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Study of hypervitaminosis E in the chick Wong, Fook Chuen 1970

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A  STUDY  OF  HYPERVITAMINOSIS  IN  THE  E  CHICK  BY FOOK B.S.A.,  A  NATIONAL  THESIS THE  CHUEN TAIWAN  SUBMITTED  IN  REQUIREMENTS MASTER  IN  THE  WONG UNIVERSITY,  PARTIAL FOR  OF  THE  1961  FULFILMENT DEGREE  OF  OF  SCIENCE  DEPARTMENT OF  POULTRY  WE  ACCENT  REQUIRED  THE  THIS  THESIS  SC I ENCE  AS  CONFORMING  TO  STANDARD  UNIVERSITY  OF  BRITISH  OCTOBER,  1970  COLUMBIA  THE  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e the L i b r a r y I  further  for  of  this  written  at  agree  for  financial  gain  Columbia  j£l^_^£_jllf.  British  by  for  shall  the  requirements  Columbia, reference  copying  of  I agree and this  that  not  copying  or  for that  study. thesis  t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  is understood  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8 , Canada  of  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d It  fulfilment of  available  permission.  Department  Date  freely  that permission  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  the U n i v e r s i t y  s h a l l make i t  scholarly  by h i s  thesis  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I SCIENCE,  WISH FOR  I SCIENCE,  THANK  PROVIDING  AM G R A T E F U L WHO  I  TO  ALSO  ENCOURAGEMENT  DR.  W.  THE  FACILITY  TO  SUPERVISED THANK  DRS.  THROUGHOUT  MRS. THE  D.  B.  KlTTS,  E.  HEAD  OF  IN  THIS  USED MARCH,  PLANNING  J.  BLELY,  R.  MY  PROGRAM.  AND  OF  THE  THE  OF  POULTRY  STUDY. DEPARTMENT  EXECUTION  FLTZSIMMONS  DEPARTMENT  OF AND  THE M.  OF  POULTRY  EXPERIMENTS. TAIT  FOR  THEIR  ABSTRACT  A CHICKS. (1)  STUDY  WAS  THREE  GROUPS  THYROIDAL  TWO  (220  SEPARATE  OF  THE  BIRDS  THE  THE  THIOURACIL-TREATED  OF  VITAMIN  THYROID LEVEL  OF E.  METABOLIC  SIMILAR  RESPIRATION SUPPLY  OR THE  AND  E  OF  FEEDING  WERE  EXCESS  CONDUCTED E,  (2)  VITAMIN  ACTIVITY  VITAMIN THE  E  TO  VITAMIN  AND  ;  E  TO  INVESTIGATE  RESPIRATION  FED  (3)  (TSH)  IN  FED  DID  WAS  TEMPERATURE.  THE  CHICKS  FED  DIFFERENCES  RATE  SYMPTOMS  FED  OF OF  EXCESS  THYROID THE  NORMAL  WERE  A  CHICKS  NOT  FED  OF  MUSCLE  OF  THE  THEREFORE, AND  THYROID  VITAMIN  IN  E  BOTH  A A  LESSER NORMAL  SECRETION  VITAMIN  E.  THE  APPEARS  THAT  THE  AND  OF  THAT  MAINTAINED  LEVEL  OF  OR  LEVELS  ON  TEMPERATURES  RATE  EXCESS  BE  TO  GROWTH  ACTIVITY  CAN  THE  EXCESS  THIOURACIL  EXHIBITED  EXCESS  AFFECT  LOW  AT  OF  RECEIVING  REDUCTION  BIRDS  THE  E  AND  SUBJECTED  EFFECT  VITAMIN  DID  I T,  IN  AND  FED  WAS M E A S U R E D .  THAN  HORMONE WHICH  E  EXCESS  GLANDS  WERE  GOITROGENIC  TREATMENTS  INDICATES  BIRDS  TURNOVER  CHICKS  FINDING  DESPITE IN  OF  31.5°C.  CHICKS  EITHER  RATES  OF  VITAMIN  EXCESS  DIET)  THYROID  THIS  AT  FED  DIFFERENT  THE  VITAMIN  CONSUMPTION  WERE  14.5  STIMULATING  OF  EXCESS  EXPERIMENTS,  OF  TEMPERATURES  ENLARGEMENT  EFFECTS  E.  I.U./KG.  IN  THE  EXPERIMENTS  TO  FROM C H I C K S  HYPERVITAMINOSIS  LEVELS  OF  OF  RESPONSE  MITOCHONDRIA  |N  MADE  FEED  VITAMIN TISSUE  WITH  A  REDUCED  HORMONE.  THYROID  GLAND  ITSELF  WAS  STUDIED  IN  RESPONSE  131 EXCESS  VITAMIN  E  IN  ANOTHER  E  EXPERIMENT.  USING  RADIOIODINE  (l  )  AS  A  TO  TRACER,  IT  THYROID  GLAND  (220  WAS  REMOVED  WOULD  BE  0  THAT  BOTH  DIET)  F  OF  ORDER  MECHANISM  BY  SECRETION  RATE  ISOLATED E  BIRDS.  THE  TO  AND  IN  OF  IODINE  BIRDS  CONTROL IN  THE  THE  (2200  EXCESS  PECTORAL  I.U./KG.  RESULTS  RATE  OF  THE  OF  FED  EXCESS  A  AND  BECAUSE  TISSUE  RELEASE  VITAMIN  AMOUNTS,  PERIPHERAL AS  UPTAKE  BIRDS.  EXCESS  AT  VITAMIN  E  THE  WHICH THE  BY  THE  E  DEPRESS  CONSEQUENCE,  M A R K E D L Y LOWER  THAT  THE  CHICK  MAY  UP  A  LARGE  OF  VITAMIN  E  K~DEFICIENCY.  VALUES,  RET I C U L O C Y T O S I S  REQUIREMENT  DIET)  WAS  ACTS  RATE  THYROID  SECRETION  UPON  APPEARED  A  EXCESS  LEVEL  OF  CONTROL  LEVEL  OTHER AND  E,  AS  A  OF HORMONE  OF  TSH  BE  OF  HOWEVER,  NO  CHICKS. RATE  WERE  INCREASED  BONE IN  IN  CONTROL  UPTAKE E.  IN  IT  WHEN  IS  FED  BY  THE  THE  THIS  EXPERI-  SUGGESTED EXCESS  THYROID  ACTIVITY.  COMPENSATION  IS  NORMAL.  A  INDICATIVE REDUCTION  CALCIFICATION, THE  THE  E  A B N O R M A L L Y F L U I D- A P P E A R A N C E OF  EXCESS  VITAMIN  FURTHER  D E P R E S S E D BELOW  MITOCHONDRIA  FED  OF  VITAMIN  THE  HORMONE  OXYGEN  OF  REDUCTION  S Y M P T O M S NOTED AN  AMOUNT  RESPIRATION A  IN  IN  OF  BEEN  THAT  HYPOPROTHROMBINEMIA,  OBSERVATIONS TO  THE  THROUGH  IS  CAUSED  REDUCTION  THE  RATE  HAD  COMPARED WITH  THE  NORMAL  RATE  WHICH  EXCESS  EFFECT  THYROTROPIC  FED  THAT  AND  RESPIRATION  SIGNIFICANT  VITAMIN  VITAMIN  BASED  CHICKS  THAN  RESPIRATION  EXCESS  OF  MAINTAIN  EXCESS  AND  MUSCLE  A  CAUSE  AFFECTS  THE  FED  CERTAIN  E  OF  ACTIVITY,  F  CHICKS  INDICATION VITAMIN  CHICKS  WAS  TO  0  SHOWED  MENT  E  SOME  THYROID  GROWTH  MARROW.  MAY,  THE  MITOCHONDRIA  POSSIBLE.  IT  OBTAIN  MUSCLE  A  IN  THE. C I R C U L A T I O N .  WHICH  FROM  VITAMIN  WITH  IN  THAN  THYROXINE  FROM  RATES  REDUCED.  IN  VITAMIN  THE  SLOWER  ANTIOXIDANT,  OEIODINATION IS  WERE  I.U./KG.  BIOLOGICAL  FOUND  PRESENCE  OF  THE  OF  IN  OF  HEMATOCRIT  THE  BONE  CALCIUM  EXCESS  VITAMIN  E.  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  PAGE LIST  OF  TABLES  LIST  OF  FIGURES  v vi  INTRODUCTION REVIEW  OF  EXPERIMENT  1  LITERATURE  3  I  12  THYROIDAL  RESPONSE  EXPERIMENT  E  .  AND  METHODS  12  12 14  AND  DISCUSSION  14  IC  RESULTS  20 AND M E T H O D S  AND  20  DISCUSSION  22  II  26  RESPIRATION EXCESS  RATE  RESULTS  OF  DIETARY  MATERIALS  EXPERIMENT  VITAMIN  12  MATERIALS  EXPERIMENT  DIETARY  I B  RESULTS EXPERIMENT  EXCESS  |A  MATERIALS E X P E R i MENT  TO  AND  AND  MUSCLE  MITOCHONORIA  VITAMIN METHODS  FED 26  .  26  DISCUSSION  29  III  SYMPTOMS  FROM C H I C K S  E  35 OF  KYPERVITAMINOSIS  MATERIALS  AND  E  METHODS  IN  CHICK  35 35  RESULTS  38  DISCUSSION  44  i  11  PAGE SUMMARY  47  BIBLIOGRAPHY  49  IV  LIST  OF  TABLES  TABLE  -  PAGE  1A.  BASAL  DIETS  IN  EXPERIMENT  |A  61  1B.  BASAL  DIETS  IN  EXPERIMENT  IB  61  2.  AVERAGE OF  3.  AVERAGE OF  4.  THYROID  CHICKS  OF  VITAMIN  5.  WEIGHTS,  IN  AND/OR  EXPERIMENT  ANALYSIS  OF  VITAMIN  AVERAGE OF  7.  IN  EFFECT  BODY  CONSUMPTION  WEIGHTS  AND  FEED  CONSUMPTION  |B  63  THYROIDAL  RESPONSE  AT  TO  DIFFERENT  THE  EXCESS  TEMPERATURES 64  OF  THYROIDAL  THIOURACIL  RESPONSE  AT  EXPERIMENT  WEIGHTS,  ETHOXYQUIN  EXPERIMENT  FEED  62  THIOURACIL  AND/OR  THYROID  AND  IA  VARIANCE E  TEMPERATURES 6.  OF  WEIGHTS  IA  EXPERIMENT  VARIANCE E  BODY  EXPERIMENT  THYROID  CHICKS  ANALYSIS IN  WEIGHTS,  IN  TO  EXCESS  DIFFERENT  IB  BODY  65  WEIGHTS  (EQ)-TREATED  AND  CHICKS  AT  FEED  22°C  CONSUMPTION  IN  IB  66  OF  EXCESS  DIETARY  (|131)  UPTAKE  AND  VITAMIN  RELEASE  IN  E  ON  WHITE  THYROIDAL LEGHORN  IODINE  MALE  67  CH I CKS 8.  RESPIRATION THE  9. 10.  BASAL  CONTROL DIET  EFFECT  OF  TIME 11.  IN  PROTHROMBIN  EFFECT FED  OF  OF  MUSCLE  MITAOCHONDRIA  DIET,  EXCESS  VITAMIN  EXPERIMENT  EXCESS  AND  AFTER 12.  RATES  VITAMIN  RETICULOCYTE TIME  OF  INJECTION EXCESS  DIETS  AND  THIOURACIL  .  .  E  ON  HEMATOCRIT  VALUE,  68  PROTHROMBIN  COUNT  E  .  69  70  FED  EXCESS  MENADIONE  VITAMIN  ADEQUATE  AND/OR  FED  III  CHICKS OF  E  FROM C H I C K S  ON  BONE  DEFICIENT  v  VITAMIN  E, .  CALCIFICATION IN  CALCIUM  24  HOURS  .  71 IN  CHICKS 72  LIST  OF  FIGURES  FIGURE 1.  ' THYROIDAL  RESPONSE  VITAMIN  E  DIFFERENT 2.  THYROIDAL  E  DIFFERENT EFFECT  CHICKS  RECEIVING  ETHOXYQUIN  AMBIENT  RESPONSE  VITAMIN  3.  OF  AND/OR  CHICKS  AMBIENT  IN  TO  OF  EXCESS  DIETARY  UPTAKE  AND  VITAMIN  RELEASE  IN  TWO  IN E  ON  |A  LEVELS  16 OF  AT  EXPERIMENT THYROIDAL  WHITE  OF  AT  THIOURACIL  TEMPERATURES  (|131)  LEVELS  EXPERIMENT  RECEIVING  ETHOXYQUIN  TWO  THIOURACIL  TEMPERATURES  OF  AND/OR  TO  LEGHORN  IB  17  IODINE  MALE  CHICKS 4.  EFFECT  23  OF  EXCESS  DIETARY  )  UPTAKE  AND  (l  VITAMIN  RELEASE  IN  E  ON  THYROIDAL  WHITE  LEGHORN  IODINE  MALE  CHICKS 5.  ELECTRON CHICK  6.  ELECTRON CHICK  7.  ELECTRON CHICK  24 MICROGRAPH FED  A  OF  NORMAL  BREAST LEVEL  MICROGRAPH  OF  FED  VITAMIN  EXCESS  MICROGRAPH FED  A  BREAST  OF  NORMAL  MUSCLE  OF  MITOCHONDRIA  VITAMIN MUSCLE  FROM  ERYTHROCYTES OF  9.  VI TAM  RETICULOCYTES VITAMIN  10.  32  MITOCHONDRIA  FROM  ABNORMAL  OLD BONE  A  E  33  BREAST LEVEL  MUSCLE  OF  MITOCHONDRIA  VITAMIN  E  SHOWING  FROM A INTACT 34  A  40-DAY  OLD  CHICK  FED  A  NORMAL  LEVEL  40  E FROM  A  40-DAY  OLD  CHICK  FED  EXCESS  E  ERYTHROBLAST • 40-DAY  11.  FROM  iN  A  E  M I TOCHONDR I A 8.  PAGE  40 OBSERVED  ON  THE  BLOOD  SMEAR  FROM  A  CHICK MARROW  41 OF  CHICKS  v I  FED  EXCESS  VITAMIN  E  42  FIGURE 12A.  PAGE THE  INFLUENCE ASH  12B.  THE  AT  INFLUENCE ASH  OF  EXCESS  DIFFERENT OF  RELATIVE  EXCESS TO  VITAMIN  E  ON  PERCENT  OF  TIBIA  AGES  BODY  45 VITAMIN WEIGHT  v II  E  ON  PERCENT  OF  TIBIA 45  I N T R O D U C T I ON  A  DEFICIENCY  DIFFERENT  SPECIES  MASON,  1949;  OTHER  DIETARY  OF  OF  ANIMALS  MATTILL,  (SCHWARZ,  (CENTURY  AND HORWITT,  DEFICIENCY HAS  OF OF  SEVERAL  ACTION  OF  1960;  THE  E  AS  A  NONSPECIFIC OR  RUPTURE  TOCOPHEROL  OF M E M B R A N E S  PARTICLE.  VITAMIN  (DAM_ET_AL., REACTIVATE VITAMIN  E  1952;  ASCORBIC DEFICIENT  E  AS A  ANTIOXIDANT  OF MEMBRANE  TO  PREVENT  AND THE ALSO  IN  CELLS  (TAPPEL  PROTECTS  VITAMIN  SYNTHESIS  ANIMALS  BY L I V E R  (CAPUTTO  _E_T _A_L • ,  1  THE  VITAMIN  DETERMINED.  E  (TAPPEL,  ACTS  1959A),  AS A  CAUSES TO  1968)  LYSOSOMES  1960).  PECULIAR  LACK THE  OF  EVENTUAL  A SUBCELLULAR  OXIDATION  AND HAS BEEN PREPARATIONS 1958).  E  M E C H A N I S M OF  ( H 0 R W I T T _ET _AL . ,  OXIDATION  ACIDS  A  THAT  ANTIOXIDANT  A AGAINST  P U D E L K I EW I C Z _ET _AL . 1 9 6 4 ) ACID  BEEN  AND Z A L K I N ,  OF E N Z Y M E S  FATTY  WHICH  PRIMARY  AND Z A L K 1 N ,  UNCONTROLLED  RELEASE  IN  APPARENT  YET  1969).  MAY A F F E C T  PROPERTIES VITAMIN  (TAPPEL  AND MICROSOMES  IS  BIOLOGICAL  LIPIDS  AS M I T O C H O N D R I A  _E_T _ A L . , 1 9 6 4 ) ,  SUFFICIENT  ITS  1962)  BY  1962),  AND UNSATURATED  BUT.THE  HAS NOT  REVIEW  _ET _ A L . ,  _ET _ A L . ,  AND THE MANNER \T  IN  (SEE  SCOTT  (CALVERT  ITSELF.  