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An aspect of naturalism : plant and animal illustration in Italian manuscript art from the thirteenth… Zimon, Kathy Elizabeth 1970

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AN ASPECT OF NATURALISM: PLANT AND ANIMAL ILLUSTRATION IN ITALIAN MANUSCRIPT ART FROM THE THIRTEENTH TO THE EARLY FIFTEENTH CENTURIES  by Kathy E. Zimon  THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF FINE ARTS  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard: Faculty Advisor Head, Fine Arts  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1970  In  presenting  an  advanced  the I  Library  further  for  degree shall  agree  scholarly  by  his  of  this  written  this  thesis  in  at  University  the  make  tha  it  purposes  for  may  be  It  financial  for  of  FINE  April 30,  1970  of  Columbia,  British  by  gain  Columbia  for  the  understood  ARTS  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  of  extensive  granted  is  fulfilment  available  permission.  Department  Date  freely  permission  representatives. thesis  partial  shall  Head  be  requirements  reference copying  that  not  the  of  agree  and  of my  I  this  or  allowed  without  that  study. thesis  Department  copying  for  or  publication my  ABSTRACT The subject of this study i s the phenomenon of plant and animal illustration as an aspect of naturalism i n Italian manuscript art from the mid thirteenth century to the early fifteenth century. •Naturalism' i n the context of this.study i s defined as the accurate representation of natural objects, within the given.limitations of period and style.  In addition, the term  i s also applied to the phenomenon of the more frequent occurrence of natural objects like plants and animals in.manuscript art. Chief among the factors that gave rise-to this type of illustration were the demands of medieval,, science, i n terms of practical works like herbals and hunting treatises.  Secondly,  the secular interests of the courts, i n particular Frederick II's court.in the thirteenth century, and the courts,of the North Italian ..despots i n the fourteenth and fifteenth, centuries encouraged the pastimes that generated a need for naturalistic illustration. Although Eraneiscanism has traditionally been credited with stimulating, naturalism i n Italian art, there,-is-no solid evidence to suggest that the limited aspect of naturalism,-discussed here was directly.influenced by the movement. The accurate portrayal of both plants, and animals can be documented i n a number of manuscripts dating from the thirteenth,  fourteenth,' and early.fifteenth centuries. The concentration on accurate portrayal of isolated natural objects resulted in a more sophisticated and at the same time more naturalistic recording of facts about both plants and animals. Eventually, this close observation of nature contributed to certain rudimentary developments toward the mastery of landscape and pictorial space. These developments coincided with, or perhaps even encouraged, the acceptance of the International Gothic Style in Italy. This style incorporated some of the aspects of naturalism discussed, in this study, and introduced them into a part of the mainstream^ of Italian art in the "fifteenth century.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page INTRODUCTION I II  .  CONTRIBUTING FACTORS TO NATURALISM  6  ANIMALS AND PLANTS IN MANUSCRIPT ILLUSTRATION  III  1  20  CONTRIBUTIONS OF THIS ASPECT OF NATURALISM  45  CONCLUSION  63  FOOTNOTES  68  BIBLIOGRAPHY  78  INTRODUCTION The subject of this study is the origin and development of plantaand animal illustration in Italian manuscript art as an aspect of naturalism from the thirteenth to the early fifteenth centuries. •Naturalism' is a popular term in art historical scholarship, but i t is seldom defined with precision. In fact, the very free:use of the words 'naturalism and 'naturalistic' suggests 1  that their meanings are sufficiently ambiguous and relative that they can be used with impunity to describe the most varied and contradictory phenomena, chronologically ranging from Paleolithic cave painting through Gothic sculpture to the Flemish primitives, and from Renaissance painting to the nineteenth century and Courbet. A precise explanation may be lacking because, •naturalism  1  is considered self-explanatory, needing no definition.. Jet on reconsideration, only two facts appear to be obvious about the term: i t can only be applied to representational art, and it always denotes an opposition to that which is abstract, geometric, idealized, or purely symbolic in form. Normally, naturalism implies an attempt to accurately represent nature, including man and his works, especially as to their  2  visible appearance and observable behaviour.  In this sense,  naturalism is sometimes identified with realism, while at other times, it is distinguished from it, favourably as being more objective about appearances, and unfavourably as being less sensitive to symbolic or poetic realism which can depart from superficial appearances, to express a deeper level of reality.  Of course, the application of  this meaning depends on one's conception of nature and reality as well as of the aim and value of the art of the period under discussion. During the Romanesque period, art tended toward symbolic abstraction and the distortion of natural appearances for the sake of spiritual expressiveness.  During the Gothic period, however, there  began a shift in emphasis from abstract and symbolic representation to a more accurate observation of the physical world. ...This change accelerated during the two centuries under discussion Jiere, and for the purpose of this study, •naturalism' will therefore.be considered to mean the.attempt to more accurately represent the visible, world within the ..given limitations of the period and style. , The term will also imply_..a.. strpng preoccupation with the rendering of factual observation of nature and natural objects for their own sake. During, the greater part of this period of change, the bulk of artistic, production was still in some way related to religion and the Church, and its object was the exposition of the Christian dogma. Th§ representation of man and his life on earth amid, his natural environment tended to be incidental to the main purpose of art. Gradually, however, the incidental subject of man's surroundings  became more f r e q u e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d  and was d e p i c t e d i n more d e t a i l  and w i t h keener o b s e r v a t i o n t h a n p r e v i o u s l y . Therefore, ^Naturalism'  i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s study t h e term  w i l l denote n o t o n l y t h e more a c c u r a t e  representation  o f t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d , b u t a l s o t h e phenomenon o f t h e more  frequent  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f n a t u r a l obgects^and man's g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n t h e world  and i t s c r e a t u r e s about him. . W h i l e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e what we today, u n d e r s t a n d  t o be n a t u r a l i s m , t h e problem remains whether such a c o n c e p t was ever f o r m u l a t e d  d u r i n g t h e two c e n t u r i e s i n q u e s t i o n , and i f so,  what was meant b y i t . Ghiberti's^Commentarii life,  The sources  t o i n v e s t i g a t e a r e few:  ( p o s s i b l y w r i t t e n toward t h e end o f h i s  i.e.,,near 1455)» g e n e r a l l y concerned w i t h t h e n a t u r a l i s m o f  t h e human f i g u r e , appears t o o l a t e t o c l a r i f y t h e c o n c e p t s o f an e a r l i e r period.,. S i m i l a r l y , A l b e r t i ' s D e l l a P i t t u r a , f i n i s h e d i n 1436,  does, n o t f u r n i s h any c l u e s t o t h e i d e a s c o n c e r n i n g  nature o r  n a t u r a l i s m i n t h e 14th c e n t u r y , b u t a l r e a d y foreshadows t h e concerns of the quattrocento  proper.  The ..only a v a i l a b l e source,  t h e r e f o r e , is~CenninO  I I L i b r o d e l l ' - A r t e ^ w r i t t e n around 1390 o r a l i t t l e is one  Cennini's  l a t e r , which  r e a l l y ,the e a r l i e s t t e c h n i c a l t r e a t i s e on p a i n t i n g , and i n i t f i n d s t r a c e s o f what may p o s s i b l y be i n t e r p r e t e d as a mention o f  naturalism. I n a chapter  e n t i t l e d "How more t h a n from t h e master, y o u  s h o u l d draw c o n t i n u o u s l y from n a t u r e " ,  t h e f o l l o w i n g passage  occurs:  Remember that the most perfect guide that you can have and the best course i s the triumphal gateway of drawing from nature; i t i s before a l l other example, and with a bold heart you may always trust to it.° One must remember that Cennini was a practising painter, and his book i s a technical treatise intended to instruct i n the practical art of painting, and not a statement of a r t i s t i c theory.  Specifically  because i t has notliterary pretensions, Cennini's statement attests to the value that his age placed on studying nature.  His advice to  draw from nature i s not qualified by any references to^ideals of beauty or antique examples as i n Ghiberti's and ^AlbertiJs.twri tings. Cennini even prefers nature first-hand rather than through the eyes of a master* presumably because of the greater accuracy of the former method. Although he believed that the human body should be.drawn according to certain measurements, i . e . i t should be nine heads t a l l , he believed that 'irrational animals' had to be drawn from nature 8 i n order for- the artist to achieve a good style;.  When one comes to  a passage i n chapter 86 that«advisespvon5the painting of trees, to "let the leaves shoot above (the branches) and then put the fruits,  9 and scatter a few flowers and birds on the green grassy  M  i t is  possible to draw a parallel between this description and the evidence of late Gothic.painting i n northern Italy around the turn of the fifteenth .century.  Considering examples of, say, Lombard manuscript  illustration, i t i s possible to deduce that Cennini's •naturalism' refers to what I have earlier called ah attempt to more accurately represent natural appearances, and that a part of this attempt  7  included the keener and closer observation of detail. Minor points, such as the advice on how to draw mountains "so that they appear natural" by copying large rough stones, also are indications that his type of artistic vision was content to let the minutiae of nature represent the features of the macrocosm. It would be dangerous to speculate further on Cennini's meaning, since it is too easy to read selectively between the lines and to arrive at an 'a priori' conclusion that supports our own understanding of the term 'naturalism'. The indications are there, however, and the, frequent mention of detail, as well as the numerous exhortations to observe 'nature', are clues that at the very least suggest that i f the term 'naturalism' had existed at the time, its meaning may not have been too far from what we understand by it today.  CHAPTER I CONTRIBUTING FACTORST.OIM.TURALISM During the two centuries under discussion here, the phenomenon of naturalistic plant and animal illustrations in manuscripts occurred with increasing frequency.  While a number  of factors can be isolated as causes for this phenomenon, the empirical science of the Middle Ages, and its requirements, has to be singled out as an important initial stimulus to the naturalistic representation of plants and animals. It is in what we would today call the biological sciences (biology, botany, and zoology) that the empirical method of the Middle Ages made its significant contribution to the cause of naturalism. Until the thirteenth century, the chief interest of western Christendom in plants had been for their medicinal properties, and.in animals for their symbolism in moral and 1  spiritual (teaching.  The writings of St. Augustine, perhaps the  most important influence in forming the mind of medieval man before the thirteenth century, looked on the natural world as a sacrament, an outward and visible sign of supernatural significance:  the moon  was the image of the Church reflecting the divine light; the wind  was a symbol of the holy s p i r i t ; the sapphire bore a resemblance to d i v i n e contemplation.  The preoccupation with symbols was  reinforced.by the a l l e g o r i c a l zoology of such texts as the Physiologus  t  a Greek work of Alexandrian o r i g i n written i n the  second century A.D.  i n which s t o r i e s about animals were used to  i l l u s t r a t e points of C h r i s t i a n doctrine.  To name just, one example,  the phoenix,,was, a symbol of the r i s e n C h r i s t because i t roseooutoof i t s own ashes.  ,The Physiologus was translated i n t o L a t i n i n the  f i f t h century.and became the primary source of a l l i l l u s t r a t e d 2 b e s t i a r i e s i n the western world. S c i e n t i f i c biology became established i n the thirteenth century, alongside t h i s world of symbols.  By the early, twelfth  century, a, .writer l i k e Adelard of Bath could consider authority as a r e s t r a i n t , and God an explanation of natural causes only when  3 a l l others^have been eliminated.  The main source f o r t h i s  new,  s c i e n t i f i c , a n d r e a l i s t i c temper was the recovery of Greek and Arabic texts, such as the works of A r i s t o t l e , which had become available i n L a t i n translations (by way of Arabic and Hebrew,) by the beginning.of. the thirteenth century. Of, the, s c i e n t i f i c writings of the thirteenth.century, those of Albertus Magnus (1193? 1205-1280) on botany and zoology are outstanding examples.  Besides containing accurate, descriptions  of the anatomy:and habits of plants and animals, including i n s e c t s and b i r d s , they also attempt to answer general b i o l o g i c a l questions of ecology and reproduction, based on experience rather than authority.  These writings probably did more than those of any other doctor of his day to introduce the natural sciences into the course of public and private studies.5 Albert's scientific spirit was not unique, but he was perhaps closer than any of his contemporaries to the modern view. For example, he ascribes the deluge to God's will, but believes that God acts through natural causes iriithescasel.ofo:.natu£al phenomena, and that these natural causes (divine instruments) could be investigated freely.  His interest in specific things is also more  keen: ."it is, not enough to know in terms of universale sbuttwe seek to know each object's own peculiar characteristics, for this is the best and perfect, kind of science."^ Albert, like all medieval writers of his period, draws on previous sources, especially on Aristotle, but he goes beyondtthem, especially in his work on animals. Where he discusses the general natures and common characteristics of animals he follows, Aristotle closely, but in those books where.he lists and describes particular animals, he makes numerous allusions to recent experience,and criticizes past authorities. Albert, himself felt that the desire to describe particular objects precisely was not in accord with traditional philosophic methods of ..presentation, but i t was obviously a desire.that many of his contemporaries shared with him. At the beginning of his, sixth book on vegetables and plants, where he lists particular herbs and trees, he explains:  "we satisfy the curiosity of our students rather 7  than philosophy, for philosophy cannot deal with particulars."' With Albert, personal observation and experience, the basic requirements  9  of scientific inquiry, are alone reliable concerning particular natures.  ., The early thirteenth century writings of Thomas of Cantimpre  also show a trace of this scientific spirit. In his De Natura Rerum, he includes his own observations alongside the more conventional book about fabulous beasts. Frederick the Second's own text on Falconry is a compendium of^empirical knowledge, and does not hesitate to describe other treatises .on the subject as "lying and inadequate".  The treatise  is based on Aristotle (whom Frederick called a man of books) and various Moslem sources, but goes on to describe the anatomy and habits of birds, the rearing and feeding of falcons, the training of dogs for hunting with, them, the various types of falcons, as well, as the cranes, her,ons,. and other birds that were hunted. Frederick watched and questioned Saracen falconers, observed the nests of herons, cuckoos and vulturesand exploded the popular legend that barnacle g geese were, hatched from barnacles on trees.  The circle of natural  philosophers and, magicians who were kept at Frederick's court can also claim a.treatise on horse diseases.^ Other biological works of the period were also written to be useful.  