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A residential environ - urbville Rapanos, Dino 1969

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A RESIDENTIAL ENVIRON - URBVILLE • by DINO RAPANOS B. Arch., University of British Columbia, 1 9 6 4  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT CF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE QF MASTER OF ARCHITECTURE in  the  School of  ARCHITECTURE  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1969  In  presenting  this  thesis  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e the L i b r a r y I  further  for  agree  scholarly  by h i s of  shall  this  written  at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make i t  tha  for  financial  2S r^^uA^y,  British  by  gain  Columbia  ($7Q  for  shall  the  requirements  Columbia, reference  copying  of  I agree and this  that  not  copying  or  for  that  study. thesis  t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  is understood  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  of  for extensive  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d It  fulfilment of  available  permission.  Department  Date  freely  permission  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  i ABSTRACT  Urbanization i s a dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the world condition. Eventually 90 - 95 per-cent of the t o t a l population w i l l l i v e i n urban agglomerations.  I n Canada, the prefered housing type i s s t i l l the  single-family house on i t s own l o t ,  even though many people cannot afford  i t or must give up some of the advantages of urban l i f e t o achieve i t . What i s urban l i f e now?  I t i s based on the economic condition of people -  not only i s poverty a problem but so i s affluence.  Work and l e i s u r e are  being re-evaluated and our views of labour, s o c i a l c l a s s , family structure, etc.  are changing.  S o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n exists and people of s i m i l a r  l i f e - s t y l e tend to become members of cohesive communities.  Recognizing  t h i s , how can various s t y l e s - o f - l i f e be accommodated with creating ghettoes?  Community becomes harder t o define considering both s o c i a l  and physical mobility.  Problems o f members complicate the issues  further - changes of scale may mean e n t i r e l y new problems.  The family  i s changing as an i n s t i t u t i o n and i n i t s composition - younger marriages, female - male equality, b i r t h c o n t r o l , single generation family are changing the conditions that lead t o existing housing forms. In  order t o deal with the many complexities a f f e c t i n g housing a method of  defining l i f e - s t y l e was devised - l i f e - s t y l e being regarded as a v a l i d means of defining community i n terms of i n d i v i d u a l conditions of s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n , mobility and communication, use of time, p o s i t i o n i n the power or governmental  structure.  grouping theory, that i s :  This i s the basis of the housing  people l i v e together because of a common  sense of appropriateness to t h e i r s i t u a t i o n or l i f e - s t y l e .  The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of l i f e - s t y l e was divided i n t o the above c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  ii people.  A study area was chosen, the Commercial Drive area of Vancouver,  and the method related to the s p e c i f i c problem definable through use of the methodology or "check l i s t . "  This method enabled us to investigate  and d i s c r i b e " U r b v i l l e . " The l i f e s t y l e of U r b v i l l e i s characterized by people from old cultures who have moved to a new North American s e t t i n g . are  Most people i n U r b v i l l e  newcomers to t h i s country and adaption to the new environment,  new  surroundings and a d i f f e r e n t society, consumes a large amount of the energies of the population.  F i n a n c i a l means are small i n r e l a t i o n to  those of other Canadians but a l i t t l e better than they were i n I t a l y , Greece or China.  S o c i a l status, however, i s f e l t to be lower.  therefore more secure to stay close to those who  It i s  speak the same mother  tongue, and who have a common culture, s i m i l a r experiences and a s i m i l a r fate. average.  The income of f a m i l i e s i n 1961 was |4.,03A against $5,366 Metro M o b i l i t y of those l i v i n g here i s very low compared with others  i n the urban area. for  Only 4-0$ of the f a m i l i e s own a car while the average  the urban area i s 6%.  Many men work i n the d i s t r i c t i n which they  l i v e with t h e i r f a m i l i e s , and women and children spend most of t h e i r time i n the same environment, shopping of the area.  close to home, the church, the school and The environ, i n f a c t , i s l i k e the v i l l a g e i n which  a l l l i f e and a l l public f a c i l i t i e s are within walking distance.  In the  urban s e t t i n g , however, the v i l l a g e i s modified by other communication, transportation and industry.  In our case i t s centre i s a street which  i s also a major t r a f f i c artery f o r trucks and cars leading from the centre to other parts of the urban system.  The a r i s i n g c o n f l i c t s are  too great and must be adjusted, without interrupting the v a l i d i t y of a  village centre which may also attract others from the urban area because of what i t offers i n restaurants, specialty shopping and i t s specific character.  While families with children dominate the residential pattern  there are also many other households which must be accommodated i n proper balance and ease the close contacts which are the nature of "village l i f e . " the streets.  As street l i f e i s important, cars must be removed from The paved area of the remaining street and the stoop for  sitting make for easy informal contact for children and adults.  There  i s some need for outdoor privacy, but i n an atmosphere of safety i n this culture, that need i s small.  Because of binding emotional and cultural  ties the community i s closely knit, although not i n an organizational sense.  In fact, there i s a need for social assistance due to d i f f i c u l t i e s  of adaption.  The present formal education i n the area i s less than  average, and pleasure and recreation must be achieved with a minimum of funds i n the family with friends and neighbours.  Therefore, there i s the  need to give the greatest wealth of experience within the environ.  Home,  street, shopping street, institution and green space for recreation are the ingredients of this environ.  iii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation to those many persons who aided i n the development of this thesis. Particular thanks to Professor Henry Elder, who has been of immeasurable help i n expanding concepts, yet giving them a framework capable of ordering divergent views and information into a unified idea. Without Professor Wolfgang Gerson this study would never have been begun, nor completed.  Professor Gerson participated directly i n  the clarifying of issues i n the text, many of the captions used are his, as i s the outline of the "Multi-Dimensional Grid."  The author i s  deeply indebted to his patient and excellent advice and direction, and his readiness to discuss every issue.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS £§ge Abstract  i  Acknowledgements  i i i  L i s t of Diagrams  vi  Introduction Urbanization as a Dominant Force i n the 20th Century  1  Conclusions  3  0  3  3  3  7  Housing Grouping Theory Defined  3  8  Methodology of the Investigation of L i f e - S t y l e s  3  8  4  5  Organization and Methodolgy C i t y Organization The Multi-Dimensional G r i d The Necessity of a Basic Housing Grouping Theory  -  The Study Area - Commercial Drive Use of Time Mobility and Communication  50  Government  55  S o c i a l Condition  60  Housing  7  4  -  Page Description of U r b v i l l e Pattern Organization  94-  The Centre of U r b v i l l e  94  Streets and Spaces  95  Housing  96  Vehicle Movement System  98  Epilogue  100  Photographs of Model Bibliography Introduction  106  Annotated Bibliography  107  vi LIST OF DIAGRAMS Page The Study Area  viii  Existing Area Examined Existing Pattern of Streets  ix  Major Traffic Streets  x  Commercial Area  xi  Open Green Space  xii  Schools  xiii  Focal Points  xiv  View and Sun Orientation  xv  Existing Housing Quality  xvi  Shopper - Traffic Conflict  xvii  Local and Thru Traffic Conflicts  xvii  'Slum' Generating Influences  xix  Urbville Explained Traffic Concept  xx  External Transportation  xxi  Parking  xxii  Commercial Area  xxiii  Institution Locations  xxiii  Play Areas - A  xxiv  Play Areas - B  xxv  Play Areas - C  xxvi  Urbville Explained Pedestrian Movement Traffic and Parking Sun Angles Section through Pedestrian Street Section through Linear Spine  1 INTRODUCTION URBANIZATION AS A DOMINANT FORCE IN THE  20th CENTURY  As a fundamentally gregarious animal, man h i s history shown a propensity  has from the beginning of  to l i v e i n agglomerations.  f o r a very long time, mutual protection and defense was these groupings. primitive man  and  the basis f o r  In order to have shelter, to eat, and to  discovered  Initially  procreate,  the necessity of group action and with these c l e a r  r e a l i t i e s before him, man  was  able to formalize and s p e c i a l i z e a c t i v i t i e s  so that the n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e might be achieved. Thus the quality of human l i f e depended to some extent on the quantity of those i n a community.  When a certain size was  reached i t  became unnecessary f o r a l l members of a society to be concerned with basic needs.  Some were freed to enrich the human l i f e either p h y s i c a l l y ,  s p i r i t u a l l y or c u l t u r a l l y .  So man's existence developed i n t o a culture  rooted i n the necessity of the society of man. prosper and to seek out what was  Society enabled man  to  l a b e l l e d the "good things i n l i f e . "  The  r i c h e r l i f e , based on the s a t i s f a c t i o n of physical and s p i r i t u a l wants, generated the impulse to l a r g e r and l a r g e r groups and the physical framework to house them - the c i t y .  Thus urbanity became the framework  f o r the s a t i s f a c t i o n of a large range of human wants. An examination of c i t i e s up to and f o r a short time a f t e r the invention of the cannon shows that the functions of defense and mutual s a t i s f a c t i o n s remained equally important forces i n shaping the physical environment and that the c i t y has also been the c r u c i b l e f o r most of man's c u l t u r a l and technical achievements.  With the advent of the  i n d u s t r i a l revolution, the urban scene began to react to the forces that  2  have become the dominant physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an increasingly l a r g e r proportion of the population.  The change from the manufacture of  the bulk of wealth from the r u r a l to the urban scene i n e v i t a b l y resulted i n the migration of people to the source of t h i s wealth.  This pattern  has maintained t o the present day and i t i s expected that eventually 90 to 95% of the t o t a l world population w i l l be urban.^ Yet while t h i s urbanization i s occuring a t an ever increasing rate, paradoxically the density of c i t i e s i s becoming l e s s . use of natural and man-made resources required.  F o r the optimum  c e r t a i n i n t e n s i t i e s of use are  The 'Gity of the Future' study has found that i n successful  c i t i e s of the past d e n s i t i e s of about 100 persons per acre were optimum, whereas today d e n s i t i e s of 1/2 t o l/3rd t h i s f i g u r e are common f o r large cities.  Suburbanization,  and i n i t s worst form sprawl, have been the  instruments f o r t h i s decreased density.  However intensive use of some  parts of the c i t y i s the cause of some of the major i l l s .  The most g l a r i n g  offense i n t h i s regard i s the clogged streets and highways of the downtown areas of most major c i t i e s .  The intensive use of some p l o t s of land t o  house people at densities f a r i n excess of those necessary to the provision of the basic needs of h e a l t h f u l housing r e s u l t s i n urban decay and slums.  The other side of the coin i s the wasteful extravagance of the  t y p i c a l suburban single family dwelling.  On p l o t s of land too often  despoiled by the merchandising methods of speculators, p l o t s too small to achieve the r u r a l l i f e that was the o r i g i n of suburbs, by the costs of servicing and providing h o s p i t a l s , schools, shops and places of work, by despoiling the very features of nature that l e d t o the movement i n the f i r s t place, by the increasing f i n a n c i a l burden of duplicating those  C i t y of Future, E k i s t i c s , J u l y 1965  3  services that already exist i n the city i n the suburban place and thus diluting the life-blood of many of the physical amenities that require intensive use to maintain a standard of excellence and by persuing outmoded ideals of l i f e i n the mid Twentieth century many people are l i v i n g i n environments that f i t their needs badly and that diminish the richness of l i f e that might be available to them. The momentum that has been gained by the forces tending to change the urban qualities of the past w i l l be enormously augmented i n the future. It i s estimated that the proportion of investment for human settlement between I960 and 2000 i s likely to exceed the total cumulative investment by man from his origins to I960.  I t i s obvious from these figures that  the changes i n the physical environment w i l l be severe and that existing patterns of use of cities and forms of housing must be reappraised i n the light of the forces generating this tremendous expenditure.  The  homogenous definable l i f e - s t y l e that cities once had gave order and coherence to the l i f e of the city dweller.  But the increase i n size of  cities and the diversity of l i f e now attainable i n an increasingly wealthy society gives us the opportunity to reappraise and renew the urban form on the basis of city structure and housing grouping theories that conform to the necessities of the present and forseeable future urban dweller. PRESENT FORMS OF HOUSING EXAMINED. Historically, the detached single family dwelling i s the typical Canadian housing type.  To 1961, 66$ of the housing stock was of this  kind.  15$ were semi-detached and duplexed dwellings, % row houses and 2 16$ apartments. In the metropolitan centres the number of apartments  Murray, J . A.  Good Housing for Canadians, 1964  A was approximately equal to the other types of dwellings.  There exists  also a strong preference for individual ownership rather than tenancy. We w i l l confine ourselves to the urban locale, (including the suburbs) which i s the area most needing consideration.  The most obvious  feature of housing i n the city i s i t s partition into two categories: families with children and people without children.  The single family  detached house and the duplex are required to f i l l the bulk of the family with children need.  A small portion of this need i s f u l f i l l e d by the  use of apartments, usually of advanced age i n the decaying parts of the city. In most new apartment construction, particularly high-rise,, children are not considered desirable tenants and indeed except for very young children (1-2  years) the high-rise apartment i s not a desirable nor a suitable  form of housing.  Thus the main burden of housing urban families must  f a l l on the single family dwelling or the duplex and comparatively of these types are available as rentals.  little  The young family of limited  means i s driven frequently either into poorer lower cost rental housing or into cheaper suburban housing that they can afford to buy.  In either  case the choice i s primarily an economic one that may disrupt the social, work or interest patterns of the family, and impose an economic burden beyond the best interests of the family.  Thus i t can be seen that the  choice of young family urban housing i s limited and the burdens may  be  excessive. An older and presumably more prosperous family with children ean add to the above choices the residential areas within the city, again primarily the detached dwelling, and this family has a wider choice of suburban locations.  'Downtown urban family housing for this group i s 1  possible only at a very great cost and even then not highly suited to children.  5  The patterns of the majority of detached single family dwellings have been derived largely from the necessity of the easy subdivision of land and i t s ready sale.  The concepts of vehicle-pedestrian  separation,  neighbourhood development, minimization of service runs, of orderly development of land, of preservation of natural features and amenities are sadly lacking i n the bulk of residential sub-divisions.  No basic housing  grouping principles beyond economic ones - and even the validity of some of these are questionable - are followed.  I t would be grossly unfair to  leave the impression that the poorly planned typical sub-division i s entirely the fault of voracious speculators.  The legal restrictions of  land sub-division and zoning and building by-laws has done much to perpetuate an obsolete framework for the social and physical needs of the contemporary family. If the family with children i s apparently so limited i n i t s housing choice, what of the family without children and the non-family household? These are groups that are becoming more numerous i n our society for a variety of reasons:  earlier marriages, longer life-spans, continuing  immigration, the attractions of the city to younger people, etc.  The  private sector of the housing market has recognized the demand for housing of this group and much of the high-rise apartment development i s directed to them, and for many i t i s entirely adequate. housing choice i s small.  But again the range of  If apartment dwelling i s unsatisfactory and the  single family house i s also undesirable the choice between the two i s restricted.  A variety of housing types i n various price ranges spread  over a number of locations based on the social needs of individuals must be provided i f this segment of the population i s to be housed i n a form satisfying their needs and interests.  6 THE URBAN AGGLOMERATION IS ACCEPTED AS THE NATURAL PRODUCT OF INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY.  SOCIAL HETEROGENEITY IS THE MAJOR ATTRACTION TO THIS STRUCTURE.  Some generalizations about the present condition of North American l i f e w i l l be made i n the following pages i n an attempt to define and understand the most important forces at work i n this society. attempt to define the social climate of our time.  We w i l l  In order to do this i t  has been necessary to set out the factors that affect our social condition, for i t i s man as a social animal that concerns us - particularly as he lives together manifested by the forms and patterns of his society.  Since  the continuing and expanding urbanization of our country i s well established, the framework into which these patterns must f i t i s the city. There has been much written of late about the validity of the city i n the twentieth century - both pro and con.  It i s not within the scope of this  essay to elaborate or enlarge upon this argument.  Rather we accept the  idea of conglomerations of people l i v i n g , working and playing together as a basic fact.  But i t i s l i k e l y that the present problems of c i t i e s w i l l  increase i n magnitude. of the United States.  Already megalopolis exists on the eastern seaboard Some planners and architects believe that within  one hundred years the entire habitable surface of the earth may be built upon - ecumenopolis i s the term coined by Doxiades.  There i s strong  evidence to support this predication and therefore, i f i t i s taken as true, any housing solution must of necessity f i t into this total structure. The forces at work on this structure of human habitation - social, economic, cultural, technical - form the subject of this paper.  7  THE AFFLUENCE OF A SOCIAL DEMOCRACY BRINGS ABOUT A CHANGE IN BASIC AIMS The a l l pervading spectre that haunts every citizen to one degree or another i s economic insecurity.  Yet i n large measure economic  security for most people has already been resolved - or at least i s i n abeyance.  I t i s i n fact - i f not so understood by society - of  secondary importance to the satisfaction of new wants that are generated by the increasing productivity of a constantly expanding economy.  Thus  the central issue of economic policy i s the maintenance of an increasing rate of productivity i n order to maintain, not a high level of goods and services primarily, but a fully employed working force.  It i s no  longer the product but the production that i s essential to our society. The basic necessities of l i f e are assured, the creation of new wants, often entirely by advertising, indicates the "marginal u t i l i t y " of these goods.  Rather than a concern for economic security the concern i s for  the protection of the much greater wealth that i s accumulated.  Similarly,  the greater want stimulation of advertising and desire for status as reflected i n the possession of goods and the demand for services i s a reflection of this affluence. The main change which affluence has brought about i s that l i f e i s not any more a fight for basic necessities (food, shelter and medical care) but the question has become one of your own position i n relation to others.  Who  am I?  What do I want?  What do I do?  This  question i s answered by relating my position to that of others with common values and ideas.  I choose a segment of society for my  own.  8  WITH BASIC AIMS THE USE OF TIME ALSO CHANGES; THE OLD MORALS OF WORK AND LEISURE ARE RE-EVALUATED The expanding population and i t s wealth has resulted i n the increase of the time-honoured professions: and the establishment  of new ones:  doctor, lawyer, politician  psychologist, sociologist, physicist.  Increasing numbers of people receive the benefits of a higher  education.  Benefits that include not only, presumably, a wider ranging more inquisitive mind, but also a higher net income and some measure of social upgrading.  This i n turn stimulates those lower on the social and  economic ladders to achieve these goals and thus the spiral upward direction and expansion of society continues at an increasing rate - that i s , society i s i n the process of not only renewing i t s e l f but i n fact upgrading i t s e l f - witness the constantly expanding middle-class and the decreasing lower class.  Since there exists a class structure, i t i s  the accepted right of every citizen to have complete mobility within society to change his position relative to i t and commensure with his a b i l i t i e s and ambitions.  It i s significant also that what Galbraith  describes as the "New Class" i s expanding. characteristics: severe routine;  He defines as i t s  "exemption from manual t o i l ;  escape from boredom and  the chance to spend one's l i f e i n clean and physically  comfortable surroundings;  and some opportunity to applying one's thoughts  to the day's work." These are the goals of the "Great Society" and most importantly economic security i s not stated because i t can be taken for granted.  I t i s the expansion of this class that Galbraith describes as  "perhaps the major social goal of the society." Here we have the intriguing spectacle of a b r i l l i a n t economic analyst making and stressing the point that economic activity i s the hand-maiden of social purpose.  