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Theme of suffering in the novels of Jack Kerouac, Leonard Cohen, and William Burroughs. Clifford , Jean Marie 1970

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THE THEME OF SUFFERING IN • THE NOVELS OF JACK KEROUAC , LEONARD COHEN, AND WILLIAM BURROUGHS by JEAN MARIE CLIFFORD B.A., Unive r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of. E n g l i s h We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1970 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r ee t h a t t he L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y pu rpo se s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f {g'-v^&iAh  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co l umb i a Vancouve r 8, Canada Date <_c_X. ±\ 1*1 70 ABSTRACT This thesis considers the theme of s u f f e r i n g and i t s reso-l u t i o n i n the novels of Jack Kerouac, Leonard Cohen, and William Burroughs, three avant-garde contemporary'' writers. It discusses most of t h e i r work in a general way, with reference to the theme of s u f f e r i n g ; and i t also analyses in a much more detailed man-ner The Subterraneans by Kerouac, The Favorite Game and Beautiful Losers by Cohen, and Naked Lunch by Burroughs. Cohen envisions man as a s u f f e r i n g being who experiences his pain i n many d i f f e r e n t ways. He c r i t i c i z e s the old r i t u a l patterns in which suffering once took i t s form - the pattern of r e l i g i o n which teaches man that suffering i s good, and. History which teaches that the cycle of c i v i l i z a t i o n operates only i n terms of the t o r t u r e r and his v i c t i m . He r e j e c t s , too, the contemporary form of pop art which ignores the fact that s u f f e r i n g is a very r e a l and overwhelming part of man. Having l o s t the old r i t u a l patterns of s u f f e r i n g , man feels alienated from his own personal pain. Through the magic of good art, Cohen f e e l s , man can regain entrance to his own being, f o r by experiencing another's suffering in art, he can regain his own awareness of s u f f e r i n g . If we misinterpret or misuse our own pain, we become one of Cohen's 'losers,' f o r we lose the core of our being to false r i t u a l . Cohen believes the ancient notion that suffering deepens character, and he argues that man, through an understanding of his own pain, becomes a r i c h e r and better person, more capable of recognizing the magic which exists along with pain. For magic does exist with pain, and i n art we gain a momentary entrance into this world of magic. Through the investigation of s e l f and the uniqueness of s e l f , man comes to recognize the uniqueness and magic of a l l . The a r t i s t takes on the role of prophet visionary showing a l l men that "magic.is afoot." Jack Kerouac suffered a d i f f e r e n t form of pain - a pain which originated in his desperate search f o r innocence. His Catholic heritage taught him that the world of mind and s p i r i t could see God., while the physical body was the realm of the s i n f u l and g u i l t y . His l i f e became a quest in search of an innocence in which man could, transcend his g u i l t and shame and become b e a t i f i c . Kerouac named the entire beat generation beatific;,- but he could not evade his f e e l i n g of g u i l t and shame within his own l i f e , and he fluctuated throughout l i f e between ec s t a t i c idealism and hopeless despair. His strong mother f i x a t i o n was a major cause f o r the s p l i t between his sense of idealism and the l i f e of the physical body - and his mother became associated i n his mind with those aspects of conscious-ness he considered ' i d e a l . ' Yet Kerouac also longed f o r freedom and i n d i v i d u a l i t y , realms of experience outside his mother's hold. He expressed his l i f e within his art , showing his ten-sion and anguish from the p u l l of these two forms of experience. Kerouac's f i n a l interpretation of suffering p a r a l l e l e d the Catholic v i s i o n , f o r art became, in his l i f e , a means of per-sonal confession and penance. William Burroughs' despair is expressed through fear and. rage, and a f i g u r a t i v e comparison with 'paranoia' defines the range of his su f f e r i n g f a i r l y c l o s e l y . Burroughs fears perse-- . - l i -eu-ion from society which controls man through his need, fe a r i n g e s p e c i a l l y the implosive and depersonalizing forces of society which threaten to degrade and annihilate man. Man's own body takes part in this s o c i a l degradation, f o r i t is man's body which succumbs to addictive need. Burroughs strives to pre-serve his sense of inner r e a l i t y and freedom at a l l costs. He purges his own personal sense of fear through his a r t , and art becomes, i n his use of i t , a s o c i a l act of exorcism. He shouts the unspeakable and becomes' a p r i e s t in a c u l t u r a l p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t e ; he shows the absurdity of man's r e a l i t y in the form of comedy and dream and these become the source of his release. He defends himself against s o c i a l control by his a b i l i t y to exaggerate the power of society to the point of the grotesque, and art becomes the written form of his protest. 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS TITLE PAGE ABSTRACT . . . i - i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS V . . i v DEDICATION , v INTRODUCTION .. 1 - 7 CHAPTER I - STYLE'"' 8-21). CHAPTER II -KEROUAC: Suffering Unresolved . . . . 2 ^ - 6 3 CHAPTER III - COHEN: The Magic of Art 6J+ - 101 CHAPTER IV - BURROUGHS: Humourous Exorcism . . . 102 - 137 CONCLUSION . . 138 - llil BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . v. . . . . . . . llj.2 - llil BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION ' ""Footnotes are included at the end of each chapter. INTRODUCTION In the late 50's and early 60's two writers from the avant-garde scene, Jack Kerouac and William S. Burroughs, gained a momentary national prominence with t h e i r novels, On The Road. (1955) and The Subterraneans (1958) by Kerouac, and Naked. Lunch (1959) by Burroughs. Seven years l a t e r , a Montreal poet, Leonard Cohen, made the best s e l l e r l i s t with his novel Beautiful Losers (1966). Each of these novels created a c r i t i c a l s t i r , aggravating many l i t e r a r y s p e c i a l i s t s because of t h e i r "carefree" s t y l e , '.Jnaphaaard" structure, "coarse" language, and "indeterminate" aim. The public was also divided in opinion about these novels. To a generation of mothers who had hidden Lady Chatterly's Lover in the bottom of t h e i r closets i n order to protect t h e i r c h i l d -ren, Naked Lunch and Beau t i f u l Losers were gross and u n f i t to read - as well as incomprehensible. On The Road and The Subter-raneans t written in a more standard form of English, with only s l i g h t suggestions of homosexuality, were .viewed less harshly, though Kerouac himself, innovator of the new beat culture, was at f i r s t a suspicious f i g u r e . A new generation of young people, however, those who were aware of the avant-garde scene, were attracted to and delighted by the novels - they understood them, li k e d them, and accepted them as a part of t h e i r contemporary view of l i f e . One of the most revealing facts about these authors and t h e i r novels i s this s t r i k i n g d i v i s i o n of opinion about them -most readers are ei t h e r f o r or against them - few are impartial. The opinions not only of the general public but also of most -2-l i t e r a r y c r i t i c s seem determined by t h e i r acceptance or rej e c t i o n of the values which Kerouac, Cohen, and Burroughs espouse. These values represent the end-product of a long and subtle b a t t l e f o r a new form of consciousness, a battle fought in the realms _.of l i t e r a t u r e , p o l i t i c s and philosophy. A sketching of some of the major figures and attitudes in this battle of consciousness may help to c l a r i f y many of the assumptions which Kerouac, Cohen, and Burroughs accept, as well as the ideas and feelings which they f i n d fundamental to l i f e . Preud was a ce n t r a l figure in this quest f o r a new form of consciousness. He suggested, i n C i v i l i z a t i o n and Its Discontents, the terms of the argument between society and the in d i v i d u a l (the two opposing forces i n this battle of consciousness), when he recognized the e s s e n t i a l antagonism between the demands of i n -s t i n c t and the r e s t r i c t i o n s of c i v i l i z a t i o n . The c o n f l i c t de-fin e d by Preud formed the basis f o r the theories of Norman 0. Brown and Herbert Marcuse, two contemporary s o c i a l analysts who have done much to further a ' d i a l e c t i c of l i b e r a t i o n . ' In L i f e  Against Death, Brown suggests that the essence of contemporary society l i e s in the repression of the i n d i v i d u a l , a repression which creates an ever-increasing sense of g u i l t i n man. S u b l i -mation, the alternative to repression, does not eliminate g u i l t , but furthers the al i e n a t i o n of sexual energy from the body, thereby increasing man's sense of g u i l t about his own physical being. Herbert Marcuse discusses much the same theory of repression in a p o l i t i c a l context. He argues that a society which has long -3-encouraged delayed s a t i s f a c t i o n , work, productiveness, and secu-r i t y destroys men through i t s trend towards repressive affluence. Society manages i n d i v i d u a l needs, and i n doing so, makes of man a predictable machine. Both Brown and Marcuse i n s i s t that a general change in con-sciousness is desperately needed within the contemporary world. Brown encourages man's return to his body, while Marcuse asserts the value of immediate s a t i s f a c t i o n , pleasure, play, and recep-tiveness. The values which they o f f e r have become the general assumptions of a whole counter-culture, one which f i r m l y believes that, i f a man can r e - s p i r i t u a l i z e himself and his immediate environment, then there i s hope of his s u r v i v a l . Otherwise the repressive forces of society, whose influence extends over thought, emotion, and senses, w i l l succeed completely in t h e i r degradation and depersonalization of man. Both Brown and Marcuse believe the a r t i s t is the person who can best instigate the change in contemporary consciousness. Marcuse claims that the struggle f o r a r e a l form of freedom.re-quires the 'Great Refusal' of youth to succumb to repressive forces, and that this r e f u s a l can be formulated without punish-ment only i n the language of a r t . Brown, going one step further, asserts that the a r t i s t i s the savior of man. ". . .If man's destiny is to change r e a l i t y u n t i l i t conforms to the pleasure p r i n c i p l e , and i f man's fate is to f i g h t f o r i n s t i n c t u a l l i b e r a -t i o n , then art appears in the words of Rilke, as the Weltanchuang of the l a s t goal. Its contradiction of the r e a l i t y p r i n c i p l e is i t s s o c i a l function, as a constant reinforcement of the struggle f o r i n s t i n c t u a l l i b e r a t i o n ; i t s childishness is to the profes-s i o n a l c r i t i c a stumbling block, but to the a r t i s t i t s glory.""*" Several important a r t i s t s , e s p e c i a l l y D. H. Lawrence and Henry M i l l e r , had considered themselves instigators in the f i g h t f o r a new form of consciousness long before Kerouac, Burroughs, and Cohen arrived on the scene. D. H. Lawrence's works were a l l d i d a c t i c , espousing a v i t a l p h a l l i c regeneration, while to Henry M i l l e r ^ the a r t i s t was by d e f i n i t i o n an outlaw from society. "The task which the a r t i s t i m p l i c i t l y sets himself is to over-throw e x i s t i n g values, to make of the chaos about him an order which is his own." . Brown and Marcuse also suggest the form which the a r t i s t ' s v i s i o n should take. They c l e a r l y espouse a counter-doctrine, a new system of values, myths, and powers. Central to t h e i r values is a b e l i e f i n the sacredness and i n t e g r i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l , who has long been ignored in favor of the s o c i a l establishment. Brown and Marcuse faced a dilemma - how to return meaning and value to s e l f , how to re-awaken men to the fact that they them-selves are the source of v i t a l i t y and energy, the source of en-thusiasm, s e n s i t i v i t y , beauty, and l i f e . Was i t , p o s s i b l e to re-awaken an in d i v i d u a l who had long been c l a s s i f i e d by his r o l e , his s o c i a l insurance number, his conformity and anonymity? Was i t possible to change the d e f i n i t i o n of self-consciousness, to give to t h i s d e f i n i t i o n a sense of growing and becoming, a sense of s e l f awareness and perception? Could people come to relate to one another i n this subjective sense? Could this in turn f i n a l l y make man a l i f e - o r i e n t e d animal? For Brown and Marcuse the way to re-establishing a f e e l i n g of v i t a l i t y lay in discovering a new way of perceiving the p a r t i -culars of existence. Man's l i f e , made up of p a r t i c u l a r s , had to be re-affirmed, so that each i n d i v i d u a l would not lose irreparably his being as i t moved from moment to moment. Man must learn to play once again, to re-awaken his receptive senses to a l l - to perceive the 'magical' q u a l i t y i n every moment of being a l i v e . This e c s t a t i c awareness of the p a r t i c u l a r moment, which Brown and Marcuse suggest, was used by contemporary authors, p a r t i c u -l a r l y Cohen, to re-define the word magic i t s e l f . Men could no longer afford to view magic, f e l t these a r t i s t s , as a mysterious powerful influence descending upon themselves.,from outside, pro-ducing the i l l u s i o n of a new world through charm and s p e l l . Magic f o r the avant-garde a r t i s t was defined anew - i t was his  own a b i l i t y to transform experience. He contained withih.ihimself the mysterious power of imagination which could create a new and unique world within a r t . He did not depend upon the power of an external influence to charm and s p e l l , but instead upon his own a b i l i t y to charm men into new worlds with his own words. Each man contained the power of magic within himself, and i f only he could re-discover this magic within his own being he could be saved. Kerouac, Cohen, and Burroughs have a l l experienced, in t h e i r own private way the dilemma of the sensitive man faced by a re-pressive culture, and each has taken the ce n t r a l values of the counter-culture as his own. For each, the i n d i v i d u a l l i f e i s the centre of value, a. l i f e composed of a multitude of p a r t i c u l a r -6-experiences. A l l see that consciousness defines a man - a con-sciousness moving from moment to moment which can be captured in written form. It is in style that the uniqueness of t h i s written consciousness is made apparent - through the choice and structure of the p a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l - and each of these authors works care-f u l l y with s t y l e , with the r e - d e f i n i t i o n of structure as well as content. The f i r s t chapter of this thesis describes the new way in which Kerouac, Cohen, and Burroughs understand and use s t y l e . Each of these writers reveals the magic of his imagination, recreating the external world as a part of his own private v i s i o n , transforming experience into the magic of his a r t . Each charms the reader, compelling him to enter the unique r e a l i t y which the author has prepared f o r him. But to me the most fascina t i n g and compelling q u a l i t y of the novels of Kerouac, Cohen, and Burroughs l i e s beyond t h e i r sensa-tionalism, t h e i r avant-garde awareness, and even t h e i r espousal of the magical qua l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l . Upon f i r s t reading these novels, I found myself t r y i n g 'to grope with, to understand the suffering which seemed so much a part of t h e i r being. Behind the humour of Burroughs and Cohen, I f e l t a pain, while Kerouac's novels expressed d i r e c t l y his attempts to deal with the suffering which he f e l t . An understanding of t h e i r background, as analysed by Brown and Marcuse, explained some of t h e i r most important f e e l i n g s . Yet an understanding of t h e i r background ,alone, and of the c u l t u r a l source of t h e i r f e e l i n g , could not explain f u l l y t h e i r private experience. The suffering which they experienced was a su f f e r i n g new to me and yet not new - basic and yet unique and p r i v a t e . This thesis i s , ultimately, my attempt to understand the s u f f e r i n g which Burroughs, Cohen, and Kerouac experience, and to consider t h e i r e f f o r t s to resolve this s u f f e r i n g . FOOTNOTES: INTRODUCTION 1. Norman 0. Brown, L i f e Against Death (New York: Vintage Books, .: 1959), p. 58. 2. Henry M i l l e r , Tropic of Cancer (New York: Grove Press Inc., 1961), p. 228. CHAPTER I - STYLE Before discussing the theme of su f f e r i n g within the novels of Kerouac, Cohen, and Burroughs, i t is important to suggest the sig n i f i c a n c e of style to t h e i r work, f o r a l l three consider style of great consequence. Burroughs, Cohen, and Kerouac re-create r e a l i t y f o r the reader by developing t h e i r own personal v i s i o n s , and the many variants of t h e i r style help them to achieve t h i s task. "Every style embodies an epistomological decision, an interpretation of how and what we perceive."'*" For these contemporary writers at-tempting to comprehend the immediates of a complex existence, this decision rests in a personal aesthetic dedicated to the des-t r u c t i o n of old forms. Both Burroughs and Kerouac wrote dramati-c a l l y of t h e i r s t y l i s t i c innovations, while Cohen wrote by bor-rowing the innovations of others, e s p e c i a l l y those of Ginsberg and Burroughs. Their statements about style suggest a basic desire to destroy a formal ordering of experience no longer v a l i d to t h e i r perception of the outside world j to go beyond th i s order towards a chaos, disruption, and i r r a t i o n a l i t y which much more 2 c l e a r l y reveals experience as i t actually takes place. They aim to reveal in a l l honesty the p a r t i c u l a r s of t h e i r own perception, and they desire a dir e c t communication between reader and writer, a communication uninhibited by the structured demands of formal prose. . In r e v o l u t i o n i z i n g s t y l e , they also a l t e r perception, giving the reader a new view of r e a l i t y as they themselves see i t Burroughs, Cohen, and Kerouac t r y to transform most aspects of style (point of view, technique, the use of time, space, and action, the use of metaphor and language) i n t h e i r e f f o r t vfco; .. create a new aesthetic relevant to t h e i r sense of immediate experience. Burrough's fear of the 'Word' which imprisons man within a world, of time, body, and shit determines the form of his s t y l i s -t i c innovations. By conquering the Word, man can escape into freedom and space where he can f u l l y a f f i r m his own i n d i v i d u a l i t y . The 'Word' is the enemy which must be conquered at a l l costs. "To speak i s to l i e . I w i l l t e l l you: 'THE WORD.' Al i e n Word 'THE'. 'THE' Word of A l i e n Enemy imprisons 'THEE' in Time. In Body. In S h i t . Prisoner come out. The great skies are open. I Hassan i Sabbah RUB OUT THE WORD FOREVER.""* It is the Word which creates the l o g i c , the Logos, of the death machine which Burroughs attacks so harshly. Burroughs believes the straight declarative sentence, which he himself defines as the "whole eithe r - o r proposition," to be a great error i n Western thought. "Either-or thinking i s just not accurate thinking. That's not the way things occur, and I f e e l the A r i s t o t e l i a n construct i s one of the great shackles of Western c i v i l i z a t i o n . " ^ Words, he f e e l s , serve also as a shadow, coming between the eye and the world to prevent an o r i g i n a l contact between the seeing s e l f and r e a l i t y . "To speak is to l i e . " He uses the "Cut-Up-Method" to conquer the 'Word,' the world of l o g i c and pre-determined sentence, to re- e s t a b l i s h spontaneity and freedom; a method best described i n a l e t t e r he wrote to Al l e n Ginsberg i n I960, shortly a f t e r Brion Gysin had introduced him to cut-ups. "Take the enclosed copy of this l e t t e r . Cut along the l i n e s . Re-arrange putting section one by section three and section two by section four. Now read aloud and you w i l l -10-hear my voice. Whose voice? Li s t e n . Cut and re-arrange i n any combination. . . .Don't think about i t . Don't theorize. Try i t I . . .With any poems any prose."-' The cut-up method des-troys the old structures of paragraph and sentence - i t is a ges-ture in defiance of external molding, an act of spontaneity i n an increasingly manipulated world. "You cannot w i l l spontaneity. But you can introduce the unpredictable spontaneous fa c t o r with a p a i r of s c i s s o r s . " ^ This method is not e n t i r e l y new to Burroughs, f o r something s i m i l a r was attempted by Tristan Tzara and the Dadaist-Surrealist movement. They too, i n a calculated attack on the conscious c o n t r o l l i n g mind, created written works by r e l y i n g on chance, random association, and nonsensical juxta-p o s i t i o n . Burroughs destroys old concepts of r e a l i t y with his cut-ups, but these same cut-ups"also help us to develop a new mode of consciousness, a way of responding which has l i t t l e to do with the casual u n i l i n e a r structure of Western thought, but which has more i n common with 'hieroglyph systems' and the 'Chinese ideographs' and random photographs of street scenes; What Burroughs wants i s 'blocks of association' rather than l i n e s of thought. . . .His battle then i s mainly with the old use of words."' Burroughs used the cut-up method o r i g i n a l l y to defeat the power of the word as a written structure, but he soon came to see i t s implications as a s t y l i s t i c device in other ways. It could also be used with sound through the creation of a r b i t r a r y sound tracks i n which speakers followed one another in haphazard -11-juxtaposition. Since "what we see is determined to a large extent by what we hear," the use of cut-ups at an auditory l e v e l o freed man even more. Naked Lunch is often a very auditory novel, a novel of voices intruding r a p i d l y and haphazardly upon one another. While Burroughs exploits the cut-up method most f u l l y in his l a t e r novels, The Soft Machine, The Ticket That Exploded, and Nova Express, he hints at t h i s method in Naked Lunch. The Word is divided into units which be a l l in one piece and should be so taken, but the pieces can.,be: had:;..invany' order being t i e d up back and for t h i n and out fore and. a f t l i k e an innaresting sex arrangement. This book s p i l l s off the page i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , kaleidescope of v i s t a s , medley of tunes and street noises, f a r t s and r i o t yipes and the slamming s t e e l shutters of commerce, screams of pain and pathos and screams p l a i n pathic, copulating cats and the out-raged squawk of the displaced bullhead, prophetic mutterings of brujo i n nutmeg trances, snapping necks and' screaming mandrakes, sigh of orgasm, heroin s i l e n t as dawn i n the t h i r s t y c e l l s . . . . (Naked Lunch, p. 229) According to Brion Gysin, the cut-up method was used in Naked Lunch without the author's f u l l awareness of the method he was using. "The f i n a l form of Naked Lunch and the juxtaposition of sections were determined by the order in which the material went - at random - to the p r i n t e r s . " ^ Or as Burroughs suggests: You can cut into Naked Lunch at any i n t e r s e c t i o n point. . . .1 have written many prefaces. They atrophy and amputate spontaneous l i k e the l i t t l e toe amputates in a West African disease confined to the negro race and the passing blonde shows her brass ankle as a manicured toe bounces across the club terrace, retrieved and l a i d at her feet by her Afghan hound. . . . Naked Lunch i s a blueprint, A How To Book. . . . (Naked Lunch, p. 22!+) The narrator's consciousness provides the only l i n k f o r the images and. "blocks of association" so prevalent i n the novel, a con--12-sciousness which haphazardly cuts off old memories with new jokes, cuts in upon moments of anguish with i n c i d e n t a l sights and sounds. "... . .1 am a recording Instrument /says Burroughs^ . . . .1 do not presume to impose "story" " p l o t " "continuity". . Insofaras I succeed in Direct recording of ce r t a i n areas of psychic process I may have limited function. . . .I am not an entertainer. . . ." (Waked Lunch, p. 221). The narrator's fragmented consciousness records the horror of his nightmare v i s i o n - an ugly dream world of f l u i d time and space, of merging scenes and characters. The novel lacks'one. cen t r a l . character as a l l characters fuse into one, f o r i n this junkie dream a l l blends together into one gigantic h a l l u c i n a t i o n of the grotesque. In an excerpt c a l l e d "The Future of the Novel" Burroughs suggests the reasons f o r his choice in subject matter to be par-t i a l l y due to s t y l e . In my writing I am acting as a map maker, an explorer of psychic areas, to use the phrase of Alexander Trocchi, as a cosmonaut of inner space, and i see no point i n exploring areas that have already been thoroughly surveyed -. . . .to t r a v e l in space i s to t r a v e l in time -If writers are to t r a v e l in space time and explore areas opened by the space age i think they must de-velop techniques of physical space t r a v e l - c e r t a i n l y i f w r i t i n g is to have a future i t must at least catch up with the past and learn to use techniques that have been.used f o r some time past i n painting, music, and f i l m . Burroughs explores the depths of paranoic su f f e r i n g , using the technique of f l u i d time, space, and action to give his distorted v i s i o n a more authentic r e a l i t y . He uses s u r r e a l i s t i c exaggera-t i o n to give the e f f e c t of paranoic drug h a l l u c i n a t i o n - an -13-exaggeration which also expresses the extremity in his cry of despair. Floating time, space, character and s e t t i n g adds to , the r e a l i t y of this junk world while the image of a metamorphic d i s i n t e g r a t i o n suggests his h o r r i f i e d fear of the invasion of e v i l . Burroughs exploits pornography and obscenity, more obvious features of Naked. Lunch in a s i m i l a r gesture of s o c i a l defiance."*" His d i r e c t references to excrement and sexual deviation i n s u l t the b a r r i e r s of a society which censors these 'degrading' aspects of experience. In English speaking countries, /says Burroughs/, the weight of censorship f a l l s on sexual words and images as dangerous to an economic system depending on mass production and a large public of more or les u n c r i t i -c a l consumers. In any form censorship presupposes the right of the government to decide what people w i l l think, what thought material of word and. image will.be presented to t h e i r minds. I am p r e c i s e l y suggesting that the right to exercise such control is c a l l e d in question. He questions this right dramatically within his novels, c r i t i -c i z i n g a society which threatens his existence i n terms of the pornography and obscenity which i t i t s e l f created. ' But though the miasma of surrealism, cut-ups, and porno-graphy defies a society which perpetuates the 'Word,' i t contains also a d e f i n i t e l i n e of allegory, for in the destruction and de-fiance of the old there l i e s a hope fo r a new kind o f . e x i s t e n t i a l being. Amidst a series of e r r a t i c images Burroughs places dir e c t d i d a c t i c statement - warnings of e v i l and prescriptions f o r good. The style of Naked Lunch contains such a p r e s c r i p t i o n , a cutting across old bar r i e r s of language to reclaim spontaneity and f r e e -dom. The 'Word' can be conquered, and man can be free. History contains i n Cohen's v i s i o n much the same flaws and horrors of Burroughs' Word, and History must be destroyed in a s i m i l a r way before a new perception of r e a l i t y can be created. It is History which influences men to make f a l s e mental connec-1 _ tions, to see lo g i c where no logic e x i s t s . J Science and r e l i -gion a i d History in maintaining a fa l s e system of names and l o g i -c a l structures - a l l three conspire to create a s o c i a l mythology alienated from an authentic experience of the moment. In the f i r s t section of Beautiful Losers Cohen gives us the Attempts of the narrator, a former h i s t o r i a n , to overthrow History, to con-quer the powerful hold of this i n t e l l e c t u a l ordering of r e a l i t y which has l i t t l e to say about his own personal existence. His struggle is f a r from easy, f o r History creates an order in his l i f e whose loss he greatly fears, and i t is only with much agony and pain that the narrator attains his release. Book One gives us the "History of Them A l l " from the narra-tor's point of view, a personal confession of his own anguish and suf f e r i n g as he attempts to extricate himself from o f f i c i a l History; a blending of fantasy and fact which gives us insight into the personal r e a l i t y - 'History' of the main characters. The narrator's confession fuses and confuses h i s t o r i c a l f a c t with personal r e v e l a t i o n . He begins his study of Catherine Tekawitha as a h i s t o r i a n but ends with personal insights into her private existence which give him courage in his own e f f o r t s to re-order r e a l i t y . Catherine Tekawitha, once a part of o f f i c i a l History, becomes a part of the h i s t o r y of his own personal quest. As the -15"-novel begins the narrator longs to dig through History to the r e a l i t y of her person - he bombards her with questions in order to discover just what i s going on "under that rosy blanket" (Beautiful -Losers, p. 3). He longs f o r a language which can reach her, a language comparable to Indian hiro-duoue, which can pierce the mysterious curtain which hangs between a l l t a l k i n g men, "beguiling i n t e l l e c t with the noise of true emotion". (Beautiful  Losers, p. 9). From a h i s t o r i c a l point of view Catherine Tekawitha has long been dead - she remains a l i v e and v i t a l only i n the mind of the narrator. Her h i s t o r i c a l existence, however, cannot describe the r e a l i t y which she has f o r him - he demands something more v i t a l and authentic. "Catherine Tekawitha, who are you? Are you (16^6 - 1 6 8 0 ) ? Is that enough?" (Beautiful Losers, p. 3 ) . A dead h i s t o r i c a l past is not enough, i t must be converted instead into a part of the narrator's present, just as his s i m i l a r memo-ri e s of E d i t h and F fuse into one booming consciousness of a pre-sent which includes a l l . The narrator reveals the v i t a l i t y and l i f e of E d i t h and F within his own consciousness, though they too 'in actual f a c t ' have long been dead. Cohen forces us t o r e c o g -nize the absurdity of such actual f a c t , the absurdity of time sequences which define existence in terms of past and present without any recognition of how f a l s e and a r b i t r a r y such d i s t i n c -tions are. He shows us how easy i t is to move from past to pre-sent, from memory to h i s t o r i c a l f a c t , and how each gains s i g n i f i -cance only as i t becomes a part of an operating consciousness. Book One presents the past of the narrator, a past recited, from -16-the perspective of the tree-house, told in the present tense -what the narrator was, what he i s , and what he w i l l be are a l l a part of what he i s - his being. What Edith and P are are also a part of his being - they exist as r e a l i t i e s through his own v i t a l perception of them. They are a l l a part of him as he too was in e x t r i c a b l y a part of them when they were a l i v e . "We preserve each other," F states i n his l e t t e r to the narrator, "I was your adventure, and you were my adventure, I was your journey and you w e r e my journey, and Edi t h was our holy star" (Beautiful Losers, p. 19li) • Both character and time exist only within the conscious ness of a man - they cannot.be a r b i t r a r i l y defined by the imper-sonal theories of hi s t o r y , science, and r e l i g i o n . Cohen interweaves h i s t o r i c a l fact with the personal obses-sions of the narrator, using a technique which often appears as haphazard as Burroughs' cut-up method. The narrator's mind turns e a s i l y from fact to fai&.taay, s t r i v i n g to gain a sense of c l a r i t y amidst a hazy r e a l i t y . Ke discovers that fantasy contains a r e a l i t y equal to that of History, a 'fantasy which rejects-a world of names f o r a more i n t u i t i v e experience of existence. He feels 4 d i s s a t i s f i e d with his own a r b i t r a r y attempts to create external order - through the writing of l i s t s which give the•appearance of i n t e l l e c t u a l organization and through the use of foreign language which make "a good corset" (Beautiful Losers, p. 8 l ) . He grows t i r e d of many f a c t s , those facts which seem to be only a r b i t r a r y intrusions upon his search f o r truth. "I'm t i r e d of f a c t s , I'm t i r e d of speculations. I want to be consumed, by unreason" (Beautiful Losers, p. 5>8). Facts begin to appear as absurd as -17-they r e a l l y are when used alone outside any meaningful context. "The Indians invented the steam bath. That i s just a t i d b i t " (Beautiful Losers, p. 162). "The s t r a i n i n g man perched on a c i r c l e prepares to abandon a l l systems" (Beautiful Losers, p. I4.8). The narrator, by taking one step to the side, finds himself surrounded by i r r a t i o n a l i t y and chaos - he discovers absurdity. His i n i t i a l despair at the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of his ordered h i s t o r i c a l universe gradually d i s -appears as he grows to see that the perception of chaos gives man freedom - f o r in t h i s perception l i e s the f i r s t step in creating a new order. A saint does not dissolve the chaos; i f he did the world would have changed long ago. I':.dd' not think that the saint dissolves the chaos even f o r himself, f o r there is something arrogant and warlike in the notion of a man setting the universe in order. It is a kind of balance that is his glory. He rides the d r i f t s l i k e an escaped s k i (Beautiful Losers, p. 121). The narrator attains such a balance of chaos, he uses his con-fusion as a b u t t e r f l y net with which to capture magic. In his perception of chaos he comes to see the unity of a l l as a unity of his own consciousness as i t relates and j o i n s . A l l the disparates of the world, the d i f f e r e n t wings. of the paradox, coin-faces of the problem, p e t a l -p u l l i n g questions, scissors-shaped conscience, a l l the p o l a r i t i e s , things and t h e i r images and things which cast no shadow, and just the everyday explo-sions on a street, this face and that, a house and a toothache, explosions which merely have d i f f e r e n t l e t t e r s in t h e i r names, my needle pierces i t a l l , and I myself, my greedy fantasies, everything which has existed and does e x i s t , we are part of a necklace of incomparable beauty and. unmeaning. (Beautiful Losers, p. 21). Cohen's style reveals the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n and reintegration of the narrator's consciousness, and i t i s through the narrator's -18-dilemma that we grow to see most f u l l y the f a l s i t y of History and the magic of the moment. He uses unusual devices to draw our attention away from the usual, to make us perceive r e a l i t y in a new and s l i g h t l y absurd way."