WaitercSf•WflenjLyxrorbfce  on agriculture,... as did Peter of Crescenzi early in the, fourteenth 10  century, whose..,work remained a standard for three hundred years. Herbals, the main purpose of which was to describe medically, valuable plants in a way that they could be easily recognized, also belong to this category of useful scientific works. The thirteenth century 11  herbal of Rufinus is an outstanding example.  Travellers to foreign  lands also,contributed to the pool of knowledge about plants and animals. Albertus Magnus himself, who travelled long distances on 1? foot 12 , gave an account of whaling and fishing in his De Animalibus "'. x  The Icelandic Speculum Regale also describes whales, seals and walruses. , Famous travellers like Marco Polo also brought back descriptions of new creatures such as the wild asses of Siberia, of fat-tailed sheep, and of new plants such as rice and ginger.. .At least a few of the texts that resulted from this type of knowledge and investigation were generally illustrated, especially the herbals, and occasionally the practical treatises like.Frederick's, of falconry. However, because of the way in which books were reproduced for copying, the illustrations included in both botanical and zoological works were often stylized copies of earlier versions, which, in the case of herbals, often went back even to classical times. As early as the twelfth century, there are instances '.>!" of naturalistic attempts at illustrating manuscripts. . The Herbal . of Apuleius Barbarus^ written perhaps at Bury St. Edmunds about 1120, contains for example, a painting of a bramble, decoratively disposed in an S shape on the page, which appears to be drawn from 16  nature. A. late twelfth century manuscript  has a drawing of an  ants' nest,among wheat which shows an attempt at observing nature first-hand, in spite of the discrepancy in size between wheat stalk and insect, and the schematic character of the drawing.  •From the thirteenth century on, drawings and paintings of living creatures increased both in quantity and accuracy, both as illustrations in scientific works and as decorations in the borders of various manuscripts that had no relation to the subject of the texts. Such, an isolated example as Villard de Honnecourt's sketchbook also contains drawings of animals and birds, although often posed in heraldic groupings.^ The famous lion "fut contrefais al 1 fi  viff,'  is rather, too confined by the artist's attempt to make its 19  parts conform,to geometry,  while the rendering of two parrots on  a perch is..more, successful.^  ...  .For. the most part, the naturalistic illustration of animals made in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries were decorative,, in intention, and accompanied no text as scientific exposition..„ In many instances, the close and accurate observation of nature might...have been directly inspired by religious symbolism, but the symbols tended to be less specific, and the religious motive found expression in the contemplation of nature as a whole.. Vincent of Beauvais,.the, medieval encyclopedist, less a personal observer of nature, and.less, discriminatory in his scientific attitudes.than Albertus Magnus, said in the prologue to his Speculum .Maius: "I am moved with a spiritual sweetness towards the Creator and Ruler of this world, .because I behold the magnitude and beauty^arid 21  permanence .of his creation."  The beautiful naturalistic carvings  of plants on the capitals of Gothic cathedrals (Notre Dame,-Sens, Laon, Rheims) where the forms are simplified but not distorted, and  many of which Emile Male has been able to identify as the native flora and fauna of the Ile-de-France region, reflect the same s p i r i t that i s expressed by Vincent of Beauvais.  As Mile says, '  the Middle,, Ages "gazed at every blade of grass with  22  reverence."  Animals appear similarly without didactic :purposeo.on various parts of the cathedrals, and are carefully observed and given their bharacteristicf:movements.23  The cathedral of the Middle Ages was  an epitome of the world; on and within i t the sculptors wished to represent ,every livirig thing, both real and observed from nature, v  and those .that lived only i n their imagination. .Another contributing factor to the phenomenon of naturalistic plant and ,animal illustration was the cultural milieu .of the courts, in particular i n the southern realm of Frederick II Hohenstaufen, and later on attthe courts of the despots i n the North Italian states. Basically these courts had a wide range of secular interests, especially scientific interests, that often centered on hunting and allied sports that generated curiosity and knowledge about animals. During the reign of Frederick, the court at Palermo was the leading cultural centre.  In many ways, Frederick, could .be  considered as the prototype of the later Renaissance despots who patronized the arts to enhance their own glory. Frederick,-however, was not merely a patron but a participant as well, and his inquiring and intransigent mind dominated the scholars who were attracted to his court.  Chief among his interests were law, astrology, medicine,  literature.and hunting, with the latter interest resulting in his oh,  famous treatise on falconry.  This treatise, still an excellent  introduction to.falconry, proves that Frederick was a keen observer of nature,..and contributed toward dispelling some popular misconceptions about the habits, of birds. He also collected a zoo, andkkept exotic animals like lions, elephants, and even giraffes.  He ..was insatiably  curious, and experimented both with humans and animals, although these generally did.not result in significant discoveries. .The real contributions, aside from his own falconry treatise, were made by some of the,scholars he attracted to his court from as far afield as Moslem Africa and the Greek speaking east. Since he himself spoke many languages,.had friendly relations with the Sultan, and,tolerated both Jews and Moslems, the atmosphere at his court was particularly receptive ,to the enlightening influence of Arabic science. . This .variety of interests led of course to literary production._ Whether Frederick was as prolific a patron of the visual arts as of.vernacular poetry and science, has not been sufficiently documented, but .the -above mentioned falconry treatise.suggests that the commissioning of illustrated manuscripts may not have, been uncommon. , The northern Italy of circa 1400 shared some common characteristics with the nearly oriental splendour and variety of Frederick's court at Palermo. The two cultural spheres had,a greater affinity to each other than to the intervening Gothic period.^  The cosmopolitan court of the Visconti i n Milan and the smaller feudal lords of the neighbouring regions had similar secular preoccupations,  and were p r o l i f i c art patrons.  The Visconti can be  taken as representative of the type of rulers who could afford to sponsor art. The dynasty was established early i n the fourteenth century, when the condottiere Francesco Sforza usurped control.  The  height of Milanese power and t e r r i t o r i a l expansion under Gian Galeazzo Visconti (1385-1.402), who purchased the t i t l e of duke from Emperor Wenceslas i n  1395 ^i and aspired by means of violence and treachery 2  to control I t a l y , was accompanied by considerable a r t i s t i c 2 7  production.  Especially secular art was produced on an unprecedented  scale, both i n quantity and quality.  No doubt the wealth:of Milan  under the businesslike administration of the Visconti, particularly 29 of Gian Galeazzo, was an important factor.  That the secular arts  should be .emphasized at despotic courts, where the aggrandizement of the ruler was a necessary expense, comes as no surprise.  Calculated  magnificence, as an investment i n power, included at this period (as even i n the.fifteenth century) the maintenance of scholars, and poets, the collection,of libraries and the production, copying and. illustration..of books. Lombard miniaturists specialized in.the illustration of secular books, and this category of art. gradually established new aesthetic canons that opened the way for new pursuits, such as specialization i n the portrayal of animals.  artistic  Medieval science, and the pseudo-scientific and secular interests of the courts and cultural centres both were contributing factors in the development of naturalism. In addition, earlier medieval art of course contains numerous examples of accurately observed, naturalistic detail, especially in the sculptured foliated capitals of the previously mentioned cathedrals. Arabic art, too, jmay have furnished examples in manuscript form, probably in herbals. or in other medical texts, that may have served as models for naturalistic illustrations of plants or animals, but it is difficult to ascertain just how many of these manuscripts were in fact available..., We know that Arabic texts began to be translated in the twelfth„and thirteenth centuries, but little attention has been paid ,tp whether these texts were illustrated, and i f they were, whether they represented an important influence.  Often the, only clue  available ,is_a trace of oriental sjtiyle that occurs in. some, western manuscript, as in that of Cybo d'Hyeres, discussed in,the next chapter. ! f stylistic qualities could be transmitted, then, content as well, in.the,,form of realistic plant and animal studies.may also have been .transmitted, but whether the Arabic manuscript illustrations were in fact, more naturalistic than their contemporary western counterparts is.a debatable point, and only a thorough and exhaustive comparative examination could resolve i t . Similarly, it would be very difficult to ascertain if any classical .or late classical illustrated manuscripts had served as  models or.stimuli for.'more naturalistic plant or animal studies in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.  Here the only evidence  is to be found in herbals, discussed in the next chapter. A few isolated examples like the Anicia Juliana Codex suggest, but cannot adequately...prove, that other classical herbals might have influenced plant portrayal ...during the period in question. Although Pliny^ makes numerous references to the degree of naturalism attained in animal portrayal in classical times, at least in the media of bronze and marble,, ther,e is no evidence that enough examples survived to be emulated-,,.,, The capitoline wol-f f and the horse of the Marcus A  Aurelius monument are two examples that come to mind, but these are isolated, and in the case of the Marcus Aurelius at least, the ;  r  emulation did...not come until well into the fifteenth century. ;  Moreover, lit would be dangerous to use the evidence of,, surviving statuary to. support naturalistic illustration in manuscripts, since the two media-make rather different, i f not sometimes..incompatible, requirements of .the artist.  •  .Aside .from medieval science and the other factors discussed above, one.,other has to be assessed as a possible contribution to the aspect of naturalism under discussion, i f only because i t has traditionally been linked to the whole concept of naturalism and the birtheof Renaissance art. .Since 1864, when Hippolyte Taine^ first tried to, explain 1  the serenity of Rapahael's madonnas by the influence of Perugia  and Assisi, St. Francis and his movement as a determining factor i n Renaissance art seems to have fascinated art historians., Following Taine, both Ruskin and Hermann Hettner linked the influence of. St. Francis and the florescence of Italian painting. Hettner in, particular, stressed the influence of Franciscan, literature, on the fine arts and iconography.^  : .  2  .;  33  In, the 1880* s, Ernest Renan i n an essay, ^ and ..Henry Thode i n an extensive study,3^ enlarged upon the theme of Franciscanism as a foundation of Renaissance art. Basically, Thode s thesis rested 1  on two maintpoints:  f i r s t , that Franciscan thought and teaching was  the spiritual foundation and necessary complement to the expansion of the burgher classes and the rise of the towns, and second, that St. Francis, i n changing the religious outlook of medieval man, helped to establish the new, world-affirming atmosphere that made 35  Renaissance art possible. Although Thode s thesis i s well known, and the influence 1  of Franciscanism upon Italian civilization cannot be evaded, i t s specific influence upon the fine arts has not been satisfactorily demonstrated, either by Thode himself or by other scholars who have dealt with the subject. That St. Francis did have a novel and extraordinary love for nature and i t s creatures i s beyond question, as his legends amply prove. But whether this attitude could actually have influenced specific artists, or inspired specific naturalistic works, would be  almost impossible t o prove. himself t o demonstrating,  No scholar i n recent years has applied  by c i t i n g actuallexamples of works  commissioned f o r Franciscan churches, that such a connection r e s u l t e d i n more accurate representations of nature, or had induced the a r t i s t s to include more p l a n t s and animals of landscape elements than the subject c a l l e d f o r . I t 'is f a r e a s i e r to prove the Franciscan i n f l u e n c e i n the realm of l i t e r a t u r e , e s p e c i a l l y inepoetry than i n the v i s u a l a r t s . ?  The i n t e n s i t y of Franciscan p i e t y created the form of the 'laude', characterized by deep r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g , mysticism, r e a l i s m and s i m p l i c i t y , that could appeal t o a l l men, the p l a i n men as w e l l as 37 the educated.^' L a t i n gave way t o the language of the people, and the f i r s t .hymn i n the 'lingua volgare' was S t . F r a n c i s ' own Cantico d e l l o Frate Sole.  The laude of Jacopone da Tbdi, s i m i l a r l y i n s p i r e d  and expressed i n the vernacular, followed .the Cantico.as the f i r s t great monuments of I t a l i a n l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s . a l s o e a s i e r to suggest a relationship,between Franciscanism and the new philosophy of Njominalism, than between Franciscanism and a r t . I n the s c h o l a s t i c philosophy of the,Middle Ages, the r u l i n g school of thought was Realism. v  Nominalism replaced  r e a l i s m when A r i s t o t l e had replaced P l a t o as the p h i l o s o p h i c a l authority..  The R e a l i s t s had acknowledged the r e a l i t y , of the generic  notions, while the Nominalists b e l i e v e d i n the r e a l i t y of the s p e c i f i c notions, a philosophy that was more receptive to the a f f i r m a t i o n of  the world. It was shortly after the appearance of St. Francis that the assimilation of Aristotelianism and Nominalism began.3® Franciscan!thinkers especially were instrumental in advocating Nominalism. Alexander of Hales, a Franciscan friar, introduced Aristotle as.an authority in the systematic exposition of Christian doctrine. Robert of Grosseteste, the founder of the Oxford Franciscan school, encouraged Roger Bacon, the English scholastic philosopher, to enter the Franciscan order. In particular, the Franciscan .order fostered Nominalist thought, and it was to, the Franciscan order that Nominalist philosophers were attracted. Franciscan thought, in embracing Nominalism, and in affirming the beauty of the world and the delight of corporeal vision, could perhaps be interpreted as having encouraged a philosophy that was receptive .to a naturalistic art. ,If any relationship can therefore be demonstrated,between Franciscanism and naturalism in art, then this relationship, appears to have been manifested indirectly through literature.and philosophy rather than by the direct inspirational effect on the visual imagination of either artists or patrons.  CHAPTER II ANIMALS AND PLANTS IN MANUSCRIPT ILLUSTRATION  In Italy, where Romanseque architecture and decoration persisted longer than in the northwest of Europe, the first traces of naturalism in the representation of plant and animal life appeared in manuscript illustration. Appropriately enough, the best and earliest example of accurately observed animal life occurs in a manuscript of southern origin, where the Arab and Moslem influences, so crucial to the revival of science in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, were always strong. The manuscript in question is a copy of the remarkable De Arte Venandi cum Avibus by •Frederick the Second. This manuscript (Palatino Latino  10?1),  now in the Vatican  in Rome, represents a rare instance where the quality and.significance of the visual material equals the originality and importance of the text illustrated. The manuscript, of parchment, has 111 folios, 360 x 250 mm., 1  and is inscribed in Italian Gothic, in two columns. - About two thirds of the total number of pages are illustrated, so that the marginal illustrations, nearly all in color, add up to approximately 900 representations of birds, animals, falconers, perches, and other 2  falconry equipment.  