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Performance of deaf and hearing children on color-picture and color-word paired associates with natural,… Casey, Emmett N. 1970

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PERFORMANCE OF DEAF AND HEARING CHILDREN ON COLOR-PICTURE AND COLOR-WORD PAIRED ASSOCIATES WITH NATURAL, NEUTRAL AND REVERSED CONDITIONS by EMMETT N . CASEY. B . A . , Gonzaga U n i v e r s i t y , 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f E d u c a t i o n . We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1970 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I a g ree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree tha p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date / 7 ABSTRACT P r e l i n g u a l , p r o f o u n d l y dea f c h i l d r e n (90 db . l o s s u n a i d e d i n the b e t t e r e a r o v e r the s p e e c h range) l a c k one ma jor s e n s o r y c h a n n e l e s s e n t i a l f o r n o r m a l l e a r n i n g , t h e r e f o r e they must r e l y a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y on v i s i o n f o r l e a r n i n g . They must l e a r n t o make m e a n i n g f u l v i s u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d the w o r l d a r o u n d them. These a s s o c i a t i o n s have p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e f o r l anguage a c q u i s i t i o n and c o m m u n i c a t i o n . . A c h i l d w i t h n o r m a l h e a r i n g makes v i s u a l a s s o c i a -t i o n s t o o , ( e . g . w h i t e w i t h m i l k ) , h o w e v e r , t h i s c h i l d has the a d d i t i o n a l a u d i t o r y and v o c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n p u t t o a s s i s t t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . U n l i k e h i s d e a f c o u n t e r p a r t , he o f t e n h e a r s t h e word " m i l k " w i t h o u t s e e i n g the o b j e c t w h i c h t h e word r e p r e s e n t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i f a p i c t u r e o f an o b j e c t i s p r e s e n t e d t o a c h i l d , he can say the w o r d i t r e p r e s e n t s . As a c h i l d matures and d e v e l o p s , he l e a r n s t o r e a d and w r i t e t h e s e words and has t h e r e f o r e some degree o f l i n g u i s t i c competence . Here l anguage w i l l mean t h e spoken and w r i t t e n language o f a c u l t u r e . Language a f f e c t s m e d i a t i o n , w h i c h . i s d e f i n e d as a r e s p o n s e o r s e r i e s o f r e s p o n s e s w h i c h i n t e r v e n e between the e x t e r n a l s t i m u l u s and t h e o v e r t r e s p o n s e t o p r o v i d e s t i m u l a t i o n t h a t i n f l u e n c e s t h e e v e n t u a l c o u r s e o f b e h a v i o u r ' , ( K e n d l e r and K e n d l e r , 1 9 5 9 ) . The m e d i a t i o n h a b i t s o f h e a r i n g and d e a f c h i l d r e n p r o v i d e d a t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework f o r t h i s s t u d y . . C o l o r - P i c t u r e (C-P) and C o l o r - W o r d (C-W) e x p e r i e n t i a l and t a s k p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e s were compare u t i l i z i n g t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s : ( n a t u r a l ) m a t c h e d , n e u t r a l , and r e v e r s e d f o r two age l e v e l s o f d e a f and h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n , CA 7 and CA 1 1 . The number o f e r r o r s i n a s s o c i a t i o n s was t h e r e s p o n s e measure and t h e d a t a were a n a l y z e d by a 2 x 2 x 2 x 3 a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e w i t h r e p l i c a t i o n . The s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s t e s t e d w e r e : (1) The dea f Ss w o u l d have s i g n i f i c a n t l y l o w e r mean e r r o r s.cores on t h e r e v e r s a l c o n d i t i o n t h a n t h e i r h e a r i n g p e e r s . (2) The CA 7 y e a r o l d group w o u l d have s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r mean e r r o r s c o r e s t h a n the CA 11 y e a r g r o u p . (3) The C o l o r - W o r d t a s k w o u l d p r o d u c e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r mean e r r o r s c o r e s t h a n the C o l o r - P i c t u r e t a s k . - i i i -(4) The reversal condition would have s i g n i f i c a n t l y more mean errors' than the neutral or matched condition. J u s t i f i c a t i o n for these hypotheses are: (1) The study by Furth and Youniss (1964) found the deaf Ss made fewer errors on the reversal condition. This was interpreted to be a resu l t of less verbally mediated interference by the deaf. (2) Developmental studies indicate better performance by older groups. (Furth 1964, Reese 1959, Kendler and Kendler 1961). (3) Furth and Youniss (1964) found an interference condition (reversal) more d i f f i c u l t than a non-interference condition (neutral,.matched). (4) A - p r i o r i , Color-Word association requires more abstraction than Color-Picture and.is therefore more d i f f i c u l t . The results of the analysis of variance indicated: (1) No s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found •between hearing Ss and deaf Ss. - IV -(2) A s i g n i f i c a n t difference (p**-. 01) between CA 7 and CA 11, the older group making fewer errors. (3) The reversal condition was s i g n i f i c a n t l y the most d i f f i c u l t of the three conditions (p<.01). (4) A s i g n i f i c a n t difference (p<. 01) between tasks, the C-W task ;accounting for more errors. S i g n i f i c a n t Two Way Interactions (p<.01) were noted: Age x Hearing Status and Age x Task. A Three Way Interaction - Age x Task x Conditions was also s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.05). The absence of a s i g n i f i c a n t difference in per-formance by hearing and deaf Ss was contrary to one of the major hypotheses of the study. This seems to indicate that the mediations habits of the two hearing status groups, whatever the i r nature, do not s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t i a t e the groups i n performance on association type tasks. The s i g n i f i c a n t differences found between Age, Task and Conditions as main, effects are not independent but must be q u a l i f i e d by the s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t interaction among these three variables. TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i L i s t o f T a b l e s . . . i . . . . . . . . v i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i I n t r o d u c t i o n a n d . R e v i e w o f L i t e r a t u r e . . . . . . . 1 S t a t ement o f P r o b l e m . . . . . . . . . 