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A residential environ - urbville Rapanos, Dino 1969

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A RESIDENTIAL ENVIRON - URBVILLE • by DINO RAPANOS B. Arch., University of British Columbia, 1 9 6 4 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT CF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE QF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE in the School of ARCHITECTURE We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Depar tment o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Depar tment o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date 2S r^^uA^y, ($7Q i ABSTRACT Urbanization i s a dominant characteristic of the world condition. Eventually 90 - 95 per-cent of the total population w i l l l i v e i n urban agglomerations. In Canada, the prefered housing type i s s t i l l the single-family house on i t s own l o t , even though many people cannot afford i t or must give up some of the advantages of urban l i f e to achieve i t . What i s urban l i f e now? I t i s based on the economic condition of people -not only i s poverty a problem but so i s affluence. Work and leisure are being re-evaluated and our views of labour, social class, family structure, etc. are changing. Social s t r a t i f i c a t i o n exists and people of similar l i f e - s t y l e tend to become members of cohesive communities. Recognizing this, how can various style s - o f - l i f e be accommodated with creating ghettoes? Community becomes harder to define considering both social and physical mobility. Problems of members complicate the issues further - changes of scale may mean entirely new problems. The family i s changing as an institution and i n i t s composition - younger marriages, female - male equality, birth control, single generation family are changing the conditions that lead to existing housing forms. In order to deal with the many complexities affecting housing a method of defining l i f e - s t y l e was devised - l i f e - s t y l e being regarded as a valid means of defining community i n terms of individual conditions of social situation, mobility and communication, use of time, position i n the power or governmental structure. This i s the basis of the housing grouping theory, that i s : people l i v e together because of a common sense of appropriateness to their situation or l i f e - s t y l e . The investigation of l i f e - s t y l e was divided into the above characteristics of i i people. A study area was chosen, the Commercial Drive area of Vancouver, and the method related to the specific problem definable through use of the methodology or "check l i s t . " This method enabled us to investigate and discribe "Urbville." The l i f e style of Urbville i s characterized by people from old cultures who have moved to a new North American setting. Most people i n Urbville are newcomers to this country and adaption to the new environment, new surroundings and a different society, consumes a large amount of the energies of the population. Financial means are small i n relation to those of other Canadians but a l i t t l e better than they were i n Italy, Greece or China. Social status, however, i s f e l t to be lower. I t i s therefore more secure to stay close to those who speak the same mother tongue, and who have a common culture, similar experiences and a similar fate. The income of families i n 1961 was |4.,03A against $5,366 Metro average. Mobility of those l i v i n g here i s very low compared with others i n the urban area. Only 4-0$ of the families own a car while the average for the urban area i s 6%. Many men work i n the d i s t r i c t i n which they l i v e with their families, and women and children spend most of their time i n the same environment, close to home, the church, the school and shopping of the area. The environ, i n fact, i s l i k e the village i n which a l l l i f e and a l l public f a c i l i t i e s are within walking distance. In the urban setting, however, the village i s modified by other communication, transportation and industry. In our case i t s centre i s a street which i s also a major t r a f f i c artery for trucks and cars leading from the centre to other parts of the urban system. The arising conflicts are too great and must be adjusted, without interrupting the v a l i d i t y of a village centre which may also attract others from the urban area because of what i t offers in restaurants, specialty shopping and its specific character. While families with children dominate the residential pattern there are also many other households which must be accommodated in proper balance and ease the close contacts which are the nature of "village l i f e . " As street l i f e is important, cars must be removed from the streets. The paved area of the remaining street and the stoop for sitting make for easy informal contact for children and adults. There is some need for outdoor privacy, but in an atmosphere of safety in this culture, that need is small. Because of binding emotional and cultural ties the community is closely knit, although not in an organizational sense. In fact, there is a need for social assistance due to difficulties of adaption. The present formal education in the area is less than average, and pleasure and recreation must be achieved with a minimum of funds in the family with friends and neighbours. Therefore, there is the need to give the greatest wealth of experience within the environ. Home, street, shopping street, institution and green space for recreation are the ingredients of this environ. i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation to those many persons who aided in the development of this thesis. Particular thanks to Professor Henry Elder, who has been of immeasurable help in expanding concepts, yet giving them a framework capable of ordering divergent views and information into a unified idea. Without Professor Wolfgang Gerson this study would never have been begun, nor completed. Professor Gerson participated directly in the clarifying of issues in the text, many of the captions used are his, as is the outline of the "Multi-Dimensional Grid." The author is deeply indebted to his patient and excellent advice and direction, and his readiness to discuss every issue. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS £§ge Abstract i Acknowledgements i i i L i s t of Diagrams v i Introduction Urbanization as a Dominant Force i n the 20th Century 1 Conclusions 3 0 Organization and Methodolgy City Organization -The Multi-Dimensional Grid 3 3 The Necessity of a Basic Housing Grouping Theory - 3 7 Housing Grouping Theory Defined 3 8 Methodology of the Investigation of Life-Styles 3 8 The Study Area - Commercial Drive Use of Time 4 5 Mobility and Communication 50 Government 55 Social Condition 60 Housing 7 4 -Page Description of Urbville Pattern Organization 94-The Centre of Urbville 94 Streets and Spaces 95 Housing 96 Vehicle Movement System 98 Epilogue 100 Photographs of Model Bibliography Introduction Annotated Bibliography 106 107 v i LIST OF DIAGRAMS Page The Study Area v i i i Existing Area Examined Existing Pattern of Streets ix Major Traffic Streets x Commercial Area xi Open Green Space x i i Schools x i i i Focal Points xiv View and Sun Orientation xv Existing Housing Quality xvi Shopper - Traffic Conflict xvii Local and Thru Traffic Conflicts xvii 'Slum' Generating Influences xix Urbville Explained Traffic Concept External Transportation Parking Commercial Area Institution Locations Play Areas - A Play Areas - B Play Areas - C xx xxi xxii x x i i i x x i i i xxiv xxv xxvi Urbville Explained Pedestrian Movement Traffic and Parking Sun Angles Section through Pedestrian Street Section through Linear Spine 1 INTRODUCTION URBANIZATION AS A DOMINANT FORCE IN THE 20th CENTURY As a fundamentally gregarious animal, man has from the beginning of his history shown a propensity to l i v e i n agglomerations. I n i t i a l l y and for a very long time, mutual protection and defense was the basis for these groupings. In order to have shelter, to eat, and to procreate, primitive man discovered the necessity of group action and with these clear r e a l i t i e s before him, man was able to formalize and specialize a c t i v i t i e s so that the necessities of l i f e might be achieved. Thus the quality of human l i f e depended to some extent on the quantity of those i n a community. When a certain size was reached i t became unnecessary for a l l members of a society to be concerned with basic needs. Some were freed to enrich the human l i f e either physically, spiri t u a l l y or culturally. So man's existence developed into a culture rooted i n the necessity of the society of man. Society enabled man to prosper and to seek out what was labelled the "good things i n l i f e . " The richer l i f e , based on the satisfaction of physical and spiritual wants, generated the impulse to larger and larger groups and the physical framework to house them - the c i t y . Thus urbanity became the framework for the satisfaction of a large range of human wants. An examination of c i t i e s up to and for a short time after the invention of the cannon shows that the functions of defense and mutual satisfactions remained equally important forces i n shaping the physical environment and that the city has also been the crucible for most of man's cultural and technical achievements. With the advent of the industrial revolution, the urban scene began to react to the forces that 2 have become the dominant physical characteristics of an increasingly larger proportion of the population. The change from the manufacture of the bulk of wealth from the rural to the urban scene inevitably resulted i n the migration of people to the source of this wealth. This pattern has maintained to the present day and i t i s expected that eventually 90 to 95% of the total world population w i l l be urban.^ Yet while this urbanization i s occuring at an ever increasing rate, paradoxically the density of c i t i e s i s becoming less. For the optimum use of natural and man-made resources certain intensities of use are required. The 'Gity of the Future' study has found that i n successful c i t i e s of the past densities of about 100 persons per acre were optimum, whereas today densities of 1/2 to l/3rd this figure are common for large c i t i e s . Suburbanization, and i n i t s worst form sprawl, have been the instruments for this decreased density. However intensive use of some parts of the ci t y i s the cause of some of the major i l l s . The most glaring offense i n this regard i s the clogged streets and highways of the downtown areas of most major c i t i e s . The intensive use of some plots of land to house people at densities far i n excess of those necessary to the provision of the basic needs of healthful housing results i n urban decay and slums. The other side of the coin i s the wasteful extravagance of the typical suburban single family dwelling. On plots of land too often despoiled by the merchandising methods of speculators, plots too small to achieve the rural l i f e that was the origin of suburbs, by the costs of servicing and providing hospitals, schools, shops and places of work, by despoiling the very features of nature that led to the movement i n the f i r s t place, by the increasing financial burden of duplicating those City of Future, Ekistics, July 1965 3 services that already exist in the city in the suburban place and thus diluting the life-blood of many of the physical amenities that require intensive use to maintain a standard of excellence and by persuing outmoded ideals of l i f e in the mid Twentieth century many people are living in environments that f i t their needs badly and that diminish the richness of l i f e that might be available to them. The momentum that has been gained by the forces tending to change the urban qualities of the past will be enormously augmented in the future. It is estimated that the proportion of investment for human settlement between I960 and 2000 is likely to exceed the total cumulative investment by man from his origins to I960. It is obvious from these figures that the changes in the physical environment will be severe and that existing patterns of use of cities and forms of housing must be reappraised in the light of the forces generating this tremendous expenditure. The homogenous definable life-style that cities once had gave order and coherence to the l i f e of the city dweller. But the increase in size of cities and the diversity of l i f e now attainable in an increasingly wealthy society gives us the opportunity to reappraise and renew the urban form on the basis of city structure and housing grouping theories that conform to the necessities of the present and forseeable future urban dweller. PRESENT FORMS OF HOUSING EXAMINED. Historically, the detached single family dwelling is the typical Canadian housing type. To 1961, 66$ of the housing stock was of this kind. 15$ were semi-detached and duplexed dwellings, % row houses and 2 16$ apartments. In the metropolitan centres the number of apartments Murray, J. A. Good Housing for Canadians, 1964 A was approximately equal to the other types of dwellings. There exists also a strong preference for individual ownership rather than tenancy. We will confine ourselves to the urban locale, (including the suburbs) which is the area most needing consideration. The most obvious feature of housing in the city i s its partition into two categories: families with children and people without children. The single family detached house and the duplex are required to f i l l the bulk of the family with children need. A small portion of this need is fulfilled by the use of apartments, usually of advanced age in the decaying parts of the city. In most new apartment construction, particularly high-rise,, children are not considered desirable tenants and indeed except for very young children (1-2 years) the high-rise apartment is not a desirable nor a suitable form of housing. Thus the main burden of housing urban families must f a l l on the single family dwelling or the duplex and comparatively l i t t l e of these types are available as rentals. The young family of limited means i s driven frequently either into poorer lower cost rental housing or into cheaper suburban housing that they can afford to buy. In either case the choice is primarily an economic one that may disrupt the social, work or interest patterns of the family, and impose an economic burden beyond the best interests of the family. Thus i t can be seen that the choice of young family urban housing i s limited and the burdens may be excessive. An older and presumably more prosperous family with children ean add to the above choices the residential areas within the city, again primarily the detached dwelling, and this family has a wider choice of suburban locations. 'Downtown1 urban family housing for this group is possible only at a very great cost and even then not highly suited to children. 5 The patterns of the majority of detached single family dwellings have been derived largely from the necessity of the easy subdivision of land and its ready sale. The concepts of vehicle-pedestrian separation, neighbourhood development, minimization of service runs, of orderly development of land, of preservation of natural features and amenities are sadly lacking in the bulk of residential sub-divisions. No basic housing grouping principles beyond economic ones - and even the validity of some of these are questionable - are followed. It would be grossly unfair to leave the impression that the poorly planned typical sub-division is entirely the fault of voracious speculators. The legal restrictions of land sub-division and zoning and building by-laws has done much to perpetuate an obsolete framework for the social and physical needs of the contemporary family. If the family with children is apparently so limited in its housing choice, what of the family without children and the non-family household? These are groups that are becoming more numerous in our society for a variety of reasons: earlier marriages, longer life-spans, continuing immigration, the attractions of the city to younger people, etc. The private sector of the housing market has recognized the demand for housing of this group and much of the high-rise apartment development is directed to them, and for many i t is entirely adequate. But again the range of housing choice i s small. If apartment dwelling i s unsatisfactory and the single family house is also undesirable the choice between the two i s restricted. A variety of housing types in various price ranges spread over a number of locations based on the social needs of individuals must be provided i f this segment of the population is to be housed in a form satisfying their needs and interests. 6 THE URBAN AGGLOMERATION IS ACCEPTED AS THE NATURAL PRODUCT OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY. SOCIAL HETEROGENEITY IS THE MAJOR ATTRACTION TO THIS STRUCTURE. Some generalizations about the present condition of North American l i f e will be made in the following pages in an attempt to define and understand the most important forces at work in this society. We will attempt to define the social climate of our time. In order to do this i t has been necessary to set out the factors that affect our social condition, for i t is man as a social animal that concerns us - particularly as he lives together manifested by the forms and patterns of his society. Since the continuing and expanding urbanization of our country is well established, the framework into which these patterns must f i t is the city. There has been much written of late about the validity of the city in the twentieth century - both pro and con. It is not within the scope of this essay to elaborate or enlarge upon this argument. Rather we accept the idea of conglomerations of people living, working and playing together as a basic fact. But i t i s likely that the present problems of cities will increase in magnitude. Already megalopolis exists on the eastern seaboard of the United States. Some planners and architects believe that within one hundred years the entire habitable surface of the earth may be built upon - ecumenopolis is the term coined by Doxiades. There is strong evidence to support this predication and therefore, i f i t is taken as true, any housing solution must of necessity f i t into this total structure. The forces at work on this structure of human habitation - social, economic, cultural, technical - form the subject of this paper. 7 THE AFFLUENCE OF A SOCIAL DEMOCRACY BRINGS ABOUT A CHANGE IN BASIC AIMS The a l l pervading spectre that haunts every citizen to one degree or another is economic insecurity. Yet in large measure economic security for most people has already been resolved - or at least is in abeyance. It i s in fact - i f not so understood by society - of secondary importance to the satisfaction of new wants that are generated by the increasing productivity of a constantly expanding economy. Thus the central issue of economic policy is the maintenance of an increasing rate of productivity in order to maintain, not a high level of goods and services primarily, but a fully employed working force. It is no longer the product but the production that is essential to our society. The basic necessities of l i f e are assured, the creation of new wants, often entirely by advertising, indicates the "marginal utility" of these goods. Rather than a concern for economic security the concern is for the protection of the much greater wealth that is accumulated. Similarly, the greater want stimulation of advertising and desire for status as reflected in the possession of goods and the demand for services is a reflection of this affluence. The main change which affluence has brought about is that l i f e is not any more a fight for basic necessities (food, shelter and medical care) but the question has become one of your own position in relation to others. Who am I? What do I want? What do I do? This question is answered by relating my position to that of others with common values and ideas. I choose a segment of society for my own. 8 WITH BASIC AIMS THE USE OF TIME ALSO CHANGES; THE OLD MORALS OF WORK AND LEISURE ARE RE-EVALUATED The expanding population and its wealth has resulted in the increase of the time-honoured professions: doctor, lawyer, politician and the establishment of new ones: psychologist, sociologist, physicist. Increasing numbers of people receive the benefits of a higher education. Benefits that include not only, presumably, a wider ranging more inquisitive mind, but also a higher net income and some measure of social upgrading. This in turn stimulates those lower on the social and economic ladders to achieve these goals and thus the spiral upward direction and expansion of society continues at an increasing rate - that i s , society i s in the process of not only renewing itself but in fact upgrading itsel f - witness the constantly expanding middle-class and the decreasing lower class. Since there exists a class structure, i t is the accepted right of every citizen to have complete mobility within society to change his position relative to i t and commensure with his abilities and ambitions. It is significant also that what Galbraith describes as the "New Class" i s expanding. He defines as its characteristics: "exemption from manual t o i l ; escape from boredom and severe routine; the chance to spend one's l i f e in clean and physically comfortable surroundings; and some opportunity to applying one's thoughts to the day's work." These are the goals of the "Great Society" and most importantly economic security is not stated because i t can be taken for granted. It is the expansion of this class that Galbraith describes as "perhaps the major social goal of the society." Here we have the intriguing spectacle of a brilliant economic analyst making and stressing the point that economic activity is the hand-maiden of social purpose. 