The first folio is badly damaged, which makes it  difficult to read the dedication but it has been deciphered as a  21  dedication to Manfred, the son of Frederick II.3  If the reading is  correct, then the manuscript must date from after 1250 and possibly not later than 1265 or 1266^ when King Manfred died. This codex is already a revised edition, and i t is still a matter of dispute whether the book originally had any illustration other than Frederick's portrait.^ In any case, by Manfred's time, at the latest, the painstaking literary descriptions of the Emperor-author had been translated into visual language. Frederick's empirical approach to-nature bore fruit in the sphere of artistic representation and generated a kind of pictorial naturalism. It is not yet a fully naturalistic style, since the painter, is limited by a two-dimensional method of representation, and he resorts to nature observation almost exclusively, where his special,ornithological interest is involved.^ However, the illustrations are imbued with the spirit of an almost scientific .-nature observation that is not, to be found for another century. .The immediate problem in discussing this.document is the need for selectivity, since the illustrations are abundant., and, in spite of their.charm, often repetitive.  One has the feeling.that the  illustrator was carried away both by his passion for birds and his decorative.urge, as well as by the desire to repeatedly demonstrate his skill. Some general comments may be made before discussing individual pages-in detail. As has been mentioned above, the method of representation is twodimensional—the birds are clearly outlined.against the un;  specified background of the blank page (the exceptions will be discussed later) with the ground lines generally indicated, are drawn in  profile,  and a r e b y f a r t h e b e s t observed .subjects,  showing  a wide v a r i e t y o f types, w i t h perhaps a preponderance o f aquatic birds i n addition to falcons. f i g u r e s , b u i l d i n g s , rocks, water, ;  represented l a r g e l y by schematic from  Other  animal  life,  p l a n t s and v e g e t a t i o n a r e f o r m u l a s t h a t a r e no d i f f e r e n t  any o t h e r contemporary p a i n t i n g .  F o r example, on t h e  v e r s o o f f o l i o one, t h e two i l l u s t r a t i o n s  ( t h e y c a n h a r d l y be  c a l l e d p o r t r a i t s ) o f a k i n g , presumably F r e d e r i c k , seated on a throne, d i c t a t i n g  ( o r s o i t seems f r o m t h e g e s t u r e o f t h e  h a n d s ) and a c c o m p a n i e d b y a f a l c o n o n a l o w p e r c h , w h i l e two f a l c o n e r s w i t h b i r d s a r e k n e e l i n g b e f o r e h i m , a p p e a r more romanesque i n c h a r a c t e r t h a n , f o r example, a s i m i l a r  seated  7 f i g u r e o f t h e young K i n g L o u i s I X i n a French of  '  manuscript  8'  some t h i r t y - o d d y e a r s e a r l i e r . -  The o t h e r a n i m a l s b e s i d e s b i r d s t h a t o c c u r a r e n o t as w e l l o b s e r v e d ,  but are s t i l l  f i g u r e s and t h e a t t e m p t s elements truly like  at landscape,  l i k e l a k e s , r i v e r s and t r e e s .  or rather,  f a l c o n s ' hoods, shears* perches  landscape  The i l l u s t r a t i o n i s  s u p e r i o r as an e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e t e x t ,  in detail, In  s u p e r i o r t o m o s t o f t h e human  s i n c e equipment  and n o o s e s a r e r e n d e r e d  i n o r d e r t o make t h e t r e a t i s e u s e f u l a s a  one i n s t a n c e , t h e r e i s e v e n a s e q u e n c e o f t h r e e  showing a f a l c o n e r t y i n g a b i r d ' s l e a d t o a p e r c h .  textbook.  drawings, On  closer  o b s e r v a t i o n , w h a t seems l i k e t h r e e i d e n t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t u r n s o u t t o b e a "how t o d o i t " d i a g r a m , appearing  with the knot  i n various stages of completion.^  I t i s , however, i n t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c r e n d e r i n g  of  -dozens o f v a r i e t i e s o f b i r d s t h a t t h i s m a n u s c r i p t p a r t i c u l a r l y excels.  Falcons,  gerfalcons,  v u l t u r e s , hawks, o w l s and horned  owls, swallows, s t o r k s , p e l i c a n s , cranes, ducks, geese,  swans,  peacocks,' and p h e a s a n t s a r e o n l y  a few o f the b i r d s t h a t can  be  The o r n i t h o l o g i s t u n d o u b t e d l y ,  recognized  even b y a layman.  c o u l d i d e n t i f y many m o r e o f t h e l e s s e r b i r d s t h a t included.  Throughout, t h e b i r d s are given  characteristics of feathers, b i l l s , and  even t h e rendering  successful. the  their individual  f e e t , c r e s t s and w i n g s ,  of appropriate  movements i s sometimes  The s e r i e s o f f l y i n g d u c k s , g e e s e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y  s t o r k s on f o l i o  16 a r e a g r a c e f u l a t t e m p t a t t h e  o f an e l u s i v e movement.  The r e n d e r i n g  f o r e x a m p l e o n f o l i o s k v e r s o a n d 22,  since  the a r t i s t could  convincingly,  not place  i s less  accomplished,  o r e l s e w o u l d n o t i n o r d e r t o more c l e a r l y  e s p e c i a l l y when a t t e m p t i n g t o show a v u l t u r e a s o n f o l i o 22.  He h a s p r o b l e m s standing  for observation  while  of the f a l c o n s i t t i n g  on a  N o t s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h e b i r d s w h i c h one  s u s p e c t s were more f a m i l i a r t o t h e a r t i s t and more  the  on  t h e i r f e e t on t h e ground  demonstrate the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the f e e t .  (e.g.  rendering  of birds walking  land,  slope,  are also  a l i v e a r e more n a t u r a l i s t i c .  accessible The  stance  on i t s p e r c h , repeated innumerable  f o l i o s 53-57), i s a l w a y s w e l l d o n e , even c o n s i d e r i n g  closed  times that  form o f the b i r d o f prey a t r e s t presents few r e a l  difficulties.  The u n m i s t a k a b l e e m p h a s i s t h r o u g h o u t i s o n  accuracy of representation, birds, i n question.  and t h e o b j e c t i s t o i d e n t i f y t h e  I n d e e d , o n many p a g e s t h e b i r d s a r e  a c t u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d b y name, a l t h o u g h t h i s m i g h t b e b y a l a t e r hand, and i s c l e a r l y u n n e c e s s a r y ,  (e.g.  f o l i o 4 2 v , 39, 4 l , e t c . )  With t h i s purpose i n mind, t h e c o r r e c t s i z e o f various s a c r i f i c e d i n favour o f ease o f r e c o g n i t i o n , size of birds r e l a t i v e t o other objects. shows a f a l c o n r e s t i n g o n a b o a t ,  birds i s  along with t h e  F o l i o 15,  f o r example,  ( l a r g e enough f o r a s i n g l e  mast and two crew members), n e a r l y a s l a r g e  as t h e crossbar  the mast.  51) a n d b i r d s '  Similarly, birds i n trees  on m o u n t a i n s ( f o l i o are  (folio  of nests  49v),. a s w e l l a s p e o p l e a n d b u i l d i n g s ( f o l i o 6lv)  completely out of proportion.  None o f t h i s i s o f c o u r s e o u t  o f t h e o r d i n a r y — w h a t i s r a t h e r r e m a r k a b l e i s t h a t t h e a r t i s t was able he  t o depart from convention i n favour o f naturalism  did.  On o t h e r p o i n t s , t o o , t h e a r t i s t f o l l o w s m e d i e v a l p r a c t i c e .  Birds on a lake  a r e shown i n p r o f i l e , b u t t h e l a k e i t s e l f ,  schematized s e r i e s o f concentric while  the flowers  s c a l l o p s i s shown f r o m  are dispersed  between rows o f b i r d s  are  a stag  (folio  ( f o l i o 11),  also encountered.  ( f o l i o 4 2 v , 69).  decoratively to f i l l  above,  a b l a n k space  Elsewhere, created  45v).  Other animals, a goat ( f o l i o attacking  a  g r o w i n g on t h e s h o r e s a r e a g a i n i n p r o f i l e , and  e v e n u p s i d e down a t t h e c l o s e r s h o r e , flowers  a s much a s  35v),  two g r e y h o u n d s  and a doe and a d e e r ( f o l i o  49)  O f t h e s e , t h e l a t t e r two a r e n a t u r a l i s t i c ,  even t o t h e p o i n t o f suggesting t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t i m i d i t y o f t h e  animals, though lacking i n native grace, while the goat i s quite schematized into a calligraphic design and the lean hounds with their grasping fangs remind one most of a l l of lacertine ornament that i s S t i l l found on Romanesque architecture, of this period. Mention must also,be .made of the equestrian figures that appear toward the end of the codex (beginning,with folio 81).  These are quite well observed, both  in relative -proportion of horse and rider and in.the movement of the .animals, although the horses* heads appear a .bit small. v  The riders actually appear to be sitting i n the saddle, rather t  than standing astride the horses.  Convention s t i l l ..persists i n  details .such; as the articulation of the muscles ..on.-the upper hind legs,..which are presented by a series of half circles. The naturalism of the animals i n this ..treatise has a precedent >in the mosaic of the Creation of Birds..and Fishes i n Monreale .Cathedral, dating from circa 1180-90-(although the mosaics.medium i s hardly conducive to naturalistic .representation), but there is.no descendant t i l l l the second half.of.„the fourteenth century -in North Italy, where the cultural.and p o l i t i c a l milieu of the despotic courts had certain similarities to the court of Frederick the Second more than a century earlier.  J u s t how t h e i d e a o f a s s e m b l i n g accurate way  nature  studies into  from t h e south  almost  scientifically  z o o l o g i c a l p i c t u r e b o o k s made i t s  t o the north i suncertain. ,Very.-;little o f  the r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l , such as I t a l i a n b e s t i a r i e s , i s a c c e s s i b l e under present  conditions.  But by the turn o f the century,  a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f L o m b a r d a r t i s t s in  the p o r t r a y a l o f animals.  frequent  seem t o h a v e s p e c i a l i z e d  There i s evidence o f t h i s i n t h e  use o f animal m o t i f s i n manuscript fragments o f sketch-  b o o k s , w h i c h a r e i n v a r i a b l y o f Lombard o r i g i n .  A t any r a t e ,  a g r e a t e r number o f L o m b a r d d r a w i n g s o f t h e t r e c e n t o a n d e a r l y quattrocento  have s u r v i v e d t h a n those  Perhaps t h e nature  o f any o t h e r — s c h o o l .  studies, e s p e c i a l l y animalr  portraits,  were 12  an o b l i g a t o r y p a r t o f t h e a r t i s t s ' Probably animal  training i n this  the e a r l i e s t North  area.  I t a l i a n example o f such  s t u d i e s i s t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y m a n u s c r i p t known a s t h e  C o c h a r e l l i T r e a t i s e o n t h e V i r t u e s a n d V i c e s , now i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum i n L o n d o n .  I t c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e f r a g m e n t s , MSS A d d i t i o n a l  27695 a n d 28841,- c o n t a i n i n g f i f t e e n a n d s e v e n l e a v e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , and MS E g e r t o n p l a i n vellum,  3127  c o n s i s t i n g o f two l e a v e s .  The p a g e s o f  a b o u t 6§ x 4 i n c h e s , a r e u s e d o n b o t h s i d e s .  i l l u s t r a t i o n s are executed i n c l e a r l i n e  and t i n t e d w i t h  and  gold paint.  the  scheme o f d e c o r a t i o n was d i f f e r e n t i n e a c h .  to  which belong  first  The o r i g i n a l book c o n t a i n e d  MSS A d d i t i o n a l  The  colour  two L a t i n t e x t s , - and The f i r s t  text, .  27695 a n d E g e r t o n 3127, a n d t h e  l e a f o f A d d i t i o n a l 28841, i s a t r e a t i s e o n t h e v i c e s , . '  w r i t t e n i n p r o s e b y a member o f t h e C o c h a r e l l i f a m i l y o f Genoa f o r h i s c h i l d r e n .  The t a l e s w i t h w h i c h he i l l u s t r a t e d  the  theme he a t t r i b u t e d t o h i s g r a n d f a t h e r , P e l e g r i n o  The  same a u t h o r i t y i s c i t e d ' i n t h e s e c o n d t e x t  Cocharelli.  ( i n MS A d d . 2 8 8 4 1 ) ,  .a h i s t o r y i n l o o s e r h y t h m i c a l v e r s e o f S i c i l y i n t h e t i m e o f t h e 13 Emperor F r e d e r i c k I I . The m a n u s c r i p t h a s b e e n d a t e d t o t h e l a t e  fourteenth  c e n t u r y " - ^ a n d may h a v e b e e n p r o d u c e d i n G e n o a o r i t s n e i g h b o u r h o o d . A l m o s t n o t h i n g i s known o f t h e Cybo d'Hyeres illustrations  are attributed.  t o whom t h e  I t i s even u n l i k e l y t h a t a l l t h e * k  illustrations  a r e b y t h e same h a n d .  1 D  P o s s i b l y , t h e monk o f  H y e r e s w a s a member o f t h e C y b o ( o r C i b o ) f a m i l y o f G e n o a , who f l o u r i s h e d toward t h e end o f t h e f o u r t e e n t h century.17 h a v e b e e n a monk o f S t . H o n o r a t i o u s , a m o n a s t e r y  He may  on t h e i s l a n d o f  L e r i n o o f f t h e c o a s t o f P r o v e n c e , a n d seems a l s o t o h a v e l i v e d 18 one o f t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g i s l a n d s o f H y e r e s .  on  The a r t i s t i c  c o n n e c t i o n s o f t h e p a i n t e r , which would be o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t , are  unfortunately t o t a l l y obscure.  T h e more d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  a u t h o r i t i e s such as P a c h t even h e s i t a t e t o c l a s s him w i t h . t h e Lombard s c h o o l , p r e f e r r i n g t o s e t t l e f o r t h e l e s s designation o f 'north I t a l i a n ! . unknown p a i n t e r i s i n d i s p u t a b l e :  specific  O n l y one i n f l u e n c e on t h e h e seems t o h a v e b e e n a c q u a i n t e d  w i t h O r i e n t a l , p o s s i b l y Arabic o r P e r s i a n manuscripts from 19  which  he m a y . h a v e c o p i e d . ' • H e r e we a r e c h i e f l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n s  in  the fragments A d d i t i o n a l  prose  28841 a n d E g e r t o n 312?. The  treatise contains a series of f u l l  illustrating  the text,  page p a i n t i n g s  and most o f t h e t e x t pages a r e  framed i n p u r e l y d e c o r a t i v e b o r d e r s .  These b o r d e r s  themselves  are inset  w i t h roundels c o n t a i n i n g m i n i a t u r e scenes w i t h p a i n t i n g s o f i n s e c t s , b i r d s , mammals, a n d g r o t e s q u e s .  I n the verse  treatise  the i l l u s t r a t i o n s a r e a l l i n the borders, which are not contained in  f o r m a l frames.  M i n i a t u r e studies of animal l i f e  used as l i n e f i l l e r s vacuii,*  with a truly oriental  i n both the prose  sense o f ' h o r r o r  and v e r s e t e x t s .  s p r a y s w i t h l e a v e s and f r u i t ,  are also  I n the latter,  and sometimes g r a s s and w a t e r , 20  s t r a y between t h e l i n e s a c r o s s t h e whole w i d t h o f t h e column. This manuscript  so f a r s t a n d s  completely  isolated  as a n example o f e a r l y I t a l i a n n a t u r e s t u d i e s . ^ 2  . The i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e v e r s e t r e a t i s e , w h e r e t h e animals  are not contained i n formal borders,  most i n t e r e s t i n g .  are perhaps t h e  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r example o f m a r g i n a l  i l l u s t r a t i o n s , w i t h t h e z o o l o g i c a l specimens f r e e l y over  disposed  t h e p a g e a n d among t h e l i n e s o f t e x t , h a s b e e n c i t e d a s  a forerunner of the "strew-pattern" borders  o f Flemish  22 illumination.' astonishing. animals,  The v a r i e t y o f z o o l o g i c a l s p e c i m e n s i s There are pages w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f w i l d  a l i o n f i g h t i n g with a bear o r k i l l i n g  28841 f ' . l ) o r e x o t i c b e a s t s giraffes.  ( A d d . 2 8 8 4 1 f.3)  such  a doe (Add.  as e l e p h a n t s , camels and  The a n i m a l s  a r e more  remarkable  f o r t h e i r wide, c h o i c e t h a n f o r t h e i r n a t u r a l i s m , a l t h o u g h even here  the a r t i s t has  greatly simplified  and  realized life-impressions,  schematized. ^  The  2  o f e x o t i c b e a s t s need n o t have.come f r o m since a l l of these  although  artist's  knowledge  t r a v e l to the  east,  a n i m a l s c o u l d have been f o u n d i n t h e  z o o l o g i c a l p a r k s t h a t w e r e k e p t f o r t h e amusement o f t h e of the d e s p o t i c s t a t e s .  F r e d e r i c k t h e S e c o n d ( a g a i n we  b a c k t o t h e s o u t h f o r p a r a l l e l s ) t r a v e l l e d w i t h an m e n a g e r i e , and  a l r e a d y i n the l a t e  rulers refer  exotic  fourteenth century  the  24 V i s c o n t i k e p t a zoo i n t h e i r c a s t l e a t P a v i a .  