CELL  IS  1967;  1965)  FUNCTIONS  LIVING E  E  OF S Y M P T O M S TISSUES  AND HORWITT,  MANIFESTS  VITAMIN  OF  PROTECTOR  ORGANELLESSUCH  (DESAI  OF  RESULT  WITTING  FOR V I T A M I N  THE  MANY  ROELS,  AND S C O T T ,  METABOLIC  IN  A VARIETY  AS M E T H I O N I N E  DESAI  THE V I T A M I N  VITAMIN  CAUSES  D A M , 1957;  1958;  DIFFERENT  E  AND MAY A F F E C T  SUCH  ANIMAL  ONEFUNCTION 1962).  1952;  COMPONENTS  SELENIUM  REQUIREMENT  VITAMIN  THE  IN  SHOWN  TO  VITRO  FACT  THAT  FROM THE  2  TOCOPHEROLS SUGGESTION ENZYMES  READILY  UNDERGO  THAT OT-TOCOPHEROL  AS A COENZYME  D E T W I L E R _ET _AL . , UNDERGOES VITAMIN  REVERSIBLE  E MAY  MAY FUNCTION  OR A S A S T R U C T U R A L  1966).  REVERSIBLE  OXIDAT I ON-REDUCTI ON,  BECAUSE  IN  AGENT  VITAMIN  E  OX I D A T 1 O N - R E D U C T I O N ,  INTERFERE  IN  THE ACTION  TERMINAL  OF  ELECTRON-TRANSFER  ( V A S I N G T O N _ET _AL . ,  HAS A N T I O X I D A N T IT  H A S L E D TO T H E  IS  OTHER  POSSIBLE  P R O P E R T I E S AND  THAT  BIOLOGICAL  1 960J  AN E X C E S S  OF  REDOX  SUBSTANCES. ALTHOUGH VITAMIN  E  DEFICIENCY,  EXCESS  VITAMIN  NOR  THERE  IN WAS IN  IS  THERE  ANIMALS  E.  IS  A  THERE  THAT  OR M A N ( D E M O L E , TO  HAVE  S Y M P T O M S OF  EVIDENCE  CONDUCTED  LARGE  DETERMINE  VOLUME BEEN  LITERATURE  FEW S T U D I E S  HYPERVITAMIN0SIS  TOCOPHEROLS 1939; WHAT  OF  PER SE  HLLLMAN, EFFECTS  E  REGARDING HAVE  EXERT  1957).  EXCESS  DEALING  NOT  WITH  THE  EFFECTS  BEEN  DESCRIBED,  ANY DELETERIOUS  THE  DIETARY  PRESENT  OF  EFFECT  INVESTIGATION  VITAMIN  E M A Y HAVE  CHIC K S . THREE  RESPONSE  TO  MITOCHONDRIA  GROUPS EXCESS  OF  EXPERIMENTS  DIETARY  FROM C H I C K S  H Y P E R V I TAM I NOS I S  E  VITAMIN  FED E X C E S S  IN " C H I C K S .  WERE EJ  CARRIED  (2)  OUT  TO  RESPIRATION  VITAMIN  EJ  (3)  STUDY RATE  (1)  OF  S Y M P T O M S OF  THYROIDAL  MUSCLE  REVIEW  OF  LITERATURE  GENERAL VITAMIN PRESENT THE  IN  RAT.  VITAMIN EVANS GERM  E WAS D I S C O V E R E D  VEGETABLE  D,  OIL.  THE NAME PEREIN  (i,  CC,  TOCOPHEROL. (CENTURY  VITAMIN  ETC.  WERE  1965)  THIS  FOR NORMAL IN  VITAMIN  E  USED  (TO  TO  HAVING  INDICATE  WAS F I R S T  HIGH  WAS I D E N T I F I E D  IS  USED  FORM  OF  THE V I T A M I N  IN  ANIMALS  BY  WHEAT  TOKOS THE  OF  ACTIVITY (1937,  STANDARD NOT  WORD,  FORMS  BY FERNHOLZ  IS  OF  AN A L C O H O L ) .  BIOLOGICAL  AS A R E F E R E N C E  ISOLATED  FRACTION  VARIOUS  IN  FOLLOWING  THE G R E E K  SIGNIFY  FACTOR  REPRODUCTION  ORDER  THE U N S A P O N I F I C A B L E FROM  AS A  1938).  (HUME,  READILY  1941) AND  AUTOXIDIZABLE  BIOPOTENCY. E DEFICIENCY  IN D I F F E R E N T  TISSUES,  INCLUDING  (LIVER  FROM  BEAR),  INVESTIGATORS.  ('MUSCULAR  ERYTHROCYTES,  PURE  AND B I S H O P  NEXT  AND OL  SYMPTOMS  MUSCLE  BY S U R E .  E,  (TO  ACETATE  HAS A HIGH  LETTER  WAS P R O P O S E D  AND HORWITT,  OF  THE  (1936)  BY EVANS  WAS N E C E S S A R Y  A L P H A - T OC O P H E ROL",  SUPPLEMENT.  1922  TOCOPHEROL  Y,  DL-CC-TOCOPHERYL  NUMBER  OF  WAS S U G G E S T E D  AND THE EMERSONS  PREFIXES  AND  WHICH  THE D E S I G N A T I O N  (OFFSPRING),  FEED  OIL  IN  V ITAMIN  SPECIES  THE EMBRYO  DYSTROPHY),  AND A N E M I A ) ,  NECROSIS),  KIDNEY  E  AND C H I C K S  DEFICIENCY  OF A N I M A L S (FETAL BRAIN  HAS BEEN  CAUSES  WALLS  (DEGENERATION  3  (EXUDATIVE  OF T U B U L A R  MANY  GONADS  ( E N C E P H A L O M A L AC I A ) ,  CAPILLARY  A WIDE  AND MAY A F F E C T  RESORPTION),  REPORTED  BY A  VARIETY  OF  DIFFERENT  (STERILITY),  BL 0 0 0  ( HEMOL YS I S OF  DIATHESIS),  EPITHELIUM),  LIVER  DEPOT  FAT  4  (STEATITIS) ROELS, OF  (SEE  1967;  VITAMIN  SCOTT  E  SEVERAL  FACTORS  DEFICIENCY  SELENIUM  HORWITT,  HAS  SUCH  VITAMIN  E  (SCHWARZ,  HAS YET  VITAMIN  E  1962)  IT  IS  MAINLY  BE  LITTLE  DOUBT  1960),  SUCH IN  THAT  UNITS  (TAPPEL,  1962;  SUBCELLULAR  INTERESTING IN  VITRO  RATS  FACT  IS  THAT  B U N Y A N _ET _ A L . ( I 9 6 0 ) ERYTHROCYTE ACTS  IT  AS AN A N T I O X I D A N T .  FATTY  IS  AS  (CALVERT  VITAMIN  APPARENT  SYMPTOMS  TISSUES,  ACIDS  B U T NO E X A C T  IN  THE ORGANELLA  STATE  MICROSOMES, (MOORE,  AND  ET A L . ,  (CENTURY AND E  THAT  DEFICIENCY VITAMIN  METABOLIC  1965;  (ZALKIN  E  ROLE  OF  APPEARS  INTEGRITY  PRESENTED  BY CATALYZING  OF  TO  1960)  SEEMS  THAT  IMPORTANT  (1956)  MEMBRANES ONE  I N V I V O OR IN  (1960) AND  DIALURIC  PEROXIDATION  C H R I S T E N S E N _E_T _AL .  L U C Y AND  OF E R Y T H R O C Y T E S  AND C O L L I E R  TO  INTRACELLULAR  TISSUES.  EITHER  WHERE  ANTIOXIDANT  BE V E R Y  IN  HEMOLYSIS  EVIDENCE LIPID  THERE  OF THE C E L L U L A R  ADMINISTERED  TSEN  1959).  R O E L S _ET _ A L . , 1 9 6 5 ;  ACID-INDUCED 1952).  THE C E L L S  AND L Y S O S O M E S  INTEGRITY  AND T A P P E L ,  TOCOPHEROLS  OF  AS A B I O L O G I C A L  AND M E T A B O L I C  OF P E R O X I D A T I O N  1950,  HAVE  HEMOLYSIS  IT  FUNCTIONS  AND R O E L S ,  THE D I A L U R I C  AND GYORGY,  OF A N I M A L  OF M E T H I O N I N E  FUNCTIONS,  OF THE S T R U C T U R A L  MEMBRANES  INHIBIT  (ROSE  GUHA  PREVENTION  OR  DYSTROPHY.  INFLUENCE  SPECIES,  THE REDUCED  THE STRUCTURAL  THE MAINTENANCE  1962)  AS M I T O C H O N D R I A ,  PROTECTS  IN  LEVELS  PRINCIPALLY  THEREFORE  1964).  VARIETY  OCCURING  DEFINED.  WHICH  DINGLE,  A WIDE  D A M , 1957;  WIDELY  IS MUSCULAR  AND UNSATURATED  METABOLIC  FOUND  (W I S S _E_T _AL . ,  SUCH  AND HORWITT,  BEEN IS  ANIMALS  OF A N I M A L  DIFFERENT  PRESENT  IN MANY  1952;  ONE OF T H E M O S T  AS THE D I E T A R Y  IN A VARIETY  SEVERAL  1949; M A T T I L ,  1969).  AFFECTS  1958; W I T T I N G  SYNDROMES  BY MASON,  _ET _ A L . ,  E DEFICIENCY  VITAMIN  1962)  REVIEWS  ACID  AND THAT  SHOWED  THAT  PROMOTES VITAMIN THE  E  DIALURIC  5  ACID-INDUCED THE OF  RAT  HEMOLYSIS  BUT  THIS  THAT  VITAMIN VITAMIN  MAY  BE  A  IT  IS  IN E  MAY  BE  NOT  A  THE  MAY  COMPONENT  RESPIRATORY  CHAIN  (BIOLOGICAL  OXIDATION  (VASINGTON,  REICHARD  RELIABLE  A  THE  ROLE  FUNCTIONING AND AND  NASON,  RELATIONSHIP  WITH  ENZYMATIC  IN  TISSUE  DIRECTLY  RESPIRATION  METABOLISM  THYROIDAL  OF  ALTHOUGH  THE  OR  THE  ADAPTIVE  PHENOMENA ASSOCIATED  BEEN  SUBJECT  OF  THYROID  ACTIVITY  STUDIES, UTILIZING WEIGHT,  A  AS  GENETIC  IODINE  OF  HISTOLOGICAL  RADIOIODINE  ARE  UPTAKE STRAIN, KNOWN  TO  IS  NUMEROUS  VARIETY  E  DEFICIENCY  DETERMINING  HAS  A  IN  DEFICIENCY  AGE,  OR  SYSTEMS  ELECTRON  INDIRECTLY  OF  NOT  HAVE  A  AS  |T IN  DIRECT  HAS  AND  THE  IT  TERMINAL  A  BINDING  AGENT  ( 1 96 9)  QUANTITATIVE  ALSO  NORMAL  EXAMPLE,  CARRIER  OL I V E R I RA _ET _AL .  OF  AND  BEEN  SUGGESTED  OXIDATIVE  NASON,  THAT  PHOSPHORYLATION  1960),  OR  IN  THE  DIET  ACTION  OF  CONSIDERED WITH  THYROID  TO  CHANGES  PLAY IN  INVESTIGATIONS BEEN  THYROIDAL  AS  THE  ENVIRONMENTAL THYROID  THIS  STILL  IMPORTANT  REMAINS  ROLE  ENVIRONMENT  REGARD.  |N  DIFFERENT  METHODS  BASAL  METABOLIC  RATE,  PROTEIN-BOUND  TURNOVER  RATE.  TEMPERATURE,  ACTIVITY.  AND  HOWEVER,  IN AND  HAS  THYROID  IODINE  LEVELS,  MANY.FACTORS DIETARY  THE  THESE  BY  TISSUE,  IODINE  AN  HORMONES  EXTERNAL  IN  EVALUATED  PARAMETERS SUCH  AFFECT  AN  FOR  1962).  A P P E A R A N C E OF AND  METABOLISM.  REICHARD  TEMPERATURE  GLAND  AS  INDIRECTLY  MECHANISM  THYROID  VITAMIN FOR  REDUCTASE  ACTIVITIES.  UNKNOWN,  THE  DID  (VASINGTON,  TO  C  1960).  COENZYMEQ(GREEN,  RESPONSE  CRITERION  ENERGY  REDUCTION)  CC- T O C O P H E R O L  FUNCTION  ASSESSING  DIRECTLY  THAT  MAY  IN  CYTOCHROME  DEMONSTRATED  IT  FOR  CHICK.  PLAY  OF  USED  INTAKE  COMPARATIVELY  SUCH OF LITTLE  6  IS  KNOWN  THYROID  ABOUT  SECRETION THERE  RESPONDS  JOINER  1960;  STAHL  A COOL  GLANDS  IS  HUSTON, TURNER  MUCH  DATA  TO  AND TURNER,  (1963)  HUSTON ALSO  1957;  OTHER  THAT  THE THYROID  CHANGES  THAN  IODINE  ON  MORE  THYROXINE  THAN  AND S H A F F N E R ,  ET  M . . ,  1962)  DEMONSTRATED  1950).  CONFIRMED  THAT  SHORT  EXPOSED  TO  AL . ,  HELD  THYROID  HIGH  REPORTS  THESE  FINDINGS.  EXPOSURE  ET  BIRD  HEAVIER  LATER  TERM  BIRDS  HEN I NGER  THE YOUNG  TO H A V E  THOSE  OF  AND S H A F F N E R ,  1958;  1962).  WAS S H O W N  GLAND  (HOFFMANN  P R E M A C H A N D R A _ET _AL . ,  TEMPERATURE  (HOFFMANN  1957;  FACTORS  1 9 6 1 ; H U S T O N _E_T _ A L . ,  ENVIRONMENTAL  A N D TO S E C R E T E  INDICATE  TEMPERATURE  AND HUSTON,  TEMPERATURES  OF N U T R I T I O N A L  RATE.  TO E N V I R O N M E N T A L  1950;  IN  THE E F F E C T S  ( J O I N E R AND  TO  H E N D R I C H AND COLD  ,131 STIMULATED AND A  RELEASE  STUDY  SUMMER T2  THE THYROID WAS S H O W N  BY HENDRICH TEMPERATURE  RETURN  IN  FOWLS  CHANGES  AND GORBMAN  AS  INDICATED  TO N O R M A L (1965)  TO C O N S T A N T  PRODUCE  KOBAYASHI  TO  AND TURNER  OF T H Y R O X I N E - I  TEMPERATURES  OF T H E FOWL  4.4°C  BY LONGER  DEMONSTRATED COLD  THE THYROID  (i960)  TERM THAT  THAT  UPTAKE  A CHANGE  FLUCTUATING  HORMONE  !.  EXPOSURE  HAD NO S I G N I F I C A N T  AND S U G G E S T E D IN  BY T H Y R O I D A L  TO  COLO.  FROM  EFFECT  ON T H E  ENVIRONMENTAL  UTILIZATION.  A N D R O S E N B E R G _ET _A_L. ( 1 9 6 4 )  REPORTED  ,131 THAT  THE TIME  IODIDE LOW  IN  OF P E A K  THE D I E T .  IODINE  DIET,  I  -UPTAKE  KOBAYASHI  RADIOACTIVITY  WAS I N F L U E N C E D  AND GORBMAN FELL  RAPIDLY  (i960) AFTER  BY THE C O N C E N T R A T I O N DEMONSTRATED REACHING  THAT  A PEAK  OF  WITH  A  AT 6  HOURS. VERY  LITTLE  IS  KNOWN  J  3  VITAMIN E. THE RATE OF I B E E N R E P O R T E D TO B E R E D U C E D  1  OF THE R E L A T I O N  OF T H Y R O I D  FUNCTION  "  AND  c  UPTAKE BY THE THYROID IN VITAMIN E IN THE RAT ( V A L E N T I AND B O T T A R E L L I ,  E X C E S S HAS 1965) AND  7  A  SIMILAR  A  COMPOUND  HORMONES, RESPONSE ANIMALS  OBSERVATION IS  TO  IODINATED IODINE  (FRANDLIN,  AND  BLSSEL,  THE  RATIO  46  EXERTS  COMPOUNDS  HOURS  SYNTHESIS  1968),  CARRIER  |  FOR IN  +  THE  IS  I  WHICH  MECHANISM  IS  THAT  VERY  RATES  HIGH  DISULFIDE  BETWEEN  A KEY  OF  IS  • THIOURACIL  1964;  MALOOF  GLAND. INVOLVED  REACTION  NOT  A  THAN  IN  IN  THE  AGENTS WITH  IODIDE  SUCH  SULFENYL  AS  OF  TO  OF  RECYCLING  IN  OF  CHICKS  THAT  WAS G R E A T E R  HOURS,  1963J  ORGANIC  VANDERLAAN  (DIT)  AT  INDICATING A  BLOCK  IN  SEVERAL J L R O U S E K AND  IODIDE  AS AN  IODINATION  ACTIVE OF  INTERMEDIATE  SERVES  TYROSINE.  POSSIBLE  THIOURACIL  IODIDE  AND  THIOURACIL.  FORMATION  THE ENZYMATIC  IODINATION  AS  YEARS,  SULFENYL  IN  RESULTANT  1964)  PRODUCED  RECENT  RATE.  THE  1945;  6  AND S O O D A F ,  THE S U L F E N Y L IN  AT  IN  GOITROGENIC  OBSERVED  THIOURACIL  PROTEIN  INTERMEDIATE  ANTITHYROID  (CUNNINGHAM,  THAT  AND D I T .  