9 USE OF TIME CHANGES FOR MAN AND WOMAN LEADING TO SOME FAMILY CHANGES The result of this emphasis on production and the resulting plethora of goods has stimulated the necessity of as many wage earners as possible i n each family - particularly adding a wife's wage to that of her husband's.  This tendency has profound implications on the structure  and functioning of the family and particularly on the raising of children. Greater production of consumer wants i n the form of domestic laboursaving devices.  The automatic washer and dryer, dishwasher, self-timing  stoves, minimum maintenance fabrics, inexpensive clothing - a l l have reduced the housewife's daily chores permitting her to become a second wage earner.  Concurrently with his wife's new-found paid-employee status,  the husband finds his working hours becoming shorter - the AO hour week i s well established and the 30 hour week has put i n i t s appearance as the forerunner of the next reduction of the hours of labour.  But this  increase i n leisure time has largely been confined to the middle, nonprofessional, non executive class.  Doctors, lawyers, executives are  apparently working harder and longer than ever before.  This fact i s  particularly interesting because this i s the class that i s now under most pressure to expand.  Pressure i n the form of the non-professional  parent (who i s now and w i l l be increasingly characterized by leisure) aspiring for his children's entrance into this considered-to-be "higher" class.  This i s probably a manifestation of what Walter Kerr says i n  his analysis of 'The Decline of Pleasure:  1  "In a contrary and perhaps  rather cruel way the twentieth century has relieved us of labour without at the same time relieving us of the conviction that only labour i s meaningful."  The moral attitude to work has become obsolete i n our  contemporary production-orientated society;  a further complication to the  change from "a civilization not topped by a leisure class, but a c i v i l i z a t i o n characterized by universal leisure."  Under the tremendous  pressures exerted upon i t , i t i s inevitable that this moral attitude w i l l change, and when i t does people w i l l be able to regard their leisure time as the "serious business of l i f e . "  Galbraith describes as one of  the central goals of economic policy the elimination of t o i l as a required economic institution.  And C. K. Brightbill considers the human  needs growing out of increasing leisure as calling for "the deepest kind of imaginativeness  and conscientiousness."  THE MODERN POOR ARE NOT THE POOR OF FORMER PERIODS A "war on poverty" has been declared i n both Canada and the United States but i t i s only because of the relative affluence of the majority of North Americans that poverty i s no longer considered defensible by any responsible segment of society.  I t i s a measure of the responsibility  of the bulk of society that i t has become p o l i t i c a l l y expedient to attempt to raise a l l citizens to a minimum standard of l i v i n g - at public expense - well above the average condition of a generation or two ago. But those people in a condition of poverty are not the ordinary family of parents and children but specialized groups who are "old, or sick, deserted wives, unmarried mothers or marginal workers on the fringe of organized society." The problem can be seen to be not merely f u l l employment or greater productivity, or increased social welfare.  The  problems of the poor arise out of their particular physical or social condition and therefore i t i s particular solutions that are required.  11 STRATIFICATION - AND  STILE OF LIFE, SOCIAL GROUPINGS AS INDICATION THAT  ALL MEN ARE NOT ALIKE The whole question of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i s naturally brought to mind by any consideration of i t s segments.  S o c i o l o g i s t s have shown that  s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of our society does exist - however much i t i s considered undesirable and undemocratic.  S t r a t i f i c a t i o n exists for a variety of  reasons but none more cogent than that "people of similar style of l i f e tend to become an organized community of people who  i n t e r a c t with each  other more comfortably than with outsiders ... eventually the common s t y l e of l i f e and common i n t e r a c t i o n produce common values or ways of looking at the world."  (Kahl)  Furthermore people s t r i v e f o r a condition of l i f e  that they consider appropriate f o r them, and t h i s sense of appropriateness v a r i e s enormously. How  does t h i s sens of appropriateness develop?  I f we consider a  person as he matures from infancy to adulthood we f i n d the scope of h i s a c t i v i t i e s f a l l into definable categories. i s h i s immediate family; he s t a r t s elementary  As a baby h i s s o c i a l sphere  mother, father, brothers and s i s t e r s .  Before  school he w i l l have been allowed some freedom from  the house but h i s area of a c t i v i t y remains small.  But school attendance  brings on an enormously expanded universe and increasingly as he grows older the physical area he i s allowed to cover grows, as does the number of people from whom he may  choose h i s friends.  Gradually he w i l l tend to  associate with those of similar i n t e r e s t s to the point of establishing cliques - perhaps he may belong to several but the significance i s that he has begun to channelize and formalize h i s a c t i v i t i e s . tends to stay with him f o r the r e s t of h i s l i f e .  This ordering  The contraction of h i s  12  available society continues at school.  I f he should drop out of school  his interests w i l l be immediately different from his former classmates. If he continues he i s forced into a choice of a general curriculum or one directed toward university.  Within the school a clear stratification  results from the necessity of this choice and within these main divisions sub-groups are formed on the basis of sports, organizations or scholastic interests and a b i l i t i e s .  I t i s clear that children are introduced from  an early age to a social group that i s considered of some relevance to their positions.  The relevance and definition of their group i s constantly  impinging upon their behaviour and activities as they mature.  They are  conditioned to accept stratification, hot consciously but as an underlying principle of social organization that i s inevitable and the nature of society. Upon leaving the public school system, the choice between continuing formal education or going into the labour force must be made and i t i s clear that the choice w i l l largely determine future l i v i n g patterns.  Statistics have been compiled to show that the length of time  of education has a direct correlation to earned income: lowest for those who have not finished high school, rising to highest for those with a university degree.  In fact, for consideration as "executive material" -  Whyte's 'Organization Man - a degree i s essential. 1  It i s difficult  to assess the distinct reason for social stratification but i t can be definitely correlated with education and income with the greater amounts of both generally tending to place one higher on the social scale.  13  CLASS AN "INVENTION OF SOCIOLOGISTS" YET EVERYBODY KNOWS THEY EXIST There has been some controversy among s o c i o l o g i s t s who have attempted to define s o c i a l classes.  The popular concept of three classes;  upper, middle and lower has been expanded and p a r t i c u l a r i z e d to include f i v e classes and t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s now generally accepted. consists of: middle, 9$;  upper class consisting of 1$ of the population; lower-middle, 40$;  working c l a s s , 4.0$;  It  upper-  lower, 10$.  analysis of the class d i s t i n c t i o n s i s summarized as follows:  Kahl's  the upper  class i s d i s t i n c t i v e by a family's membership i n the upper group f o r two or three generations.  But i n order to be considered of the upper c l a s s ,  wealth, education and p o s i t i o n are e s s e n t i a l .  This group t r a v e l s  extensively, sends i t s sons and daughters to the 'best' schools.  I t i s an  organized s o c i a l group devoted to 'gracious' l i v i n g . The upper-middle class man i s d i s t i n c t i v e i n h i s pursuit of a career.  The class i s educated, i t may be wealthier than even the upper  c l a s s , the men and women are leaders i n the community. considered to be a public thing.  A career i s  A man must marry the r i g h t g i r l , he must  be concerned with h i s public behaviour and reputation.  This man f e e l s a  sense of accomplishment and contribution about h i s career.  The upper-  middle class have a pragmatic outlook on the world, they are not interested i n theory but rather i n r e s u l t s . The lower-middle class are defined as those i n the semi-professional and semi-managerial occupations.  They are at the bottom of the various  occupations that make up the work of the upper-middle c l a s s .  They "work  with the b i g people, and sometimes are t r y i n g to become b i g people, but  14 they l i v e with the small people." But this class also contains the small farmer, skilled craftsmen and foremen.  This i s the middle-income group,  l i v i n g i n single family or two family houses and modern apartments. of the central goals of this class i s respectability.  One  Although they may  never 'get very far' and they know i t , they strive for moral, well-behaved children, for home ownership and generally for achievement i n moderation, and generally a stable family-centred l i f e . The typical working class man i s a semi-skilled factory worker who did not complete high school.  He forms a part of a mobile work force  going from job to job, his pay varies l i t t l e from year to year and the job i s something that must be done i n order to 'get by.'  This attitude i s the  opposite to that of the career orientated upper-middle class. of establishing a small business but few ever do.  Many dream  Because of the  alienation from work they turn their interests i n their families, homes and vacations.  Their leisure activities tend to be non-creative,  reflecting the passivity derived from their work attitudes.  There i s no  concern with public reputation but a pride i n the consumptive pleasures. The worker i s not a participator but rather a spectator i n recreation as he i s at work. The lower class i s characterized by apathy, their economic condition i s poor, they feel 'down and out,' they are looked upon as being immoral, they are poorly educated and least interested i n education, everage intelligence and health condition i s low.  They are hired for only the  most routine of jobs and they are generally the f i r s t to be l a i d off as business declines.  The family situation i s unstable, neighbourliness,  religious belief and ethical considerations are inoperative for this class.  They tend to l i v e i n the slums of cities and the family, when i t exists, tends to be large.  The large family i s the source of the individual's  help and stability and he feels no responsibility to his employer or his society.  Rather he i s concerned with pleasure seeking and the  gratification of the senses.  The alienation from society tends to be  reflected i n a sense of aggression toward a society with which they are unable to cope. ACCEPTANCE OF GROUPINGS, DEMANDS EAST LINKAGE AND EASE OF MOBILITY FROM ONE GROUP TO ANOTHER It i s apparent from the definition of class distinctions that frictions exist among them.  Despite a degree of social mobility the  animosities resulting from this stratification act as socially descriptive forces that - i t i s the prejudice of this essay - society could well do without.  However the d i f f i c u l t i e s of removing this stratification cannot  be brought about by any single action and i t i s debatable whether the total elimination of the class system i s possible or desirable.  What i s  desirable to be eliminated i s the inter-class frictions - the frictions based on ignorance, intolerance and apathy.  Unquestionably, education  i s the most effective instrument i n combatting these evils.  Education  i n an attempt to improve the l o t of the lower classes and education about the conditions of each class that may lead to greater understanding. The word most used i n conjunction with our governmental system as well as the social system i s freedom.  In fact democrcy i s often defended  or condemned relevant to the freedom i t brings to and permits i t s citizens. In any responsible society this freedom i s based on a system of social  16  values and responsibilities, and one of the more important responsibilities i s that this freedom shall be maintained at least; but accruing to a l l equally certainly.  augmented i f possible;  Such i s presently not the case.  Studies have shown that the basic governmental instrument - law - i s applied to some extent, whether consciously or not, on the basis of social position.  There i s a growing uneasiness about the maintenance of  particular interests for a limited group often known as "the Establishment.  n  As power i s brought into the hands of the few, i t seems to be a law of human nature that freedom for the many i s diminished - yet this i s an intolerable situation.  The inequalities of the distribution of inate a b i l i t i e s ,  talents, intelligence or ambitions may lead to an inevitable power structure, but i t i s s t i l l the function of this structure to insure that the qualities of each individual are encouraged to fruition. argument.  As these a b i l i t i e s are apparently visited upon social groups  i n a f a i r l y random way i n the way  This i s the crux of the  every effort must be made to reduce the impediments  of developing those talents.  To this end complete mobility i n  our societal system i s essential i n order to acquaint the individual with the possibilities open to him through the use of his a b i l i t i e s and the encouragement of their use.  also  This expansion of horizons, this social  freedom i s the acknowledged right of the individual i n a democracy and any shaping of the physical environment w i l l affect i t i n some degree. This i s the lesson for architects and planners, that buildings have a social purpose and a social effect and i t i s v i t a l l y important to be aware of them.  17  ARCHITECTURE AS THE SETTING FOR "STYLES OF LIFE" It i s proposed that housing can be an instrument of social process. The question i s :  How can housing be harnessed for this purpose?  At the  moment there exists only vague prejudices and intuitions i n the mind of the writers that hopefully w i l l be explored i n the journey to an ultimate housing solution.  I t cannot be ignored that people of a similar style  of l i f e tend to organize and interact, they tend to look at the world i n the same way.  I t i s also doubtful that complete social homogeneity i s  desirable - that way l i e s crushing conformity and boredom.  The path  between social and economic equality and the present imbalance, unrest and hardship i s a very d i f f i c u l t one to travel and i s perhaps beyond the scope of any merely architectural experiment.  Yet i t i s an experiment  worth trying. PHYSICAL MOBILITY AND ITS RELATION TO SOCIAL MOBILITY There are many other forces at work that are affecting society and the way i t looks at i t s e l f .  Certainly increasing mobility i s reducing the  outward differences between classes. THE CAR FOR TRAVEL AND LOCAL TRANSPORTATION In 1 9 6 1 the total population of Canada was 1 8 . 2 million persons. There were slightly more than 4 * 5 million families averaging 3 . 9 persons. The total number of vehicles was 5 . 5 million and of these 4..3 million were passenger cars.  By 1 9 6 4 these figures had increased to 6.4-5 million total  vehicles and 5 . 1 2 mil]ion passenger cars with about 7 million Canadians  licensed to drive them.  In 1961 then, there was .95 car per family and  1 . 3 6 persons licensed to drive each car. facet of the average Canadian's mobility.  These figures indicate one They mean that the average  Canadian - who-very nearly coincides with the average motorist - can consider any part of the entire metropolitan area as his place of employment, he can l i v e wherever he wants and he can play wherever he wants.  The car permits great f l e x i b i l i t y i n the use of leisure time.  It has made possible the out-of-town weekend and this fact has probably been a force i n desiring and achieving the 5 day work week with i t s attendant 2 day weekend.  It has also given the necessary means to travel to  widely dispersed areas at a level of expenditure far below other forms of travel.  The result i s that a man who "might rarely see the mountains,  or the seashore, or the trees, were i t not for the family car" has had his horizons vastly extended. There has also been an attendant spirit of freedom - a pyschological opening up of the boundaries of the mind.  In some parts of Europe, less  mobile than ours, a distance of 200 miles w i l l be considered a major journey requiring weeks of planning and anticipation.  In North America  i t may be decided upon on the spur of the moment and be considered merely five or six hours driving time.  I t i s questionable to what exact degree,  but surely at least to some, the increasing world-wide travel had as i t s impetus the mobility brought about by the automobile. we must learn to walkj  Before we can run,  before we can f l y , we learn to drive.  The  attitude toward the shrinking of the globe into a few hours flying time indeed of distance being considered a matter of minutes or hours rather  19 than miles for the bulk of the population owes i t s origin to the motor-car. With a l l this mobility has come about the numerous positive effects of travel.  Everyone believes that 'travel i s broadening.' Perhaps not for  a l l but for some i t has the benefit of bestowing new experiences,  new  awareness, and new sympathy for what previously may have been merely 'a dot on the map.  1  In the complex situation of world affairs, this self-  education may well be the beginning of the road to international understanding. Many virtues have been ascribed here to the automobile - perhaps too many; that i t has been a mixed blessing i s only too well known.  Many  people are appalled by the enormous control over the national economy that the automotive industry exerts;  others point to an apparently deteriorating  moral sense i n young people and refer to the car as a 'bedroom on wheels;' some say i t i s choking and k i l l i n g our cities - Ivor de Wolfe says:  "The  car's insolent refusal to become urbanized establishes i t as an intruder anywhere" and "not (traffic) arteries at a l l , i n fact, but wounds, through which the l i f e blood of the urban thing drains away." The parked car i s described by Chermayoff and Alexander as "indecent;"  much has been written  of the tremendous areas required for i t and the devastation that results both physical and aesthetic.  The classic case of Los Angeles with 66$ of  i t s land devoted to the car i s constantly referred to as a manifestation of the evils of the automobile. the auto are well documented.  The unhealthiness of air pollution by The enormous death t o l l s and property  damage resulting from t r a f f i c accidents appal everyone. garishness, the expense are a l l further disadvantages.  The noise, the The rendering  obsolete of the romantic notion of the street becaue of the antagonism of motor versus pedestrian has introduced a presently unresolved problem i n the design and renewal of c i t i e s .  HOUSEHOLD MOBILITY There i s another aspect t o the mobility of the t y p i c a l North American.  I t i s the frequency with which he moves h i s place of residence.  In Canada, i t i s estimated that a household moves approximately once every f i v e years.  One manifestation of t h i s mobility i s the movement of  population from r u r a l to urban areas.  By 1961, 53$ of the t o t a l  population l i v e d i n c i t i e s of over 30,000 people.  T h i s i s expected t o  jump to between 70$ - 80$ by 1980, when i t i s estimated the t o t a l Canadian population w i l l be 38 m i l l i o n . movement i s the estrangement  One of the r e s u l t s of t h i s constant  of a person from the area i n which he l i v e s .  I t makes d i f f i c u l t long term planning because i t i s doubtful whether a c i t i z e n who undertakes an o b l i g a t i o n f o r c i v i c improvement w i l l remain t o carry i t out.  S i m i l a r l y , the i t i n e r a n t c i t i z e n i s reluctant to assume  civic responsibility.  I t i s therefore more and more being transferred t o  government from the i n d i v i d u a l . housing mobility?  But what are the reasons behind t h i s  The 'ACTION SERIES IN HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT'  states c a t e g o r i c a l l y , assuming an urban scene, that "the two most compelling motives f o r moving are the dwelling i t s e l f and the s o c i a l q u a l i t i e s of the neighbours."  W i l l i a m Whyte has found other co-relations;  men between  25 and 35 years of age move more frequently than other age groups, and there i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n between mobility and education.  Whyte  relates t h i s to h i s concept of the 'organization man' and the demands made upon him by h i s l o y a l t y to h i s company.  But i t seems that despite the  constant t r a n s f e r from place t o place, some measure of securing i n the form of consistency of environment i s maintained.  Quoting Whyte again:  "with each transfer the decor, the architecture, the faces and the names may  change;  the people, the conversation, and the values do not - and  sometimes the decor and the architecture don't e i t h e r . "  These attempts  to overcome a lack of continuity and security have prompted a psychologist, R. M. Waite, to state that "adjustment to mobility i s something which I think the human race i s coming to terms within a rather traumatic  way."  In Vancouver i t has been found that the younger generation move t h e i r places of residence mainly because of f i n a n c i a l considerations, but they are also t r y i n g to f i n d : quiet;  "open surroundings;  uncrowded, spacious conditions;  neighbourliness;  less t r a f f i c ;  better place f o r children;  convenience to work and school; THE POPULATION INCREASE AND  fresh a i r ;  peace and  slower pace;  f r i e n d l i e r atmosphere;  and smaller numbers."  PROBLEMS OF NUMBER AND  C e r t a i n l y one of the reasons f o r the increasing numbers of the human race.  SCALE  'traumatic way  1  i s the ever  I t has been said that by 1980  the  extent of our c i t i e s w i l l more than double, that 900 square miles w i l l be b u i l t upon to accommodate about 7 m i l l i o n more people i n the major Canadian urban centres. the year 2000 are:  The f i g u r e s f o r projected growth of c i t i e s by  Montreal, 5-A  Vancouver, 2 m i l l i o n .  million;  Toronto, 4-.8 m i l l i o n ;  Must these increasing numbers i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t  i n population wide trauma? established l i v i n g patterns?  Why  does population growth so d i s l o c a t e  That i t does i s well documented and  an  awareness of these d i s l o c a t i o n s i s e s s e n t i a l to t h e i r understanding.  22  The most obvious e f f e c t of increased numbers i s increased congestion - c i t i e s do not expand p h y s i c a l l y as the population increases geometrically.  Thus there i s more time devoted to commuting and  therefore more t r a f f i c .  There i s a l o s s of privacy, a diminishing of the  sense of importance of the i n d i v i d u a l . neuroses and inner c o n f l i c t that may, i n f i t s of i r r a t i o n a l aggression."  More f r u s t r a t i o n s may as J u l i a n Huxley says:  cause " s p i l l over  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that the recent r i o t s  of Los Angeles seem to f i t i n t o t h i s category and of course Los Angeles has long been regarded as the epitome of a l l that i s wrong with the 20th Century c i t y .  