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A study of role perception and performance among agricultural extension personnel in Nova Scotia Morehouse, Ralph Ernest 1968

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A STUDY OF ROLE PERCEPTION ANE> PERFORMANCE AMONG AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION PERSONNEL IN NOVA SCOTIA by RALPH ERNEST MOREHOUSE B.S.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1953  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE i n the Department of Agricultural  Extension  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 196S  In the  presenting  requirements  B r i t i s h Columbia, available mission  for  purposes his  for  I  agree  reference  extensive  without  this  in partial fulfilment  thesis  the  and s t u d y .  copying of  It for  is  Library  this  of  thesis  that  f i n a n c i a l gain  A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  A p r i l 8, 1963  s h a l l make i t  for  Columbia,  freely  that  per-  scholarly  Head of my Department  understood  of  the U n i v e r s i t y o f •  I f u r t h e r agree  my w r i t t e n ' p e r m i s s i o n *  Department  Date  that  may be g r a n t e d by the  of  thesis  f o r an advanced d e g r e e a t  representatives.  cation  this  o r by  c o p y i n g or  s h a l l not  be  publiallowed  i ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s i s a study o f the r o l e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers i n Nova S c o t i a based on the workers* of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r jobs.  An attempt  v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s of the workers,  views  i s made t o i d e n t i f y the  f i n d out who  determines  t h e i r program and i f t h e y are doing the t h i n g s they t h i n k they should be doing.  The data f o r the study was  o b t a i n e d from  responses t o a q u e s t i o n n a i r e by t h r e e types of workers A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , Home Economics R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and Subject M a t t e r S p e c i a l i s t s who  are permanently  employed  by the Nova S c o t i a Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e and M a r k e t i n g . The t h r e e types o f workers agree t h a t t h e y are conformi n g t o t h e i r expected r o l e s but t h e r e are c e r t a i n areas w i t h i n the g e n e r a l scope o f t h e i r work where t h e y would l i k e to change emphasis.  The g u i d e l i n e s s e t up when the a g r i c u l t u r a l  s i o n s e r v i c e was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1926  still  exten-  apply today a l -  though t h e r e have been changes i n methods and a d d i t i o n s t o staff. A l l workers agreed t h a t t h e y had not r e c e i v e d adequate t r a i n i n g i n t h e i r f o r m a l education t o do the s p e c i f i c t a s k s r e q u i r e d by t h e i r job but they f e l t  competent on the b a s i s o f  the t r a i n i n g they have and the experience gained.  They f e e l  programs i n i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g can best help them overcome d e f i c i e n c i e s i n past t r a i n i n g .  ii A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and S u b j e c t M a t t e r lists  base t h e i r  programs on needs i d e n t i f i e d  Specia-  by t h e m s e l v e s and  o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s o f f a r m e r s w h i l e Home E c o n o m i c s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s tend to  determine t h e i r  own p r o g r a m w i t h some i n d i c a t i o n  f a r m women s h o u l d h a v e more e f f e c t  on t h e i r  that  program p l a n s .  W h i l e t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e wants to p l a n programs b a s e d on needs i n h i s a r e a , tolerate  the Subject M a t t e r S p e c i a l i s t would  p r o v i n c e - w i d e programs d e s i g n e d t o  a l l agricultural  increase the  over-  production.  A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and S u b j e c t M a t t e r  Specia-  l i s t s work m a i n l y w i t h t h o s e farmers h a v i n g r e l a t i v e l y  high  g r o s s i n c o m e s s i n c e t h e s e a r e g e n e r a l l y t h e o n e s who a r e m o s t able to  follow  recommended p r a c t i c e s .  Home E c o n o m i c s R e p r e -  s e n t a t i v e s work m a i n l y w i t h farm f a m i l i e s where t h e r e g r o s s income and w i t h n o n - f a r m  i s a low  groups.  A l l workers g e n e r a l l y agree t h a t *job s e c u r i t y ' * , i n program p l a n n i n g , the  ' s a t i s f y i n g experience* of  e x t e n s i o n work, the ' p r e c o g n i t i o n * t h e y get f o r t h e i r 'office  f a c i l i t i e s * and t h e  ' p r e s t i g e * of t h e i r  i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n s why t h e y l i k e t h e i r  doing work,  position  their  are  T h e y do n o t  like  a d m i n i s t e r i n g p o l i c i e s , t h e many n i g h t m e e t i n g s and t h e  fact  t h a t t h e y have l i t t l e  chance t o  job.  * freedom*  'specialize*.  The w o r k e r s b e l i e v e t h e y h a v e a v e r y g o o d  relationship  w i t h f a r m p e o p l e a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s b u t t h e y f e e l t h e y c a n do  their  best  job by b e i n g b e t t e r  and g e t t i n g t h e i r  support f o r  There i s a f a i r  acquainted with programs.  degree of r o l e  c o n c e n s u s among t h e  types o f workers but because of d i f f e r e n c e s differ  individuals  i n some a r e a s o f r o l e p e r c e p t i o n .  in their  There i s  they  general  agreement o f t h e  importance of t h e i r  r o l e s as a p p l i e d  functions  extension service.  Their present  of the  jobs  three  to  performance  i s b a s e d on t r a d i t i o n as w e l l as d i r e c t i o n f r o m above a n d , except f o r  a few i n s t a n c e s , t h e y want t o  performance.  This i s  the r o l e s of  evaluator*,  i n d i c a t e d most s t r o n g l y  'student*,  'organizer of  groups',  'administrator*', 'consultant',  'public relations  'service agent'.  as t h e y  'organizer of  events',  'trainer  'program  o f l e a d e r s ' and  ' p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n ' and  they  'program  The A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e w o u l d s p e n d l e s s information'  w o r k e r s w o u l d s p e n d more t i m e o n t h i s  a r e t h e b e s t methods o f  while the  'demonstrations*  c o m m u n i c a t i n g new i d e a s t o  farmers  a c c o r d i n g t o A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and S u b j e c t Least e f f e c t i v e  'telephone c a l l s '  are  other  role.  ' F a r m v i s i t s * by e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s and  papers',  perform  'program p l a n n e r ' ,  officer',  t i m e i n h i s r o l e as a ' s o u r c e o f  Specialists.  role  They would e s p e c i a l l y i n c r e a s e t h e t i m e  spend on ' p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s ' , planning*.  change t h e i r  Matter  'commercial s o u r c e s * , 'news-  and ' c i r c u l a r  letters'.  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.  PAGE INTRODUCTION  .  ..  1  The A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n Nova S c o t i a 1 Purpose o f t h e Study  7  Procedure-  7  Population  8  Analysis-  9  Review of--the L i t e r a t u r e The  Term Role  1 0  ,.•  1 0  Roles o f E x t e n s i o n Agents II.  1 2  CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA  IS  Age.-'--'--  18  Education  -  -.  19  T r a i n i n g i n Working with People  2 0  U s e f u l n e s s o f Formal Education  2 1  Extension T r a i n i n g  2 2  Length o f S e r v i c e and M o b i l i t y  2 6  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P r o f e s s i o n a l and Other Organizations Summary III.  2S 3 0  ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA'  3 3  V CHAPTER  PAGE Program P l a n n i n g  33  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives  35  Home Economics R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  39  Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s  42  Summary  1+2  T r a i n i n g and Job Q u a l i f i c a t i o n  45  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives  45  Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s  47  Contact With Farmers With D i f f e r e n t Gross Income L e v e l s and Other Groups  47  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives  52  Home Economics R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  53  Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s  54  Summary-  55  R e l a t i o n s h i p With t h e Job R e l a t i o n s h i p W i t h t h e Department  56 56  P r e s t i g e o f t h e E x t e n s i o n Workers' P o s i t i o n  5#  Planning Ahead and Annual Reports  61  S a t i s f a c t i o n W i t h T h e i r Job  6l  D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n With T h e i r Job  64  Summary  66  R e l a t i o n s h i p W i t h Others Farm People and O r g a n i z a t i o n s  67 67  vi CHAPTER  PAGE The E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e  69  Factors Affecting  71  Program P l a n s  Summary  73  R o l e P e r f o r m a n c e and R o l e P e r c e p t i o n as A p p l i e d to Functions of the Extension S e r v i c e  74  Agricultural  76  Representatives  Home E c o n o m i c s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  Sz  Subject Matter  $7  Specialists  Summary  89  R o l e P e r f o r m a n c e and R o l e P e r c e p t i o n as A p p l i e d to  S u b j e c t M a t t e r A r e a s o f Work i n  Extension Service  91  Summary  95  Sources of Information f o r IV.  the  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  Farmers  97 100  BIBLIOGRAPHY  111  APPENDIX  113  vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE I.  PAGE Number o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s Sent and Returned and  II.  Per Cent o f T o t a l f o r Each Job Group  . . . . . . . .  Type o f Worker and R a t i n g o f T r a i n i n g i n Working w i t h People that  V.  2 0 Received  i s Applicable  to Job  2 1  Type o f Worker and Rank Order o f U s e f u l n e s s o f V a r i o u s L e v e l s o f Formal E d u c a t i o n  VI.  i n Methods o f E x t e n s i o n  f o r t h e i r Job  . . . .  i n Past T r a i n i n g  2 4  Types o f Farming and t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Representat i v e s ' Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r His Job  X.  2 5  Length o f S e r v i c e o f 3 Types o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Workers i n Nova S c o t i a  XI.  2 3  Type o f Worker and Best Method o f Overcoming Deficiencies  IX.  2 3  Type o f Worker and Whether o r not t h e y Have Received Adequate T r a i n i n g  VIII.  2 2  Type o f Worker and t h e i r R a t i n g o f Need f o r Training  VII.  1 $  E d u c a t i o n L e v e l o f Three Types o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Workers i n Nova S c o t i a  IV.  9  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Three Types o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Workers i n Nova S c o t i a  III.  . . . .  Length o f S e r v i c e i n Present County o r  2 7 Specialty*  o f Three Types o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Workers i n Nova S c o t i a  . . . . .  .  28  viii TABLE XII.  PAGE P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n V a r i o u s O r g a n i z a t i o n s by Three Types o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Workers i n Nova S c o t i a  XIII.  . . . . .  2 9  Rank Ordering o f 5 Groups on the Basis o f Extent Each Group Determined o r Should Determine County Program  XIV.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 6  Type o f Worker and Rank Importance Given by Each t o Farmers o f V a r i o u s Gross Income L e v e l s and Other Groups I n c l u d e d i n the 'Regular* E x t e n s i o n Program  XV.  . . 4 #  Type o f Worker and Rank Importance Given by Each t o Farmers o f V a r i o u s Gross Income L e v e l s and i  Other Groups I n c l u d e d i n ' S p e c i a l * E x t e n s i o n Programs XVI.  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Type of-Worker and Rank Importance Given by Each to Answering 'Requests Only' f o r farmers o f V a r i o u s Gross Income L e v e l s and Other Groups . . .  XVII.  4 9  50  Type of-Worker and Rank Importance Given by Each to Farmers o f -Various Gross Income L e v e l s and Other Groups w i t h which t h e y Would 'Like to Spend' More Time  51  ix TABLE XVIII.  PAGE Three Types o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Workers i n Nova Scotia  R a t i n g t h e i r Opinions About t h e i r  R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the Department XIX.  5 7  Three Types o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Workers i n Nova S c o t i a  R a t i n g t h e i r Opinions on " P o s i t i o n  i s H i g h l y Respected by Others" XX.  5 9  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Responses t o the Statement: "In Comparison w i t h Other P o s i t i o n s R e q u i r i n g Training,  Similar  t h e E x t e n s i o n Workers' P o s i t i o n i s  H i g h l y Respected by Others" A c c o r d i n g t o Type, Age, and Length o f S e r v i c e o f t h e Workers XXI.  Three Types o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Workers i n Nova  . . . .  60  Scotia  R a t i n g t h e i r Opinions About P l a n n i n g Ahead and E f f e c t o f Annual Reports on t h e i r Work XXII.  . . . . . 6 2  Three Types o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Workers i n Nova  Scotia  R a t i n g t h e i r Opinions about t h e i r S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h V a r i o u s Aspects, o f . t h e i r Job . . XXIII.  Three Types o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Workers i n Nova  6 3 Scotia  R a t i n g t h e i r Opinions About D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h V a r i o u s Aspects o f t h e i r Job XXIV.  Three Types o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Workers i n Nova  6 5 Scotia  R a t i n g t h e i r Opinions About Farmers; Farm and Other Groups  6 8  X  TABLE XXV.  PAGE Three Types o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Workers i n Nova  Scotia  R a t i n g t h e i r Opinions About E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s and t h e i r Job XXVI.  Three Types o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Workers i n Nova  70 Scotia  R a t i n g t h e i r Opinions About F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g t h e i r E x t e n s i o n Program Plans XXVII.  72  R a t i n g by A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and Subject M a t t e r S p e c i a l i s t s o f the Importance o f V a r i o u s Sources o f I n f o r m a t i o n f o r Farmers  9&  xi LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.  PAGE  Percentage  o f A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , Home  Economics R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and Subject  Matter  S p e c i a l i s t s R a t i n g the Extent D i f f e r e n t  Groups  Determine County Programs 2.  Percentage  . . . 37  o f A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , Home  Economics R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and Subject  Matter  S p e c i a l i s t s R a t i n g t h e Extent D i f f e r e n t Should Determine County Programs 3.  Percentage  Groups  • . . . . • • • • • . • 3 $  o f A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , Home  Economics R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and Subject  Matter  S p e c i a l i s t s R a t i n g the B a s i s f o r P l a n n i n g County Programs 4.  Percentage  4 0  o f A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , Home  Economics R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and Subject  Matter  S p e c i a l i s t s R a t i n g t h e Extent C e r t a i n Groups I n f l u e n c e t h e i r Program 5.  . . . . .  .  .  4  1  Number o f A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s I n d i c a t i n g t h e y are Most Concerned, S p e c i a l l y T r a i n e d o r Best Qualified t h e i r Work  i n V a r i o u s Subject Matter Areas o f 4 4  xii FIGURE 6.  PAGE  Number o f Subject M a t t e r S p e c i a l i s t s  Indicating  t h e y a r e Most Concerned, S p e c i a l l y T r a i n e d o r Best Q u a l i f i e d i n V a r i o u s S u b j e c t M a t t e r Areas o f t h e i r work 7.  1+6  Percentage o f Three Types o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Workers i n Nova S c o t i a I n d i c a t i n g Time Spent L a s t Year  (A), and Time they Would L i k e t o Spend (b)  on V a r i o u s Aspects o f t h e i r Work B.  77  Percentage o f Three Types o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Workers i n Nova S c o t i a I n d i c a t i n g Time Spent L a s t Year  (A), and Time they Would L i k e t o Spend (B)  on V a r i o u s Aspects o f t h e i r Work 9.  79  Percentage o f Three Types o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Workers in-Nova S c o t i a - I n d i c a t i n g Time Spent L a s t Year  (A), and Time t h e y Would L i k e t o Spend (B)  on V a r i o u s Aspects o f t h e i r Work 10.  Bl  Percentage o f Three Types o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Workers i n Nova S c o t i a I n d i c a t i n g Time Spent Last Year  (A), and Time they Would L i k e t o Spend (B)  on V a r i o u s Aspects o f t h e i r Work . . . . . . . . . . 11.  Bj  Percentage o f Three Types o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Workers i n Nova Scotia- I n d i c a t i n g Time Spent Last Year  (A),-and Time t h e y Would L i k e t o Spend (B)  on V a r i o u s Aspects o f t h e i r Work  85  xiii FIGURE 12.  PAGE  Percentage  of A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives I n d i c a t i n g  Time Spent L a s t Year  (A), and Time they Would L i k e  to Spend (B) i n V a r i o u s Subject M a t t e r Areas o f t h e i r Work 13.  Percentage  92  o f A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives Indicating  Time Spent L a s t Year (A), and Time they Would L i k e to Spend (B) i n V a r i o u s Subject M a t t e r Areas o f t h e i r Work 14.  Percentage  94  of A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives I n d i c a t i n g  Time Spent Last Year  (A), and Time they Would L i k e  to Spend (B) i n V a r i o u s Subject Matter Areas o f t h e i r Work  96  /  xiv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t o Dr. guidance and a s s i s t a n c e  C o o l i e Verner f o r h i s  i n the preparation  of t h i s thesis.  I would l i k e t o thank those employees o f t h e Nova S c o t i a Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Marketing who took time from a v e r y busy schedule t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . indebted t o Mrs.  I am  J u d i Munro who a s s i s t e d i n t y p i n g t h e f i n a l  d r a f t , and t o Mr. W a l t e r Grant, D i r e c t o r o f E x t e n s i o n , f o r arranging  f o r t a b u l a t i o n o f data.  I would l i k e t o r e c o r d my  g r a t i t u d e t o t h e Province o f Nova S c o t i a f o r g r a n t i n g from my job and f o r p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e  leave  enabling  me t o do t h i s study. L a s t l y , I would l i k e t o acknowledge t h e understanding of my w i f e and c h i l d r e n f o r t h e many hours spent i n s e c l u s i o n w h i l e working on t h e data and s e v e r a l d r a f t s f o r t h i s t h e s i s .  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n Nova S c o t i a A l t h o u g h t h e s p e c i a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n from t h e Dominion Government i n a i d o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e p r o v i n c e s was i n s t i t u t e d i n 1912, none o f t h e s e funds was used f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n work t h r o u g h s p e c i a l agents i n t h a t y e a r i n Nova S c o t i a .  A p o r t i o n o f t h i s a p p r o p r i a t i o n was  s e t a s i d e i n 1913, however, f o r t h e "employment o f men t o c a r r y on d e m o n s t r a t i o n work i n t h e c o u n t r y and a t t h e f a l l 1 e x h i b i t i o n s t o g e t h e r w i t h m a t e r i a l s used f o r t h i s  purpose".  The a n n u a l r e p o r t o f t h e S e c r e t a r y f o r A g r i c u l t u r e f o r Nova S c o t i a f o r t h e y e a r 1916 makes r e f e r e n c e t o s i x men engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n work i n t h e Cape B r e t o n C o u n t i e s and i n A n t i g o n i s h and Guysboro.  T h e i r main  work was d e m o n s t r a t i n g sound a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n and o r d e r l y m a r k e t i n g .  towards  These men  were employed p a r t - t i m e and p a i d from t h e F e d e r a l s u b s i d y 2 for agriculture. D u r i n g t h e y e a r 1921 two r e g u l a r l y employed r e p r e -  1  Secretary Report f o r 1913. 2 Secretary Report f o r 1916.  for The . for The  Agriculture for King's P r i n t e r , . , Agriculture for King's P r i n t e r ,  Nova S c o t i a . Annual H a l i f a x , 1914. Nova S c o t i a . Annual H a l i f a x , 1917.  2 sentatives carried out various kinds of demonstration work to carry improved a g r i c u l t u r a l methods into Inverness County and adjoining parts of other counties and i n a section of Cape Breton County. 3 Federal subsidy.  They, too, were paid from the  In 1922 the Secretary f o r Agriculture reported the following: County A g r i c u l t u r a l Representative work has been commenced, altho not extensively developed. Notably i n Inverness, V i c t o r i a , Richmond, Cape Breton, Antigonish and Guysboro Counties, representatives have been appointed either temporarily or permanently who have done much to promote dairying, to demonstrate e f f i c i e n t methods of Agriculture and generally to carry on an advanced a g r i c u l t u r a l propaganda.^ The Secretary f o r Agriculture, i n his annual report f o r 1923 reported that the p o l i c y of placing agents of the Department i n various d i s t r i c t s of the Province began i n 1913  when the Federal subsidy f o r Agriculture was f i r s t  received.  In 1923 four men were employed i n the four  Cape Breton Counties and one i n Antigonish.  The Secretary  noted: I believe the p o l i c y i s an excellent one and should  Secretary f o r Agriculture f o r Nova Scotia. Annual Report f o r 1921. The King's P r i n t e r , Halifax, 1922. L Secretary f o r Agriculture f o r Nova Scotia. Annual Report f o r 1 9 2 2 . The King's P r i n t e r , Halifax, 1 9 2 3 .  be extended. At the present time requests have been received f o r agents i n Counties of the Province which have not to date had the s e r v i c e s of such men. To the mind of the w r i t e r , the only reason why such requests should not be acceded to i s f i n a n c i a l . 5 On December 2 9 , 1 9 2 5 ,  an Order-in-Council was issued  by the Government of the Province of Nova S c o t i a appointing an A g r i c u l t u r a l Enquiry Committee which i n s t i t u t e d a s e r i e s o f t h i r t y - t h r e e s i t t i n g s throughout the Province i n 1 9 2 6 . The Committee was to recommend a d e f i n i t e and comprehensive a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i c y f o r the P r o v i n c i a l Government and i t presented i t s report at the 1 9 2 6 session of the L e g i s l a t u r e . One recommendation of the Committee was that an A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Service should be formed and t h i s was e s t a b l i s h e d i n May of 1 9 2 6 .  