UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An aspect of the social implications of residential area planning : a technique to assess the ideal role… Benjamin , Kenneth Caiton 1970

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AN ASPECT OF THE SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF RESIDENTIAL AREA PLANNING: A TECHNIQUE TO ASSESS THE IDEAL ROLE OF NEIGHBOR by KENNETH CAITON BENJAMIN B. Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master, of A r t s i n the School of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January, 1970 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced deg ree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r ee t h a t t he L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t ha p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y pu rpo se s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . S c h o o l Beperrtmerrt o f C o m m u n i t y a11*3 R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co l umb i a Vancouve r 8, Canada Date J a n u a r y , 1970. i ABSTRACT I n p r a c t i c e , t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d u n i t c o n c e p t has f a l l e n s h o r t o f i t s t h e o r e t i c a l p r o m i s e . However , one o f i t s m a j o r g o a l s — a t t e m p t i n g t o produce a more s a t i s f y i n g s o c i a l l i f e f o r t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a — i s s t i l l v a l i d . To a t t a i n such a g o a l , i t now appears t o be more v a l i d t o a t t e m p t t o a s s e s s t h e a t t i t u d e s o f p e o p l e t o w a r d s e a c h o t h e r r a t h e r t h a n t o a t t e m p t t o ma-n i p u l a t e l o c a t i o n s o f f a c i l i t i e s i n o r d e r t o a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p more s a t i s f y i n g r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . One r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t appears t o have r e l e v a n c e f o r a t t a i n i n g such a g o a l i s t h a t o f t h e n e i g h b o r . I f i t were p o s s i b l e t o a s se s s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s h i s n e i g h b o r s , i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o use such i n f o r m a -t i o n as one i n p u t i n t h e d e s i g n o f f u t u r e r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s . By a t t e m p t i n g t o a s se s s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c e p t o f t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r , p l a n n i n g w o u l d be t a k e n one s t e p away f rom c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n b a s e d upon b e h a v i o r o b s e r v a b l e i n an e x i s t i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , t o w a r d s a s ses sment o f a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a t may p r o v i d e a more sound b a s i s upon w h i c h t o p r e d i c a t e changes t o p r od uc e more s a t i s f y i n g r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . T h i s t h e s i s a t t e m p t s o n l y t o d e v e l o p a t o o l b y w h i c h i t may be p o s s i b l e t o e l i c i t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c e p t o f t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e t o o l f o l l o w s d i r e c t l y f rom t h e t h e o r y o f what a n e i g h b o r i s and how a n e i g h b o r a c t s . T e s t i n g o f t h e t o o l i s l i m i t e d t o a t t e m p t i n g t o d i s c o v e r p rob lems o f a d m i n -i s t r a t i o n . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I I. Statement of Int e n t p. 1 1. I n t e l l e c t u a l sentiment p. 1 2. C l o s e r Examination p. 2 3. O b j e c t i v e s o f the t h e s i s p. 5 I I . The Neighborhood U n i t Concept p. 8 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n p. 8 2. Ebenezer Howard p. 10 3. Clarence Perry p. 11 4. Controversey p. 16 5. C o n c l u s i o n p. 22 F o o t n o t e s — C h a p t e r I p. 24 CHAPTER I I I. I n t r o d u c t i o n p. 30 1. P h y s i c a l determinism p. 30 2. Importance of i n t e r e s t s and values p. 30 3. Type of r e s e a r c h needed p. 3 2 I I . S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s i n R e s i d e n t i a l Areas p. 38 1. Usefulness of the i d e a p. 38 2. Problems of past s t u d i e s p. 39 3. R e l a t i o n s h i p s between people p. 47 4. Role of neighbor p. 50 5. Neighboring p. 56 6. Elements t h a t combine t o produce p. 61 the f u n c t i o n i n g r o l e of neighbor 7. Dimensions of n e i g h b o r i n g p. 65 F o o t n o t e s — C h a p t e r I I p. 71 CHAPTER I I I I. I n t r o d u c t i o n p. 83 I I . T o o l p. 84 i v 1. R e l a t i v e importance of r e l a t i o n s h i p s p. 86 2. Dimensions of n e i g h b o r i n g p. 87 3. R e l a t i v e importance of dimensions p. 92 I I I . T e s t i n g p. 95 1. Problems of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n p. 97 2. Changes f o r f u t u r e use p. 99 3. S c o r i n g p.102 F o o t n o t e s — C h a p t e r I I I p.113 CHAPTER IV I. F u r t h e r Research p.115 I I . A Suggested Research Framework p.118 F o o t n o t e s — C h a p t e r IV p.122 B i b l i o g r a p h y p. 123 1 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e t o thank Mr. B. Wiesman and Dr. C r a i g Davis f o r t h e i r encouragement. I would a l s o l i k e t o thank my t y p i s t Mrs. Cathy Dal ton. CHAPTER I I . S t a t e m e n t o f I n t e n t 1. I n t e l l e c t u a l S e n t i m e n t The t r a d i t i o n a l A m e r i c a n i n t e l l e c t u a l a n t i - u r b a n 1 s e n t i m e n t s d i e h a r d . N o s t a l g i c y e a r n i n g s f o r w i l d e r n e s s and a l o s t r u r a l p u r i t y are c o n c o m i t a n t w i t h r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n . The R o m a n t i c ' s d e s i r e f o r a r e t u r n t o t h e s i m p l e r u r a l l i f e has now g e n e r a l l y g i v e n way t o n e v e r - e n d i n g w a r n i n g s o f t h e i m p e n d i n g doom and d e s t r u c t i o n o f s o c i e t y t h a t i s imminent due t o t h e a n o n y m i t y , anomie , and l o s s o f f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t s i n b u r -g e o n i n g u r b a n a r e a s . These w a r n i n g s d e s c r i b e t h e speed and f o r m l e s s n e s s o f modern u r b a n l i f e b r o u g h t about by t r u n c a t e d , u n n a t u r a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t now r e p l a c e t h e warm n e i g h b o r hood i n t i m a c y o f t h e p a s t . E l o q u e n c e — a n a l o g i e s , s i m i l i e s , and c o n n o t a t i v e w o r d s - - i s t h e c h i e f t o o l o f t h e s e p r o p h e t s o f doom. They have d e v e l o p e d a r o m a n t i c , r o s e - c o l o r e d n o t i o n o f p a s t 2 r u r a l s o c i e t i e s and m e d i e v a l s m a l l n e s s and a p e n c h a n t f o r f l o u r i s h i n g d e s c r i p t i v e p h r a s e s d e s c r i b i n g t h e d i e i n g c i t y . C r i e s o f t h e c i t y i s t h e p e o p l e , remember t h e human s c a l e , b r i n g b a c k n e i g h b o r h o o d s and d i v e r s i t y i s b e a u t y are echoed t i m e and a g a i n . The i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c w a r n i n g s o f t h e danger s o f c i t y l i f e are one s i d e o f t h e c o i n . As w i t h most i d e a s , t h e a c t i o n s o f t h i s g roup o f w o r r i e r s d e p i c t i n g t h e c a n c e r o u s a c t i o n o f 2 c i t y l i f e on t h e i n d i v i d u a l , have p r o d u c e d a b u i l t - i n pendulum r e a c t i o n . I n some d i s c i p l i n e s , i t appears t h a t a dogma w i l l e v e n t u a l l y t h r o w up a g r o u p t h a t w i l l q u e s t i o n t h a t w h i c h has been a c c e p t e d . What was once a c c e p t e d - - o f t e n ba sed on i m -p r e s s i o n - - w i l l be s c r u t i n i z e d more c l o s e l y w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t a w i d e r e a c t i o n t h e o t h e r way may b e g i n . W i t n e s s i n geography t h e r i s e o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s t s , t h e e v e n t u a l r e a c t i o n t o t h e i r d o c t r i n e and perhaps t h e f i n a l s w i n g b a c k t o some more c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n . 2. C l o s e r E x a m i n a t i o n Among t h o s e who are i n t e r e s t e d i n c i t i e s , t h e r e i s a t l e a s t a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t p e r h a p s t h e g e n e r a l i z e d w a r n i n g s o f doom may have been o v e r p l a y e d . Perhaps c o m p l e t e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s may be more common and f u l f i l l i n g i n c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f c i t y l i f e t h a n e x p e c t e d . Fava s t a t e s t h a t c i t y - w i d e h e t e r -o g e n e i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n i s t r u e b u t t h a t t h i s h e t e r o g e n e o u s p o p u l a t i o n i s b r o k e n i n t o r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous subarea s and t h a t i n c r e a s e i n c i t y s i z e at a c e r t a i n p o i n t may i n c r e a s e some 3 t y p e s o f i n f o r m a l c o n t a c t s r a t h e r t h a n d e c r e a s e them. She a l s o c i t e s a number o f o t h e r s t u d i e s t h a t show i n v a r y i n g ways t h a t one t y p e o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p — n e i g h b o r i n g — m a y be more common 4 i n c i t i e s t h a n e x p e c t e d . B e l l and Boat i m p l y t h a t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about u r b a n s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n must be tempered by t h e form t h a t r e s e a r c h 3 i n t o those s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s has taken. They p o i n t out t h a t r e s e a r c h has taken two forms: a c o n t r a s t between the c i t y and r u r a l areas (although a c c o r d i n g t o M a r t i n the r e s e a r c h has not produced sys t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s of d i f f e r e n c e s i n neighboring, v i s i t i n g , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n secondary groups between areas 5 of the c i t y and r u r a l p o i n t s ) and the study of one s e c t i o n as 6 compared to o t h e r s . They c i t e W i r t h 1 s c l a s s i c a r t i c l e "Urbanism as a Way of L i f e " which analyzes the s o c i a l e f f e c t s of s i z e , d e n s i t y , and h e t e r o g e n e i t y of p o p u l a t i o n on urban d w e l l e r s . B e l l and Boat p o i n t out t h a t recent w r i t e r s have questioned W i r t h 1 s statement of urban l i f e as c o n s i s t i n g of the s u b s t i t u t i o n of secondary f o r primary c o n t a c t s , the weakening of bonds of k i n s h i p , and the d e c l i n i n g s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the fa m i l y , the disappearance of the neighborhood, and the undermining of the t r a d i t i o n a l b a s i s of s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y . 7 D i f f e r e n c e s between s e c t i o n s of the c i t y should be considered i n making g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about urban s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . B e l l and Boat f e e l t h a t anonymity, s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and the disappearance of l o c a l community l i f e - - i f e v i dent i n urban l i f e - -may not be e q u a l l y present i n every s e c t i o n of the c i t y . They provide a long l i s t of a r t i c l e s t h a t have attempted a more r i g o r o u s a n a l y s i s of some o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t r i b u t e d t o urban l i f e by W i r t h . Part of t h i s more r i g o r o u s a n a l y s i s has been t o develop g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s based on re s e a r c h a b l e hypotheses d e a l i n g w i t h some of the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s Wirth put forward about c i t i e s . These hypotheses have g e n e r a l l y been c o n f i n e d t o c e r t a i n p a r t s of the c i t y . Thus f a r two ideas have been put forward. F i r s t and most b a s i c , that the p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e of the c i t y - -e s p e c i a l l y i t s s i z e w i t h i t s complementary d e n s i t y and d i v e r s i t y of population--has an impact on s o c i a l l i f e . Second, t h a t some of the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about urban s o c i a l malaise are b e i n g more r i g o r o u s l y analyzed w i t h r e s p e c t to d i f f e r e n c e s between v a r i o u s p a r t s of the c i t y . I t was f e l t t h a t expanding areas of l i t t l e v a r i e t y or p h y s i c a l q u a l i t y had an adverse e f f e c t on s o c i a l l i f e . There was an i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t l a r g e , u n d i f f e r -e n t i a t e d areas of urban development produced breakdowns i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . However, when t h i s t i e between p h y s i c a l surroundings and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s i n v e s t i g a t e d more c l o s e l y and more r i g o r o u s l y , i t becomes apparent t h a t g e n e r a l -i z a t i o n s must be q u a l i f i e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e to an area of the c i t y b e i n g considered--CBD, suburb, e t c . — t h e socio-economic, e t h n i c and demographic t r a i t s of the p o p u l a t i o n , l i f e c y c l e stage, and so on. In most gen e r a l terms, a c a l l i s b e i n g made f o r study of how v a r i o u s kinds of people adjust to t h e i r p h y s i c a l surroundings so t h a t c r i t e r i a f o r f u t u r e developments may be based on sound p r i n c i p l e s proven i n theory and p r a c t i c e . To achieve t h i s , s t u d i e s of human beh a v i o r must not be made i n terms of c i t y versus country but i n terms of d i f f e r e n t types of areas w i t h i n t h e c i t y i n w h i c h t h e b e h a v i o r o c c u r s . 3. O b j e c t i v e s o f the T h e s i s T h i s t h e s i s w i l l a t t e m p t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f one t y p e o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n one p a r t o f t h e u r b a n e n v i r o n -ment . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l be c o n c e r n e d w i t h n e i g h b o r i n g i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . T h i s i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h F a v a 1 s c a l l f o r s t u d y o f c e r t a i n a reas o f t h e c i t y and i s l i k e w i s e c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n i n g o f c e r t a i n i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c s t a t e m e n t s t h r o u g h more r i g o r o u s r e s e a r c h . A p r o t o t y p e o f t h e i m p r e s s i o n -i s t i c s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h i s t h e s i s w i l l q u e s t i o n i s W i r t h ' s d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t O v e r w h e l m i n g l y t h e c i t y - d w e l l e r i s n o t a home-owner , and s i n c e a t r a n s i t o r y h a b i t a t does no t g e n e r a t e b i n d i n g t r a d i t i o n s and s e n t i m e n t s , o n l y r a r e l y i s he t r u l y a n e i g h b o r . 8 I t appear s t o be a r e a s o n a b l e s t a t e m e n t d r a w i n g a l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n . However , c l o s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f one p a r t — t h e c o n c e p t o f n e i g h b o r - - m a y r e s u l t i n some m o d i f i c a t i o n i n W i r t h 1 s p r o p o s i t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s t h e s i s w i l l a t t empt two t h i n g s : f i r s t , t o p r e s e n t a r i g o r o u s , t h e o r e t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n o f n e i g h b o r and n e i g h b o r i n g and s e c o n d , t o d e v e l o p a t e c h n i q u e b y w h i c h i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o a s se s s t h e t y p e , i n t e n s i t y , and e x t e n s i t y o f n e i g h b o r i n g i n r e s i d e n t i a l a reas o f v a r i o u s t y p e s and l o c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c i t y . Once i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a s se s s t h e r o l e o f n e i g h b o r t h r o u g h t h e v a r i o u s d i m e n s i o n s o f n e i g h b o r i n g , i t may 6 be p o s s i b l e to a s c e r t a i n the importance of n e i g h b o r i n g i n such t h i n g s as r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n and the d e c i s i o n t o move and eva l u a t e i t s importance i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to p h y s i c a l conveniences. In d e v e l o p i n g these techniques, the t h e o r e t i c a l 9 framework of types of re s e a r c h provided by Mic h e l s o n w i l l be used. T h i s w i l l permit past and f u t u r e r e s e a r c h t o be c o n v e n i e n t l y ordered so t h a t some comprehensive view of areas r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h can be s u c c i n c t l y and a c c u r a t e l y d e l i n e a t e d . M ichelson p o i n t s out the b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n between re s e a r c h concerned with what people s t a t e they want f o r 10 accommodation (mental congruence) and how people are a c t u a l l y 11 l i v i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r environment ( e x p e r i e n t i a l congruence). The technique f o r a s s e s s i n g n e i g h b o r i n g w i l l d e a l w i t h mental congruence. Once a t o o l i s developed t o e l i c i t a t t i t u d e s about d e s i r e d f o r c e s of neighboring, i t should be p o s s i b l e , through extended o b s e r v a t i o n , t o p o i n t out the d i f f e r e n c e between present r o l e of neighbor and i d e a l r o l e of neighbor. By n o t i n g the d i f f e r e n c e between what people want and what they have, i t may be p o s s i b l e t o develop a t o l e r a b l e range f o r r o l e of neighbor which may have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r design when the r e l a t i o n -s h i p t o such t h i n g s as d e c i s i o n to move are i n v e s t i g a t e d . One other important p o i n t put forward by Michelson w i l l bear h e a v i l y on the development of the above-mentioned techniques. He f e e l s 7 t h a t when ask i n g f o r an o p i n i o n response, q u e s t i o n n a i r e surveys may be inadequate i n t h a t they ask a f i n i t e number of questions about a p a r t i c u l a r problem which may have f a c e t s of importance t o the respondent which are not asked and not v o l u n t e e r e d . Data from such a q u e s t i o n n a i r e would provide an incomplete response t o the h y p o t h e s i s being s t u d i e d . He suggests t h a t "a s e m i - p r o j e c t i v e game s i t u a t i o n may be a source of needed 12 data". The technique t h a t w i l l be developed w i l l be a q u e s t i o n n a i r e supplemented with some type of game. ^ Planners have long been concerned w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l development. They have h e l d out the neighborhood as the b a s i c u n i t of the c i t y . In a d e s i r e t o be comprehensive i n t h e i r plans, they have r e a l i z e d the need t o develop a s e n s i t i v i t y t o more than the merely p h y s i c a l needs of p o t e n t i a l i n h a b i t a n t s of t h e i r developments. P a r t l y i n the Romantic a n t i - c i t y sentiment, they appear t o have a d e s i r e t o b r i n g the be s t of the c i t y and country t o g e t h e r i n the manner o f Ebenezer Howard. To b e t t e r understand the p o t e n t i a l use t h a t understanding and b e i n g able t o assess r o l e of neighbor could have f o r r e s i d e n t i a l plans, i t i s f i r s t necessary t o understand the c l a s s i c a l p l a n -n i n g r e s p o n s e — t h e techniques t h a t have been t r a d i t i o n a l l y used t o develop b e t t e r r e s i d e n t i a l environments. T h i s w i l l i n v o l v e a review of the work of Ebenezer Howard and Clarence Perry and a d i s c u s s i o n of the con t r o v e r s y r a i s e d by the l a t t e r author. Once t h i s i s completed, i t i s hoped that the p l a n n e r s ' need to be concerned w i t h an understanding of r o l e of neighbor w i l l be e v i d e n t from an h i s t o r i c a l p o i n t of view. I I . The Neighborhood Unit Concept 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n Planners are becoming more and more concerned w i t h the " s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s " of t h e i r a c t i o n i n b u i l d i n g c i t i e s . The n o n - p h y s i c a l and non-economic aspects of t h e i r work, appear to be g a i n i n g more importance a l l the time. B e t t e r highways and b i g g e r apartment b l o c k s do not s o l v e the major problems of 13 the c i t y d w e l l e r s . Canadian c i t i e s , not c o n t a i n i n g the i n h e r e n t r a c i a l problems of U. S. c i t i e s , s t i l l have the oppor-t u n i t y to p r o f i t from blunders made i n American c i t i e s by planners and others concerned with c i t y development. N a t u r a l l y , one area i n which the o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a r n comes i s the area of " s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s " of p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s . I t would almost seem t h a t accounting f o r the impact of t h e i r d e c i s i o n s on the l i v e s of present and f u t u r e i n h a b i t a n t s of p a r t i c u l a r p a r t s of the c i t y has r e p l a c e d the planners 1 more t r a d i t i o n a l panacea of reproducing the country or small town atmosphere of c o o p e r a t i o n and t r a n q u i l i t y i n the b i g c i t y . The replacement of f i r s t a d e s i r e to r e t u r n to the simple r u r a l l i f e , by a second d e s i r e to reproduce the assumed v i r t u e s of the r u r a l l i f e i n the c i t i e s , and f i n a l l y by a d e s i r e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f d e c i s i o n s made by p h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s does n o t f o l l o w a smooth e v o l u t i o n a r y 14 d e v e l o p m e n t . Some w o u l d argue t h a t t h i s change has n o t o c c u r r e d a t a l l , t h a t i t i s o n l y t h e p r o d u c t o f h i n d s i g h t s e a r c h i n g f o r some o s t e n s i b l y r a t i o n a l f ramework w i t h i n w h i c h t o e x p l a i n p a s t e v e n t s o f one p a r t i c u l a r t y p e . Q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t i s t r u e . But w h a t e v e r t h e s o u r c e , t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r t o d a y i s more c o n c e r n e d — a s e v i d e n c e d t h r o u g h c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e ~ ~ w i t h a c c o u n t i n g f o r the impac t o f h i s d e c i s i o n s on t h e l i v e s o f p e o p l e t h a n some o f t h e p a s t c i t y - b u i l d e r s . One p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n o f p l a n n e r s has been how t o improve t h e r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . Many f e e l t h a t t h i s i n t e r e s t s p r u n g f rom a h u m a n i t a r i a n c o n c e r n f o r t h e h e a l t h o f r e s i d e n t s o f e a r l y i n d u s t r i a l t o w n s , e s p e c i a l l y i n B r i t a i n The h e a l t h a c t s and l a n d use c o n t r o l d e v i c e s t h a t were produce were t h e f o r e r u n n e r s o f p r e s e n t s t a n d a r d s and a c c e p t e d r e g u l a -t i o n s . When p l a n n e r s l o o k t o t h e p a s t f o r s t e r l i n g examples o f t o u c h s t o n e s o f p l a n n i n g p r o g r e s s , t h e y g e n e r a l l y p o i n t t o t h e work o f E b e n e z e r Howard and C l a r e n c e P e r r y as o u t s t a n d i n g a t t e m p t s t o improve t h e r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f t h e c i t y d w e l l e r . B o t h o f t h e s e men p r o d u c e d , o r more c o r r e c t l y , s y n -t h e s i z e d p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s f rom w h i c h t h e y p r o d u c e d , a s t u t e s t a t e m e n t s o f how t h e l i f e o f man i n t h e c i t y c o u l d be made more p l e a s a n t . Through no f a u l t o f t h e i r own, many o f t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l s t a t e m e n t s were s e i z e d upon out o f c o n t e x t t o become t h e dogma w i t h w h i c h e s s e n t i a l l y n o n - s e n s i t i v e men were a b l e t o r a t i o n a l i z e d e c i s i o n s w h i c h t h e y were o t h e r w i s e i n c a p a b l e o f m a k i n g . S t e r e o t y p e s were d e v e l o p e d and i n s t i t u t e d w h i c h n e i t h e r man w o u l d have e s p o u s e d . 2 . E b e n e z e r Howard E b e n e z e r Howard i n h i s Garden C i t i e s o f T o - M o r r o w , 15 p u b l i s h e d i n 1902, i s g e n e r a l l y c r e d i t e d w i t h f o r m u l a t i n g t h e t e r m "Garden C i t y " . F . J . O s b o r n c r e d i t s Howard w i t h e x p l i c i t l y p u t t i n g f o r t h t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e s i z e o f towns i s a p r o p e r s u b j e c t o f c o n s c i o u s c o n t r o l and t h a t t h e s i z e o f g e o g r a p h i c a l community u n i t s i s a m a j o r f a c t o r i n s o c i a l 16 o r g a n i z a t i o n . H o w a r d ' s p r o p o s a l was a p r a c t i c a l t e c h n i q u e w i t h w h i c h i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o combine t h e b e s t f e a t u r e s o f and c o u n t r y t h r o u g h t h e deve lopment o f new towns c a l l e d 17 Garden C i t i e s . The r e s u l t o f e m b r a c i n g t h e b e s t o f t h e c o u n t r y and t h e c i t y was t o be a c i t y i n a g a r d e n . W i t h o u t g o i n g i n t o g r e a t e r - d e t a i l , i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o n o t e t h a t H o w a r d ' s i d e a was t o d e v e l o p new c i t i e s o f p a r t i c u l a r s i z e l a i d o u t i n a p a r t i c u l a r manner t h a t w o u l d m a x i m i z e t h e b e n e f i t s o f 18 t h e i n h a b i t a n t s . A l t h o u g h L e w i s Mumford i s a b l e t o t r a c e t h e c o n c e p t 19 o f t h e g a r d e n c i t y b a c k t o L e o n a r d o da V i n c i , most p l a n n e r s agree t h a t Howard put f o r t h t h e i d e a o f d i v i s i o n o f t h e c i t y 20 i n t o w a r d s . Howard s t a t e d t h a t each w a r d , o r o n e - s i x t h p a r t o f t h e c i t y s h o u l d be i n some sense a c o m p l e t e town b y i t -s e l f , and t h u s t h e s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s m i g h t s e r v e , i n t h e e a r l i e r s t a g e s , n o t o n l y as s c h o o l s , b u t as p l a c e s f o r r e l i g i o u s w o r s h i p , f o r c o n c e r t s , f o r l i b r a r i e s , and f o r m e e t i n g s o f v a r i o u s k i n d s , so t h a t a l l o u t l a y on e x p e n s i v e m u n i c i p a l and o t h e r b u i l d i n g s m i g h t be d e f e r r e d u n t i l t h e l a t e r s t a g e s o f t h e e n t e r p r i s e . 21 A l t h o u g h C a r v e r b e l i e v e s t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e c i t y i n a g r e e n b e l t - - o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e c i t y d w e l l e r s who had t o w a l k , a chance t o e a s i l y r e a c h t h e l i f e - g i v i n g c o u n t r y - - h a s been outmoded b y t h e w i d e - s p r e a d use o f t h e c a r and t h e a t t e n d a n t i n c r e a s e i n p e r s o n a l m o b i l i t y t h a t i t p r o v i d e s he f e e l s t h e w a r d c o n c e p t i s s t i l l v a l i d i n t h e o r y , i f n o t i n 22 d e t a i l . T h i s i d e a o f d i v i d i n g a c i t y i n t o s e l f - c o n t a i n e d s e c t i o n s i s t a k e n by many p l a n n e r s t o be t h e i n i t i a l a r t i c -u l a t i o n upon w h i c h P e r r y b u i l t when he p r e s e n t e d h i s n e i g h b o r -23 hood u n i t c o n c e p t i n 1929. Even t h o u g h t h e r e i s a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y between t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e ward as put f o r t h b y Howard and t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d p r i n c i p l e put f o r w a r d b y P e r r y , i t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t P e r r y was unaware o f H o w a r d ' s w o r k . A t l e a s t , P e r r y n e v e r m e n t i o n s Howard . 3 . C l a r e n c e P e r r y P e r r y abandoned H o w a r d ' s somewhat w i d e r a t t a c k on t h e w h o l e p r o b l e m o f t h e c i t y ' s deve lopment and g rowth and concentrated h i s i n t e r e s t on the i n t e g r a t i o n of urban and r u r a l l i f e types. Perry's concern was much more wit h the development of i n d i v i d u a l wards or neighborhoods than w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the wards and the r e s t of the c i t y . Both i n the nature of i t s concept, and i n the techniques of i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , the neighborhood u n i t p r i n c i p l e has s t r e s s e d the uniqueness and i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the p a r t s , but has n e g l e c t e d the a s s o c i a t e d , and v i t a l problem of the i n t e -g r a t i o n of the whole.... His (Perry's) i n t e r e s t was centered on the u n i t i n i s o l a t i o n , and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the c i t y as a whole r e c e i v e d from him on l y c u r s o r y a t t e n t i o n . 24 However, l i k e Howard, he seemed t o be attempting t o b r i n g the b e s t of the country i n t o the context of the c i t y . In the next s e c t i o n , the neighborhood u n i t concept, which G i l b e r t Herbert has c a l l e d "the most important of 25 a l l modern town p l a n n i n g t h e o r i e s " , w i l l be d i s c u s s e d by f i r s t p r e s e n t i n g the theory, then some c r i t i c i s m s which w i l l l e a d i n t o the need f o r a r e t h i n k i n g of how the planner should view the neighborhood, p o i n t i n g out the u s e f u l n e s s of the concept of n e i g h b o r i n g . The neighborhood u n i t as d e f i n e d by Perry i s based on acceptance of the s o c i o l o g i c a l premise of the need f o r primary contacts w i t h i n a p r e s c r i b e d g e o g r a p h i c a l area. In the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Perry's 1929 study i t i s s t a t e d t h a t the purpose xn undertakxng thxs xnquiry xnto neighborhood u n i t y l i f e has been t o d i s c o v e r the p h y s i c a l b a s i s f o r t h a t k i n d of f a c e - t o -face a s s o c i a t i o n which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the o l d v i l l a g e community and which the l a r g e c i t y f i n d s i t so d i f f i c u l t t o r e c r e a t e . 26 L a t e r i n h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n , Perry s t a t e s the c l a s s e s of b e n e f i t s that w i l l accrue from h i s concept of the neighbor-hood u n i t . The f i r s t i s s a f e t y from the automobile f o r the r e s i d e n t s of the u n i t . The second i s c i v i c b e n e f i t s . Under t h i s heading he s t a t e s What urban growth has needed i s a process whereby the v i l l a g e c i v i c c e l l would be repeated at a r a t e corresponding w i t h the expansion of the p o p u l a t i o n and i t i s a remedy f o r t h i s d e f e c t t h a t the neighborhood u n i t scheme i s put forward. The f a c t t h at i t cre a t e s the k i n d of p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s ; the f a c e - t o - f a c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s - - which are necessary f o r the n a t u r a l development of s o c i a l movements i s the b a s i s of i t s c i v i c v i r t u e s . 