The a v a i l a b i l i t y of privacy i n the form of areas f o r  solitude and enjoyment i s diminishing and some of the natural resources and beauties of the landscape are being overwhelmed. enormously complicated  Population quantity has  one of the major problems of our age - education.  There e x i s t s - and the condition w i l l worsen - a lack of teachers, books and classrooms.  Employment cannot expand as quickly as population - i n  North America i t i s mainly the 1 8 - 2 4 obtaining jobs.  age group that has d i f f i c u l l y i n  In China, i t has been estimated the yearly growth may  reach IA m i l l i o n and i t w i l l be impossible f o r the economy to add t h i s number of jobs yearly.  Thus the p o l i t i c a l aspects of population growth  have often introduced the element of lebensraum as a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r war. S o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l e f f i c i e n c y require more elaborate administration and regimentation which are the c a t a l y s t s of bureaucracy and i t s e v i l s .  Karl  Sax quotes studies to show that the rate of increase of population declines among the better - educated higher-income group.  I t i s the  less-educated lower-income group that has the highest b i r t h rate.  Not  only a higher b i r t h rate but a lower average i n t e l l i g e n c e - a f a c t i n  23 i t s e l f not alarming until i t i s correlated to total average intelligence. Sax states that there i s "a decline i n the average intelligence quotient of about 1-7$  per generation."  It i s claimed that the human race can  not indefinitely maintain i t s present level of scientific and industrial progress i f the average intelligence of the human race continues to decline. MORE NUMBERS MEAN IN FACT A CHANGE IN PROBLEM, NOT JUST INCREASE There are more specific d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n large numbers. Although the need for privacy varies widely among social groups and among individuals, i n every instance as density increases, the attainment of privacy becomes more d i f f i c u l t .  In order to achieve i t society establishes  barriers that also serve to achieve intimacy - which may be regarded as a degree of privacy.  The definition of these barriers must be achieved  before any solution to communal l i v i n g has real validity.  The idea of  density of housing based on healthful principles i s well established. Sufficient sunlight, air and space for living are measurable requirements but the social dislocations or results of greater densities are poorly understood.  In a book t i t l e d 'THE ORGANIZATION OF SOCIETY,' Paul E. Mott  has addressed himself to this problem.  He has taken as a point of  departure the notion that "as the population of a social organization increases" certain results are observable.  Some results are that "the  number of the parts and the degree of specialization increase, that i s , there i s a tendency for greater stratification, not less as we consider desirable.  Roles become formalized - the system r i g i d i f i e s and social  mobility decreases.  At the same time variation i n norms increase and as a  result integration declines.  The number of levels of influence increase as  does the potential for conflict and problems of interaction of social units are multiplied.  Inevitably the existing influential areas of effort or  institutions increase their influence."  24 PRIVACY, IDENTITY AND INTIMACY OF CONTRACT ARE VALUES IN MASS SOCIETY Either the values presently held by most North Americans about the virtues of individuality and rights to personal expression, belief, etc., w i l l change or the freedom to choose an area i n which to l i v e may require modification.  Thus intimately associated with any discussion of  population growth i s the question of the growth of those areas i n which the population lives - and this i s increasingly the urban environment. If a strong case can be made for the limiting of population, an equally strong case can be made to limit the growth of c i t i e s .  I t i s beyond  the scope of this paper to become embroiled i n this controversy i n anything but a cursory way. agreeable point of view:  Suffice to say that Huxley has stated an  "As a young man I travelled a good deal about  Europe, and already then, a good half century ago, I came to the conclusion that half a million was the ideal size for a city and that every further increase brought more disadvantages than advantages. s t i l l of that opinion.  I am  Last autumn I spent a week i n the pleasant city  of Edinburgh and found that i t s t i l l had less than half a million inhabitants.  I t has a l l the doings of civilized l i f e and has easy  access to the country.  London, on the other hand, i s no longer a city  but a megalopolis getting on for 10 million inhabitants, and l i f e i n i t i s getting impossible, or at least increasingly d i f f i c u l t . "  A  distinguished Canadian humourist, Eric Nicol, has written: I am prepared to forego quite a number of other luxuries i  "In fact n  order to l i v e  i n a house separated from the neighbours by enough space and solid hedge to enable me to look out any of the windows without being reminded that  25  no man  i s an i s l a n d .  I may  not be an i s l a n d , but I'm  damn good t r y at being a sandbar."  going to have a  Aldo VanEyek, the Dutch a r c h i t e c t ,  has summed up the problem t h i s way:  "In order that we may  overcome the  menace of quantity the laws of what I c a l l 'harmony i n motion' must be discovered - the aesthetics of number."  FAMILY (CHANGING COMPOSITION AND  INSTITUTION)  So f a r we have dealt with large groups of people - s o c i a l classes rather than the people who  make up those classes.  Yet to write of the  i n d i v i d u a l i s s t i l l premature and probably impossible i n a paper of t h i s kind - g e n e r a l i t i e s are meaningless i n regard to the single person. However there i s a smaller u n i t that has considerable relevance to t h i s study - the family.  I t has been said that "the recognition of the  family as the main s o c i a l u n i t conditions housing p o l i c y . " But the family be the basis f o r planning?  should  James Murray i n h i s study  GOOD HOUSING FOR CANADIANS estimates that by 1980  there w i l l be s l i g h t l y  more than 6 m i l l i o n family and 1.3 m i l l i o n non-family formations, i s 21$  of the population w i l l l i v e i n a non-family condition.  percentage cannot be ignored i n housing solutions.  that  This  Apart from the  declining r a t i o of family groups there l i e s the question of the v a l i d i t y of the family i n assuming the premier p o s i t i o n i n the consideration of housing.  I t has become accepted that a normal function of society i s  to help ensure that as G a l b r a i t h says:  "the misfortunes of parents,  deserved or otherwise, were not v i s i t e d on t h e i r children." i t seems to be becoming increasingly questionable  Furthermore  as to whether parents  26 are best suited to bring up children.  There can be no question that  usually parents are best able to provide the love their children need but i t i s not obvious and, i n fact i f not i n word, accepted that others more specialized i n their training can rear children with greater wisdom and understanding than the parents.  For general knowledge of the  world and to inculcate a love of country we have the public school teacherj  for morals, the Sunday School teacher;  for driving cars, a  driver training school; for entertainment, television;  and so on.  It serves no purpose to over exaggerate these forces but i t i s of value to point out that the parents role i n child raising has diminished and probably from what the present parent knew as a child. Child mobility and modern mass communication have both been factors i n this effect, but other forces exist as well.  Particularly  the point of view espoused by such people as Betty Friedan i n her book 'THE FEMININE MYSTIQUE, that women are capable of much more than 1  running a household and raising children and owe i t to themselves to make use of a l l of their capabilities.  More women than ever before enter  the work force, especially married women. the company of children.  They spend less time solely i n  A generation ago a mother spent most of her  waking hours preparing meals, maintaining a house and caring for children. This kept her anchored to the house to a similar degree that very young children are confined to the backyard.  Mother was always 'around.'  To-day mother may hold a full-time job as well as her traditional chores but these chores have been simplified by mechanization and automation of household machinery.  In other words women have gained greater freedom  i n the use of their time and they can devote i t to their children, house,  27 career or whatever.  They have been able to expand their horizons because  none of the traditional tasks are as time consuming, given modern methods and enough money, as they once were.  Additionally women's competence  for these tasks has been questioned, especially i n child rearing.  The  raising of children i s conceived to be of such importance today that some feel i t should be largely i n the hands of professionals.  With a  broader view of the world parents are able to recognize their own limitations and to realize that their children can benefit from the experience of others.  Aldous Huxley advocated i n his novel ISLAND that  children should be allowed to choose their own parents or even several parents.  They recognize their needs of the moment and they should be  free to accommodate them from any parental or family source.  The  direction of long range goals would tend to be a function of the whole of the society.  A U t o p i a n concept perhaps, i n the light of the structure  of today's society, but one of considerable appeal.  Too often the  mother may be incompetent or i f she i s working, may be forced to leave the care of her children to someone who i s merely handy or whose services are inexpensive rather than to someone who i s truly able to bring to the child a measure of direction or education or simply joy. From the foregoing i t i s obvious that the form of the family i s l i k e l y to undergo change - i n addition to the alterations already made. A generation or two ago the three generation household was common.  The  interaction of individuals of widely varying age served as an example and stimulus for the young to emulate or better their elders, while the efforts of the young members of the family to achieve their goals would become of prime importance to the actions of the elder family members.  28  In a d d i t i o n the s o c i a l patterns and mores would be d i r e c t l y transmitted from generation to generation thus constituting a natural teaching and guidance system.  The importance of the family as a u n i t and of the  maintenance of the sense of unity was stressed.  Kinship was a p r i n c i p a l  s o c i a l and economic factor i n the c i r c l e and extent of friendships. Under the impact of contemporary l i v i n g conditions, the family rarely exists i n t h i s form.  Indeed i n some respects the one generation  household has emerged as the dominant one.  E a r l i e r marriage has been  one of the main f a c t o r s i n t h i s new s i t u a t i o n .  Also child raising i s  often delayed u n t i l the desired amenities are accumulated and with modern methods of contraception the planning of children i s subject to greater control.  As a corollary of e a r l i e r marriage i s the f a c t that most newly  married couples tend to set up t h e i r own household, therefore they leave t h e i r parents home at an e a r l i e r age.  Even i f the c h i l d r e n do not get  married they tend to leave home and establish t h e i r own residence at e a r l i e r ages than t h e i r parents d i d .  This tendency has been f a c i l i t a t e d  by the r e l a t i v e l y high wages a v a i l a b l e to the average worker.  Often the  young u n s k i l l e d worker can earn the same wage as h i s u n s k i l l e d father at the same kind of work.  I t i s the peculiar circumstance  many young people have emigrated  of Canada that  from t h e i r native countries and have thus  often t o t a l l y divorced themselves from t h e i r r e l a t i v e s . The other main factor i n the importance of the single generation family i s the increased l i f e - s p a n i n conjunction with f i n a n c i a l security. I t i s no longer a f i n a n c i a l necessity f o r d i f f e r e n t generations to l i v e together i n the same b u i l d i n g and apparently the difference i n i n t e r e s t s  29  and outlook encourage this division.  Also the increased mobility  coupled with financial means has given the elderly generation the freedom and means to pursue delayed interests and ambitions of a more leisurely sort. The family w i l l certainly continue as the basic social unit, at least within the foreseeable future, but i t i s obvious that the nuances of i t s cohesiveness have changed.  Nevertheless we are faced with the  necessity of housing the family i n the city and i n the light of the forces tending to change i t we must make design decisions.  An  accepted principle of housing - often honoured more i n the breach than the observation - i s that the location preferences of people must be considered i n determining housing policy.  These location preferences are  complicated by the fact that during the period when space i s most necessary, i t i s often unobtainable and once i t i s achieved i t soon becomes unnecessary because of the declining size of the family.  Most  importantly, i t i s part of the Canadian dream that each man shall own his own plot of land, with his own house where he becomes 'king of his castle.' One of the already accepted principles of planning i s that the family with children must be i n immediate contact with nature, preferably on the ground plane.  With a l l these demands acting upon a limited ground area  some control of overall land use appears necessary. The city i s described by Catherine Bauer Wurster as "increasingly ghettoized, with dangerous conflicts and hopeless social and economic problems."  Recognizing these problems, i t i s doubtful i f many people  would want to sacrifice the amenities available to them i n the suburbs i n the hope of rescuing the abstract ideals of l i v i n g i n the city.  therefore the necessities of housing must be discovered as they now apply to the changing and changed conditions of the city. CONCLUSION The result of this introductory investigation has been mainly to achieve a bird's eye view of the forces influencing housing forms and patterns i n their relation to the broad social, economic and cultural condition.  An effort has been made to order the enormous complexity  of the problem and thus permit an attempt at solutions.  The  accompanying table serves as a guide to the direction of the study as well as a tabulation of the facets of the problems that must be dealt with.  But any solution w i l l of necessity be related to only a small  and particularized segment of society.  I t i s proposed to define those  areas of activity among people that w i l l tend to define a 'style-of-life' that may naturally lend i t s e l f to a comprehensive solution based on the 'wholeness' of this form of l i v i n g .  This approach has several advantages  It w i l l permit us to deal with a community of sufficient differentiation and population limitation that the aims, purposes, qualities may be carefully defined.  The scale w i l l be kept within reasonable bounds -  that i s , within the scope of a mainly architectural solution;  but i t  w i l l be necessary to f i t this into an overall framework of an urban environment either as i t exists or an idealized one.  We should be able  to accommodate the natural differences of the parts of society without stratifying them or making ghettos of them.  This implies a freedom of  exchange of ideas, of people, of interests, of thoughts and most  31  importantly, that the special interest groups have a necessary part to play i n achieving a varied cross-section of the population within a community. This variation i s seen as a necessity to any well-balanced, broad encompassing society.  In addition we w i l l emphasize new types of housing  presently lacking, based on the particularized needs resulting from the evolution of our industrialized society.  This w i l l permit a freedom of  housing choice not presently existent, and hopefully, with this freedom w i l l also accrue the desirable goal of social inter-mixing not i n a haphazard or a r t i f i c i a l manner but by mixing based on common interests. The necessity of avoiding any solution that may tend to ghettoize these particular interest groups i s obvious - such a result would completely invalidate one of the central themes of this study.  Therefore  the links between these styles-of-life and between the functions of the city are of greatest importance.  The nature of these links w i l l vary  depending upon the local conditions but the broad framework for them has been l a i d out i n the body of this essay that describes the general situation i n which our society finds i t s e l f and may be expected to develop toward - coupled with the desirable goals of our particular democracy.  When considering a topic of such wide-spread significance  the role of government must of necessity be examined and i t s responsibilities i n relation to those of the individual must be appraised.  I t i s possible  - indeed extremely likely - that the achievement of certain housing goals can only be achieved through government sponsorship.  The private sector  of the building industry has been exceedingly conservative i n his housing investments - naturally enough, since most housing construction i s viewed mainly as investment rather than the satisfaction of particular social needs.  32  Thus the central goal of the study remains the definition of new housing types and patterns based on the changing conditions that have led to these needs.  We have attempted to sketch the framework for the  solution of these problems - to ask the right questions rather than look for answers. answers.  The next part of the study w i l l be concerned with the  33  ORGANIZATION AND METHODOLOGY  CITY ORGANIZATION - THE MULTI-DIMENSIONAL GRID  When t h e c o n d i t i o n o f sprawl i s reached many o f t h e a m e n i t i e s o f the  c i t y a r e e i t h e r l o s t or v e r y much d i m i n i s h e d  inhabitants. kind  of c i t y  I n order t o overcome these i n h e r e n t organization  of the  d i f f i c u l t i e s a new  i s proposed c o n s i s t i n g o f a number o f  s p e c i a l i z e d g r i d s t o form a " m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l " a)  f o r the majority  grid,  Communications G r i d The  parts:  b a s i c g r i d i s t h a t o f communications which c o n s i s t o f two  one devoted t o communication based on p h y s i c a l m o b i l i t y , i . e .  m o b i l e communication, and one based on a s t a t i c p h y s i c a l s i t u a t i o n o f mobile information stabile.  incorporating  t h e e l e c t r o n i c and l i t e r a t e media, i . e .  D i a g r a m m a t i c a l l y t h i s i s shown i n F i g u r e 1 where t h e s o l i d  l i n e s i n d i c a t e the a b s t r a c t patterns and  o f mobile ( p h y s i c a l )  communication  t h e broken l i n e s i n d i c a t e t h e s t a b i l e ( i n f o r m a t i o n a l )  communication  patterns.  I t i s evident  from t h e diagram t h a t s t a b i l e communication i s  o f a completely d i f f e r e n t form than mobile communication.  Fig.  1  3A  b)  Service Mosaic The intersections formed by the mobile grid can logically be  assigned a specific function.  These functions form the service grid or  mosaic (Figure 2) which would particularize services in one place and permit the mobile communication grid to be projected on the basis of that function.  Included in this grid would be nodes of commerce, industry,  education, culture, leisure and recreation.  Fig. c)  Social Mosaic  2  Distributed throughout the initial grid is a social mosaic (Figure 3) based on the social characteristics of people as reflected in such things as interest, income, identity, specialization, homogenity or heterogeneity and a l l influenced by geography and climate.  Each  individual part of the mosaic forms the focus for the activity that i t is meant to serve and permits the plugging into the communication grid in a form that is predicable, capable of change yet complete at any stage.  Fig. 3  35 d)  Use of Land The land i s considered to be a natural resource.  accrue to society as a whole, that i s , the state.  Its wealth should  The land i t s e l f should  therefore remain i n the ownership of the state and rights to i t s use would be sold.  These rights of use refer to the physical manipulation of the  land such as mining, farming, logging, etc; upon i t , their kind and duration;  the erection of structures  the preservation of amenities of the  land both natural and man-made. e)  Administration The administration of the land would also be i n the form of a  multi-dimensional  grid (Figure A)•  Basic units developed from the  nodal centres would be interlocking with other types of centres to the point where a number would be grouped together out of the resultant interaction.  A third level would deal with those problems of interaction  of the total nodal centres.  I t i s expected that as growth and  development occured these administrative volumes would similarly expand or contract.  Fig. U  36 f)  Change/Time B u i l t i n t o any theory of c i t y organization must be a recognition  of the e f f e c t s and n e c e s s i t i e s of change over time.  Certain processes  and most physical e n t i t i e s have either l i f e spans or l i f e cycles.  The  framework of the urban environment must be allowed to contain change as an i n e v i t a b l e process yet at the same time mitigate i t s frequently disruptive force. g)  Technological Extensions The multi-dimensional g r i d as so f a r defined has been made  possible l a r g e l y by technological extensions of man's a b i l i t y to shape his  environment.  The evolution of communications i n t o what McLuhan  r e f e r s to as the "extension  of the central nervous system" permits the  physical dispersion of the elements of the c i t y on a scale hitherto impossible.  The a b i l i t y to b u i l d f o r very high d e n s i t i e s of people and  yet provide freedom and v a r i e t y i n choices of l i v i n g s t y l e s has been achieved.  The d i f f i c u l t y so f a r has been to control t h i s new found  a b i l i t y and order i t i n a way that w i l l r e s u l t i n maximum freedom within a changing s o c i e t a l framework, yet permit the advances so obviously required and desired with a minimum disruption to the established conditions.  I t i s the fear of t h i s disruption to d a i l y l i f e that i s  so often transferred to a fear of change i n general. h)  The Experience of Environment The  c o r o l l a r y of the e f f i c i e n t technical working of the c i t y i s the  e f f e c t of t h i s framework as an enclosure  f o r human a c t i v i t y .  The e f f e c t s  may be measured i n terms of comfort and stimulation, of heterogeneity and homogeneity, of intimacy and p u b l i c i t y , of space, form, scale and movement - i n a word - aesthetics.  37  PRCBLEM STATEMENT a)  The Necessity of a Basic Housing Grouping Theory The difficulty with most housing as i t now stands i s that i t  occurs i n a random way with l i t t l e cognizance of the physical environment required to satisfy social needs and the urban context i n which these needs are to be satisfied.  