9 USE OF TIME CHANGES FOR MAN AND WOMAN LEADING TO SOME FAMILY CHANGES The result of this emphasis on production and the resulting plethora of goods has stimulated the necessity of as many wage earners as possible in each family - particularly adding a wife's wage to that of her husband's. This tendency has profound implications on the structure and functioning of the family and particularly on the raising of children. Greater production of consumer wants in the form of domestic labour-saving devices. The automatic washer and dryer, dishwasher, self-timing stoves, minimum maintenance fabrics, inexpensive clothing - a l l have reduced the housewife's daily chores permitting her to become a second wage earner. Concurrently with his wife's new-found paid-employee status, the husband finds his working hours becoming shorter - the AO hour week is well established and the 30 hour week has put in its appearance as the forerunner of the next reduction of the hours of labour. But this increase in leisure time has largely been confined to the middle, non-professional, non executive class. Doctors, lawyers, executives are apparently working harder and longer than ever before. This fact is particularly interesting because this is the class that is now under most pressure to expand. Pressure in the form of the non-professional parent (who i s now and will be increasingly characterized by leisure) aspiring for his children's entrance into this considered-to-be "higher" class. This is probably a manifestation of what Walter Kerr says in his analysis of 'The Decline of Pleasure:1 "In a contrary and perhaps rather cruel way the twentieth century has relieved us of labour without at the same time relieving us of the conviction that only labour is meaningful." The moral attitude to work has become obsolete in our contemporary production-orientated society; a further complication to the change from "a civilization not topped by a leisure class, but a civilization characterized by universal leisure." Under the tremendous pressures exerted upon i t , i t is inevitable that this moral attitude will change, and when i t does people will be able to regard their leisure time as the "serious business of l i f e . " Galbraith describes as one of the central goals of economic policy the elimination of t o i l as a required economic institution. And C. K. Brightbill considers the human needs growing out of increasing leisure as calling for "the deepest kind of imaginativeness and conscientiousness." THE MODERN POOR ARE NOT THE POOR OF FORMER PERIODS A "war on poverty" has been declared in both Canada and the United States but i t is only because of the relative affluence of the majority of North Americans that poverty is no longer considered defensible by any responsible segment of society. It is a measure of the responsibility of the bulk of society that i t has become politically expedient to attempt to raise a l l citizens to a minimum standard of living - at public expense - well above the average condition of a generation or two ago. But those people in a condition of poverty are not the ordinary family of parents and children but specialized groups who are "old, or sick, deserted wives, unmarried mothers or marginal workers on the fringe of organized society." The problem can be seen to be not merely f u l l employment or greater productivity, or increased social welfare. The problems of the poor arise out of their particular physical or social condition and therefore i t is particular solutions that are required. 11 STRATIFICATION - AND STILE OF LIFE, SOCIAL GROUPINGS AS INDICATION THAT ALL MEN ARE NOT ALIKE The whole question of social stratification i s naturally brought to mind by any consideration of i t s segments. Sociologists have shown that st r a t i f i c a t i o n of our society does exist - however much i t i s considered undesirable and undemocratic. Stratification exists for a variety of reasons but none more cogent than that "people of similar style of l i f e tend to become an organized community of people who interact with each other more comfortably than with outsiders ... eventually the common style of l i f e and common interaction produce common values or ways of looking at the world." (Kahl) Furthermore people strive for a condition of l i f e that they consider appropriate for them, and this sense of appropriateness varies enormously. How does this sens of appropriateness develop? I f we consider a person as he matures from infancy to adulthood we find the scope of his ac t i v i t i e s f a l l into definable categories. As a baby his social sphere i s his immediate family; mother, father, brothers and sisters. Before he starts elementary school he w i l l have been allowed some freedom from the house but his area of activity remains small. But school attendance brings on an enormously expanded universe and increasingly as he grows older the physical area he i s allowed to cover grows, as does the number of people from whom he may choose his friends. Gradually he w i l l tend to associate with those of similar interests to the point of establishing cliques - perhaps he may belong to several but the significance i s that he has begun to channelize and formalize his a c t i v i t i e s . This ordering tends to stay with him for the rest of his l i f e . The contraction of his 12 available society continues at school. If he should drop out of school his interests will be immediately different from his former classmates. If he continues he is forced into a choice of a general curriculum or one directed toward university. Within the school a clear stratification results from the necessity of this choice and within these main divisions sub-groups are formed on the basis of sports, organizations or scholastic interests and abilities. It i s clear that children are introduced from an early age to a social group that is considered of some relevance to their positions. The relevance and definition of their group is constantly impinging upon their behaviour and activities as they mature. They are conditioned to accept stratification, hot consciously but as an underlying principle of social organization that is inevitable and the nature of society. Upon leaving the public school system, the choice between continuing formal education or going into the labour force must be made and i t is clear that the choice will largely determine future living patterns. Statistics have been compiled to show that the length of time of education has a direct correlation to earned income: lowest for those who have not finished high school, rising to highest for those with a university degree. In fact, for consideration as "executive material" -Whyte's 'Organization Man1 - a degree is essential. It is difficult to assess the distinct reason for social stratification but i t can be definitely correlated with education and income with the greater amounts of both generally tending to place one higher on the social scale. 13 CLASS AN "INVENTION OF SOCIOLOGISTS" YET EVERYBODY KNOWS THEY EXIST There has been some controversy among sociologists who have attempted to define social classes. The popular concept of three classes; upper, middle and lower has been expanded and particularized to include five classes and this classification i s now generally accepted. I t consists of: upper class consisting of 1$ of the population; upper-middle, 9$; lower-middle, 40$; working class, 4.0$; lower, 10$. Kahl's analysis of the class distinctions i s summarized as follows: the upper class i s distinctive by a family's membership i n the upper group for two or three generations. But i n order to be considered of the upper class, wealth, education and position are essential. This group travels extensively, sends i t s sons and daughters to the 'best' schools. I t i s an organized social group devoted to 'gracious' l i v i n g . The upper-middle class man i s distinctive i n his pursuit of a career. The class i s educated, i t may be wealthier than even the upper class, the men and women are leaders i n the community. A career i s considered to be a public thing. A man must marry the right g i r l , he must be concerned with his public behaviour and reputation. This man feels a sense of accomplishment and contribution about his career. The upper-middle class have a pragmatic outlook on the world, they are not interested i n theory but rather i n results. The lower-middle class are defined as those i n the semi-professional and semi-managerial occupations. They are at the bottom of the various occupations that make up the work of the upper-middle class. They "work with the big people, and sometimes are trying to become big people, but 14 they live with the small people." But this class also contains the small farmer, skilled craftsmen and foremen. This is the middle-income group, living in single family or two family houses and modern apartments. One of the central goals of this class is respectability. Although they may never 'get very far' and they know i t , they strive for moral, well-behaved children, for home ownership and generally for achievement in moderation, and generally a stable family-centred l i f e . The typical working class man is a semi-skilled factory worker who did not complete high school. He forms a part of a mobile work force going from job to job, his pay varies l i t t l e from year to year and the job is something that must be done in order to 'get by.' This attitude is the opposite to that of the career orientated upper-middle class. Many dream of establishing a small business but few ever do. Because of the alienation from work they turn their interests in their families, homes and vacations. Their leisure activities tend to be non-creative, reflecting the passivity derived from their work attitudes. There is no concern with public reputation but a pride in the consumptive pleasures. The worker is not a participator but rather a spectator in recreation as he is at work. The lower class is characterized by apathy, their economic condition is poor, they feel 'down and out,' they are looked upon as being immoral, they are poorly educated and least interested in education, everage intelligence and health condition is low. They are hired for only the most routine of jobs and they are generally the fi r s t to be laid off as business declines. The family situation is unstable, neighbourliness, religious belief and ethical considerations are inoperative for this class. They tend to live in the slums of cities and the family, when i t exists, tends to be large. The large family is the source of the individual's help and stability and he feels no responsibility to his employer or his society. Rather he is concerned with pleasure seeking and the gratification of the senses. The alienation from society tends to be reflected in a sense of aggression toward a society with which they are unable to cope. ACCEPTANCE OF GROUPINGS, DEMANDS EAST LINKAGE AND EASE OF MOBILITY FROM ONE GROUP TO ANOTHER It is apparent from the definition of class distinctions that frictions exist among them. Despite a degree of social mobility the animosities resulting from this stratification act as socially descriptive forces that - i t is the prejudice of this essay - society could well do without. However the difficulties of removing this stratification cannot be brought about by any single action and i t is debatable whether the total elimination of the class system is possible or desirable. What is desirable to be eliminated is the inter-class frictions - the frictions based on ignorance, intolerance and apathy. Unquestionably, education is the most effective instrument in combatting these evils. Education in an attempt to improve the lot of the lower classes and education about the conditions of each class that may lead to greater understanding. The word most used in conjunction with our governmental system as well as the social system is freedom. In fact democrcy is often defended or condemned relevant to the freedom i t brings to and permits its citizens. In any responsible society this freedom is based on a system of social 16 values and responsibilities, and one of the more important responsibilities is that this freedom shall be maintained at least; augmented i f possible; but accruing to a l l equally certainly. Such is presently not the case. Studies have shown that the basic governmental instrument - law - is applied to some extent, whether consciously or not, on the basis of social position. There is a growing uneasiness about the maintenance of particular interests for a limited group often known as "the Establishment.n As power is brought into the hands of the few, i t seems to be a law of human nature that freedom for the many is diminished - yet this is an intolerable situation. The inequalities of the distribution of inate abilities, talents, intelligence or ambitions may lead to an inevitable power structure, but i t is s t i l l the function of this structure to insure that the qualities of each individual are encouraged to fruition. This is the crux of the argument. As these abilities are apparently visited upon social groups in a fairly random way every effort must be made to reduce the impediments in the way of developing those talents. To this end complete mobility in our societal system is essential in order to acquaint the individual with the possibilities open to him through the use of his abilities and also the encouragement of their use. This expansion of horizons, this social freedom is the acknowledged right of the individual in a democracy and any shaping of the physical environment will affect i t in some degree. This is the lesson for architects and planners, that buildings have a social purpose and a social effect and i t is vitally important to be aware of them. 1 7 ARCHITECTURE AS THE SETTING FOR "STYLES OF LIFE" It is proposed that housing can be an instrument of social process. The question is: How can housing be harnessed for this purpose? At the moment there exists only vague prejudices and intuitions in the mind of the writers that hopefully will be explored in the journey to an ultimate housing solution. It cannot be ignored that people of a similar style of l i f e tend to organize and interact, they tend to look at the world in the same way. It i s also doubtful that complete social homogeneity is desirable - that way lies crushing conformity and boredom. The path between social and economic equality and the present imbalance, unrest and hardship i s a very difficult one to travel and is perhaps beyond the scope of any merely architectural experiment. Yet i t i s an experiment worth trying. PHYSICAL MOBILITY AND ITS RELATION TO SOCIAL MOBILITY There are many other forces at work that are affecting society and the way i t looks at itself. Certainly increasing mobility is reducing the outward differences between classes. THE CAR FOR TRAVEL AND LOCAL TRANSPORTATION In 1 9 6 1 the total population of Canada was 1 8 . 2 million persons. There were slightly more than 4 * 5 million families averaging 3 . 9 persons. The total number of vehicles was 5 . 5 million and of these 4..3 million were passenger cars. By 1 9 6 4 these figures had increased to 6.4-5 million total vehicles and 5 . 1 2 mil]ion passenger cars with about 7 million Canadians licensed to drive them. In 1961 then, there was .95 car per family and 1 . 3 6 persons licensed to drive each car. These figures indicate one facet of the average Canadian's mobility. They mean that the average Canadian - who-very nearly coincides with the average motorist - can consider any part of the entire metropolitan area as his place of employment, he can live wherever he wants and he can play wherever he wants. The car permits great flexibility in the use of leisure time. It has made possible the out-of-town weekend and this fact has probably been a force in desiring and achieving the 5 day work week with its attendant 2 day weekend. It has also given the necessary means to travel to widely dispersed areas at a level of expenditure far below other forms of travel. The result is that a man who "might rarely see the mountains, or the seashore, or the trees, were i t not for the family car" has had his horizons vastly extended. There has also been an attendant spirit of freedom - a pyschological opening up of the boundaries of the mind. In some parts of Europe, less mobile than ours, a distance of 200 miles will be considered a major journey requiring weeks of planning and anticipation. In North America i t may be decided upon on the spur of the moment and be considered merely five or six hours driving time. It is questionable to what exact degree, but surely at least to some, the increasing world-wide travel had as its impetus the mobility brought about by the automobile. Before we can run, we must learn to walkj before we can fly, we learn to drive. The attitude toward the shrinking of the globe into a few hours flying time -indeed of distance being considered a matter of minutes or hours rather 19 than miles for the bulk of the population owes its origin to the motor-car. With a l l this mobility has come about the numerous positive effects of travel. Everyone believes that 'travel is broadening.' Perhaps not for a l l but for some i t has the benefit of bestowing new experiences, new awareness, and new sympathy for what previously may have been merely 'a dot on the map.1 In the complex situation of world affairs, this self-education may well be the beginning of the road to international understanding. Many virtues have been ascribed here to the automobile - perhaps too many; that i t has been a mixed blessing is only too well known. Many people are appalled by the enormous control over the national economy that the automotive industry exerts; others point to an apparently deteriorating moral sense in young people and refer to the car as a 'bedroom on wheels;' some say i t is choking and killing our cities - Ivor de Wolfe says: "The car's insolent refusal to become urbanized establishes i t as an intruder anywhere" and "not (traffic) arteries at a l l , in fact, but wounds, through which the l i f e blood of the urban thing drains away." The parked car is described by Chermayoff and Alexander as "indecent;" much has been written of the tremendous areas required for i t and the devastation that results -both physical and aesthetic. The classic case of Los Angeles with 66$ of its land devoted to the car is constantly referred to as a manifestation of the evils of the automobile. The unhealthiness of air pollution by the auto are well documented. The enormous death tolls and property damage resulting from traffic accidents appal everyone. The noise, the garishness, the expense are a l l further disadvantages. The rendering obsolete of the romantic notion of the street becaue of the antagonism of motor versus pedestrian has introduced a presently unresolved problem in the design and renewal of cities. HOUSEHOLD MOBILITY There i s another aspect to the mobility of the typical North American. I t i s the frequency with which he moves his place of residence. In Canada, i t i s estimated that a household moves approximately once every five years. One manifestation of this mobility i s the movement of population from rural to urban areas. By 1961, 53$ of the total population li v e d i n c i t i e s of over 30,000 people. This i s expected to jump to between 70$ - 80$ by 1980, when i t i s estimated the total Canadian population w i l l be 38 million. One of the results of this constant movement i s the estrangement of a person from the area i n which he l i v e s . I t makes d i f f i c u l t long term planning because i t i s doubtful whether a citizen who undertakes an obligation for c i v i c improvement w i l l remain to carry i t out. Similarly, the itinerant citizen i s reluctant to assume civ i c responsibility. I t i s therefore more and more being transferred to government from the individual. But what are the reasons behind this housing mobility? The 'ACTION SERIES IN HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT' states categorically, assuming an urban scene, that "the two most compelling motives for moving are the dwelling i t s e l f and the social qualities of the neighbours." William Whyte has found other co-relations; men between 25 and 35 years of age move more frequently than other age groups, and there i s a positive relation between mobility and education. Whyte relates this to his concept of the 'organization man' and the demands made upon him by his loyalty to his company. But i t seems that despite the constant transfer from place to place, some measure of securing i n the form of consistency of environment i s maintained. Quoting Whyte again: "with each transfer the decor, the architecture, the faces and the names may change; the people, the conversation, and the values do not - and sometimes the decor and the architecture don't either." These attempts to overcome a lack of continuity and security have prompted a psychologist, R. M. Waite, to state that "adjustment to mobility i s something which I think the human race i s coming to terms within a rather traumatic way." In Vancouver i t has been found that the younger generation move their places of residence mainly because of financial considerations, but they are also trying to find: "open surroundings; fresh a i r ; peace and quiet; uncrowded, spacious conditions; less t r a f f i c ; slower pace; neighbourliness; better place for children; friendlier atmosphere; convenience to work and school; and smaller numbers." THE POPULATION INCREASE AND PROBLEMS OF NUMBER AND SCALE Certainly one of the reasons for the 'traumatic way1 i s the ever increasing numbers of the human race. I t has been said that by 1980 the extent of our c i t i e s w i l l more than double, that 900 square miles w i l l be b u i l t upon to accommodate about 7 million more people i n the major Canadian urban centres. The figures for projected growth of c i t i e s by the year 2000 are: Montreal, 5-A million; Toronto, 4-.8 million; Vancouver, 2 million. Must these increasing numbers inevitably result i n population wide trauma? Why does population growth so dislocate established l i v i n g patterns? That i t does i s well documented and an awareness of these dislocations i s essential to their understanding. 22 The most obvious effect of increased numbers i s increased congestion - c i t i e s do not expand physically as the population increases geometrically. Thus there i s more time devoted to commuting and therefore more t r a f f i c . There i s a loss of privacy, a diminishing of the sense of importance of the individual. More frustrations may cause neuroses and inner conflict that may, as Julian Huxley says: " s p i l l over i n f i t s of irrational aggression." I t i s significant that the recent ri o t s of Los Angeles seem to f i t into this category and of course Los Angeles has long been regarded as the epitome of a l l that i s wrong with the 20th Century c i t y . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of privacy i n the form of areas for solitude and enjoyment i s diminishing and some of the natural resources and beauties of the landscape are being overwhelmed. Population quantity has enormously complicated one of the major problems of our age - education. There exists - and the condition w i l l worsen - a lack of teachers, books and classrooms. Employment cannot expand as quickly as population - i n North America i t i s mainly the 1 8 - 2 4 age group that has d i f f i c u l l y i n obtaining jobs. In China, i t has been estimated the yearly growth may reach IA million and i t w i l l be impossible for the economy to add this number of jobs yearly. Thus the p o l i t i c a l aspects of population growth have often introduced the element of lebensraum as a justification for war. Social and p o l i t i c a l efficiency require more elaborate administration and regimentation which are the catalysts of bureaucracy and i t s evi l s . Karl Sax quotes studies to show that the rate of increase of population declines among the better - educated higher-income group. I t i s the less-educated lower-income group that has the highest birth rate. Not only a higher birth rate but a lower average intelligence - a fact i n 23 itself not alarming until i t is correlated to total average intelligence. Sax states that there is "a decline in the average intelligence quotient of about 1-7$ per generation." It is claimed that the human race can not indefinitely maintain its present level of scientific and industrial progress i f the average intelligence of the human race continues to decline. MORE NUMBERS MEAN IN FACT A CHANGE IN PROBLEM, NOT JUST INCREASE There are more specific difficulties inherent in large numbers. Although the need for privacy varies widely among social groups and among individuals, in every instance as density increases, the attainment of privacy becomes more difficult. In order to achieve i t society establishes barriers that also serve to achieve intimacy - which may be regarded as a degree of privacy. The definition of these barriers must be achieved before any solution to communal living has real validity. The idea of density of housing based on healthful principles is well established. Sufficient sunlight, air and space for living are measurable requirements but the social dislocations or results of greater densities are poorly understood. In a book titled 'THE ORGANIZATION OF SOCIETY,' Paul E. Mott has addressed himself to this problem. He has taken as a point of departure the notion that "as the population of a social organization increases" certain results are observable. Some results are that "the number of the parts and the degree of specialization increase, that i s , there is a tendency for greater stratification, not less as we consider desirable. Roles become formalized - the system rigidifies and social mobility decreases. At the same time variation in norms increase and as a result integration declines. The number of levels of influence increase as does the potential for conflict and problems of interaction of social units are multiplied. Inevitably the existing influential areas of effort or institutions increase their influence." 24 PRIVACY, IDENTITY AND INTIMACY OF CONTRACT ARE VALUES IN MASS SOCIETY Either the values presently held by most North Americans about the virtues of individuality and rights to personal expression, belief, etc., will change or the freedom to choose an area in which to live may require modification. Thus intimately associated with any discussion of population growth is the question of the growth of those areas in which the population lives - and this is increasingly the urban environment. If a strong case can be made for the limiting of population, an equally strong case can be made to limit the growth of cities. It is beyond the scope of this paper to become embroiled in this controversy in anything but a cursory way. Suffice to say that Huxley has stated an agreeable point of view: "As a young man I travelled a good deal about Europe, and already then, a good half century ago, I came to the conclusion that half a million was the ideal size for a city and that every further increase brought more disadvantages than advantages. I am s t i l l of that opinion. Last autumn I spent a week in the pleasant city of Edinburgh and found that i t s t i l l had less than half a million inhabitants. It has a l l the doings of civilized l i f e and has easy access to the country. London, on the other hand, is no longer a city but a megalopolis getting on for 10 million inhabitants, and l i f e in i t is getting impossible, or at least increasingly difficult." A distinguished Canadian humourist, Eric Nicol, has written: "In fact I am prepared to forego quite a number of other luxuries i n order to live in a house separated from the neighbours by enough space and solid hedge to enable me to look out any of the windows without being reminded that 25 no man i s an island. I may not be an island, but I'm going to have a damn good try at being a sandbar." Aldo VanEyek, the Dutch architect, has summed up the problem this way: "In order that we may overcome the menace of quantity the laws of what I c a l l 'harmony i n motion' must be discovered - the aesthetics of number." FAMILY (CHANGING COMPOSITION AND INSTITUTION) So far we have dealt with large groups of people - social classes rather than the people who make up those classes. Yet to write of the individual i s s t i l l premature and probably impossible i n a paper of this kind - generalities are meaningless i n regard to the single person. However there i s a smaller unit that has considerable relevance to this study - the family. I t has been said that "the recognition of the family as the main social unit conditions housing policy." But should the family be the basis for planning? James Murray i n his study GOOD HOUSING FOR CANADIANS estimates that by 1980 there w i l l be slightly more than 6 million family and 1.3 million non-family formations, that i s 21$ of the population w i l l l i v e i n a non-family condition. This percentage cannot be ignored i n housing solutions. Apart from the declining ratio of family groups there l i e s the question of the v a l i d i t y of the family i n assuming the premier position i n the consideration of housing. It has become accepted that a normal function of society i s to help ensure that as Galbraith says: "the misfortunes of parents, deserved or otherwise, were not visited on their children." Furthermore i t seems to be becoming increasingly questionable as to whether parents 26 are best suited to bring up children. There can be no question that usually parents are best able to provide the love their children need but i t is not obvious and, in fact i f not in word, accepted that others more specialized in their training can rear children with greater wisdom and understanding than the parents. For general knowledge of the world and to inculcate a love of country we have the public school teacherj for morals, the Sunday School teacher; for driving cars, a driver training school; for entertainment, television; and so on. It serves no purpose to over exaggerate these forces but i t is of value to point out that the parents role in child raising has diminished and probably from what the present parent knew as a child. Child mobility and modern mass communication have both been factors in this effect, but other forces exist as well. Particularly the point of view espoused by such people as Betty Friedan in her book 'THE FEMININE MYSTIQUE,1 that women are capable of much more than running a household and raising children and owe i t to themselves to make use of a l l of their capabilities. More women than ever before enter the work force, especially married women. They spend less time solely in the company of children. A generation ago a mother spent most of her waking hours preparing meals, maintaining a house and caring for children. This kept her anchored to the house to a similar degree that very young children are confined to the backyard. Mother was always 'around.' To-day mother may hold a full-time job as well as her traditional chores but these chores have been simplified by mechanization and automation of household machinery. In other words women have gained greater freedom in the use of their time and they can devote i t to their children, house, 27 career or whatever. They have been able to expand their horizons because none of the traditional tasks are as time consuming, given modern methods and enough money, as they once were. Additionally women's competence for these tasks has been questioned, especially in child rearing. The raising of children is conceived to be of such importance today that some feel i t should be largely in the hands of professionals. With a broader view of the world parents are able to recognize their own limitations and to realize that their children can benefit from the experience of others. Aldous Huxley advocated in his novel ISLAND that children should be allowed to choose their own parents or even several parents. They recognize their needs of the moment and they should be free to accommodate them from any parental or family source. The direction of long range goals would tend to be a function of the whole of the society. A Utopian concept perhaps, in the light of the structure of today's society, but one of considerable appeal. Too often the mother may be incompetent or i f she is working, may be forced to leave the care of her children to someone who is merely handy or whose services are inexpensive rather than to someone who is truly able to bring to the child a measure of direction or education or simply joy. From the foregoing i t is obvious that the form of the family is likely to undergo change - in addition to the alterations already made. A generation or two ago the three generation household was common. The interaction of individuals of widely varying age served as an example and stimulus for the young to emulate or better their elders, while the efforts of the young members of the family to achieve their goals would become of prime importance to the actions of the elder family members. 28 In addition the social patterns and mores would be directly transmitted from generation to generation thus constituting a natural teaching and guidance system. The importance of the family as a unit and of the maintenance of the sense of unity was stressed. Kinship was a principal social and economic factor i n the c i r c l e and extent of friendships. Under the impact of contemporary l i v i n g conditions, the family rarely exists i n this form. Indeed i n some respects the one generation household has emerged as the dominant one. Ear l i e r marriage has been one of the main factors i n this new situation. Also child raising i s often delayed u n t i l the desired amenities are accumulated and with modern methods of contraception the planning of children i s subject to greater control. As a corollary of earlier marriage i s the fact that most newly married couples tend to set up their own household, therefore they leave their parents home at an earlier age. Even i f the children do not get married they tend to leave home and establish their own residence at earlier ages than their parents did. This tendency has been fac i l i t a t e d by the relatively high wages available to the average worker. Often the young unskilled worker can earn the same wage as his unskilled father at the same kind of work. It i s the peculiar circumstance of Canada that many young people have emigrated from their native countries and have thus often totally divorced themselves from their relatives. The other main factor i n the importance of the single generation family i s the increased life-span i n conjunction with financial security. I t i s no longer a financial necessity for different generations to l i v e together i n the same building and apparently the difference i n interests 29 and outlook encourage this division. Also the increased mobility coupled with financial means has given the elderly generation the freedom and means to pursue delayed interests and ambitions of a more leisurely sort. The family will certainly continue as the basic social unit, at least within the foreseeable future, but i t is obvious that the nuances of its cohesiveness have changed. Nevertheless we are faced with the necessity of housing the family in the city and in the light of the forces tending to change i t we must make design decisions. An accepted principle of housing - often honoured more in the breach than the observation - is that the location preferences of people must be considered in determining housing policy. These location preferences are complicated by the fact that during the period when space is most necessary, i t is often unobtainable and once i t is achieved i t soon becomes unnecessary because of the declining size of the family. Most importantly, i t is part of the Canadian dream that each man shall own his own plot of land, with his own house where he becomes 'king of his castle.' One of the already accepted principles of planning is that the family with children must be in immediate contact with nature, preferably on the ground plane. With a l l these demands acting upon a limited ground area some control of overall land use appears necessary. The city is described by Catherine Bauer Wurster as "increasingly ghettoized, with dangerous conflicts and hopeless social and economic problems." Recognizing these problems, i t is doubtful i f many people would want to sacrifice the amenities available to them in the suburbs in the hope of rescuing the abstract ideals of living in the city. therefore the necessities of housing must be discovered as they now apply to the changing and changed conditions of the city. CONCLUSION The result of this introductory investigation has been mainly to achieve a bird's eye view of the forces influencing housing forms and patterns in their relation to the broad social, economic and cultural condition. An effort has been made to order the enormous complexity of the problem and thus permit an attempt at solutions. The accompanying table serves as a guide to the direction of the study as well as a tabulation of the facets of the problems that must be dealt with. But any solution will of necessity be related to only a small and particularized segment of society. It is proposed to define those areas of activity among people that will tend to define a 'style-of-life' that may naturally lend itself to a comprehensive solution based on the 'wholeness' of this form of living. This approach has several advantages It will permit us to deal with a community of sufficient differentiation and population limitation that the aims, purposes, qualities may be carefully defined. The scale will be kept within reasonable bounds -that i s , within the scope of a mainly architectural solution; but i t will be necessary to f i t this into an overall framework of an urban environment either as i t exists or an idealized one. We should be able to accommodate the natural differences of the parts of society without stratifying them or making ghettos of them. This implies a freedom of exchange of ideas, of people, of interests, of thoughts and most 3 1 importantly, that the special interest groups have a necessary part to play in achieving a varied cross-section of the population within a community. This variation is seen as a necessity to any well-balanced, broad encompassing society. In addition we will emphasize new types of housing presently lacking, based on the particularized needs resulting from the evolution of our industrialized society. This will permit a freedom of housing choice not presently existent, and hopefully, with this freedom will also accrue the desirable goal of social inter-mixing not in a haphazard or art i f i c i a l manner but by mixing based on common interests. The necessity of avoiding any solution that may tend to ghettoize these particular interest groups is obvious - such a result would completely invalidate one of the central themes of this study. Therefore the links between these styles-of-life and between the functions of the city are of greatest importance. The nature of these links will vary depending upon the local conditions but the broad framework for them has been laid out in the body of this essay that describes the general situation in which our society finds itself and may be expected to develop toward - coupled with the desirable goals of our particular democracy. When considering a topic of such wide-spread significance the role of government must of necessity be examined and its responsibilities in relation to those of the individual must be appraised. It is possible - indeed extremely likely - that the achievement of certain housing goals can only be achieved through government sponsorship. The private sector of the building industry has been exceedingly conservative in his housing investments - naturally enough, since most housing construction is viewed mainly as investment rather than the satisfaction of particular social needs. 32 Thus the central goal of the study remains the definition of new housing types and patterns based on the changing conditions that have led to these needs. We have attempted to sketch the framework for the solution of these problems - to ask the right questions rather than look for answers. The next part of the study will be concerned with the answers. 33 ORGANIZATION AND METHODOLOGY CITY ORGANIZATION - THE MULTI-DIMENSIONAL GRID When the condition of sprawl i s reached many of the amenities of the c i t y are ei t h e r l o s t or very much diminished f o r the majority of the inhabitants. In order to overcome these inherent d i f f i c u l t i e s a new kind of c i t y organization i s proposed con s i s t i n g of a number of sp e c i a l i z e d grids to form a "multi-dimensional" g r i d , a) Communications G r i d parts: one devoted to communication based on p h y s i c a l mobility, i . e . mobile communication, and one based on a s t a t i c p h y s i c a l s i t u a t i o n of mobile information incorporating the e l e c t r o n i c and l i t e r a t e media, i . e . s t a b i l e . Diagrammatically t h i s i s shown i n Figure 1 where the s o l i d l i n e s i n d i c a t e the abstract patterns of mobile (physical) communication and the broken l i n e s i n d i c a t e the s t a b i l e (informational) communication patterns. I t i s evident from the diagram that s t a b i l e communication i s of a completely d i f f e r e n t form than mobile communication. The basic g r i d i s that of communications which consist of two F i g . 1 3A b) Service Mosaic The intersections formed by the mobile grid can logically be assigned a specific function. These functions form the service grid or mosaic (Figure 2) which would particularize services in one place and permit the mobile communication grid to be projected on the basis of that function. Included in this grid would be nodes of commerce, industry, education, culture, leisure and recreation. Fig. 2 c) Social Mosaic Distributed throughout the initial grid is a social mosaic (Figure 3) based on the social characteristics of people as reflected in such things as interest, income, identity, specialization, homogenity or heterogeneity and all influenced by geography and climate. Each individual part of the mosaic forms the focus for the activity that it is meant to serve and permits the plugging into the communication grid in a form that is predicable, capable of change yet complete at any stage. Fig. 3 3 5 d) Use of Land The land is considered to be a natural resource. Its wealth should accrue to society as a whole, that i s , the state. The land itself should therefore remain in the ownership of the state and rights to its use would be sold. These rights of use refer to the physical manipulation of the land such as mining, farming, logging, etc; the erection of structures upon i t , their kind and duration; the preservation of amenities of the land both natural and man-made. e) Administration The administration of the land would also be in the form of a multi-dimensional grid (Figure A)• Basic units developed from the nodal centres would be interlocking with other types of centres to the point where a number would be grouped together out of the resultant interaction. A third level would deal with those problems of interaction of the total nodal centres. It is expected that as growth and development occured these administrative volumes would similarly expand or contract. Fig. U 36 f) Change/Time B u i l t into any theory of city organization must be a recognition of the effects and necessities of change over time. Certain processes and most physical entities have either l i f e spans or l i f e cycles. The framework of the urban environment must be allowed to contain change as an inevitable process yet at the same time mitigate i t s frequently disruptive force. g) Technological Extensions The multi-dimensional grid as so far defined has been made possible largely by technological extensions of man's ab i l i t y to shape his environment. The evolution of communications into what McLuhan refers to as the "extension of the central nervous system" permits the physical dispersion of the elements of the city on a scale hitherto impossible. The ab i l i t y to build for very high densities of people and yet provide freedom and variety i n choices of l i v i n g styles has been achieved. The d i f f i c u l t y so far has been to control this new found ab i l i t y and order i t i n a way that w i l l result i n maximum freedom within a changing societal framework, yet permit the advances so obviously required and desired with a minimum disruption to the established conditions. I t i s the fear of this disruption to daily l i f e that i s so often transferred to a fear of change i n general. h) The Experience of Environment The corollary of the efficient technical working of the city i s the effect of this framework as an enclosure for human activity. The effects may be measured i n terms of comfort and stimulation, of heterogeneity and homogeneity, of intimacy and publicity, of space, form, scale and movement - i n a word - aesthetics. 