^ Yet he shows that there exists a more fundamental unity f o r man than the a r b i t r a r y imposition of r a t i o n a l structure - the unity of one man's consciousness as he c o l l e c t s and mods within his own mind the meaningful parts of .his 1 _ own personal experience of h i s t o r y . ^ It i s such personal experience which provides the material f o r Kerouac's writing, while Kerouac's b e l i e f in each moment of consciousness c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s Cohen's. For Kerouac the s e l f contains the p o t e n t i a l of a l l - i t is there to be investigated in a l l of i t s depth and to be exalted i n a l l of i t s glory. " I f there i s any absolute, /states Charles 01soi_7, i t i s never more than t h i s one, you, this instant, i n action." It i s thi s absolute s e l f which Kerouac believes i n , and his works reveal this s e l f moving from moment to moment. Through his style Kerouac explores the p o s s i b i l i t i e s within every moment - mentally wandering from association to association, from sight, to sound, to action in his attempt to come to terms with the f u l l meaning of each instant within his own experience. His work concentrates heavily on the writing journey, a journey without any d e f i n i t e destination, with many side-tracks and en-t i c i n g paths. Every action^: every thought, every association takes on significance because i t i s a part of Kerouac's own being. Jazz, the music of inner freedom, of improvisation, becomes the pattern f o r his writing - as i t s melody merges with the improvi--19-sations and the improvisations begin to dominate."^ Jazz swings in and with the moment, and i t is this swinging which Kerouac long to capture within his writing - assimilating the rhythms,, the sounds, the l i f e of a l l . His technical innovations stem from his b e l i e f in the spon-taneous flow of consciousness - a responding consciousness which picks up and re c i t e s the many p a r t i c u l a r s of l i f e . Kerouac d i s -misses the t r a d i t i o n a l conventions of language which inte r f e r e with the continous flow of the mind - conventions which i n h i b i t in much the same way as Burroughs' Word and Cohen's History. He works much more completely at the l e v e l of language, t r y i n g to capture the rhythms of speech as they a c t u a l l y occur. His sen-tences become "exchanges of force" in Charles Olson's sense, expressions of energy and motion to be transferred, d i r e c t l y to the reader. His e r r a t i c punctuation tries' to capture the breath of speech, to show the e s s e n t i a l i r r a t i o n a l i t y of a rambling mind f i l l e d with associations. Kerouac breaks down the barriers of t r a d i t i o n a l prose in every.way he can in his e f f o r t to a t t a i n a d i r e c t communication outside the intrusive f o r m a l i t i e s of Ian.-;-. gu,age. His l i s t of essentials of spontaneous prose is a mani-festo of rebe-llion equal to the words of Hassan Sabbah and P's revelation of magic. It describes most c l e a r l y .and. concisely Kerouac's dream of a possible freedom which only writing can bring about. B e l i e f and Technique For Modern Prose: L i s t of Essentials 1. Scribbled secret notebooks, and wild typewritten pages, f o r yr own joy 2. Submissive to everything, open, l i s t e n i n g 3. Try never get drunk outside yr own house -20-Ij.. Be in love with yr l i f e Something that you f e e l w i l l f i n d i t s onw form 6. Be crazy dumbsaint of the mind 7. Blow as deep as you want to blow 8. Write whar you want bottomless from bottom of the mind 9. The unspeakable visions of the i n d i v i d u a l 10. No time f o r poetry but exactly what i s 11. Visionary t i c s shivering in the chest 12. In tranced f i x a t i o n dreaming upon object before you, 13. Remove l i t e r a r y , grammatical, and s y n t a c t i c a l i n h i b i t i o n ll | . . Like Proust be an old teahead of time 15>. T e l l i n g the true story of the world in i n t e r i o r monologue 16. " The jewel centre of interest is the eye within the eye 17. Write in rec o l l e c t i o n : a n d amazement f o r yourself 18. Work from p i t y middle eye out, swimming in language sea 19. Accept loss forever 20. Believe in the holy contour of l i f e 21. Struggle to sketch the flow that already exists intact within the mind. 22. Dont think of words when you stop but to see p i c -ture better 23. Keep track of every day the date emblazoned in your morning 21+. No fear or shame in the dignity of yr experience language and knowledge 25. Write f o r the world to read and see your exact pictures of i t 26. Bookmovie i s the movielin words, the v i s u a l American , form 27. In Praise of Character in the bleak inhuman Loneliness 28. Composing wild, undisciplined, pure, coming i n from under, c r a z i e r the better 29. You're a Genius a l l the time . 30. Writer-Director of earthly movies Sponsored and Angeled, in Heaven Essentials of Spontaneous Prose Set-Up. The object i s set before the mind, eithe r in r e a l i t y , as in sketching (before a landscape or teacup , or old face) or is set i n the memory wherin i t becomes the sketching from memory of a d e f i n i t e image object. Procedure. Time being of the essence in the p u r i t y of speech, sketching language is undisturbed flow from the mind of personal secret idea-words, blowing (as per jazz musician) on subject of image. -21-Method: No periods separating sentence structures already a r b i t r a r i l y riddled by fal s e colons and timid uselessly needless commas - but the vigorous space dash separating r h e t o r i -c a l breathing (as jazz musician drawing breath between outblown phrases) - "measured ' pauses which are e s s e n t i a l to our speech" -"d i v i s i o n s of the sounds we hear" - "Time and how to note i t down." (William Carlos Williams) Scoping. Not " s e l e c t i v i t y " of expression but f o l -lowing free deviation (association) of mind into l i m i t l e s s blow-on-subject seas of thought, swimming, in sea of English with no d i s c i p l i n e other than rhythms of r h e t o r i c a l exhalation and expostulated statement, l i k e a f i s t coming down on a table with- . each complete utterance, b a n g ( T h e space dash) -Blow as deep as you want, s a t i s f y yourself f i r s t , then reader cannot f a i l to receive telepathic shock and meaning excitement by same laws operating in his own human mind. Lag in Procedure. No pause to think of proper word but the i n f a n t i l e pileup of s c a t o l o g i c a l build-up words t i l l s a t i s f a c t i o n i s gained, which w i l l turn out to be a great appending rhythm to a thought and be i n accordance with Great Law of timing. Timing. Nothing is muddy that runs in time and. to laws of time - Shakespearian stress of dramatic need to speak now in own unalterable way or forever hold tongue - no revisions (Except obvious r a t i o n a l mistakes, such as names, or calculated insertions in act of not writing but i n s e r t i n g ) . Centre Of Interest. Bagin not from preconceived idea of what to say about image but from jewel centre of interest in subject of image at moment of writing, and write outwards swimming in sea of language to peripheral release and exhaustion - Do not afterthink to improve or defray impressions, as, the best wr i t i n g is always the most p a i n f u l personal wrung-out tossed from cradlewarm protective mind - tap from yourself the song of yourself, blow: - now! - your way is your only .way - "good" - or "bad" - always honest, ("ludicrous"), spontaneous, "confessional," i n t e r e s t i n g because not "cra f t e d " . Craft i s C r a f t . Structure of Work. Modern bizarre structures (science f i c t i o n etc.) arise from language being dead, d i f f e r e n t themes give i l l u s i o n of "new" l i f e . Follow roughly out-l i n e s in outfanning movement over subject, as r i v e r -22-rock, so mindflow over jewel centre need (run your mind over i t once, a r r i v i n g at pivot, where what was dim formed "beginning" becomes sharp necessi-ta t i n g "ending" and language shortens in race to wire of time-race of work, following laws of deep form, to conclusion, l a s t words,/last t r i c k l e -Night i s The End. Mental State. If possible write without "conscious-ness" in semi-trance (as Yeats' l a t e r "trance-writing") allowing sub-conscious to admit in own uninhibited i n t e r e s t i n g necessary and. so modern language what conscious art would censor, and. write excitedly, s w i f t l y , with writing-or-typing-cramps, in accordance (as from centre to periphery) with laws of orgasm, Reich's "beclouding of consciousness" Come from within out - to relaxed and sa i d . 1 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER !• 1. Susan Sontag, Against interpretation And Other* Essays • (New York::. Farrar, Straus, & Giroux, 1961), p. 35.' 2. These authors do not view the chaos, i r r a t i o n a l i t y , and disruption which they see as completely negative forces, f o r the perception of this chaos makes possible the cre-ation of a more meaningful personal order. 3 . William Burroughs, "Introduction to Naked Lunch, The Soft Machine, and Nova Express," Evergreen Review, v. 6, No. 22 (January - February 1962), p. 100. I 4 . . : A comment c i t y by Tony Tanner i n an excellent a r t i c l e on • William Burroughs, "The New Demonology," Partisan Review. . x x x i i i , p. 563. 5 . Another of Burroughs' statements quoted by Tony Tanner. .7 6. Ibid, p. 559. 7. These are Tanner's own opinions, p. 563. • ' 8.' Burroughs wrote a short paper, "the i n v i s i b l e generation," on the use of the cut-up method with sound tracks. ... Williams Burroughs, "the i n v i s i b l e generation," The Ticket \ That Exploded (New York;*; Grove Press Inc., 1962), p. 205. ... 9 . Brion Gysin, "Cut-ups: A project For Disastrous Success," Evergreen Review, v 8 , No. 32 ( A p r i l - May 1961|), p. 57 . . 10. The New American Poetry, ed. Donald M. A l l e n & Robert • Creeley (New *ork: Grove Press Inc., 1965) , p. 256. : 11.• Leonard Cohen also humorously exploits both pornography and ." • obscenity i n a s i m i l a r defiance'of the morally righteous. •12. William Burroughs, "Censorship," The New American S.oryr . p. 255. " ' 13. .Cohen makes fun of reason and lo g i c in a v a r i e t y of ways .•showing the f u l l f a l l a c y of reasoning and syllogism. For • example: The king of France was a man. I was a man. Therefore I was the king of France (Beautiful Losers, p. 3 1 ) . :•' II4.. E l l i o t t G-ose i n his review of Be a u t i f u l Losers l i s t s a number of Cohen's new and unusual devices : reproduced advertise-ments, a series of poems to the V i r g i n composed from a Greek ' c o n v e r s a t i o n a l handbook, a separate footnoted poem, several sections of "pointless monosyllabic dialogue," an expres-s i o n i s t i c rendering of a modern song, and a charming verbal rendition of a Charles Atlas advertisement, the cartoon s t r i p Hero On the Beach. -2li-Desmond Pacey, i n his a r t i c l e "The Phenomenon of Leonard Cohen," suggests a whole series of motifs and images which create unity in the novel. See e s p e c i a l l y his comments on s t y l e , p. 22. Desmond Pacey, "The Phenomenon of Leonard Cohen," Canadian  Li t e r a t u r e , No. 3^, pp. 5-23. Warren Tallman in his a r t i c l e on Kerouac e n t i t l e d "Kerouac's Sound," suggests the importance of jazz i n Kerouac's writing Warren Tallman, "Kerouac's Sound," A Casebook On The Beat (New York: Thomas Y Crowe11 Co., 1961). The New American Story, p. 269-271. CHAPTER II - KEROUAC Jack Kerouac stands out as a major figure of the 1950's - , important not only as a writer, but also f o r his role as father of the new beat culture. He t r i e d to fashion his l i f e around his b e l i e f s , and his w r i t i n g , which was l a r g e l y autobiographical, expressed the values which he f e l t were most r e a l . As with any innovator, he faced problems which were new and unique, problems from which those who l a t e r accepted his way of l i f e did not suf-f e r . He suffered the c o n f l i c t of the new and the old cultures within his own l i f e , and his attempt to resolve his s u f f e r i n g was in many ways a f a i l u r e . In the analysis of Kerouac which follows i t must be remembered that he was an innovator, that he was stepping into areas of l i f e which were new and unknown, and that his s u f f e r i n g was often intense just because he was incapable * of resolving i t . The question of innocence and g u i l t concerned Kerouac at a l l times and he strove to assure himself that he was innocent in a world which he considered sick and e v i l . Kerouac longed to be outside a world of 'sick mortality where man had constantly to face the imperfection of his own body. He wanted a l l experience to be innocent, pure, and f r e e , as he also wanted a l l men to be a l i v e , good, and spontaneous. But as a physical man he f e l t the shortcomings, fears, and g u i l t s of his own body, as he also per-ceived i n t e l l e c t u a l l y the shortcomings of the society surrounding him which made man an ugly and corrupt being. He suffered from a sens© of g u i l t and shame, but in terms appropriate to his Catholic r e l i g i o n , he came to see s u f f e r i n g as a, form of release - f o r by s u f f e r i n g in a C h r i s t - l i k e way he -26-could appease his g u i l t and thus r i s e above e v i l , to a t t a i n a new sense of innocence. In this state of innocence he became a prophet visionary revealing e v i l to others. His attempt to es-cape s u f f e r i n g by s u f f e r i n g , however, ended in hopeless paradox, for he could never quite transcend his feelings of inadequacy and horror. Kerouac continued his quest in search of innocence through-out most of l i f e , turning at d i f f e r e n t times to r e l i g i o n , nature,' drink, friendship and art in his attempt to relate innocence to a suffering, world. Yet Kerouac could never appease.his own sense of private s u f f e r i n g , he could never transcend his pain as he believed others could. He saw innocence as the e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t y of his friends, * naming an entire beat generation a generation of beautitude. In " B e a t i f i c : On The Origins of a Generation," Kerouac-described his new awareness of the meaning in the word "beat." While ". . .beat o r i g i n a l l y meant poor, down and out, sad, sleeping i n subways. . . ," i t came to have f o r Kerouac at his moment of i n -sight the meaning of "beautitude."" 1' The members of the "beat" generation were in his eyes those sp e c i a l beings who experienced "bea ititude," who transcended suffering in a way impossible to him. They became the heroes of his novels - Dean Moriarty (Neal Cassady), Japhy Ryder (Gary Snyder), Adam Moorad (Allan Ginsberg), Old B u l l Lee (William Burroughs) - each representing to him the alter-ego, the innocent man he wished to be but could, not. because of his own sense of impoverishment. Kerouac elevated even the average member of the beat world, giving him the heroic stature of vi c t i m and s u f f e r e r . He saw the member of the beat sub-culture - whether poet, hoodlum, or jun-kie (The Town and The C i t y ) , or p l a i n bum (Dharma Bums) as a god because of his unique r e l a t i o n s h i p to the world of pain. As a vi c t i m of the s o c i a l order, the beat character suffered greatly, he was the innocent lamb preyed upon by the l i o n . Through his suf f e r i n g he attained a form of innocence, he was alienated i n a C h r i s t - l i k e way from the e v i l s and. corruptions of society - f o r e v i l was a force outside him fo r which he was not personally responsible: ". . .the great Dracula figure of modern d i s i n t e -gration and madness, the wise genius behind i t a l l , the De v i l i f you w i l l , i s running the whole thing with his s t r i n g of oathes p and hexes." The adventures of his s p e c i a l heroes - Dean (Cody) and Japhy turn i n t o a quest, a pilgrimage in search of a new value system, a protest against the old. Through t h e i r actions these characters dissociate themselves from society and go in search.of a l i f e form which w i l l authentically express t h e i r being. They experi-ence, a joy in l i f e from moment to moment, taking upon themselves the role of Nietzchian supermen, transcending morality within 3 t h e i r own l i v e s through t h e i r l i b e r a t i o n into v i t a l i t y . They pa r t i c i p a t e i n the world of Dionysus, the god of dynamic exis-tence, who reconciles man with nature. Japhy revels in the dynamics of the natural world while Dean considers a l l l i f e holy and every moment precious, making the whole of America his natu-r a l playground. In terms of t h e i r society they inhabit the realm of the i r r a t i o n a l and absurd, the lower, dark world of music, s e l f - f o r g e t f u l n e s s and intoxication - a l l parts of the experience - 2 8 -of the god Dionysus. Man celebrated Dionysus i n e a r l i e r barbaric fashion by sexual promiscuity, a feature prominent in the experi-ence of Japhy and Dean and. to the subterranean sub-culture to be considered l a t e r . In t h e i r passion f o r l i f e they r i s e above the repressive order of society, transcending the moral ideology which t r i e s to j u s t i f y i t . They are on the road t r a v e l l i n g towards a new l i f e experience, and they cannot be judged by the old. Even though often involved in a series of petty crimes, as seen e s p e c i a l l y i n the l i f e of Dean ^ o r i a r t y , they are innocents in Kerouac's eyes, f o r they transcend, the terms of corruption which t h e i r society designates. Sal, the Kerouac figure in On  The Road, reveres Dean, the Holy Goof; f o r Sal he epitomizes "Beat - the root, the sould of B e a t i f i c . " ^ ". . .Dean, by• virtue of his enormous series of sin s , was becoming the Idiot, the Imbecile, the Saint of the l o t , " f o r his actions ignore the world of morality in which other men are chained. (On The Road, p. 160). Dean races through society with "the tremendous energy of a new kind, of American saint" (On The Road, p. 161). In Visions of Cody Kerouac argues f o r "the goodness of this hero and his p o s i -- 5" t i o n as an Archetypa.1 American Man." Dean's b e l i e f in the holy qu a l i t y of every moment and thing l i n k s him to a philosophical t r a d i t i o n of Lie b n i t z i a n optimism which evades the whole question of e v i l . Many of his expressions r e f l e c t a philosophy s i m i l a r t.o Pope's "Whatever i s . i s r i g h t , " and to Candide's "best of a l l possible worlds." This t r a d i t i o n contains an e s s e n t i a l element of amorality: incapable of dealing with e v i l i n philosophical terms, i t tends to ignore i t s e x i s t - . ence. Rather than reaching an elevated transcendence i t often becomes pure n a i v i t e , an evading of that which is unpleasant to face. Kerouac f i n a l l y stumbled over this point, f o r while he could, argue the innocence of his heroes who i n s i s t e d upon the holiness of a l l existence, he could not evade the morality of good and e v i l within his own l i f e . While he longed.to enter the world of Dionysus, the underground, world of the subterraneans, he was forced to face the strength of morality's demands upon him,, demands long ingrained within him by his r e l i g i o n and home l i f e . With the growing pessimism of his l a t e r years, Kerouac turned from a b e l i e f in the innocence and. b e a t i f i c q u a l i t y of his heroes, considering Cody only an aggravating and c h i l d - l i k e f r i e n d in Big Sur. Kerouac continued his search f o r a method of r e l a t i n g suf-f e r i n g to innocence i n his investigation of r e l i g i o u s doctrine. He had grown up in the Catholic r e l i g i o n , and this r e l i g i o n con-tinued to a f f e c t a large number of his ideas throughout l i f e . In Maggie Cas sidy (1959) , Kerouac describes his early conception of the Catholic way of l i f e : God spoke to me from the C r u c i f i x : - 'Now i t is morning and the good people are t a l k i n g next door and the l i g h t comes i n through the shade - my c h i l d you find yourself in a world, of mystery and pain not understandable - I know angel - i t is f o r your good, we s h a l l save you, because we find your soul as important as the soul of the others in the world - but you must su f f e r f o r that, in e f f e c t my c h i l d , you must die, you must die in pain, with c r i e s , f r i g h t s , despairs - the ambiguities 1 the terrors I - the l i g h t s , heavy, breakable, the fatigues, . ah! . . . (Maggie Cassidy, p. I4.3). Christ could save the young boy Jack Kerouac, i f he suffered in equal fashion: "I stopped at the phosphorescent C r u c i f i x of -30-Jesus and inwardly prayed to sorrow and suffe r as He and so be saved",(Maggie Cassidy, p. 62).' As a c h i l d Jack had seen his young brother Gerard s a c r i f i c e d i n terms of this v i s i o n . Gerard, the young angel-boy, seems placed upon earth to experience the 'goodness of suffering!" 1 i n a momentary preparation f o r his l i f e with God. He acts as a young prophet and guide showing within his actions and thoughts the truth of existence. Gerard senses the holiness of l i f e , f e e l i n g horror at the cruelty and corrup-tion within the world. He recognizes i n despair that no change w i l l occur in the world, i t w i l l continue in i t s cycle of woe and s u f f e r i n g f o r " s i n is s i n and there's no erasing i t - we are spiders. We s t i n g one another" (Visions of Gerard, p. \ i 2 ) . Yet Gerard envisions another trna-er. world, a world of innocence and p u r i t y with God ? He can escape the cycle of birth,;death, and r e b i r t h through his recognition of the e s s e n t i a l innocence under-l y i n g a l l . But in terms of the Catholic way of l i f e presented to Kerouac by God, Gerard must suffer to att a i n t h i s world. C h r i s t -l i k e in his own pu r i t y and innocence, he suffers the horrors of existence and the pains of his mortal body. Ch r i s t '. through his suf f e r i n g saves mankind, while Gerard, through h i s , makes his younger brother Jack aware of both a sp e c i a l experience of p u r i t y and innocence and the way to a t t a i n this experience through suf-f e r i n g . "I had no objection to acting l i k e a lamb because my mother'd told me so many stories about my l i t t l e brother died at nine who was so lamby, Gerard, would rescue mice from traps and bring back health in l i t t l e cardboard boxes. . ." (Maggie Cassidy, P. 90). The Catholic v i s i o n influences Kerouac permanently and his l a t e r analysis of Buddhist theory i n Dharma Bums emphasizes much the same attitude towards suf f e r i n g and innocence. Kerouac's interpretation of Buddhism again defines the world, as one of mystery and pain where " a l l l i f e i s suffering" but "the suppres-* 6 sion of su f f e r i n g can be achieved." Sex and lust cause b i r t h while b i r t h i s the cause of s u f f e r i n g . Buddhism divides r e a l i t y into the realm of experience, which is the wider world of s u f f e r -ing and woe, and the greater r e a l i t y of man's "truebody" or "starbody." Though the basic terms of innocence and su f f e r i n g remain s i m i l a r to the Catholic v i s i o n , the pattern f o r a t t a i n i n g the world of 'truebody' d i f f e r s . Instead, of gaining p u r i f i c a t i o n through s u f f e r i n g , man a l t e r s his awareness of sufferi-ng, making i t unimportant in his own mind, so that while the body may c o n t i -nue to s u f f e r , the mind can suppress such agony, l i v i n g a ; l i f e of p u r i t y above the prison of b i r t h , death, and r e b i r t h . While Kerouac f i g h t s to j u s t i f y a philosophy of suppressed suffering in Dharma Bums, his works make up the story of his own personal anguish, which is one he can never r e a l l y go beyond. "The whole thing forms one enormous comedy, seen through the eyes.of poor T i Jean (me), otherwise known as Jack Dulous, the world of raging action and f o l l y and also of gentle sweetness seen through the keyhole of his eyes" (Visions of Cody, Preface). His i n a b i l i t y to take upon himself the Buddhist way of l i f e stems also from his deep commitment to a Catholic morality c l o s e l y associated with the Catholic terms of s u f f e r i n g . Man must undergo punishment f o r his sins to obtain the goodness of another world. Kerouac's -32-i n t e r j e c t i o n of Rosie's suicide in the midst of his tale of his and Japhy's Buddhist quest f o r innocence in Dharma Bums suggests his i m p l i c i t awareness and fear of the judgment of a world s t i l l embedded within s u f f e r i n g . Rosie fears that a cop is going to arrest a l l the Dharms bums f o r t h e i r sins, and t h e i r primary s i n seems to be one of evasion, of ignorance of the agonized world surrounding them. Of this they are g u i l t y . Kerouac stri v e s to reconcile and blend his Buddhist and Catholic ideas in The Scripture of the Golden E t e r n i t y (1961), which reveals his own momentary personal v i s i o n of r e l i g i o u s t r u t h . In th i s scripture his view of the world and society changes l i t t l e - the cause of the world's woe continues to be b i r t h , ". . .that e v i l thing c a l l e d sex and r e b i r t h " (The. Scripture, quotations 2lx and 3 D * What is important to this work is his changed conception of s e l f - he sees himself f u l l y for'the f i r s t time as equal to his brother Gerard, becoming the innocent visionary prophet whose task i t is to show the world i t s e s s e n t i a l woe, to lead i t into the way of innocence. Kerouac gains a sense of pure innocenceeat the moment of his v i s i o n ; he attains the role of god figure a f t e r years of searching into the ways of gods. In his v i s i o n he experiences se l f l e s s n e s s , r i s i n g above that ego where most of his moral dilemmas and c o n f l i c t s had formerly been acted out. The church which had once c a r r i e d him from savior to savior, leads him in his v i s i o n to recognize f i n a l l y that he himself is his own savior and the possible savior of other men. He "was awakened to show the way, chosen to die in the degradation of l i f e , because he is Mortal Golden E t e r n i t y " (The Scripture, quotation if). He, as Gerard, i s "a s p e c i a l s o l i -tary angel sent down as a messenger from Heaven to t e l l everybody that t h e i r peeking society / i s / a c t u a l l y the Satanic society and they / a r e / a l l on the wrong track" (Big Sur, p. 91+). Kerouac takes upon himself the role of a r t i s t visionary - through his a r t i s t i c revelations he w i l l express the truth. Kerouac develops as a Romantic a r t i s t , an a r t i s t who pro-jects his innocence and g u i l t upon the universe, f l u c t u a t i n g between e c s t a t i c idealism and hopeless despair. The r e l i g i o u s i d e a l of p u r i t y and innocence in which he, as a r t i s t , partakes, often succumbs to the world of suffering and g u i l t which makes up so large a part of the l i f e of Kerouac the man. . The Romantic a r t i s t of the nineteenth century became almost an archetypal myth with a pattern of actions and responses asso-7 ciated with his being. He was the sensitive man elevated above society and often persecuted by s o c i a l forces. He experienced l i f e i n terms of extremes -. while on the one hand he held the p o s s i b i l i t y of i d e a l v i s i o n s , on the' other he l i v e d in the deep-est of emotional h e l l s . His art took the form of confession -a confession of his excessive g u i l t and su f f e r i n g caused through his i n a b i l i t y to l i v e out his i d e a l v i s i o n . He viewed woman With both joy and t e r r o r - wanting to obliterate himself within her being which represented to him the e s s e n t i a l power of earth and nature and yet fearing the horror of her darkness. She was the femme fa t a l e in his eyes and his love f o r her reminded him of death - his death within her. He projected onto nature too, the two oppositions constantly present within his own mind. On -3h.-the one hand nature contained p u r i t y and innocence, on the other an aspect of t e r r o r . He -used his agony and pain, the very r e a l part of his existence, as the material f o r a r t . Pain, then, became a very v i t a l part of his existence, the source of his i n -s p i r a t i o n . In The Romantic Agony, Mario Praz describes the Romantics' use of pain as a major source of f e e l i n g ". . .for the Romantics beauty was enhanced by exactly those q u a l i t i e s which seem to deny i t , by those objects which produce horror; the sad-der, the more p a i n f u l i t i s , the more intensely they r e l i s h i t . This general archetype describes Kerouac f a i r l y c o l s e l y , as i t also describes his two Romantic heroes Nietzche and Baudelaire. In his youth Kerouac had participated casually with a group of young bohemian a r t i s t s who espoused the v i s i o n of Rimbaud, Nietzche, Yeats, and Rilke : "to plunge to the bottom of the abyss, Heaven or H e l l what matter? and a l l those other Rimbaud sayings and Nietzchian. . . ." (Vanity of Dulouz, p. 22h.). At this time he wrote an important note i n his diary on Nietzche's' v i s i o n of a r t : "NietzcheI Art is the highest task and the pro-per metaphysical a c t i v i t y of l i f e " (Vanity of Dulouz, p. 26). Through art as Nietzche advocated i t , man could transcend e x i s -tence and the morality which j u s t i f i e d this existence, creating in his own work of art his personal order amidst the chaos sur-rounding him. Nietzche favored the experience of l i b e r a t e d Dionysian a r t , an experience which (as.;shown previously) became the l i f e . s t y l e of many of Kerouac's id e a l heroes. The group of a r t i s t s known as the n a t u r a l i s t s grew out of Nietzche's a r t i s t i c theory, but unlike Nietzche's supermen they were not completely - 3 5 -able to transcend the v i s i b l e world, and v a c i l l a t e d between hope and despair, poetic joy and t e r r o r , r e b e l l i o n and submission. Kerouac followed t h e i r pattern, f o r while at one point he longed fo r a r e l i g i o u s art capable of complete transcendence through i t s presentation of the i d e a l , he discovered he l i v e d within a r e a l world where pain could only imperfectly be recreated into i d e a l beauty. His s u f f e r i n g most often f a i l e d to inspire a v i s i o n of the golden et e r n i t y , leading instead to increased anguish and s e l f p i t y . Only at his moment of complete nervous breakdown did he envision innocence once more. 4 For a moment I see blue Heaven and the Virgin's white v e i l but suddenly a great e v i l blur l i k e an ink spot spreads over i t , 'The d e v i l ! - the devil's come a f t e r me tonight! tonight is the n i g h t l ' that's what! -But angels are laughing and having a big barn dance in the rocks of the sea, nobody cares any more -Suddenly as c l e a r as anything I ever saw i n my l i f e I see the Cross (Big Sur, p. 167-68). But his v i s i o n compensated poorly f o r the agony of mental d i s -integration which he had experienced, f o r somehow the writing of a book could never make i d e a l a desperate pain and anguish: "And I r e a l i z e the unbearable, anguish of insanity." "There's a tightening around the head that hurts, there's a t e r r o r of the mind that hurts even more, they're so unhappy and e s p e c i a l l y because they can;..'