THAT  THE  ASTWOOD,  (I960)  THIOURACIL  OCCURS  SUCH  DL I OD 0 T Y R O S I N E  MIT  SUGGESTED  THYROID  STABILIZE  OF  COMPOUND  1944;  TO  THE  |F  THYROID  AND TURNER, IN  1968).  SECRETION  AND P R E V E N T I N G  AND GORBMAN (MIT)  GLAND  (TSH)  BY PREVENTING  AND S U G G E S T E D  (CUNNINGHAM,  CUNNINGHAM,  DIFFERENCES  AND C H A I K O F F ,  KOBAYASHI  OF M I T ,  IN  GLAND  OF  TEMPERATURES,  (HENDRICH  THYROID  ADMINISTRATION  INVESTIGATORS  TYROSINE  THE  THYROID  TSH  EFFECT  O F M O N O I O D O T YRO.S I N E  ACCUMULATION  THE  OF A G O I T R O G E N I C ITS  LERNER  1946).  AFTER  THYROXINE  IN  OF  REFLECTED  ADMINISTRATION  OF  THE S Y N T H E S I S  ENVIRONMENTAL  RATES  BE  INHIBITS  ( D U R A N D _ET _AL . ,  TH Y R O T R O P I F I C H O R M O N E  DIFFERENT  WILL  THIOURACIL  WHICH  IN  IN S E C R E T I O N  HORMONE  RESPONSE  TO  WAS R E P O R T E D  HYPERTROPHY  AN E L E V A T I O N  SUBJECTED  DIFFERENCES  HAMSTER  ADMINISTERED  A COMPENSATORY TO  THYROID  IN  FORM  A  AND THIOUREA AN  INACTIVE  TO  HAVE MIXED  1964). ONLY  BLOCKS  THE  FORMATION  OF  THYROXINE  IN  THE  THYROID  8  B A R K E R _ET _ A L . ' ( 1 9 4 9 ) , SHOWED  THAT  THE  CALORIGENIC  FEEDING  EITHER  REPORTS  (VAN  STASILLI  _E_T . A L . ,  1961,  THIOURACIL  ARSDEL  THE  1960;  AMOUNT  EXCRETION  LABELED  (FLOCK  AND  (1960)  HAVE  ANIMALS  OF  BOTH  JONES  PROPYLTHIOURACIL  ,131 I  1962; THAT  THESE  HAVE  MIDDLESWORTH,  THE  STASILLI  IN  THE  AND  INNER  THE  1963).  PROTEIN-BOUND DOSES  IT  HAS OF  AND  THE  IS  JAGIELLOW OF  THE  AFFECTED AND  THIOURAC  WAS  BY  THE  THYROXINE  THAN  VAN  THAT  MCKENZIE IL-TREATED  HIGHER  SUGGESTED  HORMONE OF  ESCOBAR,  ,131 I  OF  H E R S H M A N AND  BEEN  AND  INCREASED  IODINES  THYROXINE  ACTIVITY  ESCOBAR  DEIODINAT I ON.  IODINE  ANIMALS.  BINDING  PERIPHERAL  OF  RING  SEVERAL  PROPYLTHIOURACIL  URINE  THEIR  OF  BY  1954;  ADMINISTRATION  INHIBITING  (1960)  DECREASED  RESULTS  1960;  THAT  THE  H E R R E R A _ET . A L . , THE  THE  AL.  WAS  H O G N E S S _ET _AL . ,  AFTER  RING  ET  THYROXINE  SHOWN  EXCRETED  FINDINGS.  ENHANCE  OF  M I DDLESWORTH,  T H Y R O I D E C T O M I ZED  DECREASING  RADIOIODINE  1956;  1963)  GO I T E R - P R E V E N T 1 N G  SUPPORTED  THEREBY  AND  PHENOLIC  OBSERVED  THYROXINE-TREATED, (1962)  WILLIAMS,  OF  AND  METHYLTHIOURACIL.  P R E S U M A B L Y BY  BOLLMAN,  GIVEN  OR  A_L . ,  (1949),  EFFECTIVENESS  ,131 I -THYROXINE  OF  THYROXINE,  DEIODINATION  VAN  AND  1 9 6 2 ; H E R R E R A _ET  DECREASED FECAL  A N D I K _ET _AJ_ .  THAT  OF  MLDDLESWORTH  THIOURACIL  PLASMA  (HERSHMAN  AND  PROTEIN, AND  1962).  UPTAKE 1 31  THE ITS  USE  BY  DISCOVERY HAMILTON  OF AND  SOLEY  RADIOIODINE  UPTAKE  AS  DYNAMICS  IODINE  METABOLISM  OF  A  RADIOIODINE IN  PARAMETER  I  1939 OF  WHICH  BY IN  ENRICO  THE  THYROID MAY  BE  TEST  FERMI OF  ACTIVITY  CONSIDERED  IN  1 9 3 5 LED  THYROID IS  FUNCTION.  BASED  FROM  TO  UPON  THREE  THE  ASPECTS:  9  (1)  THE  INORGANIC  (VANDERLAAN (2)  IODINE  AND MAY  THE  GLAND  TAKEN  UP  VANDERLAAN,  1947;  T A U R O G _ET _AL . ,  ORGANICALLY  (C H A L K O F F  ORGANICALLY  (NADL'E-R  WIDELY  IS  BE  ADMINISTRATION (3)  IODIDE  USED  AND  AND  ,131 I  THYROIDAL  AND  BOUND  BASED  AS  TAUROG,  1 9 5 5 AND  1958).  THE  ACCUMULATION  IS  THE  AS  SOON  ASSUMPTION  REPRESENTED  CIRCULATING  1947;  HALMI,  1 5 MINUTES  1949; WLLLIAMS IS  ON  FROM  EARLY  RADIOIODINE  LEBLOND,  IS  BOUND  RAPIDLY  AND  RELEASED  A  1961);  AFTER  VLCKERY,  BY  THE  1965);  FROM THE  24-HOUR-UPTAKE  THAT  BLOOD  MAXIMUM  THE.LEVEL  OF  THYROID  TEST  IS  LEVEL  OF ,131 I  THYROIDAL  131 24  HOURS  SOLEY, SINCE  AFTER  1940; (1)  T«M E R E  THE  LEVEL  METABOLIZED 1966);  THE  OF  R O S E N B E R G _ET _ A L . ,  PLTT-RLVERS, BY  ADMINISTRATION  IS  RELEASE  1962); OF IN  (2)  IODINE THE  OF  OF  (WAHLBERG,  1963).  IN  SOME  INORGANIC  RADIOIODINE THE  THYROID  VALIDITY  I  IN  DIET  GLAND  UPTAKE  OR  INVESTIGATORS  IODINE THE  1 9 5 5 ; HAMILTON  FROM  THYROID  THE  ( R O S E N B E RG _ET _AL . ,  IN  A  HETEROGENEOUS  RELEASE  COMMENT GLAND  GLAND  IS  AS  THAT  (HALMI  EASILY  1964);  MANNER  MEASUREMENTS  AND  (3)  AND  AFFECTED  IODINE  (ROSENBERG  AN  INDEX  IS  ET  AL.,  OF  . 131 THYROID UPTAKE INDICES  ACTIVITY AND OF  RELEASE  BY  THYROID  ACTIVITY  DEMONSTRATED WITHIN OF  THE  IN  POOL  UP,  THE  NORMAL  RADIOIODINE  PICKED  ACCORDINGLY  BY  BUT  TRAPPED  THE  BECOMES  THYROID  THYROID  SINCE  QUESTIONABLE. EMPLOYED  RATHER  WIDELY  AS  COMPARATIVE  THE  SPECIFIC  RADIOACTIVITY  OF  THE  IS  VARIATION  OF  PHYSIOLOGY  THE  DOES  NOT  INDICATE  REPRESENTS  THE  PERCENTAGE  MERELY  GLAND  ( S I L VE R JET _AL . ,  I  ARE  TISSUE THE  NEVERTHELESS,  EASILY  1 9 5 5 ; ANDREWS,  MODIFIED OF  THE  THE OF  1957).  BY  CIRCUMSTANCES  ANIMALS.  ABSOLUTE THE  IODINE  THE  AMOUNT  TOTAL  UPTAKE OF  STABLE  IODINE IODIDE  10  VITAMIN  E  AND OXYGEN  VITAMIN BUT IN  THE EFFECT OXYGEN  HAVE  HOUCHIN  ROSENKRANTZ, WERE  OBSERVED DUCK  VITAMIN OXYGEN PER  1955;  USED  E  DEFICIENCY.  WITH  E  STUDIED.  MARKED  INCREASES  1936;  ANIMALS  1942;  DEFICIENT AND  KAUNITZ  HAMSTERS,  RABBIT  IN OXYGEN TISSUES  (1967)  FROM D Y S T R O P H I C  AND G U I N E A  VICTOR  (1934)  CONSUMPTION  OF  CORTEX AND  CONSUMPTION  REMAINED  1951;  RATS,  ADRENAL  WHEREAS  UNCHANGED OBSERVED  O F DR K E T O - G L U T A R I C  NORMAL  AND  STUDIES.  ON T H E O X Y G E N  ANIMALS  MATTILL,  AND M E L V I L L E ,  IN THESE  AND S H C H U K I N A  FROM  E  FRIEDMAN  HIMMEL  THAT  INCREASE  THAT  CONSUMPTION  RABBITS,  FOUND  IN MITOCHONDRIA TO  OXYGEN  OF V I T A M I N  DEFICIENCY  (1955)  INFLUENCE  HOUCHIN,  FOR THE O X I D A T I O N  WAS S I M I L A R  IN  THAT  AND S U C C I N I C  MUSCLE  IN VITAMIN  ACIDS E  TISSUE.  MITOCHONDRIA  SYSTEM  TOCOPHEROL  MADSEN,  GRIGORYEVA  CONTAIN  OF  MUCH  INNER  ACTIVE  OF E N Z Y M E S ,  SUCCINATE-CYTOCHROME  C  (1968)  LIPO-PROTEIN  MITOCHONDRIA.  D I D NOT A P P E A R  THE A C T I V I T Y  OF THE V I T A M I N  OL I V E I RA E_T _AL .  A L L THE ENZYMATICALLY  THE  SPECIES  OF HEART. AND K I D N E Y  ( W l S S _ET _ A L . , 1 9 6 2 ) .  TRANSPORT  OF T I S S U E  1963).  A DEFINITE  MITOCHONDRIA  IN  TO  R O D E R U C K _ET _ A L . , 1 9 4 9 ;  SHOWED  E AND  SHOWN  1942A,B,C;  ROSENKRANTZ  MG O F P R O T E I N  VITAMIN  1934J  OF V I T A M I N  CONSUMPTION  DEFICIENCY  FROM V A R I O U S  AS THE E X P E R I M E N T A L  CONSUMPTION  TISSUES  THE TYPE  BIRD_ET_AL.,  NO E F F E C T  SLICES  OXYGEN  WITH  (VICTOR,  1943;  OF  HAS B E E N  AND M A T T I L L ,  MUSCLE.  LIVER  VARIES  REPORTED  PAPPENHE IMER,  PIGS  DEFICIENCY  CONSUMPTION  BEEN  1941;  E  CONSUMPTION  TO  HAVE  E  PRESENT  FOUND  A DIRECT  THEY  AS CYTOCHROME  REDUCTASES.  MITOCHONDRIA  TO  OF THE  BE P R E S E N T  ELECTRON  DEMONSTRATED  QUANTITATIVE  SUCH  CELLS  TOCOPHEROL  COMPLEXES  FURTHER,  IN  OXIDASE, CONTAIN  THAT  RELATIONSHIP NADH-  ABOUT  25$  AND  ,  LIPID  -  11  (SWANSON 90$  is  AND  ARTOM,  PHOSPHOLIPID.  (FLEISCHER"AND SALKIN LIVER  AND AND  CATALYZED  KIDNEY BY  A  SHOWN  VITAMIN  MITOCHONDRIA  OF  INNER  TO  M Y E L I N - F I G U R E - L I KE CHONDRIAL  DENSE  IN  IN  IN  THE AN  PERMEABILITY,  MUSCLE  FURTHER, HAS  CRISTAE,  FORMATION AND  OF  1970).  OCCURS  IN  PEROXIDATION CONTAINED  OF  YOUNG  VAN  VLEET  MITOCHONDRIAL  IS  STUDY  CHICKS ET  DEPLETED,  RESULTING  THE  IN  MICROSCOPIC  BEEN  WITH  THAN MEMBRANE  AND L E S L I E ,  LIPID  ELECTRON  GREATER  MITOCHONDRIAL  CYTOCHROMES  PEROXIDATION OF  AND  PEROXIDATION  VITAMIN.E  FRAGMENTATION  RESULTED.  VIVO  1966).  WHICH  THE  CHAPMAN  SKELETAL  MEMBRANOUS P R O F I L E S ,  GRANULES  IN  RABBITS.  1959B).  LIPID  UNSATURATED  1967j  AS  (CHEVILLE,  UNDERWENT  MEMBRANE  SUCH  ALTERATIONS  TISSUE  MEMBRANES.  ALTERED  ZALKIN,  DIET  THAT  THAT  IS  OCCURS  DEFICIENT  AND  MUSCLE  DUE  E  (TAPPEL  SUGGESTED  WHICH LIPID  REPORTED  COMPOUNDS,  (1968)  THE  THE  HEMATIN  DEFICIENT  OF  FLEISCHER,  VITAMIN  MITOCHONDRIAL E  OF  1965j  (i960) OF  MUCH  MOST  ROUSER,  TAPPEL  MITOCHONDRIA HAS  1950),  AL• SKELETAL  DESTRUCTION SWELLING  1 NTRAM I T O C H O N D R I A L  ACCUMULATION  OF  FED  I NTRAM I TO-  EXPERIMENT 1  THYROIDAL  TWO  VITAMIN FED  E  RESPONSE  EXPERIMENTS  IN  NORMAL  RELATION  AND  TO  EXCESS  TEMPERATURES.  THE  WERE  TO  EXCESS  CONDUCTED  THYROID  LEVELS  OF  GOITROGENIC  TO  DIETARY  STUDY  ACTIVITY. VITAMIN  EFFECT  E  OF  |N AND  VITAMIN  E  THE  EFFECTS  ONE  EXPERIMENT,-  WERE  OF  SUBJECTED  THIOURACIL  WAS  EXCESS  CHICKS  TO  WERE  DIFFERENT  MEASURED.  |N  A  ,131 SECOND  EXPERIMENT,  THE  RATES  CHICKS  WITH  AND  EXCESS  NORMAL  OF  I  UPTAKE  INTAKE  .  EXPERIMENT  EIGHTY DISTRIBUTED BROODERS.  DAY-OLD  AT THE  RANDOM  WAS  STARTED  MALE  WHITE  INTO  3  CONSTITUENTS  IN  GROUPS OF  A  RECEIVED  ONLY  GROUP  B  RECEIVED  AN  GROUP  C  RECEIVED  THE  BASAL  TEMPERATURE  WAS  THERMOSTATICALLY  DIETS  1,2  AND  WATER  WERE  BASAL  BASAL  EXCESS  FED  AD  D I H YD R 0 - 6 - E T H 0 X Y - 2 ,  2,  DIET  VITAMIN DIET  E  PLUS  CHICKS  1969. WERE  ELECTRICALLY  EXPERIMENTAL  WING-BANDED HEATED  DIET  IS  SHOWN  SUPPLEMENTARY  LEVEL  220  OF  ETHOXYQUIN^ CONTROLLED  I.U. (EQ) AT  PER AT  22°C.  AND  BATTERY  (WITHOUT  METHYLQUINOLINE.  12  IN  1A  LIBITUM.  4-TRI  COMPARED  E.  NOVEMBER,  IN  WERE  METHODS  LEGHORN  GROUP  ROOM  THE  AND  RELEASE  VITAMIN  EXPERIMENT  MATERIALS THIS  OF  AND  IN  TABLE  VITAMIN  E),  KG.  OF  DIET  0.25$  OF  THE  THE  1A.  AND DIET.  EXPERIMENTAL  13  AT 24  23  CHICKS  FROM  ACCORDING OF  THE  DAYS  TO  THE  OF.  AND  CHICKS  BEFORE  WAS  ARE  HOT  EXPERIMENT SUBGROUP ON  0.1$  AS  OF  THE  SELECTED  BY  A  BODY OF  DIVIDED THE  IN  WAS  THE  WEIGHTS  THE INTO  COLD  THE  WAS  IN  3  2  ORDER  SUBGROUPS  AT  TO  WERE  FOR  THE  HOT  AND  FOR  VARIATIONS  THE  AND  WAS  THE  CHAMBERS  THE  AMONG  CHAMBER  31.5°C.  WEIGHED  PROCEDURE  REDUCE  CHICKS  ENVIRONMENTAL CHAMBER  GROUPS  SYSTEMATIC  EXPERIMENTAL  ENVIRONMENTAL  GROUPS.  COLD  REGULATED  VARIOUS 2  3  DAYS  AT  GROUPS ADAPTATION  STARTED. DIVIDED  ORIGINAL  THIOURACIL  SUMMARIZED  BIRDS  ENVIRONMENTAL  PLACED  MAINTAINED  RECEIVED  WAS  THE  WERE  WEIGHTS  CHAMBERS.  WERE  EACH  ALL  GROUP  BODY  THE  THE  AGE,  INDIVIDUAL  GROUP  ENVIRONMENTAL 14.5°C  EACH  INITIAL EACH  OF  ( TU )  FOLLOWS:  INTO  2  LOTS  EXPERIMENTAL IN  THE  OF  6  DIET  CHICKS AND  EXPERIMENTAL  EACH.  THE  ONE  OTHER  DIET.  THE  LOT  LOT TREATMENTS  .  