37 PRCBLEM STATEMENT a) The Necessity of a Basic Housing Grouping Theory The difficulty with most housing as i t now stands is that i t occurs in a random way with l i t t l e cognizance of the physical environment required to satisfy social needs and the urban context in which these needs are to be satisfied. Concepts of neighbourhood, the "urban village," the "central place," etc. as means of achieving a coherent social framework are inadequately understood in relation to the implementation of housing schemes. Therefore one of the main objects of this study is seen to be the formulation of a basic housing grouping theory and the testing of this theory by a number of proposals conforming to i t . The essence of this theory must answer this basic question: Why do people live in proximity to one another? To date the study has revealed some answers to this question. It is not merely the answers but the weight that must be accorded to them that will lead to a clear statement of the theory. Thus, things like financial considerations, family situation, work, leisure, mobility, etc. a l l are encompassed in one term: life-style. In order to define l i f e -style i t has been necessary to examine the total context into which a l l housing must f i t . Housing i f considered to be a reflection of current social-economic-cultural conditions must take into account the physical form that houses them. Life-style i s then the overall pattern of living for a person or a group of persons as reflected by their social situation, their economic situation, their cultural one vis-a-vis the total situation into which a person or group must f i t . Thus "no man i s an island" and whether he f i t s well or badly, through his own efforts or those beyond his control, his life-style is in fact determined for a point in time. b) Housing Grouping Theory Defined The essence of our approach to housing grouping is that people live together based on a sense of appropriateness to their total situation. That is they find themselves in a particular style of living that is a result of a host of considerations: social, economic, cultural etc. (These points will be discussed in the following pages.) The terra most often used to define this situation is 'life-style' which is here defined as the pattern of living that underlies the actions and reactions of a social unit. Life-styles are based on such diverse foci as ethnicity, economic situation or locational preferences. However i t is important to si f t out from a l l the factors that make l i f e as complicated as i t i s , those forces and the relative weights that should be assigned to them in defining the life-style. Once life-style i s defined the housing necessities, their forms and patterns and their relation to the urban grid can be established. c) Methodology of the Investigation of Life-Styles The accompanying diagram represents the framework into which housing needs might be determined. It is of general validity but is particularly ordered with a view to present day Canada. The four main forces acting on housing are defined as: social condition, use of time, communication, government. The breaking down of these headings into sub-groups and sub-sub-groups, etc. is the means 39 of analyzing these forces. Thus a method of ordering information and cross referencing i t i s formed to show the inter-relationships of our complex society. The chart tends to emphasize the social qualities of a society and thereby provides clues to the common denominator of that society. This common denominator i s then assigned the t i t l e ' l i f e - s t y l e ' and becomes the basis of the housing scheme. I t particularly shows that housing cannot be considered merely as the provision of shelter but that i t i s one facet of the complex l i v i n g experience. The block including social condition, communication, use of time, and government refers to the factors affecting society and the physical environment. The housing technique consists of the particular factors conditioning the physical characteristics of housing. These are the factors that are affected or modified by the proceeding block. The results of the synthesis of these two blocks are the housing types and patterns that are designed. The l i n e enclosing a l l three blocks indicates the interrelatedness of a l l the parts to the whole. This interrelatedness refers to both the action and reactions of the parts on themselves as well as the progression from general social analysis to general housing analysis, to the presentation of particular housing types and patterns. Housing Needs Social Condition Use of Time C ommuni-cation Govern ment Problem Process Housing Technique New Housing Types and Patterns Proposals * COMMUNICATION PHYSICAL MOBILITY MENTAL COMMUNICATION Types Education Ease Adv e r t i s i n g New Methods S o c i a l E f f e c t s P h y s i c a l E f f e c t s A3 FAMILY SOCIAL CONDITION \ ECONOMICS C ontent Parent-Child Relationships Inter-Family Duration Validity Income Occupation Attitudes Aspirations STYLE-CF-LIFE POPULATION EDUCATION Social Status Social Mobility Ethnic Group Leisure Religion Privacy Characteristics Density Use of Resources Effects GOVERNMENT Existing Form Ideal Form Land Control Organization Urban Extent Definition of Re sp onsibilitie s Directions and Contexts Particular Needs Technology Research Pensions Medical Care Family Care Schools Employment Immigration Private Welfare THE STUDY AREA - COMMERCIAL DRIVE USE OF TIME a. LABOUR i . Family Of the 1,794 families in census tract 7 only 1,228 had wage-earner heads, i.e. 6 8 $ , Vancouver's average is 6 5 $ . Where there is a family head his income is $ 3 , 1 9 7 while the total family income is $ 4 , 0 3 4 an increase of 2 6 $ . The average Vancouver figures are $ 4 , 4 0 8 , $ 5 , 3 6 6 and 2 1 . " $ . From these figures i t can be seen that incomes additional to that of the family head assume considerable importance in this area as compared to the Vancouver average. The low income of families in this area is - apart from the ethnic factor - what distinguishes their style-of-life; in this case i t is closely associated with consumption patterns since income is near the subsistance level. There are a number of seasonal workers, loggers, fishermen, living in the area whose jobs take them out of town for lengthy continuous periods. This undoubtedly puts a strain on family relationships but to what exact extent is difficult to t e l l unless specific cases are examined. The job is not considered the main l i f e interest but primarily as the means to make money. The aspirations of l i f e are probably separate from the occupation. Automation and new technology represent dangers to this group because their general lack of skills makes them susceptible to displacement through automation or the introduction of new techniques that may require more skillful workers. A continuing programme of re-education may be necessary to even maintain the people of the area at their present income. 46 Only 8$ of the population is self-employed compared to 10$ Vancouver average. There are many small stores that give the commercial district a surprising and interesting diversity. The smallness of these businesses makes them vulnerable to competition from the chain stores but so far only a Safeway Store has been established. Since most of the commercial space is occupied, small businesses must s t i l l be feasible. The extent to which small specialized stores are desired by the residents over the larger supermarket or chain store may be a clue to the living style but unfortunately no data exists from which to derive conclusions. b. LEISURE i . Voluntary In a society more attuned to the material or physical pleasures of l i f e rather than the contemplative ones, the amount of money available for the indulgence of interests and desires has a direct effect on how well or completely they can be satisfied. The society under consideration is distinguished by both limited income and low education - two factors that make difficult indulgence at either the physical or mental levels. However the pleasures of l i f e , whatever they are seen to be, are not readily foregone simply because the budget is rather low by middle class standards. Necessities to middle class l i f e may not be equally important to lower class l i f e and indeed the pressures of conformity and conspicuous consumption are much less for the lower class. The conclusion here is that the 'lower' class is actually freer from social pressures in his choice of leisure activities than the 'higher' classes. 47 His decisions are made by weighing the desirability of pleasures over necessities. That he frequently opts from pleasures i s well-documented. Some support to this argument i s given by the fact that of 2,534 households, 1,864 (74$) have television sets, but only 1,840 have either a bath or shower. The extent to which television i s used i n comparison with other classes i s not known. In fact leisure a c t i v i t i e s i n general remain undefined. The absence of community f a c i l i t i e s (except churches) for • s leisure time a c t i v i t i e s suggests inter-family a c t i v i t i e s , or television watching or ac t i v i t i e s outside the area. This lat t e r point w i l l be further explored under physical mobility. At the moment suffice to say that only 40$ of households own an automobile compared to a Vancouver average of 63$, the conclusion being that movements are more restricted than the average condition, i i . Enforced In 1961 census tract 7 had the f i f t h highest percentage of unemployed i n the metropolitan area, 12.5$ of male labour force and 7.6$ of the female. 12.3$ were over 65 years. The bulk of whom were not employed. When this number of people have the ac t i v i t i e s of 24 hours of each day for which to make decisions the question i s : on what do they decide? The other side of the unemployment coin i s to determine the economic condition of these people. The old age pension provides sufficient for a basic subsistence level of l i f e . The attendant degradation of human l i f e at this l e v e l i s as yet an unmeasured social cost. The others must depend upon unemployment insurance and welfare payments since i t i s unlikely that any appreciable amount of savings exist. The reasons for this high rate of unemployment l i e mainly in the fact that the level of skills are low and i t is traditional that unskilled labour is the first to suffer the effects of economic recession and the longest suffering. The effects of automation also effect - so far -mainly this group. The difficulty of the unskilled to find jobs increases as they grow older to the point where after 65 and probably well before that i t is virtually impossible. i i i . Age Group The leisure activities and the deficiencies of children have already been discussed, and of adults hinted at. The importance of realizing that each age group has its particular leisure activities is the point to be made here. iv. Social Group There is some evidence to the effect that group activities are based on ethnicity. Children of one ethnic group have been known to dominate playgrounds and band together to repel "outsiders." Some sports teams are made up of members of one ethnic group only. The Community Chest and Councils report on the area recommends - indirectly - the ethnic qualities be reinforced by including activities in their agencies which are familiar to the various ethnic groups, by stressing the importance of their personnel speaking the appropriate foreign languages and that ethnic group leadership in community services programmes be further developed. 49 v. Style-of-Life The style-of-life is not related directly to leisure activities as such. As has been stressed ethnicity and housing cost form the basis of the community and set the style of l i f e . However the ethnicity by definition determines that certain common bonds exist that do spread into leisure activities. If we can say that gregariousness to a greater degree than in other nationalities characterizes Italians then we have said much about life-style. It implies that a sense of community may exist or may be fostered by judicious housing decisions. 50 MOBILITY AND COMMUNICATION a. PHYSICAL MOBILITY i . Pedestrian Pedestrian movement within the area is interrupted by the main traffic arteries of Commercial Drive (north - south) and First Avenue (east - west). The area is also ringed by heavy trafficed streets. The elements within these boundaries (and vehicle traffic is very much a boundary) are easily accessible to pedestrian movement - parks, schools and shopping. Pedestrian movement outside the boundaries is made difficult by vehicular traffic and by the fairly great walking distances from likely nodes of interest. i i . Vehicular Because of the low number of automobiles owned by the residents (4Q6 of the households), public transportation must be utilized to a greater degree. The area does not appear to be particularly well served in this regard but this may be due to a lack of demand. If so, then i t would indicate that the people within the area are less mobile than those in most other parts of the city. The fact that these people are in the low income group means that there is less money available for transportation and they apparently live close to their work. i i i . Travel There are a surprising number (four or five) of travel agents located in the commercial area. Almost a l l of them advertise some association with Italy either as being Italian themselves, speaking Italian 51 or offering special rates or tours to Italy. However i t is doubtful that many of the people in the area west of Commercial Drive could afford such long distance travel. Therefore i t is to be concluded that the bulk of travellers reside east of Commercial in the more affluent Italian section. This also illustrates the common use made of the commercial area by a relatively large community well outside the boundaries of the focal zone. Thus there exists a natural meeting place for different income groups and styles-of-life groups. The effect of travel to "the old country" must be to maintain and reinforce the ties to the homeland and to confirm the ethnicity of the traveller. Paradoxically, i t can show him that he is no longer a native of his country of birth by contrasting what he once knew and was with what he is now. Generally this experience is more likely to confirm the traveller in his new Canadian identity but with a new awareness of his native versus his adopted country. For example a person may persist in the belief that he is s t i l l an Italian even though he may live in Canada up until the time he revisits Italy and discovers how much both i t and he have changed. He will return to Canada saying, "it's not like i t used to be" and "it's good to be home." The accident of birth is not wiped away, but i t is diminished. b. COMMDNICATION "The newcomer can be helped to function on his highest level in a short time, i f there is sufficient effort to shorten his cultural distance through orientation, information, clarification, interpretation, support and encouragement. He needs help which must be extended very promptly and through the earliest contacts. His need to understand the 52 Canadian community i s practically overwhelming." ( page 70 Hromodka). The existing f a c i l i t i e s , Immigration Branch, National Employment Office, Citizenship Branch, welfare agencies and voluntary organizations, attempt to mitigate these problems within what i s apparently a too-rigid framework that f a i l s i n many instances to meet the needs of immigrants. Mr. Hromodka suggests amplifications of these services that w i l l be dealt with later i n this report. i . Radio and Television The more pervading, less o f f i c i a l means of aculturation l i e i n the various mass media and the degree to which they can be used and understood. The most ubiquitous and thus the most powerful media appear to be the broadcasting media - radio and television. The f i r s t problem to be overcome i s the language barrier. This i s particularly acute i n radio which i s dominated by teen-age values, particularly the colloquial modes of speech that can confound the native! Both radio and television bombard the listener with advertising frequently geared to a fanciful Canadian, or more usually, an American way-of-life, that i s frequently divorced from any reality and certainly for the low income condition of the immigrant. Advertising must be a l l the more insidious when coupled with inadequate experience of the real conditions of Canadian l i v i n g . I t also creates frustration by demanding consumption on a scale and of art i c l e s beyond the income of most newcomers. However the positive aspects of television and radio must not be overlooked. The television program most popular over the l a s t few years i s i n a sense a morality play - constantly showing the triumph of good over e v i l via the solidity of a family unit. Both the triumph and the morality depicted are subconscious ideals that run through the fabric of public morals. 53 The constant search for novelty means that few aspects of l i f e are ignored but regretably they may be distorted beyond recognizable form. Television communicates an idealized version of the world as we would prefer i t rather than as i t is or as i t might be. Naturally there are exceptions to this generalization. Television certainly can be entertaining, informative and on rare occasions may even present works of art. If as Marshall McLuhan expounds, television is an extension of the central nervous system, that i s "the medium is the message," the profound effects on newcomers and native alike will radically alter our culture from a visual-oriented one to a 'tactile' one. The abstract architectural spaces of a decade ago reflected the classical visual sense - space realizable in the mind. The new "sensuality" renders obsolete this basis for architecture and requires in its place a 'tactile' approach to architecture. The total effects of these media on the family in our study area can only be guessed at but certainly an obvious difficulty is the estrangement of the parent from the child. The parent lives in an environment which is to a greater or lesser degree of his own choosing or making or circumstances. The child, particularly as he grows older and becomes more aware of the realities and the unrealities of the outside world, cannot help but be confined by his situation, his sphere of activities and his opportunities. i i . Newspapers and Magazines and Movies McLuhan claims that the newspaper is a "group confessional form that provides communal participation." This idea is born out by the existence in the study area of two Italian language newspapers and several Chinese ones. Apparently the English language newspapers do not provide sufficient "communal participation" for these two ethnic groups. Part of the difficulty is due probably to the lack of or imperfect reading ability of many of the immigrants. Although speaking ability in English is almost universal i t i s not known whether reading ability is similarly general. The ethnic papers also act as a tie with the homeland and with the ethnic community. They provide in a familiar form and language information on the local, national and international levels thereby enabling the members of these particular groups to maintain his interest in the new world around him as well as the old world he has le f t . Italians and on a more limited scale Chinese magazines are available. Again, they reinforce ties with the homeland and contribute to the slower aculturation of the ethnic groups. The psychological importance of the familiarity of the known must be an important anchor to people thrown into a completely new and in some ways frightening environment. Although there is no movie house within the study area, there is one fairly near and i t plays exclusively Italian films. The existence of these non-Canadian media and in some cases their dominance over native ones provides the strongest clue to the nature of the place, that is its ethnic character, dominated by Italians with Chinese forming a second major force. 55 GOVERNMENT a. LEVEL The study area lies within the boundaries of the City of Vancouver. It has no direct representation on the City Council beyond the voice of each voter in choosing aldermen from the city as a whole. At present and as has existed for some time, few aldermen come from the east side and therefore that area is left without a real voice in the governing of the city. Another difficulty is that with so many renters, those allowed to vote on money by-laws are few of those who actually live in the area but mainly absentee landlords. The absence of community facilities normally achieved through these by-laws is a reflection of the lack of control over the destiny of the area. At the same time too much should not be made of this argument, since the low average income level might maintain the same result even i f non-property owners were given the vote in money by-laws. The ethnic character of the area, particularly the large number of immigrants, indicates an unfamiliarity with specific aspects of government in Vancouver that may differ radically from what was known in the homeland. Some immigrants have noted that services for which they were accustomed to having provided by the government in their homeland must be provided here by the individual. This is particularly true of medical services, and the existence of private medical insurance schemes may be unknown. Qualifications for government assistance in the form of family allowances, old age pensions, unemployment insurance, hospital benefits are a l l dependent upon resident qualifications that the newcomer cannot f u l f i l l . 56 The control of land use in the area has had an important effect on the quality of housing in the area. The western and northern boundaries are defined by industrial development that is incompatible with the adjacent housing function. The commercial strip along the aptly named Commercial Drive has the effect of dividing poor to fair housing from fair to good housing. To come from the "other side of the tracks" is to live west of Commercial Drive. The disruptive effects of these industrial and commercial zones on the immediate housing environment could be alleviated by rezoning to achieve buffer zones between them. The entire study area is presently zoned RM 3 (multiple dwelling) except for the existing commercial strip. The Vancouver Redevelopment Study of 1957 by the City Planning Department listed the Woodland Park area (our study area) as one proposed for Limited Redevelopment. A Limited Redevelopment Area is liable to deterioration over the next twenty years. It is characterized by: a) "excessive crowding of structures on the land resulting from narrow lot frontages, b) an unsatisfactory subdivision pattern for the area or certain topographical features such as poorly drained land, or houses below grade level, c) conversions of single family residences to multiple occupancy, d) the lack, or unsuitable location of basic neighbourhood facilities, such as schools, shopping centres, parks and playgrounds." Considering these drawbacks to the area, i t is unlikely that the improvements required of the area can be achieved through private enterprise. It is proposed that the redevelopment of the area would 57 become a local government responsibility with financing arranged under the National Housing Act. Because of the necessity of providing the necessary neighbourhood facilities in addition to housing i t is recommended that the Act be enlarged to encompass these needs. b. AGENCIES i . National Employment Office and Unemployment Insurance It has already been shown that the unemployment rate in the study area is one of the highest in the city. The influx of immigrants with an urgent need to find jobs quickly also makes them dependent upon the Employment Office. Unskilled labour, of which the area has large numbers, are the first group to be "laid-off" in times of economic recession. The necessity of the immigrant addition to this same labour force - at least for a time - amplifies the difficulty of securing employment for a l l . Furthermore although the native worker will probably be eligible for unemployment insurance benefits, the immigrant is not. Along with the strangeness of a new country, the dwindling financial resources must be terrifying indeed for the newcomer. i i . Immigration and Citizenship Branches It is the function of the Immigration Branch to officially welcome immigrants and see to their immediate welfare. Information on the Canadian way of living and sources of assistance as given. Counselling on immediate problems is offered and depending on the terms of immigration employment may be found - but the main body of immigrants are referred to the National Employment Office. 