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M. M. P. I. characteristics of chronic criminal offenders 1971

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M . M . P .I. CHARACTERI STICS OF CHRONIC CRIMINAL OFFENDERS by TERRY TYRONE GARDY B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN.PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of P s y c h o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Aug u s t , 1971 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I agr e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u rposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Psychology The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date August 31 , 1971 ABSTRACT An exploratory study was conducted among inmates of a Canadian peni- tent iary to determine MMPI charac te r i s t i cs associated with chronic c r imin- a l i t y . A c r i t e r i o n group of-chronic offenders was compared to a randomly derived group, and s ign i f i can t differences were obtained on three MMPI scales . These differences ceased to become s ign i f i can t in deriving sub- groups and applying covariate adjustments in attempting to control for the Influence of differences in age and Incarceration. Reduction in sample s izes appeared to contribute towards the absence of s ign i f i can t differences among f ive scales which appeared to d i f fe rent ia te Ss who had low Incarcer- ation Indices, compared to S_s who had high Incarceration Indices. Although trends were suggested which may relate to chronic c r i m i n a l i t y , the Incid- ence of violence appeared to follow a s i m i l a r trend. In the absence of s t a t i s t i c a l con t ro l , no conclusions were drawn regarding the trends in the scales . The MMPI p r o f i l e charac te r i s t i cs of the present groups were com- pared to other c r i t e r i a groups of psychia t r ic and prison subjects and the re la t ionships of various scales were examined. Criminal and socia l char- a c t e r i s t i c s were explored, and Chronic Offenders were found to d i f f e r in criminal patterns, place of childhood residence, education, marital s tatus, and empioyabi I i t y . D i f f i c u l t i e s in the present study were explored and suggestions made for further research. i i i A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f T a b l e s i v L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i Acknowledgment v i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 P r o b l e m 8 Method 18 R e s u l t s 27 C h r o n i c v e r s u s Random O f f e n d e r 27 C h r o n i c v e r s u s P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c 27 Matched C h r o n i c v e r s u s P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c 33 P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c v e r s u s Random C o n t r o l 39 D i s c u s s i o n 46 Summary & C o n c l u s i o n s 65 R e f e r e n c e s 69 Ap p e n d i x 72 Page Table 1 Summary Table for Analysis of Variance of MMPI Scales and Control Variables Between Chronic and Random Offender Groups 28 Table 2 Contingency Table for Socioeconomic Status Between Chronic and Random Offender Groups 31 Table 3 Summary Table for Analysis of Variance of MMPI Scales and Control Variables Between the Chronic Offender Group and the Potential Chronic Offender Subgroup 32 Table 4 Contingency Table for Socioeconomic Status Between the Chronic Offender Group and the Potential Chronic Offender Subgroup 34 Table 5 Summary Table for Analysis of Variance of MMPI Scales and Control Variables Between the Matched Chronic and Potent ial Chronic Subgroups 36 Table 6 Summary Table for Analysis of Covarlance of MMPI Scales Between the Matched Chronic and Potential Chronic Subgroups 40 Table 7 Summary Table for Analysis of Variance of MMPI Scales and Control Variables Between the Potential Chronic Offender and Random Control Subgroups 41 Table 8 Contingency Table for Socioeconomic Status Between the Potent ial Chronic and Random Control Subgroups 43 LIST OF TABLES (Cont'd) Page Table 9 Summary Table for Analysis of Covariance of MMPI Scales Between the Potent ial Chronic Offender and Random Control Subgroups 44 F i g u r e I The p r o f i l e s o f t h e C h r o n i c and Random O f f e n d e r Groups r e f l e c t i n g t h e mean e l e v a t i o n s f o r each o f t h e MMPI s c a l e s , n o n - c o r r e c t e d f o r K, and non- a d j u s t e d f o r t h e e f f e c t o f age o r i n c a r c e r a t i o n 29 F i g u r e 2 The p r o f i l e s o f t h e Matched C h r o n i c , and Random O f f e n d e r Subgroups r e f l e c t i n g t h e mean e l e v a t i o n s f o r each o f t h e MMPI s c a l e s , n o n - c o r r e c t e d f o r K, and n o n - a d j u s t e d f o r t h e e f f e c t o f i n c a r c e r a t i o n 37 The a u t h o r w i s h e s t o acknowledge t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s and s u p p o r t o f Dr. E. I. S i g n o r i and Dr. R. D. Hare In t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . The c o u n s e l o f Dr. G. J . J o h n s o n , and t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f V i r g i n i a Green Is a l s o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. The a u t h o r a l s o w i s h e s t o t h a n k t h e R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r (Western) and t h e C h i e f o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e r v i c e s o f t h e C a n a d i a n P e n i t e n t i a r y S e r v i c e i n a l l o w i n g t h e s t u d y t o be c o n d u c t e d . Mr. J . M. Murphy, Warden, and Mr. D. R. McGregor, S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f MatsquI I n s t i t u t i o n w a r r a n t s p e c i a l t h a n k s In accommodating t h e a u t h o r ' s absence t o c o m p l e t e t h e s t u d y . F i n a l l y , t h e Inmate R e c o r d s , C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , and P s y c h o l o g y Departments o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia P e n i t e n t i a r y were I n v a l u a b l e i n p r o v i d i n g t h e f a c i l i t i e s and I n f o r m a t i o n needed i n c o n d u c t i n g t h i s s t u d y . DEDICATION The a u t h o r w i s h e s t o d e d i c a t e t h i s t h e s i s t o h i s mother, whose g r e a t e s t p r i d e was h e r son's academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t s , and whose p a s s i n g on September 1, 1969 w i l l be long remembered. D u r i n g t h e y e a r 1967,' 1,249,454 o f f e n c e s ( e x c l u d i n g t r a f f i c ) were r e - p o r t e d i n Canada. T h i s r e p r e s e n t s a c r i m e r a t e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6,858.4 a c t u a l o f f e n c e s p e r 100,000 p o p u l a t i o n (age seven and o v e r ) , and f u r t h e r r e - f l e c t s a 5.2$ i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s (1966) r a t e . The g r e a t e s t number of i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e s were committed py p e r s o n s between t h e ages of 16 and 19. In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e c r i m e r a t e f o r t h i s age group i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2,876.2 per 100,000 p o p u l a t i o n . The r a t e d e c r e a s e s r a p i d l y from ages 20 t o 29, but t e n d s t o l e v e l o f f between t h e ages of 30 t o 49 ( f i g u r e s and r a t e s from s e l e c t e d t a b l e s of "Crime S t a t i s t i c s , " 1967). In a s u r v e y (Gardy, 1966) o f 424. inmates i n B r i t i s h C olumbia P e n i t e n t i a r y ( B . C . P . ) , t h e f r e q u e n c y o f inmates i n s i m i l a r age groups ( a d j u s t e d t o g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) d emonstrated a s i m i l a r d e c r e a s i n g f u n c t i o n as r e l a t e d i n t h e c r i m e r a t e s . However, t h e d e c r e a s e o c c u r r e d commencing w i t h t h e 30 t o 34 age g r o u p , and began t o . l e v e l ' o f f a f t e r t h e age o f 40. The a v e r a g e number of p r e v i o u s gaol o r p e n i t e n t i a r y commitments f o r t h e sample was 4.5 and 25% had e i g h t o r more p r e v i o u s commitments. I t would appear t h a t a t r e n d towards p o t e n t i a l o r a c t u a l c h r o n i c c r i m i n a I i t y • i s e v i d e n t among t h e g e n e r a l inmate p o p u l a t i o n of B.C.P., and t h a t t h i s t r e n d s h o u l d be e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r . A. C h r o n i c c r i m i n a I i t y and C r i m i n o l o g y . The r e c i d i v i s t i s d e f i n e d by t h e C o n c i s e O x f o r d D i c t i o n a r y as "one who r e l a p s e s i n t o c r i m e . " The term as a c o n c e p t has a wide d i v e r g e n c y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n which t e n d s t o v a r y among d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s . However, when r e f e r r i n g t o " p e r s i s t e n t o f f e n d e r , " " p e r s i s t e n t r e c i d i v i s t , " "habitual c r i m i n a l , " or "chronic offender," there is some general agreement that the minimal c r i t e r i a involve three or more previous convictions for a felony or indictable offence. Criminology has treated the problem of recidivism as following upon the same influences underlying e t io logy . However, when referr ing to a persis tent pattern of c r i m i n a l i t y , most authors regard the problem as In- volving a process of maturation and generally quote the studies conducted by the Gluecks (1937) and Se l l in (1958). The Gluecks I n i t i a l l y regarded the age of 35 as being c r i t i c a l in an offender's r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . They suggested that If r ehab i l i t a t i on had not occurred by the time an offender reached the age of 35, that there would be less l ike l ihood of his ever being rehab i l i t a t ed . However, In further s tudies , they suggested that i t was not purely a chronological fac tor , but Involved "the achievement of adequate maturation" which could be delayed by abnormal phys i ca l , emotional, I n t e l l e c t u a l , and socia l aspects of the offender's personali ty (Glueck and Glueck, 1940). In addi t ion , the Gluecks and Se l l in noted that early onset of a delinquent pattern of behaviour was an important factor in the duration of the maturation process. Persis tent offenders In England are l i a b l e to a sentence of f ive to fourteen years of preventive detention, If they are age 30 or more and have a previous record of three or more convictions after age 17. Three studies have dealt with persis tent offenders serving sentences of preventive detention between 1946. and 1956 (Morris , 1951; West, 1963; Hammond and Chayen, 1963). Each of the studies Is pr imar i ly empi r i ca l , and has focused on soc ia l factors and criminal h i s t o r i e s . The studies indicate that the preventive detainees tended to be petty offenders, with a mean number of previous convictions ranging from 13.8 to 16.5; having a pattern of crimes pr imar i ly committed against property rather than people; and a mean number of previous Imprisonments ranging from 8.8 to 10.2. Although most of the subjects In each of the studies had been brought up by both parents, the authors generally noted unsatisfactory, ear ly upbringing and environmental influences. Most subjects were s ing le , and those who had been married, reflected unsatisfactory family re la t ionships , and were mostly separated or divorced. The sample groups largely represent unski l led labourers with no s i gn i f i c an t periods of employment. The mean period of time at l ibe r ty p r io r to t h e i r convict ion ranged from 9.0 to 10.9 months. Morris further noted that the length of the previous sentence did not correla te with the post-release period of freedom, and concluded that punishment appeared to have a negligable influence. Each of the studies noted that the preventive detainees' conduct In prison was generally quite co-operative, and few represented acting-out problems. The studies d i f f e r In evaluating the onset of serious c r i m i n a l i t y but report the mean ages on f i r s t convict ion ranging from age 17 to 18.5. However, Hammond and Chayen report that the ages between 14 and 17 were c r i t i c a l among the 178 subjects In t h e i r study, as indicat ing the beginning of the samples' criminal h i s to ry . B. Chronic c r imlnaI i ty and Persona I i t y . With the exception of West, the English studies only summarily report personali ty var iables among t h e i r subjects. Based upon a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system introduced by Henderson (1939), West found that preventive detainees r e f l e c t e d a " p e r s o n a l i t y d e v i a t i o n " which appeared p r e d o m i n a n t l y more " p a s s i v e - I n a d e q u a t e " as opposed t o " a c t l v e - a g g r e s s l v e . " Abrahamsen ( I 9 6 0 ) and G l o v e r ( I 9 6 0 ) r e g a r d c h r o n i c o f f e n d e r s w i t h i n a p s y c h o a n a l y t i c frame o f r e f e r e n c e as l a r g e l y o c c u r l n g among p s y c h o n e u r o t i c and p e r s o n a l i t y d i s - o r d e r s . More r e c e n t I n t e r e s t In t h e a r e a o f c h r o n i c c r i m i n a l i t y has been s t i m u l a t e d by a number o f s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d by C o r m i e r (summarized In C o r m i e r , 1966). F o l l o w i n g upon t h e G l u e c k s ' (1937) c o n c e p t o f m a t u r a t i o n and f u r t h e r I n f l u e n c e d by K l e i n and p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y , C o r m i e r r e g a r d s c r i m i n a l i t y as an ego a c t i v i t y c a p a b l e o f growth and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . P e r - s i s t e n t a d u l t c r i m i n a l i t y , i s s u g g e s t e d t o r e s u l t from p e r s i s t e n t compul- s i v e a n t i s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r d u r i n g a c h i l d ' s l a t e n c y p e r i o d (age s i x t o p h y s i c a l p u b e r t y ) . An I n d i v i d u a l ' s f u t u r e c r i m i n a l c a r e e r has p r e d l s p o s i - t l o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s i n v o l v i n g t h e age a t o n s e t o f d e l 1nquency and t h e depth o f c r i m i n a l I n v o l v e m e n t . Whether t h e o n s e t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e l a t e n c y p e r i o d o r d u r i n g a d o l e s c e n c e d e t e r m i n e s t h e degree o f ego a r r e s t o r incom- p l e t e ego development. C o r m i e r I n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e e a r l i e r t h e o n s e t , t h e more p r i m i t i v e a r e t h e ego d e f e n s e mechanisms, and t h e d e l i n q u e n t must r e s o l v e h i s problems and c o n f l i c t s a I l o p l a s t l c a I l y by a c t i n g - o u t b e h a v i o u r . C o r m i e r n o t e s t h a t d u r i n g s u b j e c t ' s t w e n t i e s , t h e p e r s i s t e n t o f f e n d e r b e g i n s t o l o s e h i s s e n s e o f a c h i e v e m e n t t h r o u g h c r i m i n a l p u r s u i t s , and e n ^ c o u n t e r s f e e l i n g s o f f r u s t r a t i o n . He d i s c o v e r s t h a t h i s a c t i n g - o u t d r i v e s no l o n g e r o f f e r g r a t i f i c a t i o n , and b e g i n s t o e x p e r i e n c e a n x i e t y and de- p r e s s i o n . C o r m i e r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e I n d i v i d u a l has r e a c h e d a " s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t , " and t h a t t h i s marks t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a p r o c e s s o f abatement In which t h e o f f e n d e r must dea l w i t h f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t , s e l f - r e p r o a c h , g r i e f , and t h e need f o r atonement.. Cormier proposes t ha t those I n d i v i d u a l s having'*the e a r l i e s t onset of p e r s i s t e n t J u ven i l e de l inquency w i l l take longer t o reach the s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t , w i l l have the poorest ego s t r u c t u r e t o deal w i th h i s I n t e r n a l i z e d f e e l i n g s , and w i l l consequent ly r e f l e c t the longest c r i m i n a l p rocess . Al though some I n d i v i d u a l s may f a l l t o r e so l ve t h e i r c o n f l i c t s and re tu rn t o c r i m i n a l i t y , Cormier regards t h e i r having had t o eva lua te t h e i r a n t i s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s f o r the f i r s t t ime as s i g n i f i c a n t , as f u r t h e r re-eva Iuat lons w i l l r e c u r . Some p e r s i s t e n t o f f enders have been noted by Cormier t o exper ience acute s c h i z o p h r e n i c r eac t i ons dur ing t h i s stage of the p rocess . In summary, Cormier emphasizes depress ion as a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o c r i m i n a l abatement in t h a t i t r e f l e c t s the Ine f fec tua Iness of the o f f e n d e r ' s p a t h o l o g i c a l defense mechanism of a c t i n g - o u t . C. M.M.P. I . s t u d i e s . Many a r t i c l e s have appeared In the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t r e l a t e t o the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s and research u t i l i t y of va r ious p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t s in s tudy ing pa t t e rns of c r i m i n a l i t y . The cont inuous growth In the use of the Minnesota M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory o r MMPI (Hathaway and McKInley, 1951) in C l i n i c a l Psychology has a l s o been ev iden t In the area of C o r r e c t i o n - a l Psycho logy , and most s t u d i e s have adopted t h i s t e s t measure In approaching research problems. Gene ra l l y these s t u d i e s have tended t o focus upon p r o b - lems of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and p r e d i c t i o n of s p e c i f i c o f f ende r groups o r c r i m i n a l behav ioura l p a t t e r n s . However, few s t u d i e s have attempted t o adequately deal w i th r e c i d i v i s m , and hab i tua l o r ch ron i c c r i m i n a l i t y . An i n i t i a l attempt t o I den t i f y r e c i d i v i s t s commenced wi th a study by C l a r k (1948), who compared 55 A.W.O.L. r e c i d i v i s t s t o 45 s i n g l e o f f e n d e r s . Although te t rachor lc corre la t ions among each of the scales revealed no differences between the groups, an "item analys is" produced 24 Items which Clark Incorporated Into his Recidivism Scale (Rc). Clark noted that more of the Items were derived from the Psychopathic Deviate (Pd) and Hypomanlc (Ma) scales than from the other standard scales . In a descr ip t ive study Involving 300 penitentiary Inmates, Levy et a l . (1952) noted higher elevations In the Pd and Depression scales respec- t i v e l y for 169 "repeaters" compared to 131 " f i r s t time offenders." A further study (Freeman and Mason, 1952) emerged from th i s preliminary work, which was an attempt to cross-val idate C l a r k ' s f indings . However, Freeman and Mason were unable to successfully employ C la rk ' s Rc scale to d i f f e r - ent iate between 60 inmates having one or more previous convict ions for a felony, from 40 inmates admitted to the penitentiary for the f i r s t time. The authors then constructed a 14 Item key from Items that showed t e t r a - chor lc corre la t ions of .40 or greater with recidivism on a second group of 50 r e c i d i v i s t s and 50 f i r s t admissions. However, they were unable to cross-val idate t h i s key when applied to the next group of consecutive admissions. A further attempt to derive another key Involving 43 items through adjusting t h e i r c r i t e r i a also f a i l ed to c ross -va l ida te . Dunham (1954) noted s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher elevations on the Pd and D scales among a r e c i d i v i s t group of 85 inmates compared to 149 nonrecld- I v l s t s . He also obtained b i s e r i a l corre la t ions of -.195 and -.185 for these scales respect ive ly . Panton (1962a) noted that Freeman and Mason's " f i r s t offender" groups would Involve a proportion of " r ec ld lv l s t s - t o -be" r e l a t ive to the r e c i d i v i s t ra te . Thus, he conducted a study which employed a more repre- sent I ve sample of f i r s t offenders. F i f t y f i r s t offenders who were 40 years of age or more, and had a history of 20 or more years of employment, were matched for age and I.Q. with 50 habitual cr iminals who had served three or more felon sentences p r io r to t h e i r admission. S ign i f i can t t - t e s t differences were found among the means for the Pd and Ma scales , and also among C l a r k ' s Rc scale and an Adjustment to Prison (Ap) scale devised by Panton (1958). Panton then examined the raw score d i s t r ibu t ions of the Pd, Ma and Ap scales for both groups, and arr ived at the most ef fect ive d i f fe ren t i a t ion by combining the Pd and Ap Items Into a s ingle sca le . By e l iminat ing overlapping Items which were scored In opposite d i rec t ions , he was able to devise a 77 Item scale ca l l ed the Habitual Criminal (HC) sca le . The mean difference between the o r i g i n a l groups was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the ,01 l e v e l . Panton cross-val idated the scale among r e c i d i v i s t s grouped by age (20-29, 30-39, and 40-above) and by three, two, and one p r io r sentences, compared to two normal groups of Job appl icants , and two groups of f i r s t offenders. Mandel and Barron (1966) were unable to cross-val idate C l a r k ' s Rc and Panton's HC scales on a group of 50 parole v io la to r s and 50 non-viola tors . They then conducted an Item analysis on 229 r e c i d i v i s t and 143 non- rec ld lv l s t MMPIs obtained on admission, and a second Item analysis on 126 r e c i d i v i s t and 84 non- rec ld lv l s t MMPIs obtained on release from pr i son . Each analysis yielded 19 s i g n i f i c a n t Items with three Items duplicated. They then com- bined the two sets of Items Into a 35 Item sca le . However, an attempt to cross-val idate t h i s scale among 50 parole v io la to r s and 50 non-violators (after one year of the i r release) divided evenly between "youthful" and "adult" offenders was unsuccessful. Chapter 11 PROBLEM It would appear that effor ts to develop an MMPI scale to identify r e c i d i v i s t s and habitual or chronic offenders that would stand up to cross- va l ida t ion have met with l imited success. Several factors may have contributed to the problems encountered which relate to differences in the se lec t ion of c r i t e r i o n groups, differences in the charac te r i s t i cs of the populations from which the groups were derived, the s t a t i s t i c a l designs employed, and the f a i l u r e to provide further Information on the dependent measures for con- s idera t ion by other researchers. A. Select ion of c r i t e r i o n groups. Although the experimental groups have been designated as " r e c i d i v i s t s , " "pa ro le -v io la to r s , " or "habitual c r i m i n a l s , " se lec t ion appears to have been, based upon c l a s s i f i c a t i o n procedures without an accurate accounting of soc ia l or criminal h i s t o r i e s . The Ins t i tu t ions In which these studies have been conducted also d i f f e r In the types and ages of offenders which const i tute t h e i r populations. Thus, f a i l u r e to rep l ica te findings may be due to the var iable treatment of the term " r e c i d i v i s t . " C l a r k ' s study was conducted at a V .A. Guidance Center and employed m i l i t a r y subjects. Rec id iv i s t s were those who "had been A.W.O.L. more than once" (total nor average number were not mentioned). Although the sample appeared to re f lec t behaviour problems, Clark f a i l ed to Indicate If any of the subjects had previous Juvenile or adult criminal records. Levy et aj_. selected subjects from Washington State Penitentiary and refer to t h e i r groups as "repeaters" (no mention of the average number of previous convictions nor admissions) and " f i r s t time offenders." Freeman and Mason selected r e c i d i v i s t s from the same Ins t i tu t ion on the basis of one or more convict ions for a felony compared to f i r s t admissions. Panton (1962a) has noted that In the se lec t ion of f i r s t offenders as a control group, a s i gn i f i can t number may be judged to have commenced t h e i r criminal careers and may be considered " r ec id iv i s t s - t o -be" based upon recidivism rates. Thus Levy et aj_., and Freeman and Mason's f i r s t offender groups may have Included a s i gn i f i can t proportion of future r e c i d i v i s t s . Dunham's study was conducted in San Quentin Pr i son , and the r e c i d i v i s t group was not defined by previous his tory nor admission. No c r i t e r i a was Included to Indicate how the nonrec id iv ls t group was selected, nor was t h e i r status defined. Panton has been more se lec t ive In choosing his experimental group. The "habitual c r imina l " group was selected on the basis of being over 40 years of age (matched with the ages of the f i r s t offenders), and having served three or more p r i o r felon sentences. However, he has not Indicated the mean number, nor the amount of time previously served. The study was conducted at the North Carol ina Reception Center. Mandel and Barron's study I n i t i a l l y Involved 372 Inmates released from the Minnesota State Reformatory for Men. Rec id iv i s t s were defined as those who "continued to be a chronic lawbreaker or commits one or more serious offences" based upon a f ive year follow-up. The non-reeldIvlst was regarded as "an Individual who Is released from the Ins t i tu t ion and has no record of an offence, or who commits one or more minor offences such as any ordinary c i t i z e n might commit." Although both groups were drawn from the same sample of releases, the previous h i s to r ies of neither group were Indlc- a t e d , n or was t h e r e mention t h a t I t had been equated o r even c o n s i d e r e d . R e c i d i v i s t s In t h e c r o s s - v a l I d a t l o n a l sample were t h o s e who had v i o l a t e d p a r o l e w i t h i n a y e a r o f t h e i r r e l e a s e . No s t u d i e s have employed a randomly s e l e c t e d group o f o f f e n d e r s f rom t h e g e n e r a l Inmate p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e I n s t i t u t i o n . In Panton's h a b i t - ual c r i m i n a l s t u d y , h i g h e l e v a t i o n s were noted In t h e D s c a l e f o r t h e h a b i t u a l group and n o n - h a b i t u a l group (means o f 71.6 and 71.5, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . In a n o t h e r s t u d y ( P a n t o n , 1962b), t h e mean p r o f i l e o f 2,198 c o n s e c u t i v e a d m i s s i o n s t o t h e same I n s t i t u t i o n r e f l e c t s an e l e v a t i o n o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 64.0 on t h e same s c a l e ( e s t i m a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f an I l l u s t r a t e d f i g u r e ) . I t Is s u g g e s t e d t h a t Panton may have o b t a i n e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on t h e D s c a l e between t h e h a b i t u a l c r i m i n a l group and a randomly s e l e c t e d group from t h e s e 2,198 c o n s e c u t i v e a d m i s s i o n s . S i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e s In e l e v a t i o n s were a l s o noted on t h e two o t h e r " n e u r o t i c " s c a l e s , H y p o c h o n d r i a s (Hs) and H y s t e r i a ( H y ) . By comparing h a b i t u a l o f f e n d e r s whose mean age was 46.02 t o comparably aged f i r s t o f f e n d e r s , f a i l u r e t o o b t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e " n e u r o t i c " s c a l e s (Hs, D, and H y ) , c o u l d r e f l e c t t h e symptoms o f I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r o c e s s o f abatement, as s u g g e s t e d by Cormier, as o p e r a t i n g among t h e h a b i t u a l o f f e n d e r s c o n t r a s t e d f rom a c t i n g - o u t f e a t u r e s ( l e s s n e u r o t i c c o n t r o l ) among t h e younger (mean age 24.2) a d m i s s i o n sample. B. C o n t r o l IIng f o r t h e I n f I u e n c e o f age and c r i m i n a l I z a t l o n . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e f a i l u r e o f m e n t i o n i n g p r e v i o u s c r i m i n a l h i s t o r i e s o f t h e i r s u b j e c t s , t h e ages o f t h e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s have n o t been g i v e n n or c o n t r o l l e d In most o f t h e s t u d i e s . A l t h o u g h C l a r k d i d n o t I n c l u d e t h e ages o f h i s s a m p l e s , t h e s u b j e c t s would p r o b a b l y f a l l w i t h i n t h e age range o f d r a f t e e s c o n s c r i p t e d I n t o m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e . Levy e t aj_. examined t h e I n - f l u e n c e o f age and MMPI d i f f e r e n c e s among v a r i o u s samples from t h e t o t a l g r o u p , subgrouped by age, but t h e ages o f t h e f i r s t t i m e o f f e n d e r s and r e p e a t e r s were n o t g i v e n , n or d i d Freeman and Mason I n d i c a t e t h e ages o f t h e i r s e l e c t e d s amples. The mean ages o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n s f r o m which t h e com p a r i s o n groups i n Dunham's s t u d y were d e r i v e d were m e n t i o n e d , b u t n o t g i v e n f o r t h e s a m p l e s . Mandel and B a r r o n a l s o f a i l e d t o r e p o r t t h e ages o f t h e i r o r i g i n a l c r i t e r i o n g r o u p s , b u t d i d d i v i d e t h e c r o s s - v a l I d a t i o n a l sample I n t o " y o u t h f u l " and " a d u l t " p a r o l e e s . By f a i l i n g t o mention p r e v i o u s c r i m i n a l h i s t o r i e s and t h e ages o f t h e s u b j e c t s , i t would appear t h a t t h e s t u d i e s have n o t r e g a r d e d t h e i r s u b j e c t s as b e i n g a t some s t a g e i n a c r i m i n a l and b e h a v i o u r a l p r o c e s s . D i f f e r e n c e s may have o c c u r r e d among some samples In which a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f e x p e r i m e n t a l s u b j e c t s have p r o g r e s s e d f u r t h e r i n t o t h e p r o c e s s o f c r i m i n a l abatement as t h e o r i z e d by C o r m i e r , whereas c r o s s - v a l I d a t i o n a l samples o r c o n t r o l groups may n o t have reached C o r m i e r ' s " s a t u r a t i o n p o i n t " i n t h e i r c r i m i n a l c a r e e r s . O n l y Panton has g i v e n s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h e f a c t o r o f age, and has c o n t r o l l e d f o r I t s p o s s i b l e I n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h a m a t c h i n g p r o c e d u r e . C. S t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t o f t h e problem . The s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s -l'n t h e s e s t u d i e s have r e l i e d p r i m a r i l y on n o n - p a r a m e t r i c t e c h n i q u e s . Levy e t aj_. c o n d u c t e d a p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d y and employed no s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s . C l a r k employed an "Item a n a l y s i s " I n - v o l v i n g t h e f r e q u e n c y o f d e v i a n t . r e s p o n s e s o b t a i n e d on each Item by both groups and r e t a i n i n g t h o s e Items In which t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e r e c i d i v i s t group exceeded t h e n o n - r e c l d l v l s t group by 10, t h u s a r r i v i n g a t 24 Items. Dunham computed t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between means o f each o f t h e s c a l e s (two d i f f e r e n c e s were computed on t h e b a s i s o f medians due t o skewness o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n : H y p o c h o n d r i a s and S c h i z o p h r e n i c ) f o r h i s c o m p a r i s o n groups and used t h e C r i t i c a l R a t i o . He t h e n computed b i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s on t h e two s c a l e s h a v i n g t h e l a r g e s t d e v i a t i o n In t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a b n o r m a l i t y . Freeman and Mason's 14 Item and Mandel and B a r r o n ' s 35 Item s c a l e s employed 2 x 2 C h l - s q u a r e t e s t s In t h e i r Item a n a l y s e s . As t h e MMPI c o n - s i s t s o f 566 Items, 550 o f which a r e u n d u p I I c a t e d , a s e p a r a t e a n a l y s i s f o r each Item c o u l d r e s u l t In a p p r o x i m a t e l y 27 Items b e i n g s i g n i f i c a n t by chance a t t h e .05 l e v e l . The s h r i n k a g e o c c u r r i n g In t h e i r c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n a t t e m p t s c o u l d have r e s u l t e d from t h e o m i s s i o n o f t h e "chance" Items o f t h e i r o r i g i n a l s c a l e . P a n t on employed s i n g l e - s c a l e t - t e s t s In h i s a n a l y s i s and a r r i v e d a t two s c a l e s (Pd and Ap) s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l , and two o t h e r s c a l e s (Ma and Rc) s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . He t h e n combined t h e Pd and Ap s c a l e s I n t o h i s HC s c a l e , b u t f a i l e d t o s t a t e how t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y Improved a d d l t l v e l y as opposed t o u s i n g o n l y one o f t h e s c a l e s a l o n e t o i d e n t i f y h i s s u b j e c t s . D. F a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . D i f f i c u l t y In e x a m i n i n g t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s have been f u r t h e r com- p l I c a t e d by t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f Dunham and Panton) t o I n d i c a t e t h e means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s on each o f t h e MMPI s c a l e s f o r t h e i r c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p s . The a p p a r e n t f o c u s has been upon c r e a t i n g