d d i t i o n t o f a l c o n s . O t h e r a n i m a l l i f e , f i g u r e s , b u i l d i n g s , r o c k s , w a t e r , p l a n t s and v e g e t a t i o n a r e ; r e p r e s e n t e d l a r g e l y b y s c h e m a t i c f o r m u l a s t h a t a r e no d i f f e r e n t f r o m any o t h e r c o n t e m p o r a r y p a i n t i n g . F o r example, on t h e v e r s o o f f o l i o one, t h e two i l l u s t r a t i o n s ( t h e y c a n h a r d l y be c a l l e d p o r t r a i t s ) o f a k i n g , p r e s u m a b l y F r e d e r i c k , s e a t e d on a t h r o n e , d i c t a t i n g ( o r so i t seems f r o m t h e g e s t u r e o f t h e hands) and accompanied b y a f a l c o n on a l o w p e r c h , w h i l e two f a l c o n e r s w i t h b i r d s a r e k n e e l i n g b e f o r e him, appear more romanesque i n c h a r a c t e r t h a n , f o r example, a s i m i l a r s e a t e d 7 f i g u r e o f t h e young K i n g L o u i s I X i n a F r e n c h m a n u s c r i p t ' 8' o f some t h i r t y - o d d y e a r s e a r l i e r . -The o t h e r a n i m a l s b e s i d e s b i r d s t h a t o c c u r a r e n o t as w e l l o b s e r v e d , b u t a r e s t i l l s u p e r i o r t o most o f t h e human f i g u r e s and t h e a t t e m p t s a t l a n d s c a p e , o r r a t h e r , l a n d s c a p e e l e m e n t s l i k e l a k e s , r i v e r s and t r e e s . The i l l u s t r a t i o n i s t r u l y s u p e r i o r as an e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e t e x t , s i n c e equipment l i k e f a l c o n s ' hoods, s h e a r s * p e r c h e s and nooses a r e r e n d e r e d i n d e t a i l , i n o r d e r t o make t h e t r e a t i s e u s e f u l as a t e x t b o o k . I n one i n s t a n c e , t h e r e i s even a sequence o f t h r e e d r a w i n g s , showing a f a l c o n e r t y i n g a b i r d ' s l e a d t o a p e r c h . On c l o s e r o b s e r v a t i o n , what seems l i k e t h r e e i d e n t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t u r n s o u t t o be a "how t o do i t " d i a g r a m , w i t h t h e k n o t a p p e a r i n g i n v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f c o m p l e t i o n . ^ I t i s , however, i n t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c r e n d e r i n g o f -dozens o f v a r i e t i e s o f b i r d s t h a t t h i s m a n u s c r i p t p a r t i c u l a r l y e x c e l s . F a l c o n s , g e r f a l c o n s , v u l t u r e s , hawks, o w l s and horne d o w l s , s w a l l o w s , s t o r k s , p e l i c a n s , c r a n e s , d u c k s , geese, swans, peacocks,' and p h e a s a n t s a r e o n l y a few o f t h e b i r d s t h a t can be r e c o g n i z e d even b y a layman. The o r n i t h o l o g i s t u n d o u b t e d l y , c o u l d i d e n t i f y many more o f t h e l e s s e r b i r d s t h a t a r e a l s o i n c l u d e d . Throughout, t h e b i r d s a r e g i v e n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f f e a t h e r s , b i l l s , f e e t , c r e s t s and w i n g s , and even t h e r e n d e r i n g o f a p p r o p r i a t e movements i s sometimes s u c c e s s f u l . The s e r i e s o f f l y i n g d u c k s , geese, and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e s t o r k s on f o l i o 16 a r e a g r a c e f u l a t t e m p t a t t h e r e n d e r i n g o f an e l u s i v e movement. The r e n d e r i n g o f b i r d s w a l k i n g on l a n d , f o r example on f o l i o s k v e r s o and 22, i s l e s s a c c o m p l i s h e d , s i n c e t h e a r t i s t c o u l d n o t p l a c e t h e i r f e e t on t h e ground c o n v i n c i n g l y , o r e l s e w o u l d n o t i n o r d e r t o more c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e f e e t . He has p r o b l e m s e s p e c i a l l y when a t t e m p t i n g t o show a v u l t u r e s t a n d i n g on a s l o p e , as on f o l i o 22. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e b i r d s w h i c h one s u s p e c t s were more f a m i l i a r t o t h e a r t i s t and more a c c e s s i b l e f o r o b s e r v a t i o n w h i l e a l i v e a r e more n a t u r a l i s t i c . The s t a n c e o f t h e f a l c o n s i t t i n g on i t s p e r c h , r e p e a t e d i n n u m e r a b l e t i m e s ( e . g . f o l i o s 53-57), i s al w a y s w e l l done, even c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e c l o s e d f o r m o f t h e b i r d o f p r e y a t r e s t p r e s e n t s few r e a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . The u n m i s t a k a b l e emphasis t h r o u g h o u t i s on a c c u r a c y o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and t h e o b j e c t i s t o i d e n t i f y t h e b i r d s , i n q u e s t i o n . I n d e e d , on many pages t h e b i r d s a r e a c t u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d b y name, a l t h o u g h t h i s m i g h t be b y a l a t e r hand, and i s c l e a r l y u n n e c e s s a r y , ( e . g . f o l i o 42v, 39, 4l, e t c . ) W i t h t h i s p u r p o s e i n mind, t h e c o r r e c t s i z e o f v a r i o u s b i r d s i s s a c r i f i c e d i n f a v o u r o f ease o f r e c o g n i t i o n , a l o n g w i t h t h e s i z e o f b i r d s r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r o b j e c t s . F o l i o 15, f o r example, shows a f a l c o n r e s t i n g on a b o a t , ( l a r g e enough f o r a s i n g l e mast and two crew members), n e a r l y as l a r g e as t h e c r o s s b a r o f t h e mast. S i m i l a r l y , b i r d s i n t r e e s ( f o l i o 51) and b i r d s ' n e s t s on m o u n t a i n s ( f o l i o 49v),. as w e l l as p e o p l e and b u i l d i n g s ( f o l i o 6lv) a r e c o m p l e t e l y o u t o f p r o p o r t i o n . None o f t h i s i s o f c o u r s e o u t o f t h e o r d i n a r y — w h a t i s r a t h e r r e m a r k a b l e i s t h a t t h e a r t i s t was a b l e t o d e p a r t f r o m c o n v e n t i o n i n f a v o u r o f n a t u r a l i s m as much as he d i d . On o t h e r p o i n t s , t o o , t h e a r t i s t f o l l o w s m e d i e v a l p r a c t i c e . B i r d s o n a l a k e a r e shown i n p r o f i l e , b u t t h e l a k e i t s e l f , a s c h e m a t i z e d s e r i e s o f c o n c e n t r i c s c a l l o p s i s shown f r o m above, w h i l e t h e f l o w e r s g r o w i n g on t h e s h o r e s a r e a g a i n i n p r o f i l e , and even u p s i d e down a t t h e c l o s e r s h o r e , ( f o l i o 42v, 69). E l s e w h e r e , f l o w e r s a r e d i s p e r s e d d e c o r a t i v e l y t o f i l l a b l a n k space c r e a t e d between rows o f b i r d s ( f o l i o 4 5 v ) . O t h e r a n i m a l s , a goat ( f o l i o 35v), two greyhounds a t t a c k i n g a s t a g ( f o l i o 11), and a doe and a d e e r ( f o l i o 49) a r e a l s o e n c o u n t e r e d . Of t h e s e , t h e l a t t e r two a r e n a t u r a l i s t i c , e ven t o t h e p o i n t o f s u g g e s t i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t i m i d i t y o f t h e animals, though lacking in native grace, while the goat i s quite schematized into a calligraphic design and the lean hounds with their grasping fangs remind one most of a l l of lacertine ornament that i s S t i l l found on Romanesque architecture, of this period. Mention must also,be .made of the equestrian figures that appear toward the end of the codex (beginning,with folio 81). These are quite well observed, both in relative -proportion of horse and rider and in.the movement of thev.animals, although the horses* heads appear a .bit small. The riders actually appear to be sitting in thetsaddle, rather than standing astride the horses. Convention s t i l l ..persists in details .such; as the articulation of the muscles ..on.-the upper hind legs,..which are presented by a series of half circles. The naturalism of the animals in this ..treatise has a precedent >in the mosaic of the Creation of Birds..and Fishes in Monreale .Cathedral, dating from circa 1180-90-(although the mosaics.medium i s hardly conducive to naturalistic .representation), but there is.no descendant t i l l l the second half.of.„the fourteenth century -in North Italy, where the cultural.and political milieu of the despotic courts had certain similarities to the court of Frederick the Second more than a century earlier. J u s t how t h e i d e a o f a s s e m b l i n g a l m o s t s c i e n t i f i c a l l y a c c u r a t e n a t u r e s t u d i e s i n t o z o o l o g i c a l p i c t u r e books made i t s way f r o m t h e s o u t h t o t h e n o r t h i s u n c e r t a i n . , V e r y . - ; l i t t l e o f t h e r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l , s u c h as I t a l i a n b e s t i a r i e s , i s a c c e s s i b l e u n d e r p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s . B u t b y t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f Lombard a r t i s t s seem t o have s p e c i a l i z e d i n t h e p o r t r a y a l o f a n i m a l s . There i s e v i d e n c e o f t h i s i n t h e f r e q u e n t use o f a n i m a l m o t i f s i n m a n u s c r i p t f r a g m e n t s o f s k e t c h -b o o k s , w h i c h a r e i n v a r i a b l y o f Lombard o r i g i n . A t any r a t e , a g r e a t e r number o f Lombard d r a w i n g s o f t h e t r e c e n t o and e a r l y q u a t t r o c e n t o have s u r v i v e d t h a n t h o s e o f any o t h e r — s c h o o l . P e r h a p s t h e n a t u r e s t u d i e s , e s p e c i a l l y a n i m a l r p o r t r a i t s , were 12 an o b l i g a t o r y p a r t o f t h e a r t i s t s ' t r a i n i n g i n t h i s a r e a . P r o b a b l y t h e e a r l i e s t N o r t h I t a l i a n example o f such a n i m a l s t u d i e s i s t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y m a n u s c r i p t known as t h e C o c h a r e l l i T r e a t i s e on t h e V i r t u e s and V i c e s , now i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum i n London. I t c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e f r a g m e n t s , MSS A d d i t i o n a l 27695 and 28841,- c o n t a i n i n g f i f t e e n and seven l e a v e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , and MS E g e r t o n 3127 c o n s i s t i n g o f two l e a v e s . The pages o f p l a i n v e l l u m , about 6§ x 4 i n c h e s , a r e used on b o t h s i d e s . The i l l u s t r a t i o n s a r e e x e c u t e d i n c l e a r l i n e and t i n t e d w i t h c o l o u r and g o l d p a i n t . The o r i g i n a l book c o n t a i n e d two L a t i n t e x t s , - and t h e scheme o f d e c o r a t i o n was d i f f e r e n t i n e a c h . The f i r s t t e x t , . t o w h i c h b e l o n g MSS A d d i t i o n a l 27695 and E g e r t o n 3127, and t h e f i r s t l e a f o f A d d i t i o n a l 28841, i s a t r e a t i s e o n t h e v i c e s , . ' w r i t t e n i n p r o s e b y a member o f t h e C o c h a r e l l i f a m i l y o f Genoa f o r h i s c h i l d r e n . The t a l e s w i t h w h i c h he i l l u s t r a t e d t h e theme he a t t r i b u t e d t o h i s g r a n d f a t h e r , P e l e g r i n o C o c h a r e l l i . The same a u t h o r i t y i s c i t e d ' i n t h e second t e x t ( i n MS Add. 28841), .a h i s t o r y i n l o o s e r h y t h m i c a l v e r s e o f S i c i l y i n t h e t i m e o f t h e 13 Emperor F r e d e r i c k I I . The m a n u s c r i p t has been d a t e d t o t h e l a t e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t ury"-^ and may have been p r o d u c e d i n Genoa o r i t s n e i g h b o u r h o o d . A l m o s t n o t h i n g i s known o f t h e Cybo d'Hyeres t o whom t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n s a r e a t t r i b u t e d . I t i s even u n l i k e l y t h a t a l l t h e * k i l l u s t r a t i o n s a r e b y t h e same h a n d . 1 D P o s s i b l y , t h e monk o f Hyere s was a member o f t h e Cybo ( o r C i b o ) f a m i l y o f Genoa, who f l o u r i s h e d t o w a r d t h e end o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . 1 7 He may have been a monk o f S t . H o n o r a t i o u s , a m o n a s t e r y on t h e i s l a n d o f L e r i n o o f f t h e c o a s t o f P r o v e n c e , and seems a l s o t o have l i v e d on 18 one o f t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g i s l a n d s o f H y e r e s . The a r t i s t i c c o n n e c t i o n s o f t h e p a i n t e r , w h i c h would be o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t , a r e u n f o r t u n a t e l y t o t a l l y o b s c u r e . The more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a u t h o r i t i e s s u c h as P a c h t even h e s i t a t e t o c l a s s him w i t h . t h e Lombard s c h o o l , p r e f e r r i n g t o s e t t l e f o r t h e l e s s s p e c i f i c d e s i g n a t i o n o f ' n o r t h I t a l i a n ! . O n l y one i n f l u e n c e on t h e unknown p a i n t e r i s i n d i s p u t a b l e : he seems t o have been a c q u a i n t e d w i t h O r i e n t a l , p o s s i b l y A r a b i c o r P e r s i a n m a n u s c r i p t s f r o m w h i c h 1 9 he may.have c o p i e d . ' • Here we a r e c h i e f l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n t h e f r a g m e n t s A d d i t i o n a l 28841 and E g e r t o n 312?. The p r o s e t r e a t i s e c o n t a i n s a s e r i e s o f f u l l page p a i n t i n g s i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e t e x t , and most o f t h e t e x t pages a r e t h e m s e l v e s framed i n p u r e l y d e c o r a t i v e b o r d e r s . These b o r d e r s a r e i n s e t w i t h r o u n d e l s c o n t a i n i n g m i n i a t u r e scenes w i t h p a i n t i n g s o f i n s e c t s , b i r d s , mammals, and g r o t e s q u e s . I n t h e v e r s e t r e a t i s e t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n s a r e a l l i n t h e b o r d e r s , w h i c h a r e n o t c o n t a i n e d i n f o r m a l f r a m e s . M i n i a t u r e s t u d i e s o f a n i m a l l i f e a r e a l s o used as l i n e f i l l e r s w i t h a t r u l y o r i e n t a l sense o f ' h o r r o r v a c u i i , * i n b o t h t h e p r o s e and v e r s e t e x t s . I n t h e l a t t e r , s p r a y s w i t h l e a v e s and f r u i t , and sometimes g r a s s and w a t e r , 2 0 s t r a y between t h e l i n e s a c r o s s t h e whole w i d t h o f t h e column. T h i s m a n u s c r i p t so f a r s t a n d s c o m p l e t e l y i s o l a t e d as an example o f e a r l y I t a l i a n n a t u r e s t u d i e s . 