The A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension  Service was to organize a g r i c u l t u r a l work i n r u r a l communit i e s and t o c a r r y d i r e c t l y to the farmer the l a t e s t informa t i o n on  crop production, l i v e s t o c k development, cooperative  marketing and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . P r i o r to the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Service three agents had been doing a g r i c u l t u r a l extension work i n Cape Breton f o r s e v e r a l years and to these were added eight other agents to cover the whole Province.  Thus, although  Secretary f o r A g r i c u l t u r e f o r Nova S c o t i a . Annual Report f o r 1 9 2 3 . The King's P r i n t e r , H a l i f a x , 1 9 2 4 .  6  Department of N a t u r a l Resources, Province of Nova S c o t i a . Report f o r the Year Ended September 3 0 , 1 9 2 6 . The King's P r i n t e r , H a l i f a x , 1 9 2 7 .  If  the year 1913 marked the beginning of a g r i c u l t u r a l repres e n t a t i v e s e r v i c e f o r the people of Nova S c o t i a , i t was  not  u n t i l 1926 t h a t the A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension S e r v i c e was f o r m a l l y established.  Since 1926 Home Economics Representatives,  Farm Management S p e c i a l i s t s , Resource Development Repres e n t a t i v e s , Extension A g r i c u l t u r a l Engineers, 4-H Repres e n t a t i v e s and Regional A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives have been added to the A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension S e r v i c e . In  1964 the Extension Services Branch of the Nova  S c o t i a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and Marketing was r e organized.  At t h a t time three regions were set up f o r  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes w i t h a Regional A g r i c u l t u r a l Representative i n each.  In a d d i t i o n to s e r v i n g as l o c a l  agent i n h i s county, the Regional A g r i c u l t u r a l Representa t i v e acts as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t to the D i r e c t o r of Extension f o r h i s region and coordinates program planning.  At the same time, supervisors were named i n the s i x  d i v i s i o n s of the Branch i n c l u d i n g the A g r i c u l t u r a l Repres e n t a t i v e S e r v i c e , Home, Economics, Farm Management, 4-H, Resource Development, and A g r i c u l t u r a l Engineering. By 1966 the s t a f f of the Extension Services Branch consisted of a D i r e c t o r who was a l s o Supervisor of the three Regional A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives, nine l o c a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives, three A s s i s t a n t A g r i c u l t u r a l  5 Representatives, and three 4-H Representatives; an A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r who was also Supervisor f o r two Resource Development Representatives and three Extension A g r i c u l t u r a l Engineers; a Supervisor o f Farm Management and two Farm Management S p e c i a l i s t s ; and a Supervisor o f Home Economics and three Home Economists.  A l t o g e t h e r , then, the  Branch had t h i r t y - t h r e e members o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f p r o v i d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l and homemaking s e r v i c e s t o t h e Province. Since the establishment o f the Extension Services Branch there i s l i t t l e evidence t h a t much thought has been given t o the r o l e o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . At f i r s t , extension workers were employed to demonstrate sound a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s t o farmers and l a t e r on they acted as organizers and teachers.  Now, however, there i s  some evidence t o suggest t h a t t h i s r o l e has changed t o one of a d m i n i s t e r i n g p o l i c i e s and o r g a n i z i n g educational programs but, t o date, there has been no study i n Nova S c o t i a to assess t o what extent the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s are f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s or even doing the things they t h i n k are necessary. In 1961, f o l l o w i n g an extensive study o f the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e by Jerome Barnum A s s o c i a t e s , a comprehensive P o s i t i o n Guide was prepared f o r the a g r i c u l t u r a l  6  representatives.  According t o t h i s P o s i t i o n Guide, the  p r i n c i p l e f u n c t i o n s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l representatives include c o l l e c t i n g , o r g a n i z i n g , promoting and disseminating, through educational programs, such p r a c t i c a l and u s e f u l knowledge p e r t a i n i n g t o production, farm management, and the marketing of a g r i c u l t u r a l products t h a t w i l l enable farm people to a t t a i n a more s a t i s f a c t o r y l i v i n g .  Furthermore, the l o c a l  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i l l administer Department of A g r i c u l t u r e p o l i c i e s i n accordance w i t h the Nova S c o t i a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and Marketing A c t . W i t h i n the l i m i t s o f the approved departmental p o l i c i e s and o b j e c t i v e s , the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e has the a u t h o r i t y necessary t o f u l f i l l c e r t a i n responsib i l i t i e s including:  r e c e i v i n g and c a r r y i n g out those  p o l i c i e s and programs among the farm people which a f f e c t a g r i c u l t u r a l production and marketing i n h i s county; employing those  educational and promotional techniques  which best s u i t the conditions o f h i s county; recommending a d d i t i o n a l programs when j u s t i f i e d ; a s s i s t i n g recognized farm organizations i n t h e i r production and marketing programs w i t h i n the l i m i t s o f Department p o l i c i e s ; r e p o r t i n g i n w r i t i n g t o h i s Supervisor; encouraging and promoting 4-H Clubs; s u p e r v i s i n g Department p o l i c i e s and programs i n his  county; p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f o r the Department;  7  and submitting an annual plan of work to h i s Supervisor. In a d d i t i o n he w i l l :  assign a c t i v i t i e s and arrange programs  of work w i t h the personnel i n h i s o f f i c e and f o s t e r harmonious intra-departmental r e l a t i o n s h i p s and employee 7  attitudes •  While the P o s i t i o n Guide broadly s t a t e s the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and f u n c t i o n of the a g r i c u l t u r a l repres e n t a t i v e , i t does not i n d i c a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y who  should  determine the program of the l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l representative. Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study i s to survey the a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers, and p a r t i c u l a r l y the A g r i c u l t u r a l Repres e n t a t i v e s , i n Nova S c o t i a to measure t h e i r perceptions of their roles. Procedure The survey method was employed to gather the data f o r t h i s study.  Questionnaires (Appendix A) were prepared  and  mailed to the s u b j e c t s . A t o t a l of s i x t y - t h r e e questionn a i r e s were sent out and f i f t y - f o u r usable returns were received.  This c o n s t i t u t e s e i g h t y - s i x per cent of the  p o t e n t i a l p o p u l a t i o n and i s s u f f i c i e n t to permit the r e s u l t s to represent the p o p u l a t i o n . The questionnaire gathered data about the i n d i v i d u a l respondent and h i s perception of h i s r o l e .  There were one  Management Manual, Government of Nova S c o t i a . B u l l e t i n No. 20.2-G 6. The Queen's P r i n t e r , H a l i f a x , 1961.  3  hundred and f o r t y - e i g h t statements or questions covering the  personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the respondents i n c l u d i n g  education, l e n g t h of s e r v i c e , age; geographical areas of work and time spent i n each; value of education received at various l e v e l s ; who determines t h e i r program of work and who they t h i n k should determine t h i s program; t h e i r t r a i n i n g as r e l a t e d t o the work they are doing; income groups they work with; participation i n  o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; a t t i t u d e s ; t h e i r job  as they are doing i t and as they would l i k e to do i t ; and time spent i n subject matter areas and the time they would l i k e to spend i n these areas. The L i c k e r t s c a l e of r a t i n g opinions and a t t i t u d e s was used throughout the questionnaire.  This method of  r a t i n g proved t o be very u s e f u l since i t s i m p l i f i e s the problem of expressing opinions on a l a r g e number of s t a t e ments or questions and yet supplies the required data. Population The population f o r t h i s study consisted of a l l prof e s s i o n a l employees of the Nova S c o t i a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and Marketing below the rank of D i r e c t o r of a Branch. This consisted of a t o t a l of s i x t y - t h r e e personnel. Of t h i s number f i f t e e n were a g r i c u l t u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , three were a s s i s t a n t a g r i c u l t u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , f i v e home economists, and f o r t y subject matter s p e c i a l i s t s working i n h o r t i c u l t u r e ,  9  agronomy, l i v e s t o c k , chemistry, 4-H, farm management, land settlement, a g r i c u l t u r a l engineering, resource development, and marketing.  Table I shows the number of questionnaires  sent to Department personnel o f each job group, the number returned, and per cent of number sent and returned. TABLE I NUMBER OF QUESTIONNAIRES SENT AND RETURNED AND PER CENT OF TOTAL FOR EACH JOB GROUP  JOB GROUP  QUESTIONNAIRES SENT AND RETURNED Number % of Number Sent T o t a l Returned  ^ % of Total  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives A s s t . A g r i c . Representatives Home Ec. Representatives Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s  15 3 5 40  24 5 3 63  14 3 5 32  22 5 3 51  Total  63  10(5  54  36  Analysis The data from the f i f t y - f o u r questionnaires received were t a b u l a t e d and analyzed at the Province o f Nova S c o t i a Computer Centre, H a l i f a x .  10  REVIEW OF THE  LITERATURE  Most of the studies concerning the r o l e of  the  extension agent have been c a r r i e d out i n the United States or i n Ontario, Canada.  An attempt i s made here to o u t l i n e  some of the comments i n the l i t e r a t u r e concerning the r o l e concept and r o l e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension agents. I . THE  TERM ROLE  According to L i n t o n , the term r o l e can be used to mean the sum  t o t a l of the c u l t u r a l patterns associated w i t h  a p a r t i c u l a r status.  Thus, a person can have a main r o l e  which gives him status i n the s o c i e t y i n which he l i v e s he may  also have sub-roles i n d i c a t i n g the work he performs  i n hli s o c i e t y . role.  and  A person, then, may  have more than  By a t t a c h i n g r o l e to s t a t u s , the p a r t i c u l a r  one status  can be f u n c t i o n a l l y defined. In h i s study of the perceptions of r o l e d e f i n i t i o n s as viewed by county agents i n Wisconsin, Wilkening r e f e r s to the r o l e behavior or r o l e performance of the county agent as what the agent d i d w i t h i n a period of time previous to the study.  ality.  He uses the term r o l e d e f i n i t i o n to  indicate  Ralph L i n t o n , The C u l t u r a l Backgrounds of PersonNew York: TJ. Appleton-Century Company, 1945.  11 what the agent f e e l s he ought to do. Role  concensus r e f e r s  to the amount o f agreement i n the r o l e d e f i n i t i o n s of the county agents and r o l e f u l f i l l m e n t t o the extent t o which the agent does t h a t which he defines as should be.  Finally  he r e f e r s t o r o l e c o n f l i c t which a r i s e s when there must be  9 a resolution of difference i n role d e f i n i t i o n . Stone, i n a job a n a l y s i s study o f county extension agents i n Michigan, c l a s s i f i e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s on the basis o f occupational r o l e s and thus r e l a t e d r o l e s t o  10 f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n a work system. In Ontario, Timothy found t h a t three groups, the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f of the Extension Branch, the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , and the farmers, d i f f e r e d i n some degree regarding the major aspects of the r o l e o f the county worker.  He c i t e s t h i s as r o l e c o n f l i c t and the problem as  one i n r o l e concensus. Eugene A. W i l k e n i n g , The County Extension Agent i n Wisconsin. Perceptions o f Role D e f i n i t i o n s as Viewed by Agents. U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Res. B u i . 203. Madison, Wisconsin: U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Press, 1957.  10-  J . T. Stone, "A B r i e f Summary of the Job A n a l y s i s Study of County Extension Workers." (East Lansing: Michigan Cooperative Extension S e r v i c e , 1952.) (Mimeographed.)  11  _ -  -  • ...  E a r l E. Timothy, "The A g r i c u l t u r a l Representative i n Ontario - His Role i n the Changing A g r i c u l t u r a l Scene and Problems o f Impact on the T o t a l Farming Population." (Unpublished.Master's Thesis, Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , Guelph, 1962).  12  Two aspects of the use of the term r o l e as a p p l i e d to p r o f e s s i o n a l workers were b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d by Sabrosky. She described r o l e perception and r o l e behaviour and, i n so doing, i n d i c a t e d r o l e behaviour as what the agent a c t u a l l y does regardless of what he t h i n k s he ought to be doing. Role perception meant how the agent sees himself i n the job he i s doing, what he t h i n k s he ought t o be doing and how he 12  ought t o be doing i t . I I . ROLES OF EXTENSION AGENTS The Nova S c o t i a a g r i c u l t u r a l extension s e r v i c e , as exemplified by the Extension Services Branch of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and Marketing, i s a s o c i a l system w i t h i n which i s found three groups, (1) the agents, (2) s p e c i a l i s t s and (3) the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s .  This i s the agents p r o f e s s i o n a l  system w i t h i n which he acts as a l i a i s o n o f f i c e r , and i t requires that he behave i n c e r t a i n ways.  The  agent a l s o  acts as a communication l i n k between t h i s system and h i s c l i e n t system - the farming p u b l i c .  His r o l e then, may be  discussed w i t h respect t o (1) the agent himself, (2) h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l system and (3) h i s c l i e n t system. 12  L a u r e l K. Sabrosky, "Role Perception of the County 4-H Club Agent.". (Address t o New Jersey County Club Agents* Conference, A p r i l . 195$. U.S.D.A. Fed. E x t . Ser. ER&T 153 6-53.), (Mimeographed.)  13  Wilkening found t h a t most a g r i c u l t u r a l agents view themselves as t a k i n g a general i n t e r e s t i n a l l areas of subject matter a f f e c t i n g farm people; however, t h e i r r o l e s i n p r o v i d i n g d i r e c t l y information on s p e c i f i c farm problems and p r a c t i c e s , t r a i n i n g l o c a l l e a d e r s , and i n program plann13  ing were the most  important.  Stone l i s t e d seven occupational r o l e s beginning the r o l e of a student studying; reading s c i e n t i f i c  with  liter-  ature, seeking information from s p e c i a l i s t s , and p a r t i c i p a t ing i n - t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s .  A second occupational r o l e -was  that of a p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t o r , coordinating the work o f others.  Another r o l e was that of a salesman o f information  and ideas, contacting people f o r the purpose of persuading them t o use new and approved p r a c t i c e s . A f o u r t h r o l e was that o f an organizer and supervisor of events i n which the agent provided an educational s e t t i n g .  Another r o l e was as  an organizer of groups, encouraging people t o work together i n the s o l u t i o n of some common problems. Agents a l s o had a r o l e i n a c t i n g as a f a c i l i t a t o r or expeditor - h e l p i n g farmers t o obtain a new spray m a t e r i a l or l o c a t e a h i r e d man, as examples of h i s a c t i o n i n t h i s r o l e . The l a s t r o l e l i s t e d , that of consultant, was considered the most important 13~  i n the opinion o f the agents.  Wilkening, op_. c i t .  In t h i s r o l e  14  they gave advice, made recommendations and acted, g e n e r a l l y , as a consultant on various farm problems.  Each of these  r o l e s was p a r t i c u l a r l y important at d i f f e r e n t stages i n the 14  teaching process used by the  agents.  Timothy found t h a t i n Ontario the a g r i c u l t u r a l repres e n t a t i v e s view themselves mainly i n the r o l e of advisor and i n t h i s r o l e placed emphasis on h e l p i n g i n t e r e s t e d farmers make more money, o r g a n i z i n g groups, and program planning."'"'' Also i n Ontario, Baker found that extension workers b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r r o l e s as consultants and organizers were the most important to t h e i r extension a c t i v i t i e s and that 16  t h e i r r o l e as a teacher the l e a s t important. According to Moore, each county extension agent has s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s and what he does i n performing each of these f u n c t i o n a l r o l e s may d i f f e r depending on the situation. tion.  S i t u a t i o n a l r o l e s , then, a r i s e from each func-*  By studying h i s s i t u a t i o n a l r o l e s the agent i s thus 17  able t o understand h i s needs, a t t i t u d e s , and problems. 14 15 16  Stone, o_. c i t . Timothy, o_. c i t .  Harold R. Baker, "The P r o f e s s i o n a l Improvement of Extension Personnel i n Ontario." (Unpublished Master's Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin, Madison, 1956). 17  J . R. Moore, "An E v a l u a t i o n Instrument f o r the S e l f A p p r a i s a l of the County Extension Agent and His Work." (Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , C o r n e l l Univ., I t h a c a , I960).  15  Wilkening analyzed s c h e m a t i c a l l y the r o l e o f county extension agents i n Wisconsin.  Job s a t i s f a c t i o n depends on  how the needs, i n t e r e s t s , a s p i r a t i o n s , and a b i l i t i e s of the agent a f f e c t h i s perception o f the expectations o f both h i s c l i e n t system and h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l 18  system i n what Wilkening  terms " r o l e commitment". Because of h i s own perception o f h i s job, the expect a t i o n s of h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l system and h i s c l i e n t system, the agent often f i n d s himself i n a p o s i t i o n o f being under occupational r o l e s t r e s s .  This r o l e s t r e s s of the agent  i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the teacher o f v o c a t i o n a l as o u t l i n e d by N i x and B a t e s . ^  agriculture  They i d e n t i f i e d three  aspects of r o l e s t r e s s : ( l ) r o l e c o n f l i c t which a r i s e s when the agents  1  ideas are incompatible w i t h those o f h i s c l i e n t  system, (2) r o l e f r u s t r a t i o n r e s u l t i n g when t e c h n o l o g i c a l change i s not accepted by h i s c l i e n t system and (3) r o l e inadequacy as a r e s u l t o f personal inadequacy based on lack of t r a i n i n g f o r h i s job.  This l a c k o f t r a i n i n g amongst  extension agents i s p a r t i c u l a r l y prevalent i n Canada. The Agent and His P r o f e s s i o n a l  Svstem  The agent i s o f t e n caught between the expectations  _ 19  Wilkening, o_. c i t .  H. L. N i x and F.L. Bates, "Occupational Role StressA S t r u c t i o n a l Approach". Rural Sociology. XXVII, 1962..  16 of his professional system and what he i d e n t i f i e s as the needs of his c l i e n t system.  Brown and Deekens recognize  t h i s s i t u a t i o n when they note that the organizational structure of the U. S. Extension Service provides no c l e a r l y defined l i n e of authority.  Both the professional system  and the c l i e n t system exercise authority over the agent i n 20 a d i f f e r e n t manner. T r a d i t i o n a l l y the extension agents function i s 1  looked upon as one of service to farm people.  This role  expectation does not always agree with the agent's s e l f d e f i n i t i o n of his r o l e .  Priess studied the r e s u l t i n g role  c o n f l i c t s among county extension agents i n Michigan and i n his analysis suggests that the more successful county agents were those who disregarded the expectations of the extension service bureaucracy i n favor of those of t h e i r l o c a l c l i e n t 21 system. The Agent and His Client System - Just as there i s role c o n f l i c t between the agent and his professional system there may also be role c o n f l i c t 20 • ' • • -r •'-. .,"E. J . Brown and A. Deekens,'"Roles of Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s " , Rural Sociology, XXVII, 1953. 21 . -' ' J . J. Priess, "Functions of Relevant Power'and Authori t y Groups i n the Evaluation of County Agent Performance", (unpublished Ph.D. t h e s i s , Michigan State University, East Lansing, 1954). cited by CM. Rogers, D i f f u s i o n of Innovations (New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1962). :  :  17 between t h e agent that there  is  expectations agent's  and h i s  system.  considerable disagreement by t h e  local client  self-definition  saw t h e i r  client  Wilkening  indicates  between t h e  role  system i n W i s c o n s i n and  of his r o l e .  The c h a n g e  the  agents  role  a s one o f b a s i c e d u c a t i o n w h i l e t h e i r c l i e n t s 22 e x p e c t e d them t o p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s . T h i s d i s a g r e e m e n t was 23 a l s o i n d i c a t e d i n s t u d i e s by B i b l e and N o l a n . E m e r y a n d O e s e r s u g g e s t t h a t more c o n t r o l agents a c t i o n s by the conflict  client  s y s t e m may l e s s e n t h i s  s i n c e he may become l e s s o f  system and b e t t e r  identified  over  with it  an  role  an ' o u t s i d e r *  to  in motivation  and  the  interests.  22 • -• " • •- Eugeh e A . W i l k e n i n g , " C o n c e n s u s o f R o l e D e f i n i t i o n o f C o u n t y E x t e n s i o n A g e n t s Between t h e A g e n t s and L o c a l S p o n s o r i n g Committee Members", R u r a l S o c i o l o g y . X X I I I , 1 9 5 3 . . 23 -• - ' • . . . . • ; •' '. B . L . B i b l e a n d F . L . N o l a n , The R o l e o f t h e E x t e n s i o n C o m m i t t e e Member' i n t h e C o u n t y E x t e n s i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n " i n P e n n s y l v a n i a . Penn. A g r i c . Exp." S t a . Bui..•665,. U n i v e r s i t y P a r k , i 9 6 0 , c i t e d by C M . Rogers'. D i f f u s i o n o f • I n n o v a t i o n s (New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , 1 9 6 2 J . 