.t explain i t to anybody or reach out and be helped through a l l the h y s t e r i c a l paranoia they are r e a l l y suf-f e r i n g more than anyone in the world and I think in the universe" (Big Sur, p. 161;). Though Kerouac could explain his suffering i n Big Sur, this explanation did l i t t l e to make his v i s i o n i d e a l . During this period of nervous tension he thought of Nietzche once more, but of Nietzche as a man not a superman: "Everything is - 3 6 -possible, even Nietzche knew that, - Ain't "nothing wrong with old Nietzche £ Xcept he went mad too!" (Big Sur, p. 132). Baudelaire, the French Romantic, waa.the archetypal a r t i s t figure who extended and enlarged upon Nietzche's v i s i o n . Leo Percipied, another Kerouac f i g u r e , i d e n t i f i e s strongly with Baudelaire in The Subterraneans, a novel considered l a t e r i n this chapter, taking his i d e a l conception of Baudelaire as a pattern f o r his own a r t i s t i c l i f e s t y l e . Baudelaire, the Romantic a r t i s t par excellence, alternated between his experiences of spleen and i d e a l , spleen being a world of ennui, despair, outrage, and d i s -gust; and i d e a l the escape into a r t i s t i c v i s i o n , the recreation of the actual into beauty. Art substituted f o r r e l i g i o n i n Baudelaire's v i s i o n ; through art man could transcend ugly r e a l i t y to re-enter a world of c h i l d - l i k e i n s p i r a t i o n , gaining p u r i t y by giving ugliness an a r t i s t i c r e a l i t y completely foreign to i t s o r i g i n a l being. "In every man, at every hour, /said. Baudelaire/, there are two simultaneous postulations, one towards God and the other towards Satan. The invocation.to God or s p i r i t u a l i t y , is a desire to mount higher, the invocation to Satan, or animality, is the joy of descending."^ Kerouac could, e a s i l y i d e n t i f y with these p a r t i c u l a r terms, f o r ..he, too, f e l t a simultaneous a t t r a c -t i o n towards both s p i r i t and body, defined, as the realms of s p i r i t u a l i t y and animality by the Catholic church. Baudelaire s t i l l considered the eternal struggle between i d e a l and r e a l i t y a moral b a t t l e ; he, unlike Nietzche, never conceived of a way of l i f e completely outside morality. While he spent his entire l i f e r e j e c t i n g the moral premises of his society, he rejected them in -37-t h e i r own terms, experiencing his v i s i o n of spleen i n terms of C h r i s t i a n e v i l and h e l l . He advocated the joys of e v i l , f o r e v i l was the source of inspired v i s i o n , yet this in ways was c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l to the Catholic concept of suffering as necessary before a v i s i o n of goodness could be achieved. Kerouac, who was also incapable of transcending the moral terms of hcurch and. home, found within Baudelaire a form of Romantic v i s i o n c l o s e l y connec-ted to his own b e l i e f s ; he, l i k e Baudelaire, could create from his s u f f e r i n g within the underworld of s e l f and. society, the flower of a r t . Kerouac's l i f e as revealed in The Subterraneans was p a r a l l e l to Baudelaire's - both he and Baudelaire f e l t strong mother f i x a t i o n s , both had negro mistresses, and both found, within 10 art and. creation a form of outlet and release. Kerouac, l i k e ) Baudelaire, confessed his shame in his art, and shame was.the necessary precedent in his mind to heroism: "Shame. . .that key to immortality in the Lord's grave. . .that key to courage. . . that key to heart" (Maggie Cassidy, p. 106). Baudelaire f e l t that, the only great figures among men were the poet, the p r i e s t , and the s o l d i e r . "The man who sings, the man who s a c r i f i c e s , and. the mne who i s s a c r i f i c e d . " " ^ Kerouac f e l t much the same way, elevating the humble v i c t i m to the stature of hero whose glory the poet a r t i s t could sing. He himself was often the humble v i c t i m to be elevated through song, f o r most of his works centre upon his own pain and .agony. In Big Sur his mental anguish, "his groaning soul," i s central to the novel, and he describes even the autobiography of his early years, Vanity of Dulouz, as "the story of the techniques of - 38 -suffering in the working world, which includes f o o t b a l l and war" (Vanity of Dulouz. p. 103). In Dharma Bums, On The Road, and Visions of Gerard he searched f o r a sense of sacredness which could ob l i t e r a t e s u f f e r i n g , while The Subterraneans reveals the f u l l anguish of the rejected lover. Art serves the function of penance in his l i f e , f o r confession, the f i r s t step-towards inno-cence within the Catholic church, becomes in art form his step outside g u i l t . He confesses himself a su f f e r i n g v i c t i m , over-whelmed at times by a sense of inadequacy; but humble confession releases him from inadequacy, i t p u r i f i e s him, makes him capable of envisioning and p a r t i c i p a t i n g within the experience of- inno-cence. He expiates his sense of g u i l t and shame i n art.formi: "pain which won't be eased by writing t h i s , but heightened, but which w i l l be redeemed. . ." (The Subterraneans, p..21?.). Kerouac considered the personal mythology he developed in his novels to be also a s o c i a l mythology - through insights into his own character he revealed, the soul of America. H Q saw America as representative of the personal extremes within himself, and the question of whether Kerouac is the product of a . c o n f l i c t , or whether he created the c o n f l i c t and projected i t onto society, is a debatable one. But regardless of i r i g i n the c o n f l i c t existed in his mind. The fathers of America had attempted to blend two separate ideals in the making of America - the id e a l of reason, order, and progress, and the i d e a l of freedom and i n d i v i d u a l i t y . With the growing expansion and complexity of American society, the exten-sion of s o c i a l forces and demands began to hinder the i d e a l of - 3 9 -personal freedom. The i n d i v i d u a l came into c o n f l i c t with his society, which he f e l t d r a s t i c a l l y l i m i t e d his i n d i v i d u a l i t y by narrowing the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r his development to the demands of s o c i a l order. A subversive t r a d i t i o n arose which affirmed the i d e a l of freedom above a l l others, and which came to consider the s o c i a l establishment as an enemy, f o r i t numbed and destroyed the uniqueness of man, recreating him i n the mold:.of ..a . s o c i a l ro-bot. The American a r t i s t took upon himself the subversive r o l e , and came to experience his suff e r i n g i n terms of the c o n f l i c t between these two ideals within himself. Kerouac followed this t r a d i t i o n , p a r t i a l l y externalizing the c o n f l i c t through his crea-t i o n of a hero f i g h t i n g outside the s o c i a l order f o r his own i n -d i v i d u a l being. He used the image of t e l e v i s i o n to suggest the t e r r i f y i n g control over mind and emotion, which relegates s u f f e r -ing to the l i v e s of those on the screen, reducing man's experi-ence of his own being to a pa r t i c i p a t o r ' s response. Colleges are nothing but grooming schools f o r middle-class non-identity which usually finds i t s perfect expression on the outskirts of the campus i n rows of ; well-to-do houses with lawns and t e l e v i s i o n sets in each living-room with everybody looking at the same thing while the Japhys of the world go prowling in the wilderness to hear the voice crying in the w i l -derness. . . (Dharma Bums, p. 3 2 ) . Kerouac's heroes as described before, choose the l i f e outside society, transcending the code of s o c i a l morality i n t h e i r quest f o r i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r a t i o n . Kerouac f i g h t s out the terms of the s o c i a l f i g h t within himself, and his unresolved tensions make him the perfect archetype f o r American society, ^he Romantic extremes of ideal against r e a l i t y therefore take on the appearance of s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m in Kerouac's work. He f a i l e d f i n a l l y in his -1+0-attempt to appease his suffering through his a r t , f o r the very role of a r t i s t in America placed, him on the side of the subver-sive t r a d i t i o n . Reconciliation of the c o n f l i c t between i n d i v i -d u a l i t y and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y became impossible as long as he took his art seriously, f o r i n arguing the greater value of a v i s i o n of innocence, he was condemning the s o c i a l world sur-rounding him. He turned in despair to less s a t i s f a c t o r y means to at t a i n a f e e l i n g of puri t y and. innocence, consuming vast amounts of li q u o r to escape from the horror of r e a l i t y in the pleasures of in t o x i c a t i o n . In Sa t o r i in Paris he r e f l e c t e d upon the reason fo r his drinking: "As I grew older I became a drunk - Why? Because I l i k e ecstacy of the mind" (Satori in Paris, p. 28). When a c o n f l i c t becomes so insurmountable and overwhelming that a man can deal with i t no longer, he longs f o r death, and.death became Kerouac's f i n a l form of release. Leo Percepied viewed death as comforting and. heroic i n The Subterraneans: ". . .seeing none of my virtues which anyway had long been drowned under years of durgtaking and des i r i n g to die, to give up, to give i t a l l up and forget i t a l l , to die in the dark star . . ." (The Subterra-neans , p. 9'-}; and Kerouac i n Big Sur f e l t surrounded by death's' presence - his cat and some g o l d f i s h die, and a f r i e n d i s dying in a sanitarium. Kerouac himself died in 1 9 7 0 at the age of 1+7. Kerouac reveals one cause f o r his suffering by suggesting within his novels his strong mother f i x a t i o n . In an Oedipal context^ a young man rejects his bodily desires f o r his mother because he fears c a s t r a t i o n from his father - hopefully he then - I l l -finds suitable substitutes which w i l l lead eventually to his growth away from his mother as he forms a new relati o n s h i p with another woman. As in the case of many Freudian neurotics, Kerouac f a i l e d to break the mother bond, continuing to return to . the warmth and s t a b i l i t y of her comfort; but thi s caused him to f e e l at a subconscious l e v e l a sense of g u i l t at his own body which had once experienced sexual desires f o r her. Since he could maintain this r e l a t i o n s h i p only on an asexual.level, he considered i t i n terms of love and need, emotions and concepts which develop through the mind rather than the body. In such circumstances the body becomes the area in which g u i l t i s experi-enced, p a r t i c u l a r l y sexual g u i l t , and. Kerouac's relationships with other women exhibited his sense of shame. H-e f e l t shame at these other relationships because they drew him away from home, but he also f e l t the shame of these other women who operated in the les s e r terms of body rather than mind. Kerouac feared that he could be sucked into a g u i l t y r e l a t i o n s h i p from which he could a t t a i n no release; he f e l t repulsion towards these other women even as he was attracted to them - they became femme-fatale 1 2 figures in his mind. To enjoy the l i f e of his body f u l l y , he would have to separate himself from his mother bond, in order not to f e e l g u i l t ' a t the sexual desires he experienced. As long as the strength of his mother's hold exceeded that of another woman, he could conceive of sex p o s i t i v e l y only in terms of an i d e a l ; l i k e Leo Percipied in The Subterraneans, he strove f o r the id e a l of Reichian orgasm. His body demands s a t i s f a c t i o n , however; i t rejects the solu-t i o n of sublimation in the form of the i d e a l of mother love, and draws Kerouac away into areas of experience opposed to the mother The mother comes to represent a l l those aspects of consciousness associated with mind and ideal - s t a b i l i t y , super-ego, repression sublimation. Opposed to this l i f e is the l i f e of passion, of i r r a t i o n a l impulse, the underworld, l i f e of the i d , the experience of the god Dionysus - the whole area of l i f e with transcends morality through l i b e r a t i o n . To remain within the world of mother love excludes large areas of experience through i t s denial of the body, while a l i f e of bodily existence alone separates ^him from his i d e a l s , causing him to f e e l estrangement and g u i l t at his own being. The dominance of either one or the other created— extreme fear (paranoia) and tension within Kerouac,.making i t necessary f o r him to move towards the opposite pole. The frustrated a r t i s t expresses his tension through his ego confession i n art form, and a r t , as suggested above, becomes a kind of penance f o r his g u i l t . Art becomes a mother substitute, f o r Kerouac can create i n art a world of mind above the l e v e l of actual existence, an i d e a l world in which tensions can be s a f e l y purged through t h e i r e x p l i c a t i o n . Art becomes his form of sublimation, f o r he escapes the tensions within his actual l i f e by relegating these tensions to the realm of a r t i s t i c : .1 r e a l i t y - they become the c e n t r a l ' c o n f l i c t s ' within his novels. He gains comfort and sec u r i t y by writing, while through his s e l f -debasement he s a t i s f i e s the harsh judgment of his super ego. Kerouac associates his work l i f e with his home; he escapes Mardou in The Subterraneans to return home to. write. Work has the -h3-advantage of being asexual; "the asexuality of the ¥ O R K - also the sudden gut joy of beer when the visions of great words in rhytlirnic order a l l in. one archetypal book go roaring thro my brain. . ." (The Subterraneans, p. 57). In his writing Kerouac finds the most s a t i s f a c t o r y sublimation of his pain and g u i l t at his bodily desires f o r he can use his desire and anguish as a force and impetus in the creation of his novels. But his novels show his torture at this c o n f l i c t of body and mind, and while his torture leads him to a r t , he can never gain a f u l l sense of re-prieve i n his own l i f e experience. (2) Kerouac reveals his fears, anxieties, and c o n f l i c t s most perceptively in The Subterraneans (1958), a novel which develops his own character in some depth. In thi s novel, Leo Percipied, the figure of Kerouac himself, confesses in a style and manner appropriate to the Romantic hero, the f a i l u r e of his short love affair--, with the negro g i r l Mardou Pox. In his openness he hints at many of the c o n f l i c t s within his own character, while some of his i n t e n t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n s uncover aspects of character whose implications he himself f a i l s to r e a l i z e . Leo Percipied offers a good example f o r Freudian analysis, giving us a case study i n Freudian style of a mother-fixated, depressed hero. Percipied's frustrated ego striv e s desperately to reconcile id with super-ego, never quite succeeding, and his confessional novel can be ana-lysed in terms of this dilemma. On the one hand, he longs for a world of passion, impulse, and l i b e r a t i o n ; while on the other he wishes f o r the i d e a l , a world of moral p u r i t y and s t a b i l i t y which represses or sublimates the id drives - the experience of super-ego. This internalized c o n f l i c t acts i t s e l f out in his r e l a -tionship with Mardou, who represents to a great extent the world of i d , but who has an important ambivalence. The i m p l i c i t strength of another woman, his mother, l i e s in d i r e c t opposition to Mardou's hold, a mother who represents the strength of super-ego. It was his mother who gave him his morality and ide a l s , and who subconsciously, through the power of her hold, made necessary c e r t a i n repressions and sublimations. As suggested e a r l i e r , Kerouac associated the world of work with mother and home, a work which was asexual and provided a suitable sublima-t i o n of the mother bond. The strength of Kerouac's mother f i x a -t i o n overpowers his love f o r Mardou, fo r his mother's will"has affected i n d i r e c t l y a large part of his character; and the strength of his super-ego makes him f e e l g u i l t and shame at thi s r e l a t i o n s h i p with this other woman. Only his mother can comprehend/his su f f e r i n g f u l l y , and comfort him i n his pain, f o r she is the source of forgiveness -l i k e the Mother Mary in the Catholic church, she draws the young su f f e r e r to her f o r consolation. Leo's mother t h u s . s a t i s f i e s the whole range of his emotional being, o f f e r i n g both a realm of ideals and a consolation and forgiveness f o r s i n . She.fails only to s a t i s f y his sexual'ldrives, which, associated with the i d , must turn to this realm of experience f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n . When Mardou's l i g h t f i n a l l y goes out i n Heavenly Lane, showing that she no lon-ger awaits Leo's a r r i v a l , Leo fl e e s to' the r a i l y a r d , crying because of the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of t h e i r separation. At this moment he sees a v i s i o n suddenly appear in the sky: Seeing suddenly not in the face of the moon but some-where i n the sky as I looked up and hoped to f i g u r e , the face of my mother - remembering i t in fact from a haunted nap just a f t e r supper that same res t l e s s ' unable-to-stay-in-a-chair or on-eartb day - just as I woke to some Arthur Godfrey programme on T.V., I saw bending over me the visage of my mother, with impenetrable eyes and moveless l i p s and round cheek-bones and glasses that g l i n t e d and h i d the major part of her expression which at f i r s t I thought was a v i s i o n of horror that I might shudder at, but. i t didn't make me shudder - wondering about i t on the - walk and suddenly now i n the rail y a r d s weeping f o r my l o s t Mardou and so stupidl y because I'd. decided to throw her away myself, :;.it had been a v i s i o n of my mother's love f o r me, - that expressionless and ex-. pressionless-because-so-profound face bending over me in the v i s i o n of my sleep, and. with l i p s not so pressed together as enduring and as i f to say - ^ •Poor L i t t l e Leo, poor L i t t l e Leo, you suffe r , man suf f e r so, you're a l l alone i n the world I ' l l take care of you, I would very much l i k e to take care of you a l l your days my angel' - My mother an angel too -. . . (The Subterraneans, p. II4.I-I4.2) You see a v i s i o n of the face of the woman who i s your mother who loves you so much she has supported you and protected you f o r years, you a bum, a drunkard -never complained a jot - because she knows that i n your present state you can't go out in the world and . make a l i v i n g and take care of yourself and even f i n d .and. hold the love of another protecting woman - and a l l because you are poor stupid T i Leo - deep i n your dark p i t of night under the stars of the world you are l o s t , poor, no one cares, and now you threw away a l i t t l e woman's love because you wanted another drink with a rowdy fien d from the other side of your insanity (p. 11+3). At t h i s emotional c r i s i s his ambivalent and complex feelings: f o r his mother bombard his consciousness, and the c o n f l i c t s in his mother's ..roles create a sense of confusion about her in Leo's mind - she gives him a system of values then judges his f a i l u r e to achieve these values, but she forgives him in his weakness and offers him comfort and protection. Since he is destined in -1*6-her eyes to be a sinner and a loser, the only way he can gain her sympathy and love is through his excessive s u f f e r i n g , f o r by suf-f e r i n g he does penance f o r his s i n and gains her forgiveness. The s e l f concept, then, which gives him his mother's f u l l e s t sympathy is that of Poor T i Jean, perpetual bum and drunkard, who suffers out each day of l i f e . His mother becomes the p r i -mary image f o r comfort in his weakness, f o r i t is only she who can f u l l y comprehend and p i t y his short-comings, no other.woman, including Mardou, can understand or love him so completely. Leo searches f o r a love equal to his mother's love in his relationships with other women, f o r there is a part-of himself which longs to be free from her hold and.to e s t a b l i s h a complete union with another. Her being has so completely penetrated h i s , however, that he can see other women as ide a l only i f they appear to be s i m i l a r to her. When Leo f i r s t meets Mardou Fox he thinks immediately of two other women - his s i s t e r , and a girlhood::.;! f r i e n d of his s i s t e r named Rita Savage. "My s i s t e r , I'd thought suddenly the f i r s t time I saw her" (p. ?1). A s i s t e r represents in Freudian terms a kind of mother substitute, and. Leo projects his hope that Mardou may be such a substitute in thi s statement. But Mardou reminds him simultaneously of his s i s t e r ' s g i r l f r i e n d , Rita Savage, an Indian g i r l who had occupied his sexual fantasies as a young man. Rita Savage exists in his mind as the other part of woman, the 'savage' dark lady who offers her body f o r sex but who f a i l s " to s a t i s f y his ideals of love. Leo finds i t d i f f i c u l t to relate his sexual desires with love, and to unite these responses in his r e l a t i o n s h i p with one -kl-woman. A part of him longs f o r an id e a l love with Mardou, i n . which case, Mardou would take on f o r him a role equivalent to his mother - he would "find.and hold the love of another pro-tecting woman" (p. Ik3)» She would protect him from his fears and comfort him i n his s u f f e r i n g as his mother had always done. In this sense the l i g h t from Mardou's window in Heavenly Lane is a symbol to him, f o r the l i g h t shows that Mardou is there waiting, ready to comfort him in his pain. On f i r s t seeing her, he thinks .of the solace she can give him: "But i n eying her l i t t l e charms I only had the foremost one idea that I had to immerse my lonely being (A big sad lonely man, i s what she said to me one night l a t e r , seeing me suddenly i n the chair) in the warm batch and salvation of her thighs. . . ." (p. 9). He sees himself and Mardou as "lovers going to and fr o be-neath the boughs in The Forest Arder. of the World," a forest where love and sexual innocence can unite once more, i n terms of Reich's theory of orgasm (p. 6i|). Leo espouses Reich's sexual theory which affirms that love and sex join together "when microcosmed and pointed in and maled i n t o : orgasm. . . % " f o r this theory affirms the sacredness of sex as i t leads to the ultimate experience (p. 61,). H Q makes sex a part of his i d e a l v i s i o n - he and Mardou w i l l partake of this r i t u a l and so unite in the most sacred act. Leo 'seeks' to get involved With Mardou, searching within the essence of woman.for i d e a l love, and i n this sense Mardou's race is a part of her immediate attractiveness. He t e l l s her of the reasons he i s attracted to her early in t h e i r relatione! .. ship: -1*8-• . .What I see i n your eyas is a l i f e - t i m e of a f f e c t i o n not only from the Indian in you but because as part Negro somehow, you are the f i r s t , the e s s e n t i a l woman, and therefore the most, most o r i g i n a l l y most f u l l y affectionate and. maternal. . . ." ( i t a l i c s mine) (p. 129). Mardou believes too that woman is the essence, the being who can give man what he most v i t a l l y needs, but man evades her, rushes off instead to erect big abstract constructions ( i t a l i c s mine). "You mean they should just stay at home with the essence, /questions Leo/, that i s l i e under a tree a l l day with the woman but Mardou that's an old idea of mine, a lovely idea, I never heard i t better expressed and never dreamed" (p. 2 3 ) . "The highs contain the essence," those thighs in which he longs to immerse his lonely being (p. 2 3 ) . As t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p begins, Leo believes that ..'Eden's in A f r i c a , " separate and apart from a corrupt America.. He refers to the two of them as Adam and Eve, that couple who had once l i v e d i n perfect harmony in the Garden of Eden, and both he and Mardou dream of escape to Mexico where they can l i v e the simple l i f e of peasants in p u r i t y and innocence. As t h e i r dream of Mexico fades, Leo. dreams of yet another p o s s i b i l i t y - he and Mardou w i l l l i v e together in a shack.in the middle of the Mis-s i s s i p p i woods* Surrounded by hatred and severer r a c i a l : p r e judice they w i l l remain innocent and pure, l i v i n g a l i f e of solitude and peace. Y o u ' l l turn out to be the woman who can r e a l l y l i v e with me i n profound solitude of woods f i n a l l y and at the same time make the g l i t t e r i n g Parises (there i t i s ) and grovj old with me in my cottage of peace (suddenly seeing myself as William Blake with the -1+9-meek wife in the middle of London early dewy morning, Crabbe Robinson i s coming with some more etching work but Blake is l o s t in the v i s i o n of the Lamb at break-fast leavings table) )p. 83). He and Mardou confess t h e i r feelings of g u i l t and shame to one another in the intimacy of t h e i r bed-time conversations: they begin t h e i r romance "on the deeper l e v e l of love and h i s -t o r i e s of respect and shame. . ." (p. 2 9 ) . Through confession, Leo "believes, they w i l l a t t a i n innocence in one another's eyes, and this innocence w i l l make possible a more perfect r e l a t i o n -ship. In her confession Mardou s t a r t l e s Leo with a visionary experience she had had sometime e a r l i e r . In t h i s v i s i o n Mardou had walked, naked, and alone through the early morning San Francisco streets and. had recognized f o r the f i r s t time the beauty and innocence of her body as part of God's creation. Making a new s t a r t , s t a r t i n g from f l e s h in the r a i n , 'Why should anyone want to harm my l i t t l e heart, my feet, my l i t t l e hands, my skin that I'm wrapped in because God wants me warm and Inside, my toes - why did God make a l l t h i s a l l so decayable and dieable and harmable and wants to make me r e a l i z e and scream - why the wild ground and bodies bare and breaks -. I quaked when the giver creamed, when my father screamed, my mother dreamed - I started small and ballooned up and now I'm big and a naked c h i l d again only to cry and f e a r . - Ah - Protect yourself, angel of no harm, you who've never and could, never crack another innocent i t s s h e l l and thin veiled pain -wrap a robe around you, honey lamb, - protect your-s e l f from rain and wait, t i l l Daddy comes again, and Mama throws you warm inside her v a l l e y of the moon, loom at the loom of patient time, be happy in the mornings.' y Making a new s t a r t , shivering, out of the a l l e y night naked in the skin. . . (p. 36). As Mardou rec i t e s the tale of her r e b i r t h into a new world whose pu r i t y she can now comprehend, Leo feels overwhelmed by her good-ness and s u f f e r i n g . -50-I had never heard such a story from such a soul except from the great men I had known In my youth, great heroes of America I'd been buddies with, with whom I'd adventured and gone to j a i l and known in raggedy dawns, the boys beat on curbstones seeing symbols in the saturated gutter, the Rimbauds and Verlaines of America on Times square - kids - no g i r l had ever moved me with a story of s p i r i t u a l s u f f e r i n g and so b e a u t i f u l l y her soul showing out radiant as an angel wandering in h e l l and the h e l l the self-same streets I'd roamed in watching, dreaming the darkness and the mystery and eventu-a l i t y of our meeting i n eternity, the hugeness of her face now l i k e the sudden vast Tiger head on a poster on a back of a wood fence in the smoky dumpyards Saturday no-school mornings, d i r e c t , b e a u t i f u l , insane, in the r a i n . - We hugged, we held, close - i t was l i k e love now, I was amazed - We made i t in the livingroom, gladly on chairs, on the bed, slept entwined, s a t i s f i e d - I would show her more sexuality (p. 50). At this moment Leo discovers his mother in Mardou and his long search f o r the pure and innocent woman seems over. Mardou shares with his mother the role of angelic being, ; the innocent who wan-ders and suffers through, the ugliness of h e l l , but who gains a greater p u r i t y through t h i s journey. Leo views Mardou p o s i t i v e l y in yet another way, f o r Mardou belongs to a subterranean sub-culture which he admires and reveres. This sub-culture originated the beat generation in San Francisco, a generation which he views as essentially.innocent and b e a t i f i c . He believes that the male subterrnaenas are C h r i s t - l i k e figures, who, having experienced the world of h e l l , can enter the world of heaven. Leo associates Julien Alexander, "the angel of the subterraneans," with C h r i s t , and describes the majority of the members of this sub-culture as s a i n t - l i k e . The subterrnaeans suggest a world of " s i l e n c e , bohemian mystery, drugs, beards, semi-holiness," "they are hip without being s l i c k , -51-they are i n t e l l i g e n t without being corny, they are i n t e l l e c t u a l as h e l l and know a l l about Pound without being pretentious of ta l k i n g too much about i t , they are very quiet, they are very C h r i s t - l i k e " (p. 2). They read Whitman and Thoreau, take drugs, and l i s t e n to bop jazz. Drugs enlarge t h e i r world through p r i -vate v i s i o n s , making them c l o s e r to God in Leo's mind. "We say-junkie when once Dostoevysky would have said what? i f not as^ c e t i c or s a i n t l y . . ." (p. 18). They exist i n the dynamic world of music, s e l f - f o r g e t f u l n e s s , and i n t o x i c a t i c a t i o n , l i v i n g t h e i r l i v e s within the moment and leaving behind an•established world of s o c i a l conformity. Mardou's negro heritage has a spe-c i a l place i n this world, f o r i t was the negro race who created t h i s generation with t h e i r jazz music. Jazz penetrates the l i v e s of the subterraneans, who l i s t e n to t h e i r jazz heroes Charlie Parker and Thelonious Monk i n a state of reverent awe. Norman Mailer suggest in his a r t i c l e "The White Negro" that i t was jazz which f i r s t wedded black and white, making the white man long to enter the black world f o r the f i r s t time. ". . .The negro. . .could r a r e l y afford the sophisticated i n h i b i t i o n s of c i v i l i z a t i o n s , and so he ^Tad/ kept f o r his s u r v i v a l the art of 1 _ the p r i m i t i v e , he l i v e d i n the enormous present. . . ." J The negro was the source, the essence of the whole hip world. He was also the most heroic of a l l s u f f e r e r s , f o r he had been most thoroughly victimized. Having long fought to remain a l i v e in a country which despised his being, he epitomized strength and v i t a l i t y . Leo often dreamed of being a part of this hip world "wanting to be v i t a l , a l i v e l i k e a Negro, or an Indian, or a - 5 2 -Denver Jap or a New York Puerto Rican come true, with her by my side, so young, sexy, slender, strange hip. . (p. 96). Leo admires Mardou, the c h i l d of bop, who can enter and. comprehend jazz music so f u l l y . She stood i n the drowsy sun suddenly l i s t e n i n g to bop as i f f o r the f i r s t time as i t poured out the inten-t i o n of the musicians and of the horns and. instruments suddenly a mystical unity expressing i t s e l f in waves l i k e s i n i s t e r and again e l e c t r i c i t y but screaming with palpable aliveness the direc t world from the vi b r a t i o n , the interchanges of statement, the levels of waving Intimation, the smile i n sound. . . (p. 1+7-1+8). Through his rel a t i o n s h i p with Mardou he comes to see bop i n a l l of i t s v i t a l i t y and his wish is to be the greatest of bop wri t -ers. In her innocence and ' k i d - l i k e ' q u a l i t y , Mardou keeps him young, a part of this new generation - a fact he considers im-portant in his c o n f l i c t with another writer, B a l l i o l Mac-Jones. While Mac-Jones looks from the outside i n , conversing i n i n t e r -view fashion with the members of this beat world, Leo f e e l s a sense of belonging because of Mardou. But Mardou proves, incapable of carrying out Leo's i d e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , f o r having grown up in a much harsher.setting, she views l i f e more r e a l i s t i c a l l y . Mardou knows that the woman con-tains the essence, just as she also knows i n t u i t i v e l y that Leo as a man fears this essence and w i l l some day go off to erect abstract constructions. She scorns Leo's f a l s e sense of i d e a l -ism, f o r c i n g him to admit that they w i l l never reach Mexico, that they are not Adam and Eve. "Look man, she'd said, one day a week before when I'd suddenly started t a l k i n g about Adam and Eve, and referred to her as Eve, the woman who by her beauty - 5 3 -is able to make a man do anything, 'Don't c a l l me Evel'" (p. II4.9). She also c r i t i c i z e d his sexual idealism, expressing her distaste f o r Wilheim Reich and his book The Function of Orgasm. " 0 don't p u l l that Reich on me i n bed," she t e l l s Leo, "I read his damn book, I don't want our relat i o n s h i p a l l pointed out and f....d up with what HE said. . ." (p. 6h.