A more  remote, p o s s i b i l i t y i s - t h a t . t h e a r t i s t c o p i e d "the  foreign  animals from O r i e n t a l manuscripts, perhaps A r a b i c o r P e r s i a n bestiaries. ^2  F a r more i n t e r e s t i n g  than the  ' b i g game' f o r t h e  s t u d y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n a t u r a l i s m a r e p a g e s i n x^hich the a r t i s t has used t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the i n s e c t and o f m a r i n e l i f e  such  a s s h e l l s and  the margins of the t e x t . ^ 2  The  caterpillars,  and b u t t e r f l i e s a r e r e c o g n i z a b l e and a s t o g e n u s , and  crustaceans to  world decorate  bees, moths,  c a n e v e n be  identified  a r e a c c u r a t e enough t o i l l u s t r a t e  an  e n t o m o l o g i s t * s handbook This type of accurate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n could o n l y have been accomplished  by  a s p e c i a l i s t who  spent  endless  time o b s e r v i n g nature's microcosm a t f i r s t hand. are f a i r l y  a c c u r a t e even as t o r e l a t i v e  scale-  The with  s m a l l e r i n s e c t s b e i n g l i f e s i z e or even s m a l l e r . ^ 2  insects the  The  scientific  s p i r i t i n w h i c h t h e s e i l l u s t r a t i o n s w e r e made i s  f u r t h e r demonstrated by the a r t i s t ' s tendency t o p u t together o n t h e same p a g e a n i m a l s same g r o u p : and  that are t r a d i t i o n a l l y alotted t othe  l a n d quadrupeds, marine i n v e r t e b r a t e s , i n s e c t s  a r a c h n i d s , w i t h t h e l a t t e r b e i n g t h e most p o p u l a r  group.  Also these marginal i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the verse t e x t are c a r e f u l , i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c s t u d i e s w i t h no d r a m a t i c  o r expository content,  as i n t h e m a r g i n s and m i n i a t u r e s o f t h e p r o s e reinforcing the s c i e n t i f i c  nature o f the a r t i s t ' s  I n most c a s e s , t h e i n s e c t s such shown w i t h w i n g s s p r e a d  out f l a t ,  Other types,  such  thus  interest.  as b u t t e r f l i e s a r e  as they would appear i f t h e  a r t i s t were s t u d y i n g them f r o m p i n n e d collection.  text,  s p e c i m e n s i n h i s own  as t h e c a t e r p i l l a r ,  grasshopper,  a n d d r a g o n f l y a r e shown i n p r o f i l e , w h i c h i s t h e m o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c impression o f these i n s e c t s . i s followed i n t h e treatment  A similar  practice  o f t h e s h e l l s and c r u s t a c e a n s ,  where t h e d e s i r e t o u s e a shape a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e space a v a i l a b l e i s a l s o e v i d e n t , f o r example i n t h e l o b s t e r on f o l i o  5  i n A d d i t i o n a l MS 28841. That the a r t i s t  s h o u l d h a v e b e e n more s u c c e s s f u l w i t h  t h e i n s e c t w o r l d t h a n w i t h t h e l a r g e r mammals i s s i m p l y e x p l a i n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t he was a m i n i a t u r i s t . O b v i o u s l y , t h e r e i s l e s s d i s t o r t i o n o r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n necessary life-size  i n drawing  a bumble bee  than i n r e d u c i n g a l i o n t o an i n c h l o n g drawing.  there i s also a further consideration.  The m i c r o - w o r l d  But  of insects  (as w e l l as marine l i f e ) has t h e s t i l l - l i f e  q u a l i t y t h a t makes  c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n easy as w e l l as p o s s i b l e .  Objects  which can  be b r o u g h t c l o s e t o t h e e y e i n a p u r e l y p h y s i c a l s e n s e , a n d w h i c h a t t h e same t i m e a r e u n a f f e c t e d b y t h e s y m b o l i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o f the l a r g e r animals  t h a t were a l s o t h e s u b j e c t  o f t h e b e s t i a r i e s , w e r e more l i k e l y t o b e o b s e r v e d w i t h u n prejudiced curiosity. traditional  The same a r t i s t was c o n t e n t  to follow  30  formulas  w h e r e t h e human f i g u r e was c o n c e r n e d .  I n g e n e r a l , t h e human f i g u r e was t h e l a s t o f n a t u r e ' s  creatures  31 t o be f r e e d from t h e m e d i e v a l ban on a n a l y t i c o b s e r v a t i o n . ' The life  development o f d e s c r i p t i v e n a t u r a l i s m i n animal  i s i n s t r u c t i v e , i f one e x a m i n e s t h e b i r d  studies that  predominate i n the prose t e x t o f t h i s manuscript and  28841 f . l ) .  I n the observation of d e t a i l  (Add. 2 ? 6 5 Q  and s p e c i e s  they  a r e n o t much m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d t h a n F r e d e r i c k ' s t r e a t i s e , b u t in  t h e d e p i c t i o n o f movement a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  while and  a t rest, they  are f a r superior.  The v a r i o u s - q u a i l , o w l s ,  cock t h a t are found i n the medallions  o f f o l i o o n e a r e now  c o r r e c t l y seen from p r o f i l e , w i t h the f e e t seemingly r e s t i n g oh t h e curved dramatic  edges o f t h e r o u n d e l s ,  scenes such a s an e a g l e k i l l i n g  and more c o n v i n c i n g But  w h i l e t h e more  than s i m i l a r scenes i n F r e d e r i c k ' s  i t i s a hawking scene (on f o l i o  along  easily  a stork are fiercer  the f a v o u r i t e pastime o f the f e u d a l world, travelled  posture  the road  1 verso,  treatise. E g . J127),  t h a t shows t h e d i s t a n c e  t o naturalism since the time o f F r e d e r i c k .  A g a i n we a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h  a folio  t h a t combines b o t h  text  arid i l l u s t r a t i o n , b u t now t h e w h o l e b o t t o m h a l f o f t h e p a g e has  been used t o create  provided life"  an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f landscape  that  an excuse f o r "composing a s y n o p t i c a l t a b l e o f b i r d  that "reveals  a t r u l y p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge o f t h e  h a b i t s o f b i r d s arid o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i r matched b y a great  skill  i n depicting birds i ntheir individual  s h a p e s a n d t h e i r t y p i c a l movements."-^ movements o f v a r i o u s pattern  For i n s t a n c e ,  2  Even t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  g r o u p i n g o f a number o f b i r d s o f t h e same s p e c i e s i n Frederick's  l i k e l y t o be f l y i n g one b y one, By in  1400,  t h e wing  b i r d s a r ed i f f e r e n t i a t e d , as w e l l as t h e  and d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i r f l i g h t .  ' i s observed, while  flight,  flying  together  t r e a t i s e such groups are  i n orderly  the Lombard s c h o o l  rows.  produced another  a n i m a l s t u d i e s , G i o v a n n i n o de G r a s s i  more  specialist  (or Giovanni dei  Grassi),  33 who  worked f o r the V i s c o n t i  engineers working on M i l a n  a n d was a l s o l i s t e d cathedral.-^'  m e n t i o n e d i n 1389,"and i n 1391 B e t w e e n 1392  Giovanni i s  i nconnection with  first  the cathedral.  a n d 1398 when h e d i e d , h e was a s s o c i a t e d  s e v e r a l commissions:  a gilded r e l i e f  d e s i g n f o r windows,- t h e the  among t h e  with  for thecathedral,  a  p a i n t i n g o f s a c r i s t y s c u l p t u r e , and  i l l u m i n a t i o n o f t h et r a n s c r i p t of Beroldo's Treatise on  3 .the The  Usage o f M i l a n organic  Cathedral  ( B i b l i o t e c a T r i v u l z i a n a Cod.'2262).-  quality o f thearchitectural decoration  m a n u s c r i p t l e n d s s u p p o r t t o "the  in  this  a t t r i b u t i o n t o Giovanni o f a  s k e t c h b o o k o r ' t a c u i n o ' a t Bergamo, w h i c h c o n t a i n s a number  36  of  interesting The  MS^VII.  animal  studies.  Bergamo T a c u i n o  14) c o n s i s t s o f a b o u t s i x t y p a g e s f i l l e d m o s t l y w i t h  studies of a n i m a l s . ^ called are  ( B e r g a m o B i b l i o t e c a Communale  T h i s s e t o f drawings can perhaps  be.  the f i r s t r e a l z o o l o g i c a l p i c t u r e book, a l t h o u g h t h e r e  still  a few m y t h o l o g i c a l c r e a t u r e s ,  such as the u n i c o r n ,  38 t h a t are r e t a i n e d from the medieval b e s t i a r y .  The n a t u r e -  of  t h i s volume o f drawings needs e x p l a n a t i o n ,  we  have b e e n d e a l i n g w i t h m a n u s c r i p t s whose p r i m a r y p u r p o s e  was  the transmission of a t e x t ,  s i n c e up t o  and t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n s  now  were  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o n t e n t o r were a d e c o r a t i v e a d j u n c t t o the  written material.  example o f t h e a r t i s t ' s in  I n t h e Bergamo T a c u i n o we  encounter  s k e t c h b o o k s w h i c h become more f r e q u e n t  the f i f t e e n t h century.  The  animal drawings i n t h i s  m a n u s c r i p t are n o t s k e t c h e s i n t h e modern sense, s i n c e  they  are  are  n o t rough d r a f t s o f an e x p e r i m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r , b u t  f i n i s h e d d r a w i n g s t o w h i c h n o t h i n g need be added. de H o n n e c o u r t ' s  drawings mentioned  (Villard  e a r l i e r w o u l d more  a c c u r a t e l y q u a l i f y as ' s k e t c h e s ' . )  A number o f t h e a n i m a l  m o t i f s f r o m Bergamo h a v e b e e n r e c o g n i z e d i n  contemporary  m a n u s c r i p t i l l u m i n a t i o n s w h i c h a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t o be  39  Grassi himself. in  •  an  That i s ,  by  t h e d r a w i n g s i n Bergamo a r e f o u n d  almost i d e n t i c a l form i n manuscript p a i n t i n g s which  c e r t a i n l y considered f i n i s h e d works.  That the drawings  are are  nature and  studies i s unquestionable,  a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l has  t r e a t i s e r e l i e d on  the  no  since t h e i r  precedent.  characteristic  sensitivity  While the C o c h a r e l l i  s h a p e a n d movement o f  b i r d s f o r l i k e n e s s , t h e Bergamo d r a w i n g s i n c l u d e modelling  and  such f i n e d e t a i l  interior  a s f e a t h e r m a r k i n g s and  convey a d i s t i n c t i o n between the  the  even  texture of the feathers  of  v a r i o u s p a r t s o f a b i r d ' s anatomy ( e . g . t h e v u l t u r e on f o l i o verso).  The  l a c k o f s p o n t a n e i t y i n some o f t h e d r a w i n g s  has  41 been c i t e d but  as p r o o f  that they  p o s s i b l y workshop c o p i e s .  l i t t l e movement, i n d e e d motionless  s t a t e , and  are not t r u e nature Admittedly,  the  many a r e p o r t r a y e d  studies,  animals  i n an  absolutely  a p p e a r i n many c a s e s a s t h o u g h  " e x h i b i t s o f a z o o l o g i c a l museum and  not l i v i n g  show  the  specimens  had  42 been the a r t i s t ' s models."  Indeed, a l l the  carefully  o b s e r v e d d e t a i l s o f plumage would have been i m p o s s i b l e artist  had  had  a l i v i n g model.  that naturalism f i r s t of f a c t s ,  and  o n l y a f t e r t h i s had  animal  alive.  remembered i s  took the form of accurate  on t o t h e more d i f f i c u l t aim of the  What must be  observation  b e e n m a s t e r e d d i d i t move  of s e i z i n g  As P a c h t h a s  i f the  the d e f i n i t i v e  put i t , "nature  aspect  study  in  43 art  d i d not  ( E g . MS  3127  s t a r t w i t h making snapshots." folio  1 verso,  J  Previously  the hawking scene i n  the  C o c h a r e l l i m a n u s c r i p t ) , when t h e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c movement o f  the  even w i t h r e l a t i v e  animal  o r b i r d was  the renderings  realized  w e r e a l w a y s %o m i n u t e t h a t t h e r e was  success, no  room  13  for contradictory detail. is  not compatible  In fact,  with the rendering  accurately observed  o f movement, w h i c h i s  almost always n e c e s s a r y t o convey t h e sense o f l i f e naturalism  at i t s ultimate.  detail  that i s  The c h r o n o l o g i c a l l i m i t s o f t h i s  s t u d y do n o t p e r m i t t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s t y p e o f n a t u r a l i s m , which i s not achieved  b y any a r t i s t u n t i l L e o n a r d o , and b y  very  few even a f t e r him.  also  s u f f e r from t h i s  Diirer's nature  'nature  n e e d n o t go s o f a r a f i e l d .  s t u d i e s , f o r example,  morte' character.  Flemish  in  a fragment o f nature,  a c r y s t a l prism,  one  get the d e t a i l compatible  understanding the  preserved  flower, or insect,•being  with a l l i t s l i v i n g detail  y e t immovable and l i f e l e s s .  B u t one  p a i n t i n g , and e s p e c i a l l y  the work o f Van Eyck, has t h e q u a l i t y o f b e i n g glass,  :  under  captured  and c o l o r  Only i n t h e pen o f Leonardo does w i t h minute observation  and  o f s t r u c t u r e , as w e l l as t h e i n n a t e v i t a l i t y o f  o r g a n i s m , a n d t h i s p e r h a p s i s c o n v e y e d l e s s b y movement  than b y t h e magic o f Leonardo's The  line.'  development o f n a t u r a l i s m i n p l a n t s t u d i e s i s  i n t i m a t e l y connected w i t h the i l l u s t r a t i o n o f herbals. a n t i q u i t y , the study standpoints—the the  intact  Since  o f p l a n t s had been a p p r o a c h e d f r o m two  p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t h e u t i l i t a r i a n . ^  From  f i r s t p o i n t o f v i e w , b o t a n y i s an i n t e g r a l b r a n c h o f  natural philosophy,  while  from t h e second, i t i s a by-product  of medicine o r a g r i c u l t u r e .  I t i s this latter practical  of view that i s c h i e f l y responsible f o r the existence  point  of herbal  which are not  t r a c t s on n a t u r a l s c i e n c e , b u t  handbooks  of  46' applied  science  t h e h e r b a l was  or manuals on m e d i c i n e .  From t h e  beginning,  a k i n d of d e s c r i p t i v e drug catalogue  t h e r e m e d i e s t o be matter of course,  extracted from vegetable t h e s e manuals had  t h e y w o u l d be  useless  plants listed  c o u l d be  t o be  listed  substances.  illustrated,  to the h e r b a l i s t or doctor identified,  that  As  a  since  unless  the  a doubtful p o s s i b i l i t y  from  mere w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n . In general, the  antique  the medieval herbals ;  prototypes  developed i n Greece.  d e a l i n g w i t h the  are d e r i v e d  system of f o l k  from medicine  That h e r b a l s i n a n t i q u i t y reached a  degree of accuracy i n the p o r t r a y a l of p l a n t s i s evident the  earliest  s u r v i v i n g i l l u s t r a t e d h e r b a l , the  high from  Dioscorides  47 C o d e x A n i c i a J u l i a n a e o f c i r c a 5 1 2 A.D., The  now  i n Vienna.'•  ancestry of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t e x t should  i n t e r e s t h e r e , s i n c e i t ' s a n t i q u i t y amply i l l u s t r a t e s ^continuity of t r a d i t i o n i n the unbroken from the  area of herbals that  second c e n t u r y  B.C.  to the  be  of  the goes  sixteenth  and  even beyond. D i o s c o r i d e s , who i n the  first  century  was  born i n Asia Minor  probably  o f t h e C h r i s t i a n e r a , c o m p i l e d t h e ..  w r i t i n g s o f an e a r l i e r p h y s i c i a n , C r a t e v a s , k i n g M i t h r i d a t e s i n the  second century  B.C.  who  served  the  P l i n y noted  that  Cratevas produced a herbal w i t h  colored pictures of plants,  and  compilations  although  t h i s was  lost,  the  of  Dioscorides,  t i t l e d De M a t e r i a M e d i c a . c u l l e d f r o m a number o f w r i t e r s , who  i n turn followed Cratevas,  about f i v e hundred p l a n t s . Dioscorides  exists.  The  i n c l u d e d the d e s c r i p t i o n of  No  contemporary v e r s i o n of  e a r l i e s t v e r s i o n we  have i s  the  the  V i e n n a C o d e x , made f o r A n i c i a J u l i a n a , t h e d a u g h t e r o f sometime Emperor o f t h e The  West.^  t e x t o f t h i s m a n u s c r i p t c o n s i s t s o f an  account  o f t h e names and  healing properties of c e r t a i n herbs.  D e s c r i p t i o n s are  scanty,  recognized the  and  with certainty.  t e x t o f De The  o n l y a few Yet  p e r f e c t i o n achieved, i n the  are  coloured),  one  individual botanic  can  see  d e f i n i t e l y recognizable.  but were p r o b a b l y E x a m i n i n g a few  315»  since a l l the p l a n t  and The  copied  of  the  portraits the  attention to d e t a i l  to the d i d a c t i c purpose, which  i n c l u d i n g the r o o t s . format, the  The  and  are  only touch of formalism  be  of  ( p a i n t i n g s would  t h a t the treatment of  r e q u i r e d t h a t a p l a n t should  in a rigid  infallible  specimens i s h i g h l y n a t u r a l i s t i c .  