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Sikhs and the rebellion of 1857 Sara, Harkirpal Singh 1970

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SIKHS AND THE REBELLION OF 1857 by HARKIRPAL SINGH SARA B.A., Uni v e r s i t y of the Panjab, 1947 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of History We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1970 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of History The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date August 28, 1970 i i i ABSTRACT This t h e s i s investigates the r e l a t i o n of the Sikhs to the Indian r e b e l l i o n of 1857. References to the Sikhs have i n v a r i a b l y been made i n the h i s t o r i e s of the sepoy mutiny, but none of them, not even the celebrated Sepoy War of S i r John Kaye, tackles t h i s problem i n d e t a i l . As a r e s u l t , the student of the mutiny at best gets from these h i s t o r i e s d i s -j o i n t e d , and often inadequately explained, impressions about the r o l e of the Sikhs during the great upheaval. This t h e s i s accordingly sets out to analyze the e f f e c t s of the sepoy mu-t i n y on the h i s t o r y of the Sikhs. I have examined four main aspects of the problem: (1) the annexation of the Sikh kingdom by the B r i t i s h i n 1849 and conditions i n the Punjab between annexation and the outbreak of the r e b e l l i o n of 1857; (2) the actual help given by the Sikhs to the B r i t i s h during the r e b e l l i o n ; (3) the motives of the Sikhs f o r gi v i n g t h e i r help; and (4) the r e -wards of the Sikhs f o r supporting the B r i t i s h during the c r i s i s of 1857. The Sikhs established t h e i r p o l i t i c a l ascendancy i n the Punjab on the ruins of the Mughal empire. During the f i r s t two decades of the 19th century most of the twelve misls or confederacies of the Sikhs were conquered and united i n t o one kingdom by R a n j i t Singh. However, the timely i v p rotection given by the B r i t i s h i n 1809 to the Sikh c h i e f s of the C i s - S u t l e j checked Ranjit Singh's expansionist designs beyond the S u t l e j River. During h i s l i f e t i m e R a n j i t Singh wisely remained on f r i e n d l y terms with the B r i t i s h , but a f t e r h i s death the f a c t i o u s i n t r i g u e s of h i s successors and the Sikh army plun-ged the Sikh kingdom i n t o h o s t i l i t i e s with the B r i t i s h . The defeat of the Sikhs i n the wars of 1845-46 and 1848-49 r e s u l -ted i n the annexation of t h e i r kingdom by the B r i t i s h . A f t e r annexation the B r i t i s h showed moderation i n dealing with the Sikhs and d i d not degrade them to the p o s i -t i o n of a landless c l a s s . Meanwhile the Sikhs, resigned to t h e i r f a t e , q u i c k l y adapted themselves to the new i n s t i t u t i o n s which were established i n the Punjab between 1849 and 1857. But the i n d i f f e r e n c e of the B r i t i s h toward the i n t e r e s t s of the Sikhs, and the Government's p o l i c y of extending patronage to Hindustanis, hurt both t h e i r f e e l i n g s and t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . The r e b e l l i o n of 1857 provided the Sikhs with a unique opportunity to secure a change of a t t i t u d e s by the B r i t i s h . They seized that opportunity and gave every help to the B r i t i s h , whose m i l i t a r y power they believed was un-challengeable. A f t e r the suppression of the mutiny the Sikhs received generous rewards from t h e i r r u l e r s . They were also given the one reward that would s a t i s f y them m o s t — B r i t i s h i n d i f f e r e n c e gave way to B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r welfare. V My i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the problem leads me to the con-c l u s i o n that the outbreak of the sepoy mutiny unexpectedly ushered i n brighter days for the Sikhs and l a i d the founda-t i o n f o r t h e i r future growth and strength i n the Punjab. Dr. P. Harnetty, Supervisor H. S. Sara v i TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1. Introduction p. 1 Chapter 2. Before the Storm p. 5 Chapter 3. The Storm: The Sikhs i n Action Against the Mutineers p. 48 Chapter 4. Motives of the Sikhs f o r Helping the B r i t i s h During the Sepoy Rebellion. p.104 Chapter 5. Rewards of the Sikhs f o r Helping the B r i t i s h . p.149 Chapter 6. Conclusion p.181 Footnotes: Chapter 2 p.191 Footnotes: Chapter 3 p.198 Footnotes: Chapter 4 p.208 Footnotes: Chapter 5 p.218 Bibliography p. 224 The S i k h Kingdom i n 1839 N o r t h e r n I n d i a i n 1857 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my thanks to the d i r e c t o r of my t h e s i s , Dr. P. Harnetty, whose u n f a i l i n g guidance made possible the completion of t h i s e f f o r t . My thanks are also due to the Staff of the L i b r a r y of the Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e i r assistance i n obtaining source material. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION When the Bengal Army mutinied i n May, 1857, one of the most anxious questions before the B r i t i s h was: how would the Sikhs i n the Punjab behave? Between May 1.0, 1857, when the sepoys f i r s t mutinied at Meerut, and the f a l l of Delhi on September 14 of the same year, B r i t i s h r u l e i n India hinged on the behaviour of the Sikhs. During those four months the sepoy mutiny gradually changed i n t o a more general r e b e l l i o n i n v o l v i n g the c i v i l population i n Oudh and the North-Western Provinces. A l l communications between Bengal and the Punjab were cut o f f , the small B r i t i s h force that was scattered over the p l a i n of the Ganges was almost wiped out, and the B r i t i s h authority i n c e n t r a l North India v i r t u a l l y ceased. The withdrawal of the Royal and the East India Company's European troops from Upper India to f i g h t i n the Crimea and Persia had proved d i s -astrous; to restore B r i t i s h authority, reinforcements of Europeans were urgently needed. Immediate steps were taken to r e c a l l some of the European troops that had been sent out of India but they could not reach India f o r several months. Almost 10,000 European s o l d i e r s belonging to the Royal and the Company's forces were stationed i n the Punjab, and h a l f of them were guarding the western extreme of the new 2 province. How much of this ten thousand-man force John Lawrence, the Chief Commissioner of the Punjab, could send to retake the imperial c i t y of Delhi—the quick recapture.of which was p o l i t i c a l l y imperative—depended upon the internal situation i n the Punjab. In addition to the Europeans, more than thi r t y - s i x thousand sepoys of the Bengal Army were also stationed i n the Punjab. They, too, were disaffected. If the Sikhs joined them, not one European soldier could be spared to relieve the beleaguered garrisons i n Hindustan. The European force stationed in the Punjab had the d i f f i c u l t task of checking the raids of the turbulent and f a -natical Pathan tribes along the Indo-Afghan frontier. Beyond the frontier the Afghans were rumoured to have assembled a force of twenty thousand men to plunder the frontier towns. Fortunately, Dost Mohammed Khan, the Amir of Afghanistan, re-mained a loyal friend of the Bri t i s h and he kept the trouble-makers i n his camp under restraint. In the face of the Persian menace and the ever-existing danger of revolt by the Duranis, the Afghan tribe whose throne the Barakzai tribe of Dost Mohammed had usurped in 1823, the Amir really could not afford to lose B r i t i s h good w i l l . However, the Amir was now old and maintained his own precarious position with the help of a monthly subsidy of one lakh of rupees (fclO,000 sterling) from the Government of India. If the Amir suddenly died or were overthrown, an Afghan invasion would then be a certainty, i n which case the Sikhs i n the Punjab would surely rise to re-establish their kingdom which they 3 had l o s t only eight years previously. Therefore, to denude the Punjab of European troops seemed as r i s k y as to delay sending the reinforcements to De l h i . Some European r e i n f o r c e -ments could come from the comparatively smaller Bombay and Madras armies, but the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n south India were also l o s i n g f a i t h i n the f i d e l t i y of t h e i r sepoys and were applying f o r European s o l d i e r s i n great numbers. While the Government of India faced t h i s dilemma, John Lawrence made h i s f i r s t move. Just a week a f t e r the outbreak of the sepoy mutiny on May 10, three regiments of European i n f a n t r y and one of cavalry l e f t the Punjab f o r Del h i . The European subordinates of John Lawrence complained b i t t e r l y that he was denuding the Punjab of European troops. But Lawrence, who was at f i r s t m i s t r u s t f u l of the l o y a l t y of h i s own province and was r e l u c t a n t to e n l i s t the aid of the Sikhs, had soon a l t e r e d h i s views. For the Sikhs not only remained peaceful but eagerly a s s i s t e d the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n appre-hending the mutinous sepoys at many places i n the Punjab. Thus, encouraged by the l o y a l behaviour of the Sikhs, John Lawrence l o s t no time i n r a i s i n g a new Punjab corps. Throughout the course of the r e b e l l i o n i n Hindustan, the Sikhs l i b e r a l l y helped the B r i t i s h with both men and money. An u p r i s i n g of the Sikhs at t h i s time could have proved f a t a l to the B r i t i s h cause but the Sikhs proved t h e i r staunch supporters. How can t h e i r a t t i t u d e be explained? Had they forgotten that only eight years previously they had been locked i n a l i f e and death struggle at C h i l l i a n w a l a against 4 the Peringhees? The evidence shows that by 1857 the Sikhs had become resigned to their fate and had accepted the fact that the Bri t i s h were a mightier power than they. A power that could crush the Khalsa was i n their view invincible. Therefore, when the sepoy mutiny broke out, they believed that the Briti s h would weather this storm and that i t would be f o l l y to oppose them. The dictates of prudence and expedience, mo-tives of reward and punishment, were the primary factors which persuaded the Trans-Sutlej Sikhs to throw in their l o t with the B r i t i s h . The Sikh princes of the Cis-Sutlej states also believ-ed in the i n v i n c i b i l i t y of the Br i t i s h , and, like their brethren who lived north of the Sutlej River, they too aided the B r i t i s h for reasons of expediency and self-interest. 5 CHAPTER 2 BEFORE THE STORM The B r i t i s h annexed the Punjab i n 1849 and made i t a Chief Commissioner's province i n 1853. I t then comprised that portion of Ranjit Singh's kingdom which was annexed to the B r i t i s h Indian Empire in March. 1849 (later designated as "Punjab Proper"), the Jullundur Doab (those provinces of Ranjit Singh's kingdom which were lost to the Sikh nation i n 1846), and the Cis-Sutlej States. The Chief Commissioner's province was 81,625 square miles in area and had a population of nearly thirteen millions. Two-thirds of the population was Muslim, one-sixth was Hindu, and the remaining one-sixth was Sikh. The province contained every variety of land; there were sandy deserts i n the south, grassy plains i n i t s central parts, and a belt of f e r t i l e , a l l u v i a l s o i l stretching along the Himalayan range i n the north. Most of i t s c i t i e s , such as Lahore and Amritsar, were situated in this northern agri-cultural belt. The leading castes of the Punjab that fur-nished soldiers and husbandmen were the Jats, Gujurs, Rajputs, Pathans, Dogras and Khutrees. Of a l l these castes the Jats were by far the most important. They were excellent agricul-t u r i s t s and had remained for centuries a p o l i t i c a l power between the Jamuna and Indus r i v e r s . 1 During the late eighteenth century the Sikhs had 6 become paramount i n the Punjab. By 1800 their organization had improved under capable leaders, they had vanquished the local Mughal and Pathan governors, and their misis had successfully turned back the flood of plunderers and adven-turers from Turkestan, Iran, and Afghanistan. The rule of the Sikh sirdars or chiefs was paternal and sympathetic, and they commanded the respect and devotion of their sub-2 jects. Internecine wars for p o l i t i c a l supremacy were f r e -quent among the misls and within a misi. Although according to the constitution of the Khalsa (the Elect) the basic prin-ciple of the creed was fraternity, and vassalage or feudal superiority was disallowed, yet by 1812 a descendant of the Jat Sansi tribe of Amritsar d i s t r i c t and leader of the Sukar-chakia confederacy had brought most of the sirdars under his sway. Ranjit Singh subdued the Manjha Sikhs (the Sikhs of the Trans-Sutlej territories) without intervention from the Bri t i s h , who were then expanding their power, but his designs against the Malwa Sikhs (the Sikhs of the Cis-Sutlej area) brought him face to face with the strongest power i n the sub-continent, the East India Company. Diplomatic relations between Ranjit Singh and the Bri t i s h East India Company commenced i n 1806 when a treaty of friendship was signed between the two powers. The Maharaja, however, was determined to include in his kingdom the whole Khalsa. The internal disputes of the Phulkian sirdars of the Cis-Sutlej induced him to cross the Sutlej three times. T H E SIKH KINGDOM IN 1839 M A L W A SI KM STATICALA / UNDER BRITISH PROTECTS 8 Alarmed at Ranjit Singh's ambitions, the Rajas of Jind, Nabha, and Patiala personally approached the B r i t i s h Resident i n Delhi for help. This set off another round of diplomatic negotiations between the Maharaja and the B r i t i s h . At f i r s t the B r i t i s h did not press for Ranjit Singh's retreat from the Cis-Sutlej territory because they needed him as their a l l y against Napoleon. But by December 1808, the danger of Napoleon's invasion of India had passed and the British firmly demanded that Ranjit Singh retire to the north of the Sutlej. The B r i t i s h demand was, of course, most un-palatable to Ranjit Singh and he threatened war. However, the sagacious Maharaja never carried out his threat because he apparently had qualms about his own power to coerce the Bri t i s h into accepting his sovereignty over the Cis-Sutlej States. The fate of the Marathas also served as a grave re-minder against adopting an unfriendly policy toward the Br i t i s h . In April 1809, Ranjit Singh withdrew to the north of the Sutlej and a new treaty was signed on April 25. The Sikhs of the Cis-Sutlej were thus assured of B r i t i s h protec-tion. Before he died i n 1839, "The Lion of the Punjab" had subdued the h i l l Rajputs, the Punjabi Muslims, the Kashmiris, and most tribesmen of the north-western frontier. Ranjit Singh gave administrative office to deserving men regardless of their religious faiths and i t i s no exaggeration to say that his c i v i l administration rested on the shoulders of his Hindu and Muslim ministers such as Raja Deena Nath and Faqir v 9 A z i z - u d - d i n . R a n j i t S i n g h ' s s y s t e m o f g o v e r n m e n t w a s s i m p l e a n d C K U d C . O n l y t h e f i s c a l a n d m i l i t a r y d e p a r t m e n t s i n t e r e s -t e d t h e M a h a r a j a . T h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n o r s a c t e d a s f a r m e r s o f t h e r e v e n u e ; t h e f e u d a l chiefs e n j o y e d u n l i m i t e d a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n . T h e k a r d a r s . o r l o c a l t a x - g a t h e r -e r s , w e r e g e n e r a l l y d i s h o n e s t ; t h e y w e r e n o t p a i d o f f i c i a l s a n d t h e y l i v e d b y t h e p e r q u i s i t e s o f t h e i r o f f i c e . T h e s y s -t e m o f t a x a t i o n w a s d e f e c t i v e ; d u t i e s w e r e i m p o s e d o n a r t i c l e s o f b o t h i n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l c o m m e r c e a n d f o r t y -e i g h t a r t i c l e s o f common u s e w e r e t a x e d . T h e r e w a s n o w r i t t e n l a w . C r i m e w a s s c a r c e a n d o n l y t w o k i n d s o f p u n i s h -m e n t s e x i s t e d , f i n e a n d m u t i l a t i o n . P r i v a t e p r o p e r t y i n l a n d w a s f u l l y r e c o g n i z e d , b u t t h e c u l t i v a t o r s p a i d t o t h e s t a t e a s m u c h a s o n e - h a l f o f t h e g r o s s p r o d u c e a s l a n d r e v e n u e . T h o u g h R a n j i t S i n g h ' s s y s t e m o f g o v e r n m e n t w a s c r u d e , y e t c o m m e r c e f l o u r i s h e d a n d t h e P u n j a b i s w e r e c o n t e n t e d w i t h h i s r e g i m e . T h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e p e o p l e ' s h a p p i n e s s , a s t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e F i r s t P u n j a b A d m i n i s t r a t i o n R e p o r t r i g h t l y e x p l a i n e d i n 1 8 5 2 , w e r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l : . . . t h e n a t i o n s w i l l c h e e r f u l l y p a y e n o r m o u s t a x e s w h e n t h e g o v e r n m e n t i s p o p u l a r , a n d w h e n t h e p u b l i c m i n d i s k e p t e x c i t e d b y m a r t i a l t r i u m p h s . T h e r u l e o f R a n j i t S i n g h w a s e m i n e n t l y s u i t e d t o t h e g e n i u s o f t h e p e o p l e , a n d t h e s p i r i t o f t h e S i k h s m o u n t e d h i g h w h e n t h e y s a w p r o v i n c e a f t e r p r o v i n c e a d d e d t o t h e d o m a i n o f t h e i r m y s t i c c o m m o n w e a l t h . 3 T h e p r o b a b l e f a t e o f t h e S i k h k i n g d o m a f t e r R a n j i t S i n g h ' s d e a t h w a s p r e d i c t e d b y B e n t i n c k m o r e t h a n f o u r y e a r s b e f o r e t h e " L i o n o f t h e P u n j a b " b r e a t h e d h i s l a s t i n J u n e , 1 8 3 9 . I n a M i n u t e o f M a r c h 1 3 , 1 8 3 5 , B e n t i n c k w r o t e t h a t 10 " t h e r e i s n o a p p a r e n t p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e w i s d o m o f h i s [ R a n j i t S i n g h ' s ] r u l e w i l l b e i n h e r i t e d b y h i s s u c c e s s o r s * T r o u b l e s , u p o n h i s d e c e a s e , w i l l c e r t a i n l y a r i s e , a n d i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o f o r e s e e t h e r e s u l t a s r e l a t e s t o t h e l i n e o f 4 c o n d u c t w h i c h we may b e c a l l e d u p o n t o p u r s u e . " B e n t i n c k ' s w o r d s w e r e p r o p h e t i c . W i t h i n t w o y e a r s o f R a n j i t S i n g h ' s d e a t h i n 1 8 3 9 , d i s p u t e s a n d i n t r i g u e s a r o s e a s t o t h e s u c -c e s s i o n . S e v e r a l c l a i m a n t s w e r e a s s a s s i n a t e d . T h e K h a l s a ( t h e S i k h a r m y ) b e c a m e i n s u b o r d i n a t e b e c a u s e m a n y r e g i m e n t s c o u l d n o t o b t a i n t h e i r a r r e a r s o f p a y . T h e w o r s t h a p p e n e d w h e n , t h r o u g h t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f r i v a l p r i n c e s , t h e S i k h a r m y b e c a m e i n v o l v e d i n p o l i t i c a l i n t r i g u e s . T h e s o l d i e r s 5 o p e n l y h e l d o u t t h r e a t s o f d e s t r o y i n g t h e c o u r t o f f i c i a l s . I n t e l l i g e n c e a b o u t t h e m u t i n o u s b e h a v i o u r o f t h e K h a l s a r e a c h e d t h e B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t i e s a l m o s t d a i l y . 6 R e a l i s i n g t h e i r i n c a p a c i t y t o c o n t r o l t h e i r own a r m y , t h e S i k h p o l i t i -c i a n s s c h e m e d i t s d e s t r u c t i o n b y i n d u c i n g i t t o i n v a d e t h e B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y . T h e S i k h a r m y c r o s s e d t h e S u t l e j i n D e c e m b e r , 1 8 4 5 , b u t t h e S i k h s w e r e d e f e a t e d a f t e r f o u r s h a r p b a t t l e s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e L a h o r e T r e a t y o f M a r c h 9, 1 8 4 6 , t h e S i k h s s u r r e n d e r e d t h e J u l l u n d u r D o a b t o t h e B r i t i s h . T h e h i l l s t a t e s a n d t h e s t a t e o f K a s h m i r w e r e s o l d f o r a m i l l i o n p o u n d s s t e r l i n g t o R a j a G u l a b S i n g h o f J a m m u , who w a s i n v e s -t e d w i t h t h e t i t l e o f M a h a r a j a . T h e F i r s t S i k h W a r h a d c o n n e c t e d t w o B r i t i s h o f f i c e r s , t h e b r o t h e r s H e n r y a n d J o h n L a w r e n c e , w i t h t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e P u n j a b . B o t h w e r e p e r s o n a l l y s e l e c t e d b y t h e G o v e r n o r -1 1 G e n e r a l , H a r d i n g e , f o r d u t i e s i n t h e P u n j a b ; H e n r y w a s s u m -m o n e d f r o m N e p a l a n d a p p o i n t e d P o l i t i c a l A g e n t t o t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l d u r i n g t h e F i r s t S i k h W a r a n d J o h n w a s made C o m m i s s i o n e r o f t h e J u l l u n d u r D o a b a f t e r t h e d e f e a t o f t h e S i k h s i n 1 8 4 6 * H e n r y ' s s y m p a t h e t i c a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e d e f e a -t e d S i k h s made h i m p o p u l a r w i t h t h e S i k h D u r b a r , a n d J o h n ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n i t i a t i v e a n d c a p a b i l i t i e s w o n h i m t h e a f f e c -t i o n o f t h e p e a s a n t s . A s C o m m i s s i o n e r , J o h n p r o m p t l y i n t r o -d u c e d a t e m p o r a r y l a n d s e t t l e m e n t a n d a l o w a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e l a n d - t a x . He a l s o i n s t i t u t e d t h e p o l i c y o f a b o l i s h i n g t h e j a q e e r s . o r f e u d a l g r a n t s , a n d d i s t r i b u t i n g t h e l a n d a m o n g t h e t i l l e r s . P e r h a p s n o o t h e r d u t y d i d J o h n L a w r e n c e p e r f o r m m o r e e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y t h a n t h e e r a d i c a t i o n o f i n f a n t i c i d e a n d s a t i . M e a n w h i l e , H e n r y L a w r e n c e w a s b u s y a t L a h o r e . H i s w a t c h f u l n e s s t h w a r t e d t h e W a z i r ' s i n t r i g u e s w i t h t h e g o v -e r n o r o f K a s h m i r , a n d t h e S i k h s i r d a r s s o l i c i t e d t h e a i d o f t h e B r i t i s h f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e i r m i n o r k i n g , D u l e e p 7 S i n g h . A c c o r d i n g l y , a n e w a g r e e m e n t w a s c o n c l u d e d o n D e c e m b e r 1 6 , 1 8 4 6 . T h e B r i t i s h p r o m i s e d t o s t a y i n L a h o r e u n t i l D u l e e p S i n g h a t t a i n e d t h e f u l l a g e o f s i x t e e n y e a r s a n d a C o u n c i l o f R e g e n c y w a s c o n s t i t u t e d w h i c h w a s t o a c t u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l a n d g u i d a n c e o f t h e B r i t i s h R e s i d e n t . T h e new a g r e e m e n t t h u s o b l i g e d t h e B r i t i s h t o a s s u m e a s h a r e i n t h e m a n a g e m e n t o f t h e S i k h k i n g d o m . T h e R e s i d e n t , H e n r y L a w r e n c e , s i n c e r e l y h o p e d t o t r a i n a n d g u i d e t h e s i r d a r s , i n t h e a r t o f m o d e r n g o v e r n m e n t . He r e d u c e d t h e o v e r g r o w n S i k h a r m y a n d p r o m p t l y p a i d u p t h e d i s c h a r g e d 12 s o l d i e r s . H i s s t a f f a l s o c o l l e c t e d t h e a r r e a r s o f t a x e s , i n -s t i t u t e d a s u m m a r y s e t t l e m e n t , s i m p l i f i e d t h e s y s t e m o f t a x a -t i o n , a n d c o m p i l e d a s i m p l e p e n a l c o d e o f t h e u n w r i t t e n c u s -t o m s o f t h e P u n j a b . T h e R e s i d e n t a l s o p r o c u r e d t h e s e r v i c e s o f a B r i t i s h e n g i n e e r w h o l o o k e d a f t e r t h e i m p r o v e m e n t s i n p u b l i c w o r k s . F o r o n e y e a r t h e R e g e n c y , u n d e r H e n r y L a w r e n c e ' s g u i d a n c e , p u r s u e d u n i n t e r r u p t e d l y t h e e n l i g h t e n e d p o l i c y w h e r e " t h e p e o p l e w o u l d h a v e t o p a y l e s s , w h i l e t h e p s t a t e r e c e i v e d m o r e . " B u t e a r l y n e x t y e a r t h e j e a l o u s Q u e e n M o t h e r b e g a n h e r i n t r i g u e s t o w r e c k t h e R e s i d e n t ' s g o o d w o r k a n d H e n r y w a s o b l i g e d t o h a v e h e r r e m o v e d t o B e n a r a s . T h e S i k h s d i d n o t o p p o s e t h i s h a r s h m e a s u r e , f o r t h e y h a d d e v e l -o p e d a g r e a t f a i t h i n H e n r y ' s g i f t o f s y m p a t h y . He h a d s a v e d t h e i r k i n g d o m f r o m a n n e x a t i o n a n d now h e w a s d o i n g e v e r y t h i n g 9 i n h i s p o w e r t o p r e s e r v e i t . T h e s t r a i n o f w o r k a f f e c t e d H e n r y ' s h e a l t h a n d i n J a n u a r y 1 8 4 8 h e w a s o b l i g e d t o g o t o E n g l a n d o n l e a v e . G n h i s h o m e w a r d j o u r n e y H e n r y a c c o m p a n i e d t h e o u t g o i n g G o v e r n o r -G e n e r a l , H a r d i n g e , w h o , b e f o r e r e l i n q u i s h i n g o f f i c e , h a d r e -c o m m e n d e d H e n r y t o H o b h o u s e , t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e B o a r d o f C o n t r o l , i n t h e s e w o r d s : " I h a v e n o o b j e c t s t o u r g e a s r e g a r d s m y s e l f , a n d h i s c l a i m s a r e s o s t r o n g a n d s o j u s t t h a t e v e n i f I h a d I s h o u l d w i s h h i s t o t a k e p r e c e d e n c e . " 1 0 W i t h -i n a m o n t h o f h i s a r r i v a l i n E n g l a n d , H e n r y L a w r e n c e w a s a p p o i n t e d a K . C . B . . I n H e n r y ' s a b s e n c e t h i n g s w e n t a m i s s i n t h e P u n j a b . I n M a y 1 8 4 8 , M u i r a j o f M u l t a n r e b e l l e d . T h e S i k h s i r d a r s 13 a l s o b r o k e i n t o o p e n r e b e l l i o n a n d t h e a c t i n g - R e s i d e n t , F r e d e r i c k C u r r i e , w r o t e t o H e n r y a b o u t h a v i n g " a m o s t a n x -i o u s a n d t r y i n g t i m e . " 1 " 1 " H e n r y , who w a s " s e n s i t i v e a b o u t h i s 12 p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e a n d r e p u t a t i o n " , c u t s h o r t h i s h o l i d a y t o r e s u m e c h a r g e o f t h e P u n j a b , B e f o r e l e a v i n g E n g l a n d h e was m u c h d i s t u r b e d b y t h e s w i n g o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n f a v o u r i n g a n n e x a t i o n . D a l h o u s i e , t h e new G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , w a s w r i t i n g i n s t r o n g l a n g u a g e f r o m I n d i a , a n d e v e n H a r d i n g e now a p p e a r e d 1 3 t o s u p p o r t h i s s u c c e s s o r ' s v i e w s . W o u l d h e b e f o r c e d b y a d i c t a t o r i a l c h i e f t o g i v e u p h i s i d e a l ? H e n r y r e a c h e d L a h o r e s t i l l h o p i n g t o s a v e t h e S i k h k i n g d o m . B u t h i s p r e v i o u s c r i t i c i s m o f D a l h o u s i e ' s p o l i c y o f d e l a y i n g t h e e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t M u l r a j b e c a u s e o f t h e h o t w e a t h e r w a s n o w t o p r o v e 1 4 i m p o l i t i c . D a l h o u s i e , b e i n g new t o I n d i a , h a d d e f e r r e d m i l i t a r y a c t i o n a g i n s t M u l r a j o n t h e a d v i c e o f t h e C o m m a n d e r - i n - C h i e f . When t h e r e v o l t b e c a m e g e n e r a l , D a l h o u s i e l o s t n o t i m e i n t a k i n g t h e f i e l d p e r s o n a l l y a n d m o v e d h i s c a m p t o F e r o z e p u r o n t h e S u t l e j . T h e B r i t i s h w o n t h e S e c o n d S i k h W a r a f t e r t h e c a r n a g e o f C h i l l i a n w a l a a n d G u j a r a t i n J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y 1 8 4 9 . F r o m t h e a c c o u n t g i v e n t o h i m b y a n e y e w i t n e s s , B o s w o r t h S m i t h h a s v i v i d l y r e c a l l e d how t h e S i k h s g a v e u p t h e i r a r m s . • . . t h e S i k h s o l d i e r s , a d v a n c i n g , o n e b y o n e t o t h e f i l e o f t h e E n g l i s h d r a w n a c r o s s t h e r o a d , f l u n g d o w n t u l w a r , m a t c h l o c k , a n d s h i e l d u p o n t h e g r o w i n g h e a p o f a r m s , s a l a a m e d t o t h e m a s t o t h e " s p i r i t o f t h e s t e e l " a n d p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e o p e n l i n e s , n o l o n g e r s o l d i e r s . . . e a c h h o r s e m a n a m o n g t h e m h a d t o p a r t f o r t h e l a s t t i m e f r o m t h e a n i m a l w h i c h h e r e g a r d e d a s p a r t o f h i m s e l f . . . 14 T h i s w a s t o o m u c h e v e n f o r t h e S i k h e n d u r a n c e . He c a r e s s e d a n d p a t t e d t h e f a i t h f u l c o m p a n i o n o h e v e r y p a r t o f h i s b o d y , a n d t h e n t u r n e d r e s o l u t e l y a w a y . B u t t h i s r e s o l u t i o n f a i l e d h i m . H e t u r n e d b a c k a g a i n a n d a g a i n t o g i v e o n e c a r e s s m o r e , a n d t h e n , a s h e t o r e h i m s e l f a w a y f o r t h e v e r y l a s t t i m e , b r u s h e d a t e a r d r o p f r o m h i s e y e , a n d e x c l a i m e d , i n w o r d s w h i c h g i v e t h e k e y t o s o m u c h o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f t h e S i k h s t o u s , t h e i r m a n l y r e s i s t a n c e , a n d t h e i r n o t l e s s m a n l y s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e i n e v i t a b l e , ' R u n j e e t S i n g h i s d e a d t o d a y 1 ' 1 5 S m a l l w o n d e r , t h e n , t h a t a t e m p e r a m e n t a l l y r o m a n t i c a n d c h i -v a l r o u s p e r s o n l i k e H e n r y L a w r e n c e h a d l o s t h i s h e a r t t o a b r a v e p e o p l e • T h o u g h D a l h o u s i e p r a i s e d t h e S i k h s f o r t h e i r c o u r a g e a n d m a n l i n e s s , h e h a d a l r e a d y d e c i d e d i n h i s m i n d t h e f a t e o f t h e i r k i n g d o m . He w a s c o n v i n c e d t h a t t o l e a v e t h e - m a s t e r l e s s K h a l s a i n t a c t w o u l d m e a n a c o n s t a n t t h r e a t t o t h e B r i t i s h . F i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a l s o w e i g h e d h e a v i l y w i t h D a l h o u s i e . T h e F i r s t S i k h W a r i n 1 8 4 6 h a d i n c r e a s e d t h e d e f i c i t i n I n d i a ' s b u d g e t f r o m 6 7 4 3 , 8 4 9 t o i l , 4 9 6 , 8 6 5 . 1 6 T h e S e c o n d S i k h W a r h a d p r o v e d e q u a l l y c o s t l y . O n A u g u s t 4 , 1 8 4 8 , D a l h o u s i e e x p r e s s e d h i s a n x i e t y t o a c l o s e f r i e n d : . . . a n d I , w h o s e e a r s t i n g l e d w i t h t r u m p e t i n g w h i c h p r o c l a i m e d e x p e n d i t u r e a n d i n c o m e e q u a l i s e d f i n d m y s e l f w i t h a d e f i c i t o n t h e y e a r o f 6 1 , 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 a n d w i t h o r d e r s i n my h a n d f r o m my m a s t e r s f o r a b u l l i o n r e m i t t a n c e o f h a l f a m i l l i o n 17 .... B e s i d e s , i t w a s D a l h o u s i e ' s a v o w e d p o l i c y " n o t t o p u t a s i d e o r n e g l e c t s u c h r i g h t f u l o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f a c q u i r i n g t e r r i t o r y 1 8 o r r e v e n u e a s may f r o m t i m e t o t i m e p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s . " T h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a n n e x t h e P u n j a b h a d now c o m e . H e n r y c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y o p p o s e d t h e a n n e x a t i o n t o t h e l a s t m i n u t e . 15 " M y o w n o p i n i o n , " h e w r o t e t o D a l h o u s i e , " a s a l r e a d y m o r e t h a n o n c e e x p r e s s e d i n w r i t i n g t o y o u r l o r d s h i p i s a g a i n s t 19 a n n e x a t i o n . I d i d t h i n k i t u n j u s t ; I now t h i n k i t i m p o l i t i c . " 20 D a l h o u s i e , who c o n s i d e r e d H e n r y a w a y w a r d s u b o r d i n a t e , h a d n o e a r s f o r s u c h p l e a s a n d J o h n L a w r e n c e f u l l y a g r e e d w i t h h i m . T h e b u l k o f t h e A n g l o - I n d i a n c i v i l a n d m i l i t a r y o f f i -2 1 c e r s a l s o f a v o u r e d a n n e x a t i o n . B u t t h e B r i t i s h c a b i n e t i n L o n d o n w e r e i n d e c i s i v e . I n f a c e o f t h i s i n d e c i s i o n D a l h o u s i e a c t e d o n h i s o w n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d o n M a r c h 2 9 , 1 8 4 9 , h e 2 2 a n n e x e d t h e ' L a n d o f t h e F i v e R i v e r s . • L a t e r o n , i n t h e l a s t M i n u t e o f h i s G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l s h i p , h e e x p l a i n e d h i s r e a s o n s . " T h e q u e s t i o n f o r u s w a s n o l o n g e r o n e o f p o l i c y 2 3 o r e x p e d i e n c y , " h e s a i d , " b u t o n e o f n a t i o n a l s a f e t y . " T h e a n n e x a t i o n e n d e d H e n r y ' s d r e a m o f t r a i n i n g t h e S i k h n a t i o n i n t h e a r t s o f m o d e r n g o v e r n m e n t . He h a d f o u n d b e f o r e t h a t D a l h o u s i e w a s c a l l o u s t o w a r d t h e n a t i v e s a n d t h e i r s e n t i m e n t s , a n d now t h e a n n e x a t i o n o f t h e P u n j a b a l s o p r o v e d t h a t h i s u n s y m p a t h e t i c c h i e f c o u l d n o t a p p r e c i a t e t h e p o l i t i c a l a d v a n t a g e s o f r e t a i n i n g t h e f r i e n d s h i p o f a b r a v e p e o p l e . H e n r y b e l o n g e d t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l : o f f a v o u r i n g t h e n a t i v e S t a t e s , w h i c h w a s now g o i n g o u t o f f a -s h i o n . T h e new g e n e r a t i o n o f A n g l o - I n d i a n o f f i c e r s " d i s -2 4 l i k e d " I n d i a a n d b e h a v e d a r r o g a n t l y t o w a r d t h e I n d i a n s . H e n r y s a w i n s u c h i m p e r i a l i s t i c a r r o g a n c e a p o l i t i c a l d a n g e r t o t h e A n g l o - I n d i a n E m p i r e . I n t h e 1 8 4 0 s s u c h a M u n r o - s t y l e a t t i t u d e was l a u g h e d a t . I t w a s now t h e a g e o f p r a c t i c a l -m i n d e d r u l e r s a n d t h e new G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l w a s i t s 16 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . H e n r y f e l t h e c o u l d n o t s t a y o n u n d e r a c o l d , c a l c u l a t i n g r e g i m e . He t h e r e f o r e s e n t i n h i s r e s i g -n a t i o n a s R e s i d e n t . I t w a s n o t D a l h o u s i e ' s i n t e n t i o n t o g e t r i d o f H e n r y ; i n f a c t , h e a d m i r e d h i m f o r h i s e m i n e n t q u a l i -f i c a t i o n s a n d now n e e d e d h i s m o d e r a t i n g p r e s e n c e a t a c r u -c i a l t i m e w h e n t h e w o r k o f p a c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e n e w l y - a n n e x e d p r o v i n c e d e m a n d e d p r i o r i t y . Was i t n o t H e n r y ' s m o r a l d u t y t o s e e t h a t t h e f a l l e n S i k h s w e r e t r e a t e d k i n d l y a n d j u s t l y ? D a l h o u s i e ' s a r g u m e n t p r e v a i l e d u p o n H e n r y , who f i n a l l y d e -c i d e d t o s t a y o n a s t h e h e a d o f t h e new a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e P u n j a b . T h e new a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w a s a n e x p e r i m e n t p l a n n e d b y D a l h o u s i e h i m s e l f . T h e P u n j a b w a s t o b e r u l e d b y a B o a r d o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c o n s i s t i n g o f t h r e e m e m b e r s . A l t h o u g h D a l -h o u s i e a p p o i n t e d H e n r y a s t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e B o a r d , h e made s u r e t h a t t h e e x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t y w a s s h a r e d b y a l l t h r e e m e m b e r s . H e n r y w a s e x p e c t e d t o t a k e c a r e o f p o l i t i -c a l a n d m i l i t a r y w o r k ; t h e o t h e r t w o m e m b e r s , J o h n L a w r e n c e a n d G . C . M a n s e l l , w e r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c i v i l a n d j u d i -c i a l w o r k r e s p e c t i v e l y . H e n r y ' s t e a m o f b r i l l i a n t s o l d i e r s a n d p o l i t i c a l a s s i s t a n t s n o t a b l y E d w a r d e s , A b b o t , N i c h o l s o n , a n d L u m s d e n , w a s a l r e a d y p r e s e n t i n t h e P u n j a b . T h e s e l e c -t i o n o f t h e c i v i l o f f i c e r s w a s l e f t e n t i r e l y t o J o h n , who b o r r o w e d f r o m t h e N o r t h - W e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s s u c h o u t s t a n d i n g c i v i l o f f i c e r s a s T h o r n t o n , M o n t g o m e r y , a n d M a c l e o d . T h e s e men b e l o n g e d t o t h e s c h o o l o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h J a m e s T h o m a s o n , t h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r o f t h e N o r t h - W e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s f r o m 1 8 4 8 t o 1 8 5 3 . W h a t w a s t h e T h o m a s o n s c h o o l o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l i k e ? T h e f o u n d e r s o f t h i s s c h o o l w e r e t h e t w o f a m o u s p a t e r n a l i s t s , M u n r o a n d M e t c a l f e , who f a v o u r e d i n I n d i a a s y s t e m o f d i r e c t a n d u n i t a r y g o v e r n m e n t a t t h e l o c a l o r d i s t r i c t l e v e l . T h e y w e r e o p p o s e d t o t h e C o r n w a l l i s s y s t e m o f s e p a r a t i n g t h e e x e -c u t i v e a n d j u d i c i a l a r m s o f g o v e r n m e n t . T h e s e p a t e r n a l i s t v i e w s r e c e i v e d t h e f u l l s u p p o r t o f B e n t h a m i t e s l i k e L o r d W i l l i a m B e n t i n c k . When B e n t i n c k a r r i v e d a s G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l i n 1 8 2 8 , h e h a d f o u n d t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e N o r t h -w e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s w a s s u f f e r i n g f r o m l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e r e v e n u e b r a n c h a n d t h e j u d i c i a l . B e n t i n c k c a r r i e d o u t a n u m b e r o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e f o r m s , o n e o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f w h i c h w a s t h e a m a l g a m a t i o n o f e x e c u t i v e a n d m a g i s t e r i a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e p e r s o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r , who w a s i m m e d i a t e l y s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r o f h i s D i v i s i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e N o r t h - W e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s g o t a s e p a r a t e H i g h C o u r t . T h e s e r e f o r m s , w h i c h w e r e i n t r o -d u c e d u n d e r R e g u l a t i o n V I I o f 1 8 3 1 , m e a n t a v i c t o r y f o r M u n r o ' s s c h o o l . B u t i t s v i c t o r y , a s S t o k e s p o i n t s o u t , w a s made p o s s i b l e b y t h e r e f o r m i n g o f f i c i a l s who h a d a c c e p t e d 25 " t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n e l e m e n t i n t h e U t i l i t a r i a n d o c t r i n e s . " I n 1 8 3 7 t h e l i b e r a l s a g a i n g o t t h e u p p e r h a n d . U n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f men l i k e M a c a u l a y , t h e new G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , A u c k l a n d , s e p a r a t e d t h e o f f i c e s o f c o l l e c t o r a n d m a g i s t r a t e . I n t h e N o r t h - W e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s t h e new r e g u l a t i o n w a s s t u b -b o r n l y o p p o s e d b y l o c a l o f f i c i a l s s u c h a s M e t c a l f e , B i r d , a n d T h o m a s o n a n d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n i t w a s n o t 18 a p p l i e d t o t h e N o r t h - W e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s . When D a l h o u s i e c a m e t o I n d i a , h e a t t r i b u t e d t h e i n e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e B e n g a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n m a i n l y t o t h i s r e v e r s i o n f r o m B e n t i n c k 1 s r e -g u l a t i o n s . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s y s t e m a n d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r , w h i c h w e r e e f f i c i e n t l y f u n c t i o n i n g i n t h e N o r t h - W e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s , m e t w i t h D a l h o u s i e 1 s f u l l a p p r o v a l . I t w a s , t h e r e f o r e , t h e C o m m i s -s i o n e r s y s t e m w i t h i t s D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s t h a t w a s p o p u l a r l y c a l l e d t h e T h o m a s o n s c h o o l o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d D a l h o u s i e w a s a n x i o u s t o e x t e n d i t t o t h e new p r o v i n c e . D a l h o u s i e h i m s e l f l a i d d o w n t h e p r i n c i p l e s o n w h i c h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e P u n j a b w a s t o b e c o n d u c t e d . L i k e t h e N o r t h - W e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s , t h e P u n j a b w a s n o t t o b e g o v e r n -e d b y R e g u l a t i o n s b u t b y d e s p o t i s m d i r e c t a n d s i m p l e . T h e i d e a o f a n a u t h o r i t a r i a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w a s n o t n e w . B e n t h a m a n d J a m e s M i l l , t h e U t i l i t a r i a n p h i l o s o p h e r s , h a d b e e n i t s s t r o n g a d v o c a t e s . A n a u t h o r i t a r i a n r e f o r m e r D a l h o u s i e w a s , t h e r e f o r e , a U t i l i t a r i a n . B u t i n D a l h o u s i e ' s u t i l i t a r i a n i s m t h e r e w e r e n o f i x e d d o g m a s ; i t w a s s i m p l y a 26 p h i l o s o p h y o f p r a c t i c a l - m i n d e d n e s s . M a n y A n g l o - I n d i a n o f f i c i a l s w e r e u t i l i t a r i a n s i n t h i s s e n s e . L i k e D a l h o u s i e t h e y a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t o n l y a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m c o u l d b e c o n -d u c i v e t o p r o g r e s s i n I n d i a . T h u s i t w a s f r o m t h e r a n k s o f s u c h u t i l i t a r i a n s t h a t D a l h o u s i e c h o s e , w i t h J o h n L a w r e n c e ' s h e l p , o f f i c e r s f o r s e r v i c e i n t h e P u n j a b . A t e a m o f e i g h t y -f o u r c o v e n a n t e d o f f i c e r s w a s w i t h d r a w n f r o m t h e N o r t h -W e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s a n d p l a c e d a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f t h e P u n j a b 19 2 7 B o a r d o f A m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e B o a r d w a s g i v e n f u l l a u t h o r i t y t o c o n t r o l a n d s u p e r v i s e a l l d e p a r t m e n t s * B e l o w t h e B o a r d , t h e e x e c u t i v e c o n s i s t e d o f f o u r g r a d e s : C o m m i s s i o n e r s , D e p u t y C o m m i s s i o n e r s , A s s i s t a n t C o m m i s s i o n e r s , a n d E x t r a A s -s i s t a n t C o m m i s s i o n e r s . I n d i a n s c o u l d j o i n t h e f o u r t h g r a d e . T h e P u n j a b p r o p e r w a s d i v i d e d i n t o t h e f i v e C o m m i s s i o n e r -s h i p s o f L a h o r e , J h e l u m , M u l t a n , L e i , a n d P e s h a w a r . T h e C o m -m i s s i o n e r s w e r e d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e B o a r d a n d a c t e d a s s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s o f r e v e n u e a n d p o l i c e . T h e y a l s o h e l d t h e a p p e l l a t e p o w e r s o f a C i v i l J u d g e a n d t h e c r i m i n a l p o w e r s o f a S e s s i o n s J u d g e . T h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r s — d e s i g n a t e d D e p u -t y C o m m i s s i o n e r s i n t h e P u n j a b — w e r e v e s t e d w i t h t r i p l e 28 p o w e r s : c r i m i n a l , c i v i l , a n d f i s c a l . T h e w i d e p o w e r s o f C o m m i s s i o n e r s a n d D i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s o b v i o u s l y made t h e P u n j a b a d m i n i s t r a t i o n e v e n m o r e a u t h o r i t a r i a n t h a n t h a t o f t h e N o r t h - W e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s * A t f i r s t t h e r e w a s m u c h s k e p t i c i s m a b o u t t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e B o a r d * E v e n t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e B o a r d s e e m e d t o l a c k f a i t h i n t h e new a r r a n g e m e n t . H e n r y w r o t e t o h i s f r i e n d E d w a r d e s o p i n i n g t h a t h e " w o u l d r a t h e r b e w i t h o u t " t h e c o m m i s -2 9 s i o n e r s . T h e m o s t c y n i c a l c r i t i c o f D a l h o u s i e * s e x p e r i m e n t w a s N a p i e r , t h e C o m m a n d e r - i n - C h i e f . " B o a r d s r a r e l y h a v e a n y 3 0 t a l e n t , " h e o n c e r e m a r k e d w h i l e v i s i t i n g L a h o r e . T h e r e w e r e many o t h e r A n g l o - I n d i a n o f f i c i a l s w h o p r e d i c t e d t h a t t h e P u n j a b B o a r d o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w o u l d b e a f a i l u r e . B u t t h e d a y o f d i s g r a c e f o r D a l h o u s i e n e v e r c a m e . T h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e B o a r d e f f e c t i v e l y s i l e n c e d i t s c r i t i c s . D u r i n g a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t h r e e y e a r s i t a c h i e v e d i t s m a j o r o b j e c t i v e s 20 o f p a c i f y i n g t h e p r o v i n c e a n d f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h i n g i n i t m o d e r n c i v i l a n d j u d i c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . P o l i t i c a l m a t t e r s r e c e i v e d t h e B o a r d ' s p r o m p t a t t e n -t i o n . A l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e S i k h s o l d i e r y h a d a l r e a d y b e e n d i s a r m e d a f t e r t h e i r d e f e a t . A f e w S i k h r e g i m e n t s t h a t h a d n o t t a k e n p a r t i n t h e w a r w e r e now summoned t o L a h o r e . A g e n e r a l m u s t e r w a s c a l l e d . T h e s o l d i e r s w e r e t h e n p a i d u p a n d d i s b a n d e d . M a n y w e r e i m m e d i a t e l y t a k e n b a c k i n t o t h e B r i t i s h s e r v i c e . A s s o o n a s t h e K h a l s a w a s d i s b a n d e d , a p o l i c e f o r c e o f n e a r l y f o u r t e e n t h o u s a n d men w a s r a i s e d t o k e e p l a w a n d o r d e r i n t h e p r o v i n c e . I n t h e f r o n t i e r d i s t r i c t s t h e h e a d s o f t r i b e s a n d v i l l a g e s w e r e i n v e s t e d w i t h p o l i c e p o w e r s . A g e n e r a l d i s a r m a m e n t o f t h e p o p u l a c e w a s a l s o c a r -r i e d o u t c a l m l y a n d s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . A s many a s 119,1796 a r m s o f a l l k i n d s w e r e s u r r e n d e r e d o r s e i z e d b e t w e e n t h e S u t l e j 31 a n d t h e I n d u s . T h e p o s s e s s i o n , s a l e , a n d m a n u f a c t u r e o f a r m s a n d a m m u n i t i o n w a s f o r b i d d e n f o r t h e f u t u r e . T h e d i f f i -c u l t t a s k o f p a c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e w a s a c c o m p l i s h e d i n a f e w m o n t h s t h r o u g h H e n r y ' s p o l i t i c a l w i s d o m . A r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e t u r b u l e n t I n d u s f r o n t i e r w e r e a l s o p r o m p t l y u n d e r t a k e n . T h e B o a r d w a s e m p o w -e r e d t o r a i s e t e n r e g i m e n t s ( f i v e o f c a v a l r y a n d f i v e o f i n -f a n t r y ) f o r t h e d e f e n c e o f t h e f r o n t i e r . H e n r y l i b e r a l l y r e -c r u i t e d t h e n a t i v e P a t h a n s a n d t h e P u n j a b i M u s l i m s f o r t h e new f r o n t i e r f o r c e . T h e S i k h s w e r e n o t m u c h t r u s t e d a t f i r s t 32 b u t g r a d u a l l y t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n w a s i n c r e a s e d . T h e P u n j a b I r r e g u l a r F r o n t i e r F o r c e ( P . I . F . F . ) w a s made d i r e c t l y s u b -j e c t t o t h e B o a r d . I t g u a r d e d t h e e n t i r e W e s t e r n f r o n t i e r w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e s t r a t e g i c P e s h a w a r V a l l e y , w h i c h w a s d e f e n d e d b y r e g u l a r t r o o p s . T h e f r o n t i e r f o r t s a n d a d v a n c e p o s t s w e r e r e p a i r e d a n d p r o p e r l y g a r r i s o n e d a n d m i l i t a r y r o a d s c o n n e c t i n g t h e m w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d . T h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e B o a r d , a c c o m p a n i e d b y h i s C i v i l E n g i n e e r , t o u r e d a n d i n s p e c t e d t h e new m i l i t a r y w o r k s . T h e P . I . F . F . w a s a l s o s u p p o r t e d b y t h r e e f i e l d - a r t i l l e r y b r i g a d e s , t w o c o m p a n i e s o f s a p p e r s a n d m i n e r s , t h e S i n d h C a m e l C o r p s , a n d t h e G u i d e C o r p s . T h e G u i d e C o r p s w a s H e n r y ' s o w n r e m a r k a b l e i d e a ; i t s men c o u l d a c t b o t h a s s o l d i e r s a s w e l l a s s p i e s a n d t h e i r p a y w a s b e t t e r t h a n t h e o r d i n a r y s c a l e . T h e P . I . F . F . a n d o t h e r u n i t s o n t h e f r o n t i e r w e r e p u t u n d e r t h e command o f s u c h o u t s t a n d i n g s o l -d i e r s a s H o d g s o n , t h e L u m s d e n s , A b b o t , T a y l o r , N i c h o l s o n , P o l l o c k , B e c h e r , K e y e s , H o d s o n , G e o r g e L a w r e n c e , a n d E d w a r d e s . T h e p r e s e n c e o f t h i s f o r c e s o o n b e c a m e a s o u r c e o f f r u s t r a -t i o n t o t h e m a r a u d i n g t r i b e s o f A f g h a n i s t a n . B u t t h e r e a l m a t t e r o f p r i d e f o r t h e B o a r d w a s t h a t a f t e r t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e f r o n t i e r f o r c e t h e r e w a s n o p o p u l a r r i s i n g w i t h i n t h e 33 T r a n s - I n d u s t e r r i t o r i e s . T h e p r e v e n t i o n a n d d e t e c t i o n o f c r i m e i n t h e new p r o -v i n c e a l s o r e c e i v e d t h e f u l l a t t e n t i o n o f t h e B o a r d . T h e p o l i c e f o r c e o f f o u r t e e n t h o u s a n d men s u c c e s s f u l l y l i q u i d a t e d g a n g s o f m u r d e r e r s a n d r o b b e r s . V i o l e n t c r i m e s w e r e r e p r e s -s e d . I n t h e L a h o r e c o m m i s s i o n e r s h i p t h e n u m b e r o f c a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t s d r o p p e d f r o m s i x t y - o n e i n t h e f i r s t y e a r t o 22 t w e n t y - t w o i n t h e s e c o n d . T h u g g e e , p r a c t i s e d b y t h e l o w e s t c l a s s o f S i k h s k n o w n a s t h e M a z b M s , , w a s d i s c o v e r e d a n d s u p -p r e s s e d . T h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f i n f a n t i c i d e p r o v e d m o r e d i f f i -c u l t , b e c a u s e t h e m o t i v e f o r t h e c r i m e w a s n o t d o w r y , a s i n C e n t r a l I n d i a , b u t " a r e m o r s e l e s s p r i d e o f b i r t h . " S o c i a l o f f e n c e s s u c h a s c h i l d - s t e a l i n g a n d s l a v e r y ( w h i c h w a s d o m -e s t i c ^ n o t p r e d i a l i n t h e P u n j a b ) w e r e a l s o e r a d i c a t e d . P r o f e s s i o n a l t r a c k e r s w e r e e m p l o y e d t o d e t e c t a n d s u p p r e s s c a t t l e - s t e a l i n g a n d o f f e n c e s a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y . I n t h e a p -p r e h e n s i o n a n d p u n i s h m e n t o f c r i m i n a l s , t h e B o a r d s h o w e d f o r e s i g h t i n w i n n i n g t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e . T h e i n -c o n v e n i e n c e s o f t h e w i t n e s s e s t o a c r i m e w e r e r e d u c e d t o t h e m i n i m u m b y m a k i n g t h e e x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e d i s t r i c t s r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e p e o p l e . I n t h e S e s s i o n s t r i a l s , t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s w e r e e m p o w e r e d t o d i s p e n s e ' w i t h t h e a p -p e a r a n c e o f w i t n e s s e s who h a d g i v e n e v i d e n c e b e f o r e a m a g i s -t r a t e . T h e h u m a n e t r e a t m e n t o f c o n v i c t s a l s o d i d n o t e s c a p e t h e B o a r d ' s a t t e n t i o n . T o d i s c o n t i n u e t h e n a t i v e p r a c t i c e o f c o n f i n i n g t h e c o n v i c t s i n o l d f o r t s , t h e B o a r d u n d e r t o o k t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t w e n t y - s i x m o d e r n j a i l s w h i c h w o u l d a c -c o m m o d a t e , o n c o m p l e t i o n , n e a r l y t e n t h o u s a n d c r i m i n a l s . F o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e p e o p l e c i v i l j u s t i c e w a s made a s e f f i c i e n t a s c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e . T h e j u d g e s w e r e u r g e d t o w o r k h a r d . T h e n a t i v e t a h s i l d a r s o r r e v e n u e o f f i c e r s , who a l r e a d y p o s s e s s e d m a g i s t e r i a l p o w e r s , w e r e v e s t e d w i t h j u -d i c i a l p o w e r s t o t r y s u i t s u p t o t h e v a l u e o f t h r e e h u n d r e d r u p e e s . T h e E u r o p e a n S e t t l e m e n t O f f i c e r s , who w e r e b u s y t o u r i n g a n d v i s i t i n g t h e v i l l a g e s , w e r e a l s o e m p o w e r e d t o d e -c i d e a l l c a s e s r e l a t i n g t o l a n d e d p r o p e r t y . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t t w o o f f i c i a l y e a r s a l o n e , 2 3 , 3 7 8 s u i t s w e r e d e c i d e d i n t h e 34 P u n j a b P r o p e r . F r o m w h a t s o u r c e s d i d t h e r e v e n u e come t o i m p l e m e n t t h e s e r e f o r m s ? T h e b u l k o f t h e r e v e n u e d e p e n d e d , a s i t d i d u n d e r t h e S i k h r u l e , o n t h e l a n d - t a x . T h e S i k h s h a d t a x e d t h e f a r m e r s h e a v i l y : t h e g o v e r n m e n t s h a r e u s e d t o b e h a l f , o r e v e n m o r e , o f t h e g r o s s p r o d u c e ; t h e c o l l e c t i o n u s e d t o b e i n k i n d a n d t h e a s s e s s m e n t w a s made t w o o r t h r e e t i m e s i n a y e a r . T h e B o a r d a l l e v i a t e d t h e s e h a r d s h i p s o f t h e c u l t i v a -t o r s . T h e l a n d s e t t l e m e n t w a s u n d e r t a k e n o n t h e b a s i s o f t h i r t y - y e a r l e a s e s a n d t h e m o n e y a s s e s s m e n t s w e r e f i x e d f o r t h e same d u r a t i o n . T h e r e v e n u e w a s a s s e s s e d , i n t h e o r y , o n t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e R i c a r d i a n L a w o f R e n t b u t b e c a u s e o f p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e n e t p r o d u c e c r i t e r i o n w a s a b a n d o n -e d a n d t h e e m p i r i c a l m e t h o d o f u s i n g s p e c i m e n r e n t r a t e s w a s f a v o u r e d a n d e m p l o y e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e n t a l v a l u e o f a n a c r e . T h e s t a n d a r d o f a s s e s s m e n t w a s , t h e r e f o r e , f i x e d a t o n e - h a l f o f t h e r e n t a l a s s e t s ( w h i c h w a s m o r e o r l e s s e q u i -v a l e n t o f o n e - h a l f o f t h e n e t p r o d u c e ) . T h e f i n a n c i a l w i z -a r d o f t h e B o a r d , J o h n L a w r e n c e , r e d u c e d t h e l a n d - t a x b y t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t w i t h o u t l e t t i n g t h e p u b l i c p u r s e s u f f e r , b e c a u s e t h e r e s u m e d a n d c o n f i s c a t e d e s t a t e s o f t h e S i k h c h i e f s made u p f o r t h e g e n e r a l r e d u c t i o n . I n 1 8 4 9 t h e S i k h D u r b a r h a d c o l l e c t e d n i n e t y - e i g h t l a k h s o f r u p e e s ( f c 9 8 , 0 0 0 ) a s l a n d r e v e n u e . J o h n L a w r e n c e r a i s e d i t t o o n e a n d a h a l f 24 c r o r e s (1.1,500,000), i n s p i t e o f a g e n e r a l r e d u c t i o n i n . 35 a s s e s s m e n t . T h e s y s t e m o f e x c i s e d u t i e s w a s a l s o i m p r o v e d . T h e o l d s y s t e m h a d e x p l o i t e d t h e t r a d e r s f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e K h a l s a . A s m a n y a s f o r t y - e i g h t a r t i c l e s w e r e l i a b l e t o c u s -t o m , e x c i s e , t o w n o r t r a n s i t d u t i e s . J o h n L a w r e n c e s i m p l i -f i e d t h e s y s t e m ; t h e i n t e r n a l t r a d e w a s s e t f r e e a n d t h e t a x w a s k e p t o n l y o n s a l t , d r u g s a n d s p i r i t s , s t a m p s a n d f e r r y t o l l s . T h e s t a t e s t i l l r e c e i v e d s i x t e e n l a k h s (1.160,000), t h e a m o u n t t h a t t h e S i k h s u s e d t o c o l l e c t u n d e r a d e f e c t i v e 36 s y s t e m . T h e l a n d r e f o r m a n d t h e f i s c a l c h a n g e s g r e a t l y i m p r o v -e d t h e P u n j a b ' s f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n . A f t e r t h e f i r s t t w o f i -n a n c i a l y e a r s (1849-50 a n d 1850-51) t h e B o a r d p r o d u c e d a s u r -37 p l u s o f o n e h u n d r e d a n d s i x t e e n l a k h s (1.1,160,000). F o r t h e t h i r d y e a r (1851-52) t h e t o t a l r e v e n u e w a s e v e n m o r e , a n d i n s p i t e o f l i b e r a l a l l o c a t i o n s f o r p u b l i c w o r k s t h e r e w a s a s u r p l u s o f t w e n t y - t w o l a k h s (1.220,000). I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e s u r p l u s e s f r o m t h e P u n j a b P r o p e r , t h e t e r r i t o r i e s o f C i s -S u t l e j a n d T r a n s - S u t l e j w e r e e s t i m a t e d t o y i e l d a n n u a l l y a 38 s u r p l u s o f t h i r t y - n i n e l a k h s (fc390,000). T o r e m i t f r o m a new p r o v i n c e a l a r g e s u r p l u s o f a l m o s t s i x t y l a k h s o f r u p e e s (1*600,000) e v e r y y e a r t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a w a s i n d e e d a f i n a n c i a l m i r a c l e — a m i r a c l e w h i c h , b e c a u s e o f t h e c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s o f a f i n a n c i e r i n h i m , p e r h a p s o n l y J o h n L a w r e n c e c o u l d h a v e p e r f o r m e d . 25 T h e d e p a r t m e n t o f p u b l i c w o r k s a l s o made n o t a b l e a c h i e v e m e n t s . A f t e r t h r e e y e a r s t h e B o a r d r e p o r t e d t h a t t h r o u g h t h e e f f o r t s o f C o l o n e l R . N a p i e r , t h e C i v i l E n g i n e e r , a n d h i s c o l l e a g u e s " 1 3 4 9 m i l e s o f r o a d h a v e b e e n c l e a r e d a n d c o n s t r u c t e d ; 2 4 8 7 m i l e s h a v e b e e n t r a c e d a n d 5 2 7 2 m i l e s s u r -39 v e y e d , a l l e x c l u s i v e o f m i n o r c r o s s a n d b r a n c h r o a d s . " T h e o l d c a n a l s i n t h e M u l t a n d i s t r i c t w e r e r e o p e n e d , b u t t h e H u s l i C a n a l i n t h e n o r t h w a s c l o s e d a n d i n i t s p l a c e w o r k o n a new c a n a l , t h e B a r i D o a b , w a s b e g u n . T h e new c a n a l , 2 1 9 m i l e s l o n g , w a s e x p e c t e d t o r u n t h r o u g h t h e M a n j h a , a t e r r i -t o r y w h i c h , b e i n g t h e c e n t r e o f t h e S i k h p o w e r , w a s c o n s i d -e r e d s o c i a l l y a n d p o l i t i c a l l y v e r y i m p o r t a n t b y t h e B r i t i s h . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p r o g r a m o f r o a d a n d c a n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , l a n d w a s r e c l a i m e d , new t r e e s w e r e p l a n t e d , t h e b r e e d o f c a t t l e w a s i m p r o v e d , a n d m o r e r e m u n e r a t i v e c r o p s l i k e c o t t o n , t o b a c c o , a n d s u g a r c a n e w e r e i n t r o d u c e d . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e 40 A r a b i c , S a n s k r i t , a n d G u r m u k h i s c h o o l s , w h i c h w e r e a l r e a d y f u n c t i o n i n g r e g u l a r l y , t h e B o a r d p r o p o s e d t o s e t u p a c e n t r a l s c h o o l i n e a c h c i t y a n d b y 1 8 5 7 - 5 8 e a c h c i t y i n t h e P u n j a b h a d i t s o w n c e n t r a l s c h o o l . A t t h e e n d o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s o f B o a r d ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h e A m r i t s a r c e n t r a l s c h o o l , w h e r e E n g l i s h w a s a l s o t a u g h t , h a d o n e " h u n d r e d f i f t y - t h r e e 4 1 s t u d e n t s o n i t s r o l l who w e r e r e c e i v i n g m o d e r n e d u c a t i o n . T h e w o r k o f m u n i c i p a l c o n s e r v a n c y w a s u n d e r t a k e n . T h e A g r i -H o r t i c u l t u r e s o c i e t y w a s f o u n d e d ; p o s t a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s b e -g a n ; a n d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f d i s p e n s a r i e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e 26 w a s a l s o u n d e r w a y b y t h e e n d o f 1 8 5 2 . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s o f i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e B o a r d s p e n t o v e r n i n e t e e n l a k h s ( L I 9 0 , 0 0 0 ) o n p u b l i c w o r k s . 4 2 D u r i n g t h e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s o f a n n e x a t i o n t h e P u n j a b a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n d e e d s p e n t m o n e y l i b e r a l l y o n p u b l i c w o r k s a n d b y t h e f i n a n c i a l , y e a r 1 8 5 3 - 5 4 t h e P u n j a b w a s s p e n d i n g m o r e o n p u b l i c w o r k s t h a n m o s t o t h e r p r o v i n c e s o f B r i t i s h I n d i a . T h e P u n j a b ' s e x p e n d i -t u r e f o r p u b l i c w o r k s t h a t y e a r w a s 6 5 1 6 , 2 8 4 s t e r l i n g , c o m -p a r e d w i t h fc242,971 f o r t h e N o r t h - W e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s , fc73,614 43 f o r B e n g a l , fc94,486 f o r B o m b a y , a n d fcl92,2ll f o r M a d r a s . I f t h e B o a r d , t h e r e f o r e , f e l t s a t i s f i e d t o w r i t e t h a t " i n f e w p a r t s o f I n d i a h a s m o r e b e e n d o n e w i t h i n a s h o r t t i m e f o r t h e 44 p h y s i c a l i m p r o v e m e n t o f t h e c o u n t r y t h a n i n t h e P u n j a b , " t h e n i t w a s a l e g i t i m a t e s e l f - a p p r a i s a l o f i t s a c h i e v e m e n t s . T h e e x e r t i o n s o f t h e B o a r d c o n f e r r e d o n t h e P u n j a b i s t h e b e n e f i t s o f i n t e r n a l p e a c e , t h e l a n d s e t t l e m e n t , a n d a b e t t e r f i s c a l s y s t e m . I n t e r n a l a n d e x t e r n a l t r a d e b e c a m e b r i s k . T h e s i g n s o f p r o s p e r i t y w e r e v i s i b l e e v e r y w h e r e . T h r e e g o o d h a r v e s t s a f t e r 1 8 4 9 l e f t a h u g e s u r p l u s o f g r a i n e a c h y e a r . O v e r a b u n d a n c e e v e n c a u s e d some c o n c e r n . T h e p r i c e o f g r a i n f e l l r a p i d l y . W h e a t w a s s e l l i n g i i i 1 8 4 9 a t f o r t y p o u n d s a r u p e e ; a f t e r t h r e e y e a r s , a r u p e e b o u g h t e i g h t y - s i x 4 5 p o u n d s o f w h e a t . T h e l o w p r i c e s o f f o o d g r a i n s b e g a n t o a f f e c t t h e i n c o m e o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r i s t c l a s s e s . T h e B o a r d r e c o m m e n d e d t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f m o r e r e m u n e r a t i v e c r o p s l i k e c o t t o n a n d s u g a r c a n e b u t t h e f a r m e r s c l a m o u r e d f o r i m m e d i a t e 27 r e l i e f . The B o a r d g e n e r o u s l y p r o v i d e d t h e k i n d o f r e l i e f t h e p e a s a n t s were a s k i n g f o r : r e v e n u e a s s e s s m e n t s were r e d u c e d e ach y e a r . D u r i n g h i s t o u r o f t h e P u n j a b i n 1851, D a l h o u s i e had p e r s o n a l l y w i t n e s s e d s i g n s o f p r o g r e s s and p r o s p e r i t y , b u t t h e f u l l r e s u l t s o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s o f t h e B o ard's ad-m i n i s t r a t i o n made him r e a l l y happy and p r o u d . The G o v e r n o r -G e n e r a l , a l o n g w i t h two members o f h i s C o u n c i l , p r a i s e d t h e P u n j a b Board's work i n g l o w i n g t e r m s : F o r t h e p u r p o s e s and happy r e s u l t s w h i c h i s e x -h i b i t e d i n t h e r e p o r t , we a r e o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e Government o f I n d i a i s m a i n l y i n d e b t e d t o t h e members o f t h e B o a r d of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , S i r Henry Lawrence, Mr. J o h n L a w r e n c e , Mr. Manse1, and h i s s u c c e s s o r , Mr. Montgomery. 4° The D i r e c t o r s o f t h e E a s t I n d i a Company, i n t h e i r r e p l y , d e s c r i b e d t h e P u n j a b B o a r d as "a w i s e and e m i n e n t l y s u c c e s s -f u l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " whose e x e c u t i v e f u n c t i o n a r i e s had " e n t i -t l e d t h e m s e l v e s t o be p l a c e d i n t h e f o r e m o s t rank o f I n d i a n 47 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . " And f r o m t h a t day a new and v i g o r o u s s c h o o l o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n emerged i n t h e P u n j a b where a bene-v o l e n t d e s p o t i s m a l s o showed t h e f o r e s i g h t of p l a n t i n g " t h e 48 f i r s t germs o f m u n i c i p a l government." J u s t as P l a t o and A r i s t o t l e o u t s t r i p p e d t h e i r t e a c h e r s i n i m a g i n a t i o n , so d i d t h e p u p i l s o f M e t c a l f e and Thomason! A l t h o u g h t h e P u n j a b B o a r d of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o d u c e d b r i l l i a n t r e s u l t s , y e t i t was n o t f r e e f r o m i n t e r n a l f r i c -t i o n . The Lawrence b r o t h e r s a g r e e d w i t h e a c h o t h e r on m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e i r p r o v i n c e , b u t on 28 4 9 t h r e e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s t h e y p r o v e d i r r e c o n c i l a b l e . T h e f u n -d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m a r o s e i n r e s p e c t t o t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e S i k h j a q e e r d a r s . H e n r y w a s a man o f s t r o n g c o n s e r v a t i v e s e n t i m e n t s a n d f a v o u r e d g i v i n g c o n c e s s i o n s t o t h e f e u d a l c l a s s e s . He a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t i t w a s p o l i t i c t o t r e a t t h e v a n q u i s h e d g e n e r o u s l y . J o h n , who w a s l e s s e m o t i o n a l t h a n h i s e l d e r b r o t h e r , t h o u g h t m o r e o f t h e p u b l i c c o f f e r s a n d t h e common m a n ; i n h i s o p i n i o n t h e n a t i v e a r i s t o c r a c y w a s p a r a -s i t i c a l a n d h e d i d n o t t r u s t i n t h e i r f i d e l i t y . T h e s e c o n d p o i n t o f d i f f e r e n c e c o n c e r n e d t h e p a y m e n t o f t h e l a n d - t a x . J o h n h a d s u b s t i t u t e d t h e s y s t e m o f c a s h p a y m e n t f o r t h e o l d s y s t e m o f p a y m e n t i n k i n d . B u t a s t h e p r i c e o f g r a i n f e l l b e c a u s e o f g o o d h a r v e s t s , t h e f a r m e r s w e r e f a c e d w i t h t h e d i f -f i c u l t y o f s e l l i n g t h e i r s u r p l u s g r a i n . H e n r y f a v o u r e d a l l o w i n g , i n d e s e r v i n g c a s e s , r e s u m p t i o n o f p a y m e n t i n k i n d . J o h n w o u l d n o t a l l o w h i s p r i n c i p l e t o b e f l o u t e d . T h e t h i r d p o i n t a t i s s u e w a s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h m o n e y s h o u l d b e s p e n t o n p u b l i c w o r k s . H e n r y f a v o u r e d g e n e r o u s s p e n d i n g o n p u b l i c w o r k s . J o h n c o n s i d e r e d i t u n w i s e t o o v e r t a x t h e f i n a n c i a l m e a n s o f t h e p r o v i n c e a n d t h u s f e l t c o m p e l l e d t o c h e c k h i s b r o t h e r ' s e n t h u s i a s m . S u c h w e r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e v i e w s o f t h e L a w r e n c e s o f t h e P u n j a b . T h e q u a r r e l b e t w e e n t h e m w a s n o t a q u a r r e l f o r p o w e r ; t h e i r t f e w a s a q u a r r e l o f i d e a s . I t w a s a c l a s h - b e t w e e n t h e v i e w s o f a s o l d i e r - s t a t e s m a n a n d o f a c i v i l o f f i -c e r ; o f a p a t e r n a l i s t a n d a u t i l i t a r i a n ; o f a n i d e a l i s t a n d o f 29 a p r a c t i c a l m a n . E a c h w a s a c o n s c i e n t i o u s s e r v a n t o f t h e E a s t I n d i a C o m p a n y a n d e a c h b e l i e v e d t h a t h i s p o l i c y w o u l d b e s t s e r v e t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p e o p l e a n d t h e s t a t e . T h e o p i n i o n s o f b o t h b r o t h e r s h a d m e r i t . B u t a s t i m e p a s s e d , t h e g u l f b e t w e e n t h e m b e c a m e w i d e r a n d d e e p e r . F i n a l l y t h e t w o r e s o r t e d t o u s i n g t h e t h i r d m e m b e r , M o n t g o m e r y , a s t h e i r m e d -i u m o f i n t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l w a s b e l i e v e d t o l e a n t o w a r d J o h n ' s v i e w s . 5 0 A s a u t i l i t a r i a n - i m p e r i a l i s t , D a l h o u s i e h a d n e v e r s h a r e d H e n r y ' s e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h e d e c a y i n g n a t i v e a r i s -t o c r a c y . H o w e v e r , h e h a d k e p t h i m s e l f f r o m i n t e r f e r i n g i n t h e d i s p u t e s o f t h e b r o t h e r s . B u t w h e n t h e i r q u a r r e l b e g a n t o t e l l o n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e new p r o v i n c e , D a l h o u s i e d e c i d e d t h a t t h e t i m e f o r H e n r y ' s s p e c i a l e x p e r i e n c e a n d a b i l -i t y w a s g o n e . I n a l o n g l e t t e r , t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l i n f o r m e d H e n r y t h a t t h e t i m e w a s now r i p e t o g i v e t h e e x e c u t i v e c h a r g e o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e P u n j a b " t o a t h o r o u g h l y t r a i n e d 51 a n d e x p e r i e n c e d c i v i l o f f i c e r . " S o o n a f t e r t h i s m e s s a g e f r o m D a l h o u s i e , H e n r y a n d J o h n t e n d e r e d t h e i r r e s i g n a t i o n s . D a l h o u s i e a c c e p t e d H e n r y ' s a n d t r a n s f e r r e d h i m t o R a j p u t a n a . J o h n L a w r e n c e w a s a p p o i n t e d C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r o f t h e P u n j a b . T h e s o l d i e r h a d l o s t t h e r a c e t o t h e c i v i l i a n . E v e r s i n c e t h e d a y s o f t h e R e s i d e n c y , H e n r y L a w r e n c e h a d b e e n t h e s p i r i t o f t h e new P u n j a b . T h e r e f o r e , D a l h o u s i e ' s p r o m p t a c c e p t a n c e o f H e n r y ' s r e s i g n a t i o n came a s a n e l e c t r i c s h o c k n o t o n l y t o H e n r y b u t t o h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s a n d t o t h e 30 P u n j a b i s . M a n y y o u n g , b r i l l i a n t s o l d i e r s s e r v i n g o n t h e w e s -t e r n f r o n t i e r o f f e r e d t o l e a v e t h e P u n j a b w i t h t h e i r b e l o v e d c h i e f . H e n r y L a w r e n c e , h o w e v e r , g a v e n o e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o a n y s u b o r d i n a t e t o d e s e r t h i s b r o t h e r o r t h e P u n j a b a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n . T h e r e w a s n o t r a c e o f b i t t e r n e s s o r v i n d i c t i v e n e s s i n h i s m i n d a g a i n s t J o h n , n o r i n J o h n ' s a g a i n s t h i m . T e m p l e , who h a d j o i n e d t h e P u n j a b s e r v i c e a s a s e t t l e m e n t o f f i c e r i n 1 8 5 1 , e m p h a s i z e s t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e L a w r e n c e b r o t h e r s 52 o v e r o f f i c i a l m a t t e r s n e v e r a f f e c t e d t h e i r f r a t e r n a l r e g a r d . E v e n t h o u g h H e n r y a n d J o h n L a w r e n c e h a d n o t b e e n o n s p e a k i n g t e r m s f o r some t i m e , H e n r y , b e f o r e l e a v i n g L a h o r e , made a l a s t e m o t i o n a l p l e a t o h i s b r o t h e r , u r g i n g h i m t o t r e a t 53 t h e i a q e e r d a r s k i n d l y " b e c a u s e t h e y a r e d o w n . " I n h i s r e p l y J o h n b e t r a y e d h i s u s u a l c a l m r e a s o n : My d e a r H e n r y , - I h a v e r e c e i v e d y o u r k i n d n o t e , a n d c a n o n l y s a y i n r e p l y t h a t I s i n c e r e l y w i s h t h a t y o u h a d b e e n l e f t i n t h e P u n j a b t o c a r r y o u t y o u r o w n v i e w s , a n d t h a t I h a d g o t a n o t h e r b e r t h . I m u s t f u r t h e r s a y t h a t w h e r e I h a v e o p p o s e d y o u r v i e w s I h a v e d o n e i t f r o m a t h o r o u g h c o n v i c t i o n , a n d n o t f r o m f a c t i o u s o r i n t e r e s t e d m o t i v e s . I w i l l g i v e e v e r y man h i s d u e . M o r e t h a n t h i s n o o n e s h o u l d e x p e c t . . . . I t i s m o r e t h a n p r o b a b l e t h a t y o u a n d I w i l l n e v e r a g a i n m e e t ; b u t I t r u s t t h a t a l l u n k i n d l y f e e l i n g b e t w e e n u s may b e f o r g o t t e n . 5 4 T h e n e x t d a y H e n r y L a w r e n c e l e f t L a h o r e . F o r h i s f r i e n d s a n d w e l l - w i s h e r s t h e ' d e p a r t u r e o f t h e b e a r d e d c h i e f w a s a s a d m o -m e n t . T o e x p r e s s t h e i r g r i e f a n d g r a t i t u d e m a n y w e l l - w i s h e r s , b o t h E u r o p e a n a n d n a t i v e , a c c o m p a n i e d H e n r y L a w r e n c e f o r m i l e s f r o m L a h o r e . 5 5 F e w c h i e f s a f t e r R a n j i t S i n g h h a d r e c e i v e d s o m u c h p o p u l a r a f f e c t i o n a s S i r H e n r y . 31 When H e n r y L a w r e n c e d e p a r t e d f r o m t h e P u n j a b , t h e w o r k o f p a c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y w a s c o m p l e t e a n d i m p r o v e m e n t s i n t h e new i n s t i t u t i o n s , e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r t h e a n n e x a t i o n , w e r e g r a d u a l l y b e i n g m a d e . Now t h a t h e w a s f r e e t o a c t o n h i s o w n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a n d w a s a l s o a s s u r e d o f a k i n d G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l ' s a p p r o v a l o f a n y m e a s u r e s t h a t h e m i g h t t a k e i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e s t a t e , J o h n L a w r e n c e a t o n c e s e t t o w o r k " t o s h o w w h a t a man b r e d a n d e d u -56 c a t e d a s a c i v i l i a n c a n d o i n a new c o u n t r y . " A s C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r , h e e n j o y e d l e s s e x e c u t i v e i n d e p e n d e n c e t h a n a L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r a n d t h i s f a c t made J o h n ' s w o r k m o r e s t r e n -u o u s , f o r D a l h o u s i e w a s a w a t c h f u l h e a d . He w a s l u c k y t o h a v e b e e n g i v e n t w o a b l e a s s i s t a n t s i n M o n t g o m e r y , h i s J u d i -c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r , a n d E d m o n s t o n e , h i s F i n a n c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r . I n e a r l y 1 8 5 4 , J o h n L a w r e n c e a d d e d a n o t h e r c a p a b l e h a n d t o h i s p e r s o n a l s t a f f , R i c h a r d T e m p l e , w h o a t t h e t i m e w a s h o l d -i n g t h e c h a r g e o f G u j a r a t d i s t r i c t . J o h n L a w r e n c e made T e m p l e h i s s e c r e t a r y a t L a h o r e . W i t h t h e a i d o f t h i s t e a m o f a b l e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s h e " m a d e p r o g r e s s i v e m o v e m e n t s i n e v e r y 57 d i r e c t i o n , b u t n o o r g a n i c c h a n g e a n y w h e r e . " He e x t e n d e d t h e p u b l i c w o r k s , h a d t h e l a n d s e t t l e m e n t s c o m p l e t e d a n d r e -v e n u e a s s e s s e d , e n c o u r a g e d i n d u s t r y , i m p r o v e d t h e m a c h i n e r y f o r c i v i l a n d c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e , a n d s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e d e f e n -c e s o f t h e w e s t e r n f r o n t i e r . B e t w e e n 1 8 5 3 a n d 1 8 5 8 J o h n L a w r e n c e made t h e P u n j a b a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a m o d e l o f e f f i c i e n c y a n d i n d u s t r y . 32 T h e p r o g r e s s t h a t t h e P u n j a b made u n d e r J o h n L a w r e n c e w o u l d c e r t a i n l y h a v e m e t w i t h H e n r y L a w r e n c e ' s a p p r o v a l t o o , b u t t h e r e w a s o n e i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o a d m i n -i s t r a t i o n s . A s t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e B o a r d o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , H e n r y L a w r e n c e h a d r a r e l y d e m a n d e d l e n g t h y r e p o r t s a b o u t ->•*:: l o c a l m a t t e r * . He o f t e n a l l o w e d t h e d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i t i e s f u l l f r e e d o m o f i n i t i a t i v e a s l o n g a s t h e y c o u l d k e e p t h e p o p u l a c e s a t i s f i e d . A s a n a d m i n i s t r a t o r t o o , H e n r y w a s m o r e i n t h e p a -t e r n a l i s t s c h o o l o f M u n r o — t h e s c h o o l t h a t s t a u n c h l y b e l i e v e d i n d i s p e n s i n g j u s t i c e o n t h e s p o t . G n t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e n e w a d m i n i s t r a t i o n u n d e r J o h n L a w r e n c e w a s m o r e b u r e a u c r a t i c a n d m o r e s c i e n t i f i c . T h e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r a l l o w e d l e s s f r e e -dom o f i n i t i a t i v e , i n s t r u c t e d h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s t o r e c e i v e , e x c e p t i n e m e r g e n c i e s , p r i o r a p p r o v a l o f a s u p e r v i s o r y a u t h o r -i t y i n a l l i m p o r t a n t m a t t e r s , u r g e d a s p e e d y d i s p o s a l o f w o r k , a n d d e m a n d e d r e g u l a r p r o g r e s s r e p o r t s o f l o c a l p r o c e e d i n g s a n d ? a n d a c c o u n t s o f e x p e n d i t u r e . I n s h o r t , t h r o u g h v i g i l a n c e a n d s c r u t i n y J o h n L a w r e n c e k e p t h i m s e l f , a n d t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , i n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e c o n d i t i o n o f h i s p r o v i n c e . I t w a s p r o v e r b -i a l i n t h o s e d a y s t h a t n o t h i n g c o u l d g o w r o n g i n t h e P u n j a b a s l o n g a s i t w a s r u l e d b y J o h n L a w r e n c e . M a n y y o u n g e r o f f i c e r s o f t h e s c h o o l o f H e n r y L a w r e n c e o p e n l y s h o w e d t h e i r c o n t e m p t f o r t h e new " r e d t a p e . " I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , H e n r y ' s men w e r e n o t t r a i n e d c i v i l o f f i c e r s l i k e t h e t e a m o f c i v i l i a n s t h a t w a s b o r r o w e d b y J o h n L a w r e n c e f r o m h i s t e a c h e r . T h e f o l l o w e r s o f H e n r y L a w r e n c e w e r e 33 professional s o l d i e r s who were s u c c e s s f u l l y acting as c i v i l o f f i c e r s i n the f r o n t i e r d i s t r i c t s . They were s e l f - r e l i a n t and energetic men, but some of them, e s p e c i a l l y Nicholson, had no taste f o r writing o f f i c i a l reports. Therefore, the new system vexed them. Moreover, t h e i r boundless devotion to Henry Lawrence had already made them unfriendly to John Lawrence, whom they likened to "King John" or s a r c a s t i c a l l y c a l l e d "Coachman John." But nothing kept John Lawrence from i n s i s t i n g on the execution of his own p o l i c i e s . His a t t i t u d e toward h i s r e c a l c i t r a n t subordinates was f i r m but patient. He was neither weak nor small-minded. No l o y a l f r i e n d of h i s brother's suffered any harm at h i s hands. Some of them wanted to leave the Punjab but he persuaded them to stay with him because they were competent men. I t was John Lawrence's own devotion to his public duty, more than anything e l s e , that kept the administrative machinery of the Punjab from d i s i n t e g r a t i n g , and i t was h i s firmness and patience that at l a s t stopped the waywardness of h i s subordinates. The c r i -t i c s of John Lawrence have accused him of leaving i n the Punjab the legacy of bureaucracy and excessive c e n t r a l i z a -t i o n . I t may be so, but we should also not forget that some one above cracked the whip f i r s t . The c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the Punjab administration i n no way aff e c t e d the progress of development. John Lawrence had the same enthusiasm f o r public improvements which h i s brother had had, but now the money was u t i l i s e d more 3 4 s c i e n t i f i c a l l y . D u r i n g t h e f o u r y e a r s o f p e a c e f u l r u l e a f t e r 1 8 5 3 t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e new i n s t i t u t i o n s w a s e n h a n c e d . T h e l a w c o u r t s now f u n c t i o n e d r e g u l a r l y . I n 1 8 5 6 CO a l o n e t h e j u d g e s d i s p o s e d o f 5 1 , 7 5 1 c i v i l s u i t s . T h e d i s p o s -a l o f c r i m i n a l c a s e s w a s j u s t a s p r o m p t a n d e f f i c i e n t : " T h e a v e r a g e d u r a t i o n o f c a s e s w i t h t h e a i d o f p o l i c e w a s 1 1 d a y s 5 9 a n d b e f o r e t h e m a g i s t r a t e a l o n e s i x d a y s . " T h e c o n s t r u c -t i o n o f j a i l s w a s c o m p l e t e d b y 1 8 5 6 a n d t h e y a c c o m m o d a t e d o v e r t e n t h o u s a n d p r i s o n e r s — t h e n u m b e r c a l c u l a t e d p r e v i o u s l y . B e c a u s e o f t h e o v e r a b u n d a n c e o f g r a i n , t h e p o l i c y o f r e d u c i n g t h e l a n d - t a x w a s c o n s i s t e n t l y f o l l o w e d d u r i n g t h e s e f o u r y e a r s . B e t w e e n 1 8 5 2 a n d 1 8 5 6 , a l m o s t t w e n t y - f o u r l a k h s o f r u p e e s ( 1 . 2 4 0 , 0 0 0 ) h a d b e e n a b a t e d a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s . 6 0 No c u s t o m s d u t i e s w e r e l e v i e d i n t h e P u n j a b . A n e x c i s e d u t y o n l i q u o r s a n d d r u g s e x i s t e d , b u t t h e u s e o f t h e s e a r t i c l e s w a s h a p p i l y n o t i n c r e a s i n g a m o n g t h e m a s s e s . T h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f s a l t h a d d o u b l e d s i n c e a n n e x a t i o n . B y t h e e n d o f 1 8 5 6 a d e p a r t m e n t o f e d u c a t i o n w a s o p e r -a t i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y . A g o v e r n m e n t s c h o o l e x i s t e d a t t h e h e a d -q u a r t e r s o f e a c h t o h s i l o r s u b d i v i s i o n o f a d i s t r i c t , a n d t h e r e w e r e o n e h u n d r e d a n d s e v e n s u c h g o v e r n m e n t s c h o o l s i n o p e r a t i o n . T h e l a n d o w n e r s w e r e p a y i n g o n e p e r c e n t o n t h e a s s e s s e d l a n d - t a x t o f i n a n c e f o u r h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y - s i x v i l -l a g e s c h o o l s . T h e s e v i l l a g e s c h o o l s w e r e p o p u l a r a n d t h e l a n d h o l d e r s r a i s e d n o o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e s m a l l a d d i t i o n a l p a y -m e n t o f l a n d - t a x t o s u p p o r t t h e m . T h e p o p u l a r i t y o f t h e v i l l a g e s c h o o l s w a s f u r t h e r s h o w n b e c a u s e t h e i r a t t e n d a n c e was not affected during the c r i s i s of 1857; rather, between October and December of that year seven hundred more v i l l a g e schools were opened. There were also f i f t e e n s p e c i a l i n s t i -t utions and 5,024 indigenous schools. Thus a l l t o l d there were 5,602 schools of various types functioning i n 1857. By the end of 1858, nearly f i f t y thousand boys, i n a population of almost t h i r t e e n m i l l i o n , were r e c e i v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n the Punjab. 6 1 The authors of the Fourth_Punjab Administration Report assumed great c r e d i t f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s to promote modern ed-ucation i n the Punjab. A c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of f a c t s , however, shows that the Punjab administration d i d not make s a t i s f a c t o r y e f f o r t s i n the cause of public education and that i t a l l o c a t e d inadequate funds f o r schools. Of the 5,602 schools that were operating i n the Punjab i n 1857, only 578 62 e i t h e r belonged to, or were aided by, the government. The remaining 5,024 schools were private i n s t i t u t i o n s which r e -ceived no money from the government. Over t h i r t y thousand students, t h r e e - f i f t h s of the t o t a l attendance, were under i n -6 3 s t r u c t i o n i n these unaided, indigenous schools. In view of t h i s f a c t , the s e l f - p r a i s e assumed by the Punjab's r u l e r s was somewhat u n j u s t i f i e d . On comparing the Punjab admini-s t r a t i o n ' s e f f o r t s to promote modern education with the e f -f o r t s made i n other provinces, we again discover tardiness on i t s part. In 1856-57 the Punjab's r u l e r s expended only 610,530 on educational i n s t r u c t i o n compared with 631,223 ex-pended by Madras, 635,273 by Bombay, and 694,322 expended 36 64 d u r i n g t h a t y e a r b y B e n g a l . N e x t y e a r t h e P u n j a b a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n a g a i n s p e n t f a r l e s s o n e d u c a t i o n t h a n o t h e r p r o v i n -c e s . I n f a c t , t h e P u n j a b ' s e d u c a t i o n e x p e n d i t u r e r e m a i n e d c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l f o r d e c a d e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , h i g h e r a n d c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n w e r e n e g l e c t e d . T h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l a m o u n t s o f m o n e y d e v o t e d t o e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g t h e f i r s t e i g h t y e a r s o f a n n e x a t i o n w e r e m e a n t f o r p r i m a r y a n d m i d d l e s c h o o l s . N o f u n d s w e r e a l l o t t e d t o s t a r t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . H i g h s c h o o l s a n d c o l l e g e s w e r e o p e n e d i n t h e P u n j a b o n l y a f t e r 1 8 6 0 . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f a p r o -g r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y b y i t s f i r s t B r i t i s h r u l e r s , t h e P u n j a b k e p t t r a i l i n g b e h i n d t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s i n t h e a r e a o f h i g h e r a n d c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n . T o d e n y d u r i n g t h e f i r s t e i g h t y e a r s o f a n n e x a t i o n a f a i r a n d e q u i t a b l e s h a r e o f t h e p u b l i c m o n e y e v e n t o t h e p r i m a r y a n d i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n w a s i n d e e d d e p l o r a b l e . T h e p r o g r a m o f p u b l i c w o r k s , h o w e v e r , s u f f e r e d n o s e t -b a c k u n d e r J o h n L a w r e n c e ' s r u l e . T h e e x t e n s i o n o f r o a d s , c a -n a l s , p o s t a l s e r v i c e s a n d e l e c t r i c t e l e g r a p h made p r o g r e s s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e h u n d r e d a n d e i g h t e e n l a k h s o f r u p e e s , ( f c l , 1 8 0 , 0 0 0 ) w e r e s p e n t o n r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e e i g h t y e a r s f o l l o w i n g a n n e x a t i o n . I n 1 8 5 7 t h e G r a n d T r u n k R o a d w a s a l m o s t c o m p l e t e b e t w e e n D e l h i a n d L u d h i a n a o n t h e S u t l e j . O t h e r r o a d s a n d b r i d g e s w e r e u n d e r c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h e S i n d h R a i l w a y C o m p a n y w a s a u t h o r i z e d t o c o n s t r u c t a r a i l w a y l i n e f r o m A m r i S s a r t o M u l t a n . A n e l e c t r i c t e l e g r a p h l i n e c o n n e c -t e d t h e c i t i e s o f D e l h i , L a h o r e , R a w a l p i n d i , a n d P e s h a w a r . Between 1853 and 1857 work on the B a r i Doab Canal was r e l e n t -l e s s l y pursued. To overcome numerous rapids and f a l l s between Amritsar and the Canal's head at Madhopur, bridges, escapes and masonry works were about ready before the out-break of the mutiny. By 1857 nearly seventy lakhs (1,700,000) 6 6 had been spent on the Canal. Although the B a r i Doab, because of i t s p o l i t i c a l and economic importance, was h i s pet project, John Lawrence generally favoured such works of pub-l i c u t i l i t y as would b e n e f i t the peasants. His p o l i c y of em-phasizing public works to help the farmers, though i n l i n e with h i s u t i l i t a r i a n views, was p r i m a r i l y on the p o l i t i c a l consideration of "attaching" them to B r i t i s h r u l e . During John Lawrence's term of o f f i c e as Chief Commissioners (1853 to 1858), the Punjab spent 61,940,528 on public works. With the exception of the North-Western Provinces, which spent during those s i x years over two and a h a l f m i l l i o n pounds on public works, no other province assigned such l i b e r a l funds f o r public works as the Punjab. Madras, f o r example, spent only 61,557,913 on public works during that period, while 6 7 Bengal and Bombay spent even l e s s . Altogether the Punjab administration had expended on public works since annexation (between 1849 and 1857) over three crores of rupees (63,245,360).68 The r i v e r t r a f f i c and trade were s t e a d i l y growing i n volume. In 1856 more than t h i r t y thousand tons3 of f r e i g h t 69 were transported by about three thousand r e g i s t e r e d boats. 38 S t e a m e r s w e r e m a k i n g o c c a s i o n a l t r i p s o n t h e f i v e r i v e r s . M i n o r i n d u s t r i e s w e r e f l o u r i s h i n g . T h e c u l t u r e o f f l a x , l i n s e e d , c o t t o n , s u g a r c a n e , a n d i n d i g o w a s e n c o u r a g e d . A t i m b e r a g e n c y a t S i a l k o t w a s i n o p e r a t i o n a n d t h e p l a n t o s t a r t A r b o r i c u l t u r e w a s u n d e r s t u d y . T h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f t e a 70 i n t h e K a n g r a H i l l s h a d a l s o made some p r o g r e s s . T h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e P u n j a b , o n t h e w h o l e , d i d n o t s l a c k e n u n d e r J o h n L a w r e n c e ' s r u l e . F o r f o u r y e a r s J o h n L a w r e n c e e x e r t e d a l l h i s s t r e n g t h t o l e a d h i s p r o v i n c e t o t h e f r o n t . H i s l a b o u r s b o r e f u i t . D u r i n g e a c h y e a r o f h i s a d -m i n i s t r a t i o n t h e P u n j a b p a i d i t s o w n e x p e n s e s a n d y i e l d e d a h a n d s o m e s u r p l u s o f n e a r l y f o r t y l a k h s ( 1 . 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 ) a n n u a l l y . D a l h o u s i e o w e d m u c h t o J o h n L a w r e n c e f o r m a k i n g h i s P u n j a b e x p e r i m e n t a g l o r i o u s s u c c e s s . I n h i s l a s t M i n u t e o f M a r c h , 1 8 5 6 , D a l h o u s i e e x p r e s s e d i n u n m i s t a k a b l e l a n g u a g e h i s a p -p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e b r i l l i a n t w o r k d o n e b y L a w r e n c e i n t h e 7 1 P u n j a b . On D a l h o u s i e ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , J o h n L a w r e n c e w a s a l s o a w a r d e d a K . C . B . T h e y e a r 1 8 5 6 p a s s e d i n p e a c e a n d p r o g r e s s . T h e P u n j a b i s a p p e a r e d c o n t e n t e d . M a t e r i a l l y , i n d e e d , t h e y w e r e , b u t w e r e t h e y p o l i t i c a l l y a n d s o c i a l l y r e c o n c i l e d t o t h e F e r i n q h e e ' s r u l e ? I t w a s a d i f f i c u l t q u e s t i o n t o a n s w e r y e t . T h e d i s b a n d e d S i k h s o l d i e r s h a d t a k e n t o a g r i c u l t u r e a n d a p p e a r e d p e a c e a b l e . H o w e v e r , i t w a s d a n g e r o u s t o a s s u m e t h a t i n j u s t e i g h t y e a r s a f t e r a n n e x a t i o n , t h e S i k h s h a d b e c o m e l o y a l s u b j e c t s o f t h e B r i t i s h . T h e r e f o r e , many S i k h s i r d a r s . 39 e s p e c i a l l y t h e A t t a r i s i r d a r s , were s t i l l under s u r v e i l l a n c e . In f a c t , John Lawrence never betrayed signs of complacency i n regard to the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the Sikhs to the B r i t i s h r u l e . Even Henry Lawrence, despite his sympa-thies f o r the Sikhs, had used caution i n r e c r u i t i n g them f o r the P. I. F. F. and the Punjab P o l i c e . The conduct of the Sikh s o l d i e r s and policemen had been exemplary so f a r , but the p o s s i b i l i t y of opportunism on t h e i r part was not altogether ruled out. The Sikh jaqeerdars were, of course, a source of worry to the Lawrence administration. Although t h e i r p o l i t i -c a l influence and material wealth had been c u r t a i l e d , they were s t i l l regarded by the Sikh Jat peasantry as t h e i r leaders. Moreover, the l o y a l t y and devotion of the Sikhs to the house of Ranjit Singh was strong. Their deposed young king, Duleep Singh, was s t i l l l i v i n g i n India and the f u g i t i v e Queen Mother, Jindan Kaur, was a c t i v e l y engaged i n Nepal i n i n t r i -gues against the B r i t i s h . In view of these f a c t s , John Lawrence was wise not to give up h i s p o l i c y of circumspection toward the Sikhs. He followed a s i m i l a r p o l i c y of caution toward the Punjabi Muslims a l s o . The Muslims were more num-erous than the Sikhs and were f a n a t i c a l . They were the t r a -d i t i o n a l enemies of the Sikhs, but the two communities might combine against the Ferinqhees. as they had done during the Second Sikh War. At times the Punjabi Muslims openly evinced signs of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l discontent. The mosque was often used to preach treason and p o l i t i c a l murder i n view of the rumours that the appearance of a prophet was imminent 40 The Punjabi Muslims had been widely employed i n the P. I. F. F. and the p o l i c e force, but t h e i r f i d e l i t y had not yet been put to any r e a l t e s t . On the whole, the Punjabis seemed peaceful i n 1856, but occasional p o l i t i c a l under-currents made i t necessary f o r the Punjab administration to exercise v i g i l a n c e over them. E a r l y next year the threat of a combined Russian and Persian invasion i n t o India caused some tension and alarm i n the Punjab. But a timely and f r u i t f u l meeting between the Chief Commissioner and the Amir of Afghanistan r e s u l t e d i n a new Anglo-Afghan treaty and the prospects of peace were improved. The growing discontent i n the Bengal Army also engaged the Chief Commissioner's time. There were nearly t h i r t y - s i x thousand sepoys stationed i n h i s province, but John Lawrence, l i k e most Englishmen, did not expect the worst. In h i s opinion the sepoys were a d o c i l e c l a s s , and he suggested to Lord Canning that the f e e l i n g s of the sepoys would subside 73 i f they were "given plenty of work to do." John Lawrence was wrong t h i s time. The greased E n f i e l d c a r t r i d g e had done i t s mischief. How well d i d the Punjab Schofel do? A c a r e f u l assess-ment of i t s achievements shows that f o r c e r t a i n of these achievements during the f i r s t eight years of annexation the Punjab administration deserves high pr a i s e , whereas i n c e r t a i n other areas i t does not merit such high p r a i s e . One of i t s outstanding achievements was, of course, i n the area 4 1 o f i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y a n d e x t e r n a l d e f e n s e . A p r o m p t a n d p e a c e f u l d i s a r m a m e n t o f t h e t u r b u l e n t P u n j a b i s a t t h e t i m e o f a n n e x a t i o n , t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e P u n j a b I r r e g u l a r F r o n t i e r F o r c e a n d t h e P u n j a b p o l i c e , a n d t h e s t a t i o n i n g o f E u r o p e a n t r o o p s i n s t r a t e g i c a n d h i s t o r i c f o r t s o f t h e P u n j a b w e r e c l e a r p r o o f o f t h e e n e r g i e s a n d f a r s i g h t e d n e s s o f t h e P u n j a b ' s n e w B r i t i s h r u l e r s . T h e y w e r e a l s o a d m i r a b l y s u c c e s s f u l i n c u t t i n g d o w n t h e i n c i d e n c e o f h e i n o u s c r i m e a n d i n e r a d i c a -t i n g s u c h s o c i a l b a r b a r i s m a s s a t i a n d i n f a n t i c i d e . T h e i r e f f o r t s t o p r o t e c t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p e a s a n t s w e r e a l s o p r a i s e w o r t h y . T h e y r e d u c e d t h e l a n d - t a x a n d d i s p l a y e d g r e a t s k i l l a n d e f f i c i e n c y i n w i n d i n g u p t h e l a n d s e t t l e m e n t w o r k w i t h i n e i g h t y e a r s . W h e r e a s t h e P u n j a b S c h o o l d i d n o t r e a l l y d e s e r v e a n y c r e d i t f o r t h e p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e p r o v i n c e , f o r t h e p r o s p e r i t y w a s t h e r e s u l t o f g o o d h a r v e s t s a n d n a t u r a l c a u s e s , i t c e r t a i n l y m e r i t e d p r a i s e f o r i t s i n g e n u i t y i n m a n i p u l a t i n g i m p r o v e m e n t s o v e r t h e c r u d e c i v i l a n d r e v e n u e s y s t e m s o f t h e S i k h g o v e r n m e n t . I t r e d u c e d , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e l a n d - t a x w i t h o u t b r i n g i n g a n y l o s s o f i n c o m e t o t h e t r e a s u r y . N o t o n l y d i d t h e f i n a n c i a l g e n i u s o f t h e S c h o o l , J o h n L a w r e n c e , c o m p e n s a t e t h e r e d u c t i o n b u t i n c r e a s e d t h e t o t a l r e v e n u e b y c o n f i s c a t i n g j a g e e r s . T h e a b o l i t i o n o f e x c i s e d u t i e s a l s o d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e t r e a s u r y , f o r t h e new t a x e s o n s a l t , d r u g s , s t a m p s , a n d f e r r i e s , e a s i l y made u p t h e l o s s . E a c h y e a r t h e new p r o v i n c e p r o d u c e d a s u b s t a n t i a l s u r p l u s . B y 1 8 5 7 , t h r o u g h t h e a s s i d u o u s e f f o r t s o f t h e P u n j a b 42 administration, the c i v i l , revenue, and c r i m i n a l departments were smoothly functioning on modern l i n e s i n a l l d i s t r i c t s of the province. The Punjab School also showed ingenuity i n devising laws and pj*dcedures based on l o c a l customs and i n appointing Indians as fourth grade o f f i c i a l s . Undoubtedly the new machine i n the Punjab was f a r more successful, as well as favourable to the i n t e r e s t s of the peasant and the trader, than the preceding Sikh government. The secrettof i t s success depended, i n the main, on i t s s o l i d and w e l l - o i l e d parts. The Punjab School was made up of a c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t European d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s and s o l d i e r s . An army o f f i c e r could competently act as a d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r and a c i v i l i a n could s u c c e s s f u l l y command a b a t t a l i o n . Such was the c a l i b r e of the men of the Punjab administration. The morale and e f f i c i e n c y of these men were further enhanced by the Non-Regulation system. One man was magistrate, c o l l e c -tor of revenue, and c i v i l judge. They were also encouraged, e s p e c i a l l y during emergency periods, to show boldness and i n i t i a t i v e and were assured of the backing of t h e i r s e n i o r ! 4 Promotion i n the service was regulated by merit rather than 75 by s e n i o r i t y . Although i t s authoritarianism eventually earned f o r i t the i l l w i l l of the L e g i s l a t i v e Council i n C a l c u t t a , i n no other way could the Punjab School have s t a -b i l i z e d B r i t i s h authority i n the tumultuous f r o n t i e r pro-76 vince. An energetic, a u t h o r i t a r i a n d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r cer-t a i n l y i n s p i r e d awe and admiration i n the hearts of the 43 Punjabis and was the most e f f e c t i v e representative of B r i t i s h power. The Punjab system of executive authority was unequi-v o c a l l y i n harmony with the temper of the Punjabis and i t s planners and functionaries deserved f u l l c r e d i t f o r t h e i r i n -genuity and i n i t i a t i v e . The s t i r r i n g t r i b u t e paid by B r i t i s h h i s t o r i a n s of the time to the men of the Punjab service f o r maintaining law and order, f o r s e t t i n g up and developing modern administrative i n s t i t u t i o n s during the eight pre-muti-ny years, and f o r producing a large surplus each year was f u l l y j u s t i f i e d , at l e a s t from the viewpoint of the B r i t i s h . A c a r e f u l a n alysis of the Punjab's expenditures, how-ever, shows that the province's administration t o t a l l y ne-glected to promote higher education, and, i n comparison with other provinces i t spent per c a p i t a very l i t t l e on education. On health and s a n i t a t i o n , too, very l i t t l e was spent. Even the i r r i g a t i o n works did not receive a reasonable share of the public revenue. No doubt the Punjab administration spent during the pre-mutiny years more money on public works than had most other provinces, but the projects on which i t spent most of t h i s money were r e l a t e d to s e c u r i t y and m i l i -tary needs rather than to the welfare of the people. Of the grand t o t a l of over four crore rupees (1.4,005,706) that i t spent on public works between 1849 and 1858, the Punjab government spent over one crore (1.1,237,762) on roads, an-other crore (61,014,141) on canals, about twenty-nine lakhs (£.290,080) on miscellaneous projects, and over one crore, 44 77 f o r t y - s i x lakhs (61,463,723) on m i l i t a r y p r o j e c t s . Expen-di t u r e on m i l i t a r y projects was obviously very high. Empha-s i s on roads was also m i l i t a r y ; i n f a c t most roads.were designated as m i l i t a r y roads and the only notable roadway made ready during t h i s period was along that section of the o l d Grand Trunk Road which l i e s between Delhi and Ludhiana. Canal expenditure was t h i r d i n importance. Of the t o t a l canal ex-penditure, the Bari Doab Canal alone accounted f o r almost 78 seventy-five percent. The r e s t of t h i s money was spent on the improvement of o l d canals. No section of the B a r i Doafc was opened f o r i r r i g a t i o n as yet, and no other canal project 79 was started during t h i s period. A r e l a t i v e l y small amount (6290,080) spent on miscellaneous projects mainly financed the construction of c i v i l o f f i c e s , law courts, j a i l s , p o l i c e s t a t i o n s , a few schools and dispensaries, three sanatoria f o r the Europeans, and C h r i s t i a n churches. Adequate money could e a s i l y have been given to educa-t i o n , more i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s , and health and s a n i t a t i o n , because there was no shortage of funds. A f t e r defraying a l l expenditure f o r i t s c i v i l and defense needs, the Punjab yielded on the average a yearly surplus of four to f i v e hun-dred thousand pounds, but each year the surplus was entrusted to the Government of India " f o r imperial purposes." The patterns of d e f i c i t s and surpluses observed through comparing the budgets of various provinces suggests that the Punjab administration was more anxious to a l l e v i a t e the chronic 45 annual d e f i c i t s of the Indian Government than were the ad-ministrations of most other provinces. I t i s not without s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h i s connection that during those nine years (1849 to 1858) i n question, the Punjab and the North-Western y Provinces, the two Non-Regulation provinces, r e g u l a r l y sent large surpluses to Calcutta, whereas year a f t e r year the provinces of Bengal, Bombay, and Madras were having d e f i c i t 80 budgets. Also, the apologetic statement made i n the Fourth  Punjab Administration Report, explaining why the surplus was not higher than 6387,772 i n 1856-57 and 6286,395 i n 1857-58, c l e a r l y attested to the eagerness of the Punjab administra-t i o n to remit surpluses to Calcutta rather than to u t i l i s e 81 them fo r the benefit of the people. To continue denying the Punjab a good share of i t s surplus was indeed u n f a i r because, within three years of annexation, i t had handsomely recompensed the Government of India f o r i t s f i n a n c i a l losses incurred during the Sikh Wars. Nevertheless, i n a l l f a i r n e s s the Punjab School must be given the c r e d i t f o r being f a r more interested i n the betterment and advancement of the common people than the pre-vious Sikh government. The Punjab School of Administration c e r t a i n l y gave back to the Punjabis a more equitable and generous portion of the taxes that i t took from them than perhaps any other previous government of the Punjab. The un-p a r a l l e l e d b e n e f i t which i t gave to the Punjabis was, of course, the r u l e of law under which a l l Punjabis, i r r e s p e c t i v e 46 of t h e i r caste, creed, or wealth, were treated as equals. And to enforce the r u l e of law i t also gave to the new pro-vince a vigorous and e f f i c i e n t governing machine, which s u c c e s s f u l l y stood the t e s t when the time f o r reckoning i t s sinews came with the outbreak of the sepoy mutiny. When the ominous telegram about the eruption of mutiny i n Delhi was redirected from Lahore on May 12, 1857, to Rawalpindi, where the Chief Commissioner resided, the func-t i o n a r i e s of the Punjab School were uncertain about the a t t i -tude of the Sikhs toward the B r i t i s h r u l e . In f a c t , the Sikh n o b i l i t y , who s t i l l possessed some wealth and influence, 82 had always f i l l e d the B r i t i s h with some concern. The Chief Commissioner and h i s European o f f i c e r s were, therefore, rather d i s t r u s t f u l of the disbanded Khalsa and the remnants of the old Sikh n o b i l i t y . In general too, the B r i t i s h d i s -83 trusted a l l natives, the Sikhs being no exception. But i t was p r i n c i p a l l y h i s fears about the p o l i t i c a l i n tentions of the Sikhs that prevented John Lawrence from immediately c a l l i n g them up against the Hindustani mutineers. Within a week of the outbreak of the mutiny Lawrence was, however, convinced of the f i d e l i t y of the Sikhs and on May 17 he order-ed his d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s to begin r e c r u i t i n g the Sikhs i n 84 order to enlarge the Punjab F r o n t i e r Force. The Sikhs im-mediately responded to the Chief Commissioner's c a l l f o r help and Sikh r e c r u i t s began to pour i n t o Lahore and Amritsar. 