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Teacher evaluation in British Columbia as perceived by teachers, a survey study McMillan, William Douglas 1970

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TEACHER EVALUATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA AS PERCEIVED BY TEACHERS, A SURVEY STUDY by WILLIAM DOUGLAS McMILLAN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1949 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n W§ a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH AUGUST, 1970 COLUMBIA I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . 'i I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e 3 ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y r e p o r t s a s u r v e y o f t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s . Three hundred f i f t y - t h r e e p r a c t i c i n g B r i t i s h Columbia t e a c h e r s responded t o a f i f t y - s i x i t e m q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n and t o e s t i m a t e t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n and c o n f i d e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o the i n s t r u m e n t s , the p r o c e d u r e and the e v a l u a t o r s . I n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d about the r e -p o r t s , t h e i r s t y l e , d i s t r i b u t i o n , f r e q u e n c y , and a v a i l a b i l i t y t o t e a c h e r s ; the e v a l u a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s used, i n c l u d i n g v i s i -t a t i o n f o r o b s e r v a t i o n and forms o f communication w i t h the t e a c h e r s ; and r e a c t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s t o the r e p o r t s , the e v a l u a t o r s , and the p r o c e s s i n g e n e r a l . The d e s i g n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e h i g h l i g h t s t h e p o s i t i o n o f the p r i n c i p a l as an e v a l u a t o r as compared t o t h a t o f o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s . Open-ended q u e s t i o n s were i n c l u d e d t o c l a r i f y r esponse i n some a r e a s . O p i n i o n s were sought i n some more g e n e r a l a r e a s t o t e s t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f p e r c e i v e d need f o r change, t o o b t a i n t e a c h e r s 1 s u g g e s t i o n s as t o the d i r e c t i o n such change might t a k e , and t o sample t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s as t o the e f f i c a c y o f t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e s f o r t h e improvement of i n s t r u c t i o n . M a j o r c o n c l u s i o n s were t h a t p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e i s e s s e n -t i a l l y i n s p e c t o r i a l i n n a t u r e and o n l y p a r t i a l l y o r i e n t e d t o the improvement o f i n s t r u c t i o n ; t h a t t e a c h e r s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t "present p r a c t i c e though s u b s t a n t i a l m i n o r i t i e s express, l a c k o f s a t i s f a c t i o n and c o n f i d e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o many a s p e c t s ' 1 ' o f i t ; and t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e d i v i d e d as t o whether t h e p r i n c i -p a l ' s r o l e s as e v a l u a t o r and e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r c o n f l i c t . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . THE PROBLEM 1 The G e n e r a l Problem 1 Survey o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e 7 Reviews o f Research 8 B i b l i o g r a p h i e s . . . . . . . . 9 The C r i t e r i o n Problem: A fundamental d i f f i c u l t y . . 1 0 Teacher- E v a l u a t i o n P r a c t i c e . . . . . . . . . 1 4 The E v a l u a t o r s . . . . . . 1 6 Tea c h e r s ' P e r c e p t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Teacher E v a l u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia . . . . 22 S p e c i f i c Statement o f t h e Problem. .'. . . .•. 25 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms. . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 The S p e c i f i c Problem . . . . 26 The Major Q u e s t i o n s Posed by the Survey. . . 27 I I . METHODOLOGY. 29 G e n e r a l P r o c e d u r e • 29 The Survey Sample as R e l a t e d t o t h e P o p u l a t i o n 29 P r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . • . . - . . . 31 Data V a l i d i t y as A f f e c t e d by .Respondents 1 A t t i t u d e s 32 O r g a n i z a t i o n and A n a l y s i s of Data The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Form . . . . . 33 34 V CHAPTER PAGE I I I . REPORT OF FINDINGS 36 Introduction 36 Interpretation of the Data . . . -. . . . . . . 3 8 D i s t r i b u t i o n and Frequency of Reports. . . . 3 8 Copies of • Reports . . . . 44 Nature of the Report Form. . . . . . . . •. . 4 6 Suggestions for Improvement i n the Report. . 4 7 Frequency of Formal V i s i t a t i o n . . . . . . . 4 7 Frequency of Informal V i s i t a t i o n ... . . ... 49 S a t i s f a c t i o n of Teachers with Reports. . . . 50 Confidence i n the Evaluator. . 5 1 The P r i n c i p a l as Evaluator . 55 Assessment of Present Practice . 57 Need for Change : i n Evaluation Practice . . . 59 Summary of Findings '. ..• 60 • J . IV. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . 64 Conclusions 64 Implications 68 Implications for the Practice of Teacher Evaluation 68 Implications for Further Study -69 BIBLIOGRAPHY 71 Teacher Evaluation References 72 Survey References. 76 APPENDICES 77 v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Teachers i n the P o p u l a t i o n and The Sample 30 I I . Average Number o f R e p o r t s P e r Teacher D u r i n g A. D i s t r i c t E x p e r i e n c e Up t o Ten Years and B. - S c h o o l E x p e r i e n c e up t o Ten Years . . . . . . 40 I I I . Average Years o f Teacher E x p e r i e n c e W i t h i n t h e P a s t Ten Y e a r s : A. I n t h e D i s t r i c t and B. I n the S c h o o l . . '. . . . . .... .... . 41 IV. Average Number o f R e p o r t s R e c e i v e d by Teachers pe r Y e a r s o f E x p e r i e n c e A. From o t h e r E v a l u a t o r s , Based on D i s t r i c t E x p e r i e n c e and B. From P r i n c i -p a l s , Based on S c h o o l E x p e r i e n c e 41 V. Rate o f R e p o r t i n g by Other E v a l u a t o r s on A l l Teachers i n t h e Survey Sample. . . . . . . . . . 42 V I . Rate o f R e p o r t i n g by. P r i n c i p a l s on a l l Teachers i n the Survey Sample . . . . . . . . 42 V I I . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T h i s Year's R e p o r t s by Teacher C e r t i f i c a t i o n C a t e g o r y . . . . . . . . 45 V I I I . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f T h i s Y e a r ' s R e p o r t by Teacher E x p e r i e n c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia . 45 v i i LIST OF APPENDICES APPENDIX PAGE A. B r i t i s h Columbia R u l e s f o r Teacher E v a l u a t i o n . . 78 B. Sample Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Forms . . . 81 C. The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 84 D. T a b u l a t i o n o f Responses ( U n i v a r i a t e T a b l e s ) . .•. 96 E. B i v a r i a t e T a b l e s . .117 F. Summary o f W r i t t e n Comments by Respondents. . . .168 G. Survey Sample Data: Teacher D i s t r i b u t i o n . . . .202 CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM I . THE GENERAL PROBLEM . T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o seek i n f o r m a t i o n about an a s p e c t o f t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n o f which l i t t l e i s known: t e a c h -e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e p r o c e s s o f e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r compe-tenc e . The v e h i c l e f o r t h e s t u d y was a f i f t y - s i x i t e m ques-t i o n n a i r e d i r e c t e d t o a sample o f B r i t i s h Columbia p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . I t i n q u i r e d about many a s p e c t s of t e a c h e r s 1 e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g f r e q u e n c y of e v a l u a t i o n and i t s mode o f co n d u c t , t h e e v a l u a t o r s and t h e i r r e p o r t s , and t h e degree and proposed d i r e c t i o n o f p e r c e i v e d need, i f any, f o r change. I n p a r t i c u l a r , an attempt was made t o a s s e s s t h e degree o f t e a c h e r s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h , and c o n f i d e n c e i n , p r e s e n t t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e , the eva-l u a t o r s , and the r e p o r t s . The need f o r such a s t u d y i s not s e l f - e v i d e n t . To f u l l y comprehend i t s p u r p o s e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o be aware o f the complex o f p e r s i s t e n t l y u n r e s o l v e d problems p e c u l i a r t o the f i e l d o f t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n , and the c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n whic h t h e y a r o s e . F o r decades i t has been w i d e l y a c c e p t e d t h a t s c h o o l systems s h o u l d , by some f o r m a l means, a s s u r e themselves o f 2 the f i t n e s s of p r a c t i c i n g teachers for t h e i r tasks."'' However, e f f o r t s to obtain such assurance face a fundamental d i f f i c u l t y : the product of the educational process exists largely i n gen-er a l i z e d form i n the minds of students. There are few e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d , simply measurable, units of production, and where such units e x i s t i t i s often well-nigh impossible to separate and i d e n t i f y the interwoven contributions of i n d i v i d u a l teach-2 ers. Furthermore, the precise nature of the teaching pro-cess, the proper p r i o r i t i e s among the values brought to bear, and the most desirable outcomes of the process are matters of ongoing debate, which i s to say that except i n very general terms the tasks of teachers have no clear commonly accepted 3 d e f i n i t i o n . Lacking consensus as to what should be the precise function of teachers, school systems have varied considerably i n t h e i r interpretations of " f i t n e s s . " Some, more commonly i n e a r l i e r days, required orthodoxy of r e l i g i o u s or p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f , and perhaps adherence to codes of moral and s o c i a l behavior;^ but i n present times, most systems have placed "'"See, for example, R. Freeman Butts, A C u l t u r a l History of  Western Education, '2nd ed. , Toronto, McGraw-Hill Book Co.Inc." 1955, pp. 207-212; and H.G. Good, A History of Western Education, New York, The;Macmillan Co., 1947, pp. 299-300. 2 A.S. Barr and others, Wisconsin Studies of the Measurement  and Prediction of Teacher Effectiveness: A Summary of Inves- tigations , Madison, W i s e , Dembar Publications Inc., 1961, p.8. 3Ibid., p. 5; R.B. Howsam, "Teacher Evaluation, Facts and Folklore," The National Elementary P r i n c i p a l , v o l . 43, no. 2 (November 1963), pp. 14-5. ^Butts, op", c i t . , , p . 212. major emphasis on e f f i c i e n c y o f performance. Any a t t empt t o measure e f f i c i e n c y o f performance r e q u i r e s as a base f o r measurement a f a i r l y p r e c i s e knowledge of t h e f u n c t i o n s t o be p e rformed. I n v i e w of t h e u n c e r t a i n t y c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r o p e r f u n c t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t a g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e d e f i n i t i o n o f t e a c h e r s ' e f f i c i e n c y has g been e l u s i v e . Indeed, i n . d i s c u s s i o n s of t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n , the term " e f f i c i e n c y " i s .used i n i t s most g e n e r a l s e n s e , as i t must be i n t h e absence of s p e c i f i c performance c r i t e r i a , and i t i s used synonymously w i t h t h e e x p r e s s i o n s , "compe-t e n c e , " " t e a c h i n g a b i l i t y " and " e f f e c t i v e n e s s . " Whatever i t i s t h e s e terms e x a c t l y r e p r e s e n t , t h a t i s t h e c e n t r a l c o n c e r n o f t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s . For a l t h o u g h t e a c h e r e v a l u -a t i o n r e p o r t s f r e q u e n t l y c o n t a i n r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e appearance,' manner-, q u a l i t y o f v o i c e , and o t h e r e a s i l y o b s e r v a b l e f e a t u r e s o f the t e a c h e r , i t i s t h e assessment of " a b i l i t y . t o t e a c h " t h a t ; i s c o n s i d e r e d most i m p o r t a n t , and which p r e s e n t s f o r t h e e v a l u a t o r t h e g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y . Not o n l y i s t h e r e u n c e r -t a i n t y as t o what, i f any, a r e t h e c r i t e r i a o f good t e a c h i n g , b u t whenever t e n t a t i v e l i s t s o f c r i t e r i a have been adopted, The r e c u r r e n c e o f m o r a l and p o l i t i c a l employment c r i t e r i a cannot be r u l e d . o u t , .however; i t i s o n l y a few y e a r s s i n c e the a n t i c o m m u n i s t F e i n b e r g Law i n New York S t a t e and s i m i l a r measures. See B u t t s , op. c i t . , pp. 544-7. 6 L. .R. T o m l i n s o n , "Recent S t u d i e s i n the E v a l u a t i o n o f T e a c h i n g , " E d u c a t i o n a l R esearch B u l l e t i n , v o l . 34 (October, 1955), p. 1867^ ' ' 4 extreme d i f f i c u l t y has been e n c o u n t e r e d i n m e asuring t e a c h e r 7 performance a g a i n s t t h e c r i t e r i a . I n agreement w i t h many o t h e r s , H. E. M i t z e l has n o t e d t h a t a h a l f - c e n t u r y o f r e -s e a r c h , aimed m a i n l y a t d i s c o v e r y o f c r i t e r i a , has f a i l e d t o produce any m e a n i n g f u l c r i t e r i a o f t e a c h i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . D e s p i t e a l l t h i s , and because i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o make p e r s o n n e l d e c i s i o n s about t e a c h e r s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h h i r i n g , r e t e n t i o n , t e n u r e , d i s m i s s a l , s a l a r i e s , p r o m o t i o n , e t c . t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n and r e p o r t i n g i s w i d e l y p r a c t i c e d . I t i s commonly h e l d t h a t w h i l e t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n must s e r v e t h e s e f u n c t i o n s , i t s most i m p o r t a n t purpose i s t o s t i m u l a t e im-9 provement of i n s t r u c t i o n by a l e r t i n g t e a c h e r s t o t h e p o s s i -b i l i t y o f o r t h e need f o r improvement, and by f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n d u r i n g t h e e v a l u a t i v e p r o c e s s on ways and means o f i m p r o v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n , n o t o n l y - w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e compe-te n c e of t h e t e a c h e r , b u t a l s o w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e e n t i r e l e a r n i n g environment. Because of t h e l a c k o f g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d c r i t e r i a and the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f measurement, the assessment of compe-C.C. Anderson and S.M. Hunka, "Teacher E v a l u a t i o n : Some Problems and a P r o p o s a l , " H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l Review, vol.33, no, 1, 1963, pp. 74-5. 8 " C r i t e r i a o f Teacher E f f e c t i v e n e s s , " E n c y c l o p e d i a o f Edu- c a t i o n a l ' R e s e a r c h , 3rd ed., ed. C.W. H a r r i s , New York, Mac-m i l l a n Co., 1960, pp. 1481-5. 9 Howsam, op. c i t . , p. 8; NEA R esearch D i v i s i o n , E v a l u a t i o n  o f C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r s , Washington, D.C., N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1964, pp. 4-6. 5 tence i s necessarily highly subjective i n nature and i s often reported i n the form of a written statement of opinion. Usually, evaluation i s performed by a superior, either a school p r i n c i p a l or school d i s t r i c t superintendent. There are some instances, however, where cooperative evaluation on a peer basis has been introduced. "*"^  As a way of increasing the degree of o b j e c t i v i t y of-evaluation and of providing a better basis for comparing teachers' reports, many school systems have.developed"rating sheets on which are l i s t e d a number of c r i t e r i a against each of which the evaluator rates the teacher on a numerical scale."''"'' Usually these sheets include a' space for additional comments.. Some.school systems have adopted merit-rating plans which relate.the pay of teachers to the ratings they 12 receive on these rating-scales. Acceptance by teachers of merit-rating plans has been limited because of the d i f f i -c u l t i e s mentioned above of determining acceptable c r i t e r i a 13 and of measuring teachers against them; however, p e r s i s -tent sentiment i n favor of payment according to.quality of performance a'ssv-- - '' r • "*"^ NEA Commission on Teacher Evaluation of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Better than  Rating, Washington, D.C., NEA, 1950. "'""'"H.H. Remmers., "Rating Methods i n Research on Teaching," Handbook of Research'on Teaching, ed. N.L. Gage, Chicago, Rand McNally and Co., 1963. 12 . . . . . D.E. Beecher, The Evaluation of Teaching, Syracuse,N.Y./ Syracuse University Press, 1949. 13 NEA Research D i v i s i o n , Why Have Merit Plans for Teachers' Salaries been,Abandoned? Washington, D.C., NEA, 1961. performance assures recurrence'of - i n t e r e s t . i n merit-rating."*"^ While there i s wide agreement on the poten t i a l values of teacher evaluation, many reservations'have been expressed about the e f f i c a c y of current practices, and various proposals have been made for improvement. . In connection with t h i s , a number of questions a r i s e . One concerns the inc l u s i o n of the p r i n c i p a l i n the evaluative process: does his evaluative function compromise his p o s i t i o n as an educational leader,in 15 his school?. Another queries the degree to which present 16 practice contributes to improvement of i n s t r u c t i o n . Where rating scales are i n use, the question a r i s e s : does the struc-ture of a scale tend to enforce conformity with a stereotype which does not necessarily represent the i d e a l teacher, and • .17 i s the rating scale thus an anti-professional influence? I f , as i t seems evident they w i l l , school systems fi n d i t necessary to continue with teacher evaluation i n the con-tinuing absence of adequate c r i t e r i a , and i f the process i s to produce optimum improvement of i n s t r u c t i o n along with the possibly dubious, but necessary, personnel decisions, i t s 14 . . . . NEA Research D i v i s i o n , Evaluation of Classroom Teachers, p. 45. 15 G.W. Rose, "The Eff e c t s of Administrative Evaluation," The National Elementary P r i n c i p a l , v o l . 43, no. 2 (November 1963), p. 53. 16 NEA Research D i v i s i o n , Evaluation of Classroom Teachers, p. 6. 17 Howsam, "Teacher Evaluation, Facts and Folklore," p. 8. 7 p r a c t i c e needs t o be examined f o r i t s e f f i c a c y i n i m p r o v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . Any attempt t o measure t h i s e f f i c a c y d i r e c t l y r e t u r n s one t o a l l t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s enumerated above. A n o t h e r approach, the one t h a t l e d t o t h i s s t u d y , i s t o argue t h a t changes i n t e a c h e r b e h a v i o u r c o n s t i t u t e the l a r g e s t element i n improvement o f i n s t r u c t i o n and t h a t changes i n b e h a v i o u r as r e s p o n s e s t o t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n a r e dependent upon t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of' t h e p r o c e s s and t h e e v a l u a t o r s . P r a c t i c e needs t o be so p e r c e i v e d by t e a c h e r s as t o e n l i s t t h e i r w i l l i n g and a c t i v e c o o p e r a t i o n . Thus i t i s an impor-t a n t f i r s t s t e p , i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s any need f o r change i n p r a c t i c e , t o know j u s t what p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e i s as t e a c h e r s  v i e w i t . , I I . SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE The e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n t h r o u g h -o u t t h i s c e n t u r y has g e n e r a t e d a v a s t l i t e r a t u r e . As a means o f c o n v e n i e n t e n t r y t o the f i e l d , t h r e e p u b l i c a t i o n s recommended.themselves: th e November 1963 i s s u e of t h e N a t i o n a l E l e m e n t a r y P r i n c i p a l , w hich i s devoted e x c l u s i v e l y t o a r t i c l e s by prominent w r i t e r s on t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n ; Who's" a Good Teacher? which b r i e f l y r e l a t e s the a t t e m p t s . t o d e f i n e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h i n g , r e v i e w s some of t h e r e -s e a r c h , d i s c u s s e s v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s o f e v a l u a t i o n and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d p r o b l e m s , and p r e s e n t s a good s e l e c t e d b i b l i o -18 graphy; and Biddle and Ellena's preface to Contemporary 19 Research on Teacher Effectiveness, which contains a con-cise description of the current condition i n the teacher evaluation research area. Reviews,of Research Many of-the publications referred to elsewhere i n thi s survey of the l i t e r a t u r e contain review material, the volume of which forbids i t s i n c l u s i o n here. A sample i s the b r i e f review by N.A. Fattu i n the above-mentioned teacher evaluation 20 issue of The National Elementary P r i n c i p a l . Two simultaneously published reviews i n which are re-21 ported respectively the research studies p r i o r to 1930, 22 and those done i n the ensuing twenty-five years, were written by L.R. Tomlinson. Among the v a r i e t i e s of research reviewed are surveys of the opinions of experts and of student teachers, but not, i t may be noted, of pr a c t i c i n g teachers. 18 American Association of School Administrators, Department of Classroom Teachers of the NEA, and the National School Boards Association, Who's" a Good Teacher?, Washington, D.C-; the authors, 1961. 19 B.J. Biddle and W.J. Ellena, eds., Contemporary Research  on Teacher Effectiveness, New York, Holt Rinehart and Winston, 196 4, p p . v - v i i . 20 N.A. Fattu, "Research on Teacher Evaluation," The Nation-a l Elementary P r i n c i p a l , v o l . 43, no. 2 (November 1963), pp. 19-27. ' 21 L.R. Tomlinson, "Pioneer Studies i n the Evaluation of Teaching," Educational Research,Bulletin, v o l . 34, 1955, pp. 63-71. 22 L.R. Tomlinson, Recent Studies i n the Evaluation of Teaching," pp. 172-86. 9 The American Educational Research Association has published reviews of studies on teacher effectiveness i n the Review of Educational*' Research every three years, commencing i n 1931. Many of these reviews were done by A.S. Barr who has long- been prominent i n the teacher evaluation f i e l d . An independent review by Barr and seven collaborators summar-izes seventy-five doctoral studies made between 1940 and 23 19 60. J A good review of research based on observation of teacher behaviour.is presented i n D. G. Ryan's "Assessment of 24 Teacher Behaviour,and Instruction." Bibliographies The National Education Association maintains a con-tinuous watch over publications i n the general f i e l d of education., Because of t h i s , the publications of the NEA and i t s subsidiary associations provide a r i c h source of bib-l i o g r a p h i c a l material. Occasionally, separate bibliographies are published. One such i s Teacher Evaluation: An Annotated  Bib1iography. The NEA Research Division's Evaluation of  Classroom Teachers contains a selected annotated bibliography which can be recommended as a point of departure for the . . 25 person intending to survey the f i e l d . i . • • ' • * ' - . . . 7- • - • . . 2 3 • ' " -' A.S. Barr and others, Toe..cit. 24 - • ." ' Review of Educational Research, v o l . 33 (October 1963), pp. 415-41. ~~ • ^Washington, D.C.,,National Education Association, 1964," pp. 119-25. 10 I t i s i n the l a r g e r a n n o t a t e d b i b l i o g r a p h i e s t h a t t h e f u l l e x t e n t o f the r e s e a r c h on t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n i s r e -v e a l e d . Domas and Tiedman l i s t o v e r a thousand r e s e a r c h 2 6 s t u d i e s p u b l i s h e d p r i o r t o May 1949. Two o t h e r b i b l i o -g r a p h i e s c o v e r i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same p e r i o d a r e tho s e by 27 28 Morsh and W i l d e r , and by C a s t e t t e r , S t a n d l e e and F a t t u . W. A..Watters c a r r i e d on the work of Domas and Tiedman from 29 May 19 49 and br o u g h t i t f o r w a r d t o March 1953. The C r i t e r i o n Problem": a Fundamental D i f f i c u l t y The many s t u d i e s t h a t have been r e p o r t e d took a v a r i e t y o f forms, b u t they s h a r e d the common purpose o f i d e n t i f y i n g c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s and they s h a r e d t h e common d i f f i c u l t y of l a c k i n g an a c c e p t a b l e d e f i n i t i o n . o f t e a c h e r competence needed f o r 30 th e r e s e a r c h . T h i s i s a c r u c i a l d i f f i c u l t y . 2 6 S.J. Domas and D.V. Tiedman, "Teacher Competence: An An n o t a t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y , " J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n , v o l . , 19 (December I 9 6 0 ) , pp. 101-218. 27 . . . J.E. Morsh and E.W. -Wilder, I d e n t i f y i n g t h e E f f e c t i v e I n s t r u c t o r : A Review o f t h e Q u a n t i t a t i v e S t u d i e s : 1900-1952, San A n t o n i o , Texas, U.S.A.F. P e r s o n n e l and T r a i n i n g C e n t e r , 1954. 28 D.D. C a s t e t t e r , L..S. S t a n d l e e and N.A. F a t t u , "Teacher E f f e c t i v e n e s s : An A n n o t a t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y , " B u l l e t i n o f the. I n s t i t u t e o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , v o l . 1, no. 1,.1954. 29 W.A. W a t t e r s , "Annotated B i b l i o g r a p h y o f P u b l i c a t i o n s R e l a t e d t o Teacher E v a l u a t i o n , " J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n , v o l . 22 (June 1954), pp. 351-67. 30 A. S. B a r r , Toe'.' c i t . 11 A great many possible c r i t e r i a have been considered. Mi t z e l suggests they f i t conveniently into three categories which he la b e l l e d "presage c r i t e r i a , " related to prediction of s u i t a b i l i t y f or teaching, "process c r i t e r i a / ' concerned with teaching a c t i v i t i e s , and "product c r i t e r i a , " associated 31 with the results of teaching. In general, the presage and process c r i t e r i a have been sought, i n studies of teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and behaviour, while product c r i t e r i a were the hoped-for outcomes of pupil-gains studies. With respect to the behavioural studies, D.M. Medley and H.E. M i t z e l collaborated on two writings: "Measuring 32 Classroom Behaviour by Systematic Observation," and "Some 33 Behaviour Correlates of Teacher Effectiveness." D.G. Ryans considered the general problem of research i n this area, e s p e c i a l l y with respect to the designating and c o l l e c -34 ting of relevant data. The pupil-gains studies have been r e l a t i v e l y very few i n number. About t h i r t y of them are described by W.I. 31 H.E. M i t z e l , " C r i t e r i a of Teacher Effectiveness,"', Encyc-lopedia of Educational Research, pp. 1481-5. 32 - -Handbook of Research on Teaching, pp. 247-328. 33 Journal of Educational Psychology, v o l . 50.(December 1959), pp. 239-46 . 34 x . -"Prediction of Teacher Effectiveness," Encyclopedia of Educational Research, pp. 1486-91. 12 Ackerman i n a r e v i e w i n wh i c h he a l s o c o n s i d e r s the d i f f i -35 c u l t i e s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n h e r e n t i n t h i s approach. Assessment o f t h e s t a t e o f t h e c r i t e r i o n s e a r c h a t m i d - c e n t u r y was d i s c o u r a g i n g . None o f t h e thousands o f s t u d i e s had been p r o d u c t i v e o f c r i t e r i a . H a r r y L e v i n e x p r e s -sed t h e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g when, i n 1954, he w r o t e : . . . the r e s u l t s o f t h e s e s t u d i e s have l e f t us w i t h a tremendous d i s c o n t e n t : e i t h e r the r e s u l t s are i n c o n c l u s i v e o r b a n a l , o r a p p l i c a b l e o n l y t o the most r e s t r i c t e d p o p u l a t i o n s . A t t h i s s t a g e , s k e p t i c i s m about t h e f u t u r e o f r e s e a r c h i s not u n j u s t i f i e d . Y e t t h e q u e s t i o n s a re so p r e s s i n g t h a t we wonder, how we can answer them i f we abandon t h i s a r e a o f r e s e a r c h . 3 6 When Ryans' r e p o r t of h i s famous, l a r g e s c a l e t e a c h e r c h a r a c -37 t e r i s t i c s s t u d y , p u b l i s h e d i n 1960, a l s o f a i l e d t o i d e n t i f y u s a b l e c r i t e r i a , i t seems t o have been a c c e p t e d by many as a f i n a l p r o o f t h a t the o r d e r o f d i f f i c u l t y and c o m p l e x i t y o f the problem was h i g h e r t h a n a n t i c i p a t e d and t h a t the p o s s i b i ^ l i t i e s o f - the c o n v e n t i o n a l r e s e a r c h approaches had been ex-h a u s t e d . As B i d d l e and E l l e n a p u t i t : . . many e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s have abandoned the f i e l d o f competence r e s e a r c h as a simple-minded approach t o a v a s t l y more complex t o p i c : the s t u d y o f c l a s s r o o m i n t e r a c t i o n . 3 8 35 "Teacher Competence and P u p i l Change," The H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l Review, v o l . 24, no. 4 ( F a l l 1 9 5 4 ) , pp. 273-289. 36 H.A. L e v i n , "A New P e r s p e c t i v e on Teacher Competence R e s e a r c h , " The H a r v a r d F d u c a t i o n a l Review, v o l . 24, no. 2 ( S p r i n g 1 9 5 4 ) , pp. 98-105. : 3 7 D I G . Ryans, C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of" T e a c h e r s , Menasha, W i s e , George Banta Co.Inc., I 9 6 0 . 38 B . J . B i d d l e and W.J. E l l e n a , Contemporary Research,on T e a c h e r . E f f e c t i v e n e s s , p. v i . R e s e a r c h e r s r e t u r n e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m i s s i n g d e f i n -i t i o n o f t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s , o r b e t t e r , i t s p r e r e q u i s i t e , a d e f i n i t i o n of t e a c h e r , f u n c t i o n . A s u g g e s t i o n o f f e r e d by Anderson and Hunka was t h a t a new approach be made based on a, d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s r o l e as t h a t o f p r o b l e m - s o l v e r . D. G. Ryans, i n a 1967 p o s i t i o n paper p r e s e n t e d a t P i Lambda Theta's second Catena concedes t h a t t h e c r i t e r i o n p r o -blem w i l l n o t be r e s o l v e d i n the immediate f u t u r e . He p r o -poses t h a t t h e g e n e r a l r e s e a r c h , which he c h a r a c t e r i z e s as b e i n g i n an e a r l y s t a g e o f s c i e n t i f i c development, be con-t i n u e d w i t h s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c a t a l o g u i n g o f . t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and t h a t f o r t h e s h o r t term, l o c a l p r o c e d u r e be d e v e l o p e d based on s e l e c t i o n and s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f educa-t i o n a l v a l u e systems a c c e p t a b l e i n the i n d i v i d u a l community. He o f f e r s a paradigm f o r a r r i v i n g s u b s e q u e n t l y a t s u b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a f o r t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . ^ I t seems c l e a r t h a t i f t h e c r i t e r i o n problem has a s o l u t i o n i t i s n o t l i k e l y t o be found i n . the i m m e d i a t e l y f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e and t h a t any p r e s e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e must t a k e t h i s i n t o account as a most s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f i t s c o n t e x t . C.C..Anderson and S. M. Hunka, "Teacher E v a l u a t i o n : Some Problems and a P r o p o s a l , " Toe, c i t . 40 "Teacher B e h a v i o u r Can be E v a l u a t e d , " P i Lambda T h e t a , The E v a l u a t i o n o f T e a c h i n g , Washington,,D.C., George Banta Co., 1967, pp. 62-64. ~ 14 Teacher' E v a l u a t i o n P r a c t i c e The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s d e a l w i t h the l i t e r a t u r e con-c e r n i n g v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e i n -c l u d i n g t h e e v a l u a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e e v a l u a t o r s , and t h e t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s . An a r t i c l e by H a z e l D a v i s o f t h e NEA Research D i v i s i o n summarizing t h e e v o l u t i o n of c u r r e n t 41 p r a c t i c e makes a u s e f u l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h i s m a t e r i a l . R a t i n g s c a l e s . . Many p u b l i c a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g r e f e r -ences t o r a t i n g s c a l e s have t i t l e s w i t h a b u s i n e s s management r i n g t o them, as f o r example,. C h a n d l e r and P e t t y ' s P e r s o n n e l 42 Management m S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and F a w c e t t ' s S c h o o l 43 P e r s o n n e l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h i s seems n a t u r a l s i n c e the r a t i n g s c a l e was d e v e l o p e d by the s c i e n t i f i c management p e o p l e and was l a t e r borrowed f o r t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p u r p o s e s . The r a t i n g s c a l e i s a t t r a c t i v e f o r e v a l u a t i o n because i t s q u a n t i -f i c a t i o n o f judgment, easy c o m p a r a b i l i t y , and freedom from the c a p r i c e o f t h e u n s t r u c t u r e d r e p o r t make f o r ease o f ad-m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , i t has t h e appearance o f g r e a t e r o b j e c t i v i t y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the use o f r a t i n g s c a l e s d i d n o t h i n g t o reduce the b a s i c problem posed by l a c k o f a c c e p t a b l e " E v o l u t i o n o f C u r r e n t P r a c t i c e s i n E v a l u a t i n g Teacher Competence," B i d d l e and E l l e n a , eds., op. c i t . , pp. 41-66. 42 . . . B . J . C h a n d l e r and P.V. P e t t y , P e r s o n n e l Management i n S c h o o l . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Yonkers-on-Hudson, New York, World Book Co., 1955. 43 . . . G.W. F a w c e t t , S c h o o l P e r s o n n e l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , New York, The M a c m i l l a n Co., 1964. 15 c r i t e r i a . I f a n y t h i n g , i t emphasized the problem s i n c e a r a t i n g s c a l e r e q u i r e s a c l e a r , c o n c i s e s t a t e m e n t o f each " c r i t e r i o n " used and t h e n a p p l i e s a common.set o f " c r i t e r i a " t o a l l t e a c h e r s . Tompkins and Armstrong d i s c u s s t h e s e d i f -f i c u l t i e s . T h e i r s u r v e y o f - o v e r f i v e hundred a r t i c l e s , p a p e r s , books, and d i s s e r t a t i o n s on t e a c h e r r a t i n g p u b l i s h e d between 1929 and 1950, b r o u g h t them t o the same c o n c l u s i o n as r e a c h e d by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s : t h e c r i t e r i a i n use were 44 not v a l i d . There was a f a i r l y s t r o n g body o f - o p i n i o n h o s t i l e t o the use o f r a t i n g s c a l e s , r e p r e s e n t e d q u i t e w e l l i n tone by W. White's comment t h a t t h e one-page c h e c k l i s t i s a major accomplishment because ". . . i t e n a b l e s p r i n c i p a l s t o make 45 t h e same m i s t a k e s i n l e s s time t h a n w i t h a l a r g e r l i s t . " A f u l l and s c h o l a r l y account o f teacher; r a t i n g i s . 46 p r o v i d e d by H.H. Remmers. M e r i t r a t i n g . A n a t u r a l development a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r a t i n g s c a l e s was, m e r i t r a t i n g w hich term i m p l i e s payment o f t e a c h e r s i n accordance w i t h t h e e v a l u a t i o n r a t i n g s t h e y r e -c e i v e . Teachers' i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , where m e r i t r a t i n g p l a n s a re most common, t e n d t o be opposed t o them. A 1965 44 E. Tompkins and W.E. Ar m s t r o n g , "Teacher R a t i n g s : P e r -s i s t e n t Dilemma, .\^A$SPx BuLlestan, v o l . • 35, 1951, pp. 25-31. W. W h i t e , " P r i n c i p a l s and T e a c h e r s , No H i d i n g P l a c e , " Peabody J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n , v o l . 41 (May 1964), pp. 350-3. 46 . " R a t i n g Methods i n Res e a r c h on T e a c h i n g , " Handbook o f Research on" T e a c h i n g , pp. 329-7.8. 16 t e a c h e r o p i n i o n s u r v e y by the NEA found 72.8% o f t e a c h e r s 47 u n w i l l i n g t o have m e r i t r a t i n g p l a n s i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t s . However, the number of - m e r i t . r a t i n g p l a n s i n o p e r a t i o n a t p r e s e n t i s a p p a r e n t l y q u i t e s m a l l . The NEA Research D i v i s i o n s u r v e y o f 1961 r e p o r t e d t h a t from 1939 t o 1959 t h e p e r c e n t o f l a r g e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s i n t h e U.S.A. employing m e r i t p l a n s 48 shrank from twenty t o s i x p e r c e n t . The E v a l u a t o r s Teachers as e v a l u a t o r s . D.E. Beecher e x p r e s s e d o p t i -mism t h a t a good m e r i t r a t i n g scheme c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d . I n h i s v i e w c o o p e r a t i v e s e l f - a p p r a i s a l was t h e most p r o m i s i n g 49 approach. I n t h i s he agreed w i t h t h e a u t h o r s of B e t t e r Than R a t i n g who recommend group p r o c e d u r e s by which a t e a c h i n g s t a f f r a n k s i t s members and r e f e r s c o o p e r a t i v e l y o b t a i n e d d a t a t o a p r o f e s s i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n b o a r d f o r assignment o f 50 s t a t u s . A l o g i c a l development of t h e c o o p e r a t i v e a p p r a i s a l i d e a was i t s e x t e n s i o n t o i n c l u d e a p p r a i s a l o f an e n t i r e s c h o o l . The N a t i o n a l Study o f Secondary S c h o o l E v a l u a t i o n 47 . . NEA Research D i v i s i o n , What Teachers T h i n k , Washington, D.C., The A s s o c i a t i o n , 1965, p. 31.. 48 NEA Research D i v i s i o n , Why Have M e r i t P l a n s . f o r T e a c h e r s ' S a l a r i e s Been Abandoned? p~ 5~. 49 -The E v a l u a t i o n o f T e a c h i n g , p. 2. 50 NEA Commission on Teacher; E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n and C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t , . B e t t e r Than R a t i n g , Washington, D.C. ,- NEA, 1950. 