Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Relationship of the child to his neighbourhood environment Dill, Robert Morgan 1970

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata


831-UBC_1970_A7_3 D54.pdf [ 103.57MB ]
JSON: 831-1.0102165.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0102165-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0102165-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0102165-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0102165-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0102165-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0102165-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

RELATIONSHIP OF THE CHILD TO HIS NEIGHBOURHOOD ENVIRONMENT fey ROBERT MORGAN DILL B.Arch. University cyf B.C., 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Architecture i n the School of Architecture We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SEPTEMBER, 1970 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for exten-sive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives,' It is understood that copying or publishing of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. School of Architecture The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada; Date September 28. 1970 THESIS ABSTRACT This thesis looks at two actual neighbourhoods within Vancouver - a high density urban, and a low density suburban environment. Using these neighbourhood environments, an attempt is made to see i f children act or are affected in ways which can be traced to the layout and amenities of the physical environment. Data has been gathered concerning the physical structure of the environments, and is examined in relation to how the children use these environments, and in relation • to the attitudes that parents, or institutions respon-sible for child socialization, have towards the effect o of these environments on the children and themselves. This data has been gathered by my own observations, by interviewing children and key resource people who work or reside in the neighbourhood, and by handing out questionnaires to parents involved with raising children in the sample'areas. The data shows that in different types of neighbour-hood communities, children use and interact with the environment in different ways. It shows that the be-haviosr of children is modified because of the physical environment they grow up within. It shows that children of different ages and sexes have differing needs, and i i . that their use of the environment is constantly changing as they grow and search for ways to satisfy these needs. The analysis of this data begins to show deficiencies and strengths in the planning and layout of the physical environments, and how these potentially affect children. From this analysis certain proposed solutions have been arrived at - solutions which the author feels can make the childs environment more appropriate to his developmental needs,and more in keeping with the desires of his family and self. faculty advisor i i i . TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i . TABLE OF CONTENTS/LIST OF TABLES i i i . INTRODUCTION- 1. A. Operational biases B. Previous work, a summary METHODOLOGY 25. A. Data Collection B. Analysis of the Data AN ANALYSIS OF THE TWO SAMPLE AREAS 36. CHAPTER ONE. "A general description of the areas." (pg. 36) CHAPTER TWO. "An analysis of the dwelling units"(pg. 78) CHAPTER THREE. "An analysis of the immediate neighborhood." <• • . (pg.lll) CHAPTER FOUR. "An analysis of the larger neighborhood"(pg. 139) 1. schools (pg. 1*1-0) 2. recreation centers (pg. 168) 3. parks and playgrounds (pg. 187) ^. churches (pg. 203) 5. public l i b r a r i e s ^ (pg. 211) 6. . shopping and commercian f a c i l i t i e s (pg. 219) 7. other f a c i l i t i e s of interest to the child (pg. 230) 8. relationship of f a c i l i t i e s to each other (pg. 235) 9. parental attitude towards the larger neighborhood (pg. 25*0 CONCLUSIONS 266. CHAPTER FIVE. "Influence of the physical environment on child behaviour." (pg. 266) i v CHAPTER SIX. "Possible Changes i n each area to make a more des-irable neighborhood for children.1.' (pg. 288) CONCLUDING REMARKS BIBLIOGRAPHY. . APPENDICES APPENDIX A. Sample questionnaire APPENDIX B. Questionnaire response APPENDIX C. Census data APPENDIX D. Questionnaire for teachers i n open area classrooms LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 338TRQDUCTION I. "DEVELOPMENTAL MODEL" pg. 1 5 I I . "MATURATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SPACE PERCEPTIONS" pg. 1 7 III. "TOPICAL RELATIONSHIP I N PRESCHOOL STAGE" pg. 18 CHAPTER ONE I V . 'DWELLING TYPE, OWNERSHIP, NEIGHBORHOOD RESIDENCY", questionnaire response pg. 4-2 V. "INCOME, EDUCATION, OCCUPATION", questionnaire response — pg. 4-9 V I . "AGE PROFJ__E",'1966 census results pg. 5 0 V I I . "TIME SPENT BY CHIII)REN» , questionnaire response pg. 5 7 CHAPTER TWO Villi.' "A COMPARISON OF SIZE J.ND LAYOUT OF SINGLE FAMILY AND APARTMENT DWE_LINGS pg. 82 IX. "AVAIIABIXITY OF FACHJTIES" within dwelling questionnaire response pg; 83 X. "USE OF DWELLING SPACE", Killarney questionnaire response pg. 9 1 X I . "USE OF DWELLING SPACE". West End questionnaire response pg. 97-CHAPTER THREE X I I . "J-MME33IATE_ NEIGHBORHOOD", sample layouts, Killarney and West End — — pg. 116 X I I I . "USE OF I M ^ I A T E NEIGHBORHOOD", Killarney questionnaire response pg. 1 2 2 XIV. "USE OF IMMEDIATE NEIGHBORHOOD", West End questionnaire response pg. 1 2 6 X V . '•RELATIONSHIP OF FRIENDS DWE1XINGS, Killarney and West End questionnaire response pg. 1 2 9 xvi. CHAPTER FOUR XVI. "WEIR SCHOOL", layout pg. 142 XVII. '^cCCEKINDALE SCHOOL", layout pg. 145 XVIII. "LORD ROBERTS SCHOOL", layout pg. 148 XTJC. "USE OF SCHOOLGROUND?, Killarney and West End questionnaire response — — — — — — — pg. 162 XX. KILLARNEY COMMUNITY CENTER", layout pg. 1 7 1 XXI. "NEIGHBOURHOOD EXPANSION. KILLARNEY, diagrams of different aged childrens pg. 242 expansion into the neighborhood — — pg. 243 XXII. "NEIGHBORHOOD, EXPANSION. WEST END" diagrams of different aged childrens pg. 249 expansion into the neighborhood — — — — — pg. 250 CHAPTER SIX XXIII. "NEIGHBORHOOD PATTERN RELATIONSHIP" single family suburban neighborhood — pg. 2 9 2 XXIV. "INTEGRATED STREET PATTERNS" single family suburban neighborhood — — — — - — — pg. 295 XXV. "THE DWELLING UNIT" single family suburban neighborhood — — — — — — — pg. 2 9 7 XXVI. "LOCAL BLOCK CENTER" single family suburban neighborhood — — — — — — — — pg. 2 9 9 XXVII. "LOCAL NEIGHBORHOOD CENTER", single family suburban neighborhood — — — — — pg, 301 XXVIII. "REGIONAL NEIGHBORHOOD CENTER", single family suburban neighborhood — — — — — — — pg. 303 XXIX. "NEIGHBORHOOD PATTERN RELATIONSHIPS high density urban neighborhood — — — — — pg. 3 0 7 XXX. "INTEGRATED STREET PATTERN", high density urban neighborhood — — — — pg. 310 XXXI. "THE DWELLING UNIT/LOCAL pg. 3 1 4 ACTIVITY AREAS pg. 315 XXXII. "LOCAL NEIGHBORHOOD CENTERS" high density urban neighborhood — — — — — — — — pg. 3 1 8 XXXIII.. "LARGER NEIGHBORHOOD CENTER" high density urban neighborhood — — — — — — — pg. 3 2 D v i i . LIST OF MAPS CHAPTER ONE 1. "LOCATION OF THE TWO AREAS1' pg. 37 2. "WEIR - McCORKINDALE MICRO-DISTRICTS1' pg. 39 3 . "SCHOOL DISTRICT BOUNDARTJ5S/QUESTIONMlI_ RESPONSE HOUSE. LOCATIONS" Killarney pg. 6 0 4. "MAJOR TRAFFIC ROUTES" Killarney pg. 6 l 5 . "LOCATION AND TYPE OF HOUSING Killarney — pg. 6 2 6 . "OPEN AREAS, BUILDING, INSTITUTIONS" " Killarney — — — pg. 6 3 7. "SCHOOL DISTRICT BOUNDARIES/QUESTIONMj__ RESPONSE HOUSE LOCATIONS" West End pg. 6 5 8. "MAJOR TRAFFIC ROUTES" West End pg. 66 9. "LOCATION AND TYPE OF HOUSING" West End — pg. 67 10. "OPEN AREAS, BUILDINGS, INSTITUTIONS" West End — — — pg. 68 11. "MAPPING OF BOUNDARIES OF NEIGHBORHOOD? Killarney . pg. 73 12. "MAPPING OF BOUM)ARIES OF NEIGHBORHOOD" West End pg. 74 CHAPTER FOUR 13. J'WEIR AND McCORKINDALE SCHOOLS" location - pg. 143 14. "LORD ROBERTS SCHOOL" location pg. 148 15. "RECREATION CENTERS" location i n Killarney and West End — - — p g . 173 16. mapped usage of Killarney community centre pg. 179 17. •'KnXARNEY PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS" locations pg. 189 18. "WEST END PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS" locations pg. 191 19. "CHURCHES", location i n Killarney and West End pg. 204 20. "PUBLIC IIBRARIES" location i n Killarney and West End — — pg. 212 21. "SHOPPING FAC_ITIES», location i n Killarney and West End pg. 221 1 A. OPERATIONAL BIASES THE INFLUENCE This thesis attempts to study the child in re-OF ENVIRONMENT ON DEVELOPMENT lationship to the environment in which he grows up, and with which he interacts. It is based on a premise that the physical environment is a major influence on the growth of the human organism (see Sommers, Aldrich, Lorenz, Spuhler, Smith, Prall, Ekistics Review). There is growing evidence that much of an individuals attitudes towards how he interacts with the environment are established at a very early age (see Bloom), and that these attitudes form the foundation on which the maturing individual bases his subsequent learning input, and from whioh he makes his decisions. Guidelines of normal or expected growth , within our western society have been well documented (see Gesell, Piaget, Stone and Church, Erikson, Maslow), and formulated into several developmental theories. It is possible that environments within the western society can be observed and analyzed, and that the physical environment can become a tool to help in the better understanding of human behaviour. It is held that the growth of the human being is directly related to the growth of his environmental awareness, both in intensity and range of interaction, and that growth and behaviour characteristics can be examined by analyzing the use of the environment by its inhabitants (see'Barker, Nanaino Study). This thesis is a step in this direction. 2. USE OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD CONCEPT There is a tendency for most developmental theories to work at large scales and to be inclusive of only the generalities of large societies. This tends to negate the micro-physical influence of the environment on development) and seems to make i t difficult to relate these larger influences to the general overall environmental climate. I would like to try and , generalize behaviour in different micro-neighborhood regions, in order to see i f neighborhood environments tend to produce sufficiently different styles of living that are of generalizable importance, and which are a dependent function of that environment. I believe this is valid since there seem to be forces working which, tend to group neighborhood areas into relatively homo-genous units - in terms of peoples attitudes towards, and interaction with, the environment they live within. , IMPORTANCE OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT There are theorists and teachers today who s t i l l hold that the physical environment is of minor import-ance to human development when placed in relation to social or cultural systems. It is a premise of this thesis that the physical environment both reflects and shapes the attitudes of the social and cultural environ-ment and cannot in reality be separated in importance from them. REASONS FOR STUDYING CHILDREN The decision of this thesis to work with children -especially between the ages of 5 and 12 - has been made for a number of reasons. The childhood years are among 3. the most studied, documented, and analyzed of a l l human age groups. The child's actions are more easily observed, are expressed without too much restriction, and s t i l l f i t into fairly simple patterns of behaviour. The children are also at a most criti c a l age in terms of stepping into the environmental sphere extending beyond the home and family - into the community, where a larger society, as well as the individual parents, start to take some responsibility for their actions. Also, my previous work has dealt with the f i r s t 10 to 12 years of childhood, and I will be able to use this work as a direct resource. B. PREVIOUS WORK. A SUMMARY My past work has directly led to the current interest in this thesis topic. It is broken into four areas of concern. These deal with: 2 . Use of these principles to integrate with ex-isting theories of human development to form guiding principles of human growth. 3. A detailed look at principles governing the functioning of the Western Society child from conception to age 1 2 , including attempts to show how the child relates to the physical environment in his developmental progress. 4. A brief look at some concerns in satisfying the needs of the child through the physical environment. The present thesis is a continuation of these ideas, using the f i r s t three sections as guidelines, and trying to answer some of the concerns brought up in part 4. Included is a summary of my previous work. The principles included in this summary greatly influence the operational bias of this present thesis. AREAS OF CONCERN 1 . Explorations into principles of growth generally common to a l l living organisms. 5 1. PRINCIPLES OF GROWTH GENERALLY COMMON TO ALL LIVING ORGANISMS DEFINITIONS "THE ORGANISM" "THE ENVIRONMENT" It is my belief that there are certain basic principles to growth which most i f not a l l living organisms share, and that these are relevant to the explanation of how the organism of man interacts with the general environment, I w i l l use these principles as a philosophical base to look at the child as an organism that interacts with the physical environment. The "organism" we wi l l define as "a l i f e force con-sidered as a totality of the interdependent parts functioning to maintain the vital activities of a living system". The "environment" we will define as "the aggregate of external circumstances and forces that affect the. existence and development of the organism, both by acting upon the organism and being acted upon by the organism". The physical environment is therefore a dependent function of a l l external forces and circumstances having real physical properties. The organism has a built in biological system which sets up an impulse reaction towards growth. This growth of the organism occurs through biological maturation processes, but is profoundly affected by the environment in which this growth occurs. Organisms usually group with 6. others to form part of a larger organization and tend to take specific roles within the group. This grouping tends to increase the individual organisms and the species chance for survival,in its interaction with environmental forces. As growth occurs within an organism (or within a society of organisms), there tends to become more range and ability for the organism both to interact with the environment,and to adjust itsel f to an increasingly variable environmental experience. The range of adapt-ation becomes greater and the limits to survival increases (see Bonner). This principle is not only common to an individual human organism,but is consistent with theories concerning the evolution of the human society as well, (see Spuhler). Although the range of adaptation increases as growth towards maturity occurs, there are s t i l l limits placed on the adaptability of an organism due to its biological framework. There are relative norms of biological needs for every organism,which i t tries to maintain as i t in-teracts with the environment. These norms are aided through a process called homeostasis, which attempts to keep systems within the organism in equilibrium ,(ie. when the body is subjected to cold or warmth which differs substantially from the body norm, the pores close to keep the body cool. Thus the body can maintain its proper functioning). This same principle applies to children as they interact with the environment. 7. These norms slowly but constantly change due to mutuations within the biological process, which as a result affect the evolution of the society. Changes which tend to aid survival in a particular environment become incorporated into the biological evolution of the organism. Organisms that undergo changes which do not let them interact as successfully with the environment,tend to be at a disadvantage, are able to adapt less well, and tend to die out. As well as the environment working to change the organism, the organism (especially man) is also trying to effect change in the environment to make i t more homo-geneous to his needs. The environment also has limits * to the changes i t can undergo to maintain itself as a system able to support the l i f e needs of the organism;. = Therefore there is a mutual dependency on the norms and homeostatic limits of both the organism, and the environ-ment with which i t interacts, (see Ecology Abstracts). Norms of survival in more complicated and most highly evolved organisms (most primates and man) are also taught to the young by the mature members of the society. These socio, cultural attitudes depend very much on past experience of how the organism related to the environment. They usually correlate closely with biological norms - the more deviation between the two, the harder i t is to grow, and survival is thus endangered. The growth of an individual or society continues as long as there i s an ability _o maintain a strong homeostatic relationship between the organism and the environment. This is conditioned by the biological composition of the organism. Those that are least able to adapt to new conditions,usually exist in more stable environments, are of simpler biological composition, have shorter development periods, shorter l i f e spans, more automatic responses to growth, and high reproductive abilities. Those organisms that are very adaptable (man being the most advanced), spread and are able to better cope with diverse environmental conditions, are much more complex in make-up, have relatively longer period of growth before maturation, longer l i f e period, and a much lower and con-trolled reproductive ability (but are better able to protect those that they do reproduce). The evolution of a species can be regarded as a slow process from the former to the latter. I believe this same process is also fundamental in the relationship of the individual human within societies, although on a smaller scale. 9. 2. THE RELATIONSHIP OF THESE PRINCIPLES TO HUMAN GROWTH AND / ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTION Th© preceding principles of growth are basic to the development of the individual human,and the society of which he is part. For example - the small child reaching and growing by interacting with the environment - the grouping of individuals into family units as the means of protecting and Initially socializing the child - etc. As growth occurs,the limits of the child's ability to expand into the environment,and the environmental stimuli he can respond to increases*and his range of adaption becomes larger. Over the centuries the human child has changed and developed as has the physical and cultural environment he has had to interact with. Life is becoming more complex for him, his mobility is greatly extended. He needs to learn for a longer period of time before he can assume the adult role. He needs to assume a more specialized role in a total society to keep i t efficiently functioning in the best interests of the majority. The human society has also greatly changed the environment i t interacts with, to try and set up a more secure and easily adaptable environmental interaction process for the individual and his family. Even though there are biological limits to the growth potential or range of any individual, there is a large variation and possible direction within this range. How the individual grows and develops K.L •'•••.n : 1 0 . Is extremely dependent on how well he can cope with the environmental forces interacting around him -his ability to adapt the environment to his needs, or to change his own abilities to help cope with the existing environment. In reality, both work on each other simultaneously. There are certain common principles as developed by child theorists which I believe are generally applicable to the manner in which growth takes place in man and other higher primates. Growth occurs from a curiousity and excitement in exploring new stimulus - for the organism to use its capabilities to discover new relationships within the environment, to increase its potential for survival, and to continually test its capabilities under new conditions. This growth can only take place i f there is a secure, base from which to expand. If this base is missing, any stim-ulation to new situations leaves the human organism in an i n i t i a l state of chaos and non reference. The individual (or society) must retreat i f possible, and build this base before they can go on to cope with new stimulations. If there is a secure base, i t wil l help to order and integrate the experience of venturing into new environmental interactions. If the subjection to a new interaction is too difficult to order initi a l l y , the human organism tends to retreat from fear and a lack of security in its ability to relate to the environmental experience i t is placed in. (Any organism tries to retreat to more favorable conditions when its body won't set up an equilibrium process). This applies culturally as well. 11. Human societies build reference systems which generally act to pattern information, and regulations are es^Uis-Ted based on observed and expected behaviour patterns. Thus a child tends to learn about the physical environment-how i t affects him, what he can do to i t , what i t can do to him, and what the results might be. So also does he learn about the social behaviour expected in this physical environment from other living systems, so that rather secure expectations may be the general result of his interaction with others, (see Parson'andBales,as to how the child learns the systems of family and develops secure bases and then reaches out to new social systems). Thus the learning of patterns is one way of develop-ing an order and structure to the environment around us (see Hall. Silent Language). In my previous work I have tried to look at human development (especially child development)to determine the patterns we exhibit in our growth. From these patterns certain common principles are apparent to normal growth and seem relatively in-dependent of the environment. These are listed below. A. STABILITY OF CHARACTERISTICS There are certain common characteristics of growth generally shown by each organism of the species. (All humans for example learn to crawl, walk, talk, etc). These are predictable and are composed of certain fund-amental traits. 12. B- SEQUENTIAL BEHAVIOUR There i s a certain rate and sequence of growth i n these common characteristics that organisms of the same species follow within defined limits of probability. A l l humans learn to walk between 9 months and 2 years after birth and normally walk by the 14th month. (An example of rate of growth); a l l humans learn to walk after they can crawl and before they can run.(An example of sequence of growth). This sequence works i n progression and every individual normally proceeds through each sequence. C. DIFFERENTIATION AND FUNCTIONAL SUBORDINATION The organism i n growing, goes from an undifferen-tiated to a differentiated awareness and from the general to the specific. Responses i n general become increas-ingly differentiated from each other as growth occurs, yet are increasingly integrated to form patterns. Growth could therefore be abstractly represented by the following diagram. 13. Each time a particular response becomes differen-tiated, a process of functional subordination integrates the response with other responses i n the system, and a new learning process begins. An example of d i f f e r e n -tiati o n , integration, and functional subordination would be a baby's eating response. S T A C E 1 . ( B R E A S J fEEDItla) I S J A C E 2 . ( S f t e o i J fOEDtlle) ALHIEVEMEKIT- 'djEGteATC*L. ACHIEVEM T. bab~ l e a r o s " fc INIJEGEATE -p RBST Cf BBWOOg , ^Qg; rrJW Ufa baby p J - =p~^ 4 p R £ p o | h i s Hnoo+W. F I babw lc<srns pREp. >ARAJ|< p<j-|- IT IfS CvTCXJtto by\ I • mesfhe*- p o t breast in babies moo4r-> -|e>| L.-J- i>aby^  have -food . D. ASYNCHRONOUS GROWTH The parts of the organism never grows uniformly nor a l l the time. Its various parts grow at various rates at different times. Thus when the body grows most physically, the mental development most probably would be i n a relative state of latency. Thus when looking at the human as a series of growing parts there w i l l be many differentiation and functional subordination processes going on simultaneously. However i n total growth there i s a strong continuity. IK E. CRITICAL PERIOD OF DEVELOPMENT There seem;: to be criti c a l periods of development usually coinciding with important growth spurts, which make the part of the organism undergoing the spurtfc vulnerable (ie. imprinting 36 to 48 hours after birth in baby ducklings, etc. - see Erikson,Childhood and  Society, for a further discussion - ) . Erikson says that every problem is solved most easily when i t appears at its most unequivocable form at a particular stage of development, and therefore becomes the basis of progress to the next stage. (Also see Pdaget's theories of thought structure to compare how his critical periodsof mental growth relate to Erikson*s model). Thus from observing human growth, patterns seem observable that divide periods of development into stages where growth goes from a state of undifferentization and preparation to differentiation and achievement, and is then integrated with other differentiated systems, to form a continuum of growth. Using these principles as a framework makes i t easier to order and understand human action within an environment. 15. 3. MODEL OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT To show how a child follows a developmental pattern using the principles set down, a hypothetical model was set up, divided into maturational levels and topical groupings, and relevant aspects of how the child generally acts and grows i n western society were organized into appropriate sections. DEv_bp/_JTAl AVODEL EMOjtoK -5 f E A R S 0 L U M B E R S L_-.hi_U__.__ AGE DIVISIONS M o f O R E__,Tll4_ AAO\JE>M_j>il-_l_E__p B o D y A V O S C - L E S 16. To interpret the developmental pattern of a child in our society, one could either read through different maturational stages about a particular topic,to gain an idea of how development of a topical area changes with timej or one could relate different topics within a maturation zone to gain a fuller understanding of a person at a certain point in time. Only in relation to the whole, however, could a total picture of child development occur. Included are two examples of what type of information is contained in the structural model of the original thesis, which show how different areas of the model relate to each other. SOCIM. DE h*nb pr^f^ 4B. ^ - r W /^WK f i i S Wig j b e s , .4 p s ^ M z v " i S < s - « o = > t - ^ i o . 'senses 0F/ 1^7 I^si'oLe -(e I ^T^) l a s s i e s ( o s^ oppir^ . JisKcaj «. p] 1105 P R E S C H 0 0 L 6 A(3E » - T aa-si 1^11 Ule . S e v r e s T f t o v - p 0^ e c :J^^^^tm^/^\C' A ^ D N \ (OME /6c J, 4 1 i l s l i e . o n e ok c a m - r ^ s - s i ^ v - n U a f e . . s e n s e s T T f c > v ~ p e b y \ 6 t x 3 o c ? S - f U i ^ S ^ 4fe SPATIALpERCEPTlOlJ DEVELofMErf f SEhlSE pERCEfpoi J DEVELOPMENT 19 The input to this model is mainly from research done by Gesell & Ilg, Amy, Herlock, Piaget, Erikson r & Stone and Church, and from reflections of my own experience. The data is of necessity very general but i t helps give an indication of some of the more specific growth processes a child has to undergo; his biological formation, what physical attributes should be expected at certain stages of his l i f e , and what demands and results naturally occur due to his culturization into our social system. This information started to form a _>ase?from which I could look at specifically how the physical structure of the environment started to influence and effect the growth of the child. It started to set in perspective some of the more general reasons why the physical neigh-borhood environment has been shaped the way i t has by the human society, and what some of the aims of the physical environment must hope to accomplish to satisfy the needs and growth potential of the child in today's society. The thesis begins to look in more detail at thispphysical environment we chose to bring our children up within, and examines the effect that certain en-vironments have on the children. 20. k. THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT TO GROWTH POTENTIAL While immersed i n the study of child development I naturally began to focus on certain areas of concern. There were a series of questions I began asking myself, which started to form a set as to how I examined the properties of a physical environment and i t s relation-ship to the growth of the child. They are l i s t e d below i n no particular order or hierarchy. a. SPATIAL BOUJNDARIES What type of limits are placed on the expansion of the child into the physical environment of his neigh-borhood? Are these boundaries naturally imposed by physical barriers or are they set by parents? Do they form a relation to the distance from the dwelling, and how do they change with age? Do the boundaries hinder growth by bottling and and containing, or are there routes past boundaries? Are there some boundaries which may encourage the ingenuity of the child to try and tackle? (It i s a thesis of this report that special boundaries are set by a complex mixture of the develop-mental awareness of the child - his physical,social,and cognitive a b i l i t i e s - the cultural norms placed on the physical environment and the child). a. b. SPATIAL DEFINITION Within the childs environment are there relevant spaces available for the child to find security, to retreat into, to expand out towards, to find excitement, to explore the unknown. Are there spaces which define different experiences, small, large, low, high, un-dulating, r i g i d , etc.? Are spaces the child i s placed i n (schoolroom, house, yard, etc.) sufficient to satisfy the particular needs and patterns of the child? Are spaces defined to give meaning to certain functions or are they confused and undefined? c. SENSE STIMUUTION What senses are most c r i t i c a l for a child at certain age levels? Can the child find physical objects and spaces which stimulate his growing senses? Is a particular environment deficient or abundant i n stimuli for different age levels? Are there restrictions or aids from the community for the child to setup and develop his own sense pleasures? Has an object or space a variety of sense stimulation to satisfy the changing needs of the child? Is stimulation fixed and lo c a l , or periodic and transient? Does i t provide security and r e l i a b i l i t y , or an excitement and interest to explore where the stj_mulation came from? How do various sense stimulations i n the environment relate to each other to form a t o t a l experience? 22. d. CONVENIENCE OF AMENITIES Does one have to go further than one's developmental abilities allowy in order to receive necessary stimulation? (Zoo, playground, swimming, hikes, shows, etc.). Do parents have to provide the initiative or can the child find and get to them by himself? Is there stimulation both for everyday interaction and for special occasions? e. MODELS TO IMITATE How does the physical environment of the neighbor-hood help define role models for the child? Are there objects, people, institutions for particular age groups to learn the necessary role models to function normally i n -so:ciety?; f. DIFFERENTIATION OF FUNCTION Does the physical environment provide clear differ-entiation of its functions to reduce fear and disorien-tation? If the environment is too markedly differentiated does i t produce boredom? (The child goes from an undifferentiated to a more differentiated state. Proper differentiation may make i t easier for a child to grasp relationships. For example a church steeple in the center of a town may help orient a child and give him the ability to explore and always relate to this landmark). Are there conflicts between differentiating areas for different purposes? g. SOCIAL INTERACTION & PRIVACY Does the physical environment provide people of different ages, areas to carry on private concerns -and areas for people to interact and work as groups? Does environment provide for separation of conflicting uses,either between individuals or groups, or does i t promote conflicting interaction? h. FimBILITY Does the physical environment change with a shift in use function? What adaptability has a house or neighborhood to change as population, ages, and living styles of a community change? i . SAFETY AND DANGERS How does community relate its concern for safety and security with the child- need to explore, interact, and change things? Does one remove a l l harmful en-vironments (ie. sloughs, junk piles, caves, etc.) and i f so, can the environment become so sterile and protecting that the child does not learn to cope with dangers? Can the environment be planned around natural dangers which might stimulate those who are past the stage when the particular danger is acute? How does concern for the child's safety limit his potential to interact with the environment? 24. Each of these questions are a whole thesis in themselves but they are also a l l tied and related to each other. In the following work I will try to answer parts of some of these questions that seem to rne^ most relevant to the needs of the particular communities involved. 25. CHOOSING At f i r s t i t was hoped to examine three differing THE NEIGHBORHOODS neighborhood types - an urban high density area, a residential suburban neighborhood, and a farm or rural neighborhood. Due to time limitations i t was decided to examine only the f i r s t two. The West End was chosen as an example of a high density urban neighborhood, and Killarney was chosen as an example of a residential suburban neighborhood. Reasons for choosing these particular locations are given in Chapter One, but basically they represent extremely different types of physical environments with resultingly different styles of living. 26 A. DATA COLLECTION 1. OBSERVATION Both neighborhoods were informally observed as to the structure of the community, i t s layout, and general use, with particular emphasis on the resources affecting children. This included looking at boundaries for various a c t i v i t i e s , types of spaces, movement, and use patterns. Observation was also used as a tool to look at certain situations brought to my attention through other data gathering processes. 2. RESEARCH Written and recorded data relevant to the particular neighborhoods was analysed. The major data includes i . Canadian Census Tracts ( l 9 6 l ) & (1966) . U.C.S. Local Areas of Vancouver Report (Mayhew). . West End Study (Patillo) . West End & Killarney Community Parks Bulletins . Residential Environs i n the Urban Area (Watty). . And excerpts from various student thesesis. 3. INmVESWS Interviews were conducted with key resource people i n the neighborhoods. These interviews helped give a clearer understanding of how the major resources were related to the community. Included i s a l i s t of the 27 general types of questions asked, and a l i s t of the people formally interviewed. THE QUESTIONSi 1. What are the physical resources of your TYPE OF QUESTIONS fa c i l i t y ? What type of program or acti v i t i e s ASKED do you provide for children? 2. What data do you have res number of children using your f a c i l i t y ? What are their ages and sexes? What are the boundary of the territory of the children using the f a c i l i t y , and what are the formal boundaries of the f a c i l i t y ? What type of children does your program attract? 3. What are your aims-what does your organization and f a c i l i t y hope to provide for children? Is i t duplicated elsewhere i n the community? 4. What restrictions are placed on the child be-cause of your programs and the physical space they interact with? 5 . What changes would you make-in the existing f a c i l i t y to improve i t s use and function and convenience, etc? What would you ideally like to have as a physical resource for your program? What would you add or change i n your program to improve i t ? 6. What relationship do you see with your program and f a c i l i t i e s , and the rest of the community-i e . sharing physical spaces, interchanging re-sources, planning programs, etc? 28. These are roughly the type of question areas which I explored. The questions differed; depending on how much I already knew about a program, to whom I was talking (their position, personality, etc.), or specifically to follow certain details I was interested in. The l i s t of people interviewed includes LIST OF Mr. Archer Director. Killarney Community Center PEOPLE INTERVmffiD H. Barbolett Community Organizer. Gordon House Miss Bohanec Area Co-ordinator. Social Planning Dept. Mr. C a r t e r — Director. Killarney Pool Mr. Coleman Principal. Lord Roberts School Rev. Christiansen—Pastor. Killarney Lutheran Church Mr. Crawley President. Killarney Community Assoc. Mr. Cross Deputy Director of Planning Mr. Downs—• Vice-Principal. McCorkindale School Rev. Ferry Pastor. Collingwood United Church Mrs. Hemple Renfrew Public Library Mrs. Jones- Community Organizer.Gordon House R. Patillo Research Dept. U.C.S. Mr. Pritchard Head of Research. Vane. School Board Miss Rantimo Director-West End Recreation Project J.Stephenson Special Councellor. Vane. School Board Mrs. Vatcher Childrens Dept. Main Library Plus teachers, store owners, students, managers of apartments, etc. I would like to thank a l l these people for their time and effort,and for the contributions they gave towards this thesis. 29. 4. QDESTIONNAJJtB A questionnaire was devised and distributed to a control group of 80 parents in both neighborhoods, in order to get a sampling of how an individual child used the neighborhood, to find out what attitudes parents had about the effect of the neighborhoods on their child, and what changes they would propose iri.thin the neighborhood so i t w^uld better suit the needs of their ehiid and themselves. The questionnaires were distributed through three Vancouver schools representing the neighborhoods I was concerned with. The Killarney area was broken into two sub-units representing Weir and McCorkindale school districts, and the West End was represented through the Lord Roberts school district. At Weir, families were chosen from the school attendance registers to give a representational cross section of children of different sexes and ages. Otherwise, the selection was ona random basis. Parents were contacted by phone and asked i f theytrwould participate in the study. At McCorkindale and Lord Roberts, letters were distributed to the children, explaining the project and asking i f the parents would be willing to participate in the study. From the l i s t of families that agreed to the study, a representative cross section of ages and sexes of children were chosen. The parents were asked to f i l l out the questionnaire for one of their children (some of the older children also participated in f i l l i n g out parts of the questionnaire). A sample questionnaire is included in Appendix JL and the coded response is included in Appendix B. 30. GROUPING OF THE PHYSICAL FACILITIES OF A NEIGHBORHOOD B. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA The two study areas have been analysed and compared by organizing the data into the following frameworks Fi r s t there i s a general discussion of each area, including a brief description of the characteristics of the people and the physical layout of each neighborhood. The Physical f a c i l i t i e s have then been analysed i n d e t a i l , and are broken into 3 sub-groupsJ 1. The dwelling unit-including the relationship and use of interior space. The immediate neighborhood-including the re-lationship and use of exterior space close to the dwelling-ie. yard, back alley, street, block system. 3. The larger neighborhood-including the relationship and use of particular f a c i l i t i e s i n the larger neighborhood context-ie. schools, community centers, parks, commercial f a c i l i t i e s , and public institutions. The data for each of the physical f a c i l i t i e s within the neighborhoods has been structured to givet a. A description of the physical f a c i l i t i e s -including a simple spatial layout and mention of any significant physical features. b. A description of the child's use of the f a c i l i t i e s -including an analysis of the child's use with respect tos the type of neighborhood ( i t s ^ physical constraints) and the age and sex of the children. The type of patterns analysed w i l l include re-relationships of distance and convenience of f a c i l i t i e s , with child mobility, the type of activities engaged in, and hhild groupings for each activity. An attempt i s made to record differences i n use over time - i n terms oft the age of the child, seasonal variations (winter, summer), and with generation differences (child, teenager, adult). 31 c. A description of parental attitude towards the physical facilities and their use by the child, including attitudes as to the good and bad features of the environment and the manner in which i t is used, the conflicts, dangers, and lack of activity resources for the child; and including what might be done or desired to improve the environment for their children. This framework putsmost of the data into a useful form of information. STRUCTURE OF THE RESULTS This detailed information which is included in Chapters one to four forms the backbone for the thesis. At the end of each chapter is a summary of the major characteristics of each area. Chapter five uses these characteristics as a basis to investigate the effect of the physical environment on the ' behaviour; of the children. Chapter six discusses some of the more obvious changes needed in each area, and proposes some, physical solutions to make the neighborhoods more inviting for children. RELATIONSHIPS CONCERNING THE CHILD AND THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT In order to examine behaviour, and in order to form a base from which to make changes, I have loosely focussed on five relationships which I believe are important in affecting the manner in which children behave, and which have a strong dependency on the physical environment. 1. ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULATION The human organism needs a certain amount of stimula-tion or variety, to enact the senses, so i t can interact in new ways with different environmental stimulus. Too 32. much stimulation tends to caase disorientation and confusion in the child, since he can't order a l l the stimulus, and his behaviour tends to break down. Too l i t t l e stimulation tends to make him bored and apathetic, and the instinct to learn and interact with the environ-ment is dulled. Variation can be broken into constant or fixed stimulus amenities, and variable or periodic stimulus amenities. 2. ABILITY TO DIFFERENTIATE FUNCTION The environment exists in various forms of differen-tiated states for the child. Some parts are well differ-entiated-their action potential and interrelationship are quite clearly understood. Other parts are s t i l l in an undifferentiated state for the child. They are not fully comprehended as to their use potential, and the child has a poor ability to relate them to his experience. Differentiation refers to physical and social form, and is related to the cognitive structure of the individual and the clarity of the operative roles of society. The child must normally exist in a differentiated environment or depend on others to help in the differentiation process. 3. SECURITY BASIS The child needs a certain base or security in order to gain confidence in stepping into new environmental situations. This security comes from understanding the order in oneself, in society, and in the environment, 3 3 , so as to predict behaviour and conditions. Too much security leads to a lack of stimulation - everything is too predictable. Therefore a certain amount of conflict or danger - to break apart fixed notions - to structure information in new contexts, is also necessary. Physical safety is one of the biggest factors in promoting a secure base. 4. COMMUNITY AND PRIVACY There is also a need for certain amounts of social interaction to aid the childs growth. It is necessary to learn role models, to group together for security, and to pass on information and learning from member to member. Social interaction is necessary between peers, sexes, and different generation groups. Too much inter-action can however lead to excess stimulation and input, and the child must screen out input, and set up degrees of privacy, through physical or involvement separation. Privacy gives time to reflect and slow down stimulation, so as to integrate and order the existing input. 5. FLEXIBILITY AND ADAPTABILITY TO CHANGE Flexibility or adaptability is needed so that the human organism and child can react to changes in the environmental situation. Flexibility is also needed in the man-made and natural environment so i t can adapt to man's changing needs. Too much flexibility or adaptability usually undermines one's security and makes i t difficult to form operational bases, since structures change rapidly or aren't well enough defined for the 345. cognitive structure we demand and are used to. Too l i t t l e flexibility endangers the adaptability of the organism to structure a change when i t does occur in oneself, in the society, or in the environment. INTERDEPENDENCE I t is apparent that each of these relationships GF THE RELATIONSHIPS depend to a greater or lesser extent on each other. If there is a change in the environment that affects one of the relationships, there wil l likely be repercussions and changes in the other as well, and these other changes usually affect the i n i t i a l change. Say for example one desires to increase privacy in an area by altering the physical environment in some manner. It is entirely possible that the changes attempted will cause change j reactions and adjustments in other behavioural t relationships as well, and may in effect cause an adaptation in behaviour that may work in reverse to what" was planned. It isi also apparent how closely these relationships are related to time - to the particular moment, to the age level of the child, and to the stage of a society in its evolution. It is extremely difficult to use these relationships in any absolute manner, yet we try to do so as adults everyday. Somewhere between the extreme of each relationship lies the norm established by our society and by our own natural response to l i f e . However, this norm 35. : is not static and fixed but is in constant flux. It is this constant interdependence and complexity of, factors which ultimately makes i t a tenuous proposal to hope that a physical solution will do what is intended. It is for this reason that the solutions offered in Chapter 3 have not been finalized into a fixed form — but are rather lef t to float and adapt to the changes, pressures, and values that wi l l quickly make any single solution outdated or unacceptable to the changing conditions of our times. A GENERAL DEXRIp[IONl OF THE AREAS 36. • A GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE AREAS A.i « REASONS FOR PICKING THE AREAS Both areas have been selected because they represent environments with extremely different physical layouts. It is hoped to show that there are some significant differences in the use and behaviour shown by the children as they interact with these physical environments. Included is a l i s t relating some of the major differences between the two areas and a map showing the location of the two areas in context with the whole of Vancouver. WEST END 1 High density apartment living 2 Close to the downtown core 3 In a process of rapid change 4 Few planned resources for child-ren in the neighborhood 5 Low child density/population 6 Proximity to ocean, Stanley Park 7 High rental accomodation 8 Lord Roberts - old school facility 9 Community center and parks program held in different spaces - rented from the community 10 Traditionally regarded as a poor neighborhood for bringing up children - in fact much of the new development specifically excludes them - and few take the child's needs into consideration KILLARNEY 1 Residential single family dwelling 2 Far from the downtown core 3 Stable slow change 4 Many planned resources for children in the neighborhood 5 High child density/population 6 Proximity to Central Park 7 High ownership accomodation 8 Two school districts - Weir and McCorkindale give opportunity to examine new open area and traditional concepts of school facility 9 Large community center a l l in one complex 10 Traditionally regarded as a good type of neighborhood for bringing up children. It is modelled after the concepts of Berry's residential neighborhood theory 37. LOCATION Of THE ]1N0 AREAS 38. B. KILLARKEY MICRO-DISTRICTS The Killarney residential suburb has been divided into two micro-areas as defined by the neighboring Weir and McCorkindale school districts. There are a number of reasons for making this distinction - the main ones being: 1. The opportunity to observe and analyze two school units with significantly different methods of teaching, and with significantly different physical plants to carry but this instruction. 2. An interest in seeing i f schools act as the child! neighborhood focii, and i f and when the child begins to explore beyond the school district. 3. The opportunity to analyze how the childs l i f e style might change depending on the distance and particular orientation of various facilities within the neighborhood. Since in many cases there is l i t t l e significant difference between the data collected for these two micro-districts (especially regarding the dwelling and the : immediate neighborhood), most of the analysis w i l l simply refer to the Killarney area as a whole. If there are significant) differences between the two areas, they wil l be referred to and analyzed by the Weir and McCorkindale micro-districts. 39. 40. KILLARNEY SINGLE FAMILY DWELLING POPULATION WEIR LENGTH OF OCCUPANCY MoCORKIHDALE LENGTH OF OCCUPANCY C. THE AREAS The Killarney area will be regarded as representative of a single-family residential suburb, with the majority of householders owning their dwellings. ' The Weir and McCorkindale distriots each have a population of approx-imately 3»500 - 500 of which are elementary school age children. The Weir area is very settled and stable. Many of the families questioned have moved there 5 - 1 0 years ago, and a large minority have lived there for over 10 years.2" The1 area is almost completely developed except for one block s t i l l in vacant land. The McCorkindale area, which has been developed! later than Weir is slightly less settled. Most of the families questioned have lived there 2 to 5 years.2* There is more turnover in the population and new building is s t i l l taking place. However most of this area is now developed, or wil l be in the next few years - and should then begin to staballze much as Weir is today. Some improvement is being carried out by younger families who are moving into the area and fixing up older houses. The following characteristics have been derived from the questionnaire sample unless indicated otherwise. When I use the terms " Killarney or West End family", I am in fact referring only to the sample families studied in each area. Footnotes,which are explained at the end of each Chapter,are generally used to cross reference the analyzed facts to the questionnaire response date included in Appendix B. 41. • The West End area is in comparison representative of a high density urban area. The majority of the dwellings are apartment suites - and almost a l l dwelling units are rented. The^  area has a population of over 35»000 or 4 to 5 times the density of the residential suburb. The elementary school population is about the same or slightly lower, than the:residential suburb, showing the low number of children living in the West End in comparison to the population. The West End is and has been for some years undergoing a rapid change from older single family dwelling and 3 storey apartment block accomodation to newer high rise accomodation. This trend should stabilize in about 5 years as the maximum allowable; density is reached. Surprisingly many of the families questioned have lived in the West End much longer than the average. Most have lived there 2 - 5 years or more,~'Many of these families have had to move frequently as dwellings are removed and replaced by higher rent structures. 