58 The Citizenship Officer assists and advises local organizations and agencies engaged in integrating newcomers. He promotes Canadian citizenship by assisting in some aspects of programmes for adult education. These functions are of indirect service to the newcomer and there is no office that supplies individual attention or treatment to their problems. i i i . Local Welfare Agencies The City of Vancouver has broad well-established welfare services. However these services are divided into public and private sectors and further divided by religion and type of service into what must be a bewildering organization to the outsider. Coupled with this is the fact that few newcomers are accustomed to professional help of this kind and may be unaware of i t , or resentful or may simply ignore i t . Another difficulty is that some services are not available to newcomers because of residence or other requirements. It has been suggested (by Vaclav Hromodka in M.S.W. Thesis) that a Centre be set up staffed by trained social workers to meet the specific needs of new immigrants. "Such a Centre could integrate 'prevention, treatment and rehabilitation,• and a l l three groups of services which are i l l represented at present; information and orientation; co-ordination and referrals; counselling and casework." The immediately preceeding examination has dealt primarily with the problems and needs of newcomers to the area, as they were considered to be one of the main forces that give the area its character, in addition to the availability of low-cost housing. A third factor is the high incidence, among the other less obvious groups than the ethnic ones, of social and personal maladjustment. "A large number of families have had intermittent 59 contact for ten to fifteen years with some dating back to the 1930's." The juvenile deliquency rate for males between IA - 17 years was H%, more than double the rate for Vancouver. The large number of agencies serving the area gives an indication of the need for many kinds of services that the natural social environment lacks. SOCIAL CONDITION ECONOMICS i . Income: average male - $3,045 (near lowest i n Vancouver) female - $1,878 (|4,219 average) i i . Occupation: Total labour force = 2901 2002 M 899 F Looking for work 2 5 1 M 5 1 F Occupation: craftsmen, production process and related 762 M 181 F Service and recreation 2 5 9 M 272 F Labourers 213 M 2 3 F Cl e r i c a l 118 M 2 3 2 F Transportation and C ommunication 177 M 17 F Management and Professional 170 M 64 F Primary (industry) 133 M 3 F Sales 6 3 M 70 F The average family wage and income i s $4,034, which ranks 116th out of 120 census tracts. 21$ of the male labour force earn under $2,000 while only 3-4$ earn over $6,000 per year. 12.5$ of males were looking for work (5th highest), of females (16th highest). i i i . Attitude to Work Children are found to lack vocational ambitions and scholastic incentive. We assume that parents are the cause. But this attitude probably i s not as valid for Italian and Chinese groups as reflected by the absence of juvenile problems of these ethnic groups and satisfactory academic progress. A lack of vocational s k i l l s exists. Generally the area i s probably Kahl's "lower class" characterized by apathy, interest i n the immediate needs, introverted individuals or families. Work i s only a means of earning money - there i s no interest i n the job. i v . Aspirations Because of the large number of immigrants, i t i s assumed that these people are trying to "better" themselves. One study shows that financially most immigrants are better off than they were i n their homeland but socially they were less well off, i.e. socially less well off means fewer social contacts, fewer cultural attachments. They consider their status lower i n Canada. These remarks apply mainly to recent European immigrants. The Chinese community apparently strives for the middle class virtues i n economic; social and status conditions. The second generation i s dispersing throughout Vancouver and their aspirations apparently being realized. The older immigrants, that i s , those who have been i n Canada 62 for more than say ten years, have tended to accept the position they now hold i n the community, a position that has upgraded them from that of their homeland. These people are at the lower end of the economic scale but they accept this situation and form the core of the social l i f e of the study area. They are buying and renovating houses and intend that they w i l l be their permanent homes. Another group are those who no longer aspire to a different situation for a number of reasons. They may be the numerous elderly men who are prepared to l i v e out their live s i n their present condition; or those i n situations of marital d i f f i c u l t i e s ; illegitimacy or broken homes. These people probably are more the victims of society and their acceptance of their situation can be considered a "breaking of the s p i r i t . " b. FAMILY i . Validity Today There are 1,794- families, 63.1% have children, i . e . 1.3 children per family (Vancouver average 12). The Italian and Chinese maintain close family t i e s . Although the second generation tends to move out of the area, while the children remain at home, the family unit i s a viable social form. In the other sectors of the society, the "high concentration of social pathology" indicates that the family unit has broken down. There are broken homes, common-law relationships (of probable short duration), illegitimacy, elderly men, unmarried young immigrant men i n an unfamiliar society. 63 i i . Duration as Family Unit As already mentioned above, even where the family functions as a unit the children tend to leave the area when they are able. The extent of visiting after leaving is not known, but the implication i s that the children "upgrade" themselves socially thus removing the common bonds of interest that held them together. The less stable families are characterized by desertion of either husband or wife, common-law relationships etc., as above. i i i . Parent-Children Relationship The children are generally considered to be culturally deprived and they lack scholastic and vocational incentives. The poor conditions of the area result in "social maladjustment" of the children, i.e. juvenile delinquency at a rate twice that of the Vancouver average. Because of a large number of single parent families, children are often inadequately cared for, particularly during the day. The problem of parents raised in one culture attempting to raise children in an unfamiliar one must inevitably set up tensions between home atmosphere and the outside world that is confusing, intimidating and exciting to the children. Inevitably, a breakdown in communication between the generations will occur. iv. Number of Generations Generally, from the predominant immigrant character of the area, the maximum number of generations living together are two. As already mentioned there are many single men living either alone or in groups. One other facet of the problem is that many family units must share facilities because of the poor quality of housing. For single men this sharing is probably very extensive. 64 v. Inter-Family Relationships (Neighbours) The suspicion i s that the Italian segment i s a gregarious one that desires a rich social interplay. However i t i s known that the Northern and Southern Italians do not mix. The Chinese are probably less gregarious. v i . Non-Family Households There are 740 non-family households, i.e. 2% of a l l households compared to a Vancouver average of 19$. These households are made up of elderly men l i v i n g either alone or i n groups of two or more usually dependent upon government pensions; bachelors, mostly young immigrants almost totally alone i n a strange country. There are also the non-legal families that are attracted to the area for various reasons - because of ready acceptance, of anonymity, cheap housing - common-law relationships with their b u i l t - i n i n s t a b i l i t y , unmarried mothers. c. STYLE -OF-LIFE i . Social Status and St r a t i f i c a t i o n There are two aspects of status i n this area; the image projected to the non-resident i s that of low status; within the area i s an internal hierarchial (status) system. The f i r s t image i s derived from the rundown appearance of the buildings, the industrial character of the surroundings, the low wage and education levels, the higher rate of juvenile delinquency, the lack of amenities, the juxtaposition of housing and commercial a c t i v i t i e s , the fact that the area i s i n the "East End." Internally status i s divided into ethnic groups and then the usual social indices; income, education, 65 quality of housing, etc. It is not known which ethnic group has the highest social status, i f indeed any one group does. i i . Ethnic Groups Italians (14.8$ of the total population) apparently maintain the separation of the Northern and Southern people. The Northern Italian is considered to be harder-working, more serious, more honest than the Southern Italian. He has come from an urban, industrialized part of Italy that is far more prosperous than the rural south. The ramifications of the division are mainly that the two groups should be considered as essentially separate. However no statistical data has taken the difference as relevant. The Italian community as a whole is characterized by strong family ties, strong religious affiliation, contrasting degrees of assimilation of older Italians maintaining an Italian identity to children born in Canada, essentially Canadians, continuing immigration with a lack on the part of the immigrants of a knowledge of Canadian customs. "The Chinese (12.4$ of the total population) community is generally noted as being industrious and hard working, family oriented, and as having l i t t l e unemployment or problems of a social nature. Some new houses have been built by the younger Chinese families." (Taken from a Community Chest Study of Woodland Park.) Approximately 40$ of the population is British in its origin but i t is not known what proportion of these persons are immigrants, old or new or Canadian born. They apparently do not function as a discernable ethnic community. 66 i i i . Occupation Because of the nature of occupations and the low average income, occupation is probably divorced from the main interests in l i f e and has l i t t l e direct relationship to the style-of-life; that is the pattern of living is not based on the interest of common occupations but rather the result of them in the form of income. iv. Leisure Children to eight years old: there is a deficiency of supervised playgrounds; the ethnic groups tend to form gangs; pre-school children need to develop their oral communication; day care for children of working parents is required; "enriched programmes both social and education, at kindergarten and grade one levels for children from disadvantaged Children from nine to twelve: "An expansion of the presently existing small group programmes with social adjustment focus;" larger playgrounds for organized sports are required; there is a lack of boy's activities of a recreational and social nature. Teenagers: There is no teenage meeting place; a swimming pool is desired; "programmes to provide culturally stimulating experiences;" programmes to enable students to become more aware of vocational opportunities. The higher rate of juvenile delinquency indicates a lack of direction for the children's energies and the lack of facilities for those energies. The opportunity to pursue interests is limited by the cultural and social background and low incomes of parents. The early leaving of school or failure to go on for post-high school education may 67 be prompted by a desire to buy things that are unavailable at the family's income le v e l . Since a boy can earn nearly as much or even as much as his father i f they are both unskilled the temptation to begin work may be too d i f f i c u l t to overcome, rather than to sacrifice present consumption for greater future earning power and education. The adult leisure a c t i v i t i e s are similarly restricted. There i s no movie house, no library, no community centre and no pubs in the area. Strangely enough there i s a repertory theatre group - Emerald Players. The strip commercial development along Clark Drive i s extremely varied and extensive and certainly attracts people from outside the area to i t s f a c i l i t i e s . Television aerials are not overly obtrusive compared to other areas, nor are cars, boats, etc. Since mobility appears to be limited as are leisure f a c i l i t i e s , what people do i n their leisure time i s not known. The problem i s even worse for the elderly man l i v i n g alone who have no family t i e s , very little money and simply nothing to do. d. POPULATION AND EXISTING HOUSING i . S t a tistics The total population of the study area i s 8869 with 2815 households. On 271 acres of land ( a l l inclusive) this gives densities of 32.7 persons per acre and 10.3 households per acre. The population growth i s average to below average compared to Vancouver as a whole; 0 - IA years the population i s average; over 65 6 8 years average to above average; immigrant population i s highest; one person households are highest; occupancy less than one year are highest; owner occupied lowest; males unemployed i s highest; income i s lowest; "worker" employment i s highest. The f e r t i l i t y ratio (number of children 0 - U per 1 , 0 0 0 females 2 0 to UU years) i s 6 3 1 . 2 for a rank of 5 2 , which i s slightly below average. The area ranks second with 2 5 . 2 $ of i t s population having immigrated to Canada. It ranks l l ^ t h (out of 1 2 0 ) with only 5b.U% of i t s population born i n Canada. Number of one person households ranks 1 0 t h i n Vancouver metro area with 2 7 . 2 5 ? of total population. i i . Hierarchy of Values Because of the heterogenous character of the population no a l l encompassing value system exists. The Italians and Chinese place great importance on the family, while many of the problems for social workers are f e l t to be assistance to broken families. In addition there are many non-family households i n the area. It has been stated that the area attracts i t s residents mainly because of low rents both for family and non-family housing. At the same time i t acts as a reception centre for new immigrants, particularly Italians and central Europeans. These two factors are the two main positive social qualities of the area. Most residents are l i v i n g at relatively subsistance levels i n a wealthy society, a fact that may account for the lack of locally paid for community buildings and the overall decrepit character of the area. Additionally the voting pattern for the allocation of civic funds for city wide improvements i s a negative one. The aspirations of a part of the population has already been mentioned - social and financial upgrading from what was known 69 i n their homeland. Depending upon the degree of success or failure i n these goals, they are probably passed on to the children. Concurrently there are those with no aspirations beyond what they already have, particularly the elderly as the lower working class as indicated by their leisure time a c t i v i t i e s . i i i . Use of Resources The extensive commercial development contains considerable diversity of shopping f a c i l i t i e s which must be i n part supported by the wealthier inhabitants surrounding the Woodland Park area. I t does act as a common meeting place for social exchange. The use made of the relative nearness of the downtown core i s not known. Access to the waterfront i s cut off by the docks directly to the north of the area. The land slopes from eash to west affording a view over the False Creek Flats and the downtown. To the north i s a view of the mountains. The Catholic churches are used intensively but the protestant churches have had a decline i n congregations. The schools are to the Vancouver standard. e. EDUCATION i . Amount Of 1, 228 persons attending school 909 are i n elementary schools, 294- i n high schools, 25 attending university. Of 6,152 people not attending school 1,050 have not yet or never have attended, 2,457 have some or a l l elementary school education, 2,497 have some or a l l high school, 148 have one or more years of university. Looked at another way this area (census tract 7) ranks 7th i n the metropolitan area with numbers attending only elementary school - 4Q6 of 70 the population of the area. Also the area ranks 114th out of 120 with the smallest percentage attending university - 2.4$ (these percentages for those not attending school i n 1961). It has already been stated i n the parent - child relationship section that the children lack scholastic and vocational incentives. The danger i s that they w i l l maintain the low levels of education already existing i n the area to their future detriment. The expanse of higher education i s obviously beyond the reach of the vast majority of families unless considerable debts are acquired by the student to pay for his education. In addition, a young person who having lived i n relative poverty may not wish to delay the enjoyment of the material things i n l i f e and decide i n favour of present rather than future consumption - accepting the idea that his future consumption w i l l probably be less than i f he pursued his education further. i i . Importance to Society In today's world of increasing automation requiring more s k i l l s and training of workers at a l l levels the necessity and desirability i s well established. There presently exists i n this area a large amount of social service that would be obviated to some - i f not to a large -extent by individual efforts at social upgrading. By that I mean, improved income situation, a development of inate capabilities that should lead to a richer, f u l l e r l i f e , an awareness of the world beyond the tight neighbourhood boundaries and concern for the total social good. Additionally there i s a need for the trained people that would result from expanded education. Our society i s apparently trapped i n a necessity for growth i n the gross national product of between 4. to 6$: that can be augmented by the greater productivity resulting from 'practical' education. 71 Therefore the benefits of greater education will accrue to both the individual (especially in this case) and society. f. ETHNIC GROUP The area functions as a reception group for immigrants with 2% having entered Canada since 1 9 4 - 6 . There does exist an "Italian flavour" that adds diversity to a city sadly lacking in local character and personality. Thus the ethnic character is considered to be (by me) desirable and should be preserved and augmented. This is the style-of- l i f e discernable in the area, i t is the characteristic that causes these people to live together, in addition to low rents which is an aspect of interest to an immigrant. It can be expected that the majority of the older generation (those who immigrated) will tend to remain associated with their ethnic group. The tendency is to recreate - given the changed conditions however - the atmosphere of "home," but not as a conscious or superficial facade. The living patterns that existed in the homeland are adapted to the new environment and in the process inevitably changed. Yet this brings to the whole city a fragment of the world that can be adopted for the enrichment of the fabric of the city. Canada not only imports the physical being of its immigrants, i t welcomes their culture, their ability to expand and enrich Canadian l i f e . The children of the immigrant generation quickly become acculturized. Their social l i f e is expanded more easily and more quickly to include a variety of contacts inside and outside their parental sphere. 72 Attendance at the public schools furthers the estrangement of cultural ties between generations, sometimes to the point where tensions are set up. It is probably true that the ethnic character that some areas assume would die with the first immigrant generation were i t not for continuing immigration from these countries. The problem has now defined itself. The ethnicity of an area is maintained by constant immigration. Its main function is as a shelter to introduce to and protect from Canadians the immigrant. It is a way station, the stopping time is one generation. This is not implicit in this concept that the offspring should remain within the physical boundaries of the area - in fact quite the opposite. As Canadians primarily, with sub-cultural overtones, the first generation Canadian should have complete social mobility and freedom of choice. This is the second main function of the way station - to direct on to the next stop, or series of stops. g. SOCIAL MOBILITY For some people in the study area, social mobility does not exist. These are the elderly single men, the poorly educated labourer, those people of broken homes resulting in a difficult financial situation. This group has no choice, i t must stay in this area or one very much like i t because of the very low rents for housing. Then there are those who relinquish their mobility of their own volition - the immigrants, the low-income group attracted by cheap housing that stay because they grow accustomed to the area, like i t and call i t theirs. 73 When social mobility does exist i t is predicated upon financial ability. Since the area rates almost at the lowest level on the housing scale, greater income is the prime requisite to leaving. This is usually achieved through education and training and as has already been shown once this is achieved mobility results. Normally i t is the individual who achieves mobility, not the family. The result is to weaken family bonds and also the ethnic flavour of the area. Household or family mobility exists within the area under consideration or adjacent to i t . Particularly for the Italians moving to a better housing condition is but a few blocks away and about a 20$ increase of income. The movement generally involves a change from tenant to property owner and thus a deeper commitment to both the house and the neighbourhood. 