24. . ; F . E . E m e r y a n d O . A . O e s e r , ; I n f o r m a t i o n . D e c i s i o n and A c t i o n : A .Study o f t h e P s y c h o l o g i c a l D e t e r m i n a n t s ,of Changes i n F a r m i n g T e c h n T q u e s . New Y o r k : C a m b r i d g e U n i v . T r e s s , 1 9 5 5 . :  CHAPTER  II  CHARACTERISTICS OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS I N NOVA SCOTIA Studies indicate  that there  economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s behaviour  which appear t o i n f l u e n c e  o f an i n d i v i d u a l .  This study takes  s i x of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , for  extension, •  •  length  a r e a number o f  into  v i z . age, education,  of s e r v i c e , mobility,  and  sociothe  role  accounttraining  participation.  I V AGE  :  The a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n extension workers  of three-types  of  agricultural  i n N o v a S c o t i a i s shown i n T a b l e TABLE  II.  II  AGE DISTRIBUTION OF THREE TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA  -- TYPE OF WORKER Agricultural Home Representative Economist S p e c i a l i s t _  AGE GROUP  No.  20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64  Total  jo  ;  No." jo  3 4  17.65  3  23.53  2  60.00 40.00  3 1 1 2  17.65 5.^8 5.33 11.76 17.65  -  -  17  100.00  3.  No.  3  jo  9.37  -  No.  %  9  16.67  6 18.75 12 22.22  4 5  12.50  4  12.50  15.62 4 12.50  4 12.50  1 3.13 1 3.13 5 100.00 32 100.00  -  Total  4 7.41 8 14.81 5 9.26 5 9.26 6 11.11 4 7.41 1 1.85 54 100.00  19 The most outstanding feature of t h i s table i s the predominance of young workers amongst A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives and, especially, Home Economists.  The majority  of the workers are i n the age group twenty-five to twentynine years and 61 per cent of a l l workers are less than f o r t y years of age.  Only 20 per cent of the Subject Matter  S p e c i a l i s t s are over f i f t y years of age while 39 per cent of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives are i n t h i s group. There has been continual expansion in the number of a g r i c u l t u r a l workers i n the Department of Agriculture and t h i s may  account f o r the preponderence of young employees. I I . EDUCATION An Act respecting Agrologists was passed by the  P r o v i n c i a l Legislature i n 1953*  This Act requires the  Department of Agriculture and Marketing to employ only persons with a Bachelor's degree i n positions which provide to farmers advice concerning a g r i c u l t u r a l production. expected, then, that employees degree i n Agriculture.  It i s  w i l l have a Bachelor or higher  Because the Act allowed employees at  the time of i t s proclamation -to -become members of the I n s t i t u t e of Agrologists even though they were not holders of a Bachelor degree, we f i n d ten such employees.among Department workers; three A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives, one Home Economics Representative, and s i x Subject Matter  20 Specialists.  This i s shown i n Table H I . TABLE I I I  EDUCATION LEVEL OF THREE TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA  EDUCATION LEVEL  : — TYPE OF WORKER Agricultural /Home Representative Economist S p e c i a l i s t No.  High School Diploma (NSAC) 3 Bachelor Degree 12 Master DeGree 2  Total  %  No.  17.65 70.59 11.76  1 4 -  17 100.00  %  No.  20.00 3 3 80.00 22 4  %  Total No.  1o  9.37 9.37 68.76 12.50  4 7.41 6 11.11 36" 70.37 6 11.11  5 100.00 32 100.00  54 100.00  Table I I I a l s o shows that over 81 per cent o f a l l workers have a Bachelors degree o r b e t t e r but only two A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives and f o u r Subject Matter Special i s t s have post-graduate t r a i n i n g .  No reason f o r l a c k o f  f u r t h e r study was asked but i t would appear t h a t there i s l i t t l e encouragement o r strong inducement o f f e r e d by the employer f o r f u r t h e r formal t r a i n i n g .  Leave w i t h pay at the  r a t e of one month f o r each year employed i s a v a i l a b l e a f t e r s i x years employment. T r a i n i n g i n Working With People Workers were asked to i n d i c a t e how much t r a i n i n g i n working w i t h people t h a t i s a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e i r job they had received i n t h e i r formal education.  Q u a n t i t a t i v e scores  21 were developed f o r each worker by a s s i g n i n g a r b i t r a r y weights t o each r a t i n g p e r m i t t i n g t h e i r opinions t o be ranked according t o the average score o f a l l workers.  For  example, very much i s given 5; much, 4; some, 3; l i t t l e , and none, 1.  2;  The r e s u l t s are shown i n Table IV. TABLE IV  TYPE OF WORKER AND RATING OF TRAINING RECEIVED IN WORKING WITH PEOPLE THAT IS APPLICABLE TO JOB  ' ' TYPE OF WORKER Very much Much A g r i c . Representative 10 12 Home Ec. Representative 5 Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t 5 3  RATING Some Little 18 12 6 4 33 18  None 9  Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s , e s p e c i a l l y , i n d i c a t e t h a t they r e c e i v e d l i t t l e t r a i n i n g i n t h e i r formal education i n working w i t h people t h a t i s a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e i r job.  Home  Economists received more t r a i n i n g i n t h i s f i e l d and the r a t i n g f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives i n d i c a t e s a ' f a i r * amount o f t r a i n i n g . Usefulness o f Formal Education Table V summarizes the r e p l i e s received from a l l workers when they were asked t o s p e c i f y the usefulness i n t h e i r work o f various l e v e l s o f formal education.  22  TABLE V TYPE OF WORKER AND RANK ORDER OF USEFULNESS OF VARIOUS LEVELS OF FORMAL EDUCATION  EDUCATION LEVEL High School College (NSAC) Bachelor Graduate  Agricultural Representative  TYPE OF WORKER Home Economist S p e c i a l i s t 2* 2*  3 1  1  2  4  * These items had the same t o t a l  3  score.  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives  emphasized the useful-  ness of education at the College (Nova Scotia A g r i c u l t u r a l College) l e v e l followed closely by the Bachelor degree. They ranked High School higher than Graduate study.  Home  Economists ranked High School and Bachelors equally while Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s placed most emphasis on the Bachelor's degree. Extension Training A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives  and Home Economists were  high in t h e i r indication that much t r a i n i n g i n the methods of doing extension work i s necessary to do an effective job and t h i s i s shown i n Table V I .  Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s  were less emphatic on t h i s point although agreeing, generally, with the other types of workers.  The fact that  23 Specialists  a r e doing l e s s  their attitude  ' e x t e n s i o n * work may a f f e c t  i n t h i s respect. TABLE V I  TYPE OF WORKER AND THEIR RATING OF NEED FOR TRAINING IN METHODS OF EXTENSION  RATING TYPE OF WORKER A g r i c u l t u r a l Representative Home E c . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t  Very Much  Much  Some  20 5 25  40 12 44  6 3 45  Little  None  2  -  Workers were q u i t e emphatic t h a t t h e y have not r e c e i v e d adequate t r a i n i n g t o do t h e s p e c i f i c t a s k s r e q u i r e d by t h e i r j o b s .  A summary o f t h e i r r e p l i e s i s  given i n Table V I I . TABLE V I I TYPE OF WORKER AND WHETHER OR NOT THEY HAVE RECEIVED ADEQUATE TRAINING FOR THEIR JOB  TYPE OF WORKER  Yes  No  RATING No O p i n i o n  Total  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representative Home E c . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t  3 2 10  14 3 20  2  17 5 32  Total  15  37  2  54  24 Home Economists were about evenly divided i n t h e i r opinion about whether or not they had received adequate t r a i n i n g f o r t h e i r job. Those workers who decided they have not received adequate t r a i n i n g to do the s p e c i f i c tasks required by t h e i r job were asked to state what way they thought they could best overcome any deficiency i n t h e i r past t r a i n i n g . The results of t h e i r answers are given i n Table VIII. TABLE VIII TYPE OF WORKER AND BEST METHOD OF OVERCOMING DEFICIENCIES IN PAST. TRAINING  ' TYPE OF WORKER METHOD OF OVERCOMING A g r i c u l t u r a l * Home DEFICIENCIES Representative Economist S p e c i a l i s t T o t a l * Inservice Training More Experience Further Formal Study No Opinion  1 0 4 5 3  2 2 1 2  1 4 6 3 1 6  2 6 1 2 9 2 1  * Some respondents suggested more than one method. The results of Table VIII indicate that workers f e e l that 'in-service t r a i n i n g * i s the best method of overcoming deficiencies i n t h e i r past t r a i n i n g .  Apart from annual  conferences there i s no program of in-service t r a i n i n g provided by the Department.  Except f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Rep-  resentatives workers rate 'more experience* as being second i n  2  5  importance while A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives r a t e ' f u r t h e r formal study* and 'more experience* about equal. A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives were asked t o i n d i c a t e the main type of farming i n t h e i r area w i t h which they are most concerned, f o r which s p e c i a l i z a t i o n they were s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d , and f o r which they f e e l the best q u a l i f i e d on the basis of t r a i n i n g and experience. TABLE IX TYPES OF FARMING AND THE AGRICULTURAL REPRESENTATIVES' QUALIFICATIONS FOR. HIS .JOB  TYPE OF FARMING  Most Concerned No,  3 2 1  46 6 24 3 3 9 6 3  —  —  Dairy Beef Swine Poultry Fruit Vegetables Forestry Sheep Other None  15 2  Total  33  8 1 1  -  -  100  JOB QUALIFICATIONS Best Specially Trained Qualified No. No. fo  5 3 4  17 10 14  2 2 1 3 3 6  7 7 4 10 10 21  29  100  -  -  12 6  33 17 22 3 3  8  1 1 3 1 4  8  3 11  -  -  —  -*  36  100  Table IX shows t h a t f i f t e e n or 46 per cent were most concerned about d a i r y farming but only 17 per cent had been t r a i n e d i n t h i s s p e c i a l t y .  On the b a s i s of t r a i n i n g  and experience 33 per cent f e l t they were best q u a l i f i e d i n  this  field.  Nine of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives or  t h i r t y - o n e p e r c e n t were t r a i n e d  i n s p e c i a l t i e s other  those w i t h which they are concerned i n t h e i r h a d no t r a i n i n g  or  Representatives are mainly concerned  w i t h types of l i v e s t o c k farming, field  counties  i n any o f t h e s e s p e c i a l t i e s .  Agricultural  this  than  are s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d  and f e e l most q u a l i f i e d  basis of t r a i n i n g  and e x p e r i e n c e .  in this  field  Table IX  in  on t h e  indicates  t h a t A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s are not n e c e s s a r i l y q u a l i f i e d to  p r o m o t e a n d g i v e a d v i c e on t y p e s o f  t h a t a r e most p r e v a l e n t  in their  r e l y i n g on e x p e r i e n c e r a t h e r  c o u n t y a n d t h a t many a r e  than t r a i n i n g  s p e c i f i c t a s k s r e q u i r e d by t h e i r III. Length of  the  job.  of A g r i c u l t u r e  e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r has spent i n - h i s  has been employed f o r  but  mobility  Department.  ten years or l e s s .  in staff  number  present  T h i s g i v e s an i n d i c a t i o n o f  extension s t a f f w i t h i n the  cates a high turnover  years  and t o the  T a b l e X shows t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e staff  do  s e r v i c e r e f e r s t o t h e number o f  county or s p e c i a l t y . of the  to  LENGTH OF SERVICE AND MOBILITY  employed by t h e Department of years the  farming  extension This  indi-  also the p o s s i b i l i t y  e x p a n d i n g s e r v i c e s r e q u i r i n g t h e a d d i t i o n o f new w o r k e r s the s t a f f  of the Department.  of to  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives  27 are the o l d e s t type o f worker employed by the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e and t h i s i s i n d i c a t e d i n the number t h a t has been employed more than twenty years compared w i t h o t h e r types o f workers. TABLE X LENGTH OF SERVICE OF 3 TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA  TYPE OF WORKER Agricultural Home • R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Economist Specialist Total No. % No. % No. % No. %  YEARS EMPLOYED 10 11 21 30  T  years and l e s s - 20 years - 30 years o r more years  o  t  a  l  1  7  9 3 4 1  52.94 5 17.65 23.53 5.88 -  100.00  5  100.00 -  100.00  17 13 2 -  because o f expanding  31 16 6 1  32 100.00  T a b l e X shows t h a t Home Economists employed f o r t e n years o r l e s s .  53.13 40.62 6.25  Recruitment  57.41 29.63 11.11 1.85  54 100.00  have a l l been has been h i g h  s e r v i c e s and e s p e c i a l l y i n the Subject  M a t t e r S p e c i a l i s t group.  Marriage i s probably the main  f a c t o r t e r m i n a t i n g the s h o r t employment p e r i o d o f Home Economics R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The number o f years t h a t workers have been i n t h e i r present county o r s p e c i a l t y i s  shown i n Table X I .  The  m a j o r i t y o f A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s have been i n t h e i r county l e s s than t e n years and t h i s i n d i c a t e s a h i g h of m o b i l i t y .  degree  M o b i l i t y i s even more pronounced amongst  28 Home Economists and  less amongst Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s .  Many Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s have been recruited from the ranks of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives so t h i s may account for much of the indicated mobility amongst the l a t t e r group. TABLE XI LENGTH OF SERVICE IN PRESENT COUNTI OR SPECIALTY OF THREE TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA  TYPE OF WORKER YEARS Agricultural Home ' ~ IN COUNTY Representative Economist S p e c i a l i s t Total OR SPECIALTY No. % No. % No. % No. % Less than one 5 29.41 1 - 1 0 years 8 47.06 11 - 20 years 1 5.38 21 - 30 years 3 17.65 Total 17 100.00.  4 1 5  80.00 4 12.50 20.00 13 40.63 13 40.63 2 6.24 100.00 32 100.00  13 24.07 22 40.74 14 25.93 5 9.26 54 100.00  IV. PARTICIPATION IN PROFESSIONAL AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers i n professional  and other organizations i s shown i n Table XII.  Home Economists participate only i n t h e i r organizations.  professional  A large proportion of A g r i c u l t u r a l Repre-  sentatives and Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s also i n professional  organizations, most  three of these groups.  participate  being members of two or  Membership i n service or sports  TABLE XII PARTICIPATION IN VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONS BY THREE TYPES OF . AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA  TYPE OF WORKER AND ORGANIZATION CHURCH SERVICE PROFESSIONAL RURAL COMMUNITY Agric Home Agric Home Agric Home Agric Home Agric Home Rep. Ec. Spec. Rep. Ec. Spec. Rep. Ec. Spec. Rep. Ec. Spec. Rep. Ec. Spec. 3  2  B  0  1  1  3  3  10  2  4  1  7  3  6  1  2  B  B  1  11  7  0  2 - 3  5  0  14  13  1  6  1  11  4 - 5  2  0  4  3  1  0  0  0  17  5  32  17  5  17  5  32  None  Total  19  32  21  7  5  17  B  5  0  4  1  3  5  0  11  0  0  0  0  0  0  17  5  32  17  5  32  vO  30 groups i s s i m i l a r when comparing A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives and S p e c i a l i s t s i n t h i s category and i s f a i r l y high.  Agri-  c u l t u r a l Representatives hold more memberships i n farm and r u r a l organizations than do S p e c i a l i s t s and t h e i r p a r t i c i pation i n community organizations i s somewhat higher. Summary The socio-economic  characteristics studied among the  a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers i n Nova Scotia show l i t t l e disparity.  There i s a predominance of young s t a f f with a l l  of the Home Economists under 3 0 years of age, the majority ( 5 9 per cent) of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives under f o r t y years and about the same percentage  ( 6 1 per cent) of  Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s under f o r t y years.  Fifty-seven  per cent of these workers have been employed f o r ten years or less while 8 7 per cent have been employed f o r twenty years or l e s s .  S i x t y - f i v e per cent have been i n t h e i r  county or s p e c i a l t y f o r less than ten years while onequarter ( 2 4 per cent) have occupied t h e i r position less than one year.  This group of workers i s young and quite mobile.  Eighty-one per cent of a l l workers have a Bachelors degree or better, the percentage being about the same f o r all  types: of workers.  The same percentage  ( 1 2 per cent)  of A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives and S p e c i a l i s t s have the Masters degree and about the same percentage  ( 1 $ per cent)  31  have less than a Bachelors degree.  The one H me Economics 0  Representative that has only a High School diploma also has the longest service so can apparently compete with those having a Bachelors degree on the basis of having more experience. The amount of t r a i n i n g i n working with people that i s applicable to t h e i r job received i n t h e i r formal education varied amongst the various types of workers. Representatives received a ' f a i r  1  Agricultural  amount o f t r a i n i n g , Home  Economics Representatives somewhat less and Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s received •'•little* t r a i n i n g .  A g r i c u l t u r a l Rep-  resentatives rated t h e i r College t r a i n i n g to be the most usef u l followed by Bachelors, high school that order.  and graduate work i n  Home Economics Representatives gave equal r a t -  ing to high school and Bachelors while Subject Matter Special i s t s placed Bachelors f i r s t , College and high school second and graduate work t h i r d . A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives and Home Economics Representatives indicated that 'much* t r a i n i n g i n the methods of doing extension work i s necessary to do an e f f i c i e n t job. Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s were less emphatic on t h i s point. A l l agreed that they had not received adequate t r a i n i n g to do the s p e c i f i c tasks required by t h e i r jobs.  A l l workers  agreed that 'in-service t r a i n i n g * was the best method of over-  coming deficiencies i n t h e i r past t r a i n i n g with Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s placing  'more experience* and A g r i c u l t u r a l  Representatives 'further formal study* i n second places. Home Economics Representatives rated  'in-service  and 'more experience* as equally important.  training*  CHAPTER I I I ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA An attempt w i l l be.made i n t h i s chapter to analyze various aspects of r o l e performance and role perception p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to one type of worker, the Agric u l t u r a l Representative.  In the questionnaire he was asked  to assess h i s basis f o r program planning and his attitude about h i s job.  Most important, he was asked to compare h i s  present assessment of his job (role performance) with what he would l i k e i t to be (role perception). In general, a g r i c u l t u r a l workers have indicated (Chapter II) that they have not received adequate t r a i n i n g to do the s p e c i f i c tasks required by t h e i r job.  How close-  l y t h e i r t r a i n i n g relates to t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i l l be examined. An assessment w i l l be made of contact with farmers based on t h e i r gross income to see with which group the A g r i c u l t u r a l Representative wants to i d e n t i f y himself. I.  PROGRAM PLANNING  Programs of education f o r production amongst farm people i n Nova Scotia appear to have been based on decisions made by senior s t a f f members of the Department of A g r i c u l -  34 t u r e and M a r k e t i n g i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h o f f i c e r s o r p r o v i n c i a l farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  These programs have been based on  'needs* as p e r c e i v e d by these people and d i r e c t i v e s have been i s s u e d t o Department s t a f f , e s p e c i a l l y A g r i c u l t u r a l Represent a t i v e s , t o promote these programs amongst farmers i n the Province.  There i s some evidence t h a t i n a t l e a s t some  i n s t a n c e s these programs have not been based on r e a l need but were a s i n c e r e attempt t o overcome d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f foods consumed i n the P r o v i n c e .  Program p l a n n -  i n g has been done, then, on a v e r y broad s c a l e and not n e c e s s a r i l y based on needs as determined by p a r t i c i p a n t s i n these programs. W i t h i n t h e scope o f these broad program p l a n s , A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s have had much freedom t o develop programs based on p e r c e i v e d needs.  Program p l a n n i n g has  been a problem area i n extension work because o f the l a c k o f a c o o r d i n a t e d p r o v i n c i a l , county and group p l a n based on a c t u a l needs. sufficient  The need f o r the Province t o become s e l f -  i n swine p r o d u c t i o n , f o r i n s t a n c e , should not be  the main reason why a farmer should s t a r t a swine enterp r i s e on h i s farm i f i t does not f i t plan or f i l l  i n t o h i s o v e r - a l l farm  h i s p a r t i c u l a r need.  A g r i c u l t u r a l workers were asked t o suggest t h e p a r t p l a y e d by themselves, t h e i r branch d i r e c t o r ,  specialist  35 s t a f f , o r g a n i z e d groups o f f a r m e r s , and commercial i n t e r s t s , on t h e i r program o f work.  The r a n k i n g s based on t h e t o t a l  s c o r e f o r each group a r e shown i n TABLE X I I I w h i l e F i g u r e s one and 2 show how each t y p e o f worker r a t e d t h e e x t e n t t o which the d i f f e r e n t s h o u l d determine Agricultural  groups determine  t h e county program and  t h e county program.  Representatives  Rankings show (TABLE X I I I ) t h a t t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l  Rep-  r e s e n t a t i v e p l a c e s h i m s e l f f i r s t i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e program he c a r r i e s  out i n h i s county.  importance,  His director  i s second i n  s p e c i a l i s t s t a f f t h i r d , o r g a n i z e d groups o f  f a r m e r s f o u r t h and  commercial i n t e r e s t s  changes on who ' s h o u l d * determine  fifth.  His opinion  t h e county program and i n  t h i s i n s t a n c e he p l a c e s o r g a n i z e d groups o f f a r m e r s h i m s e l f second, h i s d i r e c t o r  first,  t h i r d , and e q u a l r a n k , f o u r t h  p l a c e , t o s p e c i a l i s t s t a f f and commercial  interests.  