Concepts of neighbourhood, the "urban  village," the "central place," etc. as means of achieving a coherent social framework are inadequately understood i n relation to the implementation of housing schemes.  Therefore one of the main objects  of this study i s seen to be the formulation of a basic housing grouping theory and the testing of this theory by a number of proposals conforming to i t . The essence of this theory must answer this basic question: Why do people l i v e i n proximity to one another? To date the study has revealed some answers to this question.  It  i s not merely the answers but the weight that must be accorded to them that w i l l lead to a clear statement of the theory.  Thus, things l i k e  financial considerations, family situation, work, leisure, mobility, etc. a l l are encompassed i n one term:  life-style.  In order to define l i f e -  style i t has been necessary to examine the total context into which a l l housing must f i t .  Housing i f considered to be a reflection of current  social-economic-cultural conditions must take into account the physical form that houses them.  Life-style i s then the overall pattern of  l i v i n g for a person or a group of persons as reflected by their social situation, their economic situation, their cultural one vis-a-vis the total situation into which a person or group must f i t .  Thus "no man  i s an island" and whether he f i t s well or badly, through his own efforts or those beyond his control, his l i f e - s t y l e i s i n fact determined for a point i n time. b)  Housing Grouping Theory Defined The essence of our approach to housing grouping i s that people  l i v e together based on a sense of appropriateness to their total situation. That i s they find themselves i n a particular style of living that i s a result of a host of considerations:  social, economic, cultural etc.  (These points w i l l be discussed i n the following pages.)  The terra most  often used to define this situation i s 'life-style' which i s here defined as the pattern of living that underlies the actions and reactions of a social unit.  Life-styles are based on such diverse foci as  ethnicity, economic situation or locational preferences.  However i t i s  important to s i f t out from a l l the factors that make l i f e as complicated as i t i s , those forces and the relative weights that should be assigned to them i n defining the l i f e - s t y l e . Once l i f e - s t y l e i s defined the housing necessities, their forms and patterns and their relation to the urban grid can be established. c)  Methodology of the Investigation of Life-Styles The accompanying diagram represents the framework into which  housing needs might be determined.  I t i s of general validity but i s  particularly ordered with a view to present day Canada. The four main forces acting on housing are defined as: condition, use of time, communication, government.  social  The breaking down  of these headings into sub-groups and sub-sub-groups, etc. i s the means  39 of analyzing these forces.  Thus a method of ordering information and  cross referencing i t i s formed to show the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s of our complex society. The chart tends to emphasize the s o c i a l q u a l i t i e s of a society and thereby provides clues to the common denominator of that society.  This  common denominator i s then assigned the t i t l e ' l i f e - s t y l e ' and becomes the basis of the housing scheme.  I t p a r t i c u l a r l y shows that housing  cannot be considered merely as the provision of shelter but that i t i s one facet of the complex l i v i n g experience. The block including s o c i a l condition, communication, use of time, and government r e f e r s t o the factors a f f e c t i n g society and the physical environment. The housing technique consists of the p a r t i c u l a r factors conditioning the physical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of housing.  These are the  f a c t o r s that are affected or modified by the proceeding block. The r e s u l t s of the synthesis of these two blocks are the housing types and patterns that are designed. The l i n e enclosing a l l three blocks indicates the interrelatedness of a l l the parts t o the whole.  T h i s interrelatedness refers t o both  the action and reactions of the parts on themselves as well as the progression from general s o c i a l analysis to general housing a n a l y s i s , to the presentation of p a r t i c u l a r housing types and patterns.  Social Condition  C ommunication  Housing Needs  Use of Time  Problem  New Housing Types and Patterns  Housing Technique Govern ment  Proposals  Process *  PHYSICAL  MOBILITY  COMMUNICATION  MENTAL COMMUNICATION Types Education Ease Advertising New Methods Social Effects Physical Effects  A3  FAMILY  C ontent Parent-Child Relationships  SOCIAL CONDITION  Inter-Family Duration Validity  \  ECONOMICS  Income  Occupation Attitudes Aspirations  STYLE-CF-LIFE  S o c i a l Status S o c i a l Mobility Ethnic Group Leisure Religion Privacy  POPULATION  Characteristics Density Use of Resources Effects  EDUCATION  Existing Form  GOVERNMENT  Ideal Form  Land Control Organization Urban Extent Definition of Re sp onsibilitie s  Directions and Contexts Particular Needs Technology Research  Pensions Medical Care Family Care Schools Employment Immigration Private Welfare  THE STUDY AREA - COMMERCIAL DRIVE USE OF TIME a.  LABOUR i.  Family Of the 1,794 families i n census tract 7 only 1,228 had wage-  earner heads, i.e. 6 8 $ , Vancouver's average i s 6 5 $ . Where there i s a family head his income i s  $ 3 , 1 9 7  while the total family income i s  $ 4 , 0 3 4 an increase of 2 6 $ . The average Vancouver figures are $ 4 , 4 0 8 , $ 5 , 3 6 6 and 2 1 . " $ . From these figures i t can be seen that incomes additional to that of the family head assume considerable importance i n this area as compared to the Vancouver average. The low income of families i n this area i s - apart from the ethnic factor - what distinguishes their style-of-life;  i n this case i t  i s closely associated with consumption patterns since income i s near the subsistance level. There are a number of seasonal workers, loggers, fishermen, living in the area whose jobs take them out of town for lengthy continuous periods.  This undoubtedly puts a strain on family relationships but to what  exact extent i s d i f f i c u l t to t e l l unless specific cases are examined. The job i s not considered the main l i f e interest but primarily as the means to make money. from the occupation.  The aspirations of l i f e are probably separate  Automation and new technology represent dangers to  this group because their general lack of s k i l l s makes them susceptible to displacement through automation or the introduction of new techniques that may require more s k i l l f u l workers.  A continuing programme of re-education  may be necessary to even maintain the people of the area at their present income.  46 Only 8$ of the population i s self-employed compared to 10$ Vancouver average.  There are many small stores that give the commercial district a  surprising and interesting diversity.  The smallness of these businesses  makes them vulnerable to competition from the chain stores but so far only a Safeway Store has been established.  Since most of the commercial space  i s occupied, small businesses must s t i l l be feasible.  The extent to  which small specialized stores are desired by the residents over the larger supermarket or chain store may be a clue to the living style but unfortunately no data exists from which to derive conclusions. b.  LEISURE i.  Voluntary In a society more attuned to the material or physical pleasures of  l i f e rather than the contemplative ones, the amount of money available for the indulgence of interests and desires has a direct effect on how well or completely they can be satisfied.  The society under consideration i s  distinguished by both limited income and low education - two factors that make d i f f i c u l t indulgence at either the physical or mental levels. However the pleasures of l i f e , whatever they are seen to be, are not readily foregone simply because the budget i s rather low by middle class standards.  Necessities to middle class l i f e may not be equally  important to lower class l i f e and indeed the pressures of conformity and conspicuous consumption are much less for the lower class.  The  conclusion here i s that the 'lower' class i s actually freer from social pressures i n his choice of leisure activities than the 'higher' classes.  47 H i s decisions are made by weighing the d e s i r a b i l i t y of pleasures over necessities.  That he frequently opts from pleasures i s well-documented.  Some support to t h i s argument i s given by the f a c t that of 2,534 1,864  households,  ( 7 4 $ ) have t e l e v i s i o n sets, but only 1,840 have either a bath or  shower.  The extent to which t e l e v i s i o n i s used i n comparison with other  classes i s not known. undefined.  In f a c t l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s i n general remain  The absence of community f a c i l i t i e s (except churches) f o r • s  l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s suggests inter-family watching or a c t i v i t i e s outside the area. further explored under physical mobility.  a c t i v i t i e s , or t e l e v i s i o n  This l a t t e r point w i l l be A t the moment s u f f i c e t o say  that only 40$ of households own an automobile compared t o a Vancouver average of 63$, the conclusion being that movements are more r e s t r i c t e d than the average condition, ii.  Enforced In 1961 census t r a c t 7 had the f i f t h highest percentage of  unemployed i n the metropolitan area, 1 2 . 5 $ of male labour force and 7.6$ of the female. employed.  1 2 . 3 $ were over 65 years.  The bulk of whom were not  When t h i s number of people have the a c t i v i t i e s of 24 hours  of each day f o r which to make decisions the question i s :  on what do they  decide? The other side of the unemployment coin i s to determine the economic condition of these people.  The old age pension provides s u f f i c i e n t f o r  a basic subsistence l e v e l of l i f e .  The attendant degradation of human  l i f e at t h i s l e v e l i s as yet an unmeasured s o c i a l cost.  The others  must depend upon unemployment insurance and welfare payments since i t i s u n l i k e l y that any appreciable amount of savings e x i s t .  The reasons for this high rate of unemployment l i e mainly i n the fact that the level of s k i l l s are low and i t i s traditional that unskilled labour i s the f i r s t to suffer the effects of economic recession and the longest suffering.  The effects of automation also effect - so far -  mainly this group.  The difficulty of the unskilled to find jobs increases  as they grow older to the point where after 65 and probably well before that i t i s virtually impossible. iii.  Age Group The leisure activities and the deficiencies of children have  already been discussed, and of adults hinted at.  The importance of  realizing that each age group has i t s particular leisure activities i s the point to be made here. iv.  Social Group There i s some evidence to the effect that group activities are  based on ethnicity.  Children of one ethnic group have been known to  dominate playgrounds and band together to repel "outsiders." teams are made up of members of one ethnic group only.  Some sports  The Community  Chest and Councils report on the area recommends - indirectly - the ethnic qualities be reinforced by including activities i n their agencies which are familiar to the various ethnic groups, by stressing the importance of their personnel speaking the appropriate foreign languages and that ethnic group leadership i n community services programmes be further developed.  49  v.  Style-of-Life The style-of-life i s not related directly to leisure activities as  such.  As has been stressed ethnicity and housing cost form the basis of  the community and set the style of l i f e .  However the ethnicity by  definition determines that certain common bonds exist that do spread into leisure activities.  I f we can say that gregariousness to a greater degree  than i n other nationalities characterizes Italians then we have said much about l i f e - s t y l e .  I t implies that a sense of community may exist or may  be fostered by judicious housing decisions.  50  MOBILITY AND COMMUNICATION a.  PHYSICAL MOBILITY i.  Pedestrian Pedestrian movement within the area i s interrupted by the main  t r a f f i c arteries of Commercial Drive (north - south) and F i r s t Avenue (east - west).  The area i s also ringed by heavy trafficed streets.  The  elements within these boundaries (and vehicle t r a f f i c i s very much a boundary) are easily accessible to pedestrian movement - parks, schools and shopping.  Pedestrian movement outside the boundaries i s made d i f f i c u l t  by vehicular t r a f f i c and by the fairly great walking distances from likely nodes of interest. ii.  Vehicular Because of the low number of automobiles owned by the residents  (4Q6 of the households), public transportation must be utilized to a greater degree.  The area does not appear to be particularly well served  in this regard but this may be due to a lack of demand.  If so, then i t  would indicate that the people within the area are less mobile than those i n most other parts of the city.  The fact that these people are i n the  low income group means that there i s less money available for transportation and they apparently live close to their work. iii.  Travel There are a surprising number (four or five) of travel agents  located i n the commercial area.  Almost a l l of them advertise some  association with Italy either as being Italian themselves, speaking Italian  51 or offering special rates or tours to Italy.  However i t i s doubtful that  many of the people i n the area west of Commercial Drive could afford such long distance travel.  Therefore i t i s to be concluded that the bulk of  travellers reside east of Commercial i n the more affluent Italian section. This also illustrates the common use made of the commercial area by a relatively large community well outside the boundaries of the focal zone. Thus there exists a natural meeting place for different income groups and styles-of-life groups.  The effect of travel to "the old country" must be  to maintain and reinforce the ties to the homeland and to confirm the ethnicity of the traveller.  Paradoxically, i t can show him that he i s no  longer a native of his country of birth by contrasting what he once knew and was with what he i s now.  Generally this experience i s more likely to  confirm the traveller in his new Canadian identity but with a new awareness of his native versus his adopted country.  For example a person may  persist in the belief that he i s s t i l l an Italian even though he may l i v e i n Canada up until the time he revisits Italy and discovers how much both i t and he have changed.  He w i l l return to Canada saying, " i t ' s not l i k e i t  used to be" and " i t ' s good to be home." The accident of birth i s not wiped away, but i t i s diminished.  b.  COMMDNICATION "The newcomer can be helped to function on his highest level i n a  short time, i f there i s sufficient effort to shorten his cultural distance through orientation, information, clarification, interpretation, support and encouragement.  He needs help which must be extended very  promptly and through the earliest contacts.  His need to understand the  52  Canadian community i s p r a c t i c a l l y overwhelming."  ( age 70 Hromodka). p  The e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , Immigration Branch, National Employment O f f i c e , C i t i z e n s h i p Branch, welfare agencies and voluntary organizations, attempt to mitigate these problems within what i s apparently a t o o - r i g i d framework that f a i l s i n many instances to meet the needs of immigrants.  Mr.  Hromodka suggests amplifications of these services that w i l l be dealt with l a t e r i n t h i s report.  i.  Radio and T e l e v i s i o n The more pervading, l e s s o f f i c i a l means of aculturation l i e i n the  various mass media and the degree to which they can be used and understood. The most ubiquitous and thus the most powerful media appear to be the broadcasting media - radio and t e l e v i s i o n . i s the language b a r r i e r .  The f i r s t problem to be overcome  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y acute i n radio which i s  dominated by teen-age values, p a r t i c u l a r l y the c o l l o q u i a l modes of speech that can confound the native!  Both radio and t e l e v i s i o n bombard the  l i s t e n e r with advertising frequently geared to a f a n c i f u l Canadian, or more u s u a l l y , an American way-of-life, that i s frequently divorced from any r e a l i t y and c e r t a i n l y f o r the low income condition of the immigrant. Advertising must be a l l the more insidious when coupled with inadequate experience of the r e a l conditions of Canadian l i v i n g .  I t also creates  f r u s t r a t i o n by demanding consumption on a scale and of a r t i c l e s beyond the income of most newcomers.  However the p o s i t i v e aspects of t e l e v i s i o n and  radio must not be overlooked.  The t e l e v i s i o n program most popular over  the l a s t few years i s i n a sense a morality play - constantly showing the triumph of good over e v i l v i a the s o l i d i t y of a family u n i t .  Both the  triumph and the morality depicted are subconscious i d e a l s that run through the f a b r i c of public morals.  53  The constant search for novelty means that few aspects of l i f e are ignored but regretably they may be distorted beyond recognizable form. Television communicates an idealized version of the world as we would prefer i t rather than as i t i s or as i t might be. exceptions to this generalization.  Naturally there are  Television certainly can be entertaining,  informative and on rare occasions may even present works of art.  I f as  Marshall McLuhan expounds, television i s an extension of the central nervous system, that i s "the medium i s the message," the profound effects on newcomers and native alike w i l l radically alter our culture from a visualoriented one to a 'tactile' one.  The abstract architectural spaces of a  decade ago reflected the classical visual sense - space realizable i n the mind.  The new "sensuality" renders obsolete this basis for architecture  and requires i n i t s place a 'tactile' approach to architecture. The total effects of these media on the family i n our study area can only be guessed at but certainly an obvious difficulty i s the estrangement of the parent from the child.  The parent lives i n an  environment which i s to a greater or lesser degree of his own choosing or making or circumstances.  The child, particularly as he grows older and  becomes more aware of the realities and the unrealities of the outside world, cannot help but be confined by his situation, his sphere of activities and his opportunities. ii.  Newspapers and Magazines and Movies McLuhan claims that the newspaper i s a "group confessional form that  provides communal participation."  This idea i s born out by the existence  i n the study area of two Italian language newspapers and several Chinese  ones.  Apparently the English language newspapers do not provide sufficient  "communal participation" for these two ethnic groups.  Part of the  difficulty i s due probably to the lack of or imperfect reading ability of many of the immigrants.  Although speaking ability i n English i s almost  universal i t i s not known whether reading ability i s similarly general. The ethnic papers also act as a t i e with the homeland and with the ethnic community.  They provide i n a familiar form and language information on  the l o c a l , national and international levels thereby enabling the members of these particular groups to maintain his interest i n the new world around him as well as the old world he has l e f t . Italians and on a more limited scale Chinese magazines are available. Again, they reinforce ties with the homeland and contribute to the slower aculturation of the ethnic groups.  The psychological importance of the  familiarity of the known must be an important anchor to people thrown into a completely new and i n some ways frightening environment. Although there i s no movie house within the study area, there i s one f a i r l y near and i t plays exclusively Italian films. The existence of these non-Canadian media and i n some cases their dominance over native ones provides the strongest clue to the nature of the place, that i s i t s ethnic character, dominated by Italians with Chinese forming a second major force.  55  GOVERNMENT a.  LEVEL The study area l i e s within the boundaries of the City of Vancouver.  It has no direct representation on the City Council beyond the voice of each voter i n choosing aldermen from the city as a whole.  At present and  as has existed for some time, few aldermen come from the east side and therefore that area i s l e f t without a real voice i n the governing of the city.  Another difficulty i s that with so many renters, those allowed to  vote on money by-laws are few of those who actually l i v e i n the area but mainly absentee landlords.  The absence of community f a c i l i t i e s normally  achieved through these by-laws i s a reflection of the lack of control over the destiny of the area.  At the same time too much should not be made of  this argument, since the low average income level might maintain the same result even i f non-property owners were given the vote i n money by-laws. The ethnic character of the area, particularly the large number of immigrants, indicates an unfamiliarity with specific aspects of government i n Vancouver that may differ radically from what was known i n the homeland. Some immigrants have noted that services for which they were accustomed to having provided by the government i n their homeland must be provided here by the individual.  This i s particularly true of medical services, and  the existence of private medical insurance schemes may be unknown. Qualifications for government assistance i n the form of family allowances, old age pensions, unemployment insurance, hospital benefits are a l l dependent upon resident qualifications that the newcomer cannot f u l f i l l .  56 The control of land use i n the area has had an important effect on the quality of housing i n the area.  The western and northern boundaries  are defined by industrial development that i s incompatible with the adjacent housing function.  The commercial strip along the aptly named  Commercial Drive has the effect of dividing poor to fair housing from f a i r to good housing.  To come from the "other side of the tracks" i s to l i v e  west of Commercial Drive.  The disruptive effects of these industrial and  commercial zones on the immediate housing environment could be alleviated by rezoning to achieve buffer zones between them.  The entire study area  i s presently zoned RM 3 (multiple dwelling) except for the existing commercial strip. The Vancouver Redevelopment Study of 1957 by the City Planning Department listed the Woodland Park area (our study area) as one proposed for Limited Redevelopment.  A Limited Redevelopment Area i s liable to  deterioration over the next twenty years. a)  I t i s characterized by:  "excessive crowding of structures on the land resulting from narrow l o t frontages,  b)  an unsatisfactory subdivision pattern for the area or certain topographical features such as poorly drained land, or houses below grade level,  c)  conversions of single family residences to multiple occupancy,  d)  the lack, or unsuitable location of basic neighbourhood f a c i l i t i e s , such as schools, shopping centres, parks and playgrounds." Considering these drawbacks to the area, i t i s unlikely that the  improvements required of the area can be achieved through private enterprise.  