EXPERI MENTAL  P E S I GN EXCESS  EXCESS BASAL  Vi T A M I N E  +JJJ  E  EQ EQ  +TU  14.5°C  6*  6  6  6  6  6  31.5°C  6  6  6  6  6  6  *NUMBER THE A  TU  VITAMIN  OF  CHICKS.  TEMPERATURES  RECORDING  THERMOGRAPH.  EXPERIMENTAL  PERIOD  WERE  AND  WEIGHED  IN  WAS  KILLED.  THE FEED  14  2  CONSUMPTION  DAYS. THE  ENVIRONMENTAL  AT  THYROID  THE  WAS  END  GLANDS  OF  CHAMBERS ALSO THE  WERE  WERE  RECORDED  RECORDED. EXPERIMENT,  REMOVED  AND  BY  THE ALL  CHICKS  WEIGHED.  14  EXPERIMENT  THIS  EXPERIMENT  TREATMENTS  WERE  POPULATION  (15  THE SAME  1B,  WITHOUT  BIRDS.  BECAUSE  ADEQUATE  IN EACH  THE DIETS CALCIUM  AND  THE R E S U L T S  3.  AVERAGE IN  BOTH  BODY  WEIGHT  THAN  THOSE  IS  1950;  JOINER  IN  ASTWOOD, TO  WITH  1943).  1955;  TURN,•DEPENDENT ANIMAL. THE  PRESENT  THYROXINE  BROWN-GRANT,  SECRETION  VARIES 1957).  IN THE  A S SHOWN  AC C I D E N T L Y  UNDER  STANDARD  THE 14.5°C  CHAMBER  IN  FORMULATED  THYROID WITH  TSH OUTPUT  TO  IN  GLAND  AND S H A F F N E R ,  RESPONSE  INCREASES  IN  OF S E C R E T I O N  THYROXINE GLAND  TREATMENTS  TO A  RESPONSE  OF TSH  OF TSH i s , IS  TO  BE A N I N D I C A T I O N  THE EXPERIMENTAL  RESULT  ( D E M P S E Y AND  OF S E C R E T I O N  OF THE T H Y R O I D  CONSIDERED  THIS  CHAMBER  1962).  THE RATE  AT WHICH  2  P E R 100 G M .  ENVIRONMENTAL  (HOFFMANN  WEIGHT  THE RATE  TABLES  DEVIATION.  (P sgO.05).  FINDINGS  _ET _ A L . ,  IN  OF THE C H I C K S  BY THE THYROID  RATE  THE RESPONSE IS  IN  BY ENHANCING  OF W H I C H  THE NORMAL  EXPERIMENTS  LARGER  (22°C)  MODIFIED  1A WERE  WEIGHTS  REPORTED  OF THYROXINE  OF T H I O U R A C I L  ACCORDINGLY  WAS A L S O  ± SAMPLE  GREATER  GOITER  THE EXTENT  UPON  OF  1A AND 1B A R E S U M M A R I Z E D  1957; HUSTON  CAUSES  THE S Y N T H E S I S  EXCEPTION  AND THE  DISCUSSION  THE THYROID  PREVIOUSLY  AND HUSTON,  THE FEEDING  (BARKER,  AND  ARE EXPRESSED  SIGNIFICANTLY  THIOURACIL BLOCK  DIET  I N T H E 31 . 5 ° C E N V I R O N M E N T A L  IN AGREEMENT  THE PROCEDURE  SUPPLEMENTATION.  EXPERIMENTS,  WERE  1A WITH  FED IN EXPERIMENT  FOR E X P E R I M E N T S  VALUES  1970.  LOT AND TEMPERATURE  THE BASAL  RESULTS  .  IN JULY,  AS E X P E R I M E N T  INDIVIDUALS)  ETHOXYQU I N-TREATED TABLE  WAS S T A R T E D  1B  SECRETED  IN BY THE  THIOURACIL OF  THE RATE  IMPOSED,  IN OF  '15  I.E.  DIFFERENT EXCESS  THE  DIET  FIGURES  ENVIRONMENTAL VITAMIN  WITHOUT 1  AND  E  DID  NOT  THIOURACIL  2).  TEMPERATURES  AT  THYROID  EITHER  SIZE  OF  THYROID  ACTIVITY  OR  TSH  OF  TSH  REQUIRED  TO  INCREASE  ARE  THYROXINE  SECRETION  EXCESS CHICKS FED  EXCESS  1  THIOURACIL-TREATED RESPONSE SMALL  WAS  NOT  NUMBERS  OF  E  2).  IN  EXPERIMENT  CONFIRMED  WITH THE  OF  OF  THAN  THAT  ACT I V  A  SIZE  OF  (TABLES  IS  OF  THE 2  VITAMIN CHICKS  AND  SENSITIVE  KNOWN  THAT  THAN  IS  NEEDED  WEIGHT  OF  THE  E.  FED  3, PARAMETER  HIGHER TO  LEVELS  INCREASE  LOW  IN  FED  (P ^  FED  THE  THYROID  VITAMIN  THE  OF  IN  VITAMIN  SHOWN  CHICKS  THE  CHICKS THE  IN  AND  MAY  THE  EXPERIMENT  THE OF  EXCESS  VITAMIN  HAVE  OF  THIS  VITAMIN IT  WAS, SECOND  E  WAS  VITAMIN  E  B E E N DUB TO  DIFFERENCE  TABLE 5 .  INDIRECTLY  DID  DIFFERENCE  LEVELS IN  THAN  RESULTS  1A.  FED  WITHOUT E  4)  EXPERIMENT.  AS  DIETS  THE  (TABLE  DIFFERENT  THE  THIOURACIL-TREATED  E.  EXPERIMENT  THE  THIOURACIL-TREATED  RESPONSE  POPULATION.  0.01)  THE  EXCESS  1A,  SIGNIFICANT  SECRETION  CHICKS  THYROID  E  IN WAS  CONCLUDED WAS  LESS  SUPPLEMENTATION  DEPRESSED  THYROID  ITY.  BASED  THYROXINE  MUSCLE  TSH  CONSEQUENCE,  ONE WAS  THE  LARGER  CHICKS  THE  AS  IT  SIZE  LESSER  EVIDENCE  THAT  AND  FED  A  SIGNIFICANT  THE  A  EMPLOYED  STATISTICALLY  IN  LEVELS  PARTICULARLY  RATE.  EXPERIMENT  EXHIBITED  CHICKS  REPEATED  RATE  A  THYROID  AFFECT  STATISTICALLY  RESPONSE  THYROID  TEMPERATURE  NOT  SECRETION  DID  CHICKS  THEREFORE,  THYROIDAL  E  AND  VITAMIN  IS  THE  DIETARY  RATE.  VITAMIN  (FIGURES  AFFECT  AND  HYPOTHESIS ON  THE  LEVEL  (GALTON  FACT DUE  TO  CONSIDERED THAT  LOW  THYROID  VITAMIN  INCREASED  AND HlNGBAR,  FOR  E  CAUSED  PERIPHERAL  1965).  RESPONSE  GALTON  A  TO  DIETARY  DECREASE  D E I O D I N A TI ON  A N D HlNGBAR  IN  IN  CIRCULATING  THE  (1965)  VITAMIN  LIVER  OBSERVED  AND  E  BASAL  EXCESS vITAMIN  E  0.25$ ETHOXYQUIN  31  14.5°C WITHOUT FIG.  1.  THYROID  31.5 C  IN  DIET  U  THIOURACIL  AND/OR  14.5 C THE  RESPONSE  OF  ETHOXYQUIN  TEMPERATURES  IN  TO  CHICKS  WITH RECEIVING  THIOURACIL  EXPERIMENT  31 . 5 ^  14.5°C  U  1A.  AT  TWO  THIOURACIL LEVELS  DIFFERENT  OF  IN  14.5 C U  THE  VITAMIN  AMBIENT  31 .5°C  DIET E  17 50 BASAL  EXCESS vITAMiN  E  0.25$ ETHOXYQU1N 40  30  20  10  14.5°C  31,5°C  WITHOUT FIG.  2.  THIOURACIL  THYROIDAL AND/OR  22°C IN  THE  RESPONSE  ETHOXYQUIN  TEMPERATURES  IN  OF TO  31.5°C  14.5°C  DIET  WITH  CHICKS  RECEIVING  THIOURACIL  EXPERIMENT  1B.  AT  THIOURACIL TWO  LEVELS  DIFFERENT  22°C  IN OF  AMBIENT  THE  DIET  VITAMIN  E  18  THAT  DE10DINATI0N  OF T H Y R O X I N E  LIVERS  FROM  EITHER  ADM I N I S T E R E D  GREATLY AND  VITAMIN  DECREASED  VITAMIN  E  ACTION  LIPIDS  OF  OF  OF  OR  OR A F R E E  I  HE  IN  SEVERAL  CASS,  THAT  I  ,  THYROXINE  EVEN  (1966)  FUNCTIONS  PEROXIDATION  ION  (FE  IT  ),  OF  IS  OF  IN  TOCOPHEROL,  VITRO,  IN  BOTH  NORMAL  FOR THE M E C H A N I S M  ASSOCIATES  DEGRADED OR A L L O F  OXYGEN  (ROSENBERG  WITH  BY A FREE THE  THE  RADICAL  IODINE  IN THE  TISSUES  SUGGESTED  THE M E M B R A N E ,  AS PART  OF  HAVE  OF FROM  THAN  THE  LIPIDS  SHOWN  THAT  INITIAL  POTENT  PROPERTIES  E  HE  1968A).  MEMBRANE.  T H E A N T I OX I DAT I ON R E A C T I O N THYROXINE  IS  IN  (1968A,B)  IN  ON IODINE  DEMONSTRATED C A P A B L E OF MEMBRANE  CASH  ET A L .  PREVENTING WYNN  THE  (1968A)  THE PRESENCE  ITSELF  ELECTRICAL  OF T H E HORMONE  FURTHER  OF T H Y R O X I N E  IN MITOCHONDRIAL  THE  THE MICROSOMAL  (WYNN,  WITH  OR A L L O F T H E  ANTIOXIDANT,  FROM  ION,  PHYSICAL,  OF WYNN  METABOLISM  THE P L A S M A .  DERIVED  THE  SO THAT  SOME  1968;  A POSITIVE  MAY INTERACT  THE S T U D I E S  VITAMIN  AND P H O S P H O L I P I D ,  THAT  CHANGING  THESE  AS AN E X T R E M E L Y OF L E C I T H I N  AND J E N D R A S I A K ,  THE THYROXINE  DECREASED.  THE A N T I O X I D A N T  DURING  FROM  RAT L I V E R  OF P H O S P H O L I P I D S  THAT  IS  OF SOME  PROPERTIES  CONCENTRATIONS  REPORTED  SHOWN  TARGET  PEROXIDATION  LOWER  HAS  IN  RELEASED  REACHES  A THEORY  THYROXINE  HAD P R E V I O U S L Y  RELEASED  CHEMICAL  DEGRADATION  PREVENTING AT  THAT  INVESTIGATORS  1968)  OF THE MEMBRANE  IS  HOMOGENATES  PROPOSED  WHEREUPON  AND CHOLESTEROL  THYROXINE  DOSES  / .  RESISTANCE  IT  SUGGESTS  THE R E L E A S E  AND/OR  AFTER  TISSUE  LARGE  OF MUSCLE AND  D E IOD I N A T I N G A C T I V I T Y  HAS R E C E N T L Y  STRUCTURAL  OF  TO  OR M U S C U L A R  MEMBRANE,  RADICAL  PHOSPHOLIPIDS  THYROXINE  OR A D D E D  HOMOGENATES  AND THAT  0  I  F l NDELSTE IN "AND I  (1970)  RESULTING  ANIMALS  IN  RATS.  THYROXINE.  + FORM  IN V I V O  DEFICIENT  THE CELL  MECHANISM,  DEFICIENT  HEPATIC  GRUENSTEIN OF  E  V/AS I N C R E A S E D  OF  D E G R A D E D ^ TO  METAL  19  RELEASE  ITS  BIOLOGICAL THAT AND  IODINE.  ANTIOXIDANT.  EXCESS  VITAMIN  D E I O D I A N T I ON  DEPRESSION WHICH THE  OF  LEVEL  OF  SECRETION  OF  THAT  OF  MAY  THE  IS  RATE  TREATED  AND  RATES  THYROID  RESPIRATION  IN  BIRDS  OF  IN  OR  TURNOVER  ON  THE  OF  OTHER  WHICH  HORMONE  FED  FROM  THYROXINE  DIMINISHED  VITAMIN  ITS.  A  EXPERIMENTS  RETARDED. REDUCE  CIRCULATION, AND,  BE  SUGGEST  ANTIOXIDANT  BE  THEN  BY  CAUSE,  FUNCTION THE  THE  RATE  AT  THUS  MAINTAINING  THEREFORE,  SUPPRESSING  SIMILAR  TEMPERATURES.  IN  BIRDS  TH I S  ON  SHOULD  VITAMIN  E  CAN  |T  IS  INTERESTING  FOR  AND  EXCESS  RESULTS  TREATMENTS  SUGGEST BE  LOW  THESE  BOTH  THAT  INDICATE  DESPITE  TISSUE  MAINTAINED  THAT  THE  THAT  WAS  WITH  A  REDUCED  METABOLIC  DEIODINATION  RATE  IS  CONSEQUENCE  SOME  THAT 2  OTHER  EXPLANATION  ACTIVITY  IS  0.25$  EXERTED  AND  6,  EQ  RATE  OF  EFFECT  OF  PRIOR  WAS  ACCELERATED FOR  THE  INJECTION  TO  STIMULATION  ACTIVITY OF  RESULTS  FOLLOWING  STIMULATED  PEAK A  THE  CALORIGENIC  FOUND  RATE  BASAL  REPORTED  TIME  THYROID  (TABLES  OF  THEY  METABOLIC  THEN  REDUCING  (1965)  DISSOCIATION  AND  THE  IN  RESPONSE  WERE  A N B A R _ET _ A L .  BASAL  E  THYROIDAL  TWO  EXCESS  DEIODINATION THE  AT  DEIODINATION.  OF  THAN  THE  CONSUMPTION  INDICATED  DEIODINATION  RATHER  COULD  CIRCULATION  SIMILAR  HAND,  RATS,  INCREASED  IN  TO  THYROXINE.  TO  |F  PRESENT  THEREFORE,  FROM  ACTIVITY.  THYROXINE  LARGELY  THE  THYROXINE  MIGHT,  THE  KEPT  WERE  IN  THYROID  OF  OF. THYROXINE  FEED  BIRDS  DIFFERENCES  EXPERIMENTS  REPLACE  REMOVED  HORMONE  GENERALLY'CONSIDERED  TSH.  METABOLIC  SUPPLY  IS  RESULTS  THYROXINE  HORMONE  GROWTH E  E  THE  DEIODINATION  THYROID  VITAMIN  V I TAMI N E  THE  HAD  OBSERVED. RESPIRATION  EFFECT  OF  NECESSARY.  FIGURES  1  A  GREAT  AND  2),  EFFECT BUT  THE  ON  THE  REVERSE  20  EFFECT AND  OF THAT  EQ ARE A N T I O X I D A N T S .  1968). IS  WAS O B T A I N E D  THE MECHANISM  WITH  AT  EXCESS  A LEVEL  BY WHICH  EQ  VITAMIN  OF 0 . 2 5 $  INCREASES  E,  EQ  ALTHOUGH  IS  TOXIC  BOTH  VITAMIN  (MARCH  ET A L . ,  THE G O I T R O G E N I C I T Y  OF  E  THIOURACIL  OBSCURE.  EXPERIMENT  1c  ,131 THIS RELEASE  EXPERIMENT  BY THE THYROID  CONTAINING  WAS D E S I G N E D GLAND  TO S T U D Y  IN CHICKS  LOW A N D E X C E S S I V E  LEVELS  COMPOSITION  SUPPLEMENTATION WHITE ONE  LEGHORN  HUNDRED.  VITAMIN GROUPS  E  MALE  CHICKS  ONE G R O U P  WEIGHED  DISTRIBUTED  WERE  DIET  DIET.  AS  CONTROLLED  SYSTEMICALLY  DISTRIBUTED  AT 23 DAYS  AT  DIETS  TWO H U N D R E D  RANDOM  INTO  AT 22-23°C.  THE  FROM ROOM  EACH  DAY-OLD OF  GROUP THE  GROUP  O F T H E TWO WERE  T E M P E R A T U R E WAS  40 C H I C K S  OF 8 C H I C K S  E  TWO G R O U P S  AND THE OTHER  AND 40 C H I C K S  LOTS  OF V I T A M I N  OF A G E , A L L THE B I R D S  1A.  5  1B.  DIET,  IN E X P E R I M E N T  INTO  UPTAKE AND  E.  IN EXPERIMENT  INDIVIDUALLY  I  TO F E E D I N G  AND THE L E V E L  WAS F E D T H E B A S A L  SYSTEMATICALLY  THERMOSTATICALLY  AS  OF  AND METHODS  OF THE BASAL  THE SAME  SUPPLEMENTED  WERE  SELECTED  WERE  IN RESPONSE  OF V I T A M I N  MATERIALS  THE  THE RATES  EACH.  OF E A C H  GROUP  THE CHICKS  WERE  WERE  1 31 INJECTED SALINE FROM  SOLUTION.  EACH  THYROIDS GLANDS  INTRAVENOUSLY  GROUP  REMOVED  WITH  FlVE, WERE  10,  0.225 24,  WEIGHED.  AND W E I G H E D .  