17 brought out. i n 1960 a book-length evaluation form designed 51 for the self-evaluation of a.complete teaching s t a f f . G.B. Redfern discusses j o i n t principal-teacher apprai-s a l of teaching-performance and also appraisal committees 52 and s e l f - a p p r a i s a l . L.S. Vander Werf had also i n 1958 favoured s e l f and committee evaluation. He was very much concerned with the possible destruction by mechanical evaluation processes of the human relationships he sees as basic to the e f f e c t i v e i _ functioning of a school. He spoke out against the use of ; rating scales, saying that they appear orderly but are r e a l l y c h a o t i c — a r e always i n arrears, produce s t a t i c e f f e c t s , and 53 obscure the complexity and dynamics of learning. J.M. Hughes makes some sim i l a r points. He draws attention to the effects of evaluation upon relations within a teaching group, and maintains that c r i t e r i a must be developed within the group and that there should be no attempt to evaluate the teacher i n i s o l a t i o n from a l l the i n t e r r e l a t e d factors of the 54 learning environment. ^ N a t i o n a l Study-of Secondary School Evaluation,•Evaluative' C r i t e r i a , Washington, D.C., the authors, 1960. 52 . . . . . . How to Appraise Teaching.Performance, Columbus, Ohio, School Management Insti t u t e Inc., Ohio State University, 1963> pp. 15^16. 53 .. How to Evaluate Teachers and Teaching, New York, Rinehart and Co. Inc., 1958. 54 Human Relations i n Educational Organization, New York, Harper and Bros., 1957, pp. 285-332. 18 S u p e r v i s o r s a'sS E v a l u a t o r s . . Some a t t e n t i o n has been d i r e c t e d t o the e f f e c t s of s u p e r v i s i o n on t e a c h e r s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s and o t h e r s u p e r v i s o r s . A.S. B a r r and.N.O. Reppen i n 1935 r e p o r t e d the r e s u l t s of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n v e s t i g a t i n g t e a c h e r s ' a t t i t u d e s toward s u p e r v i s o r s . The t e a c h e r s l i s t e d two and one h a l f t i m e s as many examples o f h e l p f u l s u p e r v i s i o n as o f o b j e c t i o n a b l e s u p e r v i s i o n , and g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d s u p e r v i s i o n as a neces-s i t y , b u t were s h a r p l y c r i t i c a l o f s u p e r v i s o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e . They c i t e d among o t h e r t h i n g s : i n c o n s i d e r a t e classroom' b e h a v i o r , p e t t i n e s s o f c r i t i c i s m , l a c k , o f d i s c u s s i o n , snap judgments based on i n -adequate o b s e r v a t i o n , • a g g r e s s i v e p r o m o t i o n of extreme p o i n t s o f v i e w , and an atmosphere o f t h r e a t . The t e a c h e r s ' r a n k i n g o f s u p e r v i s o r s i n o r d e r o f i n c r e a s i n g h e l p f u l n e s s was: 55 S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , S u p e r v i s o r , P r i n c i p a l . G e t z e l s and Guba a d d r e s s e d themselves i n more g e n e r a l terms t o a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f t h e t o p i c i n a s t u d y o f p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t e a c h e r s who show r o l e c o n f l i c t . ^ C.E. B i d w e l l , i n "The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e R o l e and S a t i s -f a c t i o n i n T e a c h i n g , " r e p o r t e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d y o f A.S. B a r r and N.O. Reppen, "The A t t i t u d e s o f Teachers Toward S u p e r v i s i o n , " J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n , v o l . 3, no. 4. (June 1935), pp. 237-301. 5 6J.W. G e t z e l s and E.G. Guba, "The S t r u c t u r e o f _ R o l e s and R o l e C o n f l i c t i n the T e a c h i n g S i t u a t i o n , " J o u r n a l of Educa-t i o n a l S o c i o l o g y , v o l . 29, 1955, pp. 30-40. 19 t e a c h e r - a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s as r e l a t e d t o t e a c h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . He found t h a t convergence of t e a c h e r and a d m i n i s t r a t o r r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e c t a -t i o n s was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e a c h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , and d i v e r g e n c e 57 w i t h l a c k o f s a t i s f a c t i o n . B i d w e l l expanded on t h i s t he f o l l o w i n g y e a r i n an a r t i c l e i n which he noted some t e a c h e r p e r c e p t i o n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s a t i s f a c t i o n 58 and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . , Of a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e was a s t u d y by M.V. C a m p b e l l , w i t h t h e t i t l e "Teacher P r i n c i p a l Agreement on t h e Teacher R o l e . " The f i n d i n g was t h a t t e a c h -e r s whose wants and needs were s i m i l a r t o t h e i r p r i n c i p a l ' s 59 e x p e c t a t i o n s tended t o be h i g h e s t by p r i n c i p a l s . P r i n c i p a l s a s , E v a l u a t o r s . G.W. Rose moves the f o c u s from the g e n e r a l e f f e c t o f s u p e r v i s i o n on t e a c h e r s t o t h e s p e c i f i c e f f e c t o f p r i n c i p a l s ' e v a l u a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s . He bases h i s d i s c u s s i o n on an open-ended q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e n t o u t t o f o r t y - f i v e p r i n c i p a l s . Among o t h e r p roblems, he mentions the f r e q u e n t l y proposed dilemma o f i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y between the r o l e s o f e v a l u a t o r and c o l l e a g u e r e q u i r e d o f the p r i n c i -p a l . He b e l i e v e s t h a t competent p r i n c i p a l s can ha n d l e the combined r o l e s but su g g e s t s t h a t p r i n c i p a l s c o u l d be r e l i e v e d 57 " ' C.E. B i d w e l l , "The A d m i n i s t r a t i v e R o l e and S a t i s f a c t i o n i n T e a c h i n g , " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Sociology-, v o l . 29, 1955, pp. 41-7. ~ 58 C . E . B i d w e l l , "Some Causes o f C o n f l i c t and Te n s i o n s Among Teac h e r s , " A d m i n i s t r a t o r s Notebook, v o l . 4, no. 7, 1956. 59 M.V. Ca m p b e l l , "Teacher P r i n c i p a l Agreement on the Teach-e r R o l e , " A d m i n i s t r a t o r s N o t e b o o k , v o l . 7, no. 6, 1959. 20 of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for d i r e c t recommendations for action re-lated to e v a l u a t i o n . ^ R.B. Howsam looks at the same dilemma in a l i t t l e more d e t a i l and finds a r e a l organizational haz-ard i n the c o n f l i c t i n g needs for the p r i n c i p a l to provide accepting, non-threatening support for teachers while at the same time, he poses the threat of evaluation. Howsam concludes that the organizational (accountability) aspect of evaluation w i l l produce teacher-principal c o n f l i c t , while the s e l f - r e a l i -zation aspect w i l l not. He emphasizes the importance of organizational climate i n reducing the problem and draws attention emphatically to the importance of teachers' percep-61 tions of purpose i n determining reaction. Te ache rs'^Perceptjons There i s very l i t t l e l i t e r a t u r e i n the area of teach-ers 1 perceptions of the evaluative process, and most of the material i s i n the form of opinion pieces, sometimes based on casual, limited surveys. An example i s an a r t i c l e by R. Fulton reporting the reactions of sixteen teachers to the three-minute supervisory v i s i t . ^ 2 With respect to more serious surveys, only two were located. One by J.F. E l l i s relates the results of a b r i e f 6 0 "The E f f e c t s of Administrative Evaluation," National Elementary P r i n c i p a l , v o l . 43, no. 2, 1963, pp. 50-3. 61 R.B. Howsam, "Teacher Evaluation, Facts and Folklore," National Elementary P r i n c i p a l , " v o l . 43, no. 2, pp. 6-18. 62 R. Fulton, "Teacher Speaks Up," Nations Schools, v o l . 25, June 1940, pp. 49-51. 21 q u e s t i o n n a i r e responded t o by one hundred n i n e p r a c t i c i n g B r i t i s h Columbia t e a c h e r s . E v a l u a t i o n by p r i n c i p a l s , was t h e t o p i c , , and t h e q u e s t i o n s c o v e r e d f r e q u e n c y and l e n g t h o f c l a s s r o o m v i s i t s , whether o r not a r e p o r t had been i s s u e d , -and i n c l u d e d f o u r q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the e f f i c a c y o f the p r o c e s s and o f the p r i n c i p a l f o r i m p r o v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . W h i l e the m a j o r i t y p e r c e i v e d the p r i n c i p a l as b e i n g c a p a b l e of a i d i n g i n the improvement o f i n s t r u c t i o n , o n l y a m i n o r i t y f e l t t h a t he had done so o r t h a t h i s r e p o r t had been u s e f u l 6 3 f o r t h a t purpose. A much more d e t a i l e d and e x t e n s i v e s u r v e y was con-d u c t e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s by the N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i -64 a t i o n . Three d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s e n t out t o n a t i o n a l s a m p l i n g s of t e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , and s u p e r i n t e n -d e n t s . The q u e s t i o n s were d e s i g n e d t o e l i c i t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e and t h e r e a c t i o n s o f r e s p o n -d e n ts t o i t . Condensed r e p o r t s o f the s u r v e y appeared i n t h e 6 5 66 NEA Research B u l l e t i n i s s u e s o f October and December 1964 63 J.F. E l l i s , " T h e E v a l u a t i o n o f Teachers and T e a c h i n g , " Addresses t o t h e F o u r t h Conference, a'ndv Workshop of B r i t i s h  C olumbia S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s , ed. W.J. H a r t r i c k , Vancouver, B.C., B e s t - P r i n t e r C o . L t d . , 1964, pp. 35-45. 64 -NEA R esearch D i v i s i o n , E v a l u a t i o n of C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r s , Washington, D.C., NEA, 1964. ^NEA R esearch D i v i s i o n , "Programs f o r E v a l u a t i n g C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r s , " NEA Research B u l l e t i n , v o l . 42 (October 1964), pp. 83-8. 6 6 NEA Research D i v i s i o n , "What Teachers and A d m i n i s t r a t o r s T h ink About E v a l u a t i o n , " NEA Research B u l i e t 1 n , v o l . 42 (December 1964), pp. 108-11. and F e b r u a r y , 1965. A b r i e f summary a l s o was p r i n t e d i n 6 8 the NEA J o u r n a l o f F e b r u a r y 1965. The d e t a i l s o f t h e s e r e p o r t s a r e so numerous as t o p r e c l u d e t h e i r i n c l u s i o n h e r e . A major i n f e r e n c e , however, was t h a t t h e r e i s a s u b s t a n t i a l l a c k o f communication w i t h t e a c h e r s about the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s which i s o f c r u c i a l i m p o r t a n c e t o i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s g and o f p o t e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o improvement o f i n s t r u c t i o n . These r e p o r t s on t h e NEA Survey a r e recommended t o t h e r e a d e r as b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s u r v e y r e p o r t e d h e r e i n . I I I . TEACHER EVALUATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA I n the f o r e g o i n g pages t h e g e n e r a l c o n t e x t f o r t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n has been s e t f o r t h . Now i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o ex-amine b r i e f l y t he c o n d i t i o n s of t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p e c u l i a r t o B r i t i s h C o lumbia, a knowledge o f which i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o d i s c e r n the i n t e n t o f , and i n t e r p r e t the res p o n s e s t o some o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s . Teacher e v a l u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s c a r r i e d o ut under the p r o v i s i o n s o f a p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e , The P u b l i c NEA Research D i v i s i o n , "Methods o f E v a l u a t i n g T e a c h e r s , " NEA Research B u l l e t i n , v o l . 43 (February 1965), pp. 12-18. 6 8 H. D a v i s , "What Teachers Say A b o u t . E v a l u a t i o n of Teachers NEA J o u r n a l , F e b r u a r y 1965, pp. 37-39. 69 I b i d . , p. 39 . 23 7G S c h o o l s A c t , and the d e r i v e d r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h the s h o r t 71 t i t l e , R u l e s o f the C o u n c i l o^ f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n (See Appendix A f o r t h e a p p l i c a b l e e x c e r p t s ) . The B r i t i s h Columbia s c h o o l system i s comprised of about e i g h t y - f i v e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s a d m i n i s t e r e d c e n t r a l l y by a Department o f E d u c a t i o n which i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e p r o v i n -c i a l government. There i s p r o v i s i o n f o r a degree of d i s t r i c t autonomy e x e r c i s e d by l o c a l l y e l e c t e d Boards o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s . The c h i e f e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i c e r o f a d i s t r i c t i s t t h e D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of S c h o o l s , a p p o i n t e d j o i n t l y by the Department o f E d u c a t i o n and t h e l o c a l B o ard, and r e s p o n s i b l e t o b o t h . He, a l o n g w i t h p r i n c i p a l s i n s c h o o l s o f t e n o r more c l a s s e s , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t e a c h e r e v a l u a -t i o n . I n l a r g e r d i s t r i c t s the D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t may be a s s i s t e d by D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , who may c a r r y out t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n , i f a u t h o r i z e d by the Department of Edu-c a t i o n a t the r e q u e s t of the Board. The C i t y o f Vancouver, a s p e c i a l case by v i r t u e o f i t s c i t y c h a r t e r , employs I n s p e c t o r s whose c h i e f f u n c t i o n i s t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . The D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n s p e c -t i n g a n n u a l l y the work of p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s ( f i r s t y e a r i n a d i s t r i c t ) and t h o s e who l a c k c e r t i f i c a t e s o f q u a l i f i -c a t i o n . He i s r e q u i r e d t o f i l e w r i t t e n r e p o r t s on t h e i r The P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t , V i c t o r i a , B.C., Queen's P r i n t e r , 1967. 71 The P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, R u l e s of the C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c Instruction.for.,the..Government,of P u b l i c S c h o o l s  i n " the\Vroylnce'\ o't\ britishyColuittbi'a-,y V l c t b r i ay\ B\ €'-.\ ^  'Que en '• s P r i n t e r } v "19'69V"• v^ 'v '^  x '< "v''-' ~ " ' . ' • • " t e a c h i n g a b i l i t y and e f f i c i e n c y . . . i n c l u d i n g t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n the c l a s s r o o m " w i t h the Department o f E d u c a t i o n i f he "deems a r e p o r t n e c e s s a r y . " One copy i s t o be s e n t t o t h e t e a c h e r and a copy i s t o be a v a i l a b l e t o the Board. A r e p o r t on any t e a c h e r i s r e q u i r e d upon demand o f t h e D e p a r t -ment of E d u c a t i o n o r t h e Board or the t e a c h e r . T h e - D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t may d e l e g a t e t h e s e d u t i e s t o c e r t a i n p e r s o n s : D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , i f a u t h o r i z e d , o r p r i n c i p a l s w i t h i n s c h o o l s o f t e n o r more c l a s s e s . P r i n c i p a l s o f s c h o o l s o f t e n o r more c l a s s e s a r e r e -q u i r e d t o make w r i t t e n r e p o r t s t o the D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t each y e a r on t e a c h e r s new t o t h e s c h o o l , and a t l e a s t once e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s on o t h e r t e a c h e r s . Teachers are t o r e c e i v e c o p i e s o f t h e i r r e p o r t s . I f a p r i n c i p a l c o n s i d e r s a t e a c h e r ' s work u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , he must r e q u e s t o f the D i s t r i c t Super-i n t e n d e n t an independent r e p o r t . The D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t may, and upon th e demand of t h e board must, p r e s e n t b o t h r e p o r t s t o t h e Board. N e i t h e r t h e Act" nor t h e R u l e s of t h e C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n s p e c i f i e s a format f o r r e p o r t s e x c e p t t h a t t h e y a r e t o be " w r i t t e n . " No r e f e r e n c e i s made t o e v a l u a t i o n c r i t e r i a e x c e p t i n t h e g e n e r a l terms quoted above. P r i n c i p a l s ' r e p o r t s must be "based on a number of s u p e r v i s o r y v i s i t s t o the c l a s s r o o m o f t h e t e a c h e r as w e l l as on the g e n e r a l work of t h e t e a c h e r i n the s c h o o l . " The Department o f E d u c a t i o n s u p p l i e s D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s and p r i n c i p a l s w i t h s i m i l a r p r i n t e d forms (Appendix B) which 25 a r e i n essence b l a n k s h e e t s headed w i t h i d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r -m a t i o n about t h e t e a c h e r . These a re i n g e n e r a l u s e , b u t t h e i r use i s n o t mandatory. The w r i t e r has seen o t h e r r e -p o r t s t y l e s i n t h e form o f r a t i n g c h e c k - l i s t s w i t h space f o r accompanying remarks. . An example i s t h a t used i n Vancouver S c h o o l D i s t r i c t (Appendix B ) . IV. SPECIFIC STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Teacher e v a l u a t i o n . Teacher e v a l u a t i o n i s the p r o c e s s o f j u d g i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h e r s o r o f t e a c h i n g . The d i s t i n c t i o n i s t h a t " e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h e r s " i m p l i e s t h a t emphasis i s p l a c e d on the s k i l l s o f the t e a c h e r , w h i l e " e f f e c -t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h i n g " i m p l i e s i n c l u s i o n o f t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u -a t i o n produced by t h e t e a c h e r i n h i s s c h o o l environment. Because t h e r e a re no g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d c r i t e r i a , c r i t e r i a and judgments a re o f t e n the p r e r o g a t i v e o f t h e e v a l u a t o r . Improvement.of i n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s e x p r e s s i o n i s used i n a g e n e r a l sense. I t i m p l i e s n o t o n l y improvement o f t e a c h e r s k i l l s , b u t a l s o a d j u s t m e n t s o f the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n t h ought t o r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d l e a r n i n g . E f f e c t i v e n e s s . As a p p l i e d t o t e a c h e r s , i t r e f e r s t o the degree t o wh i c h a t e a c h e r i s s u c c e s s f u l i n a t t a i n i n g what-e v e r someone c o n s i d e r s t o be h i s t e a c h i n g o b j e c t i v e . S i n c e t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s a r e not u n i v e r s a l l y d e f i n e d , t h e meaning of the e x p r e s s i o n i s r e l a t e d t o t h e v a l u e s o f t h e u s e r . 26 S a t i s f a c t i o n and c o n f i d e n c e . These words have t h e i r u s u a l meanings. However, i t i s emphasized t h a t they a r e b o t h r e l a t e d t o f u l f i l m e n t o f needs and e x p e c t a t i o n s . " S a t i s -f a c t i o n " i m p l i e s t h a t p a s t needs o r e x p e c t a t i o n s were met t o some de g r e e , w h i l e " c o n f i d e n c e " i m p l i e s a degree o f ex-p e c t a t i o n t h a t t hey w i l l be met i n the f u t u r e . The use o f " s a t i s f a c t i o n and c o n f i d e n c e " as a compound noun i n f e r s t h a t t h e s e i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e combined. The S p e c i f i c Problem I t seems l i k e l y . t h a t t h e p o t e n t i a l o f t h e t e a c h e r ev-a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s f o r improvement of i n s t r u c t i o n has not y e t been a d e q u a t e l y e x p l o i t e d . W r i t e r s f r e q u e n t l y p o i n t t o s h o r t c o m i n g s of p r e s e n t t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e and p r e s c r i b e changes w h i c h are i n t e n d e d t o have the e f f e c t o f i m p r o v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n by i n c r e a s i n g t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t e a c h e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y 72 i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s . Recommendations f o r change u s u a l l y a r e e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e t e a c h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h , and c o n f i d e n c e i n , the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s . I t i s sometimes argued t h a t the p r i n c i p a l f a c e s ^ a d i l -emma i n t h a t he cannot r e p o r t on t e a c h e r s and a l s o e n j o y t h e i r f u l l c o n f i d e n c e as an i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e a d e r . See, f o r example, S.F. B r i g h t o n , I n c r e a s i n g You're,Accuracy  i n Teacher E v a l u a t i o n , Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 1965. 27 These views c o n t a i n assumptions about t e a c h e r e v a l u a -t i o n w h i c h have n o t been s u p p o r t e d by i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I t i s assumed t h a t p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e i s d e f i n e d and t h a t the l e v e l s o f t e a c h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n and c o n f i d e n c e t h a t accompany i t a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . I t i s o f t e n assumed t h a t t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e i s not o r i e n t e d t o improvement o f i n s t r u c t i o n . I t appears t h a t some i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s needed t o s u p p o r t o r r e -f u t e t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s . Any p r e s c r i p t i o n f o r change i n t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n ought t o be backed by knowledge o f i t s p r e s e n t s t a t u s . To o b t a i n such knowledge i s t h e purpose o f t h i s s u r v e y . The Major Q u e s t i o n s Posed by the. Survey (1) What i s p r e s e n t t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia as p e r c e i v e d by t e a c h e r s r e s p o n d i n g t o , t h e s u r v e y ? The s u r v e y i n q u i r e s about f r e q u e n c y and r e c e n c y o f r e p o r t i n g , t h e e v a l u a t i o n and r e p o r t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s , the e v a l u a t o r s , v i s i t a t i o n , and o t h e r a s p e c t s o f the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s . (2) To what e x t e n t a r e t h e s e t e a c h e r s s a t i s f i e d w i t h : (a) e v a l u a t o r s ? (b) p r o c e d u r e s ? (c) t h e e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s ? (3) 'To what e x t e n t do t h e s e t e a c h e r s have c o n f i d e n c e i n : (a) e v a l u a t o r s ? (b) p r o c e d u r e s ? 28 (c) the e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s ? (4) Do t h e s e t e a c h e r s p e r c e i v e any need f o r change i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n system, and i f s o , what are the p r i n c i p a l changes they recommend? (5) I s p r e s e n t t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e o r i e n t e d c h i e f l y t o the p e r s o n n e l purposes of s e l e c t i o n , p r o m o t i o n , e t c . o r does i t a l s o make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o im-provement of i n s t r u c t i o n ? I f i t does, one c o u l d e x p e c t t h a t t h e p r o c e d u r e s used would i n c l u d e a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l o f communication, and t h a t c r i t i c i s m would be c o n s t r u c t i v e . A l s o , t e a c h e r s s h o u l d f e e l that-some improvement r e s u l t e d from the p r o c e s s . (6) How do t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e p r i n c i p a l as an e v a l u a t o r compare w i t h t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f o t h e r e v a l u a -t o r s ? I n p a r t i c u l a r , d o . t e a c h e r s f e e l t h a t communication w i t h the p r i n c i p a l i s i n h i b i t e d by h i s p o s i t i o n as an e v a l u -a t o r ? CHAPTER I I METHODOLOGY I . GENERAL PROCEDURE The s u r v e y was conducted by means o f a s e l f - a d m i n i s -t e r i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r e s e n t e d t o groups o f t e a c h e r s e n r o l l e d i n Summer S c h o o l c o u r s e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n t h e summer o f 1965. Ac c e s s t o groups was o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h the c o o p e r a t i o n o f members o f the F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n . Groups t o be approached were s e l e c t e d so as t o a v o i d t h o s e w i t h a h i g h degree o f t e a c h i n g s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and t o attempt t o o b t a i n as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e a sample r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the g e n e r a l body o f B r i t i s h Columbia T e a c h e r s . Three hundred f i f t y - t h r e e t e a c h e r s responded t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , c o m p l e t i n g and r e t u r n i n g i t a t t h e time i t was p r e s e n t e d . Because o f t h i s p r o c e d u r e , response may have been 100%. No r e f u s a l s t o complete t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were ob s e r v e d . I I . THE SURVEY SAMPLE AS RELATED TO THE POPULATION The d i s t r i c t s a r e grouped i n broad r e g i o n s w i t h metro-p o l i t a n areas s e p a r a t e . The number o f t e a c h e r s on s t a f f i n 1964/65 i s shown i n T a b l e I f o r each r e g i o n . r 30 TABLE I DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS IN THE POPULATION AND THE SAMPLE Region Survey P o p u l a t i o n Survey Sample No.of t e a c h e r s % o f No.of t e a c h e r s % o f on 1964/65 B.C. i n s u r v e y sample s t a f f - s t a f f S . c o a s t , Metro 6251 40.8 137 39.8 S . c o a s t , mun.S r u r a l 4428 28.9 87 25.3 I n t e r i o r c i t i e s 1707 11.1 39 11.3 I n t e r i o r and N.Coast r u r a l 2941 19.2 81 23.6 & m u n i c i p a l 15327 100.0 344 100.0 non-response r e d i s t r i c t 9 353 X 2 = . 4,92. d f = 3 x 2 = X 2 < 2 0 A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e c h i - s q u a r e t e s t f o r goodness o f f i t o f the sample d i s t r i b u t i o n t o the p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n i n d i c a t e d a f i t good enough t h a t the sample can be c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the p o p u l a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . The sample was not found r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t e a c h i n g l e v e l , t he sample d i s t r i b u t i o n b e i n g 74.8%' e l e -mentary t o 25.2% s e c o n d a r y , w h i l e t h e p o p u l a t i o n r a t i o was 31 62.2% to 37.8%. I t i s noted however, that i n a l l of the survey items involving opinions of Elementary versus Secondary teachers, no s i g n i f i c a n t difference was shown. This indicates a close s i m i l a r i t y of views on the topics presented. The survey sample was not representative of B.C. teachers with respect to c e r t i f i c a t i o n : EB, EA, and PC being over-represented, while the other categories were under-represented. (No-teacher opinion questions i n the survey:were related to the c e r t i f i c a t i o n of the teacher.) II I . PREPARATION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE In conjunction with the survey of the l i t e r a t u r e , a l i s t of statements about teacher evaluation was compiled. From th i s l i s t a set of questions was constructed. The questions were then categorized and reduced i n number* From these a preliminary questionnaire was constructed and pre-sented to seven c r i t i c s for comment on the basis of which the questionnaire was revised. The r e s u l t i n g instrument was then presented to a t r i a l group. P a r t i a l analysis of the. t r i a l . r e s u l t s was followed by further r e v i s i o n of the ques-tionnaire p r i o r to i t s f i n a l administration. The questionnaire items had been submitted to c r i t i c s for the purpose of improving t h e i r v a l i d i t y . The revised questionnaire was also submitted to a panel of four judges who categorized items according to what each "measured." , 32 Items on which the judges were unanimous were r e g a r d e d as key v a r i a b l e s i n g u i d i n g t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e b i v a r i a t e t a b l e s t o be g e n e r a t e d by the computer. F a i l u r e o f the re s p o n s e v a r i a b l e o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m t o show a. l o g i c a l l y r e -q u i r e d dependence on a key v a r i a b l e , as t r e a t e d by the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s u s i n g the c h i - s q u a r e s t a t i s t i c , was r e g a r d e d as e v i d e n c e o f l a c k o f v a l i d i t y o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m . No items were r e j e c t e d on t h a t b a s i s . IV. DATA VALIDITY AS AFFECTED BY RESPONDENTS' ATTITUDES G.J. Mouly has noted t h a t the v a l i d i t y o f q u e s t i o n -n a i r e d a t a depends i n a c r u c i a l way on t h e a t t i t u d e s o f r e s -pondents t o t h e instrument."'' The t o p i c o f t h i s s u r v e y meets M o u l y 1 s r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t i t be o f i n t e r e s t t o r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h a t i t i s a m a t t e r o f deep p e r s o n a l c o n c e r n t o a l l o f them, s i n c e e v a l u a t i o n a f f e c t s d i r e c t l y t h e i r c a r e e r s and p e r s o n a l s e l f - i m a g e . T h i s i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e p o s i t i v e a t t i -tude d i s p l a y e d by re s p o n d e n t s toward t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t the time o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Respondents i n v a r i a b l y a c c e p t e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h s e r i o u s i n t e r e s t . No n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n was o b s e r v e d and no r e f u s a l s t o p a r t i c i p a t e . W r i t t e n r e s -ponses t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s s u p p o r t t h i s assessment; no The S c i e n c e o f E d u c a t i o n a l ' R e s e a r c h , New Y o r k , American Book Co., 1963, p. 241. ~~" 33 r e s p o n s e s i n d i c a t i n g a n e g a t i v e o r f l i p p a n t a t t i t u d e toward the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were r e c e i v e d . T h u s . i t appears t h a t the i n s t r u m e n t was s a t i s f a c t o r y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h i s a s p e c t o f d a t a v a l i d i t y . V. ORGANIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA The q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n c a l l e d f o r r e s p o n s e s i n t h e form o f code numbers so p l a c e d as t o be s u i t a b l e f o r d i r e c t h a n d l i n g by punch-card o p e r a t o r s . S p e c i f i c a t i o n s were w r i t t e n t o adapt the MV TAB program f o r t h e IBM 1620 computer t o p r o c e s s t h e d a t a so o b t a i n e d . The program p r o v i d e d f o r u n i v a r i a t e f r e q u e n c y t a b l e s w i t h p e r c e n t s and b i v a r i a t e con-t i n g e n c y t a b l e s w i t h f r e q u e n c i e s , p e r c e n t s , and c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e s . Because th e f u l l c a p a c i t y o f the computer used i n t h i s s u r v e y was r e q u i r e d f o r t h e u n i v a r i a t e and b i v a r i a t e t a b l e s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t h a t c h i - s q u a r e be computed by hand as r e q u i r e d . T h i s p r o v e d t o be advantageous because i t p e r m i t t e d r e d u c t i o n o f t h e number o f f r e q u e n c y c e l l s c o n t a i n -i n g low e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s by c o l l a p s i n g of rows and columns, t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g a more s t a t i s t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e p r o c e d u r e f o r c a l c u l a t i o n . The number o f b i v a r i a t e t a b l e s p o s s i b l e i s l a r g e . For t h i s s u r v e y , two thousand o r more r e l a t i o n s between p a i r s o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e items a r e p o s s i b l e . L o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s r e -q u i r e d t h a t e i g h t y - f o u r o f t h e s e be t a b u l a t e d . Two more were l a t e r added by h a n d - t a b u l a t i o n . 34 E l e v e n open-ended i t e m s c a l l i n g f o r w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The r e s u l t i n g r e s p o n -s e s , o v e r t h r e e thousand, were e n t e r e d on c a r d s and were s o r t e d and t a b u l a t e d by hand. N o n - r e t u r n o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s as a component o f non-response i s assumed t o be n i l . No r e f u s a l s t o complete t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were o b s e r v e d . Non-response t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s was below f i v e p e r c e n t i n most c a s e s , and d i d not exceed seven p e r c e n t - i n any c a s e . I n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of p e r c e n t s f o r the u n i v a r i a t e t a b l e s , non-response f r e q u e n c i e s ; were i n c l u d e d i n t h e t o t a l s . F o r t h e b i v a r i a t e t a b l e s , non-response was e x c l u d e d from t h e t o t a l s i n t h e t a b l e s , and the f r e q u e n c i e s o f non-response were noted w i t h each t a b l e . I n t h e t a b u l a t i o n of responses f o r PART C, whi c h f o l l o w s i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e i d e n t i c a l l y worded PART B, a p e c u l i a r i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o non-response was ob s e r v e d : non-response f o r PART C r o s e by an average o f seven r e s p o n s e s p e r i t e m o v e r t h e non-response f o r PART B and.was c o n s i s -t e n t l y h i g h e r f o r e v e r y i t e m . No e x p l a n a t i o n was found. Non-response r e t u r n e d t o i t s p r e v i o u s l e v e l a f t e r PART C. V I . THE QUESTIONNAIRE FORM A sample copy o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e form as p r e s e n t e d t o r e s p o n d e n t s i s a t t a c h e d i n Appendix C. I t i s composed o f f i v e p a r t s : a c o v e r s h e e t w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s ; P a r t A which 35 d e a l s w i t h i d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , f r e q u e n c y o f e v a l u a t i o n , e t c . ; P a r t B which concerns e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s made by p r i n -c i p a l s ; P a r t C wh i c h i s i d e n t i c a l t o P a r t B e x c e p t t h a t i t d e a l s w i t h r e p o r t s made by D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , o r I n s p e c t o r s ; and P a r t D wh i c h c o n t a i n s g e n e r a l i t e m s about t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . CHAPTER I I I REPORT OF FINDINGS I . INTRODUCTION T h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s as c o n s t r u e d from t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . As was shown i n the s e c t i o n on B r i t i s h C olumbia t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n r u l e s , the t e a c h e r s i n t h e su r v e y can g e n e r a l l y l o o k t o two per s o n s f o r e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s : t h e s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l , i f the s c h o o l has t e n o r more c l a s s e s , and t h e D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o r h i s r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e who may be an I n s p e c t o r o r D i r e c t o r o f I n s t r u c -t i o n . F o r b r e v i t y , t h e two e v a l u a t o r s a re r e f e r r e d t o t h r o u g h o u t as " p r i n c i p a l s " and " o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s . " The f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g e v a l u a t i o n by p r i n c i p a l s a r e r e p o r t e d j o i n t l y w i t h t h o s e c o n c e r n i n g e v a l u a t i o n by o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s . The r e s p e c t i v e f i n d i n g s a re o f t e n comparable because they are based on i d e n t i c a l l y worded q u e s t i o n s . However, s i n c e n e i t h e r t h e c o n d i t i o n s nor the r u l e s a re i d e n t i c a l f o r ev-a l u a t i o n s by p r i n c i p a l s and by o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s , comparison i s r e s t r i c t e d . I n many c a s e s , j o i n t r e p o r t i n g o f the f i n d i n g s m e r e l y b r i n g s t o g e t h e r a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d about a p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t o f e v a l u a t i o n . 37 The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a , based m a i n l y on the b i v a r i a t e t a b l e s of• Appendix E, b e g i n s w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and f r e q u e n c y o f e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s as r e c a l l e d by t e a c h e r s i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s , e x p r e s s e d f i r s t i n terms o f coverage and th e n i n terms o f r a t e o f r e -p o r t i n g — o v e r a f i v e y e a r p e r i o d and f o r the most r e c e n t y e a r . F o r t h e s e purposes new t a b l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d which a r e c o n s t r u c t e d from i n f o r m a t i o n e x t r a c t e d from t h e b i v a r i a t e t a b l e s . C o n t i n u i n g w i t h i t e m s on e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s , t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s a r e c o n s i d e r e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o : the m a t t e r o f r e c e i v i n g a copy o f the r e p o r t , n a t u r e o f t h e r e p o r t . f o r m , and whether s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improvement were i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e p o r t . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , the f i n d i n g s r e p o r t moves t o v i s i t a t i o n , f o r m a l and i n f o r -m a l , t h e n t o the major it e m s i n v o l v i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n and con-f i d e n c e o f t e a c h e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r e p o r t s and t h e e v a l u a t o r s . Next are the f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s p o s i t i o n as e v a l u a t o r , an i t e m o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the l i g h t o f t h e proposed " p r i n c i p a l s ' dilemma." The c o n c l u d i n g items r e p o r t t e a c h e r s ' o p i n i o n s about g e n e r a l e v a l u a t i o n m a t t e r s n ot r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o one e v a l u a t o r o r the o t h e r . A summary o f t h e f i n d i n g s f o l l o w s t h i s s e c t i o n . , 38 . I I . INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA* D i s t r i b u t i o n and,Frequency of R e p o r t s Coverage. The s u r v e y sample was composed of 353 t e a c h e r s . Over the p a s t f i v e y e a r s , 283 had r e c e i v e d a t l e a s t one r e p o r t from a p r i n c i p a l , and 275 had r e c e i v e d a t l e a s t one r e p o r t from, a n o t h e r e v a l u a t o r . The number h a v i n g a t l e a s t one r e p o r t from each was 219 (see T a b l e 51, Appen-d i x E ) . Comparison of t h e s e f i g u r e s shows t h a t t h e number who r e c e i v e d r e p o r t s from p r i n c i p a l s o n l y was 64, the number who r e c e i v e d r e p o r t s from o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s o n l y was 56, and t h e number who d i d n o t acknowledge h a v i n g r e c e i v e d any e v a l u -a t i o n i n t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s was 14. Rate of r e p o r t i n g , E l e m e n t a r y v e r s u s Secondary. The r a t e s o f r e p o r t i n g on e l e m e n t a r y and secondary t e a c h e r s i n terms o f r e p o r t s p e r t e a c h e r y e a r o f e x p e r i e n c e , were c a l c u -l a t e d f o r p r i n c i p a l s and f o r o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s o ver a t e n -y e a r p e r i o d . F o r p r i n c i p a l s 1 r e p o r t s , t e a c h e r s ' e x p e r i e n c e i n the'most r e c e n t s c h o o l was t h e e x p e r i e n c e base used, w h i l e f o r o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s , e x p e r i e n c e i n " t h e d i s t r i c t was t h e base. The i n f o r m a t i o n from w h i c h the r a t e s were o b t a i n e d i s l i s t e d i n t h e accompanying t a b l e s w h i c h were c o n s t r u c t e d from d a t a £ The d a t a on which th e f i n d i n g s a r e based are l o c a t e d as f o l l o w s : The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e form, Appendix C, p. 8*J ; Tabu-l a t i o n o f Responses, Appendix D, p.96 ; B i v a r i a t e t a b l e s , Appendix E, p . 117 ; Summary of w r i t t e n comments, Appendix F, p.168 . e x t r a c t e d from b i v a r i a t e t a b l e s as i n d i c a t e d . C o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n d e v e l o p e d i n T a b l e s I I and I I I shows, as i s seen i n T a b l e IV,, t h a t t h e r a t e a t which o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s i s s u e d r e p o r t s , e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f r e p o r t s p e r y e a r o f e x p e r i e n c e i n the d i s t r i c t , was .49 f o r e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s and .30 f o r secondary t e a c h e r s . The r e p o r t i n g r a t e f o r p r i n c i p a l s , e x p r e s s e d as r e p o r t s p e r y e a r o f e x p e r i e n c e i n the s c h o o l , was .65 f o r e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s and .76 f o r secondary t e a c h e r s . Rate o f r e p o r t i n g , a l l t e a c h e r s combined. T a b l e s V and V I , based on d i f f e r e n t d a t a t h a n t h e above, show t h a t o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s , o v e r a n i n e - y e a r p e r i o d , i s s u e d r e p o r t s on a l l t e a c h e r s a t the r a t e o f .44 r e p o r t s p e r y e a r o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e d i s t r i c t . . P r i n c i p a l s i s s u e d r e p o r t s on a l l t e a c h e r s a t the r a t e o f .66 r e p o r t s p e r y e a r o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e s c h o o l . Thus p r i n c i p a l s and o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s s h a r e d t h e r e p o r t i n g t a s k i n t h e r a t i o o f 3 t o 2 (.66 t o .44), w i t h : t e a c h e r s r e c e i v i n g on the average 1.1 (.66 p l u s .44), r e p o r t s p e r y e a r o f e x p e r i e n c e from a l l e v a l u a t o r s combined. The t a b l e s a l s o show t h a t f o r p r i n c i p a l s and f o r o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s , t h e r e p o r t i n g f r e q u e n c y was g r e a t e r f o r f i r s t - y e a r t e a c h e r s t h a n f o r t h o s e w i t h more e x p e r i e n c e . To p l a c e the average f i g u r e s i n " p e r s p e c t i v e , one might c o n s i d e r t h e d a t a o f T a b l e s 1 and 5 (Appendix E ) , showing t h e number o f t e a c h e r s a t each e x p e r i e n c e l e v e l who r e c e i v e d no r e p o r t s . F o r f i r s t - y e a r 40 TABLE I I AVERAGE NUMBER OF REPORTS PER TEACHER DURING A. DISTRICT EXPERIENCE UP TO TEN YEARS AND B. SCHOOL EXPERIENCE UP TO TEN YEARS* Number o f Number Average number r e p o r t s o f o f r e p o r t s p e r r e c e i v e d t e a c h e r s t e a c h e r A. R e p o r t s from o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s w i t h i n p e r i o d o f d i s t r i c t e x p e r i e n c e E l e m e n t a r y 375 259 1.45 Secondary 95 82 1.16 B. R e p o r t s from p r i n c i p a l s w i t h i n p e r i o d o f s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e E l e m e n t a r y 404 257 1.57 Secondary 190 81 2.35 Data were e x t r a c t e d from T a b l e s 2 and 3, Appendix E. 41 TABLE I I I AVERAGE YEARS OF TEACHER EXPERIENCE WITHIN THE PAST TEN YEARS: A. IN THE DISTRICT AND B. IN THE SCHOOL* T o t a l y e a r s Number Average of e x p e r - o f y e a r s o f i e n c e t e a c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e A. D i s t r i c t e x p e r i e n c e E l e m e n t a r y 754 255 2.96 Secondary 346 89 3.88 B. S c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e E l e m e n t a r y 607 250 2.43 Secondary 288 89 3.23 * Date were e x t r a c t e d from T a b l e s 2a and 3a, Appendix E. TABLE IV AVERAGE NUMBER OF REPORTS RECEIVED BY TEACHERS PER YEAR OF EXPERIENCE A. FROM OTHER EVALUATORS, BASED ON DISTRICT EX-PERIENCE AND B. FROM PRINCIPALS, BASED ON SCHOOL EXPERIENCE* Average Average Average num-number o f y e a r s b e r o f r e -r e p o r t s of ex- p o r t s p e r y e a r p e r t e a c h e r p e r i e n c e o f e x p e r i e n c e A. From o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s , based on d i s t r i c t e x p e r i e n c e E l e m e n t a r y 1.45 2.96 .49 Secondary 1.16 3.88 .30 B. From p r i n c i p a l s , based on s c h o o l e x p e r i e n c e E l e m e n t a r y 1.57 2.43 .65 Secondary 2.35 3.23 .76 it Data a r e o b t a i n e d from T a b l e s I I I and IV. 42 TABLE V RATE OF REPORTING BY OTHER EVALUATORS ON ALL TEACHERS IN THE SURVEY SAMPLE* (1) x (2) = (3 T (4) (5) Years o f Number Teacher y e a r s Number o f Repo r t s p e r d i s t r i c t o f o f d i s t r i c t r e p o r t s t e a c h e r y e a r e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e r e c e i v e d of e x p e r i e n c e ud- t o 9 1 125 125 132 1.05 2 67 134 74 .55 3 45 135 67 .50 4 28 152 38 .25 5 15 75 22 .29 6 19 132 32 .24 7 7 49 2-0 .41 8 10 80 19 .24 9 4 36 .28 • T o t a l s 918 414 .44 A v e r . * Data were e x t r a c t e d from T a b l e 1 , Appendix E. TABLE VI RATE OF REPORTING BY PRINCIPALS ON ALL TEACHERS IN THE SURVEY.SAMPLE* - ,. . .- .. . . • • -Years o f Number Teacher y e a r Number o f Repo r t s p e r s c h o o l of o f s c h o o l r e p o r t s t e a c h e r y e a r e x p e r i e n c e t e a c h e r s e x p e r i e n c e r e c e i v e d of s c h o o l UP tO 9: e x p e r i e n c e 1 145 145 138 .95 2 78 156 116 .74 3 40 120 63 .53 4 20 80 46 .58 5 13 65 30 .46 6 14 84 63 .75 7 8 56 33 .59 8 9 72 28 .39 9 3 27 12 •*• " .44 T o t a l s • 805 529 .66 A v e r . * Date were e x t r a c t e d from T a b l e 5, Appendix E. 43 t e a c h e r s , the number who r e c e i v e d no r e p o r t from p r i n c i p a l s was 31, o r 21.4 p e r c e n t , and from o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s 24, o r 19.2 p e r c e n t . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s y e a r ' s r e p o r t s by t e a c h e r a p p o i n t -ment c a t e g o r y . O f . t e a c h e r s w i t h permanent employment s t a t u s , .15 p e r c e n t r e c e i v e d a r e p o r t from o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s t h i s y e a r , and 46 p e r c e n t r e c e i v e d one from p r i n c i p a l s (see T a b l e s 7 and 8, Appendix E ) . P r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s a t t r a c t e d g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n , ' 7 1 p e r c e n t r e c e i v i n g r e p o r t s from o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s and 74 p e r c e n t r e c e i v i n g r e p o r t s from p r i n c i p a l s . A d d i t i o n a l d a t a o b t a i n e d d i r e c t l y from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s shows t h a t o f the 41 p r o b a -t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s who d i d not r e c e i v e a r e p o r t t h i s y e a r from a n o t h e r e v a l u a t o r , 19 had r e c e i v e d one d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s t h r e e y e a r s . Of t h e r e m a i n i n g 22 who had n e v e r . r e c e i v e d a r e p o r t from a n o t h e r e v a l u a t o r , 17 had r e c e i v e d a r e p o r t from a p r i n c i p a l t h i s y e a r and 3 had r e c e i v e d one. the p r e v i o u s y e a r . The r e m a i n i n g 2 t e a c h e r s , b o t h c o m p l e t i n g t h e i r f i r s t y e a r i n B.C., had n o t r e c e i v e d any r e p o r t s . I n a l l , 83 p e r c e n t o f p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d a r e p o r t t h i s y e a r from a p r i n c i p a l o r a n o t h e r e v a l u a t o r , and 99 p e r c e n t r e c e i v e d r e p o r t s w i t h i n the p a s t f o u r y e a r s . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e t o T a b l e 10 o f Appendix E, and t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e v e a l s t h a t a l l t e a c h e r s w i t h one y e a r ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, e x c e p t t h e two mentioned above, r e c e i v e d a r e p o r t t h i s y e a r from a p r i n c i p a l o r a n o t h e r e v a l u -t o r . ,44 Of the few temporary t e a c h e r s i n t h e sample ,(19) , a l l had r e c e i v e d a r e p o r t i n t h e p a s t two y e a r s . I t appears t h a t t h i s y e a r ' s r e p o r t s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d so as t o i n c l u d e a l l be-g i n n i n g t e a c h e r s and th o s e new t o t h e p r o v i n c e . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s y e a r ' s r e p o r t s by t e a c h e r c e r t i -f i c a t i o n , c a t e g o r y . As shown i n T a b l e V I I , p r i n c i p a l s r e p o r -t e d more' 'frequently- on h i g h e r c e r t i f i c a t e d t e a c h e r s a t e l e -mentary and secondary l e v e l , w h i l e o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s concen-t r a t e d on t e a c h e r s o f lower c e r t i f i c a t i o n . A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n -a t i o n i s t h a t p r i n c i p a l s a r e aware of v i s i t a t i o n by o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s and t e n d t o compensate a c c o r d i n g l y . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s y e a r ' s r e p o r t s by t e a c h e r e x p e r -i e n c e i n B r i t i s h C olumbia. Both p r i n c i p a l s and o t h e r e v a l u -a t o r s , as can, be seen i n T a b l e V I I I , gave c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o f i r s t - y e a r t e a c h e r s . P r i n c i p a l s h a n d l e d an i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e r s hare o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n d u t i e s as t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e i n c r e a s e d ; C o p i e s o f Re p o r t s R e c e i p t of, c o p i e s . Teachers g e n e r a l l y r e c e i v e d c o p i e s o f t h e i r r e p o r t s . However, about e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t e a c h e r s i n each appointment c a t e g o r y ( P r o b a t i o n a r y , Permanent, Tem-p o r a r y ) , b e l i e v e d o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s had made r e p o r t s o f which they had not' r e c e i v e d c o p i e s . W i t h r e s p e c t t o p r i n c i p a l s ' r e p o r t s , e i g h t p e r c e n t o f p r o b a t i o n a r y t e a c h e r s and t h r e e p e r c e n t o f permanent s t a f f t hought a r e p o r t had been made of which t h e y had n o t - r e c e i v e d a copy, (see T a b l e s 13 and 14, Appendix E ) . 45 TABLE V I I DISTRIBUTION OF THIS YEAR'S REPORTS BY.TEACHER CERTIFICATION CATEGORY* C e r t i f i c a t i o n " c a t e g o r y P e r c e n t o f t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d a Other e v a l u a t o r s i n t h e c a t e g o r y who r e p o r t from: P r i n c i p a l s EC 82 45 EB 43 57 EA 33 55 PC(B.Ed.) 24 47 PC 56 62 PB 28 69 PA 12 87 PA (Mas.) 0 100 * Data were e x t r a c t e d from T a b l e s 9 and 11 o f Appendix E. TABLE V I I I DISTRIBUTION OF THIS YEAR'S REPORT BY TEACHER EXPERIENCE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA* Years o f e x p e r i e n c e P e r c e n t o f t e a c h e r s i n the c a t e g o r y who i n B.C. r e c e i v e d a r e p o r t from: Other e v a l u a t o r s P r i n c i p a l s 1 81 80 2 39 53 3 36 49 4 28 64 5 10 50 6 - 10 25 46 11 - 20 21 58 21 - p l u s 8 24 * Data were e x t r a c t e d from T a b l e s 10 and 12 o f Appendix E. 46 S t y l e o f r e p o r t . No r e l a t i o n s h i p was shown between the m a t t e r o f r e c e i v i n g a copy of t h e r e p o r t and t h e s t y l e of r e p o r t form used by any e v a l u a t o r (see T a b l e s 16 and 48, Appendix E ) . N a ture of t h e Report. Form Forms which p e r m i t adequate r e p o r t i n g . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h p r i n c i p a l s ' r e p o r t s , t e a c h e r s f a v o u r e d the f r e e form o v e r g u i d e d forms as p e r m i t t i n g adequate r e p o r t i n g . I n the case of o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s ' r e p o r t s , no r e l a t i o n s h i p was shown between s t y l e o f form and t h e degree t o w h i c h i t p e r m i t s adequate r e p o r t i n g (see T a b l e s 15 and 49, Appendix E ) . C o n f i d e n c e i n t h e e v a l u a t o r . No r e l a t i o n s h i p was shown between the s t y l e of r e p o r t form used and t h e t e a c h e r ' s assessment o f any e v a l u a t o r as a judge of t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u -a t i o n (see T a b l e s 39 and 72, Appendix E ) . Adequacy of t h e r e p o r t s received,. F o r a l l e v a l u a t o r s , t e a c h e r s ' o p i n i o n s as t o t h e degree t o which the r e p o r t s t y l e p e r m i t s adequate r e p o r t i n g tended t o c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e i r o p i n i o n s as t o t h e adequacy o f t h e r e p o r t s t h e y r e c e i v e d (see T a b l e s 17 and 50, Appendix E ) . Degree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the r e p o r t r e c e i v e d . Teachers who were p l e a s e d w i t h t h e i r r e p o r t from any e v a l u -a t o r , tended t o c o n s i d e r t h e form p e r m i t t e d adequate r e p o r -t i n g , w h i l e t h o s e who e x p r e s s e d t h e i r r e a c t i o n as b e i n g i n -d i f f e r e n t o r d i s p l e a s e d showed u n c e r t a i n t y as t o t h e 47 adequacy o f the form (see T a b l e s 31 and 65, Appendix E ) . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r Improvement i n t h e R e p o r t S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e r e p o r t . N o . r e l a t i o n was shown w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e p o r t s by any e v a l u a t o r between the m a t t e r of i n c l u s i o n o r o m i s s i o n o f s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improvement i n the r e p o r t and the r e c i p i e n t s degree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e r e p o r t (see T a b l e s 19 and 52, Appendix E ) . C o n f i d e n c e i n . the e v a l u a t o r . I n the case o f p r i n c i p a l s 1 r e p o r t s t h e r e was a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n shown between i n c l u s i o n o f s u g g e s t i o n s and h i g h a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e p r i n c i p a l as a judge o f the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . I n the case o f o t h e r e v a l u -a t o r s ' r e p o r t s , no r e l a t i o n was shown (see T a b l e s 19 and 53, Appendix E ) . Frequency o f Formal V i s i t a t i o n Appointment s t a t u s . No r e l a t i o n was shown between f r e q u e n c y o f f o r m a l v i s i t s o v e r t e n minutes i n l e n g t h and the t e a c h e r ' s appointment s t a t u s . That i s , e v a l u a t i o n s were based on about the same number o f v i s i t s f o r p r o b a t i o n a r y and permanent t e a c h e r s . P r i n c i p a l s v i s i t e d more f r e q u e n t l y than d i d o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s (see T a b l e s 20 and 54, Appendix E ) . E l e m e n t a r y v e r s u s secondary. P r i n c i p a l s v i s i t e d e l e -mentary and secondary t e a c h e r s w i t h about t h e same f r e q u e n c y . 48 Other e v a l u a t o r s v i s i t e d secondary t e a c h e r s r e l a t i v e l y more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s (see T a b l e s 21 and«55, Appendix E ) . F a v o u r a b l e n e s s o f t h e r e p o r t . F o r p r i n c i p a l s 1 r e -p o r t s , no r e l a t i o n was shown between f r e q u e n c y of v i s i t a t i o n and t h e t e a c h e r ' s e s t i m a t e o f . f a v o u r a b l e n e s s o f t h e r e p o r t . Other e v a l u a t o r s tended t o g i v e h i g h e r r a t i n g s t o t e a c h e r s v i s i t e d once than t e a c h e r s v i s i t e d t w i c e . P o s s i b l y t h i s i n -d i c a t e s e v a l u a t o r s tended n o t t o r e v i s i t t e a c h e r s they con-s i d e r e d o b v i o u s l y competent (see T a b l e s 22 and 56, Appendix E ) . Tea c h e r s ' r e a c t i o n t o . t h e r e p o r t . Teachers tended t o be d i s p l e a s e d .with t h e i r r e p o r t s i f t h e i r • e v a l u a t o r s made no f o r m a l v i s i t s . However t h e r e was no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t f r e q u e n t v i s i t s were r e l a t e d t o the g r e a t e s t s a t i s f a c t i o n . The r e s u l t was t h e same f o r b o t h p r i n c i p a l s and o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s (see Ta b l e s 23 and .57, Appendix E ) . .C o n f i d e n c e i n the e v a l u a t o r . I n the case o f p r i n c i -p a l s , more f r e q u e n t v i s i t a t i o n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n c r e a s e d a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f the p r i n c i p a l as an e v a l u a t o r . ' F o r o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s t h i s was not s o , b u t l a c k o f v i s i t a t i o n was a s s o -c i a t e d w i t h reduced a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e e v a l u a t o r (see T a b l e s 24 and 58, Appendix E ) . W r i t t e n comments by respond e n t s t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e items i n v o l v e d have a b e a r i n g on t h i s : a number o f t e a c h e r s saw the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t as an e v a l u a t o r who was c a p a b l e o f 49 q u i c k assessment. The p r i n c i p a l was not so r e g a r d e d , b e i n g e x p e c t e d t o be f u l l y f a m i l i a r w i t h the work o f t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l (see comments t o ite m s 19 and 35, 30 and 46, Appendix F ) . Frequency o f I n f o r m a l V i s i t a t i o n Appointment s t a t u s . No r e l a t i o n was shown between f r e q u e n c y o f i n f o r m a l " d r o p - i n " v i s i t s and t h e t e a c h e r ' s appointment s t a t u s " ( P r o b a t i o n a r y , Permanent, Temporary) (see Ta b l e s 25. and 59, Appendix E)., E l e m e n t a r y v e r s u s s e condary . As might be e x p e c t e d , o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s " d r o p p e d - i n " much l e s s f r e q u e n t l y t h a n p r i n -c i p a l s whose p r o p i n q u i t y i s g r e a t e r . E l e m e n t a r y p r i n c i p a l s " d r o p p e d - i n " much more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n secondary p r i n c i p a l s . T h i r t y p e r c e n t o f e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s , as opposed t o t e n p e r c e n t o f secondary t e a c h e r s , r e p o r t e d such v i s i t s a t l e a s t once a week (see T a b l e s 26 and 60, Appendix E ) . F a v o u r a b l e n e s s of the, r e p o r t . No r e l a t i o n was shown i n t h e case of p r i n c i p a l s o r o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s between f r e -quency .of " d r o p - i n " v i s i t s and f a v o u r a b l e n e s s of t h e r e p o r t (see T a b l e s 27 and 61, Appendix E ) . Degree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e r e p o r t . No r e l a t i o n was shown between f r e q u e n c y o f b r i e f i n f o r m a l v i s i t a t i o n and degree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e r e p o r t s r e c e i v e d from o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s . I n t h e case o f p r i n c i p a l s , i n f r e q u e n t v i s i t a t i o n 50 was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a low degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n of t e a c h e r s w i t h t h e i r r e p o r t (see T a b l e s 28 and 62, Appendix E) . C o n f i d e n c e i n the e v a l u a t o r . For o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s , no r e l a t i o n was shown between f r e q u e n c y o f " d r o p - i n " v i s i t s and a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f the e v a l u a t o r as a judge of t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . I n t h e case of p r i n c i p a l s , f r e q u e n t v i s i t a t i o n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h a c c e p t a b i l i t y , w h i l e i n f r e q u e n t v i s i t a t i o n was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low a c c e p t a b i l i t y (see T a b l e s 29 and 63, Appendix E ) . S a t i s f a c t i o n o f Teachers w i t h R e p o r t s E l e m e n t a r y v e r s u s s e c o n d a r y . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a c t i o n t o r e p o r t s were shown w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e p o r t s by ' any e v a l u a t o r s (see T a b l e s 30 and 64, Appendix E ) . \ E v a l u a t o r ' s knowledge of the t e a c h e r ' s work. For a l l e v a l u a t o r s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n was shown between the t e a c h e r ' s e s t i m a t e as t o t h e e v a l u a t o r ' s knowledge, of t h e t e a c h e r ' s / w o r k and t h e t e a c h e r ' s degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the r e p o r t (see T a b l e s 32 and 66, Appendix E ) . C i r c u m s t a n c e s ^ b e y o n d th e t e a c h e r ' s c o n t r o l . A p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n was shown f o r a l l e v a l u a t o r s between the p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r as t o whether the e v a l u a t o r had t a k e n s u f f i -c i e n t a c c o u n t of c i r c u m s t a n c e s beyond th e t e a c h e r ' s c o n t r o l and t h e degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n e x p r e s s e d by the t e a c h e r w i t h t h e r e p o r t (see T a b l e s 33 and 67, Appendix E ) . 51 F a v o u r a b l e n e s s o f the r e p o r t . W i t h r e s p e c t t o r e p o r t s by p r i n c i p a l s and o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s , a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n was shown between the t e a c h e r ' s e s t i m a t e o f the f a v o u r a b l e n e s s o f the r e p o r t and t h e degree o f s a t i s f a c t i o n e x p r e s s e d by t h e t e a c h e r w i t h t h e r e p o r t (see T a b l e s 34 and 68, Appendix E ) . O b s e r v a t i o n i n an a r e a o f b e s t competence. I n t h e case o f p r i n c i p a l s ' r e p o r t s , t e a c h e r s who f e l t t h e y had n o t been seen a t t h e i r b e s t showed a tendency t o i n d i c a t e i n d i f -f e r e n c e o r d i s p l e a s u r e as a r e a c t i o n t o the r e p o r t . I n t h e case o f o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s ' r e p o r t s , no r e l a t i o n was shown (see T a b l e s 35 and 69, Appendix E ) . C o n f i d e n c e i n the E v a l u a t o r .. Male t e a c h e r s v e r s u s female t e a c h e r s . R e l a t i v e l y more male t e a c h e r s t h a n females r a t e d t h e p r i n c i p a l " h i g h l y accep-t a b l e " as a judge o f the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n while-more female t e a c h e r s r a t e d the p r i n c i p a l "not a c c e p t a b l e . " The w r i t t e n comments o f Appendix F c o n t a i n h i n t s t h a t t h i s m ight be acco u n t e d f o r by female P r i m a r y and Home Economics t e a c h e r s who f e e l t h a t t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s l a c k q u a l i f i c a t i o n t o judge i n t h e i r s p e c i a l t y a r e a s . I n t h e case of o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s , n o . r e l a t i o n between sex o f t h e t e a c h e r and c o n f i d e n c e i n the e v a l u a t o r was shown (see T a b l e s 36 and 70, Appendix E ) . 52 Awaren'ess of-,, e x p e c t a t i o n s . F o r a l l e v a l u a t o r s a p o s i -t i v e r e l a t i o n was shown between the t e a c h e r ' s f e e l i n g t h a t he was aware e a r l y i n the y e a r o f the e v a l u a t o r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s and the t e a c h e r ' s degree of c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e e v a l u a t o r as a judge of t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n (see T a b l e s 38 and 71, Appendix E ) . S t y l e o f r e p o r t form. No r e l a t i o n was shown between the s t y l e o f r e p o r t form used and c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e e v a l u a t o r (see T a b l e s 39 and 72, Appendix E ) . E v a l u a t o r ' s knowledge of t h e t e a c h e r ' s work. A p o s i -t i v e r e l a t i o n was shown f o r p r i n c i p a l s and o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s between the t e a c h e r ' s e s t i m a t e o f the e v a l u a t o r ' s knowledge of t h e t e a c h e r ' s work and t h e t e a c h e r ' s c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e e v a l u a t o r as a judge of t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n (see T a b l e s 40 and 73, Appendix E ) . C i r c u m s t a n c e s beyond th e teacher.'s c o n t r o l . I n t h e case o f b o t h p r i n c i p a l s and o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s , a p o s i t i v e r e -l a t i o n was shown between th e t e a c h e r ' s f e e l i n g t h a t t h e e v a l u a t o r • h a d t a k e n s u f f i c i e n t a ccount o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s be-yond the t e a c h e r ' s c o n t r o l and t h e t e a c h e r ' s c o n f i d e n c e i n the e v a l u a t o r (see T a b l e s 41 and 74, Appendix E ) . F a v o u r a b l e n e s s o f . t h e r e p o r t . For a l l e v a l u a t o r s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n was shown between th e t e a c h e r ' s e s t i m a t e o f f a v o u r a b l e n e s s of t h e r e p o r t and t h e e x p r e s s e d degree of 53 c o n f i d e n c e i n the e v a l u a t o r as a judge (see T a b l e s 42 and 75, Appendix E) . Use o f p r e l i m i n a r y , w r i t t e n e v a l u a t i o n . , Other e v a l u -a t o r s who used t h i s p r o c e d u r e tended t o r e c e i v e more " h i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e " r a t i n g s t h a n t h o s e who d i d not use i t . F o r p r i n -c i p a l s no r e l a t i o n was shown (see T a b l e s 4.3 and 76, Appendix E ) . O b s e r v a t i o n i n a r e a of. b e s t competence. There was a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n between the t e a c h e r ' s f e e l i n g t h a t he had been o b s e r v e d i n an a r e a of h i s b e s t competence and h i s degree of c o n f i d e n c e i n the e v a l u a t o r , , w h e t h e r p r i n c i p a l o r o t h e r e v a l u a t o r (see T a b l e s 44 and 77, Appendix E ) . C o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e r e p o r t w i t h d i s c u s s i o n s . For a l l e v a l u a t o r s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n was shown between the c o n s i s -t e n c y of t h e e v a l u a t o r ' s r e p o r t w i t h h i s d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e t e a c h e r and the degree of c o n f i d e n c e shown by t h e t e a c h e r i n t h e e v a l u a t o r . Lack of d i s c u s s i o n was a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e (see T a b l e s 45 and 78, Appendix E ) . S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the r e p o r t . A p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n was shown f o r a l l e v a l u a t o r s between the t e a c h e r ' s degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the r e p o r t and h i s c o n f i d e n c e i n the e v a l u a t o r (see T a b l e s 46 and 79, Appendix E ) . " S a t i s f a c t i o n " and "Confidence"" 1" were d e a l t w i t h s e p a r a t e l y i n t h e approach t o t h i s s u r v e y . o n the grounds See page 26 f o r the d e f i n i t i o n s used h e r e i n . 54 t h a t t h e y might t u r n o u t t o be i d e n t i f i a b l y d i s t i n c t f a c t o r s . However, t h e s e t a b l e s show t h a t i n g e n e r a l , ? ' s a t i s f a c t i o n and c o n f i d e n c e were not c l e a r l y s e p a r a t e l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . B e f o r e l o o k i n g t o the t a b l e s f o r c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h i s , i t needs t o be no t e d t h a t f o r many r e s p o n d e n t s , " I n d i f f e r e n t , w h ich was i n t e n d e d t o be a n e u t r a l r e s p o n s e , was n o t always so u t i l i z e d . R e f e r e n c e t o t h e w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s f o r ite m s 28 and 44 shows c l e a r l y t h a t f o r many " i n d i f f e r e n t " meant " d i s p l e a s e d , " so t h a t the n e u t r a l p o i n t i n the s c a l e l a y between " p l e a s e d " and " i n d i f f e r e n t . " T h i s e x p l a i n s what might o t h e r w i s e be an anomaly i n T a b l e s 46 and 79, where l a r g e r numbers o f t e a c h e r s i n the " i n d i f f e r e n t " c a t e g o r y t h a n might be e x p e c t e d , r a t e d the e v a l u a t o r as "not a c c e p t a b l R e t u r n i n g now t o the p o i n t about " s a t i s f a c t i o n " and " c o n f i d e n c e " : T a b l e 46 ( P r i n c i p a l s ) shows t h a t o f thos e t e a c h e r s who were " p l e a s e d " o r " g r e a t l y p l e a s e d " w i t h t h e i r p r i n c i p a l ' s r e p o r t , o n l y 11 o r about 3 p e r c e n t , r a t e d the e v a l u a t o r as " u n a c c e p t a b l e " and o n l y 9 o f the t e a c h e r s who were " d i s p l e a s e d " o r "angry," a g a i n about 3 p e r c e n t , r a t e d t h e e v a l u a t o r as " a c c e p t a b l e " o r " h i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e . " F o r the r e m a i n i n g 9 3 p e r c e n t t h e r e was a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s a t i s f a c t i o n and c o n f i d e n c e . T a b l e 79 (Other E v a l u a -t o r s ) y i e l d s a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l f i g u r e s . Thus i t appears t h a t f o r the purpose o f r e p o r t i n g , the s e p a r a t i o n o f " s a t i s f a c t i o n " and " c o n f i d e n c e " i s n o t j u s t i f i a b l e s i n c e they have n o t emerged as i d e n t i f i a b l y d i s -t i n c t f a c t o r s f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s . 55 E f f e c t o f e v a l u a t o r ' s p r e s e n c e . For o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s no r e l a t i o n was. shown between the t e a c h e r ' s e s t i m a t e o f t h e e f f e c t on t h e c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n o f t h e e v a l u a t o r ' s p r e s e n c e and t h e t e a c h e r ' s c o n f i d e n c e i n the e v a l u a t o r . I t was shown f o r a l l e v a l u a t o r s t h a t l a c k o f o b s e r v a t i o n i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n .the e v a l u a t o r . F o r p r i n c i p a l s , T a b l e 47 s u g g e s t s a l s o t h a t where t h e t e a c h e r e s t i m a t e s t h a t t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s p r e s e n c e has an a d v e r s e e f f e c t on the c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n , t h i s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n the p r i n c i p a l as an e v a l u a t o r (see T a b l e s 47 and 80, Appendix E ) . The P r i n c i p a l as E v a l u a t o r Wariness of d i s c u s s i o n w i t h t h e . p r i n c i p a l , e l e m e n t a r y  v e r s u s . s e c o n d a r y . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e be-tween t h e views of e l e m e n t a r y and secondary t e a c h e r s as t o whether t e a c h e r s are wary of d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r work w i t h the p r i n c i p a l who has t h e d u t y of e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r s e r v i c e s . Over b o t h g r o u p s , .42 p e r c e n t f e l t t e a c h e r s are wary, 46 p e r -c e n t t h a t they a r e n o t . Only an u n u s u a l l y s m a l l 12 p e r c e n t was u n d e c i d e d . Because o f t h e w ording of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m , w h i c h asked f o r a g e n e r a l o p i n i o n about t e a c h e r s r a t h e r than f o r the f e e l i n g o f the r e s p o n d e n t , i t s v a l i d i t y i s d o u b t f u l as an i n d i c a t o r o f the f r a c t i o n s o f t h e sample who are or a r e not wary of d i s c u s s i o n w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l (see T a b l e 82, Appendix E ) . Wariness and f a v o u r a b l e n e s s o f the r e p o r t . Teachers who had l e s s f a v o u r a b l e r e p o r t s tended t o f e e l t e a c h e r s a r e wary of d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the e v a l u a t i n g p r i n c i p a l , ( s e e T a b l e 83, Appendix E ) . • 1 ' S c h o o l s i z e and c o n f i d e n c e i n the p r i n c i p a l . No r e -l a t i o n was found between s c h o o l s i z e and t h e t e a c h e r ' s degree of c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e p r i n c i p a l as an e v a l u a t o r (see T a b l e 37, Appendix E ) . . T e a c h e r s ' c o n f i d e n c e : p r i n c i p a l s v e r s u s o t h e r e v a l u -a t o r s . Items 30 and .46 o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e asked the r e s -pondents t o a s s e s s t h e e v a l u a t o r s as judges o f t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n the c l a s s r o o m . a n d t o r a t e them " h i g h l y a c c e p t a b l " a c c e p t a b l e " o r "not a c c e p t a b l e . " To compare r e s u l t s f o r ' p r i n c i p a l s and o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s , t h e c h i - s q u a r e t e s t f o r goodness of f i t was a p p l i e d u s i n g the f r e q u e n c i e s f o r o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s as t h e o r e t i c a l f r e q u e n c i e s a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e f r e -q u e n c i e s f o r p r i n c i p a l s were t e s t e d . I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e s e a r e not t r u e e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s o r even p o p u l a t i o n , v a l u e s f o r " o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s , " but the l a r g e sample s i z e sug-g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e sample e s t i m a t e s w i l l be v e r y s t a b l e . • The r e s u l t i n g c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 1.13 i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u a l t o 2 X CJQ f o r two degrees of freedom. T h i s v a l u e i s t o o low, t o be t a k e n as i n d i c a t i v e o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . I t i s here i n t e r p r e t e d as i n d i c a t i n g t h a t ; t e a c h e r s ' c o n f i d e n c e i n p r i n -57 c i p a l s as e v a l u a t o r s i s a t l e a s t as h i g h as t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e i n o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s (see Items.30 and 46, Appendix D) . C o m p a r a b i l i t y . o f - r a t i n g s by p r i n c i p a l s and o t h e r  e v a l u a t o r s . , - T a b l e 51 o f Appendix E r e p r e s e n t s the e s t i m a t e s by t h e 219 t e a c h e r s who had r e p o r t s from b o t h p r i n c i p a l s and o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s o f f a v o u r a b l e n e s s o f t h e r e p o r t s . -'The t a b l e s h p w s ~ a : s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , beyond th e .001 l e v e l o f p r o b a b i l i t y , between f a v o u r a b l e n e s s o f r e p o r t s by p r i n c i p a l s and by o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s . The f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n e x t r a c t e d from the t a b l e q u a l i f i e s t h i s f i n d i n g : (1) 66 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s f e l t t h e i r two r a t i n g s were e q u i v a l e n t ; (2) 10 p e r c e n t f e l t t h e o t h e r e v a l u a t o r r a t e d them h i g h e r t h a n t h e p r i n c i p a l ; (3) 22 p e r c e n t f e l t t h e p r i n c i p a l r a t e d them h i g h e r ; (4) 4 p e r c e n t i n d i c a t e d a d i s -c r e p a n c y between r a t i n g s o f more th a n one p o i n t o f t h e f i v e -p o i n t s c a l e ' used i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m . I t seems t h a t p r i n c i p a l s r a t e d t h e t e a c h e r s h i g h e r t h a n d i d o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s , b u t n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y o r t o a marked degree (see T a b l e 51, Appendix E ) . Assessment of P r e s e n t P r a c t i c e V a l i d i t y . Teachers tended t o d i s a g r e e w i t h t h e s t a t e -ment, "The p r e s e n t e v a l u a t i o n system e n a b l e s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o make a sound e v a l u a t i o n o f - a t e a c h e r ' s work." Those agreed were 19.27 p e r c e n t as compared t o t h e 46.74 p e r c e n t 58 d i s a g r e e d . The u n d e c i d e d group, ,31.44 p e r c e n t was l a r g e (see Item. 5 2 , Appendix D). Length o f e x p e r i e n c e had no b e a r i n g on t h e - t e a c h e r s ' response t o t h i s i t e m (see T a b l e 84, Appendix E ) . P r e s s u r e f o r conformity'. A m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s f e e l t h a t p r e s e n t e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e does n o t i m p a i r t h e i r p r o -f e s s i o n a l ' , freedom o f : a c t i o n . Agreed w i t h t h i s v iew were 54.68 p e r c e n t , w h i l e a r a t h e r l a r g e m i n o r i t y , 24.08 p e r c e n t , f e l t t h a t t h e i r freedom of a c t i o n as t e a c h e r s was l i m i t e d by the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s (see i t e m 51, Appendix D). , E f f i c a c y f o r Improvement of i n s t r u c t i o n . Three i t e m s b e a r i n g on t h i s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The s t a t e m e n t s were worded so as t o be p r o g r e s s i v e l y l e s s p e r -s o n a l . Item 53 s t a t e d , "My performance as a t e a c h e r has im-p r o v e d as a r e s u l t o f t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . " Those agreed were 33.14 p e r c e n t , w h i l e 42.50 p e r c e n t d i s a g r e e d . Item 54 s t a t e d , "My s c h o o l would b e n e f i t from more f r e q u e n t e v a l u a -t i o n of t e a c h e r s . " To t h i s , 34.28 p e r c e n t a g r e e d , w h i l e .32.00 p e r c e n t d i s a g r e e d . Item 55 s t a t e d , "Teacher e v a l u a t i o n i n B.. C. makes a w o r t h w h i l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o maintenance and improvement of t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l program." I n t h i s c a s e , 38.24 p e r c e n t agreed and 23.80 p e r c e n t d i s a g r e e d . . From t h e s e f i g u r e s i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o make the rough g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t h a t about t w o - t h i r d s o f the t e a c h e r s do not agree t h a t p r e s e n t , e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e c o n t r i b u t e s m a t e r i a l l y t o improvement of i n s t r u c t i o n (see Items 53, 54 and 55, Appendix D) . Need i f o r Change i n E v a l u a t i o n P r a c t i c e P e r c e i v e d need f o r change. Only 14.44 p e r c e n t o f r e s -pondents d i s a g r e e d w i t h the s t a t e m e n t : . "The t e a c h e r e v a l u a -t i o n system i n B r i t i s h Columbia s h o u l d be changed." However, the u n d e c i d e d group, 46.18 p e r c e n t , was by f a r t h e l a r g e s t found i n responses t o any of t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s , outrium-b e r i n g t h e 36.83 p e r c e n t who agreed t h e system should, be changed. S u g g e s t i o n s , f o r . c h a n g e . Over h a l f o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s who agreed t h a t t h e e v a l u a t i o n system s h o u l d be changed o f f e r e d s u g g e s t i o n s f o r change. The most o b v i o u s i m p r e s s i o n o b t a i n e d from t h e comments i s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t b a s i c s t r u c -t u r e f o r e v a l u a t i o n i s a c c e p t e d by t e a c h e r s ; most do not s u g g e s t r a d i c a l changes, bu t want improvement i n the p r e s e n t arrangement. A p e r s i s t e n t i m p l i c a t i o n t h r o u g h o u t i s t h a t the p r i m a r y aim o f e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d be development of t h e t e a c h e r ' s p o t e n t i a l , o r , i n terms o f t h i s s u r v e y , improvement of i n s t r u c t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n assessment of s e r v i c e s . Adequate t r a i n i n g , f o r e v a l u a t i o n and c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n o f - e v a l u a t o r s were f r e q u e n t l y mentioned i t e m s (see w r i t t e n comments f o r Item 56, Appendix F, p.198 ). 