p l a n t s are drawn w i t h care  due  almost  period,  of plants i n a n t i q u i t y .  o r i g i n a l observations,  page d r a w i n g s , such as f o l i o  probably  a c c e p t e d as  rendering  p e r h a p s be more a p p r o p r i a t e ,  be  however, i n d i c a t e the degree  from e a r l i e r H e l l e n i s t i c m o d e l s . ^ full  p l a n t s can  u n t i l the Renaissance  M a t e r i a M e d i c a was illustrations,  These are not  a  is  apparently  shown u p r i g h t and  in  total,  Although the p l a n t i t s e l f i s l a i d individual leaves  are drawn from  out a  n a t u r a l viewpoint i n s t e a d of f l a t t e n e d out i n diagrammatic fashion. The n a t u r a l i s m o f t h e s e p l a n t s i s more r e m a r k a b l e if  one r e m e m b e r s t h a t t h e p o r t r a y a l o f i n d i v i d u a l human  p h y s i o g n o m y was byzantine  s h o r t l y t o be c o m p l e t e l y  convention.  During  submerged  by  t h e Dark Ages, t h e h e r b a l  i l l u s t r a t i o n s , l i k e e v e r y t h i n g e l s e t h a t was h a n d e d down from a n t i q u i t y , underwent a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h i s type o f i l l u s t r a t e d manual p r a c t i c a l l y  rendered  useless.  Comparison w i t h an i l l u s t r a t e d h e r b a l o f t h e l a t e  eleventh  o r e a r l y t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . ' i s s u f f i c i e n t t o show t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h n a t u r a l i s m had been t r a n s f o r m e d .  A page f r o m a L a t i n  h e r b a l o f A p u l e i u s P l a t o , now i n t h e B o d l e i a n L i b r a r y a t Oxford-50, p u r p o r t i n g t o i l l u s t r a t e  a sword l i l y ,  couch  grass  and r o s e m a r y (one has t o t a k e t h e word o f t h e e d i t o r f o r t h i s ) demonstrates the d i f f i c u l t y t h a t the medieval have had i n t r y i n g t o use t h e m a n u s c r i p t information.  I n the process  h e r b a l i s t must  as a source  o f h a n d i n g down t h e  from copy t o copy, the medieval  of  prototypes  i l l u m i n a t o r , not being  even  an a m a t e u r h e r b a l i s t , . s o o n l o s t t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e o r i g i n a l f o r m s , so t h a t t h e p i c t u r e became t o t a l l y u n r e l i a b l e . - ' * The t w e l f t h c e n t u r y r e v i v a l o f s c i e n c e r e s u r r e c t e d t h e h e r b a l as a p r a c t i c a l manual. ments as t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t helped  of the medical  c r e a t e a n e e d f o r new t e x t s .  also  Such  develop-  school at Salerno  Soon t h e o l d and  new  k n o w l e d g e a b o u t h e r b s was  c o l l e c t e d i n t o an a l p h a b e t i c a l  a r r a n g e m e n t and became w i d e l y c i r c u l a t e d a s t h e Salernitanum.  At f i r s t ,  t h e t e x t was  probably not  but by the e a r l y f o u r t e e n t h century t h i s and  Compendium illustrated,  o m i s s i o n was  t h e Compendium S a l e r n i t a n u m became a p r o t o t y p e  series of i l l u s t r a t e d  rectified,  f o r a whole  herbals.  F o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e e x i s t s an e a r l y e x a m p l e o f L a t i n t e x t that i s of I t a l i a n fourteenth century. ( E g e r t o n ?47)  On  origin  stylistic  and d a t e s  from the  grounds, t h i s  has been g i v e n a south o r c e n t r a l  a d i r e c t descendant of the o r i g i n a l  early  manuscript Italian  p r o v e n a n c e , and i t i s c o n s i d e r e d p o s s i b l e t h a t i t may be  this  even  pictorial cycle that  52accompanied the t e x t .  Compared t o t h e c r u d e  of the t w e l f t h century, the Egerton manuscript g r e a t improvement i n the i l l u s t r a t o r ' s observations. or  -  profile  The  views,  p l a n t s are and  arranged  still  schematization represents  a  a b i l i t y to record h i s  drawn i n e i t h e r  frontal  either decoratively (folio  104v)  as t h e c o n v o l v o l u s , o r s y m m e t r i c a l l y and d i a g r a m m a t i c a l l y t h e p i n e , b u t t h e y now to  render  c o n t a i n enough i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c  identification  p o r t r a y a l s a r e n o t due a w o o d e n n e s s and of plant l i f e .  possible.  to lack of d i s t i n c t i v e  as  detail,  r i g i d i t y that, denies the organic  detail plant but  to  qualities  Such an i l l u s t r a t i o n as t h e p i n e i s c o r r e c t  a s t o d e t a i l , w i t h p i n e c o n e s and rendered,  Their failure  as  needles  but conveys a t o t a l l y erroneous  recognizably concept  of the  whole,  which resembles a p l a n t rather than a t r e e .  Like the Anicia  J u l i a n a codex i l l u s t r a t i o n s , these p l a n t s a r e u s u a l l y not  a s "a g r o w i n g o r g a n i s m , b u t a s a . s p e c i m e n p l u c k e d  the  r o o t s and p r e p a r e d f o r o b s e r v a t i o n The  and  r e a s o n s f o r t h e more n a t u r a l i s t i c  and s e a r c h i n g  out by  study. representation  o f p l a n t s a t t h i s t i m e a r e t h e same a s f o r a n i m a l new c r i t i c a l  depicted  s p i r i t of the time.  life—the  T h e same  c o m p u l s i o n f o r e m p i r i c a l k n o w l e d g e t h a t was m a n i f e s t e d  by  s c h o l a r s l i k e A l b e r t u s Magnus and e v e n F r e d e r i c k t h e Second must a l s o have i n s p i r e d t h e h e r b a l i l l u s t r a t o r s t o c o n s u l t nature,to copied.  v e r i f y o r c o r r e c t t h e p i c t u r e s i n t h e t e x t s t o be But i t i s p o s s i b l e that they also resorted t o  from o l d e r , l a t e  c l a s s i c a l sources,  copying  perhaps l i k e the Vienna  C o d e x , w h i c h h a d f a r more n a t u r a l i s t i c i l l u s t r a t i o n s t h a n t h e more r e c e n t w o r k s .  Such examples were s t i l l  i n l i b r a r i e s i n southern I t a l y , f o rinstance Perhaps o r i e n t a l copying,  although  t o be f o u n d  a t Monte Cassino.^3  h e r b a l s were a l s o a v a i l a b l e i n t h e south f o r t h e o n e e x a m p l e o f an A r a b i c  manuscript  t h a t has been a v a i l a b l e here f o r comparison does n o t encourage t h e i d e a t h a t t h i s was a, s o u r c e f o r t h e n a t u r a l i s t i c An i l l u s t r a t e d page f r o m a n A r a b i c  t r a n s l a t i o n of the  D i o s c o r i d e s , dated from the e a r l y fourteenth not  impulse.  century^-  does  seem t o b e a s w e l l o b s e r v e d a s a c o m p a r a b l e p a g e o f t h e  E g e r t o n MS o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y stylistic peculiarities essentially  t h e same d a t e ,  and o f c o u r s e . i t s  and o r n a m e n t a l q u a l i t i e s  d i f f e r e n t character.  a r e o f an  To s t u d i e s , one  f o l l o w the progress a g a i n has  t o move f r o m s o u t h t o n o r t h ,  t i m e t o P a d u a and V e n i c e the  case i n the f i e l d  of naturalism i n plant this  i n s t e a d o f Genoa and M i l a n as  of animal  studies.  2020)  A h e r b a l i n t h e B r i t i s h Museum ( E g e r t o n MS has  the d i s t i n c t i o n of being  h e r b a l so f a r d i s c o v e r e d .  t h e f i n e s t and  most  naturalistic  T h i s h e r b a l i s an I t a l i a n  o f an A r a b i c t e x t ( S e r a p i o n  was  t h e Y o u n g e r ) a n d was  translation  written  and  i l l u m i n a t e d f o r Francesco C a r r a r a the Younger, l a s t l o r d Padua, as t h e  f r o n t i s p i e c e w i t h h i s c o a t o f arms  S i n c e F r a n c e s c o ' s r e i g n came t o a n e n d  i n 1403,  of  testifies. the  herbal  55 must have been executed p r i o r t o t h a t d a t e .  Unfortunately,  t h e P a d u a n a r t i s t w h o s e w o r k t h i s i s r e m a i n s anonymous,  but  h i s t a l e n t f o r the n a t u r a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l o f p l a n t s i s a t l e a s t on of  a.par w i t h Giovanni  de  Grassi's s k i l l  animals. •It i s n o t  c e r t a i n t h a t t h e C a r r a r a h e r b a l was  f i r s t n a t u r a l i s t i c h e r b a l produced, but i n the e a r l i e r m o d e l s one the  at the p o r t r a y a l  has  absence.of  to grant i t the honour.  At  any  anonymous P a d u a n a r t i s t b r o u g h t a n o v e l t r e a t m e n t  ancient practice of herbal i l l u s t r a t i o n :  instead of  t h e p l a n t s a s e x h i b i t s p u l l e d up b y r o o t s , he  the  rate, to  showing  shows a  living  p l a n t , o r more o f t e n , a p a r t o f a l i v i n g p l a n t s u c h a s s p r a y o f f l o w e r s o r a bunch o f g r a p e s on signifies  a vine.  a f u n d a m e n t a l change i n the p u r p o s e o f  i l l u s t r a t i o n from the  f u n c t i o n a l to the  the  a  This herbal  aesthetic consideration.  The  d i d a c t i c and f u n c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f a l l p r e v i o u s  herbals  was e x p r e s s e d b y s h o w i n g t h e t o t a l p l a n t — i n c l u d i n g t h e r o o t s below t h e ground as w e l l as t h e upper growth, and o f t e n i n c l u d i n g the f r u i t along with the flower. For the f i r s t time i n herbal i l l u s t r a t i o n , the C a r r a r a p a i n t i n g s q u a l i f y as works o f a r t and n o t m e r e l y as expository diagrams. of nature,  The a r t i s t p r e f e r s t h e e m p i r i c a l t r u t h  a casual glance  rather than the abstraction of a  c o m p l e t e p l a n t t h a t i s no l o n g e r The  painting of the convolvolus  to the abstract decorative found appropriate  organism.57  no l o n g e r  curves that e a r l i e r  f o r a climbing vine.  s t e m a r e no l o n g e r life  a flourishing  conforms  illustrators  The c u r v e s o f t h e  r e g u l a r , b u t have, as i t were, an o r g a n i c  o f t h e i r own t h a t d e t e r m i n e s t h e i r movement a c r o s s t h e  page, even c o n v e y i n g a sense o f space and d e p t h .  The n a t u r a l  i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of the plant are l o v i n g l y d e t a i l e d — t h e l e a f and t h e immature t e n d r i l ,  t h e f l o w e r i n bloom and t h e  unopened bud a r e a l l t h e r e , y e t w i t h o u t of the e a r l i e r herbals. itself  the d i d a c t i c  and  gaps l e f t b y t h e t e x t .  and  v e i n s o f t h e grape l e a f , and t h e i n t r i c a t e  t o be i l l u s i o n i s t i c ,  spirit  Now i t i s t h e t e x t t h a t a c c o m m o d a t e s  t o t h e space i n s t e a d o f t h e p l a n t f i l l i n g  growth o f a t e n d r i l  full-grown  i n the margins  D e t a i l such as t h e i n d e n t a t i o n s corkscrew  a r e i n c l u d e d , y e t t h e t o t a l e f f e c t manages l a r g e l y on account o f the i n f o r m a l  arrangement and c o m p o s i t i o n  o f t h e p l a n t s r e l a t i v e t o t h e page.  The n o v e l t y o f t h e C a r r a r a h e r b a l i s o b v i o u s i f it  i s compared t o a n e a r l y c o n t e m p o r a r y m a n u s c r i p t ,  the  L o m b a r d H i s t o r i a P l a n t a r u m (Rome C a s a n a t e n s e MS 459 f o l i o H e r e t h e p l a n t i s shown i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  way, p u l l e d up b y  t h e r o o t s and s p r e a d  out t o form a symmetrical  regular-lobed leaves  and a p a i r o f f l o w e r s t a l k s  together  arrangement o f  T h i s new c o n c e p t i o n  1419 i n V e n i c e  A herbal  by Benedetto R i n i o , a doctor  o f P a d u a , was i l l u s t r a t e d b y a n o t h e r w i s e Andrea Amadio.^  At f i r s t  naturalistic.  o f t h e h e r b a l was s u c c e s s f u l  e n o u g h t o b e i m i t a t e d w i t h much e n t h u s i a s m .  glance,  unknown p a i n t e r ,  almost exact  seem  hand f r o m n a t u r e ,  comparison w i t h the Carrara herbal r e v e a l s  Amadio n o t o n l y d i d n o t do l i f e  compiled  of the u n i v e r s i t y  the i l l u s t r a t i o n s  e q u a l l y t o have, b e e n o b s e r v e d f i r s t detailed  curving  i n an a b s t r a c t h e r a l d i c p a t t e r n , w i t h t h e t o t a l  e f f e c t b e i n g d e c o r a t i v e and f o r m a l r a t h e r t h a n  in  125)•  but a  that  s t u d i e s , b u t a c t u a l l y made  c o p i e s o f a number o f t h e p l a n t s i n t h e o l d e r  59 manuscript. simplified  I n the process the l i t t l e  o f copying,  irregularities  he a b s t r a c t e d a n d  found i n nature  that  w e r e f a i t h f u l l y t r a n s m i t t e d b y t h e anonymous a r t i s t o f t h e Carrara, h e r b a l . While the angular  branches o f t h e grape i n the  C a r r a r a h e r b a l a r e r e a l i s t i c , t h e same b r a n c h i n t h e R i n i o Herbal  has had t h e angles  a piece o f rubber hose.  removed and manages t o r e s e m b l e Similar transformations  i n favour  of decorative abstraction (not always successful) are..visible in the paintings of the popular convulvulus. The achievements of the Italian trecento in descriptive naturalism> were, however, not exploited further by the majority of Italian,artists of the next century, with the,exception of the International School and Pisanello. The representation of the variety of plant and animal life, no matter how far advanced in naturalistic! portrayal, was of little interest and importance to the. Florentines, whose major artists dominated the. quattrocento and. whose ..interests were almost solely concerned, with*.the discovery of perspective and the development of the monumental style and its chief subject, the human figure.  CHAPTER III CONTRIBUTIONS OF THIS ASPECT OF NATURALISM The specific contributions of the naturalistic portrayal of plants and animals in Italian manuscript illustration, therefore falls outside the mainstream of Italian painting, and is concerned chiefly with the North Italian and the International Gothic styles. One aspect of this contribution was a development towards landscape, and in that context a development towards a more total treatment of;space rather than the depiction of single, isolated landscape elements.  Another aspect was an improvement in the  descriptive, gendering of natural objects, both in^terms of their observation,and knowledge about them. . Man's interest in nature was first focused.on individual natural .objects.  Eventually, these objects were v. increasingly  pictured in their natural settings—in actual fact,... in rudimentary and halting attempts at landscape.  The transition.from the observation  and recording of individual natural objects to the perception of landscape as ,a whole can best be traced from nature studies of plants, through the herbals to the Secreta Salernitana and Tacuinum Sanitatis  type manuscripts, which first expanded, the.plant  portraiture pf the simple herbal into 'genre within. a,~landscape * scenes.  Related to this type of manuscript also are..*the early  calendar illustrations which developed from the four seasons, and  r e l a t e d i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the Tacuinum S a n i t a t i s type manuscript i n t o f u l l f l e d g e d landscapes f o r each of the twelve months of the year. The herbal i l l u s t r a t i o n s described i n the previous chapter are merely simple, diagrammatic and d i d a c t i c p l a n t p o r t r a i t s , and are but seldom i n t e r r u p t e d by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of short scenes, u s u a l l y r e l a t e d to the h i s t o r y and u t i l i t y of the p l a n t i n , a loose n a r r a t i v e form.  Sometimes i n herbals of  A r a b i c . o r i g i n , the p l a n t i l l u s t r a t i o n s developed into•»*genre' scenes i f l f . h e r b a l i s t s gathering the plan]t or apothecaries preparing medicines.  I n these examples, the p l a n t s appeared  as part.,of„a scene even where there was no accompanying s t o r y of discovery.  .  It, was t h i s idea of i l l u s t r a t i n g the herbal ..with the ;  p l a n t shown i n a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e t t i n g t h a t from herbal...to landscape.  wasca c r u c i a l  step  This step was taken most. s u c c e s s f u l l y  i n the ..Italian Tacuinum S a n i t a t i s type manuscripts dating from c i r c a 1400...., These Tacuinum S a n i t a t i s manuscripts really«represent a cross, between the a l p h a b e t i c a l l y arranged herbal .compilations of the Secreta S a l e r n i t a n a type which sometimes contain f i g u r e d s c e n e s ( r e l a t i n g t o the p l a n t being i l l u s t r a t e d , and the o r d i n a r y herbals of the Dioscorides type, which merely show the i s o l a t e d  plant f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n purposes. S a n i t a t i s manuscripts  Basically,  the  Tacuinum  were p i c t u r e books i l l u s t r a t i n g  L a t i n t r a n s l a t i o n o f an A r a b i c t r e a t i s e o n h y g i e n e  the  by  A l b u l k a s e m , a C h r i s t i a n p h y s i c i a n o f Baghdad l i v i n g i n eleventh  century.  