an e m p i r i c a l s c a l e w i t h o u t e x a m i n i n g f o r p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e s t a n d a r d s c a l e s . They have a l s o f a i l e d t o I n d i c a t e ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f C l a r k ) which o f t h e s t a n d a r d s c a l e s l o a d t h e h e a v i e s t on Items from t h e i r e m p i r i c a l s c a l e s . Thus, c o m p a r i s o n s I n v o l v i n g group p r o f i l e s among each o f t h e s t u d i e s have n o t been p o s s i b l e i n a s s i s t i n g o t h e r s i n r e s e a r c h i n g t h i s p r o b l e m . Dunham's f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e D and Pd s c a l e s w i t h r e c i d i v i s m , w h i l e P a nton's sample r e f l e c t s t h e Pd and a t a l e s s e r s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h e Ma s c a l e s . C l a r k ' s Rc s c a l e c o n t a i n e d more Pd and Ma Items. Levy e t aj_. n o t e d , n o n s t a t I s t i c a I I y , h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s i n t h e Pd and Ma s c a l e s among t h e i r r e p e a t e r g roup. A l t h o u g h t h e s c a l e s mentioned may r e f l e c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t i v e t o t h e samples r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e p r o c e s s o f r e c i d i v i s m and c h r o n i c c r i m i n a l i t y , and as t h e o f f e n d e r groups may d i f f e r i n t h e e x t e n t o f t h e i r c r i m i n a l h i s t o r i e s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e and o t h e r p o s s i b l e s c a l e s o f t h e MMPI s h o u l d be e x p l o r e d f u r t h e r on we II d e f i n e d " c r i t e r i a g r o u p s . E. The p r e s e n t s t u d y . The s h o r t c o m i n g s s u g g e s t e d In t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s r e f l e c t t h e need t o a d e q u a t e l y d e f i n e and d e r i v e a c r i t e r i o n group o f c h r o n i c c r i m i n a l o f f e n d e r s and an a p p r o p r i a t e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p , In o r d e r t o examine MMPI c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e r s i s t e n t c r i m i n a l i t y . F u r t h e r , t h e r e i s a l s o a need f o r more c o n s e r v a t i v e and p o w e r f u l s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s i n e x a m i n i n g f o r d i f f e r e n c e s between c r i t e r i o n g r o u p s , and c o n - t r o l l i n g f o r t h e p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e o f c o n c o m i t a n t v a r i a b l e s such as age and t h e p r o c e s s o f c r i m i n a l abatement as s u g g e s t e d by Cormter. The following w i l l be an exploratory study to attempt to adequately deal with problems suggested. B r i t i s h Columbia Penitentiary Is a federal reception center for offenders, who have been convicted of an indictable offence, and who have been sentenced to two years or more. Thus, those Individuals who have committed serious crimes, and/or have a previous his tory of convictions with lesser terms are l i k e l y to receive a sentence of two or more years, which Is required to be served In a federal I n s t i t u t i on . Few Inmates admitted to B . C . P . are f i r s t offenders, as these Individuals are more l i k e l y to receive probation, f ines , or short sentences which may be served In a provincia l I n s t i t u t i on . Only more serious offences would resu l t In a f i r s t offender being sentenced to B . C . P . Thus, f i r s t offenders would not con- s t i t u t e an adequate control group further to the d i f f i c u l t i e s previously mentioned. Most Inmates admitted to B . C . P . are under the age of t h i r t y , and have had previous convictions for Indictable offences. Therefore, the majority may be regarded as r e c i d i v i s t s . As the average number of previous gaol or penitentiary commitments Is approximately 4 .5 , most could come under the legal de f in i t i on of persis tent r e c i d i v i s t or habitual c r i m i n a l . Although chronic cr iminal offenders may be Identif ied by t h e i r age, the number of previous convic t ions , and proportion of t h e i r adult l ives spent In Incarceration (Incarceration index); a se lect group who tend to r e f l ec t these charac te r i s t i c s the greatest are those who have been convicted under the Habitual Criminal Act . Therefore a basic c r i t e r i o n group of chronic criminal offenders w i l l be selected from Inmates of B . C . P . who have been s e n t e n c e d under t h e H a b i t u a l C r i m i n a l A c t . I t Is assumed t h a t among t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n o f Inmates a t B.C.P., each w i l l v a r y randomly In t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t i m e t h a t t h e y have p r e v i o u s l y s e r v e d . Those I n d i v i d u a l s who p o s s e s s g r e a t e r p e r s i s t e n t c r i m i n a l t e n d e n c i e s , a r e e x p e c t e d t o a l s o have g r e a t e r I n c a r c e r a t i o n I n d i c e s . Thus, t h e s e I n - d i v i d u a l s may be r e g a r d e d as p o t e n t i a l c h r o n i c o f f e n d e r s , who a l t h o u g h b e i n g younger and h a v i n g f e w e r c o n v i c t i o n s t h a n t h e c r i t e r i o n group o f c h r o n i c o f f e n d e r s , s h a r e t h e same degree o f p e r s i s t e n t c r i m i n a l i t y as r e f l e c t e d In s i m i l a r i n c a r c e r a t i o n I n d i c e s . A randomly s e l e c t e d sample o f Inmates w i l l c o n t a i n a p o r t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l c h r o n i c o f f e n d e r s as w e l l as o f f e n d e r s h a v i n g s m a l l e r I n c a r c e r a t i o n I n d i c e s . The number f a l l i n g I n t o each subgroup w i l l be a r e l a t i v e f u n c t i o n o f t h e r e c i d i v i s t r a t e , and as t h e r a t e t e n d s t o be q u i t e h i g h I t w i l l f a v o u r t h e p o t e n t i a l c h r o n i c o f f e n d e r . F. H y p o t h e s e s . I t Is h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t In t h e absence o f c o n t r o l f o r t h e f a c t o r s o f age and I n c a r c e r a t i o n , a c r i t e r i o n group o f c h r o n i c c r i m i n a l o f f e n d e r s w i l l d i f f e r In p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as measured by t h e MMPI t o a randomly d e r i v e d sample o f o f f e n d e r s In B.C.P., and t h a t t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e r s i s t e n t c r i m i n a l i t y . W i t h i n t h e randomly d e r i v e d sample o f Inmates, I t I s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h o s e I n d i v i d u a l s h a v i n g g r e a t e r i n c a r c e r a t i o n i n d i c e s , r e p r e s e n t p o t e n t i a l o r a c t u a l c h r o n i c o f f e n d e r s , and t h a t t h e y w i l l p o s s e s s s i m i l a r p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , as measured by t h e MMPI t o a c r i t e r i o n group o f c h r o n i c o f f e n d e r s . I t i s f u r t h e r h y p o t h e s i z e d , t h a t t h e groups d i f f e r o n l y i n r e s p e c t t o age, and t h a t by c o n t r o l l i n g s t a t i s t i c a l l y f o r t h e p o s s i b l e Influence of t h i s difference In the MMPI, no differences w i l l occur among the MMPI scales . In addi t ion , i t Is hypothesized that the groups w i l l not d i f f e r In respect to t he i r Incarceration Indices, level of i n t e l l i gence , or socioeconomic status. It Is hypothesized that those Individuals having greater incarcer- at ion Indices, represent potential or actual chronic offenders, and w i l l d i f f e r in personali ty cha rac t e r i s t i c s , as measured by the MMPI, from i n - dividuals wi thin the random sample who have lesser Incarceration Indices. It Is further hypothesized that the MMPI differences are associated with persis tent c r i m i n a l i t y , and not with the differences In Incarceration, and that by s t a t i s t i c a l l y con t ro l l i ng for the possible Influence of Incarceration, the differences in the MMPI w i l l s t i l l occur. In addi t ion , It Is hypothesized that no differences w i l l occur with respect to age, level of In te l l igence , or socioeconomic s tatus . In summary, the purpose of t h i s exploratory study w i l l be to examine MMPI charac te r i s t i c s which may be associated with chronic c r i m i n a l i t y . Although the general population of Inmates at B . C . P . Includes both r e c i d - i v i s t s and pers is tent offenders, they also provide a more sui table c r i t e r i o n group of chronic offenders. By demonstrating s i m i l a r i t i e s In personali ty charac te r i s t i cs as measured by the MMPI of t h i s c r i t e r i o n group with a group of inmates Identif ied as potential chronic offenders, and con t ro l l i ng for the differences between groups in age, i t may be possible to identify personali ty variables associated with persistent c r im ina l i t y and incarcerat ion. By demonstrating differences in personali ty charac te r i s t ics as measured by the MMPI between potential chronic offenders and a comparably aged group of offenders who have lesser incarceration indices, and cont ro l l ing for the difference in incarcerat ion, i t may be possible to demonstrate personal ity character is t i cs which may be associated with pers istent c r im ina l i t y and not with Incarceration. Subjects Samples were selected from Inmates who had been sentenced to terms of two or more years, and had been admitted to B r i t i s h Columbia Peni ten t ia ry . Upon t h e i r admission or during the course of t h e i r subsequent incarcerat ion, every Inmate completes an MMPI and Revised Beta I .Q. Test (Under and Gurv l t z , 1946) as part of t h e i r psychological assessment. A l l subjects In th i s study were Included on the basis of having a v a l i d MMPI protocol (less than 30 Items unanswered; an L score of nine or less; and an F score of 15 or less) ; a Revised Beta I.Q. score of 85 or greater; a grade f ive education or better; were 50 years of age or younger; Canadian born; and of Caucaslon rac ia l o r i g i n . B. ChronIc Offender Group. The Chronic Offender Group was selected on the basis of the f i r s t 30 consecutive admissions to B . C . P . , who had been sentenced to a term of Preventive Detention as Habitual Cr iminals , and who met the basic c r i t e r i a for s e l ec t ion . Section 660 of the Canadian Criminal Code deals with the Habitual Criminal Act . The accused may be judged as an Habitual Criminal If , " . . .he has previously, since a t ta in ing the age of eighteen years, on at least three separate and independent occasions been convicted of an Indictable offence for which he was l i ab l e to Imprisonment for f ive years or more and Is leading pers is tent ly a criminal l i f e . . . " (Office Consolidation of the Criminal Code, 1962, page 248) Further, he may be sentenced to a term of preventive detention In l ieu of a s e n t e n c e Imposed f o r a n o t h e r I n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e , I f t h e C o u r t deems I t " e x p e d i e n t f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c . " A l t h o u g h a m a j o r i t y o f Inmates a t B.C.P. a r e l i a b l e t o be proceeded under t h e A c t , o n l y 69 c a s e s were c o n v i c t e d and s e n t e n c e d between 1961 and 1967. The p r e s e n t group a v e r a g e d 39.5 y e a r s o f age ( s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , 4.57 y e a r s ) , and su b s e q u e n t t o t h e age o f 18 had a mean o f 21.7 p r e v i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s f o r I n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e s and 11.97 p r e v i o u s a d m i s s i o n s t o e i t h e r a p r o v i n c i a l g a o l o r a f e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r y . As a g r o u p , t h e y had been s e n t e n c e d t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1084 y e a r s imprisonment on 750 I n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e s and o f f e n c e s p u n i s h a b l e on summary c o n v i c t i o n . They had s e r v e d an ave r a g e o f 151.83 months, o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 61$ o f t h e i r a d u l t l i v e s i n I n c a r c e r a t i o n p r i o r t o b e i n g s e n t e n c e d t o p r e v e n t i v e d e t e n t i o n . C. Random O f f e n d e r Group. A Random O f f e n d e r Group was s e l e c t e d a t random from t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 494 Inmates a t B.C.P. u n t i l a group o f 30 s u b j e c t s were ob- t a i n e d who s a t i s f i e d t h e b a s i c c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n . The group averaged 27.5 y e a r s o f age ( s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , 7.38 y e a r s ) , and su b s e q u e n t t o t h e age o f 18, had a mean o f 10.57 c o n v i c t i o n s f o r i n d i c t a b l e o f f e n c e s and 3.83 p r e v i o u s a d m i s s i o n s t o e i t h e r a p r o v i n c i a l g a o l o r f e d e r a l p e n i t e n t i a r y . They had p r e v i o u s l y s e r v e d an a v e r a g e o f 38.67 months p r i o r t o t h e i r a dmis- s i o n , which r e p r e s e n t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25$ o f t h e i r a d u l t l i v e s . D. D e s i g n a t i o n o f Random O f f e n d e r Subgroups. E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t i m e s p e n t In I n c a r c e r a t i o n f o r each o f t h e random s u b j e c t s r e v e a l e d two d i v e r s e d i s t r i b u t i o n s . Each had ei ther served under \0% or over 25% of t h e i r adult l ives in Incarceration. Random subjects who had served under \0% were subgrouped and designated as the "Random-Control Subgroup." This subgroup was comprised of I I Ss whose average age was 25.25 years (standard devia t ion, 3.96 years); and subsequent to the age of 18, had a mean of 5.09 convictions for Indictable offences; were serving t h e i r f i r s t penitentiary sentence; and had an average of 1.09 previous admissions to a provincia l I n s t i t u t i on . They had previously served an average of 5.18 months p r io r to t h e i r admission which represented approx- imately 4.5% of t h e i r adult l i v e s . Random subjects who had served over 25% of t h e i r adult l ives In Incarceration were subgrouped and designated as the "Potential Chronic Offender" Ss. This subgroup was comprised of 19 Ss whose average age was 28.63 years (standard devia t ion , 8.67 years); and subsequent to the age of 18, had a mean of 12.95 convictions for indictable offences, and 4.95 previous admissions to a provincia l gaol or federal peni tent iary . As a subgroup, they had previously served an average of 58.05 months p r io r to t h e i r admission, which represented 43% of t h e i r adult l i v e s . Measures. A. M.M.P . I . Va l id MMPI protocols were obtained for each subject from the f i l e s of the Psychology Department at B . C . P . The MMPI Is group-admlnlstered to Inmates within a month of t h e i r admission to B . C . P . as part of t h e i r I n i t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . It should be noted that the Interval of time from the subject 's commission of the offence, his a r res t , convic t ion , and possible appeal, and his eventual admission to B . C . P . varies widely among the sample and could not be con t ro l l ed . Rec id iv i s t s with previous tes t resul ts on f i l e were not readmln- Istered the MMPI If the retest interval did not exceed three years. Thus the protocols of one chronic and four random Ss were obtained from t h e i r previous admissions. Further, the protocols of three chronic Ss were ob- tained as part of a psychological assessment for parole app l i ca t ion , as they had been admitted p r io r to the Introduction of the MMPI as part of the psychological tes t battery at B . C . P . Thus the wr i te r was not I n i t i a l l y involved In obtaining the data, nor were the subjects aware that t h e i r MMPI protocols would be used In a future study. The MMPI Is a well known and widely used personali ty t e s t . However, the "short" version of the tes t was used. This involved the f i r s t 366 Items of the 566 Item standard t e s t . Administering the short version has been generally accepted as an approved pract ise In order to reduce the amount of t es t ing time. It Is espec ia l ly appropriate for t h i s type of subject, who encounters d i f f i c u l t y In sustaining motivation for any length of time. This procedure resulted In omitt ing one v a l i d i t y measure (the K scale) and one c l i n i c a l measure (the Sl scale) from being used In the study. Raw scores were obtained from the MMPI protocols on f i l e for those Ss which s a t i s f i e d the basic c r i t e r i a for se l ec t ion . These scores were then converted Into standard scores (T-scores) without K-correctlons according to Table 3 in