8 P i l o t S tudy 16 Method . . . . . . . . . 18 R e s u l t s . . 24 D i s c u s s i o n . 29 R e f e r e n c e s 34 A p p e n d i x . . . . . . . . . . 36 LIST OF TABLES TABLE I S t i m u l u s and A s s o c i a t e d Response f o r Task C o n d i t i o n s . . . . . . . . . 19 I I C e l l Means f o r C o l o r - W o r d and C o l o r - P i c t u r e Tasks and M a t c h e d ( M ) , N e u t r a l (N) and R e v e r s e d (R) C o n d i t i o n s f o r Two Age L e v e l s o f H e a r i n g and Deaf S u b j e c t s . . . 24 I I I . Anova Summary . .- 2 5 IV T o t a l Number o f E r r o r s f o r C o l o r -Word and C o l o r - P i c t u r e Tasks and M a t c h e d ( M ) , N e u t r a l (N) and R e v e r s a l (R) C o n d i t i o n s f o r Two Age L e v e l s o f H e a r i n g and Deaf Sub j e c t s •'. . . 36 V P e r c e n t a g e o f E r r o r s f o r C o l o r -Word and C o l o r - P i c t u r e Tasks and M a t c h e d ( M ) , N e u t r a l (N) and R e v e r s a l (R) C o n d i t i o n s f o r Two Age L e v e l s o f : H e a r i n g and Deaf Sub j e c t s 37 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURES I Response Items f o r C o l o r - P i c t u r e A s s o c i a t i o n Task - 'Matched ( M ) , N e u t r a l (N) and R e v e r s a l (R) 20 I I I n t e r a c t i o n ? - H e a r i n g x Age 27 I I I I n t e r a c t i o n s - Age x Task . . . . . . . . 27 IV Three-Way I n t e r a c t i o n - . Age x Task x C o n d i t i o n s a . C o l o r - W o r d . . . . 28a b . C o l o r - P i c t u r e 28b INTRODUCTION An area of psychological research concerned with noting differencesrand s i m i l a r i t i e s i n cognitive functioning has been f r u i t f u l l y i n v e s t i -gated using deaf and hearing subjects. This area of research has been tapped by several investigators, es p e c i a l l y i n recent years, although often with discrepant r e s u l t s . (Levine 1963; Furth 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967; Youniss 1964). Most of the studies are on arufexploratory l e v e l , and the complex nature of the study may account for the discrepancies i n the findings. The differences in the o r e t i c a l framework by the investigators with regard to the acquisition of language and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n of sense modalities affords an explanation of the differences i n interpretation of the findings of the studies. There i s general agreement, however, about the function of language. - 2 -Language is a complex system of human behaviour involving functions of the cognitive processes, sensation,.perception, memory and concept formation. Language i s used to. c l a s s i f y experience,. to categorize i t with labels or words. These labels or words act as convenient vehicles for conveying the meaning of experiences either vocally or in writing, to oneself as i n thinking, or to others. This is not to say that a l l experience i s c l a s s i f i e d . It is important to remember that language i s a representation of experience, i t is the association of the experience with signs and symbols. The symbols through use- are systematized into a formal structure. Language, most experts agree, f a c i l i t a t e s the recording of experience. How i t does so is a matter of considerable t h e o r e t i c a l speculation. The relationship of language to experience with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the role of mediation provides a)s general t h e o r e t i c a l framework for this study. Luria (1957) points out that learning language i s a s o c i a l i z a t i o n process requiring f i r s t passive recognition, memory trace, then active perception, and f i n a l l y speech.- He asserts that language enables one to manipulate the environment. Bruner (1964) says that cognitive development i s a process through which past experience is r e c a l l e d according to how - 3 -the p a s t e x p e r i e n c e i s coded and p r o c e s s e d ; the end p r o d u c t he c a l l s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n has t h r e e modes: 1. e n a c t i v e , the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the p a s t t h r o u g h motor r e s p o n s e s ; 2. i c o n i c , t h e s e l e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p e r c e p t s and i m a g e s ; 3 . s y m b o l i c , t h e f e a t u r e s o f t h i s mode are remoteness f rom the o b j e c t and a r b i t r a r i n e s s , : e . g . w o r d s . These modes appear i n the d e v e l o p m e n t a l l i f e o f the c h i l d i n the above o r d e r , one d e p e n d i n g upon t h e o t h e r . T h i s i s so u n l e s s t h e r e i s some i m p a i r m e n t t h a t w o u l d d i s r u p t the n o r m a l deve lopment l i k e b l i n d n e s s , d e a f n e s s o r c o r t i c a l i n j u r y . T h e o r e t i c a l q u e s t i o n s t h a t a r i s e a r e : How does a u d i t o r y i m p a i r m e n t d i s r u p t c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t , f o r e x a m p l e , i n the d e a f ? ; How does i m p a i r m e n t a f f e c t each mode o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , e n a c t i v e , i c o n i c , s y m b o l i c ? ; a n d , I s the image o f a word on t h e l i p s o f someone as s t r o n g i n a s s o c i a t i o n v a l u e t o a dea f p e r s o n as the spoken w o r d a s s o c i a t i o n s t r e n g t h t o a n o r m a l h e a r i n g p e r s o n ? I n a somewhat s i m i l a r v e i n , . M y k l e b u s t (1964) s u g g e s t s t h a t e x p e r i e n c e can be v i e w e d f rom d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s h i e r a r c h i c a l l y a r r a n g e d f rom s e n s a t i o n and p e r c e p t i o n t o imagery and t h e n s y m b o l i z a t i o n and c o n -c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . He a l s o - a s s e r t s t h a t i f a l o w e r l e v e l o f e x p e r i e n c e i s i m p a i r e d , e . g . s e n s a t i o n , the h i g h e r l e v e l s w i l l a l s o be a f f e c t e d . He r e a c h e d t h e s e c o n -_ 4 -e l u s i o n s s t u d y i n g t h e d e a f . The d e a f l a c k one s e n s o r y c h a n n e l t o r e c e i v e s e n s a t i o n , h e a r i n g . T h i s s e n s o r y d e f i c i t h i n d e r s t h e n o r m a l p r o c e s s o f c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t , a c c o r d i n g t o M y k l e b u s t . That the d e a f have l e s s l anguage i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e i r h e a r i n g p e e r s i s a m a t t e r o f s i m p l e o b s e r v a t i o n . S i n c e l anguage a n d ' c o g n i t i v e deve lopment