-65). Mardou finds i t d i f f i c u l t to achieve orgasm because of a long series of sexual relationships which ignored her response, and this increases the d i f f i c u l t y of attaining Reich's ultimate. She recognizes i n t u i -t i v e l y that Leo's desire to return home a f t e r making love to her is unhealthy and harmful f o r t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p , and she t r i e s to break him of this need. Mardou longs to form a relat i o n s h i p in which the man w i l l not consider the woman as a prize but as a human being, a re l a t i o n s h i p based upon mutual respect and t r u s t . But Leo f i n a l l y cannot t r u s t Mardou. She l i v e s in the world of her own problems, timing her days by the frequency of her v i s i t s to her psychoanalyst. Mardou's mother had died at her b i r t h , and her father had disappeared, leaving her a homeless unwanted orphan. She seeks solace in her relationships with other men, a solace she cannot find i n Leo, searching f o r the comfort of the father she had never had-as a c h i l d . Leo, in his search f o r a mother, proves incapable of the role of male protector - he is an i n s u f f i c i e n t substitute father. Mardou is the f i r s t to recognize t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to reach one another, as she is l a t e r the one who ends t h e i r a f f a i r . In a note to Leo she sums up t h e i r separateness: "We are l i k e two animals escaping to dark warm holes and l i v e our pain alone" -5V (p. 82). They f a i l f i n a l l y to ahare one another's pain. The f a i l u r e of t h e i r love a f f a i r , due i n part to Mardou'a inadequacy, comes l a r g e l y however, from Leo'a strange and ambi-valent attitude towards women. As seen above, Leo searches f o r his i d e a l within a woman, an ide a l based upon his perception of his mother. Somewhere within himself he. f e e l s that the woman can save him: . . .knowing as I do from past experience and. i n t e r -i o r sense, you've got to f a l l down on your knees and beg the woman's permission, beg the woman's forgive -ness f o r a l l your si n s , protect her, support her, doing everything f o r her, die f o r her but f o r God's sake love her, and love her a l l the way in and every way you can. . . (p. ,10b.). But this very woman is a threat to his existence, drawing him away from self-awareness into her womb - that area of darkness which suggests comfort through the death s e l f . Leo.struggles to remain a l i v e , f i g h t i n g t h i s t e r r i f y i n g woman who threatens to smother him.. His ambivalent attitude arises as he t r i e s to d i -vide and di s t i n g u i s h these two aspects of woman within his own mind. Even his mother, who represents that i d e a l side of woman which he reveres, suggests the pot e n t i a l halves within herself - f o r she is both " t y r a n n i c a l " and "sweetly." Yet the strength of her influence upon Leo makes i t impossible f o r him to f i g h t his battle with woman against her, for i t would lead i n e v i t a b l y to his l o s s . Instead he struggles with those women who have been chosen as mother substitutes, and this struggle is p a r t i -c u l a r l y apparent i n his r e l a t i o n s h i p with Mardou. As suggested, e a r l i e r , Mardou reminds Leo immediately of both his s i s t e r and Rita Savage, a g i r l who represents that dark savage part' of woman which he fears. She herself i s a negro, a member of a black race which America had long considered dark and foreboding. In a r e l i g i o u s sense, black and white suggest the oppositions of e v i l and. good, and Leo associates the Satanic and f e a r f u l with darkness. Mardou l i v e s amidst a world of under-ground subterraneans, an id. world of chaos and passion. Having dropped the world of self-supporting work to f u l f i l l the b e l i e f in her own womanhood, she has been a part of this incestuous group f o r some time. This group partakes of the r i t u a l s of the underground, l i v i n g a l i f e of Dionysian v i t a l i t y and i n t o x i c a -t i o n , outside the moral terms of i t s society. It represents f o r Leo, the dark and subterranean forces of l i f e , which he, l i k e Baudelaire, must investigate i n order to at t a i n ecstacy and i n s p i r a t i o n . Leo wants to doubt Mardou, to see her as the femme fa t a l e figure who draws him from his own concerns into her private ; grasp. He looks f o r ways in which to c r i t i c i z e her in ord.er to increase his sense of repulsion and f e e l s repulsed at a v a r i e t y of things - her unwashed sheets, the beginnings of bad congestion in her teeth, the woolly p a r t i c l e s in her hair, her.sloppiness, her probable promiscuity, and her Negro race. "At f i r s t I had doubts, because she was Negro, because she was sloppy (always putting off everything t i l l tomorrow, the d i r t y room, unwashed sheets - What do I r e a l l y f o r Christ's sake care about sheets) - doubts because I knew she'd been seriously insane. . ." (p. 5 9 ) . While Leo feels attracted by the Negro in Mardou as t h i s draws him towards the essence of woman, he feels simultaneously -56-repelled - for the Negro woman is also linked in his mind with the hustler, the prosti t u t e who s e l l s her body to any taker: ". . .every time I see a Mexican gal or Negress I say to myself, 'hustlers,' they're a l l the same, always tryi n g to cheat and rob you - harking back to a l l relations in the past with them -Mardou sensing the waves of h o s t i l i t y from me and s i l e n t " (p. 129). Leo uses Mardou's intimate confessions of shame against her, p a r t i c u l a r l y her confession that she was once tempted to look i n an unlocked suitcase. He grows to believe that she ac t u a l l y did s t e a l from th i s suitcase, f o r he longs to consider her a t h i e f . When his f r i e n d , Bernard, accuses Mardou of s t e a l -ing some pornographic pictures, Leo ;joins in the accusation although Mardou protests her innocence. He wants to believe this deepest f i n a l doubt about Mardou: "that she was r e a l l y a th i e f of some sort and therefore was out to s t e a l my heart, my white man heart, a Negress sneaking i n the world sneaking the .holy white men f o r s a c r i f i c i a l r i t u a l " : l a t e r when t h e y ' l l be roasted, and r o l l e d . . ." (p. 6?). Leo f e e l s happy when he discovers that his jealousy dream of Mardou's inconstancy seems a c t u a l l y to be ture, f o r his sense of her g u i l t and promiscuity i s then confirmed. When Mardou t e l l s him that she and Y u r i w i l l not go with him to Los Altos, his heart sinks - " i t sank so I gloated to hear i t f o r the f i r s t time and the confirmation of i t crowned me and blessed me" (p. 117). At this time" Mardou reminds him of the f i r s t g i r l f r i e n d in his youth, Maggie Cassidy, "an impossible f l i r t and cheater," with whom he had also experienced ambiguous f e e l i n g s . In Maggie -57-Cassidy, the novel which describesthis early rela t i o n s h i p , he refers to his ambivalence: "I'd want to r i p her mouth out and murder her, sudden i n t e r i o r welling up of tenderness profound, paining, dark, forming milky frowns on forehead, r a i s i n g moon-by the conjuration - fingers up from the bottom of the well which is the womb, nature, black sod, time, death, b i r t h " (Maggie Cassidy, p..91). But Leo most fears Mardou's sexual hold, f o r he recognizes her great physical attractiveness. Their sexual rel a t i o n s h i p keeps him from his work, a work in which most of his ego con-sciousness i s invested. A f t e r spending the night with her he wants to return home, to re- a f f i r m his sense of well-being, and when Mardou persuades him to stay a few hours longer, he leaves g u i l t i l y : "because the well-being, the sense of doing what he should has been s a c r i f i c e d , but though s a c r i f i c e d to healthy love, something i s sick in him, l o s t , fear" (p. 56). Leo associates sex with s u f f e r i n g , and sex, rather than providing release from tension, increases the tension within him. He f e e l s g u i l t and repulsion at his sexual desires, r e-ducing them to the l e v e l of the a n i m a l i s t i c , and he sometimes becomes overwhelmed at how f a r he w i l l go f o r sexual s a t i s f a c -t i o n , " j u s t f o r the sake of a l i t t l e b i t of sate f o r that worm and snake c a l l e d sex" (p. 126). The sexual snake i s linked i n his mind with the "snake-like charm" of women, f o r i t was the combination of Eve,"the snake, and sex which threw Adam from the Garden of Eden. He t e l l s Mardou of his fears about her body: "I thought -58-I saw some kind of black thing I've never seen before, hanging, l i k e i t scared me'j;1'"! a rid he and Mardou examine her body c l o s e l y in order to reassure him (p. 65). But Leo can never be com-p l e t e l y reassured, f o r the fear of her womb always remains in the back of his consciousness, the fear that she i s intending to bust him in h a l f . She becomes connected i n his subconscious mind with his fear of being a fag, and when he dreams the Tennessee Williams story about the Turkish bath attendant and the l i t t l e white fag: "Mardou /becomes/ the big buck nigger Turkish bath attendant, and /he/ the l i t t l e fag who's broken to bi t s in the love a f f a i r and carr i e d to the bay in a.burlap bag, there to be dist r i b u t e d piece by piece and broken bone by bone to the f i s h . . ." (p. 68). Leo fears the power of his masculinity, speaking of his •crude male sexuality' and 'lecherous propensities' as something which must be forgiven him. He fee l s his difference from, the subterranean men comes from his d i f f e r e n t form of masculinity, and he despises the fact that he is '"male-like and vain." Leo contrasts the "pride, and beauty, and beatitude or s e n s i t i v i t y " of the subterraneans with "the stupid, neurotic nervousness of the p h a l l i c type, forever conscious of his phallus, his tower, of women as wells" (p. 12). His nervous consciousness of phal-l i c masculinity makes him forever aware of the femininity of women, keeping him imprisoned within a sexual sphere. He can never escape the woman's p u l l of a t t r a c t i o n , f o r his masculinity strengthens the f e a r f u l hold of women upon him. Leo must guard himself to prevent Mardou Pox from 'outfoxing' him, from t r i c k -. - 5 9 -ing him with her feminine slyness and c r a f t i n e s s . He also feels an immediate a t t r a c t i o n towards other men which he fears greatly, yet at the same time he uses this com-panionship and closeness with other men to separate himself from Mardou's hold. He admires the feminine q u a l i t i e s of the subter-ranean men, as he also admires those g i r l s who are so slender and f i g u r e l e s s that they look masculine in appearance. As his r e l a t i o n s h i p with Mardou becomes more intense, he begins to act " l u d i c r o u s l y l i k e a fag," putting down Mardou by developing this reputation (p. 76). But at the same time Leo fears the whole world of homosexuality, and, having once been a "nannybeater," he hates the appearance of any 'queer' actions within himself. His need to escape Mardou's hold leads him towards other men, but this in turn makes him hate himself, and react even more harshly against Mardou. He protects himself from Mardou too by p a r t i c i p a t i n g within an i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e which makes her f e e l bored and inadequate. Most of t h e i r evenings are spent i n clubs or bars, where Leo-joins d i f f e r e n t groups of l i t e r a r y friends who absorb themselves in i n t e l l e c t u a l discussions while drinking. Mardou i s l e f t to s i t by Leo's side, a passive observer who can contribute l i t t l e . These discussions, which often continue long i n t o the night, exhilarate Leo, but leave Mardou tired.vand drained.. ". . i . A l l matters so much had been dinning Mardou's ear (queer, cultured matters) in her love a f f i r with me that by now she was quite t i r e d of cultured tones and. fancy e x p l i c i t l y , emphatic d a i n t i - ' ness of expression. . ." p. 120). The i n t e l l e c t u a l world, then, -60-draws Leo away from Mardou, leaving her alone with thoughts of her own. These thoughts turn to the f a i l u r e of t h e i r r e l a t i o n -ship and to the need f o r t h e i r separation. The i n e v i t a b i l i t y of t h e i r separation, and the pain of a broken love a f f a i r , is f i n a l l y one of the major reasons f o r L.; Leo's a t t r a c t i o n to Mardou. He r e a l i z e s even as t h e i r r e l a t i o n -ship begins, that "making i t " i s "the key to pain," but he hurls himself at Mardou f o r this very reason: ". . .hurling on at her as i f and because i n fact I wanted to be hurt and 'lacerate' myself - one more laceration yet and t h e y ' l l p u l l the blue sod on, and make my box plop boy - f o r now death bends big wings over my window. . . ." "The sea of self-murder - loss - hate -paranoia - i t was her l i t t l e face I wanted to enter and did" (p. .11+). The pain of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p gives him the material to create a work of art i n true Romantic fashion, and i t i s his pain which l i e s at the core of his writing - "the pain of t e l l -ing these secrets which are so necessary to t e l l , or why write or l i v e " (p. 21*). Mardou becomes the area of his dark s u f f e r i n g and in his a f f a i r with her, he experiences the pain, the spleen, so necessary before he can a t t a i n ecstacy and i d e a l . ". . .1 am Baudelaire and love my brown mistress and I too leaned to her b e l l y and listened to the rumbling underground, . ," (p. 11+). As t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p ends, Leo rushes off to write "Baudelaire poems," to redeem himself within his w r i t i n g . By erecting the abstract construction of his confessional novel, he frees him-s e l f from Hardou's hold, using, the "OWN BAGTAIL ESSENCE," the "ESSENCE OF MIND RECOGNITION," to achieve his freedom (p. 66-6?) -61-Yet i r o n i c a l l y , the r o l e of Romantic a r t i s t leads Leo back to the mother, for art becomes a kind of mother substitute. Here again there is an id e a l to be attained and a suffering awareness of the f a i l u r e to achieve this i d e a l . Art can never quite release Leo from the g u i l t of his own being. FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER II 1. Jack Kerouac, " B e a t i f i c ; On The Origins of a Generation," Encounter, XIII, 11, p. 60. 2. This quotation comes from an excerpt of The Town and The G • . C i t y c a l l e d "The Time of the Geek," found in The Beat Generation and. The Angry Young Men, ed. Gene Feldman and Max Gartenberg (New York; C i t a d e l Press, 19,8), p. 88. When Sal Paradise f i g h t s with Dean Moriarty at one point i n On The Road he i n s i s t s that he is not g u i l t y , not respon-s i b l e f o r the e v i l s of the world. " I t ' s not my f a u l t I t o l d him. Nothing i n this world is my lousy f a u l t , don't you see that? I didn't want i t to be and i t can't be and. i t won't be" (OnT The Road, p. 176). But i t i s , and Kerouac never quite recovers from the fac t of his own sins. He cannot, l i k e Burroughs, conceive of e v i l as external to himself. 3. In some ways t h e i r v i s i o n i s s i m i l a r to the narrator's f i n a l v i s i o n in Beautiful Losers f o r they too exist i n a world where magic is afoot. l | . Jack Kerouac, On The Road , (N&w- York t Signet Books, 1955), p. 161. 5. Jack Kerouac, Visions of Cody (New York; New Directions, 1959), Preface. 6. Jack Kerouac, Dharma Bums (New York; Signet Books, 1958), p. 12. 7/ The Romantic tendencies suggested describe p a r t i c u l a r l y those a r t i s t s writing within the European Romantic t r a d i t i o n - p a r t i c u l a r l y Rousseau, Goethe,(The Sorrows of Young  Wert her Holderin (Hyperion), and Baudelaire. Brea vman ' in his search f o r goodness within a world of death and s h i t has c e r t a i n s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s with Baudelaire. 8. Mario Praz, The Romantic Agony, trans. Angus Davidson (London: Oxford University Press, 1951), p. 27). 9. Charles Baudelaire, "Personal Journals," Flowers of E v i l , ed. and trans. Wallace Fowlie (New York: Bantam Books, 1961+), p. 259). 10. This idea was suggested, i n a footnote i n Warren Tallman's a r t i c l e c a l l e d "Kerouac's Sound." Warren Tallman, ":Kerpuac's Sound," A Casebook On The Beat, ed. Thomas Parkinson (New York:. Thomas Y. Crowe 11 Co., 1961), p. 229. 11. Charles Baudelaire, "Personal Journals," p. 261. 12. His sense of ambivalence about women comes out in other novels besides The Subterraneans. 'Sal Paradise escapes his Mexican lover i n C a l i f o r n i a , and. Kerouac himself feels a - 6 3 -3er .39 of horror at B i l l i e in Big Sur even though he suggests that they marry. In Maggie Cassidy, the young Jackie Dulouz wants both a Mary and a Magdalene. 13. Norman Mailer, "The White Negro," The Beat Generation and  The Angry Young Men, p. 31+5-1+6. CHAPTER III - COHEN A sense of su f f e r i n g dominates the work of Leonard Cohen in a way quite d i f f e r e n t from Kerouac. Cohen, writing within a t r a d i t i o n of decadent Romanticism which links him with Baude^s l a i r e , Genet, M i l l e r , and Burroughs, feels the need to inves-tigate the e v i l side of man, to make man recognize personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e v i l , and in this way to free him from a fa l s e set of values and assumptions. In the twentieth century, the western world, has attempted through i t s history and i t s r e l i g i o n to depersonalize s u f f e r i n g , creating on one hand a heroic s u f f e r e r in j u s t l y tortured (the Jew), and on the other a spectator who can enjoy and f e e l t i t i l l a t e d by this s u f f e r i n g because he is not personally res-ponsible. Both of these roles are f a l s e , f o r both elevate suf-f e r i n g and pain as a heroic phenomenon and destroy i t s e s s e n t i a l personal q u a l i t y , thereby a l i e n a t i n g and depersonalizing man from that part of himself which is his pain and sorrow. The in d i v i d u a l man continues to suffer and to cause others to suf-f e r , but his primary aim becomes not a comprehension of his pain, and the creating from t h i s pain of a complete being, but instead an elevation of the suff e r i n g i t s e l f as i d e a l . The v i c -tim, the i n v a l i d , and the cripp l e become gods because of t h e i r unique relationships to the world of pain.''" Cohen recognizes the danger of this concept of su f f e r i n g , f o r i t increases man's ali e n a t i o n and gives him a fa l s e sense of innocence. By making this s u f f e r i n g heroic, society encourages the continuance of suf f e r i n g i n these terms. A vicious c i r c l e ensues where man in becoming a vi c t i m gains d i s t i n c t i o n through his s u f f e r i n g and -65-therefore desires to be victimized again. As long as he remains 2 the v i c t i m he retains a sense of perpetual innocence. If he should turn aggressor and make another man a victim, he only.-increases that man's stature to the role of heroic s u f f e r e r . In neither sense, then, is he r e a l l y responsible f o r e v i l . This concept is dangerous, for i t grossly misinterprets the very r e a l s uffering and pain which is a part of,nature any-way. In f a c t , i t i s possible f o r s u f f e r i n g and pain to create a f u l l e r man, but only i f man comprehends these parts of him-s e l f and grows into a stronger and f u l l e r being through his awareness. In this sense he can become heroic, a saint, since by perception of his personal pain and agony and his loneliness, he can become more compassionate to the loneliness and agony of others. By accepting his own pain and the g u i l t f o r the suf-f e r i n g which he causes others, he can a t t a i n a more-vital sense of completeness following from the acknowledgement of h i s . g u i l t . Por Cohen t h i s is the only authentic innocence, which a man can ha ve. Cohen emphasizes i n his poetry, p a r t i c u l a r l y the group of poems e n t i t l e d Flowers f o r Hitler,.the normality of e v i l , using the images of H i t l e r ' s world to emphasize that what, seems most gross is a c t u a l l y human. Adolf Eichmann is in every way medium (eyes: medium, h a i r : medium, weight: medium, height: medium, i n t e l l i g e n c e : medium), while Goebbels, a Doctor of Reason, is convinced that pain is only a matter of choice. These figu r e s , along with H i t l e r , have "memories white from loss of g u i l t . " Having set up an e f f i c i e n t system of machinery to k i l l , they -66-stand back as admiring spectators. The Eichmanns, G-oebbels, and H i t l e r s of the world cannot be saved i n Cohen's terms, f o r they f e e l no personal sense of agony associating them with mankind. The Jewish people are i n a superior p o s i t i o n in this s i t u a -t i o n , f o r they a t t a i n a form of p u r i t y through t h e i r s a c r i f i c e . But they cannot a t t a i n the position of saint, f o r they have not personally wil l e d that t h e i r suffering be endured to f u l f i l l . t h e i r being. As victims and c u l p r i t s they form a part of the fa l s e elevation of s u f f e r i n g . We are l e f t without knowledge of the i n d i v i d u a l Jewish person salughtered at-Dachau; we can see him only as one of many bodies k i l l e d i n impersonal e f f i c i e n c y . He cannot lend us his su f f e r i n g to make us more human through hi s experience. The horror i n Cohen's poetry comes; p a r t i a l l y from the fa c t that both he, a poet who is Jewish, and we, the readers, are almost forced to take the impersonal role of spec-ta t o r . We can only comment upon the horror, c r i t i c i z e the 'other side' - we can never f u l l y take the p o s i t i o n of e i t h e r tormentor or sufferer, f o r neither p o s i t i o n of personally given to us. Cohen's poetic images r e f l e c t a whole structure of tormentor and tormented which is impersonally experienced. We normally f a l l back on our imagination f o r our a b i l i t y to em-pathize with others, but the cold phrases of his poems do not allow us to achieve sentiment so e a s i l y . We must acknowledge the tormentor as human, and. the Jewish man, the unknown sufferer, as dead without our knowledge of his p a r t i c u l a r death, We must accept the g u i l t of humanity before we can be released by ima-gination and f e e l i n g into a world, of agonized and anguished - 6 7 -s u f f e r i n g . We roust be aware of how easy i t i s to be d i s t r a c t e d : I tend to get distracted by hydrogen bombs, by Uncle's disapproval of my treachery to the men's clothing industry I f i n d myself believing public clocks taking advice from the Dachau generation (Selected Poems, p. 1 0 8 - 9 ) . Only i f we " w i l l not be held l i k e a drunkard/ under the cold tap of f a c t s , " refusing the universal a l i b i can we be saved (Selec-ted Poems, p.1 8 7 ) . Rejecting the impersonal society man must f a l l back on his authentic s e l f . Cohen's f i r s t novel, The Favorite Game';(1963). also con-siders the question of private and public s u f f e r i n g . The con-f l i c t of the society and the i n d i v i d u a l centres on societ's degradation and u t i l i z a t i o n of man's emotion. Cohen describes the growing up of the a r t i s t , Breavman, in The Favorite Game. As ch i l d r e n , Breavman and his f r i e n d Krantz f e e l fascinated with a world of torture and c r u e l t y , investigating in innocence a l l areas of experience. Their Jewish heritage surrounds them with a wealth of examples of s u f f e r i n g . They are taught.by t h e i r culture to believe that torture is the weapon of t h e i r enemies, who use i t with a sense of perverted glee. "The Japs and Ger-mans were bea u t i f u l enemies." "They started the war because of t h e i r nature." "But mostly they tortured f o r fun because of t h e i r nature." J "Nothing fascinates a c h i l d l i k e a tale of torture, With the clearest of consciences, with a p a t r i o t i c i n t e n s i t y , c h i l d --68-ren, dreamed, talked, acted, orgies of physical abuse. Imagi-nations were released to wander on a reconnaissance mission from Calvary to Dachau" (p. 16). While European childre n starved and watched t h e i r parents scheme and die, the friends in Breavman's Montreal childhood played with toy whips. As German s o l d i e r s , Krantz and Breavman whip the American, L i s a , a prisoner of the t h i r d Reich with red s t r i n g . "Welts dance a l l over Lisa's imaginary body" (p. 1?). Lisa and Breavman enjoy playing the s o l d i e r and the whore, f o r the s o l d i e r i s Breavman's hero, and he sneaks a look at his father's gun whenever possible "The sound of the machinery when Breavman pulled the hammer back was the marvellous sound of a l l murderous s c i e n t i f i c achievement C l i c k . Like the smacking of cogwheel l i p s " (p. 18). Suffering and torture is something outside themselves which excites them. In the role of spectator they preoccupy t h e i r minds with the f i n e r points of cruelty without any sense of personal awareness of pain or nay implication in the torture i t s e l f . They play a game in the f i e l d of others' angpish, an anguish which they do not yet understand. Breavman longs to experience a.world of cr u e l t y and gore but " i n each case he wants to be surrounded by the best-armed, squint-eyed, ruthless, l o y a l , t a l l e s t , leather-jacketed, technical brain-washed heavy police guard money can buy" (p. Lj.6). As long as torture remains a force outside him-s e l f i t retains i t s f a s c i n a t i o n . At the same time the young Breavman and Krantz come across the prejudice and hatred of the young French Canadians. They invade a dance h a l l on the other side of town where the dancers -69-are "Catholics, French-Canadian, anti-Semitic, anti-Anglais, b e l l i g e r e n t " (p. 111). As the "only two Jews in the place" they soon d i s t i n g u i s h themselves, s t a r t i n g a f i g h t over the right to dance with g i r l s whom they don't r e a l l y care f o r . They are the 'Dirty Jews,' the r i c h Jews despised in French-Canadian Montreal. On another l e v e l , Breavman's father encourages him to d is tin-'' guish himself as a s p e c i a l being. "The Jews are the conscience of the world, and. the Breavmans are the conscience of the Jews. 'And I am the conscience of the Breavmans,' adds Lawrence Breavman" (p. 11). With his father's death, Breavman begins to question the ambivalent role of the Jew. His father " i s one of the princes of Breavman's private r e l i g i o n , double-natured and a r b i t r a r y . He i s the persecuted brother, the near-poet, the innocent of the machine toys, the sighing judge who l i s t e n s but does not sen-tence." But he i s also "heaving Authority, armoured with Divine Right, doing merciless violence to a l l that is weak, taboo, un-Breavmanlike" (p. 21*). His father embodies both torturer and s u f f e r e r . His greatest love is machinery, his greatest s u f f e r -ing a limpness of the heart. Breavman and Krantz decide that parents are t r a i t o r s "who have sold t h e i r sense of destiny f o r an I s r a e l i v i c t o r y in the desert." They want a Jewish, people of p u r i t y and heroic sta-ture. "Weren't they supposed to be a holy people consecrated to p u r i t y , service, s p i r i t u a l honesty. Weren't they a nation set apart? Why had the idea of a jealously guarded sanc t i t y de-generated into a s l y contempt f o r the goy, empty of self-- . -70-c r i t i c i s m ? " (p. 38 ) . They demand a Jewish hero, f o r i f the Jewish race has set i t s e l f up in the role of heroic s u f f e r e r i t must f u l f i l l the r o l e . Krantz and Breavman think in terms of heroes outside themselves - retaining a " j e a l o u s l y guarded sanctity," they are empty of s e l f c r i t i c i s m f o r they are not yet responsible. With the frog dissection r i t u a l Breavman takes responsi-b i l i t y f o r e v i l upon h i m s e l f H e acknowledges f o r the f i r s t time that e v i l , c r u e l t y , and the a b i l i t y to inspire pain is a part of his own being. "We're in charge of torture tonight. The regular torturers are relieved" (p. 5 3 ) . As they remove the organs one by one from the dying frog, "both of them, the. opera-tor and the spectator, /hover/ in a trance" (p. 51+). It appears ; f o r a moment that they can evade r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , f o r the frog's heart w i l l stay a l i v e in s a l t water. "Everything had a second chance i f they could save i t " (p. 51)-). But i t is too l a t e , the frOg's heart heaves eleven f i n a l times. Breavman, implicated as the i n s t i g a t o r of the torture, can how recognize the e v i l within himself. Speaking to Krantz, he admits his g u i l t . -"I suppose that's the way everything e v i l happens, l i k e tonight" (p. 51+). With Book Two Breavman enters a d i f f e r e n t stage of inves-t i g a t i o n . His sense of a l i e n a t i o n from society grows, and he 4 turns to a search within his personal s e l f and his r e l a t i o n -ships with others. His mother confronts him with the role of t o r t u r e r . ^ She conceives of herself as the v i c t i m of her son's c r u e l t y : "Rotten, a rat wouldn't treat a mother, rotten as i f you were a stranger, would anybody throw meat and my ankles are -71-swollen, beat you, your father •would beat you, a rotten son. . ." (p. 5>7) • Her role as sufferer i s p i t i f u l because she has no b e l i e f in her own i n t e g r i t y . She blames her son sometimes un-f a i r l y f o r her own masochistic being, and Breavman while recog-nizing his p a r t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , must reject her concept of himself i n order to survive. He r e j e c t s , too, a whole society which affirms that s u f f e r -ing is the highest i d e a l , f o r he sees that this society is based upon f a l s e assumptions. It depersonalizes su f f e r i n g in the form of an i d e a l while continuing to ignore i t in everyday l i f e . The world of public society i n Montreal evades a l l uncomfortable ex-perience. "He hated the men f l o a t i n g in sleep in the big stone houses. Because t h e i r l i v e s were ordered and t h e i r rooms t i d y . 4 Because they got up every morning and did t h e i r public work. Because they weren't going to dynamite t h e i r f a c t o r i e s and have naked parties by the f i r e " (p. 5 9 ) . Yet pain, experienced most often as loneliness, is very r e a l in the l i v e s of most people - who must either ignore t h i s part of themselves or f i n d release in such things as pop a r t . His humourous comment on the pop hero of the time, Pat Boone, contains a sad truth. "My only c r i t i c i s m is be more desperate, t r y and sound more agonized or we'l have to get a negro to re-place you" (p. 8 5 ) . Pop art i n turn downgrades an authentic expression in written form of the experience of pain. As soon as the a r t i s t ' s work becomes public i t loses i t s personal i n t e -g r i t y f o r i t is used f o r the wrong reasons, "^he world was being hoaxed by a d i s c i p l i n e d melancholy. A l l the sketches made - 7 2 -a virtue of longing. A l l that was necessary to be loved widely was to publish one's anxieties. The whole enterprise of art was a calculated display of s u f f e r i n g " (p. 8 9 ) . Continuing his search f o r the Jewish hero within himself, Breavman turns to the world of a r t , f o r "writing is an e s s e n t i a l part of the Jewish t r a d i t i o n . . . ." But with the publication of his book he feels as i f he has masturbated, on t e l e v i s i o n . "He was a kind, of mild Dylan Thomas, talent and. behavior modified f o r Canadian tastes." "He was bereft of privacy, r e s t r a i n t , d i s c r e t i o n " (p. 9 1 ) . He s t i l l longs to be a hero: Where was his comfort? Where was the war to make him here and hero? Where was his legion? He had met peo-ple with numbers branded, on t h e i r wrists, some of them wrecked, some shrewd and very quiet. Where was his ordeal? Eat junk, join the enemies of the p o l i c e , volunteer f o r crime? Correct America with violence? Suffer in the V i l l a g e ? But the concentration camps were vast, unthinkable. They seemed to descend on a man from a great height. And America was so small, hand-made (p. 1 2 0 ) . This hero must exist outside America, f o r "America was l o s t , the scabs ruled everything, the skyscrapers of chrome would never budge, but Canada was here, infant dream, the.stars high and sharp and cold, and. the enemies were b r i t t l e , and easy, and . English" (p. 6I4.). The role of a r t i s t hero momentarily d i s -s a t i s f i e s Breavman f o r in public his s u f f e r i n g is misused. He turns to relationships with women, loving f i r s t Commu-ni s t women "because they don't believe i n the world j " they long f o r a society i n which a l l men as equals w i l l share the burdens of suffering (p. 6 8 ) . Yet the Communist world of the future depends upon the p o t e n t i a l a n n i h i l a t i o n of the torturer f i g u r e , - 7 3 -and through t h i s destruction the vi c t i m would take on the new role of torturer, thus furthering a t o r t u r e r - v i c t i m dichotomy. His early r e l a t i o n s h i p with Tamara, a young Communist woman, exists within the realm of t o r t u r e r - s u f f e r e r warfare. "Breavman and Tamara were cru e l to each other. They used i n f i d e l i t y as a weapon for pain and an incentive f o r passion." "They were l i v -ing off each other, had tubes to each Other's guts. The reasons were too deep and o r i g i n a l f o r him to discover" (p. 7 7 ) . This form of r e l a t i o n s h i p d i s s a t i s f i e s him, and he wants, to break out of this bondage which depends upon the c r u e l t y of e i t h e r one or the other f o r i t s excitement. He is released from the t o r t u r e r - s u f f e r e r bondage through his a b i l i t y to love S h e l l . Breavman r e a l i z e s on meeting her t-that he no longer wants to be a hero in the old Jewish terms of h e r o i c - 3 u f f e r e r he had himself demanded from others as a c h i l d . ^ He wants to have a r e c i p r o c a l human re l a t i o n s h i p with another human being, sharing anguish, loneliness, and joy, on a person to person l e v e l . He w i l l comfort S h e l l in her anguish and. be comforted in his own needs. He wanted no legions to command. He didn't want to stand on any marble balcony. He didn't want to ride with Alexander, be a boy-king. He didn't want to smash his f i s t across the c i t y , lead the Jews, have vi s i o n s , love multitudes, bear a mark on his f o r e -head, look in every mirror, lake, hub-cap f o r re-f l e c t i o n of the mark. Please no. He wanted comfort. He wanted to be comforted.