2 ^ . The i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e v e r s e t r e a t i s e , where t h e a n i m a l s a r e n o t c o n t a i n e d i n f o r m a l b o r d e r s , a r e p e r h a p s t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r example o f m a r g i n a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s , w i t h t h e z o o l o g i c a l specimens f r e e l y d i s p o s e d o v e r t h e page and among t h e l i n e s o f t e x t , has been c i t e d as a f o r e r u n n e r o f t h e " s t r e w - p a t t e r n " b o r d e r s o f F l e m i s h 22 i l l u m i n a t i o n . ' The v a r i e t y o f z o o l o g i c a l specimens i s a s t o n i s h i n g . There a re pages w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f w i l d a n i m a l s , a l i o n f i g h t i n g w i t h a b e a r o r k i l l i n g a doe (Add. 28841 f ' . l ) o r e x o t i c b e a s t s such as e l e p h a n t s , camels and g i r a f f e s . (Add. 28841 f.3) The a n i m a l s a r e more r e m a r k a b l e f o r t h e i r wide, c h o i c e t h a n f o r t h e i r n a t u r a l i s m , a l t h o u g h even h e r e t h e a r t i s t has r e a l i z e d l i f e - i m p r e s s i o n s , a l t h o u g h g r e a t l y s i m p l i f i e d and s c h e m a t i z e d . 2 ^ The a r t i s t ' s knowledge o f e x o t i c b e a s t s need n o t have.come from t r a v e l t o t h e e a s t , s i n c e a l l o f t h e s e a n i m a l s c o u l d have been f o u n d i n t h e z o o l o g i c a l p a r k s t h a t were k e p t f o r t h e amusement o f t h e r u l e r s o f t h e d e s p o t i c s t a t e s . F r e d e r i c k t h e Second ( a g a i n we r e f e r back t o t h e s o u t h f o r p a r a l l e l s ) t r a v e l l e d w i t h an e x o t i c m e n a g e r i e , and a l r e a d y i n t h e l a t e f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e 24 V i s c o n t i k e p t a zoo i n t h e i r c a s t l e a t P a v i a . A more remote, p o s s i b i l i t y i s - t h a t . t h e a r t i s t c o p i e d "the f o r e i g n a n i m a l s f r o m O r i e n t a l m a n u s c r i p t s , p e r h a p s A r a b i c o r P e r s i a n b e s t i a r i e s . 2 ^ -F a r more i n t e r e s t i n g t h a n t h e ' b i g game' f o r t h e s t u d y o f t h e development o f n a t u r a l i s m a r e pages i n x^hich t h e a r t i s t has used t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e i n s e c t w o r l d and o f m a r i n e l i f e such as s h e l l s and c r u s t a c e a n s t o d e c o r a t e t h e m a r g i n s o f t h e t e x t . 2 ^ The c a t e r p i l l a r s , b e e s , moths, and b u t t e r f l i e s a r e r e c o g n i z a b l e and can even be i d e n t i f i e d as t o genus, and a r e a c c u r a t e enough t o i l l u s t r a t e an e n t o m o l o g i s t * s handbook T h i s t y p e o f a c c u r a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o u l d o n l y have been a c c o m p l i s h e d by a s p e c i a l i s t who s p e n t e n d l e s s t i m e o b s e r v i n g n a t u r e ' s m icrocosm a t f i r s t hand. The i n s e c t s a r e f a i r l y a c c u r a t e even as t o r e l a t i v e s c a l e - w i t h t h e s m a l l e r i n s e c t s b e i n g l i f e s i z e o r even s m a l l e r . 2 ^ The s c i e n t i f i c s p i r i t i n w h i c h t h e s e i l l u s t r a t i o n s were made i s f u r t h e r d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e a r t i s t ' s t e n d e n c y t o p u t t o g e t h e r on t h e same page a n i m a l s t h a t a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y a l o t t e d t o t h e same group: l a n d quadrupeds, m a r i n e i n v e r t e b r a t e s , i n s e c t s and a r a c h n i d s , w i t h t h e l a t t e r b e i n g t h e most p o p u l a r g r o u p . A l s o t h e s e m a r g i n a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e v e r s e t e x t a r e c a r e f u l , i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c s t u d i e s w i t h no d r a m a t i c o r e x p o s i t o r y c o n t e n t , as i n t h e m a r g i n s and m i n i a t u r e s o f t h e p r o s e t e x t , t h u s r e i n f o r c i n g t h e s c i e n t i f i c n a t u r e o f t h e a r t i s t ' s i n t e r e s t . I n most c a s e s , t h e i n s e c t s such as b u t t e r f l i e s a r e shown w i t h w i n g s s p r e a d o u t f l a t , as t h e y would appear i f t h e a r t i s t were s t u d y i n g them f r o m p i n n e d specimens i n h i s own c o l l e c t i o n . O t h e r t y p e s , such as t h e c a t e r p i l l a r , g r a s s h o p p e r , and d r a g o n f l y a r e shown i n p r o f i l e , w h i c h i s t h e more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e s e i n s e c t s . A s i m i l a r p r a c t i c e i s f o l l o w e d i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s h e l l s and c r u s t a c e a n s , where t h e d e s i r e t o use a shape a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e space a v a i l a b l e i s a l s o e v i d e n t , f o r example i n t h e l o b s t e r on f o l i o 5 i n A d d i t i o n a l MS 28841. T h a t t h e a r t i s t s h o u l d have been more s u c c e s s f u l w i t h t h e i n s e c t w o r l d t h a n w i t h t h e l a r g e r mammals i s s i m p l y e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t he was a m i n i a t u r i s t . O b v i o u s l y , t h e r e i s l e s s d i s t o r t i o n o r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n n e c e s s a r y i n d r a w i n g a bumble bee l i f e - s i z e t h a n i n r e d u c i n g a l i o n t o an i n c h l o n g d r a w i n g . B u t t h e r e i s a l s o a f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The m i c r o - w o r l d o f i n s e c t s ( a s w e l l as m a r i n e l i f e ) has t h e s t i l l - l i f e q u a l i t y t h a t makes c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n e a s y as w e l l as p o s s i b l e . O b j e c t s w h i c h can be b r o u g h t c l o s e t o t h e eye i n a p u r e l y p h y s i c a l s e nse, and w h i c h a t t h e same t i m e a r e u n a f f e c t e d by t h e s y m b o l i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e l a r g e r a n i m a l s t h a t were a l s o t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e b e s t i a r i e s , were more l i k e l y t o be o b s e r v e d w i t h un-p r e j u d i c e d c u r i o s i t y . The same a r t i s t was c o n t e n t t o f o l l o w 30 t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m u l a s where t h e human f i g u r e was c o n c e r n e d . I n g e n e r a l , t h e human f i g u r e was t h e l a s t o f n a t u r e ' s c r e a t u r e s 31 t o be f r e e d from t h e m e d i e v a l ban on a n a l y t i c o b s e r v a t i o n . ' The development o f d e s c r i p t i v e n a t u r a l i s m i n a n i m a l l i f e i s i n s t r u c t i v e , i f one examines t h e b i r d s t u d i e s t h a t p r e d o m i n a t e i n t h e p r o s e t e x t o f t h i s m a n u s c r i p t (Add. 2 ? 6 Q 5 and 28841 f . l ) . I n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f d e t a i l and s p e c i e s t h e y a r e n o t much more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t h a n F r e d e r i c k ' s t r e a t i s e , b u t i n t h e d e p i c t i o n o f movement and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p o s t u r e w h i l e a t r e s t , t h e y a r e f a r s u p e r i o r . The v a r i o u s - q u a i l , o w l s , and c o c k t h a t a r e f o u n d i n t h e m e d a l l i o n s o f f o l i o one a r e now c o r r e c t l y seen f r o m p r o f i l e , w i t h t h e f e e t s e e m i n g l y e a s i l y r e s t i n g oh t h e c u r v e d edges o f t h e r o u n d e l s , w h i l e t h e more d r a m a t i c scenes such as an e a g l e k i l l i n g a s t o r k a r e f i e r c e r and more c o n v i n c i n g t h a n s i m i l a r s cenes i n F r e d e r i c k ' s t r e a t i s e . B u t i t i s a hawking scene ( o n f o l i o 1 v e r s o , E g . J127), t h e f a v o u r i t e p a s t i m e o f t h e f e u d a l w o r l d , t h a t shows t h e d i s t a n c e t r a v e l l e d a l o n g t h e r o a d t o n a t u r a l i s m s i n c e t h e t i m e o f F r e d e r i c k . A g a i n we are c o n c e r n e d w i t h a f o l i o t h a t combines b o t h t e x t arid i l l u s t r a t i o n , b u t now t h e whole bottom h a l f o f t h e page has been used t o c r e a t e an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f l a n d s c a p e t h a t p r o v i d e d an excuse f o r "composing a s y n o p t i c a l t a b l e o f b i r d l i f e " t h a t " r e v e a l s a t r u l y p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge o f t h e h a b i t s o f b i r d s arid o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i r f l i g h t , matched b y a g r e a t s k i l l i n d e p i c t i n g b i r d s i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l shapes and t h e i r t y p i c a l movements."-^ 2 F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e wing movements o f v a r i o u s b i r d s a r e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , as w e l l as t h e p a t t e r n and d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r f l i g h t . Even t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c g r o u p i n g o f a number o f b i r d s o f t h e same s p e c i e s f l y i n g t o g e t h e r ' i s o b s e r v e d , w h i l e i n F r e d e r i c k ' s t r e a t i s e s u c h groups a r e more l i k e l y t o be f l y i n g one b y one, i n o r d e r l y r o w s . By 1400, t h e Lombard s c h o o l p r o d u c e d a n o t h e r s p e c i a l i s t i n a n i m a l s t u d i e s , G i o v a n n i n o de G r a s s i ( o r G i o v a n n i d e i G r a s s i ) , 33 who worked f o r t h e V i s c o n t i and was a l s o l i s t e d among t h e e n g i n e e r s w o r k i n g on M i l a n c a t h e d r a l . - ^ ' G i o v a n n i i s f i r s t m e n t i o n e d i n 1389,"and i n 1391 i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e c a t h e d r a l . Between 1392 and 1398 when he d i e d , he was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e v e r a l c o m m i s s i o n s : a g i l d e d r e l i e f f o r t h e c a t h e d r a l , a d e s i g n f o r windows,- t h e p a i n t i n g o f s a c r i s t y s c u l p t u r e , and t h e i l l u m i n a t i o n o f t h e t r a n s c r i p t o f B e r o l d o ' s T r e a t i s e on 3 .the Usage o f M i l a n C a t h e d r a l ( B i b l i o t e c a T r i v u l z i a n a Cod.'2262).-The o r g a n i c q u a l i t y o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n i n t h i s m a n u s c r i p t l e n d s s u p p o r t t o "the a t t r i b u t i o n t o G i o v a n n i o f a s k e t c h b o o k o r ' t a c u i n o ' a t Bergamo, w h i c h c o n t a i n s a number 36 o f i n t e r e s t i n g a n i m a l s t u d i e s . The Bergamo T a c u i n o (Bergamo B i b l i o t e c a Communale M S ^ V I I . 