are c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e a b i l i t y , t o " a s s o c i a t e , r e t a i n and r e c a l l e x p e r i e n c e , t h e y are c o n c e r n e d w i t h memory. Because o f t h e i r s e n s o r y d e f i c i t , do t h e d e a f have l e s s r e c a l l and a s s o c i a t i o n a b i l i t y t h a n h e a r i n g p e r s o n s , and t h e r e f o r e p o o r e r memories? H i s k e y (1955) f o u n d t h a t d e a f c h i l d r e n were i n f e r i o r t o h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n on memory a b i l i t i e s . He n o t i c e d t h a t h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n v e r b a l i z e d a u d i b l y the names o f - c o l o r s o r numbers w h i l e the dea f c h i l d r e n c o u l d n o t . T h i s , he c o n c l u d e d , enhanced t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f the f o r m e r . B l a i r (1957) s t u d i e d the same p r o b l e m u s i n g among o t h e r t e s t s . , t h e Knox Cube T e s t . T h i s i s a t e s t o f immedia te r e c a l l . He f o u n d t h a t t h e d e a f were s u p e r i o r on t h i s t e s t . He a l s o f o u n d t h a t t h e v i s u a l memory o f dea f and h e a r i n g p e r s o n s d i f f e r s d e p e n d i n g upon t h e t y p e o f memory t a s k i n v o l v e d . The d e a f were i n f e r i o r oh the memory span t e s t s , b u t e q u a l t o o r s u p e r i o r t o t h e h e a r i n g on the o t h e r memory t a s k s . The p a r t i c u l a r t a s k o f t h i s - p r e s e n t s t u d y i s a p a i r e d a s s o c i a t e t a s k w h i c h r e q u i r e s s u b j e c t s t o remember a s s o c i a t i o n s between p r e s e n t e d s t i m u l i and a p p r o p r i a t e r e s p o n s e s , p i c t u r e s o r w o r d s . ' I t s h o u l d n o t f a v o r one group o v e r the o t h e r . Some o f the a s s o c i a t i o n s are t a s k o r i e n t e d , t h e o t h e r s f a m i l i a r f rom e x p e r i e n c e . -C o n c e r n i n g p e r c e p t i o n , M y k l e b u s t s u g g e s t s t h a t when dea fnes s i s p r e s e n t , v i s i o n i s the p r i m a r y b a s i s f o r p e r c e p t u a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . M y k l e b u s t and B r u t t o n (1953) s t u d i e d w h e t h e r dea f c h i l d r e n were d i f f e r e n t f rom h e a r i n g i n c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . They u sed a f i g u r e g round t e s t , a p a t t e r n r e p r o d u c t i o n t e s t , and a p e r s e v e r a t i o n t e s t . I t was s u g g e s t e d by the f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y t h a t dea fnes s may cause an a l t e r a t i o n i n the n o r m a l r e s p o n s e modes o f the o r g a n i s m , , l e a d i n g t o what was t e rmed " p e r c e p t u a l r i g i d i t y " i n t h e d e a f . . L a r r (1956) s t u d i e d the p e r c e p t u a l and c o n c e p t u a l a b i l i t i e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l c h i l d r e n and f o u n d the dea f e q u a l t o o r s u p e r i o r t o the h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n c o n t r o l groups i n the a r e a o f v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . T h i s d i s a g r e e s w i t h M y k l e b u s t , and f i n d s c o r r o b o r a t i o n f r o m M c K a y ' s s t u d y ( 1 9 5 2 ) . Hughes (1959) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e v e r b a l p e r c e p t -c o n c e p t s o r t i n g p e r f o r m a n c e o f dea f and h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n were t e s t e d on t h e m e a n i h ' g o f 2.41 p e r c e p t w o r d s , and t h e n a sked t o s o r t t h e words t h e y knew i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e c a t e g o r i e s . He f o u n d t h a t the hearing children were superior both i n a b i l i t y to recognize more words and in a b i l i t y to sort the words correctly. It was also found that the verbal behaviour of the deaf children was more perceptual, i . e . they were able to recognize many more words than they were able to sort. These findings seem consonant with the findings of Oleron (1953) who found that the deaf were i n f e r i o r to hearing in the a b i l i t y to manipulate concepts or think abstractly. The preceding studies seem to indicate that i n cognitive development, differences may be noted between the deaf and hearing especially when verbal manipulation is required by the task. The construct of mediation seems to o f f e r one possible reason for explaining the differences between the two groups. Mediation is defined by Kendler (1963) as "a response, or series of responses which intercedes between the external stimulus and the overt response to provide stimulation that influences the eventual course of behaviour." Furth (1964), comparing deaf and hearing children, suggests that "Insofar as the mediator i s conceptualized as verbal i n nature, deaf as compared to hearing children may be handicapped on tasks i n which verbal mediation is presumed to operate because of t h e i r impoverished l i n g u i s t i c experience." It seems then that associations are f a c i l i t a t e d and strengthen-- 7 -ed by v e r b a l i z a t i o n , i . e . t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s made between t h e word and the o b j e c t w h i c h t h e word r e p r e -s e n t s are r e i n f o r c e d by a u d i t o r y c u e s , a l s o by the c h i l d s p e a k i n g t h e w o r d . W i e r and S t e v e n s o n (1959) f o u n d t h a t h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n who v e r b a l i z e d v o c a l l y made f ewer m i s t a k e s on a t a s k t h a n t h o s e who d i d n o t . However , when t h e c h i l d r e n are t o l d n o t t o v o c a l i z e , i t i s presumed t h a t i n t e r n a l or i m p l i c i t v e r b a l i z a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e . T h i s i m p l i c i t l anguage may a c t as a m e d i a t o r between t h e s t i m u l u s and the o v e r t r e s p o n s e . Reese (1959) and K e n d l e r and K e n d l e r (1959) use the c o n s t r u c t o f v e r b a l m e d i a t i o n t o d e s c r i b e t h e f u n c t i o n o f l anguage i n c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t . Reese m a i n t a i n s t h a t v e r b a l m e d i a t i o n i s a f u n c t i o n o f age l e v e l . H i s s t u d y f o u n d t h a t e a r l i e r s t a g e s o f c o g n i t i v e d e v e l o p -ment show a d e f i c i e n c y o f v e r b a l m e d i a t i o n compared w i t h l a t e r s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t . He p r o p o s e d " m e d i a t i o n d e f i c i e n c y " t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e age d i f f e r -ences i n m e d i a t i o n . T h i s p o s i t i o n i s d i s a g r e e d w i t h by Y o u n i s s and F u r t h ( 1 9 6 3 ) . They m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e c o n - , s t r u c t o f m e d i a t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c y i s an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a -t i o n and t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n m e d i a t i o n may be a c c o u n t e d f o r by the d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e • d i s t i n c t i v e -ness o f cues w h i c h are t h e r e s u l t o f e x p e r i e n t i a l d e f i c i e n c y . I n o t h e r w o r d s , y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n have q u a l i t a t i v e l y and q u a n t i t a t i v e l y l e s s cues t o r e s p o n d t o e x p e r i e n t i a l l y compared w i t h l a t e r s t a g e s o f t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t . STATEMENT OF PROBLEM It would seem that the problem of mediation might be better understood by studying deaf children in comparison with hearing children. The deaf, being language d e f i c i e n t , would not be expected to have the same type of mediation as the i r hearing counterparts. This may be experimentally tested by a paired associate procedure where there is an inter-ference and non-interference condition of a task. In the interference condition of the task, the normal response e l i c i t e d by a stimulus is in competition with the correct response of the task condition. On this procedure a task association may be set up to cause interference with the expected response. For example, the Ss might be asked to associate a black colored stimulus card with milk and a white colored card with coal. These would then be "correct" associations for the task but contrary to experience and the normal association expectancy. If the Ss then had among an array of response items a piece of coal and a quart of milk, then each time the black card appeared, the - 9 -normally expected response "coal" would inte r f e r e with the correct, task response of "milk". A study by Furth and Youniss (1964) employed this procedure, with 6 and 10 year old Ss,,deaf and hearing; they found that the hearing Ss had more d i f f i c u l t y c orrectly associating the color stimulus with the appropriate task response on the interference condition. They also found that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference in performance between the groups on the non-, interference (neutral) condition of the task. This study by Furth and Youniss employed colored toy objects as response items. In the non-interference condition of the task, the color brown was to be associated with a toy red f i r e truck. In the interference condition, the S was t o l d to associate a red stimulus card with a white r e f r i g e r a t o r for the correct response. The presence of the toy red f i r e t r u c k as a possible response gave competitive cues for the correct response, r e f r i g e r a t o r . Whether the deaf are better able to make the correct response due to less interference from the type of mediation they have is a point for further investigation.. The replacing of the color in the response object by using colorless pictures or black and white drawings would decrease the cue competition present when the colored toy objects are used as responses. The competition response then would be between the 10 -t a s k r e s p o n s e and t h e p a s t e x p e r i e n t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o f the S s . I n o r d e r t o a l l o w t h e n o r m a l e x p e c t a n c y o f a s s o c i -a t i o n s t o be o p e r a t i v e i n the a s s o c i a t i o n t a s k s C o l o r -P i c t u r e and C o l o r - W o r d , a n o r m a l or matched c o n d i t i o n was s e l e c t e d . To c o n t r o l f o r abnormal a s s o c i a t i o n s , the n e u t r a l c o n d i t i o n was s e l e c t e d . T h i s was s i m i l a r t o the n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e F u r t h and Y o u n i s s s t u d y , a l t h o u g h some e x p e r i e n t i a l i n t e r f e r e n c e w o u l d be presumed t o be o p e r a t i n g s i n c e the a s s o c i a t i o n s were a b n o r m a l . The most r e s p o n s e c o m p e t i t i o n was h y p o t h e s i z e d t o be f rom t h e r e v e r s a l c o n d i t i o n s i n c e the m e d i a t e d c o l o r a s s o c i a t i o n s were i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e t a s k r e q u i r e d a s s o c i a t i o n . Two a s s o c i a t i o n s were r e q u i r e d f o r each c o n d i t i o n . I n the matched c o n d i t i o n , the n o r m a l a s s o c i a t i o n between o b j e c t and c o l o r was t o be made, e . g . g reen w i t h t r e e and y e l l o w w i t h b a n a n a . T h i s c o n d i t i o n was u sed as a c o n t r o l f o r each S t o ensure t h a t n o r m a l a s s o c i a t i o n s were made. I t w o u l d a l s o make the r e v e r s a l c o n d i t i o n e f f e c t i v e by c o n f i r m i n g a n o r m a l e x p e c t a n c y s i n c e the c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n p r e c e d e d the r e v e r s a l i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n t o t h e S s . The n e u t r a l c o n d i t i o n a s s o c i a t e d b l u e w i t h r e f r i g e r a t o r and p i n k w i t h mouse. These a s s o c i a t i o n s were a r b i t r a r i l y s e l e c t e d and w o u l d n o t n o r m a l l y be e x p e c t e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 11 -any of the response objects. This condition was used to control for the normal associations required by the reversal condition. That i s , the errors in responding would be attributed not to simply the unusual task association requirement. The reversal condition re-quired the Ss to associate red with t r a i n and'black with f i r e t r u c k . Subtracting the errors made on neutral condition from those made on the reversal might give an i n d i c a t i o n of the effectiveness of"the l a t t e r as a source interference to the Ss normal inte r n a l associ-ation pattern. This presumes that the findings of the Furth and Youniss study are applicable here. If this reversal condition is found not to be the most d i f f i c u l t , then the the o r e t i c a l formulations of Kendler and Kendler may provide an explanation. A c h i l d (normal hearing) that is capable of using verbal mediators and abstracting can perform