27 Another c l a s s of b e n e f i t s Perry c a l l s moral and s o c i a l v a l u e s . By t h i s Perry means the impact the l o c a l community has on the de v e l o p i n g c h a r a c t e r of the younger generation; the primary group's impact ( f a c e - t o - f a c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) on c h i l d r e n . To backtrack, Perry d e f i n e s h i s neighborhood u n i t i n terms of p l a n n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as a r e s i d e n t i a l area which ...should provide housing f o r t h a t p o p u l a t i o n f o r which one elementary school i s normally r e q u i r e d , i t s a c t u a l area depending upon i t s p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y . . . should be bounded on a l l 14 s i d e s by a r t e r i a l s t r e e t s , s u f f i c i e n t l y w i d e t o f a c i l i t a t e i t s b y - p a s s i n g , i n s t e a d o f p e n e t r a t i o n , b y t h r o u g h t r a f f i c . . . ( s h o u l d i n c l u d e ) a sy s tem o f s m a l l p a r k s and r e c r e -a t i o n a l s p a c e s . . . . S i t e s f o r t h e s c h o o l s and o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s h a v i n g s e r v i c e s p h e r e s c o i n c i d i n g w i t h t h e l i m i t s o f t h e u n i t s h o u l d be s u i t a b l y grouped about a c e n t r a l p o i n t . . . . One o r more s h o p p i n g d i s t r i c t s . . . s h o u l d be l a i d o u t i n t h e c i r c u m f e r e n c e o f the u n i t . . . (and) t h e u n i t s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d w i t h a s p e c i a l s t r e e t s y s t e m . . . b e i n g d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e c i r c u l a t i o n w i t h i n t h e u n i t and t o d i s c o u r a g e i t s use by t h r o u g h t r a f f i c . 28 T h i s p r o p o s a l f o r r e s i d e n t i a l a reas w h i c h are p l e a s a n t ; h e a l t h y w i t h open space and r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s ; s a f e f rom t h e danger s o f u n f e t t e r e d motor t r a f f i c ; s e l f - c o n t a i n e d t o t h e e x t e n t o f h a v i n g l o c a l shops and s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s ; and i n d e n t i f i a b l e b o t h by i n n e r s o c i a l c o h e s i o n 29 and b y d e f i n i t e b o u n d a r i e s , i s o b v i o u s l y an a t t e m p t t o t r a n s p l a n t t h e good l i f e o f t h e c o u n t r y i n t o t h e c i t y . W i t h i t s c a l l f o r open space and c u r v i l i n e a r s t r e e t s ana logous t o c o u n t r y p a t h s , t h e r e i s an i m p l i c i t n o s t a l g i a f o r t h e i d e a l -i z e d r u r a l v i l l a g e . T h i s b a s i c c o n c e p t as o u t l i n e d above has been s e i z e d by p l a n n e r s as a c e n t r a l t o o l f o r t h e i r w o r k . P e r r y ' s c o n c e p t e v o l v e d f rom h i s c o n c e r n w i t h t h e w i d e r use o f s c h o o l f a -c i l i t i e s and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l as a community c e n t e r and h i s 30 c o n c e r n w i t h t h e need f o r n e i g h b o r h o o d r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s . He soon r e a l i z e d t h a t i t w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r e i t h e r o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s i n i s o l a t i o n f rom the n e i g h b o r h o o d as a whole. When he turned h i s a t t e n t i o n to c o n s i d e r the neighbor-hood as a whole then, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Perry chose to base h i s r e s i d e n t i a l development on the c e n t r a l elementary s c h o o l . When Perry turned h i s a t t e n t i o n t o the wider problem of l o c a l community l i f e from the d e t a i l s of neighborhood r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , he was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by Cooley i n choosing t o study the problem i n terms of primary a s s o c i a -t i o n s . In 1929, Perry quoted Cooley as s t a t i n g By primary groups I mean those c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n t i m a t e f a c e - t o - f a c e a s s o c i a t i o n and co o p e r a t i o n . They are primary i n s e v e r a l senses, but c h i e f l y i n th a t they are fundamental i n forming the s o c i a l nature and i d e a l s of the i n d i v i d u a l . The r e s u l t of in t i m a t e a s s o c i a t i o n , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y , i s a c e r t a i n f u s i o n of i n d i v i d u -a l i t i e s i n a common whole, so that one's very s e l f , f o r many purposes at l e a s t , i s the common l i f e and purpose of the group. 31 Thi s seems c l o s e l y i n l i n e w i t h the avowed purpose of the study. As Herbert p o i n t s out, the f u n c t i o n s of the u n i t was t o provide a " p h y s i c a l environment which w i l l regenerate and m a i n t a i n primary, f a c e - t o - f a c e , s o c i a l c o n t a c t s and a s s o c i a 32 t i o n s w i t h i n the c i t y " . The primary groups which the neighbo hood would engender would be r e i n f o r c e d by the understandable and r a t i o n a l boundaries t h a t would s h a r p l y d e f i n e the neighbor-hood. The f i n a l r e s u l t would be a f u s i o n of consciousness producing i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the l o c a l area. Anonymity of 16 t h e l a r g e c i t y w o u l d be r e p l a c e d by a r u r a l v i l l a g e n o t i o n w h i c h C o o l e y s t a t e s t h a t "we" as a t e r m most c l o s e l y a p p r o x -33 i m a t e s . Thus P e r r y ' s c o n c e p t i s seen as an a t t empt t o b r i n g i n t o c i t y l i f e some o f t h e v i r t u e s o f r u r a l s o c i e t y i n a p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l s e n s e . Once h i s c o n c e p t was a r t i c u l a t e d , i t was used by p l a n n e r s a l l o v e r t h e w o r l d i n v a r i o u s w a y s . T h i s was at l e a s t p a r t l y due t o t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e c o n c e p t and t h e ease w i t h w h i c h e x p l a n a t o r y d i a g r a m s c o u l d be s k e t c h e d . However , b o t h o f t h e s e f a c t o r s are s y m p t o m a t i c o f t h e l a c k o f f l e x i b i l i t y i n h e r e n t i n t h e t h e o r y . I n p r a c t i c e , i t i s s u f f i c i e n t t o n o t e h e r e , t h a t t h e s i z e o f t h e u n i t s v a r i e d g r e a t l y as d i d t h e way i n w h i c h each n e i g h b o r h o o d u n i t w o u l d 34 be e x p e c t e d t o r e l a t e t o t h e c i t y as a w h o l e . 4 . C o n t r o v e r s e y Now t h a t t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d u n i t c o n c e p t as put f o r t h b y P e r r y has been s e t o u t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o t r y t o document some o f t h e r e a c t i o n s t o i t s u s e . I t appears t h a t a b i t t e r c o n t r o v e r s e y r aged i n t h e l a t e 1 9 4 0 ' s as t o t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t . O f t e n i t seems t h a t t h e a t t a c k s on t h e c o n c e p t w o u l d be more c o r r e c t l y d e s i g n a t e d as a t t a c k s on t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t b y p r a c t i c i n g p l a n n e r s . A much more s e r i o u s a t t a c k on t h e c o n c e p t was t o be l a u n c h e d i n t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s . T h i s f i n a l a s s a u l t p o i n t e d out t h e need f o r a c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e c o n c e p t and t h e need f o r c o o r d i n a t e d , s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h among a l l s o c i a l s c i e n c e s t o t r y t o g i v e p l a n n e r s a more r a t i o n a l b a s i s upon w h i c h t o c o n -s t r u c t r e s i d e n t i a l g r o u p i n g s . A s e t o f c r i t e r i a w i t h w h i c h i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o c o n s t r u c t o v e r t i m e a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a t h a t w o u l d be h i g h l y s a t i s f y i n g t o t h o s e l i v i n g i n i t and w h i c h w o u l d b e a r a r a t i o n a l and e v o l u t i o n a r y r e l a t i o n -s h i p t o t h e c i t y as a w h o l e i s n e e d e d . Mos t r e v i e w e r s o f c r i t i c i s m l e v e l l e d at t h e n e i g h b o r -hood u n i t c o n c e p t s t a r t o f f b y s t a t i n g t h a t t h e most s c a t h i n g and most damaging a t t a c k on t h e p r i n c i p l e was t h a t o f R e g i n a l d I s s a c s i n 1948 . He q u e s t i o n e d w h e t h e r o r n o t i t was s o c i o l o g -i c a l l y p o s s i b l e t o c r e a t e n e i g h b o r h o o d s i n modern c i t i e s ; w h e t h e r t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d u n i t was adequate as a p h y s i c a l 3 5 c o n c e p t f o r p l a n n i n g , and w h e t h e r t h e c o n c e p t was a t o o l 3 6 f o r s e g r e g a t i o n t o r e p l a c e t h e banned r e s t r i c t i v e c o v e n a n t s . T h i s l a s t c r i t i c i s m i s t a k e n t o be a c r i t i c i s m o f t h e way t h e c o n c e p t was used r a t h e r t h a n an end r e s u l t o f q u a l i t i e s o r c o n d i t i o n s i n h e r e n t w i t h i n t h e c o n c e p t . Mos t o f the r e s t o f t h e c r i t i c i s m o f t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d u n i t c o n c e p t c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h t h a t o f I s a a c s appears as e i t h e r a r e b u t t a l o r a c o n -f i r m a t i o n o f t h e ma in i d e a s pu t f o r t h most s t r o n g l y by I s a a c s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a s e l e c t i o n o f some a r t i c l e s q u e s t i o n i n g I s a a c s ' c r i t i c i s m . H e r r i c k , a d v o c a t i n g P e r r y ' s 18 concept, s t a t e s t h a t the neighborhoods were p l a c e d between main thoroughfares i n order t o reduce t r a f f i c hazards f o r r e s i d e n t s c a r r y i n g out t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . As a r e s u l t , i t was p o s s i b l e t o reduce the t o t a l area covered by i n t e r n a l s t r e e t s and devote the area saved t o r e c r e a t i o n . As w e l l , he p o i n t s out that s i n c e t r a f f i c w i t h i n the neighborhood was reduced to a minimum i t permitted the use of l e s s c o s t l y pavements. By m a n i p u l a t i n g d e n s i t i e s of p o p u l a t i o n , he f e l t i t would be p o s s i b l e to maintain a constant p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the neighborhoods although the areas of the neighborhoods would vary g r e a t l y as you moved from the small areas i n the core t o the l a r g e areas of the suburbs. F i n a l l y , he s t a t e s t h a t i t was not intended t h a t each neighborhood be r e s t r i c t e d t o any one group on economic or s o c i a l grounds. The f u n c t i o n of the concept was to produce a c i t y t h a t would be more economical, h e a l t h f u l and a t t r a c t i v e than t h a t produced by e x t e n s i o n of 37 the t r a d i t i o n a l g r i d . T h i s somewhat h u r r i e d defense of the concept does not seem to r e a l l y answer Isaacs 1 c r i t i c i s m s i n the com-prehensive manner i n which they were l a i d out. The shor t statement i s a r e i t e r a t i o n of the f u n c t i o n of the u n i t w i t h the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t Isaacs 1 c r i t i c i s m of the u n i t as an instrument of s e g r e g a t i o n was c r i t i c i s m of the use made of the concept r a t h e r than a v a l i d c r i t i c i s m of the theory. 19 W e h r l y de fended t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d u n i t c o n c e p t i n terms o f i t s p r o v i d i n g a p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y t o t h e human i n s t i n c t t o d e v e l o p s t r o n g l o c a l a t t a c h m e n t s . He goes on more c o n v i n c -i n g l y t o r e f u t e one c r i t e r i o n upon w h i c h I s a a c s had b a s e d h i s a l l e g a t i o n t h a t s o c i o l o g i c a l n e i g h b o r h o o d s w o u l d not be formed and t h e ones t h a t were a c t e d as i n s t r u m e n t s o f s e g r e g a t i o n , when he s t a t e s t h a t p o p u l a t i o n m o b i l i t y i s n o t t h e t e s t o f a 38 n e i g h b o r h o o d . The t e s t o f t h e s u c c e s s o f a n e i g h b o r h o o d was i t s a b i l i t y t o k e e p a t t r a c t i n g c o m p a t i b l e f a m i l i e s l o o k i n g f o r t h e t y p e o f p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t i t o f f e r e d . Those who do n o t l i k e one n e i g h b o r h o o d e n v i r o n m e n t have t h e c h o i c e 3.9 o f l i v i n g e l s e w h e r e . Once a g a i n t h i s answer t o I s a a c s p o i n t s o u t t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e t h e o r y , b u t t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e t h e o r y t o be pu t i n t o p r a c t i c e w i t h o u t s i g n i f i c a n t a l t e r a t i o n s . Mumford s t a t e s t h a t n e i g h b o r h o o d s e x i s t w h e r e v e r p e o p l e c o n g r e g a t e . He f e e l s t h a t t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d u n i t p e r f o r m e d t h e needed f u n c t i o n o f s e t t i n g an upper l i m i t on g r o w t h and p r o v i d i n g d e f i n i t e b o u n d a r i e s and a c i v i c c e n t e r t o p r o v i d e t h e i n h a b i t a n t s w i t h a sense o f b e l o n g i n g t o g e t h e r . He f e l t t h a t t h e p r o b l e m s t o be answered were what degree o f i s o l a t i o n t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d s h o u l d e x h i b i t and t o what degree 40 t h e p o p u l a t i o n s h o u l d be m i x e d . I n t h i s l a t t e r c o n c e r n , he agreed w i t h T y r w h i t t who a l s o f e l t t h i s t o be a p r i m a r y 41 p r o b l e m . 20 A n o t h e r body o f c r i t i c i s m d e a l s w i t h t h e s i z e o f the n e i g h b o r h o o d u n i t i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s a b i l i t y t o f o s t e r t h e f a c e - t o - f a c e r e l a t i o n s e spoused by P e r r y t o be one f u n c t i o n o f t h e u n i t . As p o i n t e d out b y H e r b e r t , t h e s i z e o f t h e s e u n i t s 42 range f rom 50 t o 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 . Each appears t o be founded on t h e b a s i s o f sound t h e o r e t i c a l p r e c e p t s . Each appears v a l i d . The use o f one s i z e o r t h e o t h e r w i l l depend on t h e f u n c t i o n s w h i c h i t i s i n t e n d e d t h e u n i t s h o u l d p e r f o r m . The end r e s u l t o f t h e c r i t i c i s m f o r and a g a i n s t t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d u n i t c o n c e p t rampant i n t h e l a t e 1 9 4 0 ' s and e a r l y 1 9 5 0 ' s i s e l o q u e n t l y summarized b y Cunningham i n t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n . L e a d i n g t h e a t t a c k was R e g i n a l d I s a a c s . . . w h o v i e w e d n e i g h b o r h o o d p l a n n i n g as a f r u i t l e s s a t t empt t o make s t a t i c r e s i d e n t i a l a rea s i n t h e m i d s t o f m o b i l e and dynamic c i t i e s , and w o r s e — a s an i n s t r u m e n t o f r a c i a l , e t h n i c , s o c i a l , and economic s e g r e g a t i o n . A number o f d i s t i n g u i s h e d p l a n n e r s , a r c h i t e c t s and s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s l i n e d up on I s a a c s 1 s i d e o f t h i s c o n t r o v e r s e y . But t h e a n t i n e i g h b o r h o o d p o s i t i o n has n e v e r won w i d e a c c e p t a n c e among p l a n n e r s , i n . p a r t because t h e y have n e v e r found a s a t i s f a c t o r y a l t e r n a t i v e t o i t . 43 A s t i r r i n g c r i t i c a l deba te as t o t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e c o n c e p t r a g e s , b u t p r a c t i c i n g p l a n n e r s f a c e d w i t h t h e r e a l i t y o f m a k i n g d a i l y d e c i s i o n s c o n t i n u e t o u s e / m i s u s e t h e c o n c e p t as an o r g a n i z i n g t e c h n i q u e f o r s u b d i v i d i n g t h e i r c i t i e s . A much more c o m p r e h e n s i v e c r i t i c i s m o f t h e n e i g h b o r -hood p r i n c i p l e i s t h a t r e n d e r e d b y H e r b e r t . H i s c r i t i c i s m 21 a l s o opens t h e way f o r new t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s w i t h w h i c h t h e p l a n n e r w i l l be a b l e t o make t h e d a i l y d e c i s i o n s w h i c h he must now make on t h e b a s i s o f an a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d u n i t c o n c e p t . H e r b e r t s t a t e s t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e n e i g h b o r -hood u n i t was b a s e d on t h r e e a s s u m p t i o n s : t h a t t h e r e i s an optimum s i z e f o r a community ; t h a t t h e community i s g e o g r a p h i c a l -l y b a s e d ; t h a t t h e c i t y i s a f e d e r a t i o n o f n e i g h b o r h o o d u n i t s and s p e c i a l i z e d u n i t s ( i n d u s t r i a l and c o m m e r c i a l ) . He f e e l s t h a t r a t h e r t h a n a n e i g h b o r h o o d o f 5 ,000 b e i n g t h e b a s i c u n i t o f c i t y g r o w t h , t h a t some s m a l l e r g roup i s t h e b a s i c s o c i a l -u n i t . He s u b s t a n t i a t e s t h i s a s s e r t i o n by q u o t i n g W i l l m o t t who s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e y ( n e i g h b o r h o o d s ) do a n y t h i n g t o c r e a t e " c o m m u n i t y " o r " n e i g h b o r l i n e s s " , o r i n d e e d t h a t t h e y have any s p e c i a l s o c i a l s i g n i f i -c a n c e . 44 H e r b e r t c o n c l u d e s two t h i n g s . F i r s t t h a t i f n e i g h b o r l i n e s s i s g e n e r a t e d by s m a l l g r o u p s , t h e l a r g e - s i z e d n e i g h b o r h o o d u n i t i s a s o c i a l a b s t r a c t i o n , w h i c h d i v e r t s our a t t e n t i o n f rom t h e r e a l p r o b l e m 45 and second t h a t t h e c o n t r o v e r s e y o v e r t h e optimum s i z e o f community has p r e s e n t e d a w i d e range o f l e v e l s o f i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l g roups w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e are many l e v e l s o f i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l g roups and t h a t a p l a n n i n g s o l u t i o n b a s e d upon a s i n g l e l e v e l o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s an o v e r s i m p l i f i c a t i o n 46 and can o n l y l e a d t o g r i e v o u s e r r o r s i n d a i l y d e c i s i o n s . 5 . C o n c l u s i o n There appear t o be two v e r y i m p o r t a n t i d e a s h e r e . One, t h a t s m a l l g roups may produ ce t h e d e s i r e d f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t s and t w o , t h a t m e a n i n g f u l s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n may o c c u r f o r i n d i v i d u a l s l i v i n g i n one a r e a at d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s w i t h i n t h e c i t y . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , t h i s t h e s i s w i l l p u r s u e o n l y t h e f i r s t i d e a . E f f e c t i v e s o c i a l g roups may n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be r e l a t e d t o s p e c i f i c g e o g r a p h i c a reas b u t t h e r e i s one i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l g r o u p t h a t i s — n e i g h b o r s . T h i s g roup may t a k e on s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r c e r t a i n p a r t s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ( the n o n - m o b i l e ) and f o r o t h e r s a t c e r t a i n p e r i o d s o f t i m e (new a r r i v a l s i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s ) . C e r t a i n s t u d i e s appear t o p l a c e an o v e r e m p h a s i s on t h e r o l e o f t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n c o n d i t i o n i n g 47 man ' s a c t i o n s . O t h e r s , such as P e r r y ' s p l a c e a l l a c t i o n s o f a c e r t a i n t y p e w i t h i n an a r b i t r a r y p h y s i c a l f r amework . To t r u l y u n d e r s t a n d t h e impac t o f d e s i g n d e c i s i o n s i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o be a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e t y p e s o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t e x i s t . One r e l a t i o n -s h i p , r o l e o f n e i g h b o r , appears i m p o r t a n t . The n e x t c h a p t e r w i l l d e f i n e n e i g h b o r and e x p l a i n t h e c o n c e p t o f r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l t h e n go on t o d e v e l o p a t e c h n i q u e f o r a s s e s s i n g r o l e o f n e i g h b o r i n r e s i d e n t i a l a rea s w h i c h may be u s e f u l f o r t e s t i n g h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween r o l e o f n e i g h b o r and r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n . R a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t i n g t o d e v i s e sys tems t o b r i n g c o u n t r y l i f e and s t r u c t u r e s i n t o t h e c i t y , t h e r e i s an a t t e m p t t o u n d e r s t a n d one t y p e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h may e n a b l e p l a n n e r s t o e v a l u a t e t h e " s o c i a l e f f e c t s " o f some o f t h e i r d e c i s i o n s . 24 FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER I 1. M o r t o n and L u c i a W h i t e , " A m e r i c a n I n t e l l e c t u a l v e r s u s A m e r i c a n C i t y " , M e t r o p o l i s : V a l u e s i n C o n f l i c t , CE E l i a s e t a l , Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Company, B e l m o n t , C a l i f o r n i a , 1964, p p . 2 8 - 3 4 . 2 . I t i s a commonplace o f modern s o c i o l o g y t o r e f e r t o t h e i m p e r s o n a l , r a t i o n a l i z e d , and segmentary r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n d i v i d u a l s i n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , and t o c o n t r a s t t h e s e w i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g i n p r i m i t i v e and n o n - i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s . Y e t a l l such d i c h o t e m i e s appear much t o o s i m p l e ; f o r i n s p i t e o f a l l t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h we s t i l l know l i t t l e , i n d e t a i l , o f t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f modern m a n . . . p . 9 8 The c o n t r a s t be tween u r b a n and r u r a l l i f e i s s t i l l o f t e n p r e s e n t e d i n vague , i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c , somet imes , r o m a n t i c t e r m s ; t h e r e has been l i t t l e advance beyond t h e e s s a y s o f S immel and L o u i s W i r t h . p . 1 0 1 T . B . B o t t o m o r e , S o c i o l o g y , A G u i d e o f Prob lems and L i t e r a t u r e , Unwin U n i v e r s i t y B o o k s , L o n d o n , 1 9 6 2 . 3 . W. K e y , " R u r a l - U r b a n D i f f e r e n c e s i n S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n " , u n p u b l i s h e d PhD t h e s i s , W a s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y , S t . L o u i s , 1953, c i t e d i n " C o n t r a s t s i n N e i g h b o r i n g : New Y o r k C i t y and a Suburban C o m m u n i t y " , i n The  Suburban Community, W i l l i a m D o b r i n e r , e d . , New Y o r k , G. P . Putnam' s Sons , 1958, p . 1 2 8 . 4 . M o r r i s A x l e r o d , " U r b a n S t r u c t u r e and S o c i a l P a r -t i c i p a t i o n " , A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , 21 , 1956 . W e n d e l l B e l l , M a r i o n B o a t , " U r b a n N e i g h b o r h o o d s and I n f o r m a l S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s " , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f  S o c i o l o g y , v o l . 62 . D o n a l d F o l e y , N e i g h b o r s o r U r b a n i t e s , 1952 . a l l c i t e d i n F a v a , o p . c i t . , p . 1 3 0 . 25 5 . W a l t e r M a r t i n , "The S t r u c t u r i n g o f S o c i a l R e l a t i o n -s h i p s Engendered b y Suburban R e s i d e n c e " , A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , v o l . 21 , p . 4 4 6 . 6 . W e n d e l l B e l l , M a r i o n B o a t , " U r b a n N e i g h b o r h o o d s and I n f o r m a l S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s " , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , v o l . 62, p . 3 9 1 . 7. L o u i s W i r t h , " U r b a n i s m as a Way o f L i f e " , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , v o l . 44 , p . 2 0 . 8. I b i d . , p . 1 7 . 9 . W i l l i a m M i c h e l s o n , " U r b a n S o c i o l o g y as an A i d t o Urban P h y s i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t : Some R e s e a r c h S t r a t e g i e s " , J o u r n a l o f the A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , M a r c h , 1968, p p . 105-108 . 10 . I b i d . , p . 1 0 6 . M e n t a l conguence e x i s t s i f an i n d i v i d u a l t h i n k s t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s w i l l s u c c e s s f u l l y accommodate h i s p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , v a l u e s , and s t u d y o f l i f e . . . . t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between a p h y s i c a l phenomenon and a s o c i a l end i s a s o c i a l f a c t w o r t h n o t i n g , even i f the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t e m p i r i c a l l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d . A l l s t u d i e s t h a t s e t out t o d i s c o v e r what p e o p l e want and why t h e y want i t a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h m e n t a l c o n g r u e n c e . A s t a t e o f m e n t a l congruence be tween p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l phenomena e x i s t s when p e o p l e r e g u l a r l y e x p e c t t h e same s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n t o r e s u l t f rom t h e c r e a t i o n o r m a i n t e n a n c e o f a p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . P e o p l e have l i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h d i f f e r e n t p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n -ments and t h e r e f o r e cannot make t o t a l l y r a t i o n a l c h o i c e s . Thus t h e i r f e e l i n g s a f f e c t how t h e y w i l l r e a c t t o c e r t a i n e n v i r o n m e n t s and may l e a d t o s e l f -f u l f i l l i n g p r o p h e c i e s about t h e c a p a c i t y o f c e r t a i n p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s t o accommodate c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s . I b i d . , p . 1 0 6 . M i c h e l s o n d e f i n e s e x p e r i e n t i a l congruence as d e a l i n g w i t h how w e l l t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a c t u a l l y accommodates t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and b e h a v i o r o f p e o p l e . R a t h e r t h a n a s k i n g a p e r s o n h i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r e n v i r o n m e n t , the i n v e s t i g a t o r w o u l d s t u d y p e o p l e l i v i n g i n a s p e c i f i c e n v i r o n -ment . He goes on t o c o n c l u d e t h a t w h i l e E x p e r i t e n t i a l congruence o f p e o p l e and e n v i r o n -ment i s t h e r e s e a r c h approach t h a t i s b a s i c a l l y needed t o form s p e c i f i c p h y s i c a l p l a n s f o r the f u t u r e . . . . a knowledge o f m e n t a l congruence i s n e c e s s a r y t o a s se s s t h e p u b l i c ' s p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o a c c e p t and make s u c c e s s f u l w h a t e v e r may be p r o p o s e d t o i g n o r e t h i s f a c t i s t o i n v i t e f a i l u r e , no m a t t e r how o b j e c t i v e l y c o r r e c t f u t u r e p l a n s may b e . I b i d . , p . 1 0 7 . Suzanne K e l l e r , " S o c i a l C l a s s i n P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g " I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l S c i e n c e B u l l e t i n , v o l . 18, 1966, p . 4 9 5 . " P h y s i c a l p l a n n e r s , pe rhaps a b i t p u z z l e d t h a t men are l e s s r e s p o n s i v e t o p h y s i c a l improvements t h a n t h e y had supposed , r e a d i l y admi t t h a t t h e r e i s a d i s t u r b i n g gap between t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s and t h e i r a c h i e v e m e n t s , be tween i n t e n t i o n and f a c t . To c l o s e t h i s gap t h e y have i n c r e a s i n g l y come t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o t h e human f a c t o r and are g r a d u a l l y i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e i n s i g h t s o f t h e s o c i a l and b e h a v -i o r a l s c i e n c e s i n t o t h e i r w o r k . I b i d . , p . 4 9 4 . 27 15 . E b e n e z e r H o w a r d ' s book was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1898 as Tomorrow: A P e a c e f u l P a t h t o R e a l R e f o r m . 16 . E b e n e z e r Howard, Garden C i t i e s o f Tomorrow, F a b e r and F a b e r L t d . , L o n d o n , 1946, p . 1 0 . Mumford c o n c u r s i n t h i s a n a l y s i s s t a t i n g t h a t H o w a r d ' s o r i g i n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n came w i t h h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e garden c i t y as a compact , r i g o r o u s l y c o n f i n e d u r b a n g r o u p i n g . I b i d . , p . 3 4 . 17 . I b i d . , p . 3 4 What was needed , Howard s a w . . . w a s a m a r r i a g e o f town and c o u n t r y , o f r u s t i c h e a l t h and s a n i t y and a c t i v i t y and u r b a n k n o w l e d g e , u r b a n t e c h n i c a l f a c i l i t y , u r b a n p o l i t i c a l c o o p e r a t i o n . The i n s t r u -ment o f t h a t m a r r i a g e was t h e Garden C i t y . 18 . H o w a r d ' s s k e t c h e s o f what a ga rden c i t y m i g h t l o o k l i k e were d i a g r a m s o n l y and he s t a t e d t h a t t h e y were " m e r e l y s u g g e s t i v e , and w i l l p r o b a b l y be much d e p a r t e d f r o m " , (p .51) 19 . Howard , o p . c i t . , p . 2 9 . Mumford n o t e s t h a t Howard c o u l d n o t have known t h i s . 20 . I b i d . , p p . 1 8 , 51 , 71 , 98, 103 . 2 1 . I b i d . , p . 7 1 22 . Humphrey C a r v e r , C i t i e s i n t h e S u b u r b s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1962, p . 5 5 . 2 3 . C . A . P e r r y (a) "The N e i g h b o r h o o d U n i t " , R e g i o n a l S u r v e y o f New Y o r k and I t s E n v i r o n s " V I I , T929, p p . 2 4 - 1 4 0 . 24 . G i l b e r t H e r b e r t , "The N e i g h b o r h o o d U n i t P r i n c i p l e and O r g a n i c T h e o r y " , S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , 11 , 1963, p p . 1 8 3 , 1 8 5 . 25 . I b i d . , p . 166 26 . P e r r y , o p . c i t . , p . 2 3 . 27 . I b i d . . p p . 1 2 5 - 1 2 6 . 28 28 . G . A . P e r r y , H o u s i n g f o r t h e M a c h i n e Age , New Y o r k , R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1939, p . 5 1 , c i t e d i n R i c h a r d Dewey, "The N e i g h b o r h o o d , Urban E c o l o g y and C i t y P l a n n e r s " , P . K . H a t t , A . J . R e i s s , J r . , e d s . , C i t i e s and S o c i e t i e s , New Y o r k , The F r e e P r e s s , 1957, p p . 7 8 5 - 7 8 6 . 29 . H e r b e r t , o p . c i t . , p . 1 9 1 . 30 . I b i d . , p . 1 6 8 . On t h e f o l l o w i n g pages , H e r b e r t p r e s e n t s an e x c e l l e n t a n n o t a t e d a c c o u n t o f t h e works upon w h i c h P e r r y b u i l t t o d e r i v e h i s c o n c e p t . 3 1 . C . H . C o o l e y , S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n , New Y o r k , S c r i b n e r ' s , 1920, p . 2 3 . c i t e d i n P e r r y , o p . c i t . , p . 1 2 6 . 3 2 . H e r b e r t , o p . c i t . , p . 1 6 6 . 3 3 . C o o l e y , o p . c i t . , p . 2 3 . 34 . See H e r b e r t , o p . c i t . , p p . 1 7 3 - 1 7 9 . Many who w o r k e d w i t h p e r m u t a t i o n s o f P e r r y ' s i d e a adopted s m a l l e r s o c i a l and p l a n n i n g u n i t s out o f w h i c h t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d u n i t was s y n t h e s i z e d . 3 5 . See R. Shean M c C o n n e l l , An E v a l u a t i o n and A n a l y s i s o f t h e N e i g h b o r h o o d U n i t C o n c e p t , M a s t e r o f S c i e n c e t h e s i s , U . B . C , 1958, p p . 2 4 - 3 1 . 36 . R e g i n a l d I s a a c s , "The N e i g h b o r h o o d T h e o r y , An A n a l y s i s o f i t s A d e q u a c y " , J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e  o f P l a n n e r s , S p r i n g , 1948, p p . 1 5 - 2 3 . 