42. y e s . DWEWG ifE • owtaip-ta. trnky 43 KILLARNEY INCOME EDUCATION OCCUPATION i i f * H 0 F ETHNIC GROUPS D.; THE PEOPLE - ADULT CHARACTERISTICS The Killarney family model as interpreted from the questionnaire response, i s traditionally middle class and conservative i n i t s values. The family income averages approximately $8 - 12,000 per year, which I believe i s slightly better than the Vancouver average. °A high school diploma i s the predominant educational level attained by the majority of the adults, although a few have gone to university, and a few have no high school education. " The area i s predominantly working class. Most of the men are blue collar workers employed as craftsmen either i n construction or 'industry, or employed i n a l l i e d service industries. There are a smaller number of managerial, o l e r i c a l , and professional people. " ;> Most of the adults either grew up i n Vanoouver (in or around the Killarney area), or have immigrated from the Canadian p r a i r i e s . 6 There are a large number of ethnic groups represented i n the area. The majority of the adults are B r i t i s h i n descent, however there i s a strong Northern European element, (German, Scandinavian, Dutch, Ukranian). 7" Because of the different ethnic groups there are certain differences i n values about child rearing and social standards, although the more general and basic values important for the st a b i l i t y seem to be quite consistent. Most of the adults have gained familiarity with the Canadian way of l i f e before moving into the Killarney region, i n some cases by l i v i n g i n areas l i k e the West End. 44. FAMILY ROLE STRUCTURE AGE OF PARENTS The woman's main role in the Killarney family is that of housewife and mother, while the husband works . s " Most husbands leave the area to work, while the women stay at home. Therefore for large parts of the day the Killarney area is a female dominated world. For the majority of families this is the full-time arrangement except possibly for holidays. There are however a number of women that hold f u l l or part time jobs (usually as typists,, bookkeeper, or stenographer). In many cases this income is a steady supplement to a rather up and down seasonal male employment picture. In most cases when both parents work, the children are of school age and the school provides an effective baby-sitting service. Few parents use a babysitter. Instead the children are locked out or left in the house on their own t i l l one of the parents makes i t home from work. There are few broken families in the area (at least in structure), and most children have the benefit of both a Mom and a Dad to help them as they grow up. The main difference between the Weir & McCorkindale adult is that of age. The Weir adult is generally middle-aged ( 4 0 - 5 5 ) , and the families are in the process of growing up. The McCorkindale adult is generally younger ( 3 0 - 4 5 ) and the families are smaller, partly because the birth rate is falling for younger adults, and partly because many families have not yet had a l l the children they plan on having. NUMBER OF CHILDREN FAMILY AGE PROFILE 45. The Killarney area i s regarded as a good neighborhood to bring up children and this i s reflected by the number of children per family questioned. (3»2 i n Weir, 2.7 i n McCorkindale). " The Killarney area had one of the highest f e r t i l i t y ratios i n Vancouver at the time of the *6l census. "It seems that i n the Weir area at least this f e r t i l i t y ratio has dropped since most families have had a l l the children they plan on having, and that most of these have or are now approaching school age. A quick age profile of the Weir area would seem to indicate few pre-school children, a l o t of elementary and secondary school children, few young adults (18-30), a large adult population (40-50), and a small number of elderly. The McCorkindale area would be similar with more pre-school children and a younger adult population (30-45). "" WEST END INCOME EDUCATION The West End family i s much more varied than the Killarney family. There i s a greater range and diversity i n almost a l l of their characteristics. The family income i s generally lower than the Killarney figure, ranging from $5 to 12,000/per year. 3*There are few families that make more than $12,000, however there are a number of families who make less than $5»000/per year. In a l l cases these are single parent families, i n which case the woman has to work to support 1 or 2 children. The high school diploma i s s t i l l the predominant level of education attained by the parents. However there are a number of adults with a university degree, or some university, and there are a 46. number who have only a partial high school education.4-It is interesting to note that the income in this area seems to<have l i t t l e correlation to the amount of education of the adult. There are many more people holding professional, managerial, clerical and sales jobs in the West End than in Killarney, and there are fewer craftsmen and laborers. In other words the West End occupational force is more white collar oriented. Most of the adults questioned are foreign and have immigrated from Europe. A much smaller per cent have lived in Vancouver a l l their l i f e or immigrated from other areas in Canada.6, Over 50$ of the families thus speak a foreign language, and many of the parents have difficulty with English. Almost half of the foreign families are of German descent, or speak German, and the others are mainly from other Northern European countries, and speak the native language (Latvian, Ukranian, Austrian, Hungarian and Swedish).7* The West End seems to attract the Northern European for a variety of reasons. It is in some ways a melting pot where they can find others of their own ethnic group. They are generally more used to living in apartments, and choose the area because i t is close to employment opportunities. It is also one of the few areas in the city that has rental accomodation. 4 7 . WEST END FAMILY ROLE STRUCTURE AGE OF PARENTS The family roles exhibited i n the West Edd vary quite considerably from the Killarney area. The majority of the women hold full-time jobs, as do their husbands. Host adults work i n or near the West End and can walk or take the bus to work. A number of the husbands however work for extended period away from home(ie. up North or i n Eastern Canada), leaving the wife i n control of the household. There are also a large percentage of single parent families (up to 40$ of the families i n the West End have been estimated to have only a single parent, i n most cases a Mother). Many of the families thus make use of day care centers for their younger children, and leave their younger school age children at school, or at after school day care centers, and pick them up after work. Many of these families, especially the one-parent type, have limited income and have to struggle to maintain a desirable standard of l i v i n g for themselves and their child, and many worry about the possi b i l i t y of having to relocate because of the rapid replacement of older and cheaper dwellings with new, smaller, much more expensive high-rise apartment units. The West End family i s not as easy typified as i s the Killarney family. There i s a large range i n age, but the majority are i n the younger 2 5 to 4 5 age bracket. The younger parents generally l i v e i n the high-rise and apartment units, while the older parents more commonly l i v e i n suites i n houses, detached dwellings, or low density multiple dwelling units such as duplexes. The 48 family size is much smaller than in the residential suburb (1.8 children per family questioned),9" This is due to the fact that the families are young, many are s t i l l career oriented rather than family oriented, and i t is almost impossible to afford or find adequate accomodation for a large family in the West End area, since most units are only one bedroom, and many dwelling units refuse to rent for family accomodation. When this low child population per family is related to the low number of families per population in the West End, the results give by far the lowest fe r t i l i t y ratio of any area in Vancouver.XOm >- A quick age profile of the West End would yield few children of a l l ages (especially of school age), and a disproportionately high number of young adults from 18 to 30 (mainly working girls attracted to the area because of the increased potential for employment, and for social inter-action and because of the amenities of the downtown, the beaches and the park). There are fewer middle-aged adults (30 - 60). Most of these people who have families have moved to the residential suburbs. There are also a large number of old age adults who have moved back to the urban area for the increased social interaction with their own kind, and because of the closeness and concentration of amenities. It thus seems that the West End attracts the age group of people that the residential suburb loses, and the Killarney area tends to attract the type of people that the West End is short of. 11" o $ b 9 f (0 C 0 S 1^  m Z_ D ui 0 ^ T r 1 * 1 * 1 1 — * * — * 8 4—4- 8 W E S J E|\1D -ty VAf^JcodVER AVERAGE. • vN VA^CoJvEPJ , ^ A V E R A G E : K J L L A E N I E AGE 7 51. KILIARNEY TIME SPENT WITH PEOPLE TIME SPENT WITH PARENTS E. THE PEOPLE _ CHILD CHARACTERISTICS The Killarney children spend a lot of structured time with adult teachers at school, and spend their free time playing or interacting with their parents, siblings, and peer friends. The children are at an age when they s t i l l depend on their parents for direction and guidance in learning to cope with the environment. They are from large families, and thus spend a lot of time interacting with brothers and sisters in the dwelling and immediate neighbourhood, and they are at an age when peer friend-ships start to form and become an ever increasing tool for socialization. Little time is spent with other adults (other than the teacher at school), or babysitters, and the children spend l i t t l e time by themselves, due to the fact that they have friends, siblings, or parents around most of the time. The children generally spend more time with peers and less time with parents and 13 siblings as they grow older. In the Killarney area by the age of 1 1 and 1 2 , the time spent with peers is nearing that spent with parents and siblings. As the children grow older less time is spent by oneself and less time is spent with babysitters or adult friends. 1 2" The adults questioned in the Killarney area say they spend roughly 2 - 6 hours per week interacting with their child Inside the dwelling, and slightly less time outside. Male adults generally spend more time with the boys and female adults spend more time with the girls. The boys get roughly equal time from both Mom and Dad, while the girls get proportionately less time from Dad and sub-5 2 . / stantially moire time from Mom. Most parents in Killarney (77$) are satisfied with the amount of time they get to spend with their children. The children in the West End generally follow the same pattern as is followed in the Killarney area. There are howeverSpme important differences. Relatively more time is spent between child and parent: in the West 13 End. There are many reasons for this. The children are generally not as free to adventure on their own be-cause of the dangers in the area. There are fewer brothers and sisters in the families for the children to interact with, and peer friendships are more difficult to cult-ivate because of the low number of children in the area, and because there are few places to meet and play. The children are therefore more dependant on their parent. As the children grow older, and their mobility and ability to fend for themselves improves, they are able to spend more time with their peers and relative to the 12. Killarney child more time by themselves. The West End adults generally spend more time interacting with their children and there is not the same tendency towards sexual segregation as there is in Killarney, however over 50$ of them are s t i l l not satisfied with the amount of time they spend with their children, and would like to 14. spend more. This begins to show the responsibility and need West End parents feel about helping the child over-come the problems, and limitation of living in this area. 53. The activities that parents share with their cMldren are tied closely to the availability and con-venience of the physical amenities. The activities shared with the boys are on the whole much more active and extensive in nature (from sports and outdoor camping and excursions, to woodworking and model building), while the activities shared with the girls tend to be more passive and unstructured even though they often use the same physical facility. Activities which seem especially to involve both sexes of the family are family swimming and skating at the community center in the Killarney area} and walking and playing or swimming at the beaches or Stanley Park, and visiting downtown amenities such as cinema, bowling, eating at restaurants, etc. in the West End area. Generally the level of activity shared in the West End i s less active in nature than that shared in Killarney. The children spend much of their free time at home, in front of the T.V* or to a lesser extent reading books. They spend on the average 1 - 2 hours/per day watching T.V.(many spend up to 3 - 6 hours/day), and usually less than 1 hour/day reading books. This is about equal to the amount of time thejt spend interacting with their parents. From these media they learn about the larger society - how other people live, and alternate role models around which to form their behaviour. Thus T.V. especially has a large influence on the attitudes learned and ex-pressed by the children. 54. There is no appreciable difference between the i. amount of time spent by the Killarney children or the West End children watching T.V. or reading books. The female children in both areas however seem to spend more time than the male children watching T.V. This might relate to the fact that girls tend to spend more of their free time inside the dwelling, and boys tend to spend their free time outside.17" The children in the West End and Killarney exhibit normal friendship patterns. Most boys have a few good friends, as do the girls. The boys seem to segregate themselves into male groupings by the age of 7 or 8, which is the normal age that they start to identify with small gangs and secret friendship pacts. They group with their own sex for friendship up to the twelfth year. The girls however generally seem to set up female groupings earlier, by age 5 or 6. However by 11 or 12 they begin to develop an interest in the opposite sex, and begin then to have active boy friends and exhibit heterosexual friend-ship patterns. The child's friends are usually a l l about the same-age. There appears to be a tendency however for a few of the younger, 5-8 year olds to play with older children (9 - 12).l&' About 15$ of the parents disapprove of some of their child% friends. This seems relatively normal and there is l i t t l e difference in attitudes between the two areas. Dis-approval is usually related to the younger children and their 55. CHTLD OBEDIENCE TYPE OF PUNISHMENTG choice of f i r s t friendships, for reasons usually questioning the home atmosphere, and/or moral upbringing of these friends, or because of the difference i n age between the young child and his newly formed older friends. I 9-Most children are obedient to the rules placed on them by their parents. There i s some d i f f i c u l t y with the Killarney boys. 25$ of the parents said their child tends to be defiant, stubborn, and demanding of explana-tion. Weir and to some extent the McCorkindale areas are regarded as "tough" neighbourhoods because of the type of people l i v i n g there, and this i s reflected i n the upbringing of some of the children. The West End boys and the g i r l s generally seemed to conform more readily to the restrictions placed on them by their . 1®. parents. The usual type of punishment '• for breaking rules or being disobedient i n the Killarney area i s for the parents to suspend priviledges from the child (stay i n your room stay i n the house or yard, no T.V., and lose your allowance). However i n the Weir area a large number (40#) of parents punished the child physically. This possibly relates to the more authori-tarian upbringing of many of the older European parents, or to the fact that the area i s more blue collar oriented. The West End parent generally tends to talk and explain and expressed generally less need to punish their children. 56. Host of the parents when asked to comment on the biggest problems that their children may have to cope with i n the future mentioned more universal rather than specifically neighborhood problems. The three problems most often mentioned i n both areas were drugs, pollution, arid over population (19$). There were however a long l i s t of future problems mentioned which included most, of the potential " i l l s " of our society. This l i s t i s probably an adequate reflection of the parentis worries and concerns about the enviroflment they l i v e within. Much of their concern reflects the concern® of the 22.. mass-media, and the problems i t i s looking at today. 57. LESS 2.HRS/£ofc. 7 2><E> HRS/a>lc. - 2 H R 5 / D A V 2 2 % o 4 6 2 6 % •» *• w£sy ENpl. 19% ' L E S S Z H K ^ t 3 2 5 2 % 16% 2-6 HES/wt. |-2 HRS/OM* . 3-&HR^tAy i 2 3 % -2 MRS, 60%, 1 7 % 1-2. HRS/oAy -8 KILLAKJI 2o% L E S S 1 ne/DAy l -2 HRS/OAy. JIAAE J P E N [ BV CHILDREN) 58. E. THE PHYSICAL LAYOUT The physical layout of the two areas can best be explained by a short written summary, supplemented with a few photographs and maps. KILLARNEY WEIR McCORKINDALE BORDERING FACILITIES The Weir district consists of approximately 750 dwelling units, centered around Killarney Park,which includes playing fields, a community center, a secondary school and a public library. Across from the park i s Weir Elementary school. There are a number of churches in the area, two neighborhood stores, and a couple of service stations. The houses and facilities are related to each other by the rectangular block and grid street pattern. The street pattern includes major vehicle access about every 4th block, which effectively chops Weir into a series of smaller areas for many of the children. The McCorkindale district is adjacent to the east edge of Weir. The main focii in the McCorkindale district-are the McCorkindale elementary school and the King sway strip shopping facilities. There are no churches, service stations, or stores except along Kingsway, and no parks at a l l . Major vehicular routes surround the McCorkindale area on 3 sides, and one route cuts through i t . There are several facilities which bound the Weir-McCorkindale districts and are used by the Killarney residents. To the immediate west of the Weir district there are some senior citizens housing developments, and a small shopping center called Killarney Gardens. To the 59. North there are a couple of small parks and the King sway commercial strip - a major through route between Vancouver and New Westminster, which slants into the top edge of the McCorkindale district* North of Kingsway is the railroad and manufacturing and merchandizing storage depots. To the east and bounding on the edge of McCorkindale is Central Park (a major regional park located in Burnaby). To the south is a large undeveloped piece of land partly forested and partly open grassland below the McCorkindale district, andaipublic 9 hole golf course below the Weir district. Included are maps which shows 1. The location of school boundaries of Weir and McCorkindale, and the relative locations of the questionnaire respondents. 2. The location of major arteries for traffic including transit routes and pedestrian crosswalks and potential vehicular - child pedestrian conflict points. 3> The location of housing in the areas. _ 4. The location of major open areas (parks, vacant land, parking lots, school grounds), and the location of major buildings and institutions. LiJLlLlLULJUUU 64. WEST END The West End area consists of high rise towers, mainly along the edges of Stanley Park and English Bay beachesi walk up 3 storey apartments scattered through-out the area; and older houses mainly towards the center of the area. These dwelling units are broken into smaller defined regions because of the commercial develop-ment and vehicular access that penetrate the area. The area includes small Nelson Park, secondary and elementary school:, a number of churches, neighborhood stores and cinema, neighborhood shopping strips, a firehall, Crystal Gardens Indoor Pool, Gordon Neighbor-hood Center, plus more regional facilities such as hospital, art gallery, and regional shopping districts, especially along Robson. Again the area is broken by the block and grid street pattern, although the land is much more varied in topography (there are some steep hi l l s ) , than is the almost flat Killarney area. The area has no central focus as has Killarney. Instead BORDERING focus is turned to the edges, and to the shopping strip FACILITIES along Robson, Davies and Denman Streets. The bordering facilities include the major Stanley Park regional facility to the west (including zoo, acquarium, lagoon, woods); the beaches and swimming facilities to the south} the major downtown commercial district to the east (including a regional public library, restaurants, cinema row, major department and specialty stores, and much of the major office space)| and the marinas, harbor and offices to the north. These bordering facilities bound the West End into a well defined identity. BL 0 BOND V C l t l d «1 0 0 0 o J / / V f> 69. PARENTS OPINION REi NAME OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD PARENTS OPINION RE: BOUNDARIES OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD KILLARNEY One of the fi r s t questions on the questionaire is to ask the parents to give their view towards what they call their neighborhood, and to approximate what they think are its boundaries. There is a strong unanimity about the name. Nearly 80$ of the parents from the residential suburb said the name of their neighborhood was"Killarney", and over 95$ of the parents from the high-density urban area called their neighbor-hood the "West End". ^* The boundaries mentioned by the Killarney parents varied considerably, however there is a strong consensus about certain edges. Boundary Rd.,as the east, boundary, was most consistently mentioned (90$). This is probably due to 4 factors. It represents The edge of the Vancouver city boundary A sharp change in function a major road access and there is very l i t t l e of distinction or definition for the inhabitants to refer to until one goes as far east as Killarney Park. Kingsway is regarded by most as the northern boundary 8 although some mentioned 4lst or 45th avenues as their northern boundary. Those that replied with these two street usually have a much smaller definition of the neighborhood in other directions as well. The southern border is predominantly 49th or 54» and the eastern edge is either Elli o t t , Nanaimo, or Victoria Drive. Interestingly the McCorkindale responses are much more constant in their reply. 7 0 . It is interesting to note that every edge is defined by using the street system and specifically through streets as boundary references. This shows how strong an effecit the grid-iron network is as a frame of references to the parents. Both the Weir & McCorkindale districts are included as part of the general neighborhood area defined by most parents. This is because neither district by i t -self has enough of the necessary facilities to satisfy the needs and requirements of the parents - or older children. There is a core area mentioned in both the Weir and McCorkindale districts which every parent questioned from the respective districts included as part of their neighborhood. The Weir core includes an area of approximately 4 square blocks and interestingly takes1 in almost a l l the close neighboring amenitiesthe park, community center, secondary and elementary schools, and the shopping center. It is interesting to note that the school is on the edge of the core, and that part of the core extends outside the school boundary. In other words, the Weir school does not particularly act as a focus element. The McCorkindale core is about the same size and is centered around the McCorkindale elementary school. The McCorkindale core however is much less defined than the Weir core, because there is less to focus on. Most parents described a neighborhood as 71. SIZE OF between 8-12 blocks running north-south, and 16 - 20 NEIGHBORHOOD blocks running east-west (or approximately 1 - l f miles x i f - 2 miles). This shape is influenced by the placement of through roads in the area. There is no apparent reference between the parentis concept of the neighborhood and the age of their children. PARENTS OPINION RE: BOUNDARIES OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD WEST END REFERENCE SYSTEM CORE AREA The boundaries mentioned by the West End parents are in most cases identical to each other. Every reply mentions Stanley Park and English Bay as boundaries. Most parents regard Burrard Street as the eastern boundary, and Georgia Street or Coal Harbor as the northern boundary. The area between Georgia and Coal Harbor is mainly a commercial and office district and so in many responses is not regarded as 2.5 part of the West End neighborhood. Landmarks such as Stanley Park and English Bay are used much more frequently in the West End than Killarney to refer to the boundaries of the neighborhood. However, even though the functional changes between boundary conditions (ie. the ocean and the land) are so strong, the streets (ie. Beach) are s t i l l preferred in many cases as a reference system. The West End core is as big as the district itself. The West End is perceived as an area with strong boundaries and a much less strongly defined core area, whereas in the residential suburb the area revolves around some core facilities and has more poorly defined boundaries. 72. The size of the neighborhood is thus defined by SIZE OF NEIGHBORHOOD the distance between boundary conditions. It is approximately 10-12 blocks by 12 - lk blocks, or considerably smaller than the Killarney neighborhood. 7 3 . AUPPING Of BOltalES Of t_GMHOOD5 74. i p * Of BOitaj of NEIGHBORHOODS ^ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ j 4-(*i eu_>e _______ ___ _4-ii_*_e =_. VV-l __V l K__. j * . ' ~ _ . WEIR . -I7,V_ 7 5 . 1. A DESCRIPTION OF THE GENERAL AREAS & PEOPLE KILLARNEY WEST END higher family income (8-12,000/yr.) 1 blue collar oriented 2 the area i s removed from most 3 employment opportunities stable, slow changing area 4 some planned resources for 5 children i n the Weir d i s t r i c t ; few i n the McCorkindale d i s t r i c t homogeneity of family tradition; 6 most children are "Canadianized". few elderly or young unmarried 7 adults i n the area; lower family income ( 5 - 1 2 , 0 0 0 / y r . ) white collar oriented working area the area i s close to employment opportunities area i s i n a process of rapid change few planned resources for children i n the West End a variety of languages and cultures; many new Canadians a large number of elderly and young unmarried working adults in the area. few outside visitors enter and 8 use f a c i l i t i e s i n the Killarney area many children i n the area per 9 population younger families l i v e i n the 1 0 McCorkindale area; older families l i v e i n the Weir area most children have two parents; some 1 1 broken families. almost a l l parents lived i n a low 12 density area during their child-hood moderate number of families where 1 3 both parents work children spend a lot of time with -^k other children most parents are satisfied with the 1 5 amount of time they spend with their children. a large influx of people who v i s i t and use f a c i l i t i e s i n the area and who li v e outside i t . few children i n the area per population. a range of younger and older families l i v e i n the West End; younger families are increasing. a large number of single parent families. some parents lived i n a higher density area during their child-hood. large number of families where both parents work. children spend more time with parents, and more by themselves. many parents would like to spend more time with their children. 76. KILLARNEY WEST END most children spend as much time watching T.V. as they do inter-acting with parents. g i r l s watch more T.V. than boys boys use the outside more often, are more active, and branch out from the dwelling more quickly a l l the young children's and most of older children's friends l i v e within a block of the dwelling, they are close neigh-borhood friends only a few of the older children develop school friends who l i v e outside the immediate neighbor-hood. children tend to more active and robust 1 6 17 18 19 20 21 most children spend as much time watching T.V. as they do inter-acting with parents. g i r l s watch more T.V. than boys. boys use the outside more often, are more active, and branch out from the dwelling more quickly. the younger children find i t d i f f i c u l t to form peer relations and find friends due to the lack of f a c i l i t i e s and opportunities i n the neighborhood i n which to meet other children. most friends l i v e a block from the dwelling; many liv e 4-12 blocks away; friends are normally formed through school; older children have friends scattered through the larger neighborhood. be. children tend to more passive and accepting. 7 7 . FOOTNOTES. CHAPTER ONE la see QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE, PART 1 , # 1 , 3 (page3. ) 2 . it tt it PART 1 , # 2 (page 3. ) 3 . it it it PART 2 , # 2 6 (page39.) 4. it it it PART 2 , # 2 5 (page39.) 5 . it tt tt PART 2 , # 2 3 (page_e».) 6 . it it ti PART 1 , # 5 (page 7- ) 7 . tt tt ti PART 1 , # 6,(page 7- ) 8. it tt ti PART 2 , #24 (page 3 9 . ) 9 . tt tt tt PART 1 , # 0 0 (page2-) 1 0 . see APPENDIX C, UCS CENSUS ANALYSIS (pageB.) 1 1 . see tt it DATA pa -A c_*fc5_5 (page 2.-) 1 2 . see QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE,PART 1 , #19 (page_2.) 1 3 . it ti it PART 1 , # 2 1 , 2 2 (page24.) 14. it tt tt PART 1 , # 2 3 , 2 4 (page240 1 5 . tt it tt PART 1 , # 2 0 (page 23.) 1 6 . it, it it PART 1 , #17 (page2o.) 1 7 . tt tt it PART 1 , #18 (page2i.) 18. tt it tt PART 1 , # 2 5 , 2 6 , 2 7 (page25.) 1 9 . tt it it PART 1 , #28 (page2_..) 2 0 . n tt tt PART 2 , # 1 5 (page35.) 2 1 . it tt it PART 2 , # 1 6 (page 35.) 2 2 . it tt it PART 2 , # 2 2 (page3&.) 2 3 . tt tt tt PART 1 , # 4 (page 4 ) 24. tt tt it PART 1 , # 4 (page5 ) 2 5 . it it it PART 1 , # 4 (page£> ) 7 8 . 2. AN ANALYSIS OF THE DWELLING A. A PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE FACILITY KILLARNEY The dwelling unit i n the Killarney area w i l l be typically regarded as a detached single family drelling DETACHED DWELLING owned by the occupant. The units w i l l be considered basically identical i n structure. For the most part they include a main floor,°s"or just above ground level, and a lower floor or basement below grade. The main floor i s typically composed of an eight foot high space broken into separate functional units such as a l i v i n g -dining area, a kitchen, bathroom, one to three bedrooms, an entrance hallway and staircase. The lower level l s either l e f t unfinished or i s roughed i n or finished to include such spaces as extra bedrooms and bathrooms, a recreation or family room, and laundry and storage areas. The Killarney dwelling f i t s into one of four sub categories i 1. The small one-level two bedroom dwelling usually with an unfinished or no basement,built during or before the early 1940*s. 2. The small two-storey dwelling usually with one bedroom on the main floor and two above, b u i l t during or before the early 1940"s. 3. The three bedroom, single level bungalow with basement,built after the war t i l l the end of 1960's. 4. The three or four bedroom s p l i t level bungalow with f u l l finished basement, b u i l t i n the last five - ten years. Some of the older and cheaper dwelling do not have basement f a c i l i t i e s and as a result the main floor space has to 79 entertain the functions that normally occur downstairs. Other older houses have a second storey which usually serves as extra bedroom space for children. Most of the houses have the traditional furniture and household services and amenities normally associated with middle class suburbs. The differences in these dwelling units are concerned with age and size (the newer ones tend to be larger and more convenient); the related practicability and convenience of appliances and service areas; and. the relation of spaces to each other. The major differences of concern to the child are the number and relationship of bedrooms, and the provision of a recreation or family space or basement area for active play. O U . The West End dwelling unit i s typically a suite i n a multiple family apartment or house, and this suite i s rented by the occupant. The units w i l l again be considered as identical i n internal structure. They include a series of eight foot high spaces, a l l on one level, and separated into a l i v i n g room small kitchen, bathroom, one or two bedrooms, plus an entrance hallway and limited storage areas. The dwelling unit i s one of many i n a larger building, each unit being accessible by a common lobby, elevator, stairway, and hallway system. The unit may be anywhere from 1 to 32 storeys above the ground, and i n a l l cases i s much smaller than the Killarney dwelling unit. 90$ of the West End dwelling units that were examined f i t into one of three sub-categories: 1. A small 1 or 2 bedroom suite i n an older two or three storey house, constructed i n the 1920*s or 30"s. 2. A small 1 or 2 bedroom suite i n a three level walk-up apartment, b u i l t i n the 1930's or 40's. 3. An even smaller 1 bedroom suite i n a high, rise tower (from 6 to 32 levels), b u i l t within the l a s t 10 or so years. The main differences i n the types of dwelling units i n the West End are of the same nature as those i n Killarney. There i s a difference i n the age and size (the new ones tend to be smaller), and i n the convenience and arrangement of the spaces and services (the older houses tend to be less functional). In the walkup and high rise apartment type dwellings the tenants also use shared or common spaces which include laundry and storage space, and underground 81. parking and swimming pools in some of the newer units. The major physical differences for the child again concern the number of bedrooms and the availability of an indoor area for active play. Other differences of some import-ance include the height of the suite above the ground, and the number of occupants per floor and in the whole apartment. 82. V r jl -— Ad. A 22' E L r o o m <s.p^rtvne*nt' =1 i» ,{ ----rl 5 o 2 - 5 IT A COMPARISON Of 5IZE ANJD Ufflif OF, "PflCAL SINGLE fAMl*/ *APARJMEN} DWELLINGS 83. fc> r o o m • kilLLAferJEy S 3 % GZ% \oo% l o o % 7 % <ardr) 22% ^/^^yy Call ^  l ^ ^ o n > 7 o r h o u s e s 9 5 % 1-c a r • 6 2 3 % 97% 75%, AVA1LAB1L179 op fAClLlJI 84. B.. USE OF THE DWELLING UNIT - BY THE CHILD KILLARNEY The typical Killarney dwelling unit can be abstractly broken into space patterns and zones of use. ZONSS OF USE id L E V E L LOWET_ L E V E L DIFFERENTIATION OF SPACE PATTERNS From the questionnaire and interview responses there are certain patterns that seem to establish themselves as the typical Killarney family use their dwelling. » 85. • A l l parents take one of the bedrooms and relegate BEDROOMS the others to their children. There is a desire to have a separate bedroom for each child in the family, however i f this is impossible the bedrooms are shared by age and sex groupings. As the children grow older there is more pressure for one's private space. The bedroom is typically the only main level space regarded as the child's own, and many belongings and possessions are stored there. Within the bedroom space the children typically sleep, dress and carry on much of their unstructured indoor play* This play changes from dramatic and inter-active sibling and self play (dolls, building blocks, coloring) for the 5 and 6 year olds, to more structured games, hobbies, and reading, to doing homework, listening to records, and entertaining friends for the 11 and 12 year old. The parent's bedroom is often out of bounds for the child. It i s the main area of privacy for the adult. The chi Ids bedroom is only partially private since i t is well supervised by the parents i f necessary. The child however has limited freedom in this space. This freedom increases i f the bedroom space is situated on a different level from the main living area (either upstairs or downstairs), since i t is more removed from the daily activities of parents. LIVING ROOM The Living room usually tries to accomodate two purposes. It is often a family room and serves such activities as watching T.V., reading, and playing games -active sibling games, or family games, often on Friday night or on the weekend.3- In this case the children's belongings are dragged out of closets and bedrooms, and the physical space is adapted to their play world. The same space also has to act as the formal and informal entertainment area for the adults. As a result, the furniture and decor are usually more oriented to this function, and are not completely suited to the childs play. As a result there are many more restrictions placed onothe child in interacting with the furniture and physical space, thus limiting the type of activity that is permitted to passive pursuits such as reading, l i s t -ening to records or watching T.V. The dining area is included as part of this living space in mood. How strictly the living-dining area is set up to exclude the activities of children is dependent on the availability of other facilities in the dwelling (specifically a recreation or family room), and the mood and personality of the family. RECREATION If a recreation room is available, most active play OR FAMILY ROOM is relegated to that area, as is watching T.V. in many cases. Also i t is the one acceptable area where children can entertain friends inside. KITCHEN The kitchen s t i l l remains the domain of Mother. She revolves around i t , preparing meals and doing household chores. Most kitchens include nook facilities to s i t for meals and to engage in family activities. Many families use this space for a l l their meals, reserving the dining 87. table for formal dinners on special occacions. Since the Mother spends much of her time in the kitchen, the children, especially the younger one$, try to spend much of their free time near the kitchen, to be in close proximity to mother. Thus activities like reading, puzzles, playing cards, coloring, art work, and home-work, a l l tend to gravitate to the kitchen table or floor/ ©ften these activities interfere with Mothers activities which use the same space. The Killarney child spends l i t t l e time cooking or preparing food, and only moder-ately participates in helping with domestic chores. Halls and stairways are generally not.used as places of play. 'In some cases the child stores belongings in the hallway. There i s l i t t l e response as to specific play, however the hall forms a circle or linear pathway which gives the child an uninterrupted runway for certain games (tag, marbles, sliding),and is used as an escape route when one is threatened by siblings, or parents. Stairways are also used for the change in level and intimate corners they provide, although most parents restrict playing on the stairs. The balcony provides the link between the dwelling as an enclosed space and the outside. It is used for such diverse activities as eating, reading, suntanning, skipping and other medium active sports, games, and as an area for the boys to sleep outside with his pals (although most prefer the patio or yard which is more re-moved from the adult world and the house). The balcony 88. is most often situated off the dining room at the back of the dwelling, often above a carport. It is an area well situated for supervision by the parent and is often used as an alternative to letting the younger child venture outside and wander away. The balconies are not really regarded as a place to play, or as much desired as the yard Itself or a concrete patio at the back of the house. Usually they are too small and confining for much of the child*s play demands. BASEMENT The other main area of the dwelling used by the child is the basement (if available). This space becomes increasingly important as the child becomes older»as an area for unstructured play. It is used mainly by boys for active games like roller skating, hockey, practising i 3 hockey shots, ball and rough games. *It is one of the few spaces in the house where the child is permitted to move and rearrange furniture and create one's own spaces, where values on belongings are less important, where forts and secret spaces can be set up, and especially where the child can get away from the supervising eye of parental concern. The basement area frequently is used as a storage area, and is therefore a prime area for ex-ploration and satisfaction of curiousity (ie. looking in old trunks, finding old newspapers, examing old radios, etc.). The basement is often used for articles too big or undesirable to go upstairs and these facilities are very interesting to the child (ie. Dad! workshop, a place to hammer and build things, old tables, hobbies, 89. model trains and car sets). For the younger child i t becomes a fascinating and exciting world of creative play, for the props are suggestive of new and exciting dramas to act out. To a lesser extent the attic or garage and tool shed ( i f available) f u l f i l l these same functions. Closet spaces, especially in the bedrooms are important to children. They act as a hiding place and as a small scale intimate area which can be darkened by closing doors. The closet spaces usually harbor a wealth of stored materials and are often used as a place to play by the young child. These parts a l l put together form the interior world of the child. Depending on the parents and the relation of these facilities, the world can either be stricken with restrictions, and is hard to differentiate, or is a pleasure to grow up within. Results from the questionnaire show that the children use certain of these spaces more than others at certain times of the year and at different ages. The Killarney dwelling, as expected, is used more often during the winter season and during periods of inclement weather. The most used spaces are the recreation or family room, the childs bedroom, and the living room. These areas are often used during the winter, being the main nodes of activity for the child, but in the summer when many of the childs 90. activities take place outside, these spaces are not used significantly more than the rest of the dwelling. The basement area is used less often in winter, but in the summer because of its coolness, i t is used as much as any spot in the house except for the hallway.which in most cases is used only for access. The kitchen is used significantly less often than the other spaces in the dwelling. This is because of its specialized function and a desire to keep the children from bothering Mother as she works. The only area used more often in the summer than the winter is the patio or balcony. There is l i t t l e appreciable difference in the use of spaces within the dwelling by different ages or sexes, except for the basement, which is used more by the older boy. The activities that take place in these spaces within the dwelling 'do differ .with age and. aexi*"?- • That more children stay inside during the winter (especially the girls) is quite important. The climate is therefore a strong physical faetor in their living patterns. The dwelling doesn't have the same safety value in winter for differences between the children and their siblings or parents, while in t he summer the children are more readily sent outside to work off anxieties or frustrations, or to generally keep out of Mother's hair. 91. iciLLARiJEy )|=-|_N1 S O M E J I M E S blEVET? loiVtcj room o /_>ii^l_v -4 IZ 9 j S C - ^ o n v y _ _ V " |5 )_~> 2. _5E Op DWELL IKIG SpACES 92. B. USE OF THE DWELLING UNIT - BI THE CHILD WEST END The typical West End dwelling unit can be abstractly ZONES OF broken into a series of space patterns and zones of use USE parallel to the Killarney unit DIFFERENTIATION OF SPACE FUNCTION The questionnaire and interview responses show there are quite different patterns in the use of the dwelling unit by the West End family because of the differing spatial layout. 9 3 . BEDROOM Since there is usually only one bedroom in the West End apartment suite, the Killarney ideal for individual bedrooms for every member of the family is impossible. Usually the children share the defined bedroom space with siblings. This space becomes the childs own private area and is used for the same types of play that occur in the Killarney children, bedroom. The one major difference is that this bedroom space is often used as an area to entertain friends, since the children or child has no play room, and the living room is often used by the parents. LIVING ROOM The parents have no bedroom as such and usually convert the living room sofa into a bed. Thus the West End living room space serves many purposes. It is used as an area for eating meals; it'used as the social area for parents and children, with child activities such as watching T.V., listening to records, dancing, playing games, doing puzzles, drawing, reading and doing •^ homework, a l l having to take place in the same area as 3. the parents use for socialization or relaxation. Usually with any conflict over the use, the children are asked to retire to the bedroom. The living room furniture is usually modern decor, and the child is again restricted from active pursuits. This restriction is increased be-cause of the limited size of the rooms, and because of the need to reduce noise so as not to disturb the other tenants. Any activities that would normally take place in the family room or basement in the single family dwelling 94. either have to be accomodated^he living or bedroom, or are not allowed to take place. The West End child generally uses the living room much more frequently than the Killarney child uses his, and many of the young children have and keep some of their own personal belonging in this space. Many of them have their own identifiable chair^, table, or plants. The older West End children usually keep their possessions in the privacy of the bedroom. KITCHEN The West End Kitchen is so small i t precludes almost a l l activity except for food preparation. This kitchen is rarely used as a social center as i t is in the single family dwelling. Eating meals usually takes place in a corner of the living room although a number of dwelling units have very small dining spaces, _etween the the kitchen and living room. Interestingly many of the children in the West End use the kitchen. They actively participate in helping Mother make meals, do their own baking and making of special recipes, and generally help in the dom-estic chores much more than the Killarney children. ' This results from the high number of working parents, and one parent families. The children are given much more responsibility generally in running the house, and are much more independent in their ability to manage by themselves. BALCONY The balcony provided on the high rise towers is seldom used by the child. It is generally regarded as too small for most of the child's play, and is restricted 95. as an area for the child to actively play because of the fear of falling over the edge. Yelling or talking between the balcony to friends on the streets i _ discouraged. Its only accepted use is for passive activities such as reading, sunbathing, eating, watching people, or looking at the view, and in most cases i t is even too small to do these comfortably. 3* HALLS AND STAIRWAYS The halls and stairway in the apartment are usually used only for access, although some play occurs in them. The main entrance lobby, elevator, stairway and hall system of the apartment is almost always restricted to the child using these areas for access only, without making much f noise. No play or loitering occurs in these areas. BASEMENT AND COMMON AREAS The use of recreation and family rooms or basement facilities is rarely available in the West End dwelling units. In some of the newer apartments, there is a swimming pool which acts as a modified family room although the use •a is restricted to swimming only. * If there is a pool i t is well used, by the children however, they are not usually allowed to use this facility unless accompanied by an adult and unless they can swim. Some pools have restricted times when the children can use them. These spatial activities form the interior world of the West End child. They are generally much more limited 96. in size and activity potential,in relation to the facilities within the single family dwelling,and there is much more overlapping of activities that take place within the spaces. Results from the questionnaire show that there is TIME USE l i t t l e difference in the use of the facilities during OF SPACES the year. Thus the major spaces in the West End dwelling are used a l l year round for the essential activities of living in contrast to the Killarney dwelling which is used less frquently in the summer. This happens partly because the West End children do not have the same con-venience to outdoor facilities. The dwelling unit becomes more of a j a i l for the younger children especially since they can usually only venture outside when accomp-anied by their parents. The only difference in seasonal use is a slight tendency to use the bedroom less in the summer and the patio more often. Most activity takes place in the living room space, with a considerable amount in the bedroom and kitchen. The rest of the dwelling unit is infrequently used in comparison. 9 7 . W E S J E K I D O^ - J E N I S O M E J I M E S I E V E I ? Lr 2.9 3 o rcfet- e < n o / _ i m l_ t v * f3 24 to 7 IB 7 4 4 3 3 e 14 26 7 14 29 9 9 29 2 9 .-pO 0 Qsat -lev I _> 12. 21 19 3 2 35 S-inamner 3 3 34 ZlSE Of DWELLING apiCES 98. Most of the children spend more than a week of USE OF every year in an altera te dwelling to their own. The ALTERNATE ENVIRONMENTS Killarney children usually spend this time at seaside or lakeside resorts in a tent, trailer, summer cottage or motel. The West End child on the other hand more often spends time in houses in Vancouver or other cities » or on farms. This shows the relief each type of parent feels necessary from the physical surroundings they spend most of their lives in. The Killarney family usually gets away from the city, to nature etc., while the West End family usually goes to spend time with friends and relatives, and the luxury of living in a house. 5" Over one-half of the children thus have some ex-perience each year in a different environment, have a chance to modify their daily experience and regard their more permanent dwelling in light of new patterns and alternatives as to how to organize a dwelling unit. This the author believes is desireable. It sets up or gives an opportunity to set up new relationships in family inter-action, conditioned by having to adapt to a new physical environment. It sets up in a different perspective the roles played by members of the family, and for a short time anyway, may modify the rules. It is a belief that this is important for children and is recognized by them instinctively. It starts to develop a change element in the family pattern. This is extremely useful i f the family has lived in one dwelling and neighborhood for a long time. 99 G. PARENTS ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE DWELLING AND ITS RELATION TO THEIR CHILD KILLARNEY DWELLING AS A DESIRABLE PLACE TO RAISE CHILD LIKES DISLIKES Most parents in the Killarney area are pleased with their dwelling as a desireable place to bring up children, especially for their female child. 