success-f u l l y in reversal learning or reversal s h i f t problems. In these reversal problems the c h i l d must switch his response to the opposite of what i t was before, e.g. from small to large. The task involved a simple dis~ crimination between which of two blocks is "correct". The blocks vary : in size (large and small) and i n color (b'lack and white). The predetermined correct task response i s reinforced by the E. After learning this discrimination (several correct responses of "small"), 12 -the c h i l d i s then presented with a new problem. The c h i l d must make a reversal s h i f t and choose the "large" block while s t i l l ignoring color as a relevant cue. In a non-reversal s h i f t the c h i l d must switch to a new dimension',, i ,e. color relevant, size i r r e l e v a n t . If the c h i l d makes mediated verbal responses, e.g. "size is important" he makes the reversal s h i f t r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y . Many nursery school children do not give themselves verbal instructions'and have d i f f i c u l t y with reversal s h i f t s ; non-reversal s h i f t s are easier for them. One important finding of the Kendler studies for this present study is that children over .7 make reversal s h i f t s e a s i l y but only about half of the children of kindergarten age do the same. Our Ss w i l l be 7 and 11, capable therefore of verbal mediation. It seems clear from these studies that children with verbal a b i l i t y can use some form of language i n solving cognitive problems. Verbal a b i l i t y can enhance cognitive functioning, but we cannot state c a t e g o r i c a l l y that verbal language i s a necessary condition for thought rand problem solving. For some children, other kinds of mediation, such as imagery, p i c t o r i a l representations or non-verbal symbols (signs and gestures) may serve the same purpose. Furth says that while the kinds of symbols used by the deaf are not known, - 13 -"successful performance pn these tasks (e.g. reversal s h i f t ) by deaf persons implies an e f f i c i e n t functioning of a symbolic system other than verbal." (3) Kendler and Kendler found that a reversal s h i f t may be f a c i l i t a t e d by verbal mediation as a.function of age l e v e l . However, one d i s t i n c t i o n should be made. Their reversal was a task condition reversal whereas the reversed condition i n this experiment i s related to the normal experience.of the Ss. The normal experi e n t i a l association i s being reversed by the requirements, of the tasks. Also, from this study,-something may be infer r e d about mediational habits. For example, when a normal hearing subject sees a red stimulus card and has as possible responses an array of black and white pictures of a f i r e t r u c k , r e f r i g e r a t o r , banana, mouse,.tree, t r a i n , his experiential association of red with f i r e t r u c k is expected to be stronger than a task required association of a red stimulus card with a t r a i n . At least there w i l l be some c o n f l i c t i n choice and the choice i s expected to be mediated p r i n c i p a l l y through covert v e r b a l i z a t i o n with hearing children (Reese 1952; Kendler and Kendler) and "perceptually" by the deaf, i . e . whatever means available such as images, semi-verbal cues, etc. (Furth). - 14 -T e a c h e r s o f the s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l t h e Ss were f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e o b j e c t s , u sed i n t h e s t u d y and e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e p i c t u r e s . \ The 7 y e a r o l d group o f b o t h t h e h e a r i n g and dea f c h i l d r e n may be l e s s f a m i l i a r w i t h the p r i n t e d words so the a s s o c i a t i o n s may be made more p e r c e p t u a l l y by b o t h g r o u p s , i . e . on t h e b a s i s o f the s i z e and shape o f t h e words and t h e p a t t e r n . o f the l e t t e r s . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e d e s i g n e d n e u t r a l c o n d i t i o n o f the t a s k w o u l d n o t o f f e r any more d i f f i c u l t y t h a n the r e v e r s a l i n t e r f e r e n c e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e t a s k . The i n d e p e n d e n t ' v a r i a b l e s were two age l e v e l s , CA 7 and CA 1 1 , o f n o r m a l h e a r i n g and dea f s t u d e n t s who were r e q u i r e d t o m a k e ' t h r e e t y p e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n s , m a t c h e d , n e u t r a l and r e v e r s a l oh two t a s k s . One t a s k , C o l o r - P i c t u r e , was the a s s o c i a t i o n o f a c o l o r s t i m u l u s c a r d w i t h a c o l o r l e s s p i c t u r e as a r e s p o n s e . . The s e c o n d t a s k r e q u i r e d the S t o a s s o c i a t e a c o l o r e d s t i m u l u s c a r d w i t h a p r i n t e d word r e s p o n s e ( C o l o r - W o r d ) . The words o f the s e c o n d t a s k c o r r e s p o n d e d t o t h e s i x p i c t u r e s o f the C-P t a s k . The dependent v a r i a b l e was the p o i n t i n g r e s p o n s e made by the Ss t o the 6 c o l o r e d s t i m u l i c a r d s p r e s e n t e d one a t a t i m e . The number o f i n c o r r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n s was t h e r e s p o n s e measure . The e r r o r s were t h e n - 15 -analysed by a 2 x . 2 x 2 x 3 anova with repeated measures., SPECIFIC HYPOTHESES (1) The deaf Ss would have s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower mean error scores on the reversal condition than th e i r hearing peers. (2) The CA 7 year old group would have s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean error-scores than the CA 11 year group. (3) The Color-Word task would produce s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean error scores than the Color-Picture task. (4) The rev e r s a l condition would have s i g n i f i c a n t l y more mean errors than the neutral or matched condition. PILOT STUDY A p i l o t study was designed to explore the appropri-ateness of the variables for study on the paired associate tasks. Several colored stimulus cards were employed to see i f an uncontrolled bias might be inadvertently introduced into the design. It was found, for example, that an orange stimulus card as a neutral paired associate was not a good color selection but was sometimes confused with red. Therefore, the Ss would point to the f i r e t r u c k or the t r a i n when presented with the orange stimulus card or point to the mouse when presented with the red stimulus card. Care had to be taken to select a color that would not normally be associated with any of the other association items. Pink f u l f i l l e d this requirement. To ensure that the reversal e f f e c t would be operative, the normal color association of red with f i r e t r u c k and black with t r a i n had to be established. Therefore deaf and hearing children from schools other than those used in the study were asked to color the t r a i n and f i r e t r u c k in the way they thought i t should be 17 -colored. For the deaf, 7 year old Ss, 8 of 8 colored the f i r e t r u c k red and the t r a i n black or dark brown. 