47 Meanwhile the Sikh princes of the C i s - S u t l e j states had also assured the Chief Commissioner of t h e i r l o y a l t y to t h e i r suzerain, the B r i t i s h East India Company, and were a l -ready helping the B r i t i s h i n maintaining peace i n the C i s -Sutlej t e r r i t o r y . Thus, having assured himself of the sup-port of the Sikhs on both sides of the S u t l e j , John Lawrence could now hope to send within the foreseeable future s u f f i c i -ent reinforcements to the small punitive B r i t i s h force, which, i n compliance with the Chief Commissioner's orders, was assembled at Ambala. 4 8 C H A P T E R 3 T H E S T O R M : T H E S I K H S I N A C T I O N A G A I N S T THE M U T I N E E R S When o n M a y 1 1 , 1 8 5 7 , n e w s o f t h e c a p t u r e o f D e l h i b y t h e m u t i n e e r s r e a c h e d t h e P u n j a b , t h e r e w a s n o t a s i n g l e E u r o p e a n r e g i m e n t s t a t i o n e d i n t h e t e r r i t o r y b e t w e e n A m b a l a a n d D e l h i w h i c h t h e P u n j a b a u t h o r i t i e s c o u l d d e s p a t c h p r o m p t l y o n a p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n t o D e l h i . A t A m b a l a i t s e l f o n l y o n e r e g i m e n t ( t h e 9 t h L a n c e r s ) a n d t w o t r o o p s o f H o r s e A r t i l l e r y w e r e c a n t o n e d , w h e r e a s t h r e e r e g i m e n t s o f E u r o p e a n i n -f a n t r y ( t h e 7 5 t h F o o t , t h e 1 s t a n d 2 n d B e n g a l F u s i l i e r s ) w e r e c a m p e d f o r t h e summer s e a s o n i n t h e h i l l s a r o u n d S i m l a . T h e n e a r e s t s t a t i o n i n t h e P u n j a b , t h e r e f o r e , ™ f r o m w h i c h a E u r o p e a n f o r c e , h o w e v e r s m a l l , c o u l d b e s e n t t o D e l h i w a s A m b a l a . M o r e o v e r , A m b a l a , a l i t t l e o v e r a h u n d r e d m i l e s d i s t a n t f r o m D e l h i , w a s t h e l a r g e s t m i l i t a r y s t a t i o n i n t h e C i s S u t l e j P u n j a b a n d a s s u c h i t w a s t h e o n l y l o g i c a l p o i n t t o b e c o m e t h e b a s e f o r o p e r a t i o n s a g a i n s t D e l h i . B u t c i r c u m -s t a n c e s r u l e d o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a s p e e d y a c t i o n f r o m A m b a l a b e c a u s e a t t h e t i m e s e n i o r o f f i c i a l s , c i v i l a n d m i l i -t a r y , o f t h e A m b a l a D i v i s i o n w e r e a w a y f r o m t h e i r h e a d q u a r -t e r s , s p e n d i n g t h e s u m m e r i n t h e S i m l a H i l l s . L u c k i l y t h e D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r o f A m b a l a , T . D . F o r s y t h , w a s i n t h e c i t y w h e n t h e o m i n o u s t e l e g r a m c a m e f r o m D e l h i . I t w a s t h i s 4 9 energetic and fa r s i g h t e d o f f i c e r who, i n the absence of h i s Commissioner, took c e r t a i n i n i t i a l steps which enabled the B r i t i s h to maintain t h e i r g r i p over the Punjab; more impor-tant, i t was Forsyth who took the i n i t i a t i v e i n e n l i s t i n g the aid of the Sikh princes of the C i s - S u t l e j states. On r e c e i v i n g the message from Delh i , Forsyth l o s t no time i n e x p l o i t i n g the advantages which the telegraph a f f o r d -ed i n sending i n t e l l i g e n c e with speed. On the very day (May 11) the telegram from Delhi a r r i v e d , he had the i n t e l l i g e n c e messages telegraphed to the Punjab a u t h o r i t i e s at Lahore, to General Anson, the Commander-in-Chief of the Bengal Army, who was at Simla, to G. C. Barnes, the Commissioner of the Ambala D i v i s i o n , and to a l l m i l i t a r y stations i n the Ambala D i v i s i o n . Furthermore, Forsyth kept the news of the mutiny a t i g h t l y guarded secret because the sepoys stationed at Ambala were also d i s a f f e c t e d . His immediate concern was to o f f s e t the preponderance of the sepoys. Since the European regiments could not return from the h i l l s as expeditiously as he wished, he turned f o r help to the Sikh princes of P a t i a l a , Nabha, and J i n d . The feudatory state of P a t i a l a being contiguous to the d i s t r i c t of Ambala, Forsyth urged the Maharaja of P a t i a l a to 2 encamp forthwith near Ambala with one thousand men. The Maharaja responded to Forsyth's c a l l with a l a c r i t y . On the afternoon of May 13, he camped with the r e q u i s i t e force i n a v i l l a g e only a few miles from the c i t y of Ambala. A b r i e f meeting between the Maharaja and the D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r decided the former's l i n e of a c t i o n . The Maharaja was to garrison Thanesar, an important town on the Grand Trunk Road between Ambala and Delhi and a holy place f o r the Hindus. The d e c i -sion to send the Maharaja away from Ambala was, however, not Forsyth's; i t was made three hundred miles away by the Chief Commissioner at Rawalpindi. Forsyth r e l a t e s that the young Maharaja was f u l l of devotion f o r the B r i t i s h cause and that on r e c e i v i n g the Chief Commissioner's order he " i n a moment 3 broke up his camp" and l e f t f o r Thanesar. By the night of May 13, the Commissioner of Ambala D i v i s i o n , Barnes, was also i n Ambala. Re a l i z i n g the proxim-i t y of h i s d i v i s i o n to the centre of the r e v o l t , Barnes quickly perceived that the maintenance of peace and t r a n q u i l -i t y i n h i s d i v i s i o n would be v i t a l f o r the successful conduct of operations against Delhi and that the behaviour of the populace i n the d i s t r i c t s under h i s charge would be gr e a t l y influenced by the example of the Sikh princes. Therefore, he was much g r a t i f i e d to see that the r u l e r of the leading state i n his d i v i s i o n , namely, the Maharaja of P a t i a l a , had already gone in t o action on the B r i t i s h side. Other Sikh princes i n the C i s - S u t l e j region were as w i l l i n g and eager to render help to the B r i t i s h . As d i r e c t -ed by the Commissioner, the Raja of Faridkot placed h i s small army at the disposal of the D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r of Ferozepur; the Raja of Nabha marched h i s followers to the v i c i n i t y of Ludhiana; and the Raja of Jind accompanied by 52 Captain McAndrew, forthwith l e f t f o r Karnal, an important town between Thanesar and D e l h i . The Jind r u l e r was commis-sioned to keep peace i n the country beyond Karnal and to always keep himself i n advance of the punitive force that 4 was expected to leave Ambala s h o r t l y . Thus within f i v e days of the outbreak of the mutiny, a l l the Sikh princes of the C i s - S u t l e j states had given tangible proof of t h e i r l o y a l t y to the B r i t i s h and by May 16 t h e i r armies were p a t r o l l i n g the Grand Trunk Road, guarding a l l key stations on i t i n the C i s - S u t l e j p l a i n s . The petty Sikh jaqeerdars. who were ^numerous i n the Ambala D i v i s i o n , put t h e i r private contingents under the com-mand of the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s . With t h e i r help, the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s safeguarded the t r e a s u r i e s and f e r r i e s , kept open l i n e s of communications, and maintained law and order, as well as B r i t i s h prestige, i n t h e i r respective d i s t r i c t s . 5 The European regiments encamped i n the nearby Simla H i l l s had descended to the p l a i n s with promptitude, and the Commander-in-Chief of the Bengal Army, General Anson j a a f t e r some d i l l y - d a l l y i n g at Simla, a r r i v e d i n Ambala on May 16. General Anson's small army was sorely short of supplies, c a r t s , and mules. To f u r n i s h the need of the army the c i v i l a u t h o r i t i e s h a s t i l y approached the Sikh princes once again. The promptitude with which the Sikh r u l e r s provided carts and camp followers and other supplies enabled the army commanders to despatch the f i r s t detachment of the F i e l d Force, as they now designated the small punitive force, on May 17. However i t took about a week more before a l l the immediate needs of the army were f u l f i l l e d . Through the a i d of the Sikh princes Forsyth records, "500 c a r t s , 2000 camels, and 2000 c o o l i e s were made over to the Commissariat Department; 3000 maunds (120 tons) of grain were likewise c o l l e c t e d and stored f o r 7 the army xn the town of Umballa." Meanwhile John Lawrence, the Chief Commissioner of the Punjab, on whose shoulders now lay the heavy burden of saving North-Western India, had been incensed by the i n a b i l -i t y of the army to look a f t e r i t s own needs during an emer-gency. And b e l i e v i n g that show of energy on the part of General Anson was the r e a l need of the hour, the Chief Com-missioner was obliged to open hi s heart i n a d e m i - o f f i c i a l l e t t e r to the army c h i e f i n which he wrote: Pray only r e f l e c t on the whole h i s t o r y of India. When have we f a i l e d when we acted vigorously? Where have we succeeded when guided by timid coun-sels? C l i v e with 1200 fought at Plassey i n opposi-t i o n to the advice of h i s leading o f f i c e r s , beat 40,000 men, and conquered Bengal. Monson retreated from Chumbul, and before he gained Agra h i s army was disorganized and p a r t l y a n n i h i l a t e d . Look at the Cabul catastrophe. I t might have been averted by resolute and bold action * • . . How can i t be supposed that strangers and mercenaries w i l l s a c r i f i c e everything f o r us? There i s a point up to which they w i l l stand by us, f o r they know that we have always been eventually successful and that we are good masters, but go beyond t h i s point, and every man w i l l look to h i s immediate b e n e f i t , h i s present safety.8 John Lawrence's exhortation produced the desired e f f e c t on the Commander-in-Chief, who expedited preparations f o r his departure towards De l h i . However, before leaving 54 Ambala he commissioned Lieutenant Hodson and an escort of Sikh horsemen of Raja of Ji n d to bring i n t e l l i g e n c e from Meerut whether General Hewitt, the area commander of that s t a t i o n , could spare Europeans f o r the siege of De l h i . Hodson and h i s Sikhs accomplished t h e i r task by covering the seventy-six miles journey within seventy-two hours. The news they brought from Meerut was good. The Commander-in-Chief 9 would get some Europeans from Meerut. On the evening of May 24 General Anson and the main body of the F i e l d Force f i n a l l y l e f t Ambala f o r De l h i . To ensure the safety of Ambala the Commander-in-Chief took the precaution of taking with the F i e l d Force the two native i n -fantry regiments, the 60 th and 5th, which had misbehaved at Ambala on May 10. The troops of the Maharaja of P a t i a l a were enjoined to safeguard the c i t y of Ambala. The Commander-in-Chief a r r i v e d i n Karnal on the morning of May 25. He had barely planned h i s next move to-wards Delhi when he was taken i l l with cholera and died during the e a r l y morning hours of May 27. The sudden death of General Anson apparently d i d not a f f e c t the morale of the F i e l d Force. Rather, i t s Europeans maintained f u l l c o n f i -dence i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to deal e f f e c t i v e l y with the rebels and they soon begain to c a l l the force as the "Army of Re-t r i b u t i o n . " ^ 0 Hoping to gain a quick v i c t o r y over the Delhi rebels the F i e l d Force, now commanded by General Barnard, hastened to cover the r e s t of i t s journey. At Panipat i t 55 received good news from Meerut: Colonel Archdale Wilson, who was bringing reinforcements from Meerut, had not only thrashed the insurgents but was quite hopeful of j o i n i n g the F i e l d Force at a point some twenty-five miles north of D e l h i . 1 1 Wilson's force f i n a l l y joined the F i e l d Force at A l i p u r . Delhi was only f i f t e e n miles from A l i p u r , but a f u r -ther advance could not be ordered without f i r s t e l i m i n a t i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of treachery from the accompanying sepoys. As a precaution against treachery most sepoys were, there-fore, sent o f f to Rohtuk or i n the d i r e c t i o n of Meerut f o r the purpose of maintaining law and order i n the v i l l a g e s . The preparations f o r the coming struggle were then pushed forward and i n the e a r l y morning hours of June 8 the F i e l d Force advanced from A l i p u r toward the walls of De l h i . The e n t i r e combatant force under General Barnard was roughly 2500 men. The native element of the F i e l d Force was subs t a n t i a l ; f o r every three Europeans there were two native combatants. The native part of the force mainly consisted of the Gurkhas and the Sikh contingents of Ji n d and Nabha 12 states. The Sikhs and the Gurkhas were unquestionably staunch and t h e i r support was v i t a l . But i t remained to be seen how well they would acquit themselves i n the coming struggle. This began when the F i e l d Force launched a deter-mined attack on the rebels and dislodged them from a large inn c a l l e d the " B a d l i - k i - S e r a i " . A few hours l a t e r i t also captured the Ridge, f o r c i n g the rebels to seek shelter i n s i d e 56 the walls of the Imperial c i t y . During the r e s t of the day the rebels showed no a c t i v i t y . In the two b a t t l e s before Delhi the Sikhs with the F i e l d Force acquitted themselves v a l i a n t l y . P r a i s i n g t h e i r services i n the two actions of June 8, Greathead, who was the p o l i t i c a l agent of the Lt.-Governor of the North-Western Pro-vinces, wrote to his wife: "A party of Jheend Horse, under Hodson, did good work on the 8th, and t h e i r bloody sabres 13 showed they did not s t r i k e i n v a i n . " And i n h i s v i c t o r y report General Barnard also acknowledged the good services 14 performed by the contingents of the Sikh princes. In f a c t the g a l l a n t r y and coolness shown by the Sikhs i n the b a t t l e s of the inn and the Ridge won them the admiration of every European with the F i e l d Fotfce and by the time i t got up i t s tents i n the afternoon i t s Europeans and Sikhs were comrades-in-arms i n the true sense. With sunrise next day the heavy pieces from the c i t y walls began to f i r e on the B r i t i s h p o s i t i o n s . The B r i t i s h guns, which were l i g h t siege guns, r e t a l i a t e d e f f e c t i v e l y but f a i l e d to silence the enemy. By afternoon the cannonading from the c i t y ' s bastions became s t i l l heavier and from then on i t continued r e l e n t l e s s l y and with the same i n t e n s i t y as long as the c i t y remained i n rebel hands. Further attempts by the enemy on June 10 and 11 to r e -gain possession of the Ridge were f r u s t r a t e d by the B r i t i s h . However, i t soon became evident to the B r i t i s h that t h e i r resources were inadequate to continue f i g h t i n g o f f d a i l y attacks by the enemy and i n view of the lack of troops a plan to invest the c i t y walls on the night of June 12 was abandon-ed. Above a l l , i n t e l l i g e n c e reports coming out of the c i t y made i t c l e a r to the B r i t i s h that the mutineers had created some sort of governmental machinery under the King of Delhi which governed the c i t y and planned the rebel war strategy. Therefore, the B r i t i s h began to r e a l i z e that contrary to what they had expected the c i t y was not simply i n the hands of disorganized and d i s p i r i t e d mutineers who would f l e e at the f i r s t opportunity. Propsects of a d i f f i c u l t and protracted siege lay ahead. What was the r e a l state of a f f a i r s inside the c i t y of Delhi? As said before, the c i t y was l o s t by the B r i t i s h on May 11. The mutineers, however, who l i t the torch of r e b e l -l i o n i n Delhi did not belong to the native regiments s t a t i o n -ed i n the c i t y ; they came from Meerut, a m i l i t a r y s t a t i o n l o -cated nearly f o r t y miles to the north-east, where the public execution of a harsh punishment on e i g h t y - f i v e troopers, mostly Moslems, of the 3rd Native Cavalry, who had refused to use the new E n f i e l d c a r t r i d g e s , f i r s t p r e c i p i t a t e d the c r i s i s ofl May 10. After murdering some European c i v i l i a n s and o f f i -cers and p i l l a g i n g and burning t h e i r bungalows the Meerut mutineers took the road to Delhi i n the evening. The area commander, General Hewitt, sent no force i n pursuit of the mutineers and undertook no measures to a l e r t the a u t h o r i t i e s i n D e l h i . This state of i n a c t i o n on the part of the Meerut 58 command allowed the mutineers to escape. 1 5 Unharmed, the mutineers reached Delhi on the morning of May 11. Inside the c i t y they cut up as many European c i -v i l i a n s as they could hunt out. By afternoon the native i n -f a n t r y regiments stationed i n Delhi cantonment (38th, 54th, and 74th) also mutinied and with that the larger arsenal out-side the c i t y also f e l l i n t o r e b e l hands. In the hours of confusion and chaos that prevailed i n the c i t y a European telegraph c l e r k h u r r i e d l y telegraphed an incomplete message regarding the mutiny to Ambala and made good h i s escape to the cantonment. Shortly a f t e r sunset the European survivors, who had found shelter i n the cantonment at Rajpur, took the road to Meerut. Having overthrown B r i t i s h authority i n Delhi the mu-ti n e e r s , compelled by t h e i r psychological and pragmatic needs, decided to create a new paramount authority above them. The psychological need of the sepoys was to seek a suit a b l e substitute f o r the B r i t i s h authority to whom they could t r a n s f e r t h e i r a llegiance and i n whose name they could j u s -t i f y t h e i r r e v o l t against the for e i g n masters. Naturally there was no better candidate than the Mughal King of Delhi , and so they proclaimed him as the supreme r u l e r of India. The pragmatic reasons why the mutineers chose the King of Delhi to replace the B r i t i s h authority were even stronger. I t was indeed the reluctance of the c i t i z e n s of Delhi to r e -gard them as the acknowledged servants of any recognized authority and the r e f u s a l of the c i t y merchants, who were 59 overwhelmingly Hindu, to s e l l them food that quickly per-suaded the mutineers to become the army of a Mughal Emperor— an Emperor of t h e i r own c r e a t i n g . The o l d King of Delhi was the pensioned representa-t i v e of the Mughal dynasty. For h i s maintenance Shah Mohammed Abu Zafar Saraj-u-din Mohammed Bahadur received a stipend from the East India Company. The B r i t i s h , however, f e l t that the King was an unnecessary drain on t h e i r purse and they no longer had any use f o r the ro y a l personage. After Bahadur Shah died they intended to remove the ro y a l family from Delhi and they planned to accord h i s successor 16 the t i t l e of Prince, and not of King and Emperor. No sooner had the mutineers paid t h e i r homage to the shadowy and t i t u l a r representative of the once glo r i o u s Mughal dynasty, than they began to coerce him to give them t h e i r pay. The King had no treasury. At his r e f u s a l to give them money the mutineers became rude to him and address-ed him with such impudent terms as " A r i Buddha, A r i Buddha!" 17 — " I say, you King, I say, you o l d fellow!" Surrounded by desperate and murderous bands of mutin-eers, Bahadur Shah had no choice but to acquiesce i n every plan and suggestion of the re b e l s . At t h e i r instance he immediately sent l e t t e r s to the native r u l e r s of such states as P a t i a l a , J h a j j a r , Balbgarh, Bahawalpur, Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Bikaner, urging these princes to r a l l y round t h e i r h i s t o r i c and t r a d i t i o n a l suzerain and to march with t h e i r 18 armies to Delhi to defend the imperial c i t y . With the 60 exception of the Nawab of J h a j j a r and the petty Raja of Balbgarh, a l l native princes of note ignored the King's l e t t e r s . Nevertheless, t h i s act of sending seditious l e t t e r s to the princes made the King an unforgiveable enemy i n the eyes of the B r i t i s h , who, because of his h i s t o r i c claim to the Indian empire, began to regard him from then on as the ce n t r a l f i g u r e of the r e b e l l i o n . However, i t must be remem-bered that the King's d e c i s i o n to i d e n t i f y himself with the rebels was not a premeditated act on h i s part; he was inno-cently caught i n the whirlpool of events and had l i t t l e choice but to go along with the mutineers. I f the pretensions of l o y a l t y and patri o t i s m of the mutineers gave the King hopes of better fortune, t h e i r deeds and greedy demands f i l l e d h i s mind with grave misgivings about t h e i r motives. Within a few days a f t e r t h e i r f i r s t interview with the King, the mutineers extorted as much money from respectable c i t i z e n s as they could. Besides, there were dissensions among the mutineers. The Meerut ca-valrymen constantly accused the i n f a n t r y sepoys of Delhi of hiding money plundered from the l o c a l treasury. In reply the l a t t e r would blame the Meerut men f o r s t a r t i n g the whole trouble. The two sides often recriminated i n the King's • presence. Before long, i t became c l e a r to Bahadur Shah that to pin his hopes on the mutineers was r i s k y and delusive. Though dismayed at the behaviour of the mutineers, the King kept urging them to attack Meerut. Constantly pressured, 61 the rebels f i n a l l y sent out a force on May 25 to attack the B r i t i s h force coming from Meerut. The rebels, as already noted, were defeated on the banks of the Hindun River. According to an Indian account the prince who commanded the rebel force showed great cowardice during the b a t t l e and galloped o f f from the f r o n t p o s i t i o n "not heeding the c r i e s 19 of his troops." This native account of the b a t t l e revealed that i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d the sepoys d i d not have i n t h e i r ranks men with a genius f o r m i l i t a r y leadership; i t also showed that the Mughal princes, unfamiliar with the a r t s of modern warfare, were sadly inadequate p e r s o n a l i t i e s to f i l l the leadership gap. Despite the defeat of the sepoys at the B a t t l e of Hindun River, Bahadur Shah kept hoping that the sepoys would succeed i n checking the advance of the B r i t i s h towards h i s c i t y . He was, however, again disappointed when i n two sharp encounters on June 8 the mutineers l o s t to the B r i t i s h the inn c a l l e d B a d l i - k i - S e r a i and the Ridge. Again and again he ordered the sepoys to launch a f u l l - s c a l e attack on the Ridge, but the sepoys procrastinated. Absence of harmony among the r e b e l leaders and, more important, want of coura-geous and i n s p i r i n g leaders apparently hindered the r e b e l plans f o r a counter attack. In addition, a f t e r the loss of the Ridge they seemed to have l o s t f a i t h i n t h e i r c a p a b i l i -t i e s to meet the B r i t i s h f orce. During the second h a l f of June, the sepoys skirmished with the B r i t i s h but made no serious e f f o r t to dislodge them 62 from the Ridge. On June 23, the 100th anniversary of the B a t t l e of Plassey, the sepoys, b e l i e v i n g i n a native prophecy that B r i t i s h r u l e was to end on that day, t r i e d to get to the rear of the B r i t i s h camp. But they were surprised and beaten back by Major Olphert's Sikh Corps which was coming from the 20 Punjab and was about to j o i n the camp. So the h i s t o r i c June 23 also passed without changing the status quo. A few days l a t e r a native o f f i c e r named Bakht Khan, who commanded the brigade of mutineers from B a r e i l l y and who had i n h i s possession a considerable amount of money which he had plundered from the treasury i n B a r e i l l y , o ffered to r e l i e v e the King of his f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . Besides h i s f i n a n c i a l opulence t h i s massive and chubby adventurer from B a r e i l l y had gained, through a r t and a b i l i t y , a place of prominence at the royal court of Delhi. The King regarded Bakht Khan as a capable m i l i t a r y leader and r e l i e d h e a vily on his advice. On July 2 the King made Bakht Khan comman-der- i n - c h i e f of the whole rebel army i n De l h i . Bakht Khan stopped haphazard skirmishing with the enemy and i n s t i t u t e d plans f o r more s c i e n t i f i c and concerted action to disrupt B r i t i s h , s u p p l y routes. The foray p a r t i e s he sent out began to operate with a renewed sense of duty. On one occasion the mutineers surprised the Sikh horsemen escorting the supplies sent by the Maharaja of P a t i a l a f o r 21 the B r i t i s h and k i l l e d them a l l . On the morning of J u l y 9 Bakht Khan launched h i s grand attack on the B r i t i s h camp. The Sikh a r t i l l e r y m e n i n the B r i t i s h camp promptly 63 22 t u r n e d t h e i r f i r e o n t h e a t t a c k e r s * T h e i r f i r e w o u n d e d a n d k i l l e d m a n y m u t i n e e r s a n d f o r c e d B a k h t K h a n t o o r d e r a r e t r e a t . O n t h e i r r e t u r n t o t h e c i t y t h e m u t i n e e r s c e l e b r a t e d B a k h t K h a n ' s r a i d a s a v i c t o r y a n d a s a p r o o f o f t h e i r v i c t o r y t h e y e x h i b i t e d i n p u b l i c p l a c e s t h e s e v e r e d h e a d s o f E u r o p e a n c a p t i v e s . S o o n a f t e r h i s i m p r e s s i v e r a i d o n t h e B r i t i s h c a m p , B a k h t K h a n f o u n d h i s w a r p l a n s t h w a r t e d b y t h e i n t r i g u e s o f h i s r i v a l s , who l o o k e d u p o n h i m a s a n o p p o r t u n i s t a n d a n u p -s t a r t a n d n o b e t t e r t h a n a n y o t h e r s e p o y o f f i c e r . T h e j e a l o u s i e s a m o n g t h e K i n g ' s o f f i c e r s c a u s e d f u r t h e r c o n c e r n t o t h e K i n g w h e n t o w a r d t h e e n d o f J u l y t h e m u t i n e e r s f r o m N e e m u c h , K o t a h , a n d G w a l i o r a l s o a r r i v e d i n t h e c i t y . T h i s l e d t o m u t u a l r e c r i m i n a t i o n s b e t w e e n B a k h t K h a n a n d G e n e r a l G h a u s K h a n , t h e c o m m a n d e r o f t h e N e e m u c h b r i g a d e . A s a r e -s u l t o f t h e s e j e a l o u s i e s a m o n g t h e s e p o y l e a d e r s t h e K i n g e l i m i n a t e d t h e r a n k o f t h e c o m m a n d e r - i n - c h i e f a n d r e l e g a t e d B a k h t K h a n t o h i s e a r l i e r r a n k o f g e n e r a l , l e a v i n g o n l y t h e B a r e i l l y b r i g a d e u n d e r h i s c o m m a n d . T h e l a s t d a y s o f J u l y h a r r o w e d B a h a d u r S h a h i n m a n y o t h e r w a y s . B e s i d e s t h e d i s s e n s i o n s o f h i s g e n e r a l s , i n t r i -g u e s i n h i s o w n f a m i l y b e c a m e v e r y u g l y . H i s f a v o u r i t e q u e e n , Z e e n a t M a h a l , b e g a n t o make s e r i o u s e f f o r t s t o e n l i s t t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e a r m y i n w i n n i n g t h e r o y a l s u c c e s s i o n f o r h e r m i n o r s o n , J a w a n B a k h t . M o n e y s h o r t a g e a g a i n b e c a m e a c u t e t o w a r d t h e e n d o f J u l y . T h e n e w s o f B r i t i s h v i c t o r i e s o v e r t h e r e b e l s a t B e n a r a s , A l l a h a b a d , a n d K a n p u r a l s o b e g a n 64 23 to reach Delhi and caused unrest i n the King's army. The most t r y i n g moments fo r the King, however, came with the approach of the Moslem f e s t i v a l of Eed. The r e l i g i o u s pre-judices of the Hindus and Moslems as usual came i n t o d i r e c t c o n f l i c t . Outside the walls of the c i t y , the B r i t i s h hoped for a "grand row" between the c i t y ' s Hindus and Moslems on 24 August 2, the day of the Eed c e l e b r a t i o n . However, by out-lawing the k i l l i n g of cows during the Eed celebrations, the 25 King saved h i s c i t y from tragedy. During August Bahadur Shah got no r e l i e f from h i s worries. The mutineers kept demanding t h e i r pay and extorted money from the c i t i z e n s , but showed no i n c l i n a t i o n to assault the Ridge. Thoroughly disgusted with the f a c t i o u s s p i r i t and the spurious mettle of the mutineers the King t r i e d to open negotiations with the B r i t i s h , but he found himself powerless to do so. Therefore, once again r e c o n c i l i n g himself to h i s f a t e , and seeing no prospects of a compromise gesture from the B r i t i s h side, the King made his l a s t determined e f f o r t to restore unity and d i s c i p l i n e i n h i s army. On August 23 he deposed a l l generals from t h e i r commands and set up f o r the future conduct of the siege "a court of twelve members, s i x 26 to be' appointed by the King and s i x by the army." I f the rebels i n s i d e the c i t y suffered from mutual jealousies and d i s t r u s t i n t h e i r ranks, the B r i t i s h entrenched outside on the Ridge, though possessing the advantage of unity of command, also had t h e i r problems. In July and August, the 65 main d i f f i c u l t y was the inadequate s i z e of the F i e l d Force. The Sikhs and the Gurkhas had given a good account of them-selves i n the f i g h t s f o r the capture of the Ridge and, l a t e r v on, i n r e p e l l i n g the attacks of the mutineers on the B r i t i s h camp. More Sikhs and Gurkhas were badly needed to b o l s t e r the F i e l d Force. But there were only three Gurkha regiments i n the service of the East India Company. One Gurkha r e g i -ment, c a l l e d the N a s i r i Regiment, had misbehaved i n May i n the Simla H i l l s and was considered u n r e l i a b l e f o r f i e l d ser-v i c e ; the Kumaon Regiment of the Gurkhas was i n good shape but i t was at the time performing the useful duty of guarding the disarmed sepoy regiments at Lahore; the t h i r d Gurkha Regiment was the Sirmoor Regiment and was before Delhi as part of the F i e l d Force. Hence there was no p o s s i b i l i t y of more Gurkhas j o i n i n g the F i e l d Force. A d d i t i o n a l Sikhs, however, could be had from the Punjab and the commander of the F i e l d Force sent urgent requests to the Punjab Government f o r Sikh r e i n -forcements. Since the contingents of the Sikh princes had already taken the f i e l d ' with the B r i t i s h , the Punjab Govern-ment could provide a d d i t i o n a l Sikh s o l d i e r s for the F i e l d Force only from i t s own Punjabi troops which consisted of the Punjab Irregular F r o n t i e r Force and seven P o l i c e B a t t a l i o n s — 27 almost twenty-four thousand men a l l t o l d . The strength of the Sikhs i n the Punjabi force, which was completely under the Chief Commissioner's authority, was appreciable. Of the eighteen Punjabi i n f a n t r y regiments, for example, four (the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Sikhs)were Sikh regiments and the Sikhs 66 were q u i t e numerous i n o t h e r u n i t s o f t h e P u n j a b i f o r c e . I t was t h e S i k h combatants i n t h i s P u n j a b i f o r c e , i n a d d i t i o n t o newly r e c r u i t e d S i k h s , who were s e n t down d u r i n g t h e months o f June and J u l y as r e i n f o r c e m e n t s f o r t h e F i e l d F o r c e o u t s i d e De.lhi. A l t h o u g h t h e Punjab Government a l s o s e n t , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e S i k h r e i n f o r c e m e n t s , n e a r l y 1,000 European s o l d i e r s t o D e l h i d u r i n g t h o s e two months, t h e commander o f t h e F i e l d F o r c e , G e n e r a l B a r n a r d , s t i l l f e l t t h a t h i s f o r c e was n o t s t r o n g enough t o i n v e s t t h e c i t y w a l l s . B e s i d e s , t h e p r e v a -l e n c e o f s i c k n e s s and f e v e r i n t h e camp a l s o d i s c o u r a g e d B a r n a r d f r o m o r d e r i n g a g e n e r a l a t t a c k on t h e c i t y . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t week o f J u l y B a r n a r d was h i m s e l f h i t by c h o l e r a and swept away by d e a t h . H i s s u c c e s s o r , G e n e r a l Reed, d e s p i t e f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e m e n t s o f S i k h a r t i l l e r y m e n and S i k h horsemen 28 d u r i n g J u l y , a l s o c o n s i d e r e d t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e F i e l d F o r c e i n s u f f i c i e n t t o s t o r m t h e c i t y . To l e a d an a t t a c k on the c i t y was, i n any c a s e , beyond t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f G e n e r a l Reed f o r he was o l d , i l l , and weak. T h e r e f o r e , on J u l y 16 he made o v e r t h e command o f t h e F i e l d F o r c e t o B r i g a d i e r W i l s o n and r e t u r n e d t o Ambala. W i l s o n was a s o l d i e r o f f a r s u p e r i o r c a l i b r e t h a n e i t h e r o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e commanders o f t h e F i e l d F o r c e . Under h i s command t h e h e a d - q u a r t e r s o f t h e F i e l d F o r c e began t o f u n c t i o n s m o o t h l y and c o o r d i n a t i o n among i t s v a r i o u s b r a n -c h e s was q u i c k l y e s t a b l i s h e d . H i s s u b o r d i n a t e s were s t r o n g l y i m p r e s s e d w i t h h i s q u i e t demeanor and t h e c l a r i t y o f h i s 67 orders. But he was rather over-cautious and he often delayed action t i l l he had minutely c a l c u l a t e d a l l the odds against him. Only two days a f t e r assuming command, Wilson earned abuse from some of h i s colleagues f o r h i s d e c i s i o n to wait f o r more reinforcements and a f i r s t c l a s s s i e g e - t r a i n of extra-heavy guns. Wilson's hopes of getting help from General Havelock, who was campaigning against the rebels i n the country between Benaras and Lucknow, were dashed by the l a t e s t i n t e l l i g e n c e which showed that Havelock had peremptory orders from the Governor-General to r e l i e v e Lucknow. The source of help f o r Wilson, therefore, had to be the Punjab again. Accordingly, on July 18, Wilson telegraphed S i r John Lawrence asking f o r one complete European regiment and one or two Sikh regiments. And Wilson's message ended with the warning: "Retreat to Karnal w i l l be necessary i f not reinforced r a p i d l y . Please 29 reply by telegraph." Wilson's bleak warning e l i c i t e d a prompt reply from Lawrence. He assured Wilson of sending to Delhi 1,700 men 30 immediately. Shortly a f t e r , the Chief Commissioner again wrote to Wilson and promised him an a d d i t i o n a l force of 31 2,500 men. John Lawrence was, i n f a c t , prepared to give Wilson every a v a i l a b l e s o l d i e r i n h i s province, because Delhi, besides affording the rebels a p o l i t i c a l cause, had by mid-July become the t e s t i n g ground f o r B r i t i s h endurance and power. Retreat from Delhi, i n h i s opinion, would prove f a t a l , since i t would induce the Punjabis and the Sikhs to 68 rise against the B r i t i s h . In an urgent l e t t e r to the Governor-General, John Lawrence outlined the dangers which he feared would a r i s e i n the wake of B r i t i s h r e t r e a t from D e l h i . " I f we f a l l at Delhy, we cannot hope to hold the Punjab," he informed Lord Canning, and i n the same l e t t e r he d i s c l o s e d his mutiny p o l i c y , and h i s determination, of main-ta i n i n g "the l i f e and death struggle at Delhy to the l a s t , " also proposing withdrawal of forces from the Peshawar V a l l e y 32 should Wilson need further reinforcements. In the meantime the Chief Commissioner l o s t no time i n ordering the promised force of four thousand two hundred men, mostly Sikhs and Europeans, to leave f o r D e l h i . I t was a happy coincidence that Wilson's desperate c a l l f o r more men came at a time when the mutinies i n John Lawrence's own province were ju s t about put down and the European and Sikh regiments, locked i n the struggles i n s i d e the Punjab f o r two months, could be sent to Delhi without endangering the peace i n the province. Since the l o y a l t y and cooperation of the Sikhs made possible the timely sup-pression of the mutinies i n s i d e the Punjab, i t would be appropriate to examine the services given by the Sikhs i n suppressing these u p r i s i n g s . When the mutiny broke out i n May 1857, there were forty-one Hindustani regiments (nearly 36,000 sepoys) s t a -tioned i n the Punjab, and, as the censored l e t t e r s of some sepoys showed, d i s a f f e c t i o n i n these regiments also e x i s t e d . The Pumjab a u t h o r i t i e s , therefore, became v i g i l a n t as soon 69 as they received from Ambala the telegraphic message con-cerning mutiny i n Del h i . Within two days of the r e c e i p t of the news, the Punjab o f f i c i a l s , under the i n i t i a t i v e of Robert Montgomery, the J u d i c i a l Commissioner, secured t h e i r major f o r t s and arsenals at Lahore, Amritsar, and Ferozepur by placing European troops i n them. At the same time the Punjab a u t h o r i t i e s moved s w i f t l y to disarm the Hindustani regiments stationed near Lahore, the seat of the Punjab Go-vernment, because a Sikh non-commissioned o f f i c e r i n the police corps revealed a conspiracy of these sepoy regiments 33 to attack and seize the Lahore f o r t . Through a bold and masterly plan Brigadier Corbett and the J u d i c i a l Commissioner turned out a l l native and European troops on May 13 and d i s -armed the 16th, 26th, and 49th Native Infantry Regiments which stood fa c i n g the European a r t i l l e r y . A few Sikhs and other Punjabis, who belonged to these Hindustani regiments, were given back t h e i r arms sh o r t l y a f t e r and grouped i n t o a new, separate b a t t a l i o n . A day a f t e r the successful disarming of the sepoys at Lahore, the 45th and 57th Native Infantry Regiments, which were not disarmed, mutinied at Ferozepur and made an attempt to seize the arsenal. Their attack on the arsenal was, how-ever, f r u s t r a t e d by the bayonets of the Europeans. Before night came the mutineers deserted the s t a t i o n and took to the wilderness of the desert. General Van Cortlandt quickly r a i s e d a levy of f i v e hundred Sikhs i n the Ferozepur d i s t r i c t and went i n pursuit of the mutineers. The troops of the Raja 70 of Nabha also joined i n the campaign. Van Cortlandt's Sikhs found the mutineers i n the S i r s a and Hissar d i s t r i c t s , where the Moslem Bhati Rajputs had also r a i s e d the standard of r e v o l t . A s p i r i t e d campaign by the Sikhs destroyed the Ferozepur mutineers and broke the strength of the Bhati r e b e l s . ^ 4 Before the end of May the sparks of mutiny also appear-ed on the north-west f r o n t i e r . On May 21 the f o r t at Hotee Mardan was seized by mutineers of the 55th Native Infantry Re-giment. About one hundred Sikhs who belonged to t h i s r e g i -ment took no part i n the five-day mutiny. When Major Nichol-son came to punish the mutineers the Sikhs v o l u n t a r i l y joined his force and fought bravely during the hot pursuit of the Hindustanis, many of whom were k i l l e d by t h e i r pursuers, though a large number of the sepoys made good t h e i r escape into t r i b a l t e r r i t o r y , where they were reportedly welcomed 35 by the p r o s e l y t i z i n g mullahs. In June mutiny occurred at Jullundur. On the night of June 7 the 36th and 61st Native Infantry and the 6th Light Cavalry Regiments mutinied and the sepoys t r i e d unsuc-c e s s f u l l y to s t e a l the treasure, which was kept i n the sepoy l i n e s . Frustrated i n t h i s attempt, the mutineers f e l l on the bungalows of a few Europeans and set them a f i r e ; some Europeans were k i l l e d . A l l night the m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s took no steps to q u e l l the mutiny. In contrast to t h i s ne-gligence by the m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s the c i v i l o f f i c i a l s worked e n e r g e t i c a l l y a l l through the night to ensure the 71 sec u r i t y of the c i t y . The f i r s t step that the DeputyCommis-sioner, Captain Farrington, took to protect h i s c i t y was to summon to his help the troops of the Sikh r u l e r of the neigh-bouring state of Kapurthala. The Raja of Kapurthala personal l y brought his troops to Jullundur on the very night of the mutiny and the c i t y was saved. In the morning i t was found that the mutineers had escaped toward P h i l l a u r . The delay on the part of the m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s i n sending pursuit par t i e s allowed the mutineers enough head-start to reach P h i l l a u r s a f e l y . At P h i l l a u r the sepoys of the 3rd Native Infantry joined t h e i r comrades from Jullundur and by noon the mutineers were on the other side of the Sutlej River. How-ever, across the r i v e r the mutineers were surprised by a party of Sikhs led by E. H. M. Ricketts, the Deputy Commis-sioner of Ludhiana. Rickett's force, which consisted of the Sikhs of the Nabha force and the 4th Sikh Regiment, fought g a l l a n t l y , but i t was too weak to dispute the passage of the mutineers. At Ludhiana one more company of the 3rd Native Infantry Regiment joined the mutineers. But when the pursuit party, c o n s i s t i n g of one hundred Europeans, four companies of the 4th Sikh Regiment, and some troops of the Kapurthala Raja reached Ludhiana the main body of the mutineers was already on i t s way to Delhi. A f t e r catching a few sepoy straddlers 36 the weary pursuers gave up the chase. A month-long quiet that prevailed a f t e r the Jullundur mutiny was broken on July 7 by the mutiny at Jhelum of the 14th Native Infantry Regiment. This regiment, despite i t s 72 misbehaviour i n the past, was not disarmed by i t s commanding o f f i c e r and on the morning of J u l y 7, while i t was at parade, a small European force happened to a r r i v e from Rawalpindi. On seeing the Europeans the sepoys were suddenly seized with fear and panic and then mutinied. About one hundred Sikhs of the regiment, who had j u s t been separated from the Hindu-s t a n i s , ran o f f from the parade ground and joined the European f o r c e . Severe f i g h t i n g ensued i n the sepoys' huts. Then the mutineers, nearly f i v e hundred strong, escaped i n t o a nearby v i l l a g e , where renewed f i g h t i n g took place. One B r i t i s h gun f e l l i nto the hands of the sepoys, but the rebels were surrounded by the Europeans, Sikhs, and the mounted p o l i c e . At night the mutineers made good t h e i r escape from the v i l l a g e but many were drowned while crossing the Jhelum River. Those who managed to cross the r i v e r entered the t e r r i t o r y of the Maharaja of Kashmir. They were l a t e r appre-hended by the m i l i t a r y p o l i c e . The European loss i n the Jhelum mutiny was heavy. The Sikhs also suffered heavy cas-u a l t i e s . The B r i t i s h paid a s p e c i a l t r i b u t e to the memory of a g a l l a n t Sikh subedar named Sham Singh, who was k i l l e d during 37 the encounter. Encouraged by the exaggerated reports of the success of the Jhelum mutineers the 4th Native Infantry Regiment and a wing of the 9th Light Cavalry Regiment mutinied at S i a l k o t on the morning of J u l y 9. The S i a l k o t sepoys were not disarmed. Here, too, the commandant, Brigadier Brind, had placed undue confidence i n the sepoys and had refused to 73 38 disarm them. The absence of European s o l d i e r s from the s t a -t i o n also encouraged the sepoys to r e b e l . The mutineers not only k i l l e d many Europeans, i n c l u d i n g Brigadier Brind, but also plundered the town. During the hours of lawlessness a Sikh lady courageously stood by her employers, Dr. and Mrs. Butle r . The S i k h n i was the wet nurse of the B u t l e r s 1 c h i l d . While hiding themselves i n a godown the Butlers made over t h e i r c h i l d to her, thinking that "they might a l l perish and 3 9 that the l i t t l e one be saved." The Sikhni took the c h i l d and slipped away from the godown and remained i n hiding a l l day. L u c k i l y the tragedy did not b e f a l l the But l e r s . When the mutineers were gone from the town the Sikhni brought back the c h i l d to the parents. This heroic t a l e of the Sikh lady was not the only example of the f a i t h f u l n e s s of the Sikhs during the S i a l k o t mutiny. The l i v e s of the sick Europeans i n the S i a l k o t f o r t were also saved by the newly r e c r u i t e d Sikhs, and the Sikh levy also saved the treasure. A f t e r plundering the town the Si a l k o t mutineers l e f t f o r Gurdaspur. On hearing that the mutineers were heading for t h e i r c i t y the Sikh jaqeerdars of the Gurdaspur D i s t r i c t immediately raised men at t h e i r own expense f o r the protec-40 t i o n of the c i t y . The jaqeerdars were, however, soon r e -li e v e d of t h e i r anxiety, because Major Nicholson's i n f a n t r y -men, a f t e r disarming the 55 Native Infantry Regiment at Amritsar, intercepted the S i a l k o t mutineers on May 12. In a sharp c o n f l i c t on the banks of Ravi River Nicholson's force 41 destroyed the main body of the S i a l k o t mutineers. 74 The m u t i n i e s a t J h e l u m and S i a l k o t c o m p e l l e d t h e P u n j a b Government t o o r d e r t h e d i s a r m i n g o f a l l t h e r e m a i n i n g H i n d u s t a n i r e g i m e n t s w h i c h s t i l l r e t a i n e d t h e i r arms and h o r s e s . The o r d e r s o f t h e Government were p r o m p t l y c o m p l i e d w i t h by t h e commandants o f t h e s t a t i o n s i n v o l v e d . A t F e r o z e p u r t h e sepoys o f t h e 1 0 t h L i g h t C a v a l r y were d i s a r m e d and d i s m o u n t e d . The 4 t h N a t i v e I n f a n t r y , s t a t i o n e d a t Kangra and N u r p u r , were overawed by t h e sudden appearance o f a S i k h P o l i c e B a t t a l i o n c a l l e d t h e "Sher D i l s " ( t h e l i o n - h e a r t e d ) 42 and d i s a r m e d w i t h o u t much d i f f i c u l t y . And w i t h t h e s e d i s -armament measures s u c c e s s f u l l y e x e c u t e d a t F e r o z e p u r and K a n g r a , no H i n d u s t a n i sepoys s t a t i o n e d i n t h e C i s - I n d u s P u n j a b c a r r i e d arms. But t h e P u n j a b a u t h o r i t i e s , whose c o n -s t a n t v i g i l a n c e and e x e r t i o n s had made the p r o v i n c e s a f e r f r o m t h e m u t i n i e s , were now s u d d e n l y burdened w i t h t h e p r o -blem o f g u a r d i n g a l a r g e number o f d i s a r m e d s e p o y s . A l t h o u g h t h e sepoys were d i s a r m e d , the p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e i r escape s t i l l e x i s t e d . The e s c a p e d m u t i n e e r s , t h e au-t h o r i t i e s f e a r e d , would t r y t o i n c i t e t h e p e o p l e o f t h e P u n j a b t o r i s e a g a i n s t t h e B r i t i s h . The P u n j a b a u t h o r i t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , k e p t t h e d i s a r m e d sepoys under heavy g u a r d . Y e t about s i x hundred d i s a r m e d H i n d u s t a n i s o f t h e 2 6 t h N a t i v e I n f a n t r y Regiment managed t o escape f r o m L a h o r e on J u l y 30. A f t e r m u r d e r i n g t h e i r commanding o f f i c e r t h e s e sepoys f l e d f r o m L a h o r e i n t o t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g t e r r i t o r y o f A m r i t s a r D i s -t r i c t . Tragedy a w a i t e d t h e s e u n f o r t u n a t e men. The v i l l a g e r s i n t h e A m r i t s a r d i s t r i c t i m m e d i a t e l y r e p o r t e d t h e a r r i v a l o f 75 t h e sepoys t o t h e c i v i l a u t h o r i t i e s . The Deputy C o m m i s s i o n e r , F. Cooper, and h i s c i v i l p o l i c e , w i t h t h e v i g o r o u s h e l p o f th e famous s i r d a r s o f t h e A t t a r i and S i n d h a n w a l l a f a m i l i e s , c a p t u r e d two hundred t h i r t y - t w o s e p o y s . About as many were drowned i n the r i v e r o r k i l l e d d u r i n g t h e s t r u g g l e . A f t e r s u m m a r i l y t r y i n g t h e c a p t u r e d H i n d u s t a n i s Cooper o r d e r t h e i r e x e c u t i o n . The S i k h s made up t h e f i r i n g p a r t y and c a r r i e d o u t t h e m a g i s t r a t e ' s o r d e r on t h e s p o t . A f t e r t h e e x e c u t i o n s the a ssembled mob o f S i k h v i l l a g e r s t o l d Cooper t h a t t h e e x -43 c u t i o n s were " r i g h t e o u s " . L i k e t h e L a h o r e sepoys t h e d i s a r m e d sepoys o f t h e 1 0 t h L i g h t C a v a l r y a t F e r o z e p u r a l s o s t a g e d an e s c a p e . On August 19 n e a r l y two hundred sepoys o f t h i s r e g i m e n t , a f t e r making an u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t t o s e i z e t h e guns, e s c a p e d f r o m t h e cantonment. The l o c a l m i l i t a r y a u t h o r i t i e s made no a t t e m p t t o c a p t u r e t h e e s c a p e e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , M a j o r F. Marsden, t h e Deputy C o m m i s s i o n e r , s e n t o u t a detachment o f t h e P a t i a l a Horse t o round up t h e s e p o y s . Marsden p e r s o n a l l y l e d th e chase and h i s p a r t y soon o v e r t o o k t h e e s c a p e e s . But t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g l y l a r g e body o f t h e m u t i n e e r s , who were armed w i t h swords and s p e a r s , s u d d e n l y a t t a c k e d Marsden's p a r t y and f o r c e d i t t o r e t r e a t . Marsden h i m s e l f had a narrow e s -cap e . The s e p o y s , a f t e r t h e i r e n c o u n t e r w i t h Marsden's 44 p a r t y , e s c a p e d i n t o t h e b a r r e n t r a c t s o f Hissar and Sirsa. Some o f them were d e s t r o y e d by t h e S i k h s o f G e n e r a l Van C o r t l a n d t and some by t h e Hodson's Horse o p e r a t i n g n e a r Rohtuk. O n l y a few remnants r e a c h e d D e l h i s a f e l y . 76 The d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e H i n d u s t a n i sepoys who e s c a p e d f r o m L a h o r e and F e r o z e p u r was an o b j e c t l e s s o n f o r t h e r e s t , and a t no o t h e r p l a c e i n t h e C i s - I n d u s d i s t r i c t s o f t h e Pun j a b d i d t h e d i s a r m e d sepoys a t t e m p t t o e s c a p e . The t r a n s -I n dus d i s t r i c t s , however, were once more r o c k e d by t h e m u t i n y o f t h e d i s a r m e d sepoys o f t h e 5 1 s t N a t i v e I n f a n t r y Regiment w h i c h was s t a t i o n e d near Peshawar. T h i s r e g i m e n t was s u s p e c -t e d o f p r o c u r i n g arms f r o m t h e t r i b a l t e r r i t o r y and hidiW0.n ; them i n t h e s e p o y s ' h u t s . On Au g u s t 28 t h e s e sepoys m u t i n i e d when t h e Af g h a n l e v y were o r d e r e d t o s e a r c h t h e h u t s o f t h e s e p o y s . The m u t i n y l a s t e d f o r two days and f i n a l l y t h e e n t i r e body o f e i g h t hundred f i f t y m u t i n e e r s were d e s t r o y e d by a f o r c e o f European and S i k h s o l d i e r s commanded by C a p t a i n C a v e . 4 5 A f t e r t h e e x t e r m i n a t i o n o f the mutinous 5 1 s t N a t i v e I n f a n t r y no f u r t h e r m u t i n i e s o c c u r r e d i n t h e t r a n s - I n d u s d i s -t r i c t s , though o f the seven t h o u s a n d sepoys s t a t i o n e d t h e r e h a l f s t i l l b ore arms. Thus t h e s t o r m o f m u t i n i e s t h a t r a g e d i n t h e Pu n j a b f o r t h r e e months s u b s i d e d by t h e end o f A u g u s t . The p i n n a c l e o f i t s f u r y was around t h e m i d d l e o f J u l y , when t h e S i a l k o t m u t i n e e r s were c r u s h e d t h r o u g h t h e r e l e n t l e s s e f f o r t s o f N i c h o l s o n . The m u t i n i e s a t L a h o r e , F e r o z e p u r , and Peshawar^, w h i c h o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f J u l y and d u r i n g A u g u s t , were c o m p a r a t i v e l y l e s s s e r i o u s , b e i n g j u s t a t t e m p t s o f t h e d i s a r m e d sepoys t o e f f e c t an e s c a p e . T h e r e f o r e , w i t h t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e S i a l k o t sepoys i n m i d - J u l y and t h e q u i c k d i s a r m i n g o f t h e r e s t o f t h e sepoy r e g i m e n t s a f t e r t h e S i a l k o t mutiny the Government of the Punjab was greatly r e -l i e v e d of i t s anxiety about the t r a n q u i l i t y of the province and i t had decided, even before r e c e i v i n g Wilson's urgent message f o r m©re men, "to r i s k sending more reinforcements 46 to D e lhi." As said e a r l i e r General Wilson was i n urgent need of European and Sikh i n f a n t r y . By the end of July the Punjab Government had enough Sikhs f o r Wilson, because the r e c r u i t -ment of the Sikhs from the d i s t r i c t s of Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Jullundur, Hoshiarpur, and Ludhiana—the d i s t r i c t s i n which the percentage of the Sikh population was higher than other 47 areas—had been e s p e c i a l l y successful. Some of these newly raised Sikh regiments were charged with the duty of guarding the Hindustani Sepoys and about 1,300 European i n f a n t r y were r e l i e v e d by the Sikhs. I t was these Europeans who formed a part of the reinforcements of 4,200 men that l e f t f o r Delhi during the l a t t e r h a l f of J u l y . A f t e r these reinforcements were gone only about 5,000 Europeans were l e f t with the 48 Punjab Government. Even a f t e r sending heavy reinforcements to Delhi i n July the Punjab Government did not slacken i t s e f f o r t s to contribute to the recapture of Delhi, because the Chief Com-missioner believed that a B r i t i s h r e t r e a t from Delhi would spark r e b e l l i o n i n the Punjab. Besides, John Lawrence f e l t that r e t r e a t farom Delhi would make him lose face, since i t was at h i s i n s i s t e n c e that the F i e l d Force was sent to Delhi i n the f i r s t place. "On every p r i n c i p l e of honour and p o l i c y , 781 I was bound to keep the troops there u n t i l the place f e l l , 49 or aid a r r i v e d from England," Lawrence confessed l a t e r . Therefore, to defend h i s set p o l i c y and strategy during the mutiny, as well as his personal honour, John Lawrence l e f t no source of strength untapped to make i t unnecessary f o r General Wilson to r e t r e a t from D e l h i . Accordingly, e a r l y i n August, on learning that the B r i t i s h cavalry strength before Delhi was i n s u f f i c i e n t , the Chief Commissioner forthwith ordered the creation of a new corps of Sikh Cavalry at Lahore, and when he was encouraged by a hearty response from the Sikhs he soon began to think of r a i s i n g one more cavalry regiment of S i k h s . 