'The dwelling is liked for many reasons. The most important in order of magnitude of response are that the child has his own bedroom, that there is a lot of room in the house for the child to play, or that the dwelling is owned, which gives the members of the family the feeling of freedom to do as they want* Most responses are thus related to the size of the house - is i t large enough for the family and their l i f e style, and does each child have a separate space within i t . Appropriately the dislikes of the dwelling are largely related to lack of facilities or space. The responses mentioned that the houses lack enough bed-rooms, are generally too small, and lack a basement, family room„or enough bathrooms. A very few responses mention the convenience or relationship of facilities as either a like or dislike. There $er%'some dislikes of two storey dwellings, of having bedrooms on different levels, and of the large number of stairs as a danger and an inconvenience to climb. Two replies wanted a hallway that would bypass the living room so the children wouldn't track through and wear out the living room carpet and furnishings. A large number of replies from both new and older dwellings had no complaint at a l l to make of their dwelling. They felt that the size and space arrangement were adequate for themselves and their family. S " 100. Most parents feel there is enough privacy within the dwelling for their family. Of those that lack privacy, i t is again due to the size of the dwelling -either the child has to share a bedroom, there is no playroom or space to entertain, or the houses and lots 9. are to close to each other. A l l of the repies rank the single family dwelling lo-in safety from safe to average. There are few specific dangers mentioned, and most of these are normal hazards such as fire, electrical outlets, stairs and wheeled itoys. Infoarestingly a l l the dangers are mentioned for the younger child, usually female between the ages of 5 to 8 . "• The most common restrictions parents place on the children0and the manner in which they use the dwelling , concerns limitations on running, chasing, screaming, or rough play in the dwelling especially in the living room. Restrictions are also frequently placed on watching T.V., using the kitchen, and in the number of friends allowed into the dwelling without adult permission. Most restrictions can be anticipated in light of the physical structure of the dwelling and the manner in which i t is used. There is no apparent correlation between the type of restriction and the age of the child. It instead seems to depend on the personality and the style of the family, and in the type of facility they live within. I a" 101. TYPE OF DWELLING PARENTS WOULD LIKE TO HAVE A look at the type of dwelling the Killarney parents reply they would like to have, sums up in a nutshell their attitude towards their dwelling and neighborhood. Over half are completely happy with the general type of living, however they wanted more, either a . bigger and newer house or larger yard, generally in the same type of neighborhood, although some wanted to live in municipalities just outside Vancouver. The remainder of the families wanted to live by the ocean, or in a more rural setting, with more trees and larger lot. Not one of the responses mentioned they would like to live in a different type of dwelling-all seem to accept the single family dwelling as their ideal. The Killarney household (especially in the Weir area) could therefore be described as comfortable and relatively happy with their accomodation and the type of l i f e style they lead within i t , but many of them as does most of our society want more - a bigger and better dwelling, but substantially the same. There is no apparent correlation between the type of dwelling and the parents attitude to its desirability. There are just as many complaints about new and larger dwellings as about the oldest and smallest. WEST END The parents in the West End think their dwelling is only average as a desirable place to bring up their children, although there 8 ^ e variations between those who find their accomodation very good for the family, and those who find i t very poor. 102. DWELLING AS The most Important reasons that particular A DESIRABLE PLACE TO RAISE dwellings are liked is their location to outside f a c i l i -CHILD ties and amenities (like place of work, the beach, school, etc.); the availability of the childs own bedroom; or the general size of the apartment (in comparison with others); and the availability of extra facilities such as swimming pools in certain apartments, and basements for children to play on wet days. Other likes include having nice managers and few restrictions; having pets in the building; and having lots of children in the building. There is no apparent difference in how different ethnic groups regarded the dwelling, nor was there any relationship to the sex of the child or the length of residency in the West End, or the type of dwelling families lived in. Apartment dwellers liked the swimming pool and the location of the apartment in the West End best, and almost a l l stated that their accomodation was too small. Those living in older houses or walk-up apartments usually say they have enough or a livable amount of room in their dwelling, however almost a l l are unhappy with this type of accomodation, and plan or would like to move to the suburbs. ^ * DISLIKES Dislikes of the West End dwelling unit predominantly concern the lack of space and facilities for children. The units are not liked because they are too small, the children don't have their own rooms, there i s no space to play. Another area of dislike revolves around the quality of high density living. Parents dislike the fact their children have to worry about making noise, 103. that there is general lack of privacy, that there are so many restrictions by management, and that they and their child have l i t t l e freedom within the dwelling because of these factors. PRIVACY About half the parent feel there is enough privacy in the dwelling units for their family. Privacy is gained by having one's own bedroom, or generally enough space, and in apartments especially, by having good soundproofing between party walls. In many cases the parents feel privacy cannot be attained because the dwelling units are too small for the family members to get away from each other, or for the children to entertain friends in private. SAFETY Most parents feel the apartment dwelling unit /o-& 5 " safe to average. There are no serious dangers, although a few parents mention fear of the balconies and the possibility of falling, the danger of slipping on stairways, and the danger of molesters getting into and waiting in the building. ,(|>" RESTRICTIONS The main restrictions placed on the West End child ON THE CHILDS USE in the dwelling concerns the level of noise within the apartment suite of apartmentj no playing or leaning out of windows and balconies} and no playing or loitering in the hall, lobbey or stairway. The other restrictions are the usual type placed on the child in any home, and the same type placed on the Killarney children. Again there is no relation of age or sex to 104. the restrictions. They instead depend on the personality 12 of the child and family involved. The type of dwelling parents would like to have to raise their children shows the general disatisfaction with the West End dwelling unit as a suitable f a c i l i t y for bringing up children. Almost 3/4's of the parents questioned mentioned a preference for a single family dwelling and many w i l l move to this type of accomodation within the next year. Only 6$ were satisfied with what they now have, and these are single family parents, or families who do not now li v e i n multiple dwellings. Almost T of the respondents say they would like to l i v e i n a highly urban situation i f they could get suitable accomoda-tion such as townhouses or apartments having 2 bedrooms at a reasonable rent, and have f a c i l i t i e s designed for children i n mind. One suggestion as to the type of changes parents would like to see i n the West End i s to make a l l apartments take a required number of children and to set up family c r i t e r i a standards for these apartments. Some basic c r i t e r i a the parents ask for i s first=morerindoor space to l i v e i n ; then a garden or yard, and a place for the child to play inside or outside that i s safe and con-venient. Only i f these Conditions are met would the amenities of the area make i t a place worth bringing up 13 their children. Thus the West End parents are much less satisfied with their dwelling conditions. They now put up with 1 0 5 . much less comfort in terms of the physical aspects of the dwelling unit, both for themselves and their children. These comforts are negated to other more important reasons for being in the West End for the present. This particularly is true for many of the single parent families, who like their dwelling especially because of its convenience to work; because they have no responsibility looking after a large house and yard; and because there are a number of people in the area to socialize with who have common problems and outlooks on l i f e . 106. 9» RELATIONSHIP OF THE DWELLING TO THE GROWTH OF THE CHILD In this world of the dwelling the child learns the models and roles of society throughlhis parents. He learns the values his parents place on their dwelling, and he learns their larger ^ M ^ 6 8 ! towards society. He learns, and i t taught to differentiate the functions of the house, usually through restrictions on what he can or cannot do. He learns the habits that he will take with him through his life.t&iatt will be meaningful to him either as positive or negative remembrances and feelings -"don't jump on the furniture" "just eat at the table", "keep your room tidy",'go to bed at 8' o'clock'.' Though these particular structures that the parent ins t i l l s in the child may not be remembered, the under-lying tone and principles are, and the child quickly expresses these principals in his actions. They begin to form and add to the child's attitudinal base which thee child Isolds on to as he grows up, and which he will teach his children in turn (modified in light of his interaction with a new environment). He learns attitudes towards possessions, "this is mine",''that is yours'.' He learns how things operate and function, a glass breaks when hit by a ball. He experiments in setting up his own relationships and differentations,based on his own complex set of needs. He finds spaces where he can escape and find his own privacy, or where he can be near the family. He finds things to test himself with, things to build,things to 107. move, and activities to try. He starts to learn to manipulate people, spaces, and objects, to create and act out his own worlds, and is continually looking for things to stimulate him in a new way. The dwelling and the family unit comprise the basic world in which he learns. By the age of 5 or 6 the child has a good grasp of the action and spacial potential of much that is in the dwelling. The dwelling, its objects, spaces and people become the symbols of security. They are known quantities and qualitiesthe parents can generally trust the child and feel secure that their children know the normal dangers of the dwelling. The child now becomes eager to explore beyond, to compare and find new stimulation, which wil l give new ideas to interact with the old spaces and objects at home. The child is venturing beyond the dwelling and family into the immediate neighbor-hood, even though the home environment will remain most important for many years to come. 108. 2. A DESCRIPTION OF THE DWELLING UNITS KILLARNEY WEST END low density residential area with single family dwellings most dwellings are one or two levels, immediately accessible to the ground large overall area owned by occupant older dwellings are usually smaller and less convenient than newer dwellings. a few of the houses are being renovated by younger families long term occupancy many dwellings have an indoor play area for children a l l parents and many children have their own bedrooms li v i n g room i s used as a family room0 or as an adult social relaxation-entertainment area. 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 high density urban area with multiple dwelling apartment units. most dwellings include a small kitchen, l i v i n g room, 1 bedroom and bathroom and halls; some newer apartment units have a balcony, and share an indoor pool. small overall area. rented by occupant older suites i n houses vary considerably! walk-up apart-ments usually larger than new high rise apartments. older houses quickly being re-placed by newer, smaller more expensive high rise apartments. short term occupancy no specific play areas for children within the dwelling or apartment. parents usually sleep i n the liv i n g room, and the children share the bedroom (in one bedroom suites). l i v i n g room serves as a family room,, T.V. room, parent's bed-room, eating area, and adult entertainment area. kitchen acts as a multi-purpose roomj children rarely help with cooking and do fewer household chores 12 kitchen i s used s t r i c t l y for food preparation? children often help with the cooking and house-hold chores. bedroom, l i v i n g room and re-creation room used most often by the children 13 bedroom and l i v i n g room used most often by the children. 14 balcony i s too small and i s not used very often 1 0 9 . KILLARNEY dwelling i s more differentiated 15 into specific zones of use with l i t t l e overlapping the dwelling i s used more i n the 16 winter than the summer freedom for family to do what 17 they want within the dwelling. no significant relationship of 18 the age or differences i n the type of dwelling to parents attitudes about i t . dwelling liked by parents as a 19 place to raise children spatial size and arrangement gives 20 enough privacy for each member of the family within the dwelling dwelling regarded as average to 21 safe for the child some restrictions on running and 22 screaming within the dwelling, especially i n the l i v i n g room. parents express general satisfaction 23 with the type of dwelling they now have, however many want more space. 24 WEST END there i s more overlapping of functions within the dwelling unit-especially i n the l i v i n g and bedrooms. the dwelling i s used as much i n the summer as i n the winter. restrictions by management on the freedom children and families have within the apartment. no significant relationship of age or differences i n the type of dwelling to parent's attitudes about i t . dwelling usually considered too small and restrictive as a place to raise children. small size and necessary over-lapping of functions give l i t t l e privacy for individual members of the family. dwelling regarded as average to safe for the child. no loud noise or running allowed because of the high density. s i -parents express general satisfaction with the type of dwelling unit} 75$ of the parents state a prefer-ence for single family dwellings? 20$ of the families-espscially single parent families-want to stay i n the West End. The basic changes most parents require before they would find the dwelling unit satisfactory for their children includesJ a bedroom for the children and one for the parents; some type of indoor space for the children to play i n . 110. FOOTNOTES. CHAPTER TWO 1. 2. see ti QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE, it it PART 1, # 8 (page8.) #13 (page 180 PART 1, #16 (page 19.) 3. ti it it PART 1, #10 (pagej|_) 4. tt it it PART 1, # 9 (page|% ) if 5. it it it PART 1, #14 and 15 (pai 6. it tt tt PART 2, # 4 (page29) 7. it it ti PART 2, # 5 (pageS.,) 8. it it n PART 2, # 6 (page.©.) 9. tt tt it PART 2, # 7 (page3L) 10. tt »t ti PART 2, #11 (page 3 3-) 11. ti it it PART 2, #12 (page33.) 12. tt it it PART 2, #17 (page35.) 13. it it tt PART 2, #19 (page37-) L Dl ATE MEI6HBORH00D 111. AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMMEDIATE NEIGHBORHOOD A. A PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION KILLARNEY Almost every Killarney dwelling is situated on a YARD lot which gives the families their own yard. Most yards are flat and grassy, and are broken into a front and back yard. The front yard is mainly an open space with a few trees, and often small flower gardens bunched near the dwelling. A l l the greenery has been planted and cultivated, the original ecological system having long ago been removed. The older lots usually have more and larger trees and shrubs, and are more likely to be fenced in with low picket fences. The back yard is almost always fenced, and is a more private and intimate area than the front yard. Much of the back yard is usually in grass, and there tends to be low retaining walls near the fences for small shrubs and flower beds. There are a few gardens (more in the McKorkindale area), and these are usually very small. Frequently there is a gravelled driveway and garage for parking the car. The garage is either a separate building near the lane or is tacked onto the back of the dwelling (often with a patio-balcony off the dining area, sitting on top of the garage). It is more often used as a storage shed or workshop rather than an area to park. Most cars are parked on the front street. On the whole,the back yard is less cared for than the front yard, and the space is more cut up. There are often,piles of lumber, old cars, boats, barrel, fences and sheds,which clutter and break the space into a series of small enclaves. These 112 spaces are much different than the front yard and are used by the child in a different manner. A concrete sidewalk leads from the front street to the front door of the dwelling, usually around one side to the back door, and in some cases out to the back alley. This sidewalk plays an important part in the childs use of the outside space and also joins the city sidewalk and boulevard, which together provides the basic circulation system in the area. The dwelling and yard f i t into a larger overall "block" system. The block incorporates 8 to 20 lots into rows with an alley or lane access between them at the back, and a main street at the front. A city boulevard and sidewalk ring each block. In most cases the Killarney block unit is fully developed. There is a dwelling unit on almost every.lot, and the sidewalks, grass, and tree rows along the boulevard and curbs are in and finished to the standards set for residential development. There are a few spaces in some blocks however - a vacant lot, or two or three lots ,used by a single dwelling. The vacant lots differ markedly from the rest of the lots, having long grass and weeds, usually dried and brownj and they usually act as minor garbage dumps for old tires, cars* etc. The street system is laid out in a grid-iron pattern and forms a series of intersections, one at the corner of each block. This pattern leads to a maximum dispersal 113. of cars and convenient access from any one point to another, however i t also causes traffic conflicts be tween vehicles and pedestrians. In order to spread and speed up traffic, certain streets have been made through routes by using stop signs and traffic lights, and making distinct pedestrian crossings. 114. WEST END Most West End families have no access to a yard whatsoever. Almost none of the apartments have yards. YARD They have a few feet of grass at the front, and often some small planter boxes of flowers, and a large side-walk which provides an entrance to the lobbey. Some of the older converted dwellings have very small yards usually in a poorly kept state. They have some grass and often a hedge around the front edge. The back yard in most lots is used for car parking - either commercially BACK YARD or as rented space for the tenants, and many are either gravelled and fenced or have a parking garage along the back edge. BLOCK SYSTEM As in the Killarney area the apartments and dwellings in the West End f i t into an overall block system, with boulevards and sidewalks ringing each block. However the block is composed mainly of dwelling structure or parking facility and presents a world of concrete and pavement which differs from the more grassy Killarney area. The back alley is considerably wider and is used extensively for car parking. The front street is usually also lined on both sides with cars. The large trees along the boulevards are almost a l l the greenery left in the area, and even some of these are being removed for street widening. There are numerous spaces in many blocks as old houses are torn down and land assembled for larger developments. These spaces are usually fenced off or are gravelled and used as parking lots i f not developed immediately. Manyh have remained for over a year as barren areas usually 115. bulldozed and left with old bricks and debris, dirt and gravel covering the flat surface. The street system is laid out in a grid-iron pattern similar to the Killarney area, only the density of the traffic is much greater, and there are more controls on the traffic. Some of the streets have been made one way routes for ease of traffic flow. 116. SMALL SINIGLE FA/vuLy LOT i LARGE 2. BEDROOM OWELLINIG; SINIGLE pAMiLy LoJ- 4 3 BEDRopvy CWELL1MG SINIOLE pAAMLV . &Loc2(\ U y o o r i y , I f ! A NEWER 7 H I G H R I S E , W I T H S o v \ E LOW RISE ApAJSTMslf I wrru FEW. EXTRA- '«* f^ClLlp •| WEST EtJO * f THE IMMEDIATE NEIGHBORHOOD. 1 1 7 . B USE OF THE IMMEDIATE NEIGHBORHOOD Most children use their yard extensively for play the year round. Responses from the questionaire show that the yard is the most used area outdoors by a l l aged children. "It is very convenient and is regarded by both child and parent as a safe place to play since i t is close to the security of the dwelling, and parents can supervise the area quite readily. In the early years the yard is the center of the children's outside world and is most important since i t plays a larger role than i t does in their later childhood. As the children grow older however, the yard s t i l l retains its importance as their base. The yard offers the children many different types of forms, textures and action potentials, and the children spend much of their early outdoor l i f e interacting with this stimulus in excitingly new and different ways. Almost a l l types of activity take place,,-active play such as ball, running and roughhousing on the lawns, practising bicycle riding, skipping, playing marbles on the sidewalks and patios, playing dolls and other dramatic games in intimate nooks near the house and on the steps, observing the nature of the trees, flowers, grass and insects," exploring and playing in the junk at the rear of the house and climbing on fences, digging in the dirt, rolling on the 2.. grass and generally exercising the senses. The open spaces of the front yard promote more active spacious play, and are 118. usually more social,since there is generally more activity from both casual adults passing by, and i t is easier for children to see the activity of each other and become interested in what other children are doing. The more intimate spaces and more varied objects in the back yard promote more inquisitive and secret dramatic play between one or two friends. The back yard is generally used more by the family (barbeques, hanging out the wash, working on cars or the garden) and much close inneer-neighborly socialization occurs between back yards rather than across the front streets. The front street is the childrens contact with the wider adult world and becomes their outdoor T.V. show. There the child can observe automobiles, and adults passing by, watch the mailman and wait for the ice-cream truck. The sidewalk provides the childs miniature make-believe street and i s used to run b i -cycles and tricycles along,and imitate cars and the adult world. The road itself is not used extensively by the children, and is out of bounds for many children due tb the traffic dangers involved. BACK ALLEY The back alley is designed as a service route to the dwelling. It gives access to the back yard for garbage pickup, milk delivery, etc. and is used by the family to unload and load household belongings or store moveable items like a boat and trailer. The back alley is used by the child as a place to explore, to meet and do things. It has a lot of detail and opens up?the block so the child can observe the activities going on in other yards. It also functions as a short cut and escape router the child can run through a yard and down the back alley. Though i t is a useful means of getting away from trouble, i t is often regarded by parents as a sinister or bad place where children have no business to be, and since i t is not as easy to supervise.there is more chance of getting into mischief. The parents often discourage the children from using this area. VACANT If there is a vacant lot near the dwelling the LOT children are discouraged or prevented from using i t , although I am sure children go off and explore them on occasion. The vacant lot is the most unused of any facility mentioned in the questionnaire. "This is under-standable in the Weir area since there are few vacant lots. But there is l i t t l e difference in the response in the McCorkindale area which has more vacant lots. The vacant lots seem to be most often used i f the dwelling is rightbeside i t so the Mother can supervise what takes place,. In this case they become a kind of wild extension of the yard. USE BY Y OUNGER CHILD This world of the immediate neighborhood is f u l l of excitement for the young child who is s t i l l caught up in the detail of the surroundings. There is enough 120. stimulation in the area but there is also enough sameness of structure to provide for easy identity. As the child gets to school age the action potential of the area is pretty well explored. The child needs and wants new stimulation and starts to expand into the larger neighborhood, however most time is s t i l l spent in this small environment. USE BY The older child ( 9 - 1 2 ) starts to use the yard THE OLDER more for structured and less physically interactive CHILD activities - catch, croquet, badminton, sometimes hockey, picnic lunches, reading, tanning. "They start to be more interested in entertaining friends in this space. The front street becomes more important,. 3t is used for bike riding and more active games like hockey and football. The sidewalk becomes used more as a route from place to place - as the child branches into the neighborhood for more specific activities. It is in-teresting to note from the questionnaire response that the boys seem more active than the girls, and desire to branch out and go farther away from home sooner. This might happen because the bicycle is used more by boys for exploring and going on group trips, but I think the parents also tend to assume different roles for the gi r l and boy,and expect and let the boys roam further afield. Boys seem to use the outside much more frequently than girls, possibly because.the Mothers who are usually in the dwelling, prefer to have their daughters around more during the day. 121. There is a very similar response to the use of spaces in the immediate neighborhood by both the Weir and McCorkindale groups. This I believe tends to show that the immediate neighborhood is quite probably used by the children in a similar fashion i n the residential areas, especially since the physical form is so identical in structure. 122. fciLLARhlEy r_l _ S E Of JHE I M M E D I A T E N E I G H B O R H O O D 123. Less than 25$ of the West End children have a yard available to use and only a few of these children 2 , 3 use i t extensively as the Killarney child does. In almost a l l cases these yards belong to the older dwellings and are disappearing as fast as the new high rise apartment replace them. Thus many of the children are deprived of a natural progression from their dwelling into an outside play area. Much of the activity potential in which the children participate in Killarney is not available in the West End, at least not within the yard,and the child is forced to look elsewhere for a play area. There are one or two apartments that include an outdoor pool and limited outdoor areas as part of the development, although there are usually restrictions on the child using these areas for play. The front street is part of the neighborhood that the chiB looks toward to supply some ©_ the potential for physical and social activity, and for some children the grass along the boulevard acts as their yard. The West End child, i f permitted by parents,generally uses the boulevard more frequently than the Killarney child. Tag, hide and seek, dolls, skipping, riding bicycles, playing ball, roller skating, playing and talking a l l 2 . take place on the front sidewalk or boulevard. The road is not used at a l l because of the constant heavy traffic, and many parents will not let their young children (5-8) outside even on the sidewalk for fear of 1 2 4 . the dangers of the traffic and strangers /"*" The front street is a much more active social avenue than is the Killarney street, and the children often spend much time in passive observation of the people and activity around. The back alley has too much car traffic to be used as a play area and almost no appeal. There is much less human activity and few play objects to interact with. Many parents refuse to let their children play in the back alley, and few of the children seem to have any desire to do so. " Some of the older children use the back alley as a short cut. Vacant lots are used sometimes to f i l l the void of not having a yard, but usually have l i t t l e interest to hold the child. Few are appropriate for ball or other games, and most are used to satisfy the passing curiousity of some of the older children - mainly boys.2* The world of the immediate neighborhood is therefore a pretty frustrating experience for the young West End child. Unless there is a park or schoolground facility near, there is no adequate place for the child to play, and in most cases the parents restrict the child from playing outside without supervision. " This makes i t harder to form peer friendships, starts to depress the childs creative exploring instinct to living, and tends to confine the child to the dwelling or to trips with parents, 125. USE BY THE The older child generally has more mobility OLDER CHILD and so can find more substitutes for a yard -neigh-borhood parks, stores, beaches, however they are also severely limited because of the inconvenience and lack of security of these areas. Because of the restrictions imposed to natural expansion into the immediate environ-ment when the child is young, the older child in many cases hasn't developed proper techniques of dealing with a larger environment, unless there is a good deal of effort by the parents and the institutions in the area to overcome this deficiency. 126. W E S T E f 4 o 1 U -4 ~7 €> 29 3 2 9 -4- 3) lo 11 II 9 19 3 4 ll 2£> . S«_> v-y-nnru2.V J £J5E Op JWE IMMEDIATE. hlEIGHBORHOOD. 127. The immediate neighborhood f u l f i l s a most important function for children by providing the environment i n which peer friendships are f i r s t cultivated. An analysis of the questionaire showsthat most of the Killarney friendships are developed by children l i v i n g within a block of each other."5" The friends houses are the next most used f a c i l i t y , other than the child-own yard.1" Most of the younger children (5-3) have friends across the back alley or across or along the front street. As the children grow older (10-12) they develop friends who l i v e near the school or along the path to i t . These older children s t i l l retain a l o t of close neighborhood friends however, even at the age of 12. The figures at the end of this section show how important the immediate neighborhood i s to the Killarney child, and how small the range from the dwelling s t i l l i s i n comparison with an adult. The West End friendship patterns d i f f e r s l i g h t l y from the Killarney response. Most friends dwellings are not as close to home, more are between 4 to 12 blocks away.5'This i s partly because acceptable friends i n terms of age and sex are relatively fewer and l i v e further apart* The friends houses are used less frequently than i n Killarney, but they are used far more frequently 128. than any other area in the West End's immediate neighborhood.'"Some of the youngest children are either driven, take the bus, or walk with their parents when going to see friends. The first friends are often the children of the friends of their parents. It also seems the younger West End children, because of the restrictions of the immediate environment, have fewer friends in relationship to theryoung Killarney children or the older children in both areas. Many children have no friends at a l l . The older children on the other hand, tend to form a lot of friendships scattered throughout the neighborhood. Most of the West End friendship patterns originate through school association rather than through contact in the immediate neighborhood. 129. VlLLARNiEa 1 — T $ — /o.^vLr- 2 5 K I 1 tdns/av^ ? »+' Iruawis^ L E S 5 1 &Lkl Z-*4 feLfcS 4-12 ©Ls + 12. &LK£> [Uos^ fo^oL^JI^ - 2 f t l o 2_ o VK^ vnloAT of' eurvd . di-sl-eince. of- -frua^ds 0 L e s s 1 &!x. hJEKp BLU 2 - 4 - E>Us /W?KE4 b b s ~pT*L 4l s-e>yr. ^iT"* -4| ( O O O SI o f 9 - ( 2 y r . o U . 1(0 5" 2 . <4| W E S T Q 4 D OFJElJ S O A ^ E J I ' M S EVES 5 o m n o e T ly 2 Q - 3 F~fc" 3 — |cWa»oc©< "Rua^  L E S S 1. &LC BL»S 4 -12. B L t S 4 I 2 & L C S 1 2_ 17 lO | ^oyr\b«v <JJ and J«sU*K«. <Jr-firuwxiis • L E ^ S 1 B i t : (4exT B L C 2 - 4 B U & M O R E A B l j & -ppL o ^ - i z ^ . o i c ] 4 7 l7 3 G REl/LJloRSHip Of fRIEltos WNliLlfe C. PARENTS ATTITUDES TO THE IMMEDIATE NEIGHBORHOOD AND ITS RELATION TO THEIR CHILD The same attitudes that are characteristic of the dwelling are also characteristic of the yard. To have a large yard, or to have a back yard is a positive factor in liking the Killarney area, and having a small yard is the main reason parents dislike' their immediate neighborhood. Others dislike the immediate neighborhood especially i f they live on a major street. 7" Privacy is also related to the size of the yard. Privacy is achieved in the neighborhood by putting a fence around the yard or by having a big enough lot. It is increased since most neighbors traditionally leave each other alone. As one woman put i t "they are friendly but leave you to your own business". Lack of privacy occurs because people feel their lots are too small and they have the feeling of being hemmed in. 8 -Dangers in the immediate neighborhood deal totally with traffic and the danger of children playing on or crossing the street. More than 60$ of the replies mention traffic as a danger especially since the traffic concentrations occur at the same time the children want tb be outside playing or are going to and from school. Traffic is especially seen as a hazard for the younger children. 9-Parents place some restrictions on the childs use of the immediate neighborhood in the Killarney area. Most restrictions are placed on the younger children C.5 - 7) - the children who feel old enough to explore and roam, yet who are too young for the parents to give them the freedom to 131. do so. The most common restrictions are of going out of sight of the house, or past a prescribed boundary - say 3 blocks away; or of going into neighbor's yards or friends houses without permission and unless the parents are home. As the child gets older, restrictions are placed on riding bicycles or playing bn the road. At this age when the child is just learning to ride, the parents usually restrict the child to safe areas such as the schoolground or park. Another common restriction for this age group is climbing large trees in the yards or along the boulevard. The main restriction placed on the older (11 -12) child is refusal to let them take part in back lane gatherings or to loiter or play in the back alley. To, many parents, this type of activity led to smoking, destructive pranks, and loose behaviour.lo" CHOICE OF Parents voice no strong protest against the child! choice FRIENDS of friends, however a number voice concern over the fact that many children are left on their own while both parents work. The general attitude is that these children are often unsupervised in what they do, and there is a lack of confidence in these childrens value systems and their ability not to get into mischief or do something dangerous that might involve their children.'1* THE TYPE OF The Killarney parents are for the most part IMMEDIATE NEIGHBORHOOD reasonably happy with their immediate environment nelgh-PARENTS WOULD LINE borhood, as an environment for bringing up children. Some want a larger yard, and some would like to live in a 132. different neighborhood, but generally of the same 12-residential suburban type. ° WEST END LIKES DISLIKES PRIVACY SAFETY AND DANGERS There are no West End parents that have anything favorable to say in regards to liking any part of the immediate neighborhood. There is a total lack of out-door space convenient to the dwelling where the children can play, unless they are fortunate enough to live beside a more major amenity such as a park or school yard. Most of the parents are concerned and express a strong dislike about not having play areas for the childrenthat" are _afe and convenient enough that the 7 children can use them or get to them on their own. 3/4*s of the questioned parents seem to think there is adequate privacy in the immediate neighborhood for themselves and their children. Most parents say that people mind their own affairs and that there is l i t t l e opportunity for contact with neighbors, so that privacy is rarely a problem. For the few that feel privacy is lacking,the most common reasons are because there are too many people in the area, because high-rises overlook them on a l l sides, or because there is too much noise from traffic. 8* Dangers in the immediate environment are split be-tween traffic and child molesters. The traffic is mentioned especially as a danger for the youngest, children (5-8), and many are prevented from venturing into the outside world without parents because of this danger. As the child gets older (9-12), traffic becomes RESTRICTIONS ON THE CHILDS USE CHOICE OF FRIENDS 133. a more minor problem.and exposure to molesters, drugs t and a transient population,seem to worry the child and a, adults much more. Parents place restrictions on the childs use of the immediate neighborhood in the West End area. The younger child is usually restricted from going outside unless accompanied,or from going away from the dwelling area. As the children get older (9-12).they can go out during the day time, but are restricted from going out after dark. Some are restricted from vacant lots and construction areas, or from having bicycles. There are many restriction on going to some public areas which wil l be covered in more detail in the next section. l o" There is no stronger protest in the West End than in the Killarney area against the childs choice of friends, even though the West End is more <:variedin family social structure and eustom. The most common reason for a parent to voice disapproval i s because the child's friends exhibit bad behaviour and manners, or because of the lack of discipline and amount of freedom some of the children have. Some of the parents think this type of behaviour is more common due to the large number of single family and working parents in the neighborhood. " CHANGES IN THE AREA Most of the parents would like to live in an AND THE TT$E OF IMMEDIATE NEIGHBOR immediate neighborhood more like that in the residential HOOD PARENTS WOULD" LIKE suburb. They would mainly like an outdoor area for their children to play, that is safe and can be supervised. Many would also like a small yard so they could plant flowers or a garden, and have a place to relax outside. 12. 134. D RELATIONSHIP OF THE IMMEDIATE NEIGHBORHOOD TO THE GROWTH OF THE CHILD In this world of the immediate neighborhood, the child learns the models and roles of society through parent action towards his use of this expanding en-vironment. These models and roles are modified and contrasted with those learnt, from neighbors, peer friends, and other adults. The child thus learns to put his own dwelling and yard X or lack of yard) and his situation into a larger overall perspective, again largely through what he can or cannot do, and depending on who he becomes friends with. Thus the child learns to handle his role with others his age, becomes the leader or lead, bullied and challenged. He fights for his values,-the values of his parents expressed in him in the years before, but he also questions them. He takes stimulation and output from the immediate neighborhood,; and uses this knowledge to interact in new ways at home. He learns the habits and dangers of the neighborhood and " off " 11 the larger society - stay_of Mr. Jones' grass, don't cross or play on the street, i f I go to Ame's house at i> » « it noon I can get a cookie t- you're a lia r , bet you can't climb Mr. -one's fence and get an apple off the tree" "don't talk with strangers",- ride your bike on the side-walk" "stay in the back yard" Just as the child differen-tiated the use of the dwelling, he soon learns to differen-tiate the use of the immediate neighborhood and attempts 1 3 5 . to set up his own activities to express his needs. He looks for spaces to expand and become physically active in, or spaces to retreat and meditate in. He tries to set up a social and private l i f e in this neighborhood. As he grows his demands become greater,' but so does his potential to move into the neighborhood. The immediate neighborhood becomes his security. It is a known quantity, the parents can generally trust the child, and feel secure that the normal dangers of the immediate neighborhood are not too great for the child, and that he is aware of them. The child as he gets to know the immediate neighborhood is eager to explore beyond - but in many cases exploring beyond means reaching out to new specialized functions. Since the immediate neighborhood is similar and repeated over and over again — block after block of the same basic structure (especially in the residential suburbs), the child expands either to friends who will help him look at the local neighborhood in a new and different way, or to seek out functions which are different from the immediate neighborhood - the school, park, woods, stores. It is towards these areas that he looks for his new growth, learning, and excitement, even though he will probably apply most of this new learning in the environment of his dwelling or immediate neighborhood. Many immediate neighborhoods of course include or are next to differentiated functions such as a park or school. This allows them to be more easily and quickly absorbed into the child's experience. 1 3 6 A DESCRIPTION OF THE I_#EDIATE NEIGHBORHOODS KLIARNEY WEST END almost every family and dwelling have a front and back yard for children to use few families or apartments have any yard for children to us. the front yard i s usually grassed and open; the back yards are more intimate and private, cut up with fences, garages, driveways, patios, gardens, lumber piles, cars and boats lots vary considerably i n size from very large to quite small lots are placed i n a typical residential grid-iron block pattern with back alley, and sidewalks and grassed boulevard along the front street. cars usually park along the front street considerable t r a f f i c on through streets area i s almost completely developed the yard and immediate neighborhood are used extensively for child's play the year round, but most i n the summer the front street i s occasionally used for bicycling and games the sidewalk and boulevards are often used as a miniature street by the young child 6 7 8 9 1 0 the front yard i s a small grassed area with a large concrete walkways the back-yard-if any-is almost always graveled or paved parking area. i n most cases the buildings occupy almost a l l of the l o t except for newer high rises which may have an outdoor pool and lounge area. lots are placed i n a grid-iron pattern with back alley and grassed and treed boul-evards alongside the front streets. many cars are always parked along most front streets and back alleys. considerable t r a f f i c along a l l streets. area i s undergoing rebuilding? there are many vacant lots. most West End children don't have a yard and are deprived of the play activity that normally occur i n this space the front street i s too busy for the children to play on. the boulevard and sidewalks are sometimes used as a substitute play area by the children the back alley and vacant lots are 1 1 seldom used for play the back alley and vacant lots are seldom used for play. 13? the immediate neighborhood has 12 potential for many different types of childs play and sense stimula-tion 0 the yard and street can be reason- 13 ably well supervised from the dwelling. use of the immediate neighborhood 14 i s similar to both Weir and McCorkindale children most parents find the neighborhood 15 a good place to raise children since they have a yard outside for play parents f e e l a large yard and l o t 16 help to preserve privacy for the family the main danger i n the immediate 17 environment i s traffic-which parents f e e l i s especially haz-ardous for the younger children. there are some restrictions on the 18 younger children (5-7) going out of sight of the house to play there are some restrictions on the 19 8-11*s, riding their bicycles on the road, or taking part i n back-lane gatherings most parents are reasonably happy 20 with the type of immediate neigh-borhood they have for their child-ren. some parents want a larger yard 21 for their family there i s l i t t l e opportunity for play within the immediate neighborhood due to the lack of f a c i l i t i e s . i t i s hard to supervise child-ren playing outside from most apartment suites. a l l parents find the neighbor-hood a poor place to raise children since there i s no place outside, near the dwelling for the children to play i n . there i s no problem with privacy i n the neighborhood! some parents feel there i s too much privacy and isolation and not enough con-tact for their children. the main dangers i n the immediate neighborhood are t r a f f i c for the younger children, and child molesters and drug pushers for the older children. there are restrictions on many of the younger children (5-7) from going outside unless accom-panied by an adult. there are restrictions on many of the 8-10's from going to public places. most parents are unhappy with the type of immediate neighbor-hood they have for their child-ren. most parents would like an out-door area for their children to be able to play-that i s safe and can either be supervised easily, or doesn't need super-vision j many parents would also like a yard for their family to plant flowers, or a small garden, or to have a place to relax i n outside. 138. FOOTNOTES. CHAPTER THREE q 1. see QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE, PART 1, # 9 (page»<j> ) 2. see " " PART 1, #10 (pagel| ) 3. " " « PART 1, # 8 (pageS ) 4. « 5 . " it ti PART 2, # 13 and 14 (page34 ) PART 1, #11 (page |f ) 17 6. II » » PART 2, # 2 (page28) 7. <• » » PART 2, # 3 (page29) 8. » » " PART 2, # 8 (pageSI-) 9. » " » PART 2, #10 (page32.) 10. " » » PART 2, # 13 and 14 (page34) 11. " " " PART 1, #28 (page26.) 12. » " H PART 2, # 18 and 19 (page|^ ) AN A N A m i S Of |HE LARGER NEIGHBORHOOD 1 3 9 . k AN ANALYSIS OF THE LARGER NEIGHBORHOOD The children having developed an intimate knowledge of their home and the neighborhood immediately surrounding i t , gradually begin to expand and reach into a larger neighborhood. This happens naturally because of their developing growth, and i s hastened with the beginning of school, the development of peer relationships, and the extension of mobility from foot to bicycle. In order to examine the use and effect, of the larger neighborhood on the child, I have sub-divided the area into f a c i l i t i e s or institutions that are of special importance to the child. I t i s also i n this section that a more detailed analysis between the differences i n the Weir and McCorkindale micro-areas become meaningful. 5CH00L5 140. SCHOOL SYSTEM The school system is one of the first institutions that take the children out of the immediate neighborhood and dwelling,and into a larger community sphere. Here the child meets other children from different areas of a larger community, often with differing abilities and attitudes towards l i f e . Here formal education begins and the children usually for the first time in their l i f e , spend large periods of the day away from the family and home. Since Weir, McCorkindaleeand Lord Roberts each have their own distinctive school facility, and since there are important differences in the physical design and in the practice of teaching and educational theory, I will look at each as a separate unit. Many of the points for one school will apply to another. I have however tried to limit the analysis to those issues that seem most relevant in the functioning of the school, or might be specifically related to the children's socialization 4 or their manner of interacting with a larger neighborhood. 141. A A PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION The Weir school i s a relatively new and modern building of the traditional 1950-60 schoolboard design. I t i s a long rectangular, two storey building, with a long linear hallway spl i t t i n g the f a c i l i t y down the center, with a number of individual classrooms spaced along either side of this hallway. There i s a main entrance from the front for o f f i c i a l business and for vis i t o r s , and entrances off the playground side for the children. The main floor houses a central office for administration, and t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s along one side of the corridor,and classrooms on the other. A library resource center i s at one end of the hallway, and a gymnasium i s at the other end. The second floor i s mainly classrooms spread along both sides of the corridor. The classrooms are of the standard school design as specified by the Department of Education "Black Book". Each classroom i s basically identical, -one wall i s windows with shelves below, two walls are blackboard and tackboard space, one having a cupboard running i t s f u l l length, and one wall forms the storage and cloakroom baffle. Each room has a sink and "tiny" wet area, a teachers desk at the front,*students desks facing i n rows towards the front. The walls are generally plaster or concrete block, and the floors linoleum. The building s i t s on a small block of land which forms the schoolground. This i s perfectly f l a t , gravelled, and i s completely fenced with chain wire, except for a 142. small plot of open grass at the front which i s out of bounds for the children. Part of the schoolground next to the back of the school i s blacktopped, and a portion is covered for wet weather. There i s one portable unit separate from the school. WEIR SCHOOL 143. WEIR * MCCORKIIVIDALE SCHOOLS The McCorkindale school has been recently built by the School Board to embody their newest concepts in educational theory and design. The facility consists of '3 large open areas - each the equivalent of k classrooms. Each of these areas are basically identical. The floors are carpeted. There are tables and chairs arranged in flexible groups throughout the space, and the large space is partly but poorly differentiated into smaller spaces by placing moveable blackboards and portable children's storage units at strategic spots in the itoom. Each area has a tiled "wet" area for such activities as art or science projects. On either side of each open area are open courtyards with trees and benches. Two corridors separate the open areas from each other, and penetrate the a courtyards. There isAgymnasiura, auditorium, lunchroom area on one side of the teaching facilities, and a library resource center, administration center, and kinder-garten room on the other side. The building is modern and pleasant and a far cry from some of the earlier school designs. The building sits on a rather large piece of land which is divided into a flat gravelled play area for organized sports and active play. There are rather large blacktopped play areas, with small portions of these covered for play in poor weather. Part of the school-ground is grassed, and there are some of the original trees. There is also a dirt area which includes a small h i l l . 145. 