F i g u r e s 1 and 2 support t h e r a n k i n g s g i v e n i n TABLE X I I I . Agricultural  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s would l i k e t o reduce t h e  extent t o which they, t h e i r d i r e c t o r , determine especially interests. indicating  and s p e c i a l i s t  staff  county programs and i n c r e a s e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f f a r m e r groups and, t o a l e s s e r The percentage  of Agricultural  e x t e n t , commercial Representatives  f a r m e r groups had 'very l i t t l e ' i n f l u e n c e i n  p l a n n i n g programs changed from 67 p e r cent when  rating  TABLE XIII RANK ORDERING OF 5 GROUPS ON THE BASIS OF EXTENT EACH GROUP DETERMINED OR SHOULD DETERMINE COUNTY PROGRAMS  TYPE OF WORKER Agricultural Representatives  GROUP Worker Himself Director Specialists Farmers Commercial Interests  Home Economics Representatives  Subject Matter Specialists  All Workers  Should Determined Determine  Should Determined Determine  Should Determined Determine  Total Total Score Rank Score Rank  Total Total Score Rank Score Rank  Total Total Total Total Score Rank Score Rank . Score Rank Score Rank  39 22 21 18 15  1 2 3 4 5  35 20 18 37 18  2  8  2  10  1  3 4 1  11 8  1  1  5 4  4 5  10 6 8  4  2  5  4 3 5  76 56  1 2  54 45  33 35 32  4  33  3 5  46 30  Should Determined Determine  1  123  3 4 2  39  62  5  51  53  1 2 3 4 5  99  1  75 62  3 4  91  2  53  5  37 A g r i c u l t u r a l Worker A g r i c . Rep. Home Ec. Rep. Specialist 0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90 100  fSb  7b  85  90 100  70  $o~ 90 100  Director A g r i c . Rep. Home Ec. Rep. Specialist  A g r i c . Rep. Home Ec. Rep. Specialist  6  lb  2~b  3b  4b  5^  Farmer (Women's) Groups A g r i c . Rep. Home Ec. Rep. Specialist 0  10  20  30  40  Commercial  5^  60"  Interests  A g r i c . Rep. Home Ec. Rep. V  Specialist 0  10  20  30  40  50  7  60  70  80  90~ 100  FIGURE 1 VeryLittle Little  ^ M u S  PERCENTAGE OF AGRICULTURAL REPRESENTATIVES, HOME ECONOMICS REPRESESTATIVES AND SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS RATING THE EXTENT DIFFERENT GROUPS DETERMINE COUNTY PROGRAMS  33  A g r i c u l t u r a l Worker A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . Rep. Specialist 0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90 100  60  70  80  90 100  Director A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . Rep. Specialist C)  l5  20  30  40  50  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . Rep.  r  Specialist 1  1  1  I  I  . 1  1  .1  Farmer (Women's) Groups A g r i c . Rep. Home Ec. Rep. Specialist 0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90 100  70  80  90 100  Commercial I n t e r e s t s A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . Rep. Specialist 0  10  20  30  40  50  60  FIGURE 2 Very Little Little uch  PERCENTAGE OF AGRICULTURAL REPRESENTATIVES, HOME ECONOMICS REPRESENTATIVES AND SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS RATING THE EXTENT DIFFERENT GROUPS SHOULD DETERMINE PROGRAMS  39 present p a r t i c i p a t i o n  t o 16> p e r c e n t when r a t i n g what  'should  1  be. When a s k e d  to indicate  the basis f o rplanning a  program t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s agreed farmers'* farmers  that  committees s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d r a n k i n g n e x t and t h i r d l y , t h e y themselves.  They d i s a g r e e d t h a t  s h o u l d be a b a s i s f o r t h e i r program p l a n  (Figure  programs  3).  F i g u r e 4 shows t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h c e r t a i n groups i n f l u e n c e t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s  and,  county individual  programs f o r i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n o r Province-wide  The  county  other program.  N o v a S c o t i a F e d e r a t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r e h a s some i n f l u e n c e to a lesser  Co-operatives. effect  e x t e n t , P r o v i n c i a l Commodity G r o u p s a n d C o m m e r c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s have l i t t l e  o r no  on programs.  Home E c o n o m i c s  Representatives  T h i s group o f e x t e n s i o n workers ranks themselves both  i n p r e s e n t l y d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r p r o g r a m a n d i n who  determine  t h e i r program.  i n importance specialists, (TABLE X I I I ) . farmers  They rank t h e i r d i r e c t o r  first 'should*  as second  w h i l e t h e y g i v e about equal r a n k i n g t o o t h e r farmers  ( f a r m women), a n d c o m m e r c i a l  interests  F i g u r e 2 i n d i c a t e s they would l i k e t o see  ( f a r m women) h a v e more e f f e c t  than t h e y p r e s e n t l y do.  on t h e i r p r o g r a m  A higher percentage  want  plans  less  d i r e c t i o n f r o m t h e i r d i r e c t o r , more f r o m s p e c i a l i s t s a n d l e s s  40 Needs Agric. Rep.j Home Ec. Rep. Specialist All 0  TO  2TJ  30  4 0  5 0 6 0  7 0 8 0  90100  Individual Farmers(Women) Say Are Needs Agric. Rep. Home Ec. Rep. Specialist All (5  Jo  20  80  ? 0 £ o  90 100  County Farmer s(Women s) Committees T  T  Agric. Rep. Home Ec. Rep. Specialist All 6  IO  -  20  30  40  Increasing  50  60  Jo  80  3b100  80  90 100  Production  Agric. Rep. Home Ec. Rep. Specialist All 0  1  10  r  20  30  40  50  oO  70  P r o v i n c i a l Program Agric. Rep. Home Ec. Rep. Specialist All 90 100 FIGURE 3 Strongly agree Agree PERCENTAGE OF AGRICULTURAL REPRESENTATIVES, V/////A\\-nA*rlAt>r\ HOME ECONOMICS REPRESENTATIVES AND SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS RATING THE Disagree BASIS FOR PLANNING COUNTY PROGRAMS NN>^\>\1 Strongly disagree  41 N.S. F e d e r a t i o n of A g r i c u l t u r e A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . Rep. Specialist All  0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  30  90  100  P r o v i n c i a l Commodity Grou A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . Rep. Specialist All  0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90  100  0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  90  100  60  70  80  90 100  A g r i c . Rep. Home Ec. Rep. Specialist All  Commercial Or A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . Rep. Specialist All  0  10  20  30  40  50  FIGURE 4  Very much Much X///A  Some Little  _5S3Non«  PERCENTAGE OF AGRICULTURAL REPRESENTATIVES, HOME ECONOMICS REPRESENTATIVES AND SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS RATING THE EXTENT CERTAIN GROUPS INFLUENCE THEIR PROGRAM  42  from commercial i n t e r e s t s . Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s The Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s agree that programs should be based on suggestions from county farmer committees (Figure 3)  and i n t h i s respect they agree with other workers.  They are stronger than other workers i n t h e i r opinion that programs f o r increasing production should influence t h e i r program plan and also that a p r o v i n c i a l l y based production program might be  better than a county based production program f o r  a g r i c u l t u r a l development i n the Province. Figure 4 shows that amongst Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s there was much v a r i a t i o n i n the percentage that were i n fluenced by certain other groups with no d e f i n i t e indication that any group had much influence on t h e i r program.  From 30  to 50 per cent indicated that a l l groups had 'some  1  influence. Summary In the case of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives the evidence i s quite clear that they more or less make t h e i r own decisions i n planning programs i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l areas or counties.  Their director and farmer's groups obviously  help to determine his program somewhat and they make very l i t t l e use of other groups.  They do not want t h i s situation  to continue since they indicate that farmer's groups should  43 be more involved i n program planning, t h e i r own influence, and that of t h e i r director, reduced.  Home Economics Rep-  resentatives are obviously influenced by t h e i r director when planning programs and they want to see t h i s influence reduced and want to increase t h e i r own influence on program determination. groups. own  They would reduce the influence of women's  The Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s would reduce t h e i r  influence i n program determination and that o f t h e i r  d i r e c t o r , while increasing the influence of other s p e c i a l i s t s and to a small degree, commercial i n t e r e s t s .  This group of  workers i s further removed from county planning than the other two groups since they work on a Province-wide basis. In general, most of the workers show a desire f o r a higher degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n program planning by one or more other groups.  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives show a strong  desire to increase the p a r t i c i p a t i o n by farmers groups and reduce t h e i r own, Home Economics Representatives would increase t h e i r own influence while S p e c i a l i s t s would reduce t h e i r influence and increase that of t h e i r d i r e c t o r . A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives, and to just as great an extent S p e c i a l i s t s , appear to plan programs themselves on the basis of what they perceive to be the farmers need while the Home Economies Representatives r e l y more on Department p o l i c y . A l l workers are strong i n t h e i r opinion that county  farmer  Most  Concerned  Specially  Poul. Veg. For.  Trained  Best  Qualified  0  N  Dairy  Beef  Hog  Poul.  Fruit  Veg.  For.  Poultry Vegetables Forestry Other None  Sheep  FIGURE 5 NUMBERS OF AGRICULTURAL REPRESENTATIVES INDICATING THEY ARE MOST CONCERNED, S P E C I A L L Y TRAINED OR BEST QUALIFIED IN VARIOUS SUBJECT MATTER AREAS OF THEIR WORK  0  N  45 committees s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g county programs. They f e e l t h a t i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n o r t h e f a c t t h a t  Pro-  vince-wide programs a r e i n s t i t u t e d do n o t , i n themselves, p r o v i d e a s t r o n g b a s i s f o r program p l a n n i n g . commodity groups,  Provincial  c o - o p e r a t i v e s and, w i t h the exception o f  the Home Economics R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , t h e Nova S c o t i a F e d e r a t ion  o f A g r i c u l t u r e , have 'some* i n f l u e n c e on program p l a n s . I I . TRAINING AND JOB QUALIFICATION In  o r d e r t o determine  were working  i f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e survey  i n the areas f o r which they were s p e c i f i c a l l y  t r a i n e d they were asked t o i n d i c a t e t h e main type o f farming  w i t h which they were most concerned, t h e types o r  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n f o r which they were s p e c i f i c a l l y t r a i n e d , and types o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n f o r which they f e l t best on t h e b a s i s o f t r a i n i n g and experience.  qualified  T h i s p a r t o f the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i d n o t a p p l y t o Home Economics R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives F i g u r e 5 shows t h a t A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were most concerned w i t h l i v e s t o c k farming, e s p e c i a l l y t h e d a i r y and hog e n t e r p r i s e , and t h e y f e l t  best q u a l i f i e d i n these  areas on t h e b a s i s o f t r a i n i n g and experience.  Only one-  t h i r d o f those most concerned w i t h d a i r y i n g were s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d i n t h i s f i e l d and o n e - h a l f o f those most w i t h hog farming were t r a i n e d i n t h a t s p e c i a l t y .  concerned There  20. Most Concerned Specially  15-  ^  Trained  Best  Qualified  Poul. Veg. For.  0  N  Poultry Vegetables Forestry Other None  CD  B  10-  3  5-  0-  Dairy  Beef  Hog  Poul.  Fruit  Veg,  For.  0  N  FIGURE 6 NUMBERS OF SUBJECT MATTER S P E C I A L I S T S INDICATING THEY ARE MOST CONCERNED, S P E C I A L L Y TRAINED OR BEST QUALIFIED IN VARIOUS SUBJECT MATTER AREAS OF THEIR WORK  47 appears t o be adequate amounts o f t r a i n i n g where o t h e r types of farming a r e a concern o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e . Three workers s a i d they were t r a i n e d  i n s p e c i a l t i e s other  than those w i t h which they were most concerned and s i x , o r t h i r t y - f i v e p e r cent, s a i d t h e y were t r a i n e d types o f farming w i t h which t h e y had most Sub.iect M a t t e r  i n none o f t h e  concern.  Specialists  Although t h e r e i s a l s o  a l a r g e number o f Subject  Matter S p e c i a l i s t s concerned w i t h v a r i o u s types o f l i v e stock farming, t h e r e i s a f a i r l y l a r g e  group where the most  concern i s w i t h f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e farming ( F i g u r e 6 ) . A l a r g e number have been s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d  i n f i e l d s o t h e r than  those l i s t e d but v e r y few l i s t e d no s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g .  A  l a r g e r percentage o f those concerned w i t h d a i r y i n g t h a t  were  specially trained  i n t h i s f i e l d i s evident i n t h i s group as  compared w i t h t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I I I . CONTACT WITH FARMERS WITH DIFFERENT GROSS INCOME LEVELS AND.OTHER GROUPS There i s a wide v a r i a t i o n c u l t u r a l workers i n Nova S c o t i a service  these people.  be s e l e c t i v e  and l i m i t e d time i n which t o  I t i s expected then t h a t workers would  i n t h e amount o f a t t e n t i o n  or income l e v e l . variable  i n the c l i e n t e l e o f a g r i -  given t o each group  Gross annual income l e v e l i s an important  i n categorizing  farmers and, i n a d d i t i o n ,  other groups not i n v o l v e d i n commercial  agriculture  there are but they  TABLE XIV TYPE OF WORKER AND RANK IMPORTANCE GIVEN BY EACH TO FARMERS . OF VARIOUS GROSS INCOME LEVELS AND OTHER GROUPS INCLUDED IN THE 'REGULAR* EXTENSION PROGRAM  TYPE OF WORKER  INCOME LEVELS  Agricultural" Representative  Home Economics Representative  Subject Matter Specialist  Total Score  Total Score  Total Score  Rank  Rank  Rank  All Total Score  Rank  $10,000 and over  12  3  1  3  22  1  35  2  $ 5,000 - $9,999  15  1  1  3  21  2  37  1  $ 2 , 5 0 0 - $4,999  13  2  1  3  19  3  33  3  $ 1,000 - $2,499  11  4  2  2  15  4  28  4  Less than $1,000  4  6  1  3  14  5  19  6  Part-time -  -  8  5  3  1  15  4  26  5  Rural non-farm  1  7  3  1  5  7  9  7  Urban  0  0  2  2  6  6  8  8  00-  TABLE XV TYPE OF WORKER AND RANK IMPORTANCE GIVEN BY EACH TO FARMERS OF. VARIOUS GROSS INCOME LEVELS AND OTHER GROUPS INCLUDED IN 'SPECIAL* EXTENSION PROGRAMS  TYPE OF WORKER  INCOME LEVELS  Agricultural Representative  Home Economics Representative  Subject Matter Specialist  Total Score  Total Score  Total Score  Rank  $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 and over  12  1  $ 5,000 - $ 9 , 9 9 9  12  $ 2,500 - $ 4 , 9 9 9  •  Rank  Rank  All Total Score  Rank  0  0  17  2  29  2  1  0  0  19  1  31  1  9  2  0  0  14  3  23  3  $ 1,000 - $ 2 , 4 9 9  4  3  1  2  11  4  16  4  Less than $1,000  2  5  0  0  &  5  10  6  Part-time  3  4  2  1  6  6  11  5  Rural non-farm  0  0  2  1  1  8  3  7  Urban  0  0  0  0  2  7  2  8  TABLE XVI TYPE OF WORKER AND RANK IMPORTANCE GIVEN BY EACH TO ANSWERING 'REQUESTS ONLY* FOR FARMERS OF VARIOUS GROSS .INCOME. LEVELS AND OTHER GROUPS  TYPE OF WORKER  INCOME LEVELS  $10,000  and over  $ 5,000 - $9,999 $ 2,500 - $4,999 $ 1,000 - $2,499 Less than  $1,000  Part-time Rural non-farm Urban  Agricultural" Representative  Home Economics Representative  Subject Matter Specialist  Total Score  Rank  Total Score  Rank  Total Score  4  6  0  0  4  5 4 5  5 6  0 0  0 0  5 6  5  0  .0  9  9 11  4 2  0 0  0 0  12 10  1  1 2  2 1  3  Rank  7 6  All Total Score 8  5  10 10  10  3 4 2  14 17 21  12  1  24 20  8  8  4  Rank  7 6 6 5 4 2 1 3  TABLE XVII TIPE OF WORKER AND RANK IMPORTANCE GIVEN BY EACH TO FARMERS OF VARIOUS GROSS INCOME LEVELS AND OTHER GROUPS WITH . WHICH THEY WOULD 'LIKE TO SPEND' MORE TIME  TYPE OF WORKER  INCOME LEVELS  $10,000  Agricultural" Representative  Home Economics Repres entat ive  Subject Matter Specialist  Total Score  Total Score  Total Score  2  and over  $ 5,000 - $9,999  12  $ 2,500 - $4,999 $ 1,000 - $2,499 Less than $ 1 , 0 0 0 Part-time ••• - • Rural non-farm Urban  Rank  12 2 0 0 0  1 2  0 0 0  1  2  3 0 0 0  3 0 0 0  Rank  0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0  Rank  All Total Score  13 13 13 12  1 1 1  21  2  5 1 0  3  26 10  1  4  4 0  25 21  1 0 1  Rank  3 2 3 1 4 5 0 4  make requests that must be acknowledged and serviced.  52  The  manner i n which the worker allocates his or her time amongst these groups and the type of service given i s another aspect of t h i s study. TABLES XIV to XVII show the rank importance  given by  each of the three types of workers to farmers or farm women of various gross farm income l e v e l s i n regular and special extension programs, i n answering requests only, and the groups they would prefer to work with. A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives The A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives appear to allocate most of t h e i r time to farmers with gross incomes i n the range i n the  50 ,00 99 ,99 25 ,00 49 ,99 to  to  ten thousand d o l l a r s . one thousand to  24 ,99  dollars followed closely by the group dollar range and then the group over  A large number also work with the d o l l a r income l e v e l (TABLE XIV).  The other group that i s included i n t h e i r regular program i s part-time farmers while less attention i s given to those with gross incomes of less than 10,00 non-farm group.  dollars and the r u r a l  The urban group i s not a factor.  The area of special programs was not c l e a r l y defined but A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives indicated that they had special programs f o r farmers i n various gross income l e v e l s (TABLE XV).  They l i s t e d f i r s t those with income l e v e l s  53 of 5,000 to 9,999 dollars and over 10,000 d o l l a r s .  As gross  income l e v e l s dropped fewer of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives had special extension programs f o r these lower i n come l e v e l s and none had s p e c i a l programs f o r r u r a l non-farm and urban groups. TABLE XVI shows that A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives answer requests f o r a l l d i f f e r e n t gross income l e v e l farmers but more especially f o r those with gross income levels below one thousand dollars and f o r part-time, r u r a l non-farm and urban groups.  This i s a clear indication that the A g r i c u l -  t u r a l Representative prefers to work with the.higher income l e v e l groups and includes them i n h i s regular extension program. TABLE XVII shows that the A g r i c u l t u r a l Representative i s 'most* interested  i n working with farmers having gross  incomes i n the ranges 1,000 to 2,499 dollars and 5,000 to 9,999 d o l l a r s , with those i n the ranges 2,500 to 4,999 dollars and over 10,000 d o l l a r s ranking second.  He does not  want to spend time with those farmers having a gross income l e v e l of less than 1,000 d o l l a r s or with part-time, r u r a l non-farm or urban groups. Home Economics Representatives TABLE XIV indicates that the Home Economics Representative has regular programs mainly f o r women on farms  where the farmer i s part-time at that occupation and f o r r u r a l non-farm women.  They rank second i n importance urban  groups and those where gross farm incomes are i n the range  1,000  to  2,499  dollars.  Their rankings indicate that they  do not have regular programs f o r those farm women where there is a r e l a t i v e l y high gross income. The groups with which Home Economics Representatives have special programs are the same as those with which they have regular programs and t h i s i s shown i n TABLE XV. These are the part-time, r u r a l non-farm and 1 , 0 0 0 to income l e v e l groups. urban groups.  2,499  dollar  They have no special programs f o r  Apparently there i s l i t t l e interest i n pro-  viding special programs f o r those women on farms where there is a high gross income l e v e l .  For these groups TABLE XVI  shows that Home Economics Representatives answer requests only.  TABLE XVII shows that Home Economics Representatives  would l i k e to spend t h e i r time on programs reaching farm women where the gross income levels are below  2,500  dollars  including the group with income less than 1 , 0 0 0 d o l l a r s . Sub.iect Matter S p e c i a l i s t s TABLE XIV shows that t h i s group of workers develops programs f o r those farmers i n the higher gross income l e v e l s and few have regular programs f o r the lower income as well as part-time, r u r a l non-farm and urban groups.  Subject  55 Matter S p e c i a l i s t s are used as resource persons mainly by A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives and less often by Home Economics Representatives and i t i s l o g i c a l that they would be used i n developing the more intensive programs usually required when working with farmers having r e l a t i v e l y high gross incomes. They are also available to farmers who  c a l l them d i r e c t .  Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s develop special programs mainly f o r farmers with high gross incomes.  TABLE XV gives some  indication that emphasis i s placed on s p e c i a l programs f o r the 5,000 to 9,999 d o l l a r gross income l e v e l group.  The  Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s answer requests only mainly f o r the lower income l e v e l groups and f o r part-time, r u r a l nonfarm and urban.  TABLE XVII shows that t h i s group of workers  f e e l that t h e i r regular extension program i s reaching those groups i t i s designed f o r and there i s no strong indication they would l i k e to change the time they spend with the various groups.  None showed any interest i n working with the  r u r a l non-farm group. Summary In general a l l workers have regular and s p e c i a l programs f o r the higher gross income l e v e l groups and these are the groups they would l i k e to continue working with. i s an indication, however, that more time should  There  be spent  on programs f o r those i n the income l e v e l ranges of  1,000  56 to  2,499  d o l l a r s and  5,000  to  9,999  dollars.  Workers  answer requests only mainly f o r the part-time, r u r a l nonfarm and urban  groups. IV. RELATIONSHIP WITH THE  JOB  Regardless of what motivates a person to become an employee of the Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture and Marketing i t i s natural that he w i l l remain i n t h i s employment only i f he i s s a t i s f i e d with his job both materially and psychologically.  As the time spent i n one position  progresses, workers develop certain d e f i n i t e attitudes which help to determine t h e i r relationship with the job.  In t h i s  instance statements were designed to get an understanding of the relationship of the worker to the job, his l i k e s and d i s l i k e s , his views on the Department and his program. Relationship With the Department Relationships between extension workers and the Department of Agriculture are rated i n TABLE XVIII.  Opinions  on the statement: "Administering Department p o l i c i e s  (polic-  ing) interferes with our work i n extension education" varied considerably showing much indecision.  For a l l workers the  r a t i n g gave no indication of agreement or disagreement. A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives, who in  The  are more c l o s e l y involved  the administration of p o l i c i e s , indicated that they agree  that i t does i n t e r f e r e with programs i n extension education.  