5 0 Meanwhile the Chief Commissioner also secured the help of the Maharaja of Kashmir, who contributed an a u x i l i a r y force of 2,640 Dogra s o l d i e r s f o r the siege of D e l h i . Putting the Dogra contingent under the command of h i s younger brother, Captain R. Lawrence, the Chief Commissioner 51 despatched i t to Delhi. A wing of the Belooch B a t t a l i o n , which had f r e s h l y a r r i v e d from Sind, and a f i r s t c l a s s siege t r a i n from Ferozepur were also put on the move towards De l h i . Then, soon a f t e r , making hi s l a s t e f f o r t to enhance the e f -fectiveness of General Wilson's besieging army, John Lawrence ordered to Delhi the l a s t a v a i l a b l e Europeans and the Sikh and Gurkha troops i n Nicholson's Moveable Column. And with the departure of these reinforcements the anxiety of the Chief Commissioner and h i s colleagues to hear encour-aging news from Delhi also heightened. The strained mood of the Punjab a u t h o r i t i e s at t h i s time was described by Temple, 79 the author of the Fourth Punjab Administration Report, i n the following terms: When these reinforcements had started f o r Delhi, the die was f i n a l l y cast; the supreme e f f o r t had been made; the cup had been drained to i t s l a s t drop; the chord had been strained almost to breaking . . . I f Delhi were taken, the successful course of the Punjab Administration would remain uninterrupted. I f , with the l a s t a id, Delhi were not taken, and that speedily, there would then be a struggle not only f o r European dominion, but even f o r European existence, within the Punjab i t s e l f . 5 2 With aid from the Punjab and, presumably, also as a r e s u l t of John Lawrence•s clamour against the idea of a r e -t r e a t , General Wilson quickly made up h i s mind to stay on the Ridge. In a l e t t e r to the Lieutenant-Governor of the North-western Provinces, Wilson revealed h i s new determination, as well as his hopes and apprehensions: I t i s my determination to hold my present p o s i t i o n and to r e s i s t every attack. The ene-my are very numerous—may possibly break through our entrenchments and overwhelm us, but t h i s force w i l l die at t h e i r post. L u c k i l y the enemy have no head and no method, and we hear dissensions are breaking out among them. Rein-forcements are coming up under Nicholson; i f we can hold on t i l l they a r r i v e we s h a l l be secure.53 Fresh reinforcements from the Punjab kept pouring i n t o the B r i t i s h camp before Delhi through the month of August. As body a f t e r body of soldiers—Europeans, Sikhs, and Gurkhas— arriv e d the clouds of gloom and depression that hung over the war-weary camp for the l a s t two months gradually began to l i f t . F eelings of s e c u r i t y and the hope of s u c c e s s f u l l y ending the long struggle s t e a d i l y became stronger. Fresh supplies and provisions, also coming from the Punjab, made camp; l i f e 80 p l e a s a n t e r . I n s p i t e o f t h e d a i l y s k i r m i s h e s w i t h t h e m u t i -n e e r s , and t h e o c c a s i o n a l b u r s t i n g o f enemy r o c k e t s i n t h e h e a r t o f t h e camp, t h e e v e n i n g s became m e r r i e r . The m a r t i a l 54 t u n e s o f t h e S i k h band l i v e n e d up t h e h o u r s o f dusk, w h i l e t h e g r o g - d r i n k i n g p a r t i e s o f t h e European, S i k h , and Gurkha s o l d i e r s i n d u l g e d i n a f t e r - d i n n e r g o s s i p , b e t r a y i n g no s t r a i n s o f war, e i t h e r i n t h e i r p h y s i q u e s o r on t h e i r s p i r i t s . B u t f a r more i n s p i r i n g t h a n t h e g r o g and t h e m a r t i a l music was, f o r the s o l d i e r s , t h e p r e s e n c e now i n t h e camp o f a f i n e and i m p o s i n g - l o o k i n g o f f i c e r , t h e e x t e r m i n a t o r o f t h e r e b e l s i n the P u n j a b , " t h e h u r r i c a n e o f t h e n o r t h " — J o h n N i c h o l s o n . I n s p i t e o f t h e s t e a d y f l o w o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t s f r o m t h e P u n j a b and t h e renewed atmosphere o f hope and c o n f i d e n c e , G e n e r a l W i l s o n , t h e commander o f the F i e l d F o r c e , gave no i n -d i c a t i o n as t o when he would o r d e r an a t t a c k on t h e c i t y . C a l c u l a t i n g as e v e r , W i l s o n i n f a c t d i d n o t want t o s e t t l e t h i s q u e s t i o n w i t h o u t l e a r n i n g once more about G e n e r a l H a v e l o c k ' s p o s i t i o n . 5 5 W i l s o n n o t o n l y hoped t o g e t a i d from H a v e l o c k b u t a l s o e x p e c t e d t o r e c e i v e t h r o u g h him i n t e l -l i g e n c e r e g a r d i n g the whereabouts o f t h e r e g i m e n t s c a l l e d back from C h i n a and some news about the l o n g overdue h e l p f r o m B r i t a i n . The c o u n t r y between D e l h i and C a l c u t t a , how- " e v e r , was so d i s t u r b e d a t t h i s t i m e t h a t a l m o s t a news b l a c k -o u t p r e v a i l e d o v e r t h a t a r e a . Once i n a w h i l e some fragmen-t a r y i n t e l l i g e n c e r e a c h e d D e l h i t h r o u g h s p i e s , b u t such b i t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n gave no c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e s t r e n g t h . a n d movement o f B r i t i s h f o r c e s i n t h e d i s t r i c t s e a s t and s o u t h 81 of D e l h i . Yet Wilson persevered; he was not a rash s o l d i e r . But h i s overcarefulness and his p e r s i s t e n t s i l e n c e on the question of time of assault on the c i t y soon began to annoy h i s colleagues and as the month neared an end the demurrings at Wilson's p o l i c y of delaying the assault became louder and louder. However, Wilson remained f i r m and waited, hopefully, f o r a d d i t i o n a l a i d from the east, quite unaware that h i s hopes were already doomed. Wilson did not know that the European regiments which returned to Calcutta from China and the Mauritius i n l a t e J u l y were, upon disembarkation, immediately assigned to the task of q u e l l i n g the r e b e l l i o n around Patna i n Bihar province and even General Havelock would not get any part of t h i s 3,000 strong force u n t i l peace returned to the d i s t r i c t s between Patna and C a l c u t t a . 5 6 Wilson was also unaware that so f a r not even one s o l d i e r from England had landed on Indian s o i l . Since news took weeks to t r a v e l between India and B r i t a i n , i t could not be even guessed what measures the Home Government had adopted to supply reinforcements to the Indian Government. Nevertheless, the long and strained period of expecting reinforcements from B r i t a i n was slowly beginning to demoralize Wilson's Europeans. L i t t l e d i d the Europeans before Delhi know that the Home Government did not regard the c r i s i s i n India as d i s -concerting and c e r t a i n l y not a threat to Her Majesty's Indian Empire as some opposition members l i k e the E a r l of 57 Ellenborough described i t . And the reasons why grave 82 apprehensions did not a r i s e i n the minds of the Home author-i t i e s appear to be twofold. F i r s t , f o r t h e i r knowledge of the developments i n India, the B r i t i s h Government depended on o f f i c i a l communications from the Government of India, which were few and f a r between. By mid-July the B r i t i s h Government had received, f o r example, only three or four o f f i c i a l mutiny reports sent by e l e c t r i c telegraph from India. The problem of distance and communications made i t impossible f o r the B r i t i s h Government to grasp the f u l l i n t e n s i t y of the c r i s i s i n India. Second, the disclosures made by the India Government's mutiny communications concerning the steadfast-ness and l o y a l t y of the P u n j a b i s — t h e people whose war-like q u a l i t i e s became too well known to the Britons only eight years ago during the Sikh Wars-—persuaded the B r i t i s h Govern-5 8 ment not to regard the sepoy mutiny as a complete d i s a s t e r . In short, the B r i t i s h Government believed that the Indian c r i s i s warranted the despatch of some troops to India, but, as Lord Panmure, the Secretary of State f o r War, indicated on May 19, 185 7, the Government were i n no hurry to despatch troops to India, e s p e c i a l l y during i t s " p e c u l i a r l y unhealthy 59 season of the year." I t was not u n t i l J uly that four thousand B r i t i s h s o l -d i ers l e f t B r i t a i n f o r India. Most of them were transported i n s a i l i n g ships which, i n compliance with the orders of the Home Government, took the usual route round the Cape. Why the Government did not employ f a s t e r steam ships was not c l e a r l y explained by the a u t h o r i t i e s . However, a private l e t t e r written by a senior m i l i t a r y o f f i c e r i n B r i t a i n to his 83 son-in-law i n India gave some clue to the r e c i p i e n t of the l e t t e r as to why the Home Government decided against the em-ployment of steamers. The reason explained i n the l e t t e r was: France has larger body of seamen (upwards of one hundred and twenty thousand maritime able-bodied men against our f o r t y thousand)—We cannot send out our war-steamers with the troops—We cannot spare them, or, rather man them . . . You can understand why war-steamers were not employed by our Government with the troops f o r I n d i a . ^ On the other hand, during a long and heated debate, i n which the Opposition l e d by D i s r a e l i charged the Government with underrating the danger to the B r i t i s h p o s i t i o n i n India, Vernon Smith, President of the Board of Control, explained i n the Commons on August 14, 1857, that the troops were sent to India by the usual, long route round the Cape because the conveyance of the troops across the Isthmus of Suez during the hot season would be i n j u r i o u s , i n the Government's view, to the health of the Europeans. 6 1 The Home Government's disc l o s u r e of i t s reasons f o r » sending the troops to India by the Cape route i n s a i l i n g ships was received with mixed reactions i n B r i t a i n . While supporting the Government's e f f o r t s to suppress the mutiny, The Times, i n a sp e c i a l e d i t o r i a l , shared the regret expres-sed by many Members of Parliament that the obvious advantages afforded by B r i t a i n ' s mechanical inventions and the overland route to India were not exploited, and at the same time i t castigated the p o l i t i c i a n s , the leader of the Opposition i n p a r t i c u l a r , f o r indulging i n "professional prejudice" and 62 " o f f i c i a l pedantry" during a dangerous c r i s i s . 84 Two weeks l a t e r the texts of the speeches de l i v e r e d i n the House of Commons during the debate of August 11 were also published i n India. The Europeans i n the army before Delhi eagerly read a l l the speeches. However, the President of the Board of Control's speech caused much excitement among the Europeans i n the camp behind the Ridge. Describing t h e i r reaction Keith Young wrote to h i s wife: "We had a l l the speeches read out at mess l a s t night, and we decided the--President of the Board of Control, Vernon Smith, i s a donkey 63 and noodle!" The l a t e s t news from B r i t a i n , and the long s i l e n c e of General Havelock, f i n a l l y convinced the Europeans i n Wilson's army that there was l i t t l e hope of rec e i v i n g timely aid ei t h e r from B r i t a i n or from the d i s t r i c t s between Calcutta and Delhi. Yet despite t h e i r disappointment with the Home Government and t h e i r anxiety to know about Havelock's p o s i -t i o n , they began to f e e l hopeful during the l a s t days of August that, with the reinforcements from the Punjab pouring i n day and night, the c i t y would soon f a l l . Moreover, i n -s p i r i n g o f f i c e r s l i k e Nicholson gradually began to p u l l the army out of i t s state of lethargy and overcautiousness. As a r e s u l t of t h i s f r e s h i n s p i r a t i o n and renewed a c t i v i t y a spectacular v i c t o r y was won on August 25. During the e a r l y morning hours of that day a moveable column, c o n s i s t i n g of two European and two Sikh corps, some cavalry, and sixteen 64 guns, l e f t the camp under Nicholson's command and went i n the d i r e c t i o n of a town c a l l e d Najafgarh with the object of 85 i n t e r c e p t i n g t h e enemy who, i t was r e p o r t e d , had moved o u t i n c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r e n g t h t o a t t a c k t h e B r i t i s h camp f r o m t h e r e a r . The i n t e l l i g e n c e r e g a r d i n g t h e enemy's p o s i t i o n was a c c u r a t e . The Neemuch b r i g a d e o f the r e b e l s was a t N a j a f g a r h i n f u l l f o r c e and i t s s u p p o r t i n g B a r e i l l y b r i g a d e o f G e n e r a l Bakht Khan was camped a few m i l e s b e h i n d a t Palam. About f o u r i n t h e a f t e r n o o n N i c h o l s o n f e l l upon t h e Neemuch b r i g a d e . F i e r c e f i g h t i n g l a s t e d f o r f o u r h o u r s . The r e b e l s were c o m p l e t e l y r o u t e d . The B a r e i l l y b r i g a d e n e v e r came up t o s u p p o r t t h e Neemuch b r i g a d e d u r i n g t h e engagement. The S i k h s under N i c h o l s o n ' s command f o u g h t b r a v e l y and s u f f e r e d t h e h e a v i e s t l o s s e s i n t h e moveable column. T h i r t e e n guns and many ammunition wagons o f t h e r e b e l s f e l l i n t o B r i t i s h w ^ 65 hands. N i c h o l s o n ' s v i c t o r y a t N a j a f g a r h r a i s e d t h e m o r a l e o f t h e F i e l d F o r c e , because n o t h i n g l i k e t h i s had t a k e n p l a c e 66 s i n c e t h e t a k i n g o f t h e Ric^ge f rom t h e m u t i n e e r s on June 8. A f t e r t h e N a j a f g a r h v i c t o r y few i n t h e B r i t i s h camp r e m a i n e d s k e p t i c a l about t h e r e c a p t u r e o f D e l h i i n t h e near f u t u r e . And when i t was h e a r d t h a t a f i r s t r a t e s i e g e t r a i n f r o m t h e P u n j a b was o n l y a few days away, the c o n j e c t u r e s about t h e coming day o f t h e a s s a u l t became w i l d e r and b o l d e r . The work o f c l e a r i n g t h e ground on t h e e a s t e r n s l o p e s o f t h e R i d g e , w h i c h went on i n c e s s a n t l y f o r d a y s , gave f u r t h e r i m p e t u s t o t h e s p e c u l a t i o n s about t h e day o f t h e a s s a u l t . But o n l y one m a n — G e n e r a l W i l s o n — k n e w when t h a t f a t e f u l day was t o be. I f N i c h o l s o n ' s v i c t o r y b r i g h t e n e d the B r i t i s h p r o s -p e c t s o f s u c c e s s f u l l y e n d i n g t h e D e l h i c a mpaign, i t 86 p r o d u c e d a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y d e m o r a l i z i n g e f f e c t on t h e s e p o y s . As a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e i r d e f e a t a t N a j a f g a r h t h e sepoys o f t h e Neemuch b r i g a d e on t h e i r r e t u r n t o t h e c i t y l o s t no ti m e i n h u r l i n g c h a r g e s o f b e t r a y a l a t Bakht Khan and h i s B a r e i l l y b r i g a d e . Soon t h e r e c r i m i n a t i o n s between t h e two b r i g a d e s became v e r y ominous. B e s i d e s t h i s p e r p e t u a l r i v a l r y between t h e s e two b r i g a d e s , t h i n g s i n g e n e r a l had a l s o shown l i t t l e improvement under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e C o u r t w h i c h was s e t up by t h e K i n g f o r t h e c o n d u c t o f t h e s i e g e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e sepoys t h e m s e l v e s t h e C o u r t had c r e a t e d " c o n f u s i o n 6 7 worse c o n f o u n d e d . " The mercenary a t t i t u d e o f t h e sepoys a l s o d i d n o t change. Because B r i t i s h v i g i l a n c e had l a t e l y made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e sepoys t o send o u t r e v e n u e - c o l l e c t -i n g p a r t i e s , t h e i r demands f o r money became i n c r e a s i n g l y un-b e a r a b l e f o r t h e K i n g and h i s s u b j e c t s . The m u t i n e e r s once even t h r e a t e n e d t o i m p r i s o n t h e K i n g ' s f a v o u r i t e Queen u n l e s s t h e i r pay was g i v e n w i t h i n two weeks. To escape t h i s i n d i g -n i t y t h e K i n g and Queen were o b l i g e d t o make o v e r t h e i r s i l -68 v e r a r t i c l e s t o t h e s e p o y s . But even t h i s g e s t u r e f r o m t h e r o y a l hands f a i l e d t o s a t i s f y t h e g r e e d o f t h e m u t i n e e r s and the K i n g f i n a l l y o r d e r e d t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h r e e months' r e n t 69 f r o m e v e r y shop and house i n hxs c i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s e e i n g no p r o s p e c t s o f g e t t i n g t h e i r r e g u l a r pay many sepoys l e f t t h e c i t y . I n t r u t h t h e sepoys had been d e s e r t i n g D e l h i e v e r s i n c e t h e B r i t i s h r e i n f o r c e m e n t s f r o m t h e P u n j a b had s t a r t e d t o a r r i v e i n e a r l y A u g u s t ; however, sepoy d e s e r t i o n s f r o m t h e c i t y had i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y a f t e r t h e t h r a s h i n g 87 70 they received from Nicholson at Najafgarh. The sepoys who remained i n the c i t y were disorganized and demoralized and they f r a n t i c a l l y hoped f o r help from the native regiments stationed i n the Punjab. In desperation they once again despatched the autographed royal l e t t e r s to the native p r i n -ces urging them to j o i n the struggle against the English, also t e l l i n g the princes that the King wished to form a con-71 federacy of states. As the month of September began the whole c i t y was suddenly seized with panic at the< a r r i v a l of the s i e g e - t r a i n i n the B r i t i s h camp. The c i t i z e n s locked the doors of t h e i r shops and homes. The prices of food soared overnight and the Court found i t necessary to order the p o l i c e to f i x p r i -ces every day. The mounting panic gave the bad characters and the roaming sepoys a f r e e r hand i n plundering shops and houses. Amidst t h i s atmosphere of mounting tension and fear General Bakht Khan reported to the King on September 5 that the B r i t i s h were erecting t h e i r breaching b a t t e r i e s be-fore the Kashmir Gate. Two days l a t e r the m i l i t a r y Court under the King issued a proclamation urging every s o l d i e r and c i t i z e n to attack the B r i t i s h camp with f u l l force on September 8, and the Court promised to give rewards to those 72 "who made prisoners of Gurkhas, Sikhs, or English." But on the very morning of the day designated f o r the attack, B r i t i s h guns began thundering and batter i n g at the Kashmir and Mori Gates. 88 Although the B r i t i s h siege guns began pounding the walls of Delhi, General Wilson s t i l l showed hi s skepticism about the a d v i s a b i l i t y of an assault on the c i t y . As he ex-plained afterwards, he did not at the time believe that the assault should take place u n t i l more reinforcements, possibly 73 from the eastern d i s t r i c t s , joined him. In the camp, how-ever, there were o f f i c e r s who vehemently deplored Wilson's i n d e c i s i o n and caution. They f e l t that the siege of Delhi had reached i t s most c r i t i c a l stage and that the long con-f l i c t had already caused enough f r u s t r a t i o n i n the minds of the men. The Sikhs i n p a r t i c u l a r , they observed, were be-coming r e s t l e s s with the seemingly unending campaign. Even i n the Punjab the Sikh population was slowly becoming d i s -i l l u s i o n e d with the B r i t i s h power. In short, by the f i r s t week of September the Sikhs had begun to wonder whether they 74 were on the winning side i n the c o n f l i c t . To add to the seriousness of the s i t u a t i o n the Punjabi Mohammedans, also encouraged by the i n a b i l i t y of the B r i t i s h to recapture 75 Delhi, began to think of r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g Islamic r u l e . The delay i n retaking Delhi was, therefore, becoming d a i l y more ominous and no one i n the B r i t i s h camp better understood the nature of the danger that could a r i s e from the growing di s i l l u s i o n m e n t of the Sikhs with the B r i t i s h power than such f i r s t - r a t e o f f i c e r s as Brigadier Nicholson, Chamberlain, who was the Acting Adjutant-General i n the F i e l d Force, Becher, Quarter-Master-General, and Lieutenant H o d s o n — a l l of whom fought against the Sikhs and had been with the Sikh regiments 89 since the end of the Sikh Wars. These o f f i c e r s from the Punjab avowedly opposed General Wilson's p o l i c y of delaying the assault any f u r t h e r . The dispute between General Wilson and these o f f i c e r s f i n a l l y reached a point where these men, l e d by Nicholson, whom the Chief Commissioner of the Punjab had s p e c i a l l y commissioned to recapture Delhi, were almost ready to repudiate the authority of t h e i r commander. Fortu-nately Wilson succumbed to the weight of opinion of his oppo-nents and a l l concerned were spared the embarrassment and tragedy. The seriousness of the dispute, however, was brought to l i g h t by Nicholson i n his l e t t e r of September 11 to John Lawrence. Revealing his readiness to disown Wilson's authority Nicholson wrote to the Chief Commissioner: "Had Wilson c a r r i e d out h i s threat of withdrawing the guns, I was quite prepared to appeal to the army to set him aside and 76 e l e c t a successor!" Meanwhile the bartering at the Kashmir and Mori Gates which had begun on September 8 continued r e l e n t l e s s l y f o r f i v e more days. By the morning of September 13 the enemy guns on the two bastions were silenced by the siege b a t t e r i e s and the enemy r e p l i e d only with musketry f i r e . Next morning the Kashmir and Mori bastions lay i n ruins and the B r i t i s h -guns suddenly stopped pouring shots on the walls. A party of eight B r i t i s h and Indian miners and sappers went daringly forward and i n the face of enemy f i r e blew up the Kashmir Gate. The bugler then sounded the advance and the attack began. Three columns, includ i n g Brigadier Nicholson's, 90 stormed the breaches at Kashmir Gate and despite the heavy f i r e of the enemy, who lay concealed behind the walls, suc-c e s s f u l l y ascended the breaches and got i n s i d e the c i t y . But the fourth column that was to enter the c i t y through the Lahore Gate f a i l e d to achieve i t s objective and was forced to r e t i r e . After heavy f i g h t i n g the three columns that success-f u l l y took the Kashmir Gate bastion cleared away the rebels as f a r as Kabul Gate and the Jama Masjid; but a f t e r that the f i r i n g by the enemy from the houses became r e a l l y treacher-ous. At that point Brigadier Nicholson, while urging h i s s o l d i e r s to advance further through the narrow s t r e e t s , was mortally wounded. An eye-witness account of Nicholson's death and the advance i n the streets by Sikh and European s o l d i e r s was r e l a t e d by an o f f i c e r of the 1st European Bengal F u s i l i e r s : In one charge, Nicholson, our best and bravest, was struck down . . . and I, i n reforming the r e -giment f o r a renewed attempt, was shot through the r i g h t shoulder . . . Out of our small party, seven o f f i c e r s and many, very many men had f a l l e n . I t was f e l t to be madness to continue the struggle where the enemy had a l l the advantage, and the troops were withdrawn to the Cabul Gate, but the B r i t i s h and Sikh s o l d i e r s had done t h e i r work, they had opened the road f o r our u n r i v a l l e d a r t i l -l e r y to bring i n t h e i r guns, and i n s i x days they cleared the c i t y with very t r i f l i n g loss on our side. 7*7 Those s i x days a f t e r the assault, however, were very t r y i n g f o r General Wilson. Only a day a f t e r the assault the European s o l d i e r s presented Wilson with a serious d i s c i p l i n e problem. The unlimited stock of l i q u o r robbed from the shops became a tempting source of d i s t r a c t i o n . The drinking 9 1 o r g y o f t h e E u r o p e a n s s t o p p e d o n l y a f t e r a l l t h e l i q u o r w a s d e s t r o y e d u n d e r G e n e r a l W i l s o n ' s o r d e r s a n d t h e " w o r k o f d e s t r u c t i o n w a s c a r r i e d o u t c h i e f l y b y t h e S i k h s a n d P u n j a b i s , a n d t h e w a s t e d d r i n k r a n i n s t r e a m s t h r o u g h t h e c o n d u i t s o f 78 t h e c i t y . " F u r t h e r m o r e , some o f W i l s o n ' s b e s t o f f i c e r s h a d e i t h e r b e e n k i l l e d o r w o u n d e d d u r i n g t h e a t t a c k . B i t t e r s t r e e t f i g h t i n g a n d f i r e f r o m t h e h o u s e s e n g e n d e r e d a c t s o f d i s o b e d i e n c e . L a m e n t i n g t h e l o w m o r a l e o f t h e E u r o p e a n s a t t h a t t i m e L i e u t e n a n t H o d s o n w r o t e t o h i s w i f e : We a r e m a k i n g s l o w p r o g r e s s i n t h e c i t y . T h e f a c t i s , t h e t r o o p s a r e u t t e r l y d e m o r a l i z e d b y h a r d w o r k a n d h a r d d r i n k , I g r i e v e t o s a y . F o r t h e f i r s t t i m e i n my l i f e I h a v e h a d t o s e e E n g l i s h s o l d i e r s r e f u s e t o f o l l o w t h e i r o f f i c e r s . 7 " A c t s o f l o o t i n g a n d i n d i s c r i m i n a t e k i l l i n g o f m a l e c i t i z e n s a l s o b o r e h a r d o n W i l s o n ' s c o n s c i e n c e . I n s p i t e o f h i s w a r n i n g b e f o r e t h e a s s a u l t t h a t t h e p l u n d e r i n g o f t h e c i t i z e n s i n s i d e t h e c i t y w o u l d n o t b e t o l e r a t e d , b o t h t h e E u r o p e a n s a n d t h e S i k h s p l u n d e r e d t h e r i c h e s o f D e l h i . C o n f e s s i n g t h a t h e n e a r l y y i e l d e d t o t e m p t a t i o n o n o n e o c c a s i o n , G r e a t h e a d w r o t e t o h i s w i f e : " T h e men w e r e b r e a k i n g o p e n t h e h e r m e t i -c a l l y s e a l e d c a s e s w i t h t h e i r b a y o n e t s . Y o u may i m a g i n e t h a t t h e c h e e s e s a n d b a c o n d i d n o t r e m a i n l o n g . T h e r e w e r e some c h a n d e l i e r s t o w h i c h I t h i n k I h a d some r i g h t , b u t I 8 0 am a p o o r p l u n d e r e r . " F o r t u n a t e l y t h e s o l d i e r s d i d n o t h a r m women a n d c h i l d r e n , t h o u g h t h e mad e x c i t e m e n t o f t h e E u r o p e a n s a n d S i k h s o l d i e r s , i t w a s f e a r e d , c o u l d l e a d t h e m 8 1 t o a n y a m o u n t o f c r i m e . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e i n d i s c r i m i n a t e k i l l i n g o f t h e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e c i t y r u i n e d , a c c o r d i n g 92 to the contemporary Urdu poetfcGJialib, the hopes of the peace-loving citizens and even of many a well-wisher of the B r i t i s h . Escape from the city,Gfealib further attested, was in fact the only way l e f t for the citizens to save their lives and thousands made good their escape in time through the A jmer , Turkman, and D e l h i Gates which remained in the hands of the mutineers for a few more days after the launch-82 ing of the assault on September 14. The constant cannonading by the B r i t i s h of the sepoy concentrations near the A j m e r , Turkman, and D e l h i Gates added to the misfortunes of the citizens of D e l h i . However, the constant shelling of the enemy positions was the only way to decimate the enemy, because with the discipline of his force reaching a breaking point and his men dying every hour from the treacherous f i r e from the houses, Genera l W i l s o n could not order his remaining force of 3,100 men to continue their advance towards the enemy positions. B r i t i s h a r t i l l e r y f i r e produced the desired results. The disheartened sepoys kept fleeing from the c i t y and Wi l son's force slowly crept on to-ward the other end of the c i t y . By September 19 most sepoys were gone and their guns on the P a l a c e walls had also f a l l e n silent. And i t was learnt that the rebels who s t i l l offered resistance in the ci t y were about a hundred S i k h prisoners 8 3 who had earlier escaped from Agra j a i l . However, these last embers of resistance also died out by the morning of September 20 and the P a l a c e and the whole c i t y were once again in B r i t i s h hands. Next day the K i n g and his family, 93 who had evacuated the Palace and were hiding i n Hamayun's tomb, were captured by Lieutenant Hodson, who, while bringing the royal prisoners back to Delhi, shot three princes to 84 death with h i s own carbine. A day l a t e r on September 22, General Wilson wrote from the Palace, which he had turned i n t o ..his temporary head quarters, h i s f i n a l report regarding the operations of h i s force during the three-month siege of Delhi and paying h i s tribute of gratitude to the Sikhs and the Punjab Government f o r t h e i r invaluable help to him Wilson said: Of the l o y a l services rendered to the State by the Rajah of P u t t i a l a , which must be so well known to the Government, i t may not be considered neces-sary f o r me to speak; but i t i s incumbent on me i n my capacity as Commander of t h i s Force to acknowr ledge o f f i c i a l l y the great assistance the Rajah's troops have afforded me i n enabling the numerous convoys of ammunition and stores to t r a v e l i n s e c u r i t y and safety to my camp under t h e i r escort and protection. Equally it; 1$ my duty to bring prominently to the notice of Government the admirable service performed by the Jheend Rajah and h i s troops under command of Lieutr-Colonel H. F. Dunsford. They have not only had very harassing duties to carry out i n the constant escort of convoys of sick and wounded men, ammunition, etc., but they have also aided i n the F i e l d on more than one occasion, and f i n a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the assault of the C i t y . L a s t l y , I t r u s t I may be excused i f I thus p u b l i c l y acknowledge the all-important and i n -valuable aid f o r which I am indebted to the Chief Commissioner of the Punjab, S i r John Lawrence, K. C. B., to whose indefatigable exertions i n r e -i n f o r c i n g me with every a v a i l a b l e s o l d i e r i n the Punjab, the successful r e s u l t of our operation i s , I h e s i t a t i n g l y pronounce, a t t r i b u t a b l e . . . .® 5 94 The f a l l of Delhi was a turning point i n the course of the sepoy mutiny and Wilson's v i c t o r y broke the backbone of the rebel strength. How r e l i e v e d the Government of India f e l t at Wilson's v i c t o r y was revealed i n one of t h e i r s p e c i a l n o t i -f i c a t i o n s which said:-Delhi, the focus of the treason and r e v o l t f o r four months have harassed Hindustan, and the strong-hold i n which the Mutinous Army of Bengal has sought to concentrate i t s power, has been wrested from the rebels . . . Before a single s o l d i e r of the many thousands who are hastening from England to uphold the supremacy of the B r i t i s h Power has set foot on these shores, the Rebel Force . . . has been des-troyed or scattered by an army c o l l e c t e d within the l i m i t s of the North-Western Provinces and the Punjab alone. The work has been done before the support of those Battalions which have been c o l l e c -ted i n Bengal from the Forces of the Queen i n China and i n Her Majesty's Eastern Colonies could reach Major-General Wilson's Army . . . . And i n t h e i r General Orders of October 8, 1857, the Govern-ment of India paid glowing t r i b u t e s to the endurance and 8 7 bravery of General Wilson and h i s troops. The l o y a l ser-v i c e s of the Sikh c h i e f s were acknowledge^by the Indian Gov-ernment very b e f i t t i n g l y i n a separate General Order, i n which the most g r a t i f y i n g l i n e s f o r the Sikh princes were: These true-hearted Chiefs, f a i t h f u l to t h e i r engagements, have shown t r u s t i n the power, honour, and f r i e n d s h i p of the B r i t i s h Government, and they w i l l not repent i t . Though Delhi, the stronghold of the mutineers,fell on September 20, the Sikhs remained i n action u n t i l the flames of r e b e l l i o n were completely extinguished. During the months following the end of the Delhi campaign, the Sikhs were not only employed to p a c i f y the d i s t r i c t s east of Delhi but also used to eliminate a f r e s h danger which threatened the peace of the Punjab. During the l a s t week of the siege of 95 Delh i , the Punjab was rocked by the sudden u p r i s i n g of the Mohammedans i n the Googaira d i s t r i c t near Multan. In f a c t , the kindred Mohammedan t r i b e s of south-western Punjab and Sind had been d i s a f f e c t e d since the outbreak of the sepoy mu-89 tiny,- and even the Mohammedan Nawab of Bahawalpur state was suspected of t r a i t o r o u s i n t e n t i o n s . However, these Mohammedan t r i b e s , unaware of what had a c t u a l l y happened i n Delhi, were suddenly i n c i t e d by the rumours that the v i c t o r i o u s King of Delhi was personally coming to t h e i r country on a ro y a l e l e -phant for the purpose of meeting t h e i r leader, Ahmad Khan Kharral. Wild with excitement at these rumours about Islam's v i c t o r y , the whole country between Lahore and Multan rose i n r e b e l l i o n . The rebel Kharral, Lungral, and Kathia t r i b e s burnt down many po l i c e and c i v i l s t a t i o n s . The Chief Commis-sioner assigned the duty of suppressing t h i s r e b e l l i o n to a 90 force c o n s i s t i n g of European and Sikh infantrymen. On reaching the Kharral t e r r i t o r y the punitive force attacked the rebels who had gathered i n the bush of the barren t r a c t s . Ahmad Khan and h i s sons were k i l l e d on September 20, but the r e b e l l i o n was not quelled u n t i l the end of October. Through-out t h i s expedition the Sikhs behaved g a l l a n t l y . E s p e c i a l l y conspicuous i n t h i s campaign was the bravery of the old Sikh s o l d i e r s . One of them, Sirdar Nihal Singh Chachi, who was also the orderly o f f i c e r to the Chief Commissioner, was woun-91 ded i n the leg during a melee. Besides taking an active part i n t h i s campaign, the Sikhs also maintained law and order i n the neighbouring d i s t r i c t s of Jhang and Gujranwala where the Mohammedans were sympathetic with the Kharral 96 r e b e l s . The newly r a i s e d Sikh l e v i e s overawed the Mohammedan population and peace i n the neighbouring d i s t r i c t s continued 92 unbroken. In the d i s t r i c t s to the east of Delhi, the Sikhs also rendered, before and a f t e r the f a l l of Delhi, notable services to the B r i t i s h . The Sikhs served, f o r example, under General Havelock during h i s advance toward Lucknow. The beleaguered garrison of Europeans i n the Lucknow Residency was also f a i t h -f u l l y served by the Sikhs. The deeds of the s i x t y Sikh horse-men, swho were with the garrison, greatly contributed to the safety of the Europeans during the long siege (June 30 to September 25) and to t h e i r eventual rescue. R e s i s t i n g threats and temptations from the besieging rebels t h i s handful of g a l -l a n t Sikhs made s o r t i e s , repaired breaches, counter-mined the enemy, gathered i n t e l l i g e n c e , kept watch at night and lent every help to sustain the besieged Europeans. However, dur-ing the eighty-seven days of the siege, every Sikh, l i k e any other soul sheltered behind the Residency walls, also hoped for his own s u r v i v a l . And during the moments of extreme dan-ger, some odd Sikh may have prac t i s e d the maxim which says " d i s c r e t i o n i s the better part of valour," but there never was an instance of defection or betrayal by any Sikh. During the siege many o f f i c e r s i n the garrison recorded the deeds of these Sikh horsemen, but the following two accounts, found i n Captain Birch's diary of J u l y 26, narrated very bold, and amusing, e x p l o i t s of the Sikhs: The v i g i l a n c e of the enemy had at t h i s time a l i t t l e relaxed, though they s t i l l surrounded us i n 97 great numbers. We managed to make several s o r t i e s to examine t h e i r ground. I was i n one i n command of the Sikhs of my regiment . . . A laughable incident occurred on one of these s o r t i e s . One of my Sikhs, A l i a Singh, a man of great muscular strength but small heart, hid himself when we started, and on our return dropped down from the wall amongst the party, hoping to escape notice; he was discovered, and his cowardice l o s t him h i s promotion.93 Describing the second episode Birc h wrote i n h i s diary: The enemy were undermining us from several d i -r e c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y about the Sikh square . . . Our mines were worked so as to meet t h e i r s . . . We were, however, much annoyed by the proximity of the houses, which made these mines possible . . . several s o r t i e s on a small scale were made to blow up these houses. As soon as one was cleared, Captain Fulton appeared on the scene accompanied by a muscular Sikh, Hooku«| Singh, who could carry a b a r r e l of powder on h i s back. On several occa-sions I and my Sikhs formed his escort. The pow-der was l a i d near the columns and corners of the bu i l d i n g . . . Captain Fulton was a super engineer . . . .94 The small garrison of Lucknow was f i n a l l y r e l i e v e d by European and Sikh i n f a n t r y commanded by Generals Havelock and Outram. The approach of the r e l i e v i n g force s t i r r e d great excitement among the members of the beleaguered garrison. One of them, Lady I n g l i s , penned her f e e l i n g s i n her diary of September 23 l i k e t h i s : As I was s i t t i n g i n a small room i n our Court . . . the sound of d i s t a n t guns struck my ear, and I s h a l l never forget the t h r i l l i n g sen-sation of hope and joy that f i l l e d my heart. Each boom seemed to say, 'We are coming to save you'.95 When the r e l i e v i n g force reached the gate of the Residency on September 25, the Sikhs and the Highlanders were i n i t s vanguard. On that memorable day Captain Birch recorded these l i n e s : 98 . . . they (the enemy cavalry) were the f i r s t to leave the c i t y ; w hilst the gunners and small-arm men s t i l l opposed the advance of the r e l i e v i n g force, and continued to f i r e upon us from a l l the b a t t e r i e s and loopholes i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n . The enthusiasm i n the garrison was tremendous, and only equalled by that of our r e l i e v e r s . H. M.'s 78th Highlanders and the 14th Sikhs raced up to our gate, which was earthed up, and which we did not dare to open, as the enemy kept up t h e i r f i r e t i l l the l a s t moment . . . I t was a sight never to be forgotten to see the hand-shaking and welcome between the r e l i e v e r s and the r e l i e v e d . Hirsute Sikhs and brawny Highlanders were seen taking up c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r arms and k i s s i n g them. Inqu i r i e s a f t e r r e l a t i o n s and friends were eager and a n x i o u s — a l a s ! i n too many instances to be met by the d o l e f u l t i d i n g s of death.96 At night the Sikhs celebrated t h e i r v i c t o r y , but t h e i r noisy merry-making robbed others of t h e i r much-needed sleep. The pen of Lady I n g l i s , however, graciously condoned the behaviour of the Sikhs. About the a f f a i r she wrote i n her diary: We found i t d i f f i c u l t to sleep at night owing to the noise going on amongst the Sikhs i n the square next to u s — a sound discordant to my ears, f o r i t seemed a time for solemn thankfulness, and not f o r noisy r e v e l r y ; s t i l l , one could not grudge the poor men t h e i r enjoyment: they had suffered and fought well, long, and nobly, and merited recr e a t i o n and r e s t . 9 7 The r e l i e f force c o n s i s t i n g of Sikhs and Highlanders sustained the garrison f o r f i f t y - o n e more days. On November 16, 1857, the Commander-in-Chief, C o l i n Campbell, a f t e r f i g h t i n g his way up from Kanpur, brought a force of s i x thou-sand Europeans and Sikhs to the Lucknow Residency. The Resi-dency was soon evacuated under General Campbell's orders and headquarters of the Commander-in-Chief were set up i n the Alam Bagh suburb. Women, c h i l d r e n , and the sick were sent o f f under escort to Allahabad. On November 24 General Havelock, under whose able command the f i r s t relieving force 99 had reached the Res idency on September 25, d i e d of d i a r r h o e a . L e a v i n g Genera l Outram a t Alam Bagh w i t h f o u r thousand S i k h s and Europeans the Commander- in-Chief r e t u r n e d t o Kanpur and d u r i n g the next t h r e e months mopped up the r e b e l s i n Oudh. By the end of F e b r u a r y , 1858, o n l y the c i t y of Lucknow r e -mained i n r e b e l hands . W i t h the d e f e a t e d mut ineers from D e l h i and o t h e r p a r t s of Oudh c o n s t a n t l y p o u r i n g i n t o Lucknow the r e b e l s t r e n g t h t h e r e had soared t o 120,000 men. T h e r e f o r e G e n e r a l Campbel l r e i n f o r c e d h i s army a t Kanpur , where f r e s h b o d i e s of S i k h i n f a n t r y m e n , horsemen, sappers and m i n e r s , a l l s e n t - b y the Punjab Government, as w e l l as the S i k h s and Europeans f rom G e n e r a l W i l s o n ' s v i c t o r i o u s army of D e l h i , j o i n ed the C o m m a n d e r - i n - C h i e f ' s camp. F i n a l l y Genera l C a m p b e l l ' s army, twenty thousand s t r o n g , composed of S i k h s and Europeans , 98 began i t s march i n t o Oudh on February 29. W i t h i n two weeks of i t s d e p a r t u r e f rom Kanpur , G e n e r a l C a m p b e l l ' s army was i n complete c o n t r o l of the suburbs o f Lucknow. On March 12, 1858, a Gurkha f o r c e of n e a r l y t e n thousand men, commanded p e r s o n a l l y by the Prime M i n i s t e r of N e p a l , Rana Jang Bahadur, a l s o came down t o take p a r t i n the f i n a l a s s a u l t on Lucknow. On March 13 Genera l C a m p b e l l ' s f o r c e s , supported on t h e i r l e f t by the Gurkhas , began t h e i r advance i n t o the u n w a l l e d c i t y o f t w e n t y - m i l e c i r c u m f e r e n c e and a f t e r two days o f heavy s t r e e t f i g h t i n g and c o n s t a n t s h e l l i n g o f enemy c o n c e n t r a t i o n s they l i q u i d a t e d r e b e l r e s i s -tance i n the c i t y . A week a f t e r the c a p t u r e of Lucknow the Commander- in-Chief s u b m i t t e d t o the G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l a 100 lengthy report on the Lucknow operations. Every account of major action given by General Campbell i n h i s report showed that the Sikhs had been indispensable f o r the capture of 99 Lucknow. In other towns of Hindustan, too, the help, or j u s t the presence, of the Sikh s o l d i e r s proved conducive to the continuance of B r i t i s h authority. In Benaras, the only place where a p a r t i a l mutiny i n a Sikh corps took place, the l o y a l part of the corps saved the l i v e s of the European r e s -i d e n t s . 1 0 0 And the p a r t i a l mutiny of t h i s Sikh c o r p s — t h e I r r e g u l a r Ludhiana Regiment—occurred i n Benaras not from any p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to d i s l o y a l t y on the part of the Sikhs but from the fear that the European battery intended to open f i r e on them too, as i t f o o l i s h l y d i d f i r e on the sepoys on June 4 at a time when they were being disarmed q u i e t l y and without trouble. Unwise moves on the part of Colonels Ponsonby and N e i l l of the Madras F u s i l i e r s , and t h e i r lack of experience with the Sikhs, p r e c i p i t a t e d the trouble i n B e n a r a s . 1 0 1 Yet the whole regiment of the Sikhs did not waver; i t s l o y a l part rendered good service and earned the thanks of the l o c a l Europeans. Again, i n the neighbouring c i t y of Allahabad, the Sikhs of the Ferozepur Regiment 102 saved the f o r t for the B r i t i s h . The heroic defence of Arrah, a small m i l i t a r y post i n the province of Bihar, by a handful of Sikhs with Mr. Boyle, an engineer of the r a i l -103 ways, earned a s p e c i a l mention i n the B r i t i s h Parliament. The presence of the Sikhs at Mhow deterred the d i s a f f e c t e d 1 0 1 s e p o y s f r o m b r e a k i n g i n t o a n o p e n m u t i n y . A n d h o w e f f e c -t i v e l y t h e S i k h s l i q u i d a t e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r 1 8 5 8 t h e l a s t v e s t i g e s o f t h e r e b e l l i o n w a s i l l u s t r a t e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g n e w s r e p o r t s w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n T h e T i m e s : S i k h s a n d S e p o y s . — A g u e r i l l a a f f a i r t o o k p l a c e n e a r D e h r e e , o n t h e 1 8 t h u l t i m o ( A u g u s t 1 8 , 1 8 5 8 ) . C a p t a i n R a t t r a y p i c k e d e i g h t men f r o m t h e S i k h r e g i m e n t , a n d d e s -p a t c h e d t h e m w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s t o b r i n g i n o r k i l l S u n g r a m S i n g h , a n o l d b l o o d - s t a i n e d s c o u n d r e l , w h o h a d c o m m i t t e d s e v e r a l m u r d e r s a n d o t h e r c r i m e s i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f R o t a s . T h e S i k h s " b e t t e r e d t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s , " f o r i n a d d i t i o n t o f e t c h i n g S u n g r a m S i n g h a l i v e i n t o C a p t a i n R a t t r a y ' s t e n t , t h e y k i l l e d h i s b r o t h e r , s o n s , n e p h e w s , a n d g r a n d -s o n s , i n a l l n i n e p e r s o n s . T h e S i k h s h a d d i s g u i s e d t h e m s e l v e s a s m u t i n o u s s e p o y s , a n d t h u s g o t i n t o t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e w h o l e g a n g . A n o t h e r i n c i d e n t w i l l i l l u s t r a t e t h e s o r t o f s e r v i c e i n w h i c h o u r t r o o p s a r e n o w e n g a g e d . W i t h i n a l i m i t e d d i s t a n c e o f A l l a h a b a d a r e a g r e a t n u m b e r o f mud f o r t s , w h i c h a f f o r d s h e l t e r a n d t r y s t i n g p o i n t s f o r t h e r e b e l s . . . a s m a l l p a r t y o f o u r t r o o p s a t t a c k e d o n e o f t h e s e s t r o n g h o l d s , . . . 7 0 0 o f t h e e n e m y ( 1 0 0 0 ) w e r e s l a i n . . . . 1 0 5 S i n c e t h e m u t i n y w a s n o t c o m p l e t e l y s u p p r e s s e d u n t i l t h e m i d d l e o f 1 8 5 9 , t h e B r i t i s h k e p t t h e S i k h r e g i m e n t s i n H i n d u s t a n f o r n e a r l y a y e a r a f t e r t h e f a l l o f L u c k n o w o n M a r c h 1 5 , 1 8 5 8 . D u r i n g t h a t t i m e t h e S i k h s w e r e , h o w e v e r , n o t i n v o l v e d i n a n y m a j o r c a m p a i g n . I n f a c t , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t t h e m u t i n e e r s a t G w a l i o r i n c e n t r a l I n d i a , t h e r e w e r e n o m a j o r e n g a g e m e n t s a f t e r L u c k n o w . T h e G w a l i o r r e b e l s w e r e d e s t r o y e d o n J u n e 1 5 , 1 8 5 8 , b y t h e E u r o p e a n f o r c e o f S i r H u g h R o s e , w h i l e t h e S i k h s w e r e b u s y p u r s u i n g t h e O u d h r e b e l s i n t h e f o o t h i l l s o f t h e H i m a l a y a s . P u r g i n g t h e h i l l s a n d v i l l a g e s f r o m t h e r e b e l s , t h e r e f o r e , b e c a m e t h e c h i e f d u t y o f t h e S i k h s a f t e r t a k i n g 102 Lucknow. The Sikhs, of course, took these mopping up oper-ations more as sport than serious business. A l l serious f i g h t i n g f or them was indeed over a f t e r Delhi and Lucknow. Through the e n t i r e course of the sepoy mutiny, then, the Sikhs gave ac t i v e support to the B r i t i s h . Their l o y a l t y , eagerness to help, t h e i r martial character, and t h e i r experi-ence i n modern warfare made them the favourite s o l d i e r s of the B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t i e s and during the c r i s i s they were r e -c r u i t e d f o r the emergency increase i n the Punjabi troops at a much higher proportion to t h e i r numbers i n the t o t a l population of the province than the Hindus or Mohammedans. Of the f i f t e e n m i l l i o n odd Punjabis, f o r example, only about s i x percent were Sikhs, yet i n every ten companies r a i s e d to form a new b a t t a l i o n , four were reserved f o r the Sikhs, two for the Hindus ( H i l l Rajputs), and four f o r the Modammedans10 By the time the embers of r e b e l l i o n completely died i n 1859 the strength of the armed Punjabi troops had exceeded seventy thousand, and the Sikhs constituted one-third of the 107 Punjabi troops. In addition, the Sikh contingents of P a t i a l a , Nabha, Ji n d , and Kapurthala s t a t e s — a l m o s t seven thousand men—were also at the disposal of;the B r i t i s h . This p r e f e r e n t i a l recruitment of the Sikhs during the c r i s i s paid o f f f o r the B r i t i s h , because the Sikhs bore the brunt of the toughest campaigns against the mutineers. Not only d i d the Sikhs s a c r i f i c e t h e i r l i v e s f o r the B r i t i s h but also gave them provisions and cash f o r the con-duct of the war against the reb e l s . To provide money and 103 materials was, of course, not so much within the resources of the a g r i c u l t u r i s t Sikh l a i t y as within the means of the Sikh c h i e f s and princes. To r e l i e v e the a u t h o r i t i e s of the shortage of funds the Rajas of P a t i a l a and Nabha alone con-t r i b u t e d seven and one-half lakhs of rupees (£,75,000) as; a loan to the Punjab Government, and i n his report on the sub-j e c t of cash contributions made by the Sikh princes of the C i s - S u t l e j states, the Commissioner of Ambala, G. C. Barnes, f e l t obliged to add a marginal note which said, "More would 108 have been furnished but i t was not required." F i n a l l y , to speculate whether without the men, pro-v i s i o n s , and money contributed by the Sikhs during the sepoy mutiny the B r i t i s h could p u l l through t h i s c r i s i s would be a d i f f i c u l t , almost unanswerable, proposition, because the course and outcome of a war cannot be predicted with accur-acy and c e r t a i n t y . But i t could be said from the foregoing analysis that during the c r i s i s of 185 7 the B r i t i s h sorely needed active help from the Sikhs and they received i t to t h e i r utmost s a t i s f a c t i o n . 