146. LORD ROBERTS Lord Roberts school facility i s originally one of the oldest in the city although a brand new open area extension has just been added. The original building BUILDING AND is a 3 storey wood and brick frame structure , with a CLASSROOM LAYOUT basement. The basement includes storage and washroom facilities. The main floor includes large classrooms and main office and staffroom off a wide hallway down the center, with two stairways at either end. The second floor is mainly classroom space, and the top floor which used to be the old auditorium is now used as a converted art room. The rooms are a l l extra spacious in size and height, and in good condition considering the age of the school. There is a gymnasium at one end opening out from the basement facility onto a covered asphalt play area. The new addition is also three storey and includes a large covered open play area, a stage and small auditorium, and washroom facilities for the children, a l l on the ground level. The second floor consists of one long room, 3 ordinary classrooms, and an art storage room, reading and study area. The 3rd floor consists of one large open area space similar in nature to one of McCorkindales open areas, a staffs-art room, and a service center5which are connected to one end of the open area and separated by a hallway. The building is an interesting contrast with the old facility. There is another presently unoccupied 3 storey annex 147. on the site, however i t is to be removed at some later SCHOOLGROUND date. The schoolground occupies a block of level land, LAYOUT is completely fenced and is completely flat, covered in gravel except for the asphalt play surfaces, and. is devoid of any trees. At the present time there are two piles of dirt, and a mud puddle from the construction of the new annex. 148. LORD ROBEKJS SCHOOL 149. B USE OF THE SCHOOL AND SCHOOLGROUND The schools operate and house the child from 9"00 to 3'00 five days a week. Thus over one-quarter to one-half of the childs day is spent in the school facility in trying to learn and prepare for the skills and attitudes to successfully f i t into a larger society. Each of the three schools has approximately 500 children, about half boys and half girls. The Weir children are separated by class and grade WEIR into groups of approximately 30 pupils and are assigned to a classroom and a homeroom teacher. It is the policy of the Weir School, and most Vancouver schools, that the home room teacher is responsible for teaching most subjects such as reading, writing, arithmetic, social studies and science. The older children go to a special room and get special teachers for certain subjects such as gym, music, or art and often go on special trips to the library or school assemblies. The daily program and subject material tries to cover the range of the children! needs and interests, however the school system-by defini-tion of their teaching attitudei and their aims of pre-paring children for university, our present day work force, and adult society, restricts and directs the range of knowledge into certain prescribed directions. 150 The children in most cases sit in desks which are placed in rows facing towards the teacher and the front of the room. Most communication is teacher-child oriented, and the activity level within the school and classroom is quite rigidly controlled. The school day is broken into a series of periods punctuated by an automatic bell system which conditions the children to an involvement in one activity for a short period of time. The child progresses through a series of different grades. Each year the children progress to a new teacher and a program somewhat in keeping with their development continuum, although the classrooms don't change in physical relationship to accomodate this. The school facility and program in the f i r s t few years is a totally new and undifferentiated structure for the child to comprehend. Gradually the school as a system becomes a well established concept and follows a more or less rote pattern year after year. USE OF The Weir schoolground is really only used during S C H 0 0 L G R 0 U N D school hours for organized exercises and games, or during recess or immediately before and after school. Since i t is a l l flat gravelled and paved, there is only a limited number of activities for which i t is suitable. Most of the children use the schoolground for organized 151. sports„ ball, soccer, hockey, or active games like skipping and tag. Almost a l l play is active and exuberant, especially since the freedom during recess or play periods is so markedly different from the classroom behaviour. There is l i t t l e opportunity to just sit and talk, read, or interact with nature or man-made physical equipment. There is no grass, trees, & h i l l s , water, no variety provided to stimulate the child to learn outside. There is l i t t l e to do, and l i t t l e use made of the schoolground after hours or on weekends. It is most often used during these hours by team sports organized by the school, or by some of the older boys who come together in unstructured groups to play roller skating hockey on the blacktop. ' The Weir school plant and schoolgrounds is only used by the public on special occasions. It is usually closed after 4' O'clock each day, over the weekends and during the summer holidays. Most community programs use the gym. The school facility is poorly designed to facilitate community use after hours since there is no way to lock off parts of the building from others (the toilets are in the main hallway), and therefore much of the building remains unsupervised. There are also many restrictions on supervising, bearing responsi-bility , and meeting union demands on maintenance. The USE OF SCHOOL BY THE COMMUNITY 152. Weir principal would like to make better use of both the school and schoolground, but feels he is partially handicapped by red tape and school board restrictions. There is l i t t l e interaction between the school and the larger adult community. The school is rather an isolated bastion which many parents feel is not their right to intrude upon and there is l i t t l e encouragement from the school - either in policy or in its physical layout, to break down these feelings. There is l i t t l e attempt to involve the parents and the community in the educational process, however there is l i t t l e indication that the parents want this involvement. RESTRICTION The Weir school lays down and expects the children ON USE to obey many rules, stating how the child can or cannot use the building'. As examples, there is no entry to the school before 8 » 3 0 . At 8 i 3 0 on the rainy days the child may go directly to the library and read or go to the gymnasium and sit on the floor t i l l the bell goes, or thechild may remain outside. There is to be no loitering in the hallway at any time, and no one is allowed upstairs or into a classroom unless under teacher supervision, or _ntil the bells ring. Children are to line up when moving as a class from room to room, or when entering the building and are to keep to the right of the halls. At lunch they must eat in the library and stay there t i l l 1 2 t 3 0 at :which time they clean up, and can then go outside or read. After school there is to 153. be no loitering in the halls, classroom or washrooms. If the children are not participating in some school activity they are expected to clear the building and school grounds. Thus the child is asked to learn and abide by a set of rules and to operate in a certain manner. Thus the school wields a great influence over the child in terms of developing an attitude towards the larger society through the demands i t places on the child at school. In most cases many of these same type of re-strictions are placed on the child at home as well, and they are accepted with only a small amount of difficulty. In other cases they are a rigid imposition and con-tradiction to the standards imposed and accepted at home, and the child finds a frustrating split in values between their school l i f e and their home l i f e . 154. The general pattern within the classroom may or may not follow the regularity and efficiency of this system. There is more room for individuality within the classroom, but only within fairly narrow limits. Moreover many teachers hold the same tight structure in their classrooms as is held in the school generally. Students most often sit at their desks, raise their hands when they want to talk, and address the teacher rather than other students. Each of the schools have some of these restrictions on their use, however the Weir facility seems to follow the most structured and rigid approach in educating children. 155. McCORKINDALE The McCorkindale school uses different teaching methods than Weir, and the facility is used and arranged DAILY ROUTINE in a different manner. Except for the kindergarten class which operates in a traditional classroom situation, a l l children are taught using team teaching techniques in open areas. The traditional classrooms are replaced by large open spaces, each of which accomodates the equivalent of 4 traditional classrooms. Grade 1 and 2's occupy one area, grades 3 , 4 , and sorter's are in another area, and grades 5»6, and 7 are in the third area. Teachers work together planning their program and the child revolves from activity to activity and from teacher to teacher. The classes are much less formal and the teacher doesn't have the same absolute control over the children as they do at Weir. There is s t i l l a system of bells and timetables which order the day, however there is a great deal more flexibility, stimulation,and freedom within the system than there is at Weir. There is more movement by the child through the school, and tables and chairs can be arranged in either small or large groups, can be set up individually, or the child can comfortably sit on the floor. There are usually a number of activities occuring in one space at the same time, which gives the children a better idea of what is happening throughout the school, an interest in what they can anticipate next year, or a security in what they have already learnt. There is however a problem 156. of being distracted with what they are working on at the present, though this does not seem to be a serious problem for most children. There is a tendency to make much more use of audio-visual equipment, and the areas are usually open after school hours much more frequently than at Weir. CHANGE IN The children progress through a series of levels in USE WITH AGE each subject, and may be at different levels in different subjects, depending on their interest and ability. There is l i t t l e differentiation of one open area from another in physical definition, however there is more happening within each area than happens within most classroom situations, both in terms of variety of display and in grouping of children. The child and teacher are usually more involved in this type of process. They are called upon to adapt more readily, and are more frequently placed in a more stressing situation -where problems are acted out. The aims of the school program are as concerned with social relationships as with academic ability, and in this respect differ from Weir where academic ability is given more importance. USE OF SCHOOLGROUND The McCorkindale school and schoolground have to operate more as an activity center for the children than does Weir since there are fewer open areas in the neigh-borhood (no parks, or open play spaces), and the community center and churches are quite far away. The schoolground is used more after hours because of this and 157. because i t offers more variety to stimulate the childs interest -(grass, trees, h i l l , and dirt piles, plus the usual flat gravel and paved areas). There is s t i l l a lack of equipment however to stimulate the child for long, and most play is s t i l l structured organized sports and group games, although there are some 1 children who use the area for small group play. * USE BY The public are encouraged and use McCorkindale COMMUNITY more than is normal for most Vancouver schools. It is used by the parents of the children and by outside observers,. Both groups are welcome to see how the school works and to watch and walk around at certain times of the day. There are frequent visitors, and the children spend much more of their time under the scrutinizing eye of the larger society. There is much more relaxation and freedom about visitors, and the parents seem to have a greater feeling of being welcome. The children spend a lot of time involved in studying community projects in the neighborhood and the city, and they seem to have a much better awareness than most school aged children of the environment around them. RESTRICTIONS There are many of the same restrictions, at McCorkLn-ON USE dale as at Weir,hbaever, generally they are much less authoritarian;, the children have more responsibility and leeway before restrictions are applied8and the re-158 strictions are more related to the personality and habits of the teacher than to the general system. There is more of a tendency to reason and discuss with the child rather than simply to impose rules upon him. 159. The Lord Roberts school has followed the traditional schooling system similar to Weir, but now has a new open area section as well. The new section of school has just been completed and is being used as a primary annex by the grades 1, 2 and 3's. They will start off in modern new classrooms, with homeroom teachers, and then progress to the open area situation, similar to the McCorkindale areas, however the teachers wil l have l i t t l e experience teaching in this matter. The grades 4*s to 7 !s are in the old main part of the school, which is operated in a more traditional classroom structure. Thus the children will go from an open area system to a more traditional area as they grow up. It is too early to determine x*hat effect this w i l l have on the students. One of the most important factors in the use of the Lord Roberts school is the fact that there is approximately a 50$ turnover rate of students each year because of the high degree of transiency in the area. Because of this transiency, and because of the large number of recent immigrants * i t is much more difficult to maintain a high quality level of education with the student, or to maintain a group unity over the year. There is more flexibility in the class-room than in the Weir situation, partly because of this situation. There is also an effect on peer friendship patterns and role behaviour making them less stable than in the Killarney area. The Lord Roberts schoolground is very similar to the Weir schoolground in physical structure, but is used much 160. more because of the lack of other suitable play areas i n the West End. Since i t i s mainly level and gravelled, i t can only be used for the same acti v i t i e s as i s the Weir school ground, and has a l l of the same limitations on i t s use. The fact that i t s use i s limited i s more c r i t i c a l i n the West End however,since there are fewer alternate areas to play, USE OF The Lord Roberts school i s better u t i l i z e d by the SCHOOL BY COMMUNITY community than i s the Killarney or McCorkindale f a c i l i t i e s , as i t i s used after hours by the West End Recreation Project foir some ac t i v i t i e s for the children. The gymnasium f a c i l i t i e s are used after school and on evenings during the week, however there i s no planned use for children on the weekends or during the holidays. With the new addition i t i s possible to close off parts of the f a c i l i t y for specific uses. There i s more interaction between the school and the adult community regarding the education process of the students than i n Weir, but i t i s s t i l l short of the community interaction of McCorkindale and s t i l l short of what needs to be provided i n the West Bhd area. RESTRICTIONS There are many of the same restrictions at Lord ON USE Roberts as there are at Weir school, however they are generally less authoritarian, and the children are not as pressured to perform to the same r i g i d set of standards. I t i s too early to say what effect the open area situation 1 6 1 . . is going to have on the restrictions, whether i t will make them looser in time, or whether the open area will have more stringent controls on its use than McCorkindale now has. 162. So/AE.pM-5 hl_vEi=r 5t^ > loo vruZV 7 12 2 3 !£> I O 12. S> _> \/r-> vwZV 12 S> 12. 13 /•_>iw->]_v~ 3 9 7 -»-% 8 ~7 • Mc£oCU£tiJo*U - 4-9 2 _ 5 E o p _CHOOLGRC_NID 163 C QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE KILLARNEY One very positive comment to be made about the Killarney schools is that they are readily available and convenient f o r i most children. "Almost a l l children, even 5 and 6 year olds learn to go to school themselves. Most children walk, however a few of the older children ride AVAILABILITY bikes to school. 80$ of the children live less than 4 AND CONVENIENCE blocks from school, and no one lives more than 7 - 8 3 . blocks away. The young children that live close to school seem to understand and include the school as part of their neighborhood sooner, but their neighborhood radii is generally smaller since the school and dwelling give the children most of their environmental needs. The children that live further away from school usually in i t i a l l y accept the school and use i t as part of their territory less often, but because the route between the dwelling and school is further, the childs territory seems to expand more quickly, since the children become confident in venturing further away from home. REASONS WHY Many parents mention the school as a prime reason SCHOOL IS LIKED why they like the neighborhood for bringing up children. The Weir parents like the school because of its convenience, while the McCorkindale parents like its convenience, but 4 many also like its open area and new teaching techniques. Parents put few restrictions on using the school ( r e -strictions are left to the responsibility of the teachers), however a few restrict the child from using the school-ground after school hours. 164.. SCHOOLGROUND USE The questionnaire response shows some difference in the use of the schoolground. The Weir school-ground is not used very often and a lot of students never use i t , probably because there are more desirable alternative areas in which to play. The McCorkindale schoolground is used by more students, more often, and only a few student never use this area for their play. WEST END AVAILABILITY & CONVENIENCE The West End parents commented that the school facility is not as convenient for some children, because of the distance from the dwelling and because of the 2 increased dangers along the route. "Many of the younger children are taken by their parents to school, and are picked up after school. Most other children walk to school - very few drive bikes. Many of the children live quite close to school - over 50$ are within 4 blocks, especially since some of the high-rise apartments near the school are willingly accepting families with children. However many of the children live 8 to 12 blocks from school, and have to cross major traffic arteries, and climb steep hills to get there. 3 . REASONS WHY SCHOOL IS LIKED Many of the West End parents mention the school as a prime factor in liking the neighborhood for the child. Most parents like the school because of its con-venience, however a few like i t for other reasons -because i t has lunchroom facilities (a necessity for working Mothers), and because i t has good teachers that take an interest in the children. 4c 165. There are no specific restrictions placed on the use of the school or the schoolground. This can either mean that parents don't object to their children using the schoolground after hours, or the children don't ask to use i t . Each of their reasons probably exist depending on the age of the child and the distance of the childs particular dwelling from the school. Those who are younger or who live further from the school, usually use the schoolground less often. SCHOOLGROUND The schoolground is used more often in the West USE End than in Killarney, Kouever there is a fairly large number of children who never use i t at a l l outside of school hours. 1 6 6 A DESCRIPTION OF INDIVIDUAL FACILITIES IN THE LARGER NEIGHBORHOOD 1 . SCHOOLS KILLARNEY (WEIR) newer, two-storey rectangular school of traditional design individual classrooms each basically identical with approximately 3 0 students and a homeroom teacher for each. KILLARNEY (McCORKINDALE) new modern, one level open area school design. 3 large teaching areas each basically identical with approximately 1 5 0 students and 4 teachers i n each area. 1 2 includes gymnasium and libr a r y resource center fixed walls and blackboards; desks placed i n rows towards the front. includes kindergarten, gym-nasium and library resource center? wet areas off each open area. portable blackboards, chairs, tables, and storage units. small,flatgraveiled and fenced schoolground; with a covered paved play area; no grass, h i l l s , trees, or play equip-ment. grade system » one teacher teaches most subjects. 6 7 larger, mostly f l a t gravelled school-ground; with a covered paved play area; and exterior courtyards off each room; i n -cluding some grass, d i r t , trees and h i l l y play areas; but with limited play equipment. level system team teaching techniques. 6 7 stable student body; most children Canadianized. stable student body; most children Canadianized. school i s academically oriented; formal i n structure there are many s t r i c t rules and regulations on expected be-haviour within the school 1 0 school stresses social inter-action as well as academic achievement; i s more informal i n structure. more f l e x i b i l i t y and freedom with rules and regulations. io WEST END (LORD ROBERTS) Cfd spacious 3 storey school with newly:Y completed 3 storey annex. a variety of classrooms and classes; new individual classrooms for grade l ' s ; 1 arge open area for grades 2 & 3 ; old spacious traditional classrooms for 4 , 5 , 6 and 7 * s . includes large and small gym-nasium; large and small art"rooms; reading room and a few study carrells• fixed walls and rows of desks i n old part; portable blackboards, chairs and tables i n open area section. small, f l a t gravelled and fenced school-ground; including a covered play area; no grass, h i l l s , trees, or play equipment. Has the old annex which i s slated for destruction, now occupying the si t e . grade system children advance from team teach-ing i n new open areas to individ-ual teachers i n old traditional classrooms. 5 0 $ student turnover rate per year; many children who are recent immigrants. school i s mainly academically oriented, but helps sli g h t l y to provide social interaction; tends to be fontal i n structure. fewer restrictions on expected behaviour than at Weir. 1 6 ? . - KILLARNEY (WEIR) teacher i s absolute head of 11 the class; most communication i s teacher-child oriented usually only one main activity 12 at a time i n class children tend to be passive 13 within school 14 school i s seldomly used after 15 school, during weekends or on holidays. poor community interaction with 16 school f a c i l i t y or school program schoolground acts as an escape 17 release from class pressures and encourages bad active play schoolground i s not frequently 18 used after school hours except for structured school a c t i v i t i e s . the school f a c i l i t y i s convenient 19 for most children; children walk or bike to school by themselves. KILLARNEY (McCORKINDALE) many teachers to interact with 11 some choice of teachers by the student; more communication and interaction between students. a number of a c t i v i t i e s go on 12 at one time i n the open spaces. children are more active and 13 tend to interact more intensely; making more potential stress s i t -uations for children & teachers. more use of audio-video techni- 14 ques and other experimental and innovative ideas. school i s used more after hours by the students and teachers. more community interaction with 16 the school program and f a c i l i t y -especially during school hours. schoolground i s less used as an 17 escape release from classes and i s used for more types of play. schoolground i s sometimes used 18 after school for informal small group play as well as structured a c t i v i t i e s . the school f a c i l i t y i s convenient 19 for most children; they can go by themselves. WEST END (LORD ROBERTS) Teacher-child relationship varies with open area or trad-i t i o n a l classroom situation. usually only one a c t i v i t y at a time within normal classrooms, freer than Weir. children tend to be passive within old school setting; (no data on the influence of open area section. school and grounds are used more after hours and on week-ends by student and community. gym and some f a c i l i t i e s are used for community recreation after school and i n the evenings• schoolground acts as an escape release from classes and en-courages active play only. schoolground i s often used by children who l i v e near since i t i s one of the few available places i n which to play. the school f a c i l i t y i s not con-venient for younger children, and many who l i v e far away; most parents take younger children to school and pick them up later. RECREATION C 168. _3L. RECREATION CENTERS The community center is one of the most important facilities that draws the child into a larger community sphere. As there are relatively few community centers and these are spaced sporadically through the city, the Weir district is unusual in having a community center at its core, readily available to all,and the McCorkindale area is close enough to enjoy the use of i t . The West End which does not yet have its own community center runs a similar but more limited type of program scattered throughout existing facilities in the neighborhood. 169. A A PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION The community center facility is really three separate units in physical form, tied together by a lobby space, and run as 3 separate ventures under the auspices of the Parks and Recreation Board. The three units include a skating rink, a swimming pool, and a community activities building. The skating rink is a regulation sized ice surface with an a r t i f i c i a l ice plant. It includes a limited seating capacity - three tiered rows of wooden benches along one side of the rink. The back-up facilities include a ticket and entrance gate, a lobbey for resting and buying snacks, and male and female changing rooms and toilet facilities. The structure is concrete block and is essentially windowless. The swimming pool is a regulation Olympic size pool, varying in depth from a shallow to deep end. The pool is ringed by a t i l e walkway but has no seating except for a small balcony at one end. The back-up facilities for the pool include a ticket and clothes storage wicket, and male and female change and shower rooms. This space is also of concrete block construction, however i t has 2 floor to ceiling window panels to l e t in light. The activity center is a rectangular building very similar to a miniature Weir school facility. It is two storey with a central linear hallway on the ground floor separating individual rooms along either side. Upstairs is a small office, kitche, play room .or kindergarten, 170. MAIN LOBBEY SPACE and a large ballroom space. The spaces are separated by wood partitions and have windows looking out on Killarney Park. There i s no visual access to any of the spaces from the hallway. There i s also a medium size gymnasium off one side of this rectangular building. These three buildings, rink, pool, and ac t i v i t y center, are connected by a lobby entrance which also contains the administrative offices. This lobby i s also of concrete block with some windowstbut offers l i t t l e else. There i s really no space for displaying timetable and activity schedules showing what i s going on within the building, and no clue as to what i s happening behind a l l the doors. The center sticks out lik e a landmark. I t i s placed i n the center of a large grassed park, i s definitely "an architectural monument", and looks lik e a forbidding fortress with solid concrete block walls, and large gates which are padlocked when the center i s closed. 171. 1 7 2 . ORGANIZED RECREATION OUTERS 173. WEST END The West End Recreation Project offers a similar RECREATION CENTER but much more limited program msing existing facilities within the neighborhood. The elementary aged children carry on activities at three separate facilities. Lord Roberts Elementary School, King George Secondary School, and Dawson Elementary School. The programs at EXISTING Lord Roberts and Dawson are repetitious and are FACILITIES basically set up for the children in those school districts. Thus the programs I will examine will be limited to Lord Roberts and King George. The facilities in these , buildings are limited to the gymnasiums at Lord Roberts and King George. The program is severely limited in scope because of the probl&m of getting and using facilities for various programs. The art room and other parts of Lord Roberts school are not available nor is much of King George which is used extensively for night school classes. A complex is planned for the West End, and hopes are that i t might be ready for 1972. There are also programs initiated by the Y.M.C.A. and Gordon House which f u l f i l l and overlap in function with the interests of the W.E.R.P. and are similar to types of programs run in the Killarney Community Center. 174. B USE OF THE FACILITIES KILLARNEY TYPE OF PROGRAMS ATTENDANCE The Killarney community center attempts to run programs for a l l ages and interest^ include is a l i s t of the programs offered that the elementary school child can take part in. i Sports & athletics family skating figure skating ice hockey Mother and tot swims family swims swim lessons gym activities trampoline & tumbing floor hockey badminton i i arts & crafts baton & tap kinderdance ballet Japanese cooking sewing crafts drama guitar i i i group activities 3 to 5 year fun babysitting play school junior gamesroom rink pool community center activities community center activities community center activities From the attandance figures i t is roughly estimated that between 5 0 0 & 600 children participate somewhat regularly in one or more programs. The center is used much more frequently during the winter and offers many programs, Included are some figures for the peak winter season. Total attendance is approximately 30,000 per month (14,000 at the rink, 4,000 at the pool, and 13,000 at the activities). In summer these 175 figures drop to 7,000 per month (2,000 at the pool and 5„000 at the community center,, of which 4,000 are in a lacrosse league). It must be stressed that these figures are not the number of different people that use the facility - a person is counted every time they participate. Thus i f a child goes swimming 10 time a month, plays badminton 4 times, and skates 11 times, he counts 25 times on the attendance record. Even taking this into consideration, there are a lot of people who use the facility. From the figures, skating seems to be the most popular activity. A minimal fee is charged to enter a program - .50£ per family per evening for family skating and swimming, $4.00 for 11 weeks of baton lessons, or $1.00 for half a year of cooking. Many of the activities are free however-including a l l gym programs. The rink is the only facility that pays for itself through the money i t collects from the users. The other two units are subsidized for much of their operating expenditure. TIMETABLE The programs have been set up so that pre-schoolers are brought by Mothers during the afternoon and participate in a program while Mother participates in one of her own. The elementary school aged programs are almost always held after school from 3 "30 to 4$30, or, as the.-child grows older, from 4"30 to 5*30. Family programs are usually run after supper during the week. There are few programs run during the weekend for the child. 176. Since the Weir school is next to the community center, most of the children who are permitted or desire to use the center have no trouble getting there on their own. The children who live outside the Weir area - as in McCorkindale, often depend on their parents to drive them when they are young, however by the age of 1 1 and 12 sthey can get to the center on their own by bicycle or by walking, although i t is a long way, especially for a program that begins after school. If the parents drive their children to the center there is l i t t l e to 0>r the- o. entertain them while waiting children. ° There are, as in school, certain rules and regulations which the child is expected to follow. There is to be no running or shouting in the complex, except during organized play. The child is encouraged to come-take part in the programs, and then leave. Loitering and un-structured groups are discouraged. The central lobby is used as nothing more than a passageway. It is an echo chamber and devoid of stimulation or interest, and does nothing to encourage participation in any of the programs. The complex also attracts older children, teenagers, and young adults who have l i t t l e interest in the programs but who use the centercas a hangout and tend to tease, embarass or push around many of the potential users of the facilities. This begins to set up a conflict of interest between the child, teenager, and adult,which often 17? affects the use of the center. The parents hear rumors or see these kid® and begin to associate the community center with this type of element, and often restrict. letting their children go unaccompanied due to the fear of danger associated with these loose gangs, and due to the parents worrying that this type of company might influence the moral standards of their children. COMMUNITY The complex is not operating or used to capacity INTEGRATION and the "gang element" is one reason why this is so. Another reason which I believe prevents i t from being used more is the fact that i t does not appropriately serve as a community center. First i t offers no in-dication or welcome to any of its programs, either when viewing the center from a distance or when viewing i t from inside the lobbey. It is an inward looking building, out of the normal path of the average adult, and most of the children. There is no chance to see what happens within the building, or to be enticed into a program by the activity i t generates. Another reason the complex does not serve as a real "community" center is its a r t i f i c i a l relationship to perceived adult identification of their community. From the interview carried out with members who are,or have worked at the center, i t seems that, the closer one lives to the center, the more often they are likely to use i t . It is estimated that most users live within a mile 178. of the center, and that the most frequent users l i v e within the Weir d i s t r i c t . Since the center was or ig inal ly b u i l t to serve an area containing 30 to 40,000 people, i n i t s present form i t can only serve a fraction of these, and i n fact large areas and neighborhood are completely isolated and hardly know a community center exists. Therefore i t may be worth asking whether a complex of this type i s rea l ly appropriate for the needs of the overal l community i t i s intended to serve, and especially the younger children i n these areas. 1 7 9 . Enclosed is a map of the district the community center i s supposed to serve and the estimated area i t actually serves. 180. WEST END The West End Recreation Project runs a much smaller program in general, and a limited number of programs that are of interest to children. sports & athletics boys & girls badminton boys floor hockey boys & girls gymnastics boys & girls basketball open gym Lord Roberts King George i i arts & crafts boys & girls crafts ] Lord Roberts ballet -j creative drama J King George adventure time 1 outside The Y.M.C.A. offers free swimming for Lord Roberts school once a week, Gordon House runs a day-center for pre-school children, and there are some facilities at churches to provide after school day care for children t i l l the parents get home from work. Crystal Pool, which is to be torn down ,is a separate facility run by the Parks Board and is open to the public for general swimming. It seems that approximately 1 5 0 children participate in the W.E.R.P. programs regularly which is about £ the use that is made of the Killarney center. The center doesn't run summer programs as of yet. Total peak winter attendance is approximately 5 , 0 0 0 per month of which a large number are elderly. This attendance figure is the total number of people times the number of occasions they participate in a program a month. The West End figure is approximately l / 6 t h that of the Killarney center. 181. There is no charge for the children's programs except for adventure time, which is a programme utilizing trips to interesting facilities in the city. TIMETABLE The activities at Lord Roberts take place after school hours, while the activities at King George take place on Saturday mornings. There are no family programs as such, and there are no Sunday programs or summer programs due to the lack of facilities. The USE activities are convenient for most children since they DEPENDING ON DISTANCE occur in the school facility, but on Saturday the child depends on' the parent to bring them unless they live nearby. The recreation activities because they exist in different physical facilities are more independent in nature and are often related to the aims of the in-stitution in which they are held. The West End center is much more integrated with other community services in the West End. It is much more spread into the existing fabric of the community and tries to serve the needs of the people as much as i t does those of the Parks Board (which are often divergent in thought). The W.E.R.P. organization however is rather bound by the limited facilities available for their program and by the fact that they rent facilities and have to follow rules RESTRICTIONS and regulations which are often restrictive •towards csbme of ON USE the programs they would like to implement. There is l i t t l e trouble in the West End with gangs or rowdy behaviour, although there was a lot of rough play when the recreation project first started. 182. C. QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE The questionnaire response backs up most of the preceding statements regarding use of the community center. In the Weir area the community center is regarded as available and convenient by every parent. It is within 4 blocks for most, and no further than 8 or 9 blocks for any child. Most children walk to the center for its programs, although some of the older children (usually boys) ride their bike. Even though i t is so close to home or to school, 40$ of the children are frequently driven by their parents, and 10$ never go at a l l unless driven by their parents.3" The McCorkindale figures reflect the different relationship that the community center has to that area. A l l parents mention i t is available but 35$ do not think i t is convenient for their child, and would like to see i t moreso. "It is over a 4 block trip for a l l the children, and over 12 blocks for some. Only 35$ of the children walk to the center, and most of these children ride their bicycles, however the majority (75$) are usually driven and 60$ never go to the community center at a l l unless their parents take them. 3-The children use the center mostly for skating and swimming, usually with the family.5"Some of the older children join in more specific activities. The community center is important for child-parent sharing activities. LIKES DISLIKES RESTRICTIONS OF USE 183. This is apparent from the response showing that from 2 / 5 t h ' s to \ of a l l shared activities take place in community center programs. ^" Most of the Weir parents ( 8 5 $ ) mention the con-venience of the community center as one of the prime reasons the neighborhood is regarded as a good place to bring up their child. Only 1 5 $ of the McCorkindale responses mention the community center and they like i t 4 simply because i t is available. There are no dangers or dislikes connected to the community center by the McCorkindale parents, 'probably because the child is usually under the parents protection and care at a l l times. The Weir parents however frequently mention the dislike* of the hoodlums, or of teenagers, the park in general, and drugs which are a l l related to the community center in the parent's mind. Three of the five parents having 1 1 and 1 2 year old children mention the gangs as a distinct danger threat to their child. "7-There are few restrictions placed on the childs use of the center (except for the number that could only use i t accompanied by a parent). There are some restrictions on using i t after supper, or against loitering after the activities, but for many parents the importance of the programs outweighed their fear or dislike of the facility. 184. WEST END The questionaire response shows that most of the West End parents do not regard the W.E.R.P. as a community center organization. Less than £ said a AVAILABILITY & CONVENIENCE community center i s available, and only 5$ of them said i t i s convenient. Most of the parents thought a community center should be available and more convenient 2 . for their children to use. "For those families that regard the W.E.R.P, as a community type center, most of them l i v e 4 to 12 blocks from the f a c i l i t i e s . The ac t i v i t i e s are mainly used by the older boys who walk or 3 3 bicycle to them. There are no organized family a c t i v i -t i e s . Some families however use a community center out-side the West End, mainly for swimming or skating. Most parents i n the West End reply that there i s not enough for their child to do i n the West End, and the neighborhood does not supply enough of the childs DISLIKES needs. They most frequently say i t doesn't supply a recreational center, a community center, a place to play, or spaces for organized a c t i v i t i e s . A U of these concern the W.E.R.P. and are the type of f a c i l i t i e s they would l i k e to provide. No parent mentioned anything good about organized recreation i n the West End for their children, while almost f mentioned the lack of organized recreational play space for their children as their major dislike of the area as a place to raise children - and 40$ think this i s the most important change that has to be made i n the neighborhood. TyS*. 185. 2 . RECREATION CENTERS KILLARNEY WEST END one large community center com-plex including indoor rink, i n -door pool, and act i v i t i e s center (small gym, ballroom, lounge, kitchen, playroom, and other small rooms. l i t t l e integration of the fac-i l i t y or the programs with the neighborhood community the building i s a landmark i s -olated from normal paths of use; i t doesn't invite people i n to use the f a c i l i t i e s ; and there i s no display of what ac t i v i t i e s occur once inside the complex. a large number of programs for children and families-in sports and athletics, arts and crafts, and group a c t i v i t i e s , skating i s the most popular. most children's programs occur after school; family programs occur i n the early evening; very few programs during the weekend or summer. many smaller complexes spread throughout the community; operating i n existing f a c i l i t i e s . West End Recreation Project co-operates with Gordon House, Y.M.C.A., Crystal Pool, churches and schools, i n offering re-creation programs for the community. f a c i l i t i e s are poorly linked together; don't give a good indication of the programs that occur within. fewer programs for children i n sports and athletics, and arts and crafts; no acti v i t i e s for families as a group. most childrens programs occur after school (in the school) or on Saturday morning (in the High School); no programs during the rest of the weekend or during the summer. act i v i t i e s are planned and run by the central authority of the parks boardo the center i s not used to capacity but i s well used. act i v i t i e s are more independent from the Parks Board; since they use and are governed by the rules and regulations of the organi-sations that run each f a c i l i t y . extra programs and expansion i s limited by the lack of suitable existing f a c i l i t i e s ; a new community center i s approved for the West End. small fee charged for most programs 8 no fee charged for most programs. 186. KILLARNEY WEST END designed to serve a larger 9 neighborhood than i t effectively does used mainly by people who liv e 10 within a close radius of the f a c i l i t y . Most Weir children l i v e within 11 4 blocks of the center; most McCorkindale children l i v e 6-10 blocks from the center most Weir children can walk to 12 the center by themselves; many are driven by their parents; the younger McCorkindale child-ren are always accompanied to the center by parents or else cannot go. center attracts gangs who use 13 the area as a social hangout and often cause disturbances. the child i s encouraged to part- 14 icipate i n the program and then leave; there are restrictions on loitering and engaging i n social interaction outside of the program. the community center i s convenient 15 and i s one of the main reasons the Weir area i s liked as a place to raise children; many McCork-indale families don't find the community center convenient and use i t less often. many parents r e s t r i c t their child- 16 ren from using the f a c i l i t y for fear of undesirable people who hang out there; and would like to change thi s . serves only a limited number of people i n the community. used mainly by older children who l i v e anywhere i n the West End. distance isn't a large factor i n the use of the West End program since many occur i n the school f a c i l i t y . many of the younger West End children ( 5 - 9 ) cannot p a r t i c i -pate i n the Saturday program unless accompanied by an adult because of the distance and dangers; older children (10-12) walk or take the bus. l i t t l e trouble with rowdy be-haviour. atmosphere i s usually more re-laxed and informal and there i s some social interaction outside of the program. most parents don't find the community recreation program adequate for their children. most parents would like to see a community center, spaces for informal play and organized sports, both outside and inside for their children. These types of f a c i l i t i e s are the most im-portant changes they feel have to be made. D 'ARKS A N D pLAyGROuNQS 18?. 3V .PARK & PLAYGROUND SYSTEM A. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION There are 4 parks which are used by the Weir and McCorkindale child. The only; park within the Weir d i s t r i c t i s the large Killarney Park complex. I t i s a f l a t treeless grassed area with no r e l i e f except for the community center which i s situated i n i t s center, and the secondary school which i s situated i n the S.W. corner. Included on this expanse of land i s a cinder 440 track, and a series of marked off playing fields for organized sports. There i s a small building acting as the center for the local community association and acting as a change house for a small paddling pool nearby. There i s no indication of any playground equip-ment for children. Neighboring the Weir d i s t r i c t are two small parks that are used by a small minority of Weir residents. Earles Park i s one square block i n size which also includes a private school occuping about l/3 of the s i t e . The park situated on the other Z/j's i s grassed with a few large trees around the edges, i s marked into a playing f i e l d and gradually slopes to a valley i n the middle. I t i s also devoid of any play equipment. Norquay park - used seldomly, i s about two blocks north of Earles, and i s essentially the same type of grassed area for organized games. 188. CENTRAL The only other park in the Killarney vicinity PARK is central Park which runs along Boundary Road and is a major regional park. It. is s t i l l largely treed and undeveloped, but has pockets of activity areas,including such facilities as a large stadium with covered seating, a municipal outdoor pool, ai, pitch and putt golf course, tennis courts, a baseball diamond,, a football and socer field, and a childrens playground which includes swings, slides, a paddling pool and a whirl-a-round. Most of these structured facilities are provided around the edges of the park. The center is s t i l l heavily forested, however there are l i t t l e trails running through i t , and a small lake towards the southern edge. 189. KlLlARlfa PARKS AND pU3GR0dhlD5 190. There are two parks within or bordering the West End. Nelson Park is a small \ block grassy area to-wards the east edge of the West End. It has a paddling pool and change and storeroom house, swings, teeter-totters, ay-', sandbox,and several benches. Stanley Park is a major regional park which is one of the major attractions for people living in the West End. It is a huge forested peninsula and has many facilities. There is a children's playground including a fi?e engine, swings, slides, etc., two beaches, an enclosed salt water pool, two lagoons with marshes and ducks, geese,and swans, trails through forested areas, a 200, aquarium, tennis courts, totem poles, grassy areas, concession stands, miniature railroad, a pitch and putt golf course, and a tea house and playing fields. The beach and ocean front is also run by the parks board. There is an almost continuous stretch of beach along the southern edge of the West End, however most swimming takes place at Sunset Beach or English Bay Beach. There is a narrow grassed and treed stripoand a walkway above the beach level, widening into a playing field and boat launch near the Sunset beach area. 191. > J WE5[ EhlD fARK5 Af^ D (tfifjGROllte 1 9 2 B. USE OF THE PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS The park system is quite restrictive for the potential use of most of the Weir residents - both children and adults. The parents use the park mainly as a place to look across, as the openness gives an encompassing view of a large area. There is nothing in Killarney, Earles, or Norquay parks to attract the normal everyday person. Because they are open spaces however, they provide, and are used extensively as a path or shortcut to get from a facility on the other side. The large area also provides some security for the younger children and< their parents, especially i f they live near the parks edge. • The child is able to orient himself because of the park, and the Mother is more easily able to supervise the child. These parks are used by younger children to run and participate in unstructured play i f the child lives close by, but is used less and less as the child lives further away from the park, since they quickly become out of range for the parents to supervise with ease. For the younger child (5 - 8.) there are few amenities in the park to develop potential activities. There are no props or equipment to stimulate dramatic or creative play other than a which is used for playing ball and running around. It is quite ironical that a l l the parks in the Killarney area have major roads running by them and for many of the children, although they may live across the street, the parks are out of bounds because of the danger in crossing the major street arteries. Many of the 193 parents prefer to take their children to central park where there are more diverse activities in which the whole family can participate. USE BY The Weir area parks are used by the older child OLDER CHILDREN ( or adult),for supervised and structured competitive games such as track and field, soccer, lacrosse, or ball. This type of activity seems to be the only use designed into the Weir parks. In general i t seems these parks tend to disperse activity rather than generate activity. Their physical quality and programs they are used for is very limiting for the average Weir child. This can be seen as the child begins to incorporate the more exciting yet much more distant Central Park into his neighborhood experience. This however doesn't happen t i l l the child reaches his 9th or 10th birthday -when the child begins to extend his range and mobility. 