27 of 29 7 year old hearing children colored the reversal items in the same way mentioned above. Of the two children that did not color as expected, one was co l o r - b l i n d , and the second c h i l d colored both the t r a i n and f i r e t r u c k red because he " l i k e d red." From these r e s u l t s , i t was. decided that normal color associations were s a t i s f a c t o r y . METHOD SUBJECTS: S u b j e c t s f o r t h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e d 24 d e a f and 24 h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n a t each o f two age l e v e l s . The 48 dea f c h i l d r e n were e n r o l l e d i n two d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s f o r the d e a f : M a r y l a n d S t a t e a t F r e d e r i c k , M a r y l a n d and K e n d a l l i n W a s h i n g t o n , ' D . C . S i n c e no I . Q . s c o r e s were a v a i l a b l e , c o m p a r a b i l i t y w i t h h e a r i n g groups was b a s e d on t e a c h e r s ' judgments t h a t the Ss were i n t h e average range o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . The age range f o r the groups was 6 .9 t o 7.4 f o r the y o u n g e r group and 10 .8 t o 11 .11 f o r the o l d e r g r o u p . Mean c h r o n o l o g i c a l age f o r the y o u n g e r group was 7.4 and mean c h r o n o l o g i c a l age f o r the o l d e r group was 1 1 . 3 . The 48 h e a r i n g c h i l d r e n were e n r o l l e d i n a p a r o c h i a l s c h o o l i n the W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . a r e a . I . Q . s c o r e s were n o t a v a i l a b l e • f o r the 7 y e a r g r o u p , and t h e judgment o f t h e t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c h i l d r e n were i n the average range o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . F o r the 11 y e a r g r o u p , I . Q . s c o r e s o b t a i n e d f rom the P i n t n e r r a n g e d f rom 89 t o 116, w i t h a mean o f 102. The age range f o r the h e a r i n g 19 group was 6.9 to 7.4 with mean chronological age of 7.1 and for the older group 10.6 to 11,2 with a mean chrono-l o g i c a l age of 11.0. Both age groups were assigned to either a Color-Word task or a Color-Picture task alternately, according to alphabetical arrangement. MATERIALS: The following two six-item association tasks were employed in this study. TABLE I Stimulus and Associated Response for Task Conditions Task Conditions Color Stimulus (5"x8" card) Picture/Word Response Matched Matched Neutral Neutral Reversal Reversal yellow green pink blue black red b an an a tree mouse ref r i g e r a t o r f i r e t r u c k t r a i n F i r s t Task: There were s i x 5"x 8" colored card stimuli and six ink drawings for responses, (See Figure I ) . Two of the six paired associates were natural or matched, i . e . yellow - 20 Figure I Response Items f o r Color-Picture Association Task (M) Matched - (N) Neutral (R) Reversed - -- - r with banana and green with tree. Two associations were neutral, i . e . a r b i t r a r i l y assigned, blue r e f r i g e r a t o r and pink mouse. Two of the associations were reversed, i . e . red t r a i n and black f i r e t r u c k . This task was given to 48 Ss, 24 deaf and 24 hearing, i . e . 2 groups of 12 Ss at CA 7 and 2 groups of 12 Ss at CA 11, 7 years and 11 years. Second Task: The second association task was given to 48 d i f f e r e n t Ss but grouped in the same way mentioned above; the same six colored stimulus cards were paired, this time with printed words. The task conditions were the same,two matched, two neutral,, and two reversal... (See Table I ) . A score sheet was used which had a systematically randomized order for presenting the s t i m u l i to a l l Ss and which had space for recording responses. Each item appeared once in 6 blocks of t r i a l s . The order of presentation was the same for each S. PROCEDURE ;-Each S was seen i n d i v i d u a l l y and seated at a table in front of the E. S was shown the stimulus colored cards and the drawings or word response items. The directions were "signed" to the deaf and spoken to the hearing; - ¥i -children. The directions were, "Here aresome colored cards, (shows to S fanned out), and here are some pictures (words), (shows response cards to S). I w i l l t e l l you'which one of these (colored cards) goes with each of these (response cards),.and I want you to try and remember which one goes with which." E. showed S the stimulus cards one at a time while saying, "This one," (red), "goes with t h i s " ( t r a i n ) , and placed i t . next to the response picture. When a l l the colored cards had been shown one by one, a neutral f i r s t , then matched, and then reversal for the i n s t r u c t i o n association, the colored stimulus cards were then hidden from view on E's lap below the table and shown one at a time in systematically randomized order. The Ss responded to the E's presentation of the stimulus card by pointing to one of the six response items laying in random arrangement on the table. If a hearing c h i l d spoke, he was asked to indicate his choice by pointing only. If the correct response was given, the E. nodded and said: "That's r i g h t . " ; i f the incorrect response was given, the c h i l d was corrected by shaking the head "no" and the stimulus card was placed in front of the correct response card. After each three responses of the c h i l d , the response cards were re-arranged to avoid p o s i t i o n a l cues. The stimulus cards were shown for 6 blocks of 6 t r i a l s or u n t i l the Ss had made 12 consecutive correct responses. (The blocks were in the same order). The number of incorrect responses and correct responses were recorded on the score shee The rate of presentation was paced by the Ss. RESULTS The number of errors was used as the response measure. The mean number of errors for a l l groups is shown in Table II. TABLE II C e l l Means for Color-Word and Color-Picture Tasks and Matched (M), Neutral (N) and Reversal (R) Conditions for Two Age Levels of Hearing and Deaf Subjects. COLOR-WORD Hearing Deaf M N R M N R CA 7 2.75 4.08 3.66 1.91 3.66 3.50 CA 11 .33 .33 1.50 ...75 1.16 2.91 COLOR-PICTURE Hearing Deaf M N R M N R CA; .7 .66 1. 