14) c o n s i s t s o f about s i x t y pages f i l l e d m o s t l y w i t h s t u d i e s o f a n i m a l s . ^ T h i s s e t o f d r a w i n g s can p e r h a p s be. c a l l e d t h e f i r s t r e a l z o o l o g i c a l p i c t u r e book, a l t h o u g h t h e r e are s t i l l a few m y t h o l o g i c a l c r e a t u r e s , such as t h e u n i c o r n , 38 t h a t a r e r e t a i n e d f r o m t h e m e d i e v a l b e s t i a r y . The n a t u r e -o f t h i s volume o f d r a w i n g s needs e x p l a n a t i o n , s i n c e up t o now we have been d e a l i n g w i t h m a n u s c r i p t s whose p r i m a r y p u r p o s e was t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f a t e x t , and t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o n t e n t o r were a d e c o r a t i v e a d j u n c t t o th e w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l . I n t h e Bergamo T a c u i n o we e n c o u n t e r an example o f t h e a r t i s t ' s s k e t c h b o o k s w h i c h become more f r e q u e n t i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . The a n i m a l d r a w i n g s i n t h i s m a n u s c r i p t a r e n o t s k e t c h e s i n t h e modern s e n s e , s i n c e t h e y are n o t r o u g h d r a f t s o f an e x p e r i m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r , b u t a r e f i n i s h e d d r a w i n g s t o w h i c h n o t h i n g need be added. ( V i l l a r d de H o n n e c o u r t ' s d r a w i n g s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r w o u l d more a c c u r a t e l y q u a l i f y as ' s k e t c h e s ' . ) A number o f t h e a n i m a l m o t i f s f r o m Bergamo have been r e c o g n i z e d i n c o n t e m p o r a r y m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n s w h i c h a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t o be b y 39 G r a s s i h i m s e l f . • T h a t i s , t h e d r a w i n g s i n Bergamo a r e f o u n d i n a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l f o r m i n m a n u s c r i p t p a i n t i n g s w h i c h a r e c e r t a i n l y c o n s i d e r e d f i n i s h e d w o r k s . T h a t t h e d r a w i n g s a r e n a t u r e s t u d i e s i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l e , s i n c e t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y and a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l has no p r e c e d e n t . W h i l e t h e C o c h a r e l l i t r e a t i s e r e l i e d on t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shape and movement o f t h e b i r d s f o r l i k e n e s s , t h e Bergamo d r a w i n g s i n c l u d e i n t e r i o r m o d e l l i n g and such f i n e d e t a i l as f e a t h e r m a r k i n g s and even convey a d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e t e x t u r e o f t h e f e a t h e r s o f v a r i o u s p a r t s o f a b i r d ' s anatomy ( e . g . t h e v u l t u r e on f o l i o 13 v e r s o ) . The l a c k o f s p o n t a n e i t y i n some o f t h e d r a w i n g s has 4 1 been c i t e d as p r o o f t h a t t h e y a r e n o t t r u e n a t u r e s t u d i e s , b u t p o s s i b l y workshop c o p i e s . A d m i t t e d l y , t h e a n i m a l s show l i t t l e movement, i n d e e d many a r e p o r t r a y e d i n an a b s o l u t e l y m o t i o n l e s s s t a t e , and appear i n many c a s e s as though t h e " e x h i b i t s o f a z o o l o g i c a l museum and n o t l i v i n g specimens had 42 been t h e a r t i s t ' s m o d e l s . " I n d e e d , a l l t h e c a r e f u l l y o b s e r v e d d e t a i l s o f plumage wou l d have been i m p o s s i b l e i f t h e a r t i s t had had a l i v i n g m o d e l . What must be remembered i s t h a t n a t u r a l i s m f i r s t t o o k t h e f o r m o f a c c u r a t e o b s e r v a t i o n o f f a c t s , and o n l y a f t e r t h i s had been m a s t e r e d d i d i t move on t o t h e more d i f f i c u l t aim o f s e i z i n g t h e d e f i n i t i v e a s p e c t o f t h e a n i m a l a l i v e . As P a c h t has p u t i t , " n a t u r e s t u d y i n 43 a r t d i d n o t s t a r t w i t h making s n a p s h o t s . " J P r e v i o u s l y ( E g . MS 3127 f o l i o 1 v e r s o , t h e hawking scene i n t h e C o c h a r e l l i m a n u s c r i p t ) , when t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c movement o f t h e a n i m a l o r b i r d was r e a l i z e d e v en w i t h r e l a t i v e s u c c e s s , t h e r e n d e r i n g s were a l w a y s %o m i n u t e t h a t t h e r e was no room f o r c o n t r a d i c t o r y d e t a i l . I n f a c t , a c c u r a t e l y o b s e r v e d d e t a i l i s n o t c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e r e n d e r i n g o f movement, w h i c h i s a l m o s t a l w a y s n e c e s s a r y t o convey t h e sense o f l i f e t h a t i s n a t u r a l i s m a t i t s u l t i m a t e . The c h r o n o l o g i c a l l i m i t s o f t h i s s t u d y do n o t p e r m i t t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s t y p e o f n a t u r a l i s m , w h i c h i s n o t a c h i e v e d b y any a r t i s t u n t i l L e o n a r d o , and b y v e r y few even a f t e r him. D i i r e r ' s n a t u r e s t u d i e s , f o r example, a l s o s u f f e r from t h i s ' n a t u r e m o r t e ' c h a r a c t e r . : B u t one need n o t go so f a r a f i e l d . F l e m i s h p a i n t i n g , and e s p e c i a l l y t h e work o f Van Eyck, has t h e q u a l i t y o f b e i n g p r e s e r v e d under g l a s s , a f r a g m e n t o f n a t u r e , f l o w e r , o r i n s e c t , • b e i n g c a p t u r e d i n a c r y s t a l p r i s m , w i t h a l l i t s l i v i n g d e t a i l and c o l o r i n t a c t y e t immovable and l i f e l e s s . O n l y i n t h e pen o f Leonardo does one g e t t h e d e t a i l c o m p a t i b l e w i t h m i n u t e o b s e r v a t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s t r u c t u r e , as w e l l as t h e i n n a t e v i t a l i t y o f t h e o r g a n i s m , and t h i s p e r h a p s i s conveyed l e s s b y movement t h a n b y t h e magic o f L e o n a r d o ' s l i n e . ' The development o f n a t u r a l i s m i n p l a n t s t u d i e s i s i n t i m a t e l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f h e r b a l s . S i n c e a n t i q u i t y , t h e s t u d y o f p l a n t s had been approached f r o m two s t a n d p o i n t s — t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t h e u t i l i t a r i a n . ^ From t h e f i r s t p o i n t o f v i e w , b o t a n y i s an i n t e g r a l b r a n c h o f n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y , w h i l e f r o m t h e second, i t i s a b y - p r o d u c t o f m e d i c i n e o r a g r i c u l t u r e . I t i s t h i s l a t t e r p r a c t i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t i s c h i e f l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f h e r b a l w h i c h a r e n o t t r a c t s on n a t u r a l s c i e n c e , b u t handbooks o f 46' a p p l i e d s c i e n c e o r manuals on m e d i c i n e . From t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h e h e r b a l was a k i n d o f d e s c r i p t i v e d r u g c a t a l o g u e t h a t l i s t e d t h e r e m e d i e s t o be e x t r a c t e d f r o m v e g e t a b l e s u b s t a n c e s . As a m a t t e r o f c o u r s e , t h e s e manuals had t o be i l l u s t r a t e d , s i n c e t h e y w o u l d be u s e l e s s t o t h e h e r b a l i s t o r d o c t o r u n l e s s t h e p l a n t s l i s t e d c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d , a d o u b t f u l p o s s i b i l i t y f r o m mere w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n . I n g e n e r a l , t h e ; m e d i e v a l h e r b a l s a r e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e a n t i q u e p r o t o t y p e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e system o f f o l k m e d i c i n e d e v e l o p e d i n G r e e c e . That h e r b a l s i n a n t i q u i t y r e a c h e d a h i g h d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y i n t h e p o r t r a y a l o f p l a n t s i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t s u r v i v i n g i l l u s t r a t e d h e r b a l , t h e D i o s c o r i d e s 47 Codex A n i c i a J u l i a n a e o f c i r c a 5 1 2 A.D., now i n V i e n n a . ' • The a n c e s t r y o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t e x t s h o u l d be o f i n t e r e s t h e r e , s i n c e i t ' s a n t i q u i t y amply i l l u s t r a t e s t h e ^ c o n t i n u i t y o f t r a d i t i o n i n t h e a r e a o f h e r b a l s t h a t goes u n b r o k e n f r o m t h e second c e n t u r y B.C. t o t h e s i x t e e n t h and even beyond. D i o s c o r i d e s , who was b o r n i n A s i a M i n o r p r o b a b l y i n t h e f i r s t c e n t u r y o f t h e C h r i s t i a n e r a , c o m p i l e d t h e .. w r i t i n g s o f an e a r l i e r p h y s i c i a n , C r a t e v a s , who s e r v e d t h e k i n g M i t h r i d a t e s i n t h e second c e n t u r y B.C. P l i n y n o t e d t h a t C r a t e v a s p r o d u c e d a h e r b a l w i t h c o l o r e d p i c t u r e s o f p l a n t s , and a l t h o u g h t h i s was l o s t , t h e c o m p i l a t i o n s o f D i o s c o r i d e s , t i t l e d De M a t e r i a M e d i c a . c u l l e d from a number o f w r i t e r s , who i n t u r n f o l l o w e d C r a t e v a s , i n c l u d e d t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f about f i v e hundred p l a n t s . No c o n t e m p o r a r y v e r s i o n o f t h e D i o s c o r i d e s e x i s t s . The e a r l i e s t v e r s i o n we have i s t h e V i e n n a Codex, made f o r A n i c i a J u l i a n a , t h e d a u g h t e r o f a sometime Emperor o f t h e W e s t . ^ The t e x t o f t h i s m a n u s c r i p t c o n s i s t s o f an a c c o u n t o f t h e names and h e a l i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f c e r t a i n h e r b s . D e s c r i p t i o n s are s c a n t y , and o n l y a few p l a n t s can be r e c o g n i z e d w i t h c e r t a i n t y . Y e t u n t i l t h e R e n a i s s a n c e p e r i o d , t h e t e x t o f De M a t e r i a M e d i c a was a c c e p t e d as a l m o s t i n f a l l i b l e The i l l u s t r a t i o n s , however, i n d i c a t e t h e d e g r e e o f p e r f e c t i o n a c h i e v e d , i n t h e r e n d e r i n g o f p l a n t s i n a n t i q u i t y . These a r e n o t o r i g i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , b u t were p r o b a b l y c o p i e d from e a r l i e r H e l l e n i s t i c m o d e l s . ^ E x a m i n i n g a few o f t h e f u l l page d r a w i n g s , such as f o l i o 315» ( p a i n t i n g s would p e r h a p s be more a p p r o p r i a t e , s i n c e a l l t h e p l a n t p o r t r a i t s a r e c o l o u r e d ) , one can see t h a t t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l b o t a n i c specimens i s h i g h l y n a t u r a l i s t i c . The p l a n t s a r e drawn w i t h c a r e and a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l and a r e d e f i n i t e l y r e c o g n i z a b l e . The o n l y t o u c h o f f o r m a l i s m i s p r o b a b l y due t o t h e d i d a c t i c p u r p o s e , w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y r e q u i r e d t h a t a p l a n t s h o u l d be shown u p r i g h t and i n t o t a l , i n c l u d i n g t h e r o o t s . A l t h o u g h t h e p l a n t i t s e l f i s l a i d o u t i n a r i g i d f o r m a t , t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e a v e s a r e drawn f r o m a n a t u r a l v i e w p o i n t i n s t e a d o f f l a t t e n e d o u t i n d i a g r a m m a t i c f a s h i o n . The n a t u r a l i s m o f t h e s e p l a n t s i s more r e m a r k a b l e i f one remembers t h a t t h e p o r t r a y a l o f i n d i v i d u a l human physiognomy was s h o r t l y t o be c o m p l e t e l y submerged b y b y z a n t i n e c o n v e n t i o n . D u r i n g t h e Dark Ages, t h e h e r b a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s , l i k e e v e r y t h i n g e l s e t h a t was handed down fro m a n t i q u i t y , underwent a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t h a t r e n d e r e d t h i s t y p e o f i l l u s t r a t e d manual p r a c t i c a l l y u s e l e s s . C o m p a r i s o n w i t h an i l l u s t r a t e d h e r b a l o f t h e l a t e e l e v e n t h o r e a r l y t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . ' i s s u f f i c i e n t t o show t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h n a t u r a l i s m had been t r a n s f o r m e d . A page from a L a t i n h e r b a l o f A p u l e i u s P l a t o , now i n t h e B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y a t Oxford-50, p u r p o r t i n g t o i l l u s t r a t e a sword l i l y , c ouch g r a s s and r o s e m a r y (one has t o t a k e t h e word o f t h e e d i t o r f o r t h i s ) d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e d i f f i c u l t y t h a t t h e m e d i e v a l h e r b a l i s t must have had i n t r y i n g t o use t h e m a n u s c r i p t as a s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . I n t h e p r o c e s s o f h a n d i n g down t h e p r o t o t y p e s from copy t o copy, t h e m e d i e v a l i l l u m i n a t o r , n o t b e i n g even an amateur h e r b a l i s t , . s o o n l o s t t h e meaning o f t h e o r i g i n a l f o r m s , so t h a t t h e p i c t u r e became t o t a l l y u n r e l i a b l e . - ' * The t w e l f t h c e n t u r y r e v i v a l o f s c i e n c e a l s o r e s u r r e c t e d t h e h e r b a l as a p r a c t i c a l manual. Such d e v e l o p -ments as t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e m e d i c a l s c h o o l a t S a l e r n o h e l p e d c r e a t e a need f o r new t e x t s . Soon t h e o l d and new knowledge about h e r b s was c o l l e c t e d i n t o an a l p h a b e t i c a l arrangement and became w i d e l y c i r c u l a t e d as t h e Compendium S a l e r n i t a n u m . A t f i r s t , t h e t e x t was p r o b a b l y n o t i l l u s t r a t e d , b u t b y t h e e a r l y f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h i s o m i s s i o n was r e c t i f i e d , and t h e Compendium S a l e r n i t a n u m became a p r o t o t y p e f o r a whole s e r i e s o f i l l u s t r a t e d h e r b a l s . F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e e x i s t s an e a r l y example o f t h i s L a t i n t e x t t h a t i s o f I t a l i a n o r i g i n and d a t e s from t h e e a r l y f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . On s t y l i s t i c g rounds, t h i s m a n u s c r i p t ( E g e r t o n ?47) has been g i v e n a s o u t h o r c e n t r a l I t a l i a n p r o v e n a n c e , and i t i s c o n s i d e r e d p o s s i b l e t h a t i t may even be a d i r e c t d e s c e n d a n t o f t h e o r i g i n a l p i c t o r i a l c y c l e t h a t 52-accompanied t h e t e x t . Compared t o t h e c r u d e s c h e m a t i z a t i o n o f t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , t h e E g e r t o n m a n u s c r i p t r e p r e s e n t s a g r e a t improvement i n t h e i l l u s t r a t o r ' s a b i l i t y t o r e c o r d h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s . The p l a n t s a r e s t i l l drawn i n e i t h e r f r o n t a l o r - p r o f i l e v i e w s , and a r r a n g e d e i t h e r d e c o r a t i v e l y ( f o l i o 104v) as t h e c o n v o l v o l u s , o r s y m m e t r i c a l l y and d i a g r a m m a t i c a l l y as t h e p i n e , b u t t h e y now c o n t a i n enough i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c d e t a i l t o r e n d e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p o s s i b l e . T h e i r f a i l u r e as p l a n t p o r t r a y a l s a r e n o t due t o l a c k o f d i s t i n c t i v e d e t a i l , b u t t o a woodenness and r i g i d i t y t h a t , d e n i e s t h e o r g a n i c q u a l i t i e s o f p l a n t l i f e . Such an i l l u s t r a t i o n as t h e p i n e i s c o r r e c t as t o d e t a i l , w i t h p i n e cones and n e e d l e s r e c o g n i z a b l y r e n d e r e d , b u t conveys a t o t a l l y e r r o n e o u s c o n c e p t o f t h e w h o l e , w h i c h r e s e m b l e s a p l a n t r a t h e r t h a n a t r e e . L i k e t h e A n i c i a J u l i a n a codex i l l u s t r a t i o n s , t h e s e p l a n t s a r e u s u a l l y d e p i c t e d n o t as "a g r o w i n g o r g a n i s m , b u t as a.specimen p l u c k e d o u t by t h e r o o t s and p r e p a r e d f o r o b s e r v a t i o n and s t u d y . The r e a s o n s f o r t h e more n a t u r a l i s t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p l a n t s a t t h i s t i m e a r e t h e same as f o r a n i m a l l i f e — t h e new c r i t i c a l and s e a r c h i n g s p i r i t o f t h e t i m e . The same c o m p u l s i o n f o r e m p i r i c a l knowledge t h a t was m a n i f e s t e d by s c h o l a r s l i k e A l b e r t u s Magnus and even F r e d e r i c k t h e Second must a l s o have i n s p i r e d t h e h e r b a l i l l u s t r a t o r s t o c o n s u l t n a t u r e , t o v e r i f y o r c o r r e c t t h e p i c t u r e s i n t h e t e x t s t o be c o p i e d . B u t i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y a l s o r e s o r t e d t o c o p y i n g f r o m o l d e r , l a t e c l a s s i c a l s o u r c e s , p e r h a p s l i k e t h e V i e n n a  Codex, w h i c h had f a r more n a t u r a l i s t i c i l l u s t r a t i o n s t h a n t h e more r e c e n t w o r k s . Such examples were s t i l l t o be f o u n d i n l i b r a r i e s i n s o u t h e r n I t a l y , f o r i n s t a n c e a t Monte C a s s i n o . ^ 3 P e r h a p s o r i e n t a l h e r b a l s were a l s o a v a i l a b l e i n t h e s o u t h f o r c o p y i n g , a l t h o u g h t h e one example o f an A r a b i c m a n u s c r i p t t h a t has been a v a i l a b l e h e r e f o r c o m p a r i s o n does n o t encourage t h e i d e a t h a t t h i s was a, s o u r c e f o r t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c i m p u l s e . An i l l u s t r a t e d page f r o m an A r a b i c t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e D i o s c o r i d e s , d a t e d f r o m t h e e a r l y f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y ^ - does n o t seem t o be as w e l l o b s e r v e d a s a comparable page o f t h e E g e r t o n MS o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same d a t e , and o f c o u r s e . i t s s t y l i s t i c p e c u l i a r i t i e s and o r n a m e n t a l q u a l i t i e s a r e o f an e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r . To f o l l o w t h e p r o g r e s s o f n a t u r a l i s m i n p l a n t s t u d i e s , one a g a i n has t o move fr o m s o u t h t o n o r t h , t h i s t i m e t o Padua and V e n i c e i n s t e a d o f Genoa and M i l a n as was t h e c a s e i n t h e f i e l d o f a n i m a l s t u d i e s . A h e r b a l i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum ( E g e r t o n MS 2020) has t h e d i s t i n c t i o n o f b e i n g t h e f i n e s t and most n a t u r a l i s t i c h e r b a l so f a r d i s c o v e r e d . T h i s h e r b a l i s an I t a l i a n t r a n s l a t i o n o f an A r a b i c t e x t ( S e r a p i o n t h e Younger) and was w r i t t e n and i l l u m i n a t e d f o r F r a n c e s c o C a r r a r a t h e Younger, l a s t l o r d o f Padua, as t h e f r o n t i s p i e c e w i t h h i s c o a t o f arms t e s t i f i e s . S i n c e F r a n c e s c o ' s r e i g n came t o an end i n 1403, t h e h e r b a l 55 must have been e x e c u t e d p r i o r t o t h a t d a t e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e Paduan a r t i s t whose work t h i s i s r e m a i n s anonymous, b u t h i s t a l e n t f o r t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l o f p l a n t s i s a t l e a s t on a.par w i t h G i o v a n n i de G r a s s i ' s s k i l l a t t h e p o r t r a y a l o f a n i m a l s . • I t i s n o t c e r t a i n t h a t t h e C a r r a r a h e r b a l was t h e f i r s t n a t u r a l i s t i c h e r b a l p r o d u c e d , b u t i n t h e a b s e n c e . o f e a r l i e r models one has t o g r a n t i t t h e honour. A t any r a t e , t h e anonymous Paduan a r t i s t b r o u g h t a n o v e l t r e a t m e n t t o t h e a n c i e n t p r a c t i c e o f h e r b a l i l l u s t r a t i o n : i n s t e a d o f showing t h e p l a n t s as e x h i b i t s p u l l e d up by r o o t s , he shows a l i v i n g p l a n t , o r more o f t e n , a p a r t o f a l i v i n g p l a n t such as a s p r a y o f f l o w e r s o r a bunch o f g r a p e s on a v i n e . T h i s s i g n i f i e s a f u n d a m e n t a l change i n t h e p u r p o s e o f h e r b a l i l l u s t r a t i o n f rom t h e f u n c t i o n a l t o t h e a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The d i d a c t i c and f u n c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f a l l p r e v i o u s h e r b a l s was e x p r e s s e d by showing t h e t o t a l p l a n t — i n c l u d i n g t h e r o o t s b e l o w t h e ground as w e l l as t h e upper g r o w t h , and o f t e n i n c l u d i n g t h e f r u i t a l o n g w i t h t h e f l o w e r . F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n h e r b a l i l l u s t r a t i o n , t h e C a r r a r a p a i n t i n g s q u a l i f y as works o f a r t and n o t m e r e l y as e x p o s i t o r y d i a g r a m s . The a r t i s t p r e f e r s t h e e m p i r i c a l t r u t h o f n a t u r e , a c a s u a l g l a n c e r a t h e r t h a n t h e a b s t r a c t i o n o f a complete p l a n t t h a t i s no l o n g e r a f l o u r i s h i n g organism.57 The p a i n t i n g o f t h e c o n v o l v o l u s no l o n g e r conforms t o t h e a b s t r a c t d e c o r a t i v e c u r v e s t h a t e a r l i e r i l l u s t r a t o r s f o u n d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a c l i m b i n g v i n e . The c u r v e s o f t h e stem a r e no l o n g e r r e g u l a r , b u t have, as i t were, an o r g a n i c l i f e o f t h e i r own t h a t d e t e r m i n e s t h e i r movement a c r o s s t h e page, even c o n v e y i n g a sense o f space and d e p t h . The n a t u r a l i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o f t h e p l a n t a r e l o v i n g l y d e t a i l e d — t h e f u l l - g r o w n l e a f and t h e immature t e n d r i l , t h e f l o w e r i n bloom and t h e unopened bud a r e a l l t h e r e , y e t w i t h o u t t h e d i d a c t i c s p i r i t o f t h e e a r l i e r h e r b a l s . Now i t i s t h e t e x t t h a t accommodates i t s e l f t o t h e space i n s t e a d o f t h e p l a n t f i l l i n g i n t h e m a r g i n s and gaps l e f t b y t h e t e x t . D e t a i l such as t h e i n d e n t a t i o n s and v e i n s o f t h e grape l e a f , and t h e i n t r i c a t e c o r k s c r e w g r o w t h o f a t e n d r i l a r e i n c l u d e d , y e t t h e t o t a l e f f e c t manages t o be i l l u s i o n i s t i c , l a r g e l y o n a c c o u n t o f t h e i n f o r m a l arrangement and c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e p l a n t s r e l a t i v e t o t h e page. The n o v e l t y o f t h e C a r r a r a h e r b a l i s o b v i o u s i f i t i s compared t o a n e a r l y c o n t e m p o r a r y m a n u s c r i p t , t h e Lombard H i s t o r i a P l a n t a r u m (Rome Casanatense MS 459 f o l i o 125)• Here t h e p l a n t i s shown i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l way, p u l l e d up b y t h e r o o t s and s p r e a d o u t t o form a s y m m e t r i c a l arrangement o f r e g u l a r - l o b e d l e a v e s and a p a i r o f f l o w e r s t a l k s c u r v i n g t o g e t h e r i n an a b s t r a c t h e r a l d i c p a t t e r n , w i t h t h e t o t a l e f f e c t b e i n g d e c o r a t i v e and f o r m a l r a t h e r t h a n n a t u r a l i s t i c . T h i s new c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e h e r b a l was s u c c e s s f u l enough t o be i m i t a t e d w i t h much e n t h u s i a s m . A h e r b a l c o m p i l e d i n 1419 i n V e n i c e b y B e n e d e t t o R i n i o , a d o c t o r o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y o f Padua, was i l l u s t r a t e d b y an o t h e r w i s e unknown p a i n t e r , A n d r e a A m a d i o . ^ A t f i r s t g l a n c e , t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n s seem e q u a l l y t o have, been o b s e r v e d f i r s t hand f r o m n a t u r e , b u t a d e t a i l e d c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e C a r r a r a h e r b a l r e v e a l s t h a t Amadio n o t o n l y d i d n o t do l i f e s t u d i e s , b u t a c t u a l l y made a l m o s t e x a c t c o p i e s o f a number o f t h e p l a n t s i n t h e o l d e r 59 m a n u s c r i p t . I n t h e p r o c e s s o f c o p y i n g , he a b s t r a c t e d and s i m p l i f i e d t h e l i t t l e i r r e g u l a r i t i e s f o u n d i n n a t u r e t h a t were f a i t h f u l l y t r a n s m i t t e d b y t h e anonymous a r t i s t o f t h e C a r r a r a , h e r b a l . W h i l e t h e a n g u l a r b r a n c h e s o f t h e grape i n t h e C a r r a r a h e r b a l a r e r e a l i s t i c , t h e same b r a n c h i n t h e R i n i o H e r b a l has had t h e a n g l e s removed and manages t o r e s e m b l e a p i e c e o f r u b b e r h o s e . S i m i l a r t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n f a v o u r of decorative abstraction (not always successful) are..visible in the paintings of the popular convulvulus. The achievements of the Italian trecento in descriptive naturalism> were, however, not exploited further by the majority of Italian,artists of the next century, with the,exception of the International School and Pisanello. The representation of the variety of plant and animal life, no matter how far advanced in naturalistic! portrayal, was of little interest and importance to the. Florentines, whose major artists dominated the. quattrocento and. whose ..interests were almost solely concerned, with*.the discovery of perspective and the development of the monumental style and its chief subject, the human figure. CHAPTER III  CONTRIBUTIONS OF THIS ASPECT OF NATURALISM The specific contributions of the naturalistic portrayal of plants and animals in Italian manuscript illustration, therefore falls outside the mainstream of Italian painting, and is concerned chiefly with the North Italian and the International Gothic styles. One aspect of this contribution was a development towards landscape, and in that context a development towards a more total treatment of;space rather than the depiction of single, isolated landscape elements. Another aspect was an improvement in the descriptive, gendering of natural objects, both in^ terms of their observation,and knowledge about them. . Man's interest in nature was first focused.on individual natural .objects. Eventually, these objects were v. increasingly pictured in their natural settings—in actual fact,... in rudimentary and halting attempts at landscape. The transition.from the observation and recording of individual natural objects to the perception of landscape as ,a whole can best be traced from nature studies of plants, through the herbals to the Secreta Salernitana and Tacuinum  Sanitatis type manuscripts, which first expanded, the.plant portraiture pf the simple herbal into 'genre within. a,~landscape * scenes. Related to this type of manuscript also are..