194. USE BY THE McCORKINDALE COMMUNITY USE BY THE YOUNGER CHILDREN USE BY THE OLDER CHILDREN The McCorkindale area has no park within its district, however Central Park is close/by and is used by many of the residents. Central Park is generally much more exciting than any of the parks near the Weir district - there are many more activities to excite the child and much more variation in the natural materials. Central Park is however restricted by most parents as being too dangerous for the younger children (under 7-8) unless they are accompanied by parents. One has to cross a mojor road to get there,there is a lot of unknown wooded area in which to get lost or molested, and i t is too far away for most children of this age. Most activities take place either at the playground area in Central Park - playing on the swings and slides, or generally exploring the wooded areas which includes going on walks, looking for animals,and flowers and nature studies. By the age of 9 or 10 however the child is using the park by himself, to go to the pools and explore the woods. As the children get older ( 9 - 1 2 ) they ride bikes, fly kites, explore and play unstructured dramatic games in the woods of Central Park and begin to become interested in more structured sports such as hockey, basketball, soccer, and tennis, which take place either at Central park or Killarney park. J 195. The West End has a mixture of fine regional park-like natural amenities around its edge with very limited play-ground or parkland within its own neighborhood. Nelson park is the only facility within the West End area. It is well used, mainly by pre-school children who are taken there by their parents, or by school age children who are restricted from visiting Stanley Park and the beach. There is l i t t l e of interest in the winter to stimulate the school child, however they occasionally use the swings, teeter-totters, or monkey bars. In the summer the paddling pool becomes a focal play amenity for a few children, and the open space (one of the few in the area) is used as a social center. The elderly si t on the benches and talk and watch people walk by, and the young mothers s i t on the grass while the children play. Most West End children want to make use of the more regional Stanley Park and beach areas. The younger children can usually only go to these areas when accompanies by parents. There is however such a variety within Stanley Park, and the beaches are as important an amenity to the parent as to the child, that both of these areas are well frequented by the family. Besides actively using the playground in Stanley Park, the children often engage in such activities as feeding ducks and squirrels, going to the zoo, fishing, going on walks with one's parents when small, or hiking 196. and exploring with friends when older, family picnics, and building secret forts. Some of the older children can go to Stanley Park and the beaches on their own-or with USE BY THE friends, although they s t i l l often go with their parents. OLDER CHILDREN They sometimes use the park to bicycle around - i t being much safer than the road system in the West End. A few older children partake in organized sports - either in Stanley Park - or at other parks in the cijy. ^ * The ocean and beaches are used again mainly by the family, although the older children have more freedom to go on their own„ Playing in the sand, logs,and rocks, suntanning, and walking,are some of the activities the children and parents engage in. 197. QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE WEIR AVAILABILITY AND CONVENIENCE The questionnaire response shows the importance parents attach to having a park near to the dwelling. The Weir response states that parks and playgrounds (often regarded as the same f a c i l i t y ) are available and convenient for their children. This response i s influenced by the community center which many parents i n this area regard as part of the park system. Most Weir children walk and use the parks on their own. Almost every family l ives within 4 blocks, and over a 3. th ird l i ve less than a block away. The responses show that the parks and playgrounds, even though they cater to only a few of the childs needs are s t i l l used, mainly i n the summer and moreso as the ch i ld gets older. The use i s however much less than i t could potential ly be due to the lack of interest i t can maintain for most 5 children. McCORKINDALE The McCorkindale response c lear ly shows what effect not having a park or playground i n the immediate d i s t r i c t means to the chi ld and adult. More than half the parents AVAILABILITY & CONVENIENCE said that either a park or pjbayground are not convenient 2. for the ir children and wish they would be moreso. 'These are the f a c i l i t i e s most often mentioned by the McCorkindale response as being inadequate for their neighborhood -especially for the younger 5-8 year old ch i ld , This i s reflected by the fact that over i of the McCorkindale children questioned do not go to the park unless accompanied by their parents. 198. The McCorkindale responses (& some of the Weir RESTRICTIONS ON USE responses) show the parents general disatisfaction with the existing park and playground system. There are numerous complaints that there i s no playground, no equipments and no supervision, or that the playgrounds are a l l too far away for their child to use. "There are a number of parents both i n the Weir and McCorkindale areas that r e s t r i c t their child from going to Central Park, the McCorkindale parents re s t r i c t the youngest children (5-8) but generally l e t the older children go, while some of the Weir parents r e s t r i c t their older children (9-10) and the younger children make few demands to go by themselves. ^ * CHANGES DESIRED 35$ of the McCorkindale parents say thereare not BY PARENTS enough community f a c i l i t i e s for their children and the same number wantedr as the major change i n their neigh-borhood - a playground or l o t park cleared of underbrush and reserved for the use of the younger children to build forts, dig i n the d i r t and climb trees. This i s by far the most unanimous change desired by the parents for their children i n a l l of the Killarney area. s* 199. WEST END The West. End response shows that only 45$ of the families find a playground and 65$ find a park available or convenient for their children. "Because of this neither the park or playground are extensively used by the West End family during the winter - but in the summer -as the adult has more time and inclination,they are both well used. "The "West End family lives between 4 and 12 blocks from a park and slightly closer to a playground, but these distances in relation to the dangers in the environment are considered far too great to let many of the children use the facilities on their own. Most children and parents walk to the parks. Only a few take a car or bus. ^ ' The ocean and beach is even closer, between 1 to 10 blocks for most families, however even i f the parents live less than a couple of blocks from these facilities, the dangers of molesters, traffic, and crowds of strangers keep many parents from letting their children freely use this facility on their own. The ocean and beach however are used more than any other outdoor facility in the West End by the family, especially in the summer.'* LIKES AND Even though the parents complain about the inadequacy DISLIKES of these facilities for their children, the availability of Stanley Park and the beachfront:, are the two major reasons why the parents like the West End as a good place 200. i 4 to bring up their children. * Without these facilities, living in the West End would be a desolate experience. The parents dislike the West End mainly because of its lack of neighborhood play areasclose to their dwelling, where they can let their children go outside and play without the parent having to worry about them. Many complain about the high volume of traffic and large number of strangers using or near the seafront 7 facilities. " The improvement of the neighborhood park and playground is one of the most important changes the residents would like to see occur. It is especially critical in the winter months when the ocean and beach and Stanley Park are used less often by the whole family. 201. 3 . PARKS & PLAYGROUNDS KILLARNEY- (WEIR) KILLARNEY (McCORKINDALE) large Killarney Park in the center of Weir district, and two smaller parks along the edge; a l l have open grassy areas without trees or play equipment 1 large Central Park is a major 1 regional resource on the edge of the McCorkindale district; includes grassy and wooded areas, a playground and a out-door pool. major roads run along 3 edges 2 of Killarney Park. there are few resources for 3 children to interact with. the parks are used by the older 4 children for organized sports; and by younger children for un-organized active games. major roads surround Central 2 Park. there are more exciting re- 3 sources for the children to interact with. the park is used for organized 4 games, hiking, exploring, swimming, and playing in the playground. the park is used more often in the summer than the winter. except for organized sports the parks are only used by children who live within the immediate vicinity ( 2 to 3 blocks). the park is used more often in 5 the summer than the winter. used by children and families 6 within a 6 - 1 2 block general area. most Weir children live close to Killarney Park, and use the area frequently (because of the community center). many children do not live close to a park or playground; and do not use these facilities regularly. 8 most parents regard Central 8 Park as dangerous for younger children ( 5 - 1 0 ) to go to un-less accompanied by adults. few parents use the Weir parks; some take their children to Central Park. 9 more families use Central Park, especially on weekends in the summer. 9 WEST END a small neighborhood resource-Nelson Park is in the center of the West End; has a playground and grassy area; large regional Stanley Park, and the ocean and beaches provide a playground. Zoo, grass and wooded areas, two lagoon, birds and animals, beaches and swimming. major roads run alongside or through the parks there are many exciting resources for the children to interact with. the park is used for a multitude of activities from organized sports, games, hiking, exploring, feeding birds and ducks, vi s i t -ing the zoo, picnics, swimming, and playing in the playground. the park is used more often in the summer than the winter. the regional Stanley Park and the beaches are used by the general public as well as the West End families; Nelson Park is used by many of the West End children but has limited resources to offer them. most West End children live with-in walking distance of the beach and park and use these facilities regularly; 5 - H ' s are accompan-ied by their parents. Stanley Park and the beach are not considered safe for younger children ( 5 - 1 0 ) to use by themselves because of traffic and molesters and the fear of getting lost. heavy use of the parks and beaches by the families at a l l times in the summer and occasionally in the winter. 202. KILLARNEY (WEIR) KILLARNEY (McCORKINDALE) the older Weir children (11-12) begin to use Central Park by themselves most Weir parents are relatively content with the parks i n the area; but do not find playgrounds adequate for their children. 10 the older McCorkindale child- 10 ren (10-12) begin to use Killarney park occasionally for organized sports. 11 most parents i n McCorkindale do 11 not find either the parks or playgrounds i n the area either convenient or adequate for their younger children. each area voices dissatisfaction about the lack of playgrounds, play equipment or supervised areas near the dwelling. each area desired as the most needed change i n each neighbor-hood for their children a small neighborhood park, or parks, close to the dwelling for younger children to play i n . 12 each area voices dissatisfaction 12 about the lack of playgrounds, play equipment or supervised areas near the dwelling. 13 each area desired as the most 13 needed change i n each neighbor-hood for their children •" r c . small neighborhood parks close to the dwelling for younger children to play i n . WEST END the older West End children ( l l -12) begin to use Stanley Park and the beaches by themselves. the a v a i l a b i l i t y and conven-ience of Stanley Park and the beaches are the main two reasons why parents find the West End tolerable as a place to bring up their children; however less than half the families find the park and playground system con-venient or adequate for their younger children. each area voices dissatisfaction about the lack of playgrounds, play equipment or supervised areas near the dwelling. each area desired as the most needed change i n each neighbor-hood for their children .. a small neighborhood park close to the dwelling for younger children to play i n . CHURCHES 203. CHURCH & CHURCH PROGRAMS A PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION There are two churches within the Weir district, and a gospel hall within the McCorkindale district. There are however 5 or 6 churches in the surrounding neighborhood mainly near the Weir district. Most of the churches are divided into two main areas, the center of worship, and the church hall which is either adjoining the church -iworship area or is below i t in the basement. Most churches hold Sunday school services for children in the church hall - which is usually a large room with smaller study rooms off i t , or is one large space, broken into small spaces around the edges with moveable part-itions - often blackboards on rollers. There are 5 or 6 churches in the West End represent-ing the major religious denominations. The church facility is similar to those in Killarney. As in Killarney there are son©differences in age of the buildings. A few are old and due to extensive use by the public are showing signs of wear and tear. One or two are remodelled and are generally more restrictive in the nature of the activities that are allowed to occur inside the halls. Most churches - finding the congregations falling in the last years have beoome more involved in community programs which utilize their space. 204. CHURCHES 205 B USE OF THE CHURCHES KILLARNEY The use of the churches differ from the use of most other neighborhood facilities since they are denominational and the family usually goes to the church of their denomination rather than one which might be next door to them. The family is encouraged CHURCH RITUAL to use the church together - the child enters Sunday schools while the parents participate in the main service. In some churches, the child sits with his parents for the firstt part of the service, and then goes to the church hall while the parents listen to the service. Traditionally the use of the church is a once a week Sunday ritual though this varies with different denominations. Since the church that the child goes to may be far removed from the dwelling, since the family often participates together, and since t&e formal dress is usually in order, the car is the usual method of getting to and from church - although the family may walk i t i t % a pleasant day, and i f the church is within easy walking distance ( 1 - 4 blocks). COMMUNITY The church facility is used by children for programs PROGRAMS not of a religious nature. The church supports many community activities - many of which are for children. There are often kindercare and kindergarten programs, girls and boys groups such as brownies, explorers, C.G.I.T., cubs, and scouts, a l l of which use church hall space for their activities. 206. The Sunday school classes try to i n s t i l l in the child a reverence for religion and acts as a strong social force setting standards throughout our society as to what is considered good or bad about man's ways. They are used to teach children certain moral attitudes which usually depend on reinforcement in the childs home l i f e as to whether they are faithfully followed. The girls and boys groups try to develop the children in a slightly broader manner - teach them high standards (be clean, neat and tidy), a competive spirit (where each person and group gets points or rewards for doing certain exercises well), and a feeling for group loyalty and participation. The activities test and engage the child in manipulative and social skills -knot tying, singing, etc., but they follow a rigid pattern of ritual and order in the program. 2 0 7 . C QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE A church is available to a l l of the Weir and McCorkindale residents although in many cases the families venture out of the neighborhood to attend a church of their choice. About one-quarter of the parents questioned stated that the church isn't convenient, and most of these wished i t would be more-so. * The church facility is generally used more by the Weir district than by the McCorkindale district.'"This is probably related to the age difference between the adults (the older Weir parents believe more in the church than do the younger McCorkindale parents), and to the fact that the churches are closer to the Weir family. Many of the younger children go to sunday school. **' ' By the age of 7 or 8 „ girls and boys groups become popular with some of the children. The children that join the boys and girls groups seem to actively participate t i l l about the ages of 9 or 1 0 , then many of the groups are thought of for s i s s y o r only partially interest the child. There is an attempt to try and change this attitude by revamping some of the older childrens programs. There is l i t t l e comment about the church from other questions in the questionnaire. A few parents in the Weir area like the area because of the convenience of the church There are no comments at a l l from the McCorkindale area,which in general seems to attach a lot less importance to the church as a necessary facility for the child. There seems to be some consensus that some people use a church because i t is close, that 208. some children go to sunday school even though their parents won't - usually because their best friends go, and that some parents will go more often i f the church is close to the dwelling. There seems to be a gradual decline in the church membership over the last years, and now the congregations are no longer from a neighbor-hood - one can't go to church and say hello to a l l one's neighbors as one did in the past. It seems that i f the church is to survive as a neighborhood concept - and i f i t is to remain important for the child some type of amalgamation of the services will have to result so that one church in a neighborhood can serve more than one denomination• 209. The West End family make use of the church about as often as do the Killarney family and for much the same reasons.*' From the response there is no identifiable pattern as to who goes to church, or participates in church activities. There is no apparant relation to the age or sex of childj to the age of parents, or to the type of dwelling in which the family lives. The churches are convenient for the West End live family - most families within 4 to 6 blocks of the church & , facilities, have l i t t l e trouble walking to the facility. ^ Since traditionally the family goes to church as a group there is not the same concern about the dangers of traffic and strangers. The church is used for different purposes by different children. Of the 70$ that use the church on occasion about l / 3 go to the service, t/3 go to Sunday school, and l / 3 participate in community programs sponsored by the church, or using the church facility. s~ The churches in the West End seem to participate more in community activities probably due to the demand for physical space for various community programs. Besides the traditional cubs, scouts, brownies and guides programs one church has a craft and day school for part of the day. This involvement in community affairs has given a new l i f e to many West End church facilities. 210. CHURCHES KILIARNEX WEST END two churches i n the Weir district? 5 or 6 churches neighboring the Weir d i s t r i c t ; none i n the McCorkindale d i s t r i c t . 5 or 6 churches i n the West End d i s t r i c t . most churches are divided into a place of worship and a church h a l l . children go to churches for the service, for sunday school, or for community programs such as brownies, scouts, explorers, and day care. some churches are involved i n the community depending on the attitudes of the minister and parish. there has been a gradual decline i n membership and a loss of neighborhood closeness at many churches. most churches are divided into a place of worship and a church h a l l . children go to churches for the service, for sunday school, or for community programs such as brownies, scouts, explorers, and day care. the church i s generally more involved i n community programs and helps to provide some of the necessary services i n the area. there i s renewed interest i n the churches due to the commun-i t y programs offered i n the f a c i l i t i e s . the church i s closer and used more often by the Weir family than the McCorkindale family; most families don't find a church convenient (especially of their denomination). children can sometimes walk to the church f a c i l i t y by them-selves, however are most often driven by parents. the churches are generally con-venient to the people i n the area; and are used regularly. many children can walk to the community programs by themselves. 211. 5. PUBLIC LIBRARIES A A PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION There are two public libraries that serve the Killarney district. The Renfrew Branch library is to the north of the Weir district on Kingsway and Rupert. There is also an auxiliary experimental library in the Killarney secondary school run as a joint effort by the school and the public library. The Renfrew Branch is a separate building housing a collection of books and magazines which caters to the Collingwood-Killarney region. It is also the center for the mobile bookmobile libraries which travel around Vancouver and have designated stops at certain places each day. The Killarney library is located on one wing of the secondary school in Killarney Park and has its own separate entrance from the outside. The major regional library is on the edge of the West End district. It is a large 5 storey building which houses a large children's section and has small auditorium space and rooms for meetings and discussions. 212. pdbLlC LlbRARIES 213. B USE OF THE LIBRARIES The bookmobile does not enter the Killarney area on its daily runs and is not made use of by either the Weir or McCorkindale residents. KILLARNEY The Killarney library is used quite extensively, BRANCH mainly for borrowing books for pleasure reading and is used by the older children for reference and school assignments. This library resourse has tried to integrate with the high school. The library is closed to the public and is operated as a school library Monday to Friday t i l l 3*00 o'clock, and then a new staff from the public library takes over and operates the facility t i l l closing time at 10«00 o'clock during weekdays and t i l l 6 s00 on Saturday. The high school kids tend to monopolize this facility as a social center after school, and thus make i t difficult to run as a quiet, tranquil space-as is the custom for libraries. There has also been some teasing of the younger elementary school children who use the library. Many of the same problems that are be-setting the community center also are affecting the library. RENFREW Many of the children use the main Renfrew branch sinqe BRANCH i t has a better and bigger selection of children's reading material. The whole Collingwood-Killarney area has a low circulation in relation to other areas in Vancouver. Part 214 of this may be due to the working class population, but a large factor is the placement of the libraries in the area. The Renfrew library isn't in an area where i t has support resources to attract adults or children (ie. shopping center)„ and i t is the librarian's view-point that a library needs to be near other demand re-sources to draw people into i t . The Killarney branch is close to the community center - and thus attracts many of the children - but there are a lot of parents who don't use i t possibly since i t is incorporated in the high school,, and parents generally feel unwelcome and nervous going near schools. The library staff does not run many extra activities other than just book-lending services. There are no storey-time periods, or acting out of childrens stories. There are no specific programs at helping children to read. There are a few book clubs or readings in the park as part of th® parks and recreations summer program, but this I think is far from adequate. WEST The West End library i s used more as a regional END facility than as a West End neighborhood library. Many children come to this resource from areas that do not have good library facilities, or because they want the advantage of a large number of specialized reference books. Quite a few of the West End children use the library facility by themselves, however most use occurs on the weekends rather than afterschool, and most of the younger children come with their parents. The library runs a few storytime, and film and puppet shows for the children, however these do not seem to attract a lot of West End Children. There has been a summer reading program for grades 1 and 2 children but this has only met with partial success. Most children from the West End make use of the school library and use the main library only on special occasions for supplementary reading. 216 C QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE KILLARNEY There i s a large difference between the Weir and McCorkindale use of the library system. Because the Killarney library i s centrally located near Weir AVAILABILITY & CONVENIENCE school and the community center, i t i s convenient and used regularly by most of the Weir children who l i v e within 1 to 4 blocks from this f a c i l i t y . The McCorkin-dale area i s quite different. Many of the parents mentioned that the public library f a c i l i t i e s are not convenient for their children and they use them far 2 less often than the Weir student. 'McCorkindale children rely heavily on their school library instead of the public library. Most of the Weir children can walk to the library since i t i s less than a block from their school. In contrast only 2 of the McCorkindale children get to the library on their own. The rest are either driven •a by parents (50$) or don't use the f a c i l i t i e s at a l l (40$). Whereas most of the younger Weir children borrow books, USE BY almost none of the McCorkindale children do so. The AGE older children from both areas use the f a c i l i t i e s and the older Weir children tend to use the library as a resource center for reference projects for school work, or as a S. place to read. This starts to show the effect distance has on the potential use of l i b r a r i e s . I t should also show that possibly a re-examination of the concept of library f a c i l i t i e s for young children should be undertaken. 217. The main library is well used by the families, WEST END partially since the type of people who live in the West l-End read a fair amount. About 2/3 of the West End parents questioned find the public library rather inconvenient for their children.' For most families i t is between 6 to 12 blocks from home, and is usually used when the family goes downtown since i t is along the route. Most families either walk, i f i t is a pleasant day, or take the bus. "It is the only place that parents take their children regularly in the West End and use a transportation other than walking. The younger children usually borrow books although a few sit at the library and read. The older children (10-12) use the public library for school projects and specialized research work. 'In this respect the school library is limited. The library functions more as an information and lending center for the children and seems to be inadequately designed to promote leisure reading and browsing through books for enjoyment. It however is the most often used community resource outside school facility in the West End for many children especially during the winter months and thus plays an important part as a relief from the dwelling and school. 218. PUBLIC LIBRARIES KILLARNEY WEST END Renfrew branch library i s just north of the Weir d i s t r i c t ; Killarney branch library i s i n the center of the Weir d i s t r i c t . main downtown library i s on the edge of the West End d i s t r i c t . the Killarney branch library i s experimentally shared and run i n co-operation with the second-ary school. there are few extra adequate services provided by the library for children-no book clubs, records galleries, or story hour. Renfrew library i s placed off the normal paths of most children and adults. there i s a low circulation i n the Killarney l i b r a r i e s ; residents aren't good book readers. there are few extra services provided by the library like book blub, record galleries, or story hour. library i s along the route from the West End to the downtown core. there i s a high circulation and use of the library; residents read a l o t . younger children borrow books to read; older children use the library as a reference resource. the Killarney library i s convenient and well used by the Weir children who go to the library by themselves; there are no library f a c i l i t i e s convenient for the McCorkindale children, who only go i f driven by parents; most McCorkindale children use the school library. use of the libraries declines rapidly as distance from the dwelling increases; seldon used i f more than 4 -6 blocks away. younger children borrow books to read; older children use the library as a reference resource. library i s used mainly on week-ends; younger children go with parents; older children walk or take the bus by themselves. use of the library i s consider-able even though families l i v e more than 6-12 blocks away.. CHOPPING AI\)D COMMERCIAL FACI 219. 6. SHOPPING AND COMMERCIAL FACILITIES A A PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION NEIGHBORHOOD GROCERY KILLARNEY SHOPPING CENTER KINGSWAY COMMERCIAL STRIP The shopping facilities for the Killarney community are of 3 different types,situated in 3 different areas. There are two neighborhood groceries along 4 5 t h Avenue which are small, multi-purpose stores with a limited selection of merchandise. These are within the Weir district and are close to many of the dwellings occupied by the families in the area. There is also a neighborhood grocery on Kingsway in the McCorkindale area which is used by some of the children who live north of 4 5 t h . These small grocery stores carry a small range of the more basic groceries, household goods and a rather large (in comparison) selection of comics, magazines, candies, soft-drinks, and cigarettes. There is a small shopping center two blocks to the south-West of the Weir district which offers a large Safeway store and a series of small specially stores. This complex takes up a corner of a street and includes a large blacktopped parking area and a service station. The specialty services include - a bank, variety shop, drug store, fabric shop, bakery, g r i l l , children's wear store, dry cleaners, and a florist shop. The 3rd type of shopping facility available to the Killarney resident is the Kingsway commercial strip. 220. This is a long linear ribbon of shops along either side of the road, and i t includes shops which together carry most of the product needs of the average family. There are two large chain grocery stores, a cinema, pet store, bakeries, hardware, radio and bicycle shops, shoe stores, barbers, variety stores, a hobby shop0 restaurant, drug stores and record store, and a chicken take-out stand. These are some of the facilities that may be of interest to the Killarney child. 221. SMOfpirJG fAClLlJTES 222 WEST END The West End has two small neighborhood grocery NEIGHBORHOOD stores in the center of the districts though I believe GROCERY these will soon be replaced by apartment accomodation. SHOPPING CENTERS Most shopping occurs along Davie, Denman and Robson COMMERCIAL STRIP SHOPPING streets and is somewhat similar in type to the Kingsway strip shopping. The Davie shopping strip is concentrated in two blocks between Thurlow and Jervis streets with another node near the Denman corner. Each of these concentrations include large chain grocery stores, drug stores, bakeries, banks, dry cleaners, a g r i l l , and some other small specialty shops. The Denman strip from Davie to Barkis includes the same type of shops but has more concentration, has a local cinema, and some small design shops, and has recently been extended into Denman Place Mall. The Robson street shopping has^a few grocery stores and take-out food stands between Denman and Bute0 but is a thriving commercial shopping area, from Bute to Burrard - having a definite European flavor, and appealing to a l l Vancouver. Whereas the other area serve a local population, this part of Robson Street is a more regional center. There is also in close proximity to the West End the major downtown shopping and entertainment core. Most of the major department stores, offices, restaurants and cinema's are within walking distance. The main West End shopping patterns then radiate towards these facilities, and people usually use the area which is most convenient to them. 223. B USE OF THE SHOPPING FACILITIES USE BY The use of the commercial facilities is probably AGE one of the best examples showing the growing development and expansion of the child. Children before the age of 5 or 6 use these facilities only when taken by their parents and the use of the physical space is mainly one of exploring and sensing a l l the new stimulations of 5 & 6 YEAR OLD color B small, and touch from a l l kinds of people and products- this being especially true in the grocery store. As the children enter school, the neighborhood store becomes an important part of their environment. They learn in a rather nieve way that money has a value and can buy things - they get a few cents to spend, and the candy counter becomes a favorite haunt. They also become eager to buy things for Mother and thus give a hand in running the house. As the children grow older, ( 7 & 8 the store becomes a prime location to ride one's bicycle on the premise of course of doing an errand for Mom-and much of the afterschool social l i f e may center around the store, although in most cases this is discouraged by the store owner. The neighborhood store is part of the childs territory and a welcome haunt along the route ( 9 & 10 ) between school and home. By the 9th and 10th year, the commercial specialty stores become more important as the children want or need certain things - a model to build„ a special present for Mom or Dad, and the children reach the age where they can go on errands to the shopping 224 center. As they reach 11 & 12 the commercial areas ( 11 & 12 ) become areas to pass along and certain key spots are frequented - the Saturday matinee, etc. This use of course i s conditioned by the restrictions placed by the parents and the natural curiousity of the c h i l d . ' ' 3 ' 5 , 9 ' 2 2 5 . C QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE KILLARNEY The neighborhood store and commercial center are available for the majority of the Killarney residents and are convenient for the residents of the Weir area. -AVAILABILITY The McCorkindale residents generally found them less & CONVENIENCE convenient but didn't regard this as a problem. From the many restrictions placed on the child using the 9 . neighborhood store, shopping center, and Kingsway, i t seems many parents regard shopping and commercial areas as a bad environment for their children, however the children keep insisting on using them and the parents usually give in somewhat. The inconvenience of the shopping facilities for the McCorkindale area (located along Kingsway) means that the parents are much more reluctant to let their children venture along Kingsway until they get to an older age. It is also far away for short errands. Thus the McCorkindale children use the facilities less than do the Weir children. In both areas the older children tend to use the facilities more than the younger children. * The neighborhood store is reasonably close to most dwellings. In the Weir area most families live within 4 blocks of a store and in the McCorkindale area i t is within 4 blocks for about half the families, and within 8-10 blocks for the others. In almost a l l cases the children walk to the stores or ride their bicycle.^* 226. The commercial center is further removed -far enough away so that by the age when the children want to go there the parents often consider them old enough -yet close enough so the children can go there without tdo many restrictions placed on them. In most cases a commercial center is between 4 and 12 blocks from the dwelling. Most of the older (11-12) walk or drive bicycles. The younger children (5-10) usually are driven by their parents i f they go at a l l , although in some 3 cases they would go exploring to these areas. " RESTRICTION There are many restrictions placed on the children ON USE using the commercial shopping facilities. They mainly apply to the 7-10 year old. The 5 & 6 year olds did not usually want to venture on their own and the 11 & 12 year olds are considered old enough to do so. Most of the restrictions are against going to the Killarney shopping center for the 7 and 8 year olds, and to the Kingsway shopping stores for the 9 and 10's. ^ -227. WEST END The neighborhood store and commercial centers are conveniently located for almost a l l the West End AVAILABILITY 2 & CONVENIENCE families. "Most neighborhood stores are within 1 to 3 blocks and the commercial sections are within 4 blocks. In most cases the neighborhood store is part of the commercial shopping area. Most families walk to the neighborhood store and commercial area within the West End, however many take a bus to the central downtown 3 . commercial area. The children enjoy and often go shopping with their parents. The children until the age of 8 are usually accompanied to a store by their parents. Though the neighborhood store is much closer to the childrens dwelling than in the Killarney area, the dangers and fears of the outside restrict these areas from the childs own use. By the time the children become 9 or 10, they are given permission to shop and buy groceries on their own. The West End children are usually more independent and handle more responsiblity than the Killarney children and thus often are given the opportunity to help their parents in buying commodities for the family. A few parents mention the convenience of the shopping facilities as one reason they like the West End for bringing up 4 their children. " There are few complaints about i t and few restrictions on the children. Restrictions usually apply to 7 and 10 year olds going to Robson Street or into the downtown area.^* 228. NEIGHBORHOOD & COMMERCIAL STORES KILLARNEY WEST END two neighborhood stores i n the center of the Weir d i s t r i c t ; 1 neighborhood store on Kingsway edge of the McCorkindale d i s t r i c t . a small shopping center on the edge of the Weir d i s t r i c t ; Kingsway st r i p commercial shopp-ing along the north edge of the Weir and McCorkindale d i s t r i c t s . two neighborhood stores i n the center of the West End. major strip commercial and neighborhood shopping mixed along Denman, Davis, and Robson streets. considerable small specialty shops and chain grocery stores along Kingsway str i p shopping includes many small specialty shops, chain grocery stores, and the new Denman Place mall. far removed from the downtown shopping core. Robson street shopping i s more regional i n nature and attracts people from a l l over the city. the major regional downtown shopping core, restaurants, theatres and offices are walking distance of the West End. the neighborhood store i s con-venient for most Weir families (within 2 blocks); there are no stores convenient for many McCorkindale families (6-8 blocks away for many); the commercial f a c i l i t i e s i n both d i s t r i c t s are farther away (4-8 blocks) but not inconvenient for their intended use. most families drive to the stores; children walk or bicycle. the neighborhood and commercial shopping f a c i l i t i e s are very convenient to most dwellings (within 3 blocks). most families and children walk to the shopping areas or take the bus downtown. older children use the f a c i l i t i e s 8 older children use the f a c i l i t i e s more than younger children. more than younger children. 229. KILLARNEY WEST END younger children (5-6) are driven to the commercial centers and use them infrequently i f at a l l ; many use a neighborhood store i f i t i s within a block or two of the dwelling. the neighborhood store i s used by 10 most 7 & 8 year old children by themselves; most 7 & 8's are re-stricted from' the shopping center and the Kingsway shopping areas. the 9 & 10 year old Weir children 11 start to use the shopping center and the McCorkindale children start to use the Kingsway strip commercial area; many 9 & 10 year old Weir children are restricted from Kingsway. most 11 and 12 year old children 12 are allowed to use the Kingsway shopping; most are restricted from going downtown by themselves. many children are not allowed to go to the store on their own u n t i l they are 8 or 9? some may go to the neighborhood store i f i t i s nearby and they don't have to cross a major street; young children often accompany parents to the stores. by the age of 8 to 10 the children often use the neighbor-hood shopping f a c i l i t i e s on their own. there are s t i l l restrictions on many of the 9 and 10's from going to the more regional shopping f a c i l i t i e s such as Robson street or downtown. most 11 & 12*s can freely use the neighborhood and regional shopping f a c i l i t i e s including the downtown area. ER RES" FACILIJIES OR 0 THE CHILD 230. 7. OTHER FACILITIES OF INTEREST TO THE CHILD KILLARNEY SECONDARY SCHOOL SERVICE STATIONS FIREHALL SENIOR CITIZENS WAREHOUSE & RAILROADS GOLF COURSE There are some other facilities within the Killarney area which the children use occassionally but I don't feel they are as vital in influencing their growth and development. These might include the secondary school (certain programs such as band practice, observation of the habits of the teenagers, and their use of the park for track meets, etc.)i the service stations (fi l l i n g bicycle tires and watching cars get fixed and cleaned)} the firehall (watching the firetrucks and men, observing a l l the interesting equipment; the senior citizen's centers (visiting and generally observing older folks in action); the railway and warehousing area north of Kingsway (the facination of trains and trucks); the fairview golf course (to run on the grass, hunt for golf balls, play in the huge culvert and under-ground pipes, and play golf). There are however some facilities outside the Killarney area which are more relevent to some of the children. These include wooded or grassy areas either in Central Park or to the south between 54th and Marines From the questionnaire I received some parent opinion about wooded areas. Wooded areas are generally not convenient for the Weir children but only a few parents wished they would be closer to their dwelling. The 2 3 1 . McCorkindale area is adjacent to a wooded area, however only l / 3 said i t is convenient for their children and 2. again only a few wanted a wooded area more convenient. " The use patterns reflect this attitude. Very few children use the wooded area and only the oldest children 5 use i t regularly. "It seems the Weir children don't desire to use the wooded area t i l l they are between 9 and 1 0 , and are restricted t i l l they are 1 1 or 1 2 . The McCorkindale children want to use the woods by the age of 7 or 8 , however their parents often restrict them t i l l they become 1 0 or 11. 9' The McCorkindale children use the woods more often and partake in more activities. While the Weir children usually go on hikes and exploring the woods, the McCorkindale children also use the woods to run, play games, build tree forts and collect nature specimans. The woods are almost exclusively the male childs domain in the winter, but are used by both sexes in the summer. It is interesting to note that even though the woods are closer than some other facilities the parents restrict their child in using the woods much more often than these other facilities. This begins to show the relative fear parents have of the woods - and unknown and undefined areas. They would like to see a wooded area i f i t is located across the street and they' can see through i t so they can feel secure about their children using the facility. This is find but destroys much of the satisfaction of exploration, danger and excite-ment for which the older boys now use the woods. 232. DOWNTOWN Another facility outside Killarney which is just beginning to become important for older children (especially the 12 year olds and young teenagers)? includes the downtown shopping area (or major shopping complexes such as Oakridge). Here the child can get a variety of selection, a richness in observation of people and activity, and the feeling of being inconspicuous within a large group. These activities cannot be found in the Killarney area or along Kingsway. As the child becomes a teenager this activity becomes quite important and the residential neighborhood seems dull in comparison. Other facilities in this category that would, appeal to the emerging teen might include the P.NiE. and the agradome or colliseum for weekend rock shows. SPECIAL The child of a l l ages also needs and desires ACTIVITIES certain special activities as are found in certain areas around the city - regional attractions or attractions unique to an area - things that the child can't see in his residential neighborhood - for example Stanley Park and the zoo, aquarium and museums, the planetarium, the Q.E, Park and the arboretum; the waterfront and ocean-liners; the ocean and beach. These are facilities which are of special interest to many children and which give new periodic stimulation to one's l i f e . Most of the home environment is pretty well static and fixed, and there is not too much that changes, or is different in the way of stimuli input into the Killarney community (as say the circus was in a small town in the old-days). Thus the 233. children for the most part depend on their parents to take them to stimulation. OCEAN OR The ocean or beach is one of these stimuli which I BEACH examined with the questionnaire. The Killarney parents replied that their children rarely use the beach alone but are quite frequently driven by their parents. Only two boys - 10 & 12, occasionally take the bus to the beach, and even they are usually driven."^' The beach is used only moderately during the winter but quite often during the summer. 234 WEST END Other facilities in the West End which are of interest to the child and which are sometimes used or have an influence on the child include the secondary school, service stations, firehall, art gallery, Gorden House social agency (which provides day care services etc.), the boat mooring and shipping along the north coast line of the West End area. The West End in relation to Killarney is much more defined and centralized regarding outside facilities. The downtown shopping area is within walking distance. Stanley Park serve's as a wooded wilderness area, and the ocean and beach are within easy walking distance. The one type of facility that the child doesn't interact with is the less dense residential suburban environments. The children however, v i s i t these areas with their families to v i s i t friends often enough to see the difference between this type of environment and the one they live in. The West End provides a less static, more changeable neighborhood and the children can depend more frequently on this environment to provide necessary stimulation for them-selves and can also depend on areas in Stanley Park for relaxation and relief. 235. 8. RELATIONSHIP OF FACILITIES TO EACH OTHER These facilities of the larger neighborhood-school, community center, parks and playground system, libraries, churches, shopping and commercial facilities, and the facilities outside and peripheral to the Killarney and West End areas, a l l interact to form certain patterns in the childs l i f e . In order to see how these facilities interact as a unit - how the children generally use them as parts in their total environment, I have tried to analyse two parts of the questionnaire in further detail. L^AJIOttaHIp 0 "0 EACH OTHER 2 3 6 . A. AGE MAPPING OF THE CHILDS USE OF THE DISTRICTS From question 7 of the questionnaire I have tried to develop a general idea of how the children of each area expand into the larger neighborhood - to see what facilities they use and to examine the approximate boundaries of expansion at certain ages of the childs l i f e . Included are some" of the general findings. (Map overlays showing the area frequented, the facilities used,and the routes taken by different aged children are included in the Appendix B, page^joO. 237. KILLARNEY The 5 & 6 year old children generally interact on their own in a very small 1 or 2 block radius around TYPICAL their dwelling. This is their environment for un-N E I G H B O U R H 0 0 D RELATIONSHIP structured play and contains a l l of their close friends. FOR 5 - 6 YEAR OLD CHILD Because these children are now of school age, the school and schoolground becomes the focus for their expansion into a larger community. In general the radii around the school is usually limited to the schoolground at this age, or to important facilities immediately adjacent, such as the community center and park in the Weir area. The two foeii-the dwelling and schooL are linked by the path between the two areas. If (as in most cases within the Weir area)9 the dwelling is within a block or two of the school, the two focii areas merge into one slightly larger area. If the dwelling is further from the school-4 or more blocks, the path is usually a linear connecting link and the child does not stray far from this route. There are certain linear routes to activities which might be in a different direction than the school-ie. church, park, or library, but those are usually within close walking distance (1-3 blocks) or the child is accompanied by someone older-a sibling, peer friend.or parent. The neighborhood store is usually not a strong focus yet-unless i t is within close walking distance of the dwelling, or unless i t is on the path to and from school (and even then i t is often unimportant). The school is the one strong focal point,away from home and 238. even i t is not used with assurance and confidence yet, although in almost a l l cases the children go by themselves. The library and community center become more important, however unless these facilities are within a block or two of the dwelling the children almost always depend on their parents to take them to these facilities. TYPICAL As the children grow to 7 and eight years they NEIGHBORHOOD RELATIONSHIP gradually extend their territory and gain increased FOR 7 - 8 YEAR OLD CHILD confidence in the territory they are already using. The school s t i l l remains the overwhelmingly strong focal point and the community center is used more by the Weir children on their own since i t is so close to the school. The neighborhood store becomes more important and is often included in the path between school and home,even i f i t means diverting the path slightly. The familiar area around the dwelling expands slightly and the radius that the children explore and become familiar with around the school expands considerably, especially i f there are interesting facilities nearby to attract the children. The children begin to get interested in more organized activities and expand further towards more specialized neighborhood facilities on certain occasions (ie. the church for Sunday school, brownies, cubs). Because of gaining extended mobility as they learn to use bicycles, the Weir children may explore towards Kingsway and Killarney centre, 239. and the McCorkindale children begin to explore towards Kingsway and Central Park, although none of these areas become an integral part of the childs territory at this age. The path between school and dwelling starts to broaden as the children explore more - and since both the home and school neighborhood environments are expanding they begin to form into one larger territory. This is consistent and dependent on the child learning the necessary cognitive structures- to abstract space which begins to develop by this ags . TYPICAL The territory of the 9 and 10 year old begins to NEIGHBORHOOD RELATIONSHIP form a loose overall form around the two or three nodal OF CHILD OF 9 - 10 facilities which become important to the child - usually the school, dwelling, and neighborhood store - and in the Weir area, Killarney Park and the community center. This area, now roughly 6 - 8 square blocks is now conceived as a whole and is used with relative confidence. It gradually expands more and more, and the dwelling and school begin to form the core of the territory rather than the poles. By the age of 9 or 10 and with the in-creased confidence in bike mobility, the children begin to expand far out from the close neighborhood to special areas of stimulation. The Weir child expands towards 2 4 0 . Central Park and the pool and forest areas i t offers. The McCorkindale children now begin to venture towards the community center on their own. The commercial center and the excitement i t produces becomes more relevant to the children of both areas and they begin to become quite familiar and use the Kingsway commercial strip. It is at this age that the children begin to extend beyond the school district boundaries, into a larger more adult neighborhood. It is also the age when the territories of children from each school district begin to overlap. 