1 0 4 C H A P T E R 4 M O T I V E S OF THE S I K H S FOR H E L P I N G THE B R I T I S H D U R I N G THE S E P O Y R E B E L L I O N D u r i n g t h e s e p o y r e b e l l i o n t h e S i k h s t h r e w i n t h e i r l o t w i t h t h e B r i t i s h b e c a u s e t h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t B r i t i s h a r m s w o u l d e a s i l y o v e r c o m e t h e m u t i n e e r s . T h e h i s t o r y o f t h e i r o w n r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e B r i t i s h h a d c o n v i n c e d t h e S i k h s t h a t n a t i v e a r m i e s c o u l d n o t v a n q u i s h B r i t i s h f o r c e s , a n d s o t h e y a n t i c i p a t e d t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s e p o y r e b e l s . T h e S i k h s a l s o p e r c e i v e d t h a t t o w i t h h o l d s u p p o r t f r o m t h e i r r u l e r s , w h o s e v i c t o r y t h e y p r e s u p p o s e d , w o u l d b e d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . T h e y f e a r e d t h a t p u n i s h m e n t w o u l d b e i n f l i c t e d o n t h e m i f t h e y d i d n o t r e s p o n d f a v o u r a b l y t o B r i t i s h r e q u e s t s f o r h e l p d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e y c a l c u l a t e d t h a t t h e s e p o y m u t i n y a f f o r d e d t h e m a u n i q u e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e a r n r e w a r d s b y r e n d e r i n g s e r v i c e s t o t h e B r i t i s h a s w e l l a s t o c u r r y f a v o u r w i t h t h e i r c o n q u e r o r s w h o , t h e y s e n s e d , w e r e i n d i f f e r e n t , i f n o t a n t a g o n i s t i c , t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r r e l i g i o n . I n s h o r t , t h e i r b e l i e f i n t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f B r i t i s h a r m s w a s t h e p r i m e c a u s e w h i c h l e d t h e S i k h s t o p l a y a n o p p o r t u n i s t i c a n d p r a g m a t i c r o l e d u r i n g t h e r e b e l l i o n o f 1 8 5 7 - 5 8 . T h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t B r i t i s h a r m s w e r e i n v i n c i b l e w a s d e e p r o o t e d i n S i k h m i n d s . S i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e i r d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e B r i t i s h i n 1 8 0 3 t h e S i k h s h a d 1 0 5 w i t n e s s e d t h e c a p i t u l a t i o n b e f o r e B r i t i s h a r m s o f m a n y a p r o u d n a t i v e a r m y a n d t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e S i k h - B r i t i s h r e -l a t i o n s b e t w e e n 1 8 0 3 a n d 1 8 5 7 w a s i t s e l f a r e c u r r i n g s t o r y o f r e w a r d s a n d p u n i s h m e n t s f r o m t h e B r i t i s h t o f r i e n d l y a n d h o s t i l e S i k h s . T o u n d e r s t a n d w h y t h e S i k h s b e l i e v e d i n t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f B r i t i s h a r m s a n d a n t i c i p a t e d t h e d e f e a t o f t h e m u t i n e e r s i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e v i e w S i k h - B r i t i s h r e l a -t i o n s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e S i k h c h i e f s o f t h e C i s - S u t l e j s t a t e s h a d l e a r n e d t o r e s p e c t t h e p o w e r o f B r i t i s h a r m s a s e a r l y a s 1 8 0 3 w h e n , a s a l l i e s o f t h e i r M a r a t h a f e u d a l l o r d s , t h e y w e r e r o u t e d n e a r D e l h i b y a B r i t i s h f o r c e c o m m a n d e d b y G e n e r a l L a k e . I m -p r e s s e d b y t h i s v i c t o r y , t h r e e o f t h e S i k h c h i e f s , B h a g S i n g h o f J i n d , B h a n g a S i n g h o f T h a n e s a r , a n d L a i S i n g h o f K a i t h a l , b e c a m e f r i e n d s o f t h e B r i t i s h ; 1 b u t m a n y o t h e r p e t t y : S i k h c h i e f s c o n t i n u e d t h e i r p l u n d e r i n g r a i d s i n t o t h e d i s t r i c t s a c r o s s t h e J a m u n a w h i c h w e r e n e w l y g a i n e d b y t h e B r i t i s h . I n 1 8 0 5 t h e c h i e f s o f J i n d a n d K a i t h a l w e r e w a r m l y t h a n k e d b y G e n e r a l L a k e f o r t i m e l y a s s i s t a n c e w h i c h e n a b l e d h i m t o e x p e l t h e M a r a t h a s f r o m l a n d s b e t w e e n S a h a r a n p u r a n d D e l h i . A t t h e same t i m e t h e B r i t i s h G e n e r a l p u n i s h e d t h o s e S i k h s who h a d t u r n e d d o w n B r i t i s h o f f e r s o f f r i e n d s h i p a n d s i d e d w i t h t h e M a r a t h a s . G u r d i t S i n g h L a d w a , f o r e x a m p l e , l o s t K a r n a l a n d h i s o t h e r l a n d s o n b o t h s i d e s o f t h e J a m u n a . D u r i n g t h e same y e a r t h e C i s - S u t l e j S i k h s w i t n e s s e d t h e h u -m i l i a t i o n o f t h e i r M a r a t h a o v e r l o r d , J a s w a n t R a o H o l k a r , w h o , a f t e r a t t e m p t i n g a n u n s u c c e s s f u l s i e g e o f D e l h i , t o o k 106 to f l i g h t before General Lake's force and sought refuge i n the Cis-Sutlej states. Fearing the power of B r i t i s h arms the Sikh chiefs refused to treat with the Holkar. The Jind and Kaithal chiefs went even further—they actively assisted General Lake i n his hot pursuit of the Maratha, who, after extorting some financial aid from Sahib Singh, the imbecile Raja of Patiala, quickly escaped into the Trans-Sutlej Punjab. Holkar's ignominious f l i g h t across the Sutlej a l i -enated his last a l l y among the Cis-Sutlej chiefs. But though the Sikh chiefs wisely chose to repudiate their Maratha overlords, and even held out the olive branch to the B r i t i s h , they f e l t very nervous at the presence of Lake's victorious force i n their country. However, they were assur-ed by Lake that the B r i t i s h would never usurp their lands, nor would the chiefs be required to pay, as they customar-2 i l y paid to the Marathas, tribute to the B r i t i s h . In addition the chiefs of Jind and Kaithal received valuable estates as rewards for helping General Lake against the Marathas. The assurance of Lake, however, removed only the immediate apprehensions of the Sikh chiefs. They knew that beyond the mere word of the B r i t i s h General there was noth-ing by way of a formal and permanent settlement about their 3 rights, and so the presence of B r i t i s h arms in their country continued to worry their minds. Jaswant Rao Holkar's f l i g h t before General Lake also brought home to the Sikhs of the Trans-Sutlej Punjab the power and character of B r i t i s h arms. The two leading Sikh 1 0 7 c h i e f s i n t h e T r a n s - S u t l e j P u n j a b , n a m e l y , R a n j i t S i n g h ( t h e f u t u r e M a h a r a j a ) a n d P a t e h S i n g h A h l u w a l i a , i n w h o s e t e r r i -t o r i e s H o l k a r a n d h i s a l l y A m i r K h a n R o h i l l a t o o k r e f u g e , a t f i r s t p r e v a r i c a t e d t o c o m p l y w i t h L a k e ' s d e m a n d f o r H o l k a r V s e x p u l s i o n f r o m A m r i t s a r . B u t o n h e a r i n g t h a t L a k e ' s p u r -s u i n g a r m y h a d r e a c h e d t h e e a s t e r n b a n k o f t h e B e a s , t h e t w o c h i e f s q u i c k l y a d o p t e d a c o n c i l i a t o r y a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e B r i t i s h . I t i s s a i d t h a t R a n j i t S i n g h , t h e m o r e c u r i o u s o f t h e t w o c h i e f s , p a i d s e v e r a l i n c o g n i t o v i s i t s t o L a k e ' s c a m p . 4 W h e t h e r R a n j i t v i s i t e d t h e B r i t i s h c a m p i n d i s g u i s e , o r w h e t h e r h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e a g e n t s s a t i s f i e d h i s c u r i o s i t y a b o u t L a k e ' s f o r c e , n e e d n o t b e d e b a t e d h e r e , b e c a u s e t h e * • m o r e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t w a s t h a t i t w a s t h e i r f e a r o f B r i t i s h a r m s w h i c h p r o m p t e d R a n j i t S i n g h a n d F a t e h S i n g h t o m e d i a t e b e t w e e n t h e B r i t i s h a n d t h e M a r a t h a l e a d e r a n d , f i n a l l y , s i g n a t r e a t y o f f r i e n d s h i p w i t h t h e B r i t i s h o n J a n u a r y 1 , 1 8 0 6 . 5 T h r e e y e a r s l a t e r t h e S i k h s o n b o t h s i d e s o f t h e S u t l e j a g a i n s a w t h e i r s t r o n g e s t l e a d e r , R a n j i t S i n g h , f i g h t s h y o f o p p o s i n g B r i t i s h a r m s . B e t w e e n 1 8 0 6 a n d 1 8 0 9 R a n j i t S i n g h i m p o s e d h i s s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r m o s t o f t h e C i s -S u t l e j s t a t e s . H i s a g g r e s s i o n a c r o s s t h e S u t l e j w a s i n n o w a y a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e t r e a t y o f 1 8 0 6 , b u t b e f o r e h e e m -b a r k e d u p o n t h e s e c o n q u e s t s t h e C i s - S u t l e j c h i e f s h a d made r e p e a t e d r e q u e s t s t o t h e B r i t i s h t o p r o t e c t t h e m a g a i n s t R a n j i t S i n g h ' s d e s i g n s . A t t h a t t i m e t h e B r i t i s h f o l l o w e d a p o l i c y o f n o n - i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e s e s t a t e s 1 0 8 a n d w e r e , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t r y i n g t o s e e k a d e f e n s i v e a l l i a n c e w i t h t h e r u l e r o f L a h o r e t o t h w a r t t h e m u c h r u m o u r e d F r a n c o - R u s s i a n i n v a s i o n o f I n d i a . 6 T h e d a n g e r o f a F r a n c o - R u s s i a n i n v a s i o n , h o w e v e r , p a s s e d b y O c t o b e r , 1 8 0 8 , a n d t h e B r i t i s h p o l i c y t o w a r d s t h e C i s - S u t l e j s t a t e s u n d e r -w e n t a c o m p l e t e c h a n g e . O n D e c e m b e r 1 2 , M e t c a l f e , t h e B r i t i s h e n v o y w h o h a d t r i e d f o r m o n t h s t o make R a n j i t S i n g h a g r e e a b l e t o a d e f e n s i v e a l l i a n c e , s u d d e n l y d e l i v e r e d t o t h e M a h a r a j a a n u l t i m a t u m f r o m t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , a n n o u n c i n g t h a t t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t h a d t a k e n t h e C i s - S u t l e j c h i e f s u n d e r i t s p r o t e c t i o n . A t f i r s t t h e M a h a r a j a d i d n o t t a k e t h e B r i t i s h e n v o y ' s a n n o u n c e m e n t s e r i o u s l y , b u t b y F e b r u a r y , 1 8 0 9 , h e w a s f u l l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e B r i t i s h w e r e e a r n e s t i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n — a B r i t i s h f o r c e u n d e r C o l o n e l D a v i d O c h t e r l o n y h a d a d v a n c e d u p t o L u d h i a n a b y t h e n a n d o n F e b r u a r y 9 , O c h t e r l o n y i s s u e d a p r e c e p t o r I t t i l a a n a m a t o t h e C i s - S u t l e j c h i e f s p r o c l a i m i n g t h a t a n y a c t o f a g g r e s s i o n a g a i n s t t h e m b y t h e M a h a r a j a o f L a h o r e w o u l d b e r e s i s t e d 7 w i t h f o r c e . R e a l i z i n g t h e d a n g e r h e w a s e x p o s e d t o , R a n j i t S i n g h s w a l l o w e d h i s p r i d e a n d s u r r e n d e r e d e v e r y p l a c e i n t h e C i s - S u t l e j a r e a t h a t h e h a d c o n q u e r e d s i n c e t h e s i g n i n g o f t h e t r e a t y i n 1 8 0 6 . A f t e r t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f t h e M a h a r a j a ' s f o r c e s f r o m t h e C i s - S u t l e j a r e a , t h e B r i t i s h made o v e r t o t h e r i g h t f u l o w n e r s a l l t h e l a n d s w h i c h t h e M a h a r a j a h a d u s u r p e d . T h e t r e a t y , w h i c h w a s f o r m a l l y s i g n e d b e t w e e n t h e M a h a r a j a a n d t h e B r i t i s h a t A m r i t s a r o n A p r i l 2 5 , 1 8 0 9 , e n d e d f o r g o o d t h e L a h o r e r u l e r ' s a m b i t i o n o f e x t e n d i n g h i s 1 0 9 Q s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r t h e C i s - S u t l e j s t a t e s . I n s p i t e o f t h e t r e a t y t h e M a h a r a j a t o y e d f o r some t i m e w i t h t h e i d e a o f m a k i n g a common c a u s e w i t h t h e M a r a t h a s a g a i n s t t h e B r i t i s h , b u t n e i t h e r t h e M a r a t h a s n o r t h e r u l e r o f L a h o r e e v e r f o u n d 9 c o u r a g e t o c h a l l e n g e B r i t i s h a r m s . O n M a y 3 , 1 8 0 9 , t h e C i s - S u t l e j c h i e f s f i n a l l y g o t w h a t t h e y h a d l o n g d e s i r e d : a g e n e r a l p r o c l a m a t i o n i s s u e d b y t h e B r i t i s h g u a r a n t e e d p r o t e c t i o n t o t h e c h i e f s a g a i n s t t h e a g g r e s s i v e d e s i g n s o f R a n j i t S i n g h . 1 0 T h e t e r m s o f t h e p r o c l a m a t i o n l e f t t h e c h i e f s w i t h a b s o l u t e p o w e r s i n t h e i r o w n s t a t e s b u t b o u n d t h e m t o r e n d e r h e l p t o t h e B r i t i s h i n t i m e o f w a r a n d t o levy n o d u t y o n B r i t i s h g o o d s . T h e r a p a -c i o u s a c t s o f t h e c h i e f s s u b s e q u e n t l y f o r c e d t h e B r i t i s h t o i s s u e o n A u g u s t 2 2 , 1 8 1 1 , a s e c o n d p r o c l a m a t i o n p r o h i b i t i n g a l l a c t s o f v i o l e n c e a m o n g t h e m . T h e new a r r a n g e m e n t e l e -v a t e d t h e B r i t i s h f r o m a p r o t e c t i n g t o a s o v e r e i g n p o w e r o v e r t h e C i s - S u t l e j o r M a l w a c h i e f s , a n d t h e r e a f t e r o n m a n y o c c a s i o n s B r i t i s h a r m s r e s t r a i n e d t h e s t r o n g e r a n d g r e e d i e r c h i e f s f r o m m a k i n g a t t e m p t s t o u s u r p t h e l a n d s o f t h e s m a l l e r a n d w e a k e r s t a t e s . 1 1 T h e G u r k h a W a r o f 1 8 1 4 - 1 5 g a v e t h e S i k h s f u r t h e r p r o o f o f t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f B r i t i s h a r m s o v e r t h o s e o f n a t i v e r u l e r s . O n A p r i l 1 5 , 1 8 1 5 , t h e G u r k h a s w e r e c o m p l e t e l y d e -f e a t e d b y O c h t e r l o n y a n d t h e y l o s t t o t h e B r i t i s h a l l t h e i r f o r t s a n d t e r r i t o r i e s b e t w e e n t h e S u t l e j a n d J a m u n a r i v e r s . A s a s p e c i a l r e w a r d f o r h i s c o n s p i c u o u s s e r v i c e s d u r i n g t h e G u r k h a : ; W a r , t h e B r i t i s h e n l a r g e d t h e t e r r i t o r y o f R a j a 12 K a r a m S i n g h o f P a t i a l a . 1 1 0 B r i t i s h - S i k h r e l a t i o n s made a n o t a b l e i m p r o v e m e n t b e t w e e n 1 8 1 5 a n d t h e t i m e o f t h e K a b u l c a m p a i g n i n 1 8 3 8 . D u r i n g t h e K a b u l c a m p a i g n t h e C i s - S u t l e j c h i e f s o f f e r e d t h e i r h e l p t o t h e B r i t i s h b u t t h e l a t t e r p o l i t e l y d e c l i n e d t h i s o f f e r . T h e t r a g i c f a t e o f t h e K a b u l e x p e d i t i o n b r o u g h t t o l i g h t t h e t r u e c o l o u r o f t h e C i s - S u t l e j S i k h s a n d r e v e a l e d t o t h e B r i t i s h t h a t t h e s e S i k h s w e r e o n l y f a i r - w e a t h e r f r i e n d s . A s s o o n a s t h e n e w s o f t h e K a b u l t r a g e d y r e a c h e d t h e P u n j a b a w a v e o f d i s a f f e c t i o n q u i c k l y s p r e a d a m o n g t h e C i s - S u t l e j S i k h s ; t h e S i k h r a j a s , who w e r e a l w a y s l o u d i n t h e i r p r o t e s t a t i o n s o f l o y a l t y t o t h e i r B r i t i s h p r o t e c t o r s , a t t h i s t i m e s h o w e d l i t t l e s y m p a t h y w i t h t h e B r i t i s h . R a t h e r , t h e y h o p e d t h a t t h e s t r o n g , r e s t r a i n i n g h a n d o f t h e B r i t i s h w o u l d b e r e m o v e d a n d t h e y w o u l d b e f r e e l i k e t h e i r b r e t h r e n l i v i n g n o r t h o f t h e S u t l e j . T h i s m o o d p r o v e d s h o r t - l i v e d . O n r e c e i v i n g t h e f i r s t n e w s o f B r i t i s h : v i c -t o r y i n t h e s e c o n d K a b u l c a m p a i g n i n 1 8 4 2 , t h e S i k h r a j a s o f t h e C i s - S u t l e j h a s t e n e d t o a v o w t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l f r i e n d s h i p a n d l o y a l t y f o r t h e B r i t i s h . I n t h e w a k e o f t h e e m b a r r a s s m e n t c a u s e d b y t h e i r b e -h a v i o u r d u r i n g t h e K a b u l c a m p a i g n s t h e C i s - S u t l e j c h i e f s w e r e s h o c k e d a n d d i s m a y e d w h e n t h e s t a t e o f K a i t h a l w a s e s c h e a t e d b y t h e B r i t i s h i n 1 8 4 3 . T h e i r s e n s e o f s h o c k a r o s e n o t f r o m t h e i r l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s u z e r a i n ' s r i g h t t o r e s u m e t h e e s t a t e o f a n h e i r l e s s c h i e f ( t h e p e t t y s t a t e o f F e r o z e p u r h a d l a p s e d t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t i n 1 8 3 5 ) b u t f r o m t h e i r d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t a b o u t t h e s i n c e r i t y o f t h e I l l B r i t i s h t o w a r d t h e r u l i n g f a m i l i e s o f f r i e n d l y S i k h s t a t e s w h i c h h a d r e n d e r e d i n v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e s s i n c e t h e v e r y i n c e p -t i o n o f B r i t i s h - S i k h r e l a t i o n s . T h e C h i e f s o f P a t i a l a , J i n d , a n d N a b h a , w h o , b e i n g t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e P h u l k i a n b r a n c h o f c h i e f s , h a d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o n t h e K a i t h a l c o u n c i l , t r i e d t o s t o p t h e a n n e x a t i o n o f K a i t h a l by, c o v e r t l y i n c i t i n g a r e b e l -l i o n . B u t t h e o l d s t o r y a g a i n r e p e a t e d i t s e l f — t h e p r o m p t s h o w o f m i l i t a r y s t r e n g t h b y t h e B r i t i s h q u i c k l y i n d u c e d t h e R a j a s o f P a t i a l a , N a b h a , a n d J i n d t o d r a w b a c k . T o a v o i d s u s p i c i o n a n d c h a r g e s o f d i s l o y a l t y t h e C h i e f o f P a t i a l a e v e n s e n t a t h o u s a n d h o r s e a n d t w o g u n s t o h e l p t h e B r i t i s h 13 f o r c e s t a t i o n e d i n K a i t h a l . T h e l o y a l t y o f t h e C i s - S u t l e j s t a t e s w a s a g a i n p u t t o t h e t e s t d u r i n g t h e F i r s t S i k h W a r a n d o n c e a g a i n t h e B r i t i s h f o u n d t h a t o n l y f e a r o f B r i t i s h a r m s k e p t t h e s e s t a t e s l o y a l a n d p e a c e a b l e . When t h e K h a l s a a r m y c r o s s e d t h e S u t l e j i n D e c e m b e r , 1 8 4 5 , t h e B r i t i s h r e a d i l y d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e S i k h p o p u l a c e a s w e l l a s t h e S i k h c h i e f s w e r e d i s -a f f e c t e d . 1 4 O n l y a f e w c h i e f s , s u c h a s P a t i a l a a n d J i n d , w h o w e r e a l s o d i s a f f e c t e d a t h e a r t , f u l f i l l e d t h e i r o b l i g a -t i o n s t o w a r d t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e S u t l e j c a m p a i g n . T h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , L o r d H a r d i n g e , who p e r s o n a l l y t o o k p a r t i n t h e c a m p a i g n a n d h a d f i r s t - h a n d k n o w l e d g e o f a c t s o f b e t r a y a l b y t h e C i s - S u t l e j c h i e f s , r e s o l v e d , a s s o o n a s t h e 15 c a m p a i g n e n d e d t o p u n i s h t h e g u i l t y o n e s . A c c o r d i n g l y t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o o k a w a y t h e s o v e r e i g n p o w e r s o f m a n y p e t t y c h i e f s a n d r e l e g a t e d t h e m t o t h e s t a t u s o f j a q e e r d a r s . 1 1 2 l e a v i n g t h e i r e s t a t e s i n t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n . B u t t h e t e r r i -t o r i e s o f t h o s e c h i e f s w h o o p e n l y h e l p e d t h e e n e m y d u r i n g t h e w a r w e r e a n n e x e d . T h e R a j a o f N a b h a f o r f e i t e d o n e - f o u r t h o f h i s t e r r i t o r y . I n 1 8 4 7 , t h e B r i t i s h g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r t h e s e n e w l y a n n e x e d t e r r i t o r i e s a n d c r e a t e d a new a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t , t h e d i s t r i c t o f L u d h i a n a ; 1 6 O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h o s e c h i e f s who h a d h e l p e d t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e c a m p a i g n , a s t h e t r e a t y o f 1 8 0 9 o b l i g a t e d a l l C i s - S u t l e j c h i e f s t o d o , w e r e g e n e r o u s l y r e w a r d e d . T h e C h i e f s o f P a t i a l a a n d F a r i d k o t , f o r e x a m p l e , r e c e i v e d some o f t h e e s t a t e s l o s t b y t h e C h i e f s o f N a b h a a n d L a d w a . T h e G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a a l s o g r a n t e d t o t h e M a h a r a j a o f P a t i a l a " a s u n n u d . o r [ c e r t i f i c a t e ] e x p r e s s -i n g t h e h i g h s e n s e w h i c h t h e G o v e r n m e n t e n t e r t a i n e d o f h i s l o y a l t y . " 1 7 T h e v i c t o r y o f t h e B r i t i s h i n t h e S u t l e j c a m p a i g n a n d t h e p u n i s h m e n t i n f l i c t e d b y t h e B r i t i s h o n t h e d i s l o y a l c h i e f s ( o n l y t h e s t a t e s o f P a t i a l a , J i n d , F a r i d k o t , C h i c h -r o w l i , K a l s i a , a n d B u r i a w e r e e x e m p t e d f r o m p u n i s h m e n t ) s e r v e d a s a n o b j e c t l e s s o n t o t h e C i s - S u t l e j c h i e f s w h o t h e r e a f t e r n e v e r w a v e r e d i n d i s c h a r g i n g t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s t o -w a r d t h e B r i t i s h . T h e o u t c o m e o f t h e S u t l e j c a m p a i g n a l s o b r o u g h t home t o t h e S i k h s o f t h e T r a n s - S u t l e j P u n j a b t h e f o l l y o f c h a l -l e n g i n g B r i t i s h a r m s — a n a c t w h i c h t h e g r e a t M a h a r a j a h a d s h r e w d l y a v o i d e d i n h i s t i m e . T h e w a r s h o w e d t h e m , t h a t t h e y h a d u n d e r e s t i m a t e d t h e f i g h t i n g c a l i b r e o f t h e B r i t i s h s o l -d i e r s a n d s e p o y s . A l s o , a d e f e a t e d S i k h s t a t e w a s s e v e r e l y 1 1 3 p u n i s h e d f o r c o m m i t t i n g a g g r e s s i o n o n B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y . T h e c h i e f a i m o f t h e P u n j a b P o l i c y o f G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l H a r d i n g e a t t h i s t i m e w a s , s h o r t o f a n n e x a t i o n , t o w e a k e n 1 8 t h e S i k h s t a t e a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e . T h i s p o l i c y w a s m a i n l y c a r r i e d t h r o u g h . U n d e r t h e t e r m s o f t h e T r e a t y o f L a h o r e , c o n c l u d e d i n M a r c h , 1 8 4 6 , t h e S i k h s a b a n d o n e d t h e t e r r i t o r y b e t w e e n t h e B e a s a n d t h e S u t l e j a n d f o r i t s f a i l u r e t o p a y t o t h e B r i t i s h a m i l l i o n a n d a h a l f s t e r l i n g a s i n d e m -n i t y f o r t h e e x p e n s e s o f t h e w a r t h e S i k h k i n g d o m l o s t K a s h m i r , w h i c h t h e B r i t i s h made o v e r t o R a j a G u l a b S i n g h o n h i s p a y m e n t o f s e v e n t y - f i v e l a k h s o f r u p e e s (6750,000). T h e S i k h a r m y f o r f e i t e d a l l g u n s i . t h a d e m p l o y e d i n t h e c a m p a i g n a n d i t s s t r e n g t h w a s r e d u c e d t o t w e n t y - f i v e b a t t a l i o n s o f i n f a n t r y a n d t w e l v e t h o u s a n d c a v a l r y . T h e S i k h l e a d e r s w e r e , b y a n d l a r g e , g r a t i f i e d b y t h e t e r m s o f t h e L a h o r e T r e a t y , b e c a u s e t h e i r k i n g d o m h a d e s c a -p e d c o m p l e t e a n n e x a t i o n . A t t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e s e l e a d e r s a n d m i n i s t e r s o f t h e S i k h s t a t e H a r d i n g e p l a c e d a s u b s i d i -a r y B r i t i s h f o r c e i n L a h o r e i n o r d e r t o k e e p t h e n o t o r i o u s 19 t u r b u l e n c e o f t h e S i k h a r m y i n c h e c k . T h e r e q u e s t o f t h e S i k h s t a t e f o r t h e s t a t i o n i n g o f a s u b s i d i a r y B r i t i s h f o r c e i n L a h o r e t i l l t h e e n d o f t h e y e a r p r o v e d b e y o n d d o u b t t h a t t h e S i k h l e a d e r s h a d n o i l l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f B r i t i s h a r m s . B e t w e e n t h e m o n t h s o f M a r c h a n d D e c e m b e r o f 1 8 4 6 t h e T r a n s - S u t l e j S i k h s r e c e i v e d f u r t h e r p r o o f o f t h e f u t i l i t y o f o p p o s i n g B r i t i s h a r m s . D u r i n g t h o s e m o n t h s t h e B r i t i s h 1 1 4 r e d u c e d t h e p o w e r o f s u c h h o s t i l e s i r d a r s a s t h e B e d i s o f U n a b y c o n f i s c a t i n g t h e i r i a q e e r s ; B r i t i s h g u n s b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e s u r r e n d e r o f t h e o b s t i n a t e S i k h g a r r i s o n o f K o t 20 K a n g r a ; a n d a B r i t i s h e x p e d i t i o n a r y f o r c e p u t d o w n t h e r e -v o l t o f t h e g o v e r n o r o f K a s h m i r , S h e i k h I m a m - u d - d i n , w h o , t h r o u g h t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f t h e S i k h W a z i r L a i S i n g h , h a d h e s i t a t e d i n m a k i n g o v e r K a s h m i r t o G u l a b S i n g h . T h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f t h e S i k h k i n g d o m , L a i S i n g h , w a s p u b l i c l y t r i e d o n t h e c h a r g e o f i n s t i g a t i n g i n s u r r e c t i o n i n K a s h m i r a n d w h e n f o u n d g u i l t y o f c o m m i t t i n g t r e a c h e r y h e w a s i m p r i s o n e d 21 i n B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y . T h e S i k h s d i d n o t e v e n r a i s e a v o i c e i n p r o t e s t a t t h e i n c a r c e r a t i o n o f t h e i r p r i m e m i n i s -t e r ; o b v i o u s l y t h e y w e r e a l l t o o a n x i o u s t o a v o i d a n o t h e r c o l l i s i o n w i t h t h e B r i t i s h . -When a t t h e e n d o f t h e y e a r 1 8 4 6 , t h e s t i p u l a t e d t i m e for the B r i t i s h s u b s i d i a r y f o r c e t o s t a y i n L a h o r e r a n o u t , t h e S i k h g o v e r n m e n t p l e a d e d f o r f u r t h e r B r i t i s h p r o t e c t i o n . T h e B r i t i s h s p e l l e d o u t t h e c o n d i t i o n s o n w h i c h t h e y w o u l d g r a n t f u r t h e r p r o t e c t i o n a n d t h e S i k h s t a t e r e a d i l y a c c e p t e d t h e B r i t i s h s t i p u l a t i o n o f s e t t i n g u p a C o u n c i l o f R e g e n c y , c o n s i s t i n g o f e i g h t s i r d a r s , who w o u l d a c t u n d e r t h e g u i d -a n c e o f a B r i t i s h r e s i d e n t . T h u s i n D e c e m b e r , 1 8 4 6 , w h e n t h e S e c o n d T r e a t y o f L a h o r e w a s s i g n e d , t h e S i k h s h a d o n c e a g a i n a v o w e d t h a t t h e B r i t i s h w e r e t h e s u p e r i o r p o w e r a n d h a d w i l l i n g l y s l i p p e d u n d e r t h e v i r t u a l p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l o f t h e B r i t i s h . T h e B r i t i s h R e s i d e n t , H e n r y L a w r e n c e , k e p t a f i r m h a n d o n t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e C o u n c i l o f R e g e n c y w h i l e h i s 1 1 5 y o u n g B r i t i s h o f f i c e r s " s c o u r e d t h e c o u n t r y , a d v i s i n g , e x -h o r t i n g a n d f r o m t i m e t o t i m e f i r m l y a n d w i t h o u t a n y a u t h o r -22 i t y t a k i n g t h i n g s i n t o t h e i r o w n h a n d s a n d a d m i n i s t e r i n g . " S u c h a s t a t e o f a f f a i r s n a t u r a l l y made t h e s e l f - w i l l e d S i k h g o v e r n o r s a n d a r m y g e n e r a l s u n h a p p y a n d r e s t l e s s . B u t u n l e s s t h e y r a n t h e r i s k o f s t a g i n g a n o p e n r e v o l t , t h e y h a d l i t t l e c h a n c e o f g a i n i n g f r e e d o m f r o m B r i t i s h c o n t r o l . T o r i s k a n o t h e r w a r w i t h t h e B r i t i s h w a s a g a i n s t t h e b e t t e r j u d g e -m e n t o f t h e S i k h s , a n d s o t h e y l a y l o w . T h e y f e a r e d t h a t n o t o n l y a n n e x a t i o n o f t h e i r k i n g d o m w o u l d f o l l o w a n o t h e r d e f e a t b u t t h e S i k h p o p u l a c e a t l a r g e w o u l d a l s o - l o s e t h e i r l a n d s a n d t h e i r p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n i n t h e P u n j a b . T h e p o -l i t i c a l p r i d e a n d t h e n a t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t o f t h e S i k h s , i n o t h e r w o r d s , g a v e w a y f o r some t i m e a t l e a s t t o c o n s i d e r a -23 t i o n s o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t a n d m a t e r i a l p r o s p e r i t y . H o w e v e r , w h e n M u l r a j f , t h e g o v e r n o r o f M u l t a n , who h a d b e e n a s k e d b y t h e R e s i d e n t t o s u b m i t t o t h e S i k h D u r b a r a n a c c u r a t e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e y e a r l y r e v e n u e s c o l l e c t e d b y h i m , r a i s e d t h e s t a n d a r d o f r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e R e s i d e n t ' s a u t h o r i t y , t h e S i k h s f o u n d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y i r r e s i s t i b l e t o t h r o w o u t t h e B r i t i s h f r o m t h e i r c o u n t r y . S o t h e y made common c a u s e w i t h t h e r e b e l s o f M u l t a n . I n t h e f a m o u s b a t t l e s o f C h i l l i a n w a l a a n d G u j a r a t , t h e t w o d e c i s i v e b a t -t l e s o f t h e S e c o n d S i k h W a r o f 1 8 4 8 - 4 9 , t h e B r i t i s h w e r e h i g h l y i m p r e s s e d w i t h t h e b r a v e r y a n d c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e S i k h s i n u s i n g m o d e r n t e c h n i q u e s o f w a r f a r e . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e f i g h t i n g c a l i b r e o f t h e B r i t i s h s o l d i e r s i n t h e s e 1 1 6 b a t t l e s made a l a s t i n g i m p r e s s i o n o n t h e S i k h s . I n p a r t i c u -l a r t h e e p i s o d e a t C h i l l i a n w a l a , w h e n t h e v e t e r a n s o f H e r M a j e s t y ' s 6 1 s t R e g i m e n t , c o m m a n d e d b y C o l i n C a m p b e l l , b r a v e l y a d v a n c e d t o w a r d s t h e S i k h a r m y , w h i c h h a d u t t e r l y d e f e a t e d a p o r t i o n o f G e n e r a l G o u g h ' s f o r c e , b e c a m e a l e g e n d a m o n g t h e S i k h s . On t h a t o c c a s i o n , a v e t e r a n o f t h e 6 1 s t r e c a l l e d l a t e r , C a m p b e l l ' s men a d v a n c e d " u n d e r a t r e m e n d o u s c a n n o n -a d e , a n d w i t h o u t f i r i n g a s h o t , t h e y m a r c h e d a s i f o n a p a -r a d e g r o u n d a n d i n s t e r n s i l e n c e t i l l w i t h i n f i f t y y a r d s o f t h e S i k h b a t t e r i e s , w h e n w i t h a s h o u t w h i c h s t r u c k t e r r o r i n t o t h e b r e a s t s o f t h e i r e n e m y t h e y c h a r g e d i r r e s i s t i b l y 24 a n d t o o k t h e g u n s . " A m o n t h a f t e r C h i l l i a n w a l a t h e B r i t i s h v e t e r a n s c o m p l e t e l y c r u s h e d t h e S i k h s a t G u j i a r a t . A f t e r t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e S e c o n d S i k h W a r o n l y t h e n o s t a l -g i c m e m o r i e s o f t h e g l o r y o f t h e K h a l s a a r m y , s o c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d i n t h e i r w o r d s " R a n j i t S i n g h i s d e a d t o d a y l " , r e -m a i n e d a l i v e i n t h e m i n d s o f t h e S i k h s . T h e i r i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f B r i t i s h a r m s w a s f i n a l a n d c o m p l e t e . C o n s e q u e n t l y w h e n t h e s e p o y array m u t i n i e d i n 1 8 5 7 , t h e S i k h s d i d n o t d o u b t t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e B r i t i s h t o s u p -p r e s s t h e m u t i n e e r s . F o r a p e o p l e s u c h a s t h e S i k h s , who f r o m t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e B r i t i s h i n 1 8 0 3 h a d r e p e a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e p o w e r a n d e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f B r i t i s h a r m s , i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n m o s t u n n a t u r a l t o t h i n k o t h e r w i s e . T h e r e w e r e o t h e r r e a s o n s , t o o , w h y t h e S i k h s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s e p o y s c o u l d n o t d e f e a t t h e B r i t i s h . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e t h e S i k h s l o o k e d d o w n u p o n t h e s e p o y s a s a 117 25 less manly race that could achieve l i t t l e from a venture in which the mighty Khalsa had fai l e d * Moreover, the Sikhs had never regarded the mercenary sepoy regiments as a factor that contributed towards their defeats i n the two Sikh wars; i t was to the European regiments alone that the Sikhs a t t r i -buted their defeats and during the post-annexation years the bravery of the Br i t i s h veterans of the Sikh Wars remained 2 6 v i v i d i n their memory. In fact, after the Sikh wars a l l warlike peoples of north-western India, including even the Afghans, began to fe e l awe from the discipline and fighting calibre of European regiments. Hence the Sikhs, and other Punjabis, treated the sepoy r i s i n g as a minor c r i s i s for the Br i t i s h . I l l u s t r a t i n g the confidence of the Punjabis i n the a b i l i t y of the Br i t i s h to crush the mutiny, Cooper, the De-puty Commissioner, recorded the thinking of Punjabi merchants, a class traditionally known as the p o l i t i c a l weathervane of the Punjab, i n these words: The buniahs, too, and native contractors never lost their confidence in the power of Government, but always said 'Sahib i t i s but for a l i t t l e while, and a l l these rebels w i l l bite the dust,' ( l i t e r a l l y eat d i r t ) , for the Company i s almighty.27 Betraying the same confidence in Br i t i s h power the Sikh ruler of the Kapurthala state wrote to the Deputy Commissioner of Amritsar: "I am quite confident and so i s my people about. me, that the troubles w i l l soon have an end. Delhi w i l l be taken, the rebels w i l l be punished, and peace w i l l be esta-28 blished without much bloodshed or delay." Even the leading Sikh chief, the Maharaja of Patiala, displayed no less f a i t h 1 1 8 i n t h e p o w e r o f B r i t i s h a r m s t o q u e l l t h e m u t i n y a n d , b e -l i e v i n g t h a t B r i t i s h r e i n f o r c e m e n t s w o u l d s o o n a r r i v e f r o m B r i t a i n , t h e M a h a r a j a p e r s o n a l l y c o n s o l e d t h e E u r o p e a n r e -f u g e e s s h e l t e r i n g i n h i s t e r r i t o r y b y r e a s s u r i n g t h e m t h a t B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t y w o u l d b e r e - e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e d i s t u r b e d 29 a r e a s b e f o r e l o n g * T h i s i m a g e o f t h e i n h e r e n t i n v i n c i b i l i t y o f B r i t i s h p o w e r w a s f r o m f i r s t t o l a s t k e p t a l i v e a n d u n t a r n i s h e d b y t h e P u n j a b G o v e r n m e n t . T h o u g h t h e p r e s e n c e i n t h e P u n j a b o f a l a r g e E u r o p e a n f o r c e ( n e a r l y t w e l v e t h o u s a n d men) a l s o s e r v e d t o r e m i n d t h e S i k h n o b i l i t y a n d p o p u l a c e o f t h e f o l l y o f s t a r t i n g i n t r i g u e s a g a i n s t t h e B r i t i s h , i t w a s i n f a c t t h e a l a c r i t y a n d e n e r g y d i s p l a y e d d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s o f 1 8 5 7 -by t h e f u n c t i o n a r i e s o f t h e P u n j a b a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t - e f f e c t i v e l y - p r e v e n t e d t h e S i k h s f r o m c h a n g i n g t h e i r a t t i t u d e . A t t h e t o p o f t h e P u n j a b a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w a s J o h n L a w r e n c e , t h e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r , w h o p r o v e d h i m s e l f a r e -d o u b t a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e P u n j a b . A man o f o u t s t a n d i n g a b i l i t y i n c i v i l m a t t e r s , J o h n L a w r e n c e w a s n o t f o u n d w a n t i n g i n t h e q u a l i t i e s n e e d e d b y a r u l e r t o m e e t s u c c e s s f u l l y a c r i s i s s u c h a s t h e s e p o y m u -t i n y . T h e moment t h e t e l e g r a m o f M a y 12 b r o u g h t t o h i m a t R a w a l p i n d i t h e n e w s o f m u t i n y i n D e l h i , J o h n L a w r e n c e u n d e r -t o o k h e a r t a n d s o u l t h e t a s k o f t a p p i n g e v e r y r e s o u r c e i n h i s p r o v i n c e t o h e l p t h e a r m y d u r i n g t h e e m e r g e n c y . I n a d d i t i o n , r e a l i s i n g t h a t l e a v i n g D e l h i i n r e b e l h a n d s f o r l o n g w a s p o l i t i c a l l y h a r m f u l t o B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t y , L a w r e n c e 1 1 9 t i r e l e s s l y u r g e d t h e a r m y t o e x p e d i t e a c t i o n a g a i n s t D e l h i $ t h r o u g h a f l o o d o f l e t t e r s t o t h e a r m y c h i e f s h e e v e n p l a n n e d s t r a t e g y f o r t h e a r m y , A c i v i l i a n , J o h n L a w r e n c e s h o w e d u n -p a r a l l e l e d g r a s p o f t h e p s y c h o l o g y a n d c h a r a c t e r o f t h e m u -t i n e e r s . P r o d d i n g t h e a r m y c h i e f t o t a k e s w i f t a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e m u t i n e e r s , J o h n L a w r e n c e w r o t e : " A s m u t i n e e r s t h e y c a n -n o t f i g h t . T h e y w i l l b u r n , d e s t r o y , a n d m a s s a c r e , b u t n o t 30 f i g h t . " A n d e v e n t s p r o v e d h o w r i g h t L a w r e n c e w a s i n h i s a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e c h a r a c t e r a n d p s y c h o l o g y o f t h e m u t i n e e r s . W h i l e w o r k i n g t i r e l e s s l y t o a c h i e v e h i s p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e o f r e c o n q u e r i n g D e l h i , J o h n L a w r e n c e n e v e r l e t u p h i s w a t c h f u l n e s s o v e r h i s o w n p r o v i n c e . E v e n w h e n t h e m u t i n -i e s i n t h e P u n j a b made h i s d u t i e s e x t r e m e l y o n e r o u s t h e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r n e v e r l o s t d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h h i s c o m m i s s i o n e r s , d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s , a n d n a t i v e c h i e f s a n d l a n d l o r d s . He p e r -s o n a l l y r e a d t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s ' r e p o r t s o n t h e l o c a l m u -t i n i e s . H i s p r a i s e a n d r e w a r d f o r t h o s e o f f i c e r s w h o u p h e l d B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t y i i t h r o u g h e n e r g e t i c a c t i o n w e r e a l w a y s g i v e n p r o m p t l y a n d l i b e r a l l y : t h o s e o f f i c e r s w h o p r o v e d u n e n e r -g e t i c a n d n e g l e c t f u l o f t h e i r d u t y d i d n o t e s c a p e h i s c e n -s u r e . F o r e x a m p l e , o n o n e o c c a s i o n J o h n L a w r e n c e n o t e d f r o m t h e r e p o r t o f t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r o f G u r d a s p u r t h a t t h e s a i d o f f i c e r h a d n o t g o n e p e r s o n a l l y i n p u r s u i t o f t h e m u t i n e e r s , L a w r e n c e ' s p e r s o n a l s e c r e t a r y p r o m p t l y c o n v e y e d t o t h e J u d i c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r t h e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r ' s d i s -p l e a s u r e w i t h t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r c o n c e r n e d : 1 2 0 T h e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r r e g r e t s t h a t n e i t h e r o n t h i s o c c a s i o n n o r i n t h e p u r s u i t o f t h e 4 6 t h m u t i -n e e r s d o e s M r . N a e s m y t h a p p e a r t o h a v e g o n e o u t o r d o n e a n y t h i n g t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e c a p t u r e o r d e s -t r u c t i o n o f t h e m u t i n e e r s , a n d s u c h a c t i v i t y o n t h e p a r t o f t h a t o f f i c e r i s b y nov m e a n s c r e d i t a b l e . T h e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r c a n n o t i n c l u d e h i m i n t h e l i s t o f p e r s o n s w h o h e c o n s i d e r s t o h a v e d o n e w e l l o n t h i s o c c a s i o n . 3 1 W i t h t h e same u n f o r g i v i n g z e a l J o h n L a w r e n c e a l s o d i r e c t e d h i s f i r e o n a r m y o f f i c e r s i f t h e y p r o v e d r e m i s s i n t a k i n g 32 a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e m u t i n e e r s . T o k e e p h i s f i n g e r s o n t h e p o l i t i c a l p u l s e o f h i s p r o v i n c e t h e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r a l -w a y s k e p t a f e w t r u s t e d j a q e e r d a r s a n d s i r d a r s c l o s e o n h a n d f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d a d v i c e a n d h e a l s o a d v i s e d t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s t o s e c u r e t h e h e l p o f S i k h J a q e e r d a r s l i v i n g i n 33 t h e i r d i s t r i c t s . A s a s h r e w d r u l e r h e f u l l y e x p l o i t e d t h e d e s i r e o f t h e n a t i v e s t o e a r n r e w a r d s f o r a c t s o f l o y a l t y a n d c o u r a g e a n d h e made s u r e t h a t e v e r y n a t i v e w h o h e l p e d t h e a u t h o r i t i e s i n d e s t r o y i n g t h e m u t i n e e r s p r o m p t l y r e -c e i v e d h i s d u e r e w a r d . O n t h e s u b j e c t o f r e w a r d s J o h n L a w r e n c e ' s s e c r e t a r y w a s o n c e o b l i g e d t o make t h e f o l l o w i n g i n q u i r y f r o m t h e J u d i c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r : T h e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r f u r t h e r d i r e c t s me r e q u e s t t h a t y o u w i l l i n f o r m h i m how t h e r e w a r d s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d , a s h e i s a n x i o u s t o s e e t h a t n o o n e who d i d w e l l w a s p a s s e d o v e r o r u n d e r - r e w a r d e d . He t r u s t s t h a t t h e o l d S e i k h m e n t i o n e d b y L i e u t e n a n t D y a s a s h a v i n g b e e n w o u n d e d T i n G u r d a s p u r d i s t r i c t ] w i t h M r . H a n n a g o t h i s s h a r e . 3 4 I n s h o r t , d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s o f 1 8 5 7 , J o h n L a w r e n c e a s s i d u o u s l y k e p t h i m s e l f i n f o r m e d a b o u t t h e f e e l i n g s o f t h e P u n j a b i s a n d g a v e c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o a l l i m p o r t a n t c i v i l a n d m i l i t a r y m a t t e r s . B e c a u s e o f h i s u n t i r i n g e n e r g y a n d 121 v i g i l J o h n L a w r e n c e w a s l o o k e d u p o n b y t h e S i k h s a n d o t h e r P u n j a b i s a s a n u n r i v a l l e d c o l o s s u s who e p i t o m i z e d t h e p r e s -t i g e a n d p o w e r o f t h e B r i t i s h . T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f L a w r e n c e ' s h o l d o v e r t h e P u n j a b w a s c l e a r t o t h e m u t i n e e r s , t o o . A s a man w h o c o n s t a n t l y r e p l e n i s h e d t h e B r i t i s h f o r -c e s b e f o r e D e l h i a n d who t h w a r t e d e v e r y s c h e m e o f t h e m u t i n -o u s r e g i m e n t s s t a t i o n e d i n h i s p r o v i n c e , a n a r e a f r o m w h e r e t h e D e l h i r e b e l s a l s o h o p e d t o g e t h e l p t h r o u g h s e p o y r e g i -35 roents, J o h n L a w r e n c e w a s n a t u r a l l y b o t h d e s p i s e d a n d d r e a d e d b y t h e r e b e l s i n s i d e D e l h i . S o o b s e s s e d w e r e t h e r e b e l s o f D e l h i w i t h t h e name o f ' J a n L a ' r i n ' t h a t o n o n e o c c a s i o n t h e y b e l i e v e d t h e y h a d c a p t u r e d t h i s f o r m i d a b l e e n e m y . B u t t o t h e i r c h a g r i n , t h e f a i r - s k i n n e d man t h e y h a d 36 c a u g h t t u r n e d o u t t o b e a n i n n o c e n t K a s h m i r i . T h e r e w a s n o d o u b t t h a t i t w a s d u e t o t h e e f f o r t s o f t h i s a m a z i n g m a n , whom t h e m u t i n e e r s r e v i l e d a n d c u r s e d , t h a t t h e P u n j a b b e c a m e a r e a l s o u r c e o f s t r e n g t h f o r t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e s e p o y m u t i n y . A c k n o w l e d g i n g t h e u n i q u e s e r v i c e s o f J o h n L a w r e n c e t o t h e B r i t i s h c a u s e d u r i n g t h e s e p o y m u t i n y t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l p a i d h i m t h e f o l l o w i n g t r i b u t e : T o S i r J o h n L a w r e n c e ' s u n c e a s i n g v i g i l a n c e , a n d t o h i s e n e r g e t i c a n d j u d i c i o u s e m p l o y m e n t o f t h e t r u s t w o r t h y f o r c e s a t h i s d i s p o s a l , i t i s d u e t h a t M a j o r - G e n e r a l W i l s o n ' s A r m y h a s n o t b e e n h a r a s s e d o r threatened o n t h e s i d e o f t h e P u n j a b , a n d t h a t t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t i n t h e 3 7 P u n j a b h a s b e e n s u s t a i n e d a n d g e n e r a l l y r e s p e c t e d . T h e e n e r g y a n d a l e r t n e s s s h o w n b y t h e C h i e f C o m m i s -s i o n e r d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s o f 185 7 i n s p i r e d h i s s u b o r d i n a t e s a n d , b y a n d l a r g e , t h e y a l l r o s e t o t h e o c c a s i o n . R o b e r t 1 2 2 M o n t g o m e r y w h o , a s J u d i c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r , w a s n e x t t o t h e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i e r a r c h y , t o p p e d t h e m a l l i n d i s p l a y i n g f o r e s i g h t , c a l m n e s s a n d n e r v e * I t w a s i n d e e d a t t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f M o n t g o m e r y t h a t w i t h i n t w o d a y s o f t h e r e c e i p t o f t h e t e l e g r a m f r o m A m b a l a a l l f o r t s a n d a r s e n a l s i n t h e P u n j a b w e r e made s e c u r e b y p u t t i n g E u r o p e a n s o l d i e r s i n t h e m a n d i t w a s i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h h i s t i m e l y i n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s w e r e a b l e t o s a v e t h e i r c i v i l s t a t i o n s a n d t r e a s u r i e s f r o m t h e m u t i n -o u s s e p o y s . M o n t g o m e r y ' s f o r e s i g h t a l s o l e d h i m t o o r d e r t h e i m m e d i a t e d i s a r m i n g o f some 3 , 5 0 0 s e p o y s s t a t i o n e d n e a r L a h o r e * T h i s d i s a r m i n g o f s e p o y s , c a r r i e d o u t o n M a y 1 3 , 1 8 5 7 , s a v e d t h e s e a t o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t f r o m f a l l i n g i n t o t h e h a n d s o f d i s a f f e c t e d H i n d u s t a n i r e g i m e n t s a n d a l s o s e r v e d a s a n o p p o r t u n e r e m i n d e r t o t h e S i k h s o f t h e M a n j h a t h a t t h e p o w e r o f B r i t i s h a r m s h a d i n n o w a y d i -38 m i n i s h e d s i n c e C h i l l i a n w a l a a n d G u j a r a t * M o n t g o m e r y ' s b r i l l i a n t m a n e u v e r a g a i n s t t h e s e p o y s a t L a h o r e w a s t h e p r e c u r s o r o f m a n y o t h e r s p e c t a c l e s o f i t s k i n d w h i c h f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e b e l i e f - o f t h e S i k h s i n t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e B r i t i s h a r m s . P r a c t i c a l l y i n a l l d i s t r i c t s w h e r e t h e S i k h s w e r e i n a n a p p r e c i a b l e s t r e n g t h t h e p e o p l e w a t c h e d t h e r o u t o r d e s t r u c t i o n o f H i n d u s t a n i m u t i n e e r s b y f o r c e s l e d a l m o s t i n a l l c a s e s b y t h e d i v i -s i o n a l c o m m i s s i o n e r s a n d d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s , o r b y s u c h f i r s t r a t e c o m m a n d e r s o f t h e p o l i c e b a t t a l i o n s a n d t h e P u n j a b I r r e g u l a r F o r c e a s C h a m b e r l a i n , N i c h o l s o n , C o k e , 1 2 3 R o t h n e y , D a l y , W i l d e , T a y l o r a n d V a u g h a n . T h e d e e d s o f c i v i l o f f i c e r s l i k e B a r n e s a n d F o r s y t h i n A m b a l a , R i c k e t t s i n L u d h i a n a , L a k e a n d F a r r i n g t o n i n J u l l u n d u r , M a r s d e n i i n F e r o z e p u r , C o o p e r i n A m r i t s a r , R o b e r t s , E g e r t o n , a n d C a p t a i n L a w r e n c e i n L a h o r e , M o n c k t o n a n d E l l i o t t i n S i a l k o t , A b b o t t a n d P a r k e i n H o s h i a r p u r , a n d C l a r k e a n d C r i p p s i n G u j r a n w a l a n e e d n o t b e r e t o l d b e y o n d s a y i n g t h a t t h e c o u r a g e a n d r e -s o u r c e f u l n e s s t h e s e o f f i c e r s s h o w e d i n s u p p r e s s i n g l o c a l m u t i n i e s t r e m e n d o u s l y e n h a n c e d t h e p r e s t i g e o f t h e B r i t i s h among t h e S i k h m a s s e s . F o r e x a m p l e , a n o l d c o l o n e l o f t h e d i s b a n d e d S i k h a r m y , w h o w a s a m a z e d a t t h e q u i c k a n d s m o b t h d i s a r m i n g o f t h e 3 5 t h L i g h t I n f a n t r y a n d 3 3 r d N a t i v e I n f a n -t r y R e g i m e n t s b y N i c h o l s o n a n d t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r o f J u l l u n d u r , F a r r i n g t o n , o n J u n e 2 1 , 1 8 5 7 , p r a i s e d F a r r i n g t o n a n d N i c h o l s o n b y t e l l i n g t h e m a f t e r w i t n e s s i n g t h e s p e c t a -c l e , " Y o u h a v e t o d a y d r a w n t h e f a n g s o f 1 5 G 0 s n a k e s ; t r u l y 39 y o u r i k b a l ( g o o d f o r t u n e ) i s g r e a t . * ' A g a i n , t h e e f f e c t o n t h e S i k h s o f N i c h o l s o n ' s v i c t o r y o v e r t h e S i a l k o t m u t i -n e e r s o n J u l y 1 6 , 1 8 5 7 , w a s t o c o n f i r m t h e c o n v i c t i o n o f t h e S i k h s t h a t i n t h e c r i s i s t h e y h a d i n d e e d c h o s e n t o b e 4 0 o n t h e s i d e o f t h e s t r o n g e r a n d w i n n i n g p a r t y . T h e c o m -p l e t e d e s t r u c t i o n b y C o o p e r , t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r o f A m r i t s a r , o f t h e s e p o y s o f 2 6 t h N a t i v e I n f a n t r y , who h a d e s c a p e d f r o m L a h o r e o n J u l y 3 0 , 1 8 5 7 , a l s o p r o d u c e d a s i m i -l a r e f f e c t o n t h e S i k h s . I m p r e s s e d w i t h C o o p e r ' s s u c c e s s -f u l a c t i o n R a j a R a n d h i r S i n g h , t h e S i k h r u l e r o f K a p u r t h a l a s t a t e , w r o t e t o C o o p e r : " I c o n s i d e r i t a f i t o c c a s i o n t o 1 2 4 d r o p a l i n e o r t w o i n t h e w a y o f c o n g r a t u l a t i n g y o u f o r t h e t r i u m p h a n t r e t u r n y o u h a v e made o f t h e d i s a r m e d m u t i n o u s s e p o y s o f 2 6 t h N . I . . . . Y o u h a v e c e r t a i n l y made a v e r y , g o o d i m p r e s s i o n o n t h e m i n d o f a l l d i s a f f e c t e d t r o o p s i n t h e P u n j a b . " 4 1 T h r o u g h t h e i r t i g h t i n t e r n a l s e c u r i t y t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s a l s o p r e v e n t e d l o c a l s o u r c e s o f s e d i t i o n f r o m i n -f e c t i n g t h e m i n d s o f t h e S i k h m a s s e s . T h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s m o v e d f a s t t o p u n i s h i n d i v i d u a l s who w e r e s u s p e c t e d o f t r e a -s o n a b l e i n t e n t s o r w e r e d i s p o s e d t o w a r d e v i l . A m i s g u i d e d S i k h , M o h a r S i n g h b y n a m e , w h o , b e l i e v i n g i n t h e w o r d o f t h e H i n d u s t a n i s e p o y s s t a t i o n e d i n h i s home t o w n o f R o p a r , h a d u s e d s e d i t i o u s l a n g u a g e i n t h e b a z a a r , w a s e x e c u t e d w i t h i n 4 2 t w o h o u r s o f h i s c r i m e . I n A m r i t s a r a Mohammedan w a t c h -m a n , s o m e b a i r a q i f a q i r s ( m e n d i c a n t s ) , a n d o n e B h a i M a h a r a j S i n g h w e r e i n t e r n e d a s p o l i t i c a l s u s p e c t s a n d a B r a h m i n n a m e d R a d h a K i s h a n w a s h a n g e d i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e M o v e -a b l e C o l u m n f o r a t t e m p t i n g t o s p r e a d s e d i t i o n a m o n g t h e m e n 43 o f t h a t c o r p s . Two n a t i v e s o f G u r d a s p u r D i s t r i c t w e r e s e v e r e l y p u n i s h e d f o r u s i n g t r e a s o n a b l e l a n g u a g e a n d t h e i r f a t e e f f e c t i v e l y d e t e r r e d o t h e r s f r o m u s i n g i n d i s c r e e t l a n -4 4 g u a g e a g a i n s t t h e G o v e r n m e n t . A S i k h o f f i c e r o f t h e m o u n t e d p o l i c e , n a m e d R a n j i t S i n g h , w a s h a n g e d i n S i a l k o t o n c h a r g e s o f t r e a t i n g l i g h t l y t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r ' s o r -d e r s t o o b t a i n s e c r e t l y i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e l o c a l m u t i -4 5 n e e r s . A b u t c h e r o f t h e same c i t y a l s o p a i d w i t h h i s l i f e f o r u s i n g t h r e a t e n i n g l a n g u a g e t o a E u r o p e a n s e r g e a n t a n d a f t e r h i s e x e c u t i o n n o n a t i v e o f t h e t o w n i n s u l t e d E u r o p e a n s . 