*the early calendar illustrations which developed from the four seasons, and related i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the Tacuinum Sa n i t a t i s type manuscript into f u l l f l e d g e d landscapes f o r each of the twelve months of the year. The herbal i l l u s t r a t i o n s described i n the previous chapter are merely simple, diagrammatic and dida c t i c plant p o r t r a i t s , and are but seldom interrupted by the introduction of short scenes, usually related to the h i s t o r y and u t i l i t y of the plant in,a loose narrative form. Sometimes i n herbals of Arabic.origin, the plant i l l u s t r a t i o n s developed into•»*genre' scenes i f l f . h e r b a l i s t s gathering the plan]t or apothecaries preparing medicines. In these examples, the plants appeared as part.,of„a scene even where there was no accompanying story of discovery. . It,;was t h i s idea of i l l u s t r a t i n g the herbal ..with the plant shown i n a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c setting that wasca c r u c i a l step from herbal...to landscape. This step was taken most. successfully i n the ..Italian Tacuinum Sa n i t a t i s type manuscripts dating from c i r c a 1400...., These Tacuinum Sa n i t a t i s manuscripts really«represent a cross, between the alphabetically arranged herbal .compilations of the Secreta Salernitana type which sometimes contain figured scenes(relating to the plant being i l l u s t r a t e d , and the ordinary herbals of the Dioscorides type, which merely show the i s o l a t e d p l a n t f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p u r p o s e s . B a s i c a l l y , t h e Tacuinum  S a n i t a t i s m a n u s c r i p t s were p i c t u r e books i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e L a t i n t r a n s l a t i o n o f an A r a b i c t r e a t i s e on h y g i e n e b y A l b u l k a s e m , a C h r i s t i a n p h y s i c i a n o f Baghdad l i v i n g i n t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y . 2 B o t h P a c h t and B e r t i - T o e s c a have s i n g l e d o u t a H i s p a n o - P r o v e n g a l m a n u s c r i p t i n t h e B i b l i o t e c a N a z i o n a l e i n F l o r e n c e ( C o d . P a l . 586) as a t r a n s i t i o n a l h e r b a l o f t h e S e c r e t a S a l e r n i t a n a t y p e t h a t c o n t a i n s numerous p l a n t i l l u s t r a t i o n s e n r i c h e d b y a n e c d o t a l h o r t i c u l t u r a l s cenes i n c l u d i n g human f i g u r e s . The p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d Codex C a s a n a t e n s e 459, e n t i t l e d H i s t o r i a P l a n t a r u m , i s a l s o i n r e a l i t y a c l o s e a s s o c i a t e , i f n o t a f o r e r u n n e r , o f t h e Tacuinum S a n i t a t i s m a n u s c r i p t s . I n f a c t , i t i s a s o r t o f e n c y c l o p e d i a o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , d e a l i n g i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r w i t h p l a n t s , animals- and m i n e r a l s w i t h m e d i c i n a l p r o p e r t i e s , and t h e r e f o r e r e p r e s e n t s an a m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e S e c r e t a S a l e r n i t a n a t r e a t i s e s , w h i c h d e a l t o n l y w i t h p l a n t s . T h i s m a n u s c r i p t a p p a r e n t l y i n c o r p o r a t e s two n o v e l p i c t o r i a l i n v e n t i o n s — t h e c h a p t e r s d e a l i n g w i t h ' a n i m a l s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d b y d e s i g n s b a s e d on n a t u r e s t u d i e s , and second, t h e Tacuinum S a n i t a t i s i d e a o f p r e s e n t i n g t h e p l a n t o r a n i m a l as p a r t o f i t s n a t u r a l s e t t i n g i s a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d . T h i s t y p e o f i l l u s t r a t i o n , i . e . , t h e p l a n t i n i t s n a t u r a l s e t t i n g , d e v e l o p e d as a new d e p a r t u r e i n h e r b a l i l l u s t r a t i o n s , was e v e n t u a l l y r e i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e o l d e r , and a l p h a b e t i c a l l y a r r a n g e d v e r s i o n o f manuals o f h y g i e n e , t h e Tacuinum S a n i t a t i s , , w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y d e v e l o p e d i n t o a p o p u l a r and l u x u r i o u s m e d i c a l book f o r laymen. T h i s Tacuinum S a n i t a t i s group c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e m a n u s c r i p t s : P a r i s E.N. Nouv.Acq. l a t . l6?3; V i e n n a , N.B.-s e r . n o v , 2644; and Rome, C a s a n a t e n s e , MS r l 8 2 . The o l d e s t o f t h e s e i s t h e P a r i s Codex, w h i c h P a c h t b e l i e v e s was i l l u m i n a t e d b y Lombard a r t i s t s , c o n t e m p o r a r i e s o f G i o v a n n i n o de' G r a s s i , i n - c i r c a 1380-90. The V i e n n a m a n u s c r i p t was p a i n t e d f o r a member o f t h e C e r u t t i f a m i l y b e f o r e 1403, w h i l e t h e m a n u s c r i p t i n Rome a l s o d a t e s f r o m c i r c a 1400.^ I n t h e P a r i s Codex e v e r y p l a n t i s a l r e a d y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n a l a n d s c a p e s e t t i n g , b u t o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y , as i n t h e 4 m i n i a t u r e showing g r a i n b e i n g h a r v e s t e d and t i e d i n t o b u n d l e s , i s t h e p l a n t i n q u e s t i o n f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i t s s e t t i n g . However, i n a n o t h e r m i n i a t u r e 5, t h e p l a n t s t a n d s i s o l a t e d and o u t o f p r o p o r t i o n , a g a i n s t a b a c k d r o p o f u n r e l a t e d v e g e t a t i o n , h e r a l d i c a l l y f l a n k e d b y two f i g u r e s , d i d a c t i c a l l y p o i n t i n g t o t h e o b j e c t o f t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n . Such i l l u s t r a t i o n s were n o t e n t i r e l y n e w — i n Codex P a . 586, a h e r b a l c o m p i l a t i o n ( w r o n g l y i d e n t i f i e d b y E. B e r t i - T o e s c a as a Tacuinum S a n i t a t i s , a c c o r d i n g t o Pacht6) s i m i l a r s cenes o c c u r , b u t i n t h e P a r i s Codex, a new d i m e n s i o n — a n a r r o w s t r i p o f l a n d s c a p e and t h e i l l u s i o n o f space has been added. The most s u c c e s s f u l l a n d s c a p e s a r e t h o s e t h a t i l l u s t r a t e g r a i n s o r r i c e , p l a n t s t h a t a r e more commonly t h o u g h t o f i n t h e mass r a t h e r t h a n as i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s . F o r t h e a r t i s t t h e p r o b l e m o f composing a number o f p l a n t u n i t s does n o t e x i s t , and t h e r e f o r e t h e l a n d s c a p e i s n o t a c o n g l o m e r a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l o b j e c t s - b u t r a t h e r an i n t e g r a t e d whole i n w h i c h t h e human f i g u r e s , t h e p e a s a n t s l a b o u r i n g i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e , b e l o n g t o t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s . Because t h e scene as a t o t a l i t y i s s t u d i e d f r o m n a t u r e r a t h e r t h a n c o n s t r u c t e d , i t approaches a d e g r e e o f i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n t h a t i s uncommon even w i t h i n t h e same m a n u s c r i p t as w e l l as f o r t h e p e r i o d . The l a t e r V i e n n a Tacuinum ? a l r e a d y makes e x t e n s i v e use o f t h e more p r o g r e s s i v e t y p e o f l a n d s c a p e i l l u s t r a t i o n . The s c e n e s a r e more d i s t i n c t l y l i k e l a n d s c a p e s and genre s c e n e s , 7 t h e y a r e v i e w e d f r o m a g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e , and t h e i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s a r e l e s s p r o m i n e n t , n o t b e i n g i s o l a t e d a g a i n s t c o n t r a s t i n g v e g e t a t i o n . The p r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e p l a n t s r e l a t i v e t o t h e human f i g u r e s have become more r e a l i s t i c , and t h e f i g u r e s no l o n g e r p o i n t t o t h e p l a n t b e i n g i l l u s t r a t e d , b u t go about t h e i r d a i l y t a s k s , t e n d i n g t h e p l a n t s , g a t h e r i n g t h e f r u i t s i n t h e i r n a t u r a l m i l i e u , w h i c h , i n s t e a d o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t , has become t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t o f t h e m i n i a t u r e . The f i g u r e s , , t o o , a r e more a b s o r b e d i n t o t h e s e t t i n g , so t h a t t h e m i n i a t u r e s a r e b o t h l a n d s c a p e and genre scenes r o l l e d ' i n t o one. The most r e m a r k a b l e i n n o v a t i o n o f t h e Tacuinum i s , however, t h e f a c t t h a t i n a number o f t h e m i n i a t u r e s t h e s u b j e c t i s n o t a p l a n t , o r m i n e r a l , o r a n i m a l , n o r even a p a r t i c u l a r o c c u p a t i o n , b u t r a t h e r a s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n o f n a t u r e , l i k e t h e f o u r s e a s o n s , o r some phenomenon o f w e a t h e r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them l i k e a s t o r m o r a r a i n f a l l . T h i s i s c o m p l e t e l y new s u b j e c t m a t t e r — t h e s e t t i n g i t s e l f becomes t h e s u b j e c t , and what was p r e v i o u s l y t h e r a i s o n d ' e t r e o f t h e s e t t i n g , t h e human f i g u r e s p e r f o r m i n g some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l a b o u r o r p l a y , becomes a mere a c c e s s o r y . As P a c h t p o i n t s o u t , t h e p o r t r a y a l o f t h e f o u r seasons had, i n Ambrogio L o r e n z e t t i s f r e s c o e s , s t i l l b een a c h i e v e d by means o f a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e s . On t h e r e c t o o f f o l i o 57 o f t h e V i e n n a Tacuinum i s a m i n i a t u r e e n t i t l e d "Ventus o r i e n t a l i s " , a scene i n w h i c h t h e w e a t h e r can be s a i d t o be t h e p r i n c i p a l s u b j e c t m a t t e r . A woman i s shown h u r r y i n g t o w a r d a c a s t l e d o o r , c o v e r i n g h e r head w i t h h e r m a n t l e , a c h i l d h a n g i n g on t o h e r w i n d b l o w n s k i r t s . On t h e r i g h t , t h r e e t r e e s on an a b r u p t l y r i s i n g h i l l a r e b e n d i n g i n t h e s t o r m y w i n d . Above, a g a i n s t a p l a i n parchment b a c k g r o u n d , a c l o u d i s d e p o s i t i n g i t s b o u n t y upon t h e l a n d . I t i s a summer s t o r m w i t h w i n d and r a i n , t o my knowledge t h e f i r s t one i n p a i n t i n g , u n l e s s t h e e a r l i e r P a r i s Tacuinum a l s o c o n t a i n s such s c e n e s . On t h e v e r s o o f t h e same f o l i o 57, t h e r e i s s t i l l a n o t h e r u n u s u a l phenomenon d e p i c t e d i n a scene i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e "Ventus o c c i d e n t a l ! , s." Two h u n t e r s i n e a s t e r n d r e s s ( t h e o n l y m i n i a t u r e i n t h e m a n u s c r i p t t h a t shows t h i s p e c u l i a r i t y ) w i t h p o i n t e d c a p s , and e q u i p p e d w i t h bows and a r r o w s , a r e w a l k i n g a g a i n s t t h e w i n d , t h e i r l o n g h a i r and b e a r d s b i l l o w i n g o u t b e h i n d them. H i l l s frame t h e l a n d s c a p e on each s i d e , w h i l e above, beyond t h e p l a i n parchment b a c k g r o u n d , t h e r e i s p a i n t e d an odd, t r i a n g u l a r s t r i p o f b l u e s k y w i t h f l a m e l i k e s t r e a k s and a b r i g h t orange sun s e t t i n g b e h i n d t h e h i l l a t l e f t . I t i s t h e o n l y i n s t a n c e o f t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e sun i n t h e m a n u s c r i p t , p e r h a p s one o f t h e f i r s t s u c h i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n a l l m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n . E l s e w h e r e , t h e V i e n n a Tacuinum has c o u n t r y scenes o f f i s h i n g and h u n t i n g , o f f i e l d s o f g r a i n b e i n g r e a p e d , t h a t manage t o convey t h e v e r d a n t mood o f streams and l u s h v e g e t a t i o n , o r summer h e a t and somnolescence, t h a t a r e u n e x p e c t e d l y e v o c a t i v e f o r such s m a l l , d e t a i l e d i l l u s t r a t i o n s . T h i s m a n u s c r i p t t h e n i s a l m o s t a c o m p e t i t o r o f t h e later c a l e n d a r o f t h e T r e s R i c h e s Heures, and makes up i n abundance and s p o n t a n e i t y what i t l a c k s o f t h e L i m b o u r g s ' p e r f e c t i o n and r e f i n e m e n t . There i s even a m i n i a t u r e d e v o t e d t o t h a t phenomenon o f l i f e n e g l e c t e d b y m e d i e v a l a r t — s n o w — b u t i t s r e n d e r i n g as s m a l l w h i t e p a t c h e s on a d e c o r a t i v e , s t i l l b y z a n t i n e and most u n l i k e l y l o o k i n g h i l l i s so meagre t h a t i t c a n h a r d l y q u a l i f y as a snowscape. The Tacuinum S a n i t a t i s m a n u s c r i p t s g e n e r a l l y have i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e f o u r seasons o f t h e y e a r . These were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e ' l a b o u r s o f t h e months' t y p e o f s u b j e c t s t h a t were so p o p u l a r i n t h e m i d d l e ages t h a t t h e y were o f t e n c a r v e d i n q u a t r e f o i l s on t h e c a t h e d r a l p o r t a l s . I n t h e s e , and a l s o i n t h e I t a l i a n t r e c e n t o c a l e n d a r i l l u s t r a t i o n s , t h e emphasis was on t h e human a c t i v i t y and n o t i t s s e t t i n g . The n o v e l t y o f t h e Tacuinum s e a s o n s ' i l l u s t r a t i o n s i s t h a t t h e s e t t i n g becomes more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e human f i g u r e s and t h e i r work. S h o r t l y a f t e r t h e appearance o f t h e Tacuinum seasons l a n d s c a p e s , t h e f i r s t c o m prehensive c y c l e o f c a l e n d a r l a n d s c a p e s i n I t a l y was p a i n t e d , n o t i n a m a n u s c r i p t , b u t as a f r e s c o d e c o r a t i o n i n a t o w e r room o f t h e b i s h o p ' s r e s i d e n c e i n t h e T o r r e A q u i l a . T h i s s p l e n d i d f r e s c o c y c l e , on a monumental s c a l e , has been c a l l e d b y M o r a s s i t h e r i c h e s t and most c o m p l e t e o f m e d i e v a l " p i t t u r a c a v a l l e r e s c a " . ^ The a u t h o r o f t h i s c y c l e i s unknown, b u t i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was p a i n t e d between. 