58 3.25 .08 .08 .33 CA 11 .08 . 58 . 75 .33 .58 1.41 - 25 -In order to evaluate the data, an ove r a l l analysis of variance with repeated measures was Task x Hearing Status x Age x Conditions. A summary of the analysis is reported in Table III. TABLE III Anova Summary Source Sum of S DF F P Hearing Status (H) 4.01 1 .61 —•-Age (A) 110.01 1 16,85 * .01 Task (T) 141.68 1 21.71 < .01 Conditions (C) 81.38 2 22.65 ^ .001 H x A 49 .99 1 7.66 .01 H x T 14.22 1 2.17 A x. T 53. 38 1 8.18 < .01 H x C .01 2 .02 A x C 7. 38 2 2.05 • T x C 2.63 2 .73 H x A x T 1.68 i . 25 H x A x C 7.89 2 2.19 H x T x C 9.67 2 2.69 < .05 A x T x C 14. 71 2 4'; 09 — H x A x T x C 4.67 2 1.30 — PC (AMT) Error Term 316.17 176 (1) Contrary to the f i r s t hypothesis, there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between performance by hearing Ss and deaf Ss. -(2) Comparing the performance of age groups, the 11 year old groups committed s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewerterrors (p*.01, df 1/88) than the 7 year old groups. This finding was as expected., 26 (3) Task conditions (M,N,.R,) were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (p<.01, df 2/176) i n the pre-dicted d i r e c t i o n . The order of d i f f i c u l t y being reversal, neutral, and matched with reversal most d i f f i c u l t . (4) It was expected that the Color-Word task would be more d i f f i c u l t than the Color-Picture task. This hypothesis was s t a t i s t i c a l l y confirmed as can be seen in Table III - (p<.01, df 1/88). It i s int e r e s t i n g to note that the hearing 7 year old group performed quite s i m i l a r l y on the reversal condition of both tasks: C-W M=3.66; C-P M=3.50. Whereas for the deaf 7 year old group there was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference in the i r performance on the C-W task, M=3.50 errors compared with C-P, M=.33. This would explain the Age x Task in t e r a c t i o n . An interaction between Hearing Status and Age was s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.01). The deaf made fewer errors than the hearing at the 7 year l e v e l and more errors than the hearing at the 11 year l e v e l . This interaction i s graphed in Figure II 7.. FIGURE II: Interactions - Hearing x Age MEAN • ERRORS WITH TASK CONDITIONS COMBINED 3.0 2 .5 2.0 1.5 1.0 .5 o o Deaf x x Hearing CA 7 CA 11 An interaction between Age and Task was s i g n i f i c a n t (p^.05, df 1/88). On the Color-Picture task the difference in•performance between the CA 7 and CA 11 groups was s l i g h t whereas on the Color-Word task, a greater difference can be seen. (See Figure If I) • MEAN ERRORS WITH M,N,R CONDITIONS COMBINED FIGURE I'TI 4 3 2 1 -Color-Picture Color-Word CA 7 CA 11 - 28 -A three-way int e r a c t i o n Age x Task x Conditions was s i g n i f i c a n t (p^.05, df 2/176). (See Figure fV.) Within Color-Word task at the CA 7 l e v e l , there were more errors made on the neutral condition than on the reversal.- At the CA 11 l e v e l , there were more errors made on the reversal condition. This i s irrespective of hearing status. Within the Color-Picture task, there is no such i n t e r a c t i o n . (See Figure f7.) 28a -FIGURE IV Three-Way Interaction Age x Task x Conditions MEAN ERRORS FOR COLOR WORD TASK CA 7 CA 11 Conditions C. = Matched = Neutral = Reversal 2 8 b FIGURE IV Three-Way I n t e r a c t i o n A^e x Task x C o n d i t i o n s MEAN ERRORS FOR,:-COLOR PICTURE, Q 0 TASK ' 3 . 0 0 2 . 0 0 1 . 00 . 5 . 0 0 Ca CA 7 C o n d i t i o n s C^ = Matched C 2 = N e u t r a l = R e v e r s a l DISCUSSION The most int e r e s t i n g finding of the study was a. lack of s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference in perform-ance by the hearing and deaf Ss at either age l e v e l . This would tend to indicate that whatever the nature of the mediation, verbal, iconic or whatever, between the two di f f e r e n t hearing status groups, one group is not superior to the other i n e f f e c t i v e performance. This would be expected at these age levels by Kendler's theory. It does not support Furth's hypothesis. The Color-Picture association task seemed to be too easy for the 11 year old Ss, (M=0.77). i t appeared also to be too easy for the deaf 7 year old Ss (M=.16), but not.so for the hearing 7 year old children, (M=3.0), The Color-Word association task would seem to be an area for more f r u i t f u l i n v e s t i g a i tion comparing these two hearing status groups at each' age l e v e l from 7 to approximately 13. These Ss would have developed to the point where mediation should be f a c i l i t a t i v e . Also, perhaps a wider choice of reversal 30 -conditions could be explored to investigate further the interference aspect of verbal mediation.. The second hypothesis tested was that CA 7 year old Ss would have a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean error score than the CA 11 year old Ss. This was expected after the findings of Furth and Youniss (1964). This hypothesis was confirmed. On both C-W and C-P tasks and i n 22 of the t o t a l 24 conditions the younger Ss made more errors than the older Ss. The difference in performance by the CA 11 year old deaf group on the neutral and reversal conditions of the C-P task was not a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference. The t h i r d hypothesis being tested was: the C-W task would produce s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher mean error scores than the C-P task. This hypothesis was confirmed. The degree of abstraction involved in associating color to word compared with color to picture seems to account for this difference. It is int e r e s t i n g to note that three times as many errors were made on the C-W task compared with the C-P task. This may indicate that mediation might be more f a c i l i t a t i v e on a simple association task (When no overt verbalization is allowed) than on a more complex association task. The hearing and deaf Ss performed in no s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t way, ind i c a t i n g that perhaps the mediation s k i l l s do not d i f f e r much i n terms of e f f e c t i v e performance. - 31 -The fourth hypothesis tested was:.the reversal condition would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d i f f i c u l t than the neutral or matched condition. This hypothesis was confirmed s t a t i s t i c a l l y . The reversal condition showed a greater number of errors than either the matched or neutral on six of the eight groups. The two