WAS M E A S U R E D  WITH  JiCI  OF  I  4 8 A N D 96 THE  CHICKS  T  J31  THE  I  A DEEP-WELL  IN 0 . 4 5 M L OF HOURS WERE  AFTER THEN  SCINTILLATION  INJECTION,  KILLED  RADIOACTIVITY  PHYSIOLOGICAL 8  CHICKS  AND T H E I R  OF E A C H  DETECTOR.  PAIR  OF  MEASUREMENTS  21  OF AND  RADIOACTIVITY  WERE  RADIOACTIVE  DECAY.  THE DOSE,  THE  STANDARD 500 A  ML.  1 ML.  CORRECTED  CORRECTED  COUNTS  RADIOACTIVITY WAS  OF  PREPARED  BY  PHYSIOLOGICAL  ALIQUOT  OF  THIS  OF  FOR  WERE  EXPRESSED  WHICH  WAS  DILUTING SALINE  COINCIDENCE  5  A  DETERMINED ML.  OF  SOLUTION.  SOLUTION  AS  USING  A  THE  LOSS,  BACKGROUND  P E R C E N T A G E OF FROM  A  THE  STANDARD.  INJECTION  RADIOACTIVITY  SOLUTION  RADIATION  INJECTED THE INTO  WAS M E A S U R E D  DEEP-WELL SCINTILLATION  IN  DETECTOR.  ,131 THE  PERCENT  I  UPTAKE  WAS  EXPRESSED  PER  BIRD  AND. P E R M G .  OF  THYROID  GLAND.  RESULTS  THYROIDAL  RADIOACTIVITY  AND D I S C U S S I O N  AT D I F F E R E N T  TIMES  AFTER  ADMINISTRATION  OF  i 3i I OF  A R E SHOWN EXPRESSING  THYROID  IN TABLE THYROIDAL  GLAND)  7 AND IN F I G U R E S  3 A N D 4..  REGARDLESS  RADIOACTIVITY  (.WHETHER  INDICATE  THE A C T I V I T Y  THE DATA  THAT  PER BIRD  OF THE  METHOD  OR P E R M G . O F  OF T H E T H Y R O I D  GLAND  IS  ,131 DEPRESSED GLAND 10  IN  BIRDS  OF C H I C K S  HOURS  BETWEEN  AFTER  ON AND  24  INJECTION RECEIVING  AFTER  P E R M G . OF  E.  THE L E V E L S  VITAMIN  THAN  IN  E WERE  THE R E S P E C T I V E  INJECTION THYROID  AFTER  PER BIRD  WHEN  CALCULATED  TISSUE.  I  IN  WHEN  THE  OF V I T A M I N INJECTION  A N D WERE  TO 2 4  E  5 AND  WERE  WHEN  OF  HOURS  THYROID  DIFFERENCES  CALCULATED  SIGNIFICANT  ON T H E B A S I S  SUBSEQUENT  THE  MEASURED  _  CHICKS.  LEVELS  UPTAKE  OF  LOWER  THE CONTROL  A T 5 A N D 10 H O U R S  OF R A D I O I O D I N E  HOURS  UPTAKE  .131  I  SIGNIFICANT  THE B A S I S  VITAMIN  FED SUPPLEMENTARY  THE CHICKS  STATISTICALLY  FED EXCESS  AT 5 ,  10  RADIOIODINE  AFTER  INJECTION  ,131 TIME,  THERE  WAS A R A P I D  DECLINE  WHEREAS  THE LOSS  VITAMIN  E WAS NOT S I G N I F I C A N T .  IN  OF R A D I O A C T I V I T Y  THYROIDAL FROM  THIS  I  IN  THE THYROID  EXPERIMENT  THE CONTROL  OF THE B I R D S  CONFIRMS  THE  BIRDS FED E X C E S S  PREVIOUS  131 FINDINGS UPTAKE  (VALENTI  BY THE THYROID  INJECTION |N NORMAL AND  AND BOTTARE L L I , GLAND  OF AN E X C E S S I V E THIS  IODINE  METABOLISM  WAS R E D U C E D  LEVEL  EXPERIMENT,  0.5$ IN  R O S E N B E R G _ET _ A L . ( 1 9 6 4 )  1965;  IN MAMMALS  OF V I T A M I N IODIZED  THE THYROID HAVE  D U R A N D _E_T _ A L , . ,  GIVEN  A  THAT  I  SUBCUTANEOUS  E.  SALT  WAS A D D E D  GLAND.  DEMONSTRATED  22  1966)  TO  KOBAYASHI IN  RATS  THE D I E T  TO  ENABLE  AND GORBMAN  (1960)  AND C H I C K S  THAT  THE  .131 PERCENT  *  CO m  i  "n  — m "n  H  PI -ol  t~  m SD I O 33 Z > n o X — o co • V  O "n n X o m CO CO  o n -l > -<  < — —i  > 2 z m  o z -1 I -< 33 O —  > (-  o o z m  ,—.  CO  c "0  H >  > Z o 33 m r~ m > CO  m  £2  n: o c 3 3 CO > H  n 33 —  _>  CO  — —  zCn o H  O z  1  OF  INJECTED  I  IN  THYROID  GLAND  t/2  25  TIME  OF  KOBAYASHI DIET  ,131 I  PEAK AND  UPTAKE  INFLUENCED  BY  (I960)  HAVE  SHOWN  THAT  RADIOACTIVITY  FELL  RAPIDLY  GORBMAN  THYROIDAL  R O S E N B E R G _ET _ A L .  (1964)  WAS  FOUND  THAT  IN  THE  LEVEL  IN  AFTER  COCKERELS  OF  CHICKS  DIETARY FED  REACHING FED  AN  A  A  LOW  PEAK  IODIDE  IODINE. IODINE AT  6  HOURS.  SUPPLEMENTED  131 DIET, 12  AVERAGE  HOURS  MAXIMAL  AFTER  I  UPTAKE  INJECTION  AND  A  OF  VERY  1 3 $ OF LONG  THE  INJECTED  RETENTION  OF  DOSE  WAS  THYROIDAL  REACHED RADIOIODIDE  OCCURED. THE  RESULTS  IODINE  UPTAKE  CHICKS  FED  EXCESS  EXPERIMENTS INDICATED  AND  1A,  THAT  E  FED  OF  TSH  THIS  EXPERIMENT,  IODINE  VITAMIN  AND  1C. P R O V I D E S 'D I R E C T VITAMIN  OF  B,  E,  EVIDENCE •  BY  THE  SUBSTANTIATE  WHEREAS  SECRETION  CHICKS.  RELEASE  WHICH  IN  SHOWED  THYROID THE  EXPERIMENT  THAT  BOTH  GLAND  ARE  CONCLUSIONS 1,  HOWEVER,  WAS  REDUCED  IN  THAT  THYROID  S E C R E T I ON  RATES  DEPRESSED  OF IN  OF THE  HYPERVITAMINOSIS RATE  THE  IS  DATA E,  LESS  EXPERIMENT IN  EXCESS  EXPERIMENT  RESPIRATION  THE MUSCLE AND  EXPERIMENT  MITOCHONDRIA  EXCESS  LEVELS  RATE  MUSCLE  FED  EXCESS  WAS  DESIGNED  FROM  OF  OF  NORMAL  VITAMIN  GROUPS BASAL  IN  DAY-OLD  MALE  ELECTRICALLY  DIET  WHILE  2200  |.U.  OF  EACH  G R O U P WERE  THE  TO  AND  THE  THIOURACIL.  FIFTEEN  THE  MUSCLE  PECTORAL  PREPARATION  OF  100  ML  VLRTIS  OF  AND  BATTERY  ACETATE  LATER,  CONSUMPTION CHICKS  FED  OF NORMAL  METHODS  CHICKS  FED  THE  PER  KG.  DIET  THE  WERE  BROODERS.  WITH  CHICKS  IMMEDIATELY  1 5 GM OF  AND  UNBROKEN CELLS  600  X G  AT  FOR  REMOVED AT  THE  FROM  DISTRIBUTED  THE  BASAL  THE  CONTROLS  DIET  AFTER  THE  INTO  ADDITION OLD)  ISOLATION  OF  THE  WITH  1 5 CHICKS  OF  0 . 1 $ OF  WERE OF  TWO  RECEIVED  SUPPLEMENTED  4 0 DAYS,  ( 5 5 DAYS  0-4°C  7 0 FOR  BY  TWO  (AZ Z ONE  WAS  CHICK THEN  TRIS-KC1  OF  26  EACH  TISSUE  C H A P P E L L - PERRY  A SETTING  WERE  1 0 MINUTES  MUSCLE  SOLUTION.  ICE-CHILLED  HOMOGENIZER  FOR  OXYGEN  KILLED  AND  MITOCHONDRIA.  MITOCHONDRIA  0 . 1 5 M KC1  THE  THE  CHICKS  E  THIOURAC I L - T R E A T E D  G R O U P WAS  EXCISED  STUDY  LEGHORN  RESPECTIVE  DAYS  APPROXIMATELY ICE-CHILLED  HEATED  DL-OL-TOCOPHERYL FED  VITAMIN  FROM  E.  WHITE  OTHER  MITOCHONDRIA  DIETARY  MATERIALS  SIXTY  I I  WAS  HOMOGENIZED  MEDIUM  4 5 SECONDS.  SUCCESSIVE E_T _AL . ,  IMMERSED  (1954),  WITH USING  MYOFIBRILS,  CENTRIFUGATIONS  1961).  IN  THE  FINAL  A  NUCLEI AT  27  SUPERNATANT 0-4°C.  WAS T H E N  THE MITOCHONDRIA  ISOLATION WAS  FLUID  MEDIUM  RINSED  WITH  MITOCHONDRIA  CENTRIFUGED  WERE  AND RECENTRI FUGED  8500  TWICE  PER M L .  THE PROTEIN  AT 8 5 0 0  DETERMINED  BY THE B I U R E T  THE  SUSPENSION  WITH  WAS U S E D  CONTENT  METHOD  0 . 5 $ SODIUM  AS A STANDARD  X G FOR 1 0 M I N U T E S  BY RESUSPENSION X G.  0 . 1 5 M KC1 A T A C O N C E N T R A T I O N  WAS  ALBUMIN  WASHED  AT  THE MITOCHONDRIAL  JET _AL . ,  SUSPENSION  1 9 4 9 )AFTER  CRYSTALLINE  A CALIBRATION  CURVE  PELLET  3 M G . OF  OF T H E M I T O C H O N D R I A L  DEOXYCHOLATE. TO P L O T  IN THE  OF A P P R O X I M A T E L Y  (G0RNAL  AT  CLEARING  BOVINE FOR  SERUM  PROTEIN  ESTIMATIONS.  OXYGEN  UPTAKE  BY  MITOCHONDRIA  RESPIRATION TECHNIQUE  OF M I T O C H O N D R I A  ( U M B R I E T _E_T _A_L . ,  WITH S O M E MOD I F 1 C A T I O N . 50  MM C Y T O C H R O M E  YEAST  HEXOKINASE  CYTOCHROME PERIOD  WARBURG  VESSEL.  MIXTURE.  THE  1965).  (CHAPPEL  IMMEDIATELY  OF  (SlGMA  AFTER  V).  ALL FLASKS ADDITION  1954). WERE  EQUILIBRATED  OF  LIQUID AT 3 0 ° C  OF 1 ML OF THE M I T O C H O N D R I A  WAS A T 3 0 ° C  ALL DETERMINATIONS UPTAKE  IN THE MEDIUM  THE TOTAL  WITH WERE  OF THE MITOCHONDRIA  OXYGEN  OF A Z Z O N E  HE X O K I N A S E AND  DURING  INCUBATION  MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME FOR 5  WAS 3 ML P E R MINUTES  TO T H E  IN D U P L I C A T E  WAS M E A S U R E D  (PH7 . 5 ) ,  AND 0 . 3 3 M G .  AS THE GAS PHASE  PERFORMED  (1961 )  O(-KETO-GLUTARATE,  OF G L U C O S E ,  FOR P R E V E N T I O N  MANOMETRIC  BUFFER  3 0 MM G L U C O S E  THE A D D I T I O N  A T P WAS U S E D  WAS T H A T  2 5 MM T R I S  ( P H 7 . 5 ) , 0 . 0 1 MM  THE RESPIRATION  AND P E R R Y ,  INCUBATION  2 HOURS. OXYGEN  TYPE  BY THE WARBURG  USED  CONTAINED  1 MM A T P ( o I - N A - S A L T ) ,  C CAN STIMULATE  (HEDMAN,  SWELLING  C,  THE MEDIUM  VESSEL  2 0 MM P I  2  0.02  1959).  EACH  MM K C 1 , 6 MM M G C L ,  WAS M E A S U R E D  REACTION FOR A  OR  AT 3 0 M I N U T E  PERIOD  TRIPLICATE. INTERVALS  FOR  TWO  HOURS.  OXYGEN  UPTAKE  IS  EXPRESSED  AS  UL/MG  OF  MITOCHONDRIAL  PROTEIN/HOUR.  ELECTRON  MICROSCOPIC  A  SMALL  TRANSFERRED MALAMED BUFFER  SAMPLE  INTO  (1963) AT  PH  MITOCHONDRIA  PROPYLENE  ULTRATHIN  A  AND  OF  A  THEN 2  FIXED  REAGGREGATED AFTER THE WERE  HOURS  LEAD  CITRATE  EXAMINED  ACETATE  WITH  FOR A  15  FOR  AT  MADE  4°C A  20  MINUTES  HLTACHI-78  THE  THE PELLET  ALCOHOL IN  EPOXY  MICROSCOPE.  SLURRY IN  5  812  OF  THE  STAINED  ISOTONIC  MINUTES AND  OF FINALLY  (LUFT,  1961).  ON  STAINING  1964)  WAS  OF  SERIES  DOUBLE  AND W A R D ,  1963).  METHOD  AND .MOUNTED  GRIDS.  (STEMPAK  MITOCHONDRIA  V E R ON A L - A C E T A TE  MICROTOME  COPPER  TO  1966).  EMBEDDED  (REYNOLDS, ELECTRON  A  A GRADED  MT-2  MINUTES  WITH  MANAGEABLE  IN  MESH  ISOLATED  ACCORDING  (KAY,  WERE  WITH  200  FRESH  \FO OS 0^  INTO  SAMPLES  THE  TUBE  DEHYDRATION  CARBONED-COLLOD I ON-COATED URANYL  IN  MITOCHONDRIA  OF  MICROCENTRIFUGE  WAS  OXIDE,  MUSCLE  PELLET  FOR  S E C T I ONS  WITH  OF  7.4  CE N TRI FUGAT I O N . IN  STUDY  WAS  FOLLOWED SECTIONS  USED BY  WERE  RESULTS  THE. RESULTS THE  MUSCLE  COMPARED IN  WITH  THE  RATE  HAD  BEEN  THAT  THE  LEVEL  THAT  USED  IN  ACCELERATED  TO  REDUCED OF  WILL  IN  IN  ACTIVITY  PHOSPHOLIPIDS  ROSENBERG IS  I  OR  AND  INCREASED  AND  MAY  THE  MEMBRANE.  NADH  OR  WITH  THE  LOWER  OF  THE  BE  THE  IONIC  RELATIVE  THE  RATE  LEVEL  THE  DURING  1968).  PRIMARY  EITHER  OR  OXYGEN (GREEN  29  ET  THE  _AL. ,  WAS  10  AND  THAT  FED  IN  WITH  THE  IN  A  OR  MAY  THE  OF  CYTOCHROME  THE  TO  RESULT  THE  OF  PLANE  SUCH  CHAIN HAS  WHICH  CONDUCTIVITY,  FROM S U B S T R A T E S  |T  A  1968J  ELECTRONIC  1964).  1.  RESISTANCE,  PARALLEL  TO  A  LOWERING  BE  BE  INTERACTS  CASS,  ELECTRICAL  TO  REDUCTION  EXPERIMENT  DEGRADATION  AND  KNOWN  TIMES  ADMINISTERED  INCREASED  ALONG  NOTED  RESPONSE  THYROXINE,  ELECTRONS  BE  THE  RESULTING  TRANSVERSE  TRANSFER  MEMBRANE  OF  SHOULD  METABOLIC  THAT  (FLNKELSTEIN  ACTION  WHEN  IS  E  LOWERED  E,  RATE  ASSOCIATED  OF  DEPRESSION  EXPERIMENT  DEDUCED  LEVEL  MEMBRANE,  CONDUCTIVITY,  BE  VITAMIN  THE EVEN  RESPIRATION  MAY  CONSUMPTION  OF  8).  IT  IN.THIS  THYROXINE  THIS  LEVEL  (TABLE  VITAMIN  MEMBRANE  MOLECULAR  MITOCHONDRIAL.  OF  OXYGEN  SIGNIFICANT  LIKEWISE  CELLULAR  RESISTANCE  TO  WAS  THE  THIOURACIL.  IT  MITOCHONDRIA  SUCCINATE  WAS  DEFICIENCY,  RELEASED OF  DIET  TISSUE  TO  IN  EXCESSIVE  SUPPLEMENTATION BECAUSE  THE  JENDRASIAK, TO  E  1. E  I  RESISTANCE  POSTULATED  EITHER  OF  WITH  WITH  ELECTRICAL  FEEDING  THE  RESPIRATION  ION,  CONTROL  BY  BE  POSITIVE  THE  FED  E  VITAMIN  DEPRESSION  THE  FED  CHICKS  VITAMIN  VITAMIN E  THE  DECREASE  EXCESS  EXPERIMENT IN  DISCUSSION  SIGNIFICANT  OF  CHICKS  DUE  VITAMIN  THYROID  A  MITOCHONDRIA  RESPIRATION  EXCESS  SHOW  AND  OF  AS  ASSOCIATED  BEEN  SHOWN  30  THAT  PHOSPHOLIPID  SUBMITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE  FOR THE  ACTIVITY  FRACTIONS  OF M I T O C H O N D R I A  FLEISCHER  I,  CONDUCTIVITY  FACILITATE  TRANSFER  SOME  EXTENT  CAUSING  MORE  "SHORT  RAPID  PHOSPHORYLATION. OXYGEN  E  1965).  