1390 and 1419, d u r i n g t h e b i s h o p r i c o f George o f L i e c h t e n s t e i n . However, t h e o u t e r l i m i t - o f t h e s e d a t e s , c a n be f u r t h e r r e d u c e d t o 1407, t h e y e a r when t h e b i s h o p had t o f l e e f r o m T r e n t o , b e c a u s e on one o f t h e f r e s c o e s a 'contemporary l e g e n d r e f e r s t o t h e e n t r y o f F r e d e r i c k o f A u s t r i a i n T r e n t o , p r o v i n g t h a t t h e f r e s c o e s must a l r e a d y have been t h e r e a t t h a t d a t e . ^ " The. a t t r i b u t i o n o f t h e f r e s c o e s i s n o t as e a s i l y , s o l v e d . They have been c o n s i d e r e d I t a l i a n , German, and even 41 F r e n c h , o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f a l l t h r e e by a number o f s c h o l a r s . -M o r a s s i . h i m s e l f has t r i e d t o a n a l y z e t h e i c o n o g r a p h i c and s t y l i s t i c p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f t h e f r e s c o e s , n o t i n g t h a t t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e , t h e v e g e t a t i o n , and even t h e m o n t h l y a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e p e a s a n t s i n t h e f i e l d , p o i n t t o a n o r t h e r n o r i g i n f o r t h e a r t i s t . M o r a s s i p o i n t s t o . s u c h c l u e s as t h e l a t e f l o w e r i n g o f t h e meadows, t h e l a t e r m a t u r i n g o f t h e g r a i n , and t h e f a c t t h a t most o f t h e f i g u r e s a r e b l o n d and d r e s s e d i n t h e n o r t h e r n s t y l e . The d e c o r a t i v e d e t a i l s such as t h e m e d a l l i o n s around t h e windows b e l o n g t o t h e Lombard-Veronese s t y l e o f t h e l a t e t r e c e n t o . S t e f a n o d a Z e v i o i s c o n s i d e r e d and t h e n r e j e c t e d as t h e a r t i s t , arid M o r a s s i h i m s e l f l e a n s t o w a r d W e i n g a r t n e r * s v i e w t h a t t h e a r t i s t who p a i n t e d t h e T o r r e A q u i l a c y c l e was t h e same a r t i s t who p r o d u c e d t h e f r e s c o e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e e p i p h a n y i n a c h u r c h o f B r e s s a n o n e , t h e f r e s c o e s i n a c h a p e l i n R i f f i a n o , and a l s o i n a c a m p a n i l e i n M e r a n o . ^ 2 M o s t r e c e n t l y , G. Inama has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e I d e n t i t y o f t h e a r t i s t I s m a s t e r W e n c e s l a s , p a i n t e r o f T r e n t o , who i s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e c o n f r a t e r n i t y o f San C r i s t o f o r o i n A r l b e r g , and who p r o b a b l y s e r v e d t h e b i s h o p George o f L i e c h t e n s t e i n , d u r i n g whose r e i g n t h e T o r r e A q u i l a was d e c o r a t e d w i t h f r e s c o e s . * ^ Whatever t h e a c t u a l i d e n t i t y o f t h e a r t i s t may be, s t y l i s t i c a l l y t h e f r e s c o e s c o n f i r m h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l g o t h i c p r e d i l e c t i o n s . I n c o n g r u o u s as i t may seem, t h i s monumental f r e s c o c y c l e i n e v e r y r e s p e c t f o l l o w s t h e c o n v e n t i o n s o f t h e c a l e n d a r c y c l e s i n F r e n c h books o f h o u r s , and i n c e r t a i n p a r t i c u l a r s i t has a c l o s e r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h e famous c a l e n d a r i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n t h e T r e s R i c h e s Heures by t h e Limbourg b r o t h e r s . A d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s cenes r e p r o d u c e d by M o r a s s i b e a r s t h i s o u t . To b e g i n w i t h , t h e g e n e r a l a s p e c t o f t h e s c e n e s , t h e i r w e a l t h o f d e t a i l t h a t amounts a l m o s t t o b u s y n e s s , s u g g e s t s t h e t r a i n i n g o f t h e m i n i a t u r i s t and i l l u m i n a t o r . The arrangement o f t h e f i g u r e s , w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l a c t o r s i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d , u s u a l l y t h e g e n t r y p u r s u i n g t h e i r p l e a s u r e s , and t h e s m a l l e r f i g u r e s o f t h e p e a s a n t s t o i l i n g a t a v a r i e t y o f t a s k s i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d , s u g g e s t s t h e a r t i s t ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h j u x t a p o s i n g t h e s o c i a l c l a s s e s , a c o n v e n t i o n t h a t was p o i n t e d o u t as a m a j o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t y l e b y P a n o f s k y . ^ The s i z e o f t h e b a c k g r o u n d f i g u r e s does n o t , however, d i m i n i s h t o t h e same e x t e n t a s , f o r example, i n t h e T r e s R i c h e s Heures, b u t h e r e t h e unknown a r t i s t may have been t r y i n g t o compensate f o r t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f v i e w i n g a l a r g e s c a l e f r e s c o whose 1 c upper p a r t s a r e some d i s t a n c e above e y e - l e v e l . I n many o f t h e months t h e f i g u r e s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d on a ' w i n d i n g p a t h s ' p a t t e r n , p o i n t i n g t o t h e e a r l y q u a t t r o c e n t o c o m p o s i t i o n s o f t h e A d o r a t i o n o f t h e M a g i , w i t h t h e c o l o r f u l r e t i n u e o f t h e k i n g s w i n d i n g i n z i g - z a g f a s h i o n i n t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d . Such a r e t h e scenes o f A p r i l , O c t o b e r and November, and even t h e c o m p o s i t i o n s f o r J u n e and J u l y g i v e t h i s i m p r e s s i o n a t f i r s t g l a n c e . The m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e between t h e T o r r e A q u i l a f r e s c o e s and t h e T r e s R i c h e s Heures o c c u r s i n c e r t a i n o f t h e l a n d s c a p e elements,'most n o t a b l y i n t h e h i l l s t h a t f i l l t h e upper p a r t o f t h e p i c t u r e . I n t h e T r e s R i c h e s Heures, t h e s e a r e n a t u r a l i s t i c , r o unded and g e n t l y r o l l i n g , w h i l e i n t h e T o r r e A q u i l a f r e s c o e s i6 t h e y a r e s t i l l s t e e p l y r a g g e d and b y z a n t i n e i n appearance.-' There i s , however, l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e T o r r e A q u i l a f r e s c o e s and t h e T r e s R i c h e s Heures as f a r as t h e r e l a t i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e t o t h e human f i g u r e s i s c o n c e r n e d , n o r i s t h i s t o be e x p e c t e d u n t i l w e l l , i n t o t h e f i f t e e n t h century.1'7 I n each c a s e , t h e f i g u r e s and t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e a r e n o t drawn t o t h e same s c a l e , w i t h t h e f i g u r e s b e i n g l a r g e i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e b u i l d i n g s . I n t h e case o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n , a c l o s e - u p o f t h e May scene i n t h e T o r r e A q u i l a r e v e a l s t h e . a r t i s t ' s r e l i a n c e on t h e d e c o r a t i v e , p a t t e r n o f G o t h i c t a p e s t r i e s ^ " . Such f l o w e r s t r e w n meadows a r e a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e Tacuinum S a n i t a t i s i l l u s t r a t i o n s , ( p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d f r o m t h e same s o u r c e ) , f o r example F i g u r e 179, p. 293 i n M o r a s s i , where an i l l u s t r a t i o n i s r e p r o d u c e d f r o m t h e C a s a n a t e n s e m a n u s c r i p t i n Rome, showing l a d i e s s i t t i n g i n a f i e l d p i c k i n g f l o w e r s . The r e l a t i o n t o t h e Tacuinum S a n i t a t i s t y p e i l l u s t r a t i o n s i s n o t a l t o g e t h e r s u r p r i s i n g , s i n c e George o f L i e c h t e n s t e i n , t h e p a t r o n o f t h e T o r r e A q u i l a a r t i s t , was t h e second owner o f t h e V i e n n a Tacuinum S a n i t a t i s . K o s t l i k e l y , t h e n , t h e a r t i s t (and one has t o suppose h i s Lombard o r i g i n o r t r a i n i n g ) had a c c e s s t o t h e b i s h o p ' s m a n u s c r i p t and used i t as a model f o r h i s c a l e n d a r c y c l e . T h i s V i e n n a m a n u s c r i p t i s o f Lombard o r i g i n , w h i c h c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h e n o r t h e r n , and even d e c i d e d l y I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t y l e , t e n d e n c i e s o f t h e T o r r e A q u i l a f r e s c o e s . The more o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two c a l e n d a r c y c l e s i s t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e T o r r e / o u i l a c y c l e t h e human a c t i v i t y assumes a more i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n each scene as a w h o l e . Y e t , i n s o f a r as t h e development o f l a n d s c a p e as a s u b j e c t f o r p a i n t i n g i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e T o r r e A q u i l a f r e s c o e s a r e t h e most advanced s i n c e t h e c o u n t r y s i d e o f Ambrogio L o r e n z e t t i i n t h e P a l a z z o P u b b l i c o i n S i e n a . The o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e d i v e r s e a s p e c t o f t h e l a n d s c a p e t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r i s r e m a r k a b l e , and i n one i n s t a n c e p e r h a p s even u n i q u e . I n t h e J a n u a r y i l l u s t r a t i o n , a group o f l o r d s and l a d i e s a r e d i s p o r t i n g t h e m s e l v e s o u t s i d e t h e c a s t l e g a t e s , w h i l e two p e a s a n t s accompanied by dogs a r e h u n t i n g r a b b i t s - - b u t r e m a r k a b l y enough, t h i s q u i t e s t a n d a r d scene t a k e s p l a c e i n a snowy- l a n d s c a p e and t h e l o r d s and l a d i e s a r e a c t u a l l y h a v i n g a s n o w b a l l f i g h t . I f one c a n a c c e p t t h e d a t i n g o f t h i s c y c l e as p r i o r t o 140?, then surely this is the first genuine snow landscape in painting, ..and the February miniature of the Tres Riches Heures has to relinquish its claim to this distinction.*9 "jo be sure, the fresco artist has not been as successful in the rendering, of.this natural phenomenon as the Limbourgs-—in the Torre Aquila, the snow covers the ground, but there a r e no traces of ,i.t,;ion the castle roof, or on the trees, most of which still appear,to have their foliage intact, although.the snow is deep enough for the peasants to sink in it above>the.ankles.^  It is worth..remarking, however, that the gentry appear not to be inconvenienced by the depth of the snow since their feet a r e in full*,view. A detail of the hunter with the rabbit^also confirms that the commoners are treated in a more naturalistic^way—he is bundledup, in a hood and mittens against the cold, .-while the ladies ..tossing snowballs are sporting unseasonal decolletage. i,. The contribution of manuscript illustration to the development,of landscape is easy to describe, but,it,is rather more difficult to assess its total impact on the*d.evelopment of the genre as ,a whole, since simultaneously with the advances in manuscript,, illustration, apparently unrelated developments (with the exception noted above) towards the mastery of-total space were also occurring in the media of panel and fresco paintings. ,, ,It twas Sienese taste that was always more favourably predisposed to the idea of landscape than the Florentine. Duccio's Maesta, completed between 1308 and 1311, includes several scenes with landscape s e t t i n g s , among them the Agony i n the Garden, that d i s p l a y s a remarkably poet i c s e n s i b i l i t y towards nature, as w e l l as a f e e l i n g f o r space. In contrast, Giotto's compositions were always, f a r more concerned with the human drama than with i t s s e t t i n g , o t h e l a t t e r being merely an adjunct t o the former. ,... Simone M a r t i n i ' s Guidoriccio (1328), although s p a t i a l l y p rimitive,- yet expresses a no l e s s e r l y r i c s e n s i t i v i t y towards the countryside, while somewhat l a t e r , Ambrogio L o r e n z e t t i ' s Good Government i n the Country frespo marks a milestone i n the s p a t i a l rendering of panoramic views. However, i t would be d i f f i c u l t to establish;.* r e l a t i o n s h i p between.Ambrogio's unique and seemingly unprecedentedaachievement and the,more>jgradual and l e s s spectacular progress..made by the manuscript..illustrators, since the concept of the panoramic landscape was not followed up. The s p i r i t u a l devastation following the Black.Death i n and a f t e r 1348 appeared to p r e c i p i t a t e a withdrawal.,from the world, manifested i n a r t by a-return to concerns of an abstract and transcendental q u a l i t y . 1,.. The more l i m i t e d medium of manuscript i l l u s t r a t i o n does not* seam to have been a f f e c t e d to the same extent, and when naturalistic-.concerns again reappeared i n pa i n t i n g at.