Dahlstrom and Welsh (I960, pages 439 and 440). B. Revised Beta IntelIIgence Test. In addit ion to the MMPI, Revised Beta Intel l igence Tests are also group-adm!nlstered to each Inmate within a month of his admission, and were avai lable for each subject from the f i l e s in the Psychology Department. The Revised Beta is a paper and pencil tes t of in t e l l ec tua l a b i l i t y i n - volving both verbal and printed Instructions for the subject. The tes t is considered to be pr imar i ly a performance measure of mental a b i l i t y , and r e l a t i v e l y free from the influence of low education. C. Measures of c r imina l I ty and incarcerat ion. An adult cr iminal record for each subject was obtained from the Criminal Ident i f ica t ion Branch of the R.C.M.P. This re f lec ts any ar res ts , convict ions , and disposi t ions imposed In an adult court for Indictable offences and offences punishable on summary convic t ion . It was possible to employ these records to es tabl ish periods spent In incarcerat ion. Juvenile records were not avai lable for any of the subjects, but owing to the seriousness of some offences, a juveni le (person under the age of 18) may have been referred to an adult court and th i s w i l l have been noted in his adult record. The number and types of convictions were recorded for each subject. The proportion of time spent In incarceration compared to periods of freedom was computed for each subject from the age of 18 to the age upon admission, and w i l l be referred to as the "Incarceration Index." The proportion for each subject was transformed using an Arcs In Transform- ation (Ki rk , 1968, page 539) to permit s t a t i s t i c a l comparison. D. Socioeconomic status and socia l data. In addi t ion to being tested and Interviewed by a Psychologist upon his admission to B . C . P . , each Inmate Is also Interviewed by a Social Worker. A socia l his tory Is obtained and reported as part of an Inmate t r a in ing pro- cedure, and an inmate f i l e Is prepared. Information contained In t h i s f i l e was used to es tabl ish each subject 's socioeconomic background. The H o l l i n g s - head Two Factor Index of Social Pos i t ion (Hollingshead and Redl lch , 1958) was employed to assign one of f i v e , ordinal social classes for each subject. Assignment of any one class depended upon a weighted combination of the subject 's f a ther ' s , or surrogate head of the subject 's household's level of education and occupation. Further Information was obtained from the Inmate f i l e s which related to early upbringing, educational background, employment h i s to ry , and marital s ta tus . Most of the Information was provided by the Inmates, and may not have been cross-val idated through community Invest igat ion. Procedure. A. Chronic versus Random Offender. A simple one-way analysis of variance was conducted between the Chronic Offender Group and the Random Offender Group for the II MMPI scales and the variables of age, in t e l l igence , and Incarceration. F Ratios were obtained and entered Into an F Dis t r ibu t ion Table with I and 58 degrees of freedom. Thus, i t was established that differences could be obtained on some MMPI scales , and that concomitant differences also occur with regard to age and Incarceration which required further a t tent ion . Possible differences between groups in socioeconomic status was tested for s igni f icance by com- bining classes Into a 2 x 2 contingency table and employing a Chi-square t es t with one degree of freedom (SiegeI, 1956, pages 104 to 110). B. Chronic versus PotentiaI ChronIc. In order to tes t the hypothesis that Individuals having greater In- carceration Indices represent potential or actual chronic offenders with personali ty charac te r i s t i c s associated persis tent c r i m i n a l i t y , a one-way analysis of variance was conducted for each of the MMPI scales between the Chronic Offender Group and the Potential Chronic Offender Subgroup. F Ratios were obtained and entered Into an F Dis t r ibu t ion Table with I and 47 degrees of freedom. One-way analyses of variance with the same degrees of freedom were also conducted between these two groups to tes t for possible differences In age, In te l l igence , and Incarceration. Differences In soc io- economic status was tested for s igni f icance using a 2 x 2 contingency table and the Chl-square tes t with one degree of freedom. C. Matched Chronic versus Potential Chronic. Fai lure to meet the assumption that the Chronic and Potential Chronic Ss would not d i f f e r In t h e i r mean Incarceration Indices required that Ss from both groups be matched on the var iable of Incarceration to control for t h i s difference. A one-way analysis of variance was then conducted for each of the MMPI scales and the variables of age, In te l l igence , and incar- ceration between the Matched Chronic and the Potential Chronic Offender Subgroups. F Ratios were obtained and entered Into an F Dis t r ibu t ion Table with I and 36 degrees of freedom. Thus differences In the o r ig ina l com- parisons could be examined for the f a i l u r e to control for differences In Incarceratlon. Although It was assumed that no differences In the MMPI scales would occur between the Matched Chronic and Potent ial Chronic Offenders, It was necessary that the differences In ages be s t a t i s t i c a l l y control led for t h e i r possible Influence on the MMPI sca les . An analysis of covarlance (Ki rk , 1968, Chapter 12) with age as the covarI ate was performed for each of the MMPI scales between the Matched Chronic and Potential Chronic Offender Subgroups. The Between Groups Sum of Squares and the Within Groups Sum of Squares (with one less degree of freedom) were adjusted for the con- comitant var iable age, and the Mean Squares Between Groups and Mean Squares Within Groups was obtained by d iv id ing by t h e i r respective degrees of freedom (I and 35). F Ratios were then obtained In the usual manner and entered Into an F Dis t r ibu t ion Table with I and 35 degrees of freedom. The analysis of covarlance permitted the ca lcu la t ion of an adjusted mean for each of the MMPI scales for each group, and It was possible to examine differences In the scale elevations that could be at t r ibuted to age by comparing the adjusted to the non-adjusted means. D. Potentla I Chronic versus Random Cont ro l . In order to tes t the hypothesis that the Potential Chronic Offender Subgroup d i f f e r In personali ty charac te r i s t i cs from the Random Control Subgroup, a one-way analysis of variance was computed for each of the MMPI sca les , between these two subgroups. F Ratios were obtained and entered Into an F Dis t r ibu t ion Table with I and 28 degrees of freedom. Addit ional one-way analyses were computed with the same degrees of freedom for the variables of age, In te l l igence , and incarcerat ion. The var iable of soc io- economic status was tested for s igni f icance using a 2 x 2 contingency table and the Chi-square tes t with one degree of freedom. In order to s t a t i s t i c a l l y control for the Influence of the expected differences In Incarceration on the MMPI scales , an analysis of covarlance with Incarceration as the covariate was performed for each of the MMPI sca les . Thus any s i gn i f i c an t differences occurring In the o r ig ina l analyses could be retested by equating the two groups on the Influence of Incarceration. By tes t ing a l l the sca les , adjusted MMPI means could be obtained and compared to the o r ig ina l means, non-adjusted for the Influence of Incarceration. F Ratios for each of the scales were obtained and entered Into an F D i s t r i b - ution Table with I and 27 degrees of freedom. A. Chronic versus Random Offender. A summary of the means and standard deviations for each of the MMPI scales and control var iab les , and the analysis of variance comparisons for the Chronic Offender Group and Random Offender Group Is included in Table 1. The MMPI mean scale elevations for the Random Ss appear more elevated than for the Chronic Ss, as reflected in Figure 1, with exception of the Pd, Mf, and Ma scales . However, of the scales , only the L , P t , and Sc scales were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher for the Random Offender Group In the analyses of variance as summarized by Table 1. The L and Pt scales were s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l , and the Sc scale was s i gn i f i c an t at the .01 level with 1 and 58 degrees of freedom in each comparison. Among the con- t r o l var iab les , the Chronic Offender Group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y older (at the .001 l eve l ) , and had spent s i g n i f i c a n t l y more time In incarceration (at the .001 level) than the Random Offender Group. The groups were not found to d i f f e r along the var iable of In te l l igence . When Chronic Offenders were compared to Random Offenders along the var iable of socioeconomic s tatus, as reflected In Table 2, the obtained Chi-square value was non-signif icant with one degree of freedom. Thus the groups did not d i f f e r along th i s con- t r o l va r i ab le . B. Chronic versus PotentiaI Chronic Offenders. A summary of the means and standard deviations for each of the MMPI scales and control var iab les , and the analysis of variance comparisons for the Chronic Offender Group and Potential Chronic Offender Subgroup Is Included In Table 3. The mean MMPI scale elevations for the Potential Chronic Offender Summary Table for Analysis of Variance of MMPI Scales and Control Variables Between the Chronic and Random Offender Groups Groups Chronic Offender Random Offender Scale Mean S.D. Mean S.D. F Ratio L 46.73 5.39 49.97 6.92 4.08* F 60.53 7. 13 63.23 8.18 i 1.86 Hs 55.33 12.44 56.53 1 1.90 0.15 D. 65.57 14. 19 68.53 12.83 0.72 Hy 57.43 8.92 59.53 10.93 0.66 Pd 76.33 10. 14 76.60 1 1.86 0.01 Mf 58.50 10.24 58.07 9.38 0.03 Pa 58.20 10.53 62.07 12.17 1.73 Pt 57.43 10.55 65.60 14.67 6.13* Sc 55.93 9.56 64.97 12.73 9.65** Ma 63.43 12.10 63.47 12.03 0.00 Variable Age 39.50 4.57 27.50 7.38 57.39*** 1 .Q. 106.50 8.80 105.40 9.91 0.23 Incarc. 1.78 0.28 1.06 0.54 41.31*** * p<.05 ** p<.0l *** p<.00l F i g . I. The p ro f i l e s of the Chronic and the mean elevations for each of for K, and non-adjusted for the Random Offender Groups re f lec t ing the MMPI sca les , non-corrected effect of age or incarcerat ion. T SCORES Contingency Table for Socioeconomic Status Between Chronic and Random Offender Groups Group Hoi 1Ingshead 1ndex 1 - IV V Chronic Offender 9 21 Random Offender 13 17 Note: x 2 = I-79 and .20 > p > .10 with 1 df. Summary Table for Analysis of Variance of MMPI Scales and Control Variables Between the Chronic Offender Group and the Potential Chronic Offender Subgroup Group or Subgroup Chronic Offender Potential Chronic Offender Sea le Mean S.D. Mean S.D. F Ratio , L 46.73 5.39 48.53 6. 10 1.16 F 60.53 7.13 63.26 .' 7.81 1 .58 Hs 55.33 12.44 55.63 1 1.04 0.01 D 65.57 14. 19 66.42 12.88 0.05 Hy 57.43 8.92 59.90 9.01 0.88 Pd 76.33 10.14 77.68 10.31 0.20 Mf 58.50 10.24 59.00 9.77 0.03 Pa 58.20 10.53 59.79 12.22 0.23 Pt 57.43 10.55 62.79 13. 16 2.47 Sc 55.93 9.56 62.68 13.26 4.28* Ma 63.43 12.10 63.90 12.34 0.02 Variable Age 39.50 4.57 28.63 8.67 32.95*** 1 .Q. 106.53 8.80 105.47 9.83 0.05 1ncarc. 1.78 0.28 1.43 0.23 . 20.58*** * p<.05 *** p<.00l Subgroup as compared to the Chronic Offender Group follows a s i m i l a r pattern to Figure 1. However, differences in elevations among the L, D, Pa, P t , and Sc scales are notably reduced in the Potent ial Chronic Offender Subgroup as compared to t h e i r o r i g i n a l source group of Random Offenders. Although, s t i l l more elevated in the scales previously mentioned, the Potential Chronic Offenders were s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher only on the Sc scale (at the .05 level• with 1 and 47 degrees of freedom) as summarized by the F Ratios in Table 3. Although the Potential Chronic S_s were s l i g h t l y older than the Random Offender Group, they were s t i l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y younger (at the .001 level) than the Chronic Offender Ss. No difference was. noted for the var iable of i n t e l l i gence . When Chronic Offender Ss were compared to Potent ial Chronic Offender Ss along the var iable of socioeconomic status, as shown on Table 4, the obtained ChI — square value was non-sign If leant with one degree of freedom. Thus the groups did not d i f f e r along t h i s control va r iab le . Although previously assumed and hypothesized that the two groups would not d i f f e r In the proportion of time spent in incarcerat ion, the Chronic Offender Group s t i l l spent a greater proportion ( s ign i f i can t at the .001 level) of t h e i r adult l ives in incarceration compared to the Potent ial Chronic Offender Ss. In order to control for the possible Influence of t h i s d i f f e r - ence, a subgroup of Chronic Ss were selected from the Chronic Offender Group which provided the best match for Ss in the Potential Chronic Offender Sub- group along the var iable of incarcerat ion. C. Matched Chronic versus Potent ial Chronic Offenders. The means and standard deviations for each of the MMPI scales and control var iables for the subgroup of Chronic Offenders which were designated Contingency Table for Socioeconomic Status Between the Chronic Offender Group and Potential Chronic Offender Subgroup Group Hoi 1Ingshead 1ndex 1 - IV V Chronic Offender 9 21 Potent ial Chronic Offender 8 II Note: x 2 = 1.38 and .30 > p > .20 with 1 df As the Matched Chronic Offender Subgroup, and those previously obtained for the Potent ial Chronic Ss are summarized In Table 5. The matching procedure resulted In a subgroup which differed from the o r ig ina l group by having s l i g h t l y higher elevations on the D, Mf, Pa, P t , and Sc sca les . The matched Chronic Offender Subgroup obtained higher mean elevat lons 'on the D and Mf sca les , whereas the Potential Chronic Offenders obtained higher mean e l e - vations on the L, P t , and Sc scales as reflected in Figure 2. With the exception of the D and Pa scales , the p ro f i l e s of the Matched Chronic Ss compared to the Potent ial Chronic ^s follows a s i m i l a r pattern to the o r ig ina l group of Chronic Offenders compared to the Potential Chronic Offender Subgroup. As a resul t of the matching procedure and the higher elevations In some of the scales , the F Ratios in Table 5 tended to be generally smaller than when Chronic Offenders were used in the comparisons (Table 3 ) . Whereas the previous comparison revealed a s i gn i f i c an t d i f f e r - ence between the Chronic Offender Ss and the Potential Chronic Offender S_s on the Sc sca le , no difference occurred when the Matched Chronic Ss were used as the comparison group. The Matched Chronic Offenders were s l i g h t l y older than t h e i r source group of Chronic Offenders, and were older ( s ign i f i can t at the .001 level) than the Potential Chronic Offender Ss. The groups did not d i f f e r along the var iable of i n t e l l i gence . A l - though the matching procedure reduced the between groups source of v a r i - at ion for the var iable of incarcerat ion, the Matched Chronic Offender Ss were s t i l l found to have spent a greater proportion ( s ign i f i can t at the .01 level) of t h e i r adult l ives in incarcerat ion. Thus, It was not possible to control for differences in the variable in Incarceration between these Summary Table for Analysis of Variance of MMPI Scales and Control Variables Between the Matched Chronic and Potent ial Chronic Subgroups Subgroups Matched Chronic Offender Potent!a 1 Chronic Offender Sea le Mean S.D. Mean S.D. F Ratio L 45.63 5.70 48.53 6.10 2.28 F 61.95 6.25 63.26 7.81 0.33 Hs 56.37 13.02 55.63 1 1.04 0.04 D 68. 16 14.75 66.42 12.88 0. 15 Hy 57.58 9.94 59.90 9.01 0.57 Pd 76.58 9.66 77.68 10.31 0.12 Mf 60.79 8.33 59.00 9.77 0.37 Pa 59.53 10.76 59.79 12.22 0.00 Pt 59.21 9.82 62.79 13. 16 0.90 Sc 57.79 10.08 62.68 13.26 1 .64 Ma 63.37 13.47 63.90 12.34 0.02 Variable Age 40.58 5.01 28.63 8.67 27.01*** I.Q. 106.90 9.89 105.47 9.83 0.20 1ncarc. 1.61 0.17 1.43 0.23 8.00** ** p<.0l *** p<.00l F i g . 2. The p ro f i l e s of the Matched Chronic and Random Offender Subgroups r e f l ec t ing the mean elevations for each of the MMPI scales , non- corrected for K, and non-adjusted for the effect of incarcerat ion. T SCORES o cn O O o oo O oh 2 3"- CO o 03 4% :-W> • \ \ • \ 0 V 0 0 irj> • o • • ! 