TABLE XVIII THREE TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA RATING THEIR OPINIONS ABOUT THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH THE DEPARTMENT  Extension education hindered by a d m i n i s t e r i n g of p o l i c i e s Encourage leave-of-absence for additional t r a i n i n g  Disagree  Undecided  Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree Agree  Disagree  Undecided  Disagree Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree Agree  A l l Workers >> a a  rH bO JC tx O CC U CO -p-H  coo  0  4  3  4  0  0  0 15  8  0  0  0  60 63  0  4  0  6  0  0 2 8 24 30 14  0 36 39 54 16  0  0  0  8  0  0  4 1 8 33 5  0  8  0 28 2 0  0  3  6  0  5  0  9 34 10  5  4 12 68 12  5 32 0 1 4 20 40  Undecided  Disagree Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree Agree  Undecided  OPINION ITEMS  Strongly Agree Agree  Agricultural Representative  RATING Home Economics Subject Matter Representative S p e c i a l i s t  6  0  1  Department should determine f i e l d of a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g  0  4 15 18  Farmers f e e l Department s e r v i c e s are inadequate  0  4 1 5 22 0  Department o f f i c i a l s i n t e r f e r e with job  0  4  2  24 21 32 9  0  1 0  5 oO 2 4 5 0  2  0  0  9 5 116 1 5  33 68  5  VJ1  53  A l l workers agreed e m p l o y e e s s h o u l d be  i s granted f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g the  S p e c i a l i s t s were  t h e i r o p i n i o n on t h e s t a t e m e n t :  a r e a a r e not making t h e b e s t use  because t h e y t h i n k I have l i t t l e  be  undecided  on t h i s p o i n t and t h e y g a v e a f a i r l y h i g h r a t i n g t o  m e r s o f my  Depart-  i n what f i e l d t h e t r a i n i n g i s t o  More o f t h e S u b j e c t M a t t e r  When a s k e d  for  T h e y g e n e r a l l y d i s a g r e e d t h a t when  ment s h o u l d d e t e r m i n e taken.  t h a t Department  encouraged t o take leave-of-absence  additional training. leave-of-absence  or s t r o n g l y agreed  'agree . 1  "The  o f my  far-  services  t o o f f e r as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  o f the Department" workers g e n e r a l l y disagreed which would i n d i c a t e t h a t they t h i n k farmers for  have a good d e a l o f  t h e D e p a r t m e n t and t h e r e f o r e f o r D e p a r t m e n t  Workers disagreed w i t h the statement:  The  workers  1  workers.  " I g e t t o o much  f e r e n c e f r o m D e p a r t m e n t o f f i c i a l s t o do an Prestige of the Extension Workers  respect  effective  inter-  job".  Position  1  perceptions of the p r e s t i g e of t h e i r  p o s i t i o n s a r e m e a s u r e d by r e s p o n s e s  to the statement:  comparison w i t h other p o s i t i o n s r e q u i r i n g s i m i l a r  own  "In  training  t h e e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s p o s i t i o n i s h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d by o t h e r s " . R a t i n g s g i v e n i n TABLE X I X d e c i d e d on t h i s p o i n t . statement  show a l l w o r k e r s t o be  D i s t r i b u t i o n of responses  a r e g i v e n i n TABLE XX.  One-half  t u r a l Representatives are undecided  of the  quite to  un-  the  Agricul-  about t h e p r e s t i g e o f  t h e i r p o s i t i o n w h i l e the other one-half are almost  equally  TABLE XIX THREE TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA RATING THEIR OPINIONS ON "POSITION IS HIGHLY RESPECTED BY OTHERS". .  RATING TYPE OF WORKER  Strongly Agree  Agree  Undecided  Disagree  Strongly Disagree  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representative  0  16  27  6  1  Home Economics Representative  5  0  3  4  1  Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t  5  32  15  22  1  10  48  45  30  3  All  vn  TABLE XX DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSES TO THE STATEMENT: "IN COMPARISON WITH OTHER POSITIONS REQUIRING SIMILAR TRAINING, THE.EXTENSION WORKERS* . POSITION IS HIGHLY RESPECTED BY OTHERS" ACCORDING TO TYPE, AGE, AND LENGTH OF SERVICE OF THE WORKERS  TYPE OF WORKER A g r i c u l t u r a l Representative Home Economics Representative Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t AGE  Strongly Strongly Agre:e Agree Undecided Disagree Disagree No. $ No. f No. fo No. fo No. fo  0 1 1  0 20 4  4 0 13  No.  % 10 0 0 0  No.  - 2 9 years - 3 9 years - 4 9 years and more years  2 0 0 0  LENGTH OF SERVICE IN EXTENSION WORK.  No.  fo  No,  2 0 0 2  7 0 0 4  6 7 4 17  20 30 40 50  1 0 and less years 1 1 - 2 0 years Over 2 0 years A l l Workers  2 5 5 5  23 0 42 fo  10 42 50 50 fo  19  47 57 32  9 1 5 No.  7 3 2 3 No.  10 2 3 15  53 20 16 fo  33 25 20 30 fo  32 13 43 28  6 20 3  18 40 35  1 1 1  No.  f  No.  7 4 3 2  33 33 30 20  3 0 0 0  14 0 0 0  No.  fo  3 0 0 3  10 0 0 6  3 2 11  No.  10 6 0 16  fo  32 40 0 30  f  61  divided on agreement and disagreement.  Home Economics Rep-  resentatives rate themselves below other positions with simi l a r t r a i n i n g while Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s rate themselves somewhat above.  S p e c i a l i s t s , then, accord themselves  more prestige than do the other two types of workers.  By  age group the younger workers, 20 to 29 years of age, believe t h e i r p o s i t i o n has less prestige when compared to others requiring s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g while those over 30 years of age tend to give more prestige to t h e i r p o s i t i o n .  S i m i l a r l y those  with 10 or less years of service attach less prestige to t h e i r position than do those with longer service. Planning Ahead and Annual Reports TABLE XXI rates opinions about forward planning and the value of annual reports on program plans.  A l l workers  believe planning ahead i s a better procedure than doing things as they need attention.  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives  were e s p e c i a l l y emphatic about t h i s point. Workers were quite varied i n t h e i r opinions of the value of t h e i r annual reports i n helping them plan the work they do and there i s no clear i n d i c a t i o n of how they f e e l although there i s a s l i g h t tendency to doubt t h e i r value, especially by the Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s . S a t i s f a c t i o n With Their Job In TABLE XXII the response of workers to the  statement:  "I think doing extension work i s a very s a t i s f y i n g experience"  TABLE X X I THREE TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA RATING THEIR OPINIONS ABOUT PLANNING AHEAD AND EFFECT OF ANNUAL REPORTS ON THEIR WORK  Agricultural Representative  RATING Home E c o n o m i c s S u b j e c t M a t t e r Specialist Representative  xf CD  Ti  bO  OPINION ITEMS  C CD CD *H U  o  -P bO  P l a n t h i n g s a s needed t h a n p l a n ahead  rather  Annual report not important when p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m  0  •H <D CD  U  to <  0  C_> CD  Ti C  £3  0  0 28 15  CD CD  fn bO CO CO  •H  o  32  >»CD  rH CD bOJn O CO *H CO  bO C CD O <D  P-H  P bO  COO  CO<  CD CD U bO  CD X) •H O  CD' Xi.  C  0  0 0  CD CD  x) CD xi •rl  >->CD  rH CD hOU hO bO C W C CD CO O CO O CD ^ CO U U CO P - H P Wi C O O co<<  0  CD CD  bO  O CD  Xi  c  CD CD  5H bO CO CO •H  o  o 40  10 20 21 24  All  Workers Xi  >>CD >» rH CD rH bO** bO  cw O CO CO  P  CO  o  8  C CD O CD  PbO  CD  Xi •H CD CD  U bO  CO<  0 12  O CD  CD CD SH  bO CO CO  Xi C  •H  !3  O  CD  rH CD bO f->  d wi O CO CO  -P •  cool  0 76 11  15 4 3 39 32  ON  TABLE XXII THREE TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA RATING THEIR OPINIONS ABOUT THEIR SATISFACTION WITH VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THEIR JOB  RATING  Undecided  Disagree  Strongly Disagree  20  4  0  0  0  15 92 12  2  0  45 140 21  4  0  Relationships with others r e f l e c t s on q u a l i t y o f job  5  40  3 10 0  5  8  0  2  1  15 64 15  4  0  25 112 18 16  1  S p e c i a l i z a t i o n would improve a b i l i t y t o do a b e t t e r job  5  36 15  4 0  10  4  0  2  1  15 84  9  4  0  30 124 24 10  1  Chance f o r promotion c r e a t e s enthusiasm  0  16  9 20 0  0  4  3  6  0  10 68 12 16  0  10 88 24 42  0  15  56  0  0 0  5 16  0  0  0  35 92  2  0  55 169  2  0  E x t e n s i o n work good f o r other jobs  training  3  Agree  Disagree  2 0  Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree  Undecided  9  Agree  Disagree  44  E x t e n s i o n work a s a t i s f y i n g experience  Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree  Undecided  10  OPINION ITEMS  Disagree  Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree Agree  A l l Workers  Undecided  Subject Matter Specialist  Agree  Hoi ne Economics Re p r e s e n t a t i v e  Strongly Agree  Ag]r i c u l t u r a l Re]s r e s e n t a t i v e  3  Government employment p r o v i d e s job s e c u r i t y  0  52 12  0 0  15  0  0  4  0  15 80 12 10  0  30 132 24 14  0  Much job freedom when doing extension work  5  56  2 0  15  4  0  0  1  25 104  8  0  45 164  6 10  1  3  3  64 i s rated.  A l l workers agree and the Home Economics Rep-  resentatives give the highest r a t i n g to 'strongly agree*. When asked to comment on whether or not getting along well with others i n t h e i r profession r e f l e c t s on how well they do t h e i r job, a l l workers agreed that t h i s does have an e f f e c t . The r a t i n g of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives indicates some disagreement on t h i s point.  A l l workers, and especially  the Home Economics Representatives, believed they could do a better job i f they could s p e c i a l i z e i n one or two l i n e s o f extension work.  Workers were not f u l l y i n agreement that they  would be more enthusiastic about t h e i r job i f i t offered more opportunity f o r promotion.  The A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives  especially, seem quite content i n t h e i r positions and are not too concerned about promotion.  A l l workers gave the  rating *agree*, and many 'strongly agree*, when giving t h e i r opinion on the statement:  "Doing extension work i s good t r a i n -  ing to have before getting another job". that they have more security i n have  They also  agreed  t h e i r job than they would  i n many others and that they have more freedom i n  determining the work they do. D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n With Their Job Several areas that might show d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r job were included i n the questionnaire f o r response by the three types of extension workers. are given i n TABLE XXIII.  Ratings on these items  There i s general agreement that they  TABLE X X I I I THREE TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS I N NOVA SCOTIA RATING THEIR OPINIONS ABOUT DISSATISFACTION WITH VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THEIR JOB  RATING  Disagree  0  0 15 76 12  10 0  30 128 21  16  0  .0 0  3  0  4  1  28 2  5 56 33  46  3  Agree  3  Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree  16  Disagree  Undecided  Undecided  0  0  Strongly Disagree Stronglv Agree Agree  Disagree  6  A l l Workers  Undecided  6  Subject Matter Specialist  Agree  Disagree  fewer  Home E c o n o m i c s Representative  Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree  Undecided  if  15 36  Strongly Agree  OPINION ITEMS  Work more a t t r a c t i v e night- meetings  Agree  Agricultural' Representative  >> a h.0 k C W O CO  f-i CO  +0 -H  W O  N o t enough r e c o g n i t i o n f o r time and energy expended  0 12 21 14  Better office f a c i l i t i e s s a l a r i e s d o n ' t improve  5 20  6 16  1  0  0  3  8  0 : 523  9  40 0  10 48 18  64  1  P a p e r work i n v o l v e d i n j o b h i n d e r s f i e l d work  0 20  6 20  0  0  :o  3  6  0  5 28  3  44 3  5 48 12  70  1  W i l l l o o k f o r o t h e r work s a l a r i e s d o n ' t improve  0 16  15 16  0  0  12  3  0  1  5 20 f2  22 3  5 48 60  33  4  if  if  5 36 12  ON VJ1  66 would l i k e t h e i r work better i f there were fewer night meetings.  There was l i t t l e difference i n t h e i r rating of agree-  ment or disagreement on the statement:  "My  job demands too  much time and energy f o r the recognition I get".  Workers  appear to be amply rewarded i n t h i s respect and, except f o r the Home Economics Representative, they appear to be amply rewarded m a t e r i a l l y too.  Most workers are quite s a t i s f i e d  with t h e i r o f f i c e f a c i l i t i e s and equipment.  The workers as  a group disagreed that the paper work involved i n t h e i r jobs hinders t h e i r work i n the f i e l d .  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives  gave equal r a t i n g to 'agree* and 'disagree* on t h i s point. Summary Except f o r a few differences, extension workers i n Nova Scotia are i n agreement that doing extension work has many virtues and they do not stress d i s l i k e f o r many of the undesirable aspects of t h e i r jobs.  They appear to be strongly  motivated i n t h e i r work by such things as 'job security', 'freedom* i n planning programs, the ' s a t i s f y i n g experience* of doing extension work, the 'recognition* they get f o r time and energy expended, t h e i r * o f f i c e f a c i l i t i e s ' , and the 'prest i g e ' of t h e i r p o s i t i o n .  They believe they should be encour-  aged to take leave-of-absence f o r additional t r a i n i n g and they should be able to select the f i e l d i n which t h i s t r a i n ing w i l l be taken.  They agree that doing extension work i s  good preparatory t r a i n i n g f o r other jobs.  They do f e e l that  67  'administering Department p o l i c i e s * interferes with t h e i r work i n extension education, that they would l i k e fewer night meetings, and do not have a chance to 'specialize"*;. V.  RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHERS  A g r i c u l t u r a l workers have many and varied personal and informal relationships with i n d i v i d u a l farm people and with farm and related groups.  In addition, they work c l o s e l y with  others i n the Department so that they are subjected to the influence of t h e i r 'organization* as well as t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . In t h i s section workers rate t h e i r opinions about farm people and groups, reorganization of the extension service, others within the Department, and t h e i r program. Farm People and Organizations The attitudes that workers have towards farm people and groups are certain to affect t h e i r relationships with them and thus the ease with which they can work together. Extension workers i n Nova Scotia disagreed or strongly d i s agreed that working with farm people i s unrewarding of t h e i r general lack of education (TABLE XXIV).  because  I t i s not  clear, of course, whether workers f i n d i t rewarding to work with farm people i n *spite* of t h e i r lack of education or i f they do so because they f e e l farm people are generally well educated.  It i s expected that the l a t t e r i s the case.  When considering whether or not i t i s d i f f i c u l t to  TABLE XXIV THREE TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA RATING THEIR OPINIONS ABOUT FARMERS; FARM AND OTHER GROUPS  . . . . Agricultural Representative Xl  >>  CD  rH  OPINION ITEMS  bO  a CD O CD CH CH • P bO  Work w i t h farm people unrewarding due t o t h e i r lack of education.  0  Farm organizations lack purpose or d i r e c t i o n  CD CD CH  bO  < .  -a  •ri  O CD  Xi  c  CD CD SH  bD CC CO  •ri O  RATING Home Economics Subject Matter Representative S p e c i a l i s t X)  >*0 >> rH CD rH  bOCn bO C b[ C CD O cc O CD CH CO CH CH p - H - P bO C O O W<£  CD  X) CD CD CH  bO  <  •H  O CD  X!  c  CD CD Cn bO COCO  •H  X!  >>0 rH CD rH  bOCn bO C bC C CD O CO O CD CH CO CH CH +3-H P bt  o coo co<  CD  X) CD CD CH  bO  •r-i O CD  X) C  o  0 0  6  0  0  0  2  4  0  5  12 12 18  0  0 4  0  0  3  0 16 15 30  Better t o work w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s rather than w i t h groups  0  24  0  8 3  2  0 40 36 15 18  Commercial firms e x p l o i t the farmer  5  0  0  0  6  1  9  8 3  4 12 16  3  0  4  16  3  26  X3 0 X)  ^0 rH 0 r-i  bOCn bO bO C b£ C 0 CC O CO O 0 CO CH CO CH CH •H ,-P-H -P W Q W O CO< CH  3 16  4  A l l Workers  17 8  0  0 0  CH  bO  <  8  •ri O  0 X! C  >-,0 rH 0  bO CO CO  a w O CO  bflCn  •H  CH W +J-H  COO  Q  6 44  27  5 32 27 48 11  1 40 68 27  0 34 11  0 0  CH  5 20 12  28  4  56 15  ON  oa  69 work with most farm organizations since they seem to lack any purpose or d i r e c t i o n , A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives and Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s generally disagreed or were undecided while Home Economics Representatives both agreed and strongly disagreed showing no clear-cut opinion as a group.  A l l work-  ers agreed they can best do t h e i r job by working with the i n d i v i d u a l farmer rather than with groups.  Subject Matter  S p e c i a l i s t s were strong i n t h e i r opinions i n t h i s respect. Workers disagreed that commercial firms are out to exploit the farmer and f e l t t h i s was not a reason why they should not become involved with them. The Extension Service There was agreement amongst a l l types of workers that reorganization of the Extension Services Branch should r e s u l t i n better service to the farmers of Nova Scotia (TABLE XXV).  Home Economics Representatives were f u l l y i n  agreement while there was some indecision amongst A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives and Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s .  This  reorganization regionalized the Branch with the view to improve communications within and provide better opportunities to develop programs to upgrade farm people i n the region. While the r a t i n g f o r ''undecided' i s high, workers generally agree that the reorganization of the Branch w i l l mean they w i l l have more chance to carry out the program they wish i n t h e i r counties.  There was more indecision on t h i s point by  TABLE XXV THREE TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA RATING THEIR OPINIONS ABOUT EXTENSION SERVICES AND THEIR JOB  RATING Agricultural Repres e n t a t i v e X! CD Xi  >*  OPINION ITEMS  r-i bD  C CD O CD  CD CD  CH  CH  CH  -P bO  bO <<  •ri O CD X) C  Home Economics Re]o r e s e n t a t i v e  Subject M a t t e r Specialist  X! CD Xi  X! CD Xi  !^>CD r H CD r H tOCn bO CH bO C h£ C CD O CD CO O CO CH CO CH C H -H +J-H P bO O CD CD  to  coo CO<t!  CD CD CH  bO  <Z  •ri U CD Xi C  CD CD CH  bO CO CO  •ri  P  >>CD >-> r H CD r H bOCn bO C bi C CD O CO O CD CH CO CH C H . p - H P bD  cop  co<t;  0  Reorganization of services w i l l improve programming  0  28  21  4  0  0  8  6  2  0  R e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l provide b e t t e r s e r v i c e t o farmers  5  40  18  0  0  0  12  0  0  More s u p e r v i s i o n from d i r e c t o r needed  0  16  0  0  0  0  0  0  5  8  3  S p e c i a l i s t s t a f f should be i n E x t e n s i o n Branch  0 44  2  27 6  CD CD CH  bD  <  •ri O CD Xi C  CD CD CH  hO CO CO-  •ri  P  !>>CD r H CD bOCn Cb{ O CO CH CO -p-H COO  A l l Workers >> rH bO C CD O CD  CD CD  CHCH  CH  PbO  bO  co<*; <  XI CD xt  CD CD  O CD Xi  bO CO CO  •ri  c  23 42  8  2  0 LO  68 36  2  0 15 L20 54  3  0  24  33  2  0  24  12 18 10  0  L5  22  1  0 64 69  0  40  24  60  76 21  CH  •ri  o  >>CD r H CD bO U £ bC  co  O CO CH +0-H COO  14  2  2  0  46  1  20 10  0  -o o  71 Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s than amongst the other types o f workers and t h i s i s to be expected since reorganization would not a f f e c t them as much as the other workers. Workers generally disagreed with the statement: "Our director should give more supervision to work being carried out i n the counties".  Once again Home Economics Represen-  t a t i v e s were emphatic i n t h e i r disagreement  while there was  much indecision amongst the other types of workers with Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s agreeing as much as disagreeing. When considering the statement: "Subject Matter Speci a l i s t s who are i n contact with the farmer should work under the d i r e c t i o n o f the Extension Services Branch" there was surprising unanimity i n agreement from a l l workers. As expected however, the Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s , who work under several Branch heads, showed the least i n c l i n a t i o n to agree. Factors A f f e c t i n g Program Plans A l l workers, and especially the A g r i c u l t u r a l and Home Economics Representatives, agreed they can best improve t h e i r a b i l i t y to do a better job by getting better acquainted with people rather than studying problems (TABLE XXVI).  Sub-  ject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s believe a successful extension program i s more dependent on following procedure developed to e n l i s t widespread p a r t i c i p a t i o n rather than developing personal relationships with key people.  A g r i c u l t u r a l and Home  TABLE X X V I THREE TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA RATING THEIR OPINIONS ABOUT FACTORS AFFECTING THEIR EXTENSION PROGRAM PLANS  RATING Home E c o n o m i c s S u b j e c t M a t t e r Specialist Representative  Agricultural' Representative  xi  XJ XI  CD CD  •H  CH  bOCn  bO  bO  C b O j  C CD O CD  CD bO  CD O CD  CD CD  O  CH CH  CH  XI  bO  C  C  OPINION ITEMS  -P  Knowing people i s b e t t e r knowing problems  than  P r o g r a m d e p e n d s on many r a t h e r t h a n few k e y r e l a t i o n s h i p s P r o g r a m b a s e d on k n o w i n g j e c t r a t h e r than people  sub-  bO  CD  10 20 12 0 20  CO CO  >>CD r H  O  CD  CO  CHCO  CH C H  -p-H  -P  C O P  co<t;  bC  10  20  6 16  0  6 24  0  CD CD CH bO  CD X3 •H O  CD X) C  4  0  X) CD CD  iH a  CH  bOC-  bO  bO  C  C  CD  CO  O CC  O  CD  CO  •H  p  0  CH  K  CH CH  . p - H  -P  cop  C O <  0  0  hi)  CD  CD  X)  CD  •H  CH  bOCn  CD  O  bO  CD  CD  CO  cw  CO'  O  CH  Xi  bO  C  <  48 18  0  10 44  rH  CD  CO C H CO -p-H C O P  26  Workers X)  ;>>  CD  rH bO  0  CD CD CH  bOCn C  CD CD  CD  O  bO  CD  CD  CH C H  CH  xi:  CO CO  C  O  • p b t  >~>CD r H CD  Xi •H  bO  co<<  b£  O CO C H CO +J-H C O P  30 72 30  16  10 40 15 28 0  >.CD  All  26  8  10 64 24 48 15 4 8  15  50  ro  73 Economics Representatives tend to believe the opposite to be true.  The l a t t e r two types of workers also f e e l quite  strongly that knowing people that can help with a program i s more conducive to the success of that program than i s knowing subject matter.  The Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s  believe the opposite and t h i s i s perhaps to be expected since they act more i n the capacity of 'consultant* rather than "'program developer'. Summary The three types of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers i n Nova Scotia f i n d working with farm people and farm organizations to be rewarding experiences and t h i s would appear to be a strong motivational force i n maintaining t h e i r interest in t h e i r job.  However, they believe they can do t h e i r best  work by working with individuals rather than by working with groups.  Reorganization of the Extension Services Branch  should help workers provide better service to t h e i r c l i e n t e l e and help them i n planning better programs f o r farmers.  As a  group they do not want more supervision from t h e i r director. They believe a l l extension workers should be working i n the extension branch of the Department rather than under special branches. 'Getting better acquainted with people* w i l l help with the job more so than *studying problems* that appear to need solving according to a l l three types of workers.  