1 2 5 T h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r o f F e r o z e p u r s e i z e d a f a q i r c a l l e d S h a m D a s a f t e r a b r i e f e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e l a t t e r 1 s f o l l o w -47 e r s a n d e x e c u t e d h i m f o r h i s t r e a s o n a b l e a c t i v i t i e s . B e s i d e s t a k i n g q u i c k a n d d e c i s i v e a c t i o n a g a i n s t i n d i v i d u -a l s who w e r e s u s p e c t e d o f t r e a s o n o r w e r e k n o w n t o b e t h e i l l - w i s h e r s o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t , t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s k e p t t h o r o u g h s u r v e i l l a n c e o f t h e n a t i v e p r e s s a n d t h e o l d s i r d a r s o f t h e S i k h D u r b a r ; t h e y a l s o c e n s o r e d m a i l , f o r b a d e t h e s a l e o f s u l p h u r , r a i s e d l o a n s f o r t h e G o v e r n m e n t , a n d s e c u r -e d r o a d s , b r i d g e s , a n d t r e a s u r i e s . I n b r i e f , t h e v i g o u r a n d a l a c r i t y s h o w n b y t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s o f t h e P u n j a b d u r i n g t h e s e p o y m u t i n y p r o v e d h i g h l y c o n d u c i v e i n p r e s e r v i n g B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t y i n " t h e p r o v i n c e a n d i n k e e p i n g t h e m i n d s o f t h e S i k h s f r e e f r o m t a i n t o f d i s l o y a l t y . P r a i s i n g t h e * e x c e l l e n t w o r k d o n e b y t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e P u n j a b a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s o f 1 8 5 7 J o h n L a w r e n c e l a t e r s a i d , " N o f u n c t i o n a r y h a s e v e r b e e n b e t t e r s e r v e d , o r o w e s 4 8 m o r e t o h i s o f f i c e r s . " W i t h d e v e l o p m e n t s d u r i n g t h e m u t i n y l e n d i n g s t r o n g s u p p o r t t o t h e i r b e l i e f i n t h e i n h e r e n t i n v i n c i b i l i t y o f B r i t i s h a r m s t h e S i k h s c o u l d n o t , a n d t h e y d i d n o t , d a r e t o l e t a n y s u s p i c i o n o f d i s l o y a l t y a n d t r e a s o n h a n g o v e r t h e m . I n f a c t , i n c o n t r a s t t o p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s i n 1 8 4 6 o r 1 8 4 9 t h e S i k h s o n b o t h s i d e s o f t h e S u t l e j w e r e d e t e r m i n e d t o a v o i d p l a y i n g a r e c k l e s s r o l e o r t a k i n g a w r o n g s t e p d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s . I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i r t r a d i t i o n , t h e S i k h c h i e f s o f t h e C i s - S u t l e j s t a t e s a t o n c e s a w t h a t t h e 126 sepoy mutiny would afford them another opportunity to prove their f i d e l i t y toward the East India Company, under whose protection they had not only escaped extinction from the aggression of the Marathas and the machinations of the am-bitious Ranjit Singh but had also earned r i c h rewards for their services and loyalty to their over lord. On the other hand, the Sikhs of the Trans-Sutlej d i s t r i c t s regarded the sepoy r i s i n g as a God-sent occasion to regain some of their lost social prestige, to recover their forfeited jaqeers, and to win rewards and employment by giving proof of their loyalty to their conquerors, who had on the whole treated them gallantly and had, after a l l , not reduced them to the humiliating status of landless peasantry after t o t a l l y crushing their power at Chillianwala and Gujarat. And the nature and pattern of response given by the Sikhs to the B r i t i s h c a l l for help showed beyond doubt that the Sikhs were only too€a$er to curry favour with their masters. When the B r i t i s h approached the Sikh rulers, of the Cis-Sutlej states for help during the c r i s i s of 1857, these chiefs had two courses open to them: either to f u l f i l their obligation of f a i t h f u l l y rendering help to the B r i t i s h or to go back on the agreement which bound them to give aid to the B r i t i s h during a war or an emergency. But since they believed that the B r i t i s h would surely crush the mutineers they adopted the f i r s t course, which would also bring them, they believed, the concomitant advantage of deserving fur-ther rewards and favours from their suzerain. In other 1 2 7 w o r d s , t h e S i k h c h i e f s w e r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t i f t h e y w e r e d i s -l o y a l t o t h e B r i t i s h t h e y w o u l d b e f o l l o w i n g t h e r o a d t o s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n ; b r e a c h o f f a i t h w i t h t h e i r i n v i n c i b l e s u z e r a i n , t h e y b e l i e v e d , w o u l d i n e v i t a b l y make t h e m t h e t a r -g e t s o f B r i t i s h r e t r i b u t i o n . T h e i r q u i c k r e s p o n s e t o t h e B r i t i s h c a l l f o r h e l p , t h e r e f o r e , s h o w e d t h a t t h e y d i d n o t w i s h t o b e a c c u s e d o f a n y b r e a c h o f f a i t h . T h e P a t i a l a r u l e r ' s i n s t a n t a n e o u s d e c i s i o n t o s e n d t r o o p s t o A m b a l a w h e n r e q u i r e d t o d o s o b y t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r o f A m b a l a s h o w e d t h a t h e s i m p l y f o l l o w e d t h e r u l e s o f p r u d e n c e t o a v o i d s u s -p i c i o n o f d i s l o y a l t y . How c a r e f u l h e w a s i n p r o v i n g ^ h i m s e l f a b o v e s u s p i c i o n o f i n f i d e l i t y w a s c o n f i r m e d b y h i s a l a c r i t y i n f o r w a r d i n g t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r o f A m b a l a D i v i s i o n a l e t t e r f r o m t h e K i n g o f D e l h i i n c i t i n g h i m t o r i s e a g a i n s t t h e 49 B r i t i s h . T h e s a m e p r u d e n t m o t i v e s o f t h e J i n d R a j a w e r e p l a i n a n d c l e a r W h e n , o n h e a r i n g t h e n e w s o f t h e o u t b r e a k o f m u t i n y i n D e l h i , h e i n s t a n t l y t o o k u p a r m s a g a i n s t t h e r e -b e l s a n d o n h i s o w n i n i t i a t i v e d e s p a t c h e d m e s s e n g e r s t o t h e B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t i e s a t A m b a l a f o r a d v i c e o n f u r t h e r a c t i o n , 5 0 a n d t h e same c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f common s e n s e a n d p r u d e n c e w e r e u n q u e s t i o n a b l y e v i n c e d b y t h e r e a d y a n d f a v o u r a b l e r e s p o n s e o f t h e s m a l l e r S i k h c h i e f s o f N a b h a a n d F a r i d k o t . T h e l o y a l c o n d u c t o f t h e S i k h j a q e e r d a r s o f t h e C i s - S u t l e j a r e a a l s o l e f t l i t t l e d o u b t as, t o t h e i r s e l f - i n t e r e s t e d m o t i v e s . I t w o u l d b e h a r d t o d r a w a n y o t h e r i n f e r e n c e a b o u t t h e m o t i v e s o f t h e s e j a q e e r d a r s . w h o h a d l o s t - m a n y o f t h e i r r i g h t s s i n c e t h e S u t l e j c a m p a i g n o f 1 8 4 6 , i f o n e t a k e s i n t o 1 2 8 a c c o u n t t h e s t r o n g s e n s e o f g r a t i f i c a t i o n f e l t b y t h o s e i a q e e r d a r s who w e r e a p p r o a c h e d b y t h e B r i t i s h f o r h e l p a n d a n e q u a l l y s t r o n g s e n s e o f f r u s t r a t i o n a n d d i s a p p o i n t m e n t e x p r e s s e d b y t h o s e who w e r e n o t a s k e d t o r e n d e r a n y s e r v i c e s t o t h e B r i t i s h . 5 1 I n s h o r t , i t w a s t h e u n h e s i t a t i n g a n d p r o m p t p r o o f o f l o y a l t y o n t h e p a r t o f t h e C i s - S u t l e j S i k h r a j a s a n d j a q e e r d a r s w h i c h c l e a r l y s h o w e d t h a t t h e i r i n s t i n c t f o r s e l f -p r e s e r v a t i o n a n d h o p e f o r m a t e r i a l g a i n s i n t h e f u t u r e w e r e t h e i r p r i m e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r c o m i n g o u t s t r o n g l y o n t h e s i d e o f t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e s e p o y m u t i n y . T h e i r o w n a v o w a l s f u r t h e r d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t s u c h w e r e i n d e e d t h e i r p r i -m a r y m o t i v e s f o r h e l p i n g t h e B r i t i s h . P o r e x a m p l e , t h e r u l e r o f P a t i a l a , a d m i t t i n g t h a t s e l f - i n t e r e s t w a s t h e r e a s o n w h y h e s u p p o r t e d t h e B r i t i s h a g a i n s t t h e m u t i n e e r s , o n e e p o i n t -e d l y r e m a r k e d t h a t s i n c e t h e d a y s o f t h e D u r r a n i k i n g s h i s h o u s e h a d a l w a y s a d h e r e d t o t h e p o l i c y o f g i v i n g i t s l o y a l t y 52 t o t h e o v e r l o r d . T h e R a j a o f J i n d a l s o g a v e s i m i l a r r e a -s o n s f o r h i s l o y a l t y t o t h e B r i t i s h , r e c a l l i n g t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f h i s h o u s e h a d b e e n w e l l s e r v e d t h r o u g h i t s 53 v a s s a l a g e t o t h e B r i t i s h . T h e T r a n s - S u t l e j S i k h s , who l o s t t h e i r k i n g d o m t o t h e B r i t i s h i n 1 8 4 9 , l o o k e d u p o n t h e s e p o y r i s i n g a s a n o p p o r -t u n e o c c a s i o n t o r e t r i e v e a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e o f t h e i r s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c s t a t u s w h i c h h a d b e e n g r a d u a l l y s i n k i n g l o w e r a n d l o w e r a f t e r t h e a n n e x a t i o n o f t h e P u n j a b . D u r i n g t h e e i g h t y e a r s b e t w e e n a n n e x a t i o n a n d t h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e 129 sepoy mutiny the jaqeers of many leading Jat Sikh families were curtailed by the Government; some Sikh families had lost their lands altogether; and employment in public offices was generally denied them. Public offices during those eight post-annexation years were monopolized by Hindustanis. The preference given to Hindustanis in the Punjab's c i v i l and revenue departments was irksome to some Br i t i s h o f f i c i a l s . Montgomery, the Judicial Commissioner, used to express his disgust with the Hindustanis' preponderance i n the Punjab 54 c i v i l service by describing ifc as "the Hindustani r a j . " B r i t i s h patronage of the Hindustanis hurt the feelings of the Sikhs most of a l l and was indeed the root cause of the Sikh's hatred for the Hindustanis, because the Sikhs strongly f e l t that i n their own land, of which they were the rulers only eight years ago, they had a much better claim to public 55 offices than the Poorbeahs 'the down Easters.' But during the pre-mutiny years there was no way for the Sikhs to chal-lenge or break the Poorbeahs' hold over government jobs, especially when the Brit i s h appeared indifferent toward the Sikhs' interests. Yet, the Sikhs also realized that at worst the a t t i -tude of the government toward them was only one of i n d i f f -erence and ;by no means of h o s t i l i t y or cruelty. And they were also gratefully aware that their conquerors did not push the process of curtailment of their jaqeers to extremes. For this they could well be thankful to the magnanimity and far-sightedness of Henry Lawrence, the Chairman of the Board 130 of Administration. 1849-52. But even when Henry was removed from the Punjab after the quarrel with his younger brother, John, on the very issue of the 1aqeers of the sirdars, the policy of revoking the iaqeers was, i r o n i c a l l y enough, not pursued by John with the earlier zest and conviction which 56 had caused the rupture i n his relations with his brother. Years later John Lawrence himself conceded that his admini-stration i n the Punjab had not i l l treated the jaqeerdars and to support his assertion he cited the fact that two-f i f t h s of the Punjab's land revenue s t i l l belonged to the 57 jaqeerdars. There were other factors, too, that soothed the feelings of despair and resentment f e l t by the Sikhs toward the B r i t i s h : their employment i n the Punjab Police and the Punjab Irregular Frontier Force, however limited i n terms of their proportion of the population, and the retention and amalgamation into the Punjabi force of a few old Sikh regiments which had not taken up arms against the B r i t i s h i n the war of 1848-49, were encouraging signs for the Sikhs to hope for a more considerate and generous treatment from the B r i t i s h some day. To the good fortune of the Sikhs the time for realizing these hopes came unexpectedly soon with the outbreak of mutiny i n 1857 and they perceived, almost instinctively, that by showing their loyalty to their invincible masters they would succeed i n changing the Br i t i s h attitude of indifference toward their interests i n -to an attitude of benevolence. 1 3 1 T h e e a g e r n e s s o f t h e S i k h s t o h e l p t h e B r i t i s h , w h i c h b e c a m e u n e q u i v o c a l l y c l e a r t o t h e J u d i c i a l C o m m i s -s i o n e r w h e n h e a s k e d t h e j a q e e r d a r s a n d s i r d a r s f o r h e l p 5 8 d u r i n g t h e f i r s t w e e k o f t h e m u t i n y , w a s t h e f i r s t p o s i -t i v e p r o o f t h a t t h e S i k h s b a d l y w a n t e d t o g e t i n t o t h e g o o d b o o k s o f t h e i r B r i t i s h r u l e r s . T h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y z e a l a n d d e v o t i o n w i t h w h i c h t h e B r i t i s h w e r e a c t u a l l y h e l p e d b y t h e S i k h s , p a r t i c u l a r l y b y t h o s e s u r v i v i n g S i k h f a m i l i e s who h a d b e e n t h e a r c h e n e m i e s o f t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e t w o S i k h w a r s a n d who h a d c o n s e q u e n t l y s u f f e r e d h e a v y l o s s e s s o c i a l l y a n d e c o n o m i c a l l y , o f f e r e d , o f c o u r s e , t h e m o s t c o n -c l u s i v e p r o o f t h a t s h e e r p r u d e n c e a n d s e l f - i n t e r e s t w e r e t h e m o t i v e s f o r t h e l o y a l b e h a v i o u r o f t h e S i k h s d u r i n g t h e u p -r i s i n g o f 1 8 5 7 . I n d e e d t h i s b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n o f t h e S i k h s — t h e m o r e a S i k h f a m i l y h a d s u f f e r e d a f t e r a n n e x a t i o n t h e g r e a t e r i t s z e a l a n d d e s i r e t o p r o v e i t s l o y a l t y t o t h e B r i t i s h — w a s t h e m o s t r e v e a l i n g o f t h e S i k h s ' m o t i v e s o f s e l f - i n t e r e s t , o f r e w a r d s , a n d a t l e a s t , o f t h e i r i n s t i n c -t i v e d e s i r e t o s a v e t h e m s e l v e s f r o m f u r t h e r e c o n o m i c r u i n a -t i o n b y g i v i n g t a n g i b l e p r o o f o f t h e i r l o y a l t y t o t h e B r i t i s h . H e n c e , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e u n s w e r v i n g l y l o y a l c o n -d u c t o f t h e A t t a r i a n d S i n d h a n w a l a f a m i l i e s o f A m r i t s a r 5 9 d i s t r i c t — t h e t w o f a m i l i e s w h i c h h a d l e d t h e c a m p a i g n s o f 1 8 4 6 a n d 1 8 4 9 a g a i n s t t h e B r i t i s h ; o f t h e M a n f a m i l y , w h o s e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , S i r d a r S a r d u l S i n g h , o n c e a g e n e r a l o f R a n j i t S i n g h , p e r s o n a l l y s e r v e d t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e 60 m u t i n y ; o f t h e C h i n a f a m i l y , w h o s e t w o l e a d e r s , J a i S i n g h 1 3 2 a n d H a r d i t S i n g h , h a v i n g l o s t t h e i r i a q e e r s f o r j o i n i n g t h e r e v o l t i n 1 8 4 8 - 4 9 , b r a v e l y s e r v e d u n d e r t h e B r i t i s h i n 1 8 5 7 a s r e s a l d a r a n d j e m a d a r ( o f f i c e r r a n k s i n t h e n a t i v e c a v a l -6 1 r y ) r e s p e c t i v e l y ; a n d o f t h e A d a l t i f a m i l y o f A m r i t s a r , w h o s e h e a d m a n , n a m e d M a n S i n g h , o n c e a h i g h o f f i c e r o f t h e o l d S i k h a r m y , e a r n e d a name f o r h i m s e l f f o r h i s d i s t i n g u i -s h e d s e r v i c e s t o t h e B r i t i s h a s a r e s a l d a r d u r i n g t h e s e p o y 6 2 m u t i n y . T h e b e h a v i o u r o f t h e l e a d i n g S i k h s o f G u r d a s p u r d i s t r i c t d u r i n g t h e m u t i n y w a s p a r a l l e l t o t h a t o f t h e A m r i t s a r S i k h s . T h e R a n d h a w a f a m i l y o f L e i , w h o s e men h e l d h i g h r a n k s i n R a n j i t S i n g h ' s a r m y , w h o l e h e a r t e d l y s u p p o r t e d 6 3 t h e B r i t i s h i n 1 8 5 7 . S i r d a r L a i S i n g h o f - T a l w a n d i , a p r o -m i n e n t o f f i c e r o f t h e d i s b a n d e d S i k h a r m y , f u r n i s h e d h o r s e -men a n d s e n t h i s t w o s o n s w i t h t h e m f o r s e r v i c e a g a i n s t t h e 6 4 m u t i n e e r s i n H i n d u s t a n . A n d B a w a A m a r S i n g h o f B a t a l a , w h o w a s a c o l o n e l i n t h e S i k h a r m y , s e r v e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t 6 5 f a i t h f u l l y a s a r e s a l d a r . I n o t h e r d i s t r i c t s a n d a r e a s o f t h e T r a n s - S u t l e j P u n j a b , t o o , t h e l o y a l a n d h e l p f u l b e h a v -i o u r o f t h e S i k h l e a d e r s , s u c h a s R a j a T e j S i n g h i n t h e L a h o r e d i s t r i c t , J a w a h i r S i n g h i n t h e Jamrau H i l l s , t h e 6 6 c h i e f o f K a p u r t h a l a s t a t e , a n d n u m e r o u s s m a l l e r s i r d a r s l e n t f u r t h e r s u p p o r t t o t h e v i e w t h a t t h e S i k h s g a v e t h e i r p o l i t i c a l s u p p o r t a n d a c t i v e h e l p t o t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e s e p o y c r i s i s o f 1 8 5 7 f r o m m o t i v e s o f r e w a r d s a n d r e c o g -n i t i o n . B e s i d e s t h i s c o n c l u s i o n a b o u t t h e m o t i v e s o f t h e T r a n s - S u t l e j S i k h s f r o m t h e i r common p a t t e r n o f l o y a l 133 b e h a v i o u r d u r i n g t h e s e p o y m u t i n y , a p e n e t r a t i n g a n a l y s i s o f t h e i r m o t i v e s made a t t h e t i m e b y t h e D e p u t y C o m m i s s i o n e r o f A m r i t s a r b o r e o u t t h e same c o n c l u s i o n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : A l l o l d r e b e l s o f t h e S i k h W a r , who w e r e u n d e r a s o r t o f o f f i c i a l a n d s o c i a l b a n , s e i z e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f r e g a i n i n g t h e i r c h a r a c t e r ; a n d n a t u r a l l y n o u r i s h i n g a h o p e t h a t t h e i r l o y a l t y m i g h t e v o k e s u b s t a n t i a l r e c o g n i t i o n , came f o r w a r d w i t h o f f e r s o f s e r v i c e . N o man h o p e s t o r e g a i n c o n f i s c a t e d l a n d f r o m a S t a t e h e t h i n k s t o t t e r i n g t o i t s f a l l . M a n y o f t h e m o s t d a n g e r o u s t h u s , a s i t w e r e , d r e w t h e i r own t e e t h f o r d a n g e r ; a n d w e r e a b s o l u t e l y made o f c a p i t a l u s e . 6 ' I n d e e d , e v e n t h o s e S i k h r e b e l s w h o w e r e b a n i s h e d f r o m t h e P u n j a b a f t e r a n n e x a t i o n s e i z e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e h a b i l i -t a t e t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e e y e s o f t h e B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t i e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , S i r d a r G u l a b S i n g h , w h o a l o n g w i t h t w o o t h e r A t t a r i s i r d a r s , n a m e l y , C h a t a r S i n g h a n d S h e r S i n g h , w a s r e m o v e d t o B e n g a l a f t e r t h e S e c o n d S i k h W a r , s e r v e d d u r i n g 68 t h e m u t i n y a s a c a p t a i n i n t h e B r i t i s h f o r c e s , a n d R a j a S u r a t S i n g h o f t h e M a j i t h i a f a m i l y , w h o l i v e d u n d e r s u r -v e i l l a n c e a t B e n a r a s , r e n d e r e d v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e s t o t h e B r i t i s h b y s a v i n g t h e l i v e s o f E u r o p e a n r e s i d e n t s o f B e n a r a s t h r o u g h h i s p e r s o n a l i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e S i k h r e g i -m e n t s t a t i o n e d t h e r e a n d l a t e r o n b y p e r s o n a l l y t a k i n g t h e 69 f i e l d a g a i n s t t h e r e b e l s i n H i n d u s t a n . N o o n e , o f c o u r s e , c o u l d k n o w t h e i n t e n t i o n s a n d m o t i v e s o f t h e S i k h s b e t t e r t h a n t h e r e m n a n t s o f t h e o l d S i k h n o b i l i t y t h e m s e l v e s . A s s t a t e d e a r l i e r , a f e w o f t h e s e o l d s i r d a r s e n j o y e d t h e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r ' s c o n f i -d e n c e . T h e s e t r u s t e d a d v i s e r s o f J o h n L a w r e n c e f e l t t h a t 1 3 4 t h e - S i k h s c o u l d b e c o m e t r o u b l e s o m e t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t i f e m -p l o y m e n t i n t h e a r m y w a s d e n i e d t o t h e m . J o h n L a w r e n c e , s u s p i c i o u s a s e v e r o f t h e p o l i t i c a l a m b i t i o n s o f t h e S i k h s , w a s i n i t i a l l y h e s i s t a n t t o e n l i s t t h e S i k h s f o r t h e e m e r g e n -70 c y i n c r e a s e o f t h e P u n j a b i f o r c e . F i n d i n g h i m s e l f i n a q u a n d a r y o v e r t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e c r u i t i n g t h e S i k h s , J o h n L a w r e n c e t u r n e d t o h i s S i k h a d v i s e r s f o r a d v i c e . O n e o f t h e m , N i h a l S i n g h C h a c h i , t o l d t h e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r , " Y o u h a d b e t t e r e m p l o y t h e m , o r t h e y may g o a g a i n s t y o u , " a n d s o d e p e n d i n g u p o n N i h a l S i n g h C h a c h i 1 s f o r e s i g h t t h e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r w r o t e t o e a c h s i r d a r who h a d s u f f e r e d i n t h e w a r o f 1 8 4 8 a n d h a d h i m c o m m i t t e d ^ b y g i v i n g h i m t h e h o p e o f r e m o v i n g a n o l d b l o t a g a i n s t h i s c h a r a c t e r , t o t h e B r i t i s h s i d e . 7 1 T h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e S i k h s t o t h e r e c r u i t m e n t c a m -p a i g n s h o w e d t h a t t h e S i k h m a s s e s w e r e a s e a g e r t o s e r v e t h e B r i t i s h a s t h e S i k h s i r d a r s a n d j a q e e r d a r s . D e s c r i b i n g t h e e x t e n s i v e r e c r u i t m e n t o f t h e S i k h p e a s a n t r y i n t h e d i s -t r i c t s o f J u l l u n d u r , H o s h i a r p u r , L u d h i a n a , G u r d a s p u r , a n d A m r i t s a r , t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r o f J u l l u n d u r D i v i s i o n , who w a s a s k e d t o r a i s e t w o r e g i m e n t s a n d e x t r a p o l i c e b a t t a l i o n s , l a t e r w r o t e : " S o a n x i o u s w e r e t h e S i k h s a n d P u n j a b e e s o f t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d f o r s e r v i c e t h a t t h e r a n k s o f b o t h r e g i -m e n t s w o u l d h a v e b e e n f i l l e d i n a m o n t h i f I h a d n o t l i m i t e d 72 t h e n u m b e r t o b e t a k e n f r o m e a c h l o c a l i t y . " I n f a c t t h e P u n j a b a u t h o r i t i e s w e r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t e m p l o y m e n t m o t i v e s 73 s t i r r e d t h e z e a l o f t h  S i k h s t o s e e k s r v i c e i  t h e a r m y . 135 F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e m p l o y m e n t a f f o r d e d b y t h e e m e r g e n c y e x p a n s i o n o f t h e P u n j a b I r r e g u l a r F o r c e a n d t h e P u n j a b P o l i c e h a d a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e i n c o n f i r m i n g t h e S i k h r e g i m e n t s i n t h e i r l o y a l t y t o w a r d t h e B r i t i s h . A n e p i s o d e t h a t o c c u r r e d a t J h e l u m d u r i n g t h e m u t i n y b o r e o u t t h i s f a c t . T h e S i k h p o l i c e b a t t a l i o n s t a t i o n e d t h e r e o n c e f e l l u n d e r s u s p i c i o n o f b e i n g d i s a f f e c t e d , b e c a u s e a S i k h i n f o r m e d t h e a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t t h e men o f t h i s b a t t a l i o n h a d s e c r e t l y r e c e i v e d s e d i t i o u s l e t t e r s f r o m R a j a S h e r S i n g h , t h e i r o l d g e n e r a l , who l i v e d u n d e r s u r v e i l l a n c e i n C a l c u t t a . T h e C o m -m i s s i o n e r o f J h e l u m D i v i s i o n , T h o r n t o n , p e r s o n a l l y i n v e s t i -g a t e d t h e m a t t e r a n d f o u n d n o t o n l y t h a t t h e c o m p l a i n t a g a i n s t t h e S i k h p o l i c e b a t t a l i o n w a s b a s e l e s s b u t t h a t t h e w h o l e b a t t a l i o n w a s i n e x c e l l e n t s h a p e a n d t h a t i t s men w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y h a p p y b e c a u s e " t h e f o u r a u g m e n t a t i o n c o m p a n i e s j u s t a l l o w e d h a d g i v e n p r o m o t i o n a n d a l l o w e d t h e men t o 74 b r i n g m a n y o f t h e i r n e a r r e l a t i v e s i n t o s e r v i c e . " E x p e c t a t i o n o f r e w a r d s w a s a l s o a s t r o n g m o t i v e o f t h e S i k h m a s s e s f o r h e l p i n g t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s i n t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n o r d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e m u t i n e e r s . T h e r e p o r t s o f t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e S i k h p e a s a n t s w e r e v e r y d e s i r o u s o f t a k i n g f u l l a d v a n t a g e o f t h e P u n j a b G o v e r n m e n t ' s o f f e r s , o f r e w a r d s f o r c a p t u r i n g o r k i l l i n g t h e m u t i n e e r s . I n f a c t , a t some p l a c e s t h e S i k h v i l l a g e r s h o u n d e d t h e e s c a p e d s e p o y s s o f a n a t i c a l l y a n d . e x e c u t e d a n d a p p r e h e n d e d m u t i n e e r s s o c o l d - b l o o d e d l y t h a t t h e i r m o t i v e s w e r e u n m i s t a k a b l y e v i d e n t f r o m t h e i r b e h a v i o u r . T h e d e s -t r u c t i o n i n A m r i t s a r d i s t r i c t o f t h e s e p o y s o f t h e 2 6 t h 1 3 6 N a t i v e I n f a n t r y w a s a c a s e i n p o i n t . T h e S i k h v i l l a g e r s b e c a m e , a t t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f t h e i r d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r , m o s t w i l l i n g e x e c u t i o n e r s o f t h e a r r e s t e d s e p o y s . A f t e r f i l l i n g t h e p i t w i t h n e a r l y t h r e e h u n d r e d c o r p s e s t h e y t o l d t h e d i s -t r i c t o f f i c e r t h a t t h e p u n i s h m e n t o f t h e s e p o y s w a s " r i g h t -e o u s , b u t i n c o m p l e t e ; b e c a u s e t h e m a g i s t r a t e d i d n o t h u r l h e a d l o n g i n t o t h e c h a s m , t h e r a b b l e o f m e n , w o m e n , a n d 75 c h i l d r e n , w h o h a d f l e d m i s e r a b l y w i t h t h e m u t i n e e r s . " S u c h d i s p l a y o f i n h u m a n i t y , d e g r a d a t i o n o f m i n d , a n d s e r v i l e f l a t t e r y o n t h e p a r t o f t h e S i k h s c o u l d o n l y a r i s e f r o m t h e i r e x t r e m e d e s i r e t o p l e a s e , a n d t o w i n f a v o u r s a n d r e -w a r d s f r o m , t h e i r B r i t i s h m a s t e r s . T h a t s u c h w e r e i n d e e d t h e m o t i v e s o f t h e S i k h v i l l a g e r s w a s a l s o t h e b e l i e f o f t h e 76 d i s t r i c t o f f i c e r i n q u e s t i o n . T h e r e w a r d s f o r s u c h a c t s o f s e r v i l i t y a n d b l i n d l o y a l t y o n t h e p a r t o f t h e S i k h s w e r e g i v e n t o t h e m , o f c o u r s e , v e r y p r o m p t l y , s o m u c h s o t h a t t h e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r , a s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , t o o k a p e r s o n -a l i n t e r e s t i n e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l s c o n c e r n e d w e r e h a n d s o m e l y r e w a r d e d w i t h o u t u n n e c e s s a r y d e l a y . T h u s , t h r o u g h i t s p o l i c y o f d i s b u r s i n g r e w a r d s w i t h p r o m p t i t u d e t h e P u n j a b a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f u l l y e x p l o i t e d d u r i n g t h e s e p o y m u t i n y t h e d e s i r e o f t h e S i k h p e a s a n t r y t o e a r n r e w a r d s . A l t h o u g h t h e S i k h s , h i g h a n d l o w , l i v i n g o n b o t h s i d e s o f t h e S u t l e j , h e l p e d t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e s e p o y m u t i n y p r i m a r i l y t o a v o i d p u n i s h m e n t a n d w i n e m p l o y m e n t a n d r e w a r d s , a n u m b e r o f s e c o n d a r y m o t i v e s c o u l d a l s o b e i m p u t e d t o t h e S i k h r e g i m e n t s a n d s o l d i e r s f o r t h e i r f i d e l i t y w i t h t h e B r i t i s h . T h e r e g u l a r i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e s o l d i e r s * p a y 1 3 7 w a s d i s b u r s e d i n t h e B r i t i s h s e r v i c e g r e a t l y h e l p e d t o r e -i n f o r c e t h e l o y a l s e n t i m e n t s o f t h e c a s h - h u n g r y S i k h p e a -s a n t s w h o f o u n d e m p l o y m e n t i n t h e a r m y . T h e B r i t i s h m i l i -t a r y s y s t e m , w h i c h c l e a r l y d e f i n e d t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f s e r -v i c e a n d r e q u i r e d a f a i t h f u l p a y m e n t o f s o l d i e r s ' p a y , w a s n a t u r a l l y m o r e f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e s o l d i e r s t h a n t h e f o r m e r S i k h g o v e r n m e n t ' s s y s t e m o f h a p h a z a r d d i s b u r s e m e n t o f s e r -v i c e m e n ' s p a y — a s y s t e m i n w h i c h t h e a u d i t d e p a r t m e n t w a s p r a c t i c a l l y n o n - e x i s t e n t . M o r e f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s o f s e r v i c e u n d e r t h e B r i t i s h w e r e c o n s e q u e n t l y b o u n d t o e n h a n c e t h e S i k h s e r v i c e m e n ' s f e e l i n g s o f l o y a l t y a n d g r a t i t u d e t o t h e i r B r i t i s h e m p l o y e r s , a n d t h i s w o u l d n o t b e a t a l l d i f f -i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d w h e n i t i s r e m e m b e r e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e d a y s o f t h e S i k h k i n g d o m t h e i r r e g u l a r i t y i n t h e d i s b u r s e -m e n t o f s o l d i e r s ' p a y h a d o f t e n i n d u c e d t h e S i k h r e g i m e n t s 77 t o a c t s o f i n s u b o r d i n a t i o n a n d e v e n o p e n m u t i n y . T h e p e r s o n a l c o u r a g e a n d h i g h c a l i b r e o f B r i t i s h a r m y o f f i c e r s a l s o k e p t t h e S i k h r e g i m e n t s s t a u n c h d u r i n g t h e s e p o y m u t i n y . A s n o t e d b e f o r e , t h e P u n j a b I r r e g u l a r F o r c e a n d t h e P u n j a b P o l i c e w e r e o f f i c e r e d b y men who w e r e j u d i c i o u s l y c h o s e n a t t h e t i m e o f a n n e x a t i o n i n 1 8 4 9 b y t h e t w o L a w r e n c e b r o t h e r s , H e n r y a n d J o h n . T h e s e men w e r e p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t a b l e f o r t h e i r b r a v e r y a n d d a s h — q u a l i t i e s w h i c h s i m p l e a n d b r a v e p e o p l e s u c h a s t h e J a t S i k h s r e g a r d e d a s g o d l y v i r t u e s . M e n l i k e N i c h o l s o n a n d H o d s o n , w h o s e s u p b e r b p h y s i q u e s a n d f e a r l e s s n e s s i n t h e f a c e o f e n e m y w e r e c l i c h e s a m o n g t h e S i k h s , c o m m a n d e d u n q u a l i f i e d 1 3 8 p e r s o n a l l o y a l t y f r o m t h e i r r e g i m e n t a l S i k h s , w h o a l w a y s t o o k p r i d e i n f o l l o w i n g t h e s e b r a v e o f f i c e r s t o t h e b a t t l e -f i e l d a n d w e p t l i k e c h i l d r e n w h e n t h e t w o c o m m a n d e r s w e r e 78 f e l l e d b y e n e m y ' s f i r e . T h e i n f l u e n c e t h a t e s p e c i a l l y N i c h o l s o n h a d g a i n e d o v e r t h e m i n d s o f t h e w a r l i k e S i k h s w a s r e m a r k a b l y t e s t i f i e d b y a b a l l a d w h i c h t h e P u n j a b i b a r d s u s e d t o s i n g i n l a t e r y e a r s i n m e m o r y o f N i c h o l s o n ' s h e r o i c d e a t h d u r i n g t h e a s s a u l t o f D e l h i : We c e a s e l e s s p r a y t h e w a r r i o r ' s G o d , w i t h a l l a s o l d i e r ' s l o v e , T h a t h e w o u l d m a k e b r a v e N i c h o l s o n , a p r i n c e i n h e a v e n a b o v e . O h ! G o d l i k e c h i e f t a i n N i c h o l s o n o u r c h i l d r e n l i s p t h y n a m e , T h o u ' I t n o t f o r g e t t h e K h a l s a ' s p r a y e r s t h e i r b a b i e s p r a t e t h y n a m e . 7 9 T h e s p i r i t o f c o m r a d e s h i p w h i c h e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e S i k h s o l d i e r s a n d t h e i r E u r o p e a n c o u n t e r p a r t s w a s y e t a n o t h e r r e a s o n w h i c h i n s p i r e d t h e S i k h s t o r e m a i n f a i t h f u l t o t h e B r i t i s h . A n u m b e r o f r e a s o n s e x p l a i n e d t h i s f e l l o w s h i p b e -t w e e n t h e S i k h a n d E u r o p e a n s o l d i e r s . R e s p e c t f o r e a c h o t h e r ' s s o l d i e r l y q u a l i t i e s , s o w e l l d i s c o v e r e d b y b o t h s i d e s d u r i n g t h e t w o S i k h w a r s , h a d h e l p e d d e v e l o p b o n d s o f f r e i n d s h i p b e t w e e n t h e m . A b s e n c e o f t r e a c h e r y i n t h e c h a r -8 0 a c t e r o f t h e J a t S i k h s , u n l i k e t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e A f g h a n s , made E u r o p e a n s s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y i n c l i n e d t o w a r d t h e S i k h v e t e r a n s o f t h e t w o w a r s o f 1 8 4 6 a n d 1 8 4 9 , w h i c h i n t u r n e v o k e d f r o m t h e S i k h s g r a t i t u d e a n d f a i t h f u l n e s s f o r t h e i r E u r o p e a n c o m r a d e s . M o r e o v e r , b e c a u s e o f t h e t e n e t s o f t h e i r f a i t h a n d t h e i r t r i b a l c u s t o m s , w h i c h h a d t h e i r 1 3 9 r o o t s m o r e i n t h e p a s t o r a l c u l t u r e o f t h e i r S c y t h i a n a n c e s -t o r s t h a n i n t h e H i n d u o r t h o d o x y a n d c a s t e s y s t e m , t h e J a t S i k h s w e r e m u c h l e s s i n h i b i t e d t h a n t h e H i n d u a n d M o s l e m s e p o y s i n t h e m a t t e r s o f s h a r i n g f o o d a n d d r i n k w i t h t h e C h r i s t i a n s a n d E u r o p e a n s , o r e v e n i n a c c e p t i n g t h e E n f i e l d 8 1 c a r t r i d g e . S o t h e r e w a s a g r e a t d e a l o f f r a t e r n i z a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e E u r o p e a n a n d S i k h s o l d i e r s . T h e g r o g i n p a r t i -8 2 c u l a r p r o m o t e d a s p i r i t o f f e l l o w s h i p a n d t h e j o l l y n a t u r e o f t h e S i k h s r e i n f o r c e d t h e i r f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r 8 3 E u r o p e a n c o m r a d e s . I n s h o r t , t h e h a b i t s a n d c h a r a c t e r o f a J a t S i k h a n d a H i g h l a n d e r w e r e i n some w a y s s o m u c h a l i k e a s t o i n d u c e t h e m t o c o m r a d e l y b e h a v i o u r d u r i n g c a m p a i g n s . T h e h a t r e d o f t h e S i k h s f o r t h e i m p e r i a l M u g h a l d y n -a s t y o f D e l h i , w h o s e e m p e r o r s p e r s e c u t e d t h e i r r e l i g i o u s p r e c e p t o r s a c e n t u r y a n d a h a l f a g o , w a s s u g g e s t e d i n m a n y 8 4 c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t i n g s o n t h e s e p o y m u t i n y , a s w e l l a s i n 8 5 some r e c e n t h i s t o r i e s o f t h e m u t i n y o f 1 8 5 7 , a s o n e o f t h e l e a d i n g m o t i v e s o f t h e S i k h s f o r h e l p i n g t h e B r i t i s h a g a i n s t t h e r e b e l s i n D e l h i . W h e r e a s n o o n e c o u l d d o u b t t h a t t h e S i k h s h a d , f o r h i s t o r i c a l r e a s o n s , l i t t l e s y m p a t h y w i t h t h e M u g h a l d y n a s t y , o f w h i c h t h e K i n g o f D e l h i w a s a d e s c e n d a n t , i t w o u l d b e a n e r r o r t o r e g a r d t h i s h i s t o r i c a l a n i m o s i t y a s o n e o f t h e p r i n c i p a l m o t i v e s o f t h e S i k h s i n s e r v i n g t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s o f 1 8 5 7 . T h e r e a l m o t i v e s o f t h e S i k h s f o r r e m a i n i n g l o y a l t o t h e B r i t i s h m u s t b e j u d g e d f r o m t h e i r b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n a g a i n s t t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e t o t a l a n d c o m p l e x n a t u r e o f t h e s e p o y m u t i n y , o f w h i c h D e l h i w a s 140 o n l y o n e p h a s e , t h o u g h a n i m p o r t a n t o n e . T h e r e w e r e m u t i n i e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e b e l l i o n i n D e l h i , i n t h e P u n j a b a n d i n H i n d u s t a n , a n d a s w a s s h o w n e a r l i e r t h e s t r o n -g e s t a n d m o s t g e n e r a l r e a s o n f o r t h e l o y a l b e h a v i o u r o f t h e S i k h s b e c a m e c l e a r l y a p p a r e n t t h r o u g h t h e i r e x t r e m e e a g e r -n e s s t o a v o i d p u n i s h m e n t a n d t o w i n r e w a r d s f r o m t h e i r B r i t i s h m a s t e r s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f s e l f -i n t e r e s t w e r e u p p e r m o s t i n t h e m i n d s o f t h e S i k h s a n d t h e i r h i s t o r i c h a t r e d f o r t h e M u g h a l s w o u l d a p p e a r , i n t h e f a c e o f t h e v o l u m e o f e v i d e n c e s h o w i n g s e l f - i n t e r e s t t o b e t h e i r p r i m a r y m o t i v e , a t b e s t t o b e a m i n o r s u b s i d i a r y r e a s o n a n d a t w o r s t a r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r o w n c h o i c e t o s i d e w i t h t h e B r i t i s h who h a d o v e r t h r o w n t h e i r k i n g d o m o n l y e i g h t y e a r s a g o . H a d t h e S i k h s a t a n y t i m e d u r i n g t h e s i e g e o f D e l h i b e e n c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s c o u l d b e b e s t s e r v e d b y j o i n i n g t h e r e b e l s i n s i d e t h e c i t y o f D e l h i , t h e y w o u l d h a v e i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y g o n e o v e r t o t h e r e b e l s i d e , l i k e some S i k h m u t i n e e r s f r o m B e n a r a s a n d t h e S i k h e s c a p e e s f r o m A g r a p r i s o n , w h o s a w l i t t l e h o p e o f m e r c y a n d p a r d o n f r o m t h e B r i t i s h , a n d who d i d j o i n t h e r e b e l s o f D e l h i a n d b e c o m e a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e a r m y o f t h e K i n g o f D e l h i . A b e t t e r s u b s i d i a r y a n d l i m i t e d m o t i v e o f t h e S i k h s t h a n t h e i r h i s t o r i c e n m i t y w i t h t h e M u g h a l d y n a s t y w a s r o o t e d i n t h e i r l u s t f o r p l u n d e r i n g t h e c i t y o f D e l h i , n o t a s m u c h b e c a u s e i t w a s t h e i m p e r i a l c i t y o f t h e h a t e d M u g h a l s b u t s i m p l y f o r t h e l o v e o f p l u n d e r i n g i t s f a b u l o u s r i c h e s . I n f a c t i t w a s n o t o n l y t h e S i k h s o l d i e r s w h o 1 4 1 h o p e d t o p l u n d e r D e l h i a f t e r t h e a s s a u l t . P r a c t i c a l l y a l l o t h e r c o m b a t a n t s i n t h e F i e l d F o r c e — E u r o p e a n s , P a t h a n s , a n d G u r k h a s — c o v e t e d D e l h i ' s w e a l t h . B r i t i s h c o m m a n d e r s o f t h e F i e l d F o r c e w e r e f u l l y a w a r e o f t h i s f a c t , b u t t h e l u s t f o r p l u n d e r a m o n g m e n , e s p e c i a l l y a m o n g t h e S i k h s , a p p e a r e d s o u n c o n t r o l l a b l e t h a t t h e c o m m a n d e r s o f t h e f o r c e w e r e o b l i g e d , f r o m c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f e x p e d i e n c y , n o t t o e n f o r c e s t r i c t d i s -8 6 c i p l i n e t o p r e v e n t a c t s o f l o o t i n g d u r i n g t h e a s s a u l t . A t o t h e r p l a c e s i n H i n d u s t a n , t o o , t h e B r i t i s h s o m e t i m e s f o u n d i t e x p e d i e n t t o c o n n i v e a t o r e v e n e n c o u r a g e p l u n d e r i n g o f 8 7 t h e r e b e l s b y t h e S i k h s . W i t h t h a t , o n e f i n a l q u e s t i o n i n o u r s e a r c h f o r t h e m o t i v e s o f t h e S i k h s f o r p r o v i n g l o y a l t o t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e s e p o y m u t i n y r e m a i n s t o b e i n v e s t i g a t e d . D i d t h e S i k h s c o m m i t t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e s i d e o f t h e B r i t i s h w i t h t h e s p e c i -f i c d e s i g n o f r e a r m i n g t h e m s e l v e s t o f i g h t t h e B r i t i s h a t some f u t u r e s u i t a b l e t i m e ? A c e l e b r a t e d h i s t o r i a n o f t h e s e p o y m u t i n y , J o h n W i l l i a m K a y e , b e l i e v e d t h a t s u c h i n d e e d w e r e t h e m o t i v e s a n d d e s i g n s o f t h e S i k h s f o r j o i n i n g t h e 8 8 B r i t i s h f o r c e s d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s o f 1 8 5 7 . K a y e , h o w e v e r , d i d n o t r e v e a l t h e s o u r c e s o n w h i c h h e f o u n d e d h i s b e l i e f , a n d i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e r e w a s l i t t l e a c t u a l e v i d e n c e t o s u b s t a n t i a t e K a y e ' s a s s e r t i o n . I f t h e S i k h s h a d some k i n d o f t r e a c h e r o u s p l a n , a s w a s a s s u m e d b y K a y e , t h e n t h e m o s t s u i t a b l e t i m e f o r t h e m t o r i s e a g a i n s t t h e B r i t i s h w a s d u r i n g t h e m o n t h s o f J u l y a n d A u g u s t , 1 8 5 7 , w h e n s k e p t i c i s m a b o u t t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e 142 B r i t i s h t o r e c o n q u e r D e l h i w a s f a s t g r o w i n g a m o n g t h e P u n j a b i s , n o t a b l y among t h e P u n j a b i M o h a m m e d a n s . D u r i n g t h o s e l a s t t w o m o n t h s o f t h e s i e g e o f D e l h i , t h e S i k h s w e r e a w a r e t h a t t h e s t r u g g l e f o r D e l h i w a s b e c o m i n g m o r e s e r i o u s b y t h e d a y . b u t u n l i k e t h e P u n j a b i M o h a m m e d a n s , w h o s e d i s -a f f e c t i o n f i n a l l y c u l m i n a t e d i n t h e G o o g a i r a r i s i n g d u r i n g t h e l a s t w e e k o f t h e s i e g e o f D e l h i , t h e S i k h s w e r e n o t c o m -p l e t e l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e B r i t i s h s t a r o f f o r t u n e h a d d i p p e d . T h i s d i d n o t m e a n , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e s e e m i n g l y u n -e n d i n g s i e g e o f D e l h i , w i t h n o e v i d e n c e o f E u r o p e a n r e i n -f o r c e m e n t s r e a c h i n g f r o m E n g l a n d , l e f t t h e S i k h s t o t a l l y u n a f f e c t e d . H o w e v e r , t h e e f f e c t w h i c h t h e l o n g , p r o t r a c t e d s i e g e o f D e l h i p r o d u c e d o n t h e m w a s s i m p l y o n e o f d e e p c o n -c e r n a b o u t t h e i r o w n s e l f - i n t e r e s t . A l t h o u g h t h e i r m i n d s r e f u s e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e B r i t i s h w o u l d l o s e t h e s t r u g g l e , i t w a s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , o n l y n a t u r a l f o r t h e m t o t h i n k o f t h a t e v e n t u a l i t y t o o — m o r e c o r r e c t l y p e r h a p s , t o t h i n k o f t h e i r o w n f a t e i n t h e e v e n t o f t h e d e f e a t o f t h e B r i t i s h . T h e S i k h s h a d c a s t t h e i r l o t w i t h t h e B r i t i s h h o p i n g t h a t s u c h a move w o u l d p a y t h e m b e s t , a n d s o t h e t h o u g h t t h a t t h e i r c a l c u l a t i o n c o u l d b e w r o n g made t h e m u n e a s y a n d r u -m o u r s w h i c h c a r r i e d t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h d o w n f a l l made t h e i r m i n d s r e s t l e s s w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e i r h a v i n g t o s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l a n d p o l i t i c a l s u p r e m a c y i n t h e P u n j a b i n t h e m a n n e r t h e i r a n c e s t o r s d i d a c e n t u r y b e f o r e . 1 4 3 T h e r e f o r e , a f t e r t h e m i d d l e o f J u l y , w h e n t h e s i e g e o f D e l h i h a d g o n e o n f o r a b o u t a m o n t h a n d a h a l f , t h e S i k h s b e g a n t o w a t c h f o r e v e r y s i g n w h i c h c o u l d g i v e some i n d i c a -t i o n how t h e s t r u g g l e w o u l d e n d , o r w h i c h w o u l d r e v e a l t h e r e l a t i v e w e a k n e s s o r s t r e n g t h o f t h e B r i t i s h . T h e p r o p o s e d e v a c u a t i o n o f t h e P e s h a w a r V a l l e y , f o r e x a m p l e , d e e p l y w o r r i e d t h e S i k h s . A d i g n i t a r y o f t h e o l d S i k h g o v e r n m e n t , w h i l e d i s c u s s i n g t h e p r o p o s e d e v a c u a t i o n o f P e s h a w a r w i t h t h e D e p u t y C o m m i s s i o n e r o f A m r i t s a r , t o o k u p i n h i s h a n d s t h e s k i r t o f h i s r o b e a n d t o l d t h a t o f f i c e r , " I f P e s h a w a r g o e s t h e w h o l e P u n j a b w i l l b e r o l l e d u p i n r e b e l l i o n l i k e 89 t h i s . " T h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h e S i k h ' s r e m a r k w a s c l e a r l y t h i s : t h e i n c a p a c i t y o f t h e B r i t i s h t o h o l d P e s h a w a r w o u l d b e t a k e n b y t h e S i k h s a s a s u r e s i g n o f B r i t i s h w e a k n e s s a n d t h e S i k h s w o u l d b e e m b o l d e n e d t o r i s e , n o t s o m u c h t o d e s t r o y B r i t i s h r u l e , t h o u g h B r i t i s h i n t e r e s t s w o u l d n o d o u b t b e h u r t , a s t o m a k e s u r e t h a t t h e i r h o m e l a n d w a s a g a i n s e c u r e a g a i n s t t h e i n r o a d s o f t h e A f g h a n m a r a u d e r s . A n o t h e r o l d S i k h s a i d t o t h e same o f f i c e r a r o u n d m i d - J u l y t h a t a y e a r f r o m t h e n t h e S i k h s w o u l d a l s o b e f i g h t i n g 9 0 a g a i n s t t h e B r i t i s h . D o u b t l e s s l y t h e s u g g e s t i o n i n t h e S i k h ' s s a t e m e n t was t h a t i f t h e D e l h i c a m p a i g n d r a g g e d o n f o r l o n g t h e S i k h s w o u l d a l s o t h e n r e b e l . F e a r i n g t h a t t h e e n d o f t h e s t r u g g l e f o r D e l h i w a s n o w h e r e n e a r , e v e n t h e S i k h p r i n c e s s h a d s t a r t e d t o s h o w d u r i n g J u l y s i g n s o f c o n -c e r n a b o u t t h e s a f e t y o f t h e i r o w n t e r r i t o r i e s . D u r i n g t h a t m o n t h t h e M a h a r a j a o f P a t i a l a w e n t t o s e e t h e 1 4 4 C o m m i s s i o n e r o f A m b a l a D i v i s i o n w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e o f a s k i n g t h a t o f f i c e r ' s f r a n k o p i n i o n a b o u t t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e B r i t i s h t o o v e r c o m e t h e c r i s i s . " T h e C o m m i s s i o n e r a f f e c -t e d t o t h i n k , d r e w a p i e c e o f p a p e r t o w a r d s h i m , a n d , a f t e r s h o w o f e l a b o r a t e c a l c u l a t i o n , a p p r a i s e d t h e M a h a r a j a t h a t i f t h e S t a t e c o u l d h o l d o u t u n t i l t h e 3 0 t h o f A u g u s t a l l w a s s a f e ; a n d i t w o u l d b e s t r o n g e r t h a n e v e r . T h e M a h a r a j a 9 1 d e p a r t e d h i g h l y p l e a s e d , a n d r e d o u b l e d M i s e f f o r t s . " A l l i n a l l , t h e n , a f t e r a b o u t t h e m i d d l e o f J u l y , 1 8 5 7 , t h e t h i n k i n g o f t h e S i k h s w a s t h a t t h e y w o u l d n o t p r o v e f a l s e t o t h e B r i t i s h , b u t i f t h e B r i t i s h p r o v e d i n c a p a b l e o f s a v i n g t h e i r o w n b o a t f r o m s i n k i n g t h e n t h e y w o u l d p e r f o r c e t r y t o s h a p e t h e i r o w n d e s t i n y i n t h e p o l i t i c a l c h a o s t h a t e v e r y c l a s s i n t h e P u n j a b k n e w w o u l d i n e v i t a b l y e n s u e i f t h e B r i t i s h f a i l e d t o k e e p t h e c o u n t r y t o g e t h e r . T h e P u n j a b G o v e r n m e n t i t s e l f s u b s c r i b e d t o t h i s v i e w a n d b e l i e v e d t h a t o f a l l t h e P u n j a b i s t h e S i k h s w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e l a s t t o r i s e , a n d t h a t t o o o n l y i f t h e p r o s p e c t s o f B r i t i s h v i c t o r y 9 2 a t D e l h i h a d b e c o m e h o p e l e s s . S u c h a c r i t i c a l s t a g e , h o w e v e r , w a s n e v e r r e a c h e d ; t h r o u g h o u t t h e c r i s i s t h e B r i t i s h b e t r a y e d n o s i g n s o f p a n i c o r d e s p e r a t i o n . T h e r e -c a p t u r e o f D e l h i b y t h e m i d d l e o f S e p t e m b e r f i n a l l y s e t a t r e s t t h e m i n d s o f t h e S i k h s w h i c h h a d b e e n s o m e w h a t r e s t -l e s s s i n c e m i d J u l y . T h e a n x i e t y o f t h e S i k h s t o p r o t e c t t h e i r o w n i n t e r -e s t s a n d t h e i r a v o w e d i n t e n t i o n o f b r e a k i n g o f f t h e i r c o n -n e c t i o n w i t h t h e B r i t i s h i f t h e p o w e r o f t h e l a t t e r 1 4 5 a p p e a r e d t o f a d e a w a y d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s c o u l d n o t b e c o n -s t r u e d a s a p r e m e d i t a t e d o r d e l i b e r a t e p l a n o n t h e p a r t o f t h e S i k h s t o b e t r a y t h e i r m a s t e r s . I n a l a n d w h e r e n a t i o n a l p r i d e a n d l o y a l t y w e r e u n k n o w n , a n d w h e r e r e l i g i o n a n d c l a s s i n t e r e s t s a l o n e u n i t e d a n d d i v i d e d i t s p e o p l e , s u c h c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n t h e m i n d s o f t h e S i k h s u n d e r t h o s e c i r c u m -s t a n c e s w e r e p e r f e c t l y n a t u r a l a n d h o n e s t . E v e n t h e P u n j a b a u t h o r i t i e s , w h o f o u n d l i t t l e e v i d e n c e o f a n y t r e a c h e r o u s d e s i g n o n t h e p a r t o f t h e S i k h s , d i d n o t d e e m i t f a i r t o b l a m e t h e m f o r t h i n k i n g a s t h e y d i d w h e n t h e s i e g e o f D e l h i 9 3 b e g a n t o d r a g . T h e r e f o r e , i f K a y e i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s i n -t e n t i o n o f t h e S i k h s t o f o r s a k e t h e B r i t i s h i f t h e l a t t e r p r o v e d w e a k a s a s i n i s t e r p l a n o n t h e i r p a r t t o r i s e a g a i n s t t h e B r i t i s h a t some f u t u r e t i m e , t h e n h e c e t a i n l y e r r e d i n j u d g i n g t h e m o t i v e s o f t h e S i k h s f o r h e l p i n g t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s o f 1 8 5 7 . One o t h e r e p i s o d e c o u l d h a v e m i s l e d K a y e i n t o m i s -u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e m o t i v e s o f t h e S i k h s . A f t e r t h e t e r m i n a -t i o n o f t h e c a m p a i g n i n O u d h t h e l o y a l t y o f t h e S i k h t r o o p s s e r v i n g i n H i n d u s t a n w a s s o m e w h a t a f f e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e i n -t r i g u e s o f t h e a g e n t s o f R a n i J i n d a n , w h o w a s t h e n l i v i n g a s a p o l i t i c a l f u g i t i v e i n N e p a l . B u t t h i s d i s t u r b i n g d e -d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r r e d a t l e a s t n i n e m o n t h s a f t e r t h e e l i m i n -a t i o n o f t h e i n s u r g e n t s i n O u d h ; t h e r e f o r e , i t r e a l l y h a d l i t t l e b e a r i n g o n t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e m o t i v e s o f t h e S i k h s f o r h e l p i n g t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e m u t i n y . F u r t h e r m o r e , B r i t i s h i n t e l l i g e n c e f o u n d l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t o s h o w t h a t t h e 146 s e c r e t c o m m u n i c a t i o n s b e t w e e n R a n i J i n d a n a n d t h e S i k h s o l d i e r s s t a t i o n e d i n H i n d u s t a n e v e r f o r m e d a n y d e f i n i t e 94 d e s i g n a g a i n s t t h e B r i t i s h . T h e a t t e m p t s o f R a n i J i n d a n t o u n d e r m i n e t h e l o y a l t y o f t h e S i k h t r o o p s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , c a u s e d t h e B r i t i s h a n x i e t y a n d t h e y b e g a n t o l o o k u p o n t h e f e e l i n g s o f e l a t i o n o f t h e S i k h s a t t h e i r m i l i t a r y a c h i e v e -m e n t s d u r i n g t h e m u t i n y a s s i g n s o f d a n g e r . T h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t , f e e l i n g t h a t t h e p r o x i m i t y o f G u d h t o N e p a l made R a n i J i n d a n ' s s e d i t i o u s m e s s a g e e a s i e r t o r e a c h t h e S i k h t r o o p s , h a s t e n e d t o a d v i s e t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a t o b r e a k u p a s q u i c k l y a s p o s s i b l e t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f S i k h 95 s o l d i e r y i n H i n d u s t a n . T h e S i k h t r o o p s w e r e t h e n s e n t b a c k t o t h e P u n j a b . T h e f a c t t h a t t h e d i s p e r s a l o f t h e S i k h s o l d i e r y f r o m O u d h a n d H i n d u s t a n t o o k p l a c e w i t h o u t a n y c o m -p l i c a t i o n a l s o d i s c r e d i t s K a y e ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e S i k h s e n l i s t e d i n t h e B r i t i s h f o r c e s d u r i n g t h e s e p o y m u t i n y i n o r d e r t o r e g a i n t h e i r m i l i t a r y c a p a b i l i t y t o f i g h t t h e B r i t i s h a t some o p p o r t u n e m o m e n t . K a y e ' s s u g g e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e m o t i v e s o f t h e S i k h s f o r h e l p i n g t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e s e p o y m u t i n y i s n o t o n l y u n s u p p o r t e d b y e v i d e n c e b u t a l s o m o s t u n c o n v i n c i n g f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f s i m p l e l o g i c . F i r s t , t o h e l p a f o e t o s a v e h i m s e l f f r o m d e s t r u c t i o n a n d t h e n t o c h a l l e n g e h i m a f t e r h e h a d c o n s o l i d a t e d h i s p o s i t i o n a n d p o w e r w o u l d o b v i o u s l y b e a v e r y p o o r a n d r i s k y s t r a t e g y f o r a n i n d i -v i d u a l o r a p e o p l e . A n d i t w a s m o s t i m p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e S i k h s , w h o w e r e t w i c e c r u s h e d b y B r i t i s h a r m s d u r i n g t h e 1 4 7 p a s t d e c a d e , w o u l d a d o p t d u r i n g t h e m u t i n y s u c h a f o o l i s h a n d s u i c i d a l p o l i c y . T h e e v i d e n c e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a m p l y d e m o n -s t r a t e s t h a t t h e g e n e r a l t h i n k i n g o f t h e S i k h s d u r i n g , a n d a f t e r , t h e s e p o y m u t i n y w a s f a r f r o m b e t r a y i n g t h e B r i t i s h ; t h a t i n s t e a d o f c o n c e i v i n g a n y d e s i g n a g a i n s t t h e B r i t i s h t h e S i k h s b e l i e v e d t h a t b y h e l p i n g t h e i r c o n q u e r o r s d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s t h e y w o u l d e a r n t h e p a t r o n a g e o f t h e i r r u l e r s , w h o s e a p a t h y a n d i n d i f f e r e n c e t o w a r d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s w a s r a p i d l y p u s h i n g t h e m t o w a r d s o c i a l o b s c u r i t y ; a n d t h a t f r o m t h e f i r s t t o t h e l a s t t h e y n e v e r l o s t s i g h t o f t h e i r c a l c u -l a t e d a i m s o f a v o i d i n g r e t r i b u t i o n a n d w i n n i n g r e w a r d s f r o m t h e B r i t i s h . I n o t h e r w o r d s , f o r c e d b y t h e i r p r a g m a t i c n e e d s , t h e S i k h s w e r e m o s t d i s i n c l i n e d t o l e t t h e o p p o r t u n -i t y a f f o r d e d b y t h e c r i s i s o f 1 8 5 7 p a s s b y w i t h o u t m a k i n g a n a t t e m p t t o p r o v e t o t h e B r i t i s h t h a t t h e y h a d n o p o l i -t i c a l d e s i g n s a g a i n s t t h e m . H o w e v e r , t h i s d i d n o t m e a n t h a t t h e s e n t i m e n t s o f t h e S i k h s f o r t h e i r l o s t k i n g d o m h a d c o o l e d o f f . T h e p o s t - m u t i n y d e v e l o p m e n t r e s u l t i n g f r o m R a n i J i n d a n * s i n t r i g u e s t o c a u s e d i s a f f e c t i o n among t h e S i k h s o l d i e r y s e r v i n g i n H i n d u s t a n , w h i c h a c t u a l l y p o s e d l i t t l e t h r e a t t o t h e B r i t i s h p o l i t i c a l s u p r e m a c y , w a s i n a n y c a s e a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e n o s t a l g i a o f t h e S i k h s f o r t h e i r l o s t k i n g d o m . B u t i n s p i t e o f t h e i r y e a r n i n g f o r t h e g l o r y o f t h e K h a l s a t h e S i k h s d i d n o t p e r m i t s e n t i m e n t a l i t y t o b e t h e i r g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e d u r i n g t h e s e p o y m u t i n y ; i n s t e a d , r e a l i z i n g t h e i r s t a t e o f h e l p l e s s n e s s , t h e y a d o p t e d 1 4 8 a v e r y r e a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r B r i t i s h r u l e r s a n d a t n o t i m e d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s o f 1 8 5 7 d i d t h e y e n t e r t a i n t h o u g h t s o f b e t r a y i n g t h e B r i t i s h . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , o p t i m i s m f o r r e w a r d s i n d u c e d t h e S i k h s t o h e l p t h e B r i t i s h w i t h c o m p l e t e s i n c e r i t y . T h e o u t c o m e o f t h e s e p o y r e b e l l i o n a n d t h e r e c o m p e n s e w h i c h t h e S i k h s l a t e r r e c e i v e d f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s t o t h e B r i t i s h p r o v e d t h a t t h e S i k h s p l a y e d t h e i r r o l e i n t h e c r i s i s o f 1 8 5 7 v e r y d i s c r e e t l y . 1 4 9 C H A P T E R 5 REWARDS OF T H E S I K H S FOR H E L P I N G THE B R I T I S H A f t e r t h e r e b e l l i o n o f 1 8 5 7 - 5 8 t h e B r i t i s h c o n f e r r e d o n t h e S i k h s r e w a r d s w h i c h w e r e m o r e r e a l t h a n m e r e c o r d i a l a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s o f t h e i r f i n e s e r v i c e s d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s . T h e S i k h p r i n c e s , s i r d a r s a n d 1 a q e e r d a r s . s o l d i e r s a n d p e a -s a n t s , a l l w e r e l i b e r a l l y r e w a r d e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r r a n k a n d t h e s e r v i c e s t h e y h a d r e n d e r e d . A s a r e l i g i o u s c o m m u n -i t y , t o o , t h e S i k h s r e c e i v e d s p l e n d i d r e c o m p e n s e f r o m t h e i r B r i t i s h r u l e r s a n d m o v e d u p w a r d t o a n u n r i v a l l e d p l a c e a m o n g t h e n a t i v e c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h e P u n j a b . T h e G o v e r n m e n t a f t e r t h e s e p o y r e b e l l i o n h a d e n o u g h r e s o u r c e s a t i t s d i s p o s a l t o g i v e g e n e r o u s r e w a r d s . T h e c o n f i s c a t e d e s t a t e s o f t h e r e b e l s a n d t h e f a l l i n g i n t o i t s d i s t r u s t a n d d i s f a v o u r o f t h e P o o r b e a h c l a s s p e r m i t t e d t h e G o v e r n m e n t t o r e w a r d t h e S i k h s h a n d s o m e l y . 1 T h e S i k h p r i n c e s o f t h e C i s - S u t l e j s t a t e s r e c e i v e d t h e m o s t g e n e r o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n f r o m t h e G o v e r n m e n t . A s i d e f r o m t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e a c t u a l h e l p i n t e r m s o f men a n d m a t e r i a l w h i c h t h e s e p r i n c e s g a v e t o t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s , t h e i r l o y a l t y a n d s t e a d f a s t n e s s h a d g i v e n t h e B r i t i s h i n c a l -c u l a b l e p o l i t i c a l a n d s t r a t e g i c a d v a n t a g e s o v e r t h e r e b e l s . T h e s e p r i n c e s h a d k e p t u n d e r c o n t r o l t h e w h o l e t e r r i t o r y b e t w e e n t h e S u t l e j a n d J a m u n a r i v e r s , a n a r e a w h i c h w a s v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o t h e B r i t i s h f o r c o n v e y i n g r e i n f o r c e m e n t s 1 5 0 t o D e l h i . B e s i d e s , t h e i r l o y a l e x a m p l e h a d s e r v e d a s a n a n t i d o t e t o t h e p o i s o n o u s r u m o u r s a g a i n s t t h e B r i t i s h r u l e . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e i r l o y a l c o n d u c t i n f l u e n c e d t h e p o p u l a c e o f b o t h t h e C i s - S u t l e j a n d T r a n s - S u t l e j t e r r i t o r i e s t o r e m a i n 2 s t e a d y a n d p e a c e f u l . F r o m b o t h t h e m i l i t a r y a n d p o l i t i c a l a n g l e s t h e a l l i a n c e o f t h e C i s - S u t l e j p r i n c e s h a d p r o v e d e x -t r e m e l y u s e f u l t o t h e B r i t i s h . O f t h e S i k h p r i n c e s t h e M a h a r a j a o f P a t i a l a , N a r i n d e r S i n g h , m e r i t e d , b e c a u s e o f h i s r a n k a n d s e r v i c e s , t o p c o n s i -d i e r a t i o n f r o m t h e G o v e r n m e n t . I n a d d i t i o n t o h i s a c t u a l h e l p , w h i c h w a s p r o m p t a n d e x t e n s i v e , h i s a t t i t u d e o f u n w a v e r -i n g l o y a l t y h a d p r o v e d i n v a l a u b l e t o t h e B r i t i s h i n t h a t h e b e i n g " t h e a c k n o w l e d g e d h e a d , n o t o n l y o f t h e M a l w a S i k h s i n t h e C i s - S u t l e j s t a t e s , b u t a l s o o f t h e r a j a h s a n d p e t t y c h i e f s i n t h e a d j a c e n t h i l l s " h i s e x a m p l e w a s r e a d i l y f o l l o w e d 3 b y o t h e r p r i n c e s . H i s l o y a l t y a n d s e r v i c e s w e r e , t h e r e f o r e , s p l e n d i d l y r e w a r d e d b y t h e B r i t i s h . A t r a c t o f l a n d , c a l l e d t h e N a r n o u l t e r r i t o r y , w h i c h w a s c o n f i s c a t e d f r o m t h e r e b e l n a w a b o f J h a j j a r , w a s g r a n t e d t o t h e M a h a r a j a o f P a t i a l a i n r e w a r d f o r h i s s e r v i c e s . T h i s t e r r i t o r y w a s v a l u e d f o r r e v e n u e a t t w o l a k h s o f r u p e e s ( 6 2 0 , 0 0 0 ) p e r y e a r a n d w a s g i v e n t o t h e M a h a r a j a " o n c o n d i -t i o n o f g o o d b e h a v i o u r a n d s e r v i c e , m i l i t a r y a n d p o l i t i c a l , 4 a t a n y t i m e o f g e n e r a l d a n g e r o r d i s t u r b a n c e . " T h i s p a r t i -c u l a r g r a n t o f l a n d t o t h e P a t i a l a r u l e r w a s d i c t a t e d b y p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : i n t h e v i e w o f t h e P u n j a b G o v e r n -m e n t t h e p l a c i n g o f f r i e n d l y S i k h c h i e f s among t r o u b l e s o m e M o h a m m e d a n R a j p u t t r i b e s w a s p o l i t i c a l l y d e s i r a b l e . 5 I n 1 5 1 a d d i t i o n , t h e M a h a r a j a w a s g i v e n b a c k t h e f a m i l y e s t a t e o f B h a d o u r w h i c h G o v e r n m e n t h a d r e c e n t l y t a k e n o v e r b e c a u s e o f a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e . T h e e s t a t e w a s v e r y s m a l l i n v a l u e b u t i t s r e t u r n w a s m u c h d e s i r e d b y t h e M a h a r a j a b e c a u s e o f h i s s e n t i m e n t a l a t t a c h m e n t w i t h t h e f a m i l y p o s s e s s i o n s . T h e c o n f i s c a t e d p a l a c e i n D e l h i o f Q u e e n Z e e n a t M a h a l , K i n g B a h a d u r S h a h ' s f a v o u r i t e w i f e , w a s a l s o c o n f e r r e d o n t h e M a h a r a j a a n d a s u b s t a n t i a l a d d i t i o n w a s made t o h i s h o n o r a r y t i t l e s . R a j a S a r u p S i n g h o f J i n d w a s s e c o n d t o t h e P a t i a l a c h i e f i n t h e h e l p g i v e n t o t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e s e p o y r i s i n g . He w e n t i n t o a c t i o n f o r t h e c a u s e o f G o v e r n m e n t e v e n b e f o r e a n y f o r m a l r e q u e s t f o r h e l p w a s made t o h i m b y t h e a u -t h o r i t i e s a n d t h r o u g h o u t t h e s i e g e o f D e l h i t h e R a j a n o t o n l y g a v e men a n d p r o v i s i o n s t o t h e F i e l d F o r c e b u t a l s o r e m a i n e d p e r s o n a l l y i n f r o n t o f t h e s t r u g g l e . I n r e w a r d f o r h i s h i g h l y v a l u a b l e s e r v i c e s a n e s t a t e , l o s t b y t h e r e b e l n a w a b o f D a d r i a n d a b o u t 5 7 5 s q u a r e m i l e s i n a r e a , w a s c o n f e r r e d u p o n h i m . T h i s g e n e r o u s g r a n t i n c r e a s e d t h e w h o l e r e v e n u e s o f t h e J i n d r u l e r f r o m t w o l a k h s o f r u p e e s ( 6 2 0 , 0 0 0 ) t o t h r e e l a k h s ( 6 3 0 , 0 0 0 ) p e r a n n u m . B e s i d e s , t h e R a j a a l s o r e c e i v e d i n p e r p e t u i t y t h i r t e e n v i l l a g e s o f t h e T h a n e s a r d i s t r i c t . T h e f o r f e i t e d h o u s e i n D e l h i o f t h e r e b e l M u g h a l p r i n c e M i r z a A b u B a k r w a s a l s o g i v e n t o t h e R a j a . F u r t h e r h o n o u r s b e s t o w e d o n h i m i n c l u d e d t h e r a i s i n g o f h i s s a l u t e t o e l e v e n g u n s a n d t h e i n c r e a s e i n h i s t i t l e s a n d t h e n u m b e r o f t r a y s t o b e p r e -s e n t e d t o h i m o n g r a n d o r v i c e r e g a l d u r b a r s . 6 1 5 2 B e c a u s e o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l p o s i t i o n o f h i s s t a t e R a j a B h a r p u r S i n g h , t h e b o y - c h i e f o f N a b h a , d i d n o t p l a y a s p r o m i n -e n t a p a r t d u r i n g t h e d i s t u r b a n c e s o f 1 8 5 7 a s t h e m o r e p o w e r -f u l c h i e f s o f P a t i a l a a n d J i n d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , h e t h r e w h i m -s e l f w i t h f u l l z e a l a n d s i n c e r i t y o n t h e s i d e o f t h e B r i t i s h G o v e r n m e n t . He r e n d e r e d t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s e v e r y a s s i s -t a n c e i n k e e p i n g u n d e r c o n t r o l t h e c i t y o f L u d h i a n a , i n e s c o r t i n g t h e s i e g e - t r a i n , a n d i n p r o c u r i n g s u p p l i e s f o r t h e a r m y . He g a v e t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t a g e n e r o u s l o a n o f t w o a n d a h a l f l a k h s o f r u p e e s ( 6 2 5 , 0 0 0 ) . T h e y o u n g N a b h a r u l e r w a s e v e r e a g e r t o p e r s o n a l l y l e a d h i s c o n t i n g e n t , w h i c h r e m a i n e d b e f o r e D e l h i t h r o u g h o u t t h e s i e g e , b u t b e c a u s e o f h i s y o u n g a g e G o v e r n m e n t d i d n o t p e r m i t h i m t o u n d e r t a k e a c t i v e f i e l d s e r v i c e . L i k e t h e c h i e f s o f P a t i a l a a n d J i n d , h e t o o w a s s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e w a r d e d f o r h i s f i d e l t i y a n d s e r v i c e s . G o v e r n m e n t a d d e d t o h i s t e r r i t o r y a p a r t o f t h e c o n f i s c a t e d l a n d s o f J h a j j a r y i e l d i n g a n a n n u a l r e v e n u e o f o v e r a l a k h o f r u p e e s ( 6 1 0 , 0 0 0 ) . A d d i t i o n s w e r e a l s o made t o h i s t i t l e s 7 a n d o t h e r h o n o u r s . T h u s t h r o u g h h i s w i s d o m a n d l o y a l t y t h e y o u t h f u l p r i n c e o f N a b h a w o n b a c k f o r h i s f a m i l y l a n d s a n d r e v e n u e s a l m o s t e q u a l t o w h a t i t h a d l o s t i n 1 8 4 6 t h r o u g h h i s f a t h e r ' s d i s l o y a l t y t o t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e S u t l e j C a m p a i g n . T h e t h r e e P h u l k i a n c h i e f s , n a m e l y , t h e r u l e r s o f P a t i a l a , J i n d , a n d N a b h a , w e r e a l s o g r a n t e d a n u m b e r o f c o n -c e s s i o n s w h i c h t h e y h a d l o n g d e s i r e d . T h e r i g h t t o i n f l i c t c a p i t a l p u n i s h m e n t , a r i g h t o f w h i c h t h e y w e r e d e p r i v e d a f t e r 1 5 3 t h e F i r s t S i k h W a r , w a s r e s t o r e d t o t h e m o n t h e i r u n i t e d r e -q u e s t . G o v e r n m e n t a l s o a l l o w e d t h e i r r e q u e s t w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a C o u n c i l o f R e g e n c y , c o n s i s t i n g o f t h r e e l o y a l s e r v a n t s o f a s t a t e , d u r i n g t h e m i n o r i t y o f t h e h e a d o f t h a t s t a t e . B e l i e v i n g t h a t t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e s t a t e w o u l d b e t o o m u c h f o r t h e P h u l k i a n w o m e n , w h o w e r e b y a n d l a r g e u n e d u -c a t e d , G o v e r n m e n t a g r e e d , a s r e q u e s t e d b y t h e t h r e e c h i e f s , t o e x c l u d e women f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e a f f a i r s o f t h e i r s t a t e s . I t t u r n e d d o w n , h o w e v e r , t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g r e q u e s t o f t h e c h i e f s n o t t o e n t e r t a i n c o m p l a i n t s f r o m t h e f e m a l e r e l a -t i v e s a n d o t h e r d e p e n d e n t s o f t h e P h u l k i a n R a j a s . T h e m o s t d e s i r e d o f a l l c o n c e s s i o n s a n d p r i v i l e g e s s o l i c i t e d i n t h e p e t i t i o n o f t h e t h r e e P h u l k i a n r u l e r s w a s t h e r i g h t o f a d o p t i o n i n d e f a u l t o f a m a l e i s s u e . T h i s r i g h t w a s a l s o g r a n t e d . A l l t h e s e p r i v i l e g e s w e r e c o n f i r m e d b y t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l , C a n n i n g , i n a p r i v a t e d u r b a r h e l d a t A m b a l a o n J a n u a r y 1 8 , 1 8 6 0 , a n d a f e w m o n t h s l a t e r , a s d e -s i r e d b y t h e C i s - S u t l e j c h i e f s , s a n a d s [ c e r t i f i c a t e s ] o f g r a n t s o f t e r r i t o r i e s a n d s p e c i a l c o n c e s s i o n s w e r e g i v e n t o t h e m . 8 T h e r e w e r e a l s o n u m e r o u s s m a l l e r S i k h c h i e f s a n d j a q e e r d a r s i n t h e C i s - S u t l e j w h o s e l o y a l s e r v i c e s t o G o v e r n -m e n t d u r i n g t h e m u t i n y w e r e s u i t a b l y r e w a r d e d . T h e t i t l e s a n d h o n o u r s o f t h e F a r i d k o t R a j a , w h o h a d z e a l o u s l y h e l p e d t h e F e r o z e p u r a u t h o r i t i e s i n s u p p r e s s i n g l o c a l m u t i n i e s , w e r e c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c r e a s e d ; h e w a s a l s o r e l i e v e d f r o m t h e f e u d a l o b l i g a t i o n o f m a k i n g a v a i l a b l e h i s c o n t i n g e n t t o t h e 1 5 4 F e r o z e p u r d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i t i e s . T h e S i k h j a q e e r d a r s o f t h e C i s - S u t l e j h a d m o s t w i l l i n g l y p r o v i d e d men f o r v a r i o u s p o l i c e d u t i e s d u r i n g t h e d i s t u r b a n c e s , a n d s o G o v e r n m e n t , i n a c k n o w -l e d g e m e n t o f t h e i r s e r v i c e s , r e m i t t e d t h e a s s e s s e d l a n d r e n t f o r t h a t y e a r a n d p e r m a n e n t l y r e d u c e d t h e a s s e s s m e n t t o o n e -h a l f . 9 I n t h e T r a n s - S u t l e j t e r r i t o r y t h e r e w a s o n l y o n e S i k h R a j a — t h e r u l e r o f K a p u r t h a l a s t a t e . R a j a R a n d h i r S i n g h , l i k e t h e S i k h p r i n c e s o f t h e P r o t e c t e d S t a t e s t o t h e s o u t h o f t h e S u t l e j , a l s o g a v e t a n g i b l e p r o o f o f h i s l o y a l t y t o G o v e r n m e n t d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s o f 1 8 5 7 . He h a d h e l p e d t h e J u l l u n d u r a u t h o r i t i e s s a v e t h e c i t y f r o m t h e m u t i n o u s s e p o y s . I n M a y 1 8 5 8 , t h e R a j a , a c c o m p a n i e d b y h i s b r o t h e r B i k r a m S i n g h , p e r s o n a l l y l e d h i s t r o o p s a g a i n s t t h e O u d h r e b e l s a n d r e n d e r e d a d m i r a b l e s e r v i c e i n f i e l d . H i s l o y a l t y w a s a l s o r e w a r d e d g e n e r o u s l y . T h e e n t i r e t r i b u t e f o r t h e y e a r 1 8 5 7 ( a l m o s t 6 1 3 , 0 0 0 ) w a s g i v e n b a c k t o h i m a n d t h e y e a r l y t r i b u t e d u e f r o m h i m w a s r e d u c e d t o 6 2 , 5 0 0 . C o r r e s p o n d i n g a d d i t i o n s w e r e made t o h i s h o n o u r s a n d t i t l e s . F o r t h e s e r v i c e s o f h i s t r o o p s i n O u d h , t h e G o v e r n m e n t p a i d t h e R a j a t w o l a k h s o f r u p e e s ( 6 2 0 , 0 0 0 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e K a p u r t h a l a c h i e f w a s g r a n -t e d i n O u d h t h e t w o c o n f i s c a t e d e s t a t e s o f B o u n d ! a n d B i t h o u l i a t h a l f r a t e s . 1 0 D u r i n g t h e s e p o y r e b e l l i o n t h e S i k h s i r d a r s a n d j a q e e r d a r s i n t h e T r a n s - S u t l e j P u n j a b h a d r e n d e r e d s e r v i c e t o G o v e r n m e n t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r m e a n s . I n e v e r y c a s e t h e y , t o o , w e r e l i b e r a l l y r e w a r d e d w i t h h o n o u r s a n d k h i l l a t s 1 5 5 [ p r e s e n t s ] o f c a s h . H o w e v e r , r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h e g r a t u i t i e s , t h o u g h s u b s t a n t i a l , c o u l d n o t p r o v i d e p e r m a n e n t m e a n s o f l i v e l i h o o d , G o v e r n m e n t made g e n e r o u s l a n d g r a n t s t o S i k h o f f i -c e r s w h e n t h e i r s e r v i c e s w e r e t e r m i n a t e d . T h r o u g h t h i s l i b e r -a l p o l i c y , t h e f o r t u n e o f a l m o s t e v e r y a r i s t o c r a t i c S i k h f a m i l y i n t h e P u n j a b w a s e n h a n c e d . T h e l i s t o f r e c i p i e n t s b e i n g l o n g , i n d i v i d u a l m e n t i o n s m u s t b e d i s p e n s e d w i t h . H o w -e v e r , r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c a s e s o f s o m e o f t h e m o s t i n f l u e n t i a l a n d l e a d i n g b e n e f i c i a r i e s i s a p p r o p r i a t e . P u n j a b S i n g h , a c a v a l r y o f f i c e r who e a r n e d d i s t i n c t i o n f o r b r a v e r y d u r i n g t h e D e l h i a n d O u d h c a m p a i g n s , w a s g r a n t e d i n O u d h a n e s t a t e v a l u e d a t f o u r t h o u s a n d r u p e e s ( 6 4 0 0 ) p e r a n n u m a n d a n a d d i t i o n a l 7 0 0 a c r e s i n t h e A m r i t s a r d i s t r i c t . 1 1 S i r d a r s N a n d S i n g h a n d M a k h a n S i n g h , t h e t w o b r o t h e r s w h o a c t e d d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s o f 1 8 5 7 a s p e r s o n a l a d v i s e r s o f t h e C h i e f C o m m i s s i o n e r , r e c e i v e d 12 a g r a n t o f t w o v i l l a g e s i n t h e P u n j a b . S i r d a r N i h a l S i n g h C h a c h i , o n w h o s e a d v i c e J o h n L a w r e n c e d e c i d e d t o r e c r u i t o l d S i k h s a n d who f o u g h t v a l i a n t l y a g a i n s t t h e Mohammedan r e b e l s 1 3 o f G o o g a i r a , r e c e i v e d a j a q e e r o f s i x t h o u s a n d r u p e e s ( 6 6 0 0 ) . A 1 a q e e r w o r t h t w e l v e t h o u s a n d r u p e e s ( 6 1 , 2 0 0 ) a y e a r w a s c o n -f e r r e d o n J a w a h i r S i n g h who h a d w o n d i s t i n c t i o n f o r b r a v e r y 1 4 i n e i g h t e e n e n c o u n t e r s a g a i n s t t h e O u d h m u t i n e e r s . A n o t h e r c a v a l r y o f f i c e r , S i r d a r B i s h a n S i n g h , who w a s k n o w n f o r h i s f e a r l e s s n e s s a n d who h a d t o h i s c r e d i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f i f t y b i t t e r e n g a g e m e n t s , w a s g i v e n a v i l l a g e a s j a q e e r i n G u j a r a t d i s t r i c t ; h e r e c e i v e d f u r t h e r l a n d g r a n t s i n J h e l u m d i s t r i c t 1 5 H i r a S i n g h o f T a l w a n d i r e c e i v e d f o r h i s s e r v i c e s a s a c a v a l r y 1 5 6 o f f i c e r i n H i n d u s t a n a g r a n t o f 50 a c r e s n e a r N u r p u r i n K a n g r a 1 6 d i s t r i c t . A n d t h e r e w e r e m a n y o t h e r S i k h a r i s t o c r a t s w h o s e l o y a l t y a n d s e r v i c e s d u r i n g t h e m u t i n y w e r e l i k e w i s e a c k n o w -l e d g e d b y G o v e r n m e n t . I n t h e m a t t e r o f a w a r d i n g i a q e e r s a n d h o n o u r s t h e f o r -m e r e n e m i e s o f t h e B r i t i s h , n a m e l y , t h e S i k h f a m i l i e s w h i c h h a d o p p o s e d t h e B r i t i s h i n t h e S e c o n d S i k h W a r , r e c e i v e d f r o m G o v e r n m e n t a s g e n e r o u s a t r e a t m e n t f o r t h e i r l o y a l t y d u r i n g t h e s e p o y r e b e l l i o n . T h e N a l w a f a m i l y o f G u j r a n w a l a d i s t r i c t , f o r e x a m p l e , h a d l o s t i t s l a n d s a f t e r a n n e x a t i o n ; b u t t h e s e r v i c e i n t h e f i e l d b e f o r e D e l h i b y S i r d a r J a w a h i r S i n g h , s o n o f t h e f a m o u s S i k h g e n e r a l H a r i S i n g h N a l w a , r e s t o r e d t h e 1 7 N a l w a f a m i l y t o p r o m i n e n c e among t h e S i k h a r i s t o c r a c y • T h e j a q e e r o f t h e C h i n a f a m i l y o f A m r i t s a r , w h i c h w a s c o n f i s c a t e d i n 1 8 4 9 , w a s g i v e n b a c k t o i t s l e a d e r s , S i r d a r s J a i S i n g h a n d H a r d i t S i n g h , b e c a u s e i n 1 8 5 7 b o t h b r o t h e r s s e r v e d w i t h d i s -1 8 t i n c t i o n a s c a v a l r y o f f i c e r s u n d e r t h e B r i t i s h . R a j a S u r a t S i n g h M a j i t h i a , w h o w a s r e m o v e d t o B e n a r a s a f t e r a n n e x a t i o n a n d w h o h a d s h o w n l o y a l t y t o G o v e r n m e n t a n d r e n d e r e d g o o d m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e i n H i n d u s t a n , w a s g r a n t e d a v a l u a b l e j a q e e r i n H i n d u s t a n ; i n 1 8 6 1 h e w a s a l s o a l l o w e d t o r e t u r n t o t h e 19 P u n j a b . O n e o f t h e s u r v i v i n g s i r d a r s o f A t t a r i , G u l a b S i n g h , who w a s r e m o v e d t o B e n g a l a f t e r t h e S e c o n d S i k h W a r , a l s o p e r f o r m e d e m i n e n t s e r v i c e d u r i n g t h e m u t i n y . A s a c a p -t a i n i n t h e B r i t i s h a r m y G u l a b S i n g h d i s c h a r g e d h i s d u t i e s b r i l l i a n t l y . I n r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s l o y a l t y a n d a b l e s e r v i c e s a g e n e r o u s 1 a q e e r w a s b e s t o w e d u p o n h i m i n H i n d u s t a n a n d h e , 1 5 7 20 t o o , w a s p e r m i t t e d t o r e t u r n t o t h e P u n j a b . I n t r u t h , G o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y o f m a k i n g l i b e r a l l a n d g r a n t s h a d t h e e f f e c t o f r e s u r r e c t i n g s o c i a l l y p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y S i k h f a m i l y t h a t h a d f a l l e n i n t o o b s c u r i t y b e c a u s e o f i t s s h a r e i n t h e S i k h W a r © f 1 8 4 8 - 4 9 . T h e i n t e r e s t s h o w n b y G o v e r n m e n t i n t h e w e l f a r e a n d p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e s i r d a r s a n d i a q e e r d a r s w a s i n r e a l i t y a d i -r e c t c o n s e q u e n c e o f i t s n e w o u t l o o k o r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e S i k h a r i s t o c r a c y . G o v e r n m e n t h a d l e a r n e d a f e w l e s s o n s f r o m t h e s e p o y r e b e l l i o n a n d p e r h a p s t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t o f a l l w a s a r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t i t s p o l i c y o f d e g r a d i n g a n d d i s t r u c t -i n g t h e S i k h c h i e f s a n d a r i s t o c r a t s — a f p o l i c y w h i c h w a s i n t r o -d u c e d a n d p o p u l a r i z e d i n t h e P u n j a b b y t h o s e c i v i l s e r v a n t s w h o , w i t h J o h n L a w r e n c e i n t h e l e a d , b e l o n g e d t o t h e T h o m a s o n S c h o o l o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n — w a s w r o n g a n d d e c e p t i v e . T h e c o u r s e o f t h e m u t i n y h a d p r o v e d b e y o n d q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e s i r d a r s a n d j a q e e r d a r s w e r e f r e e o f t a i n t o f t r e a c h e r y a n d d i s l o y a l t y a n d , a b o v e a l l , i t w a s o n l y t h e a r i s t o c r a t i c f a m i l i e s w h o s e h e a r t s a n d m e a n s c o u l d p r o v i d e d u r i n g a n e m e r g e n c y m u c h n e e d e d h e l p a s w e l l a s i n s p i r a t i o n t o t h e p e a s a n t r y t o r e m a i n f i r m a n d l o y a l . T h e f o l l y g o f l o o k i n g f o r h e l p a n d l e a d e r s h i p t o l o w e r c l a s s e s , m e r c h a n t s , a n d m o n e y -l e n d e r s b e c a m e t h o r o u g h l y e v i d e n t t o l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s d u r i n g t h e m u t i n y i n e v e r y d i s t r i c t o f t h e p r o v i n c e . T h e l e a d e r s h i p a n d l o y a l t y e x h i b i t e d b y t h e l e a d i n g S i k h f a m i l i e s d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s o f 1 8 5 7 h a d , t h e r e f o r e , r a d i c a l l y c h a n g e d G o v e r n m e n t ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e m . T o p r e s e r v e a n d n o u r i s h t h e s e i n f l u -e n t i a l S i k h f a m i l i e s b e c a m e t h e n e w p o l i c y o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t 1 5 8 o f I n d i a . A n d t h e a r c h i t e c t o f t h i s new p o l i c y was t h e 2 1 G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l . C a n n i n g , h i m s e l f . T h e w i s d o m o f C a n n i n g ' s p o l i c y o f a t t a c h i n g t h e S i k h a r i s t o c r a c y t o G o v e r n m e n t t h r o u g h h o n o u r s a n d p a t r o n a g e m e t w i t h t h e f u l l s u p p o r t o f t h e Home G o v e r n m e n t . W h i l e c o n g r a t u l a t i n g C a n n i n g o n h i s s u c c e s s f u l v i s i t t o t h e P u n j a b , t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r I n d i a , W o o d , e c h o e d C a n n i n g ' s o w n v i e w s : We r e d u c e t h e n a t u r a l g e n t r y a n d p e r s o n s o f h e r e d i t a r y a n d f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e , t o r a i s e t h e m e r e m o n e y l e n d e r s a n d t r a d e r s . T h e l a t t e r c a n n o t h e l p u s . T h e f o r m e r a r e a l l i n d i f f e r e n t i f n o t a g a i n s t u s . We m u s t e n d e a v o u r t o e n l i s t o n o u r s i d e t h e c l a s s e s n a t u r a l l y p o s s e s s i n g i n f l u e n c e i n t h e c o u n t r y . Y o u may b e a s s u r e d t h e r e f o r e o f my s u p p o r t . 2 2 C a n n i n g w a s a l s o f o r t u n a t e i n t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e P u n j a b w a s h e a d e d a t t h i s t i m e b y a d i s t i n g u i s h e d c i v i l o f f i c e r , M o n t g o m e r y , w h o s e v i e w s o n t h e m a t t e r o f e x -t e n d i n g p a t r o n a g e t o t h e S i k h a r i s t o c r a c y f u l l y c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h o s e o f t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l . M o n t g o m e r y , who w a s t h e J u d i c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r i n t h e L a w r e n c e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d w h o r e p l a c e d J o h n L a w r e n c e a s L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r o f t h e P u n j a b i n J a n u a r y 1 8 5 9 , n o t o n l y a p p r o v e d o f C a n n i n g ' s l i b e r a l p o l i c y t o w a r d t h e S i k h a r i s t o c r a t s b u t a l s o b e c a m e : a m o n g t h e B e n g a l c i v i l s e r v a n t s t h e l e a d i n g c r i t i c o f t h e D a l h o u s i e -L a w r e n c e p o l i c y o f l o w e r i n g t h e n a t i v e c h i e f s . T h e l o y a l c o n d u c t o f t h e s i r d a r s a n d j a q e e r d a r s , w i t h whom a s J u d i c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r h e d e a l t d i r e c t l y d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s o f 1 8 5 7 , h a d c o n v i n c e d M o n t g o m e r y t h a t w i t h o u t t h e n a t i v e a r i s t o c r a c y t h e r e w o u l d b e n o l i n k b e t w e e n f o r e i g n r u l e a n d " t h e d e a d 159 2 3 l e v e l o f a n i m m e n s e p o p u l a t i o n . " A p p r e c i a t i n g C a n n i n g ' s n e w p o l i c y a s a p o l i t i c a l e x p e d i e n t o f t h e u t m o s t i m p o r t a n c e , M o n t g o m e r y c a r r i e d i t o u t w i t h g e n u i n e d e v o t i o n a n d e n t h u s -i a s m . T h e p a r a l l e l h e r e w a s i n d e e d i n t e r e s t i n g ; i f D a l h o u s i e f o u n d i n J o h n L a w r e n c e a f a i t h f u l a n d a b l e e x e c u t o r o f h i s p o l i c y o f w e a k e n i n g t h e S i k h a r i s t o c r a c y , C a n n i n g d i s c o v e r e d i n M o n t g o m e r y a s c o m p a t i b l e a n d e f f i c i e n t a s u b o r d i n a t e t o e n f o r c e i n t h e P u n j a b h i s p o s t - m u t i n y p o l i c y o f r e h a b i l i t a t -i n g a n d u p h o l d i n g t h e S i k h a r i s t o c r a c y . B e s i d e s m a k i n g g e n e r o u s l a n d g r a n t s t o l o y a l s i r d a r s C a n n i n g w a n t e d t o e n f o r c e t w o m o r e m e a s u r e s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p r e s e r v i n g a n d a u g m e n t i n g t h e i r i n f l u e n c e a n d i n t e r e s t s . F i r s t , t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l w a n t e d t o s e e t h e e s t a t e s o f t h e s i r d a r s c o n s o l i d a t e d ; s e c o n d , h e w a s k e e n o n c o n f e r r i n g 2 4 j u d i c i a l a n d r e v e n u e p o w e r s o n t h e m . T h e s e p r o p o s a l s p l e a s e d M o n t g o m e r y , t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r o f t h e P u n j a b , a n d w e r e a l s o f a v o u r a b l y r e c e i v e d b y W o o d , t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r I n d i a . H o w e v e r , d e s p i t e t h e p e r s o n a l s u p p o r t o f W o o d , a p p r o v a l f r o m t h e Home G o v e r n m e n t d i d n o t c o m e e a s i l y . J o h n L a w r e n c e , n o w a member o f t h e a d v i s o r y b o d y c a l l e d t h e C o u n c i l o f I n d i a ( s u c c e s s o r t o t h e f o r m e r C o u r t o f D i r e c t o r s ) , o p p o s e d C a n n i n g ' s p r o p o s a l s t o o t h a n d n a i l d u r i n g t h e d e b a t e s o f t h e C o u n c i l o n t h e s e i s s u e s . W a r n i n g C a n n i n g o f L a w r e n c e ' s s t i f f o p p o s i t i o n t o h i s p r o p o s a l s W o o d w r o t e t o h i m : I c e r t a i n l y a g r e e i n t h e p o l i c y , a n d s o d o e s t h e Q u e e n . . . T h i s b r i n g s me t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e S i r d a r s . I h a v e n o t y e t s e e n t h e r e p o r t o f t h e 1 6 0 C o m m i t t e e , b u t L a w r e n c e c a m e t o me y e s t e r d a y . He d o e s n o t l i k e i t a t a l l ; t h i n k s t h a t t h e r e a r e v e r y f e w f i t t o b e t r u s t e d ; a n d t h a t t h e r e i s d a n g e r i n u n i t i n g t h e i r l a n d s . He s a y s R a n j e e t S i n g h a l w a y s t o o k c a r e t o h a v e t h e e s t a t e s o f h i s s i r d a r s s c a t t e r e d , s© a s t o p r e v e n t t h e i r h a v i n g t o o m u c h p o w e r i n p a r t i c u l a r d i s t r i c t s , a n d t h a t we o u g h t t o p u r s u e t h e same p o l i c y . He t h i n k s i t v e r y o b j e c t i o n a b l e g i v i n g u p a n y v i l l a g e f r o m o u r m i l d s u p e r i n t e n d e n c e t o t h e g r a s p o f a S i r d a r . I b e l i e v e t h e C o m m i t t e e a r e a g a i n s t h i m , b u t h e i s v e r y u n c o m f o r t a b l e a b o u t i t . Y o u k n o w h o w w e l l h e i s a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e P u n j a b , a n d w h i t w e i g h t i s d u e t o h i s v i e w s . He s e e m s t o me e x c e l l e n t i n p r a c t i c e , b u t I h a v e n o t t h e same c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e l o n g s i g h t e d n e s s o f h i s v i e w s . . . . 2 5 W h e n f i n a l l y t h e Home G o v e r n m e n t s e n t i t s a p p r o v a l t o t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a , t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r I n d i a a g a i n c o n f i d e d t o t h e G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h h a d t o b e s u r m o u n t e d : T h e a p p r o b a t i o n o f t h e S i r d a r s ' m a g i s t e r i a l p o w e r s i s g o n e ; s o t h a t I t h i n k n o w y o u h a v e o u r a p p r o v a l o f a l l t h a t y o u h a v e d o n e . Y o u may n o t t h i n k i t v e r y w a r m ; b u t y o u m u s t r e m e m b e r t h a t L a w r e n c e , who n a t u r a l l y h a s g r e a t i n f l u e n c e a n d a u t h o r i t y i n s u c h a m a t t e r , i s o p p o s e d t o a n y c h a n g e i n t h e P u n j a b , S i r d a r s o r p o l i c e ; a n d i t i s a g r e a t t h i n g t o p a s s a d e s p a t c h , w i t h o u t a n y d i s s i n t i e n t v o i c e , t h r o u g h C o u n c i l . 2 6 T h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e i r l a n d s a n d t h e c o n f e r m e n t o f m a g i s t e r i a l p o w e r s o n t h e m n a t u r a l l y g a v e t h e s i r d a r s g r e a t s a t i s f a c t i o n a n d made t h e m m o r e s u c c e s s f u l a n d p o p u l a r 27 a m o n g t h e P u n j a b i m a s s e s . T h e s t r o n g s e n t i m e n t s o f l o y a l t y a n d g r a t i t u d e e x p r e s s e d b y t h e m a n d b y t h e d i s c h a r g e d S i k h o f f i c e r s " f o r t h e i r l a n d , f o r t h e i r r e t a i n e d r a n k , a n d f o r t h e i r a r m s " o n t h e o n e h a n d g a v e t h e l i e t o J o h n L a w r e n c e ' s p h o b i a o f d i s t r u s t i n g t h e S i k h a r i s t o c r a c y a n d o n t h e o t h e r h a n d p r o v e d t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f t h e v i e w s o f M o n t g o m e r y , who h a d a l w a y s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t L a w r e n c e ' s o p p o s i t i o n t o C a n n i n g ' s 1 6 1 2 8 l i b e r a l p o l i c y t o w a r d t h e s i r d a r s a n d i a q e e r d a r s w a s w r o n g . S u b s e q u e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s a l s o p r o v e d t h a t C a n n i n g w a s r i g h t . H i s p o l i c y w a s b y a n d l a r g e p u r s u e d b y a l l s u c c e s s i v e a d r a i n i s -29 t r a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e r e m a i n i n g d e c a d e s o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y . E v e n J o h n L a w r e n c e , w h e n i n I n d i a a s G o v e r n o r - G e n e r a l f r o m 1 8 6 4 t o 1 8 6 9 , f i n a l l y s a w t h e p o l i t i c a l n e c e s s i t y o f f o l l o w -i n g C a n n i n g ' s p o l i c y , a l t h o u g h h e a d m i t t e d t h a t a t h e a r t h i s b i a s w a s f o r t h e R y o t , t h a t i s , f o r t h e c o m m o n e r s a n d 30 p e a s a n t s . T h e l o y a l b e h a v i o u r o f t h e S i k h a r i s t o c r a c y d u r i n g a l l t h e p o s t - m u t i n y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s l e f t , o f c o u r s e , l i t t l e r o o m f o r d o u b t i n g t h e w i s d o m o f C a n n i n g ' s p o s t - m u t i n y p o l i c y t o w a r d t h e s i r d a r s a n d j a q e e r d a r s . w h o s e mood o f f l a t t e r i n g l o y a l t y w a s o f t e n r e f l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s t h r o u g h t h e p r o n o u n c e m e n t s o f t h e S i n g h S a b h a , a s o c i e t y 3 1 s u p p o r t e d b y t h e l a n d e d S i k h g e n t r y . T h e f a r e w e l l m e s s a g e t h a t w a s s e n t t o L o r d R i p o n b y t h e S i n g h S a b h a i n 1 8 8 9 w a s a c l a s s i c e x a m p l e w h i c h s h o w e d h o w i n t e n s e l y t h e S i k h g e n t r y c u l t i v a t e d s e r v i l e l o y a l t y t o t h e c r o w n : O u r b o d i e s a r e t h e e x c l u s i v e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h . M o r e o v e r , t h a t we a r e s o l e m n l y a n d r e -l i g i o u s l y b o u n d t o s e r v e H e r M a j e s t y ; t h a t i n d i s c h a r g i n g t h i s d u t y we a c t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e w i s h e s o f o u r G r e a t G u r u , t h e e v e r L i v i n g G o d a n d t h a t w h e n -e v e r a n d w h e r e v e r n e e d b e f e l t f o r u s , we w i s h t o b e t h e f o r e m o s t o f a l l H e r M a j e s t y ' s s u b j e c t s , t o move a n d u p h o l d t h e h o n o u r o f t h e c r o w n ; t h a t we r e c k o n o u r s e l v e s a s t h e f a v o u r i t e s o n s o f o u r e m p r e s s -m o t h e r , a l t h o u g h l i v i n g f a r d i s t a n t f r o m H e r M a j e s t y ' s f e e t a n d t h a t we r e g a r d t h e p e o p l e o f E n g l a n d a s o u r k i n d r e d b r e t h r e n . 3 2 N o t o n l y t h e w o r d s b u t t h e d e e d s o f t h e S i k h g e n t r y , a s w e l l a s o f t h e S i k h p r i n c e s , a l s o s h o w e d t o s u b s e q u e n t 1 6 2 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t h a t C a n n i n g ' s p o l i c y o f c o n f e r r i n g s p e c i a l h o n o u r s a n d r e w a r d s o n t h e S i k h c h i e f s a n d s i r d a r s w a s , f r o m p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h e r i g h t p o l i c y t o f o l l o w . T h e e x t r e m e d e s i r e o f t h e S i k h g e n t r y f o r h o n o u r s a n d t i t l e s f r o m t h e c r o w n n e v e r s h o w e d s i g n s o f a b a t e m e n t d u r i n g t h e p o s t -C a n n i n g d e c a d e s . S o t h e B r i t i s h e x p l o i t e d t h i s f a c t t o t h e i r f u l l p o l i t i c a l a d v a n t a g e b y h o l d i n g c e r e m o n i a l d u r b a r s , b y a p p o i n t i n g S i k h l e a d e r s t o t h e L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l o f I n d i a s e t u p i n 1 8 6 1 ( M a h a r a j a N a r i n d e r S i n g h o f P a t i a l a w a s t h e f i r s t I n d i a n t o s i t o n t h e C o u n c i l ) , b y m a k i n g f r o m t i m e t o t i m e a d d i t i o n s t o t h e s a l u t e s a n d t i t l e s o f t h e S i k h p r i n c e s , a n d b y c o n f e r r i n g o n e v e r y o c c a s i o n o f Q u e e n V i c t o r i a ' s b i r t h -d a y a n n i v e r s a r y t h e F i r s t C l a s s S t a r o f I n d i a o n t h e p r i n c e s a n d t h e S t a r s o f t h e s e c o n d a n d t h i r d c l a s s o r d e r s o n t h e s i r d a r s a n d j a q e e r d a r s . S u c h h o n o u r s a n d t i t l e s w e r e r e g a r -d e d b y t h e S i k h g e n t r y a s a c t s o f o v e r t r e a s s u r a n c e t o t h e m b y G o v e r n m e n t o f i t s c o n t i n u e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r w e l f a r e , T h e y a l w a y s c o v e t e d t h e s e h o n o u r s a n d i n o r d e r t o w i n t h e m t h e y r e m a i n e d f o r e m o s t i n s u p p o r t i n g t h e c a u s e o f G o v e r n m e n t d u r i n g t i m e s o f e m e r g e n c y . E s p e c i a l l y d u r i n g t h e l a s t t w o d e c a d e s o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y t h e p o l i t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h G o v e r n m e n t h a d o n t h e n o r t h - w e s t e r n f r o n t i e r w i t h c e r t a i n u n -r u l y P a t h a n t r i b e s l i k e t h e M a d d a K h e l s a l l o w e d t h e S i k h p r i n c e s a n d s i r d a r s , , . a c o n v e n i e n t s c o p e t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r e v e r - p r e s e n t d e s i r e t o s e r v e t h e c r o w n i n t h e h o p e o f s e c u r -i n g r e w a r d s a n d h o n o u r s . D u r i n g t h e s e f r o n t i e r d i s t u r b a n c e s t h e I m p e r i a l S e r v i c e T r o o p s o f t h e S i k h p r i n c e s p r o v e d 1 6 3 e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l t o G o v e r n m e n t a n d i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e l o y a l s e r v i c e s o f t h e S i k h p r i n c e s i t b e s t o w e d o n t h e m , a n d 33 o n t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e i r t r o o p s , s p e c i a l h o n o u r s . A s i d e f r o m m a k i n g i t t h e i r p o l i c y t o g i v e r e w a r d s f o r s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f e m e r g e n c y t h e B r i t i s h a l s o b e g a n t o t a k e a k e e n i n t e r e s t i n t h e f i n a n c i a l a n d e d u c a t i o n a l h e a l t h o f t h e l o y a l S i k h a r i s t o c r a c y . D u r i n g t h e p o s t - m u t i n y y e a r s t h e S i k h a r i s t o c r a t i c f a m i l i e s , i f b e s e t w i t h f i n a n c i a l a n d m a n a g e r i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s o n t h e i r e s t a t e s , c o u l d a l w a y s d e p e n d u p o n t h e g u i d a n c e a n d a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e d i s t r i c t o f f i -34 c e r s a n d p o l i t i c a l a g e n t s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f e d u c a t i n g t h e p r i n c e s a n d t h e l a n d e d a r i s t o c r a c y a n d t r a i n i n g t h e m f o r l e a d e r s h i p t h e A i t c h i s o n C h i e f s C o l l e g e ( n a m e d a f t e r t h e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r o f t h e p r o v i n c e ) w a s f o u n d e d i n 1 8 8 5 a t L a h o r e . T h e s e m e a s u r e s n o d o u b t s t a b i l i z e d a n d g u a r a n t e e d t h e c o n t i n u a n c e o f a m a t e r i a l l y c o n t e n t a n d l o y a l S i k h g e n t r y w h i c h g r a t e f u l l y s e r v e d a s a g r e a t b u l w a r k o f t h e c r o w n t o t h e l a s t d a y o f i t s r u l e o v e r I n d i a . I t i s i n d e e d h a r d t o e x a g g e r a t e t h e w o r t h o f C a n n i n g ' s p o l i t i c a l w i s d o m w h i c h e n -v i s i o n e d t h e g r e a t a d v a n t a g e s t o t h e B r i t i s h t h r o u g h a p o l i c y o f a t t a c h i n g t o t h e c r o w n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l e a d e r s o f t h e P u n j a b i s . T h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t r e w a r d o f t h e S i k h s a s a p e o p l e a n d r e l i g i o u s c o m m u n i t y w a s i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e B r i t i s h a t t i -t u d e t o w a r d t h e m s u d d e n l y b e c a m e s y m p a t h e t i c a n d p r o t e c t i v e a f t e r t h e s e p o y r e b e l l i o n . D u r i n g t h e e i g h t y e a r s b e t w e e n a n n e x a t i o n a n d t h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e m u t i n y t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e 164 B r i t i s h t o w a r d t h e v a n q u i s h e d S i k h s w a s e s s e n t i a l l y o n e o f c o l d i n d i f f e r e n c e , t h o u g h n e v e r o f a n t a g o n i s m o r h o s t i l i t y . W i t h c o m p l e t e a b s e n c e o f i n t e r e s t t h e B r i t i s h o b s e r v e d d u r i n g t h o s e y e a r s t h e c o n s t a n t e b b i n g o f t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f t h e S i k h s a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y a c c e p t e d t h e s t e a d y d i m i n u -t i o n o f t h e i r n u m b e r s a s a n a t u r a l a n d i n e v i t a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e m a r c h o f h i s t o r y . T h e s a c r i f i c e s made b y t h e S i k h s f o r t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e s e p o y m u t i n y c h a n g e d t h i s t h i n k i n g a n d a r o u s e d i n t h e m i n d s o f t h e B r i t i s h a g e n u i n e d e s i r e t o s a v e t h i s l o y a l a n d v a l i a n t r e l i g i o u s m i n o r i t y f r o m e x t i n c -t i o n . T h e new a t t i t u d e o f b e n e v o l e n c e t o w a r d t h e S i k h s w a s w a r m l y d e c l a r e d b y t h e P u n j a b G o v e r n m e n t i t s e l f . S i k h i s m i s n o t d o r m a n t ; b u t i t m u s t b e i n j u s t i c e s a i d t h a t t h e S i k h s d i d n o t t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e c r i s i s [ o f m u t i n y ] t o a t t e m p t t h e r e s t o r a -t i o n o f t h e i r n a t i o n a l i t y a n d t h e i r m y s t i c c o m m o n -w e a l t h ; a n d , t h a t , f r o m f i r s t t o l a s t , t h e y g a v e n o s i g n a g a i n s t u s . • • a n d , o n t h e w h o l e , t h e i r c o n d u c t h a s b e e n s u c h a s s h o u l d r e n d e r u s m o r e a n x i o u s t h a n e v e r t o s e c u r e t h e i r w e l f a r e . 3 5 I n d e e d G o v e r n m e n t h o n o u r e d i t s w o r d s w i t h d e e d s a n d d u r i n g t h e p o s t - m u t i n y d e c a d e s i t t o o k m a n y s t e p s t o p r o m o t e t h e e c o n o m i c , e d u c a t i o n a l , a n d r e l i g i o u s i n t e r e s t s o f t h e l o y a l S i k h c o m m u n i t y . T h e f i r s t i m p o r t a n t s t e p t a k e n b y G o v e r n m e n t f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e S i k h s , a n d , o f c o u r s e , f o r i t s own p o l i t i c a l a d v a n t a g e , was t o t h r o w o p e n t o t h e m s e r v i c e i n t h e a r m y . A g a i n , i t w a s t h e l o y a l t y o f t h e S i k h s m o r e t h a n t h e i r d e e d s o f b r a v e r y d u r i n g t h e b a t t l e s o f t h e m u t i n y w h i c h r e a l l y b r o u g h t a b o u t a c h a n g e i n t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s p r e - m u t i n y p o l i c y o f r e c r u i t i n g o n l y a l i m i t e d n u m b e r o f S i k h s . T h a t t h e 1 6 5 S i k h s w e r e g o o d f i g h t e r s w a s w e l l k n o w n t o t h e B r i t i s h s i n c e t h e A n g l o - S i k h W a r s . I n t h e A n g l o - B u r m e s e W a r o f 1 8 5 2 , a n d i n t h e e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t t h e M o h m a u n d t r i b e s i n 1 8 5 4 , t h e 36 S i k h s h a d p r o v i d e d a d d e d p r o o f o f t h e i r f i g h t i n g q u a l i t y . H o w e v e r , i n t h e p r e - m u t i n y y e a r s p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s d e t e r r e d t h e B r i t i s h f r o m r e c r u i t i n g t h e S i k h s i n l a r g e n u m b e r s f o r 37 t h e r e g u l a r a r m y . T h e u n h e s i t a t i n g m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e S i k h s s u p p o r t e d t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e c r i s i s o f 1 8 5 7 f i n a l l y c l e a r e d a w a y a l l B r i t i s h s u s p i c i o n s a b o u t t h e f i d e l i t y o f t h e S i k h s a n d a f t e r t h e m u t i n y t h e d o o r s f o r s e r v i c e i n t h e B r i t i s h a r m y w e r e o p e n e d w i d e f o r t h e m . T h e d e m a n d f o r t h e S i k h r e c r u i t s r o s e q u i c k l y i n t h e p o s t - m u t i n y y e a r s . T h e P o o r b e a h s e p o y s , who h a d a l w a y s r e -s e n t e d t h e e m p l o y m e n t e v e n o f a s m a l l n u m b e r o f S i k h s i n t h e 3 8 B r i t i s h a r m y , h a d f a l l e n i n t o d i s g r a c e a n d t o r e p l a c e t h e m t h e B r i t i s h made t h e P u n j a b a n d t h e G u r k h a c o u n t r y o f N e p a l t h e i r new e n l i s t i n g g r o u n d s . A m o n g t h e r a c e s a n d c a s t e s o f n o r t h - w e s t e r n I n d i a t h e S i k h s , w h o s e f i d e l i t y a n d s o l d i e r i n g q u a l i t y w e r e now w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , n a t u r a l l y b e c a m e t h e m o s t p o p u l a r r e c r u i t s f o r t h e a r m y . T h e i n c r e a s e d t h r e a t o f w a r i n C h i n a t o w a r d t h e e n d o f 1 8 5 9 a l s o g a v e i m p e t u s t o t h e e n l i s t m e n t o f t h e S i k h s . A s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f e n f o r c i n g t h e T r e a t y o f T i e n t s i n g b e c a m e a p p a r e n t t o t h e B r i t i s h t h e y h a s t e n e d t o r e i n f o r c e t h e i r g a r r i s o n s i n C h i n a w i t h m o r e I n d i a n t r o o p s . T h e i r c h o i c e f o r C h i n a s e r v i c e f e l l o n t h e S i k h r e g i m e n t s , f r o m w h i c h t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a , a s a d -39 v i s e d b y Home G o v e r n m e n t , c h o s e v o l u n t e e r s . T h e 1 6 6 r e p u t a t i o n a n d c o n d u c t o f t h e S i k h r e g i m e n t s s e r v i n g a b r o a d o p e n e d a n o t h e r a v e n u e o f e m p l o y m e n t f o r t h e S i k h s . T h e g o v e r n o r s o f t h e B r i t i s h c o l o n i e s o n t h e C h i n a c o a s t b e g a n t o a s k f o r S i k h s f o r p o l i c e s e r v i c e i n t h e c o l o n i e s ; i n 1 8 6 7 t h e g o v e r n o r o f H o n g K o n g made t h e f i r s t s u c h r e q u e s t 4 0 t o G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a . A s i d e f r o m t h e t e n s i o n s a n d h o s t i l i t i e s i n C h i n a o t h e r t r o u b l e s p o t s i n t h e w o r l d a l s o i n c r e a s e d t h e d e m a n d f o r S i k h s o l d i e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , i n 1 8 6 7 E g y p t i a n d e s i g n s a g a i n s t t h e A b y s s i n i a n n a t i v e c h i e f s , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t r e c r u i t i n g men i n E n g l a n d f o r o v e r s e a s s e r v i c e w a s b o t h c o s t l y a n d u n p o p u l a r c o m p e l l e d Home G o v e r n m e n t t o e m p l o y I n d i a n t r o o p s i n t h e A f r i c a n e x -4 1 p e d i t i o n t o o . T h e A f g h a n W a r o f 1 8 7 9 - 8 0 a n d t h e p e r e n n -i a l t r o u b l e s w i t h t h e P a t h a n t r i b e s a l o n g t h e n o r t h - w e s t e r n f r o n t i e r s w e r e o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s w h i c h h e i g h t e n e d d u r i n g t h e l a s t t w o d e c a d e s o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y t h e a r m y ' s n e e d f o r m o r e S i k h s . T h e p r e f e r e n t i a l r e c r u i t m e n t o f t h e S i k h s , w h i c h w a s s t i m u l a t e d b y t h e s e g l o b a l d e m a n d s a n d p r e s s u r e s o n t h e I m p e r i a l a r m y , l e d t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e i n -c r e a s e i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e S i k h s i n t h e a r m y . I n t h e p r e - m u t i n y y e a r s t h e r e w e r e , f o r e x a m p l e , n o t m o r e t h a n 7 , 4 0 0 S i k h s i n t h e 74 b a t t a l i o n s o f t h e r e g u l a r a r m y o r t h e B e n g a l L i n e . B u t ^ t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y t h e r e g u l a r a r m y , w h i c h w a s r e c o n s t i t u t e d a n d r e d u c e d t o 50 b a t t a l i o n s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t p o s t - m u t i n y d e c a d e , h a d 1 0 , 8 6 6 S i k h s . M o r e o v e r , a g a i n s t t h i s s t r e n g t h o f t h e S i k h s t h e r e w e r e 2 0 , 0 5 7 P u n j a b i M o s l e m s a n d 1 1 , 6 0 1 P u n j a b i H i n d u s i n t h e 167 I m p e r i a l a r m y . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e S i k h s , who c o n s t i t u t e d a t t h i s t i m e o n l y 12 p e r c e n t o f t h e P u n j a b ' s t o t a l p o p u l a -t i o n , r e c e i v e d a b o u t 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e P u n j a b ' s s h a r e i n 42 t h e I m p e r i a l a r m y . T h e r e c r u i t m e n t o f t h e S i k h s i n t h e I m p e r i a l a r m y h a d v e r y i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s . F i r s t o f a l l i t o b v i o u s l y b r o u g h t e c o n o m i c a d v a n t a g e s t o t h e S i k h p e a s a n t r y . T h e a t -t r a c t i o n o f r e c e i v i n g r e g u l a r p a y i n c a s h made a r m y s e r v i c e h i g h l y p o p u l a r w i t h t h e S i k h p e a s a n t . T h e o f f e r o f a s m a l l i n c r e a s e i n p a y i n s t a n t l y made h i m t h e m o s t w i l l i n g a d v e n -t u r e r w h o , u n l i k e h i s p r e d e c e s s o r t h e P o o r b e a h s e p o y , w o u l d show:* n o q u a l m s a b o u t l e a v i n g t h e s h o r e s o f h i s c o u n t r y f o r s e r v i c e a b r o a d . F r o m o v e r s e a s h e s e n t m o n e y , a s r e g u l a r l y a s h e r e c e i v e d i t , t o h i s f a m i l y a n d p a r e n t s a n d h e s e n t home l e t t e r s t o c h e e r h i s f o l k s w i t h t h e n e w s t h a t b o t h h i s 43 r a t i o n s a n d t r e a t m e n t w e r e g o o d . H i s c a s h r e m i t t a n c e s w e n t a l o n g way t o r a i s e t h e s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f h i s f a m i l y i n h i s v i l l a g e . T h e m o n e y s e n t b y h i m m e a n t w a s t e -f u l l y l i b e r a l s p e n d i n g o n f a m i l y m a r r i a g e s ( a s i g n o f r e s p e c t a b i l i t y i n t h e P u n j a b i v i l l a g e s ) , m o r e s c o p e t o g e t a w i f e f o r h i m s e l f o r a b r o t h e r , a p u k k a o r b a k e d - b r i c k h o u s e i n p l a c e o f a m u d - h o u s e , a w e l l o r a p u r c h a s e d s h a r e i n i t s w a t e r t o i r r i g a t e h i s f a m i l y ' s l a n d h o l d i n g s , a s t r o n g e r a n d b e t t e r - b r e d p a i r o f b u l l o c k s t o p l o u g h h i s f i e l d s , m e a n s t o p a y t h e t u i t i o n f e e f o r t h e E n g l i s h e d u c a -t i o n o f a s o n o r n e p h e w i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l , a s y m p a t h e t i c - : t r e a t m e n t t o h i s f a m i l y f r o m t h e R e v e n u e a n d P o l i c e 1 6 8 o f f i c i a l s , a n d , a b o v e a l l , t o a d e g r e e a n i n s u r a n c e a g a i n s t l o s i n g h i s f a m i l y ' s l a n d s t o t h e v i l l a g e m o n e y - l e r i d e r . T h e s e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a d v a n t a g e s n a t u r a l l y made a r m y s e r v i c e p o p u -l a r a m o n g t h e S i k h p e a s a n t r y w h i c h r e m a i n e d t o t h e l a s t d a y o f t h e B r i t i s h r u l e o v e r I n d i a a s a f e a n d p r o d i g i o u s s o u r c e o f r e c r u i t s f o r t h e I m p e r i a l a r m y . T h e o p e n i n g o f a r m y s e r v i c e t o t h e S i k h s a l s o r e s u l -t e d i n d e e p e n i n g t h e s e n s e o f c a s t e - i d e n t i t y a m o n g s t t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e S i k h c o m m u n i t y . T h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f t h e J a t s i n j t h e S i k h - r e g i m e n t s o f i t h e I m p e r i a l a r m y r e n e w e d a n d h e i g h t e n e d t h e p r i d e a n d p r e s t i g e o f t h e S i k h J a t s . I n b y -g o n e d a y s i t w a s t h e S i k h J a t s who w e r e t h e f l o w e r o f t h e K h a l s a a r m y ; t h e y w e r e t h e r u l e r s o f t h e P u n j a b ; a n d i t w a s t h e y o n whom a n n e x a t i o n h a d w r o u g h t t h e h e a v i e s t s o c i o -e c o n o m i c l o s s e s . H o w e v e r , r e m e m b e r i n g t h e s o l d i e r i n g q u a l -i t y o f t h e S i k h J a t s t h e new m a s t e r s o f t h e P u n j a b h a d e n -l i s t e d t h e m i n t h e B r i t i s h a r m y a s e a r l y a s 1 8 4 9 , t h e y e a r o f a n n e x a t i o n . O f t h e 7 , 4 0 0 S i k h s e n l i s t e d i n t h e r e g u l a r a r m y d u r i n g t h e p r e - m u t i n y y e a r s a l l b e l o n g e d t o t h e J a t c a s t e . S i k h s o f o t h e r c a s t e s , whom t h e S i k h J a t s c o n s i d e r e d l o w e r t h a n t h e y , w e r e d e b a r r e d f r o m a r m y s e r v i c e . T h i s w a s d o n e ; b y G o v e r n m e n t t o make t h e a r m y s e r v i c e a n h o n o u r a b l e p r o f e s s i o n . B u t d u r i n g t h e m u t i n y G o v e r n m e n t w a s f o r c e d b y n e c e s s i t y t o make a s l i g h t c h a n g e i n t h i s p o l i c y a n d h a d r e c r u i t e d t h r e e c o m p a n i e s o f t h e M a z h b i s , S i k h s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e u n t o u c h a b l e c a s t e . D u r i n g t h e s i e g e o f D e l h i t h e M a z h b i s d i d g o o d s e r v i c e a s s a p p e r s a n d m i n e r s a n d f r o m t h a t 1 6 9 t i m e t h e B r i t i s h b e g a n t o e n l i s t t h e M a z h b i s a s w e l l a s S i k h s o f o t h e r c a s t e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , d u r i n g t h e p o s t - m u t i n y d e c a d e s B r i t i s h p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e S i k h J a t r e c r u i t s r e m a i n -e d v e r y m a r k e d . T h u s a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y t h e r e w e r e 6 , 6 6 6 S i k h J a t s i n t h e a r m y a n d r e s t o f t h e S i k h s o l d i e r s ( r o u g h l y 2 , 5 0 0 ) b e l o n g e d t o n u m e r o u s o t h e r n o n - J a t , b o t h 44 a g r i c u l t u r i s t a n d n o n - a g r i c u l t u r i s t , t r i b e s . B r i t i s h p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e J a t s , who w e r e t h e l a r g e s t l a n d - o w n i n g c a s t e a m o n g s t t h e S i k h s a n d who w e r e i n t h e o l d d a y s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l e a d e r s o f t h e S i k h s , c o n s o l i d a t e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n a t t h e t o p o f t h e c a s t e c o m p l e x i n t h e S i k h c o m m u n i t y . R e t e n t i o n b y t h e S i k h J a t s o f t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l c a s t e a s c e n d a n c y u n d e r B r i t i s h r u l e n a t u r a l l y i n f l a t e d t h e i r p r i d e a n d s u p e r i o r i t y c o m p l e x . A s a r e s u l t t h e y b e c a m e u n d e r B r i t i s h r u l e h i g h l y c a s t e - c o n s c i o u s ; t h e y e v e n b e g a n t o l o o k d o w n u p o n t h e B r a h m i n s a n d K s h a t r i y a s , t h e t w o s e n i o r H i n d u c a s t e s t h a t h a d a l w a y s r e g a r d e d t h e J a t s a s S u d r a s o r t h e l o w e s t o f t h e f o u r H i n d u v a r n a s . C a s t e -c o n s c i o u s n e s s made t h e S i k h J a t s i n c r e a s i n g l y p a r t i c u l a r a b o u t t h e p u r i t y o f t h e i r r a c e , m a k i n g t h e m a s i n f l e x i b l e a s t h e B r a h m i n s i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o i n t e r - c a s t e m a r r i a g e s . I n r e l i g i o u s c o n g r e g a t i o n s t h e y b e g a n t o s e g r e g a t e t h e M a z h b i s a n d o t h e r l o w c a s t e S i k h s , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e m a s u n f i t t o s i t o r e a t w i t h t h e s u p e r i o r S i k h J a t s . I n s h o r t , G o v e r n m e n t p a t r o n a g e c o r r u p t e d t h e m e n t a l i t y o f t h e S i k h J a t s s o m u c h t h a t t h e y c a r e d o n l y t o p a y l i p - s e r v i c e t o t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s o f t h e i r f a i t h , n a m e l y , t h e b r o t h e r h o o d o f man 170 a n d a s p i r i t u a l c o m m o n w e a l t h o f a l l d i s c i p l e s o f N a n a k a n d G o b i n d S i n g h . F i n a l l y t h e p r e f e r e n t i a l s e l e c t i o n o f t h e S i k h J a t s f o r t h e I m p e r i a l a r m y a n d t h e m a t e r i a l g a i n s a n d h o n o u r s w h i c h t h e y r e c e i v e d t h r o u g h t h e s o l d i e r i n g p r o f e s -s i o n i n g r a i n e d i n t h e m e n t a l i t y o f t h e S i k h J a t s a n a r r o g a n t a n d r i d i c u l o u s n o t i o n t h a t " S i k h " a n d " J a t " w e r e s y n o n y m o u s t e r m s • T h e r e w a s y e t a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t r e s u l t o f t h e p r e f e r -e n t i a l e n l i s t m e n t o f t h e S i k h s . T h e array r e g u l a t i o n r e q u i r -i n g a l l S i k h s who j o i n e d i t t o a c c e p t t h e p a o l . t h a t i s , t o b e b a p t i z e d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n o f t h e i r f a i t h , a n d t o f a i t h -f u l l y f o l l o w t h e c u s t o m o f w e a r i n g a b e a r d a n d k e e p i n g t h e u n s h o r n l o n g h a i r o f h e a d b u n d l e d t o g e t h e r u n d e r t h e t u r b a n , w e n t a l o n g w a y i n p r e s e r v i n g t h e s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t y o f t h e S i k h s . T h o u g h t h e o r i g i n a l p u r p o s e o f t h i s r e g u l a t i o n , made i n D a l h o u s i e ' s t i m e , w a s t o a l l a y t h e f e a r s o f t h e S i k h s a l r e a d y s e r v i n g i n t h e a r m y t h a t a n e x i s t i n g r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t a l l new r e c r u i t s , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e o f t h e S i k h f a i t h , 4 5 m u s t c u t o f f t h e i r b e a r d s w o u l d u n d e r m i n e t h e i r f a i t h , i t s c o n t i n u e d e n f o r c e m e n t i n t h e p o s t - m u t i n y d e c a d e s c h e c k e d t h e p r o c e s s o f r e v e r s i o n o f S i k h f a m i l i e s t o H i n d u i s m . S i n c e t h e S i k h s a n d H i n d u s f o l l o w e d a common s o c i a l s y s t e m , r e c o n v e r s i o n o f t h e S i k h s t o H i n d u i s m w a s v e r y e a s y ; a n d a f t e r a n n e x a t i o n t h e p r o s p e c t s o f m a t e r i a l g a i n s a n d s o c i a l a d v a n t a g e s t h a t c a m e w i t h b e i n g a S i k h h a v i n g d i s a p p e a r e d , 4 6 t h e S i k h p o p u l a t i o n h a d b e g u n t o d e c l i n e . T h e p r o c e s s o f r e v e r s i o n t o H i n d u i s m h a d a t t i m e s , d e s p i t e t h e a f o r e s a i d 1 7 1 r e g u l a t i o n , i n v a d e d e v e n t h e S i k h r e g i m e n t s ; f o r e x a m p l e , a f e w y e a r s a f t e r t h e m u t i n y a w h o l e S i k h r e g i m e n t s t a t i o n e d 47 a t t h e H i n d u h o l y c i t y o f B e n a r a s b e c a m e H i n d u s . B u t t h i s s t e a d y d w i n d l i n g o f S i k h n u m b e r s d u r i n g t h e p o s t - m u t i n y y e a r s r a n c o u n t e r t o t h e m i l i t a r y a n d p o l i t i c a l a d v a n t a g e s t o t h e B r i t i s h i n p r e s e r v i n g t h e d i s t i n c t i d e n t i t y o f t h i s 4 8 l o y a l a n d m a r t i a l c o m m u n i t y . T h e r e f o r e , a s e a r l y a s t h e 1 8 6 0 s , b u t m o r e p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g t h e l a s t t w e n t y y e a r s o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y w h e n t h e S i n g h S a b h a , t h e r e l i g i o u s -p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e S i k h s , b e c a m e v e r y l o u d i n i t s a p p e a l s t o G o v e r n m e n t t o h e l p t h e S i k h s p r e s e r v e t h e i r i d e n -t i t y , t h e G o v e r n m e n t b e g a n t o s t r i c t l y e n f o r c e D a l h o u s i e V s r e g u l a t i o n w h i c h r e q u i r e d t h e S i k h s o l d i e r s t o s t i c k t o t h e i r c u s t o m o f w e a r i n g l o n g h a i r a n d b e a r d s . A n d o n c e t h e t h r e a t t o t h e d i s t i n c t i d e n t i t y o f t h e S i k h c o r p s w a s g o n e , a s i m i l a r e f f e c t o n t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h e e n t i r e c o m m u n i t y f o l l o w e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y , f o r t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a d v a n t a g e s o f b e c o m i n g a r e a l K h a l s a w e r e , a s i n f o r m e r d a y s , o n c e m o r e a v a i l a b l e . G o v e r n m e n t a l s o r e w a r d e d t h e l o y a l t y o f t h e S i k h s d u r i n g t h e s e p o y r e b e l l i o n o f 1 8 5 7 b y r e s e r v i n g a v e r y g e n e r o u s s h a r e o f e m p l o y m e n t f o r t h e m i n t h e P o l i c e , C i v i l , a n d R e v e n u e D e p a r t m e n t s o f t h e P u n j a b . D u r i n g t h e p r e -m u t i n y y e a r s t h e H i n d u s t a n i s h a d e n j o y e d a v i r t u a l m o n o p o l y o f t h e j u n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e j o b s i n t h e P u n j a b , a s i t u a -t i o n w h i c h d e e p l y h u r t t h e S i k h s * f e e l i n g s . T h e m u t i n y , h o w e v e r , t u r n e d t h e t a b l e s i n f a v o u r o f t h e S i k h s a n d t h e 172 r e m o v a l o f t h e d i s g r a c e d H i n d u s t a n i s f r o m t h e d e p a r t m e n t s o f t h e P u n j a b a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s u d d e n l y c r e a t e d f o r t h e S i k h s n e w o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f e m p l o y m e n t . T h e j o i n i n g o f H a r i a n a a n d D e l h i t o t h e P u n j a b i n l a t e 1 8 5 8 w i d e n e d t h i s s c o p e f u r -t h e r . A s a m a t t e r o f f a c t t h e e n d o f G o v e r n m e n t p a t r o n a g e f o r t h e H i n d u s t a n i s made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e S i k h s e m p l o y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e p o l i c e d e p a r t m e n t s , o f o t h e r p r o v i n c e s a s w e l l . W i t h i n a f e w y e a r s o f t h e s e p o y m u t i n y t h e S i k h s c o u l d b e f o u n d e v e n i n t h e c i v i l p o l i c e o f I n d i a ' s d i s t a n t a n d o f f - s h o r e a d m i n -49 i s t r a t i v e u n i t o f t h e A n d a m a n I s l a n d s . T h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e m p l o y m e n t i n t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d d u r i n g t h e l a s t h a l f o f t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y t o t h e p r o s p e r i t y a n d p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t y o f t h e S i k h s . A l a t e , t h o u g h h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e w a r d f o r t h e i r l o y a l t y , w a s g i v e n t o t h e S i k h s d u r i n g t h e l a s t d e c a d e o f t h e 1 9 t h a n d t h e f i r s t d e c a d e o f t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y . D u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d , w h i c h s a w t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f a n e t w o r k o f c a n a l s , r o a d s , a n d r a i l l i n e s i n t h e d e s e r t s o f t h e d o a b s ( t h e l a n d s b e t w e e n t h e P u n j a b ' s r i v e r s ) , G o v e r n m e n t , i n i t s s e a r c h f o r c o l o n i s t s f o r t h e r e c l a i m e d b a r r e n l a n d s , s h o w e d a m a r k e d p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e S i k h J a t f a r m e r s . T h e r e i s n o d o u b t t h a t t h e S i k h J a t s w e r e t h e b e s t f a r m e r s o f t h e P u n j a b , e x c e l l i n g e v e n t h e i r k i n s m e n © f the M o h a m m e d a n f a i t h . 5 0 I t i s d o u b t f u l , h o w e v e r , w h e t h e r t h e i r o u t s t a n d i n g q u a l i t i e s a s c u l t i v a t o r s o f l a n d w o u l d a l o n e h a v e made G o v e r n m e n t s o g e n e r o u s l y d i s p o s e d t o w a r d t h e m . M o s t s u r e l y t h e p o l i t i c a l 1 7 3 i m p l i c a t i o n s o f m a k i n g f r e e l a n d g r a n t s i n t h e c a n a l c o l o n i e s m u s t h a v e b e e n l o o k e d i n t o b y t h e B r i t i s h . T h e S i k h s w e r e f o r t u n a t e i n t h a t t h e y h a d t h e t w o r e q u i s i t e s o f l o y a l t y t o G o v e r n m e n t a n d e x c e l l e n c e i n a g r i c u l t u r e t o m a k e t h e m t h e p r e f e r r e d c o l o n i s t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e l a r g e s t o f t h e c a n a l c o l o n i e s , t h e L y a l l p u r c o l o n y i n t h e R e c h n a D o a b ( l a n d b e t w e e n t h e R a v i a n d t h e C h e n a b ) , w a s r e s e r v e d p r i n c i p a l l y f o r S i k h J a t c o l o n i s t s f r o m t h e d i s t r i c t s o f L u d h i a n a , J u l l u n d u r , a n d A m r i t s a r . T h e s e S i k h c o l o n i s t s w e r e d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c l a s s e s ; t h e p e a s a n t p r o p r i e t o r r e c e i v e d r o u g h l y 20 a c r e s f r e e o f c o s t , t h e y e o m a n f a r m e r w a s g i v e n o n t h e a v e r a g e 1 2 0 a c r e s a t a v e r y n o m i n a l c o s t o f 10 r u p e e s p e r a c r e , a n d t h e l a n d l o r d o r " t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e l a n d e d g e n t r y " g o t , a c c o r d i n g t o h i s s t a t u s , f r o m 1 2 0 t o 6 0 0 a c r e s a t a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r c o s t t h a n t h a t p a i d b y t h e y e o m a n . W i t h i n a f e w y e a r s o f t h e i r c o m i n g t h e S i k h J a t c o l o n i s t s t u r n e d t h r o u g h t h e i r s k i l l a n d e n d u r a n c e t h e r e h a b i l i t a t e d c a n a l c o l o n i e s i n t o r i c h g r a n a r i e s o f t h e P u n j a b . 5 1 T h e e n o r m o u s p r o d u c t i o n y e a r a f t e r y e a r o f w h e a t a n d c o t t o n f r o m t h e i r n e w l a n d s r a p i d l y made t h e S i k h s t h e m o s t p r o s -p e r o u s c o m m u n i t y i n t h e P u n j a b . T h e i r e n h a n c e d p r o s p e r i t y d u r i n g t h e f i r s t d e c a d e o f t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y i n f u s e d t h e m b o t h w i t h p r i d e i n t h e i r s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t y a n d a f e e l i n g o f f r e s h g r a t i t u d e t o G o v e r n m e n t . B e s i d e s g e t t i n g e c o n o m i c r e w a r d s f r o m G o v e r n m e n t t h e l o y a l t y o f t h e S i k h s a l s o w o n t h e m t h e p a t r o n a g e o f G o v e r n -m e n t f o r t h e i r l i t e r a r y a n d e d u c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t . T h e 1 7 4 S i k h l i t e r a r y a n d e d u c a t i o n a l m o v e m e n t w a s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e s e n s e o f p r i d e a n d i d e n t i t y w h i c h q u i c k l y d e v e l o p e d a f t e r t h e s e p o y m u t i n y t h r o u g h G o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c y o f p r e -f e r e n c e f o r t h e m i n t h e a r m y a n d c i v i l s e r v i c e s . O t h e r f a c t o r s r e i n f o r c e d t h e d e s i r e o f t h e S i k h s t o p r e s e r v e a n d p r o m o t e t h e i r o w n r e l i g i o u s l i t e r a t u r e a n d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e i r o w n e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . T h e p r o s e l y t i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e 1 8 7 0 s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n s a n d t h e P u n j a b b r a n c h o f t h e A r y a S a m a j , t h e h e a d - s t a r t made b y b o t h t h e H i n d u s a n d M o h a m m e d a n s i n s t a r t i n g t h e i r o w n m o d e r n s c h o o l s a n d c o l l e g e s , a n d t h e s t e a d y s p r e a d o f m o d e r n e d u c a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e t h r o u g h G o v e r n m e n t s c h o o l s p o s e d a s e r i o u s t h r e a t t o t h e i d e n t i t y a n d p r o g r e s s o f t h e S i k h c o m m u n i t y . T h e e d u c a t e d S i k h l e a d e r s f r o m t h e l a n d e d g e n t r y a n d t h e S i k h m i d d l e c l a s s w e r e q u i c k t o p e r c e i v e t h i s d a n g e r . T h e i r v i s i o n a n d i n i t i a t i v e l e d t o t h e f o u n d i n g i n t h e 1 8 7 0 s o f t w o s o c i e t i e s , e a c h c a l l e d b y t h e name o f S i n g h S a b h a . T h e l e a d e r s o f b o t h S i n g h S a b h a s r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e l i t e r a r y a n d e d u c a t i o n a l m o v e m e n t o f a s m a l l r e l i g i o u s m i n o r i t y s u c h a s t h e S i k h s w o u l d n o t l a s t l o n g u n l e s s i t r e c e i v e d t h e h e l p a n d p a t r o n a g e o f G o v e r n m e n t . T h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f l o y a l t y t o t h e c r o w n b e i n g among t h e i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e S i n g h S a b h a s , G o v e r n m e n t s h o w e d a q u i c k a n d h e a r t y r e s p o n s e t o t h e a p p e a l s o f t h e S i n g h S a b h a s f o r i t s p a t r o n a g e o f t h e i r 52 o b j e c t i v e s . A t a f u n c t i o n o f o n e o f t h e S i n g h S a b h a s t h e v i c e r o y , L a n s d o w n e , g a v e h i s p e r s o n a l f e l i c i t a t i o n s t o t h e m o v e m e n t : 1 7 5 W i t h t h i s m o v e m e n t t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a i s i n h e a r t y s y m p a t h y . We a p p r e c i a t e t h e m a n y a d m i r -a b l e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e S i k h n a t i o n , a n d i t i s a p l e a s u r e t o u s t o k n o w t h a t , w h i l e i n d a y s g o n e b y we r e c o g n i s e d i n t h e m a g a l l a n t a n d f o r m i d a b l e f o e , we a r e t o d a y a b l e t o g i v e t h e m a f o r e m o s t p l a c e a m o n g s t t h e t r u e a n d l o y a l s u b j e c t s o f H e r M a j e s t y t h e Q u e e n E m p r e s s . 5 3 S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s t h e t w o S i n g h S a b h a s , now e n j o y i n g t h e b l e s s i n g s o f G o v e r n m e n t , u n i t e d t h e i r e f f o r t s t o p r o m o t e t h e i r m i s s i o n a r y , e d u c a t i o n a l , a n d l i t e r a r y p r o g r a m m e s . L i b e r a l d o n a t i o n s t o s u p p o r t t h e c a u s e o f t h e S i n g h S a b h a m o v e m e n t w e r e made by t h e S i k h p r i n c e s a n d b y E n g l i s h s y m p a -t h i s e r s . B r a n c h e s o f t h e S i n g h S a b h a w e r e o p e n e d i n t h e t o w n s a n d v i l l a g e s o f t h e p r o v i n c e . S o o n G u r m u k h i o r P u n j a b i l i t e r a t u r e a n d n e w s p a p e r s b e g a n t o r e a c h t h e S i k h m a s s e s a n d i n a f e w y e a r s t h e S i n g h S a b h a m o v e m e n t a c q u i r e d a g r a s s r o o t s c h a r a c t e r . W i t h t h e m o n e y c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h e S i k h l a i t y t h e s o c i e t y s t a r t e d a n u m b e r o f K h a l s a s c h o o l s i n w h i c h t h e t e a c h i n g o f G u r m u k h i a n d S i k h s c r i p t u r e s w a s made c o m p u l s o r y . T h e b o l d e s t e d u c a t i o n a l v e n t u r e o f t h e S i n g h S a b h a m e t s u c c e s s o n M a r c h 5 , 1 8 9 2 , w h e n t h e g o v e r n o r o f t h e P u n j a b , J a m e s L y a l l , l a i d t h e f o u n d a t i o n s t o n e o f t h e 5 4 K h a l s a C o l l e g e a t A m r i t s a r . I n t h e y e a r s t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e S i n g h S a b h a a l s o p i c k e d u p m o m e n t u m . T h r o u g h i t s e f f o r t s m a n y H i n d u f a m i l i e s i n t h e P u n j a b a n d S i n d p r o v i n c e s a c c e p t e d t h e S i k h f a i t h . E m b a r k -i n g u p o n a m i s s i o n a r y p r o g r a m m e b r o u g h t t h e S i n g h S a b h a i n t o d i r e c t c o n f l i c t w i h t t h e p r o s e l y t i z i n g A r y a S a m a j i s t s , who t h e n b e c a m e n o i s i e r t h a n e v e r i n d e n o u n c i n g t h e S i k h g u r u s a s h y p o c r i t e s a n d i n c l a i m i n g S i k h i s r a t o b e a s e c t o f 1 7 6 H i n d u i s m * U n d e t e r r e d b y t h e c l a i m s a n d c o n t e m p t u o u s p r o -p a g a n d a o f t h e A r y a S a m a j i s t s t h e S i n g h S a b h a s h o w e d a r e -m a r k a b l e t e n a c i t y i n a d v a n c i n g i t s c a u s e . B e f o r e t h e f i r s t d e c a d e o f t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y c a m e t o a c l o s e t h e S i n g h S a b h a m o v e m e n t h a d t h r o u g h i t s m i s s i o n a r y , l i t e r a r y , a n d e d u c a -t i o n a l e f f o r t s n o t o n l y r e m o v e d t h e c h r o n i c t h r e a t t o t h e s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t y o f t h e S i k h s b u t h a d a l s o g a i n e d many c o n -v e r t s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f H i n d u i s m . B u t i t s a c h i e v e m e n t s d i d n o t a t a n y t i m e make i t o b l i v i o u s o f i t s i n d e b t e d n e s s t o G o v e r n m e n t w h o s e p a t r o n a g e c o n s t a n t l y e m b o l d e n e d i t t o l i t e r a r y a n d e d u c a t i o n a l v e n t u r e s . A n d i t r e p a i d t h i s d e b t o f g r a t i t u d e t o G o v e r n m e n t i n t h e f o r m o f p l e d g e s o f l o y a l t y o f i t s p o l i t i c a l o r g a n , t h e C h i e f K h a l s a O i w a n , a s o c i e t y o r g a n i z e d b y t h e S i n g h S a b h a i n 1 9 0 2 . T h e p r o s p e r i t y a n d t h e r e v i v a l o f a s e n s e o f s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t y a m o n g t h e S i k h s , w h i c h r e s u l t e d p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h G o v e r n m e n t p a t r o n a g e , h a d a d i r e c t b e a r i n g o n t h e S i k h p o p u -l a t i o n . A s s t a t e d e a r l i e r t h e S i k h p o p u l a t i o n h a d s t a r t e d t o d e c l i n e a f t e r a n n e x a t i o n i n 1 8 4 9 . A f t e r t h e i r d e f e a t i n t h e S e c o n d S i k h W a r a g e n e r a l m o o d o f d e p r e s s i o n h a d come o v e r t h e S i k h s ; t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a d v a n t a g e s o f b e i n g a S i k h s e e m e d g o n e f o r e v e r ; a n d t h e i n d i f f e r e n c e o f t h e i r f o r e i g n c o n q u e r o r s t o w a r d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s d i s c o u r a g e d t h e S i k h f a m i l i e s f r o m b r i n g i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n f o r b a p t i s m a t t h e G o l d e n T e m p l e o n t h e B a i s a k h i f e s t i v a l . D u r i n g t h e y e a r s b e t w e e n a n n e x a t i o n a n d t h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e m u t i n y t h e B r i t i s h w e r e , t h e r e f o r e , w o n t t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e S i k h s 1 7 7 w e r e d e s t i n e d t o l o s e t h e i r i d e n t i t y . D a l h o u s i e s h a r e d t h i s f o r e b o d i n g : T h e i r g r e a t G o o r o o G o v i n d S i n g h s o u g h t t o a b o l i s h c a s t e a n d i n a g r e a t d e g r e e s u c c e e d e d . T h e y a r e , h o w e v e r , g r a d u a l l y r e l a p s i n g i n t o H i n d o o i s m ; a n d e v e n w h e n t h e y c o n t i n u e S i k h s , t h e y a r e y e a r l y H i n d o o i f i e d m o r e a n d m o r e ; s o m u c h s o , t h a t M r . now S i r G e o . C l e r k ( g o v e r n o r o f B o m b a y , 1 8 4 7 - 4 8 ) u s e d t o s a y t h a t i n 50 y e a r s t h e s e c t o f t h e S i k h s w o u l d h a v e d i s a p p e a r e d . T h e r e d o e s n o t s e e m t o b e w a r r a n t f o r t h i s v i e w , t h o u g h i t i s m u c h m o r e l i k e l y n o w t h a n s i x m o n t h s a g o . 5 5 B u t t h i s g l o o m y p r e d i c t i o n w a s n o t f u l f i l l e d , b e c a u s e t h e c i r c u m s p e c t i o n a n d i n s i g h t s h o w n b y t h e S i k h s d u r i n g t h e s e p o y r e b e l l i o n o f 1 8 5 7 e n s u r e d a b r i g h t e r f u t u r e f o r t h e m . T h r o u g h t h e p a t r o n a g e o f G o v e r n m e n t , w h i c h t h e y e a r n e d a s a r e w a r d f o r t h e i r l o y a l t y a n d s a c r i f i c e s d u r i n g t h e m u t i n y , t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n b e g a n t o f l o u r i s h . B e t w e e n 1 8 5 5 , t h e y e a r w h e n t h e f i r s t c e n s u s o f t h e P u n j a b w a s t a k e n , a n d 1 8 6 8 , t h e y e a r o f t h e s e c o n d e n u m e r a -t i o n i n t h e P u n j a b , t h e g r o w t h i n t h e S i k h p o p u l a t i o n w a s p h e n o m e n a l . I n 1 8 5 5 t h e S i k h s w e r e n o t s e p a r a t e l y e n u m e r -a t e d b u t w e r e l u m p e d w i t h t h e H i n d u s ; h e n c e t h e f i g u r e s a b o u t t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e S i k h s i n t h e p r o v i n c e w e r e n o t g i v e n . H o w e v e r , s e p a r a t e s t a t i s t i c s a b o u t t h e S i k h s w e r e p r o v i d e d d u r i n g t h e e n u m e r a t i o n d f f i v e s e l e c t e d d i s t r i c t s , n a m e l y , A m r i t s a r , L a h o r e , G u r d a s p u r , G u j r a n w a l a , a n d S i a l k o t . T h e r e t u r n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e s e f i v e d i s t r i c t s , w h e r e S i k h i s m w a s i n a n y c a s e s t r o n g e s t , s e r v e a s a n i n d e x f o r t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e S i k h p o p u l a t i o n . I n 1 8 5 5 t h e p e r -c e n t a g e o f t h e S i k h s t o t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e s e f i v e 1 7 8 d i s t r i c t s w a s 5 . 2 . I n 1 8 6 8 t h i s p e r c e n t a g e h a d r i s e n t o 1 2 . 5 , d e c l i n i n g s l i g h t l y t o 1 1 . 5 a t t h e t i m e o f t h e t h i r d c e n s u s i n 1 8 8 1 b u t a g a i n r i s i n g t o 1 2 . 3 i n 1 8 9 1 w h e n t h e 56 f o u r t h e n u m e r a t i o n t o o k p l a c e . T h e s m a l l d e c r e a s e i n t h e p e r c e n t a g e b e t w e e n 1 8 6 8 a n d 1 8 8 1 , a f t e r i t s i m p r e s s i v e i n -c r e a s e d u r i n g t h e 13 y e a r s b e f o r e 1 8 6 8 , c o u l d b e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e s p a t c h o f S i k h r e g i m e n t s f o r s e r v i c e o u t s i d e t h e P u n j a b , t h e w e a r i n g o f f o f t h e f i r s t f l u s h o f r e c r u i t m e n t o f t h e S i k h s t h a t b e g a n d u r i n g t h e s e p o y r e b e l l i o n ( t h o u g h t o w a r d t h e e n d o f t h i s 1 3 - y e a r p e r i o d a f r e s h s t i m u l u s w a s g i v e n b y t h e A f g h a n W a r o f 1 8 7 9 - 8 0 ) , a n d t o t h e m i s s i o n a r y 57 z e a l a n d a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e P u n j a b A r y a S a m a j . F u r t h e r -m o r e , w h i l e a t t e m p t i n g t o e x p l a i n t h e t e m p o r a r y d e c r e a s e i n t h e r a t e o f g r o w t h o f t h e S i k h p o p u l a t i o n b e t w e e n 1 8 6 8 a n d 1 8 8 1 , we s h o u l d a l s o c o n s i d e r t h e d i s q u i e t e n i n g f a c t t h a t d u r i n g t h e s e 1 3 y e a r s t h e o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o v i n c e ' s p o p u l a t i o n w a s , f o r r e a s o n s w h i c h t h e o f f i c i a l s f a i l e d t o p i n p o i n t , o n l y 7 . 1 p e r c e n t a s a g a i n s t t h e c o r r e s -p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e o f 1 6 . 1 p e r c e n t d u r i n g t h e 1 3 - y e a r p e r i o d 58 b e t w e e n 1 8 5 5 a n d 1 8 6 8 . A n o v e r a l l l o w r a t e o f i n c r e a s e i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c e w a s b o u n d t o a f f e c t a d v e r -s e l y t h e r a t e o f g r o w t h o f a s m a l l m i n o r i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e C e n s u s o f 1 8 9 1 g a v e t h e l i e t o t h e i n c o n -c l u s i v e p i c t u r e p r o d u c e d b y t h e C e n s u s o f 1 8 8 1 . T h e e n u m e r -a t i o n i n 1 8 9 1 s h o w e d t h a t t h e S i k h s w e r e d e c i d e d l y o n t h e i n c r e a s e i n B r i t i s h t e r r i t o r y . I n t h a t y e a r t h e S i k h s r e -p r e s e n t e d 6 . 6 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e P u n j a b ' s 1 7 9 d i s t r i c t s a g a i n s t t h e 5 . 9 5 p e r c e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n 1 8 8 1 ; a n d t h e C e n s u s R e p o r t o f 1 8 9 1 f u r t h e r r e v e a l e d t h a t " I n a l l t h e d i s t r i c t s w h e r e S i k h i s m i s s t r o n g , i t h a s d e v e l o p e d f a s t e r t h a n t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e " a n d t h a t " t h e g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y h a s n o t b e e n , a s i s g e n e r a l l y s u p p o s e d , t o w a r d s a 59 d e c r e a s e i n t h e n u m b e r o f S i k h s . " T h i s v i e w w a s g i v e n f u r t h e r c r e d e n c e b y t h e e n u m e r a t i o n s o f 1 9 0 1 a n d 1 9 1 1 . T h e C e n s u s o f 1 9 0 1 s h o w e d a n i n c r e a s e o f 1 3 . 9 p e r c e n t i n t h e S i k h n u m b e r s a n d t h e C e n s u s o f 1 9 1 1 r e v e a l e d a f u r t h e r i n -60 c r e a s e o f 37 p e r c e n t . C o m m a n d i n g a s t r e n g t h o f 2 , 8 8 3 , 7 2 9 i n t h e P u n j a b ' s t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 2 4 , 1 8 7 , 7 5 0 t h e S i k h s f o r m e d i n 1 9 1 1 a c o m p a c t a n d p r o s p e r o u s r e l i g i o u s c o m m u n i t y w h i c h h a d e v e n t u a l l y s t r u c k f i r m r o o t s i n t h e l a n d o f i t s b i r t h . T h e r e w a r d s c o n f e r r e d b y G o v e r n m e n t u p o n t h e S i k h s i n n o w a y f e l l s h o r t o f t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h e i r a s t u t e -n e s s , a n d t h e i r s t r o n g i n s t i n c t f o r s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n , h a d i n c l i n e d t h e m i n 1 8 5 7 t o p u t f a i t h i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l g e n -e r o s i t y o f t h e B r i t i s h t o w a r d t h e i r f r i e n d s a n d a l l i e s . A n d g e n e r o u s l y i n d e e d t h e S i k h s w e r e r e w a r d e d b y t h e i r r u l e r s w h e n c a l m r e t u r n e d t o t h e c o u n t r y . T h e S i k h p r i n c e s w e r e r e w a r d e d w i t h m a n y h o n o u r s a n d g e n e r o u s a c c r e t i o n s t o t h e i r p r i n c i p a l i t i e s ; t h r o u g h l i b e r a l l a n d g r a n t s a n d t h e g r a n t o f m a g i s t e r i a l p o w e r s t h e s i r d a r s a n d j a q e e r d a r s w e r e o n c e a g a i n e l e v a t e d i n s o c i e t y ; a n d t h o s e S i k h f a m i l i e s w h i c h w e r e r u i n e d b y a n n e x a t i o n w e r e r e h a b i l i t a t e d . A s i n t h e d a y s o f t h e S i k h k i n g d o m t h e K h a l s a a g a i n b e c a m e t h e 180 u n r i v a l l e d c o n t e n d e r f o r t h e h o n o u r s o f t h e s o l d i e r i n g p r o -f e s s i o n . T h e S i k h h a k i m s ( c i v i l o f f i c i a l s ) t o a g r e a t e x -t e n t r e p l a c e d t h e d i s g r a c e d H i n d u s t a n i k o t w a l s a n d t a h s i l - d a r s . T h e l a n d g r a n t s i n t h e l a r g e s t c a n a l c o l o n y g a v e y e t a n o t h e r s h o t i n t h e a r m t o t h e S i k h c o m m u n i t y w h o s e c o n -s c i o u s n e s s o f i t s d i s t i n c t i d e n t i t y g r e w p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y w i t h i t s p r o s p e r i t y . I n t h e i r s t r u g g l e t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e i r s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t y t h r o u g h a n a m b i t i o u s l i t e r a r y a n d e d u c a -t i o n a l p r o g r a m m e t h e S i k h s a l s o r e c e i v e d m o r a l a n d f i n a n c i a l h e l p f r o m t h e c r o w n . B u t a l l t h i s may b e summed u p b y s a y i n g t h a t t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e c r o w n d u r i n g t h e p o s t - m u t i n y y e a r s t o s a f e g u a r d a n d p r o m o t e t h e v i t a l i n t e r e s t s o f t h e S i k h s w a s t h e r e w a r d t h a t i t g a v e t o t h e S i k h s f o r t h e i r l o y a l t y a n d s a c r i f i c e s d u r i n g t h e s e p o y m u t i n y . 1 8 1 C H A P T E R 6 C O N C L U S I O N T h r e e i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s s t a n d o u t i n o u r s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e S i k h s t o t h e s e p o y r e b e l l i o n o f 1 8 5 7 . F i r s t , t h e s e p o y m u t i n y e n d e d t h e s t a t e o f d e p r e s s i o n a n d o b s c u r i t y i n w h i c h t h e S i k h s h a d f a l l e n a f t e r a n n e x a t i o n o f t h e P u n j a b . S e c o n d l y , t h e S i k h s s h o w e d g r e a t w i s d o m a n d d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n e x e c u t i n g d u r i n g t h e m u t i n y t h e r o l e w h i c h t h e y c h o s e f o r t h e m s e l v e s a n d w h i c h t h e y b e l i e v e d t o b e t h e r i g h t o n e f o r t h e m . T h i r d l y , t h e s e p o y m u t i n y u s h e r e d i n a n e r a o f r e e m e r g e n c e o f t h e S i k h s t o t h e f o r e f r o n t o f t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l i f e o f t h e P u n j a b . T h e t h i r d f e a t u r e i n -v o k e s g r e a t e r h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t i n a s m u c h a s i t p r e s e n t s t h e y e a r 1 8 5 7 a s a l a n d m a r k i n S i k h h i s t o r y , o f a s g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e a s t h e b i r t h o f G u r u G o b i n d S i n g h o r M a h a r a j a R a n j i t S i n g h . H o w e v e r , t h i s p o i n t c a n n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y . C h r o n o l o g y a n d l o g i c f o r c e u s t o e x a m i n e t h e o t h e r t w o p o i n t s f i r s t . I t w a s o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t t h e c r u s h i n g d e f e a t o f t h e S i k h s i n t h e S i k h W a r o f 1 8 4 8 - 4 9 , f o l l o w e d b y t h e l o s s o f t h e i r k i n g d o m , w o u l d l o w e r t h e i r m o r a l e . B u t o n t h e w h o l e t h e S i k h s b o r e t h e s e b l o w s c o u r a g e o u s l y a n d t h e y n e v e r l e t t h e i r s p i r i t s s i n k t o t h e p o i n t w h e r e t h e e f f e c t s o f m e l a n c h o l y a n d n o s t a l g i a f o r t h e i r l o s t g l o r y w o u l d r o b 1 8 2 t h e m o f a l l t h e l u s t r e a n d e n t e r p r i s e i n t h e i r c h a r a c t e r . S u b m i t t i n g t o t h e r e a l i t y t h a t s u r r o u n d e d t h e m t h e y q u i c k l y r e c h a n e l l e d t h e i r e n e r g i e s t o t h e p l o u g h a n d s e t t l e d t o t h e p e a c e f u l l i f e o f t h e p e a s a n t . B e s i d e s t h e i r o w n a b i l i t y t o a d j u s t t o t h e c h a n g e d c o n d i t i o n s , t h e c h a n g e - o v e r f r o m s o l d i e r i n g t o c u l t i v a t i o n w a s made l e s s p a i n f u l b y t h e m o d e r a t e p o l i c y o f t h e B o a r d o f A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e m a t t e r o f t h e i r e s t a t e s a n d j a q e e r s . T h e m a g n a n i m i t y a n d h u m a n i t y o f H e n r y L a w r e n c e , C h a i r m a n o f t h e B o a r d , d i d a l o t t o a s s u a g e t h e i r d e p r e s s i o n a n d p a c i f y t h e i r m i n d s . E v e n w h e n H e n r y w a s g o n e f r o m t h e P u n j a b i n 1 8 5 3 h i s p o l i c y o f t r e a t i n g t h e f a l l e n S i k h s h u m a n e l y w a s n o t c h a n g e d r a d i c a l l y b y h i s b r o t h e r , J o h n , who s u c c e e d e d H e n r y a s h e a d o f t h e P u n j a b a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . B u t t h o u g h t h e m o d e r a t e p o l i c i e s o f t h e P u n j a b a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s b e t w e e n 1 8 4 9 a n d 1 8 5 7 h a d h e l p e d t h e S i k h s t o a c c e p t t h e n e w o r d e r w i t h o u t f e e l i n g s o f a c r i m o n y a n d h u m i l i a t i o n t h e r e w e r e t w o f e a t u r e s o f B r i t i s h r u l e w h i c h p a i n e d a n d d i s t u r b e d t h e S i k h s m o r e t h a n t h e l o s s o f t h e i r k i n g d o m . One w a s t h e g e n e r a l i n d i f f e r e n c e o n t h e p a r t o f t h e B r i t i s h t o w a r d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a n d t h e o t h e r w a s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f H i n d u s t a n i c i v i l a n d p o l i c e o f f i c i a l s i n t o t h e P u n j a b . T h e S i k h s f o u n d B r i t i s h i n d i f f e r e n c e , o r , m o r e a p p r o -p r i a t e l y , d e n i a l o f B r i t i s h p a t r o n a g e , b o t h d e p r e s s i n g a n d p u z z l i n g . T h e y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e y w e r e v a n q u i s h e d i n a f a i r f i g h t b y a s u p e r i o r p o w e r a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e y n o w h a r b o u r e d l i t t l e b i t t e r n e s s o r i l l w i l l . T h e r e f o r e , t h e y 1 8 3 f e l t t h e y s h o u l d e n j o y t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f G o v e r n m e n t a n d r e c e i v e f r o m i t a t t e n t i o n a n d p a t r o n a g e b e f o r e a n y o t h e r c l a s s o r c o m m u n i t y . B u t w h a t t h e S i k h s d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d w a s t h a t i n t h e m a t t e r o f e x t e n d i n g i t s p a t r o n a g e G o v e r n -m e n t h a d t o a c t w i t h p o l i t i c a l c i r c u m s p e c t i o n a n d i n t h e e y e s o f t h e B r i t i s h t h e y w e r e a p o l i t i c a l r i s k . A n d i t w a s o n l y o u t o f a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e q u a l i t i e s o f b r a v e r y a n d f o r t h r i g h t n e s s i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e S i k h s t h a t t h e B r i t i s h h a d n o t r e d u c e d t h e m t o t h e d e g r a d i n g p o s i t i o n o f a l a n d l e s s c l a s s a n d i t w a s o u t o f r e s p e c t f o r t h o s e v e r y a t t r i b u t e s i n t h e m t h a t G o v e r n m e n t d i d n o t a l t o g e t h e r p r e c l u d e t h e m f r o m s e r v i c e i n t h e a r m y a n d c i v i l p o l i c e . B u t t h e s e w e r e t h e l i m i t s t o w h i c h G o v e r n m e n t ' s c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e S i k h s w e n t . W h e t h e r t h e y w o u l d s u r v i v e o r s l o w l y f a d e o u t o f e x i s t e n c e t h e B r i t i s h a t t i t u d e o f i n d i f f e r e n c e t o w a r d t h e m c o u l d n o t c h a n g e . H o w e v e r , t h e S i k h s , s i m p l e a n d s i n c e r e , e x p e c t e d m o r e g e n e r o s i t y f r o m t h e i r c o n q u e r o r s , w h o s e s u -p e r i o r i t y i n t h e a r t s o f w a r a n d g o v e r n m e n t t h e y u n h e s i t a -t i n g l y a c k n o w l e d g e d b u t w h o s e d i p l o m a c y t h e y c o u l d n o t f a t h o m . T h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o g e t a t t h e p r a c t i c a l p o l i t i c a l w i s d o m o f t h e B r i t i s h b a f f l e d t h e m . T h e f l o o d i n g o f t h e P u n j a b w i t h H i n d u s t a n i c i v i l s e r v a n t s o n l y a d d e d i n s u l t t o i n j u r y . T h e S i k h s a n d o t h e r P u n j a b i s r e g a r d e d t h e P o o r b e a h s a s a r a c e o f i n f e r i o r men w h o o n l y a d e c a d e o r s o b e f o r e 1 8 5 7 u s e d t o c o m e i n t o t h e S i k h k i n g d o m t o b e g e m p l o y m e n t . B u t a f t e r a n n e x a t i o n i n 1 8 4 9 t h i s " i n f e r i o r r a c e o f m e r c e n a r i e s " v i r t u a l l y r u l e d 1 8 4 o v e r t h e P u n j a b , E v e n t h e S i k h g e n e r a l s a n d g o v e r n o r s o f t h e o l d d a y s w e r e o b l i g e d t o s h o w r e s p e c t t o t h e H i n d u s t a n i k o t w a l s a n d t a h s i l d a r s . w h o , a s e x e c u t o r s o f l a w s a n d G o v e r n m e n t , o r d e r s , w e r e r e g a r d e d b y t h e m a s s e s a s men o f g r e a t p o w e r a n d a u t h o r i t y . F o r t h e P u n j a b i s a n n e x a t i o n h a d m e a n t , a s M o n t g o m e r y p u t i t , t h e c o m i n g o f " t h e H i n d u s t a n i r a j . " O f t h e P u n j a b i s t h e S i k h s , a s f o r m e r r u l e r s o f t h e P u n j a b , n a t u r a l l y f e l t m o s t h u m i l i a t e d b y t h e s u d d e n a s c e n -d a n c y o f t h e H i n d u s t a n i s i n t h e P u n j a b . B u t t h e r e w a s l i t t l e t h a t t h e S i k h s c o u l d d o t o s h a k e o f f t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e a r r o g a n t a n d s u p e r c i l i o u s c l a s s o f H i n d u s t a n i j u n i o r o f f i -c i a l s . T h e B r i t i s h w a n t e d t h e m ; t h e y w e r e t r a i n e d c i v i l s e r v a n t s d r a w n f r o m t h e e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s a n d w e r e n e e d e d b y t h e B r i t i s h t o c o n t r o l a n d g o v e r n t h e new p r o v i n c e . B r i t i s h i n d i f f e r e n c e a n d t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e H i n d u s t a n i j u n i o r c i v i l s e r v a n t s , t h e t w o f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e d t h e r e a l c a u s e s o f t h e l o w s p i r i t s o f t h e S i k h s , c a m e t o a s u d d e n a n d u n e x p e c t e d e n d i n 1 8 5 7 . T h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e s e p o y m u t i n y s p u r r e d t h e P u n j a b G o v e r n m e n t t o s p e e d i l y d i s -a r m t h e s e p o y s a n d p u r g e t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e o f t h e H i n d u s t a n i o f f i c i a l s . T h i s u n e x p e c t e d b l o w t o t h e h o l d o f t h e H i n d u s t a n i s o v e r t h e P u n j a b ' s c i v i l s e r v i c e g a v e t h e S i k h s g r e a t p l e a s u r e a n d s a t i s f a c t i o n . S u d d e n o v e r t u r e s f r o m t h e i r B r i t i s h r u l e r s g a v e t h e m s t i l l g r e a t e r p l e a s u r e . T h e i r p r o m p t a s s u r a n c e s o f h e l p a n d l o y a l t y n o t o n l y r e l i e v e d t h e B r i t i s h o f t h e i r a n x i e t y t o w i n t h e S i k h s o v e r t o t h e i r s i d e , b u t a l s o b r o u g h t home t o t h e B r i t i s h t h e e r r o r o f 1 8 5 t h e i r p a s t a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e S i k h s w e r e a p o l i t i c a l r i s k . T h e e x i g e n c y c r e a t e d b y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s o f 1 8 5 7 , i n o t h e r w o r d s , f o r c e d t h e B r i t i s h t o r e c o n s i d e r t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e S i k h s , a n d w h e n t h e i r f e e l e r s i n s t a n t l y b r o u g h t a p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e f r o m t h e S i k h s t h e y i m m e d i a t e l y b e g a n t o e n l i s t t h e m f o r t h e e m e r g e n c y e x p a n s i o n o f t h e P u n j a b a r m y a n d p o l i c e . A n d f r o m t h a t t i m e t h e S i k h s a n d t h e i r B r i t i s h r u l e r s e n t e r e d u p o n a n e w e r a o f m u t u a l t r u s t a n d f r i e n d s h i p . W i t h i n a w e e k o f t h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e m u t i n y t h e S i k h s s t u m b l e d o n t h e i r r e l e a s e f r o m t h e d e p r e s s i v e e f f e c t s o f B r i t i s h i n d i f f e r e n c e t o w a r d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a n d t h e a u -t h o r i t y o f t h e H i n d u s t a n i c i v i l s e r v a n t s . N o t h i n g c o u l d b e a m o r e w e l c o m e d e v e l o p m e n t t o t h e S i k h s t h a n t h e s e p o y r e -b e l l i o n w h i c h a b r u p t l y c u t s h o r t t h e i r p e r i o d o f d e s p a i r a n d s a d n e s s . T h e s e c o n d s t r i k i n g a s p e c t r e v e a l e d b y o u r s t u d y w a s t h e p a t i e n c e a n d d o g g e d d e t e r m i n a t i o n w i t h w h i c h t h e S i k h s s t o o d b y a n d s e r v e d t h e B r i t i s h d u r i n g t h e s e p o y m u t i n y . D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e m u t i n y t h e r e w e r e t i m e s w h e n t h e m e n t a l a t t i t u d e o f t h e S i k h s t o w a r d t h e m u t i n y a s w e l l a s t h e i r s p i r i t s w e r e s u b j e c t e d t o t r e m e n d o u s s t r a i n ; h o w e v e r , b o t h s h o w e d e n o u g h e l a s t i c i t y t o r e t a i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l t e x -t u r e s . B u t b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h o u r d i s c u s s i o n i t s h o u l d b e made c l e a r t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o e n d u r e p h y s i c a l h a r d s h i p s o r t h e v i r t u e o f c o u r a g e i s n o t t h e i s s u e h e r e ; f o r t h e S i k h s w e r e w e l l k n o w n f o r t h e i r m a r t i a l q u a l i t i e s . I t i s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e S i k h s ' r e s o l u t i o n t o a d h e r e t o t h e i r 186 o w n d e c i s i o n o f s i d i n g w i t h t h e B r i t i s h t h a t f e a t u r e s i n o u r s t u d y o f t h e i r r o l e i n t h e s e p o y r e b e l l i o n . S u c h s t u b b o r n n e s s , o f c o u r s e , w o u l d b e a b s e n t f r o m t h e i r b e h a v i o u r i f t h e y d i d n o t h a v e a p u r p o s e b e f o r e t h e m . T h e S i k h s i n d e e d h a d a v i t a l p u r p o s e , w h i c h w a s t o a d v a n c e t h e i r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s i n t h e P u n j a b , a s t a t u s n e x t o n l y t o t h e i r f o r e i g n r u l e r s . T h i s a i m c o u l d b e a c h i e v e d b y t h e m , t h e y w e r e c o n v i n c e d , o n l y t h r o u g h t h e s u p p o r t a n d p a t r o n a g e o f G o v e r n m e n t . T h e m u t i n y , t h e y c a l c u l a t e d , g a v e t h e m a u n i q u e o p p o r t u n i t y t o w i n t h a t p a t r o n a g e b y g i v i n g t h e i r f u l l s u p p o r t t o t h e B r i t i s h , e s p e -c i a l l y w h e n t h e l a t t e r h a d a p p r o a c h e d t h e m f o r i t . T h e y w e r e c o n f i d e n t t h a t r e w a r d s f o r t h e i r h e l p a n d l o y a l t y w o u l d u n -q u e s t i o n a b l y a c c r u e t o t h e m , b e c a u s e f r o m f i r s t t o l a s t t h e i r f a i t h i n t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f B r i t i s h m i l i t a r y p o w e r , a n d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l B r i t i s h l i b e r a l i t y t o w a r d f r i e n d s a n d a l l i e s , r e m a i n e d a l i v e a n d s t r o n g . T h e l e s s o n s o f t h e i r o w n h i s t o r y w e r e t h e r e t o g u i d e t h e t h o u g h t s o f t h e S i k h s o n t h e s e l i n e s . T h e i r b e l i e f s a n d c o n v i c t i o n s i n t u r n f o u n d e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e i r a c t i o n s w h i c h c l e a r l y p o i n t e d t o t h e i r s t a k e s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e s u p p r e s s i o n o f t h e m u t i n y t u r n e d o u t t o b e a l o n g d r a w n o u t a f f a i r a n d t h a t n o s u c c o u r a r r i v e d f r o m E n g l a n d b e f o r e t h e f a l l o f D e l h i , t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e S i k h s t o r e m a i n s t a u n c h s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e B r i t i s h a p p e a r s a l l t h e m o r e r e m a r k a b l e a n d r e v e a l i n g . T h e i r s t e a d f a s t n e s s t h r o u g h t h e m o s t c r i t i c a l s t a g e o f t h e c r i s i s , n a m e l y , t h e p e r i o d f r o m t h e m i d d l e o f J u l y 1 8 5 7 , t i l l t h e r e c a p t u r e o f 1 8 7 D e l h i i n S e p t e m b e r o f t h a t y e a r , w a s t h e f i n a l p r o o f o f t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n i n t h e u l t i m a t e v i c t o r y o f t h e B r i t i s h f o r c e s . I t w a s t h i s b e l i e f l i n k e d w i t h t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o a c h i e v e t h e i r p u r p o s e o f g e t t i n g r e w a r d s f r o m t h e B r i t i s h t h a t k e p t t h e S i k h s f i r m a n d s t e a d y i n t h e f a c e o f f a l s e r u -m o u r s a n d p o i s o n o u s p r o p a g a n d a w h i c h h a d l a r g e l y d e s t r o y e d t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t h e P u n j a b i M o h a m m e d a n s a n d H i n d u m e r c h a n t s i n t h e i r G o v e r n m e n t . R u m o u r s a n d t h e d r a g o f t h e D e l h i c a m -p a i g n n o d o u b t c a u s e d t h e S i k h s c o n c e r n b u t t h e y r e f u s e d t o d i s r e g a r d t h e i r o w n l o g i c . I t w a s a s t h o u g h t h e m i n d s o f s u c h l o n g - t i m e f r i e n d s o f t h e B r i t i s h a s t h e P a t i a l a r u l e r c o n s t a n t l y r e m i n d e d t h e m : " Y o u h a v e a l w a y s b e e n g a i n e r s , d o n ' t t u r n i n t o l o s e r s n o w , " a n d a s i f t h e i n t u i t i v e p o w e r s o f o t h e r S i k h s p e r s i s t e n t l y w a r n e d t h e m : " Y o u made m i s t a k e s i n t h e p a s t i n your d e a l i n g s with t h e B r i t i s h , d o n ' t make a n o t h e r . " T h e o u t c o m e o f t h e m u t i n y c e r t a i n l y j u s t i f i e d t h e l o g i c a n d d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e S i k h s t o s u p p o r t t h e B r i t i s h t o t h e l a s t . B u t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y d i d n o t f l i n c h f r o m t h e i r c h o s e n c o u r s e w a s i n i t s e l f a n o t e w o r t h y f e a t u r e o f t h e i r r o l e d u r i n g t h e m u t i n y . F i n a l l y , o u r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e S i k h s t o t h e m u t i n y i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y e a r 1 8 5 7 w a s a t u r n i n g - p o i n t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e S i k h s . P u t t i n g i t i n b r o a d t e r m s we may g e n e r a l i z e t h a t t h e o u t b r e a k o f t h e s e p o y r e b e l l i o n s a l v a g e d t h e S i k h s f r o m a v e r y s e r i o u s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s e t - b a c k a n d p e r h a p s a l s o s a v e d t h e m f r o m e x t i n c t i o n . T h e r a p i d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e c l i n e o f t h e S i k h s 1 8 8 h a d b e e n t h e n a t u r a l a n d c o n c o m i t a n t f e a t u r e o f a n n e x a t i o n o f t h e i r k i n g d o m . P o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h a