1 * I I * • v> 6 30 " 0 <» o> o O o> o z i z j I - l Z O DOS 30O zjo o± o i 30^ 2— Z m I— 0|— o two g r o u p s . As no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were o b t a i n e d on any of t h e MMPI s c a l e s between t h e sub g r o u p s , f a i l u r e t o c o n t r o l f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n c a r c e r a t i o n may have had a n e g l i g i b l e e f f e c t . The r e s u l t s o f e x p l o r i n g f o r t h e p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e d i f f e r - ences i n t h e age on t h e MMPI s c a l e s t h r o u g h an a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e between t h e Matched C h r o n i c and P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r Subgroups a r e summarized i n T a b l e 6. By e q u a t i n g f o r t h e c o n c o m i t a n t v a r i a b l e o f age, t h e a d j u s t e d mean e l e v a t i o n s f o r t h e Matched C h r o n i c Ss i n c r e a s e s on t h e P t , S c , and Ma s c a l e s , and d e c r e a s e s s l i g h t l y on t h e Hy and Pd s c a l e s . The a d j u s t e d mean e l e v a t i o n s f o r t h e P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c Ss r e f l e c t s a r e v e r s a l i n t h a t t h e de- c r e a s e s o c c u r on t h e P t , Sc and Ma s c a l e s and t h e r e a r e s l i g h t i n c r e a s e s on t h e Hy and Pd s c a l e s . By comparing t h e a d j u s t e d mean e l e v a t i o n s f o r both g r o u p s , t h e P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r Ss have h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s on t h e L, Hy, and Pd s c a l e s , whereas t h e Matched C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r Ss o n l y have a h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n on t h e Ma s c a l e . A l t h o u g h t h e l a r g e s t between-groups s o u r c e o f v a r i a t i o n o c c u r r e d on t h e P t and Sc s c a l e s i n t h e o r i g i n a l a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e , by e q u a t i n g f o r age, t h e l a r g e s t between-groups s o u r c e o f v a r i a t i o n o c c u r r e d on t h e Hy, Pd, and Ma s c a l e s i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e . However, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were o b t a i n e d on t h e s e , o r t h e o t h e r MMPI s c a l e s . D. P o t e n t i a I C h r o n i c v e r s u s Random C o n t r o l . The means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s f o r each o f t h e MMPI s c a l e s and c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e - f o r t h e subgroup of Random O f f e n d e r s which were d e s i g n a t e d as t h e Random C o n t r o l Subgroup a r e summarized i n T a b l e 7. Compared t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l s o u r c e group o f Random O f f e n d e r s ( s e e T a b l e 1), Random C o n t r o l Ss te n d t o have h i g h e r mean e l e v a t i o n s on t h e L, D, Pa, P t , and Sc s c a l e s . As Summary T a b l e f o r A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f MMPI S c a l e s Between t h e Matched C h r o n i c and P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c Subgroups Subgroups A d j u s t e d Mean Sum o f Squares Matched C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r P o t e n t ! a 1 Chron i c O f f e n d e r Sea l e A d j u s t e d Means Between a W i t h i n , b .'.F R a t i o L 45.04 49.1 1 89.90 35.36 2.54 F 62.87 62.24 1 .54 50.27 0.03 Hs 55.95. ; 56.05 0.06 I49.7F 0.00 D 67.20 ' 67.38 • 0.19 195.89 0.00 Hy 55.67' 61.81 ' 204.82 87.23 2.35 Pd 74.80 79.46 ; i I 8 .M 98. 18 1.20 Mf 60.26 ' 59.53 2.94 84.38 0.03 Pa 59.54 . ; 59.78 0.32 136.34 . 0.00 P t 61.60 ' 60.40.' 7.73 130.40 ' 0.06 Sc 60.43. ' 50.04 . 0.81 I32.63 : 0.01 Ma 66.43 60.83 ; 170.27 158.08 1 .08 a Mean sum of s q u a r e v a l u e s Between Groups were o b t a i n e d b y . d i v i d i n g t h e Between Groups Sum o f Squares by t h e degrees o f freedom ( 1 ) . b Mean sum o f s q u a r e v a l u e s W i t h i n Groups were o b t a i n e d by d i v i d i n g t h e W i t h i n Groups Sum o f Squares by t h e degrees o f freedom ( 3 5 ) . Summary T a b l e f o r A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o f MMPI S c a l e s and C o n t r o l V a r i a b l e Between t h e P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r and Random C o n t r o l Subgroups Subgroups P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r Random Contro1 S c a l e Mean S.D. Mean S.D. F R a t i o L 48.53 6.10 52.46 7.83 2.35 F 63.26 7.81 63.18 9.19 0.00 Hs 55.63 ' 1 1 .04' 58>. 09 • 13.96 0.29 D 66.42 '. ' 12.88 72.18 12.46 1.43 Hy 59.90 9.01 58.91 14.29 0.05 Pd 77.68 10.31 74.73 14.53 0.42 Mf 59.00 9.77 56.46 9.06 0.50 Pa 59.79 ; 12.22 66.00 1 1 .63 1.87 P t 62.79 \ 13.16 70.46 16.77 1.97 Sc ; 62.68 13.26 68.91 11.27 1 .71 Ma 63.90 • ; 12.34 62.73 13.41 0.06 V a r i a b l e Age 28.63 8.67 25.55 • 3.96 1.23 I.Q. 105.47 9.83 ; 105.18 10.59 0.01 1ncarc. 1 .43 0.23 0.43 0.24 130.49*** Note: s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e s f o r a I I c o m p a r i s o n s a r e based upon 1 and 28 d f . *** p<.00l f u r t h e r noted by T a b l e 7, t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t subgroup, t h e P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r Ss had lower e l e v a t i o n s on t h e s e s c a l e s . The r e l a t i v e e l e v a t i o n s f o r both groups a r e a l s o r e f l e c t e d by F i g u r e 2. However, t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e between t h e P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r s and Random C o n t r o l s p r o - duced no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e groups on any o f t h e s c a l e s as shown by t h e F R a t i o s i n T a b l e 7. F u r t h e r , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d between t h e two groups on t h e c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s o f age, and i n t e l l i g e n c e ( T a b l e 7 ) , nor was t h e C h i - s q u a r e v a l u e s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e v a r i a b l e o f s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s ( T a b l e 8 ) . The P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r Ss s p e n t ' a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n ( s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .001 l e v e l ) o f t h e i r a d u l t l i v e s i n i n c a r c e r a t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f e x p l o r i n g f o r t h e p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e d i f f e r - ences i n i n c a r c e r a t i o n on t h e MMPI s c a l e s t h r o u g h an a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e between t h e P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r and Random C o n t r o l subgroups a r e summarized i n T a b l e 9 . By e q u a t i n g f o r t h e c o n c o m i t a n t v a r i a b l e o f i n — ' c a r c e r a t i o n , t h e a d j u s t e d mean s c a l e e l e v a t i o n s f o r t h e P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r Ss shows a marked d e c r e a s e on t h e D and Pd s c a l e s , a l e s s e r d e - c r e a s e i n t h e F, Pa, and P t s c a l e s , and a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n t h e Hy and Mf s c a l e s . The a d j u s t e d mean e l e v a t i o n s f o r t h e Random C o n t r o l Ss r e f l e c t s a r e v e r s a l i n t h e same s c a l e s i n t h a t t h e D and Pd s c a l e s r e f l e c t a marked i n c r e a s e ; t h e F, Pa, and P t s c a l e s , a l e s s e r i n c r e a s e ; ' a n d - t h e ' H y and Mf s c a l e s , a d e c r e a s e . A l t h o u g h t h e l a r g e s t between-groups s o u r c e o f v a r i a t i o n o c c u r r e d on t h e L, D, Pa, P t , and Sc s c a l e s i n t h e o r i g i n a l a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e , by e q u a t i n g f o r i n c a r c e r a t i o n , t h e between-groups s o u r c e o f v a r i a t i o n i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e r e f l e c t s . a marked d e c r e a s e i n t h e C o n t i n g e n c y T a b l e f o r S o c i o e c o n o m i c S t a t u s Between t h e P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c and Random C o n t r o l Subgroups' Group Hoi 1i ngshead 1ndex 1 - IV . v P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r 8 II Random C o n t r o l 5 6 Note: x 2 = 0.31 and .70- > p > .50 w i t h 1 d f . Summary T a b l e f o r A n a l y s i s o f C o v a r i a n c e o f MMPI S e a l e s Between t h e P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r and Random C o n t r o l Subgroups Subgroups A d j u s t e d Mean Sum o f Squares P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r Random C o n t r o l Sea 1 e A d j u s t e d Means Between a W i t h i n . •. b . F R a t i o L 48.68 52.18 15.09 47.45. 0.32 F 60.77 67.49 55.58 69.34 . 0.80 Hs 55.79 ; 57.81 5.04 150.41 0.03 D 59.03 ; 84.95 ; 827.14 145.65 5.68* Hy 63.30 ; 53.03 ; 129.96 123.40 1.05 Pd 72.68 ; 83.37 : ; 140.79 138.43. 1.02 Mf 60.02 ' 54.70 34.88 92.49 0.38 • Pa 57.51 ' 69.95 • ; 190.52 147.08 • 1.30 P t 60.63 74.19 ; 226.49 • 213.92 1.06 Sc 62.06 ". 69.99 • 77.42 164.02 . 0.47 Ma 64.28. ; 62.06 6.05 • 154.90 ' 0.04' a Mean sum o f s q u a r e v a I u e s Between Groups were o b t a i n e d b y . d i v i d i n g t h e Between Groups Sum o f Squares by t h e degrees o f freedom ( 1 ) . b Mean sum o f s q u a r e v a I u e s W i t h i h Groups were o b t a i n e d by d i v i d i n g t h e W i t h i n Groups Sum o f Squares by t h e degrees o f freedom ( 2 7 ) . L, Pa, P t , and Sc s c a l e s , and a m a r k e d . i n c r e a s e i n t h e D, Hy, a n d P d s c a l e s . However, as t h e w i t h i n - g r o u p s s o u r c e of v a r i a t i o n was a l s o q u i t e l a r g e f o r each o f t h e s c a l e s , o n l y t h e D s c a l e d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y ( a t t h e .05'. I eve I ) . C h a p t e r V DISCUSSION A. Absence o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p r e s e n t f I n d i n g s , and t r e n d s s u g g e s t e d by t h e d a t a . The r e s u l t s I n d i c a t e t h a t t h e L, D, Pa, P t , and Sc s c a l e s o f t h e MMPI t e n d t o v a r y In e l e v a t i o n among t h e s t u d y g r o u p s . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were o b t a i n e d o n l y on t h e L, P t , and Sc s c a l e s among t h e o r i g i n a l c r i t e r i o n g roups o f C h r o n i c and Random O f f e n d e r s . These d i f f e r e n c e s l o s t t h e i r s i g n i - f i c a n c e t h r o u g h d e r i v i n g subgroups and i n a p p l y i n g c o v a r i a t e a d j u s t m e n t s , i n a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n t r o l f o r t h e I n f l u e n c e o f t h e c o n c o m i t a n t v a r i a b l e s o f age and i n c a r c e r a t i o n . As h y p o t h e s i z e d , t h o s e Ss w i t h i n a randomly d e r i v e d sample, who had g r e a t e r i n c a r c e r a t i o n i n d i c e s , p o s s e s s e d s i m i l a r p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as measured by t h e MMPI t o a c r i t e r i o n group o f c h r o n i c o f f e n d e r s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e Sc s c a l e . However, t h e s e same Ss d e s i g n a t e d as P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r s , d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l o n g t h e same p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t subgroup o f Ss who had low I n c a r c e r - a t i o n i n d i c e s . In t h e absence o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r s o c c u p i e d a " m i d d l e " p o s i t i o n among t h e L, P t , and Sc s c a l e s w h i c h were found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t between t h e o r i g i n a l c r i t e r i o n g r o u p s . When t h e D and Pa s c a l e s a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d , t h e s e e l e v a t i o n s would s u g g e s t t h a t t h e P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r s t e n d t o be more l i k e t h e c r i t e r i o n group o f C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r s In t h e i r MMPI p r o f i l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a n t h e subgroup w i t h t h e lower i n c a r c e r a t i o n I n d i c e s d e s i g n a t e d as Random C o n t r o l s . As n o t e d , t h e P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h e C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r s on t h e Sc s c a l e . When t h e subgroup o f Matched C h r o n i c was s e l e c t e d and compared t o t h e P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r s , t h i s d i f f e r e n c e l o s t I t ' s s i g n i f i c a n c e . Through t h e m a t c h i n g p r o c e d u r e , t h e Matched C h r o n i c Ss had lower I n c a r c e r a t i o n i n d i c e s t h a n t h e i r o r i g i n a l s o u r c e group. As t h e Matched C h r o n i c Ss had h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s on t h e Sc s c a l e t h a n t h e i r o r i g i n a l s o u r c e group, I t would a p p e a r t h a t Sc s c a l e e l e v a t i o n s among C h r o n i c Ss may be I n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o I n c a r c e r a t i o n . When t h e two subgroups a r e eq u a t e d f o r age by t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o v a r i a n c e , t h e d i f f e r e n c e In e l e v a t i o n Is v i r t u a l l y removed. T h e r e f o r e , i t would a l s o appear t h a t Sc s c a l e e l e - v a t i o n s among t h e P o t e n t i a l l y C h r o n i c Ss may be more I n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o age. However, o t h e r f a c t o r s may c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e e l e v a t i o n s o f t h i s s c a l e among t h e s u b g r o u p s . In a d d i t i o n t o c o n t a i n i n g Items t h a t r e l a t e t o t h e c l a s s i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f s c h i z o p h r e n i a , L i n g o e s ( I 9 6 0 ) r e p o r t s s e v e r a l c l u s t e r s o r g r o u p i n g s o f items w i t h i n t h i s s c a l e . Two o f t h e c l u s t e r s r e l a t e t o s o c i a l a l i e n a t i o n , and l a c k o f ego mastery t h r o u g h d e f e c t o f i n - h i b i t i o n and c o n t r o l . E n d o r s i n g items w h i c h r e l a t e t o s o c i a l a l i e n a t i o n c o u l d o c c u r among t h e P o t e n t i a l C h r o n i c S s , who may t e n d t o become more co n c e r n e d about t h e i r l a c k o f m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and absence o f r a p p o r t w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . As t h i s subgroup a l s o commits s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.001) more c r i m e s o f v i o l e n c e t h a n t h e C h r o n i c S s , t h e y would more l i k e l y f e e l and r e - p o r t a d e f e c t o f I n h i b i t i o n and c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r i m p u l s e s . As a f u r t h e r n o t e , t h e C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r Ss may be r e g a r d e d as " p r i s o n w i s e " and r e a l i z e t h e p o s s i b l e consequences In terms o f o b t a i n i n g p a r o l e o r a t r a n s f e r t o a minimum s e c u r i t y I n s t i t u t i o n , I f t h e y were t o admit t o more s e r i o u s p a t h o l o g y o r i m p u l s i v i t y . As a r e s u l t , C h r o n i c O f f e n d e r Ss may be more guarded i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o such Items as a r e c o n t a i n e d In t h e Sc s c a l e , may be l e s s l i k e l y to admit to symptoms which would suggest treatment, and may be giving a more favourable Impression of t h e i r personali ty functioning. When the analysis of covariance with age as the covariate was conducted between the Matched Chronic and Potential Chronic subgroups, the difference in the adjusted means between the two groups on the Pt scale was also v i r t u a l l y removed. Thus t h i s scale may also tend to vary Inversely with Increasing age among the Potent ial Chronic Ss, as was suggested with the Sc sca le . The Pt scale as described by Dahlstrom and Welsh (I960) includes items which relate to "anxiety and dread, low self-confidence, doubts about one's competence, undue s e n s i t i v i t y , moodiness, and immobilization [p. 70] . " It may suggest that with Increasing age, the Potential Chronic Ss may become less sensi t ized to anxiety through alternate modes of adjustment such as reverting to alcohol or drugs. Further, they may, with increasing age and ins t i t u t iona l experience, become more "prison wise" as was suggested with Chronic Ss, and therefore less l i k e l y to endorse items which relate to mentaI or emotional pathology rather than behavioural d i f f i c u l t i e s . As a further resul t of the analysis of covariance between the Matched Chronic and Potential Chronic subgroups, the adjusted means on the L, Hy, and Pd scales increased among the Potent ial Chronic Ss, while the Ma scale i n - creased among the Matched Chronic Ss. However, as the subgroups s t i l l differed s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.0l) with respect to incarcerat ion, further invest igat ion would be warranted to determine whether the differences in the adjusted means were the resul t of differences In Incarceration, or through equating for age, or as a resul t of some other var iable which did not come under examination nor con t ro l . The Random Control Subgroup was found to have the highest mean e l e - vations on the L, D, Pa, P t , and Sc scales among a l l of the samples. However, no s i gn i f i c an t differences were obtained when compared to t h e i r counterpart subgroup, the Potent ial Chronic Offender Ss. It would appear that through deriving these subgroups, the reduction in sample s izes may have resulted in the commission of more Type II e r rors . If the differences in the e l e - vations on these scales represent true differences between the subgroups, by se t t ing the power of the tes t at .80 and the probabi l i ty of a Type I error at .05, and by employing estimates of the population error variance from those obtained in the present study, sample s izes of approximately 30 to 40 Ss would be required to reject the null hypothesis. Thus, f a i l u r e to demonstrate s ign i f i can t differences in personali ty charac te r i s t i cs reflected by elevations on the L, D, Pa, P t , and Sc scales found among the Potential Chronic Ss, and which also may be associated with persis tent c r i m i n a l i t y ; compared to Random Control Ss, who have lower elevations on these scales and low incarceration indices; may have occurred as the resul t of inadequate power in the s t a t i s t i c a l comparisons conducted in th i s study. Further, in conducting the analysis of covariance between these subgroups with incar- ceration as the covaria te , the regression equations for each group, and for both groups combined were derived from a smalI number of Ss. The F Ratio between the subgroups on th i s var iable was the largest obtained in the study, which would also suggest the d i f f i c u l t y in equating for the influence of t h i s difference between both groups. Thus, in attempting to f i t the best regression equation to the data, the adjusted sources of va r ia t ion between- and within-groups are spuriously large. Although only the difference on the D scale was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t , a l l differences that were suggested in the adjusted means (Table 9) should be further investigated using larger samples. In summary, the resul ts indicated that the L , D, Pa, P t , and Sc scales varied in elevation among the study groups. In the absence of s i gn i f i c an t differences in the present study, trends in the elevat ion among these scales would appear to have some rela t ionship to the influence of age and incarcer- a t ion , or some other var iable or variables which di f ferent ia tes the groups and did not come under examination nor con t ro l . B. MMPI profi le charac te r i s t i cs among samp Ie groups. The o r ig ina l Chronic Offender Group, and the Matched Chronic and Potent ia l Chronic Offender subgroups have s i m i l a r MMPI configural p ro f i l e patterns in which the Pd scale re f lec ts a peaked elevation in comparison to other sca les . It is the only scale whose elevat ion exceeds two standard deviations (20 standard score points) from the population mean (50). Thus, by exceeding a standard score of 70, i t is designated as a "high point 4" or coded as "4 ' " , where the number "four" stands for the fourth c l i n i c a l sca le , the Pd sca le . Dahlstrom and Welsh (I960) suggest that elevations in the Pd scale appear in many p ro f i l e s in both normal and psychia t r ic populations, and i n - creases markedly in prison groups. In a summary of the research (I960), they indicate that peak scores on th i s scale , even when the elevat ion does not exceed a standard score of 70, "provided evidence of lack of socia l conform- i ty or s e l f - c o n t r o l , and a persis tent tendency to get into scrapes [p. 188]." Guthrie (Welsh and Dahlstrom, 1956) found that among 25 V .A . pat ients , e l e - vation on th i s scale was associated with a his tory of minor delinquency, un- steady work, poor home re la t ions , and a poor response to treatment. His study group was diagnosed as "Psychopathic Personal i ty , Asocial Type," and had been hospi ta l ized for reasons which included alcoholism, court r e fe r ra l s , and anxiety complaints. Gi lbers tadt and Duker (1965) found peak Pd elevations among 17 male veteran pat ients , whose primary diagnosis was "Personali ty T r a i t Disturbance, Passive-Aggressive Personal i ty , Aggressive Type." In reviewing the case h i s t o r i e s , they described the complaints, t r a i t s , symptoms, and cardinal features of t h i s group as immature, c h i l d i s h , impulsive and emotionally unstable to the extent of being assaul t ive ; having severe marital c o n f l i c t s through e l i c i t i n g a succorant, motherly a t t i tude of forebearance from the i r wives; r e f l ec t ing sexual maladjustments including perverse sexual behaviour and acting-out; and becoming tense, moody, g u i l t - r i d d e n , and de- pressed because of low f rus t ra t ion tolerance. They further note that suicide attempts, aggressive outbursts towards wives, and alcoholism were the most frequent causes for admission. The t r a i t descr ipt ions , c l i n i c a l features, and diagnoses pr imar i ly ava i lab le in the l i t e ra tu re to describe subjects with peak elevations on the Pd scale have been largely based upon V.A . patients in hospital se t t ings . However, Panton (Dahlstrom and Welsh, I960) noted that the Pd scale was the most frequent high point or second high point scale among 2551 prison inmates. Further, the populations studied by Levy et aj_. (1952), Panton (1958, 1959, and 1962b), and Dunham's (1954) r e c i d i v i s t group a l l re f lec t a high point or peak elevat ion on t h i s sca le . The Chronic Offender Group, and Matched Chronic and Potential Chronic subgroups compare with Levy et a I . ' s repeater group. Dunham's r e c i d i v i s t group reflected a s i m i l a r p r o f i l e pattern, although the elevations in each of the scales were notably lower. Panton's (1959) r e c i d i v i s t group and (1962a) habitual criminal group tended to have higher elevations on the Hs, D, and Hy scales , although the rest of the p r o f i l e is compatible. As the p ro f i l e s in Panton's groups correspond to Levy et a I . ' s subgroups who were age 41 to 45, 46 to 50, and 50 and over; i t would appear that the higher elevations in the Hs, D, and Hy scales may be the resul t of differences in age from the samples in th i s study. In summary, peak elevations on the Pd scale have appeared in general prison samples and the present chronic offender samples may therefore r e f l ec t a feature of an t i soc ia l behaviour common to criminal offenders. This would tend to support Guthriels (1956) reference to the Pd peak as being associated with the "Psychopathic Personal i ty , Asocial Type." However the features suggested by Gi lbers tadt and Duker re la t ing to the "Passive-Aggressive, Personal i ty - Aggressive Type" may require modification when applied to criminal offender groups, as an aggressive his tory was not supported among the Chronic Offender samples in th i s study. The MMPI p rof i l e s of the Chronic Offender Group, and Matched Chronic and Potent ial Chronic subgroups appear more s i m i l a r to Panton's (1962b) group of 2198 consecutive admissions, than the o r ig ina l Random Offender group in t h i s study. In addi t ion , the Random Offender Group's p r o f i l e appears more elevated than Panton's (1958, 1959) other to ta l sample groups with the exception of the Hy sca le . When further compared to a s i m i l a r l y aged sub- group of r e c i d i v i s t s in Panton's (1959) and Levy et a l . ' s study, the Random Offender Group in t h i s study continues to have a higher elevated p r o f i l e . This may indicate a greater incidence of pathology among the general population of inmates in B . C . P . compared to inmates in State in s t i t u t ions or reception centers, and would suggest the need to include inmates from a provincia l i n s t i t u t i o n in future comparison studies. The Random Control Subgroup has a mean MMPI p r o f i l e which follows a configural pattern designated as "2-7-4" by Gilbers tadt and Duker, and by Marks and Seeman (1963). This refers to the D, P t , and Pd scales respect ive ly , as having elevations which exceed a standard or T score of 70, i r respect ive of the order of magnitude. Marks and Seeman noted that among a c r i t e r i a group of 21 patients having th i s p r o f i l e pattern, most were diagnosed as "Psychoneurotic Disorders, Depressive Reaction" or "Personali ty T r a i t D i s - turbance, Passive-Aggressive Persona l i ty . " Generally, the most descr ipt ive Q sort of features of t h i s group included a vu lne rab i l i t y to real or fancied threat; the presence of fears or phobias; being nervous or anxious to the degree that minor matters are treated as i f they were emergencies; an i n - a b i l i t y to express emotions in any var iab le , adaptive manner; and a tendency to under-control impulses and act with insuf f i c i en t thought. Gi lbers tadt and Duker's c r i t e r i a group of 27 pat ients , who reflected th i s pattern were pr imar i ly diagnosed as "Anxiety Reaction with Alcoholism In a Passive- Aggressive Persona l i ty . " The case h i s to r i e s of t h i s group ref lected complaints, t r a i t s , symptoms, and cardinal features of severe alcoholism and personali ty defects associated with anxiety, tension, i n f e r i o r i t y fee l ings , and g u i l t ; and passive-aggressive features in which aggression was expressed by such measures as stubbornness, procras t inat ion, ine f f ic iency , and passive obstruc- Although the D, Pd, and Pt represent the highest scale elevations among the Random Control Subgroup, the Sc scale approaches the level of the Pt scale and therefore warrants comment. In a r r i v ing at the p r o f i l e d i s - cr iminat ion rules regarding the "2-7-4" configural pattern or type, both Gi lbers tadt and Duker, and Marks and Seeman suggest that the Pt scale e l e - vation should exceed the Sc scale elevation by at least f ive standard score. Although th i s difference between the Pt and Sc scales among the Random Control Ss v io la tes th i s ru l e , Marks and Seeman suggest that a s l i g h t v i o - la t ion of th i s rule may not make that much difference, and one could accept the "2-7-4" ac tuar ia l descript ion with some modificat ions. Gi lbers tadt and Duker advise that the rules were devised for se lect ing " c l a s s i c a l " psychia- t r i c cases, and where an i nd iv idua l ' s p r o f i l e does not precisely f i t the set of ru les , the potential cookbook descript ion should be checked with outside information or other t e s t ing , and the descript ion be modified by the ava i lab le information. Configural patterns designated as "8-2-4" found among 20 patients in Marks and Seeman's study were pr imar i ly diagnosed as "Schizophrenic Reaction, Paranoid Type," although a few cases were diagnosed as "Sociopathic Personal i ty Disturbance." Nine patients in Gi lbers tadt and Duker's sample, who reflected th i s pattern, were pr imari ly diagnosed as "Personali ty Pattern Disturbance, Paranoid Type," and the alternate diagnosis was "Schizophrenic Reaction, Paranoid Type." Although both the "2-7-4" and "8-2-4" p r o f i l e types would suggest developmental defects or pathological trends in the personali ty s tructure; the "8-2-4" pattern would appear to indicate a level of psychopathology which may proceed to an actual psychosis; whereas the "2-7-4" pattern would suggest a possible regression to a lower level of personali ty organization and functioning without developing into a psychosis. It would appear that the descriptions associated with the "2-7-4" pattern may provide a better " f i t " in describing the Random Control Ss. How- ever, the descript ion could be modified to account for the influence of the Sc scale e leva t ion . Dahlstrom and Welsh (I960) note that paired elevations on the Pd and Sc scales are associated with individuals who are described as "unpredictable." " impuls ive ," and frequently referred to as having a "Schizoid Persona l i ty . " They further note that crimes committed by persons with th i s p ro f i l e are often "senseless, poorly planned, and poorly executed, and may include some of the most savage and vic ious forms of sexual and homicidal assault [pp. 191-192]." Dahlstrom and Welsh also note that the Pd and Pt scale elevations tend to be related to phases of behaviour in which there are periods when individuals may act out with l i t t l e control or forethought; and following such a period, may then show g u i l t , remorse, and deep regret, and may appear overly control led and con t r i t e . The Pd and D scale combination is suggested by dahlstrom and Welsh (I960) to be associated with "long standing behavioural patterns such as alcoholism, where the de- pressive features are si tuat ionaI ly produced [p. 192.;]". Thus, the descriptions and diagnoses presented by Marks and Seeman, and Gilbers tadt and Duker could be modified to re f lec t a pattern more cha rac te r i s t i c of the "Personali ty T r a i t Disturbance, Passive-Aggressive Personal i ty , Aggressive Type." However, the pathology related to th i s disorder should be explored further in a psychia t r ic interview with addit ional Ss who re f l ec t the "2-7-4" pattern with addit ional elevation on the Sc sca le . This may help to further d i f ferent ia te from the pattern of aggressive behaviour suggested by Gi lbers tadt and Duker to be associated with Pd peak e levat ions . Some of the MMPI scales would appear to have l i t t l e value in d i f f e r - en t ia t ing between the groups in th i s study. The L or Lie scale di f ferent ia ted s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the Chronic and Random Offenders. This scale contains items which relate to "aggressive fee l ings , bad thoughts, temptations, and lack of control or conformity (Dahlstrom and Welsh, I960, p. 49) ." However, there are only 15 items on the sca le , and s ign i f i can t differences may have occurred as a resul t of a difference of only two or three items. It is there- fore suggested that th i s scale be used only as a v a l i d i t y measure in future s tudies . Leary (1957) has suggested that elevations on the F scale in addit ion to the Pd and Ma scales re f lec t a pattern of adjustment through aggression. However, the F scale did not vary s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the groups, nor was i t highly elevated among the Random Control Ss who reflected the greatest incidence of violence. As previously mentioned, the Hs and Hy scales may appear to older inmate groups, and were not prominent within the present samples. The Mf scale did not discriminate between the groups, nor did i t appear to be related to the other scales . The s ignif icance of the Pd and Ma elevations in re la t ion to recidivism as suggested by Levy et aj_. and Panton (1959, 1962a) was not evident among the Chronic Offender nor Potential Chronic Offender Ss. However, the Chronic Offender Group did include 18 heroin addicts , seven a l coho l i c s , and three "admitted" problem drinkers , and the r e l a t ive elevations on the Pd and Ma scales of t h i s group are compatible with the a lcohol ics in Guthr ie ' s study and the heroin addicts in Olson's (1964) study. C. Criminal and sociaI charac te r i s t i cs among samp Ie groups. The Chronic Offender Group was found to have a background of crimes pr imar i ly committed against property as opposed to persons, and a fewer incidence of crimes of violence as would occur among offenders in general. This type of pattern is consistent with the preventive detainees studied by Morr i s , West and Hammond and Chayen. As the Chronic Offender sample also included 18 heroin addicts , they also tended to have more convict ions for drug offences than would be expected to occur among offenders in general. Random Offenders tended to have a background which reflected more crimes of violence and fewer crimes involving property than would be expected to occur among offenders in general. This was espec ia l ly evident in the Random Control Subgroup. As the percentage of convictions for crimes i n - volving the possession of s tolen goods and theft is 53.1 compared to 10.3 for crimes of violence (D .B .S . , 1967), the low incarceration index occurring among the Random Control Subgroup may be a function of the frequency of v io len t criminal acts rather than the incidence of general c r i m i n a l i t y among these Ss. Further, the trends suggested in the MMPI scales may relate to the propensity towards v io len t behaviour, rather than the absence of per- sona l i ty charac te r i s t i cs associated with persistent or chronic c r i m i n a l i t y . The Potent ial Chronic Offender Subgroup had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.001) higher indicence of crimes involving violence, and crimes committed against persons compared to the Chronic Offender Group. This may be a function of the differences in ages between the two groups as i t would relate to changes in criminal patterns that could occur with increasing age. Thus, the Potent ial Chronic