They also  74 agree that the success of t h e i r program i s more dependent upon developing personal relationships with key people than i n e n l i s t i n g widespread p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  They believe  that an extension program w i l l have a better chance of succeed' ing i f they e n l i s t the help of others rather than r e l y i n g on t h e i r own knowledge of the subject. VI. ROLE PERFORMANCE AND ROLE PERCEPTION AS APPLIED TO FUNCTIONS OF THE EXTENSION SERVICE The question of role d e f i n i t i o n as i t applies to the a c t i v i t i e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers i s a d i f f i c u l t one to resolve since they work with different groups having different needs and expectations.  Because of t h i s they re-  late themselves to different people i n d i f f e r e n t ways. some the worker i s a service man, who  To  to others he i s the person  controls departmental p o l i c i e s i n the area, and to others  he i s an advisor i n farm business planning or an organizer of educational meetings.  These roles probably change i n degree  of importance with different groups and they also change as time passes and the nature of agriculture, The role performance  i t s e l f , changes.  of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension work-  ers was measured by asking them to rank 17 different aspects of t h e i r job i n accordance with the time spent on them the previous year.  The different aspects of extension work  i d e n t i f i e d here are part of an expanded c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based  75 on that of Stone whose studies were done i n Michigan.  25  S i m i l a r l y role perception was measured by having the workers rank the same items according to the time they would l i k e to spend on them i n the future.  It i s expected that t h e i r  reaction to t h e i r future expectations would be influenced by the s a t i s f a c t i o n obtained from these aspects of t h e i r work i n the past and which aspect best helps them f i l l the perceived needs of  their clientele.  The categories of roles developed 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  are:  Student - acquiring knowledge and s k i l l s by studying extension methods and t e c h n i c a l a g r i c u l t u r e by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n in-service t r a i n i n g program. Administrator - administering p o l i c i e s and a county office. Organizer and Supervisor of events - setting up group situations f o r educational purposes and t r a i n i n g leaders. Organizer of groups - organizing community and farm groups f o r c o l l e c t i v e action. Service' agent - interpreting recommendations and demonstrating techniques. Program planner and evaluator - planning and evaluating programs"in production and education. Consultant - acting as a consultant, on a request basis, on t e c h n i c a l problems i n a g r i c u l t u r a l production or farm" management. Public relations person i- acting as l i a i s o n person between farmers and the Department. Source of information - stimulating people's i n t e r est and encouraging new practices.  The percentage of the three types of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers indicating time spent i n these categories  25  •  '  '  "' ••  - J.T. Stone, "How County A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents Teach", Proceedings.of the Canadian Society of Rural Extension. 1961, p. 21 lU7~  76 l a s t year and the time they would l i k e to spend i s given i n figures 7 to 1 1 based on the rankings given by them. A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives On the basis of rankings given by A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives on t h e i r r o l e as a student they indicate that they are spending l i t t l e time 'studying extension methods' or in  'in-service t r a i n i n g programs'* but more i n 'studying tech-  n i c a l agriculture*  (Figure 7 ) .  Apparently knowing subject  matter has been more important to them than knowing how to *get i t across' to t h e i r c l i e n t e l e .  They would, however, l i k e  to spend much more time 'studying extension methods' and i n 'in-service t r a i n i n g programs' and a b i t more time 'studying technical  agriculture'.  'Routine o f f i c e administration' and ''administration of Department p o l i c i e s ' obviously are using much of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives time and Figure 8 indicates that they would l i k e to spend much less time on t h i s aspect of t h e i r job.  They are presently spending  'much' time 'administering  a county program' and they would l i k e to continue doing so and even increase the time spent on t h i s aspect of t h e i r work. Presently 2 6 per cent of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Represent a t i v e s spend 'much' or 'very much' of t h e i r time 'organizing and supervising events' while only 1 4 per cent said they spend ' l i t t l e ' or no time on t h i s work and 86 per cent 'some'. (Figure 9 ) .  Opinions changed on the amount of time they  would  77 A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist  B  zo  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist  jo  *b  jo  turiyinp; T e c h n i c a l  eb  ?'o  &'o  9b  160  go  too  Agriculture  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist Jo  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist  To  7b  In-Service Training  e'o  ?'o  s'o  Programs  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist  Very  , , , , ,\  Much |M unh  VVVVVlSome Little K X W X l N o n e  FIGURE 7 PERCENTAGE OF THREE TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA INDICATING TIME SPENT LAST YEAR ( A ) , AND TIME THEY WOULD L I K E TO SPEND (B) ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THEIR WORK  73  ' l i k e to spend ' on t h i s aspect of t h e i r work since 44 per cent 1  said 'much', only 12 per cent 'some' and 44 per cent i n d i 1  cated ' l i t t l e ' or 'none'. Figure 9 shows that 37 per cent of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives spend 'much'' or 'very much' of t h e i r time 'organizing farm groups' whereas 53 per cent said they would l i k e to spend *much' or 'very much' of t h e i r time on t h i s work.  The A g r i c u l t u r a l Representative uses farm groups to  help him plan his program and as a vehicle f o r promoting h i s own ideas.  Although 43 per cent of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Represen-  t a t i v e s spent  ' l i t t l e ' or no time on t h i s work, they see  'training leaders' to be an important part of t h e i r job. Forty per cent said they would l i k e to spend 'very much'' or 'much'' time on t h i s work and only 13 per cent said they would l i k e to spend ' l i t t l e ' time. 'Providing information through meetings and mass media' i s an important part of the work of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Represent a t i v e since Figure 9 shows that 57 per cent spent 'much' or •'very much' time on t h i s l a s t year.  They indicate, however,  that they would l i k e to spend less time on t h i s phase of t h e i r work. Twenty-nine per cent of the A g r i c u l t u r a l  Representatives  l a s t year spent 'much' time on 'public r e l a t i o n s ' and 53 per cent, or nearly double, indicated  they would l i k e to spend  'much' time on t h i s aspect of t h e i r work (Figure 10).  79 Routine  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist  Office  Administration  e>o  '/////.  •////// '///, ///, //////  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist  /////////////////. /o  o  ro  zo  '////// JO~?o  J  O  4  too  B /  if  \ /  sb  / \  6V  sb&b  V  x.  A  /\  y\  y\  x x x x ^  90  7t  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Department  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist  90  160  Policies  ~9oTOO  ro  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist Administering A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist  Very Much M l l o V l  nucn Little  v>CSSS^None  so  9b  too  9b  /oo  a County Program 7  To  ~To  30~  £0  3b  4b  So  0b  fo  a'o  4b  sb  &o  70  So  m /do 9b  FIGURE g PERCENTAGE OF THREE TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA INDICATING TIME SPENT LAST YEAR ( A ) , AND TIME THEY WOULD L I K E TO SPEND ( B ) ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THEIR WORK  80  About 53 per cent of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives said they did ' l i t t l e *  'program evaluation* according to the  data presented i n Figure 10 and only 7 per cent said they did 'much* evaluation.  Forty per cent, however, said they would  l i k e to do 'much* program evaluation while those i n d i c a t i n g ' l i t t l e * dropped to 13 per cent.  On 'program planning*' 37  per cent said they spent '*much* time l a s t year but 73 per cent said they would l i k e to spend *much'* or ''very much' time on t h i s aspect of t h e i r work.  Although none indicated  that they spent ' l i t t l e * or no time on program planning l a s t year 7 per cent said they would l i k e to spend ' ' l i t t l e ' time on t h i s work. The percentage of A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives  who  spent 'none* of t h e i r time on 'servicing non-farm groups or i n d i v i d u a l s ' increased from 6 to 33 per cent that would l i k e to spend 'none* of t h e i r time on t h i s aspect of t h e i r work (Figure 11).  Otherwise they indicate l i t t l e change.  More,  f i f t y per cent, said they spent 'much* or 'very much' of t h e i r time 'servicing farm groups* and  they indicate they do  not expect t h i s aspect of t h e i r work to change i n the future. Forty-seven per cent said they spent 'much' or *very much* of t h e i r time 'servicing i n d i v i d u a l farms through  farm c a l l s *  and they would l i k e to increase t h i s i n the future.  Only 25  per cent spent 'much* time on t h e i r role as a ''consultant on technical a g r i c u l t u r a l problems* but 57 per cent  indicated  81 A g r i c . Rep. Home Ec. Rep. Specialist  B  A g r i c . Rep. Home Ec. Rep. Specialist  '/////////// 4b 3 »  'rt rr'r\ A U  Zo  A60 ^ ^ ^ \ \ ^3'0S \  tr*rt  s'o  /»/•» 1 n art a'n i >• i'O  eo  ibo  l  O r g a n i z i n g Farm Groups  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . Rep. Specialist 75  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . Rep. Specialist  4>  3'c  z'o  "To  ife ' Vb"  z'o  sb~  £o  40  z'o  ^ ^ N o n e  o  J-b"  "  gb  go  100  s'o  6b  7'o  s'o |  g'o  'fro  B  s'o  6b  7'o  S'o  S'o  too  eb i sb  71o  i  ~2?o  Vb  5 5  jrb  6u  ro  B  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . Rep. Specialist  K K ^ L i t t l e  t  P r o v i d i n g Information  To  e  t'o  jo  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . Rep. Specialist  m  9'0  go  7\ "To  o  ?'o  V////////////)MXX&  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . Rep. Specialist  b  O  T r a i n i n g Leaders  0  Much y/V/ A * / / / / J  S  / / / / / / m s s s p  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . Rep. Specialist  Very Much  5 »  To  Yo  Jo  To  Y6  &6  ro  &b\ s'o  FIGURE 9 PERCENTAGE OF THREE TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA INDICATING TIME SPENT LAST (A). THEY WOULD LIKE TO SPEND (B) ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THEIR WORK Y  E  A  R  A  N  D  T  I  M  E  o  82 they would l i k e to spend 'much* time on t h i s aspect of t h e i r work. Home Economics Representatives Figure 7 shows that 75 per cent of the Home Economics Representatives spent 'some'* time '''studying extension methods' while 25 per cent indicated the amount of time spent on t h i s aspect of t h e i r work as 'none*.  However, 75 per cent said  they would l i k e to spend 'much* time on t h i s work and 25 per cent ''some*.  Seventy-five per cent said they spent 'much* or  'very much* of t h e i r time 'studying technical agriculture* l a s t year while a l l indicated they would only l i k e to spend 'some* of t h e i r time on t h i s aspect of t h e i r work.  This i s  understandable since t h i s group of workers i s more concerned with homemaking and i t i s questionable whether or not they d i d , i n f a c t , spend time studying t e c h n i c a l  agriculture.  Twenty-five per cent said they spent 'much* time on ' i n - s e r vice t r a i n i n g programs', 25 per cent said they spent 'none* of t h e i r time on t h i s aspect of t h e i r work, while the r e mainder spent 'some* time.  Sixty per cent would l i k e to  spend 'much* time on t h i s work while the remainder indicated 'some* time. One-third of the Home Economics Representatives spent -'much* time, one-third 'some* time and one-third ' l i t t l e ' time l a s t year i n 'routine o f f i c e administration' as indicated in Figure 8.  They would l i k e to spend less time on t h i s  33 Public Relations A g r i c . Rep. Home Ec. Rep. Specialist  v  Id  j'o  4o  s'o  bv  6b  gv  (do  A g r i c . Rep. Home Ec. Rep. Specialist A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . Rep. Specialist  A g r i c . Repv Home Ec. Rep. Specialist  B  \//////// IO  ~^0  '///////////////////X^S> Jo  40  sb  6'o  to  SO  lb  Tdo  Program P l a n n i n g A g r i c . Rep. Home Ec. Rep. Specialist  A  3b  WzW///////M&l^ 4b  sb  &o  >b  &'b  9b  Too  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . Rep. Specialist FIGURE 10 MJS  PERCENTAGE OF THREE TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA INDICATING TIME SPENT LAST Much YEAR ( A ) , AND TIME THEY WOULD LIKE TO SPEND ( b ) ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THEIR WORK Some  ESS^Little ^ ^ N o n e  34 aspect of t h e i r work as one-half indicated 'some* and onehalf •*little** time i n future.  They indicate l i t t l e change i n  t h e i r role as 'administrators of Department policies'* and l i t t l e change i n 'administering a county program*.  They w i l l  continue to service these aspects of t h e i r jobs i n the future as they have i n the past. Last year one-third of the Home Economics Representatives spent 'very much'* time on 'organizing and supervising events'*, one-third 'much*, time and one-third 'some* time (Figure 9 ) .  One-half said they would l i k e to spend 'much*  time on t h i s aspect of t h e i r work and the other one-half said they would l i k e to spend 'some* time on t h i s . Whereas one-third indicated 'some*, one-third ' l i t t l e ' , and one-third 'none* as time spent on 'organizing farm groups', 25 per cent said they would l i k e to spend *very much* time on t h i s part of t h e i r work.  Twenty-five per cent indicated 'very much* time  was spent 'training leaders* and 50 per cent 'much* time, 80 per cent indicated they would l i k e to spend 'very much* time on t h i s work and 20 per cent 'much* time.  They apparently  f e e l that t r a i n i n g leaders i s a very important part of t h e i r work.  They also f e e l that 'providing information through  meetings and mass media* i s very important and whereas 34 per cent spent ''very much* time on t h i s work 60 per cent said they would l i k e to spend 'very much* time. 'Public r e l a t i o n s * i s considered by the Home Economics  A g r i c . Rep.| Home E c . R e p . O  35  S e r v i c i n g Non-Farm Groups o r I n d i v i d u a l s K////////k><XX)<X^  10  ZO  3D  4-0  60  TO  80  go  T  B  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist  100  S e r v i c i n g Farm G r o u p s A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist &v  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist Tto  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist  ~Yb  3b  45  s'o  do  To  gi  S e r v i c i n g I n d i v i d u a l Farms(Homes) W i t h F a r m  I'O  ~H!o  So ' -  4b~  55  £o  WoTdo  ?b~  Calls  90  Ibo  B  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist  V io  IE  35  75  6'o  73  To  80  d'o Too  &o  Wo Too  A g r i c . . ; 'Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist  A g r i c . Rep. Home E c . R e p . Specialist  B V  ro „ VeryMuch Much Some  kVxVxl Little k W W l N o n e  a  To  4\o  To  &o  fo  &o  7\ gbToo  . FIGURE 11 PERCENTAGE OF THREE TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN NOVA SCOTIA INDICATING TIME SPENT LAST YEAR ( A ) , AND TIME THEY WOULD L I K E TO SPEND (B) ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF THEIR WORK  86 Representatives to be another important aspect of t h e i r work. Figure 10 shows that one-third spent 'very much' and two1  thirds 'much* time on t h i s l a s t year while one-half  would l i k e  to spend ''very much' and one-half 'much' time on t h i s work. Only one-third spend 'some* time on 'program evaluation* while seventy-five, per cent indicated they would l i k e to spend 'very much* or 'much* time on t h i s part of the job.  One-half  of t h i s group of workers spent ''much' time on ''program planni n g ' and one-half 'some* time.  Eighty per cent indicated they  would l i k e to spend 'much* or 'very much* time on t h i s aspect of t h e i r work. Figure 11 indicates that Home Economics Representatives spent " l i t t l e ' time 'servicing non-farm groups or i n d i v i d u a l s ' during l a s t year.  However, 80 per cent indicated  they would l i k e to spend 'very much* or 'much* time t h i s group.  servicing  They would also l i k e to spend more time 'ser-  v i c i n g farm groups' since one-third said they now spend 'much' time but seventy-five per cent said they would l i k e -to spend 'much' or 'very much* time. -One-third said they spent 'much' time 'servicing  individual homes through farm c a l l s ' and 50  per cent said they would l i k e to spend 'very much* time on t h i s aspect of t h e i r work. In commenting on t h e i r r o l e as 'consultant on technical a g r i c u l t u r a l problems' the Home Economics Representatives read t h i s statement as 'consultant on homemaking problems'.  From  37 t h i s s t a n d p o i n t 66 per cent spent  'much  1  and 34 p e r cent no  time on t h i s aspect o f t h e i r work l a s t year.  Twenty-five p e r  cent s a i d they would l i k e t o spend 'very much* and 75 p e r cent 'much* time on t h i s work. Subject M a t t e r  Specialists  Only 4 p e r cent o f t h e Subject M a t t e r S p e c i a l i s t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y spent  'much' time l a s t year ' s t u d y i n g e x t e n s i o n  methods* but 20 per cent would l i k e t o spend 'much* o r 'very much* time on t h i s aspect o f t h e i r work.  S i m i l a r l y t h e y would  l i k e t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r time spent ' s t u d y i n g t e c h n i c a l  agri-  c u l t u r e * s i n c e 36 p e r cent i n d i c a t e d 'much* o r 'very much* time spent on t h i s p a r t o f t h e i r work l a s t year w h i l e 54 p e r cent would l i k e t o spend 'much* o r 'very much* time.  They  would a l s o l i k e t o i n c r e a s e t h e time spent on ' i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programs'.  Whereas o n l y 4 p e r cent s a i d they spent  'much* time on i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , 29 per cent  s a i d they  would l i k e t o spend 'much* o r 'very much* time on t h i s aspect o f t h e i r work. Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s would l i k e t o c o n s i d e r a b l y reduce t h e time spent i n ' r o u t i n e o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n * and this i s  i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 8.  They would a l s o l i k e t o r e -  duce somewhat t h e time they spend i n ' a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  of  Department p o l i c i e s ' and ' a d m i n i s t e r i n g a county program* but there i s l i t t l e  change i n d i c a t e d from time spent t o time t h e y  would l i k e t o spend on these aspects o f t h e i r j o b .  88 Although 17 per cent of the Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s indicate they spent 'much* or 'very much' time on 'organizing and supervising events' they do not wish to increase the time spent on t h i s part of t h e i r work (Figure 9).  S i m i l a r l y they  indicate only a s l i g h t l y increased interest i n 'organizing farm groups* and t h i s i s understandable since very few of t h i s type of worker works with farm groups.  They would l i k e to be  more active i n 'training leaders' since 7 per cent indicated they spent 'much* time and 11 per cent 'some' time on t h i s work while 15 per cent indicate they would l i k e to spend 'much' or 'very much* time on t h i s work and 39 per cent 'some' time.  T h i r t y - f i v e per cent f e e l they now spend 'much' or  'very much* time 'providing information through meetings and mass media' and 57 per cent indicated they would l i k e to spend 'much' or 'very much* time on this- aspect of t h e i r job. Figure 10 shows that Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s would l i k e to spend more time on 'public r e l a t i o n s * and 28 per cent of them indicated they spent 'much* time on t h i s aspect of t h e i r work l a s t year.  They would l i k e to spend more time on  'program evaluation* and whereas 4 per cent said *much', 41 per cent 'some* and 3# per cent ' l i t t l e ' time spent on t h i s l a s t year, 7 per cent indicated they would l i k e to spend 'very much* time, 18 per cent 'much', 61 per cent 'some' and only 3 per cent ' l i t t l e * time.  They would also l i k e to  spend more time on 'program planning*.  39 S u b j e c t M a t t e r S p e c i a l i s t s want t o spend l e s s t i m e ' s e r v i c i n g non-farm groups o r . i n d i v i d u a l s ' s e r v i c i n g farm groups'  1  1  and more t i m e  and t h i s i s i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 11.  They do n o t w i s h t o change t h e amount o f t i m e t h e y spend ' s e r v i c i n g i n d i v i d u a l farms w i t h farm c a l l s ' * but o v e r 50 p e r cent i n d i c a t e t h e y spent 'much' o r ' v e r y much' o f t h e i r t i m e d o i n g t h i s l a s t y e a r and t h e y w i s h  t o c o n t i n u e i n t h i s manner.  A h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e i n d i c a t e d t h e y would l i k e t o spend 'much* or ' v e r y much* t i m e as a ' c o n s u l t a n t on t e c h n i c a l a g r i c u l tural  problems*.  Summary A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers i n Nova S c o t i a see a change i n many o f t h e a s p e c t s o f t h e i r work from t h e t i m e spent on them l a s t y e a r t o t h e t i m e t h e y would l i k e t o spend on them.  A l l workers would l i k e t o spend more t i m e l e a r n -  i n g about methods o f d o i n g e x t e n s i o n work and t h e t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e i r job and t h e y f e e l much o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y need can be a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g p r o grams. A l l workers would l i k e t o reduce t h e t i m e spent on r o u t i n e o f f i c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f Department p o l i c i e s w h i l e t h e y see l i t t l e change i n t h e t i m e t h e y a r e s p e n d i n g a d m i n i s t e r i n g a county  program.  A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s would i n c r e a s e t h e t i m e t h e y spend on o r g a n i z i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g events w h i l e Home  9 0  Economics R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s would reduce t h i s t i m e and S u b j e c t M a t t e r S p e c i a l i s t s m a i n t a i n t h e time t h e y now spend. A l l workers would l i k e t o spend more t i m e o r g a n i z i n g farm groups and t r a i n i n g l e a d e r s .  