60 t Selection of c r i t e r i a by teachers. Teachers agreed quite strongly with the statement, "Evaluation of teaching would be improved i f the s t a f f of each school had the task of describing what would be considered good teaching prac-t i c e for that school." Agreed were 5 4,67 percent, while only 13.60 percent were not,(see Item 48, Appendix D). Peer evaluation. Those opposed to the idea of teacher evaluation by the s t a f f of a school were 64.87 percent, nearly f i v e times the 13.32 percent who favoured the suggestion (see Item 49, Appendix D). I I I . SUMMARY OF FINDINGS Report frequency and d i s t r i b u t i o n . The teachers sur-veyed each received on the average about one evaluation re-port, per year, more often from the p r i n c i p a l than from another evaluator, e s p e c i a l l y i n secondary schools. Reports were more frequent i n the f i r s t two or three years of employ-ment than i n subsequent years. , The most common form of re-port used was the free form, or the free form with an o v e r a l l rating appended. Each of these styles permits the evaluator to select the c r i t e r i a to be used. Teachers s l i g h t l y favoured t h e i r use over other forms. Teachers generally received copies of t h e i r reports. Those who reported they did not, 61 l e f t some uncertainty with the investigator as to whether a report had been made. (Note that inspection by a Superinten-dent does not necessarily require the f i l i n g of a report, see page 78 .) . V i s i t a t i o n . Formal v i s i t a t i o n for evaluation was common., Pr i n c i p a l s were the more frequent v i s i t o r s . They tended to r e l y on b r i e f e r informal v i s i t s for permanent s t a f f . Other evaluators seldom made b r i e f informal v i s i t s . Elemen-tary p r i n c i p a l s dropped-in on t h e i r teachers more frequently than did secondary p r i n c i p a l s . Teachers'-satisfaction with evaluators and reports,. Teachers' pleased reactions to reports were p o s i t i v e l y r e l a -ted to the presence of the following conditions, and nega-t i v e l y related t o , t h e i r absence: (1) teachers considered the report form adequate; (2) teachers considered the evalu-ator had an adequate knowledge of t h e i r work;,(3) teachers f e l t the evaluator had taken into account circumstances out-side the teacher's control; and (4) the reports were favour-able. Teachers' d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with evaluators and reports. D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n as a reaction to reports was associated with conditions where: (1) evaluation was conducted without f o r -mal v i s i t a t i o n ; (2) evaluation by p r i n c i p a l s was associated with infrequent informal v i s i t a t i o n ; and (3) p r i n c i p a l s had not observed them i n areas of t h e i r best competence. 62 T e a c h e r s ' c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e e v a l u a t o r . T e a c h e r s ' con-f i d e n c e i n e v a l u a t o r s tended t o be r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y t o t h e pre s e n c e o f the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and n e g a t i v e l y t o t h e i r absence: (1) p r i n c i p a l s i n c l u d e d s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improvement i n t he r e p o r t ; (2) p r i n c i p a l s made s e v e r a l f o r m a l v i s i t s as p a r t o f the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e ; (3) p r i n c i p a l s made f r e q u e n t d r o p - i n v i s i t s ; (4) t h e t e a c h e r f e l t he knew e a r l y i n the y e a r what the e v a l u a t o r had e x p e c t e d o f him; (5) t h e t e a c h e r be-l i e v e d t h e e v a l u a t o r had an adequate knowledge o f the t e a c h e r ' s work; (6) t h e t e a c h e r f e l t t h e e v a l u a t o r had t a k e n s u f f i c i e n t a c c o u n t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s beyond t h e < t e a c h e r ' s c o n t r o l ; (7) the r e p o r t was f a v o u r a b l e ; (8) o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s (but n o t p r i n c i p a l s ) made use o f p r e l i m i n a r y w r i t t e n e v a l u a t i o n s ; (9) the t e a c h e r f e l t t h a t he had been o b s e r v e d a t h i s b e s t competence; (10) the r e p o r t was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e e v a l u a t o r ' s d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h t h e t e a c h e r ; and (11) t h e t e a c h e r was p l e a s e d w i t h t h e r e p o r t . T e a c h e r s ' l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e e v a l u a t o r . Lack of c o n f i d e n c e i n the e v a l u a t o r was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o n d i -t i o n t h a t e v a l u a t i o n was conducted w i t h o u t f o r m a l v i s i t a t i o n . The p r i n c i p a l as e v a l u a t o r . Teachers h e l d o p p o s i n g views as t o w h e t h e r . t e a c h e r s a re wary o f d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r work w i t h the p r i n c i p a l who has the duty o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r s e r v i c e s . However, t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e i n p r i n c i p a l s as e v a l u -a t o r s , i s about the same as t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e i n o t h e r e v a l u -a t o r s . Teachers see p r i n c i p a l s ' r e p o r t s as b e i n g a l i t t l e more f a v o u r a b l e t h a n t h o s e from o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s . 63 P r e s e n t p r a c t i c e . A m a j o r i t y o f t e a c h e r s doubted t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e i r r e p o r t under p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e , and a l a r g e r m a j o r i t y doubted t h a t t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s t o im-provement o f i n s t r u c t i o n . Most f e l t t h a t e v a l u a t i o n as p r a c -t i c e d p e r m i t s them freedom o f a c t i o n as t e a c h e r s . Change i n e v a l u a t i o n , p r a c t i c e . N e a r l y h a l f t h e t e a c h -e r s were u n d e c i d e d as t o whether change i s needed. The sug-g e s t i o n s o f t h e t h i r d who d i d c o n s i d e r change i s needed, r e v e a l e d few c l e a r c u t t r e n d s o f demand e x c e p t t h a t improve-ment o f i n s t r u c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n assessment o f s e r v i c e s s h o u l d be t h e major aim. Most s u g g e s t i o n s tended toward a d j u s t m e n t s of t h e e v a l u a t i o n s t r u c t u r e r a t h e r than r a d i c a l changes t o i t . Improvements o f e v a l u a t o r s 1 s k i l l s was a f a i r l y common r e q u e s t . I n r e p l y t o two q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s , t e a c h e r s i n d i -c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n s e t t i n g t h e c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i o n , b u t opposed peer e v a l u a t i o n . . CHAPTER IV CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS I . CONCLUSIONS G e n e r a l i z a t i o n from the sample. The s t a t i s t i c a l l i m -i t a t i o n s of t h e sample a r e such t h a t i n f e r e n c e s t o t h e popu-l a t i o n can be made o n l y w i t h c a u t i o n . A l t h o u g h the sample i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n on the r e g i o n a l b a s i s des-c r i b e d i n t h e c h a p t e r on methodology, i t i s not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e w i t h r e s p e c t t o p o p u l a t i o n p r o p e r t i e s such as s e x , t e a c h e r c e r t i f i c a t i o n , e x p e r i e n c e , s u b j e c t s t a u g h t , a t t e n d a n c e a t summer s c h o o l e t c . ; nor i s i t ' a random sample. There a r e , however, some b i a s - l i m i t i n g p r o p e r t i e s of the p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h te n d t o improve the q u a l i t y o f t h e sample. These p r o p e r t i e s are t h o s e w h i c h i n c r e a s e homogeneity o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s u r v e y t o p i c : (1) A l l members o f the p o p u l a t i o n have t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e as t e a c h e r s and have f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and c o n d i t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . (2) The h i g h m o b i l i t y o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n and t h e s t r o n g communication system o f t h e s i n g l e p r o f e s -s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f wh i c h a l l a re members combine t o ensure a broad s h a r i n g o f e x p e r i e n c e and o p i n i o n , and a l s o t o ex-pose many i n d i v i d u a l s t o t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s i n a number o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s . (3) The r u l e s g o v e r n i n g t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e a re s i m i l a r f o r a l l members o f t h e popu-l a t i o n so t h a t t h e range o f e v a l u a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s e n c o u n t e r e d 65 i s much more r e s t r i c t e d than i t would be i f , f o r example, e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e were d e t e r m i n e d by l o c a l p r e r o g a t i v e . Teacher e v a l u a t i o n , p r a c t i c e . Teachers i n the s u r v e y sample r e p o r t t h a t p r e s e n t B r i t i s h Columbia t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e i s c e n t e r e d i n t h e p ersons of the e v a l u a t o r s who a r e most o f t e n the s o l e d e t e r m i n e r s of c r i t e r i a . E v a l u a t i o n s are u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f o r m a l v i s i t a t i o n and c u l m i n a t e i n w r i t t e n r e p o r t s which sometimes have a r a t i n g s c a l e i n c l u d e d o r a t t a c h e d . Teachers g e n e r a l l y do not r e p o r t any g r e a t degree of i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e p r o c e s s e x c e p t as t h e i r a c t i v i -t i e s a r e o b s e r v e d f o r assessment and so f a r as e v a l u a t o r s e l e c t t o d i s c u s s t h e e v a l u a t i o n w i t h them. Teacher s a t i s f a c t i o n and c o n f i d e n c e . Teachers g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n as p r a c t i c e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Though they have l i t t l e c o n f i d e n c e t h a t the system p e r m i t s sound e v a l u a t i o n , t hey have a h i g h degree of c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e e v a l u a t o r s , and they e x p r e s s e d i n most cases s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e r e p o r t s . I n most of t h e o b s e r v e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n -v o l v i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n and c o n f i d e n c e , however, t h e r e were s i z e a b l e r e s pondent m i n o r i t i e s who e x p r e s s e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e , most f r e q u e n t l y because of some p e r -c e i v e d l a c k o f communication between e v a l u a t o r and t e a c h e r . I n s u f f i c i e n t c o n t a c t by the e v a l u a t o r w i t h the l e a r n i n g s i t u -a t i o n was a commonly r e p o r t e d cause of resentment. 66 P e r c e i v e d need f o r change i n t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p r a c -t i c e . The i n d e c i s i o n o f t e a c h e r s as t o whether o r not change i s needed was the most s t r i k i n g a s p e c t o f t h e i r r e s p o n s e . J u s t o v e r a t h i r d o f t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t change i s needed, w h i l e n e a r l y h a l f were u n d e c i d e d . T h i s was- the l a r g e s t unde-c i d e d r esponse o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . There were two c l e a r , c u t t r e n d s c o n c e r n i n g s t r u c t u r e i n t h e recommendations of t h o s e who f e l t t h a t change i s needed: (1) t h a t t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f e v a l u a t o r s and o f t h e p r o c e s s s h o u l d be toward development of t e a c h i n g p o t e n t i a l , so t h e p r o c e s s w i l l be n e i t h e r r e s t r i c -t i v e nor p r i m a r i l y j u d g m e n t a l , and (2) t h a t t e a c h e r s s h o u l d have a g r e a t e r say i n the s e l e c t i o n o f c r i t e r i a f o r t e a c h e r ; e v a l u a t i o n . O r i e n t a t i o n o f p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e . The two main f u n c t i o n s s e r v e d by t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n a r e : (1) assessment f o r : p e r -s o n n e l purposes such as p r o m o t i o n and t e n u r e and (2) improve-ment "of i n s t r u c t i o n . One o f t h e purposes o f t h e s u r v e y was t o e s t i m a t e the degree t o w h i c h p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e i s o r i e n t e d toward improvement o f • i n s t r u c t i o n . The s u r v e y does not show t o what e x t e n t t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e i s l i n k e d t o o t h e r a c t i o n s t a k e n f o r improvement o f i n s t r u c t i o n . I t does show, however, as e v i d e n c e d by t h e a r e a s of l i m i t e d communication r e p o r t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h e v a l u a t i o n , t h a t t e a c h e r e v a l u -a t i o n i s o f t e n r e g a r d e d as a f u n c t i o n d i s t i n c t from t h a t o f improvement o f i n s t r u c t i o n . Thus the p r o c e s s o n l y p a r t i a l l y 67 f u l f i l s t he feedback f u n c t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r improvement, l e a v i n g open s u b s t a n t i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e x p l o i t a t i o n o f the e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s f o r improvement o f i n s t r u c t i o n . The p r i n c i p a l as an e v a l u a t o r . Teachers were s h a r p l y d i v i d e d on the q u e s t i o n o f whether t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s p o s i t i o n as e v a l u a t o r i n h i b i t s t e a c h e r - p r i n c i p a l communication w i t h r e s p e c t t o improvement o f i n s t r u c t i o n . The e x i s t e n c e o f a l a r g e m i n o r i t y o p i n i o n t h a t i t does, s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a re i n d e e d c o n f l i c t s between t h e e v a l u a t i v e and l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s p l a y e d by p r i n c i p a l s . However, t h e e x i s t e n c e of an even g r e a t e r c o n t r a r y o p i n i o n a l s o demonstrates t h a t many p r i n c i p a l s somehow a v o i d t h i s problem. W h i l e t e a c h e r s p l a c e i n e v a l u a t i n g p r i n c i p a l s the same degree o f c o n f i d e n c e they have i n o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s , t h e i r c o n f i d e n c e i s based on d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a . S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , D i r e c t o r s , and I n s p e c t o r s c a n , i n t h e eyes o f some t e a c h e r s , make s a t i s f a c t o r y e v a l u a t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f b r i e f c o n t a c t by means of a s t u t e , i n s i g h t f u l o b s e r v a t i o n . P r i n c i p a l s , however, l a c k t h e c o n f i d e n c e o f t e a c h e r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o e v a l -u a t i o n u n l e s s e v a l u a t i o n i s based on f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t and c l o s e knowledge o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' work. Teachers c o n s i d e r t h a t p r i n c i p a l s ' r e p o r t s a r e i n some cases a l i t t l e more f a v o u r a b l e ' t h a n r e p o r t s from o t h e r e v a l u -a t o r s . 68 I I . IMPLICATIONS I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the P r a c t i c e o f Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Teacher i n v o l v e m e n t . I t seems l i k e l y t h a t i n c r e a s i n g t h e degree o f t e a c h e r i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s c o u l d r a i s e the l e v e l o f t e a c h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n and c o n f i d e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o e v a l u a t i o n and i n c r e a s e the speed and q u a n t i t y o f feedback t o t e a c h e r s , t h e r e b y enhancing the p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n t r i b u t i n g t o improvement o f i n s t r u c t i o n . Teacher p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e d e t e r m i n i n g o r s e l e c t i n g o f c r i -t e r i a would be one o b v i o u s method o f i n c r e a s i n g i n v o l v e m e n t . However, t e a c h e r i n v o l v e m e n t t o the e x t e n t o f i n t r o d u c i n g peer e v a l u a t i o n was n o t f a v o u r e d by s u r v e y r e s p o n d e n t s . S upport f o r t h i s i m p l i c a t i o n i s c i t e d as f o l l o w s : Teachers who f e l t they were aware o f t h e e v a l u a t o r ' s e x p e c t a -t i o n s showed g r e a t e r c o n f i d e n c e i n the e v a l u a t o r (page 5 2 ) . Teac h e r s ' c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e e v a l u a t o r was i n c r e a s e d where p r e l i m i n a r y w r i t t e n e v a l u a t i o n s were used (page 5 3 ) . Teach-e r s ' c o n f i d e n c e i n p r i n c i p a l s as e v a l u a t o r s was g r e a t e r where t h e r e was f r e q u e n t i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t (page 4 9 ) . Teachers l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n p r e s e n t p r o c e d u r e s argues f o r some k i n d o f change (pages 57-58) . Among t e a c h e r s who f e l t t he system s h o u l d be changed, t h e r e was f r e q u e n t comment t h a t the p r i m a r y aim o f t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d be t o a i d the t e a c h e r i n development o f s k i l l s (pages 59, 199). Teachers" d e s i r e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n s e l e c t i n g c r i t e r i a (Item 48, page 112). T r a i n i n g o f e v a l u a t o r s . The p r e s e n t e v a l u a t o r s a re w e l l a c c e p t e d i n g e n e r a l . However, o r i e n t a t i o n o f a l l e v a l u -a t o r s , t h r o u g h t r a i n i n g , t o a l e s s p a t e r n a l , more open d e v e l -opmental approach t o e v a l u a t i o n c o u l d reduce n e g a t i v e response t o e v a l u a t i o n which may p r e s e n t l y i n h i b i t communication and thus impede improvement o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r some t e a c h e r s . A c c e p t a n c e by t e a c h e r s o f t h e p r e s e n t e v a l u a t o r s i s s u p p o r t e d by Items 30 and 46 (page 111), and Items 28 and 44 (page 110). However, each o f t h e s e i t e m s c o n t a i n s a s i z e a b l e n e g a t i v e response s u g g e s t i n g a p o s s i b i l i t y f o r improvement. The s u g g e s t i o n s f o r o r i e n t a t i o n o f t r a i n i n g a re based on the c o n t e n t o f comments a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r esponses t o Item 56 (pages 198-201) and Items 30 and 46 (pages 190-197). A l s o appropos a r e s c a t t e r e d comments t h r o u g h o u t pages 16 8-179. S i n c e p r i n c i p a l s p e r f o r m more than h a l f o f the e v a l u -a t i o n s , , s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t r a i n i n g programs which e n r o l p r i n c i p a l s and p r o s p e c t i v e p r i n c i p a l s m ight w e l l i n c o r p o r a t e some emphasis on s t r a t e g i e s r e l a t i n g e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s t o improvement of i n s t r u c t i o n . The s h a r e . o f e v a l u a t i o n . p e r f o r m e d by p r i n c i p a l s i s r e p o r t e d on page 39. The need t o r e l a t e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s t o improvement o f i n s t r u c t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d above under the h e a d i n g "Teacher Involvement." A l l f u t u r e e v a l u a t o r s s h o u l d be aware o f the fundamental problem o f l a c k o f v a l i d c r i t e r i a , as r e p o r t e d i n the s e c t i o n "The C r i t e r i o n Problem: A fundamental d i f f i c u l t y , " on pages 10-14. P r i n c i p a l s as e v a l u a t o r s . P r i n c i p a l s need t o r e c o g n i z e i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , t h a t t e a c h e r s ' c o n f i d e n c e i n 70 them as e v a l u a t o r s may r e q u i r e more th a n t h e m i n i m a l c o n t a c t and o b s e r v a t i o n w h i c h i s a c c e p t a b l e from o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s . S u p p o r t f o r t h i s v i e w may be found i n t h e comments t o Items 19 and 35, 30 and 46, pages 180-83 and 190-97. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r Study The d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n among t e a c h e r s r e v e a l e d by the s t u d y as t o whether t e a c h e r s a re wary o f d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i r work w i t h e v a l u a t i n g p r i n c i p a l s r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n as t o what the c o n d i t i o n s a re f o r av o i d a n c e o f t h e . n e g a t i v e r e a c t i o n . A s t u d y o f t h i s q u e s t i o n m i g h t be a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f e a r l i e r c l i m a t e s t u d i e s and might r e l a t e b e h a v i o u r o f the p r i n c i p a l w i t h r e s p e c t t o t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n t o t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f t e a c h -e r s t o c o n s u l t w i t h the p r i n c i p a l . Such a s t u d y might r e v e a l p r i n c i p a l s ' s t r a t e g i e s o r s c h o o l c l i m a t e s which t e n d t o reduce t h r e a t and promote ease o f t e a c h e r - p r i n c i p a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n the a r e a o f program development. Because the d a t a o f t h i s s u r v e y a re now d a t e d by f i v e y e a r s , a s i m i l a r s u r v e y o r a r e p e t i t i o n might be o f i n t e r e s t as a way o f e x t e n d i n g t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n l o n g i t u d i n a l l y and p r o v i d i n g an i n d e x o f change. I t may be t h a t changes w i l l o c c u r , o r can be i n i t i a t e d , so t h a t one o r more s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s change t h e i r t e a c h e r ev-a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e t o i n c r e a s e t e a c h e r i n v o l v e m e n t . I t w i l l be h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e a t the time o f such changes t o o b t a i n e s t i -mates o f the consequent changes i n t e a c h e r r e a c t i o n t o e v a l u -a t i o n and i n t h e communication l e v e l s as compared w i t h t h o s e r e p o r t e d here as an i n d i c a t o r o f p r o b a b l e e f f e c t o f the changes on improvement o f i n s t r u c t i o n . B I B L I O G R A P H Y 72 A. TEACHER EVALUATION REFERENCES Ackerman, W.I. "Teacher.Competence and P u p i l Change." The H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l Review, yo1. 2 4, no. 4 ( F a l l 1954) . American A s s o c i a t i o n o f S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , Department of C l a s s r o o m Teachers of the NEA and The N a t i o n a l S c h o o l Boards A s s o c i a t i o n . Who's a Good Teacher? Washington, D.C.; N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1961. A nderson, C..C. and Hunka, S.M. "Teacher E v a l u a t i o n : Some Problems and a P r o p o s a l . 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Survey D e s i g n and A n a l y s i s , P r i n c i p l e s , Cases; and P r o c e d u r e s . G l e n c o e , 111., The Fr e e P r e s s P u b l i s h e r s 1955. ' McCormick, T.C. and F r a n c i s , R.G. Methods of Research i n the  B e h a v i o u r a l S c i e n c e s . New Y o r k , Harper and B r o s . , 1958. Mouly, G.J. The S c i e n c e of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . New Y o r k , American Book Co., 1963. NEA Research D i v i s i o n . "The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e " ( T i t l e o f the i s s u e ) , NEA Research B u l l e t i n , v o l . 8, no. 1 (January i 9 6 0 ) . " ~~ P a r t e n , M. S u r v e y s , P o l l s , and Samples: P r a c t i c a l P r o c e d u r e s . New Yo r k , Harper and B r o s . 1950. S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , P u b l i c S c h o o l s o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , N i n e t y - F o u r t h Annual R e p o r t , 196 4/65, A n n u a l r e p o r t o f t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , B.C., A S u t t o n , Queen's P r i n t e r , 1966. A P P E N D I C E S 78 APPENDIX A BRITISH COLUMBIA RULES FOR TEACHER EVALUATION 1. P r o v i s i o n s o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t f o r Teacher E v a l u a t i o n S e c t i o n 9 (1 ) ( k ) I n s p e c t i o n of t e a c h e r s R e p o r t on i n s p e c t i o n o f t e a c h e r s ( S e c t i o n 9 l i s t s t h e d u t i e s o f t h e „ D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f Schools.)-(k) a t some time i n t h e s c h o o l - y e a r , f o r m a l l y i n s p e c t , o r cause t o be i n s p e c t e d by a p e r s o n d u l y a u t h o r i z e d i n t h a t b e h a l f by o r d e r o f the C o u n c i l of P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , t h e work of ( i ) each t e a c h e r i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i z e d t o t e a c h under a non-permanent c e r t i f i c a t e o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n ; and ( i i ) each t e a c h e r on p r o b a t i o n a r y ap-point m e n t i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ; and ( i i i ) any t e a c h e r i n t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t w i t h r e s p e c t t o whom t h e Board o r the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n r e q u e s t s a r e p o r t ; and ( i v ) any t e a c h e r i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t who, on o r b e f o r e t h e t h i r t y - f i r s t day of March i n t h a t s c h o o l - y e a r r e q u e s t s t h a t a r e p o r t be made w i t h r e s p e c t t o h i m s e l f ; and may, a t any time d u r i n g the s c h o o l year,', f o r m a l l y i n s p e c t t h e work o f any o t h e r t e a c h e r i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ; (1) b e f o r e the c l o s e . o f t h e s c h o o l - y e a r submit a r e p o r t i n w r i t i n g t o t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f E d u c a t i o n p r e p a r e d by a p e r s o n a u t h o r i z e d under t h i s A c t t o i n s p e c t the work o f t e a c h e r s on t h e t e a c h i n g a b i l i t y and e f f i c i e n c y o f . tho s e t e a c h e r s l i s t e d i n paragraphs ( i ) and ( i i ) o f c l a u s e (k) upon whose work he deems a r e p o r t n e c e s s a r y , i n c l u d i n g t he l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n t h e c l a s s r o o m o r c l a s s r o o m s where t h e t e a c h -i n g t a k e s p l a c e , and s h a l l make a v a i l a b l e one copy o f the r e p o r t t o t h e Board and send one copy t o t h e t e a c h e r i n r e s p e c t o f whom t h e r e p o r t i s made; 79 2. S e c t i o n s o f t h e Rule s o f t h e C o u n c i l . o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n D e a l i n g w i t h Teacher E v a l u a t i o n The R u l e s a r e l a i d down by t h e C o u n c i l as t h e government body a d m i n i s t e r i n g the P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t . 3.14 The p r i n c i p a l o f a s c h o o l o f t e n o r more c l a s s e s s h a l l make a w r i t t e n r e p o r t t o t h e D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f ' Sc h o o l s on the work o f each t e a c h e r a p p o i n t e d t o t h a t s c h o o l i n t h a t s c h o o l - y e a r and on each o t h e r t e a c h e r n o t l e s s t h a n once e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s , and make such o t h e r w r i t t e n r e p o r t s on t e a c h e r s as may be r e q u i r e d by the Board o r by-the D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s . 3.15 The r e p o r t made under s e c t i o n 3.14 s h a l l be (a) based on a number o f s u p e r v i s o r y v i s i t s t o t h e c l a s s r o o m o f t h e t e a c h e r as w e l l as on t h e g e n e r a l work o f t h e t e a c h e r i n t h e s c h o o l ; (b) completed on o r b e f o r e t h e second F r i d a y i n May; and (c) made i n t r i p l i c a t e . 3.16 The o r i g i n a l o f t h e r e p o r t made under s e c t i o n 3.14 s h a l l be s e n t t o t h e D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s , one copy s h a l l be g i v e n t o t h e t e a c h e r , and one copy s h a l l be r e -t a i n e d i n t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s o f f i c e . 3.17 Where a p r i n c i p a l deems t h a t the work o f a t e a c h e r i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , h e . s h a l l f u r n i s h a w r i t t e n r e p o r t b u t s h a l l r e q u e s t t h e D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f S c h o o l s t o make or t o have made an independent r e p o r t on the work o f t h a t t e a c h e r b e f o r e the p r i n c i p a l f i l e s h i s r e p o r t . 3.18 The D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t a t h i s d i s c r e t i o n may, and upon r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e Board o f T r u s t e e s s h a l l , p r e s e n t t o the Board b o t h h i s r e p o r t on the t e a c h e r and t h a t o f the p r i n -c i p a l . 3.19 A l l r e p o r t s o f t h e D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t on t e a c h e r s under a p r i n c i p a l ' s d i r e c t i o n s h a l l be made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p r i n c i p a l on r e q u e s t . 11.11 I f a d i r e c t o r o f i n s t r u c t i o n i s so empowered by o r d e r o f t h e C o u n c i l o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n i s s u e d a t t h e r e -qu e s t o f the Board o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , he may i n s p e c t l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n c l a s s r o o m s and i s s u e r e p o r t s on them. 11.12 The r e p o r t s i s s u e d under s e c t i o n 11.11 s h a l l be c o u n t e r s i g n e d by t h e D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , and s h a l l t h e r e -80 upon have t h e f u l l f o r c e o f r e p o r t s i s s u e d by the D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t under s e c t i o n 9 (1) (k) o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t . 11.13 Re p o r t s i s s u e d under s e c t i o n 11.11 s h a l l be a d d i t i o n a l t o t h o s e made under s e c t i o n 9 (1) ( j ) o f t h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t . ( R e f e r r i n g t o r e p o r t s on s c h o o l e f f i c i e n c y ) 3. Recent Amendments The f o l l o w i n g amendments, d a t e d May 7, 1970, b r i n g t h e s e r u l e s up t o date as o f J u l y , 1970. They were n ot i n f o r c e a t the time o f t h e s u r v e y and have no b e a r i n g on any i n f e r e n c e s w hich may be drawn from t h e s u r v e y . R u l e 3.15 was r e p e a l e d and t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b s t i t u t e d : 3.15 The r e p o r t made under S e c t i o n 3.14 s h a l l be (a) based on a number o f s u p e r v i s o r y v i s i t s t o the c l a s s r o o m o f t h e t e a c h e r as w e l l as on t h e g e n e r a l work of t h e t e a c h e r i n t h a t s c h o o l ; (b) completed and f i l e d on o r b e f o r e t h e l a s t s c h o o l day i n A p r i l ; and (c) made i n t r i p l i c a t e . R u l e 3.17 was r e p e a l e d and t h e f o l l o w i n g was s u b s t i t u t e d : 3.17 Where e i t h e r a p r i n c i p a l r e q u i r e d t o make a r e p o r t under R u l e 3.14, o r a d i s t r i c t s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h e work o f a t e a c h e r i s l e s s t h a n s a t i s f a c t o r y each s h a l l n o t i f y t h e o t h e r and each s h a l l f u r n i s h an independent w r i t t e n r e p o r t on the work o f t h a t t e a c h e r . The r e p o r t o f t h e p r i n c i p a l s h a l l be deemed t o be t h e r e p o r t i n accordance w i t h Rule 3.14.. 81 APPENDIX B P r i n c i p a l ' s Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Form (B.C.) REPORT O N T E A C H E R B Y P R I N C I P A L T O INSPECTOR N a m e . Da te . ( M r . , Mrs . , M iss . ) (Surname.) (Chr ist ian names in fu l l . ) S c h o o l . ' Schoo l D is t r ic t N o (. ) Copies o f this report arc sent to the teacher and the Inspector o f Schools who, o n request, presents it, together w i t h his own report, to the B o a r d of School Trustees. Grades a n d / o r subjects taught Appo in tment (Perm. , P rob . , o r T e m p . ) : Cert i f icate classif ication D i v i s i on enrol led a n d / o r posit ion he ld -N u m b e r of years' service in this school . . . , i n B . C , elsewherc. R E P O R T Signed.. (Pr inc ipa l . ) (If desired, the back o f this sheet m a y be used for addit ional comments, but a l l such comments must be signed by the P r i n c i p a l . ) R e v i s e d P r i n c i p a l ' s Teacher E v a l u a t i o n Form c u r r e n t l y i n use i n t h e C i t y o f Vancouver (not used a t t h e time of t h e s u r v e y ) [ C O N F I D E N T I A L I } T E A C H E R V a n c o u v e r S c h o o l B o a r d PRINCIPAL'S IMPRESSIONS G R A D E S D a t e : . S C H O O L I O V E R A L L R A T I N G : S a t i s f a c t o r y { • ; U n s a t i s f a c t o r y M A J O R S U B J E C T F I E L D S R e m a r k s I n d i c a t i n g S t r e n g t h s a n d / o r W e a k n e s s e s \ !' A . I n s t r u c t i o n a l S k i l l L-. j ] i i \ I -k B . R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h S t u d e n t s i -t. i I i J ' I r. C . R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h S t a f f j •j ! |, I D . ' C o n t r i b u t i o n t o S c h o o l f ' P r o g r a m — G e n e r a l / S p e c i a l C | i \ GENERAL REMARKS: ( c o n t i n u e o v e r l e a f ) S i g n e d P r i n c i p a l j 83 P r i n c i p a l ' s T e a c h e r - r a t i n g Sheet Used i n t h e C i t y o f Vancouver 6 M - 9 & O G 9 - 6 4 PRINCIPAL'S IMPRESSIONS R E V I S E D J A N . I 9 6 0 C O N F I D E N T I A L S C H O O L . D A T E _ S U B J E C T ( S ) . Poor Fair . . S R A D E ( S ) Q Average Superior Excellent ENERGY AND INDUSTRY Works with enthusiasm and effective effort. 1 1 1 1 RELATIONSHIP WITH PARENTS Establishes and maintains satisfactory relationships with parents. 1 1 1 1 RELATIONSHIP WITH PUPILS Displays an active interest in the nrowth and develop-; ment cf pupils as individuals, and gains their respect. 1 1 1 RELATIONSHIP WITH STAFF Contributes to staff teamwork. I | | CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT OF PUPILS Maintains an atmosphere of industry and learnina. 1 I I 1 ORGANIZATION OF WORK Prepares and plans wisely; selects material carefully; makes adequate use of previews and day books. I I 1 i INSTRUCTIONAL SKILL Has definite objectives; develops uood study habits; stimulates thought; ensures motivation through skilful questioning; varies techniques to the abilities of pupils; displays a sense o> timing. L I 1 1 . USE AND CARE OF CLASS ROOM AND EQUIPMENT Provides attractive atmosphere; inculcates good house-keeping habits. 1 1 1 1 . ADMINISTRATIVE ROUTINE Completes records and reports with promptness, accuracy, and neatness. 1 1 1 G E N E R A L R E M A R K S ( i n c l u d i n g s p e c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the c u r r i c u l a r a n d c o - c u r r i c u l a r p r o g r a m m e of the schoo l . ) S i g n e d APPENDIX C TEACHER EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE 84 WHO SHOULD ANSWER; Anyone who was employed as a teacher in B r i t i s h Columbia for the past year INFORMATION; This questionnaire i s designed to show how teacher evaluation, the process of judging the effectiveness of teachers, i s seen by you. It w i l l enquire about the d e t a i l s of teacher eva-l u a t i o n practice i n B.C., who i s evaluated, how often, and by whom. I t w i l l also try to determine whether teacher evaluation emphasizes the personnel aspect, which i s con-cerned with decisions about h i r i n g , f i r i n g , promotion, assignment of duties, etc., or whether i t encompasses also the wider aspect of improvement of i n s t r u c t i o n which i s concerned not only with the s k i l l s of the teacher, but also with any other factors, c o n t r o l l a b l e by the teacher or the school, which a f f e c t the learning s i t u a t i o n . An important part of this survey i s to fin d out how s a t i s f i e d you are with the present system and also how much confidence you place i n the people who judge you and i n the reports they issue. This involves asking you some questions about your own experiences with evaluation. For this reason we are asking you to remain anonymous. Thank you fo r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n our survey. We hope you w i l l find i t of i n t e r e s t . PROCEDURE;. I f you are unable to remember the exact i n f o r -mation c a l l e d for. i n a question, please answer with your best estimate.' -PLEASE .WRITE IN THE BOX THE NUKBER OF THE SCHOOL DISTRICT IN WHICH YOU WERE EMPLOYED IN THE PAST SCHOOL YEAR. 85 HOW TO ANSWER; TEACHER EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE Place the number of the appropriate answer i n the box i n the ri g h t hand margin. Clearly written numbers w i l l ease the work of the punch-card operators. PART A Although you are anonymous, we need some i n f o r -mation about you f o r in t e r p r e t a t i o n of the results of the questionnaire: -Your appointment at the beginning of the past school year was: Probationary I l l Permanent I 2 1 Temporary With which grade levels was the bulk of your time spent i n the past year? Elementary(K-Gr.VII) [TJ Secondary(Gr.VI1I-XIII) Your assignment i n the pas t".year was : 1 Classroom teacher half-time or more Classroom teacher less than half-time Won-teaching duties Your category f o r salary purposes i n the past school year was 0 S E Q 0 B 0 PC PB PA EC EB EA PC B.Ed. 8 PA Mas, For how many years have you served as a teacher i n B.C.? 8 9 10 1 yr. 2 yr.3 yr,4 yr,5 yr.6-10 11-20 21-30 31-40 .more than '• 40 Sex: hale Female • 1. • 2 i • 3. • 4. • 5. 