WITH  A  MITCHONDRIA,  IT ACTIVITY  THE  LESSER  IS OF  WILL  CONCLUDED THYROID  OF  PARTS  OF  OXYGEN  IS  OF  IN  |  +  (1970)  THE  OR  THE  BE  REDUCED  BUT A L S O  TO  THE  THYROXINE  VITAMIN REDUCE  E THE  BY  EITHER  CYTOCHROME,  OR  CHAIN,  OBSERVED  1 963) .  EVEN THUS  AND H L N G B A R ,  IN MEMBRANE BE  OF  MUSCLE  LOWER,  UPTAKE ONLY  INCREASED  EXCESS  (GALTON  WILL  NOT  MAY  TRANSPORT  ( T A T A _ET _AL . ,  AND OXYGEN  THAT,  1962;  U N C O U P L I NG OF  WITH  |° RELEASED  THE  AND M E R O L A ,  THYROXINE  AND PART IAL  PHOSPHOLIPID  IN  SUGGESTED  ELECTRON  AGREEMENT  OF  EXCESS  BRIERLY  CYTOCHROME  D E I 0 0 I NAT I ON OF  THAT  GLAND  FROM  TRANSPORTING REQUIRED  PHOSPHOLIPIDS,  THYROXINE  AMOUNT  CONDUCTIVITY  P H O S P H O R Y L A T I ON . R A T E  THE  WERE  1962;  GRUENSTEIN  OF  ACTION  EFFECT  MAY D E P R E S S  ELECTRON  A N D IV  OF E L E C T R O N S  REDUCTION  CONSUMPTION  VITAMIN  OF  CIRCUIT"  THIS  III  '1964).  I N C RE AS I N G T H E  TO  II,  THE  ( B R I E R L Y _ET _AL . ,  AND F L E I S C H E R ,  THE  OF  IS  DECREASED.  DEPRESSED  RESPIRATION  RATE  THE OF  MUSCLE  MITOCHONDRI A . THE THIS  GROWTH  EXPERIMENT  IS.SUGGESTED EXCESS  ACTIVITY  E  THE  E,  HOWEVER,  RATE  DEPRESSED THE  CHICKS LOWER  ELECTRON  THAN  LEVEL  OF E X P E R I M E N T  NO F U R T H E R  BELOW  FED THE THAT  MAY M A I N T A I N  A CERTAIN  (SEE DISCUSSION  FROM  THE  CHICK  U P TO  VITAMIN IS  OF  WAS M A R K E D L Y  THAT  VITAMIN  RATE  EXCESS  LEVEL  OF  CONTROL  THE  NORMAL  THROUGH 1).  COMPENSATION  RATE  A REDUCTION A LARGE  POSSIBLE  VITAMIN CHICKS.  RESPIRATION  WITH IS  OF  IN  EXCESS AND  E |T  WHEN F E D  THYROID OF  RESPIRATION  NORMAL. MICROGRAPHS,  SWOLLEN  MITOCHONDRIA  WERE  IN  CLEARLY  31  SEEN  IN  VITAMIN  PREPARATIONS  FROM  E  AND  (FIGURES  5  INTACT  MITOCHONDRIA  MAY  DUE  BE  TABLE  8  PERIOD IT  IS  TO  THE  THAT AT  ABOUT  ONE |N  RATE  MUSCLE  SMALL OF  X  NOT  IS  STUDIES THAT  NORMAL  THE  PARTICLES  MITOCHONDRIA  ALTHOUGH 3500  MITOCHONDRIA  X  CONTINUOUSLY  BE  PERRY,  MINUTE  AMOUNT  OF  REVERSED  BY  1954)  THE  MITOCHONDRIA  MIGHT  BE  USING  OBTAINING  MITOCHONDRIAL  YIELD  FRACTION  MITOCHONDRIAL  30-60  THE  INTACT IS  THE  THUS  PREPARATION  SUBMI TOCHONDRI A .  MITOCHONDRIA FOR  OF  AND  SHOWSTHAT WHICH  THE  30  CERTAIN CAN  THE  ORDINARILY  PERIOD  G MITOCHONDRIAL BUT  EQUAL.  MEDIUM.  IN  THE  METHOD  THE  MITOCHONDRIA  IN  P R E P A R A T I O N OF A GOOD  A  OF  NORMAL  MITOCHONDRIA  UNTIL  RESPIRATION  EXCESS  TRIS-KCL  SWELLING  AND  AN  THE  SUCCESSIVE  BE  (CHAPPEL  MICROGRAPH ALSO  METHOD G  ATP  OF  PERRY  NEARLY  IN  MAY  OF  A  THE  DECLINES  SWELLING  OF  AND  FED  SHOWED  APPEARANCE  ARE  0 - 3 0 MINUTES  WITH  INTACT  MINUTES  CHICKS  HOWEVER,  OF  OF  UNDERGO  8500  RATE  MITOCHONDRIA  CONCENTRATIONS  THE  REPORTED  THE  AND  CHAPPEL  PERIOD  ELECTRON  RESPIRATION  RELATIVELY  WERE  THE  CONTAMINATED  (1965)  THAT  INCUBATION  THE  30-60  RESPIRATION  APPEARS  OF*LOW  OBTAINED FOR  THAT  MITOCHONDRIA  APPEARS  WITH  OF  FORMED.  WAS  WASHINGS  SWOLLEN  AND  ATP  MINUTES.  THE  0 - 3 0 MINUTES  THE  THE  7).  CHICKS  SPECIMENS,  RESPIRATION  IT  PRESENCE  SOME  THE  DURING IS  (FIGURE  CONTROL  THAT  REPORTED  PERIODS.  6).  SEVERAL  INDICATES OF  BOTH  |T  FRACTION  MITOCHONDRIA  GOOD.  HEDMAN  REPRESENTED  YIELD  WAS  REDUCED  BY  THIRD. THE  OBSERVED  PRESENT VIZ.  EXPERIMENT,  BONE  FRAGILITY  TWO  ADVERSE  AND  AN  EFFECTS  INCREASE  IN  OF  H Y P E R V I TAM I N O S I S  PROTHROMBIN  TIME.  E  32  FIG.  5.  ELECTRON FED  A  M I C R O G R A P H OF  NORMAL  LEVEL  OF  M I T O C H O N D R I A WAS LOW SUBMITOCHONDRI A .  X  30,000.  BREAST VITAMIN  AND  THE  THE  MUSCLE E.  THE  MITOCHONDRIA  FROM  CONCENTRATION  SUSPENSION CONTAMINATED  SWOLLEN MITOCHONDRIA  WERE  A  CHICK  OF WITH  CLEARLY  SEEN.  33  FIG.  6.  ELECTRON CHICK  CLEARLY  x  M I C R O G R A P H or  FED  EXCESS  SEEN  30,000.  AND  A  VITAMIN THE  SECTION  OF  E.  SWOLLEN MITOCHONDRIA  THE  MUSCLE  MITOCHONDRIA  SUSPENSION CONTAMINATED  WITH  FROM  A  WERE  SUBMITOCHONDRI A  FIG.  7.  ELECTRON r ROM A  M I C R O G R A P H or  CHICK  MITOCHONDRIA. MITOCHONDRIAL  x  36,000.  FED  A  A  SECTION  NORMAL  NO S W E L L I N G  LEVEL  or OF  BREAST VITAMIN  MUSCLE E  MITOCHONDRIA  SHOWING  INTACT  P H E N O M E N O N WAS  SEEN  BUT  THE  S U S P E N S I O N WAS C O N T A M I N A T E D  WITH  SUBMITOCHONDRI A  EXPERIMENT  SYMPTOMS  THIS VITAMIN THERE  E  EXPERIMENT  IN  IS  NO  CHICKS  WITH  CHICKS IN  OBSERVED DIETS  CALCIUM  OF  FED  THE  VIZ.  BONE  IN  THIS  A REPORT  VITAMIN  II,  TWO  EXPERIMENT  THAT  OF  OF  HIGH LEVEL  ANY  THE  OF  EFFECT  WERE  THE  THE OF  BLOOD EXCESS  AT  RANDOM  HEATED  INTO  BATTERY  WHITE 8  LOTS  LEGHORN OF  BROODERS.  25  THE  H A T C H - TO  OF  LONG  TERM  WAS  50  AGE.  DAYS  OF  INCREASE  IN  PROTHROMBIN  THEREFORE,  THE  DEFICIENCY  SLNCE  EXPERIMENT  FORMULATED  TIME.  WITHOUT  EXCESS  CONDUCTED  E  WERE THE  ADEQUATE  POSSIBILITY  AND  EXCESS  CALCIUM.  HYPERVITAMINOSIS  FOR OF  RELATED  EITHER THE  E  AND  CHICKS  CHICKS  EACH  A  (MELLETE ON  BONE  OF  AN  VITAMIN  E  IN  OR AND  REVEALED  VITAMIN LEONE,  CALCIFICATION  E  ONE  DEPRESSED  1960). WAS'  NO FOUND.  METHODS  WERE IN  WING-BANDED  COMPARTMENTS  DIFFERENT  35  OBSERVATIONS  VITAMIN  RAT  VITAMIN  FOUR  EFFECTS  OF  OF  MALE  THE  THE  IN  EFFECTS  EXPERIMENT.  MATERIALS  DAY-OLD  THE  EFFECTS  WAS,  IN  CHICKS  ADEQUATE  ACCIDENTLY  THIS  LEVELS  AND  CHICKS,  CALCIUM  IN  IN  INVESTIGATE  FROM  AN  LITERATURE  DIETARY  TO  DIETS  THERE  CHICKS  E  AND  E  REGARDING  ADVERSE  FRAGILITY  BETWEEN  TO  DEFICIENT  DIFFERENT  THE  SEARCH  PROTHROMBIN REPORT  OF  DESIGNED  AVAILABLE  SUPPLEMENTATION.  RESPONSE  HYPERVITAMINOSIs  DIETS  EXCESS  INTERRELATIONSHIP THE  FED  EXPERIMENT  FED  WAS  INFORMATION  ADMINISTRATION  or  III  DIETS  USED  OF IN  AND  DISTRIBUTED  ELECTRICALLY THE  EXPERIMENT  36  ARE  SHOWN  ROOM  IN  TABLE  TEMPERATURE  WATER  WERE  FROM  TUBERCULIN THE  EACH  SCREENING COMPLEX  OXALATE  TEST  BLOOD  ML OF  BLOOD  PLASTICINE.  CONTROLLED  BLOOD  AT  SAMPLES  RANDOM  LOTS  OF  CHICKS.  AT 2 2 - 2 3 ° C .  WERE  (1  FROM  THE F E E D AND  ML PER C H I C K )  THE WING  SODIUM  DETERMINATIONS.  COUNTS  OF  VEIN  OXALATE  PROTHROMBIN  DETERMINED  PROTHROMBIN  (QUICK,  OF  FACTORS  WAS D R A W N  WELL.  ON T H E  OF 3  BY  USING  OR H E P A R I N F O R  TIMES,  BLOOD  HEMATOCRIT  SAMPLES.  WITH  IS  USED  THEVARIOUS V,  VII  TIME  AS AN  FACTORS  AND X  IN A SYRINGE'  PROTHROMBIN  1936)  TIME  OF  (QUICK,  CONTAINING  WAS E S T I M A T E D  MODIFICATION  IMPORTANT THE  PROTHROMBIN  1961). 0.1  ML OF  SODIUM  BY THE QUICK  BY ALMQU1ST  ONE  (1941).  VALUE DETERMINATION  ENTER  A READING  VALUE  (OR PACKED  CELL  FOR A N E M I A .  THE MICROMETHOD  TUBES  M M . IN  7 5 MM I N  (1.1-1.2  DETERMINATIONS.  THE TUBE  AFTER  MICRO-CAPILLARY  OF H E M A T O C R I T  SCREENING .TEST  THE HEMATOCRIT TO  DUPLICATE  S A M P L E S .C0NTA INED  AS PROTHROMBIN,  ML C R O - H E . M A T O C R I T  ALLOWED  DRAWN  FOR THE D E F I C I E N C Y  AS A S I M P L E  USING  WERE  MEASUREMENT  METHOD  THE  FOR  OF 30 D A Y S ,  HEMATOLOGICAL  AND M I X E D  HEMATOCRIT  WAS F E D TO  TIME  SUCH  NINE-TENTH  DIET  LIBITUM.  AND RETICULOCYTE  THE  USED  LOT  SYRINGE.  PROTHROMBIN  STAGE  AD  A PERIOD  DIFFERENT  VALUES  EACH  WAS T H E R M O S T A T I C A L L Y  SUPPLIED  AFTER CHICKS  9.  DEVICE.  THE H E P A R I N I Z E D  BY C A P I L L A R I T Y .  CENTRIFUGATION  CENTRIFUGE,  I.D.,  MODEL  THE TUBE  FOR 3 M I N U T E S , M.B.  THE HEMATOCRIT  WERE  USED  S A M P L E WAS  WAS T H E N A  IS  WAS A P P L I E D ,  1 LENGTH)  BLOOD  USING  VOLUME)  SEALED  WITH  INTERNATIONAL  VALUE  WAS M E A S U R E D  37  RETICULOCYTE THE FOR  COUNTS  RETICULOCYTE  RETICULOCYTE AT  THE  LEFT  30  DAYS  TIBIA  OF  STAIN  OF  AGE, 4  EACH  BASIS,  IN  THE  ACCORDING  CHICK OF  ASSAY  FOR V I T A M I N  T H E MARROW THESE  50  DAYS  AT  OIL  AND M A R C H ,  1966)  WAS U S E D  WAS T A K E N  WAS U S E D  D.  FROM  TO  EACH  WEIGHED  FOR A S H A N A L Y S I S .  TO S H O W  THE DEGREE  THE A . O . A . C .  THE RIGHT  L O T WERE  PROCEDURE  T I B I A S WERE  CUT  OF  AND K I L L E D .  BONE BONE  (1965),  A S H , EXPRESSED  CALCIFICATION USED  IN THE  AND THE A P P E A R A N C E  NOTED. OBSERVATIONS  WERE  REPEATED^  ON T H E R E M A I N I N G  CHICKS  OF 40 AND  OF A G E .  INJECTION  WERE  CHICKS  CHICK  A DRY F A T - F R E E TIBIA  (COATES  COUNTS.  ON  LEFT  TECHNIQUE  OF V I T A M I N  K  THE CONCLUSION  INJECTED SOLUTION.  OF  THE  INTRAMUSCULARLY TWENTY-FOUR  EXPERIMENT,  WITH  HOURS  THREE  MENADIONE  AFTER  (5  BIRDS  MG./KG.  INJECTION,  TIMES  WERE  NOT M E A S U R E D  AT  50  DAYS  OF  BODY  PROTHROMBIN  DETERMI N E D .  PROTHROMBIN  FED E X C E S S  OF A G E .  VITAMIN  WEIGHT)  TIME  WAS  IN  E  RESULTS  PROTHROMBIN THE AND  TIME MEAN  THE S T A T I S T I C A L  ADDITION  OF  EXCESS  SUPPLEMENTED PROTHROMBIN AN  PROTHROMBIN  EFFECT  EXCESS DIET  WITH TIME  OF  o  ANALYSIS VITAMIN  OF  E  BLOOD  LENGTHENED  WAS D E F I C I E N T  IN  PROTHROMBIN  POSSIBLE  DIFFERENCE  THE  TWO S E T S  HEMATOCRIT  TO  EITHER  THE  CHICKS  RESULTS  CALCIUM  THE  EACH  A R E SHOWN BASAL  AT  30  PROTHROMBIN  TIME  COMPARISON  MEASURED  AT  30  ACTIVITY  OF  THE  TO  TABLE  OR TO  AT  A GREATER  SHOULD AND 40  THE  NOT  OF  BASAL  THERE  40  DAYS  DEGREE  BE MADE  DAYS  THE DIET  PROLONGED  OF A G E ,  TIME.  TREATMENT  10.  ( P $ 0 . 0 1 ) DAYS  ON P R O T H R O M B I N  DIETARY  IN  DIET  SIGNIFICANTLY  THE C H I C K S .  LEVEL  FROM  WAS OF A G E  WHEN  THE  BETWEEN  THE  AGE BECAUSE  THROMBOPLASTIN  OF A  PREPARATION  USED  MEASUREMENTS.  VALUES  THE RESULTED  OF  IN  THE  THE  CALCIUM. TIMES  OF  OF  FROM  CALCIUM  ABSOLUTE  IN  E  ADDITIONAL  DIETARY  VITAMIN  TIME  HEMATOCRIT  IN  DECREASED  SUPPLEMENTATION SIGNIFICANTLY (P  $ 0 . 0 1 ) .  THE  CHICKS  VALUES  OF  THE  FED  BASAL  HEMATOCRIT  THE  LONGER  SIGNIFICANT.  VALUES  OF  BLOOD  HEMATOCRIT  THE  BY 40  ARE ALSO  DAYS  SAMPLES  VALUES  DIET  IN  TO'SUPPLY  VALUE  OF  BLOOD  IN THE  50  DEFICIENT DAYS  FROM  THE  10.  PRESENT  SAMPLES IN  EXCESS  CALCIUM AT  CHICKS  THE  FED NORMAL  E  30  INCREASED  DAYS  HEMATOCRIT  DIFFERENCES  VITAMIN  EXPERIMENT.  