3 7 . C h a r l e s H e r r i c k , "The N e i g h b o r h o o d T h e o r y , An Answer t o M r . I s a a c s " , J o u r n a l o f the A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f  P l a n n e r s , Summer, 1948, p p . 3 8 - 4 0 . 3 8 . See P . F e l l i n , E . L i t w a k , " N e i g h b o r h o o d C o h e s i o n Under C o n d i t i o n s o f M o b i l i t y " , A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l  R e v i e w , v o l . 28, p p . 3 6 4 - 3 7 7 . 3 9 . Max W e h r l y , " N e i g h b o r h o o d P l a n n i n g " , J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , F a l l , 1948, p p . 3 2 - 3 4 . 4 0 . L e w i s Mumford , "The N e i g h b o r h o o d and t h e N e i g h b o r h o o d U n i t " , Town P l a n n i n g R e v i e w , v o l . 24, p p . 2 5 6 - 2 7 0 . 29 4 1 . J a q u e l i n e T y r w h i t t , "The S i z e and S p a c i n g o f Urban C o m m u n i t i e s " , J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e  o f P l a n n e r s , Summer, 1949, p . 1 5 . 4 2 . H e r b e r t , o p . c i t . , p . 1 9 4 . 4 3 . J . V . Cunningham, The R e s u r g e n t N e i g h b o r h o o d , N o t r e Dame I n d i a n a , F i d e s P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1965, p . 3 1 . 44 . P e t e r W i l l m o t t , " H o u s i n g D e n s i t y and Town D e s i g n i n a New Town" , Town P l a n n i n g R e v i e w , J u l y , 1962, p . 1 2 6 , c i t e d i n H e r b e r t , o p . c i t . , p . 1 9 3 . 4 5 . H e r b e r t , o p . c i t . , p . 1 9 4 . 4 6 . I b i d . , p . 1 9 5 . 4 7 . See a r t i c l e c i t e d i n H . Gans , " P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l L i f e " , J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , May, 1961 , p . 1 3 4 , f o o t n o t e 1. 30 CHAPTER I I N e i g h b o r , R o l e o f N e i g h b o r , N e i g h b o r i n g I . I n t r o d u c t i o n 1. P h y s i c a l d e t e r m i n i s m One o f t h e m a j o r c o n c e r n s o f t h e p l a n n e r i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t - -s t r e e t p a t t e r n , b u i l d i n g a r r a n g e m e n t , l a n d u s e s - - w i l l have on t h e s o c i a l l i f e o f p e o p l e i n h a b i t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a . F u n d a m e n t a l t o h i s f u n c t i o n i s t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t does have some e f f e c t on t h e l i v e s o f t h e p e o p l e who l i v e i n i t . Thus b y c o n t r o l l i n g t h e q u a l i t y and n a t u r e o f t h i s p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , t h e p l a n n e r must be 1 a b l e t o improve t h e l o t o f t h o s e who w i l l i n h a b i t t h e a r e a . O b v i o u s l y , t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d u n i t c o n c e p t s p r u n g from such a b a s i c b e l i e f . 2 . I m p o r t a n c e o f i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s However , p r a c t i c e f a l l s somewhat s h o r t o f t h e o r y and as s t a t e d i n t h e f i r s t c h a p t e r , many p l a n n e r s are now c a l l i n g f o r some h a r d r e s e a r c h s p e c i f i c a l l y adapted t o t h e i r n e e d s . That i s , t h e y want e v i d e n c e as t o how t h e y may e f f e c t p h y s i c a l changes w h i c h w i l l c r e a t e t h e d e s i r e d s o c i a l changes i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f an a r e a . Put more s u c -c i n c t l y , p l a n n e r s need r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s t h a t w i l l show them "how v a r i o u s k i n d s o f p e o p l e a d j u s t t o t h e v a r i o u s k i n d s o f 2 s p a t i a l s e p a r a t i o n s t h a t abound t o d a y " . R e l a t i o n s h i p s s h o w i n g 31 t h e c o n n e c t i o n between v a r i o u s p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l phenomena— how p h y s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s (homes and n e i g h b o r -hoods) accommodate d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l g r o u p s — w i l l p r o v i d e t h e b u i l d i n g b l o c k s f o r h a r d d e c i s i o n s i n t h e d e s i g n o f f u t u r e l i v i n g a r e a s . As y e t , t h e one c l e a r r e s u l t o f r a t h e r u n s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h appears t o be t h a t t h e r e i s no one t o one r e l a t i o n -s h i p between p h y s i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s and s o c i a l l i f e . As K u p e r c o n c l u d e s The f i n d i n g s i n r e g a r d t o t h e s o c i a l consequences o f t h e s p a t i a l a r rangement o f t h e h o u s e s , t a k e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e A m e r i c a n s t u d i e s , p r o v i d e some e v i d e n c e i n s u p p o r t o f t h e p l a n n i n g a s s u m p t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r m i n i s m . But t h e r e i s no s i m p l e m e c h a n i c a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n ; t h e c o n -sequences depend f i n a l l y on t h e v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . 3 K u p e r ' s s e n t i m e n t s are echoed b y K e l l e r when she s t a t e s t h a t Above a l l , p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and d i s t a n c e s cannot be m a n i p u l a t e d m e c h a n i c a l l y a lways t o a c h i e v e t h e e x p e c t e d r e s u l t s . . . . A g a i n , i t i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e g roups b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r t h a t d e t e r m i n e t h e o u t c o m e . . . . P h y s i c a l s i t i n g and d e s i g n are e f f e c t i v e w i t h i n l i m i t s o n l y , and o n l y b y k n o w i n g t h e s e can t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l f o r c e s be b r o u g h t i n t o some s o r t o f c r e a t i v e a l i g n m e n t . 4 M a r t i n seems t o draw t h e same c o n c l u s i o n i n an a r t i c l e on s u b u r b a n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . He n o t e s t h a t h o m o g e n e i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n has been h e l d out as b e i n g one o f t h e c h i e f causes o f f r i e n d l y and g r e g a r i o u s s u b u r b s . However , he f e e l s t h a t homogeneous p o p u l a t i o n i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o e x p l a i n 32 t h i s phenomenon. He s t a t e s Some o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n s f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o because o f t h e i r l a c k o f n e i g h b o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s l i v e i n e q u a l l y homogeneous, m i d d l e c l a s s d i s t r i c t s , t h e s u b - a r e a s o f l a r g e c i t i e s . I t appears t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e be tween t h e i n t e r -a c t i o n p a t t e r n s o b s e r v e d i n m i d d l e c l a s s apar tment house a reas and i n suburbs must be r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e r e s t s , a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s . N o t h i n g about t h e p h y s i c a l a r rangement o f u n i t s i n apar tment houses appears t o be i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h n e i g h b o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s . P e o p l e are a t t r a c t e d o r r e p e l l e d by suburban l o c a t i o n s t o t h e e x t e n t t h e y are p e r c e i v e d as p l a c e s where c e r t a i n g o a l s can be a c h i e v e d . Thus , t h e d e m o g r a p h i c and s o c i o -economic f e a t u r e s o f suburbs may be i m p o r t a n t m a i n l y because t h e y e n s u r e t h e y o u t h , e n e r g y and f i n a n c i a l a b i l i t y t o c a r r y on t h e i n t e r a c t i o n w h i c h d e v e l o p s i n a homogeneous p o p u l a t i o n h a v i n g t h e i n t e r e s t s and a t t i t u d e s a t t r i b u t e d t o suburban r e s i d e n t s . 5 The i m p o r t a n t p o i n t M a r t i n makes i s n o t t h a t suburban r e s i d e n t i a l a rea s are more f r i e n d l y t h a n n o n - s u b u r b a n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , b u t t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s found may be due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n " i n t e r e s t s , a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s " o f t h e r e s i d e n t s . Gans , i n " P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l L i f e " , agrees w i t h M a r t i n when h e s t a t e s t h a t . . . w h i l e p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y does a f f e c t some v i s i t i n g p a t t e r s , p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h n e i g h b o r s and t h e more i n t e n s i v e forms o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , such as f r i e n d s h i p , r e q u i r e h o m o g e n e i t y o f b a c k g r o u n d , o r o f i n t e r e s t s , o r o f v a l u e s . 6 3 . Type o f r e s e a r c h needed I t w o u l d seem t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r m i n i s m — t h e t o t a l c o n d i t i o n i n g o f p e o p l e ' s l i v e s b y t h e i r p h y s i c a l 7 s u r r o u n d i n g s — a p p e a r s somewhat d i s c r e d i t e d . What can p l a n n i n g do and what d i r e c t i o n s s h o u l d t h e d i s c i p l i n e be t a k i n g t o accommodate t h e p l a n n e r s ' c o n c e r n f o r t h e s o c i a l e f f e c t s t h a t t h e i r d e c i s i o n s may have? One d i r e c t i o n t h a t i s b e i n g t a k e n b y t h e p r o f e s s i o n i s t o w a r d s p r o m o t i n g some-t h i n g c a l l e d " p l a n n e d c o m m u n i t i e s " . Rosow p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e p l a n n e r s ' aim t o i n t e g r a t e p e o p l e i n t o c o m m u n i t i e s on a r e s i d e n t i a l b a s i s b y t h i s means i s a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e s e g m e n t a l i z e d modern u r b a n l i f e . I n t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s , s t u d i e s have shown t h a t p e o p l e s e l e c t t h e i r f r i e n d s p r i m a r i l y f rom 8 t h o s e who l i v e n e a r b y and t h o s e whom t h e i r home f a c e s . Thus i t appear s t h a t f r i e n d s h i p groups are d e t e r m i n e d by two v a r i a b l e s : p r o x i m i t y o f n e i g h b o r s and o r i e n t a t i o n o f d w e l l i n g s . Y e t upon c l o s e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , he f e e l s t h a t t h e s e s t u d i e s p o i n t out a much more r e s t r i c t e d c o n c l u s i o n . Namely t h a t When p e o p l e o f a s i m i l a r t y p e ( v i z . s t u d e n t s , war p l a n t w o r k e r s e t c . ) are b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r i n t o a new community f o r a r e l a t i v e l y impermanent p e r i o d , c o n s i d e r a b l e s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y s p r i n g s u p . 9 T h u s , one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s i s t h a t o f t h e h o m o g e n e i t y o f t h e g roup b e i n g s t u d i e d . However , when p l a n n e d and u n p l a n n e d c o m m u n i t i e s are compared, I t r ema ins t o be shown t h a t u n p l a n n e d n e i g h b o r -hoods o f e q u a l d e n s i t y and e q u a l l y homogeneous c o m p o s i t i o n do n o t p r o v i d e t h e i d e n t i c a l p a t t e r n s o f f r i e n d s h i p f o r m a t i o n and g roup s t r u c t u r e . 10 Rosow f i n a l l y c o n c l u d e s t h a t There i s l i t t l e c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e o f more t h a n ephemera l changes i n s o c i a l p a t t e r s t h r o u g h t h e medium o f p l a n n e d c o m m u n i t i e s . P a r t i c u l a r l y t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e community does n o t seem t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r t h a n i s found i n homogeneous, u n p l a n n e d n e i g h b o r h o o d s . S t r a t i f i c a t i o n and r a c i a l d i v i s i o n r e m a i n e f f e c t i v e f o r c e s . T h u s , t o a l l i n t e n t s and p u r p o s e s , i t r ema ins t o be e s t a b l i s h e d how p l a n n i n g does s i g n i f i c a n t l y more t h a n s h i f t o r r e - g r o u p a c t i v e - - n o t l a t e n t - -s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n t o new s e t t i n g s . 11 Rosow does n o t seem t o be c a l l i n g f o r an end t o p l a n n i n g o f c o m m u n i t i e s as a f u t i l e e f f o r t so much as an end t o f o l k -l o r e and myth as t o t h e ends t h a t p h y s i c a l p l a n n i n g can a c c o m p l i s h . C o n c o m i t t a n t w i t h t h i s c a l l i s a demand f o r a more r e f i n e d r e s e a r c h approach t o d i s c o v e r f u n d a m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s u s e f u l t o p l a n n e r s i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o d e v e l o p p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a t w i l l meet t h e s o c i a l as w e l l as p h y s i c a l needs o f t h e g roups l i v i n g i n them. As w e l l he seems t o i m p l y t h a t t h e need t o u n d e r s t a n d a t t i t u d e s i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n the need t o s t u d y o n l y a c t i o n s . . . . T h e r e i s a w i d e gap between t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t t h e a r c h i t e c t e x e r t s an i n f l u e n c e on s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s under w h i c h t h i s i n f l u e n c e can be used t o a c h i e v e a p a r t i c u l a r r e s u l t . H a p h a z a r d , u n -a n t i c i p a t e d i n f l u e n c e i s one t h i n g ; c o n t r o l , q u i t e a n o t h e r . I t w i l l c e r t a i n l y need many e x p e r i m e n t s , and t h e i r c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s , b e f o r e we are a b l e t o a s se s s t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e Town P l a n n e r t o n e i g h b o r l i n e s s and t o community l i v i n g by c o n t r o l o f t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . 12 R e s e a r c h i s needed t h a t w i l l t e s t some o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p r e m i s e s upon w h i c h p l a n n e r s base t h e i r work r e g a r d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s . The n e i g h b o r h o o d u n i t c o n c e p t has had p r o p o n e n t s and opponents b u t b o t h groups converge i n a c a l l f o r more r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h . Perhaps i n t h i s a r e a o f h o u s i n g , p l a n n e r s have s t a t e d more e x p l i c i t l y t h a n anywhere e l s e what t h e y f e e l are t h e s o c i a l g o a l s t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t s w i l l p r o m o t e . I t i s j u s t p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e p l a n n e r may have i n a d v e r t e n t l y d e v e l o p e d t h e s u b s t r u c t u r e t o b r i d g e t h e gap K e l l e r speaks o f when she n o t e s t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e o r y and f a c t as t o the p l a n n i n g approach t o p r o b l e m s . I n t h e o r y , p l a n n i n g i s i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y , b u t i n f a c t i t i s n o t . T h i s i s p a r t l y because r e s e a r c h e r s i n r e l e v a n t d i s c i p l i n e s such as s o c i o l o g y have n o t adapted t h e i r e f f o r t s t o p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d by p l a n n e r s and p a r t l y because p l a n n e r s have n e v e r a r t i c u l a t e d 13 c l e a r l y enough what t h e i r needs a r e . One o f t h e i m p l i c i t g o a l s o f n e i g h b o r h o o d o r r e s i d e n t i a l p l a n n e r s appears t o be t h a t o f c r e a t i n g some s o r t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p among p e o p l e l i v i n g i n a c o n t i g u o u s a r e a t h a t may n o t e x i s t i n t h e d e s i r e d form i n o t h e r a r e a s . Perhaps most g e n e r a l l y and most a m b i g u o u s l y , i t can be s t a t e d t h a t p l a n n e r s are a t t e m p t i n g t o c r e a t e a s p e c i a l n e i g h b o r h o o d c o h e s i o n , t h a t i s , t h e o l d d e s i r e t o t r a n s p l a n t 36 t h e h e a l t h y community l i f e o f t h e s m a l l town i n t h e c i t y . Even when, as was p o i n t e d out i n c h a p t e r one , t h i s g o a l has been r e p l a c e d b y a d e s i r e t o a c c o u n t f o r s o c i a l consequences o f p h y s i c a l p l a n s , a m a j o r c o n c e r n i s s t i l l w i t h t h e n a t u r e and q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . Perhaps h e r e i s one o f t h e r e a l p r o b l e m s . As Gans p o i n t s o u t The p l a n n e r has t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n c e r n e d h i m s e l f more w i t h t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d t h a n w i t h e i t h e r t h e b l o c k o r t h e p o l i t i c a l communi ty . The n e i g h b o r -hood i s n o t a m e a n i n g f u l s o c i a l u n i t , h o w e v e r , s i n c e t h e s i g n i f i c a n t f a c e t o f a c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o c c u r on t h e b l o c k . 14 Perhaps i f a t t e n t i o n o f r e s e a r c h e r s was r e d i r e c t e d t o f o c u s on more s p e c i f i c i s s u e s , p l a n n e r s c o u l d b e g i n t o d e v e l o p p h y s i c a l p l a n s w i t h w h i c h t h e y c o u l d more r a t i o n a l l y t a k e a c c o u n t o f t h e s o c i a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e i r a c t i o n s . R e s e a r c h l o c a l e may more f r u i t f u l l y be d i r e c t e d at a c t i v i t i e s l e s s n e b u l o u s t h a n t h o s e p u r p o r t e d t o o c c u r a t t h e a r b i t r a r y p l a t e a u o f t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d . Emphas i s s h o u l d be on r e l a t i o n -s h i p s among p e o p l e t h a t o c c u r no m a t t e r w h e r e , be i t be tween two p e o p l e n e x t t o one a n o t h e r i n r e s i d e n c e o r be tween c o -w o r k e r s who l i v e f a r a p a r t . The i m p o r t a n c e o f such r e l a t i o n -s h i p s must be judged f rom t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e p e o p l e e n g a g i n g i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . There i s a d e f i n i t e need f o r r e s e a r c h t h a t p o i n t s o u t what i m p o r t a n c e p e o p l e i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s p l a c e on d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s and what t h e c o n n e c t i o n between such r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s . Such r e s e a r c h w o u l d d e v e l o p answers t h a t w i l l p e r m i t p l a n n e r s t o f o r m u l a t e s o c i a l g o a l s i n te rms o f v e r y d e f i n i t e and a t t a i n a b l e o b j e c t i v e s t h a t w i l l be o f r e l e v a n c e t o t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d . Thus i t appears t h a t r a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t i n g t o m a n i p u l a t e supposed s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o a t t a i n some ambiguous form o f s t e r e o t y p e d "good l i f e " t h r o u g h changes i n t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , a more r a t i o n a l approach w o u l d be t o a t t e m p t t o d i s c e r n t h e p o s s i b l e range o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t e x i s t - - o u t s i d e o f t h o s e between members o f i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n one u n i t — b e t w e e n p e o p l e when t h e y c a r r y on t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f e v e r y d a y l i f e i n a r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g . H a v i n g i s o l a t e d t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o s t u d y them as t h e y e x i s t , t r y i n g t o d i s c o v e r what i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s t h e y are composed o f so t h a t m a n i p u l a t i v e a c t i o n c o u l d be t a k e n on t h e s e i f s o m e t h i n g o t h e r t h a n t h e e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s d e s i r e d . The need f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween p e o p l e i n r e s i d e n t i a l a reas i s f u r t h e r emphas i zed by a s t u d y r e p o r t i n g t h a t . . . i t was t h e v e r y h i g h f r e q u e n c y among t h e d i s s a t i s f i e d o f c o m p l a i n t s c o n c e r n i n g s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( c h u r c h a f f i l i a t i o n , f r e q u e n c y o f c o n t a c t w i t h f r i e n d s , and t h e k i n d s o f p e o p l e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ) w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h them from t h e v e r y s a t i s f i e d . 15 38 The i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n c e n t r a t i n g r e s e a r c h e f f o r t i n t h i s a r e a cannot be i n d o u b t . I I . S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s i n R e s i d e n t i a l A r e a s 1. U s e f u l n e s s o f t h e i d e a O b v i o u s l y , i n modern c i t i e s v e r y few p e r s o n s l i v e s are c o n f i n e d t o t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l accommodat ions . Many t r a v e l f a r a f i e l d f o r w o r k i n g , s h o p p i n g and l e i s u r e . However , no m a t t e r where t h e y go, t h e y a l l have one r e l a t i o n s h i p from w h i c h t h e r e i s no e scape ( u n l e s s , o f c o u r s e , one i s a p r a c t i c i n g h e r m i t ) — t h a t o f b e i n g a n e i g h b o r . I t appear s t h a t one f r u i t f u l d i r e c t i o n f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h may be away f rom t h e s t u d y o f t h e 16 n e i g h b o r h o o d as a c e r t a i n p a t c h o f g round and towards t h e s t u d y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t may o c c u r i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . U n d e r s t a n d i n g how p e o p l e a c t and t h i n k as n e i g h b o r s i s one c o n c r e t e s t e p t o w a r d b e i n g a b l e t o promote a more s a t i s f a c t o r y e n v i r o n m e n t . 'Undersfcand'ing such a b a s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p w o u l d p e r m i t p l a n n e r s t o a t l e a s t be more s e n s i t i v e t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t i t has on p e o p l e ' s l i v e s . Whereas s i t i n g houses a round a c u l - d e - s a c may o r may n o t promote s o c i a l c o h e s i o n ( d e f i n e d by " g o o d " n e i g h b o r l y r e l a t i o n s ) among t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e h o u s e , an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what p e o p l e f e e l a n e i g h b o r s h o u l d be and do may a l l o w p l a n n e r s t o m a n i p u l a t e space so as t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e deve lopment o f t h e c o n c e p t . T h i s i s n o t e n v i r o n m e n t a l d e t e r m i n i s m , b u t e n l i g h t e n e d use o f p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s t o promote d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n at one l e v e l . D e s i r a b l e i n t h i s case b e i n g d e f i n e d by t h e i n -h a b i t a n t s o f t h e a r e a and n o t b y some a r b i t r a r y w i g g l e s on a p i e c e o f p a p e r . B e f o r e g o i n g on t o a more c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e n e i g h b o r r e l a t i o n s h i p , a d i s c u s s i o n o f some o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f p a s t s t u d i e s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . 2. P rob lems o f p a s t s t u d i e s The prob lems w i t h p a s t s t u d i e s have been o f t h r e e g e n e r a l t y p e s . F i r s t , and perhaps most i m p o r t a n t , s i n c e t h e o t h e r two p r o b l e m s l i k e l y f o l l o w from t h i s one , t h e r e has n o t been a l o g i c a l , s y s t e m a t i c s t a t e m e n t o f t h e o r y upon w h i c h t o p r o c e e d . The r e s u l t has been a number o f vague ambiguous c o n c l u s i o n s on s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s b a s e d on v a r y i n g d e f i n i t i o n s and emphases . However , many o f t h e s e p a s t s t u d i e s may be seen as f r a g m e n t a r y a t t e m p t s t o u n d e r s t a n d how p e o p l e f u n c t i o n i n r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g s . They are i m p o r t a n t because r a t h e r t h a n a s suming knowledge o f how p e o p l e f u n c t i o n and b e i n g c o n c e r n e d w i t h how t o m a n i p u l a t e t h e i r a c t i o n s so as t o g i v e them a more r e w a r d i n g l i f e - s t y l e , t h e s e a u t h o r s c l e a r l y saw t h e need f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g — t h e nee f o r d e s c r i p t i v e r e s e a r c h — b e f o r e a n y t h i n g r e m o t e l y r e s e m b l i n g p l a n s t h a t t a k e a c c o u n t o f s o c i a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d . A n o t h e r p r o b l e m o f p a s t s t u d i e s has been t h a t t h e y have n o t f o c u s e d c l o s e l y enough on t h e prob lems p l a n n e r s s h o u l d d e a l w i t h . R a t h e r t h a n o n l y n e i g h b o r h o o d a n d / o r r e g i o n a l f o c u s , perhaps a n o t h e r a r e a f o r c o n c e r n does l i e i n f a c e t o f a c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s as Gans s t a t e s . The t h i r d p r o b l e m o f p a s t s t u d i e s has t o do w i t h a c e r t a i n t y p e o f s t u d y o f d i r e c t c o n c e r n t o p l a n n e r s o f r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . The b a s i c p r o b l e m appears t o be s i m i l a r t o t h a t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d u n i t c o n c e p t . Once a g a i n i t appears t h a t b r o a d , g e n e r a l i z e d g o a l s have been s e t and t h e n t e c h n i q u e s have been sought t o a t t a i n t h e s e g o a l s b e f o r e i t i s r e a l l y c l e a r what i s i n v o l v e d i n a t t a i n i n g t h e g o a l . These s t u d i e s d e a l w i t h t h e p l a n n e r s ' d e s i r e t o 17 d e v e l o p " b a l a n c e d c o m m u n i t i e s " . I n g e n e r a l t h e r e seems t o be agreement t h a t a b a l a n c e d community , as opposed t o a community composed o f one t y p e o f p e r s o n s , i s d e s i r a b l e . There a l s o seems t o be agreement t h a t t h e v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s t y p e o f community are o f two t y p e s : s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l D i s c u s s i o n s d e a l w i t h t h e r o l e o f p r o p i n q u i t y i n p r o d u c i n g a b a l a n c e d community w i t h homogeneous o r h e t e r o g e n e o u s p o p -u l a t i o n s a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e b l o c k , n e i g h b o r h o o d , o r community . The t e r m p r o p i n q u i t y u s u a l l y r e f e r s t o t h e r e s i d e n t i a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h a number o f p e r s o n s are b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r i n t o a g e o g r a p h i c a r e a d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e t y p e and s p a c i n g o f t h e d w e l l i n g u n i t s . O f t e n i t was f e l t t h a t p r o p i n q u i t y w o u l d c r e a t e a f e e l i n g o f community o r t o g e t h e r n e s s w h i c h w o u l d be h e a l t h y o r good f o r t h e p e o p l e l i v i n g t h e r e and f o r t h e c i t y as a w h o l e . One e lement o f t h i s p r o p i n q u i t y w o u l d be c l o s e l y a l l i e d t o an u n d e r l y i n g g o a l o f t h e n e i g h b o r hood u n i t p l a n as w e l l as r e f e r r i n g b a c k t o one o f t h e f i r s t g e n e r a l g o a l s o f p l a n n e r s : t h e d e s i r e t o b r i n g t h e good l i f e o f t h e s m a l l town and c o u n t r y t o t h e c i t y . I t was f e l t t h a t p r o p i n q u i t o u s r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n a d e f i n e d , u s u a l l y s m a l l a r e a , w o u l d l e a d t o s o c i a l c o n t r o l o f d e v i a n t b e h a v i o r . 18 19 However , R iemer and K u p e r r e f u t e such a c o n t e n t i o n . The 20 h a s t y c o n c l u s i o n s o f F e s t i n g e r , S c h a c h t e r and Back are now s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d . Rosow, when s p e a k i n g o f community i n t e g r a t i o n , r e p o r t s t h a t i n p l a n n e d c o m m u n i t i e s f r i e n d s h i p groups are d e t e r m i n e d by two v a r i a b l e s : p r o x i m i t y o f n e i g h b o r s and o r i e n t a t i o n o f d w e l l i n g s P e o p l e s e l e c t t h e i r f r i e n d s p r i m a r i l y f rom t h o s e who l i v e n e a r b y and t h o s e whom t h e i r home f a c e s 21 However , he goes on t o p o i n t out t h a t " t h e f u l l s i g n i f i c a n c e 22 o f t h e s e p a t t e r n s . . . i s l e s s c l e a r " , and t h a t i t r ema ins t o be shown t h a t s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s do n o t o c c u r i n u n p l a n n e d c o m m u n i t i e s . He s t r i k e s upon h o m o g e n e i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n as b e i n g i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g how w e l l i n t e g r a t e d t h e a r e a w i l l b e . Gans a l s o n o t e s and a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n a very-i m p o r t a n t c o n n e c t i o n t h a t he f e e l s e x i s t s between p r o p i n -q u i t y and h o m o g e n e i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n . He f e e l s t h a t . . . a r c h i t e c t u r a l and s i t e p l a n s can encourage o r d i s c o u r a g e s o c i a l c o n t a c t be tween n e i g h b o r s , b u t t h a t h o m o g e n e i t y o f b a c k g r o u n d (age and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l ) o r o f i n t e r e s t s ( l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y p r e f e r e n c e s ) o r v a l u e s ( such as t h o s e w i t h r e s p e c t o f p r i v a c y o r c h i l d r e a r i n g ) was n e c e s s a r y f o r t h i s c o n t a c t t o d e v e l o p i n t o a n y -t h i n g more t h a n a p o l i t e exchange o f g r e e t i n g s . W i t h o u t such h o m o g e n e i t y , more i n t e n s i v e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s are n o t l i k e l y t o d e v e l o p and e x c e s s i v e h e t e r o g e n e i t y can l e a d t o c o o l n e s s between n e i g h b o r s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r p r o p i n q u i t y . Homogen-e i t y i s even more f u n d a m e n t a l i n f r i e n d s h i p f o r m a t i o n , and i t s p r e s e n c e a l l o w s p e o p l e t o f i n d f r i e n d s n e a r -b y , whereas i t s absence r e q u i r e s them t o l o o k f a r t h e r a f i e l d f o r f r i e n d s . 23 He c a l l s f o r a "moderate degree o f h o m o g e n e i t y " by w h i c h he means some s o r t o f l i k e n e s s among r e s i d e n t s r e g a r d i n g age and i n c o m e . . . . t h e r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r h o m o g e n e i t y o f age and income p r o v i d e s t h e c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e s w h i c h a l l o w p e o p l e t o e n j o y t h e i r n e i g h b o r s ' h e t e r o g e n e i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o o t h e r , l e s s b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 24 T h i s h o m o g e n e i t y w o u l d o c c u r at t h e b l o c k and n o t a t t h e community l e v e l . He e q u a t e s i n c r e a s i n g h e t e r o g e n e i t y w i t h l e s s e n i n g c o n t a c t be tween n e i g h b o r s . H i s "moderate degree o f h o m o g e n e i t y " i s t o be such t h a t i t w i l l a s s u r e 43 1. Enough consensus be tween n e i g h b o r s t o p r e v e n t c o n f l i c t . 2 . P o s i t i v e a l t h o u g h n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n t e n s i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between n e i g h b o r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o common needs and o b l i g a t i o n s . 