A g r i c u l t u r a l R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s would  l i k e t o r e d u c e t h e t i m e spent p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h meetings and mass media w h i l e t h e o t h e r two t y p e s o f workers would i n c r e a s e t h e t i m e t h e y spend on t h i s work. A l l w o r k e r s would l i k e t o spend more t i m e on p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and much more t i m e on p r o g r a m . e v a l u a t i o n and program planning. Home Economics R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s would spend much more t i m e s e r v i c i n g non-farm groups o r i n d i v i d u a l s w h i l e t h e o t h e r two t y p e s o f w o r k e r s i n d i c a t e  l i t t l e change.  Home Economics  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and S u b j e c t M a t t e r S p e c i a l i s t s would spend more t i m e s e r v i c i n g f a r m groups while,. A g r i c u l t u r a l Represent a t i v e s would n o t change.  Both A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives  and Home Economics R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s would i n c r e a s e t h e i r t i m e spent on s e r v i c i n g i n d i v i d u a l farms o r homes t h r o u g h farm c a l l s b u t S u b j e c t M a t t e r S p e c i a l i s t s would l i k e t o spend about t h e same t i m e on t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e i r work as t h e y do now.  A l l w o r k e r s would l i k e t o spend more t i m e a c t i n g as a  c o n s u l t a n t on t e c h n i c a l problems i n a g r i c u l t u r e  o r homemaking.  ;  I n most i n s t a n c e s a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers i n d i c a t e t h e y would l i k e t o change t h e i r r o l e performance as t h e y p e r c e i v e a change i n emphasis on v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t h e i r work.  91  V I I . ROLE PERFORMANCE AND ROLE PERCEPTION AS APPLIED TO SUBJECT MATTER AREAS OF WORK IN THE EXTENSION SERVICE An attempt was made to measure r o l e d e f i n i t i o n amongst a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers as i t a p p l i e d to s p e c i f i c subj e c t matter areas of work.  I n s u f f i c i e n t data f o r comparison  purposes was a v a i l a b l e from the returns of the Home Economics Representatives so no conclusions about t h e i r r o l e s i n these areas of work can be reached.  Since the Subject Matter  S p e c i a l i s t s l i m i t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s t o working i n the areas of t h e i r s p e c i a l t i e s i t was concluded t h a t only the data from the A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives would be u s e f u l i n drawing conc l u s i o n s about r o l e performance and r o l e perception i n s p e c i f i c subject matter areas of t h e i r work.  Because of the. nature  of h i s work, the A g r i c u l t u r a l Representative has to ledgeable about many subjects.  be know-  Twelve s p e c i f i c subject matter  areas of h i s work were s e l e c t e d f o r the purposes of the quest i o n n a i r e i n a d d i t i o n to the general area of ' a t t e n d i n g meetings . 1  The data obtained i s summarized i n Figures 12 to 1 4 . Figure 12 shows t h a t over one-half of the A g r i c u l -  t u r a l Representatives spent 'much' or 'very much* time on s o i l s work, general work i n crop production, and l i v e s t o c k work.  They i n d i c a t e l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n -  creasing the time spent i n these subject matter areas.  Thir-  teen per cent i n d i c a t e d 'much' as the amount of time spent on f o r e s t r y and they would l i k e to increase t h i s since 16 "  92 S o i l s Work I n c l u d i n g F e r t i l i z a t i o n and Limin A B  1— 0  10  1  20  1  1  30  1  40  60  50  A  r  1  70  90 100  SO  Y / / / / / / / / / / A  B 0  1  10  20  1  30  V / / / / A  I  1  40  50  60  I  1  70  1  SO  1  X/  90 100  L i v e s t o c k Work  '////////, '/////////&>  A B i  0  10  i  20  i  i  30  i  40  50  60  70  SO  90 100  Forestry  VA  A B 1  X  \\\\\\\\\\^x\\\^x. x \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ V X  X  1  X  X  X  -X.  i  s\y r  FIGURE 12 PERCENTAGE OF AGRICULTURAL REPRESENTATIVES INDICATING TIME SPENT LAST YEAR (A), AND TIME THEY WOULD LIKE TO SPEND (B) IN VARIOUS SUBJECT MATTER AREAS OF THEIR WORK  Verv Much  Little  Much  Some  None  93 per cent said they would l i k e to spend 'very much time on 1  t h i s work. to 3 3 .  The percentage who stated 'none dropped from 6 7 1  Only 7 per cent indicated they spend .'very much' time  on credit work but 2 0 per cent said they would l i k e to spend 'very much time on t h i s work. 1  Thirteen per cent  indicated  'none' as the amount of time spent on credit work l a s t year but no one said they would l i k e to spend no time on t h i s work. Forty-seven per cent of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives indicated they spent 7much' or 'very much' time on farm management work l a s t year (Figure 1 3 ) .  Seventy-four per cent  said they would l i k e to spend 'much' or 'very much' on t h i s subject matter area.  Last year A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives  spent ' l i t t l e ' time on farm equipment and building work and only 7 per cent said they wanted to spend 'much* time on t h i s work.  Forty-six per cent said they spent 'much' or 'very  much* time on 4 - H work l a s t year but only 1 7 per cent said they would l i k e to spend 'much' time on t h i s work i n the future.  They would l i k e to spend more time t r a i n i n g leaders  since 1 4 per cent indicated  'much' or 'very much' time spent  on t h i s l a s t year but 2 7 per cent said they would l i k e to spend 'much' or 'very much' time on t h i s work. A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives would l i k e to spend more time on r u r a l resource development and t h i s i s indicated i n Figure 1 4 which shows 3 $ per cent spent 'much or *very much* 1  time i n t h i s work l a s t year but 5 0 per cent would l i k e to  94  V///////A  A B  0 A  1  1  1  1  1  1  1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 60  1  VzYZA  7 08 090  100  Farm Equipment and B u i l d i n g s  V  B i  0  r  1  I  1 02 03 0  r  ~1  4 0 5 0 6 0 70  T  80  90 100  4 - H Work  T r a i n i n g O r g a n i z a t i o n Leaders  FIGURE 1 3 PERCENTAGE OF AGRICULTURAL REPRESENTATIVES INDICATING TIME SPENT LAST YEAR (A), AND TIME THEY WOULD LIKE TO SPEND (B) IN VARIOUS SUBJECT MATTER AREAS OF THEIR WORK  Very Much  Little  Some  Much  None  95 spend '•'much"- or 'very much* of t h e i r time on t h i s work. 1  Only 6 per cent indicated they d i d not want to do resource development work.  Very l i t t l e or no time i s spent on farm  safety since 5 3 per cent answered 'none* and 3 1 per cent ' l i t t l e * time spent on t h i s work and only 7 per cent said 'much'.  However, i n determining what time they would l i k e to -  spend on t h i s phase of t h e i r work only 9 per cent said 'none' and ' l i t t l e * percentage increased to 6 4 . Nine per cent said they would l i k e to spend 'very much' time on safety work. Nineteen per cent indicated they spent 'much' time on marketing  l a s t year but 3 5 per cent said they would l i k e to spend  'much* or 'very much' time on t h i s work.  There was a very  d e f i n i t e expression of opinion on t h e i r desire to attend meetings.  Thirty-three per cent spent 'very much* and 6 0  per cent 'much' time attending meetings l a s t year where none mentioned they would l i k e to spend 'very much* time attending meetings and only 15 per cent said 'much'.  The great majority,  sixty-two per cent, would l i k e to spend 'some* time attending  meetings and 2 3 per cent indicated ' l i t t l e *  time.  Summary A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives indicated that there are a number of subject matter areas of t h e i r work on which they would l i k e to spend more or less time than they are now spending.  They would l i k e to spend a l i t t l e more time on s o i l s  work including f e r t i l i z a t i o n and liming, on general work i n  96 A.R.D.A. (Rural Resource Development) B  0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  30  90  100  70  80  90  100  Farm Safet^  0  10  20  30  40  60  50  Marketing  A t t e n d i n g Meetings  FIGURE 14 PERCENTAGE OF AGRICULTURAL REPRESENTATIVES INDICATING TIME SPENT LAST YEAR (A), AND TIME THEY WOULD LIKE TO SPEND (B) IN VARIOUS SUBJECT MATTER AREAS OF THEIR WORK  Very Much  Little  Much  [^\\\^None  Some  97 crop production, on livestock work, on forestry, credit, farm equipment and buildings, t r a i n i n g organization leaders, on resource development, farm safety, and marketing.  They would  spend considerably more time on farm management work.  They  would obtain t h i s extra time to spend on the above items by reducing the time they spend on 4-H work and on attending meetings, VIII.  SOURCES OF INFORMATION FOR FARMERS  Although not dealing s p e c i f i c a l l y with the role of the a g r i c u l t u r a l extension worker i n Nova Scotia, a section of the questionnaire was designed to obtain the opinions of these workers about the importance of various sources of i n f o r mation f o r farmers.  Fourteen sources of information were  l i s t e d and i t i s believed that these represent the major methods used by extension workers to keep farmers informed about new practices.  Again i n s u f f i c i e n t data was available  to include returns from the Home Economics Representatives. Sources of information and data collected are shown i n TABLE XXVII. • A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives rate farm v i s i t s , demonstrations, and tours high as important sources of i n f o r mation.-  Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s also rate farm v i s i t s  and demonstrations high but also  give a high rating to farm  papers and magazines, radio, and t e l e v i s i o n .  Both types of  workers gave low ratings, to commercial sources and newspapers while A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives give a r e l a t i v e l y  TABLE XXVII RATING BY AGRICULTURAL REPRESENTATIVES AND SUBJECT MATTER- SPECIALISTS OF THE IMPORTANCE OF VARIOUS SOURCES.OF INFORMATION FOR FARMERS  TYPE OF WORKER Very Much Much Some L i t t l e None Radio /" "• Television Farm'papers and magazines Newspapers • Commercial sources Circular letters Meetings Tours Demonstrat ions Farm v i s i t s by a g r i c u l t u r i s t s O f f i c e " c a l l s by farmers Telephone c a l l s Personal l e t t e r s Other farmers  20 25 20 10 0 15 10 30 30 35 20 15 10 20  23  12 28 16 20 24 32 28 20 24 20 20 32 28  12 5 9 24 15 15 9 6 6 3 18 18 9 6  0 4 2 2 6 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  Very Much Much Some L i t t l e  35 25 40 15 5 5 5 25 40 40 35 15 0 35  56  60  52 28 8 32  60 60  44 56 40 44 48 36  30 30 30 42 48 39 36 21 24 18 30 33 33 30  0 0 0 14 22 18 6 6 6 8 8 10 12 6  N01  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  99  low rating to telephone c a l l s and Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s to personal l e t t e r s .  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives give a  higher r a t i n g to the importance of meetings as sources of information than do the Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s .  'Other  farmers' and ' c i r c u l a r l e t t e r s ' are rated higher by the A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives than by the S p e c i a l i s t s while both groups give equal r a t i n g to ' o f f i c e c a l l s ' . 1  CHAPTER IV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This i s a study of the r o l e of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers i n Nova Scotia as viewed by the workers themselves. The three types of workers studied were c l a s s i f i e d as: A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives, Home Economics Representatives, and Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s .  I t i s an attempt to i d e n t i f y the  d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s of the workers and to inquire into how well they are doing the things they believe they should be doing.  Various aspects of role as applied to a g r i c u l t u r a l  extension workers are analyzed.  How the extension  worker  defines h i s role i s indicated by his role performance, the amount of time the worker devoted to each role i n the past, and his r o l e perception, the amount of time he would l i k e to devote to each role i n the future.  This comparison between  role performance and role perception provides a basis f o r measuring role f u l f i l l m e n t .  The amount of agreement among  the three types of extension workers with respect to the various dimensions of t h e i r r o l e s , provides a measure of role concensus.  The workers* perceptions of: t h e i r job, the  extension service, and t h e i r c l i e n t e l e , are also studied. There i s a predominance of young employees among the workers studied with the majority less than forty years of  101 age.  Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s and Home Economics Represen-  t a t i v e s are especially young with only o n e - f i f t h over f i f t y years of age while over one-third of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives are t h i s o l d .  Each group has a r e l a t i v e l y  short period of service both i n extension work and i n t h e i r present counties or s p e c i a l t i e s .  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives  tend to have a longer service period than the others, but Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s have remained i n t h e i r area or specialty longer than the other two groups.  I t can be  generally stated that a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers i n Nova Scotia are young and quite mobile. The educational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the three types o f workers are a l i k e i n some respects.  Three A g r i c u l t u r a l Rep-  resentatives, one Home Economics Representative, and s i x Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s do not have a Bachelor's Degree. Only s i x workers, or 11 per cent, have any post-graduate training.  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives rated t h e i r College  t r a i n i n g as being the most useful i n preparing them to work with people while Home Economics Representatives gave equal rating to High School and Bachelor's Degree and Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s placed Bachelor's Degree f i r s t .  A l l agreed  that they had not received adequate t r a i n i n g to do the s p e c i f i c tasks required by t h e i r job and that 'in-service t r a i n i n g ' was the best method of overcoming t h i s deficiency. Home Economics Representatives tend to participate i n  fewer organizations than do the other types of workers who are quite active, especially i n  t h e i r professional organiz-  ations. Programs i n a g r i c u l t u r a l production i n Nova Scotia have been based on needs as perceived by senior s t a f f of the Department of Agriculture and Marketing i n consultation with o f f i c e r s of p r o v i n c i a l farm organizations. Within the scope of these broad  programs a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers have,  been quite free to develop programs based on perceived needs i n t h e i r areas or s p e c i a l t i e s .  Agricultural  Representatives  determine the program they carry out i n t h e i r county and i t i s influenced, i n decreasing order of importance,  by t h e i r  director, s p e c i a l i s t s t a f f , organized groups of farmers, and commercial interests.  They f e e l organized groups of farmers  should play the most important part i n program planning, followed by themselves, t h e i r director, and the other groups. County farmers  1  committees should affect t h e i r program moreso  than i n d i v i d u a l farmers.  Province-wide  programs or groups  should not be determining county programs.  Home Economics  Representatives rank themselves f i r s t i n determining t h e i r program  and they believe t h i s situation should continue.  However, they believe farm women should have more effect on t h e i r program plans.  Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s believe  programs should be based on working with county  farmer  committees so agree with A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives i n  103 t h i s respect.  Unlike A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives, however,  they would tolerate province-wide program plans and the i n fluence of programs aimed at increasing  o v e r a l l production.  In the area of t r a i n i n g and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r the job they are now doing data shows that the majority of A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives are not s p e c i f i c a l l y trained to deal with the main type of farming with which they are most concerned.  However, they are best q u a l i f i e d on the basis of  t r a i n i n g and experience i n those types of farming with which , they are most concerned.  In areas other than livestock work  they f e e l they have adequate t r a i n i n g to meet the needs of farmers.  T h i r t y - f i v e per cent said they were trained i n  none of the types of farming with which they  had most concern.  Only 5 per cent of the Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s  indicated  they were trained i n none of the types of farming with which they were most concerned so f e e l well q u a l i f i e d to work with farmers. A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives and Subject Matter Speci a l i s t s use t h e i r time and resources to meet the needs of farmers with r e l a t i v e l y high gross incomes. t h e i r attention  i n t h e i r 'regular  with incomes between  5,000  and  1  They concentrate  extension program on those  9,999  dollars.  They d i f f e r i n  that the next group i n importance to the A g r i c u l t u r a l Representative i s that involving farmers with a gross annual i n come of  2,500  to  4,999  dollars while the S p e c i a l i s t s consider  104 the group 10,000 d o l l a r s and over to be second i n importance. Home Economics Representatives, on the other hand, have 'regular* extension programs f o r those groups  c l a s s i f i e d as  part-time farmers and r u r a l non-farm and give some service to urban groups and those i n the gross income l e v e l of 1,000 to 2,499 d o l l a r s .  They have l i t t l e interest i n those farms  where gross income i s  over 2,500 or less than 1,000. d o l l a r s .  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives and Subject Matter  Specialists  have 'special* programs f o r the higher income groups and these are generally farmers who are most able to follow t h e i r recommendations.  The Home Economics Representatives have  •special* programs f o r the part-time and r u r a l non-farm groups.  A l l workers answer 'requests only' mainly f o r the  part-time, r u r a l non-farm, and urban groups. A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives and Subject Matter Speci a l i s t s would ' l i k e to spend' more of t h e i r time with the higher gross income l e v e l groups and t h i s i s especially true for the S p e c i a l i s t s .  Home Economics Representatives would  ' l i k e to spend* more of t h e i r time on those farms where the gross income l e v e l i s 1,000 to 2,499 dollars and less than one thousand d o l l a r s and t h i s i s a change from t h e i r present 'regular* program.  Because of t h e i r emphasis on wise buy-  manship and other aspects of home management they f e e l they can make t h e i r best contribution to these groups. The three types of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers  105 generally agree on the virtues of doing extension work as well as the less desirable aspects of the job.  Their 'job  security', 'freedom* i n planning programs, the ' s a t i s f y i n g experience* of doing extension work, the 'recognition* they get  f o r time and energy expended, t h e i r ' o f f i c e f a c i l i t i e s ' ,  and the 'prestige* of t h e i r position appear to be strong motivating forces.  The older workers, and consequently  those with longer service, accord more prestige to t h e i r p o s i t i o n than do the younger workers and those with a shorter service period.  Status consciousness appears to. be highest  among Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s . •'Administering Department p o l i c i e s ' , the large number of night meetings to attend and the fact that they have l i t t l e chance to s p e c i a l i z e , appear to be the things least l i k e d about extension work. Both i n the areas of production planning and educational programs i n new technology, a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers have s i g n i f i c a n t relationships with farm organizations.  This relationship with farm people and farm organ-  izations enables them to work together i n many programs and t h i s i s a strong motivational force i n maintaining extension workers' interest i n his job.  the  While they work well  with groups they f i n d they can do t h e i r best job by working with i n d i v i d u a l farmers.  'Getting better acquainted with  people' w i l l help with the job moreso than 'studying problems'  106 that appear to exist and success i n programming i s dependent on e n l i s t i n g the help of others and developing personal relationships with them. Reorganization of the Extension Services Branch should help extension workers work more e f f e c t i v e l y with farmers t h e i r organizations.  and  The inclusion i n t h i s Branch of a l l  extension workers could make the Branch a more e f f e c t i v e force i n helping farm people. There i s general agreement among the three types of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers of the importance of t h e i r roles as applied to functions of the extension service.  Their  present performance i s based on t r a d i t i o n as well as d i r e c t i o n from above and, except f o r a few instances, they want to change t h e i r role performance.  This i s indicated most  strongly i n performing the functions of student,  adminis-  t e r i n g t h e i r o f f i c e and Department p o l i c i e s , organizing events and groups and t r a i n i n g leaders, public r e l a t i o n s , program evaluation and planning, service agent to non-farm groups and i n d i v i d u a l s , and consultant.  Functions they would not change  include administration of county programs, source of i n f o r mation, and servicing farm groups. A l l workers would l i k e to spend more time "studying extension methods and the t e c h n i c a l aspects of t h e i r job 1  and they are interested i n more in-service t r a i n i n g programs, presumably i n the above areas of study.  They would l i k e to  107 reduce the time they presently spend on 'routine o f f i c e administration' and the 'administration of Department p o l i c ies'' and spend about  the same amount of time they now spend  on 'administering a county program*.  A g r i c u l t u r a l Represen-  t a t i v e s would spend more time 'organizing and supervising events', Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s about the same time as now, and Home Economics Representatives less time.  All  workers would l i k e to increase the time they spend on 'organi z i n g farm groups' and 'training leaders'.  The A g r i c u l t u r a l  Representative would spend less time on h i s r o l e as a 'source of information' while the other workers would spend'more time on t h i s r o l e .  