6. -2- 86 ars: For how many years were you continuously employed by your most recent school d i s t r i c t ? (Do not count back past a break of a year or more.) i n or more Within that period, but not beyond 10 years, how many signed teaching reports did you receive from a D i s t r i c t Superintendent, Director of Instruction, or Inspector? ports: Received no reports: 3 J 1 9 H I 10 or more • 7. i I • 8. For how many years were you continuously employed i n your most recent school? (Do not count back past a break of a year or ; more.) irs : r 4 LJ B lij 0 o r more 9. Within that period, but not beyond 10 years, how many signed teaching reports did you receive from the principal? o r t s : 0 9 Received no reports 0" 10 or more 10. When did you receive your most recent report by a D i s t r i c t  Superintendent> Director of Instruction, or Inspector? LLI B S E 0 0 0 10 1964-65 63-64 62-63 61-62 60-61 59-60 58-59 57-53 56-57 55-56 or e a r l i e r Have not received one: u 11. 11 When did you receive the most recent report by your Principal? LH B LU B B B B H a i r 1964-65 63-64 62-63 61-62 60-61 59-60 53-59 57-58 56-57 55-56 Have not received one: 11 o r e a r l i e r ; 12. 13. When the p r i n c i p a l l a s t evaluated your work, and made a written report, did you receive a copy? Yes. G j No, but I expect to receive a copy. 2 [ No, but I can see i t at my request. 3 1 To my knowledge, the p r i n c i p a l has not made a report. { 4 1, No, and a copy i s not available to me. j ^ j 14. When the most recent written report on your work was made by a D i s t r i c t Superintendent, Director of Instruction, or Inspector, did you receive a copy. Yes. No, but I expect to receive a copy. No, but I can see i t at my request. n To my knowledge, none of the evaluators mentioned j ^  j has made a report. ' ' No, and a copy i s not av a i l a b l e to me. 13, 14. PART B REPORT BY A PRINCIPAL A l l the questions i n this part r e f e r to your most recent report by a p r i n c i p a l i n the past 5 years. IF YOU HAVE NOT RECEIVED A REPORT BY A PRINCIPAL IN THE PAST 5 YEARS, PLEASE OMIT THIS PART AND GO ON TO PART C ON PAGE 7. 8 15. What was the number of teachers under the supervision of your p r i n c i p a l at the time of this most recent report? (Include the vic e p r i n c i p a l , counsellors, etc.)? 0 LU tu m up to 3 9 10 11-20 21-30 31-40 41-50 over 50 L6. Did you have a cle a r idea early i n the year what the p r i n c i p a l would expect of you as a teacher? Yes. . No. 0 u 15. 16, 17. What was the form of the Prin c i p a l ' s report? Free form: The evaluator makes written statements about anything he considers should be included. Guided form: Check l i s t - the evaluator i s required to make written statements about each of a l i s t of teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s printed on the form. Rating scajLe - the evaluator i s required to give the teacher a ra t i n g , or grade, on each of a printed l i s t of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Combination forms: Free form plus check l i s t . 3; ~4 Free form plus rating scale 18. In your opinion, does the report form used permit adequate reporting on the effectiveness of teachers? • D e f i n i t e l y . Probably. Undecided. Probably D e f i n i t e l y Not. Not. In what way do you consider i t to be e f f e c t i v e or in e f f e c t i v e ? 19. In your opinion, was your p r i n c i p a l ' s report based on an adequate knowledge of your work? Yes Yes, c e r t a i n l y . Probably. Undecided Please give a reason for your answer: No, probably. No, c e r t a i n l y . 20. Was s u f f i c i e n t account taken of circumstances outside your control, such as number of students, kinds of students, teaching assignments, f a c i l i t i e s , etc.? Yes Yes No, c e r t a i n l y . probably. Undecided probably. No, | 5 c e r t a i n l y . 89 -5-Estimate how a prospective employer would rate you as a teacher, whether c o r r e c t l y or not. on the basis of your p r i n c i p a l ' s report. 6 Excellent. Superior. S a t i s -factory F a i r . Unsatis-factory. He could not rate me. Were there suggestions i n the report as to how the learning s i t u a t i o n i n your cLassroom might be improved? Yes No. I f yes, please give an example of this kind of suggestion or recommendation: Were you given a preliminary written evaluation, a sort of t r i a l run, as a working basis for evaluation? Yes. No. How many times did the p r i n c i p a l make formal observation v i s i t s of more than 10 minutes to your classroom? or more Noobservatioi How frequently did the p r i n c i p a l make "drcp-in" v i s i t s to your classroom? Choose the most nearly correct response. LH Never. Infrequently. Occasionally Frequently. Almost d a i l y . ( 3 or 4 times)(once-a-month)(once a week) Were you observed when teaching a subject i n which you are' most competent? Yes. No Was the p r i n c i p a l ' s report consistent with his discussions with. you?r No c r i t i c a l c r i t i c a l 0 ,more No, less There was no discussion - 6 - 90 28. What was your reaction to the report by the principal? LT1 Greatly pleased. Pleased. Indifferent. Displeased Angry. Why so? , 2 9 . In your opinion, what was the e f f e c t on your classroom s i t u a t i o n of the pr i n c i p a l ' s presence for observation? Greatly improves i t , everyone "on his toes". ' 1 j Classroom operates s l i g h t l y above normal l e v e l j j No noticeable difference. i J ) S l i g h t l y adverse e f f e c t . Highly adverse e f f e c t . There was no classroom observation. Lid 5 • 2 3 • 2 9 , 30. The p r i n c i p a l who made your most recent report: indicate how you see him as a judge of the learning s i t u a t i o n i n your classroom. LH Highly acceptable. Why so? Acceptable. Not acceptable. • 30 31. Adequacy of the report: indicate the degree of your agre<?ment with this statement: "The report said a l l that needed to be said". m Strongly agree. Agree. Undecided. Disagree, L H Strongly disagree. L _ 3] END OF PART B 91 -7-PART C REPORTS BY DISTRICT SUPERINTENDENTS« DIRECTORS OF INSTRUCTION. OR INSPECTORS A l l the questions i n this part r e f e r to your most recent  report i n the past 5 years by a D i s t r i c t Superintendent, a Director of Instruction, or an Inspector. (Hereafter we w i l l often r e f e r to this person as the evaluator.) IF YOU HAVE NOT RECEIVED SUCH A REPORT IN THE PAST 5 YEARS, OKIT THIS PART AND GO ON TO PART D ON PAGE 10.  32. Did you have a cle a r idea early i n the school year what the evaluator would expect of you as a teacher? Yes. No. 33. What was the form of the evaluator"s report? Free form: The evaluator makes written statements about anything he considers should be included. Guided forms: Check l i s t - the evaluator i s required to make written statements about each of a l i s t of teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s printed on the form. Rating scale - the evaluator i s required to give the teacher a rat i n g , or grade, on each o f a printed l i s t of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Combination forms: Free form plus check l i s t . Free form plus rating scale. LH 34. In your opinion, does the report form used permit adequate reporting on the effectiveness of teachers? D e f i n i t e l y . Probably. Undecided. Probably not. D e f i n i t e l y not. In what way do you consider i t to be e f f e c t i v e or in e f f e c t i v e ? 35. In your opinion, was the report based on an adequate knowledge of your work? c e r t a i n l y , probably. Undecided, probably. c e r t a i n l y . Please give a reason for your answer: 36. Was s u f f i c i e n t account taken of circumstances beyond your con t r o l , such as number of students, kinds of students, teaching assignments, f a c i l i t i e s , etc.? Yes . • ^ s , H] No, No, c e r t a i n l y , probably. Undecided probably, c e r t a i n l y . 37. Estimate how a prospective employer would rate you as a teacher, whether c o r r e c t l y or not, on the basis of that report. CO LH excellent. Superior. Satisfactory. F a i r . Unsatis- He could factory, not rate me, 38. Were there suggestions i n the report as to how the learning s i t u a t i o n i n your classroom might be improved? Yes. • No. If yes, please give an example of this kind of suggestion or recommendatio 39. Were you given a preliminary written evaluation, a sort of t r i a l run as a working basis for evaluation? Yes • d J No. 40. How many times did the evaluator make formal observation v i s i t s of mora than 10 minutes to your classroom? V i s i t s =• LH LU • 0 9 10 or more No observation. |11 - 9 -93 41. How frequently did the evaluator make "drop-in" v i s i t s to your classroom? Choose the most nearly correct response: NeveJ. Inl requently, OccasTonally. Frequently. AlmosT d a i l y . (3 or 4 times)(Once-a-month)(once-a-week) 42. Were you observed when teaching a subject i n which you are most competent? i — r i — i Yes. [ l j . No. j 2 |. 43. Was the evaluator"s report consistent with your discussions with him?r— m Yes No, more No, less c r i t i c a l , c r i t i c a l . There was no discussion. 44. What was your reaction to the report by this evaluator? itTy Greatl pleased. Pleas Why so? 3 ed. Indifferent. Displeas ed. Angry. 45, In your opinion, what was the e f f e c t on your classroom s i t u a t i o n of the presence of this evaluator for observation? Greatly improves i t , everyone "dn h i s toes". Classroom operates s l i g h t l y above normal l e v e l . No noticeable difference. S l i g h t l y adverse e f f e c t . Highly adverse e f f e c t . There was no classroom observation. 46. The evaluator who made the most recent report: Indicate how you see him as a judge of the ^earning s i t u a t i o n i n your classroom. • Highly acceptable. Acceptable. Not acceptable. 47, Adequacy of the report: Indicate the degree of your agreement with this statement: "The report said a l l that needed to be said." S trong l y agree. _ 2 Agree. Undecided. Disagree. Strongly disagree • 47. END OF PART C PART D GENERAL QUESTIONS ABOUT TEACHER EVALUATION. EVERYONE SHOULD COMPLETE THIS PART. 48. 49. The remaining questions are i n the form of statements. Please indicate the degree of your agreement with each of them. "Evaluation of teaching would be improved i f the s t a f f of each school had the task of describing what would be considered good teaching practice for that school." CD CP LH Q H • Agree. Undecided.: Disagree. Strongly ; 48. Strongly agree. disagree. "Evaluation of teaching would be improved i f the s t a f f of a school had the job of evaluating the performance of i t s membjgr s." Strongly Agree, agree. 3 Undecided. Disagree. Strongly disagree. 50. "Teachers are wary of discussing t h e i r work with the p r i n c i p a l who has the dutv of reporting on teachers' work." LU Strongly Agree Undecided. Disagree Strongly a?ree W l H l ? e S " w i t h i e s - .... ° , agree, ervations. ervations. disagree. 51. "Our evaluation process allows me freedom of action as a teacher." Strongly Agree, agree. Undecided. Disagree. Strongly disagree. • 49. • 50. • 51. 95 -11-52. "The present evaluation system enables administrators to make a sound evaluation of a teachers work." a 0 0 m m Strongly Agree. Undecided. Disagree. Strongly agree. disagree. • 52. "My performance as a teacher has improved as a res u l t of teacher evaluation." Strongly Agree, agree. Undecided. Disagree. Strongly disagree. 54. "iiy school would benefit from more frequent evaluation of teachers." 0 Strongly Agree. Undecided, agree. 0 Disagree. Strongly disagree. 0 54. "Teacher evaluation i n B. C. makes a worthwhile contribution to rjaa iintenanceand improvement of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l program." 0 Strongly Agree, agree. Undecided. Disagree. Strongly disagree. 55. "The teacher evaluation system i n B r i t i s h Columbia should be changed." Strongly agree. Agree. Undecided. 0 Disagree. Strongly disagree. • 56. I f you agreed with this statement, please state b r i e f l y the d i r e c t i o n such change should take: 96 APPENDIX D TABULATION OF RESPONSES The f o u r q u e s t i o n n a i r e p a r t s were p r e s e n t e d t o r e s p o n -dents s e q u e n t i a l l y . However, because PART B and PART C asked i d e n t i c a l q u e s t i o n s , PART B about e v a l u a t i o n s by p r i n c i p a l s , and PART C about e v a l u a t i o n s by o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s , namely, D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , o r I n s p e c t o r s , i t w i l l be c o n v e n i e n t f o r t h e sake of comparison t o r e p o r t r esponses f o r PART B and PART C i n p a r a l l e l f a s h i o n w i t h t h e responses t o c o r r e s p o n d i n g i t e m s a d j a c e n t t o one a n o t h e r . The t o t a l number o f responses t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was 353. The res p o n s e s t o PART B and PART C were l e s s t h a n t h i s because o f the a r b i t r a r y l i m i t a t i o n r e s t r i c t i n g r e s p o n d e n t s t o r e p o r t i n g e v a l u a t i o n s w i t h i n the p a s t f i v e y e a r s . T o t a l r e sponses t o each o f t h e f o u r p a r t s were as f o l l o w s : PART A, 353; PART B: 283; PART C: 275; PART D: 353. Thus i t can be seen t h a t o f t h e 353 t e a c h e r s r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e ques-t i o n n a i r e , 283, or 80.17 p e r c e n t , r e p o r t e d i n PART B r e c e i v i n g a t l e a s t one r e p o r t from a p r i n c i p a l i n the p a s t f i v e y e a r s , w h i l e 275,.or 77.90 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d i n PART C r e c e i v i n g one from a D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , D i r e c t o r o f I n s t r u c t i o n , o r I n s p e c t o r . 97 In t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b u l a t i o n each q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m i s r e s t a t e d n e a r l y as worded i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w i t h the format a d j u s t e d f o r conv e n i e n c e o f r e p o r t i n g . The t a b u l a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f t a l l i e s o f responses w i t h t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r -c e n t s , a t a l l y o f non-response t o each i t e m , and t h e t o t a l o f res p o n d e n t s f o r each i t e m . T h i s m a t e r i a l i s e n c l o s e d i n boxes t o c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h i t from t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s . >JVXU~~ , .. . QUESTIONNAIRE PART A 1. Your appointment a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p a s t s c h o o l y e a r was: T a l l y P e r c e n t P r o b a t i o n a r y 141 39.94 Permanent 187 52.97 Temporary 19 5.38 Non-response : 6 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 2. With w h i c h grade l e v e l s was t h e b u l k o f y o u r time s p e n t i n t h e p a s t y e a r ? T a l l y P e r c e n t E l e m e n t a r y (K-Gr.VII) 264 74.79 Secondary ( G r . V T I I - X I I I ) 83 23.51 Non-response : 6 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 98 3. Your•assignment i n t h e p a s t y e a r was Classroom, t e a c h e r h a l f - t i m e o r more Cl a s s r o o m t e a c h e r l e s s t h a n h a l f - t i m e N o n - t e a c h i n g d u t i e s y e a r : T a l l y P e r c e n t 338 95.75 4 1.13 5 1.42 Non-response : 6 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 4. Your c a t e g o r y f o r s a l a r y purposes i n t h e p a s t s c h o o l y e a r was: EC 11 3.12% PC 27 7.65% EB 149 42.21 PB 39 11.85 EA 96 27.20 PA 9 2.55 PC (B.Ed.) 17 4.82 PA (Mas.) 1 0.28 Non--response: 4 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 F o r how many y e a r s have you s e r v e d as a t e a c h e r i n B.C.? 1 y e a r 2 y e a r s 3 y e a r s 4 y e a r s 5 y e a r s 77 21.81% 62 17.56 53 15.01 29 8.22 21 5.95 Non- res p o n s e : 4 6-10 y e a r s 11-20 y e a r s 21-30 y e a r s 31-40 y e a r s More th a n 40 y e a r s 60 34 9 3 1 17.00% 9.63 2.55 0.85 0.28 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 99 6. Sex: T a l l y P e r c e n t Male 133 37.64 Female 229 62.08 Non-response: 1 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 7. F o r how many y e a r s were you c o n t i n u o u s l y employed by your most r e c e n t s c h o o l d i s t r i c t ? (Do not count back p a s t a break o f a y e a r o r more.) ~ 1 y e a r 125 35.41% 6 y e a r s 20 5.67% 2 y e a r s 68 19 .26 7 y e a r s 7 1.98 3 y e a r s 45 12.75 8 y e a r s 11 3.12 4 y e a r s 28 7.93 9 y e a r s 4 1.13 5 y e a r s 17 4.82 10 y e a r s 25 7.08 or more Non- r e s p o n s e : T o t a l t a l l y : 3 353 8. W i t h i n t h a t p e r i o d , b u t n o t beyond 10 y e a r s , how many s i g n e d t e a c h i n g r e p o r t s d i d you r e c e i v e from a D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , D i r e c t o r o f I n s t r u c t i o n , o r I n s p e c t o r ? 1 r e p o r t 165 46.74% 6 r e p o r t s 3 0.85% 2 r e p o r t s 74 20.96 7 r e p o r t s 0 0.00 3 r e p o r t s 23 6.52 8 r e p o r t s 1 0.28 4 r e p o r t s . 12 3.40 9 r e p o r t s 0 0.00 5 r e p o r t s 3 Non-0.85 r e s p o n s e : 9 10 r e p o r t s o r more R e c e i v e d no r e p o r t s 0 0.00 63 17.85 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 100 9. F o r how many y e a r s were you c o n t i n u o u s l y employed i n your most r e c e n t s c h o o l ? (Do not count back p a s t a break of a y e a r o r moreT) 1 y e a r s 148 41. 93% 6 y e a r s 14 3.97% 2 y e a r s 81 22.95 7 y e a r s 8 2.27 3 y e a r s 40 11.33 8 y e a r s 10 2.83 4 y e a r s 21 5.95 9 y e a r s 3 0.85 5 y e a r s 13 3.68 10 or more 9 2.55 Non- •response: T o t a l t a l l y : 6 353 10. W i t h i n t h a t p e r i o d , b u t not beyond 10 y e a r s , how many s i g n e d t e a c h i n g r e p o r t s d i d you r e c e i v e from t h e p r i n c i p a l ? 1 r e p o r t 2 r e p o r t s 3 r e p o r t s 4 r e p o r t s 5 r e p o r t s 164 46.46% 6 r e p o r t s 10 2.83% 57 16.15 7 r e p o r t s 2 0.57 23 6.52 8 r e p o r t s 3 0.85 15 4.25 9 r e p o r t s 0 0.00 8 2.27, 10 o r more 5 1.42 Non- r e s p o n s e : 12 R e c e i v e d no r e p o r t s 54 15.30 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 When d i d you r e c e i v e y o u r most r e c e n t r e p o r t by a D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , D i r e c t o r o f - I n s t r u c t i o n , o r I n s p e c t o r ? 1964-65 139 39 .38% 1963-64 73 20.68 1962-63 32 9.07 1961-62 18 5.10 1960-61 13 3.68 Non -response: 4 When d i d you r e c e i v e t h e p r i n c i p a l ? 1964-65 197 55.81% 1963-64 53 15.01 1962-63 19 5.38 1961-62 9 2.55 1960-61 5 1.45 Non--response: 13 1959-60 5 1.42% 1958-59 7 1.58 1957-58 4 1,13 1956-57- 1 0.28 1955-56 or e a r l i e r 8 2.27 Have not r e c e i v e d one 49 13.88 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 r e c e n t r e p o r t by your 1959-60 2 0.57% 1958-59 3 0.85 1957-58 1 0.28 1956-57 0 0.00 1955-56 o r e a r l i e r 1 0.00 Have n ot r e c e i v e d one 50 14.16 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 102 13. When t h e p r i n c i p a l l a s t e v a l u a t e d y o u r work and made a w r i t t e n r e p o r t , d i d you r e c e i v e a copy? Yes. 282 79.89% No, b u t I e x p e c t t o r e c e i v e a copy. 4 1.13 No, b u t I can see i t a t my r e q u e s t . 8 2.27 To my knowledge t h e p r i n c i -p a l has n o t made a r e p o r t . 32 9.07 No, and a copy i s not a v a i l a b l e t o me. 7 1.98 Non-response: 20 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 14. When the most r e c e n t r e p o r t on your, work was made by a D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , D i r e c t o r o f I n s t r u c t i o n , o r I n s p e c t o r , d i d you r e c e i v e a copy? Yes. 278 78.75% No, b u t I e x p e c t t o r e c e i v e a copy. 3 0.85 No, b u t I can see i t a t my r e q u e s t . 17 4.82 To my knowledge none of t h e e v a l u a t o r s mentioned has made a r e p o r t . 36 10 .20 No, and a copy i s not a v a i l -a b l e t o me. 11 3.12 Non-response: 8 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 103 PARTS B AND C Wit h two e x c e p t i o n s t h e ite m s o f PARTS B and C are i d e n t i c a l . The f i r s t e x c e p t i o n i s t h a t i t e m 15, the f i r s t q u e s t i o n o f PART B, i s a s p e c i a l i t e m i n c l u d e d f o r t h e purpose o f d e t e r m i n i n g the s i z e o f s c h o o l s u p e r v i s e d by r e p o r t i n g p r i n c i p a l s . I t i s not r e p e a t e d i n PART C. The o t h e r excep-t i o n i s t h a t where t h e word " P r i n c i p a l " appears i n an i t e m o f PART B i t i s r e p l a c e d by " D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , - D i r e c t o r o f I n s t r u c t i o n , o r " I n s p e c t o r , " o r f o r a b b r e v i a t i o n , "the e v a l u a t o r , " i n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g i t e m o f PART C. For conven-i e n c e o f comparison t h e n , a f t e r i t e m 15, PARTS B and C are r e p o r t e d i n p a r a l l e l , w i t h PART B on t h e l e f t and c o r r e s p o n d i n g i t e m s o f PART C on t h e r i g h t . Only t h e wo r d i n g o f PART B item s i s g i v e n , w i t h t h e words f o r which s u b s t i t u t i o n i s made i n PART C c o n t a i n e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s . 15. What was the number o f t e a c h e r s under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f your p r i n c i p a l a t t h e time o f t h i s most r e c e n t r e p o r t ? ( I n c l u d e t h e v i c e p r i n c i p a l , c o u n s e l l o r s , e t c . ) Teachers s u p e r v i s e d : up t o 8 16 5.65% 21-30 72 25.44 9 4 1.41 31-40 20 7.07 10 15 5.30 41-50 6 2.12 11-20 116 40.99 over 50 24 8.48 Non -re s p o n s e : 10 T o t a l 283 t a l l y : 104 PART B PART C 16. D i d you have a c l e a r i d e a e a r l y i n t h e y e a r what the ( P r i n c i p a l ) would e x p e c t o f you as a t e a c h e r ? 32, PRINCIPALS SUPERINTENDENTS DIRECTORS INSPECTORS 184 65.02% Yes. 116 42.18% 95 33.57% No. 147 53.45% Non-response: 4 Non-response: 12 T o t a l t a l l y : 283 T o t a l t a l l y : 275 17. What was t h e form o f the ( P r i n c i p a l ' s ) r e p o r t ? 33. 174 61.48? 11 3.8! 21 7.4 1% 34 12.01% 35 12.37% Non-response T o t a l t a l l y : F r e e form: t h e e v a l u a t o r makes w r i t t e n s t a t e m e n t s about a n y t h i n g he t h i n k s s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d . Guided form: Check l i s t - the e v a l u a t o r i s re--q u i r e d t o make w r i t t e n s t a t e m e n t s about each o f a l i s t o f t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r i n t e d on the form. R a t i n g s c a l e - t h e e v a l u a t o r i s r e -q u i r e d t o g i v e a r a t i n g o r grade on each o f a p r i n t e d l i s t o f c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s . C o m b i n a t i o n forms: F r e e form p l u s check l i s t F r e e form p l u s r a t i n g s c a l e 8 283 35 12.73% 39 14.18% Non-response: 19 T o t a l t a l l y : 275 153 55.64% 16 6.91? 10 3.64% 105 PART B PART C 18. I n y o u r o p i n i o n , does t h e r e p o r t form used 34. p e r m i t adequate r e p o r t i n g on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h e r s ? 61 21.55% D e f i n i t e l y . 45 16.36% 114 40.28% P r o b a b l y . 137 49.82% 43 15.19% Undecided. 41 14.91% 36 12.72% P r o b a b l y n o t . 18 6.55% 18 6.36% D e f i n i t e l y n o t . 18 6.55% Non-response: 11 Non-response: 16 T o t a l t a l l y : 283 T o t a l t a l l y : 275 19. I n y o u r , o p i n i o n , was ( y o u r . p r i n c i p a l 1 s ) r e p o r t 35. based on an adequate knowledge o f your work? PRINCIPALS SUPERINTENTS ETC. 79 27.92% Yes, c e r t a i n l y 33 12.00% 94 33*22% Yes, p r o b a b l y 84 30.55% 34 12.01% Undecided 54 19.64% 49 17.31% No, p r o b a b l y 59 21.45% 20 7.07% No, c e r t a i n l y 31 11.27% Non-response: 7 Non-response: 14 T o t a l t a l l y : 283 T o t a l t a l l y : 275 106 PART B PART C 20. Was s u f f i c i e n t a ccount t a k e n o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s 36. o u t s i d e y o u r c o n t r o l , such as number o f s t u -d e n t s , k i n d s o f s t u d e n t s , t e a c h i n g a s s i g n m e n t s , f a c i l i t i e s , e t c . ? 101 Yes, 64 35.69% c e r t a i n l y 23.27% 113 Yes, 122 39.33% p r o b a b l y 44.36% 35 Undecided 45 12.37% 16.36% 20 No, 24 7.07% p r o b a b l y 8.73% 7 No, 8 2.47% c e r t a i n l y 2.91% Non-response: 7 Non-response: 12 T o t a l t a l l y : 283 T o t a l t a l l y : 275 21. E s t i m a t e how a p r o s p e c t i v e employer would r a t e 37. you as a t e a c h e r , whether c o r r e c t l y o r n o t , on the b a s i s o f (your p r i n c i p a l ' s ) r e p o r t . PRINCIPALS SUPERINTENDENTS ETC. 39 E x c e l l e n t 16 13.78% 5.82% 118 S u p e r i o r 90 41.70% 32.73% 109 S a t i s f a c t o r y 136 38.52% 49.45% 6 F a i r 12 2.12% 4.36% 1 U n s a t i s f a c t o r y 4 0.35% 1.45% 5 He;could n ot 1 1.77% r a t e me 0.36% Non-response: 5 Non-response: 16 T o t a l t a l l y : 283 T o t a l t a l l y : 275 107 PART B PART C 22. Were t h e r e s u g g e s t i o n s i n t h e r e p o r t as t o how 38. the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n your c l a s s r o o m might be improved? 72 25.44% Yes. 95 34.55% 204 72.08% No. 164 59.64% Non-response: 7 Non-response: 16 T o t a l t a l l y : 283 T o t a l t a l l y : 275 PRINCIPALS SUPERINTENDENTS ETC.' 23. Were you g i v e n a p r e l i m i n a r y w r i t t e n e v a l u a t i o n , 39. a s o r t o f t r i a l r u n , as a w o r k i n g b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i o n ? 37 13.07% Yes. 34 12.36% 241 85.16% No. 228 82.91% Non-response: 5 Non-response: 13 T o t a l t a l l y : 283 T o t a l t a l l y : 275 108 PART B PRINCIPALS PART C SUPERINTENDENTS ETC. • How many times d i d the ( p r i n c i p a l ) make f o r m a l 40 o b s e r v a t i o n v i s i t s o f more th a n 10 minutes t o your c l a s s r o o m ? 66 1 v i s i t 105 23.32% 38.18% 53 2 101 18.73% 36.73% 44 3 24 15.55% 8.73% 26 4 9 9.19% 3.27% 10 5 2 3.53% 0.73% 8 6 4 2.83% 1.45% 2 7 0 0.71% 0.00% 4 8 0 1.41% 0.00% 1 9 0 0.35% 0.00% 10 10 o r more 0 3.53% 0.00% 51 No v i s i t s 15 17.92% 5.45% Non-response: 8 Non-response: T o t a l t a l l y : 283 T o t a l t a l l y : 109 PART B PART C PRINCIPALS SUPERINTENDENTS ETC. 2 5 . How f r e q u e n t l y d i d t h e ( p r i n c i p a l ) make " d r o p - 4 1 . i n " v i s i t s t o y o u r c l a s s r o o m ? Choose t he most n e a r l y c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . . 24 N e v e r . 170 8.48% 61.82% 79 I n f r e q u e n t l y 66 27.92% (3 o r 4 t i m e s ) 24.00% 98 O c c a s i o n a l l y 17 34.63% (once a month) 6.18% 68 F r e q u e n t l y • 3 24.03% • (once a week) 1.09% 8 A l m o s t d a i l y 1 2.83% 0.36% N o n - r e s p o n s e 6 N o n - r e s p o n s e : 18 T o t a l t a l l y : 283 T o t a l t a l l y : 275 26 . Were you o b s e r v e d when t e a c h i n g a s u b j e c t i n w h i c h you a r e most competen t? 42 . 158 55.83% 112 39.58% N o n - r e s p o n s e : 13 T o t a l t a l l y : 283 Yes N o . 139 50.55% 117 42.55% N o n - r e s p o n s e : 19 T o t a l t a l l y : 275 110 PART B PRINCIPALS PART C SUPERINTENDENTS ETC. ' 2 7 . Was t h e ( p r i n c i p a l ' s ) r e p o r t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s 4 3 . d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h you? 166 58.66% 19 6 .1.1% 12 4.24% 81 2 8.62% N o n - r e s p o n s e : 5 T o t a l t a l l y : 283 Yes N o , more c r i t i c a l . . N o , l e s s c r i t i c a l . The re was no d i s c u s s i o n . 152 55.27% 25 9.09% 15 5.45% 66 24.00% N o n - r e s p o n s e : 17 T o t a l t a l l y : 275 2 8 . What was y o u r r e a c t i o n t o t h e r e p o r t by ( the 44 . p r i n c i p a l ) ? 51 18.02% G r e a t l y p l e a s e d . 31 11.27% 149 52,65% P l e a s e d . 150 54.55% 52 18.37% I n d i f f e r e n t 43 15.64% 19 6.71% D i s p l e a s e d . 28 10.18% 4 1.41% A n g r y . 8 2.91% N o n - r e s p o n s e : 8 N o n - r e s p o n s e : 15 T o t a l t a l l y : 283 T o t a l t a l l y : 275 I l l PART B PART C PRINCIPALS SUPERINTENDENTS ETC. 29. I n y o u r o p i n i o n , what was t h e e f f e c t on y o u r 45. c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n o f t h e ( p r i n c i p a l ' s ) p r e s e n c e f o r o b s e r v a t i o n ? 9 3.18% G r e a t l y improves i t , everyone "on h i s t o e s . " 11 4.00% 81 28.62% C l a s s r o o m o p e r a t e s s l i g h t l y above normal l e v e l . 94 34.18% 130 45.94% No n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e . 116 42.18% 27 9.54% S l i g h t l y a d v e r s e e f f e c t . 35 12.73% 0 0 .00% H i g h l y a d v e r s e e f f e c t , 1 0.36% 28 9.89% There was no c l a s s -room o b s e r v a t i o n . 5 1.82% Non-response : 8 Non-response: 13 T o t a l t a l l y : 283 T o t a l t a l l y : 275 30 The ( p r i n c i p a l ) who made your most r e c e n t r e p o r t : 46 i n d i c a t e how i n g s i t u a t i o n you see him as a judge of the l e a r n -i n y o u r c l a s s r o o m . 75 H i g h l y 64 26 .50% a c c e p t a b l e . 23.27% 155 A c c e p t a b l e . 155 54.77% 56.36% 42 Not 39 14.84% a c c e p t a b l e . 14.18% Non-response: 11 Non-response: 17 T o t a l t a l l y : 283 T o t a l t a l l y : 275 112 PART B PART C PRINCIPALS SUPERINTENDENTS ETC. 31. Adequacy o f the r e p o r t : I n d i c a t e the degree o f 47. your agreement w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t : "The r e p o r t s a i d a l l t h a t needed t o be s a i d . " 15 5.30% S t r o n g l y a gree. 9 3.27% 113 39.93% Agree. 115 41.82% 82 29.98% Undecided. 72 26.18% 54 19.08% D i s a g r e e . 48 17.45% 11 3.89% S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e . 16 5.82% Non-response: 8 Non-response: 15 T o t a l t a l l y : 283 T o t a l t a l l y : 275 PART D (Statements: I n d i c a t e degree of Agreement) 48. " E v a l u a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g would be improved i f t h e s t a f f o f each s c h o o l had t h e t a s k o f d e s c r i b i n g what would be c o n s i d e r e d good t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e f o r . t h a t s c h o o l . " S t r o n g l y . a g r e e 55 15. 58% Agree 138 39 09% Undecided 101 28 61% ' D i s a g r e e 40 11 3 3 % S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 8 2 27% Non-response 11 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 113 49. " E v a l u a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g would be improved i f t h e s t a f f o f a s c h o o l had t h e j o b o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e performance o f i t s members," S t r o n g l y agree 11 3. 12% Agree 36 10. 20% Undecided 66 18. 70% D i s a g r e e 134 37. 96% S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 95 26. 91% Non-responses: 11 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 50. "Teachers a r e wary o f d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r work w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l who has t h e duty o f r e p o r t i n g on t e a c h e r s ' work." S t r o n g l y . a g r e e 21 5. 95% Agree w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n s 124 35. 13% Undecided 42 11. 90% D i s a g r e e w i t h . r e s e r v a t i o n s 107 30. 31% S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 49 13. 88% Non-response: 10 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 114 51. "Our e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s allows.me freedom o f a c t i o n as a t e a c h e r . " S t r o n g l y agree 29 8. 22% Agree 164 46. 46% Undecided 66 18. 70% D i s a g r e e 69 19. 55% S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 16 4. 53% Non-response: 9 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 52. "The p r e s e n t e v a l u a t i o n system e n a b l e s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o make a sound e v a l u a t i o n o f a t e a c h e r ' s work." S t r o n g l y agree 5 1. 42% Agree 63 17. 85% Undecided 111 31. 44% D i s a g r e e 124 35. 13% S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 41 11. 61% Non-response: 9 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 115 53. "My performance as a t e a c h e r has improved as a r e s u l t o f t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . " S t r o n g l y agree 13 3.68% Agree 104 29.46% Undecided 77 21.81% D i s a g r e e 115 32.58% S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 35 9.92% Non-response: 9 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 T 54. "My s c h o o l would b e n e f i t from more f r e q u e n t e v a l u a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s . " S t r o n g l y agree 28 7.93% Agree 93 26.35% Undecided 111 31.44% D i s a g r e e 84 23,80% S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 29 8.20% Non-response: 8 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 116 55. "Teacher e v a l u a t i o n i n B.C. makes a w o r t h w h i l e c o n t r i -b u t i o n t o maintenance and improvement o f t h e i n s t r u c -t i o n a l program." S t r o n g l y agree 16 4. 53% Agree 119 33. 71% Undecided 116 32. 86% D i s a g r e e 66 18. 70% S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 18 5. 10% Non-response: 18 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 56. "The t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n system i n B r i t i s h Columbia s h o u l d be changed." S t r o n g l y agree 33 9. 35% Agree 97 27. 48% Undecided 163 46. 18% D i s a g r e e 44 12. 46% S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 7 1. 98% Non-response: 9 T o t a l t a l l y : 353 *** END OF QUESTIONNAIRE *** 117 APPENDIX E THE BIVARIATE TABLES T h i s s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s e i g h t y - f o u r b i v a r i a t e t a b l e s showing the combined responses t o s e l e c t e d p a i r s o f q u e s t i o n -n a i r e i t e m s . F o r economy.of space, th e w o r d i n g o f q u e s t i o n -n a i r e i t e m s and t h e i r s c a l e l a b e l s i s p a r a p h r a s e d o r abbre-v i a t e d i n t h e t a b l e s . For p r e c i s e w o r d i n g p l e a s e r e f e r t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , Appendix C. A l s o , t h e e x p r e s s i o n s " e v a l u -a t o r " o r " o t h e r e v a l u a t o r " a r e s u b s t i t u t e d f o r " D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , D i r e c t o r o f I n s t r u c t i o n , o r I n s p e c t o r " t h r o u g h o u t th e t a b l e s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the t a b l e s g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w s t h e n u m e r i c a l o r d e r o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s . F o r c o n v e n i e n c e i n l o c a t i n g t a b l e s , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t i f , f o r example, the t a b l e c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e p a i r o f items 21 and 25 does no t appear a g a i n s t 21 i n t h e sequence, i t w i l l be found f a r -t h e r on a g a i n s t 25. I f not t h e r e , i t has not been i n c l u d e d . A key t o t h e t a b l e s i s p r o v i d e d on the n e x t page. To a i d i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e t a b l e s , t h e i r s u b d i v i s i o n s used i n c a l c u l a t i n g C h i square v a l u e s are i n d i -c a t e d by d o t t e d l i n e s . A p l u s s i g n appears w i t h i n the c e l l where h i g h o b s e r v e d f r e q u e n c i e s produced d i f f e r e n c e s r e s u l t i n g i n . m a j o r c h i square i n c r e m e n t s . A minus s i g n i n d i c a t e s low o b s e r v e d f r e q u e n c i e s a l s o r e s u l t i n g i n major c h i square i n c r e m e n t s . 118 KEY TO THE BIVARIATE TABLES T a b l e Items: T a b l e Items: T a b l e Items: T a b l e Items: No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No. No 1 8 7 22 24 21 43 30 23 64 44 2 2 8 2 23 24 28 44 30 26 65 44 34 2a 7 2 3 10 2 24 24 30 45 30 27 66 44 35 3a 9 2 4 8 5 25 25 1 46 30 28 67 44 36 5 10 9 26 25 2 47 30 29 68 44 37 6 10 5 27 25 21 48 33 14 69 44 42 7 11 1 28 25 28 49 34 33 70 46 6 8 12 1 29 25 30 50 34 47 71 46 32 9 11 4 30 28 2 51 37 21 72 46 33 10 11 5 31 28 18 52 38 44 73 46 35 11 12 4 32 28 19 53 38 46 74 46 36 12 12 5 33 28 20 54 40 1 75 46 37 13 14 1 34 28 21 55 40 2 76 46 39 14 13 1 35 28 26 56 40 37 77 46 42 15 17 18 36 30 6 57 40 44 78 46 43 16 17 13 37 30 15 58 40 46 79 46 44 17 18 31 38 30 16 59 41 1 80 46 45 18 22 28 39 30 17 60 41 2 81 48 2 19 22 30 40 30 19 61 41 37 82 50 2 20 24 1 41 30 20 62 41 44 83 50 21 21 24 2 42 30 21 63 41 46 84 52 5 119 TABLE 1 Item 7: Item 8: W i t h i n t h a t employment Teacher's y e a r s o f c o n t i n u o u s p e r i o d , b u t not beyond t e n y e a r s , employment w i t h l a s t y e a r ' s t h e number o f r e p o r t s r e c e i v e d d i s t r i c t . from a S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , D i r e c t o r • o r I n s p e c t o r Item 7: Y e a r s : 2 3 Item 8: Number o f r e p o r t s : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 . 8 9 . 10 o r None T o t a l s "- ' - more Rec'd 78 i16 | 6 1 . _+ J_ L | _Z _ 43 * 12 | 1 3 - _ , 17 .20 2 1 - _ '-±—I, 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24 125 8 67 5 45 + 5 28 4 15 0 0 0 19 0 I 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 3 3 I 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0. 1 0 0 0 0 £0 0 7 10 4 10 o r more 2 j 4 | 3 3 1 1 0 1 0 0 165 74 23 12 3 3 0 1 0 0 9 63 344 24 344 Non-response: Item 7 - 3 Item 8 - 9 N = 353 X z = 66.65 df = 9 H Q r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l . 120 TABLE 2 Item 2: W i t h which grade Item 8: Number o f r e p o r t s r e c e i v e d l e v e l was t h e b u l k of from a S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , D i r e c t o r , o r your time s p e n t i n t h e I n s p e c t o r i n the p e r i o d o f c o n t i n u o u s p a s t y e a r ? employment, up t o t e n y e a r s i n l a s t y e a r ' s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . Item 2: Item 8: Number o f R e p o r t s : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 or Non T o t a l s more Rec' d : . . • = j • : ; Elemen- 1 3 1 J 5 6 I 20 9 2 3 0 1 0 0 ! <37 259 t a r y | | I Secon- 33 1x8 I 3 ' 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 + 2 4 82 dar y i l l I 1 1 1 341 164 74 23 12 3 3 0 1 0 &0 61 341 Non-response: Item 2 - 6 N = 353 X 2 = 9.49 d f = 4 Item 8 - 9 H Q r e j e c t e d , ' . 