(p. 1 2 7 ) . He offers his comfort as lover to S h e l l , who has suffered a l i e n -ation from her body because of her husband Gordon. They open themselves to love as Breavman t r i e s to return Shell's body to her, w r iting poems to express the beauty of her being. "Once - 7 1 . -f o r a while he seemed to serve something other than himself. Those were the only poems he ever wrote. They were f o r S h e l l . He wanted to give her back her body" (p. II4-O). While Breavman can express the beauty and anguish of S h e l l i n art, he u l t i -mately rejects the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of his love, for encompassed within Shell's world he cannot experience his own r e a l i t y . He must separate himself from the world of comfort i n order to remain a l i v e to the personal pain and loneliness from which his art grows. As Breavman once before had. f a i l e d his mother in her need, so he,now f a i l s S h e l l , f o r he cannot yet completely give himself to reach into the pain of another's s u f f e r i n g . He i s s t i l l searching f o r an appeasement of his own pain through his confession i n art form. The l i f e and death of the young boy, Martin, contain a spe-c i a l message f o r Breavman. Martin, a separate soul, l i v i n g in a world ,of private wonder and awe, is rejected by both family and society. To Breavman he i s a very valuable human being. A bulldozer k i l l s Martin Stark, and, while society mourns his death formally with a funeral, only Breavman fe e l s the f u l l pathos of this young boy's death. He i d e n t i f i e s with Martin's difference and recognizes that he, too, longs to l i v e in a world of wonder outside. Martin was f o r Breavman a divine i d i o t . "Surely the community should, consider i t s e l f honoured to have him i n t h e i r midst. He shouldn't be tolerated - the i n s t i t u -tions should be constructed around him, the t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n -coherent oracle" (p. 163). It i s the role of oracle which 7 Breavman wishes to,take on. -75-But even as the novel closes, Breavman has not f u l l y come to terms with his own g u i l t and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . One day what he did. to her, to the c h i l d , would enter his understanding with such a smash of g u i l t that he would s i t motionless f o r days, u n t i l others carried him and. medical machines brought him back to speech. But that was not today (p. 191). Cohen's l a t e s t novel, Beautiful Losers (.1966), explores the themes of su f f e r i n g and pain even more thoroughly. He i n v e s t i -gates a s o c i a l system based, upon the t o r t u r e r - s u f f e r e r p o l a r i t y as i t occurs in American h i s t o r y , and as i t i s j u s t i f i e d and r a t i o n a l i z e d by both h i s t o r y and r e l i g i o n . A whole series of p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s : Indian-French, French-English, Canadian-American, find t h e i r basis within a structure of tormentor and victim. The narrator of the novel has spent most of his l i f e as an h i s t o r i a n , and i n this p o s i t i o n he has shared in the j u s t i -f i c a t i o n of s o c i a l order. At the point when the novel is w r i t -ten however, the narrator speaks from a new self-consciousness. He t e l l s the story of his change through the help of Edith, his wife; F, a f r i e n d ; and his research into the l i f e of a Catholic saint, Catherine Tekawitha. Through t h e i r insight and i n s p i r a -t i o n , he moves from the role of dusty, constipated h i s t o r i a n , "Doctor of Shit," who has spent a l i f e - t i m e in the world of sweeping generalizations and names which f a i l to encompass r e a l i t y , to a saint of insight and s u f f e r i n g who comprehends the meaning of existence. Catherine Tekawitha, Edith, and F i n s t i -gate his change, while E d i t h and F a c t u a l l y s a c r i f i c e themselves to save the narrator. The narrator, becoming a dedicated revo-lutionary, t r i e s to inspire change and insight i n the reader through a r e c i t a t i o n of his experience. In th i s new role the narrator uses his suffering and torment to increase his personal insight and growth, he no longer j u s t i f i e s and degrades i t s existence through an impersonal h i s t o r i c a l point of view. History as seen through the narrator's eyes consists of a long series of power struggles i n which one culture f a l l s v i c t i m to another. As each new power gains control, i t destroys the t r a d i t i o n s , culture, and i n t e g r i t y , of the one preceding i t , enforcing i t s own concept of r e a l i t y in exchange. The most ex-p l i c i t example of h i s t o r i c a l b r u t a l i t y in Canada is French-Canadian domination over the Indian people. But i n the contem-porary world, the English attempt to dominate the French, des-troying much of t h e i r culture in the process, and the French raise an i n f u r i a t e d outcry of r e b e l l i o n . To add to the comple-x i t y , the Americans are taking over Canada, so that the whole Canadian culture is r a p i d l y becoming v i c t i m to American whim. Or as F phrases i t with the narrator's approval: "The English did to us what we did to the Indian's, and the Americans did to the English what the Eng l i s h did to us. I demand revenge f o r ' 8 ' everyone." By demanding revenge, F espouses the freedom of a l l , but the whole concept of revenge again demands the des-tr u c t i o n of a torturer f i g u r e . If F's declaration inspired action, this action would take the form of anarchy, and as each v i c t i m searched out his torturer, few of the 'liberated' would survive. The narrator most thoroughly describes French-Canadian domination ,over the Indian people, suggesting methods which can -77-be e a s i l y p a r a l l e l e d , as hist o r y repeats i t s e l f , continuing the cycle of tormentor and victim. In ca r i c a t u r i z e d version the narrator presents t h i s struggle in the form of the "innocent Indian c h i l d Edith's rape by the husky French-Canadian men. These men, i n exh i l a r a t i o n and enthusiasm, b u r t a l l y attack t h e i r helpless v ictim. ". . .She infu r i a t e d a number of men who thought they should be able to rub her small breasts and round bum simply because she was an Indian. . ." (p. 3 3 ) . ?hese men, fa r (from being.".abnormal sexual deviants, are the mainstays of the v i l l a g e business community, and gain f u l l support even from the police-men of this v i l l a g e . . Get E d i t h demanded the C o l l e c t i v e W i l l . The v i l l a g e was behind them f i l l e d , with families and business. French-Canadian school-books do not encourage respect for Indians (p. 73, 7 6 ) . The raping of young E d i t h p a r a l l e l s the Roman Catholic church's p i l l a g i n g of Indian land. As soon as the French put down the cross they burn the v i l l a g e s . ". . .They devastated the countryside, destroyed provisions of corn and bean, into the f i r e went every harvest" (p. 100). The Indian v i l l a g e d i s -integrated with the conversion of the Indian men to C h r i s t i a n i t y . They soon die of the plague brought to then) by the white man, or i f they survive they are permanently d i s f i g u r e d l i k e Catherine Tekawitha, with pock marks and scars. " I t was F's theory that white America has been punished by lung cancer f o r having des-troyed the Red Man and stolen his pleasures" (p. 115). b^.e p r i e s t , f a r from being the savior of the Indian race, confronts 4 -78-this race l i k e an ogre f i g u r e , displaying gory pictures of h e l l to convert them through fear. The church feels pleased that seme of i t s own are s a c r i f i c e d to the cause, f o r this in f a c t makes better hi s t o r y . "Lots of p r i e s t s got k i l l e d and eaten and so f o r t h . " "The Church loves such d e t a i l s " (p. 18, 19). The narrator, in a f i t of i r r a t i o n a l i t y seeks revenge on the church f o r i t s s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e with a long series of r h e t o r i c a l accusations s i m i l a r in style to Ginsberg's Howl. He releases himself from his own f e e l i n g of g u i l t and repression which the Roman Catholic church has created, through this incantation and exorcism. By placing his own sense of e v i l and g u i l t in the arms of the church he comes out p u r i f i e d and refreshed. The narrator's rhetoric serves a double function: i t suggests that the authentic church operates at the l e v e l of the i r r a t i o n a l rather than the r a t i o n a l , and i t frees him from the unconscious g u i l t which the church has i n s t i l l e d within him. I accuse the Roman Catholic Church of Quebec of r u i n -ing my sex l i f e and of shoving my member up a r e l i c box meant f o r a finger, I accuse the R.C.C. of Q. of making me commit queer horrible acts with F, another v i c t i m of the system, I accuse the Church of k i l l i n g Indians, I accuse the Church of refusing to l e t Ed i t h go down on me properly, I accuse the Church of cover-ing Edith with red g r e a s 9 and of depriving Catherine Tekawitha of red grease, I accuse the Church of haunt-ing automobiles and of causing pimples, I accuse the Church of building green masturbation t o i l e t s , I accuse the Church of squashing Mohawk dances and of not c o l l e c t i n g f o l k songs, I accuse the Church of ste a l i n g my suntain and of promoting dandruff, I accuse the Church of sending people with d i r t y toe-n a i l s into streetcars where they work against science, I accuse the Church of female circumcision in French Canada (pp. 59-60). The narrator reveals the complete v i c t i m i z a t i o n of the Iroquois people j he i s . t h e i r only spokesman. They themselves are power-- 7 9 -l e s s , the victims of a l l other men. "The Iroquois almost won. Their three major enemies were the Hurons, the Algonquins, and the French" (p. 1 6 ) . Their only friend is the narrator who pub-lis h e s t h e i r death. "The Indians are dying." The En g l i s h attempt to control the French i n a more sophis-t i c a t e d fashion, but t h e i r general aims remain the same. But the French are not so e a s i l y conquered, they prefer revolt to slow death. They i d e n t i f y with the Negro, who f i g h t s the same battle on another ground. . . . i t is a b e a u t i f u l crowd. - Why? - Because they think they are Negroes, and. that is the best f e e l i n g a man can have in this century (p. l £ 0 ) . The French demonstrators making up the Quebec Libre come aliv e i n t h e i r role as victims. With something to f i g h t f o r they burst with v i t a l i t y : "e-veryone of the demonstrators had a hard-on" (p. 15>0). This i s the age when the v i c t i m gains his revenge; he attains a focus and a reason f o r existence in the cause of his freedom.- But an irony dominates the whole Quebec Libre movement - they want freedom and equality only f o r the French. The speaker at the demonstration shouts the terms of History he w i l l be s a t i s f i e d with. "Give us back our History., The English have stolen our History," he screams (p. 150). But t h e i r History is the History of French domination over the Indian. This they f e e l is just. "History decreed that in the battle f o r a continent the Indian should lose to the Frenchman." Injustice occurs, however, with the next h i s t o r i c a l stage: "In 1760 His-tory decreed, that the Frenchman should lose to the Englishman." Something must be done about t h i s i n j u s t i c e f o r he i n s i s t s , the -80-Frenchman w i l l not be the lo s e r . - Histor:/ decrees that there are Losers and Winners. History cares nothing f o r cases, History cares only f o r those whose turn i t i s . I ask you, my fri e n d s , I ask you a simple question: 'Whose turn i s i t today?' ' - 'Our turn,' rose in one deafening answer (p. l5D. They aim to turn the scales i n the power struggle once more. "Today i t i s the turn of the English to have d i r t y houses and French bombs in t h e i r mailboxes" (p. 152). They wish to per-petuate the same system of tormentor and victim, switching t h e i r own roles - they do not r e j e c t the basic cycle upon which History revolves and i t s philosophy of History. F, the narrator's f r i e n d , i s a firm supporter of the Quebec Libre movement. A member of Parliament, he t r i e s to blow up the statue of Queen V i c t o r i a , representing in symbolic form his de-s i r e f o r immediate revolution, his longing to escape the E n g l i s h with t h e i r mother figure Queens. He longs to be President of the New Republic. By uni t i n g with the French revolutionaries, F joins the f a l s e cycle of History, and in so doing he s a c r i -f i c e s his p o s i t i o n as prophet of a new order. He is l e f t to lead the narrator into a v i s i o n which he himself cannot achieve. The narrator must experience death and r e b i r t h to a t t a i n the insight necessary to his role as prophet. Death comes slowly with much agony and pain, f o r the narrator has long been a confirmed member of the s o c i a l establishment. He has spent his l i f e as h i s t o r i a n investigating a group of Indians c a l l e d the A—S, whose b r i e f history is "characterized by incessant defeat." He associates himself with the v i c t i m : "I'm f a r too -81-w i l l i n g to shoulder the alleged humiliations of harmlessypepple." and through his willingness he has furthered a philosophy of 9 h i s t o r y based upon the tormentor-sufferer d u a l i t y (p. 5, ?)• He 'suffers' from an anal f i x a t i o n , a very l i t e r a l concen-t r a t i o n upon his own shit and a d i f f i c u l t y with constipation, an excremental v i s i o n which influences a l l he sees. "Freud derives the 'desire for knowledge' from anal sources, saying that ' i t is at bottom an offshoot, sublimated and raised to the i n t e l l e c t u a l sphere, of the possessive i n s t i n c t ' . " " ^ His. per-so n a l i t y exhibits many anal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n -tense ambition (he longs f o r something greater than F's physical world), sutbborn vengefulness in righteous causes (he can never forgive F f o r his rel a t i o n s h i p with E d i t h ) , and a strong posses-sive i n s t i n c t . The narrator, constantly preoccupied with his constipation, uses th i s concentration upon his faeces as a method of asserting his independence from others. His i n t e l -l e c t u a l preoccupations stem d i r e c t l y from his excremental 71* £ v i s i o n . Thinking represents.a s p e c i a l expression of the ten-dency to economize, while h i s t o r i c a l analysis requires a meti-culous attention to d e t a i l . The narrator himself relates his h i s t o r i c a l preoccupations to constipation: "I am so human as to suffer from constipation, the rewards of a sedentary l i f e " (p. 1+). His '"sedentary l i f e " takes place i n l i b r a r i e s poring over h i s t o r i c a l documents, which consider the l i f e of the A—S-» (Ass). Even his i n i t i a l choice of Catherine Tekawitha as sub-jedt matter can be connected with an anal point of view, f o r anality- often'appears sublimated in the form of d i v i n i t y . - 8 2 -" T h u s i t i s t h a t what b e l o n g s t o t h e l o w e s t d e p t h s i n t h e m i n d s o f e a c h one o f us i s c h a n g e d , t h r o u g h t h i s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e i d e a l , i n t o what we v a l u e h i g h e s t i n t h e human s o u l . " ' ' " ' * ' E v e r y -t h i n g s p i r i t u a l i s r e a l l y m a t e r i a l , say's F r e u d , and. t h i s i s one i m p o r t a n t message o f h i s e x p o n e n t s . A l s o , t h e n a r r a t o r c o r -r e l a t e s t h e w o r l d o f w a r and b u s i n e s s w i t h a n a l i t y . " . . .1 know a b o u t w a r and b u s i n e s s . I am aware o f s h i t " ( p . 75). T h i s f o l l o w s , t o o , f r o m a F r e u d i a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e a n a l f i x a t i o n , f o r a money economy e x p r e s s e s p o s s e s s i v e n e s s i n s o c i a l t e r m s . F o r s e v e r a l y e a r s t h e n a r r a t o r c o n t i n u e s c o n t e n t i n h i s r o l e as h i s t o r i a n , e x c e p t f o r t h e s i d e e f f e c t o f c o n s t i p a t i o n . " I t h o u g h t I was a c i t i z e n , u s e r o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s , I f o r g o t a b o u t C o n s t i p a t i o n . C o n s t i p a t i o n d i d n ' t l e t me f o r g e t " ' ' ( p . I4.7). H i s a b i l i t y t o w a i t o u t h i s t o r y d e c r e a s e s as h i s p h y s i c a l d i s -c o m f o r t i n c r e a s e s . A t t h e same t i m e F b o m b a r d s h i s s e n s i b i l i t y , m a k i n g h i m aware t h a t h i s p o s i t i o n i n s o c i e t y e n c o u r a g e s c o n s t i -p a t i o n , a n d t h a t o n l y i f he c a n r e j e c t t h i s r o l e c a n he be s a v e d . F ' s p r o t e g e , E d i t h , a l s o a ims t o d i s r u p t t h e n a r r a t o r ' s t r a n q u i l l i f e - i n - d e a t h . A s l o n g as he r e m a i n s a h i s t o r i a n o f s o c i e t y , he i s " t h e s e a l e d , d e a d i m p e r v i o u s museum o f h i s a p p e t i t e " ( p . 50). The n a r r a t o r , r e a l i z i n g t h a t he i s b e i n g t r a i n e d f o r some-t h i n g , s e c r e t l y d e s i r e s t o be t h i s o t h e r s e l f , e v e n as he f e a r s ; " . . . I f I ' m n o t c o n s t i p a t e d , I ' m s c a r e d " ( p . 107). He ha s l o n g c o n t a i n e d many a b s u r d r e v o l u t i o n a r y t e n d e n c i e s w i t h i n h i m s e l f and t h e s e t e n d e n c i e s show h i s d e s i r e t o be a h e r o , i n h i s t o r i c a l -83-terms stemming from ..the s u f f e r e r - t o r t u r e r d u a l i t y . If he cannot be the torturer destroying the r i c h and maiming the innocent, he wants to be a v i c t i m hero, wearing his sleeve pinned, in h a l f , while people smile as he salutes with the wrong hand. Just as Breavman in The Favorite Game discovers the f a l s i t y of the heroic sufferer in these terms, so the narrator must come to see revolution as a complete change of e x i s t e n t i a l experience outs side t h i s whole order of being, before he can a t t a i n release from constipation. I always wanted to be loved by the Communist Party and the Mother Church. I wanted to l i v e i n a f o i l -song l i k e Joe H i l l . I wanted to weep f o r the inno-cent people my bomb would have to maim. I wanted to thank the peasant father who fed us on the run. I wanted to wear my sleeve pinned in h a l f , people smiling while I salute with the wrong hand. I wanted to be against the r i c h , even though some of them knew Dante; just before his destruction one of them would learn that I knew Dante, feoo. I wanted my face ca r r i e d i n Peking, a poem written down my shoulder. I wanted to smile at dogma yet ruin my ego against i t . I wanted to confront the machines of Broadway. I wanted to f i g h t against the secret police take-over, but from within the Party. I wanted an old lady who had l o s t her sons to mention me in her prayers in a mud. church, taking her son's word f o r i t . I wanted to cross myself at d i r t y words. . 1 wanted to tolerate pagan remnants i n v i l l a g e r i t u a l , arguing against the Curia (pp. 2li-2$). But change i s not simple, p a r t i c u l a r l y for Tthose with anal f i x a -t i o n s , f o r the more s h i t man acquires, the more d i f f i c u l t i s his r e l i e f . Desire f o r r e l i e f is not enough: • Why doesn't the world work f o r me? The lonely . s i t -t i ng man i n the porcelain machine. What did I do wrong yesterday? What unassailable bank in my psyche needs shit? How can I begin anything new with a l l of yesterday in me? The hater of hi s t o r y crouched over the immaculate bowl. - 8 1 ; -Please make me empty, i f I'm empty then I can reae•' . ceive. . . (pp. 1:48-14-9). He desperately needs' the help of others in his transformation. "Saints and friends help me out of History and Constipation." "I only have one more chance" (p. lb.2). F provides the narrator with a whole new philosophy of 13 existence, bettering his old attitudes in every way he can. Since the narrator is f i r s t and foremost an i n t e l l e c t u a l , • his ideas o f f e r a major area f o r warfare. He strikes out at the nsarrator's r a t i o n a l mind, t r y i n g to investigate the potentials of insanity f o r the creation of a new world view. Society, whose view the narrator espouses, encourages i t s members to believe that i t runs on r a t i o n a l terms, yet many of i t s assump-tions seem i r r a t i o n a l when investigated c l o s e l y . It implies that a power structure based upon the paradigm of oppressor and oppressed is l o g i c a l and reasonable and persuades i t s c i t i -zens that this i s true. With the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of reason, man sees the world with more honest eyes in a l l of i t s i r r a t i o n a l i t y . " I t was I who feared the r a t i o n a l mind," says P, "therefore I t r i e d to. make you a l i t t l e mad. I was desperate to learn from your bewilderment" (p. 190). F re a l i z e s the dangers df the p& power concepts which society encourages, fo r these contribute to a society h a l f - f i l l e d with victims. "I knew you were bound up by old laws of suffering and. obscurity. I am f e a r f u l of the crip p l e ' s wisdom" (pp. 192-193)• He acknowledges the h o r r i f y i n g strength and f a l s i t y of h i s t o r y : History is the Scabbie Point Por putting Cash to sleep Shooting up the Peanut Shit -,U Of a l l we need to keep (p. 238). ^ - 8 5 -He fears too the whole naming system with which man describes r e a l i t y , haranguing the narrator constantly on his system of naming, c l a s s i f y i n g , and explaining, which never r e a l l y cuts through to the r e a l i t y . "You l i v e i n a world of names," he t e l l s the narrator, "Of a l l the laws which bind us to the past, the names of things are the most severe." "Science begins in coarse naming, a willingness to disregard the p a r t i c u l a r shape and destiny of each red l i f e , and c a l l them a l l Rose" (p. 22, 5 1 ) . He wants the narrator to break through this f a l s e system of naming into a consciousness of the magic i n the p a r t i c u l a r i t y of l i f e and i n his own being. E a r l y in the novel, F demands of the narrator: "Why have you allowed yourself to be robbed?" (P. 1*1-). He offers instead a philosophy deriving much of i t s impact from the physical existence of man. He asserts the importance of the body, the physical world, over the i n t e l l e c t u a l and be-15 ' comes a f i r m b e l i e v e r i n Charles Axis. Charles Axis compares with Charles A t l a s , the famous body builder who advertises his a b i l i t y to transform man into superman, making him the hero of the beach with just f i f t e e n minutes of exercise a day. F "gave Charles Axis f i f t e e n minutes a day in the privacy of his room" (p. 9 2 ) . But Charles Axis, whose name suggests the Axis powers of World War I I , leads F astray by his emphasis on the use of the physical as an aggressive f o r c e . Axis himself is a b u l l y , the worst nuisance on the beach, kicking sand i n others' faces. F, encouraged by the actions of his hero Axis, "has pursued into adulthood the implications of physical strength i m p l i c i t in the - 8 6 -strong-man ad." "He has gone to Parliament as a French Separa-16 t i s t . " He ends by using the physical as does Axis, as an aggressive force, undermining his larger awareness of the com-plete v i t a l i t y of man's physical body. F allows himself to be robbed by Axis of his own personal feelings about human physical v i t a l i t y . ' F's revelation of the magical q u a l i t y of every aspect of the universe (magic is a l i v e ) includes the b e l i e f that every part of the body i s a l i v e and erogenous. His b e l i e f i n physical consciousness f l o u r i s h e s best within the p a r t i c u l a r ; his trouble begins, however, as he attempts to convert this philosophy into some kind of s o c i a l answer. He wants "to hammer a coloured. bruise on the whole American monolith," f o r t h i s monolith i g -nores or destroys the v i t a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l man. But the s o c i a l action he takes, the role of revolutionary, corresponds only s u p e r f i c i a l l y and temporarily with his philosophy of i n d i -v idual v i t a l i t y . It seems that a part of F's f a i l u r e occurs because he cannot find a s o c i a l form through which to expand. Instead of creating a new s o c i a l view to correspond with his concepts of i n d i v i d u a l i t y , he allows himself to be side-tracked, into a revolutionary cause whose aims are not e n t i r e l y his own. He ends in confusion and f a i l u r e ; by becoming a revolutionary within the old terms, he ignores what i s r e a l l y new in his be-l i e f s . "I w i l l confess that I never saw the Quebec Revolution c l e a r l y , even at the time of my parliamentary disgrace" (p. 205). F w i l l s his papers to the narrator i n the hope that the narrator can go beyond his own l i m i t a t i o n s . "I was the Moses of our - 8 7 -l i t t l e exodus," he says, "I would never cross. My mountain might be very high but i t r i s e s from the desert" (p. 2 1 1 ) . The narrator, deserted, must becomes man's prophet. F, encouraging the narrator's change through a bombardment of ideas, also prepares E d i t h to destroy in equal fashion. -Edith's kisses, f a l l i n g on a l l parts of the narrator's body, f a i l to achieve an erogenous awakening of his complete being. By painting h e r s e l f red, Edith attempts to change t h e i r sexual consciousness of one another, but t h i s f a i l s to win,the narra-tor's approval. Only through her death, can she teach him a lesson. The lesson of her suicide c r i t i c i z e s his old l i f e and 1 7 demands a new one. ' F also encourages the narrator's h i s t o r i c a l study of Catherine Tekawitha, whose s a i n t - l i k e l i f e inspires him to a l i f e outside, the established order. The narrator's i n i t i a l i nterest i n Catherine Tekawitha takes the form of a sublimated i d e a l appropriate to an anal f i x a t i o n . But t h i s interest soon changes f o r , with his close investigation of her l i f e , an inves t i g a t i o n inspired by F, he discovers a model of suffering.out-side the s o c i a l order which gives meaning to personal l i f e . Catherine Tekawitha, "she who puts things i n order; she who advancing arranges the shadows neatly," has created, within her private l i f e an order which gives her contact with the whole universe (p. 5 5 ) . In this sense she is a saint in F's terms. "A saint i s someone who has achieved a remote human p o s s i b i l i t y It i s impossible to say what, that p o s s i b i l i t y i s . I*think i t has something to do with the energy of love. Contact with this -88-energy results i n the exercise of a kind of balance i n the chaos of existence" (p. 1 2 1 ) . The narrator comes close to Catherine Tekawitha's l i f e in his intimate study of her, he perceives her su f f e r i n g , her a l i e n a t i o n from the Indian culture, and her a t l v attempts to gain contact with the whole universe. She rejects her s o c i a l role (often humourously) f o r her private order of being. I r o n i c a l l y she attains her v i s i o n with the aid of the ^ Roman Catholic church, and i t uses her suffering as an i d e a l with which to encourage others. But her v i s i o n is larger than a doctrine; i t compares with the momentary union with the uni-verse which F and Edith achieve in the telephone dance at the system theatre. Catherine s a c r i f i c e s her l i f e to a t t a i n unity with a l l , while E d i t h and F f a i l in t h e i r f i n a l search f o r the ultimate: in t h e i r dependence on machinery they subject them-selves to a mechanical force outside t h e i r own being and become in time c o n t r o l l e d by t h i s f o r c e . In the Danish Vibrator scene, they succumb to the power of the machine, depending on i t f o r the ecstatic, release of the magic of t h e i r bodies (a magic which unites them with a greater being). Because they f a i l to evoke within themselves a s e n s i t i v i t y which w i l l unite them with a l l being, they ultimately lose. Catherine Tekawitha, in contrast, contains within herself the p r i n c i p l e of v i t a l i t y to a t t a i n this union - she is capable of a l t e r i n g her consciousness on her own. The narrator, through his insight into her being, and his knowledge of the f a i l u r e of Edith and F, discovers that only within the i n d i v i d u a l man, by his personal struggling and suf-? f e r i a g , can the r e a l sense of magic, the force behind the whole -89-world, be recognized completely. Through the inves t i g a t i o n of s e l f , and the uniqueness of s e l f , man comes to recognize the uniqueness and magic of a l l . He comes to see that he himself is the source of magic. P directs the narrator to a new consciousness of Catherine Tekawitha by encouraging him to 'fuck a s a i n t . ' By emphasizing her physical q u a l i t y , F reduces her l i f e to one which can:be compared to the l i f e of the narrator, and. thus prevents him from i d e a l i z i n g her any longer. Rather than being a negative process, this forces the narrator out of his sublimated v i s i o n of Catherine Tekawitha. She becomes a blood and f l e s h being whom he can conceive of in sexual terms, and i n so doing, he can also learn from her personal experiences which compare with his own. He learns how to become a saint. The narrator begins his research i n desperation, and. i t i s desperation which leads him to his personal transformation. "What is o r i g i n a l i n man's nature i s often that which i s most desperate. New systems are forced on the world by men who' cannot bear the pain of l i v i n g with what i s " Cp. 69); As his ideas and character change, the narrator attains release from his old way of l i f e . He leaves his basement room in the apartment f i l l e d with s h i t , a symbolic statement of aggression against his old way of l i f e - an apparent release from the l i f e of constipation. He can now enter the stage of the tree-house, a stage of su f f e r i n g and preparation i n the wilderness to make him capable of his new r o l e . The Epilogue provides only a suggestion of the narrator's new p o t e n t i a l . He -gO-eacapes the Catholic posse beating the bushes, entering the world of spring and r e b i r t h (Easter) a new man. He contains the p o t e n t i a l of re-ordering the chaos into the personal r e a l i t y most f u l l y relevant to him, and, as s o c i a l forces converge upon him, he reassembles himself into a movie of Ray Charles, the jazz blues singer. Within the motif of a r t , he attains the magic of his being and he conveys th i s magic to us with his written story. (2) Art provides f o r Cohen a momentary entry into a world of magic, drawing men from the suffering and g u i l t of t h e i r d a i l y existence into a new and unique experience of r e a l i t y . Before a man can experience t h i s magic however, he must acknowledge the pain of his own being f u l l y , and grow to comprehend the meaning of t h i s pain. In the act of s u f f e r i n g he expiates his g u i l t , and, having accepted his s u f f e r i n g as a part of his being, he attains a form of innocence. He is then ready to enter the world of magic, since his pain and s u f f e r i n g have prepared him f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n in t h i s new realm of consciousness. He i s prepared f o r the transformation of his pain in.art form. The world of magic which the Cohen 'hero' enters i n -volves the re-creation of r e a l i t y through the power of imagination into a work of a r t . Art is a world of magic, a world i n which the p a r t i c u l a r s of existence are re-ordered and transformed into something new - they are given a s p e c i a l -91-meaning. The a r t i s t who re-molds chaos through his new f e e l i n g of personal order i s , in Cohen's terms, a s a i n t . He no longer blots out those parts of his l i f e which f a i l to conform to the l i v e s of others; he perceives instead, each immediate existence as a l i v e , v i t a l , and meaningful. Through imagination he trans-forms the world, and both his own l i f e and the l i f e around him burst f o r t h with new v i t a l i t y . He re-affirms his sense of the source of a l l creation, perceiving once again that creation i s f a r more than natural b i r t h , i t is supernatural r e v e l a t i o n . He discovers, f i n a l l y , the greatest miracle of l i f e - the