I t i s proposed that the redevelopment of the area would  57 become a local government responsibility with financing arranged under the National Housing Act.  Because of the necessity of providing the necessary  neighbourhood f a c i l i t i e s i n addition to housing i t i s recommended that the Act be enlarged to encompass these needs. b.  AGENCIES i.  National Employment Office and Unemployment Insurance It has already been shown that the unemployment rate i n the study  area i s one of the highest i n the city.  The influx of immigrants with an  urgent need to find jobs quickly also makes them dependent upon the Employment Office.  Unskilled labour, of which the area has large numbers,  are the f i r s t group to be "laid-off" i n times of economic recession.  The  necessity of the immigrant addition to this same labour force - at least for a time - amplifies the difficulty of securing employment for a l l . Furthermore although the native worker w i l l probably be eligible for unemployment insurance benefits, the immigrant i s not.  Along with the  strangeness of a new country, the dwindling financial resources must be terrifying indeed for the newcomer. ii.  Immigration and Citizenship Branches It i s the function of the Immigration Branch to o f f i c i a l l y welcome  immigrants and see to their immediate welfare.  Information on the  Canadian way of l i v i n g and sources of assistance as given.  Counselling  on immediate problems i s offered and depending on the terms of immigration employment may be found - but the main body of immigrants are referred to the National Employment Office.  58 The Citizenship Officer assists and advises local organizations and agencies engaged i n integrating newcomers.  He promotes Canadian  citizenship by assisting i n some aspects of programmes for adult education. These functions are of indirect service to the newcomer and there i s no office that supplies individual attention or treatment to their problems. iii.  Local Welfare Agencies The City of Vancouver has broad well-established welfare services.  However these services are divided into public and private sectors and further divided by religion and type of service into what must be a bewildering organization to the outsider.  Coupled with this i s the fact  that few newcomers are accustomed to professional help of this kind and may be unaware of i t , or resentful or may simply ignore i t .  Another  difficulty i s that some services are not available to newcomers because of residence or other requirements.  It has been suggested (by Vaclav Hromodka  i n M.S.W. Thesis) that a Centre be set up staffed by trained social workers to meet the specific needs of new immigrants.  "Such a Centre could  integrate 'prevention, treatment and rehabilitation,• and a l l three groups of services which are i l l represented at present; orientation;  co-ordination and referrals;  information and  counselling and casework."  The immediately preceeding examination has dealt primarily with the problems and needs of newcomers to the area, as they were considered to be one of the main forces that give the area i t s character, i n addition to the availability of low-cost housing.  A third factor i s the high incidence,  among the other less obvious groups than the ethnic ones, of social and personal maladjustment.  "A large number of families have had intermittent  59 contact f o r ten to f i f t e e n years with some dating back t o the 1930's." The juvenile deliquency rate f o r males between IA - 17 years was H%, more than double the rate f o r Vancouver.  The large number of agencies  serving the area gives an i n d i c a t i o n of the need f o r many kinds of services that the natural s o c i a l environment l a c k s .  SOCIAL CONDITION ECONOMICS i.  Income:  average male female  ii.  Occupation:  -  $3,045 (near lowest i n Vancouver)  -  $1,878 (|4,219 average)  T o t a l labour force  =  2901  Looking f o r work  Occupation: craftsmen, production process and related  Service and recreation  Labourers  Clerical  2002  M  899  F  251  M  5 1  F  762  M  181  F  259  M  272  F  213  M  2 3  F  118  M  2 3 2  F  177  M  17  F  170 64  M F  133  M  3  F  Transportation and C ommunication  Management and Professional Primary (industry)  Sales  6 70  3M F  The average family wage and income i s $4,034, which ranks 116th out of 120 census t r a c t s . $2,000 while only 3-4$  21$ of the male labour force earn under  earn over $6,000 per year.  looking f o r work (5th highest), iii.  12.5$  of males were  of females (16th highest).  A t t i t u d e to Work Children are found to lack vocational ambitions and scholastic  incentive.  We assume that parents are the cause.  But t h i s attitude  probably i s not as v a l i d f o r I t a l i a n and Chinese groups as r e f l e c t e d by the absence of juvenile problems of these ethnic groups and s a t i s f a c t o r y academic progress.  A lack of vocational s k i l l s e x i s t s .  Generally the  area i s probably Kahl's "lower c l a s s " characterized by apathy, i n t e r e s t i n the immediate needs, introverted i n d i v i d u a l s or f a m i l i e s .  Work i s only  a means of earning money - there i s no i n t e r e s t i n the job.  iv.  Aspirations Because of the large number of immigrants, i t i s assumed that these  people are t r y i n g to "better" themselves.  One study shows that  f i n a n c i a l l y most immigrants are better o f f than they were i n t h e i r homeland but s o c i a l l y they were l e s s well o f f , i . e . s o c i a l l y l e s s well o f f means fewer s o c i a l contacts, fewer c u l t u r a l attachments. status lower i n Canada. immigrants.  They consider t h e i r  These remarks apply mainly to recent European  The Chinese community apparently s t r i v e s f o r the middle class  v i r t u e s i n economic;  s o c i a l and status conditions.  The second generation  i s dispersing throughout Vancouver and t h e i r aspirations apparently being realized.  The older immigrants, that i s , those who have been i n Canada  62 f o r more than say ten years, have tended to accept the p o s i t i o n they now hold i n the community, a p o s i t i o n that has upgraded them from that of t h e i r homeland.  These people are at the lower end of the economic scale  but they accept t h i s s i t u a t i o n and form the core of the s o c i a l l i f e of the study area.  They are buying and renovating houses and intend that  they w i l l be t h e i r permanent homes.  Another group are those who no  longer aspire to a d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n f o r a number of reasons.  They  may be the numerous elderly men who are prepared to l i v e out t h e i r l i v e s i n t h e i r present condition; i l l e g i t i m a c y or broken homes.  or those i n situations of marital d i f f i c u l t i e s ; These people probably are more the  victims of society and t h e i r acceptance of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n can be considered a "breaking of the s p i r i t . "  b.  FAMILY i.  V a l i d i t y Today There are 1,794- f a m i l i e s , 63.1% have children, i . e . 1.3 children  per family (Vancouver average 12). close family t i e s .  The I t a l i a n and Chinese maintain  Although the second generation tends t o move out of  the area, while the children remain at home, the family unit i s a v i a b l e s o c i a l form. In the other sectors of the society, the "high concentration of s o c i a l pathology" indicates that the family u n i t has broken down.  There  are broken homes, common-law relationships ( o f probable short d u r a t i o n ) , i l l e g i t i m a c y , elderly men, unmarried young immigrant men i n an unfamiliar society.  63 ii.  Duration as Family Unit As already mentioned above, even where the family functions as a unit  the children tend to leave the area when they are able.  The extent of  visiting after leaving i s not known, but the implication i s that the children "upgrade" themselves socially thus removing the common bonds of interest that held them together. The less stable families are characterized by desertion of either husband or wife, common-law relationships etc., as above. iii.  Parent-Children Relationship The children are generally considered to be culturally deprived  and they lack scholastic and vocational incentives.  The poor conditions  of the area result i n "social maladjustment" of the children, i.e. juvenile delinquency at a rate twice that of the Vancouver average. Because of a large number of single parent families, children are often inadequately cared for, particularly during the day.  The problem of  parents raised i n one culture attempting to raise children i n an unfamiliar one must inevitably set up tensions between home atmosphere and the outside world that i s confusing, intimidating and exciting to the children. Inevitably, a breakdown i n communication between the generations w i l l occur. iv.  Number of Generations Generally, from the predominant immigrant character of the area,  the maximum number of generations living together are two.  As already  mentioned there are many single men living either alone or i n groups.  One  other facet of the problem i s that many family units must share f a c i l i t i e s because of the poor quality of housing. probably very extensive.  For single men this sharing i s  64 v.  Inter-Family Relationships (Neighbours) The suspicion i s that the I t a l i a n segment i s a gregarious one  that desires a r i c h s o c i a l i n t e r p l a y .  However i t i s known that the  Northern and Southern I t a l i a n s do not mix.  The Chinese are probably  l e s s gregarious.  vi.  Non-Family Households There are 740 non-family households, i . e . 2%  compared to a Vancouver average of 19$.  of a l l households  These households are made up of  elderly men l i v i n g either alone or i n groups of two or more usually dependent upon government pensions;  bachelors, mostly young immigrants  almost t o t a l l y alone i n a strange country.  There are also the non-legal  f a m i l i e s that are attracted to the area f o r various reasons - because of ready acceptance, of anonymity, cheap housing - common-law relationships with t h e i r b u i l t - i n i n s t a b i l i t y , unmarried mothers.  c.  STYLE -OF-LIFE i.  S o c i a l Status and S t r a t i f i c a t i o n There are two aspects of status i n t h i s area;  the image projected  to the non-resident i s that of low status; within the area i s an i n t e r n a l h i e r a r c h i a l (status) system. The f i r s t image i s derived from the rundown appearance of the buildings, the i n d u s t r i a l character of the surroundings, the low wage and education l e v e l s , the higher rate of juvenile delinquency, the lack of amenities, the juxtaposition of housing and commercial a c t i v i t i e s , the f a c t that the area i s i n the "East End."  Internally status i s divided i n t o  ethnic groups and then the usual s o c i a l indices;  income, education,  65  quality of housing, etc.  I t i s not known which ethnic group has the  highest social status, i f indeed any one group does. ii.  Ethnic Groups Italians (14.8$ of the total population) apparently maintain the  separation of the Northern and Southern people.  The Northern Italian i s  considered to be harder-working, more serious, more honest than the Southern Italian.  He has come from an urban, industrialized part of Italy  that i s far more prosperous than the rural south. The ramifications of the division are mainly that the two groups should be considered as essentially separate. data has taken the difference as relevant.  However no statistical  The Italian community as a  whole i s characterized by strong family ties, strong religious a f f i l i a t i o n , contrasting degrees of assimilation of older Italians maintaining an Italian identity to children born i n Canada, essentially Canadians, continuing immigration with a lack on the part of the immigrants of a knowledge of Canadian customs. "The Chinese (12.4$ of the total population) community i s generally noted as being industrious and hard working, family oriented, and as having l i t t l e unemployment or problems of a social nature. been built by the younger Chinese families."  Some new houses have  (Taken from a Community  Chest Study of Woodland Park.) Approximately 40$ of the population i s B r i t i s h i n i t s origin but i t i s not known what proportion of these persons are immigrants, old or new or Canadian born. community.  They apparently do not function as a discernable ethnic  66  iii.  Occupation Because of the nature of occupations and the low average income,  occupation i s probably divorced from the main interests i n l i f e and has l i t t l e direct relationship to the style-of-life;  that i s the pattern of  l i v i n g i s not based on the interest of common occupations but rather the result of them i n the form of income. iv.  Leisure Children to eight years old: there i s a deficiency of  supervised playgrounds;  the ethnic groups tend to form gangs;  school children need to develop their oral communication;  pre-  day care for  children of working parents i s required; "enriched programmes both social and education, at kindergarten and grade one levels for children from disadvantaged Children from nine to twelve:  "An expansion of the presently  existing small group programmes with social adjustment focus;"  larger  playgrounds for organized sports are required; there i s a lack of boy's activities of a recreational and social nature. Teenagers:  There i s no teenage meeting place;  a swimming pool  i s desired; "programmes to provide culturally stimulating experiences;" programmes to enable students to become more aware of vocational opportunities.  The higher rate of juvenile delinquency indicates a lack  of direction for the children's energies and the lack of f a c i l i t i e s for those energies.  The opportunity to pursue interests i s limited by the  cultural and social background and low incomes of parents.  The early  leaving of school or failure to go on for post-high school education may  67 be prompted by a desire to buy things that are unavailable at the family's income l e v e l .  Since a boy can earn nearly as much or even as much as h i s  father i f they are both u n s k i l l e d the temptation to begin work may be too d i f f i c u l t to overcome, rather than to s a c r i f i c e present consumption f o r greater future earning power and  education.  The adult l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s are s i m i l a r l y r e s t r i c t e d .  There i s  no movie house, no l i b r a r y , no community centre and no pubs i n the area. Strangely enough there i s a repertory theatre group - Emerald Players. The s t r i p commercial development along Clark Drive i s extremely v a r i e d and extensive and c e r t a i n l y a t t r a c t s people from outside the area to i t s facilities.  T e l e v i s i o n a e r i a l s are not overly obtrusive compared to  other areas, nor are cars, boats, etc.  Since mobility appears to be  l i m i t e d as are l e i s u r e f a c i l i t i e s , what people do i n t h e i r l e i s u r e time i s not known. The problem i s even worse f o r the elderly man l i v i n g alone who have no family t i e s , very l i t t l e money and simply nothing to do. d.  POPULATION AND i.  EXISTING HOUSING  Statistics The t o t a l population of the study area i s 8869 with 2815  households.  On 271 acres of land ( a l l inclusive) t h i s gives densities of 32.7  persons  per acre and 10.3 households per acre. The population growth i s average to below average compared to Vancouver as a whole;  0 - IA years the population i s average;  over 65  68 years average to above average; person households are highest; owner occupied lowest;  immigrant population i s highest;  one  occupancy l e s s than one year are highest;  males unemployed i s highest;  "worker" employment i s highest.  income i s lowest;  The f e r t i l i t y r a t i o (number of children  0 - U per 1 , 0 0 0 females 2 0 to UU years) i s 6 3 1 . 2 for a rank of 5 2 , which i s s l i g h t l y below average.  The area ranks second with 2 5 . 2 $ of i t s population  having immigrated t o Canada.  I t ranks l l ^ t h (out of 1 2 0 ) with only 5b.U%  of i t s population born i n Canada.  Number of one person households ranks  1 0 t h i n Vancouver metro area with 2 7 . 2 5 ? of t o t a l population. ii.  Hierarchy of Values Because of the heterogenous character of the population no a l l  encompassing value system e x i s t s .  The I t a l i a n s and Chinese place great  importance on the family, while many of the problems for s o c i a l workers are f e l t to be assistance to broken f a m i l i e s . non-family households i n the area.  In addition there are many  I t has been stated that the area  a t t r a c t s i t s residents mainly because of low rents both for family and non-family housing.  At the same time i t acts as a reception centre for new  immigrants, p a r t i c u l a r l y I t a l i a n s and central Europeans.  These two  factors are the two main p o s i t i v e s o c i a l q u a l i t i e s of the area.  Most  residents are l i v i n g at r e l a t i v e l y subsistance l e v e l s i n a wealthy society, a f a c t that may account f o r the lack of l o c a l l y paid f o r community buildings and the o v e r a l l decrepit character of the area.  Additionally  the voting pattern f o r the a l l o c a t i o n of c i v i c funds for c i t y wide improvements i s a negative one.  The aspirations of a part of the population has  already been mentioned - s o c i a l and f i n a n c i a l upgrading from what was known  69 i n t h e i r homeland.  Depending upon the degree of success or f a i l u r e i n  these goals, they are probably passed on t o the children.  Concurrently  there are those with no aspirations beyond what they already have, p a r t i c u l a r l y the elderly as the lower working class as indicated by t h e i r l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s .  iii.  Use of Resources The extensive commercial development contains considerable d i v e r s i t y  of shopping f a c i l i t i e s which must be i n part supported by the wealthier inhabitants surrounding the Woodland Park area. common meeting place f o r s o c i a l exchange.  I t does a c t as a  The use made of the r e l a t i v e  nearness of the downtown core i s not known.  Access to the waterfront i s  cut o f f by the docks d i r e c t l y to the north of the area.  The land slopes  from eash to west affording a view over the False Creek F l a t s and the downtown.  To the north i s a view of the mountains.  The C a t h o l i c churches are used intensively but the protestant churches have had a decline i n congregations. The schools are to the Vancouver standard. e.  EDUCATION i.  Amount Of 1, 228 persons attending school 909 are i n elementary schools,  294- i n high schools, 25 attending u n i v e r s i t y .  Of 6,152 people not  attending school 1,050 have not yet or never have attended, 2,457 have some or a l l elementary school education, 2,497 have some or a l l high school, 148 have one or more years of u n i v e r s i t y . Looked a t another way t h i s area (census t r a c t 7) ranks 7th i n the metropolitan area with numbers attending only elementary school - 4Q6 of  70 the population of the area.  Also the area ranks 114th  smallest percentage attending u n i v e r s i t y - 2.4$  out of 120 with the  (these percentages f o r  those not attending school i n 1961). I t has already been stated i n the parent - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p section that the children lack scholastic and vocational incentives. danger i s that they w i l l maintain the low l e v e l s of education  The  already  e x i s t i n g i n the area to t h e i r future detriment. The expanse of higher education i s obviously beyond the reach of the vast majority of f a m i l i e s unless considerable debts are acquired the student to pay for h i s education. having l i v e d i n r e l a t i v e poverty may  In addition, a young person  by who  not wish to delay the enjoyment of  the material things i n l i f e and decide i n favour of present rather than future consumption - accepting the idea that h i s future consumption w i l l probably be l e s s than i f he pursued h i s education further.  ii.  Importance to Society In today's world of increasing automation requiring more s k i l l s  and t r a i n i n g of workers at a l l l e v e l s the necessity and d e s i r a b i l i t y i s well established.  There presently exists i n t h i s area a large amount of  s o c i a l service that would be obviated to some - i f not to a large extent by i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t s at s o c i a l upgrading.  By that I mean,  improved income s i t u a t i o n , a development of inate c a p a b i l i t i e s that  should  lead to a r i c h e r , f u l l e r l i f e , an awareness of the world beyond the t i g h t neighbourhood boundaries and concern for the t o t a l s o c i a l good. A d d i t i o n a l l y there i s a need f o r the trained people that would r e s u l t from expanded education.  Our society i s apparently trapped i n a  necessity f o r growth i n the gross national product of between 4. to 6$: that can be augmented by the greater productivity r e s u l t i n g from ' p r a c t i c a l ' education.  71  Therefore the benefits of greater education w i l l accrue to both the individual (especially i n this case) and society. f.  ETHNIC GROUP The area functions as a reception group for immigrants with  having entered Canada since  194-6.  2%  There does exist an "Italian flavour"  that adds diversity to a city sadly lacking i n local character and personality.  Thus the ethnic character i s considered to be (by me)  desirable and should be preserved and augmented.  This i s the style-of-  l i f e discernable i n the area, i t i s the characteristic that causes these people to l i v e together, i n addition to low rents which i s an aspect of interest to an immigrant. It can be expected that the majority of the older generation (those who immigrated) w i l l tend to remain associated with their ethnic group. The tendency i s to recreate - given the changed conditions however - the atmosphere of "home," but not as a conscious or superficial facade.  The  l i v i n g patterns that existed in the homeland are adapted to the new environment and i n the process inevitably changed.  Yet this brings to  the whole city a fragment of the world that can be adopted for the enrichment of the fabric of the city.  Canada not only imports the  physical being of i t s immigrants, i t welcomes their culture, their ability to expand and enrich Canadian l i f e . The children of the immigrant generation quickly become acculturized.  Their social l i f e i s expanded more easily and more quickly  to include a variety of contacts inside and outside their parental sphere.  72  Attendance at the public schools furthers the estrangement of cultural ties between generations, sometimes to the point where tensions are set up.  It  i s probably true that the ethnic character that some areas assume would die with the f i r s t immigrant generation were i t not for continuing immigration from these countries. The problem has now defined i t s e l f . maintained by constant immigration.  The ethnicity of an area i s  Its main function i s as a shelter to  introduce to and protect from Canadians the immigrant. station, the stopping time i s one generation.  I t i s a way  This i s not implicit i n  this concept that the offspring should remain within the physical boundaries of the area - i n fact quite the opposite.  As Canadians  primarily, with sub-cultural overtones, the f i r s t generation Canadian should have complete social mobility and freedom of choice.  This i s the  second main function of the way station - to direct on to the next stop, or series of stops. g.  SOCIAL MOBILITY For some people i n the study area, social mobility does not exist.  