2  B o t h P a c h t and  B e r t i - T o e s c a have s i n g l e d out  Hispano-Provengal manuscript i n the B i b l i o t e c a i n Florence Secreta  (Cod.Pal.  586)  S a l e r n i t a n a type  illustrations  the  enriched by  a  Nazionale  as a t r a n s i t i o n a l h e r b a l o f  the  t h a t c o n t a i n s numerous p l a n t anecdotal  horticultural  scenes  i n c l u d i n g human f i g u r e s . The  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned Codex Casanatense  459,  e n t i t l e d H i s t o r i a Plantarum, i s also i n r e a l i t y  a  a s s o c i a t e , i f not  Sanitatis  manuscripts.  a forerunner,  o f the Tacuinum  close  In f a c t , i t i s a s o r t of encyclopedia  of  natural h i s t o r y , dealing i n alphabetical order with plants, a n i m a l s - and represents  minerals an  w i t h m e d i c i n a l p r o p e r t i e s , and  a m p l i f i c a t i o n of the Secreta  t r e a t i s e s , which d e a l t only w i t h p l a n t s . apparently chapters  i n c o r p o r a t e s two  b a s e d on n a t u r e  s t u d i e s , and  idea of presenting setting i s also  Salernitana This  novel p i c t o r i a l  dealing with'animals  incorporated.  manuscript  inventions—the  are i l l u s t r a t e d by second, the Tacuinum  the p l a n t or animal  therefore  designs Sanitatis  as p a r t o f i t s n a t u r a l  This type  of i l l u s t r a t i o n , i . e . , the plant i n i t s  n a t u r a l s e t t i n g , d e v e l o p e d a s a new d e p a r t u r e illustrations, and  i n herbal  was e v e n t u a l l y r e i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e o l d e r ,  a l p h a b e t i c a l l y arranged v e r s i o n o f manuals o f hygiene,  the Tacuinum S a n i t a t i s , , which a p p a r e n t l y developed a popular  and l u x u r i o u s m e d i c a l  into  book f o r laymen.  T h i s Tacuinum S a n i t a t i s group c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e manuscripts:  P a r i s E.N. N o u v . A c q . l a t . l6?3; V i e n n a ,  N.B.-  ser.nov,  2 6 4 4 ; a n d Rome, C a s a n a t e n s e , MS r l 8 2 .  of these  i s t h e P a r i s Codex, w h i c h P a c h t b e l i e v e s was  i l l u m i n a t e d b y Lombard a r t i s t s , de'  G r a s s i , i n - c i r c a 1380-90.  The o l d e s t  contemporaries o f Giovannino The V i e n n a m a n u s c r i p t was  p a i n t e d f o r a member o f t h e C e r u t t i f a m i l y b e f o r e t h e m a n u s c r i p t i n Rome a l s o d a t e s f r o m c i r c a  1403, w h i l e  1400.^  I n t h e P a r i s Codex e v e r y p l a n t i s a l r e a d y in  incorporated  a l a n d s c a p e s e t t i n g , b u t o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y , as i n t h e  4 miniature  showing g r a i n b e i n g  harvested  and t i e d i n t o  bundles,  i s the plant i n question f u l l y integrated with i t s setting. H o w e v e r , i n a n o t h e r m i n i a t u r e 5, t h e p l a n t s t a n d s out  i s o l a t e d and  o f proportion, against a backdrop o f unrelated  vegetation,  h e r a l d i c a l l y f l a n k e d b y two f i g u r e s , d i d a c t i c a l l y p o i n t i n g t o the o b j e c t o f t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n . e n t i r e l y n e w — i n C o d e x P a . 586, i d e n t i f i e d b y E. B e r t i - T o e s c a to  Such i l l u s t r a t i o n s were n o t a herbal compilation  as a Tacuinum S a n i t a t i s ,  (wrongly according  P a c h t 6 ) s i m i l a r s c e n e s o c c u r , b u t i n t h e P a r i s C o d e x , a new  dimension—a  narrow  strip  o f l a n d s c a p e and t h e i l l u s i o n o f  space has been added. The m o s t s u c c e s s f u l l a n d s c a p e s a r e t h o s e t h a t grains or rice,  p l a n t s t h a t a r e more c o m m o n l y t h o u g h t o f i n  t h e mass r a t h e r t h a n a s i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s . the problem  illustrate  For the a r t i s t  o f c o m p o s i n g a number o f p l a n t u n i t s d o e s n o t e x i s t ,  and t h e r e f o r e t h e l a n d s c a p e i s n o t a c o n g l o m e r a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l objects-but  r a t h e r a n i n t e g r a t e d w h o l e i n w h i c h t h e human f i g u r e s ,  the peasants labouring i n the countryside, surroundings.  Because t h e scene  nature rather than constructed,  belong t o the  as a t o t a l i t y i s s t u d i e d i tapproaches  from  a degree o f  i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n t h a t i s uncommon e v e n w i t h i n t h e same manuscript as w e l l as f o r t h e p e r i o d . The  l a t e r V i e n n a T a c u i n u m ? a l r e a d y makes  u s e o f t h e more p r o g r e s s i v e The  type o f landscape  s c e n e s a r e more d i s t i n c t l y  scenes, they a r e viewed 7  illustration.  l i k e l a n d s c a p e s and genre  from a greater d i s t a n c e ,  i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t s are l e s s prominent, contrasting vegetation.  extensive  not being  The p r o p o r t i o n s  and t h e isolated  of the plants  against  relative  t o t h e human f i g u r e s h a v e become more r e a l i s t i c , a n d t h e f i g u r e s no l o n g e r go  about  point t o the plant being  t h e i r d a i l y tasks, tending  illustrated,  the plants,  but  gathering  the f r u i t s i n t h e i r natural m i l i e u , which, instead of the i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t , h a s become t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t o f t h e miniature.  T h e f i g u r e s , , t o o , a r e more a b s o r b e d i n t o t h e  setting,  so t h a t t h e m i n i a t u r e s  scenes r o l l e d ' i n t o The however, the  one.  f a c t t h a t i n a number o f t h e m i n i a t u r e s a plant, or mineral,  p a r t i c u l a r occupation, like  but  the  or animal,  rather a specific  new  a storm or a r a i n f a l l .  weather  This  i s  becomes  the p o r t r a y a l of the four  of  the  some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  o r p l a y , becomes a mere a c c e s s o r y .  Lorenzettis frescoes,  of  p r e v i o u s l y the r a i s o n d'etre  s e t t i n g , t h e human f i g u r e s p e r f o r m i n g  out,  even a  condition  subject m a t t e r — t h e setting i t s e l f  s u b j e c t , and w h a t was  labour  nor  the  t h e f o u r s e a s o n s , o r some p h e n o m e n o n o f  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h them l i k e completely  genre  most remarkable i n n o v a t i o n of the Tacuinum i s ,  s u b j e c t i s not  nature,  a r e b o t h l a n d s c a p e and  As  seasons had,  s t i l l been achieved  Pacht  points  i n Ambrogio  b y means o f  allegorical figures. On is  the  a miniature  recto of f o l i o  entitled  57  of the V i e n n a Tacuinum  "Ventus o r i e n t a l i s " ,  w h i c h t h e w e a t h e r can be  s a i d t o be  a scene i n  the p r i n c i p a l  subject  matter.  A woman i s shown h u r r y i n g t o w a r d a c a s t l e d o o r ,  covering  h e r head w i t h h e r m a n t l e , a c h i l d h a n g i n g on  her windblown s k i r t s . abruptly rising h i l l against  On  are bending i n the  t r e e s on  stormy wind.  an Above,  a p l a i n parchment background, a c l o u d i s d e p o s i t i n g  i t s b o u n t y upon the l a n d . rain,  the r i g h t , three  to  t o my  knowledge the  I t i s a summer s t o r m w i t h w i n d  f i r s t one i n p a i n t i n g , u n l e s s  e a r l i e r P a r i s Tacuinum a l s o c o n t a i n s  such  scenes.  and  the  On another the  the verso  unusual  of the  same f o l i o  there i s  phenomenon d e p i c t e d i n a s c e n e  "Ventus o c c i d e n t a l ! , s."  Two  hunters  only miniature i n the manuscript w i t h p o i n t e d caps, walking  57,  and  illustrating  i n eastern dress  t h a t shows t h i s  e q u i p p e d w i t h b o w s and  them.  H i l l s frame the landscape  (the  peculiarity)  arrows,  a g a i n s t t h e w i n d , t h e i r l o n g h a i r and b e a r d s  out behind  still  are billowing  on e a c h s i d e , w h i l e  above, beyond the p l a i n parchment background, t h e r e i s p a i n t e d an odd, and is  triangular strip  a b r i g h t orange sun  of blue  sky w i t h f l a m e l i k e s t r e a k s  s e t t i n g behind  the h i l l  the o n l y instance of the i l l u s t r a t i o n of the  manuscript,  p e r h a p s one  manuscript  of the f i r s t  at l e f t .  It  sun i n t h e  such i l l u s t r a t i o n s  ina l l  illumination. Elsewhere,  of f i s h i n g  and  the V i e n n a Tacuinum has  hunting,  of f i e l d s  manage t o c o n v e y t h e v e r d a n t  of grain being  This manuscript  then i s almost a competitor  of the Tres Riches  H e u r e s , and  that  lush  somnolescence, t h a t  e v o c a t i v e f o r such s m a l l , d e t a i l e d  scenes  reaped,  mood o f s t r e a m s a n d  v e g e t a t i o n , o r summer h e a t and unexpectedly  country  are  illustrations.  of the  later c a l e n d a r  m a k e s up i n a b u n d a n c e  and  s p o n t a n e i t y what i t l a c k s o f t h e L i m b o u r g s ' p e r f e c t i o n and refinement.  There i s even a m i n i a t u r e devoted t o  phenomenon o f l i f e r e n d e r i n g as byzantine it  n e g l e c t e d by medieval  art—snow—but i t s  s m a l l w h i t e p a t c h e s on a d e c o r a t i v e ,  and m o s t u n l i k e l y l o o k i n g h i l l  c a n h a r d l y q u a l i f y as a  snowscape.  that  still  i s so m e a g r e t h a t  The  Tacuinum S a n i t a t i s m a n u s c r i p t s g e n e r a l l y have  i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the f o u r seasons d e r i v e d from the  of the year.  These were  ' l a b o u r s o f the months' t y p e o f s u b j e c t s  t h a t w e r e so p o p u l a r i n t h e m i d d l e  ages t h a t t h e y were o f t e n  c a r v e d i n q u a t r e f o i l s on t h e c a t h e d r a l p o r t a l s . and  In these,  a l s o i n the I t a l i a n t r e c e n t o calendar i l l u s t r a t i o n s ,  e m p h a s i s was  o n t h e human a c t i v i t y a n d n o t i t s s e t t i n g .  n o v e l t y o f the Tacuinum seasons'  and  work. S h o r t l y a f t e r the appearance o f the  seasons  landscapes, the f i r s t  comprehensive  c a l e n d a r l a n d s c a p e s i n I t a l y was  residence i n the Torre A q u i l a .  Tacuinum  cycle  room o f t h e  bishop's  This splendid fresco  on a m o n u m e n t a l s c a l e , h a s b e e n c a l l e d b y M o r a s s i r i c h e s t and m o s t c o m p l e t e  of  painted, not i n a manuscript,  b u t as a f r e s c o d e c o r a t i o n i n a tower  The  of medieval  "pittura  cycle,  the  cavalleresca".^  a u t h o r o f t h i s c y c l e i s unknown, b u t i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t  i t was  p a i n t e d b e t w e e n . 1390  and  1419,  during the  bishopric  o f George o f L i e c h t e n s t e i n .  However, t h e o u t e r l i m i t - o f  d a t e s , c a n be f u r t h e r r e d u c e d  t o 1407,  had  The  i l l u s t r a t i o n s i s t h a t the  s e t t i n g b e c o m e s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e human f i g u r e s their  the  t h e y e a r when t h e  these bishop  t o f l e e f r o m T r e n t o , b e c a u s e on one o f t h e f r e s c o e s a  'contemporary  legend r e f e r s to the entry of Frederick of  A u s t r i a i n T r e n t o , p r o v i n g t h a t t h e f r e s c o e s must a l r e a d y have been t h e r e a t t h a t date.^"  The. a t t r i b u t i o n o f t h e f r e s c o e s i s n o t a s solved. French,  They have been c o n s i d e r e d I t a l i a n , or a combination  M o r a s s i . h i m s e l f has stylistic  easily,  German, and  even  41  o f a l l t h r e e b y a number o f s c h o l a r s . -  t r i e d t o analyze the i c o n o g r a p h i c  and  p e c u l i a r i t i e s of the f r e s c o e s , n o t i n g t h a t the  architecture,  t h e v e g e t a t i o n , and  of the peasants the a r t i s t .  i n the f i e l d ,  even the monthly  activities  point to a northern origin f o r  M o r a s s i p o i n t s t o . s u c h c l u e s as t h e l a t e f l o w e r i n g  o f t h e meadows, t h e l a t e r m a t u r i n g  o f t h e g r a i n , and  the  fact  t h a t m o s t o f t h e f i g u r e s a r e b l o n d and d r e s s e d i n t h e  northern  style.  around  The  decorative details  the windows belong trecento.  t o the Lombard-Veronese s t y l e of the  S t e f a n o d a Z e v i o i s c o n s i d e r e d and  as t h e a r t i s t ,  then  arid M o r a s s i h i m s e l f l e a n s t o w a r d  v i e w t h a t t h e a r t i s t who t h e same a r t i s t who epiphany  such as t h e m e d a l l i o n s  and  r e c e n t l y , G.  Inama has  Weingartner*s  a l s o i n a campanile suggested  the f r e s c o e s i n a i n Merano.^  2  chapel  Most  t h a t the I d e n t i t y of  a r t i s t I s m a s t e r W e n c e s l a s , p a i n t e r o f T r e n t o , who  the  i s  m e n t i o n e d i n t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e c o n f r a t e r n i t y o f San i n A r l b e r g , and who  was  the frescoes representing the  i n a church of Bressanone,  in Riffiano,  rejected  p a i n t e d the Torre A q u i l a c y c l e  produced  late  Cristoforo  p r o b a b l y s e r v e d the b i s h o p George o f  L i e c h t e n s t e i n , d u r i n g whose r e i g n t h e T o r r e A q u i l a  was  decorated with frescoes.*^ W h a t e v e r t h e a c t u a l i d e n t i t y o f t h e a r t i s t may  be,  s t y l i s t i c a l l y the f r e s c o e s confirm h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l g o t h i c predilections.  Incongruous  a s i t may  seem, t h i s m o n u m e n t a l  f r e s c o c y c l e i n every respect f o l l o w s the conventions of  the  c a l e n d a r c y c l e s i n F r e n c h b o o k s o f h o u r s , and i n c e r t a i n p a r t i c u l a r s i t has  a c l o s e resemblance  t o t h e famous c a l e n d a r  i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n the T r e s R i c h e s Heures by t h e  Limbourg  brothers.  A d e t a i l e d examination of the i n d i v i d u a l  reproduced  by M o r a s s i bears t h i s out.  general aspect of the amounts a l m o s t  To b e g i n w i t h , t h e  scenes, t h e i r wealth of d e t a i l  to busyness,  suggests the t r a i n i n g of  m i n i a t u r i s t and i l l u m i n a t o r . with the p r i n c i p a l  scenes  The  arrangement o f the  actors i n the foreground, u s u a l l y  that the figures, the  g e n t r y p u r s u i n g t h e i r p l e a s u r e s , and t h e s m a l l e r f i g u r e s the peasants  toiling  a t a v a r i e t y o f tasks i n the  of  background,  suggests the a r t i s t ' s preoccupation w i t h juxtaposing the s o c i a l c l a s s e s , a c o n v e n t i o n t h a t was  p o i n t e d o u t as a m a j o r  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t y l e by The  s i z e of the background  Panofsky.^  f i g u r e s does n o t , however, d i m i n i s h  t o t h e same e x t e n t a s , f o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e T r e s R i c h e s b u t h e r e t h e unknown a r t i s t may f o r the requirements  have been t r y i n g  Heures,  t o compensate  o f v i e w i n g a l a r g e s c a l e f r e s c o whose 1c  u p p e r p a r t s a r e some d i s t a n c e a b o v e e y e - l e v e l . t h e months the f i g u r e s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d on  I n many o f  a 'winding  paths'  p a t t e r n , p o i n t i n g to the e a r l y quattrocento compositions the Adoration of the Magi, w i t h the c o l o r f u l r e t i n u e of  of the  kings winding  i n zig-zag f a s h i o n i n t o the background.  are t h e scenes o f A p r i l , compositions  Such  O c t o b e r and November, and even t h e  f o r J u n e and J u l y g i v e t h i s i m p r e s s i o n  at f i r s t  glance. The and  major d i f f e r e n c e between t h e Torre A q u i l a  the Tres Riches  Heures occurs  i n c e r t a i n o f the landscape  elements,'most n o t a b l y i n the h i l l s t h a t f i l l of the p i c t u r e .  frescoes  I n the Tres Riches  the upper p a r t  Heures, these  are naturalistic,  rounded and g e n t l y r o l l i n g , w h i l e i n t h e T o r r e A q u i l a  frescoes  i6 they  are s t i l l  s t e e p l y r a g g e d and b y z a n t i n e  There i s , however, l i t t l e  i n appearance.-'  d i f f e r e n c e between t h e Torre  f r e s c o e s and t h e T r e s R i c h e s  Aquila  Heures as f a r as t h e r e l a t i v e  p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e t o t h e human f i g u r e s i s c o n c e r n e d , nor i s t h i s t o be e x p e c t e d u n t i l w e l l , i n t o t h e f i f t e e n t h I n each case,  century.1'7  t h e f i g u r e s and t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e a r e n o t drawn  to  t h e same s c a l e , w i t h t h e f i g u r e s b e i n g  to  the buildings.  