magic of creation which l i e s within every man. It is this magical sense which both Breavman and the narrator discover, a creation, which follows t h e i r recognition of the meaning i n t h e i r own s u f f e r i n g . Breavman finds that only through writing can he appease the desperate anguish which comes with his awareness of the l o n e l i -ness, and i s o l a t i o n of. a l l men. F a i l i n g to reach both his mother and S h e l l , he acknowledges the f u t i l i t y in tr y i n g to encompass another man's pain - f o r each man must experience his own sepa-ration p r i v a t e l y . Breavman r e a l i z e s , through his r e l a t i o n s h i p with the young boy Martin, that a man must obtain some form of escape from his pain in order to survive. Such release Martin proves, can take place through imagination, f o r i t is Martin's imaginative l i f e which separates him from a p a i n f u l r e a l i t y with, which he cannot deal. "When I'm back home," Martin said loudly, "rats eat me. Hundreds and. hundreds of them" (p. 177). Alone i n camp before' Martin's death, Breavman begins to f e e l the anguish in his i s o l a t e d separation from the world of imagi-- 9 2 -nation. "Everybody had to believe in magic. Nobody believed in magic. Magic didn't believe i n magic. Please don't die" (p. 166). With Martin's death, Breavman finds escape by playing Lisa's f a v o r i t e game, "leaving images and patterns i n the snow," recreating from the natural world of which pain is a part, a world of art and beauty. "Then he walked away, leaving a lovely w h i t e - f i e l d of blossom-like stems with f o o t p r i n t shapes" (p, (p. 192). The narrator of B e a u t i f u l Losers also finds himself con-* sumed by a world of loneliness and pain. Unable to bear his loneliness in the world of h i s t o r i c a l study, he increases his scholastic e f f o r t s in an attempt to escape, but t h i s simply furthers his separation from E d i t h and P. To force the narrator to deal with his loneliness in a d i f f e r e n t way, E d i t h and F leave him, and with Edith's suicide, the narrator, who had i g -nored her f o r large parts of t h e i r marriage, f e e l s anguish, des-peration, and fear: Edith E d i t h E d i t h E d i t h please appear as mushrooming dream from this poor Alladdin cock Ed i t h Edith E d i t h E d i t h in your sweet skin envelope Edith E d i t h thy lonely husband Edi t h thy lonely husband, thy.v lonely husband Edith they lonely husband thy lonely husband thy apples thy run thy creases thy dark lonely hus-band (p. 81+) He n o s t a l g i c a l l y remembers the moment when he and E d i t h experi-enced complete unity and. longs f o r that moment once more. ". . .It was just a shape of E d i t h : then i t was just a human-oid shape; then i t was just a shape - and f o r a blessed second only I was not alone, I was part of a family" (p. 122). But though he cries out night a f t e r night .for Edith's return, she -93-can no longer calm his painj and neither can P, his f r i e n d , who leaves him to discover the meaning in his own agony. The narra-tor suffers alone i n F's tree-house, i s o l a t e d f o r long periods of time, and learns to accept the terms of. his suffering,.as an inevitable part of his own being. Having accepted his s u f f e r i n g , he is ready f o r the transformation of his pain into an art form. He reassembles himself into a movie of the jazz blues singer, Ray Charles, making of his agony an art experience which can be emotionally shared by many. He becomes magic, f o r the movie world is magical with i t s sp e c i a l power "to heighten r e a l i t y , preserve the past, record the present, create imaginary worlds, l8 and. expand the consciousness. The narrator surpasses P i n his a b i l i t y to use his s u f f e r -ing to enlarge his experience, f o r F in the throes of loneliness had returned, to History. While a hero i n s o c i a l terms, F f e e l s himself "a rotten hero," f o r he has extended a concept of,suf-f e r i n g i n terms of the oppressor and the appressed. He t e l l s the narrator to go beyond his s t y l e ' f o r his style contains no magic. "I wanted to be a magician," P writes, ".hat was my idea of glory. Here is a plea based on my whole experience: do not be a magician be magic" (p.. 2 0 7 ) . A magician operates at the l e v e l of appearances, seeming to change the r e a l i t y before our eyes, but his magic is only a decpetive t r i c k - he has no r e a l magical powers. Only by being magic i t s e l f , as the narra-tor becomes in movie form, can one transform r e a l i t y . The narrator follows the road of Catherine Tekawitha in his discovery of magic - both he and Catherine Tekawitha, by going through a period of intense suf f e r i n g , are transformed. Cather-ine had obtained her p u r i t y through self-chastisement and punish-ment - the greater her suffering the closer she f e l t to C h r i s t . she stumbled through her daytime duties in an iron harness, and at night slept in a blanket containing thousands of thorns. She tortured and mortified her f l e s h i n every way she could think of: ". . .She spent several slow hours caressing her pathetic •legs with hot coals, just as the Iroquois did to t h e i r slaves. She had seen i t done and she always wanted to know what i t f e l t l i k e . Thus she branded, herself a slave of Jesus" (p. 21+5)/ Her su f f e r i n g led to her death, but in her death she attained salva-t i o n , becoming i n her p u r i t y a Catholic saint . She Is, in Cohen's terms, a b e a u t i f u l l o s e r , however, f o r being unable to * reooncile the physical with the metaphysical, she destroyed one fo r the good of the other. Her solution to existence lay within death and s p i r i t u a l l i f e . The narrator, i n contrast, succeeds in r e c o n c i l i n g the physical and the metaphysical through the magic of the movie. It i s i n the movie, i n a r t , that the physi-c a l d e t a i l gains a metaphysical r e a l i t y . As F re c i t e s '^ThelLast/Four/Years oof /Tekawitha^ s I L f f e , " he compares the su f f e r i n g v i l l a g e in which Catherine Tekawitha .;/. l i v e s to Nazi Germany: "The whole wintry v i l l a g e looks l i k e a Nazi medical experiment" (p. 21+8). The comparison between Catherine Tekawitha' s agony and. s e l f - t o r t u r e , .wand the torturing, and s u f f e r i n g of the Jewish people i s in F's mind a s i g n i f i c a n t one. The Jewish race, who suffered the torture of H i t l e r and the Nazis, achieved within t h e i r death a form of innocence and -95-p u r i t y within the eyes of others, a pur i t y suggested rather c r y p t i c a l l y by the bar of human soap. Their murderer H i t l e r , longed f o r a state of innocence and sinlessness, a state of being beyond suff e r i n g , where an entire race could, a t t a i n purity and the stature of supermen i n his terms. He saw the p o s s i b i l i t y of recreating the mythically pure Aryan race and Wished to purge the German nation of a l l races he f e l t to be of i n f e r i o r q u a l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y the Jewish people. He created a myth to r a t i o n a l i z e and j u s t i f y the death of the Jewish people, who, i f they continued to survive, would, a c t u a l l y threaten his po s i t i o n as powerful superman. H i t l e r conceived of the superman i n physical rather than metaphysical terms, i n terms,almost equivalent to the Charles 'Axis' ad, a name associated with H i t l e r , who originated the Axis powers. The physical suggested power i n much the same way as the b u l l y on the beach, and this form of power was associated in H i t l e r ' s mind with his v i s i o n of the superman. He misinterpreted Nietzche 's Zarathrustra to sui t his' own:?purpose]^ butsinsdoing^ so he evaded several important conditions, f o r Zarathrustra grew through his own suf f e r i n g , a t t a i n i n g a f i n a l p o s i t i o n where he could transcend suffering through his complete personal experi-ence and comprehension of i t . Zarathrustra's role as superman depended upon a metaphysical rather than a physical understand-ing - he,aas Nietzche's creator of new values gained, power through his v i s i o n ;? he saw r e a l i t y i n the form of eternal re-currence which gave every moment and every person i n f i n i t e s i g -n i f i c a n c e . H i t l e r , in contrast, depended upon power in physical -96-t e r m 3 , while he himself t r i e d to obliterate his own suffering through the s a c r i f i c e of others. He t r i e d through his impersonal torture and a n n i h i l a t i o n of the Jewish race to understand s u f f e r -ing and the ways In which i t p u r i f i e s . By performing the r i t u a l act of bathing in human soap he t r i e d to a t t a i n innocence and p u r i t y . But the only people ' p u r i f i e d 1 i n the 'Nazi medical experiments' were the Jewish people themselves, who achieved in t h e i r s u f f e r i n g a kind of innocence comparable to that of Cather-ine Tekawitha at &er death. By murdering m i l l i o n s , H i t l e r de-creased his human capacity to suffer the pain of mankind and be-came a s e l f i s h monster among men. He f a i l e d p a r t l y because man must learn from his own s u f f e r i n g , for man can a t t a i n innocence, in Cohen's terms, only by the p u r i t y of his own being. H i t l e r , setting himself up as a god-like superman in his attempt to control man's pain and agony, became l i k e P, only a magician in the world of appearance. He could transform appear-ance in the area of events, but he could not change the e s s e n t i a l r e a l i t y , f o r he could not become magic nor create a magical pure race. I r o n i c a l l y , the Jewish people, through his torture of them, came clo s e r to a t t a i n i n g the magic he strove for than he did. F f a i l s in a way somewhat s i m i l a r to H i t l e r - he too, longs to become'the superman in physical terms; while he instigates the pain and su f f e r i n g of his f r i e n d the narrator in his attempt to discover the source of innocence. He wants to create the i d e a l man, a man who can use his pain to develop a stronger being, but his motives stem from a much more a l t r u i s t i c point of view than do H i t l e r ' s , f o r F cannot bear the general agony of -97-mankind and longs f o r a new world without pain: I seemed to wake up in the middle of a car accident, limbs strewn everywhere, detached voices screaming f o r comfort, severed fingers pointed homeward, a l l the debris withering l i k e s l i c e d cheese out of c e l -lophane - a l l I had in the wrecked world was a needle and thread, so I got down on my knees, I pulled o pieces out of the mess, and I started to s t i t c h them together. I had an idea of what a man should look l i k e , but i t kept changing. I couldn't devote a l i f e -time to discovering the i d e a l physique. A l l I heard was pain, a l l I saw was mutilation (p. 221). P confesses his confusion - with needle and thread he t r i e s to sew a new man, but his needle rips through f l e s h and stitches man into his pain more thoroughly than ever. He succumbs to h i s t o r i c a l reasoning which has long attempted to recreate man through the use of physical force. Like "Dr. Frankenstein with a dead-line," he t r i e s desperately to create t h i s i d e a l without considering that a man incapable of su f f e r i n g becomes a kind of monster (p. 221). F f a i l s i n his own l i f e experience to achieve his i d e a l , while his fear of pain makes i t impossible f o r him to become a Zarathrustra-like superman who can create a new value system to l i b e r a t e mankind. He loses by a l i e n a t i n g himself frpm the experience of torture and su f f e r i n g - an a l i e n a t i o n which allows him to read, a ' t i t i l l a t i n g ' torture story i n the Danish Vibrator scene, and to bathe with E d i t h and H i t l e r in human soap suds. While at one time he was a magician i n the world of ity-;:' appearance, curing Edith's acne with human soap, he cannot experience himself the magic which he proclaims to the. narrator is the meaning of existence. F, unlike H i t l e r , f i n a l l y recognizes his f a i l u r e and deter-mines to use his l a s t most dangerous t r i c k . "Events as I w i l l -98-show would force me into i t , and i t would end with Edith's s u i -cide, my h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , your c r u e l Ordeal i n the tree-house" (p. 222). His l a s t desperate t r i c k l i e s in making the narrator aware of suf f e r i n g in a l l of i t s implications, so that he, as prophet, can reveal the/ meaning of suf f e r i n g and magic to man-kind. It i s P who offers the key to existence in Cohen's novel, eyen though he himself is incapable of achieving i t - and i t is this key which Cohen gives to the reader as his affirmation of l i f e : God is a l i v e . Magic is afoot. God i s a l i v e . Magic is afoot. Magic i s a l i v e . Alive is afoot. Magic never died. God never sickened. Many poor men l i e d . Many sick men l i e d . Magic never weakened. Magic never hid. Magic always ruled. God is afoot. God never died.(pp. 197T98). FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER III 1. In the poem "The New Step" in Flowers f o r H i t l e r , Cohen suggests that the ugly and deformed have taken over the powerful appeal of the b e a u t i f u l , as Harry deserts the b e a u t i f u l Diane to marry an i n v a l i d . 2 . Jack Kerouac s t r i v e s to a t t a i n innocence in these terms - he suffers his sins and thereby gains innocence. 3 . Leonard Cohen, The Favorite Game (New York: Avon Books, - 1963) , p. 15. Future c i t a t i o n s w i l l be by page number a f t e r each quotation. 1+. A nickname f o r French-Canadians is Frogs. Breavman and Krantz re f e r to the poor young French-Canadians at the dance as Pepsies, Frogs, Fransoyzen (p. 1+2); and Krantz on leaving Montreal f o r England, again refers to the French-Canadians as Frogs. "The Frogs are v i c i o u s , " he said, "the Jews are v i c i o u s , the English are absurd" (p. 9 3 ) . In the 'frog d i s s e c t i o n r i t u a l ' there is a vague suggestion of the Jewish control over French-Canadian victims. "Let's go back and . l i b e r a t e them a l l . Let the streets swarm with free frogs" (P. 5 3 ) . 5. His mother conceives of herself as the vi c t i m of an even greater conspiracy, a conspiracy in which she was given a body which degenerated with time. "His mother regarded her whole body as a scar grown over some e a r l i e r perfection which she sought in mirrors, and windows, and hubcaps" (p. 9). 6. One of the f i n a l causes f o r Breavman's i n a b i l i t y to main-t a i n his r e l a t i o n s h i p with S h e l l comes from his f e e l i n g that she i n s i s t s on his being a kind of hero. He must always be on guard to be the noble person which she f e e l s he i s . "And S h e l l with her open g i f t , i t struck him, forced him into a kind of n o b i l i t y " (p. 1 ? 0 ) . "She had also been bred in the school of hero-martyrs, and. saw her-s e l f , perhaps, as an Heloise" (p. IL4.JL4-) -7 . The role of oracle or prophet becomes the role of the nar-rator in Beautiful Losers, and to some extent, Cohen, Burroughs, and Kerouac a l l conceive of themselves as ora-cles within t h e i r society. Cohen reveals the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a l i f e of magic; Kerouac offers a v i s i o n of the golden e t e r n i t y ; and Burroughs suggests the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a more authentic existence below the sh i t of r e a l i t y as i t now e x i s t s . 8. Leonard Cohen, Beautiful Losers (New York: Bantam Books, 1966), p. 236. Future c i t a t i o n s w i l l be by page number af t e r each quotation. -100-9. The narrator had long l i v e d in a world of " f i c t i o n a l •vic-tims," a world which aggravated. Edith immensely: " A l l ... the victims we ourselves do not murder or imprison are f i c t i o n a l victims" (p. 7). 10. Norman 0. Brown, L i f e Against Death (New York: Vintage Books, 1959), pp. 235-6. The ;'anal tendencies' mentioned ; i n the text were suggested by Norman 0. Brown's book. 11. Norman 0. Brown, L i f e Against Death, p. 191+^ 12. E l l i o t Gose in his book review on Beautiful Losers, "Of Beauty and. Unmeaning," suggests that "P with his r e a l i t y sense i s a l i t t l e l i k e Freud," while "the narrator with his indulgence in fantasy is a l i t t l e l i k e Jung." E. E. Gose, "Of Beauty and Unmeaning," Canadian L i t e r a t u r e . No. 23 (Summer, 1966), p. 63. 13. F performs the role of Oscotarach the Head-Piercer i n his r e l a t i o n s h i p with the narrator. " I t wa3 his function to remove the brains from the skulls of a l l who went by, 'as a necessary preparation f o r immortality'" (p. 2 3 2 ) . P suggests that he i s the narrator's Oscotarach and that the tree-house where he suffers i s the hut of Oscotarach. 11*. In Flowers f o r H i t l e r , Cohen suggests an almost i d e n t i c a l attitude towards History. On Hearing A Name Long Unspoken. History i s a needle for putting men asleep anointed with the poison of a l l they want to keep. (Selected Poems, p. 93) 15. By following Axis, F makes the.physical, with an emphasis on physical power, the end of a l l existence, preparing him-s e l f f o r his f i n a l subordination to the Argentine butler, H i t l e r , ' in the Danish Vibrator scene. By subordinating himself to a philosophy s i m i l a r to H i t l e r ' s , F relegates himself in his actions to the world of t o r t u r e r - s u f f e r e r . 16. E. ,E. Gose, "On Beauty and Unmeaning," p. 62. 17. E d i t h reyeals her i d e n t i t y as I s i s in the Danish Vibrator scene. In the o r i g i n a l Greek she suggests that she i s " I s i s born, of a l l things, both what is and what s h a l l be, and no Mortal has ever l i f t e d her robe" (p. 231). A l l of the female figures in Beautiful Losers blend into the f i -gure of I s i s ; and one of the narrator's c e n t r a l concerns l i e s in the uncovering of I s i s . This event w i l l be apo-c a l y p t i c ; "Therefore apocalyptic describes that which is revealed when the woman's v e i l is l i f t e d " (p. 126). By l i f t i n g the woman's v e i l , the narrator gains insights j . which make possible his r e b i r t h . The Figure of I s i s is associated with r e b i r t h f o r she could e f f e c t immortality -101-of the soul and renew l i f e . She offered her devotees forgiveness, purgation, communion, and regeneration. E d i t h therefore also has an indi r e c t mythical influence on the narrator's r e b i r t h . Cf. Apulieous, The Golden Ass. 1 8 . The authentic creation of a r t i s t i c magic must be guarded c a r e f u l l y , however, f o r there is alwsy the threat of misuse and misinterpretations. .The movie theatre may be only "the nightmare marriage of a man's prison and a woman's prison," with everybody s i t t i n g on t h e i r genitals because " s i l v e r genitals on the screen" (p. 27). In this form i t represents the death of an emotion. Or again, the movie can grossly misinterpret r e a l i t y , and, i f accepted as truth, can per-petuate a society of l i e s . "What w i l l happen when the newsreel escapes into the Feature," questions F. - the newsreel might then recreate the world of H i t l e r within the magical terms of the movie (p. 2 8 2 ) . Just as man can degrade suff e r i n g , so he can destroy the value of art i f he makes of art a f a l s e prophet. CHAPTER TV - BURROUGHS William Burroughs projects a v i s i o n of death and decay as the basic force and structure of the universe, and his anguish stems from his desperate sense of this death-oriented society, a soceity in which i n d i v i d u a l beings s t r i v e f o r power and con-t r o l , sucking strength from one another; on in which the s o c i a l system c u l t u r a l l y defends a set of conditions f o r c o l l e c t i v e destruction. The f i g u r e Lee, pseudonym or at least p a r t i a l representative of Burroughs i n Naked Lunch, conceives of emotion in terms of extreme fear ; he fe e l s no positive love impetus towards others but instead a desire to f l e e a s o c i a l system determined to destroy his being.^ In psychological terms, Burroughs exhibits many of the more general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the paranoid schizophrenic, and the symptoms of paranoia define the ways in which he expresses his su f f e r i n g . I am using the term paranoia here i n a very general sense, f i g u r a t i v e l y rather than r e a l i s t i c a l l y , and not i n a r i g i d p s y c h i a t r i c way at a l l . The general area of f e e l i n g and emotion which the term paranoia suggests, seems to me valuable however, i n analysing some of BurroughJs responses. Burroughs fears persecution - he has a very r e a l sense of s o c i a l fear; just as he i s also primarily concerned with s e l f - preservation, a concern very important to the 'psychiatric paranoid' type. But i n no way do I want to suggest that Burroughs himself is a p s y c h i a t r i c case, nor that his central character Lee i s incurably s i c k . It seems to me, instead, that Burrough's paranoid feelings are feelings which most men share; and that Burroughs, by bringing out and emphasizing t h i s area of emotion, has described and characterized a^very important part of the -103-experionce of most men. Lee's sense of s o c i a l fear shows that he i s s t i l l k l i v e , responsive, and f i g h t i n g , and he fi g h t s very r e a l forces which are endangering him. He does not imagine that society i s t r y i n g to degrade and destroy him - i t a c t u a l l y i s . The images with which he expresses his thoughts relay e n e r g e t i c a l l y and c l e a r l y his response to the society which surrounds him. His fearfulness gives his v i s i o n a c l a r i t y and in t e n s i t y , while his mind gropes through a hazy maze searching f o r the sharpness of t r u t h . Burroughs humourously refers to the fact that he was once c l a s s i f i e d as a paranbid schizophrenic i n his early novel Junkie and i t therefore does not seem implausible to suggest that his 2 emotions move i n this general d i r e c t i o n . In reading t h i s analysis, however, the reader must be conscious of my f i g u r a t i v e use of the term, Rather than harming Burroughs, his paranoid s e n s i b i l i t y makes him an aware and perceptive w r i t e r who investigates an emotional response shared by a l l , but investiga-ted by few before him. The jt-paranoid' form of schizophrenia i s characterized, by delusions - usually delusions of persecution, and the dominant emotion in Naked Lunch is the emotion of fear, f o r Burroughs fears persecution by society with i t s many forms 3 of s o c i a l c o n t r o l . Society controls man by exp l o i t i n g need, and the metaphor of addiction serves as the metaphor within the book, f o r addiction, based, upo.n the "Algebra of Need," weakens man through his own desperate hunger, creating of him a perfect s o c i a l animal, completely dependent upon the s o c i a l structure f o r his immediate s a t i s f a c t i o n . Burroughs "maps out the t e r --101+- I minal sewage of this world," a sewage composed of a wrecked majority of men who decay or die as they are reduced to the l e v e l of animals through t h e i r need. Once a man has attained a p o s i t i o n of s o c i a l power and c o n t r o l , l i k e Dr. Benway and the County Clerk, he can persecute the majority i n any number of ways, destroying t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y through his p o s i t i o n of power. The 'paranoid schizophrenic' concerns himself primarily with self-preservation, attempting through his i s o l a t i o n to escape those things he most f e a r s . His greatest anxiety comes from the p o s s i b i l i t y of implosion and depersonalization - by implosion R. D. Laing suggests that the paranoid means the f u l l t e r r o r of the experience of a world l i a b l e at any moment to crash i n and obl i t e r a t e a l l of his i d e n t i t y , as a gas w i l l rush in and obliterate a vacuum; by depersonalization he means his sense of dread at being turned from subject into object. The major- metaphors in Naked Lunch, the metaphors of addiction, cancer, and virus, suggest that implosion is the basic way i n which Burroughs fears the s o c i a l take-over of man, while de-personalization i s the inevitable r e s u l t of such a take-over.^ The invasion by another being which subjugates man and destroys his i n d i v i d u a l i t y i s in Burrough's terms the core of a l l e v i l , f o r a society which depends f o r i t s function upon death cannot be good. It is thought that the virus is a degeneration from more comclex l i f e forms. It may at one time have been capable of independent l i f e . Now has f a l l e n to the borderline between l i v i n g and dead matter. It can e x h i b i t . l i v i n g q u a l i t i e s only in a host, by using the . l i f e of another, the renunciation of l i f e i t s e l f , a -105-/ f a l l i n g towagds inorganic, i n f l e x i b l e machine, towards * dead matter. When man becomes a host being he signs away his l i f e , taking the depersonalized form of dead matter as his new s e l f . Once man has become an organism, he loses him emotional r e a l i t y , f o r the d e f i n i t i o n of man as a thing excludes a l l consideration of his desire, fear, hope, and despair. I r o n i c a l l y the schizophrenic often becomes what he most fears f o r " i t seems to be a general law that at some point those dangers most dreaded can themselves be encompassed, to f o r e s t a l l 7 t h e i r actual,occurrence."' At the time when Naked Lunch was written, Burroughs lived, alone and isolated i n Tangiers, his whole existence dependent upon <3_»ugs. His "nightmare fear of s t a s i s , " his fear of being invaded by another substance had led him into exactly these conditions, and he could s i t f o r hours staring at his shoe as the effects of junk took over his body. At the height of his fear and anxiety, the prospect of being a passive thing, penetrated and controlled by another, seemed a welcome r e l i e f - a succumbing to death in the face.of a l i f e which created insurmountable anguish and. tension. Faced with a society he believes to be implosive and deper-sonaliz i n g , the paranoid schizophrenic desperately holds on to his sense of inner r e a l i t y as his l a s t stronghold of ind.ivid.u-a l i t y and freedom. His inner s e l f retains c e r t a i n i d e a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the ideals of complete awareness and honesty. Against the i n t e g r i t y of this inner s e l f he places a l l s o c i a l forces, and considers even his body to be f a l s e , to be a part of those forces outside which are determined to destroy him. -106-In Burrough's v i s i o n , the needs of the body reduce man to the l e v e l of s o c i a l c ontrol, and in this sense i t is the body which is f a l s e and degrades the i n d i v i d u a l , f o r once addicted the body needs sex and drugs, the two major means of s o c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l power. . Burrough's condemnation of the f l e s h permeates his novel, and his sense of repulsion and horror extends to every fun&tion of the body. He mocks the dependent body with i t s need, f o r drink, food, and junk, by degrading i t in i t s need. He shows bodily needs to be absurd and laughable, making the reader snort with him at that r i d i c u l o u s and humiliating physical form known as man. Burroughs!! images emphasize those parts of physical existence which man himself finds most degrading - his sexual need and his excretion. Images of sexual humiliation and excre-t i o n take over the novel, and we are l e f t ' t o f e e l that man, the physical animal, is a nauseating being. Burroughs.'; condemnation of the f l e s h takes much the same Puritan form as did Martin Luther's, f o r he blames the f l e s h because i t draws man away from his ' r e a l ' and pure s e l f , just as Luther cursed the f l e s h f o r degrading the s p i r i t . Burroughs affirms the i n t e g r i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l , the A: ' r e a l ' and pure s e l f , against a l l forms and methods of s o c i a l a n n i h i l a t i o n and he believes that only through his own complete honesty, his revelation of society in a l l of i t s nakedness, can he and other men be saved. In a c a r n i v a l voice he entices us into " B i l l ' s Naked Lunch Room," to see r e a l i t y as i t exists without deception: "A word to the wise guy." (Naked Lunch, p. x l v i ) . We partake of a naked lunch - "a frozen moment when everyone sees what is on the end of every fork," and in eating this lunch we gain a nakedness of sight, we are "able 'to see c l e a r l y without any confusing disguises, to see through the disguise*" (Naked Lunch, p. x x x v i i ) . Through his self-c o n -sciousness Burroughs affirms the fact that he exists - f o r his insight and l u c i d i t y , though they cause his su f f e r i n g , assure him in his pain that he is 3 t i l l a l i v e . By wr i t i n g Naked Lunch Burroughs revealed his inner fears and anguish, and through this revelation he attained a sense of s e l f - r e l e a s e , purging himself of his greatest anxieties. But the act of writing has f o r Burroughs a significance which is s o c i a l as well as personal, f o r the causes of his paranoia a c t u a l l y do exi s t within society. Burroughs merely exaggerates in the form of s u r r e a l i s t i c dream, the fears of most men l i v i n g i n the twentieth century. His novel i s , in a s o c i a l sense, i t seems to me, an act of exorcism, a d r i v i n g out of e v i l s p i r i t s thorugh the r i t u a l of a r t . By shouting the unspeakable, he be-comes a p r i e s t i n a c u l t u r a l p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t e . Pornography i s important in Burroughs' art i n this sense, f o r the obscene s p e l l evoked, by the four l e t t e r word contains 9 the s p e c i a l v i t a l i t y of i t s symbolic aggression. As the i l l i c i t language, i t becomes in i t s use the language of a n t i -value. By the v i o l a t i o n of the taboo, Burroughs s t i r s the powers behind the forbidden i n an act of aggression against the s o c i a l order. The four l e t t e r word is therefore important in his struggle f o r freedom from oppression. Comedy and. dream also give Burroughs a form of r e l i e f from -108- 7 his sense of 'paranoia.' "Freud interprets the dream and ^jest as a discharge of powerful psychic energies, a glimpse into the abyss of s e l f , " but through th i s discharge a man can release himself from the tensions of his hidden anxiety ."^ Comedy un-masks those impulses normally repressed, showing the inevitable absurdity of man's r e a l i t y held up against his i d e a l . The comic hero accepts the i r r e c o n c i l a b l e s of man's existence, and eases his pain i n laughter.