These are the elderly single men, the poorly educated labourer, those people of broken homes resulting i n a d i f f i c u l t financial situation. This group has no choice, i t must stay i n this area or one very much l i k e i t because of the very low rents for housing. Then there are those who relinquish their mobility of their own v o l i t i o n - the immigrants, the low-income group attracted by cheap housing that stay because they grow accustomed to the area, like i t and call i t theirs.  73  When social mobility does exist i t i s predicated upon financial ability.  Since the area rates almost at the lowest level on the  housing scale, greater income i s the prime requisite to leaving.  This i s  usually achieved through education and training and as has already been shown once this i s achieved mobility results.  Normally i t i s the  individual who achieves mobility, not the family.  The result i s to  weaken family bonds and also the ethnic flavour of the area. Household or family mobility exists within the area under consideration or adjacent to i t .  Particularly for the Italians moving  to a better housing condition i s but a few blocks away and about a 20$ increase of income.  The movement generally involves a change from  tenant to property owner and thus a deeper commitment to both the house and the neighbourhood.  74 HOUSING  a.  ECONOMICS  i.  Average Average Average Average Average  wage family head $3,197 r a t i o of gross debt to income 28.% gross debt $918/year or $76.50/month dwelling cost $12,871 down payment $2,238  ii.  Average Average Average Average Average  t o t a l family income $4,034 r a t i o of gross debt to income 26.5$ gross debt $l,070/year or $89/month dwelling cost $14,016 down payment $2,022  Average r e a a  =  1,195 s q . f t . 1,295 s q . f t .  C.M.H.C. approved lenders  Average r a t i o of gross debt to income Therefore gross debt on family head income = Therefore gross debt on t o t a l family income =  21.5$ 21.5$ of 3197 = $57/rao. 21.5$ of 4035 = $72/mo.  The average contract rent i n census t r a c t 7 i s $55b.  SPACE STANDARDS (N.H.A.) Area Separate rooms L i v i n g Room Dining Kitchen F i r s t bedroom A d d i t i o n a l bedroom Second bedrooms Bathroom Closets Master Bedroom A d d i t i o n a l bedroom Coat  150 80 50 110 80 90 35  Width  sq.ft. sq.ft. sq.ft. sq.ft. sq.ft. sq.ft. s q . f t . (assumed)  10'0" 8'0» 5'0" 9'0» 7'0» 9'0»  12 s q . f t . 6 sq.ft. 6 sq.ft.  Therefore f o r one bedroom unit Therefore f o r two bedroom unit Therefore f o r three bedroom unit  443 s q . f t . + 10$ c i r c . = 487 s q . f t . 539 s q . f t . + 10$ c i r c . = 593 s q . f t . 625 s q . f t . + 10$ c i r c . = 687 s q . f t .  75 ii.  Combination rooms L i v i n g and dining L i v i n g and bedroom Kitchen and dining L i v i n g , dining and bedroom L i v i n g , dining and kitchen Beds, closets and bath as above  190 200 90 230 230  sq.ft. sq.ft. sq.ft. sq.ft. sq.ft.  Therefore f o r e f f i c i e n c y unit ( l i v i n g , dining, bedroom) bath, kitchen, closets  =  333 s q . f t . + 10$ c i r c . = 363 s q . f t .  E f f i c i e n c y unit ( l i v i n g , bedroom) (kitchen, dining) bath, closets =  343 s q . f t . + 10$ c i r c . = 377 s q . f t .  1 - bedroom unit ( l i v i n g , dining, kitchen) + bath + bedroom + closets = 393 s q . f t . + 10$ c i r c . = 433 s q . f t . 1 - bedroom ( l i v i n g and dining) kitchen, bath, bedroom, closets = 403 s q . f t . + 10$ c i r c . = 433 s q . f t . 2 - bedroom unit ( l i v i n g and dining) kitchen, bath, 2 bedrooms, closets  =  499 s q . f t . + 10$ c i r c . = 549 s q . f t .  When the areas of houses being b u i l t by N.H.A. borrowers are compared with the minimum space standards there i s a great discrepancy. I t can be assumed that houses b u i l t are a truer r e f l e c t i o n of required areas than the t h e o r e t i c a l space standards of N.R.C. c.  TYPES OF HOUSING There are 2,534 households i n census t r a c t 7 of which 1,794 are  families.  There are 2.8 persons per household (Vancouver average 3.1)  and 3.2 persons per family with 1.3 children/family. families have no children; have 5 or more.  45.8$ have 1 to 2;  13*%  36.9$ of a l l have 3 t o 4;  740 households (29$) are non-family.  are 65 years or over.  3.6$  12.6$ of a l l males  11.8$ of t h i s age group are family heads.  Many of  7 6 the aged are poorly housed and the services they require are inadequate. There are numerous single males under age 65, many of whom are immigrants. The housing need i s then for: families with varying number of children.  2 1 . 6 $ of children  living with parents are between 1 5 - 2 4 years, compared to 1 0 $ city average;  3 8 . 3 $ are under 6 years;  4 0 $ are between  6 - 1 4 years. aged single men aged single women young single men - natives - newcomers These facts must be considered i n the light of:  "there i s a high  incidence i n the area of family breakdown, character disorders, illegitimate birth, juvenile delinquency, and other signs of social disorganization." d.  TRAFFIC The area i s largely delineated by the t r a f f i c flow that surrounds  and bisects i t .  Along Clark Drive and Hastings Street there exists the  industrial zone serviced by these roads. of the strip commercial development. i n an east - west direction.  Commercial Drive i s the backbone  Venables and F i r s t Avenue both cross  The grid street layout maintains throughout  with 3 6 $ of the total land area devoted to streets, sidewalks and lanes. The possible conversion of Venables Street to a major east - west freeway would divide a coherent area unless design considerations for the freeway are made i n the light of the desirability of maintaining or rejecting this coherence.  The t r a f f i c flow along Commercial Drive amounts to about  77  20,000 persons travelling daily i n automobiles, trucks and on foot.  This  compares with about 24,000 on Tenth Avenue near the U. B. C. gates and about 40,000 on Lions Gate Bridge.  Parking i s allowed on a l l main and side  streets and only the Safeway Store has i t s own parking l o t .  Because of the  proximity of the housing - not more than 3 blocks from Commercial - i t i s assumed that many people walk to the stores to do their shopping. e.  PHYSICAL CHARACTER OF THE AREA The area i s characterized by single-family dwellings, many built  before 1915, i n poor to fair condition. of low cost housing.  These form the bulk of the stock  There has been some replacement of housing with new  apartment buildings and some renovated or replaced single family houses. Many of the larger houses have been converted to multi-family use.  The  quality of the housing reflects the buffer function of the area i n separating the industry on the west and north from the better quality housing to the east of Commercial Drive.  There i s a turning away from the  industrial area with an attendant focus on the hustle and bustle of Commercial Drive.  Most of the stores appear to be very old with some  •face-lifting' having taken place.  Many of the stores have apartment units  over them, some of which are probably occupied by the shopkeepers. Within the area l i e one primary and one secondary school, and one Roman Catholic school.  Both the secondary school (Britannia High) and  the Roman Catholic school serve an area much larger than the study area and therefore act as integrating agents for a larger community.  The Vancouver  East Y.W.C.A. i s on the fringe of the area but two parks exist within i t and a third park site has been reserved.  The commercial f a c i l i t i e s are  extensive and their importance as the focus of a large ( i f undefined) area should not be underestimated. The atmosphere of the area i s one of poor economic resources of the inhabitants reflected i n narrow lots, some poorly maintained, with houses from a dilapidated condition to a very good condition. boulevards are i n very poor condition.  The road edges are marked by  potholes and puddles and lack of curbs. existence with numerous weeds.  The sidewalks and  What grass remains struggles for  There are very few trees i n the area and  their softening and camouflaging qualities are sorely missed.  Although  the physical characteristics might be considered of poor quality there does exist a framework for a rich social l i f e in the form of the nature of the people and the variety of commercial l i f e .  The Italians appear to be the  dominating group as reflected by the number of stores advertising i n Italian and with Italian names.  The fact that as Italians become more  prosperous they tend to remain near the area reinforces the ethnic overtones.  The large Chinese population i s not as outwardly evident but  i s reflected in the 4,0$ Chinese enrolment of Britannia High School. L i t t l e outdoor privacy i s evident.  Two and three storey houses on  narrow lots and the absence of trees enables the upper floors of houses to overlook the yards of most of the nearby houses.  Fencing i s generally of  the "picket" type that does l i t t l e more than delineate property lines although i n this case that may be enough. across the front or street facing side.  Some of the houses have porches They act as convenient and  comfortable places from which to watch the street and greet and talk to passersby without the necessity of withdrawing to complete privacy or having to invite acquaintances into the house.  79 f.  GEOGRAPHY AND  CLIMATE  The area l i e s mainly on the land r i s i n g above F a l s e Creek f l a t s . I t slopes upward from the north and west to the south and east.  These  slopes coincide with the views over the downtown area, toward the S t r a i t of Georgia and the North Shore Mountains.  However, the near view i s over  F a l s e Creek f l a t s with i t s railway yards and l i g h t and heavy industry - a not p a r t i c u l a r l y  'scenic view. 1  The p r e v a i l i n g summer winds are easterly (from the west) and tend to blow the smoke and smells over the Woodland Park area. Although only a few blocks from the waterfront, there i s no easy public access to i t because of the deep sea terminal f a c i l i t i e s . The ravine defining the southern boundary of the area i s the r a i l r o a d r i g h t of way i n t o the F l a t s and although a geographic feature of some prominence i t i s not available to the residents. The climate i s t y p i c a l l y Vancouver. with dreary overcast grey skies.  A great deal of r a i n coupled  A l l the more depressing since i t  r e f l e c t s the man made environment on the ground. g.  GROWTH The t o t a l population of Vancouver w i l l increase an estimated 1 3 $  from 385,000 i n 1961 to ^35,000 i n 1981.  The A s i a t i c immigration i n  1961 doubled over i t s 1951 proportion of t o t a l immigration, while I t a l i a n immigration increased by two and one h a l f times.  The major part of these  groups l i v e i n the "Inner Area" of the c i t y (Sixteenth Avenue, Trafalgar and V i c t o r i a ) .  Of the I t a l i a n population 52$ either l i v e i n the study  area or immediately adjacent to i t , where the growth rate has been 180$ between 1951 - 1961.  An even higher proportion of A s i a t i c s l i v e i n the  80 Inner Area but the second generations have tended to disperse more than now seems apparent with the I t a l i a n s . I t can be seen then that immigration has continued to maintain an i n f l u x of Chinese and I t a l i a n s and the main functions defined f o r the study area - low cost housing and immigrant reception area - have been maintained and barring a r a d i c a l change i n immigration policy w i l l continue to maintain. E x i s t i n g densities i n the study area are 14 households/gross acre or 41 persons/gross acre.  Thus i t i s possible to increase the population  about 30$ - provided i t i s done on an o v e r - a l l planning basis - and  still  not exceed a standard of 20 households/acre. But one of the main aspects of growth l i e s i n the consideration of the probable needs of the children of the immigrants - the f i r s t generation Canadians - as they grow into adulthood.  The immediate housing need i s  low cost accommodation, often f o r newcomers to Canada.  The children of  these newcomers are Canadian i n every sense and t h e i r housing needs w i l l d i f f e r from that of t h e i r parents.  They can be expected to earn more  money, to be l e s s orientated (but not divorced from) to t h e i r ethnic group, more a ' t y p i c a l  1  Canadian.  But common origins provide a subtle  bond i n the form of s o c i a l patterns and family relationships that can be maintained to preserve at l e a s t t h i s group from the a l l pervading anonymity of Twentieth century l i f e .  SpAce  S/DtyF4T/,\L-  'SCHOOL  ///  SCHOOLS  /4&OS/hJCn  GOAL  IT Y  xv//  SH-OppBf^- y&WCcJLA^  OOh-ipUc^TS  xw/7  LOCAL  £  TH-^U' TRAFFIC  CONFLICTS  9A DESCRIPTION OF URBVILLE DESCRIPTION OF PATTERN ORGANIZATION For Urbville we developed a spine and r i b structured plan.  It  seemed to express most clearly the need to bring everyone close to the central street which i s the hub of Urbville and which at the same time relates i t closely to the urban area.  It i s an open ended slice of town  which can start and stop along a t r a f f i c artery and build over i t s top. Urbville has a spinal centre and a concentration of development towards this spinal centre but i t s outer edges may, away from the spine, be undefined although walking distance to the spine can be taken as a determination of the breadth of Urbville.  Outside the residential edge  i s a belt of open spaces, large enough for playfields, for strolling and some schooling f a c i l i t i e s .  Beyond this may be some of the industrial and  light manufacturing plants which give work opportunities to the people of Urbville. THE CENTRE OF URBVILLE The present pattern of shopping along the central spine i s accepted, i n fact, welcomed and reinforced.  However, to separate through t r a f f i c  and give the street a pedestrian character, this central street i s raised above the through street.  Convenient parking i s achieved without  encroaching on land for housing by creating a base of parking.  The  removal of the vehicles from the shopping street permits easy rambling shopping, meeting of friends, and an informality of interior layout.  The  institutions, churches, various social aid societies, elementary school,  95, a l l public things that need to be seen and easily available, are put together here.  The possibilities of easy social contact which are so much  a part of this style of l i f e and i n which common fate and common problems make for a community of interest add immeasurably to this environ. Above this centre and directly related to i t i s the residential area for the non family households, for the elderly single men, and young single adults.  A variety of types of housing units must be made available here,  those which are l i k e boarding houses or have hostel f a c i l i t i e s , with dining areas, and other housing units of inexpensive apartments.  More  private open space i s provided here at the roof level of the shopping centre. STREETS AND SPACES A system of pedestrian streets relates the family housing to the central spine.  Cars and parking are approached from underneath with  direct access to the houses.  The street i s a narrow access street, but  wide enough for pedestrian use so that mothers can take their baby i n the buggy to the central area and so that others can s i t on the entrance stoop to talk to the neighbour.  A l l houses are raised slightly above the  street to allow for ventilation and lighting to the garage below and for some separation between house and street.  A l l houses have a small porch  on the street side so that people can s i t outside to watch the street and talk to their neighbours.  On the way to the central area, and at a  public access to the car parking garage below, each street opens up into a nodal space with room for the small institutions needed close to home such as, a place where mothers can leave their children when they have to  96  go to work, or a space where larger gatherings can occur for which the home i s too small, rental spaces for parties, or simply shelters from the rain.  The large area between the houses has been assigned mainly to the  children.  Some rental space for private gardens w i l l be assigned for  those wishing to grow vegetables or who are otherwise interested i n gardening.  Private terraces with complete separation from neighbours'  view have been provided on the roofs.  Otherwise, we believe that for  this form of l i f e public space i s more important than private gardens. The children's space allows for safe play with a minimum supervision from adults.  It i s large enough to allow for the noisy exuberance to go on  unabated without annoying the adults.  The various areas can be arranged  and landscaped i n different ways to allow for a variety of experiences. Further out from the centre street towards the edge or Urbville are the individual houses on individual lots which are also an essential part of Urbville.  In this way, Urbville blends into the general pattern of  existing neighbourhoods with i t s highest density i n the centre, i t s townhousing i n i t s central section, and the detached houses furthest away from the centre. HOUSING The quality of the housing i n the study area i s a direct reflection of the use to which i t i s being put.  It was evaluated as poor to f a i r .  The dwellings are primarily old single detached houses now converted to multi-family use.  k common method of financing the purchase of a home  i s to buy one of these old houses, u t i l i z e the main floor for the owner and his family's needs and after some minor conversion rent the upper and  9<:7 basement floors;  or alternatively, boarders may be taken in.  Extended  families are also common i n Urbville, and a variety of relatives may share one house.  Very often i n these cases, there i s overcrowding, shared  f a c i l i t i e s which are d i f f i c u l t to share (bathrooms and kitchens) and inadequate sleeping f a c i l i t i e s .  There are further a number of old  apartment blocks which house families with children, i n an area unsuitable for them.  As stores usually take up the ground floor space, many shop  owners are able to live directly with their stores, and indeed some live directly behind their stores.  This i s , i n Urbville, an important f a c i l i t y  that should be retained and even reinforced. The complexity of this environ, and i t s social problems need resolution.  It i s an area which must encompass within i t s e l f and near  to i t s centre a great variety of residential units, from family situations involving several generations, to boarding houses and hostels. remain low as this i s one of the bases of Urbville's existence.  Rents must This  means that i n a sense the old pattern must merely be reinforced and ascertained i n an improved manner. With more rational land use, however, density can be increased considerably.  The present density of the study area i s 32.7 persons per  gross acre and 10.3 households per gross acre - a relatively low density indicating the uneconomic use of the land.  The higher densities of  approximately 100 persons per acre are reserved to housing immediately surrounding the central community spine.  This, as we have seen, w i l l be  designed to be most suitable for non-children households with a variety of accommodation for young married couples to unmarried people.  9$  The medium density housing ( 5 0 persons per gross acre) i s provided in 3 "to 5 storey row house arrangements along the pedestrian streets. A l l houses here are directly accessible to a ground plane. as essential for children.  This i s regarded  Each house i s oriented to the sun and to the  street. Some houses are arranged to take families with boarders, and roofs are arranged so that expansion can take place.  To the rear of each house  a balcony i s provided that permits an outdoor extension of the living area, quiet and away from the street and overlooking the play area to provide unobtrusive parental control. (Diagrams showing house plan and section) VEHICLE MOVEMENT SYSTEM The main through t r a f f i c road has been located underground.  The  public transportation system and t r a f f i c connecting Urbville with the rest of the urban area i s retained at ground level.  A system of major loop  streets acts as collector roads for the feeders on which the housing units are located.  This collector road i s sunken i n order to make pedestrian  bridging possible.  Parking i s provided i n separate areas for shopping  areas, the housing above i t and the residential streets.  In summary:  i n centralising a l l i t s public f a c i l i t i e s i n i t s spine, Urbville creates a richness for i t s inhabitants not otherwise possible i n the urban area.  It  also advertises those public agencies which are such an essential part of the l i f e of the people who choose to l i v e here.  In i t s housing Urbville  provides a great variety of choices to allow for the multiplicity of needs  9 9  of Urbville's heterogeneous population, and i t s children are provided with safe and adequate space i n i t s park land and i t s centre. never l i k e l y to be large.  Urbville i s  Its own nature demands concentration, but an  urban area may contain several environs of i t s kind.  EPILOGUE Looking back on the study several years a f t e r i t s completion provides an opportunity t o make a more objective c r i t i c a l appraisal than could have been made without the benefit of a time perspective. The methodology i s based upon the a c q u i s i t i o n of quantitative data. The  sources were the Census of 1961 and a few studies of the area made  by Welfare and Planning Agencies, and the author's personal of the l i f e and physical form of the area.  impressions  No attempt was made to  interview the residents either personally or by questionnaire both were considered).  (although  I now f e e l that the "leap" that had to be made  from quantitative information t o quantitative judgements could have more accurately been done with t h i s a d d i t i o n a l data.  The usefulness of the  method, or check l i s t has been tested twice since U r b v i l l e and has apparently been an e f f e c t i v e instrument f o r d e f i n i n g l i f e s t y l e .  I t could  be extended however, i n order t o become even more s p e c i f i c , i f a data bank of personal information could be acquired about residents that would be updated yearly.  T h i s answers the need f o r more and more up-to-date  information but r a i s e s problems of some agency contemplating  querying  i n d i v i d u a l s on very personal matters and t h i s material being made a v a i l a b l e t o a r e l a t i v e l y wide range of people - B i g Brother and h i s questionnaires. The p h y s i c a l proposals f o r U r b v i l l e now appear to be overly " a r c h i t e c t u r a l " . Perhaps the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data i n t o p h y s i c a l form might have been better abstracted so that only the information extracted from the data would be diagrammed.  F o r example, the importance of public meeting  areas could be explained i n terms of the acquired information, rather than  -100-  providing an environment where the designer expected i t would happen. Short of a c t u a l l y b u i l d i n g the scheme, i t i s impossible to t e s t the v a l i d i t y of the proposals.  In other words, make physical proposals to  s o c i a l situations much more e x p l i c i t rather than i m p l i c i t i n a r c h i t e c t u r a l terms. The proposals shovr the environment that appeared to the author to conform to the discerned l i f e - s t y l e .  I t ignored consideration of cost,  p o s s i b i l i t i e s of implementation, displacement of existing residents, etc. etc.  The reason f o r t h i s being to demonstrate the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l environment.  T h i s approach s t i l l seems v a l i d , but  now having been demonstrated as a p r i n c i p l e , the means of implementation should be c a r e f u l l y considered.  