241. TYPICAL The growth and expansion into the larger neighborhood NEIGHBORHOOD RELATION of the 11 and 12 year old is quite rapid. The process, OF 11-12 YEAR OLD function and relevance of most of the neighborhp'od has been explored. The childrens territory now begins to imitate their parents territory as their needs become more alike. The one major difference is the expansion of the male adults territory due to working outside the area. The near neighborhood of school, community center, and parks, even though they s t i l l form the cores of the childrens territory and occupy most of their time, are not enough to satisfy them. The children have usually included the commercial shopping facilities-Kingsway strip, the cinema and certain shops as part of their normal territory, and add Central Park and its re-creational potential. The children have the mobility and trust of the environment to range far from home on occasion, and may venture downtown to the commercial shopping of Oakridge or Victoria Drive, to the golf course, to the outdoor pool of central park, or in a few cases to the ocean or beach. 242. Crt. of +ha, -f<s«Wev home. rvjWv - - no pa-lWp S C H«tL C O M A f t o J f l 7 4 5 * 4 SEAR diZS Y&A.\C>S ©tAooiod ecJ ' TCo l e>cpaiqcis rapiclL^ 4 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ MAXIMO/A * ' b l o c k s e x p e n d s . «ligV\-Hy 7 * £ » y E A R OLDS 243. t-me < j DlSjAtvlcE ^ 6-lo -2--V>3 b l o c k , HOME > C l 9«l0 9EAR OLDS a HoMC f \orr^ .-VVie. ^ » r & , j 6-,o if aS&Ssf,, \ \ t? ttacwatt* Ac-op I tic 12 S E A R O L D S |  NEIGHBORHOOD EXpA^ felON • KlLLARfcj 244. WEST END The 5 & 6 year olds in the West End are generally TYPICAL less free to adventure into the larger neighborhood on NEIGHBORHOOD OF 5-6 their own. Most of these children are not allowed out-YEAR OLD side by themselves even to go to school, but instead completely rely on their parents to get to various facilities in the West End. A very few children are allowed to go to school, or to churches by themselves i f they live within 1 or 2 blocks from these facilities, and i f they don't have to cross a major road. With their parents they often go to the beach, Stanley Park, the library, and to various stores. They thus gain some understanding of the larger environment. The school and the dwelling as in Killarney form the two common focal points of their neighborhood,however there is no path between the focii that the children learns to use on their own. The child at this age however has a more extensive appreciation of many of the facilities in the West End, because of the large amount of time that families spend walking around the area. The children do not use the area on their own because of the dangers in-volved-however they s t i l l are exposed to what is around them. TYPICAL As the children grow to 7 &8 years of age, they NEIGHBORHOOD FOR 7-8 YEAR OLD quickly mature to using areas in the West End on their own. The school becomes the focal point of their in-dependence from the family, and almost a l l children now 245. go to school by themselves, or with groups of friends. The children begin to explore areas close to the school, but are s t i l l discouraged from going near traffic or to areas which attract people from a more regional area than the West End0 Thus Stanley Park, the ocean and beach, and the downtown commercial facilities are not used by this age group unless they are accompanied by their parents. Some of the children can now go to neighbor-hood stores, Nelson Park, W.E.R.P., and church programs on their own, i f the programs take place within a block or two of the school or dwelling. The indivual child begins to vary in how they use the area. Many have a territory they use on their own similar to that of the Killarney 5 & 6 year old-where the dwelling and school form the polar nodes, and thei© is a narrow defined path between them. The main difference is that there is no territory around the dwelling which is frequently-used by most of these West End children. Other children with more freedom or independence now form a loose neigh-borhood between the school and dwelling, but often this extends to include areas or facilities of special interest such as the church or neighborhood stores, or the area around a friends dwelling. For many children the area around the school develops and becomes better known than the area around the dwelling, because friends usually •Hie. originate from school rather than frora^neighbors'o. "Because friends are more likely to live much farther apart in the 246. West End, the childs territorial expansion is increased, and many children are quickly expanding to include the inner core of the West End bounded by Denman, Davie and Robson, as part of their familiar neighbor-hood. TYPICAL The territory of the 9 & 10 year old West End RELATIONSHIP OF 9-10 children begins to vary more and more between individuals. YEAR OLD Many children are s t i l l confined to rather small areas on their own, rather like that of 7 and 8 year olds territory, while others have almost unlimited freedom to use the whole of the West End. Those children that are confined are usually from families who have only recently moved into the West End. In a l l probability the parents s t i l l don't know the area very well, nor do they trust i t as readily as those parents who have lived in the area a year or two, and their children lack the gradual expansion and exposure to the conditions in the area. For many children however their range is now extending to include the zoo and playground in Stanley Park, the beaches, downtown commercial areas, and main vehicular routes. In a sense the inner core of the West End is conceived of as a whole, and is used with relative confidence, however the expansion to the peripheral areas of th© West End-those that attract people from a l l overtthe city-is quite rapid and soon 247 included as part of the childs operating territory. This expansion is made easier because the children' have been to these areas several times with their parents and generally know what to expect from these environments. In most cases the dwelling and school and friends dwellings and main stores are forming the nodel core of the childs neighborhood, rather than the poles, and the beach, park, and downtown and shopping strips start to form new poles branching from this core. It is again at this age that the children begin to expand beyond the school district boundaries into the larger more adult neighborhood. 248. TYPICAL The growth and expansion of the 11 and 12 year NEIGHBORHOOD RELATION old West End children shows the same rapid jump that OF 11-12 YEAR OLD occurs i n Killarney. At this age almost a l l thee children have the freecdom to use the whole of the West End. The downtown core, the beaches, and the whole of Stanley Park become integrated with the inner core into one larger neighborhood. As i n Killarney, the main streets and their ac t i v i t i e s become more relevant than the less active side streets. Depending ontthe individual, almost a l l the f a c i l i t i e s i n the West End are used by some of these children. The children's normal everyday territory as i n Killarney begins to closely imitate their parents i n size as their needs become more alike. Though the West End children have the same mobility to extend far from home as do the Killarney children, much of.the stimulus to which the Killarney child ventures away from home, i s already within or near the West End childs neighborhood. Thus one can generally see the progression of the SEX Killarney and West End children into the larger neighbor-RELATIONSRTP hood as they grow up. There i s no apparent difference i n the expansion or use of this neighborhood by different sexes, however the female children generally stay closer to the dwelling more often, and engage i n less active, exciting or dangerous stimulation. Included are an abstract set of diagrams to generally show the growth of the child into the larger Killarney and West End Neighborhoods. 249. d i t s f -s toca is less blocks " V a s t ^.Ictre*^ . nd- allowed a i e a . 5* 6 ^ E k R dX6r -j—DlS-[A|\]c£*>2-^, BLoci^ Some. • S t a r t " -t> ^ i t v v n A 4-ro. i v iv tev" cpve-ie.)- Devi \ / O 8 E A C H B 5 \ | 7 ^ 6 0 E & R < S L O J f  NEIGHBORHOOD ExpwJstoii WESf Ejb 250. many 4 i - E ^ i J ^ J t 3 \ HOME / ) 3 3 ^ 9*I0 9EAR0LDS more vea £6-6 blocJas<at_>ay . ^ U 1 2 9EAR O L D S F NEIGHBORHOOD E x p A i t e i o i i w E s i * H t o 251 B AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF DISTANCE ON THE USE OF FACILITIES BY DIFFERENT AGED CHILDREN An attempt has been made to measure the use of various f a c i l i t i e s i n the Killarney and West End large neighborhood areas as a dependent function of the distance from the dwelling, and relate this to the type of mobility used to get to these f a c i l i t i e s . Some of the conclusions of interest to the general subject are presented here. Almost a l l areas used by the 5 and 6 year old children on their own are within 4 blocks of the dwelling. The 7 and 8 year olds walk to certain places that are 4 to 12 blocks away frome home-(the elementary school, neigh-borhood store, community center, or park), but only i n a very few cases, usually the children are driven by their parents. The 9 and 10 year olds use a few places on their own that are more than 12 blocks away ( l each go to the commercial center, wooded area, or playground). Some . Some children go to f a c i l i t i e s 4 to 12 blocks away, however for most places more than 4 blocks away (except for the elementary school) the parents s t i l l drive their children. I t i s only as the children become 11 and 12 that they regularly use their own mobility to extend more than 4 blocks away from home, and they s t i l l rarely go further than 12 blocks away. The figures for the community center are interesting. It i s the only f a c i l i t y to which the children are constantly driven that i s within 4 blocks of the dwelling. This 2 5 2 . I believe partly shows the fear that parents have about letting their children go by themselves. It is also interesting to note that the public library is very seldom used in the Killarney area i f i t is more than 4 blocks from the dwelling-close enough so that the children can go by themselves. If i t is more than 4 blocks away and is used, the parents almost always drive their children. The park and neighborhood store are two of the facilities that show the most change in use as their distance from the childs dwelling is increased. In both instances they are used significantly more often i f they are within 1 to k blocks from the dwelling rather than 4 to 12 blocks. I presume this is because when these areas are not within walking distance for the children, the Killarney parents seldom take their children to these types of facilities. A l l areas used by the 5 and 6 year old children on their own are within 4 blocks of the dwelling except for 2 children that walk more than 4 blocks to get to school. Many parents take their children to every place outside the dwelling, and to many areas more than 4 blocks away. The 7 and 8 year olds walk to and use most places within 4 blocks of the dwelling,however parents usually take them to any places more than 4 blocks away. There are however a few children who walk more than 4 blocks on their own to get to school or to the public 253. library. By the age of 9 and 10 many children venture 4 to 12 blocks from home and a few children who are just beginning to ride bicycles or learn to use the bus go more than 12 blocks away (to the library or downtown) on occasion. As the children become 11 or 12, they regularly venture k to 12 or more than 12 blocks from their dwelling, and rarely rely on their parents to go with them. They regularly use the bus, or bicycles, besides walking to go to any area i n the West End. Thus the West End children ususally are more restricted than the Killarney children i n their earliest years, but by the 11th and 12th years, they more regularly cover a larger area can cope with the physical problems i n the area as well as can the Killarney children i n their area. They also use the bus as transportation much more often rather than depend on their parents to drive them. It i s interesting to note the difference i n use of certain f a c i l i t i e s . Whereas i n Killarney the use of parks and public library are dependent on being reasonably close to the dwelling, i n the West End the library i s constantly used though i t i s more than 8-12 blocks away from most dwellings, and the park i s used by a l l ages, even though i t i s also quite far from many dwellings. There i s much more walking that takes place by the West End family to get to f a c i l i t i e s , and much less driving of cars. ARGER 2 5 4 . 9. PARENTAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE LARGER ENVIRONMENT KILLARNEY The parental attitudes towards the larger neighborhood reflect many of the relationships already discussed. The MAIN large majority of the Killarney parents think the neighbor-LIKES hood i s a good to very good place to bring up their lo. children. I t i s overwhelmingly liked because of the availability and convenience of i t s physical f a c i l i t i e s -especially the schools, and community center, and to a lesser extent because of the park and library i n the Weir area. There i s also a considerable number of parents who like the type of people i n the neighborhood-mention-ing that they are friendly, stable, of similar financial class, or of a variety of ethnic groups, and i n the McCorkindale area,almost one-half l i k e the area for the interest shown between families and the fact that most of the families are young and friendly, and there are children of the same age for their children to play with. * MAIN The main dislikes are more diverse. Traffic and DISLIKES speeding cars are the most frequently mentioned dis-likes-especially by the parents whose children are smaller. Lack of fa c i l i t i e s ^ e s p e c i a l l y the lack of a neighborhood park and playground are mentioned by many McCorkindale parents. The problems of older teenagers speeding i n their cars, rumors of drugs i n the neighbor-hood, and the danger of gangs and unrowdy elements at the community center,are often mentioned as dislikes, 2 5 5 . and i n a number of replies there i s discontent with some of the attitudes and values as to how some families raise their children. Petty grievances among adults that are passed on to children, too much money for certain children, too many youngsters l e f t on their own t i l l their parents get home from work, and too many parents who don't know what their children are up to and don't seem to care-are some of the characteristic replies. NEIGHBORHOOD SAFETY DANGERS The neighborhood i s considered a normal to safe area for the child."*The dangers f a l l into two cate-gories. Most parents ( 6 5 $ of the Killarney response) are concerned about t r a f f i c dangers. Most Mothers have a constant instinctive fear of their children getting run over-yet very few of the families comment about changing t r a f f i c . Have they become used to and expect to always l i v e with this fear? The other danger mentioned i s that of the teenagers,gangs, molesters,and drugs-12 that could either influence or injure their child. RESTRICTIONS The restrictions put on the children are varied and depend a l o t on the age of the child, the particular child i n question, and the attitudes of the parents to-wards the neighborhood. They mainly reinforce the use or restrictions on use that have already been mentioned. ^* (see Appendix 13 pg.34-, for detailed l i s t of the re-strictions ). 256. The attitudes of the parents as to the changes CHANGES they would like to see in the larger neighborhood IN NEIGHBORHOOD generally show their relative acceptance and contentment with what they have - the good and the bad. 70$ from Weir,and 45$ from McCorkindale,said that they are satisfied with the neighborhood as i t now is-which is interesting-especially in the Weir case-in regard to the restriction placed on the child and the dislikes of the neighborhood. ( I t leads one to believe that people are generally apathetic to improvement, that the problems are not serious enough to change, or that there is so l i t t l e opportunity or hope in their minds that any change would or could occur, as to not make i t worth-while thinking about. They have an attitude that the power to change things does not rest in their hands.) The most consistent change desired by 25$ of a l l parents concerns the inadequacy of the parks and playgrounds. The parents want more equipped neighborhood playgrounds for their children. Some went so far as to suggest purchasing vacant lots, clearing them of underbrush, and reserving them for younger children to dig, build forts, and climb trees. A few people want to divert traffic off of 45th-and remove through streets from the proximity of the houses, and there are a number of a. individual changes desired. It is also interesting to note that from the McCork-indale response, specifically relating to more convenient 2 5 7 . and better playgrounds, 40$ of the questionnaire responses stated they are willing to help pay for desired changes i n the area through taxes, 2 5 $ said they would volunteer their labor and only 1 5 $ thought the parks board or c i t y should pay the f u l l shot ( 2 0 $ didn't reply). I t seems there i s a good potential resource for action right i n the neighborhood. Generally i t seems the Weir parents are very satis-fied with the whole, neighborhood and can't see that there are any pressing changes required for their family to carry on a normal, supposedly healthy exist-ence. & * 258. WEST END NEIGHBORHOOD AS A GOOD PLACE TO RAISE CHILDREN The West End area is regarded as a less desirable neighborhood for children than is the Killarney area. Most West End parents regard their neighborhood as an average to poor place to raise children. It is best liked for the availability and convenience of its natural amenities-the sea and beaches, and for Stanley Park. The convenience of the school and of some of the man-made urban f a c i l i t i s such as the library, down-town commercial area, and stores, are also given as reasons for liking the area. A smaller number of parents like the West End as a place to raise children because of the variety and friendliness of people in the area.*^" MAIN DISLIKES The main dislikes of the area concern automobile and traffic hazards, and the lack of recreation activities for the children to engage in. There is a lack of en-closed and outside play areas, for either organized or unstructured play. Many parents also dislike the area because of its high transiency, with the result there is a lack of constancy in the children's neighborhood friends* there are few childhood friends in the area to play with; there is no place for younger children to go by themselvesj there are many parents who don't care about their children and what they are doingj and be-cause there are a lot of strangers, perverts, and hippies attracted to the area, who may molest the children. 2 5 9 . Also a few parents dislike the number of apartment blocks and the lack of physical planning in the West End. 7 a NEIGHBORHOOD The neighborhood is considered either unsafe or SAFETY () normal. 'The parents regard dangerous elements as traffic for the younger children, and transients, drug pushers, molesters, and abductors which become more serious for the older children. Thus the dangers are of a similar type to those in the Killarney area although 12. . of a slightly larger magnitude. RESTRICTIONS The restrictions placed on the West End children ON USE vary, however most are restrictions on using various physical facilities, usually those that are more public or regional in nature, such as Stanley Park, the ocean or beach, Robson Street, public bathrooms, or - small Q stores that gangs frequent. * CHANGES IN The attitude of the parents towards the changes they THE NEIGHBORHOOD would like to see in the area shows their general interest and discontent. Only 7 $ of the parents where satisfied with the neighborhood as i t now i s . This is a marked difference from the Killarney response. Another 9 $ say i t is too late to make any changes to make i t a better place for families with children-however most think certain things should be done to improve the area. Almost one-half of the parents most desire to see play-grounds, neighborhood parks, organized activities, or 2 6 0 . a community center b u i l t for their children-someplace so the children can participate i n normal recreational act iv i t ies close to the dwelling. Another group of parents would l ike to see improvements i n housing for families with children-more managers who l ike children, more 2 bedroom apartments, a halt to the increase i n high rise apartment blocks, separate play areas for small children provided within the apartment and outside so the children can play outside safely without constant supervision. One person wanted to set up regulations ca l l ing for a l l apartments to take a required number of children-and set up c r i t e r i a standards for these apart-ments. S o 40$ of the West End parent thinks that the land-owners and tenants of the community should be taxed to pay for these improvements, and they are wi l l ing to help pay. About 1 3 $ think the c i ty should help pay, and another 1 3 $ state they can not afford to pay any more taxes. 2 5 $ of the parents gave no reply at a l l . Thus there i s a f a i r potential to help burden the cost to 12). pay for some of these improvements. Generally i t seems most parents find i t too demanding to bring up their children i n the West End i n i t s present form. Almost 7 5 $ of the parents would l ike to l i ve i n a single family dwelling i n a res idential area, and only 6 $ are satisf ied with the area as i t i s . Only about 2 0 $ 261. of the parents questioned would like to live i n better high density accomodation-either townhouses or larger apartments, with either or both a garden and small yard, or two bedrooms. Generally i t seems the West End familfeare quite dfspleased with the area, and unless quick changes occur, many w i l l move to the residential suburbs. There are however a core of families that really l i k e the amenities of the West End and would li k e to liv e there i f there are some changes i n the environment to make i t more conducive to raising children. l 4* 262. 2jJ4 A DESCRIPTION OF THE LARGER NEIGHBORHOOD KILLARNEY WEST END major amenities are situated at the center of the Weir districts along the edges of the McCorkin-dale d i s t r i c t (except for the school). major amenities are situated around the edge of the West End d i s t r i c t or along major through streets (except for the school). boundaries of the neighborhoods are not well defined and are expansive i n most directions. the f a c i l i t i e s i n the larger neigh-borhood most used by the children include the school community center, parks, churches, library, and stores and commercial shopping areas more f a c i l i t i e s designed for neigh-borhood childs use. Weir and McCorkindale larger neigh-borhoods are approximately the same size. the 5 & 6's neighborhood that i s frequented by themselves usually just includes: a block or two radius around the dwelling; the school; and the path between the two. the 7 &8's neighborhood that i s frequented by themselves usually includes* a 3 or 4 block radius around the dwelling; a similar or sligh t l y smaller radius around the school; often a neighborhood store; and routes to other f a c i l i t i e s such as the church,park, and recreation center. boundaries of the neighborhood are clearly defined and are enclosing. the f a c i l i t i e s i n the larger neighborhood most used by the children include the school, parks and recreation system, the beach and ocean, churches, library, community services such as Gordon House, Y.M.C.A. and Y,W.C.A.; and the stores and commercial shopping areas. many of f a c i l i t i e s designed for more regional use. West End larger neighborhood i s slightly smaller than the Killarney neighborhood. the 5 &6's neighborhood that i s frequented by themselves i n often restricted to the dwelling; many can't go outside alone-even to the school. the 7 &8's neighborhood includes a small radius around the school; the dwelling; often a friend's house along the path between the two f a c i l i t i e s or near the school; and possibly a neighborhood store, neighborhood park,or church ( i f they are within a block or two of home. 263. the 9 & 10's neighborhood includes a loose 6 to 8 block radius around a core which includes the dwelling, school, neighborhood store (and the community center i n the Weir d i s t r i c t ; i t may expand occasionally to other special f a c i l i t i e s farther away such as central park (by the Weir children) the community center (by the McCork-indale children), and the commercial shopping f a c i l i t i e s (by both the Weir and McCorkindale children); the child's territory at this point expands beyound the school boundary due to bike mobility. 8 some of the 9 & 10's are s t i l l confined to a small area around the school and dwelling; others can use almost a l l of the West End except for the more regional f a c i l i t i e s ; they s t i l l go to the regional facilities-beaches, Stanley Park, and downtown-with their parents. the 11 & 12's neighborhood expands to include the whole of the K i l l a r -ney area, including Central Park, and the Kingsway commercial shopping area, and begins to extend outside the larger neighborhood. parents f e e l the neighborhood i s a good place to raise children 10 the 11 & 12's have the freedom to usethe whole of the West End neighborhood, including the more regional areas. parents feel the neighborhood i s an average to poor place to raise children neighborhood i s liked mainly because of the convenience of the physical f a c i l i t i e s and because of the type of people and number of children i n the area 11 neighborhood i s liked mainly be-cause of the convenience and av a i l a b i l i t y of the natural amenities of the beach and Stanley Park, or the convenience of the downtown shopping, entertainment, and business area. neighborhood i s mainly disliked and 12 f e l t to be dangerous for children because of t r a f f i c and speeding cars; because of certain gangs and unruly crowds; and because some children are brought up i n an undesirable manner. parents place some restrictions on 13 children using f a c i l i t i e s at certain ages. Weir parents generally satisfied with 14 the neighborhood as i t i s ; many Mc-Corkindale and some Weir parents find the parks and playgrounds inadequate for their children. neighborhood i s disliked and f e l t to be dangerous for young children mainly because of the heavy t r a f f i c and for the older children because of molesters and undesirable transients. The main dislike how-ever i s the lack of recreation and safe social play areas out-side for their children. parents place many restrictions on younger children (5-10) using many of the West End f a c i l i t i e s . West End parents generally d i s -ati s f i e d with many things i n the larger neighborhood. 264. the major changes desired are to 15 have more playground parks for younger children near the dwell-ings? and removal of through traffic. most parents would like to see neighborhood parks and play-grounds and more organized and informal activities areas for their children; and safety from the traffic and molesters. 265 FOOTNOTES. CHAPTER FOUR 1. see QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE, PART 1, # 9 (pageio ) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. » PART 1, # 8 (pageS- ) is PART 1, #11 (page i f e ) 17 » PART 2, # 2 (page28) »» PART 1, #10 (page 1| ) « PART 1, #20 (page 23.) »' PART 2, # 3 (page 29) " PART 2, #18 (page 36) " PART 2, #13,14 (page34) » PART 2, # 1 (page25) «• PART 2, # 9 (page32) »' PART 2, #10 (page 32) " PART 2, #21 (page 37) II PART 2, #19 (page37 ) LnJ D AEN.J" ON HAVO 266. 5. THE INFLUENCE OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT ON CHILD BEHAVIOUR IN THE SAMPLE AREAS From the analysis of the sample area, there are certain characteristics of the physical environment which have some effect on the behaviour of the child. It is apparent that living in a single family dwelling or an apartment, either having or not having a yard, or going to an open area or traditional school, are a l l going to affect the behaviour of the child in alternate ways. This chapter wil l briefly summarize the differences between some of the physical resources that the children interact with in each particular area, and will analyze the potential effects these resources have on children. It will limit itself to resources that differ in physical form and function, and thus offer alternatives to the patterns of the childrens environment. It will show how individual resources interact to establish broad behavioural characteristics in the children. The data gathered from the two sample areas, and presented in Chapters 1, 2, 3, and 4 and in more detail in the Appendices will form most of the basis for the analysis. 267. THE INFLUENCE ON CHILDREN OF LIVING IN A A. SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL NEIGHBORHOOD VS. AN URBAN HIGH DENSITY APARTMENT NEIGHBORHOOD. 1. THE DWELLING AND YARD The single family residential dwelling and yard SINGLE FAMILY seems to be generally more adequate for the development DWELLINGS ± of normal behaviour expectancies i n the children. From the analysis of the single family dwelling, i t i s apparent that there i s more adaptable space for active play. The dwelling unit i s larger and contains more people and objects to interact with and to excite the childs curiousity. There are fewer restrictions on the child-on making noise, on entertaining friends-on what he can interact with, and the type of activities he can engage i n . The dwelling unit i s more easily re-lated to the outside. Living functions within the dwelling are more separated by the spatial configuration-there i s less overlapping of competing act i v i t i e s within the spaces. There i s more potential privacy or chance to get away from the family, and more potential for social interaction with outside influences. Since functions are differentiated into certain areas, there are fewer potential conflict situations regarding the use of the dwelling. Because many parent.s have lived i n the same type of dwelling unit a l l their live s , there i s a more fixed approach to the use of the unit. The family l i v i n g style i s more stable and secure, with l i t t l e f l e x i -b i l i t y or adaptability required. 268. The suburban yard helps to reinforce many of these characteristics. The yard increases the spatial territory of the child for active play and increases the potential variation and stimulus for the child to interact with. It acts as an extension of the dwelling and especially increases the space suitable for active, noisy play. It is a space where the child can be sent -to increase privacy in the house, or where the child may escape to for his own privacy. It increases the childs security and safety, acting as a private outdoor buffer zone between the dwelling and the more public neighborhood, yet opens up the neighborhood to more social interaction with other children and adults. 3" These characteristics start to influence the be-haviour of the child. Generally there is a better chance -other factors not considered - of having more opportunity for social interaction with peers at a younger age, of being more socially involved sooner, and ultimately of being better adjusted socially toward peer interaction.4"* The children have more potential within the dwelling and yard to develop active, boisterous traits because of the increased amount of space and the fewer re-strictions on active play. The children generally learn to trust the stablen^ss of the dwelling and yard sooner, and are able to associate accepted activities to certain spaces more readily. 269. The high density apartment complexes seem to be APARTMENT barely^ acceptable i n their present state to help DWELLINGS cultivate normal behavioural expectancies i n our children. There i s a serious lack of interior space for play or active exercise, and generally less potential variety of objects or people to interact with. Most apartments have so few children that there i s l i t t l e chance for a social community to develop! between dwelling units, and most managements and physical designs discourage this. There are many restrictions on the children and especially on the amount of noise and the type of activities they can engage i n . There i s much d i f f i c u l t y i n relating the dwelling unit to the outside, due to the height above ground level, and due to the lack of direct ground access. There i s con-siderable overlapping and sharing i n the use of interior spaces-especially i n the l i v i n g and bedrooms. There i s a general lack of privacy for a l l members of the family because of the small space-however this tends to create more interaction between parents and children. Non ownership gives the child and family . a.', lack of freedom or f l e x i b i l i t y within the dwellings, and the frequency of moving and the transient nature of the housing situation makes for more f l e x i b i l i t y and adapt-2 . a b i l i t y , and a generally less secure situation. 270 The lack of outdoor areas around the apartments make this environment even more oppressive for the child. There is a lack of space outdoors - as well as indoors. The young child lacks either security or safety outside, arid i t is extremely difficult to supervise the play activities of children. There are few places to play or to meet other children since the apartments open directly on to the heavily-used public neighborhood. Thus the behaviour of the child who lives in an apartment suite in a high density urban situation, differs from that of the children who live in a single family dwelling. The young child tends to be more passive and insecure in regard to peer relationships, because there is less opportunity to interact with children at an early age. The child is less often socially inclined, and develops and relies more on strong family relationships or upon himself. The children have less opportunity to develop active pursuits and interest, because of the lack of space, and the large number of restrictions on the use of the dwelling. The children generally have a harder time relating their trust of the dwelling to. the rest of the environment, and depend on their parents much more frequently to differentiate uses within the dwelling and neighborhood.^ * 271. 2. THE OVERALL NEIGHBORHOOD COMMON INFLUENCES OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT ON CHILD BEHAVIOUR THE RESIDENTIAL NEIGHBORHOOD The overall neighborhood also influences child behaviour although i t i s much harder to categorize the effects because of the varied inter-relationship of the resources. Generally there are three major influences of the physical environment, common to both sample areas, which affect the children's use of and ultimately behaviour towards the larger neighborhood. These are: the distance or convenience of neighborhood resources from the dwelling or school, the provision of adequate play f a c i l i t i e s , and the amount of physical dangers within the neighborhood. These i n turn begin to influence the amount of stimulation received from the environment, the types of restrictions placed on the children, and the attitude of their parents towards the childs use of the neighborhood. Each neighborhood area i s affected by these factors although i n slightly different ways. Single. ^ anriiLj The analysis of each area shows that the xresidential neighborhood has many more f a c i l i t i e s for ch i l d r e n There i s however, a general lack of adequate outdoor f a c i l i t i e s , especially equipped play areas, and the f a c i l i t i e s 5. are not convenient for many of the children. " The dangers of t r a f f i c , speeding teenagers, and gangs, drug pushers, and molesters are regarded as serious, though not as restricting as they are i n the high density areas. 6" Peer friendships can be more easily formed. Supervision i s less necessary and i s easier to provide. There i s a more 272. constant expansion of the young child into the neighbor-hood, with less contrast between the dwelling area and the larger neighborhood. The younger children can venture into the larger neighborhood more quickly, and can use more resources on their own, however the children in the high density catch up by the ages of 10 or 12.7" The children are brought up in a more stable, secure physical environment. They can differentiate the use and function of.the neighborhood easier. less complex, in terms of density, is more homogeneous, and is more easily related to the young childs scale of understanding.&' The children find a security with their parents, peers, and physical environment, however they are not conditioned or used to being by themselves. " They form stronger, longer lasting friendships, and peer and childhood friends play a much larger part in socialization. l o' THE HIGH DENSITY The high density West End area has most of its URBAN NEIGHBORHOOD facilities around its periphery. They are more regional in nature, and are either too far away or too dangerous for the younger children to venture towards on their own.1 There is a serious lack of neighborhood facilities - both indoor and outdoor resources for the children.12'There is a lack of children living close by, and a lack of spaces to play and form peer friendships. The rapid changes in 273. the physical environment and the families, mean peer friendships are transitory at best. These characteristics reinforce to a greater degree many of the behavioural attitudes developed from the dwelling and yard environments. The young children generally find the physical environment is in such a state of rapid change, so varied, concentrated and dangerous, that they find i t overpowering to use by themselves."'They are more fearful, and less secure, and instead rely on, and find a greater security with their parents. They can make fewer decisions by themselves, and because of the problems of peer friendships, do not relate as well to group interaction, but instead are more able to exist in their own solitary world. The West End family is generally more flexible and has had to adapt more to changes. From a study conducted at Acadia Park last year, there seems to be a tendency for transient friendship patterns to lead to certain definite traits in child behaviour. If the child is just beginning to form peer relationships outside of the family, and the friends move, the child seems to ini t i a l l y withdraw from making friends, begins again cautiously, and when the pattern of friends constantly moving away is set up, there becomes a tendency to form many friendships easily, to adapt more quickly to the change in friends, but to become involved on a less Intimate or involved level. This same tendency seems to hold with many of the West End Children. Comments 274. from social workers, school councellors and teachers in the area indicate that many of the children when f i r s t going to sohool, cannot socialize at a l l , are afraid of the other children, and need a lot of guidance from the teachers and adults. Even at a later age, there is often a poor ability to work oo-operatively in groups. The children in their early years have minimal contact with the larger neighborhood except when accompanied by their parents.1''Because the physical environment forces the children to exist in an adult world, they are exposed to many adult values more quickly. From talking to the children and people who work with children in the area, there are strong indications that the children tend to mature to adult values earlier in l i f e , and become independent sooner. They however, depend more on their parents or other adults to help them bridge the huge change between the dwelling and the outside world. There is more i n i t i a l stress on the adults, to help the children define roles, to take them to interesting outdoor areas, and to help set up peer friendships and make peer interaction possible. If this is done adequately, the children as they grow up, adapt to new situations more quickly, and are generally more flexible. 275 There are certain community facilities in the sample neighborhoods which seem to offer significant alternative - in their types of physical layout, in the manner in which they are used, and in their effect in determining or modifying the behaviour of the children. Indluded is a short analysis of the comparative differences between two types of schools, and two types of recreational programs, with the potential effect each educational and recreational system has on the children and neighborhood. 276. B. THE INFLUENCE ON CHILDREN OF AN OPEN AREA VS. A TRADITIONAL SCHOOL IN ONE OF THE SAMPLE AREAS OPEN-AREA SCHOOL The open-area school, because of team teaching and open-area concepts, tends to involve the children more than a traditional school. There is more stimula-tion in the setting, the children are generally more active in classes, and are more socially oriented and are exposed to the community and its problems more frequently. There is more opportunity for the children to act out their feelings within the normal school program, and there is more involvement and counselling by the teachers in the social and personal problems of the children,'5' This type of school also has a relationship with the neighborhood which under certain conditions has a subtle effect on other types of behaviour. Several of these relationships have been noted in the Killarney area, and since the open-area concept is rather new, i t may be helpful to comment on some of them. DIFFERENCES IN HANDLING CHILDREN There are some problems with the different attitudes and methods of bringing up children, between what the parents are accustomed to, and which the school practices. Many of the parents, especially in the Killarney area, are quite traditional in their outlook towards raising children, especially some of the older European element, who bring up their children in a strict manner, laying down laws, and expecting them to be obeyed without 277. question. The open-area teachers are generally more flexible and tolerant in handing out discipline and running their classes.16"Often the children are caught between two systems, and test their parents with the standards they learn at school, and test the school with standards learnt at home. The special councellor in the area finds that for many of the younger children f i r s t entering school, this can be quite confusing. He believes i t tends to lead to insecurity and anxiety i f i t remains unresolved for extended periods of time, and many of the younger children, expecially when they are not given a tight enough structure by the teacher, seem to be having problems in this area. DEMANDS ON If the open-area school was set in a neighborhood THE PARENTS where the parents values are more in keeping with that type of school (generally among younger more highly educated parents), there would be more harmony between the thinking of the family and school system. There is more harmony for example in the Weir area where the majority of parents live and operate under the same set of principles as does the more traditional school. Since McCorkindale is placed in a community where a lot of parents hold a different set of attitudes than does the school, there is much more effort needed, i f the education program is to succeed, since i t is more 278. the education of the total neighborhood. The open area concept tends to make the community more heterogeneous i n thought by increasing the variety and change potential. I t necessarily involves the school more with the community, and the parents are generally much more aware and interested i n what i s happening at school (either excited or worried). I t also provides much more variety and stimulation, and increases the models of contrast for the children, however i t can potentially isolate some of the children from their parents-if the child begins to enjoy and desire the school experience, and dislike and c r i t i c i z e the home experience. I t thus puts more responsibility on the parents to grow with the child. I t also potentially puts adults and to some extent children into uncomfort-able positions-in order that they change some of their present behavioural characteristics i n order to achieve potential future rewards. From interviews with the regional school counsellor, there seems to be a tendency for less destructive or bad social behaviour i n the children from open-area 17-schools. The "border-line" cases begin to respond positively to school and i t s programs, however the "hard-core" group i s s t i l l relatively unaffected. To a con-siderable extent this i s dependent on the personality and values of the teachers, but i t , i s f e l t the open-area situation gives a better choice i n finding a more compatible 279. teacher c and the atmosphere i s more conducive to the child interacting without being threatened. The open-area system seems to be hard on some of the younger children who are expected to make a huge social adjustment when they f i r s t begin to interact i n open areas. For these children, the f l e x i b i l i t y required i s often too great, and they seek increased structure, guidance, and security u n t i l they can establish a base of confidence. I f their pleas — which are often poorly articulated or discernable-are not heeded, their behaviour tends to become un-naturally disruptive or else they clam up into their own l i t t l e shell. The open-area system often places a heavy stress 18-on the children and teachers. There i s often too much noise from concurrant a c t i v i t i e s . There i s too often only a poor understanding of how to use the physical spaces effectively. There i s l i t t l e r e l i e f i n the physical design so that the individual may get away by himself i f he i s i n need of a release valve from too stressing a situation. There are few corners or nooks, and the teachers don't have adequate training i n how to manipulate the physical spaces to create (9 effective areas for defined types of a c t i v i t i e s . This makes for a confusing and often stressing situat, ion for students and teachers. Part of the problem i s the lack of time available for planning the operation of this new flexible system. Part of the 280. problem also results from the fact that many of the teachers are not well enough prepared to teach in the physical space, or to properly use team-teaching 2 1 . techniques. Most of them-both young and old, have been brought up under the traditional system, and a l l their educational training and preparation has been directed to that type of l i f e style. They often have a hard time working and planning programs with others, and naturally impose a lot of the old structure into the new system. For example they s t i l l form into classes or group situations, which break into different corners, as far away from each other as possible-in order to separate noise and conflicting activity. The stress situation, in moderation is potentially good, and in most cases is acted out in school rather than suppressed. This can be advantageous and present a more true picture of behaviour, but i t takes a lot more involvement, effort, and dedication on the part 22. of the child, teacher, and parent. EFFECT ON The open-area system tends to place less emphasis ACADEMIC LEARNING on formal academic pursuits such as reading, writing, and arithmetic, in favor of developing some of the 23 more social and community interaction skills. " However the secondary school and to a large extent the rest of our society doesn't yet respond to this system of education and its more free and responsible thinking, and the child is often forced back into the traditional system. Many of the supposed benefits of the open-area concept are suppressed by the attitudes of other 281. students, teachers, and by much of the secondary school curricula. People not exposed to the open-area system, tend to fear i t , or are envious of i t , and often reject its benefits because i t threatens their security. Occasionally the children feel insecure and unprepared since the open area school has left them at a disadvantage in the more formal pursuits, and the pursuits they excell at are not regarded as important. More often the children have the self-assurance to readily adapt to the more restricting system, and they soon learn to find freedom in i t . TRADITIONAL The traditional school, though i t looks unexciting in SCHOOL comparison to the open area, has been around for a much longer time, and its effects on the behaviour of children, and in turn on society, is considerable. This type of school system tends to separate the educational process from the everyday l i f e of the neighborhood. It makes i t more the academic learning of a set curricula. Stimulation is more rigidly controlled by the teacher, and the children are held to a more formal learning structure. There is a more rigid standard of accomplishment in the system, to which a l l students are expected to strive, and upon which they are branded as a success or failure. The child however has a set direction, and there is the security of a more stable situation with fewer teachers and children to interact with. For many children, this school system gives a strong reference system, much in keeping with 282. that of their parents. It is easier to handle for many teachers. They are more comfortable and thus more natural in their role. There is not as much overt pressure on the teacher, and interaction and involvement with other teachers and with students is more up to the individual teacher. Thus I believe that the child in the traditional school tends to develop slightly different behaviourial characteristics from the child in an open-area school. The class situation is generally more solid and secure, they are taught that education is more a thing in itself, there is a more fixed attitude to success and failure, and the children are generally required to learn to hold in their emotions. This tends to reinforce behaviour at home. . It tends to mold a desirable product to enter and succeed in our working society. I believe however, that i t makes the individual more limited in range, and tends to fix the individual and society to a rather static and accepting attitude - towards l i f e and to the manner in which society operates. If the society changes quickly (as i t is now doing), i t is more difficult for these children, as they grow older, to change, since their behavioural values, are more set. They don't feel secure or confident, and tend to fear and resist a changing situation. 