- Burroughs begins Naked Lunch in f e v e r i s h laughter, a laughter which ultimately reduces his sense of i n -tolerable anguish to absurdity. Before writing the s u r r e a l i s t i c and comic novel, Naked  Lunch, however, Burroughs wrote two e a r l i e r books, Junkie and The Yage Letters, which show in a more r e a l i s t i c way his early fears and tensions, and his unsatisfactory attempts to deal with them by using junk. Junkie discusses junk as a way of l i f e , a s a c r i f i c e of a l l other ways of existence, a l l i n d i v i d u a l freedom to drug need. The insurmountable tensions of the outside world lead a man to junk, which seems at f i r s t to simplify l i f e , creating a private time and space world of i t s own, where a man can s i t without moving f o r hours in c o n f l i c t - f r e e existence. "As a habit takes hold, other interests lose importance to the u s e r . " ^ Junk makes i t possible f o r a man to regress to a simpler state, a state in which tension arises onlpnly one l e v e l . Such at least is the addict's dream. But the junk world creates new tensions through i t s addic-t i v e power, f o r i t reduces man to an absolute state of b i o l o g i c a l need, which demands s a t i s f a c t i o n . If the addict's body receives no junk i t experiences the pains of junk withdrawal, "a s u f f e r -ing of the c e l l s alone, caused by junk need" (Junkie, p. 21). Burroughs compares the horror of th i s physical agony with the symptoms of a hanged man, for taking the addict away from his form of s t a b i l i t y reduces him to the stabe of death: "There was a sudden rush of blood to the genitals at the slippery contact. Sparks exploded behind my eyes; my legs twitched - the.orgasm of a hanged man when the neck snaps" (Junkie, p. 88). The junk world encourages a sense of 'paranoia' by placing the addict in opposition to the s o c i a l establishment. By j o i n -ing a crim i n a l sub-culture, the addict comes to f e e l a s p e c i f i c fear about the p o l i c e , a fear which becomes a .vague dread of any number of men who might be secret agents and informers. Pear overtakes the addict's l i f e in a second way, f o r the fear of being without drugs exceeds even the,fear of the p o l i c e . The addict f e e l s surrounded by h o s t i l i t y even within his own sub-culture, f o r he i s cont r o l l e d by the whims and wishes of others. The junkie's world is a c r u e l world where a man laughs at the agony of another, and where no man trusts his best f r i e n d . The addict, who cannot escape his sense of fear, f e e l s persecuted on every side. In his attempt to escape the suf f e r i n g and agony of existence, the addict within the junk world has reduced him-s e l f to the l e v e l of his b i o l o g i c a l s e l f , basing his whole existence on physical s a t i s f a c t i o n . I r o n i c a l l y he i n t e n s i f i e s his anguish through addiction - he suffers in body from his need, and from the h o r r i f y i n g symptoms of withdrawal; he suffers -110- x mentally a sense of over-riding fear and. a f e e l i n g of s e l f -disgust caused by his own sense of self-degradation. While Burroughs experienced a drug cure at Lexington, he concluded the novel Junkie with a desire to continue on the junk road-- he longs to try yage which might be the answer-to exis-tence. "Maybe I w i l l find, in yage what I was looking f o r in junk and weed and coke. Yage may be the f i n a l f i x " (Junkie, p. 126). Burroughs depicts his f r u s t r a t e d search f o r yage in The  Yage Letters written to A l l e n Ginsberg in 1953, r e l a t i n g his anger and disgust at the continent of South America. This book suggests Burroughs' fear of persecution and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of s e l f - a n n i h i l a t i o n . He focuses his c r i t i c i s m in The Yage Letters on a bureaucracy which seems to exist to further his f r u s t r a t i o n and confusion. "You cannot contact a c i v i l servant on the l e v e l of i n t u i t i o n and empathy. He just does not have a receiving set, and he gives out l i k e a dead battery. There must be a spe-c i a l low frequency c i v i l service brain wave." The P o l i c i a Nacional look to Burroughs " l i k e the end. r e s u l t of atomic radia-t i o n , " and he fears the control which the p o l i t i c a l parties have over the people (The Yage Letters, p. 9). The yage he discovers makes him i l l and offers small compensation f o r the ugliness and incompetence by which he f e e l s surrounded. As his t r i p continued, Burroughs experienced an increased f e e l i n g of bureaucratic persecution, and a vague fear of s o c i a l c o n t r o l . He describes a psychic condition of dependence c a l l e d Latah which he discovers in South America, a condition which both fascinates and. appalls him. "Otherwise normal, the Latah -111-cannot help doing whatever anyone t e l l s him to do once his attention has been attracted by touching him or c a l l i n g his name" (The Yage Letters, p. 33). This condition becomes a recurring image f o r s o c i a l control in Naked Lunch. Burroughs concludes The Yage Letters with a manifesto of re b e l l i o n - the Last Words of Hassan Sabbah The Old Man Of The Mountain. His growing sense of 'paranoia' and persecution f i n a l l y demands some form of s e l f - a f f i r m a t i o n , some struggle o the true s e l f against, the subtle s o c i a l forces which threaten to engulf him. He raises his cry of s o c i a l r e b e l l i o n : - LISTEN TO MY LAST WORDS ANY WORLD. LISTEN ALL OP YOU BOARDS SYNDICATES AND GOVERNMENTS OP THE EARTH. AND YOU POWER POWERS BEHIND WHAT FILTH DEALS CONSUMATED • IN WHAT LAVATORY TO TAKE WHAT IS NOT YOUR. TO SELL THE GROUND FROM UNBORN FEET. LISTEN WHAT I HAVE TO SAY IS POR ALL MEN EVERYWHERE. I REPEAT FOR ALL. NO ONE IS EXCLUDED. FREE TO ALL WHO PAY. FREE TO ALL WHO PAIN PAY. WHAT SCARED YOU ALL INTO TIME? INTO BODY? INTO SHIT? FOREVER? DO YOU WANT TO STAY THERE FOREVER? THEN LISTEN TO THE LAST WORDS OF HASSAN ' SABBAH. LISTEN LOOK OR SHIT FOREVER. WHAT SCARED YOU INTO TIME? INTO BODY? INTO SHIT? I WILL TELL YOU. THE WORD. SCARED YOU ALL INTO SKIT FOREVER. COME OUT - FOREVER.' COME OUT OF THE TIME WORD THE FOREVER. COME : OUT OF THE BODY WORD THE FOREVER. COME OUT OF THE SHIT WORD THEE FOREVER. ALL OUT OP TIME AND INTO ' SPACE. FOREVER. THERE IS NO'.:'THING-' TO .-PEAR-; THERE IS . . NO THING IN SPACE. THERE IS ALL ALL ALL HASSAN SABBAH. IP YOU I CANCEL ALL YOUR WORDS FOREVER. AND THE WORDS OF HASSAN SABBAH I AS ALSO CANCEL. ACROSS ALL YOUR SKIES SEE ALL THE WRITING OF BRION GYPSIN HASSAN SABBAH. THE WRITING OF SPACE. THE WRITING OF SILENCE. (The Yage Letters, p. 61) Burroughs speaks to the persecuting powers within society, the boards, the syndicates, and. the governments, in the form of powerful incantation, Increasing the ef f e c t of his words by >•;'• * chanting a series of repeated, phrases. He hopes through chant to exorcise those e v i l s p i r i t s and powers which he fears, des-I -112V troying the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r control by making mankind. more aware. Hassan Sabbah becomes the momentary prophet.; of 1 2 a new order of being. The world of s o c i a l control which he fears depends upon a p a r t i c u l a r experience of time and. body which entrenches man in a f a l s e existence of s h i t . Man imprisons himself within a f a l s e sense of structured time, and he allows his bodily needs to take over and control him. The world of predetermined time and space which man has shuttled into through fear comes from the word, which dominates him by c o n t r o l l i n g his thought pro-cesses. Burroughs assaults the power of the word, disrupting the normal pattern of thought processes - and through this assault he gains a personal freedom i n which the word can no longer control him. He encourages others to conquer the word, to enter the realm of space and silence where a man no longer needs to f e a r . "THERE IS NO THING TO PEAR. THERE IS NO THING IN SPACE,"' Even the words of Hassan Sabbah w i l l f i n a l l y disappear i n space once they have inspired man to a t t a i n his freedom. In the r i t u a l of ar^, Hassan Sabbah, (Burroughs), destroys the 13 power of the s o c i a l word. In Naked Lunch Burroughs turns from the r e a l i s t i c and straight-forward approach of his e a r l i e r novels to surrealism and s a t i r e , switching to a presentation of his 'paranoia' i n fantasy form. He gives us a series of v i s u a l and auditory h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , and bombards us with unusual image associations, to emphasize the horror of his v i s i o n . Lee's apparent emo-t i o n a l flatness i s another sign of,.high anxiety, as i s his y -113-desire to obliterate himself through junk. Here is a man surrounded by a h e l l i s h world, who offers us t h i s world a3 i t impinges on his consciousness, and whose defense comes through his a b i l i t y to exaggerate th i s world, to show i t in a l l of i t s grotesqueness and horror, and thereby to gain release through his a b i l i t y to see this r e a l i t y i n i t s nakedness. He uses his paranoic sense as the basis f o r his s a t i r i c v i s i o n . Burroughs, defending himself also through his sense, of beauty, his energy, and his c l a r i t y of mind, gains control over r e a l i t y through his a b i l i t y to perceive i t and to comment upon i t . His comment takes the form of s a t i r e - the images he releases contain i n t h e i r exaggeration and horror the fear and c r i t i c i s m he f e e l s . Some c r i t i c s see the world of Naked Lunch as a world of t o t a l sickness without a glimmering of hope, of f e r i n g no pos-i b i l i t y of cure or amendment, while to others Burroughs i s a d i d a c t i c w r i t e r who affirms his moral passion in the language of denial and d e r i s i o n . He pushes s a t i r e to the threahold of pathology, claiming from self-hate the hate humanity harbours. Tony Tanner argues that f o r Burroughs healing i s a matter of r e a l concern; while to E. S. Seldon Naked Luoch'is a novel of re v o l t i n the best modern sense. "Burroughs is quite aware of what he i s r e v o l t i n g against as of the i n d i v i d u a l human pre-dicament he sympathizes with s u f f i c i e n t l y not to understate i t s g r a v i t y . On the one hand, he gives a stunning going over to the objective s c i e n t i f i c a l l y reinforced madness of i n s t i -t u t i o n a l culture, while on the other, he shows the doomed individual^desperately t r y i n g to preserve his own i d e n t i t y , at y • -11L+-whatever cost, i f necessary, a l l A e l s e f a i l i n g , within the p r i -vate world of his skin." Hope l i e s within the p o s s i b i l i t y of change, and, with the sharpening of man's awareness of r e a l i t y i n this naked lunch, Burroughs encourages this change in man. Paced with a world i n which the forces of e v i l pene-trate every l e v e l , he challenges this world c r i t i c a l l y through humour. "Comedy i s much more reasonably associated with pes-simism. It appeals to the laughter, which i s i n part at l e a s t , the malice In us, f o r comedy i s concerned with human imper-f e c t i o n , with people's f a i l u r e to measure up e i t h e r to the world» 3 or to t h e i r own conception of excellence. Comedy, i n short, 15 i s c r i t i c i s m . " The l a s t refuge f o r struggle against a n n i h i l a t i o n l i e s * within the i n d i v i d u a l man, but the image of man breaks e a s i -l y amidst a world determined to reduce him to a helpless 'host' through various psychological, p h y s i c a l , and s o c i a l methods. Most of Naked Lunch describes the forms of s o c i a l and i n d i v i d -u a l control which threaten man with'self-destruction. As suggested e a r l i e r , drug addiction serves as the c e n t r a l metaphor to explain the o r i g i n a l cause of one man's control over another, a cause f i n d i n g i t s ultimate source i n the phys-i c a l body. The addict's physical need reduces him to the l e v e l of desperate dependence, a response upon which the whole junk pyramid depends. Need forces the addict to beg, to narrow his, l i f e ambition to need s a t i s f a c t i o n , t o cede his consciousness to something more powerful which enters him and drains l i f e from him. In the junk pyramid each l e v e l eats the l e v e l below \ -115-according to basic p r i n c i p l e s of Monopoly, The addict needs increasing amounts of junk i n order to survive, and he w i l l do almost anything to a t t a i n i t . "Junk is the i d e a l product ....the ultimate merchandise. No sales t a l k necessary. The c l i e n t w i l l crawl through a sewer and beg to buy.... The junk merchant does not s e l l his product to the consumer, he s e l l s the consumer to his product. He does not improve and s i m p l i f y his merchandise. He degrades and s i m p l i f i e s his c l i e n t . He pays his s t a f f i n junk"(p. xxxix). The junk world displays i n f u l l nakedness the gross persecution and degra-dation of one man against another. It destroys i n exactly those ways which the paranoic Burroughs most fears — by implosion and.depersonalizatibri.?. Burroughs dramatizes the h o r r i b l e "forms which control takes i n his exaggerated view of the characters in the drug world. There are many victims i n this world - the old junkies, who, l i k e old people eating, lose a l l shame i n t h e i r need; the young woman whose "hideous galvanized need" i s l i k e the "hunger of insepts i n dry places-"(.p. 9 ) . The Rube l i v e s through his mark, L i t t l e Boy Blue, and when L i t t l e Boy Blue starts to s l i p , Rube ' f l i p s ' and goes racing a f t e r him. On the other side stand figures l i k e the shoe store k i d who shakes down f e t i s h -i s t s i n shoe stores. There are those whose persona i s ambiv-a l e n t ^ blending the roles of v i c t i m i z e r and victim, f o r s e l l i n g i s more of a habit than using, Laputa says. "Non-using pushers have a habit and that's one you can't k i c k . ' Agents get i t too*" (p. 15). Bradley the Buyer, a narcotics -116-agent, assumes such a p o s i t i o n , f o r though he is i n a role of power, he depends upon his contact with the junkie f o r s u r v i v a l * "I just want to rub up against you and get f i x e d , " he says(p„ I6)» His demanded resignation puts him into a state of extreme anx-i e t y , an anxiety so great.that he swallows the D i s t r i c t Com-missioner i n order to remain i n the police force. "The Depart-ment is _his_7 very l i f e - l i n e , " f o r he depends upon his role to s a t i s f y his need (p. I?)- His need, causing him to destroy others so that he might survive, makes him grotesque. "Like a vampire.bat, he gives o f f a narcotic effluvium, a dank green mist that anesthetizes his victims and renders them helpless in his enveloping presence. And once he has scored he holes up f o r several days l i k e a gorged boa c o n s t r i c t o r " (p. 18). W i l l y the Disk, a notorious informer, needs.the v i c t i m in a way equal to Bradley the Buyer but feels no need to jus-t i f y his desire to suck l i f e from others by giving this need a worthy role within which, to operate. "When the police move in f o r the bust, W i l l y goes a l l out of control, and his mouth eats a hole right through the door. If the cops weren't there to r e s t r a i n him with a stock probe, he would suck the juice right out of every junkie he ran down" (p. 7). Burroughs'*theory of junk addiction becomes the model f o r a l l forms of addiction i n Naked Lunch.^ These other addictions, sexual and s o c i a l , degrade and. reduce man in an equivalent man-ner, o b l i t e r a t i n g his sense of s e l f - i d e n t i t y through the inva-sion of a foreign being. Lower forms of l i f e devour the higher, reducing the higher to an animal l e v e l , and In this way man -117-becomes depersonalized. Burroughs conceives of e v i l in terms of this external force which constantly threatens i n d i v i d u a l i t y - e v i l takes form most often as a s o c i a l force impinging on the individual's freedom. He c a r i c a t u r i z e s those members of the •: s o c i a l establishment who have established much s o c i a l power within t h e i r roles and who use t h i s power to persecute other men f o r t h e i r own perverted enjoyment. Dr. Benway and The County Clerk represent perfect examples of such figures - and the fact that Burroughs chooses the medical and l e g a l profes-sions shows the degree of his desperation. The control addict, an addict equivalent i n many ways to the junk or sexual addict, usually operates on a s o c i a l l e v e l rather than an i n d i v i d u a l one, f o r being obsessed by power, he longs f o r more than i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r o l . The victims of the con-t r o l addict make up the majority of men, and he attains his power through an o r i g i n a l role.of authority which allows him to exert his strength over larger and l a r g e r areas. He uses this authority to reduce others to passive animality, but i r o n i c a l l y , he destroys his own i n d i v i d u a l i t y through his obsession, becom-ing a being no larger than his r o l e . The figure of the doctor represents in Burroughs' eyes the perfect example of such an authority figure, f o r in a sick society the doctor is associated in the minds of the people with cure, and. therefore he occupies a p o s i t i o n of great power. The doctor's unique education also affirms that he is a s c i e n t i f i c authority; he i s back up by the chief myth of his society. The doctor figures in Naked Lunch a l l use t h e i r positions to destroy large numbers of people, -118-j u s t i f y i n g themselves through t h e i r roles as s c i e n t i s t s and doctors. Burroughs s a t i r i z e s Dr. Benway in most d e t a i l , but Dr. Schafer and an unknown German doctor come under the invec-tive of his pen. The unknown German doctor is mentioned only once as he haphazardly removes parts from the body of his patient during an operation. "Flushed with success he then began snipping and cutting out everything in sight. 'The human body is f i l l e d up v l t unnecessitated parts. You can get by v i t one kidney. Vy have two? Yes dot is a kidney. . ." (p. 182). Benway also experiences great glee within the operating room -to him the operation i s a work of pop art and he concerns him-s e l f p r i m a r i l y with the creative aspect rather than with the patient's l i f e . If one patient dies, he loses no sleep, f o r there i s always another to operate upon. His favori t e operation is a pure work of a r t , having "absolutely no medical value." He describes to the student doctors the excited sense of c r e a t i v i t y which t h i s operation i n s p i r e s : Just as a b u l l - f i g h t e r with his s k i l l and knowledge extricates himself from danger he has himself invoked, so in this operation the surgeon d e l i b e r a t e l y endangers his patient, and then, with incredible speed and c e l e -r i t y , rescues him from death at the l a s t possible s e c o n d . . . (p. 61). Benway fe e l s no qualms about his moral po s i t i o n as a doctor, f o r as both an a r t i s t and a s c i e n t i s t he feels above the i n h i b i t i n g moral code of the average man. He creates his own medical eth-i c s , and these vague ethics seem defined by his p a r t i c u l a r , momentary whim. "I am a reputable s c i e n t i s t , " he t e l l s Lee, "not a charlatan, a l u n a t i c , or a pretended worker of miracles . ..'.I have been tempted to experiment, being of course re--119-strained by my medical e t h i c s . . ." (p. 3 3 ) . In the section e n t i t l e d "Benway and Schafer," the two doctors discuss some ex-periment they have done, and while Schafer suffers a vague f e e l -ing of e v i l , Benway fe e l s no remorse, j u s t i f y i n g t h e i r position once again as s c i e n t i f i c : "We're s c i e n t i s t s . . .Pure s c i e n t i s t s . . .Disinterested research and. damned be him who cr i e s hold l too much. Such people are no better than party poops" (p. 131) . Their disinterested research emphasizes the destruction of other men, attempting to create a whole society of degenerate beings whom they can dominate. Dr. Schafer, also known as Fingers Schafer or the Lobotomy Kid, supports the theory that the nervous system can be reduced to a compact and abbreviated spi n a l column; he works towards the creation of a new man, but this man turns out to be instead a monster black centipede. K i l l i n g t h i s black centipede, he faces a fake t r i a l to determine whether man i s responsible f o r k i l l i n g a degenerated l i f e form. The Prosecutor t r i e s to destroy Schafer whom he sees as a dan-gerous man. Schafer, the brain r a p i s t , believes i n f o r c i b l e lobotomy, and having reduced the whole land "to a state border-ing on the f a r side of Idioory," he s i t s back "with a c y n i c a l l e e r of pure educated e v i l " and refers to his products as Drones (p. 10£) . The words of the Prosecutor fade away without force. Schafer and Benway both desire to create one all-purpose blob call e d man, someone comparable to the man taken over by his ass in the story Benway t e l l . Benway exerts a force f a r greater than Schafer, however, f o r his influence controls the -120-minds of whole s o c i e t i e s , and he does not depend upon lobotomy to destroy, f o r he uses the subtle nuances of psychology to re-create man. Burroughs c r i t i c i z e s Benway's use of psychology to degrade and destroy man most severely, f o r the l a s t hope of the paranoid schizophrenic often l i e s with his p s y c h i a t r i s t , a p s y c h i a t r i s t who has a frightening power to destroy him com-p l e t e l y through his objective knowledge of man's mind.. Benway studies thinking machines to learn about men's minds because "Western man i s e x t e r n a l i z i n g himself In the form of gadgets" (p. 2i+). The section e n t i t l e d "Benway"'describes the extremes of his p o l i t i c a l c o n trol, a control maintained, through his knowledge of man's psychology. A very few men of moral i n t e l -ligence have managed, to prevent Benway's complete destruction of man, but t h e i r p o sition seems precarious. Burroughs comes forward as one of these men determined to show the mass mani-pulator in a l l of his ugly nakedness, and to force men to arise from sleep by the horror Of his v i s i o n . In a style s i m i l a r to Heller's Catch 22, popular at about the same time, Burroughs parodies Benway in every way he can, and the savagery of his s a t i r e increases with his fear. Dr. Benway had been ca l l e d in as advisor to the Free-land Republic, a place given over to free love and continual bathing. The c i t i z e n s are well-adjusted, cooperative, honest, tolerant, and above a l l clean. But the invoking of Benway indicates that a l l is not well behind that hygienic facade; Benway is a mani-.. pulator and coordinator of symbol systems, an expert .on a l l phases of interrogation, brainwashing and con-t r o l . I have not seen Benway since his p r e c i p i t a t e departure from Annexia, where his assignment had been T.:D. - Total Demoralization.- Benway's f i r s t act was . to a b o l i s h concentration camps, mass arrest and except under c e r t a i n limited and s p e c i a l circumstances, the -121-use of torture. 'I deplore brutality,''' he said. It's not e f f i c i e n t . On the other hand prolonged mistreatment, short of physical violence, gives r i s e , when s k i l l f u l l y applied, to anxiety and a f e e l i n g of s p e c i a l g u i l t . A few rules or rather guiding p r i n c i p l e s are to be born in mind. The subject must not r e a l i z e that the mistreatment i s the deliberate attack of an anti-human enemy on his personal i d e n t i t y . He must be made to f e e l J:. that he deserves any treatment he receives because there i s something (never specified) h o r r i b l y wrong with him. The naked need of the c o n t r o l addicts must be covered by an a r b i t r a r y and i n -t r i c a t e bureaucracy so that the subject cannot contact the enemy d i r e c t (p. 21). Benway harasses the c i t i z e n s in every way possible, invading both t h e i r public and t h e i r private l i v e s to take them over. His prolonged harassment confuses and frustrates them, f o r he prevents a l l outlets f o r the release of t h e i r anxiety. The c i t i z e n s are in the power of an i n t e l l e c t u a l force f a r greater than t h e i r own, a force which takes control of t h e i r i n t e l l e c -t u a l , emotional, and physical- selves.. They accepts one f r u s -t r a t i o n only to be faced with another, and " a f t e r a few months of this the c i t i z e n s /cowery7 i n corners l i k e neurotic cats" (P. 2 3 ) . ' Every c i t i z e n of Annexia was required to apply f o r and carry on his person at a l l times a whole port-f o l i o of documents. Ci t i z e n s were subject to be stopped in the street at any time; and the Examiner, who might be in p l a i n clothes, in various uniforms, often i n a bathing s u i t or pyjamas, sometimes stark naked, except f o r a badge pinned to his l e f t nipple, a f t e r checking each paper would stamp i t . On sub-sequent inspection the c i t i z e n was required to show the properly entered stamps of the l a s t inspection. The Examiner, when he stopped a large group, would only examine and stamp the cards of a few. The others were then subject to arrest because t h e i r cards were not properly stamped. Arrest meant pro-v i s i o n a l detention, that is the prisoner would be released i f and when his affadavit of Explanation -122-properly signed and stamped, was approved by the assistant Arbitor of. Explanations. Since this o f f i -c i a l hardly ever came to his o f f i c e , and the A f f a -davit of Explanation had to be presented in person, the explainers spend weeks and months waiting around in unheated o f f i c e s with no chairs and no t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s . Documents issued, in vanishing ink faded into old pawn t i c k e t s . New documents were constant^/ required. The c i t i z e n s rushed from one bureau to another in a frenzied attempt to meet impossible deadlines. A l l benches were removed from the c i t y , a l l fountains turned o f f , a l l flowers and trees des-troyed. Huge e l e c t r i c buzzers on the top of every apartment house (everyone l i v e d i n apartments) rang the quarter hour. Often the Vibrations would throw people out of bed. Searchlights played over the town a l l night (no one was permitted to use shades, curtains, shudders, or b l i n d s ) . No one ever looked at anyone else because of the s t r i c t law against importuning, with or without verbal approach, anyone f o r any purpose, sexual or otherwise. A l l cafes and bars were closed. Liquor could only be obtained with a special permit, and the l i q u o r so.obtained could not be sold or given or in any way transferred to anyone else, and the presence of anyone else in the room was considered prima f a c i e evidence of conspiracy to transfer l i q u o r . No one was permitted to bolt his door, and the police had pass keys to every room in the c i t y . Accompanied by a mentalist they rush into someone's quarters and start looking for ' i t ' (p. 21-2). More t e r r i f y i n g even than this apparent mass manipulation of men is Benway's use of his technical knowledge to destroy in more subtle ways, f o r these are ways which cannot be seen and compre-hended and therefore cannot be dealt with. Benway uses drugs as "an e s s e n t i a l t o o l of the interrogator in his assault on the subject's personal i d e n t i t y , " discovering in his experiments i that "alternate doses of LSD 6 and bulbocapnine. . .give the highest y i e l d of automatic obedience" (p. 26). He uses psycho-analysis to encourage the emergence of the r e a l i d e n t i t y with the p a r t i c u l a r r o l e . Sexual humiliation proves highly p r o f i t a b l e -123-in the production of cowering victims, f o r "many subjects are vulnerable to sexual humiliation - Nakedness, stimulation with aphrodiasiacs, constant supervision to embarrass subject and prevent r e l i e f of masturbation. . ." (p. 27). Purged from Annexia by "party poops," Benway becomes the Director of the Reconditioning Centre of Preeland, playing the game from the opposite angle as he investigates whether those persons whom he has destroyed can ever rediscover t h e i r humanity. But Burroughs, using the Technician momentarily as his spokes-man, suggests that "no man can be healthy without brains" (p. 139). Burroughs c r i t i c i z e s the degenerate human forms of the Preeland Republic who have l e t a force outside themselves take them over. The v i s i o n of chaos presented when the members of the Reconditioning Centre get loose l i e s f a r from the l i b e r a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l which remains his i d e a l . Burroughs queries the value of a man once he has been destroyed. If he has be-come a black centipede, are we responsible i f we then k i l l him? He offers Panorama of The C i t y of Interzene and the revolt of the degenerates as an example of chaos at this, l e v e l ; i t re-presents not l i b e r a t i o n , but a break i n the sewer. Burroughs mentions the. word cure in Naked Lunch not i n a medical context, but in i t s association with the slunk business. "To get cured means to get r i c h . Expression used by Texas oil-men" (p. 156). Burroughs also c a r i c a t u r i z e s the County Clerk to the point of extreme absurdity, f o r he is a second figure of strong s o c i a l power who uses his control to persecute others and to maintain his p o s i t i o n of stagnant s t a b i l i t y . The forces of both medicine -12U.-and. law a t t a i n t h e i r power by ignoring the r e a l i t y of other men The County Clerk has his o f f i c e in a huge red brick building known as the Old Court House. C i v i l cases, are in f a c t , t r i e d here, the proceeding inexorably dragging out u n t i l the contestants die or abandon l i t i g a t i o n . This is due to the vast number of re-cords pertaining to absolutely everything, a l l f i l e d in the wrong place so that no one but the County Clerk and his s t a f f of assistants can find them, and. . he often spends years in the search. When a suit i s brought against anyone in the zone, his lawyers connive to have the case trans-ferred to the Old Court House. Once this is done, . . the p l a i n t i f f has l o s t the case, so that the only cases that a c t u a l l y go to t r i a l in the Old Court '. House are those instigated, by eccentrics and para-noids, who want a "public hearing," which they r a r e l y get since only the most desperate famine of news w i l l bring a reporter to.the Old Court House .(.P. 1 6 9 ) . Burroughs considers even the i n s t i t u t i o n of democratic government to be implosive and depersonalizing, and he uses the cancer metaphor to describe i t s k i l l i n g e f f e c t s . In a democrac i n which the President himself is a junkie, the paradigm of v i c t i m i z e r and v i c t i m invades every l e v e l of l i f e . Rather than affirming the importance of the i n d i v i d u a l in a government of the people, by the people, and. f o r the people, a democracy ex-tinguishes the r e a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l man. The end re s u l t of complete cellular-representation is cancer. Democracy is cancerous, and bureaus are i t s cancer. A bureau takes root anywhere in the state, turns malignant l i k e the Narcotics Bureau, and grows and grows, always reproducing more of i t s own kind, u n t i l i t chokes the host i f not controlled or excised. Bureaus cannot l i v e without a host, being true p a r a s i t i c organisms. - Bureaucracy is wrong as a cancer, a turning away from human evolutionary d i r e c t i o n , of i n f i n i t e potentials and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and independent spontaneous action, to the complete parasitism of a virus (p. I3I4-). -i?-5-He offers the cooperative as a more authentic form of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a cooperative which considers each of i t s members valuable. ;(A cooperative on the other hand can l i v e without a state. That 'is the road to follow. The building up of independent units to meet needs of the people who par t i c i p a t e in the functioning of the unit> A bureau operates on opposite p r i n c i p l e s of inventing needs to j u s t i f y i t s existence) (p. 131+). A f i n a l form of addiction of c r u c i a l importance to Naked Lunch is sexual addiction, f o r sex, unlike junk, is a physical 17 need which every man f e e l s . Sex is also the focus f o r many hidden obsessions and fears, f o r the American exhibits a very pronounced f e e l i n g of shame about his physical body. Women and men can,gain both physical and psychological control over one another i n the sexual realm; f o r the s p e c i f i c sexual fears of man can be used to degrade and destroy him. Sex in America becomes a power struggle between man and woman, and the American male fears the sexual power of the woman.above a l l else, f o r in this matriarchal society in which women dominate most areas, sex is the one remaining area where a man can express his freedom. Burroughs sees sex as i t exists in America today as disgusting and repulsive, f o r i t leads a man into many kinds of personal humiliations,inbhis attempt to s a t i s f y his frustrated physical need. In Burroughs' sexual h a l l u c i n a t i o n s , the homosexual acts leading to orgasm become in e x t r i c a b l y involved with hanging, and this suggests that i n Burroughs' mind both sexual intercourse and 'buggering' are part of a r i t u a l death r i t e . Sex w i l l con-tinue to be associated with death as long as man remains under i t s c o n t r o l . : In a l e t t e r to De Grazia, the Naked Lunch defense -126-lawyer, Burroughs suggests that "unless and. u n t i l a free exa-mination of sexual manifestations is allowed, man w i l l continue to be controlled by sex rather than c o n t r o l l i n g . " Sex is a "phenomenon t o t a l l y unknown because d e l i b e r a t e l y ignored as a subject f o r writing and research" (p. xxxv). By revealing the ugly association of sex and death, Burroughs encourages men to take a second, look at t h e i r most powerful obsession. He expresses a sense of ambivalence about homosexuality, s i m i l a r to his larger ambivalence about man. Burroughs c r i t i -cizes men who allow t h e i r own destruction, yet he f e e l s a sym-pathy and anguish over these same 'Victims of a vast conspiracy which they have small hope of counter-acting. Homosexuality, he believes, causes the i n d i v i d u a l to lose himself within his sexual r o l e , destroying a l l personal i n t e g r i t y in. his submission to a role which makes him a passive victim. "A room f u l l of fage gives me the horrors. They jerk around l i k e puppets on i n v i s i b l e s t r i n g s , galvanized into hideous a c t i v i t y that i s the negation of everything l i v i n g and spontaneous. The l i v e human being has moved out of these bodies long ago" (Junkie, p. 73). But homosexuals in this novel want to be c o n t r o l l e d , to be the victim figure, within the r e l a t i o n s h i p , f o r by representing' this f i g u r e , they reach the lowest depths of possible humiliation, and. a t t a i n there a form of peace - the only kind of peaceful release from fear a man can have as long as he exists within a society where sex i s a continual power struggle. " C i t i z e n . . . wants to be u t t e r l y humiliated and degraded, so many people do nowadays hoping to jump the gun - o f f e r themselves up f o r -127-passive homosexual intercourse to an encampment of So l l u b i s " (p. 118). The man of greatest fear is the heterosexual man, f o r in"! a matriarchal society in which homosexuality i s a p o l i t i c a l crime, every man supposedly hides in latent form his homosexual tendencies. Fear and repression make these tendencies more powerful, providing Benway with the method of sexual humiliation - a quick and easy method f o r "making a heterosex c i t i z e n queer." In "The Examination" Benway attempts to coerce the young man C a r l Peterson into admitting latent homosexuality, and he achieves his strength through his assumption that every man has latent homosexual desires, undermining Carl's security with lewd jokes,, a p o l i t e insinuating front, and the humiliating forms which his sexual examinations take. Women create fear in the minds of most of the male charac-t e r s ; they are "lust-mad hordes" who try to pulverise men and • 19 reduce them to non-entities. Haying long had sexual power, they resent t h e i r men turning from them towards homosexual partners. Men fear relationships with women even more than they fear homosexuality, as i s suggested by the Technician i n Dr. Berger's Mental Health Hour: "Besides i t s more hygienic that way and avoids a l l kinda awful awful contacts leave a man paralysed from the waist down. Women have poison juices" (p. 139). The homosexuals Brad and Jim epitomize domestic b l i s s , they f i n d happiness by r e j e c t i n g t h e i r heterosexual connections and profess t h e i r r e b e l l i o n by dining on "Lucy Bradshinkel's cunt." 1 -128-A woman can reta i n her power, however, by taking on the man'a r o l e , and not always with another woman. The sexual orgy in Hassan's Rumpus Room gives one picture of such a p o s s i b i l i t y . "Two Arab women with b e s t i a l faces have pulled the shorts off a l i t t l e blond French boy. They are screwing him with red rubber cocks. The boy snarls, b i t e s , kicks, collapses in tears as his cock r i s e s and ejaculates" (p. 78). Mary, the woman in the blue movies at A. J.