groups which did not have this finding were the hearing CA 7 C-W group and the deaf CA 7 C-W group. In these groups, the neutral condition„had s l i g h t l y more errors (M=4.08) than the reversal condition (M=3.67). This was not a s i g n i f i c a n t difference however. The two groups did not have any more d i f f i c u l t y associating the color blue with the printed word' r e f r i g e r a t o r or pink with mouse (neutral conditions). The reversal interference e f f e c t did not seem to be operating here, at least there was no evidence to say i t was as strong in association strength as experienced by the other- groups. As mentioned e a r l i e r these younger children may have been responding to cues (e.g. size and shape of written word) other than the task expected and experiential cues. The three-way in t e r a c t i o n , Age x Task x Conditions, may be interpreted as follows; Within the C-W task there is a s i g n i f i g a n t interaction between conditions and age. At CA 7 l e v e l , the neutral condition (Mean =. 3.87) was only s l i g h t l y higher than the reversal 32 -condition,. (Mean = 3.58), while at the 11 year l e v e l the reversal condition (Mean = 2.5) was higher than the neutral condition (Mean =1.8). One interpreta-tion might be that the C-W associations at. the 7 year l e v e l were not as f a m i l i a r to the Ss and therefore the reversal condition interference e f f e c t was. not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the neutral condition. However, at the 11 year l e v e l , the interference e f f e c t of the reversal condition was influencing performance by the Ss. Within the C-P task, there was no i n t e r a c t i o n effect between condition and age perhaps due to the small number of errors made in .associations oh the task, i n d i c a t i n g that the C-P task may have been too easy, es p e c i a l l y for the older Ss . A concluding statement summing up the relevance of this study might be as follows. Using the cognitive development model of Bruner, i t would seem that the representation of experiences, enactive, iconic or symbolic, for deaf and hearing children provides adequate feedback to mediate appropriate responses, despite differences in l i n g u i s t i c s k i l l s . In terms of cognitive functioning, the deaf perform not unlike their hearing counterparts. The deaf associate simple color to object and abnormal color to object as required by a task, and they reverse the normal color associations 33 -between two pairs of objects.in a way that does not seem to show a d i f f e r e n t i a l in cognitive performance from the hearing. REFERENCES 1. B l a i r , F.X., A Study of the Visual Memory of Deaf and Hearing Children, American Annals of  the Deaf, 1957,. 102 ,. 254-263. 2. Bruner, J . , Courses of Cognitive Growth, American  Psychologist, January 1964, 3. Furth, H.G., Research with the Deaf: Implications for Language and Cognition, Psychology B u l l e t i n , 1964. 4. Furth, H.G. § Youniss, J . , Color-Object Paired Associates in Deaf and Hearing Children With and Without Rgsponse Competition, Journal of  Consulting Psychology, 1964, 287 5. Furth, H.G., Thinking Without Language: Psychological  Implications of Deafness, New York, Free Press of Glencoe, 1966. 6. Hiskey, J . , Nebraska Test for Learning Aptitude for Young Deaf Children, American Annals of the Deaf, 1956. 7. Hughes, W. .A Comparison of Verbal Conceptualization in Deaf and Hearing Children, University of I l l i n o i s , 1959. 8. Kendler, T.S. § Kendler, H.H., Reversal and Non-reversal Shifts :in Kindergarten Children, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1959, 5_8, 56-60 . 9. Kendler, H.H. § Kendler, T.S., V e r t i c a l and Horizontal Processes in Problem Solving, Psychology  Review,.1962, 6 9 , 1-16. 10. Kendler, T.S., Development of Mediating Responses, Wright, J.C. k Kagan, J . (eds.), Basic Cognitive Processes i n Children, Monogr., Social Research i n Child Development, 1962 , 2&, N o . 2, 33-52. 35 11. Kendler, T.S. § Kendler, H.H., Experimental Analysis of I n f e r e n t i a l Behavior in Children, In L i p s i t t , L. § Spiker, C. (eds), Advances in  Child Development and Behavior, Vol. 3, New York, Academic Press, 1967, 157-190. 12. Kendler, T.S. § Kendler, H.H. f l 9Wells , D. , Reversal and Non-reversal Shifts i n Nursery School Children, Journal of Comparative  Physiological Psychology, 1960, 53, 83-88. 13. Larr, A.L., Perceptual and Conceptual A b i l i t y of Residential School Deaf Children, Exceptional  Children, 1956, __3, 63-66. 14. Luria, A.R., The Role of Language in the Formation of Temporary Connections, In B.Simon (ed.) Psychology i n the Soviet Union, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 195 7. 15. McKay, E.B., An Exploratory Study of the Psychological Effects of Severe Hearing Impairment, Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , Syracuse University, 1952. 16. Myklebust, H., The Psychology of Deafness, Grune § Stratton, New York, 19 60. 17. Myklebust, H. $ Brutten, M., A Study of the Visual Perception of Deaf Children, Acta Otolaryngology, Suppl. 1_9_5_, 19 53. • 18. Oleron, P., Conceptual Thinking of the Deaf, American Annals of the Deaf, 1953,.98, 304-310. 19. Oleron, P., A Study of the Intelligence of the Deaf, American Annals of the Deaf, 1950, 9j5, 179-195. 20. Reese, H.W., Verbal Mediation as a Function of Age Level, Psychological B u l l e t i n , 1962 ,5_, 502- 509. 21. Vygotsky, L.S., Thought and Language,M.I.T. Press § John Wiley and Sons, 1962. 22. Weir § Stevenson,•S., The Ef f e c t of Verbalization in Children's Learning as a Function of Chronological Age, Child Development, 1959, 30, 143-149. 2 3. Youniss, J. § Furth, H.G., Reaction to a Placebo: The Mediational Deficiency Hypothesis, Psychological  B u l l e t i n , 1963, 6_0_, 499-502. APPENDIX TABLE IV Total Number of Errors for Color-Word and Color-Picture Tasks and Matched (M), Neutral and Reversal (R) Conditions for Two Age Levels of Hearing and Deaf Subjects. COLOR-WORD Hearing Deaf M N R TOTAL M N R TOTAL :A 7 33 52 41 126 23 46 41 110 :A 11 4 4 18 26 9 14 35 58 37 56 59 156 32 60 76 168 COLOR-PICTURE Hearing Deaf M N R TOTAL M N R TOTAL CA 7 8 19 39 66 3 7 18 2 8 CA 11 1 7 9 17 1 1 4 6 9 26 48 83 4 8 22 34 -.11 -, • TABLE V Percentage of Errors for Color-Word and Color-Picture Tasks and Matched (M), Neutral (N) and Reversal (R) Conditions for Two Age Levels of Hearing and Deaf Subjects. COLOR-WORD Hearing Deaf M N R N R CA 7 26 41 33 21 42 37 CA 11 15 15 70 16 24 60 COLOR-PICTURE Hearing Deaf M N R M N R CA 7 12 29 59 11 25 64 CA 11 6 41 5 3 17 17 66 

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