74 HOUSING a. ECONOMICS i . Average wage family head $3,197 Average ratio of gross debt to income 28.% Average gross debt $918/year or $76.50/month Average dwelling cost $12,871 Average down payment $2,238 i i . Average total family income $4,034 Average ratio of gross debt to income 26.5$ Average gross debt $l,070/year or $89/month Average dwelling cost $ 1 4 , 0 1 6 Average down payment $2,022 Average area = 1,195 sq.ft. C.M.H.C. 1,295 sq.ft. approved lenders Average ratio of gross debt to income 21.5$ Therefore gross debt on family head income = 21.5$ of 3197 = $57/rao. Therefore gross debt on total family income = 21.5$ of 4035 = $72/mo. The average contract rent i n census tract 7 i s $55-b. SPACE STANDARDS (N.H.A.) Area Width Separate rooms Living Room 150 sq.ft. 10'0" Dining 80 sq.ft. 8'0» Kitchen 50 sq.ft. 5'0" F i r s t bedroom 110 sq.ft. 9'0» Additional bedroom 80 sq.ft. 7'0» Second bedrooms 90 sq.ft. 9'0» Bathroom 35 sq.ft. (assumed) Closets Master Bedroom 12 sq.ft. Additional bedroom 6 sq.ft. Coat 6 sq.ft. Therefore for one bedroom unit 443 sq.ft. + 10$ c i r c . = 487 sq.ft. Therefore for two bedroom unit 539 sq.ft. + 10$ c i r c . = 593 sq.ft. Therefore for three bedroom unit 625 sq.ft. + 10$ ci r c . = 687 sq.ft. 75 i i . Combination rooms Living and dining 190 sq.ft. Living and bedroom 200 sq.ft. Kitchen and dining 90 sq.ft. Living, dining and bedroom 230 sq.ft. Living, dining and kitchen 230 sq.ft. Beds, closets and bath as above Therefore for efficiency unit ( l i v i n g , dining, bedroom) bath, kitchen, closets = 333 sq.ft. + 10$ c i r c . = 363 sq.ft. Efficiency unit ( l i v i n g , bedroom) (kitchen, dining) bath, closets = 343 sq.ft. + 10$ c i r c . = 377 sq.ft. 1 - bedroom unit ( l i v i n g , dining, kitchen) + bath + bedroom + closets = 393 sq.ft. + 10$ c i r c . = 433 sq.ft. 1 - bedroom (l i v i n g and dining) kitchen, bath, bedroom, closets = 403 sq.ft. + 10$ circ. = 433 sq.ft. 2 - bedroom unit ( l i v i n g and dining) kitchen, bath, 2 bedrooms, closets = 499 sq.ft. + 10$ c i r c . = 549 sq.ft. When the areas of houses being b u i l t by N.H.A. borrowers are compared with the minimum space standards there i s a great discrepancy. It can be assumed that houses bu i l t are a truer reflection of required areas than the theoretical space standards of N.R.C. c. TYPES OF HOUSING There are 2,534 households i n census tract 7 of which 1,794 are families. There are 2.8 persons per household (Vancouver average 3.1) and 3.2 persons per family with 1.3 children/family. 36.9$ of a l l families have no children; 45.8$ have 1 to 2; 13*% have 3 to 4; 3.6$ have 5 or more. 740 households (29$) are non-family. 12.6$ of a l l males are 65 years or over. 11.8$ of this age group are family heads. Many of 7 6 the aged are poorly housed and the services they require are inadequate. There are numerous single males under age 65, many of whom are immigrants. The housing need is then for: families with varying number of children. 2 1 . 6 $ of children living with parents are between 1 5 - 2 4 years, compared to 1 0 $ city average; 3 8 . 3 $ are under 6 years; 4 0 $ are between 6 - 1 4 years. aged single men aged single women young single men - natives - newcomers These facts must be considered in the light of: "there is a high incidence in the area of family breakdown, character disorders, illegitimate birth, juvenile delinquency, and other signs of social disorganization." d. TRAFFIC The area is largely delineated by the traffic flow that surrounds and bisects i t . Along Clark Drive and Hastings Street there exists the industrial zone serviced by these roads. Commercial Drive is the backbone of the strip commercial development. Venables and First Avenue both cross in an east - west direction. The grid street layout maintains throughout with 36$ of the total land area devoted to streets, sidewalks and lanes. The possible conversion of Venables Street to a major east - west freeway would divide a coherent area unless design considerations for the freeway are made in the light of the desirability of maintaining or rejecting this coherence. The traffic flow along Commercial Drive amounts to about 77 20,000 persons travelling daily in automobiles, trucks and on foot. This compares with about 24,000 on Tenth Avenue near the U. B. C. gates and about 40,000 on Lions Gate Bridge. Parking is allowed on a l l main and side streets and only the Safeway Store has its own parking lot. Because of the proximity of the housing - not more than 3 blocks from Commercial - i t is assumed that many people walk to the stores to do their shopping. e. PHYSICAL CHARACTER OF THE AREA The area is characterized by single-family dwellings, many built before 1915, in poor to fair condition. These form the bulk of the stock of low cost housing. There has been some replacement of housing with new apartment buildings and some renovated or replaced single family houses. Many of the larger houses have been converted to multi-family use. The quality of the housing reflects the buffer function of the area in separating the industry on the west and north from the better quality housing to the east of Commercial Drive. There is a turning away from the industrial area with an attendant focus on the hustle and bustle of Commercial Drive. Most of the stores appear to be very old with some •face-lifting' having taken place. Many of the stores have apartment units over them, some of which are probably occupied by the shopkeepers. Within the area l i e one primary and one secondary school, and one Roman Catholic school. Both the secondary school (Britannia High) and the Roman Catholic school serve an area much larger than the study area and therefore act as integrating agents for a larger community. The Vancouver East Y.W.C.A. is on the fringe of the area but two parks exist within i t and a third park site has been reserved. The commercial facilities are extensive and their importance as the focus of a large ( i f undefined) area should not be underestimated. The atmosphere of the area is one of poor economic resources of the inhabitants reflected in narrow lots, some poorly maintained, with houses from a dilapidated condition to a very good condition. The sidewalks and boulevards are in very poor condition. The road edges are marked by potholes and puddles and lack of curbs. What grass remains struggles for existence with numerous weeds. There are very few trees in the area and their softening and camouflaging qualities are sorely missed. Although the physical characteristics might be considered of poor quality there does exist a framework for a rich social l i f e in the form of the nature of the people and the variety of commercial l i f e . The Italians appear to be the dominating group as reflected by the number of stores advertising in Italian and with Italian names. The fact that as Italians become more prosperous they tend to remain near the area reinforces the ethnic overtones. The large Chinese population is not as outwardly evident but is reflected in the 4,0$ Chinese enrolment of Britannia High School. Little outdoor privacy is evident. Two and three storey houses on narrow lots and the absence of trees enables the upper floors of houses to overlook the yards of most of the nearby houses. Fencing is generally of the "picket" type that does l i t t l e more than delineate property lines although in this case that may be enough. Some of the houses have porches across the front or street facing side. They act as convenient and comfortable places from which to watch the street and greet and talk to passersby without the necessity of withdrawing to complete privacy or having to invite acquaintances into the house. 79 f . GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE The area l i e s mainly on the land rising above False Creek f l a t s . I t slopes upward from the north and west to the south and east. These slopes coincide with the views over the downtown area, toward the Strait of Georgia and the North Shore Mountains. However, the near view i s over False Creek f l a t s with i t s railway yards and l i g h t and heavy industry - a not particularly 'scenic 1 view. The prevailing summer winds are easterly (from the west) and tend to blow the smoke and smells over the Woodland Park area. Although only a few blocks from the waterfront, there i s no easy public access to i t because of the deep sea terminal f a c i l i t i e s . The ravine defining the southern boundary of the area i s the railroad right of way into the Flats and although a geographic feature of some prominence i t i s not available to the residents. The climate i s typically Vancouver. A great deal of rain coupled with dreary overcast grey skies. A l l the more depressing since i t reflects the man made environment on the ground. g. GROWTH The total population of Vancouver w i l l increase an estimated 1 3 $ from 385,000 i n 1961 to ^35,000 i n 1981. The Asiatic immigration i n 1961 doubled over i t s 1951 proportion of total immigration, while Italian immigration increased by two and one half times. The major part of these groups l i v e i n the "Inner Area" of the city (Sixteenth Avenue, Trafalgar and Victoria). Of the Italian population 52$ either l i v e i n the study area or immediately adjacent to i t , where the growth rate has been 180$ between 1951 - 1961. An even higher proportion of Asiatics l i v e i n the 80 Inner Area but the second generations have tended to disperse more than now seems apparent with the Italians. I t can be seen then that immigration has continued to maintain an influx of Chinese and Italians and the main functions defined for the study area - low cost housing and immigrant reception area - have been maintained and barring a radical change i n immigration policy w i l l continue to maintain. Existing densities i n the study area are 14 households/gross acre or 41 persons/gross acre. Thus i t i s possible to increase the population about 30$ - provided i t i s done on an over-all planning basis - and s t i l l not exceed a standard of 20 households/acre. But one of the main aspects of growth l i e s i n the consideration of the probable needs of the children of the immigrants - the f i r s t generation Canadians - as they grow into adulthood. The immediate housing need i s low cost accommodation, often for newcomers to Canada. The children of these newcomers are Canadian i n every sense and their housing needs w i l l d i f f e r from that of their parents. They can be expected to earn more money, to be less orientated (but not divorced from) to their ethnic group, more a 'typical 1 Canadian. But common origins provide a subtle bond in the form of social patterns and family relationships that can be maintained to preserve at least this group from the a l l pervading anonymity of Twentieth century l i f e . SpAce 'SCHOOL S/DtyF4T/,\L-/// SCHOOLS /4&OS/hJCn GOAL I T Y x v / / SH-OppBf^- y&WCcJLA^ OOh-ipUc^TS x w / 7 LOCAL £ TH-^U' TRAFFIC CONFLICTS 9A DESCRIPTION OF URBVILLE DESCRIPTION OF PATTERN ORGANIZATION For Urbville we developed a spine and rib structured plan. It seemed to express most clearly the need to bring everyone close to the central street which is the hub of Urbville and which at the same time relates i t closely to the urban area. It is an open ended slice of town which can start and stop along a traffic artery and build over its top. Urbville has a spinal centre and a concentration of development towards this spinal centre but its outer edges may, away from the spine, be undefined although walking distance to the spine can be taken as a determination of the breadth of Urbville. Outside the residential edge is a belt of open spaces, large enough for playfields, for strolling and some schooling facilities. Beyond this may be some of the industrial and light manufacturing plants which give work opportunities to the people of Urbville. THE CENTRE OF URBVILLE The present pattern of shopping along the central spine is accepted, in fact, welcomed and reinforced. However, to separate through traffic and give the street a pedestrian character, this central street is raised above the through street. Convenient parking is achieved without encroaching on land for housing by creating a base of parking. The removal of the vehicles from the shopping street permits easy rambling shopping, meeting of friends, and an informality of interior layout. The institutions, churches, various social aid societies, elementary school, 95, a l l public things that need to be seen and easily available, are put together here. The possibilities of easy social contact which are so much a part of this style of l i f e and in which common fate and common problems make for a community of interest add immeasurably to this environ. Above this centre and directly related to i t is the residential area for the non family households, for the elderly single men, and young single adults. A variety of types of housing units must be made available here, those which are like boarding houses or have hostel facilities, with dining areas, and other housing units of inexpensive apartments. More private open space is provided here at the roof level of the shopping centre. STREETS AND SPACES A system of pedestrian streets relates the family housing to the central spine. Cars and parking are approached from underneath with direct access to the houses. The street is a narrow access street, but wide enough for pedestrian use so that mothers can take their baby in the buggy to the central area and so that others can sit on the entrance stoop to talk to the neighbour. A l l houses are raised slightly above the street to allow for ventilation and lighting to the garage below and for some separation between house and street. A l l houses have a small porch on the street side so that people can sit outside to watch the street and talk to their neighbours. On the way to the central area, and at a public access to the car parking garage below, each street opens up into a nodal space with room for the small institutions needed close to home such as, a place where mothers can leave their children when they have to 96 go to work, or a space where larger gatherings can occur for which the home is too small, rental spaces for parties, or simply shelters from the rain. The large area between the houses has been assigned mainly to the children. Some rental space for private gardens will be assigned for those wishing to grow vegetables or who are otherwise interested in gardening. Private terraces with complete separation from neighbours' view have been provided on the roofs. Otherwise, we believe that for this form of l i f e public space is more important than private gardens. The children's space allows for safe play with a minimum supervision from adults. It is large enough to allow for the noisy exuberance to go on unabated without annoying the adults. The various areas can be arranged and landscaped in different ways to allow for a variety of experiences. Further out from the centre street towards the edge or Urbville are the individual houses on individual lots which are also an essential part of Urbville. In this way, Urbville blends into the general pattern of existing neighbourhoods with its highest density in the centre, its town-housing in i t s central section, and the detached houses furthest away from the centre. HOUSING The quality of the housing in the study area is a direct reflection of the use to which i t is being put. It was evaluated as poor to fair. The dwellings are primarily old single detached houses now converted to multi-family use. k common method of financing the purchase of a home is to buy one of these old houses, utilize the main floor for the owner and his family's needs and after some minor conversion rent the upper and 9<:7 basement floors; or alternatively, boarders may be taken in. Extended families are also common in Urbville, and a variety of relatives may share one house. Very often in these cases, there is overcrowding, shared facilities which are difficult to share (bathrooms and kitchens) and inadequate sleeping facilities. There are further a number of old apartment blocks which house families with children, in an area unsuitable for them. As stores usually take up the ground floor space, many shop owners are able to live directly with their stores, and indeed some live directly behind their stores. This i s , in Urbville, an important facility that should be retained and even reinforced. The complexity of this environ, and its social problems need resolution. It i s an area which must encompass within itself and near to its centre a great variety of residential units, from family situations involving several generations, to boarding houses and hostels. Rents must remain low as this is one of the bases of Urbville's existence. This means that in a sense the old pattern must merely be reinforced and ascertained in an improved manner. With more rational land use, however, density can be increased considerably. The present density of the study area is 32.7 persons per gross acre and 10.3 households per gross acre - a relatively low density indicating the uneconomic use of the land. The higher densities of approximately 100 persons per acre are reserved to housing immediately surrounding the central community spine. This, as we have seen, will be designed to be most suitable for non-children households with a variety of accommodation for young married couples to unmarried people. 9$ The medium density housing (50 persons per gross acre) is provided in 3 "to 5 storey row house arrangements along the pedestrian streets. A l l houses here are directly accessible to a ground plane. This is regarded as essential for children. Each house is oriented to the sun and to the street. Some houses are arranged to take families with boarders, and roofs are arranged so that expansion can take place. To the rear of each house a balcony i s provided that permits an outdoor extension of the living area, quiet and away from the street and overlooking the play area to provide unobtrusive parental control. (Diagrams showing house plan and section) VEHICLE MOVEMENT SYSTEM The main through traffic road has been located underground. The public transportation system and traffic connecting Urbville with the rest of the urban area is retained at ground level. A system of major loop streets acts as collector roads for the feeders on which the housing units are located. This collector road is sunken in order to make pedestrian bridging possible. Parking is provided in separate areas for shopping areas, the housing above i t and the residential streets. In summary: in centralising a l l i t s public facilities in its spine, Urbville creates a richness for i t s inhabitants not otherwise possible in the urban area. It also advertises those public agencies which are such an essential part of the l i f e of the people who choose to live here. In its housing Urbville provides a great variety of choices to allow for the multiplicity of needs 9 9 of Urbville's heterogeneous population, and its children are provided with safe and adequate space in its park land and its centre. Urbville is never likely to be large. Its own nature demands concentration, but an urban area may contain several environs of its kind. EPILOGUE Looking back on the study several years after i t s completion provides an opportunity to make a more objective c r i t i c a l appraisal than could have been made without the benefit of a time perspective. The methodology i s based upon the acquisition of quantitative data. The sources were the Census of 1961 and a few studies of the area made by Welfare and Planning Agencies, and the author's personal impressions of the l i f e and physical form of the area. No attempt was made to interview the residents either personally or by questionnaire (although both were considered). I now feel that the "leap" that had to be made from quantitative information to quantitative judgements could have more accurately been done with this additional data. The usefulness of the method, or check l i s t has been tested twice since Urbville and has apparently been an effective instrument for defining l i f e style. It could be extended however, i n order to become even more specific, i f a data bank of personal information could be acquired about residents that would be updated yearly. This answers the need for more and more up-to-date information but raises problems of some agency contemplating querying individuals on very personal matters and this material being made available to a relatively wide range of people - Big Brother and his questionnaires. The physical proposals for Urbville now appear to be overly "architectural". Perhaps the interpretation of the data into physical form might have been better abstracted so that only the information extracted from the data would be diagrammed. For example, the importance of public meeting areas could be explained i n terms of the acquired information, rather than -100-providing an environment where the designer expected i t would happen. Short of actually building the scheme, i t i s impossible to test the v a l i d i t y of the proposals. In other words, make physical proposals to social situations much more explicit rather than implicit i n architectural terms. The proposals shovr the environment that appeared to the author to conform to the discerned l i f e - s t y l e . It ignored consideration of cost, p o s s i b i l i t i e s of implementation, displacement of existing residents, etc. etc. The reason for this being to demonstrate the relationship between physical and social environment. This approach s t i l l seems v a l i d , but now having been demonstrated as a principle, the means of implementation should be carefully considered. Some form of resident participation i n environmental decisions seems essential regardless of the l i f e - s t y l e . The time of the expert (architect or planner) imposing his solutions for other people's problems without their active participation would seem to be drawing to a thankful close. -101-XX • : • U3 •5* ?c -—— 1 U J -lj \ / / r J .1. ~ 1 . 4 LOCAL CCLLE-CTO^ IZOA'O -1 7 X / \ £ K z c CONCEPT 3» I BUS STOPS I/BMOLB UNLOAD/hJCr -* i XX1/ id /A/ S 77 7*^  TtdS/AL. I TO /oyfeA^S | CfJ'L DfiLEI^ TO t& f&Ar\€> f x x y XXV// /MX- 5(JMME:/^ AhJGLEb M//V- / V / A / 7 B * . ANGLE: » 106 ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION TO BIBLIOGRAPHY This bibliography represents a l i s t of works that came to hand, through browsing, or by suggestion of works already read or by recommendation. It makes no attempt to be comprehensive or complete for any of the headings under which i t i s classified. The headings eventually distilled themselves out from about twice as many. The table enclosed in the introduction will serve to justify and augment them. Many of the works could as well have been listed under one heading as another but are listed here in the way in which they were mainly used in the introduction. The much longer l i s t s of two of the divisions are a reflection of the importance assigned to these topics. 