AND C A L C I U M - A D E Q U A T E  OF A G E ,  38  TABLE  ADEQUATE  OF A G E THE D I F F E R E N C E S  CALCIUM AT  SHOWN  OF AGE  VALUES  DIETS IN  BETWEEN  WERE  NO  HEMATOCRIT  AND E X C E S S  LEVELS  OF  39  VITAMIN THOSE  E,  ALTHOUGH  OBSERVED  RETICULOCYTE  WITH  YOUNGER  OF  SUPPLEMENTED  THE  DIETS  CANTLY  (P  LEVEL.  WITH  THE  RETICULOCYTES  MANY  APPEARED  TO  BE  IN  8,  SHOWED  9  THE  SAMPLE  THE  1961).  AND  THE  FROM  CHICKS  CHICKS  SMEARS  PHOTOGRAPHS  EXCESS  THE TO  OF  10).  DIETS  RETICULUM  (COMPARABLE  DIET  SMALLER  THAN  OF  EITHER  FIGURES  E,  SEEN.  CHICKS  THE  COUNTS  VITAMIN  WERE  AND  BASAL  SUPPLEMENTATION  RETICULOCYTE  FED  FED  FROM  BASAL  (TABLE  INCREASED  STAINING  BLOOD  FED  SIMILAR  E  FROM  HEAVILY  CHICKS  ARE  BLOOD  ERYTHR0BLASTS  MARROW  RESORPTION  MATERIAL.  THE  FED 9-13  REPRESENTATIVE  CALCIUM MANY  THE  EXCESS OR  SIGNIFI-  EARLY  CELLS VITAMIN  121-124,  CELLS  ARE  SHOWN  10.  CAVITY  OF  OF  CALCIFIED  ALL  TYPICAL  DAYS  OF  BONE  CALCIFICATION  THE  TIBIA  APPEARANCE  FROM  TISSUE IS  BIRDS AND  SHOWN  IN  FED  EXCESS  VITAMIN  CONTAINED  ONLY  FIGURE  FROM  11  GROUPS  3  E  BLOODY A  BIRD  AGE.  DATA  50  !  RELATING AND  4  TO  DIFFERENCE  VITAMINOSIS  E.  IN  (HYPERVITAMINOSIS  THE  RECEIVING  SIGNIFICANT  2  WERE  MARROW THE  IN  OF  CALCIUM  THE  A  OF  JAMROZ,  FIGURES  BONE  IN  WITH  IN  AND  (P^GO.OL)  BIRDS.  EXCESS.VITAMIN  BLOOD  OBSERVED  LUCAS  COUNTS  WITH  0.01)  IN  SIGNIFICANT  COUNTS  RETICULOCYTE DIET  STATISTICALLY  IN  ON BONE  COMPARING E),  CALCIFICATION  BOTH  ADEQUATE ASH  OF  BONE  LEVEL  OF  PERCENTAGE  GROUPS,  1  RECEIVING  LOW  SHOWN  CALCIUM  WAS  (NORMAL A  ARE  LEVEL  (1$  DETECTED  LEVEL OF  OF  IN  IN  TABLE  CALCIUM) HYPER-  VITAMIN  CALCIUM  12.  E)  AND  NO  E  FIG.  9.  RETICULOCYTES VITAMIN  E  x  FROM 1000.  A 40-DAY  OLD  CHICK  FED  EXCESS  41  FlG.  10.  ERYTHROBLASTS A  40-DAY  OLD  OBSERVED CHICK  ON  X 1000.  THE  BLOOD  SMEAR  FROM  42  D  E  FIG.  11.  ABNORMAL V ITAMIN A.  BONE  NORMAL  BONE  CONTROL B.  C.  OF  MARROW  CHICKS  FED  EXCESS  SEVERE  HYPOPLASTIC OLD  MEDIATE  THE  CHICK  BONE  MARROW  FED  HYPOPLASTIC  CHICK  SLIGHTLY 40-DAY  FROM  50-DAY  OLD  CHICK.  50-DAY  OLD D.  MARROW  E.  FED  EXCESS  HYPOPLASTIC  OLD  CHICK  FED  EXCESS BONE  MARROW  VITAMIN BONE  FROM  VITAMIN  E  E.  FROM  A  40-DAY  DIET.  MARROW  EXCESS  THE  FROM  VITAMIN  E.  A  43  (0.59$  CALCIUM),  PERIODS THE  OF  CHICK  GROWTH, THE IN ASH  30,  AND  WEIGHT  WAS  OF  THE  A  BIRDS. IT  50  OLDER, PART  OF  BIRDS  THE  GRAPHED  GRAPH  WAS  USING  WILL  BE  EXCESS  OF  VITAMIN  E  I N J E C T I ON  OF  VI T A M I N  K  TWENTY-FOUR  THE  NORMAL  FED  LEVEL  SEEN  EXCESS OF  E  VITAMIN THE  TWO  AGAINST MADE  THAT,  OF  FOR  AFTER  E  PERCENT  THE  DIET  ASH  HAVE OF  WEIGHT  TIBIA ASH WAS  BETWEEN BEEN  DUE  AT  ASH A  E  TO  THE  FED  TIBIA  FOR TO  WEIGHT IN  AS  DIFFERENCE  PERCENT  RELATIVE  DEFICIENT  IN  CHICKS  12B.  BODY  2  DEPRESSED  THE  E.  FIGURE  GROUP  INCREASED  VITAMIN  VITAMIN IN  IN  AGE  OF  CALCIUM,  CALCIFICATION.  INJECTION  VITAMIN  MAY  PERCENT  WHEN  EXCESS  BONE  LEVELS  BODY  LOWER  MINERALIZATION  BECAUSE  OF  VALUES  VITAMIN  AND  BONE  IN  DEPRESSED  HOURS  SIGNIFICANTLY  DIFFERENCE  OF  ALSO  THE  AN  CHICKS  THE  WAS  BECAUSE  HEAVIER  LEVELS  GM.,  THE  DAYS.  AND OF  300  OF  PERCENTAGE  EXCESS  ACCORDINGLY  COMPARISON,  ASH  AND  LEAST  NORMAL BODY  40  BECAME  AT  THE  E  WAS  (TABLE  OF  MENADIONE,  SHORTENED 11).  TO  PROTHROMBIN  THAT  OF  CHICKS  TIME FED  DISCUSSION  THE- P R O L O N G E D AND  THE  SHORTENING  INDICATIVE PROLONGED  OF  MELLETE  HYPOPROTHROMBINEMI A POSSIBLE  METABOLITES EARLIER THREE A  MAY  LABELED  THESE  ON  AND  THE  MECHANISM  WITH  ABSORPTION  OF  THIRD VITAMIN  IS  THAT  WITH  THE  ACTION  VITAMIN  RATS.  IN  THE  OF  IN  AMOUNT  VITAMIN  AND  TRIMER  TO  K FOR  CERTAIN  ENZYME  SUGGESTED  AN EXCESSIVE  VITAMIN IN  BY  THREE  THE  E  OF  OF  VITAMIN  E  THE  OF  WHICH  WAYS. OR  COURSE IN  ITS OF ANIMALS,  SITES.  AS  MAY  RETARD  OF  SECOND  MAY  VITAMINS  WERE  K AND  THE E  1962),  1967)  STRUCTURE  VITAMIN  VITAMIN  SUCH  THE  ( C S A L L A N Y _E_T _AL . ,  THAT  WERE  THE  CONFIRMED  MECHANISM  OF  THAT  AMOUNT  VITAMINS,  AMOUNTS  1936).  OF  E  MENADIONE  ( D R A P E R _E_T _AL . ,  SIMILAR  EXCESSIVE  IS  A  ARE  SOLUBLE  VITAMIN  oC-TOCOPHERYL-5-METHYL-C  HOWEVER,  FAT  OF  E  ONE  K.  |T  VITAMIN  ADEQUATE  E  DID  FED  ASH  SIGNIFICANTLY  LOWER  IN  FED  DIET,  SHOWN  THE  BASAL  CALCIUM  NOT  CHICKS  CHICKS  EXCESS  TISSUE.  THAT  OF  1963)  EXCESS  ST.OKSTAD,  INTERPRETED  OF  FED  INTERFERE  K AND  THE  D.  SYNTHESIS  K.  EXCESS  IS  BE  AND  oC- TOC O P H E R y L - P - QU I N O N E  VITAMIN  IS  FED  AN EXCESSIVE  DRAPER,  METABOLITES,  POSSIBLE  MAY  THAT  CHICKS  BY ADMINISTRATION  (i960)  METABOLISM  LIVER  COMPETE  THE  IS  THE  PROBABLY  THE  CAUSED  METABOLITES,  FROM  END  IS  THE  (ALMQUIST  CHICKS  LEONE  ANTAGONIZE  (CSALLANY  ISOLATED  IN  AND  MECHANISM  STUDIES  DIMER  TIME  IN  TIME  K-DEFICIENCY  PROTHROMBIN BY  TIME  PROTHROMBIN  VITAMIN  OF  OBSERVATION  ONE  PROTHROMBIN  EXERT  DIET.  AN  WHEN  CHICKS IN  EFFECT FED  FED TABLE  44  A  LOW  EXCESS 12  ON  AND  THE  BONE  CALCIUM  VITAMIN FIGURES  E  FORMATION  DIET, THAN 12A  IN  PERCENT THAT  AND  B.  IN  THE IT  PERCENT  TIBIA  4* o  CO  CO  O O  OF  r-i  ASH  J  PERCENT  D  CD  —1 I pi  >  _  >  CO X 70 pi  > —  < pi —i o  CD  o  D  z  "n f-  c n z o  m  O  ^1 Pi X  o  PI co co  •  ro o o  O  -<  — CD — > > co X  CO  o c  s:  >  H  pi  — o  a  CD  —^  pi  •t»  XI  o o  pi  z  H  > — z  X -1  o o  PI X)  o  PI  z  H  o  •n  +  4*  co  00  CO  > PI CO X > n CJ)  o o  O  pi CO co  r"  > > r  +  +  o  < > > Z  >  +  ro  —*  CO  CO  > PI CO X > o m CO CO  .—- -—. O  < c  o > > -i  2 z  > CO >  - —  r-  o c  o >  —  •  o  o > -< CO o z  PI X "0  rn z  PI XI  PI  2  n  —  -1^  o  PI z  H  pi X o  PI CO co  < — PI CO  <J1  O  -o  •n r~ c  CD  m z  — z  >  <  —  pi  PI  -n  -< — s:  —i X  — o  X H  .  4*  o  CO  ro >  TO O  ASH  •  00 —  CO  TIBIA  CD  ro -1  CO Q_  -n  t -  OF  o  > Z rrl  o z 13  PI XI r> z  + PI X (-) PI CO co  < >  4*  CO  CO  CO  co  co  >  >  >  r"  + o>  >  i  -  +  o>  + PI X n pi co CO  < -i  >  H  2  2  O •n  z  z  rn  m  ro  —*  CO  CO  >  CO  >  CO  >  >  ,—.  ,—^  p  r-  O  s.  o  >  r  -  -  r  O  o  >  — —  4* cn  46  APPEARS  THAT  EXCESS  VITAMIN  D  SLOW  OR  VITAMIN  DOWN  RET I C U L O C Y T O S 1 S TREATMENT (.FITCH,  OF  VITAMIN  1958;  HASSAN  RECICULOCYTOSIS OF  DIET)  OF  THE  OR  EXCESS  THAT  E  I N T E R E S T I NG* I N  THE  (2200  KG  I.U.  DECREASED ONE  PER  RETARDS  THE  DOWN  EVEN  OR  RESULTING CASES,  STUDIES ARE  OF  PREVENTS THE  A  HAVE  REQUI R E D .  AL,, IN  THE  DIET  OR  100  THAT  OF  THE  THE  BLOOD  WAS  AN  VALUES  TIMES  THAT THE  EXCESSIVE  RETICULOCYTES  ERYTHROPOIES1S HEMATOCRIT  MATERIAL  OF  IN  THE  WAS  IN  VALUE  SMEARS  OF  OUT  FOR  BONE  IN  ABSORPTION  THE  OF  IN  NOT  LEVEL  (220  NORMAL  OF  LEVEL)  IN  BLOOD  THE  BONE  (ANEMIA). THE  THAT PER  ALSO  BIRDS  IS  E IN  BONE  VITAMIN BUT  FED  IT  OF  KG  RETARDATION  RESULTED  OF  THE  THE  ALTERATION  IN  TO  VITAMIN  AMOUNT  THE  I.U.  REDUCED. OF  TOCOPHEROL  OBSERVED  M A R C H _E_T _AL. SOME  WERE  E  TO  CHILDREN  CONDITION  CELLS.  AND  AND  (1969)  VITAMIN  THE  RESPONSE  INFANTS  AL.  OBSERVED  ERYTHROPOIESIS.  CARRIED  ZJ_  SLOWER  RETICULOCYTOSIS  IS  OCCUR  EXCESS  EXPERIMENT  VALUE,.  RETARDATION  RED  THE  PROCESS.  ATTRIBUTED  HEMATOCRIT  PRESENT  BEEN  AND  WITH  HUMAN  MARCH  FED  TURNOVER  THAT  BLOODY  WERE  NOT  1966).  OF  TO  MONKEYS',  CHICKS  DECREASED  JELLY-LIKE  INDICATING  rr  MATURATION  ERYTHROBLASTS  REPORTED  E-DEFICIENT  MECHANISM  IN  BEEN  PRESENT  HEMATOCRIT  POSSIBLE  HAS  PROCESS  AND  INTERFERE  CALCIFICATION  ERYTHROCYTE  VITAMIN  ALSO  BONE  ANTIOXIDANTS  MATURATION  REPORTED  MAY  THE  OCCURED  OTHER  E  E  MARROW.  NOT  ALSO  THE  ONLY  SLOWS  MARROW,  THEREFORE,  |N  SEVERE  SOME  MARROW C A V I T Y  CIRCULATING  UNFORTUNATELY, MARROW S M E A R .  AND  .  BLOOD MICROSCOPIC  FURTHER  STUDIES  SUMMARY  A CHICKS. (1)  WAS  THREE  GROUPS  THYROIDAL  MUSCLE OF  STUDY  MADE  (220  TWO  OF  14.5  IN  THE  0  DIET)  F  AND 3 1 . 5 ° C . DIFFERENT  EXPERIMENTS  TO  EXCESS  THYROID  LEVEL  OF  METABOLIC WERE  AT  RATES  SIMILAR  RESPIRATION SUPPLY  E.  OR THE  E  AND  VITAMIN  EITHER OF  EFFECT  EXCESS  GLANDS  E,  E  TO  INVESTIGATE  AND  WAS  RATE  (3)  DID  FED  EXCESS  THYROID  OF  THE  IN  ANOTHER  IN  I T, THE  IN  E  A  OF  SYMPTOMS  THYROID E  REDUCTION EXCESS  THE  ON  THE  A  IN  THE  LESSER A  NORMAL  THE  SECRETION  VITAMIN  E.  RATE  OR  APPEARS  THAT  THE  LEVELS AND  LEVELS  BIRDS  GROWTH  EXCESS  BE  EXCESS  TEMPERATURES  RECEIVING  ACTIVITY  CAN  AND  TEMPERATURES  THEREFORE, AND  TO  EXHIBITED  AFFECT  LOW  VITAMIN  BOTH  BIRDS. FED  NOT  NORMAL  THIOURACIL  CHICKS  INDICATES  (TSH)  FED  OF AT  DID  FED  SUBJECTED  VITAMIN  THAN  FINDING  CHICKS  FED  OF  ACTIVITY  FED  DIFFERENCES  BIRDS  WERE  WAS M E A S U R E D .  TEMPERATURE.  THE  TURNOVER  E  GOITROGENIC  HORMONE  WHICH  DESPITE IN  TO  VITAMIN  RESPIRATION  OF  THIS  STIMULATING  CONSUMPTION  (2)  WERE  THE  THE  VITAMIN  E,  CHICKS  THYROID  OF  VITAMIN  CONDUCTED  EXPERIMENTS,  TREATMENTS  VITAMIN  WERE  EXCESS  VITAMIN  ENLARGEMENT OF  FEEDING  EXCESS  CHICKS  LEVEL  OF  FED  THIOURACIL-TREATED OF  EFFECTS  E.  SEPARATE  I.U./KCJ.  THE  FROM C H I C K S  H Y P E R V I T A M I NO I S IN  OF  RESPONSE  MITOCHONDRIA  OP  OF  THAT  MAINTAINED  THE FEED  VITAMIN  E  TISSUE  WITH  A  REDUCED  HORMONE.  THYROID  GLAND  ITSELF  WAS  STUDIED  IN  RESPONSE  , , 131^ TO  EXCESS  VITAMIN  E  EXPERIMENT.  47  USING  RADIOIODINE  [I  )  AS  A  48  TRACER,  IT  THYROID  GLAND  (220  WAS  REMOVED  WOULD  BE  OF  OF  DIET)  FROM  THE  BY  TO  AND  THYROID  FROM  THE  PECTORAL  I.U./KG.  TO  A  CERTAIN OF  IN  IODINE  CONTROL IN  THE  FED  EXCESS  EXCESS  A  AND  BECAUSE  TISSUE  RELEASE  VITAMIN  AMOUNTS,  PERIPHERAL AS  UPTAKE  BIRDS.  AT  WHICH THE  BY  THE  E  VITAMIN  DEPRESS  CONSEQUENCE,  CHICKS THE  VITAMIN RATE  UPON TO  A  FED  IS  OTHER AND  OF  THE  E  THE  ACTS  RATE  AS  A  OF  THYROID  HORMONE  SECRETION  INCREASED  OF  A  REDUCTION NO  CAUSED  IN  E  RATE IN  BONE THE  IN  OF  TSH  THE  HORMONE  MITOCHONDRIA FED  EXCESS  THE  CONTROL BY  VITAMIN  THE  EXPERIMENT  WHEN  THYROID  IS  FED  THE  IS  THAT  WlTH A  POSSIBLE  RATE  WAS  VITAMIN  ACTIVITY.  