&s annual party attains her power through the same form of sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p . She impersonally "rims" Johnny, her boy, with a s t e e l rod, Steely Dan I I I , causing his e c s t a t i c orgasm. She t e l l s her lover about Steely Dan I, which, long torn i n two by a bu l l - d i k e , had once served the same pur-pose of sexual power and castration. "Later I catch this one kid , overpower him with supersonic judo, I learned from an old Lesbian Zen monk. I t i e him up, s t r i p off his clothes with a razor, and fuck him with Steely Dan I. He is so relieved I don't castrate him l i t e r a l he come-all over my bedbug spray" (p. 91). As the movie proceeds Johnny i s hung by Mary and Mark, the l a t t e r having entered i n the meantime and buggered. Johnny. Mary fucks,;'Johnny as he comes while hanging, then she proceeds to eat his face and genitals. But male sexual power is not so e a s i l y l o s t , f o r Mark grabs Mary, fucks her, then hangs her too. In the f i r s t section of the novel, a male dominates in another way, through i n t e l l e c t u a l aggression. "The pimp is one of these v i b r a t i o n and dietary a r t i s t s - which is a means he degrades the female sex by forcing his chicks to swallow a l l -129-this s h i t . He was continually enlarging his theories. . .he would quiz a chick and threaten to walk out i f she hadn't memo-rized every nuance of his l a t e s t assault on logic and the human image" (p. 20). The sexual battle fought by both men and women centres upon an attempt to reduce the other human involved to the l e v e l of obedient beast. Sex i s an area where you cannot hide the control other people have over you. Surrounded, by a world which threatens him on every level' of his existence, Lee turns to p o l i t i c s f o r i t s v i s i o n of the future. But his p o l i t i c a l v i s i o n is also forboding, f o r three of the four p o l i t i c a l parties of Interzone are evolving in the d i r e c t i o n of implosion and depersonalization. The p o l i t i c a l goals of the L i q u e f a c t i o n i s t s , D i v i s i o n i s t s , and Senders centre in t h e i r desire to reduce man to one a l l purpose blob. They d i f f e r only in t h e i r methods. "The word l i q u e f y comes from Fascists or Communists, the l i q u i d a t i o n p o l i c i e s spoken of by S t a l i n . . They want to liquedate or l i q u e f y a l l opposition and everybody i s to be l i q u e f i e d or eliminated except one control-.-l i n g personality to run the whole world" (p. x x v i ) . Salvador Hassan, a figure of many a l i a s e s , is a notorious and dedicated l i q u e f a c t i o n i s t . "The D i v i s i o n i s t s occupy a midway p o s i t i o n , could, in fact be termed moderate.. . . ." (p. 161+). They are c a l l e d D i v i s i o n -i s t s because they l i t e r a l l y d ivide. "They cut off tiny bi t s of t h e i r f l e s h and grow exact replicas of themselves i n embryo j e l l y . It seems probable, unless the process pf d i v i s i o n i s halted, :that eventually there w i l l be only r e p l i c a of one sex -130-\ on the planet: that is one person in the world with millions of separate bodies. . ." (p. 16b,.). The D i v i s i o n i s t s l i v e in fear of r e p l i c a revolution, f o r i f they can reproduce t h e i r own form then so can others. "Every r e p l i c a but your own is eventually an undesirable" (p. I6I4.). "To avoid extermination of t h e i r replicas c i t i z e n s dye, d i s t o r t , and a l t e r them with-, face and body molds" (p. 161+). This creates a sense of intense paranoia within society, since i t i s impossible to discover a r e p l i c a at s i g h t , leaving everyone a f r a i d that society w i l l be taken over by secret r e p l i c a s . "In f a c t , the fear of Negro r e p l i c a s , which may be blond and blue-eyed - has depopulated whole regions" (p. 166). But the Senders represent the most dangerous form of future p o l i t i c s , f o r t h e i r danger, l i k e Benway's is much les s apparent and more subtle. The Senders aim, through a process of t e l e -pathic c o n t r o l , to reduce every man's thought processes to the messages of one Sender. They ignore the "nature and the t e r -minal state of sending" and a very few Senders know what they are doing (p. 162). The Senders believe in b i - c o n t r o l , "that is control of physical movement, mental processes, emotional reactions, and apparent sensory impressions by means of bioelec-t r i c signals injected into the nervous system of the subject" (p. 162). Even the i n d i v i d u a l Sender becomes the v i c t i m of the whole process. " The Sender has to send, a l l the time, but he can't ever recharge himself by contact. Sooner or l a t e r he's got no feelings to send." ". . . F i n a l l y the screen goes dead. The Sender has turned into a huge centipede. . ." (p. 163). -131-But the future i s not completely without hope, f o r there remains one p o l i t i c a l party, the F a c t u a l i s t s , which continues to a f f i r m the i n t e g r i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l against a l l assault. The tentative b u l l e t i n s of the F a c t u a l i s t party condemn a l l others f o r t h e i r degradation and a n n i h i l a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l . B u l l e t i n of the coordinate F a c t u a l i s t on the subject of r e p l i c a s : 'We must reject the f a c i l e solution of flooding the planet with desirable r e p l i c a s . It is . highly doubtful i f there are' any desirable r e p l i c a s , such creatures- c o n s t i t u t i n g an attempt to circumvent process ,and change. Even the most i n t e l l i g e n t and g e n t i c a l l y perfect replicas would in a l l p r o b a b i l i t y constitute an unspeakable mena:ce to l i f e on t h i s planet. . . . » T. B. Tentative B u l l e t i n Liquefaction: 'We must not reject or deny our protoplasmic core, s t r i v i n g at a l l times to maintain a jfiaximum of f l e x i b i l i t y without f a l l i n g , into th9 morass of l i q u e f a c t i o n . . . .' Tentative and. Incomplete B u l l e t i n : 'Emphatically we do not oppose telepathic research. In f a c t telepathy properly used and. understood could be the ultimate defense lagainst any form of organized coercion or tyranny on the part of pressure groups or i n d i v i d u a l control addicts. We oppose, as we oppose atomic wary the use of such knowledge to coerce, debase, e x p l o i t , or annihilate the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of any l i v i n g creature. ' Telepathy, is not, by i t s nature, a one way process. To attempt to set up a one-way telepathic broadcast must be regarded as an unqualified e v i l . ...» Some maudlin c i t i z e n s w i l l think they can send some-thing edifying, not r e a l i z i n g that sending i s e v i l . . S c i e n t i s t s w i l l say: 'Sending is l i k e atomic power . . ."'.If properly harnessed. . . . » A r t i s t w i l l confuse sending with creation. . . . Philosophers w i l l bat sround the ends and means has-sle not knowing that sending can never be a means to anything 1 but more sending, l i k e Junk. The Sender is not a human i n d i v i d u a l , . *It is the Human Virus (pp. 1 6 7-8). Lee (Burroughs) is an active member of the F a c t u a l i s t party, and his F a c t u a l i s t leaningslleadJAhim to his continual quest f o r tr u t h , while his search f o r the 'true f a c t s ' necessitates his cutt i n g through to the centre of r e a l i t y ' s nakedness. The : . . .. -132-r e a l i t y which he sees i s e s s e n t i a l l y grotesque and exaggerated; i t is not the r e a l i t y of a r a t i o n a l l y ordered everyday e x i s -20 tence, but that of h a l l u c i n a t i o n and dream. The fact that Lee's v i s i o n takes the form of paranoic nightmare does not reduce i t s realism, however; i t simply suggests a range of r e a l i t y apart from the 'normal.' Burroughs' fear of persecution creates his v i s i o n of ugliness and horror, and this f e a r f u l v i s i o n can only be recorded honestly, as he sees i t , by using d i s t o r t i o n , "^here is only one thing a writer can write about: what i s in front of his senses at the moment of writing," and i f the senses are bombarded with images and hallucinations of a man who sees with f e a r f u l eyes, t h i s is r e a l i t y in a l l of i t s nakedness" (p. 221). But Burroughs offers us the magical means fo r release from t h i s gruesome paranoia in the very same devices of exaggeration and d i s t o r t i o n . By making his world one of s u r r e a l i s t i c night-mare he separates i t from daytime r e a l i t y , making i t a part of a dream existence from which man can awake. Exaggeration forms the basis of s a t i r e , and i t i s through, comedy and. laughter that man comes to see his own fears as absurd. His images of dark-ness and e v i l , of shit and death, serve also to free both Burroughs and his readers from fea r ; by shouting the unspeak-able he gains freedom from a society which depends f o r i t s con-t r o l upon the subtle power of fear which these very images evoke. Society controls man through his fear and need, but man can be free by recognizing this control i n a l l of i t s grotesqueness and horror,,- in his recognition he gains power. Burroughs -133-exorcises the powers of e v i l through comedy and dream, and through his a b i l i t y to shout down e v i l in i t s own terms. Burroughs feels fear because he sees the world in terms of good and e v i l - ideals and r e a l i t y . If a man believes in cer-t a i n ideals he fears those forces which he f e e l s are impinging upon these id e a l s , attempting to degrade and destroy them. Burroughs' i d e a l rests i n the freedom of the i n d i v i d u a l to lead .a separate l i f e , and his concept of e v i l derives l a r g e l y from his fear of s o c i a l persecution. The i n d i v i d u a l , in Burroughs' eyes, contains the p o s s i b i l i t y of a l l good, a good, which is continually thwarted by the e v i l s of society. Such a theory elevates man to the re aim.; of the angels, at least that part of man c a l l e d s p i r i t which struggles to a t t a i n personal f r e e -dom. But i t reduces the body of man to the realm of e v i l , and the whole realm of v i s i b l e r e a l i t y , the world, and the f l e s h , is in Burroughs' view, the possession of the D e v i l . By demo-nizi n g external ' r e a l i z i n g , ' he preserves the sacredness of the 'innermost' part of man. The terms of his morality become also the terms of his comic v i s i o n , f o r laughter often comes from "the sudden percep-ti o n of the incongruity between our ideals and the a c t u a l i t i e s 21 before us." "Man laughed only a f t e r the E x i l e , when he knew sin and s u f f e r i n g , the comical is a mark of man's re v o l t , bore-22 . dom, and aspiration." In laughter man expresses his i n f i n i t e n o b i l i t y and. i n f i n i t e pain. Laughter is both the sign of i n f i n i t e greatness and. i n f i n i t e wretchedness, i n f i n i t e wret-ched.ness i n r e l a t i o n to the absolute Being of whom he possesses -13V 23 the conception, i n f i n i t e greatness in r e l a t i o n to animals." Man laughs at his own basic absurdity, an absurdity stemming from the incongruous union of s p i r i t and f l e s h . He laughs only because he can suffer so excruciatingly this same absurdity. Burroughs' searing laughter burns the t r a i l of his paranoia, leaving only dead, matter which cannot a f f e c t l i f e . But within this death l i e s the p o s s i b l i t y of a vague r e b i r t h , a r e b i r t h into f r e s h l i f e with none of the faults of the old. FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER IV 1. The name Lee is one which Burroughs uses in a l l of his novels to designate the c'haracter whose values most c l o s e l y approximate his own. He used the pen-name William Lee in his f i r s t novel Junkie, and even his l a t e r novels such as Nova Express continue to use Lee as the major character. He begins this novel with a l e t t e r of warning signed by Inspector J. Lee, Nova Po l i c e . 2. ' An in t e r e s t i n g fact mentioned by Burroughs in "The Preface" to Junkie is his "nut house record." "I decided I was not. going to l i k e the Army and copped out on my nut house r e-cord - I'd once got on a Van Gogh kick and cut of a fi n g e r joint to impress someone who interested me at the time. The nut house doctors had never heard of Van Gogh. They put me down f o r schizophrenia, adding paranoid type to explain this upsetting fact that I knew where I was and who was President of the TJ. S." (Preface, p. 9 ) . 3. Two books were used as general source of information about paranoia: Dynamics of Mental Health, ed. James M. Sawry and Charles W. Telford. (Boston: A'llyn and Bacon Inc., 1963), pp. 85-88. R. D. Laing, The Divided. Self (London: Penguin Books, 1959), passim. 1+. These suggestions are offered i n R. D. Laing's The Divided S e l f , p. i+5, 1*6. 5. The same kind of metaphors (implosive and depersonalizing) also dominate his l a t e r work i n Nova Express. In Nova  Express the police attempt to counter the virus which is reducing a l l spontaneous human l i f e to the l e v e l of the mineral and animal - metal junkies, scorpion men, f i s h people, and prisoners broken down into insect forms. The Nova mob are e x t r a - t e r r e s t i a l gangsters who invade earth, i n f i l t r a t i n g human i n s t i t u t i o n s and encouraging a l l forms of e v i l . 6. William Burroughs, Naked Lunch (New York: Grove Press Inc., 1959), p. 13k-* Other quotations from Naked Lunch are found in the text of this chapter. 7. R. D. Laing, The Divided S e l f , p. 5 l . 8. R. D. Laing, The Divided S e l f , a l l pages i n Chapter f i v e . 9. In an."Introduction to Naked Lunch The Soft Machine Nova  Express," Burroughs suggests that he is mapping out an imaginary universe. "A dark universe of wounded galaxies, and nova conspiracies where obscenity i s c o l d l y used as a t o t a l weapon." ( i t a l i c s mineTT Renatus Hartoga in his book Four Letter Word Games (New York: D e l l Publishing Co., 1967), offers this suggested theory as the. basis of pornography and obscenity. -136-10. Wylie Sypher, "The Meanings of Comedy," Comedy (New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1956), p. 199. 11. William Burroughs, Junkie (New York: Ace Books, 1953), p. 3 5 . 12. Burroughs re-mentions the words of Hassan Sabbah in the opening of Nova Express, giving us even more information on the power of the bureaucrats. Note esp e c i a l l y pages twelve and th i r t e e n . 13. Burroughs derives his s t y l i s t i c methods from the same desire to destroy the s o c i a l word. 11+. E. S. Seldon, "The Cannibal Feast," Evergreen Review, p. 112. 15. Kronenberger, "The Thread Of Laughter," Theories of Comedy, p. 116. 16. Ginsberg suggests, in his defense of Naked Lunch at i t s obscenity t r i a l , that Burrough's theory of junk addiction could be applied as a model of addiction in. a l l of i t s various form. ". . .The other addictions which are men-tioned in the book are treated dramatically - addiction to homosexuality which is considered by Burroughs also, a sort of addiction, and on a larger scale what he conceives of as the U. S. addiction to m a t e r i a l i s t i c goods and pro-. p e r t i e s . Addiction to money is mentioned in the book a nvimber of times; and most of a l l an addiction to power or .addiction to c o n t r o l l i n g other people by having power over them." The control addict desires power i n p o l i t i c a l , sexual, and s o c i a l spheres. 17. The inhabitants of the Naked Lunch world use sex f o r a varie t y of miscellaneous purposes - f o r casual entertain-ment, f o r money, f o r getting ride of fr i e n d s . Lee vwith his friend Marv "pay two Arab kids s i x t y cents to watch them screw one another." Andrew Kief, a character l i v i n g in Interzone, suggests when he wants to get ride of his friends that they have been having i l l i c i t r elations with his ugly chauffeur. A. J. was at one time a "Merchant of Sex," while even the County S h e r i f f encourages the l o c a l residents with sexual interest to put down t h e i r money to see a spicy hanging. " I ' l l lower his pants f o r a pound .f o l k s . Step right up. A serious and s c i e n t i f i c exhibit concerning the l o c a l i t y of The L i f e Centre." Sex influences even r e l i g i o u s appeal, for the speaker of the Prophet's Hour advertises C h r i s t by his a b i l i t y to cure clap with one hand. 18. But even the homosexual victim - who conquers humiliation by reaching into i t s extremes is f a r from happy. The - 1 3 7 -Mugwumps secrete an addicting f l u i d from t h e i r erect penises which prolongs l i f e by slowing metabolism, while the Reptiles survive by l i c k i n g this f l u i d . When the Mugwumps disappear f o r short periods of time the Reptiles face stark insanity f o r they cannot survive without this f l u i d . At parties, f o r entertainment value, the Mugwump buggers and hangs young boys watching with delight as t h e i r whole body squeezes out through t h e i r cock. The ' Reptile loses, since his passive role makes him always the victi m of the Mugwump's perversions, while he has been reduced to the l e v e l of an animal by his loss of i n d i v i -d u a l i t y . 1 19. The average American woman, Burroughs insinuates, frustrated as the American Housewife who projects f r u s t r a t i o n onto her own machines protesting that are becoming sexual to her. 2 0 . Wylie Sypher, i n his essay on comedy suggest that the "joke and the dream incongrously d i s t o r t the logic of our ra t i o n a l l i f e " (p. 2 0 0 ) ; and "The confused statement of the dream and the joke are intolerable to the daylight, sane, Apollonian s e l f . " 2 1 . Wylie Sypher, "The Meanings of Comedy," p. 20LL. 2 2 . Ibid. 2 3 . Charles Baudelaire, "On the Essence of Laughter," Flowers  of E v i l , ed. and trans. Wallace Fowlie (New York* Bantam Books, 1 9 6 3 ) , P. 177. is as her they CONCLUSION Cohen, Kerouac, and Burroughs express t h e i r suffering within t h e i r novels, and each searches f o r a way to resolve his pain with his a r t . Kerouac f a i l s most f u l l y in this search f o r r e l i e f , because he can never quite accept the fact of his own imperfection. Cohen and Burroughs, in contrast, gain some sense of r e l i e f from t h e i r pain through t h e i r humourous laughter a laughter which the more sentimental Kerouac cannot experience. The s u f f e r i n g which they share, however, leads them to conclusions which correspond in s i g n i f i c a n t ways. Each disco-* vers both the absurdity of l i f e and i t s magic, and this sense of the absurd and b e l i e f in magic make them more capable of dealing with t h e i r own personal pain. A l l write of the basic contradiction between man and his ideals, a contradiction inherently absurd, which can be tresolved only within an art which can accept the i r r e c o n c i l a b l e . "In our modern experience, the ' e t h i c a l golden mean' seems to have broken down and man is l e f t face to face with the preposterous, the t r i v i a l , the monstrous, the inconceivable. The modern hero l i v e s amidst i r r e c o n c i l a b l e s which, as Dostoevysky suggests, can be encompassed only by r e l i g i o u s f a i t h or comedy.""^ Kerouac's v i s i o n takes the form of r e l i g i o u s f a i t h , f o r his abundant sentimentality make3 it. impossible f o r him to view existence as humourous and laughable. For Cohen and Burroughs, however, i t i s humour which provides the way of dealing with the i r r a t i o n a l , of resolving the. tensions of incongruity. Cohen and. Burroughs expiate t h e i r pain through laughter -laughing away the claims of super-ego, returning to momentary -139-union with th© i d . A l l three authors take the ro l e of Holy Pool as t h e i r own, they are the possessed, f r e e , and l i c e n t i a l s e l f partaking in the destruction of the old, the prophet-seer who shows the way to a new order. Kerouac's sense of absurdity stems from his Catholic r e l i -gion, f o r the premises of his C h r i s t i a n i t y can be seen as an attempt to deal with the ir r e c o n c i l a b l e s of existence i n an absurd, way. C h r i s t i a n i t y gives a significance to man's suf-f e r i n g by placing i t within a meaningful context - i t explains and enacts the incongruities of man's existence through i t s doctrine and r i t u a l . Its premises that pain and^suffering are good is i n i t s e l f absurd, but a person can gain i d e o l o g i c a l release from pain i n this absurdity. C h r i s t i a n i t y r e l i e v e s man's tensions by providing a code to explain the ambiguities of his existence. For Cohen "absurdity arises from the incongrous rel a t i o n s h i p of the in d i v i d u a l with his society - a society which imposes a rationale upon men which i s act u a l l y destructive and i r r a t i o n a l and which then manages to convince men to operate i n terms of this r a t i o n a l e . Society i t s e l f believes that i t i s r a t i o n a l and sane, and this b e l i e f further increases i t s fundamental absurdity. Man in face of the s o c i a l system Is forced to par-t i c i p a t e i n an absurd role no matter which way he acts - i f he functions as a p a r t i c i p a t i n g member of society he is faced with a system i r r a t i o n a l at i t s core, i f he f a i l s to parti c i p a t e in this system, society defines him as absurd, and this d e f i n i t i o n contains an element of truth, f o r his r e l a t i o n s h i p with society -11*0-becomes ridiculous and incongrous. Burroughs' sense of absurdity border on the grotesque -he reveals man i n his nakedness to be an ugly animal, e a s i l y controlled and manipulated by any aggressor. His gargoyle laughter shows how extremely ridiculous man's espousal of ideals r e a l l y i s , and he mocks every claim of man to be man. The mocking laughter bursts f o r t h from his despair - his anguished wish f o r man to be an i n d i v i d u a l , to maintain some form of human heroism, becomes a derisive laugh of outrage with his recognition of man's impoverishment. While i t is t h e i r private sense of absurdity which releases a l l three from the pain of the past,, more or less successfully, i t is f i n a l l y t h e i r sense of magic which gives a sense of mean-ing to the future. As I suggested in the Introduction, Kerouac, Cohen, and Burroughs re-define magic as. th e i r own a b i l i t y to transform experience, to re-create the world through imagination They turn to the p a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l , the p a r t i c u l a r event, f o r in s p i r a t i o n and each transforms the'immediate into something v i t a l and a l i v e . They dramatize the r e a l i t y of the moment, weaving t;he myths of t h e i r own personal experience into t h e i r novels. Language i s f o r them an act of the instant, not an act of thought about the instant. They are themselves, f i n a l l y , both the instruments of discovery and the instruments of d e f i -n i t i o n , discovering the magic .of modern l i f e and revealing t h i s • 2 • magic to us i n t h e i r a r t . FOOTNOTES - CONCLUSION 1. Wylie Sypher, "The Meaningscof Comedy," Comedy, (New York: Doubleday & Co. Inc., 1956), p. 196). 2. Charles Olson suggests i n The Human Universe that "we are ourselves both the instrument of discovery and the i n s t r u -ment of d e f i n i t i o n . " This statement seems f u l l y appro-priate to these three authors. In some cases i t i s d i f f i c u l t to see where Burroughs sees magic at a l l , but I would argue that his own peculiar black magic contains within i t s e l f the same v i t a l i t y of the moment. . . . . DEDICATION: I would l i k e to thank Mr. E l l i o t t Gose f o r his h e l p f u l comments and a i d i n w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s , ^ -1U2 BIBLIOGRAPHY MAIN TEXTS CITED; Burroughs, William Seward. The Exterminator. San Pranoiscor Dave Hazlewood Books, 1 9 6 7 . . Junkie. New York: Ace Books Inc., 1953 . Naked Lunch. New York: Grove Press Inc • Nova Express. New York: Grove Press Inc., 1961*. — « • The Soft Machine. New York: Grove Press Inc., 1961. • .• The Ticket That Exploded. New York: Grove Press Inc., 1962. , The Yage L e t t e r s . San Francisco: C i t y Lights Books, 1963. . "They Just Fade Away," Evergreen Review. v o l . a, No. 3 2 , (April-May 1961*), 57 -72 . Cohen, Leonard. Bo a u t i f u l Losers. New York: Bantam Books, 1 9 6 6 . , Selected Poems: 1956 - 1968. Toronto: M c L e l l -and & Stewart Ltd., 196L*, 1966, 196B. . The Favorite Game. New York: Avon Books, 1 9 6 3 . Kerouac, Jack. " B e a t i f i c : On The Origins of a Generation," Encounter, x i i i , 11, 57 - 61. . Big Sur. New York: Bantam Books, : 1 9 6 2 . . Maggie Cassidy. New York; Avon Books, 1 9 5 9 . . On The Road. New York: Signet Books, 1 9 5 5 . • S a t o r i i n P a r i s . New York: Grove Press Inc., 1966. : _ _ _ __. The Dharma Bums. Toronto: Signet Books, 1 9 5 8 . • The Scripture of the Golden E t e r n i t y . New York: Totem Press, 196^ : . The Subterraneans. New York: Grove Press Inc.. 1 9 5 ^ : : — -11+3-» The Town and The C i t y - New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1950. • Vanity of Dulouz. New York: Coward - McCann. i 9~n — • Visions of Cody, New York: New D i r e c t i o n s , T9otT; , Visions of Gerard» New York: Parrar, Strauss, T95T-GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY ( a r t i c l e s and books have been separated), A Casebook On The Beat, ed, Thomas Parkinson, New York: Thomas Y, Orowell Co,, 1961, A Casebook On E x i s t e n t i a l i s m , ed. William V. Spanos. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co., 1966. Barrett, William, I r r a t i o n a l Man, New York: Doubleday & Co,, 1958. Baudelaire, Charles. Flowers of E v i l and Other Works, tr a n s . Wallace Powlie. New York: Bantam - Dual Language' Books, 1961+. Brown, Norman 0, L i f e Against Death. New York: Vintage Books, 1959. Diamond, A, S, The History and Origin of Language, London: Methuen & Co, Ltd., 1959. Peied, F r e d e r i c k , No Pie In The Sky. New York: C i t a d e l Press, 1961].. F i e d l e r , L e s l i e , Love and Death i n the American Novel, New York: D e l l Publishing Co., I960. Genet, Jean. Miracle of the Rose. Bernard Frechtman, New York: Grove Press, 1966. . Our Lady of the Flowers, trans. Bernard Frech-tman, New York: Grove Press, 1963, Hartogs, Renatus. Four L e t t e r Word Games: The Psychology of Obscenity. New York: D e l l Publishing Co., 1967. Hodier, Andre. Jazz: Its Evolution and Essence, trans. David Noakes. New York: Grove .Press Inc., 1956. -11*4-Krim, Seymour, Tgjew of a Near-Sighted. Cannoneer. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 196« . Kronhausen, Eberhard & P h y l l i s Kronhausen. Pornography and  The Law. London: The New E n g l i s h L i b r a r y , 1959. Laing, R. D. The Divided S e l f . Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1 9 5 9 # Lawrence, D. H. Sex. L i t e r a t u r e . Se Censorship, ed. Harry T. Moore, New York: V i k i n g Press, 1953. L'Herne. William Burroughs. P a r i s : E d i t i o n s de L'Herne, 1967. Lipton, Lawrence. The Holy Barbarians. New York: J u l i a n Messner Ino., 1 9 5 9 . Marcus, Steven. The Other V i c t o r i a n s . New Yorkr Basic Books Inc., I96I4.. Marcuse, Herbert. Eros and C i v i l i z a t i o n . Boston: Beacon Press, 1 9 5 5 . M i l l e r , Henry. Black Spring. New York: Grove Press., 1 9 6 3 . . The Intimate Henry M i l l e r . Toronto: Signet Books, 1959. • Tropic of Cancer. .New York: Grove Press Inc., I W : :  . Tropic of Capricorn. New Yorkr Grove Press Inc., I960. . The World of Sex. Evanston: Greenleaf Publishing Co., 1965. — Morris, Desmond. The Naked Ape. London: Jonathan Cape, 1967. Nabokov, Vladimir. L o l i t a . New York: G. P. Putman's Sons, 19J>5> Nietzsche, F r i e d r i c h . The B i r t h of Tragedy, trans. Francis G o l f f i n g . New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 195>6. , Thus Spake Zarathrustra, trans. R. J . Ho l l i n g d a l e . Middlesex, Penguin Books, 1961. Olson, Charles. "The Human Universe," Selected Writings, ed. Robert Creeley. New York: New D i r e c t i o n s , 1 9 5 0 . Peckham, Morse. Art and Pornography. New York: Basic Books I n c , 1 9 6 9 . Praz, Mario. The Romantic Agony, trans. Angus Davidson. 2nd ed. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 5 1 . Reage, Pauline. Story of 0. New York: Grove Press Inc. , 1965. Rechy, John. C i t y of Night. New York: Grove Press Inc., 1963 . Sade, Marquis de. Justine. New York: Lancer Books Inc., 1961+. Selby J r . , Hubert. Last E x i t to Brooklyn. New York: Grove Press Inc., 1957. Sontag, Susan. Against Interpretation and Other Essays. New York: Parrar, Straus, & Giroux, 1961. Southern, Terry. Candy. E l Cajon: Sundown Publishing Co., 1965. Steiner, George. Language and S i l e n c e . New York: Atheneum, ''. 1967. Suzuki, D. T. Introduction to Zen Buddhism. London: Anchor Press, 1957. . Zen Buddhism And Psychoanalysis. New York: Harper & Brothers, I960. Sypher, Wylie. "The Meanings of Comedy," Comedy. New York: Doubleday & Co., 1956. Tallman, Warren. "Introduction," New American Story, New York: Grove Press Inc., 1965, 1 - i ' 2 . The Beat Generation and The Angry Young Men, ed. Gene Peldman, & Max Gartenberg. New York: C i t a d e l Press, 1958. The Modern T r a d i t i o n , ed. Richard Ellmann & Charles Piedelson, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965. The New American Poetry, ed. Donald A l l e n . New York: Grove Press Inc., I960. The New Writing i n The U S A.ed, Donald A l l e n & Robert Creeley, Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1967. The Olympia Reader, ed. Maurice Giro d i a s . New York: Grove Press Inc., 1965. V i d a l , Gore. Sex. Death, and Money. Toronto: Bantam Books, 1953. Watts, Alan. Psychotherapy East and Westjn New York:"Pantheon Books, 1961. , The S p i r i t of Zen. London: Bu t l e r & Tanner Ltd,, vm: -11*6-• The Way of Zen, New York: Pantheon Books, T95T. Webb, Howard J r . "The Singular Worlds of Jack Kerouac," Contemporary American Novelists, ed. Harry T. Moore. Southern U n i v e r s i t y Press, 51961*, 121 - 132. Wilentz, E l i a s , The Beat Scene. New York: Corinth Books>, I960. Wilson, John S. Jazz; The T r a n s i t i o n Years - 191*0 - I960. New York: Appleton Century ^ r o f t s , 1966. ARTICLES CONSIDERED. Adams, J. D. "On Writers of the Beat Generation," New York  Times Book Review, v i i , (1957), 2. Burdick, E. "Innocent N i h i l i s t s a d r i f t In S q u a r e s v i l l e , " Reporter. 18, ( A p r i l 12, 1958), 30 - 3 3 . Dickey, James. "Prom Babel to Byzantium," Sewannee Review , LXV, (1957), £08 - 530. Djwa, Sandra. "Leonard Cohen: Black Romantic," Canadian  L i t e r a t u r e . No. 31*, (1967), 5 - 2 3 . Galloway, David. "Clown and S a i n t : The Hero of Current American F i c t i o n . " C r i t i q u e , v i i , No. 3, (1961* - 65), 1*6 - 65. Gleason, Ralph. "Kerouac 1s•Beat Generation," Saturday Review, No. 1*1, (January 11, 1958), 75. Gose, E l l i o t t , "'Of Beauty and Unmeaning," Canadian L i t e r a t u r e (summer 1966), 6 1 - 6 3 . ; Hassan, Ihab. "The Subtracting Machine," C r i t i q u e . VI, (1963, 1961*), 1* - 23. Holmes, John C l e l i o n . "The Philosophy of the Beat Generation, Esquire. LXLX, (February 1958), 35 - 38. Jacobson, Dan. "America's Angry Young Men," Commentary. XXIV, 1*75 - 479. Jones, Granville H. "Jack Kerouac and the American Conscience Lectures on Modern N o v e l i s t s . Carnegie s Q r i e s i n E n g l i s h , No. 7, 1963, 25 - 39. Kauffmann, Leroy, "The Influence of Nietszche on American L i t e r a t u r e , " D i s s e r a t a t l o n Abstracts, xxiv, 616 - 617. -114-7-Kostelanetz, Richard. "From Nightmare To S e r e d i p i t y : A Retrospective Look At w i l l i a m burroughs," Twentieth  Century L i t e r a t u r e , x i , No. 3 , (Oct, 1965), 123 - 1 3 0 . Leer, Norman. Three American Novels and American S o c i e t y . Wisconsin Studies i n Contemporary l i t e r a t u r e , 111, (1962), 6? - 86. Lodge, David. "Objections to William Burroughs," C r i t i c a l  Quarterly, v i i i , (1966), 203 - 212, Pacey, Desmond, "the Phenonemon of Leonard Cohen," Canadian  L i t e r a t u r e . No, 3I4., (196?), 5 - 2 3 . Peterson, R. G. "A Picture i s a Fact," Twentieth Century  L i t e r a t u r e . XII, (1966), 78 - 86. Rubin, K. "Two Gentlemen of San Francisco: Notes On Kerouac and Responsibility."Westem Review. XXII, (spring 1959), 278 - 2 8 3 . ; Tanner, Tony. "The New Demonology," P a r t i s i a n Review. XXXIII, (1966), 51+7 - 572. s 

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