*the turn of the f i f t e e n t h century i n North I t a l y , they occurred i n manuscript i l l u s t r a t i o n rather than i n panel pa i n t i n g or f r e s c o . At the same time that a more total treatment of space developed from the interest in rendering individual natural objects, the accuracy of both observation and rendering improved considerably. The improvement appeared not only in the recording of what was observed, but also in the increase of knowledge about,the plants and animals that were subject to observation. The improvement becomes evident if one .compares the earliest example of naturalistic plant portrayal discussed here, i.e., the illustrations in De Arte Venandi, with~.the .drawings of Giovanni:de Grassi and Pisanello. That progress should have been made in the degree of naturalism achieved is not of,,course surprising,,;,since the art of painting and drawing ..developed over the course, of approximately one hundred and fifty,,years. It is remarkable, however, that the nature of the interest that prompted observation in the time of ,Frederick II was still .the ,<same in the time, of.de Grassi and Pisanello. That is, the primary object of the (.artist was still the accuracy of representation in itself. Stylistic, features are of course another consideration, but in essence-the anonymous illustrator of the falconry.treatise was concerned..,with the transmission of knowledge about the subjects of his,art, ~.as were de Grassi and Pisanello. This-is^especially true i f ..one,considers for comparison the finished manuscript illustration ,of the earlier period, and only the drawings in the sketchbooks of the artists of the early quattrocento. Although in many cases these sketchbooks contain what we would consider to be finished studies, they differ from the earlier manuscript in that they were not intended to be used as drawings, but were made for later use as models for paintings. JThus they too are.concerned with the transmission of accurate visual data. \. Taking first for comparison a greyhound from folio 12 recto of the ;falconry treatise, and one from the sketchbook of 21 Giovanni de Grassi, it is obvious that in the case of this animal both artists..iConsidered the profile view to be the..mosjt characteristic. Indeed, throughout the manuscript, the animals are.generally shown in profile, .with a few exceptions in the case of - birds, where occasionally^a profile body will have a head turned frontally. The differences in treatment occur chiefly in the interior modelling.- In De Arte Venandi, the hounds have a profile silhouette, with only one or two lines near the belly within the outline to suggest,three dimensionality, and a few spots across the back to give,an.idea of the texture of the coat. In de Grssi's drawing, the muscles of neck and shoulders are modelled, as ,well as the sinews, of the legs, and even the claws on the ..paws, have been observed. Also the body how has more substance, not only because of the modelling, but also because the form itself is less attenuated and conforms less to a preconceived idea of the animal. No doubt the thirteenth century illustrator was accurate enough to describe the animal sufficiently for identification, but the stylistic means available to him limited the amount and kind of information that he could convey. If one compares the falcons in the manuscript with a falcon drawn by Pisanello," similar conclusions can be drawn. The manuscript falcon, on folio 1 verso, is shown from the back, resting on the falconer's hand. However, the artist apparently .did not feel that a rear view was sufficiently informative,.,since the falcon's head is shown in. profile to redress the inadequacy of the rear view. Pisanello's hooded falcon, on the other hand, is.shown completely from the back, as-it perches on a gloved.,hand, and yet no information is lost from,-the lack of a profile-of the head. The manuscript illustrator, had shown a compact. silhouette—Pisanello's is compact also,.,but it allows for greater* detail, such as the hunching of the wings,at the shoulders, and the ..overlapping of one wingtip over the other to break the smooth .outline. The earlier artist had drawn in. the*scalloped pattern formed by the feathers, but Pisanello has.,gone even further, and has, indicated by fine hatching the textures as well as the pattern.,.of _the fea;thers. Even the fine and coarse .feathers are differentiated by a difference in the firmness ofrthe~hatched lines, i, It ..could of course be argued in both the..examples cited above that the difference in scale accounts for the .difference in the amount.,of detail shown. However, the very fact .that in the thirteenth.cantury it was only in miniatures that.this type of illustration,(Was found indicates that the amount, of .information conveyed in this form was considered sufficient. By the early fifteenth century, however, demands on the artist for greater versimilitude to nature apparently were far more stringent, and the artists* technical ability had developed to satisfy this demand of taste. CONCLUSION The naturalistic description of plants and animals that has here been examined was never, during the two centuries under study, a major concern of Italian art, but it represented an important minor interest that eventually surfaced in the first half of.the..fifteenth century, during the heyday of the Inter-national Gothic Style. , -This style, first so named by Louis Courajod, came late under scrutiny, and it was only in the latter part.of the nineteenth century that; its florescence began to be studied for its own sake rather;.than as a foil for the antithetic developments of the 1 Renaissance.. .This International Gothic Style, so-called., not because it was widespread, but because it incorporated diverse. national tendencies, was formulated in France, Paris, and'Burgundy about the year 1400. In Italy, it flourished in the first half of the fifteenth century and was still practised by artists like Benozzo Gozzoli as late as the 1450's, but it was always localized, being largely native to the North of Italy, and no really major painter, with the exception of Pisanello, is associated with it. The style developed from a fusion of three national tendencie.s: .the Gallic as represented by the French,, the Latin as represented by the Italians, and the Anglo-Germanic as represented by the Flemings. It then spread throughout Europe—to Germany, Austria, Spain, England, Flanders, and even back to,.Italy by way 2 of multilateral repatriation. The style as a whole incorporates a number of contradictory characteristics: manneristic tendencies were manifested by an emphasis on ..calligraphic lines, an excessive refinement' of proportions a love of .variegated color including gold and silver,.and a preoccupation with pattern; and a detailed naturalistic tendency is also.evident in the realistic portraits, recognizable landscapes, retinues with accurately observed animals, and the.rendering of seldom recorded phenomena like night scenes and snowscapes. This latter aspect, the naturalistic one,; has been attributed ,by Panofsky to the Flemish part of the, trio of nationalitie contributing^ to the style. Nevertheless, the possibility exists that the,naturalistic vein in Lombard manuscript-illustrations of the Tacuinum. Sanitatis type were a contributing influence in the formulation.of this aspect of the style. While direct proof of this is not,wdemonstrable, it is possible to prove that ..the ^ Franco-Flemish masterpiece.of the International Gothic Style, the.calendar of the Tres RicheS;,Heures of the Due de Berry (1416), contains naturalistic elements.for. which precedents can be found in Italian^ and specifically! Lombard, manuscript illustration. Eor^ example, the labours,of„the months in the calendar illustrations,are no longer given the. greatest emphasis, since the landscapes.„arewlgiven equal, if not,greater, importance. As the previous chapter.has shown, this development was already documented in the Lombard calendar miniatures of the preceding decade. Another of the Limbourgs' apparent innovations is that the calendar landscape takes up the whole page— again, the Lombard Tacuinum Sanitatis scenes discussed earlier were conceived as full page miniatures incorporating landscapes. Even the seasonal, modifications of thelandscape in the ..Tres Riches Heures are nothing new, since in the Vienna Tacuinum one.,can see some rudimentary,.attempts at picturing snow, and some, more,jsuccessful attempts at describing storms, sunsets, and other.phenomena of weather. Even a specific example of borrowing is. not ..lacking, since .the, boar hunt of the December miniature of ...the ..calendar must have, been taken from the sketchbook of the North Italian miniaturist and manuscript illustrator Giovanni de„~Grassi, who in turn probably copied this scene from a Roman hunting .sarcophagus.^ " External evidence also suggests that Lombard manuscripts may have, been available to the Limbourgs, since the,inventories of the..,Duc de Berry list items called 'ouvrages de Lombardie' which are generally understood to refer to manuscripts&of Lombard origin in the, dukeIs library. ..While Lombard naturalism appears to have,,contributed to. a Franco-Flemish product in the International-Gothic Style, in North Italy,'the Lombard school of manuscript illustrators, with their specializing! in naturalistic plant and animal portrayals, seem to have been among the chief practitioners of the International Gothic Style,, or. were the teachers of those who practised,in,„ the style. At this point, however, the connection between Lombard naturalism and the International Gothic Style as it was manifested in Italy becomes rather tenuous, since it is impossible to„establish which takes precedence—the Lombards' influence on the. International Gothic Style, or the influence of this style on existing predilections among the Lombard painters and manuscript illustrators'. The coincidence, however, cannot be ignored. Furthermore, the fact .that Pisanello, the major figure in the Italian Inter-national ..Gothic Style, was the chief instrument for improving on the naturalistic animal studies of the earlier Lombard artists is indisputable'. His drawings of animals, for example the one discussed above,,* reach a peak of accurate description that was*not surpassed until Leonardo. These very tendencies toward minute~and accurate detail .suggest that Pisanisllo owed his training to ..manuscript illustrators, possibly in Verona. Pisanello's peculiar genius lay in capturing the essence of the^ animals he observed, their characteristic.pose »and peculiar texture,_,,whether that happened to be fur, feathers, ,or> reptilian scale.: .Certain of his early drawings show the influence of Giovanni de Grassi,. and in such drawings as the Leopard and Columns^  the decorative ...•tendencies of the International Gothic, style are quite evident. .However, his later work, like the unfinished Study of a Dog's Head,^ , goes beyond decorative pattern and mere-objective observation of externals and seizes the animal's distinguishing traits of.intelligence and submission. The watercolour studies of birds, including, the falcon previously discussed, are observed first of all with, an objectivity and thoroughness that belongs to the scientist. This. extreme concern for detail in the studies of birds7 results in a static quality. In at least a few other drawings, for example the Studies Q of Lynxes, a. Wolf and Wildcat, he mar): o to seize the expressive features of,.the animals as well. , Yet i f Pisanello*s drawings are impartially.gudged, it.^  is clear that frequently life and movement eluded, his^ -pen. He is superbe and.unsurpassed in rendering detail accurately and minutely, in the.,.craftsmanship of line and its exploitation-for. decorative effect, in the seizure of an attitude—but like the., subjects of the earlier^naturalists, his too retain the qualities.of still-life. It is these^qualities that eventually C h a r a c t e r i z e ..the animals in a painting, like the Vision of St.Eustace, the same-,qualities that denote,both.the International Gothic Style and the.link with the naturalistic^ manuscript illustrators of the past* Thus the ultimate contribution of'the .naturalistic portrayal, of, plants and animals in Italian manuseript-«illustration was the introduction of a highly developed, and .curious examination of the.,,natural world into a part of the mainstream ..of Italian painting, thereby making a small, but not insignificant mark upon the character of quattrocento Italian art as a whole. FOOTNOTES INTRODUCTION 1 -Thomas Muro, •'Meanings of Naturalism in Philosophy and Aesthetics," Journal of Aesthetics, Vol. XIX, No. 2, (Winter i960) p. 133. 2 Loc. cit. 3 lLorenzo Ghiberti, I Commentarii, Typescript translation by the staff of the Courtauld Institute of Art. 4 Leon .Battista Alberti, Della Pittura, edited by L. Malle, Florence, Sanson!, 1950* 5 Cennino Cennini, The Book of the Art of Cennino Cennini, translated by C. J . Herringham, London, Allen and Unwin, 1899* 6 Ibid., p. 22-3. 7 Erwin.Ranofsky, Meaning in the Visual Arts, Garden City, New York, Anchor Books, 1955* P« 74. 8 Kenneth Clark, The Nude: A Study in Ideal Form, Garden City, New York, Anchor Books, 1959, p. 32. 9 Cennini, op.cit., p. 76. CHAPTER,-1 1 A* C. Crombie, "Cybo d»Hyeres: A Fourteenth Century Zoologist," Endeavour, 1,952, p. I83. 2 Loc. cit.; also in T. H. White, The Bestiary^ New York, Putnam's, I 9 6 0 , p. 233• 3 Charles Homer Haskins, The Renaissance of the Twelfth  Century. Cleveland, World Publishing, 1963, p. 332. 4 Lynn Thorndike, History of Magic and Experimental Science, Vol. II, New York, MacMillan, 1929, p. 532. 5 Ibid., p. 534. 6 ibid., p. 535. 7 Ibid., p. 536. 