107 SOCIAL CONDITION Abrams, Charles MAN'S STRUGGLE FOR SHELTER IN AN URBANIZING WORLD, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts 1964 The basic forces acting on housing i n underdeveloped countries form the theme of this book. It i s particularly relevant because the author i s able to bring to his subject a clear unprejudiced view of the necessity of shelter and the problems of achieving i t . He deals with government housing efforts i n various countries and discusses policies, taxation, zoning, building by-laws etc. "Housing programmes s t i l l require identification of objectives, long periods of time, relocation of families, large capital outlays, expansion of materials production, innovations i n financing mechanisms, mobilization of s k i l l s , and expert direction under cohesive, well-formulated policies." Banfield, E., and Grodzins, M. GOVERNMENT AND HOUSING IN METROPOLITAN AREAS, McGraw-Hill, Toronto 1958 Particularly Chapter 7: The City vs. the Suburbs. The location preferences of people must be taken into account i n drawing up a housing policy for a metropolitan area. Urban renewal must create social units i n order to succeed. "Within the central city, prestige housing - both i n rehabilitated town houses and luxury apartments - i s the most appropriate and the most l i k e l y to succeed." B e l l , N.W. and Vogel, E.F. eds. A MODERN INTRODUCTION TO THE FAMILY, Free Press of Glencoe, I l l i n o i s I960 A collection of detailed papers on specific aspects of the family i n contemporary society. Boyko, H. ed., SCIENCE AND THE FUTURE OF MANKIND, Indiana University Press, Bloomington 1961 A collection of papers by eminent scientists. Of particular interest as those by: Oppenheimer, 'Thoughts on Art and Science;' Swann, 'Science and Our Future;' Muller 'The Prospects of Genetic Progress; 1 Infield, 'Human Needs and the Need for Ultimate Orientation. 1 Chermayeff, S. and Alexander, C COMMUNITY AND PRIVACY, Doubleday, New York 1963 The book i s divided into two sections. The f i r s t deals with an appraisal of the residential environment: the inefficiency of existing street systems, the problems of the automobile, the pedestrian, noise, etc. The designer must learn to take into account well-known s c i e n t i f i c , social and technical data i n order to create housing. The second part gives examples of solutions to various housing problems based on a series of 'links' between uses. 108 C.M.H.C. A REVIEW OF HOUSING IN CANADA, C .M.H .C ., Ottawa 1958 "Discrimination by economic class does in practice occur, arising often from the requirements for land development and structural quality imposed in certain of the suburban municipalities in metropolitan areas. These requirements may impose on the prospective householder heavy purchase charges and tax payments which are, in effect, economic barriers against poorer householders." "Canadian cities are now faced with a tremendous task of retarding the process of residential decline and of accelerating the replacement of obsolete housing." C.M.H.C. A REVIEW OF HOUSING IN CANADA, C.M.H.C., Ottawa 1958 A report prepared for the Bureau of Social Affairs in Charge of Housing of the United Nations. It deals with basic economic, population and physical features of the country. The economic, social and technical problems of housing in Canada are outlined and the efforts made to cope with the problems briefly discussed. C.M.H.C. HOUSING AND URBAN GROWTH IN CANADA, A BRIEF TO THE ROYAL COMMISSION OF CANADA'S ECONOMIC PROSPECTS, C.M.H.C, Ottawa 1956 "This brief ... is ... an attempt to outline the general nature of housing affairs in Canada with particular reference to the forseeable circumstances of the next quarter of a century." It includes chapters on Government Participation in Housing - "because of its (housing's) fundamental place in a modern industrial economy and because of its deep social implications;" the Stock of Housing; Diversity of Housing; Housing and Community Development; Urban Redevelopment. Improvements required in the future in the housebuilding industry are listed. Since much of the existing stock of housing was built there have been great changes in social requirements and the standards of living. New demands are made upon street systems designed in a previous era. The extent of cities will almost double and there will be problems of a changeover from rural to urban government. Duhl, L.J., ed., THE URBAN CONDITION, Basic Books Inc., New York, 1963 A collection of 'papers dealing with the problems of a more sophisticated urbanism than that of Abrams book. Particularly: Calhoun, 'Population Density and Social Pathology;' McHarg, 'Man and Environment.' 109 Farber, S.M., Mustacchi, P. and Wilson, R.H.L. MAN AND CIVILIZATION: THE FAMILY'S SEARCH FOR SURVIVAL, McGraw-Hill, San Francisco, 1965 This book is a record of a symposium concerned with the modern family. The forces of modern technological society are tending to break down the traditional family coherence, yet i t is held that the family unit is s t i l l the basic and indispensable social unit. The f i r s t topic of discussion was "Is the Family Necessary?" The increasing protection of children from parental action by the law was documented. The traditional Chinese family system and the normal American family were described. A discussion of communes, kibbutz etc. followed. The second discussion "concerned itself with determination of whether the changes from the traditional family concepts really implied the sacrifice of its structure and brought out the importance of point of view in analysis of the situation today." Papers given dealt with challenges to parental authority, separation, divorce and widowhood, "Adolescent Struggle as Protest" and "Politeness in a Crowded World." The third session dealt with the effects of sex education on family stability, with the problems of the male parent and with the housewife as an emancipated woman. The final session dealt with a look at probable future development of the family by providing a framework for the examination of new family functions. Then a paper was given on how the family has adapted itself to social change. A paper on the oldest generation was presented to show that much misinformation results from an imperfect appraisal of the problems of the elderly. The book closes on an optimistic note for the continuing survival and social significance of the family. Galbraith, J.K., THE AFFLUENT SOCIETY, Riverside Press Cambridge Massachusetts, 1958. The classic appraisal of North American economic l i f e and the effect upon society. Almost a l l segments of society have reached a measure of affluence. Goals are set on the basis of perfecting the existing structure of society. Production and its rate of increase are essential not for the goods produced but to maintain f u l l employment. This results in want creation and stimulation. Because of high total productivity, an individual's effort is of slight importance - the virtue of hard work no longer exists. Increasing leisure through the declining hours of work has become a feature of our society. The expansion of a "New Class" characterized by "exemption from manual t o i l , escape from boredom, the chance to live in clean and comfortable surroundings, and some opportunity for applying one's thoughts to the day's work" is the major social goal of our society. 110 Huxley, Julian, THE HUMAN CRISIS, University of Washington, Seattle, 1963 Huxley is able to bring a profundity of thought and vision to almost any subject. He speaks here of the problems brought about by over-population: not enough food, natural resources, land on which to live, water, employment, solitude. Social and political efficiency will require greater regimentation. Leisure will be one of the great problems of the future. Kahl, J.A., THE AMERICAN CLASS STRUCTURE, Rinehart, New York, 1957. 11 ... people of similar style of l i f e tend to become an organized community of people who interact with each other more comfortably then with outsiders." The author explains the existence of social classes and then defines them as upper, upper middle, middle, working and lower. He then goes on to examine social behaviour and the basis of these classes. McKinley, D.G., SOCIAL CLASS AND FAMILY LIFE, Free Press of Glencoe, London, Ontario 1964 "Primarily interested in the social setting of the family and the ways in which this setting influences the structure of behaviour that occurs within the family." Status and the family role is examined where status is defined as different rewards and these ranks are used to investigate the relationships of status and behaviour. The dominant basis of evaluation is emphasized as achievement and mastery of the environment and this means that occupation is of prime importance to determining social position, this in turn leads to dominance of the father role which leads to personality and psychological responses of the father to the family and society. These responses over time become accepted as norms and affect the various familial roles. They also explain variations in family structure at different class levels. Mills, C , Wright, POWER, POLITICS AND PEOPLE, Oxford University Press, New York, 1963 No bibliographic note can do justice to the scope of a work like this. Suffice to say that for this study Part three - People was of particular relevance, particularly 'Man in'/the Middle: The Designer' and 'The Unity of Work and Leisure.' I l l Mott, P.E., THE ORGANIZATION OF SOCIETY, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1965 A textbook treatment of societal organization based on the concept of changes in society due to population increase. "As the population of a social organization increases: the number of its parts and the degree of its specialization increases; the roles become formalized; variation in norms increase therefore integration declines; the number of levels of influence increase;" etc. Murray, James A., GOOD HOUSING FOR CANADIANS, Ontario Association of Housing Authorities 1964 This definitive work expounds the view-point that a sound housing policy requires an approach unifying sociology, economics and legislation. The author examines housing in Canada and abroad, appraises the housing need, considers the determinants of housing policy and indicates possible solutions. National Institute on Mental Health Conferences, ABSTRACTS OF CONSIDERATIONS OF SIGNIFICANCE TO ARCHITECTS AND PLANNERS, Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania 1962 Abstracts of the conference discussion by architects, planners, psychologists, psychiatrists, etc. e.g. "Often one group of people is current planning strictly the physical environment and another group is planning the social environment." Ortega, Y. Gasset, J., THE REVOLT OF THE MASSES, Allen and Unwin London 1932 The author deals with the rise of the 'mass-man' - how the masses intervene in everything at the lowest common denominator. Excellence becomes a thing of the past. An aristocracy is required to govern intelligently - but i t is denied. 'Mass-man' lives without any moral code; youth is glorified because i t is considered to have more rights than obligations. The book attempts to analyze the roots from which the future (which is or applies to 1965) must spring once these roots are considered to be a negation of civilization. 1 1 2 Packard, Vance, THE STATUS SEEKERS, David McKay Co. New York, 1 9 5 9 A 'popular' and very readable work of sociology on class system and stratification in the United States- The author defines the social classes that exist and also the reasons for their existence. He shows that the abolition of social stratification is probably impossible because of the fundamental natures and the inequalities of ambition and ability of people. However he considers social mobility of prime importance -that society should endeavour to permit the utmost freedom for any person to 'upgrade' himself. Porter, John THE VERTICAL MOSAIC, University of Toronto, Toronto, 1 9 6 5 The book is divded into two parts. The first part deals with the structure of class in Canada. The analysis rejects the argument of the "affluent society" as i t was applied to the United States and shows via the D.B.S. statistics that only a very small proportion of Canadians f a l l into the popular image of the middle class. Porter discusses mobility, ethnic origins and class, income and class, education and class and he devotes a chapter to the "new urban strata" as a result of the decline of the rural population. The second part of the book deals with the power structure in Canada. The theme is that a small 'elite' makes most of the significant economic decisions for Canada and Porter examines this group. It is clear that "white, Anglo-Saxon, Portestant" s t i l l is an important prerequisite for entry into the power system. The various elites - economic, labour, political - are analysed, particularly in relation to their social backgrounds. The conclusion of most significance seems to be that many of these elites are self-perpetuating. Entry to them for the outsider is increasingly difficult. Report '63: A RECORD OF THE PACIFIC CONGRESS, Architecture Students Society, School of Architecture, Auckland, New Zealand. The report deals particularly with problems of high density housing. Of interest are: Waite, 'Psychology of High Density Housing;' Beckett, 'Patterns of Residence and Social Life;' Van Eyck, 'Turn of the Stars before the Lights Go Out.' 113 Russell, Bertrand, 'Architecture and Social Questions (1935)' IN PRIASE OF IDLENESS, Unwin London 1965 The architecture of housing must take into account its social purposes. Woman's work in the home is largely unnecessary with modern methods and the use of specialists for part of her work. A communal element in housing will lessen the tensions of family l i f e by spreading the work load, however the main difficulty to implementing this reform lies in the psychology of the wage-earner. Sax, Karl, STANDING ROOM ONLY, Beacon Press, Boston 1955 A delineation of the population explosion, examining its magnitude effect on the physical well-being of individuals and the effects of the increased population, both for industrialized and under-developed countries. Van den Brock, J.H., HABITATION SERIES 3, Elsevier Pub. Co. Amsterdam 1964 "The fundamental housing requirements of mankind are determined by geographical and climatic factorsi The construction of the dwelling, as well as its design and degree of perfection, are dependent on available building materials and the development of construction techniques. The standard of housing is in fact determined by economic as well as cultural conditions." The book gives examples of housing recently built in various Western countries. Plans, photographs and cost data are given. Wilner, Walkley, Pinkerton, Tayback THE HOUSING ENVIRONMENT AND FAMILY LIFE, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1962 A study of the effects of housing on physical and mental health. It attempted to examine the effects of the man-made environment on behaviour and to examine the conviction among social planners that improved housing leads to health improvement and amelioration of social i l l s . The approach was to take a test group originally living in slum housing but moved to new public housing and a control group matched to the test group but expected to remain in slum housing. In general i t was found that the physical health of the test group did improve; closer and more amicable relations with neighbours existed; improved housing leading to better familial relations was expected but not confirmed; greater pride in the neighbourhood was found to result and the psychological state of the test group was found to be improved. 1 1 4 Winnick, L., 'The Housing Consumer: Sovereign or Subject?1 ACTION Series in Housing and Community Development, HOUSING CHOICES AND HOUSING CONSTRAINTS, McGraw-Hill, New York I960 An analysis of the 'filtering' process of housing is given. The argument is that better housing can be achieved with larger amounts of money per unit; then the total housing stock will be upgraded, there will be a fuller price range of housing and this will increase the rate of filtering of good existing housing. The housing market will be in a 'boom' condition in the late 1960's and 1970's, particularly for urban apartments and larger houses at the lowest possible cost. The slum dweller's and the suburbanite's housing preferences are examined. Whyte, W.H., THE ORGANIZATION MAN, Doubleday Andhor Brooks, New York 1957 This is the book that brought the phrase "Organization Man" into our vocabulary. The author describes the newly created and expanding class of men dedicated to achieving mainly material success and status through working in a large company. The background, education, motives and compromises necessary to succeed within the company are described. The social l i f e of the 'Organization Man' revolves around his work, most family decisions including where he lives are made with the Organization uppermost in mind. The author studied two separate subdivisions catering to this type of person and he is able to sketch the total l i f e of such communities. Murster, Catherine Bauer 'Can Cities Compete with Suburbia for Family Living,' ARCHITECTURAL RECORD, December 1 9 6 4 pp. 1 4 9 - 1 5 6 "The greatest threat to the old cities is not suburban sprawl, or automobility, or even the taste for homogeneous communities, although these help to create the city's basic problem. It is the trend toward increasing domination of the old cities by the disadvantaged, the low-income and minority families who have no other choice in the current housing market. Few families who do have other choices will want to bring up their children in an increasingly ghettoized city, with its dangerous conflict and hopeless social and economic problems, even i f they hate suburbia." 115 TECHNICAL American Public Health Association, Committee on the Hygiene of Housing PLANNING THE NEIGHBOURHOOD, Public Administration Service, Chicago 1948 An excellent and thorough treatment of neighbourhood planning principles with chapters on: site selection, development of land, utilities and service, residential facilities, community facilities, layout for pedestrian and vehicular circulation, densities: co-ordination of housing. Much statistical data in conjunection with broad planning principles. Reprinted in I960 without revisions. Buchinger, Margaret, HIGH-RISE HABITAT: A MATTER OF PEOPLE Canadian Architect, March 1965 pp. 4.6-50 The social implications of high-rise apartment living: particularly densities, juxtaposition of various types of housing and mental health in high density environments. HIGH-RISE HABITAT: SIX DESIGN IMPLICATIONS April 1965 pp. 4 0 - 4 2 Canadian Architect Factors influencing design of high-rise apartments under present social and economic conditions. Canadian Housing Design Council HOUSING IN CITIES National Printers, Ottawa 1964 A review of housing types: detached, row houses and apartment buildings. Examples of multiple housing recently built in Canada. Carver, H., CITIES IN THE SUBURBS, University of Toronto Press, Toronto 1 9 6 2 The author begins with an historical survey of some attempts to solve the problems of the city. He is particularly concerned with the suburbs -not in condemning them but how their faults can be overcome. He believes that "the planning of the residential city has its own validity without reference to the working part of the city." The neighbourhood planned around an elementary school is not large enough to support principal social and commercial services, therefore he suggests 'town centres' containing a market square, a cultural square, a government and servies square and a contemplation or beautiful place square. The suburbs should also incorporate more apartment buildings and have a greater cross-section of society than presently exists. 116 DESIGN AWARD SEMINARS: EASTWICK REDEVELOPMENT, Progressive Architecture, November I960 pp. 154-157 Architects presentation and jury critique of a row housing scheme for Philadelphia. Cul-de-sacs of horseshoe shape ringed with arterial roads and 'Radburn'-like open spaces. Doxiadis, C.A., ARCHITECTURE IN TRANSITION Hutchinson, London 1963 The irrationality of the form of our cities with our living styles or patterns is described as a 'nightmare.' This is partly due to the confusion of present day architects and planners and the reason for the confusion is that we are in an "epoch of transition." This transition is from 'academic to modern,' between old and new, between local and international, from handcraft to industry, qualitative to quantitative, megalomania to realism. But these transitions arise out of the real problems of population and growth, economic development, socialization, mobility, industrialization and technological process, urbanization and the new dimensions of time. Thus the problems of architects have become so large that a total comprehensive system of problem solving and building implementation is required, that i s , ekistics. Duff, A.C, BRITAIN'S NEW TOWN, Pall Mall Press, London 1961 The book describes the work necessary to establishing a New Town. The author deals with the New Towns Act, selection of sites, the Corporation, the development program, the problems of deciding what the residential accommodation shall be once the proportions of the types, the residents and the problems of living in a New Town, rents and amenities, establishment of industry, public relations and a look at the future of New Towns. The introduction by Martin Madden, an M.P. is most interesting. He states that the new towns tend to be one class towns and that the intermingling of a l l classes "does not seem capable of successful transplantation into modem urban neighbourhoods. Separate neighbourhoods of middle class houses must therefore be established." Federal Housing Administration PLANNING PROFITABLE NEIGHBOURHOODS, Technical Bulletin No. 7 Washington 1938 The subtitle "Subdivisions planned as neighbourhoods are: more profitable to developers, better security for investors, more desirable to home owners" indicates the hierarchy of values of the private enterprise approach to housing in this early exposition of housing layout techniques. 