3 . The p o s s i b i l i t y o f some m u t u a l v i s i t i n g and f r i e n d s h i p f o r m a t i o n f o r t h o s e who want i t i n t h e immedia te v i c i n i t y . 25 He r e a l i z e d t h a t p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y i s i m p o r t a n t b u t t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s o f t h e p e o p l e i n a r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g are o f more i m p o r t a n c e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t w i l l o c c u r . H i s b a s i c t h e s i s , l i k e R o s o w 1 s , i s t h a t p r o p i n q u i t y i n i t i a t e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s b u t homogeneous p o p u l a t i o n s may t r a n s f o r m t h e s e i n i t i a l n e i g h b o r l y r e l a t i o n s i n t o more p o s i t i v e f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s . He s t a t e s t h a t Homogeneous n e i g h b o r s may become f r i e n d s , whereas h e t e r o g e n e o u s ones soon reduce t h e amount o f v i s i t i n g , and e v e n t u a l l y l i m i t t h e m s e l v e s t o b e i n g n e i g h b o r l y . 26 Thus " n e i g h b o r l y " r e l a t i o n s h i p s are e s s e n t i a l l y second r a t e and perhaps b y i m p l i c a t i o n n o t as s a t i s f y i n g , whereas i n f a c t t h e y may be j u s t as i m p o r t a n t i n s a t i s f y i n g c e r t a i n needs when c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e t o t a l c o n t e x t o f a l l t h e t y p e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t each a c t o r engages i n . Gans i s t o t a l l y u n p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t any b u t h i s own c o n c e p t i o n o f how n e i g h b o r s must a c t t o w a r d one a n o t h e r i n o r d e r t o f u l f i l l t h e i r r o l e s as n e i g h b o r s i n an optimum manner . N e i g h b o r l y r e l a t i o n s t h a t do n o t d e v e l o p i n t o f r i e n d -4 4 s h i p s are i n a d e q u a t e . He cannot c o n c e i v e o f any o t h e r r o l e o f n e i g h b o r b e i n g a c c e p t e d by n e i g h b o r s t o a t t a i n t h e same 27 end r e s u l t . He does n o t appear t o t r u l y g r a s p t h e e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e be tween f r i e n d s h i p and " n e i g h b o r s h i p " and t o r e a l i z e t h a t each f u l f u l l s d i f f e r e n t n e e d s . I m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t n e i g h b o r s are l i k e l y t o have f r e q u e n t v i s u a l c o n t a c t , and i f t h e r e i s t o be s o c i a l c o n t a c t , t h e y must be r e l a t i v e l y c o m p a t i b l e . Some p e o p l e m i n i m i z e s o c i a l c o n t a c t w i t h i m m e d i a t e l y a d j a c e n t n e i g h b o r s on p r i n c i p l e , i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s f rom c r e a t i n g d i s a g r e e m e n t . S i n c e such n e i g h b o r s l i v e i n i n v o l u n t a r y p r o p i n q u i t y , c o n f l i c t m i g h t r e s u l t i n p e r m a n e n t l y i m p a i r e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h m i g h t f o r c e one o r t h e o t h e r t o move o u t . 28 He i s p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n r o l e o f n e i g h b o r as seen by n e i g h b o r s can cause one o r t h e o t h e r t o move. However , he s t i l l c o n t e n d s t h a t o n l y " s o c i a l c o n t a c t " s u p -p o s e d l y o f a more p r o f o u n d n a t u r e t h a n " n e i g h b o r l y c o n t a c t " , can produce a h e a l t h y n e i g h b o r l y r e l a t i o n s h i p . However , i n f a i r n e s s t o Gans , i t must be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t he does c a l l f o r h o m o g e n e i t y i n o r d e r t o a t t a i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y among r e s i d e n t s . He speaks o f h o m o g e n e i t y o f b a c k g r o u n d , i n t e r e s t s , and v a l u e s w h i c h c o u l d produce c o m p a t i b l e r o l e s o f n e i g h b o r . S o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are n o t based on census d a t a , b u t on s u b j e c t i v e l y e x p e r i e n c e d d e f -i n i t i o n s o f h o m o g e n e i t y and h e t e r o g e n e i t y w h i c h t e r m i n a t e i n judgments o f c o m p a t a b i l i t y and i n c o m p a t a b i l i t y . S o c i o l o g i s t s g e n e r a l l y agree t h a t b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s , v a l u e s and i n t e r e s t s — w h a t p e o p l e 45 t h i n k and d o - - a r e more i m p o r t a n t c r i t e r i a f o r h o m o g e n e i t y t h a n b a c k g r o u n d f a c t o r s . 29 I t w o u l d appear t h a t one c r i t e r i a o f h o m o g e n e i t y w o u l d be w i t h r e g a r d s t o r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . P e o p l e are l i k e l y t o be more c o m p a t i b l e i f t h e y h o l d homogeneous c o n c e p t s o f r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . K e l l e r as w e l l becomes an advoca te o f some s o r t o f s o c i a l c l a s s h o m o g e n e i t y . Her s appears t o be b a s e d on t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t S o c i a l c l a s s . . . ( i s ) one o f t h e p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e k i n d , amount, o c c a s i o n s and i n t e n s i t y o f n e i g h b o r i n g 30 l e a d i n g t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t . . . n o t o n l y do members o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s and s t a t u s groups d e f i n e n e i g h b o r s and n e i g h b o r i n g d i f f e r e n t l y , b u t s o c i a l c l a s s h o m o g e n e i t y i n c r e a s e s n e i g h b o r i n g b o t h among w o r k i n g - c l a s s and m i d d l e - c l a s s r e s i d e n t s 31 and t h a t . . . t h e g r e a t e r t h e s o c i a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l , and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s among r e s i d e n t s , t h e more i l l a t ease t h e y are i n i n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h one a n o t h e r . 3 2 When d i s c u s s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s t o m i x i n g , she n o t e s t h a t t h e t e r m h o m o g e n e i t y i s ambiguous . A g roup may be homogeneous i n some ways and q u i t e h e t e r o g e n e o u s i n o t h e r s . M i x i n g groups o f d i f f e r e n t incomes and o c c u p a t i o n s may be t h e l e a s t s a t i s f a c t o r y e l ement t o base h e t e r o g e n e i t y o n . She c o n c l u d e s t h a t " i t i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e groups b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r t h a t d e t e r m i n e t h e o u t c o m e " . 33 One o f t h e ways she d e f i n e s t h e " n a t u r e " o f t h e groups b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r i s germaine t o o u r i n t e r e s t s . She s t a t e s s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t w h i c h Gans appeared t o be h i n t i n g a t ; namely t h a t W i t h i n l i m i t s , one may combine i n d i v i d u a l s o f v a r i e d s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b u t h a v i n g s i m i l a r c o n c e p t i o n s o f n e i g h b o r i n g . . . . i f one demands f a i r l y g e n e r a l , and t h u s i n t e r -c h a n g e a b l e , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n o n e ' s n e i g h b o r , m i x i n g i s l e s s o f a p r o b l e m t h a n i f one i s v e r y e x a c t i n g i n t h e q u a l i t i e s demanded. F u r t h e r m o r e . , c o m p a t a b i l i t y r a t h e r t h a n s o c i a l h o m o g e n e i t y o r s i m i l a r i t y m a t t e r s m o s t . R e s i d e n t s need n o t have t h e same e x p e c t a t i o n s n o r need t h e y be homogeneous w i t h r e s p e c t t o o c c u p a t i o n , f a m i l y c o m p o s i t i o n , c l a s s p o s i t i o n and so o n . But t h e i r d i f f e r e n t ways o f l i f e and b e a r i n g t o n e i g h b o r s must be m u t u a l l y t o l e r a b l e . S i n c e c o n c e p t i o n s o f n e i g h b o r i n g , s o c i a b i l i t y , and community p a r t i c u p a t i o n v a r y , one m i g h t p r e - s e l e c t r e s i d e n t s so t h a t t h e y w o u l d be c o m p a t i b l e i n r e g a r d t o v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and o r i e n t a t i o n s t h a t m a t t e r s most t o them and t o t h e s o r t o f community t h e y a re l i k e l y t o c r e a t e . H e r e , t h e p l a n n e r s m i g h t j o i n f o r c e s w i t h the s u r v e y a n a l y s t s and make a t t i t u d e s u r v e y s a r e g u l a r p a r t o f t h e i r f e a s i b i l i t y r e p o r t s . 3 4 Thus t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and b e i n g a b l e t o as ses n e i g h b o r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s e v i d e n t . Homogene i ty i n r e g a r d t o n e i g h b o r i n g may be more i m p o r t a n t t h a n l i k e m i n d n e s s i n o t h e r a rea s i n p r o d u c i n g s a t i s f y i n g r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t s The p l a n n e r s ' more t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e r n w i t h homogeneous o r b a l a n c e d c o m m u n i t i e s ( o f t e n t i m e s l e f t u n d e f i n e d o r a t l e a s t 47 ambiguous) may be seen as a n o t h e r s t e p l e a d i n g t o t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f n e i g h b o r i n g as an i m p o r t a n t e l ement i n t h e deve lopment o f r e s i d e n t i a l p l a n s . 3. R e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween p e o p l e The perhaps o v e r h a s t i l y drawn c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e u n d e f i n e d c o n c e p t o f n e i g h b o r i n g w i l l now be j u s t i f i e d . As i n many o t h e r a rea s o f r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n , t h e f i r s t t a s k i s t o draw t o g e t h e r many f r a g m e n t a r y s t u d i e s b y means o f an i n i t i a l t h e o r e t i c a l s t a t e m e n t — w h i c h may need l a t e r amendment—so t h a t some c o m p r e h e n s i v e v i e w o f what i s known and what needs f u r t h e r work t o p e r m i t o r f a c i l i t a t e deve lopment o f a more u s e f u l and r a t i o n a l c o n c e p t can be a s c e r t a i n e d . W i t h o u t a d o u b t , t h e most c o m p r e h e n s i v e and s y s t e m a t i c t r e a t m e n t d e a l i n g w i t h a c t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s between n e i g h b o r s i s K e l l e r ' s book , The Urban N e i g h b o r h o o d . T h i s book i s an a t t e m p t t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o r g a n i z e a g r e a t many s t u d i e s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e g e n e r a l t o p i c o f n e i g h b o r i n g . K e l l e r p o i n t s out t h e need f o r an o v e r a l l t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework and t h e n shows t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s and s t r o n g p o i n t s o f v a r i o u s s t u d i e s as t h e y f i t i n t o t h i s o r g a n i z i n g o r c a t e g o r i z i n g s t a t e -ment . Types o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e o p l e can be most g e n e r a l l y c a t e g o r i z e d as f o r m a l ( those c o n t i n g e n t upon b e -48 l o n g i n g t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n such as a c h u r c h ) and i n f o r m a l ( r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t o c c u r o u t s i d e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y -o r g a n i z e d f u n c t i o n s ) . These l a t t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as v a r i o u s r o l e s p l a y e d b y an i n d i v i d u a l as d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s a r i s e i n e v e r y d a y l i f e . The v a r i o u s i n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t o w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l i s p l a c e d d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f a day must be seen as an i n t e r r e l a t e d web. The r o l e assumed u n d e r one s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s must be seen as d i s c r e t e b u t r e l a t e d t o t h a t r o l e assumed u n d e r a n o t h e r s e t o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s . One s u g g e s t e d s e t o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s t h a t c o m p r i s i n g f r i e n d , r e l a t i v e and n e i g h b o r . Each i s u n i q u e , a l t h o u g h a c t i o n s when a s suming one r o l e w i l l be r e l a t e d t o a c t i o n s i n a n o t h e r . F r i e n d s h i p i s a chosen r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h a t i s , one i n t o w h i c h t h e r e i s no c o m p u l s i o n t o e n t e r . T h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p i s d e f i n e d i n v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t ways by many p e o p l e b u t i s g e n e r a l l y b a s e d on some s o r t o f a r e c i p r o c a l u n d e r -s t a n d i n g between members o f what i s i n v o l v e d i n a f r i e n d s h i p . A n o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h a t o f t h e r e l a t i v e . T h i s i s a p r e s c r i b e d r e l a t i o n s h i p f rom w h i c h t h e r e i s no e s c a p e , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a l m o s t i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y i n t h e r o l e s t h a t may be assumed b y members i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . As w e l l , t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s g e n e r a l l y q u i t e i m p o r t a n t i n c i t i e s , c o n t r a r y 35 t o t h e s t e r e o t y p e . A n o t h e r p r e s c r i b e d r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t h a t o f t h e n e i g h b o r . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y a c t i v a t e d when one i n h a b i t s a d w e l l i n g u n i t t h a t p l a c e s h i m i n some s o r t o f j u x t a p o s i t i o n t o o t h e r s . However , once a g a i n t h e r o l e s t h a t may be assumed w i t h i n t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p are h i g h l y v a r i a b l e . There i s a l s o a d e f i n i t e c o n n e c t i o n be tween t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f f r i e n d , r e l a t i v e and n e i g h b o r w h i c h must 36 be c l e a r . A n e i g h b o r b y d e f i n i t i o n i s someone who l i v e s n e a r b y and who i s n o t a f r i e n d o r a r e l a t i v e . U n l i k e a f r i e n d s h i p , a n e i g h b o r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s dependent upon p r o x -37 i m i t y , has w i d e r s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a n does a f r i e n d s h i p and has a l o w e r l e v e l o f p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t t h a n does a 38 f r i e n d s h i p . The n e i g h b o r may be seen as a h e l p e r i n two t y p e s o f s i t u a t i o n s : f i r s t , i n r o u t i n e s i t u a t i o n s (and t h e r o l e b a s e d on m u t u a l e x p e c t a t i o n s i s p r e d i c t e d upon t h e s e ) w h i c h may be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f two t y p e s . F i r s t , t h o s e ba sed e x c l u s i v e l y on chance m e e t i n g s be tween n e i g h b o r s . These t a k e p l a c e i n v a r i o u s l o c a l e s and may be o f v a r y i n g e x t e n t and i n t e n s i t y , b u t t h e y d i f f e r g r e a t f rom non-chance r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n w h i c h one o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i s r e q u i r e d t o t a k e t h e i n i t i a t i v e t o b e g i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . These c o u l d t a k e t h e form o f e v e n i n g s out o r b o r r o w i n g t o o l s . The second s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h a n e i g h b o r 39 a c t s as a h e l p e r i s i n t i m e s o f n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r . I t i s c l e a r t h e n t h a t a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are b a s e d upon some s o r t o f r e c i p r o c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g between members i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f what i s i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . To be e f f e c t i v e , t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s are b a s e d on a b a l a n c e between e x p e c t a t i o n s and r e a l i t y r e -g a r d i n g b e h a v i o r . T h i s b a l a n c e d e t e r m i n e s t h e r o l e t h a t each member o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t o p l a y . Our c o n c e r n w i l l now be w i t h t h e n e i g h b o r r e l a t i o n s h i p . 4 . R o l e o f n e i g h b o r The n e x t s e c t i o n w i l l d e a l w i t h r o l e o f n e i g h b o r u s i n g K e l l e r ' s t h e o r e t i c a l f ramework t o o r g a n i z e u s e f u l m a t e r i a l s . I n i t i a l l y , two q u e s t i o n s w i l l be a n s w e r e d : what i s r o l e o f n e i g h b o r ? and what i s n e i g h b o r i n g ? A f t e r t h i s , a t t e n t i o n w i l l be f o c u s e d on r o l e o f n e i g h b o r and an a t t e m p t t o a s c e r t a i n some o f t h e e l e m e n t s t h a t d e f i n e i t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between n e i g h b o r s and n e i g h b o r i n g i s s u c c i n c t l y p o i n t e d o u t b y K e l l e r i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e -m e n t s . A c a r e f u l l o o k at t h e p a t t e r n s o f a s s o c i a t i o n among d i f f e r e n t groups and s e t t i n g s s u g g e s t s t h a t n e i g h b o r i n g i s n e i t h e r n a t u r a l n o r i n -e v i t a b l e . B e f o r e i n d i v i d u a l s are a b l e t o d e v e l o p s u s t a i n e d and m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h n e i g h b o r s , t h e y must f i r s t have a c l e a r i d e a o f what a n e i g h b o r i s e x p e c t e d t o be and d o . And i f t h e s e n e i g h b o r l y r e l a t i o n s are t o be p r e d i c t a b l e and o r d e r l y t o some d e g r e e , t h e y must be r o o t e d i n a s h a r e d fund o f i d e a s and b e l i e f s . B a r r i n g t h i s , n e i g h b o r r e l a t i o n s w i l l e i t h e r f a i l t o be e s t a b l i s h e d o r , i f e s t a b l i s h e d , 51 t h e y w i l l be u n r e l i a b l e and i n e f f e c t u a l . 40 How good a n e i g h b o r one i s depends on t h e g e n e r a l i m p o r t a n c e a s s i g n e d t o t h e r o l e ; what a good n e i g h b o r s h o u l d do d e p e n d s . . . on s p e c i f i c v a l u e s and p r e f e r e n c e s . 41 and f i n a l l y , f o l l o w i n g f rom t h e above s t a t e m e n t s . . . t h e t y p e o f n e i g h b o r i n g t o be found i n an a r e a w i l l g e n e r a l l y r e f l e c t t h e c o n c e p t s p r e v a i l i n g t h e r e o f what a good n e i g h b o r i s e x p e c t e d t o be o r t o d o . A good n e i g h b o r i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a f r i e n d l y o r a n i c e p e r s o n b u t one who conforms t o t h e s t a n d a r d s o f t h e n e i g h b o r r o l e common c o n s e n t a c k n o w l e d g e s . 42 Thus , t h e r e can be no s i n g l e , s i m p l e d e f i n i t i o n o f what a n e i g h b o r i s o r how he s h o u l d a c t . D i f f e r e n t v a l u e s and p r e f e r e n c e s w i l l combine t o p rodu ce d i f f e r e n t n e i g h b o r l y r e l a t i o n s . The degree o f d i f f e r e n c e s may be i m p o r t a n t . . . . f r i c t i o n s t h a t may a r i s e between groups o r i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h i s r o l e may be due t o t h e s e , o f t e n i n t a n g i b l e , d i f f e r e n c e s r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e i r a g g r e s s i v e o r p u g n a c i o u s n a t u r e s , o r t o p a r t i c u l a r a r rangements o f house s and g o s s i p s q u a r e s . E x t e r n a l p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l a r r a n g e -ments are t h u s s u s t a i n e d b y an unseen i n n e r c o r e o f b e l i e f s and e x p e c t a t i o n s d e f i n i n g t h e s e . I n v i e w o f c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c v a r i e t y , no s i n g l e d e f i n i t i o n o f n e i g h b o r i s u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d , and p l a n n e r s o f t h e human e n v i r o n -ment must , t h e r e f o r e , t r y t o d e t e r m i n e at t h e o u t s e t how the n e i g h b o r r o l e i s d e f i n e d i n o r d e r t o a s se s s i t s l o c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n any p a r t i c u l a r s e t t i n g . 43 I t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e n e i g h b o r r o l e i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween i n d i v i d u a l s i n a common e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t has been a c c e p t e d as b e s t f u l f i l l i n g a n o t i o n t h a t p r e d o m i n a t e s as t o how n e i g h b o r s s h o u l d a c t t owards one a n o t h e r . T h i s n o t i o n i s c o n d i t i o n e d b y t h e v a l u e s and p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . The r o l e may p r o v e t o be h i g h l y v a r i a b l e w i t h i n s m a l l g e o g r a p h i c a reas o r perhaps even w i t h i n t h e 44 same a r e a d e p e n d i n g upon t h e a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . As p o i n t e d out above , . . . t h e r o l e o f n e i g h b o r f i t s i n t o a n e t w o r k o f s o c i a l r o l e s and i t s e x p l i c i t n e s s depends on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g t h e d e n s i t y o f s e t t l e m e n t s , t h e d i s t a n c e be tween d w e l l i n g u n i t s , t h e economic w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s , t h e degree o f c o o p e r a t i o n demanded o r p e r m i t t e d among r e s i d e n t s , and t h e g e n e r a l t r u s t p l a c e d by i n d i v i d u a l s i n n o n r e l a t i v e s . S i n c e n e i t h e r t h e needs o f r e s i d e n t s n o r t h e c o n d i t i o n s g i v i n g r i s e t o t h e s e needs are u n i v e r s a l o r u n i f o r m , we f i n d c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n among s e t t l e m e n t s i n (1) t h e d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s o f t h e n e i g h b o r r o l e , (2) i t s s a l i e n c y r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r r o l e s , (3) t h e f o r m a l i t y and r i g i d i t y o f i t s d e f i n i t i o n , and (4) t h e degree o f consensus as t o t h e r i g h t s and d u t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t . 45 T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be more w e l l d e f i n e d where t h e s e r v i c e s p e r f o r m e d b y t h e n e i g h b o r i s o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e . K u p e r ' s c o n c e p t o f r o l e o f n e i g h b o r i s t i e d t o p r i v a c y . I n h i s s t u d y o f B r i t i s h h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s he found t h a t I n f o r m a n t s v a r y a g r e a t d e a l . . . i n t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r p r i v a c y . T h i s v a r i a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o t h e r o l e w h i c h t h e y a s s i g n n e i g h b o r s i n t h e i r g e n e r a l scheme o f l i f e . I t i s a l s o l i n k e d w i t h s t a t u s ; f o r some i n f o r m a n t s , t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f a l a r g e r a r e a o f p r i v a c y , o r r e s e r v e , i s synonomous w i t h " b e t t e r c l a s s " . M o r e o v e r , g r e a t e r r e s e r v e i s m a i n t a i n e d w i t h some n e i g h b o r s t h a n w i t h o t h e r s ; i t depends on t h e p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . And i n t h e same way t h a t p e o p l e have d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s i n r e g a r d t o p r i v a c y f o r t h e m s e l v e s , t h e y a l s o v a r y i n d i s c r e t i o n o r t a c t o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e c l a i m s o f o t h e r s . 46 The r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e v o l v e s be tween n e i g h b o r s i s dependent upon , o r a t l e a s t i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f , t h e p e r s o n ' s e n t i r e m a t r i x o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s and i s f u r t h e r c o n d i t i o n e d by a p r e v i o u s l y d e v e l o p e d c o n c e p t o f p r i v a c y , l a r g e l y upon w h i c h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h v a r i o u s n e i g h b o r s w i l l be c o n s t r u c t e d . W a t t e l a l s o found t h a t t h e r o l e o f n e i g h b o r l e a r n e d i n one r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g was c a r r i e d o v e r t o a new o n e . I n h i s s t u d y o f L e v i t t o w n he r e p o r t s t h a t . . . f a m i l i e s have h e l d t o i n d i v i d u a l t a s t e s i n o t h e r ways ; t h e y have n o t c o n f u s e d n e i g h b o r -hood a c q u a i n t a n c e s h i p s f o r f r i e n d s h i p s . P r e -v i o u s l y l e a r n e d f r i e n d s h i p p a t t e r n s c o n t i n u e t o d o m i n a t e . The n e i g h b o r who unburdened h e r f r i e n d l y woes t o a n e i g h b o r out a t h i r d - s t o r e y window a c r o s s an apar tment c o u r t c o n t i n u e s t o unburden h e r s o u l i n L e v i t t o w n . The n e i g h b o r who sought and f l o u r i s h e d i n t h e a n o n y m i t y o f a M a n h a t t a n apar tment may c o n t i n u e t o e n j o y a s i m i l a r a n o n y m i t y i n L e v i t t o w n . 47 However , he does n o t t r y t o i n v e s t i g a t e v a r i a b l e s t h a t may have formed t h e o r i g i n a l r o l e o r why t h e y m i g h t p e r m i t o r f o r c e i t s c o n t i n u a n c e . C l a r k i n h i s s t u d y o f suburban g r o w t h i n t h e T o r o n t o a r e a p o i n t s out t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p a s t e x p e r i e n c e i n f o r m i n g r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . P e o p l e m o v i n g t o t h e suburbs f rom e s t a b l i s h e d u r b a n r e s i d e n t i a l a reas had been accus tomed t o p l a y i n g a p a r t i c u l a r r o l e w i t h t h e i r n e i g h b o r s . The n e i g h b o r h o o d was a p a r t o f t h e s o c i a l l i f e o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d u r b a n communi ty . That i s n o t t o say t h a t t h e u r b a n n e i g h b o r h o o d a s s o c i a t i o n s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y c l o s e i n -group f e e l i n g s and i n v o l v e d t h e f u l l and a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l t h e r e s i d e n t s i n t h e s t r e e t . . . . Compared w i t h t h e new s u b u r b a n community , where n e i g h b o r got t o know n e i g h b o r i n s h a r i n g t h e e x c i t i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f s e t t l i n g i n a new home and community , t h e u r b a n n e i g h b o r -h o o d , i n d e e d , appeared c o l d and f r i e n d l e s s . But i t imposed upon t h e r e s i d e n t s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s o f a v e r y r e a l and e x a c t i n g s o r t . The f a m i l y l i v i n g on an u r b a n r e s i d e n t i a l s t r e e t had a p o -s i t i o n t o m a i n t a i n . I t made a d i f f e r e n c e , o f c o u r s e , w h e t h e r r e s i d e n c e was i n a r e a s . . . ( o f ) r e s i d e n t i a l e x c l u s i v e n e s s o r i n a rea s where c o n t i n u o u s p o p -u l a t i o n movement made d i f f i c u l t t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f s t a b l e forms o f community l i f e , o r somewhere i n b e t w e e n . But where f a m i l y l i v e d b e s i d e f a m i l y i n t h e u r b a n community i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o w h o l l y e scape t h e o b l i g a t i o n o f a c t i n g i n a manner t h a t t o o k a c c o u n t o f t h e f a c t o f n e i g h b o r h o o d . 48 C l a r k f e e l s t h a t d i f f e r e n t n e i g h b o r h o o d s imposed d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s upon r e s i d e n t s i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e i r n e i g h b o r s . R e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r i t was t h e r e p u t a t i o n o f t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d i n t h e a b s t r a c t t h a t d i d t h i s , o r w h e t h e r i t was a t t r i b u t a b l e t o some o t h e r cause such as t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e n e i g h b o r s , C l a r k c o r r e c t l y p o i n t s out t h a t d i f f e r e n t n e i g h b o r h o o d s e spoused d i f f e r e n t r o l e s o f n e i g h b o r and t h a t a lmos t a l l t r a d i t i o n a l r e s i d e n t i a l a rea s had and e n f o r c e d t h e i r r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . By i m p l i c a t i o n , h e a l s o p o i n t s out one o f t h e m a j o r f i n d i n g s o f h i s b o o k — n a m e l y t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f r o l e o f n e i g h b o r t h a t d o m i n a t e s i n an a r e a i s a r r i v e d a t t h r o u g h an e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s ba sed on t h e c h a n g i n g needs and l i f e - s t y l e s o f t h e p e o p l e l i v i n g i n t h e a r e a . A g r e a t d e a l o f s u p e r f i c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y when e v e r y o n e i n an a r e a i s new because t h e movers must f a l l b a c k on t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and a i d o f o t h e r t y p e s . The r e s i d e n t s ' needs change as t h e y s e t t l e i n and so w i l l t h e i r c o n c e p t o f r o l e o f n e i g h b o r as t h e y become more s e l e c t i v e i n t h e i r n e i g h b o r i n g . M a r t i n , l i k e C l a r k , f e e l s d i f f e r e n t a rea s have d i f f e r e n t r o l e s o f n e i g h b o r . He t r i e s t o e x p l a i n t h e r o l e o f n e i g h b o r t h a t he found i n t h e suburbs b y h y p o t h e s i z i n g t h a t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n suburban a rea s are s t r u c t u r e d t o some e x t e n t b y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e suburban s i t u a t i o n . He i s a b l e t o d e s c r i b e t h e s u b u r b a n s i t u a t i o n as b e i n g u n i q u e i n t e rms o f d e f i n i t i v e and d e r i v a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . D e f i n i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a re t h o s e t r a i t s e s s e n t i a l t o suburban s t a t u s . These he n o t e s as e c o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n , commuting and s i z e and d e n s i t y . Due t o t h e p e c u l i a r l o c a t i o n o f t h e s u b u r b Mos t a v a i l a b l e o f a l l ( t o the r e s i d e n t ) are t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f h i s own r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l , homogeneous, suburban community , w h i c h o r d i n a r i l y has t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " n e i g h b o r i n g " and o t h e r i n f o r m a l p r i m a r y - t y p e group c o n t a c t s . 49 W i t h o u t r e l a t i n g what are t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f n e i g h b o r i n g , he a t t r i b u t e s them t o suburbs and f e e l s t h a t somehow w h a t e v e r t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e , t h e i r end r e s u l t , t h a t i s , t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e r e s i d e n t s , i s r e i n f o r c e d by t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e s u b u r b i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r a rea s o f t h e c i t y and c o u n t r y . W i t h r e g a r d s t o s i z e and d e n s i t y , he s t a t e s . . . t h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l s i z e and low d e n s i t y o f most s u b u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n s w o u l d p r o v i d e a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n c o n d u c i v e t o c e r t a i n t y p e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( e . g . n e i g h b o r i n g , v i s i t i n g , and p r i m a r y t y p e r e l a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l ) and d i s a d v a n t a g e o u s t o o t h e r s , ( e . g . g a t h e r i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h e x t r e m e l y r a r e i n t e r e s t s o r d i n a r i l y o c c u r o n l y i n u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s l a r g e enough t o i n c l u d e s e v e r a l such p e r s o n s ) even t h o u g h t h e suburban s t a t u s d i d n o t e x i s t . 