Ss may be progressing from an i n i t i a l pattern of crimes against per- sons, which would incur more serious pena l i t i es and more immediate pol ice ac t ion; towards crimes against property, which receives less severe penalties and pol ice detect ion. Juvenile h i s to r i e s were not avai lable which would permit a basis for exploring Cormier's theory among the Ss. However, no differences were noted between the groups in the proportion of Ss who received adult convictions p r i o r to the age of 18, which would suggest the onset of serious c r i m i n a l i t y . This may be a charac te r i s t i c of the samples studied and differences may have occurred using a random sample of inmates from a provincia l i n s t i t u t i o n . In the two year period preceeding the i r present admission to B . C . P . , Chronic Offenders spent s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.OI) more of the preceeding period in incarceration compared to the Random Offenders. However, no differences were noted when compared to the Potent ial Chronic Ss. Further, the Potent ia l Chronic Ss were found to have spent s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.01) more of the pre- ceeding period in incarceration compared to t h e i r counterpart subgroup of Random Controls . S i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.05) more Chronic Offenders compared to Random Offenders were born and raised in Vancouver. As Vancouver tends to have the highest incidence of heroin addic t ion, t h i s may account for the large proportion of drug addicts in the sample. No differences were noted when the rest of the province was included in the comparison. Although there was a tendency for the Chronic Offenders to have been raised in larger centers, the difference approached but did not exceed s ign i f icance . Although no information was avai lable regarding the qua l i ty of parental upbringing, most Ss in each of the sample groups were raised by both parents This was,consistent with the findings of Morr i s , West, and Hammond and Chayen, although comparison groups were not used in t he i r s tudies . Although the number of Ss' s i b l i ngs did not d i f f e r between the Chronic and Random Groups, the proportion of Ss in both groups who were raised in large famil ies is notably large, and corresponds to the findings of West. However, i t is a lso inconsistent with Dunham's findings that non-rec id iv is t s tended to have more s ib l i ngs than r e c i d i v i s t s . No differences were noted in b i r th order between Chronic and Random Offender Ss, which tends to support the findings of West and Dunham. Educational level did not appear to discriminate between r e c i d i v i s t s and non-rec id iv is t s in Dunham's nor Mandel et a I . ' s (1965) study. However, in the present study, Chronic Offender Ss had s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower educational levels than the Random Offender.Ss (p<.001), and the Potential Chronic Offender Ss <p<.01). Although the age differences between the groups may suggest differences in the standards of acceptable education, the Chronic Offender Ss may have had the i r educations interrupted by placement in an i n s t i t u t i o n . The younger sample of Potential Chronic Offender Ss, however, may have come under supervision through probation, and thus allowed to further t he i r schooling as an a l te rna t ive to an i n s t i t u t i ona l commitment. No differences were noted within the Random subgroups. It should be noted that the education- al grades used in these comparisons was obtained from information provided by the inmates contained in the f i l e s . As th i s information was not cross- validated with school records, i t may be subject to d i s t o r t i o n , and should therefore be interpreted with caut ion. Although in t e l l ec tua l a b i l i t y was pr imar i ly used as a control var iable in the present study, i t should be noted that most Ss f e l l wi thin the normal range and bordered upon the bright normal range of in t e l l ec tua l a b i l i t y . Further, no differences occurred between the groups. This was consistent with the findings of Dunham, and Mandel et a l . As a f ina l note to the previous socia l background of the Ss in t h i s study, most Ss tended to have Hollingshead Indices representing the lowest soc ia l c l a s s . No differences occurred between the groups with respect to th i s control var iab le , and would suggest that lack of economic opportunity tended to affect each group equal ly . Most preventive detainees in the studies by Morr is , West, and Hammond and Chayen were found to be bachelors, and suggested evidence of long-standing soc ia l i s o l a t i o n . However, the present sample of Chronic Offenders contained more Ss who were married, who had been married, or had common-law r e l a t i o n - ships . Further, there were s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.0l) fewer s ingle Ss among the Chronic Offenders compared to the Random Ss and the Potent ia l Chronic Ss. The ages at which the Chronic Offenders married should be explored in further evaluating th is difference. Morr is , West, Hammond and Chayen, and Mandel et_ aj_. noted the high incidence of unski l led or general .labourers in t he i r samples. The Chronic Offender Group in the present study contained s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.0l) more subjects who were unski l led compared to the Random Offender Ss. Chronic Offender Ss would probably be more dependent upon seasonal work upon re- lease from pr ison, and would be less l i k e l y to qual i fy for membership and support of a trade union in order to maintain s ign i f i can t periods of employ- ment. Although Chronic Offender S_s had comparable periods of freedom from incarceration to Potential Chronic Ss during the two years p r io r to t he i r admission, they were employed s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.05) fewer months during that period. Although consistent with the lack of employment s k i l l s , or motivation towards legal employment, i t would appear that these individuals would resort to i l l e g a l a c t i v i t i e s to maintain themselves during th i s i n t e r v a l . In summary, Chronic Offenders were found to d i f f e r in t h e i r patterns of c r i m i n a l i t y , place of childhood residence, level of education, marital s tatus, and employabiIity in addit ion to the trends suggested in some of the MMPI scales . These factors may also relate to chronic c r i m i n a l i t y , and should be explored further to determine whether they are consistent among addit ional samples. D. Shortcomi nqs of present study. Although possible trends were suggested in the data with respect to the D, Pa, Pt , and Sc scales of the MMPI, i t was not possible to control for the influence of age and incarceration in making comparisons among the groups. Thus, i t was not possible to determine whether elevations in these scales were inversely related to personali ty charac te r i s t i c s associated with chronic c r i m i n a l i t y , or some other variable such as the lack of tes t - taking sophis- t i c a t i o n ("faking good"), and the incidence of violence, which did not come under con t ro l . Although the small numbers of Ss in the subgroups contributed towards f a i lu re to control for these concomitant var iables , employing larger samples may produce s i m i l a r resu l t s , i f drawn from the same population of inmates at B . C . P . The samples obtained in th i s study represent f a i r l y se lec t groups, and charac te r i s t i cs associated with these groups may d i f f e r from other prison populations. The c r i t e r i o n group of Chronic Offenders were not drawn at random, and one may not be j u s t i f i e d in general izing from the f indings . In der iving the subgroups from the Random Offender Group, these subgroups f a i l to retain the i r random cha rac t e r i s t i c s . Thus, one may not be j u s t i f i e d in general izing from the findings associated with these sub- groups, espec ia l ly as the findings were obtained from such small numbers. Although f i r s t offenders were suggested to be an unsuitable comparison group in researching chronic c r i m i n a l i t y , the Random Control Subgroup may also represent an unsuitable comparison group as they re f lec t a greater incidence of v io l en t crimes than would occur among general offenders. However, t h i s may have theoret ical implications in re la t ing the frequencies of types of crimes and the propensities towards persis tent c r i m i n a l i t y ; and may there- fore be of further research in teres t . Reduction in sample s ize among the Random Offender subgroups was suggested to have resulted in more Type II errors being committed in evaluating scale differences. Although previous studies were c r i t i c i z e d for employing less conservative s t a t i s t i c a l analyses, the analyses of variance in th i s study may have been too conservative in reject ing differences which would be of s t a t i s t i c a l s ign i f icance . Although appropriate for an exploratory study, espec ia l ly with small samples, further research should employ a s t a t i s t i c a l design which would provide a better estimate of group d i f f e r - ences and a smaller error term. D i f f i c u l t i e s were encountered in re la t ing the p r o f i l e charac te r i s t i cs of the sample groups to other c r i t e r i a groups. As the MMPI is pr imar i ly used in psychia t r ic se t t ings , most of the avai lable l i t e ra tu re has been derived from, and is more applicable to psychia t r ic subjects rather than prison groups. Constructs related to socia l and emotional a l i ena t ion , and loss of i n h i b i t i o n or control may have different implications for a psychia t r ic population compared to a behavioural disorder group. The MMPI has been c r i t i c i z e d (Berg, 1959) on the basis of being too threatening in i t ' s item content. This may support the suggestion that the Chronic Offender Ss may have been more guarded in t h e i r responses to items on the Sc sca le . However, the primary problem in evaluating the usefulness of the MMPI within th i s study relates to the absence of an adequate theory regarding patterns of c r i m i n a l i t y and personali ty functioning. The MMPI provides a diverse sample of behaviour and experience in i t ' s item content to contribute towards a theory through further research. Addit ional psychological tests- may be inclu such as the C a l i f o r n i a Psychological Inventory (Gough, 1957), to supplement or cross-val idate theoret ical constructs regarding chronic c r i m i n a l i t y . E. ProposaI for further research. Further research should be pr imar i ly directed towards exploring the possible trend suggested in the D, Pa, P t , and Sc scales of the MMPI. Random samples should be drawn from the general populations of B . C . P . and a provin- c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n and administered the MMPI. Subjects wi thin each of the two random samples should be paired for age, and the subject in each pai r having the higher incarceration index be assigned to one subgroup, and his partner to the other. Thus, the B . C . P . random sample would be divided into high and low incarceration subgroups, as would the provincia l i n s t i t u t i o n random sample, and subjects would be matched for age within t he i r respective groups. Based upon the estimated population error variances obtained in the present study, the subgroups should be comprised of at least 47 Ss in order to detect a difference of f ive standard scores between the means at the .05 level of s ign i f i cance . An analysis of covariance for the four subgroups could be performed for the D, Pa, P t , and Sc scales to equate the groups for the differences in incarcerat ion. This would provide adjusted means for each of the scales and an adjusted population error variance. Orthogonal com- parisons could then be employed among the adjusted scale means using a standard error derived from the adjusted population error variance. Ortho- gonal comparisons could be made between the subgroups of B . C . P . inmates; the subgroups of provincia l i n s t i t u t i o n inmates; and f i n a l l y between the com- bined subgroups of B . C . P . inmates versus the combined subgroups of pro- v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n inmates ( in ef fec t , the random samples of both i n s t i t u - t i o n s ) . The f i r s t two comparisons would employ d i rec t ional hypotheses in which the subgroups having the lower incarceration indices would be pre- dicted to have higher elevations on the D, Pa, P t , and Sc scales , and would therefore involve one t a i l e d t - tes ts of s ign i f icance . However, the last comparison would employ non-directional hypotheses and therefore involve a two t a i l e d t - t e s t ( in addi t ion , the F, Hs, Hy, Pd, and Ma scales might be explored in th i s set of comparisons). Thus, a l l comparisons would there- fore be planned comparisons, be orthogonal to each other, employ better estimates of group differences, and employ a smaller error term in deter- mining s i gn i f i c an t differences. By including inmates from a provincia l i n s t i t u t i o n MMPI's of Ss whose incarceration indices f a l l between those of the Potential Chronic and Random Control subgroups in th i s study could be explored. In addi t ion , Ss con- vic ted of lesser offences involving aggressive behaviour which would re- ceive sentences of under two years, could be compared in the MMPI p r o f i l e charac te r i s t i cs and frequency of criminal behaviour to the Random Control Subgroup in th i s study. Chapter VI SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS The problem of chronic c r im ina l i t y has generally been regarded by most c r iminologis t s as involving a delay in the process of adequate maturation. Criminal and soc ia l factors of the process have been reflected by the studies of preventive detainees in England. Few studies have adequately dealt with the personali ty variables associated with chronic criminal offenders. A re- view of the research attempts employing the MMPI suggested methodological problems related to v a r i a b i l i t y in the se lec t ion of c r i t e r i o n groups, f a i l u r e In deriving more appropriate comparison groups, and the f a i lu re to incorporate better s t a t i s t i c a l designs in examining for differences and con t ro l l i ng for concomitant var iab les . An exploratory study to examine MMPI charac te r i s t i cs associated with chronic c r i m i n a l i t y was proposed among inmates at B . C . P . , where pers is tent recidivism may be regarded as a general cha rac t e r i s t i c . A basic c r i t e r i o n group of 30 Habitual Criminals was hypothesized to d i f f e r in personali ty charac te r i s t i cs measured by the MMPI from a random sample of 30 inmates, and that these differences were associated with chronic c r i m i n a l i t y . As the Chronic Offender Group (the Habitual Criminals) a lso differed in age and proportion of time spent in incarcerat ion, a subgroup of 19 Ss in the random sample having greater incarceration indices were selected and designated as Potent ial Chronic Offenders. It was hypothesized that t h i s subgroup would have s i m i l a r person- a l i t y charac te r i s t i cs to the Chronic Offenders and these charac te r i s t i cs would stand up to s t a t i s t i c a l control for differences in age, and would therefore be associated with persis tent c r i m i n a l i t y and incarcerat ion. It was hypothesized that the Potent ia l Chronic Offenders would d i f f e r in personali ty charac te r i s t i cs from a counterpart subgroup of I I Ss derived from the random sample, who had lesser incarceration indices, and were designated as Random Controls . As the subgroups were of comparable age, by s t a t i s t i c a l l y con t ro l l i ng for the d i f f e r - ences in incarcerat ion, i t was hypothesized that MMPI differences would s t i l l occur, and that these differences would suggest personali ty charac te r i s t i cs which may be associated with persis tent c r i m i n a l i t y and not with incarcerat ion. One-way analyses of variance between groups and subgroups for each of the MMPI scales and the control variables of age, incarcerat ion, and i n t e l l i - gence were conducted to test for differences. Possible differences between groups on the control var iable of socioeconomic status were tested by the Chi — square t e s t . As the Chronic and Potent ial Chronic Ss differed s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.00l) on the var iable of incarcerat ion, a subgroup of 19 Chronic Offender Ss having lesser incarceration indices and designated as Matched Chronic were matched with the Potential Chronic Ss. Differences in age between the Matched Chronic and Potent ial Chronic Offender subgroups were control led by an analysis of covariance with age as the covariate for