A l l workers would substantially increase the  time they spend on 'public r e l a t i o n s ' , 'program evaluation-' and 'program planning* and there are areas outside the ''serv i c e ' functions that are part of t h e i r job. The A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives and Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s would  service  *non-farm groups and individuals* less while the Home Economics Representatives would substantially increase t h e i r service to these people as well as to farm groups.  Agri-  c u l t u r a l Representatives would not change t h e i r present role in  servicing farm groups but the S p e c i a l i s t s would increase  t h e i r service.  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives and Home Econo-  mics Representatives would increase t h e i r c a l l s to i n d i v i d ual farms and homes while the S p e c i a l i s t s would not change. A l l workers, and especially the Home Economics Representatives,  108  would increase the time they spend acting as a 'consultant . 1  These changes i n role performance as they affect certain functions of the extension service are a result of the workers perception of a change of emphasis on these various aspects  of t h e i r work.  They are a change towards  role f u l f i l l m e n t . It was noted e a r l i e r that there are certain subject matter areas i n which the extension worker f e e l s most q u a l i f i e d on the basis of t r a i n i n g and experience and also that some workers are not s p e c i a l l y trained i n those s p e c i a l t i e s with which they are most concerned. A g r i c u l t u r a l Represent a t i v e s indicated that there are  a number of subject matter  areas of t h e i r work on which they would l i k e to spend more or less time than they are now.spending.  I t i s possible that  more emphasis on some subject matter areas of work would improve t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to deal with problems that arise in those s p e c i a l t i e s with which they are most concerned. In t h i s respect they would l i k e to spend more time on s o i l s work including f e r t i l i z a t i o n and liming, on general work i n crop production, and on livestock work.  In addition, they would  spend more time on forestry, c r e d i t , farm equipment and buildings, t r a i n i n g leaders, resource development, farm safety, and marketing, and especially on farm management. They would l i k e to spend less time on 4-H work and i n attending meetings.  109  Proper l i n e s of communication between the extension worker and his c l i e n t e l e are important i f he i s to be effect i v e i n his job.  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives and Subject  Matter S p e c i a l i s t s rated 'farm v i s i t s ' and  'demonstrations'  high as sources of information f o r farmers and methods of communicating with farmers.  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representatives  also gave a high r a t i n g to 'tours' while the S p e c i a l i s t s rated 'farm papers and magazines'', 'radio* and high.  'television*  Both types of workers gave low ratings to  'commercial  sources* and 'newspapers' while the A g r i c u l t u r a l Represent a t i v e s gave a low r a t i n g to 'telephone c a l l s ' and S p e c i a l i s t s to  'personal l e t t e r s ' .  'Meetings', 'other farmers', and  ' c i r c u l a r l e t t e r s ' are rated higher by A g r i c u l t u r a l Represent a t i v e s while both groups give equal low ratings to ' o f f i c e calls'. These findings suggest that the a g r i c u l t u r a l extension worker in Nova Scotia i s f i l l i n g his expected role although there are areas within the general scope of his job where he would l i k e to change emphasis.  Staff focus t h e i r attention  on problems of a g r i c u l t u r a l production and homemaking and provide a f u l l range of educational services.  Thus, t h e i r  extension program encompasses nearly a l l aspects of community life. to  The intent of the service as established i n 1926  was  organize a g r i c u l t u r a l work i n r u r a l communities and to  carry d i r e c t l y to the farmer the l a t e s t information on crop  110 production, livestock development, cooperative marketing and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , and these basic terms of reference are s t i l l v a l i d today.  There have, however, been additions to  the service, changes i n methods and changes i n emphasis as required by the changing times. More t r a i n i n g i n working with people and i n extension methods i s required so that extension workers can better do the s p e c i f i c tasks required by t h e i r job.  In-service t r a i n -  ing programs are the most s a t i s f a c t o r y means of overcoming deficiencies i n past t r a i n i n g and post-graduate should be further encouraged.  training  Programs should be planned by  workers i n the county or specialty i n co-operation with the organized groups concerned and workers should have special t r a i n i n g i n those subject matter areas i n which they are most  concerned. Programs should be f l e x i b l e and extension workers  should be free to change the emphasis they would place on a l l aspects of t h e i r work. A g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers i n Nova Scotia are advisors, they provide information on agriculture and homemaking, t r a i n leaders, and plan programs. an important r o l e as a consultant.  They f e e l they have  These findings agree with  those of others who have studied the role of the a g r i c u l t u r a l agent.  Ill BIBLIOGRAPHY A.  BOOKS  Emery, F. E. and 0 . A. Oeser. Information^, Decision and Action: A Study of the Psychological Determinants of Changes i n Farming; Techniques. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1958. . Linton, Ralph. The C u l t u r a l Backgrounds of Personality. New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1945. Rogers, E, M. D i f f u s i o n of Innovations. New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, 1962. B.  PUBLICATIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT  Department of Natural Resources, Province of Nova Scotia. Report f o r the Year Ended September 3,0, 1926. Halifax: The King's Printer, 1927. Government of Nova Scotia. Management Manual B u l l e t i n No. 20.2-G 6. Halifax: The Queen's Printer, 1961. T  Secretary f o r Agriculture f o r Nova Scotia. Annual Report f o r 1913. Halifax: The King's Printer, 1917. Annual Report f o r 1916. P r i n t e r , 1917.  Halifax:  The King's  Annual Report f o r 1921.. Halifax: Printer, 1922.  The King's  Annual Report f o r 1922. Printer, 1923.  Halifax:  The King's  f o r 1923. Halifax:  The King's  Annual Report Printer, 1924. C.  ARTICLES AND PERIODICALS  Bible, B. L. and F. L. Nolan. The Role of the Extension Committee Member i n the County Extension Organization i n Pennsylvania. University Park: Pennsylvania A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment Station B u l l e t i n 6 6 5 , I 9 6 0 .  112  Brown, E. J . and A. Beekens. "Roles of Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s " , Rural S o c i o l o g i s t . XXIII, 195$. Nix, H. L. and F. L. Bates. "Occupational Role Stress-A Structural Approach", Rural Sociology. XXVII, 1 9 6 2 . Wilkening, E. A. "Concensus of Role D e f i n i t i o n of CountyExtension Agents Between the Agents and Local Sponsoring Committee Members", Rural Sociology XXIII, 1953. T  . The County Extension Agent i n Wisconsin. Madison: Wisconsin A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment Station Research B u l l e t i n 2 0 3 , 1957. C.  UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS  Baker, Harold R. "The professional Improvement of Extension Personnel i n Ontario." Unpublished Master's thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1956. Moore, J . R. "An Evaluation Instrument f o r the Self Appraisal of the County Extension Agent and His Work." Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , Cornell University, Ithaca, I960. Sabrosky, Laurel K. "Role Perception of the County 4-H Club Agent." Address to New Jersey County Club Agents' Conference. U.S.D.A. Federal Extension Service ER&T 153 (6-58), A p r i l , 1953. (Mimeographed.) Stone, J . T. "A B r i e f Summary of the Job Analysis Study of County Extension Workers." East Lansing: Michigan Cooperative Extension Service, 1952. (Mimeographed). . "How County A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents Teach." Regina; Proceedings of the Canadian Society of Rural Extension, 1961. (Mimeographed.) Timothy, E a r l E. "The A g r i c u l t u r a l Representative i n Ontario - His Role i n the Changing A g r i c u l t u r a l Scene and Problems of Impact on the Total Farming Population." Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , Ontario A g r i c u l t u r a l College, Guelph, 1962.  APPENDIX Nova Scotia A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Workers (During Permanent Appointment Only)  Total years i n your present job •  1. 1 - 5 2. 6 - 1 0 3. 11 -15 4.  1 6- 2 0  5. 6.  21-25 26-30  (Please c i r c l e your answer)  7 . Over 3 0 Number of years i n present county or specialty 1 . Less than one  2. -1-5 3. 6 - 1 0 4. 11-15 5. 16 - 20 6. 21 - 25 7. 26 - 30  Number of counties 8 . Over i 3 n0which you have worked  1. 1 2. 2- 3 3 . 4 - 5 4. 6- 7 5 . Over 7  What i s your  position? 6. 7. 8. 9.  A g r i c u l t u r a l Representative Asst. Agricultural" Representative Home Economics Representative Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t  114 4 . Please c i r c l e the age class i n which you f a l l  1. 20 - 24 2. 25 - 29 3. 30-34 4. 35-39 5. 40 - 44 6. 4 5 - 4 9 7. 50 - 54 8. 55 - 59 9 . 60 - 6 4 5 . Education  completed  1 . High School Graduate 2 . Associate of the N.S.A.C. 3 . Bachelor Degree 4 . Masters Degree 5 . Doctors Degree (IN THE FOLLOWING AND WHERE APPLICABLE IN THE REMAINDER OF -THIS QUESTIONNAIRE, PLEASE CIRCLE OR CHECK UNDER THE APPROPRIATE LETTERS) .. VM: Very Much M: Much S: Some L: L i t t l e N: None 6. In your formal education how much t r a i n i n g i n working with people did you receive that i s applicable to your job? 1 2 3 4 5 - VMM S^ L N As you think about the formal education you have received at various l e v e l s , please specify i t s degree of usefulness in your work.  1  VM  2  M  3  S  4  L  5  N  7 . High School College 9 . Bachelors 1 0 . Graduate 11. How much t r a i n i n g i n the methods of doing extension work do you think i s necessary to do an e f f e c t i v e job? VM  1  M  2  S  3  L  4  N  5  1 2 . Do you f e e l you have received adequate t r a i n i n g to do the s p e c i f i c tasks required by your job? 1. Yes 2 . No I f answer to above i s NO, i n what way do you think you can best overcome any deficiency in your past training? 3. In-service t r a i n i n g 4. More experience 5. Further formal study 13.  14.  Please c i r c l e the percentage of the program carried out i n your county during the past year that was determined by: 1. 0-10 2. 11-20 3. 2 1 - 3 0 4. 3 1 - 4 0 5. 4 1 - 5 0  6. 5 1 - 6 0 7. 6 1 - 7 0 8. 71-80 9. 8 1 - 9 0 10. 91-100  • Director 1. 0-10 2. 11-20 3. 2 1 - 3 0 4. 3 1 - 4 0 5. 4 1 - 5 0  6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  51-60 61-70 71-80 81-90 91-100  15.  Department S p e c i a l i s t s 1. 0-10 6. 51-60 2. 11-20 7. 6 1 - 7 0 8. 71-80 3. 2 1 - 3 0 9. 8 1 - 9 0 4. 3 1 - 4 0 10. 91-100 5. 4 1 - 5 0  16.  Organized Groups of Farmers 1. 1-10 6. 5 1 - 6 0  2. 11-20 3. 21-30 4. 31-40 5. 4 1 - 5 0  17.  7.  61-70  8. 7 1 - 8 0  9 . 81-90  10.  91-100  Commercial Interests 6. 1. 0-10 2. 11-20 7. 8. 3. 2 1 - 3 0 4. 3 1 - 4 0 9. 10. 5. 4 1 - 5 0  51-60 61-70 71-80 81-90 91-100  116 18. What percentage of the program carried out i n your county should be determined by: You 1. 0-10 2. 11-20  6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  51-60 61-70 71-80 81-90 91-100  1. 0-10 6. 2. 11-20 7. 8. 3. 21-30 9. 4. 31-40 10. 5. 41-50 Department S p e c i a l i s t s 1. 0-10 6. 2. 1 1 - 2 0 7. 3. 21-30 8. 4. 3 1 - 4 0 9. 5. 41-50 1 0 .  51-60 61-70 71-80 81-90 91-100  3 . 21-30 4. 3 1 - 4 0 5. 41-50  Your Director  51-60 61-70 71-80 81-90 91-100  Organized Groups of Farmers 1. 1-10 6. 51-60 2. 11-20 7. 61-70 3. 21-30 8. 71-30 4. 31-40 9. 31-90 10. 91-100 5. 41-50  22.  Commercial Int  1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  1-10 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50  sts  6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  51-60 61-70 71-30 31-90 91-100  2 3 . What other groups should help to determine your (Circle one or more of the following) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  County Extension Workers D i s t r i c t Extension Workers Provincial Specialists County Farmers* Committee D i s t r i c t Farmers* Committee P r o v i n c i a l Farmers* Committee Selected Farmers  program?  IN THE FOLLOWING AN© THROUGHOUT THE REMAINDER OF THIS QUESTIONNAIRE, WHERE APPLICABLE, PLEASE INDICATE THE EXTENT OF YOUR AGREEMENT BY CIRCLING OR CHECKING UNDER THE APPROPRIATE NUMBERS OR LETTERS. SA: Strongly agree  A: Agree  U: Undecided  D: Disagree  SD: Strongly disagree 24.  I think the county program can be best planned by county extension workers on the basis of what they believe are the farmers* needs. SA  25.  A  2  U  D  3  SD  4  5  I think the county program should be based on what i n d i v i d u a l farmers t e l l us they need. SA  26.  1  1  2  A  3  U^  45  IDT  SD  County extension workers should work with county farmers* committees to determine the best county program. SA  1  A  2  3  U  D  4  5  SD  27. I think Department of Agriculture p o l i c i e s aimed toward increasing production generally should determine the county program. SA  1  A  2  • U  D  3  SD  4  5  •  28. The o v e r a l l production program should'be determined on a p r o v i n c i a l rather than a county basis. SA  1  A  2  U  3  D  SD  4  5  To what extent do these groups influence your program? VM  M  1  2 9 . N. S. Federation of Agriculture 3 0 . P r o v i n c i a l commodity groups 3 1 . Co-operative organizations 32.  Commercial organizations  |  |  S  2  1  L  3  I  4  I  N^  118 33.  C i r c l e the main type of farming i n your area with which you are most concerned. 1 . Dairy 2. Beef 3 . Hog 4 . Poultry 5 . Fruit 6 . Vegetables 7 . Forestry 8. Sheep  34.  For which s p e c i a l i z a t i o n have you s p e c i a l l y trained. 1 . Dairy 2. Beef 3 . Hog 4 . Poultry 5 . Fruit 6 . Vegetables 7 . Forestry 8. Sheep 9 . Other 1 0 . None  35.  For which s p e c i a l i z a t i o n do you f e e l best q u a l i f i e d on the basis of t r a i n i n g and experience?  , 36.  1 . Dairy 2. Beef 3 . Hog 4 . Poultry 5 . Fruit 6 . Vegetables 7 . Forestry 6*. Sheep  On the basis of these gross income values check those farms or groups included i n your regular extension program.  1.  F u l l time, $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 & over 2. F u l l time, . 5 , 0 0 0 - 9 , 9 9 9 3 . F u l l time, 2,500 - 4 , 9 9 9 4 . F u l l time, 1 , 0 0 0 - 2 , 4 9 9 5 . F u l l time, less than 1 , 0 0 0 6'. Part-time 7 . Rural non-farm 8. Urban  119 37.  On the basis of these gross income values check those farms or groups f o r which you have special programs.  1.  F u l l time,  2 . F u l l time,  3. 4.  38.  F u l l time, F u l l time, 5 . F u l l time, less than 1 , 0 0 0 6. Part time 7 . Rural non-farm 8. Urban On the basis of these gross income values check those f o r which you answer requests only.  1.  2.  3. 4.  5. 6. 7. £.  39.  $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 & over 5,000 - 9,999 2,500 - 4,999 1 , 0 0 0- 2,499  F u l l time, $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 & over F u l l time, . 5 , 0 0 0 - 9 , 9 9 9 F u l l time, 2,500 - 4 , 9 9 9 F u l l time, 1 , 0 0 0- 2 , 4 9 9 F u l l time, less than 1 , 0 0 0 Part time Rural non-farm Urban  With which group do you f e e l you should spend the most time?  1.  F u l l time,  $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 & over 5,000 - 9,999 2,500 - 4 , 9 9 9 1 , 0 0 0- 2,499  3. 4.  F u l l time, F u l l time, F u l l time, less than Part time Rural non-farm Urban  2 . F u l l time, .  5. 6. 7. 8.  40.  1,000  To how many professional organizations do you belong? (N.S.I .A., C.S.R.E ,' N.S.C.S.A.', etc.) >:  1 . None 2.  1  3. 2 - 3 4. 4 - 5  120  With how many church groups are you'affiliated? (Men's clubs, administrative bodies, etc.)  5. 6.  None  1  7. 2 - 3 8. 4 - 5 9 . More than 5 41.  In how many service or sports groups do you hold membership? (Service club, Lodge, Curling, etc.)  1 . None 2. 1 3. 2 - 3 4. 4 - 5  5 . More than 5  42.  In how many farm and r u r a l organizations do you have membership? (Federation, F a i r Boards, etc.) 1 . None  2. 1 3. 2- 3 4. 4- 5 43.  5 . More than 5 To how many community organizations do you belong? (H. & S., F i r e Dept., Councils, etc.) 1 . None  2. 1 3. 2- 3 4. 4 - 5 " 44.  5 . More I think working with than farm 5 people i s unrewarding because of t h e i r general lack of education.  45.  I f i n d i t hard to work with most farm organizations since they seem to lack any purpose or d i r e c t i o n .  46.  I can do my best job by working with the i n d i v i d u a l farmer rather than with groups.  SA  1  A  2  TJ3  -n SET 4  47.  I should not become involved with commercial firms since they are out to exploit the farmer.  43.  The reorganization of the Extension Services Branch should result i n better service to the farmers of Nova Scotia.  49.  Our director should give more superv i s i o n to work being carried out i n the counties.  50.  Subject Matter S p e c i a l i s t s who are in contact with the farmer should work under the d i r e c t i o n of the Extension Services Branch.  5 1 . Administering Department P o l i c i e s (policing) interferes with our work in extension education. 5 2 . Department employees should be encouraged to take leave-of-absence f o r additional t r a i n i n g . 5 3 . When leave-of-absence i s granted f o r further t r a i n i n g the Department should determine the f i e l d of t r a i n i n g , 5 4 . The farmers of my area are not making the best use of my services because they think I have l i t t l e to o f f e r them as a representative of the Department. 55.  I get too much interference from Depart ment o f f i c i a l s to do an e f f e c t i v e job.  56.  The reorganization of the Extension Services Branch w i l l mean I have more chance to carry out the program I wish in my county.  57.  I can best improve my a b i l i t y to do a better job by getting better acquainted with people . i y county rather than studying the problems i n my county. n  m  5 8 . A successful extension program i s more dependent on following procedure developed to e n l i s t widespread p a r t i c i p a t i o n rather than developing personal relationships with key persons. 5 9 . A successful extension program i s more dependent on knowing my subject rather than knowing people who can help with my program. 60. In doing my work I have found i t best to do things as they need attention rather than plan ahead. 61. I f e e l that my annual report i s not worth the time i t takes i n writing f o r i t s bearing on the work I do i n my county. 62.  In comparison with other positions requiring similar t r a i n i n g the extension worker's position i s highly respected by others.  63.  I think doing extension work i s a very s a t i s f y i n g experience.  64.  How well I get along with others i n my profession r e f l e c t s on how well I do my job.  65.  I f e e l I could do a better job i f I could s p e c i a l i z e i n one or two l i n e s .  66.  I would l i k e my work better i f there were fewer night meetings.  123 SA  A  1  2  U  3  D  SD  4  6 7 . My job demands too much of my time and energy f o r the recognition I • get. 68. I would be more enthusiastic about my job i f i t offered more opportunity f o r promotion. 69. I f I had better o f f i c e f a c i l i t i e s and equipment I could do a better job. 70.  The paper work involved i n my job hinders my work i n the f i e l d .  7 1 . Doing extension work i s good t r a i n ing to have before getting another job. 72.  I have more security i n my job than I would have i n many others.  73.  I have more freedom i n t h i s job than I would have i n many others.  74.  I w i l l probably look f o r other employment i n a year or so i f s a l a r i e s don't improve.  1  1  I. I  1  RANK THE FOLLOWING IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE TIME YOU SPENT ON THEM LAST YEAR,. . -  VM  1 . Studying Extension methods 2 . Studying technical agriculture 3 . Administration  of Department p o l i c i e s  4 . Routine office.administration 5. Administering a county program 6 . Organizing and supervising events 7 . Public r e l a t i o n s  1  M  2  S  3  L  4  N  5  5  124 VM  M  1  2  S  L  3  4  N  8. Organizing farm groups 9. Program evaluation 10.  Servicing non-farm groups or i n d i v i d uals  11.  Servicing farm groups  12.  Program planning  13.  Servicing i n d i v i d u a l farms (homes) through farm c a l l s  1 4 . Acting as a consultant on t e c h n i c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l problems 15.  In-service t r a i n i n g program  16.  Training leaders  17.  Providing information through meetings and mass media  |  [  |  RANK THE FOLLOWING ACCORDING TO THE TIME YOU WOULD LIKE TO SPEND ON- THEM. 1 2 3 L •  VM  :  18. Studying  extension methods  19. Studying t e c h n i c a l agriculture 2 0 . Administration of Department p o l i c i e s 21.  Routine o f f i c e - administration  2 2 . Administering a county program 23.  Organizing and supervising events  24.  Public r e l a t i o n s  25.  Organizing farm groups  • -  M  S  L  N  125 VM 26. 27.  M  S^  L  N  ?  Program evaluation Servicing non-farm groups or i n d i v i d uals  28. Servicing farm groups 29.  Program planning  30.  Servicing i n d i v i d u a l farm (homes) through farm c a l l s  31.  Acting as a consultant on technical agriculture problems  32.  In-service t r a i n i n g program  33.  Training leaders  34.  Providing information through meetings and mass media  /  :  1  I  [  j  1  1  IN THE FOLLOWING SUBJECT MATTER AREAS INDICATE THE TIME YOU SPENT. ON THEM LAST YEAR..  1  .....  ...  35.  S o i l s Work including f e r t i l i z a t i o n and liming . ..  36.  General work i n crop production  37.  Livestock work  38.  Forestry  39.  Credit  .. --  4 0 . Farm Management 41.  Farm equipment and buildings  42.  4-H work  43.  Training organization leaders  VM  2  M  3  S  4  L  5 N  126 VM  1  M  2  S  L  3  N  4  5  4 4 . A.R.D.A. (rural resource development) 45.  Farm safety  4 6 . Marketing 4 7 . Attending meetings  j  |  IN THE FOLLOWING SUBJECT MATTER AREAS INDICATE THE TIME YOU WOULD LIKE TO SPEND ON THEM. VM 48. Soils work including f e r t i l i z a t i o n and liming 49.  General work i n crop  50.  Livestock work  51.  Forestry  52.  Credit  53.  Farm Management  production  5 4 . Farm equipment and buildings 55.  4-H work  56.  Training organization  leaders  5 7 . A.R.D.A. (rural resource 58. Farm safety 5 9 . Marketing 6 0 . Attending meetings  development)  1  M  2  3  S  4 5  L* N  127 RANK THE FOLLOWING ACCORDING TO HOW IMPORTANT YOU THINK THEY ARE AS SOURCES OF INFORMATION FOR FARMERS. VM 61.  Radio  62.  Television  6 3 . Farm papers and magazines 6 4 . Newspapers 65.  Commercial sources  66.  Circular  letters  6 7 . Meetings 68. Tours 69.  Demonstrations  7 0 . Farm v i s i t s by a g r i c u l t u r i s t s 71.  Office c a l l s by farmers  72.  Telephone c a l l s to or from a g r i c u l turists  73.  Personal l e t t e r s from a g r i c u l t u r i s t s  74.  Other farmers  1  „2  M Sc  3 L4 T  w  N  5  

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