50 However , he does c a l l f o r r e s e a r c h t o show how much o f t h e s u b u r b a n p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s a c t u a l l y i s a c c o u n t e d f o r by s i z e and d e n s i t y r a t h e r t h a n e c o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n i n g and commut ing . No m a t t e r w h e t h e r h i s " d e f i n i t i v e " c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s are c o r r e c t o r n o t , M a r t i n c l e a r l y p o i n t s out t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n r o l e o f n e i g h b o r may be t i e d t o p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e i n the c i t y . B e f o r e c o n t i n u i n g a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e e l e m e n t s t h a t may combine t o p r oduc e r o l e o f n e i g h b o r , n e i g h b o r i n g w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . 5 . N e i g h b o r i n g There i s a s u b t l e b u t n e c e s s a r y d i s t i n c t i o n between r o l e o f n e i g h b o r and n e i g h b o r i n g . 57 N e i g h b o r i n g r e f e r s t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n b y n e i g h b o r s as n e i g h b o r s and t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s t h e s e engender among them. 51 Mann p r e s e n t s a s i m i l a r i d e a o f n e i g h b o r i n g when he s t a t e s t h a t I f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d c o n s t i t u t e a s o c i a l g r o u p , t h e n t h e r e must be some form o f i n t e r a c t i o n between them, o t h e r -w i s e t h e y w o u l d m e r e l y be an a g g r e g a t i o n . The form o f b e h a v i o r w h i c h t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n t a k e s w i l l be d e n o t e d b y t h e word " n e i g h b o r -l i n e s s " . 52 G u l i c k e t a l f e e l t h a t n e i g h b o r i n g . . . i n v o l v e s a number o f f r e q u e n t , s o c i a b l e a c t i v i t i e s b u t t h a t i n t e n s e , i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s are n o t g e n e r a l l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e s e . 53 T h i s l a s t d e f i n i t i o n i s much more r e s t r i c t i v e and n e c e s s a r i l y r u l e s o u t i n f r e q u e n t , n o n s o c i a b l e o r a s o c i a b l e a c t i v i t i e s f rom b e i n g n e i g h b o r i n g . However , t h i s drawback may be due t o t h e a u t h o r s ' d e s i r e t o g e n e r a l i z e . L a t e r , t h e y s t a t e t h a t . . . i t w o u l d appear t h a t t h e f r e q u e n t t h o u g h r a t h e r s u p e r f i c i a l i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e u r b a n n e i g h b o r h o o d s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as f u n c t i o n a l , r a t h e r t h a n d y s f u n c t i o n a l , p h e n o m e n a . . . . u r b a n n e i g h b o r i n g . . . can be seen as an a d d i t i v e , r a t h e r t h a n an u n -s a t i s f a c t o r y s u b s t i t u t i v e , d i m e n s i o n o f s o c i a l l i f e . 54 K e l l e r p o i n t s out a v e r y i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f n e i g h b o r i n g . She f e e l s t h a t t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f n e i g h b o r i n g c o n s i s t o f o r g a n i z e d and random e l e m e n t s and t h a t t h e " p a t t e r n s 58 o f n e i g h b o r i n g r e f l e c t t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s e n g a g i n g i n i t as w e l l as t h e dynamics o f t h e i r way o f 55 l i f e " . N e i g h b o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . . . i n c l u d e a p r e d i c t a b l e c o r e e l ement b a s e d on t h e n e i g h b o r r o l e and a d d i t i o n a l n o n -p r e d i c t a b l e e l e m e n t s r e f l e c t i n g t h e s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l c o n t e x t i n w h i c h n e i g h b o r i n g t y p i c a l l y t a k e s p l a c e . The second a s p e c t cannot be deduced from a knowledge o f t h e r o l e b u t must be o b s e r v e d from case t o c a s e . 56 A l t h o u g h an i n d i v i d u a l may have a d e f i n i t e c o n c e p t o f h i s r o l e o f n e i g h b o r , h i s n e i g h b o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s may b e a r l i t t l e r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h i s acknowledged r o l e due t o o t h e r f a c t o r s , as y e t i n d e f i n i t e . Thus any s t u d y must make a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between n e i g h b o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s ( o b s e r v a b l e ) and n e i g h b o r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s — r o l e o f n e i g h b o r ( t h e o r e t i c a l ) . Mann makes such a d i s t i n c t i o n when he d e s c r i b e s two a s p e c t s o f n e i g h b o r i n g . H i s c o n c e p t o f m a n i f e s t and 57 l a t e n t n e i g h b o r l i n e s s s u b s t a n t i a t e K e l l e r ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t n e i g h b o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s must be seen as two s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s t h a t t o g e t h e r p roduce n e i g h b o r l i n e s s o r n e i g h b o r i n g . H i s c o n c e p t o f n e i g h b o r l i n e s s i s b a s e d on t h e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t . . . w h a t c a r r i e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t t h e ad h o c e l e m e n t s t a k e n a l o n e , b u t t h e r e l a t i v e l y permanent and d e e p - s e a t e d a t t i t u d e s o f w h i c h t h e s e may be h e l d t o be e x p r e s s i o n s . 58 Mann c o n c l u d e s by s t r e s s i n g 59 . . . t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l a t e n t n e i g h b o r l i n e s s as t h e b a s i s o f s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y f o r a l l t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f a n e i g h b o r h o o d and c a u t i o n i n g t h a t A t t i m e s s o c i o l o g i s t s o v e r e s t i m a t e the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f m a n i f e s t forms o f a c t i o n , w h i l e t h e u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e s are n e g l e c t e d . . . . i f , a t f i r s t v i s i t , a n e i g h b o r h o o d appears t o be s l e e p y and a p a t h e t i c , w i t h a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g h a p p e n i n g at a l l , t h i s i s no r e a s o n f o r t h i n k i n g t h a t t h e i n h a b i t a n t s l a c k n e i g h b o r l i n e s s . I f t h e o b s e r v e r can go b e l o w t h e s u r f a c e t o d i s c o v e r t h e l a t e n t n e i g h b o r l i n e s s , he may w e l l f i n d a v e r y d e f i n i t e a t t i t u d e e x p r e s s i v e o f s o c i a l c o h e s i o n . 59 A l t h o u g h M a n n ' s c o n c e p t o f l a t e n t and m a n i f e s t n e i g h b o r i n g i s e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t , he s t i l l seems t o m a i n t a i n a b i a s towards t r y i n g t o show t h a t p o s i t i v e m a n i f e s t o r l a t e n t n e i g h b o r l i n e s s i s good w h i l e n e g a t i v e 60 i s b a d . Perhaps i t w o u l d be b e t t e r t o put f o r t h such a n o t i o n as a h y p o t h e s i s f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n s i n c e an e q u a l l y v a l i d s t a t e m e n t a t t h i s t i m e w o u l d be t o say t h a t any c o n c e p t o f n e i g h b o r l i n e s s f rom p o s i t i v e l a t e n t and m a n i f e s t t o n e g a t i v e l a t e n t and m a n i f e s t i s good i f i t i s t h e dominant c o n c e p t o f n e i g h b o r i n g i n an a r e a . Those who f i n d t h e c o n c e p t u n a c c e p t a b l e w i l l l e a v e . G u l i c k e t a l appear t o come c l o s e r t o a n e u t r a l , more u s e f u l w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f n e i g h b o r i n g when t h e y n o t e t h a t P e o p l e who engage m i n i m a l l y i n v a r i o u s n e i g h b o r -60 i n g a c t i v i t i e s are n o t n e c e s s a r i l y g e n e r a l l y d i s s a t i s f i e d p e o p l e , a l t h o u g h most o f t h e g e n e r a l l y d i s s a t i s f i e d p e o p l e p r o b a b l y are a l s o m i n i m a l l y engaged i n n e i g h b o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s . 61 They make no a t t e m p t t o l a b e l low r a t e s o f n e i g h b o r i n g as u n h e a l t h y o r bad o r t o i n f e r t h a t l ow r a t e s o f n e i g h b o r -i n g b r e e d any s o r t s o f s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l i l l n e s s w h i c h w i l l u l t i m a t e l y wreak a l l s o r t s o f h a v o c on a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a t h a t i s u n l u c k y enough t o condone o r even promote such n e i g h b o r l y r e l a t i o n s . K u p e r p u t s f o r t h a u s e f u l , somewhat t r a d i t i o n a l , e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e v a r i o u s forms t h a t n e i g h b o r i n g may t a k e . He t o o f e e l s t h a t " t h e way r e s i d e n t s f e e l about 62 n e i g h b o r i n g w i l l a f f e c t t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h each o t h e r " . A t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s o f t h e n e i g h b o r s are i m p o r t a n t . Once a g a i n i t i s seen t h a t n e i g h b o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s are a f f e c t e d b y s o m e t h i n g o t h e r t h a n t h e p o s i t i o n i n g o f b u i l d i n g s . More i n t e r e s t i n g l y , K u p e r r e g a r d s t h e n e i g h b o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a t o c c u r as b e i n g a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e t r a d e o f f o f needs and h a z a r d s as r e s o l v e d by t h e a c t o r s . He f e e l s t h a t Common needs are t h e e l ement d r a w i n g t h e p e o p l e t o g e t h e r , w h i l e t h e r e a l o r supposed danger s o f n e i g h b o r i n g keep them a p a r t . 63 I n t h i s b e l i e f , K u p e r c o n c u r s w i t h K e l l e r ' s i d e a t h a t n e i g h b o r s f u l f i l l n e e d s — r o u t i n e and emergency—but goes f a r t h e r t o t r y t o e x p l a i n t h e dynamics o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between n e i g h b o r s . These h a z a r d s K u p e r f e e l s are g e n e r a l l y g o s s i p and t h r e a t t o p r i v a c y . The i n d i v i d u a l ' s assessment o f t h e h a z a r d s o f n e i g h b o r i n g c o u l d be s a i d t o be somewhat ana logous t o h i s l a t e n t n e i g h b o r l i n e s s . I t i s h i s a s sessment o f h a z a r d s t h a t w i l l p a r t l y d e t e r m i n e h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s h i s n e i g h b o r s and perhaps more s t r o n g l y t h a n i s i n t e n d e d by t h e c o n c e p t o f l a t e n t n e i g h b o r l i n e s s , w i l l d e t e r m i n e h i s o v e r t a c t i o n . W i t h n e g a t i v e l a t e n t n e i g h b o r l i n e s s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o be s u p e r f i c i a l l y q u i t e " n e i g h b o r l y " . However , a c t i v i t i e s ba sed on f e a r o f h a z a r d s are l i k e l y t o r u l e o u t even s u p e r f i c i a l n e i g h b o r l i n e s s — u n l e s s , o f c o u r s e , f e a r o f o s t r a c i s m i s s t r o n g e r . 6. E l e m e n t s t h a t combine t o p roduce t h e f u n c t i o n i n g r o l e o f n e i g h b o r I t has been p o i n t e d out above t h a t r a t e s and p a t t e r n s o f n e i g h b o r i n g v a r y . . . ( r e f l e c t i n g ) p a r t i c u l a r economic c o n d i t i o n s , l e v e l o f c u l t u r a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , and l o c a l s t a n d a r d s o f s o c i a b i l i t y . 64 The c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n t o w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l i s p l a c e d when he t a k e s up r e s i d e n c e s i n a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e are v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g what he w i l l do as a n e i g h b o r . I t was a l s o p o i n t e d o u t above t h a t a p e r s o n ' s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s as a n e i g h b o r w o u l d have some impac t upon h i s a c t i o n s and 65 a t t i t u d e s as a n e i g h b o r i n new s u r r o u n d i n g s . Many a u t h o r s have t r i e d t o d e s c r i b e n e i g h b o r l y r e l a t i o n s i n r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g s i n terras o f c o n d i t i o n s upon t h e s i t e . Such g roup c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as h o m o g e n e i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n on a number o f c o n d i t i o n s — u s u a l l y s o c i a l c l a s s — o r p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s s u c h as p r o p i n q u i t y o f t h e r e s i d e n t s o r s i t t i n g o f t h e d w e l l i n g u n i t s , has been employed t o e x p l a i n t h e p a t t e r n s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween n e i g h b o r s t h a t were found o r t h a t c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d i f c e r t a i n o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were ma-n i p u l a t e d . However , i t appear s t h a t t h e r e i s more t o n e i g h b o r l y r e l a t i o n s t h a n p a s t e x p e r i e n c e and p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . K u p e r p r e s e n t s a s t a t e m e n t on how t h e s e two c o n d i t i o n i n g e l e m e n t s may r e l a t e and i n d o i n g so he b r i n g s i n a t h i r d f a c t o r . He p o i n t s out t h a t t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g more t h a n t h e mere p l a y o f needs and h a z a r d s t h a t p r o d u c e d t h e p a t t e r n s o f n e i g h b o r i n g t h a t he o b s e r v e d . Our comments may sugge s t t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e s o f i n f o r m a n t s t o n e i g h b o r i n g are a p r o d u c t o f t h e p a l y o f needs and h a z a r d s i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t . C e r t a i n l y t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f l i v i n g t o g e t h e r at B r a y d o n Road , t h e i r a s se s sments o f , and a d j u s t m e n t s t o , e ach o t h e r , i n f l u e n c e t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . But t h e r o o t s l i e d e e p e r . I n f o r m a n t s r e f e r t o p r e c e p t s f rom mother and f a t h e r , and t o t h e i d e a l s and p r a c t i c e s o f n e i g h b o r l i n e s s i n t h e i r home town o r c o u n t y . 66 E v i d e n t l y , t h e r e i s an i d e a l c o n c e p t o f n e i g h b o r i n g and a f u n c t i o n a l c o n c e p t t h a t i s h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e i d e a l . 63 The r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween t h e e l e m e n t s t h a t combine t o p r o d u c e t h e p r e s e n t r o l e o f n e i g h b o r and n e i g h b o r i n g t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l u p h o l d s s h o u l d be more c l e a r l y s e t o u t , The f o l l o w i n g d i a g r a m was c o n s t r u c t e d t o t h i s e n d . CONCEPT OF THE /DEA L NEIOHBOHL V -t MOPiFl CA T/OA/S OF EK PEC TA T/OA/S />UE TO EKPE/llEfi/CE +-/Mp'ACT cF PME^EA/T C/ae<JWSTAA/CES => PAESEA/T ROLE. oF AJE/CJMBO/Z. PRESENT ROLE OF NEIGHBOR I t i s assumed t h a t e v e r y o n e has a c o n c e p t o f t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . E x p e c t a t i o n s as t o i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r t h a t may be a t t a i n e d have been m o d i f i e d t h r o u g h p a s t e x p e r i e n c e and are f u r t h e r a l t e r e d by t h e impact o f 67 p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s t o produce t h e p r e s e n t r o l e o f n e i g h b o r t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s a c c e p t i n g . Thus an i n d i v i d u a l has a s e t o f a t t i t u d e s about what a n e i g h b o r s h o u l d be and do t h a t i s m o d i f i e d . H i s b a s i c a t t i t u d e s d e f i n e h i s i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . 64 S u p p o s e d l y , an i n d i v i d u a l w o u l d be h a p p i e r t h e c l o s e r he c o u l d come t o p e r f o r m i n g u n d e r h i s c o n c e p t o f t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . I f i t were p o s s i b l e t o d i s c e r n t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r , i t w o u l d t h e n be p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a t w o u l d r e i n f o r c e t h i s n o t i o n . As w e l l , i f i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r t h i s b a s i c , u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e , i t may be p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t i d e a l r o l e s o f n e i g h b o r f o r c e r t a i n groups b a s e d on such f a c t o r s as i n d i v i d u a l d e m o g r a p h i c t r a i t s and i n d i v i d u a l p a s t e x p e r i e n c e . Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o m a n i p u l a t e s u c h t h i n g s as h o m o g e n e i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n , p r o p i n q u i t y and 68 s i t i n g s so as t o r e i n f o r c e o r a t l e a s t f a c i l i t a t e t h e deve lopment o f t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r and n o t j u s t t o w a r d s e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a t p e o p l e f e e l s h o u l d f a c i l i t a t e o r e n c o u r a g e more p o s i t i v e n e i g h b o r l y r e l a t i o n s . T h i s means t h a t i t w o u l d be n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e t h e terms c i r c u m s t a n c e s so t h a t i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r what f a c t o r s make i t up and t h e n how t h e y c o u l d be m a n i p u l a t e d . However , t h a t i s beyond t h e scope o f t h i s t h e s i s w h i c h w i l l be c o n f i n e d t o t r y i n g t o d e v e l o p a t e c h n i q u e t o e l i c i t what t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r i s . Perhaps t h e same t o o l w i l l a l s o be used t o d i s c o v e r what t h e p r e s e n t o r a c t u a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r i s , t o t e s t t o see i f t h e r e i s any d i f f e r e n c e s and i f so what 69 t h e t o l e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i s . The a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t w h i l e s i t i n g f a c t o r s g i v e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o n t a c t , t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h r e s i d e n t s a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s o f t h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i l l depend i n some measure on t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . 70 and hence t h e c o n c e r n w i t h l a t e n t n e i g h b o r i n g and e s p e c i a l l y l a t e n t n e i g h b o r i n g as d e f i n e d by an i d e a l c o n c e p t o f r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . N e i g h b o r i n g i s t h e m a n i f e s t i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t o c c u r s be tween n e i g h b o r s . I t has as i t s b a s i s a n o t i o n o f an i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r t h a t s h o u l d produce i d e a l n e i g h b o r -i n g . T h i s i d e a l may be b a s e d on a s e n t i m e n t a l i z e d v i e w o f p a s t n e i g h b o r r o l e s and a c t i o n s - - t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f w h i c h ha s been s t a t e d above i n r e f e r e n c e t o K u p e r , W a t t e l and C l a r k — o r on some p u r e l y t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t t h a t may have i t s b a s i s i n a d e s i r e f o r more p r e s t i g e o r some o t h e r c a u s e . I n any c a s e , i t w o u l d appear t h a t a p e r s o n has an i d e a o f how he t h i n k s n e i g h b o r s s h o u l d a c t and what a n e i g h b o r s h o u l d b e . T h i s i d e a l c o n c e p t o f t h e r o l e o f n e i g h b o r i s t h e c l u s t e r o f a t t i t u d e s t h a t Mann c a l l s l a t e n t n e i g h b o r l i n e s s and w h i c h S h u v a l c a l l s p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o n e i g h b o r . An u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s i d e a l i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o t r u l y a p p r e c i a t e t h e o v e r t a c t i o n t h a t i s o b s e r v e d . 7 . D i m e n s i o n s o f n e i g h b o r i n g Now t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r has been s e t o u t , t h e n e x t s t e p i s t o s e t out 66 t h e d i m e n s i o n s w i t h w h i c h t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r may be most s u c c i n c t l y and c o m p l e t e l y d e s c r i b e d . N e i g h b o r i n g has been d i v i d e d i n t o o v e r t a c t i o n s and u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e s . These b a s i c a t t i t u d e s w i l l p r o v i d e t h e f o o t i n g as t o what t h e c o n t e n t , o c c a s i o n s and l o c a l e o f t h e n e i g h b o r i n g a c -71 t i v i t i e s s h o u l d b e . The c o n t e n t o f n e i g h b o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s g e n e r a l l y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h e x c h a n g i n g h e l p i n t i m e o f need o r p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . Examples o f common c o n t e n t o f n e i g h b o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s are e x c h a n g i n g t o o l s , i n f o r m a l v i s i t -72 i n g and a s k i n g a d v i c e . T h u s , t h e r e i s g e n e r a l agreement t h a t t h e c o n t e n t o f n e i g h b o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s has t o do w i t h h e l p i n c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s . However , i t i s t h e d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s o f c r i s i s w h i c h h e l p s t o p roduce d i f f e r e n t 73 t y p e s o f n e i g h b o r i n g . L i k e w i s e t h e o c c a s i o n s o f n e i g h b o r i n g v a r y f rom g r o u p t o g r o u p . K e l l e r n o t e s t h e c h i e f o c c a s i o n s f o r n e i g h b o r -i n g t o be p e r s o n a l c r i s i s , c o l l e c t i v e e m e r g e n c i e s (both o f w h i c h w o u l d be i n c l u d e d under c o n t e n t above) and b i g c o l l e c t i v e 74 e v e n t s such as m a r r i a g e s . However , i n an u r b a n s e t t i n g , t h e most f r e q u e n t o c c a s i o n s f o r n e i g h b o r i n g w o u l d be i n t i m e s o f emergency t o an i n d i v i d u a l o r t o t h e g roup as a w h o l e . An example o f a common c o l l e c t i v e emergency w o u l d be movement o f s t r a n g e r s i n t o a new h o u s i n g p r o j e c t . I f t h e y f e e l l e f t t o t h e i r own d e v i c e s t o g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r new h a b i t a t o r t o overcome c e r t a i n r e c u r r e n t p r o b l e m s , t h e 75 r e s u l t can be much n e i g h b o r l y a c t i v i t y . The l o c a l e i n w h i c h t h e s p e c i f i c t y p e s o f n e i g h b o r -i n g w i l l t a k e p l a c e ( c o n t e n t ) o c c a s i o n e d b y v a r y i n g c a u s e s , w i l l a l s o v a r y g r e a t l y . K e l l e r n o t e s t h a t s o c i a l c l a s s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s seem t o p l a y a p a r t i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r t h e n e i g h b o r i n g w i l l t a k e p l a c e o v e r t h e f e n c e , on t h e f r o n t 76 p o r c h , i n t h e house o r a t t h e l o c a l b e e r p a r l o r . These t h r e e h e a d i n g s o f c o n t e n t , o c c a s i o n and l o c a l e p o i n t out n e c e s s a r y a rea s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n when an i n v e s t i g a t o r w i s h e s t o know how a p o p u l a t i o n a c t u a l l y n e i g h b o r s o r how i t w o u l d l i k e t o n e i g h b o r u n d e r c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . To know why a p o p u l a t i o n n e i g h b o r s i n a c e r t a i n manner, t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r must know more about t h e u n d e r l y i n g a t t i t u d e s t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n has t o w a r d n e i g h b o r s and n e i g h b o r i n g . He must t r y t o d i s c o v e r what t h e i r a t t i t u d e are t o w a r d s n e i g h b o r i n g i n te rms o f p r i o r i t y , f o r m a l i t y , e x t e n t , i n t e n s i t y and f r e q u e n c y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . K e l l e r n o t e s t h a t L i m i t e d t i m e , e n e r g y , r e s o u r c e s , and needs as w e l l as v a r i a t i o n s i n t r a d i t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s and p e r s o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i f -f e r e n t i a l s a l i e n c y o f t h e s e t h r e e t y p e s o f s o c i a l b o n d s . ( f r i e n d , r e l a t i v e , n e i g h b o r ) . . . n o t o n l y t h e r o l e o f what a n e i g h b o r i s and s h o u l d do v a r i e s f rom group t o g r o u p , b u t a l s o 68 i t s r e l a t i v e p r i o r i t y . 77 Thus t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between n e i g h b o r s must be a n a l y z e d w i t h i n t h e t o t a l c o n t e x t o f a l l t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t a p e r s o n e n t e r s i n t o . The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s and t h e i m p o r t a n c e a t t a c h e d t o an o c c a s i o n w i l l p a r t l y d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a p e r s o n t u r n s t o a f r i e n d , r e l a t i v e o r n e i g h b o r . I n any c a s e , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s are e n t e r e d i n t o i n such a manner t h a t p e o p l e d i v i d e t h e i r t i m e between f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s and n e i g h b o r s a c c o r d i n g 78 t o some f o r m a l o r i n f o r m a l o r d e r o f p r i o r i t i e s . As s u g g e s t e d e a r l i e r , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between n e i g h b o r s g e n e r a l l y m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f t h r o u g h t i m e i n t h e form o f some g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e r u l e s o f c o n d u c t . The f o r m a l i t y o f t h e s e r u l e s v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g t o K e l l e r f rom w r i t t e n r u l e s g o v e r n i n g n e i g h b o r l y r e l a t i o n s i n German 79 v i l l a g e s t o any degree o f l e s s f o r m a l r u l e s . However , i t appear s t h a t i n t h e modern u r b a n s o c i e t y t h e r u l e s o f c o n d u c t are l e s s f o r m a l u s u a l l y r e s u l t i n g f rom an e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s o f c a u t i o u s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h n e i g h b o r s u n d e r c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . As n o t e d above, t h i s r e a c h i n g o u t i s p a r t l y d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e a c t i o n o f p a s t a t t i t u d e s about n e i g h b o r s and t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n m o d i f y i n g some i d e a l c o n c e p t o f ne i g h b o r . The e x t e n t o f n e i g h b o r l y c o n t a c t s a l s o v a r i e s w i d e l y . However , i n g e n e r a l i t appear s t h a t The number o f n e i g h b o r s known i s n o t o n l y s m a l l b u t s p a t i a l l y c o n f i n e d t o a few houses n e a r b y o r t o a p o r t i o n o f a s t r e e t . 80 As w e l l , t h e i n t e n s i t y o f n e i g h b o r l y r e l a t i o n s v a r i e s w i d e l y f rom nods t o exchanges o f g o s s i p . I n t e n s i t y i s p a r t l y a f u n c t i o n o f t h e c o l l e c t i v e d e f i n i t i o n o f n e i g h b o r i n g p r e v a i l i n g i n an a r e a , and p a r t l y , e s -p e c i a l l y where such b i n d i n g d e f i n i t i o n s are l a c k i n g , o f t h e e m o t i o n a l and economic needs o f i n d i v i d u a l s . 81 The f r e q u e n c y o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s may p r o v i d e 82 " i n d i r e c t p r o o f o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f n e i g h b o r i n g " b u t i s q u i t e m e a n i n g l e s s u n l e s s c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n -j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e o t h e r e l e m e n t s d e s c r i b e d above . Thus t h e p e r t i n e n t d i m e n s i o n s w i t h w h i c h i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o d e s c r i b e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c e p t o f t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r are c o n t e n t , o c c a s i o n , l o c a l e , p r i o r i t y , f o r m a l i t y , i n t e n s i t y , e x t e n t and f r e -quency o f t h e r e l a t i o n s . I n l i g h t o f t h e c o n n e c t i o n h y p o t h e s i z e d between i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r and p r e s e n t r o l e , r a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t i n g t o r e l a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n each e l e m e n t t o some d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e , i t i s f e l t t h a t a much more i m p o r t a n t s t e p i s t o d e v e l o p a t o o l t h a t w i l l p e r m i t an a s ses sment o f each e l ement f o r a p o p u l a t i o n w h i c w i l l t h e n be used t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o The n e x t c h a p t e r w i l l a t t e m p t t o p r e s e n t a t o o l b y w h i c h i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o e l i c i t such f a c t o r s t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w i n g . FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER I I 1. I m p l i c i t i n a l l Town P l a n n i n g i s some t h e o r y o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e s on t h e b e h a v i o r o f r e s i d e n t s . I f t h i s i s r e j e c t e d , t h e n Town P l a n n i n g i s q u i t e m e a n i n g l e s s . Leo K u p e r , " B l u e p r i n t f o r L i v i n g T o g e t h e r " , L i v i n g  I n Towns, L o n d o n , C r e s s e t , p . 8 . The w h o l e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e s t u d y o f c o m m u n i t i e s . . . r e s t s on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t l i v i n g a r rangements and s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s are i n t e r r e l a t e d . S . F . F a v a , " C o n t r a s t s i n N e i g h b o r i n g : New Y o r k C i t y and a Suburban Communi ty " , i n D o b r i n e r e d . , The Suburban Community, New Y o r k , G . P . Putnam' s Sons , 1958, p . 1 2 2 . 2 . W„ M i c h e l s o n , " U r b a n S o c i o l o g y as an A i d t o Urban P h y s i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t : Some R e s e a r c h S t r a t e g i e s " , J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , M a r c h , 1968, p . 1 0 5 . 3 . K u p e r , o p . c i t . , p . 1 7 5 . 4 . Suzanne K e l l e r ( a ) , "The R o l e o f S i c i a l C l a s s i n P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l S c i e n c e B u l l e t i n , 1964, p . 5 0 7 . 5 . W. T . M a r t i n , "The S t r u c t u r i n g o f S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s Engendered b y Suburban R e s i d e n c e " , i n D o b r i n e r e d . , o p . c i t . , p p . 