283. C THE INFLUENCE ON CHILDREN OF HAVING A SINGLE LARGE RECREATION CENTER VS. A SERIES OF SMALL SCATTERED RECREATION CENTERS. The following analysis can either apply to outdoor recreational areas such as parks and playgrounds, or to indoor recreational areas such as community centers. It will be presumed that a larger complex offers more variety of recreational activities though in reality this is not always true. SINGLE LARGE To have a single large complex in a neighborhood RECREATION CENTER rather than a series of many smaller centers has certain effects on the children. A large complex usually serves a small part of a community with a large range and number of programs and stimulation. However centralizing resources into one area usually means large parts of the community have no recreational potential at a l l that is readily convenient for the children. For a neighborhood the size of Killarney, or the West End, a large complex, such as the Killarney Park and community center, or such as Stanley Park, effectively acts as a center for community recreational activity. This seems to work best for older children who can easily get to the center, and who enjoy the stimulation 27. and relative anonymity that a large center brings. These are however too far away for many children to get to on their own, especially for the younger child. Since 284. a larger complex usually takes the place of smaller centers9 there is often no chance for the young child to use the recreation potential of a neighborhood unless taken by his parents. If the parents take their children regularly the complex tends to act as a vehicle to increase child-parent interaction. The children often "drag" parents into programs which occur at the same time. The centers may also make parents and older children more aware and involved in community affairs and programs. There is a possibility of setting up social friendships and meeting members of the neighborhood, although the physical arrangement of most large recreational centers doesn't facilitate this. A large center should theoretically bring people of a l l ages together in limited contact, to interact in a l l types of activities. This helps promote more heterogeneity of use, users can see and be attracted to other facilities that look interesting, and can conveniently interact with a series of activities in succession. SERIES OF A series of smaller recreational centers has SMALL RECREATION some advantages and some disadvantages for the children. CENTERS They serve more as a local center, are easier to get to by oneself, are easier to supervise, and could often use existing facilities within the neighborhood. There is thus less fear of the dangers of a large center. A number of small centers can serve a large community 285. with a few programs in many areas, but cannot provide the same stimulation of variety that a large complex can. With a series of small centers i t is easier to break them into a series of functional units that relate to age groupings and activities. Thus young children, teenagers, and adults, might not have to interact and clash by going to the same facility, nor would certain non-compatible activities clash. There is also more independence from a central authority, the centers instead depend more on the individuals that run the particular resources. 286. REFERENCES: 1. see PARENTS OPINIONS re: DWELLING UNITS (pg. 99 to 105) and IMMEDIATE NEIGHBORHOODS (pg. 130 to 133). 2. see chapter Two (pg. 78 to 110) for a detailed analysis of the dwelling units and a comparison between the accomodation i n the two areas. 3. see Chapter Three (pg. I l l to 138) for a detailed analysis of the yard and immediate neighborhood. 4. See TIME SPENT WITH PEOPLE (pg. 51 and 52), see USE OF THE IMMEDIATE NEIGHBORHOOD (pg. 122 and 126) or for more detail (pg. 117 to 126). see FRIENDSHIP PATTERNS (pg. 127 to 129). There have been frequent comments by teachers and social workers that I have interviewed that many of the West End children, especially the younger ones, have a poor a b i l i t y to socialize and co-operate i n group situations. Many of the West End children are not able to form their own peer friendships t i l l they are 7 or 8 years old. 5. see Chapter Four re: PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS (19? and 198) RECREATION CENTERS (pg. 182), CHURCHES (pg. 207), LIBRAERIES (pg. 216), PARENT OPINION (pg. 254). 6. see PARENT OPINION (pg. 254). 7. see NEIGHBORHOOD EXPANSION (pg. 236 to 250). 8. see POPULATION, LENGTH OF OCCUPANCY, OWNERSHIP, (pg. 40 to 42). 9. see TIME SPENT WITH PEOPLE (pg. 51 and 52). 10. see FRIENDSHIP PATTERNS (pg. 127 to 129). 11. see NEIGHBORHOOD EXPANSION (pg. 244 to 250). 12. see DWELLINGS (pg. 102), IMMEDIATE NEIGHBORHOOD (pg. 132), RECREATION CENTER (pg. 184), PARKS AND PLAYGROUNDS (pg. 199), PARENT OPINION (pg. 258). 13. see TIME SPENT WITH PEOPLE (pg. 52). 14. see TIME SPENT WITH PEOPLE (pg. 52). see RELATIONSHIP OF FRIENDS DWELLING (pg. 129 - especially the increase i n friends as they get older and gain their own mobility. see NEIGHBORHOOD EXPANSION (pg. 244 to 250) showing adapt-a b i l i t y to environment of older children even though they are seriously restricted i n their early years. 287. 15. see McCORKINDALE - DALLY ROUTINE (pg. 155 and 156). see USE OF SCHOOLS RELATION TO THE COMMUNITY (pg. 151 and 157). 16. see McCORKINDALE - RESTRICTIONS ON USE (pg. 157 to 158). 17. see QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS IN OPEN AREA CLASSROOMS QUESTION 12 (pg. 1 ). 18. see QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS IN OPEN AREA CLASSROOMS QUESTIONS 16, 19, and 24 (pg. ±. ). 19. see QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS IN OPEN AREA CLASSROOMS QUESTION 20 (pg. I. ). 20. see QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS IN OPEN AREA CLASSROOMS QUESTION 22 (pg. 2 . ) . 21. see QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS IN OPEN AREA CLASSROOMS QUESTIONS 23, 24 (pg. 2 . ) . 22. see QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS IN OPEN AREA CLASSROOMS QUESTION 21. see Chapter Four, CHANGE IN USE WITH AGE (pg. I56). 23. a statement of aims as expressed by the McCorkindale administration. 24. as stated by the staff of the secondary school, 25. see Chapter Four, USE OF SCHOOL (pg. 149 and 150). RESTRICTIONS ON USE (pg. 152 to 154). 26. see KILLARNEY RECREATION CENTER i n relation to the McCorkindale area (pg. 177 and 178, 182). see STANLEY PARK i n relation to the West End and CENTRAL PARK i n relation to McCorkindale (pg. 197 to 200). 27. see USE BY OLDER CHILDREN (pg. 194, 196). 28. see USE BY YOUNGER CHILDREN (pg. 194 and 195). 29. see MES-USE OF CENTER (pg. 176). LnJ tt D055I6LE CHANGES IN EACH AREA TO MAKE A MORE DESlRAbLE NEIGHBORHOOD EOR C H I L D R E 288. 6. POSSIBLE CHANGES IN- EACH AREA TO MAKE A MORE DESIRABLE NEIGHBORHOOD FOR CHILDREN It is hard to suggest what changes should be made in each area without a defined ideal of the goal the change is expected to be directed towards. As a result, the following suggestions will be biased to-wards the improvement of the area for children, and will only briefly relate to other factors which shape the physical layout of our neighborhoods. Most of'the following change proposals are based on a premise that the physical facilities and resources that children interact with, could be better suited to their activity and better used by them. It is in-tended that many of the changes will try to bridge the gap in the differences in behaviour that the children now exhibit in each area. This is done with the realization that the children from these different micro-environments will have to interact with each other to form a viable city structure, and that the behavioural attitudes of each group may be more easil y understood i f there is less difference in the physical and social structure of the environments that each group grows up within-or i f there are at least common rules and expectations of behaviour between each area. The following includes a l i s t of some of the more I -Gad critical changes thatAshould be made in each area, and proposes some general types of physical solutions-immediate and long range-that might help bring about some of these changes. 289. A. THE SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENTIAL NEIGHBORHOOD There are a series of changes needed in the single-family residential study area to help f u l f i l l some of the child's more important needs. The most immediate problems that I feel need solving f a l l into five overlapping categories: 1. There needs to be more flexibility and variation within the dwelling units, since families differ and. change in age, size, and attitude. 2. More local resources are needed, that are in close proximity to the dwelling units - especially for the younger children. 3. There needs to be more variety and stimulation in the overall neighborhood - especially for the older children. 4. There needs to be better flexibility and utilization of many of the existing resource facilities in the neighborhood areas - to make them more appealing to a broad range of interests. 5. The younger children need more protection from the dangers in the area. 6. There needs to be a more continuous link between facilities so the child can freely progress from one resource to another. 290. ORGANIZATIONS Within the community, a number of organizations THAT COULD IMPLEMENT (planners, developers, the school, the parks and CHANGES recreation bodies) already possess the administration power, and financial backing to attempt solutions to these problems, and most of these problems f a l l directly into their fields of responsibility. Each of these groups, i t is felt, could better serve the sample neighborhoods i f their programs were more closely related to each other, and to the overall needs of each particular neighborhood. It is also felt that a neighborhood assoc-iation is needed, consisting of residents arid organizations whose interest are within the particular neighborhood. This group could consult on projects that are of concern to the neighborhood. It is further felt that planners, developers, school and recreation boards, could sub-stantially help by promoting and using this neighborhood input to help develop their programs and services. NEED FOR It is believed that f i r s t of a l l there has to be better NEIGHBORHOOD GUIDELINES co-ordination and guidelines in developing a neighborhood. There is a definite lack of variety within todays neigh-borhood. Most of the dwellings and parcels of land are developed in a similar rote manner, influenced by building code regulations, by planning and zoning conservatism, by financial packaging that hinders imaginative new solutions and by a lack of co-operation between groups with overlapping interests. There is almost complete lack of experimentation 291. or innovation in most facilities, l i t t l e feedback on their success or failure, and there is too often l i t t l e relation-ship of a facility to the needs of a particular neighborhood and to the residents that live there. Much space is often wasted and many facilities are poorly planned or used. SOME SIMPLE The proposed changes generally follow a simple guideline. NEIGHBORHOOD GUIDELINES It is believed that physical facilities should be integrated into a logical neighborhood pattern, and each should comp-lement and help f u l f i l l the diverse needs of the neighborhood. It is also believed that there is a hierarchy of neighborhood relationships which set up points of contact for the resident, and which interact with each other to form a continuous neigh-borhood expansion in scale - in terms of size and resource input - to correspond to age and interest differences. The relationships chosen include: 1. an integrated street, pedestrian pattern 2. the individual dwelling unit and parcel of land 3 . the local block center (every one or two blocks) 4. the local neighborhood center (every 6 or 8 blocks) 5. the regional neighborhood center (every 12-16 blocks),the larger city centers (not included in this discussion). There would be more variety, complexity, and potential for diffuse social interaction as one went from the smaller to the larger scale with easy access from one to the other. Thus the children would have increased resources in the area, which were more relevant to their natural growth. Areas of interest would form a more natural and complete progression from the dwelling to the larger community and the children would have more choices in how and where they wanted to interact within the physical environment of the neighborhood. 292. 293. TYPES OF In the Killarney area, for example, i t is fel t that PROPOSED CHANGES through streets are too close to each other. Through streets should help define a local neighborhood and should be planned especially taking into account schools, parks, AN INTEGRATED and other facilities often used by young children. It is STREET PATTERN felt that through streets should be approximately 6 to 8 blocks apart in a residential area (rather than every 4 blocks as in most of the Killarney area) and should be co-ordinated, with 'school and local park boundaries, so that there is not frequent need for young children to cross or play on or near through streets. Four block units seem to chop a residential neighborhood into too small a local area, outside of which many younger children are not allowed to go, and inside of which they cannot find adequate stimulation. A co-ordinated traffic, school, and park system helps to keep the young children in an area of reduced traffic flow, and, as the children grow older and are more aware of the dangers of traffic, draws them towards the shopping and auxiliary functions usually analagous with more major streets. A stimulating park bounded by through streets is often a forbidden fruit for the young children, and yet most of the parks>in the Killarney area are bounded by two or more major streets. Many of the dangers to young children which traffic causes, could be reduced by implementing a few simple rules of planning: 1. plan daily use facilities for younger children -especially unsupervised play areas - so that they will not have to cross or use through streets, 294, or else provide some type of safe access. plan elementary schools and other areas frequently used by children away from "drag strips" which high school students or adults are likely to use. discourage through traffic from using local feeder streets, possibly by increasing dead end and cul-de-sac routes. (This has to be done in moderation however, since the increased privacy and safety of this system results in a lack of outside stimulation that a busy street provides). plan more regional uses on or near major through-fares, but give access to the children. 296. CHANGES IN The residential units and yards function adequately THE DWELLING UNIT in terras of providing many of the physical facilities needed to bring up children by our present standards. It is believed however that, there needs to be more flexibility and variation in both the type of dwelling unit, and in the ability to arrange interior and exterior spaces. This is a long range development and will become more important as many families find the suburban neighborhood too costly, inefficient, and restrictive to suit their living requirements. The possible types of solutions are outside the scope of this thesis, but may take forms that would completely alter much of the existing structure in the typical neighborhood—such as changes in land rights? living in portable units which could easily be added or sub-tracted to, or moved to various locations within a neighborhood; creating flexible living quarters within a mini-community on a fixed piece of land, or having a moveable neighborhood, much like a wagon train, or gypsy caravan. In many cases to offset the increased price of land, the density of the areas will have to be increased. Changes of magnitude would have large effects on the rest of the neighborhood as well. Within the existing type of dwelling unit and neighborhood, changes on a smaller more immediate scale might be applied to making spaces more flexible-such as having moveable partition walls and service units, and providing a structural unit which would be more easily altered to suit individual family needs. 2 9 7 . 2*1 ADAPTABLE umim Mr\ LJ. 298. THE LOCAL Local resources close to the dwelling could be solved BLOCK CENTER in a variety of different ways. The neighborhood should be planned so there are a series of outdoor and indoor resources that will serve children of different ages and interests. For the younger children - an open area close to the dwelling is needed. Various solutions might include: 1. Blocking off back alleys and collecting a portion of a few residents backyards, and making these areas into small block parks which could be easily supervised and safe from traffic. 2. Blocking off certain seldomly used streets and creating a small local park between two blocks. 3. Taking a corner lot or vacant lot within a block, and turning i t into a small local park. Any combination of these solutions could be used to form a series of play areas for children close to their homes. Each of these solutions should provide some alternative to play that could normally occur in the individual child's yard. They will become generai-tors of limited activities for children in the immediate neighborhood. Resources such as stripped cars, h i l l s , sand pits, play equipment, trees to climb, paved play areas, etc. could begin to set up an interesting area for children. Two or three areas should be provided for different interests. The local residents could help build or maintain the play area, possibly build a club-house or two, sharing responsibility with the parks and recreation board. 299. THE. L O C A L B L O C K C E N J E R 3 0 0 . LOCAL NEIGHBORHOOD On a larger neighborhood scale, centers should be CENTER established to serve a three or four block radius, and should act as a more intense play and social center for older school children. In the Killarney area the actual school building and schoolground is probably best suited for this purpose. The schools would thus act as local neighborhood centers. They should be more integrated with the community than most of them are now, and the existing facilities could be changed in a variety of ways to better achieve this. The schoolground, in co-operation with the parks board and neighborhood, could become more varied by prov-iding adventure type playground areas; open grassed areas and private areas,for active play^ for more intimate ' activities such as reading and talking; paved areas and equipment for games. Parents, community workers, or older students could be responsible for equipment. A small detached room could be used to store materials. A craft room, reading -library facilities, and gym should be made available - after school hours, on weekends, and. during the summer. Adults should be encouraged to come and interact with the children. For children with bad home lives, for children l e f t on their own, for pre-school classes, etc. this facility could become an extension to aid socialization, learning, and stimulation. Many of these same changes are needed in every school district within the city i f they are to function more as a useful tool in socializing and meeting the childs educational and social potential. These changes to a large part depend on a change in administrative policy and a broadening of the aims of schools and their relevance to the child and society. 301. , w4 U 3 r O c THE LOCAL E^IGHBORHflflD CEfJfEFi 302. REGIONAL A more regional recreation center - like Killarney NEIGHBORHOOD CENTER Park, should be an integral part of every larger neighborhood -for example corresponding to a high school district and serving 5 or k elementary school districts. It is believed that certain considerations before building the Killarney Center would have resulted in a more useful resource for the community. It should be built to serve a smaller, more identifiable community. The center should include more variation in types of spaces - including private social lounges to serve as social hangouts or activity centers - places to meet, talk, and play - places to serve children of different ages and interests. More activities are needed on weekends. There should be a common center - to relax - to watch some of the programs and activities - an area which is exciting and tells people what is happening within the center, and what activities and programs are available. The center should be more closely integrated with other community facilities - such as shopping, bowling, and possibly rental housing of some nature. This would tend to attract a lot more adults into the area. They would be more likely to be attracted to the programs offered, could bring their children to a program while they shopped, did the laundry, or read, and they would tend to act as a natural policing force throughout the complex. A regional park interspersed with play equipment, pool, track, playing fields, treed and grassy areas, picnic tables, etc. would begin to make this a commercial - social - recreational core giving a vitality to a suburban neighborhood, and acting as a stimulating center for children as they grew older. 303. (a) THE REGIONAL NEIGHBORHOOD CENJER 303. (b) THE REGIONAL NEIGHBORHOOD CEftfER 3 0 4 . B THE HIGH DENSITY URBAN APARTMENT NEIGHBORHOOD TYPE OF CHANGES NEEDED ORGANIZATIONS THAT COULD IMPLEMENT CHANGE Many of the same type of changes needed i n the Siqgie lamlLj r e s i d e n t i a l area are also needed wi t h i n the West End urban area, however the a c t u a l changes proposed often take s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t forms. The following l i s t , includes the most immediate problems i n the West End area which are of concern to the c h i l d r e n . lo The dwelling si z e must be increased and adapted to be more u s e f u l f o r f a m i l i e s . 2 o More convenient access i s needed to get from the dwelling u n i t to outside stimulation. 3 « Children need to have more opportunity to i n t e r a c t with other c h i l d r e n t h e i r own age, so they can e s t a b l i s h v i a b l e peer f r i e n d s h i p s . 4 . More l o c a l p h y s i c a l resources are needed f o r children-both indoor and outside rec-r e a t i o n , w i t h i n the apartment complex, and within the nearby neighborhood. 5 » Young c h i l d r e n need more pro t e c t i o n from the dangers i n the area. They need l o c a l play areas that are safe, convenient, and e a s i l y supervised. 6. The c h i l d r e n need safer, more convenient access to more r e g i o n a l amenities such as schools, parks, and beaches. Some of these points have been mentioned i n the sii^Uiamtty r e s i d e n t i a l area as w e l l , and seem to be generally needed throughout the various neighborhoods wi t h i n a c i t y . Others are more s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o the p a r t i c u l a r neighborhood i n question. I t i s again the planning, school, and parks and rec r e a t i o n bodies who are best able to help implement changes i n the area, however a large almost neglected 3 0 5 . body that should be made to bear some of the re-sponsibility for changes are the developers of the numberous housing complexes in the area. To date these people have been extremely reluctant to provide any services for children. There are however, two important factors which are beginning to develop in the West End, and are having a large significant role in housing accomodation and the quality of environment for child-ren. It is the developers, apartment owners and managers who are having a large say in developing these trends and should be partly responsible for the problems they cause. 1. Large high«rise developments that readily take families with children are beginning to appear. In one development on a half block of land in the West End, there are two towers that can potentially house between 150 to 200 children. Other such developments are likely. This can have a great implication on the area. Without provision of adequate facilities, 200 children can be deprived of an adequate environment. Four of these develop-ments would be sufficient to provide a school population and would effectively place as many children in a few blocks in the West End as are ~ in an entire elementary school district in the si*^ 4^amJ residential neighborhood. This will, mean there will be a tremendous strain to provide adequate facilities for the children. 2. There has also been a recent trend for high-rise apartments to favor families with children rather than two or three adults, unmarried,or recently married couples. It is becoming apparent that families with children are no more noisy or trouble-some, keep the apartment in as good or better state of repair, and are more apt to reside in their dwelling unit for a longer period of time. This has important implications, since many apartments which have no facilities for children are beginning to accept families with children-especially when vacancies in suites begin to develop. This puts 306. a large strain on the neighborhood facilities to provide for the lack of amenities within the housing development. When the neighborhood re-sources cannot meet this demand, or are not even planned for i t (as in much of the West End), the children begin to suffer. NEIGHBORHOOD The same guidelines hold for development of GUIDELINES neighborhood areas in high density areas as hold in res-idential suburbs. However the changes that are needed are generally more serious in nature, and more urgent attention is needed to. solve, them. The particular solutions differ significantly because of the differences in environment, largely due to the increased density of the urban area. Neighborhood relationships can therefore be placed much closer together, but follow a similar pattern as in the residential area ranging from the localized play areas within and near the"dwelling unit, to the more complex neighborhood unit such as the school or local recreation social center, to the large regional center. 1. an integrated street pedestrian pattern 2. the individual dwelling unit 3. thei local center (either within an apartment or shared between a few apartments). 4. the local neighborhood center (every 4-6 square blocks. 5. the regional neighborhood center (every 10-12 square blocks) the larger city centers 307. N E I G H B O R H O O D R E L A J I O t f c H i p S 308. TYPES OF An integrated street plan is a prime necessity in the CHANGES EROPOSED high density urban area. The plan should integrate traffic, pedestrian, and local facilities into defined patterns. AN INTEGRATED Since there is a higher density, neighborhood relationships STREET PATTERN will be closer to each other than in the residential suburb, and there will be more opportunity to make more extensive changes to existing patterns because of the increased population base in the area. However, the same rules of thumb that were given for the residential area generally apply to this more dense urban area. Safer paths and routes must be established between schools, parks, beaches, and the dwelling unit. This could be done by linking nodes of apartments with platforms, which would bridge roads and would serve as parks, play areas, and safe walkways. Another possiblity, which would mean changes in the use of the car, would be to bloekoff some streets, or develop partially underground streets, and make continuous park areas with.trees, grass, hi l l s , and playgrounds, leading from dwellings to certain nodal centers of regional activities. Another exciting possiblity to establish a safe likage system between resources in the West End, might be to run an open tram which would continuously lihb the area together. Children could catch the open tram and could be deposited safely and conveniently to the school, park, beach, library, art gallery, etc. It could also be used to pull together diverse facilities within the community to make j 309. them a more integral whole. The driver would become a familiar feature and would help young children get around. On a larger scale, the same idea could be integrated with large parking towers which could then become part of a system where cars were prohibited from much of the 'West End, and people instead walked or parked i n parking structures near the periphery of the neighborhood, and used the tram system (much like the expo express - or the San Fransiseo trolley) to get around. Of prime importance i s to provide diversions for t r a f f i c generated outside the area that now use the streets as a link to get from one part of the cit y to another. 310. recci^ ifi&l^c ass AN! rtjEaapT W PAJJERM 311. TYPES OF There are a number of increasingly critical PROPOSED CHANGES changes necessary within the high density dwelling accomodation. More variation is needed. Apartments, townhouses, condominiums should be built to house THE DWELLING families close to the downtown core. There should UNIT AND LOCAL ACTIVITY be more possibility to own high-density accomodation. AREAS Many of the older houses in good shape, or restored , should be retained to allow variety and give the child a link to the type of accomodation in other areas of the city. Housing developments should be required to provide certain basic facilities for children within each complex. Most families require 2 bedrooms, and they desire either a more useful patio or a separate plot of land to act, as a small garden, a place to plant flowers, or a grassy area to entertain or relax outside. Families also require indoor and out-door play areas, connected to the dwelling unit. The indoor unit should provide a place to socialize and engage in active play. The outside area must be safe, convenient, and supervisable, and is especially nec-essary for younger children. Since i t is not appropriate to provide an individual space for each family, to function as a yard does in the residential neighborhood, community sharing of outside spaces is a necessity. These spaces wouls serve much as a block park in the 312. residential suburb, but are much more urgent since there are no individual yards as an alternative outside place to play. There should be some seper-ation of families-for families with children, and those without, as their living styles often conflict. The actual type of changes possible to help the child are numerous. The dwelling unit itself might be made more useful by having more flexibility in the interior spaces (especially in ownership accomodation). The family could create its own living arrangement depending on family characteristics. Basic changes in apartment shapes might be incorporated-such as stacked and offset suites like at Habitat at Expo, or pyramid shapes. A private garden area might be incorporated into the patio areas. Planter boxes for flowers and small shrubs might form the guardrail. Synthetic grass or indoor-outdoor carpets could be used to make a comfortable lounging area. By staggering individual units, the patio would form a private area for the family. Pyramiding apartments would give more sun to a dwelling unit, and i f a person f e l l over a patio railing they would land on the level below. Enclosed play areas within an apartment can also take varied forms. They/- might be either on top of the apartment unit or on the ground floor, and in both cases could be incorporated with an outside play area. A play area on the top floor would give a safe enclosed play area with a view of the city, while one situated 313. on the ground level would provide for a more natural expansion into the larger neighborhood. In both cases these would be common play areas for children from the whole apart-ment. The play area could be partially subdivided to adapt to different activity functions and to different age groups. An adult social center could be in close proximity with visual access to the children's areas. The adults could do their laundry, read, play games, or talk, and at the same time supervise the children's play. Play areas for children mightalso be incorporated on a smaller more intimate scale. There could be a space on each floor which might serve as a common activity room for about 8 families. This would tend to form a bond between families within an apartment, and would act almost like a communal rumpus room. Play areas could also be shared between smaller apartments, i f sale access was provided. Two apartments for example could build a glass bridge over a road, connecting one apartment to another. The children could use this as a play space, would have a good view of the street, activity, yet would be safe from traffic. Parents could supervise by looking out their windows, and there could be speaker systems between dwelling unit and p^ay area. The same type of arrangement would be to suspend on elevated platform across a road, bridging two apartments. This platform could act as outdoor play space for areas where space was at a premium, and could also begin to link up with others to form a pedestrian link between say the dwelling and the school or major amenities in the area. Each platform play area could be set up to stimulate the children in new and exciting ways, Woo* o r £Sv-\ o ^ 3 ^ -THE DWELLING IMJ LOCAL ACTIVITY A R E A 5 tDWELLIlfe LOCAL ACJIVip CIHJIK 316. LOCAL If the West End is to have children throughout its area NEIGHBORHOOD CENTERS approximately four local neighborhood centers are needed. The school could serve as one, and the Nelson Park area might be made into the second one, and a center on the edge of Stanley Park could serve as the third unit. The school complex could be improved in many ways to make i t a local community center with some vitality. More use has to be made of the school. Facilities should be open on weekends, during the summer and after supper. Programs are needed to encourage social interaction in the young children. Crafts, art, gym, and other activities should be encouraged as well as science and more educationally oriented programs. Stress should be on involvement and experimentation rather than achievement. Courses in environmental-community interaction and in how the city functions and is built, could be used both as a stimulant and educative tool to improve the childrens understanding and involvement in the environment they live within. The schoolground needs much more variety in terms of materials and differentiation of spaces into different types of activity areas, similar to suggestions proposed for the Killarney schools. One other suggestion 3 1 7 . would be to keep the old annex, and fix i t up into a play center which children could climb in, scribble on the walls, hang from rafters, play dolls and cowboys. Part of i t could also be used to run specific community programs like art, and i t could possible be run in conjunction with the parks and recreation programs and personnel. There also needs to be better access to school, especially for children that live far away, or else primary annexes should be built. A tram or pedestrian link has already been discussed. It is fe l t this could be turned into a tool so that many of the resources of the West End would be conveniently reached and could be used as resource labs for the students. Other local centers in the West End could serve as playgrounds, babysitting, and play school centres, and could serve as annexes of the school system, could f i t into an expanded parks and recreation program. This would provide a series of local neighborhood centers within 2 - 3 blocks of every dwelling, and would provide that children would not have to cross the major streets to reach them. 318. THE LOCAL NEI6H50RH0OD fflJjEP, 319. THE LARGER The West End is soon going to have a new recreation NEIGHBORHOOD CENTER center which would most conveniently serve as the neighborhood center. Many of the same problems that have been designed into the Killarney center look like they will be designed into this center. First of a l l i t will do l i t t l e for the younger children who are not allowed to use i t because of the dangers in the area. It therefore has to complement the more local centers rather than substitute for them. For many child-ren a local center where i t is possible to get more intimacy with a few children is^needed. Possibly existing houses or suitable facilities could be adapted into local recreation centers for the younger children. A few of the more worthwhile dwellings of a past era might be rehabilitated and used in this way. Possibly these centers could be linked into outside play areas near large apartment complexes having lots of children. These facilities which also include churches and libraries could be integrated with the more central facilities, which would act as the node of the community. This central node should interlink with the high school and shopping facilities, and be convenient to the elementary school. Many of the specific change proposals for the Killarney recreation center would also apply to this West End center. It is believed that implementation of some of these changes would make both areas more conducive to raising children. 320. THE REGIOIM NEIGHBORHOOD COLTER 321. CONCLUDING REMARKS There are a number of conclusions which I feel I have begun to arrive at through this study. Chapters One through Four show how the children of the two sample areas are affected by the physical environment they live within. Chapter Five shows how some of the differences in the physical structure of the environment tend to modify and alter the behaviour of the children, and begin to affect their social and cultural attitudes. Cnipter Six gives some examples of how the physical environments that the children live within might be altered to be more in keeping with the expressed desires of the parents and the supposed desires of the children. The results, I believe, show some justification for analyzing the childs needs on a more micro-neighborhood level. There are significant differences, even between the neighboring Weir and McCorkindale samplings, regarding the availability, convenience, use and attitude towards neighbor-hood resources in each area. The results also show that many of the childs neighborhood needs are not satisfied by the resource facilities presently in the areas, and i t is my belief that these resources and their programs must be geared more to the peculiar characteristics of the local neighborhood i f they hope to be more effective. It is felt that i f changes are going to be effective in satisfying the needs of the children, that there has to be more co-operation between organizations (including parents) 322. that share interests in the neighborhood, and that these groups have to work together and share ideas and concerns much more frequently than they do now. This will provide for a greater interaction of people with different specific interests but a common goal of improving the neighborhood. It will hopefully help f i r s t question and then integrate ideas, services, and physical forms, will make each participant more aware and involved, and will give a better oversight of the neighborhood as a complex whole, comprized of many interacting and interdependent parts. It was also very noticeable that very few of the people interviewed or questioned had any ideas of what changes they would like to see in their neighborhood, or how they could improve the things they didn't like about certain facilities or neighborhood conditions. It is a conclusion of this thesis that i f anyimprovement is to be made in the relationship of the physical environment to the people, that there is going to have to be a better level of awareness shown by the people About concerning the effects the surr-ounding environment has on them, and there is going to have to be better channels open to implementing changes. Only in this way can the general population feel i t is possible to make changes, and can they be given some confidence in believing that their ideas are worthwhile for other people to hear. Hopefully community participation will increase, and a true advocacy body will develop from within the neighborhood, able to give opinions on how they would like to see their 3 2 3 . community develop, and integrating their ideas with larger organizations who have an interest in the neighborhood. I feel that the ideas behind this thesis are positive and leading in a worthwhile direction. There is much more work needed to study relationships between physical environment and human behaviour. I can see many detailed studies which could spring from the relationships I have just begun to explore. Much more work is needed regarding: the effect of high density single-family dwellings on people. the effect of lack of outside play space on children. the effect of a lack of peer friends on the young child. the effect of increased exposure to physical dangers on the childs use of the environment. the effect of increasing the distance or size of resource amentities on the childs use of the environment. the effect of open area traditional schools on learning and socialization of children. the effect of back alleys, major streets, cul-de-sac streets on the childs use of the environment. the effect of a few large varied resources or many smaller resources on the childs use of the environment. There are many more, I have just begun to scratch the surface of some of these more detailed relationships, being instead more concerned with a general overview of the range of the problems in the two study areas. Other types of physical environments could also be analyzed - rural settings, public housing developments, etc. Physical environments used by different ethnic groups could be studied, 324. to see what significant differences in cultural attitudes have on the use of the physical environment. Similar types of neighborhood environments as those studied in this thesis, could be analyzed and compared to see i f the use patterns and relationships mentioned can be generalized to general types of physical settings, or ane peculiar to the areas studied. The field is new and open, and much work is needed before consistent patterns can be relaistically attributed to influences of physical form. It is fel t that the next step is to try and influence some of the larger organizations to adapt their programs more towards the changes and philosophies of change that this thesis suggests. Most of the ideas are not new in themselves. The thesis simply orients ideas into a pattern which I believe is useful,and into a structure which will allow me to add new input. Neither of the study areas can be simply said to be better than the other. Each is simply different in many ways and emphasizes", certain characteristics over others. The thesis analysis, however, does give some indication of the effects of the environment on children, and I believe helps form a base to propose and examine the worth of desired changes in each area. 2S6. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Books and magazines relating to: the growth of the organism; the evolution of mans capacities and culture. Mazia, D., "How Cells Divide", SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, September, 1961, article #93. Bonner, J.T., CELLS AND SOCIETY, Atheneum, N.Y., 1966. Kalmus, H., "Organic Evolution & Time", from THE VOICES OF TIME, J. Fraser (editor), G. Braziller, N.Y., 1966. Spuhler, J., EVOLUTION OF MANS CAPACITY FOR CULTURE, Wayne State Univ. Press, Detroit, I965. Lorenz, K., EVOLUTION AND MODIFICATION OF BEHAVIOUR, Univ. of Chicago Press, Detroit, 1965. Wharf, B.L., LANGUAGE THOUGHT AND REALITY, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1956. Linton, R., TREE OF CULTURE, Knopf, N.Y., 1955. Meggers, B., "Environmental Limitation on the Development of Culture", from AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, 1954 #56, pg. 801 - 824. , "Towards the 3rd Millenium", PROGRESSIVE ARCHITECTURE, Dec. 1966. Duncan, H., COMMUNICATION AND SOCIAL ORDER, Bedminster Press & Co. Inc., N.Y., 1954. Wiener, N., THE HUMAN USE OF HUMAN BEINGS, Doubleday & Co. Inc., N.Y. 1954. Whitehead, A.N., SCIENCE AND THE MODERN WORLD., Cambridge Univ. Press 1932. Young, J.Z., DOUBT AND UNCERTAINTY IN MODERN DAY SCIENCE, Oxford Univ. Press., N.Y. I960. 11. Books and magazines relating to the capacities of the child: his evolution over time; theories on development; characteristics of development. Miller, N., THE CHILD IN PRIMITIVE SOCIETY, Bretanos, N.Y., 1928. Aries, P., CENTURIES OF CHILDHOOD, Knopf, N.Y., 1962. 3 2 ? . Spiro, M., CHILDREN OF THE KIBBUTZ, Schakan Books, 1965. Bloom, B., STABILITY AND CHANGE IN HUMAN CHARACTERISTICS, Wiley, N.Y., 1 9 6 4 . Hebb, D., ORGANIZATION OF BEHAVIOUR, Wiley, N.Y., 1949. Maslow, A.H., TOWARDS A PSYCHOLOGY OF BEING, Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1 9 6 2 . Erikson, E.H., CHILDHOOD AND SOCIETY, Norton, N.Y., 1951. Aavell, J., THE DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY OF JEAN PIAGET, Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1 9 6 3 . Piaget, J., "Stages of Intellectual Development of the Child", a paper given to the Menninger Foundation, Topeca, Kansas. Piaget, J. and Inhelder, B., THE CHILDS CONCEPTION OF SPACE, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1 9 5 6 . Hunt, J.M., "How Children Develop Intellectually" from CHILDREN, May-June, 1 9 6 4 , Vo.. II, # 3 , Pg. 8 3 - 9 1 . Parson, T and Bales, R., FAMILY SOCIALIZATION AND INTERACTION PROCESS, Free Press, Glencoe, Illinois, 1 9 5 5 . 1 1 1 . Books and magazines relating to the effect of the environment on the behaviour of man, society, and his neighborhood. Hall, E., THE SILENT LANGUAGE, Doubleday & Co., N.Y., 1959. Hall, E., THE HIDDEN DIMENSIONS, Doubleday & Co., N.Y., 1966. Goffman, E., BEHAVIOUR IN PUBLIC PLACES, Glencoe Free Press, MacMillan, N.Y., 1 9 6 3 . Sommer, R., PERSONAL SPACE, Prentice Hall, Englewood, Cliffs, N.J., 1969. Ganz, H., PEOPLE AND PLANS, Basic Books Inc., N.Y., 1968. Barker, R., A PSYCHOLOGICAL ECOLOGY, Stanford. Univ. Press, Stanford, Calif., 1 9 6 8 . 3 3 8 Barker, R., THE STREAM OF BEHAVIOUR, Appleton-Century, Crofts, N.Y., 1 9 6 3 . Barker, R., MIDWEST AND ITS CHILDREN, Row-Peterson, Evanston, 1 1 1 . , 1 9 5 0 . Keller, S., THE URBAN NEIGHBORHOODS SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE, Random House, N.Y., 1 9 6 8 . Seeley, Loosely, Sims, CRESTWOOD HEIGHTS, Univ. of Toronto Press, 1 9 5 6 . Chombart, P., de Lawe, P., FAMILLE ET HABITATION, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1 9 5 9 . Smith, D., HOUSEHOLD SPACE, an unpublished masters thesis, Institute of Human Development, Univ. of Calif., 1 9 6 5 . Kuhn, "Researches in Human Space" from EKISTICS, vol. 25, #151, June, 1 9 6 8 , pg. 3 9 5 - 3 9 8 . Rosenberg, G., "High Population Densities in Relation to Social Behaviour", from EKISTICS, vol. 25, # 1 5 1 , June, 1 9 6 8 , pg. 4 2 5 - 4 2 7 . Parr, A., "Psychological Aspects of Urbanology & The Child in the City", from EKISTICS, vol. 25, # 1 5 1 , June, 1 9 6 8 , pg. 3 9 9 - 4 0 3 . Virirakis, J., "The Human Community", from EKISTICS, vol. 2 4 , #147 , July, 1 9 6 7 , pg. 9 7 - 1 0 9 . Doxiades, C, "A City For Human Development", EKISTICS, vol. 25, # 1 5 1 , June, 1 9 6 8 , pg. 3 7 4 - 3 9 4 . Kaplan, B.A., "Environment and Human Plasticity", AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST, # 5 6 , pg. 7 8 0 - 8 0 0 . Jones, H.E., "The Environmental Development" in MANUAL OF CHILD PSYCHOLOGY, Ed. 2 , Carmichael (editor), Wiley, N.Y., 1 9 5 4 . Prall, R.C., "Child Development and the Dwelling Unit", from Neighborhoods — Today and Tomorrow, PHILADELPHIA HOUSING ASSOCIATION #2 , March, 1 9 5 8 . Provence and Lipton, R., INFANTS IN INSTITUTIONS, International Univ. Press Inc. N.Y., 1 9 6 2 . "Impact of the Physical Environment on Children", panel discussion from Canadian Council on Children and Youth Conference Report of the Directors, April 2 0 - 2 1 , I967. Metzger, W., "Influence of Aesthetic Examples on Children" from EDUCATION OF VISION, Kepes, G. (editor), George Braziller Inc. N.Y., 1 9 6 5 , pg. 1 6 - 2 6 . Arnheim, R., "Visual Thinking, from EDUCATION OF VISION, Kepes, G. (editor), George Br a z i l l e r Inc., N.T., 1965» pg. 1-15. Lynch, K., IMAGE OF THE CITY, Technology Press, Cambridge, Mass., I960. Jacobs, J., LIFE AND DEATH OF GREAT AMERICAN CITIES, Vintage Books, N.Y., 1965. Jensen, R., HIGH DENSITY LIVING, Praeger, N.Y., 1966. Alexander, C. and Chermayeff, S., COMMUNITY AND PRIVACY, Doubleday, Garden City, N.Y., 1963. D i l l , R., THE CHILDS NEIGHBORHOOD, unpublished Bachelor of Architecture Thesis, 1969. IV. Books and articles relating to the effect of education and learning on children. Montessori, M., SECRETS OF CHILDHOOD, Fioles Publishers, Notre Dame, Ind., 1966. N e i l l , A., SUMMERHTLL, Hart, N.Y., I960. , LIVING AND LEARNING, a report on Aims and Objectives i n Schools of Ontario, Toronto, 1968. Fuller, R.B., EDUCATION AUTOMATION, Southern, 111., Univ. Press, Carbondale, 1962. Goodman, P., GROWING UP ABSURD, Random House, N.Y., I960. Friedenberg, E., "Education 1970", a report from the Ontario Conference on Children and Youth, February, 1969. Dennis, L., "Education for What", a report from the Ontario Conference on Children and Youth, February, 1969. I l l i c h , I., "A Time for Surprises (The School System as a Hindrance to Learning)", from the Tues. Oct. 7, 1969 GLOBE AND MAIL. Goodlad, J., "fleeting Children Where They Are" from the SATURDAY REVIEW, March 20, 1965, pgs. 57-59, 72-74. ,"Involvement, The Key to Better Schools, a report of the Commission on Education, B.C. Teachers Federation, Sept., 1968. V. Books and articles relating to the effect of play and play facilities on children. Lady Allen, DESIGN FOR PLAY, E.T. Heron & So., London, 1965. Lady Allen, NEW PLAYGROUNDS, E.T. Heron & Co., London, 1966. , CREATIVE PLANNING OF PARKS AND PLAY AREAS, School Laboratory Publications, Stanford. Univ., 1 9 5 7 . Ledermann, A. and Trachsel, A., CREATIVE PLAYGROUNDS & RECREATION CENTERS, F.A. Praeger, N.Y., 1 9 5 9 . Aaron, D. and Winawer, B.P., CHILDS PLAY, Harper and Row, N.Y., 1965. Pennington, G., "Adventure Playgrounds Have Proved Their Worth", from B;C. TEACHER, Sept.-Oct., 1 9 6 9 , pgs. 1 7 - 2 4 . VI. Books and articles related to studies of the sample areas; or of local areas. Mayhew, B., LOCAL AREAS OF VANCOUVER, a research paper from United Community Services of the Greater Vancouver Area, Jan., 1 9 6 7 . Patillo, R., WEST END - A SOCIAL PROFILE, United Community Services, Vancouver, June, 1969. Watty, A., RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONS IN THE URBAN AREA, a masters thesis for the School of Architecture, U.B.C., 1968. Gerson, W., RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONS, School of Architecture, U.B.C., undertaken with a grant from Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 1970. Watt, B., "Nanaimo Study", a study of Questionnaire Techniques applied to attitudes", Students of School of Architecture, U.B.C, I 9 6 8 . Canadian Environmental Sciences, "Acadia Stage II", a report on married student housing, U.B.C, 1969. CAMPLE QdDTIONNlAIRE TABLE OF CONTENTS - APPENDICES APPENDIX A . SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE 1. What the questionnaire examines 2. Questionnaire format APPENDIX B . QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE 1. Coding of the response 2. Mapping of the childs expansion into the environment APPENDIX C . CENSUS INFORMATION 1. 1961 and 1966 census data 2. U.C.S. Socio-economic rating of local Vancouver areas APPENDIX D . QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TEACHERS IN OPEN AREA SCHOOLS 1. WHAT THE QUESTIONNAIRE EXAMINES Q. 1-6 (PART 1) General background information about the family and Q. 23-26 (PART 2) i t s relationship to the environment. Type of dwelling, length of occupancy, ownership. Country of birth, ethnicity. Occupation, education, income. Q. 7-32 (PART l ) Information on how the child uses the environment specifically regarding -Resource content of the child's environment. Frequency of use of the resource. Activities the resource i s used for. Distance of the resource and child mobility. Alternate environmental experience. Time use of the environment. Use with people. Q. 1-17 (PART 2) Parents attitudes toward the effect of the environment on the child - an examination of i t s qualities. Likes and dislikes. Privacy and community. Safety and dangers. Restrictions on use. Q. 17-22 (PART 2) Parents attitudes towards desirable changes to make the neighborhood a better place to raise their children. 2. QUESTIONNAIRE FORMAT Included i s the questionnaire format - as given to the parents i n each neighborhood. P i l o t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The f o l l o w i n g i s a p i l o t q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e v e l o p e d as p a r t o f a g r a d u a t e t h e s i s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s a t t e m p t i n g to d i s c o v e r how c h i l d r e n use the e n v i r o n m e n t i n which t h e y a r e b r o u g h t up, and what a r e the a t t i t u d e s p a r e n t s have a b o u t t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t i n r e s p e c t to b r i n g i n g up t h e i r c h i l d r e n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be s u p l e m e n t e d hy i n t e r v i e w s and o b s e r v -a t i o n s , and w i l l be examined i n r e l a t i o n to o t h e r t y p e s o f n e i g h -bourhood e n v i r o n m e n t s . H o p e f u l l y i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e to come up w i t h recommendations as to what can be done to improve e x i s t i n g o r new n e i g h b o u r h o o d d e v e l o p m e n t s i n o r d e r to f a c i l i t a t e the growth o f the c h i l d r e n t h a t grow up i n them. I am a s k i n g f o r your c o - o p e r a t i o n i n f i l l i n g o u t the f o l l o w -i n g q u e s t i o n s f o r one o f y o u r c h i l d r e n . Some q u e s t i o n s may seem ambiguous or d i f f i c u l t to answer, however i t would be a p p r e c i a t e d i f you would t r y to c o m p l e t e them as best, you c a n . . A l l answers w i l l be k e p t i n s t i c t e s t c o n f i d e n c e ,and w i l l be used o n l y by m y s e l f f o r the above s t u d y . Thank you f o r you r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and h e l p . . 