Some form of resident p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  environmental decisions seems e s s e n t i a l regardless of the l i f e - s t y l e . The time of the expert ( a r c h i t e c t or planner) imposing h i s solutions f o r other people's problems without t h e i r active p a r t i c i p a t i o n would seem to be drawing to a thankful close.  -101-  XX  U3  • :  •  ?c  •5*  \  -—— 1  / /  r  UJ-  lj  J  .1.  ~1  .  -1 LOCAL  CCLLE-CTO^  IZOA'O  7X/\£Kzc  CONCEPT  4  3»  I  BUS  I/BMOLB  STOPS  UNLOAD/hJCr  -*  i  XX1/  id  / A / S 77 7*^ TtdS/AL.  TO / o y f e A ^ S  I |  CfJ'L DfiLEI^  TO  t&  f&Ar\€>  f  xxy  XXV//  / M X - 5(JMME:/^ AhJGLEb M//V-  /V/A/7B*.  ANGLE:  »  106  ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY INTRODUCTION TO BIBLIOGRAPHY This bibliography represents a l i s t of works that came to hand, through browsing, or by suggestion of works already read or by recommendation.  It makes no attempt to be comprehensive or complete for  any of the headings under which i t i s classified. d i s t i l l e d themselves out from about twice as many.  The headings eventually The table enclosed  i n the introduction w i l l serve to justify and augment them.  Many of the  works could as well have been listed under one heading as another but are listed here i n the way i n which they were mainly used i n the introduction. The much longer l i s t s of two of the divisions are a reflection of the importance assigned to these topics.  107  SOCIAL CONDITION Abrams, Charles URBANIZING WORLD,  M.I.T. Press,  MAN'S STRUGGLE FOR SHELTER IN AN Cambridge, Massachusetts 1964  The basic forces acting on housing i n underdeveloped countries form the theme of t h i s book. I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant because the author i s able to bring t o h i s subject a clear unprejudiced view of the necessity of shelter and the problems of achieving i t . He deals with government housing e f f o r t s i n various countries and discusses p o l i c i e s , taxation, zoning, b u i l d i n g by-laws etc. "Housing programmes s t i l l require i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of objectives, long periods of time, r e l o c a t i o n of f a m i l i e s , large c a p i t a l outlays, expansion of materials production, innovations i n financing mechanisms, mobilization of s k i l l s , and expert d i r e c t i o n under cohesive, well-formulated p o l i c i e s . " B a n f i e l d , E., and Grodzins, M. GOVERNMENT AND HOUSING IN METROPOLITAN AREAS, McGraw-Hill, Toronto 1958 P a r t i c u l a r l y Chapter 7: The C i t y v s . the Suburbs. The l o c a t i o n preferences of people must be taken into account i n drawing up a housing p o l i c y f o r a metropolitan area. Urban renewal must create s o c i a l u n i t s i n order t o succeed. "Within the central c i t y , prestige housing - both i n r e h a b i l i t a t e d town houses and luxury apartments - i s the most appropriate and the most l i k e l y to succeed." B e l l , N.W. and Vogel, E.F. eds. Free Press of Glencoe, I l l i n o i s  A MODERN INTRODUCTION TO THE FAMILY, I960  A c o l l e c t i o n of detailed papers on s p e c i f i c aspects of the family i n contemporary society. Boyko, H. ed., Indiana U n i v e r s i t y Press,  SCIENCE AND THE FUTURE OF MANKIND, Bloomington 1961  A c o l l e c t i o n of papers by eminent s c i e n t i s t s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t as those by: Oppenheimer, 'Thoughts on A r t and Science;' Swann, 'Science and Our Future;' Muller 'The Prospects of Genetic Progress; Infield, 'Human Needs and the Need f o r Ultimate O r i e n t a t i o n . 1  1  Chermayeff, S. and Alexander, C Doubleday, New York 1963  COMMUNITY AND PRIVACY,  The book i s divided into two sections. The f i r s t deals with an appraisal of the r e s i d e n t i a l environment: the i n e f f i c i e n c y of e x i s t i n g street systems, the problems of the automobile, the pedestrian, noise, etc. The designer must l e a r n t o take i n t o account well-known s c i e n t i f i c , s o c i a l and technical data i n order to create housing. The second part gives examples of solutions t o various housing problems based on a series of ' l i n k s ' between uses.  108  C.M.H.C. C .M.H .C .,  Ottawa  1958  A REVIEW OF HOUSING IN CANADA,  "Discrimination by economic class does i n practice occur, arising often from the requirements for land development and structural quality imposed i n certain of the suburban municipalities i n metropolitan areas. These requirements may impose on the prospective householder heavy purchase charges and tax payments which are, i n effect, economic barriers against poorer householders." "Canadian cities are now faced with a tremendous task of retarding the process of residential decline and of accelerating the replacement of obsolete housing." C.M.H.C. C.M.H.C.,  Ottawa  1958  A REVIEW OF HOUSING IN CANADA,  A report prepared for the Bureau of Social Affairs i n Charge of Housing of the United Nations. I t deals with basic economic, population and physical features of the country. The economic, social and technical problems of housing i n Canada are outlined and the efforts made to cope with the problems briefly discussed. C.M.H.C. HOUSING AND URBAN GROWTH IN CANADA, A BRIEF TO THE ROYAL COMMISSION OF CANADA'S ECONOMIC PROSPECTS, C.M.H.C, Ottawa 1956 "This brief ... i s ... an attempt to outline the general nature of housing affairs i n Canada with particular reference to the forseeable circumstances of the next quarter of a century." It includes chapters on Government Participation i n Housing - "because of i t s (housing's) fundamental place i n a modern industrial economy and because of i t s deep social implications;" the Stock of Housing; Diversity of Housing; Housing and Community Development; Urban Redevelopment. Improvements required i n the future i n the housebuilding industry are listed. Since much of the existing stock of housing was built there have been great changes i n social requirements and the standards of l i v i n g . New demands are made upon street systems designed i n a previous era. The extent of cities w i l l almost double and there w i l l be problems of a changeover from rural to urban government. Duhl, L.J., ed., New York, 1963  THE URBAN CONDITION,  Basic Books Inc.,  A collection of 'papers dealing with the problems of a more sophisticated urbanism than that of Abrams book. Particularly: Calhoun, 'Population Density and Social Pathology;' McHarg, 'Man and Environment.'  109  Farber, S.M., Mustacchi, P. and Wilson, R.H.L. THE FAMILY'S SEARCH FOR SURVIVAL, McGraw-Hill,  MAN AND CIVILIZATION: San Francisco, 1965  This book i s a record of a symposium concerned with the modern family. The forces of modern technological society are tending to break down the traditional family coherence, yet i t i s held that the family unit i s s t i l l the basic and indispensable social unit. The f i r s t topic of discussion was "Is the Family Necessary?" The increasing protection of children from parental action by the law was documented. The traditional Chinese family system and the normal American family were described. A discussion of communes, kibbutz etc. followed. The second discussion "concerned i t s e l f with determination of whether the changes from the traditional family concepts really implied the sacrifice of i t s structure and brought out the importance of point of view in analysis of the situation today." Papers given dealt with challenges to parental authority, separation, divorce and widowhood, "Adolescent Struggle as Protest" and "Politeness in a Crowded World." The third session dealt with the effects of sex education on family stability, with the problems of the male parent and with the housewife as an emancipated woman. The final session dealt with a look at probable future development of the family by providing a framework for the examination of new family functions. Then a paper was given on how the family has adapted i t s e l f to social change. A paper on the oldest generation was presented to show that much misinformation results from an imperfect appraisal of the problems of the elderly. The book closes on an optimistic note for the continuing survival and social significance of the family. Galbraith, J.K., Cambridge Massachusetts,  1958.  THE AFFLUENT SOCIETY,  Riverside Press  The classic appraisal of North American economic l i f e and the effect upon society. Almost a l l segments of society have reached a measure of affluence. Goals are set on the basis of perfecting the existing structure of society. Production and i t s rate of increase are essential not for the goods produced but to maintain f u l l employment. This results in want creation and stimulation. Because of high total productivity, an individual's effort i s of slight importance - the virtue of hard work no longer exists. Increasing leisure through the declining hours of work has become a feature of our society. The expansion of a "New Class" characterized by "exemption from manual t o i l , escape from boredom, the chance to live in clean and comfortable surroundings, and some opportunity for applying one's thoughts to the day's work" i s the major social goal of our society.  110  Huxley, Julian, Washington, Seattle, 1963  THE HUMAN CRISIS,  University of  Huxley i s able to bring a profundity of thought and vision to almost any subject. He speaks here of the problems brought about by overpopulation: not enough food, natural resources, land on which to l i v e , water, employment, solitude. Social and p o l i t i c a l efficiency w i l l require greater regimentation. Leisure w i l l be one of the great problems of the future. Kahl, J.A., Rinehart, New York, 1957.  THE AMERICAN CLASS STRUCTURE,  ... people of similar style of l i f e tend to become an organized community of people who interact with each other more comfortably then with outsiders." The author explains the existence of social classes and then defines them as upper, upper middle, middle, working and lower. He then goes on to examine social behaviour and the basis of these classes. 11  McKinley, D.G., Free Press of Glencoe,  SOCIAL CLASS AND FAMILY LIFE, London, Ontario 1964  "Primarily interested i n the social setting of the family and the ways i n which this setting influences the structure of behaviour that occurs within the family." Status and the family role i s examined where status i s defined as different rewards and these ranks are used to investigate the relationships of status and behaviour. The dominant basis of evaluation i s emphasized as achievement and mastery of the environment and this means that occupation i s of prime importance to determining social position, this i n turn leads to dominance of the father role which leads to personality and psychological responses of the father to the family and society. These responses over time become accepted as norms and affect the various familial roles. They also explain variations i n family structure at different class levels. M i l l s , C , Wright, POWER, POLITICS AND PEOPLE, University Press, New York, 1963  Oxford  No bibliographic note can do justice to the scope of a work like this. Suffice to say that for this study Part three - People was of particular relevance, particularly 'Man in'/the Middle: The Designer' and 'The Unity of Work and Leisure.'  Ill Mott, P.E., Prentice-Hall,  New Jersey,  1965  THE ORGANIZATION OF SOCIETY,  A textbook treatment of societal organization based on the concept of changes in society due to population increase. "As the population of a social organization increases: the number of i t s parts and the degree of i t s specialization increases; the roles become formalized; variation in norms increase therefore integration declines; the number of levels of influence increase;" etc. Murray, James A., GOOD HOUSING FOR CANADIANS, Association of Housing Authorities 1964  Ontario  This definitive work expounds the view-point that a sound housing policy requires an approach unifying sociology, economics and legislation. The author examines housing in Canada and abroad, appraises the housing need, considers the determinants of housing policy and indicates possible solutions. National Institute on Mental Health Conferences, ABSTRACTS OF CONSIDERATIONS OF SIGNIFICANCE TO ARCHITECTS AND PLANNERS, Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania 1962 Abstracts of the conference discussion by architects, planners, psychologists, psychiatrists, etc. e.g. "Often one group of people i s current planning strictly the physical environment and another group i s planning the social environment." Ortega, Y. Gasset, J., Unwin London 1932  THE REVOLT OF THE MASSES,  Allen and  The author deals with the rise of the 'mass-man' - how the masses intervene i n everything at the lowest common denominator. Excellence becomes a thing of the past. An aristocracy i s required to govern intelligently - but i t i s denied. 'Mass-man' lives without any moral code; youth i s glorified because i t i s considered to have more rights than obligations. The book attempts to analyze the roots from which the future (which i s or applies to 1965) must spring once these roots are considered to be a negation of civilization.  1 1 2  Packard, Vance, New York, 1 9 5 9  THE STATUS SEEKERS,  David McKay Co.  A 'popular' and very readable work of sociology on class system and stratification in the United StatesThe author defines the social classes that exist and also the reasons for their existence. He shows that the abolition of social stratification i s probably impossible because of the fundamental natures and the inequalities of ambition and ability of people. However he considers social mobility of prime importance that society should endeavour to permit the utmost freedom for any person to 'upgrade' himself. Porter, John Toronto, Toronto, 1 9 6 5  THE VERTICAL MOSAIC,  University of  The book i s divded into two parts. The f i r s t part deals with the structure of class in Canada. The analysis rejects the argument of the "affluent society" as i t was applied to the United States and shows via the D.B.S. statistics that only a very small proportion of Canadians f a l l into the popular image of the middle class. Porter discusses mobility, ethnic origins and class, income and class, education and class and he devotes a chapter to the "new urban strata" as a result of the decline of the rural population. The second part of the book deals with the power structure i n Canada. The theme i s that a small 'elite' makes most of the significant economic decisions for Canada and Porter examines this group. I t i s clear that "white, Anglo-Saxon, Portestant" s t i l l i s an important prerequisite for entry into the power system. The various elites - economic, labour, p o l i t i c a l - are analysed, particularly in relation to their social backgrounds. The conclusion of most significance seems to be that many of these elites are self-perpetuating. Entry to them for the outsider i s increasingly d i f f i c u l t . Report '63: A RECORD OF THE PACIFIC CONGRESS, Architecture Students Society, School of Architecture, Auckland, New Zealand. The report deals particularly with problems of high density housing. Of interest are: Waite, 'Psychology of High Density Housing;' Beckett, 'Patterns of Residence and Social Life;' Van Eyck, 'Turn of the Stars before the Lights Go Out.'  113  Russell, Bertrand,  'Architecture and Social Questions (1935)' IN PRIASE OF IDLENESS, Unwin London 1965  The architecture of housing must take into account i t s social purposes. Woman's work i n the home i s largely unnecessary with modern methods and the use of specialists for part of her work. A communal element i n housing w i l l lessen the tensions of family l i f e by spreading the work load, however the main difficulty to implementing this reform l i e s i n the psychology of the wage-earner. Sax, Karl, Boston 1955  STANDING ROOM ONLY,  Beacon Press,  A delineation of the population explosion, examining i t s magnitude effect on the physical well-being of individuals and the effects of the increased population, both for industrialized and under-developed countries. Van den Brock, J.H., Amsterdam 1964  HABITATION SERIES 3,  Elsevier Pub.  Co.  "The fundamental housing requirements of mankind are determined by geographical and climatic factorsi The construction of the dwelling, as well as i t s design and degree of perfection, are dependent on available building materials and the development of construction techniques. The standard of housing i s i n fact determined by economic as well as cultural conditions." The book gives examples of housing recently built i n various Western countries. Plans, photographs and cost data are given. Wilner, Walkley, Pinkerton, Tayback THE HOUSING ENVIRONMENT AND FAMILY LIFE, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1962 A study of the effects of housing on physical and mental health. It attempted to examine the effects of the man-made environment on behaviour and to examine the conviction among social planners that improved housing leads to health improvement and amelioration of social i l l s . The approach was to take a test group originally living i n slum housing but moved to new public housing and a control group matched to the test group but expected to remain i n slum housing. In general i t was found that the physical health of the test group did improve; closer and more amicable relations with neighbours existed; improved housing leading to better familial relations was expected but not confirmed; greater pride i n the neighbourhood was found to result and the psychological state of the test group was found to be improved.  1 1 4  Winnick, L., 'The Housing Consumer: Sovereign or Subject? ACTION Series i n Housing and Community Development, HOUSING CHOICES AND HOUSING CONSTRAINTS, McGraw-Hill, New York I960 1  An analysis of the 'filtering' process of housing i s given. The argument i s that better housing can be achieved with larger amounts of money per unit; then the total housing stock w i l l be upgraded, there w i l l be a fuller price range of housing and this w i l l increase the rate of f i l t e r i n g of good existing housing. The housing market w i l l be i n a 'boom' condition i n the late 1960's and 1970's, particularly for urban apartments and larger houses at the lowest possible cost. The slum dweller's and the suburbanite's housing preferences are examined. Whyte, W.H., Brooks, New York  1957  THE ORGANIZATION MAN,  Doubleday Andhor  This i s the book that brought the phrase "Organization Man" into our vocabulary. The author describes the newly created and expanding class of men dedicated to achieving mainly material success and status through working i n a large company. The background, education, motives and compromises necessary to succeed within the company are described. The social l i f e of the 'Organization Man' revolves around his work, most family decisions including where he lives are made with the Organization uppermost in mind. The author studied two separate subdivisions catering to this type of person and he i s able to sketch the total l i f e of such communities. Murster, Catherine Bauer 'Can Cities Compete with Suburbia for Family Living,' ARCHITECTURAL RECORD, December 1 9 6 4 pp. 1 4 9 - 1 5 6 "The greatest threat to the old cities i s not suburban sprawl, or automobility, or even the taste for homogeneous communities, although these help to create the city's basic problem. It i s the trend toward increasing domination of the old cities by the disadvantaged, the lowincome and minority families who have no other choice i n the current housing market. Few families who do have other choices w i l l want to bring up their children i n an increasingly ghettoized city, with i t s dangerous conflict and hopeless social and economic problems, even i f they hate suburbia."  115 TECHNICAL American Public Health Association, Committee on the Hygiene of Housing PLANNING THE NEIGHBOURHOOD, Public Administration Service, Chicago 1948 An excellent and thorough treatment of neighbourhood planning principles with chapters on: site selection, development of land, u t i l i t i e s and service, residential f a c i l i t i e s , community f a c i l i t i e s , layout for pedestrian and vehicular circulation, densities: co-ordination of housing. Much statistical data i n conjunection with broad planning principles. Reprinted i n I960 without revisions. Buchinger, Margaret, Canadian Architect, March 1965  HIGH-RISE HABITAT: A MATTER OF PEOPLE pp. 4.6-50  The social implications of high-rise apartment living: particularly densities, juxtaposition of various types of housing and mental health in high density environments.  April 1965  HIGH-RISE HABITAT: SIX DESIGN IMPLICATIONS pp. 4 0 - 4 2 Canadian Architect  Factors influencing design of high-rise apartments under present social and economic conditions. Canadian Housing Design Council HOUSING IN CITIES National Printers, Ottawa 1964 A review of housing types: detached, row houses and apartment buildings. Examples of multiple housing recently built i n Canada. Carver, H., Toronto Press,  Toronto 1 9 6 2  CITIES IN THE SUBURBS,  University of  The author begins with an historical survey of some attempts to solve the problems of the city. He i s particularly concerned with the suburbs not i n condemning them but how their faults can be overcome. He believes that "the planning of the residential city has i t s own validity without reference to the working part of the city." The neighbourhood planned around an elementary school i s not large enough to support principal social and commercial services, therefore he suggests 'town centres' containing a market square, a cultural square, a government and servies square and a contemplation or beautiful place square. The suburbs should also incorporate more apartment buildings and have a greater cross-section of society than presently exists.  116  DESIGN AWARD SEMINARS: EASTWICK REDEVELOPMENT, November I960 pp. 154-157  Progressive Architecture,  Architects presentation and jury critique of a row housing scheme for Philadelphia. Cul-de-sacs of horseshoe shape ringed with arterial roads and 'Radburn'-like open spaces. Doxiadis, C.A., Hutchinson, London 1963  ARCHITECTURE IN TRANSITION  The irrationality of the form of our cities with our l i v i n g styles or patterns i s described as a 'nightmare.' This i s partly due to the confusion of present day architects and planners and the reason for the confusion i s that we are in an "epoch of transition." This transition i s from 'academic to modern,' between old and new, between local and international, from handcraft to industry, qualitative to quantitative, megalomania to realism. But these transitions arise out of the real problems of population and growth, economic development, socialization, mobility, industrialization and technological process, urbanization and the new dimensions of time. Thus the problems of architects have become so large that a total comprehensive system of problem solving and building implementation i s required, that i s , ekistics. Duff, A.C, London 1961  BRITAIN'S NEW TOWN,  Pall Mall Press,  The book describes the work necessary to establishing a New Town. The author deals with the New Towns Act, selection of sites, the Corporation, the development program, the problems of deciding what the residential accommodation shall be once the proportions of the types, the residents and the problems of l i v i n g i n a New Town, rents and amenities, establishment of industry, public relations and a look at the future of New Towns. The introduction by Martin Madden, an M.P. i s most interesting. He states that the new towns tend to be one class towns and that the intermingling of a l l classes "does not seem capable of successful transplantation into modem urban neighbourhoods. Separate neighbourhoods of middle class houses must therefore be established." Federal Housing Administration PLANNING PROFITABLE NEIGHBOURHOODS, Technical Bulletin No. 7 Washington 1938 The subtitle "Subdivisions planned as neighbourhoods are: more profitable to developers, better security for investors, more desirable to home owners" indicates the hierarchy of values of the private enterprise approach to housing i n this early exposition of housing layout techniques.  