9 5 - 1 0 8 . 6. H . Gans ( a ) , " P l a n n i n g and S o c i a l L i f e " , J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , May, 1961, p p . 1 3 4 - 1 4 0 . 7. I n t h i s r e g a r d i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e K e l l e r ' s c o n c l u s i o n I n f a i r l y homogeneous, n o n - s t r a t i f i e d c o m m u n i t i e s , such as v e t e r a n ' s h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s , s t u d e n t d o r m i t o r i e s , o r c o l o n i e s o f e q u a l l y w e a l t h y o r e q u a l l y p o o r p e o p l e , s o c i a l l i f e may be more r e a d i l y i n f l u e n c e d b y p h y s i c a l d e s i g n and t o o l s o f t h e p l a n n e r s ' t r a d e . 72 K e l l e r ( a ) , o p . c i t . , p . 5 1 1 . 8 . I . Rosow, "The S o c i a l E f f e c t s o f t h e P h y s i c a l E n v i r o n m e n t " , J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n  I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , May, 1961, p . 1 3 1 . 9 . I b i d . , p . 1 3 1 . See f o o t n o t e 7. 10 . I b i d . , p . 1 3 2 . 1 1 . I b i d . , p . 1 3 2 . 1 2 . Kupe r , o p . c i t „ , p p . 1 7 5 - 1 7 6 . 1 3 . Suzanne K e l l e r ( b ) , The U r b a n N e i g h b o r h o o d , New Y o r k , Random House , 1968, p p . 3 - 5 . 14 . H . Gans ( b ) , "The B a l a n c e d Communi ty " , J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , A u g u s t , 1961 , p . 1 8 0 . 15 . J . G u l i c k e t a l , "Newcomer E n c u l t u r a t i o n i n t h e C i t y : A t t i t u d e s and P a r t i c i p a t i o n " i n C h a p i n and W e i s s e d s . , Ur b a n Growth D y n a m i c s , New Y o r k , John W i l e y and Sons , I n c . , 1962, p . 3 2 7 . 16 . S. R i e m e r , " H i d d e n D i m e n s i o n s o f N e i g h b o r h o o d P l a n n i n g " , Land E c o n o m i c s , May, 1950, p . 1 9 7 . . . . s t u d y o f c o n t i g u o u s p a t c h e s o f t h e u r b a n f a b r i c r e s u l t e d i n t h e l o s s o f i n f o r m a t i o n about s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s t h a t happened t o e x t e n d beyond t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a . 17 . T h i s c o n c e r n may f o l l o w d i r e c t l y f rom e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p r o s and cons o f t h e n e i g h b o r -hood u n i t c o n c e p t when one p a r t o f I s a a c s ' a t t a c k on t h e c o n c e p t was on i t s use as an i n s t r u m e n t o f s e g r e g a t i o n . Perhaps s i n c e t h e n , one o f t h e more p i o u s c o n c e r n s o f p l a n n e r s has been t o c r e a t e b a l a n c e d c o m m u n i t i e s . T h i s has p a r t l y been a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t 73 t h e " s t e r i l e " suburbs where a c h i l d c o u l d grow up w i t h o u t e v e r s e e i n g an o l d p e r s o n o r a p o o r p e r s o n . O t h e r v i r t u e s i n c r e a t i n g b a l a n c e d n e i g h b o r h o o d s o r c o m m u n i t i e s were t o g i v e p o o r p e o p l e an example t o s t r i v e f o r b y p l a c i n g them among t h e b e t t e r o f f , t o g i v e a rea s b e t t e r t a x b a s e s , and t o d e v e l o p a more c r e a t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t . See K e l l e r ( a ) , o p . c i t . , p p . 5 0 4 - 5 0 7 . Gans ( b ) , o p . c i t . , p . 1 7 7 . 1.8. R i e m e r , o p . c i t . , p . 198 . We have no e v i d e n c e . . . t h a t t h e i n f o r m a l c o n t r o l s o f s m a l l - t o w n l i v i n g can be e f f e c t i v e l y t r a n s -f e r r e d t o a l a r g e - c i t y e n v i r o n m e n t . The i n t r o -d u c t i o n m e r e l y o f t h e e l e m e n t s o f r e s i d e n t i a l p r o p i n q u i t y and r e p e t i t i v e s o c i a l c o n t a c t s does n o t c r e a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s and s o c i a l c o n t r o l s w h i c h are s a i d t o be found i n s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s . R e s i d e n t i a l p r o p i n q u i t y and t h e use o f common n e i g h b o r h o o d f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e l a r g e c i t y w i l l n o t d u p l i c a t e t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h - - i n t h e s m a l l town—have stemmed t h e t i d e o f s o c i a l d i s -o r g a n i z a t i o n . 19 . K u p e r , o p . c i t . , p . 5 4 . . . . w h i l e s i t i n g f a c t o r s g i v e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o n t a c t , t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h r e s i d e n t s a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s o f t h e s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i l l depend i n some measure on t h e i r a t t i t u d e s . I t seems n a i v e t o suppose t h a t any a r r a n g e -ment o f house s o r f a c i l i t i e s , i n and o f t h e m -s e l v e s , w i l l promote n e i g h b o r l i n e s s . A l l t h e y can p r o v i d e i s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r n e i g h b o r -l i n e s s . Whether more f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s w i l l r e s u l t f rom a p a r t i c u l a r l a y o u t depends n o t o n l y on t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o n t a c t ( p r o p i n q u i t y ) , 74 b u t on t h e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s , t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o each o t h e r , and t h e i r c o m p a t a b i l i t y w i t h each o t h e r . p . 1 1 6 . 20 . They c o n c l u d e d . . . p a s s i v e c o n t a c t s p l a y a r a t h e r i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e deve lopment o f f r i e n d s h i p s . The a r c h i t e c t who b u i l d s a house o r d e s i g n s a s i t e p l a n , who d e c i d e s where t h e roads w i l l and w i l l n o t go , and who d e c i d e s w h i c h d i r e c t i o n s t h e houses w i l l f a c e and how c l o s e t o g e t h e r t h e y w i l l b e , a l s o i s , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , d e c i d i n g t h e p a t t e r n o f s o c i a l l i f e among t h e p e o p l e who w i l l l i v e i n t h o s e h o u s e s , p . 1 6 0 . The c l o s e r t o g e t h e r a number o f p e o p l e l i v e , and t h e g r e a t e r t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h f u n c t i o n a l p r o x i m i t y f a c t o r s cause c o n t a c t s among t h e s e p e o p l e , t h e g r e a t e r t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f f r i e n d -s h i p s f o r m i n g and t h e g r e a t e r t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f g roup f o r m a t i o n . I f a number o f house s are c l u s t e r e d t o g e t h e r and a l s o f a c e each o t h e r , i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t an i n f o r m a l g roup w i l l d e v e l o p t h a n i f t h e house s are more w i d e l y spaced and s t r e t c h out i n a s t r a i g h t l i n e o r f a c e away f rom e a c h ' o t h e r , p . 1 6 1 . L . F e s t i n g e r , S . S c h a c h t e r , K . Back , S o c i a l P r e s s u r e s i n I n f o r m a l G r o u p s , New Y o r k , H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , 1950, c i t e d i n K u p e r , o p . c i t . , p . 1 5 3 - 1 5 5 . 2 1 . Rosow, o p . c i t . , p . 1 3 1 . 22 . I b i d . , p . 1 3 1 . 2 3 . Gans ( b ) , o p . c i t . , p . 1 7 6 . 24 . I b i d . , p . 1 7 8 . 25 . I b i d . , p . 1 8 1 . 26 . Gans (a) o p . c i t . , p . 1 3 5 . 27 . N e i g h b o r r e l a t i o n s s h o u l d be p o s i t i v e ; no b e n e f i t s , b u t many s o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l c o s t s , r e s u l t f rom 75 l i f e i n an atmosphere o f m u t u a l d i s l i k e o r c o o l n e s s . I b i d . , p . 1 3 9 . 28 . I b i d . , p . 1 3 6 . 29 . I b i d . , p . 1 3 7 . 30 . K e l l e r (a) , o p . c i t . , p . 502 . 3 1 . I b i d . , p . 5 0 3 . 3 2 . I b i d . , p . 5 0 3 . M a r t i n agrees w i t h t h i s c o n c l u s i o n when he s t a t e s t h a t I n . . . h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e r e s i d e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n s t h e h o m o g e n e i t y o f n e i g h b o r h o o d g r o u p i n g s p r o b a b l y t e n d s t o m a x i m i z e i n t e r a c t i o n on a n e i g h b o r h o o d b a s i s . M a r t i n , o p . c i t . , p . 4 5 2 . 3 3 . K e l l e r ( a ) , o p . c i t . , p . 5 0 7 . 34 . I b i d . , p p . 5 0 8 - 5 0 9 . M a r t i n f e e l s t h a t such a s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s has a l r e a d y o c c u r r e d i n t h e suburbs where . . . d e r i v a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f suburbs have an i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h t h e i r h o m o g e n e i t y b u t a l s o because t h e y p r o v i d e t h e d e m o g r a p h i c and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c t r a i t s w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e c e r t a i n t y p e s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s . An i m p o r t a n t d e r i v a t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s u b u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n s i s t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f a t t i t u d e s , i n t e r e s t s and v a l u e s w h i c h f a v o r s a h i g h r a t e o f b o t h i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n and f o r m a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . M a r t i n , o p . c i t . , p . 4 5 3 . 3 5 . G u l i c k , o p . c i t . , p . 330 . 76 36 . K e l l e r ( b ) , o p . c i t . , p . 2 4 . The n e i g h b o r i s . . n e i t h e r a r e l a t i v e n o r a f r i e n d because t h e f i r s t i s a p r e s c r i b e d r e l a t i o n s h i p , w h i c h one must acknowledge though one need n o t c h e r i s h i t , and t h e second i s a chosen o n e . You do n o t l o s e t h e r e l a t i v e b y i g n o r i n g h i m , b u t you cannot k e e p t h e f r i e n d i f y o u d o . The n e i g h b o r , l i k e t h e r e l a t i v e , i s somehow an o b j e c t i v e l y g i v e n , i n e s c a p a b l e p r e s e n c e i n o n e ' s l i f e s p a c e . However , some c h o i c e e x i s t s h e r e , t o o , as t o what one d e c i d e s t o make o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , how one f e e l s about i t and g e t s a l o n g i n i t , w h i c h r e s e m b l e s t h e s e l e c t i v i t y c h a r a c t e r i z i n g f r i e n d s h i p s . N e i g h b o r s d i f f e r f rom b o t h r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s , h o w e v e r , i n t h a t p h y s i c a l d i s t a n c e does n o t d e s t r o y t h e s e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s whereas a n e i g h b o r , b y d e f i n i t i o n , ceases t o e x i s t as a n e i g h b o r once s p a t i a l d i s t a n c e i n t e r -venes . You l o s e a f r i e n d by f a i l i n g h i m ; you l o s e a n e i g h b o r b y mov ing away; you n e v e r l o s e a r e l a t i v e e x c e p t t h r o u g h d e a t h . p . 2 6 . 3 7 . P . Mann, "The Concept o f N e i g h b o r l i n e s s " , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , September , 1954, p . 1 6 3 . Mann r e c o g n i z e s t h e n o t i o n o f p r o x i m i t y f o r d e f i n i n g n e i g h b o r s when he s t a t e s t h a t " n e i g h b o r s . . . n o r m a l l y mean a s m a l l number o f p e o p l e who l i v e v e r y n e a r t o u s " . 38 . K e l l e r ( b ) , o p . 39 . I b i d . , p . 2 9 . 40 . I b i d . , p . 1 7 . 4 1 . I b i d . , p p . 2 0 - 2 1 . 4 2 . I b i d . , p . 2 1 . 4 3 . I b i d . , p p . 2 1 - 2 2 . 77 4 4 . Mann, o p . c i t . , p . 1 6 8 . E s t a t e B (219 h o u s e s , b u i l t m o s t l y i n p a i r s ) had no such g e n e r a l code o f c o n d u c t . The h i g h e r degree o f m a n i f e s t n e i g h b o r l i n e s s e x h i b i t e d by numbers o f h o u s e w i v e s . . w a s n o t a c c e p t a b l e t o o t h e r h o u s e w i v e s , who c o n s i d e r e d such a c t i o n t o be b e l o w t h e i r d i g n i t y . I n t h e c o u r s e o f i n t e r v i e w i n g , i t became c l e a r t h a t t h e r e were two camps o f h o u s e w i v e s i n t h e e s t a t e — t h o s e who c h a t t e d , g o s s i p e d , l e n t , and b o r r o w e d , e t c . , and t h o s e who d i d no such t h i n g s and, f u r t h e r m o r e , d i d n o t approve o f them. T h i s e s t a t e w i t h a d u a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r e v i d e n t had more p e o p l e w i s h e d t o move t h a n d i d E s t a t e A w h i c h had a s i n g l e dominant r o l e o f n e i g h b o r e v i d e n t . 4 5 . K e l l e r ( b ) , o p . c i t . , p . 2 6 . 4 6 . K u p e r , o p . c i t . , p p . 4 7 - 4 8 . 4 7 . H . W a t t e l , " L e v i t t o w n : A Suburban Communi ty " , i n D o b r i n e r , e d . , o p . c i t . , p . 2 9 7 . 4 8 . S . D . C l a r k , The Suburban S o c i e t y , T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1966, p . 1 5 9 . 4 9 . M a r t i n , o p . c i t . , p . 4 4 7 . 50 . I b i d . , p . 4 5 0 . 5 1 . K e l l e r ( b ) , o p . c i t . , p . 2 9 . 52 . Mann, o p . c i t . , p . 1 6 3 . 5 3 . G u l i c k , o p . c i t . , p . 3 3 9 . 54 . I b i d . , p . 3 4 1 . 55 . K e l l e r ( b ) , o p . c i t . , p . 2 9 . 56 . I b i d . , p . 3 0 . 78 57 . Mann, o p . c i t . , p . 1 6 4 . 58 . I b i d . , p . 1 6 5 . T h i s i d e a i s a l s o s u b s t a n t i a t e d b y S h u v a l who found t h a t " p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o n e i g h b o r " and a c t u a l n e i g h b o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s were two d i f f e r e n t , b u t r e l a t e d e l e m e n t s , o f n e i g h b o r -i n g . The f o r m e r i s t h e a t t i t u d e t o n e i g h b o r -i n g ( the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c e p t o f r o l e o f n e i g h b o r - - w h a t a n e i g h b o r s h o u l d be and do) o r l a t e n t n e i g h b o r l i n e s s . J . T . S h u v a l , " C l a s s and E t h n i c C o r r e l a t e s o f C a s u a l N e i g h b o r i n g " , A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , v o l . 21 , p p . 4 5 3 - 4 5 8 . 59 . I b i d . , p . 1 6 8 . 60 . I b i d . , p . 1 6 4 . . . . a h i g h degree o f m a n i f e s t n e i g h b o r l i n e s s w h i c h l a c k s a sound f o u n d a t i o n o f l a t e n t n e i g h b o r l i n e s s i s a f a c i l e form o f r e l a t i o n -s h i p w h i c h i s u n l i k e l y t o e n d u r e ; f o r t h e a c t i o n o f m a n i f e s t n e i g h b o r l i n e s s t o be f u l l y sound , i t must be ba sed upon t h e a t t i t u d e o f l a t e n t n e i g h b o r l i n e s s . He does no t c o n s i d e r t h a t n e i g h b o r l i n e s s may be an e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s and t h e " f a c i l e f o r m " may b e s t f i t t h e needs o f p e o p l e a t one t i m e . T h i s a t t i t u d e i s seen i n o t h e r s t u d i e s w h i c h a re c o n c e r n e d o n l y w i t h p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e n e i g h b o r i n g a t t i t u d e s . 79 see S. F . F a v a , " S u b u r b a n i s m as a Way o f L i f e " , A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , F e b r u a r y , 1956, p . 3 5 . 6 1 . G u l i c k , o p . c i t . , p . 3 4 0 . 62 . K u p e r , o p . c i t . , p . 4 2 . 6 3 . I b i d . , p . 4 3 . 64 . K e l l e r ( b ) , o p . c i t . , p . 5 3 . 6 5 . I b i d . , p p . 6 1 - 6 2 . . . . t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f n e i g h b o r i n g from w h i c h t h e y (the i n d i v i d u a l s ) s tem, t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s e t o t h e move, and t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t a w a i t them i n t h e i r new s u r r o u n d i n g s 66 . K u p e r , op . c i t . , p . 5 2 . 67 . K e l l e r ( b ) , o p . c i t . , p . 6 5 . The impac t o f the new s u r r o u n d i n g s w i l l a f f e c t n e i g h b o r i n g t h r o u g h t h e f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e f o r amusement and d i v e r s i o n and t h e s o c i a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e new communi ty . 68 . As s t a t e d above when d i s c u s s i n g Gans ' i d e a o f p r o p i n q u i t y and h o m o g e n e i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n . . . s h a r e d a t t i t u d e s towards n e i g h b o r i n g i r r e s p e c t i v e o f s o c i a l a f f i l i a t i o n s are t h e c r u c i a l d e t e r m i n a n t s o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n a g i v e n p h y s i c a l s p a c e . 69 . B o t h B e l l and K u p e r n o t e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f r o l e o f n e i g h b o r i n p e o p l e c h a n g i n g r e s i d e n c e . I t can a c t as a push o r a p u l l . B e l l r e p o r t s t h a t when p e o p l e were asked why t h e y moved t o t h e suburbs 77% answered t o 80 " e n j o y l i f e m o r e " . When he b r o k e t h i s c a t e g o r y i n t o p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l r e a s o n s , t h e s o c i a l r e a s o n s a c c o u n t e d f o r 55.9% o f t h e r e p l i e s . Of t h i s 55.9% 24.1% (or 41% o f t h e r e p l i e s ) were d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h e x p e c t a t i o n s about r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . O b v i o u s l y one i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o move was an e x p e c t a t i o n t o f i n d a dominant r o l e o f n e i g h b o r c l o s e r t o t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r t h a n t h e y had i n t h e i r p r e s e n t r e s i d e n c e . W. B e l l , " S o c i a l C l a s s , L i f e S t y l e s and Suburban R e s i d e n c e " , i n The Suburban Community, D o b r i n e r , e d . , p p . 2 2 5 - 2 4 7 . K u p e r quo te s a r e s i d e n t o f a B r i t i s h h o u s i n g e s t a t e t h a t he s t u d i e d as r e p o r t i n g t h a t She h e r s e l f ( M r s . C o t t o n ) i s most unhappy i n t h e a r e a . She f i n d s t h a t h e r n e i g h b o r s "want t o be above you a l l t h e t i m e , t h o u g h why, I d o n ' t k n o w . . . T h e y d o n ' t h e l p i f y o u r k i d d i e s are i l l . Now I ' m a lways one t o h e l p o t h e r s , b u t t h e y ' r e n o t " . A w e l l d i s p o s e d n e i g h b o r sums up h e r ( M r s . C o t t o n ' s ) d i l e m m a . M r s . C o t t o n , she s a y s , i s m i s u n d e r s t o o d . " S h e ' s n o t happy i n B r a y d o n Road ; she comes from a s m a l l v i l l a g e and s h e ' s u sed t o v i l l a g e l i f e , where e v e r y b o d y knows e v e r y b o d y e l s e , and e v e r y b o d y t a l k s t o each o t h e r . When she t r i e s t o be l i k e t h a t h e r e , e v e r y b o d y t h i n k s s h e ' s c o a r s e and common, b u t she i s n ' t a t a l l , s h e ' s j u s t b e i n g f r i e n d l y . The C o t t o n ' s have now moved. K u p e r , o p . c i t . , p p . 5 6 - 5 7 . 81 K u p e r a l s o r e p o r t s t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n Y o u ' l l see h e r i n t h e ga rden one day and s h e ' l l speak t o y o u , and t h e n y o u ' l l see h e r t h e n e x t day and she w o n ' t l o o k at y o u . But i t d o e s n ' t b o t h e r me. I f she wants i t t h a t way, I ' m n o t g o i n g t o w o r r y about i t . But t h e p r e v i o u s t e n a n t was v e r y unhappy about i t : t h a t ' s one o f t h e r e a s o n s why she wanted t o l e a v e . I b i d . , p p . 1 3 3 - 1 3 4 . K u p e r goes on t o c o n c l u d e R e s i d e n t s (o f B r a y d o n Road) u s u a l l y c o m p l a i n e d about t h e l o c a l s h o p p i n g , and t h e l a c k o f p r o v i s i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n ; b u t i n o n l y t h r e e cases were t h e s e m e n t i o n e d among t h e r e a s o n s f o r m o v i n g . They a d j u s t e d more r e a d i l y t o t h e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d s e r v i c e s t h a n t o d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e immedia te a r e a o f l i v i n g . I b i d . , p . 1 6 6 . 70 . I b i d . , p . 5 4 . T h i s i s i n c l o s e agreement w i t h S h u v a l 1 s n o t i o n o f t h e p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o n e i g h b o r and M a n n ' s i d e a l o f l a t e n t n e i g h b o r l i n e s s . 7 1 . K e l l e r (b) o p . c i t . , p p . 3 0 - 3 3 . 72 . I b i d . , p . 3 1 . 73 . I b i d . , p p . 3 1 - 3 2 . 74. I b i d . , p . 3 2 . 75 . See C l a r k , o p . c i t . 76 . K e l l e r ( b ) , o p . c i t . , p . 3 3 . F o r an example o f l o c a l e o f n e i g h b o r i n g d e t e r m i n e d by c l a s s and e t h n i c i t y , see H . Gans , The U r b a n V i l l a g e r s , New Y o r k , The F r e e P r e s s , 1962 . 7 7 . I b i d . , p p . 3 3 - 3 4 78 . I b i d . , p p . 3 4 - 3 5 79 . I b i d . , p . 3 6 . 80 . I b i d . , p . 3 6 . 81. I b i d . , p . 3 9 . 8 2 . I b i d . , p . 3 8 . CHAPTER I I I - T e s t i n g F o r I d e a l R o l e Of N e i g h b o r I . I n t r o d u c t i o n Many w o u l d argue t h a t i n modern u r b a n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y , n e i g h b o r i n g i s no l o n g e r i m p o r t a n t . B e i n g b a s e d on a r e c i p r o c a l need r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e degree o f s e l f -s u f f i c i e n c y and s e l f - r e l i a n c e a v a i l a b l e t o e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l p r e c l u d e s t h e need f o r n e i g h b o r i n g . However , b y t h i s t i m e , i t s h o u l d be e v i d e n t t h a t such a g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t about such an amorphous r e l a t i o n s h i p as n e i g h b o r i n g i s u n a c c e p t a b l e A more a c c e p t a b l e h y p o t h e s i s w o u l d be t o say t h a t due t o t h e g e n e r a l change i n C a n a d i a n u r b a n s o c i e t y t o one where t h e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and s e l f - r e l i a n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l has i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y , n e i g h b o r i n g has changed . I n d i v i d u a l s s t i l l c u l t i v a t e r e c i p r o c a l n e i g h b o r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s i n n e i g h b o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s ; t h e change i s i n t h e i r b a s i c a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d n e i g h b o r i n g . I n d i v i d u a l s have m o d i f i e d t h e i r c o n c e p t s o f r o l e o f n e i g h b o r ; t h e y have not s t o p p e d n e i g h b o r i n g . Even though t h i s second h y p o t h e s i s appears t o b e t t e r e x p l a i n modern n e i g h b o r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s s i n c e i t f o l l o w s more d i r e c t l y f rom a b a s i s o f t h e o r y p r e s e n t e d above , i t i s s t i l l an h y p o t h e s i s a t t h i s p o i n t . The way t h a t i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s w o u l d be by u s i n g t h e l i s t o f d i m e n s i o n s s e t out i n C h a p t e r Two t h a t d e s c r i b e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c e p t o f i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r t o d e v e l o p a t o o l whereby i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o e l i c i t an a c t u a l p e r s o n ' s r e a c t i o n s t o each o f t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s t h u s p e r m i t t i n g t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o d e v e l o p a c o n s i s t e n t p i c t u r e o f t h e p e r s o n ' s c o n c e p t o f r o l e o f n e i g h b o r o r h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d h i s n e i g h b o r s . The n e x t s e c t i o n w i l l be c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e v e l o p i n g a t o o l t o t e s t f o r t h e s e e l e m e n t s . However , b e f o r e g o i n g on i t s h o u l d be made c l e a r t h a t t h e purpose o f t h i s t o o l i s t o e l i c i t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c e p t o f t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . The purpose o f t h e t o o l i s n o t t o d e s c r i b e a c t u a l n e i g h b o r i n g a c t i v i t i e s . I I . T o o l I n p r e p a r i n g t h i s t o o l , an a t t empt w i l l be made t o use M i c h e l s o n ' s i d e a o f a s e m i - p r o j e c t i v e game s i t u a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g . One o f t h e v i r t u e s o f such a s e t up as compared t o a r e g u l a r q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t h a t t h e r e i s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e l i c i t a w i d e r range o f i n f o r -m a t i o n . R a t h e r t h a n r e s p o n d i n g t o a f i n i t e number o f q u e s t i o n s , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r has t h e s u b j e c t e n t e r i n t o a m e a n i n g f u l game i n w h i c h he i s r e q u i r e d t o made a number o f d e c i s i o n s . From t h e s e d e c i s i o n s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o make i n f e r e n c e s about t h e s u b j e c t s ' a t t i t u d e s t o t h e m a t t e r a t 1 h a n d . The t o o l w i l l a t t e m p t t o do t h r e e t h i n g s . F i r s t , i t w i l l a t t e m p t t o d i s c o v e r what p r i o r i t y an i n d i v i d u a l p l a c e s on v a r i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s on t h e b a s i s o f t i m e a v a i l a b l e t o e n t e r i n t o them. From t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , i t i s hoped t h a t i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r t h e p r i o r i t i e s o f r e l a t i o n s be tween f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s and n e i g h b o r s . These r e s u l t s w i l l be c r o s s - c h e c k e d b y means o f a t e s t i n v o l v i n g a number o f s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be a sked whom he w o u l d t u r n t o . The second g o a l i s t o t e s t t h e a c t u a l d i m e n s i o n s t h a t d e s c r i b e n e i g h b o r i n g t o see how t h e i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s about each one . L o g i c a l , c o n s i s t e n t , r e s p o n s e s w o u l d i n d i c a t e a c l e a r l y d e v e l o p e d , f o r m a l i z e d c o n c e p t o f r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . However , one o f t h e v i r t u e s o f the s e m i -p r o j e c t i v e game i s i t s a b i l i t y t o e l i c i t more u s e f u l i n -f o r m a t i o n t h a n c o u l d be g a r n e r e d b y answers t o a l i s t o f q u e s t i o n s . Y e t , i n t h i s c a s e , t h e game does n o t r e a l l y f u l f i l l t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n . R a t h e r t h a n t h e i n d i v i d u a l s a y -i n g what he f e e l s about each d i m e n s i o n , when t h e c o v e r i n g o f t h e game s i t u a t i o n i s s t r i p p e d away, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t he i s b e i n g a sked t o r e s p o n d t o a number o f q u e s t i o n s . Thus even though c e r t a i n d i m e n s i o n s may have no r e a l mean-i n g f o r h i m , he w i l l r e p l y t o them as he w o u l d t o t h o s e w h i c h a re o f c r u c i a l i m p o r t a n c e t o h i m . T h i s b r i n g s up t h e t h i r d g o a l o f t h e t o o l . T h i s i s an a t t e m p t t o have t h e 86 i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i f y t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e 2 d i m e n s i o n s f o r h i m s e l f . The t h r e e p a r t s o f t h e t o o l f o l l o w . 1. R e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s The aim h e r e i s t o d i s c o v e r t h e p r i o r i t y an i n d i v i d u a l w o u l d p l a c e on t h e n e t o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s i n v o l v i n g f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s and n e i g h b o r s on the b a s i s o f t i m e a v a i l a b l e and s i t u a t i o n . I t i s assumed t h a t i n t h e i d e a l s i t u a t i o n , an i n d i v i d u a l w i l l have a c c e s s b y some means t o a l l t h r e e . a . What w o u l d you l i k e t o be a b l e t o do d u r i n g a r e g u l a r week day i f you found t h a t you had some f r e e t i m e ? I f y o u had m i n u t e s , w o u l d y o u . . . . ? M i n u t e s 10 30 60 more Phone/go see r e l a t i v e Phone/go see f r i e n d Phone/go see n e i g h b o r R e s t P l a y w i t h c h i l d Watch T . V . Engage i n hobby Shop Go f o r w a l k O t h e r 87 b . To whom w o u l d y o u l i k e t o be a b l e t o t u r n i f you e v e r found y o u r f a m i l y i n any o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n s ? SITUATION FRIEND RELATIVE NEIGHBOR OTHER 1. Need t o b o r r o w t o o l ( s ) . 2 . Need t o b o r r o w f o o d o r h o u s e h o l d u t e n s i l s . 3 . Need t o b o r r o w money. 4 . Need t o ask a d v i c e about s o m e t h i n g about y o u r h o u s e . 5 . Need t o ask a d v i c e about p a r t y y o u are p l a n n i n g . 6. Need t o a sk a d v i c e about s o m e t h i n g y o u are b a k i n g . 7. Need t o ask a d v i c e about y o u r c h i l d r e n . 8 . Need t o ask a d v i c e about some p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s . From t h e answers t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s , i t i s hoped t h a t i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o a s se s s t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l w o u l d l i k e t o p l a c e i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h h i s n e i g h b o r s i n terms o f h i s o t h e r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s w i t h h i s r e l a t i v e s and f r i e n d s . 