0. P l e a s e g i v e the age and sex o f you r c h i l d c h o s e n f o r the s t u d y , . Age. Sex. pa gc; What type of dwelling do you l i v e in now? UJ s ingle family dwelling f* apartment suite |—' suite or room in a house f] dupex or t r i p l e x j—j public housing development ft tawnhouse or rowhouse • mobile home • other (please specify) ( 1 > 2) 3) U) (5) How long have you l ived in this neighbourhood? £j less than 3 mon • 3 - 12, months ths 2) 3) ( 4 ) • 1 - 2 years Q 2 - 5 years • 5 - 10 years PI over 10 years Are you: C3 a homeowner or H i a tenant What is the name of your neighbourhood, and what are i t s approximate boundaries? In what country and community did you spend most of your childhood? Is there a language other than Engl ish spoken by your family name, (D boundaries. (2) Q y e s (please speci fy) CD • no (2) p a g e 2. 7, What a r e t h e a p p r o x i m a t e b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e a r e a a r o u n d y o u r n e i g h b o u r h o o d w i t h w h i c h y o u r c h i l d i s f a m i l a r ? P l e a s e s k e t c h t h i s a r e a o n t h e map e n c l o s e d o n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e . W r i t 1 ? .1-o r c i r c l e o n i t t h e m o a t i m p o r t a n t a r e a s t h a t he f r e q u e n t s , a n d d o t i n t h e p a t h s t h a t he -nost o f t e n t r a v e l s . Be s u r e t o mark t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l o c a t i o n o f y o u r h o u s e o n t h e map. A h y p o t h e t i c a l e x a m p l e o f how o n e m i g h t f i l l i n t h e map i s s h o w n b e l o w . HIS HoclsS THE eoo i iDAfc lS fS O f 1H6 A££A C^iTH ' W H I C H H£ IS FAMlL J L 1 1 WE M O S T 4: r*—i r S i r page 3,, The next <4 questions ( 8 . to 11.) your c h i l d night use. Tor each of the you please f i l l i n the appropriate columns include a l i s t of areas t h a t areas l i s t e d v e r t i c a l l y would across the sheet. . For example: take the f i r s t area i n questionTB.,'a playground'. I f there i s a playground in the c h i l d ' s neighbourhood you would ehsck the 'yes' i n the ' i s i t a v a i l a b l e ' column. Then i f i t i s not convenient you would check the 'no' column in the ' i s i t convenient * column, I f you •jsjould l i k e to see i t more convenient, you would put a check i n the box in. the 'would you l i k e to see i t a v a i l a b l e or.more convenient * column, CO through each area and mark the corresponding categories depending on your neighbourhood s i t u a t i o n . . i s i t a v a i l a b l e • i s i t convsnien t yes \. nn yes no a playground { O ^ l r-J Q ~S5&f his LVM\ yard — ] Q | J-J ! £ - } £3 wouldoyou l i k e to see i t a v a i l a b l e or more convr-r;•• v.: yes not important-' •t n Are the f o l l o w i n g areas a v a i l a b l e in the neighbourhood or your dw e l l i n g for your c h i l d ? How convenient i s i t for your c h i l d to get to the fc-llo wing areas? Would you l i k e to have the f o l l o w i n g type of areas a v a i l a b l e i n your' neighbourhood for your c h i l d or i f they are i n your neighbourhood would you l i k e them more c o n v e n i. o n t ? the dwell: . j | I a) outside . a playground — his own yard a park ----— a nursery school--' 4 an elementary s c h o o l — 4 , a secondary school a covered play area--—r s wooded a r e a - - - — a community center a neighbourhood s t o r e -a com rn e fc i a 1. center a p u b l i c l i b r a r y a church(Sunday school a f r i e n d ' s h o u s e - — — £ b) inside the dwelling his own bedroom-—-— a r e c r e a t i o n roam or f a m i l y . r o o m — — . a basement--------a patio or balcony-——*! • i s i t a v a i l a b l e yes no 1 ____ ire--: i s i t convenient yes a a P • a a a • s a a-P a • no D a a • a a a a a D • a a • • a a a would you l i k e to see i t a v a i l a b l e or rnore convenient yes • • • a a • a • • a a a a .... not important • a s • a o a a • a • a A ~ \ 11} 12 IQ page 4, Houi often are the following areas used hy yotn the summer and winter months? c h i l d durinc. use in winter ! j jsome- j incver 'times 'often use in summer | somo- ! never I times often a ) ' outside-'the- duelling a p l a y g r o u n d - - - - - - - -his oimn y a r d — — — j CJ the back a l ley CJ ; the front street——4 D a vacant l o t - - - - - - - - 4 • the schoolground——-4 P a p a r k — — -4 P a covered play area - - p a wooded a r e a - - - - - - - - £"} the ocean or beach — - i Q acommunity c e n t e r - - - - p a neighbourhood store Q a commercial center- - Q apublic l i b r a r y •—'• Q a church p a f r i e n d ' s house- - - - - £3 other areas used extensively a i s f s -I a ; a ! a a a • a a 8 ! P I a • • P p D a • a a p a a D a i c i f y ) a • a a • a a a • a a D X3 a a a a a a a a • a • a D a D o a n a p a • D a a a a a a a { 7 ) n) 13) 1 0 15) ie) 17) 20) b) inside the dwelling his bedroom-————*! £"") a recreat ion room or family room—i- D basement- - - - - - - - - - j - £""] apatic or b a l c o n y — * p the kitchen r CJ the l i v i n g r o o m - - - - - -the h a l l or stairway- Q ether areas used(please specify) D • . i a ; a a D • \ p 1 p ! a a D I • a a • a ; p 1 a n • p i a ! D a a P i a i a p • ! a a a 3) /, \ - I 6) o S p a g e 3. 1 0 . W h a t t y p e o f a c t i v i t i e s d o e s y o u r c h i l d d o i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s , a n d w i t h w h o m d o s s h e u s u a l l y d o i t ? w h a t d o e s h e d o a ) o u t s i d e t h e d w e l l i n g h i s o w n y a r d — — — t h e f r o n t s t r e e t — a v a c a n t . , l o t - — - - -a p l a y g r o u n d — - - - - -t h e s c h o o l y a r d — — a p a r k — — — — — — a w o o d a d a r e a - — — a c o m m u n i t y c e n t e r the p u b l i c l i b r a r y t h e . c h u r c h - - - - - - - -c o n m s r c i a l c e n t e r -b ) i n s i d e t h e d w i - l l i n g h 1:•• b e d r o o m - - - - ; a ' r e c r e a t i o n o r f a r n i l f a m i l y r o a m - j 3 b a s e m e n t - - -a p a t i o o r b a l c o n y t h e k i t c h e n - - -t h e l i v i n g r o o m — t h e h a l l o r s t a i r w a y - — w i t h whr jm d o e s h e d o .i t b y h i r o s e I f 'i w i t h ! : a f e w ; f r i e n d s i w i t h l a r g e g r c u p o • j a • • ! D (A > V , • a • ' ( - \ . \ •-> • • p D p D ( r. \ v •-•; • p a ( ? ) • D a . ( 1 2 ) P • • ( 1 4 ) D p ( 1 7 ) • n n ( I C P p Q ( i -~" • Q ( D • • a { 1 \ \ ' i » — / a a (^ \ \ ••' ; n a a w a • R ( ~\ a • D f r \ V '-' / D n ( 7 ) p a g e 1 1 . How F a r a w a y f r o m y o u r d w e l l i n g a r e t h e a n d how d o e s y o u r c h i l d g e t t o t h e m ? ' o l l o w i n g a r e a s , d i s t a n c e f r o m h o m e l e s s I . m o r s t h a n ' -1-4 1 4 - 1 2 t h a n h o w d o e s c h i l d g e t t o t h e m , o f ' . e r r by by by j ( P ] 1 b l k ; b l k s b l k s 12 blk*; w a l k [ b i k e : c a r t b u s ? s p e c i f y ) p l a y g r o u n d : _a 3 n u r s e r y s c h o o l - — a n e l e j i i . . s c h o o l - - - -3 s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l -a w o o d e d a r e a - - — --"" t h e o c e a n o r b e a c h -a c o m m u n i t y c e n t e r -n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t o r e c n m m c r c i a l c e n t e r - -p u b l i c l i b r a r y — - - -a f r i e n d ' s h o u s e - - -a c h u r c h — - - -• o a a • a p p a • a a j a a • a a a • a a a a ip a n d a • D a o a P a p • a a a H a a a a • (? < d c ) ( 1 2 ) ( 1 2 ) ;is) ti?; P a'.} e ?. 13. Does your ch i ld have any t e r r i t o r y e i ther in the dwelling or outside that he considers h is /her own, or the t e r r i t o r y of a small group? y e s n o a bedroom to h imse l f /herse l f? • - - Q Q (1) a space within the d w e l l i n g ? - - - - > - — - - - J~~J £3 (?) (please speci fy) a space within the yard? — - - — [~^J tZH (3) (please specify) a f n r t , clubhouse, dol lhouse , etc.? HI Q ( 5; a garden or place to raise plants or ( 5 ) animals? (please speci fy) ["""] TJ~J a space defined by a chair piece of f u r n i t u r e , ( 6 ) furn i ture , or sps (please specify) ec ia l toy, etc? ^ — j |—| 1 4 . Does your ch i ld spend time in any a l t ernat ive environment t o your dwelling for cer ta in periods each year? (examples might be summer camp, grandma's house, at a babys i t ters , a summer resort , e t c . ) • yes (1) • n o (2) If so, what type of environment does he/she spend time at? ^ d w e l l i n g type b)type of area • tent (1) Da mountain resort (1) • t r a i l e r (2 ETJa seaside resort (2) • motel or hotel (31 p a lakeside resort (3) Q house ( 4 ) Q i n Vancouver £ 4 ) • other(please specify) • i n another c i t y C5; ( / P nn a farm or ranch (-6) • in another c o u n t r y . .' (7) • gther( please .speq,if y ) ('P 5 15„ How long is spent at these placets? • less than a week /uqr (1) p | a week to a month/ip" (2) • more than amonth/cj/" (3) 16. does your family haves yes no a c a r — — • CJ (1 ) •a T o V o — D O (2) , a "y pets D • (3) p a g e B . 1 7 . How m u c h t i m e d o e s y o u r c h i l d s p e n d i > S w f e ^ p t o 1-2 ' i , 3-6 n e v e i r c j r t t . h r . / d a y h r s . / d a y h r s . / d a y w a t c h i n g T . V . - - - D {~~} r e a d i n g b o o k s - - - Q £J H~J • • m o r e t h a n 6 h r s . / d a y n n (D (2) 1 8 . D o e s y o u r c h i l d s p e n d m o r e t i m e p l a y i n g o u t s i d e o r i n s i d e y o u r d w e l l i n g ? T t m o r e t i m e o u t s i d e f""f a b o u t t h e s a m e a m o u n t i n b o t h p l a c e s B m o r e t i m e i n s i d e d o n ' t k n o w 1 ) ( 2 ) (3) 1 9 . How m u c h of^"his/her f r e e t i m e d o e s y o u r c h i l d s p e n d : 2 0 . w i t h p a r e n t s - j w i t h b ' r o t h e f s ~ ' " t " a n d s i s t e r s - - - I w i t h n e i g h b o u r h o o d j f r i e n d s — - • b y h i m s e l f - - -" w i t h a b a b y s i t t e f j " " " ' o r a d u l t f r i end js n e v e r s p e n d s t i m e • a a a a s p e n d s s o m e t i m e a _ a a a a 4.. s p e n d s a l o t o f t i m e • a a • a • tzx s p e n d s m o s t o f h i s t i m e a a _ a. ~ a (D (2) or '(4) •(5) A r e t h e r e a n y s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s y n u o r y o u r s p o u s e d o t o g e t h e r w i t h y o u r c h i l d ? I f s o , p l e a s e e s t a t e w h a t t h e y a r e a n d how o f t e n t h e y o c c u r . 2 1 . A p p r o x i m a t e l y how m u c h t i m e d p y o u s p e n d p l a y i n g o r i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h y o u c h i l d ? a ) i n t h e d w e l l i n g Q m o r e t h a n 6 h r s . / d a y P 3 - 6 h r s . / d a y Q 1 - 2 h r s . / d a y ] I 2 - 6 h r s . / w e e k C3 l e s s t h a n 2 h r s . / w e e k i 1 ) 2 ) 3) 4) 5) o u t s i d e b ) i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d CU m o r e t h a n 6 h r s . / d a y ( 1 • 3 - 6 h r s . / d a y ( ? [ 3 1 - 2 h r s . / d a y h> Q 2 - 6 h r s . / w e k (t • L l e s s t h a n 2 h r s . / w e e k ( page 9. 22. Approximately how much time does your spouse spend playing or in terac t ing with your ch i ld? a) in the dwelling • more than 6 hrs . /day • 3 - 6 hrs . /day • 1 - 2 hrs . /day • 2 - 6 hrs./week TT] less than 2 hrs./wee D (2) (3) 3k(5) outside b) in the neighbourhood • more than 6 hrs . /day (1 TTJ 3 - 6 hrs . /day (2 • 1 - 2 hrs . /day ( 3 • 2 - 6 hrs./wek (4 Q less than 2 hrs./week(5 23 0 Would you l ike your spouse: a a a to spend more time with your c h i l d to spend less time with your c h i l d you are s a t i s f i e d with the amount of time your spouse spends with your c h i l d D 2) (3) 24.. Would you l ike • • • to spend more time with your c h i l d to spend less time with your c h i l d you are s a t i s f i e d with the amount of you spend with your c h i l d t i me (2) (3) 25. Does your ch i ld have: Q a lot of friends • a few good friends f"~) one good fr iend Q just passing acquaintences £ • no friends Q d o n ' t know about his friends D 2) (3) '4) .5) (6) 26. Are h i s /her friends:. I~1 both boys and g i r l s J~J mainly boys • mainly g i r l s P I don't know I) 3) .4) 27. Are h i s /her friends(on the average) n more than 3 years older than him/her n 1 - 3 years older r~l about the same age • 1 - 3 years younger ["") more than 3 years younger • don't know page I D . 2 8 . Do y o u d i s s a p r o v e o f a n y o f h i s / h e r f r i e n d s ? WHY? • y e s ( 1 ) Q n o R e a s o n : 2 9 . Do y o u r c h i l d ' s n e i g h b o u r h o o d f r i e n d s go t o t h e same s c h o o l ? • y e s m • no ( 2 ) • d o n ' t k n o w ( 3 ) 3 0 . D o e s t h e r e seem t o be e n o u g h t h i n g s to do i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d t o k e e p y o u r c h i l d o c c u p i e d ? • y e s ( 1 ) • no ( 2 ) Q d o n ' t know ( 3 ) 3 1 . D o e s y o u r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s u p p l y most o f t h e n e e d s o f y o u r c h i l d ? Q y e s ( 1 ) • no ( 2 ) Q d o n ' t know ( 3 ) I f no w h a t d o e s n ' t i t s u p p l y ? 3 2 . D o e s y o u r c h i l d v e n t u r e o u t s i d e t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d ? inhere d o e s h e / s h e go to and how o f t e n ? p a g e 1 1 . 1 . D o y o u f i n d y o u r p r e s e n t n e i g h b o u r h o o d a g o o d p l a c e t o b r i n e u p y o u r c h i l d ? 2. W h a t d o y o u l i k e feesi a b o u t t h e n e i o h b o u r h n n d i n r e l a t i o n t o b r i n g i n g u p y o u r c h i l d ? U n d e r l i n e t h e o n e t h i n g t h a t y o u t h i n k i s m o s t i m p o r t a n t . j 3. W h a t d o y o u l i k e l e a s t a b o u t t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d i n r e l a t i o n t o b r i n g i n g u p y o u r c h i l d ? U n d e r l i n e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h i n g . D o y o u f i n d y o u r p r e s e n t d w e l l i n g a g o o d p l a c e t o b r i n e - u p y o u r c h i l d ? I t I t i s s Q v e r y g o o d Q g o o d Q a v e r a g e Q p o o r Q v e r y p o o r (D page 5. What do :you l i k e best about your dm311 ing rn r e l a t i o n to br i n g i n g up your c h i l d ? Please underline tha one thing you f e e l i s mcst important. ; What do you l i k e l e a s t about your d w e l l i n g in r e l a t i o n to bri n g i n g up your c h i l d ? Please underline the most important thing. 7 Do you f e e l you or your c h i l d have enough privacy w i t h i n the dwelling? Please e x p l a i n why. O yes • no p—I don' t know Reason : £. Do you f e e l you or your c h i l d have enough privacy w i t h i n your neighbourhood? PIsaac e x p l a i n why. • yes ( 1 ) • no (2) don't know (3) Reason : page 1 3 . 9. Do y o u f e e l t h e n o i q h b o u r h o o d i s a s a f e p l a c e t o b r i n g up y o u r c h i l d ? I t i s : • v e r y s a f e • s a f o Q n o r m a l Q u n s a f e Q v e r y u n s a f e • d o n ' t know 2) (4) 6) 1 0 . What a r e t h e d a n g e r s i n y o u r n e i q h b o u r h o o d ? ( i f a n y ) P l e a s e u n d e r l i n e t h a one y o u f e e l i s mos t d a n g e r o u s f o r y o u r c h i l d . 1 1 . Do y o u f e e l y o u r d we1 I i n q i s a s a f e p l a c e t o b r i n g up y o u r c h i l d ? I t D v e r y s a f e • s a f e • n o r m a l p| u n s a f e • v e r y u n s a f e • d o n ' t know 1 2 c What a r e t h e d a n g e r s w i t h i n t h e d w e l l i n g ? ( i f a n y ) P l e a s e u n d e r l i n e t h e one y o u f e e l i s mos t d a n g e r o u s f o r y o u r c h i l d . 1 3 . A r e t h e r e any p l a c e s i n p a r t i c u l a r y o u r e s t r i c t y o u r c h i l d f r o m g o i n g t o ? Q v e s ( 1 ) I f y e s w h a t a r e t h e y ' Q n o 2 j 1 4 . A r e t h e r e a n y a c t i v i t i e s y o u r e s t r i c t y o u r c h i l d f r o m d o i n g ? Q y e s ( 1 ) - - I f y e s w h a t a r e t h e y ? • no ( 2 ) page 1 4 . 1 5 . Do y o u h a v e d i f f i c u l t y g e t t i n g y o u r c h i l d t o c o n f o r m t o t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s y o u p l a c e on h i m ? I f y e s w h a t t y p e o f d i f f i c u l t y do y o u h a v e ? 1 6 . What do y o u do i f he b r e a k s t h e r u l e s ? 1 7 . What r e s t r i c t i o n s ( i f a n y ) do y o u p l a c e on y o u r c h i l d w i t h i n t h e d w e l l i n g ? 1 8 , How w o u l d you c h a n g e t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d t o make i t a b e t t e r p l a c e t o b r i n g up y o u r f a m i l y ? Q y e s CJno 1 9 . What t y p e o f d w e l l i n g a n d n e i g h b o u r h o o d w o u l d l i k e t o l i v e i n i f y o u had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y ? page 15. 2D. Do y o u f e e l t h e r e a r e e n o u g h c o m m u n i t y r e s o u r c e s and a c t i v i t i e s i n y o u r n e i g h b o u r h o o d f o r ' y o u r c h i l d ? a y e s m a no (2) What i s n e e d e d ? 21. W o u l d y o u be w i l l i n g t o h e l p p a y — e i t h e r i n t i m e , l a b o r , m a t e r i a l s , o r m o n e y , f o r t h e c h a n g e s o r a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , t o make y o u r n e i g h b o u r h o o d a b e t t e r p l a c e t o b r i n g up y o u r c h i l d ? ( i f y o u f e l t a n y c h a n g e s w e r e n e e d e d f r o m q u e s t i o n s 18 and 20.) Who SlnoiAa p^Lj 22, What do y o u t h i n k a r e t h e b i g g e s t p r o b l e m s y o u r c h i l d i s g o i n g t o have t o c o p e w i t h i n t h e f u t u r e e n v i r o n m e n t ? U n d e r l i n e t h e one y o u t h i n k m i g h t be m o s t i m p o r t a n t . page X 6 . 2 3 , What i s y o u r s p o u s e s o c c u p a t i o n ? P l e a s e t r y t o be a s s p e c i f i c a s p o s s i b l e . 2 4 , What i s y o u r o c c u p a t i o n o r w o r k ( i f a n y ) ? 2 5 , What l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n h a v e y o u o b t a i n e d ? h a v e y o u : D n o f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n ( 1 ) E l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l • l e s s t h a n 5 y e a r s ( 2 ) Q 5 y e a r s a n d o v e r ( 3 ) S e c o n d a r y s c h o o l • 1 - 3 y e a r s • 4 - 5 y e a r s • U n i v e r s i t y • some u n i v e r s i t y ( 6 ) f j d e r e e ( 7 ) 2 6 , What i s y o u r f a m i l i e s a p p r o x i m a t e t o t a l a n n u a l i n c o m e ? • u n d e r 2 , 000 (1 ) Q 2 , 0 0 0 - 5 , 0 0 0 ( 2 ) O 5 , 0 0 0 - 8 , 0 0 0 ( 3 ) • 8 , 0 0 0 - 1 2 , 0 0 0 ( 4 ) Q 1 2 , 0 0 0 - 1B,0 0 0 J 5 " • o v e r 1 8 , 000 (6 Commen t s : NNAJRE R 1. QlIiSJloM^PE Cmtk RESfDlJsE O. A j e s ai-J <sexes oP e k l c L e n choo&m &r -Die s k d ^ . ten nr ww1 T 1 >Otr-6 l o II IZ M M M 3 3 - t -S 2 3 3. =i 1 T Male psmale response fsmp 4eU / t o . (4 l o IO 2 6 IO to S o 4 0 2 0 2 0 00. A W nm> I Won ^  2.3 in the temiLj. re«f ©rise Cf*" /a end A 1 4 a I ^ t I * 15 15 II 4 i . [ p 1 te^l. [ AO 1 *> 1 OOOO. Graph ahoeJir^  number e ^ e e W c W > . "2 ~ WEIR. wmm WEST ENID-3. 1 . J c j p e o P eLetliVg e K i l e U n h u e in I nesporwe in numbers 2 . L e n g t h e f J i m e U | h a s U J i n 4 h e n i g h b o r h e e J : 1* at y R 5 H 4 F a5j 3 . Ownership s f a l u s o P JarntLjl reap on— w> m—Jb i 9 /OmU 19 1 *> II io II to 20 pawtb eUserfpJfen rmt h e m e aand b o u n d n e i g h b o r h o o d • Vaiog. Soo-rh GsnfrATfWl: a r e a 2. E C po respond, • 11 Coll.r 13 1 JL 2 . 5. i 3 i I B Q t M D A R l E S Of ]HE WESJ E M D . BOUNDARIES Op KlLLARNEbl. 7 . 5. G o u n l r y a n d C o m m o n i j y © P p A r e i 4 s c W t U k o o c h e g o r t e s d5 r«*po n«« in n u m b e r s JBL JL. JSL A W 2Q 6 . p a m i l i e s / y h i c h s p « a l c a l a n g u a g e o t t w 4 n e n E r g j w n . ' G a ^ e o o r i e a r«sc i n o m M AW r e 9 3 6 n o 22 3 ! 17 14 Uml nunW oP tep lies 40 4© 2 o a o languages spoken : G e r m a n [ 8 ] Cro^Ti sUo £12. • Honq Okrfru&r\ L»J u e r m a n 1 a R )0-— 0 0 « H < ft ^ as i < 0 CM a* M $ m # ! 0< JNoJgifll j J i l l * t|NC ^(M^t*) ? 9 0 2 0 4 T i ~t 1 .fi $ O O O O N J J U K 5^ 911 (0 J i b 3 el 'MS « 3 J KB** «« 3? h il i 1 £ j 14 4 4 i i i « O r n o o w f 0 N ol N i in ol J. l i fll i f si •vj~Tnl JO i lo if) W<fl rO ! oi 0 00 0 o r -o ro 0 T N - ~ o ) ID ^ !2 • \n - ! JO ! 0 vD r io oO v9 vfi rO oJ rJ *0 oo ^  V O 0 » 0 0 c^) "0 i r4 0 j 0 T o sir 3 4 I f T T W = CO 0 r i oo CNJ i f ' ft" •0 i f ) * * cvl i t •nr ** 1 4 A . ^ \X3 j ON r O JO 0 oi. M . -- ^  0 tn isl i C O - L CT^ 0 s ^-m ~ ri N 0 0 T N .•* IT) * Q N 0 Ml 0 N N ^ = in 00 in (0 r- ^Aoj 0 ° 0 1 0 ^ rO 0 ° 0 d M r < Oo Oo CM o IT) a r~ N N <*» Jff r- in 0 to* -0 lO : oO o> f oi > I ol crJ!» (0 Jf-' <0 -1 «0 } 0 , ^ %A— — % A — — — 0 - T o oj ol ^ - A o ^ ^ in (vl ic, in c O W ol °* • f l - °o° i c * — rt) O-MI IO 0 0 (V) 0 ol N I ^ N 0 0 I N (NT r4 \ \0 N iO o V *T 0 0 1^  . «*• r oO M ol 0 N 0 4 1 IJ1 T H F T !^ Hi! IS ^ O t i^a Qfi3 J S 3 M 4 1 1 i 0 i 3 $ •2 Si S 8 1 oi 1 ri dl o I -h e r ni _ ^ r O N < N (vl 0 0 | 0 cs) N rO. j ^ ~ r4 - N 1 * 1 1 1 — I o 0 I o 1 I? t 41 -rt 0 I -0 0 ! rM cs) rv) fs) 0 ! ~~ 0 o I — 0 0 N i N -eh 0 o ! o fs) I rr N rO 0 I Is* rOgJ* rO, /si 4 (4 T -0 i _ <0 N i *0 i\l |<1 r f° 3tf nTT-0° rO rO " 4 ^ 5 1 rO to ^ 0 If) T - j 0 0 !*0 <*• rJ e f t .0° 1 0 0 0 cO r 0 ° 0 00 rsj > 0 K rO 0° 0 s i cO sfl 0 N ™ ID 0 o f CO" rO it rM J O j t o N 10 rO 4 rO «0 to «o CO 0 (0 fO > i o sT N csl o Cs 0 —(A LO A r + 0 I 0 j > •st tT) • 0 0 0 0 | in .Si CM IA rO 1 o r4 ^ 0 [ oi 0 K m CO Oo 0 U o ID 0 CSl tn iO 0 j _c CO <r 1 ••f 4 1 M« i H ft W oi rs) cO CSl ~ter 4 ^ »sl f<) tsj . I\) !r> - 4 0 -0" -0^-0 ' rO N 1 N - Lo cs/ — ! O 0 • O D \ -0 L N rs) N - <0 N rl 0 ^ 0 0 tn 1 T 5 st N 1 rA oj - M -4*~csl rsi c^ f\l rO »i rO cQ ; rQ ^1 tsl 0 %0 CO i ^ 4 0 i O isl | + N ; o i * ? H _ j 0 o I o 3 4 1 II1 I WEIR m I ill i t [ i f f i r "SU 1.1 o y o 0 7^0 - l o 0 I o 0* i ^ VP 0 I o o ; -0 i 0 OJ 1 0 ~ 0 T o N T -0 0 N R -OJ • -0 ' M N r _ ^ 7 o CP ! N fP ! N» OJ 0 J 0 0 * (7 N f J OJ N <JJ OJ - N - fA*^OJ 0 r1 6 » _ N J>. M 0 1 N» (Ji V — N> CP N H U H OJ N N ' T N |0 j -OJ N > l „ C J \ "A" ^ \ LP K O N o o /\ |0 0 » CP -O>i^0J oO 0 OJ oO i OJ e i j N i f 0 N T vO NJ o J> N IP J> - J ^ * — N Qi ti cvr 0 N U J CP 0 <0 O J * ^ OJ o 0 ° 0 N (A X LP cn J > " > OJ • O J W y » o o f , 5 ' 0 1 A N 1 - J> OJ T 10° N OJ •  - J 0 .o1 o r * CP 0 L P o> fj j 0 0 Oi O J 4 0 CO Oi M> -J> >J o O Oi OJ 0 oO N CP OJ N l OJ N • 0 ° 0 w X (A M 0 LP 01 0^ J>-- — N i n-C ! o - OJ r> 0 - r ? 0 0 :< J^ ^ r : OJ _ J X O J -J> - ; c o 1 o V — 0 1 c -! Q CP H (O I 0 CP N o - N M f1- . Ul \ 0 - " — o v C CP. ° L 0 •y o r e 0 J> o> & • 0 0 OJ p % C 0 In CP _ c P* N j -CP j f z 0 0 — . 0 | N Co 0 O N j (V) i f iff ft 5 1 o o i 0* I - a o 0 , 0 o i o C I -4*J-0> NJ, 0 — T o CP ^ w cu M o> OJ CP Cn o> ^ of ^ 7 ^ 7 E aw s f s (0 I Si E 8' a c L I 4 C c I 5? CD c TJ 4 01 II T 1 C ! o 3 : 5 J -1 1* 1| Is fi. 3 i i i f f J U3 1 «J i Cu- s 1 I rt _2 IQ mi i - ^ r •c. -I iii'jji El 9 f PS 9! o 0 is I i 1 i i rgji i '5 _£> 1 fell J 1 « 1 ii hf Si. oF^ I" 1 1 i i i 1 iH n o m • t l ! 1 o-° "3 ? 8 1 1 1§ 4 1 - Pl i is J P i 8 0 1 i r j 2 1 (0 Jo ^ 4 Hi t 6 A H 1 5 o v>~51/)-° 'a Oi -Q! 5> • d i T T m i f I/) \ft ' IN "1U Hi :J> o a 61 4 ft n T 3 • 5 ' ! 0 1 3 *1 -3 7 I I 0 4 J ^3 3i V ) ^ — I 0 -J 1 ! Sf! OT) * 5i <^  1?) AT* T i i H 1—I—: 8 ^ i 0 ... .-MS '<5T> ! i i r1 1 i i C L4 i ! 4A i l l 7 -4 yt .8. • f 6, 4- cn, .—0 5l 5 3-3 g i s ~ 5 S-I f • 9 41 -U i i o o p <3 4^3 L a in 0 n-11 I ! i 0 3 =5! 3 i i i ff V ,0 0 s -3 I i i J i tftl $ * t f t -O oi, f f i_0 5 4 <\l ir*, 05; -St i 3 0 §3 (D C D s i a -j 1 • i SI if I* I1 a 0» 3 -f 3 vO I S i 3~3 J3 -C4-i (8" 0 _J3 -4 4 Ir -4 -tt oj m i i f « J]2 II •Hi -1 ID i j •Q, 4 J 1 0 •J «J7 1 h JO J 5 5 it oft -flf~H. ! 3 ^! Hi LJ) 41 1^1 ?i 1.M °f "21 X i 5T" 18 w i n ^4 <0 _9 s i l l f l l i l ff) i t V5, ! : 1 1 s i 1 ! J I TIC L J3 -4! 1 1 J : • I j ' >. i '! i j i ! 1 I I ti i - i i i 1 0' f H. 1 1 ! i ~>- i -Jjj" CJT5 4 Si 0 J Jit 0--fi o £9-S B opd - , C U 4 31 0-|-=i> C L . HI i3s 0 i ^ „, g J til i T | H >. P3-6p !(0 a v5 J3 i r f 1 1 •A Jl Oi-S ! H 1 3 . 2 r f 7-5 J J -1^  o I4J N U-4 Ef 1 f 2 J -3 1* ! ! "t4o , 4 -I >1 7 3S i \fS[ \f) ra .Si 5 !<3 i IN 38 J. - 3 " 3 1 ^ o1 1 •8 s °D p M 1 -I i l J o T OTo •V % or Hi 3^ 4 a 0* 0' 1 -Up! II! - ^ K i i •i i JQ-i ! r D-3 3 3? It 0~ T 1 r H 2> ,1 > IN) 1 i ! -8 i ^ l r . 54 0 3 - f i -1 I s e r o o 42 -A 3 .3 1 / l l 4 41 11 CM *0 0 N O CO c\f M" 16 il S -D 0 0 s <0 l i rn rsl r- : S3 <r Li N lO C4 N 0 N 00 OM1 M O <n o i 4 rt rfl O i 0 i rO IO oo 0 0 .0 0 0 10 1 ' J I * if W i f -Qb r » | » r bo X. r 1^  o t 00 Oo ! 6e cr 1 oo 0 i 0 5 i &0 Oo ! 0" cr ; t~ N 0 ' o p 0 0 I 0 0 0 0 0 0 o O 1 O 0 i 0 (M I CO, 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 I 0 O 0 0 0 O j o A 1 0 0 i 0 - : O O O tsi A j 0 o o 0 i 0 0 I 0 0 i 0 O 0 O I 0 J 0 o 0 0 0 i Q 0 ! 0 0 i "0 4 1 0 0 o -Or-o I O d 0 Q_ WO D CT7 0 ) .8 -I 1 i 0 .v 1 ft! l i ti 4 2 in rt 0 M N 0 o QO CM O 0 4J 0 0 10 rt rt j3 J •sT 1*1 m fll V0 rO ! i q oh CO IT 0> rt 0 o fN j o 0 0 1*1 tsl IT) •0 rt IN] IN rvj CJ 0 4 0 I M o • rt 0 fN1 f 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 jrO 0 0 i o rA ! _ - in O * I N o ! -fN o o o L o <0 i k/> to in I in on in - M B -* ! « 0 -0 0 ! -o o i 0 0 I 0 0 o -e-o o 0 o 0 I 0 c i — 0 I <» \i0 rn 1 0 j -0 I rf) * 0 <0 j N 0 Q a i o o | o 0 0 O j 0 sir-o o N - (0 st < <T M j «0 -N-o O — ^ ^ ^ i n in L m in I in r4 i 'O 0 I 0 0 0 O ! O a 1 0 o ! -Pi-4 0 ! 0 o 1 o O . 0 O | o o i o •o o o O 0 4 0 0 o j o o I o T £ I O J o -rn n t o o o (i ^ 9 t o -- 0 T I T i ft CP 8§-cn cn .1 J 0 1 J 18 Rl 3 o 0 0 0 c9 10 CM 10 M 0 00 | " c I • • M\ 4 $ f I 0 N 0 o 0 0 Oo 0o in x9 00 8 N in *1 if rO in IN *0 1*1 «0 l\l N 0 0 •0 1*1 nl i O .4 0 o * i ^ l-N-<cj- ! (0 N ! "\t in ! <0 0 O b ! 0 in I 10 in j ^ in I in c\l \ or) il)-o t o o ! 0 0 ^ 0 — i N 0 I 0 O I 0 N L N N j 'if) IN T _2 rJ rN t f )—t*)~ "^V" i - - rJ _ | 0 "BR" o ! 0 0 I -4 O ' 0 °A 0 -0-1 ! / A I 0 ° 4 ° 0 o i 0 « i 0 0 j (\l o : o 0 0 0 o 6 ! O 4 0 I o 0 ! 0 -0-0 i 0 0 0 0 4^ 0 o 0 o 1 o 0 i o -#-1 0 o 0 j o 4-0 ! 0 0 I 3 0 J o 0 0 « I 0 0 1 0 o o o -0 -0 o H 0 0 18. 13. "|Wt4ory €>£ ekiUran Cp«* M C ) 2 3 k ^ heme r a n 9 •I 2v 2 8 6 16 | 12 9 2 3 j 15 s 5 8 IO A W IO s 4 13 40« 7-e 9 - l o 11-12 llVf of male plawrs bonk -|t>_i cop'a. locoL cAse. dies)- drat^ eis pewl- of Uowsewi Iwificj roov-n,dr>d becWoem desk fe) b J Ca)_ •AOUJW border -floujie*' box. oia becJ ' desL. b*J )^ H. H! J bad, p"ilW>, a d AooVSpaco-. boolt- -shell-desk It • rJ—. cVie»ry fnec-fee. S^liTaj. 4**r««iunri i"v> besom* -abates 1 dulo -Ubose. Com a«Mfel*»r» base- <3«'TSjr I T M U a ) pad oP basej'Mfid b*djec>»ri fji) L ^ c U ft) bed c a m * 5 s p a » a noon* irabb'ij p « w 19. 1 4 . #15. A l W a W &r*M-r»~X H r e U U k n ^ •Hme •per* 2 9 3 3 3 4 0 4 0 roL/mc ,/pmryr. 15 2 4 mot* 4Vi4w l*»©/»jr, S 7 ' & ' "TOW T i II um' rnHnar t £ F 7 5 12 i IO 3 I A 14 IS • n a - 5 - 6 1 / 2 16. P o s s e s s i o n s d 2>9 4 0 1 9 3 o 4 0 4 0 20. I/, "]?me sp«»4 /UfikWng ]tV. a n J r*AcJiV^ boots; •hm* never O-i Irs * 9 T ' .V . r tiAn • fmmr "I 1 2 I 3 1 2 4 1 1 1 3 UaJ 1 3 7 3 o 13 z o 5-4 | 7 - 8 ft 3 9-lo 2 3 n - e 4 1 2 o | 7 I f 3 i i 4 3 2 i 4 a 13 1) O 1 2 i 4 o 4 1 3 i 3 i I I 4 5 1 o IO 2 13 4 1 5 - 4 , 5 i i 7-8 t I 3 z z 3 4 I 4 -Ual. o 1 14 3 o 16 4 o 21. I S . T i m e « p e n l i n s d e e n d o c 4 s d e Jpwellmq • c 4 « ^ t r e e -htT^e- bc4U places more- Tjrr© •5-6. ' » 1 1 3 7-S ) I • m a l e . 9 H Q 1 z 2 3 U-12 1 3 -a 3 4 7 3 i 9 i a 5-fc 2 4 J 5 ) 2. 3 1 1 3 ! H-12 , I i 1 J Ua| 1 ^ | Ife 6. IO | 4 22. 19. J i m * sp«r*t hJ*&% pooplfe • 3n 54t 9<to 1*8 IKC 4 W . Some. nnesst o o 1 2. o to >\ ' 1 g 2. » 6 1 2 3 ! o o o o 3 2. O 1 © f A- 2 1% 1 2 O £> 1 o 1 \o A 3 2 3 © 1 A 3 3 14-2 O ? © o CP 2. 3 I T " 4 4 £— o o © O O 3 * II •2 O 2 o o o o © 3 4 3 3 «» 6 O e> o 3 2 V 1 1 I 2 5 'O 6 3 2. 5I! 2 2, 2. 2 2 O 6 O o © A 3 2. 3 2 2 ° o C o o O 3 1 '3' i © 5 4 IT o o o o o \f A A o O o 2 . 2 6 O "2. 4 3 14 5 2 o o O O pears o never 4 > 5 2 I m a l e lor Some 4 3 9 3 1 2 9 4- T A 8 o 2 -3-O O o o 2 o 5 3 1 o i i O > o o I /villi parens Siolinap 7 £5* a<£ o o Z 4 5 I S 4 5 18 4 5 3 3 I O © 6 O [ I © © o © O O 23 2 0 . Sp#*i(U aduttlics per**)* « b * * e /utIU <J4JUni 49" )y> 5-4, 7-6 i 9-IO 1M2 male i sbafr>g card ( ^ " ^ sk-nno, Pi In', leas O ) be><->l p t o s e s c a r - c J i n v j e s Vrvauves' . shading pavrL (?) mou i«6 • p i c n i c s C2) Concerns cmevrva skafiTa StJivrimiVja (a) eitvinei", gSr picjnies Win Catania C&ntpiirta s nnoJiey 0*) clam digg-qq /ualb., psfte- • read i O&v- ndas SltdfvTQ C3) stood cJ©y V(S eXplcjrii-^ •sLiivnar s b a f n ^ C2.) read da>\Ly carat ^avrves •fisl-iiiha •Wat«r-TTTps. male AW slooppiino^ HTKJ61C •fiseHoall ^ ennncs ImkiVi^ read,. . SUJIVYMTVMK^ & ) d^dsK ca*-dUioes Ca) -24. 5&> 9*<o 74e> 1*2. 21.* 22. JtrrM, parents spctrj A 4 U cUtU : 3-G 3-4 •hmc b ^ ft ins/cle p e p 4 N ^ AMN\ 4O*> !>-U-I«V • b y m c y f V t e r -Cxjlsielsl i n s ide . low4^«Ja b y - S ^ W o e ^ - I b y kv-i n o i c U . 1 © o k i d a I i n s i d e o o t o o si ' o o fS 2 1 \ o T 2 O O O Jf, ,?„ 2- 1 o o A 27' '2' A 1 3 4 ! i 9 2 1 9 2. O © O / 2 2 I U 3 1 1 o O © 1 V y ©> 2 A 4 o 4 V 1 Z it f I 2. 1 © ) O 2 2 - ft Or 1 CD 1 2 > 4 1 | o -5-* i o © o © o 0 o 3 1 2 & 5 7 I 5 O te o © o e> & 3 i 2 O 1 © & o o O \ *2-O o o o O 1 O 1 © o o o o «> z 4 O 2 0 O /~s » 1 2 «> 1 **" 3 1 7 •2. 1 4 1 1 3 v O C> 3 3 o 'a' o 3 3 O 2 2 1 1 » -2. 2 2 1 o 4 II S *2 1 4 9 •2. 2 3 2 le 2 3 2 2. 3 © s 2 & 4 2 lo 2 2 o I O 2 2 | © 2 & O 1 © 1 V © 2 V-2. O 3 2 9 O 2 0 o 2 1 I 2 2. J , p——=— s o n 1 S o n f B nail ° mm 2 — - - f l f -3 O 6 2 ° ^ ° number c W d . & 2 2 5 o : « 4 : 3 2 - 17 4 4 3 3 3 ^ o 0 o o o o G o * £ ° o o e» o . 1 , 2 5 . 25.,2fe.,*27. Child •fr.«d«U\p • ^ ^ r ^ g f & n a ' s ' f — — Sg^ oP one pass, n o trie.' i a l e . 5-<b I 7-S | 9-)o | U-ia X ft i • or*. QC30C5 -fiia^ no -3. o itds moe.-rhari '-3 tfs j^2ii23£ m o r e - 3 more. S i p s oteLoy 'SamnC mn©te„S T I 2 O o 9 4 i i 1 o o O o I 4 4 | 1 z o O 6 o ? 4 4- w 1 f 3 4 i i 1 7-© l9 - lo I H-12 . 4 4 o i 1 i o o o o 1 1 ! 4 2 1 4 O O o o a 1 o o o f $ 1 4 -4 o O O o a a ] 4 1 , 2 6 . 28. f&rc*vf cltsappteual ©P -friends: male. 5 - 6 1 7 -S 1 9-to 1 D-12 1 V E S 1 sb 1 Y E S 3 f© 1 Y E S 4 No 3 t v b 2 Y E 5 6. fJo I V E S •5t4o 5 do IVES ohio 2 yes 2 . NO 1 YES 5" rJo & No I YES 5 No IVES 4 rJo IVES 3 h b l i t e r s bad lav^oac»c.^vrianrt «4S- . bad b^ Sn^CJioc^ r-•feo mocin -Readorn rp J^ Wrtov Wing to'^n 4ke*y-, comas ^qefss i^s sno. pLse* •self - ozviWeci £ c^ oolisupJirtai one. ci^ild b o old. homa €uo«-i^ l^ '<=>^ oyv-u^ r^)•l• • 29. ^ h b o r k w a l -rnends 3 0 * 3 t same, school: fafel 4o AO 40 3a Enough do ir> n ^ h k o r W J -lor eUtdUr*: 5 - 6 . 1 7-© 1 9 M O I U-12. S - 6 » Semite.. 7-e> 19-I01 n-iz 1 Y E S 1 r 4o 1 ves 3 si© 2 YES 3 lAo i yes 2tJo IVES 7 K b 1 YES IYES 4 V E S 3rJo 2. YES 2.VE5 1 No 1 YES 1 No 2. YES 1 r4o 3 YES 2 YES 3YE5 2-YE5 2. VES 2VES 3> YES 3 YES 3 YES oYES 2YES 2- YES 27. 31. /tW cloes»'4 n^bo^ood supply "&r 4Wa. cUU: 5-4> 7-B I *-lo 11-12 pleuaround or baby -slTfejCS connnoovoi-M ComnvnUto plec|spoca(3) jvi 'Streets • — CMOS& bcB^shce -5 . 332. GWtlJ V C r ^ U r t n g o*4s»ale mJgMoerV%o©cU 5 ^ 7-6 11-12 2 l^o 2hlo cry«ia.l pool ScUool ysfttl 2 Nlo Soccer, Pl-.Grecj Soperv>i^<ao r p^y 3 Mo d^v-valvmo^asC4- bit j 6 Mo ») movies-YMCA . • NeVse-r-, park. , o££ar> or bearjn. ftlorJs.C»i.jh+eeJ. coosftos Incase. C<=> blfcs) 4 Mo 2 Mo ®r«5en. •Sporte 2- Mo-S^tHo, Shopping 6 Nb boujls, sloops 2. j\lo 28. 1. NeghlDorheod As laoed placebo krr»rg up <sU'ilcirerw response. I«" It 3.>ls /Oe£r oous 1 cy^s VCJru 4 0 0 J e> _I o '7' mi o L e> O » ) 0 £ > 2 ° O » II i to | O J ' o O | o o 1 1 © 1 © lM r 0 0 O O 0 A ^ a g e °sr 4<33 17? o b o O 1 '3* •2. 0 poor •2. >£ 1 ' 7 ' 1 * 2 . o » 1 F o • o .<£>. o O o O „ 0 e> ; r v a t ^ poor » o ° & e> o 'o ' O o o . =-o 0 0 0 0 °o° 0 0 1 20 20 IO lo l o 1 10 "2. £>est likes re : neighborhood f o r <sUld*er>: A X . eciUocsl • o p e r j A r e a , ne.? sysle*v"\ £5) . a b e d seJn>e>e>| ' <£!) l i t w & r y ' . CO-UrUe. j r e t r t c - e>"\ e*-*rt e t r e o J - S ( 3 ^ •2-(pe- o f p e o p l e - , u e u r g "(L^iLs ConueyiiavKa. or'. ScJooots ^ l - ^ ) part- (.2.5; feeecdlo U s ) s a d l * ^ or l ^ M ^ n - V i a e . I i ^ n ^ C'^ c L e o * o C») Cor\uev)ie*-ic£, o>f - S c U o o l ( | M n K f M |^ Covyj^eiievtCg. 4 d e u h|uO 60% 1 a ConuetoiAinGS. o r i f f l o ' ' T i e s ' 6 5 % 4o% 1 5 % 3 . - I V P « - or (JCjejpe. 4o% 2 9 . <AVeC. £GL , $ /ooodJacf areas i (z"\ 4t>o mevny, p&»«*it cl»r>"^  kW*^ L*>Uai" 4 W r e - cU/olJai^ & » « . t»p -to ^ do-r»T cate. none.. C4) no p l »M cw«eap rccjnea.+u7n 1 A ^ N ov-i plovirve^l inJi^lol^vdAotci. -Je*^ c-Uilcirev, iw\ a r e a \t> imarw p6*ev^i& c^Uo <=|<9-«-i-i / M r s a t a jeno ^OJ^ & ' S h a d i n g CO 4©e> vnccio m«?naw Tor cW>Kpv«v"\ 6) Y\=> dockets <=\o&<z. Cy) 3 5 % 3 8 % lack. e>- •(-JaculiJiias' 6*) loft late. cUi\dU«vi. , riAi^loors -j^pe- •af people. £4) iraspcryce. -lew- l & I a t i i t ~ lo©yS | o-irFS 1 o * 4 '4' o 0 & e> 1 to 1 4 ; 131 '4 ' i , t o n: m o ~ o * J L o '3 ' °ob ' 2 ° '3° O | TJ O * | to c> °ob °l °o° O <5 0 o O | 6 i *-o •4 I 20 iO l o I loIlO 1 30. 5. Beat Ittcos te: d ia l l ing -ft>r cWtUre^ I . lol*> pWjro©^, la^ fje- noise. Cfej back- <-je»rot, 1 SkjjejC 1©T CiEy c^lr&lly UcA+ed Cl) irrloc^ 'WnrJ&rroi^ oot '-•Feci Llies.. CT)_* sa)«. b*e©»JSe or IVTW C O V - ^ 0) large ^ spacious » Cj) sionon'miv^ P 0 0^ l i o ap^- , cW) b^Sfflvr>o*Tf p)a«jw>o\~«.4cJ&Ys) (?) can bwno -R-ua>*c« v'n koote 6) lo-t, e»P e^acw e>» cx*en Uc^ OzN n.e~> . . <&) beceosc. lis we. tvne. /A <dose. Tt. eeelUv e»+Kair ^ ' fori* ©<^n bedroom, pnoacy C&) Tefc pl^y-ooino, lew^e hoJse Ce>) ba^'Qarcl, la^rge. lot- (4) bejreows o n .same. -Roor £i) T.V. ip separate., r o o m 6) o-v%evsUfp> • C2-) iW) loof b * A W . • vwore. pwwsssbler rn<^ T\.s$en . -responses 1. I«y(s plei^oom Jorqz. kwJS€.(l§| "40%, Sl'ae. or' 4W»fWnV.bc««e. 1 2o% , l 3. back uewe), lavqe. M- G*) ^°/n I swimmihc) pool, ba&wmovil (E$\ 2o%>\ 4. cc*rhalLY 1<=CA-Iecj C4) lo%>| oum b « W » n C4) 1 1 0 % J I C l Q a m t A f 0 ^ • ^ replies) /ice none. (s) lade, op ow»i beoUworvs C4J cj©n=T loo -S>ima&H CO no +avY\tl>Y roovon 4pV "pV. d2-) neoos wore ipamvooms 6&) •1^1 mnat^ f r e e s 5 ^ no beaemaiA -lo pl«w C>) W snnall r 7 04) nc*V Wak^in^ « : > < - J , n roo\m C4; rpsTT'S-Vons pWcad crv-i os«. <=4- (£\ /o<z>rry\r>c? SOcJ- V/vabAvto -f»o (4) not eviofslo tr«c4»yn tov 4iia, C^ 3) liW)Je4 or lno> Ct) ho ^ e v ^ ^ a ^ c t o i n ess) /Oek notosL (V) lacb- <=>P c - J n b<a=Lroov-n Ci) hoos«. -Wo sn-*»ll C3) no . +a-n-vL_, roo-n^N 6) nafia no ore/ b^amwoonos CO '"""^5 r o o y y v v 3 c : ^ ^ Bc* ^nuclrm^ scvr ( 1 ) ho fsi/wLy voow^  ncev W>TCIVW\0) vnevrlioio*! responses. 1. hone O2A -foo simall, no 00-0 rooivi Ci©) 2- laclc o^'ot-jin bedr-oowi 2. r>o Movd,plaw ar^.cpcUw^ 3 . Vtoose " oe? small (js) 239C 31 7 fVi *3' raw i r U / y d s be <3 >14 J2 2D IS 8 — 10 IO io I O AcCoActlJjLm /Otur Kay*- b a p r i s s o u T B o r r \ lock : y> parent* ci 6) 6) •TOO SHOAII -jo ov>Wnsm miwick(j. l a c k « P « « M « a ) e CL) 8. priwftc«j in n«tgkl&erlrtood i /t*4&JI girls v4s J i 3D IO IO 3 . i o reasons lege- si^e. IcnsCa-Y high +«Ao'cfl.C2J. tpSfk- is inetvirlpyO) CO n o a>y^roi--v-icJ Cl) e J : 2 l s£ias ' CZ) house, close- ,\ 4o e d c l n oflhtt* ' 3 2 9. NaLqKborloocJ a s s&ie, place lor eKiUiem tftUmaj VOAJ s a f e . 1 o 2L t 1 I 1 O s a f e 2 1 5 4 3 1 2 . S & » c * a q * I Z 1 3 1 4 & 7 4 IS O 1 o o o 1 ta^ tiJE i o O o o o o o 1 4 2 6 2 © l o 1 i o i o | I O • I O . D a i i i n i n e j g h b o r h c x x i : 9-1© 12. l a c k p P . | , \ p J o l i C « p > < t Cy brobivi ^owilifcs(j) Wife. 00 i cvd r i app in^ r \o iae_ C 1 ) •Wa^suwrb (7) pa«*ile»5 i r rroleslerS^SrutjS 0) l a c k ©F play ante o) c l v w i k s -(tsm ^  B ^ y g g j CO O n S o J J e y O i S s i , \ d Sy" irw c*-\ sneas Wps*k. vverfrjs • n o v o * . C') o i \ r p o l l o r i o n CJ) Wfc Cs) d i r t ^ s 6) n o r v a C() — 1 U n a * * d a n ^ e e 1 . 'W«r>sicmtflw<*WsWs,J»ail i. - K a ^ cs; 4 3 & I. G32| 2,-Ke.Cfte- Oe) 2. *>©v«£. Co") 2 . riooe- Ci) 3 . h^ olesUs.e^ c. C2,*) 3. 1 5 % 4 . n o i ^ . 3 % 4 . play iv^ on sheets 33 II. D «ooJl inq as safia ploco* -lor e W i l d r e n ; response--jo/ A\cC a i 3 a 4 4 a 1 J 5 7 6 9 5 S 3 4 5 l(> 6 7 3 3 3 1 ! o o o O o o o o o o o o O O I W | 1 lo ! I O i t o i a i t o 12. DoMogars in cit^cjlirg I t n a m 3 ^ 7-e 11-12 none. (>) n o n e . (3) s f e i r s Ci j . baico«oy 0) n o n e (s) n o n e C7^ •|xre, -boJLvopm n o n e , tor/ ; p o o l e r -fdblsdi) roone. CO n o n e ( 5 ^ - «s n o n e cW) n o n e , ( 5 ) n o n e (3^) n o n e 0<») none. Go) more (n) molesters '&-) 3*. (3.*14. P i e c e a i x ) a d h o i W ? r«4ricji«i>ns o n e K « l d : response, iwr D o u 5 of-r e p l i e s £ 14 I S z o 7 l o l o TS I O 9-1© 11*12 resfric--pc>»as' deconop^ nuao at-lev c«zvraJ-n. noi 4» crass . |r>eT- 4o> ao -ID / "\ be&ch oSlono.0; ro plrv-o. trrxlaSS dciow^pekVoiad ( £ ) 4e> pa»rL /L>Vv«jfc is . 0) -fkirWw 4kovN/\ 4 bbeks c&v\ riJe biba ^ o i r ^ ^ ^ O ) toowoarbaseh -b vioas^ T WUC2^  -toRcbson^r.Cj) sJo/\fi-places onlurioum 4c p<»rev» CV) •H=> c4Wv Usoses hoT-t^ne 2>b\pcls •(Wv^  VOVV\G, Cl) In&oseCi) not-4ocrcQs o»l- voorc. 2> Wades -rre>rv> VtomQ. 0) C- l iv^ ioinss -ireos C') or a r e a 0) c o r r i r r » i j n > i v - i resKitieel Item "^ »pe. A W 4ype cf •)& perc^fc Ci") p?a/L (aioinc) 6) nor vn^cUi TM. 6) s i n o p p i v - ^ ce^W(j) v*«^U. •sjore. o) pool £l) c«v4«el p©A(j) mo Wilcviri«.<sf O r v J ^ B r o i Z - i a d Fraaprwiew fj) « J O I T course \ OnSoi'ialoW vnovifi^ ' botbl^a. , A L ± £ T S P ? ? b y .ecloH-s ^ \ 3 5 . 15. Child con-forms «lo reslrickbns : response^  IbV to* b o c « • h o m b i r c f Mcs. 13 2 5 2.(0 1 5 2 o 2 0 T o t To IO T o 1 ,VA ^ S a q S be fera^rs O ) s d<svr\e^ -ci . ' 5 . •fj. 1 is ^ 4olobortp . , 16. iP he. braoJcs rules : |to*J||lf.ll. UuUk 1. - fal lc £ exploit - . S e l c nc4- 4 o do i ^ ^ c j O c * - * . I O 3 i 4 z 3. scJ&ptv-d c v - bee. pnuAeec^(^^,'wU^^T^SIR»» 1 4 19 lo 9 A 9 1 ft 5. no*T« , — nofve- »v>e««">liov»«oJ & 3 3 O 6>. q i u e exlvo. c i<^4»es cVo<jv->ci 4 ^ a . Uoose. . O 1 1 9 17. Restrictions in dwelling • • 5 - C 11-12 resH"ic^ it>Qs on rotrvn £ no ise-h-n' i+» © v - i f - V . 0) c>JT Acfjoi-UinQ rc- snoelcs )^ bffiKo«av-l WIA3.1S rot "jo C p CO\\\r\ , \ SrvoMgers u 00 not sra*dl on /t«vx3otJ«\lSs ov /A VesWhe«i>js or-, \ rttJr -\o eWovJ e>v~v «T oor6) pley tn bodvoom (() pla^ e(.sewVie»e. 0) 1}. on v>©i4«.(4) kaap ^ A t a eVo>-i6) loot d\lou*aJi -lo v pla^ iv> 0) no T-V- Ci) r>oj- W W-*^ / A no loit«fiincj s •n UJc*£<-*J ho H*!!'"*? =>fT ballcua i^ CO nor 4o boVtvav , ^  orl^^e^ iC"+%!^ .L^  ^  beck *4 riiVia. C') no acT>»«. /• \ ci«>nes V1 y r^ n^ic-rioias- ov-%, N noise- ^ 7 36. 17. RasJrteJtone tV> JLM«UII^ Ccotl'JL) 7-e 9-lo 11-12 no rooaU pW^  i"i bej 8:°o 0") no -rWinel5 "*> '°^ u s e\ Itjjcp rooyvn dlasr\6) no piviDinc? or" i ri>nwid«-~^ .,xcc.p "m resgecj- olriov-5 nespecP -^^riifcye-iCi) cieJsv-! op roory\ k j i X L p Vloosc TicIwO ) fO^ut no rotnvoAej,(JnasinjCz. no rvr,n\\hq, • * \ no ©neicls^c^i«B^^ rest. O!A^.V. /a.) earLw fc beci £.0 , cjcie - l play ©nL| 6) no -fneivcls onlesp pa»evrte lno»v\Q.O) none. O J no rooaU pla^ y-y S^reSvvvna ^2) no T- V- 0 ) none. £2.) 1 8 . G h e » g « s m ne^kborUooJ t> maW\r teller & -Partly: ntcaiaay p&vks^  p^ a^grourieS nor /<JO»4UI*»1O'IIC , "U* | more- ViiioU irises run?*S-lme>VNaoe*S l>W d\\<su& i, Yrcre* Z. baoiroouTN. S o el/iAo>«Jo, ton r r tote - awe&?j (Jnore rynote- , ? W > r"ie> r e p l y 4*>4aat s 4o closer sooipprni--raw-iily pre»jec-o C^Torc«vy\evlt O T spjfeed . \atos on lieiooir p' 1 h o U ! 7 / "ft=\r +-owi«ly use . 4»-Kal 2o givd St>pcjrwiSio»-\ pavkfe . pure) C?ncierloro«n( . r e s e r v e 4oiS swiall cJnild\r«sm - ^reefi, •fiorrs, OIO I^VT^ ns-vnoue- 4!rnroo^ o proxiwiiT*-] •'i Imore co-opai. r e o J s + i o n s al; -H^a. (ecu 14 3 2& 3 7 . ] / d e a r £3 | same. n<2jaln. |>J- lanaev n e & L J ^ r o r s a n n e - h y p s , roirsJ areev, s e u r o "Vps-tide? •Si ^^ziXiV^ o J f s i d e /Cb<Svici. 2- IcdirWs,^arctaja in/O-evd Z a 25 6 z 2Z 7 ,5 response- AVc6 rfcT J5 -IO IO IC 'Sn o d d o o r p o y otraafc" 3 . d a y cA*e, 4 . ev»e»y4V>iv^ '/4o 2 . n & o lilorary * | i 7 /2o 1 . r<olle*- s L a ^ r i a rude. A. v\eu> e l c m . ecUcol 21. tW> ^ ^ g q g f g g g j g c j feolAto 1. ocib "Hs-XeS or-) cowtVMuvMHu • l o r d • 2 . ca^'-r paw m o r e 3 . C\bj j Oir^ 2©v/+ sboujd Q>d" W \ O V ^ y a«rcUz r ' , 5 / 4 o 3 - p i t s . b o e * d or A • r>o a n o s c ^ ^ 8 / a c V * , 38. 2 2 . probWwas l o r dWilctrcv\ t r \ - f L l u r e i A W £ r d | cn replies lose. <=>P -[reecUtvi <pvd rno»<sl C^ >nc4<jc| YrvZ&\ir\a aocd people, lajc oP radloo^" 4 4 > V40 l/4o ' / 4 o ( / 4 o VAO res-jriclioras, ov^j pejeoKial -froaaLo coo 1 )tt?m.=t lade- op pnoc^y |«AVVO.V« )e=| be bffpy 5 / 4 o 3 / 4 o zAo ' / 4 o 23. Oceup^Koir* pre>(css.\c>nsl "1 1 j J F>eop. saWs coLUc S&fwi'cz, recjf laborers J 1 IO ,o Z4 i 5 14 4 o 2. 1 4 4 K £> 2 2 2 2 3 4 -5 3 9 . f 2 3 12 li M 7 7 . Sinqje pSV«nf 44™1L,//u'iie>ir|,J) T 1 O 1 ica taapaoaS 1 1 25. EcLcA+io « T a k » : A W \&&s> 5 <-|rs. eldrrtavrj-a*^  0 p over 5<-/rs ©le-m . 6n© ts^ .^") ! 4 2 2 1-3 <-iV"S. 6econdar^ 7 1 1 O 2 o 2 2 \o 12. 1 ciecjreje . 3 r a 2 3 2 6 . I A 4 0 0 0 2 , t 5 C O - 5 , 0 0 0 s 0 0 0 5 , o o o - <£3, o<=>o ,^ """5 j»*>v .-» . 1 .v*"^ , — 2 1,4 4 t> , 0 0 0 - l - ^ O O O 1 2 , 0 0 0 - ie>,ooo 1 — * - 3 1 1 1 7 . ko. 2. MAPPING OF THE CHILDS EXPANSION INTO THE ENVIRONMENT The results of Part One, # 7 of the questionnaire give an indication of the approximate boundaries of the childs neighborhood, of the facilities he uses, and the routes he most often travels to get to them. I have copied the results on to trace overlays, and have attempted to map the variations in use of each area as the age of children change. (I also looked at the variation in response from the different sexes, however, there didn't appear to be any clear differences that would form significant patterns). Included are a few overlays showing examples of selected individual child responses. Then there are overlays which show the variations in the "inclusive territory" and the "core territory" of children as they grow older. The "inclusive territory" includes any facility, route, or area of the neighborhood that any child of a particular age group frequents by himself, and the "core territory" includes the common facilities, routes, and areas that the majority of the children of a particular age frequent by themselves. The responses are categorized into four age groups — (5 and 6 fs, 7 and 8's, 9 and 10 !s, 11 and 12*s). The map responses have been cross-referenced against other questions in the questionnaire in cases of ambiguity (ie. whether the child used a facility on his own or whether he was accompanied by parents). CODING OF RESPONSES INDIVIDUAL RESPONSES The resource f a c i l i t i e s used by the child, (including friend's house) are marked by solid red circles. ( ( ^ ^ ^ ) Main routes taken are marked by dotted blue lines, o o o o o The overall boundary i s marked by black dashes, C 1 tZZZ When circled f a c i l i t i e s are outside the boundary marked by black dashes, i t indicates the child i s usually or always taken to these places by his parents. The child's house i s represented by a small black square. • INCLUSIVE TERRITORIES Major resourse f a c i l i t i e s used by any child of an age group, are marked by solid red circles. 3 ) Main routes taken are marked by a dotted blue l i n e . C > o o o Boundaries of the area are marked by black dashes. I~ 1 L ..,.] Friend's houses are marked by small ink circles. O The houses of the sample group are indicated by small ink squares. O CORE TERRITORIES Major resource f a c i l i t i e s , routes, or areas used by 100$ of the response group, are indicated by so l i d lines, i n the same colors as above. Resouree f a c i l i t i e s , routes, or areas used by 80$ or more of the response group, are indicateii by a dashed li n e , and those used by 60$ or more, are shown by a dotted line i n the appropriate colors. EXAMPLE OF INDIVIDUAL RESPONSES L i c i L _ TTel n nn (7/ ttlDtVIOOAi \—I u i in DOQOO 0 JJ UU i in nrN r M DD DD ^sWQ DD DD in Ul lu r' n n / V —5E RESpOfJSE CjWS WEST END - INCLUSIVE AND CORE TERRITORIES (10 responses per age group.) i 1 1 1 II ( « » 1 ^/ fc» II.. I 1 INICLOSIVE T T • iricLosive \ jn IKICLOSIVE. opQQ ipa WEAR OLDS U BE 0 ! K. r 1 • 1 JTTQ. yeAC O L D S 4VteU2. ts I" 1 I D I E 00 O p ODD $ 0 OD CD OOOTj mffi nnnnnnnnnnnyinnn •Air? I ( o l l i M C C O R K I N D A L E - I N C L U S I V E A N D C O R E T E R R I T O R I E S (5 responses per age group.) U U L I U L n r IhlcLosivE ycAfe OLDS ON « J ) U U L I U L fr 3 C I D r DDDD.DD.DD nrannflOD® i i n i i —r~ H—f\ i — i i — & 1 DC KZZX c jr mm mm UU ~1 i 1 -4. uu uu COCE 3 3 C 3 cr M BD D  DO DO i I B M T t J L J L _ ] J L 3C 3 I If ft =3 C —irHffinn ]DDr • 3 r W G & R O LD S 1 ' \i - 3 DHEOO.DD.DDB I — 1 J i r " i 1 1 n i i 1 — 1 H I 1 3 r — H 3 31 nr DE 00 00 0Q 00 L_Ji 1 DBmffllf r WEIR - INCLUSIVE AND CORE TERRITORIES (5 responses per age group.) • u DL D C J L f ") C ram J U L : • t____l CENbds IK ION 1. 1. CENSUS DATA Census material has been collected for each sample area. The Kil larney area has been represented by tract 5 7 » which, although i t doesn't correspond exactly to the area studied, w i l l give a f a i r representation. In most cases, the census information has been used to check and supplement the questionnaire response. 2. U.C.S. SOCIO - ECONOMIC RATING OF LOCAL VANCOUVER AREAS Included i s an analysis of the 1961 census information into six categories which gives a comparative socio-economic rating of the Vancouver loca l areas. 2 1, /&esf£r (d : a u e . fc.'l!am«y:S7 £ 1 Data Ohar*4wMifes 1966 CENSUS 0<?66>) 32.72G 25,359 2 2 6 2 0 4 6 0 201^5 3377 17 ie> I7 5 4 7 5 3 2 4 S 2 4 2 S S S 2 9 0 ^ 2 6 1 ) I 7 S G 2252) 2 6 6 4 1 0 4 0 3 0 4 9 QJ63 7461 4 3 2 S 4 7 So] 3 9 6 2 5 2 4 6 G 7 3 5 6 4 4 7S 170 4-54 521 404 3 6 7 2.IO •S4S 762 614 2S5 9 5 2 8 6 4 l o , 3 7 S 3 2 4 , 5 2 2 15,495 15, 7 5 9 I4,96g> 15,35£> 15,697 2 6 , 2 8 3 2a,ass 25.188 2o,92l 7,742 17,757 14,707 15,56.4 14,464 16, 127 17,796 24 ,677 2 6 , 4 7 2 2 ^ 4 9 2 2-1, 3o2 0,61 I 2 1 , 131 3. ' , 2 , 3 , 4 - . da b i r l l n p W e e . . <=xXs ^£, Cj^r\&.A'&. \rn\rn\<^f&\ea -46-61. 1 3 , 4 3 7 ll,<572 5 , 2<S6 5 9 4 5 IS~I6 5 2 5 251, 6©7 1 3 2 , 6 3 5 s©,9o£>-\~>r i -jis'lo 16.399. 995 25A 4 4 g 42.1 2 5 8 4 9 4 /,7 13 3 2 o 3 8 6 -4535 2Q5 1S& 6 6 4 2 5 6 153 I2fe S I 3 2 £ 9 3 6 3 134 163 2 3 o , 2 3 4 12, 1)3 12.941 26 661 9,311 7 , 117 4 . S 4 0 IB, 7 6 2 9,247 26 , 7 6 9 19,915 6 , 6 9 2 . •UJ. ' © o o 5 . 5 S 5 46<D9 9 7 4 o 3,cO*2 23,766 l , o7 l l , 3 8 o 1,344 1.^12 2 3 3 5 , 6 4 o 4 o , 6 9 l 5 - 9 , 8 3 7 9 6 , 6 5 4 2 4 , S 4 o 3 l o , 2 4 - | <Pc^«-»pSv->c^ 3 - 5 yes . 6-- lO yrs • o u « v lO yr-S • 3 5 3 7 2 , 6 6 2 2 , 1 4 3 1,3)3 \.\&e> 213 '254 s<?e> 6 0 0 331 21,331 2 o , 2 ^ 3 23 , ^71 2 J , 6 I 2 3 1,887 919 I.Q37 &7| 7 5 4 1,699 4 7 2 2 o 3 1.414 2 6 6 2 4 7 136 189 147 134 2oo 56 738 9 o 13,194 9,5©8> 8,92.7 8 , US II , 4 7 o 7 4 3 2>,32& 3o, 8 7 3 3 % 6 4 4 . . , 2 . 3 . - 4 a y . ' S i n g l e --sii^ le- (jou«^ la) 7 , o 2 S 6 , 7 5 4 7 3 6 2 . 2 Z O 740 2,219 7 £ > 96,17C 4 9 , 95"0 9 6 , 3 % 6 , 3 6 4 Single, f o u e ^ is) £,9<s£> 6 , o 5 9 7 , 0 3 0 2 , 1 7 3 5"49 2,221 3 4 e > ©4,572 3 9 , & 3 j <96>,3B7 24,e>lo • 3 9 2 17,55-4 2 , 1 7 9 2 9 9 7 2 , 3 3 0 6 6 , 2 S l Bt^TVf^y^S, -H3.TS. 163 34e> 18,526 2 2 ,279 179 3 , 6 q 6 7 4 6 7 9 6 0 , 0 2 3 ncr/iLer" <=>P <o,S72 2 . 2 9 5 9 9 , 4 2 . 4 n©/vT<!o<2/ oP none.. 1-2 3 - 4 more. -5 5 , 2 4 3 1 , 4 7 4 135" 2 o S&9 1,142 5 c 9 7 5 4 - 1 , 2 7 6 3 9 , 9 4 2 15, 22.4 2.,<?<35 orxJLav 6> J 5 - I S 19 -24 911 191 377 3 2 5 I074-I&24-6 o & 3 7 4 35 ,exbS 5 3 , 3 3 4 2 .2 ,o? .F , IS , 3 2 7 paople- / -l^ nlL^ 2.3- 3-7 3 . 2 . . 4 1-7 1.3 T - T 1 5. s o c i o - ecovoomic risjin^ oP -rtoe^ \t V n e ^ y ^ o r locxrxJs ('4roion d,oo3 . l -Are<ss o P VsivTCoouer 7 £ 9 4 % 11.2% (S rr\e&r\ Tavmily mosme^ ••'^) 2 0 % 6 2 o 7 3 % 7 * j oP 22 •Socio - • Q(JE5[ION1NJAIRE fOR E/XCHERo IN] OpEKl AREA 5CH00b EOAP.D OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH AMD SPECIAL SERVICES 1595 West-10th Avenue Vancouver 9 , B.C. May 1, 1969 QUE3TI0NUAIRE FOR TEACHERS IN OPEN-AREA CLASSROOMS As a guide in planning future accomaodation we are making a study of open-area teaching f a c i l i t i e s in Vancouver schools. This questionnaire asks those teaching in an open area to give their candid opinion of this type of accommodation. Responders w i l l remain completely anonymous. Would you complete the following questionnaire on your own, seal i t in the accompanying envelope, and return i t to your school office for forwarding. D.L. PRITCHAED, Director, Department of Research ana Special Services Plea se enter a check mark in the appropriate space following ea ch ouestion. 1. In what grades do you teach? Kind. 2 Grades 1 - 3 20 Grades 4 - 7 19 2. What i s your experience in open-areas? 1st year 27 2nd yea r 14 3rd year 3. Did you ask to be assigned to this type of work? Ies_27 No 4. Do you enjoy this type ox teaching? Yes_35. No _ 5. Do you intend to continue in this work next year? Yes 27 No 6. If you had a free choice of your situation next year would you choose an open-area teaching assignment? Yes 30 No _ 2 7. Do you agree with the idea of open-area teaching? Y e s_37 No _2 8. Do you believe i t appropriate to the grade you teach? Yes 31 No __8 Q / • Are you at ease teaching with other teachers present? Yes 38 v!o __2 10. Do'frequent visitors present a special problem to you? Yes_J+ No S1) - 2 -11. Do you believe that your students enjoy the open-area organisation? Yes 39 No 2 12. Do you find that there are fewer discipline problems with this type of organization? YesJ24 No 11 13. Do you believe that parents l i k e this type of school? Yes 31 No 2 14. Do you believe that pupil achievement i s at.least equal to that in regular classrooms? Yes 30 NQ 1 15. In your opinion does open-area instruction provide for better pupil development than the self-contained classroom? • Yes_32 Ko 6 16. Do you find that pupils in this type of organisation are noisier than pupils in regular classrooms? Yes_ 24 No 12 17. Do you feel some enclosed area i s needed at times for certain pupils or certain lessons? ^ e s _ A i N° . i 18. Is the equipment i n your school suited to carrying out the program? - Y e s __22 No 12 19. Do .you find that this organization puts a greater nervous strain on you as a teacher? Yes 21 No 15 20. Have you sufficient space for the act i v i t i e s you wish to carry on in the open area? YeST 21 No 18 21. Do you find that there i s a heavier work load with this type of organization? Yes 36 No 2 22. Is greater time needed for the preparation of your work? Yes 36 No _2 23. Do you believe that you received sufficient preparatory training for your work in an open-area school? Yes 7 No _29 24. Do you feel that further "in-service" training i s desirable for your teaching group? Yes 36 No 1 BOARD OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES • DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH AND SPECIAL SERVICES 1595 West 10th Avenue Vancouver 9, B.C. May 7, 1969 QUESTIONNAIRE ANSWERED EY TEACHERS IN OPEN-AREA CLASSROOMS Questionnaires were distributed to a l l 46 Vancouver teachers who teach in open-area classrooms.. Questionnaires were completed by 2 Kindergarten, 20 Primary and 19 Intermediate Grade teachers. Of these 27 were i n their f i r s t year of open-area teaching and 14 were i n their second. A summary of their answers i s shown on the attached questionnaire. A l l questions were not answered by a l l teachers but of those who answered specific questions: A. A l l teachers but one: 1. Believe that pupil achievement i s at least equal to that in regular classrooms. 2. Feel that seme enclosed area i s needed at times for certain pupils or certain lessons. .3. Feel that further "in-service" training i s desirable for their teaching group. B. A l l teachers but two: 1. Agree with the idea of open-area teaching. 2. Believe that students enjoy this organization. 3. Find that there i s a heavier work load with this type of organisation. 4. Believe that greater time i s needed for the preparation of their work. 5. Believe that parents l i k e this type of school. 6. Feel at ease teaching with other teachers present. C. A l l teachers but four: 1. Believe that frequent visitors do not present a special problem to them. - 2 -D. A i l teachers but six: • J 1. Enjoy this type of teaching. 2. Believe that open-area instruction provides for better pupil development than the self-contained classroom.-In summary, i t would appear that teachers who answered this question-naire' believe in the idea of open-area teaching and strongly support i t s educational philosophy. However, oa the negative side, their replies indicate: 1. 9 teachers, i f they had a free choice of their situation next year, would not choose an open-area teaching assignment. 2. 18 teachers haven't sufficient space for the act i v i t i e s they wish to carry on in the open-area . ' -3. 29 teachers believe that they did not receive sufficient preparatory training for their work i n an open-area school. D. L. PRITCHAED, Director, Department of Research and Special Services 


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items