0 5 l e v e l . TABLE 3 Item 2:: W i t h which grade Item 10: Number o f r e p o r t s r e c e i v e d l e v e l s was t h e . b u l k of y o u r f r o m a p r i n c i p a l i n the p e r i o d o f your time spent i n the c o n t i n u o u s employment, up t o t e n p a s t y e a r ? y e a r s i n l a s t y e a r 's s c h o o l . . Item 2: Item 10: Number of r e p o r t s : 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 o r None more Rec'd T o t a l s Elemen-t a r y 124 j 46 I 16 i 8 7 6 1 0 0 3_ ; +46,. 257 Secon-d a r y _ _ - j - - ; 39 , 11 ' 7 1 4 1 3 0 ~~~2+1 "e" i 81 338 163 57 23 15 8 10 2 3 •0 5 . 53 338 Non-response: Item 2 - 6 N = 353 X2 = 11.67 d f = 4 Item 8 - 12" H o r e j e c t e d , .02 l e v e l . ' 121 TABLE 2a (Hand t a b u l a t e d ) Item 2: With which grade Item 7: Teacher's y e a r s o f con-l e v e l s was t h e b u l k of your t i n u o u s employment w i t h l a s t y e a r ' s time s p e n t i n t h e p a s t y a c s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , year-? -Item 2: Item 7: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 or T o t a l s ' . . ' . ' more ' Elemen-t a r y 99 49 37 17 12 16 3 8 3 11 255 Secon-d a r y 26. 18- 8 11 3 3 4 2 1 13 89 125 67 45 28 15 19 7 10 4 724 344 344 Non-response: Item 2 - 6 _ Item 7 - 3 ~ b J * TABLE 3a (Hand t a b u l a t e d ) Item 2: W i t h w h i c h grade Item 9: Teacher's y e a r s o f con-l e v e l s was t h e b u l k o f t i n u o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h l a s t y e a r ' s y o u r time s p e n t i n t h e s c h o o l , p a s t y e a r ? Item 2: Item 9: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 or T o t a l s more Elemen-t a r y 117 56 30 11 10 10 4 6 2 4 250 Secon-d a r y 28 22 10 <*9»- 33 4.' 4^ : 3^ 1 5 89 145 78 40 20 13 14 8 9 3 "^9 339 339 Non-response: Item 2 - 6 Item 9 - 6 N = 353 122 TABLE 4 Item 5: Teacher's y e a r s o f Item 8: Number o f r e p o r t s r e c e i v e d e x p e r i e n c e as a t e a c h e r i n b..from a. S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , D i r e c t o r , o r B.C. i n s p e c t o r i n the p e r i o d o f c o n t i n -uous employment, up t o t e n years> i n the l a s t y e a r ' s s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s Item 5 y e a r s : I tern 8 1 2 3 4 number o f r e p o r t s : 5 6 7- 8 9 10 or None T o t a l s . ' . ' more Rec'd 2 3 54 j 6 i 0 +1." _] " r_. _j 34 j 14 i 1 i 26 Tl8 18 6-10 19 11-20 9 21-30 1 31-40 1 40-p l u s 0 ! 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 i 17 i 0 0 0 0 0 0 ! 12 i 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 i 10 . 3 2 2 0 0 0 :0 i 10 9 , 1 4 1 0 0 1 0 2 1 1-. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 i 3 1 i 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 i 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 77 62 53 29 20 59 32 1 343 165 74 22 12 3 3 0 1 0 0 63 343 Non-response: Item 5 - 4 N = 353 X =71.40 df = 12 Item 8 - 9 T T . . , , , H r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l , 123 TABLE 5 Item 9: Teacher's y e a r s o f Item 10: W i t h i n t h a t e x p e r i e n c e c o n t i n u o u s e x p e r i e n c e w i t h p e r i o d , b u t not beyond t e n y e a r s , l a s t y e a r ' s s c h o o l . t h e number o f r e p o r t s r e c e i v e d from t h e p r i n c i p a l . Item 9 Y e a r s : Item 10: number o f r e p o r t s : 4 8 9 10 or None T o t a l s . more Rec'd 1 101 9 I 0 32 131 i 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 | 31 1 0 0 0 0 0 145 78 16 0 0 0 0 0 40 0 0 0 0 0 20 - 1 i + 3 . O i l 1 4 0 0 0 0 13 l i 3 0 1 0 7 0 0 0 2 ' 2 1 1 0 2 0 0 0 114 8 3 ' 1 i 1 1 0 0 0 2 OS 0 10 o r more 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 , l i 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 I i 163 57 22 15 8 10 3 0 9 339 54 339 Non-response: Item 9 - 6 N = 353 X = 158.37- d f = 9 Item 10 - 12 H q r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l . 124 TABLE 6 Item 5: Teacher's y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e as a t e a c h e r i n B.C. Item 10: Number o f r e p o r t s r e -c e i v e d from t h e p r i n c i p a l i n t h e p e r i o d o f c o n t i n u o u s employment, up t o t e n y e a r s i n l a s t y e a r ' s s c h o o l . Item 5: Years Item 10: Number o f - r e p o r t s 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 o r None T o t a l s more Rec'd 1 .58 i 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 29 '19 , 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 _ _ _ _ ^ 3 25 ,14 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 13 74 11 61 13 i 3 2 5 0 0 0 0 0 53 27 8 5 i 2 2 3 0 0 0 0 1 21 6-10 18 31-40 8 4 2 8 2 1 0 0 11-20 8 i 5 1 3 2 2 0 1 0 21-30 4 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 8 58 7 34 l i O O O O O O O 0 | 1 40-plus 0. ' 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 i 0 1 341 164 57 23 15 8 10 54 341 Non-response: Item 5 - 4 N = 353 X 2= 87.64 df = 12 Item 10 - 12 H 0 r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l . 125 TABLE 7 Item 1: Teacher's a p p o i n t - Item 11: Number o f y e a r s s i n c e ment s t a t u s d u r i n g the the l a s t r e p o r t was r e c e i v e d from p a s t y e a r . a S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , D i r e c t o r o r I n s p e c t o r . . Item 1: S t a t u s Item 11: 2 3 4 Years 5 6 No 9 r e p ' t T o t a l s r e c ' d P r o b a t i o n - 9!j) 11 ary ~-"-|+ Permanent 28 57 5 I _3 0 + + ~ 27 1 12 13 U Temporary 10 j 5 j 0 j 2 0 137 73 32 17 13 0 4 1 5 0 7 0 7 4 0 4 1 0 1 0 ^ 22 8 0 8 26 1 140 187 19 346 49 346 Non-response: Item 1 - 6 Item 1 1 - 4 N = 353 X 2 = 126.06 d f ='8 H Q r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l TABLE 8 Item 1: Teacher's a p p o i n t - Item 12: Number o f y e a r s s i n c e ment s t a t u s d u r i n g t h e p a s t t h e l a s t r e p o r t was r e c e i v e d from y e a r . a p r i n c i p a l . Item 1: Item 12: Years a t s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 - 9 . r e p ' t T o t a l s P r o b a t i o n - 102 j 9 2 ! 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 i 2 4 139 a r y +! -__, - r- +-Permanent 82 ,42 ! 15 i — i -i " w u u " u u i - —A 6 4 2 3 1 0 1 , 23 179 Temporary 11 i 2 I 2 , 1• 0 0 0 0 0 0 j 3 19 •l 195 53 19 9 4 2 3 1 0 1 50 337 337 Non-response: Item 1,- 6 Item 12 - 13 N = 353 X 2 = .42.04 d f = 8 H Q r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l . 126 TABLE 9 Item 4: Teacher's c a t e g o r y Item 11: Number of y e a r s s i n c e f o r s a l a r y purposes i n the the l a s t r e p o r t was r e c e i v e d from p a s t y e a r . a S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , D i r e c t o r , o r I n s p e c t o r . Item 4: C a t e g o r y Item 11: Years 2. 3 4 5 6 7 No 9 r e p ' t T o t a l s r e c ' d EC 0 ; 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 EB EA 66 j43 ' 11 ! 7 PC (B.Ed,) PC PB - + 4 + -32 I 14 - - I- - r - -,+ + 15 ! 6 15 i i • 8 ! 1 t 1 _ l_. _ - I i 11 1 4 i 3 , 2 1 3 1 0 0 12 3 4 1 0 4 i 12 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 + 0 2 15 149 96 17 27 39 PA 0 0 0 0 PA (Mas-..) 0 ' 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 i 1 i ! I i 0 i 0 1 348 138 73 32 18 13 8 49 348 Non-response: Item 4 - 4 N = 353 X 2 = 36.51 df•= 8 Item 1 1 - 4 H D r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l . 127 TABLE 10 Item 5: T e a c h e r 1 s y e a r s o f Item 11: Number of y e a r s s i n c e e x p e r i e n c e as a t e a c h e r i n the l a s t r e p o r t was r e c e i v e d from B.C. a S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , D i r e c t o r , o r I n s p e c t o r . Item 5 Years 0 1 2 3 Etem 4 11: 5 Years 6 7 8 9 No re p t T o t a l s r e c d 1 i 62 I1 + i — ~ i 0 0 i o 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 77 2 24 | i i 27 ! 2 i i 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 ' 8 62 3 i 19 1 i » + 11 i 3 i 0 0 0 0 0 0 i . 5 I 53 4 t -i 7 3 i ' 6 i 2 0 0 0 0 0 i i 3 1. _. 29 5 2 ' i 1 + 4 ~J —" + 3 3 0 0 1 0 0 1 i 7 1 21 6.-10 1 1 5 ; 12 8 •I 3 3 5 4 2 0 1 i 1 7 60 11-20 7 9 2 ! + ! i 4 0 1 1 1 4 f " 3 l 33 21-30 1 i | 0 1 i 0 i 1 0 2 0 0 3 i I 1 9 31-40 ! 0 2 0 i I 1 i 0 0 0 0 0 0 ! o i 3 4 0 -plus 0 J 0 1 i ( 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 . 0 1 1 348 138 73 32 18 13 5 7 4 1 8 49 348 Non-response: Item 5 - 4 Item 11 -• 4 N = 3 5 3 X 2 = 152.50 d f = 16 HQ r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l . 128 TABLE 11 Item 4: Teacher's c a t e g o r y Item 12: Number o f y e a r s s i n c e f o r s a l a r y purposes i n the t h e l a s t r e p o r t was r e c e i v e d from p a s t y e a r . * a p r i n c i p a l . Item 4: C a t e g o r y Item 12: Years No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 r e p ' t T o t a l s r e c ' d EC EB EA PC (B.Ed,) PC 1 I 84 I 21 _. _ i 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 , 5 2 1 1 0 0 0 i 22 51 20 I 4 , 2 7 I 2 I 0 i 1 16 7 1 1 2 0 1 0 1 1 ^ 0 0 i 12 0 0 0 0 I O O I O O O i O 11 147 93 15 26 PB PA PA (Mas.) 26 1 I 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ! 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 38 1 339 197 53 19 1 0 1 49 339 Non-response: Item 4 - 4 Item 12 - 13 N = 353 Xz = 8.52 df = 8 X 2 < X 2 H 0 a c c e p t e d . 129 TABLE 12 Item 5: Teacher's y e a r s o f Item 12: Number o f y e a r s s i n c e e x p e r i e n c e as a t e a c h e r i n the l a s t r e p o r t was r e c e i v e d from B.C. a p r i n c i p a l . Item 5 Item 12: Years Years 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 J M U 9 r e p o r t r e c ' d T o t a l s 1 60 + 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 75 2 33 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 62 3 26 + 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 53 4 18 2 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 4 28 5 10 + 3 + 5 + 0 1 0 0 0 0 _ _. 0 1 20 6-10 26 14 3 4 1 1 - 2 0 0 0 6 57 11-20 19 1 5 0 0 2 1 0 1 0 1 4 33 21-30 4 ' 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 9 31-40 - 0 1 i 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 40-plus 1 i ! ° 0 0" 0 0 0 0 0 0 ; l 340 197 53 19 9 5 2 3 1 0 1 50 340 Non-response: Item 5 - 4 Item 12 - 13 N = 353 X 2 = 57.62 d f = 12 H Q r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l . 130 TABLE 13 Item 14: D i d the t e a c h e r Item 1: Teacher's appointment r e c e i v e a copy o f t h e l a t s ? s t a t u s d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r , e s t r e p o r t made by a S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , D i r e c t o r , o r I n s p e c t o r ? Item 14: Item 1: P r o b a t i o n a r y Permanent Temporary T o t a l s Yes. I l l ' 148 1 16 275 I ' No, b u t I e x p e c t t o I r r e c e i v e a copy. 2 , 1 J 0 3 No, b u t I can see i t J , a t my r e q u e s t . 5 j 10 ' 2 17 To my knowledge (he) has I n o t made a r e p o r t . 15 I 20 1 1 36 I i No,.and a copy i s not i , a v a i l a b l e t o me. 6 j 5 i 0 11 I 1 342 139 ! 184 19 342 Non-response: Item 1 4 - 8 N = 353 X 2 = 0.66 d f = 4 Item 1 - 6 2 ^ 2 „ . , x x .95' o a c c e p t e d . 131 TABLE 14 Item 13: D i d the t e a c h e r r e c e i v e Item 1: Teacher's a p p o i n t -a copy o f t h e l a t e s t r e p o r t made ment s t a t u s d u r i n g the p a s t by t h e p r i n c i p a l ? y e a r . Item 13: Item 1: P r o b a t i o n a r y • P e r m a n e n t Temporary T o t a l s Yes. No, b u t I e x p e c t t o r e c e i v e a copy. No, b u t I can see i t a t my r e q u e s t . To my knowledge (he) has not made a r e p o r t . No> and a copy i s not a v a i l a b l e t o me. 110 4 4 16 4 138 155 0 2 14 3 174 15 0 1 2 0 19 280 4 7 32 7 330 330 Non-response: Item 1 3 - 2 N = 353 X 2 = 6.69 d f = 4 Item 1 - 6 2 2 T T . , X < X 10' ° a c c e P t e a - • TABLE 15 Item 17: What was t h e form Item 18: Does t h e r e p o r t form of t he p r i n c i p a l ' s r e p o r t ? p e r m i t adequate r e p o r t i n g on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h e r s ? Item 17 Form: Item 18: O p i n i o n , ^ ,-. ^ j- • • , -, ~ , , , T, -, . , Prob. D e f i n . m , , D e f i n i t e l y P r o b a b l y U n d e c i d . N t „ ^ T o t a l s Not F r e e form 49 23 | _14 9 172 Check l i s t 0 5 " + Y 0 10 R a t i n g s c a l e 2 7 4 j 5 3 21 F r e e form-check l i s t 8 14 + 3 2 33 F r e e f o r m - r a t i n g 2 11 8 I 10 4 35 s c a l e 61 114 42 36 18 271 '271 -Non-response: Item 17 -' 8, Item 18 -11. N = 283 X 2 = 18. 58 df = 4 Ho r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l , 132 TABLE 16 Item 17: What was the form o f Item 13: D i d you r e c e i v e a p r i n c i p a l ' s r e p o r t ? copy o f the p r i n c i p a l ' s r e p o r t ? Item 17: Item 13: Form Yes No,but No,but No No T o t a l s w i l l . can r e p o r t ? F ree form 167 i I 4-0 4 ' i 1 0 172 Check l i s t 10 l . i 0 i 0 0 11 R a t i n g s c a l e 20 1 i i 0 1 ' i 0 0 21 F r e e ^ f o r m - 7 i check l i s t 33 0 i : 0 0 34 F r e e form- i 1 r a t i n g s c a l e 35 j 0 0 , 0 0 35 273 265 1 6 1 0 273 Non-response: Item 1 7 - 8 N = 283 X z = 2.81 d f = 4 Item 13 - 2 y 2 < 2 _ n # H Q a c c e p t e d . TABLE 17 Item 31: The r e p o r t s a i d Item 18: Does th e r e p o r t form p e r -a l l t h a t needed t o be m i t adequate r e p o r t i n g on t h e s a i d ? e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h e r s ? Item 31: degree o f agreement D e f i n -i t e l y Prob-a b l y Item - Unde-- e l d e d l S : O p i n i o n P r o b . D e f i n . N o t Not - T o t a l s S t r o n g l y agree 9 4 i 0 1 1 i l ' 0 14 Agree 39 6 0 + ! 9 1 111 Undecided 10 37 T+w" i 4 82 D i s a g r e e 2 12" 1 11 f ] " + 1 9 ~ 7 51 S t r o n g l y 1 0 j * 2 6 11 d i s a g r e e 6-1 113 41 36 6 269 2 6 9 Non-response: Item 31 - 8 N = 283 X 2 = 93. 62 d f = 4 Item 18 - 11- H Q r e j e c t e d ^ . 001 l e v e l , 133 TABLE 18 Item 28: What was y o u r Item 22: Were t h e r e s u g g e s t i o n s i n r e a c t i o n t o t h e r e p o r t t h e r e p o r t as t o how the l e a r n i n g b y .the p r i n c i p a l ? s i t u a t i o n might be improved? Item 28 : -R e a c t i o n Item 22 Yes :- .Suggestions? No T o t a l s G r e a t l y p l e a s e d 12 39 51 P l e a s e d 46 _ _ _ _. _ 102 148 I n d i f f e r e n t 8 43 51 D i s p l e a s e d 4 15 19 Angry i 3 4 273 •71 202- 273 Non-response: Item Item 28 22 - 8 N = " 7 • X 283 X 2 2 2 < X .10' =3.83 df = 2 H D a c c e p t e d . TABLE 19 Item 30: How do you see the Item 22: Were t h e r e s u g g e s t i o n s p r i n c i p a l as a judge o f t h e i n t h e r e p o r t as t o how the l e a r n -s i t u a t i o n i n your c l a s s - i n g s i t u a t i o n might be improved? room?• -Item 30: The p r i n c i p a l Yes-Item 22: S u g g e s t i o n s ? NO - T o t a l s H i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e A c c e p t a b l e Not a c c e p t a b l e 27 40 4 71 + 47 113 38 198 - 269 74 153 42 269 Non-response: Item 30 - 10 Item 2 2 - 7 N = 283 X^ = 10.08 d f = 2 H r e j e c t e d , .01 l e v e l , o 134 TABLE 20 Item 1: Teacher's appointment Item 24: How many p r i n c i p a l ' s s t a t u s d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r . v i s i t s o f more th a n 10 m i n u t e s ? Item 1: S t a t u s Item 24: 2 3 4 Number of v i s i t s 5 6 7 8 9 10 o r No more v i s T o t a l s P r o b a t i o n -a r y 34 24 15 ! 11 L 4 5 1 2 0 3 Permanent 26 25 28 i 1 1 6 3 1 2 1 7 Temporary 5 3 1 ! 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 65 52 44 25 10 8 2 4 1 10 14 34 3 51 272 113 144 15 272 Non-response: Item 1 - 3 N = 283 X 2 = 5.38 d f = 4 Item 24- 8 -^2 < y2 2 Q , H c a c c e p t e d . TABLE 21 Item 2: With w h i c h grade Item 24: How many p r i n c i p a l ' s l e v e l s was t h e b u l k o f your v i s i t s o f more than 10 minu t e s ? time s p e n t d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r ? Item 2 Item 24: Number o f v i s i t s 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 o r No T o t a l s more v i s . Elemen-t a r y Secon-d a r y 50 39 35 ! 17 8 6 2 3 i 16 14 9 • 8 2 2 0 1 i 66 53 44 25 10 8 2 4 33 0 1 1 10 18 203 71 1 274 51 274 Non-response: Item 2 - 1 Item 2 4 - 8 N = 283 X 2 = 2.89 • d f = 2 ' 2 < y 2 . 2 0 ' H 0 a c c e p t e d . X 135 TABLE 22 Item 21: How good a r e p o r t Item 24: How many p r i n c i p a l ' s d i d you g e t ? v i s i t s o f more th a n 10 m i n u t e s ? Item 21: Item 24: Number o f v i s i t s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 . 9 10 o r more No v i s T o t a l s E x c e l l e n t 10 4 5 2 i ! 1 i 1 0 1 0 0 ! 13 37 S u p e r i o r 29 27 13 11 1 i 3 0 1 0 7 23 117 S a t i s - ! i i f a c t o r y 22 21 26 11 ! 5 4 2 2 1 2 1 i 12 108 F a i r 3 0 0 1 • 0 0 0 0 0 i 1 i 1 6 U n s a t i s -f a c t o r y 0 0 0 1 i 1 0 -4 - -1 0 0 0 0 i 0 I i 0 1 C o u l d n ot t e l l 2 1 0 0 1 0 i 0 0 0 0 0 i 1 2 5 274 66 53 44 26 9 8 2 4 1 10 51 274 Non-response: Item 21 Item 24 5 8 N = 283 X* = 5.83 d f = 6 X 2 <X 2-30' H ° a c c e P t e d -Item 28: What was your r e a c t i o n t o the r e p o r t by t h e p r i n c i p a l ? TABLE 23 Item 24: How many p r i n c i p a l i s * v i s i t s o f more than 10 minu t e s ? Item 28: R e a c t i o n Item 24: Number o f v i s i t s 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 o r No more v i s . T o t a l s G r e a t l y p l e a s e d 9 9 8 4 1 2 1 1 3 0 1 4 ! 8 49 P l e a s e d 39 30 28 16 4 6 1 0 0 r5 j ! 0 i _19 148 I n d i f -f e r e n t 13 9 5 3 , 3 1 0 1 1 + 15 51 D i s p l e a s e d 5 3 1 " V 0 0 0 0 0 1 + Y 19 Angry 0 66 1 52 0 42 2 26 0 9 0 8 0 2 0 4 0 1 0 | 10 1 51 271 4 271 Non-response: Item 2 8 - 8 N = 283 x = 14.06 d f = 4 Item 24 - 8 H D r e j e c t e d , ,01 l e v e l 136 TABLE 24 Item 30: How do you see the Item 24: How many p r i n c i p a l ' s p r i n c i p a l as a judge o f the v i s i t s o f more th a n 10 m i n u t e s ? l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n your' classroom?. Item 30: Item 24: Number o f v i s i t s 8 9 10 o r No T o t a l s more v i s . H i g h l y j a c c e p t a b l e 6 12 13 11 i 4 A c c e p t a - 53 33 26 13+; 4 b l e ! . . Not _ ; a c c e p t a - 7 7 3 2 2 b l e 66 52 42 26 10 6 2 0 8 1 1 0 2 2 2 0 4 0 1 0 1 0 10 + 10 16 21 73 153 42 268 47 268 Non-response: Item 30 - 11 Item 24 - 8 N = 283 X 2 = 57.62 df = 4 H_ r e j e c t e d . .001 l e v e l , o TABLE 25 Item 1: Teacher's appointement Item 25: Frequency o f p r i n -s t a t u s d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r . c i p a l ' s " d r o p - i n " v i s i t s . Item 1 S t a t u s : Never Item 25: Frequency o f v i s i t s I n f r e - O c c a s i o n - F r e q u e n t - D a i l y T o t a l s - q u e n t l y • a l l y l y P r o b a t i o n - i 1 a r y 10 33 | 44 • ._L 25 3 115 Permanent 12 43 I 50 36 3 144 Temporary 2 2~") 3 7 1 15 1 274 24 78 97 68 7 274. Non-response Item 1 - 3 N = 283 x 2 = 5 .90 df = 4 Item 2 5 - 6 ,X2 < x2 . 2 0 ' H Q a c c e p t e d . 137 TABLE 26 Item 2: W i t h which grade l e v e l s was the b u l k o f your time spent d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r ? Item 25: Frequency o f p r i n c i p a l ' s " d r o p - i n " v i s i t s . Item 2: Item 25: Frequency o f v i s i t s Never I n f r e q - O c c a s i o n - Frequen- D a i l y T o t a l s u e n t l y a l l y t l y Elemen-t a r y Secon-d a r y 15 24 52 27" 79 76 22 98 + 61 7 6 8 205 71 276 7 276 Non-response: Item 2 - 1 N = 283 X 2 = 23.32 df = 2 Item 25 - 6 H Q r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l . TABLE 27 Item 21: How good a, r e p o r t Item 25: Frequency o f p r i n -d i d you g e t from t h e c i p a l ' s " d r o p - i n " v i s i t s . p r i n c i p a l ? Item 21: Never I n f r e q -u e n t l y Item 25: O c c a s i o n -a l l y F requen-t l y D a i l y T o t a l s E x c e l l e n t 4 12 ! 14 1 I | 8 0 38 S u p e r i o r 12 35 36 ; 1 32 2 117 S a t i s -f a c t o r y 6 29 1 1 | 45 I l i " i 25 4 109 F a i r 0 2 : 2 1 1 1 6 U n s a t i s -f a c t o r y . C o u l d n ot t e l l 0 2 24 0 1 79 -! o i ' _ L i i ! ° i 97 0 2 68 1 0 8 1 5 276 276 -Non-response : Item Item 21 - 5 2 5 - 6 N = 283 x 2 2 2 X <X • = 5.63 d f = 6 30' H o a c c e P t e d ' 138 TABLE 2 8 Item 28: What was y o u r Item 25: Frequency o f p r i n c i p a l ' s r e a c t i o n t o t h e r e p o r t by " d r o p - i n " v i s i t s , t he p r i n c i p a l ? Item 28: R e a c t i o n Item 25: Frequency o f v i s i t s Never I n f r e q -u e n t l y O c c a s i o n - F r e q u - D a i l y a l l y e n t r y T o t a l s G r e a t l y p l e a s e d P l e a s e d I n d i f -f e r e n t D i s p l e a s e d Angry 3 11 7 3 0 24 14 36 21 6 1 78 + 15 58 17 5 1 96 18 37 1. 7 4 1 67 1 5 0 1 1 8 273 51 147 52 19 4 273 Non-response: Item 2 8 - 8 N = 283 x 2 = 10.80 Item 2 5 - 6 df = 4 H r e j e c t e d , .05 l e v e l , o TABLE 29 Item 30: How do you see t h e Item 25: Frequency of p r i n c i -p r i n c i p a l as a judge o f t h e p a l ' s " d r o p - i n " v i s i t s . l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n y o u r c l a s s r o o m ? Item 30: Item 25: Frequency of v i s i t s Never I n f r e q u e n t l y O c c a s i o n a l l y " F r e q u -e n t l y D a i l y T o t a l s H i g h l y A c c e p t a b l e 3 12_ | I 32 ^ 22 L_T 5 74 A c c e p t a b l e 12 49 i i 56 36 _ _ _ _ _ 155 Not A c c e p t a b l e 6 1 6 + 21 77 i -i 1 97 . 9 67 1 8 270 41 270 Non-response : Item 30 -Item 25 -11 6 N = 283 X 2 = 15. H r e j e c t e d , .01 o 10 df l e v e l . = . 4 139 TABLE 30 Item 2: W i t h which grade l e v e l s Item 28: What was your was t h e b u l k o f your time s p e n t r e a c t i o n t o t h e r e p o r t by d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r ? the p r i n c i p a l ? Item 2: Item 28: R e a c t i o n . . . . . . G r e a t l y p i e a S e d p l e a s e d I n d i f -f e r e n t D i s -p l e a s e d Angry . T o t a l s Elem-e n t a r y 37 111 1 36 I -15 3 202 Secon-d a r y 14 38 ! 16 1 4 0 72 274 51 149 52 19 3 274 Non-response: Item 2 - 1 N = 283 X 2 = 1 .29 df = 2 Item 28 - 8 X 2 < X 2.50' H a c c e p t e d . TABLE 31 Item 18: Does t h e r e p o r t form Item 28: What was your r e -p e r m i t adequate r e p o r t i n g ? a c t i o n t o t h e r e p o r t by the p r i n c i p a l ? Item 18: Item 28: R e a c t i o n G r e a t l y p i e a s e ( j ^ n d l f D ^ s Angry T o t a l s ...... p l e a s e d f e r e n t p l e a s e d - - . D e f i n i t e l y 18 20 3 ! 5 4 50 P r o b a b l y 38 7 5 + 20 j 12 2 147 Undecided 5 12 > - — -t~ + 12 9 50 P r o b a b l y n ot 0 - i 6 I i i 5 • 1 4 3 18 D e f i n i t e l y n o t 0 61 i ! 114 1 1 i 41 2 35 0 1 8 4 269 269 Non-response: Item 18 - 1 1 N = 283 X 2 = 50.05 df = Item 28 - 8 H r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l , o J ' 140 TABLE 32 Item 19:. Was the p r i n c i p a l ' s Item 28: What was your r e a c t i o n r e p o r t based on an adequate t o t h e r e p o r t by t h e p r i n c i p a l ? knowledge o f your work? Item 19 Item 28: R e a c t i o n G r e a t l y p l e a s e d I n d i f - D i s - T o P l e a s e d f e r e n t p l e a s e d . Yes , c e r t a i n l y 24 51 i 2 ! i 1 0 78 Yes, p r o b a b l y Undecided 18 4 64 12 ! 7 + _!__-- 1 + 1 12 i i i i - 1 — i i 2 1 4 1 92 33 No, p r o b a b l y 4 17 I 2 1 i + i i 6 1 49 No, c e r t a i n l y 1 51 4 148 1 9 51 ' ! i 5 1 18 4 20 272 272 Non-response: Item 19 Item 28 - 7 - 8 N = 283 X 2 H r e j e c t e d , o J ' = 86;39 df .001 l e v e l . = 4 141 TABLE 33 Item 20: Was s u f f i c i e n t a ccount Item 28: What was your t a k e n o f - c i r c u m s t a n c e s o u t s i d e r e a c t i o n t o t h e r e p o r t by your c o n t r o l ? t h e p r i n c i p a l ? Item 20: Item 28: R e a c t i o n G r e a t l y p i e a s e d I n d i f ' D i s Angry T o t a l s p l e a s e d - f e r e n t - p l e a s e d ^ 1 Yes, c e r t a i n l y 31 i 65 ! i 2 1 1 100 Yes, p r o b a b l y 14 i _ 24 _ « 1 111 Undecided 4 " V - T + 18 + 6 0 35 No, p r o b a b l y 1 \ -7 " ! 7 0 20 No, c e r t a i n l y 1 51 i i i 148 1 52 2 18 2 4 273 4 273 Non-response: Item 20 Item 2 8 - 7 N - 8 = 283 X 2 = 73.11 d f H o r e j e c t e d , . 0 0 1 l e v e l , = 4 TABLE 34 Item 21: How the r e p o r t ? good was Item 28: What was y o u r r e a c t i o n t o the r e p o r t by t h e p r i n c i p a l ? Item 21: G r e a t l y p l e a s e d Item P l e a s e d 28: R e a c t i o n I n d i f - D i s -• f e r e n t -pleased- Angry T o t a l s E x c e l l e n t 18 12 7 | 1 i 1 39 S u p e r i o r 24 68 19 1 1 5 _ i - _ _ 0 116 S a t i s f a c t o r y 9 6 7 22 1 2 ! V" 2 108 F a i r 0 _ 0 T—- ~ 0 6 U n s a t i s f a c t o r y 0 0 0 1 o i 1 1 C o u l d n ' t t e l l 0 51-2 149 2 52 ! 1 19 0 5 275 4 275 Non-response: Item 21 Item 2 8 - 5 - 8 N = 283 x 2 = 44.46 d f H D r e j e c t e d , ,001 l e y e l = 6 142 TABLE 35 Item 26: Were you ob s e r v e d when Item 28: What was y o u r r e -t e a c h i n g a s u b j e c t i n which you a c t i o n t o the r e p o r t by t h e are most competent? p r i n c i p a l ? Item 26: Item 28: R e a c t i o n G r e a t l y p l e a s e d I n d i f D i s Angry T o t a l s p l e a s e d - . f e r e n t p l e a s e d • . Yes No 34 17 51 89 52 141 + 23 29 52 12 18 154 112 266 4 266 Non-response: Item 26 - 13 N.= 283 X =11.07 d f = 2 Item 28 - 8 H r e j e c t e d , .01 l e v e l , o J TABLE 36 Item 6: Sex Item 30: How do you see the p r i n c i p a l as a judge o f t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n your c l a s s r o o m ? Item 6: Item 30: - • - •• . H i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e A c c e p t a b l e Not T o t a l s a c c e p t a b l e Male I 5 + i 55 !_ 8 98 Female 40 ioo' | ~ ~ 33 173 271 75 155 - 41 271 Non-response: Item 6 - 2 N = 283 X 2 = 8.52 df=2 Item 30- 10 H r e j e c t e d , o J .02 l e v e l . 143 TABLE 37 Item 15: How many t e a c h e r s Item 30: How do you see the d i d t h e p r i n c i p a l s u p e r - p r i n c i p a l as a judge o f t h e v i s e ? l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n your c l a s s r o o m ? Item 15: No. o f t e a c h e r s H i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e Item 30: A c c e p t a b l e Not T o t a l s a c c e p t a b l e up t o 8 5 9 0-10 5 11- 20 32 21- 30 21 31- 40 5 41- 50 0 over 50 7 75 — I -6 2 8 71 37 11 5 10 150 5 16 0 2 2 15 12 115 13 71 4 20 0 5 5 22 266 41 266 Non-response: Item 1 5 - 9 Item 30 - 12 N = 283 X^ = 4.79 d f = 6 X 2 < X 2.50' H o a c c e p t e d . TABLE 38 Item 16: D i d you have'a c l e a r i d e a Item 30: How do you see e a r l y i n the y e a r what the p r i n c i p a l the p r i n c i p a l as a judge would e x p e c t o f you as a t e a c h e r ? o f t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n y o u r c l a s s r o o m ? Item 16 H i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e Item 30: A c c e p t a b l e Not a c c e p t a b l e T o t a l s Yes No 67 8 75 100 55 155 12 30 42 179 93 272 272 Non-response: Item 1 6 - 5 Item 30 - 10 N = 283 x2 = 44.20 d f = 2 H Q r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l , 144 TABLE 39 Item 1 7 : What was t h e form Item 30": How do you see the p r i n -o f t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s r e p o r t ? c i p a l as a judge o f t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n your c l a s s r o o m ? Item 1 7 : Item 3 0 : H i g h l y A c c e p t a b l e A c c e p t a b l e Not A c c e p t a b l e T o t a l s F r e e form 46 j 102 23 171 Check l i s t 4 1 5 . 2 11 R a t i n g s c a l e 5 i 12 9 5 19 F r e e formr check l i s t 18 2 32 F r e e form-r a t i n g s c a l e I 8 ! 7-5 18 152 41 268 35 268 Non-response: . Item 1 7 - 9 N = 283 X = 2 . 7 8 d f = 4 Item 30 - 10 H Q a c c e p t e d . TABLE 40 Item 1 9 : Was t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s Item 3 0 : " How do you see the r e p o r t based on an adequate p r i n c i p a l as a judge o f t h e knowledge o f your work? l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n your • - c l a s s r o o m ? Item 1 9 : H i g h l y A c c e p t a b l e Item 3 0 : A c c e p t a b l e ^ o t , , , T o t a l s A c c e p t a b l e Y e s , c e r t a i n l y 47 I 30 j 1 78 Yes, p r o b a b l y 66 | 4 93 Undecided 4 23 . " J 4 31 No,probably 1 3 1 ! 47 N o , c e r t a i n l y 0 - 75 3 i 1 - 153 17 41 269 20 269 Non-response:. Item 19 - 'o Item 30 - 10 N = 283 H Q r e j e c Y2 = 9 5 , 5 1 d f t e d , l e v e l = : 4 145 TABLE 41 Item 20: Was s u f f i c i e n t a c c o u n t Item 30: How do you see t h e t a k e n o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s o u t s i d e p r i n c i p a l as a judge o f t h e your c o n t r o l ? l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n your - - c l a s s r o o m ? . . . . . . Item 20 Item 30 a c c e p t a b l e A c c e P t a b l e ^ c c e o t a b l e T o t a l s Y e s , c e r t a i n l y Y e s , p r o b a b l y Undecided No,probably N o , c e r t a i n l y 54 20 1 0 0 75 44 79 16 13 2 154 + " + " 1 99 13 112 15 32 7 20 5 7 270 41 270 Non-response: Item 20 Item 30 8 N = 283 10 X^ = 65.06 df.= 4 H r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l , o TABLE 42 Item 21: How good was Item 30: How do you see the p r i n c i p a l t h e r e p o r t ? as a judge o f the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n - i n y o u r . c l a s s r o o m ? -Item 21: H i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e Item 30: A c c e p t a b l e Not a c c e p t a b l e T o t a l s E x c e l l e n t S u p e r i o r S a t i s f a c t o r y F a i r U n s a t i s f a c t o r y . C o u l d n ot t e l l 16 34 23 1 0 1 7.5 + ! 13 8 37 66 15 115 " \ 12 107 I* 3 6 0 1 1 1 - 154-3 42 271 5 271 N = 283 X 2 = H D r e j e c t e d , 23.27 .001 df = l e v e l . 4 Non-response:. Item 21 - 6 Item 30 - 10 146 TABLE 43 Item 23: Were you g i v e n Item 30: How do you see the p r i n c i p a l a p r e l i m i n a r y w r i t t e n as a judge-'of • the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n e v a l u a t i o n ? i n your c l a s s r o o m ? Item 23 Item 30: A c c e p t a b l e - . A c c e p t a b l e . ^ e p t a b l e T o t a l s Yes No 15 60 75 19 136 155 2 40 42 36 236 272 272 Non-response: Item 23.- 6 Item 30 - 10 N = 283 x = 5.82 - d f = 2 X2, < X 2 > 0 5 , H Q a c c e p t e d . ' TABLE 44 Item 26: Were you ob s e r v e d Item 30: How do you see the p r i n -when t e a c h i n g a s u b j e c t i n c i p a l as a judge o f t h e l e a r n i n g w h i c h you a r e most compe- s i t u a t i o n i n your c l a s s r o o m ? .tent?- - -Item 26 Item 30: A c c e p t a b l e , A c c e p t a b l e Acceptable T o t a l s Yes No 50 + 20 70 89 63 152 + 16 25 41 155 108 263 263 Non-response: Item 26 - 14 Item 30 - 10 N = 283 X 2 = 11.31 d f = 2 H r e j e c t e d . .01 l e v e l , o 147 TABLE 45 Item 27: Was t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s Item 30: How do you see t h e r e p o r t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s p r i n c i p a l as a judge o f t h e d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h you? i e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n your c l a s s r o o m ? Item 27: H i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e -Item 30: A c c e p t a b l e Not ac.ceptabl e T o t a l s Yes 65 + 91 ! 8 164 No,more c r i t i c a l —---T - 13 "! 1 4 19 N o , l e s s c r i t i c a l 7 1 3 12 No d i s c u s s i o n 6 ' 27 76 271 75 -154 - 42 271 -Non-response: Item 27 - 6 N = 283 2 = 54.52 d f = 4 Item 30 - 10 H r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l . TABLE 46 Item 28: What was your r e - Item 30: How do you see t h e p r i n -a c t i o n t o t h e r e p o r t by the., c i p a l as a, judge o f t h e l e a r n i n g p r i n c i p a l ? s i t u a t i o n i n your c l a s s r o o m ? Item 28: R e a c t i o n H i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e Item 30: A c c e p t a b l e Not a c c e p t a b l e T o t a l s G r e a t l y p l e a s e d 24 | 1 22 4 50 P l e a s e d 49 1 + | 93 7 149 I n d i f f e r e n t 1 " ! 31. + 18 50 -f — — — — _ D i s p l e a s e d 1 " 1 7 + 10 18 Angry 0 1 3 4 281 75 154 42 .2.8.1 Non-response:. Item 28 - 9 N = 283 X 2 = 77.45 df = 4 Item 30 - 10 H r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l . 148 TABLE 47 Item 29: What was t h e e f f e c t on Item 30: How do you see t h e your, c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n o f the p r i n c i p a l as a judge o f t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s p r e s e n c e f o r o b s e r - l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n y o u r v a t i o n ? c l a s s r o o m ? Item 29: Item 30: a c c e p t a b l e - A c c e p t a b l e a c c e p t a b l e T o^ a"'' s G r e a t l y i m p roves... . . . s l i g h t l y above.. N o . . . d i f f e r e n c e ...adverse ... H i g h l y a d v e r s e . . . No o b s e r v a t i o n 2 27 39 1 0 5 74 4 - 3 9 48 i 5 80 73 l 18 130 21 27 0 1 0 0 8 15 4 : + " 42 24 ?270 270 Non-response: Item 29 - 9 Item 30 - 10 N = 283 X 2 = 26.62• d f =6 H Q r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l . TABLE 48 Item 33: What was t h e form Item 14: D i d you r e c e i v e a copy of t h e e v a l u a t o r ' s r e p o r t ? o f t h e e v a l u a t o r ' s r e p o r t ? Item 33: Item 14: Form. Yes No,but. w i l l No,but . can No . r e p o r t No T o t a l s ' . F r e e form 147 2 2 0 2 153 Check l i s t 19 0 0 0 0 19 R a t i n g s c a l e 9 0 0 0 1 10 F r e e f o r m -check l i s t 34 0 0 0 0 34 F r e e form-r a t i n g s c a l e 39 0 0 0 0 39 255 248 2 2 - 0 3 255 Non-response: Item Item 33':- 19 1 4 - 2 N = 275 C h i square n ot c a l c u l a t e d . 149 TABLE 49 Item 3 3 : What was the form Item 3 4 : Does t h e form p e r m i t ade-of t h e e v a l u a t o r ' s r e p o r t ? quate r e p o r t i n g on t h e e f f e c t i v e -- - - ness of. t e a c h e r s ? -Item 3 3 : Item 3 4 : D e f i n - P r o - Unde- Prob . i t e l y b a b l y c i d e d n o t D e f i n . n o t T o t a l s F r e e form. Check l i s t R a t i n g S c a l e F r e e form-check l i s t F r e e form-r a t i n g s c a l e 33 3 1 6 45 78 ~14~ 1 27 17 1 3 7 -I-i 28 1 3 9 4.0 11 0 1 3 17 1 4 3 15 152 19 10 35 38 254 - 254 Non-response: Item 33 - 1 9 Item 34 - 1 6 N = 275 X Z = 3 . 8 2 d f = 4 X 2 < ^ 2 5 0 , H Q a c c e p t e d . TABLE 50 Item 4 7 : The r e p o r t s a i d Item 3 4 : Does t h e r e p o r t , f o r m , per-a l l t h a t needed t o be m i t adequate r e p o r t i n g on t h e s a i d ? - - • - e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h e r s ? - -Item 4 7 : Item 3 4 : D e f i n - P r o - Unde- Prob. D e f i n . T o t a l s i t e l y b a b l y cided- n o t n o t S t r o n g l y agree 6 3 o 0 0 9 Agree 32 7 0 + 8 1 1 112 Undecided 5 41 3 2 71 D i s a g r e e 1 20 10 + 11 6 48 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e 0 2 2 3 9 16 256 44 136 40 18 18 256 Non-response: Item 47 - 15 Item 34 - 16 N = 275 X^ = 9 0 . 7 8 d f = 4 H r e j e c t e d , . 0 0 1 l e v e l , o J ' 150 TABLE 51 Item 21: How good was the Item 37: How good was the o t h e r p r i n c i p a l ' s r e p o r t ? e v a l u a t o r ' s r e p o r t ? Item 21: E x c e l -l e n t -Super-i o r -Item 37: S a t i s -f a c t o r y F a i r U n s a t i s -f a c t o r y . . Cdn' t e l l t T o t a l s E x c e l l e n t 8 7 5 0 0 0 20 S u p e r i o r 2 5 0 + 25 1 0 0 1 78 S a t i s f a c t o r y 2 12 + 72 7 • 0 0 93 F a i r 0 1 3 + 2 0 0 6 U n s a t i s f a c t o r y 0 0 0 1 0 1 C o u l d n ' t t e l l 1 13 1 71 2 107 0 9 1 2 0 1 5 203 203 N o n - r e s p o n s i v e : Item 21 - 5, Item 37 - 13. X =-74.06 df = 4 H 0 r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l . Note: N = 219; t h o s e who r e c e i v e d r e p o r t s from b o t h p r i n c i p a l and o t h e r e v a l u a t o r . TABLE 52 Item 44: What was y o u r r e a c t i o n t o the r e p o r t by t h i s e v a l u a t o r ? Item 38: Were t h e r e s u g g e s t i o n s i n the r e p o r t as to :how t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n might be improved? Item 44: Item 38: Yes No T o t a l s G r e a t l y p l e a s e d 7 24 31 P l e a s e d 61 87 148 I n d i f f e r e n t 16 26 42 D i s p l e a s e d 8 , 20 28 Angry 2 6 8 • . . 257 94 - 163 257 Non-response: Item 44 Item 38 15 16 N = 275 x 2 = 1.41 d f = 2 ' 2 < x 2 . 3 0 ' H o a c c e p t e d . X 151 TABLE 53 Item 46: How do you see t h i s Item 38: Were t h e r e sugges-e v a l u a t o r as a judge o f t h e t i o n s . i n t h e r e p o r t as t o how l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n y o u r the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n m i g ht, c l a s s r o o m ? be - improved? :• Item 46: Item 38: - Yes No T o t a l s H i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e 29 35 64 A c c e p t a b l e 52 100 152 Not a c c e p t a b l e 13 | " 2 5 38 ' 254 - 94 - 160: . v .254 Non-response: Item 46 - 17 N = 275 X 2 = 2.52 df; = 2 Item 3 8 - 1 6 2 ^ 2 H a c c e p t e d . X < X - 2 0 ° TABLE 5 4 Item 1: Teacher's appointment Item 40: How many e v a l u a t o r ' s s t a t u s d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r . - v i s i t s of more t h a n 10 minu t e s ? Item 1; S t a t u s Item 40: Number o f v i s i t s 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 o r more No T o t a l s v i s . P r o b a t i o n -a r y 48 Permanent 50 Temporary 7 49 10 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 115 44 13 3 i:. 4 0 0 0 0 12 127 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 15 257 98 24 9 2 4 - 0 0 0 0 15 257 Item 1 — 3 N = 275 X2 =7.80 df = 6 Item 40 — 15 2 X < x 2 .20' H Q a c c e p t e d . 152 TABLE 55 Item 2: With which.grade Item 40: How many evaluator's l e v e l s was the bulk of your v i s i t s of more than 10 minutes? time spent during the past year? Item 2: Item 40: Number o f v i s i t s 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 o r No T o t a l s more v i s . Elemen-t a r y Secon- , da r y 93 76 15 7 1 2 0 0 0 0 13 207 12" 2 4 + 9 2 1; 2 0 0 0 0 1 51 258 105 100 24 9 2 - 4 - 0 0 0 • 0 14 258 Non-response Item 2 - 1 Item 40 - 16 N = 275 X 2 =•13.54 df =3 H 0 r e j e c t e d , .01 l e v e l . TABLE 56 Item 37: How good a r e p o r t Item 40: How many e v a l u a t o r ' s d i d you g e t ? v i s i t s of more th a n 10 m i n u t e s ? Item 37: 1 Item 2 3 40: 4. Number 5 6 of v i s i t s • 1 8 9 10 or more No v i s T o t a l s E x c e l l e n t 7 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 ' 0 0 i 16 Superior _44+ 27 ~ J 3 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 88 S a t i s - 43 10 5 1 1 0 0 0 10 136 f a c t o r y F a i r 6 2 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 o 1 12 Un s a t i s - 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 f a c t o r y Could not t e l l 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o 0 256 102 100 24 9 - 2 : 4 0 , o 0 . 0 - 1 5 256 Non-response: Item -1f7i -Item 40 - 15 N = 275 X 2 = df = 6 H r e j e c t e d , . Q i l l e v e l o 153 TABLE 57 Item 44: What was your r e a c - Item 40: How many e v a l u a t o r 1 s t i o n t o the r e p o r t by t h i s v i s i t s o f more th a n 10 m i n u t e s ? e v a l u a t o r ? Item 44: Item 40: . Number o f v i s i t s R e a c t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 6 . 7 8 10 o r No more v i s . T o t a l s G r e a t l y p l e a s e d 13 11 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 31 P l e a s e d 53 68 13 5 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 148 I n d i f -f e r e n t 19 15 4 3 0 1 0 0 0 42 D i s -p l e a s e d 14 5 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 o 28 Angry 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 7 256 103 100 24 9 . 2 4 0 0 0 0 14 256 -Non-response: Item 44 - 15 N = 275 X 2 = 25.09 d f =6 Item 40 - 15 H Q r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l TABLE 58 Item 46: How do you see t h i s Item 40: How many e v a l u a t o r ' s e v a l u a t o r as a judge o f the v i s i t s o f more than 10 minutes? l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n y o u r c l a s s r o o m ? Item 46 Item 40: Number o f v i s i t s 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 or No T o t a l s more v i s : H i g h l y 24 30 a c c e p t a b l e _ A c c e p t a b l e 64 l 60 Not L A c c e p t a b l e 16 J 9 104 5 16 3 4 •2 99 2 23 1 0 1 9 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 64 7 153 + 1 2 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 6 37 254 - 0 13 254 • Non-response: Item 46 - 17. N = 275 X 2 = 1 5 . 6 7 d f = 6 Item 40 - 15 H r e j e c t e d , .02 l e v e l , o J 154 TABLE 59 Item 1: Teacher's a p p o i n t - Item 41: Frequency of - e v a l u a t o r ' s ment s t a t u s d u r i n g the p a s t " d r o p - i n " v i s i t s . y e a r . -Item 1: Item 41: Frequency o f v i s i t s S t a t u s Never I n f r e q - O c c a s i o n F r e q u - D a i l y T o t a l s - u e n t l y .. a l l y e n t l y P r o b a t i o n a r y 73 . 