2 . D i m e n s i o n s o f n e i g h b o r i n g B e s i d e s t r y i n g t o d i s c o v e r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s each o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f n e i g h b o r i n g , i t 88 i s hoped t o p r e s e n t a game t h a t w i l l be s i m p l e , b u t i n t r i g u i n g ; t h a t w i l l i n v o l v e some p h y s i c a l t h i n g s t o h a n d l e o r m a n i p u l a t e ; t h a t w i l l be more open-ended t h a n a r e g u l a r q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; and t h a t w i l l f o r c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o make r e a l c h o i c e s . The game i n t h i s case w i l l c o n s i s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t t h a t w i l l be r e a d t o t h e s u b j e c t b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d . Now I w o u l d l i k e y o u t o p r e t e n d t h a t you are an e c c e n t r i c , b u t w e a l t h y , r e a l e s t a t e d e v e l o p e r . You have f i n a l l y found t h e a r e a i n w h i c h y o u are g o i n g t o b u i l d y o u r dream h o u s e . The p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g i s e x a c t l y what you have a lways dreamed o f and c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s f o r t h e house o f y o u r c h o i c e are e a s i l y w i t h i n y o u r r e a c h . However , y o u f e e l t h a t i n o r d e r t o be t r u l y happy i n y o u r dream house y o u most have t h e k i n d o f n e i g h b o r s t h a t y o u l i k e . S i n c e y o u own t h e l a n d a l l a round y o u r l o t , you d e c i d e t h a t you w i l l o n l y p e r m i t t o move i n t o y o u r a r e a p e o p l e who w i l l a c t as you f e e l n e i g h b o r s s h o u l d a c t . To a c h i e v e t h i s g o a l , y o u h i r e someone t o s c r e e n a p p l i c a n t s who w i s h t o buy l o t s . Y o u r employee w i l l meet e a c h p o t e n t i a l b u y e r and ask h i m a number o f q u e s t i o n s about how he f e e l s n e i g h b o r s s h o u l d a c t . The way t h e p o t e n t i a l b u y e r answers t h e q u e s t i o n s w i l l d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h i s 89 p e r s o n w i l l make a n e i g h b o r s u i t a b l e t o what y o u f e e l a n e i g h b o r s h o u l d be and d o . Once y o u r e c e i v e t h e answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s , y o u must d e c i d e w h e t h e r a p e r s o n who f e e l s a n e i g h b o r s h o u l d a c t i n t h e manner s t a t e d w o u l d d e f i n i t e l y make a n e i g h b o r t h a t y o u w o u l d f i n d a c c e p t a b l e ; may o r may n o t make a n e i g h b o r t h a t you w o u l d f i n d a c c e p t a b l e ; d e f i n i t e l y w o u l d n o t make a n e i g h b o r t h a t you w o u l d f i n d a c c e p t a b l e ; o r t h a t t h e s t a t e m e n t i s n o t i m p o r t a n t as f a r as you are c o n c e r n e d . The f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f answers was s u b m i t t e d t o y o u by y o u r e m p l o y e e . How w o u l d you f e e l about a p e r s o n who s a i d . . . ? A t t h i s p o i n t , t h e s u b j e c t w o u l d be p r e s e n t e d w i t h a l i s t o f s t a t e m e n t s t o w h i c h he w o u l d r e s p o n d i n one o f t h e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s s e t out above . These s t a t e m e n t s w o u l d be d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e v a r i o u s d i m e n s i o n s w i t h w h i c h i t i s hoped t o measure t h e s u b j e c t ' s c o n c e p t o f t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . The s t a t e m e n t s w i l l be such t h a t t h e y d e s c r i b e a range o f p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h n e i g h b o r s f rom v e r y p o s i t i v e t o v e r y n e g a t i v e u n d e r each d i m e n s i o n . The s t a t e -ments s h o u l d be seen as a s e t o f p o i n t s on a c o n t i n u u m a l o n g each d i m e n s i o n o f n e i g h b o r i n g so t h a t i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o d e l i n e a t e what t h e s u b j e c t t h i n k s i s a t o l e r a b l e l i m i t on h i s i d e a l . To f a c i l i t a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s h e r e , e ach d i m e n s i o n o f n e i g h b o r i n g w i l l be p r e s e n t e d f o l l o w e d by t h e s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b i n g t h e range o f t h a t 3 d i m e n s i o n . When t h e s t a t e m e n t s are p r e s e n t e d t o t h e s u b -j e c t t h e y w i l l n o t be p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s manner . R a t h e r , t h e y w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n a random o r d e r as one c o n t i n u o u s l i s t . A f t e r t h e i n t e r v i e w , t h e r e s p o n s e s w i l l be drawn t o g e t h e r u n d e r t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d i m e n s i o n s f o r a n a l y s i s . 4 a . C o n t e n t 1. I ( ) s ay h e l l o t o my n e i g h b o r when I see them on t h e s t r e e t . 2 . I ( ) e n j o y j u s t h a v i n g a f r i e n d l y t a l k w i t h my n e i g h b o r s when I meet them on t h e s t r e e t o r see them i n t h e y a r d . 3 . Our n e i g h b o r s ( ) exchange o r b o r r o w t h i n g s f rom one a n o t h e r such as books o r t o o l s . 4. We have ( ) gone t o t h e m o v i e s , o r on p i c n i c s o r done o t h e r t h i n g s w i t h some o f o u r n e i g h b o r s . 5 . We have ( ) e n t e r t a i n e d n e i g h b o r s i n o u r home and been e n t e r t a i n e d i n o u r n e i g h b o r s ' homes. 6 . I have ( ) t a l k e d o v e r p r o b l e m s w i t h and asked f o r a d v i c e f rom some o f my n e i g h b o r s . 5 b . O c c a s i o n K e l l e r d e f i n e d t h e o c c a s i o n s f o r n e i g h b o r i n g as p e r s o n a l c r i s e s , c o l l e c t i v e e m e r g e n c i e s and b i g c o l l e c t i v e e v e n t s . Perhaps a t l e a s t one more c a t e g o r y s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d , t h a t i s , c a s u a l m e e t i n g s b y c h a n c e . 91 1. I ( ) speak t o my n e i g h b o r s when I see them on t h e s t r e e t o r i n t h e y a r d . 2 . I ( ) have f r i e n d l y t a l k s w i t h my n e i g h b o r s . 3 . We ( ) go w i t h o u r n e i g h b o r s t o t h e movie s o r on p i c n i c s . 4 . When we h o l d p a r t i e s we ( ) ask some o f o u r n e i g h b o r s . 5 . I ( ) t a l k o v e r p e r s o n a l p rob lems o r ask f o r a d v i c e f rom o u r n e i g h b o r s . c . L o c a l e 1. I ( ) t a l k w i t h my n e i g h b o r s when I see them on t h e s t r e e t o r s h o p p i n g . 2 . I ( ) speak t o my n e i g h b o r s when I see them i n t h e i r y a r d s . 3 . I ( ) t a l k t o my n e i g h b o r s i n t h e i r f r o n t y a r d o r o u r f r o n t y a r d . 4 . I ( ) t a l k t o my n e i g h b o r s i n t h e i r b a c k y a r d o r o u r b a c k y a r d . 5 . I ( ) t a l k t o my n e i g h b o r s on t h e i r s t e p s o r on o u r s t e p s . 6 . We have ( ) been i n t h e homes o f o u r n e i g h b o r s . 7 . We ( ) e n t e r t a i n o u r n e i g h b o r s i n o u r h o u s e . 8. We ( ) go on f a m i l y o u t i n g s w i t h o u r n e i g h b o r s . d . E x t e n t 1. I t h i n k I w o u l d r e c o g n i z e b y s i g h t (none, a few, a t l e a s t h a l f ) o f my n e i g h b o r s i f I were a sked t o p i c k them o u t o f a l a r g e c r o w d . 2 . I guess I s ay h e l l o t o (at l e a s t 6 o r more , 3 -5 , 1 o r 2, none) o f my n e i g h b o r s . 3 . I know t h e f a m i l y names o f (5-10 , 1-5, 0) n e i g h b o r s i n o u r immedia te a r e a . 4 . I have f r i e n d l y c h a t s w i t h about (5 o r more, 1-4, 0) o f my n e i g h b o r s . e . I n t e n s i t y 1. I do n o t know t h e names o r f a c e s o f my n e i g h b o r s . 2 . I r e c o g n i z e my n e i g h b o r s i n t h e s t r e e t b u t have o n l y a g r e e t i n g a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h them. 3 . I ( ) s t o p t o t a l k w i t h my n e i g h b o r s . When I d o , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s u s u a l l y o n l y me and h i m . 4 . My w i f e and I ( ) t a l k o u t s i d e w i t h o t h e r c o u p l e s who are o u r n e i g h b o r s . 5 . I ( ) g i v e a i d o r l e n d t h i n g s t o my n e i g h b o r s . 6 . My w i f e and I ( ) g i v e a i d o r j o i n i n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o t h e r c o u p l e s who are o u r n e i g h b o r s . 7 . My w i f e and I ( ) v i s i t o u r n e i g h b o r s ' house s f o r t a l k o r an e v e n i n g o u t . The s u b j e c t ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s s h o u l d g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n o f what he f e e l s i s a t o l e r a b l e range o f what a n e i g h b o r s h o u l d be and do as d e f i n e d b y each d i m e n s i o n . Now, i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o a s se s s more c l e a r l y t h e r e l a t i v e p r i o r i t y t h a t t h e s u b j e c t a s s i g n s t o each d i m e n s i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g d e v i c e w i l l be u s e d . 3 . R e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s The s u b j e c t w o u l d be t o l d t h e f o l l o w i n g : Now t h a t you have h i r e d someone t o do t h e s c r e e n -i n g and t h e r e s u l t s are coming i n , i t i s becoming e v i d e n t t h a t y o u a re n o t g o i n g t o be a b l e t o t o t a l l y c o n t r o l t h e t y p e o f n e i g h b o r s y o u are g o i n g t o h a v e . You are now aware t h a t y o u are g o i n g t o be a b l e t o w i e l d o n l y a f i n i t e amount o f i n f l u e n c e so t h e t i m e has come f o r you t o d e c i d e w h i c h t r a i t s y o u want t o i n f l u e n c e most and w h i c h l e a s t . You w i l l n o w be g i v e n 10 m a r k e r s , each o f w h i c h i s w o r t h 10 u n i t s o f i n f l u e n c e . You are now t o p l a c e t h e m a r k e r s on t h i s b o a r d so t h a t t h o s e t r a i t s w h i c h y o u f e e l are most i m p o r t a n t i n a n e i g h b o r and hence w i s h t o have i n y o u r a r e a , w i l l have t h e g r e a t e s t combined v a l u e o f t h e m a r k e r s . Those t r a i t s t h a t y o u f e e l a re n o t i m p o r t a n t and hence v a l u e l e a s t w i l l have few o r no m a r k e r s . T h i s i s t h e same i d e a as h a v i n g $100. i n $10. b i l l s and b e i n g t o l d t h a t y o u must make a number o f p u r c h a s e s o f f o o d t o l a s t y o u f o r one month . You cannot buy e v e r y t h i n g so you buy o n l y f o o d o f t h e t y p e you t h i n k y o u l i k e o r need t h e m o s t . Your f i r s t d e c i s i o n as t o where t o p l a c e t h e m a r k e r s may n o t be t h e b e s t so f e e l f r e e t o move t h e m a r k e r s around u n t i l y o u a re s a t i s f i e d t h a t y o u are g o i n g t o have maximum i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e t r a i t s t h a t y o u f e e l a re most i m p o r t a n t i n y o u r n e i g h b o r s . The b o a r d w o u l d c o n s i s t o f g roups o f s t a t e m e n t s c o v e r i n g t h e f i v e d i m e n s i o n s used t o d e s c r i b e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . These s t a t e m e n t s w o u l d be s u b s t i t u t a b l e f o r t h o s e p r e s e n t e d above . F o r e x a m p l e , s t a t e m e n t s c o u l d b e : 94 a . C o n t e n t 1. I t h i n k n e i g h b o r s s h o u l d o n l y say h e l l o . 2 . I t h i n k n e i g h b o r s s h o u l d f e e l f r e e t o t a l k at some l e n g t h w i t h one a n o t h e r . 3 . I t h i n k n e i g h b o r s s h o u l d f e e l f r e e t o b o r r o w and l e n d t h i n g s . 4 . I t h i n k n e i g h b o r s s h o u l d sometimes e n t e r t a i n one a n o t h e r a t p a r t i e s and t h e l i k e . b . O c c a s i o n 1. I t h i n k n e i g h b o r s s h o u l d h e l p i n t i m e s o f emergency. 2 . I t h i n k n e i g h b o r s s h o u l d be i n v i t e d t o p a r t i e s . 3 . I t h i n k you s h o u l d be a b l e t o ask n e i g h b o r s f o r a d v i c e . c . L o c a l e 1. I t h i n k n e i g h b o r s s h o u l d ge t t o g e t h e r i n each o t h e r s h o u s e s . 2 . I t h i n k n e i g h b o r s s h o u l d t a l k t o each o t h e r i n t h e y e a r d o r on t h e s t r e e t . 3 . I l i k e t a l k i n g w i t h my n e i g h b o r s on t h e i r p o r c h o r on my p o r c h . d . E x t e n t 1. I t r y t o say h e l l o t o as many o f my n e i g h b o r s as I can when I see them. 2 . I o n l y know my n e x t d o o r n e i g h b o r s . 3 . I know about 6 n e i g h b o r s w e l l enough t o c h a t w i t h them o r t o say h e l l o t o . e . I n t e n s i t y 1. I know t h e names o f two o f my n e i g h b o r s . 2 . I s t o p t o t a l k t o some o f my n e i g h b o r s . 95 3 . My w i f e and I v i s i t o u r n e i g h b o r s i n t h e i r homes. When t h e w e i g h t i n g s on t h e s e p o i n t s are combined w i t h c h o i c e s made i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o t e l l n o t o n l y what t h e s u b j e c t t h i n k s about each d i m e n s i o n , b u t a l s o t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e he a s s i g n s t o each d i m e n s i o n . The m a j o r c r i t i c i s m o f t h e t o o l a t t h i s p o i n t i s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h i t s t h i r d p a r t — a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e r e l a t i v e w e i g h t s o f each d i m e n s i o n . To make t h i s a t r u e t e s t , e v e r y p o s s i b l e c o m b i n a t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s f rom s e c t i o n 2 s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d and t h e s u b j e c t a sked t o p l a c e h i s m a r k e r s on t h e m . However , i t i s f e l t t h a t n o t o n l y w o u l d c o n f u s i o n r e s u l t b u t t h a t t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o make c o n s i d e r e d judgments w o u l d be such t h a t few s u b j e c t s w o u l d s u b m i t t o i t . As a r e s u l t , i t i s f e l t t h a t by p r e s e n t i n g u n d e r each d i m e n s i o n a s k e l t o n range o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s , i t w i l l s t i l l be p o s s i b l e t o a s se s s r e l a t i v e w e i g h t s ( a l t h o u g h p e r h a p s n o t as a c c u r a t e l y i f i t were assumed t h a t each s u b j e c t w o u l d spend t h e r e q u i r e d l e n g t h o f t i m e t o make c o n s i d e r e d d e c i s i o n s ) w i t h o u t t h e a t t e n d a n t d r a g on t h e s u b -j e c t . I l l T e s t i n g The t h r e e p a r t s o f t h e t o o l were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 10 p e o p l e , n o t i n an a t t e m p t t o d e r i v e s t a t i s t i c a l m a t e r i a l 96 as t o t h e s u b j e c t s ' i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r , b u t i n an a t t e m p t t o d i s c o v e r p r o b l e m s t h a t may d e v e l o p i n t h e a d -m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e t o o l . P a r t 1, r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s , was a d m i n i s t e r e d j u s t as i t appears above . The r e s p o n d e n t was handed a l i s t o f r e s p o n s e s t o s e c t i o n a , t h e n t h e q u e s t i o n was r e a d and he s t a t e d what he w o u l d l i k e t o d o . The same sys tem was used f o r p a r t b . I n p a r t 2 , d i m e n s i o n s o f n e i g h b o r i n g , some changes were made. I n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o a s c e r t a i n t h e b r e a d t h o f a r e s p o n d e n t ' s p a r t i c u l a r d i m e n s i o n , as w e l l as t h e i m p o r t a n c e t i e d t o f r e q u e n c y , each q u e s t i o n was expanded t o i n c l u d e " n e v e r " , " s o m e t i m e s " and " o f t e n " o r " n o n e " , "a f e w " , " f i v e o r m o r e " , d e p e n d i n g upon t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t a t e m e n t . When t h e s e c t i o n was expanded , t h e r e s u l t was 90 s t a t e m e n t s , some o f w h i c h r e p e a t e d one a n o t h e r b u t t h e answer t o w h i c h w o u l d be a s s i g n e d t o d i f f e r e n t d i m e n s i o n s . A t t h e t i m e , t h i s r e p e t i t i o n was r a t i o n a l i z e d as an i n t e r n a l check f o r c o n -s i s t e n c y . T h i s s e c t i o n was a d m i n i s t e r e d by r e a d i n g t h e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t , h a n d i n g h i m a l i s t o f t h e 4 p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e s , m a k i n g s u r e he u n d e r -s t o o d what t h e s i t u a t i o n was and what he was t o d o , and t h e n r e a d i n g h i m t h e 90 s t a t e m e n t s , a r r a n g e d i n a random o r d e r , and n o t i n g h i s o r a l r e s p o n s e t o each one . The l i s t o f 90 s t a t e m e n t s was c o n s t r u c t e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e range o f p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s t h a t c o u l d be e n -t e r e d i n t o as d e n o t e d by each d i m e n s i o n . The p o s s i b l e c o n t e n t o f i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r ranged f rom s a y i n g h e l l o t o t a l k i n g o v e r p e r s o n a l p rob lems w i t h n e i g h b o r s . The range o f o c c a s i o n v a r i e d from s p e a k i n g on chance m e e t i n g s t o i n v i t i n g n e i g h b o r s t o p a r t i e s . The range o f l o c a l e s v a r i e d f rom s p e a k i n g on the s t r e e t t o g o i n g on f a m i l y o u t i n g s w i t h n e i g h b o r s . The e x t e n t v a r i e d f rom k n o w i n g no n e i g h b o r by s i g h t o r name t o k n o w i n g 5 o r more by s i g h t o r name. The i n t e n s i t y ranged from k n o w i n g n e i g h b o r s by s i g h t t o b o t h members o f a c o u p l e g o i n g t o a n e i g h b o r ' s house f o r an e v e n i n g o u t . By p r e s e n t i n g a range w i t h i n each d i m e n s i o n , t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t w o u l d be used t o p i n p o i n t h i s i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r on each d i m e n s i o n . P a r t 3, r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s , was a d m i n i s t e r e d by r e a d i n g t h e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t w h i l e t h e m a r k e r s and t h e b o a r d were p l a c e d i n f r o n t o f h i m . The b o a r d c o n s i s t e d o f 15 s t a t e -m e n t s — t h r e e d e s c r i b i n g each d i m e n s i o n — a r r a n g e d i n a random o r d e r . A f t e r each s t a t e m e n t , t h e r e was a numbered b o x — t h e number c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e number o f t h e s t a t e -m e n t — i n t o w h i c h t h e r e s p o n d e n t was t o p l a c e t h e 10 m a r k e r s . 1. Prob lems o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n Perhaps t h e c h i e f p r o b l e m , and t h i s was known b e f o r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , was t h e t i m e t h a t i t t o o k t o c o m p l e t e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e t o o l . Times v a r i e d f rom 25 t o 45 6 m i n u t e s . I t was d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n a r e s p o n d e n t ' s c o m p l e t e a t t e n t i o n f o r t h a t t i m e o r t o f i n d someone w i l l i n g o r a b l e t o spend t h a t l e n g t h o f t i m e . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e l e n g t h o f p a r t 2 seemed t o have a d u l l i n g e f f e c t on t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' e n t h u s i a s m and w i l l i n g n e s s t o t h i n k o f t h e b e s t answer . A d e s i r e t o get t h r o u g h may have p r o d u c e d many h u r r i e d a n s w e r s . A n o t h e r p r o b l e m appeared t o be t h e amount o f p r o m p t i n g needed , a f t e r r e a d i n g t h e d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t e m e n t s i n p a r t s 2 and 3, t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t u n d e r s t o o d t h e s i t u a t i o n and what he was t o d o . I n p a r t 2, t h i s p r o b l e m may have been compounded b y r e a d i n g t h e s t a t e m e n t s t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t , r a t h e r t h a n p r e s e n t i n g h i m w i t h a l i s t and h a v i n g h i m mark h i s own r e s p o n s e . I n g e n e r a l , t h e c o n f u s i o n a f t e r r e a d i n g t h e d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t e m e n t o f p a r t 2 was a g r e a t d e a l l e s s , t h a n t h a t a f t e r r e a d i n g t h e d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t e m e n t o f p a r t 3 . F o r i n s t a n c e , a f t e r t h e s t a t e m e n t was r e a d , some r e s p o n d e n t s d i d n o t h i n g u n t i l t h e y were shown e x a c t l y what t o d o . Some p l a c e d 5 o r 6 o f t h e m a r k e r s and t h e n l o o k e d up as i f t o say t h e y were f i n i s h e d - - s h o w i n g t h e y had n o t g r a s p e d t h e c o n c e p t o f i n -f l u e n c i n g c e r t a i n t r a i t s more t h a n o t h e r s , s i n c e i n v a r i a b l y , t h e m a r k e r s t h e y had p l a c e d down w o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d one t o a b o x - - a n d o n l y p l a c e d t h e r e s t on a f t e r b e i n g t o l d a l l m a r k e r s must be u s e d . An u n e x p e c t e d r e s u l t i n p a r t 3, was t h e speed w i t h w h i c h i t was c o m p l e t e d — m o s t t o o k l e s s t h a n 5 m i n u t e s . T h i s was p a r t l y because once a m a r k e r was p l a c e d down, t h e o n l y change was t o p l a c e more m a r k e r s on t o p , n e v e r were t h e marker s r e a r r a n g e d a f t e r b e i n g i n i t i a l l y s e t o u t . A n o t h e r p r o b l e m o f p a r t 2 was h a v i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t r e a c t t o t h e f r e q u e n c y f a c t o r w i t h i n t h e s t a t e -ment r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y t o t h e s t a t e m e n t i t s e l f . F o r i n s t a n c e , i t was f e l t w i t h q u e s t i o n s t h a t were r e p e a t e d , t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t h e a r d o n l y t h e f o l l o w i n g : "Our n e i g h b o r s exchange o r b o r r o w t h i n g s " , r a t h e r t h a n "Our 7 n e i g h b o r s ( n e v e r , somet imes , o f t e n ) exchange o r b o r r o w t h i n g s " . T h i s seemed e s p e c i a l l y n o t i c e a b l e w i t h t h e l a s t two w o r d s . 2 . Changes f o r f u t u r e use F i r s t , t h e o v e r a l l l e n g t h o f t i m e needed t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e t e s t must be r e d u c e d . T h i s can be done b y m a k i n g ambiguous s e c t i o n s more e a s i l y u n d e r s t o o d so t h a t t i m e i s n o t l o s t i n r e p e t i t i o n and p r o m p t i n g , and by r e d u c i n t h e l e n g t h o f p a r t 2 . T h i s can be done e a s i l y b y r e m o v i n g many a p p a r e n t l y r e p e t i t i o u s s t a t e m e n t s and u s i n g t h e r e p l y 100 t o one q u e s t i o n as e v i d e n c e about a t t i t u d e t o w a r d more t h a n one d i m e n s i o n . The way t h e t e s t was d e v e l o p e d was t o have a s e p a r a t e s e t o f s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b i n g each d i m e n s i o n . However , i n t h e f u t u r e i t may be p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p a more l i m i t e d number o f q u e s t i o n s t h a t may j u s t as t h o r o u g h l y e l i c i t a t t i t u d e s towards t h e v a r i o u s d i m e n s i o n s . As w e l l , t h e speed and c l a r i t y w i t h w h i c h p a r t 2 i s c o m p l e t e d , may be enhanced by h a v i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t r e a d t h e s t a t e m e n t and mark h i s own r e s p o n s e . T h i s w o u l d e l i m i n a t e t h e need t o r e p e a t s t a t e m e n t s t h e r e s p o n d e n t d i d n o t h e a r o r c o m p l e t e l y u n d e r s t a n d . When t h e s t a t e -ments were r e a d t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , t h e r e was an u n w i l l i n g -n e s s — a l m o s t an e m b a r r a s s m e n t - - t o ask f o r t o o many r e p -e t i t i o n s . However , p e r m i t t i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t t o r e a d each q u e s t i o n by h i m s e l f may a l s o a c t i n t h e o p p o s i t e way by i n c r e a s i n g t i m e needed t o c o m p l e t e each s t a t e m e n t , i f he r e r e a d s t o o many q u e s t i o n s . The c o n f u s i o n i n p a r t 3 may be e l i m i n a t e d b y a more t h o r o u g h s t a t e m e n t o f how t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s t o d e a l w i t h t h e b o a r d . I t was found t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g u s u a l l y b r o u g h t much b e t t e r r e s u l t s on t h i s s e c t i o n . " Y o u are t o d e c i d e w h i c h t y p e s o f p e o p l e you want t o be y o u r n e i g h b o r s . You do t h i s by p l a c i n g m a r k e r s i n t h e boxes a f t e r s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b i n g t h e t y p e o f p e r s o n you w o u l d l i k e t o have f o r y o u r n e i g h b o r s . You must p l a c e a l l t h e m a r k e r s , b u t you may p l a c e them any way you l i k e . You may p l a c e a l l t e n m a r k e r s a f t e r one s t a t e m e n t t h a t you f e e l i s o f such i m -p o r t a n c e t h e o t h e r s d o n ' t m a t t e r , o r you may p l a c e one m a r k e r i n each b o x , i f you f e e l 10 s t a t e m e n t s are o f e q u a l i m p o r t a n c e t o y o u , o r you may a r r a n g e t h e 10 m a r k e r s i n any c o m b i n a t i o n i n b e t w e e n . " A n o t h e r way t o overcome t h e c o n f u s i o n c r e a t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n w o u l d be t o d e v e l o p a q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i m i l a r t o t h a t used i n t h e O c c u p a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I n d e x . I n t h i s t o o l , 22 words d e s c r i b i n g a t t r i b u t e s are a r r a n g e d i n groups o f 5, so t h a t e v e r y word appears i n a g roup w i t h e v e r y o t h e r word a t l e a s t o n c e . The r e s p o n d e n t i s a sked t o c o n s i d e r each g roup s e p a r a t e l y and t o r a n k them from 1 t o 5--1 b e i n g t h e most i m p o r t a n t ; 2, t h e n e x t most i m p o r t a n t and so on down t o 5, t h e l e a s t i m -p o r t a n t . The same t e c h n i q u e c o u l d be adapted t o a l i s t o f s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b i n g d i m e n s i o n s o f n e i g h b o r i n g . E v e r y d i m e n s i o n w o u l d be matched a g a i n s t e v e r y o t h e r d i m e n s i o n and t h e ones most o f t e n g i v e n t h e h i g h e s t and l o w e s t p r i o r i t y c o u l d be a s c e r t a i n e d . The p r o b l e m o f h a v i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t r e a c t t o t h e f r e q u e n c y v a r i a b l e i n p a r t 2 d i d n o t o c c u r i n p a r t 3 where t h e r e s p o n d e n t r e a d each s t a t e m e n t h i m s e l f , r a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g them r e a d t o h i m . I n f u t u r e use o f t h e t o o l , t h e r e f o r e , t h i s seems t o be a n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r h a v i n g t h e r e s p o n d e n t r e a d t h e s t a t e m e n t s h i m s e l f i n p a r t 2 . 102 3 . S c o r i n g T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l n o t be c o n c e r n e d w i t h a t t e m p t i n g t o a n a l y z e t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d i n t h e p r e t e s t , s i n c e t h e purpose o f t h e p r e t e s t was o n l y t o d i s c o v e r p r o b l e m s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e s t a t e -ments were r e l a t i v e t o r e s p o n d e n t s 1 n o t i o n s o f i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . R a t h e r , an a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o e x p l a i n how t h e d a t a o f a more e x t e n s i v e s u r v e y w o u l d be a n a l y z e d . The d a t a o f s e c t i o n a o f p a r t 1, w o u l d be a n a l y z e d i n terms o f t e n d e n c i e s t o engage i n c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s as t i m e t o engage i n t h e a c t i v i t y i n c r e a s e s . The aim i s t o d i s c o v e r how t h e n e i g h b o r f i t s i n t o s u c h a t i m e scheme. S t r i c t l y by c h a n c e , t h e n e i g h b o r w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o be s e l e c t e d 10% o f t h e t i m e . I f he i s s e l e c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o r l e s s o f t e n , i n each t i m e p e r i o d , may i n d i c a t e t h e i d e a l r o l e a s s i g n e d t o n e i g h b o r s i n r e l a t i o n t o f a m i l y , f r i e n d s and o t h e r r e l a t i v e s o r o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . I n s e c t i o n b o f p a r t 1, n e i g h b o r w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o be s e l e c t e d 25% o f t h e t i m e b y c h a n c e . I f i t i s s e l e c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o r l e s s o f t e n , i t may p o i n t out c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h n e i g h b o r i s more o r l e s s i m p o r t a n t and may have a b e a r i n g on i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . 103 The a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s o f p a r t 2 c o u l d be t r e a t e d i n two w a y s . F i r s t , a two p a r t m a t r i x c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h i n w h i c h i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o p l a c e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' r e a c t i o n s t o each s t a t e -ment . T h i s w o u l d be a two p a r t m a t r i x s i n c e t h e l i s t o f d i m e n s i o n s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a l i s t o f two t y p e s o f v a r i a b l e s . These v a r i a b l e s may be seen as d e s c r i b i n g two s e p a r a t e a s p e c t s o f t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . C o n t e n t , o c c a s i o n and l o c a l e may be s a i d t o be d e s c r i b i n g t h e c o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t a k i n g p l a c e , w h i l e e x t e n t and i n t e n s i t y may be s a i d t o be d e s c r i b i n g t h e q u a l i t a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o r t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l 8 d i s t a n c e between a c t o r s i n t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . The f i r s t m a t r i x w o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner . C o n t e x t o f I d e a l R o l e o f N e i g h b o r COAITEMT OCC A S'O A/ LOCALE AEJZSOA/AL A/EUTBAL //v)pe#SOA/Al. PEtlSO/SAL Mi>E*l.SCA/AL tMfE&SOMAL. f>BAjSOA/AL. A/EUT/IAL-/MPEX.SOA/A1-S o c i a l D i s t a n c e EX T£A/S/ rv /A/ TEA/SJ rV ME.UTAA L /MPeASOA/AL PEgSO/VA t- /Mi>££SOA/AL MtSO 7-/ZAL-/MP&ZSOA/AL 104 As m e n t i o n e d above, t h e l i s t o f s t a t e m e n t s i s d i v i d e d be tween t h e f i v e d i m e n s i o n s used t o d e s c r i b e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . W i t h i n t h e l i s t o f s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b i n g each d i m e n s i o n , t h e r e i s a g r a d u a t i o n o f s t a t e m e n t s f rom s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b i n g v e r y p e r s o n a l o r c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween n e i g h b o r s , t o s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b i n g n e u t r a l o r l e s s c l o s e o r l e s s p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s between n e i g h b o r s , t o s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b i n g v e r y d i s t a n t o r a l o o f o r i m p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s be tween n e i g h b o r s . Thus t h e l i s t o f s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b i n g each d i m e n s i o n can be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s : s t a t e m e n t s t h a t d e s c r i b e a p e r s o n a l , n e u t r a l and i m p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . Now each s t a t e m e n t w i t h i n t h e s u b d i v i d e d groups o f s t a t e m e n t s i s f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d b y f r e q u e n c y . Each s t a t e m e n t i s r e p e a t e d w i t h o n l y t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e e v e n t b e i n g d e s c r i b e d b e i n g c h a n g e d . D e p e n d i n g upon t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e s t a t e m e n t and t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e s t a t e m e n t as i t changes- f rom " n e v e r " t o " s o m e t i m e s " t o " o f t e n " and the 9 r e s p o n s e t h a t t h e s u b j e c t g i v e s , t h e c a t e g o r y w i t h i n w h i c h t h e s t a t e m e n t i s p l a c e d i s e i t h e r p e r s o n a l , n e u t r a l o r i m -p e r s o n a l . An example may s e r v e t o reduce some c o n f u s i o n o f t h e above e x p l a n a t i o n as w e l l as i l l u s t r a t i n g how each i t e m w o u l d be s c o r e d . The l i s t o f s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b i n g " c o n t e n t " i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h e t h r e e s u b c a t e g o r i e s o r i t e m s o f p e r s o n a l , n e u t r a l and i m p e r s o n a l . The make-up o f t h e i t e m s t h a t go i n t o each c a t e g o r y i s s t i l l open t o f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n , b u t a t t h i s t i m e t h e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i s t o n o t e o n l y t h e t e c h n i q u e f o r s c o r i n g . One s e t o f s t a t e -ments d e a l i n g p e r s o n a l i t e m s had t o do w i t h t a l k i n g o v e r p r o b l e m s . The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s were r e a d t o each s u b j e c t : 1. I n e v e r t a l k o v e r p r o b l e m s w i t h o r ask f o r a d v i c e f rom my n e i g h b o r s . 2 . I sometimes t a l k o v e r p r o b l e m s o r ask f o r a d v i c e f rom my n e i g h b o r s . • 3. I o f t e n t a l k o v e r p rob lems w i t h o r ask f o r a d v i c e f rom my n e i g h b o r s . I f a s u b j e c t r e sponded t o number 1, t h a t such a p e r s o n w o u l d d e f i n i t e l y make an a c c e p t a b l e n e i g h b o r , h i s s c o r e f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n w o u l d be e n t e r e d l i k e t h i s : C o n t e n t PEA.SOA/AL A/EoT/ZAL iMPE&soA/Ai-PEAS OVA L 1 AJEurAAt-The s t e p s by w h i c h t h i s i s d e c i d e d are as f o l l o w s : 1. The d i m e n s i o n o f c o n t e n t was b e i n g d e s c r i b e d . 