l a r g e i n comparison  I n the case o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n ,  o f t h e May scene i n t h e T o r r e A q u i l a r e v e a l s  a  close-up  the.artist's  r e l i a n c e on the decorative, p a t t e r n o f Gothic t a p e s t r i e s ^ " . S u c h f l o w e r s t r e w n meadows a r e a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e Tacuinum S a n i t a t i s i l l u s t r a t i o n s , same s o u r c e ) , f o r e x a m p l e F i g u r e an i l l u s t r a t i o n  (probably d e r i v e d from t h e 179,  p . 293  i n Morassi,  where  i s reproduced from the Casanatense manuscript  i n Rome, s h o w i n g l a d i e s s i t t i n g  i n a f i e l d picking flowers.  The illustrations  r e l a t i o n t o the Tacuinum S a n i t a t i s i s not altogether s u r p r i s i n g ,  s i n c e George o f  L i e c h t e n s t e i n , the patron of the Torre A q u i l a was  t h e second owner o f t h e V i e n n a Tacuinum  Kost l i k e l y , then, the a r t i s t  ( a n d one  Lombard o r i g i n o r t r a i n i n g ) had  type  artist,  Sanitatis.  has t o suppose h i s  access to the bishop's  m a n u s c r i p t and u s e d i t a s a m o d e l f o r h i s c a l e n d a r c y c l e . T h i s V i e n n a m a n u s c r i p t i s o f Lombard o r i g i n , w h i c h  could  a c c o u n t f o r t h e n o r t h e r n , and e v e n d e c i d e d l y I n t e r n a t i o n a l Style, tendencies of the Torre A q u i l a  frescoes.  The more o b v i o u s d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two  calendar  c y c l e s i s t h e f a c t t h a t i n t h e T o r r e / o u i l a c y c l e t h e human activity whole.  assumes a more i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n each  scene as  a  Y e t , i n s o f a r as t h e development o f l a n d s c a p e as  a  subject f o r p a i n t i n g i s concerned, are  t h e most advanced  the Torre A q u i l a frescoes  s i n c e the c o u n t r y s i d e o f Ambrogio  L o r e n z e t t i i n the Palazzo P u b b l i c o i n S i e n a . of  The o b s e r v a t i o n  the d i v e r s e aspect of the landscape throughout the year i s  remarkable,  and i n one  i n s t a n c e perhaps  J a n u a r y i l l u s t r a t i o n , a group themselves  even unique.  I n the  o f l o r d s and l a d i e s a r e d i s p o r t i n g  o u t s i d e t h e c a s t l e g a t e s , w h i l e two  peasants  accompanied by dogs are h u n t i n g r a b b i t s - - b u t remarkably this quite  s t a n d a r d s c e n e t a k e s p l a c e i n a snowy- l a n d s c a p e  t h e l o r d s and l a d i e s a r e a c t u a l l y h a v i n g a s n o w b a l l I f one  enough, and  fight.  can a c c e p t t h e d a t i n g o f t h i s c y c l e as p r i o r t o  140?,  then surely this is the first genuine snow landscape in painting, ..and the February miniature of the Tres Riches Heures has to relinquish its claim to this distinction.*9 "jo be sure, the fresco artist has not been as successful in the rendering, of.this natural phenomenon as the Limbourgs-—in the Torre Aquila, the snow covers the ground, but there a r e no traces of ,i.t,;ion the castle roof, or on the trees, most of which still appear,to have their foliage intact, although.the snow is deep enough for the peasants to sink in i t above>the.ankles.^ It is worth..remarking, however, that the gentry appear not to be inconvenienced by the depth of the snow since their feet a r e in full*,view.  A detail of the hunter with the rabbit^also confirms  that the commoners are treated in a more naturalistic^way—he is bundledup, in a hood and mittens against the cold, .-while the ladies ..tossing snowballs are sporting unseasonal decolletage. i,.  The contribution of manuscript illustration to the  development,of landscape is easy to describe, but,it,is rather more difficult to assess its total impact on the*d.evelopment of the genre as ,a whole, since simultaneously with the advances in manuscript,, illustration, apparently unrelated developments (with the exception noted above) towards the mastery of-total space were also occurring in the media of panel and fresco paintings. ,,  ,It  twas  Sienese taste that was always more favourably  predisposed to the idea of landscape than the Florentine. Duccio's  Maesta,  completed between 1308  and 1311,  includes several  w i t h l a n d s c a p e s e t t i n g s , among them the Agony i n the  scenes  Garden,  t h a t d i s p l a y s a remarkably p o e t i c s e n s i b i l i t y towards n a t u r e , as w e l l as a f e e l i n g f o r space.  In contrast, Giotto's compositions  were always, f a r more concerned w i t h the human drama t h a n w i t h i t s s e t t i n g , o t h e l a t t e r b e i n g m e r e l y an a d j u n c t t o t h e f o r m e r . ,...  Simone M a r t i n i ' s G u i d o r i c c i o  (1328), a l t h o u g h s p a t i a l l y  p r i m i t i v e , - y e t e x p r e s s e s a no l e s s e r l y r i c  sensitivity  towards  the c o u n t r y s i d e , w h i l e somewhat l a t e r , Ambrogio L o r e n z e t t i ' s Good Government i n the C o u n t r y f r e s p o marks a m i l e s t o n e i n t h e s p a t i a l r e n d e r i n g o f panoramic  views.  However, i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h ; . * r e l a t i o n s h i p between.Ambrogio's unique and seemingly  unprecedentedaachievement  and the,more>jgradual and l e s s s p e c t a c u l a r progress..made m a n u s c r i p t . . i l l u s t r a t o r s , s i n c e the concept o f the l a n d s c a p e was  n o t f o l l o w e d up.  the B l a c k . D e a t h i n and a f t e r 1348  b y the  panoramic  The s p i r i t u a l d e v a s t a t i o n f o l l o w i n g appeared t o p r e c i p i t a t e a  withdrawal.,from the w o r l d , m a n i f e s t e d i n a r t by a - r e t u r n t o c o n c e r n s o f an a b s t r a c t and t r a n s c e n d e n t a l q u a l i t y . 1,..  The more l i m i t e d medium o f m a n u s c r i p t  illustration  does n o t * seam t o have been a f f e c t e d t o the same e x t e n t , and when n a t u r a l i s t i c - . c o n c e r n s a g a i n reappeared i n p a i n t i n g at.*the t u r n o f the f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n N o r t h I t a l y , t h e y o c c u r r e d i n m a n u s c r i p t i l l u s t r a t i o n rather than i n panel p a i n t i n g or f r e s c o .  At the same time that a more total treatment of space developed from the interest in rendering individual natural objects, the accuracy of both observation and rendering improved considerably. The improvement appeared not only in the recording of what was observed, but also in the increase of knowledge about,the plants and animals that were subject to observation. The improvement becomes evident i f one .compares the earliest example of naturalistic plant portrayal discussed here, i.e., the illustrations in De Arte Venandi, with~.the .drawings of Giovanni:de Grassi and Pisanello. That progress should have been made in the degree of naturalism achieved is not of,,course surprising,, ,since the art of painting and drawing ..developed over ;  the course, of approximately one hundred and fifty,,years.  It is  remarkable, however, that the nature of the interest that prompted observation in the time of ,Frederick II was still .the ,<same in the time, of.de Grassi and Pisanello. That is, the primary object of the (.artist was still the accuracy of representation in itself. Stylistic, features are of course another consideration, but in essence-the anonymous illustrator of the falconry.treatise was concerned..,with the transmission of knowledge about the subjects of his,art, ~.as were de Grassi and Pisanello. This-is^especially true i f ..one,considers for comparison the finished manuscript illustration ,of the earlier period, and only the drawings in the sketchbooks of the artists of the early quattrocento.  Although in many cases these sketchbooks contain what we would consider to be finished studies, they differ from the earlier manuscript in that they were not intended to be used as drawings, but were made for later use as models for paintings. JThus they too are.concerned with the transmission of accurate visual data. \.  Taking first for comparison a greyhound from folio 12  recto of the falconry treatise, and one from the sketchbook of 21 ;  Giovanni de Grassi, it is obvious that in the case of this animal both artists..iConsidered the profile view to be the..mosjt characteristic. Indeed, throughout the manuscript, the animals are.generally shown in profile, .with a few exceptions in the case of- birds, where occasionally^a profile body will have a head turned frontally. The differences in treatment occur chiefly in the interior modelling.- In De Arte Venandi, the hounds have a profile silhouette, with only one or two lines near the belly within the outline to suggest,three dimensionality, and a few spots across the back to give,an.idea of the texture of the coat.  In de Grssi's drawing,  the muscles of neck and shoulders are modelled, as ,well as the sinews, of the legs, and even the claws on the ..paws, have been observed. Also the body how has more substance, not only because of the modelling, but also because the form itself is less attenuated and conforms less to a preconceived idea of the animal. No doubt the thirteenth century illustrator was accurate enough to describe the animal sufficiently for identification, but the stylistic means available to him limited the amount and kind of information that  he could convey.  If one compares the falcons in the manuscript  with a falcon drawn by Pisanello," similar conclusions can be drawn. The manuscript falcon, on folio 1 verso, is shown from the back, resting on the falconer's hand. However, the artist apparently .did not feel that a rear view was sufficiently informative,.,since the falcon's head is shown in. profile to redress the inadequacy of the rear view. Pisanello's hooded falcon, on the other hand, is.shown completely from the back, as-it perches on a gloved.,hand, and yet no information is lost from,-the lack of a profile-of the head. The manuscript illustrator, had shown a compact. silhouette—Pisanello's is compact also,.,but it allows for greater* detail, such as the hunching of the wings,at the shoulders, and the ..overlapping of one wingtip over the other to break the smooth .outline. The earlier artist had drawn in. the*scalloped pattern formed by the feathers, but Pisanello has.,gone even further, and has, indicated by fine hatching the textures as well as the pattern.,.of _the fea;thers.  Even the fine and coarse .feathers are  differentiated by a difference in the firmness ofthe~hatched r  lines, i, It ..could of course be argued in both the..examples cited above that the difference in scale accounts for the .difference in the amount.,of detail shown. However, the very fact .that in the thirteenth.cantury it was only in miniatures that.this type of illustration,(Was found indicates that the amount, of .information conveyed in this form was considered sufficient.  By the early  fifteenth century, however, demands on the artist for greater versimilitude to nature apparently were far more stringent, and the artists* technical ability had developed to satisfy this demand of taste.  CONCLUSION The naturalistic description of plants and animals that has here been examined was never, during the two centuries under study, a major concern of Italian art, but i t represented an important minor interest that eventually surfaced in the first half of.the..fifteenth century, during the heyday of the International Gothic Style. , -This style, first so named by Louis Courajod, came late under scrutiny, and it was only in the latter part.of the nineteenth century that; its florescence began to be studied for its own sake rather;.than as a foil for the antithetic developments of the 1 Renaissance.. .This International Gothic Style, so-called., not because i t was widespread, but because i t incorporated diverse. national tendencies, was formulated in France, Paris, and'Burgundy about the year 1400. In Italy, i t flourished in the first half of the fifteenth century and was still practised by artists like Benozzo Gozzoli as late as the 1450's, but it was always localized, being largely native to the North of Italy, and no really major painter, with the exception of Pisanello, is associated with it. The style developed from a fusion of three national tendencie.s: .the Gallic as represented by the French,, the Latin as represented by the Italians, and the Anglo-Germanic as represented by the Flemings. It then spread throughout Europe—to Germany,  Austria, Spain, England, Flanders, and even back to,.Italy by way 2  of multilateral repatriation. The style as a whole incorporates a number of contradictory characteristics:  manneristic tendencies were manifested by an  emphasis on ..calligraphic lines, an excessive refinement' of proportions a love of .variegated color including gold and silver,.and a preoccupation with pattern; and a detailed naturalistic tendency is also.evident in the realistic portraits, recognizable landscapes, retinues with accurately observed animals, and the.rendering of seldom recorded phenomena like night scenes and snowscapes. This latter aspect, the naturalistic one,; has been attributed ,by Panofsky to the Flemish part of the, trio of nationalitie contributing^ to the style.  Nevertheless, the possibility exists  that the,naturalistic vein in Lombard manuscript-illustrations of the Tacuinum. Sanitatis type were a contributing influence in the formulation.of this aspect of the style. While direct proof of this is not, demonstrable, it is possible to prove that ..the ^Franco-Flemish w  masterpiece.of the International Gothic Style, the.calendar of the Tres RicheS;,Heures of the Due de Berry (1416), contains naturalistic elements.for. which precedents can be found in Italian^ and specifically! Lombard, manuscript illustration. Eor^example, the labours,of„the months in the calendar illustrations,are no longer given the. greatest emphasis, since the landscapes.„are given equal, wl  if not,greater, importance. As the previous chapter.has shown, this development was already documented in the Lombard calendar miniatures  of the preceding decade. Another of the Limbourgs' apparent innovations is that the calendar landscape takes up the whole page— again, the Lombard Tacuinum Sanitatis scenes discussed earlier were conceived as full page miniatures incorporating landscapes. Even the seasonal, modifications of thelandscape in the ..Tres Riches Heures are nothing new, since in the Vienna Tacuinum one.,can see some rudimentary,.attempts at picturing snow, and some, more,jsuccessful attempts at describing storms, sunsets, and other.phenomena of weather.  Even a specific example of borrowing is. not ..lacking,  since .the, boar hunt of the December miniature of ...the ..calendar must have, been taken from the sketchbook of the North Italian miniaturist and manuscript illustrator Giovanni de„~Grassi,  who in  turn probably copied this scene from a Roman hunting .sarcophagus.^" External evidence also suggests that Lombard manuscripts may have, been available to the Limbourgs, since the,inventories of the..,Duc de Berry list items called 'ouvrages de Lombardie' which are generally understood to refer to manuscripts&of Lombard origin in the, dukeIs library. ..While Lombard naturalism appears to have,,contributed to. a Franco-Flemish product in the International-Gothic Style, in North Italy,'the Lombard school of manuscript illustrators, with their specializing! in naturalistic plant and animal portrayals, seem to have been among the chief practitioners of the International Gothic Style,, or. were the teachers of those who practised,in,„ the style. At this point, however, the connection between Lombard naturalism and the International Gothic Style as i t was manifested in Italy  becomes rather tenuous, since it is impossible to„establish which takes precedence—the Lombards' influence on the. International Gothic Style, or the influence of this style on existing predilections among the Lombard painters and manuscript illustrators'. The coincidence, however, cannot be ignored. Furthermore, the fact .that Pisanello, the major figure in the Italian International ..Gothic Style, was the chief instrument for improving on the naturalistic animal studies of the earlier Lombard artists is indisputable'. His drawings of animals, for example the one discussed above,,* reach a peak of accurate description that was*not surpassed until Leonardo. These very tendencies toward minute~and accurate detail .suggest that Pisanisllo owed his training to ..manuscript illustrators, possibly in Verona. Pisanello's peculiar genius lay in capturing the essence of the^animals he observed, their characteristic.pose »and peculiar texture,_,,whether that happened to be fur, feathers, ,or> reptilian scale.: .Certain of his early drawings show the influence of Giovanni de Grassi,. and in such drawings as the Leopard and Columns^ the decorative ...