each MMPI sca le . Differences in incarceration between the Potential Chronic and Random Control subgroups were also control led by an analysis of covariance, but with incarceration as the covar ia te . The Random Offender Ss were found to have s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher elevations on the L and Pt scales (p<.05), and the Sc scale (p<.OI) compared to the Chronic Offender Ss. S ign i f i can t differences (p<.00l) also occurred with respect to age and incarcerat ion. The Potential Chronic Ss had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<:.05) higher elevation on the Sc scale than Chronic Offender Ss, but th i s difference was removed when compared to the Matched Chronic Ss. A s ign i f i can t difference (p<.OI) occurred on the var iable of incarceration between the Potent ial and Matched Chronic subgroups, and thus i t was not possible to control for th i s var iab le . No s ign i f i can t differences occurred between the Potent ial Chronic and Random Control subgroups for any of the MMPI scales , and only the var iable of incarceration dif ferent ia ted the two subgroups s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.001). Although Potential Chronic ^s did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the Random Control S_s on any of the MMPI scales , t h e i r MMPI p ro f i l e charac te r i s t i cs tended to be more l ike the c r i t e r i o n group of Chronic Offenders. Fai lure to obtain s ign i f i can t differences between the Potent ial Chronic and Random Control subgroups was suggested to have possibly resulted from the loss of power to reject the nul l hypotheses through the reduction in sample s izes in der iving the subgroups. The resul ts suggested a trend in the elevat ion of the L, D, Pa, P t , and Sc scales among the groups, with the Random Control Ss having the highest e levat ions . In the absence of s t a t i s t i c a l control for the i n f l u - ence of age and incarcerat ion, i t was not possible to determine whether the trend was related to personali ty charac te r i s t i c s associated with chronic c r im ina l i t y or some other var iable which did not come under examination nor con t ro l . Differences in the incidence of violence among the groups, and the possible tendency among Chronic Offender Ss to become more guarded in responding to items suggesting serious pathology or impulsivi ty were also noted as pos- s i b l y contr ibut ing to the trend in scale e levat ions . The MMPI p r o f i l e charac te r i s t i c s among the sample groups were examined with reference to other c r i t e r i a groups of psychia t r ic and prison samples. The Chronic Offender Group and the Matched Chronic and Potential Chronic sub- groups reflected the charac te r i s t i c peak Pd p r o f i l e , which was suggested to be a common feature among general prison samples. The Random Offender Group appeared to have a higher elevated p r o f i l e than general prison samples re- ported in the l i t e r a tu r e . The Random Control Ss ref lected a p ro f i l e char- a c t e r i s t i c designated as "2-7-4". The addit ional elevation of the Sc scale suggested a modification of the actuar ia l descr ipt ion associated with th i s type to re f lec t a personali ty t r a i t disturbance involving more aggressive behaviour. Criminal and socia l factors were also explored between groups. Chronic Offenders were found to have committed s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p<.00|) fewer crimes against persons or crimes involving violence. More (p<.05) Chronic Ss were born in Vancouver, and had a lower level of education. In contrast to the English s tudies, fewer (p<.OI) Chronic Ss were found to be bachelors when com- pared to Potential Chronic and Random Offender Ss. Chronic Offender Ss tended to have fewer employable s k i l l s and periods of previous employment. The shortcomings of the present study were reviewed, and a further study employing larger sample s izes of randomly selected inmates from both a provincia l i n s t i t u t i o n and B . C . P . was suggested. Planned, orthogonal com- parisons among means adjusted by an analysis of covariance was suggested to provide a better estimate of group differences, and a smaller error term in the s t a t i s t i c a l comparisons. Abrahamsen, D. The psychology of crime. New York: John Wiley & Sons, I960. Berg, I. A. Cited in Bass, B. M. & Berg, I. A. Objective approaches to personali ty assessment. Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1959. Clark , J . H. Appl ica t ion of the MMPI in d i f fe ren t ia t ing A.W.O.L. r e c i d i v i s t s . Journal of Psychology, 1948, 26, 229-234. Cormier, B. M. Depression and persis tent c r i m i n a l i t y . Canadian Psychia t r ic Associat ion Journal , 1966, J_l_, 208-220. Cormier, B. M. Cited in Slovenko, R. Crime, law and correc t ions . Sp r ing f i e ld : Charles C. Thomas, 1965. Cormier, B. M . , Sangowicz, J . M . , Boyer, R. , T h i f f a u l t , A . , Kennedy, M . , & Obert, A. The persis tent offender. Canadian Journal of Correct ions, 1964, 5, 253-261. Cormier, B. M . , Sangowicz, J . M . , Kennedy, M . , & Galardo, A. T. Episodic rec id iv i sm. Proceedings: 4th Research Conference on Delinquency and Criminology, Montreal, 1964. Quebec Society of Criminology, 1964, 171-193. Cormier, B. M . , Sangowicz, J . M . , Kennedy, M . , Obert, A . , Washbrook, R. A . , Galardo, A. T . , Boyer, R . , & T h i f f a u l t , A. L. The persis tent offender and his sentences. Canadian Psych ia t r i c Associat ion Journal , 1964, 9_, 462-480. Cormier, B. M . , Washbrook, R. A . , Kennedy, M . , & Obert, A. A study of f i f t y young penitentiary delinquents from age 15 to 25. Reprinted from: Proceedings: 4th Research Conference on Delinquency and Criminology, Montreal, 1964. Les Presses Socia les , 1964, 77-113. Cormier, B. M . , Kennedy, M . , Sangowicz, J . M . , Boyer, R. , T h i f f a u l t , A. L . , & Obert, A. Criminal process and emotional growth. InternationaI Psych ia t r i c C I i n i c s , 1965, 2, 3-41. Crime S t a t i s t i c s (Pol ice) 1967, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Ottawa: The Queen's P r in t e r , 1967. Dahlstrom, W. G . , & Welsh, G. S. An MMPI handbook. Minneapolis: Univers i ty of Minnesota Press, I960. Dunham, R. E. Factors related to recidivism in adul ts . Journal of Social Psychology. 1954, 39, 77-91. Freeman, R. A . , & Mason, H. M. Construction of a key to determine r e c i d i v i s t s from non-rec id iv is t s using the MMPI. Journal of CIinicalPsychology, 1952, 8, 207-208. Gardy, T. T. Survey of 424 B . C . P . Inmates conducted May/June, 1966. (Unpublished data), 1966). Gi lbers tadt , H . , & Duker, J . A handbook for c l i n i c a l and actuar ia l MMPI in terpre ta t ion . Phi lade lphia : W. B. Saunders, 1965. Glueck, S. , & Glueck, E. Later criminal careers. New York: The Commonwealth Fund, 1937. Glueck, S. , & Glueck, E. Juvenile delinquents grown up. New York: The Commonwealth Fund, 1940. Glover, E. The roots of crime. New York: International Univers i t i es Press, I960. Gough, H. Manual for the C a l i f o r n i a Psychological Inventory. Pa Io AI to : Consulting Psychologists Press, 1957. Guthrie, G. M. A r t i c l e 41. S ix MMPI diagnostic p ro f i l e patterns. 368-373. Cited in Welsh, G. S . , & Dahlstrom, W. G. Basic readings on the MMPI in Psychology and Medicine. Minneapolis: Universi ty of Minnesota Press, 1956. Hammond, W. H . , & Chayen, E. Persis tent c r imina l s . London: Her Majesty's Stationery Off ice , 1963. Hathaway, S. R. , & McKinley, J . C. Minnesota Mult iphasic Personali ty Invent- ory, ManuaI (Revised 1951). New York: The Psychological Corporation, 1951. Hathaway, S. R . , & Monachesi, E. D. (Eds . ) . Analyzing and predict ing .juvenile delinquency with the MMPI. Minneapolis: Universi ty of Minnesota Press, 1953. Henderson, D. K. Psychopathic pe rsona l i t i e s . London: Oxford Universi ty Press, 1959. Hollingshead, A. B . , & Redl ich, F. C. Social class and mental i l l n e s s . New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1958. K i r k , R. E. Experimental design: Procedures for the behavioral sciences. Belmont: Brooks/Cole, 1968. Leary, T. InterpersonaI d iagnos is of persona I i t y : Â  functional theory and methodology for personali ty evaluat ion. New York: RonaId,Press, 1957. Levy, S . , Southcombe, R. H. Cranor, J . R . , & Freeman, R. A. The outstanding personality factors among the population of a state peni tent iary: A preliminary report. Journal of C I i n i c a l , Experimental Psychopathology, 1952, _L3, I 17-128. Linder, R. M . , & Gurv i tz , M. Revised Beta Examination. New York: The Psychological Corporation, 1946. Lingoes, J . C. MMPI factors of the Harris and Wiener subscales. Journal of Consulting Psychology, I960, 24, 75-83. Mandel, N. G . , C o l l i n s , B. S . , Moran, M. R. , Barron, A. J . , Gelbmann, F. J . , Gadbois, C. B . , & Kaminstein, P. Recidivism studied and defined. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology & Pol ice Science, 1965, 56_, 59-66. Marks, P. A . , & Seeman, W. The actuar ia l descr ipt ion of abnormal personal i ty . Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkens Co . , 1963. Morr is , N. The habitual c r i m i n a l . London: Longmans, Green & Co. , 1951. Office Consolidation of the Criminal Code. Ottawa: The Queen's P r in t e r , 1962. Olson, R. W. MMPI sex differences in narcotic addicts . Journal of General Psychology, 1964, 7J_, 257-266. Panton, J . H. Predic t ing prison adjustment with the MMPI. Journal of C I i n i c a l Psychology, 1958, \±, 308-312. Panton, J . H. Inmate personali ty differences related to rec id iv ism, age, and race as measured by the MMPI. Journal of Correctional Psychology, 1959, 4, 29-35. Panton, J . H. The iden t i f i ca t i on of habitual cr iminalism with the MMPI. Journal of C l i n i c a l Psychology, 1962, M3, 133-136. (a) Panton, J . H. Use of the MMPI as an index to successful parole. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, & Pol ice Science, 1962, 53, 484-488. (b) Se l l In, T. Recidivism and maturation. National Probation & Parole Associat ion Journal , 1958, 4, 241-250. S i ege l , S. Nonparametric s t a t i s t i c s for the behavioral sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill , 1956. Stanton, J . M. Group personali ty p r o f i l e related to aspects of an t i soc ia l behavior. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, & Po l i ce Science, 1956, 47, 340-349. S t a t i s t i c s of crimi naI and other offences, 1967. Domi nion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Ottawa: The Queen's P r in t e r , 1963. West, D. J . The habitual prisoner. London: MacMillan, 1963. L i s t of Tables Table Page A. Summary of Adult Convictions from Age 18 and Nature of the Offence "73 B. Number of Offences Involving Violence Against Persons 74 C. Number of Offences Committed Against Persons 75 D. Number of Adult Convictions Received as a Juvenile 76 E. Place of Childhood Residence 77 F. Type of Parental Upbringing 78 G. Number of Subject 's S ib l ings 79 H. B i r t h Order of Subjects 79 I. Summary Table for the Analysis of Variance for the Variable of Education 80 J . Mari tal Status of Subjects 81 K. EmployablIIty of Subjects 82 L. Summary Table of Analysis of Variance for Periods of Employ- ment, Unemployment, and Incarceration for the 24 months Proceeding Admission to the Penitent iary 83 Summary of Adult Convictions from Age 18 and Nature of the Offence Nature of Indictable Offence Group or Subgroups Chronic Offender Potent ial Ch ronIc Offender Random Contro1 Total Number Against the Person: Assault 17 9 8 Murder 0 1 2 Sexua1 1 8 5 Other offences 3 4 5 Against Property with Violence: Breaking and Entering 155 63 3 Robbery and Robbery while Armed 16 9 7 Against Property without Violence: Possession of Stolen Property 58 20 1 Theft 156 34 3 False Pretences 107 50 6 Forgery and Offences related to Currency: 17 31 7 Federal Statutes: Possession of Narcotics 58 8 0 Tra f f i ck ing In Narcotics 13 1 2 Other Indictable Offences: 51 23 7 Number of Offences Involving Violence Against Persons Group or Subgroup Chronic Offender Random Offender Potent ial Chronic Offender Random Control 1 2 3 4 Offence Total Number Violence against the person, 21 42 22 20 Other Offences 631 275 239 36 Ch -square Comparisons 1 vs 2 • •• 1- vs 3 3 vs 4 Chi-square value 36.9* 12.45* 55.03* Note: This table Is adapted and abridged from Table A. a Includes a l l indic table offences committed against the person. * p<.00l with 1 df Group or Subgroup Chronic Offender Random Offender Potent ial Chronic Offender Random Control 1 2 3 4 Offence Total Number Crimes against the person a 174 155 113 42 Other Offences 478 162 . 148 14 Chi-•square Comparisons 1 vs 2 1 vs 3 3 vs 4 Chi-square value 47.90* 24.21* 54.68* Note: This table is adapted and abridged from Table A. a Includes a l l Indictable Offences committed against the person, Robbery and Robbery while Armed, False Pretences, Forgery, and Traf f ick ing in Narcot ics . * p<.00l with 1 df Number of Adult Convictions Received as a Juvenile Group or Subgroup Chronic Offender Random Offender Potential Chronic Offender Random Control 1 2 3 4 Status Total Number of Subjects Adult convict ion as a juveni le 11 13 10. 3 No adult convictions p r io r to 18 19 17 9 8 Chi-square Comparisons 1 vs 2 1 vs 3 3 vs 4 Chi-square value 1.07 a 1.95 b 0.93 c a p = .30 with 1 df b .20 > p > .10 with 1 df c .50 > p > .10 with 1 df Group or Subgroup Chronic Offender Random Offender Potent ial Chronic Offender Random Control 1 2 3 4 Place of Residence Total Number of Subjects Vancouver 12 4 2 2 B r i t i s h Columbia 3 8 7 1 P r a l r i e s 7 5 3 2 Ontario, Quebec 8 6 2 4 Maritlmes 0 7 5 2 Chl-square Comparisons Places Compared 1 vs 2 3 vs 4 Chi-square Values Vancouver vs other 4. 18* Vancouver & B.C. vs . other 0.27 0.48 Large c i t i e s (50,000) vs . sma1 I towns 3.33 0.3I * .05 > p > .02 with 1 df Group or Subgroup Chronic Offender Random Offender Potential Chronic Offender Random Control 1 2 3 4 Upbringing Total Number of Subjects Both Parents 14 16 11 5 Single Parent 7 5 2 3 Single parent & step-parent 2 0 0 0 Blood Relat ive 1 2 1 1 Parental adoption or foster parent 2 3 2 1 Ins t i tu t ion 2 1 1 0 Chi-square Comparisons Classes compared 1 vs 2 3 vs 4 Chi-square Values Raised by both parents vs. others 0.92 0. 12 Note: Both C h l - s q u a r e v a l u e s n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t w i t h 1 d f . Number of Subject 's S ib l ings Number of S ib l ings Group 0 1 2 3 4 5-9 10+ Chronic Offenders 1 4 5 2 7 9 1 Random Offenders 2 1 5 5 7 3 3 Note: When 0-2, 3-4, and 5-10 are combined, Chi-square is equal to 1.54 and .50 > p > .30 with 2 df; and the Contingency Coeff ic ient equals 0.17. Table H B i r t h Order of Subjects B i r th Order Group Oldest Top Third Mid Third Bottom Third Youngest Chronic Offenders 3 1 10 2 8 Random Offenders 9 2 9 0 4 Note: When the classes are combined as fol lows: Oldest and Top Th i rd , Mid Thi rd , and Bottom Third and Youngest; the obtained Chi-square value is equal to 5.88 and .10 > p > .05; and the Contingency Coeff ic ient is equal to 0.33. Summary Table for the Analysis of Variance for the Variable of Education Group or Subgroup Ch ron i c Offender Matched Ch ron i c Offender Random Offender Potentia 1 Ch ron i c Offender Random Control 1 2 3 4 5 Means 7.40 7.57 9.07 8.74 9.64 Standard Deviations 1.33 1.38 1.78 1.69 1.89 Analysis of Variance 1 vs 3 a 1 vs 4, D 2 vs 4 c 4 vs 5 , a F Ratios 16.89*** 9.50** 5.31* 1.83 a 1 and 58 df b 1 and 47 df c 1 and 36 df d 1 and 28 df * p<.05 ** p<.0l *** p<.00l Marital Status of Subjects Group or Subgroup Chronic Offender Random Offender Potent ial Chronic Offender Random Control 1 2 3 4 Mari ta l Status Total Number of Subjects Single 10 19 13 6 Common-1 aw 5 4 1 3 Married 7 2 1 1 Separated, Divorced, Wi dowed 8 5 4 1 Chi-square Comparisons Classes Compared 1 vs 2 1 vs 3 3 vs 4 Chi-square Values Single vs Other 6.67 a 7 • 2 4 b 0.14 c a .01 > p > .001 with 1 df b .01 > p > .001 with 1 df c .30 > p > .20 with 1 df Group Employment Level Ch ron i c Offender Random Offender Unski l led or general labourer 18 7 Semi-ski 1 led or Ski 1 led 12 23 Note: Chi-square is equal to 6.86 and .01 > p > .001 with 1 df. Summary Table of Analysis of Variance for Periods of Employment, Unemployment, and Incarceration for the 24 Months Preceeding Admission to the Penitentiary Group or Subgroup Ch ron i c Offender 1 Random Offender 2 Potential Chronic Offender 3 Random Control 4 Number of Months Employed Means 2.75 10.67 7.41 16.00 F Ratios Compari sons 1 vs 2 a 1 vs 3. 3 vs 4 c 20.80** 7.07* 12.35** Number of Months Unemployed Means 6.46 3.78 2.97 6.0 F Ratios Comparisons 1 vs 2 a 1 vs 3 b 3 vs 4 c 5.35* 9.54** 8.26** .'. .. Number of Months 1ncarcerated Means 14.78 9.38 13.65 2.0 F Ratios Comparisons 1 vs 2 . d 1 vs 3 e 3 vs 4 f 7.90** 0.32 28.63** a 1 and 56 df d 1 and 58 df * p<.05 b 1 and 45 df e l and 46 df ** p<-01 c 1 and 27 df f 1 and 28 df

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