30 i 8 ! ; l 0 112 Permanent 84 32 _ j 1 1 127 Temporary 10 4 j 0 1 ! i 0 15 254 167- 66 17 - 3 1 254 Non-response : I tern 1 - 3 N = 275 X 2 =. 4. 62 df = 4 Item 41 - 18 2 ^ X < X 2.30' H o a c c e p t e d . TABLE 60 Item 2: With which grade l e v e l s Item 41: Frequency o f was the b u l k of; y o u r . t i m e s p e n t e v a l u a t o r ' s " d r o p - i n " v i s i t s . d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r ? Itern 2: Item 41: Frequency o f v i s i t s Never I n f r e q - Occasion-- F r e q u - D a i l y T o t a l s u e n t l y a l l y - e n t l y , E l e m e n t a r y 134 53 ! 16 | 1 1 205 Secondary 34 13 i i 1 j 2 0 50 1 , 255 - 16 8 - 66 , . . 17 : ' 3 . r. . . .1 255 Non-response: Item 2 - 1 N = 275 X 2 = 4.27 - d f = 2 Item 41 - 18 2 „ 2 x • < X , H D a c c e p t e d . 155 TABLE 61 Item 37: How good a r e p o r t Item 41: Frequency o f e v a l u -d i d you g e t from t h i s t o r ' s " d r o p - i n " v i s i t s , e v a l u a t o r ? Item 37:. Never Item 41: I n f r e q u -e n t l y Frequency o f v i s i t s O c c a s i o n - F r e q u - D a i l y a l l y - e n t l y T o t a l s E x c e l l e n t 11 2 i i 3 0 0 16 S u p e r i o r 63 19 1 1 4 1 0 87 S a t i s f a c t o r y . 82 39 I i 10 1 0 132 F a i r 7 « : 0 1 0 12 U n s a t i s f a c t o r y 3 ° ! 0 0 1 4 C o u l d n o t t e l l 1 0 i 0 0 0 1 1 252 167 - 6 4 17 - 3 1 252 Non-response: Item Item 37 - 16 41 - 18 N = 275 2 2 X < X * X 2 = 30' H o 3.64 df a c c e p t e d . = 6 TABLE 62 Item 44: What was y o u r r e a c -t i o n t o t h e r e p o r t by t h i s e v a l u a t o r ? Itern 4 4 : Never I n f r e q u -e n t l y Item 41: Frequency o f e v a l u -a t o r 's " d r o p - i n " v i s i t s . Item 41: O c c a s i o n - F r e q u - D a i l y T o t a l s a l l y e n t l y 3 1 i 0 30 11 1 0 146 3 0 0 43 0 1 1 28 0 0 0 8 255 17 - 3 .1. 255 -G r e a t l y p l e a s e d P l e a s e d 93 41 i. 1 I n d i f f e r e n t D i s p l e a s e d Angry 19 7   31 9 18 8 8 0 169- 65 Non-response: Item 4 4 - 1 5 N = 275 X 2 = 1.88 d f =>4 Item 41 - 18 x 2 < X 2-™', H ° a c c e p t e d * 156 TABLE 63 Item 46: How do you see t h i s e v a l u a t o r as a judge o f t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n your c l a s s r o o m ? Item 41: Frequency o f e v a l u a -t o r ' s " d r o p - i n " v i s i t s . Item 46: Item 41: Never I n f r e q u - O c c a s i o n - F r e q u - D a i l y T o t a l s e n t l y a l l y e n t l y ••. a c c e p t a b l e A c c e p t a b l e 38 20 4 0 0 2 0 62 : 152 102 36 12 Not a c c e p t a b l e 27 10 0 1 1 39 253 167 66 - 16 3 • 1 253 Non-response: Item 46 - 17 Item 41 - 18 N = 275 2 2 X < X -50' X 2 = 2.41 d f = 4 H Q a c c e p t e d . TABLE 6 4 Item 2: With w h i c h grade l e v e l s Item 44: What was your r e -was t h e b u l k o f your time s p e n t a c t i o n t o t h e r e p o r t by t h i s d u r i n g t h e p a s t y e a r ? e v a l u a t o r ? Item 2: G r e a t l y p l e a s e d P l e a s e d Item 44: I n d i f -f e r e n t D i s -p l e a s e d Angry T o t a l s E l e m e n t a r y 24 121 ! 34 ! 1— 1 23 5 207 Secondary 7 28 1 9 i 5 2 51 1 258 31 149 - 43 28 • 7 -• 258 Non-response : - Item 2 Item 44 --• 1 - 16 N = 275 x 2 < x 2 = o. X 2 H X > 8 0 f n o 05 df = 2 a c c e p t e d . 157 TABLE 65 Item 34: Does the r e p o r t form Item 44: What was your r e -p e r m i t adequate r e p o r t i n g ? a c t i o n t o the r e p o r t by t h i s e v a l u a t o r ? Item 34: Item 44: G r e a t l y , I n d i f - D i s ^ , m . , . j. P l e a s e d _ . , Angry T o t a l s p l e a s e d . . r- . . f e r e n t . p l e a s e d .^ J D e f i n i t e l y 10. 31 1 3 0 45 P r o b a b l y 13 2 136 Undecided 3 19 + 13 5 0 40 P r o b a b l y n o t 0 7 " + 5 + 3 3 18 D e f i n i t e l y n o t 3 2 5 5 3 18 257 29 149 - - 43 - 28 8 257 Non-response: Item 34 - 16 N = 275 X 2 = 41. 69 • df Item 44 - 15 H o r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l . TABLE 66 Item 35: Was t h e r e p o r t based Item 44: What was your r e -on an adequate knowledge o f a c t i o n t o t h e r e p o r t by t h i s y o u r work? e v a l u a t o r ? Item 35: Item 44 G r e a t l y p i e a s e c ! * n d l ^ . D^" s Angry T o t a l s p l e a s e d f e r e n t p l e a s e d - ^ 1 • Y e s , c e r t a i n l y 9 21 2 1 0 33 Y e s , p r o b a b l y 13 64 6 1 0 84 +_. - • -Undecided 3 37 9 3 0 52 No,probably 3 23 + 20 + 10 2 58 N o , c e r t a i n l y 3 4 5 13 6 31 258 31 149 - .42. 28 8 258 Non-response: Item 35 - 14 N = 275 x 2 = 78,90 d f = 4 Item 44 - 15 H D r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l . 158 TABLE 6 7 Item 36: Was s u f f i c i e n t a ccount Item 44: What was your t a k e n o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s beyond r e a c t i o n t o the r e p o r t by your c o n t r o l ? t h i s e v a l u a t o r ? . Item 36: G r e a t l y p l e a s e d -Item 44: P l e a s e d * n d l f f e r e n t D i s -- p l e a s e d Angry T o t a l s Y e s , c e r t a i n l y 13 46 2 2 0 63 Yes, p r o b a b l y 15 23 8 0 121 Undecided 1 23 + 7 ^ _ . J 7 L 1 43 No,probably 1 8 6 + 7 2 24 N o , c e r t a i n l y 1 0 0 4 3 8 259 31 -150 - 42 - 28 - 8 259 Non-response: Item 36 - 12 N = 275 Xz = 56.49 d f = 4 Item 44 - 15 H r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l . TABLE 6 8 Item 37: How good a r e p o r t d i d Item 44: What was your r e -you g e t from t h i s e v a l u a t o r ? . a c t i o n t o t h e r e p o r t from t h i s e v a l u a t o r ? Item 37: Item 44: G r e a t l y p l e a s e d P l e a s e d I n d i f -f e r e n t D i s -p l e a s e d Angry T o t a l s E x c e l l e n t 13 3 0 0 16 S u p e r i o r 16 6 1 + 9 - 3 1 90 S a t i s f a c t o r y F a i r U n s a t i s f a c t o r y 2 0 0 83 2 o + 3 0 i 3 o 2 1 3 2 134 12 4 C o u l d n o t t e l l 0 31 0 149 0 42 0 27 1 8 . 1 257 257 Non-response: Item 37 - 16 N = 275 X^ = 71.92 df = 6 Item 44 - 15 H c r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l . 159 TABLE 69 Item 42: Were you o b s e r v e d Item 44: What was your r e a c t i o n when t e a c h i n g a s u b j e c t i n t o t h e r e p o r t , b y t h i s e v a l u a t o r ? . w hich you are most competent? - " ••. , -Item 42: G r e a t l y P l e a s e d Item 44: I n d i f - D i s -p l e a s e d . . v ...... f e r e n t - p l e a s e d Angry T o t a l s Yes 23 81 21 10 4 139 No 8 66 19 18 4 115 254 - 31 147 40 : - 28 8 254 Non-response: Item 42 -- 19 N = 275 X2 = 4.71 df = Item 44 - 15 2 2 X < X .05' H o a c c e p t e d . TABLE 70 Item 6: Sex Item 46:. How do you, see t h i s e v a l u a t o r as a judge o f t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n your c l a s s r o o m ? Item 6 H i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e A c c e p t a b l e Item 46: Not a c c e p t a b l e T o t a l s Male Female 19 45 64 55 100 155 16 23 39-90 168 258 258 Non-response: Item 6 - n i l Item 46. - 17 N = 275 -X = 1.42 • d f = 2 2 . 2 X 30 , H Q a c c e p t e d . 160 TABLE 71 Item 32: D i d you have a , c l e a r Item 46: How do you see t h i s i d e a e a r l y i n the y e a r what t h e e v a l u a t o r as a judge o f the e v a l u a t o r would e x p e c t o f you l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n your as a t e a c h e r ? • c l a s s r o o m ? -Item 32: H i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e Item 46: A c c e p t a b l e Not a c c e p t a b l e T o t a l s Yes No 39 24 63 69 84 153 + •5 34 39 113 142 255 255 Non-response: Item 32 - 12 Item 46 - 17 N = 275 X 23.68 df = 2 H r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l , o TABLE 72 Item 33: What was the form Item 46: How do you see t h i s ev-o f the e v a l u a t o r ' s r e p o r t ? a l u a t o r as a judge o f the l e a r n i n g ,•... -.- . - s i t u a t i o n i n your .classroom?, Item 33 Item 46 acceptable A c c e p t a b l e a ° ^ e p t a b l e T o t a l s F r e e form Check l i s t R a t i n g s c a l e F r e e form-check l i s t F r e e form-r a t i n g s c a l e 34 4 3 12 10 63 94 14 3 19 21 .15:1 22 1 3 150 19 9 35 38 251 37 251 Non-response: Item 33 - .19 Item 46 -.17 N = 275 x 2 = "1.61 d f = 4 2 2 , X < X ; 8 0>, H 0 a c c e p t e d 161 TABLE 73 Item 35: Was t h e e v a l u a t o r ' s Item 46: How do you see t h i s r e p o r t based on an adequate knowledge o f y o u r work? e v a l u a t o r as a judge o f t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n your c l a s s r o o m ? Item 35 Item 46: a c c e p t a b l e . A c c e p t a b l e a ^ e p t a h l e T o t a l s Y e s , c e r t a i n l y 19 12 1 32 Y e s , p r o b a b l y 52 1 84 Undecided 4 44 1 5 53 No,probably 8 36 13 57 N o , c e r t a i n l y 2 10 18 30 256 64 154 3 8 256 Non-response: Item 35 - 14 Item 46 - 17 N = 2 7 5 X = 73.65 d f = 4 H Q r e j e c t e d , " . 0 0 1 l e v e l . TABLE 74 Item 36: Was s u f f i c i e n t a ccount Item 46: How do you see t h i s t a k e n o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s beyond e v a l u a t o r as a judge o f t h e yo u r c o n t r o l ? l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n your c l a s s r o o m ? Item 36 H i g h l y -acceptable Item 46: A c c e p t a b l e Not a c c e p t a b l e T o t a l s Y e s , c e r t a i n l y Y e s , p r o b a b l y Undecided No,probably N o , c e r t a i n l y 30 23 9 1 1 64 r 31 83 26 15 0 155 1 14 8 it. 8 7 .3.8. 62 120 43 24 8 257 .2.5.7:-Non-response: Item 36 - 12 Item 46 - 17 N = 275 x 2 = 35.43 d f = 4 H 0 r e j e c t e d f .001 l e v e l , 162 TABLE 75 Item 37: How good a r e p o r t d i d you g e t from t h i s e v a l u a t o r ? Item 46: a l u a t o r as s i t u a t i o n How do you see t h i s ev-a judge o f t h e l e a r n i n g i n your c l a s s r o o m ? Item 37: H i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e Item A c c e p t a b l e 46: Not a c c e p t a b l e T o t a l s E x c e l l e n t 8 7 1 1 16 S u p e r i o r 2 6 + 56 i 8 90 S a t i s f a c t o r y 29 83 19 _____ 135 F a i r 1 5 12 U n s a t i s f a c t o r y 0 1 3 4 C o u l d n o t t e l l 0 • 64 0 152 1 38 1 275 275 Non-response: Item 37 - 16 Item 46 - 17 N = 275 X 2 = 31.52 H Q r e j e c t e d , .001 df = 6 l e v e l . TABLE 76 Item 39: Were a p r e l i m i n a r y e v a l u a t i o n ? . you g i v e n . Item 46: How do you see t h i s e v a l u -w r i t t e n a t o r as a judge o f the l e a r n i n g s i t u -a t i o n i n your c l a s s r o o m ? -Item 39: H i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e Item 46 A c c e p t a b l e N o t . T o t a l s a c c e p t a b l e Yes 1 6 + 1 -15 3 34 No 48 I 64 140 155 35 38 223 257 257 Non-response: Item 39 - 13 N = 275 X 2 = 10.25 df = 2 Item 46 - 17 H Q r e j e c t e d , .01 l e v e l . 163 TABLE 77 Item 42: Were you o b s e r v e d Item 46: How do you see t h i s when t e a c h i n g a s u b j e c t i n e v a l u a t o r as a judge o f t h e which you a r e most.compe- l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n y o u r t e n t ? c l a s s r o o m ? Item 42 Item 46: E i g h l l K 1 A c c e p t a b l e N o t , . - T o t a l s a c c e p t a b l e ^ a c c e p t a b l e Yes No 45 17 62 J - J 80 74 154 + • 13 23 3.6. 138 114 252 252 Non-response: Item 42 - 18 Item 46 - 18 N = 2 7 5 X 2 =13.47 d f = 2 H Q r e j e c t e d , .01 l e v e l . TABLE 7 8 Item 43: Was t h e e v a l u a t o r ' s Item 46: How do you see t h i s r e p o r t c o n s i s t e n t . w i t h y o u r e v a l u a t o r as a judge of t h e d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h him? l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n your c l a s s r o o m ? Item 43 H i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e Item 46: A c c e p t a b l e Not a c c e p t a b l e T o t a l s Yes No,more c r i t i c a l N o , l e s s c r i t i c a l No d i s c u s s i o n 52 88 " lT 10 8 .6.4 12 41 152 11 2 16 3.9. 150 25 15 65 255 255 Non-response: Item 43 - 17. Item 46 - 17 N = 275 X 2 = 40.50 d f '= 6 H r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l , o 164 TABLE 79 Item 44: What was your. Item 46: How do you see t h i s e v a l u -r e a c t i o n t o t h e r e p o r t by a t o r as a judge o f the l e a r n i n g t h i s e v a l u a t o r ? . s i t u a t i o n i n your c l a s s r o o m ? Item 44 Item 46: H i g h l y A c c e p t a b l e N o t . T o t a l s a c c e p t a b l e . . .- . a c c e p t a b l e G r e a t l y p l e a s e d 19 11 I 1 31 P l e a s e d 42 + 100 •U - -— 1 + 11 i • 148 I n d i f f e r e n t 3 — 29 43 D i s p l e a s e d 0 12 ! + i s 1 27 Angry 0 2 1 6 8 257 64 . 154 ... 39 257.-• Non-response: Item 44 - 15. N = 275 X 2 = 87.75 df = 4 Item 46 - 17 H- r e j e c t e d , .001 l e v e l • TABLE 80 Item 45: What was the e f f e c t Item 46: How do you see t h i s on y o ur c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n e v a l u a t o r as a judge of t h e o f the e v a l u a t o r ' s p resence? l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n y o u r c l a s s r o o m ? Item 45: Item 46: H i g h l y . . , . Not i w i A c c e p t a b l e . , , a c c e p t a b l e ^ accep t a b l e . T o t a l s G r e a t l y i m p roves... 4 1 6 ) 1 11 . . . s l i g h l y above... 26 9 93 N o . . . d i f f e r e n c e 27 70 T -------17 114 ...adverse. . 7 7 35 H i g h l y a d v e r s e . . . 0 I 0 j .1 1 No o b s e r v a t i o n 0 0 1 4 4 64 155 39 258 - .2.5.8-Non-response: Item 45 - 13 N = 275 x 2 = 10.00 d f = 4 Item 46 - 17 H Q r e j e c t e d , .05 l e v e l , 165 TABLE 81 Item 2: W i t h w h i c h grade l e v e l s was the b u l k o f your time s p e n t d u r i n g the p a s t y e a r ? Item 48: E v a l u a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g would be improved i f the s t a f f o f each s c h o o l had t h e t a s k o f d e s c r i b -i n g what would be c o n s i d e r e d good t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e f o r t h a t s c h o o l . Item 2: Item 48:' Degree o f Agreement S t r o n g l y A g r e e ^^^ e D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y T o t a l s - agree 3 c i d e d . . . - . - d i s a g r e e • . El e m e n t a r y 25 69 54 21 2 171 Secondary 6 16 12 8 3 45 216 31 85 66 29 5 21,6 , Non-response: Item 2 - 1 Item 4 8 - 2 X 2 =:3.25 d f = 2 2 2 x < x 10' H o a c c e P t e d -Note: N = 2 1 9 ; tho s e h a v i n g b o t h o .^ . *;. ... did p r i n c i p a l ' s and o t h e r e v a l u a t o r ' s r e p o r t s . TABLE 82 Item 2: W i t h which grade Item 50: Teachers a re wary o f d i s -l e v e l s was the b u l k o f c u s s i n g t h e i r work w i t h the p r i n c i p a l y o u r time s p e n t d u r i n g who has t h e duty o f r e p o r t i n g on the p a s t y e a r ? t e a c h e r ' s work. Item 2 Item 50: Degree o f agreement S t r o n g l y - Unde- D i s e S t r o n g l y T o t a l s agree - c i d e d - d i s a g r e e E l e m e n t a r y Secondary 8 3 1.1 62 18 80 19 8 2.7 54 7 61 28 9 .3.7. 21,6 171 45 216 Non-response: Item 2 Item 50 •1 2 X N = 219 as p e r T a b l e 81, 2 = 2.76 df = 2 X X 20' H ° a c c e P t e d ' 166 TABLE 83 Item 21: How good a r e p o r t Item 50: Teachers are wary o f d i d you g e t from the p r i n - d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r work w i t h the c i p a l ? p r i n c i p a l who has the duty o f r e p o r t i n g on t e a c h e r s 1 work.. Item 21: Item 50: Degree o f Agreement-S t r o n g l y . _ Unde- _. S t r o n g l y m . . 3 J Agree ., , D i s a g r e e .,. 3 - ' T o t a l s agree - c i d e d ~ d i s a g r e e E x c e l l e n t 6 11 i 3 12 6 38 S u p e r i o r 3 35 ! 17 | 38 21 114 S a t i s f a c t o r y 5 44 1 10 34 16 109 F a i r 0 3 + | + 3. 0 6 U n s a t i s f a c t o r y 0 1 | 0 0 0 1 C o u l d n o t t e l l 1 3 1 0 0 0 4 I 272 15 97 33 84 43 272 Non-response: Item 21 - 5 Item 50 - 6 X 2 = 12.71 df = 4 H r e j e c t e d , .02 l e v e l , o Note: N = 283; th o s e who had a p r i n c i p a l ' s r e p o r t i n the p a s t f i v e y e a r s . 167 TABLE 84 Item 5:. F o r how many y e a r s have you s e r v e d as a t e a c h e r i n B.C.? Item 52: The p r e s e n t e v a l u a t i o n system e n a b l e s a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o make a sound e v a l u a t i o n o f a t e a c h e r ' s work. Item 5: Years Item 52: Degree o f agreement S t r o n g l y Unde- D i s e S t r o n g l y T o t a l s agree ^ c i d e d ^ d i s a g r e e 1 1 12 17 12 4 46 2 0 8 19 i 13 4 44 3 1 6 _ . 13 5 42 4 0 5 6 I 8 2 21 5 0 5 1 1 1 I 4 2 12 6-10 0 5 1 13 i i i i 2 31 11-20 1 3 8 4 2 18 21-30 0 0 2 ! o 0 2 31-40 1 0 0 ! o 0 1 40-plus 0 0 1 ! o 0 1 218 .4, 44 , s o - 69 21 \ 218 : . •-^ s Non-response: Item 5 - n i l Item 52 - 1 N..= 219 as per T a b l e s 81,82 X 2 = 6.18 d f = 4 2 , 2 X < X 10 , H D a c c e p t e d . 168 APPENDIX F SUMMARIES OF-WRITTEN COMMENTS W r i t t e n comments were s o l i c i t e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h e l e v e n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s . F i v e o f t h e s e i t e m s were i n the s e c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g r e p o r t s by p r i n c i p a l s . F i v e o t h e r s were t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g i t e m s , i d e n t i c a l l y worded, i n t h e s e c -t i o n on r e p o r t s by D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , o r I n s p e c t o r s . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g items a r e p a i r e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g summaries. The number o f w r i t t e n comments p e r i t e m ranged from about 45 p e r c e n t t o 60 p e r c e n t o f the number o f res p o n d e n t s concerned f o r a l l e x c e p t the l a s t i t e m , number 56, which r e -c e i v e d o n l y 26 p e r c e n t w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e . Thus, w h i l e the comments shed l i g h t on the r e a s o n i n g o f many r e s p o n d e n t s , and are sometimes i l l u m i n a t i n g because o f what they do not say, the y cannot be c l a i m e d t o be a s t a t i s t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the views o f t h e s u r v e y sample. The comments were t y p e d o n t o l i b r a r y c a r d s a l o n g w i t h r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n : t h e response t o t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m , t h e i t e m number, and an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number t o e n a b l e r e f e r e n c e t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e copy from which th e comment was c o p i e d . The l a t t e r p i e c e of i n f o r m a t i o n was made use o f where re s p o n d e n t s made r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r own resp o n s e s t o o t h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s . The r e s u l t i n g 1167 c a r d s were c o l l a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m and t h e comments f o r each i t e m were s o r t e d one o r more ti m e s i n t o 169 c a t e g o r i e s s u g g e s t e d by t h e i r c o n t e n t . The f o l l o w i n g summar-i e s i n c l u d e t a l l i e s o f t h e v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s and s e l e c t e d samples o f the comments. QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS 18 AND 34 These i d e n t i c a l l y worded i t e m s a re r e s p e c t i v e l y from the p a r t s on r e p o r t s by p r i n c i p a l s and r e p o r t s by Other E v a l u a t o r s ( D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s e t c . ) . . Each, o f them i s dependent f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on t h e responses t o the p r e c e d i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m which i n d i c a t e s t h e t y p e o f r e p o r t form used. Thus i t e m 18 i s r e p o r t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o i t e m 17, and item-34 i s r e p o r t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o i t e m 33. Item 18: " I n y o u r o p i n i o n does the r e p o r t form used p e r m i t adequate r e p o r t i n g on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t e a c h e r s ? " Response D e f i n - P r o - Unde- Prob. D e f i n . c h o i c e s : 1 t e l y b a b l y c i d e d n o t not Response f r e q u e n c i e s : 61. 114 43 36 18 Comment f r e q u e n c i e s : 43 75 22 33 20 The r e q u e s t f o r comment: " I n what way t o you c o n s i d e r i t t o be e f f e c t i v e o r i n e f f e c t i v e ? " The comment f r e q u e n c i e s a re now s e p a r a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e k i n d o f r e p o r t form used as r e p o r t e d i n i t e m 17. 170 Item 18 Response c h o i c e s Item 17 Responses: F r e e form Check l i s t R a t i n g s c a l e . F r e e form p l u s check l i s t F r e e form p l u s r a t i n g s c a l e D e f i n -i t e l y 36 43 P r o b - Unde- P r o b a b l y D e f i n i t e l y a b l y , c i d e d not not 51 3 4 75 12 1 2 4 22 10 4 5 11 33 11 20 193 A n a l y s i s o f the Comments A c c o r d i n g t o the Above C a t e g o r i e s F r e e Form Comments from t e a c h e r s who c o n s i d e r e d t h i s form d e f i n -i t e l y p e r m i t s adequate r e p o r t i n g c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e freedom i t g i v e s p r i n c i p a l s t o expand beyond the l i s t e d i tems o f a g u i d e d form o r t o e x c l u d e i t e m s he c o n s i d e r s u n i m p o r t a n t , t h e r e b y c o n v e y i n g h i s views as t o t h e s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a s i n t e a c h i n g and h i g h l i g h t i n g s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of t h e t e a c h e r . T h i r t y - o n e o f t h e t h i r t y - s i x comments i n t h i s c a t e -gory made t h e s e p o i n t s a t l e a s t p a r t i a l l y . Two o f t h e s e i n d i c a t e d a b e l i e f t h a t s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n i s the more v a l i d . Two o t h e r s i n c l u d e d a q u a l i f i c a t i o n t h a t t h e e f f e c -t i v e n e s s o f t h e form was d e t e r m i n e d by the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p r i n c i p a l . 171 Sample comments: " E f f e c t i v e because i n the f r e e form any p o i n t o f i m p o r t a n ce can be b r o u g h t up." " P r i n c i p a l was w i t h o u t l i m i t a t i o n s on what t o say, c o u l d f r e e l y e x p r e s s h i s e v a l u a t i o n . " , " A n y t h i n g w h i c h p r i n c i p a l c o n s i d e r s i m p o r t a n t can be i n c l u d e d ; u n i m p o r t a n t o m i t t e d . " " A l l o w s t h e p i n p o i n t i n g o f s p e c i f i c s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses." Of the f i f t y - o n e comments from t e a c h e r s who thought t h e f r e e form r e p o r t p r o b a b l y p e r m i t s adequate r e p o r t i n g , t wenty-seven c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d w h o l l y p o s i t i v e , t h e remainder b e i n g n o n - c o m m i t t a l , u n r e l a t e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n , o r n e g a t i v e . Of t h e twenty-seven p o s i t i v e comments, seven t e e n r e f e r r e d , as above, t o the freedom o f t h e p r i n c i p a l t o e l a b o r a t e and em-p h a s i z e . Three i n d i c a t e d a p p r o v a l because the form a l l o w e d f o r b e t t e r e x p r e s s i o n o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , and one showed a p p r o v a l because o f o r i g i n a l i t y o f r e p o r t s . The r e m a i n i n g f i v e e x p r e s s e d g e n e r a l i z e d a p p r o v a l . Non-committal remarks a l l s t a t e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e form depends on t h e p r i n c i p a l . There were n i n e such comments. Ten comments were m i l d l y n e g a t i v e . Of t h e s e , f i v e r e -marked on. l a c k o f t h o r o u g h n e s s , t h r e e o f them c o n t a i n e d t h e added s u g g e s t i o n t h a t use o f a.check l i s t would remedy i t . Three comments s t a t e d t h a t t h e form tended t o demand c o n f o r m i t y w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s b i a s e s , and two i n d i c a t e d t h a t f r e e form 172 r e p o r t s tended t o be vague, one o f them s u g g e s t i n g t h a t vague-ness was employed by p r i n c i p a l s i n r e p o r t s t o a v o i d u n n e c e s s a r y c o n f l i c t . S i x comments were o f f t h e p o i n t o f • t h e q u e s t i o n . F i v e o f t h e s e were o b j e c t i o n s t o r e p o r t s based on i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . Sample comments: "Because i t i s f r e e form, he i s a b l e t o comment i n any way he sees f i t and i s a b l e t o o f f e r h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s , however may n o t n e c e s s a r i l y comment on e v e r y phase o f your.work." " I t i n c l u d e d e v e r y t h i n g he c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y . " "The p r i n c i p a l c o u l d e a s i l y e v a l u a t e p o i n t s t h a t appeared i m p o r t a n t t o him." "Report was based on me as a s u i t a b l e p e r s o n r a t h e r t h a n what I d i d o r d i d not a c c o m p l i s h . " " I t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s o r i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s depends on t h e p r i n -c i p a l . " "The form i s a l l r i g h t , adequate a t l e a s t . " ; " I n t h i s case the form was adequate, b u t perhaps a method o f f o r c i n g p r i n c i p a l s t o do a more thorough e v a l u a t i o n would b e - b e t t e r ; e.g. d e t a i l e d c h e c k l i s t . " "Could be more th o r o u g h . " " I t makes you conform t o t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s i d e a s whether you agree w i t h him o r n o t . " . "Too vague." Only t w e l v e comments were r e c e i v e d from t e a c h e r s who were u n d e c i d e d about adequacy o f • t h e f r e e form r e p o r t . Nine o f t h e s e comments showed d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e c o n t e n t o f 173 t h e i r r e p o r t s , f i v e because of o m i s s i o n s , t h r e e because of l a c k o f s p e c i f i c i t y , and one because of l a c k o f r e l e v a n c e . T h i s tendency t o t r a n s f e r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e e v a l u a t o r r a t h e r t h a n th e r e p o r t form becomes more pronounced as the comments become more n e g a t i v e . Sample comments: " I t s t r e s s e s t h e good p o i n t s and weak p o i n t s . Does not g i v e good o v e r v i e w . " "Does not c o v e r many a s p e c t s of t e a c h i n g . " " I t i s i n e f f e c t i v e because the r e p o r t i s t o o g e n e r a l . " " I would c o n s i d e r t h i s method i n e f f e c t i v e because o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r e f e r e n c e s and s l a n t e d e v a l u a t i o n . " Comments from those.who c o n s i d e r e d the f r e e form p r o -b a b l y n o t adequate o r d e f i n i t e l y not adequate were s i m i l a r and few i n number. They are r e p o r t e d t o g e t h e r . F i v e comments r e f e r r e d t o l a c k o f comprehensiveness, one t o l a c k o f a com-mon b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i o n . Seven i n d i c a t e d the f e a r t h a t f r e e form r e p o r t s t e n d t o l e a v e t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r v u l n e r a b l e t o e x p r e s s i o n s o f b i a s and p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e p r i n -c i p a l . The r e m a i n i n g e i g h t comments i n d i c a t e d o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s e v a l u a t i o n , f o u r because of t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e r e p o r t , f o u r , b e c a u s e o f i n s u f f i c i e n t o b s e r v a t i o n . Sample comments: "There i s n o t a common b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i o n . He can comment on whatever he w i s h e s . " 174 "Very g e n e r a l i z e d . " " E v a l u a t e s o n l y what he t h i n k s i s i m p o r t a n t . " " I n e f f e c t i v e because o f t h e amount o f p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n i n -v o l v e d and i n a d e q u a t e knowledge of m a t e r i a l and c l a s s on the p a r t o f t h e . p r i n c i p a l . " "No d e t a i l s i n c l u d e d , j u s t ' s a t i s f a c t o r y ' . " "A duty form based on v e r y l i t t l e o b s e r v a t i o n . " Check L i s t Only e i g h t comments were o b t a i n e d . Three d i d not r e l a t e t o the q u e s t i o n . The r e m a i n i n g comments a r e as f o l l o w s . P r o b a b l y adequate: " I t was com p l i m e n t a r y , t o . t h e p o i n t s . " "There was a g u i d e and a space p r o v i d e d f o r t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s p e r s o n a l comments." . " I n a f r e e form t h e t e a c h e r i s more p e r s o n a l i z e d . There i s more freedom t o t e l l o f the t e a c h e r as a p e r s o n , and t e a c h e r n o t a check l i s t ( r o b o t t y p e ) ? " P r o b a b l y n ot adequate: "Not enough s a i d about a c t u a l t e a c h i n g . " "Too i m p e r s o n a l . " R a t i n g S c a l e A g a i n t h e number - o f comments was i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r much a n a l y s i s . The n e g a t i v e comments outnumbered the p o s i t i v e ones. Sample comments: "I s h e l p f u l f o r a t e a c h e r t o see a r e p o r t on him w r i t t e n ob-j e c t i v e l y , judged by a c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d . " "Gives an o v e r a l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f your w o r t h . " 175 "The i t e m s a r e adequate t o g i v e a good r e p o r t . " "Not t o o much thought .is r e q u i r e d i n check l i s t w i t h o u t w r i t t e n comment. No d i s c u s s i o n t h r o u g h y e a r o r f o l l o w up i f t e a c h e r g e t s low r a t i n g . " "Not complete enough." "Procedure r o u t i n i z e d ; a c c u r a c y m i n i m i z e d . " "Many q u e s t i o n s o r items do not r e l a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t e a c h -i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s . " "Too l i t t l e room f o r s u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s . " F r e e Form pl u s , C h e c k L i s t I n t h i s case the p o s i t i v e comments were s t r o n g l y so and outnumbered th e n e g a t i v e ones. Only twenty-two comments were o f f e r e d . Sample comments: " I f e e l the check l i s t adequate and t h e remarks so f a r from my p r i n c i p a l s have been good." " A l l phases of t e a c h e r - s t a f f , t e a c h e r - p a r e n t , t e a c h e r - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e i n c l u d e d as w e l l as e x a c t work done by t e a c h e r ( p r e p a r a t i o n , e t c . ) . " " I t a l l o w s t h e p r i n c i p a l t o s t a t e d e f i n i t e l y the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of the t e a c h e r . " "The e f f e c t i v e n e s s depends v e r y much on the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p r i n c i p a l . Many do not t a k e t h i s r e p o r t i n g s e r i o u s l y and t r y t o be t o o d i p l o m a t i c . " "The form i s q u i t e e x t e n s i v e and c o v e r s a wide range o f im-p o r t a n t q u a l i t i e s . " " I t g i v e s a g e n e r a l o v e r v i e w o f t h e t e a c h e r ' s performance," "Too s i m i l a r f o r a l l t e a c h e r s . " "Mentioned t o o many r o u t i n e t e c h n i q u e s . " "Check l i s t shows n o t p r o g r e s s o r l a c k o f p r o c e s s [ s i c ] . " 176 F r e e Form p l u s R a t i n g S c a l e N e g a t i v e comments outweighed p o s i t i v e ones b o t h i n number and i n degree o f c o n v i c t i o n , b u t a g a i n t h e number o f comments was s m a l l , t h e t o t a l b e i n g t w e n t y - f i v e . Sample comments: " C o n s i d e r t h e forms used i n Vancouver a r e e f f e c t i v e . " " I t i n c l u d e s the i m p o r t a n t areas o f t e a c h e r ' s work and a l l o w s , f o r f r e e comment." " I t c o v e r s most a s p e c t s o f your t e a c h i n g s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s and c o n d u c t . " "Some o f the r a t i n g p o i n t s a re never o b s e r v e d by t h e p r i n c i -p a l — l i k e how a t e a c h e r g e t s a l o n g w i t h parents.'' " I t depends upon t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e p r i n c i p a l t h e r e f o r e can c e r t a i n l y be i n e f f e c t i v e . " " I n e f f e c t i v e t o s u p e r f i c i a l — I have t h e f e e l i n g t h a t t h e s e r e p o r t s a r e i s s u e d o n l y as a form t h a t must be f i l l e d o u t . " "Having seen some o f t h e o t h e r t e a c h e r s ' forms, t h e y were a l l the same.!', "The r a t i n g s c a l e and t h e p o i n t s t o be r a t e d on are r i d i c u -l o u s . " " I don't b e l i e v e they g i v e a t r u e e v a l u a t i o n . " "Only comments w r i t t e n on r e p o r t a r e e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i -v i t i e s s p o n s o r e d . " 177 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Item 34: " I n your o p i n i o n does,the r e p o r t form used p e r m i t adequate r e p o r t i n g on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h e r s ? " ( T h i s q u e s t i o n was asked i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h r e p o r t s by D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , o r I n s p e c t o r s . ) Response D e f i n - P r o b - Unde- P r o b a b l y D e f i n i t e l y c h o i c e s : i t e l y a b l y c i d e d n ot h o t Response f r e q u e n c i e s : 45- 137 41 18 18 Comment f r e q u e n c i e s : 31. 85 22 13 16 The r e q u e s t f o r comment: " I n what way do you c o n s i d e r i t t o be e f f e c t i v e o r i n e f f e c t i v e ? " As b e f o r e , the comment f r e q u e n c i e s a re now s e p a r a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the k i n d o f r e p o r t form used as r e p o r t e d i n Item 33 Item 3 3 Response D e f i n - P r o b - Unde- P r o b a b l y D e f i n i t e l y c h o i c e s : i t e l y a b l y c i d e d n ot h o t Fr e e form 23 49 14 8 4 Check l i s t 2 10 — — 1 R a t i n g s c a l e 1 1 — 2 6 F r e e form p l u s c h e c k . l i s t 1 15 2 1 2 F r e e form p l u s r a t i n g s c a l e 4 10 6 2 3 31 85 22 13 16 178 A n a l y s i s o f t h e Comments A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Above C a t e g o r i e s I n g e n e r a l the t e n o r o f t h e comments and t h e i r d i s t r i -b u t i o n was such t h a t few d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h the a n a l y s i s f o r i t e m 18 were d i s c e r n e d . The comments r e p o r t e d f o r item.18 ( p r i n c i p a l s ' r e p o r t s ) can be c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the comments f o r i t e m 34 ( o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s ' r e p o r t s ) e x c e p t where d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t e d . The a n a l y s i s w i l l c o n s i s t o f n o t a t i o n s o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . F r e e Form The comments c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d t h o s e of i t e m 18. Check L i s t . As w i t h i t e m 18, .comments were few. However, t h e y were much more p o s i t i v e and came e x c l u s i v e l y from t e a c h e r s who f e l t t he form was e i t h e r d e f i n i t e l y o r p r o b a b l y adequate. (The one comment from a t e a c h e r who f e l t t he form was d e f i n i t e l y i n a d e -quate was an o b j e c t i o n t o i n s u f f i c i e n t o b s e r v a t i o n . ) Sample comments: " I t c o v e r s e v e r y p o s s i b l e a s p e c t t h a t a c o n s c i e n t i o u s t e a c h -e r would do d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f a y e a r . " " A l l r e l e v a n t a s p e c t s o f t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d . " " I t c o v e r e d a l l t h e areas w h i c h I wanted t o know about i n r e g a r d t o my own t e a c h i n g . " 179 " I t was c l e a r and c o n c i s e . " "Check l i s t i s a good i d e a . " j . R a t i n g S c a l e Only t e n comments were, r e c e i v e d , n i n e o f them n e g a t i v e . Four comments n o t e d , t h a t t h e e n t i r e r e p o r t amounted t o an i n d i c a t i o n 'as-to which o f t h e f i v e c a t e g o r i e s • h a d been s e l e c -• o 8 t e d t o r e p r e s e n t the g e n e r a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f - the t e a c h e r . F r e e Form p l u s Check L i s t The comments r e c e i v e d c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d t h o s e o f i t e m 18. ' • F r e e Form p l u s R a t i n g S c a l e As w i t h i t e m e i g h t e e n , t h e r e were -only t w e n t y - f i v e comments. I n t h i s case they .were about e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d as b e i n g p o s i t i v e , n o n - c o m m i t t a l , o r n e g a t i v e , t h a t i s t o say, a l i t t l e more p o s i t i v e t h a n f o r i t e m 18. Sample comments: . . " I t c o v e r e d a l l a r e a s o f c l a s s r o o m management methods, e n v i r -onment, t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . " "One i s compared w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t t e a c h e r s i n the p r o v i n c e i n t he same manner. I t seems t o c o v e r a l l a r e a s o f t e a c h e r s t a n d a r d s . " " E f f e c t i v e i n t h a t i t p e r m i t s s u b j e c t i v e o p i n i o n w i t h i n a s t a n d a r d format.!' . ' 4 " I t i s v e r y l i m i t e d i n the c r i t e r i a upon w h i c h a t e a c h e r ' s w o r t h i s based." o " I t i s p r o b a b l y i m p o s s i b l e t o r e a l l y e v a l u a t e a n o t h e r p e r -son's e f f e c t i v e n e s s . " 0 180 QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS 19 AND 35 Item 19: " I n your o p i n i o n , was your p r i n c i p a l ' s r e p o r t based on an adequate knowledge o f your work?" Response c h o i c e s : Y e s , c e r - Y e s , p r o - Unde- No,pro- No,cer-t a i n l y . b a b l y e l d e d b a b l y t a i n l y Response f r e q u e n c i e s : 79 94 34 49 20 Comment f r e q u e n c i e s : 45 50 21 31 11 The r e q u e s t f o r comment: " P l e a s e g i v e a r e a s o n f o r your answer." Teachers tended t o phrase r e s p o n s e s so as t o i n d i c a t e n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward p r i n c i p a l s t hey c o n s i d e r e d d i d not have an adequate knowledge o f t h e i r work and p o s i t i v e ones t o -ward th o s e who d i d . They a s s o c i a t e d i n a d e q u a t e knowledge w i t h i n f r e q u e n t o r no v i s i t a t i o n , l a c k o f awareness o f the way the s c h o o l f u n c t i o n e d , l a c k o f i n t e r e s t , low communication, arid sometimes l a c k o f knowledge o f the t e a c h e r ' s s p e c i a l t y . Teach-e r s who were u n c e r t a i n about the adequacy o f the p r i n c i p a l ' s knowledge s h a r e d t h i s n e g a t i v e v i e w . Teachers who c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r p r i n c i p a l had an adequate knowledge o f t h e i r work tended t o r e p o r t f r e q u e n t v i s i t a t i o n c o u p l e d w i t h h i g h p e r s o n a l comm-u n i c a t i o n , i n t e r e s t , and awareness o f t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e s c h o o l . O f t e n , however, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h t e a c h e r s c e r t a i n o f the p r i n c i p a l ' s adequacy o f knowledge o f t h e i r work, v i s i t a t i o n 181 was not mentioned w h i l e the o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s were emphasized, e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t and communication. There were extremes such as the v i e w of t h e t e a c h e r who f e l t t h a t the p r i n c i p a l was h i g h l y a c t i v e and knowledgeable w i t h r e s p e c t t o e v a l u a t i o n but drove h i s t e a c h e r s t o meet demands which were not neces-s a r i l y a t t u n e d t o the needs o f p u p i l s . Sample comments: " S m a l l s c h o o l — p r i n c i p a l p r o g r e s s i v e l y minded, -- easy t o t a l k t o — e x p e r i e n c e d -- a v a i l a b l e a t a l l t i m e s . " "He was v e r y h e l p f u l and i n t e r e s t e d . " "He made a p o i n t o f v i s i t i n g t h e c l a s s r o o m o f t e n . " "A few s h o r t v i s i t s t o the c l a s s r o o m i s not adequate t o judge y o u r work c o m p l e t e l y . " "He h i m s e l f was n o t c o o p e r a t i v e w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s . D i d not t a k e i n t e r e s t i n t h e s c h o o l . " "My p r i n c i p a l has no i d e a o f t h e r e m e d i a l programmes e t c . w h i c h I c a r r y on." Item 35: (Asked i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h r e p o r t s by D i s t r i c t Super-i n t e n d e n t s , D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n o r I n s p e c t o r s . ) " I n y our o p i n i o n was the r e p o r t based on an adequate knowledge o f your work?" Response Y e s , c e r - )Yes,pro- Unde- No, p r o - No,cer-c h o i c e s : t a i n l y . b a b l y e l d e d b a b l y t a i n l y Response f r e q u e n c i e s : 33 84 54 59 31 Comments f r e q u e n c i e s : 16 39 25 33 18 The r e q u e s t f o r comment: " P l e a s e g i v e a r e a s o n f o r your answer." 