•tendencies of the International Gothic, style are quite evident. .However, his later work, like the unfinished Study of a Dog's Head,^, goes beyond decorative pattern and mere-objective observation of externals and seizes the animal's distinguishing traits of.intelligence and submission.  The watercolour studies of birds, including, the falcon previously discussed, are observed first of all with, an objectivity and thoroughness that belongs to the scientist.  This. extreme  concern for detail in the studies of birds results in a static 7  quality.  In at least a few other drawings, for example the Studies Q  of Lynxes, a. Wolf and Wildcat, he mar): o to seize the expressive features of,.the animals as well. , Yet i f Pisanello*s drawings are impartially.gudged, it.^ is clear that frequently life and movement eluded, his^-pen. He is superbe and.unsurpassed in rendering detail accurately and minutely, in the.,.craftsmanship of line and its exploitation-for. decorative effect, in the seizure of an attitude—but like the., subjects of the earlier^naturalists, his too retain the qualities.of still-life. It is these^qualities that eventually  Characterize  ..the animals in  a painting, like the Vision of St.Eustace, the same-,qualities that denote,both.the International Gothic Style and the.link with the naturalistic^ manuscript illustrators of the past* Thus the ultimate contribution of'the .naturalistic portrayal, of, plants and animals in Italian manuseript-«illustration was the introduction of a highly developed, and .curious examination of the.,,natural world into a part of the mainstream ..of Italian painting, thereby making a small, but not insignificant mark upon the character of quattrocento Italian art as a whole.  FOOTNOTES INTRODUCTION 1 -Thomas Muro, •'Meanings of Naturalism in Philosophy and Aesthetics," Journal of Aesthetics, Vol. XIX, No. 2, (Winter i960) p. 133. 2  Loc. cit.  3 lLorenzo Ghiberti, I Commentarii, Typescript translation by the staff of the Courtauld Institute of Art. 4 Leon .Battista Alberti, Della Pittura, edited by L. Malle, Florence, Sanson!, 1950* 5 Cennino Cennini, The Book of the Art of Cennino Cennini, translated by C. J . Herringham, London, Allen and Unwin, 1899* 6 Ibid., p. 22-3. 7 Erwin.Ranofsky, Meaning in the Visual Arts, Garden City, New York, Anchor Books, 1955* P« 74. 8 Kenneth Clark, The Nude: A Study in Ideal Form, Garden City, New York, Anchor Books, 1959, p. 32. 9 Cennini, op.cit., p. 76. CHAPTER,-1 1 A* C. Crombie, "Cybo d»Hyeres: A Fourteenth Century Zoologist," Endeavour, 1,952, p. I 8 3 . 2 Loc. cit.; also in T. H. White, The Bestiary^ New York, Putnam's, I 9 6 0 , p. 233• 3 Charles Homer Haskins, The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century. Cleveland, World Publishing, 1963, p. 332. 4 Lynn Thorndike, History of Magic and Experimental Science, Vol. II, New York, MacMillan, 1929, p. 532.  5 Ibid., p. 534.  6 ibid., p. 535. 7 Ibid., p. 536. 8 A. C. Crombie, Medieval and Early Modern Science: Science in the Middle Ages. V-XIII Centuries, Garden City, New York, Anchor Books,-. 1959, p. 142. 9 Loc. cit.  '  10 Cr-pmbie, "Cybo, op. cit., p. 184. M  11 Loc. cit.  12 Thorndike, op. cit.. Vol. II, p. 526. 13 Ibid., p. 540. 14 Cr.ombie, Cybo, op. cit., p. 184. M  M  15 Crombie, Medieval and Early Modern Science, Vol. I, Plate XVI. 16 British Museum MS Royal 12.C.xix, Crombie, ibid., Plate XII. 17 Villard,, de Honnecourt, The Sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt, ed. Theodore Bowie, Bloomington, Indiana University, 1959* p. 51 • 18 Ibid., quoted by Emile Male, The Gothic Image, New York, Harper Torch.Books, 1958, p. 55« 19 Villard-de Honnecourt, op. cit., p. 46. 20 Male... op. cit., figure 2 0 . 21 Crombie, "Cybo," op. cit., p. 184, and Thorndike, op. cit., p. 466. 22 Male, op. cit.. p. 53* 23 Ibid., p. 54. 24 Robert S. Hoyt, Europe in'the Middle Ages,.New York, Harcourt, Brace &.WorJLd, 1957, p. 486. < , . . . . ,  25 Otto PUcht, "Early Italian Nature Studies, and the Early Calendar Landscape," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institute, Vol. XIII, p. 2 2 .  26 W. K. Ferguson, Europe in Transition 1300-1520, Boston Houghton Mifflin, 1962, p. 151. 27 Hoyt, op. cit., p. 56O. 28 PHcht, "Nature Studies," op. cit., p. 22. 29 Gian Gaxeazzo's annual income from his territories, circa 1400, was 1,200,000 florins, according to the estimate of Ferguson, op. cit., p..157. 30 PlirdusiSecundus, The Elder Pliny's Chapters on the History of Art, translated by K. Jex-Blake, commentary and introduction by E. Sellers, Chicago, Argonaut, (1896) 1968, pp. 47, 45, 31. 31 H. B. Gutman, "The Rebirth of the Fine Arts and Franciscan Thought*!.* Franciscan Studies, Vol. 26, (Sept. 1945) pji 217. 32  Loc. cit.  33 Nouyelles Etudes d'Histoire Religieuse, Paris,.,1884, cited loc. cit. 1  34 Henry Thode, Franz von Assisi und die Anfange der Kimst der Renaissance in Italien, Berlin, 1889. 35 Ibid., p. 79. 36 Among them Henri Focillon, "Saint Francois. d'Assise et la Peinture Italienne au Xllle et au XlVe siecles," in Moyen Age: Survivances et Reveils, New York, Brjpntano's, 1943; and Rene Jullian, "Le Franciscanisme et l'art Italienne," Phoebus I, 1946. 37 Gutman,i op. cit., p. 215, passim. 38 Ibid., p. 222. CHAPTER.II 1 C. A.. Wood, Frederick II, The Art of Falconry. Stanford. University .Press, 1943, p. l x i i . 2 Loc. cit.; the microfilm available to me was in black and white only. 3 Loc. cit. 4 Pttcht, "Nature Studies," op. cit., p. 13 ff..  5 C. H. Haskins in Studies in the History of Medieval Science, 2nd ed.» .Cambridge, Mass., 1927, Chapter XIV, quotes some contemporary evidence that,Frederick's copy, captured in Pavia in 1248, contained proper text illustrations. 6 Pacht, "Nature Studies," op. cit. Throughout this chapter, I have had to rely on Pficht's outstanding article on the development of nature studies 4nd Italy's role in this area of art. While PScht does not go deeply into the background of this development, he has brought^most,of the relevant manuscripts (some not published elsewhere) tqg;ether. 7 Figure 8, an illumination from a Moralized Bible, M240, f. 8, French, L-Parris, 1226-34, in Metropolitan Museum of .Art Miniatures: Medieval Vista, New York, 1953. 8 This might be due to the fact that there is a s c e r t a i n stylistic discrpanfy between the emperor's portrait and the avian illustrations proper (according to Vollbapk, quoted and seconded.by Pacht in "Nature.Studies," p. 23, note 3)» It seems to me, however, from the admittedly, inadequate evidence of the microfilm, that there might be still.another hand involved; the illustrations from folio 49v-52 and possibly, folios 58, 58v, and 75 are by a third hand, or at least not by the same hand as the bulk of the bird paintings; the outlines are heavier and thicker, and there is a sonscious attempt at putting the figures and birds in a decorative background of little hills and vegetation which are sharply defined in contour,-that contrasts with the freely disposed and unconfined drawings-of birds and animals found on the other folios. w  9 Folio 76; folios 98, 99* and 100 show a similar sequential action of a man with a falcon mounting a horse and riding away, with one drawing showing the man putting a foot in the stirrup, and on the next .page lifting himself halfway off the ground.* 10 PHcht, ^'Nature Studies," op. cit.. p. _21 " v  11 Ibid., p. 18, also note 2 on same page. 12  Loc. cit.  13 Crombie^ "Cybo," p. 184, cites R. Flowers,-British Museum Quarterly, VIII, 128, 1934. 14 John White, Art and Architecture in Italy 1200-1400, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, Penguin, pp. 384-5» also PHcht, "Nature Studies," op. cit. p. 21.  15 Crombie, in "Cybo," op. cit., p. 187, cites Flowers, op. cit. !. . . . .  J  16 Crombie, loc. cit., citing Flowers; also P. Tjoesca, La Pittura e la Miniatura nella Lombardia, Milan, Ulrico Hoepli, 193-2, p. 411. 17 Crombie, loc. cit. 18 Thieme/Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Kunstler, Leipzig^.1913» Vol. VIII, p. 234. [ 19 PScht, !»Nature Studies," op. cit. p. 21. 20 Crombie, "Cybo," op. cit. p. 187. 21 Pacht, "Nature Studies," op. cit., p. 21. . 22 Otto PScht, The Master of Mary of Burgundy, London, 1948, p. 29, Plate 42a.  23 Pftcht,  Mature  Studies," op. cit. p. 21.  24 Loc. cit., note 4. 25 Pacht,. loc. cit, and in note 5» cites a miniture from Add. MS 2 7695 folio 13 (reproduced in Reproductions from Illuminated Manuscripts, British Museum, Vol. IV, Plate XXX;) The miniature, illustrating the vice of gluttony, shows a Tartar Khan, an oriental subject; the artist also "seems to have aimed at the specific decorative effect typical of Oriental miniature painting and has certainly succeeded in-giving his picture an exotic appearance." I t should also be,mentioned that Genoa carried on cosiderable trade with the Orient. 26 Crombie, "Cybo," figures 1, 2, 4, MS Add.,28841, folios 4, 5, and 7 verso, respectively. 27 Crombie, ibid., had enlisted the staff of the British Museum (Natural-JELstpry) to identify the animals; for example, in folio 4, the insects have been identified as follows:., .beginning top left, and reading clockwise round the margin: caterpillar,. uncertain, possibly Lasiocampid.moth; bumble bee, Bombus rueratus Fab .(?); dragon-fly; Psychid^oth. (?); wasp, gen. Crabro; immature grasshopper, gen. Pholidoptera (?); great peacock moth, Saturnia pyri; butterfly unidentified; reading down centre: Ichneumonid wasp, gen. Gravenhostia; carpet beetle, Attagenus pellio. Similarly exact identifications were possible in folio 5» showing shells and crustaceans, and in folio 7 verso with more insects.  28 There are of c o u r s e , some d i s c r e p a n c i e s ; on f o l i o ? verso, MS Add. 28841, a l i z a r d i s s m a l l e r than a grasshopper and s p i d e r on the same page. 29 One must remember t h a t t h i s manuscript i s r e a l l y a m i n i a t u r e , the pages being o n l y 6£ x 4 i n c h e s , so t h a t even these t i n y c r e a t u r e s had to be reduced i n s c a l e to some e x t e n t . 30 Pftcht, "Nature S t u d i e s , " op. c i t . .  p. 22.  31 F r e d e r i c k I I * s t r e a t i s e a l s o shows g r e a t e r n a t u r a l i s m i n the r e n d e r i n g of b i r d s than i n the human f i g u r e . 32 P * c h t , "Nature S t u d i e s , " op. c i t . . 33 I b i d . ,  p.  p . 22.  5.  34 White, A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e , p. 383.  35 I b i d . , p . 383-4. 36 I b i d . ,  p . 384.  37 P a c h t , "Nature S t u d i e s , " op. c i t . p.  15.  38 L o c . c i t . Only two r e p r o d u c t i o n s , both of b i r d s , were a v a i l a b l e to me besides the drawing of a boar being attacked by hounds t h a t was the model f o r the ' l ' h a l l a l i du sanglier' m i n i a t u r e i n the Tres Riches Heures. 39 L o c . c i t . and p. 16 f o r example, an o s t r i c h i n the Bergamo volume t h a t r e c u r s i n MS 459 of the Casanatense i n Rome, w i t h the t i t l e H i s t o r i a P l a n t a r m u but which PBcht s t a t e s t o be an encyclopedia of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y ; see a l s o note 2 on the same page. 40 But see P a c h t , i b i d . , p. 16, note 2 , f o r another s c h o l a r ' s doubts concerning t h i s . 41 L o c . c i t . .  note 4 .  42 I b i d . , p. 17. 43 L o c . c i t . 44 L o c . c i t .  note 2 .  45 Agnes A r b e r , H e r b a l s . Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1938, p.  1.  46 Charles Singer, "The Herbal in Antiquity and its Transmission to Later Ages," Journal of Hellenic Studies. Vol..XLVII, 1927* p. 1 ff. 47 A full-color facsimile reproduction of this manuscript was available for me to study. 48-Arber, op. cit.. Chapter I, passim. 49 PScht, "Nature Studies," op. cit.. p. 26. 50. MS. Ashmolean 1431, folio 21, reproduced in The Flowering of the Middle,Ages, edited by Joan Evans, New York, -McGraw-Hill, 1966, p. 190. . 51. PScht, in "Nature Studies,",p. 27, and note 1, quotes Pliny's warning about the unreliability of herbal illustrations in the Historia .Naturalis, XXV, 2. 52 Pacht, ibid., p. 28. 53 Loc. cit.. note 4. 54 MS Arab. d. 138, folio 102, in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, reproduced in Evans, op. cit.. p. 190. 55 Pacht, "Nature Studies," op. cit.. p. 30. 56 Ibid., p. 31. 57  Loc. cit.  58 Ibid., p. 30. 59  Loc. cit.  CHAPTER III 1-H. Buchthal in "Early Islamic Miniatures from Baghdad," Journal of -the Walters Art Gallery. Vol. V, Baltimore, 1924, p. 19 ff, believed that these genre scenes were the original invention of the Oriental Dioscorides illustrations, cited by Pacht, ibid., p. 33, note 3. But Pacht, lOc. cit.. demonstrates that these so called 'genre' scenes, originated in late classical herbal Illustrations, since similar genre illustrtions can be found in the two western illustrated herbals in manuscripts in Turin and London.  2 G. Sarton, Introduction to the History of Science, Baltimore, 1931* Vol. II, p. 71. The word 'tacuinum' or 'taqwin' is Arabic for tables, i.e. referring to the arrangement of the text in tables. 'Tacuinum Sanitatis' therefore means tables of health, according to L. Thorndike and G. Sarton, Isis. Vol. 10, 1928, p. 489 ff. The Arabic text, of which no illustrated copies are known, was translated into Latin in the second half of the thirteenth century, probably in Southern Italy, and possibly under the auspices of Manfred, son of Frederick II, between circa 1258 and 1266. Pficht, ibid., p. 35, notel. 3-Eacht, ibid.,, p. 36. 4.Ibid., Plate 12, figure 6  f  5,Loc cit., figure 6. 6.Ibid., p. 36. 7A.facsimile reproduction in colour was.available for me to study in-the Woodward Library. 8,. Pftcht, "Nature Studies," op. cit., p. 37. Two Anglo-Saxon dating from the early eleventh century,in the British Museum (Cotton MSS Julius A VI, and Tiberius B V) have a set of calendar pictures that are similarly lacking in the customary allegorical, figues of the four seasons. See J . C. Webster, The Labours ..of,..the Months in Antique and Medieval.Art,, Chicago, 1938, p. 53 ff, Elates XVII and XIX. manuscriptSi  9 Antonio Morassi, Pittura nella Venezia .Tridentina. dalle origin! alia fine del quattrocento. La Libreria,dello Stato, Anno XII, E. F., p. 273. 10 Ibid., p. 278. 11 Ibid.-, p. 280. 12 Ibid., p. 288. 13 Loc. cit. 14 Erwin, Panofsky, Early Netherlandish Painting, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1966, p. 66. . 15 It is rather difficult to judge from Figure 163, p. 273, in Morassi, op. cit.. just how far above ground level the frescoes are.  16 But not in every scene: the miniature of the Meeting of the Three Magi in the Tres Riches Heures has some typical Italianate cliffs in the background, but the exotic subject matter of the scene may be responsible for this departure from naturalism. 17 Kathryn Bloom in "Lorenzo Ghiberti's Space in Relief: Method and Theory," Art Bulletin, Vol. LI, Number 2,-June 1969, p. 167, suggests that in the Torre Aquila frescoes a common medieval practice of laying relief space out in vertical zones and measuring in simple units of common fractions, is followed. According to Bloom, the panels are ..divided into zones based on the heights of the foreground figures, ..with the June fresco, for example, being.divided into four zones based on the height of the figures in the immediate foreground. Thus the distance from the ehads of the foreground figures to the gate is equal.to the height of the gate; the distnce-fpour-the top of the gatehouse :to the upper frame is slightly greater than-the height of the gate, as is the lower zone. l8,.M6rassi; op. cit., Figure 170, p. 282... 19 Panofsky, Early Netherlandish Painting, p.- 65.20 .It Is, however, difficult to deduce the success of the snowscapes from, a black andwhite photo made from,a fresco in a not quite perfect state of perservation. 21 Enio Sindona, Pisanello, New York, Abrams, Supplementary Illustrations Figure 10. 22 Ibid.. Plate 167. CONCLUSION 1 Henrik Schulte-Nordholt, "Die Geistesgeschichtliche Situation der Zeit urn 1400," in Europaische Kunst urn 1400, May 7 - July 31, 1962, Wien, Kunsthistorisches Museum, p. 28. 2 Panofsky, Early Netherlandish Painting, p. 67. 3 Martin Conway, "Giovanni de Grassi and the Brothers Van Limbourg," Burlington Magazine, Vol. 18, 1910-11, p. 149. 4 All these instances of Italian influence are cited by Panofsky in Early .Netherlandish Painting, p. 64. " 5 Sindona, op. cit., Plate 27.  6 Ibid,. Plate 130. :  7 Ibid., Plates 129, 143, 167. 8 Ibid.. Plates 165, 163.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Alberti, Leon Battista. Della Pittura. Edited by L. Malle, Florence, Sansoni, 1950. Arber, Agnes.  Herbals.  Cambridge, University Press,  1938.  Arslan, Edoardo. "Riflessioni sulla pittura gotica •internazionale' i n Lombardia nei tardo trecento," Arte Lombarda. Vol. 8,  1963, pp. 25-66.  Biese, A. . The Development of the Feeling for Nature i n the Middle Ages and Modern Times. 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