8 A. C. Crombie, Medieval and Early Modern Science: Science  in the Middle Ages. V-XIII Centuries, Garden City, New York, Anchor Books,-. 1959, p. 142. 9 Loc. cit. ' 10 Cr-pmbie, "Cybo,M op. cit., p. 184. 11 Loc. cit. 12 Thorndike, op. cit.. Vol. II, p. 526. 13 Ibid., p. 540. 14 Cr.ombie, MCybo,M op. cit., p. 184. 15 Crombie, Medieval and Early Modern Science, Vol. I, Plate XVI. 16 British Museum MS Royal 12.C.xix, Crombie, ibid., Plate XII. 17 Villard,, de Honnecourt, The Sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt, ed. Theodore Bowie, Bloomington, Indiana University, 1959* p. 51 • 18 Ibid., quoted by Emile Male, The Gothic Image, New York, Harper Torch.Books, 1958, p. 55« 19 Villard-de Honnecourt, op. cit., p. 46. 20 Male... op. cit., figure 2 0 . 21 Crombie, "Cybo," op. cit., p. 184, and Thorndike, op. cit., p. 466. 22 Male, op. cit.. p. 53* 23 Ibid., p. 54. 24 Robert S. Hoyt, Europe in'the Middle Ages,.New York, Harcourt, Brace &.WorJLd, 1957, p. 486. < , . . . . , 25 Otto PUcht, "Early Italian Nature Studies, and the Early Calendar Landscape," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institute, Vol. XIII, p. 2 2 . 26 W. K. Ferguson, Europe in Transition 1300-1520, Boston Houghton Mifflin, 1962, p. 151. 27 Hoyt, op. cit., p. 56O. 28 PHcht, "Nature Studies," op. cit., p. 22. 29 Gian Gaxeazzo's annual income from his territories, circa 1400, was 1,200,000 florins, according to the estimate of Ferguson, op. cit., p..157. 30 PlirdusiSecundus, The Elder Pliny's Chapters on the History  of Art, translated by K. Jex-Blake, commentary and introduction by E. Sellers, Chicago, Argonaut, (1896) 1968, pp. 47, 45, 31. 31 H. B. Gutman, "The Rebirth of the Fine Arts and Franciscan Thought*!.* Franciscan Studies, Vol. 26, (Sept. 1945) pji 217. 32 Loc. cit. 33 Nouyelles Etudes d'Histoire Religieuse, Paris,.,1884, cited loc. cit. 1 34 Henry Thode, Franz von Assisi und die Anfange der Kimst der  Renaissance in Italien, Berlin, 1889. 35 Ibid., p. 79. 36 Among them Henri Focillon, "Saint Francois. d'Assise et la Peinture Italienne au Xllle et au XlVe siecles," in Moyen Age:  Survivances et Reveils, New York, Brjpntano's, 1943; and Rene Jullian, "Le Franciscanisme et l'art Italienne," Phoebus I, 1946. 37 Gutman,i op. cit., p. 215, passim. 38 Ibid., p. 222. CHAPTER.II 1 C. A.. Wood, Frederick II, The Art of Falconry. Stanford. University .Press, 1943, p. lxi i . 2 Loc. cit.; the microfilm available to me was in black and white only. 3 Loc. cit. 4 Pttcht, "Nature Studies," op. cit., p. 13 ff.. 5 C. H. Haskins in Studies in the History of Medieval Science, 2nd ed.» .Cambridge, Mass., 1927, Chapter XIV, quotes some contemporary evidence that,Frederick's copy, captured in Pavia in 1248, contained proper text illustrations. 6 Pacht, "Nature Studies," op. cit. Throughout this chapter, I have had to rely on Pficht's outstanding article on the development of nature studies 4nd Italy's role in this area of art. While PScht does not go deeply into the background of this development, he has brought^ most,of the relevant manuscripts (some not published elsewhere) tqg;ether. 7 Figure 8, an illumination from a Moralized Bible, M240, f. 8, French, L-Parris, 1226-34, in Metropolitan Museum of .Art Miniatures:  Medieval Vista, New York, 1953. 8 This might be due to the fact that there is a s c e r t a i n stylistic discrpanfywbetween the emperor's portrait and the avian illustrations proper (according to Vollbapk, quoted and seconded.by Pacht in "Nature.Studies," p. 23, note 3)» It seems to me, however, from the admittedly, inadequate evidence of the microfilm, that there might be still.another hand involved; the illustrations from folio 49v-52 and possibly, folios 58, 58v, and 75 are by a third hand, or at least not by the same hand as the bulk of the bird paintings; the outlines are heavier and thicker, and there is a sonscious attempt at putting the figures and birds in a decorative background of little hills and vegetation which are sharply defined in contour,-that contrasts with the freely disposed and unconfined drawings-of birds and animals found on the other folios. 9 Folio 76; folios 98, 99* and 100 show a similar sequential action of a man with a falcon mounting a horse and riding away, with one drawing showing the man putting a foot in the stirrup, and on the next .page lifting himself halfway off the ground.* 10 PHcht, '^Nature Studies," op. cit.. p. _21v " 11 Ibid., p. 18, also note 2 on same page. 12 Loc. cit. 13 Crombie^  "Cybo," p. 184, cites R. Flowers,-British Museum  Quarterly, VIII, 128, 1934. 14 John White, Art and Architecture in Italy 1200-1400, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Penguin, pp. 384-5» also PHcht, "Nature Studies," op. cit. p. 21. 15 Crombie, in "Cybo," op. cit., p. 187, cites Flowers, op. cit. ! . . . . . J 16 Crombie, loc. cit., citing Flowers; also P. Tjoesca, La Pittura  e la Miniatura nella Lombardia, Milan, Ulrico Hoepli, 193-2, p. 411. 17 Crombie, loc. cit. 18 Thieme/Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Kunstler, Leipzig^ .1913» Vol. VIII, p. 234. [ 19 PScht, !»Nature Studies," op. cit. p. 21. 20 Crombie, "Cybo," op. cit. p. 187. 21 Pacht, "Nature Studies," op. cit., p. 21. . 22 Otto PScht, The Master of Mary of Burgundy, London, 1948, p. 29, Plate 42a. 23 Pftcht, M a t u r e Studies," op. cit. p. 21. 24 Loc. cit., note 4. 25 Pacht,. loc. cit, and in note 5» cites a miniture from Add. MS 27695 folio 13 (reproduced in Reproductions from Illuminated  Manuscripts, British Museum, Vol. IV, Plate XXX;) The miniature, illustrating the vice of gluttony, shows a Tartar Khan, an oriental subject; the artist also "seems to have aimed at the specific decorative effect typical of Oriental miniature painting and has certainly succeeded in-giving his picture an exotic appearance." I t should also be,mentioned that Genoa carried on cosiderable trade with the Orient. 26 Crombie, "Cybo," figures 1, 2, 4, MS Add.,28841, folios 4, 5, and 7 verso, respectively. 27 Crombie, ibid., had enlisted the staff of the British Museum (Natural-JELstpry) to identify the animals; for example, in folio 4, the insects have been identified as follows:., .beginning top left, and reading clockwise round the margin: caterpillar,. uncertain, possibly Lasiocampid.moth; bumble bee, Bombus rueratus Fab .(?); dragon-fly; Psychid^oth. (?); wasp, gen. Crabro; immature grasshopper, gen. Pholidoptera (?); great peacock moth, Saturnia pyri; butterfly unidentified; reading down centre: Ichneumonid wasp, gen. Gravenhostia; carpet beetle, Attagenus pellio. Similarly exact identifications were possible in folio 5» showing shells and crustaceans, and in folio 7 verso with more insects. 28 There are of course, some d iscrepanc ies ; on f o l i o ? verso, MS Add. 28841, a l i z a r d i s smaller than a grasshopper and spider on the same page. 29 One must remember that t h i s manuscript i s r e a l l y a min iature, the pages being only 6£ x 4 inches, so that even these t i n y creatures had to be reduced i n scale to some extent . 30 Pftcht, "Nature S tud ies , " op. c i t . . p. 22. 31 Frederick I I *s t rea t i se a lso shows greater natural ism i n the rendering of b i rds than i n the human f i g u r e . 32 P*cht, "Nature S tud ies , " op. c i t . . p. 22. 33 I b i d . , p. 5. 34 White, Ar t and Arch i tec ture , p. 383. 35 I b i d . , p. 383-4. 36 I b i d . , p. 384. 37 Pacht, "Nature S tud ies , " op. c i t . p. 15. 38 Loc. c i t . Only two reproduct ions, both of b i r d s , were ava i lab le to me besides the drawing of a boar being attacked by hounds that was the model fo r the ' l ' h a l l a l i du sanglier' miniature i n the Tres Riches  Heures. 39 Loc . c i t . and p. 16 f o r example, an os t r i ch i n the Bergamo volume that recurs i n MS 459 of the Casanatense i n Rome, wi th the t i t l e H i s t o r i a Plantarmu but which PBcht states to be an encyclopedia of natura l h i s to ry ; see a lso note 2 on the same page. 40 But see Pacht, i b i d . , p. 16, note 2, fo r another scho la r ' s doubts concerning t h i s . 41 Loc . c i t . . note 4 . 42 I b i d . , p. 17. 43 Loc. c i t . 44 Loc. c i t . note 2 . 45 Agnes Arber, Herbals. Cambridge Un ivers i t y Press , 1938, p. 1. 46 Charles Singer, "The Herbal in Antiquity and its Transmission to Later Ages," Journal of Hellenic Studies. Vol..XLVII, 1927* p. 1 ff. 47 A full-color facsimile reproduction of this manuscript was available for me to study. 48-Arber, op. cit.. Chapter I, passim. 49 PScht, "Nature Studies," op. cit.. p. 26. 50. MS. Ashmolean 1431, folio 21, reproduced in The Flowering of  the Middle,Ages, edited by Joan Evans, New York, -McGraw-Hill, 1966, p. 190. . 51. PScht, in "Nature Studies,",p. 27, and note 1, quotes Pliny's warning about the unreliability of herbal illustrations in the Historia .Naturalis, XXV, 2. 52 Pacht, ibid., p. 28. 53 Loc. cit.. note 4. 54 MS Arab. d. 138, folio 102, in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, reproduced in Evans, op. cit.. p. 190. 55 Pacht, "Nature Studies," op. cit.. p. 30. 56 Ibid., p. 31. 57 Loc. cit. 58 Ibid., p. 30. 59 Loc. cit. CHAPTER III 1-H. Buchthal in "Early Islamic Miniatures from Baghdad," Journal of -the Walters Art Gallery. Vol. V, Baltimore, 1924, p. 19 ff, believed that these genre scenes were the original invention of the Oriental Dioscorides illustrations, cited by Pacht, ibid., p. 33, note 3. But Pacht, lOc. cit.. demonstrates that these so called 'genre' scenes, originated in late classical herbal Illustrations, since similar genre illustrtions can be found in the two western illustrated herbals in manuscripts in Turin and London. 2 G. Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, Baltimore, 1931* Vol. II, p. 71. The word 'tacuinum' or 'taqwin' is Arabic for tables, i.e. referring to the arrangement of the text in tables. 'Tacuinum Sanitatis' therefore means tables of health, according to L. Thorndike and G. Sarton, Isis. Vol. 10, 1928, p. 489 ff. The Arabic text, of which no illustrated copies are known, was translated into Latin in the second half of the thirteenth century, probably in Southern Italy, and possibly under the auspices of Manfred, son of Frederick II, between circa 1258 and 1266. Pficht, ibid., p. 35, notel. 3-Eacht, ibid.,, p. 36. 4.Ibid., Plate 12, figure 6f 5,Loc cit., figure 6. 6.Ibid., p. 36. 7A.facsimile reproduction in colour was.available for me to study in-the Woodward Library. 8,. Pftcht, "Nature Studies," op. cit., p. 37. Two Anglo-Saxon manuscriptSi dating from the early eleventh century,in the British Museum (Cotton MSS Julius A VI, and Tiberius B V) have a set of calendar pictures that are similarly lacking in the customary allegorical, figues of the four seasons. See J . C. Webster, The  Labours ..of,..the Months in Antique and Medieval.Art,, Chicago, 1938, p. 53 ff, Elates XVII and XIX. 9 Antonio Morassi, Pittura nella Venezia .Tridentina. dalle  origin! alia fine del quattrocento. La Libreria,dello Stato, Anno XII, E. F., p. 273. 10 Ibid., p. 278. 11 Ibid.-, p. 280. 12 Ibid., p. 288. 13 Loc. cit. 14 Erwin, Panofsky, Early Netherlandish Painting, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1966, p. 66. . 15 It is rather difficult to judge from Figure 163, p. 273, in Morassi, op. cit.. just how far above ground level the frescoes are. 16 But not in every scene: the miniature of the Meeting of the Three Magi in the Tres Riches Heures has some typical Italianate cliffs in the background, but the exotic subject matter of the scene may be responsible for this departure from naturalism. 17 Kathryn Bloom in "Lorenzo Ghiberti's Space in Relief: Method and Theory," Art Bulletin, Vol. LI, Number 2,-June 1969, p. 167, suggests that in the Torre Aquila frescoes a common medieval practice of laying relief space out in vertical zones and measuring in simple units of common fractions, is followed. According to Bloom, the panels are ..divided into zones based on the heights of the foreground figures, ..with the June fresco, for example, being.divided into four zones based on the height of the figures in the immediate foreground. Thus the distance from the ehads of the foreground figures to the gate is equal.to the height of the gate; the distnce-f pour-the top of the gatehouse :to the upper frame is slightly greater than-the height of the gate, as is the lower zone. l8,.M6rassi; op. cit., Figure 170, p. 282... 19 Panofsky, Early Netherlandish Painting, p.- 65.-20 .It Is, however, difficult to deduce the success of the snow-scapes from, a black andwhite photo made from,a fresco in a not quite perfect state of perservation. 21 Enio Sindona, Pisanello, New York, Abrams, Supplementary Illustrations Figure 10. 22 Ibid.. Plate 167. CONCLUSION 1 Henrik Schulte-Nordholt, "Die Geistesgeschichtliche Situation der Zeit urn 1400," in Europaische Kunst urn 1400, May 7 - July 31, 1962, Wien, Kunsthistorisches Museum, p. 28. 2 Panofsky, Early Netherlandish Painting, p. 67. 3 Martin Conway, "Giovanni de Grassi and the Brothers Van Limbourg," Burlington Magazine, Vol. 18, 1910-11, p. 149. 4 All these instances of Italian influence are cited by Panofsky in Early .Netherlandish Painting, p. 64. " 5 Sindona, op. cit., Plate 27. 6:Ibid,. Plate 130. 7 Ibid., Plates 129, 143, 167. 8 Ibid.. Plates 165, 163. BIBLIOGRAPHY Alberti, Leon Battista. Della Pittura. Edited by L. Malle, Florence, Sansoni, 1950. Arber, Agnes. Herbals. Cambridge, University Press, 1938. Arslan, Edoardo. "Riflessioni sulla pittura gotica •internazionale' in Lombardia nei tardo trecento," Arte Lombarda. Vol. 8, 1963, pp. 25-66. Biese, A. . The Development of the Feeling for Nature in the Middle  Ages and Modern Times. London, 1905* Bloom, Kathryn. 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