2 . The i t e m w i t h i n c o n t e n t was a p e r s o n a l i t e m . 106 3 . The r e s p o n s e o f t h e s u b j e c t when t a k e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t a t e -ment was such t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e r e s p o n s e was t o p roduce an i m p e r s o n a l r e a c t i o n . I f t h e s u b j e c t had re sponded t o s t a t e m e n t 1 above, t h a t s u c h a p e r s o n w o u l d d e f i n i t e l y n o t make an a c c e p t a b l e n e i g h b o r , h i s s c o r e w o u l d be e n t e r e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner u s i n g t h e same t h r e e s t e p s . C o n t e n t PEAS OA/4L. A/E.OTB.A/- IMPBASOA/ZtL f AJEOTP.A L /MPE&SOA/AL I f t h e s u b j e c t had re sponded t o t h e same s t a t e m e n t , t h a t such a p e r s o n m i g h t o r m i g h t n o t make an a c c e p t a b l e n e i g h b o r , h i s r e s p o n s e w o u l d be r e c o r d e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner C o n t e n t PEAZSOWIL A/EOT&AL /MP£*ZS<QA/AL. PE/lSOA/Al_ / A/EurAAL. I n summary, t h e t e c h n i q u e f o r s c o r i n g p r e s e n t e d above may be s a i d t o c o n s i s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r u l e s : 1. The d i m e n s i o n i s c h o s e n . 2 . The s t a t e m e n t s w i t h i n each d i m e n s i o n are s u b d i v i d e d i n t o p e r s o n a l , n e u t r a l o r i m p e r s o n a l i t e m s . 3 . The r e s p o n s e t o t h e i t e m ( d e f i n i t e l y a c c e p t -a b l e , may o r may not be a c c e p t a b l e , d e f i n i t e l y u n a c c e p t a b l e ) i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i t h t h e meaning o f t h e s t a t e m e n t w h i c h i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e a s p e c t ( n e v e r , somet imes , o f t e n ) o f t h e s t a t e -ment i s u sed t o d e t e r m i n e t h e f i n a l n a t u r e o f t h e r e sponse ( p e r s o n a l , n e u t r a l , i m p e r s o n a l ) A c o n f u s i n g case f o r s c o r i n g was d i s c o v e r e d and r e s o l v e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way . I f t h e i t e m i s p e r s o n a l , as i n t h e above example , and t h e n e u t r a l a s p e c t o f t h e i t e m i s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d (number '2 above) and t h e r e s p o n s e i s d e f i n i t e l y a c c e p t a b l e o r d e f i n i t e l y n o t a c c e p t a b l e , t h e n , t h e n a t u r e o f such an i t e m i s s c o r e d as e i t h e r p e r s o n a l o r i m p e r s o n a l d e p e n d i n g upon t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e s t a t e m e n t . F o r e x a m p l e , i f t h e r e sponse t o s t a t e m e n t number 2 above was d e f i n i t e l y a c c e p t a b l e , i t w o u l d be s c o r e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner : C o n t e n t PEAZSOA/AL AJEUT/ZAL /MPEASCA/AL pE&SOA/AL. / A/EO-ra.4L w h e r e a s , i f t h e r e sponse t o t h e same s t a t e m e n t was d e f i n i t e l y n o t a c c e p t a b l e , i t w o u l d be s c o r e d 108 C o n t e n t A/EUTAAL / /JEOTJQ-AL-/MP&ZSOA/AL. The r u l e f o r such s t a t e m e n t s w o u l d t h e n be t h a t n e u t r a l a s p e c t s o f i t e m s answered p o s i t i v e l y r e s u l t i n p e r s o n a l s c o r e s w h i l e n e g a t i v e answers r e s u l t i n i m p e r s o n a l s c o r e s . The f i n a l r e s u l t o f t h e s c o r i n g s h o u l d be a number o f r e s p o n s e s t h a t d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e r e s p o n d e n t f a v o r s c l o s e , n e u t r a l o r d i s t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n r e g a r d t o t h e d i m e n s i o n c o n c e r n e d . The t o t a l r e s u l t w o u l d p o i n t o u t t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s o v e r a l l n o t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t o f i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r i n te rms o f f a v o r i n g c l o s e , n e u t r a l o r d i s t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The second way o f s c o r i n g p a r t 2 d e a l s w i t h " s o c i a l d i s t a n c e " w h i c h i s c o m p r i s e d o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f " e x t e n s i t y " and " i n t e n s i t y " . Such a s c o r i n g t e c h n i q u e w o u l d i n t a i l a use o f t h e c o n c e p t s d e v e l o p e d b y Bogardus 10 i n h i s s t u d i e s o f s o c i a l d i s t a n c e . Bogardus used a q u e s t i o n n a i r e b a s e d on a s i m i l a r c o n c e p t t o t h e one d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . He p r e s e n t e d seven s t a t e m e n t s r a n g i n g i n o r d e r f rom s t a t e m e n t s t h a t showed c l o s e o r p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n -109 s h i p s between p e o p l e t o s t a t e m e n t s t h a t showed d i s t a n t o r n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e o p l e . From t h e r e s u l t s o f h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e he was a b l e t o d e v e l o p t h r e e i n d i c e s : one w h i c h he c a l l e d s o c i a l c o n t a c t range ( e x t e n s i t y ) , a n o t h e r w h i c h he c a l l e d s o c i a l c o n t a c t d i s t a n c e ( i n t e n s i t y ) , and t h e t h i r d w h i c h he c a l l e d s o c i a l c o n t a c t q u a l i t y . He d e f i n e d s o c i a l c o n t a c t range as t h e number o f s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t was a d m i t t e d . The s o c i a l c o n t a c t range i n d i c a t e s s o m e t h i n g o f t h e e x t e n t o f t h e s o c i a l c o n t a c t s 11 open t o t h e s u b j e c t . The h i g h e r t h e number, t h e more c o n t a c t s o p e n . He a l s o found t h a t h i s s t a t e m e n t s seemed t o r e p r e s e n t a c o n s i s t e n t g r a d a t i o n i n s o c i a l d i s t a n c e . I f a s u b j e c t were a d m i t t e d o n l y t o a c a t e g o r y a t t h e n e g a t i v e e n d , he w o u l d no t be a d m i t t e d t o any more p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s . However , i f a s u b j e c t were a d m i t t e d t o a c a t e g o r y a t t h e p o s i t i v e e n d , he w o u l d be a d m i t t e d t o a l l o t h e r c a t -e g o r i e s t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d l e s s p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x c l u s i v e o f t h e most n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n t h i s i n d e x , t h e l o w e r t h e n u m b e r - - t h e fewer t h e p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s c l o s e d - -t h e more p o s s i b l e are c l o s e r c o n t a c t s . He found a c o r r e l a t i o n be tween s o c i a l c o n t a c t range and d i s t a n c e . The l o n g e r t h e s o c i a l c o n t a c t r a n g e , 12 t h e s h o r t e r o r c l o s e r i s t h e p o s s i b l e c o n t a c t d i s t a n c e . He d e v e l o p e d a s o c i a l c o n t a c t q u a l i t y i n d e x by a r b i t r a r i l y a s s i g n i n g v a l u e s t o h i s s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The s o c i a l q u a l i t y i n d e x f o r each s u b j e c t was t h e n s i m p l y t h e sum o f t h e v a l u e s o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s t o w h i c h i t was a s s i g n e d . I t may be p o s s i b l e t o adapt B o g a r d u s 1 t h r e e i n d i c e s t o t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f e x t e n s i t y and i n t e n s i t y i n t h e t o o l above . R a t h e r t h a n d i v i d i n g t h e s t a t e m e n t s t h a t d e s c r i b e t h e i n t e n s i t y o f n e i g h b o r l y c o n t a c t s i n t o t h e t h r e e i t e m s o f p e r s o n a l n e u t r a l and i m p e r s o n a l , i t may be p o s s i b l e t o s i m p l i f y t h e s t a t e m e n t s and p r e s e n t them as a c o n t i n u o u s r a n g e . The s u b j e c t w o u l d t h e n e i t h e r a c c e p t o r r e j e c t t h e t y p e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p as d e s c r i b e d by t h e s t a t e m e n t . I t may a l s o be p o s s i b l e t h e n , t o e l i m i n a t e t h e need f o r a s e p a r a t e g roup o f s t a t e m e n t s about e x t e n s i t y b y s i m p l y c o u n t i n g t h e number o f s t a t e m e n t s o f i n t e n s i t y i n t o w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t i s a d m i t t e d as c o n s t i t u t i n g e x t e n s i t y . The q u e s t i o n c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner . A c c o r d i n g t o my f i r s t r e a c t i o n s , I w o u l d l i k e t o have p e o p l e f o r n e i g h b o r s as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s t h a t I checked o f f . 1. My w i f e and I o f t e n v i s i t n e i g h b o r s ' houses f o r t a l k s o r an e v e n i n g o u t . I l l 2 . My w i f e and I o f t e n g i v e a i d t o o t h e r c o u p l e s who are o u r n e i g h b o r s . 3 . I sometimes l e n d t h i n g s t o my n e i g h b o r s . 4 . My w i f e and I sometimes t a l k o u t s i d e w i t h o u r n e i g h b o r s . 5 . I t a l k t o my n e i g h b o r s upon o c c a s i o n . 6. I have a g r e e t i n g a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h a few n e i g h b o r s . 7 . I o n l y know t h e names o r f a c e s o f two o f my n e i g h b o r s . I d o n ' t get more i n v o l v e d . These s t a t e m e n t s p r e s e n t a g r a d a t i o n f rom number 1 b e i n g t h e most i n t i m a t e , t o 7 b e i n g t h e most d i s t a n t . The number o f s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l c h e c k e d o f f w o u l d g i v e an i d e a o f t h e d e s i r e d range o f c o n t a c t s . I n a s i m i l a r manner, a q u a l i t y i n d e x c o u l d be d e v e l o p e d as Bogardus d i d . The d a t a f rom p a r t 3 w o u l d s i m p l y be h a n d l e d by n o t i n g t h e d i m e n s i o n s and t h e i t e m s o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s t o w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t gave t h e g r e a t e s t w e i g h t i n g s . These w o u l d t h e n r e p r e s e n t t h e d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h t h e y f e l t were t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e t y p e o f n e i g h b o r w h i c h t h e y w o u l d l i k e t o h a v e . I n summary, t h e d a t a f rom t h e e n t i r e t o o l w o u l d be used t o show f o r each s u b j e c t f i r s t , how i m p o r t a n t n e i g h b o r s are i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e s o f a c t i v i t i e s and s o c i a l c o n t a c t s ; s e c o n d , how t h e d i m e n s i o n s 112 o f n e i g h b o r i n g combine t o p rodu ce t h e s u b j e c t ' s i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r ; and t h i r d , w h i c h o f t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s t h e s u b j e c t f e e l s i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t i n h i s c o n c e p t o f t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER I I I 1. F o r an example o f s e m i - p r o j e c t i v e game see R. L . W i l s o n , " L i v a b i l i t y i n C i t i e s : A t t i t u d e s and U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t " , i n F . S t u a r t C h a p i n , J r . , and S h i r l e y F . W e i s s , e d s . , Urban Growth D y n a m i c s , New Y o r k , J o h n W i l e y and Sons , I n c . , 1962 . 2 . A l t h o u g h t h i s t h i r d g o a l w i l l g i v e some i d e a o f t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s , i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t one m a j o r and c r u c i a l drawback o f t h e e n t i r e t o o l as a s e m i - p r o j e c t i v e game i s n o t overcome . T h i s s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n i s t h a t t h r o u g h o u t t h e t o o l , t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s a sked t o r e s p o n d i n r e l a t i o n t o a f i x e d number o f d i m e n s i o n s . However , a t t h i s p o i n t , i t was f e l t t h a t t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s can be used t o a d e q u a t e l y d e f i n e r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . 3 . The s t a t e m e n t s have been t a k e n and adapted m a i n l y f rom t h e f o l l o w i n g : T . Caplow and R. Forraan, " N e i g h b o r h o o d I n t e r a c t i o n i n Homogeneous Communi ty " , A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l  R e v i e w , v o l . 15 , p p . 3 5 7 - 3 6 6 . P. F e l l i n and E . L i t w a k , " N e i g h b o r h o o d C o h e s i o n Under C o n d i t i o n s o f M o b i l i t y " , A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l  R e v i e w , J u n e , 1963, p p . 3 6 4 - 3 7 7 . J . T . S h u v a l , " C l a s s and E t h n i c C o r r e l a t e s o f C a s u a l N e i g h b o r i n g " , A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , v o l . 27, p p . 4 5 3 - 4 5 8 . P . W a l l i n , " A Gutman S c a l e f o r M e a s u r i n g Women's N e i g h b o r l i n e s s " , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , November, 1953, p p . 2 4 3 - 2 4 6 . 4 . The b l a n k s w i l l be f i l l e d b y " n e v e r " , s o m e t i m e s " , o r 114 " o f t e n " s i n c e i t appears t h a t f r e q u e n c y o f c o n t a c t i n a l l i n s t a n c e s i s b e s t h a n d l e d i n t h i s manner . 5 . The answer t o one q u e s t i o n may be used t o g i v e e v i d e n c e on more t h a n one d i m e n s i o n and hence t h e same q u e s t i o n s are l i s t e d . However , i f i t was f e l t t h a t a s e p a r a t e s e t o f q u e s t i o n s was r e q u i r e d f o r each d i m e n s i o n , p a r a l l e l q u e s t i o n s c o u l d be d e v i s e d . 6 . P a r t 1 5 - 8 m i n u t e s P a r t 2 15 -25 m i n u t e s P a r t 3 2 -11 m i n u t e s 7 . One o f t h e b r a c k e t e d words w o u l d be i n s e r t e d . 8. Bogardus d e f i n e s s o c i a l d i s t a n c e as r e f e r r i n g t o t h e degree s and g rades o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and f e e l i n g t h a t p e r s o n s e x p e r i e n c e r e g a r d i n g e a c h o t h e r . Emory S. Bogardus ( a ) , " M e a s u r i n g S o c i a l D i s t a n c e s " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d S o c i o l o g y , v o l . 9, p . 2 9 9 . 9 . O n l y r e s p o n s e s t h a t f a l l u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g s o f d e f i n i t e l y a c c e p t a b l e , may o r may n o t be a c c e p t a b l e o r d e f i n i t e l y u n a c c e p t a b l e need t o be d e a l t w i t h . The f o u r t h c a t e g o r y " t h e s t a t e m e n t i s n o t i m p o r t a n t " w i l l o n l y be used on a more e x t e n s i v e p r e t e s t t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r c e r t a i n s t a t e m e n t s r e c e i v e a p r e -ponderance o f such r e p l i e s . I n such c a s e s , t h e s t a t e m e n t s w i l l be r e - e v a l u a t e d and p o s s i b l y removed f o r t h e f i n a l t e s t i n w h i c h o n l y t h e f i r s t t h r e e r e s p o n s e s w i l l be u s e d . 10 . E . S . Bogardus ( a ) , o p . c i t . , p p . 2 9 9 - 3 0 8 . E . S. Bogardus ( b ) , " S o c i a l D i s t a n c e and I t s O r i g i n s " , J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d S o c i o l o g y , v o l . 9, p p . 2 1 6 - 2 2 6 . 1 1 . I b i d ( a ) . , p p . 3 0 0 - 3 0 2 . 1 2 . I b i d ( a ) . , p . 3 0 5 . 115 CHAPTER I V - C o n c l u s i o n s I . F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h The t e n t a t i v e t o o l d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s as a t e c h n i q u e t o d i s c o v e r a r e s p o n d e n t ' s c o n c e p t o f t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r s h o u l d be v i e w e d as a f i r s t s t e p t o w a r d d e v e l o p i n g a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t o o l f o r e l i c i t i n g a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d n e i g h b o r s w i t h t h e v i e w t o b e i n g a b l e t o use such d a t a as one v a r i a b l e i n t h e p l a n n e r ' s d e s i g n d e c i s i o n i n r e s i d e n t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s . O b v i o u s l y , at t h i s p o i n t , a r e f i n e d v e r s i o n o f t h e t o o l s h o u l d be t e s t e d a t some l e n g t h i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n t o d i s c o v e r what t h e t o l e r a b l e range o f r o l e o f n e i g h b o r i s as d e f i n e d b y t h e l i m i t s o f t h e i d e a l and t h e r o l e o f n e i g h b o r c u r r e n t l y a c c e p t e d . Once i t has been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e l i c i t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c e p t o f t h e i d e a l r r o l e o f n e i g h b o r i n s o m e t h i n g more t h a n a c u r s o r y f a s h i o n , i t may t h e n be p o s s i b l e t o t r y t o d e v e l o p a l i s t o f v a r i a b l e s f rom w h i c h i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o e x t r a c t a s u b s e t o f v a r i a b l e s t h a t b e s t p e r m i t s p r e d i c t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c e p t o f t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . Thus i t may be p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n c e p t o f t h e i d e a l r o l e o f n e i g h b o r f rom c e r t a i n b a s i c demograph ic v a r i a b l e s . T h i s i s done w i t h a v i e w t o b e i n g a b l e t o m a n i p u l a t e p h y s i c a l d e s i g n t o c o n t r i b u t e t o , ' b u t n o t d e t e r m i n e a form o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n amenable t o t h e i n h a b i t a n t s ' c o n c e p t o f n e i g h -116 b o r i n g i n a p r o p o s e d r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e avenue f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h w o u l d be t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e s i d e n t i a l s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e i n t e r v i e w e d and t h e dominant r o l e o f n e i g h b o r i n t h e a r e a s t u d i e d . I t c o u l d be h y -p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h o s e who a c c e p t and use a r o l e o f n e i g h b o r c l o s e s t t o t h a t w h i c h d o m i n a t e s i n t h e i r a r e a w o u l d be more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r accommodat ion t h a n t h o s e whose f u n c t i o n i n g r o l e o f n e i g h b o r i s f u r t h e r away from t h e dominant r o l e o f n e i g h b o r t h a t e x i s t s i n t h e a r e a . The r e s u l t s o f such t e s t i n g w o u l d be t h e a b i l i t y t o e v a l u a t e t h e n o t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o m p a t i b l e r o l e o f n e i g h b o r be tween i n d i v i d u a l s i n r e l a t i o n t o f u l f i l l m e n t o f p h y s i c a l needs as p r o v i d e d by a m e n i t i e s r e g a r d i n g p e r s o n s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n s . I t may be t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n t r a n s c e n d s m e r e l y p h y s i c a l m a t t e r s o f r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n i n g o f f a c i l i t i e s . S a t i s f a c t i o n may be more i m p o r t a n t l y r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l f a c t o r s such as a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e dominant r o l e o f n e i g h b o r . Such work w o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y need t o p r o c e e d w i t h t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t n e i g h b o r i n g means d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e . The r o l e o f n e i g h b o r e l i c i t e d w o u l d a lways need t o be a n a l y z e d i n te rms o f t h e p r i o r i t i e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l p l a c e s on i t i n h i s t o t a l web o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . However , such r e s e a r c h d i r e c t i o n s w o u l d be u s e f u l f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . F i r s t , i t w o u l d be a s t u d y o f a t t i t u d e s and n o t o n l y a c t i o n , w h i c h , as p o i n t e d out above , may be v i t a l i n d e v e l o p i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and compas s ion f o r a c t i v i t i e s i n f u t u r e d e s i g n d e c i s i o n s . P h y s i c a l m a n i p u l a t i o n o f s t r u c t u r e s and acce s s r o u t e s i s one t h i n g . M a n i p u l a t i o n t o p rod uc e a s o c i a l e f f e c t d e s i r a b l e form t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s i s a n o t h e r . The l a t t e r e f f e c t may be more r e a d i l y a t t a i n a b l e w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a t t i t u d e s towards n e i g h b o r i n g . S e c o n d , i t w o u l d be p a r t o f a much l a r g e r s t u d y t o d i s c o v e r how p e o p l e r e s p o n d t o t h e t y p e o f p h y s i c a l s e p a r a t i o n s t h a t abound t o d a y . Such s t u d i e s w o u l d d e v e l o p a d a t a bank f rom w h i c h i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o e l i c i t i n -f o r m a t i o n on how p e o p l e a c t now. Taken i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a t t i t u d e s , such d a t a s h o u l d p r o v i d e f u r t h e r bases founded i n r e s e a r c h f o r f u t u r e d e s i g n d e c i s i o n s i n r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . T h i r d , such r e s e a r c h t o o l s c o u l d be used t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e p a s t p r o j e c t s . I n t h e p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s , o t h e r t h a n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , perhaps t h e weakes t phase i s e v a l u a t i o n o f p a s t w o r k . These t o o l s w o u l d p e r m i t such e v a l u a t i o n and may be u s e f u l f o r d o c u m e n t i n g c o n d i t i o n s t h a t p rodu ce v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n and hence p o i n t out a rea s f o r f u t u r e d e s i g n c h a n g e s . 118 I I . A Sugge s ted R e s e a r c h Framework Such f u t u r e r e s e a r c h i n o r d e r t o be o f more d i r e c t use t o p l a n n e r s t h a n some p a s t r e s e a r c h must be g e a r e d t o t h e needs o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p l a n n e r . I n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o a t t e m p t t o meet t h e s e needs and t o o r g a n i z e f u t u r e r e s e a r c h a t t e m p t s , a r u d i m e n t a r y r e s e a r c h framework w i l l be s u g g e s t e d . R e s i d e n t i a l p l a n n e r s are t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h m a n i p u l a t i n g t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e some g o a l s t h a t g e n e r a l l y have some s o c i a l ram-i f i c a t i o n s are no t founded on a s o l i d r e s e a r c h b a s i s , b u t are o f t e n t h e r e s u l t o f i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c f e e l i n g s about how c e r t a i n t h i n g s s h o u l d be i n a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . G o a l s are u s u a l l y couched i n terms o f t h e improvement o f t h e s o c i a l l i f e o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e a r e a t h a t w i l l d e v e l o p , once t h e p h y s i c a l p l a n i s i m p l e m e n t e d . Thus t h e r e appear t o be two s e t s o f v a r i a b l e s : p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l . The p h y s i c a l v a r i a b l e s are t h o s e w i t h w h i c h t h e p l a n n e r s are most f a m i l i a r and most e a s i l y a b l e t o m a n i p u l a t e . These are such t h i n g s as d e n s i t i e s , s t r e e t p a t t e r n s , t y p e s o f open spaces and a rea s be tween d w e l l i n g u n i t s , l o c a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s and so o n . These are m a n i p u l a t e d i n te rms o f a t t a i n i n g some a r t i c u l a t e d s o c i a l g o a l . However , t h i s i s where t h e m a j o r p r o b l e m a r i s e s . L a c k o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o f 119 r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h i n terms o f w h i c h a r e a o f t h e p l a n n e r ' s c o n c e r n i t d e a l s w i t h p l a c e s most o f t h e r e s e a r c h beyond t h e use o f t h e p l a n n e r . The f i r s t and most b a s i c c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f r e s e a r c h must be on t h e b a s i s o f w h e t h e r i t d e a l s w i t h how p e o p l e are a c t u a l l y u s i n g spaces o r d e a l i n g w i t h o t h e r s o r w h e t h e r i t d e a l s w i t h p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e use o f spaces o r a c t i o n s o f o t h e r s . Once t h i s has been d e t e r m i n e d , i t s h o u l d t h e n be p o s s i b l e t o d e c i d e w h e t h e r t h e r e s e a r c h i s d e a l i n g w i t h s o c i a l o r p h y s i c a l v a r i a b l e s . I f i t i s d e a l i n g w i t h s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s , i t may be d e a l i n g w i t h e i t h e r p e o p l e ' s a c t i o n s o r a t t i t u d e s i n o r towards f o r m a l o r i n f o r m a l a s -s o c i a t i o n s . Once t h i s has been d e t e r m i n e d , t h e n t h e r e s e a r c h may be o r g a n i z e d u n d e r s u b h e a d i n g s i n each o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s . The f o l l o w i n g c h a r t s y m b o l i z e s t h e above d e s c r i p t i o n . ACTUAL USE. ATT1TOOES S o c / A t- S o c / A t- t>/iVSiCA L /A/FOA>M.4L ASSoc/A r/e>A/ ASSOC/AT/C*J ASsoe/AT/c*t The use o f such a f ramework i s n o t o n l y as an a t t e m p t t o o r g a n i z e f u t u r e o r p a s t r e s e a r c h b u t a l s o t o p o i n t out w h i c h t y p e o f r e s e a r c h t h e p l a n n e r has t r a d i t i o n -120 a l l y b a s e d h i s d e c i s i o n s on and w h i c h t y p e o f d a t a i s needed t o e n a b l e h i m t o base f u t u r e d e c i s i o n s on more r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s . P a s t d e c i s i o n s appear t o o f t e n be b a s e d on a p p r a i s a l o f a c t u a l use o f e x i s t i n g p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s and s o c i a l g o a l s are f o r m u l a t e d i n te rms o f b e t t e r l i f e s t y l e t h a t w i l l a c c r u e t h r o u g h a c t u a l use o f i m p r o v e d p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s b e t t e r l i f e s t y l e w o u l d be d e f i n e d i n te rms o f more s a t i s f y i n g i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h p e r s o n s a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l a n d / o r w i t h t h e c i t y as a w h o l e p r o d u c e d by changes i n t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t w i l l r e d u c e t h e f o r m l e s s n e s s and a n o n y m i t y o f t h e o l d r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . Y e t , i t i s now f e l t , t h a t i t may be j u s t as i m p o r t a n t , i f n o t more i m p o r t a n t , t o know t h e a t t i t u d e s w h i c h u n d e r l i e an a c t i o n i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o e f f e c t any m e a n i n g f u l change i n t h e m a n i f e s t a c t i o n s b a s e d on t h o s e a t t i t u d e s . As w e l l , i t i s c l e a r t h a t l i t t l e i s known about s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n te rms o f a c t u a l use o r a t t i t u d e s . Bo t tomore s t a t e s We are p r o f o u n d l y i g n o r a n t o f how i n d i v i d u a l s d i s t r i b u t e t h e i r t i m e , money, i n t e r e s t , a f f e c t i o n , be tween d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and g r o u p s ; . . . There i s a need f o r an a c c u r a t e map o f t h e 'web o f g roup a f f i l i a t i o n s ' . . . b a s e d on an e n u m e r a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t y p e s o f s o c i a l g r o u p s . 1 R e s e a r c h i n t o s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s i n t e rms o f f o r m a l and e s p e c i a l l y i n f o r m a l a s s o c i a t i o n s appears i m p o r t a n t . Such 121 r e s e a r c h s h o u l d e n a b l e t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p l a n n e r t o f o r m u l a t e g o a l s i n t e rms o f known s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s and hence be a b l e t o r e a l i s t i c a l l y a p p r a i s e what e f f e c t h i s m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t w i l l have on t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f t h e a r e a . FOOTNOTES - CHAPTER I V 1. T . B . B o t t o m o r e , S o c i o l o g y , A Guide t o Prob lems and  L i t e r a t u r e , Unwin U n i v e r s i t y B o o k s . L o n d o n , 1962, p . 1 0 1 . 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" S o c i a l D i s t a n c e and I t s O r i g i n s " , J o u r n a l  o f A p p l i e d S o c i o l o g y , v o l . 9, p p . 2 1 6 - 2 2 6 . B o t t o m o r e , T . B . , S o c i o l o g y , A G u i d e t o Prob lems and L i t e r a t u r e , Unwin U n i v e r s i t y Books , L o n d o n , 1962 . C a p l o w , T . , R o b e r t Forman, " N e i g h b o r h o o d I n t e r a c t i o n i n a Homogeneous Communi ty " , A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l Rev iew J u n e , 1950, p p . 3 5 7 - 3 6 6 . C a r v e r , H . C i t i e s i n t h e S u b u r b s , T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1962 . C h a p i n , F . S t u a r t , W e i s s , S h i r l e y , F . , Urban Growth D y n a m i c s , New Y o r k , J o h n W i l e y and Sons , I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1962.. C l a r k , S . D . , The Suburban S o c i e t y , T o r o n t o , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1966 . C r a n e , D . 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F . , " C o n t r a s t s i n N e i g h b o r i n g : New Y o r k C i t y and a Suburban C o m m u n i t y " , i n The Suburban Community , W. H . D o b r i n e r , e d . , New Y o r k , G. P . Putnam' s Sons , 1958, p p . 1 2 3 - 1 3 1 . F a v a , S. F . , " S u b u r b a n i s m as a Way o f L i f e " , A m e r i c a n  S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , F e b r u a r y , 1956, p . 3 4 . F e l d m a n , A r n o l d , T i l l e y , C h a r l e s , "The I n t e r a c t i o n o f S o c i a l and P h y s i c a l S p a c e " , A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l  R e v i e w , v o l . 25 , p p . 8 7 7 - 8 8 4 . F e l l i n , P h i l l i p ; L i t w a k , Eugene, " N e i g h b o r h o o d C o h e s i o n Under C o n d i t i o n s o f M o b i l i t y " , A m e r i c a n S o c i o l o g i c a l  R e v i e w , v o l . 28, p p . 3 6 4 - 3 7 7 . 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Howard , E b e n e z e r , Garden C i t i e s o f Tomorrow, 1902 . I s a a c s , R e g i n a l d , "The N e i g h b o r h o o d T h e o r y " , J o u r n a l o f t h e  A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , S p r i n g , 1948, p p . 1 5 - 2 3 . K a h n , J . H . , "A P s y c h i a t r i s t on New Towns" , Town and  C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g , O c t o b e r , 1961 . K e l l e r , Suzanne , The U rban N e i g h b o r h o o d , New Y o r k , Random House , 1968 . K e l l e r , Suzanne , "The R o l e o f S o c i a l C l a s s i n P h y s i c a l P l a n n i n g " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i a l S c i e n c e B u l l e t i n , v o l . 18 , 1966 . K u p e r , L e o , e d . L i v i n g i n Towns, 1953 . M c C l e n a h a n , B e s s i e , "The C o m m u n a l i t y : t h e U r b a n S u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e T r a d i t i o n a l Communi ty " , S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l  R e s e a r c h , 1946, p . 2 6 6 . M c C o n n e l l , R. 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