117 HOUSING. Architectural Review, pages 26 - 35  Vol. CXXLX,  No. 767,  January 1961  A preview of a variety of projected housing schemes in Britain. Minimal verbal explanation but with diagrammatic drawings. Lehrman, J.B., PATTERNS IN HOUSING GROUPS unpublished Master of Architecture Thesis, MoGill University I960 The author summarizes his aims as: "to perceive the underlying qualities of dwelling patterns, their synthesis and resultant unity." Unity he believes i s either imposed from without or achieved from within the dwelling pattern. It i s achieved by dominating factors such as climate or geography; or by landscaping; or be an external focus; or a predominant way of l i f e ; or a predominant scale. Each of these conditions i s examined and examples are given. Although the main interest of the author i s from a visual standpoint, he has stated that the complexities of housing patterns are more profound than any one factor and suggests that "Balance should be struck between the forces of man as individual and householder, the forces of his local community, and the forces of his time - a balance which i s ever changing." London County Council, County Council 1961  THE PLANNING OF A NEW  TOWN,  London  A comprehensive book on the planning of Hook New Town - unfortunately not to be realized. It deals with a l l the physical aspects of i t s planning and also with the social goals and the physical attempts to achieve them. The town centre was to act as a linear spine of social and commercial activity surrounded by medium density housing. Great emphasis was placed on the individual garden and pedestrian-vehicle separation. Lynch, Kevin,  SITE PLANNING,  M.I.T. Cambridge  1962  The book explains the principles of site planning - which i s defined as the arrangement of groups of structures on the ground. Architecture, city planning, engineering and landscaping are a l l inextricably bound together by the necessity of a comprehensive view of the site. Lynch divides the analysis into two parts: fundamental technique and detailed technique. The former includes: site analysis, location of activities, circulation, visual form, light, noise, a i r , problem of controls and then the process of site planning. The latter section i s a condensed technical reference section including: housing, special types of site planning, streets and ways, u t i l i t i e s , and s o i l , plants and climate and costs.  118  Katz, R.D., INTENSITY OF DEVELOPMENT AND LIVEABILITY OF MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING PROJECTS, F.H.A. Technical Bulletin 509, Washington 1963 The author defines intensity of development as density, coverage, floor ratio, building type and size, spacing and parking. Privacy, useable open space and individuality are three aspects of l i v e a b i l i t y . Using these and other c r i t e r i a , aspects of liveability are examined against the definitions of intensity. There are numerous photographs, plans and comparisons of housing groups i n both Europe and America. NEW BUILDING ABROAD - France pages 108-111  Architectural Forum,  June 1963  Le Mirais, a satellite city of 100,000 for Toulouse. Complete vertical vehicle-pedestrian separation based on linear stem principles. "The idea of street as a place rather than a vehicular passageway." McHarg, Ian, Year Book 6,  OPEN SPACE AND HOUSING, Elek Books Limited, London 1955  Architect's  The author recommends the abandonment of preconceptions (particularly the Garden City concept as the valid prototype of municipal housing) and an appreciation of the objective functions of open space i n housing and the application of functional analysis to the functions and relationships of house and site. The functions of open space are given as: social organization, sunlight, outdoor room, gardening, service, exploitation and control of climate and micro-climate. "Densities must result from the recognition and satisfaction of the v i t a l objective functions of open space." McHarg, Ian, Year Book 8,  THE COURT-HOUSE CONCEPT Elek Books Limited, London 1958  Architect's  The essential quality of the court-house i s i t s introversion and privacy; and i s most suitable as private open space. Therefore i t i s a suitable and desirable form of townhoiise. Also presented i s a survey of courthouse schemes throughout the world and some proposals for block planning with the court-house as the basic planning unit. McQuade, W., Architectural Forum,  July I960  WHERE ARE THE PARKED CARS? pages 108-111  Illustrations and explanations of the sunken parking areas at Layfayette Park i n Detroit by Mies.  1 1 9 Murray, J.A., Canadian Housing Design Council,  THE ARCHITECTURE OF HOUSING RBT Printing, Montreal.  Defines the purposes of housing and reviews housing types and the influences upon them. An emphasis on the architectural viewpoint. Murray, J.A. and Fliess, H., Maclachlan Printing Limited,  NEW FORMS OF FAMILY HOUSING, Toronto 1 9 6 1  A study of horizontal multiple housing techniques using as i t s design principles: 'expression of the family unit, retention of human scale, outdoor private space.' 01gyay,V., Princeton University Press,  DESIGN WITH CLIMATE. Princeton 1 9 5 3  An approach to shelter and town layout based on climatic considerations. The necessity of exploiting the regional character of the site i s expounded. Particular attention to be given to sun and wind control and examples of the application of the principles derived are given for four climatic zones. OVER AND UNDER: A SURVEY OF THE PROBLEMS OF PEDESTRIAN/VEHICLE SEGREGATION, Architectural Review, Vol. CXXJX, No. 771, May 1 9 6 1 , pages 3 2 1 - 3 3 6 "The physical separation of pedestrians and vehicles has now become essential." Excellent analysis of this problem through a diagramatic presentation of existing or proposed solutions. Reiner, T.A., URBAN PLANNING,  THE PLACE OF THE IDEAL COMMUNITY IN University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1 9 6 3  The study seeks "to come to some conclusions as to the methodological variety and types of propositions" and to "present and substantive content to planning propositions set forth by means of such schemes particularly dealing with land use and physical elements of the urban environment." Each scheme i s present i n diagrammatic plan form (which tends to reveal insufficient information) 'and i t s main points are discussed. Then the necessary consideration of communities and the relations of the 'ideals' related to them are examined. Bitter, Paul, Pergamon Press,  London  1964-  PLANNING FOR MAN AND MOTOR,  The function of the book i s stated as "to dispense ... to integrate knowledge and methods of approach and to illustrate the fundamental elements common to the various professions (architects, planners, developers, administrators, legislators) ... taking as the primary motive for a l l of them the creation of a good environment. ... the aim i s an  120 ecologically harmonious environment for man in which an efficient use of the vehicle plays a crucial part." This book gives a comprehensive and detailed explanation of man i n relation to the vehicle from physical, social and planning points of view. The author deals with the needs of both by theorizing and analyzing existing towns. He deals i n particular with New Towns and their t r a f f i c segregation with urban renewal and with t r a f f i c segregation i n residential areas. There i s a very extensive bibliography. Rose, Albert, Canadian Architect,  March 1965  HIGH-RISE HABITAT: THE GREAT CONTROVERSY, pages 4.2 - 44  A review of the trend to apartment l i v i n g and an attempt to show the lack of information on the resulting social patterns. Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF INQUIRY INTO THE DESIGN OF THE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENT, Ottawa I 9 6 0 . The report presents a brief historical survey of legislation related to building, defines objectives of housing design in the broad urban framework, outlines the present d i f f i c u l t i e s and makes recommendations for change and further study. It particularly recommends the establishment of a permanent 'Canadian Institute of Urban Studies' attached to a major university "from which bibliographic help would be expected; and through which a l l concerned could learn what serious exploratory work i n the field i s i n progress, or i s i n prospect or i n demand." Schoenauer, N., and Seeman, S., THE COURT-GARDEN HOUSE, McGill University Press, Montreal 1962 Attempts to show the validity of the court-garden house to most Canadian conditions through a study of i t s historical and world-wide applications. Comparison of advantages and disadvantages of the type over the conventional Canadian 'bungalow.' Although the book deals comprehensively with the principles of the court-garden house internally and attempts to relate i t to the existing street patterns i n areas of redevelopment, i t f a i l s to present schemes outside of these patterns and particularly planning for the automobile as a result of the application of this type of housing on a large scale.  121 Segal, Walter, London 194-8  HOME AND ENVIRONMENT  Leonard H i l l Ltd.,  A thorough exposition and analysis of housing types from detached houses through to high-rise flats and a presentation of site planning principles and layout techniques, with many examples and critiques. A somewhat dated book with a great emphasis on English experience and custom. Whyte, W.H., Conservation Association,  CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT New York 1964  American  A breezy, 'ad-man' dissertation on the advantages of total site planning of housing developments - communal and private space, preservation of existing amenities, t r a f f i c control, etc. Essentially based on the Radburn principles and directed mainly to the builder as a frankly economic pitch to build cluster developments. I t includes many American examples with cost data.  122 USE QF TIME B r i g h t b i l l , O.K., Prentice Hall Inc.,  THE CHALLENGE OF LEISURE, New Jersey I960  B r i g h t b i l l defines leisure as "a block of unoccupied time ... when we are free ... to do what we choose." He goes on to examine what leisure i s i n terms of time, work, play, culture and recreation, i t s problems, i t s costs, and i t s effect on values, art, education and the individual. " ... out of the growing leisure are evolving human needs every bit as real and just as significant as those caused by famine, pestilence, economic upheaval and war ... they c a l l for the deepest kind of imaginativeness and conscientiousness." Bury, J.B., New York 1955  THE IDEA OF PROGRESS,  Dover Books  Bury traces the development of the concept of progress. He shows how i t only arose i n philosophy after about the sixteenth century, that because of the prevailing religious and philosophical beliefs i t was unknown before that time. The book serves to show that although technological advancement has existed since man emerged as a thinking creature i t s relation to "progress" was not automatically assigned - as i t tends to be today. I t also shows that there i s no inevitable upward movement of c i v i l i z a t i o n , progress i s nothing more than a reasoned conviction. Kerr, Walter, Schuster, New York  196A  THE DECLINE CF PLEASURE  Simon and  This book i s a personal appraisal of the worthwhileness of l i f e . It recognizes that increasing leisure i s considered to be vaguely immoral i n our society - that only labour i s meaningful. The author questions the validity of "the work we must do, the world we must do i t i n , and the selves we must live with while we are doing i t . " Life i n the twentieth century has become more complicated, man i s baffled in his efforts to order the world. Kerr offers hope and guidance however. He believes that "favours" for a meaningful l i f e have been bestowed upon everyone and that "the search for delight ... ought to be conducted with abandon, without thought of restraint, without giving up anything." Pieper, J . , Mentor - Omega Book,  Toronto  LEISURE: THE BASIS OF CULTURE, 1963  A philosophical probing of the nature of leisure and i t s necessity to the development of a meaningful culture.  123  Soule, G., Pitman Press,  London 1954  WHAT AUTOMATION DOES TO HUMAN BEINGS  The disruptive forces of our scientific and industrial progress are being allowed to overrule their social implications. "There i s well on the way not a civilization topped by a leisure class but a civilization characterized by universal leisure." The moral value assigned to labour i s now obsolete - there i s no necessity for everyone to labour because the goods and services required can be produced by relatively few workers. Therefore leisure time must come to be considered "the serious business of l i f e . "  124 MOBILITY AND COMMUNICATION Cullen, Gordon,  TOWNSCAPE,  Reinhold,  New York 1964  "This book i s a lively revelation in word and picture of the principles which underlie a l l successful town planning, and of the widely varied range of effects which the planner can evoke by careful manipulation of component parts. The author begins by illustrating and describing the basic ingredients of townscape - closure, surprise, and so on - continues by showing the wider context of town scene, and finishes by revealing the f u l l poetry of townscape, f i r s t i n studies of existing towns, and then i n proposals for new towns." (resume from the book jacket) de Wolfe, Ivor Architectural Press,  THE ITALIAN TOWNSCAPE, London 1963  This delightful book has a passionate quality about i t entirely i n keeping with i t s subject. The author involves himself in the exposition of the idea of a city as a beautiful, meaningful and exciting place i n which to live. Using what he considers to be the design elements of townscape he illustrates the thesis with excellent photographs and diagrams, de Wolfe considers "the streets essential nature as a precinct, a playground, a home-from-home, an escape ... the street spawned caves, inns, stalls, shops the appurtenances of leisure, and i n the process took on the aspects of a fair with the appropriate accompaniment of visual hazards i n aid of cosiness, gaiety and convenience." And "the car's insolent refusal to become urbanized establishes i t as an intruder anywhere. E l l i o t t , W.Y., ed., Michigan State University,  TELEVISION'S IMPACT ON AMERICAN CULTURE, East Lansing,- 1956  The aim i s to "set television, for the f i r s t time, into a frame that shows how television f i t s into the culture which has created i t , and to explore what i t s possibilities are in that setting." Chapter L gives a history of Canadian television i n view of i t s policy "to inform, to educate and to entertain." Glick, I.O., and Levy, S.J., LIVING WITH TELEVISION, Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago 1962 A study of television as a cultural, social and psychological reality. Meanings have been discovered as to the symbolism of the television program. The symbols must break through class barriers, i.e. "the private meanings of small groups and the meanings of the symbols must be acceptable to large groups of people." The social purpose of television i s to "send basic, traditional understandings and contribute new meanings to them ... New knowledge, fresh beliefs and values must be properly introduced ..." The book attempts to understand the viewer's reaction to programs without questioning their merit.  125  Goodman, Paul and Percival, New York I960  COMMUNITAS,  Vintage Books,  The authors sketch from a Utopian viewpoint three main influences on modern city planning: the greenbelt city, including the work of Howard, Unwin, Geddes and LeGorbusier; industrial plans such as the Russian and Chinese communes and the work of Buckminster Fuller; integrated plans of Frank Lloyd Wright and those resulting from the industrialization of agriculture. Three U t o p i a n schemes on a regional basis are presented: 1) efficient consumption (2) elimination of the difference between production and consumption (3) planned security with minimum regulation. This book i s of great value mainly because i t i s able to look at the problems of community l i v i n g on a large scale i n a completely fresh way - free from bias and prejudice, based on the underlying values and purposes of planning. Gordon, M.,  SICK CITIES,  MacMillan,  New York  1963  This book examines the reasons for what the author considers to be the decline of c i t i e s . The chapter on transportation i s of particular interest. He describes how formerly vast urban transportation systems have disappeared and been replaced by the ubiquitous, city-destroying freeway. The advantages of the automobile to the commuter must be taken into account of any new effort at mass transportation. Grisewood, H., 'The New Arts of the Twentieth Century," NEW OUTLINE OF MODERN KNOWLEDGE, Pryce-Jones, A., ed., Camelot Press, London 1956 The new arts of radio, television and cinema are powerful vehicles for communication because they reach such large audiences. Because of these "mass media," a r t i s t i c efforts are available to much larger numbers than ever before but freedom of a r t i s t i c experimentation i s diminished. Gutkind, E., of Glencoe, New York  1962  THE TWILIGHT OF CITIES,  Free Press  Gutkind gives as his principal thesis "The notion of a centreless region as the next phase i n the evolution of environmental structure." He claims that "cities are mere details, that regions and countries and the world are the realistic living units." The forces that have given shape to our cities have died away to be replaced by new methods of communication. The plan of the city should be drawn to reduce t r a f f i c , but f l e x i b i l i t y i s the essential of city planning. The pedestrian scale i s made obsolete through "the motorcar, the telephone and the mail." Industry has been made mobile ever since the introduction of electricity. He concludes by outlining his proposals for the "centreless region" e.g. "every settlement of the future should be a park community."  126 McLuhan, Marshall MAN, McGraw-Hill,  UNDERSTANDING MEDIA: THE EXTENSIONS OF New York 1965  The adaptation of electricity to the means of communication has enabled man to extend his central nervous system. Mass madia becomes not merely a means to an end but an end i n themselves i.e. "the medium i s the message." Man is"imploding" rather than exploding - the detribalization process has been reversed and the world i s adopting a more village-like quality. Western man sees the world as he does because of his methods of communication about i t , as these methods have changed so must the view of the world and thus the direction i t w i l l take. O'Hara, R.C., New York 1961  MEDIA FOR THE MILLIONS,  Random House  This book i s concerned with an analysis of the message, not the mechanics of mass media. These are defined as: motion pictures, television, newspapers, radio and popular recordings. The effects and complications of these media are explored. The author examines the particular segments of society aimed at by the various media as a frame of reference for their analysis. Owen, W-, New York 1959  CITIES IN THE MOTOR AGE,  Viking Press,  The effects of mobility upon people i n an urban environment are examined. Personal mobility has permitted such large agglomerations that cities are tending to become strangled by the transportation systems they require. The automobile has helped to make possible the out-of-town week-end and i t has vastly expanded the leisure time activities of people. But "instead of planning motor cars to f i t out lives we are planning our lives to f i t our cars." Reports of the Steering Group and Working Group appointed by the Ministry of Transport (G.B.) , TRAFFIC'IN TOWNS, London HMSO 1963 " t r a f f i c and buildings are not two separate things but two facets of the same problem." "The buildings which generate t r a f f i c should be integrated with t r a f f i c arrangements ..." "Environmental areas recommended." "Three planes should be developed: primary distributors below ground, secondary distributors and parking at present ground level, and a new a r t i f i c i a l ground level, virtually free of t r a f f i c above present ground." " ... the freedom with which a person can walk about and look around i s a very useful guide to the civilized quality of an urban area."  127 Accepting the premises that the car i s here to stay and that i t i s the right of each individual to use i t to the fullest extent, the Buchanan Report analyzes and examines the problems accruing from f u l l usage i n the British context and suggests principles and methods of solution. The nature, extent and cost of example solutions are startling and imply radical reappraisal of the past thinking on the solution of problems of the motor-car. Warner, S.B., Cambridge, 1962  STREETCAR SUBURBS,  M.I .T.  "Much of (the streetcar suburbs) success or failure centred around the attempt by a mass of people, each with but one small house and l o t , to achieve what previously had been the pattern of l i f e of a few rich families with two large houses and ample land." This book i s a survey of the forces acting upon the suburban development of Boston from about 1850 to 1900 and the housing types and patterns that resulted. The importance of the mobility accruing from the extension of streetcar trackage i s stressed but the author also examines the economic and social factors that led to the establishment of Boston's suburbs. It i s interesting to note that what segmentation of society that did occur was strictly along economic lines. The society remained very fluid i n respect to other social differences such as religion, ethnicity, etc.  128  GOVERNMENT Lafitte, F., 'Social Aims of the Contemporary State,' NEW OUTLINE OF MODERN KNOWLEDGE, Pryce-Jones, A., ed., Camelot Press, London 1 9 5 6 The second World War led to the acceptance by the majority of the population of Great Britain of a managed economy - the f i r s t necessity to the implementation of a 'Welfare State.' The basis of the Welfare State i s the idea that "certain social needs cannot be satisfactorily met from personal earnings," and therefore the state assumes the responsibility for supplying these needs. The only requisite for these services i s citizenship. Petersen, W., THE POLITICS OF POPULATION, Doubleday, Garden City, New York 1 9 6 4 "The author i s primarily concerned with how population relates to social policy, especially i n such fields as social welfare, urban planning and international migration." Report of the Zoning Study Committee of the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada, REFLECTIONS ON ZONING, University of Toronto, Toronto 1 9 6 4 A study of existing zoning methods and legislation with the major recommendation that a plan of development i s necessary before any zoning can be undertaken. Greater f l e x i b i l i t y i n zones regarding setbacks, sideyards, and heights as well as mixed use i s recommended. The possibility of any density i s implicit i n the report's argument, i f the area i s planned to accommodate i t . Titmuss, R.M., TRACT 3 2 3 , Fabian Society,  THE IRRESPONSIBLE SOCIETY: FABIAN London 1 9 5 9  "Insofar as a society f a i l s to identify, by fact and not by inference, i t s contemporary and changing social problems i t must expect i t s social conscience and i t s democratic values to languish." "In highly complex societies ... almost a l l social forces tend to encourage the growth of conformism unless checked by strong, continuing and effective movements of protest and criticism" but on the other hand "more social discipline, order and collective planning ( i s necessary) to overcome the problems of urban congestion and road chaos.  

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