182 Comments from t e a c h e r s who f e l t the e v a l u a t o r ' s know-ledg e o f t h e i r work was adequate, though they c o n t a i n e d some r e s e r v a t i o n s about b r e v i t y and i n f r e q u e n c y o f v i s i t s , g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t e d c o n f i d e n c e t h a t h i s e x p e r i e n c e ensured sound judge-ment. Sample comments: "Alt h o u g h t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t was i n my room f o r o n l y a l i t t l e w h i l e he knew e x a c t l y what t o l o o k f o r t o see t h e way and s t a n d a r d s o f my t e a c h i n g . " "The e v a l u a t o r was an e x p e r i e n c e d p e r s o n and was a b l e t o s i z e up a s i t u a t i o n q u i c k l y and a c c u r a t e l y . " " I f e e l Y t - d o e s n o t t a k e an e x p e r i e n c e d i n s p e c t o r l o n g t o judge a t e a c h e r ' s w o r t h . " "He was w e l l aware of t h e problems i n m u l t i - g r a d e one-room s c h o o l s . " A number of comments i n d i c a t e d t h a t t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t o t h e r e v a l u a t o r s i n c o r p o r a t e d the views of p r i n c i p a l s , i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s . A l l o f t h e comments from t e a c h e r s who f e l t t h e e v a l u -a t o r 's knowledge o f the t e a c h e r ' s work t o be p r o b a b l y adequate; and from t e a c h e r s who d e c l a r e d themselves t o be u n d e c i d e d , t o g e t h e r about f i f t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e comments o f f e r e d , showed s k e p t i c i s m as t o whether the e v a l u a t o r c o u l d p o s s i b l y have knowledge of the t e a c h e r ' s work. Most doubted th e a b i l i t y t o judge i n the time g i v e n t o e v a l u a t i o n . 183 Sample comments from the und e c i d e d group: "He saw me o n l y t w i c e . " "The v i s i t was s h o r t . " "How c o u l d i t be adequate?" "There was j u s t one morning v i s i t . How v a l i d can such an o b s e r v a t i o n be?" Comments from th o s e who i n d i c a t e d they f e l t t he e v a l u -a t o r ' s knowledge was i n a d e q u a t e were s i m i l a r , b u t a l i t t l e s t r o n g e r . "He came o n l y once and I do not b e l i e v e a t e a c h e r ' s work can be a c c u r a t e l y e v a l u a t e d from 30 minutes out o f a s c h o o l y e a r . " "Came i n ' f o r . 1 0 minutes -- watched me f o r 3 -- t a l k e d t o t h e c l a s s f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e t i m e . " "Came when I was i l l ; d i d n ' t s t a y t o t a l k w i t h me." "To r e p o r t a d e q u a t e l y , i t would seem one would need l o n g e r t h a n a h a l f hour i n a c l a s s r o o m . " • QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS 22 AND 38 Item 22: (Asked about p r i n c i p a l ' s r e p o r t s ) "Were t h e r e sug-g e s t i o n s i n the r e p o r t as t o how t h e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n your c l a s s r o o m might be improved?" Response c h o i c e s : - Yes No Response f r e q u e n c i e s : 72 204 Comment f r e q u e n c i e s : 42 3 The r e q u e s t f o r comment: " I f y e s , p l e a s e g i v e an example o f t h i s k i n d o f s u g g e s t i o n o r recom-mendation . " 184 Of t h e f o r t y - t w o comments, t w e l v e r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improvement o f c o n t r o l o r d i s c i p l i n e , w h i l e twenty concerned t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s . These twenty i n c l u d e d f i v e i t e m s on g r e a t e r use o f v i s u a l a i d s , t e n on o r g a n i z a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l , t h r e e on v e r b a l p r e s e n t a t i o n , and two on know-ledg e o f l e a r n i n g b e h a v i o u r o f c h i l d r e n . The r e m a i n i n g t w e l v e comments were somewhat n e g a t i v e i n tone and seemed t o be i n -tended t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o p e t t i n e s s o f a d v i c e . Some samples o f th e s e a r e : " P u p i l s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o s i t a t f r o n t o f c l a s s r o o m . P u p i l s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o have h i s textbook.'' "He f e l t t h a t p u p i l s worked b e t t e r i n s t r a i g h t rows r a t h e r t h a n i n groups." "She c o u l d d i s p l a y t h e l i b r a r y books i n a more e f f e c t i v e way, or words t o t h i s e f f e c t , w h i l e making no mention o f t h e e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g t h a t was b e i n g done." "Height o f p r i n t e d l e t t e r s i n p u p i l books." Some samples from t h e f i r s t groups o f comments are as f o l l o w s : "A need f o r g r e a t e r d i s c i p l i n e was suggested d u r i n g the f i r s t t e a c h i n g y e a r . Of c o u r s e I had a c l a s s o f 47 p u p i l s . " "More a t t e n t i o n t o l i s t e n i n g h a b i t s o f c h i l d r e n . " "Comments w i t h r e g a r d t o i m p r o v i n g v o i c e , b e t t e r b a l a n c e be-tween t e a c h e r - p u p i l m a r k i n g , e t c . " "Games and d r i l l s t o h e l p c h i l d r e n w i t h r e a d i n g i n phrases i n s t e a d o f w o r d - c a l l i n g . " "Lower my v o i c e , ask more 'why q u e s t i o n s . " "More d r i l l . " "Improvement o f ; c l a s s c o n t r o l . " 185 The i n v e s t i g a t o r was reminded by s e v e r a l r e s p o n d e n t s t h a t many s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improvement are t r a n s m i t t e d v e r b a l l y d u r i n g t h e s c h o o l y e a r and do not appear i n w r i t t e n r e p o r t s . Item 38: (Asked i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h r e p o r t s by D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , o r I n s p e c t o r s . ) "Were t h e r e s u g g e s t i o n s i n t h e r e p o r t as t o how the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n your c l a s s r o o m might be im-proved?" Response c h o i c e s : Yes No Response f r e q u e n c i e s : 95 164 Comment f r e q u e n c i e s : 60 2 The r e q u e s t f o r comment: " I f y e s , p l e a s e g i v e ^ a n example o f t h i s k i n d o f s u g g e s t i o n o r recommen-d a t i o n . " U n l i k e t h e response t o i t e m 22, o n l y two o f t h e s i x t y comments made r e f e r e n c e t o a need f o r improvement o f c o n t r o l o r d i s c i p l i n e , w h i l e f o r t y - f i v e concerned t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s . Of t h e s e f o r t y - f i v e , t e n i n v o l v e d v i s u a l a i d s o r p h y s i c a l arrangement o f c l a s s r o o m m a t e r i a l s , twenty-one r e f e r r e d t o t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h r e e t o the q u a l i t y o f p u p i l work, two t o s e a t i n g arrangements, two t o use o f c u r r i c u -l a r m a t e r i a l s , f i v e t o the t e a c h i n g o f w r i t i n g , and t h r e e t o v e r b a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s by the t e a c h e r . There was more r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t e a c h e r s t h a n i n the comments f o r the c o r r e s p o n d i n g i t e m about p r i n c i p a l s ' r e p o r t s . S i x such comments i n c l u d e d : one r e f e r e n c e t o t e n s i o n , one t o h a n d w r i t i n g , and t h r e e t o t r a i n i n g 186 and e x p e r i e n c e . Only t h r e e o f the t e a c h e r s 1 comments appeared t o be c l e a r l y n e g a t i v e i n t o n e . They went as f o l l o w s : " E x e r c i s e more c o n t r o l i n the c l a s s r o o m . A s u g g e s t i o n o f complete s i l e n c e — my f i e l d i s A r t . " "The c h i l d r e n c o u l d be encouraged t o make b e t t e r use of t h e i r e x e r c i s e books. F i l l up a l l t h e space." " C l a s s s h o u l d be c o n s t a n t l y reminded about note-book s t a n d a r d s ! " " V o i c e v a r i a t i o n , v i s u a l a i d s ( i n c r e a s e i n use o f ) , c l a s s r o o m m a t e r i a l s o r g a n i z a t i o n needs improvement^.'''' '. "Make a n o t h e r group i n r e a d i n g . " "More s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r s t u d e n t s r e ass i g n m e n t s . " " S u g g e s t i o n s f o r improved r o u t i n e s . " " C l a s s c o n t r o l , q u e s t i o n i n g , p l a n n i n g p r o c e d u r e s . " "More a t t e n t i o n t o t h e mechanics o f w r i t i n g , more f o r m a l d i s -c i p l i n e t o save t i m e . " "Try t o be more r e l a x e d (I a g r e e , b u t how can a t e a c h e r be r e l a x e d when she has t o t e a c h so many groups and keep a l l p u p i l s d o i n g p r o f i t a b l e seatwork! e t c . e t c . " QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS 2 8 AND 44 Item 28: "What was y o u r r e a c t i o n t o t h e r e p o r t by the p r i n c i p a l ? " Response G r e a t l y I n d i f - D i s -c h o i c e s : p l e a s e d P l e a s e d f e r e n t p l e a s e d Angry. Of t h e o t h e r comments mentioned, t h e s e a re a sample: Response f r e q u e n c i e s 51 149 52 19 4 Comment f r e q u e n c i e s : 31 70 28 13 2 The r e q u e s t f o r comment: II Why so? II 187 Of the 101 comments r e c e i v e d from -teachers who were p l e a s e d o r g r e a t l y p l e a s e d about t h e i r r e p o r t s , n i n e t y - o n e i n d i c a t e d t h e i r r e a c t i o n was r e l a t e d t o r e c o g n i t i o n o r reward. Of t h e s e , f i f t y - o n e f e l t t h a t e v a l u a t i o n c o n f i r m e d t h e i r own. p e r s o n a l e v a l u a t i o n . Some e x p r e s s e d t h i s i d e a d i r e c t l y ; o t h e r s c h a r a c t e r i z e d the e v a l u a t i o n as ' f a i r ' o r ' unbiased'. Of the r e m a i n i n g f o r t y t e a c h e r s whose comments r e l a t e d t o r e c o g n i t i o n o r reward, f i f t e e n i n d i c a t e d ai ' B e l i e f t h a t t hey had been o v e r - r a t e d , - s e v e n t e e n s i m p l y t h a t the r e p o r t was 'complimentary', ' f a v o u r a b l e ' , ' e x c e l l e n t ' , e t c . , w h i l e e i g h t commented on the c o n s t r u c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i r r e p o r t s . Of the t e n comments not a ccounted f o r under the h e a d i n g o f r e c o g n i t i o n o r reward, f o u r e x p r e s s e d r e l i e f t h a t t h e r e were no d e r o g a t o r y c r i t i c i s m s i n t h e r e p o r t , two commented on the v a l u e o f t h e r e p o r t f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n and j o b s e c u r i t y , w h i l e two o t h e r s showed m i l d s k e p t i c i s m about th e v a l i d i t y o f e v a l u a t i o n . Sample comments: " I t was g r a t i f y i n g as a r e s u l t o f the e f f o r t and time s p e n t . " " I t i s good t o be a p p r e c i a t e d even though i t i s not a r e a l l y t r u e e v a l u a t i o n . " " R e a f f i r m e d I was d o i n g a good j o b . " " I f e l t t h e r e p o r t was v e r y f a i r . " " I t seemed f a i r and u n b i a s e d . " " I t h i n k he went a l i t t l e o v e r b o a r d . " "Nice t o know we agree on outcomes and methods." 188 "Human n a t u r e ( v a l u e o f p r a i s e ) . " " I t gave me more s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . " Of the t w e n t y - e i g h t comments from t e a c h e r s who d e c l a r e d t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o be " i n d i f f e r e n t , " o n l y f i v e c o u l d be f a i r l y c a t e g o r i z e d i n t h a t way. Each o f t h e s e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e p o r t was about what the t e a c h e r e x p e c t e d . ' A l l t w e n t y - t h r e e o t h e r comments were q u i t e s t r o n g l y n e g a t i v e : e i g h t t e a c h e r s r e f e r r e d t o s t e r e o t y p e d remarks o r p a u c i t y o f d e t a i l , f i v e doubted t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p a l t o judge, two ob-j e c t e d t o i d e n t i c a l l y worded r e p o r t s b e i n g g i v e n t o s e v e r a l t e a c h e r s , and seven f e l t t h e p r i n c i p a l l a c k e d s u f f i c i e n t i n -f o r m a t i o n f o r e v a l u a t i o n . Of t h e s e seven, two f e l t t h ey had r e c e i v e d good r e p o r t s g r a t u i t o u s l y . Only one s t a t e d t h a t he f e l t he had been u n d e r - r a t e d . Sample comments: "Because I had not earned i t . I f he had ob s e r v e d me t h a t would have made a b i g d i f f e r e n c e . " " I t was about what I e x p e c t e d . " " D i d n ' t r e a l l y know my c a p a b i l i t i e s . " "Another t e a c h e r r e c e i v e d t h e same r e p o r t w i t h o u t o b s e r v a t i o n by p r i n c i p a l . " " I n e x p e r i e n c e d , i n d e a l i n g w i t h p e r s o n n e l . " " I t seems t o be v a l u e l e s s though I r e s p e c t t h e man who gave i t . " . " I t c o n t a i n e d l i t t l e . " "The r e p o r t was c o m p l e t e l y non-commital. ". 189 Only f i f t e e n comments were r e c e i v e d from t e a c h e r s who were d i s p l e a s e d o r angry. These were a l l n e g a t i v e i n n a t u r e , b u t d e f i e d c l e a r c a t e g o r i z i n g : - - t h r e e made r e f e r e n c e t o the l a c k o f agreement between v e r b a l and w r i t t e n comments, t h r e e t o l a c k o f c o n s t r u c t i v e n e s s , and two suggested t h a t e v a l u a -t i o n had been based on housekeeping r o u t i n e s . Only one r e -f e r r e d t o l a c k o f o b s e r v a t i o n . Sample comments: " I ' d l i k e t o be e x c e l l e n t — would l i k e t o know how, i n h i s o p i n i o n t h i s i s a c h i e v e d . " "Because o r a l l y he was p l e a s e d b u t i n w r i t i n g n o t . " "Emphasis p l a c e d on opening r o u t i n e r a t h e r than e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t e a c h i n g and e f f o r t p u t f o r t h . " Item 44: (Asked i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h r e p o r t s by D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , o r I n s p e c t o r s . ) "What was y o u r r e a c t i o n t o t h e r e p o r t by t h i s e v a l u a t o r ? " Response G r e a t l y I n d i f - D i s -c h o i c e s : p l e a s e d -Pleased f e r e n t p l e a s e d Angry Response f r e q u e n c i e s : 31 150 43 28 8 Comment f r e q u e n c i e s : 19 67 17 14 4 The r e q u e s t f o r comment: "Why so?" The n a t u r e o f the comments c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d t h o s e made i n response t o t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g i t e m on p r i n c i p a l s ' r e p o r t s . One n o t i c e a b l e d i f f e r e n c e was t h a t o n l y - t h r e e o f the e i g h t y - s i x comments from t e a c h e r s who were p l e a s e d o r g r e a t l y p l e a s e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y f e l t t h ey were o v e r r a t e d . T h i s 190 compares w i t h f i f t e e n o u t o f 101 i n the c o r r e s p o n d i n g i t e m . Sample comments: " I t r y t o be e x t r e m e l y c o n s c i e n t i o u s and I was p l e a s e d t h a t my s u p e r i n t e n d e n t r e a l i z e d i t . " "Agreed w i t h p e r s o n a l e v a l u a t i o n . " " I t was f a i r , I f e l t . " " I t made me f e e l more competent as a t e a c h e r . " " P l e a s e d because i t was good — b u t s t i l l f e l t t h a t such a v i s i t cannot r e a l l y e v a l u a t e w e l l . " "Happy t o have c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . " "Should l e a d t o a permanent c e r t i f i c a t e . " "On t h e b a s i s o f one v i s i t , what r e a l meaning c o u l d i t have?" " I f e l t i t c o u l d have been f a i r e r . " " F a i r l y a c c u r a t e r e p o r t f o r a f i r s t y e a r t e a c h e r who made m i s t a k e s . " " I t gave me no s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improvement." " R e p e t i t i o n o f p r i n c i p a l ' s e v a l u a t i o n . " "Very h a r d s t a n d a r d . " " I t was u n f a i r based upon i n s u f f i c i e n t knowledge." " I f e l t t h a t he had a l l o w e d p e r s o n a l p r e j u d i c e t o a f f e c t h i s judgment." "Because i t was not f a i r o r r e a l l y t r u t h f u l . " QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS 30 AND 46 Item 30: "The p r i n c i p a l who made your most r e c e n t r e p o r t : i n d i c a t e how you see him as a judge o f t h e l e a r n -i n g s i t u a t i o n i n your c l a s s r o o m . " . 191 Response H i g h l y Not c h o i c e s : A c c e p t a b l e A c c e p t a b l e A c c e p t a b l e Response f r e q u e n c i e s : 75 155 42 Comment f r e q u e n c i e s : 52 66 31 The r e q u e s t f o r ' comment: "Why s o ? " Teachers who c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r p r i n c i p a l h i g h l y accep-t a b l e as a judge produced a composite image o f the p r i n c i p a l a s : e x p e r i e n c e d , i n f o r m e d , c o n s t r u c t i v e , c a p a b l e , i n t e r e s t e d , f a i r , and f l e x i b l e , t h e a d j e c t i v e s b e i n g a r r a n g e d i n o r d e r o f f r e q u e n c y o f appearance i n comments. Sample comments: " F a i r , . o p e n t o s u g g e s t i o n , r e a s o n a b l e , e n c o u r a g i n g , h e l p f u l , and s i n c e r e . " " B e s i d e s h i s y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e as a t e a c h e r h i m s e l f he seems t o be a b l e t o a s s e s s problems and o f f e r s o l u t i o n s as w e l l as b e i n g i n t e r e s t e d i n new t e c h n i q u e s and e x p e r i m e n t s . " "My p r i n c i p a l i s v e r y competent and v e r y f a i r . " "He i s a h i g h l y c a p a b l e t y p e o f p e r s o n who had many y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e . " Comments from t e a c h e r s who r e g a r d e d t h e i r p r i n c i p a l as an adequate judge tended t o be p o s i t i v e , b u t were more r e s -t r a i n e d . Of the s i x t y - s i x comments, twenty-two were e n t i r e l y p o s i t i v e . Of t h e s e , n i n e r e f e r r e d t o awareness o f t h e w o r k i n g o f t h e s c h o o l , e i g h t t o e x p e r i e n c e , f o u r t o competence i n 192 t e a c h i n g , and one t o o b j e c t i v i t y o f judgment. Of the r e m a i n i n g f o r t y - f o u r comments, about h a l f were p o s i t i v e w i t h r e s e r v a -t i o n s : t e n o f t h e s e c o n t a i n e d r e s e r v a t i o n s about the way i n w h i c h e v a l u a t i o n was c o n d u c t e d , m o s t l y because of l a c k o f ob-s e r v a t i o n , w h i l e e l e v e n s i m p l y d i d n o t r a t e t h e p r i n c i p a l as above average i n q u a l i f i c a t i o n t o judge. There were twenty-two more n e g a t i v e comments, h a l f o f which r a t e d t h e p r i n c i p a l as u n q u a l i f i e d t o judge w i t h i n t h e t e a c h e r ' s s p e c i a l t y a r e a , though p o s s i b l y q u a l i f i e d e l s e w h e r e . The o t h e r h a l f p o i n t e d t o p e r s o n a l s h o r t c o m i n g s : f i v e t o e x c e s s i v e r i g i d i t y , two to. f a i l u r e t o keep up t o d a t e , and f o u r t o a s s o r t e d p e r s o n a l i d i o s y n c r a c i e s . Sample comments: " E x c e l l e n t awareness o f what was happening i n s c h o o l . " "A competent p e r s o n w i t h a g r e a t amount of e x p e r i e n c e i n eva-l u a t i n g newer t e a c h e r s . " "He h i m s e l f i s a good t e a c h e r . " " O b s e r v a t i o n s were i n f r e q u e n t a l t h o u g h he p r o b a b l y made them w i t h o u t my awareness." "He seemed competent a l t h o u g h I had e x p e c t e d a more a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n h i s p a r t . " "Not as f a m i l i a r w i t h t h i s s u b j e c t m a t t e r and t h e methods as he i s i n o t h e r a r e a s . " "He was a d i c t a t o r . I f you t a u g h t t h i n g s t h e way he wanted them t a u g h t , t h i n g s were f i n e ! " " I f e e l he l a c k s ' t a c t ' w i t h h i s t e a c h e r s . " 193 Teachers who r e g a r d e d the p r i n c i p a l as an i n a d e q u a t e judge p r o v i d e d t h i r t y - o n e comments, a l l n e g a t i v e i n n a t u r e . Most i n d i c a t e d an av o i d a n c e o r n e g l e c t by the p r i n c i p a l o f c o n t a c t w i t h the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n because o f : p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h minor a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s , l a c k o f i n t e r e s t , o r i n a b i l i t y t o f u n c t i o n i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l s u p e r v i s i o n a r e a . Of t h e o t h e r comments, f i v e i n d i c a t e d ' a c l a s h o f views about e d u c a t i o n . Only t h r e e r e f e r r e d t o l a c k o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n t o judge i n a s p e c i a l i z e d t e a c h i n g a r e a . Sample comments: "No knowledge o f p r i m a r y f i e l d . " " I t i s p r o b a b l y a j o b he i s e x p e c t e d t o do and t r i e s t o comply. He t r i e s t o make i t l o o k ' a s i f he was on h i s t o e s . " "Only saw p r i n c i p a l when he broug h t b u l l e t i n s , c o l l e c t e d f o r hockey p o o l , d e l i v e r e d books o r l u n c h p a i l s . " "Never saw me i n a c t i o n . " "He i s m o r e . i n t e r e s t e d i n outward appearances (paper on f l o o r , , neat room), than i n a c t u a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l i n room." "He i s an a u t h o r i t a r i a n , I b e l i e v e , i n a c r e a t i v e c l a s s r o o m . " Item 46: (Asked i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h r e p o r t s by D i s t r i c t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , D i r e c t o r s o f I n s t r u c t i o n , o r I n s p e c t o r s . ) "The e v a l u a t o r who made t h e most r e c e n t r e p o r t : i n d i c a t e how you see him as a judge o f t h e l e a r n i n g  s i t u a t i o n i n your c l a s s r o o m . 19 4 Response c h o i c e s : H i g h l y Not A c c e p t a b l e A c c e p t a b l e A c c e p t a b l e Response f r e q u e n c i e s : 64 155 39 Comment f r e q u e n c i e s : 35 58 C26 The r e q u e s t f o r comment: "Why so?" Comments from t e a c h e r s who c o n s i d e r e d t h i s e v a l u a t o r h i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e tended t o i n c l u d e the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h s i m i l a r f r e q u e n c i e s as was the case w i t h p r i n c i p a l s , b u t w i t h some d i f f e r e n c e s : " e x p e r i e n c e , " " c o n s t r u c t i v e n e s s , " "competence," and " f a i r n e s s " were the f i r s t f o u r and o c c u r r e d i n t he same o r d e r as b e f o r e ; b u t o m i t t e d from t h e f i r s t seven q u a l i t i e s and o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n s u f f i c i e n t f r e q u e n c y t o a c h i e v e m e n t i o n , were: " w e l l i n f o r m e d , " " i n t e r e s t e d , " and " f l e x i b l e . " T h e i r r e p l a c e m e n t s i n o r d e r f o l l o w i n g " f a i r n e s s " were "per-c e p t i v e , " " r e c o g n i z e d a u t h o r i t y , " and "manner." Sample comments: "He i s h i g h l y q u a l i f i e d . " "Wide e x p e r i e n c e , a f a i r p e r s o n who i s w i l l i n g t o h e l p . " "He appeared competent, knew what t o e x p e c t and had e x p e r i e n c e i n t e a c h i n g t o wh i c h he c o u l d r e l a t e . " "He was h i g h l y a s t u t e and c o u l d see c h i l d r e n w i t h problems and had i n s i g h t i n t o causes and e f f e c t s . " "He had alm o s t an uncanny s i x t h sense about s c h o o l , t e a c h e r s , and p u p i l s . " 195 "He was v e r y o b s e r v a n t . " "Competent, f a i r , p r o f e s s i o n a l . " Comments from t e a c h e r s who f e l t t h i s e v a l u a t o r was an adequate judge tended even more than i n the case o f p r i n c i p a l s t o be p o s i t i v e i n t o n e , i n t h i s case t o the e x t e n t o f t h i r t y -n i n e o f the , f i f t y - e i g h t comments. Of t h e s e t h i r t y - n i n e com-ments, twenty-two r e f e r r e d t o e x p e r i e n c e as t h e b a s i s f o r adequacy, f o u r t o p e r s o n a l competence, f o u r . t o f a i r n e s s , t h r e e t o p e r s o n a l manner, two t o i n t e r e s t , two t o b r e a d t h o f v i e w , and two t o awareness. The seven t e e n n e g a t i v e comments were o n l y m i l d l y o r p a r t i a l l y s o. Of the s i x p a r t i a l l y n e g a t i v e ones, t h r e e r a t e d t h e e v a l u a t o r as g e n e r a l l y q u a l i f i e d b u t not i n t h e s p e c i a l i s t f i e l d c o n c e r n e d . One i n d i c a t e d t h a t c r i t i c i s m was sound b u t o u t d a t e d , one s a i d t h a t . t h e q u a l i f i e d e v a l u a t o r n e g l e c t e d t o convey h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s , and one f e l t t h a t t h e q u a l i f i e d e v a l u a t o r was a l o o f . The r e m a i n i n g e l e v e n m i l d l y n e g a t i v e comments c o n t a i n e d f i v e r e f e r r i n g t o l a c k o f s p e c i a l i s t ex-p e r i e n c e o r t r a i n i n g , and f i v e o b j e c t i n g t o t h e conduct o f e v a l u a t i o n . One i n d i c a t e d t h a t l a c k o f c o n t a c t made th e t e a c h e r u n a b l e t o g i v e an o p i n i o n as t o the q u a l i f i c a t i o n o f h i s e v a l u a t o r . 196 Sample comments: "As a p r e v i o u s t e a c h e r w i t h many y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e . " "With h i s . wide e x p e r i e n c e he s h o u l d be a b l e t o judge." "He has-had-many more y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e t h a n I . " " E x p e r i e n c e and f u r t h e r s t u d y o f t i m e l y problems." " E x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r and a d m i n i s t r a t o r . " "He i s an e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r and unde r s t a n d s a t e a c h e r ' s problems." " A b i l i t y t o a s s e s s a s i t u a t i o n q u i c k l y and a c c u r a t e l y . " "Competent." "He i s i n t e r e s t e d i n new methods o f t e a c h i n g and advancement of t e a c h e r s . " "He was i n s p i r i n g and o p t i m i s t i c . " "Broad minded, few p r e j u d i c e s . " " C o n s i d e r e d a v a r i e t y o f a s p e c t s o f the t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s . " "He knows modern methods,-but has never worked w i t h , and does not u n d e r s t a n d p r i m a r y grade c h i l d r e n . " "Not a s p e c i a l i s t i n my f i e l d . " "He seemed aware o f what he wanted b u t d i d not t e l l me e x a c t l y what he e x p e c t e d . " "He was an e l e m e n t a r y c o n s u l t a n t and I was t e a c h i n g Gr. X." "I'hwould have p r e f e r r e d more s p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n s r e p o s s i b l e weak a r e a s . " " E v a l u a t e t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n , n o t s u b j e c t m a t t e r . " T w e n t y - s i x comments were r e c e i v e d from t e a c h e r s who f e l t t h i s e v a l u a t o r was i n a d e q u a t e . The most f r e q u e n t r e a -son g i v e n f o r t h i s was l a c k o f o b s e r v a t i o n : n i n e comments 197 i n d i c a t e d i n f r e q u e n t o b s e r v a t i o n , w h i l e two i n d i c a t e d no ob-s e r v a t i o n . One t e a c h e r f e l t t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t a s k was such t h a t i n s p e c t o r s c o u l d never know t e a c h e r s w e l l enough t o a c c o m p l i s h i t . E i g h t comments were c a t e g o r i z e d as r e l a t i n g t o t r a i n i n g : f o u r s p e c i f i e d l a c k of s p e c i a l i s t knowledge, two i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e e v a l u a t o r was out o f d a t e i n h i s knowledge, and two t h a t the e v a l u a t o r f o c u s e d a t t e n t i o n on i n a p p r o p r i a t e a s p e c t s o f t e a c h i n g . , The r e m a i n i n g s i x comments made r e f e r e n c e s t o p e r s o n a l i n a d e q u a c i e s such as age, h e a l t h , p r e j u d i c e , l a c k o f c o n v i c t i o n , and mannerisms. Sample comments: "He d i d n o t come o f t e n enough or s t a y l o n g enough t o g i v e a competent e v a l u a t i o n . " "He has t o o much e l s e t o do t o be a b l e t o judge e f f e c t i v e l y . " " J u d g i n g p e r i o d was r e a l l y i n a d e q u a t e t o form an o p i n i o n . " "Did not r e a l l y o b s e r v e . " , " I don't even know him." "He i s i n s p e c t i n g a f i e l d he knows l i t t l e about and can g i v e , t h e r e f o r e , l i t t l e h e l p t o t h e t e a c h e r he i s i n s p e c t i n g . " "He d i d n ' t seem t o have much knowledge of t e a c h i n g i n p r i m a r y g r a d e s . " "He's been away from th e c l a s s r o o m f o r a l o n g t i m e . " "He was not a w e l l man." "No r e s p e c t f o r him — He w i l l n o t s t a n d up f o r h i s own con-v i c t i o n s . " 198 Item 56: ( T h i s was t h e l a s t i t e m o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I t -i s n ot a p a i r e d i t e m . Respondents' i n s t r u c t i o n s were t o i n d i c a t e degree of agreement w i t h t h e statement.) "The t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n system i n B r i t i s h Columbia s h o u l d be changed." Response c h o i c e s : Response f r e q u e n c i e s Comment f r e q u e n c i e s S t r o n g l y U n d e c i -agree Agree . ded 33 22 97 51 163 15 S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e d i s a g r e e 44 7 The r e q u e s t f o r comment: " I f you agreed w i t h t h i s s t a t e m e n t , p l e a s e s t a t e b r i e f l y t h e d i r e c t i o n such change s h o u l d t a k e . " N i n e t y - o n e comments were r e c e i v e d , m o s t l y as r e q u e s t e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , from r e s p o n d e n t s who agreed w i t h the p r i n t e d s t a t e m e n t . Those who s t r o n g l y agreed t h a t t h e e v a l u a t i o n system s h o u l d be changed c o n c e n t r a t e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on t h e q u e s t i o n s o£ii<- who s h o u l d e v a l u a t e , how f r e q u e n t l y , and f o r what g e n e r a l p u rpose. Those who were m e r e l y agreed o r u n d e c i d e d c o n t r i b u t e d a l l o f the comments c o n c e r n i n g p e r s o n a l i t y and a t t i t u d e o f e v a l u a t o r s , c r i t e r i a , and c o n d i t i o n s o f e v a l u a t i o n . The most f r e q u e n t s u g g e s t i o n s concerned th e m a t t e r of s e l e c t i n g t h e e v a l u a t o r . N ine t e a c h e r s wanted p e o p l e w i t h s p e c i a l i s t e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e i r f i e l d ; s i x o p t e d f o r e v a l u a t i o n by p e e r s ; f i v e f e l t the p r i n c i p a l s h o u l d be the o n l y e v a l u a t o r , 199 though one o f t h e s e s u g g e s t e d t h e v i c e p r i n c i p a l c o u l d a s s i s t ; one b e l i e v e d t h e t a s k s h o u l d be sh a r e d between t h e t e a c h e r and h i s p r i n c i p a l ; t h r e e p r e f e r r e d s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n ; two f e l t t h e r e s h o u l d be a v a r i e t y o f e v a l u a t o r s ; and one would i n c l u d e p u p i l e v a l u a t i o n s . One' p e r s o n thought the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s h o u l d be t h e e v a l u a t o r , w h i l e two thought s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s s h o u l d be e x c l u d e d ; and one s a i d t h a t e v a l u a t i o n i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s r o l e as e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r . One c o n s i d e r e d t h a t p u p i l g a i n s h o u l d be t h e o n l y form o f e v a l u a t i o n . Seventeen t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n about the o b j e c -t i v i t y o f t h e e v a l u a t o r , e x p r e s s i n g i n v a r i o u s ways t h e f e e l -i n g t h a t methodology b i a s e s and p e r s o n a l i t y c o n f l i c t s c o l o r e d t h e judgments o f e v a l u a t o r s and tended t o r e s u l t i n demands f o r u n n e c e s s a r y c o n f o r m i t y w i t h narrow s e t s o f v a l u e s . S i x t e a c h e r s f e l t t he e v a l u a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e was t o o t h r e a t e n i n g . F i v e s u g g e s t e d more t r a i n i n g f o r e v a l u a t o r s ; two recommended s e l e c t i o n o f more competent ones; one would have t e n u r e o f s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s s u b j e c t t o c o n t i n u i n g a p p r o v a l o f t e a c h e r s . E i g h t e e n p e o p l e thought t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a s p e c t o f e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d be more e x t e n s i v e , two o f them r e s p e c t i v e l y recommending the f r e e i n g o f the time o f s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s and p r i n c i p a l s f o r t h a t p urpose. E i g h t e e n r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t h a t t h e p r o c e s s s h o u l d be o p e r a t e d so as t o c o n t r i b u t e more t o improvement o f i n s t r u c -t i o n as opposed t o assessment o f s e r v i c e s . Four f e l t t h a t the amount o f s u p e r v i s i o n s h o u l d be d e c r e a s e d . I n c o n n e c t i o n 200 w i t h outcomes, m e r i t p l a n s were mentioned t w i c e , once f a v o u r a b l y , once u n f a v o u r a b l y . E i g h t persons f e l t t h a t c r i t e r i a s h o u l d be c l a r i f i e d and,.perhaps w i t h the same i n t e n t , f o u r o t h e r s s u g g e s t e d g r e a t e r communication w i t h t e a c h e r s about e v a l u a t i o n . By-way o f p r o t e c t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s b e i n g e v a l u a t e d , t h r e e t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t v i s i t a t i o n s h o u l d never be unexpected,, two t h a t p r o b a t i o n e r s s h o u l d be a s s u r e d a broad range of e x p e r i e n c e and c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r t e a c h e r s p r i o r t o e v a l u a t i o n , and two e x p r e s s e d t h e b e l i e f t h a t an e v a l u a t o r ' s p r e s e n c e c r e a t e s a s i t u a t i o n d i f f e r e n t from the one he w i s h e s t o e v a l u a t e . Sample comments: " E v a l u a t o r s s h o u l d n ' t be p e r s o n a l l y o p i n i o n a t e d because t e a c h e r s t h e n end up j u s t t r y i n g t o p l e a s e them i n s t e a d o f d o i n g what t h e y f e e l t hey - themselves s h o u l d do." " I t s h o u l d a l l o w f o r more p e r s o n a l freedom i n t e a c h i n g methods. Teachers s h o u l d n o t be c r i t i c i z e d f o r o r i g i n a l t e c h n i q u e s because they do n o t conform w i t h t r a d i t i o n . " " I would l i k e t o see ' c o u n s e l l o r s ' more th a n e v a l u a t o r s . E v a l u a t o r s , w i t h e x c e p t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p a l , a r e f e a r e d . T h i s s h o u l d n ' t be so. You s h o u l d f e e l you want t o welcome them i n t o y o u r c l a s s . " "More freedom s h o u l d be g i v e n t o the t e a c h e r . I n s p e c t i o n does not h e l p t e a c h e r s become b e t t e r t e a c h e r s -- i t may even d i s c o u r a g e them. E v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d be i n the hands of. p r i n c i p a l . " " S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r , e.g. more th a n 1 e v a l u a -t i o n . " , " S e l f e v a l u a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n w i t h s t a f f - a l s o p u p i l e v a l u a t i o n can be u s e f u l . " 201 "There s h o u l d be more f r e q u e n t o b s e r v a t i o n by p r i n c i p a l s and I n s p e c t o r s . Teachers a l s o s h o u l d a i d i n t e a c h e r e v a l u a t i o n . Moreover, t h e r e s h o u l d be a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f o b s e r v e r s . " " E v a l u a t i o n by p e e r s , t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n whether a t e a c h e r i s t e a c h i n g i n h i s s p e c i a l i t y f i e l d . " "Teacher e v a l u a t i o n s h o u l d n o t be done by t h e p r i n c i p a l , he s h o u l d be an i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e a d e r . " "Less s u p e r v i s i o n o f t e a c h e r a c t i v i t i e s ; " "More h e l p — not so much i n s p e c t i o n . " "More v i s i t s by r e s o u r c e p e o p l e so when w r i t t e n e v a l u a t i o n made o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r improvement have been p r o v i d e d . " "There a r e so many worse a l t e r n a t i v e s , such as t h e m e r i t system w h i c h would s t r a i g h t - j a c k e t t e a c h i n g a l t o g e t h e r . " 202 APPENDIX G SURVEY SAMPLE DATA:' DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS BY DISTRICT, SEX, AND TEACHING LEVEL r\A d - t - T - i r--i- Survey p o p u l a t i o n Survey sample 1964/65 S t a f f . E l e m e n t a r y Secondary - M • F M F S o u t h e r n c o a s t a l a r e a , m e t r o p o l i t a n 39 2700 10 32 15 7 40 234 1 2 1 1 41 940 7 13 2 1 43 489 7 12 3 2 44 647 2 12 2 1 45 276 1 1 1 61 965 1 T o t a l 6251 28 73 23 13 Southe r n c o a s t a l a r e a , n o n-me t r o p o l l t a n 33 289 3 1 34 206 1 1 35 192 3 36 784 7 19 1 37 185 2 2 1 38 446 9 3 1 42 200 1 2 2 46 79 1 3 47 164 1 3 48 76 62 133 1 1 6 3 144 64 26 65 176 1 66 64 1 1 67 87 1 1 68 294 1 3 1 69 59 70 243 1 71 182 1 1 72 139 -2 75 108 2 76 34 79 21 1 84 18 85 79 T o t a l 4428 17 50 8 12 203 APPENDIX G(Continued) D i s t r i c t Survey p o p u l a t i o n 1964/65 S t a f f Survey sample ' E l e m e n t a r y Secondary - F M . . F I n t e r i o r , l a r g e r c i t i e s 7 157 3 1 1 11 247 1 1 15 160 1 1 22 184 1 2 23 270 1 2 24 341 4 3 57 348 5 9 1 2 , T o t a l - 1707 14 • 17 3 5- 19 I n t e r i o r and N..coas t 1 74 1 1 1 2 113 1 3 103 1 1 1 4 51 2 1 5 92 6 24 8 43 9 105 2 1 10 32 12 48 13. 31 1 1 14 88 1 16 27 1 17 34 1 18 53 1 19 65 20 129 4 3 2 21 34 1 25 24 26 31 27 168 1 1 2 28 142 2 1 29 48 2 30 67 31 70 3 32 66 1 49 53 1 50 32 51 4 52 120 2 2 53 110 1 2 1 204 APPENDIX G (Continued) ':Y":'\' D i s t r i c t Survey p o p u l a t i o n 1964/65 S t a f f Survey sample E l e m e n t a r y Secondary M-54 57 2 55 50 1 56 63 1 58 39 2 59 218 2 5 60 138 1 77 47 1 78 ' 35 80 89 1 6 81 25 82 10 83 12 a t t a c h e d 77 T o t a l 2941 21 39 16 5 81 

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