C O M P E N S A T I ON  GROWTH  SUGGESTED EXCESS  THE  MUSCLE  IN IT  E  BIRDS.  E.  THIS  SECRETION  ISOLATED  VITAMIN  THE E  UP  LARGE  AND  NORMAL.  HYPOPROTHROMBINEMIA, NOTED  EFFECT  UPTAKE  CHICKS.  WERE  ABNORMALLY FLUID OF  OF  VITAMIN  FURTHER  B E LOW  OF  OXYGEN  AMOUNT  CONTROL  OF  BEEN  THAT  AND  THYROTROPIC  RATE  HAD  IN  RESPIRATION  SYMPTOMS AN  WHICH  EXCESS  LEVEL  DEPRESSED  OBSERVATIONS BE  THE  CAUSE  AFFECTS  RESPIRATION  REDUCTION  HOWEVER,  E  E  OF  COMPARED WITH  EXCESS  THROUGH E,  VITAMIN  CHICKS  NORMAL  VITAMIN  RECTICULOCYTOSIS  OF WAS  THAT  INDICATION  THE  SIGNIFICANT  THAN  K-DEFICIENCY.  SOME  EXCESS  DIET)  LEVEL  EXCESS  APPEARED  MAY,  OF  BIRDS  CIRCULATION.  THE  MAINTAIN  RESPIRATION  BASED  IT  MUSCLE  FED  LOWER  MAY  EXCESS  A  OF  CHICKS  MARKEDLY CHICK  IN  ACTIVITY,  OF  SHOWED  MITOCHONDRIA THE  IN  THAN  OBTAIN  WHICH  RATE  OF  RATES  SLOWER  THYROXINE  ORDER  MECHANISM  RESULTS  BOTH  THE  REDUCED.  |N  (2200  THAT  ANTIOXIDANT,  DEIODI N A T 1 ON IS  WERE  I.U./KG.  BIOLOGICAL  FOUND  A  REDUCTION  IN  A P P E A R A N C E OF  CALCIFICATION PRESENCE  INDICATIVE  OF  THE EXCESS  OF  HEMATOCRIT THE  CALCIUM VITAMIN  BONE  VITAMIN VALUES,  MARROW.  REQUIREMENT E.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  ALMQUIST,  H.  J . ,  TEST. ALMQUIST,  J .  H.  J .  1941.  REPORT  Assoc.  OFF. ANAL.  AND S T O K S T A D ,  INCIDENCE  OF D I E T A R Y  ON V I T A M I N  E.  K:  CHEM.  L.  R.,  HEMORRHAGIC  ASSAY  BY C U R A T I V E  BIOLOGICAL  24:405-413. 1936.  FACTORS  DISEASE  IN  INFLUENCING  CHICKS.  J .  THE  NUTRITION  12:329-335. ANDREW,  G.  A.,  1957.  A  FEW N O T I O N S  RADIOISOTOPES. ANDIK,  I.,  BALOGH,  IN  L.  ANBAR,  MED.  AND DONHOFFER,  S . ,  THYROIDECTOMIZED  EXPERIENTIA A.,  INBAR,  ACTION IN  OF  RATS  TREATED  IN  THE C L I N I C A L  1949. WITH  THE E F F E C T  METHYL  M.  AND T A T A ,  ACTA  J .  HORMONE  R., FROM  ENDOCRINOL.  1965.  E.  B.,  OF  THYROXINE  THIOURACIL.  DISSOCIATION  THE D E I O D I N A T I O N  1945.  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ENDOCRINOL.  2:165-176. ZALK I N,  H.  AND  V ITAMIN  TAPPEL, E  DEFICIENT  A.  ACT I O N . RABBIT.  L.,  1960.  IV. ARCH.  LIPIDE  STUDIES  OF  THE  PEROXIDATION  BIOCHEM.  BIOPHYS.  MECHANISM IN  THE  OF  VITAMIN  88:113-117.  E  TABLE  1.--BASAL  DIET  IN  EXPERIMENT  IA.  INGREDIENTS  GROUND  %  WHEAT  83.0  MEAL  14.5  HERRING  DISTILLERS' IODIZED  DRIED  SOLUBLES  2.0  SALT  0.5 TOTAL  TABLE  1B. —  BASAL  DIET  IN  100.0  EXPERIMENT  1B.  INGREDIENTS  GROUND  WHEAT  81 . 5  MEAL  14.5  HERRING BONE  MEAL  0.5  LiME  STONE  1 .0  DISTILLERS' IODiZED  DRIED  SOLUBLES  2.0  SALT  0.5 TOTAL  1_ EACH  ' KG.  or  BASAL  DIET  FOLLOWING  INGREDIENTS:  12.54  VITAMIN  440 3.61  100.0  MG; I.U.,  A,  MENADIONE,  MG.;  CALCIUM  NIACIN,  10.12  CHOLINE  CHLORIDE,  0.125 MG.  MG.;  CONTAINED  THE  MANGANESE 5505  I.U.;  0.60  MG.;  PANTOTHENATE, FOLACIN, 128.7  MG.J  1.21  SULPHATE,  VITAMIN  D^,  RIBOFLAVIN, 10.21  MG.;  MG.;  A M P R OL I U M ,  62  TABLE;  2.--AVERAGE: CH1CKS  THYROID IN  WEIGHTS,  EXPERIMENT  BODY  WE I G H T S  AND  FEED  c° WEIGHT  BODY  WEIGHT -  GM . THYROID  WT.  MG./100GM.B.W. FEED  CONSUMED  CHICK DAYS  IN  CONTROL  V1TAM1N  E  EQ  C°  28.13±5.53  28.70±2.86  19.29±5.07  31.5  C°  21.67±4.27  22.14+5.40  18.50±4.08  14.5  C°  340±21.8  359±16.5  161+12.4  341±30.5  335±25.9  187±16.5  14.5  MG.  OF  EXCESS-  TEMPERATURE  THYROID  CONSUMPTION  1A .  31.5  C°  14.5  C°  8.25+1.31  8.09±0.67  11.92±2.80  31.5  C°  6.35±1.09  6.55±1.20  11.5112.57  14.5  C°  401  454  242  31 . 5  C°  341  341  168  PER  13  GM. c  EXCESS V1TAM1N TEMPERATURE  THYROID  WEIGHT  MG . BODY  WEIGHT  GM . THYROID  WT.  MG./DOGM.B.W. FEED  CONSUMED  CHICK DAYS  IN GM.  13  E  EQ  TH1OURAC 1 L  + THIOURAC 1 L  +TH1OURACIL  14.5  C°  123.26±56.20  85.02±52.74  123.30±42.50  31.5  C°  95.96±16.49  72.43±17.51  71.57±23.37  14.5  C°  316±27.7  280±28.5  176±14.9 183±13.8  31 . 5  C°  335±28.8  321±29.2  14.5  C°  38.16±14.27  29.37±15.66  68.86±16.01  31.5  C°  28.65±6.20  22.70±5.20  39.53±14.73  14.5  C°  378  310  272  31.5  C°  325  250  227  PER  63  TABLE  3.--AVERAGE CH i C K S  THYROID IN  WEIGHTS,  EXPERIMENT  BODY  WEIGHTS,  FEED  CONSUMPTION  OF  IB.  EXCESS  THYROID  WEIGHT  MG. BODY  WEIGHT  GM. THYROID  WT.  MG./100GM.B.W. FEED  CONSUMED  CHICK DAYS  IN  PER  TEMPERATURE  CONTROL  14.5 C° 31 . 5 C  25.02±3.46 23.26±3.16  25.98±6.00 22.68±4.66  14.5 31.5  364±22 376±41  369±38 373±33  6.87±0.84 6.20±0.64  7.02±1.24 6.05±0.89  14.5 C° 31 . 5 C °  E  •  14.5 31.5  13  GM.  C° C°  V 1 TAM1N  C° C°  549 . 362  561 357  EXCESS V1TAM1N TEMPERATURE  THYROID  WEIGHT  MG . BODY  WEIGHT  GM. THYROID  WT.  MG./100GM.B.W. FEED  CONSUMED  CHICK DAYS  IN GM.  13  14.5 31.5  C°  14.5 31.5  C°  14.5 31 . 5  C°  14.5 31.5  C°  C°  C°  C°  TH I O U R A C I L  123.10±25.30 109.31t25.03  105.63±16.44 94.06±16.69  335±35 350+31  342±34 353±32  34.03±5.11 31.09±5.27  30.98±4.07 26.63±4.36  423 328  416 333  PER C°  E  +TH1OURAC 1 L  64  TABLE  4.--ANALYSIS AND/OR  or  VARIANCE  THIOURACIL  SOURCE  AT  OF  DF  TEMPERATURE  (A)  THYROIDAL  DIFFERENT  RESPONSE  TO  TEMPERATURES  MEAN  SQUARE  IN  THE  EXCESS  EXPERIMENT  VITAMIN 1A.  F  1  292.842  4.611*  .1  165.169  2.601  1  6005.450  AB  1  2.799  0.044  BC  1  .167.179  2.632  AC  1  124.614  ERROR  41  63.509  TOTAL  . 4 7  VITAMIN  E  (B)  THIOURACIL  (C)  SIGNIFICANT HIGHLY  (P  «=0.05).  SIGNIFICANT  (P  <  0 . 0 1 ) .  94.560**  1 .962  E  65  TABLE  5.--ANAL.YS IS AND/oR  OF  VARIANCE  THIOURACIL  AT  SOURCE  OF  THYROIDAL  DIFFERENT  DF  RESPONSE  TEMPERATURES  MEAN  SQUARE  TO IN  THE  EXCESS  EXPERIMENT  VITAMIN 1B.  F  1  103.937  5.982*  1  166.519  9.584**  1  17523.512  1008.606**  AB  1  0.164  BC  1  •178.202  10.257** 13.742**  TEMPERATURE V1TAMIN  E  THIOURACIL  (A) (B) (C)  AC  .  1  238.754  ERROR  109  17.374  TOTAL  115  SIGNIFICANT HIGHLY  ( P < 0 . 0 5 ) .  SIGNIFICANT  (P  < 0 . 0 1 ) .  0.0094  E  66  TABLE  6. —  AVERAGE  THYROID  EQ-TREATED  WEIGHTS,  CHICKS  AT  22  BODY C°  IN  WEIGHTS,  FEED  EXPERIMENT  CONSUMPTION  OF  1B.  EQ EQ  THYROID  TH1OURAC I L  25.90±6.09  138.28±34.14  28.73±7.11  49.82±11.83  307±47  313±36  353±41.4  380±30  8.50±1.67  43.67±7.7CV  8.09±1.58  13.22±3.45  292.  302  333  318  WEIGHT  GM. THYROID  WT.  MG./100GM.B.W. FEED  CONTROL  WEIGHT  MG . BODY  +TH1OURACIL  CONSUMED  CHICK DAYS  IN GM.  PER  13  67  TABLE  7.--EFFECT UPTAKE  A.  M E A N VALUES,  OF E X C E S S  THYROIDAL  5 HR  BASAL  DIETARY  AND R E L E A S E  VITAMIN  IN WHITE  LEVEL  1J  OF  E  ON T H Y R O I D A L  LEGHORN  3  1  10 HR  PER  MALE  IODINE  (l  )  CHICKS.  B I R D of : $ OF  24 HR  INJECTED  DOSEiS.D  48 HR  96 HR  11.75±1.52  10.68±2. 03  11.17±3.25  9.60±2.57  7 . 1 7 ± 2 . 19  8.11±1.69  9 . 3 5 ± 2 . 19  10.26±2.24  9.14±2.16  9 . 8 6 ± 2 . 68  EXCESS V1TAMIN  B.  E  M E A N VALUES,  THYROIDAL  5 HR BASAL  LEVEL  OF  II  131 ifo OF  INJECTED  DOSE/MG.  TH YRO I D±S. D .  10 HR  2 4 HR  4 8 HR  96 HR  0.427±0.061  0.433±0.037  0.466±0.063  0.355±0.059  0.317±0.045  0.306±0.047  0.363±0.081  0.362±0.04b  0.323±0.053  0.342±0.057  EXCESS VITAMIN  E  68  TABLE  8.--RESPIRATION CONTROL AT  RATES  DIET,  OF  EXCESS  MUSCLE  MITOCHONDRIA  VITAMIN  E  AND/OR  FROM  THE  THIOURACIL.  CHICKS  FED  THE  INCUBATION  WAS  30°C.  DIETARY  TREATMENT EXCESS  I N C U B A T I ON  EXCESS  PERiOD  CONTROL  V t TAMiN  (7)°  VITAMiN THIOURACIL  E  (6)  (?)  E  +THIOURACIL  (7)  11.80±2.78  7.05±3.28  ' 8.50±3.85  5.37±1.94  30-60 M I N .  12.03±1 . 1 8  7.70±3.36  8.84±2.89  4.84±2.21  60-90 M I N .  10.71 ±3.19  8.03±4.65  8.51±2.62  4.44±1.91  7.01±2.62  4.64±2.20  6.35±2.47  3.97±2.06  32.20±11.67'  18.63±7.64  0-30  MIN.  90-120 M I N . TOTAL  41.55±8.22  A  20.78±4.11  A  27.42±12.81  B  B  UL/HR/MG. PROTEIN  BODY  13.71±6.41  16.10±5.84  B  9.32±3.82  A  WEIGHT  EXPRESSED S U C C E S S . ! VE "VALUES  AS 30  WITHIN  DIFFERENT  AT  UL  0^  UPTAKE  MINUTE A  LINE  THE  5$  OF  CHICKS  PER  MG.  MITOCHONDRIAL  332±40  PROTEIN±S.D.  DURING  PERIODS. HAVING LEVEL  TEST. ^NUMBER  482±66  363±60  597±91  (GM. )  TESTED.  OF  THE  SAME  SUPERSCRIPT  PROBABILITY  BY  THE  ARE  NOT  DUNCAN'S  STATISTICALLY MULTIPLE  RANGE  E  TABLE  9.--COMPOSITION  OF  THE  EXPERIMENTAL  DIETS.  D I ET DIET DIET  1  DIET  BASAL'  +C A  +VITAMIN  98.0  DIET  %  98.0  98.0  4  +EXCESS  +EXCESS  2  % BASAL  3  +V I T A M I N E  +CA  % 98.0  ©  CELLULOSE  2.0  2.0  BONE  MEAL  1.5  1 .5  LIME  STONE  0.5  0.5  TOTAL  100.0  100.0  10.  10.  100.0  100.0  DL-OC-TOCOPHERYL ACETATE  BASAL  DIET  (|.U./  WAS  K  G  )  THE  SAME  AS  SHOWN  IN  TABLE  2200  1A.  2200  E  TABLE  1 0 . . . — E-FFECT  OF  EXCESS  VITAMIN  E  ON  HEMATOCRIT  VALUE,  PROTHROMBIN  TIME  AND  RECT I C U L O C YTE  COUNT.  DIET AGE  EXCESS  OF  CHICKS (DAYS )  HEMATOCRIT ±  +CALCiUM  BASAL  TIME  +CALCIUM  14.51+2.57  18.13±0.78  30  24.94±1.57  28.06±0.81  40  25.08±1.50  27.69±0.72  13.81 ±3.54  50  27.63±1.78  27.00±2.18  21 . 6 7 + 2 . 1 8  30  56.94±4.90  51.90±6.72  96.36±12.44  40  43.44±5.19  38.28±5.58  141.60±18.78  30  1.73±0.95  10.68±1 . 0 2  47.45±3.99  40  12.98±2.70  9.65±0.73  42.08±9.37  50  11.92±3.25  11.64+1.20  52.44±5.02  B  15.89±2.37  B  23.58±2.06 B  92.34±9.75  B B  B  (SECONDS)  RECTICULOCYTE ±  VALUES LEVEL  E  E  V ITAMIN B  VITAMiN  S.D.  PROTHROMBIN  1  EXCESS  BASAL  105.00±18.33  B  44.50±9.17  B  B  40.60±19.07  S.D.  WITHIN OF  A  LINE  PROBABILITY  HAVING  THE  BY  DUNCAN'S  THE  SAME  SUPERSCRIPT NEW M U L T I P L E  ARE  NOT  RANGE  STATISTICALLY TEST.  DIFFERENT  24.38±3.83  AT  THE  1$  B  B  71  TABLE  11  --PROTHROMBIN INJECTION  TIME  OF  OF  CHICKS  FED  EXCESS  VITAMIN  E,  24  HOURS  AFTER  MENADIONE.  EXCESS YITAMiN EXCESS  (24  CONTROL  VITAMIN  E  34.7±3.8  77.9±15.9  OF  HR  MENADIONE)  PROTHROMBIN TIME  (SECONDS)  E  AFTER  27.1±3.2  INJ.  72  TABLE  12. —  EFFECT DIETS  OF  EXCESS  ADEQUATE  VITAMIN  AND  AGE  GROUP  1  ' BASAL  E  ON  DEFICIENT  BONE IN  CALCIFICATION  IN  CHICKS  FED  CALCIUM.  OF  CHICKS  BODY  (DAYS)  WEIGHT  ASH$  30  229±81.7  35.74±4.04  40  333±75  42.14±0.52  50  497+110  43.97±3.22  30  169±43  31 . 6 1 1 3 . 4 3  40  202±37  36.76±2.42  50  338.9±38  37.83±2.13  30  257±23  45.94±0.87  40  307+42  46.71±0.90  50  513±48  47.20±2.39  30  231±28  45.54±0.56  40  250±32  48.20±1.36  50  416±55  46.92±0.66  BASAL GROUP  2  EXCESS +V1TAM1N  E  BASAL GROUP  3  +  CALC1UM  BASAL GROUP  4  +EXCESS V1TAM1N +CALC1UM  E  

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