117 HOUSING. Architectural Review, Vol. CXXLX, No. 767, January 1961 pages 26 - 35 A preview of a variety of projected housing schemes in Britain. Minimal verbal explanation but with diagrammatic drawings. Lehrman, J.B., PATTERNS IN HOUSING GROUPS unpublished Master of Architecture Thesis, MoGill University I960 The author summarizes his aims as: "to perceive the underlying qualities of dwelling patterns, their synthesis and resultant unity." Unity he believes is either imposed from without or achieved from within the dwelling pattern. It is achieved by dominating factors such as climate or geography; or by landscaping; or be an external focus; or a predominant way of l i f e ; or a predominant scale. Each of these conditions is examined and examples are given. Although the main interest of the author is from a visual standpoint, he has stated that the complexities of housing patterns are more profound than any one factor and suggests that "Balance should be struck between the forces of man as individual and householder, the forces of his local community, and the forces of his time - a balance which is ever changing." London County Council, THE PLANNING OF A NEW TOWN, London County Council 1961 A comprehensive book on the planning of Hook New Town - unfortunately not to be realized. It deals with a l l the physical aspects of its planning and also with the social goals and the physical attempts to achieve them. The town centre was to act as a linear spine of social and commercial activity surrounded by medium density housing. Great emphasis was placed on the individual garden and pedestrian-vehicle separation. Lynch, Kevin, SITE PLANNING, M.I.T. Cambridge 1962 The book explains the principles of site planning - which is defined as the arrangement of groups of structures on the ground. Architecture, city planning, engineering and landscaping are a l l inextricably bound together by the necessity of a comprehensive view of the site. Lynch divides the analysis into two parts: fundamental technique and detailed technique. The former includes: site analysis, location of activities, circulation, visual form, light, noise, air, problem of controls and then the process of site planning. The latter section is a condensed technical reference section including: housing, special types of site planning, streets and ways, uti l i t i e s , and soil, plants and climate and costs. 118 Katz, R.D., INTENSITY OF DEVELOPMENT AND LIVEABILITY OF MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING PROJECTS, F.H.A. Technical Bulletin 509, Washington 1963 The author defines intensity of development as density, coverage, floor ratio, building type and size, spacing and parking. Privacy, useable open space and individuality are three aspects of liveability. Using these and other criteria, aspects of liveability are examined against the definitions of intensity. There are numerous photographs, plans and comparisons of housing groups in both Europe and America. NEW BUILDING ABROAD - France Architectural Forum, June 1963 pages 108-111 Le Mirais, a satellite city of 100,000 for Toulouse. Complete vertical vehicle-pedestrian separation based on linear stem principles. "The idea of street as a place rather than a vehicular passageway." McHarg, Ian, OPEN SPACE AND HOUSING, Architect's Year Book 6, Elek Books Limited, London 1955 The author recommends the abandonment of preconceptions (particularly the Garden City concept as the valid prototype of municipal housing) and an appreciation of the objective functions of open space in housing and the application of functional analysis to the functions and relationships of house and site. The functions of open space are given as: social organization, sunlight, outdoor room, gardening, service, exploitation and control of climate and micro-climate. "Densities must result from the recognition and satisfaction of the vital objective functions of open space." McHarg, Ian, THE COURT-HOUSE CONCEPT Architect's Year Book 8, Elek Books Limited, London 1958 The essential quality of the court-house is its introversion and privacy; and is most suitable as private open space. Therefore i t is a suitable and desirable form of townhoiise. Also presented is a survey of court-house schemes throughout the world and some proposals for block planning with the court-house as the basic planning unit. McQuade, W., WHERE ARE THE PARKED CARS? Architectural Forum, July I960 pages 108-111 Illustrations and explanations of the sunken parking areas at Layfayette Park in Detroit by Mies. 1 1 9 Murray, J.A., THE ARCHITECTURE OF HOUSING Canadian Housing Design Council, RBT Printing, Montreal. Defines the purposes of housing and reviews housing types and the influences upon them. An emphasis on the architectural viewpoint. Murray, J.A. and Fliess, H., NEW FORMS OF FAMILY HOUSING, Maclachlan Printing Limited, Toronto 1 9 6 1 A study of horizontal multiple housing techniques using as its design principles: 'expression of the family unit, retention of human scale, outdoor private space.' 0 1 g y a y , V . , DESIGN WITH CLIMATE. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1 9 5 3 An approach to shelter and town layout based on climatic considerations. The necessity of exploiting the regional character of the site is expounded. Particular attention to be given to sun and wind control and examples of the application of the principles derived are given for four climatic zones. OVER AND UNDER: A SURVEY OF THE PROBLEMS OF PEDESTRIAN/VEHICLE SEGREGATION, Architectural Review, Vol. CXXJX, No. 771, May 1 9 6 1 , pages 3 2 1 - 3 3 6 "The physical separation of pedestrians and vehicles has now become essential." Excellent analysis of this problem through a diagramatic presentation of existing or proposed solutions. Reiner, T.A., THE PLACE OF THE IDEAL COMMUNITY IN URBAN PLANNING, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1 9 6 3 The study seeks "to come to some conclusions as to the methodological variety and types of propositions" and to "present and substantive content to planning propositions set forth by means of such schemes particularly dealing with land use and physical elements of the urban environment." Each scheme is present in diagrammatic plan form (which tends to reveal insufficient information) 'and its main points are discussed. Then the necessary consideration of communities and the relations of the 'ideals' related to them are examined. Bitter, Paul, PLANNING FOR MAN AND MOTOR, Pergamon Press, London 1 9 6 4 -The function of the book is stated as "to dispense ... to integrate knowledge and methods of approach and to illustrate the fundamental elements common to the various professions (architects, planners, developers, administrators, legislators) ... taking as the primary motive for a l l of them the creation of a good environment. ... the aim is an 120 ecologically harmonious environment for man in which an efficient use of the vehicle plays a crucial part." This book gives a comprehensive and detailed explanation of man in relation to the vehicle from physical, social and planning points of view. The author deals with the needs of both by theorizing and analyzing existing towns. He deals in particular with New Towns and their traffic segregation with urban renewal and with traffic segregation in residential areas. There is a very extensive bibliography. Rose, Albert, HIGH-RISE HABITAT: THE GREAT CONTROVERSY, Canadian Architect, March 1965 pages 4.2 - 44 A review of the trend to apartment living and an attempt to show the lack of information on the resulting social patterns. Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF INQUIRY INTO THE DESIGN OF THE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT, Ottawa I 9 6 0 . The report presents a brief historical survey of legislation related to building, defines objectives of housing design in the broad urban framework, outlines the present difficulties and makes recommendations for change and further study. It particularly recommends the establishment of a permanent 'Canadian Institute of Urban Studies' attached to a major university "from which bibliographic help would be expected; and through which a l l concerned could learn what serious exploratory work in the field is in progress, or is in prospect or in demand." Schoenauer, N., and Seeman, S., THE COURT-GARDEN HOUSE, McGill University Press, Montreal 1962 Attempts to show the validity of the court-garden house to most Canadian conditions through a study of its historical and world-wide applications. Comparison of advantages and disadvantages of the type over the conventional Canadian 'bungalow.' Although the book deals comprehensively with the principles of the court-garden house internally and attempts to relate i t to the existing street patterns in areas of redevelopment, i t fails to present schemes outside of these patterns and particularly planning for the automobile as a result of the application of this type of housing on a large scale. 121 Segal, Walter, HOME AND ENVIRONMENT Leonard H i l l Ltd., London 194-8 A thorough exposition and analysis of housing types from detached houses through to high-rise flats and a presentation of site planning principles and layout techniques, with many examples and critiques. A somewhat dated book with a great emphasis on English experience and custom. Whyte, W.H., CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT American Conservation Association, New York 1964 A breezy, 'ad-man' dissertation on the advantages of total site planning of housing developments - communal and private space, preservation of existing amenities, traffic control, etc. Essentially based on the Radburn principles and directed mainly to the builder as a frankly economic pitch to build cluster developments. It includes many American examples with cost data. 122 USE QF TIME Brightbill, O.K., THE CHALLENGE OF LEISURE, Prentice Hall Inc., New Jersey I960 Brightbill defines leisure as "a block of unoccupied time ... when we are free ... to do what we choose." He goes on to examine what leisure is in terms of time, work, play, culture and recreation, its problems, its costs, and its effect on values, art, education and the individual. " ... out of the growing leisure are evolving human needs every bit as real and just as significant as those caused by famine, pestilence, economic upheaval and war ... they call for the deepest kind of imaginativeness and conscientiousness." Bury, J.B., THE IDEA OF PROGRESS, Dover Books New York 1955 Bury traces the development of the concept of progress. He shows how i t only arose in philosophy after about the sixteenth century, that because of the prevailing religious and philosophical beliefs i t was unknown before that time. The book serves to show that although technological advancement has existed since man emerged as a thinking creature its relation to "progress" was not automatically assigned - as i t tends to be today. It also shows that there is no inevitable upward movement of civilization, progress is nothing more than a reasoned conviction. Kerr, Walter, THE DECLINE CF PLEASURE Simon and Schuster, New York 196A This book is a personal appraisal of the worthwhileness of l i f e . It recognizes that increasing leisure is considered to be vaguely immoral in our society - that only labour is meaningful. The author questions the validity of "the work we must do, the world we must do i t in, and the selves we must live with while we are doing i t . " Life in the twentieth century has become more complicated, man is baffled in his efforts to order the world. Kerr offers hope and guidance however. He believes that "favours" for a meaningful l i f e have been bestowed upon everyone and that "the search for delight ... ought to be conducted with abandon, without thought of restraint, without giving up anything." Pieper, J., LEISURE: THE BASIS OF CULTURE, Mentor - Omega Book, Toronto 1963 A philosophical probing of the nature of leisure and its necessity to the development of a meaningful culture. 123 Soule, G., WHAT AUTOMATION DOES TO HUMAN BEINGS Pitman Press, London 1954 The disruptive forces of our scientific and industrial progress are being allowed to overrule their social implications. "There is well on the way not a civilization topped by a leisure class but a civilization characterized by universal leisure." The moral value assigned to labour is now obsolete - there i s no necessity for everyone to labour because the goods and services required can be produced by relatively few workers. Therefore leisure time must come to be considered "the serious business of l i f e . " 124 MOBILITY AND COMMUNICATION Cullen, Gordon, TOWNSCAPE, Reinhold, New York 1964 "This book is a lively revelation in word and picture of the principles which underlie a l l successful town planning, and of the widely varied range of effects which the planner can evoke by careful manipulation of component parts. The author begins by illustrating and describing the basic ingredients of townscape - closure, surprise, and so on - continues by showing the wider context of town scene, and finishes by revealing the f u l l poetry of townscape, first in studies of existing towns, and then in proposals for new towns." (resume from the book jacket) de Wolfe, Ivor THE ITALIAN TOWNSCAPE, Architectural Press, London 1963 This delightful book has a passionate quality about i t entirely in keeping with its subject. The author involves himself in the exposition of the idea of a city as a beautiful, meaningful and exciting place in which to live. Using what he considers to be the design elements of townscape he illustrates the thesis with excellent photographs and diagrams, de Wolfe considers "the streets essential nature as a precinct, a playground, a home-from-home, an escape ... the street spawned caves, inns, stalls, shops the appurtenances of leisure, and in the process took on the aspects of a fair with the appropriate accompaniment of visual hazards in aid of cosiness, gaiety and convenience." And "the car's insolent refusal to become urbanized establishes i t as an intruder anywhere. El l i o t t , W.Y., ed., TELEVISION'S IMPACT ON AMERICAN CULTURE, Michigan State University, East Lansing,- 1956 The aim is to "set television, for the first time, into a frame that shows how television f i t s into the culture which has created i t , and to explore what its possibilities are in that setting." Chapter L gives a history of Canadian television in view of its policy "to inform, to educate and to entertain." Glick, I.O., and Levy, S.J., LIVING WITH TELEVISION, Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago 1962 A study of television as a cultural, social and psychological reality. Meanings have been discovered as to the symbolism of the television program. The symbols must break through class barriers, i.e. "the private meanings of small groups and the meanings of the symbols must be acceptable to large groups of people." The social purpose of television is to "send basic, traditional understandings and contribute new meanings to them ... New knowledge, fresh beliefs and values must be properly introduced ..." The book attempts to understand the viewer's reaction to programs without questioning their merit. 125 Goodman, Paul and Percival, COMMUNITAS, Vintage Books, New York I960 The authors sketch from a Utopian viewpoint three main influences on modern city planning: the greenbelt city, including the work of Howard, Unwin, Geddes and LeGorbusier; industrial plans such as the Russian and Chinese communes and the work of Buckminster Fuller; integrated plans of Frank Lloyd Wright and those resulting from the industrialization of agriculture. Three Utopian schemes on a regional basis are presented: 1) efficient consumption (2) elimination of the difference between production and consumption (3) planned security with minimum regulation. This book is of great value mainly because i t is able to look at the problems of community living on a large scale in a completely fresh way - free from bias and prejudice, based on the underlying values and purposes of planning. Gordon, M., SICK CITIES, MacMillan, New York 1963 This book examines the reasons for what the author considers to be the decline of cities. The chapter on transportation is of particular interest. He describes how formerly vast urban transportation systems have disappeared and been replaced by the ubiquitous, city-destroying freeway. The advantages of the automobile to the commuter must be taken into account of any new effort at mass transportation. Grisewood, H., 'The New Arts of the Twentieth Century," NEW OUTLINE OF MODERN KNOWLEDGE, Pryce-Jones, A., ed., Camelot Press, London 1956 The new arts of radio, television and cinema are powerful vehicles for communication because they reach such large audiences. Because of these "mass media," artistic efforts are available to much larger numbers than ever before but freedom of artistic experimentation is diminished. Gutkind, E., THE TWILIGHT OF CITIES, Free Press of Glencoe, New York 1962 Gutkind gives as his principal thesis "The notion of a centreless region as the next phase in the evolution of environmental structure." He claims that "cities are mere details, that regions and countries and the world are the realistic living units." The forces that have given shape to our cities have died away to be replaced by new methods of communication. The plan of the city should be drawn to reduce traffic, but flexibility is the essential of city planning. The pedestrian scale is made obsolete through "the motorcar, the telephone and the mail." Industry has been made mobile ever since the introduction of electricity. He concludes by outlining his proposals for the "centreless region" e.g. "every settlement of the future should be a park community." 126 McLuhan, Marshall UNDERSTANDING MEDIA: THE EXTENSIONS OF MAN, McGraw-Hill, New York 1965 The adaptation of electricity to the means of communication has enabled man to extend his central nervous system. Mass madia becomes not merely a means to an end but an end in themselves i.e. "the medium is the message." Man is"imploding" rather than exploding - the detribalization process has been reversed and the world is adopting a more village-like quality. Western man sees the world as he does because of his methods of communication about i t , as these methods have changed so must the view of the world and thus the direction i t will take. O'Hara, R.C., MEDIA FOR THE MILLIONS, Random House New York 1961 This book is concerned with an analysis of the message, not the mechanics of mass media. These are defined as: motion pictures, television, newspapers, radio and popular recordings. The effects and complications of these media are explored. The author examines the particular segments of society aimed at by the various media as a frame of reference for their analysis. Owen, W-, CITIES IN THE MOTOR AGE, Viking Press, New York 1959 The effects of mobility upon people in an urban environment are examined. Personal mobility has permitted such large agglomerations that cities are tending to become strangled by the transportation systems they require. The automobile has helped to make possible the out-of-town week-end and i t has vastly expanded the leisure time activities of people. But "instead of planning motor cars to f i t out lives we are planning our lives to f i t our cars." Reports of the Steering Group and Working Group appointed by the Ministry of Transport (G.B.) , TRAFFIC'IN TOWNS, London HMSO 1963 "traffic and buildings are not two separate things but two facets of the same problem." "The buildings which generate traffic should be integrated with traffic arrangements ..." "Environmental areas recommended." "Three planes should be developed: primary distributors below ground, secondary distributors and parking at present ground level, and a new art i f i c i a l ground level, virtually free of traffic above present ground." " ... the freedom with which a person can walk about and look around is a very useful guide to the civilized quality of an urban area." 127 Accepting the premises that the car is here to stay and that i t is the right of each individual to use i t to the fullest extent, the Buchanan Report analyzes and examines the problems accruing from f u l l usage in the British context and suggests principles and methods of solution. The nature, extent and cost of example solutions are startling and imply radical reappraisal of the past thinking on the solution of problems of the motor-car. Warner, S.B., STREETCAR SUBURBS, M.I .T. Cambridge, 1962 "Much of (the streetcar suburbs) success or failure centred around the attempt by a mass of people, each with but one small house and lot, to achieve what previously had been the pattern of l i f e of a few rich families with two large houses and ample land." This book is a survey of the forces acting upon the suburban development of Boston from about 1850 to 1900 and the housing types and patterns that resulted. The importance of the mobility accruing from the extension of streetcar trackage is stressed but the author also examines the economic and social factors that led to the establishment of Boston's suburbs. It is interesting to note that what segmentation of society that did occur was strictly along economic lines. The society remained very fluid in respect to other social differences such as religion, ethnicity, etc. 128 GOVERNMENT Lafitte, F., 'Social Aims of the Contemporary State,' NEW OUTLINE OF MODERN KNOWLEDGE, Pryce-Jones, A., ed., Camelot Press, London 1 9 5 6 The second World War led to the acceptance by the majority of the population of Great Britain of a managed economy - the first necessity to the implementation of a 'Welfare State.' The basis of the Welfare State is the idea that "certain social needs cannot be satisfactorily met from personal earnings," and therefore the state assumes the responsibility for supplying these needs. The only requisite for these services is citizenship. Petersen, W., THE POLITICS OF POPULATION, Doubleday, Garden City, New York 1 9 6 4 "The author is primarily concerned with how population relates to social policy, especially in such fields as social welfare, urban planning and international migration." Report of the Zoning Study Committee of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, REFLECTIONS ON ZONING, University of Toronto, Toronto 1 9 6 4 A study of existing zoning methods and legislation with the major recommendation that a plan of development is necessary before any zoning can be undertaken. Greater flexibility in zones regarding setbacks, sideyards, and heights as well as mixed use is recommended. The possibility of any density is implicit in the report's argument, i f the area is planned to accommodate i t . Titmuss, R.M., THE IRRESPONSIBLE SOCIETY: FABIAN TRACT 3 2 3 , Fabian Society, London 1 9 5 9 "Insofar as a society fails to identify, by fact and not by inference, its contemporary and changing social problems i t must expect its social conscience and its democratic values to languish." "In highly complex societies ... almost a l l social forces tend to encourage the growth of conformism unless checked by strong, continuing and effective movements of protest and criticism" but on the other hand "more social discipline, order and collective planning (is necessary) to overcome the problems of urban congestion and road chaos. 


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